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All about Batter sea 



Henry S. Simmonds 



■ Mv£"*&B£-'£- 





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BY 



HENRY S. SIMMONDS. 



S. MARY'S, built according to Act of Parliament, 14 Geo. III. Opened Nov. 
17, 1777. About 1823 an Entrance Portico of the Doric order was added. 



fLonHon : 

ASHFIELD, PRINTER, BRIDGE ROAD WEST, BATTERSEA. 



1882. 



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Wbi» email Volume 

IS MOST 

RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED (by PERMISSION) 

TO 

THE REV. JOHN ERSKINE CLARKE, M.A., 

Honorary Canon of Winchester, Vicar of Battersea ; 
AND TO THE 

INHABITANTS IN GENERAL. 



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INDEX, 



Page, 
Introduction. 

Nine Elms Lane. — The King's Champion . . . , 3 

Thome's Brewery. — What Battersea has been called 4 

London and South Western Railway Company's Goods Station and 

Locomotive Works 4 — 7 

Mill-Pond Bridge.— New Road 8 

A Royal Sturgeon caught in the wheel of the Mill at Mill-Pond Bridge 9 

Wallace's Vitriol Works 10 

Sleaford Street.— Coal 11 

Street Lighting 12—13 

London Gas-Light Company's Works and "Vauxhall Gardens . . , . 14 — 23 

On a recently-exposed Section at Battersea 23^24 

Phillips' Fire Annihilating Machine Factory Destroyed. — Brayne's 

Pottery.— The Old Lime Kilns.— Laver's Cement & Whiting Works 25 

The Southwark and Vauxhall Water Works 20 

Water Carriers and Water Companies 27 — 29 

The Village of Battersea.— Growth of the Parish 30— 31 

Boundaries. — A Legal Contest between Battersea and Clapham Parishes. 

Clapham Common 32 — 33 

Lavender Hill. — The Seat of William Wilberforce. — Eminent Supporters 
of the Anti-Slavery Movement. — Frances Elizabeth Leveson Gower. 
Mr. Thornton. — Pnilip Cazenove. — Charles Curling. Lady George 

Pollock, and others 34 — 36 

Battersea Market Gardens and Gardeners 36— 37 

Stages set out for Battersea from the City. — Annual Fair. — Inhabitants 
supplied with Water from Springs. — The Manor of Battersea before 

the Conquest . . 38 

Battersea ana its association with the St. Johns 39 

Henry St. John Lord Viscount Bolingbroke 40 — 42 

A Horizontal Air Mill • . . . • 43 

St. Mary's Church 44—46 

The Indenture .. .. .. 47 — 48 

Epitaphs and Sepulchral Monuments %. 49—51 

Rectory and Vicarage 52 

A Petition or Curious Document 53 

Br. Thomas Temple. — Dr. Thomas Church 54 

Cases of Longevity. — The Plague. — The Three Plague Years.— Deaths 

in Battersea 55—56 

Vicars of Battersea from Olden Times 56—57 

Thomas Lord Stanley. — Lawrence Booth .. r 57 

York House 58 

Battersea Enamel Works. — Porcelain. — Jens Wolfe, Esq. — Sherwood 

Lodge. — Price's Patent Candle Factory . . . . , . . . 59—62 

Candlemas 63 — 64 

The Saw. — Marklsambard Brunei's Premises at Battersea. — Establishment 

for the preservation of timber from the dry rot burnt down . , , . . 65 

History of the Ferry.— The Old Wooden Bridge 66—67 

Albert Suspension Bridge 68—69 

Chelsea Suspension Bridge 70 

The Prince of Wales.— Freeing the Bridges " For Ever " .. . . . 71—73 

The Stupendous Railway Bridge across the Thames 74 

The spot where Caesar and his legions are stated by some antiquarians to 

have crossed the river 75 

A haunted house. — Battersea Fields. — Duel between the Duke of 

Wellington and Lord Winchelsea 76 

The Red House 77 

" Gyp " tkeRayen.— Billy the Nutman.— Sports 78 



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INDEX. 

Pao« 

" The Old House at Home."— Sabbath Desecration 79 

Her Majesty's Commissioners empowered by Act of Parliament to form 

a Royal Park in Battersea Fields.— Wild Flowers.— Battersea Park 80—84 
London, Brighton and South Coast Railway Company's two Circular 

Engine Sheds and West-End Goods Traffic Department . . . . 85 — 86 
Long Hedge Farm. — London, Chatham and Dover Railway Locomotive 

Works 87—90 

A Canvas Cathedral . . 91 

HP. Horse Nail Company's Factory . . 94 

St. George's Church, its clergy, its graveyard, .epitaphs and inscriptions 

(St. Andrew's Temporary Iron Church 96; 95 — 99 

Christ Church, its clergy 100 

St. John's Church . . 101 

St. Paul's Church 102 

St. Philip's Church 163 

St. Mark's Church 104 

St. Luke's Chapel-of-Ease 105 

St. Saviour's Church' . . •• 106 

St.Peter's Church 107 

Temporary Church of the Ascension.— St. Michael's Church . . . . 108 
All Saints' Temporary Iron Church. — Rochester Diocesan Mission, St. 

James', Nine Elms ill 

St. Aldwin's Mission Chapel. — The Church of our Lady of Mount 

Carmel and St. Joseph 112 

Church of the Sacred Heart. — The Old Baptist Meeting House, Revs. 
Mr. Browne, Joseph Hughes, MA., (John Foster), Edmund 

Clark, Enoch Crook, I. M. Soule, Charles Kirtland ., .. 113 — 116 

Baptist Temporary Chapel, Surrey Lane 1 16 

Battersea Park Temporary Baptist Chapel .. 117 

Baptist (Providence) Chapel 118 

Baptist Chapel, Chatham Road. — Wesleyan Methodist Mission Room 
and Sunday School.— United Methodist Free Church, Church 
Road, Battersea.— The United Methodist Free Church, Battersea 

Park Road 119 

Primitive Methodist Chapel, New Road . . 120 

Primitive Methodist Chapel, Grayshott Road. — Primitive Methodist 

Chapel, Plough Lane 121 

St. George's Mission Hall. — Battersea Congregational Church, (In- 
dependent), Bridge Road 122 

Stormont Road Congregational Church, Lavender Hill . . . . . , 123 

Wesleyan Methodism in Battersea.. 124 — 126 

Methodist Chronology 127 

Wesleyan Chapel, Queen's Road 128 

Free Christian Church, Queen's Road 129 

Trinity Mission Hall, Stewart's Lane. — Plymouth Brethren . . , , 130 

" The Little Tabernacle."— Thomas Blood 131 

Battersea Priory. — Alien Priories 132 

Ursulines 132 — 134 

Battersea Grammar School, St. John's Hill . . . . . . . . 134 

The Southlands Practising Model Schools. — St. Peter's Schools. — St. 

Saviour's Infant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , , 135 

Christ Church National Schools. — St. George's National Schools. — 

Voluntary Schools 136 

London Board Schools . . . . 137 

London School Board, Lambeth Division 138 

The Elementary Education Acts. — Regulations affecting Parent and 

Child 139—140 

A Coffee Palace. — Latchmere Grove.— Plague Spots. — The Shaftes- 
bury Park Estate 141 — 142 

The Metropolitan Artizans' and Labourers' Dwellings Association . . 143 — 144 
Latchmere Allotments.— Dove Dale Place. — An Old Boiler. — Lammas 

Hall. — The Union Workhouse . . , . 14c 

Old Battersea Workhouse.— The " Cage."— The " Stocks." . . . . 146 

The Falcon Tavern. — A Cantata 147 

Origin of Bottled Ale in England.— "Ye Plough Inn."— "The Old 



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INDEX. 

Page. 

House."— Stump oi* an Old Oak Tree 148 

" Lawn House," Lombard Road. — The Prizes for the Kean's Sovereigns 

and the Funny Boat Race.— The Old Swan Tavern.— Royal 

Victoria Patriotic Schools . . . . 149 

St. James' Industrial Schools. — Royal Masonic Institution for Girls . . 150 

Clapham Junction. — Battersea Provident Dispensary 151 

Wandsworth Common Provident Dispensary. — Charity Organization 

Society. — The Penny Bank. — No. 54 Metropolitan Fire Brigade 

Station. — Origin of Fire Brigades .. 152 

The Metropolitan Police. — Police Stations, Battersea. — St. John's 

College of the National Society 153 

The Vicarage House School. — Various Wharves and Factories . . 154 

Mr. George Chadwin. — T. Gaines. — Tow's Private Mad House. — The 

Patent Plumbago Crucible Company's Works 155 

Silicated Carbon Filter Company's Works . . . . . . 156 

Condy's Manufactory.— Citizen Steamboat Company's Works . . . . 157 

Orlando Jones & Co.'s Starch Works 157 — 159 

Battersea Laundries. — Spiers and Pond's. — Propert's Factory. — The 

London and Provincial Steam Laundry 159—160 

St. Mary's (Battersea) Cemetery. — Numerous Epitaphs and Inscriptions. 

Scale of Fees, etc 161— 175; 

The Battersea Charities 175 

Parish Officers. — Vestrymen 176 — 17b 

Battersea Tradesmen's Club. — Temporary Home for Lost and Starving 

Dogs 179 — [80 

London, Chatham and Dover Railway— Battersea Park Station— York 

Road Station (Brighton Line). — West London Commercial Bank. 

London and South Western Bank. — Temperance ani Band of 

Hope Meetings. — South London Tramways in Battersea — Fares. . 180 — 181 



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frttrofttctton* 



London, after the lapse of centuries, has been compared to an old 
ship that has been repaired and rebuilt till not one of its original 
timbers can be found; so marvellous are the changes and trans- 
mutations which have come over the "town upon the lake" or, 
harbour for ships as London was anciently called, that if a Celt, or a 
Roman, or a Saxon, or a Dane, or a Norman, or a Citizen of Queen 
Elizabeth's time were to awake from his long slumber of death, 
he would no more know where he was, and would be as strangely 
puzzled as an Englishman of the present generation would be, who 
had never stirred further than the radius of the Metropolis, sup- 
posing him to be conveyed by some supernatural agency one night 
to China, who, on rising the next morning finds himself surrounded 
by the street-scenery of the city of Pekin. Costumes, manners, 
language, inhabitants have all changed ! Viewed from a geological 
stand-point, even the soil on which New London stands is not the 
same as that on which Old London stood. The level of the site of 
the ancient city was much lower than at present, for there are 
found indications of Roman highways, and floors of houses, twenty 
feet below the existing pathways. There are probable grounds for 
supposing the Surrey side to have been some nineteen hundred 
years ago a great expanse of water. London so called for several 
ages past, is a manifest corruption from Tacitus' s Londinium which 
was not however its primitive name this famous place existed before 
the arrival of Caesar in the Island, and was the capital of the 
Trinohantes or TrinouanUs, and the seat of their kings. The name 
of the nation as appears from Baxter's British Glossary, was 
derived from the three following British words, tri, nou, bant, 
which signify the 'inhabitants of the new city.' This name it is 
supposed might have been given them by their neighbours on 
account of their having newly come from the Continent (Belgium) 
into Britain and having there founded a city called tri-now or the 
(new city) the most ancient name of the renowned metropolis of 
Britain * Some have asserted that a city existed on the spot 1107 
years before the birth of Christ, and 354 years before the founda- 
tion of Rome. The fables of Geoffrey of Monmouth state that 
London was founded by Brute (or Brutus) a descendant of the 

• The inhabitants of ancient Britain derived their origin partly from an original 
colony of Celtae, partly from a mixed body of Gauls and Germans. None of them 
cultivated the ground ; they all lived by raising cattle and hunting. Their dress 
consisted of skins, their habitations were huts of wicker-work covered with rushes. 
Their Priests the Druids together with the sacred women, exercised a kind ot 
authority over them. 

Britain according to Aristotle , was the name which the Romans gave to Mod- 
ern England and Scotland. This appellation is, perhaps derived from the old 
word brit, partly coloured, it having been customary with the inhabitants to paint 
their bodies. 

According to the testimony of Pliny and Aristotle, the Island in remotest times: 
bore' the name of Albion. 



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V HJTRODttCTIOtf. 

Trojan iEneas the son of Venus and called New Troy, or Troy 
Novant until the time of Lud, who surrounded it with walls, and 
gave it the name Caer Lud, or Lud's town etc. Leigh, A certain 
Lord Mayor when pleading before Henry VI. assumed from this 
mythological story with a view to establish a claim to London's 
priority of existence over the city of Borne. The Celts the ancestors 
of the Britons and modern Welsh were the first inhabitants of 
Britain. The earliest records of the history of this island are the 
manuscripts and the poetry of the Cambrians. Britain was called 
by the Eomans Britannia from its Celtic name Prydhain. Camden 
We need not tarry to discuss whether Londinium originally was 
in Cantium or Kent the place fixed by Ptolemy and some other 
ancient writers of good authority, or whether its original place 
were Middlesex, or whether situated both north and south of the 
Tamewis Thames. The Trinobantes occupied Middlesex and Essex 
they joined in opposing the invasion of Julius Caesar 54 B.o. ; but 
were among the first of the British States who submitted to the 
Romans their new City at that time being too inconsiderable a 
place for Caesar to mention. Having revolted from the Roman 
yoke they joined their beautiful Queen Boadicea and were defeated 
by Suetonius Paulinus near London a.d. 61. But before reducing 
the Trinobantes who had the Thames for their southern boundary, 
it is the opinion of some antiquarians that the Romans probably 
had a station to secure their conquests on the Surrey side, and the 
spot fixed upon for the station is St. George's in the fields a large 
plot of ground situated between Lambeth and Southwark, where 
many Roman coins, bricks, chequered pavements and other frag- 
ments of antiquity have been found. Three Roman ways from 
Kent, Surrey and Middlesex intersected each other in this place. 
It is thought that after the Normans reduced the Trinobantes the 
place became neglected and that they afterwards' settled on the 
other side of the Thames and the name was transferred to the New 
City. The author of a work entitled " London in Ancient and 
Modern times." p.p. 12 and 13 writes. — >Let the reader picture to 
himself the aspect of the place now occupied by the great Metropolis, 
as the Romans saw it on their first visit. He should imagine the 
Counties of Kent and Essex, now divided by the Thames, partially 
overflowed in the vicinity of the river by an arm of the sea, so that 
a broad estuary comes up as far as Greenwich, and the waters 
spread on both sides washing the foot of the Kentish uplands to 
the south, and finding a boundary to the north in the gently rising 
ground of Essex. The mouth of the river, properly speaking was 
situated three or four miles from where London Bridge now stands. 
Instead of being confined between banks as at present, the river 

The Sea by which Britain is surrounded, was generally called, the Western^ 
the Atlantic ^ or Hesperian Ocean. Herodotus informs us that the Phoenicians, 
Greeks, and Carthagenians, especially the first were acquainted with it from the 
earliest period and obtained tin there and designated it Tin Island, The name 
Great Britain was applied to England and Scotland after James I. ascended the 
English throne in 1603. England and Scotland however had separate Parliaments 
till 1st of May 1707, when daring the reign of Queen Anne the Island was desig- 
nated by the name of the United Kingdom of Greit Britain. The terms at first 
excited the utmost dissatisfaction ; but the progress of time has shown it to be 
4he greatest blessing that either nation could have experienced. 



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DTTEODtrOTlON. 



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overflowed extensive marshes, which lay both right and left beyond 
London. Sailing up the broad stream, the voyager would find the 
waters spreading far on either side of him, as he reached the spots 
now known as Chelsea and Battersea — a fact of which the record 
is preserved in their very names. A tract of land rises on the 
north side of the river. It is bounded to the west by a range of 
country, subject to inundations, consisting of beds of rushes and 
osiers and boggy grounds and impenetrable thickets, intersected by 
streams. It is bounded to the north by a large dense forest, rising 
on the edge of a waste fen or lake, covering the whole district now 
called Finsbury and stretching away for miles beyond. This tract 
of land, rising in a broad knoll, formed the site of London. 

An old writer says "it is now certain that the spot, (viz, St. 
George's in the Fields) on which the city was described to have 
stood, was an extensive marsh or lake, reaching as far as Camber- 
well hills, until by drains and embankments, the Romans recovered 
all the lowlands about the parts now called St. George's Fields, 
Lambeth etc., London never stood on any other spot than the 
Peninsular, on the northern banks, formed by the Thames in front; 
by the river Fleet on the west; and by the stream afterwards named 
Walbrook on the East. An immense forest originally extended to 
the river side, and, even as late as the reign of Henry II. covered 
the northern neighbourhood of the city, and was filled with various 
species of beasts of chase. It was defended naturally by fosses, one 
formed by the creek which ran along the Fleet ditch, the other by 
that of Walbrook. The south side was protected by the.j river 
Thames, and the north by the adjacent forest." 

In the reign of Nero the first notice of Londinium or, Londinuai 
occurs in Tacitus (Ann xiv. 33.) where it is spoken of, not then as 
honoured with the name Colonia but for the great confiax of Mer- 
chants, its extensive commerce, and as a depdt for merchandise. 
At a later date London appears to have been Colonia under the 
name Augusta (Amm Marcell ; xxvii. 8.) how long it possessed this 
honourable appellation we do not know but after the establishment 
of the Saxons we find no mention of Augusta. It has received at 
various times thirteen different names, but most of them leaving 
some similarity to the present one. However as it is not a history 
of England's Metropolis but All about Battersea* we write, we will at 
once commence at Nine Elms. 

* The Manor is thus described in Doomsday-book among the lands belonging to 
the Abbot of Westminster:— " St. Peter of Westminster holds Patricesy, Earl 
Harold held it ; and it was then assessed at 72 hides : now at 18 hides. The 
arable land is— Three carncates are in demsne ; and there are forty-five villians, 
and sixteen bordars with fourteen carncates, there are eight bond men : and seven 
mills at £42 gs. Sd. and a corn rent of the same amount, and eighty-two acres of 
meadow and a wood yielding fifty swine for pannage, There is in Southwark 
one bordar belonging to the Manor paying twelve penee. From the roll of 
Wendelesorde (Wandsworth) is received the sum of £6. A villian having ten 
swine pays to the Lord one ; but if he has a smaller number, nothing. One 
knight holds four hides of this land and the money he pays is included in the 
preceeding estimate. The entire Manor in the time of King Edward was valued 
at ;£8o., afterwards at £30. ; and now at £75 9*. 8d. 

King William gave the Manor to St. Peter in exchange for Windsor. The 
Earl of Moreton holds one and a half hides of land, which in King Edward's time 
and afterwards belonged to this Manor. Gilbert the Priest holds three hides 



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▼ii INTRODUCTION. 

under the same circumstances. The Bishop of Lisieux had two hides of which 
the Church of Westminster was seized in the time of "William and disseised by 
the Bishop of Bayeaux. The Abbot of Chertsey holds one hide which the Bailiff 
of this J will, out of ill-will (to the Abbot of Westminster) detatched from this 
Manor, and appropriated it to Chertsey." 

Hide of land in the ancient laws of England was such a quantity of land as 
might be ploughed with one plough within the compass of a year, or as much as 
would maintain a family ; some call it sixty, some eighty, and others one hundred 
acres. Villian, or Villein, in our ancient customs, denotes a man of Servile or 
base condition, viz, a bond-man or servant. (Fr. Vilain. L,. Villanus, from 
Villa, a farm, a feudal tenant of the lowest class.) 



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ALL ABOUT BATTERSEA. 




c^iS ^ Kj^ 1 *^ 



INE ELMS LANE it is said derived its name from nine 
Elm Trees which stood in a row facing a small mansion 
known as " Manor House" — on the site there has 
recently been erected, partly out of some of the old 

materials, the offices and premises belonging to Haward 

Bros. Forty years ago, Londoners wending their way to Battersea 
fields regarded themselves in the country away from the smoke of town 
where they could rusticate at pleasure as soon as they entered Nine 
Elms Lane on their pe&estrian excursions. Here were hedgerows, and 
green lanes, and market gardens, and orchards, meadows, and fields of 
waving corn, where reapers might have been seen in harvest-time 
reaping and binding sheaves of golden grain. Dikes and ditches 
had to be crossed.* In the event of high tide, which was of no un- 
common occurrence, the district would be partially inundated with 
water, in some places people might ply in small rowing boats as 
easily as on the River Thames. On the site where now stands the 
wharf of John Bryan and Co., the celebrated Contractors ior 
Welsh, Steam, Q-as, and household Coals in general, were situated 
the pleasure grounds and tea gardens belonging to Nine Elms 
Tavern — the old tavern is still remaining. By the side of the 
Coal Wharf is the Causeway where watermen used to ply for hire 
in order to ferry people across the river. Steel has given us a 
lively description of a boat trip from Richmond on an early summer 
morning when he fell in "with a fleet of gardeners .... Nothing 
remarkable happened in our voyage, but I landed with ten sail of 
Apricot boats at Strand bridge after having put up at Nine 
Elms to take in melons." Within the immediate vicinity is Thornes' 
Brewery with its clock turret at its summit which at night is 
illuminated with gas so that the passers-by looking at the clock might 
know the hour. On the spot where Southampton Streets are, stood 
in olden time a large mansion surrounded by extensive grounds, 
said to have been inhabited by the King's Champion. The 
Champion of the King, (campio regis J is an ancient officer, whose 
office is, at the coronation of our Kings, when the King is at dinner 

* About ten years ago a brick sewer was constructed under the supervision 
of the Metropolitan Board of Works where the filthy black ditch which partly 
formed a boundary line between Battersea, Clapham, and Lambeth Parishes 
was filled up. T. Pearson constructed the sewer, and Mr. Benjamin Butcher 
w*s Clerk of the Works, 



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to ride armed cap a pie, into Westminster Hall, and by the pro- 
clamation of an herald make a challenge " that if any man shall 
deny the King's title to the crown, he is there ready to defend it in 
single combat, etc., which being done," the King drinks to him, and 
sends him a gilt cup with a cover full of wine, which the Champion 
drinks, and hath the cup for his fee. 

On the north side of Nine Elms Lane, nearly opposite the place 
where the " Southampton Arms" Tavern is situated was a windmill. 

On the site now occupied by Thornes' Brewery there used to be a 
Tan Yard and Pellmonger's Establishment. When the ground was 
opened for the purpose of drainage some old tanks were discovered 
in which the hides were soaked containing remains of lime and 
hair. In the rear of the Brewery there was a Hop Garden where 
that bitter plant much used for brewing was cultivated. The only 
regular vehicle that passed through Nine Elms Lane was the 
carrier's cart — the few inhabitants of the place used to "turn out" 
to see it pass — a marked contrast to the present hurried and in- 
cessant traffic ! Facing the Eailway Terminus were two Steamboat 
Piers for landing and taking up passengers. At race times the 
excitement between the rival steamboat companies was intense — 
" touters," men hired expressly by each of these companies to induce 
passengers to go down their respective piers, became at times so 
exasperated with each other that they fell to blows, a sight which 
the baser sort of the crowds assembled on suoh occasions enjoyed 
to their hearts' content. 

Many things have been said by way of disparagement of Batter- 
sea and not at all reflecting credit on certain localities within the 
parish. Battersea has been called "the Sink Hole of Surrey." 
Europa Place, Bridge Eoad, has been designated "Little Hell," 
and the spot were Trinity Hall has been erected at the end of 
Stewart's Lane, received the epithet of "Hell Corner." Persons 
in the habit of receiving stolen property were said to reside in the 
neighbourhood; moreover, there was a gang called "Battersea 
Forty Theives !" " Sharpers" are said to have abounded in every 
direction, so that strangers going to Battersea would be "cut for 
the simples." But we who know something of London life know 
that other Metropolitan parishes have their " dens of infamy" and 
localities of "Blue Skin," "Jack Sheppard," and "Jonathan 
Wild" notoriety, that beneath the shadow of St. Paul's Cathedral 
and Westminster Abbey, our Houses of Parliament and Mansions 
of the Nobility and Aristocracy, squalor and crime, vice and 
grandeur walk side by side, and oftentimes hand in hand. 

Adjoining Thornes' premises and Swonnell's Malt houses, is the 
London and South Western Eailway Company's Goods Station, 
which, before the extension of that Company's line in 1848 to 
Waterloo Eoad, was originally the Metropolitan Terminus. Though 
this part of the line crosses the most grimy portion of Lambeth, a 
distance of two miles and fifty yards, yet it cost the Eailway Com- 
pany £800,000. The London and Southampton Eailway (as it was 
first called) was opened on the 11th of May, 1840, which, in con- 
nexion with the opposite wharf and warehouses on the banks of the 
river, at that time occupied an extent of between seven and eight acres. 
The entrance front of the (then) Metropolitan Terminus at Nine 



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l&mB, erected" from designs by William Tite, Esq., Architect to the 
Company, was not unhandsome though at present it has rather a 
dingy appearance for want of renovation, and has a central arcade 
which originally led to the booking office and waiting rooms now 
used for the manager's and clerks' offices for the goods traffic de- 
partment. The railroad was commenced under the authority of an 
Act of Parliament which received the Royal assent on the 5th of 
July, 1834 (it was opened as far as Woking Common on the 21st 
of May, 1838). By this Act the Company were empowered to raise 
£1,000,000 in £50 shares, and a further sum of £330,000 by loan. 
Since that time several additional Acts have been passed authorizing 
the Company to extend their line and increase their capital. The 
Company's capital for the present year (1879) is £17,000,000. Mr. 
Wood was the Company's first Locomotive Superintendent. When 
the London and Southampton line was first opened all the workmen 
in the Company's service had a half holiday and one shilling each 
given to them. The Richmond Railway — this though an offshoot 
of the South Western, and worked by that Company, was executed 
by a private one. It was however sold to the South Western 
Company in October, 1846. It had been opened on the 27th of 
July previous. Number of miles open 648. The gross receipts for 
the year ending December 31, 1873, were £2,195,170. The rail- 
road intersects Battersea parish to the extent of two miles and a 
half. The Goods Department comprises the hydraulic shed, down 
goods shed, carriers' shed, egg shed, the old warehouse and granery 
by the riverside ; down office, Wandsworth Road Gate ; cartage 
office, Nine Elms Lane. Officers of the Company. — General 
Manager, Archibald Scott, Esq. ; Locomotive Superintendent, W. 
Adams, Esq. ; Resident Engineer, William Jacomb, Esq. ; Treasurer, 
Alfred Morgan, Esq. ; Goods Manager, J. T. Haddow, Esq., Nine 
Elms; Assistant Goods Manager, Mr. W. B. Mills, Waterloo; 
Superintendent, R. H. Ming, Esq., Nine Elms ; Assistant Superin- 
tendent, Mr. Robert Lingley, Nine Elms ; Law Clerk, M. H. Hall, 
Esq. ; Superintendents of the Line, E. W. Yerrinder, Chief Superin- 
tendent Waterloo Station ; John Tyler, Western Division, Exeter 
Station; William Gardiner, Assistant Superintendent, Waterloo 
Station ; W. H. Strutton, Storekeeper, Nine Elms Works. 

Soon after the opening of the London and Southampton Railway 
a collision between two passenger trains occurred at the Nine Elms 
Terminus resulting in the death of a young woman, a domestic 
servant, who, with a fellow servant, had been spending the day at 
Hampton Court. The Coroner's Jury returned a verdict of ac- 
cidental death a deodand of £300 was levied on the *' Eclipse" locomotive 
engine, the moving cause of death. The Railway Company paid 
the £300 to Earl Spencer as Lord of the Manor, who most generously 
divided it amongst the deceased's relatives. 

Omnia qua movent ad mortem sunt deodanda : 
What moves to death, or kills him dead, 
' Is deodand, and forfeited. 

On the South Western Railway Stone Wharf are the agents 
offices of the several depdts for the sale of Portland stone, Bath 
freestone, etc. Huge blocks of stone direct from the quarries are 
here deposited and piled block upon block. A single block in some 



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instances weighing ten tons elevated and removed \>y means of a 
steam traveller moving on a gantry. 

When the workmen were engaged in " digging but" the ground 
for the foundation of the goods sheds a human fekfeteton was dis- 
covered, on which Mr. Carter (coroner) held, aft inquest. Dr. 
Statham, who made the post mortem examination, stated that the 
skeleton was that of a male person, that there wete three severe 
cuts upon the head either of which was sufficient to cause death. 
As no further evidence was procurable a verdict was given in 
accordance. 

About forty years ago, when Mr. Gfobeh was LoconWtive Superin- 
tendent, a fire brak© out at the London and Soutti Western Railway 
Works, Nine Elms Lane, which caused great destruction of property, 
including a very handsome clock tower. Various n*eta4ta were fused 
and mingled into shapes fantastic, portions of which wferte sub- 
stituted for chimney-piece ornaments in the homes <of the Workmen 
and kept as mementoes of this conflagration ! A man of the name 
of Dover who it is said accidentally set the stores oh fire ^was so 
frightened that it turned the hair of his head grey in one night ! 

At Nine Elms, Locomotive, Carriage and Stores Departments 
are fire precautions which the Railway Company insist upon being 
strictly observed. A fire engine with hose and all necessary appli- 
ances is kept in a building set apart for it adjoining Heman's 
Street Entrance gate. A properly qualified fireman is appointed 
to look after the whole of the buildings by night, as a precaution 
against fire. The fireman's name is Thomas Lewin, and his 
residence is 51, Thorne Street, Wandsworth Road. His hours of 
.duty are from 5.30 p.m. to 6.30 a.m. It is the fireman's duty to 
perambulate the whole of the works during the night, and to make 
a daily report of the circumstances in the book provided for that 
purpose. He is responsible that the fire engine, hose, hydrants, 
.etc., are kept in working orde» and tried once a week. A statement 
of the trial is to be made in the fireman's report book with any 
.suggestions or remarks. Positions of Hydrants at Nine Elms 
Works — There are 120 hydrants (always charged) distributed as 
follows : — 15 in the offices, paint loft and shops beneath; 4 in the 
general stores ; 4 in wheelwrights' and signal Bhops ; 2 in bonnet 
shop ; 5 in waggon shop ; 4 in new waggon shop and saw ttiill ; 
5 in smiths' and carriage fitting shops ; 9 in erecting shops '; 2 in 
. turning shop ; 3 in tender shop ; 4 in new erecting shop ; 1 in 
permanent way shop ; 4 in arches under the Viaduct ; 52 in running 
.shed ; 4 at outlets of water tanks, and 2 on the coal stage. Positions 
f of Tell-tale Clocks: — 1 in the office; 1 in general stores; 1 in 
wheelwrights' shop ; 1 in paint shop ; 1 in saw mill. It is the 
fireman's duty to commence to "peg" each of these clocks fofcr 
times every night at the following hours, viz., 8 $Jn., 1&30 p.m., 
1 a.m. and 3.30 a<ra. 

Facing the Goods Statical are tlie Company's Wharves with an 
extensive river frontage. Here also formerly stood Francis' Cement 
Works, adjoining is Nine Elms Steamboat Pie*. The South 
Western Rattway Locomotive Works and Goods Dvpart&uent occupy 
a vast area. It is computed that about 2, 000 persons are employed in 
the various departments. Here were formerly auchard .grounds— 



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ma&y a goodly tree bearing fruit and pleasant to the eye has been 
felled, '^Woodman spare that tree !" though spoken by feminine 
lips would have no force of appeal in this fast age of iron railways 
and steam locomotives, when Eailway Companies scruple not by 
virtue of Acts of Parliament to pull down by hundreds the dwell- 
ings of the poor, it is not to be supposed for an instant that a few 
fruit trees however delicious their produce or delightful their 
shadow should prove a peculiar obstacle in the way of this March 
of Civilization ! On payment of sixpence, children at half-price, 
persons might enter these orchards with full liberty to eat as much 
fruit as they liked on condition that they brought none away. The 
old Spring Well near Nine Elms Lane, Wandsworth Boad, is within 
the recollection of many, who by descending some six or eight steps 
reached with their hands the iron ladle out of which they often 
drank cooling draughts of nature's sparkling laoquatic refreshment. 
Ah, everything has a history and its lesson if we did but know. 
We all exert unconscious influence either for good or evil, — some 
secret action performed; some deed of kindness done ; some public 
boon conferred with the benefactor's name concealed shall by-and-by 
be proclaimed upon the house-top. A cup of cold water given in 
the name of a disciple of Jesus of Nazareth shall not lose its reward. 
Some persons wish to be remembered by posterity, even wicked 
parents would not like after death to be obliterated from the 
memories of their children. The best of all human monuments is a 
good character, — Solomon says, ' ' a good name is rather to be chosen 
than riches.' ' 

Our forefathers never dreamed of erecting such drinking fountains* 
as we have in these days with troughs for cattle and smaller ones 
for mongrel barking curs to slake their thirst ; the pond by the 
way, the wooden horse trough outside the road-side Inn, the long- 
handled iron pump, in some instances resembling the head and tail 
of the British Lion having the body of a greyhound, pleased them 
and suited their purpose. The site now environed by the London 
Gas Works was formerly a large market ground, here too grew 
apple, pear, and cherry trees, gooseberry bushes and ourrants, roses 
were cultivated and rendered the air fragrant with their sweet per- 
fume. In the ditches and trenches or small channels and streams 
occasioned by the tidal overflow from the river, juveniles of both 
sexes might have been seen catching with hand and cap sticklebacks 
and utilizing a medicine phial or gin bottle for an aquarium. Senior 
boys and hobbledehoys with jo vial facial aspect who had not studied 
ichthyology or that part of zoology which treats of fishes, attempted 
to catch larger fry by adopting the Izaak Walton method of angling 
with rod and line, and thought themselves amply rewarded if after 
much patient endurance the motion of their floats indicated that 
their baits had taken, their eyes would glisten at the sight of a few 
roaches and perches. Youngsters would amuse themselves by 
watching the newts and tadpoles, the leaping and swimming of that 
amphibious reptile of the hatrachian tribe, wondering perhaps, 
supposing their biblical knowledge to have extended thus far, 
whether those were the kind of creatures that crawled out 

* His Grace the Duke of Westminster is the President of the Metropolitan 
Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association. 



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ot the river Nile and crept into the houses of the Egyptians. 

Many a dainty dish of stewed eels have the miller's men had 
at Mill-pond Bridge, who not ^infrequently caught alive this 
precious kind of anguilla as it lay concealed between the stones 
and mud, without the aid of eel-pot or basket. Mill-Pond Bridge 
derives its name from the old tidal water flower mill, the only vestige 
of the mill remaining is the outward carcase, which is in a ruinous 
condition ; beneath its cover are the lock gates, the entrance of the 
creek where thousands of tons of coal are conveyed in barges to the 
London Gas Works. 

NEW ROAD, as it is designated, leading from Battersea fields 
to the Wandsworth Road was a lane with a mud bank on both 
sides. In a line with the centre of the South Western Railway 
" Running Shed " was formerly Mill-Pond which answered the pur- 
pose of a large reservoir of water raised for driving the mill wheel. 

Water mills used for grinding corn are said to have been invented 
by Belisarius, the General of Justinian while beseiged in Rome by 
the Goths, 555. The ancients parched their corn and ground it 
in mortars. Afterwards mills were invented which were turned by 
men and beasts with great labour, yet Pliny mentioned wheels 
turned by water. See Teh-dynamic Transmitter. 

The simplest mill for bruising grain was nothing more than two 
stones between which it was broken. Such was often seen in the 
country of the Niger by Richard and John Lander on their ex- 
pedition to Africa. The manna which God gave to the children of 
Israel in the desert "the people went about and gathered it, and 
ground it in mills or beat it in a mortar," Numbers xi. 8. 

From mills and mortars thus rudely constructed there must have 
been obtained at first only a kind of peeled grain which Dr. Eadie 
says may be compared to the German graupe, the English groats, 
and the American grits or homing. Fine flour was laboriously 
obtained from household mills like our coffee mills. The oldest 
mention of flour is in Gen. xviii. 6 ; but bread which is made of 
flour or meal is named in Gen. iii. 19. In order to reduce the flour 
to a proper degree of fineness it was necessary sometimes to have 
it ground over again and cleared by a sieve. 

Samson when a prisoner to the Philistines was condemned to the 
mill-stone to grind with his hand in the prison-house, Judges xvi. 
21. In England prisoners are sent to the treadmill as a punishment. 

The Talmudists have a story that the Chaldeans made the young 
men of the captivity carry mill-stones with them to Babylon where 
there seems to have been a scarcity at that time. They have also 
a proverbial expression of a man with a mill-stone about his neck 
which they use to express a man under the severest weight of 
affliction. 

Windmills are of great antiquity and stated to be of Roman or 
Saracen invention, they are said to have been originally introduced 
into Europe by the Knights of St. John, who took the hint from 
what they had seen in the crusades (Baker). Windmills were first 
known in Spain, France and Germany in 1299 (Anderson). Wind 
saw-mills were invented by a Dutchman in 1633, when one was 
erected near the Strand in London. 

Acorns was the course fare of the old inhabitants of Britain, 



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when wild Britons painted their skin to make themselves appear 
more fierce, and native tribes in a still more barbarous condition, 
half naked or clad in the skins of beasts, not cultivators of the soil, 
subsisted on the flesh of their cattle or on the precarious produce 
of the chase. Packs of hungry, growling, cruel *wolves prowled 
in the woods and forests, and Druidical Priests exercised an entire 
control over the unlettered people they governed, and human 
c aptives seized on Britannia's shores were offered as victims in 
sacrifice, a holocaust to the divinities and false gods which ancient 
Britons worshipped ! 

The Accipenser, in ichthyology, a genus of fishes belonging to 
the Amphibia Nantes of LinnoBus. The Accipenser has a single 
linear nostril; the cirri are below the snout, and before the mouth. 
There are three species of this genus. Theruthenushas four cirri, and 
fifteen squamous protuberances ; it is a native of Eussia. Thehuso has 
four cirri ; the body is naked, i.e., has no prickles or protuberances. 
The ichthyocollo, or uinglats of the shops, famous as an agglutinant, 
and used alafo for the fining of wines, is made from its sound or 
scales. The Sturio, or Sturgeon with four cirri and eleven squamous 
protuberances on the back. This fish annually ascends our rivers 
(it has occasionally been seen in years gone by as high up the river 
Thames as Wandsworth) but in no great numbers, and is taken by 
accident in the salmon nets. It seems a spiritless fish making no 
manner of resistance when entangled, but is drawn out of the water 
like a lifeless lump. This cartilaginous fish is highly prized for 
food, not unlike in taste to veal. About thirty-six years ago a 
Eoyal Sturgeon was caught in the wheel of the mill at Mill-Pond 
Bridge then in the occupation of Mr. Hutton the Miller (who was 
noted as a breeder of game fowls), now the property of the London 
Gas-Light Company. It appears that a local tradesman named 
Henry Appleton was going to town and saw a great crowd, some 
with guns shooting at a great fish, but the Sturgeon's natural 
armour resisted the iorce of their small shot such as they were 
then using. Mr. Appleton upon seeing the state of affairs hastened 
to procure a bullet or two as a more effectual means of capturing 
the prize and the first shot or bullet fired was fatal to the poor 
sturgeon which was then landed and conveyed into the garden of 
Mr. Hutton' s private house upon the exact spot of which at the 

♦Wolves were very numerous in England, King Edgar unsuccessfully 
attempted to effect their total destruction by commuting the punishment of certain 
crimes into the acceptance of a certain number of wolves' tongues from each 
criminal ; their heads were demanded by him as a tribute particularly 300 annually 
from Wales, a.d. 961. 

In 1289 Edward I. issued his Royal Mandate to Peter Corbet for the ex- 
termination of wolves in the several counties of Gloucester, Worcester, Hereford, 
Salop, and Stafford ; and in the adjacent county of Derby. 

Cambden at page 900 informs us certain persons at Wormhill held their lands 
by the duty of hunting and taking the wolves that infested the country, whence 
they were styled Wolf Hunt. 

In Saxon times and during Athelstan's reign wolves abounded so in Yorkshire 
that a retreat was built at Flixton in that county " to defend passengers from the 
wolves that they should not be devoured by them." On account of the desperate 
ravages these animals made during winter the Saxons distinguished January by 
the name of the Wolf month. An outlaw was called a wolf's head as being out 
of the protection of law and liable to be killed as that destructive beast. 



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10 

present time stands the house (since erected) on the hanks of the 
Creek in the occupation of Mr. Methven. It then became after the 
usual ceremony of asking the Lord Mayor, the property of Mr. 
Appleton, and was exhibited by him in York Street (now Savona 
Street), on premises now in the occupation of Mr. Dulley, Butcher. 
After being exhibited several weeks great crowds coming from all 
parts of London to see it, the Sturgeon was sold to a Fishmonger 
residing in Bond Street, who publicly exhibited it in his shop for 
some years with a description stating particulars, where it was 
captured and by whom and its length, being upwards of 9-ffc. It 
is said to have been equal in weight to a sack of flour viz., 280 lbs. 

The Sturgeon is more abundant in Hie Northern Coasts of Europe. 
It is also found in the more Southern parts. It was esteemed by 
the ancients as a very great luxury and it was held in high repute 
for the table by the Greeks and Romans and at their banquets it 
was introduced with particular ceremonies. 

In England when caught in the Thames within the jurisdiction 
of the Lord Mayor of London it is a Royal Fish reserved for the 
Sovereign. The flesh is white, delicate, firm and nutritious. It is 
used both fresh, generally stewed . The largest species of Sturgeon 
is the Bielaga, or Huso. Huso {A Huso) of the Black and Caspian 
seas and their rivers. It attains the length of 20 or 25 feet and 
has been known to weigh nearly 3000 lbs. 

Near the site where now stands the Park Tavern at the corner of 
the New Road, opposite Mr. Featherstonhaugh's Brewery and not 
far from " The Plough & Harrow," were the flower gardens and 
beautiful residence of John Patient, Esq., afterwards occupied by 
Mr. Came the Barge Builder. The house where ilr. Bennett, Lath- 
render, resides, and the house adjoining were used as a Private 
Asylum for the insane and was called " Sleaford House." 

The picturesque and retired Country Parsonage, the residence of 
the Rev. J. G. Weddell, stood a considerable distance from the 
main road — " The Prince Alfred" tavern situate in Haine Street 
occupies the site. In this locality was a tenter-ground the entrance 
to which from the road was through a white gate. 

A gateway at the commencement of " Hugman's Lane" which 
had " no thoroughfare" led to the works belonging to Peter Pariss 
and Son, Oil of Vitriol Manufacturers and Manufacturing Chemists. 
Mr. Wallace, who subsequently held these premises had them 
considerably enlarged to facilitate his project in working up gas 
liquor for making Sulphate of Ammonia, which is extensively used 
for agricultural purposes The sewers in the neighbourhood be- 
came impregnated with a deleterious gas and the stench from the 
drains was intolerable. After considerable litigation with the 
Board of Works Mr. Wallace became a bankrupt. 

By order of the Mortgagees on Wednesday and Thursday, March 
3rd and 4th, 1880, Mr. Douglas Young sold by auction the plant 
and machinery of the above extensive works, including 5 large 
Cornish steam boilers, tubular boiler, 3 egg boilers, a bottle boiler, 
a 4000 gallon wrought iron tank, 12 smaller ditto, 4 large circular 
tanks, 5 steam barrel of various sizes, flange pipes, 3 large iron 
coils, about 70 tons old metal, several copper and iron boilers of 
various sizes, furnace fittings, weighing bridge by Hodgson and 



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11 

Stead, self -feeding boiler and engine, about 150,000 sound bricks, 
a large qualrtity of sound timber including balk timber, yellow 
deals, planks, battens, die-square, floor and lining boards, and 50 
tons of breeze, several stacks of firewood, pantiles, drain pipes and 
other plant materials. 

SLEAFORD STREET appears to have obtained an amount of 
respectability that it had not of yore. Once upon a time one side 
was nicknamed " Ginbottle Row," and the opposite side was 
called " Soapsuds Bay!" Mill-Pond Bridge was very narrow, 
about half its present width, with a low parapet on both sides. 

If the following statement could be relied on, it would perhaps 
allay the fears created by certain alarmists respecting the physical 
limits to deep coal mining and duration of the coal supply. " There 
are coal deposits in various parts of Great Britain at all depths 
down to 10,000 or 12,000 feet. Mining is possible to a depth of 
4,000 feet, btri beyond this the high temperature is likely to prove 
a barrier. The temperature of a coal mine at a depth of 4,000 
feet will probably be found as high as 120 Fahr. ; but there is 
reason to believe that by the agency of an efficient system of 
ventilation the temperature may be reduced, at least during the 
cooler months of the year, as to allow mining operations without 
unusual danger to health. Adopting a depth of 4,000 feet as the 
limit to deep mining there is still a quantity of coal in store in 
Great Britain sufficient to afford the annual supply of twenty-two 
millions of tons for a thousand years." — SulL* 

" Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and 
wise," was a motto adopted by our forefathers when the inducements 
to promenade London streets by night were not so inviting as now. 

" Ranelagh and Vauxhall were places of frivolous amusement 
resorted to even by the higher classes. From those and other haunts 
of folly, lumbering coaches or sedan chairs conveyed home the 
ladies through the dimly lighted or pitch dark streets, and the 
gentlemen picked their way over the ruggedly-paved thoroughfares, 
glad of the proffered aid of the link boys who crowded round the 
gates of such places of public entertainment or resort as were open 
at night, and who, arrived at the door to which they had escorted 
some fashionable foot-passenger, quenched the blazing torch in the 
trumpet-looking ornament which one now and then still sees lingering 

*Moie than a quarter of a century ago, Professor Buckland when examined 
before the House of Commons, limits the supply to 400 years. Mr. Bailey in his 
Survey of Durham limits the supply to 200 years only. But some proprietors 
when examined in 1830 extended the period of total exhaustion of the mines to 
1, 727 years ; they assumed that there are 837 square miles of coal strata in this 
field and that only 105 miles had been worked out. 

"There were 2936 collieries in Britain in i860; from these were raised 
83*923,273 tons of coal. The greatly increasing consumption of coal has 
originated fears as to the possibility of the exhaustion of our mineral fuel. It 
appears that, while in 1820, only 15,000,000 tons were raised, in 1840, the amount 
had reached 30,000,000, and in i860, it was nearly 84,000,000. At the same rate 
of increase the known coal, within a workable distance from the surface, would 
last at least 100 years. But the consumption, during the last twenty years of the 
century, would at the present increasing ratio amount to 1464 million tons a 
year, a quantity vastly greater than can be used. We need not, therefore, now 
begin to fear lest our coal-fields should be speedily used up."— Chambers's £n» 
cyclopedia* 



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12 

over the entrance to some house in an antiquated square or court, 
a characteristic relic of London in the olden time." 

Street lighting was not known to the Greeks and Bomans, it was 
therefore necessary for them whenever they went abroad after dark 
to carry flambeaux. Street lighting was first introduced at Paris 
about the beginning of the 16th century. An Edict was issued 
ordering the inhabitants to keep lights burning in their windows 
after nine at night. In 1558, lamps were exchanged for lanterns, 
and in 1671 these lanterns were ordered to be lighted from the 20th 
of October to the beginning of April. This however did not prove 
a satisfactory arrangement. At length a premium was offered by 
the Government for a dissertation on the best mode of lighting the 
streets. The successful competitors were a journeyman glazier, 
M. M. Bailly, Le Eoy and Bourgeois Le Cheteaublanc. To the 
glazier was awarded a prize of 200 livres, and to the other three 
jointly 2,000 livres. The result of their suggestions was a general 
lighting of the streets by oil lamps set upon posts. 

In London, lanterns were first used in 1688, and those inhabitants 
whose houses fronted the streets were ordered to hang out their 
lanterns and keep them burning from 6 to 1 1 o'clock at night ; the 
number of lanterns thus used within the boundaries of the City of 
London was 5,000. "Without the City, inclusive of the suburbs, the 
probability is that the number was 15,000. 

In 1874, another act was passed for regulating the lighting of 
the City still further. Since the lighting of the streets, alleys, 
courts, etc., of our Metropolis with gas have come many other 
sanitary and social improvements, and it is not unlikely that under 
a wise Providence we owe to this invention as much security from 
the nightly depredations of burglars as much so as from the 
vigilance of the police. 

The existence and inflammability of coal-gas has been known in 
England for two centuries. In the year 1659, Thomas Shirley cor- 
rectly attributed the exhalations from the " burning well " at Wigan, 
in Lancashire, to the coal-beds which lie under that part of the 
country ; and soon after, Dr. Clayton, influenced by Shirley, actually 
made coal-gas, and detailed the results of his labours in a letter to 
the Hon. Robert Boyle, who died in 1691. About a century later, 
1753, Sir James Lowther communicated to the Royal Society a 
notice of a spontaneous evolution of gas at a colliery belonging to 
him at Whitehaven. Bishop Watson made many experiments on 
coal-gas, which he details in his Chemical Essays. Mr. E. Taylor, 
on the Coal-fields of China, says, " The Chinese artificially produce 
illuminating gas from bitumen coal we are certain. But it is a 
fact that spontaneous jets of gas derived from boring into coal-beds 
have for. centuries been burning, and turned to that and other 
economical purposes. If the Chinese are not gas manufacturers, 
they are nevertheless gas consumers and employers on a large scale, 
and have evidently been so ages before the knowledge of its 
application was acquired by Europeans." In 1792, Mr. Murdoch, 
an engineer at Redruth in Cornwall, erected a little gasometer with 
apparatus which produced gas sufficient to supply his own house 
and offices, and in 1797, he erected a similar apparatus in Ayrshire. 
In the following year, he was engaged to put up a gas works at the 

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I* 

Maniifactory of Bolton and "Watts, at Soho, Birmingham, — thiswat 
the first application of gas in a large way. Except among a few 
scientific men, the manufacture of gas excited but little curiosity 
until the year 1802, when the front of the great Soho Manufactory 
was brilliantly illuminated with gas on the occasion of the public 
rejoicings at the Peace. In 1801, M. Le Bon, at Paris, succeeded 
in lighting up his own house and gardens with gas from wood and 
coal, and had it in contemplation to light up the City of Paris. 

Only within the present century has gas superseded in London 
the dim oil lamps. About forty years ago, oil lamps and lighted 
candles were used in our churches and chapels ; in some places of 
worship evening services were dispensed with altogether. A 
humorous anecdote is related of Dr. Johnson : it is said, one evening, 
from the window of his house in Bolt Court, he observed the parish 
lamplighter ascend a ladder to light one of the small oil lamps. 
He had scarcely descended the ladder half-way when the flame 
expired. Quickly returning he lifted the cover of the lamp partially 
and thrusting the end of his torch beneath it, the flame instantly 
communicated to the wick by the thick vapour which issued from 
it. "Ah!" exclaimed the Doctor, "one of these days the streets 
of London will be lighted by smoke." — Notes and Queries, No. 127. 
Certain scientific men were incredulous as to the practicability of 
lighting up the whole of London with gas, and Sir Humphrey 
Davey asked if it were intended to take the dome of St. Paul's for 
a gasometer! In 1820 gas meters were patented by John Malan, 
in 1830 by Samuel Olegg, in 1838 by Nathan Defries and others. 
Mr. Daniel Pollock, father of the late Chief Baron, was governor 
of the first " chartered" gas company in 1812. In 1822 St. James' 
Park was first lighted with gas. In 1825, its safety had not then 
been established on the part of the Government, a committee of the 
most eminent scientific men immediately inspected the Gas Works, 
and reported that the occasional superintendence of all the Works 
was necessary. However, since then so rapidly has the invention 
of gas-lighting progressed, that now in the present year of grace, 
there is neither City nor town in Great Britain of any note but 
what is illuminated with gas and has works for its manufacture in 
close proximity to the houses of its inhabitants. Gas supply of 
London, receipts for the year 1872, £2,133,600, for 1873, 
£2,544,000. What is coke? Coke is the residual carbon of pit 
coal after the volatile matters have been expelled by heat, it has a 
porous texture and a lustre sometimes approaching the metalic. It 
is a valuable fuel, producing an intense and steady heat and leaving 
but little residue after combustion. The residual coke in retorts has 
a quantity of ash, which, besides its earthy base of silicate, usually 
contains sulphur and other deleterious matter. The breeze can be 
used in furnaces and in burning bricks. There is a considerable 
quantity of pure hydrogen produced by the decomposition of water 
in cooling coke. Attempts have been made to manufacture gas 
from other substances besides coal— oil, resin, peat, and even water 
having in their turn commanded capital for a fair trial of their 
merits of all these ; however, coal has alone stood the test of com- 
mercial success, those companies formed for other schemes having 
either been dissolved or become converts to its superior advantages. 



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No doubt it will "be considered tttopian — Mr. Bobinson thinks that 
the electric light might be so modified as to be used in public 
dwellings ! There are exhaustless. stores of latent electricity, but 
the difficulty is to know how to deveiope and utilize it, 

Street gas lit by electricity, by Atr. St. George Lane* Fox/s 
method: trial partially sucqessfuj, Fall Mall, etc., 1,3th April, 1878, 
British Museum Reading JjoQin. illuminated by electric light, 
October, 1879. 

Common bituminous coal obfatnedfrom the mines of Northumber- 
land, Durham, York, South Wales, and a few other coal districts 
is the kind from. wkicli mps( of the gas of this country is manu- 
factured. The Cannel or. Sctotei, parrot coals produce a gas of a 
much richer quality, whiqh* though expensive, has the advantage 
of superior illuminating power* Gaja oompanies use to a very 
great extent coals from the following mines : — Pelaw, Leverson's 
Wallsend, Pelton, New Pelton, bean's Primrose, Q-aresfielcL South 
Peareth, (The London G-as-Light, Comg^ny use principally Poareth) 
Urpeth, Washington, Yorkshire, Siltoitone, Haswell, West Wear, 
Wearmouth, Brancepeth, South Branoepeth, and Eavenehaw Pelaw. 
The resulting products of carbonization of these coals when an 
exhauster is employed will be found to give about the following 
average per ton : — 

Gas, 9,500 cubic feet; Coke, 13 cwt., or one chaldron; Tar, 10 
gallons; Ammoniacal Liquor, 13 gallons. Ammonia, a compound 
of Nitrogen and Hydrogen, is converted into Sulphate of Ammonia, 
Sal Ammonia, Carbonate of A^nmonia, etc., etc. Tarj which is a 
Hydro-carbon, after producing Naptha and Ught oils, becomes use- 
ful as Asphalt, or for exterior paint work. Benzole, the base of our 
newly-discovered dyes, is extracted from the Naptha; which, besides, 
is either used as a solvent for india-rubber and guttapercha, or 
yields a brilliant light when burned in a common lamp. Gas, as it 
issues from the retorts, is chiefly composed of light carburetted and 
bicarburetted hydrogen or olefiant gas, accompanied by condensable 
vapours and other gaseous impurities. The condensable vapours 
are principally hydro-carbon compounds which become deposited in 
the form of oil, and amongst a variety of deleterious substances 
may be mentioned as the chief: ammonia, carbonic acid, carbonic 
oxide, and sulphuretted hydrogen, but the valu/e of coal-gas 
principally depends on the presence of bicarburetted. hydrogen, and 
the greater proportion of this the higjier will be ita light-giving 
properties. 

The connection of the London Gas-LJght Company's Works with 
Vauxhall takes us out of the parish of Battersea for a moment into 
the parish of Lambeth. Vauxhall, the early Spring Garden, was 
named from its site in the Manor of La Saja Eawkes, Fawkeshali, 
from its possessor, an obscure Norman adventurer, in the reign of 
King John.* The estate was laidowA as. & garden about 1661, in 
squares enclosed with hedgos,qf gposcbarries, within which were 

♦The true derivation is supposed' to be from Falk or Faulk de Brent, a famous 
Norman soldier of fottune to wflom King John gave in marriage Margaret de 
Ripariis or Redvers. To the lady belonged tbttt Manor of Lambeth to which 
the Mansion called Faulks HfcU Wft&< aansaedi— tZo**^*, by Charles Knight, 
Vol. I., p. 403. 



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*oses, Tbeans and asparagus. Sir Samuel Morland took a lease of 
the place in 1665, and added fountains and a sumptuously furnished 
room for the reception of Charles II. and his court, and a plan 
dated 1681, shows the gardens planted with trees and laid out in 
walks and a circle of trees or shrubs. They were frequented by 
Evelyn and Pepys ; and Addison in the Spectator, 1712, takes Sir 
Roger de Ooverley there. In 1728, the gardens were leased to 
Jonathan Tyers, who converted the house into a tavefcn. The beauty 
of its rural scenery rendered it so much frequented that the pro- 
prietor in the year 1730, introduced vocal music, the price of ad- 
mission at that time was Is., but from the competition of others 
who opened public places of amusement in the neighbourhood, the 
proprietor introduced a great variety of amusements and raised the 
price of admission to 2s. During the season of 1807, the price was 
constantly 2s., the gardens- being open only three nights in the 
week, and each of these nigfeta was what was termed a gala night. 
Yauxhall Gardens were extensive, they contained a variety of walks 
illuminated with beautiful transparent paintings. Opposite the 
west door was a magnificent Gothic orohestra, illuminated with a 
profusion of lamps of various colours ; and on the left was an elegant 
rotunda, in which the band performed in the cold or rainy weather. 
At ten o'clock a bell announced the opening of a cascade, with the 
representation of a water*mill, a mail coach, etc. Fireworks of the 
most brilliant description were also introduced among the attractions 
of the place. In numerous recesses, or pavilions, parties were 
accommodated with suppers and other refreshments and were charged 
according to a bill of fare. The ham sandwiches were of such an 
excellent quality and so thinly sliced that they became proverbial. 
The respective boxes and apartments were adorned with a vast 
number of paintings, many of which were executed in the best style 
of their respective theatres. The labours of Hogarth and Hayman 
were the most conspicuous. On a pedestal, under the arch of a 
grand portico of the Doric order, was»afine marble statue of Handel, 
in the character of Orpheus playing on his lyre, done by the 
celebrated M. JJobiliac. The number of persons whawere employed 
in the gardens during the season is said to. have amounted to 400, 
96 of whom were musicians and singers, the rest were waiters and 
servants of various kinds. The celebrated Lowe and Beard were 
amongst the first singers who were engaged at Vauxhall. Upwards 
of 15,000 lamps were said to illuminate the gardens at one time, — 
the effect of the illumination was peculiarly beautiful in a moon* 
light night. The band of the Duke of York's regiment of Guards 
dressed in full uniform added to the attractions of these enchanting 
gardens ; by military harmony, as a place of public entertainment, 
it became the most famous in Europe. The greatest season was in 
1823, when 133,279 persons visited the gardens and the receipts 
were £29,590. The greatest number of persons in one night wa& 
on the 2nd of August, 1833, when 20,137 paid for admission. The 
carriages outside the gardens were so numerous that they extended 
in lines as far as Westminster Bridge in one direction and to 
Kennington Common in an opposite direction. The greatest number 
on the then supposed last night, 5th September, 1839, was! 1089. 
persons. So f acinating did this place of amusement become that 



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it acquired the name of the " fairy land of fancy/' answering in 
conception to those enchanted palaces and gardens described in the 
"AraMan Nights Entertainment.* It was in these gardens gas 
was manufactured by the London Gas-light Company prior to gas 
being made at the Company's Works in the neighbourhood of 
Vauxhall Row. 

The London Gas-light Company was Incorporated in the year 
1833.f The Works at Vauxhall were constructed from designs 
furnished by Mr. Hutchison, the Engineer. The first bed of retorts 
set on the Company's premises was heated by a man of the name 
of William Batt, June, 1834. The old man is still living, he is 
seventy-five years of age, and has been in the London Gas-light 
Company's service forty-three years. At that time the Company 
used a small gasometer erected in Vauxhall gardens. It was with 
gas from this vessel that Mr. Green, the celebrated seronaut used to 
fill or inflate his great balloon. The first place lighted up with the 
Company's gas was Old Lambeth Market, the site now occupied by 
Hie Lambeth Baths, In December, 1858, the London Gas-light 
Company manufactured gas at their New Works, Nine Elms. The 
following month, January, 1859, an Act of Parliament came into 
operation to prevent gas companies from erecting other works for 
the manufacture of gas within ten miles of London ; however, it 
was not until the year 1863 that the London Gas-light Company 
permanently removed from Vauxhall to Nine Elms. 

The London Gas Works are environed with a briok wall, varying 
in height from ten to twenty feet, bounded on the North by Nine Elms 
Lane ; on the South by the South- Western Eailway ; on the East 
by Everett Street ; and on the West by Moat Street and Haine 
Street. The works within this enclosure cover an area of seventeen 
acres, and at the field Prince of Wales Boad, about three acres 
more. There are five gates to the Works, but the principal entrance 
is in Haward Street, by the porter's lodge. At the right-hand- 
corner is a spacious building, on the basement is the Engineer's 
office, the Light office, and Messenger's lobby, which has in it a 
small telegraphic apparatus for communicating intelligence between 
this and the Chief office. The Grand Entrance is from Nine Elms 
Lane, opened by two pairs of massive folding doors leading into the 
hall, facing which is a flight of stone steps with ornamental cast- 
iron balusters mounted by rails on either side of polished mahogany, 
communicating with a similar staircase right and left which conducts 
to the Board room and Draughtsmen's offices. The Board room is 
a beautiful and commodious apartment, 33 feet by 1 9. It has never 

•Vauxhall Gardens were open from 1732 to 1840, they were re-opened in 184 1 
and finally closed in 1859, when the theatre, orchestra, firework gallery, fountains, 
statues, etc., were sold, with a few mechanical models, such as Sir Samuel 
Morland, Master of Mechanics to Charles II. had set up here nearly two centuries 
previously. The site was then cleared and a church, (St. Peter's) vaulted through- 
out, was built upon a portion of the grounds, besides a school of arts, etc. — John 
Timbs. 

f The London Gas-light Company Established, (Incorporated) 1833; first 
Works built in High Street, Vauxhall, the lease of which expired in 1865. * 

December 2, 1872, there was a great strike of the London Gas Stokers, 2,400 
out. The inconvenience was met by great exertion, 2-6 Dec. Several were tried 
and imprisoned. 



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yet "been occupied by the Board of Directors, the Board preferring 
to transact their business at their Chief Office, 26, Southampton 
Street, Strand, W.O. Secretary, A. J. Dove, Esq. ; Engineer, 
Robert Morton, Esq. ; Manager, John Methven, Esq. ; Outdoor 
Superintendent, T. D. Tully, Esq. ; Cashier, W. G. Head, Esq., 
with a staff of Inspectors, Collectors, Clerks, &c. 

On the 31st of October, 1865,* a terrible gas explosion took place, 
when ten men were killed and many others injured. At that 
time the houses in Haward Street being contiguous to the works, 
had the window frames shattered, and similar calamities occurred 
elsewhere. These houses were occupied by some of the Company's 
employ es. Lately, partly on account of the recent tidal inundations, 
sixteen houses belonging to the Company have been pulled down 
and a wall built so as to keep out the flood, in the event of extra- 
ordinary high tides. The open space between the inner and 
outer gates is used, as well as other open spaces about the works, 
for heaping up the coke mountains high, which certain youngsters 
in the neighbourhood would only be too delighted to have the 
privilege of scrambling and of bearing some of the precious fuel 
home to their fireless grates. Alas! much of the distress prevalent 
in the district is caused through the drunkenness and improvident 
habits of parents. 

Passing through the inner gate, over which is mounted the factory 
bell of 2 cwt., — its size and tone would not disgrace the belfry of 
many a church steeple, — on the right is situated the timekeeper's 
office, the carbonizing foreman's lobby, the meter stores, and the 
stores. On the left-hand-side of the gate is the coke clerk's office, 
counting house, and a range of workshops, sheds, etc. for smiths, 
painters, fitters, and carpenters. Adjoining the coke office is the 
shop where all the Company's meters are tested before being sent 
out to the consumers. In different parts of the yard lines of iron 
rails are laid down, with turning tables to allow for shunting, 
communicating with the South- Western Railway, so as to admit 
trucks, which, when loaded with coke from the factory, are then 
conveyed to their destination. The retort houses are oblong build- 
ings with gable wrought-iron roofs, are strongly built of brick, the 
walls being of immense thickness ; this is necessary, not only on 
account of the great heat within, but on account of the large 

* On October 31, 1865, at the London Gas-light Company's Works, at Nine 
Elms, Battersea Park Road, a gas-holder exploded killing ten persons and injuring 
twenty-two. This was then one of the largest holders in London, its capacity 
being 1,039,000 cubic feet. It was 150 feet diameter, 60 feet high, with a tank 
depth of 30 feet, and at the instant of the explosion was nearly full, being about 
50 feet to 55 feet high. The meter-house was blown to atoms, and the force of 
the explosion struck the side of the gas-holder, bulging it in, and at the same 
time driving out a portion of the top. Mr. Timbs, who records this disaster, 
(which happened when the late Mr. Watson was engineer) says, "As the side 
plates were eight to twelve guage, the force must have been very great. With 
the bursting of the top there was an immediate rush of gas, which instantly 
caught foe, and shot up in a vast column of flame, discernible at a great distance. 
The concussion ripped open another gas-holder, the escaping gas caught fire, and 
meeting the flames from the first gas-holder, rolled away in one vast expanse of 
flame : an awful crash followed, and many of the neighbouring houses were 
shattered to pieces."— History if Wonderful Inventions, by John Timbs, 
p. 179. 



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IS 

\ 

quantity of coals stowed away in the coal stores, the stock on hand 
befog 15/000 tois. r j 

There are sctfen retdrt hotises, five of these occupy a central 
position in these works ; they have been erected at different periods 
as tho demand for the manufacture of gas increased. Of these 
retort houses No. -7 is the largest ; it is 260 feet long by 80 feet 
wide (inside measurement), and it is 45 feet to crown of roof. Each 
retort house has independent shafts, but the tallest shaft faces the 
east end of reto*t house No. 2. It is a splendid piece of brick-work, 
the height of which is 135 feet. When the top stone was laid Mr. 
B. Gray, the builder, treated the men who were under him with 
a dinner. On this occasion sixteen persons sat on the summit and 
partook of this sumptuous repast. Nos. 1, 2 and S are ground 
retort houses, the other four houses are stage retort houses. With 
respect to the interior of these retort houses, there is plenty of 
room in front of the retorts for a storage of coal and good space for 
drawing the retorts. On the whole there is good ventilation in the 
roofs for allowing the smoke, etc. to escape. The floor of the stage 
retort houses are paved with grooved cast-iron plates. In these 
retort houses an open space is allowed between the furnace and the 
flooring in order that the coke when raked out of the retorts might 
fall into the coke hole below. The benches of retorts are placed in 
the middle of the houses. The retorts are built in settings, they 
are cylindrical tubes made of Stourbridge clay open through and 
through with mouthpieces at both ends. At the front of each bed 
of retorts is a furnace for heating up the retorts with the residual 
coke after the coals have been carbonized. The flame and hot 
draft ef the furnaces axe made to circulate thoroughly throughout 
the setting, traversing as great a space as possible round, under and 
above the retorts before egress is allowed to the main flue com- 
municating with the chimney. The retorts are charged every six 
hours. Formerly, for cooling the retort lids, a pulpy mass of lime 
and mud of the consistence of mortar was used under the cognomen 
of " blue billy." This has been superceded by Morton's Patent 
Air-tight lid, and Holman's Patent Lever. The two mechanical 
contrivances combined for this purpose are most efficient, and when 
financially considered must be a great saving to the Company. In 
the new house there are seven retorts in a bed ; these, when heated 
sufficiently, are simultaneously charged at each end with two scoop- 
fuls of bituminous coal ; the upper retorts, on account of their 
retaining more heat, are charged with three scoops — each scoop 
contains 1 cwt. 2 qrs. of coal As soon as the lids are closed with 
the patent lever and cross-bar the process of gas distillation com- 
mences. In house No. 7 there are 392 mouths — total number of 
mouths in all the retort houses 1,793. As clay retorts when heated 
at first have a tendency to crack, it is necessary that the process of 
heating should be slow, also to get them up to their proper heat a 
similar caution is requisite when cooling. Apart from the manu- 
facture of gas, in order to attend to the furnaces with the view of 
keeping up the heat of retorts, a certain amount of Sunday labour 
is involved, but it is gratifying to state that at these works labour 
on the Lord's day is reduced to its lowest minimum. Among several 
annoyances in the manufacture of gas is the choking or stoppage 



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of aseenejon pipes ; the person whose employment it is to look after, 
and if possible prevent this, is called by his fellow-workmen " the 
pipe jumper." Pipes connected with the mouthpieces called the 
ascension pipes conduct the gas to the hydraulic main, this is. a 
large pipe at the back of the ascension pipes partly filled with water, 
when the works are started into which the ends of the pipes from 
the retorts are made to dip, and by this means forms a seal by 
which the gas is prevented from finding its way back either by those 
retorts which the workmen may be re-charging or to other parts of 
the bench that for the time may be out of action. The hydraulic 
main and its supports are very strong in order to stand the alternate 
and unequal heating and cooling of the benches, and the enormous 
strain occasioned by the large extent of pipage. Wrought iron is 
used in preference to cast-iron because of its lightness, strength 
and elasticity. 

There are four lobbies for the accommodation of the stokers and 
seats at either end of the retort houses. The men in the carbonizing 
department are supplied with lockers in which to keep their 
provisions and cl othes. Each man has a half-pint of the best Scotch 
oaimeal per diem allowed him to make " skilly" with. A quantity 
of oatmeal is put into a bucket, water is poured on and then stirred, 
after the meal has " settled" they dip it out with a mug to drink as 
often as they feel themselves thirsty. The engineer has no objection 
to the men having lemonade, etc., but all intoxicating drinks on the 
works are strictly prohibited. On Sundays, between 9 and 10 a.m., 
a religious service is conducted in the lobby at No. 6 retort house 
by the Missionary. 

Scene in a retort house on week-day. — The stokers, after having been 
at work in the retort houses for half an hour, are " off " for nearly 
an hour, during which they employ their time in various ways ; 
some play at cards, some at draughts, some at dominoes, others 
read the newspapers, — eight men in a group will club together and 
subscribe a penny each, this enables them to purchase six dailies 
and two weeklies, thus a group is furnished with newspaper 
intelligence for a week. Others of the stokers will seek to bring 
grist to their mill by employing the time they are off to their own 
pecuniary advantage either in mending their own boots and shoes 
or the boots and shoes of their fellow-workmen. At times some of 
the men may be seen mending their clothes, or washing a pair of 
trowsers in a bucket of water and using the wooden handle of a 
shovel as a substitute for a " dolly." Now and then a man will lie 
on his back at full length on a heap of coals, locked in the arms of 
Morpheus, presently he awakes out of his dreams, rubs his eyes 
astonished at what has transpired during the past hour. The fore- 
man's whistle, similar to that used by a railway guard when a train 
is ready to start, is the signal for the men to resume their work, 
and to their crc dit be it said, they go at it manly and rush to their 
shovels and scoops like British sailors fly to their guns when com- 
manded to salute a Prince or fire at an enemy ! A stranger for the 
first time is startled when the lids or " lips" as they are called are 
removed from the mouths of the retorts by the bomb ! bombing! 
a kind of percussion or shock occasioned by the gaseous vapours 
confined in the retorts being liberated by coming into direct contact 



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"with the atmosphere, then commences the "belching forth of flame, 
the issuing of smoke, the raking out of carbonized coal blazing' 
with tar in order to clear the retorts which are again quickly charged 
with that peculiar fossil of vegetable origin found among the 
carboniferous 6trata of the earth. It is interesting to mark the 
agility with which the stokers perform their duty. Five men con- 
stitute a gang, — there are three men to a scoop. Scoops are made 
of iron. A scoop is 10 feet long, 7 i inches wide, and 5 J inches 
deep with a T pieces for a handle. It is placed on the ground, filled 
as soon as possible, then raised by two men who put underneath it 
a wrought iron bar called a " horse" so bent or curved in the middle 
on which to rest the scoop. These two men, with the aid of the 
man who holds the T piece, thrust the coals into the retorts as 
quickly as artillerymen ram cannon, and so work at each bed of 
retorts stripped to the waist, while the perspiration is oozing from 
the pores of their 6kin like melted tallow ! Now and again a 
hissing noise with steam accompanied with clouds of vapour caused 
by buckets of water thrown on the carbonized coal taken from the 
retorts. No sooner is the coke thus cooled than it is (in keeping 
with all the movements preceding) wheeled in iron barrows to a 
place in the yard, where pyramidically it is piled stage upon stage 
until purchased by the coal contractor and coke merchants who 
require it for their customers. Respecting the employes at these im- 
portant works — beneath the rough exterior of their sooty skin, 
incidental to their occupation, these sons of toil who forsooth earn 
their livelihood by the sweat of their brow in common with their 
brother man, have hearts akin to the finest specimens of humanity, 
and stand related to our Father in heaven, for we are all His offspring, 
brothers for whom the Saviour died. "Whatever a man's status in 
social life, whatever part he may take, however humble in the 
divisions of industrial, honest labour, these men know that as 
Eobert Burns says ; " A man 's a man for a' that." 

From the hydraulic main the gas passes on to a set of condensers 
or coolers at the south side of the works, through which it is made to 
circulate until it is reduced to atemperaturebearing some approxima- 
tion to the surrounding atmosphere, also to separate condensable 
vapours before allowing the gas to pass to the purifiers. The tar 
well or tank is a receptacle for the overflow of the hydraulic, etc. 
A branch pipe from the main is inserted and sealed in a stationary 
lute at the bottom. The tar thus deposited as well as the ammoniacal 
liquor is valuable. There are five scrubbers, the tops of which are 
reached by flights of wooden steps with hand-rails and a stage or 
gallery above communicating from one scrubber to another. Each 
scrubber is a cylinder 19 feet in diameter and 70 feet high, they 
are made of cast-iron plates and contain a series of iron trays or 
gratings on which are spread layers of coke, furze, etc. Water is 
injected from the top by meaos of a revolving apparatus connected 
with vertical and horizontal shafting and driven by a small engine 
below, thereby keeping up a constant humid spray, the object being 
to separate the ammonia and acids from the gas. 

In front of houses Nos. 4 and 5 (which by the way are the oldest 
retort houses inside these works) is situated the boiler and engine 
house. There are three boilers 28 feet by 6 in diameter. In the 



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engine house four of B eal's exhausters occupy prominent positions, 
they are used to exhaust or suck the gas from the retorts and after- 
wards force it through the vessels lor purification ; two of these 
driven by engines of 20 horse power work 150,000 cubic feet per 
hour each. Two driven by engines of 12 horse power work 100,000 
per hour each. Attached to the inlet of each exhauster is one of 
Wright's exhauster governors, it is made on the principle of 
pressure or suction elevating or depressing a light cylinder working 
in a water-lute of sufficient depth. When an exhaust is maintained 
on the water guage, counter balance weights equal to the exhaust 
on the area of the cylinder are applied, and the oscillations, as the 
suction increases or diminishes, regulate to a nicety the exhaust. 
The whole of the machinery in this department is in excellent order 
and will bear the minutest inspection. Over the engine house, 
which is reached outside by a corkscrew or spiral iron staircase, is 
a workshop fitted up with machinery ; it contains a horizontal engine 
of eight horse power, which drives two lathes, one bolt screwing 
machine, two drilling machines, and a saw bench. Against the 
wall of the engine house is one of Tangye's Special Pumps for raising 
water from the dock to supply the whole of the works with water 
for cooling purposes. Outside the engine house an apparatus 
called a jet exhauster has recently been erected composed of a 
series of vertical iron tubes, a steam boiler, a generator, and jet. 
A vacuum is created by a blast of steam, thereby compelling the 
gas to rapidly leave the retorts and at the same time the ammonia 
is supposed to be entirely removed by means of water which per- 
colates through shavings with which the tubes or pipes are filled. 

On the south side of the works, in addition to the coolers, there 
are thirteen purifiers and fifteen plots or courts including the 
foreman's lobby. Each purifier is of cast-iron, it is oblong in form, 
the cover is wrought iron riveted together in sheets, and the seal 
is made by means of a water-lute round the edge of the purifier. 
The purifying material, which is sometimes lime but principally 
oxide of iron, is carefully spread out on trays and these are disposed 
in tires or sets in such a manner as to leave a clear open space 
between each succeeding layer to allow the gas to diffuse itself 
thoroughly throughout the mass. Lime when once fouled cannot 
profitably be renewed for gas purifying purposes, but the oxide of 
iron can be further utilized by spreading out the oxide in an open 
court when the oxygen of the atmosphere precipitates the sulphur 
and the oxide is again fit for use. 

The gas passes from the purifiers to the station meter house 
fronting the stores on the north side of the yard, where the quantity 
of gas made is registered ; adjoining which is Mr. Methven's the 
Sub-Manager's office, and a test room or laboratory where various 
experiments connected with the manufacture of gas are conducted. 
Against the north boundary is a small gas house with gas-holder, 
etc., all complete, occasionally used for experimenting purposes. 
From the station meters the gas passes to the gas-holders ; each of 
these enormous circular vessels possesses great storage capacity. It 
is made on the principle that the circle of all geonntrical figures is 
the one that a fixed circumference or outline is capable of enclosing 
the greatest amount of space. A gas-holder is made by riveting 



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together light wrought iron sheets upon an angle framing drid in 
shape resembles an inverted cup, the crown being either flat or the 
segment [of a large sphere. It works in a circular water-tank, 
round which columns are erected that sustain guides at proper 
intervals by which the gasholder when working is supported, etc. 
Erected in different parts of the works, including those (two) in the 
field Prince of Wales' Eoad, are five immense gasholders with 
double lifts capable of holding in all 7,000,000 cubic feet of gas. 
The most imposing view of the Works is front* the gate near the 
entrance of the Creek at Mill-Pond Bridge ; in the* creek there are 
sometimes as many as forty barges. On entering at this gate the eye 
is afcfcraeted by two ponderous lifts, which, by an arrangement of 
rope bands attached to shafting with revolving iron drums and 
pulleys supported by columns and girders and driven by two 
horizontal engines of twelve horse-power, are capable of lifting 
500 tons of coals every twelve hours. The coals are raised from 
the barges in iron waggons which hold 1 ton 15 cwt. each, there 
are two waggons to each lift so that while one waggon is being 
filled the other on the stage above is being conveyed on iron rails 
to whatever part of the retort house the coals may be required. 
Each engine has a powerful brake and is worked with two levers. 
On the west side of the creek is the manager's residence, and an 
enormous gasholder with capacity to hold 2,000,000 cubic feet of 
gas ; further on is a hand crane. In front of No. 7 retort house is 
ofie of Winshurst and Hollick's engine cranes, which is capable of 
lifting 200 tons of coals in ten hours by means of a chain and 
buoket lifted up to the hopper, a distance of nearly sixty feet, and 
emptied. The bucket holds 15 cwt. of coal. That portion of the 
Company's premises known as Mill-Pond Yard is used for the storage 
of pipes, bricks, fire-clay, etc. Here is the carcass of the Old Tidal 
Mill with lock gates ; here to is the Workman's Institute and Band 
room. Mothers' Meetings are held at the Institute on Wednesdays 
at 3 p.m., on Sunday afternoons at 3 o'clock for Bible readings by 
a Missionary in the district.* 

* Since the above description was written in 187 7 very extensive alterations have 
been made in these works. The Company have completed a large purifying house 
at the sonth side of the Creek, and have "had constructed on the site of the Old 
Institute a dock for the purpose of admitting steam colliers of 1000 tons burden ; 
and have erected a coal tramway from the same into the Works, crossing Nine 
Elms Lane with an iron bridge 22 feet from the roadway, which has been widened 
at least 20 feet. Moreover the carcass of the Old Flour Water-Mill has been 
pulled down the only vestiges remaining are the lock gates. Opposite Mr. 
Methven's residence a new institute and stables have been built* In the Works 
the old offices, workshops, stores, meter-house, and test rooms have been 
demolished, the high shaft pulled down and the jet exhauster removed. A new 
meter-house has been erected opposite the engine house aui" there "has alio been 
added new machinery. The Creek has been narro-ved'afi^the* portion *of -ground 
recovered has considerably increased the size of the coke yard* A parapet has 
been built on both sides of the Creek to prevent the water fromf overflowing in 
the event of extraordinary high tides. Also a new stage retort house is being 
erected parallel with retort house No. 6, (Messers Kirk" an I Randall, Con- 
tractors). In addition, three blocks of new. buildings have been erected on the 
west side of the road within the principal gate, is B (i) containing: coke office, 
cashier's office and strong room ; timekeeper's office, -weigh office, cok# foreman's 
office, superintendent's office and test room. On the east sjder of the road is B 
(2). containing gate-keeper's lobby and stores. At the south-east corner of the 



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33 

tJpon the mains at their exit from the works valves are placed* 
each valve having a revolving pressure indicator attached, the paper 
of which is graduated into inches, and tenths, and marked with 
spaces corresponding to the twenty-four hours of the day. In the 
meter-house self-regulating governors are used for this purpose. 
From the gasholders the gas is driven through cast-iron mains or 
pipes, and from them by wrought iron service pipes to the lamps 
and burners which help to illuminate our Metropolis. The Company's 
mains extend about 170 miles, and at any point they supply gas 
with the same abundance and precision as at Nine Elms. At one 
time the Works of the London Gas-Light Company at Vauxhall 
were considered the most powerful and complete in the world, and 
even now, in this age of rivalry and sharp competition, under the 
judicious management of their Board of Directors and their skilled 
Engineer, Robert Morton, Esq., the London Gas-Light Company 
maintain an honourable position among other gas-light companies, 
and are worthy the name they bear. The number of men employed 
at these works in the Winter season is about 500. There is a* Sick 
Pre vi dent Club belonging to the works.* 

On a recently-exposed Section at Battersea. 

Extracts from a Paper read before the Geologists* Association, March 1st, 1872, 
by John A. Coombs, Esq. 

" This section was exposed on apiece of ground recently acquired 
by the London Gas-light Company for a Gas-holder Station. It is 
situated to tKe north of the Prince of Wales' Eoad, Battersea, 
between the high-level lines of the London, Brighton, and South- 
Coast, and the London, Chatham, and Dover Railways, near the 
point of their separation after crossing the Thames near the Chelsea 
♦Suspension Bridge. The excavations were commenced at the latter 
end of last year, for the purpose of constructing two gas-holder 
tanks, each 185 feet inside diameter. The total length of the ex- 
cavation, therefore, was about 400 feet, by about 200 feet in width, 
and 30 feet in depth, the direction of the longest distance being 
very nearly from N.W. to S.E. 

Works is B (3) consisting of workshops, lobby, etc. The whole of the three 
blocks were completed in about four months. (B. £. Nightingale, Builder and 
Contractor). The factory bell has been mounted against one of the columns be- 
longing to the gasholder near the timekeeper's office, and a gasholder of colossal 
dimensions is being erected in the Company's field, Prince of Wales Road. The 
alterations, improvements, etc., at these Works within the last ten years have 
involved an outlay of about ^200,000. Yard Foreman, Mr. A. Wilson; Car- 
bonizing Foremen, Messers. H. Walker, M. Walker, R. Johnston, W. Taylor, 
T. Reynolds, G. Feeney ; Purifying Foremen, Messrs. D. Brown and H. Aylett ; 
Foreman of Enginemen, Mr. G. Wilson ; Coke Foremen, Messrs. G. Smtth and 
C. Meredith ; Coal Gang Foreman, Mr. W. Clowes ; Timekeeper, Mr. R. 
Whitmore. Mf.R. Harvey was foreman over the men in the carbonizing de- 
partment and had been upwards of forty year* hi the Company '^employment, in 
consideration of his valuable services the Cdmpany hahre* granted him, as they 
have also several other of their old and faithful servants, an annuity. 

* All workmen employed by the London Gas-light Company (unless hired on 
other terms) are engaged on weekly hirings, and are required to give, and 
entitled to receive, a week's notice before leaving or being discharged from the 
Company's service, except in case of misconduct, for which a workman will be 
discharged without notice. By order of the Board, 
i&h March % 1876. A. J. Dow, Sec* 



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2* 

d?he average surface of the ground was 12-ft. 9-in. above the 
Ordnance Datum Level, or 3 inches above Trinity High Water 
Mark. The general Section was as follows : — 

Alluvial Soil and Vegetable Mould 2 feet. 

Thames Valley Gravel - - - - 22 „ 
Altered London day (brown) - - 1 „ 

London Clay (excavated) - - - 5 „ 

An interesting series of mammalian remains were obtained from 
the Valley Gravel, which, considering the limited extent of the ex- 
cavation, and the number of specimens destroyed in the removal of 
the material, shews this section to be fully as prolific in these 
remains as the long-worked pits of Erith or Orayford. The 
specimens have been examined anl identified by William Davies, 
Esq , of the British Museum, who kindly undertook to compare 
them with those in the national collection. The following is a list 
of these remains : — 

JSlphas primigenius, Blum. Portion of lower jaw and tooth, 

and the shaft of a humerus of a young individual. 
Rhinoceros tiehorhinus, Ouv. Part of a cranium, a lumbar 

vertebra, a right metatarsus, and a left metacarpus. 
Equus eabalhU fossiHs, Linn. A right metacarpus, a right 

radius, and an upper molar. 
Bos. sp. Cervical vertebrae. 
Cervus olaphus, Linn. Portion of left ramus of lower jaw, 

and portion of a right radius 
Cervus tarandus, linn. The base of a shed antler. (This had 
suffered considerable attrition). 
There were also found a rib and a portion of an illium of a 
Cervus (species indeterminable), besides many other fragments too 
small or too much mutilated for recognition. But the most un- 
usual fossil found in such deposits was that of Pliosaurus, a por- 
tion of the paddle bone of which was found associated with the 
remains above mentioned. This fossil, which was probably derived 
from the Kimmeridge Clay, shewed evident signs of attrition, but 
not so much as to efface the marks of muscular attachment ; it 
was, moreover, charged with peroxide of iron. Search was made 
in the anticipation of shells of Gyrena (CorbiculaJ fluminalis being 
associated with these remains, but without success. 

Immediately beneath the Thames Valley Gravel was the London 
Clay, possessing all the typical features of that formation, without 
any of the loamy gradations found in higher parts of the metropolis. 
The top of the clay, however, to a depth varying from 9 to 12 
inches, was of a brown colour, resembling the brown (altered) Lon- 
don Clay found at Hampstead and elsewhere. 

The clay was excavated only to a depth of a few feet, thus pre- 
venting a great number of fossils being obtained. Those found, 
ho^ ever, are sufficient for comparison with the zones of fossils 
found in larger sections, and thus may afford evidence of the 
amount of denudation to which the clay had been subjected at this 
spot before the deposition of the gravel. By far the most abundant 
fossil found in the London Clay was the Pentacrinm sub-basalti- 
for mis, which was obtained in the rounded angular, as well as the 
perfectly cylindrical form. The following Mollusca were also 



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25 

obtained :— Nautilus regain, Pyrtda Smithii, Fusus bifaseittus, 
Voluta JPetherellii, Pleurotoma Uretrium, Natica labeUata, Eenta- 
lium, sp., Leda amygdaloides, Nueula Bowerbankii, Cryptodon 
angulatus, C. Goodallii, and Syndosyma splendent. Teredo borings, 
Serpula, and teeth of Lamma complete the list of organic remains. 
Septaria were abundant in the clay, many of which contained 
drift-wood, bored by the Teredo, one contained a Nautilus regalis 
as a nucleus, and several exhibited the usual crystallizations of 
calcite, heavy spar, and iron pyrites. Selenite, however, was very 
scarce in the clay, being found only in small crystals, and these by 
no means numerous." 

In Nine Elms Lane resided Mr. Sellar, a respectable tradesman 
who kept a tea and cheesemonger's establishment, and who for five 
years discharged his parochial duties as an overseer Greatly de- 
ploring the irreligious condition of the spiritually-benighted poor 
of the neighbourhood, he had erected at his own expense, a hall 
at the back of his premises in Everet Street, to be used for religious 
and secular educational purposes. Subsequently the hall was 
rented by the Wesleyan Methodists, and was used by them as a 
preaching station, Mr. Farmer acting as steward and superintendent 
of the Sunday school which he commenced there. When the Sunday 
school was opened in 1871, not more than 20 per cent, of the 
children who presented themselves for admission could read, and 
their knowledge. of the sacred contents of the Holy Scriptures was 
nil. However, though the task was difficult, for seven years Mr. 
John Farmer, assisted by his small staff of christian teachers : — 
Plodded hard, and labour'd well 
As many in Nine Elms can telL 
The hall is now engaged by the Metropolitan Tabernacle Evan- 
gelization Society. A Sunday school is still held in the place and 
evangelistic services conducted there every Lord's day evening. 

In this neighbourhood stood Phillips's Fire Annihilating Machine 
Factory. The public were frequently invited to come and see the 
working of the machines. At the time appointed an improvised 
cottage was set on fire ; when fairly alight, the machines 
were brought to bear upon the flames and with marked success. 
A man and his wife had charge of the factory. One Sunday 
morning the man went out into the fields with his gun, leaving his 
wife to prepare dinner. Soon after the composition in the factory 
exploded, and immediately the building was enveloped in flames— 
the man hastened back to save his wife, but failed in his attempt 
to rescue her — the poor woman perished. 

BEAYNE'S POTTERY for Stone-ware manufacture has been 
pulled down, on the site adjoining is Laver's Portland Cement 
Works. The Lime Kilns which had stood nearly two centuries 
have long since disappeared. The Whiting Works which mark 
the site remain among the oldest structures in this vicinity were 
established in the year 1666. At the entrance to the Works stood 
the rib bones of a Whale which the proprietor fancifully had placed 
there. One of the Whiting sheds formerly stood higher up the 
river. Mr. Laver is the owner of these works. Where Lloyd and 
Co' 8 Manufacturing Joinery Works are situated were the house, 
timber yard and. premises, owned by Mr. Bobbins, father of Mrs. 



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J* 

Cooper, Dairy, TTewTttoad. Near the spot where now stands the 
Royal Bifletnai* tavern, was a timber dock. Moored close to the 
rivers bank was a barge* house or cabin called "Noah's Ark." 
In the dock adjoining Noah's Ark was an old steamboat said to 
have been one of the first that "ran" on the Thames. The 
river about this part offered great attraction to swimmers and be- 
came a famous place for bathing. Hayle Foundry Wharf, Nine 
Elms, is now occupied by H. Young & Co., Engineers and Con- 
tractors, Founders, Smiths, etc. Their Art Works are at Eccleston, 
Pimlico, and are noted for casting the statues of. Lord Derby, 
o pp osite the House of Lords ; John Bunyan, erected at Bedford ; 
Wellington Memorial in St. Paul's Cathedral, and (part finished) 
Sir John Burgoyne. 

THE SOUTHWARK AND VAUXHALL WATER WORKS.— 
The Borough Works at St. Mary, Overies, in 1820, became 
the property of one J. Edwards, who in 1822, also purchased from 
the New River Company the Works on the South side of Lon- 
don Bridge, and combined both concerns under the designation 
of the " Southwark Water Works." The whole being thus 
possessed by one opulent individual. In 1805, several persons 
united to give effect to a scheme for organising the South London 
Water Wo*ks (subsequently called the Vauxhall) and by an Act 
of Parliament passed in July, 1805, they were incorporated as a 
Ccmipatt jr, "with authority to raise capital hit attaining their object 
fcttbufcttng t#£0O,0OO in 600 shares of £100 each. In June, 1813, 
another 1 AttflVas obtained for empowering the Company to raise a 
further sum-' 6f £80,000; The operations of this Company com- 
menced inauspiciously f6r their interests by reason of their having 
originally adopted woo<le r ri pipes, and having then been compelled 
to substitute iron in" their, place. The principal works were on the 
south side of Kennington Lane, formerly J£ennington Common, 
near to Vauxhall. These companies experienced various vicissitudes 
in their progress, until in 1845, when an amalgamation took place 
under an Act of Parliament, to which we owe the creation of the 
Southwark and Vauxhall Water Company as it now exists. The 
area of the district supplied extendsfor about 13 miles E. and W., 
and 3 miles N. and S"., th'e'hfane district stretching from Rotherhithe 
to Olapham and the suburban and rural districts from Wandsworth 
to Richmond/ Thus' an area of 99 miles south of the Thames 
receives a supply of water distributed to about 80,000 houses, 
having a population of 550,000. The Company's property at 
Battersea consists of one Pumping Station, standing on freehold 
land of some 50 acres, and six Cornish Engines, erected by Messrs. 
Harvey and Co., with a total of 1,200 horse power; two Reservoirs 
of about 10 acres, containing about 46,000,000 gallons of water, 
and six filter beds, having an area '10£ acres, with a filtering 
eapaeity for 1,300,750 gallons of water per hour. The Filters are 
ttf a' certain' depth filled with sand, through which the water 
percolates, leaving the impurities on the surface to be removed at 
pleasure. There are 18 fires or furnaces in the boiler house, the 
daily 6onsumption of coal is about 22 tons. The water, at this 
itftttenis pumped p&rtfy'ofter a stand pipe 186 f eet'- high,* and 

' * A 'gentleman told the writer that this was vulgarly called by the sobriquet of 
"Punch's Tuning Fdrki" 

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27 

the remainder through an air vessel to a height of about 380 feet. 
The Company have considerable property at Hampton and Peckham. 
The Registrar General's return shews the Company possess about 
685 miles of mains and service pipes , 100 miles of which (mains) 
are perpetually charged, and could be made available for constant 
supply should circumstances render it desirable. Office, Sumner 
Street, Southwark; Chief Engineer, Thos. W. Rumble, Esq.; 
Resident Engineer, Mr. John Sampson. Adjacent to the Water 
Works are premises belonging to Harvey and Co., Machine, 
Hydraulic, and Mining Engineers of Hayle, Cornwall. 

Fitz Stephen (William) a learned Monk of Canterbury, being 
attached to the Service of Archbishop Becket was present at the 
time of his murder. In the year 1174 he wrote in Latin the life 
of 8t. Thomas, Archbishop and Martyr, in which as Becket was a 
native of the Metropolis, he introduces a description of the City of 
London with a miscellaneous detail of the manners and usages of 
the Citizens ; this is deservedly considered a great curiosity, being 
the earliest professed account of London extant. He describes 
the springs and water courses which abound in the vicinity of 
Old London as " sweet, salubrious, and clear," so that all that the 
inhabitants and water-carriers had to do was to draw water from 
the wells and springs, or dip their vessels in the pellucid stream of 
the river which was fit for culinary and all ordinary and domestic 
purposes. London then though considered a "Great City" was 
as a small town when compared with its teeming population of 
nearly 5,000,000 which people its City and environs now * Since 
that time the Majestic Thames and its tributary streams have been 
so polluted with sewerage and other deleterious and poisonous 
matter as to induce some of the most scientific men of the age to 
consider not only the desirability but the necessity of obtaining for 
London a pure water supply. It is asserted as a fact that in 
England and Wales alone upwards of eight hundred persons die 
every month from typhoid fever ; a disease which is now believed 
to be caused almost entirely through drinking impure water, and 
Dr. Frankland, the official to whom is entrusted the analysing of 
such matters reports " The Thames Water " notwithstanding the 
care that is taken to filter it by certain Water Companies is so 
much polluted by organic matters as to be quite unfit for dietetic 
purposes. 

The first conduit erected in the City of London (Westcheap now 
Cheapside) was commenced in the year 1235 but was not completed 
till 50 years afterwards (1285). The Citizens, who had to fetch 
their water from the Thames often met with opposition from those 
who resided in the lanes leading down to the river who monopolized 
the right of procuring a water supply by stopping and imposing a 
duty upon others who sought to obtain it. This state of things as 
might be expected became unbearable and in 1342 an inquisition 
was made and persons were sworn to inquire into the stoppages 
and annoyances complained of in the several Wards. In the 
fifteenth century the authorities of the City had erected New 

* The London Metropolitan District covers an area of 690 square miles — con- 
tains 6612 miles of streets. 528,794 inhabited houses ; Population (June 1873) 
4»<>25,$59. 



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28 

Conduits and had laid down leaden pipes. " In 1439 the Abbot of 
Westminster granted to Bobert Large, the Lord Mayor, and the 
Citizens of London^ and their successors, one head of water con- 
taining twenty-six perches in length and one in breadth, together 
with all the springs in the Manor of Paddington for an annual 
payment of two peppercorns." In the sixteenth century owing to 
the increased population and the drying up of the springs other 
means of supply were obtained in the neighbourhoods of Hamp- 
stead Heath, Hackney, and Muswell Hill. An Act of Parliament 
applied for by the Corporation was passed in 1544 for the purpose 
of obtaining from these springs an increased supply for the North 
"Western portions of the City. The scheme however was not carried 
out until the year 1590 when another important source of supply 
had been procured. In 1568 a conduit was constructed atDowgate, 
for the purpose of obtaining water from the Thames." In 1580 
Peter Morice, an ingenious Dutchman brought his scheme for 
raising the Thames Water high enough to supply the upper parts 
of the City, and in order to show its feasibility he threw a jet of 
water over the steeple ot St. Magnus Church, a lease of 500 years 
of the Thames Water, and the places where his mills stood, and 
of one of the arches of London Bridge was granted to Morice, and 
the Water Works founded by him remained until the beginning 
of the present century," about the same time that Morice pro- 
pounded his scheme for utilizing the Water of the Thames. Stow 
informs us that a man of the name of Eussel proposed to bring 
water into Loodon from Isle worth. In 1591 an Italian named 
Frederick Genebelli said that he could cleanse the filthy ditches 
about the city such as the Fleet Eiver, Hounsditch, etc., and bring 
a plentiful supply of pure, wholesome water to the City through 
them, but his offer does not appear to have been acoepted. 

"In 1606 nearly £20,000 was expended in scouring the Eiver 
Fleet, which was kept open for the purpose of navigation as high 
as Holborn Bridge." An Act was passed in 1609 for bringing 
water by means of engines from Hackney Marsh, to supply the 
City of London ; the profits arising from the enterprise were to go 
to the College of Polemical Divines, founded by Dr. Sutcliffe, at 
Chelsea. At the close of Queen Elizabeth's Eeign an Act was 
passed empowering the Corporation to cut a river for the purpose 
of conveying water from Middlesex and Herefordshire to the City, 
but nothing was done in this direction till after the accession of 
James I to the throne. In 1605 and 1606 Acts of Parliament 
were passed empowering the Corporation to bring water from the 
Springs of Chadwell and Am well to the northern parts ol the City. 
The Corporation transferred their power in 1609 to Hugh, after- 
wards (Sir Hugh) Middleton, C^izen .and Goldsmith, who with 
characteristic energy entered into the yast scheme which was 
effectually carried out at an immense .expense. On Sept. 29th, 
1613 the New Eiver was opened, and London from this source 
received an abundant supply of water. The Hew Siver Company 
was incorporated in 1620. The City was supplied with its water 
by the conveyance of wooden pipes in the streets, and small 
leaden ones to the houses. 

Among the Becords known as the Remembrancia preserved 



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*9 

among the Archives of the City of London. London, 1878. Some 
curious particulars are mentioned respecting the applications made 
by various noblemen to be allowed to have pipes, of the size of a 
goose-quill, attached to the city pipes, for the purpose of supplying 
their houses with water. "In 1592 Lord Cobham applied to the 
Lord Mayor for a quill of water from the conduit at Ludgate to 
his house in Blackfriars, but the consideration of the request was 
postponed, and in 1594 Lord Burghley wrote to the Lord Mayor 
and Alderman in support of Lord Cobham' s application. Lady 
Essex and Walsingham asked for a supply of water for Essex- 
house, in 1601, and obtained the Lord Chamberlain's (Earl of 
Suffolk) influence to further their suit; but on Jane 8th, 1608, 
the Lord Mayor wrote to Lord Suffolk that the water in the 
conduits had become so low, and the poor were so clamorous on 
account of the dearth, that it became necessary to cut off several of 
the quills. 'Moreover,' he added, 'complaints had been made of 
the extraordinary waste of water in Essex- house, it being taken 
out only for dressing meat, but for the laundry, the stable, and 
other offices, which might be otherwise served.' As London 
extended itself westward, and the City came to join Westminster, 
the drain must have been great upon the water supply, which was 
originally intended for a considerably smaller area. In 1613, 
Lord Fenton applied for a quill of water for his house at Charing 
Cross, but the Lord Mayor refused to grant the request on the 
ground that the conduits did not supply sufficient water for the 
City. Sir Francis Bacon (afterwards the great Lord Verula u) 
asked, in 1617, for a lead pipe to supply York-house, and Alio*, 
Countess of Derby, requested to be allowed a quill of water m 
the following year. This celebrated lady, afterwards married to 
Lord Chancellor Ellesmere, lived in St. Martin* s-lane, an I wn loam 
from the City letter-book (quoted in the index to the RM*mbr<incii) 
the amount of water supplied to her was at the rare of three 
gallons an hour. In subsequent years, we notice am >n* the 
applicants for quills of water the celebrated names of Sir Harry 
Vane, Denzell Holies, the Dukes of Albemarle and Buckingham, 
and the Earl of Northumberland." Cavendish and Watt de- 
monstrated that water is composed of 8 parts of Oxygen and 1 part 
of Hydrogen. In freezing, water contracts till it is reduced to 42° 
or 40° Fahr. It then begins to expand till it becomes ice at 32°. 
Water was first conveyed to London by leaden pipes, 21 Heury III 
1237.— Stow. 

So late as Queen Anne's time there were water-carriers at Aldgate 
Pump. The Water Works at Chelsea were completed and the 
Company incorporated in 1722. London Bridge ancient water 
works were destroyed bj fire, 29th Oct., 1779. 

Commissioners for Metropolitan Water Supply appointed 27th 
April, 1867 ; Report Signed 9th June, I §69; London supplied by 
Nine Companies. The New River (the hesi) East London, Chelsea, 
Grand Junction, Southwark, and Vauxhall, Kent, West Middle- 
sex, Lambeth, and South Edsex; who deliver about 108,000,000 
gallons daily, 1867 ; about 116,250,000 gallons daily, 1877. 

In 1880, the Nominal Capital of Eight Water Companies was ^12,011,320, 

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3ft 

THE VILLAGE OP BATTERSEA lies on the south side of the 
Thames opposite Chelsea, to which it has some historical relation- 
ship on account of its haying been the seat of our Porcelain manu- 
facture and of Saxon origin. It is situated about four miles South 
West )f St. Paul's Cathedral. Battersea is a polling place for the 
Mid-divisions of the County in the Wandsworth Division of the 
West Brixton Hundred, Wandsworth Union and County Court 
District, Surrey Arch-Deaconry, and late Winchester, but now 
Rochester Diocese ;* it is also within the jurisdiction of the Central 
Criminal Court, Metropolitan Board of Works, Metropolitan Police, 
and Wandsworth Police Court. The Parish is divided into four 
Wards. Penge f lies in Croydon district detached from the main 

* An alteration has been made in the Diocesan arrangement. Since 1877, 
Battersea together with other parishes in East and Mid- Surrey has been added to 
the See of Rochester, and therefore is undei the jurisdiction of the Bishop of 
that Diocese. The See of Rochester was founded A.D. 604. St.. Augustin or 
Austin (the first Bishop of Canterbury A.D. 598). Consecrated Justus, the first 
Bishop of Rochester The See of West Saxons (afterwards Winchester, A.D. 
705) was founded A.D. 635. The first (arch) Bishop of London was Theanus, 
A.D. 176 ( ? ) Battersea is now considered to be of sufficient importance to be 
made a Rural Deanery, and Canon Clarke, the Rural Dean. Southwark Arch- 
deaconry. " Diocese (Fr. from Gr. dioikesi*, administration and dioikeo, to 
govern) the territory over which a bishop exercises ecclesiastical jurisdiction. At 
first, a diocese meant the collection of churches or congregations under the charge 
of an archbishop. The name came afterwards to be applied to the charge of a 
bishop, which had previously been called a parish. England and Wales are 
divided ecclesiastically into two Provinces, viz., Canterbury and York, the former 
being presided over by the Primate of all England, and the latter by the Primate 
of England, each of which is sub-divided into dioceses, and these again into 
Archdeaconries and Rural Deaneries and Parishes. A Diocese is synonyous 
with the See of a SufFragan bishop." (Chamber's Encyclopedia). In England, 
the Archbishop of Canterbury has the right of crowning the King, and the 
Archbishop of York the right of crowning the Queen. 

Twelve years ago, the County of Surrey was divided for Electoral purposes 
into three Divisions named respectfully East, West, and Mid-Surrey. At the 
time the Division was made in 1868 the Constituency of Mid-Surrey numbered 
only 10,500. Now (March 1880) we have on the Register 20,400 electors dis- 
tributed in the following manner : — 

Battersea Polling District 7,092 

,j Coulsdon „ „ 152 

* Horley „ „ 465 

, v Kingston „ „ 2,649 

!T. Reigate & Red Hill „ 1,271 

Richmond „ „ 2,727 

Sutton „ „ 1,975 

Wandsworth,, „ 2,596 

Wimbledon „ „ 1,606 

fThe Village of Penge stands adjacent to the boundary with Kent, to the 
London and Brighton Railway, and to the London, Chatham and Dover Railway 
near the Crystal Palace, four miles N.N.E. of Croydon ; includes new streets on 
what was formerly a common with picturesque oaks ; and has a post office of the 
name of Penge Bridge and Penge Lane. The Chapelry contains also the 
Crystal Palace with its Railway Station ; and it ranks politically as a Hamlet of 
Battersea. Acres, 840; population in 1851, 1,169; in i86r, 5,015 } houses, 068; 
population 1868, nearly 10,000. Villas are very numerous* and King William 
4th Naval Asylum, the Watermen's Alms Houses, and the North Surrey 
Industrial Schools are here. Tne Naval Asylum is for decayed widows of naval 
officers, and was founded by Queen Adelaide. The Watermen's Alms Houses 
were built in 1850, at a cost of j£50oo, and comprises '41 residences. The 
Industrial Schools is for the parishes northward of the Thames, occupies a plot 
of seven acres, with farm and kitchen garden ; and at the census of 1661 had 748 
inmates. The, Chapelry is threefold, consisting of Penge proper, and one formed 

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1839 


4,764 


Main Body 


1841 


. 6,616 


Entire Parish 


1841 


6,887 


Main Body 


1861 


19,600 


Of Entire Parish 


1861 


24,615 


Ditto 


1871 


67,218 


Ditto 


1880 





body seven miles distant. The entire parish comprehends an area 
of 3183 acres.* Acres of the main body, 2177 of land 166 of 
water. — Wilton's Gazeteer of England and Wales. In 1792, there 
were two places of worship, viz., the Parish Church and the Old 
Baptist Meeting House in York Road; the number of houses within 
the parish at that period was 380. The following tabular statement 
wiD give but an inadequate conception of the growth of the 
parish since then : — 

Date of Year. Population. Number of Houses. 
1831 5540* 

*0f whom 3021 were females 

801 



3,125 
3,793 

15,208 
Including 13,202 in Penge Hamlet. 

££*£&£ ) l877 79 > 000 ».«» 

In 1840 the rateable value was about £28,000. 
In 1856 the rateable value was „ £79,100, 
In 1876 the rateable value was „ £331,846. 
In 1880 the rateable value was „ £416,000. 

Anno Domini 1658, the Hamlet of Penge, seven miles from the 
Parish Church, contained twelve families. The Commissioners who 
were vested with power to unite or separate parishes did nothing 
in this case, they could not find a convenient place in the Hundred 
or County to unite it to. The nearest place of public worship was 
Beckingham in Kent, about a mile distant. 

With respect to the true etymology of the name Battersea, f it 

in 1 868. The livings are P. Curacies in the diocese of Winchester. Value of 
Penge, ^750; of Upper Penge, £800. Patrons of both Trustees. — Wilson's 
Gazeteer of England and Wales. 

Penge, for ecclesiastical purposes, is a separate parish, and has its own Over- 
seers and supports its own poor. The Church of St. John the Evangelist is a 
modern gothic stone structure with tower and spire. The population of St. 
John's E. Parish in 187 1 was 8,345, and the area is 500 acres. The Church of 
Holy Trinity, South Penge, to which a district was assigned in 1873, is built of 
brick with stone dressings consisting of chancel, nave and side aisles. The 
foundation stone was laid by the Right Hon. the Earl of Shaftesbury, R.G., 
April 17, 1872. The Church cost ^7,500, and is capable of seating 1,000. The 
Register dates from 1874. The living is a vicarage. There are Chapels for 
Independents, Baptists, and Wesleyans, and National Schools. 

• According to the Post Office Directory of the Six Home Counties, edited by 
E. R. Kelly, M.A., F.R.S., 1874, Battersea comprises 2,203 acres of land rod 
159 water. 

t Some of the old inhabitants of Battersea have a notion that Battersea took 
its name originally from a great battle that was fought in shallow water knee- 
deep when the river was fordable, hence Battersea, Battelsea or Battlesea — as 
the name itself appears to be somewhat shrouded in obscurity there may be 
some partial truth in this oral statement though we are not acquainted with 
any authentic records which warrant us to affirm that Battersea derived its 
name from this ci rcum stanc e* 



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S2 

was anciently writtenBattriefl-ey, and in Doom's-dayBookPatries-ey, 
probably a mistake for Patrice-ey and signifying St. Peter's Isle, 
the termination ey, from the Saxon eze or ize, often occurring in the 
name of places adjacent to great rivers; as Putney, Molesley, 
Chertsey, etc. Battersea has a history dating from the time of 
Harold. At the Norman Conquest it passed into the hands of 
William the Conqueror, who exchan ge d it with the Abbey of St. 
Peter's, at Westminster, for lands at Windsor. 

The earliest record we have of Battersea appears in Doomsday 
Book, where it is written Pattricesy. Some authors have supposed 
that because Petersham, which belonged to St. Peter's Abbey, 
Chertsey, is there spelt Patricesham, that the earliest form of 
Battersea originated its connexion with St. Peter's Abbey, the e 
they say in both these words was sibilant and therefore did not 
differ very much in pronunciation from that it is now, though 
they admit that it is a " curious anomaly that while P in Patricesy 
has been changed into B the P in Patricesham remains unchanged." 
What the final syllable represents is less clear as there are now no 
traces of Battersea having been an island although there may have 
been once. Chelsea, it is remarked, " was originally Ceale-hythe or 
Chelc-hythe, and a haven on the Thames, not an island, just as 
Lambeth, was ' Lambe-hithe 9 or haven, but there is no recorded form 
of Battersea that would allow us to say that ey or ea represented 
hithe. There was, however, until about thirty years ago, a Creek, 
up which tradition reports that Queen Elizabeth rowed. A bright 
little stream rising in Tooting, and passim? by Wandsworth Com- 
mon, flowed into the Thames at this Creek, which is now a mere 
sewer, and its better character is only kept in remembrance by the 
name of Creek Street." The Rev. Daniel Lysons, in a book en- 
titled "The Environs of London," published in 1792, which, 
through the kindness of Mr. B.. J. S. Kentish, Librarian of the 
Beaufoy Library, we have had the privilege of consulting, says, 
"the name has undergone several changes. In the Conqueror's 
Survey, it is called Patricesy, and has since been written Battrichsey, 
Battersey and Battersea, each variation carrying it still further 
from its original signification. Of the original signification of the 
word, I think there can be little doubt Patricesy in the Saxon is 
Peter's water or river ; and as the same record which calls it 
Patricesy mentions that it was given to St. Peter, it might then 
first assume that appellation, but this I own is conjecture. Peter- 
sham, which is precisely the same in Doomsday — Patriceham, be- 
longed to St. Peter's Abbey, Chertsey, and retains its original 
name a little modernised. Aubrey, Vol. I. p. 135, derives the 
name from St. Patrick ; but Aubrey was mistaken by seeing it 
written Patricesy, instead of Petricesy, in Doomsday ; but the 
Normans were not very accurate spellers. Petersham was written 
in the same manner with an a." # "The Parish of Battersea is 
bounded on the East by Lambeth, on the South by Camber well, 
Streatham and Olaphaxn ; on the West by Wandsworth, and on the 

* The Manor of Peckham in the Confessor's reign belonged to this Parish, 
which has since been thrown into Camberwell ; Penge being still continued as 
part of the Manor though separated from the rest by Streatham and Lambeth. — 
Manning and Bray's History and Antiquities of Surrey, Vol. I., p. 327. 



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» 

Worth "by the River Thames. The greater part of Wandsworth 
Common, which extends nearly two miles in length towards 
Streatham, and a considerable part of Clapham Common are in the 
Parish of Battersea." The boundaries of Clapham Parish, accord- 
ing to the oldest documents of that Parish and Manor, when taken, 
have usually commenced at the corner of Wix's Lane, formerly 
called Browmell's corner. The limits of Clapham Parish where it 
adjoins Battersea in the early part of last century was the subject 
of a legal contest, that part of Clapham Common extending to 
Battersea Eise being claimed by both parishes. In 1716 the in- 
habitants of Battersea inclosed with a ditch and bank the tract of 
land in question, and the people of Clapham levelled the bank and 
filled up the ditch ; in consequence of which Henry Lord Viscount 
St. John, the Lord of the Manor of Battersea, brought an action 
for trespass against those who were engaged in this work, or their 
employers, which was tried at the Lent Assizes at Kingston, in 
1718, when the plaintiff was non-suited. The men of Battersea 
however were not discouraged but persevered with greater de- 
termination than ever in supporting their claim by including when 
they beat the boundaries of their Parish the disputed ground in 
their perambulations; and says Mr. Brayley "it would seem to 
have been eventually successful, a certain portion of the Common 
being now held on lease of Earl Spencer as Lord of the Manor of 
Battersea." — Brayley, Surrey Mantel, Vol. III. p. 281. 

Last century Clapham Common was little better than a morass ; 
it covers 202 acres. The number and variety of trees both 
English and exotic ^ ith which it is ornamented give it very much 
the appearance of a park. The Metropolitan Boaid of Works have 
purchased the manorial rights over the Common which is now 
under their supervision. " In the year 1874 (says Mr Walford) 
the Enclosure Commissioners for England and Wales under 
the Metropolitan Common Act, 1866, and Metropolitan Com- 
mons' Amendment Act, 1869, certified a scheme for placing the 
Common under the control of the Local Board, the Common was 
purchased for the sum of £17,000 and it was proposed that it 
should be dedicated to the use and recreation of the public for 
ever. By the above mentioned scheme the Board were to drain, 
plant, and ornament the Common as nesessary, no houses were 
to be built thereon, but eight lodges necessary for its main- 
tenance. 

The writer of a work entitled " Clapham with its Common and 
Environs," says, "The Mount-Pond was originally a gravel pit, 
excavated principally to form the turnpike road from Tooting to 
London. The Mount was raised, and a Pagoda Summer House 
planted on the top, by Henton Brown, Esq., of the firm of Brown 
and Tritton, Bankers, Lombard Street, member of the Society of 
Friends. Mr. Brown lived in the house, late in the occupation of 
J. Thornton, Esq., and was at great expense in forming the Mount 
and Pond. The Mount was larger than it now is, and planted with 
choice shrubs as well as trees. A bridge was thrown over the east 
side to connect it with the Common, and a pleasure boat was kept 
under it, but which after the failure of Mr. Brown, went rapidly to 
decay. He fenced it round with posts and rails, and in 1748 the 



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Parish gave him leave to put down a close fence, which a sub- 
sequent vestry refused to ratify. Hewasalso at the expense of making 
a conduit from the pond to supply a reservoir in his own grounds." 
Lavender Hill seems to have been long noted for its nursery gardens. 
Situated on the Hill was Lavender Villa — at the foot of Lavender 
Hill was a brook. Now Lavender Hill has the appearance of a 
busy town. Splendid shops, handsomely decorated and well stocked 
line both sides of the main thoroughfare, and rows of respectable 
houses and semi-detached villas forming roads and streets have 
sprung up in all directions. The same may be said of a great 
portion of Batterpea Eise extending to Bolingbroke Grove. Stately 
trees have been felled and green slopes that were are now covered 
with houses, with here and there a place of worship, and all this 
transformation has taken place within the last twelve years. Clap- 
ham Common and its immediate vicinity was in the early years of 
the present century the seat of the knot of zealous men who, 
labouring together for what they believed to be the interest of pure 
religion, the reformation of manners and the suppression of 
slavery, came to be known as the Clapham sect. One of the most 
distinguished of them, William Wilberforce, lived at the house 
known as "Broomfield," (Broomwood) on the south-west side of 
Clapham Common, and there his no less distinguished son, the late 
Bishop of Winchester, was born September 7th, 1805. Con- 
terminous with his fair demesne was that of Henry Thornton, the 
author and prime mover of the conclave, whose meetings were held, 
for the most part, in the oval saloon which William Pitt, dismissing 
for a moment his budgets and his subsidies, planned to be added 
to Henry Thornton's newly-purchased residence. ... It arose 
at his bidding, and yet remains, perhaps a solitary monument of 
the architectural skill of that imperial mind. Lofty and symetrical, 
it was curiously winscoted with books on every side except where 
it opened on a far-extended lawn reposing beneath the giant arms 
of aged elms and massive tulip trees." — Stephen's Essays, Vol. II. 

J). 290. "In this saloon, and on the far-extended lawn, after their 
ong years of effort, assembled in joy and thanksgiving and mutual 
congratulation over the abolition of the slave trade, Wilberforce, 
Clarkson, Granville, Sharp, Stephen, Zackary, Macaulay and their 
younger associates and disciples. But the Yilla-cinctured-Common 
was also the birthplace or crfcdle of another and hardly less re- 
markable and far-reaching religious movement or institution. Just 
as it was the dwelling place, the home or haunt of every one of the 
most eminent supporters of the anti- slavery movement, so was it 
the home or haunt of the founders of the Bible Society, its earliest 
ministers or secretaries, and above all the first and greatest of its 
presidents, John Lord Teignmouth." — Handbook to the Environs of 
London, by James Thome, F.S.A., Part I. p.p. Ill, 112. Broom- 
wood was the seat of the late Sir Charles Forbes, contiguous to 
which and facing the tall poplar tree is situated a spacious villa 
once the residence of the late Frances Elizabeth Leveson Gower, 
an estimable christian maiden-lady who was a subscriber to several 
benevolent institutions. She used to conduct bible readings not 
only for the female servants of the gentry of Clapham Common but 
fdso for navvies and others pf the labouring classes in her own 



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55 

dining room, where they partook of her generous hospitality after 
their daily toil in the shape of a hearty meal. 

A Good Example of liberality was given by one Mr. Thornton, 
of Clapham, a noble-hearted Christian merchant. One morning, 
when he had received news of a failure that involved him in the 
loss of no less than a hundred thousand pounds, a minister from 
the country called at his counting-house to ask a subscription for 
an important object. Hearing that Mr. Thornton had suffered 
that loss, he apologized for having called. But Mr. Thornton took him 
kindly by the hand and said : " My dear sir, the wealthl have is not 
mine, but the Lord's. It may be that He is going to take it out of 
my hands, and give it to another ; and if so, this is a good reason 
why I should make a good use of what is left." He then doubled 
the subscription he intended to give. 

The recently deceased and much lamented Philip Cazenove was 
for thirty years a parishioner, residing on Battersea Rise, whose 
name was a Synonym for kindness and christian charity con- 
cerning whom we feel that we cannot pass a better eulogium than 
that recorded in St. Mary's, Battersea, Parish Magazine for February, 
1880. " He has been a benefactor such as a parish rarely numbers 
amongst its church folk. The magnificent Girls' School in Green 
Lane was added to Miss Champion's benefaction, almost at Mr. 
Cazenove' s sole cost. To every church building scheme, to Bat- 
tersea College, to new schools, to the proposed Hospital, tp every 
good work he was a munificent contributor. And what he did in 
Battersea, he did in all parts of East and South London, indeed in 
all parts of the metropolis and in the country. And he sought no 
thanks for his donations, but with a rare self-forgetfulness he 
seemed to avoid the acknowledgments of gratitude. His liberality, 
great as it was, by no means represented all that he did for good 
works. In our parish he took a personal interest in our Schools of 
all grades. He always had words of kind encouragement for the 
teachers. He was always ready to preside at any meeting, or to 
act on any committee. And as his alms deeds went far beyond his 
own parish so did his personal service. There was no more 
familiar face than his in the Board-rooms of the great Church 
Societies, for some of the chief of which, as the Gospel Propagation 
Society, he acted as Treasurer. He was an active member of the 
governing bodies of Guy's Hospital, and other-like institutions, 
and everywhere he freely gave his sunny sympathy and the ripe 
counsels of his long experience. He was indeed a notable instance 
of an open-handed, simple-hearted Churchman, some would add 
' of the old school,' and we would say, may God of His mercy put 
it into the hearts of others to perpetuate such a ' school ' for truly 
they are a blessing and a stay to all around them. Our venerated 
friend was stricken with illness in the beginning of last year, and 
it seemed as if he would then have succumbed to the physical 
weakness of the action of that great loving heart. But he rallied 
somewhat, and during the summer and autumn he was able to sit 
in his garden or to drive out in his carriage. He was able to be 
at 8. Mark's on S. Michael's Day, 1879, and to receive the Holy 
Communion there for the last time in the Sanctuary. With the 
return of winter, his weakness increased; and after a year of 



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26 

weariness and languor and the depression incident to his illness, 
he entered into the Best, for which he had yearned, in the early 
morning of January 20. Philip Cazenove, born Nov. 23, 1798 ; 
died January 20, 1880, aged 81. 

Hear what the voice from heaven proclaims 

For all the pious dead, 
Sweet is the savour of their names, 

And soft their sleeping bed. 
They die in Jesus, and are bless'd ; 

How kind their slumbers are ! 
From sufferings and from sins released, 

And freed from every snare. 
Far from this world of toil and strife, 

They're present with the Lord : 
The labours of their mortal life 

End in a large reward. — Isaac Watts, 1709. 

At a semi-detached villa situated in this part of the Common, 
resided the late Charles Curling, Esq., whose memory many of the 
poor inhabitants of Old Battersea cherish with feelings of grateful 
respect. He relieved the temporal wants of the needy ; opened day 
and night schools in order that the poorest might be educated ; 
under his excellent wife's superintendence maternal meetings were 
conducted ; at his own expense he supported an Evangelist and 
a Bible Woman to work in the district. 

The Villa adjoining that of Mr. Curling's was occupied by the 
late Misses Sarah Hibbert and Mary Ann Hibbert, who erected 
Alms Houses in. Wandsworth Road, Clapham, for eight aged 
women, in grateful remembrance of their father, William Hibbert, 
who was for many years an inhabitant of Clapham. Not least 
among the benefactresses of the poor might be mentioned the 
names of Lady George Pollock, Lady Lawrence, Mrs. Sillem, aud 
Mrs. Robert Jones, of this part, (all deceased). The memory of 
the just is blessed ! 

When Lysons wrote, Battersea Rise being a salubrious locality 
was ornamented with several villas, also it was much admired 
for its pleasant situation and fine prospect. Referring to the 
Market Gardens, etc., he says, " About 300 acres of land in 
the Parish of Battersea are occupied by the market gardeners, of 
whom there are about twenty who rent from five or six to nearly 
sixty acres each." Fuller, who wrote in the year 1660, speaking of 
the gardens in Surrey, states, " Gardening was first brought into 
England for profit, about 70 years ago ; before which we fetched 
most of our cherries from Holland, apples from France, and hardly 
a mess of rath ripe peas but from Holland ; which were dainties for 
ladies, they come so far and cost so dear. Since gardening hath 
crept out of Holland to Sandwich, Kent, and thence to Surrey ; 
where, though they have given £6 an acre and upwards, they have 
made their rent, lived comfortably, and set many people at work. 
Oh the incredible profit by digging of ground ! for though it be 
confessed, that the plough beats the 6pade out of distance for speed, 
(almost as much as the press beats the pen), yet, what the spade 
wants in the quantity of the ground it manureth, it recompensed 



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*37 

with fhe plenty of the good it yieldeth, that which is multiplying 
an hundred fold more than that which is sown. 'Tis incredible how 
many poor people in London live thereon, so that in some seasons 
the gardens feed more people than the field." — Fuller's Worthies, 
Pt. 3, p. 77. " These gardeners," continues Lysons " employ in 
the summer season a considerable number of labourers, though 
perhaps not so many as is generally supposed — on an average I am 
informed, not one to an acre. The wages of the men are from ten 
to twelve, of the women from five to seven shillings by the week. 
Most of the women travel on foot from Shropshire and North 
Wales in the spring, and as they live at a very cheap rate, many of 
them return to their own country richer than they left it. The soil 
of the ground occupied by the gardeners is sandy and requires 
a great deal of rain. The vegetables which they raise are in 
general very fine ; their cabbages and asparagus particularly have 
acquired celebrity." The asparagus first grown in or near London 
was raised by the Battersea gardeners. Owing to its rich and 
alluvial soil, Battersea has always been noted for its fine asparagus 
— 110 heads of extraordinary size and fit for the kitchen have been 
known to weigh 32 lbs.* There was no market at Battersea, its 
vegetable produce was sent to the London market. In Bibliotheea 
T&pographica Britannica Antiquities (British Museum) Yol. II. p. 227, 
is a brief note on Battersea by Mr. Theobald. This old writer says, 
" The lands are fruitful beyond most others and this Parish is 
famous in the London market for its asparagus, hence called 
Battersea Bundles. It also in the time of a noted man there, one 
Mr. Cuff, was famous for producing the finest melons. The com- 
mon field called Battersea Field, is constantly cropped with peas, 
beans, wheat, etc. . . . Lands are here let from 50s. down to 16s. an 
acre. . . . There are three windmills on the river's brink, one for 
corn, one grinds colours for the potters, and another serves to grind 
whitelead. Being in the neighbourhood of London so commodiously 

* " Among other branches of industry introduced by the Flemings at Sanwich, 
that of gardening is worthy of notice. The people of Flanders had long been 
famous for their horticulture, and one of the first things which the foreign settlers 
did on arriving in the place was to turn to account the excellent qualities of the soil 
in the neighbourhood, so well suited for gardening purposes. Though long 
before practised by the Monks, gardening had become a lost art in Eugland. It 
is said that Katherine, Queen of Henry 8th, unable to obtain a salad for her 
dinner in England, had her table supplied ifrom the low countries. The first 
Flemish gardens proved highly successful. The cabbage, carrots, and celery pro- 
duced by the foreigners met with so ready a sale, and were so much in demand in 
London itself, that a body of gardeners shortly removed from Sandwich and 
settled at Wandsworth, Battersea, and Bermondsey, where many of the rich 
garden grounds first planted by the Flemings continue to be the most productive 
in the neighbourhood of the Metropolis." 

" Some of the Flemish refugees settled at "Wandsworth and began several 
branches of industry, as the manufacture of felts, the making of brass plates for 
culinary utensils." 

" In addition to the Flemish Churches in the City, at the West-end, and in 
Spitalfields, there were several thriving congregations ia the suburban districts of 
London ; one of the oldest of these was at Wandsworth, where a colony of 
protestant Wallons settled about the year 1570. Having formed themselves as a 
congregation, they erected a chapel for worship, which is that standing nearly 
opposite the Parish Church, the building bearing this inscription on its front : 
Erected, 1573 ; Enlarged, 1685; Repaired, 1809, 1831."— Samuel Smile's 
Huguenots in England and Ireland, P.P. 85, 86, 88, 267, 4th Edition. 



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38 

within about four miles of the City and on the bants of tlie rive* 
Thames, where so many conveniences of carriage are constantly to 
be met, and the merchant can in an hour return to his country 
house. Several citizens and merchants have both built handsome 
houses here." 

In 1816, Stages set out for Battersea from the following places : — 
A coach from Pewter Platter, Gracechurch Street, and Black Dog 
and Camel, Leadenhall Street, daily at 11 a.m., 3 and 7 p.m., 
Sunday morning at 11. Bed Lion, Strand, daily 11 a.m., 3 and 
7 p.m. A cart, Kings and Key, Fleet Street ; Bell, Bell Yard, and 
G-eorge and Gate, and Pewter Platter, Gracechurch Street ; King's 
Arms, Bishopgate Within; Ship and Hope, Charing Cross, and 
Angel and Sun, "White Hart, and Spotted Dog, Strand, daily at 
2 p.m. Boats, Queenhithe, and Globe, Hungerford Stairs daily. 
Waterman's rates from London Bridge to Chelsea (Battersea) 
Bridge — oars, whole fare 2/6, sculls 1/3, with company each person 
oars or sculls 4d. Not more than eight persons in any passage- 
boat between Windsor and Greenwich. Over the water directly 
every person Id. and sculler's fare 2d. No waterman could be 
compelled to go below the Pageants, andRatcliff Cross Stairs, or above 
Yauxhall and Feathers Stairs after five, from Michaelmas to Lady 
Day, nor after nine in the evening from Lady Day to Michaelmas. 

The annual fair held here in Battersea Square, at Easter, was after- 
wards suppressed. The houses in Old Battersea were irregularly built ; 
the inhabitants were supplied with water from springs. The County 
Magistrates held a meeting at Wandsworth, an adjoining village, 
where also a Court of Request for the recovery of debts under £5 
was held, under an Act obtained in the 31st of George II., the 
power of which was extended by an Act in the 46th of George III. 
The Court of Bequests, which is called a court of conscience, was 
first instituted in the reign of Henry 7th, 1493, and was re- 
modelled by a statute of Henry 8th, in 1517. — Stowe. Established 
for the summary recovery of small debts under forty shillings, but 
in the City of London the jurisdiction extends to debts of £5. — 
Ashe. There were Courts of Eequest in the principal corporate 
towns throughout the kingdom, until 1847, when they were super- 
seded (those of the City of London excepted) by the County Debts 
Court, whose jurisdiction, extending at first to £20, was enlarged 
in 1850 to £50. The Lord of the Manor held a Court Leet at 
Wandsworth, at which the Head borough and constables for Batter- 
sea were appointed. 

" The Manor of Battersea, which, before the conquest, belonged 
to Earl Harold, was given by the Conqueror to Westminster Abbey 
in exchange for Windsor. The Manor was valued in the Confessor's 
time at £80, it afterwards sunk in value to £30, and at the time of 
the Survey was estimated at £75. In the taxation of 1291, the 
possessions of the Abbey of Westminster in Battersea were rated 
at £15. Thomas Astle, Esq., (says Lysons) has an original deed 
of Archbishop Theobald, confirming a charter of King Stephen by 
which he exempts the greater part of the Manor from all taxes and 
secular payments. Dart mentions several charters relating to 
Battersea, viz., William the Conqueror's original grant; a charter 
of privilege j a grant to the Abbot of Westminster of liberty to 



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39 

lmnt in tliis Sfcanor ; a charter of confirmation in Heniry flie 3?irsfc, 
and another of King Stephen, besides that of privilege before 
mentioned." 

" After the disolution of monasteries, the Manor was reserved in 
the hands of the Crown ; a lease of it was granted to Henry 
Roydon, Esq., by Queen Elizabeth, for twenty-one years, in the 
eighth year of her reign ; it was afterwards granted for the same 
term to his daughter, then Joan Holcroft; and was assigned 
amongst others for the maintenance of Prince Henry, A.D. 1610. 
In the year 1627, it was granted in reversion to Oliver St. John 
Viscount Grandison/ Sir Oliver St. John was the first of the family 
who settled at Battersea, he married Joan, daughter and heir of 
Henry Roydon, Esq., of this place, widow of Sir William Holcroft. 
Lord Grandison died in 1630, and was succeeded in that title and 
in the Battersea Estate by "William Villiers, his great-nephew, who 
died of a wound received at the seige of Bristol, A.D. 1644. Sir 
John St. John, Bart., nephew of the first Lord Grandison, inherited 
Battersea ; from him it passed in a regular descent to Sir "Walter 
St. John, Bart., his nephew, to Sir Walter's son, Henry Viscount 
St. John, and to his grandson, Henry Viscount Bolingbroke, who, 
by an Act of Parliament passed before his father's death, was 
enabled to inherit his estate, notwithstanding his attainder. The 
estate and manor continued in the St. John family till 1763, when 
it was bought in trust for John Viscount Spencer, and is now 
property of the present Earl Spencer.''* — Ly sons' 8 Environs. 

Battersea has many memorials ; its historic interest culminates 
in its association with the St. Johns. One is stated to have been 
" eminent for his piety and moral virtues." Henry in 1684 pleaded 
guilty of the murder of Sir William Estcourt, Bart., in a sudden 
quarrel arising at a supper party. His case, if Bishop Burnet be 
correct, could be regarded only as manslaughter, but he was induced 
to plead guilty by a promise of pardon if he followed that advice 
or of his being subjected to the utmost rigour of the law on his 
refusal. No pardon is enrolled but it is stated that the King 
granted him a reprieve for a long term of years ; and in the Rolls 
Chapel is a restitution of the Estate (Pat 36 Charles II.) for which 
it Tftould seem and the reprieve conjoined he had to pay £16,000, 
one half of which Burnet says the King converted to his own use 
and bestowed the remainder on two ladies then in high favour. — 
Burnett History of his own times ; fol ; 1724. Vol. L p. 600. 

Bolingbroke or Bullingbroke, a town of great antiquity in 
Lincolnshire, gave the title of Viscount to the St. John's of Battersea. 
In 1700, Sir Walter St. John founded and endowed a free school 
for twenty boys, and both he and his lady afterwards left further 
sums for apprenticing some of the number. It was re-built in 
1859. Over the gateway in the High Street, are carved the Arms 
of St. John, and underneath them is inscribed the motto, " Rather 
Deathe than false of Eaythe." As we gazed upon the above motto 
we were reminded of other lines which we have seen and read 
elsewhere. Sir Walter St. John died 3rd July, 1808, aged 87 ; his 

* Customs of the Manor. — In this Manor, lands descended to the youngest 
sons ; but in default of sons, they do not go to the youngest daughter, but are 
divided among the daughters equally.— Lysons. 



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4t> 

portrait is in the school. He built a gallery at the wegt end of the 
Old Church. 

" Dare to be right, dare to be true ; 

Other men's failures can never save you ; 

Stand by your conscience, your honour, your faith ; 

Stand like a hero, and battle till death. 

Dare to be right, dare to be true ; 
Keep the great judgment day always in view, 
Look at your work, as you'll look at it then, 
Scanned by Jehovah, and Angels and men. 

Dare to be right, dare to be true ; 
God who created you, cares for you too, 
Wipe off the tears that His striving ones shed, 
Counts and protects every hair of your head. 

Dare to be right, dare to be true ; 
Cannot Omnipotence carry you through ? 
City, and Mansion, and throne all in view, 
Cannot you dare to be right and be true ? 

Dare to be right, dare to be true ; 
Prayerfully, lovingly, firmly pursue 
The pathway by Saints, and by Seraphim trod 
The pathway which leads to the City of God." 

Bolingbroke (Henry St. John) Lord Viscount, descended from an 
ancient and noble family as we , have already seen. His Mother 
was Mary, daughter of Robert Eich, Earl of Warwick. He re- 
ceived a liberal education at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford, 
and when he left the University was considered to possess un- 
common qualifications, but with great parts he had strong passions, 
which as usually happens, hurried him into many follies and 
indiscretions. Contrary to the inclinations of his family he 
cultivated tory connections, and gained such influence in the 
House of Commons, that in 1704 he was appointed Secretary of 
War and of the Marines. He was closely united in all political 
measures with Mr. Harley; when therefore that gentleman was 
removed from the seals in 1707, Mr. St. John resigned his office; 
and in 1710, when Mr. Harley was made Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, the post of Secretary of State was given to Mr. St. John. 
In 1712, he was created Baron St. John of Lediard, Tregose in 
Wiltshire, and Viscount Bolingbroke. But being overlooked in 
the bestowal of vacant ribands of the Order of the Garter, it is 
said he resented the affront and renounced the friendship of Harley, 
then Earl of Oxford, and made his court to the Whigs ; nevertheless, 
on the accession of George 1st, the seals were taken from him. 
Having been informed that a resolution was taken to pursue him 
to the scaffold for his conduct regarding the treaty of Utretcht, 
Signed 11th of April, 1713, he withdrew into France and joined 
the Pretender's* service and accepted the seals as his Secretary. 

♦Pretenders, a name given to the son and grandsons of James II. of England. 
The Old Pretender, James Francis Edward Stuart, Chevalier de St. George, 
bom ioth June, 1688, was acknowledged by Louis XlV. as Tame3 III. of 
England, in 1701 proclaimed and his standard set up, at Braemar and Castletown, 

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But lie was as unfortunate in his new connection as those lie had 
renounced, for the year 1715 was scarcely expired, while being 
attainted of high treason at home, he was accused by the Pretender 
of neglect, incapacity and treachery, and had the papers and seals 
of Foreign Secretary's Office taken away. Such a complication of 
distressful events threw him into a state of reflection that pro- 
duced by way of relief " a consolatio philosophical ' which he wrote 
the same year under the title of "Reflection upon Exile. * The 
next year he drew up a vindication of his conduct with respect to 
the Tories in the form of a letter to Sir William Wyndhami In 
1718 his first wife died ; in 1720 he married a niece of the famous 
Madam Maintenon and widow of the Marquis de Villette,* with 
whom he had a very large fortune. In 1723, after being in exile 
seven years, the King was prevailed upon to grant him a free 
pardon, and he returned in consequence to England. But his spirit 
was not satisfied within while he remained a mere titular Lord, 
and excluded from the House of Peers. His recall had been 
assented to by Sir Robert "Walpole, but he cherished a secret dis- 
like to "Walpole and regarded him as the cause of his not receiving 
the full extent of the King's clemency. Walpole invited Boling- 
broke to dine with him at Chelsea, but it appeared to Bolingbroke 
rather to shew his power and prosperity than for any other reason. 
Horace Walpole, the celebrated son of the Minister, says in his 
"Reminiscences" "Whether tortured at witnessing Sir Robert's 
serene frankness and felicity, or suffocated with indignation and 
confusion at being forced to be obliged to one whom he hated and 
envied, the first morsel he put into his mouth was near choking 
him, and he was reduced to rise from the table and leave the room 
for some minutes. I never heard of their meeting more." He 
distinguished himself by a multitude of political writings till the 
year 1735, when being thoroughly convinced that the door was 
shut against him, he returned once more to France. In this foreign 
retreat he began his course of letters on the Study and Use of 
History for Lord Combury, to whom they are addressed. Lord 
Bolingbroke was born and died in the family Mansion at Battersea. 

in Scotland, landed at Peterhead in Aberdeenshire from France to encourage the 
rebellion that the Earl of Mar and his adherents had promoted, 25th December, 
1 7 15. This rebellion having been soon suppressed, the Pretender escaped to 
Montrose (from whence he proceeded to Gravelines) 4th February 17 16. Died 
at Rome, 30th December, 1765. The Young Pretender, Charles Edward, was 
born in 1720, landed in Scotland and proclaimed his father King 25th July, 1745 ; 
gained the battle of Preston-Pan?, 21st September, 1745, an d °* Falkirk, 27th 
January, 1746; defeated at Cuiloden, and sought safety by flight 1 6th April, 
1746. He continued wandering among the wilds of Scotland for nearly six 
months, and as ^30,000 were offered for taking him, he was constantly pursued 
by the British troops, often hemmed round by his enemies, but still rescued by 
some lucky incident, and at length escaped from the Ulst Morilaix in September. 
He died 31st January, 1788. His natural daughter assumed the title of Duchess 
of Albany; died in 1789. His brother, the Cardinal York, calling himself 
Henry IX. of England, born March, 1725, died at Rome in August, 1807. 

* When he was about twenty-six years of age he was married to the daughter 
and co-heiress of Sir Henry Winchescomb, of Bucklebury, in Berkshire, Bart., 
and the same year, 1700, he entered the House of Commons, being elected 
for the Borough of Wotton-Basset in "Wiltshire, by a family interest, his father 
having serve4 several times for the same place. 



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The house was very large, with forty rooms on a floor ; hut with 
the exception of a wing,* it has long since been taken down and 
otherwise appropriated.} Dives' Flour Mills cover a portion of 
the site where once stood this venerable mansion. Upon the death 
of his father, who lived to be extremely old, Lord Bolingbroke 
settled at Battersea, where he passed the remaining nine years of his 
life in philosophical dignity. Pope and Swift, one a great poet, the 
other a great wit of that time, almost adored him. Arbuthnot, 
Thompson, Mallet, and other contemporary men of genius were his 
frequent visitors. Mr. Timbs says "here took place the memorable 
destruction of one of Bolingbroke's most celebrated works, his 
" Essay on a Patriotic King," of which the noble author had printed 
only six copies, which he gave to Lord Chesterfield, Sir William 
Wyndham, Lyttelton, Pope, Lord Marchmont, and Lord Combury, 
at whose instance Bolingbroke wrote the essay. Pope lent his 
copy to Mr. Allen, of Bath, who was so delighted with it that he 
had five hundred copies printed, but locked them up in a warehouse, 
not to see light until Lord Bolingbroke' s permission could be 
obtained On the discovery, Lord Marchmont (them living at Lord 
Bolingbroke' s house at Battersea), sent Mr. Gravenkop for the 
whole cargo, and he had the books carried out on a waggon and 
burnt on a lawn in the presence of Lord Bolingbroke." Pope, 
when visiting his friend Lord Bolingbroke, usually selected as his 
study a parlour (the grate and ornaments were of the age of George 
1st) wainscoted with cedar, and overlooking the Thames, in which 
he is said to have composed some of his celebrated works. It is 
well known that he received from him the materials for his famous 
poem the " Essay on Man." 

Lord Bolingbroke was born about the year 1672, or as some 

. think, in 1678 ; he was baptized October 10, 1678 ; died December 

12, 1751, and left the care and benefit of his M.S.S. to Mr. Mallet, 

who published them together with his former printed works in five 

vols. 4to. ; they are also printed in 8vo. 

Lord Bolingbroke sank under a dreadful malady beneath which 
he had long lingered — a cancer in the face — which he bore with 
exemplary fortitude. " A fortitude," says Lord Brougham " drawn 
from the natural resources of his mind, and unhappily not aided by 
the consolation of any religion ; for having cast off the belief in 
revelation, he had substituted in its stead a dark and gloomy 
naturalism, which even rejected those glimmerings of hope as to 
futurity not untasted by the wiser of the heathen." He used to 
ride out in his chariot every day, and had a black patch on his 
cheek, with a large wart over one of his eyebrows. He was thought 
to be essentially selfish ; he spent little in the place and gave little 
away, so that he was not regarded much by the people of Battersea. 

A popular writer states that " Bolingbroke's talents were brilliant 
and versatile ; his style of writing was polished and eloquent ; but 
the fatal lack of sincerity and honest purpose which characterised 
him, and the low and unscrupulous ambition which made him 

* The ceilings of three of the chambers upstairs are ornamented with stucco- 
work, and have in their centres oval-shaped oil paintings on allegorical subjects. 

t Bolingbroke House was pulled down about the year 1775. The pictures were 
sold by auction. 



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scramble for power with a selfish, indifference to national security 
hindered him from looking wisely and deeply into any question. 
His philosophical theories are not profound, nor his conclusions 
solid, while his criticism of passing history is worthless in the 
extreme. He was one of those clever unscrupulous men, unhappily 
too common, who forget that God has something to do with the 
government of this world as well as themselves, and who in spite 
of their ability, can never see that swift destruction treads like 
Nemesis on the heels of those who dare to trifle with the interests 
and destinies of a great people." 

His opposition to. revealed religion drew from Johnson this 
severe remark : " Having loaded a blunderbuss and pointed it 
against Christianity he had not the courage to discharge it himself, 
but left a half-crown to a hungry Scotchman to pull the trigger 
after his death." 

Oliver Goldsmith in his life of Lord Bolingbroke says: "In 
whatever light we view his character, we shall find him an object 
rather more proper for our wonder than our imitation ; more to be 
feared than esteemed, and gaining our admiration without our love. 
His ambition ever aimed at the summit of power, and nothing 
seemed capable of satisfying his immoderate desires but the liberty 
of governing all things without a rival." 

On the site of the demolished part of Bolingbroke House,* a 
horizontal Air Mill was erected in 1790, of a conical form, 140 feet 
in height, and having a mean diameter of 50 feet ; it was 54 feet 
at the base and 45 at the top. It was originally applied to the 
grinding of linseed for oil, and subsequently by Messrs. Hodgson, 
Weller and Allaway, of malt for the Distilleries, which were at 
that time in extensive operation here. Mr. Thomas Fowler erected 
this mill, the design was taken from that of another on a smaller 
scale, constructed at Margate by Capt. Hooper. It consisted of 
a circular wheel, with large boards or vanes fixed parallel to its 
axis ; and upon the vanes the wind acted as to blow the wheel 
round, one side of it being sheltered from the action of the wind 
by its being enclosed in frame work, with doors or shutters to open 
and admit the wind, or to shut and stop it. If all the shutters on 
one side were open, whilst all those on the opposite were closed, the 
wind acting with diminished force on the vanes of one side, whilst 
the opposite vanes were under shelter, turned the mill round ; but 
whenever the wind changed, the disposition of the blinds had to 
be altered, to admit the wind to strike upon the vanes of the wheels 
in the direction of a tangent to the circle in which they moved." — 
Dr. Fartis Philosophy in Sport. "The Mill," says Mr. Timbs, 
" resembled a gigantic packing case, which gave rise to an odd 
story, that when the Emperor of Russia was in England in 1814, 
he took a fancy to Battersea Church and determined to carry it off 
to Russia, and had this large packing case made for it ; but as the 
inhabitants refused to let the Church be carried away, so the case 
remained on the spot where it was deposited." The Mill served as 
a landmark for miles around, being more conspicuous an object at 
that time than the lofty square tower of Watney's Distillery a little 
further westward is now. At length the upper part of the Mill 
* The part left standing formed a dwelling house for Mr. Hodgson. 



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Vas taken down; the lower part is still used for grinding com. 
Capper, referring to this Mill, says, "it had 96 shutters, which 
though only 9 inches broad, reached to the height of 80 feet ; these 
by means of a rope, opened and shut in the manner of Venetian 
blinds. In the inside, the main shaft of the Mill was the centre of 
a large circle formed by the sails, which consisted of 96 double 
planks placed perpendicularly, and the same height as the shutters ; 
through these shutters the wind passing turned the Mill with great 
rapidity, which was increased or diminished by opening or shutting 
the apertures. In it were six pairs of stones, in which two pair 
more might be added. Adjacent were Bullock Houses capable of 
holding 650 bullocks, which were fed with the grains and meal 
from the Distilleries. 



&*. Maby's Church* 

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M. MART'S CHURCH forms an interesting object irom thfc 
water. It was re-built by Act of Parliament passed 14 Geo. 3. 
The former church, which was built of brick, was found to be in 
such a dilapidated state that the Vestry deemed it more than 
desirable to erect a new church than to enlarge and repair the old 
one. Their unanimous resolution in this respect met with the 
sanction of Earl Spencer ; his lordship in compliance with a petition 
generously granted the petitioners in the year 1772 a piece of 
ground, etc. for the enlargement of the church yard. During the 
re-building of the church, divine service was conducted in the 
tabernacle at the Workhouse. The cost of its erection was about 
£5,000, which sum was raised by a brief by the sale of certain 
pews for 99 years, by the sale of some estates or docks belonging 
to the Parish, and by granting annuities on lives ; the leases expired 
Michaelmas, 1876. It was opened for divine service November 17, 
1777. The ground given by the Earl Spencer for the enlargement 
of the church yard was consecrated by the Lord Bishop of Oxford, 
on Wednesday, the 15th of April, 1778. The Church is built of 
brick and has a tower with a conical copper' spire at the west end, 
besides a clock and porch.f The belfry contains a set of eight bells, 
which, in addition to their ordinary Sunday chimes, ring out their 
merry peals on special occasions. 

" Ring out the old year's evil, 

The world, the flesh, the devil ; 

Let them go ! let them go ! 

And ring in the Prince of Peace, 

Messiah's gentle reign. 

And let war and bloodshed cease, 

And righteousness obtain. 

Ring out the old year's crimes, 

And ring in the new year's birth,— 

Good words, good deeds, good times ; 

Oh, were ever sweeter chimes 

Rung on this fallen earth 

Since creation's virgin anthem rang, 

And morning stars together sang ?" 

" Chime on, ye bells ! again begin, 

And ring the Sabbath morning in." 
Six of the old bells were in the Old Church but re-cast, and two 
were added to them. Length of church, 88 feet ; breadth, 49 feet 
3 inches. — Rev. Owen Manning, 8.T.B. In digging for the founda- 
tion of the present structure was found an ancient coffin lid of 
stone, on the top of which was a cross fleury. The Rev. Erskine 
Clarke in an article headed " S. Mary's Church in the Last Century" 
has furnished his parishioners with some interesting details 
gathered from the Parish books respecting the re-building of the 
Parish Church. He say: "It does not appear that our ancestors 
were more expeditious in carrying on business of this nature than 
we of the present day, as the first resolution to inquire into the 
state of the old Church* was passed by the Vestry in December, 

* There is a river view of Battersea by BoydeU, which shows the old Church as 
it stood in 1752. 

t An Entrance Portico of the Doric order was added to the Church about the 
year 1823. 

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1769, whereas the re-building was not finished till November, 1777. 
The first suggestion was to sell a portion of Penge Common in 
order to raise the money required, but it was afterwards found that 
the condition of the church was so bad that the money raised by 
this means would not be sufficient for the necessary repairs. On 
March 1st, 1771, it was ordered by the Vestry that an extra 
estimate be made of the needful repairs, allowing for " enlarge- 
ment of the chancel to the north wall, to elevate the roof and make 
galleries, and to raise the bottom of the church so high as five 
inches from the present coming in, and that the Vicar and Church- 
wardens wait upon Lord Spencer to get his sanction and assistance 
for this, and to enlarge the church yard. On December 14, 1771, 
it was resolved this Vestry is unanimously of opinion (there not 
being one dissenting voice) that a new Church shall be built in this 
Parish at an expense not exceeding £4,000 : the said sum to be 
raised by annuities at the most advantageous rate ; and the interest 
or annuity thereon to be i>aid b} r a rate not exceeding sixpence in 
the pound. That twelve gentlemen be nominated to be a Committee 
for carrying the above-named purposes into execution, and that the 
following gentlemen be the said Committee with such others as 
choose to attend, all having voices. Viz : 

The Eevd. Mr. Fraigneau, Vicar. 

Mr.' D?x on, S ' ) Churchwardens. phnip Worlidg6| Esqr# 

Mr. Camden, ] 0veraGerg Mark BeU, Esqr. 

Mr. Bremmer, } Uverseers « Thos. Bond, Esqr. 

Isaac Akeman, Esqr. Thos. Misluor, Esqr. 

Chrisr. Baldwin, Esqr. Philip Milloway, Esqr. 

And that any five of them be a Committee to transact the business. 
And that the said Committee may adjourn themselves from time to 
time, to such place as they shall think proper and at their own 
expense : and that the Vestry Clerk be ordered to attend the said. 
Committee at all times of their meeting. In the following year we 
find that the petition to Lord Spencer to present an additional 
piece of ground was granted, for the following resolution is recorded 
in the Parish Books on April 21st, 1772. 'That the Eev. Mr. 
Fraigneau, Mr. Ehodes and Mr. Dixon do wait upon the Right 
Hon. Earl Spencer on behalf of the Parish of Battersea, to return 
his Lordship their hearty thanks for his noble and generous grant 
of the houses and ground north and south of the present entrance 
to the churchyard.' In March, 1773, apian prepared by Mr. Dixon 
was laid before the Vestry, and it was unanimously resolved that 
the said plan be carried into execution with all possible expedition, 
and the expenses not to exceed £3,000. On March 1, 1774, it was 
reported to the Vestry by the Church Committee that it would be 
necessary to apply to Parliament for power to sell some estates 
belonging to the Parish, and also forty pews in the new church in 
order to procure necessary funds. From this time to the re- 
opening of the Church there is no further reference to the restora- 
tion except an order for the payment of £18 for ' alterations to the 
Tabernacle at the Workhouse which was used for Divine Service 
during the re-building of the Church.' The entire cost of the 
Chuich was £4950 13s. 9-£d. The following entry is made in April, 



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1778. Entered by order of the Eeverend Mr. 'William l?raigneau 
(Vicar), Mark Bell and John Camden, Esquires, Churchwardens. 
The new Church of Battersea Parish was opened for Divine Service 
on Sunday, the 17th of November, 1777. The additional ground 
for enlarging the church yard granted by Earl Spencer, was con- 
secrated by the Lord Bishop of Oxford, on Wednesday, the 15th of 
April, 1778. Towards the end of the year 1778 we find the 
inhabitants of Battersea developing a musical taste. A faculty was 
applied for to erect an organ, the petitioners making their request 
on the ground that an organ would be ' a decent and agreeable 
addition and ornament to the Church.' The faculty was granted, 
and an organ was erected at the west end of the gallery where the 
present one now stands."— £<. Mary 1 8 Battersea Parish Magazine, 
Nov. 1876. The organ has been removed to a place under the 
gallery, adjacent to the choir, and the Church has been re-seated. 

The following copy of one of these leases on which the pews in 
St. Mary's Church were held, will be read with interest. 

THIS INDENTURE made the Twenty-sixth day of December, 
in the Year of our Lord, One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy 
Eight, and in the Nineteenth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign 
Lord George the Third, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. Between 
the Reverend John Gardenor of Battersea, in the County of Surrey, 
Clerk, Allyn Simmons Smith, John Camden and Thomas Rhodes, 
all of the same place Esquires, and John Lumisden of the same, 
Surgeon, (being five of the Trustees appointed for carrying into 
execution an Act of Parliament made and passed in the fourteenth 
year of the Reign of his present Majesty King George the Third, 
Intituled an Act for Re-building the Parish Church of Battersea, 
in the County of Surrey, and for enlarging the Church Yard of the 
said Parish Church of the one part, and William Dent of Battersea 
in the County of Surrey, Esquire, on the other part, Witnesseth 
that for and in consideration of the sum of Thirty-one Pounds 
Ten Shillings already paid and advanced by the said William Dent 
to the Treasurer appointed for the purposes of the said Act of 
Parliament, and also for and in consideration of the Yearly Rent 
and Covenants hereinafter reserved and contained, they the said 
John Gardenor, Allyn Simmons Smith, John Camden, Thomas 
Rhodes, and John Lumisden, in persuance and in Execution of the 
powers and Authorities vested in them in and by the said Act of 
Parliament, have Leased, Lett and Demised, and by these presents, 
do Lease, Lett and Demise unto the said William Dent, his 
Executors, Administrators and Assigns, All that Pew situate and 
being in the Gallery on the North side of the said Church of 
Battersea, (No. 62), with the appertenances. To have and to hold 
the said Pew, with the appertenances unto the said William Dent, 
his Executors, Administrators and Assigns, from the Feast day of 
Saint Michael the Archangel, which was in the Year of our Lord, 
One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy Seven, for and during, 
and unto the full end and Term of Ninety Nine Years thence next 
ensuing and fully to be complete and ended, Yealding and paying 
therefore Yearly and every Year during the said Term, unto such 
person or persons, who for the time being shall be lawfully 



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appointed to collect or receive the same Rent or sum of IVo 
Shillings and Sixpence of lawful money of Great Britain, on Hie 
Feast day of Saint Michael the Archangel, in every year. And tlie 
said William Dent for himself, his Executors, Administrators, and 
Assigns, doth Covenant and Agree to and with the said before 
named Trustees, their Heirs and Assigns, That he the said William 
Dent his Executors, Administrators and Assigns, shall and will 
well and truly pay or cause to be paid the Rent hereby reserved 
and made payable according to the reservation aforesaid, And also 
at his and their own proper Costs and Charge, well and sufficiently 
repair the said Pew so Leased to him, during all the said Term of 
Ninety Nine Years, Provided always that if the said Yearly Rent 
hereby reserved, or any part thereof shall be behind and unpaid 
by the space of Three Calendar Months next over or after the said 
Eeast day of payment, whereon the same ought to be paid as 
aforesaid (being Lawfully demanded) then and in such case the 
Demise or Lease hereby made shall cease, determine, and be utterly 
void to all intents and purposes whatsoever. In witness whereof 
the said parties to these presents have hereunder interchangeably 
set their hands and seals, the day and Year first above Written. 

Sealed and Delivered without stamp*,} 

according to the Act of Parliament* Wit. HOLT, 

above in the presence of: ) ROBT. CORAM. 

J. GARDNOR, 

ALLYN SIMMONS SMITH. 

JOHN CAMDEN, 

T. RHODES, 

JOHN LUMISDEN. 

The window over the Communion table at the east end of the 
church is decorated with portraits of Henry 7th, his grandmother 
Margaret Beauchamp and Queen Elizabeth in stained glass which 
was carefully preserved from the former church, and executed at 
the expense of the St. Johns.* The following will explain why the 
three portraits were placed at the end of the Church. " The first, 

* Here also in two circular windows pierced for additional light are figures of 
the Holy Lamb and Dove of Modern Execution. 

The east window consists of painted glass, over the portraits of Queen Eliza- 
beth and Henry VII. are the Royal Arms in the central compartment, and on 
each side, the arms and quarterings of the St. Johns. The portraits are likewise 
surrounded with borders containing the arms of the families allied to them by 
marriage. At the top is a white rose inclosed in a red, under the Crown. St. 
John bears Arg. or a chief Gu. 2 Mullets or ; and Quarters : i Arg. A bend 
Arg. Cotised between 6 Martlets or, for Delaberes. 2 Arg. a fesse between 6 
Cinquefoils Gu. for Unfreville. 3 Erm. on a fesse Az 3 Crosses Moline or, 4 Gu. 
a fesse between 6 Martlets or for Beauchamp. 5 Arg. a fesse Sa between 3 
Cresents Gu. for Patishall. 6 Paly of 6 Arg. and Az on a bend Gu. 3 Eagles 
displayed or. for Grandison. 7 Az 2 bars Gemelles, and in Chief a lion passant 
for Tregoze. 8 Arg. a fesse Gu between 2 Mullets of 6 points Sali for Ewyas. 

A Saltire Engrailed Sa. On a Chief of the Second 2 Mullets of the first, for 
Iwarby or Ewarby, 10 or, 3 lions passant in Pale Sa. forCarew. 11 Az 3 
Battleaxes Arg. 12 Sa. 2 bars Arg, in Chief, 3 plates for Hungerford, 13 per 
Pale indented Gu. and Vert over all a Chevron or, 14 Arg. 3 Toads Sa for 
Botreux. 15 Paly wavy or and Gu. all these are quarters on one shield with a 
Viscount Coronet ; the 11 first are quartered by St* John, Baronet. 



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that of Margaret Beauchamp, ancestor (by her first husband, Sir 
Oliver St. John) of the St. John's, and (by her second husband, 
John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset) grandmother to Henry VU. ; 
the second, the portrait of that Monarch ; and the third, that of 
Queen Elizabeth, which is placed here because her grandfather, 
Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire, (father of Queen Ann Boleyn), 
was great-grandfather of Anne, the daughter of Sir Thomas 
Leighton, and wife of Sir John St. John, the first baronet of the 
family."— Oulton. 

The epitaph written by Lord Bolingbroke on his wife reads as 
follows: " In the same vault are interred the remains of Mary 
Clara des Champs de Marcelly, Marchioness of Yillette and 
Viscountess Bolingbroke, born of noble family, bred in the Court 
of Lewes 14th. She reflected a lustre on the former by the superior 
accomplishment of her mind. She was an ornament to the latter 
by the amiable dignity and grace of her behaviour. She lived the 
honour of her own sex, the delight and admiration of ours. She 
died an object of imitation to both with all the firmness that reason, 
with all the resignation that religion can inspire, aged 74 the 18th 
of March, 1750." 

The interior contains some interesting sepulchral monuments, 
among which is one of Eoubiliac in the reliefs to the memory of 
Viscount Bolingbroke and his second wife, niece of Madame de 
Maintenon, both lie in the family vault in St. Mary's Church. 
The epitaphs on himself and his wife were both written by Boling- 
broke. That upon himself is still extant in his own hand writing 
in the British Museum, and is as follows : — " Here lies Henry St. 
John, in the reign of Queen Anne, Secretary of War, Secretary of 
State and Viscount Bolingbroke ; in the days of King George I. 
and King George II. something more and better. His attachment 
to Queen Anne exposed him to a long and severe persecution ; he 
bore it with firmness of mind, he passed the latter part of his life 
at home, the enemy of no national party, the friend of no faction, 
distinguished under the cloud of proscription, which had not been 
entirety taken off by zeal to maintain the liberty and to restore the 
ancient prosperity of Great Britain." Another monument com- 
memorates the descent and preferments of Oliver St. John, Viscount 
Grandison, who was the first of the family that settled at Battersea. 
When studying the law at one of the Inn Courts, he killed in a 
duel the Captain of the Guard to Queen Elizabeth and Champion 
of England. " In 1648, Sir John St. John was buried at Battersea 
with such unusual pomp that the heralds were fluttered and com- 
menced a prosecution against the Executor for acting contrary to 
the usage of arms and the laws of heraldry. William Riley, one 
of the heralds deposed 'that the funeral of the deceased' was 
conducted in a manner so much above Iris degree that the escutch- 
eons were more than were used at the funeral of a Duke ; and that 
he never saw so many persons but at the funeral of one of the 
blood royal.' This burial is omitted in the register." In the 
south gallery is a monument to Sir Edward Wynter, an officer in 
the service of the East India Company in the reign of Charles 2nd, 
on which is recorded an account of his having singly and unarmed 
killed a tiger, and on foot defeated forty Moors on horseback* He 



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50 

appears to have been a friendless youth but obtained his promotion 

by virtue of his intelligence, courage and good conduct as the 

epitaph states : — 

" Born to be great in fortune as in mind, 

Too great to be "within an Isle confind, 

Young, helpless, friendless seas unknown he tried ; 

But English courage all those wants supplied. 

A pregnant "wit, a painful diligence, 

Care to provide, a bounty to dispence, 

Join'd to a soul sincere, plain, open, just, 

Procur'd him friends, and friends procured him trust ; 

These were his fortune's rise, and thus began 

This hardy youth, rais'd to that happy man, 

A rare example and unknown to most 

Where wealth is gain'd and conscience is not lost. 

Not less in martial honour was his name — 

Witness his actions of immortal fame ! 

Alone, unarm'd a tiger* he oppress' d 

And crush'd to death the monster of a beast ; 

Twice twenty mounted Moors he overthrew 

Singly on foot ; some wounded, some he slew, 

Dispers'd the rest — what more could Samson do ? 

True to his friends, a terror to his foes 

Here now in peace his honour'd bones repose." 

Vita Peregrinatio. 

He died March 2nd, 1685-6, aged 64. 

Near at hand is a monument — a small statue of a mourning 
female leaning upon an urn — erected by the benevolent James 
Neild, in memory of his wife Elizabeth, who died 30th of June, 
1791, in her 36th year. The epitaph states : — 

" Here low in beauteous form decay'd 

My faithful wife, my love Eliza's laid ; 

Graceful with ease, of sentiment refin'd, 

Her pleasing form inclos'd the purest mind ! 

Eound her blest peace, thy constant vigils keep 

And guard fair innocence her sacred sleep, 

'Till the last trump shall wake the exulting clay. 

To bloom and triumph in eternal day. 

Conjux Mosrens Vomit. 

And of her father, John Camden, Esq., whose son, John Camden 
Neild, lived in Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, and bequeathed to Queen 
Victoria the whole of his property, £500,000. 

At the east end of the north gallery is a beautiful marble monu- 
ment most elaborately sculptured sacred to the memory of Sir John 
Fleet, Knt., Alderman of the City of London. He was unani- 
mously elected Lord Mayor of the City in 1693. He received 
Royal favours, and all ranks of the greatest honour and esteem 
from his fellow citizens, having been one of their representatives 
in Parliment thirteen years, and constantly interested in their 

* Being attacked in the woods^by a tiger, he placed himself on' the side of a 
pond, and when the tiger flew at him, he caught him in his arms, fell back with 
him into the water, got upon him, and kept him down till he had drowned him. 



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TA 

highest stations, in which offices and honours he was universally 
applauded. He was a merchant and just magistrate, constant to 
church, loyal to his Prince, and true to his country. He was 
fortunate and honest, bountiful in charity a generous benefactor 
and .a faithful friend.— Obit Q : Julii 1712. JEtat : 65. 

Another tablet is erected to the memory of Margaret Susanna 
Pounsett, wife of Henry Pounsett, Esq., of Stockwell, in this 
County, and eldest daughter of Eichard Both well, Esq., of this 
Parish ; Alderman of the City of London and High Sheriff of the 
County of Middlesex: she died on the 22nd day of March, 1820, 
in the 82nd year of her age, leaving two sons and three daughters. 
Her numerous amiable and exemplary qualities, endeared her to 
her family in her life — Her christian piety and cheerful resignation 
alone consoled them in her death. Also of Ellen Anne Pounsett, 
her second daughter, who died the 7th of December, 1834, aged 22. 

In the west gallery is a marble tablet sacred to the memory of 
Richard Eothwell, Esq., Alderman and formerly High Sheriff of 
the City of London, and County of Middlesex ; who departed this 
life most deeply regretted, July 26th, a.d. 1821, in the 60th year 
of his age. In the public station which he filled of Magistrate and 
Sheriff, his strict integrity, his splendid liberality, and his genuine 
philanthropy, justly merited and procured the highest esteem, and 
warmest approbation of his fellow citizens. In his private character 
he was respected for the vigor of his mind, the solidity of his 
judgment, and the uprightness of his principles, and beloved for 
the urbanity of his manners, and the benevolence of his heart. In 
him the perplexed found an able counsellor, and the distressed an 
active friend. His feelings were tenderly alive to the important 
truths of religion, and while punctual in the performance of the 
duties of this life he placed his sole reliance on the merits of his 
Eedeemer for happiness in the life to come. 

On the right-hand-side of the pathway leading towards the porch 
of the Church is a grave stone at the bottom of which is the following 
inscription: — "Mrs. Sarah Eleanor McFarlane, who fell by the 
hand of an assassin the 29th of April, 1844, aged 46 years." 
This poor widow resided in Bridge Eoad, and obtained a sub- 
sistence by keeping a Day and Sunday School. The name of the 
murderer who deprived the life of his victim by cutting her throat 
on Old Battersea Bridge, was Augustus Dalmas, a Frenchman. 
This horrid crime was committed late at night. The woman who 
had charge of the toll seeing the helpless condition of Mrs. 
McFarlane conveyed her to the *' Swan and Magpie" Tavern at the 
foot of the Bridge, where she expired exclaiming "Dalmas did it!" 

In the north gallery is an upright marble tablet for Sir Womb- 
well, Bart., of Sherwood Lodge, who died October 28th, 1846, in 
his 77th year. 

At the east end of the south aisle is a tablet to Thomas Astle, 
Esq., F.S.A., keeper of the records in the Tower, and who wrote 
on " The Origin and Progress of Writing." He left a valuable 
collection of manuscripts which were deposited at Stow, the seat of 
his noble patron the Marquis of Buckingham, to whom he gav,e by 
his will the option of purchasing them at a fixed sum. 

In the churchyard lies Arthur Collins, author of " The Peerage 



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fend Baronetage of England." His grandson, David Collins, 
Lieutenant Governor of ifew South "Wales, and author of a History 
of the English Settlement there. William Curtis a distinguished 
botanical writer, author of the "Flora Londinensis," was buried 
here, January 31, 1731. 

" While living herbs shall spring profusely wild, 

So long thy works shall please dear nature's child, 

Or gardens cherish all that's sweet and gay 

So long thy memory suffer no decay." 
The- Countess de Morella, who lived in one of the five mansions 
which gave its old name of Five House Lane to Boliogbroke Grove, 
has placed a coped stone with a cross on it over the old grave of her 
aunt Miss Elizabeth Hofer, in the church yard near the mortuary, 
and has had the tablets of her family at the west end of the north 
gallery cleaned. 

Mr. Poole, the Curator of the monuments in Westminster Abbey, 
is now engaged in cleaning some of the mural monuments in the 
Church which had become grimed with the dust of years. 

In the centre of the plot in front of the portico is the family 
vault of Sir Eupert George, Bart. Mr. Chadwin, one of the oldest 
parishioners now living in Battersea, relates how Sir Rupert George 
came to select St. Mary's Church yard as his burying place. " He 
was on a visit to Lord Cremorne, at Cremorne House, on the 
opposite side of the Thames, and he came over to Battersea and 
was so impressed with the beauty of the view across the river that 
he purchased the vault as a resting place for himself and his family. 
Several of his sons and daughters are interred there, and Dr. 
Inglis, Bishop of Nova Scotia, the first Colonial Bishop, was also 
buried in the vault of Sir Rupert George, to whom he was fondly 
attached by the strongest ties of friendship and also closely allied 
by marriage." The Bishop's tablet is on the wall under the north 
gallery. 

Charles Williams of London was an actor of some eminence at 
the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. He died in the prime of life. His 
mortal remains were interred in the church yard. As a tribute of 
respect his funeral was attended by the whole body of Comedians ; 
the pall was supported by Wilks, Griffin, the two Cibbers, and the 
two Mills. " There is " says Daniel Lysons, " no memorial of his 
grave." 

It is thought that as the former Church was built of brick that 
probably it was not very ancient. A church is mentioned in 
Doomsday, a most ancient record, made in the time of William 1st, 
surnamed the Conqueror, and containing a survey of all the lands 
in England. Lysons, from whom we take the liberty of making 
some liberal quotations, when writing about 85 years ago, says, 
"The Church of Battersea is dedicated to St. Mary ; it is in the 
Diocese of Winchester, and in the Deanery of South wark, the 
benefice is a Yicarage. Lawrence, Abbot of Westminster, first 
procured the appropriation of the great tithes for that Abbey about 
the year 1156. The monks of Westminster were to receive out of 
it two marks, reserving sufficient to the Yicar to support the 
Episcopal burdens and himself. The Rectory was held by John 
Bishop of Winchester in the time of Philip and Mary. The 



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^principal profits of the Vicarage accrued from tlie gardens, 
which rendered the living one of the most valuable in the neigh- 
bourhood of London. The gardeners at Battersea paid 7s. 6d. an 
acre for tithes to the Vicar. The living of Battersea is dated in 
the King's Book at £13 15s. 2£d." The present living is estimated 
at about £1,000 with residence. " In the Valor of 1291, usually 
termed Pope Nicholas' Taxation, the Rectory is valued at 26 marks 
and a half: the Vicarage at £4 3s. 4d. In 1658 the Rectory was 
stated as worth £80 a year, and the Vicarage at £100, and in the 
King's Book the Vicarage stands at £13 15s. 2£d. Battersea was 
one of those parishes which in memory of the Abbey dedicated to St. 
Peter, presented to the Abbot and Convent in early times, the 
tithes of salmon taken in this portion of the river. The Incum- 
bents however of Chelsea, Battersea, and Wandsworth endeavoured 
to shake this custom off as long ago as 1231, but failed : the com- 
position entered into upon the occasion may be seen in Dart's 
History of Westminster Abbey. — Ecclesiastical Topography. 

" There are two terriers of Battersea in the register of Winchester 
fastened together of the dates of 1619 and 1636."— DucareVs 
Endowments of Vicarages, (Lambeth Library). " Owen Ridley, who 
was instutuled to the Vicarage of Battersea, A.D. 1570, appears to 
have been involved in a tedious litigation with his parishioners 
and to have encountered no small degree of persecution from them. 
The circumstance would not have been worth recording but for two 
curious petitions which it produced, the originals of which (date of 
both 1593) were in the possession of the Rev. John Gardenor, 
Vicar," by whom, (says Lysons) they have been obligingly com- 
municated. One of these is from certain inhabitants to Dr. Swale, 
one of Her Majesty's High Commissioners for crimes Ecclesiastical; 
in which they state many grievances which they suffered from their 
Vicar during the space of eighteen years. Amongst other crimes 
alleged against him is that of conversing with a Witch. The 
object of their petition was, that he might be deprived. It is 
signed with thirteen names and about thirty marks. The other 
petition, which is to Lord Burleigh, being the more curious of the 
two is here given at large. To the Right Honourable the Lord Burleigh, 
Lord High Treasurer of England. Most humbly sheweth unto your 
honor, your daiely orators, the inhabitants of Battersey, besechinge 
you to extend your favor in all just causes to our mynister Mi\ 
Ridley : (so it is right honorable) that some have sought his de- 
privation, by many trobles many years together, and in divers 
courts sometymes in the Archdeacon's, sometymes by complayninge 
to the busshop, sometymes before the highe Commissioners, some- 
tymes before the Archbusshop of Canterbury, his grace : Yea and 
once he hath benedicted at the assizes. But God the defender of 
the innocent, hath so protected him that his cawse beinge tryed and 
knowene he hath hadd a good issue of all theis trobles ; yet the 
adversarie will not cease, but seeketh to deprive him of his life, 
for seekinge after Witches, and procuringe the death of a man by 
Witchcraft. He hath byn our Vicar theis twenty years: he is 
zealous in the gospell, honest in life, painefull to teache us and to 
catechise our youth ; charitable and liberall to the poore and needy 
accordinge to his ability, he never sued any of all his parisheoners 

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for tythes, althoughe lie hath hadd cawse gyven "by some so to doe*. 
Of our conscience wee take him rather to hate wytches, than to 
seeke after them ; for he hath spoken often very bitterly against 
them out of the bible, neither doe we thinke or suspect the woman 
to be a witche which is accused, but hath always lyved honestly, 
quietly and painefully here, to get a poore lyvinge truly. There- 
for the man being such a one, whom for his virtues wee love, his 
trobles heretofore so greate, so many and so chandgable to the 
undoinge of himself, his wife and children, and now eo daingerous 
for the hope of his life, doth move us to become suitors unto your 
honour for him, besechinge your honor to take notice, and to make 
due triall of him and his cawse, so that the truth being f ownd owte, 
justice maie take place ; Your honor will defend the innocent in his 
innocencee, putt an end to his tonge, many wearisome and dainger- 
ous trobles and be a patrone unto him in all his good and honest 
actions ; so shall we be bound to thancke God for you, and pray 
for you for ever. Signed by Robert Cooke Alias Clarencieulx 
Roy d* Amies, Robert Claye, preacher, and fourteen others." 

" Dr. Thomas Temple, brother of Sir John Temple, the Irish 
Master of the Rolls, was instituted to the Yicarage of Battersea in 
1634, and continued there during the civil wars ; he was one of the 
ministers appointed by Cromwell to assist the Committee for dis- 
placing ignorant and insufficient School Masters and Ministers. 
He was likewise one of the Assembly of Divines and a frequent 
preacher before the long Parliament. Several of his sermons are 
in print. Mr. Temple was succeeded in the Yicarage of Battersea 
by the learned Bishop Patrick, who was educated at Queen's 
College, Cambridge, and was domestic Chaplain to Sir Walter St. 
John, by whom he was presented to this benefice. Several of his 
tracts were published while he was Vicar of Battersea and are 
dedicated to his patron. He resigned the Vicarage in 1675. He 
was a zealous champion of the protestant religion, both by his 
writings and in conversation, particularly at a conference which he, 
in conjunction with Dr. Jane, held in the presence of James the 
Second with two Roman Catholic Priests, in which he had so much 
the superiority over his opponents in argument, that the King* 
retired in disgust, saying that he never heard a good cause so ill 
defended or a bad one so well. At the Revolution he was rewarded 
with the Bishopric of Chichester, and was afterwards translated to 
Ely. He died 1707, and left behind him a numerous collection of 
printed works ; consisting of sermons, devotional and controversial 
tracts and paraphrases on the Scriptures, which are held in great 
estimation and which were continued by William South." 

" Dr. Thomas Church, of Brazen Nose College, Oxford, who was 
instituted to the Vicarage of Battersea in the year 1740, distinguished 
himself much in the held of controversy in which he engaged 
against Westley and Whitfield, and Middleton : for his successful 
attacks on the latter and his defence of the miraculous power 
during the early years of Christianity. The University of Oxford 
gave him the degree of D.D. by diploma. He was too zealously 
attached to his religion to let the opinions of Lord Bolingbroke 
pass unnoticed notwithstanding he had been his patron. His 
publication on this subject however was anonymous, it was called 



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* An Analysis of the Philosophical Works by the late Lord Boling- 
broke,' and came out in 1755. He died in 1756, aged 49." 

"The registers of this parish begin in the year 1559, and ex- 
cepting the former part of the 18th century appear to be accurate. 
Dr. Church soon after he was instituted to the Vicarage began to 
transcribe a considerable part of the registers, ^hich for many 
years proceeding had been kept by a very ignorant parish clerk. 
He proceeded so far as to copy the whole of the baptisms, and with 
great industry rectified a vast number of mistakes and supplied 
many deficiencies; the difficulty of transcribing the burials of 
which indeed for some years there were no notices, discouraged him 
from proceeding any further in this laudable undertaking." — Lysom. 

Cases of longevity in the Parish Eegister : Goody Harleton, 
aged 108 years, buried 1703 ; William Abbot, 101, 1733 ; Wiat, 
100, 1790; and William Douse, 100, 1803. The case of Eebecca, 
wife of Richard Harding, a waterman, is mentioned. She gave 
birth to four children, she died in labour of the fourth child, which 
was still-born. The mother was buried February 8, 1730; her 
three infant children, Mary, Sarah, and Eebecca were buried the 
2nd of March following. Respecting the rate of mortality in London 
during the plague years, in the year 1603, 30,578 persons died of the 
plague. At the accession of Charles I. in 1625, another dreadful 
pestilence raged in London, which carried off 35,417 persons. In 
the year 1665, about the beginning of May, there broke out in 
London the most dreadful plague that ever infested this kingdom, 
which swept away 68,596 persons, which added to the number of 
those who died of other distempers, raised the bill of mortality in 
this year to 97,306. And the mortality raged so violently in July, 
that all houses were shut up, the streets, deserted, and scarce any- 
thing to be seen therein but grass growing, innumerable fires for 
purifying the air, coffins, pest-carts, red crosses upon doors, with 
the inscription, ' Lord have mercy upon us,' and continual cries 
of ' pray for us ;' or the melancholy call of ' bring out your dead.' 
The cause of this terrible calamity was ascribed to the importation 
of infected goods from Holland where the plague had committed 
great ravages the preceding year. During the whole time of its 
continuance there was a great calm, for weeks together there 
was scarcely any wind so that it was with difficulty that the fires 
in the streets could be kept burning for want of a supply of air, 
and even the birds panted for breath. The plague as is generally 
agreed is never bred or propagated in Britain, but always im- 
ported from abroad^ especially from the Levant, "Lesser Asia, Egypt, 
etc. Sydenham, an old writer, has remarked ihat it rarely infects 
this country offcener than once in forty years — thank God we have 
happily been free from it for a much longer period. There have 
been various conjectures as to the nature of this dreadful distemper. 
Some think that insects are the cause of it, in the same way that 
they are the cause of blights. Mr. Boyle thought that it originated 
from the effluvia or exhalations breathed into the atmosphere from 
noxious minerals to which might be added stagnant waters and 
putrid bodies of every kind. Gibbon, in his " Roman History, 4th 
Edition, Vol. IV, p. 327-332, gives a very particular account of the 
plague which depopulated the earth in the time of Emperor 



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fc* 



Justinian. He thinks that the plague was derived from damp, hot 
and stagnating air, and the putnfaction of animal substances, 
especially locusts. The Mohometans believe that the plague pro- 
ceeds frdm certain spirits, or goblins, armed with bows and arrows 
sent by God to punish men for their sins ; and that when the 
wounds are given by spectres of a black colour, they certainly prove 
fatal, but not so when the arrows are shot by those that appear 
white. The learned Dr. Chandler, who travelled in Asia Minor, 
was of the opinion that the disease arose from animalcules which 
he supposed to be invisible. 

The three ) ^ 1603 *^ e num ^ er °^ deaths in Battersea was 22 
Plague years. J ;; Jg £g 

Average of Births with Burials : — 

1580—1589 - Births 13 - Burials 7 

1680—1689 - „ 58 „ 68 

1780—1789 - „ 60 „ 69 

In 1876 the number of births in Battersea Parish was 3459, and 

the number of deaths 1751, not including the Hamlet of Penge. 

The subjoined is copied from " St. Mary's Battersea Parish 
Magazine" for November, 1875. " Vicars of Battersea from Olden 
Times. The following extract from ' A History and Antiquities of 
Surrey, ' begun by the Rev. Owen Manning, enlarged and continued 
to the year 1814 by William Bray, Esq., printed for White, 
Cochrane & Co., at Horace's Head, Fleet Street, will be of interest. 



ditto 
ditto 



61 
113 



Pateon. 

Abbot and Convent 
of Westminster 






Abbot and Convent 
of Westminster 






The King (the tern-) 
poralities of thef 
Abbey being in his f 
hands ) 

Abbot and Convent ) 
of Westminster J 






VlCAB. 

Thomas de Sunbury 

William Trencheuent 
Gilbert de Swalelyve 
Richard Condray 
Thomas at Strete de 
Cadyngton 

Elias de Hoggenorton 

Eichard de Wolword 
William Handley 
John Gelle 
William Bakere 
John Colyn 

Henry Green 



Henry Walyngf ord 

John Berewyk 
Richard Gatyn 
William Comelond 
John Smyth 
Henry Oxyn 



Institution. 

13 Nov. 1301 

. . 21 Nov. 1806 

.. 26 Oct. 1320 

11 Dec. 1825 

| 20 April 1328 

. . 10 Aug. 1330 

9 Dec. 1331 
. . 26 Nov. 1366 
. . Resigned, 1370 
. • 8 Feb. 1370-1 

5 Oct. 1378 



31 Oct. 1383 



Resigned, 1394 

22 Oct. 1394 

12 May 1402 

Died, 1413 

25 Aug. 1413 

Resigned, 1457 



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Patbon. 
Abbot and Convent 
of Westminster 



Queen Elizabeth 

Sir John St. John, Bart. 
Sir Walter St. John. . 



Lord St. John 
Henry Viscount 

John 
Frederick Lord 

Bolingbroke 



St. 



57 

VlCAB. 

John Moreys 

Thomas Huntyngton 
John Heron 

Nicholas Townley 

Christopher Wylson 
Eichard Rosse, L.L.D. 
John Edwyn 
Thomas Mynthorne 
William Gray 
Owen Ridley 
Thomas Temple, B.D. 
Simon Patrick, D.D. f 
Gervase Howe, M.A. 
Nathaniel Gower 
George Osborn 

Thomas Church, D.D. , 



Institution. 

30 Sept. 1457 

5 Nov. 1485 

20 April 1487 

Resigned 

18 Feb. 1523-4 

9 Mar. 1523-4 

16 May 1530 

18 Nov. 1560 

5 Jan. 1561 

10 Mar. 1561-2 

21 June 1571 

21 Nov. 1634 

1658 

22 Mar. 1675-6 

20 Oct. 1701 

4 Oct. 1727 

10 Mar. 1739-40 
18 June 1757 



Lilly Butler 

.. William Fraigneau .. 18 Mar. 1758 

„ . . John Gardenor % . . Oct. 1778 

( Joseph Allen,M.A.,Pre- ) 20 j an ^^ 8 

" ( bendary of Westminster j 

The Crown § . . 'Robert Eden, M.A., . . 1 Feb. 1835 

„ ,. John Simon Jenkinson, M.A. 20 June 1847 

Earl Spencer . . John Erskine Clarke, M.A. 2 Feb. 1872 

The Registers of 1345, 1366, 1415, 1446, 1492, and 1500 are lost. 

In the reign of Henry VI. Thomas Lord Stanley held possession 
of a valuable estate in Battersea, which, in order to prevent its con- 
fiscation at that troublesome period, he had conveyed to trustees for 
the benefit of himself and that of Thomas his son and heir. In 
December, 1460, the property was transferred by the Trustees to 
Lawrence Booth, Bishop of Durham, and his heirs, and in the year 
following the grant was confirmed by the two Stanleys. The futility 
of this transfer was obvious for before Edward IV. had reigned 
eleven years the estate had escheated to the Crown " in consequence 
of the action of John Stanley, who assigned the lands and tenements 
in trust to the Abbot of Westminster, in contravention of the 
statute of Mortmain. The Bishop therefore had to apply to the 
King and on payment of £700 he obtained a grant under Letters 
Patent dated July 10th, 1472, of the property forfeited by John 
Stanley." 

Lawrence Booth was made Bishop of Durham in 1457, he built 

t The famous Bishop of Ely. 

X He was many years a constant exhibitor at the Royal Academy. In 1788 he 
published a set of Views on the Rhine. In 1798 was printed a Sermon preached 
by him before the Armed Association of Battersea. 

$ The Patronage lapsed to the Crown, Dr. Allen having been appointed Bishop 
of Ely, and Dr. Eden, better known as Lord Auckland, Bishop of Sodor and 
Man, 



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58 

a Mansion Brygge Court at Battersea, and "by the King's license 
enclosed with walls and towers imparked his land there, with the 
right of warren and free chase therein. In 1476 he was translated 
to the See of York. He died in 1480 and bequeathed this property 
to the Dean and Chapter of York as an occasional residence when 
the Archbishop visited London. The name of York Road per- 
petuates this ancient occupancy. One of the few prelates who 
resided here was Archbishop Holgate who was committed to the 
Tower by Queen Mary in 1553 for being a married man, and lost 
much property by illegal seizure. Strype, in his life of Cranmer, 
relates that the officers who were sent to apprehend the Archbishop 
rifled his house at Battersea and took away from thence £300 
worth of gold coin ; 1,600 ounces of plate ; a mitre of fine gold set 
with very fine diamonds, sapphires, and balists ; other good stones 
and pearls ; some very valuable rings, and the Archbishop's seal 
in silver ; and his signet, an antique in gold. It is contended that 
Wolsey resided at York House, Battersea, where he was introduced 
to Anne Boleyne though the interview is more commonly believed 
to have taken place at York House, Whitehall ; but Shakespere in 
his plays makes the King come by water, and York House, Batter- 
sea, was a residence of Wolsey and provided with a creek from the 
Thames for approach to the house. Sir Edward Wynter is said to 
have resided at York House, whose exploits surpassed even the 
heroic achievements of Lord Herbert Cherbury, who, alone in his 
shirt chased a host of midnight robbers from his house. Sir 
Edward Wynter's exploits have been already mentioned. The 
Mansion House was considerably altered by Joseph Benwell, Esq., 
the occupier who took down many of the old rooms. One of these 
called the painted chamber had a dome ceiling and is said to have 
been the room in which Wolsey entertained Henry VIII. with 
masquerades, and in which he saw Anne Boleyne. When the floor 
was removed there was found under it a chased gold ring on the 
side of which was inscribed "Thy virtue is thy honour." This 
superbly painted room with a dome forms the back ground of an 
ancient print representing the first interview of Henry VIH. with 
Anne Boleyne. 

There was also another large building in 1818 standing parallel 
with York House but nearer the river divided into two houses, then 
in the possesion of F. Alver and H. Tritton, Esqrs., and noted for 
having a very fine terrace in front next the Thames. 

The art of transfer-printing produced from copper-plate im- 
pressions is said to have been made at Liverpool ; but Mr. Binns, 
E.S.A., in his very interesting History of Worcester ware traces 
the claim of transfer-printing to the Battersea Enamel Works at 
York House, (the Archbishop's old palace) where Ravenet and 
other artists wrought in engraving plates from which impressions 
were taken on enamel plaques, ptc, for snuff-boxes and other 
articles. The Liverpool claim to the invention dates from 1756. 
Whereas Horace Walpole writes from Strawberry Hill, six or seven 
miles from Battersea, to R. Bently, September 18th, 1755 ; " I shall 
send you a trifling snuff-box only as a sample of the new manu- 
facture at Battersea which is done with Copper plaits" The 



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59 

Battersea Porcelain* Works failed and Alderman Jansen's stock, 
furniture, etc., were sold by public auction, March 4, 1756. The 
Battersea and Chelsea wares being rarities are expensive, particularly 
the former. A writer in the " Athenaeum" thinks it probable that 
some of the Battersea workmen found their way to Worcester and 
Liverpool. 

The public may see some beautiful as well as curious specimens 
of Battersea enamel exhibited at Kensington Museum, lent by the 
Hon. W. F. B. Massey, Mainwaring. Also some bought at Mrs. 
Haliburton's sale. Battersea enamel 1750-60. Blue and gold, 

C\ and gold candle-sticks, snuff-boxes, scent-bottles, needle-cases, 
die for a cane, tray (circular) from Dulparry with floral me- 
dallions, tuzza, Bulton's hunting subjects in brown transfer, thimble 
cases, etui with implements. Battersea enamel portrait on copper, 
a gentleman in armour wearing the garter, etc., etc. 

Jens Wolfe, Esq., who was Danish Consul to this country, had a 
seat at Battersea called Sherwood Lodge. He built a gallery 76 
feet long by 25, and 30 in height in the most correct style of doric 
architecture for the reception of plaster casts purposely taken for 
this collection from the most celebrated antique statues. The most 
remarkable of these were those from the Fighting Gladiator and the 
Niobe, the Barberini Faun, the Dying Gladiator and the Farnese 
Hercules. The mansion was pleasantly situated and beautifully 
shaded with poplar, lime, and sycamore trees. It was the residence 
of Mrs. Fitz Herbert. Sir George Womb well chose it as his seat 
and resided in it about fourteen years. Subsequently Sir Edward 
Hyde East dwelt here. The stable belonging to Sherwood Lodge 
still remains, also the old wooden-cased pump with leaden spout. 

On the site where stood York House, Tudor Lodge, and Sherwood 
House, stands a great hive of industry known as Belmont Works or 
Price's Patent Candle Factory. Price's Patent Candle Company 
(as a private Arm) was among the earliest to apply in commercial 
enterprise the discoveries of Chevreul, and has continued to hold the 
first place among candle manufacturers in Great Britain ; and not* 
withstanding the manufacture of gas, the importation of American 
oils and the many competitors for supplying light-giving material 
this Company makes its way by dexterity between them. At the 
present time the store room of the Belmont Factory actually con- 
tains candles of about 240 different kinds. Until Chevreul had 
begun his scientific investigations in 1811, oils and fats had been 
regarded as simple organic substances. On the complete publication 
of his discoveries in 1 823, the complex character of these bodies 
became extensively known. In 1829 the plan of separating cocoa* 
nut oil into its solid and liquid components by pressure, was in that • 
year patented by Mr. James Soames of London ; this patent was 
purchased by Mr. William Wilson and his partner, who, trading 
upon it under the title of E. Price & Co., perfected it as to manu- 

♦In 15 1 8 the Portuguese obtained their settlement at Macao, and through them 
Europe obtained its first specimen of china ware. " And because the cowrie 
shells which represented Onental money, resembled as they thought, the backs 
of little pigs, they called them porcellana ; and because the transparent .and 
beautiful texture of china ware resembled that of the delicate cowrie shell, the 
same name was applied to it ; whence we get, it is said, our English designation— 
porcelain." — Sc* Morratfs History of Pottery. 



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faotuxing detaili. In 18*1 
the candle manufacture in 
England was set free from 
the excise supervision to 
which it had been previous- 
ly subj ected. From that date 
then its progress became 
possible. After a time, in 
order to carry out suce&s- 
fully certain enterprises 
which required more capital 
g than the Company had at 
2 their command, Mr. Wil- 
§ son* s partn er sold his share 
& in the beginning of 1835 
^ to three capitalists. With 

3 these gentlemen as sleep- 
£ ing partners and with the 
^ aid of two of his sons, Mr. 
o Wilson continued under the 
£ name of Edward Price & 
m Co. to carry on the concern 
g until it passed in 1847 into 
o the hands of Price's Patent 
g Candle Company, with a 
a capital of £500.000 ; of this 
§ Company Mr. Wm. Wilson 
^ became the first Chairman, 
>T and his sons, Mr. James P. 
5 Wilson and. Mr. George F. 
cjj Wilson, the two Manu- 
g facturing Directors. It is 
interesting to notice that 
g in the year 1 840, while Mr. 
k J. P. Wilson was en- 
deavouring to produce a 
cheap self-snuffing candle 
for the coming illumination 
5 in honour of the marriage 
P* of Her Majesty Queen 
j° Victoria, then about to 
o take place, succeeded in 
°j making such candles of a 
mixture of equal parts of 
stearic acid and cocoa-nut 
stearine, they gave a bril- 
liant light and required no 
snuffing. These candles 
came rapidly into notice, 
they were named "Compo- 
site" because of the mixture 
in them. Africa supplies 
» . the palm-oil . which was. 
hitherto used almost en- 



< 



• 



m 

tirelyfor soap-making. The imports of palm-oil into" England, 
which amounted to about 9,800 tons in 1840, have for many years 
past exceeded 40,000 tons annually, and averaged 50,000 tons in 
1871, 1872, 1873 and 1874. This increase of importation is un- 
doubtedly due in very great part to the use of oil in the manufacture 
of candles ; and it is this trade which presents to the African chief ^ 
and kings along the West Coast the motive that they can best 
understand for the abandonment of the slave-trade, they learn in 
fact, that their subjects are of more value to their rulers when 
collecting palm-oil than by being sold into slavery. The cocoa-nut 
oil brought from Ceylon is largely used in the factory. The palm- 
oil from the Coast of Africa being converted by chemical processes 
into stearine, is freed from oleic acid by enormous pressure, is 
liquefied by steam, and then conveyed into the moulding machinery, 
by which 800 miles of wicks are continually being converted into 
candles. Among the earlier operations of the new Company was 
the acquirement in 1848 of the Night-Light Patent held by Mr. 
Q. M. Clarke, and in 1849 of the • Night-Light business of Mr. 
Samuel Childs, and the erection of a new factory for the purpose 
of carrying on this new branch of manufacture on an extensive 
scale. In 1875 no less than 32 J millions of new lights were sold 
by the Candle Company. Geology informs us that in the age of 
the coal formation a great part of the earth's surface was covered 
by a dense and tangled vegetation composed mainly of flowerless 
plants growing with wonderful luxuriance in the warm damp 
atmosphere which must then have pre vailed — the masses of vegetable 
matter — the decay of gigantic ferns sinking into the boggy soil 
formed peat which as ages rolled on became converted by heat and 
pressure into coal. The conditions of the earth now are so different to 
what they were at that geological period that we are unable to state/, 
with certainty how long the process must have taken to form the 
ancient beds of lignite (mineral coal retaining the texture of the 
wood from which it was formed) and brown coal, and the still more 
ancient beds, or seams of true coal. From these paraffme is ex- 
tracted by ch emical processes — it is the chief material in the Golden 
Medal Palmitine Candles (the name given to the candles in consquence 
of the award to the Company at the Paris Exhibition, 1867, and 
other products — the name " Palmitine" having been giyen to them 
because of the presence of a beautifully pure white steUrine obtained 
'from palm-pil) > The paraffiae thus procured * by a process of 
distillation yields at the same time a liquid .product affording under 
the name of coal oil, or petrolium, one of the cheapest of the 
Company's light-giving materials. Price's Glycerine has obtained 
a world- w^de .reputation for its purity — much of it is manufactured 
from palm-oil. . It was in the Company's factory that pure glycerine 
was first produeed. The total of raw materials brought into work 
by the Oetapaay in 1877 amounted to nearly 16,000 tons. The 
produce in the same year was as follows; — • 

Candles of all kinds ,.* M 147,000,000 

Night-lights '*.. ., /.. 32,000,000 

Oils for Lamps, Machinery and Wool- 
working . . . . . . gals. 990,000 

Household and Toilet Soaps . . •• cwts. 38,000 



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62 

Stearine and Candle-material sold in bulk, cwte. 1 6,000 
Glycerine of various qualities . . . . „ 3,500 

The year's produce of candles named above would suffice to give 
the continuous light of one candle during about 84,000 years. The 
Night-lights would in like manner give the continuous light of one 
Night-light during about 25,000 years. In 1853 the Company took 
a step of much importance. Liverpool being then as now, the 
place of arrival of the largest importation of palm-oil, it was felt 
to be desirable that the Company should have in or near it a second 
factory, prepared to manufacture this material where it could be 
purchased without cost of land carriage. The capital of the 
Company was therefore increased and an estate of about 60 acres 
was purchased at Brom borough Pool, near Liverpool, on which was 
erected the second factory with cottages. The factory village 
numbers 97 houses with a population of 530. It has its own place 
of worship, schools, co-operative stores, rifle corps, and all the 
organization of a model village. At present this factory employs 
about 320 operatives. The London Works (Battersea) occupy an 
area of about 13 J acres, those at Bromborough occupy 7 acres. The 
buildings are all roofed with corrugated iron so as to reduco 
inflammable material to a minimum. The area covered by the 
roofs is a large one, as the buildings again, with a view to safety 
from Are have generally no upper floor. This area amounts to 
nine acres lor the two factories. The operatives number about 
1,300, nearly 1,000 of whom are employed at Battersea. Connected 
with each factory is a mess-room in which the work-people can 
either purchase their food from the Co-operative Society established 
among themselves, or can have their own provisions cooked for 
them. At each factory a brief devotional service is conducted every 
morning. Each factory has its reading room and library; each 
maintains a corps of rifle volunteers (the two establishments 
together providing about 300 efficient riflemen), and each during 
the winter has its evening school for boys employed in the Works. 
Bromborough enjoys an excellent recreation ground and set of 
allotment gardens, but the growth of buildings about London has 
precluded the London operatives from having these privileges. 
I)uring the winter months, lectures and science and art classes 
offer amusement and instruction to those who desire one or the 
other. In each factory a medical officer pays a daily visit, and 
attends to all who may be ailing ; a weekly payment of one penny 
from each man and a half-penny from each boy being required in 
return for this privilege. On the whole this is one of the best 
regulated Arms in the Metropolis. 

Mr. James Pillans Wilson, Consulting Adviser. 

„ John Calderwood, General Manager, 

„ W. H. Withall, Secretary. 

„ Kingston George Woodham, Superintendent 

„ S. J. Boberts, Chief Engineer. 

„ G. Chhds, Superintendent flight-Light, Department. 

„ J. Dayj Superintendent Bromborough Pool Works, 
near Birkenhead.* 

♦The writer has had the privilege of consulting a pamphlet entitled " A Brief 
History of Price's Paten; Candle Company (Limited;," printed by Spottiswoode 
&l Co., New Street Square, London, 1876. For private circulation only. 



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63 

Though hour-glasses were invented at Alexandria b.o. 149, and 
water-clocks about the same period, yet it does not appear that 
hour-glasses and clepsydras or water-clocks were known in 
England during the reign of Alfred the Great. Sun dials might 
be, but were of no use from eve to morn and when the days were 
sunless. In order to allot certain portions of time to particular 
objects, eight hours to sleep, meals and exercise, eight to the affairs 
of government, and eight to study and devotion, Alfred contrived 
the expedient of having wax candles made of equal weight and 
twelve inches in length, with marks upon them at regular distances. 
The combustion of one candle lasted four hours, and each inter- 
mediate part, an inch in distance, denoted a period of twenty minutes. 
Six of these candles lasted twenty-four hours. The duty of tending 
these candles was entrusted to one of Alfred's domestic Chaplains 
who had to give the Monarch notice of their working. As currents 
of air rushed through the unglazed windows and clunks in the walls 
of the Royal residence as to render the combustion irregular and 
the register inaccurate, the ingenious King surrounded the candles 
with horn mwI wooden frames to make thoni burn steudilv in all 
weathers. 

It was a custom in olden time to conduct a sale or auction by 
inch of candle, A small piece of candle being lighted the by- 
standers were allowed to bid for the merchandize that was offered 
for sale — the moment the candle went out the commodity was 
adjudged to the last bidder. 

There was also excommunication by inch of candle, when the 
sinner was allowed to come to repentance while a candle continued 
to burn ; but after it was consumed he remained excommunicated 
to all intents and purposes. 

CANDLEMAS, a feast of the Romish Church, celebrated on the 
2nd of February, in honour of the purification of the Virgin Mary. 
It is borrowed from the practice of the ancient Christians, who on 
that day used abundance of lights both in their churches and pro- 
cessions, in memory as is supposed of our Saviour's being on that 
day declared by Simeon "to be a light to lighten the Gentiles." 
In imitation of this custom, the Roman Catholics on this day con- 
secrate all the tapers and candles which they use in their churches 
during the whole year. At Rome, the Pope performs that ceremony 
himself ; and distributes wax candles to the Cardinals and others, 
who carry them in procession through the Great Halls of the 
Vatican or Pope's Palace. This ceremony was prohibited in 
England by an Order of Council in the year 1548. 

Some writers affirm that Candlemas was first instituted by Pope 
Gelasius I. in 492. " The Romans were in the habit of burning 
candles on this day to the goddess Februa, the mother of Mars; ; 
and Pope Sergius seeing it would be useless to prohibit a practice 
of so long standing turned it to christian account by enjoining a 
similar offering of candles to the Virgin. The candles were 
supposed to have the effect of frightening the devil and all evil 
spirits away from the persons who carried them, or from the houses 
in which they were placed." It is evident that the numerous 
superstitious notions and observances connected with candles and 
other lights in all countries had a remote origin, and may be con* 



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64 

siderei as relics of the once universally prevalent warship of the 
sun and of fire, for mankind had so far forgotten the One living 
and true God as to worship the creature instead of the Creator 
who is God over all blessed for evermore. 

A bright spark at the candle denotes that the party directly 
opposite is to receive a letter. Windy weather is prophesied from 
the waving of the flames without (apparent) cause, and wet 
weather if the wick does not light readily. There is a tradition in 
most parts of Europe to the effect that a fine Candlemas portends 
a severe winter. In Scotland the prognostication is expressed in 
the following distich : — 

" If Candlemas is fair and clear 
There'll be twa winters in the year." 

It is said that condemned criminals making the amende honorable 
at the church doors were constrained to bear in their hands a wax 
taper of six pounds weight. That it is only thirty-two years since 
a woman convicted of the offence of brawling in church, stood, by 
sentence of the Ecclesiastical Court, in a white sheet and with a 
candle in her hand, coram publico, in a church in Devonshire. By 
the superstitious in olden times in England the rescued parts of 
Candlemas tapers were supposed to possess supernatural virtues. 
"Candlemas Bleeze" was until recently, a bonfire festival still 
observed in sequestered parts of Scotland. A " winding, sheet," 
a "thief" in the candle, etc., were regarded as evil omens, and 
anxious fears excited if suddenly a hollow cinder were ejected from 
the fire to know whether it resembled a cradle or a coffin ! 

About a century ago London was so infested with gangs of 
highwaymen that it was dangerous to go out after dusk. In i 705 
an Act of Common Council was passed for regulating the nightly 
watch of the City. A number of strong able-bodied men had to 
be provided by each Ward. Every person occupying any shop, 
house or warehouse had either to watch in person or pay an able- 
bodied man to be appointed thereto. Watchmen were provided 
with lanterns and candles and armed with halberts ; to watch from 
nine in tfye evening till seven in the morning from Michaelmas to 
the first-of April, and from ten till five from the first of April till 
Michaelmas. Thus they went their nightly rounds calling ' ' Lantern 
and a Qandle ! Hang out your Lights ! " for during dark nights a 
certain number, ol householders in each street had to hang out 
lanterns with a whole can lie, and the Watchman thundered at the 
door of those delinquents who neglected to do so. The total 
number of Watchmen appointed by this Act was 583. 

Facing Price's Candle Factory was a field which was rented by the 
Company and used as a cricket ground for their employes. Queen's 
Terrace and streets adjacent now cover this portion of^and. 

Among the State Papers is a letter dated August 22, 1580, from 
Archbishop Sandys to John Wickliffe, keeper of his house at 
Battersey, in which he directs him to deliver up the house to the 
Lords of the Cguncil so that it might be turned into a prison for 
obstinate papists. During the Commonwealth, York House was 
sold to Sir Allen Apsley and Colonel Hutchinson for the sum of 
£1,806 3s. 6d., but it was reclaimed by the See after the Restoration. 
- Brayley in.his History of Surrey says, "Besides -this Mansion 



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6S 

(near York House) there are several handsome seats fronting the 
river and various large manufacturing establishments, Chemical 
works, and melting furnaces, etc. are extensive along its banks, 
greatly to the annoyance of the market gardeners and florists who 
complain grievously of the injury they sustain by the smoke and 
noxious vapours of the numerous steam engines now employed in 
this hitherto rural district. The establishment here for the pre- 
servation of timber from the dry rot, called Kyanizing from the 
name of its inventor, was destroyed by fire on the 20th of March, 
1847 ; and the conflagration extended to other neighbouring works. 
The process was carried on by forcing tar through the pores of the 
wood, and here was a large pond of that fluid, the blaze of which 
set fire to immense piles of timber which had either undergone the 
process, or were in a state of preparation for it." — Brayley, Surrey 
Martell, Vol. hi. P. 447. 

A very useful thing is that dentated instrument called the Saw. 
Pliny says that the saw was invented by Dcedalus. According to 
Apollodolus Talus invented the saw. Talus it is said having found 
the jaw-bone of a sna.»e employed it to cut through a piece of 
wood and then formed an instrument of iron like it. Saw-mills 
were erected in Madeira in 1420. At Bresdan in 1427. Norway 
had the first saw-mills in 1530. The Bishop of Ely Ambassador 
from Mary of England in the escort of Rome describes a saw-mill 
there 1555. The attempts to introduce saw-mills into England 
were violently opposed, and one invented by a Dutchman in 1663 
was forced to be abandomed. Saw-mills were erected near London 
about 1770. The excellent saw machinery at Woolwich Dockyard 
is based upon the invention of the Elder Brunei, 1806-13. Sir 
Mark Isambard Brunei was the son of a Normandy farmer, and 
born at Hacqueville, near Rouen, on the 25th of April, 1769. He 
early shewed an inclination for mechanics, and at school preferred 
the study of the exact sciences to the classics. In 1786, he became 
a sailor in the French Navy. In the revolutionary peiiod of 1793, 
having involved himself by his political opinions he escaped from 
Paris to the United States. Brunei's career as an engineer began 
1794 when he was appointed to survey for the Canal which now 
connects Lake Champlain with the river Hudson, at Albany. He 
afterwards acted as an architect in New York. On his return to 
Europe in 1799, he married the daughter of William Kingdom, 
Esq., Plymouth, and settled in England. Here he soon established 
his reputation as a mechanician by the invention of a machine for 
making block pulleys for the rigging of ships. The erection of 
steam saw-mills in Chatham Dockyard, a machine for making 
seamless shoes for the army, machines for making nails and wooden 
boxes, for rolling paper and twisting cotton hanks, and lastly a 
machine for producing locomotion by means of Carbonic acid gas, 
which' however though partially successful was afterwards 
abandoned. " But the great work by which his name will be 
transmitted to posterity is the Thames Tunnel which, though 
almost a complete failure as a commercial transaction is nevertheless 
a wondrous monument of engineering skill and enterprise. It was 
commenced in March, 1825, and opened to the public in 1843, after 
a multitude of obstacles and disasters." He held extensive 



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at Battersea on the site now occupied by the Citizen 
Steam-boat Company , where his celebrated saw and veneer mills 
were burned down about the year 1814. He waft elected a Fellow 
of the Royal Society in 1814 ; was appointed Vice-President in 1832. 
He was Knighted in 1840. Died Dec. 1849, in his eighty first year, 
universally respected. 

Sir Eichard Phillips, who had an opportunity of inspecting 
Brunei's machinery at Battersea, eulogizes his fame and speaks of 
his merits and scientific genius thus : — " A few yards from the toll- 
gate of the Bridge on tbe western side of the road stand the work- 
shops of that eminent, modest, and persevering mechanic Mr, 
Brunei, a gentleman of the rarest genius who has effected as much 
for the mechanic arts as any man of his time. The wonderful 
apparatus in the Dockyard at Portsmouth with which he sets blocks 
for the navy, with a precision and expedition that astonish every 
beholder, secures him a monument of fame and eclipses all rivalry." 
At Battersea Works Sir Eichard witnessed four circular saws, two 
of them 1 8-ft. in diameter and two of them 9-ft. in diameter, besides 
other circular saws much smaller used for the purpose of separating 
veneers. He saw planks of mahogany and rosewood sawn into 
veneers the 16th of an inch thick. By the power that turned those 
tremendous saws he beheld a large sheet of veneer 10-lt. long by 
2-ft. broad separated in ten minutes " so even and so uniform that 
it appeared more like a perfect work of nature than one of human 
art." In another building Sir Eichard was shown Mr. Brunei's 
manufactory for shoes, where the labour was sub-divided so that 
each shoe passed by aid of machinery through twenty-five hands 
complete from the hide as supplied by the currier. By this means 
a hundred pairs of strong and well-finished shoes were made per 
day. He remarks, " each man performs but one step in the process, 
which implies no knowledge of what is done by those who go before 
or follow him. The persons employed are not shoemakers, but 
wounded soldiers, who are able to learn their respective duties in 
a few hours. The contract at which these shoes are delivered to 
Government is 6s. 6d. per pair, being at least 2s. less than were 
paid previously for an unequalled and cobbled article." The shoes 
thus made for the Army were tried for two years but afterwards 
abandoned from economical views. 

Sir Eichard Phillips in his " Morning Walk from London to 
Kew" (page 42) savs, "at the distance of a hundred yards from 
Battersea Bridge an extensive pile of massy brick work for the 
manufacture of soap has recently been erected, at a cost it is said 
of sixty thousand pounds. I was told it was inaccessible to strangers 
and therefore was obliged to content myself with viewing it at a 
distance." This soap factory stood by the water side, a little to 
the east of the Bridge, erected by Mr. Cleaver. There were some 
la ge turpentine works in this parish, which belonged to Mr. 
Flocton. 

Battersea has three bridges across the Thames communicating 
with Chelsea. 

The history of the Ferry prior to the erection of the OLD 
WOODEN BEIDOE at Battersea can be traced back some two or 
three centuries, It was much used as a means of transporting 



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67 

passengers, goods, etc., over this part of the river. At the com- 
mencement of the reign of James I. the Ferry from Battersea to 
Chelsea or Chelchehith Ferry was in full operation. "When 
James I. ascended the throne " by Letters Patent for the sum of 
£40, the King gave his dear relations Thomas Earl of Lincoln, and 
John Eldred and Eobert Henley, Esquires, all the ferry across the 
river Thames called Chelchehith Ferry, or Chelsea Ferry." In 
addition to which some grants of land were included and the 
Grantees were empowered to transfer their rights to " our very 
illustrious subject William Blake." In 1618 the Earl of Lincoln, 
who owned Sir Thomas More's house in Chelsea which Sir Thomas 
More had purchased from Sir Eobert Cecil, sold the ferry to William 
Blake. In 1695 it belonged to one Bartholomew Nutt. The ferry 
appears to have been rated in the parish books in 1710 at £8 per 
annum. Between the year 1765. and 1771 the ferry produced an 
average rental of £42 per annum. Sir Walter St. John by virtue 
of his manorial rights held possession of the ferry, at his death in 
1708, the ferry with the rest of the property went to his son Henry, 
who died in 1742 having left the family estate to his son Henry 
the famous Viscount Bolingbroke, at whose death in 1751, in con- 
sequence of his having no issue or progeny of his own, the estates 
with the title descended to his nephew Frederick (son of his half- 
brother, John Viscount St. John) who obtained an Act of Parlia- 
ment in 1762 to sell his estate, which, as we have already observed, 
was purchased in 1763 by the Trustees of John, Earl Spencer. 
Earl Spencer being anxious to replace the ferry with a bridge, in 
1766 obtained an Act of Parliament which empowered him to build 
the present bridge. The bridge is in Battersea and Chelsea Parishes 
(the marks denning the boundry line of these Parishes meet in the 
centre) it was not to be rated to the land tax, or any public or 
parochial rate ; nor deemed a County bridge, so as to subject the 
Counties of Surrey and Middlesex to repair the same. In the. event 
of any casualty occuring to the bridge thereby rendering it 
" dangerous and impracticable" the Earl had to provide a con- 
venient ferry at the same rate of tolls as the bridge. Some old 
writers who have written on the Antiquities and History of Surrey, 
state that the bridge was built at the expense of fifteen proprietors 
each of whom subscribed £1,500. Mr. Walford says in 1771, 
"Lord Spencer associated with himself seventeen gentlemen, each 
of whom was to pay £100 as a consideration for the fifteenth share 
of the ferry and all the advantages conferred on the Earl by the 
Act of 1 766. They were also made responsible for a future payment 
of £900 each towards the construction of a bridge. A contract 
was entered into with Messrs. Phillips and Holland to build the 
bridge for £10,500. The work was at once commenced, and by 
the end of 1771 it was opened for foot passengers and in the 
following year it was available for carriage traffic. Money had to 
be laid out for the formation of approach roads, so that at the end 
of 1773 the total amount expended was £15,662. For many years 
the proprietors realized only a small return upon their capital, 
repairs and improvements absorbing nearly all the receipts. In 
the severe winter of 1795 considerable damage was done to the 
bridge by reason of the accumulated ice becoming attached to the 



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fift 

(timber) piles and drawing them on the riae of the tide, and in the 
last three years of the eighteenth century no dividends were dis- 
tributed." The bridge is 726 feet long and 24 feet wide. It 
originally had 19 openings, the centre opening had a space of 31 
feet, and the others decreased in width equally on each side to 16 
feet at the ends, but in consequence of the serious hindrances which 
the structure caused to navigation on the Thames within the last 
few years the bridge has undergone alterations in order to widen 
the water-way, four of the openings have been converted into two 
and strong iron girdeTS have been introduced. The centre opening 
is now 75 feet wide with a clear head-way of 15 feet at Trinity 
High Water Mark. In 1799 only one side of the bridge was 
lighted with oil lamps. "In 1821 the dangerous wooden railing 
was replaced by a hand rail of iron, and in 1824 the bridge was 
lighted with gas the pipes being brought over from Chelsea altnough 
Battersea remained unlighted for several years afterwards." In 
the year 1873, the bridge, which had hitherto remained in the 
hands of the decendants or Mends of the original proprietors came 
into the possession of the Albert Bridge Company under their Act 
of Incorporation. Its revenues in 1 792 were about £ 1 , 700. About 
nine years ago its yearly income was estimated at £5,000. 

Battersea Bridge Tolls by Act of Parliament 6° George III. 
1766. 

For every description of vehicle drawn by one horse, 

ass, mule or other beast . . . . 4d. 

,, ,, two 6d. 

„ „ three 9d. 

„ „ four Is. 

For every horse, ass mule or other beast laden and 

not drawing . . . : Id. 

For every hackney carriage with plates returning 
empty per horse . . . . . . . . Id. 

For every foot-passenger whatever . . . . £d. 

For every drove of oxen or neat cattle per score lOd. 

and after that rate in any greater or less number. 
For every drove of calves, hogs, sheep or lambs per 
score . . . . . . . . . . . . 5d. 

and after that rate in any greater or less number. 
On a Notice Board dated 6th October, 1824, are the following 
words : " Notice is hereby given that no trucks, wheelbarrows or 
other carriages will be permitted to be drawn upon the foot-paths 
of this bridge. By order of the Proprietors. 

The Bridge though convenient has an unsightly appearance and 
unworthy its position across a river spanned by some of the finest 
bridges in the world. At the foot of the Old Bridge is a toll-house 
with walls twenty inches in thickness, facing which is a painted 
board with charges for tolls headed " Old Battersea Bridge Tolls 
by Act of Parliament 6° George III., 1766." 

ALBEET SUSPENSION BRIDGE, conceived originally many 
years ago by the Prince Consort, it was not until 1864 that an 
Act for its construction was obtained. Although the works were com- 
menced soon after the necessary powers were conferred upon the 
' Company, they were retarded by the action of the Metropolitan 



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Board of Works. That body proposed to embank flie river from 
Pimlico to Battersea Bridge, Chelsea ; the execution of that work 
would involve questions affecting the bridge level and approaches. 
Not until 1867 did the Board obtain their Act, and not until the 
Autumn of 1870 did their engineer determine the open question 
affecting the approaches and levels of the Albert Bridge. In the 
mean-time the powers of the Bridge Act expired, but were revived 
on application to Parliament on condition that the bridge should 
be constructed on Mr. Ordish's rigid suspension principle. This 
principle is now generally well known, it having been carried out 
in practice on several instances, notably in that of the Francis 
Joseph Bridge at Prague, which is 820 feet long and has a centre 
span of 492 feet, and two side spans of 164 feet each. The Ordish 
system consists in suspending the main girders which carry the 
road-way by straight inclined chains, which are maintained in their 
proper position by being suspended by vertical rods at intervals of 
20 feet from a steel iron cable. The total length of the Albert 
Bridge is 710 feet and 41 feet in width between the parapets, which 
are formed of the main girders, which are of wrought iron 8 feet 
deep and continuous ; the upper portion is perforated in order to 
lighten and improve the structure. The main girders are connected 
transversely by cross girders placed 8 feet apart, on these the plank- 
ing is laid for the carriage road- way, which is formed of blocks of 
wood placed with the grain vertically on the planking. The road- 
way is 27 feet in width. On either side is a foot-way 7 feet wide, 
paved with diamond-shaped slabs of Ransome stone 12 inches 
square and 1£ inches thick, laid on the planking with a layer of 
tar and asphalted felt interposed. The slabs in the centre of the 
footpath are of a grey color with an ornamental border. The four 
towers carrying the main chains of the bridge are placed outside the 
parapet girders ; they are placed in pairs, each pair being connected 
at a height of 60 feet from the platform level by an ornamental 
iron work. The towers are of cast-iron and consist each of an 
inner column 4 feet in external diameter, and surrounded by eight 
12-inch octagonal columns placed 12 inches from the central shaft, 
the whole group being connected together at intervals by disc pieces 
of collars of cast-iron. The straight chains are composed of rolled 
iron bars, united end to end by riveted joints and having swelled 
heads only at the extreme ends. The curved cable from which the 
straight chains are suspended to preserve their equilibrium is of 
steel wire and is 6 inches in diameter. It is composed of a series 
of strands of straight wires, about 900 in number, bound together 
by a coiled wire or smaller diameter. The bridge is divided into 
a centre with two side openings, the former a span of 400 feet, and 
the latter 155 feet each. There is a clear headway of 21 feet at 
the centre of the bridge from the under side of the platform to 
Trinity high water mark, the height being reduced to 10 feet at the 
abutments. The piers carrying the four towers are formed of cast- 
iron cylinders sunk down to the London clay and filled with concrete. 
The foundations of the piers consist also of cast-iron cylinders, the 
bottom or cutting ring being 21 feet in diameter, 4 feet 6 inches 
high and If inches thick. The next ring above this is 5 feet high 
and tapers from 21 feet at its junction with the cutting ring to 15 

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To 

_- _- top, from which point the pier is constructed with 

cylinders 15 feet in diameter up to the level at which the towers 
commence. The thickness of the metal in the coned and upper 
rings is 1 J inch. The bottom or cutting rings are noticeable as 
being the largest cylindrical castings ever made in one piece. One 
of the chief peculiarities in the Albert Bridge is the method 
introduced by Mr. Ordish in forming the anchorage. The arrange- 
ment is perfectly independent of the great mass of masonry generally 
employed in anchorages the anchorages being contained within an 
iron structure. It consists of a cast-iron cylinder 20 feet 6 inches 
deep and 3 feet internal diameter enlarged at the bottom into a 
chamber 5 feet diameter for anchoring the chains. The cylinder is 
water-tight, and is provided with a manhole and steps, so that the 
anchorage can be examined at any time, and cleaned and painted 
when necessary. This cylinder is set vertically in a surrounding 
bed of concrete, the bottom being 26 feet below the road-way bed. 
From this proceeds a vertical anchorage chain, connected to the end 
of the main girder, to which is also connected the principal back 
chain and the wire cable. The horizontal strain is thus taken 
through the main girders and the vertical lift by the mass of concrete 
in which the cylinder is embedded, and which is about one-tenth 
the quantity required in ordinary anchorages. The bridge com- 
mands an extensive and picturesque prospect, having on the one 
hand Battersea Park and on the other the Thames Embankment. 
Messrs. Williamson and Company were the contractors for the bridge 
and Mr. F. W. Bryant was their engineer. The cylinders for the 
piers were cast by Messrs. Robin so a and Cottam, of Battersea ; 
the cast and wrought iron work for the superstructure was supplied 
by Messrs. A. Handyside and Company of Derby and London, and 
the steel wire cables by the Cardigan Iron and Steel Works, 
Sheffield. There are twenty upright lamposts in keeping with the 
character of the bridge each bearing a lamp. One rather taller 
than the rest stands in the middle of the road approaching the 
bridge, at the base of which toll-bars are swung on iron hinges to 
obstruct the carriages, the others are placed at certain distances 
apart opposite each other on either side of the pathways. There 
are also four small lodges at which to receive carriage and foot tolls. 
The bridge was opened 31st December, 1872, at 1 p.m. ; re-opened 
the 23rd of August, 1873, at 12.30 p.m. Estimated cost of bridge 
with approaches, etc., etc., about £90,000. Battersea Old Bridge 
belongs to the Albert Bridge Company. 

Off Park Road, Battersea, is an antique cottage, the birthplace 
and residence of Mr. Juer, who for several years discharged the 
duties of Overseer and other Parochial offices in a manner creditable 
to himself and highly satisfactory to the parishioners. From family 
records he has been able to trace that his ancestors have occupied 
this dwelling for the last three centuries. Mr. Juer died Nov. 30, 
and was interred Dec. 6, 1878, in the family vault in St. Mary's 
Church-yard, where there had been no burial for 25 years. Canon 
Clarke read the burial service, and many of the old parishioners 
were present who respected the memory of the deceased. 

CHELSEA SUSPENSION BEIDGE is an elegant structure on 
the suspension principle, (from the site of Eanelagh to Battersoa* 



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*1 

Park) : it measures 347 feet between the towers and 705 between 
the abutments. It was made at Edinburgh and erected in 1 857 after 
designs by the late Mr. Thomas Page, the architect of the New 
Bridge at Westminster, at a cost of £85,319. It was opened on 
the 28th of March, 1858. The roadway is suspended upon chains, 
which hang from two massive and ornamental piers in the river, 
the ends being firmly secured by solid masonry on the shores. On 
a portion of the iron- work of the beautiful arches connecting the 
towers of this magnificent bridge, beneath the escutcheon represent- 
ing the Royal Standard, are emblazoned the following Latin 
inscriptions in old German characters: — AnnoRegni Vicmmo Victoria, 
Anno Domini, 1857, Gloria Deo in Excelsis. The large globular 
lamps at the top of the piers are lighted only when the Queen sleeps 
in London. 

Tolls paid for passing over this Bridge were : — 

For every foot-passenger . . . . . . £d. 

For every description of vehicle drawn by one horse 
and other beast ©f draught .... . . 2d. 

For each and every additional horse or other beast 
drawing . . . . . . . . . . Id. 

For every horse, mule or ass not drawing . . Id. 

For every wheelbarrow or truck not drawn by any 

horse or other beast . . . . . • . . Id. 

For every score of oxen or neat cattle and so in pro- 
portion for any greater or less number . . 8d. 
For every score calves, sheep or lambs, and so in 
proportion for any greater or less number 4d. 

Hackney coaches and licensed cabs without passengers, waggons, 
carts and drays unladen with two or more horses, to pass over the 
bridge upon payment of half the abjve toll. And all post chaise 
returning without passengers and return post horses, to pass over 
the bridge free. By virtue of an Act of Parliament 9th and 10th 
Victoria, cap. 39. By order of the C^nmissioners of Her Majesty's 
Works and Public Buildings, 1858. Office of Works, 12, Whitehall 
Place, Westminster. 

Londoners may congratulate themselves that they are at last 
allowed to cross the bridges which connect the opposite banks of 
the Thames at the western end of this great city without paying 
toll. The Metropolitan Board of Works have expended £538,847 
19s. in freeing these five bridges — viz : Lambeth Bridge, £36,059 ; 
Vauxhall Bridge, £255,230 16s. 8d. ; Albert and Battersea Bridges, 
(including Parliamentary costs), £170,305; Albert Bridge Company 
(taxed costs of arbitration), £2,253 3s. Id. ; Chelsea Bridge, 
£75,000. On Saturday, the 24th of May, 1879, Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria's birthday was appropriately chosen for the occasion and 
great preparations had been made for giving e'clat to the ceremony. 
The route taken by the Royal Party (which included the Prince 
and Princess of Wales — two of their children, Prince Albert Victor 
and Prince G-eorge of Wales, attired in naval costume as naval 
cadets ; the Duke and Duchess of Elinburgh, the Crown Prince ot 
Denmark) which was gay with Venetian masts, bannerets, streamers 
and flags. The Circular Engine Shed in Victoria Bridge Road and 
that portion of the railway bridge which spans the Thames belong- 



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m 

ing to the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway Company 
were lavishly festooned and decorated with coloured flags most 
profusely. Shortly after 3 p.m. came three open carriages each 
drawn by two horses and the well-known scarlet livery of the 
Court Mews on the hammer-cloths. At the south side of Lambeth 
Bridge the Prince was received by Sir James M'Garel Hogg, M.P., 
Chairman of the Board of Works ; the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Lord Middleton, Sir Henry Peek, Sir James Lawrence, M.P., Mr. 
Alderman McArthur, M.P., Mr. Selway, M.P., Mr. Coope, M.P., 
and other notabilities. The keys having been surrended with the 
customary formalities, a Royal salute having been fired from the 
banks of the river and the bands having played the National 
Anthem, Mr. J. M. Clabon handed the Prince of Wales an address, 
folded and tied with green tape, after a moment's parley His Royal 
Highness with a smile and an approving nod of the head from the 
Princess, who was by express wish a joint participator with the 
Heir Apparent in the ceremony of opening the bridge, handed 
back the address asking; that it might be read as he wished to reply, 
then Sir James M'Garel Hogg untying the tape and unfolding the 
address read as follows : — 

" To their Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales. 
May it please your Royal Highness — It is with great gratification 
that we, the Chairman and Members of the Metropolitan Board of 
Works, receive your Royal Highnesses on the occasion of your 
opening free to the public the five bridges over the 'Thames, from 
Lambeth Bridge on the east to Battersea Bridge on the west, which 
serve to connect important districts on the two sides of the river. 
London, which in many respects stands at the head of the great 
cities of the world, has too long, we fear, in the matter of free 
passage across the river, been behind the capitals of other countries. 
Until to-day there has been no free bridge in the metropolis west- 
ward of Westminster by which the population north and south of 
the Thames could pass from one side of the river to the other. We 
are glad that this reproach will now be removed. The bridges 
which your Royal Highnesses are about to declare free have been 
acquired by the board under the powers of an Act of Parliament 
passed in the year 1877, which had for its object the extinction of 
the tolls on all the bridges in London. Waterloo Bridge and the 
Charing-cross Railway Footbridge have already been made free. 
The tolls will this day be extinguished on five other bridges, and 
before the end of the year it is hoped that there will be none but 
free bridges over the Thames throughout the metropolitan area. 
The metropolis and its inhabitants have received many proofs of 
the interest which your Royal Highnesses feel in their welfare, and 
of the encouragement which you are always ready to give to those 
who are engaged in promoting that welfare. Your presence upon 
this occasion is a further proof of the interest you feel, and we offer 
your Royal Highnesses our sincere thanks for the honour you have 
done us. 

Signed, on behalf of the Metropolitan Board of Works, 
J. M. M'Gakel-Hogg, Chairman of the Board, 
May 24, 1879. 



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73 

The Prince of Wales spoke in reply as follows : 

Sir James Hogg and Gentlemen — I thank you in my own name 
and that of the Princess of Wales for your address, and I can 
assure you that it gives us both sincere pleasure to take a part in 
this day's proceedings. The opening of the five bridges westward 
of Westminster is an important event in the annals of the metro- 
polis, and I rejoice that you should have chosen the Queen's Birth- 
eay to declare them free. It is a source of great gratification to us 
to hear your announcement that the other bridges will, before long, 
be equally open to the public. A free communicatiou across the 
Thames is an incalculable boon to all classes of the inhabitants on 
both sides of the river, and it is our earnest hope that you will be 
enabled to carry your promised work into effect within the specified 
time. Let me state in conclusion that the Princess and myself are 
always ready to assist in advancing any object which identifies us 
with the population of London, and which tends to promote the 
interests of the public. The Prince then, amidst loud cheers, ex- 
claimed, ' I declare this bridge open and free for ever.' " 

Twenty carriages were devoted to the Members of Parliament, 
Members of the Metropolitan Board and the Officials the twentieth 
containing Sir James M'Garel-Hogg and some ladies and following 
this came the three Eoyal carriages. The route being kept clear of 
traffic and the spectators massed in lines along side by the police — 
some 1600 were on duty — the arrangements south side of the bridges 
being in charge of Captain Braynes, while on the north side Colonel 
Pearson had the directions. His Eoyal Highness proceeded by 
way of the Albert Embankment to Vauxhall Bridge, the approach 
to which was exceedingly picturesque the banks of the Thames 
fluttering with flags, and the river crowded with boats that followed 
the protege. The procession crossed and re-crossed Chelsea Suspen- 
sion Bridge. In the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway 
West-end Goods Traffic Yard a Eoyal salute was given on the 
arrival of the Prince by the crushing weight of a locomotive 
named Eennes, No. 130, passing over twenty-one fog signals, an 
arrangement previously made by Mr. J. Eichardson, the effect of 
which gave general satisfaction. The west side of the Victoria 
Eailway Bridge which spans the Thames was elegantly decorated 
from one end to the other by the London, Brighton and South 
Coast Eailway Company. Festoons and tri-coloured flags represent- 
ing the colours used for signals on railways were voluntarily dis- 
played in such profusion by Messrs. J. Eichardson and Everest as 
to render the scene quite imposing. In front of Chelsea Hospital 
were drawn up two hundred warriors of olden times, pensioners 
in their beaver cocked hats who knowing more about " Brown 
Bess than the Martini rifle managed to do a salute with tolerable 
precision." The people assembled in Battersea Park made a rush 
for Albert Bridge as the procession approached that graceful 
structure. The Albert Bridge Company was represented by Mr. 
Ewing Matheson, the Chairman ; Mr. Youngman, Manager ; Mr. 
A. C. Harper, Secretary, and Mr. Frederick Stanley, Solicitor. 
(The Countess of Cadogan presented the Princess of Wales and the 
Duchess of Edinburgh with handsome bouquets on behalf of the 
ladies of Chelsea. Button holes of a very choice nature were also 



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74 

presented to the Prince of Wales and the Duke). Mr. Kingsbury, 
Chairman of the Chelsea Vestry, had the honour of presenting a 
silver medal commemorative of the occasion to the Prince of Wales 
which was graciously accepted. At the north side of the bridge 
were drawn up the boys of the Duke of York Asylum ; at the south 
side the children of the local schools, all singing with as much 
gusto as their little lungs would allow " God bless the Prince of 
Wales." The Pier Hotel and the houses facing the Albert Bridge 
were gaily and handsomely decorated with flags of all nations, and 
the balconies at the corner of Cheyne Walk being filled with ladies 
arrayed in summer toilets, thus lending an additional charm to the 
mite en scene. The military display consisted of guards of honour 
from the 1st Middlesex Engineer Volunteers and the 2nd (south) 
Middlesex Bifle Volunteers. The keys of the Albert Bridge were 
handed over on behalf of the Company by Messrs. Matheson and 
Stanley and a device swung across the bridge denoting that the 
latter was u free for ever." On the Chelsea side Mr. Stayton was 
the designer of the festivities. Passing along the Surrey side of the 
river the Prince made for Old Battersea Bridge the last of the five 
to be opened. Here the Surrey Voluuteers and the Surrey Artillery 
mustered in force, and a Salvo of Artillery from the Citizen Steam- 
boat Company announced that the bridge was free. At the 
approach to the Bridge in Bridge Road stands of evergreens were 
most tastefully arranged by the employes of Messrs. H. and Gv 
Neal the well-known Nurserymen of Wandsworth Common. At 
no point in the line of route were greater demonstrations of joy 
expressed and loyalty manifested than by the Battersea people. 

The Royal party returned to Marlborough House— the other 
carriages then went to Chelsea Vestry Hall where a banquet was 
served, and at night there was a display of fireworks at Battersea 
Paik supplied by the Crystal Palace Pyrotechnists, T. Brock & Co., 
the expense being borne by Earl Cadogan to wind up the eventful 
day's proceedings. 

At the foot of Chelsea Suspension Bridge a board is erected on 

which is written the following : Notice, Metropolitan Board of Works. 

No Traction Engine, Steam Roller, or any load exceeding 5 tons on each 

pair of wheels, must he taken over this bridge. By order of J. E. 

Wakefield, Clerk to the Board, May, 1879. 

Shortly after the freeing of the bridges the " bars" were re- 
moved, and the old toll house at the foot of Battersea Bridge 
entirely demolished. 

The stupendous Railway Bridge across the Thames at Battersea 
from Battersea Park Railway Pier to Grosvenor Road Station is 
said to be the Widest Railway Bridge in the World. It consists of 
four arches each one hundred and seventy-five feet span in the clear, 
with a rise of seventeen feet six inches. The immense ribs which 
support the superstructure are formed throughout of wrought iron, 
and are firmly attached to massive cast-iron standards which are 
placed over the piers ; the whole of the frame-work is thus made 
continuous throughout. On each side of the river is a land arch of 
seventy feet span, making the entire length of the bridge eight 
hundred and forty feet. The abutments were put in by means of 
coffer-dams, and the foundations are carried down thirty feet below 



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Trinity high-water mark. The piers are "built upon the same 
principle as that which was first applied by the late Charles Fox to 
the building of the Bridge at Rochester, Charing Cross, and Cannon 
Street, Railway Bridges. The bridge was first erected by Mr. J. 
Fowler. In 1865-6 it was enlarged by the late Sir Charles Fox. 

Some antiquarians have stated that about fifty yards westward of 
Chelsea Suspension Bridge, Caesar and his legions crossed the river 
Thames by a ford when in pursuit of the Britons who were retreat- 
ing from the Romans. The ford is described at low water as a 
shoal of gravel not more than three feet deep, sufficient for ten 
men to walk abreast, except on the Surrey side where it has been 
deepened by raising ballast, and the causeway from the South bank 
may yet be traced at low water. Others think that the place of 
crossing was higher up the river, either at Chertsey or Kingston ; 
the latter was anciently called Moreford, or the Great Ford. How- 
ever, landing at Deal, it is natural the Romans would cross the 
river at some ford nearest that point.* 

We would suggest that the next Monolith brought to this country 
from the land of the Ptolemys or Caesars be erected on this spot, 
similar to that oi Cleopatra's Needle on the Victoria Embankment. 

Watermen and others who navigate the river have observed how 
very shallow the water is at this spot. Sir Richard Phillips says 
"the event was pregnant with such consequences to the fortune of 
these Islands, that the spot deserves the record of a monument ; 
which ought to be preserved from age to age, as long as the venera- 
tion due to antiquity is cherished among us. Who could then have 
contemplated that the folly of Roman ambition would be the means 
of introducing arts among the semi-barbarous Britons, which in 
eighteen hundred and forty years or after the lapse of nearly sixty 
generations, would qualify Britain to become mistress of Imperial 
Rome ; while one country would become as exalted, and the other 
be so debased, that the event would excite little attention, and be 
deemed but of secondary importance ? Possibly after another sixty 
generations, the posterity of the savage tribes near Sierra — Leone, 
or New Holland may arbitrate the fate of London, or of Britain, as 
an affair of equal indifference." f 

We shall not attempt to speculate as to what is within the range 

* The distance of Chertsey (Surrey) from London is about nineteen miles. 
Here, says Camden, Julius Caesar crossed the Thames when he first attempted 
the conquest of Briiain; but Mr. Gough, in his addition to the "Britannia," 
has advanced some arguments against this opinion. The passage some believe to 
have been effected at Coway Stakes, about a quarter of a mile below Chertsey 
Bridge, where Julius Caesar crossed the Thames when he led the Roman army 
into the kingdom of Cassivellaunus, who had encamped his forces on the opposite 
shore. The Britons did everything in their power to prevent the Romans from 
crossing by driving stakes into the bed of the river and fencing the banks with 
wooden palisades. Obstacles of this kind were lightly estimated by the bold 
legionaries. The cavalry at once entered the river ; the infantry crossed with their 
heads only above water, and panic-struck at the sight of Roman intrepidity, the 
barbarian warriors fled fiom their post without an effort to maintain it Bede, 
who lived in the beginning of the eighth century, tells us, that some of the stakes 
were then to be seen, and were as big as a man's thigh.' Mr. Milner says some of 
these stakes have been found at a recent period, hard as ebony, each being the 
body of a young oak tree. 

t •• A Morning's Walk from London to Row," by Sir Richard Phillips, pp. 
26-27, published 18 17. 



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76 

of human possibilities 'knowing as all history teaches us how 
transcient is the glory of sublunary things. We believe that while 
England is true to herself and true to God such a state of things 
concerning Britain as that depicted by Sir Richard will never be 
realised. The overthrow of dynasties, of nations and of empires 
is the result of moral degeneracy — the effect of national and in- 
dividual sins. " Righteousness exalteth a nation but sin is a re- 
proach to any people. By the Almighty who doeth according to 
His will in the armies of heaven and among the inhabitants of the 
earth, kings reign and princes decree justice, He putteth down one 
and setteth up another." However, while reading the fore-mentioned 
quotation we were forcibly reminded of Macauly's New Zealander 
sitting upon a broken arch of London Bridge contemplating o'er 
the desolation of England's chief city, or some other traveller from 
the Antipodes who shall stand on the broken arches of "Westminster 
Bridge, and gazing on a horizon of ruin, cry "Here stood the 
Metropolis of a Mighty Empire ! " 

Many years ago a person wrote a note to the Bev. John Brand, 
Secretary to the Antiquarian Society, to say that as he was passing 
through Battersea Pields he saw some labourers dig up a leaden 
coffin, in which was a skeleton and near it there were three more 
human skeletons. There is no date but it is addressed to Mr. 
Brand, at Northumberland House, which he left about 1795. 

About sixty-five years ago there was a house situated in the 
middle of Battersea Fields which remained for a long time un- 
inhabited on account of the strange and weired stories related and 
circulated about it. Ignorant and uneducated people said it was 
"haunted." Nobody would live in it. At midnight "lights" it 
was said were to be seen "flitting about the rooms," and " dismal 
groans of one in extremes, at the point to die" were to be heard, 
and so many believed in "old bogies" and tales of "hobgoblins" 
so their minds pictured the most frightful and hideous spectres 
imaginable. At length the house like other old buildings in the 
neighbourhood was demolished. The Rev. John Kirk, who wrote 
a Biography of the Mother of the Wesleys, says : " The legendary 
literature of the world teems with wonderful stories of haunted 
houses where invisible spirits were believed to utter mysterious 
sounds, to perform extraordinary pranks, and sometimes com- 
municate revelations of the future, or disclose the dread secrets of 
the hidden world. These beliefs though strongest and most 
prevalent where the Gospel is unknown or least influential, are not 
peculiar to generations ' of old time ' or to any particular nation 
under heaven." Certainly the present generation do not appear to 
have improved much more than their forefathers in this respect 
when there is so much nonsensical talk about communicating with 
the invisible world by means of ' ' spirit rappings, " " table turn in gs, ' ' 
etc. Surely the age when men shall give heed to seducing spirits 
and doctrines of demons has come ! 

Battersea Fields, within the Manor along the Thames, were long 
notable as a marshy tract producing a great variety of indigenous 
plants; and were the scene on March 21st, 1829, of the duel between 
the Duke of Wellington and Lord Winchelsea * Battersea Fields 

* The Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill passed the Commons by a majority 



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fir 

were reputed as a place for duelling and prize-fights but are now partly 
disposed in a fine Public Park, and partly covered with, streets and 
buildings. A lane from Nine Elms pass Tugey's Mill and Kock's 
Tea Gardens, by the poplar trees led to the Red House which faced 
the river near the foot of the South side of Chelsea Suspension 
Bridge since erected. Here in front was a tall flag-staff with flag 
waving in the breeze on which were letters denoting the sign of 
the house Seats and ale-benches, embowered with clusters of elm 
trees with wide-spreading branches overhead, were placed for 
the accommodation of persons who resorted thither for refreshment. 
The space here embanked and enclosed with an iron palisade formed 
a kind of jetty divided in the centre by a flight of steps from the 
river as well as having a flight of steps at both ends where water- 
men landed their passengers or took up their fares. There was a 
ferry here to the "White House" on the opposite side of the Thames. 
The "Red House" was built of red bricks with white pointings, wide 
but not high in elevation. It had one story above the basement 
with slanted slated roof, and contained in all fourteen rooms. Each 
of the windows on the ground-floor had wooden shutters hung on 
hinges painted green, which, when closed or folded, fastened 
inside with bolts. The windows did not project from the general 
face of the building except the refreshment bar and the up- 
stairs dining room. This apartment and the long room adjoin- 
ing commanded an extensive and pleasant prospect of the river A 
large lamp, supported by means of an iron branch fastened to the 
wall, projected over the middle door. The Royal Humane Society's 
drags were always kept here in readiness in case of emergency, and 
notice was written on a board suspended outside the west end of 
the house to that effect. The gardens were laid out in small 
arbours decorated. with Flemish and other paintings and fancifully 
formed flower-beds. In the centre of the garden was a fish-pond ; 
the walks were prettily disposed ; at the end of the principal one 
was a painting, the perspective rendered the walk in appearance 
much longer than it really was. The shooting ground was about 
120 yards square, and inclosed by palings. Beyond the east end of 
the house was situated a range of "boxes" or alcoves — seven in 
number — which at night were illuminated with oil-lamps. Each 
" box " had a table in the centre with seats all round so that twelve 
persons could sit inside very comfortably. Of a morning several of 
the Guards were in the habit of arriving here by water, from 
Whitehall stairs to enjoy their " Flounder breakfast " at ten o'clock. 
And certain noblemen dignified with their presence and patronage 
the annual " Sucking Pig Dinner," which generally took place in 
the month of August. 

of 320 to 142, March 30, and was carried on the third reading in the Lords by 
313 to 104, April 10. The Bill met with determined opposition from the 
Marquis of Winchelsea who said some things which the Duke regarded as a 
personal insult. This led to the hostile meeting at Battersea Fields. It was 
fashionable in those days for gentlemen to settle their friendly differences with a 
yard of cold steel or a bullet from the muzzle of a pistol — happily as the result of 
this duel no blood was shed — the Duke with a directed aim sent a bullet through 
the hat of Winchelsea, whereupon the Marquis fired his pistol in the air, advanced 
towards the Duke and made an apology, the Duke of Wellington politely bowed 
to his political antagonist and then separated. Wellington Road, near Battersea 
Bridge, mark's the locality and derives its name from this circumstance. 

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Mr. Wright, who at one time was proprietor of the " Bed House,"" 
had a Eaven that he called " Gyp " that used to talk. Sometimes as 
if hailing a waterman from the river the bird would cry out " boat 
ahoy!" " "What's o'clock? what's o'clock?" it would hurriedly- 
repeat as if anxious to know the hour. At another time "Gyp" 
would call "Bock! over!" "Over!" as if to intimate that some- 
body requested to be ferried over to the other side. Many a scull 
has been deceived by the mimic cries of this black-feathered rascal. 
One da> Eock the ferryman was so irritated, having been twice 
deceived that day by the call of " Gyp," that he took up a quart 
pewter pot and threw it at his head. "Gyp" narrowly escaped 
uuinjurt-d. Mr. Wright remonstrated and said he would not have 
the bird hurt at any price. The raven was deliciously fond of 
picking bones. On one occasion a gentleman accidently dropped 
his spectacles ; presently, on looking up, he discovered his lost 
property in the beak of the raven perched on a bough with all the 
gravity of a sexton. "Gyp" had an incurable antipathy to dogs. 
If perchance a dog passed by, in an instant he would pounce upon 
its back, hold on by his claws and peck at it most unmercifully, 
while the dog thus attacked ran away yelping and howling. When 
dislodged, "Gyp's" pinions bore him swiftly away from the reach 
of the teeth of his canine adversary. " Gyp " was of a jealous dis- 
position and did not like to see other birds petted. He has been 
known to kill a magpie and a raven. It was dangerous to put 
money down in the presence of ' ; Gyp " for " Gyp ' ' had the propensity 
of picking it up and of flying away with it. On one occasion he 
seized a sovereign which a customer put down. As "Gyp" had 
several hiding places where he deposited " stolen articles," as spoons, 
knives, forks, etc., diligent search was made but the valuable coin 
was never discovered. The last account we heard of " Gyp " was 
that he was taken down to Shropshire and that, the poor bird died. 
Mr. W. Puttick, to whom we are indebted for some curious pieces 
of information, says, "One of the notabilities at the Eed House 
beside the Eaven whose bites I have often experienced was a half- 
witted man who went by the name of * Billy' the nutman. He used 
to carry a bag of nuts and a dial, people paid a penny and turned 
a hand and had nuts for their money. I have often seen this man 
stand in the water and let the pigeon shooters shoot at him for a 
few pence, his gesticulations and grotesque movements at the same 
time exciting from the spectators shouts and roars of laughter." 

Mr. Wright took the house of Mr. Swaine, but after Mr. Wright 
•left, the house was taken by a man of the name of Ireland. 

James Eock, a respectable ferryman and lighterman, whose house 
was hard by, was accidently drowned in the river Thames, August, 
1874. His son, George Eock, is now Pier-master at Battersea 
Park Eailway Pier. 

The "Eed House" was famed for aquatic sports. Adjoining 
the premises were grounds for pigeon and sparrow-shooting, 
and the performance of athletic feats. Pigeons were there sold 
to be shot at, at 15s. per dozen; starlings at 4s., and sparrows 
at 2s. The place attained a notoriety not surpassed by the 
number of excursionists who in summer visit Eye House. 
{Subsequently the Eed House with its shooting ground and 



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19 

adjacent premises was purchased by the Government for £10,000. 

" The Old House at Home" was a small thatched hut, kept by 
Farmer Hall, where beer was sold direct from the cask, to be 
drunken on the premises. It answered the six-fold purpose of shop, 
dormitory, fowl-house, pig-sty, stable and cow-shed. Within this 
hovel were gathered pigs, fowls, cats, dogs, singing-birds, ducks, 
cows, horses and donkeys, which, together with the landlord and 
his customers who regaled themselves here, constituted a "happy 
family !" This was a famous place for "egg flip," which consisted 
of new-laid eggs taken from the hens' nests, beat up in hot ale or 
porter, sweetened with sugar, and sold to persons who preferred 
roaming about at mid-night or in the small hours of the morning. 

On the Lammas land, in the summer months, gipsies pitched 
their encampments. On Sundays the place presented the aspect 
of a pleasure fair, lawlessness, Sabbath desecration, immorality, 
and vice were rampant. At length the place became a scandal and 
a public disgrace, and even now, notwithstanding the vast improve- 
ments in the neighbourhood, Battersea, as a Parish, to a certain 
extent is ignored, and persons would no more have smiled at 
Battersea Park being called Lambeth Park than they do now at 
Clapham Junction being called by that misnomer, and so with 
other parts of the parish. A great boon was conferred upon the 
inhabitants of the South-west of London when this infamous 
locality was converted into a public park. The intolerable 
nuisance complained of did not take place previously to the year 
1835, after Lord Spencer's first sale when the land fell into the 
hands of small proprietors. Irrespective of social propriety, public 
decency and order, horse-racing, donkey-riding, fortune-telling, 
gambling, cock-shying, swings, roundabouts, boxing, and all the 
paraphernalia of a pleasure lair with its concomitant evils were the 
constant scenes witnessed here on Sundays. Mr. Thomas Kirk 
(now Curate of St. George's) who was for many years a Missionary 
in Battersea, in his report published in the "London City Mission 
Magazine," September 1, 1870, states, "that which made this part 
of Battersea Fields so notorious was the gaming, sporting, and 
pleasure-grounds at the "Bed House" and " balloon" public- 
houses, and Sunday fairs, held throughout the Summer months. 
These have been the places of resort of hundreds and thousands, 
from royalty and nobility down to the poorest pauper and the 
meanest beggar. And surely if ever there was a place out of hell 
which surpassed Sodom and Gomorrah in ungodliness and abomina- 
tion this was it. Here the worst men and the vilest of the human 
race seemed to try to outvie each other in wicked deeds. I have 
gone to this sad spot on the afternoon and evening of the Lords' 
day, when there have been from 60 to 120 horses and donkeys 
racing, foot-racing, walking matches, flying boats, flying horses, 
roundabouts, theatres, comic actors, shameless dancers, conjurors, 
fortune-tellers, gamblers of every description, drinking booths, 
stalls hawkers, and vendors of all kinds of articles. It would 
take a more graphic pen than mine to describe the mingled shouts 
and noises and the unmentionable doings of this pandemonium on 
earth. I once asked the pierman ' how many people were landed 
on Sunday from that pier?' He told me that according to tho 



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weather, he had landed from 10,000 to 15,000 people! This influx 
was besides that by the various land roads by which hundreds of 
thousands used to come, till the numbers have sometimes been 
computed at 40,000 and 50,000." Mr. Thomas Cubitt, in 
1843, suggested to Her Majesty's Commission for Improving the 
Metropolis the advisability of laying Battersea Fields out aspleasure- 
grounds, and this design was subsequently pressed upon their 
attention by the Hon. and Eev. Eobert John Eden. An Act of 
Parliament passed in 1846 empowered Her Majesty's Commissioners 
of Woods to form a Eoyal Park in Battersea Fields. Acts to 
enlarge their powers were passed in 1848, 1851 and 1853, by which 
a Commission, incorporated as the Battersea Park Commission was 
appointed with power to sell, demise or lease lands not required for 
the park. Mr. (afterwards Sir) James Pennethorme's plan was 
approved, by which 320 acres were to be enclosed at an estimated 
cost of £154,250. The fields were entirely overflowed by the river 
at high water, until about three hundred years ago when an 
embankment was raised, and the land reclaimed.* Bray ley referring 

* It was a miserable swamp, said to have been gained for the parish of Batter- 
sea by the act of charitably burying a drowned man there who had been refused 
sepulture in the adjoining parish. This act was held in a subsequent law-suit to 
prove a right of ownership, and thus a good deed was amply recompensed. 

On the northern side of the river Thames is conspicuously situated that grand 
national asylum for decayed and maimed soldiers known as Chelsea Hospital. 
This Hospital was begun by Chailes II-, carried on by James II. , and completed 
by William III. in 1690. The first projector of Chelsea Hospital was Stephen 
Fox, grandfather to the Hon. Charles Fox. " He could not abear," he said " to 
see these soldiers, who had ventured their lives, and spent their strength in the 
service of their country, reduced to beg." And with the munificence of a 
philanthropist, he subscribed £13,000 towards the establishmant of the Hospital. 
It was built by Sir Christopher Wren, at a cost of ^150,000, on the site of an 
old theological college escheated to the Crown. In 1850 there were 70,000 out 
and 539 in pensioners. The body of the Duke of Wellington lay here in state 
10-17 Nov., 1852. Ranelagh Gardens lay at the northern foot of Vauxhall 
Bridge, a portion now forming the pleasure-grounds of Chelsea Hospital, and 
were formerly the gardens of Lord Ranelagh's Mansion. They were opened 
1733. The amusement were masquerades, illuminated and day-light fetes, 
dancing, music, and promenading, which was continued until the end of the 
century. The grand rotundo, which somewhat resembled the Pantheon of Rome, 
had an external diameter 185 feet, the internal 150. It was taken down in 
1805. In Cheyne Walk was a famous Coffee-House, first opened in 1695, Dv one 
Salter a barber, who drew the attention of the public by the eccentricity of his 
conduct, and furnished his house with a large collection of natural and other 
, curiosities. Admiral Munden and other officers who had been much on the Coast 
of Spain enriched it with many curiosities and gave the owner the name of Don 
Saltero, by which he is mentioned more than once in the " Tatler,'' particularly 
in No. 34. This coffee-house was frequented by Richard Cromwell and many of 
the wits and authors of that day. " The Folly," a gilded barge where music and 
dancing and other amusements delighted the beaux and belles of the day of the 
Restoration, was moored in the Thames not far from the Modern Cremorne. 
Adjoining Chelsea Hospital is the Physic Garden belonging to the Company of 
Apothecaries, which was enriched with a great variety of plants, both indigenous 
and exotic, and given in 1721 by Sir Hans Sloane, Bart., on condition of their 
paying a quit-rent of £$, and delivering annually to the Royal Society fifty 
specimens of different sorts of plants of the growth of this garden till the number 
amounted to 2,000. In 1733 the Company erected a marble statue of the donor, 
by Rysbrack, in the centre of the garden, the front of which was conspicuously 
marked toward the river by two noble cedars of Lebanon, the first ever planted 
in England, of which only one remains. Sir Hans Sloane was born at Killileagh 
in the north of Ireland, in 1660, of Scottish extraction. He retired at the age of 

• 



81* 

to this period says, "The land reclaimed went to the Lord of the 
Manor, hut was subject to some ill-defined rights of inter-common- 
age exercised by the inhabitants of Battersea at stated periods of 
the year. From various causes these rights have been nearly ex- 
tinguished and most of the land is now held by different proprietors, 
and partly let for building and other uses." Wild flowers grew 
abundantly in Battersea Fields.* A learned botanist in the last 

eighty to Chelsea, to enjoy a peaceful tranquility, the remains of a well-spent life. 
He died Jan. it, 1752. He published the «' History of Jamaica" in 2 vols, folio. 
In the churchyard is the monument of Sir Hans Sloane, Bait., founder of the 
British Museum ; and on the south-west corner of the church is affixed a mural 
monument to the memory of Dr. Edward Chamberlayne, with a punning Latin 
epitaph, which for its quaintness, may detain the reader's attention. In the church 
is a still more curious Latin epitaph on his daughter ; from which we learn, that, on 
the 30th of June, 1690, she fought, in men's clothing, six hours against the French, 
on board a fire-ship under the command of her brother. The Chelsea Embank- 
ment extends along the north bank of the river from Chelsea Hospital to Albert 
Suspension Bridge ; it was opened 9th may, 1874, by the Duke and Duchess of 
Edinburgh, Lieut. Col. Sir James Magnaghten Hogg, M.P., Chairman of the 
Metropolitan Board of Works; Sir Joseph Bazalgette, C.B., Engineer. A. 
beautiful view of Chelsea Embankment with its adjacent buildings may he had 
from the broad Boulevard running along the river-side in Battersea Park; in- 
cluding the lofty spire of St. Luke's Church, Old Chelsea Church, the Gardens 
of the Apothecaries' Company, the fine old trees and picturesque Dutch-like 
houses of Cheyne Walk, the Gardens and Buildings of Chelsea Hospital, the 
New Barracks beyond, and the lofty Pumping Station and Tower near Grosvenor 
Road Station. 

* We are acquainted with an aged gentleman well skilled in medical botany 
who in the e*rly part of his professional experience used to have gathered certain 
choice herbs for therapeutic purposes which grew abundantly in this locality. 
The following are the names of some of the indigenous plants : — 
Circea intetiana — Enchanter's Night Shade (in the lane from the fields to the 
Prince's Head, Battersea, uncommon in shady lanes). Valeriana dioica — Small 
Marsh Valerian. Fedia olitoria — Corn Salad (dry banks Battersea Fields and 
Lavender Sweep). Panicum Vertiullatum — Rough Panic Grass (rare). P. 
Viride— Green Panic Grass (near the Red House and Nine Elms). P. Crus- 
galli— Loose Panic Grass (near the footpath). Bromus diandrus — Upright 
Annual Broom Grass (rare, on an old wall near Battersea Church). Avena 
Jlavescens — Yellow Oat-Grass (not common, in the footpath from Battersea 
Bridge to Lavender Hill). Myosotis palustris — Great Water Scorpion Grass or, 
Forget me not, (ditches and marshy grounds ; plentiful in Battersea Fields). An 
elegant plant, the emblem of affection among the Germans. Lithospermum 
arvense — Corn Gromwell, (Battersea Cornfields; not common). Primula 
vulgatis—¥x\mxosz. P. Vcris — Cowslip (Fields on Lavender Hill). Hottonia 
palustris — Water Violet, (plentiful in Latchmere). Scirpus Triquettr — Triangular 
Club Rush, rare, (Banks of the Thames between Vauxhall and Battersea \. 
Lysimachia vulgaris— Great Yellow Loose Strife. Samolus valerandi — (Brook 
Weed, Water Pimpernel). Chenopodium bonus Henricus — English Mercury. 
C-olidum — Fetid Goosefoot, (rare). Cicuta Virosa — Water Hemlock, (deadly 
poison to men and cattle). Conium Macu latum— Common Hemlock, (a very 
dangerous plant). QZnanthe fistulosa — Water Dropwort. (E, crocata — Hemlock 
Water Dropwort, (deadly poison to men and cattle). (E. Phellandrium — Fine- 
leaved Water Dropwort, (a very poisonous plant). Smymium Olusatrum — 
Alexanders, (waste grounds near old houses). Ornithogalum umbellatum — Star 
of Bethlehem. Rumex Sanguineus — Blood-veined Dock, (rare, bank of a ditch 
on Lavender Hill, between the Nursery and the footpath). R. pulcher — Fiddle 
Dock. R. palustris — Yellow Marsh Cock. R. Hydrolapathum — Great Water 
Dock. Triglochin palustre— Marsh Arrow Grass. Alisma plantago— Water 
Plantain, (ponds and marshes). Polygonum Bistorta — Bistort, or Snake Weed. 
Butomus umbellatus— Flowering Rush. Saxifraga granulata — White Saxifrage. 
S. Ifidactylites — Rue-leaved Saxifrage. Sedum reflexum — Reflex Yellow Stone- 
crop. Lychnis flos Cuculi — Meadow Lychnis. Chelidonium majus — Celandine. 



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82 

centmy compiled a flora of Battersea, and many of the plants 
that luxuriated in these fields were not to be met with elsewhere, 
except at places much farther from London. Its surface was raised 
by a million cubic yards of earth from various sources, particularly 
from the London Docks (Victoria) Extension. The Park comprises 
198 acres, was purchased at a cost of £246,517, and laid out in 
1852-58 at a further cost of £66,373. In 1857 planting was com- 
menced. Up to this period the works had been executed under 
Mr. Pennethorne, Architect of the Office of Works, when the late 
Mr. Farrow was appointed to take charge and complete the un- 
finished works. The park has a grass surface of nearly 66 acres. 
About 40 acres are set apart for cricket and croquet. There are 
two match grounds, which, together, admit of seven matches being 
played at the same time. On these grounds between 600 and 700 
matches are played annually. The spaces are asigned by ballot. 
There is a practice-ground for organized adult cricket clubs, on 
which from 70 to 90 cricket clubs practice on different days ; and a 
general practice ground, appropriated to schools and junior clubs, 
and the public generally. The season for cricket is from 1st May 
to 30th September. Other large spaces are used for the drill and 
exercise of troops stationed at Chelsea Barracks. Various volunteer 
corps as also the district police are drilled here. The park contains 
one of the richest collections of shrubs and trees in or near London. 
Its soil is specially suited to the rose, so that visitors who take 
delight in the queen of the English garden resort to the rosary. 

The Sub-tropical Garden opened in August, 1864, is nearly four 
acres in extent. It is situated at the head of the ornamental water 

Palaver dubium — Long Smooth-headed Poppy. Stratiotes aloides — Water 
Aloe. lhalictrutn flavum — Common Meadow Rue. Nepeta Cataria — Cat 
Mint. Lamium incisum — Cut- leaved dead Nettle. Scutellaria galericulata — 
Common Scull Cap. Prunella vulgaris — Self Heal. Pedicularis palustris — 
Tall Red Rattle. Antirzhinum Cymbalaria — Joy-leaved Snapdragon. A, 
spurium — Round-leaved Fluellin or Snapdragon. A. orontium — Lesser Snap- 
dragon, (Cornfields, etc., Battersea Fields. Cocklearia armoracia — Horse 
Raddish. Nasturtum amphibium — Amphibious Yellow Cress. Sisymbrium- 
irio — Broad Hedge Mustard. S. sophia— Fine-leaved Hedge Mustard. Ery» 
simum Cheiranthoides — Worm-seed Treacle Mustard. Geranium pratense — 
Blue Meadow Crane's Bill. G. Pobertianum— Kerb Robert. G. Lucidum — 
Shining Crane's Bill. G. pyrenaicum— Perennial Dove's-foot Crane's Bill. G. 
rotundifolium — Soft Round-leaved Crane's Bill, (by the road side near the Prince's 
Head, Battersea. Malva rotundifolia — Dwarf Mallow. Lathyrus aphaca — 
Yellow Vetching. Ervum hirsutum — Hairy Tare, (Osier ground near Battersea). 
Trifolium fragiferum— Strawberry-headed Trefoil. Hypericum humifusum — 
Trailing St. John's Wort. H. pulchrum— Small upright St. John's Wort. 
Jragnopogon pratensis—YeUow ; Goat's Beard. Cichorium Intybus— Wild 
Endive; or, Succory. Onopordum Acanthium — Common Cotton Thistle. 
Bidens <r*r«H«— Nodding Bur-Marygold. Tusslago Petasites—Bxiiter Bur. 
Orchis morio and maculata are said to have been found in Battersea Meadows. 
Listera ovata — Common Twayblade. Typha augustifolia — Lesser Cat's Tail; 
or, Reedmace. Sparganium ramosum — Branched Bur-Reed. Carex dioica — 
Common Separate-headed Carex. C. remota — Remote Carex. C. riparia — 
Common Bank Carex. Sagittaria sagittifolia — Arrow Head. Mercurial is 
annua — Annual Mercury. Equisetum limosum — Smooth naked Horsetail. 
See a catalogue of the rarer species of indigenious plants which have been 
observed growing in the vicinity of Clapham ; systematically arranged according 
to their class and order, with a reference to the figures in English Botany, printed 
in a deeply interesting work entitled " Clapham and its Environs," by David 
Batten. J 



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83 

surrounded by sloping banks, parterres and rolling lawns. In this 
region flourish palms, tree-ferns, plants with large leaves, gigantic 
grasses, and the climbers and creepers of Equatorial forests and 
jungles. India-rubber trees, castor-oil plants, Japauese honey- 
suckle, Chinese privet, the banana of Abyssinia recalling the 
expedition to Magdala ; the papyrus plant of Egypt, the veritable 
bulrush of the Nile, the beautiful scarlet foliage of the dragon's 
blood tree from South America, the large-leaved tobacco plant, the 
caladium esculentum from the West Indies, the neottopteris australis 
etc., besides a variety of other vegetable forms from the tropics. 
Eastward of the Sub-tropical Garden is situated the Peninsula, 
containing some of the choicest combinations of floral work, 
resembling in pattern the most exquisite tapestry. The Al \ane point 
gives a minature representation of the valleys and mountain-peaks 
of Alpine scenery. Several little hills are so arranged as to show 
in miniature the ascending zones of vegetation, beginning with the 
low warm plains with palms, and leading up to snow-clad heights. 
The snow is represented by gnaphalium tementosum. The lake, 
rocks, waterfalls and landscapes are truly picturesque, being so 
arranged as to produce the most pleasing effect. 

The ornamental water covers 23 acres of ground, with an average 
depth of 2 J feet. Ornithological specimens of the web-footed 
class afford sport for the aged as well as for the young who feed the 
aquatic birds with cake, biscuit and crumbs of bread. Besides a 
large colony of Moorhens that have settled down in these friendly 
waters may be seen Chinese, Egyptian and Barnacle geese, and 
Carolina and Moscovy ducks ; also 

" The Swan, with arch'd neck 

Between her white wings mantling proudly, rows 

Her state with oary feet " 
The lark, the linnet, the thrush, the black-bird join in chorus to fill 
the air with their bird-song. At night passers-by are charmed 
with the sweet, rich mellow notes of 

"The merry nightingale, 
That crowds, and hurries, and precipitates, 
With fast thick warble his delicious notes, 
As if he were fearful that an April night 
Would be too short for him to utter forth 
His love chant.' Coleridge. 

It may not be uninteresting for the naturalist to know that larva 
of the goat moth {cosbus ligniperda) inhabits poplars and willows in 
Battersea Park. This park too is considered famous for the congrega- 
tion of vast flocks of starlings just before their migration. 

Boating here is a safe and enjoyable amusement. Skiffs are one 
shilling per hour, party boats eighteenpence. In Winter, when the 
water is frozen over, it is quite an area for skaters. 

The lake is an artificial one, and is fed partly from the Thames 
and partly by a steam engine fixed for the purpose of supplying 
the park with water for the lodges, drinking-fountains, roads, 
flower-beds, etc. 

The Gymnasium is in the South-western portion of the park. 
On the adjacent sward Sunday and other schools may hold their 



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84 

Annual treats. In the space thus appropriated preaching is allowed 
and public meetings are permitted. 

Nearly at the centre of the Peninsula there is a reservoir which 
is excavated below the level of the neighbouring springs. The 
water from this self-supplied source is as clear as crystal; it is 
pumped into an elevated tank above the engine house which holds 
20,000 gallons, from which rre laid service pipes for the supply of 
the park. 

The avenue occupies a central position of the park ; the trees 
are the English elm. This affords an enjoyable and shady 
promenade. 

The horse ride or equestrian road, about forty feet wide, nearly 
encircles the park and is almost two miles in length. Here is also 
an excellent carriage drive separate from the latter by a row of 
young plane trees. There are numerous seats in the park for the 
accommodation of the public. Situated in the centre of the park is 
a band-stand. The band plays in the Summer and Autumnal 
months for the entertainment of those who are fond of instru- 
mental music. 

There are two refreshment rooms where light refreshments can 
be obtained at moderate prices. The lodges too are appropriated to 
the public and offer refreshments and cloak-rooms. 

The advantage of a river frontage possessed by Battersea Park 
is shown by the fact that upwards of 12,000 persons have landed at 
the Park Pier on fine Summer days. On Sundays, when Chelsea 
Bridge is free, in fine weather, 40,000 or 50,000 people have been 
in the park. 

The public owe a tribute of grateful respect to the late Mr. John 
Gibson, of Surrey Lane, whose acquaintance with horticulture and 
the science of botany was something considerable, who for about 
fifteen years was Park Superintendent. That gentleman went on 
a Botanical Mission to India for and at the expense of the Duke 
of Devonshire. The manner in which portions of the park are 
disposed was from designs originally his own. The new rock work 
is by Mr. Pulham, of Broxbourne. Mr. Alexander Rogers is at 
present Park Superintendent ; Mr. E. W. Partridge, Inspector. 
There are twelve Park Constables, viz., Mr. J. Cook, South-east 
Lodge ; J. Hawkins, South Lodge ; Edwin Ashby, West Lodge ; 
George Weedon, Charles Page, William Jones, James Powell, 
J. Pointer, George Dicks, W. Sheppard, Isaac Chamberlain, William 
Withers, Mr. Dowly, Foreman of the Gardeners. On an average 
about forty gardeners are employed in the park. The park is under 
the Commissioners of Works, No. 12, Whitehall* 

The park was opened March 28th, 1858. 

In 1862 the Royal Agricultural Society of England held their 
Annual Show in Battersea Park. 

Recently some beautiful villas in Queo i Anne's style have been 
built in Albert road. 

Opposite the Western gate a site has been chosen for the erection 
of a Chapel-of-Ease to St. Mary's. 

* On Battersea Park Embankment, near where the Albert Bridge now spans 
the river, lies like some ancient ruin the beautiful Portico of Burlington House. 
It was when removed from Piccadilly in 1868 to have been re-erected in the Park. 



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B5 . 

At the angle facing the South-western gate two stately mansions 
have recently been erected contiguous to each other, called Lancaster 
Tower and Strathedon House. 

The two Circular Engine sheds, about 90 yards in diameter, 
belonging to the London, Brighton and South-Coast Railway 
Company, adjacent to the East-end of the Park, Victoria Road, 
built about seven years since, show a marked difference to the small 
wooden shed they erected some eighteen years ago when they had 
convenience for only four engines. The present sheds are very 
soundly built, and can accommodate 56 engines which work from 
the end of the line, there being 63 engines at work when there is 
no extra traffic, which is not very often the case. The locomotive staff 
numbers upwards of 300 hands, the major part being drivers, 
firemen, and cleaners, who muster 200. They have every facility 
for doing work required in a prompt manner. There is an engine- 
hoist which will lift an engine of forty or more tons in a very short 
time. The break-down van stands in one of the sheds ready at a 
moment's notice for any casualty that might happen. This is fitted 
up with hydraulic apparatus and every appliance for getting engines 
and other vehicles on the line quickly. The method of coaling 
engines is very good. Half-ton trolleys are loaded out of the trucks 
of coal, which can be moved with ease by one man on the iron- 
plated coal stage, from which it is shot on the tender of the engine ; 
so that one man can in a few minutes put one or two tons of coal 
on a tender. Three hundred tons of coal are kept in stock, and the 
weekly consumption is about five hundred tons. The sheds are 
remarkably clean, being constantly whitewashed, and the engines, 
which are kept clean and fresh painted, to use a figurative ex- 
pression, are perfect pictures. The passenger engines are a light 
brown color and the goods engines are a dark green. The offices 
attached to the sheds are at the entrance in one of the railway 
arches, and suit in every way the requirements of the place, and 
when inside one would hardly think it was only a railway arch. 
Other arches have been fitted up as work-shops for the mechanics, 
and another arch is entirely appropriated for the stores. Also an 
arch has been utilized so as to form a comfortable mess-room for 
enginemen and firemen, with cooking apparatus, lockers, and 
lavatory; adjoining which is a room similarly fitted up for the 
engine cleaners. Although these works are fraught with many 
dangers, it is rarely that any serious casualty occurs. District 
Loco. Superintendent, Albany Richardson, Esq. ; Assistant Superin- 
tendent, Mr. John Richardson. 

There are two guages known as the Stephenson or narrow guage, 
4-ft. 8J-in., and the broad guage 7 feet between the rails introduced 
by the younger Brunei on the Great Western Railway. 

The locomotives on the Brighton and South-Coast Railway are 
constructed for the narrow guage. The " Kensington," No. 205, 
belonging to the London, Brighton and South-Coast Railway 
Company, is a four-wheel coupled engine, designed by W. Stroudley, 
Esq., Locomotive Engineer. Diameter of cylinders, 17 inches; 
stroke, 24 inches ; diameter of driving and trailing wheels, 6 feet 
6 inches; leading wheel, 4 feet 3 inches; wheel base, 16 feet; 
ft inches; number of tubes, 260 ; diameter of ditto outside, 1 J inch \ 



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86 

length of ditto, 10 feet 11 J inches; area of fire-grate, 10-25 square 
feet; pressure of steam, 140 lbs. per square inch; tube surface, 
1,125 square feet; fire-box surface, 112 feet; total surf ace, 1,237. 
The total weight of this class of engine and tender when loaded is 
about 50 tons, and will convey a load of 236 tons at a speed of 40 
miles an hour. 

This class of engine was constructed for running the express 
traffic, which in the season is very heavy on this line. Cost of 
engine about £2500. 

"A pint of water is converted into two hundred and sixteen 
gallons of steam by two ounces of coal, and has sufficient power to 
lift thirty-seven tons; the steam thus produced has a pressure 
equal to that of common atmospheric air. By allowing it to 
expand, by virtue of its elasticity a further mechanical force may 
be obtained, at least equal in amount to the former. A pint of 
water therefore, and two ounces of coal are thus rendered capable 
of raising seventy-four tons a foot high. Two hundred feet of 
steam can be condensed in one second by four ounces of water, 
and their expansive power reduced to one-fifth." 

The first person who sought to apply the expansive force of steam 
as a motive power to machinery was an Egyptian, Hero of 
Alexandria, who lived about 15 years before Christ. 

In the year 1543, Basco de Garay, a Spanish captain, astonished 
the world by asserting that he would propel a vessel without sails 
or oars. The Emperor Charles V. ordered the experiment to be 
made, and on the 17th of June a vessel called the " Trinity," of 
200 tons burden was moved by wheels turned by steam at the rate 
of two leagues in three hours. To Spain belongs the honour of 
having invented the first steam vessel. 

In the annals of the steam-engine are enumerated the names of 
Solomon de Caus, Giovanni Branci (1629). Edward Somerset, 
(1698). Newcomen, Cawley, Humphrey Potter (an engine boy), 
and Smeaton. But it is to the master spirit and inventive genius 
ot James Watt the mathematical instrument maker who was born 
at Greenock in Scotland. January 19, 1736, that we are indebted 
for the high state of efficiency to which our modern steam-engine 
has been brought. Matthew Bolton of Birmingham undertook the 
enterprise of introducing Watt's condensing engine into general 
use as a great working power 

Samuel Smiles says, •' Many skilful inventors have from time to 
time added new power to the steam-engine ; and by numerous 
modifications rendered it capable of being applied to nearly all the 
purposes of manufacture — driving machinery, impelling ships, 
grinding corn, printing books, stamping money, hammering, planing, 
and turning iron ; in short of performing every description of 
mechanical labour where power is required. One of the most use- 
ful modifications in the engine was that devised by Trevithick, and 
eventually perfected by George Stephenson and his Son, in the form 
of the railway locomotive, by which social changes of immense 
importance have been brought about of even greater consequence, 
considered in their results on human progress and civilization than 
the condensing engine of Watt." 

Tne fetockton and Darlington Railway was oneofthefirst examples 



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af 

of locomotive power on a railway for passengers. Mr. Murdock 
was the first Englishman who in the year lj£84 constructed a non- 
condensing steam locomotive of lilliputian dimensions. It is to be 
seen at South Kensington, in the Patent Museum. 

Battersea Wharf, belonging to the Brighton, and South-Coast 
Eailway Company, close to Chelsea Bridge, combines a water 
frontage affording facility for discharging cargoes of goods for and 
from all parts of the Brighton, South-Eastern, London, Chatham 
and Dover Eailways. The traffic during the last ten years has 
very sensibly increased, and the point itself has become an im- 
portant place and of great convenience to the public. — Manager, 
Mr. William Everest. 

The London and Brighton Eailway was opened 21st September, 
1841. In 1873, Number of miles open 345; gross receipts for the 
same year including 31st December, £1,618,461. 

Comparative statement of traffic returns for week ending October 
6th, 1877, to corresponding week in 1876. Total miles open 379J. 
Ebcetpts, 1877, | Eeceipts, 1876, I Increase, 
£40,425. | £37,210. | £3,215. 

That part of Battersea known as Long-Hedge Farm which was 
kept by a Mr, Matson and afterwards oy Mr. Graham, is now 
partially inclosed by the London, Chatham and Dover Eailway 
Locomotive Works. The land originally purchased by the Eailway 
Company was about 75 acres, and nearly one-half this space is 
appropriated to the Locomotive Department and Goods traffic yard. 

The Works were built by Messrs. Peto and Betts, from designs 
furnished by Joseph Cubitt, Esq., engineer, and finished in the year 
1863, (two years ago the erecting shop was enlarged). The name, 
however, is still retained and the Works are called Long-Hedge 
Works. These Works are surrounded with a wall ten feet high. 
There are six gates, but the principal entrance to the Works is at 
the gate by the time-keepers office; the other five gates are used 
for shunting purposes. Within this enclosure no person is allowed 
to go except on business, and this rule is strictly carried out. There 
are the boiler-shop, the tender-shop, erecting shop, copper-smiths' 
shop, fitting-shop, brass-finishers shop, pattern-makers' shop, 
smiths' shop, boiler-house with three large boilers, which drive the 
large stationary engine. The whole of these buildings, which 
consists of a series of ranges, are substantially built of brick, with 
walls of immense thickness. On the south side is the stores de- 
partment. At the east-end of the turnery is the Superintendent's 
office, clerks' offices, etc. The area between each shop has an inter- 
section of rails communicating with the line. 

The lower turnery is 250 feet long and 44 wide. It has twenty- 
five windows on either side; the dimensions of each window is 12 
feet by 3, and a third portion of each window can be opened or 
closed at pleasure for ventilation; also three pairs of double doors 
of the same height as the windows, and wide enough to admit a 
truck or carriage. There are lines of rails laid parallel with the 
building, both on the outside and through the centre. Opposite 
each of the large doors, both inside and out, are turn tables to 
connect the sheps with any part of the yard. The floor is laid with 
blocks of wood about five inches square. Around large steam-pipes 



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18 

are laid on either side of the shep to add to the comfort and con- 
venience of the men. The shaft which gives motion to the machinery 
passes through the centre of the shop and the machinery on each 
side. Towards one extremity of this range of building is the engine 
house, in which are two beautifully-finished high and low pressure 
horizontal engines of one hundred horse power, which drive all the 
machinery and fan-blasts for smiths. There are three boilers, each 
thirty feet long, and six feet in diameter, having pressure of forty 
pounds upon every square inch. The shaft belonging to the 
stationary engine is forty-seven yards high. 

In the lower turnery there is a double-headed slot-wheel, three 
large wheel lathes, and two small wheel lathes; the small are for 
carriage wheels. There are also three fifteen-inch lathes, two crank 
lathes for turning crank axles^ two twelve-inch lathes, two large 
boring machines — one of these is a radial machine for boring tube 
plates ; one boring machine for cylinders, also one large planing 
machine for the same purpose, and one hydraulic press for taking 
off axles. On the same basement with the turnery is the Loco. 
Manager's office. 

Leaving the turnery we ascend a broad and substantial staircase 
of wood overlaid with sheet-lead, leading to the fitting-shop which 
is over the turning shop. On the same story is the brass-finishers' 
and pattern loft. The fitting-shop is light, clean, well ventilated, 
and comfortble. Here, as in the shop below, the shafting runs 
through the centre with a continuous branch of counter shafts on 
one side, extending the entire length of the building. The whole 
machinery is propelled by the same engine as that below. In this 
shop there is onelarge planing machine, nine shaping machines, 
six drilling machines, three slotting machines, one double-headed 
slot drill for cutting key-ways in axles, one twelve-inch lathe, four 
ten-inch lathes, four eight-inch lathes, two six-inch lathes, one ten- 
inch break lathe, six small planing machines of different sizes, 
four screwing machines, one nut-cutting machine, two grindstones, 
one hoist, twenty pairs of vices, etc., etc. In the brass-fitters' shop 
are four six-inch lathes in use for cocks, plugs, injectors, etc. 
Length of fitting, brass and pattern shops (inclusive) 406 feet. 

The boiler shop is 200feet in length and 48 feet in width. It 
has a stationary engine with machiues for punching, dr illin g and 
bending the boiler-plates; also a powerful travelling crane, arranged 
for conveying boilers from one end of the shop to the other. The 
second building on the left-hand-side and facing the turnery is the 
erecting shop, 380 feet in length and 100 feet wide. This shop has 
a travelling table which runs from one end to the other, and is 
worked by a small engine. The use that is made of the table is to 
convey those engines which need repairing to the different pits. 
There are 42 pits in this shop with room for 42 engines. There are 
two travelling cranes above which run on girders ; these are worked 
by the hand and are employed for engines. There is also a 
small stationary engine for driving drilling machine and grindstone, 
and each side has a row of vice-benches extending from one end of 
the shop to the other* 

Not an uninteresting department is the smithery* Its length is 
306 feet and it is 48. feet wide. On entering one seems to have got 



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into a region where Vulcan and Ms Cyclops are at worlr, not forging 
thunderbolts for Jupiter, but giving shape and form to bars of half - 
molten iron, which shall afterwards be used. in the structure of 
steam-engines and for other practical purposes. The scene is grand, 
and might supply a study for such painters as West, Stothard, 
Conway and Northcote. In the back ground is a depth of gloom, 
sombrous and murky which is relieved at intervals by the fierce 
glare of thirty fires. At as many anvils strong, athletic, Titan-like 
figures, with uplifted arm and heavy stroke scatter "as from smitten 
steel," sparks like brilliant stars, in all directions. Here are thirty 
smiths' forges, and the tools used by the smiths, as tongs, hammers, 
swages, etc., are arranged in racks against the walls. Here also 
are two steam-hammers, one fifteen tons, the other five tons. 
Either can be most scrupulously adjusted by aid of a small lever 
Here also are furnaces, a stationary engine with fan, grind- 
stone, and powerful shears for cutting bar-iron. Lines of rails run 
throughout the shop, so that the coal and iron can be conveyed to 
any part where it is required. 

A Second Shop for Carriages, Waggons, etc., is being erected at 
an estimated cost of nearly £14,000 

The carriage shop is 370 feet long, 150 feet wide, 30 feet, high in 
the centre, and is capable of containing 80 railway carriages. It is 
divided longitudinally into three parts by the two rows of iron 
pillars which support the roof. The central division is forty feet 
wide and is occupied by the traversing table which is used for shifting 
the carriages. The two side divisions are the parts for vehicles 
under repairs, and are also occupied by the workmen s' benches, etc. 
The roof is composed of a light but strong iron framing covered 
first with deal boards, and with slates over all except the central 
part, which is composd almost entirely of glass. The floor consists 
of wood bricks, laid on a solid foundation of concrete, and is 
intersected by the iron rails for the carriages and traverser. At the 
south end are the offices, with the trimming shops above them. 
The shop is well and efficiently ventilated, and is furnished with a 
system of heating apparatus consisting of a double row of large steam- 
pipes passing all round under the windows. Water is laid on in ample 
quantities, and one of the regulations carried out with unvarying 
rule, is to fix hose pipes in two separate parts of the shops every 
night with stand pipes ready for instant use in case of fire. There 
are 1 30 windows in the shop exclusive of the roof. Most of the 
carriages are made of teak instead of mahogany, as being more 
durable as well as economical and not so likely to split when exposed 
to the heat of the sun 

The saw-mills are used for cutting the timber, with rack and 
vertical saws. It is then prepared by eleven other different machines, 
such as general joiner, rabbeting, grooving, tenoning mortising 
boreing and moulding machines, of every description. The timber 
is first cut out with the hand-saw, and then shaped by a large 
shaping machine 5 feet 4 by 2 feet 10, with two perpendicular 
spindles performing upwards of 1200 revolutions a minute. The 
saw-mills are well arranged, the driving wheel and shftftiarag being 
all underneath. Next to the saw-milto is an engine-house in which 
is a horizontal engine of forty horse* power with two large boilers, 



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surfy pound* pressure, made by Walter May and Co., Chelsea. 

At the west end, and near "Long-Hedge House," is a small 
building containing the gas-meter; this, like the water-meter in the 
traffic yard, has its index taken every morning to show the amount 
of gas that has been consumed in the works. 

The stores department consists of a large building, with various 
offices for the store keeper, clerks, and warehousemen. One half is 
upstairs which is fitted up with shelves, tables and pigeon-holes for 
the various articles kept in stock. The lower part is arranged for 
heavier goods, such as brass, copper, steel, and iron. There is a 
large yard for goods of different descriptions, and for the purpose 
of receiving goods brought by carriers, etc. The design of this 
department is to keep for immediate use almost eveiy article used 
on a railway, to supply all the departments with materials for the 
making and keeping of the line in good condition, and to forward 
the goods as required to their destination on the line, and the 
quality of the goods is there determined before received for use. 

In the running sheds engines are cleaned and running engines 
kept repaired, etc.* There are 82 locomotives, 65 of which are daily 
running on the line. Since the opening of the Ludgate Station on 
the London, Chatham and Dover Railway Metropolitan Extension 
line a very considerable portion of the Goods traffic is carried on 
at Blackfriars. — Locomotive Superintendent, W. Kirdey, Esq. 
Works Manager, Mr. G. Leavers; Manager of Carriage Department, 
Inspector, etc., Mr. C. Spencer; Superintendent of Stores Department 
Mr. John Ward. 

♦Since the above was written, the semi- circular Engine Shed has been pulled down 
and a very large quadrangular Engine Shed constructed in its place. The former 
shed was inconveniently small and not at all adapted to the present emergency. 
It has been demonstrated by Mr. Kirtley that the system which has been so 
popular (with Locomotive Superintendents) in the early days of railways of using 
a turn-table or revolving platform for turning locomotives into the direction re- 
quired in sheds where they undergo repairing, cleaning, etc., was at all times 
liable to cause not only delay in the departure of one engine, but in the event of 
mishap to the turn-table itself, the whole stock of engines would be locked up; 
hence the erection of the splendid new engine shed at the London, Chatham and 
Dover Railway Locomotive Works, which is said to be one of the finest and most 
commodious of its kind in England. It stands upon about if acres, and some 
idea of its magnitude may be realized from some of the principal materials used 
in its construction: namely, 40,000 cubic yards excavation; 6,000 cubic yards 
concrete; about 3J million of bricks, besides 250,000 blue paving bricks of the 
Staffordshire hard manufacture which form the flooring; 30,000 feet of glass; 
60,000 feet of slating, 260 tons of iron, and over three acres of boards which form 
the roof, andthe newly-iuvented steam and smoke conductors designed by Messrs. 
Mills and Kirtey. There are also offices for the foremen of each department, 
and separate mess-rooms for the men of various grades employed, wherein their 
every comfort has been carefully studied, with lavatories, cooking apparatus, etc. 
Besides boiler-house and standing engine for driving machinery, etc. Also a tank 
of enormous capacity, made by Spencerlayh and Archer, of Rochester, to supply 
the engines with water from a well of considerable depth in case of failure of the 
regular supply from the Water Company's Works. There is also a new coal stage, 
built upon an entirely new principle, from which engines can be loaded with the 
necessary supply of coals in less than half the time previously occupied, with a 
similar diminution of labour. Another great feature in the approach to these 
Works is that the roads, sixteen in number, all lead from one line of rails. Each 
road, with pit in the engine shed, will hold five main-line locomotives or seven 
tank engines. The whole building will hold between eighty and ninety locomotives. 
The Works have been designed by Mr. W. Mills, C.E., and carried out by Mr. 

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91 

The number of operatives employed inclusive of drivers afid fir^ * 
men is about 600. The men are intelligent and orderly ; they, with 
myriads of their fellow-countrymen, are assisting in carrying out 
the great practical issues of civilization. Of such a class of noble- 
minded, generous-hearted, skilled mechanics and artisans, England 
may well be proud. 

" What says each true workman, where're he may toil 
As bravely he joins in life's busy turmoil, 
With each sinew brac'd stoutly by duty and love, 
And the gaze of his soul fixed on heaven above. 
Oh I'm king of a line of long renown, 
And the sweat of my brow is my diamond crown ; 
I toil unrepining from morn till night, 
For I bear in my bosom a heart brave and light, 
And my labour no matter how hard it may be, 
Brings ever a joy and a blessing to me." 
The London Chatham and Dover Eailway was opened 29th 
of September, 1860. Number of miles open 141. Gross Eeceipts 
including 31st December, 1873, £904,509, 

The first railway train (London, Chatham and Dover) entered 
the city of London over the new Railway Bridge, Blackfriars, 6th 
October, 1864. 

Adjacent to the Eailway Viaduct and facing the south-eastern 
gate of Battersea Park is Sargent's Carpet Ground. Here during 
the Summer and Autumnal months a Gospel tent is pitched wherein 
Special Eeligious Services for the people are conducted by Messrs 
Simmonds, Swindells, Waller, Eigley, Harris, Smith, Hewett, 
Crosby, Turpin, Twaites, Kirby, Eeeve, Thompson, Eveleigh, Lane, 
and other well-known christian workers. 

Extracted from the Kensington News. — Amidst the various styles of 
ecclesiastical architecture which our modern amalgamation of various 
civilizations has produced, none strikes one as so peculiar as that 
which is called the preaching tent. Associated as this moveable 
structure is with the wandering life of the Eastern Arab, its con- 
secration to purposes of modern Christian envangelization is a proof 
of the intense catholicity and energy of our modern religious life. 
While thousands of our home heathen never enter the sacred pre- 
cincts of our churches or chapels, it is a blessing to find that they 
enter by hundreds inside the temporary canvas walls of our con- 
secrated gospel tents. Very often the surroundings of the locality 

Charles Dickinson, the Contractor, and his Agent, Mr. D. Stubbings, and under 
the immediate superintendence of Mr. R. S. Jones, C. E., the engineer in charge 
of the works. Although nine months have only elapsed from the time of the 
demolition of the former structure to the erection of the New Engine Shed, etc., 
it is gratifying to state that under a merciful Providence no casualty such as might 
have been expected considering the number of locomotives running in and out 
daily has occured. Mr. W, Wilkinson is foreman of this Branch of the Loco- 
motive Department. 



Foremen, {Locomotive Department). 
Erecting Shop .. J. Fletcher. 
Fitting „ . . W. Siddon. 

Turning „ , , T. Eaton. 

Smith „ . . R. Allen. 

Boiler „ • . W. Benton. 



Foremen, {Carriage Department) 
Painters' Shop . . W. Banks. 

Coach-builders' ~ " 



Fitters' 
Trimmers' 
Saw-mill 
Waggon 



Gr. Faulkner. 
W. Churchill. 
J. Gallop. 
C. Picton. 
F. Laraman. 



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92 

Vhere these places are erected, {he kind of services held in them, 
and the earnestness, homeliness, humanity, and appropriateness of 
the illustrations of the preachers who discourse at them, have beyond 
question, great attractions for the class of our Metropolitan inhabi- 
tants just mentioned. It calls for no surprise to find gigantic tempo- 
rary structures of this kind erected amidst the uncultivated and 
populous "East" for the purposes of religious worship, but we 
hardly expect to find their tapering canvas roofs amidst the luxury 
of the "West." 

But in these days of change, and strange things, we are not easily 
surprised, and consequently we passed by gospel tents at Kilburn 
and Kentish Town without expressing much wonder. Having a 
desire to see how the un-church and un-chapel going population of 
this mighty metropolis spent their Sunday out doors, we strolled to 
the classic ground of Chelsea and found ourselves on the north side 
of the bridge. This spot has been for several years the scene of 
rather unclassical and disorderly debates, and open air preaching. 
This arena of intellectual life was rather dull on this occasion; there 
was only the ordinary open air service and a few groups of the 
usual unintelligent and sceptical wranglers. Seeing nothing worthy 
in what we witnessed to detain us at this place, we strolled over the 
bridge, towards the canvas cathedral, which has lately been erected 
there. Having reached the middle of the bridge, the floating 
banners in the distance clearly indicate the locality where this place 
of public worship rears its canvas walls, and as we approach nearer 
we find the well known words "God is Love" neatly inscribed on 
one of them. At this portion of the road our attention is arrested 
by a few of the church-going population outside the entrance to 
Battersea Park, gathered round some open air preachers. At last 
we reach the south-eastern gate of Battersea Park, opposite which 
is the front of the canvas cathedral a substantial tent, capable of 
holding about 300 people. (The tent will seat 200). We were very 
much surprised to find at one of the entrances a well-executed and 
coloured diagram of the famous Babylonish temple of the Seven 
Spheres. We saw from the crowded nature of the audience that the 
service on this occasion was a very special one, for not only was the 
tent full but large groups of people surrounded the entrances. A 
small bill informed us that Mr. O. M. Turpin, a gentleman in 
connexion with the Christian Evidence Society, was to preach this 
evening on Modern Discoveries and the Bible, illustrated with dia- 
grams. As we entered the interior of the cathedral, we noticed hung 
behind the preacher a number of nicely drawn and strikingly 
coloured diagrams representing views of Nineveh,Babylon,Nimroud, 
slabs discovered in their ruined palaces, a page of the annals of an 
Assyrian monarch, representations of a beseiged city, and a copy of 
the Moajtite stone. 

The service was very sinple in its character. It consisted of a few 
devout extempore prayers, reading a portion of Scripture, and the 
singing (accompanied with an harmonium) of some of Sankey's 
hymns. As may be imagined, oulr curiosity was excited as to how 
the preacher could make a sermon containing anything spiritual 
profitable to his hearers out of the pictures behind him. The 
portion of Scripture selected for his text only stimulated our curiosity 



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93 

for It was the beautiful words of our Lord contained in John c. 17 
v. 17, "Sanctify them through thy truth; Thy word is truth." 
One felt inclined to say "Sanctification and pictures ; a great deal 
of sanctification the preacher will get out of them for his audience." 
No sooner, however, has the preacher got into his introduction than 
the connection between his diagrams and his text is clearly apparent, 
for he ^ as evidently going to talk about the truth of God's word as 
contained in the Bible. The text was divided into two parts ; first 
the assertion that God's word was truth ; secondly, the instrument 
of His people's sanctification. In treating of the first division of 
his discourse the preacher gave forth some very clear ideas on some 
of the most difficult topics, for revelation, the instrument through 
which it ought to come and the form by which it was to be trans- 
mitted to humanity in after ages, were all noticed, and men as the 
media, and the book as the written record, and not oral tradition, 
were shown to manifest the wisdom and condescension of God. 
"The Christian Church," said the preacher, claims that in the Bible 
they have a revelation of God's mil, and the sublime idea of God 
in the possession of the Jews plainly proved that it came from God's 
own revelation. But objectors exist, and modern doubt cast suspicion 
on the sacred records. What then is the voice of modern discoveries? 
Is it for or against the credibility of the sacred record ? In favour 
of reposing trust in its statements, for modern science and discovery 
and exploration have proved the truth of all the historical and 
geographical details of the Bible, removed many of its historical 
difficulties, and by its identification of sites of cities which were the 
subject of prediction, proved its fulfilment and thus borne testimony 
to the supernatural in the Bible. These propositions were supported 
by a vast array of facts drawn from the traditions of mankind, the 
newly-discovered palaces and libraries of Assyria, and the scholar's 
translation of its day and stone records. 

When the preacher treated the second portion of his theme, 
the intensely practiced nature of his mind was clearly shewn in the 
way in which while asserting God's truth to be the instrument of 
the sanctification, he appealed to all present in a most solemn 
manner to put the important question — "Were they sanctified ?" 
"If you are not you will never tread the golden streets of the New 
Jerusalem, but while your friends are passing in you will be shut 
out." Mr. Turpin evidently had the whole of his audience in his 
mind, for at the end of his discourse he pressed home on the 
juvenile portion of his audience the beauty of early piety by a 
contrast between the dying chimney-sweep and Lord Byron in which 
the character of the sweep shone to the disadvantage of the cele- 
brated poet. Another hymn and prayer closed the interesting 
canvas cathedral service. Those present, both old and young, 
evidently enjoyed the service, for they listened with breathless 
attention for the 100 minutes which the preacher had occupied in 
delivering his glowing discourse. A brief prayer meeting closed 
this instructive Sunday evening, which if we may judge from the 
expressions of some of the audience, will not soon be forgotten. As 
we retired we felt that many such canvas cathedrals, with able 
preachers and hearty singing, would lay hold of large numbers of 
those who are at present outside ordinary religious influences* 



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34 

The tent was purchased expressly for this object by Basil Woodd 
Smith, Esq., a warm and devoted Mend of the working classes and 
who is a member at present of the Parent Committee of the London 
City Mission. The tent was originally erected on the triangular 
piece of ground outside the south-eastern gate of Battersea Park 
before the roads were completed, with the sanction of Lord John 
Manners when his Lordship was in office as Chief Commissioner. 

Among other respectable firms in the building trade within the 
Parish may be mentioned the firm of Messrs. Lathey Brothers, 
Builders, 1, St. George's Eoad, New Road. Messrs. Lathey 
Brothers were the builders of St. George's Vicarage House, Christ 
Church Schools and Residences, Infant School in Orkney Street, 
St. Saviour's Church, the enlargement of St. George's Church, and 
the enlargement of St. George's National Schools. Also a Mortuary 
built in 1876 in the Churchyard of St. Mary's from designs by Mr. 
W. "White, Architect, and the re-interment of all coffins, 1875, in 
the vaults or crypt under the church 424 in all. Some of these 
coffins were brought here from St. Bartholomew's Church, Royal 
Exchange, in the city of London, in 1840. A Record was made of 
the Inscriptions on all the coffins which were re-interred. This 
document, which is in the possession of Messrs. Lathey Bros., would 
form an interesting Obituary if published. 

The H.P. Horse Nail Company's (Limited) Factory, New Road, 
has at present machinery capable of turning out one million nails 
per day. With the exception of a few mechanics most of the 
employes are young women. Of late years horse nails have 
become an important branch of industry and a leading article in 
trade, the consumption, indeed, being very large ; and when it is 
considered that each horse has in its four hoofs 28 or 30 nails, and 
that these nails are wearing out all day and all night, and require 
renewing about every month, and that in Great Britain and 
Ireland there are at the present time not less than 3,000,000 horses, 
representing a demand exceeding a thousand million nails per 
annum the trade is entitled to rank with others in importance and 
influence. Mr. J. A. Huggett, the inventor of the Patent Machinery 
employed at this factory for the manufacture of horse nails, has hit 
the right nail on the head, the quality of the nails having met with 
the general approval of veterinary surgeons, farriers, and iron- 
mongers. The quality of the iron of which the nails are manu- 
factured has its perfection attributed to three causes: — First, it is 
the best Sweedish charcoal iron ; secondly, it is heated in the 
Siemens furnace ; and lastly, which certainly is not the least 
important, it passes through a rolling-mill worked by steam power, 
each roller weighs about ten cwt. — Manager, Charles Moser, Esq. 

Hugh Wallace's Vitriol Works were situated in the New Road; 
Schofield and Co's Steam Saw-Mills and Stone Works, Stewart's 
Lane. The saw frames are worked by fly wheels and connecting 
shafts so constructed that the frame is always level be it ever so 
high a block sawing ; this is done by lengthening or shortening the 
shaft. By some persons the frames are considered the easiest 
working ones in London. The moulding machines are by Hunter, 
Queen's Road, Battersea, specially adapted for string courses and 
steps. About eighty men and boys are employed at these works* 



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9*5 



ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, Battersea— The following particulars 
respecting this Church may not be uninteresting. The Hying is a 
vicarage of the yearly value of £240 with residence in the gift of 
Trustees. 

The Chapel-of-Ease, as St.' George's was called, in Battersea 
Fields, w^ built partly* by a rata and partly by grant front tha 



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«6 

Parliamentary Oommiasionen at acoet of £2,819; it is a neat building 
in the style of English, architecture, by Edward Blore, Esq., 
Architect. Its erection began September 18, 1827. It was con- 
secrated August 5th, 1828, by Dr. Sumner, Lord Bishop of Win- 
chester, and the fust church his Lordship consecrated in his diocese. 
The Bev J. Gk Weddell was the first clergyman appointed. He 
held the living twenty-five years: died June, 1852. Within this 
hallowed sanctuary the venerable, esteemed and truly honoured 
servant of Christ the Bev. John Garwood, late Secretary of the 
London City Mission, laboured as curate in charge for nine years 
previous to Mr. WeddelPs death. The Bev. H. B. Poer was 
appointed in 1852. It was made a District Church in 1858. The 
churchyard was closed as a burial ground in 1858. The Bev. E. S. 
Goodhart was appointed in 1859 : he remained ten months. The 
Bev. Burman Oassin was appointed in 1860 : he resigned and was 
instituted at St. Paul's, Bolton, 1872: he preached his last (vale- 
dictory) sermon December 81, 1872, at a watch-night service. 

The Kev. John Calliswas appointed January, 1878. During his 
time the Church underwent alterations. These were begun August 
24, 1874, when the side galleries were removed and the church 
enlarged by the addition of two isles at the cost of £1,700. The 
church will accommodate 800. The church was re-opened by the 
Bight Beverend Harold Browne, Lord Bishop of Winchester, 
November 21st, 1874, at 4 o'clock p.m. The Bev. John Callis left 
for South Heigham, Norwich, July, 1875. 

The Bev. Thomas Lander, M.A., now holds the living, he was 
appointed August, 1875. The Bev. T. Kirk ordained and appointed 
Curate to St. George's, September 24th, 1876. Previously to his 
ordination he had laboured for twenty-six years in connection with 
the London City Mission, and was much beloved and respected in 
the district among the people to whom he has been and still is so 
much blessed. 

The population of the Ecclesiastical parish in 1871 was 16,172.* 
The register dates from the year 1858. The area is 448 acres. — 
John Gwynn, Samuel Lathey, Churchwardens. 

* St. Andrew's Temporary Iron Church, Patmore Street, was opened on St. 

Andrew's Day, Saturday, Nov. 30, 1878, by the Bishop of Guildford, late Dr. 

Utterton. The persons who took part in the service were Canon Clarke, Revs. 

Lander, Hamilton and Kirk. Rev. G. Hamilton is the Mission Clergyman. 

Some few years ago a gentleman offered to put up a Church in South London. 

St. George's Parish, Battersea, was named as being in need of one. A short 

time after the promise was made the gentleman died. His widow anxious to 

carry out her deceased husband's intentions, set apart the amount for the purchase 

and removal of the Iron Church, which then stood in Chelsea. 
According to the census of 188 1, the inhabited houses and population of 

Battersea were as follows : — 

Number of Number of 

Inhabited Houses. Inhabitants. 

St. Mary's 3758 24595 

Christ Church •• « 9 ,, 201 1 — 14404 
St. Peter's •• .. .. 1183 — 8919 

St. John's •• •• 99 1068 — 7069 

St. Saviour's • 1747 — 14172 

St. Philip's ,, .. .. 2444 — 17428 
St. George's 2380 — 20612 

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w 

€ f I love her gates, I love the toad ; 

The church adorned with grace 
Stands like a palace built for God 
To show his milder face. — Watts. 

At the east end of the interior and south of the pulpit a white 
marble tablet mounted on a dark marble slab has recently been 
erected. Within a wreath of virgin marble most artistically executed 
is the following epitaph engraved. "In memory of Elizabeth 
Maria Graham, of dapham Common, died December 14, 1874, 
aged 79, through whose devoted and indefatigable labours this 
Church, the Vicarage, and Mission-room were built and the St. 
George's Schools were founded. ' The love of Christ constraineth 
us.' — 2nd Cor. v. 14. 'JThe harvest truly is great but the labourers 
are few, pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that He would 
send forth labourers into His harvest.' " — Luke x. 2. 

"They that feared the Lord spake often one to another; and the 
Lord hearkened and heard it, and a book of remembrance was 
written before him for them that feared the Lord, and that thought 
upon his name. And they shall be mine saith the Lord of Hosts, 
in that day when I make up my jewels ; and I will spare them, 
as a man spareth his own son that serveth him." — Malachi iii. 16-17* 

In St. George's Churchyard the ground has been levelled and the 
hillocks have disappeared to make it resemble more a garden or 
field with flat grassy surface studded here and there with shrubberies 
than a receptacle of the dead, there are however some " sacred 
memorial," a few grave stones etc., which indicate to the passer-by 
that this was formerly used as a place of interment. We will just 
pause to read some of the inscriptions. At the east-end of the church- 
yard is the vault of the Rev. John Grenside Weddell, twenty-five years 
pastor of this flock, who died the 23d of July, 1852, aged75 years. 

" I have sinned but Christ hath died." 
Also in the same vault are the remains of Caroline the beloved wife 
of the Eev. J. G. Weddell, who died the 22nd of December 1839, 
aged 64 years. 

" Whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation. 
Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever." — 
Hebrews xiii. 7. 

A few yards from this spot a head-stone is erected "Sacred to 
the memory of Mrs. Ann Piittick of Nine Elms, who departed this 
life Oct. 5th, 1855, aeed 64 years. Also of Henry her beloved 
husband, interred at the Cemetery, Battersea. "Even so Father 
for so it seemed good in thy sight." 

Here is a vault sacred to the memory of Leonora the wife of John 
Charles McMullens, Esq., of Lavender Hill, in this parish, who 
died 24th June, 1813, aged 35 years. The epitaph states, 
" Faithful and meek she bore the will 

Of Him who to a troubled sea, 
In powerful words said ' peace be still,' 
My grace sufficient is for thee." 

Also that of her husband, J. C. Mullens, Esq., who died 30th 
September, 1855. 

On the west-side of the gravel walk leading to the entrance of 
the church a stone slab covers the grave of all that was of Louisa, 



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wife of Mr. 7. A. MicheH of this parish, who. died In child-bed on the 
24th November, 1834 ; aged 23 years. 

Far, far remote from objects dear, 

A virtuous -wife here rests ; 
Who ever studied while on earth, 

To comfort and caress. 
Her husband, and her parents dear, 

Now mourn departed worth, 
Affections was her constant theme, 

While she had breath on earth. 
In child-birth first her troubles rose, 

Her babe on earth abides ; 
Extreme her grief, extreme her pain, 

Delivered, and she died. 
Her husband now consoles himself 

With hopes not found in vain, 
That as her happy soul's at rest, 

His loss will be her gain. 

Also of Sarah Gywnn, wife of James Gywnn, who died May 28, 

1850, aged 67. And also of James Gywnn, who died January 28, 

1851, aged 77. 

Hard by is another grave-stone sacred to the memory of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Stewart, widow of the late Lieut. James Stewart, B.N., 
who departed this life on the 10th of aged 60 years. The 

letters on this slab are so eaten away by the tooth of time that we 
could not decipher the date. 

A head-stone marks the grave of Margaret Young, who died 
August 13th, 1855, aged 58 years. Added to this inscription are 
the words : 

" For now shall I sleep in the dust ; 

And thou shalt seek me in the morning, 

But I shall not be."— The book of Job vii. 21. 

The epitaph on another slab is as follows : " Blessed are the dead 
who die in the Lord" — so died on the 24th of May, 1829, aged 56 
years — Mary, the beloved wife of B. Jonathan Broad, late Chief 
Secretary at the Bolls. Also beneath this stone are deposited 
Barber Jonathan Broad, Esq., many years an inhabitant of thifi 
parish, who died the 10th of July, 18 31, aged 61 years. 

On another grave-stone is an inscription sacred to the memory of 
Alice Buckney, daughter of Thomas and Charlotte Buckney, of this 
parish, who died 9th August, 1830, aged 16 days. 

Against the west wall in the rear of the houses in Ceylon Street 
is a head-stone erected sacred to the memory of Elizabeth Dicker, 
the beloved wife of Job Dicker, who departed this life may 6th, 
1858, in the 55th year of her age. At the bottom of this epitaph 
are inscribed the lines so familiar to us and which all have seen in 
many a churchyard : 

Afflictions sore long time I bore ; 

Doctors were in vain ! 
Death and disease— and God did please 

To ease me of my pain. 



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99 

Weep not for me, my children dear, 
Nor shed for me a single tear : 
In heaven I hope we all shall meet, 
Then all our joys will be complete. 

Here is a stone in memory of Richard, third son of Henry Boston 
and Amelia Bowker, who died Sept. 18th, 1849, aged 6 years. His 
dying words were: " Suffer little children to come unto me, and 
forbid them not." Also Elizabeth, who died Sept. 23rd, 1849, 
aged 1 year 3 months. Also Alfred, who died Oct. 18, 1849, aged 
4 years. Also Mr. Henry Boston Bowker, father of the above 
children, who died July 23rd, 1852, aged 40 years. Also at the 
foot of this grave lie the remains of Mr. William Bobbins, grand- 
father to the above children, who departed this life July 1st, 1858, 
aged 71 years. " Boast not thyself of to-morrow, for thou knowest 
not what a day may bring forth." 

Near the wall at the south-side of the burial ground stands a 
solitary head-stone sacred to the memory of Sarah Fisher, relict of 
Jonathan Boundell Fisher, late of Cumberland and Otley, Yorkshire, 
who departed this life 17th September, 1854, aged 67. The memory 
of the just is blessed. 

Near the entrance to the church at the south- side stands a plain 
head-stone with no adornment, sacred to the memory of Elizabeth 
Clunie, during 40 years the beloved friend of Mrs. Graham's family, 
of Clapham Common. Born at Hull, August 29th, 1793. Died at 
Clapham Common June 22nd, 1853. Carefully trained by pious 
pare.jts and by faith engrafted in youth into Christ the living vine. 
She brought forth throughout her whole life the precious fruits 
which spring from that all important union, and abiding in Him 
her end was peace. 

Scriptuie Headers, Mr. F. Vellenoweth, 62, St. George's Boad ; 
Mr. 0. Brooks, 9, St. George's Boad ; City Missionary, Mr. H. 
Langston; London Mission Bible Woman, Miss Hulbert, 1, Qeylon 
Street. 

CHBIST CHUBCH is a composition of the early Lancet style, 
consisting of chancel, nave, aisles and north and south trancepts, 
with tower and spire built of Kentish rag and Bath stone, raised 
by subscriptions at a cost of £5,556, with sittings for 900. Interiorly 
it has two small galleries. It was designed by Mr. Charles Lee, 
and repaired, decorated and re-heated under the superintendence of 
Mr. E. C. Bobins. The first stone of this elegant church vas 
laid by the Bishop of Sodor and Man, on May the 27th, 1847. 
The living is a vicarage in the gift of the Vicar of St. Mary's. 
The income is derived from the pew rents. The area is 408 
acres and the population of the Ecclesiastical parish in 1871 was 
18,720. The Bev. Samuel Bardsley was the first Vicar of Christ 
Church but not the first minister. For some years it was a 
Chapel-of-Ease and was supplied by the Vicar of the Mother 
Church. The Bev. Samuel Bardsley was there from 1861 to 1867, 
The schools, the Vicarage, and the school in Orkney Street were 
built during his time. He resigned the living to become Bector of 
Spitalfields, and was succeeded by the Bev. Edward Cumming Ince, 
M.A., of Jesus College, Cambridge. In May^ 1877, Mr. Ince 
resigned having suffered from enfeebled health, amid the painful 



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Tegrets of Ms beloved flock, who for ten years had listened to "his 
thorough evangelical discourses and had profited so much under his 
faithful ministry. 

The Rev. Stopford Bam, M.A., Secretary of the Church of England 
Temperance Society, Instituted (Hospital Sunday) June 17th, 1877, 
left on account of ill health, July, 1880, and died at Bournemouth, 
May 22nd, 1881, and buried on Ascension day. 

" There remaineth, therefore, a rest for the people of God." 

He has gone to his rest, like the bright summer sun 
As it sinks in the west when its day's work is done, 
But only to leave us a little while here, 
To shine in another and far distant sphere. 

He has gone to his rest— the journey is o'er, 
And safely he lands on that bright, blissful shore, 
Where banished for ever is sorrow and pain, 
'Mid the harps that are tuned to a holier strain. 

He has gone to his rest — no longer to roam, 
The Master has called His dear labourer home ; 
Triumphant he enters the mansions of bliss, 
And welcomes the change from a world such as this. 

He has gone to his rest — the race has been run, 
And vict'ry accomplished through Jesus the Son. 
Unwearied by conflict, he knew no defeat ; 
His trophies are laid at our Great Captain's feet. 

He has gone to his rest — we shall miss the dear voice 
Which so often on earth made our spirits rejoice. 
Yet mourn we ? Ah, no ! If in Jesus we reign 
To-morrow we all shall be meeting again. 

He has gone to his rest — that sweet Zion to share 
With some of his flock awaiting him there ; 
Like him let us labour, the right to uphold ; 
Brave, patient, enduring, true-hearted, and bold. 

Alfred Sargant. 

The Eev. H. Guildford Sprigg, M.A., the present Vicar, com- 
menced his duties, September, 1880. 

"Holy, holy, holy : Lord God of Sabaoth. 
Heaven and earth are full : Of the majesty of thy glory. 
The glorious company of the apostles : Praise thee. 
The goodly fellowship of the prophets : Praise thee. 
The noble army of martyrs : Praise thee. 
The holy church throughout all the world : Doth acknowledge 
thee." — Te Deum laudamu*. 
" Serve the Lord with gladness : Come before his presence with 
singing." — Psalm c. 2. 

Mr. Lowres, of Plough Lane, an energetic City Missionary, has 
laboured in Christ Church district for nearly twelve years, and his 
local Superintendents were the Rev. S. Bardsley and the Eev. B. 
0. Ince. 

Mr. Warren, in an adjoining district, is another devoted 
Missionary. 



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Br* Jobb'b Qkqbwu 

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Itf2 

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH, Usk Koad, was completed from tlie 
designs of Mr. E. 0. Robins, selected in competition. It is a re- 
markably inexpensive church. It provides accommodation for 
about 750 persons at a cost of £4 10s. per head. The church 
received a grant from the Incorporative Society for Building Churches 
upon one-third of the sittings being made free. It is designed in 
the early English style, with nave, north and south aisles and 
apsidal chancel, a small western gallery and two bell turrets. 
Messrs. Sharpington and Cole were the builders, Who executed the 
work for the sum of £3,300. (St. John's Parsonage was built by 
the same architect). The foundation stone of St. John's was laid 
August 6, 1862. The consecration and opening took place May 
5th, 1863. The living is a Vicarage in the gift of the Vicar of St. 
Mary's. The area is 157 acres, and the population of the Ecclesias- 
tical parish in 1871 was 7,839. The district assigned to the church 
was formed out of the parishes of St. Mary's Battersea, and St. 
Anne, Wandsworth, by an Order of Council bearing date July 27, 
1863 — (the register dates from this period). The new parish was 
legally constituted and named the Consolidated Chapelry of St. John, 
Battersea. The first Vicar of the new parish was the Rev. Edwin 
Thompson, D.D., who from beginning his work with services in a 
room in Price's Candle Factory, afterwards, lived to be instrumental 
in building the two Churches of St. John and St. Paul, together 
with the Schools in Usk Eoad, erected 1866, and Parsonage House, 
Wandsworth Common ; a noble monument of his untiring energy 
and zeal. He died suddenly February 2nd, 1876, aged 51 years. 
The present Vicar of St. John's is the Rev. William John Mills 
Ellison, M.A., Wadham College, Oxford. 

The windows in the chancel representing John the Baptist, 
St. Peter, St. Andrew, St. John ; the last supper and the ascension 
to the glory of God, and in memory of Daniel Watney, departed 
March 16, 1874, aged 74, are erected by his son John Watney. 

On the south side of the church the Memorial Windows 
representing David and Samuel to the glory of God, and in memory 
of W. H. Hatcher, at rest August 2nd, 1879, aged 58. Erected by 
Friends and Sunday Scholars. " Their works do follow them." — 
Rev. xiv. 13. 

On the north side the Memorial Windows representing St. Paul 
and St. Barnabas, in loving memory of a dear mother, Martha 
Colden, who died August 25, 1880. Erected by her only child 
M. A. B. S. Estimated cost of each window £15 15s. Guard and 
fixing to each £2 2s. 

" fciow ye that the Lord he is God: it is he that hath made us, 
and not we ourselves ; we are his people, and the sheep of his 
pasture." — Psalm *, 3. 

ST. PAUL'S situated on St. John's Hill, is a Chapel-of-ease to St. 
Mary's Battersea, designed by Mr. Coe for the late Rev. Dr. 
Thompson. It is a stone structure consisting of chancel, apsidal, 
nave, aisles and tower with spire. It was built at a cost of about 
£6,300 

"Those that be planted in the house of the Lord shall flourish in 
the courts o£ our God."-— Ftalm tciu 13* 



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ST. PHILIP'S CHURCH, Queen's Road, is a Gothic stone 
building consisting of chancel, nave, aisles and trancept with tower, 
built from the designs of Mr. James Knowles, Junr., at a cost of 
£13,000. A considerable portion of this sum was given by P. W. 
Flower, Esq., the remainder was raised by public subscriptions. 
The church will accommodate nearly 1,000 persons. The livin g is 
a Vicarage, yearly value £200, in the gift of the Bishop of Win- 
chester, and held by the Rev. John Hall. 

A Mission in connection with the Bishop of Winchester's Fund 
was commenced in the month of June, 1869, in a house lent by the 
proprietor for the purpose, in Queen's Road, Battersea Fields. 
Services and Parochial Institutions were then established, which 
have become the foundation of those now in active operation. 

On July 13th. 1870, the New Church of St. Philip was finished, 
and consecrated by Dr. Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of the diocese, 
and who also held his Trinity Ordination at the Church of St. Philip 
the year before he died.* On May 16th, 1871, a District formed 
out of the Parishes of St. Mary, St. George, and Christ Church, 
Battersea was attached to the Church, and published in the 
" London Gazette." On the 6th July, 1871, an Endowment of 
£200 per annum, which had been promised by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, was legally secured to the Cure of St. Philip, and 
published in the "London Gazette" on the 26th of the same month. 
The payments were to date from the day on which the District was 
assigned (viz., May 16th, 1871), and the first payment was to be 
made on November 1st, 1871. The seats are free and the expenses 
v of the church have to be defrayed by the weekly offertory. 

A New Organ has been built by Messrs. Hill and Son and placed 
in the north chancel aisle ; the cost with the platform is £5 16 Is. 1 Id. 
If, when the Church of St. Philip was erected, the original design 
of having a lofty spire with flying buttresses had been carried out, 
St. Philip's Church would have been the most magnificent 
Ecclesiastical structure in Battersea. — Churchwardens, W. G. 
Baker, A. W. Wilkinson. 

" They continued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellow- 
ship, and in breaking of bread and in prayer." — Acts tt. 42. 

" Blessed is the man that heareth me, watching daily at my gates, 
waiting at the posts of my doors."~-2V , oiwfo viii. 84. 
We'll crowd Thy gates with thankful songs, 

High as the heavens our voices raise ; 
And earth with her ten thousand tongues 

Shall fill Thy courts with sounding praise. 
Wide as the world is Thy command, 

Vast as eternity Thy love ; 
Firm as a rock Thy truth must stand, 
When rolling years shall cease to move. — Watts. 

The construction of Queen's Road, etc., on Park-town, Battersea 
Estate, cost Mr. Flower about £3,000.-0. Merrett, Clerk of the 
Works for the Estate. 

A New Bailway Station has been erected in the Queen's Eoad, 
on the South- Western line. 

•Bishop S. 'Wilberforce, born September 7th, 1805, died 19th of July, 1873, 
through a^fcon* a horse* 



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ST. MARK'S, Battersea Else, is a Gothic building, and consists 
of chancel, nave, aisles, trancept with porch, and western vestibule 
and handsome crypt. The corner-stone was laid by the Bight Rev. 
Dr. Harold Browne, Bishop of Winchester, November lltn, 1873, 
and it was dedicated by his Lordship September 30th, 1874. The 
Architect is Mr. William White, F.S.A., and the total cost has 
been £6, 500. It is seated for 600, with backs and kneelers through- 
out. Mr. T. Gregory, of Battersea, builder. The living is a 
Vicarage, in the gift of the Vicar of St. Mary's. 

" The rich and the poor meet togother; the Lord is the Maker 
of them all." — Proverbs xxii. 2. 

The dedication festival of this church, in which the late Philip 
Cazenove took so warm an interest, was agreeably marked by the 
placing of a stained window of two lights, representing St. Philip 
and St. James, in the north trancept. The name of Mr. Oaxenove 
is inscribed on the tablet of a glass mosaic, set in alabaster, and 
sunk in the brick-work of the- wall beneath the window* Xha 



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105 

tablet is a material much used for church purposes by the executants, 
Messrs. Powell, Whitefriars, and called "opus sectile." The 
design is simple and chaste, as befitted one whose unostentatiousness 
was one of his leading characteristics. The window was placed in 
the transept by his two daughters. — South London Frtas, May 15th, 

1880a 



ST. LUKE'S CHAPEL-OF-EASE, Nightingale Lane, is a pretty 
Iron Church, originally erected on Battersea Eise in 1868, was 
moved in September, 1873, to the adjacent plot, and used by the 
congregation while St. Mark's was being built. On November 14, 
1874, having been once more removed to its present site it was 
dedicated anew in the name of St. Luke by the Bishop of Guildford. 

" oome let us worship and bow down, let us kneel before the 
Lord our Maker." — Psalm xcv. 6. 

ST. MATTHEW'S, Eush-hill Eoad, Lavender Hill, is a Chapel 
of Ease to St. Mary's, it is built in the Early English Style of 



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toe 

Architecture, has vaulted noof and sacristy, seats 550, and cost 
about £3,000. Mr. W. White, F.S.A., Architect ; Mr. W. H. 
Williams, Builder. The Dedication Service was conducted by the 
Eight Beverend J. S.Utterton, D.D., Bishop Suffragan of Guildford, 
on Saturday, 28th of April, 1877, at 3 p.m. The Eev. W. B. 
Buckwell is the Officiating Minister. 

" Blessed are they that dwell in thy house ; they shall be still 
praising thee." — Psalm lxxxiv. 4. 



ST. SAVIOUE'S CHUECH, Lower Wandsworth Eoad, now 
called Battersea Park road, erected by Messrs. Lathey Brothers at 
a cost of £4,000 from the designs of Mr. E. O. Eobins. It ac- 
commodates 700 persons and is designed in the early French Gothic 
style faced with Kentish rag and Bath stone dressings. It consists 
of a nave with clerestory, north and south aisles and rectangular 
chancel with small western gallery over the entrance lobby. There 
is a bell turret at the east end. The chancel has been decorated in 
color by Messrs. Heaton and Butler. The glazing is of cathedral 
glass. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the trustees. The popula- 
tion of the district is about 1 1,500. The foundation stone was laid 
byH. S. Thornton, Esq., January 4th, 1870. The consecration of the 
church on the 19th October, 1871, by the late Samuel Wilberforce, 
D.D., Lord Bishop of Winchester. The offertory amounted to the 
sum of £40, which was added to the Church Building Fund. The 
Petition to consecrate was read by the Eev. C. E. Ince, Vicar of 
Christ Church, Battersea, and the deed of conveyance was presented 
to the Bishop by W. Evill, Esq., one of the most generous and 
zealous friends of the undertaking. The litany was read by the 



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Kev. J. MacCarthy. At the evening service an appropriate sermon 
was preached by the Rev. E. C. Ince, and at the opening services 
on Sunday, the 22nd, tho morning sermon was preached by the Rev. 
J. MacCarthy, and that in the evening by the Rev. E. Daniel. The 
Rev. J. MacCarthy was the first Vicar. 

The institution of the present Vicar, the Rev Samuel Gilbert 
Scott, M.A., Magdalen College, Oxford, took place on Sunday, 
April the 29th, 1877. The Bishop of Guildford instituted the Vicar 
after the Nicene Creed. At the close of the sermon the Bishop 
celebrated Holy Communion ; there were 55 communicants. The 
offertory on the day amounted to nearly eight pounds. Curate, 
the Rev. W. J. Harkness, B.A., Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 
Churchwardens, John Elmslie, John Merry. Lay Readers, 
with Episcopal sanction, Mr. Hussey, 32, Chatham Street ; Mr. 
Hann, 2, Millgrove Street. Mission Women, Mrs. Wootton, 23, 
Warwll Street; Mrs. Collins, 5, Chatham Street. 

"E iter into his gates with thanksgiving, and into his courts with 
praise : be thankful unto him, and bless his name for the Lord is 
good; his mercy is everlasting; and his truth endureth to all 
generations." — Psalms e. 4-5. 

Mr. Crosby, a Missionary in this district, held Evangelistic 
Services at a Mission Hall in Arthur Street, Battersea Park Road. 

ST. PETER'S CHURCH, Plough Lane, is a beautiful Gothic 
structure built of red brick, with chancel, nave, aisles, and lofty tower 
with spire pointing like a finger to the sky as if to remind man that 
when the Saturday night of this world shall arrive and earth's trials 
are o'er " there remaineth a rest for the people of God." — Hebrews 
iv. 9. 

In the tower are four illuminated dials, by Messrs. Gillett & Bland 
of Croydon. The Church has sittings for about 820. The top-stone 
of the spire of St. Peter's Church was laid about 5 p.m., on the 24th 
of April, 1 876, by Mr. Toone, in the presence of Mr. White the 
Architect, Mr. Carter the Builder, Mr. Williams the Clerk of the 
Works, and a few others, with the formula " In the faith of Jesus 
Christ and to tho glory of His Holy Name we lay the top-stone of 
this spire of St. Peter's Church, in the Name of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen." A crowd of well-wishers 
below watched the ceremony with interest. The corner-stone of 
this church was laid by the Bishop of Winchester, on St. Peter's 
Day, of 1875, and on the same festival, June 29th, 1876, it was 
Consecrated by the same prelate. At the Consecration Service the 
Bishop of Guildford read the Gospel, the Rev. S. Cooper Scott the 
Epistle, and the Bishop of the Diocese preached the Sermon from 
the words of the Gospel " Thou art Peter and on this rock I will 
build my Church." There were 120 communicants. The Bishop 
of Guildford preached in the evening to an overflowing congrega- 
tion. 

The interior of St. Peter's Church is spacious. The rich carving 
of the capitals has been executed by Mr. Harry Hems, of Exeter, 
as also the pulpit and font. The pulpit is of stone with alabaster 
figures introduced in the panels representing St. Peter, St. Paul, 
St. John, Isaiah, King Solomon, Moses and Noah. The bowl of 
the font is also of alabaster supported by angels carved in the same 



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108 

material. The pavement is beautifully tesselated and has several 
scriptural illustrations. The seats are fixed — these and all the 
internal wood-work are varnished. The cost of erection was about 
£10,500. The belfry at present contains one bell only, a tenor of 
six, it cost £120, and cast with the words on it, " When I do call, 
come serve God all/" It was rung on St. Peter's day, 1876. The 
Register dates from 1876. The living is a Vicarage, in the gift of 
the Vicar of St. Mary, and held by the Rev. John Toone, B.A., of 
St. John's College, Cambridge. 

"I was glad when they said unto me let us go into the house of 
the Lord. Peace be within thy walls, and prosperity within 
thy palaces." — Psalm cxxii. 1-7. 

St. Peter's Temporary Church and School-room was completed in 
1874, at a cost of £1,200. St. Peter's Vicarage was formerly the 
residence of Mr. Burney. 

TEMPORARY CHURCH OF THE ASCENSION, Lavender 
Hill. — A permanent church adjacent is now in course of erection, 
and being raised by voluntary contributions. The Rev. J. B. 
Wilkinson is the Officiating Minister. The foundation stone of this 
church was laid by the Earl of Glasgow, 1st of June, 1876. This 
structure is being built of Bath stone and red bricks, and is groined 
throughout with stone ribs and brick panels. The foundation 
stone is situated under the " altar." James Brooks, Architect, 35, 
Wellington Street, Strand ; Mr. Chessam, Builder, Shoreditch. 

" A day in thy courts is better than a thousand ; I had rather be 
a door-keeper in the house of my God, than to dwell in the tents 
of wickedness." — Psalm lxxxiv. 10. 

ST, MICHAEL'S CHURCH, Chatham Road, Bolingbroke 
Grove, Wandsworth Common — the Memorial to the Rev. H. B. 
Verdon and Mr. Philip Cazenove, the eminent and successful 
merchant. The Temporary Iron Mission Church which for the 
last nine years had been used as a Chapel-of-Ease to the Mother 
Church of St. Mary, Battersea, and the site on which the present 
edifice is erected were the gifts of the latter gentleman. Henry 
Boutflower Verdon was born December 8, 1846. Himself the son 
of an excellent clergyman was educated at the Clergy Orphan 
School, Canterbury, from which he went to Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge, as Rustat Scholar and took his degree in 1868. After a 
period of study at Cuddensdon Theological College he began 
clerical work as a curate under the Rev. Aubrey Price, M.A., Vicar 
of St. James', Clapham, where the poor speak in affectionate terms 
of his memory. In the Spring of 1872 he became curate of Bat- 
tersea, a few weeks after the appointment of the present Vicar. 
From the first Mr. Verdon took special interest in the district known 
as Chatham Road, Bolingbroke Grove, and the residents there were 
very much attached to him. The Sunday evening services and 
Sunday Schools held in St. Michael's Chapel were objects of his 
unremitting care. He acted as the Secretary of the Committee 
during the time St. Mark's Church was being built. He was an 
active member of the Charitable Organization Committee — he pro- 
moted the work of the Royal Society for the Prevention of 



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Cruelty to Animals and established a mission Branch in Batterseb. 
Jfc His marriage in January, 1879, to Miss Wheeler, was the cause 
of much congratulation ; but before the expiration of many months 
this conjugal relationship was to be severed. Had he lived the 
Incumbency of St. Marias Church would have been transferred to 
him. He aied of a rapid consumption October 10, 1879. 

The two Memorial Stones were laid in the Chancel of the Church 
(which is now completed) by the Archbishop of Canterbury. "The 
Archbishop after tapping them with the mallet saying at each " In 
the faith of Jesus Christ we place this stone for a memorial of thy 
faithful servant whose name is written thereon and in the name of 
the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost," and the choir 
chanting Amen. The stone on the south side of the chancel bore 
the inscription carved in antique on a gilt ground, " Henry 
Boutflower Verdon, M.A., iEt., 33 obt. X. Oct. A.D. 1879," and 
that on the north side, the words, "Inmema. grata Philip Cazenove, 
JEt. 81 obt. XX. Jan. A.D. 1880." After laying the stones the 
Archbishop delivered a short address in the course of which he 
said that the two servants of God whose names were on the memorial 
stones worked hand in hand together for good though separated 
from each other by fifty years of life ; one dying almost in his 
prime and the other living on to a long old age but each dedicated 
to the service of God, one ministering in the sanctuary and daily 
officiating in the house of God, the other taking part during a long 
life in the trade and exchange of this great city, busy with the 
arrangements by which human industry is promoted. Both different 
yet wonderfully alike, and both judicious servants bearing the 
stamp of their heavenly Master and serving Him bravely, faithfully 
and laboriously. Let them be thankful that this space of fifty made 
no difference in the two men. As we got old we began to think 
that wisdom and goodness were with the old only, but he thanked 
God that in His Church there never had failed and never would 
fail a succession of faithful servants century after centnry to carry 
on the work which the Lord loves and which will make the world 
at last ready for His second coming. The name on the one stone 
might be little known beyond his own neighbourhood or the name 
of the other beyond the city of London, but they were known to 
their heavenly Master whom they served faithfully, and in His book 
are the names of both written. The memory of the young man 
whose name was on the one stone would linger long among those 
whom he loved and the poor and the sick to whom he had endeared 
himself and for whom he faithfully laboured, but for the speaker 
his thoughts and friendship were with the old man whose name was 
on the other stone. Five and twenty years ago when the speaker 
entered on the laborious work of the See of London, the first to 
welcome and assist him was Mr. Cazenove. He belonged to the 
noble band who helped Bishop Bloomfield from the very first. 
Those five and twenty years had been as laboriously spent in doing 
good as the years that had gone before. When- those men first 
entered on the work how different was this suburb of London to 
what it is now. Great wars had absorbed the attention of men, and 
a large population had grown up before people knew it, and before 
men had thought of the duty of meeting the spiritual wants of the 



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hew suburbs. If it Lad not been for the noble band who gathered 
round Bishop Bloomfield what a different account would have had 
to be rendered now. Let us trust and believe that when all of us 
have passed away it will be found that God has raised up a suc- 
cession of faithful servants ; men of every business and profession 
who will still regard the profession of Jesus Christ as the most 
noble of all, for no profession was more noble than the service of 
the Heavenly King. Let us trust that with dangers around us the 
spirit of vigorous Christianity may continue to be triumphant as it 
had been in so many instances already. Let us trust to the good 
work begun and carried forward during the last fifty years will 
florish with God's blessing for many years to come." 

"The new church is a plain Gothic structure built of red and 
stock bricks, and is 90 feet long by 70 feet wide. It consists of a 
nave, chancel, and two aisles, surmounted with a timber roof of 
three spans covered with red tiles. There are two entrances, one 
in Chatham Road and the other in Darley Road; the former sur- 
mounted by a figure of St. Michael in conflict with the serpent. 
There is also a small tower containing a bell weighing 2 cwt. There 
is a commodious crypt beneath the chancel. The latter contains 
three rows of stalls for the clergy and choir, and is lighted by six 
small windows of stained glass, in each of which there is an angel 
exquisitely executed from the Studio of Messrs. Lavers, Barraud 
and "Westlake. It is also intended to place a reredos of white 
marble here. The altar is approached from the nave by nine steps. 
The nave communicates with the aisles by large Gothic arches sup- 
ported on octagonal pillars of ' granolith 7 — a material composed of 
granite chips and Portland cement. The floor is of blocks of wood 
and the building is " pewed" with open benches to accommodate 
about 750 worshippers. The pulpit (a memorial gift by Mr. Verdon's 
widow) is of carved oak with a base of Caen stone, and is reached 
by a short flight of stone steps. Behind the pulpit in the south 
aisle is the organ, which has been brought from St. Luke's church, 
Derby, and was built by Mr. Abbott of Leeds. At the west end of 
the church is a font (which is in memory of a loved grandchild of 
Mr. Cazenove) of veined marble supported by nine columns of 
polished granite and Caen stone. It is surmounted by a polished 
oak cover and is a gift "to the glory of God and the memoiy of 
Philip Henry Hessey." The church is warmed with hot air. It 
has been erected by Mr. J. D. Hobson, from the designs of Mr. 
White, F.S.A. The total cost is £4500, which (with the exception 
of £800 unpaid at the commencement of the dedication services) 
had all been contributed by the relatives and friends of the late 
H. B. Verdon and Philip Cazenove. The church is provided with 
prayer books, hymn books, and kneelers throughout." 

The Dedication of St. Michael's Church was on September, 10, 
1881, by the Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Rochester— the 
service commenced at 11.30 a.m. 

Lord of hosts, to thee we raise 
Here a house of prayer and praise ! 
Thou thy people's hearts prepare 
Here to meet for praise and prayer* 



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King of glory come, 

And with thy favour crown 

This temple as thy dome, 

This people as thy own ! 

Beneath this roof, deign to show, 

How God can dwell with men below. 

Here may thine ears attend 

Our interceding cries, 

And grateful praise ascend, 

All fragrant to the skies ! 

Here may thy word melodious sound, 

And spread celestial joys around ! 

Here may thy future sons 

And daughters sound thy praise, 

And shine like polish' d stones, 

Through long succeeding days ! 

Here Lord, display thy sov'reign power, 

While temples stand, and men adore ! 

ALL SAINTS' TEMPOEAEY IEON CHUEOH, is situated in 
Victoria Bridge Eoad, near the south-eastern gate of Battersea 
Park. It will accommodate 200 persons. All seats free and un- 
appropriated. It was opened for Divine Service Saturday, Sept. 
6th, 1879, at 3.30 p.m. The Eev. Canon Clarke, Vicar of Battersea, 
and Eural Dean, preached the first sermon. His text was: — 
"Nevertheless the foundation of God standeth sure, having this 
seal, The Lord knoweth them that are his." — II. Timothy ii. 19. 
An income of £200 a year from the Eochester Diocesan Fund has 
been granted to the clergyman of the district, tho Eev. A. E. Bourne, 
formerly Curate of St. Peter's, Battersea. The new provisional 
district of " All Saiuts," Battersea, has been formed out of three 
parishes, viz., St. Mary's, St. Saviour's and St. George's, to meet 
the requirements of the rapidly increasing population of the 
neighbourhood. Eoughly speaking the boundaries of the new 
district are the London, Chatham and Dover Eail way from the river 
to the London and South Western Eailway, along the London and 
South Western Eailway to Park Grove ; down Park Grove, across 
the open land to the Park round the north corner. The only ex- 
ceptions are the streets between Queen's Eoad and Eussell Street 
which remain part of St. Philip's parish. 

" God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of His saints and 
to be had in reverence by all them that are about Him. 

Let us then with gladsome mind 
Praise the Lord for He is kind ; 
For His mercies shall endure 
Ever faithful, ever sure. 

EOCHESTEE DIOCESAN MISSION, St. James', Nine Elms. 
Clergyman in charge, Eev. William George Trousdale, B.A. — The 
Mission Buildings situated in Woodgate Street and Ponton Eoad, 
Nine Elms Lane, have lately been enlarged by the Misses Baily of 
Esher, at a cost of over £1200. The church contains sittings for 
250. There are in connection with the Mission, Sunday Schools, 



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two Mothers' Meetings, Girls' Bible Class, Girls 1 * Sewing Class, 
Recreation Boom for Girls, Provident Club, Penny Bank. It is 
also proposed to establish shortly a Working Man's Club and a 
Creche, for which there is ample accommodation in the Mission 
Buildings. Services — Sunday at 1 1 and 7, Wednesday Evening at 
8, Children's Service the 3rd Sunday in the month at 3. 

ST. ALDWIN'S MISSION CHAPEL, (Rochester Diocesan 
Society) Poyntz Road, Latchmere Road, was opened on Sunday, 
12th September, 1880, at 7 p.m. It will comfortably seat 300 
persons. St. Aldwin's district is formed partly out of St. Saviour's 
and partly out of Christ Church parish — the latter ceded the 
Colestown Estate, the former handed over Latchmere Street and 
Road, and the cluster of streets which is surrounded by the triangle 
of railways. Mission Curate — Rev. T. B. Brooks, M.A., 2, Nevil 
Villas, Albert Road. Mission- woman — Mrs. Monk, Mission House, 
25, Poyntz Road. 

" Both young men and maidens, old men and children ; let them 
praise the name of the Lord," — Psalm cxlviii. 12-13. 

" Blessed is the people who know the joyful sound : they shall 
walk Lord, in the light of thy countenance." — Psalm lxxxix. 15. 

" Thy power to save ! " thrice happy they 
Who taught of Thee delight to pray, 

Rejoicing in Thy love : 
Now clothed in righteousness divine, 
The heirs of glory, — soon to shine 

In realms of joy above. 

A pastor's warning voice ! — " Take heed, 
Whilst by the sunny banks you feed 

Of England's good old Church ! 
Live close to Jesus ; — not on forms, 
Lest, unprepared for coming storms, 

You founder in the lurch ! 

Heed well the Word — the joyful sound, 
The Gospel of our God — still found 

To point straight up to heaven : 
Beware of sounds of " yea and nay," 
Por God's own "yea" is man's sure stay, 

Not Pharisaic leaven." 

The presence of the Lord is found 
Where love, and joy, and peace abound, 

Fruits of the Spirit's Word; 
Where christian hearts unite in prayer 
In Jesus' Name— the Lord is there, 

Jehovah, Jesus, God. 

There are two Roman Catholic places of worship in Battersea, 
viz : — 

THE CHURCH OP OUR LADY OF MOUNT CARMEL AND 
ST. JOSEPH, situated in Battersea Park Road, was built by a lady 
of the name of Mrs. Boschetta Shea (of Spanish extraction, and 
whose husband was an Irish Protestant) in 1868, and put under 
the management of the late Very Rev. Canon Drinkwater, who 



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113 

retained the control of the church and adjacent buildings, including 
the Convent of Notre Dame and Girls' School, the St. Joseph's 
Boys' School, and the New Church lately erected. The Duke of 
Norfolk gave £500 towards the building fund for the new church. 

Within the grounds adjoining the Convent are kitchen and 
flower gardens with a gravel walk and a very compact grotto. 

In the month of May, the month dedicated to the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, there are processions in the grounds every Sunday afternoon 
in which boys and girls take part, singing hymns in honour of 
"our Lady." The Boys' School is of an oblong shape, and is 
governed by the Xaverian Brothers, including several pupil teachers. 
Subjects taught : reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, English, 
Roman and Grecian history, geography, mathematics and the 
Roman Catholic religion. 

CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART, Trott Street, is an Iron 
building with turret and cross, opened 10th of October, 1875. It 
was bunt by the Countess of Stockpool at a cost of £700. The 
freehold site of land including one acre cost £1,000. Priest, Rev. 
McKenna. New Schools have lately been erected. 

THE OLD BAPTIST MEETING HOUSE, York Road, Batter- 
sea, was erected in 1736, but a church was not formed for sixty-one 
years afterwards. About the year 1755 the Rev. Mr. Browne 
became Officiating Minister, and for forty years preached to a small 
congregation, but as his age and infirmities increased the number 
of attendants on his ministration diminished till he had not more 
than four or five persons to hear him ; enfeebled and disheartened 
he resigned, and in 1796 a young man, then a Student at Bristol 
Academy, afterwards well known as the Rev. Joseph Hughes, M.A., 
supplied the pulpit with so much acceptance that in 1797 a church 
was constituted, and lie, in the 29th year of his age, was eleeted to 
be the pastor. The constitution and order of the church thus formed 
may not be uninteresting, it reads as follows : — 

We, the undersigned, desirous of the privilege connected with 
religious fellowship and a stated ministry, having already sought 
the Lord, and we trust, chosen Him as our Sovereign and Friend, 
do hereby give ourselves afresh to each other, according to the 
Divine Will, that being united in a Christian Church, we may 
render mutual aid, as fellow-travellers from earth to heaven ; and, 
though we firmly embrace the sentiments peculiar to the Baptists, 
yet, espousing with equal determination the cause of evangelical 
liberty, we welcome to our communion all who give evidence of a 
change from sin to holiness ; who appear to love our Lord Jesus 
Christ, who are willing to be accounted learners in His school, and 
who wish to be enrolled in connection with us. And we hope it 
will be our united endeavour, and the endeavour of such as may 
hereafter be added to us, by all means to keep the unity of the 
Spirit in the bond of peace; to mingle faithfulness, spirituality 
and affection in our intercourse; strictly to regard the Divine 
Ordinances — so far as we know them ; and to walk before the 
Church, our families, and our God, worthy of our heavenly calling." 

Under the Rev. Joseph Hughes's ministry the work of God took 
deep root here and greatly flourished. By his energy, learning 



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and eloquence, and hie connexion with different local societies for 
the promotion of religions worship, he was brought acquainted 
with Mr. Wilberforce, Mr. Vansittart, and Mr. Perceval, by whose 
aid he established the " Surrey Mission Society.' At a meeting of 
the Religious Tract Society he afterwards promulgated the idea of 
an institution for supplying not only the inhabitants of the British 
Isles, but the whole world, with copies of the Holy Scriptures ; and 
hence arose the Bible Society, of which Mr. Hughes was joint 
Secretary until his death. Mr. Hughes expired on Thursday 
evening, October 3, 1833, in the 65th year of his age. His mortal 
remains were interred in Bunhill Fields. 

" John Foster derived much spiritual benefit from his friendship 
with Mr. Hughes of Battersea Chapel with whom after he left 
Chichester he resided for a time, and it increases not a little the 
debt of gratitude due from the christian community to that ex- 
cellent man, that though his own authorship was limited to a few 
pulpit productions, and his sphere of duty was one of action rather 
than of meditation, he performed the noble office of stimulating the 
exertions and cherishing the piety of one of the most original and 
influential religious writers of his age." 

Mr. Foster says " the company who made sometime since an 
establishment at Sierra Leone in Africa, have brought to England 
twenty black boys to receive European improvements, in order to 
be sent when they are come to be men to attempt enlightening the 
heathen nations of Africa. They have been placed in a house at 
Battersea for the present till some kind of regular and permanent 
establishment shall be formed, and I have been requestor, and have 
agreed to take the care of them for the present.' ' — Foster's Life and 
Correspondence, Vol. I. p. 58-60, edited by J. C. Eyland, A.M. 

The Eev. Edmund Clark held the Pastorate from Spring of 1834 
to Mid-Summer, 1834 — three months. Ho was succeeded by the 
Eev. Enoch Crook, who was two years and a half Pastor of the 
Church, viz. , from Mid-summer, 1834, to 1837. A tablet to his memory 
is placed on the wall in the vestry of the chapel. Subsequently from 
January, 1838, it was the scene of the labours of the Sainted 
Israel May Soule, who for thirty-six years was Pastor of the Church 
of Christ assembling here ; he faithfully discharged his ministerial 
duties ; his doctrine was truly evangelical ; his services unremitting 
and his deportment exemplary — beloved by his flock and highly 
esteemed by christians of other denominations for his large liberal 
heartedness, sound judgment and unsectrian spirit. It was he 
who first conceived the idea of enlarging the Old Chapel and had 
a model in his study to represent the style of alteration which his 
own mind suggested with a view to meet in some humble measure 
the growing and increased spiritual wants of the neighbourhood. 
However, instead of enlarging the Old Chapel a second time, he 
used strenuous efforts and succeeded in having the Old Chapel de- 
molished and a commodious place of worship erected on its site. 
The Chapel was enlarged and repaired in 1842 and the freehold 
purchased and put in trust at a total cost of £1,000. In 1868 the 
requisite land for further enlargement of the Chapel was purchased. 
The present handsome Chapel involved an outlay of £5,000, erected 
in the Eomanesque style c from the designs of Mr. E. C. Eobins. 



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118 

The accommodation on ground-floor and galleries is for 900 
worshippers. The open timbered roof is one span, and the building 
is faced with white bricks with Bath stone dressings. It was con- 
structed by the late Mr. John Kirk. The same architect has 
recently enlarged East Hill Chapel, Wandsworth, The memorial 
stone of the New Chapel was laid by Field Marshal Sir Gk Pollock, 
G.C.B., G,C.S.L, on the 8th of June, 1870, being the 33rd year of 
the Rev. I. M, Soule's ministry ; the building was completed by the 
end of the year, so that Mr. Soule had the pleasure of conducting 
the opening services January 1st, 1871. Previously to his coming 
to Battersea Mr. Soule for seven years had been Pastor of the 
Baptist Church, Lewes, Sussex. He was born Dec. 25, 1806, died 
unexpectedly Nov. 8, 1873, having preached with his usual energy 
on the previous Sunday, when in the morning he took for his text 
Rev. xxii. 14, and afterwards administered the Lord's Supper. The 
funeral service was conducted Nov. 15th, by the Rev. I). Jones, 
B.A., of Brixton, assisted by the Rev. Edward Steane, D.D., the Rev. 
Robert Ashton and other ministers. At the grave, in the presence 
of about 7,000 persons, the Rev. Samuel Green delivered an address. 
On the following day, Sunday, November 16, Funeral Sermons 
were preached in Battersea Chapel to overflowing congregations, in 
the morning by the Rev. D. Jones, in the evening by the Rev. Dr. 
Angus. 

His mortal remains lie interred at St. Mary's Cemetery with those 
of Amelia his wife, where in token of fond affection to his memory 
a beautiful obelisk of grey polished granite has been erected. The 
epitaph states "that he consecrated himself in early life to the 
service of God; that he received during a long and faithful 
ministry signal tokens of Divine favour in the number who through 
his instrumentality were brought to a knowledge of the Saviour: 
His earnest constant labours to the last for the education and 
welfare of the young are of untold benefit, while rich and poor 
alike have lost in him a kind and sympathizing friend, whose loving 
and christian spirit will long be remembered in Battersea." A 
monumental tablet to his memory is about to be erected in the Chapel. 
" Servant of Christ well done, 
Rest from thy loved employ, 

The battle fought, the victory won, 
Enter thy Master's joy." 
In a small room under the south gallery is erected a beautiful 
marble tablet in memoriam of the Rev. Joseph Hughes, M. A. Also 
under the north gallery are erected tablets in affectionate remem- 
brance of Henry Tritton, Esq., for many years a resident in the 
Parish of Battersea, and whose mortal remains lie buried under the 
Chapel. He died 20th of April, 1836, aged 48 years. Also Amelia, 
his wife, third daughter of Joseph Benwell, Esq., died March 28, 
1855, aged 64 years. 

April, 1874, Mr. Soule was succeeded by the Rev. Charles 
Kirtland, who still continues to fill the pastoral office. 
Let strangers walk around 

The city where we dwell ; 
Compass and view the holy ground, 

And mark the building well* 



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The orders of Thy house, 
The worship of Thy court, 
1 The cheerful songs, the solemn vows,"J^ | 
And make a fair report. f 

" God is a Spirit : and they that worship him must worship him 
in spirit and in truth." — John iv. 24. 

Deacons — G. Lawrence, Cubbington Cottage, Battersea Rise; 
H. M. Soule, St. John's Hill, Battersea Rise ; W. H. Coe, York 
Boad, Battersea ; G. Mansell, 1, Cologne Boad, St. John's Hill; 
Philip Cadby, 24, St. Peter's Square, Hammersmith; Thomas 
Sadler, 88 Spencer Boad. Chapel-keeper — D. Bayner, 31, Verona 
Street, York Boad. 



BAPTIST TEMPORARY CHAPEL, Surrey Lane. This build- 
ing having stood beyond the time allowed by Government was 
condemned by the Board of Works. The Church which formerly 
worshipped there have removed to the Lammas Hall until a 
permanent building can be raised. A fund is established which 
progresses slowly. A. Peto, Esq., The Boltons, South Kensington, 
is the Treasurer to the Building Fund. Rev. C. E. Stone is the 
Pastor. Deacons, J. Weller and F. T. Ashfield. It is worthy of 
note that this was the second Baptist Church formed in Battersea. 

" I have set my affectionsto the houseof my God." — I. Chron.xxix 3. 

" Christ is the Foundation of the house we raise ; 
Be its walls salvation, and its gateways praise ! 
May its threshold lowly to the Lord be dear ; 
May the hearta be holy that worship here ! " 



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BATTERSEA PARK TEMPORARY BAPTIST CHAPEL 
was erected in 1869, at a cost, including the purchase of freehold 
land, of £2,000. In 1872 a front gallery was added which cost 
£175, In 1876 a piece of ground was bought at the back of the 
Chapel for £105, and new class-rooms and vestries erected at an 
additional cost of £420. The grand object of the London Baptist 
Association next to the promotion of spiritual work, is the extension 
of their bounds by the erection of at least one new Chapel in each 
year. The Rev. C. H. Spurgeon, the third President (1869), had 
the pleasure of seeing a chapel erected in this region where the 
poor would be gathered. He was able to purchase and give to the 
enterprise this fine freehold site in Battersea, and leaving the front 
portion thereof for a future chapel, he expended the grant of the 
Association in erecting a school-chapel, seating 630 persons, which 
was put in trust without incumbrance. The neighbourhood being 
too poor to bear the burden of debt, and no wealthy friends being 
forthcoming this was thought to be the wiser course. The Rev. 
W. J. Mayers commenced his pastorate in the beginning of the 
year 1870. Upon his resignation he was succeeded by the Rev, 
Alfred Bax, who for two years or more preached with much 
acceptance. On the 2nd of April, 1877, the Rev. T. Lardner 
became the officiating minister. Deacons of the Church — J. S. 
Oldham, William Weller, W. Chaplin. 

In 1866, Mr. E. Carter shoemaker by trade, residing at 16, 
Henley Street, commenced holding a Sunday School in his own 
hired house. 

One Sunday Afternoon, two young students from the Metropolitan 
Tabernacle, called at his residence to see if they oould hold re* 



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ligious services there, but it does not appear that they at that time 
succeeded. Afterwards the School was removed to 32, Russell Street, 
then to 53, Arthur Street, where Mr. Bees, a young man from the 
Metropolitan Tabernacle conducted Morning and Evening Services 
regularly every Lord's day. Subsequently he was succeeded by Mr. 
William Wiggins of the Rev. C. H. Spurgeon's College who on ac- 
count of the place " being too strait' 1 made arrangements to open 
Norton Villas, Battersea Park Road, for Sunday School and regular 
Sunday Religious Services, and at stated times on Week Evenings. 
Norton Villa, was opened as a place of Worship, October 20th, 1867. 
In 1868, a Baptist Church was formed by the late Rev. I. M. Soule 
of Battersea Chapel and Mr. Wiggins v. as recognised as the Pastor, 
the Church consisted of forty members and a Congregation of about 
a hundred persons besides a Sunday School of one hundred and 
twenty Children; this place however, became too small to ac- 
commodate the persons desirous of attending. It was proposed 
therefore, to erect an Iron Chapel on a site near York Road Station. 
But those friends who made the proposition, on hearing that the 
Baptist Association had an intention to build a permament Chapel 
in Battersea Park Road, abandoned the idea of purchasing and 
erecting an Iron Chapel so in 1870, when the present Chapel was 
completed, the Baptists who had met at Norton Villa for worship, 
(Mr. Wiggins, having resigned his pastorate there) united with the 
Church at Battersea Park Chapel, under the Pastoral care of the 
Rev. Walter J. Mayers. 

"Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the 
manner of some is; but so much the more, as ye see the day 
approaching' — Hebrews x. 25. 

" Great the joy when christians meet, 
Christian fellowship, how sweet ! 
When, their theme of praise the same 
They exalt Jehovah's name. " — Burder. 

" Truly our fellowship is with the Father, and with his Son 
Jesus Christ. " — L John «. 3. 

BAPTIST (PROVIDENCE) CHAPEL, Meyrick Road, is a 
brick building — seats 350. It is intended to have galleries when it 
will then accommodate 500. The memorial stone was laid by Mr. 
H. Clark, October 5th, 1875, on which are engraved the words 
" The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. " — Psalm cxi. 10. 
Cost of Chapel including the purchase of freehold land on which 
the Chapel is erected £2,400. G. G. Stanham, Esq., Architect; 
Messrs. Turtle and Appleton, Builders, Battersea. Officiating 
Minister, Mr. Philips. Deacons, H. dark, S. Stiles, Joseph 
Palmer. 

" Philip said (to the Eunuch), If thou believest with all thine 
heart thou xnayest (be baptised); and he answered and said, I 
believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. "—Acts viii. 37. 
" For we are all partakers of that one bread. " — L Cor. #. 17. 
• " Come in, ye chosen of the Lord, 

And share the bounties of His house ; 
His dying feast, His Sacred word, 
Our joys our hopes, and solemn rows . 



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Come share the blessings of that board, 
Which Jesus for His Saints has spread ; 

Receive the grace His ways afford, 
Commune with us and Christ our Head. "— O. Smith. 



THE NEW BAPTIST CHAPEL, Chatham Road Bolingbroke 
Grove. — A suitable plot of ground was obtained at a cost of £150 ; 
cost of Chapel, about £850. Services were conducted by Charles and 
Thomas Spurgeon. The building will seat 258 persons. 

The cause was commenced about fourteen years ago in a very 
humble way by Mr. Or. Rides, a working man, who, previously to 
the erection of the above place of worship, held meetings in his 
own hired house, Swaby Street. William Higgs, Jun., Architect ; 
Higgs and Hill, Builders. 

WESLEYAN METHODIST MISSION ROOM AND SUNDAY 
SCHOOLS, Everett Street, Nine Elms, opened 1871. Mr. John 
Parmer, Steward and Superintendent. Now closed. 

UNITED METHODIST FREE CHURCH, Church Road, 
Battersea. — The Memorial Stone was laid by James Wild, Esq., 
May 25th, 1858. Another stone was laid by Mrs. Bowron, Sept., 
22, 1864, when the Chapel was enlarged. S. J. Stedman, Architect. 

THE UNITED METHODIST FREE CHURCH, Battersea 
Park Road.— Tne School-room at the back of the Chapel in Land- 
seer Street was built in 1865, at a cost of £500, and it was used as 
a preaching Station. In 1871-2 the present Chapel was built, at a 
cost of £2,200. Seats about 600. Has a Lecture-room and Schools 



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underneath the Ohapel. The freehold was purchased in 1876 and 
cost £400. Rev. James Whitton is now Resident Minister in con- 
nexion with the 7th, London Circuit. 

"The brotherly covenant* " — Amos •'. 9. 
" One in heart, and one in hand, 

One for all, and all for one ; 
Love shines through this Christian band, 
Kindled from the heavenly sun. — Edmeston. 

In the District known as New Wandsworth, near the Bolingbroke 
Grove, Wandsworth Common, is a large and increasing population 
Which presents an opening for Christian enterprise. 

The Free Methodists of the 7th London Circuit have undertaken 
this work. Preaching has been commenoed in a room No. 89, 
Bennerly Road, and a society of twelve members have been formed. 

A suitable freehold site has been secured in the Mallinson Road 
at a cost of £400, and it is proposed to erect a Ohapel and Schools 
thereon. 

The whole scheme will involve an outlay of £4,000, but at present 
it is only intended to build the School, which is estimated will, 
with the ground, cost nearly £1,200. 

PRIMITIVE METHODIST OHAPEL, New Road, was built in 
1874. The Ohapel including the purchase of freehold, cost about 
£1,030. Seats 200. Mr. Murphy, Architect; Mr. Stocking, 
Builder. 

Now a new and much more commodious Ohapel is erected. 
Respecting its origin the following account may not be uninteresting. 

About twelve years ago the friends of Hammersmith Station 
decided to Mission this neighbourhood. First of all they opened 
two small parlours at 32, Russell Street, Battersea Park Road, as a 
Preaching Station and afterwards secured premises in Stewart's 
Lane, which they converted into a small Ohapel, and here, for 
several years, were numbers of conversions; but, like all small 
and out-of-the-way places, it became a feeder to other churches. 
It was at last decided to secure a suitable site and build. First a 
lease of a piece of land in the New-Road, and eventually the free- 
hold was secured, and a small school-room was erected on part of 
the site, which has since been used for school and preaching 
services. The building being altogether inconvenient, it was 
decided, after prayerful and mature deliberation, to build a Ohapel 
which should oe more in harmony with the requirements of the 
neighbourhood. Mr. A. J. Rouse, the Architect, was consulted, 
plans were prepared, and tenders invited. The contract was let to 
Mr. J. Holloway, builder, Wandsworth, for £2000, which, with the 
debt of £690 on the school-room and Architect's fees, will bring it 
up to £2800. The building is plain, neat, and substantial, 
with stone facings. It will accommodate about 600 persons ; there 
are two aisles, a gallery on the sides and at one end, with a 
back gallery for the organ. Adjoining the chapel is a large class- 
room capable of holding sixty children. Externally, the building 
is one of the most imposing and attractive in the neighbourhood, 
and one of the cheapest in London. 

On Whit-Monday, 1878, the memorial-stones were laid. The 



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opening address was delivered by Mr. G. Harris. It was practical, 
earnest, and eloquent. Stones were laid byE. Burns, B. Adams, 
and B. Morton, Esqs., and Messrs. J. J. Muz, W. Bayford, W. 
Gibbs, Bev. T. Penrose for G. Palmer, Esq., M. P., Mr. S. Fortune, 
Circuit Steward, for the Sunday-schools, Mesdames W. and H. 
Baker, and Miss Whiting. 

At the end of the Ohapel is a Tablet in memory of Alfred James 
Bouse, Architect, who met with his death in the collision between 
the Princess Alice and the Bywell Castle on the Thames, September 
3rd, 1878. Life is short but Art is long. 

" Therefore be ye also ready for in such an hour as ye think not 
the Son of Man cometh. Matt. 24. 44. " 

The first Primitive Methodist preachers were, William Cowes 
and Hugh Borne, in 1807. When the first Primitive Methodist 
Church was formed it consisted of ten members ; now it numbers 
over 180,000 and employs more than a 1,000 ministers. 

"Where two or three are gathered together in my name, there 
am I in the midst of them." — Matthew xviii. 20. 

PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPEL, Grayshott Road, was 
erected in 1875. The stone was laid by J. T. Hawkins, Esq., M. A., 
for the Right Hon. Earl Shaftesbury, K. G., November 21, 1874. 
Rev. J. Toulson, Superintendent, 7th London Circuit. Another 
Stone was laid by a Shareholder of the Artizans, Labourer's and 
General Dwelling Company Limited. Rev. W. E. Crombie, Minister. 
Mr. A. J. Rouse, Acting Architect ; J. Lose, Builder. The Chapel 
seats 400, and cost about £2,600. The entrance to the Chapel is 
up a flight of steps ; the Schools are underneath the Chapel. 

•' Jehovah, Shammah." JZzek. xlviii. 35. "Allelujah!" Bev. xix. 1. 

In the Wandsworth Road, near Grayshott Road, is an old mile- 
stone which marks the space between that and the Royal Exchange 
five miles, and Whitehall four and a half miles. 

PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHAPEL, Plough Lane,— In the 
year 1855, a few Primitive Methodists, residing in the neighbour- 
hood of York Road, with the view of having their hearts knitted 
more closely together in holy love by Christian fellowship and 

frayer, met from house to house for this purpose to worship God — 
n this way they continued to meet till the year 1858, when the 
linn of Orlando Jones & Co. gave them the use of their Reading 
Boom. Here as elsewhere they preached the Gospel of Jesus Christ 
and their numbers steadily increased. In 1870, a piece of land was 
secured in Knox Road, and the firm above mentioned, helped them 
to erect an Iron Chapel with a School-room underneath. This 
building having stood beyond the time allowed by Government was 
condemned by the Board of Works. It was opened in June 1871, 
and was finally closed in September 1880. About this time the 
Estate of the Late Rev. I. M. Soule was sold, and an effort was 
made to secure a plot of land thereon, situated in Plough Lane. The 
freehold site selected, was purchased, and a substantial brick Chapel 
with School-room underneath erected at a cost of £2,300. The 
Chapel will accommodate 400 worshippers. It was opened October 
24th, 1880, on which occasion Sermons were preached by the Rev. 
J. Baxter. I will command My blessing upon you— Ley. 25. 21. 



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Command Thy Hearing from above, 

God on all assembled here : 
Behold us with a Father's love 

While we look up with filial fear. 

Command thy blessing Jesus, Lord, 

May we thy true disciples be ; 
Speak to each heart the Mighty Word, 

Say to the weakest, follow me. 

Command thy blessing in this hour, 

Spirit of Truth and fill the place 
With wondering and with healing power, 

With quickening and confirming grace. 

With Thee and these forever found, 

May al} the Souls who here unite, 
With harps and songs Thy throne surround, 

Eest in Thy love, and reign in light. 

ST. GEORGE'S MISSION HALL, Stewart's Lane, formerly 
belonged to the Primitive Methodists, and was used by them as a 
chapel. 

"Glory, honour, praise and power 

Be unto the Lamb for ever ; 

Jesus Christ is our Redeemer, 

Hallelujah! Amen. 
"Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the towers 
thereof. Mark ye well her bulwarks, consider her palaces ; that 
ye may tell it to the generations following. For this God is our 
God for ever and ever : he will be our guide even unto death. " — 
Psalms xlviii. 12-14. 



BATTEESEA CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH (Independent), 
Junction of Bridge Road and Surrey Lane South, fifteen minutes' 
walk from Clapham Junction and York Road Stations, ten minutes' 
from Battersea Station ; is an edifice constructed of Kentish rag 
with Bath stone dressings, and has a tower with spire at the north 
end of the building. The interior is spacious and lofty ; the pews 
are made of pitch-pine, varnished, and will accommodate, including 
the seats in the south gallery, 600 persons. Cost of erection 
£4,500. H. Fuller, Architect; F. W. Sawyer, Builder. With 



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respect to its history, this is the first Congregational Church in 
Batteraea. It owes its origin to the Surrey Congregational Union, 
under whose directions services were held in the Lammas-Hall 
previous to the erection of the previous Church building. The 
Foundation Stone was laid by the Eev. J. G. Eogers, B. A., of 
Clapham, September 17th 1866. It was opened Tuesday, October 
12th, 1867, and the Dedication Service was conducted by the Eev. 
Samuel Martin, of "Westminster. The present is the third pastoral 
settlement, the first minister being the Eev. J. Scott James, of 
Cheshunt College, who commenced his ministry in Battersea. In 
1 870 the Eev. J. S. James resigned to take the Pastorate of the Church 
at Stratford-on-Avon, and was succeeded April, 1871, by the Eev. 
Joseph Shaw, of Boston, Lincolnshire. In 1878 the Eev. Joseph 
Shaw resigned and was succeeded by the Eev. Thomas Jarratt, 
the present Pastor. 

The Sunday School and Lecture Hall, with class-room adjoining, 
was opened in April, 1874. The entire cost of the building, 
furnishing, heating, lighting, and fencing the ground was £510, 
the whole of which was discharged July, 1875. Of this amount 
a generous friend gave £300 through the Eev. Joseph Shaw ; and 
thirty-two pounds were contributed by the Sunday School Children. 
The room will seat 300 persons. 

The " Church Manual" for 1870 states " This is Congregational, 
we regarding the New Testament as the only infallible guide in 
matters of Church order, and learning from it that each Church is 
authorized to elect its officers, receive and dismiss its members, and 
act authoritatively and conclusively upon all questions affecting its 
purity and administration. We recognize the Lord Jesus Christ as 
our King and Sole Euler in spiritual things, and His Word as our 
Statute-Book and only Standard. The membership. We believe 
this should be composed only of regenerated persons who are 
received into the Church on profession of their faith in Christ, or 
by letters from sister Church. Members of other churches, acting 
on this principle, are also received on their producing proper 
certificates. Candidates for membership should make their appli- 
cation direct to the Paster. Deacons, Mr. John Allen, Mr. Thomas 
C. Tabor ; Treasurer, Mr. Samuel James Eoberts ; Secretary, Mr. 
Edwin John Eason. 

The seats are free, not sold or rented, but are allotted for family 
convenience and to preserve order. The revenues of the Church 
are chiefly derived from the weekly free-will offerings of the church 
and congregation. 

"How amiable are thy tabernacles, Lord of Hosts." — 
Psalm Ixxxiv. 1. 

" The Hill of Zion yields 

A thousand sacred sweets, 
Before we reach the heavenly fields 
Or walk the golden streets. " 

STOEMONT EOAD CONGEEGATIONAL CHUECH Lavender 
Hill. 

The Schools are in connexion with the above place, where the 
woship is at present conducted. They are built from designs by 



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J. H. Vernon Esq., and are capable of accommodating 450 scholars. 
There are eight class-rooms, and there is every convenience for 
carrying on Sunday School work. 

The site, which is freehold, as is also the adjoining one for the 
future Church was the gift of the London Congregational Union. 
The cost of the school buildings was £2820. The foundation stone 
was laid on July 27th, 1878, by J. Kemp Welch Esq., and the 
buildings were opened on February 18th 1879, when Sermons were 
preached by the Kevs. R. W. Dale of Birmingham, and Dr. Ealeigh. 
A Church is now being formed under the Pastorate of the Rev. R. 
Bulmer, late of Whitby, who commenced his ministry on Sunday 
the 2nd of October, last. It is proposed to commence the building 
of the Church as soon as possible. The building according to 
plans will seat 850. The whole of the Christian work in connection 
with the above place is in a very active state, and include Band of 
Hope, and Improvement Societies. 

WESLEYAN METHODISM IN BATTERSEA.— It is not easy 
to determine the time of the first appearance of Methodism in Bat- 
tersea. From Mr Wesley's Journal it appears that in his later 
years he was accustomed to pay an annual visit to this neighbour- 
hood, including Chelsea, Wandsworth and Balham. In the absence 
of any definite record of the matter we may assume that some per- 
sons in Battersea came under his influence. A half century elapsed 
before the Methodist Society found a local habitation in Battersea, 
even then, not destined to be a permanent one. A small Chapel, 
chiefly at the cost of the late Rev. J. Partes Haswell, was erected 
on the site of the present one in the Bridge Road West in 1846 ; 
the foundation stone being laid by the late Mr. Scott of Chelsea, 
and the works being executed by Mr John Sugden, Builder, of 
Bermondsey New Road. 

The building was let to the late Mr. J. Boughton and others, for 
the use of the Wesleyan Society by Mr. Haswell, and it continued 
in their occupation until 1855. The agitations which disturbed the 
Wesleyan Connexion in lL 51 and following years were felt with 
great severity in Battersea. The congregation and Society were so 
weakened by the separation that took place, that the Lessees, after 
allowing the Chapel to be occupied for a time by the seceding party, 
finally surrendered their lease into Mr. HaswelTs posession again. 

In the meantime, however the Wesleyan Society, began to re- 
cover from the great depression into which it had fallen ; and in 
1858, on their behalf, Messrs. Bell and Molineux, with the late Mr. 
Holloway of Battersea, took the former Chapel on a short lease from 
the persons into whose hands it had passed ; and ultimately it was 
purchased by a duly appointed body of Trustees in 1862. 

In 1864, aided by a munificent donation of £425 from Mr. J* 
Steadman of South Lambeth, and by other liberal contributions, 
the Trustees were enabled greatly to enlarge the building, nearly 
doubling its former area; and finally in 1871, it was brought to a 
state of completion, by the erection of a Gallery and an Organ, 
with other minor improvements. It now furnishes accommodation 
for 700 people* 



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The usual congregation amounts to about 500, of whom more 
than 300 are members of the " Society." 

The Eev Gk Bowden, and the Eev. E. Hawken. are the present 
circuit ministers, the latter being resident in Battersea, and taking 
special charge of the Wesleyan Church there. 

The usual times of service on Sundays are, 1 1 o'clock in the 
morning, and 6.30 in the evening. There are also Weekly Prayer 
Meetings on Sunday mornings at 7 a.m. ; and on Monday evenings 
at 7 p.m. ; and a Week-night service on Tuesday evenings at the 
same hour. 

In 1870, in view of the growing Educational necessities of the 
Wesleyan Body, the General Wesleyan Education Committee de- 
cided on the establishment of another Training College, in addition 
to that which they had in Westminster. Circumstances led to the 
placing of this on the Southlands estate, near the Battersea High 
Street Railway Station. It furnishes accommodation for 110 female 
Students, who are under training for the Office of Teachers ; and 
who in due time are employed in all parts of the kingdom in 
Schools under Inspection. They constitute, it need hardly be said 
a very interesting portion of the congregation. The Rev. G. W. 
Olver, B.A., is the Principal, and Mr. James Bailey the Headmaster 
of the College. 

A Sunday School with 280 Scholars in average attendance meets 
twice on each Sunday, and is conducted with more than the usual 
efficiency. There are also the customary benevolent and religious 
agencies maintained by the Wesleyan Church here ; and Day 
Schools for Girls and Infants are connected with Southlands Train- 
ing College.* W.S. 

happy souls that pray 

Where God delights to hear ! 
happy men that pay 

Their constant service there ! 
They praise thee still ; and happy they 

Who love the way to Sion's hill. 
They go from strength to strength, 

Through this dark vale of tears, 
Till each o'ercomes at length, 

Till each in heaven appears : 
glorious seat ! Thou God, our King, 

Shall thither bring our willing feet. 

We know for certain Battersea on one occasion was honoured 
with the preaching of the Rev. John Wesley as recorded in one of 
his Journals, dated November 4, 1766, wherein this indefatigable 
servant of Christ states, " I preached at Brentford, Battersea, 
Deptford and Welling, and examined the several societies." His 

•In olden time this place was called the "Retreat," a spacious mansion, stuccoed, 
situated in the midst of an extensive pleasure ground and shrubbery it belonged to 
Valentine Morris, Esq. — but when Sir George Pullock became the occupier he 
changed the name to that of Southlands, jocosely punninng at the same time upon 
its former name by saying that he never made a retreat. Afterwards Sir George 
Pollock removed to Clapham Common. Near it stood Manor House the seat of 
Richard Morris Esq. Son of Valentine Morris Esq. a large brick edifice in the style 
of George the First's reign. 



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Journals state that lie preached repeatedly at "Wandsworth, as £he 
following extracts will show. Wednesday, November 16, 1748. 
u In the afternoon I preached to a little company at Wandsworth 
who had just begun to seek God ; but they had a rough setting- 
out, the rabble gathering from every side, whenever they met 
together throwing dirt and stones, and abusing both men and 
women in the grossest manner. They complained of this to a 
neighbouring Magistrate, and he promised to do them justice ; but 
Mr. C. walked over to his house, and spoke so much in favour of 
the rioters, that they were all discharged. It is strange, that a 
mild, humane man could be persuaded by speaking quite contrary 
to the truth, (means as bad as the end) to encourage a merciless 
rabble in outraging the innocent ! A few days after, Mr, C, 
walking over the same field, dropped down and spoke no more ! 
Surely the mercy of God would not suffer a well-meaning man to 
be any longer a fool to persecutors." 

Tuesday, January 17, 1758, " I preached at Wandsworth, a 
gentleman come from America, has again opened a door in this 
desolate place. In the morning I preached in Mr Gilberts house 
Two Negro servants of his, and a Mulatto, appear to be much 
awakened. Shall not his (God's) saving health be made known to 
all nations ? " 

Thursday, 8th February, 1770, the Eev. John Wesley writes, 
"I went to Wandsworth. What a proof we have here that 'God's 
thoughts are not our thoughts ! ' Every one thought that no good 
could be done here ; we had tried for above twenty years, very 
few would even give us the hearing, and the few that did seemed 
little the better for it. But all of a sudden crowds flocked to hear ; 
many are cut to the heart; many filled with peace and joy in be- 
lieving ; many long for the whole image of God. In the evening, 
though it was a sharp frost, the room was as hot as a stove, and 
they drank in the word with all greediness, and also at five in the 
morning, while I applied ' Jesus put forth his hand and touched 
him, saying I will : be thou clean ! ' " 

Previously to the erection of the present commodious Wesleyan 
Chapel in Bridge Eoad West, the friends of the Wesleyan Com- 
munion met for worship in a large upper room over a carpenter's 
shop in King Street. Subsequently they removed to premises now 
belonging to Mr. G. King, Ironmonger, in the vicinity of Surrey 
Lane. 

John Cullum, an artist by profession, who resided in Battersea, 
was connected with the Wesleyan-Methodists. He was a zealous 
Open-air Preacher and Temperance Advocate. It is said that he 
was the first person who introduced Teetotalism in Battersea and 
held meetings for that object. He died in 1852, aged 51 years. 

This good man kept a record of important events which had 
transpired in Battersea. From a manuscript of his, entitled " The 
Antiquities of Battersea," the following extract is taken — it will be 
read with interest. 

"There is also a Wesleyan Chapel and Society here, which 
originated at a small house in Bridge Eoad, near the Bridge, after 
which it was removed to Mr Steadman's yard, in which a large 
room was fitted up for Divine Worship, and a School formed under 



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the fostering care of Mr. Lark and Mr. Bridge, assisted by other 
zealous female teachers. In conformity with the principles of Mr. 
Wesley the Society has, under God's blessing, increased from one 
Class to three Glasses, besides a Sunday School which is in a 
flourishing condition. Mr. T. Boughton, the present Superintendent 
is assisted by twelve male and female teachers who still persevere 
in the good work of instructing the young. The present Chapel 
was built in King Street and was considered necessary both from. 
the fact that there was not room for the persons who assembled for 
worship and other circumstances relative to the Society at that time 
The Chapel was opened by three sermons being preached on 
Sunday, October 11, 1840, by the Eev. W. Atherton, Eev. J. P. 
Haswell, and the Rev. J. Scott. And on Monday evening, October 
12, a meeting of the Friends connected with the Chapel was held, 
at which the Eev. J. P. Haswell presided, one of the chief friends 
to the cause at this place. The object of the meeting was to excite 
a spirit of enquiry with respect to the ministry of the Word and 
christian instruction of youth in order to benefit the morals of the 
neighbourhood and salvation of souls. 

There is connected with this Chapel a Stranger's Friend Society, 
whose object is to search out the most forlorn and distressing cases 
of poverty and sickness. Its plan is carried out by Visitors who 
read to the sick a portion of the Holy Scriptures and engage in 
prayer with them, and by conversation and tracts endeavour to in- 
struct so as to lead the heart to the Saviour, and relieve their 
temporal wants by affording them food, &c. rather than money. 
Many instances of good have been the result, and the conversion 
of some to the truth. Its founders were Messrs. Cooper and 
Stanley, Wandsworth; its present officers, Messrs. Stedman and 
Evans, Secretary and Treasurer, Oullum, Bridge, Winter, &c, 
Battersea. There is a small Branch of the Wesleyan Missionary 
Society carried on here — a Tract Society, &c. May the Lord prosper 
the work that many may be enlightened by the Q-ospel of Jesus 
Christ and made partakers of his great Salvation." 

METHODISTIC CHEONOLOGY. 
1703, June 17. The Eev. John Wesley born. 
1725, Sept. 19. Mr. Wesley ordained by Bishop Potter. 
1735, Oct. 14. Mr. Wesley sailed as a Missionary for America. 
1739. The Wesleyan-Methodist society established. 
1744. June 25. The first Methodist Conference held in London. 
1751, April 24. Mr. Wesley preached his first sermon in Scotland, 

at Musselburgh. 
1769. Messrs. Boardman and Pilmoor sailed for America. 

1784. The "Deed of Declaration" enrolled in the Court of Chancery. 

1785. Aug. 14. The Eev. John Fletcher died. 

1786. The Methodist Missions in the West Indies established. 
1788, Mar. 29. The Eev. Charles Wesley died. 

1791, Mar. 2. The Eev. John Wesley died. 

1814, May 3. Dr. Coke died on his passage to Ceylon. 

1821, Feb. 16. The Eev. Joseph Benson died. 

1832, Aug. 26. Dr. Adam Clark died. 

1833, Jan. 8. The Eev. Eichard Watson died, in the 53rd year 

of his age. 



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1834. the Wedeyan Theological Institution established. 

1838. Members in the Methodist society, 1,062,427, 

1839. Centenary of Wesleyn Methodism. 

The first (Ecumenecal Methodist Conference held in London 
September, 1881. 

WESLETAN CHAPEL, Queen's Road.— The following is a brief 
account of the rise and progress of Wesleyan Methodism in this 
neighbourhood. In the year 1871, in the order of God's providence, 
a good man and his wife removed from the Great Queen's Street 
Circuit to Frederick Street, now known as Newby Street, Wandsworth 
Boad. On October 17, 1871, they very kindly opened their houses 
for a class meeting, to be held in connexion with the Society of 
which they were members. Here on Sunday, December 3rd of the 
the same year, the first preaching Service was conducted. As the 
room became inconveniently crowded at the Sunday Services it was 
felt that a more suitable place was needed, so after a short time 
a Billiard Boom capable of holding 150 persons, situated at No. 588, 
Wandsworth Boad, was secured, and on April 21, 1872, was opened 
for Public Worship. On June 2nd, about 30 children were garnered 
in and a Sunday School commenced. Notwithstanding the unsuita- 
bleness of the place and other difficulties which had to be surmounted, 
the work of the Lord was carried on in this place until February, 
1879 ; in the meanwhile however, strenuous efforts were made in 
order to obtain an eligible piece of ground on which to erect a more 
commodious building. In 1878, the freehold site situated in Queen's 
Boad, was purchased for £1,140, and a temporary Iron Chapel 
erected, with seats for 500, at a cost of about £600, this temporary 
Sanctuary was opened February 14th, 1879. This Structure while 
making ample provision at first was soon found to be inadequate to 
meet the requirements of a neighbourhood where the population 
was large and rapidly increasing, hence the Trustees and Friends 
endeavoured to raise £4,000, by means of grants and loans from the 
late Sir Francis Lycett's Fund, the Metropolitan Chapel Fund, etc., 
towards the entire outlay of about £7,000, (the estimated cost of the 
permanent building etc,) leaving about £3,000, to be raised by funds 
in the Lambeth Circuit. On August 28th, 1881, the New School- 
Boom which holds about 320 persons, was opened for Public Worship 
and Sunday School purposes. The Iron Chapel having been sold 
to make way for the New Chapel now in course of erection which 
is expected to be opened for Divine Service about May 1882. 

On FridOT July 15th, 1881, the' Memorial Stone was laid at 3 
o'clock, by Lady Lycett, when the Bev. GK W. Olver, B. A., gave 
an address. 

By express desire of the Local Committee the Italian Style has been 
adopted, and the building will be erected in Bath Stone and Picked 
Stocks — Sitting accommodation for 1,000 will be provided, on the 
ground floor 650, and in the galleries 350. Adjoining the Chapel 
large School-Booms have been erected with Vestry, Class-Booms, 
and the usual offices. The Architect is Mr. James Weir, of the 
Strand. James Holloway, Builder, Marmion Boad, Lavender Hill. 
" That thine eyes may be open upon this house day and night " 2. Chron. 
9% % 20. 



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139 

Christ is our corner stone. 
On him alone we build ; 
With his true saints alone 

The Courts of heaven are filled ; 
On his great Love Our hopes we place 

Of present grace and joy above. 

! then with hymns of praise 

These hallowed courts shall ring ; 
Our voices we will raise 

The Three in one to sing ; 
And thus proclaim in joyful song, 

Both Loud and Long, that glorious Name. 

Here gracious God do Thou 

For evermore draw nigh ; 
Accept each faithful vow, 

And mark each suppliant sigh, 
In copious shower on all who pray 

Each holy day Thy blessing pour. 

Here may we gain from heaven 

Thy grace which we implore : 
And may that grace once given, 

Be with us evermore : 
Until that day, when all the blest 

To endless rest are called away. 

FREE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, Queen's Crescent, Queen's 
Road, Some 6 years or more ago, Mr. Crosby began the above 
work in Arthur Street Mission Hall, a small Hall situated in the 
lowest part of Battersea, and the work under his superintendence 
has been so manifestly owned and blessed of God, that it was some 
time since deemed imperative on his part as the Lord's steward, to 
seek further to extend this effort in His cause. As far as the means 
of himself and friends allowed, and in the exercise of much con- 
secrated faith and self-denial, a plot of land was secured, and an 
iron building erected adjacent to the most needy part of the 
neighbourhood, where the extended work is now carried on. The 
building, however, is of a temporary character, the Board of Works 
granting a license only of two years on iron buildings, and according 
to an agreement entered into in faith of the Lord's continued favour, 
a brick bidding must be erected in the course of 4 years. The 
present building, owing to the speedy growth of the work is even 
now too small. An effort is being made to purchase the freehold, 
and erect a building capable of holding about 700 persons, at an 
estimated cost of £2,750. W. Crosby, Pastor, E. V. Kelly, 
Treasurer. 

In addition to other lay helpers (including Scripture Readers 
and Bible Women) there are six agents at work in Battersea 
connected with the London City mission. This is an excellent 
Institution, having for its object the Evangelization of the poor of 
London. Mr. David Nasmith founded the London City Mission 
May 16, 1835. The general business of the London City Mission 
is conducted at the Mission House, Bridewell Street, Blackfriars> by 



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130 

a Commtitee consisting of an equal number of members of the 
Established Church and of Dissenters; and the Examiners of 
Missionaries consist of an equal number of Clergymen and Dissent- 
ing Ministers, all of whom, with the Treasurers, Secretaries and 
Auditors and Members of the Committee, ex-officio. These 
gentlemen give practical illustration of the purest ideal of christian 
unity by showing, notwithstanding the peculiar church organiza- 
tion to which each may be attached, how harmoniously they can 
work together on one common platform under the guidance of their 
Divine Head for the extension of the Eedeemer's Kingdom by 
bringing back wanderers from God to the fold of the one Great 
Shepherd, Jesus Christ. The number of City Missionaries engaged 
in the Metropolis is about 450. 

The Corner Stone of Trinity Mission Hall, Stewart's Lane, 
promulgated and subscribed to by the members and adherents of 
Trinity Presbyterian Church, Clapham Eoad, was laid Wednesday, 
June 20, 1 877, by the Eev. David Macewan, D.D. in the presence of a 
very large concourse of people. It is estimated that the Hall will 
accommodate about 400 persons ; and in addition to the Hall there is 
a School-room which will probably accommodate 150 to 200 scholars 
The building cost about £2,500. The land, which is freehold, has 
been purchased for £400. The Hall is built of brick with box 
stone dressings. W. H. Bobbins, Esq., Architect; B. E. Nightingale, 
Builder. Mr. Cameron is the Minister. 

The handsome edifice belonging to the Presbyterian Church of 
England, Clapham Eoad, cost about £12,000, built through the 
nnremitting energy and pious zeal of the late Dr. John MacEarlane 
and was for many years the scene of his earnest, faithful and 
successful pastoral labours. 

PLYMOUTH BEETHEEN.— A body of Christians calling 
themselves " The Brethren" came into existence about 1830 — 1835 
in Plymouth, Dublin, and other places in the British Islands, 
extended throughout the British Dominions, and in some other parts 
of the continent of Europe, particularly among the Protestants of 
France, Switzerland, and Italy, and also in the United States of 
America. Many of the first religious communities found in Plymouth 
and elsewhere, were retired Anglo-Indian officers, men of unquestion- 
able zeal and piety and those communities began to appear almost 
simultaneously in a number of places. Mr. Darby, regarded as 
an influential member, afterwards separated from them with many 
adherents, Mr. Darby was previously a Barrister, moving in the 
highest circles of Society, and under deeply religious impressions 
became a Clergyman of the Church of England lived for some time 
in a mud-hovel in the County of Wicklow devoting himself to his 
work. The Plymouth Brethren object to National Churches as too 
Latitudinarian, and to other Dissenters as too Sectarian; their 
doctrines however agree with those of most Evangelical Protestant 
Churches, but they recognize no ordination of minister; their tenets 
may be stated thus : — Original Sin, Predestination, the efficiency of 
Christ's Sacrifice, the merits of his obedience, the power of his 
intercession, the gracious operations of the Holy Ghost in Eegenera- 
tion and Sanctification ; they also generally maintain millenary views, 
usually practise the Baptism of believers without regard to previous 



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131 

infant baptism, they acknowledge the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper and administer it to one another in their meetings usually 
every Sunday, or first day of the week. In 1851, they had 132 
places of Worship in England and Wales. This year 1879, the 
(exclusive) Brethren hare erected a small place of Worship in High 
Street, near Battersea Eailway Station. 

A Eailway Arch in Latchmere Road, has been utilized for a 
Gospel Hall where the (Open) Brethren meet for worship. 

Situated in the rear of Lawn House Laundry, Orkney Street, is 
a small place of worship called the " Little Tabernacle" erected at 
the sole expense of Mr, John Strutt, where meetings for Bible 
Headings, Breaking of Bread, Exhortation, and Prayer are held 
every Lord's day. 

THOMAS BLOOD, generally known by the appellation of Colonel 
Blood, was a discarded officer of Oliver Cromwell's Household ; he 
was notorious for his daring crimes and his good fortune. He was 
first distinguished by an attempt to surprise the Castle of Dublin, 
which was defeated by the vigilance of the Duke of Ormond, and 
some of his accomplices were executed. Escaping to England he 
with his confederates meditated revenge, and actually seized the 
Duke of Ormond one night in his coach in St. James* Street, intending 
to hang him, and had got him to Tyburn, where, after struggling 
with his would-be assassins in the mire, the Duke was rescued by 
his servants, 6 Dec, 1670. Blood afterwards in the disguise of a 
clergyman, attempted to steal the crown and regalia from the Jewel 
Office in the Tower, 9th May, 1671. He was very near succeeding, 
for he had bound and wounded Edwards the keeper, and was 
making off with his booty, but was overtaken and seized with 
his associates. Blood, who was accused as being the ringleader in 
this conspiracy, when questioned he frankly owned that he had 
taken part in the enterprise, but refused to discover his accomplices, 
" the fear of death (he said) should never induce him to deny a guilt 
or betray a friend. " all these extraordinary circumstances made 
him the subject of general conversation. Charles II. moved by the 
influence of popular excitement, or from idle curiosity, granted him 
a personal interview. Blood confessed to the king that " he had 
been engaged with others in a design to kill him with a Carbine 
(said to be in the vicinity of Battersea Priory) where His Majesty 
often used to bathe (beneath the garden belonging to the Priory 
was a Subterranean passage leading to the river-bank) that the 
cause of this resolution was the severity exercised over the consciences 
of the godly, in destroying their religious assemblies ; that when 
he had taken his stand among the reeds on the other side of the 
river full of these bloody resolutions he f ouud his heart checked 
with an awe of Majesty ; that he not only relented himself, but di- 
verted his associates irom their purpose; that he had long ago 
brought himself to an entire indifference about life, which he now 
gave for lost ; yet he could not forebear warning the king of the 
danger which might attend his execution ; that his associates had 
bound themselves by the strictest oaths to revenge the death of any 
of their confederacy and that no precaution nor power could rescue 
any one from the effects of their desperate resolution "Yet not- 
withstanding these and other offences, the King not only pardoned 



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but granted him an Estate of £500 per annum, thus this man who 
had been regarded as a monster became a kind of favourite. He 
lived to enjoy his pension about ten years, till being charged with 
fixing an imputation of a scandalous nature on the Duke of 
Buckingham, he was thrown into prison, where he died August 24, 
1671. 

Battersea Priory is a castellated building reported to have been 
a Convent for Ursuline Nuns. 

PBIOR was the Ecclesiastical title forlnerly given to the head of 
a small Monastry, to which the designation of Priory was applied. 
The Prior ranked next in position to the Abbot. Similarly the term 
Prioress was applied to the head of a female convent. The title of 
Grand Prior was given to the Commandants of the Grand Military 
Priories of the Orders of John of Jerusalem, of Malta and of 
the Templars. 

Alien Priories were cells of the religious houses in England which 
belonged to foreign Monasteries. The whole number is not exactly 
ascertained; the Monasticon has given a list of 100. Weever, p. 
338, says 110. The houses belonging to the several religious orders 
which obtained in England and Wales, were, Cathedrals, Colleges, 
Abbeys, Priories, Preceptories, Commandries, Hospitals, Friaries, 
Hermitages, Chantries, and free Chapels. These were under the 
direction and management of various officers ; the dissolution of 
houses of this kind began as early as 1312, when the Templars 
were suppressed; and in 1323 their lands, churches, advowsons, 
and liberties, here in England were given by Ed. II., st. 3, to the 
prior and brethren of the hospital of St. John at Jerusalem. 

In the years 1390, 1437, 1441, 1459, 1497, 1505, 1508, and 1515, 
several other houses were dissolved, and their revenues settled on 
different Colleges in Oxford and Cambridge. From the year 1312 
in the reign of Edward the 2nd to the close of the reign of Henry 
VIII, 1547, the number of houses and places suppressed from first 
to last as far as any calculations appear to have been made were 
23, 4 ; besides the friars' houses and those suppressed by Wolsey, 
and many small houses of which we have no particular account. 
Henry VIII founded six new bishoprics of which Westminster was 
one, which was changed by Queen Elizabeth into a Deanery with 
twelve prebends and a school. 

Persons desirous of obtaining information respecting Monasteries 
should consult Dugdale's Monasticon Anglicanum, (Lond. 1655, 1661, 
1673). Also a new and greatly Enlarged Edition by Bandinel, 
Caley and Ellis, published in 1817, 1830, and reissued in 1846. 

URSUL1NES, or Nuns of St. Ursula: a sisterhood founded 
about the year 1537, by ADgela Merici at Brescia, the community 
numbering at that time, as many as six hundred. St. Angela was 
born in 1511, at Desenzano, on the Lago de Garda, and died at 
Brescia, 21st March, 1540. The institution was formally approved 
of and confirmed by Paul III., in 1544, and it was on this occasion 
that the name of Ursulines was given to the order after the famous 
St. Ursula; a Virgin Martyr of the Eoman Catholic Calender 
especially honoured m Germany, and especially at Cologne, which 
is the reputed place of her Martyrdom. The Legend substantially, 
in its present form, can be traced as fax back as the end of the 11th 



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or beginning of the 12th Century, as it is to "be found in tlie revised 
Edition of the Chronicle of S igebert of Gemblours (Pertzs Eerum 
Germanicarum Scriptores VIII. 310) which was made between 1106 
and 1111, " According to their writer, Ursula was the daughter of 
the British King, Deonatis ; and on account of her distinguished 
beauty, was sought in marriage by the son of a heathen Prince who 
was originally named Holof ernes, but afterwards when a Christain 
was named JEtherius. Her father was forced to yield to the demand ; 
but Ursula made it a condition that her suitor should become a 
Christian/andthat she should be allowed the space of three years, during 
which she proposed, in company with her maidens to each of whom 
should be assigned a thousand companions and a threc-oared galley 
to convey them, to make a voyage of pious pilgrimage. The conditions 
were accepted; the maidens to the number of 11,000 were collected 
from all parts of the world, and at length the expedition set sail 
from the British Coast. Arriving at the mouth of the Rhine they 
sailed up the river to Cologne, and thence upwards to Basel, where 
leaving their galleys, they proceeded by land to visit the tombs of 
the Apostles at Rome. This Pilgrimage accomplished, they de- 
scended the river to Cologne, which however, had meanwhile fallen 
into the hands of an army of Hunnish invaders under the headship 
of a Chief, who although not named is plainly the Attila of history. 
Landing at Cologne in ignorant security, the pious Yirgins fell into 
the hands of these barbarous heathens by whom they were all put 
to the sword with the exception of Ursula, who for her beauty sake 
was reserved as a prize for the chief. She too, however, as well as 
another maiden, who had at first concealed herself in terror, demanded 
to join her companions in Martyrdom and then the full number of 
11,000 victims was made up. Heaven, however, interposed a host 
of Angel Warriors who smote the cruel Huns ; Cologne was again 
set free ; and in gratitude to their Martyred intercessors the citizens 
erected a church on the site still occupied by the Church now known 
under the name of St. Ursula. " Soon after the Reformation this 
legend became the Subject of a most annimated controversy " on 
one hand the Centuriators of Madgeburg exposed its weak points 
with unsparing severity, on the other a Jesuit father, Crombach de- 
voted an entire folio volume to the vindication of the narrative. " 
Secular writers deny that the Legend has any foundation in his- 
torical facts they trace no reverencing of Virgins in the Marty rologies 
and missals till the latter half of the 9th Century. Many suggestions 
have been offered by way of explanation of its startling improbability 
viz, the alleged number of the Martyred victims 11,000. One of 
these is that the belief arose from the name of a Virgin who was 
really the companion of Ursula's Martyrdom called according to 
the legend and according to a Missal which belonged to the Sarbonne, 
Undecimilla for a number. The Roman Martyrology mentions the 
Saint and her Companion, without stating their number. St. Ursula 
was the Patroness of the Sarbonne. The record of the Martyrdom 
in the Calender thus begins. " Ursula et Uhdecim Milla V. V. " 
Ursula and Undecimilla Virgins was easily mistaken for Ursula et 
Uhdecim Millia V. V. Ursula and Eleven thousand Virgins, " 
Respecting further remarks concerning this Legend, suffice it to say, 
" that while the most learned of the Catholic hagiographers, putting 



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1*3* 

aside the idea of a directly and unintentionally invented narrative, 
have traced the origin of the legend to a real historical massacre of 
a very large number of Christian Maidens, which took place during 
the invasion of Attila, and soon after the celebrated battle of Chalons 
in 451, all the modern writers of that Church are agreed in regarding 
the details of the narrative, the number, the pilgrimages to Eome, 
the interposition of the heavenly host, etc, as legendary embellish- 
ments of the Medieval Chroniclers. " 

Young as Angela was she had been elected the first Superior of 
her Order and had ruled it well for the two or three years she lived. 

At first the Ursulines practised charity and devoted themselves to 
the education of Children without being bound to the rules of 
Monastic Life. In 1571-2 Pope Gregory XTTT. made the Society a 
religious order, subject to the rule of St. Augustine, at the solicitation 
of Charles Borromeo the additional privileges thus conferred were 
afterwards confirmed by Sextus V. and Paul V. " They add to three 
religious vows a fourth to occupy themselves gratuitously in the educa- 
tion of their own sex. The order is under the Superintendence of the 
Bishops. In the 18th Century, it had 350 Convents. Many 
governments which abolished Convents in general, protected the 
Ursulines on account of their useful labours, particularly in the 
practice of Christian Charity towards the sick. The Dictionnarie 
de Tkeologic published in 1817, says that 300 Convents of these sisters 
existed at that time in France, their dress is black with a leather 
belt, and a rope for the purpose of self-scourging. Their congrega- 
tions however did not universally accept the Monastic rule ; and in 
Prance and Italy, there were Societies, the members of which only 
took the vow of Charity, and gave instruction like their sisters. 
Their dress was that commonly worn about 200 years ago by 
widows. " In some countries however, their dress appears to 
have been white, and to have varied in other respects as well as 
colour. The Ursuline Sisters have several Educational Establish- 
ments in Ireland, in England and the United States. 

BATTERSEA GEAMMAH SCHOOL, St. John's Hill. Found- 
ed under the Trust of Sir Walter St. John a.d. 1700. Scheme 
revised a.d. 1873. Governors : — William Evill, Jun., Esq., Robert 
Hudson, Esq., Pev. Evan Daniel, M.A., W. G. Baker, Esq., John 
Costeker, Esq., Treasurer. , Eev. Canon Clarke, M.A., James H. T. 
Connor, Esq., Eichard Hadfield, Esq., Thomas D. Tully, Esq., 
Charles Few, Esq., James Stiff, Esq. Head Master : — Eev. E. A. 
Eichardson, M.A., late Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Assis- 
tant Masters : — W. H. Bindley, B.A., late Scholar of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, M. Michael, Bachelier-es-Lettres, University 
of Paris, C. P. Martinnant, University of London, Mr. Badel, 
WritiDg Master, Serjeant Major Doberty, Drill Master. 

Scheme of Instruction. Eeligious Instruction, (according to the 
principles of the Church of England) forms a regular part of the 
teaching of each class. Those beys are excepted from the teaching 
of the Church Catechism and Prayer Book, whose parents, (being 
Dissenters), express a desire to that effect, in writing to the Head 
Master. The Course of Study comprises the English, Latin, 
Greek, French and German Languages ; Writing, Arithmetic, Book- 



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135 

keeping and Mathematics. History and Geography ; Natural Sci- 
ence and Drawing. French is taught throughout the School; 
German in the three highest classes only. Dbawing, (Freehand, 
Model and Landscape), is taught in all classes. Technical Draw- 
ing, (including Practical Geometry, and Perspective), and Painting 
are taught only in the two upper classes. Science, (comprising 
Physics, Chemistry and Botany), is taught only in the upper classes. 
Vocal Music is taught. 

School Terms and Holidays. The period of instruction is divided 
into three terms, as nearly equal as possible. The holidays axe 
four weeks at Christmas, three weeks at Easter, and six weeks at 
Mid-summer, commencing about the 1st of August. 

1st Term commences September 7th ; ends December 7th. 
2nd. do. January 8th ; do. March 29th. 

3rd. do. April 23rd ; do. July 31st 

Tuition Fees. The annual payment for boys above 12 years of 
age, £12; for boys under 12, £10. The -fees are to be paid ter- 
minally and in advance. 

Regulations for Admission. Application for admission must be 
made either in person or by writing to the Head Master. No boy 
will be admitted, who shall be found on examination unable to 
read English, to write correctly and legibly from dictation and to 
work sums in the first four rules of arithmetic. The boys must 
attend at the school for examination on the first day of each term, 
at two o'clock p.m. The Governors require a term's notice to be 
given on the removal of a boy, or the payment of the terminal fee. 

THE SOUTHLANDS PRACTISING MODEL SCHOOLS.— 
Girls' School, seven years and upwards, 6d. per week. Infants' 
Boys and Girls to seven years, 3d. per week. 

ST. PETER'S SCHOOLS. Fee, 9d. per week. 

ST. JOHN'S, Usk Eoad. Boys 1st, 2nd, and 3rd classes, 4d. 
per week, the rest 3d. Girls 1st class 3d., the rest 2d. Infants 
2d. per week* 

ST. SAVIOUR'S INFANT. Infants 2d. Girls 3d. over 10 
years of age 4d. per week. 

CHRIST OHUECH NATIONAL SCHOOLS, Grove Eoad, 
Falcon Lane, were erected from designs of Mr. C. E. Robins, 
selected in competition, and were built by Messrs. Lathey Brothers 
at a cost of £3,000. Accommodation is given for 200 boys, 200 
girls and about the same number of infants. There are two 
residences, one for the Master and the other for the Mistress. The 
buildings form a picturesque group facing the roads on three sides 
with intermediate play-grounds for each sex. Mr. Robins was also 
the Architect for the British Schools at Wandsworth and other 
Educational Buildings in the Parish, as the Walter St. John's Upper 
Schools and the extension of the Training College, the Chapel of 
which was decorated by him some seven years since. The office of 
E. C. Robins, F.R.I.B.A,> etc., is No. 14, John Street, Adelphi. 

ST. GEORGE'S NATIONAL SCHOOLS, built in 1857 from 
designs furnished by Joseph Peacock, Architect, Bloomsburv Square. 
Cost about £4,500 including a Parliamentary Grant of £1,500. 



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tfhe Schools #ete enlarged in 1870. The Infant Schools tfefre 
established in 1826. The following text of Scripture is engraved 
on a stone outside the buildings. 

" Prom a child thou hast known the Holy Scriptures, which are 
able to make thee wise unto Salvation through faith which is in 
Christ Jesus." — II. Timothy Hi 15. 

Boys and Girls 4d. per week for one in a family, 6d. for two 
brothers or sisters, and 7d. for three in a family, Infants 2d. 

Erected outside St. Mary's Schools, Green Lane, is a tablet bearing 
the following inscription : — " National Schools for Girls and Infants. 
These buildings were erected by Miss Champion on land granted 
by Earl Spencer, and opened April 10th, 1850, for the education of 
the children of the poor on Scriptural principles." This tablet is 
placed by order of the Parishioners in "Vestry assembled in Grateful 
Kemembrance of her Munificent Charities to the Parish of 
Battersea. — Kev. J. S. Jenkinson, M.A., Vicar* W. H. Wilson, 
John Hunt, Churchwardens, 1855. 

Within the Parish of Battersea there were in the year 1879, 
Fourteen Voluntary Schools, viz : — 

Aooommodft* 
tion. 

8nt Walter St. John's Up-stairs Middle-class for Boys. 
Terms, 15/- to 25/- per quarter 

Ditto Ground-floor Public Elementary School for Boys, t 4 g« 
Payments, 6d. and 9d. per week. Head Master, Mr. 
Taylor ; Assistants, Mr. Jones, B.A., Mr. E. Mills, 
Mr. Oliver, and Mr. Blackman 

St. Mast's, Green Lane. Girls; Mistress, Miss Keene. 
Infants' Governess ; Miss Paul. Boys : Master, Mr. T. 
Ryder. Fees, Boys and Girls 4d. a week, of which 
at the year's end 2d. a week will be returned to all who 
have attended more than 250 times. Infants 3d. a week, 
of whioh Id. a week will be returned to regular 
attendants at the year's end. . . . . . • 606 

Chmst Chuboh, Grove Road. Master, Mr. Weston. 

Mistress, Miss Paton. Infants, Miss Kemp . • . • 590 

St. John's, TJsk Road, Head Master, Mr. Henry Smith. 

Mistress, Miss Hook. Infants' Governess, Mrs. Hughes. 658 

St. Pbteb's, Plough Lane. Head Master W. F. Normon. 

Assistant, W. Beasley . . . . . . . . 180 

St. Mark's, Battersea Rise. Infant Schools, Miss E. 

Townsend. 4<L per week. . • . . . • 99 

St. George's, New Road. Head Master, Mr. John Douth- 
waite. Mistress, Miss Salter. Infants' Governess, Miss 
Holding .. .. .. .. ..609 

St. Geobge's Girls and Infants' Sohools, Ponton Road, Nine 
Elms. Mistress, Miss B. Smith. Infants' Governess, 
Miss A. E. Basnett .. , . .. . . 184 

St. Saviottb's, Orkney Street. Mistress, Miss Merrett • • 201 

Wesleyabt Model, High Street. . . . . . . . 557 

St. Michael's, Bolingbroke Grove, (mixed). Mistress, Mrs. 

M. Watson. 3d. per week. . . • • . • 152 

GaovE Boys' Beitish, York Road, Established 1799, En- 
larged 1840. Master, Mr. James Hammond. . . . . 196 



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137 

Gibls' Bbitish, Plough Lane. Mistress, Miss Mansell. 

Assistant, Miss Willett. . , . . . . , , 297 

St. Joseph and St. Maby, Battersea Park Bead. , , , , 466 

Total 5284 
In 1879 there were Nine Board Schools in Battersea : — * 



Name of 
School. 


Builder. 


When Opened. 


Boys' Master. 


Girls* 
Mistress. 


Infants' 
Mistress. 


Boliogbroke 
Boad. 


Mr. Spinks, 
Clapham Junction. 


Dec. 1, 1873 


Mr. Pink. 


Miss 
Deacon. 


Mrs. Pink 


Battersea 
Park. 


Mr. Sheppard, 
Bermondaey. 


April 14,1674 


„ Stokoe. 


Mrs. Cox. 


„ Parker 


Winstanley 
Boad. 





Jan. 5, 1874. 


„ Vince. 


Miss Gale. 


Miss 
Blackburn. 


Sleaford 
Street. 


Wffliain Higgs, 
South Lambeth. 


Aug. 10,1874 


„ Wheaton. 


MissPook. 


Miss 
Browett 


Gideon 
Boad. 


Wall, Bros., 
Kentish Town. 


May 15,1876 


„ Lee. 


Miss Dunn. 


Mrs. Pyle. 


Mantua 
Street. 





Sept. 1876 


„ Mansell. 


Miss 
Spalding. 


Miss 
Spalding. 


Street* 





Feb. 1877 


„ Morris. 


Miss 
Macleod. 


Miss 
IMfargfrftii. 


Tennyson 
Boad. 


Mr. Tyerman. 


Feb. 1877 


„ Philips. 


MissDayis. 


Mrs. Lower. 


Belleville 
Boad. | 


Mr. Thompson, 
Camberwell Green 


Aug. 13,1877 


„ Barter 


Mrs. 
Christopher 


Mrs. 

Watson. 



N.B. — There are Sunday Schools connected with the different 
places of Worship some of which are held in Board Schools. 

LAMBETH DIVISION LONDON SCHOOL BOARD.— 
Accommodation Area and Cost of New Permanent Schools. 



Name of School. 


Children 
Accommodation. 


Area 
sq. feet. 


Cost of Site. 


Cost of 
Building. 








£ <. d. 


£ 8. d. 


Sleaford Street 


1,055 


23,000 


2543 1 4 


8399 19 3 


Tennyson Eoad 


837 


28,000 


2376 18 6 


7590 9 1 


Gideon Eoad 


776 


19,700 


3404 18 3 


9921 7 5 


Holden Street 


1,101 


26,887 


3074 14 1 


10305 1 7 


Battersea Park 


1,334 


32,670 


2378 5 5 


7442 12 9 


Bolinghroke Eoad 


792 


54,426 


768 5 5 


5980 15 10 


Mantau Street 


1,105 


32,670 


2334 5 4 


11337 1 1 


"Winstanley Eoad 


1,127 


17,792 


3152 5 5 


7948 4 7 


Belleville Eoad 


828 
8,955 




1661 6 2 


10165 19 11 



The first building erected for the London School Board, situated 
in one of the most densely crowded localities of the East-end, was 

•Since the First Edition of this Work was published, Tennyson Road School 
has been enlarged in order to accommodate 400 Scholars. Landseer Street Board 
School is held in the large room under the Chapel and accommodates 200 boys. 
J. R. Ayris, Head Master. Ponton Road Board School, Nine Elms, opened for 
girls 9th June, 1879, and for boys August 18th, the same year, has accommodation 
for 350, Master, Mr. Chase. Mistress, Miss Nutcher. On the South side of 
Battersea Park Road, between Lockington Road and Havelock Terrace a large 
Board School has been built to hold about 1,400 children. Christ Church Schools, 
Falcon Grove, have passed for the present into the hands of the School Board for 
London. It is in contemplation to erect four more Board Schools in Battersea. 



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opened in July, 1873, and since that time no fewer than 152 large 
Schools have been completed with a total accommodation for about 
182,000 children, and an average accommodation for 872 children 
each. In addition to these, between 30 and 40 schools are now in 
course of erection, and about 50 other schools have been determined 
upon, thus the Board is most active in providing for the educational 
requirements of the Metropolis. Mr. E. E. Eobson, F.B.I.B.A., is 
the Architect of this Board. 

The Board School in Winstanley Eoad accommodates about 1130 
children, the site is the shape of a rhomboid, and the School has 
been skilfully planned to make the most of it. 

Gideon Boad Board Schools, the boys and girls' departments are 
built upon arches to form covered play-grounds underneath. As 
the site contains sufficient area, the infants' department has been 
erected as a separate building. 

The Board Schools are elaborately fitted up. Books, slates, 
pencils, etc., for the scholars are provided. The terms for tuition 
at the Board Schools in Battersea are : — Bolingbroke Boad, boys, 
girls, and infants 2d. each Battersea Park, Mantau Street, 
Winstanley Boad, Tennyson Boad, and Sleaford Street, boys and 
girls 3d. each, infants 2d. Gideon Boad and Holden Street on the 
Shaftesbury Park Estate, boys and girls 4d. each, infants 3d. each. 

School Board Visitors in Battersea : — Mr. Armstrong, Mr. Dalton, 
Mr. Myland, Mr. Fane, Mr. Chamings and Miss Sydney. 

London Ratepayers' School Board Association Established 8th 
October, 1870. 

London or Metropolitan School Board elected 29th Nov., 1870. 

Regulations for School Boards issued 21st December, 1870. 
First election of Metropolitan School Board (Lord Lawrence, 
Chairman). Arrangements for erecting or adapting buildings for 
New School Board, December, 1871. 

London School Board Education Scheme proposed 23rd June, 1 871 . 

The London School Board occupied their new buildings on Victoria 
Embankment, 30th September, 1874. 

Second Metropolitan School Board elected; religious party 
strongest. Sir Charles Beed, M.P., Chairman, November, 1878. 

Sir Charles Beed, Chairman of the School Board for London, 
died March 25, 1881. "Was interred at Abney Park Cemetery, 
Wednesday, March 30, 1881. 

Fourth Metropolitan School Board elected, 1879. 

E. N. Buxton, Esq., Chairman of the London School Board. 

LONDON SCHOOL BOARD, LAMBETH DIVISION * 



Miss Hen. Mtjlleb, 
T. E. Helleb, Esq., 
Chas. B. White, Esq., 



Bev. GL M. Mtjepht, 
James Sttef, Esq., 
Stanley Kemp-Welsh, Esq. 



* The Division of Lambeth is thus defined : The Division of Lambeth shall in- 
clude the Parliamentary Borough of Lambeth, all the parts of the Parishes of 
Lambeth and Camberwell outside the Boundary of the said Borough and the 
Wandsworth District, as described in Schedule B. and Part I. of the Metropolitan 
Local Management Act, 1855, (that is to say) the Parishes of Clapham, Tooting 
Graveney, Streatham, St. Mary, Battersea, (excluding Penge), Wandsworth, and 
Putney, (including) Roehampton. There are 63 Board Schools in the whole of 
theLambeth Division for the present year (1879), and 45,000 children on the 



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The Elementary Education Act of 1870 aims at the compulsory 
supply of school accommodation in those districts in which there is a 
deficiency. The general survey under the Education Act of the 
School provision of every Parish in England did not commence till 
the 1st of May, 1871. 

By virtue of the Elementary Education Act, 1876, and of the Bye- 
Laws of the School Board for London, the following will be, on and 
after the 1st January next, the state of the law as regards children, 
their parents and employers within the Metropolis. 

I. — Kegttlations affecting Parent and Child. The term " par- 
ent " includes guardian, and every person who is liable to maintain, 
or has the actual custody of the child. The parent of every child 
between the ages of 5 and 14 must cause such child to receive 
efficient elementary instruction in reading, writing, and arithmetic* 
A. — By the Bye-Laws of the School Board, which continue in force, 
the parent of every child between the ages of 5 and 13 must cause 
such child to attend an efficient School during the whole time for 
which the School is open. The following cases are excepted : — (a) 
where a child is receiving efficient instruction in some other manner. 
(jb) where a child is not less than 10 years of age has received a 
certificate that he has passed the 5th Standard of the Code of 1871 : 
in which case he is wholly exempt from attendance at School, (e) 
where a child of not less than 10 years of age has obtained a certi- 
ficate that he is beneficially and necessarily at work : in which case 
he is exempt from the obligation to attend School more than 10 
hours a week, (d) where the child cannot attend School through 
sickness or other unavoidable cause. If a parent commits a breach 
of the Bye-Laws he may be summoned before a magistrate, and 
fined 5s. ; and the child may be ordered to attend School. B. — By 
the Act of 1876, if either — (1) the parent of a child above the age 
of five years who is prohibited from being taken into full-time 
employment, habitually and without reasonable excuse, neglects to 
provide efficient elementary instruction for his child ; or, (2) a child 
is found habitually wandering, or not under proper control, or in 
the company of rogues, vagabonds, disorderly persons, or reputed 
criminals ; the parent may be summoned before a magistrate, and 
the child may be ordered to attend School. If the attendance order 
be not complied with, the parent, if in fault, may be fined 5s. ; and 
in cases of continued non-compliance, the fine may be repeated at 
intervals not less than a fortnight. The child may also, under 
certain circumstances, be sent to a certified day industrial School, 
there to be detained during certain hours each day for a stated 
period ; or to an ordinary certified industrial School, there to be 
wholly detained for a stated period, which, however, must not extend 
beyond the time when the child will reach the age of 16 years. In 
either case, the parent may be made to contribute to the maintenance, 
of the child. II. — Regulations affecting Employe and Child. 
The term "employer" includes a "parent" who employs his child 

♦All Elementary Schools in the receipt of Government Grants are annually 
examined by H.M. Inspector of Schools, and a report of their condition for- 
warded to tne Education Department. Board Schools are further visited and 
reported on by an Inspector specially employed by the Board itself for that 
purpose; 



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by way of trade or lor the purposes of gain. A.— No person may 
employ, in the year 1877, any child who is under the age of nine 
years ; or in subsequent years, any child who is under the age of 10 
years. B. — No person may employ a child within certain limity of 
age, unless the child shall have obtained either a certificate of pro- 
ficiency that he has reached the fourth Standard of the Code of 
1876 ; or a certificate that he has previously made 250 attendances 
at least, in not more than two Schools, during each year for a cer- 
tain number of years, whether consecutive or not, as follows : — 



Age of Children, 
who may not be employed. 



Unless they shall have obtain- 
ed a Certificate. 



Either of Pro- 
ficiency, ac- 
cording to the 
under- 
mentioned 
Standard. 



Or ; of pre- 
vious due At- 
tendance for 
the under- 
mentioned 
number of 
years. 



In 1877 



1878 



1879 



1880 



Children between 9 and 
12, with the exception 
of those who were 1 1 
before the 1st January, 
1877 

Children between 10 and 
18, with the exception 
of those who were 1 1 
before the 1st January, 
1877 

Children between 10 and 
14, with the exception 
of those who were 11 
before the 1st January, 
1877 

Children between 10 and 
14 

Children between 10 and 
14 



Fourth 

Standard of 

1876 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 



Ditto. 
Ditto. 



Two 



Two 



Three 



Four 
Five 



1881 
and subse- 
quent years 

The penalty incurred by an employer who acts in contravention 
of the above provisions is a sum not exceeding 40s. But no penalty 
will be incurred by the employer (a) if the child was lawfully em- 
ployed on the 15th August, 1876. (b) If the child obtains efficient 
instruction by attendance at School for full time or in some other 
equally efficient manner. (*) If the employment be during a speci- 
fied time allowed by the School Board for purposes of husbandry, 
ftc. and if the child be over eight years of age and be so employed. 
(d) If the child be employed and be attending School in accordance 
with the provisions of the Factory Acts, or of the Bye-Laws of the 
School Board, (e) If the employer be bona fide deceived as to the 
age of the child or as to his having obtained a certificate; or if some 
agent, without the knowledge of the employer, shall have employed 



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141 

the child — in which latter case the agent will be liable to the pen- 
alty. Although the employer be exempt from penalty, when the 
child is lawfully employed under the above regulations, the parent 
will still be liable for any breach of the Bye-Laws, where the latter 
are more stringent. III. — ^Regtjlations as to the Payment or 
Eemission of Fees. If a parent is unable, from poverty, to pay 
the School fee of his child, he may apply either to the Guardians of 
the Poor for the Parish where he lives, or to the School Board. 
The Guardians, if satisfied of the poverty of the parent, must pay 
the school fee, not exceeding 3d. a week, of the child, in any Public 
Elementary School which the parent may select. If the parent 
select a Board School, the School Board, on his application, may, if 
they think fit, remit the school fee. The payment or remission of 
the school fee will not subject the parent to any disability. IV. — 
Free Instruction. Subject to conditions to be made by an order 
of the Education Department, a child under 1 1 years of age who 
obtains a certificate that he has attended a Public Elementary School 
350 times a year, for two, three, four or five years according to 
circumstances, and, also, that he has attained a Standard (to be fixed 
by the Department) in Beading, Writing, and Arithmetic, will be 
entitled to have his school fees paid for him by the Education De- 
partment at a public Elementary School for three years more. 

BY OEDEE OF THE BOARD. 
Uth November, 1876. 

In 1879 there were 63 Board Schools in the whole of the Lambeth 
Division and 45,000 children on the rolls. 

In Battersea there are 68 taverns for the sale of spirits, etc., and 
84 beer-houses, making a total of 152 public-houses. There are 
also 29 coffee-shops. 

A COFFEE PALACE IN OLD BATTERSEA.— On Saturday 
afternoon, Dec. 13, 1879, a coffee palace, belonging to the Coffee 
Taverns Company, Limited, was opened at Lombard Market, York- 
road, Battersea. This is the 22nd tavern of the kind opened by the 
Company, and carried on, in regard to the business, on the same 
principle as others. A well furnished room is provided for public 
meetings and other gatherings. 

LATCHMEEE GEOVE, which is almost encircled with Eailway 
embankments, was noted for its piggeries. The lane once known 
as " Pig Hill," leading from Battersea Fields to Lavender Hill, 
is now a wide open road and forms the west boundary of the 
Shaftesbury Park Estate. 

Somewhere near the foot of " Pig Hill " were two places called 
in olden time " Plague Spots " where many bodies of persons who 
had died of the Plague were buried. 

THE SHAFTESBUEY PAEK ESTATE* formerly the site of 
Poupart's Market Ground, covers an area of 42 acres, contains about 
1 1 00 houses and 8000 inhabitants. The houses are built on the 

•The Artizans' Labourers and General Dwellings Company (Limited). Capital 
jfljOOOjOOO in 100,000 shares of ^10 each (paid up capital, ^"583,000) Chief Office: 
34, Great George Street, Westminster, S.W. Office hours :— 10 till 5 Saturdays 
10 till 1. Estate Offices 221 Eversleigh Road, Shaftesbury Park, S.W. 35, A 
Street, Queen's Park. W. 



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142 

uaost improved sanitary principles, they are pTettily and artistically 
constructed, having small gardens back and front ; on either side of 
the streets are rows of lime and plane trees which in the course of a few 
years will give the "Work peoples' Town," a beautiful and pleasant 
aspect. The Houses are built in four classes, containing 5, 6, 7, and 8 
rooms respectively, (the latter including a bath room), and the weekly 
rental (at first was) 6/6, 7/6, and 8/-, and the best class £26 and £30 per 
year, which sums, except the best class, includes rates and taxes, 
but if the tenant is buying the house under the repayment table, 
the rates, taxes, and ground rent have to be paid by him in addition 
to the purchase money. The purchasing prices of the houses are 
£170, £210, £260, £310, and £360; and they are leased for a 
term of 99 years subject to annual ground rent of £3 10s., £4 4s., 
and £4 10s. according to the class of house. Each dwelling is 
thoroughly ventilated by means of improved ventilating valves, 
which are fixed to every room and connected with air shafts in all 
the external walls and the same are applied beneath the floors, the 
houses have concrete foundations and are considered dry and 
healthy. *It is intended to convert the premises used as the Estate 
Agency Office into a Club house, equal in accommodation to any at 
the AY est End, with Library, reading, smoking, and billiard rooms ; 
a small hall to hold about 350 is being built which among other 
things is intended to be let to benefit clubs and such like societies. 
It is suggested that the present temporary hall be converted into 
Swimming and Wasldng Baths. Brassey Square a space about one 
and a quarter acres, the Estate Company are going to make into a 
garden like that on the Thames Embankment, in which seats aro to 
be placed and it is intended to have a band to play there in summer 
months. Beside Co-operative Stores, there is a Social Review con- 
nected with the Estate, and a Newspaper has been started called 

Directors.— The Hon. Evelyn Ashley, M.P., Chairman, H. R. Droop, Esq., 
R. E. Farrant, Esq., John Kempster, Esq., Rev H. V, LeBas, F. D. Mocatta, 
Esq., Samuel Morley, Esq. M.P., Ernest Noel, Esq. M.P., John Peace, Esq., 
W. H. Stone, Esq. Bankers. — The London and Westminster Bank, Lothbury, 
E.G. Solicitors. — Messrs. Ashurst, Morris, Crisp and Co., 6, Old Jewry, E.C., 
Manager J. V. Sigvald Muller, Esq. Secretary. — Samuel E. Piatt. 

The Company was established for the erection of improved dwellings near to the 
great centres ot industry to carry out the objects of the Company in London, large 
estates have been secured near Clapham Junction and the Harrow Road, that 
near Clapham Junction called Shaftesbury Park. 

* The present weekly rental, which includes rates and taxes, except in the case oi 
the first-class Houses is as follows :— An ordinary fourth class House 7/6 third 
class 8/6 second class 10/- first Class 10/- and n/-. The shops, lower houses, 
those with larger gardens than ordinary, and some other exceptional houses are 
subject to special arrangements both as to Rental and purchase. 

♦The scheme thus proposed has been abandoned. The temporary Hall has 
been taken down and seven houses with shops erected on the site, also a 
Temperance Hall. The Shaftesbury Club and Institute, Eversleigh House, 
Lavender Hill, was opened on Saturday, Feb. 2nd, 1878, at 3 o'clock p.m. 
Previously a movement had been in progress to establish a Club and Institute for 
the benefit of those large classes of working men who live upon the Shaftesbury 
Park Estate, and in the crowded neighbourhoods in the immediate vicinity. 
Nothing of the kind was in existence, and, as a consequence, there was no 
efficient corrective to the growing evils of intemperance and wasted time among 
these classes of the people. The movement met with a great and increasing 
suppoit from the working men themselves, and the Provisional Committee 



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" The South Western Advertiser."* The London Board School on 

the estate is situated in Holden Street. Between houses Nos. 21 — 
23 in the Grayshott Eoad a stone may be seen bearing the following 
inscription " Healthy homes the first condition of Social progress. 
This stone was laid by the Right Honourable the Earl of Shaftesbury, 
K.Gk, for the Artizans, Labourers and General Dwellings Company, 
Limited, on the 3rd of August, 1872. E. Austin, Architect. 

No Beer-shop, Inn or Tavern is erected on the Estate but it must 
not be inferred from this, that all the inhabitants are Total Ab- 
stainers. However the ostensible and important objects of the 
Estate Company are to help the Working Classes to become owners 
of the House they occupy ; to raise their position in the social scale ; 
and to spread a moral influence over their class, tending to foster 
habits of Industry, Sobriety and Frugality. Obedience to moral 
and physical laws, the right and proper use of material appliances 
for sanitary purposes, have a tendency to prolong human life and 
to make life more enjoyable, and the Supreme Governor of the 
Universe hath so ordained that it should be so. According to the 
metropolitan average, the deaths should have been 194, but they only 
numbered 100. In 1877 the births on the Shaftesbury Park Estate 
were 284. Connected with the Estate is a Volunteer Rifle Corps 
known as the " 26th Surrey." Mr. Samuel E. Piatt, Secretary to 
the Estate Company; Mr. J. V. Muller, Manager. Office, 221, 
Eversleigh Road. The Missionary who visits in this district is Mr. 
Yost, who holds meetings in the Temperance Hall, Elsley Road. 

Eastward of the Shaftesbury Park Estate is situated Beaufoy's 
Chemical Works. Entrance, Lavender Hill. Mr. Matthew Cannon, 
Manager. 

This site was formerly a brickfield. When Mr. Henry Beaufoy 
purchased the land comprising some 1 7 acres he named it "Pays Bas, 
signifying in French a low country. Recently 7 acres have been let 
on Lease of 99 years for building purposes, it is proposed to erect 
thereon 230 houses. In this locality and that of Latchmere it is 
said the bricks were made for the construction of Chelsea Hospital. 

THE METROPOLITAN AUTIZAN'S AND LABOURERS 
DWELLINGS ASSOCIATION have just erected three blocks of 
houses in the Battersea Park Road, designed by Charles Barry, E^q., 

appointed has been busily engaged in the work of organising the Club. The 
objects of the Club and Institute are thus stated in the Draft Rules : — 

'* To afford to its members the means of social intercourse, mutual helpfulness, 
mental and moral improvement, industrial welfare, and rational recreation. The 
Club shall not identify itself with aiay political, social, or theological party. As 
funds permit, there shall be provided : — Library and Reading Rooms, supplied 
with Books, Periodicals, and Newspapers ; Educational Classes ; Conversation, 
Refreshment, and Smoking Rooms, in which various games may be played; 
Billiard and Bagatelle Rooms ; Popular Lectures and Entertainments ; Rooms 
for the Meetings of Benefit and Friendly Societies." Subscription is. a month 
2s. 6d. a quarter, ios. a year. Arthur George Thome, Hon. Secretary. Mr.W. 
Swindlehurst was the Secretary to the Estate Company. The purchase of the 
Freehold Land (it is said) cost the Estate Company £ 28,000. Recently the 
house rents on the Estate have been raised. 

The entrance to Shaftesbury Hall is in Ashbury Road. 

* The following Newspapers, which are published weekly, contain (Battersea) 
Local Intelligence and District Board News. "The South London Press," 2d. 
"Battersea and Wandsworth District Times," id. "Mid-Surrey Gazette," id. 
" The Clapaam Observer," id. " The South Western Star," id. 



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Resident of the British Institute of Architects. Accommodation in 
A Block for 98 families with 3 and 4 rooms each. There are two 
B Blocks, 45 families in a block, having accommodation for 90 
families with one or two rooms each for labourers. The whole of 
the front window-frames facing the main road are glazed with Plate 
Glass. Between the pathway and the Blocks is erected an iron pali- 
sade and some evergreens have been planted within the enclosure. 
There axe underground Laundries at the north end of the Blocks 
with all necessary appliances. The B Blocks have three tiers of 
balconies supported by iron columns communicating with the 
dwellings on the upper storeys. The roofs are tiled by the Broom- 
hall Tile Company. The Builders, are Messrs. Downs & Co., 
Southwark. Major-General 8cott, Secretary, office, 9, Victoria 
Road, Westminster Abbey. It is intended to erect more Blocks on 
the laad adjoining. Chairman, John Walter, Esq., 

The buildings are intended as models of the dwellings for Artizans 
and Labourers, to replace the habitations condemned in various 
parts of the Metropolis under the Act of 1875. They are built in 
flats as nearly fire-proof as may be. Each tenement in the Artizans 
dwellings and each block of four rooms for those of the labourers 
are entirely separated from others by an open space, each tenement 
has a constant supply of fresh water, the use of a wash-house and 
a coal bunker, a dust shoot, and generally great care has been 
taken to insure to the tenants all the advantages of the best known 
sanitary appliances. Within the outer door which opens on to a 
general staircase, are all the conveniences except the wash-houses 
which are detatched from the building. These tenements contain in 
most cases, three rooms, viz : kitchen, bed-room, and sitting-room. 
The labourers blocks are so divided that they can be let singly, or 
in twos, threes, or fours. The dwellings were formally opened on 
Saturday Afternoon, June 23rd, 1877, by the Earl of Beaconsfield. 
The ceremony was graced by a select company, among whom were 
in addition to the Prime Minister, the Earl and Countess of Ross- 
lyn, the Countess of Scarborough, the Earl and Countess Stanhope, 
the Lord Chancellor and Lady Cairns, Lady E. Drummond, the 
Marquis of Bristol, the Earl of Echester, the Earl of Verulam, the 
Bishop of Winchester, the Right Hon. R. A. Cross, M.P., Mrs. and 
Miss Walter, Mr. W. H. Smith, M.P., Mr. Roebuck, M.P., Mr. 
Montague Oorrie, Mr. Algernon Turner, Major-General H. Y. D. 
Scott, Manager of the Association, and numerous Members of Par- 
liament. Her Majesty who takes a deep interest in this movement 
for the improvement of the dwellings of her people, commanded 
Earl Beaconsfield to express Her wish that Her name may be asso- 
ciated with this institution and that in future these buildings will 
be called the Victoria Dwellings for Artizans. 

On the North side of Battersea Park Road is the site for Messrs. 
Spiers and Pond's New Steam Laundry, contiguous to which 
(Propert's) Blacking Manufactory is now built. Mr George 
Ashby Lean, Architect; Mr. Waters, Builder, The Common, 
Ealing. 

Up the centre of the meadow a new road is to be made 50 feet 
wide. About forty years ago this ground yielded as fine a crop of 
wheat as any in England. At that time certain Notice Boards were 



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erected with the words " Any person found plucking an ear of Corn 
will be fined one shilling" An old parishioner, who is still living, 
told the writer that he had been fined three shillings because he 
had picked up three ears of corn which another man bad thrown 
away. 

BATTEE8EA (Latchmebe, formerly called Lechmore) ALLOT- 
MENTS cover an area of 16£ acres, and are let to the industrial 
poor of the parish to encourage habits of industry, the land was 
applied to the present purpose in the year 1835. Originally there 
were 74 allotments now there are 156. The Allotments let at 3/- 
a plot, each alottment being divided into 10 plots. Application 
must be made to the Churchwardens, William Evill and Joseph 
William Hiscox, Esqrs. 

Pleasantly situated between the Albert and Bridge Eoads, Bat- 
tersea Park Road, is Dove Dale Place, founded by the late Mrs. 
Lightfoot of Balham, (Widow of the late Dr Lightfoot) for persons 
in reduced circumstances professing godliness, whether in connec- 
tion with the Church of England or members of other Christian 
Churches having small yearly private incomes of their own. There 
are twelve accommodations of two small rooms each, there are two 
four-room cottages one at each end with gardens. In the middle 
of the centre block is a Chapel and over the window is the repre- 
sentation of a Dove bearing an Olive Branch. There are some 
pecuniary advantages connected with the foundation. It is in the 
hands of Trustees. 

On a plot of ground by the main road opposite Dove Dale Place 
stands an old boiler that belonged to one Andrew Mann — it has 
stood (we are told) where it is for the last twenty five years. Before 
its removal to Battersea, it stood on a piece of land in Yauxhall 
Bridge Eoad. 

LAMMAS H A LL situated in Bridge Eoad West, is Licensed 
Pursuant to Act of Parliament of the 25th of King George 2nd, 
was erected in 1858. The Hall will seat about 400 persons and 
may be hired for lectures, concerts, and other public purposes. The 
front part of the building is used as a Vestry Hall and for the 
transaction of other parochial business. A more commodious Hall 
is urgently needed in a central part of the parish, so also are re- 
quired Baths, Lavatory, and a Public Library. Lammas Hall owes 
its origin from a fund which was paid by the Battersea Park Com- 
missioners for the extinguishment of the Lammas Eights to the 
Churchwardens, by resolution of the Vestry after Several schemes 
had been brought forward they proposed to build a Hall and Vice 
Chancellor Stuart appointed the Trustees hence its name "Lammas 
Hall." Mr Thomas Harrap, Vestry Clerk. 

THE UNION WOEKHOTJSE, erected in 1836 is situated 
within the boundary of Battersea parish at the junction of East 
Hill and St. John's Hill, it is an extensive brick building with 
accommodation for 833 inmates. The Infirmary adjoining was ad- 
ded in 1870 at a cost of £40,000. The Casual Ward in addition is 
constructed for 117 casual paupers. The Union comprises Batter- 
sea, Clapham, Putney, Streatham, Tooting, and Wandsworth with 
a population in 1871 of 125,000 and an area of 11,488 acres- 



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John Sanders, Solicitor and Clerk; Edward H. Taylor, Assistant 
Clerk; Eev William Armstrong, Chaplain; T. H. Cress well, Medical 
Officer; John Hodge, Master; Mrs Martha Hodge, Matron; Mr. 
Pettman, Miwionary* 

Old Battersea "Workhouse, which has long since been pulled 
down, was situated in the neighbourhood of Battersea Square. In 
the same neighbourhood is the " Priory," now the residence of Mr. 
Oakman. Not far from the Eaven Tavern was the " Cage," in 
Surrey Lane, for the confinement of petty criminals. Near the 
Prince's Head Tavern was the Pound in which cattle were enclosed 
for trespass until replevied or redeemed. Also a wooden machine 
called the " Stocks" to put the legs of offenders in, for securing 
disorderly persons, and by way of punishment in divers cases, 
ordained by statute, &c, was erected without the gates of Battersea 
Churchyard, near the waterside. 

In the last quarter of the eighteenth century, writes Eobert 
Chambers in his "Book of Days," there flourished at the corner of 
the lane leading from the Wandsworth Eoad to Battersea Bridge a 
tavern yclept "The Falcon," kept by one Eobert Death — a man 
whose figure is said to have ill comported with his name, seeing 
that it displayed the highest appearance of jollity and good con- 

•The poor of England till the time of Henry VIII. subsisted as the poor of 
Ireland until 1838 entirely upon private benevolence. Judge Blackstone observes 
that till the Statute 26, Henry VIII. cap. 26, he finds no compulsory method for 
providing for the poor, but upon the total dissolution of the Monasteries, 
abundance of Statutes were made in the reign of King Henry VIII., Edward VI. 
and Elizabeth which at last established the Poor's Kate, a legal assessment for 
the support of the poor. Before the Reformation immense sums of money were 
appropriated for charitable purposes, and notwithstanding many abuses the 
religious order of those days never so far lost sight of this original institution as 
ever to neglect the poor. The famous Statute of the 43rd of Elizabeth, 1601, by 
which Overseers were appointed for Parishes is the basis of all the poor laws in 
England. By Statute 23, Edward HI., 1342, it was enacted that none should 
give alms to a beggar able to work. An Act was passed 1531, empowering 
Justices to grant licenses to poor and impotent persons to beg within certain 
limits of territory. By the Common Law, the poor were to be sustained by 
"parsons, rectors of the church and parishioners so that none should die for 
default of sustenance," and by 15 Richard II. impropriators were obliged to 
distribute a yearly sum to the poor. An act of 160 1 directed that every parish 
shall provide for its own poor by an assessment to be levied by the Justices in 
General Sessions and embodied regulations as to how assessment should be 
made and applied. In 1782 Workhouse Unions were introduced by an 
Act called Gilbert's Act. The Act of 1834 among other changes established the 
system of Poor Law Unions. In Scotland the poor were really maintained by 
the private Alms of individuals and by certain funds under the management of 
the Kirk Session, which when regularly constituted consisted of the Minister, 
Elders, Session Clerk and Kirk Treasurer. The Presbytery was by law appointed 
Auditor of the Poor's Accounts of the several parishes. In the event of any 
difficult case arising in the discharge of this duty the Presbytery could lay it 
before the Synod for advice. " Scotland and Ireland have been legislated for 
separately, their popr laws are similar to the English in principle and practice; 
both are administered by a Central Board, which supervises the local bodies 
charged with relief, and in both the rate is levied on the annual value of real 
property. The present system in Scotland was instituted by the 8th and 9th 
Vic. c. 83 (1845). Scotland is divided into 883 parishes, some of them combined 
for Workhouse accommodation. The relief is administered by a parochial board, 
appointed by ratepayers, the Burgh Magistrate and the Kirk Session. They 
appoint Inspectors of the poor who act as relieving officers. The Scotch law 
differs from the English and Irish in allowing no relief to able bodied adults/' 



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147 

dition. A merry-hearted artist, named John Nixon, passing the 
house one day, found an undertaker's company regaling themselves 
at 'Death's door.' haying just discharged their duty to a rich Nabob 
in a neighbouring churchyard, they had . . . found an oppor- 
tunity for refreshing exhausted nature ; and well did they ply the 
joyful work before them. The artist, tickled at a festivity among 
such characters in such a place, sketched them on the spot. This 
sketch was soon after published, accompanied by a cantata from 
another hand of no great merit, in which the foreman of the 
company, Mr. Sable, is represented as singing as follows, to the 
tune of ' I've kissed and I've prattled with fifty fair maids * : — 

" Dukes, Lords, have I buried, and squires of fame, 

And people of every degree ; 
But of all flie fine jobs that ere came in my way, 

A funeral like this for me. 

This, this is the job 
That fills the fob; 

Oh! the burying of a Nabob for me! 
Unfeather the hearse, put the pall in the bag, 

Give the horses some oats and some hay ; 
Drink our next merry meeting and quackeries increase 

With three times three and hurra! 

A portion of the Falcon Tavern erected about 275 years ago 
at the end of Falcon Lane still remains with the old witch elm tree in 
front, its hollow trunk, to which a door is attached, answers the 
purpose of a bin or cupboard where hay is put with which to feed 
norses, and the old wooden-cased pump, fastened with rusty hold- 
fasts to the tree, may still be seen. On the 15th of January, 1811, 
a printed engraving was published representing "Undertakers 
regaling " by this road-side inn, a copy of which may now be seen 
within. At that time E. Death was the landlord, he had written 
outside the tavern in large characters, Robert Death, Dealer in 
Genuine Bum, Gin, Wine ; an Ordinary on Sundays ; Tea, Coffee 
and Hot Rolls; Syllabubs and Cheese-cakes in the highest per- 
fection. The subjoined doggerel lines as a skit or burlesque on the 
publican's name is published with the engraving : — 

" stop not here ye sottish wights, 

For purl nor ale nor gin, 
For if you stop whoe'er alights 

By Death is taken in. 
When having eat and drank your fill 

Should ye, hapless case, 
Neglect to pay your landlord's bill 

Death stares you in the face. 
With grief sincere I pity those 

Who've drawn themselves this scrape in, 
Since from this dreadful gripe, heaven knows, 

Alas! there's no escaping. 
This one advice my friend pursue 

Whilst you have life and breath, * 
Ne'er pledge your host for if you do 

You U surely drink to Death." 

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The Falcon Tavern is now kept "by Mr. J. O. Brown. 
Mr. Edward Walford in his work entitled "Old and New 
London," published by Cassell, Petter and Galpin, London; in 
Part 66 at Page 479, writes, "Battersea has other claims to 
immortality : in spite of the claims of Burton and Edinburgh, there 
can be little doubt, if Puller is a trustworthy historian, that one of 
the ozierbeds of the river side here was the cradle of bottled ale. 
The story is thus circumstantially told in 'The Book of Anecdote' : — 
Alexander Nowell, Dean of 6t Paul's and Master of Westminster 
School in the reign of Queen Mary, was a supporter of 'the new 
opinions ' and also an excellent angler. But, writes Puller, while 
Nowell was catching of fishes Bishop Bonner was after catching of 
Nowell, and would certainly have sent him to the Tower if he 
could have caught him, as doubtless he would have done had not a 
good merchant of London conveyed him away safely upon the seas. 
It so happened that Nowel had been fishing upon the banks of the 
Thames when he received the first intimation of his danger, which 
was so pressing that he dared not even go back to his house- to 
make any preparation for his flight. like an honest angler, he had 
taken with him on this expedition provisions for the day, in the 
shape of some bread and cheese and some beer in a bottle ; and on 
his return from London and to his own haunts he remembered that he 
had left these stores in a safe place upon the bank, and there he 
resolved to look for them. The bread and cheese of course were 
gone ; but the bottle was still there — ' yet no bottle, but rather a 
gun: such was the sound at the opening thereof.' And this 
trifling circumstance, quaintly observes Puller, ' is believed to have 
been the origin of bottled ale in England, for casualty (*.*. accident) 
is mother of more invention^ than is industry.' " 

On the road to Wandsworth and facing Plough Lane was " Ye 
Plough Inn," erected a.b. 1701. In front of this Inn grew an oak 
to which an iron ring was fastened, and it is supposed that here 
Dick Turpin the notorious highwayman occasionally reined up his 
bonny black mare. When the Inn was re-built in 1875-6 the trunk 
was removed to the front of the "Old House " in Plough Lane, 
which formerly belonged to Mr. Carter, who owned extensive 
market gardens about here. The following lines y. ere written in 
commemoration of the famous Old Plough Tree, and the present 
landlord has had the lines enframed for his customers to read : — 
" This stump the remains of the Old Oak Tree, 
That flourish'd when knights of the road roamed free, 
When bands of lawless yet chivalrous knights 
Struck fear to the hearts of purse-proud wights ! 
This gay old king of the forests wilds, 
His proud head bow'd to the sun's bright smiles, 
In glorious prime when his branches were strong 
As shoulders of Atlas in time long gone ! 
His leaves in the murmuring breeze did fling 
Their sweet green shade o'er the Old Plough Inn ! 
When the knights of the road of their deeds did sing, 
'Twas there to his side was first fixed the ring 
To which Dick Turpin the gallant and bold 
When going to the Plough to spend his bright gold 



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Did tether his mare, swift Bonny Black Bess* 

When rider and horse stopp'd here to get rest. 

Removed from his place when the Old Plough's head 

By time's fell decree in ruin was laid! 

This stump that remains of the Old Plough tree 

In front of "The Old House,' in Plough Lane you may see, 

Here placed in memory of the Old Plough Inn 

An aged memento of things that have been ! 

Here in his last stage, sapped branchless and grey. 

Here in cool September, the trunk's first day, 

In the year eighteen hundred and seventy-six, 

Was planted by Messrs. J. Goodman and Wilkes." 

William Solloway. 

Situated in Plough Lane, and nearly opposite the residence of 

the late Rev. I. M. Soule, were Alms Houses for eight poor widows, 

founded by Mrs. Henry Tritton. The whole of this estate is now 

built upon and is called May Soule Road. 

At Lawn House, now occupied by Mr. Miller the Barge Builder 
in Lombard Road, of the Firm of Nash and Miller, lived Mr. 
Hammett, of the firm of Eisdale and Hammett, Bankers. He was 
a great patron of the rowing fraternity and kept an open house two 
days in the year. He awarded the prizes for the Kean's Sovereigns 
and the Funny Boat Club races on the lawn in front of his house. 
The Old Swan Tavern (now kept by Mr. R. Turner) nearly 
opposite the Star and Garter, was a kind of half-way house 
between Lambeth and Putney for the Eaton and Westminster 
scholars who used to put in here when training for the great row- 
ing match so strongly contested between them, but who in the zenith 
of their fame never obtained such popularity as the annual boat 
race has done of late between the Cantabs and Oxonians. 

An old-fashioned print represents the former Parish Church of 
Battersea with square tower crowned with lantern and pinnacles, not 
far off is the Swan Tavern with stairs leading down to the river 
where persons arriving by boat might land. An excellent wood- 
cut engraving in " Ly sons' s Environs" represents not only the New 
Parish Church but the sign of the Old Swan with two necks. 
Charles Dibdin in a ballad opera entitled "The Waterman; or the 
first of August," first performed at the Theatre Royal, Haymarket, 
August 8th, 1774, Scene HE. — Battersea — represents a room at the 
Swan, with a large open window looking on the Thames in which 
Master Bundle the honest gardener and hen-pecked husband; and 
Mrs. Bundle the termagant wife, the Star of Battersea, figure con- 
spicuously. Reference is also made in Scene I. to the "Black 
Raven," now kept by W. Ambrose. It is said that in olden time 
this was a Posting Establishment for Royalty. 

Situated on Wandsworth Common and overlooking the London 
Brighton and South Coast and South- Western Railways are the 
Royal Victoria Patriotic Schools for Boys and Girls, children of 
deceased soldiers, sailors and marines. Founded by Her Most 
Gracious Majesty, 1854-56. The Patriotic Asylum was endowed 
by the Commissioners of the Royal Patriotic Fund which was 
instituted in 1854 for the purpose of giving "assistance to the 
widows and orphans of those who fell during the Crimean and 



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more recent wars, and to provide schools for their children" 
Within the boundary of Battersea Parish is situated the Asylum 
for Boys but the Asylum for Girls which is some three hundred 
yards distant is in the parish of Wandsworth. 200 boys are in the 
Asylum. Superintendent, W. Bidpath ; Office, 5, St Martinis Place, 
Trafalgar Square; Secretary, W. H. Mugford, Esq. 

Near the southern boundary of the parish and not far from 
Wandsworth Common Bailway Station, are situated St. James' 
Industrial Schools. *This Institution stands on a portion of 22 
acres of land purchased of the Bight Honourable Frederick Earl 
Spencer, K.G., and conveyed to the Governors and Directors of the 
Poor of the Parish of St. James', Westminster, by Deed bearing 
dates, the thirtieth day of December, one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty. The first stone laid 24th September, 1851. The School 
opened 22nd June, 1852. F. Parkis, Superintendent. There are 
now 141 boys in the schools. On leaving a premium of £10 is 
given to each boy to learn a trade. Mrs. Anne Newton, late of 
Upper Harley Street in the Parish of Mary-le-bone, widow, 
deceased, by her Will left, dated the 12th of March, 1806, £1,000. 
£429 19s. 3d. has been received through the Court of Chancery. 
The interest is given to the best boy selected by his fellow scholars, 
on condition th at the Superintendent agrees with their decision. 

The Boyal Masonic Institution for Girls supported entirely by 
Voluntary Contributions, was instituted on the 25th March, 1788, 
at the suggestion of the late Chevalier Bartholomew Buspini, 
Surgeon-Dentist to his late Majesty, George the Fourth, for the 
purpose of educating, clothing, and maintaining a limited number 
of girls, whether orphans or otherwise, the children of Brethren 
whose reduced means prevented them from affording their female 
offspring a suitable education. His late Majesty, the Prince of 
Wales, with other members of the Boyal Family, the nobility, 
clergy and gentry, and many of the most influential members of 
the craft, gave the project their warmest support, and by their 
united efforts established this Institution, which has preserved 
numbers of children from the dangers and misfortunes to which females 
are peculiarly exposed, trained them up in the knowledge and love 
of virtue and habits of industry, and cultivated the practice of such 
social, moral and religious duties as might best conduce to their 
welfare and eternal happiness. A school-house was erected in 1793, 
near the Obelisk, St. George's Fields, on leasehold ground belonging 
to the Corporation of the City of London. At the expiration of the 
lease in 1851, it was determined by the Committee to remove to a 
more healthy locality. Accordingly about three acres of freehold 
land were purchased on the high ground of Battersea Bise. Upon 
this land the present building, which is an ornament to the neigh- 
bourhood, was erected in 1852. It is constructed of red brick of 
Gothic architecture from the designs of Mr. Phillip Hardwicke, 
and is noticeable for its great central clock tower. Since the first 

♦Mr. Beal sold on Wednesday, March 13th, 1878, at the Mart, 14J acres of 
land for ,£14,500, being part of 20 acres bought in 1850 for the sum of £600. 
1 he land is in Battersea Parish, bordering on Wandsworth Common, and was 
pirt of the site of the Westminster Union (St. James') Industrial Schools* It 
W4S bought by the British Land Company. 



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151 

erection of the building a wing has been added and tfye wings of 
the buildings have been extended in front in order to afford 
extra school-room, dining room and dormitory accommodation. 
Dotatched f roin the main building an Infirmary has been erected 
11 the grounds, including convalescent room, laundry, and every 
appliance necessary thereto. The establishment consists of a Matron ; 
a Governess ; three Assistant Governesses ; an Assistant to the 
Matron, and six Junior Teachers ; a Gardener and his Wife ; and 
eight female Servants. Since its establishment, one thousand and 
ninety-one girls have been educated, clothed, and maintained 
within its walls. There are now one hundred and sixty-two girls 
in the Institution. The school is open for inspection every d^ay 
from eleven to four (Sundays excepted) and can be reached by 
any train stopping at Clapham Junction which is closely adjacent. 

CLAPHAM JUNCTION is in the direction of St. John's Hill, 
at the north-eastern extremity of Wandsworth Common. "The 
station itself which was at first one of the most inconvenient, was 
re-built a few. years ago, and now with its various sidings and 
goods-sheds cover several acres of ground." It is one of the most 
important railway junctions south of the Thames, offering facilities to 
persons desirous of travelling not only to any part of the Metropolis 
but to all parts of England. Easy access can be had to the eight 
different platforms for "upline" and "downline," etc., on 
entering the tunnel. Booking office for Kensington, Metropolitan 
line, etc., on the ground floor at the north end of the tunnel 
and facing No. 2 platform, Booking office South- Western line 
No. 5 platform ; Booking office Brighton and South-Coast No. 8 
platform ; also Telegraph office ditto ditto. 

At the Junction there are thirteen waiting rooms, two refreshment 
bars, two cab ranks, two oarriage roads to the Junction from St. 
John's Hill. Nearly 1,000 trains pass through the Junction daily. 
The staff of railway employes are respectful and obliging to 
passengers; there is none of that bull-dog growl in reply to 
questions which characterize some men with, surly dispositions who 
fill public positions. 

" Evil is wrought from want of thought 

As well as want of heart." 
London, Brighton and South-Coast Railway: Station Master, 
Mr. John B. Carne ; South- Western Railway : Station Master, Mr. 
Thomas Green. West London Extension Railway : Battersea 
Station, High Street. 

BATTERSEA PROVIDENT DISPENSARY, 175, High Street, 
founded 1844, re-organized 1876 ; President, The Rev. Canon 
Erskine Clarke, Vicar of Battersea ; Hon. Secretary and Treasurer, 
Mr. B. W. Bayley ; Committee for 1881, Dr. J. Brown, Mr. J. H. 
T. Connor, Mr. Heale, Mr. Merry, Mr. Pilditch, Rev. S. Gh Scott, 
Rev. H. Gh Sprigg, Rev. J. Toone, Mr. Trehearne, Mr. Tyrer, Mr. 
H. Urwicke ; Elected Representatives of Benefit Members, Mr. 
King, Mr. Whensley ; Medical Officers, Mr. Oakman, The Priory, 
Battersea Square ; Mr. Gh F. Burroughs, Queen's Road, and Ghray- 
shott Road ; Dr. R. Frazer, Sisters Terrace, Lavender Hill ; Mr. 
Biggs, 93, Northcote Road ; Mr. Sewell (Kempster & Sewell), 247, 



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Battersea Park Eoad; Besident Dispenser, Mr. Whitehead; 
Collector, Mr. Chatting. 

The Funds of the Institution are derived from two sources. (1) 
From the weekly payments of Subscribers who are termed members. 
(2) From annual contributions of the more affluent, who on 
subscribing to the Institution become honorary members. Medical 
attendance and medicine are supplied to persons earning not more 
than 30/- a week on payment of one penny per week for those oyer 
1 4, and one half-penny per week for those under 14 ; but no greater 
sum than fourpence shall be required from any family residing 
together as such. To persons earning more than 30/- and not more 
than 50/- per week, double the terms named above. Members 
select their own medical attendant from the medical officers of the 
Institution. The medical officers attend at the Dispensary at 
appointed hours, but give advice at their own residences, and visit 
the sick at their own houses when necessary. The Dispensary is 
open for the supply of medicines daily, except Sunday, at 10, 3 and 
7 ; but medicines are supplied at all hours in urgent cases. 

WANDSWOETH COMMON PROVIDENT DISPENSARY, 
Bolingbroke House. — President, The Rev. Canon J. Erskine Clarke; 
Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers, Rev. J. H. Hodgson, Church 
House, Bolingbroke Grove ; J. S. Wood, Esq,, jWoodvilie, Upper 
Tooting ; Honorary Dentist, A. J. East, Esq., St. John's Hill, New 
Wandsworth ; Resident Medical Officer, Dr. John H. Gray. 

CHARITY ORGANIZATION SOCIETY, 1, Clifton Terrace- 
Office hours, 9 till 10 a.m. and 5 to 6 p.m. Joint Secretaries : J. 
H. Ward, Esq., and Frank Knight, Esq., Agent, Mr. J. T, Thorn- 
ton. Sub-office : St. George's Mission Room, New Road. 

THE PENNY BANK, 1, Clifton Terrace, Battersea Park Road, 
is open on Mondays and Saturdays, from 7 to 8 p.m. 
. Conspicuously situated at the corner of Simpson Street, Battersea 
Park Road, is No. 54 Metropolitan Fire Brigade Station, erected 
1873-4, is substantially built of red brick, with turret. In case of 
fire two engines and one fire-escape are kept on the premises. 
Staff : one officer and four men. 

"We are indebted to Germany for the invention of the first fire 
engine." 

Respecting the origin of fire brigades : "In 1774 an Act was 
passed requiring every Parish to provide itself with one large and 
one small engine, &c., and everything necessary in case of fire. The 
first London fire brigade was an Institution entirely independent of 
the parishes, as indeed also of the Government and of the Corpora- 
tion of London. It was created and exclusively supported by the 
Insurance Companies of the Metropolis. At first every Insurance 
Company had its own fire engine and men to work it, but in 1825 
' some of them joined, and when the advantage of union was seen 
most of the others desired to take part in the combination already 
formed, the result of which was mat in 1833 a more extensive 
organization was made, to which the name of the London Fire 
Brigade was given. Such was the state of matters until by Act 
28 and 29 Vict. cap. xc, July 5th, 1865, the duty of extinguishing 
fires and protecting life and property in case of fire was declared to 



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be entrusted to the Metropolitan Board of Works within their 
jurisdiction, and provision was made for the establishment of the 
Metropolitan Fire Brigade. The Act provides for its support from 
three sources, viz: 1st, £10,000 Grant from Treasury; 2nd, id. in 
the £ Bate; 3rd, £35 for every £1,000,000 insured in the Metropolis 
from Insurance Companies, which in the year ending December 31, 
1872, realized £16,267. All the Stations are in direct communica- 
tion by telegraph with the Central Station, so that any required 
number of engines or men may be summoned to any given spot 
without delay. In 1872 the cost of maintenance was: Brigade, 
£67,520 ; Stations, £8,793 ; Total, £76,313. All the Dock Com- 
panies have engines, and some large private firms." — Popular 
Cyclopedia, Blackie & Son. 

By 1833 all the important Companies combined and the London 
Eire Brigade was formed, organised and raised to an efficient 
standard under the management of the late and much lamented 
Mr. James Braidwood, who met with his death in the act of dis- 
charging his duties at the great conflagration which broke out in 
the afternoon of Saturday, June 22nd 1861, in one of the ware- 
houses on the banks of the river, close to the Surrey side of London 
Bridge, which in spite of increasing efforts to extinguish it, con- 
tinued to burn until it destroyed property worth nearly £2,000,000. 
The destruction of property thus caused by the fiery element is with- 
out a parallel in the Metropolis since the great fire of 1666. "Three 
acres of ground were gradually covered with a mass of fire, glowiDg 
and crackling at a white heat like a lake of molten iron. The salt- 
petre, the tallow, the tar aDd other combustibles stored in the 
warehouses ran blazing into the Thames until the very river appeared 
to be covered with the flames. Ships were burned as well as houses, 
and the danger to life was almost as great on the river as in the 
street. The glare of the conflagration was not only visible but 
strikingly conspicuous 30 miles off." 

THE METEOPOLITAN POLICE.— The organization of the 
present effective Police force is due to Sir Robert reel's bill of 1829. 
The force is divided into the City Police, confined to the City proper, 
whose office is in the Old Jury, and the Metropolitan Police, which 
consists of about 8,200 men, and whose Chief Station is in Scotland 
Yard. 

Metropolitan Police Station, Battersea, V. Sub-Division, Bridge 
Boad. Superintendent, Mr. Digby ; Inspectors, Mr. McCrory, Mr. 
Steggles. Number of men about 70. W. Division New Police 
Station, Battersea Park Boad. 

The full force of the Metropolitan Police in 1876 was 10,238* 

Board of Works for the "Wandsworth District, Battersea Bise, 
S.W. Arthur Alex. Corsellis, Clerk of the Board. 

ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE of the National Society is situated 

* The Report of the Commissioners of Police for the year 1879 shows that in 
December the Metropolitan police numbered 10,711, which was an increase of 
234 over the previous year. The number of fellonies committed during the year 
was 21,891, for whicn 11,431 persons were arrested. The loss by theits was 
^101,798, of which ^22,460 was recovered. The Director of Criminal Investiga- 
tions reports that photography and engraving have been extensively used in the 
tracing of criminals, with very satisfactory results. 



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1"4 

in Lombard Road for the trailing of. youngrmen who are intended 
to become schoolmasters in schools connected with the dhuroh of 
England. There are at this time about 80 students. The Bey. 
Evan Daniel, M.A., Principal; Bev. Edwin Hammonds, Vice- 
Principal ; Mr. George White, Secretary and Tutor ; Mr. Arthur 
Macken, Tutor; M. Alphonso Estoclet, French Master; Mr. E. G. 
May, Teacher of Music; Mr. W. Taylor, Normal Master; Mr. E. 
Mills, Organist; Dr. Connor, Medical Attendant. 

The College owes its origin to Dr J. P. Kay-Shuttleworlh 
and Mr. E. C. Tufnell, Assistant Poor-Law Commissioner, who with 
the view of establishing a Normal School in this country for impart- 
ing to young men that due amount of knowledge and training them to 
those habits of simplicity and earnestness which might render them 
useful instructors to the poor, travelled to Holland, Prussia, Switzer- 
land, Paris and other places that they might witness the operations of 
such educational schemes as had been projected by Pestalozzi, De 
FelLenberg and others interested in promoting the education of the 
poor. The plan suggested by Dr. Kay-Shuttleworth and Mr. Tufnell 
met with the hearty and most cordial approval of the Vicar, the Hon. 
and Bev. B. Eden, who offered them the use of his villiage schools to 
carry out their benevolent intentions. In 1840 they selected a com- 
modious manor house near the river Thames, at Battersea. Boys 
as students were first obtained from the School of Industry at 
Norwood, who were to be kept in training for three years. Sub- 
sequently some young men joined the Institution whose period of 
training was necessarily limited to one year. In 1 843, the Directors, 
Dr. Kay-Shuttleworth and Mr Tufnell, who had supported the Insti- 
tution by their own private means, had it transferred into the hands of 
the National Society. The Continental modes of instruction which 
had been adopted, such as Mulhauser's method of writing, Wilhelm's 
method of singing, Dupuis' method of drawing, etc., were so satis- 
factory that a grant of £2,200 for the enlargement and improvement 
of the premises was made to them by the Committee of Council on 
Education which was transferred to the National Society and with- 
out delay disbursed in completing the alterations required. In the 
early part of 1846 a new class-room was erected. "The Institution 
is supported by the National Sooiety's special fund for providing 
schoolmasters for the manufacturing and mining districts. Only 
young men are received as students, whose term of training is 
generally two years." 

THE VICABAGE HOUSE SCHOOL is also situated here. 
Principal : Miss Crofts. Fees from half a guinea to a guinea per 
quarter, according to age and attainments. The only extra subjects 
are Music and French. 

On the border of the river between Albert Bridge and Watney'a 
Distillery are several wharfs and factories. Bibbon Factory of 
Cornell, Lyell and Webster; the Glove Factory of Fownes & Co.; 
Garton, Hill & Co.'s Sugar Befinery now in* course of erection; 
Orlando Jones & Co.'s Bice Starch Manufactory; Denny's (Creek) 
Flour Mills;* Price's Patent Can rile! Company's Factory; B 
Freeman & Co.'s Varnish and Color Works; T. Whiffin's Chemical 

*A pair of 4-ft. stones will grind four bushels per hour* 



155 

Manufactory ; Nash and Miller, Barge Builders; A. B. Cox, Barge 
and Boat Builder; Watney's Malt Houses. 

On the site where now stands Fownes & Co.'s Glove Factory, 
formerly used as a silk factory, was Bonwell and Waymouth's 
Distillery. This firm furnished a Corps of (Battersea) Volunteers, 
of which the late Mr. George Chadwin was an ensign. Mr. Jonathan 
Browne, who used to preach at the Old Baptist Meeting House, 
York Road, was the grandfather of Mr. George Jonathan Chadwin, 
of Lombard Boad, who was Vestry Clerk for 29 years in conjunction 
with his father. 

T. Gaines, a celebrated Horticulturist and Florist, resided in an 
ancient mansion that stood in Surrey Lane, thought by some to 
have been a private residence of Queen Elizabeth. The house has 
been pulled down. 

J. Tow kept a Private Mad House in High Street, It is now 
occupied by Austin & Co., Dyers. 

It is supposed by some that there was in olden time a Foundry 
in Battersea for casting shot, etc., for the Tower of London. 

THE PATENT PLUMBAGO CRUCIBLE COMPANY'S 
WOBKS, which are the largest crucible works in the world, cover 
a large space of ground and have a river frontage. The principal 
elevation in Church Boad is a conspicuous feature in the neighbour* 
hood. It is Italian in character freely treated and somewhat 
Continental in design. The clock tower rises about 100 feet high, 
in which is an illuminated clock that may be seen at a considerable 
distance, A portion of the basement of this elegant structure is 
appropriated to the private office of the manager and clerks' offices 
were every quality of plumbago is represented by specimens from 
all the most celebrated mines, particularly those of Ceylon, 
Germany, Spain, Siberia, Canada, Finland and Borrowdale, The 
other departments are the stores, grinding room, mixing room, 
potters' room, drying room, the clay department, store room, etc. 
Crucibles for melting and refining metals have been used ever since 
man threw aside his hatchet and bone-chisel for bronze. For 
scientific research the crucible has occupied an important place. It 
was constantly used by the first alchemists and has truly been styled 
the cradle of experimental chemistry. The word crucible from 
the Latin crux-crucis recalls the alchemical practice of marking the 
vessel with the protective sign of the cross. Crucibles of different 
shapes and sizes are extensively employed by the refiner of gold 
ana silver, the brass founder, melters of copper, zinc and malleable 
iron, the manufacture of cast steel, the assayer and the practical 
chemist. For ordinary metallurgical operations clay crucibles are 
extensively employed. At the International Exhibition of 1862 
the only prize medal for crucibles was awarded to the Company 
and another prize medal for blackleads. The Company's crucibles 
are now used exclusively by the English, Australian and Indian 
Mints ; the Boyal Arsenals of Woolwich, Brest, and Toulon, etc., 
etc., and have been adopted by mosf of the large engineers, brass 
founders and refiners in this country and abroad. Their great 
superiority consists in their capability of melting on an average 



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forty poTirinfrs o! the most difficult metals, and a still greater 
number of those of an ordinary character, some of them having 
actually reached the extraordinary number of 96 meltings. These 
crucibles never crack, become heated much more rapidly than any 
other description, and require only one annealing, may be used any 
number of times without further trouble, change of temperature 
(they may be plunged while cold into a furnace nearly white hot 
without cracking) having no effect on them. The Patent Plumbago 
Crucible Company are the greatest consumers of the Ceylon Graphite 
brought to the United Kingdom. The total quantity 01 Graphite ex- 
ported from Ceylon in 1862 was 40,195 cwt., of which 34,730 cwt. 
was shipped to Great Britain. 

This Company are at present carrying out very extensive im- 
provements on the river side along the front of their premises in 
the construction of a river wall built of Portland Cement Concrete, 
* the foundations of which are carried down four feet below Trinity 
Low Water Mark, which have been done without the aid of a 
coffer-dam. These works when completed will reclaim a very 
valuable frontage of the river. The total length of wall and camp- 
shedding together with the adjoining property of Messrs. May 
and Baker's Chemical "Works will be about 500 feet. 

These improvements if extended westward towards the Parish 
Church will be the means of doing away with the unsightly mud 
banks which now exist, there is no doubt then a clean foreshore will 
be accomplished similar to the south side lower down the river where 
more extensive embankment works have been constructed. Behind 
a portion of the wall which the Plumbago Company are construct- 
ing will be some extensive cellars, which will be covered over with 
a concrete floor carried on wrought iron girders and supported by 
cast iron columns, and on the top of this floor will be a tram seven 
feet wide for the use of a heavy steam crane, and when oompleted 
will be able to unload goods out of barges alongside and deliver 
the same into the second floor of the present warehouse. 
• These works have been constructed from the designs and under 
the superintendence of Mr. W. H. Thomas, C.E., of 15 Parliament 
Street^ Westminster, Engineer to the Patent Plumbago Crucible 
Company, and now being carried out by Messrs. B. Cook & Co., 
of Phoenix Wharf, Church Koad Battersea, Mr. Maples acting as 
Oerk of the Works. 

The same Arm are also constructing large river-side works at 
Nine Elms for the London Gas-Light Company for a Ship's 
Berth, from the design and under the superintendence of Robert 
Morton, Esq., the Company's Engineer. 

A very striking' feature is connected with the latter works, as it 
is proposed to bring vessels up the river capable of carrying 1,000 
tons of coals which will be discharged by the use of hydraulic 
cranes and delivered by tram direct into the Gas Works. 

Adjacent are the Silicated Carbon Filter Company's Works. 
Whenever man has arrived at any considerable degree of civilization 
the subject of water supply had a share in his solicitude, and it is 
questionable if our modern works for supplying water surpass 
those of ancient Judea, Greece, Rome, Mexico and other places. 
The effect of impure water on the health and life of the community 



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"was alas, too painfully evinced by the outbreak of cholera in 1854- * 
1866, and by the reports of medical officers as to the cause of 
typhoid fever. 

The Silicated Carbon Filters are so constructed that the solid 
matter deposited on the filtering medium can be easily cleansed 
away. They entirely remove from water all organic matter and 
every trace of lead, and for all domestic purposes they may be said 
to render water absolutely pure. Testimonials from eminent 
authorities describe the extraordinary power possessed by these 
niters of entirely freeing water from every noxious quality. 

Contiguous are the premises belonging to Mr. H. Bollman Condy, 
the Inventor, Patentee, and Manufacturer of Antiseptic Aromatic 
Vinegar, "Condys Fluid," and " Condy's Ozonised Sea Salt." 

Adjoining are the Citizen Steamboat Company's Works and Dock, 
whose steamboats leave Battersea to London Bridge and intervening 
piers every ten minutes from 8 a.m. till dark. Entrance : Bridge 
Koad. Manager: Mr. M. Williams. 

Situated in Wellington Eoad is A. Eansome & Co's Battersea 
Foundry. 

S. Williams' Barge Works, Albert Eoad. 



OBLANDO JONES & CO.'S STAECH WOEKS.—Oryza is the 
name by which rice was known to the Greeks and Eomans and 
which has been adopted by botanists ae the generic name of the 
plant yielding that valuable grain. The name Paddy is applied to 
the rice in the natural state, or before being separated from the 
husk. The genus Oryza has two glumes to a single flower; paleae 



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two, nearly equal, adhering to the seed; stamens six, and styles 
two. The common rice Dry%a Sativa unlike many cultivated grains 
is still found in a wild state in and about the borders of lakes in 
the Bajahmundy Circars though the grain in its wild state is white, 
palatable and considered wholesome the produce when compared 
with the varieties of cultivation is very small. The rice plant is 
described as a native of India from which country it has spread 
over a great part of the world especially in Asia where it forms the 
principal portion of the food of the inhabitants. A failure of the 
rice crop is most disastrous as has been experienced too painfully 
by the natives of India during the late famine in that region. "A 
rice field produces a much greater quantity of food than the most 
fertile corn fields. Two crops in the year, from thirty to sixty 
bushels each, are said to be the ordinary produce of an acre." Bice 
is now extensively cultivated in North and South Carolina, and in 
Georgia, also in Italy and the South of Spain and likewise a little 
in Germany. There are forty or fifty varieties of rice. Dr. Box- 
burgh divides them into two kinds. One called in Telinga, Poonas 
Sans ; the second division of cultivated rice is called Pedder Worloo 
by the Telingas. 

Bice Starch is principally used for laundry purposes it will be 
found distinguished from all others by its singular purity an d 
brightness of color. It will not stick to the iron in the slightest 
degree. It may be used with hot or cold water, and articles starched 
with it do not lose their stiffness in damp weather. A few of the 
principal sources of the various known starches are sago, arrow- 
root, yams, the manico-root and horse chesnuts in addition to those 
resorted to by manufacturers, viz : wheat, potato, maize and rice, 
the latter being a great novelty and illustrating more than any 
other the progress of chemical science. Wheat starch is the oldest 
known. It is alluded to by Pliny in the 'Natural Historv,' and 
the discovery of the method of its extraction is attributed by him 
to the inhabitants of the Island of Chios. The starches used three 
centuries ago, when such enormous ruffles and frills were in fashion 
were made from wheat; in fact down to modern times it was the 
only known source of starch. Owing to a scarcity of wheat at the 
commencement of the present century the use of wheat for the 
manufacture of starch was prohibited by a legislative enactment. 
The restrictions thus imposed were considered most oppressive, no 
one could manufacture starch without a licence and a tenement rent 
was exacted. The details of manufacture were subject to Govern- 
ment regulations and a duty of 3£d. per pound was levied, amount- 
ing to more than 75 per cent, of the present market value of the 
article. These hindrances to the extension of the manufacture 
were wisely removed by our Legislature in the year 1833. Starch 
is one or the principal constituents of vegetable substance. It is 
stored up in the seeds, roots and piths of plants and by its de- 
composition furnishes the materials for keeping up respiration and 
supplying the animal heat. It has an organised structure and 
when examined by the microscope presents the form of rounded 
grains or granules composed of concentric layers which differ in 
size and shape in the starch of different plants the granules varying 
in diameter from 1000th to 300th of an inch. However the com- 



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position is the same, consisting of seventy-two parts of carbon and 
eighty-one of water. "In its pure state starch is a fine white 
powder without taste or smell. It is not soluble in water or 
alcohol, or ether, but mixed with boiling water it swells, bursts, 
and forms a kind of mucilage, which cools into a semi-transparent 
paste or jelly." The process of manufacturing starch from rice 
was discovered and patented about the year 1840 by Mr. Orlando 
Jones, founder of the house of the same name. His invention 
consists in the treatment of rice by a caustic alkaline solution 
during the steeping, grinding and macerating of the grains. The 
alkali used is either caustic potash or soda, of such a strength as to 
dissolve the gluten without destroying the starch; it must con- 
sequently vary with the character of the grain and hence the utmost 
nicety is required. The Battersea Works ^of Orlando Jones & Co. 
were built in 1848, the firm having previously carried on their 
manufacture in Whitechapel, they are situated on the banks of the. 
Thames near the works of Rice's Patent Candle Company, and 
occupy ground extending from the river, to York Eoad; thus^the 
firm possesses facilities of conveyance both by land and water— this 
latter is particularly valuable to 1 them to enable them to save all 
dock, landing and warehousing charges. AJaxge new store *has 
been recently built on their wharf to which rice is^barged direct 
from the ship. From the wharf also the manufactured article itself 
is conveyed to the docks for shipment to the Continent and our 
Colonies, with which a large trade is carried on. As an illustration 
of the extent of Orlando Jones & Co.'s operations it may be added 
tbat the box making department is a little factory in itself, and the 
machinery employed for the various purposes of sawing, dusting, 
cleaning, lighting, pumping, stirring, and grinding is driven by 
steam engines. It will be obvious that the manufacture of rice 
starch on a large scale requires no little capital and skill, and takes 
high rank anion? those industrial enterprises which are so peculiarly 
the characteristic and the glory of our age and country. Messrs. 
Orlando Jones & Co's manufacture has been awarded nine prize 
medals at International Exhibitions, and the grand distinction of 
the gold medal of the Acaddmie Nationale of Paris. These medals 
have been awarded 'for introduction of the process,' 'for ex- 
cellence of manufacture' and 'for large production.' 

It is worthy of note that Messrs. Orlando Jones & Co. are the 
manufacturers of Chapman's Patent Prepared Entire Wheat Flour 
especially distinguished by its richness in earthly phosphates which 
are essential to the developement of bones and teeth. This 
farinaceous food for infants, children and invalids is much re- 
commended by the medical faculty. 

Battersea is becoming quite noted for Laundries. There is 
Strutt's (Lawn) Laundry, Orkney Street; Boyal Albert Laundry, 
Battersea Park Eoad ; Laundry, Sheepcote House ; Latchmere 
Laundry ; Alder's South Western Laundry, Surrey Lane ; Lom- 
bard Eoad Laundry ; Palmer's Laundry, Chatham Eoad, Wands- 
worth Common ; and many others. 

But one of the largest and most gigantic of Laundries is the 
Collossal Steam Laundry, belonging to Messrs. Spier & Pond, 
erected 1879. The Laundry is situated on the Worth side of 



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Bettersea Park Boad, it is constructed of yellow brick, with stone 
window-sills, and Beart's white-moulded brick for string courses, 
window jambs, arches, and cornices. The Building and Works 
are rfrom rdeeigns by Mr. Kemp, Architectural Engineer. Mr. 
Priddle of Hounslow was the Contractor; and Mr. Warburton, 
Clerk of the Works, under whose superintendence the work was 
carried out 

The Building and Grounds extend over an area of one acre, the 
principal frontage which is 170 ft. in length, faces the East in 
a road leading to the South gate of Battersea Park, now called 
Alexandra Avenue. The central portion has an elevation of 45 ft. 
in height consisting of three floors containing, Manager's Residence, 
Clerk's Offices, etc., also a mess-room for the Employes, with bath- 
room and domestic lavatories. A spacious archway leads into the 
court-yard. This entrance is 10 ft. in width and 15-ft. in height. 
The wings of each side of the central portion have an elevation of 
two floors. Other blocks each containing one lofty floor are built 
on the North, South and West sides, to nearly one half the extent of 
the site. The remaining open space which is set apart as a drying 
ground is furnished with necessary appliances. Securely fixed in 
the ground by means of struts are 96 poles, to which is firmly 
attached a galvanic wire-rope for bleaching purposes. A separate 
block at the South West corner is for stables, adjoining which is 
the engine and boiler house with a chimney-shaft 70 ft. high, 7 
it. wide at the base and 4 ft. at top. This part of the Building 
is fitted up with a horizontal Engine and 2 Boilers by Manlove, 
Alliott and Co. of Nottingham of sufficient power to drive the 
Machinery requisite for the various processes of the Laundry ; the 
Patent Machines used are made by Mr. Bradford of London and 
Manchester. The boundary wall enclosing the building and grounds 
is 7 ft. high. On the South side of the laundry is a sorting-room 
63 ft. in length by 18 feet in width for the reception of articles as 
they arrive in the vans. The washing-room is 50 ft. square with 
large open Uuvre* in the ceiling for the purpose of ventilation and 
to allow the steam to escape. The drying-room is 70 ft. by 30 ft. 
A flue-pipe 70 ft. in length is placed horizontally immediately 
along the floor in this department and about 1,200 ft. of corded 
piping are utilized for the heating chamber. In the West block are 
the folding and the mangling rooms, their dimensions being respec- 
tively 40 ft. by 30 ft, and 52 ft. by 30 ft. In the North block is the 
ironing room which is 56 ft. by 25 ft., next to which is the packing 
room 40 ft by 25. 
Estimated cost of building and machinery about £12,000* 
Matron, Mrs. Tobin. Number of employes 60. 
Properts (Blacking Factory) built 1 878-9. Hunting Mark a fox's 
head. Hunting preparations, established 1836, South Audley St. 
B. BeddW and Son, Sole Proprietors. 
A site past Propert's factory has been selected by the London 
and Provincial Steam Laundry Go. Limited. Ernest Turner, 
Architect, 246, Eegent St. W. Mr. Austin, Secretary. 

The London ana Provincial Steam Laundry (Company Limited) 
is elaborately fitted up with Machinery of the very best descrip- 
tiou—the building is said to be the largest in the world and it oocu- 



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pies tin acre and a half of ground. Its worMng-ateJI is composed 
mostly of females numbering 150 including 32 who reside upon the 
premises, and there are 20 males. The Laundry is capable of 
turning out from 80,000 to 90,000 pieces weekly. The Architect 
was Mr. Ernest Turner of Kegent Street. Messrs. Bradford and Co. 
of Manchester and London, supplied the machinery which was 
specially designed for this Laundry. The works are entered at the 
west by double gates which lead into a second court-yard where 
the vans can discharge and receive their freight in all weathers. 
The main body of the building is cut off from the resident portion 
by a second pair of gates. The general Laundry is divided longitur 
chnally into three sections. The wash-house is fitted up with 
machinery adapted for speed and economizing labour. 

The washing machines which are of various sizes are known as 
Bradford's " Yowel A." Then there is a range of boiling troughs, 
and again the hydros in which the articles when washed and rinsed 
are put and whirled round at the rate of 400 revolutions per 
minute " till every drop of extractable moisture is driven off through 
the side holes." The Ironing-room is in the central hall and occupies 
an area of 80 by 70 ft. being 20 ft. high. For curtains, lace, etc., 
there is a separate room. The boiler-house is provided with two 
15-horse power horizontal engines, driven by two 20-horse cornish 
boilers. There is a disinfecting chamber, and the severest penalties 
are demanded, not only against any person sending infected articles, 
but against any of the employes neglecting to give immediate 
notice of any case of infectious disease, with which he or she shall 
be brought into contact. Mr. J. T. Helby, Manager. 

It is interesting to know how enormously property has increased 
in value in Battersea, within the last one hundred years. The 
Battersea Bridge Estate which contains about 4 acres, was sold by 
auction at the Mart by Norton, Trist, Watney and Co., 62, Old 
Broad Street, on Thursday, May 20, 1880, realizing £35,000. At 
Mid-summer 1791, this property was let on three leases for 90 
years, at ground rents amounting together to £90 per annum. 

The Workman's Institute ereoted two years ago has full com- 
pliment of 150 members. It has a kitchen, library, newspapers, 
games, etc. One of the workmen has been thirty-eight years and 
a few others thirty years in the service of the firm. 

The man how wise, who, sick of gaudy scenes, 

Is led by choice to take his fav'rite walk, 

Beneath death's gloomy, silent, cypress shades, 

Unpierc'd by vanity's fantastic ray ! 

To read his monuments, to weigh his dust ; 

Visit his vaults, and dwell among his tombs. ! 

Young's Night Thoughts. 
Situated on Battersea Eise at the commencement of Bolingbroke 
Grove, "Wandsworth Common, is St. Mary's Cemetery us4d as a 
place of interment for the parishioners. It covers an area of 8 
acres, and cost £8,000, including the erection of mortuary, chapels, 
etc. The ground thus purchased formed part of an estate that 
belonged to Mr. Henry Willis. It was opened Nov. 1860. It is 
fringed on the north and west sides with stately elms, and partially 
on the east boundary with poplar trees. . , 



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162 

Grassy hillocks, planted with flowers and evergreens, monumental 
inscriptions and tombstones, together with the number of each grave 
denote the spot where many a tributary tear of fond affection has 
been shed by the surviving relatives and friends of loved ones who 
have departed this life, but whose mouldering dust lies sleeping 
here. The congregation of the silent dead seems to make the place 
sacred, and gives it a solemn air. Here lie the mortal remains of the 
late Venerable John S. Jenkinson, M.A., for 24 years Vicar of Batter- 
sea, he died 17th October, 1871, aged 74, ; much beloved and greatly 
lamented. An appropriate text of Holy Scripture, 1 These. 4, 14, 
is engraved round the beautiful block of granite that covers his 
grave. On the occasion of his decease the following lines were 
composed by a parishioner, dated October 17th, 1871 : — 

Our Vicar has been called away, 

From earthly ties has risen, 

To take the place prepared for him ; 

Our Vicar rests in Heaven. 

His journey ended, trials o'er; 

Now all his sufferings cease, 

He's gone to be with Him who said, 

" In Me ye shall have peace." 

He ever faithful to his charge, 

The Saviour's love set forth 

To sinners that they might be saved; 

Was faithful unto death. 

Full twenty years and more he trod, 

God's house His flock to lead ; 

In sickness words of comfort gave, 

In want assist their need. 

May we his flock example take, 

Before our sun go down ; 

That when our Saviour comes, we too 

May win a heavenly crown. 
A mourning or memento card headed "Falling Leaves" bears 
the following lines written on the Funeral of the Rev. J. S. Jen- 
kinson: — 

'Twas Autumn — and a mournful train 

Proceeds beneath the trees, 

Our Vicar in the tomb was laid, 

Amid the falling leaves. 

Fit emblem of the hoary head, 

And many such were there; 

Methought they spoke in silent words 

For this event prepare. 

The mighty shepherd of his sheep, 

In seasons such as these, 

Speaks gently, that each one may take 

A lesson from the leaves. 

October 2\vt, 1871. A Pabishionsb. 

Here is a superb monument of red polished granite in memory 

of John Humphrey Esq., Alderman of London and late M.P. for 

the borough of Southwark who died 28th September, 1863. Aetat 



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Herd is a tombstone "with epitaph in memory of Mary Davies, 
who departed this life January 24th, 1872, aged 88 years. "For 
more than sixty-two years she was connected with Battersea Chapel 
Sunday School, where by her consistent christian character and 
entire devotedness to her work, she won the esteem of all. Being 
dead she yet lives in the hearts of many teachers, scholars and 
friends, who erect this stone in remembrance of a course of quiet 
usefulness which they deem worthy of all honour. 

Not myself, but the truth that in life I have spoken, 
Not myself, but the seed that in life I have sown 
Shall pass on to ages — all about me forgotten 
Save the truth I have spoken, the things I have done." 
Here is a marble obelisk. — In memory of the Eev. James Milling, 
A.B., Curate of St. Mary's Battersea, who entered into rest the 11th 
of January 1865 aged 27 years. His last words were "Not by 
works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his 
mercy he saved us by the washing of regeneration and renewing of 
the Holy Ghost which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus 
Christ our Saviour." Titus Hi 5 and 6. This monument was er- 
ected by the parishioners and children of the Parochial Schools. 

On another tombstone is an inscription to the memory of Mr. 
John Nichols, a devoted husband and estimable father, Baptist 
minister and Editor of Zion's Trumpet, a magazine devoted to the 
interest of the Aged Pilgrims' Friend Society and its Asylum; who 
fell asleep in Jesus Feb. 1st, 1867, aged 67 years. 

"His presence guide my journey through and crown my journey's 
end." 

In the faith of Christ here also rests the Eev. Philip Pennington 
M.A. of Christ's College, Cambridge, sometime civil chaplain of the 
Island of Mauritius. And God shall wipe away all tears from their 
eyes, and there shall be no more death neither sorrow, nor crying 
neither shall there be any more pain for the former things are 
passed away. 

Many are the pledges of conjugal endearment which help to 
tenant these graves. 

"Ah! those little ice-cold fingers, 
How they point our memories back 
To the hasty words and actions, 
Strewn along our backward track ! 
How those little hands remind us, 
As in snowy grace they He, 
Not to scatter thorns — but roses, 
For our reaping by and by. 
We perceive here that ruthless death with his scythe pays no 
regard to infantile age, and that others in the vigour of their 
youthful prime as well as the matured adult and hoary-headed have 
been suddenly cut down by an awful surprise. 

Here is a grave planted with flowers, the stone at the head of 
the grave states that William Gobell was accidently killed on the 
London and Brighton Eaiiway, March 4th, 1873, aged 65 years. 
Here is another stone in affectionate remembrance of William 
James, late Engine driver on the L.B.andS.C.E., who was killed 
while in the execution of his duty on the 29th of July 1876, aged 



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88 years. This stone has been erected by his fellow mates, as a 

token of respect to his memory. 

Another stone is erected in memory of Henry Blunden, who was 

killed on the L. and S. W. Ey., on the 17th October, 1871, aged 

22 years. 

"All you that come my grave to see, 
Oh think of death and remember me, 
Just in my prime and folly skilled; 
When on the Railway I was killed, 
Take warning, hear, and do not weep, 
But early learn thy grave to seek." 

Sacred to the memory of Thomas Hutchinson Higerty, who 
departed this life October 13th, 1869, aged 5 years and 2 months. 
How very soon is age upon us, 

Ere we know our way to earth, 
But in heaven there's no sorrow, 

There's nothing but joy and mirth. 
How soon hath time closed around us, 

First a child and then a man, 
How soon he's turned to mouldering dust 
Which from a few years back he sprang. 
The head-stone states that the above lines were written by his 
brother, aged twelve years. 

I like that ancient Saxon phrase which calls 

The burial ground God s acre! It is iust: 
It consecrates each grave within its wails, 

And breathes a benison o'er the sleeping dust. 
God's acre! yes, that blessed name imparts 

Comfort to those who in the grave have sown 
The seed that they had gathered in their hearts, 

Their bread of life — alas! no more their own. 
Into its furrows shall we all be cast, 

In the sure faith that we shall rise again 
At the great harvest, when the archangel's blast 

Shall winnow, like a fan, the chaff and grain. 
Then shall the good stand in immortal bloom, 

In the fair gardens of that sacred birth; 
And each bright blossom mingle its perfume 

With that of flowers which never bloomed on earth. 

Longfellow. 

The word Sepulchre comes from the Latin Sepelio to bury. It is the place 
where the dead body of a human being is consigned, whether it be in the ground 
or an excavation in tne rocks. 

Abraham buried Sarah, his wife in the cave of the field of Ephron, at Mach- 
pelah, which he purchased in the presence of the children of Heth, for 400 Shekels 
of silver, i860. B.C. Genesis 23. 

The word Cemetery Koimeterion comes from the Greek Koitnao (Koimaein) to 
sleep. It is the sleeping place, and " Christianity has turned the Sepulchre into 
a Cemetery assuring us, as it does, that those who die in Jesus, Sleep in Htm, 
awaiting a future awakening, in augmented vigour, and with renovated powers. 
To the Christian, the grave should be associated with the idea of calm and un- 
disturbed repose, after a life of honourable toil, with the hope of a glorious and 
blessed resurrection. ,, The Greeks had their burial places at a distance from the 
towns. Lycurgus allowed his Lacedemonians to bury their dead within the city 

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16o" 

Ano&er stone bears the following inscription:— 
In loving remembrance of William Haywaxd, born April 4th, 
1850, died December 8th, 1874. 

"Time, how short — Eternity, how long." 

Seader, this silent grave contains 

A much-loved son's remains; 

Death like a frost has nipt his bloom, 

And sent him early to the tomb ; 

In love he lived, in peace he died, 

His life was craved, but God denied. 
This stone is erected by his mother as a small token of love for him. 
Also of Thomas Hay ward, brother to the above; born October 
26th, 1855, died June 8, 1876. 

Had He asked us, well we know 

We should cry, Oh! spare this blow; 

Tea, with streaming tears should pray, 

Lord we love him, let him stay. 

A grave stone records the death of Henry Stening, who met with 

and around their templed that the youth being inured to such spectacles might be 
the less terrified With the apprehension of death. Two reasons are alleged why 
the ancients did not allow burials within their cities. 1st. they considered that 
the sight, touch or neighbourhood of a corpse defiled a man, especially a priest. 
4nd. to prevent the air from being corrupted by putrifying bodies, and the build- 
ings from being endangered by the frequency of (Cremation) funeral fires. The 
custom of burning bodies prevailed amongst most Eastern nations, and was 
continued by their descendants, after they had peopled the different parts of 
Europe. Hence we find it prevailing in Greece, Italy, Gaul, Britain, Germany, 
Sweden, Norway and Denmark, till Christianity abolished it. 

The Romans had their places of interment in the suburbs and fields especially 
the highways; hence the necessity of inscriptions. We have a few exceptional 
instances of persons buried in the city a favour allowed to only a few of singular 
merit in the Commonwealth. Burying within the walls was expressly prohibited 
by a law of the xii Tables. Plutarch says those who had triumphed were indulg- 
ed in it. Val Publicola and C. Fabricius, are said to have nad tombs in the 
Forum, and Cicero adds Tuberius to the number. Places of burial were conse- 
crated under Pope Calixtus I. in A.D. 210. (Eusebius.) Among the primitive 
christians, cemeteries were held in great veneration. It appears from Eusebius 
and Tertullian that in the early ages they assembled for divine worship in the 
cemeteries. Burying in churches for many ages was severely prohibited by 
Christian Emperors. The first step towards it was the erection of churches over 
the graves of martyrs in the cemeteries, and translating the relics of others into 
churches in the city. Subsequently Kings and Emperors were buried in the 
Atrium or church porch. The first christian burial place it is said, was instituted 
in 596; buried in cities, 742; in consecrated places, 750; in church yards, 758. 
It is said however in the 6th century the people began to be admitted into the 
churchyards; and some Princes, Founders and Bishops into the churches. The 
practice adopted at the consecration of cemeteries, was something after this fash- 
ion — the Bishop walked round it in procession with the crosier or pastoral staff 
in his hand, the holy water pot being carried before, out of which the aspersions 
were made. Many of the early christians are buried in the catacombs at Rome. 
Vaults erected in churches first at Canterbury, 1075. Woollen shrouds only per- 
mitted to be used in England 1666. Linen scarfs introduced at funerals in Ireland 
1729, and Woollen shrouds used 1733. Burials taxed 1695. A tax conducted on 
burials in England — for the burial of a Duke ^50, and that of a common person 
4s., under William III 1695, and George III 1783. Acts relating to Metropolitan 
burials, passed 1850-67. In 1850 the Board of Health was made a Burial Board 
for the Metropolis, and power was given to the Pi ivy Council to close the City 
grave-yards. Parochial Registers instituted in England by Cromwell, Lord 
Essex, about 1538.— Stow. 



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166 

sudden death on the 25th November, 1875, aged 59 years. "In 
the midst of life we are in death." 

Here is a white marble head stone with guilded monogram (I.H.S.) 
and stone border to grave prettily decorated with flowers, sacred to 
the memory of Alfred Thomas Martin, who died September 29th, 
1876, aged 31. 

Also of Nelly, died July 19, 1875, aged 7; Alfred William, died 
March 17, 1876, aged 6; Charles Percy, died February 23, 1877, 
aged 18 months, children of the above. "The Lord giveth and the 
Lord taketh away." 

Within the precincts of this cemetery is entombed the body of 
Henrietta, Lady Pollock, widow of Field Marshal Sir George 
Pollock, Baronet, G.O.B., G.C.S.L, died February 14, 1873, aged 
65 years. "Jesus said, I am the Resurrection and the Life." John 
xi. 25-26 

Here is a vault in memory of William Henry Wilson, of Chapel 
House, Battersea Park, and 6, Victoria Street, Westminster, born 
4th of September, 1803, died 8th March, 1871; also of Margaret, 
Isabel (Daisy,) third child of John Wilson ; and Margaret Isabel 
Theobald, died 3rd March, 1876, aged 3 years and 1 month. 

Not far from the gravel walk is a grave-stone at the head of 
which is a dove with a scroll on which is engraved "Thy will be 
done." Sacred to the memory of Mary Jane Webb, the beloved 
and only child of Charles and Mary Webb, who departed this life 
Nov. 30th, 1869, aged 8 years and 8 months, deeply lamented by 
her sorrowing parents and regretted by all who knew her. 
She is not dead, the child of our affection, 

But gone into the School, 
Where she no longer needs our poor protection, 
And Christ Himself doth rule. 

Earth to earth system of burial advocated by Mr. Seymour Haden. Wicker 
Coffins exhibited at Stafford House, 17th June 1875. With the view of rendering 
the death of persons of quality more remarkable, it was customary among the 
Greeks and Romans to institute funeral games, which included horse-racing, 
dramatic representations, processions and mortal combats of gladiators; these 
games were abolished by th? Emperor Claudius, A.D. 47. 

The custom of delivering a funeral oration in praise of a person at his funeral 
is very ancient, it was practised by the Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks and Romans. 
The old heathens honoured those alone with this part of the funeral solemnity 
who were men of probity and justice, renowned for their wisdom and knowledge, 
or famous for warlike exploits. This custom was very early obtained by the 
christians. Some of their funeral sermons are now extant as that of Eusebius on Con- 
stantine, and those of Nazianzen on Basil and Csesarius; and of Ambrose on 
Valentinian, Theodosius, and others. 

One of the oldest established and most celebrated of the European cemeteries 
is that of Pere la Chaise near Paris. In the Scottish cemeteries /no such distinc- 
tions exist as in England where the cemeteries are divided into two portions —one 
consecrated for the burials of members of the Established Church over whose 
remains the funeral service is read and one unconsecrated for the burials of 
dissenters. 

The Burials Law Amendment Act 1880, has given to Parishioners in England 
the right of burials in Church-yards without the rites of the Church of England. 

Though the Incumbent of a parish has no longer the exclusive right of officiating 
at interments in consecrated ground yet none of his rights are actually abrogated. 
He is still custos of the grave yard and must be consulted about the hour and place 
of interment as well as the inscriptions on grave stones. While in the case of lay 
funerals contemplated under the Act, it is not necessary to have any service at all, 
the service if performed must be christian and orderly. 



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167 

Here is a grave-stone ; an opening in the stone which, is glazed, 
represents a female in a recumbent position reading a book. In 
affectionate remembrance of George Barrett, who departed this life 
January 9th, 1871, aged 2 years and 3 months ; also Louisa Barrett, 
who departed this nfe September 24th, 1872, aged 16 years and 
6 months. 

Dear to their parents! to their God more dear, 
Brother and Sister sweetly slumber here ; 
Blest in their state from fear and danger free ; 
To us they died ; they live Lord with Thee. 
Also Daniel Barrett, father of the above, who departed this life 
August 23rd, 1873, aged 46 years. 

Even as he died a smile was on his face, 
And in that smile affection loved to trace, 
A cheerful trust in Jesus' power to save, 
An aged Pilgrim's triumph o'er the grave. 
Here is a grave planted with Laurels, having a Ehododendron 
in the centre, the stone at the head bears the inscription — In 
affectionate remembrance of Philadelphia Emma, the beloved wife 
of Ephraim Wilson, of Bridge Eoad, Battersea, who departed this 
life, June 24th, 1875, aged 27 years. 

The losing thee, our comfort is, to know 
That those relying on a Saviour's love, 
Have left this troubled world of sin and woe 
To be at rest with Christ in heaven above. 
Here is a grave covered with a white marble, slab and cross, 
bearing this simple inscription ; Phiilis, wife of Wyndham Payne, 
taken to her rest, 26 July, 1870. 

Here is a grave-stone ; in affectionate remembrance of Clara 
Cahill, who died 20th of December, 1871, aged 2 years and 3 months. 
Dear lovely child, to all our hearts most dear, 
Long shall we bathe thy memory with a tear ; 
Farewell, to promising on earth to dwell ; 
Sweetest of children, farewell ! farewell ! 
Also Albert, Brother of the above, who died August 7th, 1874, 
aged 14 months, interred in St. Patrick's cemetery, West Ham. 
Oh ! why so soon ! just as the bloom appears, 
Strayed the brief flower from this vale of tears ; 
Death viewed the treasure to the desert given, 
Claimed the fair flower, and planted it in heaven. 
Also Caroline, sister of the above, who died March 1st, 1876, 
aged 1 year and 7 months. 

Yes, dearest Carrie, thou art gone, 

Thy brief career is run, 
Thy little pilgrimage is past 

All sorrowing here is done, 
Just like an early summer's rose, 

Thou did'st come here to bloom, 
But long ere thou beganst to blow, 
Death snatched thee to the tomb. 
A head-stone marks the grave of Mary Childs, who died Nov. 
24th, 1865, aged 68 ; for 33 years a faithful servant in the 
family of George Serivens, of Clapham Common. 



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168 

A beautiful granite greciaa cross is erected in memory of die 
dear loved wife of Arthur Steains, Jun., born 8th January, 1844, 
taken to her eternal rest 22nd June, 1875. " Blessed are the pure 
in heart, for they shall see God." 

Here is a stone — sacred to the memory of Wm. Ghas. Brewer, 
who died June 11th, 1875, aged 21 years. Remember the days of 
thy youth. This stone was erected by some of his fellow employes, 
as a token of affection. Our time will not allow us to comment 
upon the different inscriptions, but it is gratifying to observe how 
many grave-stones have been erected as a tribute of generous 
affection by working? men themselves, in memory of their deceased 
fellow workmen. A noble feature this in the British Mechanic, a 
quality possessed and not unfrequentiy displayed by English hearts 
and hands. 

At the head of a grave is a marble stone, erected to the memory 
of Anne Grover, late of Wendover, Bucks, who died April 80th, 
1877, aged 54 years. " The Lord is a stronghold in the day of 
trouble, and He knoweth them that trusteth in Him." Nah. i. 7. 

A small stone is erected in loving memory of Catherine Weedon, 
who departed this life, December 24th, 1876, aged 38 ; underneath 
are the following well known lines. 

We cannot tell who next may fall, 

Beneath Thy chastening rod ; 

One must be first — but let us all 

Prepare to meet our God. 

At the head of a grave is a stone erected by the friends and 
companions, in memory of Alfred Fell, and Arthur Bonald, who 
were accidentally drowned while bathing in the Biver Thames, 
July 6th, 1873, both aged 19 years. The subjoined lines read — 

Mark the brief story of a summer's day, 

At noon, in youth and health they launched away, 

Ere eve, death wrecked the bark and quenched their light ; 

The parent's home was desolate at night, 

Each passed alone that gulf as eye can see, 

They meet next moment in eternity. 

Friend, kinsman, stranger, dost thou ask me where ? 

Seek God's Bight Hand and hope to find them there. 
A few yards from the spot is a stone in memory of Alfred Halsted 
who died May 1st, 1873, aged 2 years and 5 months. 

Also of Emma Halstead who died January 3, 1875, aged 12 years. 
Also of Emma Halstead sister of the above who died June 28th 1879 
aged 13 months. 

" Speak gently to the little child, 

It's love be sure to gain ; 
Teach it in accents soft and mild, 
It may not long remain." 

Here is a private grave with a stone in affectionate remembrance 
of Agnes, Eliza Waller, who fell asleep in Jesus, April the 6th, 
1871, in her 15th year; also Elizabeth Waller, mother of the above 
who died in the Lord, February 27th, 1873, in the 37th, year of 
her age. Looking unto Jesus the Beginner and Finisher of our 
faith.— Hebrew* xiu 2„ 



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169 

Here also lie buried the mortal remains of James Waller, who 
died July 7th, 1880, he was an earnest and successful city-missionary. 

Here is a monumental stone, in form of an Iona cross, encircled 
with a ring emblematical of the Unity and Catholicity of the 
Christian Church. The epitaph states, that Laura, Susan Cazenove, 
" fell asleep," August 24th, 1761, in her 22nd year. " There shall 
be one fold and one Shepherd." 

Here is a sepulchre stone, in memory of Frances, Elizabeth 
Scrivens, widow of George Scrivens, Esq., of Clapham Common, 
who died March 11th, 1867, aged 81 years. 

In this cemetery are interred the mortal remains of Arthur Miller 
Bose, who died 12th July, 1864, aged 67 ; also Susannah, his wife, 
who died 30th December, 1870, aged 75. " The memory of the 
just is blessed." — Proverbs x. 7. 

Near this spot we observed an iron label, with the number of 
somebody's grave ; there was no hillock, the surface was completely 
flattened ; over the label was placed by fond hands a faded wreath. 

Covering a brick vault is erected a superb monument, bearing 
the following inscriptions — in affectionate remembrance of Marianne, 
the beloved wife of Robert Jones, of Clapham Common, born May 
9th, 1808, died November 17th, 1868 ; also in memory of Anne, 
second daughter of Robert and Marianne Jones, born July 12, 1841, 
died October 22, 1872. "He hath prepared for them a city." — 
Hebrews *i. 16. 

" Paradise! Paradise! 

Who doth not crave for rest ? 
Who would not seek the happy land 

Where they that love are blest ? 
Where loyal hearts and true, 

Stand ever in the light; 
All rapture through and through, 
In God's most Holy sight." 

Also Falkland Robert, the third son of Robert and Marianne- 
Jones, who died 29th November, 1875, aged 23 years. 

Adjacent to that of his parents, is erected a monument of scotch 
granite, mounted with a white marble urn, partially covered with a 
cloth or veil. Sacred to the memory of Joseph May Soule, second 
son of the late Rev. I. M. Soule, who departed this life, 15th March, 
1875, aged 33. "I am the Resurrection and the life." — John xi. 25. 
On the south side of the beautiful obelisk erected over his Parents' 
grave is an epitaph to the memory of Hannah Turnbull, for 13 
years a devoted nurse in the family of the Rev. I. M. Soule, who 
died June 9th, 1866, aged 44 years. Fallen asleep in Jesus. 

By the side of one of the gravel walks a modest head-stone is 
erected in memory of Elizabeth Ursula, wife of James Pillans 
Wilson, Esq., born October, 1836, fell asleep in Jesus, 11th May, 
1869, in her 33rd year. She was a regular attendant at the public 
worship of God, from her childhood, and sought sincerely to please 
Him, but did not become a worshipper of Him, ' in spirit and in 
truth,' by believing in the Lord Jesus Christ, and being saved until 
her twentieth year, from which time she knew Him indeed as her 
Father, and walked with Him in this world as His child. Subjoined 
is the following address to the reader— * 



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170 

Dear reader, how is it with you ? Are you still only an outward 
worshipper, or perhaps not even that? 0! believe in the Lord 
Jesus Christ, as having died on the cross for your sins, and ask 
Him to make Himself known to you in your heart as your own 
Saviour, and then you also will walk this earth as a happy child of 
God, loving and serving Him by the power of His Spirit in you, 
till He shall take you home to Himself to the fulness of joy in His 
presence, and the pleasures at His right hand for evermore. 

And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this, the 
judgment; so Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many, and 
unto them that look for Him, shall He appear the second time 
without sin, unto Salvation. — Hebrews ix. 27-28. Isaiah liii. 6. 
AcUxvi. 30-31. 

Here is a grave with stone border and marble head-stone— in 
memory of the Rev. Edwin Thompson, D.D., Vicar of St. John's 
Parish, and honorary Chaplain of the Royal Masonic Institution for 
Girls', Battersea Eise, who died February 2nd, 1876, aged 51 years. 
" Knowing that he, which raised up the Lord Jesus shall raise up 
us also, by Jesus, and shall present us with you. — II. Cor. iv. 14. 

Also of Hannah Thompson, mother of the above, who died July 
1st, 1876, aged 80 years. " This is the victory that overcometh the 
world— even our faith." — I. John v. 4. 

We must tread softly among these grassy mounds, for yonder 
at the end of the gravel walk is situated our Darling Teddie's grave, 
(No. 7217). Edward George Curme Simmonds, who was drowned 
off Battersea Park embankment, October 16, 1875, aged 10 years. 
In another part of the cemetery is interred all that is mortal of 
our beloved daughter Hannah, who died June 12, 1873, aged 18. 
"My faith looks up to Thee, Thou lamb of calvary, Saviour divine ! " 
But we have tarried almost too long, and as time is precious we 
must leave for the present our meditations among the tombs, only 
observing that as we examined the records of mortality, and thought 
of the promiscuous multitude rested together without any regard to 
rank or seniority within those thousands of graves, we were 
reminded of the words of the Eev. James Hervey, when gazing 
upon a similar scene in a church yard. " None were ambitious of 
the uppermost rooms, or chief seats in this house of mourning; none 
entertained fond and eager expectations of being honourably 
greeted, in their darksome cells. The man of years and experience 
reputed as an oracle in his generation, was contented to lie down 
at the feet of a babe. In this house appointed for all living, the 
servant was equally accommodated and lodged in the same story 
with his master. The poor indigent lay as softly, and slept as 
soundly as the most opulent possessor. All the distinction that 
subsisted was a grassy hillock, bound with osiers, or a sepulchral 
stone, ornamented with imagery." In Thy fair book of life divine; 
My God inscribe my name. 

My flesh shall slumber in the ground, 

Till the last trumpet's joyful sound; 

Then burst the chains with sweet surprise, 

And in my Saviour's image rise. 

How many graves around us He! 

How many homes are in the sky! 



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in 

Yes for each saint doth Christ prepare, a place with care, 
Thy home is waiting, brother there! 

On the south side of the centre gravel walk east of the mortuary 
Chapels is a neat marble head-stone. Sacred to the memory of 
Elizabeth Farmer, born January 13th, 1810, died February 1st, 
1873. Also of William Farmer, born May 14th, 1802, died May 
26th, 1877, he was for 36 years a faithful servant in the employ 
of Messrs. Thorne, Brewers, Nine Elms. The memory of the Just 
is blessed. They rest from their labours." — Rev. xiv. 14. This 
stone as a tribute of filial affection is erected in loving remembrance 
by their sons. 

On the west-side of the cemetery is erected a small red granite 
cross in loving remembrance of John Hext Ward, Churchwarden 
of Battersea, 1874. Died 9th December, 1877, aged 40. A few of 
his friends thus record their admiration for his sterling worth, for 
his manly godliness, and for his self-denying efforts to help the poor 
to help themselves. "Thy Kingdom come." 

Here is a grave adorned with pretty flowers and rose trees a 
glass shade covers a wreath, in the centre of which is an image 
representing the Redeemer. At the head of the grave a memento 
card is framed and glazed, In loving remembrance of Kate Ellen 
Wilson, who departed this life July 2nd, 1878, in her 21st year. 

The stem broke and the flower faded. 
When my final farewell to the world I have said, 

And gladly lie down to my rest; 
When softly the watchers "shall say she is dead," 

And fold my pale hands on my breast; 
And when with my glorified vision at last, 

The walls of that city I see; 
Angels will then at the beautiful gate, 

Be waiting and watching for me. 

Conspicuously by the side of the carriage road may be seen a 
stone obelisk tapering like a spire, with hand and forefinger point- 
ing to the sky. On front of the obelisk is a dove with marble 
scroll with the words "for of such is the kingdom of heaven." 
In memory of Jessie Felicia, the beloved wife of Frederick Seed, 
of Wandsworth, late of Battersea; who died 22nd October, 1874, 
aged 31 years. Also Emily Kate, the beloved daughter of the 
late C. Q. Baker, of Margate, Kent; who died 6th January 
1877, Aged 2£ years. 

A grave stone with dove and scroll with the words "Jesus wept" 
is erected in affectionate remembrance of Rozinia Sarah eldest 
daughter of Henry and Bozinia Osborn, and grand-daughter of 
Mrs. M. E. McBain; who departed this life October 14th 1868, aged 
8 years and 7 months. "The sting of death is sharp — But the love 
of Christ surpasseth all." 

Another stone sacred to the memory of Mrs Mary E. McBain who 
died July 8, 1866, aged 68 years. 

Also of James Fairbain McBain, husband of the above who fell 
asleep in Jesus, May 18th, 1879. For many years he had been a 
temperance advocate and successful evangelist. 



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172 

Here is a stone in affectionate remembrance of Little Marke, the 
dearly beloved child of Philipp and Eose Konig, who fell asleep 
February the 3rd, 1876, aged 22 months. 
Our loss is his great gain, 
We trust in Christ to meet again. 

Another stone in memory of Elizabeth thebelovedwife of John Tyler 
Larking, who after a painful mental and bodily disease fell asleep 
in the dear Lord Jesus, August 27th, 1878, in her 76 year. "Fori 
reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be 
compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us." 

On the right hand side of the principal road from the main entrance to 
the cemetery is a grave-stone erected in loving undying remembrance 
of Kate Ellen Wilson, whom it pleased God to take from this world 
of care on the 2nd of July, 1878, aged 21 years. 

"Gone for ever in the blossom of life and love, 

After scarcely a moment's warning. 

Eloquence is lost in attempting to describe her noble qualities 

Loving, faithful, generous and pure, 

Thou wert the bright star that guidest me on, 

Toiling for thee and rank among strangers. 

Thy smile my reward when the battle was won, 

In sickness or sorrow, in sadness or sleeping 

Thy smile ever near to guide me along, 

Whispering hopes of a bright tomorrow 

My sad spirits cheering with dreams of relief, 

But e'er one summer passed away 

That gentle voice was hushed for aye 

I watched my Love's last smile and knew, 

How well the angels loved her too, 

Then silent. — 

Then silent but with blinding tears 

I gathered all my love of years, 

And laid it with my dream of old, 

When all and loved slept white and cold." 

On the border stone are the words* 'the property of Walter Scott"No of 
grave 8747. 

We observe another stone in memory of Mahalah the beloved and 
affectionate wife of Henry Noble Williams, who died November 
12th, 1873, aged 38 years. In her prostrated affliction she "endured 
as seeing Him who is invisible" and longed to behold "the King in 
His beauty." 

How calm and easy was her parting breath, 

No conscious sorrow shook her bed of death 
No infants fall when wearied sleep oppressed 
So did her soul sink to eternal rest 
' ' Until the morning breaketh. ' ' 

"She looked well to the ways of her household, and ate not the 
bread of idleness." Prov. xxxi 27. 

Also the above named, Henry Noble Williams, who died October 
28th, 1879, aged 44 years. 

"This mortal shall put on immortality." I. Cor. xv. 53. 

Here is a grave the head-stone is erected in affectionate remembrance 
of John Allison Peel, who died March 23, 1871, aged 40 years. 



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Then let our sorrows cease to flow, 

God has recalled His own; 
But let our hearts in every woe, 
Still say Thy will be done. 
Also of John William Peel son of the above, who was accidentally 
killed by the falling of a boat swing June 18, 1872. Aged 11 years. . 
Here is another stone erected by loving hands. In memory of Sarah 
Appleton who died June 5, 1860, aged one month. Also of Minnie 
Appleton who died March 10, 1864, aged 13 months. And of Hose 
Appleton who died Dec. 17, 1865, aged 4 J years, children of George 
Appleton of Battersea Park. Also of Mary Appleton, who died 
March 16, 1866, aged 79 years; grandmother of the above children. 
Added to this epitaph are the lines with which most persons are 
familiar : — 

Forgive blest shade the tributary tear 

That mourns thy exit from a world like this 
Porgive the wish that would have kept thee here 
And stayed thy progress to the realms of bliss. 
A plain head-stone marks the resting place of all that was mortal 
of that good man William Henry Hatcher, born at Salisbury 2ist 
January, 1821, Died at Sherwood House, Battersea, 2nd August, 
1879. This stone was erected by his colleagues and Fellow Workers. 

THE UNOEETAINTY OF LIFE. 

Beneath our feet and o'er our head 

Is equal warning given ; 
Beneath us lie the countless dead, 

Above us is the heaven. 

Death rides on every passing breeze, 

He lurks in every flower; 
Each season has its own disease, 

Its peril every hour. 

Our eyes have seen the rosy light 

Of youth's soft cheek decay, 
And fate descend in sudden night 

On manhood's middle day. 

Our eyes have seen the steps of age 

Halt feebly towards the tomb ; 
And yet shall earth our hearts engage, 

And dream of days to come? 

Turn, mortal, Turn! thy danger know,— 

Where'er thy feet can tread 
The earth rings hollow from below, 

And warns thee of her dead. 

Turn, Christian, turn ! thy soul apply 

To truths divinely given ; 
The bones that underneath thee lie 

Shall live for hell or heaven.' 

The Burial Ground of St. Mary, Battersea, was purchased i86:>, and secured 
for the use of the Parishioners, by Act of Parliament, xv. and xvi. Victoria 
Cap. 85. 



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OTHER PEES. 

Keeping Monuments and Graves in perpetuity, according to 
Agreement. 

Planting with Flowers and keeping in order a private Grave, 
per annum, 10*. 6rf. 

Turfing do. do. do. 3*. 

For Removing and replacing Head and Foot-Stone, 10*. 

For Removing Ledger Stone, 14*. 

Digging Grave Extra Depth, per foot — 1-ft. 2«. 2-ft. 3*. 3-ft. 
4*. 6d. 4-ft. 6*. 5-ft. Is. 6d. 6-ft. 10*. 7-ft. 14*. 8-ft. 17*. 9-ft. £1. 

Fee for Additional Inscription, 5*. 

Fee for Change of Stone or Monument, 15*. 

NON-PARISHIONER8 DOUBLE FEES. 

By Order, 

Thomas Habbaf, Clerk. 
Approved by the 

Secretary of State, 

For the Home Department, 
December 21**, 1876. 

THE BATTERSEA CHARITIES. Most of which are by will of 
the founders administered by the Vicar and Churchwardens. 

1. Ann Cooper, in 1720, gave £300 to purchase an estate, the 
profits thereof to be disposed of to poor people not receiving alms or 
to bind out poor children with the approbation of Henry Lord 
Yiscount St. John. This estate is land consisting of about 15 acres, 
situated in South Oerney in Gloucestershire, and produces a rental 
of £18 15s. per annum. 

2. Thomas Ashness, in 1827, bequeathed £100 in trust for the 
use of the poor of this parish, to be distributedjamongst them as the 
Vicar and Wardens shall think fit, and the dividend from this is 
£3 8s. 

3. Anthony Feancis Haldimand, by will of 1815, bequeathed 
£200 for the same purpose, the dividend of this^sum is £3 12s. 8d. 

4. Rebecca Wood, in 1596, bequeathed £200, the interest of 
which is to be distributed annually among 24 decayed families of 
the parish, the dividend from this is £6 4s. 9d. 

5. Henry Smith, in 1626, bequeathed several pieces of land, 
situated in the parishes of Sevenoaks, Seal and Kensing, in the 
County of Kent, the profits thereof to be applied to the relief of the 
impotent and aged poor who have resided 5 years in one of the 
twelve parishes named in his will, to be distributed in apparel of 
one colour. The dividend received as the portion due to this parish 
is £17 Is. 

6. John Conrad R^fp, in 1830, left £200, the interest to be 
divided at Christmas between four poor men and four poor women 
as the Vicar and Wardens in their discretion should think most 
necessitous and deserving of such relief. The amount from this 
benefaction is £6 9s. 4d. 

7. John Parvin, in 1818, left £1,000, the interest to be laid out 
ia coal, candles, broad and flannel and distributed among 40 poor 



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widows actually residing in Nine Elms and Battersea Fields. Also 
a further sum of £1,000 upon trust to pay one-fourth part of the 
interest annually to the trustees of schools formed by the late Lord 
St. John in this parish. One-fourth part to be expended in purchasing 
of bread to be distributed on the Sunday in every fourth week of 
the month. Two-fourths for the use of poor aged men and women 
equally in the Workhouse, all to be in the habit of attending Divine 
Service in Battersea Church. The last distribution of one-fourth 
to parties in the "Workhouse was up to December 26th, 1836. One- 
fourth of the second £1,000, was paid away in 1853 for meeting law 
charges in the information of B. Starling and C. Bowes renew Scheme 
of Sir Walter St. John's Schools, and the two fourths transferred to 
the trustees of Sir Walter St. John's Schools in 1863 by order of the 
Charity Commissioners. The sum now available from this source 
for Christmas distribution is £33 5s. 8d. 

8. John Constable left £50 bequest in 1856 for the poor of this 
parish. The dividend from this now is £1 19s. 4d. 

9. John Banks, in 1716 left by will to five poor men and five 
poor women 50s. each per annum, inhabitants of this parish. 
Candidates' names for recipients of this charity are forwarded by 
recommendation to the Haberdashers' Company of London who 
distribute this fund. 

10. Henry Jtter, in 1874, bequeathed the sum of £500, the 
dividend thereof to be distributed on the 6th February in each year 
to 12 needy parishioners of the age of 60 years and upwards. 

11. John Edmunds, who in 1708 left £10 per annum for putting 
out boy-apprentices. The property bequeathed consisting of a small 
tenement in the City has increased in value, and so few applications 
of boys or masters are received at the Lammas Hall that the sum 
of £730 Is. lOd. is now on deposit to the credit of this charity. 

The Parish Officers issue a form to be filled in by all applicants 
and to be endorsed by a householder. 

"He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord; and that 
which he hath given will he pay him again." — Prov. xix. 17. 

"Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my 
brethren, ye have done it unto me." — Matthew xxv. 40. 

The "Imperial Gazetteer," Vol. p. 130, states that Battersea has 
a free school with £160 and other charities with £121." 

Churchwardens. — Joseph William Hiscox, Altenburg Terrace, 
Lavender Hill; Edward Wood, 6, Shelgate Road, Battersea Eise. 

Overseers. — Andrew Cameron, 65, Salcott Road; William Daws, 
49, High Street; Robert Steel, Sleaford Street; B. T. L. Thomson, 
6, Crown Terrace, Lavender Hill. 

Vestry Clerk. — Thomas Harrap, Crown Terrace, Lavender Hill. 

The following is the List of Vestrymen and Auditors Elected 
under the provisions of the Metropolis Local Management Act, 1881 . 

Vestrymen Ex-offido — Rev. John Erskine Clarke, Vicar, 6, Altenburg 
Gardens; Joseph William Hiscox, 2, Altenburg Terrace, Lavender 
Hill; Edward Wood, 6, Shelgate Road, Battersea Rise. 

Ward No. 1. (Vestrymen who retire in 1882). — William Duce, 
21, Ponton Road, Nine Elms: James Dulley, 85, Battersea Park 
Road; Rev. Thomas Lander, St. George's Vicarage, 33, Battersea 
Park Road; Samuel Lathey, 1, St. George's Road, New Road; 

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Nathaniel Purely, 1, Ponton Terrace, Nine Elms; Thomas D. Tulley 
22, Queen's Square, Battersea Park. (Vestrymen who retire in 
1883}.— John Gwynne, 64, Stewart's Eoad; Edwin Lathey, 1, St. 
George's Eoad, New Boad; Thomas Bead, 41, Battersea Park Eoad; 
Frederick Eummins, 49, Lockington Eoad; George T. Smith Wandle 
Eoad, Upper Tooting; Bobert Steele, Sleaford Street. (Vestrymen 
who retire in 1884). — Thomas Anderson, 37, Battersea Park Eoad; 
Charles Clench, 161, Battersea Park Eoad; John Samuel Oldham, 
18 , Battersea Park Eoad; Patrick James O'Neil, 145, Battersea 
Park Eoad; John "Whiting, c8, Patmore Street; Eleazer Williams, 
130, New Eoad. Auditor. — John Douthwaite, St. George's Schools, 
New Eoad. 

Wakd No. 2. (Vestrymen who retire in 1882). — George F. 
Burroughs, 1, Queen's Crescent, Queen's Eoad; John Merritt, 1, 
Prospect Cottages, Falcon Grove; John Merry, 237, Battersea Park 
Eoad; Thomas Poupart, 399, Battersea Park Eoad; Eev. S. G. Scott, 
St. Saviour's Parsonage, Battersea Park; George N. Street, 491, 
Battersea Park Eoad; Henry Walkley, 351, Battersea Park Eoad. 
(Vestrymen who retire in 1883). — Horace E. Bayfield, 1, Somers 
Villas, Lavender Hill; Wm. Jno. Folkard, 12, Eushill Terrace, 
Lavender Hill; Charles E. Gay, 41, Orkney Street, Battersea Park 
Eoad; Henry John Hansom, Grove End House, Falcon Lane; 
Charles Heine, 219, Battersea Park Eoad; B. T. L. Thomson, 6, 
Crown Terrace, Lavender Hill; George Ugle, 21, Acanthus Eoad, 
Lavender Hill. (Vestrymen who retire in 1 884). — Charles Donaldson 
177, Battersea Park Eoad; John Elmslie, 241, Battersea Park Eoad; 
William Sangwin, 533, Battersea Park Eoad; Samuel Hancock, 339, 
Battersea Park Eoad ; Samuel Bowker, 6, Crown Terrace, Lavender 
Hill; Frederick Aubin, 393, Battersea Park Eoad; Charles Spencer, 
4, Wycliffe Terrace, Lavender Hill. Auditor. — George Fowler 20, 
Queen's Square. 

Wakd No. 3. (Vestrymen who retire in 1882). — James Chorley, 
69, High Street; William Daws 49, High Street; George Durrant, 
22, Bridge Eoad West; William Gerrard, Lombard Eoad; William 
Hammond, 72, York Eoad; Henry May Soule, Mayfield, St. John's 
Hill; Horsley Woods, 38, Bridge Boad West. (Vestrymen who 
retire in 1883).— Bernard Cotter, 228, York Eoad; George Thos. 
Dunning, 45, Win6tanley Eoad; William Gosden, 3, Spencer Eoad; 
John Thos. Gurling, High Street; Joseph Oakman, The Priory, 
High Street; Eev. John Toone, St. Peter's Parsonage, Plough Lane; 
John Trott, 75, High Street. (Vestrymen who retire in 1884). — 
George Brocking, 27, High Street; William J. Bromley, 12, Olney 
Terrace, Plough Lane; John W. Denny 108, York Eoad; Thomas 
Gregory, Station Eoad; William Griffin 44, High Street; Joseph 
James Kilsby, 189, York Eoad; William Wingate, Sen., 1, High 
Street. Auditor. — Charles Earl Holmes, 80, Bridge Eoad. 

Ward No. 4. (Vestrymen who retire in 1882). — James Clarke, 
2, Eushill Terrace, Lavender Hill; John Davis Hatch, Bolingbroke 
Grove, Wandsworth Common ; Alfred Heaver, Homeland, Benerley 
Eoad ; Joseph William Hiscox, 2, Altenburg Terrace, Lavender Hill. 
(Vestrymen who retire in 1883). — Andrew W. Cameron, 65, Salcott 
Eoad; John Cleave, Eaton Villa, Vardens Eoad; Horace Tumor, 63, 
Northcote Eoad; Edward Wood, 6, Shelgate Eoad. (Vestrymen 



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178 

who retire in 1884). — Francis Cowdry, 25, Belleville Koad; William 
Haynes, Eotherstone House, Salcott Eoad ; E. W. Oram, 1 3, dapham 
Common Gardens; William "Wilkins, St. John's Eoad, Battersea 
Eise. Auditor. — John Tomkins, Heather Villa, Nottingham Eoad, 
Wandsworth Common. 

Parish Clerk. — James Spice, Bridge Eoad West. ' 

Beadle. — William Edwards. 

Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages. — William Griffin, High 
Street. 

District Surveyor of North Battersea. — H. J. Hansom, Grove-end 
House, Falcon Lane. 

A Parochial Assembly for conducting the affairs of a Parish, so called because 
its meetings were formerly held in the Vestry— a room appended to a Church 
in which the sacerdotal vestments and sacred utensils are kept. Vestrymen 
are a select number of persons in each parish elected for the management of its 
temporal concerns. 

The Vestry is the organ through which the Parish speaks, and in numerous 
matters relating to church rates, highways, baths and wash-houses and other 
sanitary matters, it has important functions to discharge and is a conspicuous 
feature of Parochial management. The Vicar is entitled to be chairman. It 
is the duty of the Churchwardens and Overseers to keep a book in which to enter 
the minutes of the Vestry. The Vestry appoints annually Churchwardens, 
nominates Overseers, etc. A Church rate can only be made by a Vestry, and 
if the majority choose, to make none. The Vestry Clerk is chosen by the 
Vestry; his duty is to give notice of Vestry meetings; to summon the Church- 
wardens and Overseers; to keep the minutes, accounts and Vestry books; 
recover the arrears of rates; make out the list of persons qualified to act as Jury- 
men, and to give notices for to vote for Members of Parliament. 

Churchwardens in England aie Ecclesiastical officers appointed by the first 
Canon of the Synod of London in 1127. Overseers in every parish were also 
appointed by the same body, and they continue now as then established. — 
Johnson's Canons. 

Churchwardens, by the Canons of 1603, are to be chosen annually. The Com- 
mon Law requires that there should be two Churchwardens, one of whom is 
appointed by the Incumbent and the other is chosen by the Parishioners in Vestry 
assembled. Their primary duty is to see that the fabric of the Church is kept in 
good repair, superintending the celebration of public worship, and to form and 
regulate other Parochial regulations. The appointment and election take place 
in Easter Week of each year. 

Overseers are officers who occupy an important position in all the parishes in 
England and "Wales, they too are appointed annually. Their primary duty is to 
rate the inhabitants to the Poor rate, collect the same, and apply it towards 
relief of the poor, besides other miscellaneous duties, such as making out the 
list of voters for Members of Parliament. The list of persons in the Parish quali- 
fied to serve as Jurors, the list of persons qualified to serve as Parish Constables 
They are bound to appoint persons to enforce the Vaccination Acts, etc., etc. 

"When the birth of a cnild is registered, the registrar is to give notice of 
vaccination; and the child roust be vaccinated within three months. Penalty for 
not bringing the child to be vaccinated 20s. If any registrar shall give informa- 
tion to a justice that he has reason to believe any child has not been successfully, 
vaccinated, and that he has given notice thereof, which notice has been dis- 
regarded, the justice may order the child to appear before him, and he may make 
an order directing such child to be vaccinated within a certain time, and if at the 
expiration of such time the child shall not have been vaccinated, the parent or 
person upon whom the order has been served is liable to a penalty not exceeding 
20s. 

Guardians of the poor, in the English parochial law are important functionaries 
elected by a parish or union of parishes; they have the management of the 
workhouse and the maintenance, clothing and relief of the poor, and in the re- 
gulations must comply with the orders of the Poor Law Board, a central authority, 
whose head,is a member of Parliament, their duties are entirely regulated by these 
orders, and by statutes. 



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Editing Officers.— Mr. Murphy, Wye Street, York Road; Mir. 
Tugwell, 479, Battersea Park Road. 

Medical Officers. — Dr. Kempster, 247, Battersea Park Road; Dr. 
Oakman, The Priory, Battersea Square. 

Surveyor and Inspector of Nuisance*. — Mr. Pilditch, Stone Yard, 
Battersea, to whom complaints should be made. 

Dust Contractor. — Applications to be addressed Board of Works, 
Battersea Rise. 

Turn-cock. — R. Gray 24, Dickens Street; Assistant dittto. W. 
Moore, 24, Parkside Street. 

Collectors oj Parochial Bates.— Mr. E. Stocker, 37, St. John's Hill 
Grove; Mr. GK Nichols, Pembroke Villa, Falcon Lane; Mr. G. J. 
Ghadwin, Lombard Road; Mr. C. Shepherd, 15, Middleton Road, 
Battersea Rise. 

Collectors of Queen's Taxes. — Mr. A. G. Iago, Gatcombe Villa, 
Harbutt Road, Plough Lane, New Wandsworth; Mr. Lewis, Bridge 
Road. 

The Battersea Tradesmens' Club commenced October 1875, may 
be regarded as a local Institution. Its founder was Mr. Elmslie, 
the register contains the names of 200 elected members, having for 
their object the general interest, improvement and prosperity of the 
parish. The club has sustained a heavy loss by the sudden death 
of its respected Treasurer, Mr. Henry Kesterton, he was a guardian 
of the poor, a member of the vestry, and also of the board of works, 
His straightforwardness and generosity inspired much respect. 
Deep sympathy with his wife and family was manifested at his funeral, 
which was attended by a great number of the leading members 
of the club, and other parishioners. His mortal remains were 
interred at Norwood Cemetery. 

The following gentlemen form the Committee. — 

Mr. J. Pochin, 291, Battersea Park Road; J. Evans, 367, Battersea 
Park Road; Mr. W. Sangwin, 533, Battersea Park Road; Mr. T. 
Bowley, 535, Battersea Park Road; Mr. E. Evans, 287, Battersea 
Park Road; Mr. J. Douglas, W. L. Com. Bank; Mr. G. N. Street, 
353, Battersea Park Road; Mr. H. Walkley, 351, Battersea Park 
Road; Mr. F. Sturges, Orkney Street; Mr. C. E. Gay, 21, Orkney 
Street; Mr. B. Hickman, 100, Gwynne Road; H. Winter, 52, Park 
Grove.; W. Marsh, Battersea Park Road. 

Secretary. — Mr. Robert Oooch, 21, Queen's Square, Queen's Road. 

Any person wishing to have his name enrolled as a member of 
the Club, must subscribe 10s. yearly. 

The temporary Home for lost and starving Dogs, Battersea Park 
Road, (removed from Holloway.) Established October 2nd, 1860. 
The late Mrs. Tealby was the foundress and unwearied benefactress 
of this Institution. In 1875 more than 3,200 dogs were either 
restored to their former owners, or sent to new homes, being an 
increase of 1094, over the previous year. The home has been visited 
by many of the nobility and gentry, and by great kennel owners, 
and all have expressed themselves very much pleased with the 
-cleanliness, and general good order, which they have observed. 
It is gratifying to know that of the many thousands of dogs which 
have been brought into the home; there has been no case of 
hydrophobia. Every precaution is taken by the committee not to 



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allow any dog to be sold for the horrid purpose of vivisection. 
There are in stock at the home more than 300 dogs. Keeper at 
. the home — Mr. J. Pavitt; open daily from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. ; (the 
home is entirely closed on Sunday.) 

"I cannot understand that morality which excludes animals from 
human sympathy, or release man from the debt and obligation h& 
owes to them." — Sir John Bowring. 

"He prayeth best, who loveth best; 

All creatures great and small; 
For the great God who loveth us, 

He made and loves them all" — Coleridge. 

"With eye upraised, his master's look to scan, 
The joy, the solace, and the aid of man; 
The rich man's guardian and the poor man's friend. 
The only creature faithful to the end." 

London, Chatham and Dover Railway — Battersea Park Station,. 
Battersea Park Eoad, booking office to Victoria, Crystal Palace, 
main line and City trains, Blackheath Hill, for Greenwich. Station* 
master, Mr. H. Lankman. 

York Road Station, Battersea Park — London, Brighton and 
South London Line. Station master, Mr. Henry Mead. 

West London Commercial Bank, Limited, Established 1866. 
Incorporated, under the Joint-Stock Companies' Act 1872. Head 
Office — 34, Sloane Square, London, S.W. Battersea Park Branch, 
1, Victoria Road. Manager, Mr. George Patrick McCourt. 

London and South Western Bank, Head office, 7, Fenchurch 
Street. Battersea Branch, Battersea Park Road, opposite Christ 
Church. Manager, Mr. J. Barr. 

Temperance and Band of Hope Meetings are held at St. George'* 
Mission Room, New Road; Arthur Street, Mission Hall, Battersea 
Park Road; Grove School Room, York Road, Conductor Mr. G. 
Mansell; Temperance Hall, Tyneham Road, Shaftesbury Park 
Estate; The Institute, Mill Pond Bridge, Nine Elms Lane, every 
Tuesday, commencing at 8 p.m. President, George Howlett, Esq.; 
Vice-President, Mr. T. 0. Shutter; Treasurer Mr. D. Greaves; 
Financial Secretary, Mr. H. Gitsham; Registrars, Mr. F. Clarke r 
Mr. W. R. Josslyn; Corresponding Secretary, Mr. R. Curson, 6, 
Horace Street, Wandsworth Road, S.W. 

SOUTH LONDON TRAMWAYS. In 1879 a Tram-way wae 
constructed in Battersea Park Road. (Turner, Contractor, Chelsea). 
Tram cars first commenced running for the conveyance of passengers- 
between Falcon Lane and the Rifleman January 6, 1881. The 
second portion of the South London Tramways Company's line from 
Nine Elms to Clapham Junction was opened for traffic on Saturday 
March 12th. 1881. 

The Queen's Road and Victoria Road Lines being now completed, 
in addition to those previously worked in Falcon Lane and Battersea 
Park Road and Nine Elms Lane, Cars are running as under: — 



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EVERY TEN MINUTES THROUGHOUT THE DAY, FBOM 

Mnss? } " n ot e™ l™. 

First Car leaves 7.45 a.m. First Oar leaves 8.15 a.m. 

Last Car do. 10.10 p.m. Last Car do. 10.45 p.m. 

Do. SatMaysdo.il. 55 p.m. Do.Sat'days do. 11.55 p.m. 

Pbinoe's Head, High ) . ( Chelsea Bridge Steamboat 
Street, Battebsea. ) ( Pier, via Victoria Boad. 
First Car leaves 7.55 a.m. First Car leaves 8.20 a.m. 

Last Car do. 9.45 p.m. Last Car do. 10.20 p.m. 

Do.Sat'days do. 11. 33 p.m. Do.Sat'days do. 11.10 p.m. 

Lavender Hill end of | . ( Brighton Railway Station, 

Queen's Road, ) ( Battersea Park Road. 

First Car leaves 8.10 a.m. First Car leaves 8.25 a.m. 

Last Car do. 10.0 p.m. Last Car do. 10.15 p.m. 

Do.Sat'days do. 11.10 p.m. Do. Sat'days do. 10.50 p.m. 

In Battersea Park Road the Cars run every 5 minutes between 
"Prince's Head" and Victoria Road (South End). 
Workmen's Cars will run as heretofore. 

On Sundays the Cars commence running about 10 a.m. and finish 
as on Weekdays. 

FARES. 

"The Falcon" to "Clock House" Id. 

"Prince's Head" to Victoria Road (South End) Id. 

"Clock House" to "Rifleman" Id. 

Victoria Road (South End) to Nine Elms , . . . . Id. 

Lavender Hill to Chelsea Bridge Id. 

Beyond the above distances 2d. 

N.B. — The Tickets are only available for a Single Journey upon 
the Car where issued. 




SEE Page 5.— London & South-Western Railway Goods Station. 
OMITTED.— Mr. H. B. Terrill, Cashier. 

Mr. J. E. Hawkins, Chief Clerk. 

ERRATA. — Instead of Assistant Superintendent read 
Chief Inspector, Mr. Robert Lingt.ky. 

Instead of Strutton, read Stratton. 



ASHFIELD, PRINTER, BRIDGE ROAD WEST, BATTERSEA. 



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