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nth AVZ. & 43pd ST. 


AH About 











Copyright 1922 

BY f 

New York 


International Copyright Secured 

All Rights Reserved in U. S. A. and 






Paintpd from nature by M. E. Eaton — Detail aketohes show anther, pistil, and section of corolla 

To My Wife 



SEVENTEEN years ago the author of this work made his first trip abroad to gather 
material for a book on coffee. Subsequently he spent a year in travel among the 
coffee-producing countries. After the initial surveys, correspondents were ap- 
pointed to make researches in the principal European libraries and museums ; and this 
phase of the work continued until April, 1922. Simultaneous researches were conducted 
in American libraries and historical museums up to the time of the return of the final 
proofs to the printer in June, 1922. 

Ten years ago the sorting and classification of the material was begun. The actual 
writing of the manuscript has extended over four years. 

Among the unique features of the book are the Coffee Thesaurus ; the Coffee Chro- 
nology, containing 492 dates of historical importance ; the Complete Reference Table of 
the Principal Kinds of Coffee Grown in the World ; and the Coffee Bibliography, con- 
taining 1,380 references. 

The most authoritative works on this subject have been Robinson's The Early His- 
tory of Coffee Houses in England, published in London in 1893; and Jardin's Le Cafe, 
published in Paris in 1895. The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to both 
for inspiration and guidance. Other works, Arabian, French, English, German, and 
Italian, dealing with particular phases of the subject, have been laid under contribution; 
and where this has been done, credit is given by foot-note reference. In all cases where 
it has been possible to do so, however, statements of historical facts have been verified by 
independent research. Not a few items have required months of tracing to confirm or to 

There has been no serious American work on coffee since Hewitt's Coffee: Its His- 
tory, Cultivation and Uses, published in 1872; and Thurber's Coffee from Plantation to 
Cup, published in 1881. Both of these are now out of print, as is also Walsh's Coffee: Its 
History, Classification and Description, published in 1893. 

The chapters on The Chemistry of Coffee and The Pharmacology of Coffee 
have been prepared under the author's direction by Charles W. Trigg, industrial fellow 
of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research. 

The author wishes to acknowledge, with thanks, valuable assistance and numerous 
courtesies by the officials of the following institutions : 

British Museum, and Guildhall Museum, London ; Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris ; 
Congressional Library, Washington ; New York Public Library, Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, and New York Historical Society, New York; Boston Public Library, and Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts ; Smithsonian Institution, Washington ; State Historical Museum, 
Madison, Wis. ; Maine Historical Society, Portland ; Chicago Historical Society; New 
Jersey Historical Society, Newark ; Harvard University Library ; Essex Institute, Salem, 
Mass. ; Peabody Institute, Baltimore. 



Thanks and appreciation are due also to : 

Charles James Jackson, London, for permission to quote from his Illustrated His- 
tory of English Plate; 

Francis Hill Bigelow, author ; and The Maemillan Company, publishers, for permis- 
sion to reproduce illustrations from Historic Silver of the Colonies; 

H. G. D wight, author; and Charles Scribner's Sons, publishers, for permission to 
quote from Constantinople, Old and New, and from the article on "Turkish Coffee 
Houses" in Scribner's Magazine; 

Walter G. Peter, Washington, D. C, for permission to photograph and reproduce 
pictures of articles in the Peter collection at the United States National Museum ; 

Mary P. Hamlin and George Arliss, authors, and George C. Tyler, producer, for per- 
mission to reproduce the Exchange coffee house setting of the first act of Hamilton; 

Judge A. T. Clearwater, Kingston, N. Y. ; R. T. Haines Halsey, and Francis P. 
Garvan, New York, for permission to publish pictures of historic silver coffee pots in 
their several collections; 

The secretaries of the American Chambers of Commerce in London, Paris, and 
Berlin ; 

Charles Cooper, London, for his splendid co-operation and for his special contribu- 
tion to chapter XXXV; 

Alonzo H. De Graff, London, for his invaluable aid and unflagging zeal in directing 
the London researches; 

To the Coffee Trade Association, London, for assistance rendered; 

To G. J. Letliem, London, for his translations from the Arabic ; 

Geoffrey Sephton, Vienna, for his nice co-operation; 

L. P. de Bussy of the Koloniaal Institute, Amsterdam, Holland, for assistance ren- 
dered ; 

Burton Holmes and Blendon R. Campbell, New York, for courtesies; 

John Cotton Dana, Newark, N. J.^ for assistance rendered; 

Charles H. Barnes, Medford, Mass., for permission to publish the photograph of 
Peregrine White's Mayflower mortar and pestle; 

Andrew L. Winton, Ph.D.^ Wilton, Conn., for permission to quote from his The 
Microscopy of Vegetable Foods in the chapter on The Microscopy of Coffee and to 
reprint Prof. J. Moeller's and Tschirch and Oesterle's drawings; 

F. Hulton Frankel, Ph.D., Edward M. Frankel, Ph.D., and Arno Viehoever, for 
their assistance in preparing the chapters on The Botany of Coffee and The Microscopy 
of Coffee; 

A. L. Burns, New York, for his assistance in the correction and revision of chapters 
XXV, XXVI, XXVII, and XXXIV, and for much historical information supplied in 
connection with chapters XXX and XXXI ; 

Edward Aborn, New York, for his help in the revision of chapter XXXVI; 

George W. Lawrence, former president, and T. S. B. Nielsen, president, of the New 
York Coffee and Sugar Exchange, for their assistance in the revision of chapter XXXI ; 

Helio Lobo, Brazilian consul general, New York ; Sebastiao Sampaio, commercial at- 
tache of the Brazilian Embassy, AVashington ; and Th. Langgaard de Menezes, American 
representative of the Sociedade Promotora da Defeza do Cafe ; 

Felix Coste, secretary and manager, the National Coffee Roasters Association; and 
C. B. Stroud, superintendent, the New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange, for information 
supplied and assistance rendered in the revision of several chapters; 


F. T. Holmes, New York, for his help in the compilation of chronological and de- 
scriptive data on coffee-roasting machiner}' ; 

Walter Chester, New York, for critical comments on chapter XXVIII. 

The author is especially indebted to the following, who in many ways have con- 
tributed to the successful compilation of the Complete Reference Table in chapter XXIV, 
and of those chapters having to do with the early history and development of the green 
coffee and the wholesale coffee-roasting trades in the United States: 

George S. "Wright, Boston; A. E. Forbes, William Fisher, Gwynne Evans, Jerome J. 
Schotten, and the late Julius J. Schotten,, St. Louis; James H. Taylor, William Bayne, 
Jr., A. J. Dannemiller, B. A. Livierato, S. A. Schonbrunn, Herbert Wilde, A. C. Fitzpat- 
rick, Charles Meehan, Clarence Creighton, Abram Wakeman, A. H. Davies, Joshua 
Walker, Fred P. Gordon, Alex. H. Purcell, George W. Vanderhoef, Col. William P. 
Roome, W. Lee Simmonds, Herman Simmonds, W. H. Aborn, B. Lahey, John C. Lou- 
don, J. R. Westfal, Abraham Reamer, R. C. Wilhelm, C. H. Stewart, and the late Au- 
gust Haeussler, New York ; John D. Warfield, Ezra J. Warner, S. 0. Blair, and George 
D. McLaughlin. Chicago ; W. H. Harrison, James Heekin, and Charles Lewis, Cincinnati ; 
Albro Blodgett and A. M. Woolson, Toledo ; R, V. Engelhard and Lee G. Zinsmeister, 
Louisville; E. A. Kahl, San Francisco; S. Jackson, New Orleans; Lewis Sherman, Mil- 
waukee ; Howard F. Boardman, Hartford ; A. H. Devers, Portland, Ore. ; W. James 
Mahood, Pittsburgh; William B. Harris, East Orange, N. J. 

New York. June 17, 1922. 


C O X T E N T S 


i:ncoiiiiums and descriptive phrases applied to the plant, the berry, and the beverage. .Page xxvix 

Showing the various steps through which the bean passes from plantation to cup Page xxix 


Dealing with the Etymology of Coffee 

Origin and translation of the word from the Arabian into various languages — Views of many 
writers ; Page 1 


History of Coffee Propagation 
A brief account of the cultivation of the coffee plant in the Old World, and of its introduction into 
the New — A romantic coffee adventure Page 5 


Early History of Coffee Drinking 
Coffee in the Near East in the early centui'ies — Stories of its origin — Discovery by phyMcians 
and adoption by the Church — Its spread through Arabia, Persia, and Turkey — Persecu- 
tions and intolerances — Early coffee manners and customs Page 11 


Introduction of Coffee into Western Europe 

When the three great temperance beverages, cocoa, tea, and coffee, came to Europe — Coffee first 
mentioned by Rauwolf in 1582 — Early days of coffee in Italy — How Pope Clement VIII 
haptizetl it and made it a triily Christian beverage — The first European coffee house, in 
Venice, 1645 — The famous Caff 6 Florian — Other celebrated Venetian coffee houses of the 
eighteenth century — The romantic story of Pedrocchi, tJie poor lemonade-vender, who built 
the most beautiful coffee house in the world I'age 25- 


The Beginnings of Coffee in France 
What French travelers did for coffee — the introduction of coffee by P. de la Roque into Marseilles 
in 1&44 — Tlie first commercial importation of coffee from Egypt — The first French coffee 
house — Failure of the attempt by physicians of Marseilles to discredit coffee — Soli- 
man Aga introduces coffee into Paris — Cabarets ft caffe — Celebrated works on coffee by 
French writers Page 31 




The Introduction op Coffee into England 

The first printed reference ito coffee in English — Early mention of coffee by noted English travelers 
and writers — The Lacedaemonian "black broth" controversy — How Gonopios introduced 
coffee drinking at Oxford^- The first English coffee house in Oxford — Two English botan- 
ists on coffee Page 35 


The Introduction op Coffee into Holland 
How the enterprising Dutch traders captured the first world's market for coffee — Activities of 
the Netherlands East India Company — The first coffee house at the Hague — The first public 
auction at Amsterdam in 1711, when Java coffee brought forty-seven cents a pound, green 

Page 43 


The Introduction op Coffee into Germany 

The contributions made by German travelers and writers to the literature of the early history 
of coffee — The first coffee house in Hamburg opened by an English merchant — Famous 
coffee houses of old Berlin — The first coffee periodical and the first kaffeeklatsch — 
Frederick the Great's coffee roasting monopoly — Coffee persecutions — "Coffee-smellers" — 
The first coffee king Page 45 


Telling How Coffee Came to Vienna 
The romantic adventure of Franz George Kolsehitzky, who carried "a message to Garcia" through 
the enemy's lines and won for himself the honor of being the first to teach the Viennese 
the art of making coffee, to say nothing of falling heir to the supplies of the green beans 
left behind by the Turks ; also the gift of a house from a grateful municipality, and a 
statue after death — Affectionate regard in which "Brother-heart" Kolsehitzky is held as 
the patron saint of the Vienna Eaffeesieder — Life in the early Vienna caf6s Page 49 


The Coffee Houses op Old London 
One of the most picturesque chapters in the history of coffee — The first coffee house in London — 
The first coffee handbill, and the first newspaper advertisement for coffee — Strange coffee 
mixtures — Fantastic coffee claims — Coffee prices and coffee licenses — Coffee club of the 
Rota — Early coffee-house manners and customs — Coffee-house keepers' tokens — Opposition 
to the coffee house — "Penny universities" — Weird coffee substitutes — The proposed coffee- 
house newspaper monopoly — Evolution of the club — Decline and fall of the coffee house — 
Pen pictures of coffee-house life — Famous coffee houses of tihe seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries — Some Old World pleasure gardens — Locating the notable coffee houses. .Page 53 


History op the Early Parisian Coffee Houses 
The introduction of coffee into Paris by ThSvenot in 1657 — How Soliman Aga established the 
custom of coffee drinking at the court of Louis XIV — Opening of the first coffee houses — 
How the French adaptation of the Oriental coffee house first appeared in the real French 
caf6 of FrauQois Procoi)e - — Important part played by the coffee houses in the development 
- of French literature and the stage — Their association with the Revolution and the found- 
ing of the Republic — Quaint customs and patrons — Historic Parisian cafes Page 91 



Introduction op Coffee into North America 

Captain John Smith, founder of the Ck)lony of Virginia, is the first to bring to North America a 
linowledge of coffee in 1607 — The coffee grinder on the Mayflower — Coffee drinking in 1668 — 
William Penn's coffee purchase in 1683 — Coffee in colonial New England — The psychology 
of the Boston "tea party," and why the United States became a nation of coffee drinkers in- 
stead of tea drinkers, like England — The first coffee license to I>orothy Jones In 1670 — The 
first coffee house in New England — Notable coffee houses of old Boston — A sky-scraper 
coffee-house Page 105 


History of Coffee in Old New York 
The burghers of New Amsterdam begin to substitute coffee for "must," or heer, for breakfast in 
1668 — William Penn makes his first purchase of coffee in the green bean from New York 
merchants in 1683 — The King's Arms, the first coffee house — The historic Merchants, 
sometimes called the "Birthplace of our Union" — The coffee house as a civic forum — The 
Exchange, Whitehall, Burns, Tontine, and other celebrated coffee houses — The Vauxhall and 
Ranelagh pleasure gardens Page 115 


Coffee Houses of Old Philadelphia 

Ye Coffee House, Philadelphia's first coffee house, opened about 1700 — The two London coffee 

houses — The City tavern, or Merchants coffee house — How these, and other celebrated 

resorts, dominated the social, political, and business life of the Quaker City in the eighteenth 

century Page 125 


The Botany of the Coffee Plant - 
Its complete classification by class, sub-class, order, family, genus, and species — How the Coffea 
arabica grows, flowers, and bears — Other species and hybrids described — Natural caffein- 
free coffee — Fungoid diseases of coffee Page 131 


The Microscopy of the Coffee Fruit 
How the beans may be examined under the microscope, and what is revealed — Structure of the 
berry, the green, and the roasted beans — The coffee-leaf disease under the microscope — 
Value of microscopic analysis in detecting adulteration Page 149 


The Chemistry of the Coffee Bean - 

By Charles W. Trigg. 
Chemistry of the preparation and treajtment of the green bean — Artificial aging — Renovating 
damaged coffees — Extracts — "Oaffetannic acid" — Caffein, caffein-f ree coffee — Caffeol — 
Fats and oils — Carbohydrates — Roasting — Scientific aspects of grinding and packaging — 
The coffee brew — Soluble coffee — Adulterants and substitutes — Official methods of anal- 
ysis Page 155 


C O X T E X T S 

Pharmacology of the Coffee Deink ., 

liy Charles IF. Trigg 
General physiological action — Effect on chiklven — Effect on longevity — Behavior in the alimen- 
tary rSgime — Place in dietary — Action on bacteria — Use in medicine — Physiological 
,, action of "caffetannic acid" — Of caffeol — Of caflfein — Effect of caffein on mental and motor 
efficiency — Conclnsions Page 174 


The Commercial Coffees of the World 

The geographical distribution of the coffees grown in North America, Centi-al America, South 

America, tlie West India Islands, Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands, and the Easit Indies — 

A statistical study of tlie distribution of the principal kinds — A commercial coffee chart 

of the world's leading growths, with market names and general trade characteristics 

Page 189 


Cultivation of the Coffee Plant 

The early days of coffee culture in Abyssinia and Arabia — Coffee cultivation in general — Soil. 

climate, rainfall, altitude, propagation, prepairing the i^lantation, shade, w^ind breaks, 

fertilizing, praning, catch crops, pests, and diseases — How coffee is grown around the 

world — Cultivation in all the principal producing countries Page 197 


Preparing Green Coffee for Market 
Early Arabian methods of preparation — How primitive devices were replaced by modern methods 
— A chronological story of the development of scientific plantation machinery, and the 
part played by English and American inventors — The marvelous coffee package, one 
of the most ingenious in all nature — How coffee is harvested — Picking — Preparation by 
the drj- and the wet methods — Pulping — Fermentation and washing — Drying — Hulling, 
or peeling, and polishing — Siting, or grading — Preparation methods of different countries 

Page 245 


The Production and Consumption of Coffee 
A statistical study of world production of coffee by countries — Per capita figures of the leading 
consuming countries — Coffee-consumption figures comi>ared with tea-consumption figures in 
the United States and the United Kingdom t— Three centuries of coffee trading — Coffee 
drinking in the United States, past and present — Reviewing the 1921 trade in the United 
States Page 273 


How Green Coffees Are Bought and Sold 
Buying coffee in the producing countries — Transi>orting coffee to the coaisuming markets — Some 
recoi"d coffee cargoes shipped to th^ United States — Transport over seas — Java coffee 
"ex-sailing vessels" — Handling coffee at New York, New Orleans, and San Francisco — 
The coffee exchanges of Europe and the United States — ^Commission men and brokers — 
Trade and exchange contracts for delivery — Important rulings affecting coffee trading — 
Some well-known green coffee marks Page SOS 





^M Greejsi and Roasted Coffee Characteristics ' 
' The trade values, bean characteristics, and cup merits of the leading coffees of commerce, with a 
"Complete Reference Table of the Principal Kinds of Coffee Grown in the World" — 
Appearance, aroma, and flavor in cup-testing — How experts test coffee — A typical sample- 
roasting and cup-testing outfit Page 341 V 


Factory Preparation op Roasted Coffee 
Coffee roasting as a business — Wholesale coffee-roasting machinery — Separating, milling, and 
mixing or blending green coffee, and roasting by coal, coke, gas, and electricity — Facts 
about coffee roasting — Cost of roasting — Green-coffee shrinkage table — "Dry" and "wet" 
roasts — On roasting coffee etficiently — A typical coal roaster — Cooling and stoning — 
Finishing or glazing — Blending roasted coffees — Blends for restaurants — Grinding and 
packaging — Coffee additions and fillers — Treated coffees, and dry extracts Page 379 


Wholesale Merchandising of Coffee 
How coffees are sold at wholesale — The wholesale salesman's place in merchandising — Some 
coffee costs analyzed — Handy coffee-selling chart — Terms and credits — About package 
coffees — Various types of coffee containers — Coffee package labels — Coffee package 
economies — Practical grocer helps — Coffee sampling — Premium method of sales promo- 
tion , Page 407 


Retail Merchandising op Roasted Coffee 
How coffees are sold at retail — The place of the grocer, the tea and coffee dealer, the chain 
store, and the wagon-route distributer in the scheme of distribution — Starting in the retail 
coffee business — Small roasters for retail dealers — Model coffee departments — Creating 
a coffee trade — Meeting competition — Splitting nickels — Figuring costs and profits — A 
credit policy for retailers — Premiums Page 415 


A Short History of Coffee Advertising 
Early coffee advertising — The first coffee advertisement in 1587 was frank propaganda for the 
legitimate use of coffee — The first printed advertisement in English — The first newspaper 
advertisement — Early advertisements in colonial America — Evolution of advertising — 
Package coffee advertising — ^ Advertising to the trade — Advertising by means of news- 
papers, magazines, bill-boards, electric signs, motion pictures, demonstrations, and by samples 
— Advertising for retailers — Advertising by government propaganda — The Joint Coffee 
Trade publicity campaign in the United States — Coffee advertising efficiency Page 431 


The Coffee Trade in the United States 
The coffee business started by Dorothy Jones of Boston — Some early sales — Taxes imposed by 
Congress in war and peace — The first coffee-plantation-machine, coffee-roaster, coffee- 
grinder, and coffee-pot patents — Early trade marks for coffee — Beginnings of the coffee 
urn, the coffee container, and the soluble-coffee business — Chronological record of the most 
important events in the history of the trade from the eighteenth century to the twentieth 

Page 4G7 





Development of the Green and Roasted Coffee 
Business in the United States 
A brief history of the growth of coffee trading — Notable firms and personalities that have played 
important parts in green coffee in the principal coffee centers — Green coffee trade organ- 
izations — Growth of the wholesale coffee- roasting trade, and names of those who have 
made history in it — The National Coffee Roasters Association — Statistics of distribution of 
coffee-roasting establishments in the United States Page 475 


Some Big Men and Notable Achievements 
^ B. G. Arnold, the first, and Hermann Sielcken, the last of the American "coffee kings" — John 
Arbuckle, the original package-coffee man — Jabez Bums, the man who revolutionized the 
roasted-coffee business by his contributions as inventor, manufacturer, and writer — Ck>ffee 
trade booms and panics — Brazil's first valorization enterprise — War-time government 
control of coffee — The story of soluble coffee Page 517 


A History of Coffee in Literature 
The romance of coffee, and its influence on the discourse, poetry, history, drama, philosophic 
writing, and fiction of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and on the writers of to- 
day — Coffee quips and anecdotes Page 541 


Coffee in Relation to the Fine Arts 

How coffee and coffee drinking have been celebrated in painting, engraving, sculpture, caricature, 

lithography, and music — Epics, rhapsodies, and cantatas in praise of coffee — Beautiful 

specimens of the art of the potter and the silversmith as shown in the coffee service of 

various periods in the world's history — Some historical relics Page 587 


The Evolution of Coffee/ Apparatus 
Showing the development of coffee-roasting, coffee-grinding, coffee-making, and coffee-serving de- 


vices from the earliest time to the present day -^"The original coffee grinder, the first coffee 
roaster, and the first coffee pot — T^e original French drip pot, the De Belloy percolator — 
Count Rumford's improvement — How the commercial coffee roaster was developed — The 
^y olu tion-jQf^ fi 1 tra tio n ,ii^^eg — The old Carter "pull-out" roaster — Trade customs in 
New^iork ana ist. rSms in the sixties and seventies — The story of the evolution of the 
Burns roaster — How the gas roaster was developed in France, Great Britain, and the 
United States Page 615 


World's Coffee Manners and Customs 
How coffee is roasted, prepared, and served in all the leading civilized countries — The Arabian 
coffee ceremony — The present-day coffee houses of Turkey — Twentieith century improve- 
ments in Europe and the United States Page 655 




Preparation of the Uniyersal Beverage 
I he evolution of grinding and brewing methods —Coffee was first a food, then a wine, a medicine, 
a devotional ref reshment> a confection, and finally a beverage — Brewing by boiling, infu- 
sion, percolation, and filtration — Ck)ffee making in Enrope in the nineteenth century — Early 
coffee making in the United States — Latest developments in better coffee making — Various 
aspects of scientific coffee brewing — Advice to coffee lovers on how to buy coffee, and how 
to make it in perfection Page 693 


Giving dates and events of historical interest in legend, travel, literature, cultivation, plantation 
treatment, trading, and In the preparation and use of coffee from the earliest time to the 
present ' Page 725 


A list of references gathered from the principal general and scientific libraries — Arranged in 
alphabetic order of topics Page 738 


Page 769 



Color Plates 

Facing paye 
Cofifee branches, flowers, and fruit (painted 

by Blendon Campbell) Frontispiece v 

Coffea arabica; leaves, flowers, and fruit 

(painted by M. E. Eaton) 1 

Tlie coffee tree bears fruit, leaf, and blossom 

at the same time 16 

A close-up of ripe coffee berries 32 

Coffee under the Stars and Stripes 144 

Coffee scenes in British India 160 

Picking and sacking coffee in Brazil 176 

Mild-coffee culttire and preparation 192 

. Facing page 

Coffee scenes in Java 200 

Coffee scenes in Sumatra 216 

Coffee preparation in Central and South 

America 248 M 

Typical coffee scenes in Costa Rica 336 " 

Principal varieties of green-coffee beans, 

natural size and color 352 

Coal-roasting plant, New York 408 

Coffee scenes in the Near and Far East 544 

Primitive transportation methods, Arabia . . 640 
Hulling coffee in Aden, Arabia 656 

Black and White Illustrations 


Coffee tree in flower 4 

De Clieu and his coffee plant 7 

Legendary discovery of coffee drink 10 

Title page of Dufour's book 13 

Frontispiece from Dufour's book 15 

Turkish coffee house, 17th century 21 

Serving coffee to a guest, Arabia 23 

First printed reference to coffee 24 

An 18th-century Italian coffee house 2() 

Nobility in an early Venetian caff^ 27 

Goldoni in a Venetian coffee house 28 

Florian's famous coffee house 29 

Title page of La Roque's work 82 

Coffee tree as pictured by La Roque 32 

Coffee branch in La Roque's work 33 

First printed reference in English 37 

Reference in Sherley's travels 39 

References in Biddulph's travels 40 

Mol's coffee house at Exeter 41 

Reference in Sandys' travels 42 

Richter's coffee house, Leipsic 40 

Coffee house, Germany, 17th century 47 

Kolschitzky in his Blue Bottle coffee house . . 48 

First coffee house in Leopoldstadt. 50 

Statue of Kolschitzky 51 

First advertisement for coffee 55 

First newspaper advertisement 57 


Coffee house, time of Charles II 60 

London coffee house, 17th century 61 

Coffee house, Queen Anne's time 62 

Coffee-house keepers' tokens (plate 1) 63 

A broadside of 1663 64 

Coffee-house keepers' tokens (plate 2) 65 

A broadside of 1667 68 

A broadside of 1670 70 

A broadside of 1672 70 

A broadside of 1674 71 

White's and Brooke's coffee houses 78 

London coffee-house politicians 78 

Great Fair on the frozen Thames 79 

Lion's head at Button's 80 

Trio of notables at Button's 81 

Vauxhall Gardens on a gala night 82 

Rotunda in Ranelagh Gardens 83 

Garraway's coffee house 84 

Button's coffee house 84 

Slaughter's coffee house 85 

Tom's coffee house 85 

Lloyd's coffee house 86 

Dick's coffee house 87 

Grecian coffee house 87 

Don Saltero's coffee house 88 

British coffee house 88 

French coffee house in London 89 




Raiuponaux' Royal Drummer ca fg 90 

La Foire St.-Germaiu 92 

Street coffee vender of Paris 92 

Armenian decorations in Paris cafe 93 

Corner of liistoric Caf6 de Procope 93 

C4if6 de Procope, Paris 9.j 

Cashier's desk in coffee liouse, Paris 9G 

Caf6 Foy 97 

Caf6 des Mille Colonnes 99 

Caf 6 de Paris 101 

Interior of a typical Parisian cafe 103 

Chess at tlie Caf6 de la R^gence 104 

Types of colonial coffee roasters 100 

Early family coffee roaster 100 

Historic relics, early New England 107 

Maytlower "coffee grinder" 108 

Crown coffee house, Boston lOS 

Coffee devices, Massachusetts colony 109 

Coft'ee devices of western pioneers 110 

Coffee pots of oolouial days 110 

Green Dragon tavern. Boston Ill 

Metal coffee pots. New York colony 112 

Exchange coffee house, Boston 113 

President-elect Washington's official wel- 
come at Merchants Coffee House 114 

King's Arms coffee house, New York IIG 

Burns coffee house 117 

Merchants coffee house 119 

Tontine coffee house 121 

Tontine building of 1850 122 

Xiblo's Garden 122 

Coffee relics, Dutch New York 122 

New York's Vauxhall Garden of 1803 123 

Tavern and grocers' signs, old New York .... 124 
Second London coffee house, Philadelphia . . 127 

Selling slaves, old London coffee house 128 

City tavern, Philadelphia 129 

Coffee-house scene in "Hamilton" 130 

Coffee tree, flowers and fruit 132 

Germination of the coffee plant 133 

Brazil coffee plantation in flower 134 

f'offea arahica, Porto Rico 135 

Coffea arahica, flower and fruit, Costa Rica. 135 

Young Coffea arabica. Kona, Hawaii 136 

Survivors of first Liberiau trees in Java .... 130 

Coffea arabica in flower. Java 137 

Liberian coffee tree, Lamoa, P. 1 138 

Coffea congensis, 2J^ years old 138 

Flowering of 5-year-old Coffea excelsa 139 

Branches of Coffee excelsa 140 

Coffea stenophylla 140 

Near view of Coffea arahica berries 141 

Wild caffein-f ree coffee tree 142 

Coffee bean characteristios. 142 

Coffea arabica berries 143 

Rohusta coffee in flower 144 

One-year-old rohusta estate 145 


Coffea Quillou Cowers 146 

Quillou coffee tree in blossom 147 

Coffea L'gandae 148 

Coffea arahica under the microscope 149 

Cross-section of coffee bean 150 

Cross- section of hull and bean 150 

Epicarp and pericarp under microscope.... 151 
Endocarp and endosperm under microscope. 152 

Spermoderm under microscope 152 

Tissues of embryo under microscope 152 

Coffee-leaf disease under microscope 353 

Green and roasted coffee under microscope. . 153 
Green and roasted Bogota under microscope 154 

Cross-section of endosperm 156 

I'ortiou of the investing membrane , . 157 

Structure of the green bean 157 

Ground coffee under microscope 167 

Coffee tree in bearing, Lamoa, P. 1 196 

Early coffee implements 198 

Ci-oss-section of mountain slope, Yemen 198 

First steps in coffee-growing 199 

Coffee nursery, Guatemala 200 

Coffee under shade, Porto Rico 201 

Boekit Gompong estate, Sumatm 202 

Estate in Antioquia, Colombia 203 

Weeding and harrowing, Sao Paulo 204 

Fazenda Dumout, Sao Paulo 205 

Fazenda Guatapara, Sao Paulo 206 

Picking coffee, Sao Paulo 207 

Intensive cultivation, Sao Paulo 207 

Private railroad, Sao Paulo 208 

Coffee culture in Sao Paulo 209 

Heavily laden coffee tree, Bogota 210 

Picking coffee, Bogota 211 

Altamira Hacienda, Venezuela 212 

Carmen Hacienda, Venezuela 213 

Heavy fruiting, Coffea rohusta. Java 214 

Road through coffee estate, Java 215 

Native picking coffee, Sumatra 216 

Administrator's bungalow, Java 216 

Administrator's bungalow, Sumatra 217 

Coffee culture in Guatemala 218 

Indians picking coffee, Guatemala 219 

Bungalow, coffee estate, Guatemala 220 

Thirty-year-old coffee trees, Mexico 221 

Mexican coffee picker. .' 222 

Receiving coffee, Mexico 223 

Heavily laden coffee tree, Porto Rico 224 

Coffee cultivation, Costa Rloa 225 

Picking Costa Rica coffee 226 

Mountain coffee estate, Costa Rica 226 

Mysore coffee estate 227 

Coffee growing under shade, India 228 

Coffee estate at Harar 229 

Wild coffee near Adis Abeba 231 

Mocjia coffee growing on terraces 232 

Picking Blue Mountain Ijerries, Jamaica... 233 




Coffee pickers, Guadeloupe 234 

Coffee in blossom, Panama 235 

Robusta coffee, Cochin-Ghina 237 

Bourbon trees, French Indo-Ohina 238 

Picking coffee in Queensland 239 

Coffee in bloom, Kona, Hawaii 240 

Coffee at Hamakua, Hawaii 241 

Coffee trees, South Kona, Hawaii 242 

Plantation near Sagada, P. 1 243 

Coffee preparation, Sao Paulo 244 

Walker's original disk pulper 246 

Early English coffee peeler 246 

Group of English cylinder pulpers 247 

Copper covers for pulper cylinders 248 

Granada unpulped coffee separator 249 

Hand-power double-disk pulper 249 

Tandem coffee pulper 250 

Horizontal coffee washer 251 

Vertical coffee washer 251 

Coban pulper, Venezuela 252 

Niagara power coffee huller 252 

British and American coffee driers 253 

American Guardiola drier 254 

Smout i>eeler and polisher 254 

Smout peeler and polisher, exposed 255 

O'Krassa's coffee drier 255 

Six well-known huUers and separators 256 

El Monarca coffee classifier 257 

Hydro-electric installation, Guatemala 258 

Preparing Brazil coffee for market 259 

Working coffee on the drying flats 260 

Fermenting and washing tanks, Sao Paulo. 260 

Drying grounds, Fazenda Schmidt 261 

Prei)aring Colombian coffee for market 262 

Old-fashioned ox-power huller 263 

Street-car coffee transport, Orizaba 264 

Coffee on drying floors, Porto Rico 264 

Sun-drying coffee 265 

Drying patio, Costa Rica 266 

Early Guardiola steam drier 266 

Indian women cleaning Mocha coffee 267 

Cleaning-and-grading machinery, Aden 268 

Drying coffee at Harar 269 

Preparing Java coffee for market 270 

Coffee transport in Java 271 

Meeting of Amsterdam coffee brokers, 1820. 291 

Bill of public sale of coffee, 1790 292 

Last sample before export, Santos 304 

Stamping bags for export 304 

Preparing Brazil coffee for export 305 

Grading coffee at Santos 306 

The test by the cups, Santos 306 

New York importers' warehouse, Santos 307 

Pack-mule transport in Venezuela 308 

Coffee-carrying cart, Guatemala 308 

Pack-oxen fording stream, Colombia 308 

Coffee transport, Mexico and South America 309 


Donkey coffee-transport at Harar 310 

Coffee camels at Harar 310 

Selling coffee by tapping hands, Aden 310 

Packing and transporting coffee, Aden 311 

Coffee camel train at Hodeida 312 

Methods of loading coffee, Santos 313 

Coffee freighter, Cauca River, Colombia 314. 

Coffee steamers on the Magdalena 314 

Loading heavy cargo on Santa Cecilia 315 

Unloading Java coffee from sailing vessel . . 317 

Receiving piers for coffee. New York 318 

Unloading coffee, covered pier. New York . . 319 

Receiving and storing coffee, New York 320 

Tester at work. Bush Terminal, New York. 321 
Loading lighters, Bush Docks, Brooklyn... 321 

New Terminal system on Staten Island 322 

Motor tractor. Bush piers 322 

Unloading with modern conveyor 323 

Coffee handling. New Orleans piers 324 

Coffee in steel -covered sheds, New Orleans. 325 
Unloading and storing coffee, San Francisco 326 
Modern device for handling green coffee .... 327 
Handling green coffee at European ports. . . 328 

New York Coffee and Sugar Exchange 329 

Coffee section, Coffee and Sugar Exchange. . 330 

Blackboards, Coffee Exchange 331 

"Coffee afloat" blackboard 332 

Well known green-coffee marks 339 

Bourbon-Santos beans, roasted 343 

Flat and Bourbon-Santos beans, roasted... 343 

Rio beans, roasted 343 

Mexican beans, roasted 347 

Guatemala beans, roasted 347 

Bogota (Colombia) beans, roasted 348 

Maracaibo beans, roasted 349 

Mocha benas, roasted 351 

Washed Java beans, roasted. 353 

Sample- roasting and cup- testing outfit 357 

Modern gas coffee-roasting plant 380 

Sixteen-cylinder coal roasting plant 382 

Green-coffee separating and milling machines 384 

English gas coffee-roasting plant 386 

German gas coffee- roasting plant 386 

French gas coffeenroasting plant 387 

Jumbo coffee roaster, Arbuckle plant 388 

Roasting plant of Reid, Murdoch & Co 389 

Complete gas coffee-plant installation 390 

Burns Jubilee gas roaster 391 

Burns coal roaster 392 

Open perforated cylinder with flexible back 

head 392 

Trying the roast 394 

Monitor gas roaster 394 

A group of roasting-room accessories 394 

Dumping the roast 395 

A four-bag coffee flnisher 396 

Burns sample-coffee roaster 396 




Lambert coal coffee-roasting outfit 397 

Coles No. 22 grinding mill 398 

Monitor coffee-granulating machine 398 

C'lallenge pulverizer 398 

Burns No. 12 grinding mill 399 

Monitor steel-cut grinder, separator, etc 399 

Johnson carton-filling, weighing, and sealing 

machine 400 

Ideal steel -cut mill 400 

Smyser package-making and filling machine 401 

Automatic coffee-packing machine 402 

Complete coffee-cartoning outfit 403 

Automatic coffee-weighing machines 404 

Units in manufacture of soluWe coffee 405 

Tyi^s of coffee containers 411 

Fresh-roasted-coffee idea in retailing 414 

Premium tea and coffee dealer's display. . . . 416 

Chain-store interior 417 

Familiar A & P store front 418 

Specialist idea in coffee merchandising 419 

Monitor gas roaster, cooler, and stoner 420 

Royal gas coffee roaster for retailers 420 

Burns half-bag roaster, cooler, and stoner. 421 

Lambert Jr. roasting outfit for retailers 421 

Faulder and Simplex gas roasters 422 

Coffee roasters used in Paris shops 423 

Small German roasters 424 

Popular French retail roaster 424 

Uno cabinet gas roaster and cooler 424 

Educational window exhibit 425 

Better-class American grocery, interior 426 

Prize-winning window display 427 

Americanized English grocer's shop 429 

Famous package coffees 430 

First coffee advertisement in U. S 433 

Coffee advertisement of 1790 434 

First colored handbill for package coffee. . . 435 

Reverse side of colored handbill 435 

St. Louis handbill of 1854 436 

Advertising-card copy, 1873 437 

Handbill copy of the seventies 437 

Box-end sticker, 1833 438 

Chase & Sanborn advertisement, 1888 438 

A Goldberg cartoon, 1910 439 

Copy used by Chase & Sanborn, 1900 439 

An effective cut-out 442 

How coffee is advertised to the trade 443 

Joint Coffee Trade Publicity Committee... 447 

Magazine and newspaper copy, 1919 449 

Copy that stressed helpfulness of coffee, 

1919-20 450 

Joint Committee's house organ 451 

Introductory medical-journal copy 451 

Telling the doctors the truth, 1920 452 

Joint Committee's attractive booklets 453 

More medical journal copy, 1920 454 

Magazine and newspaper copy, 1921 455 


Educating the doctor, 1922 456 

Magazine and newspaper copy, 1922 457 

Specimen of early Yuban copy 459 

Historical association in advertising 459 

Package coffee advertising in 1922 460 

The social distinction argument 461 

Drawing upon history for atmosphere 461 

An impressive electric sign, Chicago 462 

How coffee is advertised outdoors 463 

Attractive car cards, spring of 1922 464 

Effective iced-coff ee copy 465 

European advertising novelty, New York . . 465 

Coenties Slip, in days of sailing vessels 466 

First U. S. coffee-grinder patent 469 

Carter's Pull-out roaster patent 469 

First registered trade mark for coffee 470 

Original Arbuckle coffee packages 471 

Merchants coffee house tablet 473 

Departed dominant figures in New York 

green coffee trade 476 

"Their association with New York green 

coffee trade dates back nearly fifty years" 477 
Green coffee trade-builders who have passed 

on 478 

"Their race is run, their course is done"'.. 479 

112 Front Street, New York, 1879 480 

At 87 Wall Street, New York, years ago 480 

Wall and Front Streets, New York, 1922. . . 481 

Front Street, New York, 1922 483 

In the New Orleans coffee district 486 

Green coffee district. New Orleans 487 

California Street, San Francisco 488 

San Francisco's coffee district 489 

Pioneer coffee roasters. New York City 493 

Oldtime New York coffee roasters 495 

Pioneer coffee roasters of the North and 

East, U. S 500 

Pioneer coffee roasters of the South and 

West, U. S 504 

Ground coffee price list of 1862 507 

Organization convention, N. C. R. A., 1911.. 510 

Former presidents, N. C. R. A 512 

Earliest coffee manuscript 540 

Song from "The Coffee House" 555 

Dr. Johnson's seat, the Cheshire Cheese 567 

Original coffee room, old Cock Tavern 568 

Morning gossip in the coffee room 569 

"His Warmest Welcome at an Inn" 571 

Alexander Pope at Button's, 1730 577 

Dutch coffee house, 1650 (by Van Ostade) . . 586 
White's coffee house, 1733 (by Hogarth).,. 588 

Tom King's, 1738 (by Hogarth) 589 

Petit Dejeuner (by Boucher) 590 

Coffee service in the home of Madame de 

Pompadour (by Van Loo) 590 

Madame Du Barry (by Decreuse) 591 

Coffee house at Cairo (by G6r6me) 592 




Kaffeebesuch ( by Philippi) 593 

Coffee comes to the aid of the Muse (by 

Ruffio) 593 

M«(l dog in a c-offee house (by Rowlaiidson ) 594 

Napoleon and the cure (by Charlet) 595 

Coffee, a chanson (music by Colet) 596 

Statue of Kolschitzlvy 597 

Betty's Aria, Bach's coffee cantata 598 

Caf6 Pedrocdii, Padua 599 

Coffee grinder set with jewels. 600 

Italian wrought-iron coffee roaster 6(X) 

Seventeenth-century tea and coffee pots... 601 

Lantern coffee pot, 1692 602 

Follvingham pot, 1715-16. 602 

AVastell ]K>t. 1720-21 603 

Dish of coffee-boy design, 1692 603 

Cliinese porcelain coffee pot 604 

Silver coffee pots, early 18th century 604 

Silver coffee pots, 18th century 605 

Pottery and porcelain pots 606 

Silver coffee pots, late 18th century 607 

Porcelain pots, Metropolitan Museum 608 

Vienna coffee pot, 1830 609 

Spanish coffee pot, 18th century 609 

Silver coffee pots in American collections. . 610 
Coffee pot by Wm. Shaw and Win. Priest. . 611 

Pot of Sheffield plate, 18th century 611 

Pot by Ephraim Brasher 611 

French silver coffee i)ot 612 

Green Dragon tavern coffee urn <j12 

Coffee pots by American silversmiths ()13 

Twentieth-century American coffee service. 613 

Turkish coffee set, Peter collection 614 

Oldest coffee grinder •. 616 

Grain mill used by Greeks and Romans 616 

First coffee roaster 616 

First cylinder roaster, 1650 616 

Historical relics, U. S. National Museum.. 617 

Turkish coffee mill 618 

Early French wall and table grinders 618 

Bronze and brass mortars, 17th century. . . . 619 

Early American coffee roasters 619 

Roaster with three-sided hood 620 

Roasitdng, making, and serving devices. 17th 

century • 620 

Englisli and French coffee grinders 621 

Eighteenth-century roaster 621 

Original French drip pot 621 

Belgian. Russian, and French pewter pots. . 622 

17th and 18th century pewter pots 623 

Count Rumford's percolator 623 

Drawings of early French coffee makers... 624 

Early Fi'ench filtration devices 624 

Early American coffee-maker patents...... 625 

French coffee makers. 19th century 625 

First ISnglish commercial roaster patent... 626 
Early French coffee- roasting machines 627 


Battery of Carter pull-out machines 628 

Early Englisli and American roasters 630 

Early Englisli and American coffee-making 

devices 632 

Dakin roasting machine of 1848 633 

Globe stove roaster of 1860 634 

Hyde's combined roa.ster and stove 634 

Original Burns roaster, 1864 635 

Burns granulating mill, 1872-74 636 

Napier's vacuum machine 637 

German gas and coal roasting machines... 638 

Other German coffee roasters 639 

Original Enterprise mill 640 

Max Thiirmer's quick gas roaster 640 

An English gas coffee-roasting plant 641 

Frencli globular roaster 642 

Sirocco machine (French) 642 

English roasting and grinding equipment.. 643 

Magic gas machine (French) 644 

Burns Jubilee gas machine 644 

Double gas roasting outfit (French) 645 

Lambert's Victory gas machine 646 

One of the first electric mills 647 

English electric-fuel roaster 648 

Ben Franklin electric coffee roaster 648 

Enterprise hand store mill 649 

Latest types electric store mills 650 

Italian rapid coffee-making machines 651 

Working of Italian rapid machines 652 

La Victoria Arduino Mignonne 652 

N. C. R. A. Home coffee mill 653 

Manthey-Zorn rapid infuser and dispenser. . 653 

Tricolette, single-cup filter device 654 

Moorish coffee house in Algiers 656 

Coffee house in Cairo 656 

Coffee service in Cairo barber shop 657 

Coffee-laden camels, Arabia 658 

Arabian coffee liouse 658 

Mahommedan brewing coffee for guest 659 

Native cafe, Harar 661 

Early coffee, tea, and chocolate service 661 

Nubian slave girl with coffee service 662 

Persian coffee service, 1737 663 

In a Turkish coffee house 664 

Roasting coffee outside a Turkisli caf6 (>64 

Turkish caffinet, early 19th century 665 

Coffee-making in Turke.v 666 

Street coffee vender in the Levant 666 

A coffee house in Syria 667 

Cafetan — garb of oriental caf6-keeper 668 

Street coffee service in Constantinople 668 

Riverside caf6 in Damascus 669 

Coffee al fresco in Jerusalem 671 

Caf§ Schrangl, Vienna 672 

Favorite English way of making coffee 673 

A caf§ of Ye Mecca Company, Loudon 673 

Groom's coffee liouse, London 674 




Caf6 Monico, Picadilly Circus, London 674 

Gatti's, The Strand. London 675 

Tea lounge, Hotel Savoy, London 675 

Two popular places for coffee in London 676 

Temple Bar restaurant, London 677 

Tea balcony, Hotel Cecil, London 677 

One of Slater's chain-shops, London 677 

St. James's restaurant, Picadilly, London... 678 

An A. B. C. shop. London 678 

Halt of caravaners at a serai, Bulgaria. . . . 678 

Cafe de la Paix, Paris 679 

Sidewalk annex, Caf6 de la Paix 680 

Caf^ de la R4gence, Paris 681 

Cafe de hi Regence in 1922 682 

One of the Biard cafgs, Paris 683 

Restaurant Proeope, 1922 683 

Morning coffee at a Boulevard caf6 684 

Caf§ Bauer, Unter den Linden, Berlin 684 

Cafe Bauer, exterior 685 

Kranzler's Unter den Linden, Berlin 685 

Swedish coffee boilers ; 687 

Sidewalk caf6, Lisbon 687 


Coffee rooms replacing hotel bars, U. S 688 

Britannia coffee pot — a Lincoln relic 690 

Coffee service. Hotel Astor, New York 691 

Early coffee making in Persia 694 

Napier vacuum coffee maker 700 

Xapier-List steam coffee machine 700 

Finley Acker's filter-paper coffee pot 700 

Kin-Hee pot in operation 701 

Tricolator in operation 701 

King percolator 701 

Three American coffee-making machines in 

operation 7(^ 

How the Tru-Bru pot operates 702 

Coffee-making devices used in U. S 703 

English hotel coffee-making machines 706 

Well-known makes of large coffee urns 707 

Popular German drip jtot 708 

Section of roasted bean, magnified 719 

Cross-section of roasted bean, magnified... 720 

Coarse grind under the microscope 720 

Medium grind under the microscope 721 

Fine-meal grind under the mici-oscope 721 



Ach, F. J 447, 512 

Akers, Fred 495 

Ames, Allan P 447 

Arbuckle, John 523 

Arnold, Benjamin Greene 476, 517 

Arnold, F. B 476 

Bayne, William 479 

Bayne, William, Jr 447 

Beard, Eli 493 

Beard, Samuel 493 

Bennett, William H 479 

Bickford, C. E 478 

Boardman, Thomas J 500 

Board'man, William 500 

Brand, Carl W 512 

Brandenstein, M. J 504 

Burns, Jabez 527 

Cauby, Edward 500 

Casanas, Ben C 512 

CaucOiois. F. A 493 

Chase, Caleb 500 

Cheek, J. 504. 515 

Clos-set, Joseph 504 

Coste, Felix 447 

Crossman, Geo. W 479 

Devers, A. H 504 

Dwinell, James F 500 

Eppens, Fred. 495 

Eppens, Julius A 495, 497 

Eppens. W. H 493, 495 


Evans, David G. 504 

Fischer, Benedickt 493 

Flint, J. G 500 

Folger, J. A., Jr 504 

Folger, J. A., Sr 504 

Forbes, A. E 504 

Forbes, Jas. H 504 

Geiger, Frank J 500 

Gillies, Jas. W 493 

Gillies, Wright 493 

Grossman, William 500 

Harrison, D. Y 500 

Harrison, W. H 500 

Haulenbeek, Peter 493 

Hayward, Martin 500 

Heekin, James 500 

Jones, W. T 504 

Kimball. O. G 478 

Kinsella, W. J 504 

Kirkland, Alexander 495 

Kolschitzky, Franz George 50 

McLaughlin, W. F 500 

Mahood, Samuel 500 

Mayo, Henry 495 

Meehan, P. C 477 

Menezes, Th. Langgaard de 446 

Meyer, Robert 511 

Peck, Edwin H 477 

Phyfe, Jas. W 478 

Pierce, O. W., Sr 500 




Pupke, John F 495 

Purcell, Joseph 476 

Reid, Fred 495 

Reid, Thomas 493, 495 

Roome, Ck)l. William P 499 

Russell, James C 478 

Sanborn, James S 500 

Schilling, A 504 

Schotten, Julius J 504, 512 

Schotten, William 504 

Seelye, Frank R 512 

Sielcken, Hermann 476, 519 

Simmonds, H 477 

^innott, J. B 504 

SiiBith, L. B 493 

Smith, M. E 504 

S'prague, Albert A 500 


Stephens, Henry A 500 

Stoffregen, Charles 504 

Stoflfregen, C. H 447 

Taylor, James H 477 

Thomson, A, M 500 

Van Loan, Thomas 498 

Weir, Ross W 447, 512 

Westf eldt, George .' 479 

Widlar, Francis 500 

Wilde, Samuel 493 

Withington, Elijah 493 

Woolson, Alvin M 500 

Wright, George C 500 

Wright, George S 447 

Young, Samuel 500 

Zinsmeister, J 504 

Maps, Charts, and Diagrams 

Map of London coffee-house district, 1748 ... 76 

Formula for Caffein 160 

Commercial coffee chart 191 

Eiffel and Woolwortih towers in coffee 272 

World's coffee cup and largest ship 275 

Coffee exi>orts, 1850-1920 277 

Coffee exports, 1916-1920 277 

Brazil coffee exports, 1850-1920 278 

World's coffee consumption, 1850 - 1920 286 

Coffee imports, 1916-1920 286 

World trend of consumption of tea and 

coffee, 1860-1920 288 

Coffee map of World (folded insert) facing 288 
Pre-war annual average production of coffee 

by continents 294 

Pre-war annual average production of coffee 

by countries 294 

Pre-war average annual imports of coffee 

into U. S. by continents 295 

Pre-war average annual imports of coffee 

into U. S. by countries 295 

Pre-war coffee-imports chart , 297 

Pre-war consumption and price chart 297 

Coffee map, Brazil 342 

Coffee map, Sao Paulo, Minas, and Rio 344 

Mild-coffee map, 1 346 

Coffee map, Africa and Arabia 352 

Mild-coffee map, 2 354 

Complete reference table (21 pp.) 358 

Plan of milling-machine connections 381 

Plan of green-coffee-mixer connections 383 

Layout for coffee and tea department 418 

Chart, advertising of coffee and coffee sub- 
stitutes, 1911-20 440 

Charts, per capita consumption of coffee, 

and coffee and substitute advertising 441 

Chart, plan of advertising campaign 448 

Chart, private-brand advertising, 1921 458 



Encomiums and descriptive phrases applied to the plant, the berry, 
and the beverage 

The Plant 
The precious plant 
This friendly plant 
Mocha's happy tree 
The gift of Heaven 

The plant with the jessamine - like flowers 
The most exquisite perfume of Araby the blest 
Given to the human race by the gift of the Gods 

The Berry 
The magic bean 
The divine fruit 
Fragrant berries 
Rich, royal berry 
Voluptuous berry 
The precious berry 
The healthful bean 
The Heavenly berry 
The marvelous berry 
This all-healing berry 
Yemen's fragrant berry 
The little aromatic berry 
Little brown Arabian berry 
Thought-inspiring bean of Arabia 
The smoking, ardent beans Aleppo sends 
That wild fruit which gives so beloved a drink 

The Beverage 
Festive cup 
Juice divine 
Nectar divine 
Ruddy mocha 
A man's drink 
Lovable liquor 
Delicious mocha 
The magic drink 
This rich cordial 
Its stream divine 
The family drink 
The festive drink 
Coffee is our gold 
Nectar of all men 
The golden mocha 
This sweet nectar 
Celestial ambrosia 
The friendly drink 
The cheerful drink 
The essential drink 
The sweet draught 
The divine draught — 
The grateful liquor 
The universal drink 
The American drink 
The amber beverage 

The convivial drink 
The universal thrill 
King of all perfumes 
The cup of happiness 
The soothing draught 
Ambrosia of the Gods — 
The intellectual drink 
The aromatic draught 
The salutary beverage 
The good - fellow drink 
The drink of democracy — 
The drink ever glorious 
Wakeful and civil drink 
The beverage of sobriety — - 
A psychological necessity^ 
The fighting man's drink -^' 
Loved and favored drink 
The symbol of hospitality — 
This rare Arabian cordial 
Inspirer of men of letters 
The revolutionary beverage 
Triumphant stream of sable 
Grave and wholesome liquor"'^ 
The drink of the intellectuals— 
A restorative of sparkling wit 
Its color is the seal of its purity 
The sober and wholesome drink 
Lovelier than a thousand kisses — , 
This honest and cheering beverage 
A wine which no sorrow can resist 
The symbol of human brotherhood 
At once a pleasure and a medicine 
The beverage of the friends of God 
The fire which consumes our griefs 
Gentle panacea of domestic troubles 
The autocrat of the breakfast table- — 
The beverage of the children of God- 
King of the American breakfast table 
Soothes you softly out of dull sobriety 
The cup that cheers but not inebriates* 
Coffee, which makes the politician wise 
Its aroma is the pleasantest in all nature 
The sovereign drink of pleasure and health* 
The indispensable beverage of strong nations 
The stream in which we wash away our sorrows 
The enchanting perfume that a zephyr has 

Favored liquid which fills all my soul with 

The delicious libation we pour on the altar of 

This invigorating drink which drives sad care 

from the heart 

• First written about tea ; Improperly claimed to 
have been written of coffee. 



Showing the various steps through which 
the hean passes from plantation to cup 

1 Planting the seed in nursery 

2 Transplanting into roAvs 

3 Cultivating and pruning 

4 Picking the cherries 

5 Pulping 

6 Fermenting 

7 Washing 

8 Drying in the parchment 

9 Hulling 

10 Polishing 

11 Grading 

12 Transporting to the seaport 

13 Buying and selling for export 

14 Transhipment overseas 

15 Buying and selling at wholesale 

16 Shipment to the point of manufacture 

17 Separating 

18 Milling 

19 Mixing or blending 

20 Roasting 

21 Cooling and stoning 

22 Buying and selling at retail 

23 Grinding 

24 ^Making the beverage 




■%; ^^-^K^X 

-W '^# 

Chapter I 

Origin and translation of the word from the Arabian into various 
languages — Views of many writers 

THE history of the word coffee involves 
several phonetic difficulties. The 
11^. European languages got the name of 
^■e beverage about 1600 from the original 

Ai-abic \^4^ qahwah, not directly, but 

ihrough its Turkish form, kahveh. This was 
the name, not of the plant, but the beverage 
made from its infusion, being originally one 
of the names employed for wine in Arabic. 
Sir James Murray, in the New English 
Dictionary, says that some have conjectured 
that the wordjsA Xoreign, pe rhaps, A frica.n, 
word disguised, and have thought it con- 
nected with the name Kaffa^ a^ tqwn^in^|hoaj 
southwest Abyssinia, reputed native place 
of the coffee plant, but that of this there is 
no evidence, and the name qahwah is not 
given to the berry or plant, which is called 

* » hunn, the native name in Shoa be- 

^* ing bun. 

Contributing to a symposium on the 
etymology of the word coffee in Notes and 
Queries, 1909, James Piatt, Jr., said: 

The Turkish form might have been written 
kahv6, as its final h was never sounded at any 
time. Sir James Murray draws attention to the 
existence of two European types, one like the 
French caU, Italian caffd, the other like the 
English coffee, Dutch Icoffie. He explains the 
vowel in the second series as apparently rep- 
resenting au, from Turkish ahv. This seems 
unsupi>orted by evidence, and the v is already 
represented by the ff, so on Sir James's assump- 
tion coffee must stand for kahv-ve, which is 
unlikely. The change from a to o, in my opin- 
ion, is better accounted for as an imperfect 
appreciation. The exact sound of a in Arabic 
and other Oriental languages is that of the Eng- 
lish short u, as in "cuff." This sound, so easy 
to us, is a great stumbling-block to other nations. 
I judge that Dutch koffie and kindred forms are 
iniperfect attempts at the notation of a vowel 

which the writers could not grasp. It is clear 
that the French type is more correct. The Ger- 
mans have corrected their koffee, which they 
may have got from the Dutch, into kaffee. The 
Scandinavian languages have adopted the 
French form. Many must wonder how the hv 
of the original so persistently becomes ff in the 
European equivalents. Sir James Murray 
makes no attempt to solve this problem. 

Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, who also 
contributed to the Notes and Queries sym- 
posium, argued that the hw of the Arabic 
qahwah becomes sometimes ff and some- 
times only / or I) in European translations 
because some languages, such as English, 
have strong syllabic accents (stresses), 
while others, as French, have none. Again, 
he points out that the surd aspirate h is 
heard in some languages, but is hardly au- 
dible in others. Most Europeans tend to 
leave it out altogether. 

Col. W. F. Prideaux, another contribu- 
tor, argued that the European languages 
got one form of the w^ord coffee directly 
from the Arabic qahwah, and quoted from 
Hobson- Jobson in support of this : 

Chaoua in 1598, Cahoa in IGIO, Cahue in 1G15 ; 
while Sir Thomas Herbert (1638) expressly 
states that "they drink (in Persia) ♦ * * above 
all the rest, Coho or Gopha: by Turk and Arab 
called Caphe and Cahua." Here the Persian, 
Turkish, and Arabic pronunciations are clearly 

Col. Prideaux then calls, as a witness to 
the Anglo-Arabic pronunciation, one whose 
evidence was not available when the Neiv 
English Dictionary and Hobson- Jobson 
articles were written. This is John Jour- 
dain, a Dorsetshire seaman, whose Diary 
was printed by the Hakluyt Society in 1905. 
On May 28, 1609, he records that "in the 


afternoone wee departed out of Hatch (Al- 
Hauta, the capital of the Lahej district 
near Aden), and travelled untill three in 
the morninge, and then wee rested in the 
plaine fields untill three the next dale, 
neere unto a cohoo howse in the desert." 
On June 5 the party, traveling from Hippa 
(Ibb), "laye in the mountaynes, our 
camells being wearie, and our selves little 
better. This mountain is called Nasmarde 
(Nakil Sumara), where all the cohoo 
grows." Farther on was "a little village, 
where there is sold cohoo and fruite. The 
seeds of this cohoo is a greate marchandize, 
for it is carried to grand Cairo and all 
other places of Turkey, and to the Indias." 
Prideaux, however, mentions that another 
sailor, William Revett, in his journal 
(1609) says, referring to Mocha, that "Sha- 
omer Shadli (Shaikh 'Ali bin 'Omar esh- 
Shadil) was the fyrst inventour for 
drynking of eoffe, and therefor had in es- 
teemation." This rather looks to Prideaux 
as if on the coast of Arabia, and in the mer- 
cantile towns, the Persian pronunciation 
was in vogue ; whilst in the interior, where 
Jourdain traveled, the Englishman repro- 
duced the Arabic. 
\ Mr. Chattopadhyaya, discussing Col. Pri- 
^' deaux's views as expressed above, said: 

Col. Prideaux may doubt "if the worthy mar- 
iner, in entering the word in his log, was influ- 
enced by the abstruse principles of phonetics 
enunciated" by me, but he will admit that the 
change from kahvah to coifee is a phonetic 
change, and must be due to the operation of some 
phonetic principle. The average man, when he 
endeavours to write a foreign word in his own 
tongue, is handicapped considerably by his in- 
herited and acquired phonetic capacity. And, 
in fact, if we take the quotations made in 
"Hobson-Jobson," and classify the various forms 
of the word coffee according tc the nationality 
of the writer, we obtain very interesting results. 

Let us take Englishmen and Dutchmen first. 
In Danvers's Letters (IGll) we have both "colio 
pots" and "coffao pots"; Sir T. Roe (1615) and 
Terry (161G) have cohu; Sir T. Herbert (1638) 
has coho and copha; Evelyn (1637), coffee; 
Fryer (1673) coUo; Ovington (1690), coffee; and 
Valentijn (1726), coffi. And from the two ex- 
amples given by Col. Prideaux, we see that 
Jourdain (1609) has cohoo, and Revett (1609) 
has coffe. 

To the above should be added the follow- 
ing by English writers, given in Foster's 
English Factories in India (1618-21, 
1622 - 23, 1624 - 29) : eowha (1619), cowhe, 
couha (1621),coffa (1628). 

Let us now see what foreigners (chiefly 
French and Italian) write. The earliest 
European mention is by Rauwolf, who 

knew it in Aleppo in 1573. He has the 
form clmube. Prospero Alpini (1580) has 
caova; Paludanus (1598) chaoua; Pyrard 
de Laval (1610) cahoa; P. Delia Valle 
(1615) cahue; Jac. Bontius (1631) caveah; 
and the Journal d'Antoine Galland (1673) 
cave. That is. Englishmen use forms of a 
certain distinct type, viz., cohu, coho, coffao, 
coffe, copha, coffee, which differ from the 
more correct transliteration of foreigners. 

In 1610 the Portuguese Jew, Pedro 
Teixeira (in the Hakluyt Society's edition 
of his Travels) used the word kavdh. 

The inferences from these transitional 
forms seem to be: 1. The word found its 
way into the languages of Europe both 
from the Turkish and from the Arabic. 2. 
The English forms (which have strong 
stress on the first syllable) have 6 instead 
of a, and / instead of h. 3. The foreign 
forms are unstressed and have no h. The 
original v or w (or labialized u) is re- 
tained or changed into /. 

It may be stated, accordingly, that the 
chief reason for the existence of two dis- 
tinct types of spelling is the omission of 
h in unstressed languages, and the conver- 
sion of h into / under strong stress in 
stressed languages. Such conversion often 
takes place in Turkish ; for example, silah 
dar in Persian (which is a highly stressed 
language) becomes zilif dar in Turkish. In 
the languages of India, on the other hand, 
in spite of the fact that the aspirate is 
usually very clearly sounded, the word 
qafivah is pronounced kaiva by the less 
educated elasses, owing to the syllables be- 
ing equally stressed. 

Now for the French viewpoint. Jardin ' 
opines that, as regards the etymology of the 
word coffee, scholars are not agreed and 
perhaps never will be. Dufour ' says the 
word is derived from caouhe, a name given 
by the Turks to the beverage prepared from 
the seed. Chevalier d'Arvieux, French 
consul at Alet, Savary, and Trevoux, in his ' 
dictionary, think that coffee comes from the 
Arabic, but from the word cahoueh or qua- 
weh, meaning to give vigor or strength, be- 
cause, says d'Arvieux, its most general ef- 
fect is to fortify and strengthen. Ta ver- 
nier combats this opinion. Moseley attrib- 
utes the origin of the word coffee to Kaffa. 
Sylvestre de Sacy, in his Chrestomathie 

'.Tardin. fidelestan. Le CafHer et le Caf4. Paris, 
1895 (p. 55). 

'Dufour, Philippe Sylvestre. TraiUs Nouveaux et 
Gurieux du Cafi, du Th6, et du Ohocolat. Lyons^ 



Arabe, published in 1806, thinks that the 
word kahwa, synonymous with makli, 
roasted in a stove, might very well be the 
etymology of the word coffee. D'Alembert 
in his encyclopedic dictionary, writes the 
word caffe. Jardin concludes that what- 
ever there may be in these various etymolo- 
gies, it remains a fact that the word coffee 
comes from an Arabian word, whether it be 
kahua, kahoueh, kaffa or kahwa, and that 
the peoples who have adopted the drink 
have all modified the Arabian word to suit 
their pronunciation. This is shown by 
giving the word as written in various mod- 
ern languages: 

French, cafe; Breton, kafe; German, 
kaffee (coffee tree, kaffeehaum) ; Dutch, 
koffie (coffee tree, koffiehoonen) ; Danish, 
kaffe; Finnish, kahvi; Hungarian, kave; 
Bohemian, kava; Polish, kawa; Roumanian, 
cafea; Croatian, kafa; Servian, kava; Rus- 

sian, kophe; Swedish, kaffe; Spanish, cafe; 
Basque, kaffia; Italian, caffe; Portuguese, 
cafe; Latin (scientific), coffea; Turkisii, 
kahue; Greek, kafeo; Arabic, qahwah (cof- 
fee berry, hun) ; Persian, qehve (coffee ber- 
ry, bun") ; Annamite, ca-phe; Cambodian, 
kafe; Dukni*, bunbund^ ; Teluyan', kapri- 
vittidu; Tamil*, kapi-kottai or kopi; Can- 
areze\ kapi-bija; Chinese, kia-fey, teoutse; 
Japanese, kelii; Malayan, kawa, koppi; 
Abyssinian, bonn'; Foulak, legal cafe'; 
Sousou, houri caff'; Marquesan, kapi; 
Chinook", kaufee; Volapuk, kaf; Esperanto, 

'Coffee covered with the skin is called boun, and 
the eoftee-tree, boun-tree (aejar et boun). 

*These four dialects are spoken in Hindustan. 

''Notice must be taken of the similarity in the names 
of coffee in Hindustan and Abyssinia, and of the name 
of the coffee-tree as given by ancient authors. 

"See note 3 above. 

''Legal and Houri mean tree. 

"North-.^merican Indian. 



Chapter II 


A brief account of the cultivation of the coffee plant in the Old World 
and its introduction into the Neiv — A romantic coffee adventure 

THE history of the propagation of the 
coffee plant is closely interwoven 
with that of the early history of 
coffee drinking, but for the purposes of this 
chapter we shall consider only the story of 
the inception and growth of the cultivation 
of the coffee tree, or shrub, bearing the 
seeds, or berries, from which the drink, cof- 
fee, is made. 

Careful research discloses that most au- 
thorities agree that the coffee plant is indig- 
enous to Abyssinia, and probably Arabia, 
whence its cultivation spread throughout 
the tropics. The first reliable mention of 
the properties and uses of the plant is by 
an Arabian physician toward the close of 
the ninth century A. I)., and it is reason- 
able to suppose that before that time the 
plant was found growing wild in Abyssinia 
and perhaps in Arabia. If it be true, as 
Ludolphus writes,' that the Abyssinians 
came out of Arabia into Ethiopia in the 
early ages, it is possible that they may have 
brought the coffee tree with them; but the 
Arabians must still be given the credit for 
discovering and promoting the use of the 
beverage, and also for promoting the propa- 
gation of the plant, even if they found it in 
Abyssinia and brought it to Yemen. 

Some authorities believe that the first cul- 
tivation of coffee in Yemen dates back to 
575 A. D., M'hen the Persian invasion put 
an end to the P]thiopian rule of the negus 
Caleb, who conquered the country in 525. 

Certainly the discovery of the beverage 
resulted in the cultivation of the plant in 
Abyssinia and in Arabia; but its progress 
Avas slow until the 15th and 16th centuries, 
when it appears as intensively carried on 

'r<a Uoquo, Jean. 
I'arls, 17J(J. 

Voyage de I' Arabic Heureuae. 

in the Yemen district of Arabia. The 
Arabians were jealous of their new found 
and lucrative industry, and for a time suc- 
cessfully prevented its spread to other 
countries by not permitting any of the pre- 
cious berries to leave the country unless 
they had first been steeped in boiling water 
or parched, so as to destroy their powers of 
germination. It may be that many of the 
early failures successfully to introduce the 
cultivation of the coffee plant into other 
lands was also due to the fact, discovered 
later, that the seeds soon lose their germi- 
nating power. 

However, it was not possible to watch 
every avenue of transport, with thousand.^ 
of pilgrims journeying to and from Mecca 
every year ; and so there would appear to be 
some reason to credit the Indian tradition 
concerning the introduction of coffee culti- 
vation into southern India by Baba Budan, 
a Moslem pilgrim, as early as 1600, although 
a better authority gives the date as 1695. 
Indian tradition relates that Baba Budan 
planted his seeds near the hut he built for 
himself at Chickmaglur in the mountains 
of Mysore, where, only a few years since, 
the writer found the descendants of these 
first plants growing under the shade of the 
centuries-old original jungle trees. The 
greater part of the plants cultivated by the 
natives of Kurg and Mysore appear to have 
come from the Baba Budan importation. 
It was not until 1840 that the English be- 
gan the cultivation of coffee in India. The 
plantations extend now from the extreme 
north of Mysore to Tuticorin. 

Early Cidtivation by the Dutch 
In the latter part of the 16th century, 
German, Italian, and Dutch botanists and 




travelers brought back from the Levant 
considerable information regarding the 
new plant and the beverage. In 1614 en- 
terprising Dutch traders began to examine 
into the possibilities of coffee cultivation 
and coffee trading. In 1616 a coffee plant 
was successfully transported from Mocha 
to Holland. In 1658 the Dutch started the 
cultivation of coffee in Ceylon, although 
the Arabs are said to have brought the 
plant to the island prior to 1505. In 1670 
an attempt was made to cultivate coffee on 
European soil at Dijon, France, but the 
result was a failure. 

In 1696, at the instigation of Nicolaas 
Witsen, then burgomaster of Amsterdam, 
Adrian Van Ommen, commander at Mala- 
bar, India, caused to be shipped from Kan- 
anur, Malabar, to Java, the first coffee 
plants introduced into that island. They 
were grown from seed of the Goffea arabica 
brought to Malabar from Arabia. They 
were planted by Governor-General Willem 
Van Outshoorn on the Kedawoeng estate 
near Batavia, but were subsequently lost 
by earthquake and flood. In 1699 Henricus 
Zwaardecroon imported some slips, or cut- 
tings, of coffee trees from Malabar into 
Java. These were more successful, and be- 
came the progenitors of all the coffees of 
the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch were 
then taking the lead in the propagation of 
the coffee plant. 

In 1706 the first samples of Java coffee, 
and a coffee plant grown in Java, were re- 
ceived at the Amsterdam botanical gardens. 
Many plants were afterward propagated 
from the seeds produced in the Amsterdam 
gardens, and these were distributed to 
some of the best known botanical gardens 
and private conservatories in Europe. 

While the Dutch were extending the cul- 
tivation of the plant to Sumatra, the 
Celebes, Timor, Bali, and other islands of 
the Netherlands Indies, the French were 
seeking to introduce coffee cultivation into 
their colonies. Several attempts were made 
to transfer young plants from the Amster- 
dam botanical gardens to the botanical gar- 
dens at Paris; but all were failures. 

In 1714, however, as a result of negotia- 
tions entered into between the French gov- 
ernment and the municipality of Amster- 
dam, a young and vigorous plant about five 
feet tall was sent to Louis XIV at the* 
chateau of Marly by the burgomaster of 
Amsterdam. The day following, it was 
transferred to the Jardin des Plantes at 
Paris, where it was received with appro- 

priate ceremonies by Antoine de Jussieu, 
professor of botany in charge. This tree 
was destined to be the progenitor of most 
of the coffees of the French colonies, as well 
as of those of South America, Central 
America, and Mexico, 

The Romance of Captain Gabriel de Clieu 

Two unsuccessful attempts were made to 
transport to the Antilles plants grown from 
the seed of the tree presented to Louis XIV ; 
but the honor of eventual success was won 
by a young Norman gentleman, Gabriel 
Mathieu de Clieu, a naval officer, serving at 
the time as captain of infantry at Martin- 
ique. The story of de Clieu 's achievement 
is the most romantic chapter in the history 
of the propagation of the coffee plant. 

His personal affairs calling him to 
France, de Clieu conceived the idea of util- 
izing the return voyage to introduce coffee 
cultivation into Martinique. His first diffi- 
culty lay in obtaining several of the plants 
then being cultivated in Paris, a difficulty 
at last overcome through the instrumental- 
ity of M. de Chirac, royal physician, or, ac- 
cording to a letter written by de Clieu 
himself, through the kindly offices of a lady 
of quality to whom de Chirac could give no 
refusal. The plants selected were kept at 
Rochefort by M. Begon, commissary of the 
department, until the departure of de Clieu 
for Martinique. Concerning the exact date 
of de Clieu 's arrival at Martinique with the 
coffee plant, or plants, there is much con- 
fiict of opinion. Some authorities give the 
date as 1720, others 1723. Jardin " suggests 
that the discrepancy in dates may arise 
from de Clieu, with praiseworthy persever- 
ance, having made the voyage twice. The 
first time, according to Jardin, the plants 
perished ; but the second time de Clieu had 
planted the seeds when leaving France and 
these survived, "due, they say, to his hav- 
ing given of his scanty ration of water to 
moisten them. ' ' No reference to a preced- 
ing voyage, however, is made by de Clieu 
in his own account, given in a letter written 
to the Annee Litteraire ^ in 1774. There is 
also a difference of opinion as to whether 
de Clieu arrived with one or three plants. 
He himself says "one" in the letter re- 
ferred to. 

According to the most trustworthy data, 
de Clieu embarked at Nantes, 1723. * He 

''.Tardiii. firlelestan. 
1895 (p. 102). 

■KAnni^e fjitt^raire. 

*r''ranklin, Alfred. 
Paris, 1833, 

Le Caf^ier et le GafS. Paris, 

Paris, 1774 (vol. vi : p. 217). 
'Lia Vie Privic d'4-tttrefoit. 


had installed his precious plant in a box 
covered with a glass frame in order to ab- 
sorb the rays of the sun and thus better to 
retain the stored-up heat for cloudy 
days. Among the passengers one man, en- 
vious of the young officer, did all in his 
power to wrest from him the glory of suc- 
cess. Fortunately his dastardly attempt 
failed of its intended effect. 

"It is useless," writes de Clieu in his 
letter to the A?inee lAtteraire, "to recount 


Captain de Clieu Shares His Drinking Water 

With the Cofj-ee Plant He Is Carrying 

TO Martinique 

in detail the infinite care that I was obliged 
to bestow upon this delicate plant during a 
long voyage, and the difficulties I had in 
saving it from the hands of a man who, 
basely jealous of the joy I was about to 
taste through being of service to my coun- 
try, and being unable to get this coffee 
plant 3,wq,y frpm me, tprp pff a brai^ch," 

The vessel carrying de Clieu was a mer- 
chantman, and many were the trials that 
beset passengers and crew. Narrowly 
escaping capture by a corsair of Tunis, 
menaced by a violent tempest that threat- 
ened to annihilate them, they finally en- 
countered a calm that proved more appall- 
ing than either. The supply of drinking 
water was well nigh exhausted, and what 
was left was rationed for the remainder of 
the voyage. 

"Water was lacking to such an extent," 
•says de Clieu, "that for more than a month 
I was obliged to share the scanty ration of 
it assigned to me with this my coffee plant 
upon which my happiest hopes were 
founded and which was the source of my 
delight. It needed such succor the more in 
that it was extremely backward, being no 
larger than the slip of a pink." Many 
stories have been written and verses sung 
recording and glorifying this generous sac- 
rifice that has given luster to the name of 
de Clieu. 

Arrived in Martinique, de Clieu planted 
his precious slip on his estate in Precheur, 
one of the cantons of the island; where, 
says Raynal, "it multiplied with extraordi- 
nary rapidity and success." From the 
seedlings of this plant came most of the 
eoft'ee trees of the Antilles. The first har- 
vest was gathered in 1726. 

De Clieu himself describes his arrival as 
follows : 

Arriving at home, iny first cure was to set out 
my plant with great attention in the part of my 
garden most favorahle to its growth. Although 
keeping it in view, I feared many times that it 
would be taken from me ; and I was at last 
obliged to surround it with thorn bushes and to 
establish a guard .about it until it arrived at 
maturity . . . this precious plant which had 
become still more dear to nie for the dangers it 
had run and the cares it had cost me. 

Thus the little stranger thrived in a dis- 
tant land, guarded day and night by faith- 
ful slaves. So tiny a plant to produce in 
the end all the rich estates of the West 
India islands and the regions bordering on 
the Gulf of Mexico ! What luxuries, what 
future comforts and delights, resulted from 
this one small talent confided to the care of 
a man of rare vision and fine intellectual 
sympathy, fired by the spirit of real love 
for his fellows! There is no instance in 
the history of the French people of a good 
deed done by stealth being of greater serv- 
ice to humanity. 

De Clieu thus describes the events that 
fpjlowed last upon the introduction of 



coffee into Martinique, with particular ref- 
erence to the earthquake of 1727 : 

Success exceeded my hopes. I gathered alx>iit 
two pounds of seed which I distributed among 
all those whom I thought most capable of giving 
the plants the care necessary to their prosperity. 

The first harvest was very abundant ; with the 
second it was possible to extend the cultivation 
prodigiously, but what favored multiplication, 
most singularly, was the fact that two years 
afterward all the cocoa trees of the country, 
which were the resource and occupation of the 
people, were uprooted and totally destroyed by 
horrible tempests accompanied by an inundation 
which submerged all the land where these trees 
were planted, land which was at once made into 
coffee plantations by the natives. These did 
marvelously and enabled us to send plants to 
Santo Domingo, Guadeloupe, and other adjacent 
islands, where since that time they have been 
cultivated with the greatest success. 

By 1777 there were 18,791,680 coffee 
trees in Martinique. 

De Clieu was born in Anglequeville-sur- 
Saane, Seine-Inferieure (Normandy), in 
1686 or 1688." In 1705 he was a ship's 
ensign; in 1718 he became a chevalier of 
St. Louis; in 1720 he was made a captain 
of infantry ; in 1726, a major of infantry ; 
in 1733 he was a ship's lieutenant; in 1737 
he became governor of Guadeloupe ; in 1746 
he was a ship' captain ; in 1750 he was made 
honorary commander of the order of St. 
Louis ; in 1752 he retired with a pension of 
6000 francs ; in 1753 he re-entered the naval 
service; in 1760 he again retired with a 
pension of 2000 francs. 

In 1746 de Clieu, having returned to 
France, was presented to Louis XV by the 
minister of marine, Rouille de Jour, as ''a 
distinguished officer to whom the colonies, 
as well as France itself, and commerce 
generally, are indebted for the cultivation 
of coffee." 

Reports to the king in 1752 and 1759 re- 
call his having carried the first coffee plant 
to Martinique, and that he had ever been 
distinguished for his zeal and disinterested- 
ness. In the Mercure de France, December, 
1774, was the following death notice : 

Gabriel d'Erchigny de Clieu, former Ship's 
Captain and Honorary Commander of the Royal 
and Military Order of Saint Louis, died in Paris 
on the 30th of November in the 88th year of 
his age. 

A notice of his death appeared also in 
the Gazette de France for December 5, 
1774, a rare honor in both cases ; and it has 
been said that at this time his praise was 
again on every lip. 

'Michaud, I. F. and L. G. Biographic Universelle. 


One French historian, Sidney Daney,' ^ 
records that de Clieu died in poverty at 
St. Pierre at the age of 97 ; but this must 
be an error, although it does not anywhere 
appear that at his death he was possessed 
of much, if any, means. Daney says : 

This generous man received as his sole recom- 
pense for a noble deed the satisfaction of seeing 
this plant for whose preservation he had shown 
such devotion, prosper throughout the Antilles. 
The illustrious de Clieu is among those to whom 
Martinique owes a brilliant reparation. 

Daney tells also that in 1804 there was 
a movement in Martinique to erect a monu- 
ment upon the spot where de Clieu planted 
his first coffee plant, but that the under- 
taking came to naught. 

Pardon, in his La Martinique says : 
Honor to this brave man! He has deserved 
it from the people of two hemispheres. His 
name is worthy of a place beside that of Par- 
mentier who carried to France the potato of 
Canada. These two men have rendered im- 
mense service to humanity, and their memory 
should never be forgotten — yet alas ! Are they 
even remembered"? 

Tussac, in his Flora de las Antillas, writ- 
ing of de Clieu, says, "Though no monu- 
ment be erected to this beneficent traveler, 
yet his name should remain engraved in the 
heart of every colonist." 

In 1774 the Annee Litteraire published 
a long poem in de Clieu 's honor. In the 
feuilleton of the Gazette de France, April 
12, 1816, we read that M. Donns, a wealthy 
Hollander, and a coffee connoisseur, sought 
to honor de Clieu by having painted upon- a 
porcelain service all the details of his voy- 
age and its happy results. "I have seen 
the cups," says the writer, who gives many 
details and the Latin inscription. 

That singer of navigation, Esmenard, has 
pictured de Clieu 's devotion in the follow- 
ing lines : 

Forget not how de Clieu with his light vessel's 

Brought distant Moka's gift — that timid plant 

and frail. 
The waves fell suddenly, young zephyrs breathed 

no more. 
Beneath fierce Cancer's fires behold the fountain 

Exhausted, fails ; while now inexoi'able need 
Makes her unpitying law — with measured dole 


Now each soul fears to prove Tantalus torment 

De Clieu alone defies: While still that fatal 

Fierce, stifling, day by day his noble strength 


"Daney, Sidney. .Hiatoirc de la Martinigue. Fort 
Royal, 184G. ^ 



And still a heaven of brass inflames the burning 

With that refreshing draught his life he will not 

cheer ; 
But drop by drop revives the plant he holds 

more dear. 
Already as in dreams, he sees great brandies 

One look at his dear plant assuages all his woe. 

The only memorial to de Clieu in Mar- 
tinique is tlie botanical garden at Fort de 
France, which was opened in 1918 and dedi- 
cated to de Clieu, ' ' whose memory has been 
too long left in oblivion.'" 

In 1715 coffee cultivation was first intro- 
duced into Haiti and Santo Domingo. 
Later came hardier plants from Martinique. 
In 1715 - 17 the French Company of the 
Indies introduced the cultivation of the 
plant into the Isle of Bourbon (now Re- 
union) by a ship captain named Dufou- 
geret-Grenier from St. Malo. It did so 
well that nine years later the island began 
to export coffee. 

The Dutch brought the cultivation of cof- 
fee to Surinam in 1718. The first coffee 
plantation in BraziTwas started at Para in 
1723 with plants brought from French 
Guiana, but it was not a success. The Eng- 
lish brought the plant to Jamaica in 1730. 
In 1740 Spanish missionaries introduced 
coffee cultivation into the Philippines from 
Java. In 1748 Don Jose Antonio Gelabert 
introduced coffee into Cuba, bringing the 
seed from Santo Domingo. In 1750 the 
Dutch extended the cultivation of the plant 
to the Celebes. Coffee was introduced into 
Guatemala about 1750 - 60. The intensive 
cultivation in Brazil dates from the efforts 
begun in the Portuguese colonies in Para 
and Amazonas in 1752. Porto Rico began 
the cultivation of coffee about 1755. In 
1760 Joao Alberto Castello Branco brought 

''Innuguratiim du Jardin Deaclieux. Fort de France, 

to Rio de Janeiro a coffee tree from Goa, 
Portuguese India. The news spread that 
the soil and climate of Brazil were particu- 
larly adapted to the cultivation of coffee. 
Molke, a Belgian monk, presented some 
seeds to the Capuchin monastery at Rio in 
1774. Later, the bishop of Rio, Joachim 
Bruno, became a patron of the plant and 
encouraged its propagation in Rio, Minas. 
Espirito Santo, and Sao Paulo. The Span- 
ish voyager, Don Francisco Xavier Na- 
varro, is credited with the introduction of 
coffee into Costa Rica from Cuba in 1779. 
In Venezuela the industry was started near ~ 
Caracas by a priest, Jose Antonio Mohe- 
dano, with seed brought from Martinique 
in 1784. 

Coffee cultivatinn in Mpyien h^^n in 
1790, the se ed being brought from the West 
Indies. InJlSITLDon fjuan Antonio (lome x 
mstitutel i ntensive cultivati on in ihp Statpi 
of Vexa ^ruz. In 1825 the cultivation of 
THe^ plant was begun in the Hawaiian 
Islands with seeds from Rio de Janeiro. 
As previously noted, the English began to 
cultivate coffee in India in 1840. In 1852 
coffee cultivation was begun in Salva- 
dor with plants brought from Cuba. In 
1878 the English began the propagation of 
coffee in British Central Africa, but it was 
not until 1901 that coffee cultivation was 
introduced into British East Africa from 
Reunion. In 1887 the French introduced 
the plant into Tonkin, Indo-China. Coffee 
growing in Queensland, introduced in 1896, 
has been successful in a small way. 

In recent years several attempts have 
been made to propagate the coffee plant in 
the southern United States, but without 
success. It is believed, however, that the 
topographic and climatic conditions in 
southern California are favorable for its 



Omar and the Marvelous Coffee Bird 

Kaldi and His Dancing Goats 

From drawings by a modern French artist 

Chapter III 

Coffee in the Near East in the early centuries — Stories of its origin 

— Discovery by physicians and adoption by the Church — Its spread 
through Arabia, Persia and Turkey — Persecutions and intolerances 

— Early coffee manners and customs 

THE coffee drink had its rise in the 
classical period of Arabian medicine, 
which dates from Rhazes (Abu Bakr 
Muhammad ibn Zakariya El Razi) who fol- 
lowed the doctrines of Galen and sat at the 
feet of Hippocrates. Rhazes (850 - 922) 
was the first to treat medicine in an ency- 
clopedic manner, and, according to some 
authorities, the first writer to mention 
coffee. He assumed the poetical name of 
Razi because he was a native of the city of 
Raj in Persian Irak. He was a great 
philosopher and astronomer, and at one 
time was superintendent of the hospital at 
Bagdad. He wrote many learned books on 
medicine and surgery,' but his principal 
work is Al-IIaiwi, or The Continent, a col- 
lection of everything relating to the cure 
of disease from Galen to his own time. 

Philippe Sylvestre Dufour (1622 -87)\ a 
French coffee merchant, philosopher, and 
writer, in an accurate and finished treatise 
on coffee, tells us (see the early edition of 
the work translated from the Latin) that 
the first writer to mention the properties 
of the coffee bean under the name of hun- 
chum was this same Rhazes, "in the ninth 
century after the birth of our Saviour"; 
from which (if true) it would appear that 
coffee has been known for upwards of 1000 
^ars. Robinson^, however, is of the opinion 
that hnnchum meant something else and 
had nothing to do with coffee. Dufour, 
himself, in a later edition of his Traitez 

'Dufour. Philippe Sylvestro. Trait^n Nouveaux et 
Curieux du Cajii, du Th6, et du Ghocolat. Lyons, 
1684. (Titlo pago lias Traitez: elspwhore, Traitia.) 

^'Robinson, Edward Forbos. The Early History of 
Coffee Houses in England. Loudon, 1893. 

Nouveaux et Curieux du Cafe (the Hague, 
1693) is inclined to admit that bunchum 
may have been a root and not coffee, after 
all ; however, he is careful to add that there 
is no doubt that the Arabs knew coffee as 
far back as the year 800, Other, more 
modern authorities, place it as early as the 
sixth century. 

Wiji Kawih is mentioned in a Kavi 
(Javan) inscription A. D. 856; and it is 
thought that the "bean broth" in David 
Tapperi's list of Javanese beverages (1667 - 
82) may have been coffee'. 

While the true origin of coffee drinking 
may be forever hidden among the mysteries 
of the purple East, shrouded as it is in 
legend and fable, scholars have marshaled 
sufficient facts to prove that the beverage 
was known in Ethiopia "from time imme- 
morial," and there is much to add verisi- 
militude to Dufour 's narrative. This first 
, coffee merchant-prince, skilled in languages 
and polite learning, considered that his 
character as a merchant was not incon- 
sistent with that of an author ; and he even 
went so far as to say there were some things 
(for instance, coffee) on which a merchant 
could be better informed than a philoso- 

Granting that by hnnchum Rhazes meant 
coffee, the plant and the drink must have 
been known to his immediate followers ; and 
this, indeed, seems to be indicated by simi- 
lar references in the writings of Avicenna 
(Ibn Sina), the Mohammedan physician 
and philosopher, who lived from 980 to 
1037 A. D. 

^Encyclopedia Britannica. 1910. (vol. xv : p. 291.) 




Rhazes, in the quaint language of Du- 
four, assures us that "hunchum (coffee) 
is hot and dry and very good for the stom- 
ach." Avicenna explains the medicinal 
properties and uses of the coffee bean {hon 
or hunn)^ which he, also, calls hunchum, 
after this fashion: 

As to the choice thereof, that of a lemon color, 
light, ami of a good smell, Ls the best; the white 
and the heavy is naught. It is hot and dry lu 
the first degree, and, according to others, cold 
in the tirst degree. It fortifies the members, it 
(•loans the skin, and dries up the humidities that 
are under it, and gives an excellent smell to all 
the body. 

The early Arabians called the bean and 
the tree that bore it, himn; the drink, 
hunchnm. A. Galland' (1646-1715), the 
French Orientalist who first analyzed and 
translated from the Arabic the Abd-al- 
Kadir manuscript", the oldest document ex- 
tant telling of the origin of coffee, observes 
that Avicenna speaks of the hunn, or coffee ; 
as do also Prospero Alpini and Veslingius 
(Vesling). Bengiazlah, another great 
physician, contemporary with Avicenna, 
likewise mentions coffee; by which, says 
Galland, one may see that we are indebted 
to physicians for the discovery of coffee, as 
well as of sugar, tea, and chocolate. 

Rauwolf (d. 1596), German physician 
and botanist, and the first European to 
mention coffee, who became acquainted 
with the beverage in Aleppo in 1573, tell- 
ing how the drink was prepared by the 
Turks, says: 

In this same water they take a fruit called 
Bunnu, which in its bigness, shape, and color 
is almost like unto a bayberry, with two thin 
shells surrounded, whieh, as they informed me, 
are brought from the Indies; but as these in 
themselves are, and have within them, two yel- 
lowish grains in two distinct cells, and besides, 
being they agree in their virtue, figure, looks, 
and name with the Biinchum of Avicenna and 
Bunca of Rasis ad Almans exactly: therefore 
I take them to be the same. 

In Dr. Edward Pocoke's translation (Ox- 
ford, 1659) of The Nature of the Drink 
Kauhi, or Coffee, and the Berry of which 
it is Made, Described hy an Arabian Phisi- 
tian, we read : 

Btm is a plant in Yaman [Yemen], which is 
planted in Adar, and groweth up and is gathered 
in Ah. It is about a cubit high, on a stalk about 
the thickness of one's thumb. It flowers white, 
leaving a berry like a small nut, but that some- 

■•Galland, Antoino. Lettrc sur I'Origine et le Progres 
du Cnf6. Paris, 1690. 

'The Ahd-al-Kadir mnnuscript is described and illus- 
trated in chapter XXXII. 

'Rauwolf, Leonhard. Aigcntliche beschreibung der 
Raisis so er vor diser zeit gegen auffgang inn die 
morgenlaender volbracht. Lauwingen, 1582-83, 

times it is broad like a bean; and when it is' 
peeled, parteth in two. The best of It is that 
which is weighty and yellow; the worst, that 
whieh is black. It is hot in the first degree, dry 
in the second : it is usually reported to be cold 
and dry, but it is not so; for it is bitter, and 
whatsoever is bitter is hot. It may be that the 
scorce is hot, and the Bun it selfe either of 
equal] temperature, or cold in the first degree. 

That which makes for its coldnesse is Its stip- 
ticknesse. In summer it is by experience found 
to conduce to the drying of rheumes, and fleg- 
matick eoughes and distillations, and the opening 
of obstructions, and the provocation of urin. 
It is now known by the name of Kohioah. When 
it is dried and thoroughly boyled, it allayes the 
ebullition of the blood, is good against the small 
jK)xe and measles, the bloudy pimples ; yet 
causeth vertiginous headheach, and maketh lean 
much, occasioneth waking, and the Emrods, and 
asswageth lust, and sometimes breeds melan- 

He that would drink it for livelinesse sake, 
and to discusse slothfulnesse, and the other 
properties that we have mentioned, let him use 
nuich sweat meates with it, and oyle of pis- 
taccioes, and butter. Some drink it with milk, 
but it is an error, and such as may bring in 
danger of the leprosy. 

Dufour concludes that the coffee beans of 
commerce are the same as the bunchum 
(bunn) described by Avicenna and the 
bunca (bunchum) of Rhazes. In this he 
agrees, almost word for word, with Rau- 
wolf, indicating no change in opinion 
among the learned in a hundred years. 

Christopher Campen thinks Hippocrates, 
father of medicine, knew and administered 

Robinson, commenting upon the early 
adoption of coffee into materia medica, 
charges that it was a mistake on the part 
of the Arab physicians, and that it origi- 
nated the prejudice that caused coffee to be 
regarded as a powerful drug instead of as 
a simple and refreshing beverage. 

Homer, the Bible, and Coffee 

In early Grecian and Roman writings no 
mention is made of either the coffee plant 
or the beverage made from the berries. 
Pierre (Pietro) Delia Valle' (1586-1652), 
however, maintains that the nepenthe, 
which Homer says Helen brought with her 
out of Egypt, and which she employed as 
surcease for sorrow, was nothing else but 
coffee mixed with wine.* This is disputed 
by M. Petit, a well known physician of 
Paris, who died in 1687. Several later 
British authors, among them, Sandys, the 

'Delia Valle, Pierre (Pietro). De Constantinople a 
Bombay, Lettres. 1615. (vol. i : p. 90.) 

»"She mingled with the wine the wondrous juice of 
a plant which banishes sadness and wrath from the 
heart and brings with it forgetfulness of every woe," 



])oet; Burton; and Sir Henry Blount, have 
suggested the probability of coffee being the 
"black broth" of the Lacedaemonians. 

George Paschius, in his Latin treatise of 
tlie New Discoveries Made since the Time 
of the Ancients, printed at Leipsic in 1700, 

T R A I T E Z 

NouYcaux & curicujc 



E 1 D U 


Ouvrageegdement necelTaire aux 

Medecins , & a tous ceux qui 

aiment leur fante. 

PaiPHiLtPP fiSytvESTRB Dupour 

e^ quoy on a adjoute dans cettc. Edition , la meil- 
leure de toutes les metkodes , qui manquoit 
a ce Livre j pour compojer ' 


Par Mi. St. D i s d i £ r. 
Troifi^me Edition. 



chand Librairc prez laCour , a la 


Title Page of Dufoub's Book, Edition of 1693 

says he believes that coffee was meant by 
the five measures of parched corn included 
among the presents Abigail made to David 
to appease his wrath, as recorded in the 
Bible, 1 Samuel, xxv, 18. The Vulgate 
translates the Hebrew words sein kali into 
sata polentea, which signify wheat, roasted, 
or dried by fire. 

Pierre fitienne Louis Dumant, the Swiss 
Protestant minister and author, is of the 

opinion that coffee (and not lentils, as 
others have supposed) was the red pottage 
for which Esau sold his birthright; also 
that the parched grain that Boaz ordered 
to be given Ruth was undoubtedly roasted 
coffee berries. 

Dufour mentions as a possible objection 
against coffee that "the use and eating of 
beans were heretofore forbidden by Py- 
thagoras," but intimates that the coffee 
bean of Arabia is something different. 

Scheuzer," in his Physique Sacree, says 
"the Turks and the Arabs make with the 
coffee bean a beverage which bears the same 
name, and many persons use as a substitute 
the flour of roasted barley. ' ' From this we 
learn that the coffee substitute is almost as 
old as coffee itself. 

Some Early Legends 

After medicine, the church. There are 
several Mohammedan traditions that have 
persisted through the centuries, claiming 
for "the faithful" the honor and glory of 
the first use of coffee as a beverage. One of 
these relates how, about 1258 A. D., Sheik 
Omar, a disciple of Sheik Abou'l hasan 
Schadheli, patron saint and legendary 
founder of Mocha, by chance discovered the 
coffee drink at Ousab in Arabia, whither 
he had been exiled for a certain moral 

Facing starvation, he and his followers 
were forced to feed upon the berries grow- 
ing around them. And then, in the words 
of the faithful Arab chronicle in the Biblio- 
theque Nationale at Paris, ' ' having nothing 
to eat except coffee, they took of it and 
boiled it in a sauce-pan and drank of the 
decoction. ' ' Former patients in Mocha who 
sought out the good doctor-priest in his 
Ousab retreat, for physiic with which to 
cure their ills, were given some of this de- 
coction, with beneficial effect. As a result 
of the stories of its magical properties, car- 
ried back to the city. Sheik Omar was in- 
vited to return in triumph to Mocha where 
tile governor caused to be built a monastery 
for him and his companions. 

Another version of this Oriental legend 
gives it as follows : 

The dervish Hadji Omar was driven by his 
enemies out of Mocha into the desert, where they 
expected he would die of starvation. This un- 
doubtedly would have occurred if he liad not 
plucked up courage to taste some strange berries 
which he found growing on a shrub. While they 
seemed to be edible, they were very bitter ; and 

*SchPuzer, .T. .T. Physique 8acr6e, ou Hiatoire 
Naturelle de la Bible. Amsterdam, 1732, 1737. 



he tried to improve tlie taste by roasting tliein. 
He found, liowever, tliut tliey liad become very 
hard, so he attempted to soften them with water. 
The berries seemed to remain as hard as before, 
but the iiquid turned brown, and Omar dranli 
It on the chance that it contained some of the 
nourishment from the berries. He was amazed 
at how it refreshed him, enlivened his sluggish- 
ness, and raised his drooping spirits. Later, 
when he returned to Mocha, liis salvation was 
considered a miracle. The beverage to wliich it 
was due sprang into high favor, and Omar him- 
self was made a saint. 

A popular and much-quoted version of 
Omar's discovery of coffee, also based upon 
the Abd-al-Kadir manuscript, is the fol- 

In the year of the Ilegira C5(5, the moUah 
Schadheli went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Ar- 
riving at the mountain of the Emeralds (Ousab), 
he turned to his disciple Omar and said : "I shall 
die in this place. When my soul has gone forth, 
a veiled person will appear to you. Do not fail 
to execute the command which he will give you." 

The venerable Schadheli being dead, Omar saw 
in the middle of the night a gigantic specter 
covered by a white veil. 

"Who are youV" he asked. 

The phantom drew back his veil, and Omar 
saw with surprise Schadheli himself, grown ten 
cubits since his death. The mollah dug in the 
ground, and water miraculously appeared. The 
spirit of his teacher bade Omar fill a bowl with 
the water and to proceed on his way and not to 
stop till he reached the spot where the water 
would stop moving. 

"It is there," he added, "that a great destiny 
awaits you." 

Omar started his journey. Arriving at Mocha 
in Yemen, he noticed that the water was im- 
movable. It was here that he must stop. 

The beautiful village of Mocha was then rav- 
aged by the plague. Omar began to pray for the 
sick and, as the saintly man was close to 
Mahomet, many found themselves cured by his 

The plague meanwhile progressing, the daugh- 
ter of the King of Mocha fell ill and her father 
had her carried to the home of the dervish who 
cured her. But as this young princess was of 
rare beauty, after having cured her, the good 
dervish tried to carry her off. The king did not 
fancy this new kind of reward. Omar was 
driven from the city and exiled on the mountain 
of Ousab, with herbs for food and a cave for 
a home. 

"Oh, Schadheli, my dear master," cried the 
unfortunate dervish one day ; "if the things 
which happened to me at Mocha were destined, 
was it worth the trouble to give me a bowl to 
come here?" 

To these just complaints, there was heard im- 
mediately a song of incomparable harmony, and 
a bird of marvelous plumage came to rest in a 
tree. Omar sprang forward quickly toward the 
little bird which sang so well, but then he saw 
on the branches of the tree only flowers and 
fruit. Omar laid hands on the fruit, and found 
it delicious. . Then he filled his great pockets 
with it and went back to his cave. As he was 

preparing to boil a few herbs for his dinner, the 
idea came to him of substituting for this sad 
souj), some of his harvested fruit. From it he 
obtained a savory and perfumed drink ; it was 

The Italian Journal of the Savants for 
the year 1760 says that two monks, Scialdi 
and Ayduis, were the first to discover the 
properties of coffee, and for this reason be- 
came the object of special prayers. "Was 
not this Scialdi identical with the Sheik j| 
Schadheli ? ' ' asks Jardin." 1 

The most popular legend ascribes the dis- 
covery of the drink to an Arabian herdsman 
'in upper Egypt, or Abyssinia, who com- 
plained to the abbot of a neighboring 
monastery that the goats confided to his 
care became unusually frolicsome after eat- 
ing the berries of certain shrubs found near 
their feeding grounds. The abbot, having 
observed the fact, determined to try the 
virtues of the berries on himself. He, too, 
responded with a new exhilaration. Ac- 
cordingly, he directed that some be boiled, 
and the decoction drunk by his monks, who 
thereafter found no difficulty in keeping 
awake during the religious services of the 
night. The abbe Massieu in his poem. 
Carmen Caffaeum, thus celebrates the 
event : 

The monks each in turn, as the evening draws 

Drink 'round the great cauldron — a circle of 

cheer ! 
And the dawn in amaze, revisiting that shore. 
On idle l)eds of ease surprised them nevermore! 

According to the legend, the news of the 
"wakeful monastery" spread rapidly, and 
the magical berry soon "came to be in re- 
quest throughout the whole kingdom; and 
in progress of time other nations and 
provinces of the East fell into the use 
of it." 

The French have preserved the following 
picturesque version of this legend : 

A young goatherd named Kaldi noticed one 
day that his goats, whose deportment up to that 
time had been irreproachable, were abandoning 
themselves to the most extravagant prancings. 
1'he venerable buck, ordinarily so dignified and 
solemn, bounded about like a young kid. Kaldi 
attributed this foolish gaiety to certain fruits 
of which the goats had been eating with delight. 

The story goes that the poor fellow had a 
heavy heart; and in the hope of cheering him- 
self up a little, he thought he would pick and eat 
of the fruit. The experiment succeeded mar- 
velously. He forgot his troubles and became the 
happiest herder in happy Arabia. When the 
goats danced, he gaily made himself one of the 

J^ardin, I5del,estan. Le Cafiier et le Caf6. Paris, 



party, and entered into their fun witli admirable 

One day, a monk clianced to pass by and 
stopiied in surprise to find a ball going on. A 
score of goats were executing lively pirouettes 
like a ladies' chain, wMle the buck solenuily 
halan(('-fH\, and the herder went through the 
ttgures of an eccentric i)astoral dance. 

The astonished monk inquired the cause of this 
saltatorial madness ; and Kaldi told him of his 
precious discovery. 

Now, this poor monk had a great sorrow ; he 
always went to sleep in the middle of his 
prayers; and he reasoned that Mohannned with- 

Cats, JO v Tsi, * r 2J v CkJc o itA. i!^.. 

Arai! DiiiNKiNo ('okike; Chinaman, Tea; and 

Indian, Cuocolatb 

Frontispiece from Dufour's work 

out doubt was revealing this marvelous fruit to 
him to overcome his sleepiness. 

Piety does not exclude gastronomic instincts. 
Those of our good monk were more than ordi- 
nary ; because he thought of drying and boiling 
the fruit of the herder. This ingenious concoc- 
tion gave us coffee. Immediately all the monks 
of the realm made use of the drink, because It 
encouraged them to pray and, perhaps, also be- 
cause it was not disagreeable. 

In those early days it appears that the 
drink was prepared in two ways; one in 
which the decoction was made from the 
hull and the pulp surrounding the bean, 
and the other from the bean itself. The 
roasting process came later and is an im- 
provement generally credited to the Per- 
sians. There is evidence that the early 
Mohammedan churchmen were seeking a 
.substitute for the wine forbidden to them 
by the Koran, when they discovered coffee. 
The word for coffee in Arabic,* ga/ii^a/i, is 
the same as one of those used for wine ; and 
later on, when coffee drinking grew so pop- 
ular as to threaten the very life of the 
church itself, this similarity was seized 
upon by the church-leaders to support their 
contention that the prohibition against 
wine applied also to cott'ee. 

La Roque," writing in 1715, says that the 
Arabian word cakouah signified at first 
only wine; but later was turned into a 
generic term applied to all kinds of drink. 
' ' So there were really three sorts of coffee ; 
namely, wine, including all intoxicating 
liquors ; the drink made with the shells, or 
cods, of the coffee bean; and that made 
from the bean itself." 

Originally, then, the coffee drink may 
have been a kind of wine made from the 
coffee fruit. In the coffee countries even 
today the natives are very fond, and eat 
freely, of the ripe coffee cherries, voiding 
the seeds. The pulp surrounding the cof- 
fee seeds (beans) is pleasant to taste, has 
a sweetish, aromatic flavor, and quickly 
ferments when allowed to stand. 

Still another tradition (was the wish 
father to the thought?) tells how the coffee 
drink was revealed to Mohammed himseif 
by the Angel Gabriel. Coffee's partisans 
found satisfaction in a passage in the 
Koran which, they said, foretold its adop- 
tion by the followers of the Prophet: 

'i'hey shall be given to drink an excellent wine, 
sealed ; its seal is that of the musk. 

The most diligent research does not carry 
a knowledge of coffee back beyond the time 
of Rhazes, two hundred years after Mo- 
hammed ; so there is little more than specu- 
lation or conjecture to support the theory 
that it was known to the ancients, in Bible 
times or in the days of The Praised One. 
Our knowledge of tea, on the other hand, 
antedates the Christian era. We know 

also that tea was intensively cultivated 


"La Roque, Jean. Voyage dans I'Arabie Heureuae, 
de 1708 d nis, et TraiU HistoHque du Ca}6. Paris, 
1715. (pp. 247, 251.) 



and taxed under the Tang dynasty in 
China, A. D. lU'.i, and that Arab traders 
knew of it in tlie following century. 

The First Reliable Coffee Date 

About 1454 Sheik Gemaleddiii Abou Mu- 
hammad Bensaid, mufti of Aden, sur- 
named Aldhabhani, from Dhabhan, a small 
town where he was born, became acquainted 
with the virtues of coffee on a journey into 
Abyssinia.'' Upon his return to Aden, his 
health became impaired; and remembering 
the coffee he had seen his countrymen 
drinking in Abyssinia, he sent for some in 
the hope of finding relief. He not only 
recovered from his illness; but, because of 
its sleep-dispelling qualities, he sanctioned 
the use of the drink among the dervishes 
"tliat they might spend the night in 
prayers or other religious exercises with 
tnore attention and presence of mind."" 

It is altogether probable that the coffee 
drink was known in Aden before the time 
of Sheik Gemaleddin ; but the endorsement 
of the very learned imam, whom science 
and religion had already made famous, was 
sufficient to start a vogue for the beverage 
that spread throughout Yemen, and thence 
to the far corners of the world. We read 
in the Arabian manuscript at the Biblio- 
theque Nationale that lawyers, students, 
as well as travelers who journeyed at night, 
artisans, and others, who worked at night, 
to escape the heat of the day, took to drink- 
ing coffee ; and even left off another drink, 
then becoming popular, rhade from the 
leaves of a plant called khat or cat {catha 

Sheik Gemaleddin was assisted in his 
work of spreading the gospel of this the 
first propaganda for coffee by one Mu- 
haramed Alhadrami, a physician of great 
reputation, born in Hadramaut, Arabia 

A recently unearthed and little known 
version of coffee's origin shows how fea- 
tures of both the Omar tradition and the 
Gemaleddin story may be combined by a 
professional Occidental tale- writer" : 

Toward the middle of the fifteenth century, 
a poor Arab was traveling in Abyssinia. Find- 
ing himself weak and weary, he stopped near a 
grove. For fuel wlierewith to cook his rice, he 
cut down a tree that happened to be covered 
with dried berries. His meal being cooked and 
eaten, the traveler discovered that these half- 
burnt berries were fragrant. He collected a 

^^Adjam, by many writers wrongly rendered Persia. 
"Scheuzer, ,T. J. Physique Sacrie, ou Histoire Nat- 
urelle de la Bible. AmBterdam, 1732, 1737. 

^*Harper'a Weekly. New Yorlc, 1911. (Jan. 21.) 

number of them and, on crushing them with a 
stone, found that the aroma was increased to a 
great extent. While wondering at this, he acci- 
dentally let tlie substance fall into an earthen 
vessel that contained his scanty supply of water. 
.V miracle ! The almost putrid water was puri- 
Hctl. He brought it to his lips; it was fresh and 
agreeable; and after a short rest the traveler so 
far recovered his strength and energy as to be 
able to resume his journey. The lucky Arab 
gathered as many berries as he could, and hav- 
ing arrived at Aden, informed the mufti of his 
(lisc-overy. That worthy was an inveterate 
opium-smoker, who had been slifliering for years 
from the influence of the poisonous drug. He 
tried an infusion of the roasted berries, and was 
so delighted at the recovery of his former vigor 
that in gratitude to the tree he called it cahuha 
which in Arabic signifies "force". 

Galland, in his analysis of the Arabian 
manuscript, already referred to, that has 
furnished us with the most trustworthy ac- 
count of the origin of coffee, criticizes An- 
toine Faustus Nairon, Maronite professor 
of Oriental languages at Rome, who was the 
author of the first printed treatise on coffee 
only,"" for accepting the legends relating to 
Omar and the Abyssinian goatherd. He 
says they are unworthy of belief as facts of 
history, although he is careful to add that 
there is some truth in the story of the dis- 
covery of coffee by the Abyssinian goats 
and the abbot who prescribed the use of 
the berries for his monks, "the Eastern 
Christians being willing to have the honor 
of the invention of coffee, for the abbot, or 
prior, of the convent and his companions 
are only the mufti Gemaleddin and Mu- 
hammid Alhadrami, and the monks are the 
dervishes. ' ' ^ 

Amid all these details, Jardin reaches 
the conclusion that it is to chance we must 
attribute the knowledge of the properties 
of coffee, and that the coffee tree was trans- 
ported from its native land to Yemen, as 
far as Mecca, and possibly into Persia, 
before being carried into Egypt. 

Coffee, being thus favorably introduced 
into Aden, it has continued there ever 
since, without interruption. By degrees 
the cultivation of the plant and the use of 
the beverage passed into many neighbor- 
ing places. Toward the close of the fif- 
teenth century (1470 - 1500) it reached 
Mecca and Medina, where it was intro- 
duced, as at Aden, by the dervishes, and 
for the same religious purpose. About 
1510 it reached Grand Cairo in Egypt, 
where the dervishes from Yemen, living in 
a district by themselves, drank coffee on the 

"*Nairon, Antoine Faustus. De Saluberrimd Cahue 
seu Caf6 nuncupata Diacuraus. Rome, 1671. 

A L L A H () i; T C O F F 1^: h 









^■fhts they intended to spend in religious 
Trevotion. They kept it in a large red 
earthen vessel — eacli in turn receiving 
it, respectfully, from their superior, in a 
small bowl, which he dipped into the jar — 
in the meantime chanting their prayers, 
the burden of which was always: "There 
is no God but one God, the true King, 
whose power is not to be disputed." 

After the dervishes, the bowl was passed 
to lay members of the congregation. In this 
way coffee came to be so associated with 
tiie act of worship that "they never per- 
formed a religious ceremony in public and 
never observed any solemn festival with- 
out taking coffee." 

Meanwhile, the inhabitants of Mecca be- 
came so fond of the beverage that, disre- 
garding its religious associations, they 
made of it a secular drink to be sipped 
publicly in Icaveh kanes, the first coffee 
houses. Here the idle congregated to drink 
coffee, to play chess and other games, to 
discuss the news of the day, and to amuse 
themselves with singing, dancing, and 
music, contrary to the manners of the rigid 
Mahommedans, who were very properly 
scanchilized by such performances. In Me- 
dina and in Cairo, too, coffee became as 
common a drink as in Mecca and Aden. 

The First Coffee Persecution 

At length the pious Mahommedans began 
to disapprove of the use of coffee among 
the people. For one thing, it made com- 
mon one of the best psychology - adjuncts 
of their religion ; also, the joy of life, that 
it helped to liberate among those who fre- 
quented the coffee houses, precipitated 
.social, political, and religious arguments ; 
and these frequently developed into dis- 
turbances. Dissensions arose even among 
the churchmen themselves. They divided 
into camps for and against coffee. The 
hiw of the Prophet on the subject of wine 
was variously construed as applying to 

About this time (1511) Kair Bey was 
governor of Mecca for the sultan of Egypt, 
lie appears to have been a strict disci- 
plinarian, but lamentably ignorant of the 
actual conditions obtaining among his 
people. As he was leaving the mosque one 
evening after prayers, he was offended by 
seeing in a corner a company of coffee 
drinkers who were preparing to pass the 
night in prayer. His first thought was 
that they were drinking wine ; and great 
was his astonishment when he learned what 


the liquor really was and how common was 
its use throughout the city. Further in- 
vestigation convinced him that indulgence 
in this exhilarating drink must incline men 
and women to extravagances prohibited by 
law, and so he determined to suppress it. 
First he drove the coffee drinkers out of 
the mosque. 

The next day, he called a council of 
officers of justice, lawyers, physicians, 
priests, and leading citizens, to whom he 
declared what he had seen the evening be- 
fore at the mosque; and, "being resolved 
to put a stop to the coffee-house abuses, he 
sought their advice upon the subject." 
The chief count in the indictment was that 
"in these places men and women met and 
played tambourines, violins, and other 
musical instruments. There were also 
people who played chess, mankala, and 
other similar games, for money ; and there 
were many other things done contrary to 
our sacred law — may God keep it from 
all corruption until the day when we shall 
all appear before him!"" 

The lawyers agreed that the coffee 
houses needed reforming; but as to the 
drink itself, inquiry should be made as to 
whether it was in any way harmful to 
mind or body; for if not, it might not be 
sufficient to close the places that sold it. 
It was suggested that the opinion of the 
physicians be sought. 

Two brothers, Persian physicians named 
Ilakimani, and reputed the best in Mecca, 
were summoned, although we are told they 
knew more about logic than they did 
about physic. One of them came into the 
council fully prejudiced, as he had already 
written a book against coffee, and filled 
with concern for his profession, being fear- 
ful lest the common use of the new drink 
would make serious inroads on the prac- 
tise of medicine. His brother joined with 
him in assuring the assembly that the 
plant hunn, from which coffee was made, 
was "cold and dry" and so unwholesome. 
When another physician present reminded 
them that Bengiazlah, the ancient and re- 
spected contemporary of Avicenna, taught 
that it was "hot and dry," they made 
arbitrary answer that Bengiazlah had in 
mind another plant of the same name, and 
that anyhow, it was not material; for, if 
the coffee drink disposed people to things 
forbidden by religion, the safest course for 

^^de Sacy, Bnron Antolne Isaac Silvestre. Chreato- 
nathie Arahc. Paris, 1806. (vol. il : p. 224.) 



Mahommedans was to look upon it as un- 

The friends of coffee were covered with 
confusion. Only the mufti S'poke out in 
the meeting in its favor. Others, carried 
away by prejudice or misguided zeal, af- 
firmed that coffee clouded their senses. One 
man arose and said it intoxicated like wine ; 
which made every one laugh, since he could 
hardly have been a judge of this if he had 
not drunk wine, which is forbidden by the 
Mohammedan religion. Upon being asked 
whether he had ever drunk any, he was so 
imprudent as to admit that he had, thereby 
condemning himself out of his own mouth 
to the bastinado. 

The mufti of Aden, being both an officer 
of the court and a divine, undertook, with 
some heat, a defense of coffee; but he was 
clearly in an unpopular minority. He 
was rewarded with the reproaches and af- 
fronts of the religious zealots. 

So the governor had his way, and coffee 
was solemnly condemned as thing forbid- 
den by the law ; and a presentment 
was drawn up, signed by a majority of 
those present, and dispatched post-haste by 
the governor to his royal master, the sultan, 
at Cairo. At the same time, the governor 
published an edict forbidding the sale of 
coffee in public or private. The officers 
of justice caused all the coffee houses in 
Mecca to be shut, and ordered all the coffee 
found there, or in the merchants' ware- 
houses, to be burned. 

Naturally enough, being an unpopular 
edict, there were many evasions, and much 
coffee drinking took place behind closed 
doors. Some of the friends of coffee were 
outspoken in their opposition to the order, 
being convinced that the assembly had ren- 
dered a judgment not in accordance with 
the facts, and above all, contrary to the 
opinion of the mufti who, in every Arab 
community, is looked up to as the inter- 
preter, or expounder, of the law. One man, 
caught in the act of disobedience, besides 
being severely punished, was also led 
through the most public streets of the city 
seated on an ass. 

However, the triumph of the enemies of 
coffee was short-lived; for not only did 
the sultan of Cairo disapprove the "indis- 
creet zeal" of the governor of Mecca, and 
order the edict revoked; but he read him 
a severe lesson on the subject. How dared 
he condemn a thing approved at Cairo, 
the capital of his kingdom, where there 
were physicians whose opinions carried 

more weight than those of Mecca, and who 
had found nothing against the law in the 
use of coffee? The best things might be 
abused, added the sultan, even the sacred 
waters of Zamzam, but this was no reason 
for an absolute prohibition. The fountain, 
or well, of Zamzam, according to the Mo- 
hammedan teaching, is the same which 
God caused to spring up in the desert to 
comfort Hagar and Ishmael when Abraham 
banished them. It is in the enclosure of 
the temple at Mecca; and the Mohamme- 
dans drink of it with much show of devo- 
tion, ascribing great virtues to it. 

It is not recorded whether the misguided 
governor was shocked at this seeming pro- 
fanity; but it is known that he hastened 
to obey the orders of his lord and master. 
The prohibition was recalled, and there- 
after he employed his authority only to 
preserve order in the coffee houses. The 
friends of coffee, and the lovers of poetic 
justice, found satisfaction in the governor's 
subsequent fate. He was exposed as "an 
extortioner and a public robber," and "tor- 
tured to death," his brother killing him- 
self to avoid the same fate. The two 
Persian physicians who had played so mean 
a part in the first coffee persecution, like- 
wise came to an unhappy end. Being dis- 
credited in Mecca they fled to Cairo, 
where, in an unguarded moment, having 
cursed the person of Selim I, emperor of 
the Turks, who had conquered Egypt, they 
were executed by his order. 

Coffee, being thus re-established at 
Mecca, met with no opposition until 1524, 
when, because of renewed disorders, the 
kadi of the town closed the coffee houses, 
but did not seek to interfere with coffee 
drinking at home and in private. His 
successor, however, re-licensed them; and, 
continuing on their good behavior since 
then, they have not been disturbed. 

In 1542 a ripple was caused by an order 
issued by Soliman the Great, forbidding 
the use of coffee; but no one took it seri- 
ously, especially as it soon became known 
that the order had been obtained "by 
surprise" and at the desire of only one 
of the court ladies "a little too nice in this 

One of the most interesting facts in the 
history of the coffee drink is that wher- 
ever it has been introduced it has spelled 
je volution. It has been the world's most 
radical dfink in that its function has al- 
ways been to make people think. And 
when the people began to think, they be- 



came dangerous to tyrants and to foes of 
liberty of thought and action. Sometimes 
the people became intoxicated with their 
new found ideas; and, mistaking liberty 
for license, they ran amok, and called 
down upon their heads persecutions and 
many petty intolerances. So history re- 
peated itself in Cairo, twenty-three years 
after the first Mecca persecution. 

Coffee's Second Religious Persecution 

Selim I, after conquering Egypt, had 
brought- coffee to Constantinople in 1517. 
The drink continued its progress through 
Syria, and was received in Damascus 
(about 1530), and in Aleppo (about 1532), 
without opposition. Several coffee houses 
of Damascus attained wide fame, among 
them the Cafe of the Roses, and the Cafe 
of the Gate of Salvation. 

Its increasing popularity and, perhaps, 
the realization that the continued spread of 
the beverage might lessen the demand for 
his services, caused a physician of Cairo 
to propound (about 1523) to his fellows 
this question : 

What is your opinion concerning the liquor 
called coffee which is drank in company, as heing 
reckoned in the number of those we have free 
leave to make use of, notwithstanding it is the 
cause of no small disorders, that it flies up into 
the head and is very pernicious to health? Is 
it permitted or forbidden? 

At the end he was careful to add, as 
his own opinion (and without prejudice?), 
that coffee was unlawful. To the credit of 
the physicians of Cairo as a class, it should 
be recorded that they looked with unsympa- 
thetic eyes upon this attempt on the part 
of one of their number to stir up trouble 
for a valuable adjunct to their materia 
medica, and so the effort died a-borning. 

If the physicians were disposed to do 
nothing to stop coffee's progress, not so 
the preachers. As places of resort, the 
coffee houses exercised an appeal that 
proved stronger to the popular mind than 
that of the temples of worship. This to 
men of sound religious training was in- 
tolerable. The feeling against coffee 
smouldered for a time; but in 1534 it 
broke out afresh. In that year a fiery 
preacher in one of Cairo's mosques so 
played upon the emotions of his congrega- 
tion with a preachment against coffee, 
claiming that it was against the law and 
that those who drank it were not true Mo- 
hammedans, that upon leaving the build- 
ing a large number of his hearers, enraged, 

threw themselves into the first coffee house 
they found in their way, burned the coffee 
pots and dishes, and maltreated all the 
])ersons they found there. 

Public opinion was immediately aroused ; 
and the city was divided into two parties; 
one maintaining that coffee was against 
the law of Mohammed, and the other tak- 
ing the contrary view. And then arose 
a Solomon in the person of the chief jus- 
tice, who summoned into his presence the 
learned physicians for consultation. Again 
the medical profession stood by its guns. 
The medical men pointed out to the chief 
justice that the question had already been 
decided by their predecessors on the side 
of coffee, and that the time had come to 
put some check "on the furious zeal of 
the bigots" and the "indiscretions of 
ignorant preachers." Wihereupon, the 
wise judge caused coffee to be served to the 
whole company and drank some himself. 
By this act he "re-united the contending 
parties, and brought coffee into greater 
esteem than ever." 

Coffee in Constantinople 

The story of the introduction of coffee 
into Constantinople shows that it experi- 
enced much the same vicissitudes that 
marked its advent at Mecca and Cairo. 
There were the same disturbances, the same 
unreasoning religious superstition, the same 
political hatreds, the same stupid inter- 
ference by the civil authorities ; and yet, in 
spite of it all, coffee attained new honors 
and new fame. The Oriental coffee house 
reached its supreme development in Con- 

Although coffee had been known in Con- 
stantinople since 1517, it was not until 1554 
that the inhabitants became acquainted 
with that great institution of early eastern 
democracy — the coffee house. In that year, 
under the reign of Soliman the Great, son 
of Selim I, one Scherasi of Damascus and 
one Hekem of Aleppo opened the first two 
coffee houses in the quarter called Taktaca- 
lah. They were wonderful institutions for 
those days, remarkable alike for their fur- 
nishings and their comforts, as well as for 
the opportunity they afforded for social 
intercourse and free discussion. Schemsi 
and Hekem received their guests on "very 
neat coiiches or sofas," and the admission 
was the price of a dish of coffee — about 
one cent. 

Turks, high and low, took up the idea 
with avidity. Coffee houses increased in 



number. The deinaiid outstripped the 
supply. In the seraglio itself special offi- 
cers {kafivedjibachi) were commissioned to 
prepare the coffee drink for the sultan. 
Coffee was in favor witli all classes. 

The Turks gave to the coffee houses the 
name kahveh kancs {diver soria, Cotovicus 
called them) ; and as they grew in popu- 
larity, they became more and more luxu- 
rious. There were lounges, richly carpeted; 
and in addition to coffee, many other means 
of entertainment. To these ' ' schools of the 
wise" came the ''young men ready to enter 
upon offices of judicature ; kadis from the 
provinces, seeking re-instatement or new 
appointments ; muderys, or professors ; of- 
ficers of the seraglio; bashaws; and the 
principal lords of the port," not to men- 
tion merchants and travelers from all parts 
of the then known world. 

Coffee House Persecutions 

About 1570, just when coffee seemed 
settled for all time in the social scheme, 
the imams and dervishes raised a loud wail 
against it, saying the mosques were almost 
empty, while the coffee houses were always 
full. Then the preachers joined in the 
clamor, affirming it to be a greater sin to 
go to a coffee house than to enter a tavern. 
The authorities began an examination ; and 
the same old debate was on. This time, 
however, appeared a mufti who was un- 
friendly to coffee. The religious fanatics 
argued that Mohammed had not even 
known of coffee, and so could not have 
used the drink, and, therefore, it must be 
an abomination for his followers to do so. 
Further, coffee was burned and ground to 
charcoal before making a drink of it ; and 
the Koran distinctly forbade the use of 
charcoal, including it among the unsani- 
tary foods. The mufti decided the ques- 
tion in favor of the zealots, and coffee was 
forbidden by law. 

The prohibition proved to be more hon- 
ored in the breach than in the observance. 
Coffee drinking continued in secret, instead 
of in the open. And when, about 1580, 
Amurath III, at the further solicitation of 
the churchmen, declared in an edict that 
coffee should be classed with wine, and so 
prohibited in accordance with the law of 
the Prophet, the people only smiled, and 
persisted in their secret disobedience. Al- 
ready they were beginning to think for 
themselves on religious as well as political 
matters. The civil officers, finding it use- 
less to try to suppress the custom, winked 

at violations of the law; and, for a con- 
sideration, permitted the sale of coffee pri- 
vately, so that many Ottoman "speak- 
easies" sprung up — places where coffee 
might be had behind shut doors; shops 
where it was sold in back-rooms. 

This was enough to re-establish the cof- 
fee houses by degrees. Then came a mufti 
less scrupulous or more knowing than his 
predecessor, who declared that coffee was 
not to be looked upon as coal, and that the 
drink made from it was not forbidden by 
the law. There was a general renewal of 
coffee drinking; religious devotees, preach- 
ers, lawyers, and the mufti himself indulg- 
ing in it, their example being followed by 
the whole court and the city. 

After this, the coffee houses provided a 
handsome source of revenue to each suc- 
ceeding grand vizier ; and there was no fur- 
ther interference with the beverage until 
the reign of Amurath IV, when Grand 
Vizier Kuprili, during the war with Can- 
dia, decided that for political reasons, the 
coffee houses should be closed. His argu- 
ment was much the same as that advanced 
more than a hundred years later by Charles 
II of England, namely, that they were hot- 
beds of sedition. Kuprili was a military 
dictator, with nothing of Charles's vacillat- 
ing nature; and although, like Charles, he 
later rescinded his edict, he enforced it, 
while it was effective, in no uncertain 
fashion. Kuprili was no petty tyrant. For 
a first violation of the order, cudgeling was 
the punishment; for a second offense, the 
victim was sewn in a leather bag and thrown 
into the Bosporus. Strangely enough, 
while he suppressed the coffee houses, he 
permitted the taverns, that sold wine for- 
bidden by the Koran, to remain open. 
Perhaps he found the latter produced a 
less dangerous kind of mental stimulation 
than that produced by coffee. Coffee, says 
Virey, was too intellectual a drink for the 
fierce and senseless administration of the 

Even in those days it was not possible 
to make people good by law. Paraphrasing 
the copy-book, suppressed desires will 
arise, though all the world o'erwhelm thera, 
to men's eyes. An unjust law was no more 
enforceable in those centuries than it is in 
the twentieth century. Men are humans 
first, although they may become brutish 
when bereft of reason. But coffee does not 
steal away their reason ; rather, it sharpens 
their reasoning faculties. As Galland has 
truly said: "Coffee joins men, born for 



Characteristic Scene in a Turkish Coffee House of the Seventeenth Century 

society, in a more perfect union ; protesta- 
tions are more sincere in being made at a 
time when the mind is not clouded with 
fumes and vapors, and therefore not easily 
forgotten, which too frequently happens 
when made over a bottle." 

Despite the severe penalties staring them 
in the face, violations of the law were plen- 
tiful among the people of Constantinople. 
Venders of the beverage appeared in the 
market-'places with "large copper vessels 
with fire under them ; and those who had 
a mind to drink were invited to step into 
any neighboring shop where every one was 
welcome on such an account." 

Later, Kuprili, having assured himself 
that the coffee houses were no longer a 
menace to his policies, permitted the free 
use of the beverage that he had previously 

Coffee and Coffee Houses in Persia 

Some writers claim for Persia the dis- 
covery of the coffee drink; but there is no 
evidence to support the claim. There are, 
however, sufficient facts to justify a belief 
that here, as in Ethiopia, coffee has been 
known from time immemorial — which is 
a very convenient phrase. At an early date 
the coffee house became an established insti- 
tution in the chief towns. The Persians 
appear to have used far more intelligence 
than the Turks in liandling the political 
phase of the coffee-house question, and so 
it never became necessary to order them 
suppressed in Persia. 

The wife of Shah Abbas, observing that 
great numbers of people were wont to 
gather and to talk politics in the leading 
coffee house of Ispahan, appointed a. mol- 



lah — an eeclesiastix-'al teacher and ex- 
pounder of the law — to sit there daily 
to entertain the frequenters of the place 
with nicely turned points of history, law, 
and poetry. Heing a man of wisdom and 
great tact, he avoided controversial ques- 
tions of state ; and so politics were kept in 
the background, lie proved a welcome visi- 
tor, and was made much of by the guests. 
This example was generally followed, and 
as a result disturbances were rare in the 
coffee houses of Ispahan. 

Adam Olearius" (1599-1671), who was 
secretary to the German Embassy that 
traveled in Turkey in 1633 - 36, tells of 
the great diversions made in Persian coffee 
houses "by their poets and historians, who 
are seated in a high chair from whence 
they make speeches and tell satirical stories, 
playing in the meantime with a little stick 
and using the same gestures as our jug- 
glers and legerdemain men do in England." 

At court conferences conspicuous among 
the shah's retinue were always to be seen 
the "kahvedjibachi," or " coffee-pourers. " 

Early Coffee Manners and Customs 

Karstens Niebuhr" (1733-1815), the 
Hanoverian traveler, furnishes the follow- 
ing description of the early Arabian, 
Syrian, and Egyptian coffee houses: 

They are commonly large halls, having their 
floors spread with mats, and illuminated at night 
by a multitude of lamps. Being the only 
theaters for the exercise of profane eloquence, 
poor scholars attend here to amuse the people. 
Select portions are read, e. g. the adventures of 
Rustan Sal, a Persian hero. Some aspire to the 
praise of invention, and compose tales and 
fables. They walk up and down as they recite, 
or assuming oratorial consequence, harangue 
upon subjects chosen by themselves. 

In one coffee house at Damascus an orator 
was regularly hired to tell his stories at a fixed 
hour; in other cases he was more directly de- 
pendent upon the taste of his hearers, as at the 
conclusion of his discourse, whether it had con- 
sisted of literary topics or of loose and idle tales, 
he looked to the audience for a voluntary con- 

At Aleppo, again, there was a man with a soul 
above the common, who, being a per.son of dis- 
tinction, and one that studied merely for his own 
pleasure, had yet gone the round of'all the coffee 
houses in the city to pronounce moral harangues. 

In some coffee houses there were singers 
and dancers, as before, and many came to 
listen to the marvelous tales of the Thou- 
sand and One Nights. 

"Olearius. Adam. An Account of His Journeys. 
London, 1669. 

"Niebuhr, Karstens. Description of Arabia. Amster- 
dam, 1774. (Heron trans., London, 1792; p. 266.) 

In Oriental countrieii it was once the cus- 
tom to offer a cup of "bad coffee," i.e., 
coffee containing poison, to those function- 
aries or other persohs who had proven 
themselves embarrassing to the authorities. 
While coffee drinking started as a pri- 
vate religious function, it was not long 
after its introduction by the coffee houses 
that it became secularized still more in the 
homes of the people, although for centuries 
it retained a certain religious significance. 
Galland says that in Constantinople, at the 
time of his visit to the city, there was no 
house, rich or poor, Turk or Jew, Greek 
or Armenian, where it was not drunk at 
least twice a day, and many drank it 
oftener, for it became a custom in every 
house to offer it to all visitors; and it was 
considered an incivility to refuse it. 
Twenty dishes a day, per person, was not 
an uncommon average. 

Galland observes that "as much money 
must be spent in the private families of 
Constantinople for coffee as for wine at 
Paris," and relates that it is as common 
for beggars to ask for money to buy cof- 
fee, as it is in Europe to ask for money to 
buy wine or beer. 

At this time to refuse or to neglect to 
give coffee to their wives was a legitimate 
cause for divorce among the Turks. The 
men made promise when marrying never 
to let their wives be without coffee. "That," 
says Fulbert de Monteith, "is perhaps more 
prudent than to swear fidelity." 

Another Arabic manuscript by Bichivili 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris fur- 
nishes us with this pen picture of the cof- 
fee ceremony as practised in Constanti- 
nople in the sixteenth century: 

In all the great men's houses, there are ser- 
vants whose business it ds only to take care of 
the coffee ; and the head officer among them, or 
he who has the inspection over all the rest, has 
an apartment allowed him near the hall which 
is destined for the reception of visitor-s. The 
Turks call this officer Kavveghi, that is. Over- 
seer or Steward of the Coffee. In the harem or 
ladies' apartment in the seraglio, there are a 
great many such officers, each having forty or 
fifty Baltafiix under them, who, after they have 
served a certain time in these coffee-houses, are 
sure to be well provided for, either by an ad- 
vantageous post, or a sufficient quantity of land. 
In the houses of persons of quality likewise, 
there are pages, called Itchogluns, who receive 
the coffee from the stewards, and present it to 
the company with surprising dexteritv and ad- 
dress, as soon as the master of the faniily makes 
a sign for that purpose, which is all the language 
they ever speak to them. ... The coffee is 
served on salvers without feet, made commonly 



Serving Cofiee to a Guest. — After a Drawing in an Early Edition of "Arabian Nights" 

of painted or varnished wood, and sometimes 
of silver. They hold from 15 to 20 china dishes 
each ; and such as can afford it have these 
dishes half set in silver . . . the dish may be 
easily held with the thumb below and two fingers 
on the upper edge. 

In his Relation of a Journey to Constan- 
tinople in 1657, Nicholas Rolamb, the Swe- 
dish traveler and envoy to the Ottoman 
Porte, gives us this early glimpse of cof- 
fee in the home life of the Turks:" 

This [coffee] is a kind of pea that grows in 
l^fiupt, which the Turks pound and boil in water, 
and take it for pleasure instead of brandy, sip- 
ping it through the lips boiling hot, persuading 
themselves that it consumes catarrhs, and pre- 
vents the rising of vapours out of the stomach 
into the head. The drinking of this coffee and 
smoking tobacco (for tho' the use of tobacco 
is forbidden on pain of death, yet it is used in 
Constantinople more than any where by men 

'"A Collection of Voyages and Travels. London, 
1745. (vol. Iv: p. 690.) 

as well as women, tho' secretly) makes up all 
the pastime among the Turks, and is the only 
thing they treat one another with; for which 
reason all people of distinction have a particular 
room next their own, built on purpose for it, 
where there stands a jar of coffee continually 

It is curious to note that among several 
misconceptions that were held by some of 
the peoples of the Levant was one that 
coffee was a promoter of impotence, al- 
though a Persian version of the Angel 
Gabriel legend says that Gabriel invented 
it to restore the Prophet's failing metabo- 
lism. Often in Turkish and Arabian litera- 
ture, however, we meet with the sugges- 
tion that coffee drinking makes for sterility 
and barrenness, a notion that modern medi- 
cine has exploded; for now we know that 
coffee stimulates the racial instinct, for 
which tobacco is a sedative. 




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Chapter IV 

When the three great temperance beverages, cocoa, tea, and coffee, 
came to Europe — Coffee first mentioned by Rauivolf in 1582 — 
Early days of coff'ee in Italy — How Pope. Clement VIILJbaptised it 
and made it a truly Qhrisiicm beverage — The first European coffee 
house, in Venice, 1645 — The famous Caffe Florian — Other cele- 
brated Venetian coffee houses of the eighteenth century — The 
romantic story of Pedrocchi, the poor lemonade-vender, who built the 
most beautiful coffee house in the world 

OF the Avorld's three great temperance 
beverages, cocoa, tea, and coffee, 
cocoa was the first to be introduced 
into Europe, in lh28^hy the Spanish. It 
was nearly a century later^ift-1 61^, that 
the Dutch brought tea to Europe. Vene- 
tian traders introduced coffee into Europe 
in 1615. 

Europe's first knowledge of coffee was 
brought by travelers returning from the 
Far East and the Levant. Leonhard Rau- 
wolf started on his famous journey into the 
Eastern countries from Marseilles in Sep- 
tember, 1573, having left his home in 
Augsburg, the 18th of the preceding May. 
He reached Aleppo in November, 1573 ; and 
returned to Augsburg, February 12, 1576. 
He was the first European to mention cof- 
fee; and to him also belongs the honor of 
being the first to refer to the beverage in 

Rauwolf was not only a doctor of medi- 
cine and a botanist of great renown, but 
also official physician to the town of Augs- 
burg. When he spoke, it was as one having 
authority. The first printed reference to 
coffee appears as chauhe in chapter viii of 
Rauwolf 's Travels, which deals with the 
manners and customs of the city of Aleppo, 
The exact passage is reproduced herewith 
as it appears in the original German edi- 
tion of Rauwolf published at Frankfort 

and Lauingen in 1582-83. 
tion is as follows: 

The transla- 

If you have a mind to eat something or to 
drinii other liquors, there is commonly an open 
shop near it, where you sit down upon the 
ground or carpets and drink together. Among 
the rest they have a very good drink, by them 
called Chauhe [coffee] that is almost as black 
as ink, and very good in illness, chieti.v that of 
the stomach ; of this they drink in the morning 
early in open places before everybody, without 
any fear or regard, out of China cups, as hot as 
they can : they put it often to their lips but 
drink but little at a time, and let it go round 
as they sit. 

In this same water they take a fruit called 
Bunnu which In its bigness, shape and color is 
almost like unto a bayberry, with two thin shells 
surrounded, which, as they informed me, are 
brought from the Indies; but as these in them- 
selves are, and have within them, two yellowish 
grains in two distinct cells, and besides, being 
they agree in their virtue, figure, looks, and 
name with the Bunchum of Avicenna, and Bunca 
of Rasis ad Almans exactly; therefore I take 
them to be the same, until I am better informed 
by the learned. This liquor is very common 
among them, wherefore there are a great many 
of them that sell it. and others that sell the 
berries, everywhere in their Batzars. 

The Early Days of Coffee in Italy 

It is not easy to determine just whvm the 
use of coffee spread from Constantinople to 
the western parts of Europe ; but it is more 
than likely that the Venetians, because of 
their close proximity to, and their great 




trade with, the Levant, were the first 
acquainted with it. 

Prospero Alpini (Alpinus; 1553-1617), 
a learned physician and botanist of Padua, 
journeyed to P^^ypt in 1580, and brought 
back news of coffee. He was the first to 
print a description of the coffee plant and 
drink in his trcatisi' The Vlanis of Kgypl, 
written in Tjatin, and published in Venice, 
1592. lie says: 

I have seen this tree at Cairo, it being tlio 
same tree that prodnces the frnit, so common in 
Egypt, to which they giro tlie name hnn or hnn. 
The Arabians and the Egyptians malie a sort 
of decoction of it, which they drink instead of 
wine; and it is sokl in all their public houses, 
as wine Is with us. They call this drink caova. 
The fruit of which they make it comes from 
"Arabia the Happy," and the tree that I saw 
looks like a spindle tree, but the leaves are 
thicker, tougher, and greener. The tree is never 
without leaves. 

Alpini makes note of the medicinal quali- 
ties attributed to the drink by dwellers in 
the Orient, and many of these were soon 
incorporated into Europe's materia medica. 

Johann Vesling (Veslingius; 1598- 
1649), a German botanist and traveler, 
settled in Venice, where he became known 
as a learned Italian physician. He edited 
(1640) a new edition of Alpini 's work; but 
earlier (1638) published some comments on 
Alpini 's findings, in the course of which 
he distinguished certain qualities found in 
a drink made from the husks (skins) of 
the coffee berries from those found in the 
liquor made from the beans themselves, 
which he calls the stones of the coffee fruit. 
He says : 

Not only in Egypt is coffee in much request, 
but in almost all the other provinces of the 
Turkish Empire. Whence it comes to pass that 
it is dear even in the Levant and scarce among 
the Europeans, who by that means are deprived 
of a very wholesome liquor. 

From this we may conclude that coffee 
was not wholly unknown in Europe at that 
time. Vesling adds that when he visited 
Cairo, he found there two or three thousand 
coffee houses, and that "some did begin to 
put sugar in their coffee to correct the bit- 
terness of it, and others made sugar-plums 
of the berries." 

Coffee, Baptized hy the Pope 

Shortly after coffee reached Rome, ac- 
cording to a much quoted legend, it was 
again threatened with religious fanaticism, 
which almost caused its excommunication 
from Christendom. It ig rel$.te4 that eer- 

Ax EuniTEENTii Centuuy Italian Coffee House 
After Goldoni, by Zatta 

tain priests appealed to Pope Clement VIII 
(1535-1605) to have its use forbidden 
among Christians, denouncing it as an in- 
vention of Satan. They claimed that the 
Evil One, having forbidden his followers, 
the infidel Moslems, the use of wine — no 
doubt because it was sanctified by Christ 
and used in the Holy Communion — had 
given them as a substitute this hellish black 
brew of his which they called coffee. For 
Christians to drink it was to risk falling 
into a trap set by Satan for their souls. 

It is further related that the pope, made 
curious, desired to inspect this Devil's 
drink, and had some brought to him. The 
aroma of it was so pleasant and inviting 
that the pope was tempted to try a cupful. 
After drinking it, he exclaimed, "Why, this 
Satan's drink is so delicious that it would 
be a pity to let the infidels have exclusive 
use of it. We shall fool Satan by baptizing 
it, and making it a truly Christian bev- 
erage. ' ' 

Thus, whatever harmfulness its oppo- 
nents try to attribute to coffee, the fact 
remains (if we are to credit the story) that 
it has been baptized and proclaimed un- 
harmful, and a "truly Christian beverage," 
by his holiness the pope. 

The Venetians had further knowledge of 
coffee in 1585, when Cianfrancesco Moro- 
sini, city magistrate at Constantinople, re- 
ported to the Senate that the Turks ' ' drink 
a black water as hot as they can suffer it, 
which is the infusion of a bean called cavee, 
which is said to possess the virtue of stimu- 
lating mankind." 

Dr. A. Couguet, in an Italian review, 
asserts that Europe's first cup of coffee 
was sipped in Venice, toward the close of 



the sixti'oiith eontury. He is of the opin- 
ion that the first berries were imported by 
Mocenjrio, who was called the pevcre, be- 
cause he made a huge fortune trading- in 
spices and others specialties of the Orient. 
In Kilf) Pierre (Pietro) Delia Valle 
(ir)8() - 1652), the well known Italian trav- 
eler and author of Travels in India and 
Persia, wrote a letter from Constantinople 
to his friend Mario Schipano at Venice: 

The Turks have a drink of black color, which 
dnrinj? tho suinnier is very cooliii}?. whereas in 
the winter it heats and warms the Itody, re- 
maiiiiiiK always the same boverajje and not 
changinj; its sui»stance. They swallow it hot 
as it comes from the fire and they drink it in 
lonj; draughts, not at dinner time, but as a 
kind of dainty and sipped slowly while talking 
with one's friends. One cannot find any meet- 
ings among them where they drink it not. . . . 
With this drink, whicli they call cahue, they 
divert themselves in their conversations. . . . 
It is made with the grain or fruit of a certain 
tree called cahuc. . . . When I return I will 
bring some with me and 1 will impart the knowl- 
edge to the Italians. 

Nobility in an Early Vknetian CAFFfe 

From the Grevembroch collection in the Museo 

Delia Valle 's countrymen, however, were 
in a fair way to become well acquainted 
with the beverage, for already (1615) it 
had been introduced into Venice. At first 
it was used largely for medicinal purposes; 
and high prices were charged for it. Ves- 
ling says of its use in Europe as a medicine, 
''the first step it made from the cabinets 
of the curious, as an exotic seed, being into 
the apothecaries' shops as a drug." 

The first coffee house in Italy is said to 
have been opened in 1645, but convincing 
confirmation is lacking. In the beginning, 
the beverage was sold with other drinks by 
lemonade-venders. The Italian word aqua- 
cedratajo means one who sells lemonade and 
similar refreshments; also one who sells 
coffee, chocolate, liquor, etc. Jardin says 
the beverage was in general use throughout 
Italy in 1645. It is certain, however, that 
a coffee shop was opened in Venice in 1683 
under the Procuratie Nuove. The famous 
Gaffe Florian was opened in Venice by 
Floriono Francesconi in 1720. 

The first authoritative treatise devoted to 
coffee only appeared in 1671. It was writ- 
ten in Latin by Antoine Faustus Nairon 
(1635-1707), Maronite professor of the 
Chaldean and Syrian languages in the Col- 
lege of Rome. 

During the latter part of the seventeenth 
century and the first half of the eighteenth, 
the coffee house made great progress in 
Italy. It is interesting to note that this 
first European adaptation of the Oriental 
coffee house was known as a caffe. The 
double f is retained by the Italians to this 
day, and by some writers is thought to 
have been taken from coffea, without the 
double f being lost, as in the case of the 
French and some other Continental forms. 

To Italy, then, belongs the honor of hav- 
ing given to the Western world the real 
coffee house, although the French and 
Austrians greatly improved upon it. It was 
not long after its beginning that nearly 
every shop on the Piazza di San Marco in 
Venice was a caffe \ Near the Piazza was 
the Caffe della Ponte dell' Angelo, where 
in 1792 died the dog Tabacchio, celebrated 
by Vincenzo Formaleoni in a satirical eu- 
logy that is a parody of the oration of 
Ubaldo Bregolini upon the death of Angelo 

In the Caffe della Spaderia, kept by 
Marco Ancilloto, some radicals proposed to 

1 Molnipnti, Pompeo. La Btoria di Venezia nella 
Vita Privata. Bergamo, 1908. (pt 3 : p. 245.) 



open a rcadiiifr-room to encourage the 
spread of liberal ideas. The inquisitors 
sent a foot-soldier to notify the proprietor 
that he should inform the first person en- 
tering the room that he was to present him- 
self before their tribunal. The idea was 
thereupon abandoned. 

Among other celebrated coffee houses 
was the one called Menegazzo, from the 
name of the rotund proprietor, Menico. 
This place was much frequented by men 
of letters ; and heated discussions were com- 

GoLDONi IN A Venetian Caffe 
From a painting by P. Longhi 

mon there between Angelo Maria Barbaro, 
Lorenzo da Ponte, and others of their time. 

The coffee house gradually became the 
common resort of all classes. In the morn- 
ings came the merchants, lawyers, physi- 
cians, brokers, workers, and wandering ven- 
ders; in the afternoons, and until the late 
hours of the nights, the leisure classes, in- 
cluding the ladies. 

For the most part, the rooms of the first 
Italian caffe were low, simple, unadorned, 
without windows, and only poorly illumi- 
nated by tremulous and uncertain lights. 
Within them, however, joyous throngs 
passed to and fro, clad in varicolored gar- 
ments, men and women chatting in groups 
here and there, and always above the buzz 
there were to be heard such choice bits of 

scandal as made worthwhile a visit to the 
coffee house. Smaller rooms were devoted 
to gaming. 

In the "little square" described by Gol- 
doni ^ in his comedy The Coffee House, 
where the combined barber-shop and gam- 
bling house was located, Don Marzio, that 
marvelous type of slanderous old romancer, 
is shown as one typical of the period, for 
Goldoni was a satirist. The other charac- 
ters of the play were also drawn from the 
types then to be seen every day in the 
coffee houses on the Piazza. 

In the square of St. Mark's, in the eigh- 
teenth century, under the Procuratie Vec- 
chie, were the caffe Re di Francia, Abbon- 
danza, Pitt. I'eroe, Regina d'Uiigheria, 
Orfeo, Redentore. Coraggio - Speranza, 
Arco Celeste, and Quadri. The last-named 
was opened in 1775 by Giorgio Quadri of 
Corfu, who served genuine Turkish coffee 
for the first time in Venice. 

Under the Procuratie Nuove were to be 
found the caffe Angelo Custode, Duca di 
Toscana, Buon genio - Doge, Imperatore 
Imperatrice della Russia, Tamerlano, Fon- 
tane di Diana, Dame Venete, Aurora Piante 
d'oro, Arabo - Piastrelle, Pace, Venezia 
trionfante, and Florian. 

Probably no coffee house in Europe ha.s 
acquired so world-wide a celebrity as that 
kept by Florian, the friend of Canova the 
sculptor, and the trusted agent and ac- 
quaintance of hundreds of persons in and 
out of the city, who found him a mine of 
social information and a convenient city 
directory. Persons leaving Venice left 
their cards and itineraries with him ; and 
new-comers inquired at Florian 's for tid- 
ings of those whom they wished to see, 
"He long concentrated in himself a knowl- 
edge more varied and multifarious than 
that possessed by any individual before or 
since," says Hazlitt^ who has given us 
this delightful pen picture of caffe life in 
Venice in the eighteenth century: 

Venetian coffee was said to surpass all others, 
and the article placed before his visitors by 
Florian was the best in Venice. Of some of the 
establishments as they then existed, Molmenti 
lias supplied us with illustrations, in one of 
which Goldoni the dramatist is represented as 
a visitor, and a female mendicant is soliciting 

So cordiftl -was the esteem of the great sculp- 
tor Canova for him, that when Florian was 

= Goldoni, Carlo. La Bottegn di Caffe. IToO. 
=• Hazlitt, W. Carew. The Venetian Republic. Lon- 
don, 1905. (vol. 2: pp. 1012-15.) 




Flokian's Famous Cafkk in the Piazza di San Marco, Venice, Nineteenth Century 

overtaken by gout, he made a model of his 
leg. that the poor fellow might be spared the 
anguish of fitting himself with boots. The 
friendsliip had begun when Canova was enter- 
ing on liis career, and he never forgot the 
.substantial services which had been rendered 
to him in the hour of need. 

In later days, the Cafife Florian was under 
the superintendence of a female chef, and the 
waitresses used, in the case of certain visitors, 
to fasten a liower in the button-hole, perhaps 
allusively to the name. In the Piazza Itself 
girls would do the same thing. A good deal of 
hospitality is, and has ever been, dispensed at 
Venice in the caf6s and restaurants, which do 
service for the domestic hearth. 

There were many other establishments de- 
voted, more especially in the latest period of 
Venetian independence, to the requirements of 
those wlio desired such resorts for purposes of 
conversation and gossip. These houses were 
frequented by various classes of patrons — the 
patrician, the politician, the soldier, the artist, 
the old and the young — all had their special 
haunts where the company and the tariff were 
in accordance with the guests. The upper cir- 
cles of male society — all above the actually 
poor — gravitated hither to a man. 

For the Venetian of all ranks the coffee house 
was almost the last place visited on departure 
from the city, and the first visited on his re- 
turn. His domicile was the residence of his 
wife and the repository of his possessions; but 
only on exceptional occasions was it the scene 
of domestic hospitality, and rare were the in- 
stances when the husband and wife might be 
seen abroad together, and when the former 

would invite the lady to enter a cafe or a con- 
fectioner's shop to partake of an ice. 

The Caffe Florian has undergone man^^ 
changes, but it still survives as one of the 
favorite caffe in the Piazza San Marco. 

By 1775 coffee-house history had begun 
to repeat itself in Venice. Charges of im- 
morality, vice, and corruption, were pre- 
ferred against the caffe; and the Council 
of Ten in 1775, and again in 1776, directed 
the Inquisitors of State to eradicate these 
' ' social cankers. ' ' However, they survived 
all attempts of the reformers to suppress 

The Caffe Pedrocchi in Padua was an- 
other of the early Italian coffee houses that 
became famous. Antonio Pedrocchi (1776- 
1852) was a lemonade- vender who, in the 
hope of attracting the gay youth, the stu- 
dents of his time, bought an old house with 
the idea of converting the ground floor 
into a series of attractive rooms. He put 
all his ready money and all he could borrow 
into the venture, only to find there were 
no cellars, indispensable for making ices 
and beverages on the premises, and that the 
walls and floors were so old that they 
crumbled when repairs were started. 

He was in despair ; but, nothing daunted, 
he decided to have a cellar dug. What was 



his surprise to find the house was built 
over the vault of an old church, and that 
the vault contained considerable treasure. 
The lucky proprietor found himself free to 
continue his trade of lemonade-vender and 
coffee-seller, or to live a life of ease. Being 
a wise man, he adhered to his original plan ; 
and soon his luxurious rooms became the 
favorite rendezvous for the smart set of 
his day. In this period lemonade and cof- 
fee frequently went together. The Gaffe 
Pedrocchi is considered one of the finest 
pieces of architecture erected in Italy in 
the nineteenth century. It was begun in 
1816, opened in 1831, and completed in 

Coffee houses were early established in 
other Italian cities, particularly in Rome, 
Florence, and Genoa. 

In 1764, 11 Cajfe, a purely philosophical 
and literary periodical, made its appear- 
ance in Milan, being founded by Gount 
Pietro Verri (1728-97). Its chief editor 
was Gesare Beccaria. Its object was to 
counteract the influence and superficiality 
of the Arcadians. It acquired its title from 
the fact that Gount Verri and his friends 
were wont to meet at a coffee house in 
Milan kept by a Greek named Demetrio. It 
lived only two years. 

Other periodicals of the same name ap- 
peared at later periods. 


Chapter V 


What French travelers did for coffee — The introduction of coffee 
hy P. de la Roque into Marseilles in 1644 — The first commercial 
importation of coffee from Egypt — The first French coffee house — 
Failure of the attempt hy physicians of Marseilles to discredit 
coffee — Soliman Aga introduces coff'ee into Paris — Cabarets a 
caffe — Celebrated works on coffee hy French writers 

WE are indebted to three great French 
travelers for much valuable knowl- 
edge about coffee; and these gal- 
lant gentlemen first fired the imagination 
of the French people in regard to the bev- 
erage that was destined to play so impor- 
tant a part in the French revolution. They 
are Tavernier (1605 - 89), Thevenot (1633 - 
67), and Bernier (1625-88). 

Then there is Jean La Roque (1661- 
1745), who made a famous "Voyage to 
Arabia the Happy" {Voyage de rArabie 
Heureuse) in 1708 - 13 and to whose father, 
P. de la Roque, is due the honor of having 
brought the first coffee into France in 1644. 
Also, there is Antoine Galland (1646 - 
1715), the French Orientalist, first trans- 
lator of the Arabian Nights and antiquary 
to the king, who, in 1699, published an an- 
alysis and translation from the Arabic of 
the Abd-al-Kadir manuscript (1587), giv- 
ing the first authentic account of the origin 
of coffee. 

Probably the earliest reference to coffee 
in France is to be found in the simple 
statement that Onorio Belli (Bellus), the 
Italian botanist and author, in 1596 sent to 
Charles de I'ficluse (1526 - 1609), a French 
physician, botanist and traveler, "seeds 
used by the Egyptians to make a liquid 
they call cave.^" 

P. de la Roque accompanied M. de la 
Haye, the French ambassador, to Constan- 

• Jardin, fidelestan. Le Caf&icr vt le Caji. I'aris, 
1895. (p. 16 ) 

tinople; and afterward traveled into the 
Levant. Upon his return to Marseilles in 
1644, he brought with him not only some 
coffee, but "all the little implements used 
about it in Turkey, which were then looked 
upon as great curiosities in France. ' ' There 
were included in the coffee service some 
findjans, or china dishes, and small pieces 
of muslin embroidered with gold, silver, 
and silk, which the Turks used as napkins. 

Jean La Roque gives credit to Jean de 
Thevenot for introducing coffee privately 
into Paris in 1657, and for teaching the 
French how to use coffee. 

De Thevenot writes in this entertaining 
fashion concerning the use of the drink :u 
Turkey in the middle of the seventeenth 
century : 

They have another drink in ordinary use. 
Tliey call it cahve and take it all hours of the 
day. This drink is made from a berry roasted 
in a pan or other utensil over the fire. They 
pound it into a very fine powder. 

When they wish to drink it, they take a boiler 
made expressly for the purpose, which they call 
an ibrik; and having filled it with water, they 
let it boil. When it boils, they add to about 
three cups of water a heaping spoonful of the 
powder ; and when it boils, they remove it 
quickly from the fire, or sometimes they stir it, 
otherwise it would boil over, as it rises very 
quickly. When it has boiled up thus ten or 
twelve times, they pour it into porcelain cups, 
which they place upon a platter of painted wood 
and bring it to you thus boiling. 

One must drink it hot, but in several instal- 
ments, otherwise it is not good. One takes it in 




little swallows ' for fear of burning one's self — 
in such fashion that in a cavekane (so they call 
the places where it is sold ready prepared), one 
hears a plea.saiit little musical sucking sound. 
. . . There are some who mix with it a small 
quantity of cloves and cardamom seeds ; others 
add sugar. 

It was really out of curiosity that the 
[)e()ple of France took to coffee, says Jar- 


D E 


5£ Ic Dctioit dc la Mcr Rouge. Fau par 
Ics Fran^oji pout U premiere fbis, dans 
les anncci 1708,170^^6^1710. 

d'un Voyage fait du Pott de Mcka a laCour du 
Roy d'Yemcn , dans la feconde Expedition dc$ 
annees 1711, 1711 & 1713. 

Sc le Fruit du Cafe , dfc (Te fur ks Obfervations 
de ceux qui ont fait cc dernier Voyage. Et un 
Traitc hiftonque de Toi igine & du progfcs du 
Cafe, tant dans lAfie que dans 'Europe ; de Con 
introduftion en France, & de rctiblmemcnt dc 
fon ufagc a Paris. 


Chez A N D R E^ C A 1 L L F. A u, fur Ic Quay dcj 
Auguftins, p;es la rue Pavec , a Saint Andre. 

M D C C X V L 
^vtc jipprobmon , ^& Privilege du R»y, 

Title Page of La Roque's Work, 1716 

din; "they wanted to know this Oriental 
beverage, so much vaunted, although its 
blackness at first sight was far from attrac- 

About the year 1660 several merchants 
of Marseilles, who had lived for a time in 
the Levant and felt they were not able to 
do without coffee, brought some coffee beans 
home with them; and later, a group of 
apothecaries and other merchants brought 
in the first commercial importation of eof- 

^ "Drop by drop they take it in," said Cotoviciis. 

fee in bales from Egypt. The Lyons mer- 
chants soon followed suit, and the use of 
coffee became general in those parts. In 
1671 certain private persons opened a cof- 
fee house in Marseilles, near the Exchange, 
which at once became popular with mer- 
chants and travelers. Others started up, 
and all were crowded. The people did not, 
however, drink any the less at home. "In 
fine," says La Roque, "the use of the bev- 
erage increased so amazingly that, as was 
inevitable, the physicians became alarmed, 
"thinking it would not agree with the in- 
habitants of a country hot and extremely 

The age-old controversy was on. Some 
sided with the physicians, others opposed 
them, as at Mecca, Cairo, and Constanti- 
nople; only here the argument turned 
mainly on the medicinal question, the 
Church this time having no part in the 
dispute. "The lovers of coffee used the 
physicians very ill when they met together, 


^^' Ail Cn/c dcj'sniii en. 

.'ir/xhit j->ir h }7an%rcf. 

' TA.-n^^U J-c, 

The Coffee Tree as Pictured by La Roque in 
His "Voyage de l'Arabie Heureuse" 

and the physicians on their side threatened 
the coft'ee drinkers with all sorts of dis- 
eases. ' ' 

Matters came to a head in 1679, when 
an ingenious attempt by the physicians of 





Marseilles to discredit coffee took the form 
of having a young student, about to be ad- 
mitted to the College of Physicians, dis- 
pute before the magistrate in the town hall, 
a question proposed by two physicians of 
the Faculty of Aix, as to whether coffee was 
or was not prejudicial to the inhabitants of 

The thesis recited that coffee had won 
the approval of all nations, had almost 
wholly put down the use of wine, although 
it was not to be compared even with the 
lees of that excellent beverage; that it was 
a vile and worthless foreign novelty ; that 
its claim to be a remedy against distempers 
was ridiculous, because it was not a bean 
but the fruit of a tree discovered by goats 
and camels; that it was hot and not cold, 
as alleged; that it burned up the blood, 
and so induced palsies, impotence, and 
leanness ; ' ' from all of which we must nec- 
essarily conclude that coffee is hurtful to 
the greater part of the inhabitants of Mar- 
seilles. ' ' 

Thus did the good doctors of the Faculty 
of Aix set forth their prejudices, and this 
was their final decision upon coffee. Many 
thought they overreached themselves in 
their misguided zeal. They were handled 
somewhat roughly in the disputation, which 
disclosed many false reasonings, to say 
nothing of blunders as to matters of fact. 
The world had already advanced too far to 
have another decision against coffee count 
for much, and this latest effort to stop its 
onward march was of even less force than 
the diatribes of the Mohammedan priests. 
The coffee houses continued to be as much 
frequented as before, and the people drank 
no less coffee in their homes. Indeed, the 
indictment proved a boomerang, for con- 
sumption received such an impetus that the 
merchants of Lyons and Marseilles, for the 
first time in history, began to import green 
coffee from the Levant by the ship-load in 
order to meet the increased demand. 

Meanwhile, in 1669, Soliman Aga, the 
Turkish ambassador from Mohammed IV to 
the court of Louis XIV, had arrived in 
Paris. He brought with him a considerable 
quantity of coffee, and introduced the cof- 
fee drink, made in Turkish style, to the 
French capital. 

The ambassador remained in Paris only 
from July, 1669, to May, 1670, but long 
enough firmly to establish the custom he 
had introduced. Two years later, Pascal, 

4 . AtyoM. tfp^s/U 

A Coffee Branch With Flowers and Fruit 


an Armenian, opened his coffee-drinking 
booth at the fair of St.-Germain, and this 
event marked the beginning of the Parisian 
coffee houses. The story is told in detail 
in chapter XI. 

The custom of drinking coffee having 
become general in the capital, as well as 
in Marseilles and Lyons, the example was 
followed in all the provinces. Every city 
soon had its coffee houses, and the beverage 
was largely consumed in private homes. La 
Roque writes: "None, from the meanest 
citizen to the persons of the highest quality, 
failed to use it every morning or at least 
soon after dinner, it being the custom like- 
wise to offer it in all visits." 

"The persons of highest quality" en- 
couraged the fashion of having cabarets a 
caffe; and soon it was said that there could 
be seen in France all that the East could 
furnish of magnificence in coffee houses, 
"the china jars and other Indian furniture 



being richer and more valuable than the 
gold and silver with which they were lav- 
ishly adorned." 

In 1671 there appeared in Lyons a book 
entitled The Most Excellent Virtues of the 
Mulberry, Called Coffee, showing the need 
for an authoritative work on the subject — 
a need that was ably filled that same year 
and in Lyons by the publication of Philippe 
Sylvestre Dufour's admirable treatise, 
Concerning the Use of Coffee, Tea, and 
Chocolate. Again at Lyons, Dufour pub- 
lished (1684) his more complete work on 
The Manner of Making Coffee, Tea, and 
Chocolate. This was followed (1715) by 
the publication in Paris of Jean La Roque 's 
Voyage de I' Arabic Heureuse, containing 
the story of the author's journey to the 
court of the king of Yemen in 1711, a de- 
scription of the coffee tree and its fruit, 
and a critical and historical treatise on its 
first use and introduction to France. 

La Roque 's description of his visit to the 
king's gardens is interesting because it 
shows the Arabs still held to the belief that 
coffee grew only in Arabia. Here it is : 

There was nothing remarkable in the King's 
Gardens, except the great pains taken-to furnish 
it with all the kinds of trees that are common 
in the country ; amongst which there were the 
cofifee trees, the finest that could be had. When 
the deputies represented to the King how much 
that was contrary to the custom of the Princes 
of Europe (who endeavor to stock their gardens 

chiefly with the rarest and most uncommon 
plants that can be found) the King returned 
them this answer: That he valued himself as 
much upon his good taste and generosity as any 
Prince in Europe ; the coffee tree, he told them, 
was indeed common in his country, but it was 
not tlie less dear to him upon that account ; the 
perpetual verdure of it pleased him extremely; 
and also the thoughts of its producing a fruit 
which was nowhere else to be met with ; and 
when he made a present of that that came from 
his own Gardens, it was a great satisfaction to 
him to be able to say that he had planted the 
trees that produced it with his own hands. 

The first merchant licensed to sell coffee 
in France was one Damame Frangois, a 
bourgeois of Paris, who secured the privi- 
lege through an edict of 1692. He was 
given the sole right for ten years to sell 
coffees and teas in all the provinces and 
towns of the kingdom, and in all territories 
under the sovereignty of the king, and re- 
ceived also authority to maintain a ware- 

To Santo Domingo (1738) and other 
French colonies the caf6 was soon trans- 
ported from the homeland, and thrived un- 
der special license from the king. 

In 1858 there appeared in France a leaf- 
let-periodical, entitled The Cafe, Literary, 
Artistic, and Commercial. Ch. Woinez, the 
editor, said in announcing it: "The Salon 
stood for privilege, the Caf6 stands for 
equality." Its publication was of short 

Chapter VI 

The first printed reference to coffee in English — Early mention of 
coffee by noted English travelers and writers — The Lacedaemonian 
''black broth'' controversy — How Conopios introduced coffee drink- 
ing at Oxford — The first English coffee house in Oxford — Two 
English botanists on coffee 

ENGLISH travelers and writers of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
were quite as enterprising as their 
Continental contemporaries in telling about 
the coffee bean and the coffee drink. The 
first printed reference to coffee in English, 
however, appears as chaoua in a note by 
a Dutchman, Paludanus, in Linschoten's 
Travels, the title of an English translation 
from the Latin of a work first published in 
Holland in 1595 or 1596, the English edi- 
tion appearing in London in 1598. A re- 
production made from a photograph of the 
original work, with the quaint black-letter 
German text and the Paludanus notation in 
roman, is shown herewith. 

Hans Hugo (or John Huygen) Van Lin- 
sehooten (1563 - 1611) was one of the most 
intrepid of Dutch travelers. In his de- 
scription of Japanese manners and cus- 
toms we find one of the earliest tea refer- 
ences. He says: 

Their manner of eating and drinking is : everie 
man hatli a table alone, without table-clothes 
or napkins, and eateth with two pieces of wood 
like the men of Chino : they drinke wine of Rice, 
wherewith they drink themselves drunke, and 
after their meat they use a certain drinke, which 
4s a pot with bote water, which they drinke 
as bote as ever they may indure, whether it be 
Winter or Summer. 

Just here Bernard Ten Broeke Paludanus 
(1550-1633), Dutch savant and author, 
professor of philosophy at the University 
of Leyden, himself a traveler over the four 
quarters of the globe, inserts his note con- 
taining the coffee reference. He says: 

The Turks holde almost the same manner of 
drinking of their Chaona \ which they make of 
certalne fruit, which is like unto the Bakelaer ^ 
and by the Egyptians called Bon or Ban:' : they 
take of this fruite one pound and a half, and 
roast them a little in the fire and then sieth 
them in twenty .pounds of water, till the half 
be consumed away : this drinke they take every 
morning fasting in their chambers, out of an 
earthen pot, being verie bote, as we doe here 
drinke aqiKwmnposita* in the morning : and they 
say that it strengtheneth and maketh them 
warme, breaketh wind, and openeth any stop- 

Van Linsohooten then completes his tea 
reference by saying: 

Tlie manner of dressing their meat is alto- 
gether contrarie unto other nations: the afore- 
said warme water is made with the powder of 
a certaine hearbe called Chaa, which is much 
esteemed, and is well accounted among them. 

The chaa is, of course, tea, dialect t'eh. 

In 1599, *'Sir" Antony (or Anthony) 
Sherley (1565 - 1630), a picturesque gentle- 
man-adventurer, the first Englishman to 
mention coffee drinking in the Orient, sailed 
from Venice on a kind of self-appointed, 
informal Persian mission, to invite the shah 
to ally himself with the Christian princes 
against the Turks, and incidentally, to pro- 
mote English trade interests in the East. 
The English government knew nothing of 
the arrangement, disavowed him, and for- 
bade his return to England. However, the 

1 Misprinted thus in the original Dutch and here 
Read Chaoua, i. e., Arabic qahwah. 

* Laurel berry, of which the taste is bitter and 
disagreeable. From Latin bacca lauri. 

' Arabic, iunn ; coffee berries. 

* Brandewijn in original Dutch. 




expedition got t() Persia; and the account 
of the voyage thither was written by Will- 
iam Parry, one of the Sherley party, and 
was published in London in 1601. It is 
interesting because it contains the first 
printed reference to coffee in English em- 
ploying the more modem form of the word. 
The original reference was photographed 
for this work in the Worth Library of the 
British Museum, and is reproduced here- 
with on page 39. 

The passage is part of an account of the 
manners and customs of the Turks (who. 
Parry says, are "damned infidells") in 
Aleppo. It reads: 

Tliey sit at tlieir meat (which is served to 
them upon the ground) as Tailers sit upon their 
stalls, crosse-legd ; for the most part, passing 
the day in banqueting and carowsing, untill they 
surfet, drinking a eertaine lifpior, which they 
do call Coffc, which is made of seede nuich like 
mustard seede, which will soone intoxicate the 
braine like our Metheglin." 

Another early English reference to coffee, 
wherein the word is spelled "coffa", is in 
Captain John Smith's book of Travels and 
Adventure, published in 1603. He says of 
the Turks : ' ' Their best drink is coff'a of a 
graine they call coava.'^ 

This is the same Captain John Smith who 
in 1607 became the founder of the Colony 
of Virginia and brought with him to Amer- 
ica probably the earliest knowledge of the 
beverage given to the new Western world. 

Samuel Purchas (1527-1626), an early 
English collector of travels, in Purchas His 
Pilgrimes, under the head of ' ' Observations 
of William Finch, merchant, at Socotra" 
(Sokotra — an island in the Indian Ocean) 
in 1607, says of the Arab inhabitants : 

Tlieir best entertainment is a china dish of 
Coho, a blacke bitterisli drinke, made of a berry 
like a baybei'ry, brought from Mecca, supped 
off hot, good for the head and stomache." 

Still other early and favorite English 
references to coffee are those to be found in 
the Travels of William Biddulph. - This 
work was, published in 1609. It is entitled 
The Travels of Certayne Englishmen in 
Africa, Asia, etc. . . Begunne in 1600 
and by some of them finished — this yeere 
1608. These references are also reproduced 
herewith from the black-letter originals 
in the British Museum (see page 40). 

Biddulph 's description of the drink, and 
of the coffee-house customs of the Turks, 

was the first detailed account to be written 
by an Englishman. It also appears in 
Purchas His Pilgrimes (1625). But, to 
quote : 

Tlieir most common drinke is Coffa, which is 
a blacke kinde of drinke, made of a kind of 
I'ulse like Pease, called Coaua; which being 
grownd in the Mill, and boiled in water, they 
drinke it as hot as they can suffer it ; which they 
tinde to agree very well with them against their 
crudities, and feeding on hearbs and rawe 
meates. Other compounded drinkes they have, 
called Sherbet, made of Water and Sugar, or 
Hony, with Snow therein to make it coole; for 
although the Countrey bee hot, yet they keepe 
Snow all the yeere long to coole their drinke. 
It is accounted a great curtesie amongst them 
to give unto their frends when they come to 
visit them, a Fin-ion or Scudella of Coffa, which 
is more holesome than toothsome, for it causeth 
good concoction, and driveth away drovvsinesse. 

Some of them will also drinke Bersh or 
Opium, which maketh them forget themselves, 
and talk idely of Castles in the Ayre, as though 
they saw Visions, and heard Revelations. Tlieir 
Coffa liouses are more common than Ale-houses 
in England ; but they use not so much to sit 
in the houses, as on benches on both sides the 
streets, neere unto a Coffa house, every man 
with his Fin-ionful ; which being smoking 
hot, they use to put it to their Noses & Eares, 
and then sup it off by leasure, being full of 
idle and Ale-house talke vk^hiles they are amongst 
themselves drinking it ; if there be any news, 
it is talked of there. 

Among other early English references to 
coffee we find an interesting one by Sir 
George Sandys (1577 - 1644), the poet, who 
gave a start to classical scholarship in Amer- 
ica by translating Ovid's Metamorphoses 
during his pioneer days in Virginia. In 
1610 he spent a year in Turkey, Egypt, and 
Palestine, and records of the Turks : ' 

Although they be destitute of Taverns, yet 
have they their Coffa-houses, which something 
resemble them. There sit they chatting most 
of the day; and sippe of a drinke called Coffa 
(of the berry that it is made of) in little China 
dishes as hot as they can suffer it: blacke as 
soote, and tasting not much unlike it (why not 
that Wacke broth which was in use amongst 
the Lacedemonians^) which helpeth, as they 
say, digestion, and procureth alacrity : many of 
the Cofta-men keeping beautiful! boyes, who 
serve as stales to procure them customers. 

Edward Terry (1590-1660), an English 
traveler, writes, under date of 1616, that 
many of the best people in India who are 
strict in their religion and drink no wine 
at all, "use a liquor more wholesome than 
pleasant, they call coffee ; made by a black 
Seed boyld in water, which turnes it almost 

" Mead. 

• Purchas His Pilgrimes. 

London, 1625. 

' Sandys, Sir George. 
1673. (p. 66.) 

Sandys' Travels. London, 






rr.rclohrs tuijctt \0c mcanc to goe ab;o<iD 

tuto t1)c totunc 0; countnc, tbcp put tbcin off 

Ui7]rn tbrp goc fo:tb, putting oti great IvpDc 

l):ffrbc0,aijo r cinmg borne tbep put tbem off 

aijiim, miD cnft tl)circloUc0\)pon tbctr fljotU* 

set saiiQ as among ottiernatioiw it ui a gso 

figl)t to fa men iwtb Uibitc nno pcaloU) bap;c 

aiiD luliitc tiTtb,ta)itb tbem it to eaocmco the 

6ltbufttbm;intbe U)0:[8, anD fixKe biNiU 

inrancothci'uiaplo nwhe t5)cir bapjc aiiD 

trtrtbblathc, fc: tb.u tbc tobite caufetb tbctr 

(tricf,anotbc bUchc mahctb tbcm glafi. Ebc 

ItUc cuSomc IS among tbe Uionir n, fo} n0 

tbc>>gocab:eaDtbcpbduc tbfir Daugbterst 

inapDca brfojc tbcni, ano tbcir men feruants 

tome bebmfi,vu'.ncb m Spjignc ie cleanecon- 

traric, raiD UJben tbcp arc great luitb rtjitec, 

tbci' tr e tbctr girblcs fo bare about tbctti,tbat 

men icculD tbtn^e tbcp Qjulu burlt , an& 

U)bcn tbcp arc not luttb CbilDc , tijcp 

locate tbcir gtrDIcs fo fl,ichc, tbat pou U)oulo 

tbmhc tbcp luonlD fall from tbe ir boOicc,fap; 

tngtbstL'i'ri-pincncc tbcp Co finCc, iftbcp 

UoulD not Cce fo,tbcp fljoulo bauc eutll lucKe 

iuitb tbfJr fruicr, ano pjcfcntip as fcone as 

tbcp arc DeUttcreD of tbeirebilorn, inftfrD tf 

. tbi.n(l>;n5 botb tU motber ana tbe cbilo iwtb 

fomc f omfo:tablc meat, tbcp p;cfentlp UJaCb 

tbeclwlDcmcoU) toater, aniifo;ntime giue 

tbe mctbrr ^rp Utile to eate, anu tbat of no 

great fubQance.SLbeir manner of eating an» 

c:mhiiis 10: Cuetiem«t batb a table ^alonc, 

iDittjout tablc-clotbcsoj naphtns,anOcatetb 

iDitbtUJo ports of lDQji3,liUetbcmenofClii' 

11.V, tbep D;mkc iuinc of Hice, tobcreimtb 

tbep Dimh tbemfclurs D;unhe,an6 after tbcir 

tncattbcp tfea rertatne Ojmkc, lubirbisa 

pot tuitb bote toater , lublcb tbep ti:mKe as 

botcaseuerttjepmapmourc, laijctberitbe 

©amtcro} Summer. 

^nnotjt .'^'''^ Turkcs holdc -alinoll the f.inic 
D.I'ilJ. ' i^'^ncofdrinkinq; of their ^i;4*«/»,wlucli 
• .' tlicy make of ccrtainc fruit, which is like 
xntothc'SAli^/Aer ^ iiid by the Egyptians 
called 5«fl or S4«; they takcof this huuc 
one pound and a half, androall thcnia 
little ill the fire, and then ficth theiu in 
twentic poundcs of water, till the half 
beconfuuiedatvay.- this dnnketliey take 
ciierie uiorning/a'rtin^ in their chambers , 
out ofan earthen pot, being vcric liote, 
as we doe here dr i nkc aqHacemftfitm i n the 
morning: and tlicy fay that it flrcngthcn. 
ethandmakcth tliem warmc, breakcth 
\vind,sndopencfh aiiv ffoppinsj. 

Ebc mannrt of Djeamg tbefr imat i& al« 
togptljcr coittrartc twto otticr nation»:tl)t «u 
ft^efiitt) tDonm tuater tsmafee tmtl Vtn po\» 
tarofaccrtalne ftcacbcealkt> Chaa, tobicti 
temutfjeOfftneft, anhts toll WMonte^of 
Tht i^ookt. 

among tbcm,anDal fittb ns a»t? of an? ccwt' 
trnance oj babflitic bauc tbe faio toater Itcpt 
foj tbcm m a ferret plire, aiio tbe gentlemen 
make It tbemfelues, aiiD toben tbr? totU en- 
tcrtamcanp of tbcir fnencs. tbrp giue bun 
fome of tbat toamte luater to ojmkc: fo; tbe 
pots toliercm tbep fietbit, ano uibcrcmlbc 
bcarbc is kept, tuittj tbe eartben cups tobieb 
tbcp D?uihc It «i . tbcp cttocmc as mucb of 
tbem.os lucooeof Diamants.Uubies ano O' 
tber precious Hones, ano tbep are not el!a> 
mcOfo;tbe(r nciunes, but fo: tbctr oltmes, 
ano fo; tbat tbcp tocre maoc bp a geD too;k- 
man: anotoknotoanDlicepcfucbbptbem' 
fclucs, tbep tahc great anO fpeciall care, as 
alfo of fucb as arc tbe \xilctocrs of tbcm, 
ano are fhilfiill in tbcm , as luitb t)s tbe 
golofmttb p:ifetb ano tialuetb Glurr ano goto, 
ano tbe ieVueltcrs all kinoes of pjccious 
ttonrs: foiftbnrpotsicbppesbc ol^an olO 
i eicellet U)o:hmasmahing,tbcparc tooitii 
4 0; 5 tboufaO Cutats 0: mo;e ttjepcccc.SSIjt 
iiing oiB\.wz,n oto giue fs:fucb a pot,bautn9 
tb;(cfttt, 14 tboufano Ducats, ano a lapan 
beuig a Cb;itliun in tbe tolon of Sacay^gaue 
fo; fiub a pot 1 400 &ucats , anti pet It bao ? 
pfcceo \jpon it . "Cbcp Doe liftetoifc eOcettv 
mucb of onp picture 0; table, tobrrem ispain^ 
teoablachetrtr, o;ablncKebtrO. attOto^ 
ti]ep tooloeittsmaoc ofU]a3D,nnlbpanMi< 
tlent % cuntng matttcr,tbep guie tobatfoctKt 
pou iDill afUe fo: it. 3t bappenctb fome tunes 
tt}at fucb a piitiire 10 folD fo; 3 st 4 tbetifano 
Ducats ant) mo:e. Ebepalfoelttemcmucti 
of a gooo rapier, mafic bp an olo anD cunnmg 
inaifter.fwb a one manp times coftetb % oj * 
4 tboufano Crotons tbe pcrce. Ebefe tbmgs 
Doe tbcp hff epe anD cftcrmc fo; tbcir Jclods, 
as W cftamc our Jetof Is t p;eaous flones* 
llnDtobcntoc aftetijem \xA)v tbepcttarme 
tl)emfo mucb .tbcp afKcbsagamc, Uibptoe 
efttcmcfo UicU of our p;c£iaiis ftoncs f ietD« 
els, U)t)trtbp tbcrc is not unv p;oftte to be 
baD anD ferue to no ottjcr ufr, tbcit oirtp fo; a 
fl)tU)c, 5 tbat tbcir tbliigs ferue to fome cnb. 
Cbeir JufhceanDgoucnimcnt \i asfoU 
Iotoctb:€bcir kings arc callcDlacuay, anD 
'are abfolutclv Li^os of tbe lanD , nottott^' 
ftanoingtbcp kocpcfo; tbemfelues asmn^ 
as IS neccifarp fo: tftcm anD tbctr ettate, ana 
tbe rctt of tbcir lanD tbep ocupDc among 9' 
tbers, tobtcb arc callcD Cunixus, ipbicb arc 
like our Carles anD Duhe0:tbcfe are appoln* 
teffbPtbeUmg, aitDbc taufctb tbcm to go' 
ucnur t rule ttje lanD as it plctife tb blm: tbep 
arc bouno to feme tijt iitng iis mcU in peace, 
as (n toarres, at tbeir otonr c ott j c barges, 
acc8;tKn3to tbcu:^ nnotfic aunnent 
laUits of Upan.^befc c^imuviis bane otbem 
tjnDcrtlxwtsUcD lums, UJbubarcliUf our 



It appears as Chaona (chaoua) Ju the second line of tbe roman text notation by Paludanus 



into the same colour, but doth very little 
alter the taste of the water [!], notwith- 
standing it is very good to help Digestion, 
to quicken the Spirits and to cleanse the 

In 1623, Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626), in 
his Historia Vitae et Mortis says: "The 
Turkes use a kind of herb which they cali 
caphe"; and, in 1624, in his Sylva Syl- 
varum ' (published in 1627, after his death) , 
he writes : 

They have in Turkey a drink called coffa 
made of a berry of the same name, as black as 
soot, and of a strong scent, but not aromatical ; 
which they take, beaten into powder, in water, 
as hot as they can drink it: and they take it, 
and sit at it in their coffa-houses, which are like 
our taverns. This drink comforteth the brain 
and heart, and helpeth digestion. Certainly this 
berry coffa, the root and leaf betel, the leaf 
tobacco, and the tear of poppy (opium) of which 
the Turks are great takers (supposing it ex- 
pelleth all fear), do all condense the spirits,' 
and make them strong and aleger. But it seerofi-^ 
eth tli^y wei-e taken after several manners; for^ 
coffa and opium are taken down, tobacco but 
in smoke, and betel is but champed in the mouth 
with a little lime. 

Robert Burton (1577-1640), English 
philosopher and humorist, in his Anatomy 
of Melancholy*' writes it 1632: 

The Turkes have a drinke called coffa (for 
they use no wine), so named of a bei*ry as blacke 
as soot and as bitter (like that blacke drinke 
which was in use amongst the Lacedemonians 
and perhaps the same), which they sip still of, 
and sup as warme as they can suffer ; they spend 
much time in those coffa-houses, which are 
somewhat like our Ale-houses or Taverns, and 
there they sit, chatting and drinking, to drive 
away the time, and to be merry together, be- 
cause they find, by experience, that kinde of 
drinke so used, helpeth digestion and procureth 

Later English scholars, however, found 
sufficient evidence in the works of Arabian 
authors to assure their readers that coffee 
sometimes breeds melancholy, causes head- 
ache, and "maketh lean much." One of 
these, Dr. Pocoke, (1659: see chapter TIT) 
stated that, "he that would drink it for 
livelinesse sake, and to discusse slothful- 
nesse ... let him use much sweet 
meates with it, and oyle of pistaceioes, and 
butter. Some drink it with milk, but it is 
an error, and such as may bring in danger 
of the leprosy." Another writer observed 
that any ill effects caused by coffee, unlike 

• Bacon, Francis. Sylva Sylvarum. London, 1627. 
(vol. v: p. 26.) 

» Burton. Robert. The Anatomy o1 Melancholy. 
Oxford, 1632. (pt. 2 : sec. 5 : p. 397.) This reference 
does not appear m the earlier editions of 1621, 24, 28. 

those of tea, etc., ceased when its use was 
discontinued. In this connection it is in- 
teresting to note that in 1785 Dr. Benjamin 
Mosely, physician to the Chelsea Hospital, 
member of the College of Physicians, etc., 
probably having in mind the popular idea 
that the Arabic original of the word coffee 
meant force, or vigor, once expressed the 
hope that the coffee drink might return to 
popular favor in England as "a cheap 
substitute for those enervating teas and 
beverages which produce the pernicious 
habit of dram-drinking." 

About 1628, Sir Thomas Herbert (1606 - 
1681), En^ish traveler and writer, records 
among his observations on the Persians 

"They drink above all the rest Coho or Copha : 

by Turk and Arab called Caphe and Cahua: a 

' drink imitating that in the Stigian lake, black, 

thick, and bitter: destrain'd from Bunchi/, 

liunnu, or Bay berries; wholesome, they say, 

if hot, for it expels melancholy . . . but not so 

Jimuch regarded for those good properties, as 

•■■tfrom a Romance that it was invented and 

brew'd by Gabriel . . . to' restore the decayed 

radical 'Moysfcure of kind hearted Mahomet." 

In 1634, Sir Henry Blount (1602-82), 
sometimes referred to as "the father of the 
English coffee house, ' ' made a journey on a 
Venetian galley into the Levant. He was 
invited to drink cauphe in the presence of 
Amurath IV; and later, in Egypt, he tells 
of being served the beverage again "in a 
porcelaine dish". This is how he describes 
the drink in Turkey : " 

They have another drink not good at meat, 
called Cauphe, made of a Berry as big as a 
small Bean, dried in a Furnace, and beat to 
Ponder, of a Soot-colour, in taste a little bit- 
terish, that they seeth and drink as hot as may 
be endured : It is good all hours of the day, 
but especially morning and evening, when to 
that purpose, they entertain themselves two or 
three hours in Cauphe-houses, which in all Tur- 
key abound more than Inns and Ale-houses with 
us ; it is thought to be the old black broth used 
so much by the Lacedemonians, and dryeth ill 
Humours in the stomach, comforteth the Brain, 
never causeth Drunkenness or any other Sur- 
feit, and is a harmless entertainment of good 
Fellowship; for there upon Scaffolds half a 
yard high, and covered with Mats, they sit 
Cross-leg'd after the Turkish manner, many 
times two or three hundred together, talking, 
and likely with some poor musick passing up 
and down. 

This reference to the Lacedaemonian black 
broth, first by Sandys, then by Burton, 

" Herbert. Sir T. Travels. London, ed. 1638. 
(p. 241.) 

" Blount. Sir Henry. A Voyage Into the Levant, 
London. 1671.- (pp. 20, 21, 54, 55, 138, 1.39.) 



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again by Blount, and concurred in by James Although it seems likely that coffee must 
Howell (1595-1666), the first historio- have been introduced into England some- 
grapher royal, gave rise to considerable time during the first quarter of the seven- 
controversy among Englishmen of letters in teenth century, with so many writers and 
later years. It is, of course, a gratuitous travelers describing it, and with so much 
speculation. The black broth of the Lace- trading going on between the merchants 
dsemonians was "pork, cooked in blood and of the British Isles and the Orient, yet the 
seasoned with salt and vinegar."" first reliable record we have of its advent 

Sl^eti; molt common o^tntie 10 Coi6,lTif)ul^ Coffa, 
tea Uadtetnittof o;iritte maoe of afcino of fdulfe like peafe^ 
cofleoCotua; tD^ being atotxmo in tt)e milUanDbotleD in 
imtet^ H^D^mSeitasbot astljep can fuffcc it; taljicl) t\)c^ 
ftmto agne tieri^Uieatinl!) tbem againtt tljcic auoities ano 
iitetat onbeacb^anD catoemeates* 

3it t0 occountcD a great cuttt&t amonsS tbem to giue bnto 
tlieic f ccnos iDtjen i\)e^ tome to utat tbem,a ifm- ton o^ ^cut^el^ 
laofCofFa, lD^ut)tduto;etiolefometbant(Dt|irome)fo^ it cao^ 
fetl) SOD concoction , ano o^iuetb atnav o;»tD(ineaei 

^ W^tit Cof{a^ottfe0 ace mo;e common t^mSk-^onttBrn 
(i^nglami; butti^ bfenotfomu^tofit in V)t ^onttB us on 
bencbe0 on botb Qoe^ tbe ftreets netce bnto a CoSi boufe, euec? 
ttian tuitb W if tn*ton ful^ixibicl^beins rmotunsbot^ tf^e; bfe to 
put itto ^eit nofes f eaceB, anb tlftn fnpitoff b^Ieadtce, being 
fnllof iole anoiaie-boufetalbelubtled tije^ace amongtltt^em^ 
felues blinking of it ; if tbece be ani> nt\s)Sy it is talbeo of tljere^ 

Kefekences to Coffee as Found in Kiddulpii's Travels 1G04) 
J From the black - letter original in the British Museum 

William Harvey (1578-1657), the fa- is to be found in the Diary and Corre- 
mous English physician who discovered the spondence of John Evelyn, F. B. S. ", 
circulation of the blood, and his brother are under "Notes of 1637", where he says : 
reputed to have used coffee before coffee Tiiere came in my time to tine college (Baliol, 
houses came into vogue in London — this Oxford) one Natlianiel Conopios. out of Greece, 
must have been previous to 1652. "I re- f™m Cyrill, the Patriarch of Constantinople, 
TTiPmher" ^savs Anbrev" "be was wont to ^^'^^"' ''^turning many years after was made (as 
^^™, ® 'J^^^ f ?V^^ ' ^f ^,^? T 1 ^ understand) Bishop of Smyrna. He was the 
dnnke coffee ; which his brother Eliab did, first I ever saw drink cofCee ; which custom 
before coffee houses were the fashion in came not into England till thirty years there- 
London." Houghton, in 1701, speaks of a^t^i'- 

"the famous inventor of the circulation of Evelyn should have said thirteen years 

the blood. Dr. Harvey, who some say did after; for then it was that the first coffee 

frequently use it." house was opened (1650). 
"TTT-.u . r, . rr,. r. .: .■ . . .■ :■ Couoplos was a native of Crete, trained 

** Gilbert. Gustav. The Conxtttuttonal Anttqmttes • ii, /-i i x. i tt i • 

of Sparta and Athena. London. 1895. (p. 69.) m tile Lrreek ctiurch. He became pnmore 

" Aubrev. John. Lives of Eminent Men. London, 

1813. (vol. ii : pt. 2 : pp. 384 - 85.) " Works, (vol. iv : p. 389.) 



Cyril], Patriarch of Constantinople. 

''hen Cyrill was strangled by the vizier, 

Jonopios fled to England to avoid a like 

jarbarity. He came with credentials to 

irchbishop Laud, who allowed him main- 

'tenance in Balliol College. 

It was observed that while he continued in 
Balliol College he made the drink for his own 
use called Coffey, and usually drank it every 
morninj;:. heiiiR the first, as the antients of that 
House have informed me, that was ever drank 
in Oxon.^^ 

In 1640 John Parkinson (1567-1650), 
English botanist and herbalist, published 

Mol's Coffeie House, Exeter, England, 
Now WouTii's Art KoOxMS 

his Theatrnm Botanicum^% containing the 
first botanical description of the coffee plant 

"a Wood, Anthony. Athcnac Oxonicnaea. London, 
1692. (vol. il: col. 058.) 

" Parkinson. John. Theatruin Botanictim. London, 
1640. (p. 1622.) 

in English, referred to as ''Arbor Bon cum 
sua Buna. The Turkes Berry Drinke". 

His work being somewhat rare, it may be 
of historical interest to quote the quaint 
description here : 

Alpinus, in his Booke of Egiptian plants, giv- 
eth us a description of this tree, which as hee 
saith, hee saw in the garden of a certain Cap- 
taine of the lanissarics, which was brought out 
of Arabia fclix and there planted as a rarity, 
never seene growing in those places before. 

Tlie tree, saith Alpinus, is somewhat like unto 
the Evonymus Pricketimber tree, whose leaves 
were thicker, harder, and greener, and always 
abiding greene on the tree; the fruite is called 
Buna and is somewhat bigger then an Hazell 
Nut and longer, round also, and pointed at the 
end, furroweti also on both sides, yet on one 
side more conspicuous than the other, tha$ it 
might be parted in two, in each side whereof 
lyeth a small long white kernell, flat on that 
side they joyne together, covered with a yellow- 
ish skinne. of an acid taste, and somewhat bit- 
ter withall and contained in a thinne shell, of 
a darkish ash-color ; with these berries gen- 
erally in Arabia and Egipt, and in other places 
of the Turkes Dominions, they make a decoc- 
tion or drinke. which is in the stead of Wine 
to them, and generally sold in all their tappe 
houses, called by the name of Caova; Paludatms 
saith Chaova, and Ramcolflus Chaube. 

This drinke hath many good physical prop- 
erties therein ; for it strengtheneth a week 
stomacke, helpeth digestion, and the tumors and 
obstructions of the liver and spleene, being 
drunke fasting for some time together. 

In 1650, a certain Jew from Lebanon, 
in some accounts Jacob or Jacobs by name, 
in others Jobson ", opened "at the Angel 
in the parish of St. Peter in the East", 
Oxford, the earliest English coffee house 
and "there it [coffee] was by some who 
delighted in noveltie, drank". Chocolate 
was also sold at this first coffee house. 

Authorities differ, but the confusion as to 
the name of the coffee-house keeper may 
have arisen from the fact that there were 
two — Jacobs, who began in 1650; and an- 
other. Cirques Jobson, a Jewish Jacobite, 
who followed him in 1654. 

The drink at once attained great favor 
among the students. Soon it was in such 
demand that about 1655 a society of young 
students encouraged one Arthur Tillyard, 
' ' apothecary and Royalist, ' ' to sell ' ' coffey 
publickly in his house against All Soules 
College." It appears that a club composed 
of admirers of the young Charles met at 
Tillyard's and continued until after the 
Restoration. This Oxford Coffee Club was 
the start of the Royal Society. 

" D'lsraeli. I. Curiosities of Literature. London, 
1798. (vol. i : p. 345.) 



Jacobs removed to Old Southhampton 
Buildings, London, where he was in 1671. 

Meanwhile, the first coffee house in Lon- 
don had been opened by Pasqua Ros^e in 
1652 ; and, as the remainder of the story of 
coffee's rise iind fall in England centers 
around the coffee houses of old London, we 
shall reserve it for a separate chapter. 

Uf course, the coffee-house idea, and the 
use of coffee in the home, quickly spread 
to other cities in Great Britain ; but all the 
coffee houses were patterned after the Lon- 

When the Bishop of Berytus (Beirut) 
was on his way to Cochin China in 1666, 
he reported that the Turks used coffee to 
correct the indisposition caused in the 
stomach by the bad water. "This drink," 
he says, "imitates the effect of wine , . . 
has not an agreeable taste but rather bitter, 
yet it is much used by these people for the 
good effects they find therein." 

In 1686, John Ray (1628-1704), one of 
the most celebrated of English naturalists, 
published his Universal History of Plants, 

JUthough they be dcftitutc of Taucms,yct hauc they their 
CofEhhoufes, which Ibmething refemble them. There fiifthey chatting moil of 
the day; ^ fippe of a drinke called Coffii (of the berry that it is made of) in little 
Ckmd diiibes, as hoc as they can futfer it : blacke as foote^nd tailing not much W 
Iikeic<why.pot that blade broth which was invfeamongft the LucedemoniAns'^) 
which helpeth,fe they (ay, digeftion,andprocureth alacrity: many of the Coffa- 
DKolce^mgbcautiiuUboyeSjwhoienieasftalesto procure them cii^ 

Early English Reference to Coffee by Sib Gbx)rge Sandys 
From the seventh edition of Sandys' Travels, London, 1673 

don model. Mol's coffee house at Exeter, 
Devonshire, which is pictured on page 41, 
was one of the first coffee houses established 
in England, and may be regarded as typical 
of those that sprang up in the provinces. 
It had previously been a noted club house ; 
and the old hall, beautifully paneled with 
oak, still displays the arms of noted mem- 
bers. Here Sir Walter Ealeigh and con- 
genial friends regaled themselves with 
smoking tobacco. This was one of the first 
places where tobacco was smoked in Eng- 
land. It is now an art gallery. 

notable among other things for being the 
first work of its kind to extol the virtues of - 
coffee in a scientific treatise. 

R. Bradley, professor of botany at Cam- 
bridge, published (1714) A Short Histori- 
cal Account of Coffee, all trace of which 
appears to be lost. 

Dr. James Douglas published in London 
(1727) his Arior Yemensis fructum Cofe 
ferens; or, a description and History of 
the Coffee Tree, in which he laid under 
heavy contribution the Arabian and French 
writers that had preceded him. 

Chapter VII 


Hotv the enterprising Dutch traders captured the first world's 
market for coffee — Activities of the Netherlands East India Com- 
pany — The first coffee house at the Hague — The first public auction 
at Amsterdam in 1711, when Java coffee brought forty-seven cents a 
pound, green 

THE Dutch had early knowledge of 
coffee because of their dealings with 
the Orient and with the Venetians, 
and of their nearness to Germany, where 
Rauwolf first wrote about it in 1582. They 
were familiar with Alpini's writings on the 
subject in 1592. Paludanus, in his coffee 
note on Linschoten's Travels, furnished 
further enlightenment in 1598. 

The Dutch were always great merchants 
and shrewd traders. Being of a practical 
turn of mind, they conceived an ambition 
to grow coffee in their colonial possessions, 
so as to make their home markets head- 
quarters for a world 's trade in the product. 
In considering modern coffee-trading, the 
Netherlands East India Company may be 
said to be the pioneer, as it established in 
Java one of the first experimental gardens 
for coffee cultivation. 

The Netherlands East India Company 
was formed in 1602. As early as 1614, 
Dutch traders visited Aden to examine into 
the possibilities of coffee and coffee-trad- 
ing. In 1616 Pieter Van dan Broeck 
brought the first coffee from Mocha to 
Holland. In 1640 a Dutch merchant, named 
Wurffbain, offered for sale in Amsterdam 
the first commercial shipment of coffee from 
Mocha. As indicating the enterprise of 
the Dutch, note that this was four years 
before the beverage was introduced into 
France, and only three years after Conopios 
had privately instituted the breakfast coffee 
cup at Oxford. 

About 1650, Varnar, the Dutch minister 
resident at the Ottoman Porte, published 
a treatise on coffee. 

When the Dutch at last drove the Por- 
tuguese out of Ceylon in 1658, they began 
the cultivation of coffee there, although the 
plant had been introduced into the island 
by the Arabs prior to the Portuguese in- 
vasion in 1505. However, it was not until 
1690 that the more systematic cultivation 
of the coffee plant by the Dutch was under- 
taken in Ceylon. 

Regular imports of coffee from Mocha to 
Amsterdam began in 1663. Later, supplies 
began to arrive from the Malabar coast. 

Pasqua Ros6e, who introduced the coffee 
house into London in 1652, is said to have 
made coffee popular as a beverage in Hol- 
land by selling it there publicly in 1664. 
The first coffee house was opened in the 
Korten Voorhout, the Hague, under the 
protection of the writer Van Essen ; others 
soon followed in Amsterdam and Haarlem. 

At the instigation of Nicolaas Witsen, 
burgomaster of Amsterdam and governor of 
the East India Company, Adrian Van Om- 
men, commander of Malabar, sent the first 
Arabian coffee seedlings to Java in 1696, 
recorded in the chapter on the history of 
coffee propagation. These were destroyed 
by flood, but were followed in 1699 by a 
second shipment, from which developed the 
coffee trade of the Netherlands East Indies, 
that made Java coffee a household word in 
every civilized country. 




A trial shipment of the coffee grown near 
Batavia was received at Amsterdam in 1706. 
also a plant for the botanical gardens. This 
plant subsequently became the progenitor 
of most of the coffees of the West Indies 
and America. 

The first Java coffee for the trade was 
received at Amsterdam 1711. The ship- 
ment consisted of 894 pounds from the 
Jakatra plantations and from the interior 
of the island. At the first public auction, 
this coffee brought twenty-three and two- 
thirds stuivers (about forty-seven cents) 
per Amsterdam pound. 

The Netherlands East India Company 
contracted with the regents of Netherlands 
India for the compulsory delivery of coffee ; 
and the natives were enjoined to cultivate 
coffee, the production thus becoming a 
forced industry worked by government. A 
"general system of cultivation" was intro- 
duced into Java in 1832 by the government, 
which decreed the employment of forced 
labor for different products. Coffee - grow- 
ing was the only forced industry that ex- 

isted before this system of cultivation, and 
it was the only government cultivation that 
survived the abolition of the system in 
1905 - 08, The last direct government in- 
terest in coffee was closed out in 1918. From 
1870 to 1874, the government plantations 
yielded an average of 844,854 piculs * a 
year; from 1875 to 1878, the average was 
866,674 piculs. Between 1879 and 1883, it 
rose to 987,682 piculs. From 1884 to 1888, 
the average annual yield was only 629,942 

Holland readily adopted the coffee house ; 
and among the earliest coffee pictures pre- 
served to us is one depicting a scene in a 
Dutch coffee house of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, the work of Adriaen Van Ostade 
(1610-1675), shown on page 586. 

History records no intolerance of coffee 
in Holland. The Dutch attitude was ever 
that of the constructionist. Dutch inventors 
and artisans gave us many new designs in 
coffee mortars, coffee roasters, and coffee 
serving - pots. 

* A weight of from 1.33 to 140 pounds. 

Chapter VIIj 


The contributions made by German travelers and writers to the 
literature of the early history of coffee — The first coffee house in 
Hamburg opened by an English merchant — Famous coffee houses 
of old Berlin — The first coffee periodical, and the first kaffee- 
klatsch — Frederick the Great's coffee-roasting monopoly — Coffee 
persecutions — ''Coffee-smellers" — The first coffee king 

AS we have already seen, Leonhard 
Rauvvolf, in 1573, made his memora- 
ble trip to Aleppo and, in 1582, won 
for Germany the honor of being the first 
European country to make printed mention 
of the coffee drink, 

Adam Olearius (or Oelschlager) , a Ger- 
man Orientalist (1599-1671), traveled ia 
Persia as secretary to a German embassy 
in 1633 - 36. Upon his return he published 
an account of his journeys. In it, under 
date of 1637, he says of the Persians: 

They drink with their tobacco a certain blaclc 
water, whicli they call cahwa, made of a fruit 
brought out of Egypt, and which is in colour 
like ordinary wheat, and in taste like Turkish 
wheat, and is of the bigness of a little bean. 
. . . The Persians think it allays the natural 

In 1637, Joh. Albrecht von Mandelsloh,, 
in his Oriental Trip, mentions "the black 
water of the Persians called Kahwe", say- 
ing ' ' it must be drunk hot. ' ' 
^ .Coffee drinking was introduced into Ger- 
many about 1670. The drink appeared at 
the court of the great elector of Branden- 
burg in 1675. Northern Germany got its. 
first taste of the beverage from London, an 
English merchant opening the first coffee- 
house in Hamburg in 1679 - 80. Regens- 
burg followed in 1689 ; Leipsic, in 1694 
Nuremberg, in 1696; Stuttgart, in 1712;. 
Augsburg, in 1713; and Berlin, in 1721. 
In that year (1721) King Frederick Will- 
iam I granted a foreigner the privilege of 

conducting a coffee house in Berlin free of 
all rental charges. It was known as the 
English coffee house, as was also the first 
coffee house in Hamburg. And for many 
years, English merchants supplied the 
coffees consumed in northern Germany; 
while Italy supplied southern Germany. 

Other well known coffee houses of old 
Berlin were, the Royal, in Behren Strasse; 
that of the Widow Doebbert, in the Stech - 
bahn ; the City of Rome, in Unter - den - 
Linden; Amoldi, in Kronen Strasse; 
Miercke, in Tauben Strasse, and Schmidt, 
in Post Strasse. 

Later, Philipp Falck opened a Jewish 
coffee house in Spandauer Strasse. In the 
time of Frederick the Great (1712-1786) 
there were at least a dozen. coffee houses in 
the metropolitan district of Berlin. In the 
suburbs were many tents where coffee was 

The first coffee periodical, The New and 
Curious Coffee House, was issued in Leipsic 
in 1707 by Theophilo Georgi. The full title 
was The New and Curious Coffee House, 
formerly in Italy hut now opened in Ger- 
many. First water debauchery. "City of 
the Well." Brunnenstadt by Lorentz 
Schoepfftvasser [draw-water] 1707. The 
second issue gave the name of Georgi as the 
real publisher. It was intended to be in 
the nature of an organ for the first real 
-German kaft'ee-klatsch. It was a chronicle 
of the comings and goings of the savants 




who frequented the "Tusculum" of a 
well-to-do gentleman in the outskirts of 
the city. At the beginning the master of 
the house declared: 

I know that the gentlemen here speak French, 
Italian and other languages. I know also that 
in many eoflfee and tea meetings it is considered 
requisite that French be spoken. May I ask, 
however, that he who calls upon me should use 
no other language l)ut German. We are all 
Germans, we are in Germany ; shall we not con- 
duct ourselves like true Germans? 

In 1721 Leonhard Ferdinand Meisner 
published at Nuremberg the first compre- 
hensive German treatise on coffee, tea, and 

During the second half of the eighteenth 
century coffee entered the homes, and be- 
gan to supplant flour-soup and warm beer 
at breakfast tables. 

Meanwhile coffee met with some opposi- 
tion in Prussia and Hanover. Frederick 
the Great became annoyed when he saw 
how much money was paid to foreign coffee 
merchants for supplies of the green bean, 
and tried to restrict its use by making 
coffee a drink of the "quality". Soon all 
the German courts had their own coffee 
roasters, coffee pots, and coffee cups. 

Many beautiful specimens of the finest 
porcelain cups and saucers made in Meissen, 
and used at court fetes of this period, sur- 
vive in the collections at the Potsdam and 
Berlin museums. The wealthy classes fol- 
lowed suit; but when the poor grumbled 
because they could not afford the luxury, 
and demanded their coffee, they were told 
in effect: "You had better leave it alone. 
Anyhow, it's bad for you because it causes 
sterility." Many doctors lent themselves 
to a campaign against coffee, one of their 
favorite arguments being that women using 
the beverage must forego child-bearing. 
Bach's Coffee Cantata^ (1732) was a 
notable protest in music against such libels. 

On September 13, 1777, Frederick issued 
a coffee and beer manifesto, a curious docu- 
ment, which recited: 

It is disgusting to notice the increase in the 
quantity of coffee used by my subjects, and the 
amount of money that goes out of the country 
in consequence. Everybody is using coffee. If 
possible, this must be prevented. My people 
must drink beer. His Majesty was brought up 
on beer, and so were his ancestors, and his 
officers. Many battles have been fought and 
won by soldiers nourished on beer; and the 
King does not believe that coffee-drinking sol- 
diers can be depended upon to endure hardship 

1 See chapter XXXII. 

or to beat his enemies in case of the occurrence 
of another- war. 

For a time beer was restored to its 
honored place ; and coffee continued to be a 
luxury afforded only by the rich. Soon a 
revulsion of feeling set in ; and it was found 
that even Prussian military rule could not 
enforce coffee prohibition. Whereupon, in 
1781, finding that all his efforts to reserve 
the beverage for the exclusive court circles, 
the nobility, and the officers of his army, 
were vain, the king created a royal mo- 
nopoly in coffee, and forbade its roasting 
except in royal roasting establishments. At 
the same time, he made exceptions in the 
cases of the nobility, the clergy, and govern - 
ment officials; but rejected all applications 
for coffee-roasting licenses from the com- 
mon people. His object, plainly, was to 
confine the use of the drink to the elect. 
To these representatives of the cream of 
Prussian society, the king issued special 
licenses permitting them to do their own 
roasting. Of course, they purchased their 
supplies from the government; and as the 
price was enormously increased, the sales 
yielded Frederick a handsome income. In- 
cidentally, the possession of a coffee-roast- 
ing license became a kind of badge of 
membership in the upper class. The poorer 
classes were forced to get their coffee by 
stealth; and, failing this, they fell back 

Richteb's Coffee House in Leipsic 
TEENTH Century 


upon numerous barley, wheat, corn, 
chicory, and dried-fig substitutes, that soon 
appeared in great numbers. 

This singular coffee ordinance was known 
as the "Declaration du Roi concernant la 



Coffee House in Germany — Middle of the Seventeenth Century 

ve7ite du cafe hruU", and was published 
January 21, 1781. 

After placing the coffee regie (revenue) 
in the hands of a Frenchman, Count de 
Lannay, so many deputies were required to 
make collections that the administration 
of the law became a veritable persecution. 
Discharged wounded soldiers were mostly 
employed, and their principal duty was to 
spy upon the people day and night, fol- 
lowing the smell of roasting coffee when- 
ever detected, in order to seek out those 
who might be found without roasting 
permits. The spies were given one-fourth 
of the fine collected. These deputies made 
themselves so great a nuisance, and became 
so cordially disliked, that they were called 
"coffee-smellers" by the indignant people. 

Taking a leaf out of Frederick's book, the 
elector of Cologne, Maximilian Frederick, 
l)ishop of Miinster, (Duchy of Westphalia) 
on February 17, 1784, issued a manifesto 
which said : 

To our great displeasure we have learned 
that in our Duchy of Westphalia the misuse of 
the coffee beverage has become so extended that 
to counteract the evil we command that four 
weeks after the publication of this decree no 
one shall sell coffee roasted or not roasted un- 
der a fine of one hundred dollars, or two years 
in prison, for each offense. 

Every coffee-roasting and coffee-serving place 
shall he closed, and dealers and hotel-koepers 
are to get rid of their coffee supplies in four 
weeks. It is only permitted to obtain from the 
outside coffee for one's own consumption in lots 
of fifty pounds. House fathers and mothers 
shall not allow their work people, especially 
their washing and ironing women, to prepare 

coffee, or to allow it in any manner under "a 
penalty of one hundred dollars. 

All officials and government employees, to 
avoid a penalty of one hundred gold florins, are 
called upon closely to follow and to keep -a 
watchful eye over this decree. To the one who 
reports such persons as act contrary to this 
decree shall be granted one-half of the said 
money fine with absolute silence as to his name. 

This decree was solemnly read iq. the 
pulpits, and was published besides in the 
usual places and ways. There immediately 
followed a course of 'Helling-ons", and 
of "coffee-smellings", that led to many 
bitter enmities and caused much unhappi- 
ness in the Duchy of Westphalia. Appar- 
ently the purpose of the archduke was to 
prevent persons of small means from enjoy- 
ing the drink, while those who could afford 
to purchase fifty pounds at a time were to 
be permitted the indulgence. As was to be 
expected, the scheme was a complete failure. 

While the king of Prussia exploited his 
subjects by using the state coffee monopoly 
as a means of extortion, the duke of Wiirt- 
temberg had a scheme of his own. He sold 
to Joseph Suess-Oppenheimer, an un- 
scrupulous financier, the exclusive privilege 
of keeping coffee houses in Wiirttemberg. 
Suess-Oppenheimer "in turn sold the in- 
dividual coffee-house licenses to the highest 
bidders, and accumulated a considerate 
fortune. He was the first ' ' coffee king. ' ' 

But coffee outlived all these unjust 
slanders and cruel taxations of too paternal 
governments, and gradually took its right- 
ful pl^fee as one of the favorite beverages 
of the German people." " 







Chapter IX 


The romantic adventure of Franz George Kolschitsky, who carried 
"a message to Garcia" through the enemy's lines and won for him- 
self the honor of being the first to teach the Viennese the art of 
making coffee, to say nothing of falling heir to the supplies of the 
green beans left behind by the Turks; also the gift of a house from a 
gratefid municipality, and a statue after death — Affectionate regard 
in tvhich ^'brother-heart'' Kolschitsky is held as the patron saint of 
the Vienna kaffeesieder — Life in the early Vienna cafes 

AROMAA^TIC tale has been woven 
around the introduction of coffee into 
Austria. When Vienna was besieged 
l)y the Turks in 1683, so runs the legend, 
Franz George Kolschitzky, a native of 
Poland, formerly an interpreter in the 
Turkish army, saved the city and won for 
himself undying fame, with coffee as his 
principal reward. 

It is not known whether, in the first siege 
of Vienna by the Turks in 1529, the in- 
vaders boiled coffee over their camp fires 
that surrounded the Austrian capital; al- 
though they might have done so, as Selim 
I, after con([uering Egypt in 1517, had 
brought with him to Constantinople large 
stores of coffee as part of his booty. But 
it is certain that when they returned to the 
attack, 154 years later, they carried with 
them a plentiful supply of the green beans. 
Mohammed IV mobilized an army of 
300,000 men and sent it forth under his 
vizier, Kara Miistapha, (Kuprili's succes- 
sor) to destroy Christendom and to conquer 
Europe. Reaching Vienna July 7, 1683, the 
army quickly invested the city and cut it 
off from the world. Emperor Leopold had 
escaped the net and was several miles away. 
Nearby was the prince of Lorraine, with an 
army of 33,000 Austrians, awaiting the 
succor promised by John Sobieski, king of 

Poland, and an opportunity to relieve the 
besieged capital. Count Rudiger von Star- 
hemberg, in command of the forces ' in 
Vienna, called for a volunteer to carry a 
message through the Turkish lines to hurry 
along the rescue. He found him in the 
person of Franz George Kolschitzky, who 
had lived for many years among the Turks 
and knew their language and customs. 

On August 13, 1683, Kolschitzky donned 
a Turkish iniiform, passed through the 
enemy's lines and reached the Emperor's 
army across the Danube. Several times he 
made the perilous journey between the camp 
of the prince of Lorraine and the garrison 
of the governor of Vienna. One account 
says that he had to swim the four interven- 
ing arms of the Danube each time he per- 
formed the feat. His messages did much 
to keep up the morale of the city's de- 
fenders. At length King John and his army 
of rescuing Poles arrived and were consoli- 
dated with the Austrians on the summit of 
Mount Kahlenberg. It was one of the most 
dramatic moments in history. The fate of 
Christian Europe hung in the balance. 
Everything seemed to point to the triumph 
of the crescent over the cross. Once again 
Kolschitzky crossed the Danube, and 
brought back word concerning the, signals 
that the prince of Lorraine and King Jflhn 




Franz George Kolschitzky, Patron Saint of 
Vienna Coffee Lovers 

would give from Mount Kahlenberg to in- 
dicate the beginning of the attack. Count 
Starhemberg was to make a sortie at the 
same time. 

The battle took place September 12, and 
thanks to the magnificent generalship of 
King John, the Turks were routed. The 
Poles here rendered a never - to - be - for- 
gotten service to all Christendom. The 
Turkish invaders fled, leaving 25,000 tents, 
10,000 oxen, 5,000 camels, 100,000 bushels 
of grain, a great quantity of gold, and 
many sacks filled with coffee — at that time 
unknown in Vienna. The booty was dis- 
tributed; but no one wanted the coffee. 
They did not know what to do with it; 
that is, no one except Kolschitzky. He said, 
•'If nobody wants those sacks, I will take 
them", and every one was heartily glad 
to be rid of the strange beans. But Kol- 
schitzky knew what he was about, and he 
soon taught the Viennese the art of prepar- 
ing coffee. Later, he established the first 
public booth where Turkish coffee was 
served in Vienna. 

This, then, is the story of how coffee was 
introduced into Vienna, where was devel- 
oped that typical Vienna caf6 which has 

become a model for a large part of the 
world. Kolschitzky is honored in Vienna 
as the patron saint of coffee houses. His 
followers, united in the guild of coffee 
makers (kaffee-sieder), even erected a 
statue in his honor. It still stands as part 
of the facade of a house where the Kol- 
schitzygasse merges into the Favoritengasse, 
as shown in the accompanying picture. 

Vienna is sometimes referred to as the 
"mother of cafes". Caf6 Sacher is world- 
renowned. Tart a la Sacher is to be found 
in every cook-book. The Viennese have 
their '' jause" every afternoon. When one 
drinks coffee at a Vienna cafe one generally 
has a kipfel with it. This is a crescent- 
shaped roll — baked for the first time in the 
eventful year 1683, when the Turks be- 
sieged the city. A baker made these cres- 
cent rolls in a spirit of defiance of the Turk. 
Holding sword in one hand and kipfel in 
the other, the Viennese would show them- 
selves on top of their redoubts and chal- 
lenge the cohorts of Mohammed IV. 

Mohammed IV was deposed after losing 
the battle, and Kara Mustapha was executed 
for leaving the stores — particularly the 
sacks of coffee beans — at the gates of 
Vienna; but Vienna coffee and Vienna 
kipfel are still alive, and their appeal is 
not lessened by the years. 

The hero Kolschitzky was presented with 
a house by the grateful municipality; and 

The First Coffee House in the Leopoldstadt 
From a cut so titled in Bermann's Alt und Neu Wiett 

there, at the sign of the Blue Bottle, ac- 
cording to one account, he continued as a 
coffee-house keeper for many years.^ This, 
in brief, is the story that — although not 

' Vulcaren. John Peter A. 
of Vienna. 1684. 

Relation of the Siege 




authenticated in all its particulars — is 
seriously related in many books, and is 
firmly believed throughout Vienna. 

It seems a pity to discredit the hero of 
so romantic an adventure ; but the archives 
of Vienna throw a light upon Kolschitzky 's 
later conduct that tends to show that, after 
all, this Viennese idol's feet were of com- 
mon clay. 

It is said that Kolschitzky, after receiv- 
ing the sacks of green coffee left behind by 
the Turks, at once began to peddle the 
beverage, from house to house, serving it in 
little cups from a wooden platter. Later he 
rented a shop in Bischof-hof. Then he 
began to petition the municipal council, 
that, in addition to the sum of 100 ducats 
already promised him as further recogni- 
tion of his valor, he should receive a house 
with good will attached; that is, a shop in 
some growing business section. "His peti- 
tions to the municipal council", writes M. 
Bermann *, ' ' are amazing examples of meas- 
ureless self-conceit and the boldest greed. 
He seemed determined to get the utmost 
out of his own self-sacrifice. He insisted 
upon the most highly deserved reward, such 
as the Romans bestowed upon their Curtius, 
the Lacedsemonians upon their Pompilius, 
the Athenians upon Seneca, with whom he 
modestly compared himself." 

At last, he was given his choice of three 
houses in the Leopoldstadt, any one of 
them worth from 400 to 450 gulden, in 
place of the money reward, that had been 
fixed by a compromise agreement at 300 
gulden. But Kolschitzky was not satisfied 
with this; and urged that if he was to 
accept a house in full payment it should 
be one valued at not less than 1000 gulden. 
Then ensued much correspondence and con- 
siderable haggling. To put an end to the 
acrimonious dispute, the municipal council 
in 1685 directed that there should be deeded 
over to Kolschitzky and his wife, Maria 
Ursula, without further argument, the 
house known at that time as 30 (now 8) 

It is further recorded that Kolschitzky 
sold the house within a year; and, after 
many moves, he died of tuberculosis, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1694, aged fifty-four years. He 
was courier to the emperor at the time of 
his death, and was buried in the Stefans- 
freithof Cemetery. 

* Bermann, M. 
(p. 964.) 

Alt und Neu Wien. Vienna, 1880. 

Statue of Kolschitzky Erected by the 
Coffee Makers Guild of Vienna 

Kolschitzky 's heirs moved the coflfee 
house to Donaustrand, near the wooden 
Schlagbriicke, later known as Ferdinand's 
briicke (bridge). The celebrated coffee 
house of Franz Mosee (d. 1860) stood on 
this same spot. 

In the city records for the year 1700 a 
house in the Stock-im-Eisen-Platz (square) 
is designated by the words "allwo das erste 
kaffeegewolhe" ("here was the first coffee 
house"). Unfortunately, the name of the 
proprietor is not given. 

Many stories are told of Kolschitzky 's 
popularity as a eoflPee-house keeper. He is 
said to have addressed everyone as hruder- 
herz (brother-heart) and gradually he 
himself acquired the name bruderherz. A 
portrait of Kolschitzky, painted about the 
time of his greatest vogue, is carefully pre- 
served by the Innungi der Wiener Kaffee- 
sieder (the Coffee Makers' Guild of 
Vienna) . 



Even during the lifetime of the first 
kaffee-sieder, a number of others opened 
coffee houses and acquired some little fame. 
Early in the eighteenth centurj^ a tourist 
gives us a glimpse of the progress made by 
coffee drinking and by the coffee-house 
idea in Vienna. "We read : 

The t'it.v of Vienna is filled witli coffee liouses, 
where the novelists or those who Inisy them- 
selves with the newspapers delight to meet, to 
read the gazettes and discuss their contents. 
Some of these houses have a better reputation 
than others because such zeitungs-d actors 
(newspaper dQ'ctors — an ironical title) gather 
there to pass most unhesitating judgment on 

the weightiest events, and to surpass all others 
in their opinions concerning political matters 
and considerations. 

All this wins them such respect tliat many 
congregate there because of them, and to enrich 
their minds with inventions and foolishness 
which thev innnediately run through the city to 
bring to the ears of the said ])ersonalities. It 
is^ impossil)le to believe what freedom is per- 
mitted, in furnishing this gossip. They speak 
without reverence not only of the doings of gen- 
erals and ministers of state, but also mix them- 
selves in the life of the Kaiser (Emperor) him- 

Vienna liked the coffee house so well that 
by 1839 there were eighty of them in the 
city proper and fifty more in the suburbs. 


Chapter X 



One of the most picturesque chapters in the history of coffee The 

first coffee house in London — The first coffee handbill, and the first 
newspaper advertisement for coffee— Strange coffee mixtures — 
Fantastic coffee claims— Coffee prices and coffee licenses— Coffee 
club of the Rota — Early coffee-house manners and customs — 
Coffee-house keepers' tokens — Opposition to the coffee house — 
''Penny universities'' — Weird coffee substitutes — The proposed 
coffee-house newspaper monopoly — Evolution of the club — Decline 
and fall of the coffee house — Pen pictures of coffee-house life — 
Famous coffee houses of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries — 
Some Old World pleasure gardens — Locating the notable coffee 

THE two most picturesque chapters in 
the history of coffee have to do with 
the period of the old London and 
Paris coffee houses of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. Much of the poetry 
and romance of coffee centers around this 

"The history of coffee houses," says 
D 'Israeli, "ere the invention of clubs, was 
that of the manners, the morals and the 
politics of a people." And so the history 
of the London coffee houses of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries is indeed 
the history of the manners and customs of 
the English people of that period. 

The First London Co fee House 

"The first coffee house in London", 
says John Aubrey (1626-97), the Eng- 
lish antiquary and folklorist, "was in St. 
Michael's Alley, in Comhill, opposite to 
the church, which was sett up by one . . . 
Bowman (coachman to Mr. Hodges, a Tur- 
key merchant, who putt him upon it) in 
or about the yeare 1652. 'Twas about four 
years before any other was sett up, and 
that was by Mr. Farr. Jonathan Paynter, 

over-against to St. Michael's Church, was 
the first apprentice to the trade, viz., to 
Bowman. ' ' * 

Another account, for which we are in- 
debted to William Oldys (1696 - 1761), the 
bibliographer, relates that Mr. Edwards, a 
London merchant, acquired the coffee habit 
in Turkey, and brought home with him 
from Ragusa, in Dalmatia, Pasqua Ros6e, 
an Armenian or Greek youth, who prepared 
the beverage for him. "But the novelty 
thereof," says Oldys, "drawing too much 
company to him, he allowed the said servant 
with another of his son-in-law to set up 
the first coffee house in London at St. 
Michael's Alley, in Cornhill." 

From this it would appear that Pasqua 
Ros6e had as partner in this enterprise, the 
Bowman, who, according to Aubrey, was^ 
coachman to Mr. Hodges, the son-in-law 
of Mr. Edwards, and a fellow merchant 

Oldys tells us that Rosee and Bowman 
soon separated. John Timbs (1801 - 1875), 
another English antiquary, says they 
quarreled, Rosee keeping the house, and his 

* Manuscript in t\n' Boilloiaii Library. 




partner Bowman obtaining leave to pitch 
a tent and to sell the drink in St. Michael's 

Still another version of this historic inci- 
dent is to be found in Houghton's Collec- 
tion, 1698. It reads : 

It appears that a Mr. Danie' Edwards, an 
English merchant of Smyrna, brought with him 
to this conntry a Greek of the name of Pasqua, 
in 16r)2, who made his coffee ; this Mr. Edwards 
married one Alderman Ilodges's danghter, who 
lived in Walbrook. and set up Pasqna for a cof- 
fee man in a shed in the churchyard in St. 
Michael. Cornhill, which is now a scrivener's 
brave-house, when, having great custom, the 
ale-sellers i)etitioned the Lord Mayor against 
him, as being no freeman. This made Alderman 
Hodges join his coachman, Bowman, who was 
free, as Pasqua's partner; but Pasqua, for 
some misdemeanor, was forced to run the coun- 
try, and Bowman, by his trade and a contribu- 
tion of 1000 sixpences, turned the shed to a 
house. Bowman's apprentices were first, John 
Painter, then Humphry, from whose wife I had 
this account. 

This account makes it appear that Ed- 
wards was Hodges' son-in-law. Whatever 
the relationship, most authorities agree that 
Pasqua Rosee was the first to sell coffee 
publicly, whether in a tent or shed, in Lon- 
don in or about the year 1652. His original 
shop-bill, or handbill, the first advertise- 
ment for coffee, is in the British Museum, 
and from it the accompanying photograph 
was made for this work. It sets forth in 
direct fashion : "The Vertue of the COF- 
FEE Drink First publiquely made and 
sold in England, by Pasqua Rosee ... in 
St. Michaels Alley in Cornhill. ... at the 
Signe of his own Head." ' 

H. R. Fox Bourne ' (about 1870) is alone 
in an altogether different version of this 
historic event. He says: 

"In 1652 Sir Nicholas Crispe, a Levant 
merchant, opened in London the first coffee 
house known in England, the beverage be- 
ing prepared by a Greek girl brought over 
for the work," 

There is nothing to substantiate this 
story; the preponderance of evidence is in 
support of the Edwards - Rosee version. 

Such then was the advent of the coffee 
house in London, which introduced to Eng- 
lish-speaking people the drink of de- 
mocracy. Oddly enough, coffee and the 
Commonwealth came in together. The 
English coffee house, like its French con- 
temporary, was the home of liberty. 

» See also chapter XXVIII. ' 

' The Romance of Trade. London, (chap, ii ; p. 31.) 

Robinson, who accepts that version of 
the event wherein Edwards marries 
Hodges 's daughter, says that after the part- 
ners Rosee and Bowman separated, and 
Bowman had set up his tent opposite Rosee, 
a zealous partisan addressed these verses 
"To Pasqua Rosee, at the Sign of his own 
Head and half his Body in St. Michael's 
Alley, next the first Coffee-Tent in Lon- 

Were not the fountain of my Tears 
Each day exhausted by the steam 

Of your Coffee, no doubt appears 

But they would swell to such a stream 

As could admit of no restriction 

To see, poor Pasqua, thy Affliction. 

What! Pasqua, you at first did broach 
This Nectar for the publick Good, 

Must you call Kitt down from the Coach 
To drive a Trade he understood 

No more than you did then your creed, 

Or he doth now to write or read? 

Pull Courage, Pasqua, fear no Harms 

From the besieging Foe ; 
Make good your Ground, stand to your Arms, 

Hold out this summer, and then tho' 
He'll storm, he'll not prevail — your Face * 
Shall give the Coffee Pot the chace. 

Eventually Pasqua Rosee disappeared, 
some say to open a coffee house on the Con- 
tinent, in Holland or Germany. Bowman, 
having married Alderman Hodges 's cook, 
and having also prevailed upon about a 
thousand of his customers to lend him six- 
pence apiece, converted his tent into a sub- 
stantial house, and eventually took an 
apprentice to the trade. 

Concerning London's second coffee- 
house keeper, James Farr, proprietor of the 
Rainbow, who had as his most distinguished 
visitor Sir Henry Blount, Edward Hatton' 

I find it recorded that one James Farr, a 
barber, who kept the coffee-house which is now 
the Rainbow, by the Inner Temple Gate (one of 
the first in England), was in the year 1657, 
prosecuted by the inquest of St. Dunstan's in 
the West, for making and selling a sort of 
liquor called coffe, as a great nuisance and 
prejudice to the neighborhood, etc., and who 
would then have thought London would ever 
have had near three thousand such nuisances, 
and that coffee would have been, as now, so 
much drank by the best of quality and physi- 

Hatton evidently attributed Farr's nuis- 
ance to the coffee itself, whereas the present- 

* Pasqua Rosee's sign. Kltt's (or Bowman's) sign 
was a coffee pot. 

* Ilatton, Edward. . New View of London. London. 
1708. (vol. i: p. 30.) 




[ThcVevtucofthe COFFEE Drinkr 

Firftpub!ic]uciy mad: and fold in England, by Ttifciti^ <Pofee, 

TH E Grain or Berry called Coffecy groweth upon licdc Trees, 
on ;y i n the Defeits of Arabia: 

ic is brouglu from thence, anddmnk generally throughouc 
all tlie Grand Seigniors Dominions. 

I. is a fimple innocent thing, compofed into a Drijik, by being dry- 
cd in snOven, and ground to Powder,and boiled up with Spring wa- 
ter, and about half a pint of it to be drunk, fading an hour before .and 
not Edting an hour after, and CO be taken as hot as pofsibly can be en- 
dured ; chcvvhich will never fetch the skin offthe mouth,or raifc any 
Blii>.:'rs,by rc:fon of chat Heat, 

V The ru:ks drink 2t meals and other times, is ufually W'^ffr, and 
their Dyec confill; much of Fr/4^ ^ the Crudities whereof arc very 
much corrected by this Drink. ;■ 4^ Is 

The quality of this Drink h cofd and Dryj and though it be a 
Dryer^ yst it neither heats, 'nor inflames more then hot fojfet. 

Ir fcTclofech the Orifice of the Stomack, and fortifies the heat wiih- 
ns very good (o^help digeftionj and therefore of great u/e to be 
bout 3 or4aCiockafternoon,as wcUas \n the morning.- 
ucn quickens the Spirits^ and makes the Heart Ughtfwie, 

. is goodagauift lore Eys, and the better if you hold your Head o- 
er It, and rake in the Steem that way. 

Ic lu'.preifeth Fumes exceedingly, and therefore good againftthc 
Head~ach, an^i wiU very much flop any De fluxion of <l{heums, that diftil 
from the Hrad upon the Stomachy and fo prevent and help Qonjumfti' 
ons^a nd the Cough of the Lun^s, 

It is excellent to prevent and cure the Vropfyy Gout, and Scuryy, 

II is known l?y experience to be better then any other Drying 
"DnuV^oxTeople in years, or CWirew that have any running humors u^- 
cnx!tiCV[\yZS the Kings B\fiU &c. 

It is very good to prevent Mif carryings in Qnli-hearing Women, 

Jt is a moft excellent Remedy againft the Spleen ^ Hypoconclriac^, 
TT/nt/y, or thelike. 

It will prevent 'Dro'^fintfsy and make one fitforbiifines,if one have 
occafion ro Watch-^ and therefore you are not to Drink of u after Supper^ 
unlets you intend to be watchful^^or it will hinder llecp for ) <jr 4 hours. 

It is obferVed that in Turkey 3 Ti'here this is generally drunk, that they are 
mt trolled leith the Stone , Gout , Dropjie , or ScurVey , a?id that their 
Skins are exceeding deer and vhite. ^^£^ 

khnckhct Laxative not ^eflringent. ^8. 

Made and Sold in St. Michaels Alley in Cornhilh by Pafqua T^hftty 
at the Signc of lus own Head. 


Handbill used by Pasqua Rosf^e, who opened the first coffee house in London 
From the original in the British Museum 



ment* clearly shows it was in Farr's 
chimney and not in the coffee. 

Mention has already been made that Sii 
Henry Blount w'as spoken of as "the fathei 
of Enirlish coffee houses" and his claim to 
this distinction would seem to be a valid 
one, for his strong personality "stamped it 
self upon the system." His favorite motto, 
"Loqnendum est cum vulgo, sentiendum 
cum sapientihus (the crowd may talk about 
it; the wise decide it), says Robinson, "ex- 
presses well their colloquial purpose, and 
w'as natural enough on the lips of one whose 
experience had been world wide. ' ' Aubrej 
says of Sir Henry Blount, ' ' He is now neer 
or altogether eighty yeares, his intellectuals 
good still and body pretty strong." 

Women played a not inconspicuous part 
in establishing businesses for the sale of the 
coffee drink in England, although the coffee 
houses were not for both sexes, as in other 
European countries. The London City 
Quaeries for 1660 makes mention of "a she- 
coffee merchant." Mary Stringar ran a 
coffee house in Little Trinity Lane in 1669 ; 
Anne Blunt was mistress of one of the 
Turk's-Head houses in Cannon Street in 
1672. Mary Long was the widow of Will- 
iam Long, and her initials, together with 
those of her husband, appear on a token 
issued from the Rose tavern in Bridge 
Street, Covent Garden. Mary Long's token 
from the "Rose coffee house by the play- 
house" in Covent Garden is shown among 
the group of coffee-house keepers' tokens 
herein illustrated. 

The First Newspaper Advertisement 

The first newspaper advertisement for 
coffee appeared. May 26, 1657, in the Puh- 
lich Adviser of London, one of the first 
weekly pamphlets. The name of this pub- 
lication was erroneously given as the Pub- 
lick Advertiser by an early writer on coffee, 
and the error has been copied by succeeding 
writers. The first newspaper advertisement 
was contained in the issue of the Puhlick 
Adviser for the week of May 19 to May 26, 
and read: 

In Bartholometc Lane on the back side of the 
Old Exchange, the drink called Coffee, (which 
is a very wholsom and Physical drink, having 
many excellent vei-tues. closes the Orifice of the 
Stomack, fortifies the heat within, helpeth Di- 
gestion, quickneth the Spirits, maketh the heart 
lightsom, is good against Eye-sores, Ck>ughs, or 
Colds, Rhumes, Consumptions, Head-ach, Drop- 

» The prosecution came under the heading, "Pis- 
orders and Annoys." 

sie, Gout, Scurvy, Kings Evil, and many others 
is to be sold both in the morning, and at three 
of the clock in the afternoon. 

Chocolate was also advertised for sale in 
London this same year. The issue of the 
Puhlick Adviser for June 16, 1657, con- 
tained this announcement: 

In Bishopgate Street, in Queen's Head Alley, 
at a Frenchman's house is an excellent West 
India drink called chocolate, to be sold, where 
you may have it ready at any time, and also 
unmade at reasonable rates. 

Tea was first sold publicly at Garra way's 
(or Garway's) in 1657. 

Strange Coffee Mixtures 

The doctors were loath to let coffee escape 
from the mysteries of the pharmacopoeia 
and become "a simple and refreshing bev- 
erage" that any one might obtain for a 
penny in the coffee houses, or, if preferred, 
might prepare at home. In this they were 
aided and abetted by many well-meaning 
but misguided persons (some of them men 
of considerable intelligence) who seemed 
possessed of the idea that the coffee drink 
was an unpleasant medicine that needed 
something to take away its curse, or else 
that it required a complex method of 
preparation. Witness "Judge" Walter 
Rumsey's Electuary of Cophy, which ap- 
peared in 1657 in connection with a curious 
work of his called Organon Salutis: an in- 
strument to cleanse the stomach. ' The in- 
strument itself was a flexible whale-bone, 
two or three feet long, with a small linen 
or silk button at the end, and was designed 
to be introduced into the stomach to pro- 
duce the effect of an emetic. The electuary 
of coffee was to be taken by the patient 
before and after using the instrument, 
which the "judge" called his Provang. 
And this was the "judge's" "new and 
superior way of preparing coffee ' ' as found 
in his prescription for making electuary of 
cophy : 

Take equal quantity of Butter and Sallet-oyle, 
melt them well together, but not boyle them ; 
Then stir re them well that they may incorpor- 
ate together: Then melt therewith three times 
as much Honey, and stirre it well together: 
Then add thereunto powder of Turkish Cophie, 
to make it a thick Electuary. 

A little consideration will convince any 
one that the electuary was most likely to 
achieve the purpose for which it was recom- 

' Rumsey (or Ramsey), W. Organon Salutis. LoU' 
don, 1657. 





CommunicsUin(* unto the whole 

Nation the fcvcral Occafroni of all perfons 
that arc any way concerned in matter of Buying and 
iSelling, or in any kind of Impa)ymcnt, or deahnos 
whaifoever^ according to the int«ntof the OFFICE 
OF PUBLICK ADVICE newly fct up in 
feveral places , in and about L4ff/ipff and rP^/- 

For the better Accommodation and Eafc of 
the People , and the Univerfal Benefit of the 
Commonwealth, in point of 


from Tuefda^ Maj r^ r# Ttn/Hdy May a5. 

la B^rtholomem Lane on the back liJc of the Old 
Exchange, the drink called Coffee^ ( yvhich is a very wHol- 
form and Phyfical drink, havjng many excellent vertues, 
clofes rhe.Orifice of the Stomack, fortifies the heat with- 
m, helpcth Digeftion,qUJckncthihc Spirits, niakcth the 
hitt hghtfom, is gcodagainft Eyc-furfS. Coughs, or 
Colds/ Hhun^cs, Confumptions; Heid-ach, Dropfie, 
Goac,.ScQrvy»Kings Evlland many others if to hrfofd 
bothta the morning, and at three of the clock in ihe^ a(-^ 


ONc Mrs. Uffdel living at the fi^ of the Boot in Ful- 
lers Rentsin//o/^»r;i, AttirethanJ DrefTcih Lidicf 
and Gcntlt womcns Heads •, and tcawheth Maids to ** 
H:ads: TAct'; fV c refTiMS * ' 
till they br p*****^ 




Another concoction invented by the 
"jud^e" was known as "wash-brew", and 
included oatmeal, powder of "cophie", a 
pint of ale or any wine, ginger, honey, or 
sugar to please the taste; to these ingre- 
dients butter might be added and any 
cordial powder or pleasant spice. It was to 
be put into a tiannel bag and "so keep it at 
pleasure like starch." This was a favorite 
medicine among the common people of 

The book contained in a prefix an in- 
teresting historical document in the shape 
of a letter from James Howell (1595 - 1666) 
the writer and historiographer, which read : 

Touching coffee, I concurre with them in opin- 
ion, who lioltl it to be that black-broth which 
was us'd of old in Lacedemon, whereof the 
Poets sing ; Surely it must needs be salutiferous, 
because so many sagacious, and the wittiest 
sort of Nations use it so much ; as they who 
have conversed with Shashes and Turbants doe 
well know. But, besides the exsiccant quality 
it hath to dry up the crudities of the Stomach, 
as also to comfort the Brain, to fortifle the 
sight with its steem, and prevent Dropsies, 
Gouts, the Scurvie, together with the Spleen 
and Hypocondriacall windes (all which it doth 
without any violance or distemper at all.) I 
say, besides all these qualities, 'tis found al- 
ready, that this Coffee-drink hath caused a 
greater sobriety among the nations; for where- 
as formerly Apprentices and Clerks with others, 
used to take their mornings' draught in Ale, 
Beer or Wine, which by the dizziness they cause 
in the Brain, make many unfit for business, 
they use now to play the Good-fellows in this 
wakefull and civill drink : Therefore that 
-worthy Gentleman, Mr. Mudiford*, who intro- 
duced the practice hereof first to London, de- 
serves much respect of the whole nation. 

The coffee drink at one time was mixed 
with sugar candy, and also with mustard. 
In the coffee houses, however, it was usually 
served black; "few people then mixed it 
with either sugar or milk." 

Fantastic Coffee Claims 
One can not fail to note in connection 
with the introduction of coffee into Eng- 
land that the beverage suffered most from 
the indiscretions of its friends. On the one 
band, the quacks of the medical profession 
sought to claim it for their own ; and, on 
the other, more or less ignorant laymen 
attributed to the 'drink such virtues as its 
real champions among the physicians never 
dreamed of. It was the favorite pastime 
of its friends to exaggerate coffee 's merits ; 
and of its enemies, to vilify its users. All 
this furnished good ' ' copy ' ' for and against 

* Also given as Sir James Muddiford, Murford, Mud- 
ford, Moundeford, and Modyford, 

the coffee house, which became the central 
figure in each new controversy. 

From the early English author who 
damned it by calling it "more wholesome 
than toothsome", to Pas(iua Rosee and his 
contemporaries, who urged its more fan- 
tastic claims, it was forced to make its way 
through a veritable morass of misunder- 
standing and intolerance. No harmless 
drink in history has suffered more at hands 
of friend and foe. 

Did its friends hail it as a panacea, its 
enemies retorted that it was a slow poison. 
In France and in England there were those 
who contended that it produced melancholy, 
and those who argued it was a cure for the 
same. Dr. Thomas Willis (1621-1673), a 
distinguished Oxford physician whom An- 
toine Portal (1742-1832) called "one of 
the greatest geniuses that ever lived", said 
he would sometimes send his patients to the 
coffee house rather than to the apothecary's 
shop. An old broadside, described later in 
this, chapter, stressed the notion that if you 
"do but this Rare ARABIAN cordial use, 
and thou may'st all the Doctors Slops 

As a cure for drunkenness its "magic'' 
power was acclaimed by its friends, and 
grudgingly admitted by its foes. This will 
appear presently in a description of the war 
of the broadsides and the pamphlets. Coffee 
was praised by one writer as a deodorizer. 
Another (Richard Bradley), in his treatise 
concerning its use with regard to the plague, 
said if its qualities had been fully known 
in 1665, "Dr. Hodges and other learned 
men of that time would have recommended 
it." As a matter of fact, in Grideon Har- 
vey's Advice against the Plague, published 
in 1665, we find, "coffee is commended 
against the contagion." 

This is howl the drink's sobering virtue 
was celebrated by the author of the Rehelli- 
ous Antidote : 

Come, Frantick Fools, leave off your Drunken 

Obsequious be and I'll recall your Wits, 
From perfect Madness to a modest Strain 
For farthings four I'll fetch you back again, 
Enable all your mene with tricks of State, 
Enter and sip and then attend your Fate; 
Come Drunk or Sober, for a gentle Fee, 
Come n'er so Mad, I'll your Physician be. 

Dr. Willis, in his Pharmaceutice Ration- 
alis (1674), was one of the first to attempt 
to do justice to both sides of the coffee 
question. At best, he thought it a some- 
what risky beverage, and its votaries must, 



some cases, be prepared to suffer languor 
and even paralysis; it may attack the heart 
and cause tremblings in the limbs. On the 
other hand it may, if judiciously used, 
prove a marvelous benefit; "being daily 
drunk ii, wonderfully clears and enlightens 
each part of the Soul and disperses all the 
clouds of every Function." 

It was a long time before recognition was 
obtained for the truth about the "novelty 
drink''; especially that, if there were any 
beyond purely social virtues to be found in 
coffee, they were "political rather than 

Dr. James Duncan^ of the Faculty of 
Montpellier, in his book Wholesome Advice 
against the Abuse of Hot Liquors, done into 
English in 1706, found coffee no more de- 
serving of the name of panacea than that 
of poison. 

George Cheyne (1671-1743), the noted 
British physician, proclaimed his neutral- 
ity in the words, "I have neither great 
praise nor bitter blame for the thing. * ' 

Coffee Prices and Coffee Licenses 

Coffee, with tea and chocolate, was first 
mentioned in the English Statute books in 
1660, when a duty of four pence was laid 
upon every gallon made and sold, "to be 
paid by the maker. ' ' Coffee was classed by 
the House of Commons with "other out- 
landish drinks." 

It is recorded in 1662 that "the right 
coffee powder" was being sold at the Turk's 
Head coffee house in Exchange Alley for 
"4s. to 6s. 8d. per pound; that pounded in 
a mortar, 2s ; East India berry. Is. 6d. ; and 
the right Turkic berry, well garbled 
[ground] at 3s. The ungarbled [in the 
bean] for less with directions how to use 
the same." Chocolate was also to be had 
at "2s. 6d. the pound; the perfumed from 
4s. to 10s," 

At one time coffee sold for five guineas a 
pound in England, and even forty crowns 
(about forty-eight dollars) a pound was 
paid for it. 

In 1663, all English coffee houses were 
required to be licensed ; the fee was twelve 
pence. Failure to obtain a license was 
punished by a fine of five pounds for every 
month's violation of the law. The coffee 
houses were under close surveillance by 
government officials. One of these was 
Muddiman, a good scholar and an "arch 
rogue ' ', who had formerly ' * written for the 
Parliament" but who later became a paid 

spy. L 'Estrange, who had a patent on 
"the sole right of intelligence", wrote in 
his Intelligencer that he was alarmed at the 
ill effects of "the ordinary written papers 
of Parliament's news . . . making 
coffee houses and all the popular clubs 
judges of those councils and deliberations 
which they have nothing to do with at all." 

The first royal warrant for coffee was 
given by Charles II to Alexander Man, a 
Scotsman who had followed General Monk 
■to London, and set up in Whitehall. Here 
he advertised himself as "coffee man to 
Charles II." 

Owing to increased taxes on tea, coffee, 
and newspapers, near the end of Queen 
Anne's reign (1714) coffee-house keepers 
generally raised their prices as follows: 
Coffee, two pence per dish; green tea, one 
and a half pence per dish. All drams, two 
pence per dram. At retail, coffee was then 
sold for five shillings per pound ; while tea 
brought from twelve to twenty-eight shill- 
ings per pound. 

Cofee Club of The Rota 

"Coffee and Commonwealth", says a 
pamphleteer of 1665, "came in together for 
a Reformation, to make 's a free and sober 
nation." The writer argues that liberty 
of speech should be allowed, "where men 
of differing judgements croud"; and he 
adds, "that's a coffee-house, for where 
should men discourse so free as there?" 
Robinson's comments are apt: 

Now perhaps we do not always connect the 
ideas of sociableness and freedom of discussion 
with the days of Puritan rule; yet it must be 
admitted that something like geniality and 
openness characterized what Pepys calls the 
Coffee Club of the Rota. This "free and open 
Society of ingenioiis gentlemen" was founded in 
the year 1659 by certain members of the Re- 
publican party, whose peculiar opinions had 
been timidly expressed and not very cordially 
tolerated under the Great Oliver. By the weak 
Government that followed, these views were re- 
garded with extreme dislike and with some 
amount of terror. 

"They met", says Aubrey, who was him- 
self of their number, "at the Turk's Head 
[Miles 's coffee house] in New Palace Yard, 
Westminster, where they take water, at one 
Miles 's, the next house to the staires, where 
• was made purposely a large ovall table, 
wdth a passage in the middle for Miles to 
deliver his coffee." 
Robinson continues : 

This curious refreshment bar and the interest 
with which the beverage Itself was regarded, 
were quite secondary to the excitement caused 



A Coffee House in the Time of Charles II 
From a wood cut of 1674 

by another novelty. When, after heated dis- 
putation, a member desired to test tlie opinion 
of the meeting, any particular point might, by 
agreement, be put to the vote and then every- 
thing depended upon "our wooden oracle," the 
first balloting-box ever seen in England. Formal 
methods of procedure and the intensely practi- 
cal nature of the subjects discussed, combined 
to give a real importance to this Amateur Par- 

The Rota, or Coffee Club, as Pepys called 
it, was essentiall y a debating so ciety for the 
rlissemi nation of repubjican op inions . It 
was preceded only, in the reign of Henry 
IV, by the club called La Court de Bone 
Compagnie ; by Sir Walter Raleigh's Friday 
Street, or Bread Street, club ; the club at the 
Mermaid tavern in Bread Street, of which 
Shakespeare, Beaumont, Fletcher, Raleigh, 
Selden, Donne, et al., were members; and 
"rare" Ben Jonson's Devil tavern club, 
between Middle Temple Gate and Temple 

I The Rota derived its name from a plan. 

Which it was designed to promote, for 

onanging a certain number of members of 

parliament annually by rotation. It was 

y^ounded by James Harrington, who had 

/painted it in fairest colors in his Oceana, 

I that ideal commonwealth. 

Sir "William Petty was one of its mem- 
bers. Around the table, "in a room every 
fivening as full as it could be crammed," 
says Aubrey, sat Milton ( ?) and Marveil, 
Cyriac Skinner, Hamngton, Nevill, and 

their friends, discussing abstract political 

The Rota became famous for its literary 
strictures. Among these was ' ' The censure 
of the Rota upon Mr. Milton 's book entitled 
The ready and easie way to establish a free 
commonwealth" (1660) , although it is doubt- 
ful if Milton was ever a visitor to this 
"bustling coffee club." The Rota also 
censured "Mr. Driden's Conquest of 
Granada" (1673). 

Early Coffee-House Manners and Customs 
Among many of the early coffee-house 
keepers there was great anxiety that the 
coffee house, open to high and low, should 
be conducted under such restraints as might 
secure the better class of customers from 
annoyance. The following set of regula- 
tions in somewhat halting rhyme was dis- 
played on the walls of several of the coffee 
houses in the seventeenth century : 
The Rules and Orders of the Coffee Housej. 
Enter, Sirs, freely, but first, if you please, 
Peruse our civil orders, which are these. 
Jlrst, gentry, tradesmen, all are welcome hither, 
And may without affront sit down together: 
Pre-eminence of place none here should mind, 
Rut take the next fit seat that he can find : 
Nor need any. if finer persons come, 
Rise up to assigue to them his room; 
To limit men's expence, we think not fair, 
But let him forfeit twelve-pence that shall 

swear ; 
He that shall any quarrel here begin. 
Shall give each man 8 digU t' atone the sin; 



And so shall he, whose compliments extend 

So far to drink in coffee to his friend ; 

Ij«»t noise of loud disputes he quite forhorne, 

\() maudlin lovers here in corners mourn. 

Hut all he brisk and talk, hut not too much, 

On sacred things, let none presume to touch. 

Nor profane Scripture, nor sawcily wrong 

Affairs of state with an irreverent tongue : 

Let mirth he innocent, and each man see 

That all his jests without reflection be ; 

To keep the house more quiet and from blame, 

We banish hence cards, dice, and every game ; 

Nor can allow of wagers, that exceed 

Five shillings, which ofttimes much trouble 

breed ; 
Let all that's lost or forfeited be spent 
In such good liquor as the house doth vent. 
And customers endeavour, to their powers. 
For to observe still, seasonable hours. 
Lastly, let each man what he calls for pay. 
And so you're welcome to come every day. 

The early coffee houses were often up a 
flight of stairs, and consisted of a single 
large room with ' ' tables set apart for divers 
topics." There is a reference to this in the 
prologue to a comedy of 1681 (quoted by 
Malone) : 

In a coffee house just now among the rabble 
I bluntly asked, which is the treason table? 

This was the arrangement at Man's and 
others favored by the wits, the literati, and 
"men of fashionable instincts." In the 
distinctly business coffee houses separate 
rooms were provided at a later time for 
mercantile transactions. The introduction 
of wooden partitions — wooden boxes, as at 
a tavern — was also of somewhat later date. 

A print of 1674 shows five persons of dif- 
ferent ranks in life, one of them smoking, 
sitting on chairs around a coffee-house 
table, on which are small basins, or dishes, 
without saucers, and tobacco pipes, while 
a coffee boy is serving coffee. 

In the beginning, only coffee was dis- 
pensed in the English coffee houses. Soon 
chocolate, sherbert, and tea were added; 
but the places still maintained their status 
as social and temperance factors. Con- 
stantine Jennings (or George Constantine) 
of the Grecian advertised chocolate, sher- 
bert and tea at retail in 1664 - 65 ; also 
free instruction in the part of preparing 
these liquors. "Drams and cordial waters 
were to be had only at coffee houses newly 
set up," says Elford the younger, writing 
about 1689. While some few places added 
ale and beer as early as 1669, intoxicating 
liquors were not items of importance for 
many years. 

After the fire of 1666, many new coffee 
houses were opened that were not limited 

to a single room up a flight of stairs. Be- 
cause the coffee-house keepers over-em- 
phasized the sobering qualities of the coffee 
drink, they drew many undesirable char- 
acters from the taverns and ale houses after 
the nine o'clock closing hour. These were 
hardly calculated to improve the reputa- 
tion of the coffee houses; and, indeed, the 
decline of the coffee houses as a temperance 
institution would seem to trace back to 

CojpFiE House xests 

A London Coffee House of the Seventeenth 


From a wood cut of the period 

this attitude of false pity for the victims 
of tavern vices, evils that many of the 
coffee houses later on embraced to their 
own undoing. The early institution was 
unique, its distinctive features being un- 
like those of any public house in England 
or on the Continent. Later on, in the eigh- 
teenth century, when these distinctive fea- 



tures became obscured, the name coffee 
house became a misnomer. 

However, Robinson says, "the close in- 
tercourse between the habitu6s of the coffee 
house, before it lost anything of its gen- 
erous social traditions and whilst the issue 
of the struggle for political liberty was as 
yet uncertain, was to lead to something 

Coffee House, Queen Anne's Time — 1702-14 
Showing coffee pots, coffee dishes, and coffee boy 

more than a mere jumbling or huddling 
together of opposites. The diverse ele- 
ments gradually united in the bonds of 
common sympathy, or were forcibly com- 
bined by persecution from without until 
there resulted a social, political and moral 
force of almost irresistible strength." 

Coffee-Eouse Keepers' Tokens 

The great London fire of 1666 destroyed 
some of the coffee houses; but prominent 
among those i^iat survived was the Rain- 
bow, whose proprietor, James Farr, issued 
one of the earliest coffee-house tokens, 
doubtless in grateful memory of his escape. 
Farr's token shows an arched rainbow 

emerging from the clouds of the "great 
fire," indicating that all was well with 
him, and the Rainbow still radiant. On 
the reverse the medal was inscribed, "In 
Fleet Street — His Half Penny." 

A large number of these trade coins were 
put out by coffee-house keepers and other 
tradesmen in the seventeenth century as 
evidence of an amount due, as stated there- 
on, by the issuer to the holder. Tokens 
originated because of the scarcity of small 
change. They were of brass, copper, pew- 
ter, and even leather, gilded. They bore 
the name, address, and calling of the is- 
suer, the nominal value of the piece, and 
some reference to his trade. They were 
readily redeemed, on presentation, at their 
face value. They were passable in the im- 
mediate neighborhood, seldom reaching 
farther than the next street. C. G. William- 
son writes : 

Tokens are essentially deniooratic ; they would 
never have been issued but for the indifterenee 
of the Government to a public need ; and in 
tJieni we have a remarkable instance of a people 
forcing a legislature to comply with demands at 
once reasonable and imperative. Taken as a 
whole series, they are homely and quaint, want- 
ing in beauty, but not without u curious domes- 
tic art of their own. 

Robinson finds an exception to the gen- 
eral simplicity in the tokens^ issued by one 
of the Exchange Alley houses. The dies 
of these tokens are such as to have sug- 
gested the skilled workmanship of John 
Roettier. The most ornate has the head 
of a Turkish sultan at that time famed for 
his horrible deeds, ending in suicide; its 
inscription runs: 

Morat ye Great Men did mee call; 
Where Eare I came I conquer'd all. 

A number of the most interesting 
coffee-house keepers' tokens in the Beau- 
foy collection, in the Guildhall Museum 
were photographed for this work, and are 
shown herewith. It will be observed that 
many of the traders of 1660-75 adopted 
as their trade sign a hand pouring coffee 
from a pot, invariably of the Turkish- 
ewer pattern. Morat (Amurath) and Soli- 
man were frequent coffee-house signs in 
the seventeenth century. 

J. H. Bum, in his Catalogue of Traders' 
Tokens, recites that in 1672 "divers per- 
sons who presumed ... to stamp, coin, 
exchange and distribute farthings, half- 
pence and pence of brass and copper' 
were "taken into custody, in order to 



Andrew Vincent 
in Friday Street 

Morat Ye Great Coffee House 
in Kxchange Alley 

Mary Long 
in Russell Street 

Robins' Coffee House 
in Old Jewry 

Union Coffee House 
in Cornhill 

James Farr, the Rainbow 
In Fleet Street 

Chapter Coffee House 
in Paternoster Row 

Sultaness Coffee House 
in Cornhill 

Achler Brocas 
in Exeter 

Morat Coffee House 
in Exchange Alley 


Drawn for this work from the originals in the British Museum, and in the Beaufoy collection at the 

Guildhall Museum 



severe prosecution"; but upon submission, 
their offenses were forgiven, and it was 
not until the year 1675 that the private 
token ceased to pass current. 

A royal proclamation at the close of 
1674 enjoined the prosecution of any who 
should "utter base metals with private 
stamps," or "hinder the vending of those 
half pence and farthings which are pro- 
vided for necessary exchange." After 
this, tokens were issued stamped "neces- 
sary change." 

losition to the C offee House 

It is easy to see why the coffee houses 
at once found favor among men of intel- 

A Cup oh 

O F E E 


CoiFee in its Colqms. 

7WiMmt<jtad«^d . 



ii.{>.p»»j.rfi».°ti'»~"r' ■ 

•w, SKl^i 

w« luw fkM fMT WMteAi Jn 


A Broadside of 1GG3 

ligence in all classes. Until they came, 
the average Englishman had only the tav- 
ern as a place of common resort. But 
here was a public house offering a non-in- 
toxicating beverage, and its appeal was in- 
stant and universal. As a meeting place 
for the exchange of ideas it soon attained 
wide popularity. But not without opposi- 
tion. The publicans and ale-house keep- 
ers, seeing business slipping away from 
them, made strenuous propaganda against 
this new social center; and not a few at- 
tacks were launched against the coffee 
drink. Between the Restoration and the 
year 1675, of eight tracts written upon the 
subject of the London coffee houses, four 

have the words "character of a coffee 
house" as part of their titles. The au- 
thors appear eager to impart a knowledge 
of the town's latest novelty, with which 
many readers were unacquainted; 

One of these early pamphlets (1662) was 
entitled lite Coffee Scuffle, and professed 
to give a dialogue between "a learned 
knight and a pitifull pedagogue," and con- 
tained an amusing account of a house 
where the Puritan element was still in the 
ascendant. A numerous company is pres- 
ent, and each little group being occupied 
with its own subject, the general effect is 
that of another Babel. "While one is en- 
gaged in ({noting the classics, another con- 
fides to his neighbors how much he admires 
Euclid ; 

A third's for a lecture, a fourth a conjecture, 
A fifth for a penny in the pound. 

Theology is introduced. Mask balls and 
plays are condemned. Others again dis- 
cuss the news, and are deep in the store 
of "mercuries" here to be found. One 
cries up philosophy. Pedantry is rife, and 
for the most part unchecked, when each 
'prentice-boy "doth call for his coffee in 
Latin" and all are so prompt with their 
learned quotations that " 't would make 
a poor Vicar to tremble." 

The first noteworthy effort attacking the 
coffee drink was a satirical broadside that 
appeared in 1663. It was entitled A Cup 
of Coffee: or, Coff'ee in its Colours. It said: 

For men and Christians to turn Turks, and 

T' excuse the Crime because 'tis in their drink, 
Is more tlian Magick . 

Pure English Apes ! Ye may, for ought I know. 
Would it but mode, learn to eat Spiders too. 

The writer wonders that any man should 
prefer coffee to canary, and refers to the 
days of Beaumont, Fletcher, and Ben 
Jonson. He says : 

They drank pure nectar as the gods drink too, 
Sublim'd with rich Canary . . 

shall then 
These less than coffee's self, these coffee-men. 
These sons of nothing, that can hardly make 
Their Broth, for laughing how the jest doth 

take ; 
Yet grin, and give ye for the Vine's pure Blood 
A loathsome potion, not yet understood, 
Syrrop of soot, or Essence of old Shooes, 
Dasht with Diurnals and the Books of news? 

The author of A Cup of Coffee, it will 
be seen, does not shrink from using epi- 



Richard Lione 
in tlie Strand 

Mary Stringar 
in Little Trinity Lane 

Richard Tart 
in Gray Friars, Newgate Street 


William Russell 
in St. Bartholomew's Close, Smithfleld 

John Marston 
in Trumpington Street, Cambridge 

Henry Muscut 
opposite Brook House in Holborn 

West Country Coffee House 
in Lothebury 

Thomas Outridge 
in Carter Lane End, near Creed Lane 

Ward's Coffee House 
in Bread Street 

Mansfield's Coffee House 
in Shoe Lane 


Drawn for this work from the originals in the British Museum, and in the Beaufoy collection at the 

Guildhall Museum 



The Coffee Man's Granado Discharged 
upon the Maiden's Complaint Against 
Coffee, a dialogue in verse, also appeared 
in 1663. 

The Character of a Coffee House, hy an 
Eye and Ear Witness appeared in 1665. 
It was a ten-page pamphlet, and proved to 
be excellent propaganda for coffee. It is 
so well done, and contains so much local 
color, that it is reproduced here, the text 
being copied from the original in the Brit- 
ish Museum. The title page reads: 




Is contained a Description of the Persons 
usually frequenting it, with their Dis- 
course and Humors, 
As Also 
The Admirable Vertues of 
By an Eye and Ear Witness 

When Coffee once was vended here. 
The Alc'ron shortly did appear, 
For our Reformers were such Widgeons. 
New Liquors brought in new Religions. 

Printed in the Year, 1665. 


The text and the arrangement of 
body of the pamphlet are as follows : 



the derivation of 
A coffee-house 

A Coffee-house, the learned hold 
It is a place where Coffee's sold ; 
This derivation cannot fail us, 
For where Ale's vended, that's an Ale-house. 

This being granted to be true, 
'Tis meet that next the Signs we shew 
Both where and how to find this house 
Where men such cordial hroth carowse. 
And if Culpepper woon some glory 
In turning the Dispensatory 
From Latin into English; then 
Why should not all good English men 
Give him much thanks who shews a cure 
For all diseases men endure? 


As you along the streets do trudge. 

To take the pains you must not grudge, 

To view the Posts or Broomsticks where 

The Signs of Liquors hanged are. 

And if you see the great Moral 

With Shash on's head instead of hat, 

Or any Sultan in his dress, 

Or picture of a Sultaness, 

Or John's admir'd curled pate, 

Or th' great Mogul in's Chair of State, 

Or Constantine the Grecian, 

Who fourteen years was th' onely man 

That made Coffee for th' great Bashaw, 

Although the man he never saw; 
Or if you see a Coffee-cup 
Fil'd from a Turkish pot, hung up 
Within the clouds, and round it Pipes, 
Wax Candles, Stoppers, these are types 
And certain signs (with many more 
Would be too long to write them 'ore,) 
Which plainly do Spectators tell 
That in that house they Coffee sell. 
Some wiser than the rest (no doubt,) 
Say they can by the smell find't out ; 
In at a door (say they,) but thrust 
Your Nose, and if you scent burnt Crust, 
Be sure there's Coffee sold that's good. 
For so by most 'tis understood. 

Now being enter'd, there's no needing 
Of complements or gentile breeding, 
For you may seat you any where, 
There's no respect of persons there ; 
Then comes the Coffee-man to greet you, 
With welcome Sir, let me entreat you. 
To tell me what you'l please to have. 
For I'm your humble, humble slave ; 
But if you ask, what good does Coffee? 
He'l answer, Sir, don't think I scoff yee. 
If I affirm there's no disease 
Men have that drink it but find ease. 


Look, there's a man who takes the steem 
In at his Nose, has an extreme 
Worm in his pate, and giddiness. 
Ask him and he will say no less. 
There sitteth one whose Droptick belly 
AVas hard as flint, now's soft as jelly. 
There stands another holds his head 
'Ore th' Co:i9'ee-pot, was almost dead 
Even now with Rhume; ask him hee'l say 
That all his Rhum's now past away. 
See, there's a man sits now demure 
And sober, was within this hour 
Quite drunk, and comes here frequently. 
For 'tis his daily Malady, 
More, it has such reviving power 
'Twill keep a man awake an houre, 
Nay, make his eyes wide open stare 
Both Sermon time and all the prayer. 
Sir, should I tell you all the rest 
O' th' cures 't has done, two hours at least 
In numb'ring them I needs must spend. 
Scarce able then to make an end. 
Besides these vertues that's therein, 
For any kind of Medicine, 
The C ommonwealthr Kingdom I'd say. 
Has mighty reason for to pray 
That still Arabia may produce 
Enough of Berry for it's use : 
For't has such strange magnetick force, 
That it draws after't great concourse 
Of all degrees of persons, even 
From high to low, from morn till even ; 
Especially the "iober Party, 
And News-mongers do drink't most hearty. 
Here you'r not thrust into a Box 
As Taverns do to catch the Fox, 
But as from th' top of Pauls high steeple, 
Th' whole City's view'd, even so all people 
May here be seen ; no secrets are 
At th' Court for Peace, or th' Camp for War,. 
But straight they'r here disclos'd and known ; 
Men in this Age so wise are grown. 
Now (Sir) what profit may accrew 

^BWith that he's loudly call'd upon 
^B For Coffee, and then whip he's gone. 
^Hthe company 
^B Here at a Table sits (perplext) 

A griping Usurer, and next 

To him a gallant Furioso, 

Then nigh to him a Virtuoso; 

A Player then (full fine) sits down, 

And close to him a Country Clown. 

()' th' other side sits some Pragmatick, 

And next to him some sly Phanatick. 


The gallant he for Tea doth call, 
The Usurer for nought at all. 
The Pragmatick he doth intreat 
That they will fill him some Beau-cheat, 
The Virtuoso he cries hand me 
Some Coffee mixt with Sugar-candy. 
Phanaticus (at last) says come. 
Bring me some Aromaticum. 
The Player bawls for Chocolate, 
All which the Bumpkin wond'ring at, 
Cries, ho, my Masters, what d' ye speak, 
D' ye call for. drink in Heathen Greek ? 
Give me some good old Ale or Beer, 
Or else I will not drink. I swear. 
Then having charg'd their Pipes around, 


They silence break ; First the profound 
And sage Phanatique, Sirs what news? 
Troth says the UsWer I ne'r use 
To tip my tongue with such discourse, 
. 'Twere news to know how to disburse 
A summ of mony (makes me sad) 
To get ought by't, times are so bad. 
The other answers, truly Sir 
You speak but truth, for I'le aver 
They ne'r were worse ; did you not hear 
What prodigies did late appear 
At Xoririch. Ipsirich. Grantham, Gotam? 
And though prophane ones do not not'em, 
Yet we — Here th' Virtuoso stops 
The current of his speech, with hopes 
Quoth he. you will not tak'd amiss, 
I say all's lies that's news like this, 
For I have Factors all about 
The Realm, so that no Stars peep out 
That are unusual, much less these 
Strange and unheard-of prodigies 
You would relate, but they are tost 
To me in letters by first Post. 
At which the Furioso swears 
Such chat as this offends his ears 
It rather doth become this Age 
To talk of bloodshed, fury, rage. 
And t' drink stout healths in brim-fill'd Nogans. 
To th' downfall of the Hogan Mogans. 
With that the Player doffs his Bonnet, 
And tunes his voice as if a Sonnet 
Were to be sung; then gently says, 
O what delight there is in Plays! 
Sure if we were but all In Peace, 
This noise of Wars and News would cease ; 
All sorts of people then would club 
Their pence to see a Play that's good. 
You'l wonder all this while (perhaps) 
The Ctirioso holds his chaps. 
But he doth in his thoughts devise. 
How to the rest he may seem wise ; 


Yet able longer not to hold. 

His tedious tale too must be told. 

And thus begins. Sirs unto me 

It reason seems that liberty 

Of speech and words should be allow'd 

Where men of differing judgements croud. 

And that's a Coffee-house, for where 

Should men discourse so free as there? 

Coffee and Commonwealth begin 

Both with one letter, both came in 

Together for a Reformation, 

To make's a free and sober Nation. 

But now — With that Phanaticus 

Gives him a nod. and speaks him thus. 

Hold brother, I know your intent, 

That's no dispute convenient 

For this same place, truths seldome find 

Acceptance here, they'r more confin'd 

To Taverns and to Ale-house liquor. 

Where men do vent their minds more quicker 

If that may for a truth but pass 

What's said, In vino Veritas. 

With that up starts the Country Clown, 

And stares about with threatening frown 

As if he would even eat them all up. 

Then bids the boy run quick and call up, 

A Constable, for he has reason 

To fear their Latin may be treason 

But straight they all call what's to pay, 

Lay't down, and march each several way. 


At th' other table sits a Knight, 
And here a grave old man ore right 
Against his worship, then perhaps 
That hy and by a Drawer claps 
His bum close by them, there down squats 
A dealer in old shoes and hats; 
And here withouten any panick 
Fear, dread or care a bold Mechanick. 


The Knight (because he's so) he prates 
Of matters far beyond their pates. 
The grave old man he makes a bustle, 
And his wise sentence in must justle. 
Up starts th' Apprentice boy and he 
Says boldly so and so't must be. 
The dealer in old shoes to utter 
His saying too makes no small sputter. 
Then comes the pert mechanick blade, 
And contradicts what all have said. 
* * * 

There by the fler-side doth sit, 
One freezing in an Ague fit. 
Another poking in't with th' tongs, 
Still ready to cough up his lungs 
Here sitteth one that's melancolick. 
And there one singing in a frolick. 
Each one hath such a prety gesture. 
At Smithfield fair would yield a tester. 
Boy reach a pipe cries he that shakes. 
The songster no Tobacco takes. 
Says he who coughs, nor do I smoak. 
Then Monsieur Mopus turns his cloak 
Off from his face, and with a grave 
Majestick beck his pipe doth crave. 
They load their guns and fall a smoaking 
Whilst he who coughs sits by a choaking. 
Till he no longer can abide. 
And so removes from th' fier side. 
Now all this while none calls to drink. 
Which makes the Coffee hoy to think 



Much they his pots should so enclose, 

He cannot pass but tread on toes. 

With that as he the Nectar fills 

From pot to pot, some on't he spills 

Upon the Songster. Oh cries he. 

Pox, what dost do? thou'st burnt my knee; 

No says the boy, (to make a bald 

And blind excuse.) Sir Hvnll not scald. 

With that the man lends him a cuff 

O' th' ear, and whips away in snuff. 

The other two, their pipes being out, 

Says Monsieur Mopus I much doubt 

My friend I wait for will not come. 

But if he do, say I'm gone home. 

Then says the Aguish man I must come 

According to my wonted custome. 

To give ye' a visit, although now 

I dare not drink, and so adieu. 

The boy replies, O Sir, however 

You'r very welcome, we do never 

Our Candles, Pipes or Fier grutch 

To daily customers and such, 

They'r Company (without expence,) 

For that's sufficient recompence. 

Here at a table all alone, 

Sits (studying) a spruce youngster, (one 

Wlio doth conceipt himself fully witty, 

And's counted one o' th' wits o' th' City,) 

Till by him (with a stately grace,) 

A Spanish Don himself doth place. 

Then (cap in hand) a brisk Monsieur 

He takes his seat, and crowds as near 

As possibly that he can come. 

Then next a Dutchman takes his room. 

The Wits glib tongue begins to chatter, 

Though't utters more of noise than matter, 

Yet 'cause they seem to mind his words. 

His lungs more battle still affords 

At last says he to Don, I trow 

Ydu understand me? Sennor no 

Says th' other. Here the Wit doth pause 

A little while, then opes his jaws. 

And says to Monsieur, you enjoy 

Our tongue I hope? Non par ma foy, 

Replies the Frenchm/m : nor you, Sir? 

Says he to th' Dutchman, 7veen mynheer, 

With that he's gone, and cries, why sho'd 

He stay where tmfs not understood? 

There in a place of his own chusing 

(Alone) some lover sits a musing, 

With arms across, and's eyes up lift, 

As if he were of sence bereft. 

Till sometimes to himself he's speaking, 

Then sighs as if his heart were breaking. 

Here in a comer sits a Phrantick, 

And there stands by a frisking Antick, 

Of all sorts some and all conditions 

Even Vintners, Surgeons and Physicians. 

The blind, the deaf, and aged cripple 

Do here resort and Coffee tipple. 

Now here (perhaps) you may expect 
My Muse some trophies should erect 
In high flown verse, for to set forth 
The noble praises of its worth. 

Truth is, old Poets beat their brains 
To find out high and lofty strains 
To praise the (now too frequent) use 
Of the bewitching grapes strong juice, 
Some have strain'd hard for to exalt 
The liquor of our English Mault 
Nay Don has almost crackt his nodle 
Enough t' applaud his Caaco Caudle. 

The Germans Mum, Teag's Usquebagh, 
(Made him so well defend Tredagh,) 
MethegUn, which the Brittains tope, 
Hot Brandy wine, the Hogans hope. 
Stout Meade which makes the Russ to laugh, 
Spic'd Punch (in bowls.) the Indians quaff. 
All these have had their pens to raise 
Tliem Monuments of lasting praise, 
Onely poor Coffee seems to me 
No subject fit for Poetry 
At least 'tis one that none of mine is. 
So I do wave 't, and here write — 

News from the Coffe House; in which 
is shewn their several sorts of Passions ap- 


In which is (hewn their fcvaral forts of Pairions, 
Conuining Newes fiom all cm Nogjibour \amn!. 


YOo tint 4eli«lit iii iv-,i j„j Mirth, 
Aniiotn to bcBr imti N«w(, 
Ai roam from «11 P»m of the Fteih, 
Vmii. DMfj, Mil Tmltj, md J,w', 

Ihe, know more Tbingi 'then ci 
No Moitty ia the M'liiing-jMtufc 

/I >«a,i tm h CO 

Bdore tf« Ji.vp, ftlt tn Work 
Tta^kai* who lladi kc Wion 

Tbiy llMTt CM tdl yciritH the 7 

Wks M dU Cm D. tmim, u« 
hmBffi Ita jovial Crete ; 

Ob WhoMl givf tiM i^fTiitkji 

k filhrma i,i taWlv teTI, 
Am ftrongly d:il a voucli. 

He Cufht % Shne! (.i Metkirel, 

ntf„.,hK..,mV,. G,d\,i,mg, 

Miiieof Mit-S >ctom-d Hoan, 
Shell Coinfiu E.t.'"»l '*u-il *h .Lt 

There*! neit! ing done ir. ill iht Wi r/, 

Bw««vDevo(Nicht':i»bjr:<i , 

Into the tr.f ,.fa»/,. 
WEUI tiiJitar Rhtt fM^<r tin 

By An, n«i briri; Ibiwr, 
*i C.f.-*wi// you'l find ■ Ml", 

C— faitH/i fi-d .1 .«, 

They1tti)|«ilierc. whit Itdy wire. 

Oflite i» fftn/n too I'l^itf ; 
WhSt W.fe.tBin Ibeii tnta favour r»f> 

Whet fo«l diill bt 1 K-mhil 
Ztty'i tell yc wbcn tier F«> Inn Xttie, 

&fMl!Kifcij;'in, end Flotitilh, 
Or m-Iks 7,*r^ JJ^ai, (hill be mi^ 

Olorth-Wirden ^ tie Pirifli. 

'*>&>, trimti h) t. Cnw>l, for rbx,^ frt •>; ilii 

Ttty lnow»hol)>«iiin Iimei i,no» 

Be either made, or undone, 
Trom great S!. fiwi-Jtrintn timt 

And lloeile Kill at Clrtjn,., 
WhittnU uath great ei'l Gi.n; 

And in that place, what Biajen-f.te 
Doth mtti a Golden Cham. 

At Sea their Knoia-ledee ii lo muth, 
TleyHrowall Kotli and snel.ei, 

Tl«y Unrn ,h Counci'li of t.'.t D.r.*, 
More il,e= -hey kr»» Them^elrei , 

f. ho •[,! ni.l -el the ti'> ai lad. 
They perlefily ran Omw 

The? know a:! that it Gtini, t" Hun 
To Dam yr, or to Save ye ; 

There i, the C ''*i', and the Cfr, 
TlwCa*"';. tTaaip, and hivit; 

)&&. IheDtml:n5ill.reotCt..>./.,-, 

S^ Tht tend Of nii/i:-,.- 

5^^ "Til Cheaperfarr then Wine. 

«)(v> Yoti ftiall. fciiow there, lehatFllltontwei 

ij;i6> H»"l'<irT»igg,artCiirl'd, 

y fci; Arf lor a Penny yoo flit|| ktall, 

gj* All Novel* in (he WoHd 

gg Doth Old and Yontif, and Gleat andSlMB, 

CVqp And Kich, and faon, ymtl ftf : 

Sf& Thavefori ktl t« tie Cafe *8, 

gg^ Cone All an; >1A Uk. FMl . 

C»iia!c. fafcv/n» ><«j. ^ahjkfnnsa. ji 

A Broadside of 1667 

peared in 1667. It was reprinted in 1672 
as The Coffee House or Newsmongers' 

Several stanzas from these broadsides 
have been much quoted. They serve to 
throw additional light upon the manners 
of the time, and upon the kind of conver- 
sation met with in any well frequented 
coffee house of the seventeenth century, 
particularly under the Stuarts. They are 
finely descriptive of the company char- 



acteristics of the early coffee houses. The 
fifth stanza of the edition of 1667, inimical 
to the French, was omitted when the broad- 
side was amended and reprinted in 1672, 
the year that England joined with France 
and again declared war on the Dutch. The 
following' verses with explanatory notes 
are from Timbs: 

News from the Coffe House 

You that delight in Wit and Mirth, 

And long to hear such News, 
As comes from all Parts of the Earth, 

Dutch, Danes, and Turks, and Jews, 
I'le send yee to a Rendezvouz, 

Where it is smoaking new ; 
Go hear it at a Coffe-house, 

It cannot hut he true. 

Tliere Battles and Sea-Fights are Fought, 

And bloudy Plots display'd ; 
They know more Things then ere was thought 

Or ever was betray'd : 
No Money in the Minting-house 

Is halfe so Bright and New ; 
And comming from a Coffe-house 

It cannot hut he true. 

Before the Navyes fall to Work, 

They know who shall be Winner ; 
They there can tell ye what the Turk 

Last Sunday had to Dinner ; 
Who last did Cut Du Ruitters " Corns, 

Amongst his jovial Crew ; 
Or Who first gave the Devil Horns, 

Which cannot hut he true. 

A Fisherman did boldly tell, 

And strongly did avouch, 
He Caught a Shoal of Mackarel, 

That Parley'd all in Dutch, 
And cry'd out Yaw, yaw, yaw Myne Here; 

But as the Draught they Drew 
They Stunck for fear, that Monck^'' was there. 

Which cannot hut he true. 

There's nothing done in all the World, 

From M anarch to the Mouse 
But every Day or Night 'tis hurld 

Into the Coffe-house. 
What Lillie^^ or what Booker^ can 

By Art,, not bring about, 
At Coffe-house you'l find a Man, 

Can quickly find it out. 

They know who shall in Times to come, 

Be either made, or undone, 
From great St. Peters street in Rome, 

To Tumhull-street^^ in London; 

* * * 

They know all that is Good, or Hurt, 

To Dam ye, or to Save ye; 
There is the Colledge, and the Court, 

The Country, Camp and Navie; 
So great a Universitie, 

I think there ne're was any ; 
In which you may a Schoolar be 

For spending of a Penny. 

* * * 

Here Men do talk of every Thing, 

With large and liberal Lungs, 
Like Women at a Gossiping, 

With double tyre of Tongues; 
They'l give a Broad-side presently, 

Soon as you are in view. 
With Stories that, you'l wonder at, 

Which they will swear are true. 

Tlie Drinking there of Chockalat, 

Can make a Fool a Sophie : 
'Tls thought the Turkish Mahomet 

Was first Inspir'd with Coffe, 
By which his Powers did Over-flow 

The Land of Palestine : 
Then let us to, the Coffe-house go, 

'Tis Cheaper farr then Wine. 

You shall know there, what Fashions are ; 

How Perrywiggs are Curl'd ; 
And for a Penny you shall heare, 

All Novells in the World. 
Both Old and Young, and Great and Small, 

And Rich, and Poore, you'l see ; 
Therefore let's to the Coffe All, 

Come All away with Mee. 


Robert Morton made a contribution to 
the controversy in Lines Appended to the 
Nature, Quality and Most Excellent Ver- 
ifies of Coffee in 1670. 

There was published in 1672 A Broad- 
side Against Coffee, or the Marriage of 
the Turk, verses that attained consider- 
able fame because of their picturesque in- 
vective. They also stressed the fact that 
Pasqua Ros^e's partner was a coachman, 

» The Dutch admiral who, in June, 1667, dashed 
into the Downs with a fleet of eighty "sail", and 
many "flre-ships", blocljed up the mouths of the 
Medway and Thames, destroyed the fortifications at 
Sheerness. cut away the paltry defenses of booms and 
chains drawn across the rivers, and got to Chatham, 
on the one side, and nearly to Gravesend on the 
other, the king having spent in debauchery the money 
voted by Parliament for the proper support of the 
English navy. 

" General Monk and Prince Rupert were at this 
time commanders of the English fleet. 

" Lillie (Lilly) was the celebratefl astrologer of the 
Protectorate, who earned great fame at that time by 
predicting, in June, 1645, "if now we fight, a victory 
stealeth upon us ;" a lucky guess, signally verified in 

the King's defeat at Naseby. Lilly thenceforth always 
saw the stars favourable to the Puritans. 

" This man was originally a fishing-tackle maker in 
Tower Street during the reign of Charles I ; but 
turning enthusiast, he went about prognosticating 
"the downfall of the King and Popery ;" and as he 
and his predictions were all on the popular side, he 
became a great man with the superstitious "godly 
brethren" of that day. 

1* Turnball, or TurnbuU - street, as it is still called, 
had been for a century previous of infamous repute. 
In Beaumont and Fletcher's play, the Knipht of the 
Burning Pestle, one of the ladies who is undergoing 
penance at the barber's, has her character sufliciently 
pointed out to the audience, in her declaration, that 
she had been "stolen from her friends in Turnball - 



N.taircQualicy, and Mofl: Ex'ccllcnc V' 




MKti ihmi k>r the 

fhim rtiobchts »^ <lrv' becaufeO- 
' -iid axnft, liiakcn ^hcn ^vr\ has* 

M coU thm^* dulli the tK'sui n 

tcrfii liung i)Ott d* SroiB* '■ 

^ h t ai,d di^ rfang^ flroigiithe 

A Broadside of 1670 

and imitated the broken English of the 
Ragusan youth: 

A Broad-side Against COFFEE ; 

Ob, the 

Mabbiage of the Turk 

Coffee, a kind of Turkish Renegade, 

Has late a match with Christian water made ; 

At first l)etween them happen'd a Demur, 

Yet joyn'd they were, but not without great stir; 

* * * 

Coffee was cold as Earth, Water as Thames, 
And stood in need of recommending Flames; 

* iti * 

Coffee so brown as berry does appear, 
Too swarthy for a Nymph so fair, so clear : 

* * * 

A Coachman was the first (here) Coffee made, 
And ever since the rest drive on the trade; 
Me no good Engalash! and sure enough. 
He plaid the Quack to salve his Stygian stuff; 
Ver boon for de stomach, de Cough, de Ptisick 
And I believe him, for it looks like Physick. 
Coffee a crust is charkt into a coal. 
The smell and taste of the Mock China bowl ; 
Where huflf and puff, they labour out their lungs, 
Lest Dives-like they should bewail their tongues. 
And yet they tell ye that it will not burn. 
Though on the Jury Blisters you return ; 
Whose furious heat does make the water rise. 
And still through the Alembicks of your eyes. 
Dread and desire, ye fall to't snap by snap, 

As hungry Dogs do scalding porrige lap, 
But to cure Drunkards it has got great Fame; 
Posset or Porrige, will't not do the same? 
Confusion huddles all into one Scene, 
Like Noah's Ark, the clean and the unclean. 
But now, alas! the Drench has credit got, 
And he's no Gentleman that drinks it not ; 
That such a Dwarf should rise to such a stature I 
But Custom is but a remove from Nature. 
A little Dish, and a large Coffee-house, 
What is it, but a Mountain and a Mouse? 
* * * 

Mens humana novitatis avidissim^a. 

And so it came to pass that coffee his- 
tory repeated itself in England. Many 
good people became convinced that coffee 
was a dangerous drink. The tirades against 
the beverage in that far-off time sound not 
unlike the advertising patter employed by 
some of our present-day coffee-substitute 
manufacturers. It was even ridiculed by 
being referred to as "ninny broth" and 
"Turkey gruel." 

A brief description of the excellent ver- 
tues of that sober and wholesome drink 
called coffee appeared in 1674 and proved 
an able and dignified answer to the at- 
tacks that had preceded it. That same year, 
for the first time in history, the sexes di- 
vided in a coffee controversy, and there 
was issued The Women's Petition against 
Coffee, representing to public consideration 
the grand inconveniences accruing to their 

A Broad-ride againft COFFEE; , 

Or, the 

Marriage of the Turk. -x 


^ lih t , ; jr 11 

ii/f iThisMii 
r rmadi; 'And boil 
I ACo 


All H. funtlouk y I t 

. JnrUintoacjjl 

'1 •» ' 
I, )'l 


I'l.l lu(a» I t , 

S K I. ijf[\ t- 1 1 1 
An' 1 <i.<fl. 

;, I'L' diou-,h t-om 
^■ur t'>ij'e i -vcxt U 

Wh t ft.ll! HI 

lie 1 ft 

VVi I 

L lltt c 

An J yctt 

rhouctioiiil-JuryBli » r 

W lioie furijj heat does n^k« tl e Witcrn c, 

\nA dtil iluougii ilw Atcmbicls of yaur cyn 

eaJ ind dcHre, w f-'i' to i f lap I ) f lap, 

'AshongryI>)j;i«oK-aldingp iii ip 
Bjiiocir Dn nlad? It lia go«gc iF in , 

lPi>,r«o -Por??, wiiitnotdodnlmi > 
CtiI I'm lit.i"j -tall idtoone S c i- 

Xl ^M» All, hedcamndiUuiiclcw 

iRurov, Va ' .hr Drench ha crd. ;;« 
AnilKu jtjcn l-matitlntdiiik H»ut, 
T in. 1 u /) r rt ouH r¥c to fi. H a Ibture ' 
B'ClH i til no\ fromNaluri: 

A ii 'f D n f ft e V, m'c 

\V , ' 

? („,J , 




' L. JfiM Efits itf^a 

A Broadside of 1672 



sex from the excessive use of the drying 
and enfeebling Liquor, in which the ladies, 
who had not been accorded the freedom of 
the coffee houses in England, as was the 
custom in France, Germany, Italy, and 
other countries on the Continent, com- 
plained that coffee made men as "unfruit- 
ful as the deserts where that unhappy 
berry is said to be bought." Besides the 
more serious complaint that the whole race 
was in danger of extinction, it was urged 
that "on a domestic message a husband 
would stop by the way to drink a couple 
of cups of coffee." 

This pamphlet is believed to have pre- 
cipitated the attempt at suppression by 
the crown the following year, despite the 
prompt appearing, in 1674, of The Men's 
Answer to the Women's Petition Against 
Coffee, vindicating . . . their liquor, from 
the undeserved aspersion lately cast upon 
them, in their scandalous pamphlet. 

The 1674 broadside in defense of coffee 
was the first to be illustrated; and for all 
its air of pretentious grandeur and occa- 
sional bathos, it was not a bad rhyming 
advertisement for the persecuted drink. It 
was printed for Paul Greenwood and sold 
"at the sign of the coffee mill and tobacco- 
roll in Cloath-fair near West-Smithfield, 
who selleth the best Arabian coffee powder 
and chocolate in cake or roll, after the 
Spanish fashion, etc." The following ex- 
tracts will serve to illustrate its epic char- 
acter : 

When the sweet Poison of the Treacherous 

Had Acted on the world a General Rape ; 
Drowning our very Reason and our Souls 
In such deep Seas of large o'reflowing Bowls, 

* * an 

When Foggy Ale, leavying up mighty Trains 
Of muddy Vapours, had besieg'd our Brains ; 

* * * 

Then Heaven in Pity, to Effect our Cure, 

* * * 

First sent amongst us this All-heaUng-Berry, 
At once to make us both Sober and Merry. 

Arabian Coffee, a Rich Cordial 
To Purse and Person Beneficial, 
Which of so many Vertues doth partake, 
Its Country's called Felix for its sake. 
From the Rich Chambers of the Rising Sun, 
Where Arts, and all good Fashions first begun. 
Where Earth with choicest Rarities is blest. 
And dying Phoenix builds Her wondrous Nest;: 
COFFEE arrives, that Grave and wholesome 

That heals the Stomack, makes the Genius 




'.*-jj^ EFFECTS 


mil F HOUSE. 

I b whi,.^ I. .. HA.n.VMVM. 

A I ".udADsii'i; III It;, 1 
The first one to be illustrated 

Relieves the Memory, Revives the Sad. 
* * * 

Do but this Rare ARABIAN Cordial Use, 
And thou may'st all the Doctors Slops Refuse. 
Hush then, dull QUACKS, your Mountebanking 

COFFEE'S a speedier Cure for each Disease; 
How great its Vertues are, we hence may think. 
The Worlds third Part makes it their common 

Drink ; 
In Breif, all you who Healths Rich Treasures 

And Court not Ruby Noses, or blear'd Eyes, 
But own Sobriety to be your Drift. 
And Love at once good Company and Thrift ; 
To Wine no more make Wit and Coyn a 

But come each Night and Fi-<>llique here in 



An eight-page folio, the last argument 
to be issued in defense of coffee before 
Charles II sought to follow in the foot- 
steps of Kair Bey and Kuprili, was issued 
in the early part of 1675. It was entitled 
Coffee Houses Vindicated. In answer to 
the late published Character of a Coffee 
House. Assertiiig from Reason, Experi- 
ence and good Authors the Excellent Use 
and physical Virtues of that Liquor. . . . 
With the Grand Conveniency of such civil 
Places of Resort and ingenious Conversa- 



The advantage of a coffee house com- 
pared with a " publiek-house " is thus set 

First, In regard of easy expense. Being to 
wait for or meet a friend, a tavern-reckoning 
soon breeds a purse-consumption : in an ale 
house, you must gorge yourself with pot after 
pot . . . But here, for a penny or two, you 
may spend two or three hours, have the shelter 
of a house, the warmth of *a fire, the diversion 
of company ; and conveniency, if you please, of 
taking a pipe of tobacco ; and all this without 
any grumbling or repining. Secondly. For so- 
briety. It is grown, by the ill influences of I 
know not what hydropick stars, almost a gen- 
eral custom amongst us, that no bargain can 
be drove, or business concluded between man 
and man, hut it must be transacted at some 
publick-house . . . where continual sippings 
. . . would be apt to fly up into their brains, 
and render them drowsy and indisposed . . . 
whereas, having now the opportunity of a 
coffee-house, they repair thither, take each 
man a dish or two (so far from causing, that it 
cures any dizziness, or disturbant fumes) : and 
so, dispatching their business, go out more 
sprightly about their affairs, than before. . . . 
Lastly, For diversion . . . where can young 
gentlemen, or shop-keepers, more innocently and 
advantageously spend an hour or two in the eve- 
ning than at a coffee-house? Where they shall 
be sure to meet company, and, by the custom of 
the house, not such as at other places stingy and 
reserved to themselves, but free and communica- 
tive, where every man may modestly begin his 
story, and propose to, or answer another, as 
he thinks fit. . . . So that, upon the whole 
matter, spight of the idle sarcasms and paltry 
reproaches thrown upon it, we may, with no 
less truth than plainness, give this brief char- 
acter of a well-regulated coffee-house, (for our 
pen disdains to be an advocate for any sordid 
holes, that assume that name to cloke the prac- 
tice of debauchery,) that it is the sanctuary of 
health, the nursery of temperance, the delight of 
frugality, and academy of civility, and free- 
school of ingenuity. 

The Ale Wives' Complaint Against the 
Coffee-houses, a dialogue between a vict- 
ualer's wife and a coffee man, at difference 
about spiriting away each other's trade, 
also was issued in 1675. 

As early as 1666, and again in 1672, we 
find the government planning to strike a 
blow at the coffee houses. By the year 
1675, these "seminaries of sedition" were 
much frequented by persons of rank and 
substance, who, "suitable to our native 
genius," says Anderson," "used great free- 
dom therein with respect to the courts' 
proceedings in these and like points, so 
contrary to the voice of the people." 
. In 1672, Charles II, seemingly eager to 
emulate the Oriental intolerants that pre- 

^* Anderson. Adam. Historical and Chronological 
Deduction of the Origin of Commerce. London, 1787. 

ceded him, determined to try his hand at 
suppression. "Having been informed of 
the great inconveniences arising from the 
great number of persons that resort to 
coffee-houses," the king "desired the Lord 
Keeper and the Judges to give their opin- 
ion in writing as to how far he might law- 
fully proceed against them." 

Roger North in his Examen gives the 
full story; and D 'Israeli, commenting on 
it, says, "it was not done without some 
apparent respect for the British constitu- 
tion." The courts affected not to act 
against the law, and the judges were sum- 
moned to a consultation ; but the five who- 
met could not agree in opinion. 

Sir William Coventry spoke against the 
proposed measure. He pointed out that 
the government obtained considerable 
revenue from coffee, that the king himself 
owed to these seemingly obnoxious places 
no small debt of gratitude in the matter 
of his own restoration; for they had been 
permitted in Cromwell's time, when the 
king's friends had used more liberty of 
speech than "they dared to do in any 
other." He urged, also, that it might be 
rash to issue a command so likely to be 

At last, being hard pressed for a reply, 
the judges gave such a halting opinion in 
favor of the king's policy as to remind us 
of the reluctant verdict wrung from the 
physicians and lawyers of Mecca on the 
occasion of coffee 's first persecution.'' ' ' The 
English lawyers, in language which, for its 
civility and indefiniteness, ' ' says Robinson, 
"would have been the envy of their East- 
em brethren," declared that: 

Retailing coffee might be an innocent trade, 
as it might be exercised; but as it is used nt 
present, in the nature of a common assembly, 
to discourse of matters of State, news and 
great Persons, as they are Nurseries of Idle- 
ness and Pragmaticalness, and hinder the ex- 
pence of our native Provisions, they might be 
thought common nuisances. 

An attempt was made to mold public 
opinion to a favorable consideration of the 
attempt at suppression in The Grand Con- 
cern of England explained, which w^as good 
propaganda for his majesty's enterprise, 
but utterly failed to carry conviction to 
the lovers of liberty. 

After much backing and filling, the king, 
on December 23, 1675, issued a proclama- 
tion which in its title frankly stated its 

" See chapter III. 



object — "foF the suppression of coffee 
houses." It is here given in a somewhat 
condensed form: 




Charles R. 

Whereas it is most apparent that the multi- 
tude of Coffee Houses of late years set up and 
kept within this kingdom, the dominion of 
Wales, and town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and 
the great resort of Idle and disaffected persons 
to them, have produced very evil and dangerous 
effects ; as well for that many tradesmen and 
others, do herein mispend much of their time, 
which might and probably would be employed 
in and about their Lawful Calling and Affairs ; 
but also, for that in such houses .... 
divers false, malitious and scandalous reports 
are devised and spread abroad to the Defama- 
tion of his Majestie's Government, and to the 
Disturbance of the Peace and Quiet of the 
Realm ; his Majesty hath thought fit and neces- 
sary, that the said Coffee Houses be (for the 
future) Put down, and suppressed, and doth 
. strictly charge and command all man- 
ner of persons. That they or any of them do 
not presume from and after the Tenth Day of 
January next ensuing, to keep any Public Cof- 
fee House, or to utter or sell by retail, in his, 
her or their house or houses (to be spent or 
consumed within the same) any Coffee, Choco 
let, Sherbett or Tea, as they will answer the 
contrary at their utmost perils . . . (all 
licenses to be revoked). 

Given at our Court at Whitehall, this third- 
and-twentleth dajj of Dec, 1675, in the seven - 
and-twentieth year of our Reign. 


And then a remarkable thing happened. 
It is not usual for a royal proclamation 
issued on the 29th of one month to be re- 
called on the 8th day of the next ; but this 
is the record established by Charles II. 
The proclamation was made on December 
23, 1675, and issued December 29, 1675. 
It forbade the coffee houses to operate 
after January 10, 1676, But so intense 
was the feeling aroused, that eleven days 
was sufficient time to convince the king 
that a blunder had been made. Men of 
all parties cried out against being deprived 
of their accustomed haunts. The dealers 

I in coffee, tea, and chocolate demonstrated 
that the proclamation would greatly lessen 
his majesty's revenues. Convulsion and 
discontent loomed large. The king heeded 
|the warning, and on January 8, 1676, an- 
other proclamation was issued by which 
the first proclamation was recalled. 

In order to save the king's face, it was 
solemnly recited that "His Gracious Maj- 

esty," out of his "princely consideration 
and royal compassion" would allow the re- 
tailers of coffee liquor to keep open until 
the 24th of the following June. But this 
was clearly only a royal subterfuge, as 
there was no further attempt at molesta- 
tion, and it is extremely doubtful if any 
was contemplated at the time the second 
proclamation was promulgated. 

"Than both which proclamations noth- 
ing could argue greater guilt nor greater 
weakness," says Anderson. Robinson re- 
marks, "A battle for freedom of speech 
was fought and won over this question at 
a time when Parliaments were infrequent 
and when the liberty of the press did not 
exist, ' ' 

"Penny Universities" 

"We read in 1677 that "none dare ven- 
ture into the coffee houses unless he be 
able to argue the question whether Parlia- 
ment were dissolved or not." 

All through the years remaining. in the 
seventeenth century, and through most of 
the eighteenth century, the London coffee 
houses grew and prospered. As before 
stated, they were originally temperance in- 
stitutions, very different from the taverns 
and ale houses. "Within the walls of the 
coffee house there was always much noise, 
much clatter, much bustle, but decency 
was never outraged." 

At prices ranging from one to two 
pence per dish, the demand grew so great 
that coffee-house keepers were obliged to 
make the drink in pots holding eight or 
ten gallons. 

The seventeenth-century coffee houses 
were sometimes referred to as the "penny 
universities"; because they were great 
schools of conversation, and the entrance 
fee was only a penny. Two pence was the 
usual price of a dish of coffee or tea, this 
charge also covering newspapers and lights. 
It was the custom for the frequenter to 
lay his penny on the bar, on entering or 
leaving. Admission to the exchange of 
sparkling wit and brilliant conversation 
was within the reach of all. 

So great a Vniveraitie 
I think there ne're was any ; 
In which you may a Schoolar be 
For spending of a Penny. 

"Regular customers," we are told, "had 
particular seats and special attention from 
the fair lady at the bar, and the tea and 
coffee boys." 



It is believed that the-iiifidern custom 
of tipping, and the wordQ ^tip^ originated 
in the coffee houses, where irequently hung 
brass-bound boxes into which customers 
were expected to drop coins for the ser- 
vants. The boxes were inscribed " Jc) Ttt- 
mxet Prom ptnes s'' and from the initial 
letters of these words came "tip." 

The National Review says, ' ' be^re 1715 
the number of coffee houses in London was 
reckoned at 2-000." Dufour, who wrote in 
1683, declares, upon information received 
from several persons who had staid in 
London, that there were 3000 of these 
places. However, 2000 is probably nearer 
the fact. 

In that critical time in English history, 
when the people, tired of the misgovern- 
ment of the later Stuarts, were most in need 
of a forum where questions of great mo- 
ment could be discussed, the coffee house 
became a sanctuary. Here matters of 
supreme political import were threshed out 
and decided for the good of Englishmen 
for all time. And because many of these 
questions were so well thought out then, 
there was no need to fight them out later. 
England's great struggle for political 
liberty was really fought and won in the 
coffee house. 

To the end of the reign of Charles II, 
coffee was looked upon by the govern- 
ment rather as a new check upon license 
than an added luxury. After the revolu- 
tion, the London coffee merchants were 
obliged to petition the House of Lords 
against new import duties, and it was not 
until the year 1692 that the government, 
"for the greater encouragement and ad- 
vancement of trade and the greater impor- 
tation of the said respective goods or mer- 
chandises," discharged one half of the ob- 
noxious tariff. 

Weird Co/fee Substitutes 

Shortly after the "great fire," coffee 
substitutes began to appear. First came 
a liquor made with betony, "for the sake 
of those who could not accustom themselves 
to the bitter taste of coffee." Betony is 
a herb belonging to the mint family, and 
its root was formerly employed in medi- 
cine as an emetic or purgative. In 1719, 
when coffee was 7s. a pound, came bocket, 
later known as saloop, a decoction of sassa- 
fras and sugar, that became such a favorite' 
among those who could not afford tea or 
coffee, that there were many saloop stalls 

in the streets of London. It was also sold 
at Read's coffee house in Fleet Street. 

The Coffee Men Overreach Themselves 

The coffee-house keepers had become so 
powerful a force in the community in 1729 
that they lost all sense of proportion; and 
we find them seriously proposing to usurp 
the functions of the newspapers. The vain- 
glorious coffee men requested the govern- 
ment to hand over to them a journalistic 
monopoly; the argument being that the 
newspapers of the day were choked with 
advertisements, filled with foolish stories 
gathered by ail-too enterprising news- 
writers, and that the only way for the gov- 
ernment to escape "further excesses occa- 
sioned by the freedom of the press" and 
to rid itself of "those pests of society, the 
unlicensed newsvendors, " was for it to in- 
trust the coffee men, as "the chief support- 
ers of liberty" with the publication of a 
Coffee House Gazette. Information for the 
journal was to be supplied by the habitues 
of the houses themselves, written down on 
brass slates or ivory tablets, and called for 
twice daily by the Gazette's representatives. 
All the profits were to go to the coffee men 
— including the expected increase of cus- 

Needless to say, this amazing proposal 
of the coffee-house masters to have the pub- 
lic write its own newspapers met with the 
scorn and the derision it invited, and noth- 
ing ever came of it. 

The increasing demand for coffee caused 
the government tardily to seek to stimulate 
interest in the cultivation of the plant in 
"British colonial possessions. It was tried 
out in Jamaica in 1730. By 1732 the ex- 
periment gave such promise that Parlia- 
ment, "for encouraging the growth of 
coffee in His Majesty's plantations in 
America," reduced the inland duty on cof- 
fee coming from there, "but of none other," 
from two shillings to one shilling six pence 
per pound. "It seems that the French at 
Martinico, Hispaniola, and at the Isle de 
Bourbon, near Madagascar, had somewhat 
the start of the English in the new prod- 
uct as had also the Dutch at Surinam, yet 
none had hitherto been found to equal cof- 
fee from Arabia, whence all the rest of 
the world had theirs." Thus writes Adam 
Anderson in 1787, somewhat ungraciously 
seeking to damn England's business rivals 
with faint praise. Java coffee was even 
then in the lead, and the seeds of Bourbon- 



Jantos were multiply ing rapidly in Bra- 
ilian soil. 

The British East India Company, how- 
Bver, was much more interested in tea than 
coffee. Having lost out to the French 
ind Dutch on the "little brown berry of 
Lrabia," the company engaged in so lively 
propaganda for "the cup that cheers" 
lat, whereas the annual tea imports from 
[700 to 1710 averaged 800,000 pounds, in 
[721 more than 1,000,000 pounds of tea 
Jrere brought in. In 1757, some 4,000,000 
^Jounds were imported. And when the cof- 
fee house finally succumbed, tea, and not 
coffee, was firmly intrenched as the na- 
tional drink of the English people. 

A movement in 1873 to revive the coffee 
house in the form of a coffee ' ' palace, ' ' de- 
signed to replace the public house as a 
place of resort for working men, caused 
the Edinburgh Castle to be opened in Lon- 
don. The movement attained considerable 
success throughout the British Isles, and 
even spread to the United States. 

Evolution of th e Clu b 

Every profession, trade, class, and party 
had its favorite coffee house. ' ' The bitter 
black drink called coffee," as Mr. Pepys 
described the beverage, brought together 
all sorts and conditions of men; and out 
of their mixed association there developed 
groups of patrons favoring particular 
houses and giving them character. It is 
easy to trace the transition of the group 
into a clique that later became a club, con- 
tinuing for a time to meet at the coffee 
house or the chocolate house, but event- 
ually demanding a house of its own. 

Decline and Fall of the Coffee House 

Starting as a forum for the commoner, 
the coffee house soon became the plaything 
of the leisure class ; and when the club was 
evolved, the coffee house began to retro- 
grade to the level of the tavern. And so 
the eighteenth century, which saw the cof- 
fee house at the height of its power and 
popularity, witnessed also its decline and 
fall. It is said there were as many clubs 
at the end of the century as there were 
coffee houses at the beginning. 

For a time, when the habit of reading 
newspapers descended the social ladder, 
the coffee house acquired a new lease of 
life. Sir Walter Besant observes: 

They were then frequented by men who came, 
not to talk, but to read ; the smaller tradesmen 

and the better class of mechanic now came to 
the cofifee-house. called for a cup of cofifee, and 
with it the daily paper, which they could not 
afford to take in. Every cofifee-house took three 
or four papers ; there seems to have been in this 
latter phase of the once social institution no 
general conversation. The cofifee-house as a 
place of resort and conversation gradually de- 
clined ; one can hardly say why, except that all 
human institutions do decay. Perhaps manners 
declined; the leaders in literature ceased to be 
seen there; the city clerk began to crowd in; 
the tavern and the club drew men from the cof- 

A few houses survived until the early 
years of the nineteenth century, but the 
social side had disappeared. As tea and 
coffee entered the homes, and the exclusive 
club house succeeded the democratic coffee 
forum, the coffee houses became taverns 
or chop houses, or, convinced that they had 
outlived their usefulness, just ceased to be. 

Pen Pictures of Coffee-House Life 

From the writings of Addison in the 
Spectator, Steele in the Tatler, Mackay in 
his Journey Through England, Macaulay 
in his history, and others, it is possible to 
draw a fairly accurate pen-picture of life 
in the old London coffee house. 

In the seventeenth century the coffee 
room usually opened off the street. At 
first only tables and chairs were spread 
about on a sanded floor. Later, this ar- 
rangement was succeeded by the boxes, or 
booths, such as appear in the Rowlandson 
caricatures, the picture of the interior of 
Lloyds, etc. 

The walls were decorated with handbills 
and posters advertising the quack medi- 
cines, pills, tinctures, salves, and electu- 
aries of the period, all of which might be 
purchased at the bar near the entrance, 
presided over by a prototype of the mod- 
ern English barmaid. There were also 
bills of the play, auction notices, etc., de- 
pending upon the character of the place. 

Then, as now, the barmaids were made 
much of by patrons. Tom Brown refers 
to them as charming "Phillises who invite 
you by their amorous glances into their 
smoaky territories." 

Messages were left and letters received 
at the bar for regular customers. Stella 
was instructed to address her letters to 
Swift, "under cover to Addison at the St. 
James's coffee house." Says Macaulay: 

Foreigners remarked that it was the coffee 
house which specially distinguished London from 
all other cities; that the coffee house was the 





jondoner's home, and that those who wished to 

ind a gentleman commonly asked, not whether 

the lived in Fleet Street or Chancery Lane, but 

j-whether he frequented the Grecian or the Rain- 


So every man of the upper or middle 
classes went daily to his coffee house to 
learn the news and to discuss it. The better 
class houses were the meeting places of the 
most substantial men in the community. 
Every coffee house had its orator, who be- 
came to his admirers a kind of "fourth 
estate of the realm. ' ' 

Macaulay gives us the following picture 
of the coffee house of 1685 : 

Nobody was excluded from these places who 
laid down his penny at the bar. Yet every 
rank and profession, and every shade of reli- 
gious and political opinion had its own head- 

There were houses near St. James' Park, 
where fops congregated, their heads and shoul- 
ders covered with black or flaxen wigs, not less 
ample than those which are now worn by the 
Chancellor and by the Speaker of the House of 
Commons. The atmosphere was like that of a 
perfumer's shop. Tobacco in any form than 
that of richly scented snuff was held in abom- 
ination. If any clown, ignorant of the usages 
(if the house, called for a pipe, the sneers of the 
whole assembly and the short answers of the 
waiters soon convinced him that he had better 
go somewhere else. 

Nor, indeed, would he have far to go. For, in 
general, the coffee-houses reeked with tobacco 
like a guard room. Nowhere was the smoking 
more constant than at Will's. That celebrated 
house, situated between Covent Garden and Bow 
street, was sacred to polite letters. There the 
talk was about poetical justice and the unities 
of place and time. Under no roof was a great- 
er variety of figures to be seen. There were 
earls in stars and garters, clergymen in cas- 
socks and bands, pert Templars, sheepish lads 
from universities, translators and index makers 
in ragged coats of frieze. The great press was 
to get near the chair where John Dryden sate. 
In winter that chair was always in the warmest 
nook by the fire ; in summer it stood in the bal- 
cony. To bow to the Laureate, and to hear his 
opinion of Racine's last tragedy, or of Bossu's 
treatise on epic poetry, was thought a privilege 
A pinch from his snuff-box was an honour suffl- 
cient to turn the head of a young enthusiast. 

There were coffee-houses where the first medi- 
cal men might be consulted. Dr. John Rad- 
cliffe. who, in the year 1685, rose to the largest 
practice in London, came daily, at the hour 
when the Exchange was full, from his house in 
Bow street, then a fashionable part of the capi- 
tal, to Garraway's, and was to be found, sur- 
rounded by surgeons and apothecaries, at a par- 
ticular table. 

There were Puritan coffee-houses where no 
oath was heard, and where lank-haired men 
discussed election and reprobation through their 
Boses; Jew coffee-houses, where dark-eyed 
money changers from Venice and Amsterdam 
greeted each other; and Popish coffee-houses. 


where, as good Protestan^j believed, Jesuits 
planned over their cups another great fire, and 
cast silver bullets to shoot the King. 

Ned Ward gives us this picture of the 
coffee house of the seventeenth century. 
He is describing Old Man's, Scotland 

We now ascended a pair of stairs, which 
brought us into an old-fashioned room, where a 
gaudy crowd of odoriferous Tom-Essences were 
walking backwards and forwards, with their 
hats in their hands, not daring to convert them 
to their intended use lest it should put the fore 
tops of their wigs into some disorder. We 
squeezed through till we got to the end of the 
room, where, at a small table, we sat down, 
and observed that it was as great a rarity to 
hear anybody call for a dish of politicians por- 
ridge, or any other liquor, as it is to hear a 
beau call for a pipe of tobacco; their whole 
exercise being to charge and discharge their 
nostrils and keep the curls of their i)eriwigs in 
their proper order. The clashing of their snush- 
box lids, in opening and shutting, made more 
noise than their tongues. Bows and cringes of 
the newest mode were here exchanged 'twixt 
friend and friend with wonderful exactness. 
They made a humming like so many hornets in 
a country chimney, not with their talking, but 
with their whispering over their new Minuets 
and Bories, with the hands in their pockets, if 
only freed from their snush-box. We now began 
to be thoughtful of a pipe of tobacco, where- 
upon we ventured to call for some instruments 
of evaporation, which were accordingly brought 
us, but with such a kind of unwillingness, as if 
they would much rather been rid of our com- 
pany ; for their tables were so very neat, and 
shined with rubbing like the upper-leathers of 
an alderman's shoes, and as brown as the top 
of a country house-wife's cupboard. The floor 
was as, clean swept as a Sir Courtly's dining 
room, which made us look round to see if there 
were no orders hung up to impose the forfeiture 
of so much mop-money upon any person that 
should spit out of the chimney-corner. Not- 
withstanding we wanted an example to en- 
courage us in our porterly rudeness, we ordered 
them to light the wax candle, by which we 
ignifled our pipes and blew about our whiffs ; 
at which several Sir Foplins drew their faces 
into as many peevish wrinkles as the beaux at 
the Bow Street Coffee-house, near Covent 
Garden, did when the gentleman in masquerade 
came in amongst them, with his oyster-barrel 
muff and turnip-buttons, to ridicule their fop- 

In A Brief and Merry History of Great 
Britain we read: 

There is a prodigious number of Cofifee- 
Houses in London, after the manner I have 
seen some in Constantinople. These Coffee- 
Houses are the constant Rendezvous for Men 
of Business as well as the idle People. Besides 
Coffee, there are many other Liquors, which 
People cannot well relish at first. They smoak 
Tobacco, game and read Papers of Intelligence; 
here they treat of Matters of State, make 
Leagues with Foreign Princes, break them again, 



White's and Brookes', St. James's Street 

and transact Affairs of the last Consequence to 
the whole World. They represent these Coffee- 
Houses as the most agreeable things in London, 
and they are, in my Opinion, very proper Places 
to find People that a Man has Business with, 
or to pass away the Time a little more agree- 
ably than he can do at home; but in other re- 
spects they are loathsome, full of smoak, like 
a Guard-Room, and as much crowded. I be- 
lieve 'tis these Places that furnish the Inhabi- 
tants with Slander, for there one hears exact 
Account of everything done in Town, as if it 
were but a Village. 

At those Coffee-Houses, near the Courts, called 
White's, St. James's, Williams's, the Conversa- 
tion turns chiefly upon the Equipages, Essence, 
Horse-Matches, Tupees, Modes and Mortgages ; 
the Cocoa-Tree upon Bribery and Corruption, 
Evil ministers, Errors and Mistakes in Govern- 
ment : the Scotch Coflfee-Houses towards Char- 
ing Cross, on Places and Pensions ; the Tiltyard 
and Young Man's on Affronts, Honour, Satisfac- 
tion, Duels and Rencounters. I was informed 
that the latter happen so frequently, in this part 
of the Town, that a Surgeon and a Sollicitor are 
kept constantly in waiting ; the one to dress and 
heal such Wounds as may be given, and the 
other in case of Death to bring off the Survivor 
with a Verdict of Se Devendendo or Man- 
slaughter. In those Coffee-Houses about the 
Temple the Subjects are generally on Causes, 
Costs, Demurrers, Rejoinders and Exceptions; 
Daniel's the Welch Coffee-House in Fleet Street, 
on Births, Pedigrees and Descents; Child's and 
the Chapter upon Glebes, Tithes, Advowsons. 
Rectories and Lectureships ; North's Undue 
Elections, False Polling, Scrutinies, etc. ; Ham- 
lin's, Infant-Baptism, Lay-Ordination, Free- 
will, Election and Reprobation ; Batson's, the 
Prices of Pepper. Indigo and Salt-Petre; and 
all those about the Exchange, where the Mer- 
chants meet to transact their Affairs, are in a 
perpetual hurry about Stock-Jobbing, Lying, 
Cheating, Tricking Widows and Orphans, and 
committing Spoil and Rapine on the Publick. 

In the eighteenth century beer and wine 
were commonly sold at the coffee houses 
in addition to tea and chocolate. Daniel 
Defoe, writing of his visit to Shrewsbury 

in 1724, says, "I found there the most 
coffee houses around the Town Hall that 
ever I saw in any town, but when you 
come into them they are but ale houses, 
only they think that the name coffee house 
gives a better air." 

Speaking of the coffee houses of the city, 
Besant says: 

Rich merchants alone ventured to enter cer- 
tain of the coffee houses, where they transacted 
business more privately and more expeditiously 
than on the Exchange. There were coffee houses 
where officers of the army alone were found ; 
where the city shopkeeper met his chums ; where 
actors congregated; where only divines, only 
lawyers, only physicians, only wits and those 
who came to hear them were found. In all 
alike the visitor put down his penny and went 
in, taking his own seat if he was an habitue; 
he called for a cup of tea or coffee and paid his 
twopence for it ; he could call also, if he pleased, 
for a cordial: he was expected to talk with his 
neighbour whether he knew him or not. Men 
went to certain coffee houses in order to meet 
the well-known poets and writers who were to 
be found there, as Pope went in search of Dry- 
den. The daily papers and the pamphlets of 
the day were taken in. Some of the coffee 
houses, but not the more respectable, allowed 
the use of tobacco. 

Coffee House Politicians of the Seventeenth 



The Great Fair on the Frozen Tpiames — 1683 
From a broadside entitled Wonders on the Deep. Figure 2 is the Duke of York's Coffee House 

Mackay, in his Journey Through Eng- 
land (1724), says: 

We rise by nine, and those that frequent great 
men's levees find entertainment at them till 
eleven, or, as in Holland, go to tea-tables ; about 
twelve the heau monde assemble in several cof- 
fee or chocolate houses ; the best of which are 
the Cocoatree and White's chocolate houses, St. 
James', the Smyrna, Mrs. Rochford's and the 
British coffee houses ; and all these so near one 
another that in less than an hour you see the 
company of them all. We are carried to these 
places in chairs (or sedans), which are here 
very cheap, a guinea a week, or a shilling per 
hour, and your chairmen serve you for porters 
to run on errands, as your gondolierg do at 

If it be fine weather we take a turn into the 
park till two, when we go to dinner; and if it 
be dirty, you are entertained at piequet or 
basset at White's, or you may talk politics at 
the Smyrna or St. James'. I must not forget to 
tell you that the parties have their different 
places, where, however, a stranger is always 
well received; but a Whig will no more go to 
the Ck)coatree than a Tory will be seen at the 
Coffee House, St. James'. 

The Scots go generally to the British, and a 
mixture of all sorts go to the Smyrna. There 
are other little coffee houses much frequented 
in this neighborhood — Young Man's for officers ; 
Old Man's for stock jobbers, paymasters and 
courtiers, and Little Man's for sharpers. I 

never was so confounded in my life as when I 
entered into this last. I saw two or three 
tables full at faro, and was surrounded by a 
set of sharp faces that I was afraid would have 
devoured me with their eyes. I was glad to 
drop two or three half crowns at faro to get 
off with a clear skin, and was overjoyed I so- 
got rid of them. 

At two we generally go to dinner; ordinaries 
are not so common here as abroad, yet the 
French have set up two or three good ones for 
the convenience of foreigners in Suffolk street, 
where one is tolerably well served ; but the gen- 
eral way here is to make a party at the coffee 
house to go to dine at the tavern, where we sit 
till six, when we go to the play, except you are 
invited to the table of some great man, which 
strangers are always courted to and nobly en- 

Mackay writes that "in all the coffee 
houses you have not only the foreign prints 
but several English ones with foreign oc- 
currences, besides papers of morality and 
party disputes." 

"After the play," writes Defoe, "the 
best company generally go to Tom's and 
Will's coffee houses, near adjoining, where 
there is playing at piequet and the best of 
conversation till midnight. Here you will 
see blue and green ribons and stars sitting 
familiarly and talking with the same free- 



dom as if they had left their equality and 
degrees of distance at home." 

Before entering the coffee house every 
one was recommended by the Tatler to 
prepare his body with three dishes of 
bohea and to purge his brains with two 
pinches of snuff. Men had their coffee 
houses as now they have their clubs — 
sometimes contented with one, sometimes 
belonging to three or four. Johnson, for 
instance, was connected with St. James's, 
the Turk's Head, the Bedford, Peele's, be- 
sides the taverns which he frequented. Ad- 
dison and Steele used Button's; Swift, 

The Lion's Head at Button's Coffee House 

Designed by Hogarth, and put up by Addison, 1713 

From a water color by T. H. Shepherd 

Button's, the Smyrna, and St. James's; 
Dryden, Will's; Pope, Will's and Button's; 
Goldsmith, the St. James's and the Chap- 
ter; Fielding, the Bedford; Hogarth, the 
Bedford and Slaughter's; Sheridan, the 
Piazza; Thurlow, Nando 's. | 

Some Famous Coffee Houses i 

Among the famous English coffee houses 
of the seventeenth - eighteenth century 
period were St. James's, Will's, Garra- 
way's. White's, Slaughter's, the Grecian, 

Button's, Lloyd's, Tom's, and Don Sal- 
tero 's. 

St. James's was a Whig house frequented 
by members of Parliament, with a fair 
sprinkling of literary stars. Garra way's 
catered to the gentry of the period, many 
of whom naturally had Tory proclivities. 

One of the notable coffee houses of 
Queen Anne's reign was Button's. Here 
Addison could be found almost every after- 
noon and evening, along with Steele, Dave- 
nant, Carey, Philips, and other kindred 
minds. Pope was a member of the same 
coffee house club for a year, but his inborn 
irascibility eventually led him to drop out 
of it. 

At Button's a lion's head, designed by 
Hogarth after the Lion of Venice, **a 
proper emblem of knowledge and action, 
being all head and paws," was set up to 
receive letters and papers for the Guard- 
ian". The Tatler and the Spectator were 
born in the coffee house, and probably 
English prose would never have received 
the impetus given it by the essays of Addi- 
son and Steele had it not been for coffee 
house associations. 

Pope's famous Rape of the Lock grew 
out of coffee-house gossip. The poem itself 
contains one charming passage on coffee." 

Another frequenter of the coffee houses 
of London, when he had the money to do 
so, was Daniel Defoe, whose Rohinson Cru- 
soe was the precursor of the English novel. 
Henry Fielding, one of the greatest of all 
English novelists, loved the life of the 
more bohemian coffee houses, and was, in 
fact, induced to write his first great novel, 
Joseph Andrews, through coffee-house criti- 
cisms of Richardson's Pamela. 

Other frequenters of the coffee houses 
of the period were Thomas Gray and Rich- 
ard Brinsley Sheridan. Garri.^k was often 
to be seen at Tom's in Birchin Lane, where 
also Chatterton might have been found on 
many an evening before his untimely death. 

The London Pleasure Gardens 

The second half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury was covered by the reigns of the 
Georges. The coffee houses were still an 
important factor in London life, but were 
influenced somewhat by the development 
of gardens in which were served tea, choc- 
olate, and other drinks, as well as coffee. 
At the coffee houses themselves, while cof- 

" More fully described in chapter XXXII. 
" See chapter XXXII. 




Jrom {!)( orcgiAal dra^wing hy HOCARTH in. ilt ColUdion. ofSam. .frdaTii . 

A Trio of Notables at Button's in 1730 

The figure in the cloak is Count Viviani; of the figures facing the reader, the draughts player is Dr. 
Arbuthnot, and the figure standing is assumed to be Pope 

^fee remained the favorite beverage, the 
proprietors, in the hope of increasing their 
patronage, began to serve wine, ale, and 
other liquors. This seems to have been the 
first step toward the decay of the coffee 

The coffee houses, however, continued to 
be the centers of intellectual life. When 
Samuel Johnson and David Garrick came 
together to London, literature was tempo- 
rarily in a bad way, and the hack writers 
of the time dwelt in Grub Street. 

It was not until after Johnson had met 
with some success, and had established the 
first of his coffee-house clubs at the Turk's 
Head, that literature again became a fash- 
ionable profession. 

This really famous literary club met at 
the Turk's Head from 1763 to 1783. 
Among the most notable members were 
Johnson, the arbiter of English prose; 
Oliver Goldsmith; Boswell, the biographer; 
Burke, the orator; Garrick, the actor; and 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, the painter. Among 
the later members were Gibbon, the his- 
torian; and Adam Smith, the political 

Certain it is that during the sway of the 
English coffee house, and at least partly 
through its influence, England produced 
a better prose literature, as embodied alike 
in her essays, literary criticisms, and nov- 
els, than she ever had produced before. 

The advent of the pleasure gaiden 
brought coffee out into the open in Eng- 
land; and one of the reasons why gardens, 
such as Ranelagh and Vauxhall, began to 
be more frequented than the coffee houses 
:was that they were popular resorts for 
women as well as for men. All kinds of 
beverages were served in them; and soon 
the women began to favor tea as an after- 
noon drink. At least, the great develop- 
ment in the use of tea dates from this 
period; and many of these resorts called 
themselves tea gardens. 



The use of coffee by thip. time, however, 
was well established in the homes as a 
breakfast and dinner beverage, and such 
consumption more than made up for any 
loss sustained through the gradual de- 
cadence of the coffee house. Yet signs of 
the change in national taste that arrived 
with the Georges were not wanting ; for the 
active propaganda of the British East In- 
dia Company was fairly well launched 
during Queen Anne's reign. 

The London pleasure gardens of the 
eighteenth century were unique. At one 
time there was a "mighty maze" of them. 
Their season extended from April or May 
to August or September. At first there 
was no charge for admission, but Warwick 
Wroth" tells us that visitors usually pur- 
chased cheese cakes, syllabubs, tea, coffee 
and ale. 

The four best-known London gardens 
were Vauxhall ; Marylebone ; Cuper 's, 
where the charge for admission subse- 
quently was fixed; at not less than a shill- 
ing; and Ranelagh, where the charge of 
half a crown included "the Elegant Ee- 
gale" of tea, coffee, and bread and butter. 

18 Wroth, Warwick. The. London Pleasure Oardena 
of the 18th Century. London, 1896. 

The pleasure gardens provided walks, 
rooms for dancing, skittle grounds, bowl- 
ing greens, variety entertainments, and 
promenade concerts; and not a few places 
were given over to fashionable gambling 
and racing. 

The Vauxhall Gardens, one of the most 
favored resorts of pleasure-seeking Lon- 
doners, were located on the Surrey side of 
the Thames, a short distance east of Vaux- 
hall Bridge. They were originally known 
as the New Spring Gardens (1661), to dis- 
tinguish them from the old Spring Gar- 
dens at Charing Cross. They became fa- 
mous in the reign of Charles II. Vauxhall 
was celebrated for its walks, lit with thou- 
sands of lamps, its musical and other per- 
formances, suppers, and fireworks. High 
and low were to be found there, and the 
drinking of tea and coffee in the arbors 
was a feature. The illustration shows the 
garden brightly illuminated by lanterns 
and lamps on some festival occasion. Cof- 
fee and tea were served in the arbors. 

The Ranelagh, "a place of public enter- 
tainment," erected at Chelsea in 1742, was 
a kind of Vauxhall under cover. The 
principal room, known as the Rotunda, was 
circular in shape, 150 feet in diameter, and 

Vauxhall Gardens on a Gala Night 




The Kotunda ix Kaxelagh Gardens With the Company at Breakfast — 1751 

had an orchestra in the center and tiers 
of boxes all around. Promenading and 
taking refreshments in the boxes were the 
principal divertisements. Except on gala 
nights of masquerades and fireworks, only 
tea, coffee, bread and butter were to be 
had at Ranelagh. 

In the group of gardens connected with 
mineral springs was the Dog and Duck 
(St. George's Spa), which became at last 
a tea garden and a dancing saloon of 
doubtful repute. 

Still another division, recognized by 
Wroth, consisted mainly of tea gardens, 
among them Highbury Barn, The Canon- 
bury House, Hornsey and Copenhagen 
House, Bagnigge Wells, and White Con- 
duit House. The two last named were the 
classic tea gardens of the period. Both 
were provided with "long rooms" in case 
of rain, and for indoor promenades with 
organ music. Then there were the Adam 
and Eve tea gardens, with arbors for tea- 
drinking parties, which subsequently be- 
came the Adam and Eve Tavern and Cof- 
fee House. Well known were the Bays- 
water Tea Gardens and the Jews Harp 
House and Tea Gardens. All these were 
provided with neat, "genteel" boxes, let 

into the hedges and alcoves, for tea and 
coffee drinkers. 

Locating the Notable Coffee Houses 

Garraw'ay's, 3 'Change Alley, Cornhill, 
was a place for great mercantile transac- 
tions. Thomas Garway, the original pro- 
prietor, was a tobacconist and coffee man, 
who claimed to be the first that sold tea 
in England, although not at this address. 
The later Garra way's was long famous as 
a sandwich and drinking room for sherry% 
pale ale, and punch, in addition to tea and 
coffee. It is said that the sandwich-maker 
was occupied two hours in cutting and ar- 
ranging the sandwiches for the day's con- 
sumption. After the "great fire" of 1666 
Garra way's moved into the same place in 
Exchange Alley where Elford had been 
before the fire. Here he claimed to have 
the oldest coffee house in London ; but the 
ground on which Bowman's had stood 
was occupied later by the Virginia and the 
Jamaica coffee houses. The latter was 
damaged by the fire of 1748 which con- 
sumed Garraway's and Elford 's (see map 
of the 1748 fire). 

Will's, the predecessor of Button's, 
first had the title of the Red Cow, then of 



Gakraway's Coffee House in 'Change Alley 

Garway (or Garraway) claimed to have been first 

to sell Tea in England 

the Rose. It was kept by William Urwin, 
and was on the north side of Russell Street 
at the corner of Bow Street. "It was Dry- 
den who made Will's coffee house the great 
resort of the wits of his time." {Pope and 
Spence.) The room in which the poet was 
accustomed to sit was on the first floor ; and 
his place was the place of honor by the 
fireside in the winter, and at the corner of 
the balcony, looking over the street, in fine 
weather; he called the two places his win- 
ter and his summer seat. This was called 
the dining-room floor. The company did 
not sit in boxes as subsequently, but at 
various tables which were dispersed through 
the room. Smoking was permitted in the 
public room ; it was then so much in vogue 
that it does not seem to have been consid- 
ered a nuisance. Here, as in other similar 
places of meeting, the visitors divided 
themselves into parties; and we are told 
by Ward that the young beaux and wits, 
who seldom approached the principal 
table, thought it a great honor to have a 
pinch out of Dryden's snuff-box. After 
Dry den's death Will's was transferred 
to a house opposite, and became Button "s, 

"over against Thomas's in Covent Gar- 
den." Thither also Addison transferred 
much company from Thomas's. Here 
Swift first saw Addison. Hither also came 
"Steele, Arbuthnot and many other wits 
of the time. ' ' Button 's continued in vogue 
until Addison's death and Steele's retire- 
ment into Wales, after which the coffee 
drinkers went to the Bedford, dinner par- 
ties to the Shakespeare. Button's was 
subsequently known as the Caledonien. 
Slaughter's, famous as the resort of 
painters and sculptors in the eighteenth 
century, was situated at the upper end of 
the west side of St. Martin's Lane. Its 
first landlord was Thomas Slaughter, 1692. 
A second Slaughter's (New Slaugh- 
ter's) was established in the same street 
in 1760, when the original Slaughter's 
adopted the name of Old Slaughter's. It 
was torn down in 1843 - 44. Among the 
notables who frequented it were Hogarth ; 
young Gainsborough ; Cipriani ; Haydon ; 
Roubiliac ; Hudson, w^ho painted the Dilet- 
tanti portraits; M'Ardell, the mezzotinto- 

BuTTOx's Coffee House, Great Russell Street 
Afterward it became the Caledonien 
From a water color by T. H. Shepherd 




Taper; Luke Sullivan, the engraver; 
Gardell, the portrait painter; and Parry, 
the Welsh harper. 

Tom s, in Birchin Lane, Cornhill, though 
in the main a mercantile resort, acquired 
some celebrity from having been frequented 
by Garrick, Tom's was also frequented 
by Chatterton, as a place "of the best re- 
sort." Then there was Tom's in Devereux 
Court, Strand, and Tom 's at 17 Great Rus- 
sell Street, Covent Garden, opposite But- 
ton's, a celebrated resort during the reign 
of Queen Anne and for more than a cen- 
tury^ after. 

The Grecian, Devereux Court, Strand, 
was originally kept by one Constantine, a 
Greek. From this hou^e Steele proposed 
to date his learned articles in the Tatler; 
it is mentioned in No. 1 of the Spectator, 
and it was much frequented by Goldsmith. 
The Grecian was Foote's morning lounge. 
In 1843f the premises became the Grecian 
Chambers, with a bust of Lord Devereux, 
earl of Essex, over the door, 

Lloyd's, Royal Exchange, celebrated for 
its priority of shipping intelligence and 
its marine insurance, originated with Ed- 

Slaughter's Coffee House. St. Martin's Lane 

It was taken down in 1843 

From a water color by T. H. Shepherd, 1841 

Tom's Coffee House, 17 Great Russell Street 

Used as a coffee house until 1804 and razed in 1865 

From a water color by T. H. Shepherd 

ward Lloyd, who about 1688 kept a coffee 
house in Tower Street, later in Lombard 
Street corner of Abchurch Lane. It was 
a modest place of refreshment for sea- 
farers and merchants. As a matter of con- 
venience, Edward Lloyd prepared "ships' 
lists" for the guidance of the frequenters 
of the coffee house. "These lists, which 
were written by hand, contained,." accord- 
ing to Andrew Scott, "an account of ves- 
aeh which the underwriters who met there 
were likely to have offered them for in- 
surance." Such was the beginning of two 
institutions that have since exercised a 
dominant influence on the sea-carrying 
trade of the whole world — the Royal Ex- 
change Lloyd's, the greatest insurance in- 
stitution in the world, and Lloyd's Regis- 
ter of Shipping. Lloyd's now has 1400 
agents in all parts of the world. It re- 
ceives as many as 100,000 telegrams a year. 
It records through its intelligence service 
the daily movements of 11,000 vessels. 

In the beginning one of the apartments 
in the Exchange was fitted up as Lloyd's 



Lloyd's Coffee House in the Royal Exchange, Showing the Subscrh'tion Uoom 

coffee room. Edward Lloyd died in 1712. 
Subsequently the coffee house was in 
Pope's Head Alley, where it was called 
New Lloyd's coffee house, but on Septem- 
ber 14, 1784, it was removed to the north- 
west corner of the Royal Exchange, where 
it remained until the partial destruction of 
that building by fire. 

In rebuilding the Exchange there were 
provided the Subscribers' or Underwriters' 
room, the Merchants' room, and the Cap- 
tains' room. The City, second edition, 
1848, contains the following description of 
this most famous rendezvous of eminent 
merchants, shipowners, underwriters, in- 
surance, stock and exchange brokers : 

Here is obtained the earliest news of the 
arrival and sailing of vessels, losses at sea, cap- . 
tures, recaptures, engagements and other ship- 
ping intelligence; and proprietors of ships and 
freights are insured hy the underwriters. The 
rooms are in the Venetian style with Roman 
enrichments. At the entrance of the room are 
exhibited the Shipping Lists, received from 
Lloyd's agents at home and abroad, and afford- 
ing particulars of departures or arrivals of ' 
vessels, wrecks, salvage, or sale of property , 
saved, etc. To the right and left are "Lloyd's 
Books," two enormous ledgers. Right hand, ' 
ships "spoken with" or arrived at theii- destined 
ports; left hand, records of wrecks, fires or 
severe collisions, written in a fine Roman han.d 
in "double lines." To assist the underwriters 
in their calculations, at the end of the room is 

an Anemometer, which registers the state of the 
wind day and night ; attached is a rain gauge. 

The British, Cockspur Street, "long a 
house of call for Scotchmen," was fortun- 
ate in its landladies. In 1759 it was kept 
by the sister of Bishop Douglas, so well 
known for his works against Lauder and 
Bower, which may explain its Scottish 
fame. At another period it was kept by 
Mrs. Anderson, described in Mackenzie's 
Life of Home as "a woman of uncommon 
talents and the most agreeable conversa- 

Don Saltero's, 18 Cheyne Walk, Chel- 
sea, was opened by a barber named Salter 
in 1695. Sir Hans Sloane contributed of 
his own collection some of the refuse gim- 
cracks that were to be found in Salter's 
"museum." Vice-Admiral Munden, who 
had been long on the coast of Spain, where 
he had acquired a fondness for Spanish 
titles, named the keeper of the house Don 
Saltero, and his coffee house and museum 
D6n Saltero 's. 

Squire's was in Fulwood's Rents, Hol- 
burn, running up to Gray's Inn. It was 
one' of the receiving houses of the Spectator. 
In No. 269 the Spectator accepts Sir Roger 
de Coverley's invitation to "smoke a pipe 
with him over a dish of coffee at Squire's. 
As I love the old man, I take delight in 



complying with everything that is agree- 
able to him, and accordingly waited on him 
to the coffee-house, where his venerable 
figure drew upon us the eyes of the whole 
room. He had no sooner seated himself 
at the upper end of the high table, but he 
called for a clean pipe, a paper of tobacco, 
a dish of coffee, a wax candle and the ' Sup- 
plement' (a periodical paper of that time), 
with such an air of cheerfulness and good 
humour, that all the boys in the coffee 
room (who seemed to take pleasure in serv- 
ing him) were at once employed on his 
several errands, insomuch that nobody else 
could come at a dish of tea until the Knight 
had got all his conveniences about him." 
Such was the coffee room in the Spectator's 

The Cocoa-Tree was originally a coffee 
house on the south side of Pall Malll. When 
there grew up a need for ''places. of resort 
of a more elegant and refined character," 
chocolate houses came into vogue, and the 


Interior of Dick's Coffee House 

From the frontispiece to "The Coffee House- 
dramatick Piece" (see chapter XXXII) 

The (tKix lAX ('oijkk iloi si:. Devebeux Coi ht 
It was closed in 1843. From a drawing dated 1809 

Cocoa- Tree was the most famous of these. 
It was converted into a club in 1746. 

White's chocolate house, established by 
Francis White about 1693 in St. James's 
Street, originally open to any one as a 
coffee house, soon became a private club, 
composed of '*the most fashionable ex- 
quisites of the town and court." In its 
coffee-house days, the entrance was six- 
pence, as compared with the average penny 
fee of the other coffee houses. Escott re- 
fers to White's as being "the one speci- 
men of the class to which it belongs, of 
a place at which, beneath almost the same 
roof, and always bearing the same name, 
whether as coft'ee house or club, the same 
class of persons has congregated during 
more than two hundred years." 

Among hundreds of other coffee houses 
that flourished during the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries the following more 
notable ones are deserving of mention: 

Baker's, 58 'Change Alley, for nearly 
half a century noted for its chops and 
steaks broiled in the coffee room and eaten 
hot from the gridiron; the Baltic, in 



Don Saltero's Coffee House, Cheyne Walk 

From a steel engraving in the British Museum 

Threadneedle Street, the rendezvous of 
brokers and merchants connected with the 
Russian trade; the Bedford, "under the 
Piazza, in Covent Garden," crowded every 
night with men of parts and "signalized 
for many years as the emporium of wit, 
the seat of criticism and the standard of 
taste"; the Chapter, in Paternoster Row, 
frequented by Chatterton and Goldsmith; 
Child's, in St. Paul's Churchyard, one of 
the Spectator's houses, and much fre- 
quented by the clergy and fellows of the 
Royal Society; Dick's, in Fleet Street, 
frequented by Cowper, and the scene of 
Rousseau's comedietta, entitled The Coffee 
House; St. James's, in St. James's Street, 
frequented by Swift, Goldsmith, and Gar- 
rick; Jerusalem, in Cowper 's Court, Corn- 
hill, frequented by merchants and captains 
connected with the commerce of China, 
India, and Australia; Jonathan's, in 
'Change Alley, described by the Tatler as 
"the general mart of stock jobbers"; the 
London, in Ludgate Hill, noted for its 
publishers' sales of stock and copyrights; 

Man's, in Scotland Yard, which took its. 
name from the proprietor, Alexander Man, 
and was sometimes known as Old Man's, 
or the Royal, to distinguish it from Young 
Man's, Little Man's, New Man's, etc., 
minor establishments in the neighborhood ;'* 
Nando 's, in Fleet Street, the favorite 
haunt of Lord Thurlow and many profes- 
sional loungers, attracted by the fame of 
the punch and the charms of the land- 
lady; New England and North and 
SouTPi American, in Threadneedle Street, 
having on its subscription list representa- 
tives of Barings, Rothschilds, and other 
wealthy establishments; Peele's, in Fleet 
Street, having a portrait of Dr. Johnson 
said to have been painted by Sir Joshua 

19 There were six places, all told, bearing the name 
"Man's". Alexander Man was coffee maker to 
William III. 

'V\\\z ItiMTisii Coffee House 

FN CbcKSPTjR Street 

Prom a print published in 1770 




The French Coffee House in London, Second Half of the Eighteenth Century 

From the original water-color drawing by Thomas Rowlandson 

Reynolds; the Percy, in Oxford Street, 
the inspiration for the Percy Anecdotes; 
the Piazza, in Covent Garden, where 
Macklin fitted up a large coffee room, or 
theater, for oratory, and Fielding and 
Foote poked fun at him; the Rainbow, in 
Fleet Street, the second coffee house opened 
in London, having its token money; the 
Smyrna, in Pall Mall, a "place to talk 
politics," and frequented by Prior and 

Swift; Tom King's, one of the old night 
houses of Covent Garden Market, "well 
known to all gentlemen to whom beds are 
unknown"; the Turk's Head, 'Change 
Alley, which also had its tokens; the 
Turk's Head, in the Strand, which was a 
favorite supping house for Dr. Johnson 
and Boswell; the Folly, a coffee house on 
a houseboat on the Thames, which became 
quite notorious during Queen Anne's reign. 



Chapter XI 



The introduction of coffee into Paris by Thevenot in 1657 — How 
Soliman Aga established the custom of coffee drinking at the court 
of Louis XIV — Opening the first coffee houses — How the French 
adaptation of the Oriental coffee house first appeared in the real 
French cafe of Frangois Procope — The important part played by 
the coffee houses in the development of French literature and the 
stage — Their association with the Revolution and the founding of 
the Republic — Quaint customs and patrons — Historic Parisian 

IF we are to accept the authority of Jean 
La Roque, "before the year 1669 coffee 
had scarcely been seen in Paris, except 
at M. Thevenot 's and at the homes of some 
of his friends. Nor had it been heard of 
except in the writings of travelers." 

As noted in chapter V, Jean de Thevenot 
brought coffee into Paris in 1657. One ac- 
count says that a decoction, supposed to 
have been coffee, was sold by a Levantine 
in the Petit Chatelet under the name of 
cohove or cahoue during the reign of Louis 
XIII, but this lacks confirmation. Louis 
XIV is said to have been served with coffee 
for the first time in 1664. 

Soon after the arrival, in July, 1669, of 
the Turkish ambassador, Soliman Aga, it 
became noised abroad that he had brought 
with him for his own use, and that of his 
retinue, great quantities of coffee. He 
"treated several persons with it, both in 
the court and the city." At length "many 
accustomed themselves to it with sugar, 
and others who found benefit by it could 
not leave it off." 

Within six months all Paris was talking 
of the sumptuous coffee functions of the 
ambassador from Mohammed IV to the 
court of Louis XIV. 

Isaac D 'Israeli best describes them in his 
Curiosities of Literature: 

On bended knee, the black slaves of the Am- 
bassador, arrayed in the most gorgeous Orien- 
tal costumes, served the choicest Mocha coffee 
in tiny cups of egg-shell porcelain, hot. strong 
and fragrant, poured out in saucers of gold and 
silver, placed on embroidered silk doylies fringed 
with gold bullion, to the grand dames, who flut- 
tered their fans with many grimaces, bending 
their piquant faces — ^be-rouged, be-powdered 
and be-patched — over the new and steaming 

It was in 1669 or 1672 that Madame de 
Sevigne (Marie de Rabutin-Chantal ; 
1626-96), the celebrated French letter- 
writer, is said to have made that famous 
prophecy, "There are two things French- 
men will never swallow — coffee and Ra- 
cine 's poetry, ' ' sometimes abbreviated into, 
"Racine and coffee will pass." "What Ma- 
dame really said, according to one author- 
ity, was that Racine was writing for 
Champmesle, the actress, and not for pos- 
terity; again, of coffee she said, "s'en 
degoi'derait comme) d'un indigne favori 
(People will become disgusted with it as 
with an unworthy favorite). 

Larousse says the double judgment was 
wrongly attributed to Mme. de S6vign6. 
The celebrated aphorism, like many others, 
was forged later. Mme. de S6vign6 said, 
"Racine made his comedies for the Champ- 
mesle — not for the ages to come." This 
was in 1672. Four years later, she said to 




Coffee Was First Sold and Served Publicly in 

THE Fair of St.-Germain 

From a Seventeenth-Century Print 

her daughter, "You have done well to quit 
coffee. Mile, de Mere has also given it up. " 

However it may have been, the amiable 
letter-writer was destined to live to see 
Frenchmen yielding at once to the lure of 
coffee and to the poetical artifices of the 
greatest dramatic craftsman of his day. 

While it is recorded that coffee made 
slow progress with the court of Louis XIV, 
the next king, Louis XV, to please his 
mistress, du Barry, gave it a tremendous 
vogue. It is related that he spent $15,000 
a year for coffee for his daughters. 

Meanwhile, in 1672, one Pascal, an 
Armenian, first sold coffee publicly in Paris. 
Pascal, who, according to one account, was 
brought to Paris by Soliman Aga, offered 
the beverage for sale from a tent, which 
was also a kind of booth, in the fair of St.- 
Germain, supplemented by the service of 

Turkish waiter boys, who peddled it among 
the crowds from small cups on trays. The 
fair was held during the first two months 
of spring, in a large open plot Just inside 
the walls of Paris and near the Latin 
Quarter. As Pascal's waiter boys circu- 
lated through the crowds on those chilly 
days the fragrant odor of freshly made 
coffee brought many ready sales of the 
steaming beverage; and soon visitors to 
the fair learned to look for the "little 
black" cupful of cheer, or petit noir, a 
name that still endures. 

When the fair closed, Pascal opened a 
small coffee shop on the Quai de I'ficole, 
near the Pont Neuf; but his frequenters 
were of a type who preferred the beers and 
wines of the day, and coffee languished. 
Pascal continued, however, to send his 
waiter boys with their large 'coffee jugs, 
that were heated by lamps, through the 
streets of Paris and from door to door. 
Their cheery cry of "cafe! cafe!'^ became 
a welcome call to many a Parisian, who 
later missed his petit noir w^hen Pascal gave 
up and moved on to London, where coffee 
drinking was then in high favor. 

Lacking favor at court, coffee's progress 
was slow. The French smart set clung to 
its light wines and beers. In 1672, Maliban, 

Street Coffee Vender of Paris ■ — Period, 1GT2 

TO 1689 — Two Sous per Dish, Sugar 




mother Armenian, opened a coffee house in 
|he rue Bussy, next to the Metz tennis court 
lear St.-Germain's abbey. He supplied 
)bacco also to his customers. Later he 
rent to Holland, leaving his servant and 
>artner, Gregory, a Persian, in charge, 
rregory moved to the rue Mazarine, to be 
lear the Comedie Franqaise. He was suc- 
^eded in the business by Makara, another 
*ersian, who later returned to Ispahan, 
Saving the coffee house to one Le Gantois, 

About this period there was a cripple 

^oy from Candia, known as le Candiot, who 

^egan to cry "coffee!" in the streets of 

*aris. He carried with him a coffee pot 

|if generous size, a chafing-dish, cups, and 

11 other implements necessary to his trade. 

le sold his coffee from door to door at two 

)us per dish, sugar included. 

A Levantine named Joseph also sold 

)ffee in the streets, and later had several 

)ffee shops of his own. Stephen, from 

^\leppo, next opened a coffee house on Pont 

lu Change, moving, when his business 

.Many ok the Early Parisian Coffee Houses 

Followed Pascal's Lead and Abfected 

Armenian Decohations 

From a Seventeenth-Century Print 

A Corner of the Historic CafS de Procope 

Showing Voltaire and Diderot in Debate 

From a rare water color 

prospered, to more pretentious quarters in 
the rue St.-Andre, facing St. -Michael's 

All these, and others, were essentially the 
Oriental style of coffee house of the lower 
order, and they appealed principally to the 
poorer classes and to foreigners. "Gentle- 
men and people of fashion" did not care 
to be seen in this type of public house. 
But when the French merchants began to 
set up, first at St.-Germain's fair, "spa- 
cious apartments in an elegant manner, 
ornamented with tapestries, large mirrors, 
pictures, marble tables, branches for 
candles, magnificent lustres, and serving 
coffee, tea, chocolate, and other refresh- 
ments", they were soon crowded with peo- 
ple of fashion and men of letters. 

In this way coffee drinking in public 
acquired a badge of respectability. Pres- 
ently there were some three hundred coffee 
houses in Paris. The principal coffee men, 
in addition to plying their trade in the city, 
maintained coffee rooms in St.-Germain's 
and St. -Laurence's fairs. These were fre- 
quented by women as well as men. 



The Progenitor of the Real Parisian Cafe 

It was not until 1689, that there appeared 
in Paris a real French adaptation of the 
Oriental coffee house. This was the Cafe 
de Procope, opened by Frangois Procope 
(Procopio Cultelli, or Cotelli) who came 
from Florence or Palermo. Procope was a 
limonadier (lemonade vender) who had a 
royal license to sell spices, ices, barley 
water, lemonade, and other such refresh- 
ments. He early added coffee to the list, 
and attracted a large and distinguished 

Procope, a keen-witted merchant, made 
his appeal to a higher class of patrons than 
did Pascal and those who first followed him. 
He established his caf6 directly opposite 
the newly opened Com6die Frangaise, in 
the street then known as the rue des 
Fosses-St.-Germain, but now the rue de 
I'Ancienne Comedie. A writer of the period 
has left this description of the place : ' ' The 
Cafe de Procope . . . was also called 
the.Antre [cavern] de Procope, because it 
was very dark even in full day, and 
ill-lighted in the evenings ; and because you 
often saw there a set of lank, sallow poets, 
who had somewhat the air of apparitions. ' ' 

Because of its location, the Cafe de 
Procope became the gathering place of 
many noted French actors, authors, dram- 
atists, and musicians of the eighteenth 
century. It was a veritable literary salon. 
Voltaire was a constant patron; and until 
the close of the historic cafe, after an exist- 
ence of more than two centuries, his marble 
table and chair were among the precious 
relics of the coffee house. His favorite 
drink is said to have been a mixture of 
coffee and chocolate. Eousseau, author and 
philosopher; Beaumarchais, dramatist and 
financier; Diderot, the encyclopedist; Ste.- 
Foix, the abbe of Voisenon; de Belloy, 
author of the Siege of Callais; licmierre, 
author of Artaxerce; Crebillon; Piron; La 
Chaussee; Fontenelle; Condorcet; and a 
host of lesser lights in the French arts, were 
habitues of Francois Procope 's modest 
coffee saloon near the Comedie Frangaise. 

Naturally, the name of Benjamin Frank- 
lin, recognized in Europe as one of the 
world's foremost thinkers in the days of the 
American Revolution, was often spoken over 
the coffee cups of Cafe de Procope; and 
when the distinguished American died in 
1790, this French coffee house went into 
deep mourning "for the great friend of 

republicanism." The walls, inside and out, 
were swathed in black bunting, and the 
statesmanship and scientific attainments of 
Franklin were acclaimed by all frequenters. 

The Caf6 de Procope looms large in the 
annals of the French Revolution. During 
the turbulent days of 1789 one could find 
at the tables, drinking coffee or stronger 
beverages, and engaged in debate over the 
burning questions of the hour, such char- 
acters as Marat, Robespierre, Danton, 
Hebert, and Desmoulins. Napoleon Bona- 
parte, then a poor artillery officer seeking 
a commission, was also there. He busied 
himself largely in playing chess, a favorite 
recreation of the early Parisian coffee- 
house patrons. It is related that Franqois 
Procope once compelled young Bonaparte 
to leave his hat for security while he sought 
money to pay his coffee score. 

After the Revolution, the Cafe de Pro- 
cope lost its literary prestige and sank to 
the level of an ordinary restaurant. During 
the last half of the nineteenth century, 
Paul Verlaine, bohemian, poet, and leader 
of the symbolists, made the Cafe de Procope 
his haunt ; and for a time it regained some 
of its lost popularity. The Restaurant Pro- 
cope still survives at 13 rue de I'Ancienne 

History records that, with the opening of 
the Caf^ de Procope, coffee became firmly 
established in Paris. In the reign of Louis 
XV there were 600 cafes in Paris. At the 
close of the eighteenth century there were 
more than 800. By 1843 the number had 
increased to more than 3000. 

The Development of the Cafes 

Coffee's vogue spread rapidly, and many 
cabarets and famous eating houses began 
to add it to their menus. Among these 
was the Tour d'Argent (silver tower), 
which had been opened on the Qua! de la 
Tournelle in 1582, and speedily became 
Paris 's most fashionable restaurant. It 
still is one of the chief attractions for the 
epicure, retaining the reputation for its 
cooking that drew a host of world leaders, 
from Napoleon to Edward VII, to its quaint 

Another tavern that took up coffee after 
Procope, was the Royal Drummer, which 
Jean Ramponaux established at the Cour- 
tille des Porcherons and which followed 
Magny's. His hostelry rightly belongs to- 
the tavern class, although coffee had sli 




From an engraving by Bosredon 



The Cashier's Counter in a Paris Coffee 

House of 1782 

From a drawing,' by Retif tie la Bretonne 

prominent place on its menu. It became 
notorious for excesses and low-class vices 
during the reign of Louis XV, who was a 
frequent visitor. Low and high were to be 
found in Ramponaux's cellar, particularly 
when some especially wild revelry was in 
prospect. Marie Antoinette once declared 
«he had her most enjoyable time at a wild 
farandole in the Royal Drummer. Ram- 
ponaux was taken to its heart by fashion- 
able Paris; and his name was used as a 
trade mark on furniture, clothes, and foods. 
The popularity of Ramponaux's Royal 
Drummer is attested by an inscription on 
an early print showing the interior of the 
cafe. Translated, it reads : 

The pleasures of ease untroubled to taste, 

The leisure of home to enjoy without haste, 
Perhaps 'a few hours at Magny's to waste, 

Ah, that was the old-fashioned way ! 
Today all our laborers, everyone knows. 

Go running away ere the working hours 
And why? Tliey must be at Monsieur Ram- 
ponaux' ! 

Behold, the new style of cafe! 

When coffee houses began to crop up 
rapidly in Paris, the majority centered in 
the Palais Royal, "that garden spot of 
beauty, enclosed on three sides by three 
tiers of galleries," which Richelieu had 
erected in 1636, under the name of Palais 
Cardinal, in the reign of Louis XIII. It 
became known as the Palais Royal in 1643 ; 
and soon after the opening of the Cafe de 
Procope, it began to blossom out with many 
attractive coffee stalls, or rooms, sprinkled 
among the other shops that occupied the 
galleries overlooking the gardens. 

Life In The Early Coffee Houses 

Diderot tells in 1760, in his Bameau's 
Nephew, of the life and frequenters of one 
of the Palais Royal coffee houses, the 
Regency {Cafe de la Regence) : 

In all weathers, wet or fine, it is my practice 
to go toward live o'clock in the evening to take 
a turn in the Palais Roj^al. ... If the weather 
is too cold or too wet I take shelter in the 
Regency coffee house. There I amuse myself 
by looking on while they play chess. No where 
in the world do they play chess as skillfully as 
in Paris and nowhere in Paris as they do a' 
tliis coffee house ; 'tis here you see Legal the 
profound, Philidor the subtle. Mayot the solid ; 
here you see the most astounding moves, and 
listen to the sorriest talk, for if a man be at 
once a wit and a great chess player, like L'5gal, 
he may also be a great chess player and a sad 
simpleton, like Joubert and Mayot. 

The beginnings of the Regency coffee 
house are associated with the legend that 
Lefevre, a Parisian, began peddling coft'ee 
in the streets of Paris about the time Pro- 
cope opened his cafe in 1689. The story 
has it that Lefevre later opened a cafe near 
the Palais Royal, selling it in 1718 to one 
Leclerc, who named it the Cafe de la 
Regence, in honor of the regent of Orleans, 
a name that still endures on a broad sign 
over its doors. The nobility had their 
rendezvous there after having paid their 
court to the regent. 

To name the patrons of the Cafe de la 
Regence in its long career would be to 
outline a history of French literature for 
more than two centuries. There was Phili- 
dor the "greatest theoretician of the eigh- 
teenth century, better known for his chess 
than his music ' ' ; Robespierre, of the Revo- 
lution, who once played chess with a girl — 
disguised as a boy — for the life of her 
lover; Napoleon, who was then noted more 
for his chess than his empire-building pro- 
pensities; and Gambetta, whose loud voice, 
generally raised in debate, disturbed one, 




From an engraving by Bosredon 



chess player so much that he protested 
because he could not follow his game. 
Voltaire, Alfred de Musset, Victor Hugo, 
Th6ophile Gautier, J. J. Rousseau, the 
Duke of Richelieu, Marshall Saxe, Buffon, 
Rivarol, Fontenelle, Franklin, and Henry 
Murger are names still associated with 
memories of this historic cafe. Marmontel 
and Philidor played there at their favorite 
game of chess. Diderot tells in his Memoirs 
that his wife gave him every day nine sous 
to get his coffee there. It was in this 
establishment that he worked on his Encyc- 

Chess is today still in favor at the 
Regenee, although the players are not, as 
were the earlier patrons, obliged to pay by 
the hour for their tables with extra charges 
for candles placed by the chess-boards. 
The present Cafe de la Regenee is in the 
rue St.-Honore, but retains in large meas- 
ure its aspect of olden days. 

Michelet, the historian, has given us a 
rhapsodic pen picture of the Parisian cafes 
under the regency : 

Paris became one vast cafe. Conversation in 
France was at its zenitli. Tliere were less 
eloquence and rhetoric than in '89. With the 
exception of Rousseau, there was no orator to 
cite. The intangible flow of wit was as spon- 
taneous as possible. For this sparkling out- 
burst there is no doubt that honor should be 
ascribed in part to the auspicious revolution 
of the times, to the great event which created 
new customs, and even modified human tempera- 
ment — the advent of coffee. 

Its effect was immeasurable, not being weak- 
ened and neutralized as it is today by the 
brutalizing influence of tobacco. They took 
snuff, but did not smoke. Tlie cabaret was de- 
throned, the ignoble cabaret, where, during the 
reign of Louis XIV. the youth of the city rioted 
amid wine-casks in the company of light women. 
The night was less thronged with chariots. 
Fewer lords found a resting place in the gutter. 
The elegant shop, where conversation flowed, a 
salon rather than a shop, changed and ennobled 
its customs. The reign of coffee is that of tem- 
perance. Coffee, the beverage of sobriety, a pow- 
erful mental stimulant, which, unlike spirituous 
liquors, increases clearness and lucidity ; coffee, 
which suppresses the vague, heavy fantasies of 
the imagination, which from the perception of 
reality brings forth the sparkle and sunlight of 
truth ; coffee anti-erotic. . . . 

The three ages of coffee are those of modern 
thought; they mark the serious moments of 
the brilliant epoch of the soul. 

Arabian coffee is the pioneer, even before 1700. 
The beautiful ladies that you see in the fash- 
ionable rooms of Bonnard. sipping from their 
tiny cups — they are enjoying the aroma of 
the finest coffee of Arabia. And of what are 
they chatting? Of the seraglio, of Chardin, of 
the Sultana's coiffure, of the Thousand and One 

Nights (1704). They compare the ennui of 
Versailles with the paradise of the Orient. 

Very soon, in 1710 - 1720. commences the reign 
of Indian coffee, abundant, popular, compara- 
tively cheap. Bourbon, our Indian island, where 
coffee was transplanted, suddenly realizes un- 
heard-of happiness. This coffee of volcanic 
lands acts as an explosive on the Regency and 
the new spirit of things. This sudden cheer, 
this laughter of the old world, these overwhelm- 
ing flashes of wit, of which the sparkling verse 
of Voltaire, the Persian Letters, give us a faint 
idea ! Even the most brilliant books have not 
succeeded in catching on the wing this airy 
chatter, which comes, goes, flies elusively. This 
is that spirit of ethereal nature which, in the 
Thousand and One Nights, the enchanter con- 
fined in his bottle. But what phial would have 
withstood that pressure? 

The lava of Bourbon, like the Arabian sand, 
was unequal to the demand. The Regent rec- 
ognized this and had coffee transported to the 
fertile soil of our Antilles. T"lie strong coffee 
of Santo Domingo, full, coarse, nourishing as 
well as stimulating, sustained the adult popu- 
lation of that period, the strong age of the en- 
cyclopedia. It was drunk by Buffon, Diderot, 
Rousseau, added its glow to glowing souls, its 
light to the penetrating vision of the prophets 
gathered in the cave of Procope. who saw at 
the bottom of the black beverage the future rays 
of '89. Danton, the terrible Danton. took sev- 
eral cups of coffee before mounting the tribune. 
'The horse must have its oats,' he said. 

The vogue of coffee popularized the use 
of sugar, which was then bought by the 
ounce at the apothecary's shop. Dufour 
says that in Paris they used to put so much 
sugar in the coffee that "it was nothing 
but a syrup of blackened water." The 
ladies were wont to have their carriages 
stop in front of the Paris cafes and to have 
their coffee served to them by the porter 
on saucers of silver. 

Every year saw new cafes opened. When 
they became so numerous, and competition 
grew so keen, it was necessary to invent 
new attractions for customers. Then was. 
born the cafe chantant, where songs, mono- 
logues, dances, little plays and farces (not 
always in the best taste), were provided to 
amuse the frequenters. Many of these 
cafes chantants were in the open air along 
the Champs-Elysees. In bad weather, Paris 
provided the pleasure-seeker with the 
Eldorado, Alcazar d'Hiver, Scala, Gaiete, 
Concert du XIX^^ Si^cle, Folies Bobino, 
Rambuteau, Concert Europeen, and count- 
less other meeting places where one could 
be served with a cup of coffee. 

As in London, certain cafes were noted 
for particular followings, like the military, 
students, artists, merchants. The politi 



From an engraving by Bosredon 



eians had their favorite resorts. Says 
Salvandy : 

These were senates in miniature ; here miglity 
political questions were discussed ; here peace 
and war were decided upon ; here generals were 
brought to the bar of justice . . .distinguished 
orators were victoriously refuted, ministers 
heckled upon their ignorance, their incapacity, 
their perfidy, their corruption. The cafe is in 
reality a French institution ; in them we find 
all these agitations and movements of men, the 
like of which is unknown in the English tavern. 
No government can go against the sentiment of 
the caf6s. The Revolution took place because 
they were for the Revolution. Napoleon reigned 
because they were for glory. Tlae Restoration 
was shattered, because they understood the 
Charter in a different manner. 

In 1700 appeared the Portefeuille Galant, 
containing conversations of the caf6s. 

The Cafes in the French Revolution 

The Palais Royal coffee houses were 
centers of activity in the days preceding 
and following the Revolution. A picture 
of them in the July days of 1789 has been 
left by Arthur Young, who was visiting 
Paris at that time : 

The coffee houses present yet more singular 
and astounding spectacles; they are not only 
crowded within, but other expectant crowds are 
at the doors and windows, listening d gorge 
d4plogec to certain orators who from chairs or 
tables harangue each his little audience; the 
eagerness with which they are heard, and the 
thunder of applause they receive for every 
sentiment of more than common hardiness or 
violence against the government, cannot easily 
be imagined. 

The Palais Royal teemed with excited 
Frenchmen on the fateful Sunday of July 
12, 1789. The moment was a tense one, 
when, coming out of the Cafe Foy, Camille 
Desmoulins, a youthful journalist, mounted 
a table and began the harangue that pre- 
cipitated the first overt act of the French 
Revolution. Blazing with a white hot 
frenzy, he so played upon the passions of 
the mob that at the conclusion of his speech 
he and his followers "marched away from 
the Cafe on their errand of Revolution." 
The Bastille fell two days later. 

As if abashed by its reputation as the 
starting point of the mob spirit of the 
Revolution, Cafe Foy became in after years 
a sedate gathering-place of artists and 
literati. Up to its close it was distinguished 
among other famous Parisian cafes for its 
exclusiveness and strictly enforced rule of 
"no smoking." 

1 Salvandy, Naroissp-Achille. Influence des Caf48 
sur lea Moeurs PoUtiqtiea. 

Even from the first the Parisian cafes 
catered to all classes of society ; and, unlike 
the London coffee houses, they retained this 
distinctive characteristic. A number of 
them early added other liquid and substan- 
tial refreshments, many becoming out-and- 
out restaurants. 

Coffee-House Customs and Patrons 

Coffee's effect on Parisians is thus 
decribed by a writer of the latter part of 
the eighteenth century: 

I think I may safely assert that it is to tlie 
establishment of so many cafes in Paris that is 
due the urbanity and mildness discernible upon 
most faces. Before they existed, nearly every- 
body passed his time at the cabaret, where even 
business matters were discussed. Since their 
establishment, people assemble to hear what is 
going on, drinking and playing only in modera- 
tion, and the consequence is that they are more 
civil and polite, at least in appearance. 

Montesquieu's satirical pen pictured in 
his Persian Letters the earliest cafes as 
follows : 

In some of these liouses they talk news ; in 
others, they play draughts. There is one where 
they prepare the coffee in such a manner that 
it inspires the drinkers of it with wit ; at least, 
of all those who frequent it, there is not one 
person in four who does not think he has more 
wit after he has entered that house. But what 
offends me in these wits is that they do not 
make themselves useful to their country. 

Montesquieu encountered a geometrician 
outside a coffee house on the Pont Neuf, 
and accompanied him inside. He describes 
the incident in this manner: 

I observe that our geometrician was received 
there with the utmost ofRciousness, and that the 
coffee house boys paid him much more respect 
than two musqueteers who were in a corner of 
the room. As for him, he seemed as if he 
thought himself in an agreeable place ; for he 
unwrinkled his brows a little and laughed, as if 
he had not the least tincture of geometrician in 
him. . . . He was offended at every start of wit, 
as a tender eye is by too strong a light. ... At 
last I saw an old man enter, pale and thin, 
whom I knew to be a coffee house politician 
before he sat down ; he was not one of those 
who are never to be intimidated by disasters, 
but always prophesy of victories and success; 
he was one of those timorous wretches who are 
always boding ill. 

Cafe Momus and Caf6 Rotonde figure 
conspicuously in the record of French 
bohemianism. The Momus stood near the 
right bank of the River Seine in rue des 
Pretres St.-Germain, and was known as the 
home of the bohemians. The Rotonde stood 
on the left bank at the corner of the rue de 




From an engraving by Bosredon 



rficole de Medecine and the rue Haute- 

Alexandre Schanne has given us a 
glimpse of bohemian life in the early cafes. 
He lays his scene in the Cafe ]Rotonde, and 
tells how a number of poor students were 
wont to make one cup of coffee last the 
coterie a full evening by using it to flavor 
and to color the one glass of water shared 
in common. He says : 

Every evening, the first comer at the waiter's 
inquiry, "What will you talie, sir?" never failed 
to reply, "Nothing just at present, I am waiting 
for a friend." The friend arrived, to be assailed 
by the brutal question, "Have you any money?" 
He would make a despairing gesture in the nega- 
tive, and then add, loud enough to be heard by 
the dame clu comptoir, "By Jove, no ; only fancy, 
I left my purse on my console-table, with gilt 
feet, in the purest Louis XV style. Ah ! what a 
thing it is to be forgetful." He would sit down, 
and the waiter would wipe the table as if he 
had something to do. A third would come, who 
was sometimes able to reply, "Yes, I have ten 
sous." "Good !" we would reply ; "order a cup 
of coffee, a glass and a water bottle ; pay and 
give two sous to the waiter to secure his 
silence." Tliis would be done. Others would 
come and take their places beside us, repeating 
to the waiter the same chorus, "We are with 
this gentleman." Frequently we would be eight 
or nine sitting at the same table, and only one 
customer. Whilst smoking and reading the 
papers we would, however, pass the glass and 
bottle. When the water began to run short, as 
on a ship in distress, one of us would have the 
impudence to call out, "Waiter, some water !" 
The master of the establishment, who understood 
our situation, had no doubt given orders for us 
to be left alone, and made his fortune without 
our help. He was a good fellow and an intel- 
ligent one, having subscribed to all the scientific 
journals of Europe, which brought him the cus- 
tom of foreign students. 

Another cafe perpetuating the best tradi- 
tions of the Latin Quarter was the Vaehette, 
which survived until the death of Jean 
Moreas in 1911. The Vaehette is usually 
cited by antiquarians as a model of circum- 
spection as compared with the scores of 
cafes in the Quarter that were given up to 
debaucheries. One writer puts it: "The 
Vaehette traditions leaned more to scholar- 
ship than sensuality." 

In the late seventeenth and early eigh- 
teenth centuries the Parisian cafe was truly 
a coffee house ; but as many of the patrons 
began to while away most of their waking 
hours in them, the proprietors added other 
beverages and food to hold their patron- 
age. Consequently, we find listed among 
the cafes of Paris some houses that are 
more accurately described as restaurants, 

although they may have started their 
careers as coffee houses. 

Historic Parisian Cafes 

Some of the historic cafes are still thriv- 
ing in their original locations, although the 
majority have now passed into oblivion. 
Glimpses of the more famous houses are to 
be found in the novels, poetry, an'd essays 
written by the French literati who patron- 
ized them. These first-hand accounts give 
insights that are sometimes stirring, often 
amusing, and frequently revolting — such 
as the assassination of St.-Fargeau in 
Fevrier's low- vaulted cellar cafe in the 
Palais Royal. 

There is Magny 's, originally the haunt of 
such literary men as Gautier, Taine, Saint- 
Victor, Turguenieff, de Goncourt, Soulie, 
Renan, Edmond. In recent years the old 
Magny 's was razed, and on its site was built 
the modem restaurant of the same name, 
but in a style that has no resemblance to its 
predecessor. Even the name of the street 
has been changed, from rue Contrescarpe to 
the rue Mazet. 

Meot's, the Very, Beauvilliers', Mass^'s, 
the Cafe Chartres, the Troi Freres Proven- 
qaux, and the du Grand Commun, all situ- 
ated in the Palais Royal, are cafes that 
figured conspicuously in the French Revolu- 
tion, and are closely identified with the 
French stage and literature. Meot's and 
Masse 's were the trysting places of the 
Royalists in the days preceding the out- 
break, but welcomed the Revolutionists 
after they came in power. The Chartres 
was notorious as the gathering place of 
young aristocrats who escaped the guillo- 
tine, and, thus made bold, often called their 
like from adjoining caf6s to partake in some 
of their plans for restoration of the empire. 
The Trois Freres Provengaux, well known 
for its excellent and costl/ dinners, is men- 
tioned by Balzac, Lord Lytton, and Alfred 
de Musset in some of their novels. The 
Cafe du Grand Commun appears in 
Rousseau's Confessions in connection with 
the play Devin du Village. 

Among the most famous of the cafes on 
the Rue St. Honore were Venua's, patron- 
ized by Robespierre and his companions of 
the Revolution, and perhaps the scene of 
the inhuman murder of Berthier and its 
revolting aftermath ; the Mapinot, which has 
gone down in cafe history as the scene of 
the banquet to Archibald Alison, the 22- 



Interior of a Typical Parisian CAFfi of the Early Nineteenth Century 

year-old historian; and Voisin's cafe, 
around which still cling traditions of such 
literary lights as Zola, Alphonse Daudet, 
and Jules de Goncourt. 

Perhaps the boulevard des Italiens had, 
and still has, more fashionable cafes than 
any other section of the French capital. 
The Tortoni, opened in the early days of 
the Empire by Velloni, an Italian lemonade 
vender, was the most popular of the boule- 
vard caf^s, and was generally thronged 
with fashionables from all parts of Europe. 
Here Louis Blanc, historian of the Revolu- 
tion, spent many hours in the early days of 
his fame. Talleyrand ; Rossini, the musi- 
cian ; Alfred Stevens and Edouard Manet, 
artists, are some of the names still linked 
with the traditions of the Tortoni. Farther 
down the boulevard were the Cafe Riche, 
Maison Doree, Cafe Anglais, and the Cafe 
de Paris. The Riche and the Doree, stand- 
ing side by side, were both high-priced and 
noted for their revelries. The Anglais, 
which came into existence after the snuffing 
out of the Empire, was also distinguished 
for its high prices, but in return gave an 
excellent dinner and fine wines. It is told 
that even during the siege of Paris the 
Anglais offered its patrons "such luxuries 
as ass, mule, peas, fried potatoes, and cham- 

Probably the Cafe de Paris, which came 
into existence in 1822, in the former home 
of the Russian Prince Demidoff, was the 
most richly equipped and elegantly con- 
ducted of any cafe in Paris in the nine- 
teenth century, Alfred de Musset, a fre- 
quenter, said, ' ' you could not open its doors 
for less than 15 francs." 

The Cafe Litteraire, opened on boulevard 
Bonne Nouvelle late in the nineteenth 
century, made a direct appeal to literary 
men for patronage, printing this footnote 
on its menu : ' ' Every customer spending a 
franc in this establishment is entitled to 
one volume of any work to be selected from 
our vast collection. ' ' 

The names of Parisian cafes once more or 
less famous are legion. Some of them are : 

The Cafe Laurent, which Rousseau was 
forced to leave after writing an especially 
bitter satire; the English cafe, in which 
eccentric Lord Wharton made merry with 
the Whig habitues; the Dutch cafe, the 
haunt of Jacobites; Terre's, in the rue 
Neuve des Pet its Champs, which Thackeray 
described in The Ballad of Bouillahaisse; 
Maire's, in the boulevard St.-Denis, which 
dates back beyond 1850; the Caf6 Madrid, 
in the boulevard Montmartre, of which 
Carjat, the Spanish lyric poet, was an 
attraction; the Caf6 de la Paix, in the 



boulevard des Capucines, the resort of Sec- 
ond Empire Imperialists and their spies ; 
the Caf6 Durand, in the place de la Made- 
leine, which started on a plane with the 
high-priced Riche, and ended its career 
early in the twentieth century; the Rocher 
de Cancale, memorable for its feasts and 
high-living patrons from all over Europe ; 

the Cafe Guerbois, near the .rug, d^e, St. 
Petersbourg, where Manet, the impres- 
sionist, after many vicissitudes, won fame 
for his paintings and held court for many 
years ; the Chat Noir, on the rue Victor 
Masse at Montmartre, a blend of cafe and 
concert hall, which has since been imitated 
widely, both in name and feature. 

Chess Has Been a Favorite 
Pastime at the CafS; de la 
rfigence for t\vo hundred years 





Showing the Berry in its Various Ripening Stages from Flower to CiiKituY 

(luset: 1, green bean; 2, silver skin; i?, parohment ; 4, fruit pulj).) 

Painted from life by Blendon Campbell 

Chapter XII 


Captain John Smith, founder of the Colony of Virginia, is the first 
to bring to North America a knowledge of coffee in 1607 — The 
coffee grinder on the Mayflower — Coffee drinking in 1668 — Wil- 
liam Penn's coffee purchase in 1683 — Coffee in colonial New Eng- 
land — The psychology of the Boston "tea party," and why the 
United States became a nation of coffee drinkers instead of ti i 
drinkers, like England — The first coffee license to Dorothy Jones i 
1670 — The first coffee house in New England — Notable coffi ? 
houses of old Boston — A sky-scraper coffee house 


UNDOUBTEDLY the first to bring a 
knowledge of coffee to North Amer- 
ica was Ca ptain John Smith , who 
founded the Colony of Virgmia at James- 
town in 1607. Captain Smith became fa- 
miliar with coffee in his tr avels in Turke y. 

Although the Dutch also had early knowl- 
edge of coffee, it does not appear that the 
Dutch West India Company brought any 
of it to the first permanent settlement on 
Manhattan Island (1624). Nor is there 
any record of coffee in the cargo of the 
Mayflower (1620), although it included a 
wooden mortar and pestle, later used to 
make "coffee powder." 

In the period when New Yo^ T^ ^^^^ T>Jp-«zl 

AmstPrdanij and ^^^n^(^r■ Dnfpli r>r>mipanny 

(1624-64), it is poss ible that coffee ma^v 
have bppn import^H from Holland, where 
it was being sold on the Amsterdam market 
as early as 1640, and where regular sup- 
plies of the green bean were being received 
from Mocha in 1663; but positive proof is 
lacking. The Dutch appear to have brought 
tea across the Atlantic from Holland before 
coffee. The English may have introduced 
the coffee drink into the New York colony 
between 1664 and 1673. The earliest refer- 
ence to coffee in America is 1668 \ at which 

• Singleton, Esther. 
1909. (p. 132.) 

Dutch New York. New York, 

time a beverage made from the roasted 
beans, and flavored with sugar or honey, 
and cinnamon, was being drunk ii New 

,^Coffee first appears in the official lecords 
oFthe New England colony in ifiTfL, in 
1683, the year following William Penn's 
settlement on the Delaware, we find him 
buying supplies of coffee in the New York 
market and paying for them at the rate of 
eighteen shillings and nine pence per 

Coffee houses patterned after the English 
and Continental prototypes were soon estab- 
lished in all the colonies. Those of New- 
York and Philadelphia are described in 
separate chapters. The Boston houses are 
described at the end of this chapter. 

Norfolk, Chicago, St. Louis, and New 
Orleans also had them. Conrad Leonhard 's 
coffee /house at 320 Market Street. St. 
Louis, was famous for its coffee and coffee 
cake, from 1844 to 1905, when it became a 
bakery and lunch room, removing in 1919 
to Eighth and Pine Streets. 

In the pioneer days of the great west, 
coffee and tea were hard to get; and, in- 
stead of them, teas were often made from 
garden herbs, spicewood, sassafras-roots^ 

^ Bishop, J. Leander. A History of American Manu- 
factures, 1608 to IfdO. New York, 1804. (Vol. 1; p. 




and other shrubs, taken from the thickets '. 
In 1839, in the city of Chicago, one of the 
minor taverns was known as the Lake Street 
coffee house. It was situated at the corner 
of Lake and Wells Streets. A number of 
hotels, which in the English sense might 
more appropriately be called inns, met a 
demand for modest accommodation *. Two 
coffee houses were listed in the Chicago 

Types of Colonial Coffee Roasters 

The cylinder at the top of the picture was revolved 
by hand in the fireplace; the skillets were set in 
the smouldering ashes 

directories for 1843 and 1845, the Wash- 
ington coffee house, 83 Lake Street; and 
the Exchange coffee house, Clarke Street 
between La Salle and South Water Streets. 
The oldtime coffee houses of New Orleans 
W'Cre situated within the original area of the 
city, the section bounded by the river, Canal 
Street, Esplanade Avenue and Rampart 
Street. In the early days most of the big 
business of the city was transacted in the 
coffee houses. The brideau, coffee with 
orange juice, orange peel, and sugar, wdth 
cognac burned and mixed in it, originated 
in the New Orleans coffee house, and led to 
its gradual evolution into the saloon. 

How the United States Became a Nation 
of Coffee Drinkers 

Coffee, tea, and chocolate were introduced 
into North America almost simultaneously 
in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 
In the first half of the eighteenth century, 
tea had made such progress in England, 
thanks to the propaganda of the British 
East India Company, that, being moved to 
extend its use in the colonies, the directors 
turned their eyes first in the direction of 
North America. Here, however, King 
George spoiled their well-laid plans by his 

« Patterson, Robert W. Early Society in Southern 
Illinois. Chicago, 1881. 

* Andreas, A. T. History of Chicago. Chicago, 

unfortunate stamp act of 1765, which 
caused the colonists to raise the cry of "no 
taxation without representation." 

Although the act was repealed in 1766, 
the right to tax was asserted, and in 1767 
was again used, duties being laid on paints, 
oils, lead, glass, and tea. Once more the 
colonists resisted ; and, by refusing to im- 
port any goods of English make, so dis- 
tressed the English manufacturers that 
Parliament repealed every tax save that on 
tea. Despite the growing fondness for the 
beverage in America, the colonists preferred 
to get their tea elsewhere to sacrificing their 
principles and buying it from England. A 
brisk trade in smuggling tea from Holland 
was started. 

In a panic at the loss of the most promis- 
ing of its colonial markets, the British East 
India Company appealed to Parliament for 
aid, and was permitted to export tea, a 
privilege it had never before enjoyed. 
Cargoes were sent on consignment to 
selected commissioners in Boston, New 
York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. The 
story of the subsequent happenings proper- 
ly belongs in a book on tea. It is sufficient 
here to refer to the climax of the agitation 
against the fateful tea tax, because it is 
undoubtedly responsible for our becoming 
a nation of coffee drinkers instead of one 
of tea drinkers, like England. 

The Boston "tea party" of 1773, when 
citizens of Boston, disguised as Indians, 
boarded the English ships lying in Boston 
harbor and threw their tea cargoes into the 

' " X 


f I 

An Early Family Coffee Roaster 
This machine, known in Holland as a "Coffee 
Burner," was used late in the 18th century in 
New England. It hung in the fireplace or stood 
in the embers 



Historical Relics Associated With the Early Days of Coffee in New England 

These exhibits are in the Museum of the Maine Historical Society at Portland. On the left is Kenrick's 
Patent coffee mill. In the center is a Britannia urn with an iron bar for heating the liquid. The 
bar was encased in a tin receptacle that hung inside the cover. On the right is a wall type of coffee 
or spice grinder 

ay, cast the die for coffee; for there and 
then originated a subtle prejudice against 
"the cup that cheers", which one hundred 
and fifty years have failed entirely to over- 
come. ^Meanwhile, the change wrought in 
our social customs by this act, and those of 
like nature following it, in the New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Charleston colonies, 
caused coffe e to be crowned "king of th e 
American b reakfast tahl ^"^ and the sove r- 
eign drmir^f the American ppopT p" ^ 

Coffee in Colonial New England 

The history of coffee in colonial New 
England is so closely interwoven with the 
story of the inns and taverns that it is 
difficult to distinguish the genuine coffee 
house, as it was known in England, from 
the public house where lodgings and liquors 
were to be had. The coffee drink had 
strong competition from the heady wines, 
the liquors, and imported teas, and conse- 
quently it did not attain the vogue among 
the colonial New Englanders that it did 
among Londoners of the late seventeenth 
and early eighteenth centuries. 

Although New England had its coffee 
houses, these were actually taverns where 
coffee was only one of the beverages served 
to patrons. "T hey were'^ gay« Rnhinson. 
"generally meeting pla^ces_of_those_whQj^£re 
co nservative in — ffiei r^ views ref ^'arding 
church a nd~slat e7"^5emg_frignds of therul- 
ing— a:difrinistration.' Sucir~persons were 

terms 'Courtiers' by their adversaries, the 
Dissenters and Republicans." 

Most of the coffee houses were estab- 
lished in Boston, the metropolis of the 
Massachusetts Colony, and the social center 
of New England. While Plymouth, Salem, 
Chelsea, and Providence had taverns that 
served coffee, they did not achieve the 
name and fame of some of the more cele- 
brated coffee houses in Boston 

It is not definitely known when the first 
coffee was brought in ; but it is reasonable 
to suppose that it came as part of the 
household supplies of some settler (prob- 
ably between 1660 and 1670) , who had be- 
come acquainted with it before leaving 
England. Or it may have been introduced 
by some British officer, who in London had 
made the rounds of the more celebrated 
coffee houses of the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century. 

The First Coffee License 

According to early town records of Bos- 
ton, Dorothy Jones was the first to be 
licensed to sell "coffee and cuchaletto," 
the latter being the seventeenth-century 
spelling for chocolate or cocoa. This license 
is dated 1670, and is said to be the first 
written reference to coffee in the Massa- 
chusetts Colony. It is not stated whether 
Dorothy Jones was a vender of the coffee 
drink or of "coffee powder," as ground 
coffee was known in the early days. 



The Mayflowek "Coffee Grinder" 

Mortar and pestle for "braying" coffee to make 
coffee powder, brought over in the Mayflower 
by tiie parents of Peregrine White 

There is some question as to whether 
Dorothy Jones was the first to sell coffee 
as a beverage in Boston. Londoners had 
known and drunk coffee for eighteen years 
before Dorothy Jones got her coffee license. 
British government officials were frequent- 
ly taking ship from London to the Massa- 
chusetts Colony, and it is likely that they 
brought tidings and samples of the coffee 
the English gentry had lately taken up. 
No doubt they also told about the new-style 
coffee houses that were becoming popular 
in all parts of London. And it may be 
assumed that their tales caused the land- 
lords of the inns and taverns of colonial 
Boston to add coffee to their lists of bever- 

New England's First Coffee House 

The name coffee house did not come into 
use in New England until late in the seven- 
teenth century. Early colonial records do 
not make it clear whether the London coffee 
house or the Gutteridge coffee house was the 
first to be opened in Boston with that dis- 
tinctive title. In all likelihood the London 
is entitled to the honor, for Samuel Gardner 
Drake in his History and Antiquities of the 
City of Boston, published in 1854, says that 
*'Benj. Harris sold books there in 1689." 
Drake seems to be the only historian of 
early Boston to mention the London coffee 

Granting that the London coffee house 
was the first in Boston, then the Gutteridge 
coffee house was the second. The latter 

stood on the north side of State Street, be- 
tM'een Exchange and Washington Streets, 
and was named after Robert Gutteridge, 
who took out an innkeeper's license in 1691. 
Twenty-seven years later, his widow, Mary 
Gutteridge, petitioned the town for a re- 
newal of her late husband's permit to keep 
a public coffee house. 

The British coffee house, which became 
the American coffee house when the crowm 
officers and all things British became ob- 
noxious to the colonists, also began its 
career about the time Gutteridge took out 
his license. It stood on the site that is now 
Q& State Street, and became one of the most 
widely known coffee houses in colonial New 

Of course, there were several inns and 
taverns in existence in Boston long before 
coffee and coffee houses came to the New 
England metropolis. Some of these taverns 
took up coffee when it became fashionable 
in the colony, and served it to those patrons 
who did not care for the stronger drinks. 

The earliest known inn was set up by 
Samuel Cole in Washington Street, midway 
between Faneuil Hall and State Street. 
Cole was licensed as a "comfit maker" in 
1634, four years after the founding of 
Boston ; and two years later, his inn was the 


The Crown Coffee House, Boston 

One of the first in New England to bear the dis- 
tinctive name of coffee house; opened in 1711 
and burned down in 1780 





Coffee Making and Serving Devices Used in the ^NlA.s^iAenLsEirs Colony 

hese exhibits are in the Museum of the Essex Institute at Salem, Mass. Top row, left and right, 
Britannia serving pots; center, Britannia table urn; bottom row, left end, tin coffee making pot; 
center, Britannia serving pots; right end, tin French drip pot 

temporary abiding place of the Indian chief 
Miantonomoh and his red warriors, who 
came to visit Governor Vane. In the fol- 
lowing year, the Earl of Marlborough found 
that Cole's inn was so "exceedingly well 
governed," and afforded so desirable pri- 
vacy, that he refused the hospitality of 
Governor Winthrop at the governor's man- 

Another popular inn of the day was the 
Red Lyon, which was opened in 1637 by 
Nicholas Upshall, the Quaker, who later 
was hanged for trying to bribe a jailer to 
pass some food into the jail to two 
Quakeresses who were starving within. 

Ship tavern, erected in 1650, at the 
corner of North and Clark Streets, then on 
the waterfront, was a haunt of British 
government officials. The father of Gover- 
nor Hutchinson was the first landlord, to 
be succeeded in 1663 by John Vyal. Here 
lived the four commissioners who were sent 
to these shores by King Charles II to settle 
the disputes then beginning between the 
colonies and England. 

Another lodging and eating place for the 
gentlemen of quality in the first days of 
Boston was the Blue Anchor, in Cornhill, 
which was conducted in 1664 by Robert 

Turner. Here gathered members of the 
government, visiting officials, jurists, and 
the clergy, summoned into synod by the 
Massachusetts General Court. It is assumed 
that the clergy confined their drinking to 
coffee and other moderate beverages, leav- 
ing the wines and liquors to their con- 

Some Notable Boston Coffee Houses 

In the last quarter of the seventeenth 
century quite a number of taverns and 
inns sprang up. Among the most notable 
that have obtained recognition in Boston's 
historical records were the King's Head, at 
the corner of Fleet and North Streets; the 
Indian Queen, on a passageway leading 
from Washington Street to Hawley Street ; 
the Sun, in Faneuil Hall Square, and the 
Green Dragon, which became one of the 
most celebrated coffee-house taverns. 

The King's Head, opened in 1691, early 
became a rendezvous of crown officers and 
the citizens in the higher strata of colonial 

The Indian Queen also became a favorite 
resort of the crown officers from Province 
House. Started by Nathaniel Bishop about 
1673, it stood for more than 145 years as 



Coffee Devices that Figured in the Pioneering of the Great West 

Photographed for this work in the Museum of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Left to right, 
English decorated tin pot; coffee and spice mill from Lexington, Mass.; Globe roaster built by Rays 
& Wilcox Co., Berlin, Conn., under Wood's patent; sheet brass coffee mill from Lexington, Mass.; 
John Luther's coffee mill, Warren, R. I.; cast iron hopper mill 

the Indian Queen, and then was replaced 
by the Washington cotfee house, which be- 
came noted throughout New England as the 
starting place for the Roxbury "hourlies,'' 
the stage coaches that ran every hour from 
Boston to nearby Roxbury. 

The Sun tavern lived a longer life than 
any other Boston inn. Started in 1690 in 
Faneuil Hall Square, it was still standing 
in 1902, according to Henry R. Blaney ; but 
has since been razed to make way for a 
modern skyscraper. 

New-Emj^mi d's Most Famous Coffee H ouse 

The Green Dragon, the last of the inns 
that were popular at the close of the seven- 
teenth century, was the most celebrated of 
Boston's coffee-house taverns. It stood on 
Union Street, in the heart of the town's 
business center, for 135 years, from 1697 
to 1832, and figured in practically all the 
important local and national events during 

its long career. Red-coated British soldiers, 
colonial governors, bewigged crown ofificers, 
earls and dukes, citizens of high estate, plot- 
ting revolutionists of lesser degree, con- 
spirators in the Boston Tea Party, patriots 
and generals of the Revolution — all these 
were wont to gather at the Green Dragon 
to discuss their various interests over their 
cups of coffee, and stronger drinks. In the 
words of Daniel Webster, this famous 
coffee-house tavern was the "headquarters 
of the Revolution." It was here that 
Warren, John Adams, J ames Otis,_aiid-P aul 
ReveT'e met as a "wd>s ancTmeans com- 
' "' to se^rnre-f^eedtmiliiJiJlie^miHcau 

mi _ _ 

ft nlohies. HereT too, came members of the 
Grand Lodge of Masons to hold their meet- 
ings under the guidance of Warren, who 
was the first grand master of the first 
Masonic lodge in Boston. The site of the 
old tavern, now occupied by a business 
block, is still the property of the St. An- 

Metal and China Coffee Pots Used in New England's Colonial Days 
From the collection in the Museum of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Deerfleld, Mass. 



The Green Dragon, the Center of Social and Political Life in Boston for 135 Years 

This tavern figured in practically all the important national affairs from 1697 to 1832, and, according to 
Daniel Webster, was the "headquarters of the Revolution" 

drew 's Lodge of Free Masons. • The old 
tavern was a two-storied brick structure 
with a sharply pitched roof. Over its en- 
trance hungr a sign bearing the figure of a 
green dragon. 

Patrons of the Green Dragon and the 
British coffee house were decidedly opposed 
in their views on the questions of the day. 
While the Green Dragon was the gathering 
piaf>Aj2^ f t^Q pflt^^'^t^^ "^^"^inls^ thp_ Briti sh 
w as the rendezvous of the loyalists, and 
frequent were the encounters hetwppn t hp 
patrons ol thes e two celebrated taverns. It 
was in Llie British coft'ee house that James 
Otis was so badly pummeled, after being 
lured there by political enemies, that he 
never regained his former brilliancy as an 

It was there, in 1750, that some British 
red coats staged the first theatrical enter- 
tainment given in Boston, playing Otway's 
Orphan. There, the first organization of 
citizens to take the name of a club formed 
the Merchants' Club in 1751. The member- 
ship included ofiicers of the king, colonial 
governors and lesser officials, military and 
naval leaders, and members of the bar, with 
a sprinkling of high-ranking citizens who 
were staunch friends of the crown. How- 
ever, the British became so generally dis- 

liked that as soon as the king's troops 
evacuated Boston in the Revolution, the 
name of the coffee house was changed to the 

The Bunch of Grapes, that Francis 
Holmes presided over as early as 1712, was 
another hot-bed of politicians. Like the 
Green Dragon over the way, its paJtjrous 
included unconditional freedom ^<^e^--Qvg^ 
many coming from the British coffee house 
when things became too hot for them in that 
Tory atmosphere. The Bunch of Grapes 
became the center of a stirring celebration 
in 1776, w^hen a delegate from Philadelphia 
read the Declaration of Independence from 
the balcony of the inn to the crowd 
assembled in the street below. So enthus- 
iastic did the Bostonians become that, in 
the excitement that followed, the inn was 
nearly destroyed when one enthusiast built 
a bonfire too close to its walls. Another 
anecdote told of the Bunch of Grapes con- 
cerns Sir "William Phipps, governor of 
Massachusetts from 1692 - 94, who was 
noted for his irascibility. He had his 
favorite chair and window in the inn, and 
in the accounts of the period it is written 
that on any fine afternoon his glowering 
countenance could be seen at the window 
by the passersby on State Street. 



After the beginning of the eighteenth 
century the title of coffee house was applied 
to a number of hostelries opened in Boston. 
One of these was the Crown, which was 
opened in the ' ' first house on Lon^g Wharf ' ' 
in 1711 by Jonathan Belcher, who later be- 
came governor of Massachusetts, and still 
later of New Jersey. The first landlord of 
the Crown was Thomas Selby, who by trade 
was a periwig maker, but probably found 
the selling of strong drink and coffee more 
profitable. Selby 's coffee house was also 
used as an auction room. The Crown stood 
until 1780, when it was destroyed in a fire 
that swept the Long Wharf. On its site 
now stands the Fidelity Trust Company at 
148 State Street. 

Another early Boston coffee house on 
Statef Street was the Royal Exchange. How 
long it had been standing before it was first 
mentioned in colonial records in 1711 is 
unknown. It occupied an ancient two-story 
building, and was kept in 1711 by Benjamin 
Johns. This coff ee house became thp start- 
ing p lace for stage coaches running betwee n 
Bost on and New York._the first one leavi ng 
Sep J-pmher 7, 'I TT^^'^Tn fhe ColumFian 
Centinel of January 1, 1800, appeared an 
advertisement in which it was said: ''New 
York and Providence Mail Stage leaves 
Major Hatches' Royal Exchange Coffee 

House in State Street every morning at 8 

In the latter half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury the North-End coffee house was cele- 
brated as the highest-class coffee house in 
Boston. It occupied the three-storied brick 
mansion which had been built about 1740 
by Edward Hutchinson, brother of the 
noted governor. It stood on the west side 
of North Street, between Sun Court and 
Fleet Street, and was one of the most 
pretentious of its kind. An eighteenth 
century writer, in describing this coffee- 
house mansion, made much of the fact that 
it had forty-five windows and was valued at 
$4,500, a large sum for those days. During 
the Revolution, Captain David Porter, 
father of Admiral David D. Porter, was the 
landlord, and under him it became cele- 
brated throughout the city as a high-grade 
eating place. The advertisements of the 
North-End coffee house featured its "din- 
ners and suppers — small and retired rooms 
for small company — ' oyster suppers in the 
nicest manner." 

A "Skyscraper" Coffee House 

The Boston coffee-house period reached 
its height in 1808, when the doors of the 
Exchange coffee house were thrown open 
after three years of building. This struc- 

Metai. Coffee Pots Used in the New York Colony 
Left, tin coffee pot, dark brown, with "love apple" decoration In red, New Jersey Historical Society, 
Newark; right, weighted bottom tin pot with rose decoration, private owner 



Exchange Coffee House, Boston, 1808, Probably the 'Largest and Most Costly in the World 

Juilt of stone, marble and brick, it stood seven stories high and cost $500,000. It was patterned after 
Lloyd's of London, and was the center of marine intelligence In Boston 

ire, situated on Congress Street near State 
Street, was the skyscraper of its day, and 
probably was the most ambitious coffee- 
house project the world has known. Built 
of stone, marble, and brick, it stood seven 
stories high, and cost a half-million dollars. 
Charles Bulfinch, America's most noted 
architect of that period, was the designer. 
Like Lloyd's coffee house in London, the 
Exchange was the center of marine intelli- 
gence, and its public rooms were thronged 
all day and evening with mariners, naval 
officers, ship and insurance brokers, who had 
come to talk shop or to consult the records 
of ship arrivals and departures, manifests, 

charters, and other marine papers. The 
first floor of the Exchange was devoted to 
trading. On the next floor was the large 
dining room, where many sumptuous ban- 
quets were given, notably the one to Presi- 
dent Monroe in July, 1817, which was at- 
tended by former President John Adams, 
and by many generals, commodores, gover- 
nors, and judges. The other floors were 
given over to living and sleeping rooms, of 
which there were more than 200. The Ex- 
change coffee house was destroyed by firf" 
in 1818; and on its site was erected an- 
other, bearing the same name, but having 
slight resemblance to its predecessor. 



Chapter XIII 



The burghers of Neiv Amsterdam begin to substitute coffee for 
"must," or beer, at breakfast in 1668 — William Penn makes his 
first purchase of coffee in the green bean from New York merchants 
in 1683 — The King's Arms, the first coffee house — The historic 
Merchants, sometimes called the "Birth-place of our Union" — The 
coffee house as a civic forum — The Exchange, Whitehall, Burns, 
Tontine, and other celebrated coffee houses — The Vauxhall ayid 
Ranelagh pleasure gardens 

THE Dutch founders of New York 
seem to have introduced tea into New 
Amsterdam before they brought in 
coffee. This was somewhere about the 
middle of the seventeenth century. We find 
it recorded that about 1668 the burghers 
succumbed to coffee '. Coffee made its way 
slowly, first in the homes, where it replaced 
the "must", or beer, at breakfast. Choco- 
late came about the same time, but was 
more of a luxury than tea or coffee. 

After the surrender of New York to the 
British in 1674, English manners and cus- 
toms were rapidly introduced. First tea, 
and later coffee, were favorite beverages 
in the homes. By 1683 New York had be- 
come so central a market for the green 
bean, that William Penn, as soon as he 
found himself comfortably settled in the 
Pennsylvania Colony, sent over to New 
York for his coft'ee supplies ^ It was not 
long before a social need arose that only 
the London style of coffee house could fill. 

The coffee houses of early New York, 
like their prototypes in London, Paris, and 
other old world capitals, were the centers 
of the business, political and, to some ex- 
tent, of the social life of the city. But they 
never became the forcing-beds of literature 

* Singleton, Esther. 

' Bishop, J. Leander. 
ufacture8, 1608 to 1860. 

Dutch New York. 1909. (p. 

A History of American Man- 
New York. 

that the French and English houses were, 
principally because the colonists had no 
professional writers of note. 

There is one outstanding feature of the 
early American coffee houses, particularly 
of those opened in New York, that is not 
distinctive of the European houses. The 
colonists sometimes held court trials in the 
long, or assembly, room of the early coffee 
houses; and often held their general as- 
sembly and council meetings there. 

TJie Coffee House as a Civic Forum 

The early coffee house was an important 
factor in New York life. What the per- 
petuation of this public gathering place 
meant to the citizens is shown by a com- 
plaint (evidently designed to revive the 
declining fortunes of the historic Merchants 
coffee house) in the New York Journal of 
October 19, 1775, which, in part, said: 
To the Inhabitants of New York : 

It gives me concern, in this time of public 
difficulty and danger, to find we have in tliis 
city no place of daily general meeting, where we 
might hear and communicate intelligence from 
every quarter and freely confer with one another 
on every matter that concerns us. Such a place 
of general meeting is of very great advantage 
in many respects, especially at such a time as 
this, besides the satisfaction it affords and the 
sociable disposition it has a tendency to keep up 
among us, which was never more wanted than 
at this time. To answer all these and many 
other good and useful purposes, coffee houses 




have been universally deemed the most conve- 
nient places of resort, because, at a small ex- 
pense of time or money, persons wanted may 
be found and spoke with, appointments may be 
made, current news heard, and whatever it most 
concerns us to know. In all cities, therefore, 
and large towns that I have seen in the British 
dominions, sufficient encouragement has been 
given to support one or more coffee houses in a 
genteel manner. How comes it then that New 
York, the most central, and one of the largest 
and most prosperous cities in British America, 
cannot support one coffee house? It is a scandal 
to the city and its inhabitants to be destitute 
of such a convenience for want of due encour- 
agement. A coffee house, indeed, there is, a 
very good and comfortable one, extremely well 
tended and accommodated, but it is frequented 
but by an inconsiderable number of people ; and 
I have observed with surprise, that but a small 
part of those who do frequent it, contribute any- 
thing at all to the expense of it, but come in 
and go out without calling for or paying any- 
thing to the house. In all the coffee houses in 
London, it is customary for every one that comes 
in to call for at least a dish of coffee, or leave 
the value of one, which is but reasonable, be- 
cause when the keepers of these houses have 
been at the expense of setting them up and pro- 
viding all necessaries for the accommodation of 

company, every one that comes to receive the 
benefit of these conveniences ought to contribute 
something towards the expense of them. 

A Friend to the City. 

New York's First Coffee House 

Some chroniclers of New York's early 
days are confident that the first cofi'ee house 
in America was opened in New York; but 
the earliest authenticated record they have 
presented is that on November 1, 1696, John 
Hutchins bought a lot on Broadway, be- 
tween Trinity churchyard and what is now 
Cedar Street, and there built a house, nam- 
ing it the King's Arms. Against this rec- 
ord, Boston can present the statement in 
Samuel Gardner Drake's History and An- 
tiquities of the City of Boston that Benj. 
Harris sold books at the "London Coffee 
House" in 1689. 

The King's Arms was built of wood, and 
had a front of yellow brick, said to have 
been brought from Holland. The building 
was tM^o stories high, and on the roof was 
an "observatory," arranged with seats, and 

New York's Pioneer Coffee House, the King's Arms, Opened in 1696 
This view shows the garden side of the historic old house as It was conducted by John Hutchins, near 
Trinity Church, on Broadway. The observatory may have been added later 



BuRXS Coffee House as It Appeared About the Middle of the Nineteenth Century 

It stood for many years on Broadway, opposite Bowling Green, in the old De Lancey House, becoming 
known in 1763 as the King's Arms, and later the Atlantic Garden House 

commanding a fine view of the bay, the 
river, and the city. Here the coffee-house 
visitors frequently sat in the afternoons. It 
is not shown in the illustration. 

The sides of the main room on the lower 
floor were lined with booths, which, for the 
sake of greater privacy, were screened with 
green curtains. There a patron could sip 
his coffee, or a more stimulating drink, and 
look over his mail in the same exclusiveness 
affected by the Londoner of the time. 

The rooms on the second floor were used 
for special meetings of merchants, colonial 
magistrates and overseers, or similar public 
and private business. 

The meeting room, as above described, 
seems to have been one of the chief features 
distinguishing a coffee house from a tavern. 
Although both types of houses had rooms 
for guests, and served meals, the coffee 
house was used for business purposes by 
permanent customers, while the tavern was 
patronized more by transients. Men met at 
the coffee house daily to carry on business, 
and went to the tavern for convivial pur- 
poses or lodgings. Before the front door 

hung the sign of "the lion and the unicorn 
fighting for the crown." 

For many years the King's Arms was the 
only coffee house in the city ; or at least no 
other seems of sufficient importance to have 
been mentioned in colonial records. For this 
reason it w^s more frequently designated as 
"the" coffee house than the King's Arms. 
Contemporary records of the arrest of John 
Hutchins of the King's Arms, and of Roger 
Baker, for speaking disrespectfully of King 
George, mention the King's Head, of which 
Baker was proprietor. But it is generally 
believed that this public house was a tavern 
and not rightfully to be considered as a 
coffee house. The White Lion, mentioned 
about 1700, was also a tavern, or inn. 

The New Coifee House 

Under date of September 22, 1709, the 
Journal of the General Assembly of the 
Colony of New York refers to a conference 
held in the "New Coffee House." 
About this date the business section of the 
city had begun to drift eastward from 
Broadway to the waterfront ; and from this 




fact it is assumed that the name "New 
Coffee House" indicates that the King's 
Arms had been removed from its original 
location near Cedar Street, or that it may 
have lost favor and have been superseded 
in popularity by a newer coffee house. The 
Journal does not give the location of the 
"New" coffee house. Whatever the case 
may be, the name of the King's Arms does 
not again appear in the records until 1763, 
and then it had more the character of a 
tavern, or roadhouse. 

The public records from 1709 up to 1729 
are silent in regard to coffee houses in New 
York. In 1725 the pioneer newspaper in 
the city, the New York Gazette, came into 
existence ; and four years later, 1729, there 
appeared in it an advertisement stating 
that ' ' a competent bookkeeper may be heard 
of" at the "Coffee House." In 1730 an- 
other advertisement in the same journal 
tells of a sale of land by public vendue 
(auction) to be held at the Exchange coffee 

The Exchange Coffee House 

By reason of its name, the Exchange 
Coffee House is thought to have been lo- 
cated at the foot of Broad Street, abutting 
the sea-wall and near the Long Bridge of 
of that day. At that time this section was 
the business center of the city, and here 
was a trading exchange. 

That the Exchange coffee house was the 
only one of its kind in New York in 1732 
is inferred from the announcement in that 
year of a meeting of the conference com- 
mittee of the Council and Assembly ' ' at the 
Coffee House." In seeming confirmation of 
this conclusion, is the advertisement in 1733 
in the New York Gazette requesting the 
return of "lost sleeve buttons to Mr. Todd, 
next door to the Coffee House." The records 
of the day show that a Robert Todd kept the 
famous Black Horse tavern which was 
located in this part of the city. 

Again we hear of the Exchange coffee 
house in 1737, and apparently in the same 
location, where it is mentioned in an ac- 
count of the "Negro plot" as being next 
door to the Fighting Cocks tavern by the 
Long Bridge, at the foot of Broad Street. 
Also in this same year it is named as the 
place of public vendue of land situated on 

By this time the Exchange coffee house 
had virtually become the city's official auc- 
tion room, as well as the place to buy and 

to drink coffee. Commodities of many 
kinds were also bought and sold there, both 
within the house and on the sidewalk be- 
fore it. 

The Mercha7its Coffee House 

In the year 1750, the Exchange coffee 
house had begun to lose its long-held 
prestige, and its name was changed to the 
Gentlemen's Exchange coffee house and 
tavern. A year later it had migrated to 
Broadway under the name of the Gentle- 
mens' coffee house and tavern. In 1753 it 
was moved again, to Hunter's Quay, which 
was situated on what is now Front Street, 
somewhere between the present Old Slip 
and Wall Street. The famous old coffee 
house seems to have gone out of existence 
about this time, its passing hastened, no 
doubt, by the newer enterprise, the Mer- 
chants coffee house, which was to become 
the most celebrated in New York, and, ac- 
cording to some writers, the most historic 
in America. 

It is not certain just when the Merchants 
coffee house was first opened. As near as 
can be determined, Daniel Bloom, a mariner, 
in 1737 bought the Jamaica Pilot Boat 
tavern from John Dunks and named it the 
Merchants coffee house. The building was 
situated on the northwest corner of the 
present Wall Street and Water (then 
Queen) Street; and Bloom was its landlord 
until his death, soon after the year 1750. 
He was succeeded by Captain James Ack- 
land, who shortly sold it to Luke Roome. 
The latter disposed of the building in 1758 
to Dr. Charles Arding. The doctor leased 
it to Mrs. Mary Ferrari, who continued as 
its proprietor until she moved, in 1772, to 
the newer building diagonally across the 
street, built by William Brownejohn, on the 
southeast corner of Wall and Water Streets. 
Mrs. Ferrari took with her the patronage 
and the name of the Merchants coffee house, 
and the old building was not used again as 
a coffee house. 

The building housing the original Mer- 
chants coffee house was a two-story struc- 
ture, wdth a balcony on the roof, which was 
typical of the middle eighteenth century 
architecture in New York. On the first 
floor were the coffee bar and booths de- 
scribed in connection with the King's Arms 
coffee house. The second floor had the 
typical long room for public assembly. 

During Bloom's proprietorship the Mer- 
chants coffee house had a long, hard struggle 



Merchants Ck)FFEE House (at the Right) as It Appeared from 1772 to 1804 

The original coffee house of this name was opened on the northwest corner of Wall and Water Streets 
about 1737, the business being moved to the southeast corner in 1772 

to win the patronage away from the Ex- 
change coffee house, which was flourishing 
at that time. But, being located near the 
Meal Market, where the merchants were 
wont to gather for trading purposes, it 
gradually became the meeting place of the 
city, at the expense of the Exchange coffee 
house, farther down the waterfront. 

Widow Ferrari presided over the original 
Merchants coffee house for fourteen years, 
until she moved across the street. She was 
a, keen business woman. Just before she 
was ready to open the new coffee house she 
announced to her old patrons that she 
would give a house-warming, at which 
arrack, punch, wine, cold ham, tongue, and 
other delicacies of the day would be served. 
The event was duly noted in the news- 
papers, one stating that ''the agreeable 
situation and the elegance of the new house 
liad occasioned a great resort of company 
to it." 

]\Irs. Ferrari continued in charge until 
May 1, 1776, when Cornelius Bradford bo- 
came proprietor and sought to build up the 
patronage, that had dwindled somewhat 
during the stirring days immediately pre- 
ceding the Revolution. In his announce- 
ment of the change of ownership, he said, 
""Interesting intelligence will be carefully 

collected and the greatest attention will be 
given to the arrival of vessels, when trade 
and navigation shall resume their former 
channels." He referred to the complete 
embargo of trade to Europe which the 
colonists were enduring. When the Amer- 
ican troops withdrew from the city during 
the Revolution, Bradford went also, to 
Rhinebeck on the Hudson. 

During the British occupation, the Mer- 
chants coffee house was a place of great 
activity. As before, it was the center of 
trading, and under the British regime it 
became also the place where the prize ships 
were sold. The Chamber of Commerce 
resumed its sessions in the upper long room 
in 1779, having been suspended since 1775. 
The Chamber paid fifty pounds rent per 
annum for the use of the room to Mrs. 
Smith, the landlady at the time. 

In 1781 John Stachan, then proprietor 
of the Queen's Head tavern, became land- 
lord of the Merchants coffee house, and he 
promised in a public announcement *'to 
pay attention not only as a Coffee House, 
but as a tavern, in the truest; and to dis- 
tinguish the same as the City Tavern and 
Coffee House, with constant and best at- 
tendance. Breakfast from seven to eleven ; 
soups and relishes from eleven to half-past 



one. Tea, coffee, etc., in the afternoon, as 
in England." But when he began charging 
sixpence for receiving and dispatching let- 
ters by man-o'-war to England, he brought 
a storm about his ears, and was forced to 
give up the practise. He continued in 
charge until peace came, and Cornelius 
Bradford came with it to resume pro- 
prietorship of the coffee house. 

Bradford changed the name to the New 
York coffee house, but the public continued 
to call it by its original name, and the land- 
lord soon gave in. He kept a marine list, 
giving the names of vessels arriving and 
departing, recording their ports of sailing. 
He also opened a register of returning citi- 
zens, "where any gentleman now resident 
in the city," his advertisement stated, 
"may insert their names and place of 
residence." This seems to have been the 
first attempt at a city directory. By his 
energy Bradford soon made the Merchants 
coffee house again the business center of the 
city. When he died, in 1786, he was 
mourned as one of the leading citizens. 
His funeral was held at the coffee house 
over M^iich he had fjresided so well. 

The Merchants coffee house continued 
to be the principal public gathering place 
until it was destroyed by fire in 1804. Dur- 
ing its existence it had figured prominently 
in many of the local and national historic 
events, too numerous to record here in de- 

Some of the famous events were : The 
reading of the order to the citizens, in 1765, 
warning them to stop rioting against the 
Stamp Act; the debates on the subject of 
not accepting consignments of goods from 
Great Britain ; the demonstration by the 
Sons of Liberty, sometimes called the "Lib- 
erty Boys," made before Captain Lockyer 
of the tea ship Nancy which had been 
turned away from Boston and sought to 
land its cargo in New York in 1774; the 
general meeting of citizens on May 19, 
1774, to discuss a means of communicat- 
ing with the Massachusetts colony to ob- 
tain co-ordinated effort in resisting Eng- 
land's oppression, out of which came the 
letter suggesting a congress of deputies 
from the colonies and calling for a "vir- 
tuous and spirited Union ; ' ' the mass meet- 
ing of citizens in the days immediately fol- 
lowing the battles at Concord and Lexing- 
ton in Massachusetts; and the forming of 
the Committee of One Hundred to admin- 

ister the public business, making the Mer- 
chants coffee house virtually the seat of 

When the American Army held the city 
in 1776, the coffee house became the resort 
of army and navy officers. Its culminating 
glory came on April 23, 1789, when Wash- 
ington, the recently elected first presi- 
dent of the United States, was officially 
greeted at the coffee house by the governor 
of the State, the mayor of the city, and the 
lesser municipal officers. 

As a meeting place for societies and 
lodges the Merchants coffee house was long 
distinguished. In addition to the purely 
commercial organizations that gathered in 
its long room, these bodies regularly met 
there in their early days: The Society of 
Arts, Agriculture and Economy; Knights 
of Corsica ; New York Committee of Cor- 
respondence; New Yori?: Marine Society; 
Chamber of Commerce of the State of New 
York; Lodge 169, Free and Accepted Ma- 
sons; Whig Society; Society of the New 
York Hospital; St. Andrew's Society; So- 
ciety of the Cincinnati ; Society of the Sons 
of St. Patrick; Society for Promoting the 
Manumission of Slaves ; Society for the Re- 
lief of Distressed Debtors; Black Friars 
Society ; Independent Rangers ; and Federal 

Here also came the men who, in 1784,. 
formed the Bank of New York, the first 
financial institution in the city; and here 
was held, in 1790, the first public sale of 
stocks by sworn brokers. Here, too, was 
held the organization meeting of subscrib- 
ers to the Tontine coffee house, which in a 
few years was to prove a worthy rival. 

Some Lesser Known Coffee Houses 

Before taking up the story of the famous 
Tontine coffee house it should be noted 
that the Merchants coffee house had some 
prior measure of competition. For four 
years the Exchange coffee room sought toi 
cater to the wants of the merchants around 
the foot of Broad Street. It was located 
in the Royal Exchange, which had beea 
erected in 1752 in place of the old Ex- 
change, and until 1754 had been used a» 
a store. Then William Keen and Alex- 
ander Lightfoot got control and started 
their coffee room, with a ball room at- 
tached. The partnership split up in 1756^ 
Lightfoot continuing operations until he 
died the next year, when his widow tried t& 



The Toxtine Coffee House (Second Building at the Left), Opened in 1792 

This is the original structure, northwest corner of Wall and Water Streets, which was succeeded about 

1850 by a flve-story building (see page 122) that in turn was replaced by a modern office buildii.g 

carry it on. In 1758 it had reverted into 
its original character of a mercantile estab- 

Then there was the Whitehall coffee 
house, which two men, named Rogers and 
Humphreys, opened in 1762, with the an- 
nouncement that "a correspondence is set- 
tled in London and Bristol to remit by 
every opportunity all the public prints and 
pamphlets as soon as published; and there 
will be a , weekly supply of New York, 
Boston and other American newspapers." 
This enterprise had a short life. 

The early records of the city infrequent- 
ly mention the Burns coffee house, some- 
times calling it a tavern. It is likely that 
the place was more an inn than a coffee 
house. It was kept for a number of years 
by George Burns, near the Battery, and 
was located in the historic old De Lancey 
house, which afterward became the City 

Burns remained the proprietor until 
1762, when it was taken over by a Mrs. 
Steele, who gave it the name of the King's 
Arms. Edward Barden became the land- 
lord in 1768. In later years it became 
known as the Atlantic Garden house. Trai- 

tor Benedict Arnold is said to have lodged 
in the old tavern after deserting to the 

The Bank coffee house belonged to a 
later generation, and had few of the char- 
acteristics of the earlier coffee houses. It 
was opened in 1814 by William Niblo, of 
Niblo's Garden fame, and stood at the 
corner of William and Pine Streets, at the 
rear of the Bank of New York. The cof- 
fee house endured for probably ten years, 
and became the gathering place of a co- 
terie of prominent merchants, who formed 
a sort of club. The Bank coffee house be- 
came celebrated for its dinners and dinner 

Fraunces' tavern, best known as the 
place where Washington bade farewell to 
his army officers, was, as its name states, 
a tavern, and can not be properly classed 
as a coffee house. While coffee was served, 
and there was a long room for gatherings, 
little, if any, business was done there by 
merchants. It was largely a meeting place 
for citizens bent on a "good time." 

Then there was the New England and 
Quebec coffee house, which was also a 



The Tontine Building of 1850 

Northwest corner of Wall and Water Streets; an 
omnibus of the Broadway-Wall-Street Ferry 
line is passing 

The Tontine Coffee House 

The last of the celebrated coffee houses 
of New York bore the name, Tontine cof- 
fee house. For several years after the 
burning of the Merchants coffee house, in 
1804, it was the only one of note in the 

Feeling that they should have a more 
commodious coffee house for carrying on 
their various business enterprises, some 150 
merchants organized, in 1791, the Tontine 
coffee house. This enterprise was based' 
on the plan introduced into France in 1653 
by Lorenzo Tonti, with slight variations. 
According to the New York Tontine plan, 
each holder's share reverted automatically 


^ 1 

^^H| ,4 









to the surviving shareholders in the asso- 
ciation, instead of to his heirs. There 
were 157 original shareholders, and 203 
shares of stock valued at £200 each. 

The directors bought the house and lot 
on the northwest corner of Wall and Water 
Streets, where the original Merchants cof- 
fee house stood, paying £1,970. They next 
acquired the adjoining lots on Wall and 
Water Streets, paying £2,510 for the for- 
mer, and £1,000 for the latter. 

The cornerstone of the new coffee house 
was laid June 5, 1792 ; and a year later to 
the day, 120 gentlemen sat down to a ban- 
quet in the completed coffee house to cele- 
brate the event of the year before. John 
Hyde was the first landlord. The house 
had cost $43,000. 

NiBLo's Gakden, 

Broadway and Pkince Street, 


Coffee Kelics of Dutch New York 

Spice-grinder boat, coffee roaster, and coffee pots 
at the Van Cortlandt Museum 

A contemporary account of how the Ton- 
tine coffee house looked in 1794 is supplied 
by an Englishman visiting New York at 
the time : 

The Tontine tavern and coffee house is a 
handsome large brick building; you ascend six 
or eight steps under a portico, into a large pub- 
lie room, which is the Stock Exchange of New 
York, where all bargains are made. Here are 
two books kept, as at Lloyd's [in London] of 
every ship's arrival and clearance. This house 
was built for the accommodation of the mer- 
chants by Tontine shares of two hundred pounds 
each. It is kept by Mr. Hyde, formerly a woolen 




.fc*— :■- ■ li aTKMiq^^ 

New York's Vauxiiall Garden of 1803 
From an old print 

draper in London. You can lodge and board 
tliere at a common table, and you pay ten shil- 
lin<?s currency a day, whether you dine out or 

The stock market made its headquarters 
in the Tontine coffee house in 1817, and 
the early organization was elaborated and 
became the New York Stock and Exchange 
Board. It was removed in 1827 to the 
Merchants Exchange Building, where it re- 
mained until that place was destroyed by 
fire in 1835. 

It was stipulated in the original articles 
of the Tontine Association that the house 
was to be kept and used as a coffee house, 
and this agreement was adhered to up to 
the year 1834, when, by permission of the 
Court of Chancery, the premises were let 
for general business-office purposes. This 
change was due to the competition offered 
by the Merchants Exchange, a short dis- 
tance up Wall Street, which had been 
opened soon after the completion of the 
Tontine coffee house building. 

As the city grew, the business-office quar- 
ters of the original Tontine coffee house be- 
came inadequate; and about the year 1850 
a new five-story building, costing some $60,- 
000, succeeded it. By this time the build- 
ing had lost its old coffee-house character- 
istics. This new Tontine structure is said 

to have been the first real office building in 
New York City. Today the site is occu- 
pied by a large modern office building, 
which still retains the name of Tontine, 
It was owned by John B. and Charles A. 
O'Donohue, well known New York coffee 
merchants, until 1920, When it was sold 
for $1,000,000 to the Federal Sugar Refin- 
ing Company. 

The Tontine coffee house did not figure 
so prominently in the historic events of the 
nation and city as did its neighbor, the 
Merchants coffee house. However, it be- 
came the Mecca for visitors from all parts 
of the country, who did not consider their 
sojourn in the city complete until they had 
at least inspected what was then one of the 
most pretentious buildings in New York. 
Chroniclers of the Tontine coffee house al- 
ways say that most of the leaders of the 
nation, together with distinguished visitors 
from abroad, had foregathered in the large 
room of the old coffee house at some time 
during their careers. 

It was on the walls of the Tontine coffee 
house that bulletins were posted on Hamil- 
ton 's struggle for life after the fatal duel 
forced on him by Aaron Burr. 

The changing of the Tontine coffee house 
into a purely mercantile building marked 
the end of the coffee-house era in New 



York. Exchanges and office buildings had 
come into existence to take the place of the 
business features of the coffee houses ; clubs 
were organized to take care of the social 
functions; and restaurants and hotels had 
sprung up to cater to the needs for bever- 
ages and food. 

New York's Pleasure Gardens 

There was a fairly successful attempt 
made to introduce the London pleasure- 
garden idea into New York. First, tea 
gardens were added to several of the tav- 
erns already provided with ball rooms. 
Then, on the outskirts of the city, were 
opened the Vauxhall and the Eanelagh 
gardens, so named after their famous Lon- 
don prototypes. The first Vauxhall gar- 
den (there were three of this name) was 
on Greenwich Street, between "Warren and 
Chambers Streets. It fronted on the North 
River, affording a beautiful view up the 
Hudson. Starting as the Bowling Green 
garden, it changed to Vauxhall in 1750. 

Ranelagh was on Broadway, between Du- 
ane and Worth Streets, on the site where 
later the New York Hospital was erected. 
From advertisements of the period (1765 - 
69) we learn that there were band concerts 
twice a week at the Ranelagh. The gardens 
were "for breakfasting as well as the eve- 
ning entertainment of ladies and gentle- 

men." There was a commodious hall in 
the garden for dancing. Ranelagh lasted 
twenty years. Coffee, tea, and hot rolls 
could be had in the pleasure gardens at 
any hour of the day. Fireworks were fea- 
tured at both Ranelagh and Vauxhall gar- 
dens. The second Vauxhall was near the 
intersection of the present Mulberry and 
Grand Streets, in 1798; the third was on 
Bowery Road, near Astor Place, in 1803. 
The Astor library was built upon its site 
in 1853. 

William Niblo, previously proprietor of 
the Bank coffee house in Pine Street, 
opened, in 1828, a pleasure garden, that 
he named Sans Souci, on the site of a circus 
building called the Stadium at Broadway 
and Prince Street. In the center of the 
garden remained the stadium, which was 
devoted to theatrical performances of "a 
gay and attractive character." Later, he 
built a more pretentious theater that 
fronted on Broadway. The interior of the 
garden was "spacious, and adorned with 
shrubbery and walks, lighted, with festoons 
of lamps." It was generally known as 
Niblo 's garden. 

Among other well known pleasure gar- 
dens of old New York were Contoit's, later 
the New York garden, and Cherry gardens, 
on old Cherry Hill. 

Tavern and Grocers' Signs Used in Old New York 
Left, Smith Richards, grocer and confectioner, "at the sign of the tea canister and two sugar loaves" 
(1773) ; center, the King's Arms, originally Burns coffee house (1767) ; right, George Webster, Grocer, 
"at the sign of the three sugar loaves" 

Chapter XIV 

Ye Coffee House, Philadelphia's first coffee house, opened about 
1700 — The two London coffee houses — The City tavern, or Mer- 
chants coffee house — How these, and other celebrated resorts, 
dominated the social, political, and business life of the Quaker City 
in the eighteenth century 

WILLIAM PENN is generally cred- 
ited with the introduction of coffee 
into the Quaker colony which he 
founded on the Delaware in 1682. He also 
brought to the "city of brotherly love" 
that other great drink of human brother- 
hood, tea. At first (1700), "like tea, cof- 
fee was only a drink for the well-to-do, 
except in sips. ' " As was the case in the 
other English colonies, coffee languished 
for a time while tea rose in favor, more 
especially in the home. 

Following the stamp act of 1765, and 
the tea tax of 1767, the Pennsylvania Col- 
ony joined hands with the others in a 
general tea boycott ; and coffee received the 
same impetus as elsewhere in the colonies 
that became the thirteen original states. 

The coffee houses of early Philadelphia 
loom large in the history of the city and 
the republic. Picturesque in themselves, 
with their distinctive colonial architecture, 
their associations also were romantic. Many 
a civic, sociological, and industrial reform 
came into existence in the low-ceilinged, 
sanded-floor main rooms of the city's early 
coffee houses. 

For many years. Ye coffee house, the two 
London coffee houses, and the City tavern 
(also known as the Merchants coffee house) 
each in its turn dominated the official and 
social life of Philadelphia. The earlier 
houses were the regular meeting places of 

* Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. Philadelphia ; a his- 
tory of the city and its people. Philadelphia, 1912. 
(vol. i : p. 106.) 

Quaker municipal officers, ship captains, 
and merchants who came to transact pub- 
lic and private business. As the outbreak 
of the Revolution drew near, fiery colonials, 
many in Quaker garb, congregated there to 
argue against British oppression of the 
colonies. After the Revolution, the leading 
citizens resorted to the coffee house to dine 
and sup and to hold their social functions. 

When the city was founded in 1682, cof- 
fee cost too much to admit of its being 
retailed to the general public at coffee 
houses, William Penn wrote in his Ac- 
counts that in 1683 coffee in the berry 
was sometimes procured in New York at 
a cost of eighteen shillings nine pence the 
pound, equal to about $4.68. He told also 
that meals were served in the ordinaries 
at six pence (equal to twelve cents), to wit: 
"We have seven ordinaries for the enter- 
tainment of strangers and for workmen 
that are not housekeepers, and a good meal 
is to be had there for six pence sterling." 
With green coffee costing $4.68 a pound, 
making the price of a cup about seventeen 
cents, it is not likely that coffee was on 
the menus of the ordinaries serving meals 
at twelve cents each. Ale was the common 
meal-time beverage. 

There were four classes of public houses 
— inns, taverns, ordinaries, and coffee 
houses. The inn was a modest hotel that 
supplied lodgings, food, and drink, the bev- 
erages consisting mostly of ale, port, Ja- 
maica rum, and Madeira wine. The tavern, 




though accommodating guests with bed and 
board, was more of a drinking place than a 
lodging house. The ordinary combined the 
characteristics of a restaurant and a board- 
ing house. The coffee house was a preten- 
tious tavern, dispensing, in most cases, in- 
toxicating drinks as well as coffee. 

Philadelphia's First Coffee House 

The first house of public resort opened 
in Philadelphia bore the name of the Blue 
Anchor tavern, and was probably estab- 
lished in 1683 or 1684; colonial records do 
not state definitely. As its name indicates, 
this was a tavern. The first coffee house 
came into existence about the year 1700. 
Watson, in one place in his Annals of the 
city, says 1700, but in another 1702. The 
earlier date is thought to be correct, and is 
seemingly substantiated by the co-authors 
Scharf and Westcott in their History ' of 
the city, in which they say, * ' The first pub- 
lic house designated as a coffee house was 
built in Penn's time [1682-1701] by 
Samuel Carpenter, on the east side of 
Front Street, probably above Walnut 
Street. That it was the first of its kind — 
the only one in fact for some years — 
seems to be established beyond doubt. It 
was always referred to in old times as 'Ye 
Coffee House.' " 

Carpenter owned also the Globe inn, 
which was separated from Ye coffee house 
by a public stairway running down from 
Front Street to Water Street, and, it is 
supposed, to Carpenter's Wharf. The ex- 
act location of the old house was recently 
established from the title to the original 
patentee, Samuel Carpenter, by a Phila- 
delphia real-estate title-guarantee company, 
as being between Walnut and Chestnut 
Streets, and occupying six and a half feet 
of what is now No. 137 South Front Street 
and the whole of No, 139. 

How long Ye coffee house endured is un- 
certain. It was last mentioned in colonial 
records in a real estate conveyance from 
Carpenter to Samuel Finney, dated April 
26, 1703. In that document it is described 
as "That brick Messuage, or Tenement, 
called Ye Coffee House, in the possession 
of Henry Flower, and situate, lying and 
being upon or before the bank of the Dela- 
ware River, containing in length about 
thirty feet and in breadth about twenty- 

The Henry Flower mentioned as the pro- 
prietor of Philadelphia's first coffee house, 

was postmaster of the province for a num- 
ber of years, and it is believed that Ye 
coffee house also did duty as the post-offiei' 
for a time. Benjamin Franklin's Penn- 
sylvania Gazette, in an issue published in 
1734, has this advertisement: 

All persons who are indebted to Henry Flower, 
iQ/te postmaster of Pennsylvania, for Postage of 
Letters or otherivise, are desir'd to pay the same 
to Mm at the old Coffee House in Philadelphia. 

Flower's, advertisement would indicate 
that Ye coffee house, then venerable enough 
to be designated as old, was still in exist- 
ence, and that Flower was to be found 
there. Franklin also seems to have been 
in the coffee business, for in several issues 
of the Gazette around the year 1740 he 
advertised: "Very good coffee sold by the 
Printer. ' ' 

The First London Coffee House 

Philadelphia's second coffee house bore 
the name of the London coffee house, which 
title was later used for the resort William 
Bradford opened in 1754. The first house 
of this name was built in 1702, but there 
seems to be some doubt about its location. 
Writing in the American Historical Regis- 
ter, Charles H. Browning says: "William 
Rodney came to Philadelphia with Penn in 
1682, and resided in Kent County, where 
he died in 1708 ; he built the old London 
coffee house at Front and Market Streets 
in 1702." Another chronicler gives its lo- 
cation as "above Walnut Street, either on 
the east side of Water Street, or on Dela- 
ware Avenue, or, as the streets are very 
close together, it may have been on both. 
John Shewbert, its proprietor, was a pa- 
rishioner of Christ Church, and his estab* 
lishment was largely patronized by Church 
of England people." It was also the gath- 
ering place of the followers of Penn and 
the Proprietary party, while their oppo- 
nents, the political cohorts of Colonel 
Quarry, frequented Ye coffee house. 

The first London coffee house resembled 
a fashionable club house in its later years, 
suitable for the "genteel" entertainments 
of the well-to-do Philadelphians. Ye cof- 
fee house was more of a commercial or 
public exchange. Evidence of the gentility 
of the London is given by John William 
Wallace : 

The appointments of the London Coffee House, 
if we may infer what they were from the will 
of Mrs. Shtitiert [Shewbert] dated November 27, 
1751, were genteel. By that instrument she 



The Second London Coffee House, Opened in 1754 by William Bradford, the Printer 
Up to the outbreak of the American Revolution, it was more frequented than any other tavern in the 
Quaker city as a place of resort and entertainment, and was famous throughout the colonies v.^ 

makes bequest of two silver quax't tankards; a 
silver cup ; a silver porringer ; a silver pepper 
pot ; two sets of silver castors ; a silver soup 
spoon ; a silver sauce spoon, and numerous 
silver tablespoons, and tea spoons, with a silver 

One of the many historic incidents con- 
nected with this old house was the visit 
there by William Penn's eldest son, John, 
in 1733, when he entertained the General 
Assembly of the province on one day and 
on the next feasted the City Corporation. 

Roberts' Coffee House 

Another house with some fame in the 
middle of the eighteenth century was Rob- 
erts' coffee house, which stood in Front 
Street near the first London house. Though 
its opening date is unknown, it is believed 
to have come into existence about 1740. 
In 1744 a British army officer recruiting 
troops for service in Jamaica advertised 
in the newspaper of the day that he could 
be seen at the Widow Roberts' coffee house. 
During the French and Indian War, when 
Philadelphia was in grave danger of attack 
by French and Spanish privateers, the citi- 
zens felt so great relief when the British 
ship Otter came to the rescue, that they 
proposed a public banquet in honor of the 
Otter's captain to be held at Roberts' cof- 

fee house,.- For some unrecorded reasoii 
the entertainment was not given ; probably 
because the house was too small to accom- 
modate all the citizens desiring to attend. 
Widow Roberts retired in 1754. 

The James Coffee House 

Contemporary with Roberts ' coffee house 
w^as the resort run first by Widow James, 
and later by her son, James James. It 
was established in 1744, and occupied a 
large wooden building on the northwest 
corner of Front and Walnut Streets. It 
w^as patronized by Governor Thomas and 
many of his political followers, and its 
name frequently appeared in the news and 
advertising columns of the Pennsylvania 

The Second London Coffee House 

Probably the most celebrated coffee house 
in Penn's city was the one established by 
William Bradford, printer of the Pennsyl- 
vania Journal. It was on the southwest 
corner of Second and Market Streets, and 
was named the London coffee house, the 
second house in Philadelphia to bear that 
title. The building had stood since 1702, 
when Charles Reed, later mayor of the 
city, put it up on land which he bought 



from Letitia Penn, daughter of William 
Penn, the founder. Bradford was the first 
to use the structure for coffee-house pur- 
poses, and he tells his reason for entering 
upon the business in his petition to the gov- 
ernor for a license : ' ' Having been advised 
to keep a Coffee House for the benefit of 
merchants and traders, and as some people 
may at times be desirous to be furnished 
with other liquors besides coffee, your pe- 
titioner apprehends it is necessary to have 
the Governor's license." This would indi- 
cate that in that day coffee was drunk as 
a refreshment between meals, as were 
spirituous liquors for so many years be- 
fore, and thereafter up to 1920. 

Selling Slaves at the Old London Coffee 

Bradford's London coffee house seems to 
have been a joint-stock enterprise, for in 
his Journal of April 11, 1754, appeared 
this notice: "Subscribers to a public cof- 
fee house are invited to meet at the Court- 
house on Friday, the 19th instant, at 3 
o'clock, to choose trustees agreeably to the 
plan of subscription." 

The building was a three-story wooden 
structure, with an attic that some historians 
count as the fourth story. There was a 
wooden awning one-story high extending 
out to cover the sidewalk before the cof- 
fee house. The entrance was on Market 
(then known as High) Street. 

The London coffee house was "the pul- 
sating heart of excitement, enterprise, and 
patriotism" of the early city. The most 
active citizens congregated there — mer- 
chants, shipmasters, travelers from other 
colonies and countries, crown and provin- 
cial officers. The governor and persons of 
equal note went there at certain hours "to 
sip their coffee from the hissing urn, and 
some of those stately visitors had their 
own stalls." It had also the character of 
a mercantile exchange — carriages, horses, 
foodstuffs, and the like being sold there at 
auction. It is further related that the early 
slave-holding Philadelphians sold negro 
men, women, and children at vendue, ex- 
hibiting the slaves on a platform set up 
in the street before the coffee house. 

The resort was the barometer of public 
sentiment. It was in the street before this 
house that a newspaper published in 
Barbados, bearing a stamp in accordance 
with the provisions of the stamp act, was 
publicly burned in 1765, amid the cheers 
of bystanders. It was here that Captain 
Wise of the brig Minerva, from Pool, Eng- 
land, who brought news of the repeal of the 
act, was enthusiastically greeted by the 
crowd in May, 1766. Here, too, for several 
years the fishermen set up May poles. 

Bradford gave up the coffee house when 
he joined the newly formed Revolutionary 
army as major, later becoming a colonel. 
When the British entered the city in Sep- 
tember, 1777, the officers resorted to the 
London coffee house, which was much fre- 
quented by Tory sympathizers. After the 
British had evacuated the city, Colonel 
Bradford resumed proprietorship ; but he 
found a change in the public's attitude 
toward the old resort, and thereafter its 
fortunes began to decline, probably hast- 
ened by the keen competition offered by the 
City tavern, which had been opened a few 
years before. 

Bradford gave up the lease in 1780, 
transferring the property to John Pember- 
ton, who leased it to Grifford Dally. Pem- 
berton was a Friend, and his scruples about 
gambling and other sins are well exhibited 
in the terms of the lease in which said 
Dally "covenants and agrees and promises 
that he will exert his endeavors as a Chris- 
tian to preserve decency and order in said 
house, and to discourage the profanation 
of the sacred name of God Almighty by 
cursing, swearing, etc., and that the house 




The City Tavern, Built i.n .17i;i. am> K.nuwn as iiii-: Mlkciiams Coiii-h lluttot 

The tavern (at the left) was regarded as the largest inn of the colonies and stood next to the Bank of 
Pennsylvania (center). From a print made from a rare Birch engraving 


on the first day of the week shall always be 
kept closed from public use. " It is further 
covenanted that "under a penalty of ilOO 
he will not allow or suffer any person to 
use, or play at, or divert themselves with 
cards, dice, back-gammon, or any other un- 
lawful game." 

It would seem from the terms of the 
lease that what Pemberton thought were 
ungodly things, were countenanced in other 
coffee houses of the day. Perhaps the regu- 
lations were too strict ; for a few years later 
the house had passed into the hands of John 
Stokes, who used it as dwelling and a store. 

City Tavern or Merchants Coffee House 

The last of the celebrated coffee houses 
in Philadelphia was built in 1773 under 
the name of the City tavern, which later 
became known as the Merchants coffee 
house, possibly after the house of the same 
name that was then famous in New York. 
It stood in Second Street near Walnut 
Street, and in some respects was even more 
noted than Bradford's London coffee house, 
with which it had to compete in its early 

The City tavern was patterned after the 
best London coffee houses; and when 

opened, it was looked upon as the finest 
and largest of its kind in America. It was 
three stories high, built of brick, and had 
several large club rooms, two of which were 
connected by a wide doorway that, when 
open, made a large dining room fifty feet 

Daniel Smith was the first proprietor, 
and he opened it to the public early in 1774. 
Before the Revolution, Smith had a hard 
struggle trying to win' patronage from 
Bradford's London coffee house, standing 
only a few blocks away. But during and 
after the war, the City tavern gradually 
took the lead, and for more than a quar- 
ter of a century was the principal gather- 
ing place of the city. At first, the house 
had various names in the public mind, some 
calling it by its proper title, the City tav- 
ern, other attaching the name of the pro- 
prietor and designating it as Smith's tav- 
ern, while still others used the title, the 
New tavern. 

The gentlefolk of the city resorted to 
the City tavern after the Revolution as 
they had to Bradford's coffee house before. 
However, before reaching this high estate, 
it once was near destruction at the hands 
of the Tories, who threatened to tear it 



down. That was when it was proposed to 
hold a banquet there in honor of Mrs. 
George Washington, who had stopped in 
the city in 1776 while on the way to meet 
her distinguished husband, then at Cam- 
bridge in Massachusetts, taking over com- 
mand of the American army. Trouble was 
averted by Mrs. Washington tactfully de- 
clining to appear at the tavern. 

After peace came, the house was the 
scene of many of the fashionable enter- 
tainments of the period. Here met the 
City Dancing Assembly, and here was held 
the brilliant fete given by M. Gerard, first 
accredited representative from France to 
the United States, in honor of Louis XVI 's 
birthday. Washington, Jefferson, Hamil- 
ton, and other leaders of public thought 
were more or less frequent visitors when 
in Philadelphia. 

The exact date when the City tavern be- 
came the Merchants coffee house is un- 
known. When James Kitchen became pro- 
prietor, at the beginning of the nineteenth 

century, it was so called. In 1806 Kitchen 
turned the house into a bourse, or mercan- 
tile exchange. By that time clubs and 
hotels had come into fashion, and the cof- 
fee-house idea was losing caste with the 
elite of the city. 

In the year 1806 William Renshaw 
planned to open the Exchange coffee house 
in the Bingham mansion on Third Street. 
He even solicited subscriptions to the enter- 
prise, saying that he proposed to keep a 
marine diary and a registry of vessels for 
sale, to receive and to forward ships' letter 
bags, and to have accommodations for hold- 
ing auctions. But he was persuaded from 
the idea, partly by the fact that the Mer- 
chants coffee house seemed to be satisfac- 
torily filling that particular niche in the 
city life, and partly because the hotel 
business offered better inducements. He 
abandoned the plan, and opened the Man- 
sion House hotel in the Bingham residence 
in 1807. 

Exchange Coffee House Scene in "Hamilton" 

In this setting for the first act of the play by Mary P. Hamlin and George Arliss, produced in 1918, 
the scenic artist aimed to give a true historical Background, and combined the features of several 
inns and coffee houses in Philadelphia, Virginia, and New England as they existed in Washington's 
first administration 

Chapter XV 

Its complete classification hy class, sub-class, order, family, genus, 
and species — How the Coffea arahica groivs, flowers, and hears — 
Other species and hybrids described — Natural caffein-free coffee — 
Fungoid diseases of coffee 

THE coffee tree, scientifically known 
as Coffea arahica, is native to Abys- 
sinia and Ethiopia, but grows well in 
Java, Sumatra, and other islands of the 
Dutch East Indies; in India, Arabia, equa- 
torial Africa, the islands of the Pacific, 
in Mexico, Central and South America, and 
the AVest Indies. The plant belongs to the 
large sub-kingdom of plants known scien- 
tifically as the Angiosperms, or Angio- 
spermcE, which means that the plant re- 
produces by seeds which are enclosed in a 
box-like compartment, known as the ovary, 
at the base of the flower. The word Angio- 
sperm is derived from two Greek words, 
sperma, a seed, and aggeion, pronounced 
angeion, a box, the box referred to being 
the ovary. 

This large sub-kingdom is subdivided in- 
to two classes. The basis for this division 
is the number of leaves in the little plant 
which develops from the seed. The coffee 
plant, as it develops from the seed, has two 
little leaves, and therefore belongs to the 
class Dicotyledonece. This word dicotyle- 
donece is made up of the two Greek words, 
di{s), two, and kotyledon, cavity or socket. 
It is not necessary to see the young plant 
that develops from the seed in order to 
know that it had two seed leaves; because 
the mature plant always shows certain 
characteristics that accompany this condi- 
tion of the seed. 

In every plant having two seed leaves, 
the mature leaves are netted-veined, which 
is a condition easily recognized even by the 
layman; also the parts of the flowers are 

in circles containing two or five parts, but 
never in threes or sixes. The stems of 
plants of this class always increase in thick- 
ness by means of a layer of cells known as 
a cambium, which is a tissue that continues 
to divide throughout its whole existence. 
The fact that this cambium divides as long 
as it lives, gives rise to a peculiar appear- 
ance in woody stems by which we can, on 
looking at the stem of a tree of this type 
when it has been sawed across, tell the age 
of the tree. 

In the spring the cambium produces 
large open cells through which large 
quantities of sap can run ; in the fall 
it produces very thick-walled cells, as there 
is not so much sap to be carried. Because 
these thin-walled open cells of one spring 
are next to the thick-walled cells of the last 
autumn, it is very easy to distinguish one 
year's growth from the next; the marks so 
produced are called annual rings. 

We have now classified coffee as far as 
the class; and so far we could go if w'e 
had only the leaves and stem of the coffee 
plant. In order to proceed farther, we 
must have the flow^ers of the plant, as bo- 
tanical classification goes from this point 
on the basis of the flowers. The class 
Dicotyledonecu is separated into sub-classes 
according to whether the flower's corolla 
(the showy part of the flower which ordi- 
narily gives it its color) is all in one piece, 
or is divided into a number of parts. The 
coffee flower is arranged with its corolla 
all in one piece, forming a tube-shaped ar- 
rangement, and accordingly the coffee plant 




The Coffee Tree, Showing Details of Flowers axd Fruit 
From a drawing by Ch. Emonts in Jardin's Le Cafcier et Le Cafe 

belongs to the sub-class Sympetalce, or 
MetachlamydecE , which means that its pet- 
als are united. 

The next step in classification is to place 
the plant in the proper division under the 
sub-class, which is the order. Plants are 
separated into orders according to their 
varied characteristics. The coffee plant be- 
longs to an order known as Buhiales. These 
orders are again divided into families. Cof- 
fee' is placed in the family Buhiacece, or 
Madder Family, in which we find herbs, 
shrubs or trees, represented by a few Amer- 
ican plants, such as bluets, or Quaker 
ladies, small blue spring flowers, common 
to open meadows in northern United States ; 
and partridge berries {Mitchella repens). 

The Madder Family has more foreign 
representatives than native genera, among 
which are Coffea, Cinchona, and Ipecac- 
uanha {Uragoga), all of which are of eco- 
nomic importance. The members of this 
family are noted for their action on the 
nervous system. Coffee, as is well known, 
contains an active principle known as 
caffein which acts as a stimulant to the 
nervous system and in small quantities is 
very beneficial. Cinchona supplies us with 
quinine, while Ipecacuanha produces ipe- 
cac, which is an emetic and purgative. 

The families are divided into smaller sec- 
tions known as genera, and to the genus 

Coffea belongs the coffee plant. Under this 
genus Coffea are several sub-genera, and to 
the sub-genus Eucoffea belongs our common 
coffee, Coffea arabica. Coffea arahica is 
the original or common Java coffee of com- 
merce. The term "common" coffee may 
seem unnecessary, but there are many other 
species of coffee besides arahica. These 
species have not been described very fre- 
quently; because their native haunts are 
the tropics, and the tropics do not always 
offer favorable conditions for the study of 
their plants. 

All botanists do not agree in their classi- 
fication of the species and varieties of the 
coffea genus. M. E. de Wildman, curator 
of the royal botanical gardens at Brussels, 
in his Les Plantes Tropicales de Grande 
Cidture, says the systematic division of 
this interesting genus is far from finished; 
in fact, it may be said hardly to be begun. 

Coffea arahica we know best because of 
the important role it plays in commerce. 

Complete Classification of Coffee 

Kingdom Vegetable 

Sub-Kiiigdom Angiospermce 

Class DicotyledonecB 

Sub-class Sympetalce or Metaclilamydew 

Order Ruhiales 

Family RuMacece 

Genus Coffea 

Sub-genus Eucoffea 

Species C. araiica 



CH .E/v\OMT 

Details of the Germination of the Coffee Plant 
From a drawing by Ch. Emonts in Jardin's Le Cafeier et Le Cafe 

The coffee plant most cultivated for its 
berries is, as already stated, Coffea arabica, 
which is found in tropical regions, although 
it can grow in temperate climates. Unlike 
most plants that grow best in the tropics, 
it can stand low temperatures. It requires 
shade when it grows in hot, low-lying dis- 
tricts; but when it grows on elevated land, 
it thrives without such protection. Free- 
man' says there are about eight recognized 
species of coffea. 

Coffea Arabica 

Coffea arabica is a shrub with evergreen 
leaves, and reaches a height of fourteen 
to twenty feet when fully grown. The 
shrub produces dimorphic branches, i. e., 
branches of two forms, known as uprights 
and laterals. When young, the plants have 
a main stem, the upright, which, however, 
eventually sends out side shoots, the later- 
als. The laterals may send out other later- 
als, known as secondary laterals; but no 
lateral can ever produce an upright. The 
laterals are produced in pairs and are op- 
posite, the pairs being borne in whorls 
around the stem. The laterals are pro- 
duced only while the joint of the upright, 
to which they are attached, is young; and 
if they are broken off at that point, the 

1 Freeman, W. G. The World's Commercial Prod- 
ucts. Boston, (p. 170.) 

upright has no power to reproduce them. 
The upright can produce new uprights 
also; but if an upright is cut off, the later- 
als at that position tend to thicken up. 
This is very desirable, as the laterals pro- 
duce the flowers, which seldom appear on 
the uprights. This fact is utilized in prun- 
ing the coffee tree, the uprights being cut 
back, the laterals then becoming more pro- 
ductive. Planters generally keep their 
trees pruned down to about six feet. 

The leaves are lanceolate, or lance-shaped, 
being borne in pairs opposite each other. 
They are three to six inches in length, with 
an acuminate apex, somewhat attenuate at 
the base, with very short petioles which are 
united with the short interpetiolar stipules 
at the base. The coffee leaves are thin, but 
of firm texture, slightly coriaceous. They 
are very dark green on the upper surface, 
but much lighter underneath. The margin 
of the leaf is entire and wavy. In some 
tropical countries the natives brew a coffee 
tea from the leaves of the coffee tree. 

The coft'ee flowers are small, white, and 
very fragrant, having a delicate character- 
istic odor. They are borne in the axils of 
the leaves in clusters, and several crops are 
produced in one season, depending on the 
conditions of heat and moisture that pre- 
vail in the particular season. The diffor- 
ent blossomings are classed as main blossom- 





I— I 








ing and smaller blossomings. In semi-dry 
high districts, as in Costa Rica or Guate- 
mala, there is one blossoming season, about 
March, and flowers and fruit are not found 
together, as a rule, on the trees. But in 
lowland plantations where rain is peren- 
nial, blooming and fruiting continue prac- 
tically all the year; and ripe fruits, green 
fruits, open flowers, and flower buds are to 
be found at the same time on the same 
branchlet. not mixed together, but in the 
order indicated. 

The flowers are also tubular, the tube of 
le corolla dividing into five white seg- 

m. '''-ni^B-'A. 



[4%? " 

r- ■ ^^^ 


"Ik^sk" :*m 

^f "J 


--■f' N^ 

1. ^ 



^ ■ 


ments. Dr. P. J. S. Cramer, chief of the 
division of plant breeding. Department of 
Agriculture, Netherlands India, says the 
number of petals is not at all constant, not 
even for flowers of the same tree. The 
corolla segments are about one-half inch 
in length, while the tube itself is about 
three-eighths of an inch long. The anthers 
of the stamens, which are five in number, 
protrude from the top of the corolla tube, 
together with the top of the two-cleft pistil. 
The calyx, which is so small as to escape 
notice unless one is aware of its existence, 
is annular, with small, tooth-like indenta- 

While the usual color of the coffee flower 
is white, the fresh stamens and pistils may 
have a greenish tinge, and in some culti- 
vated species the corolla is pale pink. 

The size and condition of the flowers are 
entirely dependent on the weather. The 
flowers are sometimes very small, very fra- 
grant, and very numerous; while at other 
times, when the weather is not hot and dry, 
they are very large, but not so numerous. 
Both sets of flowers mentioned above "set 

fruit," as it is called; but at times, espe- 
cially in a very dry season, they bear 
flowers that are few in number, small, and 
imperfectly formed, the petals frequently 
being green instead of white. These flowers 
do not set fruit. The flowers that open on 
a dry sunny day show a greater yield of 
fruit than those that open on a wet day, as 
the first mentioned have a better chance 
of being pollinated by the insects and the 
wind. The beauty of a coffee estate in 
flower is of a very fleeting character. One 
day it is a snowy expanse of fragrant white 
blossoms for miles and miles, as far as the 
eye can see, and two days later it reminds 
one of the lines from Villon's Des Dames 
du Temps Jadis, 

Where are the snows of yesterday? 

The winter winds have blown them all away. 

But here, the winter winds are not to 
blame : the soft, gentle breezes of the per- 

CoFFEA Ababica, Flower axu Fruit — Costa 

petual summer have wrought the havoc, 
leaving, however, a not unpleasing picture 
of dark, cool, mossy green foliage. 

The flowers are beautiful, but the eye of 
the planter sees in them not alone beauty 
and fragrance. He looks far beyond, and 
in his mind's eye he sees bags and bags 



Young Coffea Arabica Tkee at Kona, Hawaii 

of green coffee, representing to him the 
goal and reward of all his toil. After the 
flowers droop, there appear what are com- 
mercially known as the coffee berries. Bo- 
tanically speaking, "berry" is a misnomer. 
These little fruits are not berries, such as 
are well represented by the grape ; but are 
drupes, which are better exemplified by the 
cherry and the peach. In the course of 
six or seven months, these coffee drupes 
develop into little red balls about the size 
of an ordinary cherry; but, instead of 
being round, they are somewhat ellipsoidal, 
having at the outer end a small umbilicus. 
The drupe of the coffee usually has two 
loeules, each containing a little "stone" 
(the seed and its parchment covering) from 
which the coffee bean (seed) is obtained. 
Some few drupes contain three, while 
others, at the outer ends of the branches, 
contain only one round bean, known as 
the peaberry. The number of pickings 
corresponds to the different blossomings 
in the same season ; and one tree of the 
species arabica may yield from one to 
twelve pounds a year. 

In countries like India and Africa, the 
birds and monkeys eat the ripe coffee ber- 
ries. The so-called "monkey coffee" of 

India, according to Arnold, is the undi- 
gested coffee beans passed through the ali- 
mentary canal of the animal. 

The pulp surrounding the coffee beans 
is at present of no commercial importance. 
Although efforts have been made at various 
times by natives to use it as a food, its 
flavor has not gained any great popularity, 
and the birds are permitted a monopoly of 
the pulp as a food. From the human 
standpoint the pulp, or sarcocarp, as it is 
scientifically called, is rather an annoyance, 
as it must be removed in order to procure 
the beans. This is done in one of two 
ways. The first is known as the dry meth- 
od, in which the entire fruit is allowed to 
dry, and is then cracked open. The sec- 
ond way is called the wet method; the 
sarcocarp is removed by machine, and two 
wet, slimy seed packets are obtained. These 
packets, which look for all the world like 
seeds, are allowed to dry in such a way that 
fermentation takes place. This rids them 
of all the slime; and, after they are thor- 
oughly dry, the endocarp, the so-called 
parchment covering, is easily cracked open 
and removed. At the same time that the 
parchment is removed, a thin silvery mem- 
brane, the silver skin, beneath the parch- 
ment, comes off, too. There are always 

Survivors of the First Liberian Cofbee Trees 
Introduced into Java in 1876 






Pf '^"t^^^^B 

P^pr ^^^^1 




^^^^^^^Hk^^S^B^ ^ 


From a photograph made at I>ramaga, Preanger, Java, in 1907 



LiBERiAX Coffee Tree at Lamoa, P. I. 

small fragments of this silver skin to be 
found in the groove of the coffee bean con- 
tained within the parchment packet, 
r We have said that the coffee tree yields 
from one to twelve pounds a year, but of 
course this varies with the individual tree 
and also with the region. In some coun- 
tries the whole year's yield is less than 200 
pounds per acre, while there is on record 
a patch in Brazil which yields about seven- 
teen pounds to the tree, bringing the yield 
per acre much higher. 

The beans do not retain their vitality for 
planting for any considerable length of 
time; and, if they are thoroughly dried, or 
are kept for longer than three or four 
months, they are useless for that purpose. 
It takes the seed about six weeks to ger- 
minate and to appear above ground. Trees 
raised from seed begin to blossom in about 
three years ; but a good crop can not be ex- 
pected of them for the first five or six 
years. Their usefulness, save in excep- 
tional cases, is ended in about thirty years. 
The coffee tree can be propagated in a 
way other than by seeds. The upright 
branches can be used as slips, which, after 
taking root, will produce seed-bearing lat- 
erals. The laterals themselves can not be 
used as slips. In Central America the na- 
tives sometimes use coffee uprights for 

fences and it is no uncommon sight to see 
the fence posts "growing." 

The wood of the coffee tree is used also 
for cabinet work,- as it is much stronger 
than many of the native woods, weighing 
about forty-three pounds to the cubic foot, 
having a crushing strength of 5,800 pounds 
per square inch, and a breaking strength of 
10,900 pounds per square inch. 

The propagation of the coffee plant by 
cutting has two distinct advantages over 
propagation by seed, in that it spares the 
expense of seed production, which is enor- 
mous, and it gives also a method of hybrid- 
ization, which, if used, might lead not only 
to very interesting but also to very profit- 
able results. 

The hybridization of the coffee plant was 
taken up in a thoroughly scientific manner 
by the Dutch government at the experi- 
mental garden established at Bangelan, 
Java, in 1900. In his studies, twelve va- 
rieties of Coffea arabica are recognized by 
Dr. P. J. S. Cramer, namely : 

Laurina, a hybrid of Coffea arahica with C. 
mauritiana, having small narrow leaves, stiff, 
dense branches, young leaves almost wliite, berry 
long and narrow, and beans narrow and oblong. 

Mnrta, having small leaves, dense branches, 
beans as in the typical Coffea arabica, and the 
plant able to stand bitter cold. 

Menosperma, a distinct type, with narrow 
leaves and bent-down branches resembling a 

2 Tea and Coffee Trade Jour., 1018. 
no. 4 ) 

(vol. XXXV : 

Two-and-One-Half-Yeab-Old C. Congensis 




This Is a comparatively new species, discovered in the Tcliad T>ake district of West Africa in 190r». 

a small-beaned variety of Coffca liberica 

It is 



JBbanches of Cofpea Excels a Grown at the 
Lamao Experiment Station, P. I. 

willow, the berries seldom containing more tlian 
one seed. 

Mohka (Coffea MokkcB), having small leaves, 
dense foliage, small round berries, small round 
beans resembling split peas, and possessed of a 
stronger flavor than Coffea arabica. 

Purpurescens, a red-leaved variety, compar- 
able with the red-leaved hazel and copper beech, 
a little less productive than the Coffea arahka. 

Variegata, having variegated leaves striped 
and spotted with white. 

Amarella, having yellow berries, comparable 
with the white-fruited variety of the strawberry, 
raspberry, etc. 

Bullata, having broad, curled leaves ; stiflf, 
thick, fragile branches, and round, fleshy ber- 
ries containing a high percentage of empry 

Angustifolia, a narrow-leaved variety, with 
berries somewhat more oblong and, like the 
foregoing, a poor producer. 

Erecta, a variety that is sturdier than the 
typical arabica, better suited to windy places, 
and having a production as in the common 

Maragogipe, a well-defined variety with light 
green leaves having colored edges; berries large, 
broad, sometimes narrower in the middle ; a 

C. Stenopiiylla, From Which Is Obtained the 
Highland Coffee of Sierra Leone 

light bearer, the whole crop sometimes being 
reduced to a couple of berries per tree.' 

Columruvris, a vigorous variety, sometimes 
reaching a height of 25 feet, having leaves 
rounded at the base and rather broad, but a 
shy bearer, recommended for dry climates. 

Coffea Stenophylla 

Coffea arabica has a formidable rival in 
the species stenophylla. The flavor of this 
variety is pronounced by some as surpass- 
ing that of arabica. The great disadvan- 
tage of this plant is the fact that it re- 
quires so long a time before a yield of any 
value can be secured. Although the time 
required for the maturing of the crop is 
so long, when once the plantation begins 
to yield, the crop is as large as that of 
Coffea arahica, and occasionally somewhat 
larger. The leaves are smaller than any 
of the species described, and the flowers 
bear their parts in numbers varying from 
six to nine. The tree is a native of Sierra 
Leone, where it grows wild. 

Coffea Lib erica 

The bean of Coffea arabica, although the 
principal bean used in commerce, is not the 

^ Dr. Cramer considers C. Maragogipe "the flnrst 
coffee known ; it lias a higlily developed, splendid 


Copyright, iyU9, by The Tea and Coffee Trade Journal 




Wild "Caffein-Free"' Coffee Tree 
Mantsa'ka or Cafe Sauvofje — Madagascar 

only one ; and it may not be out of place 
here to describe briefly some of the other 
varieties that are produced commercially. 
Coffea liberica is one of these plants. The 
quality of the beverage made from its ber- 
ries is inferior to that of Coffea arahica, 
but the plant itself offers distinct advan- 
tages in its hardy growing qualities. This 
makes it attractive for hybridization. 

The Coffea liberica tree is much larger 
and sturdier than the Coffea arahica', and 
in its native haunts it reaches a height of 
30 feet. It will grow in a much more tor- 
rid climate and can stand exposure to 
strong sunlight. The leaves are about twice 
as long as those of arahica, being six to 
twelve inches in length, and are very thick, 
tough, and leathery. The apex of the 
leaf is acute. The flowers are larger than 
those of arahica, and are borne in dense 

clusters. At any time during the season, 
the same tree may bear flowers, white or 
pinkish, and fragrant, or even green, to- 
gether with fruits, some green, some ripe 
and of a brilliant red. The corolla has 
been known to have seven segments, though 
as a rule it has five. The fruits are large, 
round, and dull red; the pulps are not 
juicy, and are somewhat bitter. Unlike 
Coffea arahica, the ripened drupes do not 
fall from the trees, and so the picking can 
be delayed at the planter's convenience. 

Among the allied Liberian species Dr 
Cramer recognizes: 

Abeokutae, having small leaves of a bright 
green, flower buds often pink just before open- 
ing (in Liberian coffee never), fruit smaller 
with sharply striped red and yellow shiny skin, 
and producing somewhat smaller beans than 
Liberian coffee, but beans whose flavor and 
taste are praised by brokers ; 

Deivevrei. having curled edged leaves, stiff 
branches, thick-skinned berries, sometimes pink 
flowers, beans generally smaller than in C. 
liberica, but of little interest to the trade : 

Arnoldiana, a species near to Coffea Abeoku- 
tae having darker foliage and the even colored 
small berries : 

Laurentii Gillet, a species not to be confused 
with the V. Laurentii belonging to the robusta 
coffee, but standing near to C. liberica, charac- 
terized by oblong rather than thin-skinned ber- 
ries ; 

Excelsa, a vigorous, disease-resisting species 
discovered in 1905 by Aug. Chevalier in West 

Differentiating Characteristics of Coffee 

Beans, in Cross-section 

Col. I. Mature bean. Col. II. Embryo. 

A. Gojfea arabica, R. Coffea rohusta, L. Coffea liberica 





Africa, in the region of tlie Chari River, not far 
from Lake Tchad. The broad, dark-green leaves 
have an under side of liglit green witli a bluish 
tinge ; the flowers are large and white, borne in 
axillary clusters of one to five ; the berries are 
short and broad, in color crimson, the bean 
smaller than rohusta, very like Mocha, but in 
color a bright yellow like Uberica. The caffein 
content of the coffee is high, and the aroma is 
very pronounced ; 

Dyboicskii, another disease-resisting variety 
similar to excelsa, but having different leaf and 
fruit characteristics ; 

LanibOray, having bent gutter-like leaves, and 
soft-skinned, oblong fruit ; 

Wanni Riikula, having large leaves, a vigorous 
growth, and small berries ; 

Coffca arutmmensis, being a mixture of dif- 
ferent types. 

The last three types were received by Dr. 
Cramer at Bangelan from Frere Gillet in 
the Belgian Congo, and were still under 
trial in Java in 1919. 

Coffea Rohusta 

Emil Laurent, in 1898, discovered a spe- 
cies of coffee growing wild in Congo. This 
was taken up by a horticultural firm of 
Brussels, and cultivated for the market. 
This firm gave to the coffee the name Coffea 

rohusta, although it had already been given 
the name of the discoverer, being known as 
Coffea Laurentii. The plant diifers widely 
from both arahica and liherica, being con- 
siderably larger than either. The tree is 
umbrella-shaped, due to the fact that its 
branches are very long and bend toward 
the ground. 

The leaves of rohusta are much thinner 
than those of liherica, though not as thin 
as those of arahica. The tree, as a whole, 
is a very hardy variety and even bears 
blossoms when it is less than a year old. 
It blossoms throughout the entire year, the 
flowers having six-parted corollas. The 
drupes are smaller than those of liherica; 
but are much thinner skinned, so that the 
coffee bean is actually not any smaller. 
The drupes mature in ten months. Al- 
though the plants bear as early as the first 
year, the yield for the first two years is of 
no account; but by the fourth year the 
crop is large. 

Amo Viehoever, pharmacognosist in 
charge of the pharmacognosy laboratory of 
the Bureau of Chemistry, United States 
Department of Agriculture, has recently 

RogusTA Coffee in Flower, Preangeb, Java 


Coffee Estate in the Luquillo Mountains, Porto Rico 

Jai'anksi: i,Ai!t)i!i:i:s I'UKi.Nd Coffee on Kona rSiiiE, Island of Hawaii 




One-Ykau-Ulu Kuhusta Estate, on Sumatra's West Coast 

announced findings confirming Hartwich 
which appear to permit of differentiation 
between rohusta, arabica, and liherica* 
These are mainly the peculiar folding of 
the endosperm, showing quite generally a 
distinct hook in the case of the rohusta cof- 
fee bean. The size of the embryo, and es- 
pecially the relation of the rootlet to hy- 
pereotyl, wall be found useful in the dif- 
ferentiation of the species Coffea arabica, 
liherica, and rohusta (see cut, page 142). 

Viehoever and Lepper carried on a series 
•of cup tests of rohusta, the results as to 
taste and flavor being distinctly favorable.* 
They summarized their studies and tests 
as follows: 

The time when coffee could be limited to 
beans obtained from plants of Coffea arabica 
and Coffea Uberica has passed. Other species, 
with qualities which make them desirable, even 
in preference to the well reputed named ones, 
have been discovered and cultivated. Among 
them, the species or group of Coffea rohusta has 
attained a great economic significance, and is 
grown in increasing amounts. While it has, as 
reports seem to indicate, not as yet been pos- 
sible to obtain a strain that would be as de- 
sirable in flavor as the old "standard" Coffea 

*,Ioumnl of the A^nnciation of Official Agricultural 
Chemists, ><ov. 15, 1921. (vol. v : no. 2 : pp. 274 - 


arabica, well known as Java or "Fancy Jav&" 
coffee, its merits have been established. 

The botanical origin is not quite cleared up, 
and the classification of the varieties belonging 
to the rohusta group deserves further study. 
Anatomical means of differentiating rohusta 
coft'ee from other species or groups, may be ap- 
plied as distinctly helpful. , 

As is usual in most of the coffee species, caf- 
fein is present. The amount appears to be, on 
an average, somewhat larger (even exceeding 
2.0 percent) than in the South American cof- 
fee species. In no instance, however, did the 
amount exceed the maximum limits observed in 
coffee in general. . 

Due to its rapid growth, early and prolific 
yield, resistance to coffee blight, and many other 
desirable qualities, Coffea rohusta has estab- 
lished "its own". In the writers' judgment, 
rohusta coffee deserves consideration and rec- 

Among the rohusta varieties, Coifea cane- 
pJiora is a distinct species, well character- 
ized by growth, leaves, and berries. The 
branches are slender and thinner than 
rohusta; the leaves are dark green and 
narrower ; the flowers are often tinged with 
red ; the unripe berries are purple, the ripe 
berries bright red and oblong. The produce 
is like rohusta, only the shape of the bean, 
somewhat narrower and more oblong, makes 
it look more attractive. Coffea canephora, 



like C. robusta, seems better fitted to higher 

Other canephora varieties include : 

Madagascar, having small, slightly- 
striped, bright red berries and small round 
beans ; 

Quilloucnsis, having dark green foliage 
and reddish brown young leaves; and, 

Stenophylla Paris, with purplish young 

These last two named were under test at 
the Bangelan gardens in 1919. 

Among other allied rohusta species are: 

Vgandce, whose produce is said to pos- 
sess a better flavor than rohusta; 

Bukobensis, different from Vgandce in 
the color of its berries, which are a dark 
red; and 

Quillou, having bright red fruit, a cop- 
per-colored silver skin, three pounds of 
fruit producing one pound of market coffee. 
Some people prefer Quillou to robusta be- 
cause of the difference in the taste of the 
roasted bean. 

Some Interesting Hybrids 

. The most popular hybrid belongs to a 
crossing of liberica and arabica. Cramer 
states that the beans of this hybrid make 
an excellent coffee combining the strong 

taste of the liberica with the fine flavor of 
the old Government Java (arabica), adding: 

The hybrids are not only of value to the 
roaster, but also to the planter. They are vig- 
orous trees, pi-actically free from leaf disease ; 
they stand drought well and also heavy rains ; 
they are not particular in regard to shade and 
upkeep; never fail to give a fair and often a 
rather heavy crop. The fruit ripens all the 
year around, and does not fall so easily as in 
the case of arabica. 

Among other hybrids (many were still 
under trial in 1919) may be mentioned: 
Coffea excelsia x liberica; C. Abeokuta; x 
liberica; C. Dybowskii x excelsa; C. steno- 
phylla X Abeokutce; C. congensis x 
Ugandce; C. Uganda; x congensis; and C. 
robusta x Maragogipe. 

There are many species of Coffea that 
stand quite apart from the main groups, 
arabica, robusta and liberica; but while 
some are of commercial value, most of them 
are interesting only from the scientific point 
of view. Among the latter may be men- 
tioned: Coffea bengalensis, C. Perieri, C. 
mauritiana, C. macrocarpa, C. madagas- 
cariensis, and C. schumanniana. 

M. Teyssonnier, of the experimental gar- 
den at Camayenne, French Guinea, West 
Africa, has produced a promising species of 
coffee known as affinis. It is a hybrid of 
C. stenophylla with a species of liberica. 

Coffea Quillou Flowers in Full Bloom 

^Kd by Dr. Cramer are : 

Coffea congensis, whose berry resembles 
that of C. arahica, when well prepared for 
the market being green or bluish ; and 

Coffea congensis var. Chalotii, probably 
a hybrid of C. congensis with C. canephora. 

Caffein-free Coffee 

Certain trees growing wild in the Comoro 
Islands and Madagascar are known as 
caffein-free coffee trees. Just whether they 
are entitled to this classification or not is a 
question. Some of the French and Ger- 
man investigators have reported coffee from 
these regions that was absolutely devoid of 
caffein. It w^as thought at first that they 
must represent an entirely new genus ; but 
upon investigation, it was found that they 
belonged to the genus Coffea, to which all 
our common coffees belong. Professor 
Dubard, of the French National Museum 
and Colonial Garden, studied these trees 
botanically and classified them as C. Gal- 
lienii, C. Bonnieri, C. Mogeneti, and C. 
Aiigag)tcuri. The beans of berries from 
these trees were analyzed by Professor 
Bertrand and pronounced caffein-free ; but 
Labroy, in writing of the same coffee, states 
that, while the bean is caffein-free, it con- 
tains a very bitter substance, cafamarine. 



which makes the infusion unfit for use. 
Dr. O. W. Willcox", in examining some 
specimens of wild coffee from Madagascar, 
found that the bean was not caffein-free; 
and though the caffein content was low, it 
was no lower than in some of the Porto 
Rican varieties. 

Hartwich' reports that Hanausek found 
no caffein in C. mauritiana, C. humboltiana, 
C. Gallienii, C. Bonnerii, and C. Mogeneti. 

Fungoid Disease of Coffee 

The coffee tree, like every other living 
thing, has specific diseases and enemies, the 
most common of which are certain fungoid 
diseases where the mycelium of the fungus 
grows into the tissue and spots the leaves, 
eventually -causing them to fall, thus rob- 
bing the plant of its only means of elabor- 
ating food. Its most deadly enemy in the 
insect world is a small insect of the lepidop- 
terous variety, which is known as the coffee- 
leaf miner. It is closely related to the 
clothes moth and, like the moth, bores in its 
larval stage, feeding on the mesophyl of 
the leaves. This gives the leaves an appear- 
ance of being shriveled or dried by heat. 

There are three principal diseases, due 
to fungi, from which the coffee plants 

^The Tea and Cotfee Trade Jour., 1912. (vol. xxiii : 
no. 3.) 

'Die Menachlichen Oenusmittel, 1911. (p. 300.) 

An Eighteen-Months'-Old Coffea Quiulou Tree in Blossom 



suffer. The most common is known as the 
leaf-blight fungus, Pellicularia tokeroga, 
which is a slow-spreading disease, but one 
that causes great loss. Although the fungus 
does not produce spores, the leaves die and 
dry, and are blown away, carrying with 
them the dried mycelium of the fungus. 
This mycelium will start to grow as soon 
as it is supplied with a new moist coffee 
leaf to nourish it. The method of getting 
rid of this disease is to spray the trees in 
seasons of drought. 

It was a fungoid disease known as the 
Hemileia vastatrix that attacked Ceylon's 
coffee industry in 1869, and eventually 
destroyed it. It is a microscopic fungus 

whose spores, carried by the wind, adhere 
to and germinate upon the leaves of the 
coffee tree'. 

Another common disease is known as the 
root disease, which eventually kills the tree 
by girdling it below the soil. It spreads 
slowly, but seems to be favored by collec- 
tions of decaying matter around the base 
of the tree. Sometimes the digging of 
ditches around the roots is sufficient to 
protect it. The other common disease is 
due to Stilhium flavidum, and is found only 
in regions of great humidity. It affects 
both the leaf and the fruit and is known 
as the spot of leaf and fruit. 

' See chapter XVI. 

CoFFEA Uganda Bent Over by a Heavy Crop 

Chapter XVI 


How the beans may be examined under the microscope, and what is 
revealed — Structure of the berry, the green, and the roasted bean — 
The coffee leaf disease under the microscope — Value of microscopic 
analysis in detecting adulteration 

THE microscopy of coffee is, on the 
whole, more important to the planter 
than to the consumer and the dealer ; 
while, on the other hand, the microscopy is 
of paramount importance to the consumer 
and the dealer as furnishing the best means 
of determining whether the product offered 
is adulterated or not. Also, from this 

spherical ; in the rare instances where three 
seeds are found, the grains are angular. 

The coffee bean with which the consumer 
is familiar is only a small part of the fruit. 
The fruit, which is the size of a small 
cherry, has, like the cherry, an outer fleshy 
portion called the pericarp. Beneath this is 
a part like tissue paper, spoken of technic- 


I 11 

Fig. 331. Coffee (Coffea arahica). I — Cross-section of berry, natural size; Pk, outer pericarp; 
Mk, endocarp ; Ek, spermoderm ; 8a, liard endosperm ; 8p, soft endosperm. II — Longitudinal 
section of berry, natural size ; Dis, bordered disk ; 8e, remains of sepals ; Em, embryo. Ill- 
Embryo, enlarged; cot, cotyledon; rad, radicle. (Tschircli and Oesterle.) 

standpoint, the microscopy of the plant is 
less important than that of the bean. 

The Fruit and the Bean 

The fruit, as stated in chapter XV, con- 
sists of two parts, each one containing a 
single seed, or bean. These beans are flat- 
tened laterally, so as to fit together, except 
in the following instances : in the peaberry, 
where one of the ovules never develops, the 
single ovule, having no pressure upon it, is 

ally as the parchment, but known scientific- 
ally as the endocarp. Next in position to 
this, and covering the seed, is the so-called 
spermoderm, which means the seed skin, 
referred to in the trade as the silver skin. 
Small portions of this silver skin are always 
to be found in the cleft of the coffee bean. 
The coffee bean is the embryo and its 
food supply ; the embryo is that part of the 
seed which, when supplied with food and 
moisture, develops into a new plant. The 




embryo of the coffee is very minute (Fig. 
331, II, Em) '; and the greater part of the 
seed is taken up by the food supply, con- 

Fig. 332. Coffee. Cross section of bean 
showing folded endosperm with hard 
and soft tissues. x6. (Moeller) 

sisting of hard and soft endosperm (Fig. 
331, I and II, Sa, Sp). The minute em- 
bryo consists of two small thick leaves, the 
cotyledons (Fig. 331, III, cot), a short 
stem, invisible in the undissected embryo, 
and a small root, the radicle (Fig. 331, III, 

Fruit Structure 

In order to examine the structure of these 
layers of the fruit under the microscope, it 
is necessary to use the pericarp dry, as it 
is not easily obtainable in its natural con- 
dition. If desired, an alcoholic specimen 
may be used, but it has been found that 
the dry method gives more satisfactory re- 
sults. The dried pericarp is about 0.5 mm 
thick. Great difficulty is experienced in 
cutting microtome sections of pericarp when 
the specimen is embedded in paraffin, be- 
cause the outer layers are soft and the 
endocarp is hard, and the two parts of the 
section separate at this point. To overcome 
this, the sections might also be embedded in 
celloidin. When the sections are satisfac- 
tory, they may be stained with any of the 
double stains ordinarily used in the study 
of plant histology. 

A section cut crosswise through the entire 
fruit would present the appearance shown 
in Fig. 333. The cells of the epicarp are 

^These and all other numbered drawings in this 
chapter are from Andrew L. Winton's The Microscopy 
of Vegetable Foods, copyright 191G, and reprinted by 

broad and polygonal, sometimes regularly 
four-sided, about 15-35 fi broad. At in- 
tervals along the surface of the epicarp are 
stomata, or breathing pores, surrounded by 
guard cells. The next layer of the pericarp 
is the mesocarp (Figs. 333, 334, 335), the 
cells of which are larger and more regular 
in outline than the epicarp. The cells of 
the mesocarp become as large as 100 fi 
broad, but in the inner parts of the layer 
they become very much flattened. Fibro- 
vascular bundles are scattered through the 
compressed cells of the mesocarp. The cell 
walls are thick; and large, amorphous, 
brown masses are found within the cell; 
occasionally, large crystals are found in the 
outer part of the layer. The fibrovascular 
bundles consist mainly of bast and wood 
fibers and vessels. The bast fibers are as 
large as 1 mm long and 25 fi broad, with 



Fig. 333. Coffee. Cross section of hull 
and bean. Pericarp consists of : 1, epi- 
carp ; 2-3, layers of mesocarp, with 4, 
flbro-vascular bundle ; 5, palisade layer ; 
and 6, endocarp ; ss, spermoderm, con- 
sists of 8, sclerenchyma, and 9, paren- 
chyma ; End, endosperm (Tschirch and 



Fig. 334. Coflfee. Surface view of ep, epi- 
carp, and p^ outer parenchyma of meso- 
carp. xl60. (Moeller) 

thick walls and very small lumina. Spiral 
and pitted vessels are also present. 

The layer next to this is a soft tissue, 
parenchyma (Fig. 333, 5; Fig. 334, p). 
The parenchyma, or palisade cells as they 
are called, is a thin-walled tissue in which 
the cells are elongated, from which fact 
they receive their name. The walls of these 
cells, though verj^ thin, are mucilaginous, 
and capable of taking up large amounts of 
water. They stain well with the aniline 

The endocarp (Fig. 336) is closely con- 
nected with the palisade layer and has thin- 
walled cells that closely resemble, in all 
respects, the endocarp of the apple. The 
outer layer consists of thick-walled fibers, 
which are remarkably porous (Fig. 333, 6; 
Fig. 336) while the fibers of the inner layer 
are thin-walled and run in the transverse 

The Bean Structure 

Spermoderm, or silver skin, is not diffi- 
cult to secure for microscopic analysis ; be- 
cause shreds of it remain in the groove of 
the berry, and these shreds are ample for 
examination. It can readily be removed 
without tearing, if soaked in water for a 
few hours. The spermoderm is thin enough 
not to need sectioning. It consists of two 
elements — sclerenchyma and parenchyma 
cells. (Figs. 333, 337, st,p). 

Sclerenchyma forms an uninterrupted 
covering in the early stages of the seed ; but 

Fig. 335. Coffee. Elements of pericarp in 
surface view. p, parencliyma ; Itp, 
parencliyma of fibro-vascular bundle ; 
ft, bast fiber ; sp, spiral vessel. xl60. 

as the seed develops, surrounding tissues 
grow more rapidly than the sclerenchyma, 
and the cells are pushed apart and scattered. 
The cells occurring in the cleft of the berry 
are straight, narrow, and long, becoming as 
long as 1 mm, and resemble bast fibers 
somewhat. On the surface of the berry, 
and sometimes in the cleft, there are found 
smaller, thicker cells, which are irregular 
in outline, club-shaped and vermiform 
types predominating. 

Parenchyma cells form the remainder of 
the spermoderm; and these are partially 
obliterated, so that the structure is not 
easily seen, appearing almost like a solid 
membrane. The raphe runs through the 
parenchyma found in the cleft of the berry. 

The endosperm (Figs. 333; 338) consist 
of small cells in the outer part, and large 
cells, frequently as thick as 100 /x, in the 
inner part. The cell walls are thickened 
and knotted. Certain of the inner cells 
have mucilaginous walls which when treated 
with water disappear, leaving only the 
middle lamellae, which gives the section a 
peculiar appearance. The cells contain no 
starch, the reserve food supply being 
stored cellulose, protein, and aleurone 
grains. Various investigators report the 
presence of sugar, tannin, iron, salts, and 

The embryo (Fig. 331, III) may be ob- 
tained by soaking the bean in water for 
several hours, cutting through the cleft and 
carefully breaking apart the endosperm. If 



Fig. 336. Coffee. Sclerenchyma fibers of 
endocarp. xl60. (Moeller) 

it is now soaked in diluted alkali, the 
embryo protrudes through the lower end of 
the endosperm. It is then cleared in alkali, 
or in chloral hydrate. The cotyledons 
shown have three pairs of veins, which are 
slightly netted. The radicle is blunt and is 
about % mm in length, while the cotyledons 
are ^ mm long. 

The Coffee-Leaf Disease 
The coffee tree has many pests and dis- 
eases; but the disease most feared by 
planters is that generally referred to as the 
coffee-leaf disease, and by this is meant the 
fungoid Hemileia vastatrix, which as told in 

Fig. 338. Coffee. Cross-section of outer 
layers of endosperm, shiowing knotty 
thickenings of cell walls. xl60. 

chapter XV, destroyed Ceylon's once pros- 
perous coffee industry. As it has since been 
found in nearly all coffee-producing coun- 
tries, it has become a nightmare in the 
dreams of all coffee planters. The micro- 
scope shows how the spores of this dreaded 

Fig. 339. Coffee. Tis- 
sues of embryo in sec- 
tion. xl60. (Moeller) 

Fig. 337. Coffee. Spermoderm in surface view. at. 
sclerenchyma ; p, compressed parencnyma. xlOO. 

fungus, carried by the winds upon a leaf 
of the coffee tree, proceed to germinate at 
the expense of the leaf; robbing it of its 
nourishment, and causing it to droop and 
to die. A mixture of powdered lime and 
sulphur has been found to be an effective 
germicide, if used in time and diligently 

Value of Microscopic Analysis 

The value of the microscopic analysis of 
coffee may not be apparent at first sight; 
but when one realizes that in many cases 
the microscopic examination is the only way 
to detect adulteration in coffee, its import- 
ance at once becomes apparent. In many 
instances the chemical analysis fails to get 
at the root of the trouble, and then the only 
method to which the tester has recourse is 
the examination of the suspected material 
under the scope. The mixing of chicory 



^th coffee has in the past been one of the 
)mmonest forms of adulteration. The 
ucroscopic examination in this connection 

Roasted date stones have been used as 
adulterants, and these can be detected quite 
readily with the aid of the microscope, as 

Coffee Leaf Disease (Hemileia vastatrix) 

1, under surface of affected leaf, x % ; 2, section through same showing mycelium, haustoria. 
and a spore-cluster ; 3, a spore-cluster seen from below : 4, a uredospore ; 5, germinating 
uredospore ; 6, appressorial swellings at tips of germ-tubes ; 7, infection through stoma of 
leaf ; 8. teleutospores ; 9, teleutospore germinating with promycelium and sporidia ; 10, spori- 
dia and their germination (2 after Zimmermann, 3 after Delacroix, 4-10 after Ward) 

is the most reliable. The coffee grain will 
have the appearance already described. 
Microscopically, chicory shows numerous 
thin-w^alled parenchymatous cells, lactifer- 
ous vessels, and sieve tubes with transverse 
plates. There are also present large vessels 
with huge, well-defined pits. 

they have a very characteristic microscopic 
appearance. The epidermal cells are almost 
oblong, while the parenchymatous cells are 
large, irregular and contain large quantities 
of tannin. 

Adulteration and adulterants are con- 
sidered more fully in chapter XVII. 

Green and Roasted Coffee Under the Microscope 

Green bean, showing the size and form of the cells 
as well as the drops of oil contained within their 
cavities. Drawn with the camera lucida, and 
magnified 140 diameters. 

A fragment of roasted coffee under the niicrcscope. 
Drawn with the camera lucida, and magnifled 
140 diameters. 



Bogota, Gkeen 
Longitudinal — Magnifled 200 diameters 

Bogota, Green 
Cross Section — Magnified 200 diameters 

Bogota, Green 
Tangential — Magnified 200 diameters 

Bogota, Roasted 
Tangential — Magnified 200 diameters 


These pictures serve to demonstrate that the coffee bean is made up of minute cells that are 
not broken down to any extent by the roasting process. Note that the oil globules are more 
prominent in the green than in the roasted product 

Chapter XVII 




Chemistry of the preparation and treatment of the green hean — 
Artificial aging — .Renovating damaged coffees — Extracts — ''Caf- 
fetannic acid" — Caffein, caffein-free coffee — Caffeol — Fats and 
oils — Carbohydrates — Roasting — Scientific aspects of grinding 
and pacJiaging — The coffee brew — Soluble coffee — Adulterants 
and substitutes — Official methods of analysis 

By Charles W. Trigg 

Industrial Fellow of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, Pittsburgh, 191G - 1920 

WHEN the vast extent of the coffee 
business is considered, together 
with the intimate connection 
which coffee has with the daily life of the 
average human, the relatively small amount 
of accurate knowledge which we possess re- 
garding the chemical constituents and the 
physiological action of coffee is productive 
of amazement. 

True, a painstaking compilation of all 
the scientific and semi-scientific work done 
upon coffee furnishes quite a compendium 
of data, the value of which is not commen- 
surate with its quantity, because of the 
spasmodic nature of the investigations and 
the non-conclusive character of the results 
so far obtained. The following general sur- 
vey of the field argues in favor of the pro- 
mulgation of well-ordered and systematic 
research, of the type now in progress at 
several places in the United States, into the 
chemical behavior of coffee throughout the 
various processes to which it is subjected in 
the course of its preparation for human 

Green Coffee 

One of the few chemical investigations 
of the growing tree is the examination by 
Graf of flowers from 20-year-old coffee 
trees, in which he found 0.9 percent caffein. 

a reducing sugar, caffetannic acid, and 
phytosterol. Power and Chestnut' found 
0.82 percent caffein in air-dried coffee 
leaves, but only 0.087 percent of the alka- 
loid in the stems of the plant separated 
from the leaves. In the course of a study" 
instituted for the purpose of determining 
the best fertilizers for coffee trees, it de- 
veloped that the cherries in different stages 
of growth show a preponderance of potash 
throughout, w^hile the proportion of PgOg 
attains a maximum in the fourth month 
and then steadily declines. 

Experiments are still in progress to as- 
certain the precise mineral requirements 
of the crop as well as the most suitable 
stage at which to apply them. During the 
first five months the moisture content un- 
dergoes a steady decrease, from 87.13 per- 
cent to 65.77 percent, but during the final 
ripening stage in the last month there is a 
rise of nearly 1 percent. This may ex- 
plain the premature falling and failure to 
ripen of the crop on certain soils, especially 
in years of low rainfall. Malnutrition of 
the trees may result also in the production 
of oily beans.' 

1 JoMr. Am. Chan. Soc, 1919 (vol. xli : p. 1306 K 
- Anstead, R. D. Annals on Applied Biology, 1915 

(vol. i: pp. 299-302). 
* Huntington, L. M. Tea and Coffee Trade Jour., 

1917 (vol. xxxiii: p. 228). 




The coffee berry comprises about 68 per- 
cent pulp, 6 percent parchment, and 26 
percent clean coffee beans. The pulp is 
easily removed by mechanical means; but 
in order to separate the soft, glutinous, sac- 
charine parchment, it is necessary to resort 
to fermentation, which loosens the skin so 
that it may be removed easily, after which 
the coffee is properly dried and aged. 
There is first a yeast fermentation produc- 
ing alcohol ; and then a bacterial action 
giving mainly inactive lactic acid, which is 
the main factor in loosening the parchment. 
For the production of the best coffee, acetic 
acid fermentation (which changes the color 
of the bean) and temperature above 60° 
should be avoided, as these inhibit subse- 
quent enzymatic action.* 

Various schemes have been proposed for 
utilizing the large amount of pulp so ob- 
tained in preparing coffee for market. 
Most of these depend upon using the pulp 
as fertilizer, since fresh pulp contains 2.61 
percent nitrogen, 0.81 percent PaO.,, 2.38 
percent potassium, and 0.57 percent cal- 
cium. One procedure' in particular is 
to mix pulp with sawdust, urine, and a 
little lime, and then to leave this mixture 
covered in a pit for a year before using. 
In addition to these mineral matters, the 
pulp also contains about 0.88 percent of 
caffein and 18 to 37 percent sugars. Ac- 
cordingly, it has been proposed" to extract 
the caffein with chloroform, and the sugars 
with acidulated water. The aqueous solu- 
tion so obtained is then fermented to 
alcohol. The insoluble portion left after 
extraction can be used as fuel, and the re- 
sulting ash as fertilizer. 

The pulp has been dried and roasted for 
use in place of the berry, and has been im- 
ported to England for this purpose. It is 
stated that the Arabs in the vicinity of 
Jiddah discard the kernel of the coffee ber- 
ries and make an infusion of the husk.' 

Quality of green coffee is largely depend- 
ent upon the methods used and the care 
taken in curing it, and upon the conditions 
obtaining in shipment and storage. True, 
the soil and climatic conditions play a de- 
terminative role in the creation of the 
characteristics of coffee, but these do not 

^ Gorter, Ann. (vol. ccclxxii : pp. 237-46). 
Schulte, A. Z. Nahr. Oenussm. (vol. xxvii : pp. 

Loew, Oscar. Ann. Rep. P. R. Apr. Expt. Sta., 
1907 (pp. 41-55). 

» Senclal. El Hacendado Mex. (vol. ix : p. 191). 
'Pique, R. Bull. As-^oc. Chim. aucr. dist. (vol. xxiv : 
pp. 1210-13). 

'' Pharm. Jour., 1886 (vol. xvii : p. 656). 

offer any greater opportunity for construc- 
tive research and remunerative improve- 
ment than does the development of methods 
and control in the processes employed in 
the preparation of green coffee for the mar- 

Storage prior and subsequent to ship- 
ment, and circumstances existing during 
transportation, are not to be disregarded 
as factors contributory to the final quality 
of the coffee. The sweating of mules carry- 

Cross-Section of the Endosperm or Hard 
Structure of the Green Bean 

ing bags of poorly packed coffee, and the 
absorption of strong foreign aromas and 
flavors from odoriferous substances stored 
in too close proximity to the coffee beans, 
are classic examples of damage that bear 
iterative mention. Damage by sea water, 
due more to the excessive moisture than to 
the salt, is not so common an occurrence 
now as heretofore. However, a cheap and 
thoroughly effective means of ethically 
renovating coffee which has been damaged 
in this manner would not go begging for 
commercial application. 

That green coffee improves with age, is 
a tenet generally accepted by the trade. 
Shipments long in transit, subjected to the 
effects of tropical heat under closely bat- 
tened hatches in poorly ventilated holds, 
have developed into much-prized yellow 
matured coffee. Were it not for the large 
capital required and the attendant prohibi- 
tive carrying charges, many roasters would 
permit their coffees to age more thoroughly 
before roasting. In fact, some roasters do 
indulge this desire in regard to a portion 
of their stock. But were it feasible to treat 



?ortiox of the investing membrane, showing 

Its Structure 
Drawn with the camera lucida, and magnified 140 

and hold coffees long enough to develop 
their attributes to a maximum, still the 
exact conditions which would favor such 
development are not definitely known. 
What are the optimum temperature and 
the correct humidity to maintain, and 
should the green coffee be well ventilated 
or not while in storage? How long should 
coffee be stored under the most favorable 
conditions best to develop it? Aging for 
too long a period will develop flavor at the 
expense of body; and the general cup effi- 
qiency of some coffees will suffer if they 
be kept too long. 

The exact reason for improvement upon 
aging is in no wise certain, but it is highly 
probable that the changes ensuing are 
somewhat analogous to those occurring in 
the aging of grain. Primarily an unde- 
fined enzymatic and mold action most likely 
occurs, the nature of the enzymes and molds 
being largely dependent upon the previous 
treatment of the coffee. Along with this 
are a loss of moisture and an oxidation, all 
three actions having more evident effects 
with the passage of time. 

Artificial Aging 

In consideration of the higher prices 
which aged products demand, attempts 
have naturally been made to shorten by 
artificial means the time necessary for their 
natural production. Some of these methods 

depend upon obtaining the most favorable 
conditions f6r acceleration of the enzyme 
action ; others, upon the effects of micro- 
organisms; and still others, upon direct 
chemical reaction or physical alteration of 
the green bean. 

One of the first efforts toward artificial 
maturing was that of Ashcroff , who argued 
from the improved nature of coffee which 
had experienced a delayed voyage. His 
method consisted of inclosing the coffee in 
sweat-boxes having perforated bottoms and 
subjecting it to the sweating action of 
steam, the boxes being enclosed in an oven 
or room maintained at the temperature of 

Timby" claimed to remove dusts, foreign 
odors, and impurities, while attaining in a 
few hours or days a ripening effect nor- 
mally secured only in several seasons. In 
this process, the bagged coffee is placed in 
autoclaves and subjected to the action of 
air at a pressure of 2 to 3 atmospheres and 
a temperature of 40° to 100° F. The tem^ 
perature should seldom be allowed to rise 
above 150° F. The pressure is then al-. 


Structure of the Green Bean 
Showing thick-walled cells enclosing drops of oil 

lowed to escape and a partial vacuum 
created in the apparatus. This alteration 
of pressure and vacuum is continued until 
the desired maturation is obtained. 
Desvignes" employs a similar procedure, 
although he accomplishes seasoning by 

»U. S. Pat., 113,832. April 18, 1871. 
»U. S. Pat., 660,602, Oct. 30, 1900. 
"French Pat., 379,036, Aug. 28, 1906. 



treating the coffee also with oxygen or 
ozone." First the coffee is rendered porous 
by storage in a hot chamber, which is then 
exhausted prior to admission of the oxygen. 
The oxygen can be ozonized in the closed 
vessel while in contact with the coffee. 
Complete aging in a few days is claimed. 

Weitzmann" adopts a novel operation, 
by exposing bags of raw coffee to the action 
of a powerful magnetic field, obtained with 
two adjustable electro-magnets. The claim 
that a maturation naturally produced in 
several years is thus obtained in % to 2 
hours is open to considerable doubt. A 
process that is probably attended with more 
commercial success is that of Gram" in 
which the coffee is treated with gaseous 
nitrogen dioxid. 

By far the most notable progress in this 
field, both scientifically and commercially, 
has been made by Robison* with his "cul- 
turing" method. Here the green coffee is 
washed with water, and then inoculated 
with selected strains of micro-organisms, 
such as Ochraeceus or Aspergillus Wintii. 
Incubation is then conducted for 6 to 7 
days at 90° F. and 85 percent relative hu- 
midity. Subsequent to this incubation, the 
coffee is stored in bins for about ten days ; 
after which it is tumbled and scoured. 
With this process it is possible to improve 
the cupping qualities of a coffee to a sur- 
prising degree. 

Renovating Damaged Coffees 

Sophistication has often been resorted to 
in order ostensibly to improve damaged or 
cheap coffee. Glazing, coloring, and polish- 
ing of the green beans was openly and 
covertly practised until restricted by law. 
The steps employed did not actually im- 
prove the coffee by any means, but merely 
put it into condition for more ready sale. 
An apparently sincere endeavor to reno- 
vate damaged coffee was made by Evans'° 
when he treated it with an aqueous solu- 
tion of sulphuric acid having a density of 
10.5° Baume. After agitation in this solu- 
tion, the beans were washed free from acid 
and dried. In this manner discolorations 
and impurities were removed and the 
beans given a fuller appearance. 

The addition of glucose, sucrose, lactose, 
or dextrin to green coffees is practised by 

"French Pat., 359,451, Nov. 15, 1905. 
"British Pat., 26,905, Dec. 9, 1904. 
"U. S. Pat., 843,530, Feb. 5, 1907. 
"IT. S. Pat., 1,313.209, Aug. 12, 1919. 
«U. S. Pat., 134,792, Jan. 14, 1873. 

von Niessen'" and by Winter", with the ob- 
ject of giving a mild taste and strong aroma 
to "hard" coffees. The addition is accom- 
plished by impregnating, with or without 
the aid of vacuum, the beans with a mod- 
erately concentrated solution of the sugar, 
the liquid being of insufficient quantity to 
effect extraction. When the solution has 
completely disseminated through the ker- 
nels, they are removed and dried. Upon 
subsequent roasting, a decided amelioration 
of flavor is secured. 

Another method developed by von Nies- 
sen'" comprises the softening of the outer 
layers of the beans by steam, cold or warm 
water, or brine, and then surrounding them 
with an absorbent paste or powder, such as 
china clay, to which a neutralizing agent 
such as magnesium oxid may be added. 
After drying, the clay can be removed by 
brushing or by causing the beans to travel 
between oppositely reciprocated wet cloths. 
In the development of this process, von 
Niessen evidently argued that the so-called 
"caffetannic acid" is the "harmful" sub- 
stance in coffee, and that it is concentrated 
in the outer layers of the coffee beans.* If 
these be his precepts, the question of their 
correctness and of the efficiency of his 
process becomes a moot one. 

A procedure which aims at cleaning and 
refining raw coffee, and which has been the 
subject of much polemical discussion,'' is 
that of Thum'\ It entails the placing of 
the green beans in a perforated drum ; just 
covering them with water, or a solution of 
sodium chloride or sodium carbonate, at 65° 
to 70° C. ; and subjecting them to a vigor- 
ous brushing for from 1 to 5 minutes, ac- 
cording to the grade of coffee being treated. 
The value of this method is somewhat 
doubtful, as it would not seem to accom- 
plish any more than simple washing. In' 
fact, if anything, the process is undesir- 
able ; as some of the extractive matters 
present in the coffee, and particularly eaf- 
fein, will be lost. Both Freund'" and Har- 
nack'" hold briefs for the product produced 
by this method, and the latter endeavors 
analytically to prove its merits ; but as his 
experimental data are questionable, his con- 
clusions do not carry much weight. 

" British Pat., 7.427, Mar. 24, 1910. 
"U. S. Pat., 997,431, July 11, 1911. 
"British Pat., 28.087. Oct. 9, 1912. 

French Pat., 449.343, Oct. 12, 1912. 
"British Pat., 21,397. Sept. 26, 1907. 

French Pat., 382,238. Sept. 26, 1907. 

U. S, Pat., 982.902, Jan. 31, 1911. 
^Pharm. Zentralhalle, 1915 (vol. Ivi : pp. 343-48). 
'^ Munch. Med. Wochschr., (vol. Iviii : pp. 1868-72).- 

^■The study of the acids of coffee has been 

^^oduetive of much controversy and many 
contradictory results, few of which possess 
any value. The acid of coffee is generally 
spoken of as "caifetannic acid." Quite a 
few attempts have been made to determine 
the composition and structure of this com- 
pound and to assign it a formula. Among 
them may be noted those of Allen " who 
gives it the empirical formula Ci^Hj^sO^; 
Hlasiwetz/' who represents it as (TisHisOg ; 
Richter, as C^oHisOie ; Griebel," as 
CisHo^Ojo, and Cazeneuve and Haddon/" 
as CoiH2sOi4. It is variously supposed to 
exist in coffee as the potassium, calcium, or 
magnesium salt. In regard to the physical 
appearance of the isolated substance there 
is also some doubt, Thorpe'^ describing it 
as an amorphous powder, and Howard''' as 
a brownish, syrup-like mass, having a 
slight acid and astringent taste. 

The chemical reactions of "caffetannic 
acid" are generally agreed upon. A dark 
green coloration is given with ferric chlo- 
rid; and upon boiling it with alkalies or 
cHTute acids, caffeic acid and glucose are 
formed. Fusion with alkali produces pro- 
tocatechuie acid. 

K. Gorter" has made an extensive and 
accurate investigation into the matter, and 
in reporting upon the same has made some 
very pertinent observations. His claim is 
that the name "caffetannic acid" is a mis- 
nomer and should be abandoned. The so- 
called "caffetannic acid" is really a mix- 
ture which has among its constituents 
chlorogenic acid (CgoH^gOio), which is not 
a tannic acid, and coffalic acid. Tatlock 

^ and Thompson"* have expressed the opinion 
that roasted coffee contains no tannin, and 
that the lead precipitate contains mostly 
coloring matter. They found only 4.5 per- 
cent of tannin (precipitable by gelatin or 
" alkaloids) in raw coffee. 

Hanausek"* demonstrated the presence of 
oxalic acid in unripe beans, and citric acid 
has been isolated from Liberian coffee. It 
also has been claimed that viridic acid, 

' C14H20O11, is present in coffee. In addi- 

** Commercial Organic Analysis. 
»A«n. Chem. Pharm . 1 S07 fvol. cxlii : p. 230). 
" Inaugural Diss., Munich. 1903. 
'^ Comptes Rertdus, 1807 (vol. cxxiv : p. 1458). 
^ Diet. Avp. Chem., 15)13 (vol. v: p. 393). 
"U. S. Dept. Agr. Bur. Chem. Bull. 105, 1907. 
<P. 42). 

^ Ann. (vol. cccviii : pp. 327-348). 

Ibid. (vol. ccclxxH : pp. 237, 246). 

Arch. Pharm. (vol. ccxlvii : pp. 184-196). 
'^Jour. Soc. Chem., Ind.. 1910 (vol. xxlx : p. 138). 
^"Z. Nahr. Gentissm. (vol. xxi : p. 295). 



tion to these, the fat of coffee contains a 
certain percentage of free fatty acids. 

It is thus apparent that even in green 
coffee there is no definite compound "caffe- 
tannic acid," and there is even less likeli- 
hood of its being present in roasted coffee. 
The conditions, high heat and oxidation, to 
which coffee is subjected in roasting would 
suffice to decompose this hypothetical acid 
if it wera present. ^- 

In the method of analysis for caffetannic 
acid (No. 24) given at the end of this chap- 
ter, there are many chances of error, 
although this procedure is the best yet de- 
vised. Lead acetate forms three different 
compounds with "caffetannic acid," so that 
this reagent must be added with extreme 
care in order to precipitate the compound 
desired. The precipitate, upon forming, 
mechanically carries down with it any fats 
which may be present, and which are re- 
moved from it only with difficulty. The 
majority of the mineral salts in the solu- 
tion will come down simultaneously. All 
of the above-mentioned organic acids form 
insoluble salts with lead acetate, and there 
will also be a tendency toward precipita- 
tion of certain of the components of cara- 
mel, the acidic polymerization products of 
acrolein, glycerol, etc., and of the proteins 
and their decomposition products. 

In view of this condition of uncertainty 
in composition, necessity for great care in 
manipulation, and ever-present danger of 
contamination, the significance of "caffe- 
tannic acid analysis" fades. It is highly 
desirable that the nomenclature relevant to 
this analytical procedure be changed to 
one, such as "lead number," which will be 
more truly indicative of its significance. 

The Alkaloids of Coffee 

In addition to caffein, the main alkaloid 
of coffee, trigonellin — the methylbetaine 
of nicotinic acid — sometimes known as 
caffearine, has been isolated from coffee." 
This alkaloid, having the formilla 
C14H16O4N2, is also found in fenugreek, 
Trigonella foenumrgrcecum, in various le- 
guminous plants, and in the seeds of stro- 
phanthus. When pure it forms colorless 
needles melting at 140" C, and, as with all 
alkaloids, gives a weak basic reaction. It is 
very soluble in water, slightly soluble in. 
alcohol, and only very slightly soluble in 

31 Paladino, Oasietta, 1895 (vol. xxv : no. 1 : p. 104). 

Forster & Rlechelmann, Zeitach. 6ffent. Chem., 
1897 (vol. lii: p. 129). 

Polstorflf, K. Wallach-Featachrift, 1909 (pp. 569- 



ether, chloroform or benzol, so that it does 
not contaminate the caffein in the deter- 
mination of the latter. Its effects on the 
body have not been studied, but they are 
probably not very great, as Polstorff ob- 
tained only 0.23 percent from the coffee 
which he examined. 

Caffein, thein, trimethylxanthin, or 
C5H(CH3)3N40a, in addition to being in 
the coffee bean is also found in guarana 
leaves, the kola nut, mate, or Paraguay tea, 
and, in small quantities, in cocoa. It is also 
found in other parts of these plants besides 
those commonly used for food purposes. 

A neat test for detecting the presence of 
caffein is that of A. Viehoever,"' in which 
the caffein is sublimed directly from the 
plant tissue in a special apparatus. The 
presence of caffein in the sublimate is veri- 
fied by observing its melting point, deter- 
mined on a special heating stage used in 
connection with a microscope. . 

The chief commercial source of this alka- 
loid is waste and damaged tea, from which 
it is prepared by extraction with boiling 
water, the tannin precipitated from the 
solution with litharge, and the solution then 
concentrated to crystallize out the caffein. 
It is further purified by sublimation or re- 
cpystallization from water. «Coffee chaff 
and roaster-flue dust have been proposed as 
sources for medicinal caffein, but the ex- 
traction of the alkaloid from the former 
has not proven to be a commercial success. 
Several manufacturers of pharmaceuticals 
are now extracting caffein from roaster-flue 
dust, probably by an adaptation of the 
Faunce"" process. The recovery of caffein 
from roaster-flue gases may be facilitated 
and increased by the use of a condenser 
such as proposed Ewe."* 

Pure caffein forms long, white, silky, flex- 
ible needles, which readily felt together to 
form light, fleecy masses. It melts at 

^Private comninnioation. 
M U. S. Pat, 716,878, Dec. 30, 1902. 
»* Tea d Coffee Trade Jour., 1920 (vol. xxxvlii : pp. 

235 - 7° C. and sublimes completely at 178 
C, though the sublinlation starts at 120 . 
Salts of an iinstable nature are formed with 
caffein by most acids. The solubility o!: 
caffein as determined by Seidell is given 
in Table I. 

Table I — 'The Solubility of Caffein 




ture of 
Sp. Gr. of Solu- 

Solvent tlon 

Water 0.95)7 25 

J]ther 0.716 25 

Chloroform . . . 1.476 25 

Acetone 0.809 30-1 

Benzene 0.872 80-1 

Benzaldehyde . 1.055 30-1 

Amylacetate . . 0.860 30-1 

Anmne 1.02 «0-l 

Amyl alcohol.. 0.814 25 

Acetic acid 1.055 21.5 

Xylene 847 32.5 

Toluene 0.862 25 

Grm. Caf- 
fein per 100 
Grm. of 

Sp. Gr. 

of Satu- 



The similarity between caffein and theo- 
bromin (the chief alkaloid of cocoa), xan- 
thin (one of the constituents of meat), and 
uric acid, is shown by the accompanying 
structural formulae. 

These formulae show merely the relative 
position occupied by caffein in the purin 
group, and do not in any wise indicate, be- 
cause of its similarity of structure to the 
other compounds, that it has the same 
physiological action. The presence and 
position of the methyl groups (CH3) in 
caffein is probably the controlling factor 
which makes its action differ from the be- 
havior of other members of the series. The 
structure of these compounds was estab- 
lished, and their syntheses accomplished, in 
the course of various classic researches by 
Emil Fischer.'' 

Gorter states that caffein exists in coffee 
in combination with ehlorogenic acid as a 
potassium chlorogenate, Ca^HaeOia, 
K2(C8HjoO,N,)2-2H20, which he 'isolated 
in colorless prisms. This compound is 
water-soluble, but caffein can not be ex- 
tracted from the crystals with anhydrous 

^Jour. Amer. Chetn. Soc, 1907 (vol. xxix : p. 1091). 
^* Ber., 1895 (vol. xxviii : p. 3137) ; 1899 (vol. xxxii : 
p. 435); 1900 (vol. xxxiii : p. 3035). 

CttjN— CO 

OC C— Nn 



CH3N — C-N^ 
Caffcm (their\) 

HN — CO 

I I 
OC C— N<^"3 

I II >" 
CH3N— C— N 




OC c — 



HN — C — N'^ 



I I 


HN— C — NH 

Unc Acid 


Formula fob Caffein, Showing Its Relation to the Purin Group 

.' ■ I ,-1 


1(1(11, IKS l>A(i(ll ,\(; iOIlKK ON TllK 1 »i;\ 1 .N(i GkOUNDS 




^^B Green 

^Hoisture April 20th 8.75 

Moisture Septemb, r 20tli 8.12 

Ash 4.41 

Oil 12.96 

CaJfein 1.87 

Caffein, dry basis 2.03 

Crude fiber 20.70 

I'rotein 9.50 

Protein, dry basis 10.41 

Water e.xtrnct 31.11 

Specific gravity, 10 p rcent extract 1.0109 

Bushelwt'ight 47.0 

1,000 kernel weight ISO. 60 

1,000 kernel weight, dry basis 119.1 


■ffetannic acid 15.58 

iility by titration apparent 1.50 


Table II — Coffee Analyses 









^^■||vents. To this behavior can probably 
^^H attributed the difficulty experienced in 
^^Blracting caffein from coffee with dry or- 
^^nic solvents. However, the fact that a 
small percentage can be extracted from the 
green bean in this manner indicates that 
some of the caffein content exists therein 
in a free state. This acid compound of caf- 
fein will be largely decomposed during the 
process of torrefaction, so that in roasted 
coffee a larger percentage will be present in 
the free state. Microscopical examination 
of the roasted bean lends verisimilitude to 
this contention. 

As may be seen in Table II " the caffein 
content of coffee varies with the different 
kinds, a fair average of the caffein content 
being about 1.5 percent for C. arahica, to 
which class most of our coffees belong. 
However, aside from these may be men- 
tioned C. canephora, which yields 1.97 per- 
cent caffein ; C. mauritiana, which contains 
0.07 percent of the alkaloid (less than the 
average "caffein-free coffee") ; and C. 
humhoUiana, which contains no caffein, but 
a bitter principle, cafemarin. Neither do 
the berries of C. Gallienii, C. Bonnieri, or 
C. Mogeneti contain any caffein ; and there 
has also been reported^' a "Congo coffee" 
which contained no crystallizable alkaloid 

Apparently the variation in caffein con- 
tent is largely due to the genus of the tree 
from which the berry comes, but it is also 
quite probable that the nature of the soil 
and climatic conditions play an important 
part. In the light of what has been accom- 
plished in the field of agricultural research, 
it does not seem improbable that a man 
of Burbank's ability and foresight could 
successfully develop a series of coffees pos- 

" Willcox & Rentschler. Tea & Coffee Trade Jour., 
1910 (vol. six: p. 440). 

■^ Pricke, E. Zeits. /. angew. Chemie, 1889 (pp. 














































sessed of all the cup qualities inherent in 
those now used, but totally devoid of caf- 
fein. Whether this is desirable or not is a 
question to be considered in an entirely 
different light from the possibility of its 

Table III — Caffein in Different Roasts 



1 68% 







Cinnamon . . . 



. .. 1.70 
. . . 1.66 
. . . 1.36 

The variation in the caffein content of 
coffee at different intensities of roasting, 
as shown in Table III^ is, of course, pri- 
marily dependent upon the original content 
of the green, A considerable portion of the 
caffein is sublimed off during roasting, thus 
decreasing the amount in the bean. The 
higher the roast is carried, the greater the 
shrinkage ; but, as the analyses in the above 
table show, the loss of caffein proceeds out 
of proportion to the shrinkage, for the per- 
centage of caffein constantly decreases with 
the increase in color. If the roast be car- 
ried almost to the point of carbonization, 
as in the case of the "Italian roast," the 
caffein content will be almost nil. This is 
not a suitable coffee for one desiring an al- 
most caffein-free drink, for the empyreu- 
matic products produced by this excessive 
roasting will be more toxic by far than the 
caffein itself would have been. 

Caffein-free Coffee 

The demand for a caffein-free coffee may 
be attributed to two causes, namely: the 
objectionable effect which caffein has upon 
neurasthenics; and the questionable adver- 
tising of the "coffee-substitute" dealers, 
who have by this means persuaded many 
normal persons into believing that they are 
decidedly sub-normal. As a result of this 
demand, a variety of decaffeinated coffees 

s* Willcox & Rentschler. 
1911 (vol. XX : p. 355). 

Tea d Coffee Trade Jour., 



have been placed on the market. Just why 
the coffee men have not taken advantage of 
naturally caffein-free coffees, or of the pos- 
sibility of obtaining coffees low in caffein 
content by chemical selection from the lines 
now used, is a difficult question to answer. 

In the endeavor to develop a commercial 
decaffeinated coffee the first method of pro- 
cedure was to extract the caffein from 
roasted coffee. This method had its advan- 
tages and its disadvantages, of which the 
latter predominated. The caffein in the 
roasted coffee is not as tightly bound chemi- 
cally as in the green coffee, and is, there- 
fore, more easily extracted. Also, the 
structure of the roasted bean renders it 
more readily penetrable by solvents than 
does that of the green bean. However, the 
great objection to this method arises from 
the fact that at the same time as the caf- 
fein is extracted, the volatile aromatic and 
flavoring constituents of the coft'ee are re- 
moved also. These substances, which are 
essential for the maintenance of quality by 
the coffee, though readily separated from 
the caffein, can not be returned to the 
roasted bean with any degree of certainty. 
This virtually insurmountable obstacle 
forced the abandonment of this mode of 

In order to avoid this action, the atten- 
tion of investigators was directed to extrac- 
tion of the alkaloid in question from the 
green bean. Because of the difficulty of 
causing the solvent to penetrate the bean, 
recourse to grinding resulted. This greatly 
facilitated the desired extraction, but a 
difficulty was encountered when the subse- 
quent roasting was attempted. The irregu- 
lar and broken character of the ground 
green beans resisted all attempts to produce 
practically a uniformly roasted, highly 
aromatic product from the ground ma- 

Avoidance of this lack of uniformity in 
the product, and the great desirability to 
duplicate the normal bean as far as pos- 
sible, necessitated the development of a 
method of extraction of the caffein from the 
whole raw bean without a permanent al- 
teration of the shape thereof. The close 
structure of the green bean, and its conse- 
quent resistance to penetration by solvents, 
and the existence of the caffein in the bean 
as an acid salt, which is not easily soluble, 
offered resistance to successful extraction. 

As a means of overcoming the difficulty 
of structure, the beans were allowed to 
stand in water in order to swell, or the cells 

were expanded by treatment with steam, or 
the beans were subjected to the action of 
some "cellulose-softening acids," such as 
acetic acid or sulphur dioxid. As a method 
of facilitating the mechanical side of ex- 
traction without deleterious effects, the 
treatment of the coffee with steam under 
pressure, as utilized in the patented proc- 
ess of Myer, Eoselius, and Wimmer,*" is 
probably the safest. 

Many ingenious methods have been de- 
vised for the ready removal of the caffein 
from this point on. Several processes 
employ an alkali, such as ammonium hy- 
droxid, to free the caffein from the acid ; or 
an acid, such as acetic, hydrochloric, or 
sulphurous, is used to form a more soluble 
salt of caffein. Other procedures effect the 
dissociation of the caffein-acid salt by 
dampening or immersion in a liquid and 
subjecting the mass to the action of an 
electric current. 

The caffein is usually extracted from the 
beans by benzol or chloroform, but a variety 
of solvents may be employed, such as pe- 
trolic ether, water, alcohol, carbon tetra- 
chlorid, ethylene chlorid, acetone, ethyl 
ether, or mixtures or emulsions of these. 
After extraction, the beans may be steam 
distilled to remove and to recover any resid- 
ual traces of solvent, and then dried and 
roasted. It is said" that by heating the 
beans before bringing them into contact 
with steam, not only is an economy of steam 
effected, but the quality of the resultant 
product is improved. 

One clever but expensive method" of pre- 
paring caffein-free coffee consists in heat- 
ing the beans under pressure, with some 
substance, such as sodium salicylate, with 
the resultant formation of a more soluble 
and more easil.y steam-distillable compound 
of caffein. The beans are then steam dis- 
tilled to remove the caffein, dried, and 

Another process of peculiar interest is 
that of Hubner," in which the coffee beans 
are well washed and then spread in layers 
and kept covered with water at 15° C. until 
limited germination has taken place, where- 
upon the beans are removed and the caf- 
fein extracted with water at 50° C. It is 
claimed by the inventor that sprouting 
serves to remove some of the caffein, but it 
is quite probable that the process does noth- 

*»U. S. Pat, 897,840. Sept. 1, 1908. 
"British Pat., 144,988, March 19, 1920. 
« French Pat., 412,550. Feb. 12, 1910. 
«U. S. Pat., 947,577, Jan. 25, 1910. 



ig more than aecoinplish simple aqueous 


In the majority of these processes the 

Ivor of the resultant product should be 

iry similar to natural roasted coffee. 

[owever, in the cases where aqueous ex- 

raction is employed, other substances be- 

jjdes caffein are removed that are replaced 

the bean only with difficulty. The re- 

iltant product accordingly is very likely 
to have a flavor not entirely natural. On 
the other hand, beans from which the caf- 
fein is extracted with volatile solvents, if 
the operation be conducted carefully, 
should give a natural-tasting roast. Any 
residual traces of the solvent left in the 
bean are volatilized upon roasting. 

Some of the caffein-free coffees on the 
market show upon analysis almost as much 
eaffein as the natural bean. Those manu- 
factured b}' reliable concerns, however, are 
virtually caffein-free, their content of the 
alkaloid varying from 0.3 to 0.07 percent 
as opposed to 1.5 percent in the untreated 
coffee. Thus, although actually only caf- 
fein-poor, in order to get the reaction of 
one cup of ordinary coffee one would have 
to drink an unusual amount of the brew 
made from these coffees. 

The Aromatic Principles of Coffee 

To ascertain just what substance or sub- 
stances give the pleasing and characteristic 
aroma to coffee has long been the great 
desire of both practical and scientific men 
interested in the coffee business. This elu- 
sive material has been variously called caf- 
feol, caffeone, "the essential' oil of coffee," 
etc., the terms having'acquired an ambigu- 
ij^ous and incorrect significance. It is now 
f generally agreed that the aromatic con- 
! stituent of coffee is not an essential oil, but 
! a comple x of compounds which usage has 
causecPto be coITecHvery called "caffeol.',' 
These substances are not present in the, 
green bean, but are produced during the 
process of roasting. Attempts at identi- 
fication and location of origin have been 
numerous; and although not conclusive, 
still have not proven entirely futile. One 
of the first observations along this line was 
that of Benjamin Thompson in 1812. 
"This fragrance of coffee is certainly ow- 
ing to the escape of a volatile aromatic 
substance which did not originally exist as 
such in the grain, but which is formed in 
the process of roasting it." Later, Graham, 
Stenhouse, and Campbell started on the 
way to the identification of this aroma by 

noting that "in common with all the valu- 
able constituents of coffee, caffeone is found 
to come from the soluble portion of the 
roasted seed."" 

Comparison of the aroma given off by 
coffee during the roasting process with that 
of fresh-ground roasted coffee shows that 
the two aromas, although somewhat differ- 
ent, may be attributed to the same sub- 
stances present in different proportions in 
the two cases. Recovery and identification 
of the aromatic principles escaping from 
the roaster would go far toward answering 
the question regarding the nature of the 
aroma. Bernheimer" reported water, caf- 
fein, caffeol, acetic acid, quinol, methyla- 
min, acetone, fatty acids and pyrrol in the 
distillate coming from roasting coffee. 
The caffeol obtained by Bernheimer in this 
work was believed by him to be a methyl 
derivative of saligenin. Jaeekle" examined 
a similar product and found considerable 
quantities of caffein, furfurol, and acetic 
acid, together with small amounts of ace- 
tone, ammonia, trimethylamin, and formic 
acid. The caffeol of Bernheimer could not 
be detected. Another substance was sepa- 
rated also, but in too small a quantity to 
permit complete identification. This sub- 
stance consisted of colorless crystals, which 
readily sublimed, melted at 115° to 117° C, 
and contained sulphur. The crystals were 
insoluble in water, almost insoluble in alco- 
hol, but readily soluble in ether. 

By distilling roasted coffee with super- 
heated steam, Erdmann" obtained an oil 
consisting of an indifferent portion of 58 
percent and an acid portion of 42 percent, 
consisting mainly of a valeric acid, prob- 
ably alphamethylbutyric acid. The indif- 
ferent portion was found to contain about 
50 percent furfuryl alcohol, together with 
a number of phenols. The fraction con- 
taining the characteristic odorous constit- 
uent of coffee boiled at 93° C. under 13 
mm. pressure. The yield of this latter 
principle was extremely small, only about 
0.89 gram being procured from 65 kilos 
of coffee. 

Pyridin was also shown to be present in 
•coffee by Betrand and Weisweiller*' and by 
Sayre.*" As high as 200 to 500 milligrams 

**J(jur. Chem. Soc, 1857 (vol. Ix : p. 34). 

"Tl'tcn. Akad. Ber. (2 Abth.) (vol. Ixxxi : pp. 1032- 

Monatsh, f. Chem., 1880 (vol. i: p. 456). 

** Zeita. f. Vntersuch. d. Nahr. u. Ocnussm., 1898 
(vol. vii : pp. 457-472) 

« Ber , 1901 (vol. xxxv : pp. 1846-1854). 

<»Co»ipf. rend. (vol. clvii : pp. 212-13). 

*» Bull. Pharm., 1916 (vol. xxx : pp. 276^-78). 



of this toxic compound have been obtained 
from 1 kilogram of freshly roasted coffee. 

As stated above, the empyreumatic vola- 
tile aromatic constituents of the coffee are 
without question formed during and by the 
roasting process. According to Thorpe/" 
the most favorable temperature for devel- 
opment of coffee odor and flavor is about 
200° C. Erdmann claimed to have pro- 
duced caffeol by gently heating together 
caffetannic acid, caffein, and cane sugar. 
Other investigators have been unable to 
duplicate this work. Another authority," 
giving it the empirical formula CgHioOa, 
states that it is produced during roasting, 
probably at the expense of a portion of the 
caffein. These conceptions are in the main 
incomplete and inaccurate. 

By means of careful work, Grafe" came 
closer to ascertaining the origin of the fuga- 
cious aromatic materials. His work with 
normal, caffein-free coffee and with Thum's 
purified coffee led him to state that a part 
of these substances was derived from the 
crude fiber, probably from the hemi-cellu- 
lose of the thick endosperm cells. Sayre" 
makes the most plausible proposal regard- 
ing the origin of caffeol. He considers the 
roasting of coffee as a destructive distilla- 
tion process, summarizing the results, 
briefly, as the production of furfuraldehyde 
from the carbohydrates, acrolein from the 
fats, catechol and pyrogallol from the tan- 
nins, and ammonia, amins, and pyrrols 
from the proteins. The products of roast- 
ing inter-react to produce many compounds 
of varying degrees of complexity and 

The great difficulty which arises in the 
attempt to identify the aromatic constit- 
uents of coffee is that the caffeols of no two 
coffees may be said to be the same. The 
reason for this is apparent; for the green 
coffees themselves vary in composition, and 
those of the same constitution are not 
roasted under identical conditions. There- 
fore, it is not to be expected that the de- 
composition products formed by the action 
of the different greens would be the same. 
Also, these volatile products occur in the 
roasted coffee in such a small amount that 
the ascertaining of their percentage rela- 
tionship and the recognition of all that are 
present are not possible with the methods 
of analysis at present at our disposal. 
Until better analytical procedures have 

^ Diet. App. Chem., 1913 (vol. li : p. 99). 

" [/. S. Dispensatory, 19th Ed, 1907 (p. 145). 

^^Monatsh. f. Chem. (vol. xxxiii : pp. 1389-1406). 

been developed we can not hope to estab- 
lish a chemical basis for the grading ol' 
coffees from this standpoint. 

Coffee Oil and Fat 

It is well to distinguish between the * ' cof- 
fee oils," as they are termed by the trade, 
and true coffee oil. In speaking of thi' 
qualities of coffee, connoisseurs frequently 
use erroneous terms, particularly when they 
designate certain of the flavoring and aro- 
matic constituents of coffee as "oils" or 
"essential oils." Coffee does not contain 
any essential oils, the aromatic constituent 
corresponding to essential oil in coffee being 
caffeol, a complex which is water-soluble, a 
property not possessed by any true oil. 
True, the oil when isolated from roasted 
coffee does possess, before purification, con- 
siderable of the aromatic and flavoring con- 
stituents of coffee. They are, however, no 
part of the coffee fat, but are held in it no 
doubt by an enfleurage action in much the 
same way that perfumes of roses, etc., are 
absorbed and retained by fats and oils in 
the commercial preparation of pomades and 
perfumes. This affinity of the coffee oil for 
caffeol assists in the retention of aromatic 
substances by the whole roasted bean. 
However, upon extraction of ground 
roasted coffee with water, the caffeol shows 
a preferential solubility in water, and is 
dissolved out from the oil, going into the 

The true oil of coffee has been investi- 
gated to a fair degree and has been found 
to be inodorous when purified. Analysis of 
green and roasted coffees shows them to 
possess between 12 percent and 20 percent 
fat. Warnier" extracted ground unroasted 
coffee with petroleum ether, washed the ex- 
tract with water, and distilled off the sol- 
vent, obtaining a yellow-brownish oil 
possessing a sharp taste. From his exam- 
ination of this oil he reported these con- 
stants: d24_5, 0.942; refraction at 25°, 
81.5 ; solidifying point, 6° to 5° ; melting 
point, 8° to 9° ; saponification number, 
177.5 ; esterification number, 166.7 ; acid 
number, 6.2 ; acetyl number, ; iodin num- 
ber, 84.5 to 86.3. Meyer and Eckert" care- 
fully purified coffee oil and saponified it 
with LigO in alcohol. In the saponifiable 
portion, glycerol was the only alcohol pres- 
ent, the acids being carnaubic, 10 percent; 
daturinic acid, 1 to 1.5 percent; palmitic 

^^^Apoth.-Ztg. (vol. xxii: pp. 919-20). 
Pharm. Weekbl., 1907 (vol. xxxvii). 
^ Monatsh. f. Chem. (vol. xxxi : p. 1227). 




id, 25 to 28 percent ; capric acid, 0.5 per- 
cent ; oleic acid, 2 percent, and linoleic acid, 
50 percent. The unsaponifiable wax 
amounted to 21.2 percent,, was nitrogen- 
free, gave a phytostearin reaction, and 
saponification and oxidation indicated that 
it was probably a tannol carnaubate. Von- 
Bitto'" examined the fat extracted from the 
inner husk of the coffee berry and found it 
to be faint yellow in color, and to solidify 
only gradually after melting. Upon analy- 
sis, it showed : saponification value, 141.2 ; 
palmitic acid, 37.84 percent, and glycerids 
as tripalmitin, 28.03 percent. 

Carbohydrates of the Coffee Berry 

There has been considerable diversity of 
opinion regarding the sugar of coffee. Bell 
believed the sugar to be of a peculiar species 
allied to melezitose, but Ewell,°" G. L. Spen- 
cer, and others definitely proved the pres- 
ence of sucrose in coffee. In fat-free coffee 
6 percent of sucrose was found extractable 
by 70 percent alcohol. Baker" claimed that 
manno-arabinose, or manno-xylose, formed 
one of the most important constituents of 
the coffee-berry substance and yielded man- 
nose on hydrolysis. Schultze and Maxwell 
state that raw coffee contains galactan, 
mannan, and pentosans, the latter present 
to the extent of 5 percent in raw and 3 per- 
cent in roasted coffee. By distilling coffee 
with hydrochloric acid Ewell obtained fur- 
furol equivalent to 9 percent pentose. He 
also obtained a gummy substance which, on 
hydrolysis, gave rise to a reducing sugar; 
and as it gave mucic acid and furfurol on 
oxidation, he concluded that it was a com- 
pound of pentose and galactose. In un- 
dressed Mysore coffee Commaille°' found 
2.6 percent of glucose and no dextrin. This 
claim of the presence of glucose in coffee 
was substantiated by the work of Hlasi- 
wetz,"" who resolved a caffetannie acid, 
which he had isolated, into glucose and a 
peculiar crystallizable acid, C8H8O4, which 
he named caffeic acid. 

The starch content of coffee is very low. 
Cereals may readily be detected and identi- 
fied in coffee mixtures by the presence and 
characteristics of their starch, in view of 
the fact that coffee (chicory, too) is prac- 
tically free from starch. On this score it is 
inadvisable for diabetics to use any of the 
many cereal substitutes for coffee. It is 

"Jour. Lnndw., 1904 (vol. Hi: p. 93). 

"> Amer. Chem. Jour., 1892 (vol. xiv : p. 47.3). 

"Analyst, 1902 (vol. xxvl : p. 116). 

''Mon. 8ci. (vol. iii : no. 6: p. 779). 

»»J. P. C, 1867 (p. 307). 

pertinent to note in this connection that 
persons suffering from diabetes may 
sweeten their coffee with saccharin (I/2 to 
1 grain per cup) or glycerol, thus obtaining 
perfect satisfaction without endangering 
their health. 

The cellulose in coffee is of a very hard 
and horny character in the green bean, but 
it is made softer and more brittle during 
the process of roasting. It is rather diffi- 
cult to define under the microscope, par- 
ticularly after roasting, even though the 
chief characteristics of the cellular tissue 
are more or less retained. Coffee cellulose 
gives a blue color with sulphuric acid and 
iodin, and is dissolved by an ammoniacal 
solution of copper oxid. Even after roast- 
ing, remnants of the silver skin are always 
present, the structure of which, a thin 
membrane with adherent, thick-walled, 
spindle-shaped, hollow cells, is peculiar to 

The Chemistry of Roasting 

The effect of the heat in the roasting of 
coffee is largely evidenced as a destructive 
distillation and also as a partial dehydra- 
tion. At the same time, oxidizing and 
reducing reactions probably occur within 
the bean, as well as some polymerization 
and inter-reactions. 

A loss of water is to be expected as the 
natural outcome of the application of heat ; 
and analyses show that the moisture con- 
tent of raw coffee varies from 8 to 14 per- 
cent, while after roasting it rarely exceeds 
3 percent, and frequently falls as low as 
0.5 percent. The loss of the original water 
content of the green bean is not the only 
moisture loss ; for many of the constituents 
of coffee, notably the carbohydrates, are de- 
composed upon heating to give off water, 
so that analysis before and after roasting is 
no direct indication of the exact amount of 
water driven off in the process. If it be 
desired to ascertain this quantity accu- 
rately, catching of the products which are 
driven off and determination of their water 
content becomes necessary. 

The carbohydrates both dehydrate and 
decompose. The result of the cjehydration 
is the formation of caramel and related 
products, which comprise the principal 
coloring matters in coffee infusion. That 
portion of the carbohydrates known as pen- 
tosans gives rise to furfuraldehyde, one of 
the important components of caffeol. 

The effect of roasting upon the fat con- 
tent of the beans is to reduce its actual 



weight, but not to change appreciably the 
percentage present, since the decrease in 
quantity keeps pace fairly well with the 
shrinkage. Some of the more volatile fatty 
acids are driven off, and the fats break 
down to give a larger percentage of free 
fatty acids, some light esters, acrolein, and 
formic acid. If the roast be a very heavy 
one, or is brought up too rapidly, the iai 
wall come to the surface, through breaking 
of the fat cells, with a decided alteration in 
the chemical nature of the fat and with 
pronounced expansion and cracking. 

Decomposition of the caffein acid-salt 
and considerable sublimation of the caffein 
also occur. The majority of the caffein un- 
dergoes this volatilization unchanged, but 
a portion of it is probably oxidized with the 
formation of ammonia, methylamin, di- 
methylparabanic acid, and carbon dioxid. 
This reaction partly explains why the 
amount of caffein recovered from the 
roaster flues is not commensurate with the 
amount lost from the roasting coffee; al- 
though incomplete condensation is also an 
important factor. Microscopic examination 
of the roasted beans will show occasional 
small crystals of caffein in the indentations 
on the surface, where they have been de- 
posited during the cooling process. 

The compound, or compounds, known as 
**caffetannic acid" are probably the source 
of catechol, as the proteins are of am- 
monia, amins, and pyrrols. The crude 
fiber and other unnamed constituents of 
the raw beans react analogously to similar 
compounds in the destructive distillation of 
wood, giving rise to acetone, various fatty 
acids, carbon dioxid and other uncondens- 
able gases, and many compounds of un- 
known identity. 

During the course of roasting and subse- 
quent cooling these decomposition products 
probably interact and polymerize to form 
aromatic tar-like materials and other com- 
plexes which play an important role among 
the delicate flavors of coffee. In fact, it is 
not unlikely that these reactions continue 
throughout the storage time after roasting, 
and that upon them the deterioration of 
roasted coffee is largely dependent. Specu- 
lation upon what complex compounds are 
thus formed offers much attraction. A 
notable one by Sayre"* postulates the reac- 
tion between acrolein and ammonia to give 
methyl pyridin, which in turn with fur- 
furol forms furfurol vinyl pyridin. This 

«» Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., 1918 <vol. xxviil : pp. 

upon reduction would produce the alkaloid, 
conin, traces of which have been found in 

Although furfuraldehyde is the natural 
decomposition product of pentosans, fur- 
furyl alcohol is the main furane body of 
coffee aroma. This would indicate that 
active reducing conditions prevail within 
the bean during roasting; and the further 
fact that carbon monoxid is given oft' dur- 
ing roasting makes this seem quite prob- 
able. If one admits that caffetannic acid 
exists in the green bean; that upon oxida- 
tion it gives viridic acid ; and that it is con- 
centrated in the outer layers of the bean, 
as certain investigators have claimed, then 
there is chemical proof of the existence of 
oxidizing conditions about the exterior of 
the bean. In any event, however, the fact 
that oxidizing conditions predominate on 
the external portion of the bean is obvious. 
Accordingly, our meager knowledge of the 
chemistry of roasting indicates that while 
the external layers of the roasting beans are 
subjected to oxidizing conditions, reducing 
ones exist in the interior. Future experi- 
mentation will, no doubt, prove this to be 
the case. 

Attempts have been made to retain in 
the beans the volatile products, which nor- 
mally escape, both by coating previous to 
roasting" and by conducting the process 
under pressure."' However, the results so 
obtained were not practical, since the cup 
values were decreased in the majority of 
cases;, and the physiological effects produced 
were undesirable. In cases where the qual- 
ity was improved, the gain was not suffi- 
cient to recompense the roaster for the ad- 
ditional expense and difficulty of operation. 

Various persons have essayed to control 
the roasting process automatically; but 
the extreme variance in composition of 
different coffees, the effect of changing 
atmospheric conditions, and the lack of 
constancy in the calorific power of fuels 
have conspired to defeat the automatic 
roasting machine." It is even doubtful 
whether De Mattia's" process for roasting 
until the vapors evolved produce a violet 
color when passed into a solution of fuchsin 
decolorized with sulphur dioxid is commer- 
cially reliable. 

81 Feitler, S. : Enj?. Pat., 19,84.5, Aug. 28, 1897. 

«U. S. Pat., 33,453, Oct. 8. 1861. 

U. S. Pat., 75.829, March 24. 1868, 

U. S. Pat., 701,750, June 3, 1902. 

«'U. S. Pat, 943, 238, Dec. 14. 1909. 

«*U. S. Pat., 703,508, July 1, 1902. 

U. S. Pat., 865,203, Sept. 3, 1907. 




Many patents have been granted for the 
treatment of coffees immediately prior to or 
during roasting with the object of thus im- 
proving the product. The majority of 
These depend upon adding solutions of 
sugar.'" calcium saccharate,"" or other carbo- 
hydrates,*' and in the case of Eckhardt,"" 
of small percentages of tannic acid and fat. 
In direct opposition to this latter practise, 
urgens and Westphaf" apply alkali, 
tensibly to lessen the "tannic acid" con- 

^ ''L^k 


tl Iff ^1 

Grouxd Coffee Under the Microscope 

tent. Brougier'" sprays a solution contain- 
ing caifein upon the roasting berries ; and 
Potter" roasts the coffee together with 
chicory, effecting a separation at the end. 
The exact effect which roasting with 
sugars has upon the flavor is not well un- 
derstood ;'but it is known that it causes the 
beans to absorb more moisture, due to the 
hygroscopicity of the caramel formed. For 
inrstance, berries roasted with the addition 
of glucose syrup hold an additional 7 per- 
cent of water and give a darker infusion 
than normally roasted coffee. When the 
green coffee is glazed with cane sugar prior 
to roasting, the losses during the process 
are much higher than ordinarily, on ac- 
count of the higher temperature required 
to attain the desired results. Losses for 
ordinary coffee taken to a 16-percent roast 
are 9.7 percent of the original fat and 21.1 

« Winter. H. : U. S. Pat., 997.4.31. Augr. 28, 1897. 

'"Simon, M., Jr.: Ger. Pat.. 2.53.419. Feb. 19. 1911. 

«' Von Niessen : British Pat., 7,417, Mar. 24, 1910. 

•« Eng. Pat., 5.776, Mar. 19, 1895. 

«»U. S. Pat, 832..322. 

">Eng. Pat., 8.270, April 24, 1893. 

«U. S. Pat., 994,785, June 13, 1911. 

percent of the original caffein ; while for 
"sugar glazed" coffee the losses were 18.3 
percent of the original fat and 44.3 percent 
of the original caffein, using 8 to 9 percent 
sugar with Java coffee. 

Grinding and Packaging 

It is a curious fact that green coffee im- 
proves upon aging, whereas after roasting 
it deteriorates with time. Even when 
packed in the best containers, age shows to 
a disadvantage on the roasted bean. This 
is due to a number of causes, among which 
are oxidation, volatilization of the aroma, 
absorption of moisture and consequent 
hydrolysis, and alteration in the character 
of the aromatic principles. Doolittle and 
Wright''' in the course of some extensive ex- 
periments found that roasted coffee showed 
a continual gain in weight throughout 60 
weeks, this gain being mostly due to mois- 
ture ab.sorption. An investigation by 
Gould" also demonstrated that roasted cof- 
fee gives off carbon dioxid and carbon 
monoxid upon standing. The latter, ap- 
parently produced during roasting and 
retained by the cellulffr structure of the 
bean, diffuses therefrom; whereas the 
former comes from an ante-roasting decom- 
position of unstable compounds present.'* 

The surface of the whole bean forms a 
natural protection against atmospheric in- 
fluences, and as soon as this is broken, de- 
terioration sets in. On this account, coffee 
should be ground immediately before ex- 
traction if maximum efficiency is to be 
obtained. The cells of the beans tend to 
retain the fugacious aromatic principles to 
a certain extent ; so that the more of these 
which are broken in grinding, the greater 
will be the initial loss and the more rapid 
the vitiation of the coffee. It might, there- 
fore, seem desirable to grind coarsely in 
order to avoid this as much as possible. 
However, the coarser the grind, the slower 
and more incomplete will be the extraction. 
A patent" has been granted for a grind 
which contains about 90 percent fine coffee 
and 10 percent coarse, the patentee's claim 
being that in his "irregular grind" the 
coarse coffee retains enough of the volatile 
constituents to flavor the beverage, while 
the fine coffee gives a very high extraction, 

".4m. J. P^ar»»./l915 (vol. Ixxxvil : pp. 524-26). 

" Orig. Com. 8th Intern. Cong. Appl. Chetn. 
(Apprn ) (vol. xxvl : p. 389) 

'♦ Ten d Coffee Trade Jour., 1920 (vol. xxxlx : pp. 

« King, J. E. : U. S. Pat. 1,263,434. 



thus giving an efficient brew without sacri- 
ficing individuality. 

In packaging roasted coffee the whole 
bean is naturally the best form to employ, 
but if the coffee is ground first, King'" 
found that deterioration is most rapid with 
the coarse ground coffee, the speed decreas- 
ing with the size of the ground particles. 
He explains this on the ground of ' ' ventila- 
tion" — the finer the grind, the closer the 
particles pack together, the less the circula- 
tion of air through the mass, and the 
smaller the amount of aroma which is car- 
ried away. He also found that glass makes 
the best container for coffee, with the tin 
can, and the foil-lined bag with an inner 
lining of glassine, not greatly inferior. 

Considerable publicity has been given 
recently to the method of packing coffee in 
a sealed tin under reduced pressure. While 
thus packing in a partial vacuum undoubt- 
edly retards oxidation and precludes escape 
of aroma from the original package, it 
would seem likely to hasten the initial vola- 
tilizing of the aroma. Also, it would appear 
from Gould's" work that roasted coffee 
evolves carbon dioxid until a certain posi- 
tive pressure is attained, regardless of the 
initial pressure in the container. Accord- 
ingly, vacuum-packing apparently enhances 
decomposition of certain constituents of 
coffee. "Whether this result is beneficial or 
otherwise is not quite clear. 


The old-time boiling method of making 
coffee has gone out of style, because the 
average consumer is becoming aware of the 
fact that it does not give a drink of maxi- 
mum efficiency. Boiling the ground coffee 
with water results in a large loss of aro- 
matic principles by steam distillation, a 
partial hydrolysis of insoluble portions of 
the grounds, and a subsequent extraction of 
the products thus formed, which give a bit- 
ter flavor to the beverage. Also, the main- 
tenance of a high temperature by the direct 
application of heat has a deleterious effect 
upon the substances in solution. This is 
also true in the ease of the pumping perco- 
lator, and any other device wherein the 
solution is caused to pass directly into 
steam at the point where heat is applied. 
Warm and cold water extract about the 
same amount of material from coffee; but 
with different rates of speed, an increase 

"Tea 4c Coffee Trade Jour., 1917 (vol. xxxiii : pp. 

■'■' hoc. cit. (see 73). 

in temperature decreasing the time neces- 
sary to effect the desired result. 

It is a well known fact that rewarming a 
coffee brew has an undesirable effect upon 
it. This is very probably due to the pre- 
cipitation of some of the water-soluble 
proteins when the solution cools, and their 
subsequent decomposition when heat is ap- 
plied directly to them in reheating the solu- 
tion. The absorption of air by the solution 
upon cooling, with attendant oxidation, 
which is accentuated by the application of 
heat in rewarming, must also be considered. 
It is likewise probable that when ap extract 
of coffee cools upon standing, some of the 
aromatic principles separate out and are 
lost by volatilization. 

The method of extracting coffee which 
gives the most satisfaction is practised by 
using a grind just coarse enough to retain 
the individualistic flavoring components, 
retaining the ground coffee in a fine cloth 
bag, as in the urn system, or on a filter 
paper, as in the Tricolator, and pouring 
water at boiling temperature over the cof- 
fee. During the extraction, a top should 
be kept on the device to minimize volatiliza- 
tion, and the temperature of the extract 
should be maintained constant at about 
200° F. after being made. Whether a re- 
pouring is necessary or not is dependent 
upon the speed with which the water passes 
through the coffee, which in turn is con- 
trolled by the fineness of the grind and of 
the filtering medium. 

The Water Extract 

Although many analyses of the whole 
coffee bean are available, but little work 
has been reported upon the aqueous ex- 
tracts. The total water extract of roasted 
coffee varies from 20 to 31 percent in dif- 
ferent kinds of coffee. The following 
analysis of the extract from a Santos coffee 
may be taken as a fair average example of 
the water-soluble material.'' 

Table IV- — Analysis of Santos Coffee Extract 
(Dry Basis) 

Ether extract, fixed 1.06% 

Total nitrogen 3.40% 

Caffein 5.42% 

Crude fiber 0.25% 

Total ash 17.43% 

Reducing sugar 2.70% 

Caffetannic acid 15.33% 

Protein 7.71% 

It is difficult to make the trade ternis, 
such as acidity, astringency, etc., used in 
describing a cup of coffee, conform with the 

'"Tea d Coffee Trade Jour., 1911 (vol. xx : p. 34)- 



_emical meanings of the same terms, 
owever, a fair explanation of the cause of 
ime of these qualities can be made. Care- 
1 work by Warnier" showed the actual 
iidities of some East India coffees to be : 

'ABLE V — Acidity of Some East India Coffees 
ffee from Acid Content 

Sindjai 0.033% 

Timor 0.028% 

' Bauthain 0.019% 

^K Boengei 0.016% 

^B Loewae 0.021% 

^^" Waloe Pengenteu 0.018% 

Kawi Redjo 0.015% 

Palman Tjiasem 0.022% 

Malang 0.013% 

These figures may be taken as reliable 
examples of the true acid content of coffee ; 
and though they seem very low, it is not at 
all incomprehensible that the acids which 
they indicate produce the acidity in a cup 
of coffee. They probably are mainly vola- 
tile organic acids, together with other 
acidic-natured products of roasting. "We 
know that very small quantities of acids are 
readily detected in fruit juices and beer, 
and that variation in their percentage is 
quickly noticed, while the neutralization of 
this small amount of acidity leaves an in- 
sipid drink. Hence, it seems quite likely 
that this small acid content gives to the 
coffee brew its essential acidity. A few 
minor experiments on neutralization have 
proven that a very insipid beverage is pro- 
duced by thus treating a coffee infusion. 

The body, or what might be called the 
licorice-like character, of coffee, is due 
conceivably to the presence of bodies of a 
glucosidic nature and to caramel. Astrin- 
gency, or bitterness, is dependent upon the 
decomposition products of crude fiber and 
chlorogenic acid, and upon the soluble min- 
eral content of the bean. The degree to 
which a coffee is sweet-tasting or not is, of 
course, dependent upon its other charac- 
teristics, but probably varies with the re- 
ducing sugar content. Aside from the 
effects of these constituents upon cup qual- 
ity, the influence of volatile aromatic and 
flavoring constituents is always evident in 
the cup valuation, and introduces a con- 
trolling factor in the production of an 
individualistic drink. 

Coffee Extracts 

I The uncertainty of the quality of coffee 

' brews as made from day to day, the incon- 

^*Phnrm. WeekM. voor Nederl., 1899 (no. 13). 
Apoth. Ztg., 1899 (p. 14). 

venience to the housewife of conducting the 
extraction, and the inevitable trend of the 
human race toward labor-saving devices, 
have combined their influences to produce a 
demand for a substance which will give a 
good cup of coffee when added to water. 
This gave rise to a number of concentrated 
liquid and solid ''extracts of coffee," which, 
because of their general poor quality, soon 
brought this type of product into disrepute. 
This is not surprising; for these prepara- 
tions were mainly mixtures of caramel and 
carelessly prepared extracts of chicory, 
roasted cereals, and cheap coffee. 

Liquid extracts of coffee galore have ap- 
peared on the market only soon to disap- 
pear. Difficulty is experienced in having 
them maintain their quality over a pro- 
tracted period of time, primarily due to 
the hydrolyzing action of water on the 
dissolved substances. They also ferment 
readily, although a small percentage of 
preservative, such as benzoate of soda, will 
halt spoilage.'" 

So much trouble is not encountered with 
coffee-extract powders — the so-called 
"soluble" or "instant" coffees. The ma- 
jority of these powdered dry extracts do, 
however, show great affinity for atmos- 
pheric moisture. Their hygroscopicity 
necessitates packing and keeping them in 
air-tight containers to prevent them run- 
ning into a solid, slowly soluble mass. 

The general method of procedure em- 
ployed in the preparation of these powders 
is to extract ground roasted coffee with 
water, and to evaporate the aqueous solu- 
tion to dryness with great care. The major 
difficulty which seems to arise is that the 
heat needed to effect evaporation changes 
the character of the soluble material, at the 
same time driving off some volatile con- 
stituents which are essential to a natural 
flavor. Many complex and clever processes 
have been developed for avoiding these 
difficulties, and quite a number of patents 
on processes, and several on the resultant 
product, have been allowed; but the com- 
mercial production of a soluble coffee of 
freshly-brewed-coffee-duplicating-power is 
yet to be accomplished. However, there 
are now on the market several coffee-extract 
powders which dissolve readily in water, 
giving quite a fair approximation of freshly 
brewed coffee. The improvement shown 

<^ Jour. Assoc. Off. Agri. Chem., 1920 (vol. ill: p. 



since they first appeared augurs well for 
the eventual attainment of their ultimate 

Adulterants and Substitutes 

There would appear to be three reasons 
why substitutes for coffee are sought — the 
high cost, or absence, of the real product; 
the acquiring of a preferential taste, by the 
consumer, for the substitute; and the in- 
jurious effects of coffee when used to excess. 
Makers of coffee substitutes usually empha- 
size the latter reason ; but many substitutes, 
which are, or have been, on the market, 
seem to depend for their existence on the 
other two. Properly speaking, there are 
scarcely any real substitutes for coffee. 
The substances used to replace it are mostly 
like it only in appearance, and barely simu- 
late it in taste. Besides, many of them are 
not used alone, but are mixed with real 
coffee as adulterants. 

The two main coffee substitutes are 
chicory and cereals. Chicory, succory, 
Cichorium Iniybus, is a perennial plant, 
growing to a height of about three feet, 
bearing blue flowers, having a long tap root, 
and possessing a foliage which is sometimes 
used as cattle food. The plant is cultivated 
generally for the sake of its root, which is 
cut into slices, kiln-dried, and then roasted 
in the same manner as coffee, usually. with 
the addition of a small proportion of some 
kind of fat. The preparation and use of 
roasted chicory originated in Holland, 
about 1750. Fresh chicory'' contains about 
77 percent water, 7.5 gummy matter, 1.1 of 
glucose, 4.0 of bitter extractive, 0.6 fat, 9.0 
cellulose, inulin and fiber, and 0.8 ash. 
Pure roasted chicory" contains 74.2 percent 
water-soluble material, comprised of 16.3 
percent water, 26.1 glucose, 9.6 dextrin and 
inulin, 3.2 protein, 16.4 coloring matter, 
and 2.6 ash; and 25.8 percent insoluble 
substances, namely, 3.2 percent protein, 5.7 
fat, 12.3 cellulose, and 4.6 ash. The effect 
of roasting upon chicory is to drive off a 
large percentage of water, increasing the 
reducing sugars, changing a large propor- 
tion of the bitter extractives and inulin, and 
forming dextrin and caramel as well as the 
characteristic chicory flavor. 

The cereal substitutes contain almost 
every type of grain, mainly wheat, rye, 
oats, buckwheat, and bran. They are pre- 
pared in two general ways, by roasting the 

» Blyth, Wynter. Foods. 1909 (p. 3.59> 

»2 Petermann. Bied. Zentr., 1899 (vol. ii : p. 211). 

grains, or the mixtures of grains, with or 
Avithout the addition of such substances as 
sugar, molasses, tannin, citric acid, etc., or 
by first making the floured grains into a 
dough, and then baking, grinding, and 
roasting. Prior to these treatments, the 
grains may be subjected to a variety of 
other treatments, such as impregnation 
with various compounds, or germination. 
The effect of roasting on these grains and 
other substitutes is the production of a 
destructive distillation, as in the case of 
coffee; the crude fiber, starches, and other 
carbohydrates, etc., being decomposed, with 
the production of a flavor and an aroma 
faintly suggesting coffee. 

The number of other substitutes and imi- 
tations which have been employed are too 
numerous to warrant their complete de- 
scription; but it will prove interesting to 
enumerate a few of the more important 
ones, such as malt, starch, acorns, soya 
beans, beet roots, figs, prunes, date stones, 
ivory nuts, sweet potatoes, beets, carrots, 
peas, and other vegetables, bananas, dried 
pears, grape seeds, dandelion roots, rinds 
of citrus fruits, lupine seeds, whey, pea- 
nuts, juniper berries, rice, the fruit of the 
wax palm, cola nuts, chick peas, cassia 
seeds, and the seeds of any trees and plants 
indigenous to the country in which the 
substitute is produced. 

Aside from adulteration by mixing sub- 
stitutes with ground coffee, and an occa- 
sional case of factitious molded berries, the 
main sophistications of coffee comprise 
coating and coloring the whole beans. 
Coloring of green and roasted coffees is 
practised to conceal damaged and inferior 
beans. Lead and zinc chromates, Prussian 
blue, ferric oxid, coal-tar colors, and other 
substances of a harmful nature, have been 
employed for this purpose, being made to 
adhere to the beans with adhesives. As 
glazes and coatings, a variety of substances 
have been emplyyed, such as butter, mar- 
garin, vegetable oils, paraffin, vaseline, 
gums, dextrin, gelatin, resins, glue, milk, 
glycerin, salt, sodium bicarbonate, vinegar, 
Irish moss, isinglass, albumen, etc. It is 
usually claimed that coating is applied to 
retain aroma and to act as a clarifying 
agent; but the real reasons are usually to 
increase weight through absorption of 
water, to render low-grade coffees more at-' 
tractive, to eliminate by-products, and to 
assist in advertising. 



{Official and Tentative) 

(Sole responsibility for any errors in compilation 
printing of these metliods is assumed by the 

Green Coffee 
, Macroscopic Examination — Tentative 
A macroscopic exaniiuation is usually sufficient 
) show the presence of excessive amounts of 
black and blighted coffee beans, coffee hulls, 
stones, and other foreign matter. These can be 
iparated by hand-picking and determined gravi- 

Coloring Matters — Tentative 

Shake vigorously 100 grams or more of the 

iple with cold water or 70 percent alcohol by 
>lume. Strain through a coarse sieve and 
low to settle. Identify soluble colors in the 
)lution and insoluble pigments in the sediment. 

Roasted Coffee 
Macroscopic Examination — Tentative 
Artificial coffee beans are apparent from their 
Sxact regularity of form. Roasted legumes and 
lumps of chicory, when present in whole roasted 
coffee, can be picked out and identified micro- 
scopically. In the case of ground coffee, si>rinkle 
some of the sample on cold water and stir 
lightly. Fragments of pure coffee, if not over- 
roasted, will float ; while fragments of chicory, 
legumes, cereals, etc., will sink immediately, 
I'hicory coloring the water a decided brown. In 
all cases identify the particles that sink by 
microscopical examination. 

4. Preparation of Sample — Official 

Grind the sample to pass through a sieve hav- 
ing holes 0.5 mm. in diameter and preserve in a 
tightly stoppered bottle. 

r>. Moisture — Tentative 

Dry 5 gi'ams of the sample at 105° - 110° C. for 
5 hours and subsequent periods of an hour each 
until constant weight is obtained. The same pro- 
cedure may be used, drying in vacuo at the tem- 
perature of boiling water. In the case of whole 
coffee, grind rapidly to a coarse powder and 
weigh at once portions for the determination 
without sifting and without unnecessary ex- 
posure to the air. 

6. Soluble Solids — Tentative 
Place 4 grams of the sample in a 200-cc. flask, 

add water to the mark, and allow the mass to 
infuse for eight hours, with occasional shaking ; 
let stand IG hours longer without shaking, filter, 
evaporate 50 cc. of filtrate to dryness in a flat- 
bottomed dish, dry at 100° C, cool and weigh. 

7. Ash — Official 
Char a quantity of the substance, rei>resenting 

al>out 2 grams of the dry material, and burn 
until free of carbon at a low heat, not to exceed 
dull redness. If a carbon-free ash can not be 
obtained in this manner, exhaust the charred 
mass with hot water, collect the insoluble resi- 
due on a filter, burn till the ash is white or 
nearly so. and then add the filtrate to the ash 
and evaporate to dryness. Heat to low redness, 
until ash is white or grayish white, and weigh. 

^ Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 
Sept. 1920. 

8. Ash Insoluble in Acid — Official 

Boil the water-insoluble residue, obtained as 
directed under 9, or the total ash obtained as 
directed under 7, with 25 cc. of 10-perceut hydro- 
chloric acid (sp. gr. 1.050) for 5 minutes, collect 
the insoluble matter on a Gooch crucible or an 
ashless filter, wash with hot water, ignite and 

9. Soluble and Insoluble Ash — Official 

Heat 5 to 10 grams of the sample in a plati- 
num dish of from 50 to 100 cc. capacity at 100° 
C. until the water is expelled, and add a few 
drops of pure olive oil and heat slowly over a 
rtame until swelling ceases. Then place the dish 
in a muffle and heat at low redness until a white 
ash is obtained. Add water to the ash, in the 
platinum dish, heat nearly to boiling, filter 
through ash-free filter paper, and wash with hot 
water until the combined filtrate and washings 
measure to about 00 cc. Return the filter and 
contents to the platinum dish, carefully ignite, 
cool and weigh. Compute percentages of water- 
insoluble ash and water-soluble ash. 

10. Alkalinity of the Soluble Ash — Official 
Cool the filtrate from 9 and titrate with N/10 

hydrochloric acid, using methyl orange as an 

Express the alkalinity in terms of the number 
of cc. of N/10 acid per 1 gram of the sample. 

11. Soluble Phosphoric Acid in the Ash — Official 
Acidify the solution of soluble ash, obtained in 

9, with dilute nitric acid and determine phos- 
phoric acid (PoOs). For percentages up to 5 
use an aliquot corresponding to 0.4 gram of sub- 
stance, for percentages between 5 and 20 use an 
aliquot corresponding to 0.2 gram of substance, 
and for percentages above 20 use an aliquot cor- 
responding to 0.1 gram of substance. Dilute to 
75 - 100 cc, heat in a water-bath to 60° - 65° C, 
and for percentages below 5 add 20 - 25 cc. of 
freshly filtered molybdate solution. For per- 
centages between 5 and 20 add 30 - 35 cc. of 
molybdate solution. For percentages greater 
than 20 add sufficient iholybdate solution to in- 
sure complete precii>itation. Stir, let stand in 
the bath for about 15 minutes, filter at once, 
wash once or twice with water by decantation, 
using 25-30 cc. each time, agitate the precipi- 
tate thoroughly and allow to settle; transfer to 
the filter and wash with cold water until the 
filtrate from two fillings of the filter yields a 
pink color upon the addition of phenolphthalein 
and one drop of the standard alkali. Transfer 
the precipitate and filter to the beaker, or pre- 
cipitating vessel, dissolve the precipitate in a 
small excess of the standard alkali, add a few 
drops of phenolphthalein solution, and titrate 
with the standard acid. 

12. Insoluble Phosphoric Acid in the Ash — 

Determine iihosphoric acid (P3O5) in the in- 
soluble ash by the foregoing method. 

13. Chlorids — Official 

Moisten 5 grams of the substance in a plati- 
num dish with 20 cc. of a 5-percent solution of 
sodium carbonate, evaporate to dryness and 
ignite as thoroughly as possible at a temperature 
not exceeding dull redness. Extract with hot 
water, filter and wash. Return the residue to 



the platinum dish and ignite to an ash ; dissolve 
In nitric acid, and add this solution to the 
water extract. Add a linown volume of N/10 
sliver nitrate In slight excess to the combined 
solutions. Stir well, filter and wash the sliver 
chlorld precipitate thoroughly. To the filtrate 
and washings add 5 cc. of a saturated solution 
of ferric alum and a few cc. of nitric acid. 
Titrate the excess silver with N/10 ammonium 
or potassium thlocyanate until a permanent light 
brown color appears. Calculate the amount of 

14. Caffein — The Fendler and Stiiber Method — 
Pulverize the coffee to pass without residue 
through a sieve having circular openings 1 mm. 
in diameter. Treat a 10-gram sample with 10 
grams of 10-percent ammonium hydroxld and 
200 grams of chloroform in a glass-stoppered 
bottle and shake continuously by machine or 
hand for one-half hour. Pour the entire con- 
tents of the bottle on a 12.5-cm. folded filter, 
covering with a watch glass. Weigh 150 grams 
of the filtrate into a 250-cc. flask and evaporate 
on the_ steam bath, removing the last chloroform 
with a blast of air. Digest the residue with 
80 cc. of hot water for ten minutes on a steam 
bath with frequent shaking, and let cool. Treat 
the solution with 20 cc. (for roasted coftee) or 
10 cc. (for unroasted coffee) of 1-percent potas- 
sium permanganate and let stand for 15 minutes 
at room temperature. Add 2 cc. of 3-percent 
hydrogen peroxid (containing 1 cc. of glacial 
acetic acid in 100 cc). If the liquid is still red 
or reddish, add hydrogen peroxid, 1 cc. at a 
time, until the excess of potassium permanganate 
is destroyed. Place the flask on the steam bath 
for 15 minutes, adding hydrogen peroxid in 
0.5-cc. portions until the liquid becomes no 
lighter in color. Cool and filter into a separa- 
tory funnel, washing with cold water. Extract 
four times with 25 cc. of chloroform. Evaporate 
the chloroform extract from a weighed flask 
with aid of an air blast and dry at 100° C. to 
constant weight (one-half hour is usually suffi- 
cient). Weigh the residue as caffein and 
calculate on 7.5 grams of coffee. Test the purity 
of the residue by determining nitrogen and mul- 
tiplying by 3.464 to obtain caffein. 

15. Caffein — Power-Chestnut Method — Official 
Moisten 10 grams of the finely powdered 
sample with alcohol, transfer to a Soxhlet, or 
similar extraction apparatus, and extract with 
alcohol for 8 hours. (Care should be exercised 
to assure complete extraction.) Transfer the 
extract with the aid of hot water to a porcelain 
dish containing 10 grams of heavy magnesium 
oxdd in suspension in 100 cc. of water. (This 
reagent should meet the U. S. P. requirements.) 
Evaporate slowly on the steam bath with fre- 
quent stirring to a dry, powdery mass. Rub the 
residue with a pestle into a paste with boiling 
water. Transfer with hot water to a smooth 
filter, cleaning the dish with a rubber-tipped 
glass rod. Collect the filtrate in a liter flask 
marked at 250 cc. and wash with boiling water 
until the filtrate reaches the mark. Add 10 cc. of 
10-percent sulphuric acid and boil gently for 30 
minutes with a funnel in the neck of the flask. 
Cool and fllter through a moistened double paper 
into a separatory funnel and wash with small 

portions of 0.5-percent sulphuric acid. Extract 
with six successive 25-cc. portions of chloro- 
form. Wash the combined chloroform ex- 
tracts in a separatory funnel with 5 cc. of 
1-percent potassium hydroxld solution. Fil- 
ter the chloroform into an Erlenmeyer flask. 
Wash the potassium hydroxld with 2 portions 
of chloroform of 10 cc. each, adding them to the 
flask together with the chloroform washings of 
the filter paper. Evaporate or disitil on the 
steam bath to a small volume (10-15 cc.) , trans- 
fer with chloroform to a tared, beaker, evaporate 
carefully, dry for 30 minutes in a water oven, 
and weigh. The purity of the residue can be 
tested by determining nitrogen and multiplying 
by the factor 3.464. 

16. Crude Fiber — Official 

Prepare solutions of sulphuric acid and sodium 
hydroxld of exactly 1.25-percent strength, deter- 
mined by titration. Extract a quantity of the 
substance representing about 2 grams of the dry 
material with ordinary ether, or use residue 
from the determination of the ether extract. 
To this residue in a 500-cc. flask add 200 cc. 
of boiling 1.25-percent sulphuric acid ; connect 
the flask with a reflux condenser, the tube of 
which passes only a short distance beyond the 
rubber stopper into the flask, or simply cover a 
tall conical flask, which is well suited for this 
determination, with a watch glass or short 
stemmed funnel. Boil at once and continue boil- 
ing gently for thirty minutes. A blast of air 
conducted into the flask may serve to reduce the 
frothing of the liquid. Filter through linen, and 
wash with boiling water until the washings are 
no longer acid ; rinse the substance back into 
the flask with 200 cc. of the boiling 1.25-ipercent 
solution of sodium hydroxld free, or nearly so, 
of sodium carbonate ; boil at once and continue 
boiling gently for thirty minutes in the same 
manner as directed above for the treatment with 
acid. Filter at once rapidly, wash with boiling 
water until the washings are neutral. The last 
filtration may be performed upon a Gooch 
crucible, a linen filter, or a tared filter paper. 
If a linen filter is used, rinse the crude fiber, 
after washing is completed, into a flat-bottomed 
platinum dish by means of a jet of water ; 
evaporate to dryness on a steam bath, dry to 
constant weight at 110° C, weigh, incinerate 
completely, and weigh again. The loss in weight 
is considered to be crude fiber. If a tared filter 
paper is used, weigh in a weighing bottle. In 
any case, the crude fiber after drying to con- 
stant weight at 110° C, must be incinerated and 
the amount of the ash deducted from the original 

17. Starch — Tentative 

Extract 5 grams of the finely pulverized 
sample on a hardened filter with five successive 
portions (10 cc. each) of ether, wash with small 
portions of J>5-percent alcohol by volume until 
a total of 200 cc. have passed through, place the 
residue in a beaker with 50 cc. of water, im- 
merse the beaker in boiling water and stir con- 
stantly for 15 minutes or until all the starch is 
gelatinized ; cool- to 55° C, add 20 cc. of malt 
extract and maintain at this temperature for an 
hour. Heat again to boiling for a few minutes, 
cool to 55° C, add 20 cc. of malt extract and 
maintain at this temperature for an hour or 
until the residue treated with iodln shows no 



l)lue color upon microscopic examination. Cool, 
make up directly to 250 cc, and filter. Place 
1100 cc. of the filtrate in a fiask with 20 cc. of 
liydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.125) ; connect with a 
loflux condenser and heat in a boiling water 
bath for 2.5 hours. Cool, nearly neutralize with 
sodium hydroxid solution, and make up to 500 
cc. Mix the solution well, pour through a dry 
filter and determine the dextrose In an aliquot. 
Conduct a blank determination upon the same 
volume of the malt extract as used upon the 
sample, and correct the weight of reduced cop- 

;r accordingly. The weight of the dextrose 
Obtained multiplied by 0.90 gives the weight of 

|8. Sugars — Tentative 

See original."' 
19. Petroleum Ether Extract — Official 

Dry 2 grams of coffee at 100° C, extract with 

?troleum ether (boiling point 35° to 50° C.) for 
IG hours, evaporate the solvent, dry the residue 
It 100° C, cool, and weigh. 
Total Aciditu — Tentative 

Treat 10 grams of the sample, prepared as 
lirected under 4, wdth 75 cc. of 80-percent alco- 
hol by volume in an Erlenmeyer flask, stopper, 
md allow to stand 16 hours, shaking occasion- 
illy. Filter and transfer an aliquot of the 
lltrate (25 cc. in the case of green coffee, 10 cc. 
In the case of roasted coffee; to a beaker, dilute 
|o about 100 cc. with water and titrate with 

f/10 alkali, using phenolphthalein as an indi- 
Bator. Express the result as the number of cc. 
)f N/10 alkali required to neutralize the acidity 
)f 100 grams of the sample. 

21. Volatile Acidity — Tentative 

Into a volatile acid apparatus introduce a few 
glass beads, and over these place 20 grams of 
the unground sample. Add 100 cc. of recently 
boiled water to the sample, place a sufficient 
quantity of recently boiled water in the outer 
flask and distil until the distillate is no longer 
acid to litmus paper. Usually 100 cc. of distillate 
will be collected. Titrate the distillate with 
N/10 alkali, using phenolphthalein as an indi- 
cator. Express the result as the number of cc. 
of N/10 alkali required to neutralize the acidity 
of 100 grams of the sample. 

Unofficial Methods 

22. Protein 

Determine nitrogen in 3 grams of the sample 
by the Kjeldahl or Gunning method. This gives 

the total nitrogen due to both the proteids and 
the caCfein. To obtain the protein nitrogen, sub- 
tract from the total nitrogen the nitrogen due to 
caffein, obtained by direct determination on the 
separated caffein or by calculation (caffein 
divided by 3.464 gives nitrogen). Multiply by 
0.25 to obtain the amount of protein. 

23. Ten Percent Extract — McGill Method 
Weigh into a tared flask the equivalent of 10 

grams of the dried substance, add water until 
the contents of the flask weigh 110 grams, con- 
nect with a reflux condenser and heat, beginning 
the boiling in 10 to 15 minutes. Boil for 1 hour, 
cool for 15 minutes, weigh again, making up 
any loss by the addition of water, filter, and 
take the specific gravity of the filtrate at 15° C. 

According to McGill, a 10-percent extract of 
pure coffee has a specific gravity of 1.00986 at 
15° C, and under the same treatment chicory 
gives an extract with a specific gravity of 
1.02821. In mixtures of coffee and chicory the 
approximate percentage of chicory may be cal- 
culated by the following formula : 

(1.02821 — 

Percent of chicory = 100 • 


The index of refraction of the above solution 
may be taken with the Zeiss immersion refrac- 
tometer or with the Abbe refractometer. 

With a 10-percent coffee extract, n^ 20° = 

With a 10-percent chicory extract, n^ 20° = 

Determinations of the solids, ash, sugar, nitro- 
gen, etc., may be made in the 10-percent extract, 
if desired. 

24. Caffetannic Acid — Krug's Method^* 

Treat 2 grains of the coffee with 10 cc. ol 
water and digest for 36 hours ; add 25 cc. of 90- 
percent alcohol and digest 24 hours more, filter, 
and wash with 90-percent alcohol. The filtrate 
contains tannin, caffein, color, and fat. Heat the 
filtrate to the boiling point and add a saturated 
solution of lead acetate. If this is carefully 
done, a caffetannate of lead will be precipitated 
containing 49 percent of lead. As soon as the 
precipitate has become flocculent, collect on a 
tared filter, wash with 90-percent alcohol until 
free from lead, wash with ether, dry and weigh. 
The precipitate multiplied by 0.51597 gives the 
weight of the caffetannic acid. 

"^ Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 
Sept., ]!)20. 

"U. S. Dept. Agri., Div. of Chem. Bull. 13 (pt. 7: 
p. 908). 

Chapter XVIII 

General physiological action — Effect on children — Effect on longev- 
ity — Behavior in the alimentary regime — Place in dietary — Action 
on bacteria — Use in medicine — Physiological action of " caff etannic 
acid" — Of caffeol — Of caffein — Effect of caffein on mental and 
motor efficiency — Conclusions 

By Charles W. Trigg 

Indnsti-ial Fellow of the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, Pittsburgh, 191G-1920 

THE published information regarding 
the effects of coffee drinking on the 
human system is so contradictory in 
its nature that it is hazardous to make 
many generalizations about the physiologi- 
cal behavior of coffee. Most of the investi- 
gations that have been conducted to date 
have been characterized by incompleteness 
and a failure to be sufficiently comprehen- 
sive to eliminate the element of individual 
-idiosyncrasy from the results obtained. Ac- 
cordingly, it is possible to select statements 
from literature to the effect either that cof- 
fee is an ''elixir of life," or even a poison. 
This is a deplorable state of affairs, nor 
calculated to promote the dissemination of 
accurate knowledge among the consuming 
public, but it may be partly excused upon 
the grounds that experimental apparatus 
has not always been at the level of perfec- 
tion that it now occupies. Also, to do jus- 
tice to some of the able men who have 
interested themselves in this problem, it 
should be said that some of their results 
were obtained in researches, distinguished 
by painstaking accuracy, which have ef- 
fected the establishment of the major reac- 
tions of ingested coffee. 

The Physiological Action of Coffee 

Drinking of coffee by mankind may be 
attributed to three causes : the demand for, 
and the pleasing effects of, a hot drink (a 

very small percentage of the coffee con- 
sumed is taken cold), the pleasing reaction 
which its flavors excite on the gustatory 
nerve, and the stimulating effect which it 
has upon the body. The flavor is due 
largely to the volatile aromatic constit- 
uents, "caffeol," which, when isolated, have 
a general depressant action on the system; 
and the stimulation is caused by the caffein. 
The general and specific actions of these in- 
dividual components, together with that of 
the hypothetical "caffetannic acid," are 
considered under separate headings. 

Coffee may be considered a member of 
the general class of adjuvant, or auxiliary, 
foods to which other beverages and condi- 
ments of negligible inherent food value be- 
long. Its position on the average menu 
may be attributed largely to its palatability 
and comforting effects. However, the 
medicinal value of coffee in the dietary and 
per se must not be overlooked. 

The ingestion o,f coffee infusion is always 
followed by evidences of stimulation. It 
acts upon the nervous system as a powerful 
cerebro-spinal stimulant, increasing mental 
activity and quickening the power of per- 
ception, thus making the thoughts more 
precise and clear, and intellectual work 
easier without any evident subsegirent de- 
pression. The muscles are^caused to con- 
tract more vigorously, increasing their 
working power without there being any 




secondary reaction leading to a diminished 
capacity for work. Its action upon the cir- 
culation is somewhat antagonistic; for 
hile it tends to increase the rate of the 
eart by acting directly on the heart 
uscle, it tends to decrease it by stimulat- 
ing the inhibitory center in the medulla/ 
The effect on the kidneys is more marked, 
he diuretic effect being shown by an in- 
rease in water, soluble solids, and of uric 
cid directly attributable to the caffein con- 
ent of the coffee taken. In the alimentary 
iract coffee seems to stimulate the oxyntic 
ells and slightly to increase the secretion 
of hydrochloric acid, as well as to favor in- 
testinal peristalsis. It is difficult to accept 
reports of coffee accomplishing both a de- 
crease in metabolism and an increase in 
body heat; but if the production of heat by 
^Bithe demethylation of caffein to form uric 
^Hftcid and a possible repression of perspira- 
^Hpion by coffee be considered, the simultane- 
^^Bus occurrence of these two physiological 
^^■•eactions may be credited. 
^L The disagreement of medical authorities 
over the pliysiological effects of coffee is 
quite pronounced. This may be observed 
by a careful perusal of the following state- 
ments made by these men. It will be no- 
ticed that the majority opinion is that 
coffee in moderation is not harmful. Just 
how much coffee a person may drink, and 
still remain within the limits of moderation 
and temperance, is dependent solely upon 
the individual constitution, and should be 
decided from personal experience rather 
than by accepting an arbitrary standard set 
by some one who professes to be an author- 
ity on the matter. 

A writer in the British Homeopathic Re- 
vieiv^ says that "the exciting effects of 
coffee upon the nervous system exhibit 
themselves in all its departments as a tem- 
porary exaltation. The emotions are raised 
in pitch, the fancies are lively and vivid, 
benevolence is excited, the religious sense is 
stimulated, there is great loquacity. . . . 
The intellectual powers are stimulated, 
both memory and judgment are rendered 
more keen and unusual vivacity of verbal 
expression rules for a short time." He 
continues : 

Hahnemann gives a characteristically careful 
account of the coffee headache. If the quantity 
of coffee taken he immoderately great and the 
l>ody he very excitable and quite unused to cof- 
fee, there occurs a semilateral headache from 

the upper part of the parietal hone to the base 
of the brain. The cerebml membranes of this 
side also seem to be painfully sensitive, the 
hands and feet becoming cold, and sweat ap- 
pears on the brows and palms. The disposition 
becomes irritable and intolerant, anxiety, trem- 
bling and restlessness are apparent. ... I 
have met with headaches of this type which 
yielded readily to coffee and with many more 
in which the indicated remedy failed to act until 
the use of coffee as a beverage was abandoned. 
The eyes and ears suffer alike from the super- 
excitation of coffee. There is a characteristic 
toothache associated with coffee. 

In apparent contradiction of this opin- 
ion, Dr. Valentin Nalpasse,' of the Faculty 
of Medicine of Paris, states : 

When coffee is properly made and taken in 
moderation, it is a most valuable drink. It 
facilitates the digestion because it produces a 
local excitement. Its principal action gives clear 
and stable imaginative power to the brain. By 
doing that, it makes intellectual work easy, -and, 
to a certain extent, regulates the functions of 
the brain. The thoughts become more precise 
and clear, and mental combinations are formed 
with much greater rapidity. Under the influ- 
ence of coffee, the memory is sometimes sur- 
prisingly active, and ideas and words flow with 
ease and elegance. . . . Many people abuse 
coffee without feeling any bad effect. 

Discussing the use and abuse of coffee, 
I. N. Love* says : 

The world has in the infusion of coffee one of 
its most valuable beverages. It is a prompt 
diffusible stimulant, antiseptic and encourager 
of elimination. In season it supports, tides over 
danger, helps the appropriate powers of the sys- 
tem, whips up the flagging energies, enhances 
the endurance ; but it is in no sense a food, and 
for this reason it should be used temperately. 

Also Dr. Jonathan Hutchinson' makes 
the following weighty pronouncement : 

In reference to my suggestion to give children 
tea and coffee, I may explain that it is done ad- 
visedly. There is probably no objection to their 
use even at early ages. They arouse the duU, 
calm the excitable, prevent headaches, and fit the 
brain for work. They preserve the teeth, keep 
them tight in their place, strengthen the vocal 
chords, and prevent sore throat. To stigmatize 
these invaluable articles of diet as "nerve stimu- 
lants" is an erroneous expression, for they un- 
doubtedly have a right to rank as nerve 

But Dr. Harvey Wiley" comes forth with 
evidence on the other side, saying: 

The effects of the excessive use of coffee, tea, 
and other natural caffein beverages is well 
known. Although the caffein is combined in these 

^Niles, G. M. Tea & Coffee Trade Jour., 1910 
(vol. xix : no. 1 : p. 27). 
"Through The Sun, New York, July 17. 1910. 

' Annales PoUtiquea et Littirairea, through Tea, d 
Coffee Trade Jour., 1906 (vol. x: p. 303). 

*Jour. Am. Med. Assoc., 1891 (vol. xvl). 

s The Times, London, Oct. 1, 1904 ; through Tea & 
Coffee Trade Jour, 1911 (vol. xxl : p. 36). 

« Oood Housekeeping, through Tea d Coffee Trade 
Jour., 1912 (vol. xxiii : p. 237). 



beverages naturally, and they are as a rule 
taken at meal times, which mitigates the effects 
of the caffein, they are recognized by every one 
as tending to produce sleeplessness, and often 
indigestion, stomach disorders, and a condition 
which, for lack of a better term, is described 
as nervousness. . . . The excessive drinking of 
tea and coffee is acknowledged to be injurious 
by practically all specialists. 

Dr. V. C. Vaughn/ of the University of 
Michigan, speaking of tea and coffee, ex- 
presses this opinion : 

I believe that caffein used as a beverage and 
in moderation not only is harmless to the ma- 
jority of adults, but is beneficial. 

This verdict is upheld by the results of a 
symposium" conducted by the Medical 
Times, in which a large majority of the 
medical experts participating, among whom 
may be enumerated Drs. Lockwood, Wood, 
Hollingworth, Robinson, and Barnes, 
agreed that the drinking of coffee is not 
harmful per se, but that over-indulgence is 
the real cause of any ill effects. This is also 
true of any ingested material. 

Insomnia is a condition frequently at- 
tributed to coffee, but that the authorities 
disagree on this ground is shown by 
Wiley's* contention, "We know beyond 
doubt that the caffein (in coffee) makes a 
direct attack on the nerves and causes in- 
somnia." While Woods Hutchinson' ob- 
serves : 

Oddly enough, a cup of hot, weak tea or coffee, 
with plenty of cream and sugar, will often help 
you to sleep, for the grateful warmth and stimu- 
lus to the lining of the stomach, drawing the 
blood into it and away from the head, will pro- 
duce more soothing effects than the small amount 
of caffein will produce stimulating and wakeful 

The writer has often had people remark 
to him that while black coffee sometimes 
kept them awake, coffee with, cream or 
sugar or both made them drowsy. 

In the course of experiments conducted 
by Montuori and Pollitzer'" it was found 
that coffee prepared by hot infusion when 
given by mouth or hypodermically with the 
addition of a small dose of alcohol proved 
an efficient means of combating the perni- 
cious effects of low temperatures. Coffee 
prepared by boiling, and tea, showed nega- 
tive effects. 

The value of coffee as a strength-con- 
server, and its function of increasing en- 

■ ' Tea d Coffee Trade Jour., 1913 (vol. xxiv : p. 455). 

» Tea & Coffee Trade Jour., 1912 (vol. xxiii : p. 

' Good Housekeeping, through Tea & Coffee Trade 
Jour., 1915 (vol. xxviii : p. 533). 

^'> Atti. accad. Lincei, 1915 (vol. xxiv: no. 2: pp. 

durance, morale, and healthfulness, was 
demonstrated by the great stress which the 
military authorities, in the late and in pre- 
vious wars, placed upon furnishing the 
soldiers with plenty of good coffee, particu- 
larly at times when they were under the 
greatest strain. Various articles" record 
this fact; and these statements are further 
borne out by the data given below in the 
discussion of the physiological effects of 
caffein, to which the majority of the stimu- 
lating effects of coffee may be attributed. 

According to Fauvel,'^ with a healthy 
patient on a vegetable diet, chocolate and 
coffee increase the excretion of purins, 
diminishing the excretion of uric acid and 
apparently hindering the precipitation of 
uric acid in the organism. This diminu- 
tion, however, was not due to retention of 
uric acid in the organism. 

"Habit-forming" is one of the adjectives 
often used in describing coffee, but it is a 
fact that coffee is much less likely than alco- 
holic liquors to cause ill effects. A man 
rarely becomes a slave of coffee ; and exces- 
sive drinking of this beverage never pro- 
duces a state of moral irresponsibility or 
leads to the commission of crime. Dr. J. W. 
Mallet," in testimony given before a Fed- 
eral Court, stated that caffein and coffee 
were not habit-forming in the correct sense 
of the term. His definition of the expres- 
sion is that the habit formed must be a 
detrimental and injurious one — one which 
becomes so firmly fixed upon a person form- 
ing it that it is thrown off with great diffi- 
culty and with considerable suffering, 
continuous exercise. of the habit increasing 
the demand for the habit-forming drug. 
It is well known that the desire ceases in a 
very short period of time after cessation of 
use of caffein-containing beverages, so that 
in that sense, coffee is not habit-forming. 

It has been shown by Gourewitsch" that 
the daily administration of coffee produces 
a certain degree of tolerance, and that the 
doses must be increased to obtain toxic re- 
sults. Harkness" has been quoted as stat- 
mg that "taken in moderation, coffee is one 
of the most w^holesome beverages known. 
It assists digestion, exhilarates the spirits, 
and counteracts the tendency to sleep." 

" Nalpasse, Dr. Valentin, loc. cit. (see 3). 
Flint, Dr. Austin B. Text Book of Physiology. 
Wood, H. C, Jr. Therapeutic Gazette, 1912 (vol. 
xxxvi : p. 13). 

^ Compt, rend. (vol. cxlviii : p. 1541). 
" Tea & Coffee Trade Jour., 1914 (vol. xxvi : p. 

^*Arch. exp. Path. Pharm., 1907 (vol. Ivii : p. 214). 
^^ Universal Dictionary, 1897 (vol. i: p. 1097). 


Men and Women Laborers Picking Cofi-ee on a Sao Paulo Estate 






Carl V. Voit," the German physiological 
chemist, says this about coffee: 

The effect of coffee is that we are bothered 
[less by uupleasant experiences and become more 
[able to conquer difficulties; therefore, for the 

feasting rich, it makes intestinal work after a 

meal le^^s evident and drives away the deadly 
( ennui ; for the student it is a means to keep wide 

awake and fresh ; for the worker it makes the 

day's fatigue more bearable. 

Dr. Brady" believes that the so-called 
,harmfulness of coffee is mainly psychologi- 
jcal, as evidenced by his expression, ''Most 
I of the prejudice which exists against coffee 
as a beverage is based upon nothing more 
(than morbid fancy. People of dyspeptic 
for neurotic temperament are fond of assum- 
ing that coffee must be bad because it is so 
good, and accordingly, denying themselves 
the pleasure of drinking it." 

The recounting of evidence, both pro and 

con, relevant to the general effects of coffee 

tcould continue almost ad infinitum, but the 

fairest unification of the various opinions is 

best quoted from Woods Hutchinson ' : 

Somewhere from 1 to 3 percent of the com- 
munity are distinctly injured or poisoned by 
tea or coffee, even small amounts producing 
burning of the stomach, palpitation of the heart, 
headache, eruptions of the skin, sensations of 
extreme nervousness, and so on ; though the re- 
maining 97 i>ercent are not injured by them in 
I any appreciable way if consumed in moderation. 

So, if one is personally satisfied that he 
belongs to the abnormal minority, and has 
not been argued by fallacious reasoning 
into his belief that coffee injures him, he 
should either reduce his consumption of 
coffee or let it alone. Even those most 
vitally interested in the commercial side of 
coffee will admit that this is the logical 

Effects of Coffee on Children 

The same sort of controversy has raged 
around the question of the advisability of 
giving coffee to children as has occurred 
regarding its general action. Dr. J. 
Hutchinson"* advocates furnishing children 
with coffee, while Dr. Charlotte Abbey"" is 
strongly against such a practise, claiming 
that use of caffein-containing beverages be- 
fore the attainment of full growth will 
weaken nerve power. Nalpasse" observes 

" Handhuch der Physiologic, 1881 (vol. vi : p. 435). 

"r/ie CoScc Club, 1921 (vol. i: p. 4). 

" Saturday Evening Post, throujih Tea d Coffee 
Trade Jour, 1914 ^vol. xxvii : p. 5St)). 

*» hoc. cit. (see 5). 

''Seven Truths to Teach the Young in Regard to 
Life and Sex, No. 2. 

** Loc. cit. (see 3). 

that until fully developed the young are 
immoderately excited by coffee ; and Hawk" 
is of the opinion that to give such a stimu- 
lant to an active school-child is both logi- 
cally and dietetically incorrect. Dr. 
Vaughn" advances this scientific argument 
against the drinking of coffee by children 
under seven years of age : 

In proportion to body weight the young con- 
tain more of the xanthin bases than adults. 
They are already laden with these physiological 
stimulants, and the additional dose given in tea 
or coffee may be harmful. 

In a study of the effects of coffee drink- 
ing upon 464 school children, C. K, Tay- 
lor'* found a slight difference in mental 
ability and behavior, unfavorable to coffee. 
About 29 percent of these children drank 
no coffee ; 46 percent drank a cup a day ; 
12 percent, 2 cups; 8 percent, 3 cups; and 
the remainder, 4 or more cups a day. The 
measurements of height, weight, and hand 
strength also showed a slight advantage in 
favor of the non-coffee drinkers. If these 
results be talfen as truly representative, 
their indication is obvious. However, it 
seems desirable to repeat these experiments 
upon other groups ; at the same time noting 
carefully the factors of environment, and 
other diet, before any criterion is made. 

As a refutation to this experimental evi- 
dence is the practical experience of the in- 
habitants of the Island of Groix, off the 
Brittany coast, whose annual consumption 
of coffee is nearly 30 pounds per cxpita, 
being ingested both as the roasted bean and 
as an infusion. It is reported that many 
of the children are nourished almost en- 
tirely on coffee soup up to ten years of age, 
yet the mentality and physique of the 
populace does not fall below that of others 
of the same stock and educational oppor- 
tunities," "• 
Pertinent in this connection is Hawk^s"* 
statement that young mothers should re- 
frain from the use of coffee, as caffein 
stimulates the action of the kidneys and 
tends to bring about a loss from the body 
of some of the salts necessary to the de- 
velopment of the unborn child as well as 
for the proper production of milk during 
the nursing period. The caffein of coffee 
also increases the flow of milk, but the milk 
produced is correspondingly dilute and a 
later decreased secretion may be expected. 

"Ladies' Home Journal, Dec, 1916 (p. 37). 

'^ Loc. cit. (see 7). 

^ Psych. Clin. (vol. vi : pp. 56-5S). 

"Tea d Coffee Trade Jour., June, 1905 (p. 274). 



Furthermore, some of the caffein of the 
coffee may pass into the mother's milk, thus 
reaching the child, so that the use of coffee 
during the nursing period is undesirable on 
this ground also." Naturally, the question 
arises as to whether this arra^ignment is 
purely theoretical or based upon analytical 
and clinical data. 

It is a difficult matter definitely to set 
an age below which coffee should not be 
drunk, as the time of reaching maturity 
varies with climate and ancestral origin. 
Yet, from a theoretical standpoint, chil- 
dren before or during the adolescent period 
should be limited to the use of a rather 
small amount of tea and coffee as bever- 
ages, as their poise and nerve control have 
not reached a stage of development suffi- 
cient to warrant the stimulation incident 
to the consumption of an appreciable quan- 
tity of caffein. 

Coffee Drinking and Longevity 

There are many who would have us be- 
lieve that the use of coffee is only a means 
toward the end of quickly reaching the 
great beyond; but it is known that the 
habitual coffee drinker generally enjoys 
good health, and some of the longest-lived 
people have used it from their earliest 
youth without any apparent injury to their 
health. Nearly every one has an acquaint- 
ance who has lived to a ripe old age despite 
the use of coffee. Quoting Metchnikoff'' : 

In some cases centenarians have been much 
addicted to the drinlving of coffee. The reader 
will recall Voltaire's reply when his doctor de- 
scribed the grave harm that comes from the 
abuse of coffee, which acts as a real poison. 
"Well", said Voltaire, "I have been poisoning 
myself for nearly eighty years." There are cen- 
tenarians who have lived longer than Voltaire, 
and have drunk still more coffee. Elizabeth^ 
Dririeux, a native of Savoy, reached the age of 1 
114. Her principal food was coffee, of which i 
she took daily as many as forty small cups. 
She was jovial and a boon table companion, and 
used black coffee in quantities that would have 
surprised an Arab. Her coffee-pot was always 
on the fire, like the tea-pot in an English cot- 
tage (Lejoncourt, p. 84; Chemin, p. 147). 

The entire matter resolves itself into one 
of individual tolerance, resistivity, and 
constitution. Numerous examples of young 
abstainers who have died and coffee 
drinkers who have still lived on can be 
found, and vice versa, the preponderance 
of instances being in neither direction. 
Bodies of persons killed by accident have 
been painstakingly examined for physio- 

" The Prolongation oj Life. 

logical changes attributable to coffee; but 
no difference between those of coffee and 
of non-coffee drinkers (ascertained by care- 
ful investigation of their life history) 
could be discerned."' In the long run, it is 
safe to say that the effect of coffee drinking 
upon the prolongation or shortening of life 
is neutral. 

Coffee in the Alimentary Tract 

When coffee is taken per os it passes di-. 
rectly to the stomach, where its sole im- 
mediate action is to dilute the previous 
contents, just as other ingested liquids do. 
Eventually the caffein content is absorbed 
by the system, and from thence on a stimu- 
lation is appareiit. Considerable conjec- 
ture has occurred over the difference in the 
effects of tea and coffee, the most feasible 
explanation advanced being one appearing 
in the London Lancet.'" 

The caffein tannate of tea is precipitated by 
weak acids, and the presumption is that it is 
precipitated by the gastric juice and, therefore, 
the caffein is probably not absorbed until it 
reaches the alkaMne alimentary tract. In the 
\case of coffee, however, in whatever form the 
caffein may be present, it is soluble in both al- 
kaline and acid liuids, and, therefore, the absorp- 
tion of the alkaloid probably takes place in the 

This theory, if true, goes far toward ex- 
plaining the more rapid stimulation of 

The statement has sometimes been made 
that milk or cream causes the coffee liquid 
to become coagulated when it comes into 
contact with the acids of the stomach. This 
is true, but does not carry with it the in- 
ference that indigestibility accompanies 
this coagulation. Milk and cream, upon 
reaching the stomach, are coagulated by the 
..gastric juice; but the casein product 
formed is not indigestible. These liquids, 
when added to coffee, are partially acted 
upon by the small acid content of the brew, 
so that the gastric juice action is not so 
pronounced, for the coagulation was started 
before ingestion, and the coagulable con- 
stituent, casein, is more dilute in the cup 
as consumed than it is in milk. Accord- 
ingly, the particles formed by it in the 
stomach will be relatively smaller and more 
quickly and easily digested than milk per 
se. It has been observed that coffee con- 
taining milk or cream is not as stimulating 
as black coffee. The writer believes that 

^ Hekteon and LeConte. 

» Through Tea & Coffee Trade Jour.. 1914 (vol. 
xxvi : pp. 29 32). 




is is probably due to mechanical inclusion . 
caffein in the casein and fat particles, 

d also to some adsorption of the alkaloid 
by them. This would materially retard the 
absorption of the caffein by the body, 
spread the action over a longer period of 
time, and hence decrease the maximum 
stimulation attained. 

In a few instances, a small fraction of 
one percent of coffee users, there is a cer- 
tain type of distress, localized chiefly in the 

imentary tract, caused by coffee, which 

n not be blamed upon the much-maligned 
caffein. The irritating elements may be 
generally classified as compounds formed 
upon the addition of cream or milk to the 
coffee liquor, volatile constituents, and 
products formed by hydrolysis of the 
fibrous part of the grounds. It may be 
generally postulated that the main causa- 
tion of this discomfort is due to substances 
formed in the incorrect brewing of coffee, 
the effect of which is accentuated by the 
addition of cream or milk, when the condi- 
tion of individual idiosyncrasy is present. 

Without enlarging upon his reason, Lo- 
rand'" concludes that neither tea nor coffee 
is advisable for weak stomachs. Nalpasse," 
however, believes that coffee taken after 
meals makes the digestion more perfect and 
more rapid, augmenting the secretions, and 
that it agrees equally well with people in- 
clined to embonpoint and heavy eaters 
whose digestion is slow and difficult. 
Thompson^^ also observes that coffee drunk 
in moderation is a mild stimulant to gastric 

Eder'^ reported, as the result of an in- 
quiry into the action of coffee on the ac- 
tivity of the stomachs of ruminants, that 
coffee infusions produced a transitory in- 
crease in the number and intensity of the 
movements of the paunch, but that the in- 
fluence exercised was very irregular. 

An elaborate investigation of the action 
of tea and coffee on digestion in the stomn, 
ach was made by Fraser,^* in which hei 
found that both retard peptic digestion, | 
the former to a greater degree than the' 
latter. The digestion of white of egg, ham, 
salt beef, and roast beef was much less af- 
fected than that of lamb, fowl, or bread. 
Coffee seemed actually to aid the digestion 

'» Old Age Deferred, 1910. 
^^ Loc. cit. (see 3). 
^Practical Dietetics, 1017 (p. 254). 
^^ Zentr. Biochem Biophys, 1912 (vol. xili : p. 504). 
^Jour. Anat. d Phyai., through Tea & Coffee Trade 
Jour., 1913 (vol. XXV : p. 345). 

of egg and ham. He attributed the retard- 
ing effect to the tannic acid of the tea and 
the volatile constituents of the coffee — the 
caffein itself favoring digestion rather than 
otherwise. Tea increased the production of 
i gas in all but salt foods, whereas coffee did 
' not. Coffee is, therefore, to be preferred in 
cases of flatulent dyspepsia. 

Hutchinson, in his Food and Dietetics, 
opines : 

As regards the practical inferences to be 
drawn from experiences and observations, it may 
be said that in health the disturbance of diges- 
tion px'oduced by the infused beverages (tea and 
coffee) is negligible. Roberts, indeed, goes so 
far as to suggest that the slight slowing of di- 
gestion which they produce may be favored 
rather than otherwise, as tending to compensate 
for too rapid digestibility which refinements of 
manufacture and preparation have made char- 
acteristic of modern foods. 

Regarding increase in secretory activity, 
Moore and Allanston"' report that in their 
experience meat extracts, tea, caffein solu- 
tion, and coffee call forth a greater gastric 
secretion than does water, while with milk 
the flow of gastric juice seems to be re- 
tarded. Cushing'* and others support this 
statement. This action is partially ex- 
plained by Voit on the grounds that all 
tasty foods increase gastric secretion, the 
action being partly psychological; but 
Cushing observed the same effects upon in- 
troducing coffee directly into the stomachs 
of animals. 

In general, a moderate amount of coffee 
stimulates appetite, improves digestion and 
relieves the sense of plenitude in the stom- 
ach. It increases intestinal peristalsis, acts 
as a mild laxative, and slightly stimulates 
seei:£tion._ofbile. Excessive use, however, 
profoundly disturbs digestive function, and 
promotes constipation and hemorrhoids." 
There is much evidence to support the view 
that "neither tea, coffee, nor chicory in 
dilute solutions has any deleterious action 
on the digestive ferments, although in 
strong solutions such an action may be 
manifest.'"' After conducting exhaustive 
experiments with various types of coffee, 
Lehmann'' concluded that ordinary coffee is 
without effect on the digestion of the ma- 
jority of sound persons, and may be used 
with impunity. 

^Lancet, Dec 2, 1911. 
^^Pharmacology, 1913 (p. 258). 

" Butler. Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharma- 
cology, 1906 (p. 256). 

»«Tognmi, K. Biochem. Zeit , 1908 (vol. ix : p. 453). 
'» Munch. Med. Wochcnschr. (vol. Ix : pp. 281-85. 357- 

Naturwias. Umschau. d. Chem., Ztg. 1913 (p. 4). 
Schxoeiz. Wochenachr. (vol. 11: pp. 490-92). 



Coffee in the Dietary — Food Value 

There are three things to be considered 
in deciding upon the inclusion of a 
substance in the dietary — palatability, di- 
gestibility without toxicity or disarrange- 
ment, and calorific value. Coffee is as 
satisfactory from these viewpoints as any 
other food product. 

The palatability of a well-made cup of 
good coffee needs no eulogizing; it speaks 
for itself. It adds enormously to the at- 
tractiveness of the meal, and to our ability 
to eat with relish and appetite large 
amounts of solid foods, without a subse- 
quent uncomfortable feeling. Wiley^" says 
that the feeling of drowsiness after a full 
meal is a natural condition incidental to 
the proper conduct of digestion, and that 
to drive away this natural feeling with cof- 
fee must be an interference with the normal 
condition. However, if by so doing, we can 
increase our over-all efficiency without ma- 
terial harm to our digestive organs (and 
we can and do), the procedure has much 
in its favor both psychologically and 

The fact that coffee favors digestion 
without eventual disarrangement has been 
demonstrated above. On the subject of the 
relative agreement with the constitution of 
foods of daily consumption. Dr. English" 

It is well known that there is no species of 
diet which invariably suits all constitutions, nor 
will that which is palatable and salutary at one 
time be equally palatable and salutary at an- 
other time to the same individual. I think the 
most natural food provided for us is milk ; yet I 
will engage to show twenty instances where milk 
disagrees more than coffee. 

Further in this regard, Hutchinson^" 
considers that ninety percent of the "dys- 
pepsias" attributed to coffee are due to 
malnutrition, or to food simultaneously in- 
gested, no disease known to the medical 
profession being directly attributable to it. 

No one cognizant of the facts will con- 
tend that a cup of black coffee has any di- 
rect food value ; but not so with the roasted 
bean. This has quite an appreciable content 
of protein and fat, both substances of high 
calorific value. The inhabitants of the 
Island of Groix eat the whole roasted coffee 
bean in considerable quantity, and seem to 
obtain considerable nourishment therefrom. 
Also, the Galla, a wandering tribe of 

*^ hoc. cit. (see 6). 

■•1 Through Tea d Coffee Trade Jour., 1916 (vol. 
XXX : p. 443). 

*^Tea d Coffee Trade Jour., 1909 (vol. xvi : p. 271). 

Africa, make large use of food balls, about 
the size of billiard balls, consisting of pul- 
verized coffee held in shape with fat. One 
ball is said to contain a day's ration; and, 
because of its food content and stimulating 
power, serves to sustain them on long 
marches of days' duration. 

When an infusion, or decoction, of 
roasted coffee is made, about 1.25 percent 
of the extracted matter is protein, it being 
accompanied by traces of dextrin and 
sugar. The same dearth of extraction of 
food materials occurs upon infusing coffee 
substitutes. This small amount can have 
but little dietetic significance. However, 
upon addition of sugar and of milk or 
cream, with their content of protein, fat, 
and lactose, the calorific value of .the cup 
of coffee rises. Lusk and Gephart" give 
the food value of an ordinary restaurant 
cup of coffee as 195.5 calories, and Locke" 
gives it as 156. 

Mattei"" found that 8 cc. of an infusion 
of roaSited Mocha coffee of five-percent 
strength suppressed incipient polyneuritis 
in pigeons within a few hours' time. Their 
weight did not improve, but otherwise they 
were completely restored to health. How- 
ever, in from four to six weeks after the 
apparent cure, the symptoms rapidly re- 
turned and the pigeons perished, with 
symptoms of paralysis and cerebral com- 
plications. The temporary cure was prob- 
ably due to caffein stimulation and sec- 
onciary actions of the volatile constituents 
of coffee, which may be related to the vita- 
mines; for it is not likely that the vita- 
mines would withstand the heat of roasting. 
If B-vitamine does occur in roasted coffee, 
it is present only in traces."" 

The inclusion of coffee in the average 
dietary is warranted because of its evident 
worth as an aid to digestion and for its as- 
similating power, thus earning its charac- 
terization as an "adjuvant food." 

Action of Coffee on Bacteria 

The employment of coffee as an aid to 
sanitation has been but little considered. 
Coffee, when freshly roasted and ground, is 
deodorant, antiseptic, and germicidal, 
probably due to the empyreumatic products 
developed during the process of roasting. 
An infusion of 0.5 percent inhibits the 
growth of many pathogenic organisms, and 

" Prankel. F. H. Tea & Coffee Trade Jour., 191C 
(vol. xxxi : p. 446). 
**Food Values, 1914 (p. 54). 
**^ PoHclin., 1920 (no. 27: p. 1011). 
"''Funk, C. The Vitamines, 1922 (p. 270). 



those of 10 percent kill anthrax bacteria in 
three hours, cholera spirilla in four hours, 
and many other bacteria, including those 
producing typhoid, in two to six days." 

The maintenance of a low rate of contrac- 
tion of typhoid fever has often been at- 
tributed to drinking of coffee instead of 
water, the action of the coffee being partly 
due to the bactericidal effect of the caffeol 
and partly to the boiling of the water be- 
fore infusion. The stimulating tendency of 
the caffein to sustain and to "tide over" 
those of low vitalities is also evidenced. 

Use of Coffee in Medicine 

Coffee has been employed in medicinal 
practise as a direct specific, as a preven- 
tive, and as an antidote. The United States 
Dispensatory*'' summarizes the uses of caf- 
fein and coffee as follows : 

Caffein is a valuable remedy in practical 
medicine as a cerebral and cardiac stimulant 
and as a diuretic. In undue somnolence, in ner- 
vous headache, in narcotism, also, at times 
when the exigencies of life require excessively 
prolonged wakefulness, caffein may be used as 
the most powerful agent known for producing 
wakefulness. In a series of experiments, 
J. Hughes Bennett found that within narrow 
limits there is a direct physiological antagonism 
lietween caffein and morphine. Coffee and caf- 
fein in narcotic? poisoning are of value as a 
means of keeping the patient awake, and of 
stimulating the respiratory centres. 

As a cardiac stimulant, caffein may be used 
in any form of heart failure: the indications for 
its use are those which call for the employment 
of digitalis. It is superior to digitalis in never 
disagreeing with the stomach, in having no dis- 
tinctive cumulative tendency, and in the prompt- 
ness of its action. It is pronouncedly inferior 
to digitalis in the power and certainty of its 
action, and in the permanence of its influence 
once asserted. As a diuretic it is superior ; it is 
very valuable in the treatment of cardiac drop- 
sies, and is often useful in chronic BrighVs 
disease when there is no irritation of the 

On account of its tendency to produce wakeful- 
ness, it is usually better to mass the doses early 
in the day, at least six hours being left between 
the last dose and the ordinary time for sleep. 
From eight to fifteen grams (of caffein) may be 
given in the course of a day in severe cases. 
If tried, it would probably prove a useful drug 
in cases of sudden collapse from various causes. 

Good effects of coffee are recounted by 

It removes the sensation of fatigue in the 
muscles, and increases their functional activity; 
it allays hunger to a limited extent ; it strength- 

*° Potter. Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Thera^ 
peutics. 10th ed.. 1906 (n. 187). 

Culbreth. Materia Medica and Pharmacology, 2nd 
ed. (p. 520). 

"Nineteenth ed. (p. 254). 

«Loc. cit. (see 32). 

ens the heart action; it acts as a diuretic, 
and increases the excretion of urea ; it has a 
mildly sudorific infiuence ; it counteracts ner- 
vous exhaustion and stinuilates nerve centers. 
It is used sometimes as a nervine in cases of 
migraine, and there are many persons who can 
sustain prolonged mental fatigue and strain 
from anxiety and worry much better by the use 
of strong black coffee. In low delirium, or when 
the nervous system is overcome by the use of 
narcotics or by excessive hemorrhage, strong 
black coffee is serviceable to keep the patient 
from falling into the drowsiness which soon 
merges into coma. In such cases as much as 
half a pint of strong black coffee may be in- 
jected into the rectum. 

Strong coffee with a little lemon juice or 
brandy is often useful in overcoming a malarial 
chill or a paroxysm of astlima. It is a useful 
temporary cardiac stimulant for children suffer- 
ing collapse. 

Dr. Restrepo," of Medellin, Colombia, 
claims to have cured many cases of chronic 
malaria and related diseases with infusion 
of green coffee, after quinine had failed. 
Wallace" states that tincture of green cof- 
fee is a natural and efficacious specific for 
cholera, and that she knows of more than 
a thousand cases of cholera and diarrhea 
which have been treated with it without an 
isolated case of failure. Landanabileo has 
been quoted as using raw coffee infusion in 
hepatic and nephritic diseases, venal and 
hepatic colics, and in diabetes. 

In the Civil War, surgeons utilized cof- 
fee in allaying malarial fever and other 
maladies with which they had to contend, 
often under the most trying conditions, 
and with severely limited means of combat- 
ing disease.'" Its effect is to counteract the 
depressant action of low and miasmatic 
atmospheres, opening the secretions which 
they have checked. Travelers from the 
colder climes soon find that the fragrant 
cup of coffee is a corrective to derange- 
ments of the liver resulting from climatic 

Dr. Guillasse, of the French Navy, in a 
paper on typhoid fever, says: 

Coffee has given us unhoped for satisfaction, 
and after having dispensed it we find, to our 
great surprise, that its action is as prompt as it 
is decisive. No sooner have our patients taken 
a few tablespoonfuls of it, than their features 
become relaxed and they come to their senses. 
The next day the improvement is such that we 
are tempted to look upon coffee as a specific 
against typhoid fever. Under its infiuence the 
stupor is dispelled, and the patient arouses from 

"Keable. B. B. Coffee (p. 97). 

"WaUace, Mrs. C. L. H. "Cholera: Its Cause and 
Cure." The Herald of Health, through Tea d Coffee 
Trade Jour., 1908 (vol. xiv : p. 22). 

^ "S. Culaplus", Tea d Coffee Trade Jour., 1913 
(vol. XXV : p. 239). 

" Tea d Coffee Trade Jour., 1913 (vol. xxv : p. 458). 



the state of somnolency in which he has been 
since the invasion of the disease. Soon all the 
functions take their natural course, and he 
enters upon eonAalescence.°- 

Also it has been reported that in extreme 
cases of yellow fever, coffee has been used 
most effectively by many physicians as the 
main reliance after all other well known 
remedies have been administered and 

According to Lorand," the use of coffee 
in gout is strictly prohibited by Umber and 
Schittenhelm ; but he considered it a mis- 
take absolutely to forbid coffee, as, when a 
person has good kidneys, the small amount 
of uric acid furnished by the caffein can 
readih'- be eliminated. A curious remedy 
for gout and rheumatism, the efficacy of 
which the writer scouts, is said to be'* — a 
pint of hot, strong, black coffee, which must 
be perfectly pure, and seasoned with a tea- 
spoonful of pure black pepper, thoroughly 
mixed before drinking, and the preparation 
taken just before going to bed. If this have 
any value, it is probably purely psychologi- 
cal in its function. 

Several writers'' attribute amblyopia and 
other affections of the sight to coffee and 
chicory, without giving much conclusive 
experimental data. Beer,°' a Vienna ocu- 
list, however, held that the vapor from 
pure, hot, freshly-made coffee is beneficial 
,to the eyes. 

Coffee and caff'ein are physiologically an- 
tagonistic to the common narcotics, nico- 
tine, morphine, opium, alcohol, etc., and 
are frequently used as antidotes for these 
poisons. Binz found that dogs that have 
been stupified with alcohol could be awak- 
ened with coffee. It may thus be prescribed 
for hard drinkers to counteract the baleful 
excitability produced by alcohol; in fact, 
many topers taper off after a long debauch 
with coffee containing small amounts of al- 
coholic beverages. Considering its ability 
to counteract the slow intoxication of to- 
bacco, it may be inferred that coffee is 
indispensable for hard smokers. 

In general, the medicinal value of coffee 
may be said to be directly attributable to 
its caffein content, although its antiseptic 
properties are dependent upon the volatile 
aromatic constituents. Its function is to 

•'■'2 Thnrber, F. B. Coffee from Plantation to Cup 
(p. 182). 

"^ Health and Lonrieviti) Through Rational Diet. 

"* Keable. B. B. Coffee (p. 98). 

== Bulson. A. E. J. Am. Jour. Opthal., 1905 (vol. 
xxii : pp .00-64) 

Handhool; of Medical Science (vol. Hi: d. 190i.-t 

"•KealilP. B. B. Coffee (p. 98). 

raise and to sustain vitalities which have 
been lowered by disease or drugs. Al- 
though some of the cures attributed to it 
are probably purely traditional; still, it 
must be admitted, that by utilizing its 
stimulating qualities in many illnesses the 
patient may be carried past the danger 
point into convalescence. 

Physiological Action of "Caffetannic 

It has been demonstrated in chapter XVII 
that- there is no definite compound ' ' caffe- 
tannic acid," and that the heterogeneous 
material designated by this name does not 
possess the properties of tanning. Further 
substantiation of this contention, and more 
evidence of the innocuous character of the 
tannin-like compounds in coffee, are con- 
tained in the testimony of Sollmann." 
"Tannins precipitate proteins, gelatine, 
and connective tissue, and thus act as 
astringents, styptics, and antiseptics. The 
different tannins are not equivalent in 
these respects. Some (which are perhaps 
misnamed) such as those of coffee and ipe- 
cac, are practically non-precipitant. . . . 
On the whole, one may say that the small 
quantities of tannin ordinarily taken with 
the food and drink are not injurious, but 
that large quantities (excessive tea drink- 
ing) are certainly deleterious. The tannin 
of coffee is scarcely astringent, and, there- 
fore, lacks this action," which is proven by 
the fact that it does not precipitate pro- 

"It has been claimed that 'caffetannic 
acid' injuries the stomach walls, but there 
is no evidence that this is so."'' Wiley," 
in reporting some of his experiments, says : 
"Apparently the efforts to saddle the in- 
jurious effects of coffee-drinking upon caf- 
fetannic acid in any form in which it may 
exist in the coffee-extract are not supported 
by these recent data." The fact that tan- 
nins retard intestinal peristalsis, whereas 
coffee promotes this digestive action, lends 
further proof to the non-existence of tannin 
in coffee. These statements by eminent 
authorities may be consolidated into the 
verity that there is no tannin, in the true 
sense of the term, in coffee: and that the 
constituents of the coffee brew which have 
been so designated are physiologically 

^- A Manual of Pharmacology (pp. 137. 215). 
"Hawk. Philip B. Loc. cit. (see 22). 
'* Good Housekeevinp. Oct.. 1917 (p. 144). 



Physiological Action of Caffeol 

The evidence regarding the physiological 
action of caffeol is contradictory in many 
cases. J. Lehmann found in 1853, that the 
"erapyrenmatie oil of coffee, caffeorie," is 
active ; but more recent investigations have 
yielded results at variance with this. 
Hare and Marshall"* believe that they 
proved it to be active. E. T. Reichert," 
however, found it inactive in dogs, except- 
ing in so far that, when given intraven- 
ously, it mechanically interfered with the 
circulation. With it Binz"' Avas able to pro- 
duce in man only feeble nervous excite- 
ment, with restlessness and increase in the 
rate and depth of respirations. 

The general effects, as summated by Soll- 
mann"' are, for small closes, pleasant stimu- 
lation ; increased respiration ; increased 
heart rate, but fall of blood pressure ; mus- 
cular restlessness ; insomnia ; perspiration ; 
congestion; for large doses, increased peri- 
stalsis and defecation : depression of respira- 
tion and heart ; fall of blood pressure and 
temperature; paralytic phenomena. It is 
doubtful whether the quantities taken in 
the beverage cause any direct central 

Investigations have also been conducted 
with the various known constituents of this 
"coffee oil." Erdmann"* found that in 
doses of between 0.5 and 0.6 gram per kilo 
of body weight, furane-alcohol kills a rab- 
bit by respiratory paralysis; and that the 
symptoms of poisoning are a short primary 
excitement, salivation, diarrhea, respira- 
tory depression, continuous fall of the body 
temperature, and death from collapse with 
respiratory failure. In man, doses of from 
0.6 to 1 gram of furane-alcohol increased 
respiratory activity without producing 
other symptoms. 

However, man is not as susceptible to 
these compounds as are the smaller animals. 
But even if their relative susceptibility be 
assumed to be the same, the lethal dose 
given the rabbit is equivalent to giving a 
140-pound man one dose containing the 
furane-alcohol content of over 5,000 cups of 
coffee. Thus, in view of the very apparent 
minuteness of the quantity of this com- 
pound present in one cup of coffee, together 
with the fact that it is not cumulative in its 
physiological action, the. importance of its 

»«J/ed. News, 1886 (p. 52). 

"J/ed. News. 1890 (n. 56). 

'-Centr. In. Med.. 1900 (p. 21). 

'^ Loc. cit. (see 57 1. 

"^ Arch. Exper. Path. Phnrm.. 1902 (bd. 48). 

toxic properties becomes very inconsequen- 
tial to even the most profuse and inveterate 
coffee drinkers. 

Burmann" reported the volatile principle 
to have a reducing action on the hemo- 
globin; a depressing effect on the blood 
pressure ; a depressant action on the central 
nervous system, disturbing the cardiac 
rhythm; and an action on the respiratory 
centers, causing dyspnea. The report of 
Sayre"" regarding the minimum lethal dose 
of the concentrated combined active prin- 
ciples of coffee obtained from dry distilla- 
tion is, for frogs, administered intraperi- 
toneally and subcutaneously, 0.03 cubic 
centimeters per gram of body weight ; for 
guinea pigs per stomach, 7.0 cc. per kilo- 
gram of body weight, and administered in- 
travenously and intraperitoneally, about 
1.0 cc. per kilogram. 

This evidence regarding the physiologi- 
cal action of caffeol can not in any wise be 
construed to indicate a harmfulness of cof- 
fee. The percentage of these volatile sub- 
stances in a cup of coffee infusion is so low 
as to be relatively negligible in its action. 
And, again, the caffein content of the brew, 
as will be seen, tends to counteract any 
possible desultory effects of the caffeol. 

General Physiological Action of Caffein 

More attention has been given to the 
study of the physiological action of caffein' 
than to that of the other individual con- 
stituents of coffee. Since certain of the 
effects of coffee drinking have been attribu- 
ted to this alkaloid, a brief presentment 
of the pharmacology of caffein will be given 
as an exposition of the many statements 
made regarding it. According to the Brit- 
ish Pharmaceutical Codex"" : 

Caffein exerts thi-ee important actions: (1) on 
the central nervous system: (2) on muscles, in- 
cluding cardiac: and (3) on the kidney. The 
action on the central nervous system is mainly 
ou that part of the hrain connected with psychi- 
cal functions. It produces a condition of wake- 
fulness and increased mental activity. The 
interpretation of sensory impressions is more 
perfect and correct, and thought becomes clearer 
and quicker. With larger doses of caffein the 
action extends from the psychical areas to the 
motor area and to the cord, and the patient be- 
comes at first restless and noisy, and later may 
show convulsive movements. 

Caffein facilitates the performance of all 
forms of physical work, and actually increases 
the total work which can be obtained from 

"^ Bull. gen. therap. (vol. clxvl : p. 379). 

Zentr. Biochem. Biophya. (vol. xvl : p. 79). 
""Bull. Pharm.. 1916 (vol. xxx : pp. 276-78). 
•^1907 (p. 176). 



muscle. On the normal man, however, it is im- 
possible to say how much of the action on the 
muscle is central and how much peripheral, but, 
as fatigue shows itself first by an action on the 
center, it is probable that the action of eaffeiu 
in diminishing fatigue is mainly central. Caf- 
fein accelerates the pulse and slightly raises 
blood pressure. It has no action in any way 
resembling digitalis ; by increasing the irritabil- 
ity of the cardiac muscle, its prolonged use 
rather tends to fatigue than to rest the heart. 

Caffein and its allies form a very important 
group of diuretics. The urine is generally of a 
lower specific gravity than normal, since it con- 
tains a lesser proportion of salt and urea ; but 
the total excretion of solids, both as regards 
urea, uric acid, and salts, is increased. Caf- 
fein, by exciting the medulla, produces an initial 
vaso-constriction of the kidneys, which tends at 
first to retard the flow of urine. So in recent 
years, other drugs liave been introduced, allies 
of caffein, which act like it on the kidneys, but 
are without the stimulant action on the brain. 
Theobromine is such a drug. 

Another authority states that"^: 

One of the most constant symptoms produced 
in man by over-doses of caffein is excessive diu- 
resis, and experiments made upon the lower ani- 
mals show that caffein acts as a diuretic not 
only by influencing the circulation, but also by 
directly affecting the secreting cells, the proba- 
bilities being in favor of the flrst of these 
theories of action. According to Schroeder, not 
only the water but also the solids of the urine 
are increased. 

The question whether caffein has an influ- 
ence upon tissue changes and the consequent 
nitrogenous elimination can not be considered as 
distinctly answered, though the most probable 
conclusion is that the action of caffein upon urea 
elimination and upon general nutrition is not 
direct or pronounced. While the therapeutic 
dose of caffein is broken up in the body with 
the formation of methylxanthin, ' which escapes 
with the urine, the toxic dose is at least in 
part eliminated by the kidney unchanged. 

The metabolism of the methyl purins, 
of which group caffein is a member, ap- 
pears to vary with the quantity ingested. 
The manner in which the methyl group is 
liberated by the cell protoplasm is said"' to 
determine the amount of stimulus which 
the tissues receive from these substances. 
The xanthin group is almost without any 
excitatory action, and its metabolic end 
products are constant. Perhaps the varia- 
tion in the excretions of unchanged methyl- 
purins is dependent upon the amount of 
total reactive energy they invoke. 

Baldi'" found that caffein in small doses 
increases muscular excitability in dogs and 
frogs. The spinal and muscular hyperic 
excitability produced by caffein is, in his 

«» D'. 8. Dispensatory, 19th ed. (p. 253). 
"Hall. I. W. The Purin Bodies of Food Stuffs, 
1904 (p. 98). 
^* Terapia moderna, Dec, 1891. 

opinion, due to the methyl groups attached 
to the xanthin nucleus. Fredericq" states 
that caffein increases the irritability of the 
cardiac vagus and accelerates the appear- 
ance of pseudofatigue of the vagus which 
is produced by prolonged stimulation of the 
nerve. The action of caffein on the mam- 
malian heart has also been investigated by 
Pilcher," who found that, following the 
rapid intravenous injection of caffein, there 
is an acute fall of blood pressure ; and with 
a maximal quantity of caffein, 10 milli- 
grams per kilogram, the cardiac volume 
and the amplitude of the excursions are 
usually unchanged. With larger quanti- 
ties, the volume progressively increases and 
the amplitude of the excursion decreases. 

Salant" found that the intravenous injec- 
tion of 15 to 25 milligrams of caffein per 
kilogram in animals was followed by a fall 
of blood pressure amounting to 7 to 35 per- 
cent in most cases, which was transitory, 
although in some animals it remained un- 
changed. A moderate rise was rarely ob- 
served. Caffein aids the action of nitrates, 
acetanilid, ethyl alcohol and amyl alcohol, 
and increases the toxicity of barium chlo- 
rid. In a very thorough study of the 
toxicity of caffein which he made with 
Reiger," a greater toxicity of about 15 to 
20 percent by subcutaneous injection than 
by mouth, and but about one-half this 
when injected peritoneally, was found. 
Intramuscularly the toxicity is 30 percent 
greater than subcutaneously. In making 
the tests on animals, they found that in- 
dividuality, season, age, species, and certain 
pathological conditions caused variation in 
the toxic effect of the administered caffein. 
Low protein diet tends to decrease resist- 
ance to caffein in dogs, and a milk or meat 
diet does the same for growing dogs. Caf- 
fein is not cumulative for the rabbit or dog. 

As a result of experiments on the action 
of caffein on the bronchiospasm caused by 
peptone (Witte), silk peptone, B-imidoazo- 
lyl-ethylamin. curare, vasodilation, and 
mucarin, Pal" concluded that caffein stimu- 
lates certain branches of the peripheral 
sympathetic and is thus enabled to widen 
the bronchi or remove bronchiospasm. 

According to Lapicque'", caffein produces 
a change in the excitability of the medulla 
of the frog similar to that produced by rais- 

^^ Arch, intern, physiol. (vol. xiii : pp. 107-14). 
"/. Pharmachol. (vol. iii : p. 609). 
"./. Pharmachol. (vol. iii: p. 468). 
''* J. Pharmachol. (vol. Iii: p. 455). 
" Wien. Deut. med. Wochenschr. (vol. xxxviii : pp. 
1774 76). 

" Comp. rend. soc. biol. (vol. Ixxiv : p. 32). 




ing the temperature of the nerve centers. 
Schiirhoff'' has pointed out that the con- 
tinued use of large quantities of caffein will 
produce cardiac irregularity and sleepless- 

Cochrane" cited three cases where caffein 
was hypodermically administered in cases 
of acute indigestion, etc., and concluded 
that the cases prove that caffein, or a com- 
pound containing it as a synergist, does 
indirectly make the injection of morphia a 
safe proceeding, and directly increases the 
force of the heart and arterial tension. 
However, Wood'" found that medium doses 
of caffein do not produce any marked rise 
in blood pressure, and cause a reduction in 
pulse rate. He attributes the contradictory 
results which prior investigations gave, to 
employment of unusually large doses and 
to inaccurate experimental methods. 

Caffein was found by Nonnenbruch and 
Szyszka"" to have a slight action toward ac- 
celerating the coagulation time of the blood, 
being active over several hours. It inhibits 
coagulation in vitrio. Its action in the body 
apparently rests on an increase of the fibrin 
ferment. There is no reason to believe that 
the behavior is dependent on a toxic action, 
but there is probably an action on the 
spleen ; for in several rabbits from which 
the spleen was removed, no action was 

Experiments conducted by Levinthal" 
gave no positive information as to the for- 
mation of uric acid from caffein in the 
human organism. The elimination of caf- 
fein has also been studied by Salant and 
Reiger"', who found that larger amounts of 
caffein are demethylated in carnivora than 
in herbivora, and resistance to caffein is 
inversely as demethylation, caffein being 
much more toxic in the former class. In a 
similar investigation, Zenetz"^ observed that 
caffein is very slightly eliminated from the 
system by the kidneys, and that its action 
on the heart is cumulative; therefore he 
concludes that it is contra-indicated in all 
renal diseases, in arterio-sclerosis, and in 
cardiac affections secondary to them. The 
inaccuracy of these conclusions regarding 
the non-elimination of caffein and those of 

" D. A. Apoth.-Ztg., 1911-12 (vol. xxxii : p. 4). 

"J/ed. Record, N. Y., 1916 (vol. xxx : p. 68). 

^Therap. Gazette. 1912 (vol. xxxvi : pp. 6-13). 

" Deut. Arch. Klin. Med., 1920 (vol. cxxxiv : pp. 

"Z. phpsioi. Chem. (vol. Ixxvii : p. 259). 

*> Bull. Bur. of Chem. (no. 157). 

»» Pharm. J., Mar. 31, 1900, through Brit. Med. J.. 
Bpit., 1900 (vol. i: p. 35). 

Albanese," Bondzynski and Gottlieb", 
Leven'", Schurtzkwer", and Minkowski'', has 
been shown by Mendel and Wardelf, who 
point out that many of these experimenters 
worked with dogs, in which the chief end- 
product of purin metabolism is not uric 
acid, but allantoin. They observe that the 
increase in excretion of uric acid after the 
addition of caffein to the diet seems to be 
proportional to the quantity of caffein 
taken, and equivalent to from 10 to 15 per 
cent of the ingested caffein. The remainder 
of the caffein is probably eliminated as 

Regarding the alleged cumulative action 
of caffein, Pletzer", Liebreich," Szekacs'^ 
Pawinski,"' and Seifert"* all concluded from 
their investigations that the action of caf- 
fein is usually of brief duration, and does 
not have a cumulative effect, because of 
its rapid elimination; so that there is no 
danger of intoxication. 

Dr. Oswald Schmiedeberg says: 

Caffein is a means of refreshing bodily and 
mental activity, so that this may be prolonged 
when the condition of fatigue has already begun 
to produce restraint, and to call for more severe 
exertion of the will, a state which, as is well 
known, is painful or disagreeable. 

This advantageous effect, in conditions of 
fatigue, of small quantities of caffein, as it is 
commonly taken in coffee or tea, might, how- 
ever, by continued use become injurious, if it 
were in all cases necessarily exerted ; that is 
to say, if by oaffein the muscles and nerves 
were directly spurred on to increased activity. 
This is not the case, however,- and just in this 
lies the peculiarity of the effect in question. 
The muscles and the simultaneously-acting 
nerves only under the influence of caffein re- 
spond more easily to the impulse of the will, 
but do not develop spontaneous activity ; that 
is, without the co-operation of the will. 

The character of oaffein action makes plain 
that these food materials do not injure the or- 
ganism by their caffein content, and do not by 
continued use cause any chronic form of illness. 

According to Dr. Holl ing worth's"' deduc- 
tions, caffein is the only known stimulant 
that quickens the functions of the human 

^ Arch. f. exper. Path. u. Pharmakol., 1895 (vol. 
XXXV : p. 449). 

^Ibid., 1895 (vol. xxxvi: p. 45). IMd , 1896 (vol. 
xxxvii : p. 385). 

'^ Arch, de physiol. norm, et path., 1868 (vol. i: p. 

*' Inaug. Diss., Konigsberg, 1882. 

'^ Arch, f, exper. Path. u. Pharmakol, 1898 (vol. 
xli: p. 375). 

"''Jour. Am. Med. Assoc, 1917 (vol. Ixviii : pp. 1805- 

^Berliner Klin. Wochenschrift. 1889 (no. 40). 

0^ Encijc. dcr Therapie, 1896 (vol. i). 

"Pester, Med.-Chir. Presse, 1885 (no. 39). 
Orrosi Hetilap, 1885 (nos. 32-33). 

** Zeitschrift f. Klin. Med.. 1893 (vol. xxii'). 

" Mitt, aus der Wurzburger Med. Klinik, 1885 
(vol. i). 

"-Veto York Herald, Mar. 24. 1912. 



body without a subsequent period of de- 
pression. His explanation for this behavior 
is that "caffein acts as a lubricator for the 
nervous system, having an actual physical 
action ^yhereby the nerves are enabled to 
do their work more easily. Other stimu- 
lants act on the nerves themselves, causing 
a waste of energy, and consequently, ac- 
cording to nature's law, a period of de- 
pression follows, and the whole process 
tends to injure the human machine." In 
not a single instance during his experi- 
ments at Columbia University did depres- 
sion follow the use of caffein. 

Of course, cafifein, like any other alka- 
loid, if used to excess will prove harmful, 
due to the over-stimulation induced by it. 
However, taken in moderate quantities, as 
in coffee and tea by normal persons, the 
conclusions of Hirsch™ may be taken as cor- 
rect, namely : caffein is a mild stimulant, 
without direct effect on the muscles, the 
effect resulting from its own destruction and 
being temporary and transitory; it is not 
a depressant either initially or eventually ; 
and is not habit-forming but a true stimu- 
lant, as distinguished from sedatives and 
habit-forming drugs. 

Caffein and Mental and Motor Efficiency 

The literature on the influence of caffein 
on fatigue has been summarized, and the 
older experiments clearly pointed out, by 
Rivers"'. A summary of the most important 
researches Avhich have had as their object 
the determination of the influence of caf- 
fein on mental and motor processes has 
been made by HolIingworth°*, from whose 
monograph much of the following material 
has been taken. 

Increase in the force of muscular con- 
tractions was demonstrated in 1892 by De 
Sarlo and Barnardini"" for caffein and by 
Kraepelin for tea. These investigators used 
the dynamometer as a measure of the force 
of contraction ; however, most of the sub- 
sequent work on motor processes has been 
by the ergographic method. Ugolino 
Mosso™, Koch"\ Rossi'"; Sobieranski"'^ 
Hoch and Kraepelin,'"" Destree,'°° Benedi- 

^ Tea & Coffee Trade Jour., 1914 (vol, xxvi : pp. 

»' The Influence of Alcohol and Other Drugs on 

98 "The Influence of Caffeine on Mental and Motor 
Efficiency." Archives of Psychology, 1912 (no. 22). 

^ Revista sper. di. Freniatria (vol. xviii : p. 1). 

^ooArchiv. ital. de Biol.. 1893 (vol. xix : p. 241). 

101 Inaug. Diss., Marburs. 1894. 

^"^ Revista sper. di Freniatria. 1S94 Cvol. xx : D. 458). 

w3 CentralU. f. Physiol., 1896 (vol. x : p. 126). 

■^'>* Psychol. Arhrit.. 1S96 (vol. 1: p. 378). 

^°^Jour. Med. de Brvxellcs, 1897. 

centi,"'" Schumberg,"*' Hellsten/"' and Jo- 
teyko,"*° have all observed a stimulating ef- 
fect of caffein on ergographic performance. 
Only one investigation of those reported by 
Rivers failed to find an appreciable effect, 
that of Oseretzkowsky and Kraepelin,"" 
while Fere"' affirms that the effect is only 
an acceleration of fatigue. 

In spite of the general agreement as to 
the presence of stimulation there is some 
dissension regarding whether only the 
height of the contractions or their number 
or both are affected. As might be expected 
from the great diversity of methods em- 
ployed, the quantitative results also have 
varied considerably. Carefully controlled 
experiments by Rivers and Webber"" "con- 
firm in general the conclusion reached by , 
all previous workers that caffein stimulates ■ 
the capacity for muscular work; and it is 
clear that this increase is not due to the 
various psychical factors of interest, sen- 
sory stimulation, and suggestion, which the 
experiments were especially designed to ex- 
clude. The greatest increase . . . falls, 
however, far short of that described by 
some previous w^orkers, such as Mosso ; and 
it is probable that part of the effect de- 
scribed by these workers was due to the fac- 
tors in question." 

Investigations of mental processes under 
the influence of caffein have been much less 
frequent, most notable among which are 
those of Dietl and Vintschgau,"' Dehio,'" 
Kraepelin and Hoch,"'' Ach,"' Lang- 
f eld,"' and Rivers."' Kraepelin"" observes : 
"We know that tea and coffee increase 
our mental efficiency in a definite way, and 
we use these as a means of overcoming men- 
tal fatigue . . . In the morning these 
drinks remove the last traces of sleepiness 
and in the evening when we still have intel- 
' lectual tasks to dispose of they aid in keep- 
ing us awake. ' ' Their use induces a greater 
briskness and clearness of thought, after 

^'^ Moleschott's Untersuchungen, 1899 ^vol. xvi : p. 

-"' Archiv. f. Anat. u. Physiol. (Physiol. AMh,), 
Suppl. Bd., 1899 (p. 289). 

^'^ Skand. Arch. f. Physiol., 1904 (vol. xvi: p. 197). 

109 Travaux du Lah. de Physiol. Inst. Solraii, 1904 
(vol. vi: p. 361). 

^"^^ Psychol. Arbeit., 1901 Cvol. iii : p. 617). 

"1 C. R. de la Soc. de Biol. Paris, 1901 (pp. 593- 

^^-Op. at. (p. 38). (See 97.) 

^'^^ PflUf/ers Archiv., 1877 (vol. xvi: p .316). 

^^* Diss.. Dorpat.. 1887. 

'-P Psychol. Arbeit., 1896 (vol. i: p. 431). 

'-^^ Psychol. Arbeit.. 1901 Cpp. 203-289). 

'^"Psychol. Rev., 1911 (vol. xviil : p. 424). 
."^Op, at (see 97). 
■ "» Ueber die Beeinfliissung einfacher vsvchischer Vor- 
rjilngc diirch einige Arzeneimittel (p. 224). 



^'hich secondary fatigue is either entirely 
ibsent or is very slight. 
Tendency toward habituation of the 
jpyschic functions to caffein has been 
[studied by Wedemeyer'™, who found 
Hhat in the regular administration of it in /■ 
the course of four to five weeks there is a/ 
measurable weakening of its action on 
psychic processes. 

Rivers"', who seems to have been the first 
to appreciate fully the genuine and prac- 
tical importance of thoroughly controlling 
'the psychological factors that are likely to 
play a role in such experiments, concludes 
that "caffein increases the capacity for both 
muscular and mental work, this stimulating 
action persisting for a considerable time 
after the substance has been taken without 
there being any evidence, with moderate 
doses, of reaction leading to diminished 
capacity for work, the substance thus really 
diminishing and not merely obscuring the 
effects of fatigue. ' ' 

Subsequent to these investigations was 
that of Hollingworth'" which is at once the 
most comprehensive, carefully conducted, 

of individuals for a long period of time, 
under controlled conditions; to study the 
way in which this influence is modified by 
such factors as the age, sex, weight, idio- 
syncrasy, and previous caffein habits of the 
subjects, and the degree to which it depends 
on the amount of the dose and the time and 
conditions of its administration ; and to in- 
vestigate the influence of caffein on the gen- 
eral health, quality and amount of sleep, 
and food habits of the individual tested. 

To obtain this information the chief tests 
employed were the steadiness, tapping, co- 
ordination, typewriting, color-naming, cal- 
culations, opposites, cancellation, and dis- 
crimination tests, the familiar size-weight 
illusion, quality and amount of sleep, and 
general health and feeling of well-being. 
A brief review of the results of these tests 
is given in the tabular summary. 

From these Hollingworth concluded 
that caffein influenced all the tests in a 
given group in much the same way. The 
effect on motor processes comes quickly and 
is transient, while the effect on higher men- 
tal processes comes more slowly and is more 

Effect of Caffein ox Mental and Motor Processes 
Schematic Summary of All Results 

St. = Stimulation. 0: 

Motor speed 


Xo effect. Ret. = Retardation. 

PRIMARY effect 

Small Medium Large 








1. Tapping 

2. Three-hole 

3. Typewriting 

(a) Speed 

(b) Errors 

4. Color-naming 

5. Opposites 

6. Calculation 

7. Discrimination reaction time 

8. Cancellation 

9. S-W illusion 

10. Steadiness 

11. Sleep quality Individual differences de- 

12. Sleep quantity pending on body weight 

13. General health and conditions of ad- 


Secondary Action Time 
Reaction Hours 


.75 - 1.5 
1 -1.5 

in Hours 



Fewer for all doses 
St. St. St. 

St. St. St. 

St. St. St. 

Ret. 0" St. 

Ret. ? St. 




Results show only in total 
day"s work 
2-2.5 3-4 

2.5 - 3 Next day 

2.5 Next day 

,2-4 Next day 

3 - 5 No data 

2 ? 


and scientifically accurate one yet per- 
formed. He employed an ample number of 
subjects in his experimentation ; and both 
his subjects, and the assistants who re- 
corded the observations, were in no wise 
cognizant of the character or quantity of 
the dose of caffein administered, the other 
experimental conditions being similarly 
rigorous and extensive. 

The purpose of his study was to deter- 
mine both qualitatively and quantitatively 
the effect of caffein on a wide range of 
mental and motor processes, by studying 
the performance of a considerable number 

^ Arch. exp. Path. Pharm., 1920 (vol. Ixxxv : pp. 
339-58) . 

^^^Op. cit. (p. 50K (See 97.) 
^^ Loc. cit. (see 95). 

persistent. Whether this result is due to 
quicker reaction on the part of motor- 
nerve centers, or whether it is due to a 
direct peripheral effect on the muscle tissue 
is uncertain, but the indications are that 
caffein has a direct action on the muscle 
tissue, and that this effect is fairly rapid in 
appearance. The two principal factors 
which seem to modify the degree of caffein 
influence are body weight and presence of 
food in the stomach at the time of ingestion 
of the caffein. In practically all of the 
tests the magnitude of the caffein influence 
varied inversely with the body weight, ^nd 
was most marked when taken on an empty 
stomach or without food substance. This 
variance in action was also true for both 



the quality and amount of sleep, and 
seemed to be accentuated when taken on 
successive days; but it did not appear to 
depend on the age, sex, or previous caffein 
habits of the individual. Those who had 
given up the use of caffein-eontaining bev- 
erages during the experiment did not re- 
port any craving for the drinks as such, but 
several expressed a feeling of annoyance at 
not having some sort of a warm drink for 

It is interesting to note that he also found 
a complete absence of any trace of second- 
ary depression or of any sort of secondary 
reaction consequent upon the stimulation 
which was so strikingly present in many of 
the tests. The production of an increased 
capacity for work was clearly demonstrated, 
the same being a genuine drug effect, and 
not merely the effect of excitement, interest, 
sensory stimulation, expectation, or sugges- 
tion. However, this study does not show 
whether this increased capacity comes from 
a new supply of energy introduced or ren- 
dered available by the drug action, or 
whether energy already available comes to 
be employed more effectively, or whether 
fatigue sensations are weakened and the in- 
dividual's standard of performance thereby 
raised. But they do show that from a 
standpoint of mental and productive physi- 
cal efficiency "the widespread consumption 
of caffeinic beverages, even under circum- 

stances in which and by individuals for 
whom the use of other drugs is stringently 
prohibited or decried, is justified." 


Brief summarization of the information 
available on the pharmacology of coffee in- 
dicates that it should be used in modera- 
tion, particularly by children, the permis- 
sible quantity varying with the individual 
and ascertainable only through personal 
observation. Used in moderation, it will 
prove a valuable stimulant increasing per- 
sonal efficiency in mental and physical 
labor. Its action in the alimentary regime 
is that of an adjuvant food, aiding diges- 
tion, favoring increased flow of the diges- 
tive juices, promoting intestinal peristalsis, 
and not tanning any portion of the diges- 
tive organs. It reacts on the kidneys as a 
diuretic, and increases the excretion of uric 
acid, which, however, is not to be taken as 
evidence that it is harmful in gout. Coffee 
has been indicated as a specific for various 
diseases, its functions therein being the 
raising and sustaining of low vitalities. Its 
effect upon longevity is virtually nil. A 
small proportion of humans who are very 
nervous may find coffee undesirable; but 
sensible consumption of coffee by the aver- 
age, normal, non-neurasthenic person will 
not prove harmful but beneficial. 

Chapter XIX 


The geographical distribution of the coffees grown in North America, 
Central America, South America, the West India Islands, Asia, 
Africa, the Pacific Islands, and the East Indies — A statistical study 
of the distribution of the principal kinds — A commercial coffee 
chart of the world's leading growths, with market names and general 
trade characteristics 

A STUDY of the geographical distri- 
bution of the coffee tree shows that 
it is grown in well-defined tropical 
limits. The coffee belt of the world lies 
between the tropic of cancer and the tropic 
of Capricorn. The principal coffee consum- 
ing countries are nearly all to be found in 
the north temperate zone, between the 
tropic of cancer and the arctic circle. 

The leading commercial coffees of the 
world are listed in the accompanying com- 
mercial coffee chart, which shows at a 
glance their general trade character. The 
cultural methods of the producing coun- 
tries are discussed in chapter XX ; statistics 
in chapter XXII ; and the trade character- 
istics, in detail, in chapter XXIV, which 
considers also countries and coffees not so 
important in a commercial sense. Mexico 
is the principal producing country in the 
northern part of the western continent, and 
Brazil in the southern part. In Africa, the 
eastern coast furnishes the greater part of 
the supply; while in Asia, the Netherlands 
Indies, British India, and Arabia lead. 

Within the last two decades there has 
been an expansion of the production areas 
in South America, Africa, and in southeast- 
ern Asia : and a contraction in British India 
and the Netherlands Indies. 

The Shifting Coffee Currents of the World 

Seldom does the coffee drinker realize 
how the ends of the earth are drawn upon 

to bring the perfected beverage to his lips. 
The trail that ends in his breakfast cup, if 
followed back, w^ould be found to go a 
devious and winding way, soon splitting up 
into half-a-dozen or more straggling 
branches that would lead to as many widely 
scattered regions. If he could mount to a 
point where he could enjoy a bird's-eye 
view of these and a hundred kindred trails, 
he would find an intricate criss-cross of 
streamlets and rivers of coffee forming a 
tangled pattern over the tropics and reach- 
ing out north and south to all civilized 
countries. This would be a picture of the 
coffee trade of the world. 

It would be a motion picture, with the 
rivulets swelling larger at certain seasons, 
but seldom drying up entirely at any time. 
In the main the streamlets and rivers 
keep pretty much the same direction and 
volume one year after another, but then 
there is also a quiet shifting of these cur- 
rents. Some grow larger, and other dimin- 
ish gradually until they fade out entirely. 
In one of the regions from which they 
take their source a tree disease may 
cause a decline; in another, a hurricane 
may lay the industry low at one quick 
stroke; and in still another, a rival crop 
may drain away the life-blood of capital. 
But for the most part, when times are 
normal, the shift is gradual; for interna- 
tional trade is conservative, and likes to run 
where it finds a well-worn channel. 




In recent times, of course, the big dis- 
turbing element in the coffee trade was the 
"World War. Whole countries were cut out 
of the market, shipping was drained away 
from every sea lane, stocks were piled high 
in exporting ports, prices were fixed, im- 
ports were sharply restricted, and the whole 
business of coffee trading was thrown out 
of joint. To what extent has the world 
returned to normal in this trade? Were 
the stoppages in trade merely temporary 
suspensions, or are they to prove perma- 
nent? How are the old, long-worn chan- 
nels filling up again, now that the dams 
have been taken away? 

We are now far enough removed from 
the war to begin to answer these questions. 
We find our answer in the export figures of 
the chief producing countries, which for the 
most part are now available in detail for 
one or two post-war years. These figures 
are given in the tables below ; and for com- 
parison, there are also given figures show- 
ing the distribution of exports in 1913 and 
in an earlier year near the beginning of the 
century. These figures, of course, do not 
necessarily give an accurate index to 
normal trade ; as in any given year some 
abnormal happening, such as an exception- 
ally large crop or a revolution, may affect 
exports drastically as compared with years 
before and after. But normally the pro- 
portions of a country's exports going to its 
various customers are fairly constant one 
year after another, and can be taken for 
any given year as showing approximately 
the coffee currents of that period. 

The figures following are for the calendar 
year unless the fiscal year is indicated. 
Where figures could not be obtained from 
the original statistical publications, they 
have been supplied as far as possible from 
consular reports. 

Brazil. The war naturally increased the 
dependence of Brazil on its chief customer, 
and the proportion of the total crop coming 
to this country since the war has continued 
to be large. Shipments to United States 
ports in 1920 represented about fifty-four 
percent of the total exports. Figures for 
that year indicate also that France and 
Belgium were working back to their normal 
trade; but that Spain, Great Britain, and 
the Netherlands were taking much less 
coffee than in the year just before the war. 
Germany was buying strongly again, her 
purchases of 72,000,000 pounds being about 

half as much as in 1913. Shipments to 
Italy were four times as heavy as in 1913. 
The natural return to normal was much 
interfered with by speculation and valor- 
ization. Brazil seems to have come through 
the cataclysmic period of the war in better 
style than might have been expected. 

Coffee Exports from Brazil 

1900 1913 1920 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

United States. .566,686,343 650,071,337 826,425,340 

France 78,408, .S62 244,295,282 203,694,212 

Great Britain. 6,442,739 32,559,715 9,597,378 

Germany 235,131,881 246,767,144 72,196,934 

Aus.-Hunsary . 71,696,556 134,495,310 

Netherlands ..102,711,887 196,169,240 49,760,767 

Italy 17,559,107 31,364,656 132,543,798 

Spain 868,617 14,407,906 6,057,833 

Belgium 41,500,638 58,858,562 42,309,469 

Other countries. 59,432,882 145,896,327 181,796,919 

Total 1,180,439,514 1,754,885,479 1,524,382,650 

The 1900 figures are for the ports of Ric, 
Santos, Bahia, and Victoria. 

"Other countries" in 1913 included Ar- 
gentina, 32,941,182 pounds; Sweden, 28,- 
045,737 pounds; Cape Colony, 15,930,731 
pounds; Denmark, 6,252,931 pounds. In 
1920 they included Argentina, 37,736,498 
pounds; Sweden, 51,026,591 pounds; Den- 
mark, 18,764,483 pounds; Cape Colony, 
26,936,653 pounds. 

Venezuela. Venezuela's coffee trade was 
deeply affected by the war; both because 
the Germans were prominent in the in- 
dustry, and because the regular shipping 
service to Europe was discontinued. Large 
amounts of coffee were piled up at the 
ports and elsewhere ; and when the restric- 
tions were swept away in 1919, an abnormal 
exportation resulted. Although Germany 
had been one of the chief buyers before the 
war, Venezuela was by no means dependent 
on the German market. In fact, her com- 
bined shipments to France and the United 
States, just before the war, were three times 
as great as her exports to Germany. These 
two countries took two-thirds of her total 
exports in 1920. Spain and the Nether- 
lands were also prominent buyers. 

Coffee Exports from Venezuela 

1906 1913 1920 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

United States. 35,704,398 45,570,268 43,670,191 

Prance 21,748,370 46,413,174 4,647,978 

Germany 5,270.814 32,203,972 546,363 

Aus. -Hungary . 289,851 3,015,723 

Spain 3,133,012 7,372,839 15,210,756 

Netherlands . . 28,549,920 2,903,806 1,836,209 

Italy 315,293 2,805,948 719,850 

Great Britain. . 404,720 98,796 1,518,175 

Other countries 2,663,507 1,631,143 5,577,110 

Total 98,079,885 142,015,669 73,726,632 

Colombia. Colombian statistics of for- 
eign trade are issued very irregularly, and 



The World's Leading Growths, with Market Names and General 

Trade Characteristics 

Grand Division 


Shipping Ports 

Best Known 
Market Names 

Trade Characteristics 



Vera Cruz 

Coa tepee 

Greenish to yellow bean ; 



mild flavor. 



Puerto Barrios 


Waxy, bluish bean ; mellow 





La Libertad 

Santa Ana 
Santa Tecla 

Smooth, green bean ; neu- 
tral flavor. 


Costa Rica 

I'uerto Limon 

Costa Ricas 

Blue-greenish bean ; mild 





Cape Haitien 


Blue bean ; rich, fairly 

If Indies 

acid ; sweet flavor. 


Santo Domingo 

Santo Domingo 

Santo Domingo 

Flat, greenish-yellow bean ; 
strong flavor. 



Blue Mountain 

Bluish-green bean ; rich, 
full flavor. 

Porto Rico 


Porto Ricans 

Gray-blue bean ; strong, 
heavy flavor. 



Sa van ill a 


Greenish-yellow bean ; rich. 

^ America 

Manizales, Bogota 

mellow flavor. 


La Gualra 


Greenish-yellow bean ; mild, 



mellow flavor. 




Small bean ; mild flavor. 

Rio de Janeiro 


Large bean ; sti-ong cup. 





Small, short, green to yel- 
low bean ; unique, mild 




Small to large, blue-green 


Coorg (Kurg) 

bean ; strong flavor. 

East India 

Malay States 

Penang (Geo't'n) 


Liberian and Robusta 



Liberian, Robusta 

growths from Malaysia. 



Ayer Bangles 

Large, yellow to brown 
bean ; heavy body ; ex- 
quisite flavor. 



Cheribon, Kroe 

Small, blue to yellow bean ; 
light in cup. 




Large, yellow bean ; aro- 
matic cup. 





Large, blue to yellow bean ; 
very like Mocha. 





Large, blue, flinty bean ; 




mildly acid. 




Yellow and brown large 
bean ; mild cup. 



no figures are available to afford compari- 
son between pi*e-war and post-war trade. 
The figures below, however, -will show the 
comparative amounts of coffee going to the 
chief buying countries at different periods. 
From these it will be seen that, the countries 
mainly interested in the trade in Colombian 
coffee are those prominent in the trade in 
other tropical American sections. England, 
France, Germany, and the United States 
took the great bulk of the exports. A con- 
sular report written after the outbreak of 
the war says : 

Prior to the war the United States took about 
seventy percent of Colombia's coffee crop ; tlie 
remainder being about equally divided between 
England. France, and Germany, with England 
taking the largest share. 

Coffee Exports fkom Colombia * 
(Prom Barranquilla only) 

1899 1905 1916 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

•Great Britain. 22,573,828 7,268,429 442,026 

France 6,873,722 496,120 1,685,454 

Germany 9,348,028 8,568,131 

United States. 17,991,500 43.518,704 134,292,858 

Other countries 7,396,385 23,753,678 

Total 56,787,078 67,247,769 160,174,016 

* Tliese figures are taken from a consular report, 
which gave statistics only for the port of Barran- 
quilla and did not include the total shipments from 
that port. Shipments from Cartagena, the only other 
exporting port of any consequence, amounted to 
7,836,505 pounds, destination not stated. The Bar- 
ranquilla figures, in the absence of oflicial statistics, 
can be taken as fairly representative of the total 
trade so far as destination is concerned. They are 
for fiscal years, ending June 30. 

"Other countries" in 1916 included 
Italy, 1,135,137 pounds ; Venezuela, 20,564,- 
321 pounds; Dutch West Indies, 400,132 

Central America. The three largest pro- 
ducing countries of Central America, 
Guatemala, Salvador, and Costa Rica, w^ere 
all closely linked to Germany by the coffee 
trade before the war. German capital was 
heavily invested in coffee plantations; Ger- 
man houses had branches in the principal 
cities ; and German ships regularly served 
the chief ports. Accordingly, when the 
Mockade became effective, these countries 
were placed in a difficult position. But 
fortunately for them, a special effort had 
Ibeen made shortly before by Pacific-coast 
interests in the United States to divert a 
part of the coffee trade to San Francisco \ 
The market to the east being shut off, these 
countries turned naturally to the north. 
This trade with the United States has ap- 
parently been firmly established, and there 
lias not yet been much of a return to Ger- 
man ports. 

1 See chapter XXX. 

Guatemala. Of the three countries 
named, Guatemala was the most heavily 
involved in German trade. In 1913 she 
sent to Germany 53,000,000 pounds of 
coffee, a fifth more than in 1900., Her ship- 
ments of more than 10,000,000 pounds to 
the United Kingdom were about the same 
as at the beginning of the century. The 
war turned both these currents into United 
States ports, and they continued to tlow in 
that direction through 1920. The figures 
follow : 

Coffee Exports from Guatemala 

1900 191i3 1920 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

Germany 44.416,064 53,232,910 452,206 

United States . . . 14,057,120 21,188,444 78,226,508 

United Kingdom. 11,467.680 10,666,604 2,341,217 

Other countries.. 3,041,584 6,641.936 13,185,638 

Total 72.982,448 91,729,894 94,205,569 

"Other countries" in 1913 included Aus- 
tria-Hungary, 4,205,400 pounds; Nether- 
lands, 407,900 pounds. In 1920, they in- 
cluded Netherlands, 10,355,625 pounds; 
Sweden, 422,421 pounds; Norway, 57,408 
pounds; Spain, 97,519 pounds; France, 
27,956 pounds. 

Salvador. Salvador is one. of the coun- 
tries in which the publication of foreign- 
trade statistics has been irregular in the 
past, and none is available to show the full 
trade in coffee at the beginning of the 
century. A consular report gives figures 
for the first half of 1900. The most recent 
statistics show that the United States still 
holds much of the trade gained during the 
war, although Salvador is sending to Scan- 
dinavian countries many millions of pounds 
of her coffee that came to the United States 
in wartime. 

Coffee Exports from Salvador 

1900 (1st 6mos.) 1913 1920 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

United States. 6,700,101 10,779,655 46,262,256 

France 22,948,712 15,955,920 6,686,714 

Germany 6,607,892 12,120,133 813, 16Q 

Great Britain. 4,396,465 3,415,187 4,226,061 

Italy 4,322,003 9,538,976 

Aus.-Hungary . 1,335,626 3,557,482 

Belgium 210,834 5,508 3,104 

Spain 24,799 377,729 364,296 

Other countries 3,920 7,193,107 24,509,071 

Total 46.550.352 62,943.697 82,^64,668 

"Other countries" in 1913 included Nor- 
way, 2,070,220 pounds; Sweden, 2,238,332 
pounds; Netherlands, 738,694 pounds; 
Chile, 609,441 pounds; Russia, 95,625 
pounds; Denmark, 140,665 pounds. In 
1920, they included Norway, 10,726,375 
pounds; Chile, 1,772,346 pounds; Nether- 
lands, 1,071,614 pounds ; Sweden, 9,635,947 
pounds; Denmark, 1,061,772 pounds. 


A Fi.ouKisiiiNG Coffee Estate in Chiapas, Mexico 

i..\1!oi;ei!S BRI^■GI^G ia the Day's I'ickings, 2seak Bogota, Columuia 


L,» „..„.. 

man capital was heavily invested in Costa 
^^ica before the war, and all three nations 
^ftere interested in the coffee trade. For 
^Tiany years England had maintained the 

lead as a coffee customer, and shipments 

continued in large volume after the war. 

The following figures are for the crop year 

ending September 30 : 

Coffee Exports 
xported to Pounds 

United States .. 6,388,236 
Great Britain. 27,756,661 

France 1.241,816 

Germany 2.676,841 

Other countries 147.925 


tOM Costa Rica 
















Total 38,211,479 

In 1900 total shipments were 35,496,055 
pounds, of which 20,587,712 pounds went 
to Great Britain; 8,874,014 pounds to the 
United States; and 3,904,566 pounds to 

"Other countries" in 1903 included 
Spain. 49,189 pounds; Italy, 4,104 pounds. 
In 1921, they included Netherlands, 837,- 
496 pounds : 'Spain, 308,308 pounds ; Chile, 
9,259 pounds. 

Mexico. Mexico has naturally sent most 
of her coffee across the border into the 
United States, and she continued to do so 
during and after the war. But she had 
worked up a very important trade with 
Europe, chiefly with Germany ; and German 
capital, and German planters and mer- 
chants were prominent in the industry. 
France and England also were interested 
in the trade, and purchased annually sev- 
eral million pounds. During the war, as 
shown by the exports in its final year, this 
trade almost entirely ceased, and the 
United States and Spain remained as the 
only consumers of Mexican coffee. Details 
of the after-war trade are not yet available 
in published statistics. In the following 
table, 1900 and 1918 are calendar years, 
and 1913 is a fiscal year. 

Coffee Exports from Mexico 
. Exported to Pounds 

United States. 28.882.954 
Germany ..... 10,074,001 
Aus.-Hunjrary . 163.934 

Belgium 25,855 

Spain . 546,132 

France 3,927,294 

Netherlands ... 220.607 
Great Britain . 3,848,605 
Cuba ...-...•.: 467;201 

Italy , . 157,653 

Other couptries 

Total '. 48,314,236 





















In 1913 "other countries" included 
Panama, 342,131 pounds; Canada, 276,567 
pounds; Sweden, 3,079 pounds; British 
Honduras, 33,179 pounds; Denmark, 112 

Jamaica. The French, more than any 
other peoples in Europe, have cultivated a 
taste for coffee from the West Indies; and 
France normally has led all other countries 
in shipments from the larger producing 
islands, including Jamaica, although the 
island is a British possession. In the 
year before the war, France bought nearly 
4,000,000 pounds of Jamaican coffee, more 
than half the total production. In the year 
1900-01 also she took about 4,000,000 
pounds, leading all other countries. This 
trade was very much cut down during the 
war. but was not wiped out. As shown in 
the figures for 1918, England largely took 
the place of France in that year, and 
Canada increased her purchases several 
hundred percent. 

Coffee Exports from Jamaica 

1901 (fls.yr.) 



Exported to 




Great Britain 

. 1,849,456 







United States 

. 2,976.512 




. 3,958,304 



Aus. -Hungary 





Barbados . . . 



Other countries 508,704 




. 9,621,584 




countries ' ' 

in 1901 


British West Indies, 316,512 pounds. In 
1913, they included Netherlands, 125,216 
pounds; is^rway, 28,896 pounds; Sweden, 
70,224 pounds ; Italy, 46,592 pounds ; Aus- 
tralia, 71,456 pounds. 

Haiti. Prior to the taking over of the 
administration of the customs of Haiti by 
the United States, detailed statistics of the 
exports are almost wholly lacking. France 
took most of the annual production, con- 
tinuing a trade that dated back to old 
colonial times. An American consular 
report says: 

Before the war there was no market for Hai- 
tian coffee in the United States, practically the 
entire crop going to Europe, with France as the 
largest consumer. However, there has been for 
some time past a determined effort made to 
create a demand in the United States, and this 
is said to be meeting with ever-increasing suc- 

The actual success achieved can be meas- 
ured by the following figures for the fiscal 
year ended September 30.,' 1920: 



Coffee Exports from Haiti 
Exported to Pounds 

United States 27,647,077 

France 23,921,083 

Great Britain 39,583 

Other countries 10,362,351 

Total 61,970,094' 

These figures do not include 6,322,167 
pounds of coffee triage, or waste, of which 
the United States took 2,028,352 pounds; 
France, 1,491,507 pounds. 

Dominican Republic. The comparatively 
small production of the Dominican Repub- 
lic was divided among the United States 
and three or four European countries be- 
fore the war. Since the war the exports 
have been scattered among the former 
customers in varying amounts. Germany 
is again a buyer, although her purchases 
have not come back to anything like the 
pre-war level. 

Coffee Exports from the Dominican Republic 

1906 1913 1920 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

United States. 564,291 506,456 529,831 

France 569,215 1,248,418 454,165 

Germany 1,562,193 327,843 69,224 

Italy * 195,294 51,543 

Cuba * 25,628 132,569 

Great Britain. * 660 54,114 

Other countries 221,028 8,154 70,220 

Total 2,916,727 2,312,453 1,361,666 

*No shipments, or included in "other countries." 

"Other countries" in 1920 included only 
the Netherlands. 

PoRTO Rico. In spite of several attempts 
on the part of Porto-Rican planters to 
make their product popular in the markets 
of the United States, the American con- 
sumer has never found the taste of that 
coffee to his liking. The big market for 
the Porto-Rican product has been Cuba, 
which has depended on her neighbor for 
most of her supply. This demand takes a 
large part of the annual crop, including 
the lower grades. The better grades, be- 
fore the war, went largely to Europe, 
mostly to the Latin countries. During the 
war, the Cuban mai-ket carried the Porto- 
Rican planters through, although shipments 
of considerable size continued to go to 
France and Spain. Recovery of the pre- 
war trade with Europe, however, has been 
slow, Spain being the only country to take 
over 1,000,000 pounds in 1920. Shipments 
to that country totaled 3,472,204 pounds; 
those to France, 900,868 pounds. Both 
countries increased their purchases con- 
siderably in 1921. 

Coffee Exports from Porto Rico 

1900-01 (fls.yr.) 1913 1921 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

United States. 29,565 628,843 211,531 

France 3,348,025 6,0'20,170 1,625,065 

Spam 2,590,096 6,851,235 5,705,932 

Aus.-Hungary . 386,158 6,729,726 

Germany 493,891 876,315 363,993 

Belgium 9,964 25,867 234 019 

Italy 611,033 3,498,157 43,484 

Netherlands . . 8,860 497,938 25 199 

Sweden 32,390* 633,046 266,550 

Cuba 4,633,538 23,179,690 21,135,397 

Other countries 13,720 393,586 356.709 

Total 12,157,240 49,334,573 29,967,879 

* Includes Norway. 

Hawaii. The war disarranged Hawaii's 
coffee trade very little, as she had for many 
years been shipping chiefly to continental 
United States. Recently a considerable 
trade with the Philippines has developed. 

Coffee Exports from Hawaii 

1901-02 (fls.yr.) 1913 1921 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

United States. 1,082,994 3,393,009 4,183,046 

Canada 77,900 10,200 11 355 

Japan 24,155 49,167 23,950 

Germany 2,100 1,612 

Philippines ... * 932,640 747,700- 

Other countries 23,349 49,179 13,070 

Total 1,210,498 4,435, 807 4,979,121 

*No exports, or included in "other countries." 

Aden. Lying on the edge of the war 
area and on the road to India, Aden felt 
the full force of the disarrangement of 
commercial traffic by the war. Ordinarily,. 
Aden is not only the chief outlet for the 
coffee of the interior of Arabia — the orig- 
inal "Mocha" — but it is also the tranship- 
ping point for large amounts from Africa 
and India. The figures given below relate 
for the most part to this transhipped 
coffee. Exports of coffee from Aden go. 
chiefly to the United Kingdom, France, and 
the United States, and to other ports of 
Arabia and Africa. Before the war no» 
great proportion went to the Central 
Powers. The following figures apply to 
fiscal years ending March 31 : 

Coffee Exports from Aden 

1901 (fls.yr.) 1914 (fls.yr.) 1921 (fls.yr.) 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

Great Britain. 1,563,632 696,976 466,928 

United States. 2,412,368 4,300,128 2,507,344 

France 3,789,296 2,975,840 814.016 

Egypt 1,024,576 3,108,336 

Arab. Gulf Pts. 860,160 852,320 606,592 

Germany 247,184 465,136 

Aus.-Hungary . 341,152 553,952 

Italy 197,568 811,664 7,504 

Br. Somaliland 280,224 23,408 

♦Africa 337,344 2,390,640 292,880 

Other countries 1,114,848 2,500,456 1,659,504 

Total 12,168,352 15,570,520 9,463,104 

•Including adjacent islands, but exclusive of British 

"Other countries" in 1914 included 
Australia, 222,320 pounds; Perim, 142,016 
pounds; Zanzibar, 148,848 pounds; Mauri- J| 




ius, 154,672 pounds; Seychelles, 116,704 
founds; Sweden, 118,720 pounds; Norway, 
^9,168 pounds ; Russia, 196,448 pounds. In 
1921, they included Denmark, 120,624 
pounds ; Spain, 124,208 pounds'; Massowah, 
110,704 pounds. 

British India. As India's trade before 

le war was chiefly with the mother coun- 

ry, with France, and with Ceylon, the 

I'eturn to normal has been rapid. In the 

rear following the war, these three cus- 

)mers were again credited with the largest 

^mounts exported from India, except for 

lipments to Greece, W'hich took little before 

le war. The following figures are for the 

iscal years ending March 31 : 

Coffee Exports from British India 

1901 (fla.yr.) 1914 (fls.yr.) 1920(fla.yr.) 

Exported to Pounds Pounds Pounds 

Jreat Britain. 15,678,768 10,343,536 8,138,144 

Ceylon 1,088,528 l,428i,112 1,423,072 

France 8,430.016 10 924,816 9,256,352 

Belgium 617,792 1,021,664 

Germany 126,560 1,033,088 25,312 

Aus.-Hungary . 123,312 1,358,896 8,400 

Italy 23,968 22,624 30.912 

United States. 54,096 16,576 

Turkey in Asia 232,176 501,984 986,720 

♦Africa 118,272 113,344 619,696 

Other countries 1,106,784 2,360,736 10,021,648 

Total 27,600,272 29,108,800 30,526,832 

♦Including adjacent islands. 

"Other countries" in 1914 included 
Netherlands, 238,560 pounds; Australia, 
748,608 pounds; Bahrein Islands, 757,568 
pounds. In 1920, they included Greece, 

6,487,376 pounds; Australia, 481,152 
pounds ; Bahrein Islands, 1,081,696 pounds ; 
Aden and dependencies, 459,984 pounds; 
other Arabian ports, 890,176 pounds. 

Dutch East Indies. The war played 
havoc with the coffee trade of the Dutch 
East Indies, taking away shipping, closing 
trade routes, and causing immense quanti- 
ties of coffee to pile up in the warehouses. 
When the war ended, this coffee was re- 
leased; and trade was consequently again 
abnormal, although in the opposite direc- 
tion from that it took during war years. 
The 1920 figures indicate that the trade is 
working back into its old channels. 

Coffee Exports from 

Dutch East 





Exported to 




Netherlands . 




Great Britain 











Germany .... 








United States 




Singapore . . . 




Other countries 2,965,000 







♦Includes shipments "for orders." 

t These figures cover only Java and Madura. 

"Other countries" in 1920 included, 
Norway, 2,606,421 pounds ; Sweden, 728,580 
pounds; Australia, 1,553,495 pounds; 
British India, 1,912,541 pounds; Italy, 1,- 
964,109 pounds; Denmark, 1,191,643 
pounds ; Belgium, 166,092 pounds. 






Chapter XX 

The early days of coffee culture in Abyssinia and Arabia — Coffee 
cultivation in general — Soil, climate, rainfall, altitude, propagation, 
preparing the plantation, shade and wind breaks, fertilising, prun- 
ing, catch crops, pests, and diseases — How coffee is grown around 
the ivorld — Cidtivation in all the principal producing countries 

^OR the beginnings of coffee culture 
we must go back to the Arabian 
colony of Harar in Abyssinia, for 
lere it was, about the fifteenth century, 
that the Arabs, having found the plant 
growing wild in the Abyssini an^ highlands, 
first gave it intensive cultivation. The com- 
plete story of the early cultivation of cofl'ee 
in the old and new worlds is told in chapter 
II, which deals with the history of the 
propagation of the coffee plant. 

La iloque ^ was the first to tell how the 
plant was cultivated and the berries pre- 
pared for market in Arabia, where it was 
brought from Abyssinia. 

The Arabs raised it from seed grown in 
nurseries, transplanting it to plantations 
laid out in the foot-hills of the mountains, 
to which they conducted the mountain 
streams by ingeniously constructed small 
channels to water the roots. They built 
trenches three feet wide and five feet deep, 
lining them with pebbles to cause the water 
to sink deep into the earth with which the 
trenches were filled, to preserve the mois- 
ture from too rapid evaporation. These 
were so constructed that the water could 
be turned off into other channels when the 
fruit began to ripen. In plantations ex- 
posed to the south, a kind of poplar tree 
was planted along the trenches to supply 
needful shade. 

La Roque noted that the coffee trees in 
Yemen were planted in lines, like the apple 
trees in Normandy; and that when they 

^ La Roque, .lean. Voyage de I'AraMe Heureuae, 
Paris. 17] 5. (p. 280.) 

were much exposed to the sun, the shade 
poplars were regularly introduced between 
the rows. 

Such cultivation as the plant received in 
early Abyssinia and Arabia was crude and 
primitive at best. Throughout the inter- 
vening centuries, there has been little im- 
provement in Yemen ; but modern cultural 
methods obtain in the Harar district in 

Like the Arabs in Yemen, the Harari 
cultivated in small gardens, employing the 
same ingenious system of irrigation from 
mountain springs to water the roots of the 
plants at least once a week during the dry 
season. In Yemen and in Abyssinia the 
ripened berries were sun-dried on beaten- 
earth barbecues. 

The European planters who carried the 
cultivation of the bean to the Far East and 
to America followed the best Arabian prac- 
tise, changing, and sometimes improving 
it, in order to adapt it to local conditions. 

Cofee Cidtivation in General 

Today the commercial growers of coffee 
on a large scale practise intensive cultiva- 
tion methods, giving the same care to pre- 
paring their plantations and maintaining 
their trees as do other growers of grains 
and fruits. As in the more advanced 
methods of arboriculture, every effort is 
made to obtain the maximum production of 
quality coffee consistent with the smallest 
outlay of money and labor. Experimental 
stations in various parts of the world are 
constantly working to improve methods and 




products, and to develop types that will 
resist disease and adverse climatic condi- 

While cultivation methods in the differ- 
ent producing countries vary in detail of 
practise, the principles are unchanging. 
Where methods do differ, it is owing prin- 
cipally to local economic conditions, such as 
the supply and cost of labor, machinery, 
fertilizers, and similar essential factors. 

Implements Used in Early Arabian Coffee 

1, Plow. 2 and 3, Mattocks. 4, Hatchet and sickle. 
Top, Seeder implement 

Soil. Rocky ground that pulverizes 
easily — and, if possible, of volcanic origin 
— is best for coffee; also, soil rich in de- 
composed mold. In Brazil the best soil is 
known as terra roxa, a topsoil of red clay 
three or four feet thick with a gravel sub- 

Climate. The natural habitat of the 
coffee tree (all species) is tropical Africa, 
Mhere the climate is hot and humid, and the 
soil rich and moist, yet sufficiently friable 
to furnish well drained seed beds. These 
conditions must be approximated when the 
tree is grown in other countries. Because 
the trees and fruit generally can not with- 
stand frost, they are restricted to regions 
where the mean annual temperature is 
about 70° F., with an average minimum 

about 55°, and an average maximum of 
about 80°. Where grown in regions subject 
to more or less frost, as in the northernmost 
parts of Brazil's coffee-producing district, 
which lie almost within the south temperate 
zone, the coffee trees are sometimes frosted, 
as was the case in 1918, when about forty 
percent of the Sao Paulo crop and trees 

Generally speaking, the most suitable 
climate for coffee is a temperate one within 
the tropics; however, it has been success- 
fully cultivated between latitudes 28° north 
and 38° south. 

Rainfall, Although able to grow satis- 
factorily only on well drained land, the 
coffee tree requires an abundance of water, 
about seventy inches of rainfall annually, 
and must have it supplied evenly through- 
out the year. Prolonged droughts are 
fatal ; while, on the other hand, too great a 
supply of water tends to develop the wood 
of the tree at the expense of the flowers and 
fruit, especially in low-lying regions. 

Altitude. Coffee is found growing in all 
altitudes, from sea-level up to the frost-line, 
which is about 6,000 feet in the tropics. 
Rohusta and liberica varieties of coffee do 
best in regions from sea-level up to 3,000 
feet, while arabica flourishes better at the 
higher levels. 

Carvalho says that the coffee plant needs 
sun, but that a few hours daily exposure is 
sufficient. Hilly ground has the advantage 
of offering the choice of a suitable exposure, 
as the sun shines on it for only a part of 
the day. Whether it is the early morning 
or the afternoon sun that enables the plant 
to attain its optimum conditions is a ques- 
tion of locality. 

In Mexico, Romero tells us, the highlands 
of Soconusco have the advantage that the 
sun does not shine on the trees during the 
whole of the day. On the higher slopes of 

Cross Section of Mountain Slope in Yemen, Arabia, Showing Coffee Terraces 
These miniature plantations are found chiefly along the caravan route between Hodeida and Sanaa 



Cleauinu Virgin Fokest for a Coffee Estate in Mexico 

Coffee Xubsery Under a Bamboo Roof in Colombia 



the Cordilleras — from 2,500 feet above 
sea-level — clouds prevail during the sum- 
mer season, when the sun is hottest, and 
are frequently present in the other seasons, 
after ten o'clock in the morning. These 
keep the trees from being exposed to the 
heat of the sun during the whole of the day. 
Perhaps to this circumstance is due the 
superior excellence of certain coffees grown 
in Mexico, Colombia, and Sumatra at an 
altitude of 3,000 feet to 4,000 feet above 

Richard Spruce, the botanist, in his notes 
on South America, as quoted by Alfred 
Russel Wallace," refers to "a zone of the 
equatorial Andes ranging between 4,000 
and 6,000 feet altitude, where the best 
flavored coffee is grown." 

Propagation. Coffee trees are grown 
most generally from seeds selected from 
trees of known productivity and longevity ; 
although in some parts of the world propa- 
gation is done from shoots or cuttings. The 
seed method is most general, however, the 
seeds being either propagated in nursery 
beds, or planted at once in the spot where 
the mature tree is to stand. In the latter 

^Encyclopedia Britannica, 11 ed., Cambridge, 1910. 
(vol. i: p. 118.) 

case — called planting at stake — four or 
five seeds are planted, much as corn is 
sown ; and after germination, all but the 
strongest plant are removed. 

Where the nursery method is followed, 
the choicest land of the plantation is 
chosen for its site ; and the seeds are 
planted in forcing beds, sometimes called 
cold-frames. When the plants are to be 
transplanted direct to the plantation, the 
seeds are generally sown six inches apart 
and in rows separated by the same distance, 
and are covered with only a slight sprink- 
ling of earth. When the plants are to be 
transferred from the first bed to another, 
and then to the plantation, the seeds are 
sown more thickly; and the plants are 
"pricked" out as needed, and set out in 
another forcing bed. 

During the six to seven weeks required 
for the coffee seed to germinate, the soil 
must be kept moist and shaded and thor- 
oughly weeded. If the trees are to be 
grown without shade, the young plants are 
gradually exposed to the sun, to harden 
them, before they begin their existence in 
the plantation proper. 

Considerable experimental work has been 
done in renewing trees by grafting, notably 








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Coffee Tree Nursery, Panajabal, Pochuta, Guatemala 


Drying Grounds and Factory in the Preanger Regency 

--»=.- „-.-»; -mi 

Native TKAMSFohx, Field to Factoky, at Duamaga, Neau liuiXEN/^ouu 



Coffee Growing Under Shade, Porto Rico 

in Java ; but practically all commercial 
planters follow the seed method. 

Preparing the Plantation. Before 
transplanting time has come, the plantation 
itself has been made ready to receive the 
young plants. Coffee plantations are gen- 
erally laid out on heavily wooded and slop- 
ing lands, most often in forests on moun- 
tainsides and plateaus, where there is an 
abundance of water, of which large quan- 
tities are used in cultivating the trees and 
in preparing the coffee beans for market. 
The soil most suitable is friable, sandy, or 
even gravelly, with an abundance of rocks 
to keep the soil comparatively cool and well 
drained, as well as to supply a source of 
food by action of the weather. The ideal 
soil is one that contains a large proportion 
of potassium and phosphoric acid ; and for 
that reason, the general practise is to burn 
off the foliage and trees covering the land 
and to use the ashes as fertilizer. 

In preparing the soil for the new planta- 
tion under the intensive cultivation method, 
the surface of the land is lightly plowed, 
and then followed up with thorough cul- 
tivation. "When transplanting time comes, 
which is when the plant is about a year old, 
and stands from twelve to eighteen inches 
high with its first pairs of primary 

branches, the plants are set out in shallow 
holes at regular intervals of from eight to 
twelve, or even fourteen, feet apart. This 
gives room for the root system to develop, 
provides space for sunlight to reach each 
tree, and makes for convenience in cultivat- 
ing and harvesting. Liherica and robusta 
type trees require more room than arahica. 
When set twelve feet apart, which is the 
general practise, with the same distance 
maintained between rows, there are approxi- 
mately four hundred and fifty trees to the 
acre. In the triangle, or hexagon, system 
the trees are planted in the form of an 
equilateral triangle, each tree being the 
same distance (usually eight or nine feet) 
from its six nearest neighbors. This sys- 
tem permits of 600 to 800 trees per acre. 

Shade and Wind Breaks. Strong, chilly 
winds and intensely hot sunlight are foes 
of coffee trees, especially of the arahica 
variety. Accordingly, in most countries it 
is customary to protect the plantation with 
wind-breaks consisting of rugged trees, and 
to shade the coffee by growing trees of 
other kinds between the rows. The shade 
trees serve also to check soil erosion : and 
in the case of the leguminous kinds, to 
furnish nutriment to the soil. Coffee does 
best in shade such as is afforded bv the silk 



oak (Grevillea rohusta). In Shade in 
Coffrf Culture {Bulletin 25, 1901, division 
of botany, United States Department of 
Agriculture), 0. F. Cook goes extensively 
into this subject. 

The methods emploj^ed in the care of a 
coffee plantation do not differ materially 
from those followed by advanced orchard- 
ists in the colder fruit-belts of the world. 
After the young plants have gained their 
start, they are cultivated frequently, prin- 
'cipally to keep out the weeds, to destroy 
pests, and to aerate the earth. The imple- 
ments used range from crude hand-plows to 
horse-drawn cultivators.. 

Fertilizing. Comparatively little fer- 
tilizing is done on plantations established 
on virgin soil until the trees begin to bear, 
which occurs when they are about three 
years of age. Because the coffee tree takes 
potash, nitrogen, and phosphoric acid from 
the soil, the scheme of fertilizing is to 
restore these elements. The materials used 
to replace the soil-constituents consist of 
stable manure, leguminous plants, coffee- 
tree prunings, leaves, certain weeds, oil 
cake, bone and fish meal, guano, wood 
ashes, coffee pulp and parchment, and such 
chemical fertilizers as superphosphate of 
lime, basic slag, sulphate of ammonia, 

nitrate of lime, sulphate of potash, nitrate 
of potash, and similar materials. 

The relative values of these fertilizers 
depend largely upon local climate and soil 
conditions, the supply, the cost, and other 
like factors. The chemical fertilizers are 
coming into increasing use in the larger and 
more economically advanced producing 
countries. Brazil, particularly, is showing 
in late years a tendency toward their adop- 
tion to make up for the dwindling supply 
of the so-called natural manures. As the 
coffee tree grows older, it requires a larger 
supply of fertilizer. 

Pruning. On the larger plantations, 
pruning is an important part of the cul- 
tivation processes. If left to their own 
devices, coffee trees sometimes grow as high 
as forty feet, the strength being absorbed 
by the wood, with a consequent scanty pro- 
duction of fruit. To prevent this undesir- 
able result, and to facilitate picking, the 
trees on the more modern plantations are 
pruned down to heights ranging from six 
to twelve feet. Except for pruning the 
roots when transplanting, the tree is per- 
mitted to grow until after producing its 
first full crop before any cutting takes 
place. Then, the branches are severely cut 
back ; and thereafter, pruning is carried on 

The Famous Boekit Gompong Estate, Near Padang, on Sumatra's West Coast 
Showing the healthy, regrular appearance of well-cultivated coffee bushes, twenty-six years old. 
note the line of feathery bamboo wind-breaks 




Coffee Estate in Antioquia, Colombia, Showing Wind-Breaks 

annually. Topping and pruning begin be- 
tween the first and the second years. 

Coffee trees as a rule produce full crops 
from the sixth to the fifteenth year, al- 
though some trees have given a paying crop 
until twenty or thirty years old. Ordinarily 
the trees bear from one-half pound to eight 
pounds of coffee annually, although there 
are accounts of twelve pounds being ob- 
tained per tree. Production is mostly gov- 
erned by the cultivation given the tree, and 
by climate, soil, and location. When too 
old to bear profitable yields, the trees on 
commercial plantations are cut down to the 
level of the ground; and are renewed by 
permitting only the strongest sprout spring- 
ing out of the stump to mature. 

Catch Crops. On some plantations it 
has become the practise to grow catch crops 
between the rows of coffee trees, both as 
a, means of obtaining' additional revenue 
and to shade the young coffee plants. Corn, 
beans, cotton, peanuts, and similar plant-s 
are most generally used. 

Pests and Diseases. The coffee tree, its 
wood, foliage, and fruit, have their enemies, 
chief among which are insects, fungi, 
rodents (the "'coffee rat"), birds, squirrels. 

and — according to Rossignon — elephants, 
buffalo, and native cattle, which have a 
special liking for the tender leaves of the 
coffee plant. Insects and fungi are the 
most bothersome pests on most plantations. 
Among the insects, the several varieties of 
borers are the principal foes, boring into 
the wood of the trunk and branches to lay 
larvae which sap the life from the tree. 
There are scale insects whose excretion 
forms a black mold on the leaves and 
affects the nutrition by cutting' off the sun- 
light. Numerous kinds of beetles, cater- 
pillars, grasshoppers, and crickets attack 
the coffee-tree leaves, the so-called "leaf- 
miner" being especially troublesome. The 
Mediterranean fruit fly deposits larvae 
which destroy or lessen the worth of the 
coffee berry by tunneling within and eating 
the contents of the parchment. The coffee- 
berry beetle and its grub also live within 
the coffee berry. 

Among the most destructive fungoid dis- 
eases is the so-called Ceylon leaf disease, 
which is caused by the Hemileia vastatrix, a 
fungus related to the wheat rust. It was 
this disease which ruined the coffee industry 
in Ceylon, where it first appeared in 1869, 



and since has been found in other coffee- 
producing regions of Asia and Africa. 
America has a similar disease, caused by the 
Sphaerostilhe flavida, that is equally de- 
structive if not vigilantly guarded against. 
(See chapters XV and XVI.) 

The coffee-tree roots also are subject to 
attack. There is the root disease, prevalent 
in all countries, and for wh'ch no cause 
has yet been definitely assigned, although 
it has been determined that it is of a 
fungoid nature. Brazil, and some other 
American coft'ee-producing countries, have 
a serious disease caused by the eelworm, 
and for that reason called the eelworm 

Coffee planters combat pests and diseases 
principally with sprays, as in other lines of 
advanced arboriculture. It is a constant 
battle, especially on the large commercial 
plantations, and constitutes a large item on 
the expense sheet. 

Cultivation hy Countries 

Coffee-cultivation methods vary some- 
what in detail in the different producing 
countries. The foregoing description covers 
the underlying principles in practise 
throughout the world; while the following 
is intended to show the local variations 

in vogue in the principal countries of 
production, together with brief descriptions 
of the main producing districts, the alti- 
tudes, character of soil, climate, and other 
factors that are peculiar to each country. 
In general, they are considered in the order 
of their relative importance as producing 

Brazil. In Brazil, the Giant of South 
America, and the world's largest coffee 
producer, the methods of cultivation natur- 
ally have reached a high point of develop- 
ment, although the soil and the climat3 
were not at first regarded as favorable. 
The year 1723 is generally accepted as the 
date of the introduction of the coft'ee plant 
into Brazil from French Guiana. Coffee 
planting was slow in developing, however, 
until 1732, when the governor of the states 
of Para and Maranhao urged its cultiva- 
tion. Sixteen years later, there were 17,000 
trees in Para. From that year on, slow 
but steady progress was made ; and by 1770, 
an export trade had been begun from the 
port of Para to countries in Europe. 

The spread of the industry began about 
this time. The coffee tree was introduced 
into the state of Rio de Janeiro in 1770. 
From there its cultivation was gradually 

Up-to-Date Weeding and Hakeowing, Sao Paulo 



Photograph by Courtesy of J. Aron & Co. 

General View of Fazenda Uumont, Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil 

extended into the states of Sao Paulo, Minas 
Geraes, Bahia, and Espirito Santo, which 
have become the great coffee-producing sec- 
tions of Brazil. The cultivation of the 
plant did not become especially noteworthy 
until the third decade of the nineteenth 
century. Large crops were gathered in the 
season of 1842 - 43 ; and by the middle of 
the century, the plantations were producing 
annually more than 2,000,000 bags. 

Brazil's commercial coffee-growing region 
has an estimated area of approximately 
1,158,000 square miles, and extends from 
the river Amazon to the southern border of 
the state of Sao Paulo, and from the 
Atlantic coast to the western boundary of 
the state of Matto Grosso. This area is 
larger than that section of the United 
States lying east of the Mississippi River, 
with Texas added. In every state of the 
republic, from Ceara in the north to Santa 
Catharina in the south, the coffee tree can 
be cultivated profitably; and is, in fact,, 
more or less grown in every state, if only 
for domestic use. However, little attention 
is given to coffee-growing in the north, ex- 
cept in the state of Pernambuco, which has 
only about 1,500,000 trees, as compared, 
with the 764.000,000 trees of Sao Paulo in 

The chief coffee-growing plantations in 
Brazil are situated on plateaus seldom less 
than 1,800 feet above sea-level, and ranging 

up to 4,000 feet. The mean annual tem- 
perature is approximately 70° F., rang- 
ing from a mean of 60.8° in winter to a 
mean of 72° in summer. The temperature 
has been known, however, to register 32° 
in winter and 97.7° in summer. 

"While coffee trees will grow in almost 
any part of Brazil, experience indicates 
that the two most fertile soils, the terra 
roxa and the massape, lie in the "coffee 
belts." The terra roxa is a dark red earth, 
and is practically confined to Sao Paulo, 
and to it is due the predominant coffee 
productivity of that state. Massape is a 
yellow, dark red — or even black — soil, 
and occurs more or less contiguous to the 
terra roxa. With a covering of loose sand, 
it makes excellent coffee land. 

Brazil planters follow the nursery-propa- 
gated method of planting, and cultivate, 
prune, and spray their trees liberally. 
Transplanting is done in the months from 
November to February. 

Coffee-growing profits. have shown a de- 
cided falling off in Brazil in recent years. 
In 1900 it was not uncommon for a coffee 
estate to yield an annual profit of from 100 
to 250 percent. Ten years later the average 
returns did not exceed twelve percent. 

In Brazil's coffee belt there are two sea- 
sons — the wet, running from September 
to March ; and the dry, running from April 
to August. The coffee trees are in bloom 





from September to December. The blos- 
soms last about four days, and are easily 
beaten off by light winds or rains. If the 
rains or winds are violent, the green berries 
may be similarly destroyed ; so that great 
damage may be caused by unseasonable 
rains and storms. 

The harvest usually begins in April or 
May, and extends well into the dry season. 
Even in the picking season, heavy rains 
and strong winds — especially the latter — 
may do considerable damage; for in Brazil 
shade trees and wind-breaks are the excep- 

Approximately twenty-five percent of the 
Sao Paulo plantations are cultivated by 
machinery, A type of cultivator very com- 
mon is similar to the small corn-plow used 
in the United States. The Planet Junior, 
manufactured by a well known United 
States agricultural-machinery firm, is the 
most popular cultivator. It is drawn by a 
small mule, with a boy to lead it, and a 
man to drive and to guide the plow. 

The preponderance of the coffee over 
other industries in Sao Paulo is shown in 
many ways. A few years ago the registra- 
tion of laborers in all industries was about 
450,000; and of this total, 420,000 were 
employed in the production and transpor- 
tation of coffee alone. Of the capital in- 
vested in all industries, about eighty-five 
percent was in coffee production and com- 
merce, including the railroads that de- 
pended upon it directly. An estimated 
value of $482,500,000 was placed upon the 

Copyright by Brown & Uawsui 

Picking Coffee in Sao Paulo 

plantations in the state, including land,, 
machinery, the residences of owners, and 
laborers' quarters. 

In all Brazil, there are approximately 
1,200,000,000 coffee trees. The number of 
bearing coffee trees in Sao Paulo alone in- 
creased from 735,000.000 in 1914-15 to: 
834,000,000 'in 1917-18. The crop in 1917- 
18 was 1,615,000,000 pounds, one of the 
largest on record. In the agricultural vear 
of 1922-23 there were 764,969,500 coffee 
trees in bearing in Sao Paulo, and in Sao 
Paulo, Minas, and Parana, 824,194,500. 

Plantations having from 300,000 to 400,- 
000 trees are common. One plantation near 
Ribeirao Preto has 5,000,000 trees, and 
requires an army of 6,000 laborers to work 

y •: .1. A:, i: \ (V. 

Intensive Cultivation METiions in the Kibeirao Preto District, Sao Paulo 




1? ^ 


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^^H^^^^^HBHt'l^ JjTfl 

Pliotograph by Courtesy of J. Aion k Co. 

Private Railroad on a Sao Paulo Coffee Fazenda 
Showing coffee trees and laborers' houses in the middle distance at right 

it. Another planter owns thirty-two ad- 
jacent plantations containing, in all, from 
7,500,000 to 8,000,000 coffee trees and 
gives employment to 8,000 persons. There 
are fifteen plantations having more than 
1,000,000 trees each, and five of these have 
more than 2,000,000 trees each. In the 
munieipalitv of Ribeirao Preto there were 
30,000,000 trees in 1922. 

The largest coffee plantations in the world 
are the Fazendas Dumont and the Fazendas 
Schmidt. The Fazendas Dumont were 
valued, in 1915, in cost of land and im- 
provements, at $5,920,007; and since those 
figures were given out, the value of the 
investment has much increased. Of the 
various Fazendas Schmidt, the largest, 
owned by Colonel Francisco Schmidt, in 
1918 had 9.000.000 trees with an annual 
yield of 200,000 bags, or 26,400,000 pounds, 
of coffee. Other large plantations in Sao 
Paulo with a million or more trees, are the 
Companhia Agricola Fazenda Dumont, 2,- 
420,000 trees; Companhia Sao Martinho, 
2,300,000 trees ; Companhia Dumont, 2,000,- 
000 trees : »Sao Paulo Coffee Company, 
1,860,000 trees; Christiana Oxorio de 
Oliveira. 1.790.000 trees; Companhia Guata. 
para 1.550.000 trees; Dr. Alfredo Ellis, 
1,271,000 trees; Companhia Agricola Ara- 
qua, 1,200,000 trees; Companhia Agricola 
Ribeirao Preto, 1,138,000 trees; Rodriguez 
Alves Irmaos, 1,060,000 trees; Francisca 
Silveira do Val, 1,050,000 trees; Luiza de 
Oliveira Azevedo, 1,045,000 trees; and the 
Companhia Cafeeria Sao Paulo, 1,000,000 

The average annual yield in Sao Paulo is 
estimated at from 1,750 to 4,000 pounds 

from a thousand trees, while in exceptional 
instances it is said that as much as 6,000 
pounds per 1,000 trees have been gathered.^ 
Dift'erences in local climatic conditions, in 
ages of trees, in richness of soil, and in the 
care exercised in cultivation, are given as 
the reasons for the wide variation. 

The oldest coffee-growing district in Sao 
Paulo is Campinas, There are 136 others. 

Bahia coffee is not so carefully cultivated 
and harvested as the Santos coffee. The 
introduction of capital and modern methods 
would do much for Bahia, which has the 
advantage of a shorter haul to the New 
York and the European markets. 

On the average, something like seventy 
percent of the world's coffee crop is grown 
in Brazil, and two-thirds of this is produced 
in Sao Paulo. Coffee culture in many dis- 
tricts of Sao Paulo has been brought to the 
point of highest development; and yet its 
product is essentially a quantity, not a 
quality, one. 

Colombia. In Col ombia^ coffee is th e 
J2rineipal crop gro\\'n tor export It is 
produced m nearly — aii — depSHments at 
elevations ranging from 3,500 feet to 6,500 
feet. Chief among the coffee-growing de- 
partments are Antioquia (capital, Medel- 
lin) ; Caldas (capital, Manizales) ; Mag- 
daleuaL ^(capitfil, Santa Marta) ; Sgn tander 
(capital, Bucaramanga) ; Tolima'~ (' capital, 
Ibague) ; and the Federal TPistric^ (capita l, 
Bogota) . 'I'he department of Cundm'a- 
marca produces a coffee that is counted one 
of the best of Colombian grades. The finest 
grades are grown in the foot-hills of the 
Andes, in altitudes from 3,500 to 4,500 feet 
above sea level. 



The Conducting Sluiceway at Guatapaea 

The running water carries tlie picljecl coffee berries to pulpers and washing tanks 

CuilEE ritlvl.NG AM) l-'lKLI) Tl!A.\Sl'OI!T 














I'icKiNG Coffee on a LIogota Plantation 

Methods of planting, cultivation, gather- 
ing, and preparing the Colombian coffee 
crop for the market are substantially those 
that are common in all cofifee-producing 
_eountries, although they differ in some small 
particulars. About 700 trees are usually 
planted to the acre, and native trees fur- 
nish the necessary shade. The average 
yield is one pound per tree per year. 

While Coffea arabica has been mostly cul- 
tivated in Colombia, as in the other coun- 
tries of South America, the liherica variety 
has not been neglected. Seeds of the 
liherica tree were planted here soon after 
1880, and were moderately successful. 
Since 1900, more attention has been given 
to liherica, and attempts have been made 
to grow it upon banana and rubber planta- 
tions, which seem to provide all the shade 
protection that is needed. Liherica coffee 
trees begin to bear in their third year. 
From the fifth year, when a crop of about 
650 pounds to the acre can reasonably be 
expected, the productiveness steadily in- 
creases until after fifteen or sixteen years, 
when a maximum of over one thousand 
pounds an acre is attained. 

Antioquia is the largest coffee producing 
department in the republic, and its coffee 
is of the highest grade grown. Medellin, 

the capital, where the business interests of 
the industry are concentrated, is a hand- 
some white city located on the banks of the 
Aburra river, in a picturesque valley that 
is overlooked by the high peaks of the 
Andean range. It is a town of about 
80,000 inhabitants, thriving as a manufac- 
turing center, abundant in modern improve- 
ments, and is the center of a coffee produc- 
tion of 500,000 bags known in the market 
as Medellin and Manizales. Another center 
in this coffee region is the town of Mani- 
zales, perched on the crest of the Andean 
spurs to dominate the valley extending to 
Medellin and the Cauca valley to the 
Pacific. There-about many small coffee 
growers are settled, and several hundred 
thousand bags of the beans pass through 

One of the interesting plantations of the 
country was started a few years ago in a 
remote region by an enterprising American 
investor. It was located on the slopes of 
the Sierra Nevada mountains 3,000 to 5,000 
feet above sea-level, about twenty-five miles 
from the city of Santa Marta. An extended 
acreage of forest-covered land was acquired, 
about 600 acres of which were cleared and 
either planted in coffee or reserved for 
pasturage and other kinds of agriculture. 



When the plantation came to maturity, it 
had nearly 300,000 trees. In 1919. there 
were 425,000 trees producing 3,600 hun- 
dred-weight of coffee. 

A typical Colombian plantation is the 
Namay, owned by one of the bankers of the 
iBanco^de Colombia of Bogota. It is located 
'a good half day's travel by rail and horse- 
back from the city, about 5,000 feet above 
the level of the sea. There are 1,000 acres 
in the plantation, with 250,000 trees having 
an ultimate productive capacity of nearly 
2,000 bags a year. During crop times, 
which are from May to July, about two 
hundred families are needed on an estate 
oi this size. 

Venezuela. Seeds of the coffee plant 
were brought into Venezuela from Marti- 
nique in 1784 by a priest who started a 
small plantation near Caracas. Five years 
later, the first export of the bean was 
made, 233 bags, or about 30,000 pounds. 
Within fifty years, production had in- 
creased to upward of 50,000,000 pounds 
annually ; and by the end of the nineteenth 
century, to more than 100,000,000 pounds. 

Situated between the equator and the 
twelfth parallel of north latitude, in the 
world's coffee belt, this country has an 
area equal to that of all the United States 
east of the Mississippi river and north of 

the Ohio and Potomac rivers, or greater 
than that of France, Germany, and the 
Netherlands combined — 599,533 square 

The chain of the Maritime Andes, reach- 
ing eastward across Colombia and Vene- 
zuela, approaches the Caribbean coast in 
the latter country. Along the slopes and 
foot-hills of these mountains are produced 
some of the finest grades of South American 
coffee. Here the best coffee grows in the 
tierra templada and in the lower part of the 
tierra fria, and is known as the cafe de 
tierra fria, or coffee of the cold, or high, 
land. In these regions the equable climate, 
the constant and adequate moisture, the 
rich and well-drained soil, and the protect- 
ing forest shade afford the conditions under 
which the plant grows and thrives best. On 
the fertile lowland valleys nearer the coast 
grows the cafe de tierra caliente, or coffee 
of the hot land. 

Coffee growing has become the main 
agricultural pursuit of the country. In 
1839 it was estimated that there were 8,900 
acres of land planted in coffee, and in 1888 
there were 168,000,000 coffee trees in the 
country on 346,000 acres of land. In the 
opening years of the twentieth century not 
far from 250,000 acres were devoted to this 
cultivation, comprised in upward of 33,000 

The long pipe crossing 

On the Altamira Hacienda, Venezuela 
the center of the picture is a water sluiceway bringing 

coffee down from the hills 




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Carmen Hacienda, Fronting on the Escalante Kivek, Venezuela 

plantations. The average yield per acre is 
about 250 pounds. The trees are usually 
planted from two to two and a quarter 
meters apart, and this gives about 800 trees 
to the acre. The triangle system is un- 

In this country, the coffee tree bears its 
first crop when four or five years old. The 
trees are not subject to unusual hazards 
from the attacks of injurious insects and 
animals or from serious parasitic diseases. 
Nature is kind to them, and their only seri- 
ous contention for existence arises from the 
luxuriant tropical vegetation by which they 
are surrounded. On the whole their culti- 
vation is comparatively easy. On the best 
managed estates there are not more than 
1,000 trees to a fanegada — about one and 
three-quarters acres of land — and it is 
calculated that an average annual yield for 
such a fanegada should be about twenty 
quintals, a little more than 2,032 pounds of 
merchantable coffee. It is to be noted, 
however, that the average yield per tree 
throughout Venezuela is low — not more 
than four ounces. 

There are no great coffee belts as in 
Mexico and Central America. Many dis- 
tricts are days' rides apart. The planta- 
tions are isolated, and there is lacking a co- 
operative spirit among the growers. 

Methods of cultivating and preparing the 
berry for the market are substantially those 
that prevail elsewhere in South America. 

Most plantations are handled in ordinary, 
old-fashioned ways; but the better estates 
employ machinery and methods of the most 
advanced and improved character at all 
points of their operation, from the planting 
of the seed to the final marketing of the 

Java. Java, the oldest coffee-producing 
country in which the tree is not indigenous, 
was producing a high-grade coffee long 
before Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela 
entered the industry; and it held its 
supremacy in the world's trade for many 
years before the younger American pro- 
ducing countries were able to surpass its 
annual output. The first attempt to intro- 
duce the plant into Java took place in 1696, 
the seedlings being brought from Malabar 
in India and planted at Kadawoeng, near 
Batavia. Earthquake and flood soon de- 
stroyed the plants; and in 1699 Henricus 
Zwaardecroon brought the second lot of 
seedings from Malabar. These became the 
progenitors of all the arahica coffees of the 
Dutch East Indies. The industry grew, 
and in 1711 the first Java coffee was sold at 
public auction in Amsterdam. Exports 
amounted to 116,587 pounds in 1720; and 
in 1724 the Amsterdam market sold 1,396,- 
486 pounds of coffee from Java. 

From the early part of the nineteenth 
century up to 1905, cultivation was carried 
on under a Dutch government monopoly — 






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A Heavy Fruiting of Coifea Robusta in Java 

excepting for the five years, 1811 - 16, 
when the British had control of the island. 
The government monopoly was first estab- 
lished when Marshal Daendels, acting for 
the crown of Holland, took control of the 
islands from the Netherlands East India 
Company. Before that time, the princes of 
Preanger had raised all the coffee under 
the provisions of a treaty made in the 
middle of the eighteenth century, by which 
they paid an annual tribute in coffee to the 
company for the privilege of retaining 
their land revenues. When the Dutch gov- 
ernment recovered the islands from the. 
British, the plantations, which had been per- 
mitted to go to ruin, were put in order 
again, and the government system re-estab- 

A modification of the first monopoly plan 
of the government was put into effect later 
in the regime of Governor Van den Bosch, 
^nd was maintained until into the twentieth 
century. Under the Daendels plan, each 
native family was required to keep 1000 
coffee trees in bearing on village lands, and 
to give to the government two-fifths of the 
crop, delivered cleaned and sorted, at the 
government store. The natives retained the 
other three-fifths. Under the Van den 
Bosch system, each family was required to 

raise and care for 650 trees and to deliver 
the crop cleaned and sorted to the govern- 
ment stores at a fixed price. The govern- 
ment then sold the coffee at public auctions 
in Batavia, Padang, Amsterdam, or Rotter- 

This method of fostering the new in- 
dustry resulted in government control of 
fully four-fifths of the area under the crop, 
only the small balance being owned or 
worked independently by private enter- 
prise. For many years after the cultiva- 
tion had been fully started, this condition 
of the business persisted. Most of the pri- 
vately-operated plantations had been in 
existence before the government had set up 
its monopoly system. Others were on the 
estates of native princes who, in treating 
with the Dutch, had been able to retain 
some of their original sovereign rights. 
While these plans worked well in encourag- 
ing the industry at the outset, they were not 
conducive to the fullest possibilities in pro- 
duction. Forced labor on the government 
plantations was naturally apt to be slow, 
careless, and indifferent. Private owner- 
ship and operation bettered this somewhat, 
•^he private estates being able to show an- 
nual yields of from one to two pounds per 
tree as compared with only a little more 



than one-half pound per tree on govern- 
ment-controlled estates. 

In the course of time, the system of pri- 
vate ownership gradually expanded beyond 
that of the government; and before the end 
of the nineteenth century, private owners 
were growing and exporting more coffee 
than did the Javanese government. The 
government withdrew from the coffee busi- 
ness in Java in 1905, and the last govern- 
ment auction was held in June of that year. 
The monopoly in Sumatra was given up in 
1908. After that, however, coffee con- 
tinued to be grown on government lands, 
but in much less quantity than in the years 
immediately preceding. The Dutch govern- 
ment withdrew from all coffee cultivation 
in 1918 - 19. 

According to statistics, the ground under 
cultivation for all kinds of coffee in Java 
and the other islands of the Dutch East 
Indies in 1919 was 142,272 acres, of which 
112,138 acres were in Java. Of this area, 
110.903 acres were planted with robust a, 
15,314 acres with arabica, 4,940 with 
liherica, and 11,115 with other varieties. 

There were more than 400 European- 
managed estates in 1915, covering a planted 
area of about 209,000 acres. Three hun- 
dred and thirty of these estates, represent- 

ing 165,000 acres, were in Java. On that 
island production in 1904 was 47,927,000 
pounds; in 1905, 59,092,000 pounds; in 
1906, 66,953,000 pounds; in 1907, 31,044,- 
000 pounds ; 1908, 39,349,000 pounds. The 
total crop in 1919 for all the Netherlands 
East Indies was 97,361,000 pounds, as 
against 140,764,800 pounds for 1918. 

Intensive cultivation methods on the 
European-operated plantations in Java 
have been practised for many years; and 
the Netherlands East Indies government 
has long maintained experimental stations 
for the purpose of improving strains and 
cultivation methods. 

In some parts of the island, especially in 
the highlands, the climate and soil are ideal 
for coffee culture. The robusta tree grows 
satisfactorily even at altitudes of less than 
1,000 feet in some regions ; but its bearing 
life is only about ten years, as compared 
with the thirty years of the arabica at 
altitudes of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. The 
low-ground trees generally produce earlier 
and more abundantly. On some of the 
highland plantations, pruning is not prac- 
tised to any great extent, and the trees 
often reach thirty or forty feet in height. 
This necessitates the use of ladders in pick- 

lloAD TiiuouGU A Coffee Estate in East Java 



Native Picking Coffee, Sumatha 

ing; but frequently the yield per tree has 
been from six to seven pounds. 

Coffee is produced commercially in near- 
ly every political district in Java, but the 
bulk of the yield is obtained from East 
Java, The names best known to European 
and American traders are those of the 
regencies of Besoeki and Pasoeroean ; be- 
cause their coffees make up eighty-seven 
percent of Java's production. Some of the 
other better known districts are : Preanger, 

Cheribon, Kadoe, Samarang, Soerabaya, and 

The arabica variety has practically been 
driven out of the districts below 3,500 feet 
altitude by the leaf disease, and has been 
succeeded by the more hardy robust a and 
Uherica coffees and their hybrids. Illus- 
trating the importance of robusta coffee, 
Netherlands East India government in a 
statement issued August, 1919, estimated 
the area under cultivation on all islands as 
follows: robusta, eighty-four percent; 
arabica, five and one-half percent; liberica, 
four and one-half percent. The balance, 
six percent, was made up of scores of other 
varieties, among the most important being 
the canepliora, Ugandae, baukobensis, sua- 
kurensis, Qwillou, stenophylla, and rood- 
bessige. All of these are similar to robusta, 
and are exported as robiista-achtigen 
(robusta-like) . The liberica group includes 
the excelsa, abeokuta, Dewevrei, arnoldi- 
aiia, aruwimiensis, and Dybowskii. 

Sumatra. Practically all the coffee dis- 
tricts in Sumatra are on the west coast, 
where the plant was first propagated early 
in the eighteenth century. Padang, the 
capital city, is the headquarters for 
Sumatra coffee. With climate and soil 
similar to Java, the island of Sumatra has 
the added advantage that its land is not 
"coffee moe'\ or coffee tired, as is the case 










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Palatial Bungalow of Administkator, Db vmaga, in the Preanger District, Java 

A L I. ABO U T C O F 1^^ K E 

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Administkatoe's Bungalow on the Gadoeng Batoe Estate, Sumatra 

in parts of Java. Some of the world's best 
coffees are still coming from Sumatra; and 
the island has possibilities that could make 
it an important factor in production. 
Sumatra produced 287,179 piculs of coffee 
in 1920. The total production of all the 
islands that year was 807,591 piculs. 

The districts of Ankola, Siboga, Ayer 
Bangles, Mandheling, Palembang, Padang, 
and Benkoelen, on the west coast, have 
some of the largest estates on the island; 
and their products are well known in inter- 
national trade. The east coast has recently 
gone in for heavy plantings of rohusta. 

As in Java, coifee for a century or more 
was cultivated under the government-mo- 
nopoly scheme. The compulsory system was 
given up in this island in 1908, three years 
after it was abandoned in Java. 

Other East Indies. Coffee is grown in 
several of the other islands in the Dutch 
East Indian archipelago, chiefly on the 
Celebes, Bali, Lombok, the Moluccas, and 
Timor. Most of the estates are under 
native control, and the methods of cultiva- 
tion are not up to the standard of the 
European-owned plantations on the larger 
islands of Java and Sumatra. The most 
important of these islands is Celebes, where 
the first coffee plant was introduced from 
Java about 1750, but where cultivation was 
not carried on to any great extent until 

about seventy-five years later. In 1822 the 
production amounted to 10,000 pounds; in 
1917, the yield was 1,322,328 pounds. 

Salvador. Coffee, which is far and away 
the most important crop in Salvador, con- 
stitutes in value more than one-half the 
total exports. It has been cultivated since 
about 1852, when plants were brought from 
Havana; but the development of the in- 
dustry in its early years was not rapid. 
The first large plantations were established 
in 1876 in La Paz, and that department has 
become the leading coffee-producing section 
of the country. 

The berry is grown in all districts that 
have altitudes of from 1,500 to 4,000 feet. 
Besides those of La Paz, the most produc- 
tive plantations are in the departments of 
Santa Ana, Sonsonate, San Salvador, San 
Vincente, San Miguel, Santa Tecla, and 
Ahuachapam. In contrast with several of 
the adjoining Central American republics, 
native Salvadoreans are the owners of most 
of the coffee farms, very few having passed 
into the hands of foreigners. The laborers 
are almost entirely native Indians. A con- 
siderable part of the work of cultivating 
and preparing the berry for the market is 
still done by hand; but in recent years 
machinery has been set up on the large 
estates and for general use in the receiving 



Well Cultivated Young Coffee Tkees in Blossom 

Entrance to a Finca in the Highlands 



It is estimated that now about 166,000 
acres are under coffee, nearly all the land 
in the country suitable for that purpose. 
As in most other coffee-raising countries, 
the trees begin bearing when they are two 
or three years old, reach full maturity at 
the age of seven or eight years, and con- 
tinue to bear for about thirty years. In- 
tensive cultivation and a more extensive 
use of fertilizers have been urged as neces- 
sary in order to increase the crop ; but, so 
far, with not much effect, the importation 
of fertilizer being still very small. Crop 
gathering begins in the lowlands in No- 
vember, and gradually proceeds into the 
higher regions, month by month, until the 
picking in the highest altitudes is finished 
in the following March. 

Guatemala. Guatemala began intensive 
coffee growing about 1875. Coffee had been 
known in the country in a small way from 
about 1850, but now serious attention began 
to be given to its cultivation, and it quickly 
advanced to an industrial position of im- 
portance. Within a generation it became 
the great staple crop of the country. 

Guatemala has an area of 48,250 square 
miles, about the size of the state of Ohio. 
Its population is about 2,000,000. Three 
mountain ranges, intersecting magnificent 
table lands, traverse the country from north 
to south ; and there is the great coffee terri- 
tory. The table lands are from 2,500 to 
5,000 feet above sea-level, and have a tem- 
perate climate most agreeable to the coffee 
tree. On the lower heights it is necessary 
to protect the young trees from the extreme 
heat of the sun ; and the banana is most 
approved for this purpose, since it raises 
its own crop at the same time that it is 
giving shade to its companion tree. On the 
higher levels the plantations need protec- 
tion from the cold north winds that blow 
strongly across the country, especially in 
December, January, and February. The 
range of hills to the north is the best 
protection, and generally is all sufficient. 
When the weather becomes too severe, heaps 
of rubbish mixed with pitch are thrown up 
to the north of the fields of coffee trees and 
set afire, the resultant dense smoke driving 
down between rows of trees and saving 
them from the frost. 

Named in the order of their productivity, 
the coffee districts are Costa Cuea, Costa 
Grande, Barberena, Tumbador, Coban, 
Costa de Cucho, Chicacao, Xolhuitz, Po- 

IxDiANs Picking Coffee, Guatemala 

chuta, Malacatan, San Marcos, Chuva, 
Panan, Turgo, Escuintla, San Vincente, 
Pacaya, Antigua, Moran, Amatitlan, Sumat- 
an, Palmar, Zunil, and Motagua. 

Estimates of coffee acreage vary. One 
authority, too conservatively, perhaps, puts 
the figure at 145,000. Another estimate is 
260,000 acres. Under cultivation are from 
70,000,000 to 100,000,000 trees from which 
an annual crop averaging about 75,000,000 
pounds is raised, and the exceptional 
amounts of nearly 90,000,000 and 97,000,000 
pounds have been harvested. Several 
plantations of size can be counted upon for 
an annual production of more than 1,000,- 
000 pounds each. 

Before the World War German interests 
dominated the coffee industry, handling 
fully eighty percent of the crop, and grow- 
ing nearly half of it. 

Planting and cultivation methods in 
Guatemala are about the same as those 
prevailing in other countries. The trees 
are usually in flower in February, March, 
and April, and the harvesting season ex- 
tends from August to January, All work 
on the plantation is done by Indian 
laborers under a peonage system, families 
working in companies : wages are small, but 
sufficient, conditions of living being easy. 
As elsewhere in these tropical and sub- 



tropical countries, scarcity of labor is 
severely felt, and is a grave obstacle to the 
development of the industry in a land that 
is regarded as particularly well adapted 
to it. 

Haiti. Haiti, the magic isle of the Indies, 
has grown coffee almost from the beginning 
of the introduction of the tree into the 
western hemisphere. Its cultivation was 
started there about 1715, but the trees were 
largely permitted to fall into a wild natural 
state, and little attention was given to them 
or to the handling of the crop. Fertility of 
soil, climate, and moisture are favorable, 
and the advancement of the industry has 
been retarded only by the political condi- 
tions of the negro republic and a general 
lack of industry and enterprise on the part 
of the people. 

Haiti is an island with three names. 
Haiti is used to describe the island as a 
whole, and to denote the Republic of Haiti, 
which occupies the western third of its area. 
The island is also known as Santo Domingo, 
and San Domingo, names likewise applied 
to the Dominican Republic which occupies 
the eastern two-thirds of the land unit. 

Plantations now existing in Haiti have 
had, with rare exceptions, a life of more 
than ten or twenty years. It is estimated 
that they cover about 125,000 acres, with 
about 400 trees to the acre. 

When the French acquired the island in 
1789, the annual production was 88,360,502 
pounds. During the following century that 
amount was not approached in any year, 
the nearest to it being 72,637,716 pounds 
in 1875. The lowest annual production 'was 
20,280,589 pounds in 1818. The range dur- 
ing the hundred years, 1789 - 1890, was, 
with the exceptions noted, from 45,000,000 
to 71,000,000 pounds. 

Mexico. Opinions differ as to the exact 
date when coffee was introduced into 
Mexico. It is said to have been trans- 
planted there from the West Indies near the 
end of the eighteenth century. A story is 
current that a Spaniard set out a few trees, 
on trial, in southern Mexico, in 1800, and 
that his experiments started other Mexican 
planters along the same line. Coffee was 
grown in the state of Vera Cruz early in 
the nineteenth century; and the books of 
the Vera Cruz custom house record that 
1,101 quintals of coffee were exported 
through that port during the years 1802, 
1803, and 1805. 

In the Coatepec district, which eventually 
became famous in the annals of Mexican 
coffee growing, trees were planted about the 
year 1808. Local history says that seeds 
were brought from Cuba by Arias, a part- 
ner of the house of Pedro Lopez, owners of 
the large hacienda of Orduna in Coatepec. 


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The Coffee Plakter's Life in Guatemala Is 0>'e of Pleasantness and Peace 





The seeds were given to a priest, Andres 
Dominfriiez, who sowed them near Teocelo. 
When he had succeeded in starting seed- 
lings, he gave them away to other planters 
there-about. The plants thrived, and this 
was the beginning of coffee cultivation in 
that section of the country. 

It was, however, nearly ten years later 
before the cultivation was on a scale ap- 
proaching industrial and commercial im- 
portance. About 1816 or 1818 a Spaniard, 
named Juan Antonio Gomez, introduced the 
plant into the neighborhood of Cordoba, 
This city, now on the line of the Mexican 
and Vera Cruz Railroad, 200 miles from 
Mexico City, and sixty miles from Vera 
Cruz, is 2,500 feet above sea-level, and is 
situated in the most productive tropical 
region of the country. 

Having been started in Coatepec and 
Cordoba, the industry was centered for a 
long time in the state of Vera Cruz. For 
many years practically all the coffee 
grown commercially in Mexico was pro- 
duced in that state. Gradually the new 
pursuit spread to the mountains in the 
adjacent states of Oaxaca and Puebia, 
where it was taken up by the Indians al- 
most entirely, and is still followed by them, 
but not on a large scale. 

Although cultivation is now widely dis- 
tributed in most of the more southern 
states of the republic, the principal coffee 
territory is still in Vera Cruz, where lie 
the districts of Cordoba, Orizaba, Huat- 
usco, and Coatepec. In the same region 
are the Jalapa district, and the mountains 
of Puebia, where a great deal of coffee is 
grown. Farther south are the Oaxaca 
districts on the mountain slopes of the 
Pacific coast, and still farther south the 
districts of the state of Chiapas. Planting 
in the Pluma district in Oaxaca was begun 
about fifty years ago, and it now produces 
annually, in good years, nearly 1,000,000 
pounds. The youngest district in this sec- 
tion is Soconusco, one of the most prolific 
in the republic, having been developed 
within the last thirty years. The region is 
near the border of Guatemala, and the 
coffee is held by many to possess some of 
the quality of the coffee of that country. 
The influence of Guatemalan methods has 
been felt also in its cultivation and hand- 
ling, especially in increasing plantation 
productiveness. On the gulf slope of 
Oaxaca, there are plantations that annu- 
ally produce 222,000 to 550,000 pounds. 
Several United States companies have be- 
come interested in coffee growing in this 



state, and their output in recent years has 
been put upon the market in St. Louis. 

Two principal varieties of coffee are 
recognized in Mexico. A sub-variety of 
Coffea arabica is mostly cultivated. This 
is an evergreen, growing only from five 
to seven feet. It flourishes well at differ- 
ent altitudes and in different climes, from 
the temperate plains of Puebla to the hot, 
damp, lower lands of Vera Cruz and 
Oaxaca, and other Pacific-coast regions. 
The range of elevation for it is from 1,500 
to 5,000 feet, and it is satisfied with a 
temperature as low as 55° or as high as 
80°, with plenty of natural humidity or 
with irrigation in the dry season. The 
other variety is called the "myrtle" and 
is widely grown, although not in large 
quantities. It is distinguished from 
arahica by the larger leaf of the tree and 
by the smaller corolla of the flower. It is 
a hardier plant than the arahica and will 
stand the higher temperature of low alti- 
tudes, thriving at an elevation of from 500 
to 3,000 feet above sea-level. Mostly it is 
cultivated in the Cordoba district. 

It is claimed by many that the Mexican 
coffee of best quality is grown in the 
western regions of the table lands of 
Colima and Michoacan, but only a small 
quantity of that is available for export. 
The ■ state of Michoacan is especially 
favored by climate, altitude, soil, and sur- 
roundings to produce coffee of exception- 
ally high grade, and the Uruapan is con- 
sidered to be its best. 

Trees flower in January and March, and 
in high altitudes as late as June or July. 
Berries appear in July and are ripe for 
gathering in October or November, the 
picking season lasting until February. 

Trees begin to yield when two or three 
years old, producing from two to four 
ounces. They reach full production, which 
is about one and a half pounds, at the age 
of six or seven years, though in the dis- 
tricts of Chiapas, Michoacan, Oaxaca, and 
Puebla, annual yields of three to five 
pounds per tree have been reported. 

Since the World War American buyers 
have shown greater interest in the Tapa- 
chula coffee grow^n in Chiapas. 

Porto Rico. Coffee culture in Porto 
Rico dates from 1755 or even earlier, hav- 
ing been introduced from the neighboring 
islands of Martinique and Haiti. Count 
O'Reilly, writing of the island in the 


Mexicain Coffee Pickeu, Coatepec Distkict 

eighteenth century, mentions that the 
coffee exports for five years previous to 
1765 amounted in value to $2,078. Old 
records show that in 1770 there was a crop 
of 700,000 pounds and that seems to be 
the first evidence that the new industry 
was growing to any noticeable propor- 
tions. For a hundred years, at least, only 
slow progress was made. In 1768 the king 
of Spain issued a royal decree exempting 
coffee growers on the island from the pay- 
ment of taxes or charges for a period of 
five years; but even that measure was not 
materially successful in stimulating in- 
terest and in developing cultivation. 

Porto Rico is a good coffee-growing 
country ; soil, climate, and temperature are 
well adapted to the berry. The coffee belt 
extends through the western half of the 
island, beginning in the hills along the 
south coast around Ponce, and extending 
north through the center of the island 
almost to Arecibo, near the west end of the 
north coast. But some coffee is grown in 
the other parts of the island, in sixty-four 
of the sixty-eight municipalities. Mountain 
sections are considered to be superior. 

The largest plantations are in the region 
which includes the municipalities of 
Utuado, Adjuntas, Lares, Las Marias, 
Yauco, Maricao, San Sebastian, Mayaguez, 
Ciales, and Ponce. With the exception of 
Ponce and Mayaguez, all these districts are 
back from the coast ; but insular roads of 



recent construction make them now easily 
accessible, and there is no point on the 
island more than twenty miles distant 
from the sea. 

From the Sierra Luquillo range, which 
rises to a height of 1,500 feet, and from 
Yauco, Utuado, and Lares, come excellent 
coffees ; and. on the whole, these are con- 
sidered to be the best coffee regions of the 
island. A fine grade of. coffee is also grown 
in the Ciales district. Figures compiled 
by the Treasury Department of the insular 
government for the purpose of taxation 
showed that for the tax year 1915-16 
there were 167,137 acres of land planted 
to coffee and valued at $10,341,592, an 
average of .$61.87 per acre. In 1910, 
there were 151,000 acres planted in coffee. 
In 1916 there were more than 5,000 sep- 
arate coffee plantations. 

Originally the coffee trees of Porto Rico 
were all of the arahica variety. In recent 
years numerous others have been intro- 
duced, until in 1917 there were more than 
2,500 trees of new descriptions on the 

The virgin land in the interior of the 
island is admirably adapted to the coffee 
tree, and less labor is required to prepare 
it for plantation purposes than in many 

other coffee-growing countries. It is 
cleared in the usual manner, and the trees 
are planted about eight feet apart, an 
average of 680 trees to the acre. The seeds 
are planted in February; and if the seed- 
lings are transplanted, that is done when 
they are a year or a year and a half old. 
The guama, a big strong tree of dense 
foliage, is used for a wind-break on the 
ridges; and the guava, for shade in the 
plantation. Plow cultivation is generally 
impossible on account of the lay of the 
land, and only hoeing and spade work are 
done. Pruning is carefully attended to as 
the trees become full grown. 

Flowering is generally in February and 
March, or even later. Heavy rains in 
April make a poor crop. Harvesting be- 
gins in September and extends into Jan- 
uary, during which time ten pickings are 

The average yield per acre is between 
200 and 300 pounds; but expert authority 
— Prof. O. F. Cook — in a statement made 
to the Committee on Insular Affairs of the 
United States House of Representatives, in 
1900, held that under better cultural 
methods the yield could be increased to 
800 or 900 pounds per acre. One estima- 
tor has calculated that an average planta- 

Keceiving and Measuring the Ripe Bebbies fbom the Pickers, Mexico 





lion of 100 acres had cost its owner at the 
end of six or seven years, the bearing age, 
,i1)ont $13,100 with yields of 75 pounds per 
ii'-re in the third and in the fourth years, 
Li to pounds per acre in the fifth year, and 

M) pounds in the sixth year, the income 
: rom which would practically have met 
•lie cost to that time. It is held by the 

tue authority that an intensively culti- 

tted, well-situated farm of selected trees, 
bSO to the acre, should yield some 880 
pounds of cleaned coffee to the acre. 

Costa Rica. Costa Rica ranks next to 
<luatemala and Salvador among the Cen- 
tral American countries as a producer of 
coffee, showing an average annual yield 
ill recent years of 35,000,000 pounds as 

nipared with Guatemala's 80,000,000 
,iiid Salvador's 75,000,000 pounds. Nica- 
i'a2"ua has an average annual production of 
::0^000,000 pounds. 

Coffee was introduced into Costa Rica 
in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century; one authority saying that the 
plants were brought from Cuba in 1779 
by a Spanish voyager, Navarro, and an- 
other saying that the first trees were 
])lanted several years later by Padre 
Carazo, a Spanish missionary coming from 
Jamaica. For more than a century six 

big coffee trees standing in a courtyard 
in the city of Cartago were pointed out to 
visitors as the very trees that Carazo had 

The coffee-producing districts are prin- 
cipally on the Pacific slope and in the 
central plateaus of the interior. Planta- 
tions are located in the provinces of Car- 
tago, Tres Rios, San Jose, Heredia, and 
Alajuela. In the province of Cartago 
are several extensive new estates on the 
slope to the Atlantic coast. The San Jos4 
and the Cartago districts are considered 
by many to be the best naturally for the 
coffee tree. The soil is an exceedingly rich 
black loam made up of continuous layers 
of volcanic ashes and dust from three to 
fifteen feet deep. Preferable altitudes for 
plantations range from 3,000 to 4,500 feet, 
although a height of 5,000 feet is not out 
of use and there are some estates that do 
fairly well on levels as low as 1,500 feet. 

India. Tradition has it that a Moslem 
pilgrim in the seventeenth century 
brought from Mecca to India the first 
coffee seeds known in that country. They 
were planted near a temple on a hill in 
Mysore called Baba Budan, after the pil- 
grim ; and from there the cultivation of 
coffee gradually spread to neighboring 

The Modern Iuea in CutiEK Culiivaxion, Costa Rica 



Picking Costa Kica Coptee 

districts. Aside from this legend, nothing 
further is heard about coffee in India until 
the early part of the nineteenth century, 
when its existence there was confirmed by 
the granting of a charter to Fort Gloster, 
near Calcutta, authorizing that place to 
become a coffee plantation. 

Planting was begun on the flat land of 
the plains, but the trees did not thrive. 
Then the cultivation was extended to the 
hills in southern India, especially in 
Mysore, where better success was achieved. 
The first systematic plantation was estab- 
lished in 1840. For the most part, the 
production has always been confined to 
southern India in the elevated region near 
the southwestern coast. The coffee district 
comprises the landward slopes of the 
"Western Ghats, from Kanara to Travan- 

About one-half of the coffee-producing 
area is in Mysore; and other plantations 
are in Kurg (Coorg), the Madras districts 
of Malabar, and in the Nilgiri hills, those 
regions having 86 percent of the whole 
area under cultivation. Some coffee is 
grown also in other districts in Madras, 
principally in Madura, Salem, and Coim- 
bator, in Cochin, in Travancore, and, on a 
restricted scale, in Burma, Assam, and 
Bombay. The area returned as under 
coffee in 1885 was 237,448 acres; in 1896, 
as 303,944 acres. Since then there has 
been a progressive decrease on account of 
damage from leaf diseases difficult to 
combat, and by competition with Brazilian 

Coffee Estate in the Mountains of Costa Rica 



Bikd's-Eye View of a Coffee Estate in Mysore, India 

New land that had just been planted 
with icoffee in plantations reported for 
1919 - 20 amounted to 7,012 acres ; while 
the area abandoned was 8,725 acres, rep- 
resenting a net decrease in cultivated area 
of 1,713 acres. 

Of the total area devoted to coffee cul- 
tivation (126,919 acres), 49 percent was 
in Mysore, which yielded 35 percent of 
the total production ; ^vhile Madras, with 
23 percent of the total area, yielded 38 
percent of the production. The total pro- 
duction for the year 1920 - 21 is reported as 
26.902,471 pounds. 

Yield varies throughout the country ac- 
cording to the methods of cultivation and 
the condition of the season. On the best 
estates in a good season, the yield per 
acre may be as high as 1,100 or 1,200 
pounds, and on poor estates it may not be 
over 200 or 300 pounds. The arabica 
variety is chiefly cultivated. The rohusta 
and Maragogipe have been tried, but with- 
out much success. 

A representative plantation is the San- 
taverre in Mysore, comprising 400 acres, 
at an elevation of from 4,000 to 4,500 
feet, where the coffee trees, cultivated un- 
der shade, produce from 100 to 250 tons 
of coffee a year. Other prominent es- 
tates in Mysore are Cannon's Baloor and 

Mylemoney, the Hoskahn, and the Sum- 
pigay Khan. 

Nicaragua. Coffee trees will grow well 
anywhere in Nicaragua, but the best loca- 
tions have altitudes of from 2,000 to 3,000 
feet above sea level. At such elevations 
the yield varies from one pound to five 
pounds per tree annually; but above or 
below those, the average production dimin- 
ishes to from one pound to one-half pound 
a tree. 

Lands most suitable for the berry are 
on the Sierra de Managua, in Diriambe, 
San Marcos, and Jinotega, and about the 
base of the volcano Monbaeho near Gra- 
nada. Good land is also found on the is- 
land Omotepe in Lake Nicaragua, and 
around Boaco in the department of Chon- 
tales, where cultivation was begun in 

There are also plantations in the vicin- 
ity of Esteli and Lomati in the depart- 
ment of Neuva Segovia. The most exten- 
sive operations are in the departments of 
Managua, Carazo, Matagalpa, Chontales, 
and Jinotega, and from those regions the 
annual crop has attained to such quantity 
that it has become the chief agricultural 
product of th& republic. Poor and costly 
means of transportation on the Atlantic 
slope have operated to retard the develop- 



^jCM*Jb^& ^^^0^ffK^M^ftl^^^^^^^lHH^^EEHfli^^HH^^'! "^^b VHI 





if -5'. 

, ■ J "^^mm^- 


Coffee Growing Undek Shade, Ubban Estate, India 

ment of the industry there, even though 
conditions of climate are not unfavorable. 

Abyssinia. In the absence of any con- 
clusive evidence to the contrary, the claim 
that coffee was first made known to mod- 
ern man by the trees on the mountains of 
the northeastern part of the continent of 
Africa may be accepted without reserve. 
Undoubtedl.y the plant grew wild all 
through tropical Africa: but its value as 
an addition to man's dietary was brought 
forth in Abyssinia. 

Abyssinia,, while it may have given 
coffee to the world, no longer figures as a 
prime factor in supplying the world, and 
now exports only a limited quantity. 
There are produced in the country two 
coffees known to the trade as Harari and 
Abyssinian, the former being by far the 
more important. The Harari is the fruit 
of cultivated arahica trees grown in the 
province of Harar, and mostly in the 
neighborhood of the city of Harar, capital 
of the province. The Abyssianian is the 
fruit of wild arahica trees that grow 
mainly in the provinces of Sidamo, Kaffa, 
and Guma. 

The coffee of Harar is known to the 
trade as Mocha longberry or Abyssinian 
longberry. Most of the plantations upon 

which it is raised are owned by the na- 
tive Hararis, Galla, and Abyssinians, al- 
though there are a few Greek, German, 
and French planters. The trees are 
planted in rows about twelve or fifteen 
feet apart, and comparatively little at- 
tention is given to cultivation. Crops av- 
erage two a year, and sometimes even five 
in two years. The big yield is in Decem- 
ber, January, and February. The aver- 
age crop is about seventy pounds, and is 
mostly from small plots of from fifty to 
one hundred trees, there being no very 
large plantations. All the coffee is 
brought into the city of Harar, whence it 
is sent on mule-back to Dire-Daoua on the 
Franco-Ethiopian Railway, and from 
there by rail to Jibuti. Some of it is ex- 
ported directly from Jibuti, and the rest 
is forwarded to Aden, in Arabia, for re- 

Abyssinian, or wild, coffee is also known 
as Kaft'a coffee, from one of the districts 
where it grows most abundantly in a state 
of nature. This coffee has a smaller bean 
and is less rich in aroma and flavor than 
the Harari; but the trees grow in such 
profusion that the possible supply, at the 
minimum of labor in gathering, is prac- 
tically unlimited. It is said that in south- 



western Alwssinia there are immense for- 
ests of it that have never been encroached 
upon except at the outskirts, where the 
natives lazily pick up the beans that have 
fallen to the ground. It is shelled where 
it is found, in the most primitive fashion, 
and goes out in a dirty, mixed condition. 

Formerly, much of this Kaffa cotfee 
was sent to market through Boromeda, 
Ilarar, and Dire-Daoua. An average an- 
nual crop was about 6,000 bags, or 800,000 
pounds, of which something more than 
one-half usually went through Harar. A 
customs and trading station has lately 
been established at Gambela, on the Sobat 
Biver: and with the development of this 
outlet, there has been a substantial and 
increasing exploitation of the wild-coffee 
plants since 1913. Large areas of land 
have been cleared, with a view to cultiva- 
tion, and attention is being given to im- 
proved methods of harvesting and of pre- 
paring the coffee for the market. At one 
time a fair amount of coffee from this re- 
gion went to Adis Abeba on the backs of 
pack mules, a journey of thirty-five or 
forty days, and then was carried to Jibuti, 
nearly 500 miles, part of the way by rail. 
Now practically all of it goes to Gambela, 
thence by steamers to Khartum, and by 

rail to the shipping-point at Port Sudan 
on the Red Sea. 

Other African Countries.. Practi- 
cally every part of Africa seems to be 
suitable for coffee cultivation, even 
United South Africa, in the southern part 
of the continent, producing 140,212 
pounds in 1918. To name all the coun- 
tries in which it is grown would be to 
list nearly all the political divisions of 
Africa. Among the largest producers are 
the British East African Protectorate. 18,- 
735,572 pounds in 1918; French Somali- 
land, 11,222,736 pounds in 1917; Angola, 
10,655,934 pounds in 1913; Uganda, 
9,999, 84o pounds in 1918 ; former German 
East Africa, 2,334,450 pounds in 1913; 
Cape Verde Islands, 1,442,910 pounds in 
1916; Madagascar, 707,676 pounds in 
1918; Liberia, 761,300 pounds in 1917; 
Eritrea, 728,840 pounds in 1918; St. 
Thomas and Prince's Islands, 484,350 
pounds in 1916; and the Belgian Congo, 
375,000 pounds in 1917. 

Angola. Coffee is Angola's second 
product, and there are large areas of wild- 
coffee trees. With a production of nearly 
11,000,000 pounds, Angola ranks about 
third in Africa as a coffee-growing coun- 
try. The coffee is gathered and sold by 


;■ -:^-v*;>:/. * 



A Galla Coffee Gkower. and His Helper, in His Grove of Young Trees near Harab 



the natives, and there are also several Eu- 
ropean companies engaged in the coffee 
business. The chief coffee belt extends 
from the Quanza River northward to the 
Kongo at an altitude of 1,500 to 2,500 
feet. In the Cazengo valley the wild 
trees are so thick that thinning out is the 
only operation necessary to the planta- 
tion-owner. When the trees become too 
tall, they are simply cut off about two feet 
above ground; and new shoots appear 
from the trunks the following season. 

The largest coffee plantation, owned by 
the Companhia Agricola de Cazengo, pro- 
duced in 1913, a record year, nearly 1,500 

Liberia. Coffee is native to Liberia, 
growing wild in the hinterland of the 
negro republic, and in the natural state 
the trees often attain a height of from 
thirty to forty feet. Cultivated Liberian 
coffee, Coffea liherica, has become a staple 
of the civilized inhabitants of the country, 
and is grown successfully in hot, moist 
lowlands or on hills that are not much ele- 
vated. On account of the size of the trees, 
only about four hundred can be planted 
to the acre. In recent years the native 
Africans have been planting thousands of 
trees in the district of Grand Cape Mount. 
Coffee is grown in all parts of the repub- 
lic, but chiefly in Grand Cape Mount and 

General Outlook in Africa. In the 
African countries under control of Euro- 
pean governments much recent progress 
has been made in promoting coffee grow- 
ing and in improving methods of cultiva- 

British interests were reported in 1919 
as having started a movement toward 
reviving interest in the coffee growing 
industry in the British possessions in 
Africa. The report stated that Uganda, 
in the East African Protectorate, had 21,- 
000 acres under coffee cultivation, with 
16,000 acres more in other -parts of the 
Protectorate, and 1,300 acres in Nyasa- 
land; also that there is no hope of an 
immediate revival of the industry in Natal, 
where it was killed twenty years ago by 
various pests ; ' ' but it should certainly be 
established in the warmer parts of Rhode- 
sia ; and in the northern part of the Trans- 
vaal an effort is being made to bring this 
form of enterprise into practical ex- 

Coffee growing possibilities in British 
East Africa (Kenya Colony) are alluring, 
according to reports from planters in that 
region. Late in 1920, Major C. J. Ross, 
a British government officer there, said 
that "British East Africa is going to be 
one of the leading coffee countries of the 
world." Coffee grows wild in many parts 
of the Protectorate, but the natives are 
too lazy to pick even the wild berries. 

On the more advanced plantations in all 
parts of Africa the approved cultivation 
methods of other leading countries are 
carefully followed ; especial care being 
given to weeding and pruning, because of 
the rank growth of the tropics. On the 
whole, however, little attention is given 
to intensive methods. 

Arabia. Whether the coffee tree was 
first discovered indigenous in the moun- 
tains of Abyssinia, or in the Yemen dis- 
trict of Arabia, will probably always be 
a matter of contention. Many writers 
of Europe and Asia in the fifteenth cen- 
tury, when coffee was first brought to the 
attention of the people of Europe, agree 
on Arabia; but there is good reason to be- 
lieve the plant was brought to Arabia 
from Abyssinia in the sixth century. 

Once all the coffee of Arabia went to 
the outside world through the port of 
Mocha on the eastern coast of the Red 
Sea. Mocha, which never raised any 
coffee, is no longer of commercial impor- 
tance; but its name has been permanently 
attached to the coffee of this country. 

Mocha {Moka, or Morkha) coffee (i. e. 
Coffea arabica) is raised principally in 
the vilayet of Yemen, a district of south- 
eastern Arabia. Yemen extends from 
the north, southerly along the line of the 
Red Sea, nearly to the Gulf of Aden. 
With the exception of a narrow strip of 
land along the shores of the Red Sea, the 
Strait of Bab-el-Man deb, and the Gulf of 
Aden, it is a rugged, mountainous region, 
in which innumerable small valleys at 
high elevations are irrigated by waters 
from the melting snows of the mountains. 

Coffee can be successfully grown in any 
part of Yemen, but its cultivation is con- 
fined to a few widely scattered districts, 
and the acreage is not large. The prin- 
cipal coffee regions are in the mountains 
between Taiz and Ibb, and between Ibb 
and Yerim, and Yerim and Sanaa, on the 
caravan route from Taiz to Sanaa; be- 



Wild Kaffa Coffee Trees Near Adis Abeba 

tween Zabeed and Ibb, on the route from 
Taiz to Zabeed; between Hajelah and 
Menakha, on the route from Hodeida to 
Sanaa, and in the wild mountain ranges 
both to the north and south of that route ; 
between Beit-el-Fakih and Obal; and be- 
tween ]\Ianakha and Batham to the north 
of Bajil. The plant does best at eleva- 
tions ranging from 3,500 to 6,500 feet. 

In the Yemen district, cotfee is gener- 
ally grown in small gardens. Large plan- 
tations, as they exist in other coffee-grow- 
ing countries, are not seen in Arabia. 
Many of these small farms may be parts 
of a large estate belonging to some rich 
tribal chief. The native Arabs do not use 
coffee in the way it is used elsewhere in 
the world. They drink kisher, a beverage 
brewed from the husks of the berry and 
not from the bean. Consequently, the en- 
the crop goes into export. But bad con- 
ditions of trade routes, political disturb- 
ances, and small regional wars, absence of 
good cultivation methods, and heavy tran- 
sit taxes imposed by the government, have 
combined to restrict the production of 
Yemen coffee. 

Land for the coffee gardens is selected 
on hill-slopes, and is terraced with soil and 
small walls of stone until it reaches up 

like an amphitheater — often to a consider- 
able height. The soil is well fertilized. 
For sowing, the seeds are thoroughly dried 
in ashes, and after being placed in the 
ground, are carefully watched, watered, 
and shaded. In about a year the shrub 
has grown to a height of twelve or more 
inches. Seedlings in that condition are 
set out in the gardens in rows, about ten 
to thirteen feet apart. The young trees 
receive moisture from neighboring wells 
or from irrigation ditches, and are shaded 
by bananas. 

At maturity the trees reach a height of 
ten or fifteen feet. Since they never lose 
all their leaves at one time, they appear 
always green, and bear at the same time 
flowers and fruits, some of which are still 
green while others are ripe or approaching 
maturity. Thus, in some districts, the 
the trees are considered to have two or 
even three crops a year. All the trees be- 
gin to bear about the end of the third 

Cuba. Coffee can be grown in prac- 
tically every island of the West Indies, 
but owing to the state of civilization in 
many of the lesser islands, little is pro- 
duced for international trade, excepting 





in Jamaica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, the Do- 
minican Republic, Trinidad, and Tobago. 
In past years a considerable quantity of 
good-quality coffee was produced in Cuba, 
the annua] export in the decade of 1840 
averaging 50,000,000 pounds. Severe hur- 
ricanes, adverse legislation, the rise of 
coffee-growing in Brazil, the increase in 
cultivation of sugar and other more profit- 
able crops, practically eliminated Cuba 
from the international coffee-export trade. 

Martinique. This is a name well 
known to coffee men, the world over, as 
the pioneer coffee-growing country of the 
western hemisphere. Gabriel de Clieu in- 
troduced the coffee plant to the island in 
1723 by bringing it through many hard- 
ships from France. For a time, coffee 
flourished there, but now practically none 
is grown. Such coffee as bears the name 
Martinique in modern trade centers is pro- 
duced in Guadeloupe, and is only shipped 
through Martinique. 

Jamaica. Coffee was introduced into 
Jamaica in 1730 ; and so highly was it re- 
garded as a desirable addition to the agri- 
cultural resources of the island, that the 
British Parliament in 1732 passed a spe- 
cial act providing for the encouraging and 
fostering of its cultivation. Later, it be- 
came one of the great staples of the coun- 
try. Disastrous floods in 1815, and the 
gradual exhaustion of the best lands since 
then, have brought about a decline of the 
industry, which is now confined to a few 
estates in the Blue Mountains and to scat- 
tered "settler" or peasant cultivation in 
the same districts but at lower altitudes. 

The tree was formerly grown at all al- 
titudes, from sea-level to 5,000 feet; but 
the best height for it is about 4,500 feet. 
Four parishes lead in coffee producing: 
Manchester, with an area of 5,045 acres; 
St. Thomas, with 2,315 acres; Clarendon, 
with 2,172 acres ; St. Andrew, with 1,584 
acres. Nine other parishes that raise 
coffee have less than 1,000 acres each un- 
der cultivation. There were 24,865 acres 
devoted to coffee in 1900. In addition, it 
was estimated that there were 80,000 acres 
suitable for the cultivation, nearly all be- 
ing owned by the government. 

Dominican Republic. Coffee was once 
the leading staple in the Dominican Re- 
public as in the adjoining Haitian Repub- 
lic; but in recent years cacao, sugar, and 
tobacco have become the predominating 

crops. Said to have the world's richest 
and most productive soil, one-half of the 
republic's area is particularly suited to 
the cultivation of a good grade of coffee 
of the highland type. But political and 
industrial conditions have made for neg- 
lect of its cultivation by efficient methods. 
Lack of suitable roads has also militated 
against the development of the coffee in- 

In spite of many drawbacks, it is to be 
noted that, from the beginning of the 
twentieth century, the coffee-growing area 
has been gradually expanded until ex- 
ports increased from less than 1,000,000 
pounds to 5,029,316 pounds in 1918, al- 
though in the next two years there was 
a recession in the total exports to 1,358,- 
825 pounds in 1920. 

The principal plantations are in the 
vicinity of the town of Moca and in the 


'^VI^I^B ' 




Picking Blue Mountain Berries, Jamaica 

districts of Santiago, Bani, and Barahona. 
Generally speaking, the methods of cul- 
tivation in the Dominican Republic are 
somewhat crude • as compared with the 
practise in the larger countries of produc- 
tion in Central America and South 

Guadeloupe, Guadeloupe has an area 
of 619 square miles, and about one-third 
of this area is under cultivation. About 
15,000 acres are in coffee, giving employ- 
ment to upward of 10.000 persons. The 
average yield of a plantation of mature 
trees is about 535 pounds to the acre. 



In the early years of the industry in 
Guadeloupe, production and export were 
considerable. From old records it ap- 
pears that in 1784 the exports amounted 
to 7,500,000 pounds. During the closing 
years of the eighteenth century the annual 
exports were from 6,500,000 to 8,500,000 
pounds, and in the beginning of the next 
century they registered about 6,000,000 
pounds. Toward the middle of the nine- 
teenth century the growing of sugar cane 
overtopped that of coffee in profit, and 
many planters abandoned coffee. After 
1884, with the decadence of the sugar in- 
dustry, coffee was again favored, the gov- 
ernment giving substantial encouragement 
by paying bounties ranging from $15 to 
$19 per acre for all new coffee plantations. 

In recent years, considerable lib erica 
and rohnsta have been planted in place of 
the exhausted arahica. 

Trinidad and Tobago. The islands of 
Trinidad and Tobago are small factors in 
international coffee trading. Coffee can 
be grown almost any place on the islands; 
but -its cultivation is confined principally 
to' the districts of Maracas, Aripo, and 

North Oropouche. Both the arahica and 
the liberica varieties are grown. 

Honduras. Soil, surface, and climate 
in Honduras, as far as they relate to the 
cultivation of coffee, are similar to those 
of the adjoining regions of Central Amer- 
ica. The tree grows in the uplands of the 
interior, thriving best at an altitude of 
from 1,500 to 4,000 feet. Scarcity of la- 
bor and insufficient means of transporta- 
tion have been the chief obstacles in the 
way of the large development of the in- 

The departments of Santa Barbara, 
Copan, Cortez, La Paz, Choluteca, and El 
ParaisO have the principal plantations. 
The ports of shipment are Truxillo and 
Puerto Cortes. Annual production in re- 
cent years has been about 5,000,000 
pounds. In 1889 the United States im- 
ported 3,322,502 pounds, but in 1915 its 
importations fell away to 665,912 pounds. 

British Honduras, British Honduras 
has never undertaken to raise coffee on a 
commercial scale despite the fact that 
conditions are not unfavorable to its cul- 
tivation. It has failed to produce enough 
even for domestic consumption, importing 

CoFFKE Pickers Returning from the Fields, Guadeloupe 



Three- Year-Old Coffee Trees in Blossom, Panama 

most of what it has needed. Annual pro- 
duction, as recorded in recent years, has 
been upward of 10,000 pounds. 

Panama. Panama presents a very fa- 
vorable field for the growing of coffee. 
The l)est district is situated in the uplands 
of the district of Bugaba, where vast areas 
of the best lands for coffee-growing exist, 
and where climatic and other conditions 
are most favorable to its growth. 

No shade is required in this country ; 
and the only cultivation consists of tliree 
or four cleanings a year to keep down the 
weeds, as no plowing, etc., are necessary. 
Coffee matures from October to January. 
Water power being abundant, it is used 
for running all machinery. 

The annual output of the province of 
Chiriqui, which produces the bulk of the 
coffee, is approximately 4.000 sacks of 100 
pounds each; all of which is produced in 

the Boquete district at present, as the 
coffee planted in the Bugaba section is 
still young and unproductive. The local 
supply does not meet the domestic de- 
mand; and instead of exporting, a -great 
deal is imported from adjoining countries, 
although there is a protective tariff of six 
dollars per hundred pounds. 

The Guianas. Coffee has had a precari- 
ous existence in the Guianas. Plants are 
said to have been brought by Dutch voy- 
agers from Amsterdam in 1718 or 1720. 
They flourished in the new habitat to 
which they were introduced, and in 1725 
were carried from- Dutch Guiana into the 
district of Berbice in British Guiana and 
into French Guiana. There the berry was 
a considerable success for a time : Berbice 
coffee especially acquiring a good reputa- 
tion ; and when Demerara was settled, 
coffee became a staple of that region. 



Shortage of native labor, and the difficulty 
of procuring cheap and capable workers 
from outside the country, ultimately com- 
pelled the practical abandonment of the 
crop in all three sections, Dutch, French, 
and British, In British Guiana it is now 
grown mainly for domestic consumption, 
and the same is true of French Guiana, 
which also imports. 

From the time of its introduction, about 
1718, until about 1880, the only coffee 
grown in Surinam, or Dutch Guiana, was 
the Coffea arahica. It was not a boun- 
tiful producer, and with labor scarce and 
unreliable, its cultivation was expensive. 
Therefore experiment was made with the 
liherica plant. This proved to be very 
satisfactory, growing luxuriantly, produc- 
ing abundantly, and requiring minimum 
labor in- care. In 1918 some 16,000,000 
pounds were produced. 

Ecuador. Though not of great com- 
mercial importance, coffee in Ecuador 
grows on both the mainland and on the 
adjacent islands. The area planted to 
coffee is estimated at 32,000 acres having 
an aggregate of about 8,000,000 trees. 
The trees blossom in December, and the 
picking season is through April, May and 
June. Coffee ranks third in value among 
the exports of the country. 

Peru. Although possessed of natural 
coffee land and climate, little has been 
done to develop the industry in Peru. A 
finely flavored coffee grows at an altitude 
of 7,000 feet, while that grown in the low- 
lands along the Pacific coast is not so de- 
sirable. Such small quantities as are 
grown are cultivated in the mountain dis- 
tricts of Choquisongo, Cajamarca, Perene, 
Paucartambo, Chaucghamayo, and Huan- 
ace. The Pacific-coast district of Paces- 
mayo also grows a not unimportant crop. 

Bolivia. Comparatively little attention 
is given to coffee cultivation in Bolivia. 
Agricultural methods are crude, and are 
limited to cutting down weeds and under- 
growth twice a year. The coffee is 
planted in small patches, or as hedges 
along the roads or around the fields of 
other crops. The first crop is picked at 
the end of one and a half or two years. 
The trees bear for fifteen to twenty years. 
The average yield is from three to eight 
pounds per tree. The best grades of 
coffee are grown at 2,000 to 6,000 feet 
above sea level. 

Coffee is cultivated in the departments 
of La Paz, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, El 
Beni, and Chuquisca. In the department 
of Santa Cruz there are plantations in 
the provinces of Sara, Velasco, Chiquitos 
and Cordillera. In the Yungas and the 
Apolobamba districts of La Paz, its cul- 
tivation reaches the greatest importance, 
but even there is not of large proportions. 

Chile, Paraguay, and Argentina. 
Coffee is of minor, almost insignificant, 
importance in the agriculture of Chile, 
Paraguay, and Argentina. In Uruguay 
the climate is altogether unsuitable for it. 

Argentina and Paraguay each have 
small growing districts. In the first 
named, only the provinces of Salta and 
Jujuy have, at the latest reports, a little 
more than 3,000 acres under cultivation. 
In Paraguay some householders have 
grown coffee iji their yards solely for their 
own use. In the Paraguayan district of 
Altos, north of Asuncion, a small group 
of plantations was started before the out- 
break of the World War, and produced 
about 300,000 pounds of coffee in a year. 

Ceylon. Coffee planting in Ceylon 
was an important industry for a century, 
until the so-called Ceylon leaf disease at- 
tacked the plantations in 1869, and a few 
years later had practically destroyed all 
the trees of the country. Although coffee 
raising has continued since then, there has 
been, especially since the beginning of the 
twentieth century, a steady decline in 
acreage. There were 4,875 acres under 
cultivation in 1903, 2,433 acres in 1907, 
1.389 in 1912, and 941.5 in 1919. Only 
2,200 pounds were produced in 1917. 
However, the climate and soil of Ceylon 
seem adapted to coffee culture, and the 
experimental stations at Peradeniya and 
Anuradhapura have been experimenting 
in recent years with rohusta, canepJiora, 
TJgandae, and a rohusta hybrid for the 
purpose of reviving the industry in the 

Ceylon is one of the oldest coffee-grow- 
ing countries, the Arabs having experi- 
mented with it there, according to legend, 
long before the Portuguese seized the is- 
land in 1505, The Dutch, who gained 
control in 1658, continued the cultivation, 
and in 1690 introduced more systematic 
methods. They sent a few pounds in 1721 
to Amsterdam, where the coffee brought a 
higher price than Java or Mocha. How- 



RoBusTA Coffee Growing on the Suzannah Estate, Cociiin-China 

ever, it was not until after the British 
occupied the island in 1796, that coffee 
growing was carried on extensively. The 
first British-owned upland plantation was 
started in 1825 by Sir Edward Barnes; 
and for more than fifty years thereafter 
coffee was one of the island's leading 
products. An orgy of speculation in 
coffee growing in Ceylon, in which 
£5,000,000 sterling are said to have been 
invested, culminated in 1845 in the burst- 
ing of the coffee bubble, and hundreds 
were ruined. The peak of the export 
trade was reached in 1873, when 111,495,- 
216 pounds of coffee were sent out of the 
country. Even then, the plantations were 
suffering severely from the leaf disease, 
which had appeared in 1869 ; and by 1887, 
the coffee tree had practically disappeared 
from Ceylon. Ceylon's day in coffee was 
a cycle of fifty-odd years. 

French Indo-China. Coffee culture in 
French Indo-China is a comparatively 
small factor in international trade, al- 
though production is on the increase, par- 
ticularly from those plantations planted 
to robiista, liherica, and excelsa varieties. 
The average annual export for the five- 
year period ended with 1918 was 516.978 
pounds, nearly all of it going to France. 

The first experiments with coffee grow- 
ing were begun in 1887, near Hanoi in 
Tonkin. The seeds were of the arabica 
variety, brought from Reunion, and the 
production from the first years was dis- 
tributed throughout the country to foster 
the industry. Eventually arahica was 
found unsuitable to the soil and climate, 
and experiments were begun with robusta 
and other hardier types. 

A survey of the industry of the coun- 
try in 1916 showed that the plant was be- 
ing successfully grown in the provinces 
of Tonkin, Anam, and Cochin-China, and 
that altogether there were about 1,000,000 
trees in bearing. The plantations are 
mostly in the foot-hills of the mountain 
ranges or on the slopes, although a few 
are located near the coast line at 1,000 
feet, or even less, above sea-level. 

The larger and more successful planta- 
tions follow advanced methods of planting 
and cultivating, while the government 
maintains experimental stations for the 
purpose of fostering the industry. It is 
believed that French Indo-China in com- 
ing years will assume an important po- 
sition in the coffee trade of the world, 
particularly as a source of supply for 



Federated Malay States, Including 
Strait's Settlements. Rubber has been 
the chief cause of the decline of coffee 
industry in the Federated Malay States. 
Since the closing years of the nineteenth 
century coffee has been steadily on the 
downward path in acreage and produc- 
tion, with the possible exception of parts 
of Straits Settlements, which in 1918 ex- 
ported, mostly to England, some 3,500,000 
pounds of good grade coffee. The other 
sections of the federation shipped less 
than 1,000,000 pounds. 

In the early days, planters of the Malay 
Peninsula knew little about proper meth- 
ods of cultivating, and depended mostly 
upon what they learned of the practises 
in Ceylon, which, unfortunately for them, 
were not at all suited to the Malay 
country. They secured their best crops 
from lowlands where peaty soil prevailed, 
and eventually all the coffee grown on the 
peninsula came from such regions. 

Liberica is mostly favored, and is 
grown with some success as an inter-crop 
with cocoanuts and rubber. The rohusta 
variety has also been introduced, but does 
not seem to do as well as the liberica. Be- 
tween 2,300 and 2,600 acres, according to 
recent returns, have been under coffee as 
a catch-crop with cocoanuts, out of a total 

of 40,000 acres in cocoanut estates. One 
planter has been reported as making quite 
a success with this method of inter-crop- 
ping for coffee, but it is not generally 

There has been a general decline in 
acreage, product, and exports since the 
closing years of the nineteenth century, 
until now the industry is regarded as prac- 
tically at a stand-still and likely so to re- 
main as long as rubber shall continue to 
hold the commercially high position to 
which it has attained. Unsatisfactory 
prices realized for the crop, poor growth 
of the trees in some localities, and the 
gradual weakening of the trees under 
rubber as they mature, are offered as the 
principal explanations of this decrease in 
acreage. Nearly all the Malay crop in 
recent years has been grown in Selangor, 
though Negri Sembilan, Pahang, and 
Perak continue as factors in the trade. 

Australia. Although Australia is a 
prospective coffee-growing country of 
large natural possibilities, the Australian 
Year Book for 1921 states that Queensland 
is the one state in which experiments have 
been tried, and that in 1919 - 20 there 
were only twenty-four acres under cul- 
tivation. Queensland soils are of volcanic 
origin, exceptionally rich, and support 

Coffee Trees of the Bourbon Variety, French Indo-China 



Picking Coffee on a North Queensland Plantation 

trees that are vigorous and prolific with 
a bean of fine quality. The arabica is 
chiefly cultivated, and the trees can be 
successfully grown on the plains at sea- 
level as well as up to a height of 1,500 or 
2,000 feet. The trees mature earlier than 
in some other countries. Planted in Jan- 
uary, they frequently blossom in Decem- 
ber of the next year, or a month later, 
and yield a small crop in July or August; 
that is, in about two years and a half from 
the time of planting. The bean closely re- 
sembles the choice Blue Mountain coffee 
of Jamaica. For coffee cultivation the 
labor cost is almost prohibitive. 

As much as fifteen hundredweight of 
beans per acre have been gathered from 
trees in North Queensland; and for years 
the average was ten hundredweight per 
acre. After thirty years of cultivation, 
no signs of disease have appeared. Af^ 
late as 1920, the government was propos- 
ing to make advances of fourteen cents a 
pound upon coffee in the parchment to 
encourage the development of the indus- 
try to a point where it would be possible 
for local coffee growers to capture at least 
the bulk of the commonwealth's import 
coffee trade of 2,605,240 Rounds. 

Coffee grows well in most all the islands 
of the Pacific Ocean, and in some of them^ 
as in the Philippines and Hawaii, the in- 
dustry in past years reached considerable 

Hawaii. Coffee has been grown in 
Hawaii since 1825, from plants brought 
from Brazil. It has also been said that 
seed was brought by Vancouver, the Brit- 
ish navigator, on his Pacific exploration 
voyage, 1791 - 94. Not, however, until 
1845 was an official record made of the 
crop, which was then 248 pounds. The 
first plantations, started on the low levels, 
near the sea, did not do well; and it was 
not until the trees were planted' at eleva- 
tions of from 1,000 to 3,000 feet above 
sea-level that better returns were obtained. 

Coffee is grown on all the islands of 
the group, but nowhere to any great ex- 
tent except on Hawaii, which produces 
ninety-five percent of the entire crop. Next 
in importance, though far behind, is the 
island of Oahu. On Hawaii there are 
four principal coffee districts, Kona, 
Hamakua, Puna, and Olaa. About four- 
fifths of the total output of the islands is 
produced in Kona. At one time there 
were considerable coffee afe^s in Maui 



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and Kauai, but sugar cane eventually 
there took the place of coffee. 

The Kona coffee district extends for 
many miles along- the western slope of the 
island of Hawaii and around famous 
Kealakekua Bay. The soil is volcanic, 
and even rocky; but coffee trees flourish 
surprisingly well among the rocks, and 
are said to bear a bean of superior 

Coffee trees in Kona are planted prin- 
cipally in the open, though sometimes they 
are shaded by the native kukui trees. 
They are grown from seed in nurseries; 
and the seedlings, when one year old, are 
transplanted in regular lines nine feet 
apart. In two years a small crop is gath- 
ered, yielding from five to twelve bags of 
cleaned coft'ee per acre. At three years 
of age the trees produce from eight to 
twenty bags of cleaned coffee per acre, 
and from that time they are fully ma- 
tured. The ripening season is between 
September and January, and there are 
two principal pickings. Many of the 
trees are classed as wild; that is, they are 
not topped, and are cultivated in an ir- 
regular manner and are poorly cared for; 
but they yield 700 or 800 pounds per acre. 
The fruit ripens very uniformly, and is 
picked easily and at slight expense. 

It is calculated that in the Hawaiian 
group more than 250,000 acres of good 
coffee land are available and about 200,- 
000 acres more of fair quality. Com- 
paratively little of this possible acreage 
has been put to use. According to the 
census of 1889, there were then 6,451 acres 
devoted to coffee, having, young, and old, 
3,225,743 bearing trees. The yield, in 
that census year, was 2,297,000 pounds, of 
which 2,112,650 pounds 'were credited to 
Hawaii, the small remainder coming from 
Maui, Oahu, Kauai, and Molokai. 

A blight in 1855 - 56 set back the indus- 
try, many plantations being ruined and 
then given over to sugar cane. After the 
blight had disappeared, the plantations 
were re-established, and prosperity cou: 
tinued for years. Following the Ameri- 
can occupation of the islands in 1898, 
came another period of depression. With 
the loss of the protective tariff that had 
existed, prices fell to an unremunerative 
figure; and the more profitable sugar cane 
was taken up again. After 1912, the in- 
creased demand for coffee, with higher 
prices, led again to hopes for the future 

Coffee Growing Under Shade, Hamakua, H. I. 

of the industry. Planting was encour- 
aged; and it has been demonstrated that 
from lands w^ell selected and intelligently 
cultivated it is possible to have a yield of 
from 1,200 to 2,100 pounds per acre. 
Improvements have also been made in 
pulping and milling facilities. Many of 
the plantations are cultivated by Japanese 

Exports of coffee from Hawaii to the 
principal countries of the world in 1920 
were 2,573,300 pounds. 

Philippine Islands. Spanish mission- 
aries from Mexico are said to have carried 
the coffee plant to the Philippine Islands 
in the latter part of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. At first it was cultivated in the 
province of La Laguna ; but afterward 
other provinces, notably Batangas and 
Cavite, took it up ; and in a short time the 
industry was one of the most important 
in the islands. The coffee was of the 
arahica variety. In the middle of the 
eighteenth century, and after, the indus- 
try had a position of importance; several 
provinces produced profitable crops that 
contributed much to the wealth of the 
communities where the berry was culti- 
vated. In those days the city of Yipa was 
an important trading center. In the 
period of its prime Philippine coffee en- 
joyed fine repute, especially in Spain, 
Great Britain, and China (at Hong 
Kong), those three countries being the 
largest consumers. At one time — in 



1883 and 1884 — the annual export was 
16,000,000 pounds, which demonstrates 
the importance of the industry at the peak 
of its prosperity. The leaf blight ap- 
peared on the island about 1889, causing 
destruction from which there has not yet 
been complete' recovery. The export of 
3,086 pounds in 1917 shows the depths 
into which the industry had fallen. 

The Bureau of Agriculture at Manila 
announced in 1915 that an effort was to 
be made to re-habilitate the coffee indus- 
try of the islands.. Nothing came of the 
effort, which died a-borning. Since then, 
several attempts to introduce disease-re- 
sisting varieties of coffee from Java have 
failed because of lack of interest on the 
part of the natives. 

Despite the misfortunes that have over- 
whelmed it in the past and are now re- 
tarding its growth, it is still believed that 

the industry in these islands may be re- 
habilitated. Conditions of soil and cli- 
mate are favorable; land and labor are 
cheap, abundant, and dependable: rail- 
roads run into the best coffee regions, and 
good cart roads are in process of construc- 
tion. Some plantations of consequence 
are still in existence, and serious consid- 
eration is being given to their develop- 
ment and to increasing their number, 

Guam. Coffee is one of the commonest 
wild plants on the little island of Guam. 
It grows around the houses like shade 
trees or flowering shrubs, and nearly every 
family cultivates a small patch. Climate 
and soil are favorable to it; and it flour- 
ishes, with abundant crops, from the sea- 
level to the tops of the highest hills. The 
plants are set in straight rows, from three 
and a half to seven feet apart, and are 
shaded by banana trees or bv cocoanut 

The Coffee Tbee Thrives in the Lava Soil of South Kona, Island of Hawaii 



Coffee Plantation Near Sagada, Bontoc Province, P. I. 

leaves stuck in the ground. There is no 
production for export, scarcely enough for 
home consumption. 

Other Pacific Islands. Other islands 
of the Pacific do not loom large in coffee 
growing, though New Caledonia gives 
promise as a producer, exporting 1,248,- 
024 pounds in 1916, most of which was 

rohusta. Tahiti produces a fair coffee, 
but in no commercial quantity. In the 
Samoan group there are plantations, small 
in number, in size, and in amount of pro- 
duction. Several islands of 'the Fiji 
group are said to be well adapted to coffee, 
but little is grown there and none for 



Owner's Residence Adjoining Drying Grounds on One of the Large Estates 

Drying Grounds, Fazenda Santa Adelaide, Kibeiuao Preto 

Chapter XXI 


Early Arabian methods of preparation- — Hoiv primitive devices were 
replaced by modern methods — A chronological story of the develop- 
ment of scientific plantation machinery, and the part played by Brit- 
ish and American inventors — The marvelous coffee package, one 
of the most ingenious in all nature — Hoiv coffee is harvested — 
Picking — Preparation by the dry and the ivet methods — Pulping — 
Fermentation and washing — Drying — Hulling, or peeling, and pol- 
ishing — Sizing, or grading — Preparation methods of different 

LA ROQUE', in his description of the 
ancient coffee culture, and the prepa- 
ration methods as followed in Yemen, 
says that the berries were permitted to dry 
on the trees. When the outer covering be- 
gan to shrivel, the trees were shaken, caus- 
ing the fully matured fruits to drop upon 
cloths spread to receive them. They were 
next exposed to the sun on drying-mats, 
after which they were husked by means of 
wooden or stone rollers. The beans were 
given a further drying in the sun, and then 
were submitted to a winnowing process, for 
which large fans were used. 

Development of Plantation Machinery 
The primitive methods of the original 
Arab planters were generally followed by 
the Dutch pioneers, and later by the 
French, with slight modifications. As the 
ultivation spread, necessity for more effec- 
live methods of handling the ripened fruit 
mothered invention's that soon began to 
transform the whole aspect of the business. 
Probably the first notable advance was in 
curing, when the West Indian process, or 
wet method, of cleaning the berries w^as 

About the time that Brazil began the 
active cultivation of coffee, William Panter 

' La Koque, Jean. 
Paris, 1715 (r. 285). 

Voyage dc I'Arahie Heureuae, 

was granted the first English patent on a 
"mill for husking coffee." This was in 
1775. James Henckel followed with an 
English patent, granted in 1806, on a coffee 
drier, "an invention communicated to liim 
by a certain foreigner." The first Amer- 
ican to enter the lists was Nathan Reed of 
Belfast, Me., who in 1822 was granted a 
United States patent on a coffee huller. 
Roswell Abbey obtained a United States 
patent on a huller in 1825 ; and Zenos 
Bronson, of Jasper County, Ga., obtained 
one on another huller in 1829. In the next 
few years many others followed. 

John Chester Lyman, in 1834, was grant- 
ed an English patent on a coffee huller em- 
ploying circular wooden disks, fitted with 
wire teeth. Isaac Adams and Thomas Dit- 
son of Boston brought out improved hullers 
in 1835 ; and James Meacock of Kingston, 
Jamaica, patented in England, in 1845, a 
self-contained machine for pulping, dress- 
ing, and sorting coffee. 

William McKinnon began, in 1840, the 
manufacture of coffee plantation machinery 
at the Spring Garden Iron Works, founded 
by him in 1798 in Aberdeen, Scotland. He 
died in 1873 ; but the business continues 
as Wm. McKinnon & Co., Ltd. 

About 1850 John Walker, one of the pio- 
neer English inventors of coffee-plantation 




Walker's Okiginal Disk Pulper, 1860 
Much favored in Ceylon and India 

machinery, brought out in Ceylon his 
cylinder pulper for Arabian coffee. The 
pulping surface was made of copper, and 
was pierced with a half-moon punch that 
raised the cut edges into half circles. 

The next twenty years witnessed some of 
the most notable advances in the develop- 
ment of machinery for plantation treat- 
ment, and served to introduce the inven- 
tions of several men whose names will ever 
be associated with the industry. 

John Gordon & Co. began the manufac- 
ture in London of the line of plantation 
machinery still known around the world as 
"Gordon make" in 1850; and John Gordon 
was granted an English patent on his im- 
proved coffee pulper in 1859. 

Robert Bowman Tennent obtained Eng- 
lish (1852) and United States (1853) pat- 
ents on a two-cylinder pulper. 

George L. Squier began the manufacture 
of plantation machinery in Buffalo, N. Y., 
in 1857. He was active in the business until 
1893, and died in 1910. The Geo. L. Squier 
Manufacturing Co. still continues as one 
of the leading American manufacturers of 
coffee-plantation machinery. 

Marcus Mason, an American mechanical 
engineer in San Jose, Costa Rica, invented 
(1860) a coffee pulper and cleaner which 
became the foundation stone of the exten- 
sive plantation-machinery business of Mar- 
cus Mason & Co., established in 1873 at 
Worcester, Mass. 

John Walker was granted (1860) an 
English patent on a disk pulper in which 
the copper pulping surface was punched, 
or knobbed, by a blind punch that raised 
rows of oval knobs but did not pierce the 
sheet, and so left no sharp edges. During 
Ceylon's fifty years of coffee production, 
the Walker machines played an important 
part in the industry. They are still manu- 
factured by Walker, Sons & Co., Ltd., of 
Colombo, and are sold to other producing 

Alexius Van Gulpen began the manufac- 
ture of a green-coffee-grading machine at 
Emmerich, Germany, in 1860, 

Following Newell's United States patents 
of 1857 - 59, sixteen other patents were is- 
sued on various types of coffee-cleaning ma- 
chines, some designed for plantation use, 
and some for treating the beans on arrival 
in the consuming countries. 

James Henry Thompson, of Hoboken, and 
John Lidgerwood were granted, in 1864, an 
English patent on a coffee-hulling machine. 
William Van Vleek Lidgerwood, American 
charge d'affaires at Rio de Janeiro, was 
granted an English patent on a coffee hull- 
ing and cleaning machine in 1866. The 
name Lidgerwood has long been familiar to 
coffee planters. The Lidgerwood Manufac- 
turing Co.,, Ltd., has its headquarters in 
London, with factory in Glasgow. Branch 
offices are maintained at Rio de Janeiro, 
Campinas, and in other cities in coffee- 
growing countries. 

Probably the name most familiar to cof- 
fee men in connection with plantation 

Eaely English Coffee Peeleb 
Largely used in India and Ceylon 



Group of English Cylinder Coffee-Pulping Machines 

lethods is Guardiola. It first appears in 
the chronological record in 1872, when J. 
Guardiola, of Chocola, Guatemala, was 
granted several United States patents on 
machines for pulping and drying coffee. 
Since then, "Guardiola" has come to mean 
a definite type of rotary drying machine 
that — after the original patent expired — 
was manufactured by practically all the 
leading makers of plantation machinery. 
Jose Guardiola obtained additional United 
States patents on coffee hullers in 1886. 

William Van Vleek Lidgerwood, Morris- 
town, N. J., was granted an English patent 
on an improved coffee pulper in 1875. 

Several important cleaning and grading 
machinery patents were granted by the 
United States (1876-1878) to Henry B. 
Stevens, who assigned them to the Geo. L. 
Squier Manufacturing Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
One of them was on a separator, in which 
the coffee beans were discharged from the 
hopper in a thin stream upon an endless 
■carrier, or apron, arranged at such an in- 
clination that the. round beans would roll 
by force of gravity down the apron, while 
the flat beans would be carried to the top. 

C. F. Hargreaves, of Eio de Janeiro, was 
granted an English patent on machinery 
for hulling, polishing, and separating cof- 
fee, in 1879. 

The first German patent on a coffee dry- 
ing apparatus was granted to Henry Scol- 
field, of Guatemala, in 1880. 

In 1885 Evaristo Conrado Engelberg of 
Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil, invented an 
improved coffee huller which, three years 
later, was patented in the United States. 
The Engelberg Huller Co. of Syracuse, 
N. Y., was organized the same year (1888) 
to make and to sell Engelberg machines. 

Walker Sons & Co., Ltd., began, in 1886, 
experimenting in Ceylon with a Liberian 
disk pulper that was not fully perfected 
until twelve years later. 

Another name, that has sinjce become al- 
most as well known as Guardiola, appears 
in the record in 1891. It is that of 
O'Krassa. In that year R. F. E. O'Krassa 
of Antigua, Guatemala, was granted an 
English patent on a coffee pulper. Addi- 
tional patents on washing, hulling, drying, 
and separating machines were issued to Mr. 
O'Krassa in England and in the United 
States in 1900, 1908, 1911, 1912, and 1913. 

The Fried. Krupp A. G. Grusonwerk, 
Magdeburg-Buckau, Germany, began the 
manufacture of coffee plantation machines 
about 1892. Among others it builds coffee 
pulpers and hulling and polishing machines 
of the Anderson (Mexican) and KruU 
(Brazilian) types. 



Additional United States patents were 
granted in 1895 to Marcus Mason, assignor 
to Marcus Mason & Co., New York, on ma- 
chines for pulping and polishing' coffee. 
Douglas Gordon assigned patents on a cof- 
fee pulper and a coffee drier to Marcus 
Mason & Co. in 1904 - 05. 

The names of Jules Smout, a Swiss, and 
Don Roberto O'Krassa, of Guatemala, are 
well known to coffee planters the world 
over because of their combined peeling and 
polishing machines. 

The Huntley Manufacturing Co., Silver 
Creek, N. Y., began in 1896 the manufac- 
ture of the Monitor line of coffee-grading- 
and-cleaning machines. 

TJie Marvelous Coffee Package 

It is doubtful if in all nature there is a 
more cunningly devised food package than 
the fruit of the coffee tree. It seems as if 
Good Mother Nature had said : ' ' This gift 
of Heaven is too precious to put up in any 
ordinary parcel. I shall design for it a 
casket w^orthy of its divine origin. And 

the casket shall have an inner seal that 
shall safeguard it from enemies, and that 
shall preserve its goodness for man until 
the day when, transported over the deserts 
and across the seas, it shall be broken open 
to be transmuted by the fires of friendship, 
and made to yield up its aromatic nectar 
in the Great Drink of Democracy." 

To this end she caused to grow from the 
heart of the jasmine-like flower, that first 
herald of its coming, a marvelous berry 
which, as it ripens, turns first from green 
to yellow, then to reddish, to deep crimson, 
and at last to a royal purple. 

The coffee fruit is very like a cherry, 
though somewhat elongated and having in 
its upper end a small umbilicus. But mark 
with what ingenuity" the package has been 
constructed ! The outer wrapping is a thin, 
gossamer-like skin which encloses a soft 
pulp, sweetish to the taste, but of a mucila- 
ginous consistency. This pulp in turn is 
wrapped about the inner-seal — called the 
parchment, because of its tough texture. 
The parchment encloses the magic bean in 

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Specimens of Copper Covers for Pulper Cylinders 

For Arabian coffee (Coffea ardbica). 2 — For Liberian coffee {Coffea liberica). 3 — Also for Arabian.. 
4 — For; Coffea canephora. 5 — For Coffea robusta. 6 — For larger Arabian, and for Coffea Maragoyipe. 


Dkyim, GituL ._^, I'LLPi^G House, and Fermentation Vats, Boa Vista. Brazil 

Pulping House and 1<"^rmentation Tanks, Costa Rica 



Its last wrapping, a delicate silver-colored 
Bkin, not unlike fine spun silk or the sheer- 
est of tissue papers. And this last wrap- 
Iping is so tenacious, so true to its guardian- 


Granada Unpulped Coffee Separator 
Shown in combination witl] a Guatemala coffee pulper 

ship function, that no amount of rough 
treatment can dislodge it altogether; for 
portions of it cling to the bean even into 
the roasting and grinding processes. 

Coffee is said to be "in the husk," or "in 
the parchment," when the whole fruit is 
dried; and it is called "hulled coffee" when 
it has been deprived of its hull and peel. 
The matter forming the fruit, called the 
coffee berry, covers two thin, hard, oval 
seed vessels held together, one to the other, 
by their fiat sides. These seed vessels, when 
broken open, contain the raw coffee beans 
of commerce. They are usually of a round- 
ish oval shape, convex on the outside, flat 
inside, marked longitudinally in the center 
of the flat side with a deep incision, and 
wrapped in the thin pellicle known as the 
silver skin. "When one of the two seeds 
aborts, the remaining one acquires a greater 
size, and fills the interior of the fruit, which 
in that case, of course, has but one cellule. 
This abortion is common in the arahica 
variety, and produces a bean formerly 
called grage coffee, but now more commonly 
known as peaberry, or male berry. 

The various coverings of the coffee beans 
are almost always removed on the planta- 
tions in the producing countries. Properly 
to prepare the raw beans, it is necessary to 
remove the four coverings — the outer skin, 
the sticky pulp, the parchment, or husk, 
and the closely adhering silver skin. 

There are two distinct methods of treat- 
ing the coffee fruits, or "cherries." One 
process, the one that until recent years 
was in general use throughout the world, 
and is still in many producing countries, 
is known as the dry method. The coffee 

prepared in this way is sometimes called 
"common," "ordinary," or 'natural," to 
distinguish it from the product that has 
been cleaned by the wet or washed method. 
The wet method, or, as it is sometimes 
designated, the "West Indian process" 
(W.I.P.) is practised on all the large mod- 
ern plantations that have a sufficient supply 
of water. 

In the wet process, the first step is called 
pulping; the second is fermentation and 
washing; the third is drying"; the fourth is 
hulling or peeling; and the last, sizing or 
grading. In the dry process, the first step 
is drying ; the second hulling ; and the last, 
sizing or grading. 


The coffee cherry ripens about six to 
seven months after the tree has flowered, 
or blossomed; and becomes a deep pur- 
plish-crimson color. It is then ready for 
picking. The ripening season varies 
throughout the world, according to climate 
and altitude. In the state of Sao Paulo, 
Brazil, the harvesting season lasts from 
May to September ; while in Java, where 
three crops are produced annually, harvest- 
ing is almost a continuous process through- 
out the year. In Colombia the harvesting 
seasons are March and April, and Novem- 
ber and December. In Guatemala the crops 
are gathered from October through Decem- 
ber ; in Venezuela, from November through 
March. In Mexico the coffee is harvested 
from November to January; in Haiti the 
harvest extends from November to March ; 
in Arabia, from September to March; 

Hand-Power Double-Disk Pulper 



in Abyssinia, from September through 
November, In Uganda, Africa, there are 
two main crops, one ripening in March and 
the other in September, and picking is car- 
ried on during practically every month 
except December and January. In India 

work. About thirty pounds is considered a 
fair day 's work under good conditions. As 
the baskets are filled, they are emptied at 
a ''station" in that particular unit of the 
plantation; or, in some cases, directly into 
wagons that keep pace with the pickers. 

Tandem Coffee Pulpee of English Make 
Being a combination of a Bon-Accord-Valencia pulper with a Bon-Accord repassing machine 

the fruit is ready for harvesting from Oc- 
tober to January. 


The general practise throughout the 
world has been to hand-pick the fruit; al- 
though in some countries the cherries are 
allowed to become fully ripe on the trees, 
and to fall to the ground. The introduc- 
tion of the wet method of preparation, in- 
deed, has made it largely unnecessary to 
hand-pick crops; and the tendency seems 
to be away from this practise on the larger 
plantations. If the berries are gathered 
promptly after dropping, the beans are not 
injured, and the cost of harvesting is re- 

The picking season is a busy time on a 
large plantation. All hands join in the 
work — men, women and children; for it 
must be rushed. Over-ripe berries shrink 
and dry up. The pickers, with baskets 
slung over their shoulders, walk between the 
rows, stripping the berries from the trees, 
using ladders to reach the topmost 
branches, and sometimes even taking imma- 
ture fruit in their haste to expedite the 

The coffee is freed as much as possible of 
sticks, leaves, etc., and is then conveyed to 
the preparation grounds. 

A space of several acres is needed for the 
various preparation processes on the larger 
plantations; the plant including concrete- 
surfaced drying grounds, large fermenta- 
tion tanks, washing vats, mills, warehouses, 
stables, and even machine shops. In Mex- 
ico this place is known as the heneficio. 

Washed and Unwashed Coffee 

Where water is plenty, the ripe coffee 
cherries are fed by a stream of water into 
a pulping machine which breaks the outer 
skins, permitting the pulpy matter envelop- 
ing the beans to be loosened and carried 
away in further washings. It is this wet 
separation of the sticky pulp from the 
beans, instead of allowing it to dry on them, 
to be removed later with the parchment in 
the hulling operation, that makes the dis- 
tinction between washed and unwashed 
coffees. Where water is scarce the coffees 
are unwashed. 

Either method being well done, does 
washing improve the strength and flavor? 




Opinions differ. The soil, altitude, climatic 
influences, and cultivation methods of a 
country give its coffee certain distinctive 
drinking qualities. Washing immensely im- 
proves the appearance of the bean ; it also 
reduces curing costs. Generally speaking, 
washed coffees will always command a pre- 
mium over coffees dried in the pulp. 

Whether coffee is washed or not, it has 
to be dried ; and there is a kind of fermenta- 
ion that goes on during washing and dry- 
g, about which coffee planters have differ- 
g ideas, just as tea planters differ over 
the curing of tea leaves. Careful scientific 
study is needed to determine how much, if 
any, effect this fermentation has on the ulti- 
mate cup value. 

Preparation hy the Dry Method 

The dry method of preparing the berries 
is not only the older method, but is con- 
sidered by some operators as providing a 
distinct advantage over the wet process, 
since berries of different degrees of ripeness 
can be handled at the same time. However, 
the success of this method is dependent 
largely on the continuance of clear warm 
weather over quite a length of time, which 
can not always be counted on. 

In this process the berries are spread in 
a thin layer on open drying grounds, or 
barbecues, often having cement or brick 
surfaces. The berries are turned over sev- 
eral times a day in order to permit the 
sun and Avind thoroughly to dry all por- 
tions. The sun-drying process lasts about 
three weeks ; and after the first three days 

Costa Rica Vertical Coffee Washer 

of this period, the berries must be protected 
from dews and rains by covering them with 
tarpaulins, or by raking them into heaps 
under cover. If the berries are not spread 
out, they heat, and the silver skin sticks 
to the coffee bean, and frequently discolors 
it. When thoroughly dry, the berries are 
stored, unless the husks (outer skin and 
inner parchment) are to be removed at 
once. Hot air, steam, and other artificial 
drying methods take the place of natural 
sun-drying on some plantations. 

In the dry method, the husks are re- 
moved either by hand (threshing and 

Continuous Working Horizontal Coffee Washer 




pounding in a mortar, on the smaller plan- 
tations) or by specially constructed ma- 
chinery, known as hulling machines. 

The Wet Method — Pulping 

The wet method of preparation is the 
more modern form, and is generally prac- 
tised on the larger plantations that have a 
sufficient supply of water, and enough 
money to instal the quite extensive amount 
of machinery and equipment required. It 
is generally considered that washing results 
in a better grade of bean. 

In this method the cherries are sometimes 
thrown into tanks full of water to soak 
about twenty-four hours, so as to soften 
the outer skins and underlying pulp to a 
condition that will make them easily remov- 
able by the pulping machine — the idea 
being to rub away the pulp by friction 
without crushing the beans. 

On the larger plantations, however, the 
coffee cherries are dumped into large con- 
crete receiving tanks, from which they are 
carried the same day by streams of running 
water directly into the hoppers of the pulp- 
ing machines. 

At least two score of different makes of 
pulping machines are in use in the various 
coffee-growing countries. Pulpers are made 
in various sizes, from the small hand- 
operated machine to the large type driven 
by power; and in two general styles — 
cylinder, and disk. 

The cylinder pulper, the latest style — 
suggesting a huge nutmeg-grater — con- 
sists of a rotary cylinder surrounded with 
a copper or brass cover punched with bulbs. 
These bulbs differ in shape according to 
the species, or variety, of coffee to be 
treated — arabica, liherica, rohusta, cane- 
phora, or what not. The cylinder rotates 

against a breast with pulping edges set at 
an angle. The pulping is effected by the 
rubbing action of the copper cover against 
the edges, or ribs, of the breast. The cher- 
ries are subjected to a rubbing and rolling 
motion, in the course of which the two 
parchment-covered beans contained in the 
majority of the cherries become loosened. 
The pulp itself is carried by the cover and 
is discharged through a pulp shoot, while 
the pulped coffee is delivered through holes 
on the breast. Cylinder machines vary in 
capacity from 400 pounds (hand power) 
to 4,800 pounds (motive power) per hour. 

Some cylinder pulpers are double, being 
equipped with rotary screens or oscillating 
sieves, that segregate the imperfectly 
pulped cherries so that they may be put 
through again. Pulpers are also equipped 
with attachments that automatically move 
the imperfectly pulped material over into 
a repassing machine for another rubbing. 
Others have attachments partially to crush 
the cherries before pulping. 

The breasts in cylinder machines are 
usually made with removable steel ribs ; but 
in Brazil, Nicaragua, and other countries, 
where, owing to the short season and scarc- 
ity of labor, the planters have to pick, 
simultaneously, green, ripe, and over-ripe 
(dry) cherries, rubber breasts are used. 

The disk pulper (the earliest type, hav- 
ing been in use more than seventy years) 
is the style most generally used in the 
Dutch East Indies and in some parts of 
Mexico. The results are the same as those 
obtained with the cylindrical pulper. The 

Niagara Power Coffee . Huller 



McKinnon's Guardiola Coffee Drier 

The Squier-Guardiola Coffee Drier, With Direct-Fire HEATEn 


There are numerous makes of cofifee driers based upon the original invention of Jos6 Guardiola of 
Chocola, Guatemala. In the two illustrated above both direct-fire heat and steam heat 

may be utilized 





^^^j^f^y^' ,^ ^^^^BBiiiiiiiiiii" ^^ 

Another American Guardiola Drier 

disk machine is made with one, two, three, 
or four vertical iron disks, according to the 
capacity desired. The disks are covered on 
both sides with a copper plate of the same 
shape, and punched with blind punches. 
The pulping operation takes place between 
the rubbing action of the blind punches, or 
bulbs, on the copper plates and the lateral 
pulping bars fitted to the side cheeks. As 
in the cylinder pulper, the distance between 
the surface of the bulbs and the pulping 
bar may be adjusted to allow of any clear- 
ance that may be required, according to 
the variety of coffee to be treated. 

Disk pulpers vary in capacity from 1,200 
pounds to 14,000 pounds of ripe cherry 
coffee per hour. They, too, are made in 
combinations employing cylindrical sepa- 
rators, shaking sieves, and repassing pulp- 
ers, for completing the pulping of all 
unpulped or partially pulped cherries. 

Fermentation and Washing 

The next step in the process consists in 
running the pulped cherries into cisterns, 
or fermentation tanks, filled with water, 
for the purpose of removing such pulp as 
was not removed in the pulping machine. 
The saccharine matter is loosened by fer- 
mentation in from twenty-four to thirty- 
two hours. The mass is kept stirred up 
for a short time ; and, in general practise, 
the water is drawn off from above, the light 
pulp floating at the top being removed at 
the same time. The same tanks are often 
used for washing, but a better practise is 
to have separate tanks. 

Some planters permit the pulped coffee 
to ferment in water. This is called the wet 
fermentation process. Others drain off the 
water from the tanks and conduct the fer- 

menting operation in a semi-dry state, 
called the dry fermentation process. 

The coffee bean, when introduced into the 
fermentation tanks, is enclosed in a parch- 
ment shell made slimy by its closely adher- 
ing saccharine coat. After fermentation, 
which not only loosens the remaining pulp 
but also softens the membranous covering, 
the beans are given a final washing, either 
in washing tanks or by being run through 
mechanical washers. The type of washing 
machine generally used consists of a cylin- 
drical tub having a vertical spindle fitted 
with a number of stirrers, or arms, which, 
in rotating, stir and lift up the parchment 
coffee. In another type, the cylinder is 
horizontal ; but the operation is similar. 


The next step in preparation is drying. 
The coffee, which is still "in the parch- 
ment," but is now known as washed coffee, 
is spread out thinly on a drying ground, 
as in the dry method. However, if the 
weather is unsuitable or can not be de- 
pended upon to remain fair for the neces- 
sary length of time, there are machines 
which can be used to dry the coffee satis- 
factorily. On some plantations, the drying 
is started in the open and finished by ma- 
chine. The machines dry the coffee in 
twenty-four hours, while ten days are re- 
quired by the sun. 

The object of the drying machine is to 
dry the parchment of the coffee so that it 

The Smout Peeler and Polisher 





may be removed as readily as the skin on 
a peanut; and this object is achieved in the 
most approved machines by keeping a hot 
current of air stirring through the beans. 
One of the best-liked types, the Guardiola, 
resembles the cylinder of a coffee-roasting 
machine. It is made of perforated steel 
plates in cylinder form, and is carried on a 
hollow shaft through which the hot air is 
circulated by a pressure fan. The beans 
are rotated in the revolving cylinder; and 
,s the hot air strikes the wet coffee, it 
reates a steam that passes out through the 
erforations of the cylinder. Within the 
cylinder are compartments equipped with 
winged plates, or ribs, that keep the coffee 
constantly stirred up to facilitate the dry- 
ing process. Another favorite is the 
O'Krassa. It is constructed on the prin- 
ciple just described, but differs in detail of 
construction from the Guardiola, and is 
able to dry its contents a few hours quicker. 
Hot air, steam, and electric heat are all- em- 
ployed in the various makes of coffee 
driers. A temperature from 65° to 85° 
centigrade is maintained during the drying 

When thoroughly dry, the parchment 
can be crumbled between the fingers, and 
the bean within is too hard to be dented by 
finger nail or teeth. 

Hulling, Peeling, and Polishing 

The last step in the preparation process 
is called hulling or peeling, both words ac- 
curately describing the purpose of the 

The Smout Peeler and Polisher, with Cylin- 
der Open Showing Cone 

operation. Some husking machines for 
hulling or peeling parchment coffee are 
polishers as well. This work may be done 
on the plantation or at the port of shipment 
just before the coffee is shipped abroad. 
Sometimes the coffee is exported in parch- 
ment, and is cleaned in the country of eon- 
sumption ; but practically all coffee entering 
the United States arrives without its parch- 

Peeling machines, more accurately named 
hullers, work on the principle of rubbing 
the beans between a revolving inner cylin- 
der and an outer covering of woven wire. 
Machines of this type vary in construction. 
Some have screw-like inner cylinders, or 
turbines, others having plain cone-shaped 
cores on which are knobs and ribs that rub 

O'Kkassa's Coffee Drier Combined with Direct- Fire Heater 












I— I 






the beans against one another and the outer 
shell. Practically all types have sieve or 
exhaust-fan attachments, which draw the 
loosened parchment and silver skin into one 
compartment, while the cleaned beans pass 
into another. 

Polishers of various makes are sometimes 
used just to remove the silver skin and to 
give the beans a special polish. Some coun- 
tries demand a highly polished coffee ; and 
) supph' this demand, the beans "are sent 
ihrough another huller having a phosphor- 
bronze cylinder and cone. Much Guade- 
loupe coffee is prepared in this way, and is 
known as cafe honifieur from the fact that 
the polishing machine is called in Guade- 
loupe the honifieur (improver). It is also 
called cafe de luxe. Coffee that has not 
received the extra polish is described as 
habitant; while- coffee in the parchment is 
known as cafe en parch e. Extra polished 
coffee is much in demand in the London, 
Hamburg, and other European markets. 
A favorite machine for producing this kind 
of coffee is the Smout combined peeler and 

polisher, the invention of Jules Smout, a 
Swiss. Don Roberto O'Krassa also has 
produced " a highly satisfactory combined 
peeler and polisher. 

For hulling dry cherry coffee there are 
several excellent makes of machines. In 
one style, the hulling takes place between 
a rotating disk and the casing of the ma- 
chine. In another, it takes place between 
a rotary drum covered with a steel plate 
punched with vertical bulbs, and a chilled 
iron hulling-plate with pyramidal teeth 
cast on the plate. Both are adjustable to 
different varieties of coffee. In still an- 
other type of machine, the hulling takes 
place between steel ribs on an ' internal 
cylinder, and an adjustable knife, or hull- 
ing blade, in front of the machine. 

Sizing or Grading 

The coffee bean is now clean, the proc- 
esses described in the foregoing having re- 
moved the outer skin, the saccharine pulp, 
the parchment, and the silver skin. This 
is the end of the cle'aning operations; but 



El Moxarca Coffee Classifier 



Old ropo-diivu transmission on Finca Ona. Hydro-electric power plant on Finca Ona. 

Hydro-Electric Installation on a Guatemala Finca 

there are two more steps to be taken before 
the coffee is ready for the trade of the 
world — sizing and hand-sorting. These 
two operations are of great importance; 
since on them depends, to a large extent, 
the price the coffee will bring in the market. 

Sizing, or grading by sizes, is done in 
modern commercial practise by machines 
that automatically separate and distribute 
the different beans according to size and 
form. In principle, the beans are carried 
across a series of sieves, each with perfora- 
tions varying in size from the others; the 
beans "passing through the holes of cor- 
responding sizes. The majority of the ma- 
chines are constructed to separate the beans 
into five or more grades, the principal 
grades being triage, third flats, second flats, 
first flats, and first and second peaberries. 
Some are designed to handle "elephant" 
and "mother" sizes. The grades have local 
nomenclature in the various countries. 

After grading, the coffee is picked over 
by hand to remove the faulty and discol- 
ored beans that it is almost impossible to 
remove thoroughly by machine. The higher 
grades of coffee are often double-picked; 
that is, picked over twice. When this is 
done on a large scale, the beans are gen- 
erally placed on a belt, or platform, that 
moves at a regulated speed before a line 
of women and children, who pick out the 
undesirable T)eans as they pass on the mov- 
ing belt. There are small machines of this 
type built for one person, who operates the 
belt mechanism by means of a treadle. 

Preparation in the Leading Countries 

The foregoing description tells in gen- 
eral terms the story of the most approved 
methods of harvesting, shelling, and clean- 
ing the coffee beans. The following para- 
graphs will describe those features of the 

processes that are peculiar to the more im- 
portant large producing countries and that 
differ in details or in essentials from the 
methods just outlined. 

In the Western Hemisphere 

Brazil. The operation of some of the 
large plantations in Brazil, a number of 
which have more than a million trees, re- 
quires a large number and a great variety 
of preparation machines and equipment. 
Grenerally considered, the State of Sao 
Paulo is better equipped with approved 
machinery than any other commercial dis- 
trict in the world. 

In Brazil, coffee plantations are known 
as fazendas, and the proprietors as fazen- 
deiros, terms that are the equivalent of 
"landed estates" and "landed proprie- 
tors." Practically every fazenda in Brazil 
of any considerable commercial importance 
is equipped with the most modern of cof- 
fee-cleaning equipment. Some of the 
larger ones in the state of Sao Paulo, like 
the Dumont and the Schmidt estates, are 
provided with private railways connecting 
the fazendas with the main railroad line 
some miles away, and also have miniature 
railway systems running through the fa- 
zendas to move the coffee from one harvest- 
ing and cleaning operation to another. 
The coffee is carried in small cars that are 
either pushed by a laborer or are drawn 
by horse or mule. 

Some of the larger fazendas cover thou- 
sands of acres, and have several millions 
of trees, giving the impression of an un- 
ending forest stretching far away into the 
horizon. Here and there are openings in 
which buildings appear, the largest group 
of structures usually consisting of those 
making up the cafezale, or cleaning plant. 
Nearby, stand the handsome "palaces" of 




Picking Coffee on a Well Kept Fazenda 

Manager's Residence on One of the Big Sao Paulo Fazendas 

Photographs by Courtesy of J. Aron & Co. 

Drying Grounds on a Modern Estate in Ribeirao Preto 



Copyright hy 

WoRKI^"G (. oiihr,_uA DkyiiNg Fla i s, Sao I'aulo 

the fazendeiros; but not so close that the 
coffee princes and their households will be 
disturbed by the almost constant rumble 
of machinery and the voices of the workers. 

Brazilian fazendeiros follow the methods 
described in the foregoing in preparing 
their coffee for market, using the most mod- 
ern of the equipment detailed under thb 
story of the wet method of preparation. 
On most of the fazendas the machinery is 
operated by steam or electricity, the latter 
coming more and more into use each year 
in all parts of the coffee-growing region. 

In some districts, however, far in the 
interior, there are still to be found small 

plantations where primitive methods of 
cleaning are even now practised. Produc- 
ing but a small quantity of coffee, possibly 
for only local use, the cherries may be 
freed of their parchment by macerating the 
husks by hand labor in a large mortar. On 
still another plantation, the old-time 
bucket-and-beam crusher perhaps may be 
in use. 

This consists of a beam pivoted on an 
upright upon which it moves freely up 
and down. On one end of the beam is an 
open bucket; and on the other, a heavy 
stone. Water runs into the bucket until its 
weight causes the stone end of the beam to 
rise. When the bucket reaches the ground, 
the water is emptied, and the stone crashes 
down on the coffee cherries lying in a large 

The workers on some of the largest 
Brazilian fazendas would constitute the 
population of a small city — more than a 
thousand families often finding continuous 
employment in cultivating, harvesting, 
cleaning, and transporting the coffee to 
market. For the most part, the workers 
are of Italian extraction, who have almost 
altogether superseded the Indian and Negro 
laborers of the early days. The workers 

Fehmextixg and ■\VAs^I^'G Tanks on a Sao Paulo Fazenda 



By Coiirtisy of J. Aroii k Co. » 

Drying Grounds on Fazenua Schaiidt, the Largest in Brazil 

live on the fazendas in quarters provided 
by the fazendeiros, and are paid a weekly 
or monthly wage for their services; or 
they may enter upon a year's contract to 
cultivate the trees, receiving extra pay for 
picking and other work. Brazil in the past 
has experimented with the slave system, 
with government colonization, with co- 
operative planting, with the harvesting sys- 
tem, and with the share system. And some 
features of all these plans — except slav- 
ery, which was abolished in 1888 — are 
still employed in various parts of the coun- 
try, although the wage system predomi- 

Brazil has six gradings for its Sao Paulo 
coffees, which are also classified as 
Bourbon Santos, Flat Bean Santos, and 
Mocha-seed Santos. Rio coffees are graded 
by the number of imperfections for New 
York, and as washed and unwashed for 
Havre. (See chapter XXIV.) 

Colombia. Practically all the countries 
of the western hemisphere producing cof- 
fee in large quantities for export trade use 
the eleaning-and-grading machines specified 
in the first part of this chapter; and the 
installation of the equipment is increasing 
as its advantages become better known 

In Colombia, now (1922), next to Brazil 
the world's largest producer, the wet 
method of preparing the coffee for market 
is most generally followed, the drying proc- 
esses often being a combination of sun and 
drying machines. Many plantations have 
their own hulling equipment ; but much of 

the crop goes in the cherry to local com- 
mercial centers where there are establish- 
ments that make a specialty of cleaning 
and grading the coffee. 

The Colombia coffee crop is gathered 
twice a year, the principal one in March 
and April and the smaller one in Novem- 
ber and December, although some picking 
is done throughout the year. For this 
labor native Indian and negro women are 
preferred, as they are more rapid, skilful, 
and careful in handling the trees. Con- 
trary to the method in Brazil, where the 
. tree at one handling is stripped of its en- 
tire bearings, ripe and unripe fruit, here 
only the fully ripened fruit is picked. That 
necessitates going over the ground several 
times, as the berries progressively ripen. 
More time is consumed in this laborious 
operation, but it is believed that thereby 
a better crop of more uniform grade is ob- 
tained and in the aggregate with less waste 
of time and effort. 

Colombian planters classify their coffees 
as cafe trillado (natural or sun-dried), 
cafe lav ado (washed), cafe en pergamino 
(washed and dried in the parchment). 
They grade them as excel so (excellent), 
fantasia (excelso and extra), extra (extra), 
primera, (first), segundo (second), caracol 
(peaberry), monstruo (large and de- 
formed), consumo (defective), and casilla 
(sif tings). 

Venezuela. Venezuela employs both the 
dry and the wet methods of preparation, 
producing both "washed" and ''commons" 






d also, like Colombia, has a large part 
of the coffee cleaned in the trading centers 
of the various coffee districts. Dry, or un- 
washed, coffees are known as trillado 
(milled), and compose the bulk of the 
country's output. Venezuela's plantation- 
working forces are largely natives of Indian 
descent and negroes, some of them coming 
during harvesting season from adjoining 
Colombia and returning there after the 
picking is done. The resident workers 
labor under a sort of peonage system which 
is tacitly recognized by both employee and 
employer, although no laws of peonage or 
slavery have ever existed in Venezuela. 
Under this system, the laborers live in little 
colonies scattered over the haciendas, as 
the coffee plantations are called in Vene- 
zuela. Company stores keep them supplied 
with all their wants. Modern plantation 
machinery is very scarce; the ancient 
method of hulling coffee in a circular 
trough where the dried berries are crushed 
by heavy wooden wheels drawn by oxen, is 
still a common sight in Venezuela. In pre- 
paring washed coffees, some planters fer- 
ment the pulped coffee under water (wet 
fermentation process) ; while others fer- 
ment without water (dry fermentation). 
The principal ports of shipments for 
Venezuela coffees are La Guaira, Puerto 

Cabello, and Maracaibo. Caracas, the capi- 
tal, is five miles in an air line from the port 
of La Guaira; but in ascending the three 
thousand feet of altitude to the city the 
railroad twists and turns among the moun- 
tains for a distance of twenty-four miles. 
By rail or motor the trip is one of much 
charm and great beauty. 

Salvador. The planters in Salvador 
favor the dry method of coffee preparation ; 
and the bulk of the crop is natural, or un- 

Guatemala. Most Guatemalas are pre- 
pared for market by the wet method. The 
gathering of the crops furnishes employ- 
ment for half the population. German and 
American settlers have introduced the lat- 
est improvements in modern plantation 
machinery into Guatemala. 

Mexico. In Mexico coffee is harvested 
from November to January, and large 
quantities are prepared by both the dry and 
the wet methods, the latter being practised 
on the larger estates that have the neces- 
sary water supply and can afford the ma- 
chinery. Here, too, one will find coffee 
being cleaned by the primitive hand-mor- 
tar and wind-winnowing method. Labor- 
ers are mostly half-breeds and Indians. 
Chinese coolies have been tried and found 

This Old-Fa.shioned Huli.ixo Ma(iiim; Ls di'khatki- hy i)x I'owkh in Venezuela 



Street Cak Cofi'Ee Tkanspokt in Okizaija, 

satisfactory, and some Japanese are util- 
ized, though not largely. 

Haiti. In Haiti the picking season is 
from November to March. In recent years 
better attention has been paid to cultural 
and preparation methods ; and the product 
is more favorably regarded commercially. 
Large quantities are shipped to France and 
Belgium ; and much of that sent to the 
United States is reshipped to France, Bel- 
gium, and Germany, where it is sorted by 
hand. Both dry and wet methods are em- 
ployed in Haiti. 

Porto Rico. Here planters favor the wet 
method of coffee preparation. The crop is 
gathered from August to December. The 
coffees are graded as caracollilo (peaberry), 
primero (hand-picked), segundo (second 
grade), trillo (low grade). 

Nicaragua. The wet method of coffee 
preparation is mostly favored in Nicaragua. 
Many of the large plantations are worked 
by colonies of Americans and Germans who 
are competent to apply the abundant nat- 
ural water power of the country to the 
operation of modern coffee cleaning ma- 

Costa Rica. Costa Rica was one of the 
first countries of the western world to use 
coffee cleaning machinery. Marcus Mason, 
an American mechanical engineer then 
managing an iron foundry in Costa Rica, 
invented three machines that would respec- 
tively peel off the husk, remove the parch- 
ment and pulp, and winnow the light refuse 
from the beans. 

The inventor gave his original demon- 
stration to the planters of San Jose in 1860, 
and duplicates were installed on all the 
large plantations. In the course of the next 
thirty years. Mason brought out other ma- 
chines until he had developed a complete 

line that was largely used on coffee plan- 
tations in all parts of the world. 

In the Eastern Hemisphere 

Modern cleaning machinery and methods 
of preparation are employed to some extent 
in the large coffee-producing countries of 
the eastern hemisphere, and do not differ 
materially from those of the western. 

Arabia. In Arabia the fruit ripens in 
August or September, and picking con- 
tinues from then until the last fruits ripen 
late in the March following. The cherries, 
as they are picked, are left to dry in the 
sun on the house-top terrace or on a floor 
of beaten earth. When they have become 
partly dry, they are hulled between two 
small stones, one of which is stationary, 
while the other is worked by the hand 
power of two men who rotate it quickly. 
Further drying of the hulled berry follows. 
It is then put into bags of closely woven 
aloe fiber, lined with matting made of palm 
leaves. It is next sent to the local market 
at the foot of the mountain. There, on 
regular market days, the Turkish or 
Arabian merchants, or their representa- 
tives, buy and dispatch their purchases by 
camel train to Hodeida or Aden. The prin- 
cipal primary market in recent years has 
been the city of Beit-el-Fakih. 

In Aden and Hodeida the bean is sub- 
mitted to further cleaning by the principal 

Coffee on the Drying Floors in Porto Rico 




Raking Coffee on Drying Floors — Ciiuva District, Guatemala 

Coffee Drying Patios, Hacienda Longa-Espana, Venezuela 



A Drying 1'atio ox a Costa Kica Estate 

foreign export houses to whom it has come 
from the mountains in rather dirty condi- 
tion. Indian women are the sole laborers 
employed in these cleaning houses. First, 
the coffee beans are separated from the dry 
empty husks by tossing the whole into the 
air from bamboo trays, the workers deftly 
permitting the husks to fly off while the 
beans are caught again in the tray. The 
beans are then surface-cleaned by passing 
them gently between two very primitive 
grindstones worked by men. A third proc- 

ess is the complete clearing of the bean 
from the silver skin, and it is then ready 
for the final hand picking. Women are 
called into service again, and they pick out 
the refuse husks, quaker or black, beans, 
green or immature beans, white beans, and 
broken beans, leaving the good beans to be 
weighed and packed for shipment. The 
cleaned beans are known as bun safi; the 
husks become kisher. Some of the poorer 
beans also are sold, principally to France 
and to Egypt. Hand-power machinery is 
used to a slight extent; but mostly the old- 
fashioned methods hold sway. 

The Yemen, or Arabian, bale, or package, 
is unique. It is made up of two fiber wrap- 
pers, one inside the other. The inside one 
is called attal or darouf. It is made from 
cut and plaited leaves of nakhel douin or 
narghil, a species of palm. The outer cover- 
ing, called garair, is a sack made of woven 
aloe fiber. The Bedouins weave these 
covers and bring them to the export mer- 
chants at Aden and Hodeida. A Mocha 
bundle contains one, two, or four fiber pack- 
ages, or bales. When the bundle contains 
one bale it is known as a half ; when it con- 
tains two it is known as quarters ; and when 
it contains four it is known as eighths. 
Arabian coffee for Boston used to be packed 
in quarters only; for San Francisco and 

Photograph by R. C. Wilhelm. 

Early Guardiola Steam Drier, "El Canida" Plantation, Costa Rica 




There are four processes in cloaniag Mocha coffee. In order to separate the dried beans from the 
broken hnlls these Momen (brought over from India) toss the beans in the air, very deftly permit- 
ting the empty hulls to fly off. and catch the coffee beans on the bamboo trays. Then the coffee is 
passed between two primitive grindstones, turned by men. After this grinding process the beans 
are separated from the crushed outside hulls' and the loose silver skins. In the fourth process tlie 
Indian women pick out by hand the remaining husks, the quakers, the immature beans, the white 
beans and the broken beans. Being Mohammedans, their religion does not permit such little van- 
ities as picture posing, which explains why their faces are covered and turned away from the 



New York, in quarters and eighths. The 
longberry Abyssinian coffees were for- 
merly packed in quarters only. Since the 
"World War, however, there has been a 
scarcity of packing materials, and packing 
in quarters and eighths lias stopped. Now, 
all Mocha, as well as Harar, coffee comes in 
halfs. A half weighs eighty kilos, or 176 
pounds, net — although a few exporters 
ship "halfs" of 160 pounds. 

Abyssinia. Little machinery is used in 
the preparation of coffee in Abyssinia; 
none, in preparing the coffee known as 
Abyssinian, which is the product of wild 
trees ; and only in a few instances in clean- 
ing the Harari coffee, the fruit of cultivated 
trees. Both classes are raised mostly by 
natives, who adhere to the old-time dry 
method of cleaning. In Harar, the coffee 
is sometimes hulled in a wooden mortar; 
but for the most part it is sent to the bro- 
kers in parchment, and cleaned by primi- 
tive hand methods after its arrival in the 
trading centers. 

Angola. In Angola the coffee harvest 
begins in June, and it is often necessary for 
the government to lend native soldiers to 
the planters to aid in harvesting, as the 
labor supply is insufficient. After picking, 

the beans are dried in the sun from four- 
teen to forty days, depending upon the 
weather. After drying, they are brought 
to the hulling and winnowing machines. 
There are now about twenty-four of these 
machines in the Cazengo and Golungo dis- 
tricts, all manufactured in the United 
States and giving satisfactory results. 
They are operated by natives. 

A condition adversely affecting the trade 
has been the low price that Angola coffee 
commands in European markets. The 
cost of production per arroha (thirty-three 
pounds) on the Cazengo plantations is 
$1.23, while Lisbon market quotations aver- 
age $1.50, leaving only twenty-seven cents 
for railway transport to Loanda and ocean 
freight to Lisbon. It has been unprofitable 
to ship to other markets on account of the 
preferential export duties. A part of the 
product is now shipped to Hamburg, where 
it is known as the Cajiengo brand. Next to 
Mocha, the Cazengo coffee is the smallest 
bean that is to be found in the European 

Java and Sumatra. The coffee industry 
in Java and Sumatra, as well as in the other 
coffee-producing regions of the Dutch East 
Indies, was begun and fostered under the 

Cleaning and Grading Coffee uy Machinery in Aden 



Duvx>;g Coffee in the Sun at the Custum-House, IIauak, AiiYbsiMA 

paternal care of the Dutch govermnent ; 
and for that reason, machine-cleaning has 
always been a noteworthy factor in the mar- 
keting of these coffees. Since the govern- 
ment relinquished its control over the 
so-called government estates, European 
operators have maintained the standard of 
preparation, and have adopted new equip- 
ment as it was developed. The majority of 
estates producing considerable quantities of 
coffee use the same types of machinery as 
their competitors in Brazil and other west- 
ern countries. 

In Java, free labor is generally em- 
ployed ; while on the east coast of Sumatra 
the work is done by contract, the workers 
usually being bound for three years. In 
both islands the laborers are mostly Java- 
nese coolies. 

Under the contract system, the worker is 
subject to laws that compel him to work, 
and prevent him from leaving the estate 
until the contract period expires. Under 
the free-labor system, the laborer works as 
his whims dictate. This forces the estate 
manager to cater to his workers, and to 
build up an organization that will hold 

As an example of the working of the 
latter system, this outline — by John A. 
Fowler, United States trade commissioner 
— of the organization of a leading estate in 

Java will indicate the general practise in 
vogue : 

The manager of this estate has had full con- 
ti-ol for twenty years and knows the "adat" 
(tribal customs) of his jjeople and the individual 
peculiarities of the leaders. This estate has been 
described as having one of the most perfect 
estate organizations in Java. It consists of two 
divisions of 3,440 bouws (about G,048 acres in 
all), of which 2,500 bouws are in rubber and 
coffee and 550 in sisal ; the remainder includes 
rice fields, timber, nurseries, bamboo, tealv, pas- 
tures, villages, roads, canals, etc. 

The foreign staff is under the supervision of 
a general manager, and consists of the follow- 
ing personnel: A chief garden assistant of sec- 
tion 1, who has under him foiir section assist- 
ants and a native staff; a chief garden assist- 
ant of section 2, who has under him three sec- 
tion assistants, an apprentice assistant, and a 
native staff ; a chief factory assistant, who has 
under him an assistant machinist, an apprentice 
assistant, and a native staff: and, finally, a 
bookkeeper. The term "garden"' means the area 
under cidtivation. 

The bookkeeper, a man of mixed blood, handles 
all the general accounting, accumulating the re- 
ports sent in by the various assistants. The 
two chief garden assistants are resiK)nsible to 
the manager for all work outside the factory 
except the construction of new buildings, which 
is in charge of the chief factory assistant. The 
two divisions of the estate are subdivided into 
seven agricultural sections, each section being 
in full charge of an assistant. A section may 
include coffee, rubber, sisal, teak, bamboo, a co- 
agulation station and nurseries. The assistant's 



Open-Air Drying Grounds on a West Java Estate 

The beans are being turned by native Sudanese men and women 

Interioe of a Modern Coffee Factory in East Java 
Sliowing pulping machinery and fermentation tanks 




duties include tlie supervision of road building 
and repairs, building repairs, transportation, 
paying tbe labor, and the supervision of section 

The factory includes a water-power plant de- 
livering, through an American water wheel and 
by cable, 250 horse-power to the main shafting, 
an auxiliary steam plant of 150 horse-i>ower as 
a reserve, a rubber mill, a coffee mill, three 
sisal-stripping machines, smoke-houses, drying 
fields and houses for sisal, drying floors and 
houses for coffee, sorting rooms, blacksmith 
shop, machine shop, brass-fitting foundry, pack- 
ing houses, warehouses, and other equipment. 
The factory is in charge of a first assistant, who 
is a machinist, with a European staff consist- 
ing of a machinist and an apprentice assistant. 

The chief garden assistant is paid 350 to 400 
florins, and the garden "assistants start at 200 
florins per month, with graduated yearly in- 
creases up to 300 florins per month ( florin = 
$0.40). The chief factory assistant receives 300 

florins, and the machinist and bookkeeper 250 
florins each. 

The mandoer in charge of the air and kiln 
drying of coffee gets 25 florins per month, and 
the mandoer at the coffee mill 20 florins, A 
woman mandoer in cliarge of the coffee sorters 
receives 0.50 florin per day and 0.01 florin each 
for sewing the bags. This woman supervises 
all the sorters, fixes their status, and inspects 
their work. Unskilled labor (male) receives 
0.40 florin per day in the coffee sheds, and the 
women sorters are paid 0.50 florin per picul 
of 136 pounds, measured before sorting. These 
women are graded into three classes — those 
who can sort 1 picul in a day, those who can 
sort three-fourths of a picul, and those who can 
sort but one-half of a picul in a day. Some of 
these women become very expert in sorting, and 
the quality of the output of a factory is largely 
dependent on an ample supply of expert sorters. 
Many years are required to develop an adequate 
personnel for this department. 

Coffee Transport in Java 



© -»' ^ CiTl 




The Woohvorth Building, the world's loftiest office structure, is 792 feet high from street to top of 
■ tower ; its main section of 151 by 196 feet stretches up 386 feet, and its volume equals a total of 
13,110,942 cubic feet. But a tower made of the year's supplj' of bags of green coffee (132 pounds 
each) would equal 73,649,115 cubic feet, or nearly six times the bulk of the Woolworth Building. 
In the same proportions it would rise 1,386 feet, with the lower section 260 by 340 feet and 670 
feet high. Its dimensions would be nearly double those of the Woolworth Building in every direc- 
tion. And the Eiffel Tower, reaching up 1,000 feet toward the sky would be lost in a tower made 
of a year's bags of coffee. Such a tower would stand 1,425 feet high on a base area of 230 feet 
square, the size of the Eiffel's first floor 

Chapter XXII • ' 


A statistical study of world production of coffee by countries — Per 
capita figures of the leading consuming countries — Coffee-consump- 
tion figures compared with tea-consumption figures in the United 
States, and the United Kingdom — Three centuries of coffee trading 
— Coffee drinking in the United States, past and present — Review- 
ing the 1921 trade in the United States 

THE world's yearly production of 
coffee is on the average considerably 
more than one million tons. If this 
were all made up into the refreshing drink 
we get at our breakfast tables, there would 
be enough to supply every inhabitant of 
the earth with some sixty cups a year, 
representing a total of more than ninety 
billion cups. In terms of pounds the an- 
nual world output amounts to about two 
and a quarter billions — an amount so 
large that if it were done up in the fa- 
miliar one-pound paper packages; and if 
these packages were laid end to end in a 
row; they would form a line long enough 
to reach to the moon. If this average 
yearly production were left in the sacks in 
which the coffee is shipped, the total of 
17,500,000 would be enough to form a 
broad six-foot pavement reaching entirely 
across the United States, upon which a 
man could walk steadily for more than 
five months at the rate of twenty miles a 
day. This vast amount of coffee comes 
very largely from the western hemisphere; 
and about three-fourths of it, from a single 
country. The production, shipment, and 
preparation of this coffee, directly and in- 
directly support millions of workers; and 
many countries are entirely dependent on 
it for their prosperity and economic well- 

During the crop year that ended June 
30, 1921, this million-ton average was 

considerably exceeded, though it did not 
approach the record yield of all time in 
the crop year 1906 - 07, when the total 
amounted to almost 24,000,000 sacks; or, 
in round numbers, 3,000,000,000 pounds. 

As indicated by the Statistical Record 
table, on page 274, Brazil produces more 
than all the rest of the world put together. 
Coffee growing, however, is general 
throughout tropical countries, and in most 
of them constitutes one of the leading in- 
dustries. Yet in most cases, the actual 
production of these countries can only be 
estimated, as accurate figures, showing the 
exact output, are seldom kept. But the 
contribution which each country makes 
to the total world traffic in coffee can be 
determined by its export figures, which 
are obtainable in reasonably accurate and 
up-to-date form.* The table on page 276 
gives the coffee export figures, in pounds, 
for practically every country that pro- 
duces coffee for sale outside its own bor- 
ders. Figures are given for the latest 
available year, and also for the average 
of the last five years for which statistics 
are to be obtained. The figures are taken 
from official statistics, from the publica- 
tions of the International Institute of 
Agriculture of Rome, and from other au- 
thoritative sources. 

For the most part, these figures of ex- 
portation are the only ones available to 
indicate the actual coffee production in 




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The statistical sharks talk of the 17,5GG,000 bags, or 2,318,712,000 pounds of coffee that the world 
drinks every year ; but how many really appreciate what those huge figures mean? For instance, com- 
puting 40 cups of beverage to the pound, there are more than 90,000,000,000 cups drunk annually, or 
enough to fill a gigantic cup 4,000 feet in diameter and 40 feet deep, on which the "Majestic," the world's 
largest ship, would appear floating approximately as shown in the drawing 

the countries named. The following ad- 
ditional data, however, will serve to show 
the extent to which the coffee-raising in- 
dustry has developed in most of these 
countries, and in a few places of minor 
importance not named in the table : 

Brazil. The coffee industry of Brazil, 
which has furnished seventy percent of 
the world's coffee during the last ten 
years, has developed in a century and a 
half. Brazilian soil first made the ac- 
quaintance of the coffee plant at Par4 in 
1723. A small export trade to Europe 
had developed by 1770, the year when the 
first plantation was established in the 
state of Rio de Janeiro, and from which 
the country's great industry really dates. 
Development at first was apparently slow, 
as no exports are recorded until the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century; so that 
the history of Brazil's coffee trade is a 
matter entirely of the nineteenth and 
twentieth centuries. Once started, how- 

ever, the new line of export made rapid 
progress. In 1800, the amount of coffee 
exported was 1720 pounds, contained in 
thirteen bags. Twenty years later, 12.- 
896,000 pounds were shipped, the number 
of bags being 97,498. Ten years later, in 
1830, this amount had increased to 64,- 
051,000 pounds; and in 1840, to 137,300,- 
000 pounds. In 1852 - 53, the receipts for 
shipment at the ports were double that 
amount, 284,592,000 pounds; in 1860-61 
they were 420,420,000 pounds; in 1870- 
71 they had increased to 427,416,000 
pounds ; in 1880 - 81 they were 764,945,000 
pounds; in 1890-91, 739,654,000 pounds; 
and at the beginning of this century, 
1900-01, they were 1,504,424,000 pounds, 
having passed the one billion-pound mark 
in 1896-97. The highest point of coffee 
receipts in the country's history was 
reached in 1906-07 with 2,699,644,694 
pounds; and since that year, the amount 
ha,« staid at about one and one-half 



Exports of Coffee from the Coffee-Producing Countries of the World 


Country Five-Year Average 

South America: Tear Pounds Pounds 

Brazil 1920 1,524,382,650 1,469,&49,180 

Colombia 1920 190,901.953= 172,862,121 

Venezuela 1920 73,726,632 110,174,946 

Guiana, Br 1917 267,344 257,152 

Guiana, Fr 1918 1,100 970 

Guiana, D 1918 3,856 923,644<i 

Ecuador 1919 3,729,413 5,843,033 

Peru 1919 370,655 455,212 

Central America : 

Salvador 1920 82,864,668 78.953,339 

Nicaragua 1920 15,345,398 23,243,865 

Costa Rica 1921'' 29,401,683 28,667,262 

Guatemala 1920 94,205,569 88,213,080 

Honduras 1920^ 1,091,977 646,574 

Mexico 1918 30,172,065 47,555,5141 

West Indies : 

Haiti 1920b 61,970,094e 54,308,959d 

Dominican Republic 1920 1,361,666 3,497,866 

Jamaica 1919 8,246,672 7,918,781 

Porto Rico 1921 29,967,879' 30,033,4711 f 

Trinidad & Tobago 1920 73,201 19,639 

Martinique 1918 10.358 17,219 

Guadeloupe 1918 2,144,855 1,594,146 

Dutch East Indies 1920 99,020,4531 103,701,297h 

Pacific Islands: 

Br. North Borneo 1918 1,984 6,613 

New Caledonia 1916 1,248.024 784,176 

New Hebrides 1917 625,224 608,410g 

Hawaii 1921 4,979,121' 4,244,479d' 

Reunion 1918 3,527 26,455 

Asia : 

Aden (Arabia) 1921b 9,463,104 10,837,893 

Br. India 1920b 30,526.832 23,767,744 

French Indo-China 1918 79,145 516,978 

Africa : 

Eritrea 1918 728,840 315,698 

Somaliland, Fr 1917 11,222,736 9,321,930 

Somaliland, Br 1918 440,272 233,908 

Somaliland, It 1918 3,747 3,306 

Abyssinia 1917 17,324,223 12,744,406 

German East Africa (former).. 1913 2,334,450 2,649,0471 

Br. East African Protectorate.. 1918 18,735.572 8,397,541 

Uganda 1918 9,999,845 5,076,091 

Nyasaland 1918 122,796 92,593 

Mayotte (including Comoro Is.) . 1914 3,306 660 

Madagascar 1918 707,676 981,047 

Angola 1913 10,655.934 10,459,724 

Belgian Congo 1919 347,588 186,432b 

Fr. Equatorial Africa 1916 48,060 47,046 

Nigeria 1916 3,527 19,180 

Ivory Coast 1918 66,358 49,162 

Gold Coast 1917 660 220 

French Guinea 1918 1,320 1,320 

Spanish Guinea 1918 8,150 3,968b 

St. Thomas & Prince's Is 1916 484,350 1,125,448 

Liberia 1917 761,300 

Cape Verde Islands 1916 1,442,910 1,100,095 

a Crop yen-, ii Fiscal ye^r. c Inclurting small proportion of nnhiisked coffee. d Four-year averag:e. e Not 
including 6,322,167 pounds "triage" or waste coffee, t Including shipments to continental United States. 
K Two-year average, h Three-year average, i Java and Madura only 



billion pounds. Further expansion in the 
last fifteen years has been closely regu- 
lated to prevent over-production. 

It is estimated that the area in the 
coffee-growing section suitable for coffee 
raising covers 1,158,000 square miles, or 
more than one-third the area of con- 
tinental United States. The state of Sao 
Paulo is the chief producing state, and 
supplies practically half the world's 
annual output. Most of this Sao Paulo 
coffee is exported through the port of 
Santos, which is consequently the leading 
coffee port of the world. Besides Santos, 
the ports of Rio de Janeiro and Victoria 
are of much importance in the coffee 
trade, although some twenty or thirty 
million pounds are exported each year 
through the port of Bahia, and smaller 
amounts through various other ports. The 
crop year of Brazil runs from July 1 to 
June 30, the heaviest receipts for shipment 
coming as a rule in the months of August, 
September, and October of each year. 
One-third of the season's crop is usually 
received at ports of shipment before the 
last of October, sometimes as early as the 
latter part of September; one-half comes 
in by the middle or last of November; and 

/S /6 /S/7 /£>/e /0/S /Sf tO 

CO/^/^/F£- £?r/^o/?7-^ 


/S^ /^60 /ff;^ /SSO /SSO /90O /SVO /S^' 

1 — Coffee Exports, 1850-1920 

This diagram shows the exports of the principal 
coffee-producing countries, omitting Brazil 

No. 21 — 1 Coffee Exports, 1916-1920 

This diagram shows the exports of the leading^ 
coffee countries (except Brazil) in a period 
covering most of the World War 

two-thirds is usually received by the end 
of January. 

Venezuela. The coffee plant was intro- 
duced into Venezuela in 1784, being 
brought from Martinique; and the first 
shipment abroad, consisting of 233 bags, 
was made five years later. By 1830 - 31, 
production had increased to 25,454,000 
pounds; and in the next twenty years, it 
more than trebled, amounting to 83,717,- 
000 pounds in 1850 - 51. Since then, how- 
ever, the increase has been much more 
gradual. In 1881-82, 94,369,000 pounds 
were produced; and about the same 
amount, 95,170,000 pounds, in 1889-90. 
Twentieth-century production has appar- 
ently exceeded the hundred-million mark 
on the average, although there are no 
definite statistics beyond export figures. 
These showed 86,950,000 pounds sent 
abroad in 1904 - 05 ; 103,453,000 pounds in 



1908 - 09 ; and 88,155,000 pounds in 1918 ; 
the trade in the last-named year being cut 
down by war conditions. In 1919, the 
extraordinary amount of 179,414,815 
pounds was exported, the high figure be- 
ing due to the release of coffee stored 
from previous years. It has been esti- 
mated that domestic consumption of coffee 
would amount to a maximum of 25,000,000 
pounds yearly, but may be much less than 
that. The United States and France have 
in the past been Venezuela's best custo- 

Colombia, Prior to 1912, the total 
production of coffee in Colombia was 
around 80,000,000 pounds annually, of 
which some 3,000,000 or 4,000,000 pounds 
were consumed in the country itself. But 
in the last decade production has been 
advancing rapidly, and the present pro- 
duction is the heaviest in the history of 
the country. The industry has practically 
grown up in the last seventy years, the 
exports for the decade 1852 - 53 to 1861 - 
62 averaging only about 940,000 pounds; 
in the decade following, about 5,700,000 
pounds ; and, in the ten years from 1872 - 
73 to 1881-82, about 12,600,000 pounds, 
according to an unofficial compilation. 
Exportations had advanced to about 47,- 
000,000 pounds by 1895 ; and to 80,000,000 
pounds by 1906. As large quantities of 
Colombian coffee are shipped out through 
Venezuela, and because of the lack of de- 
tailed statistics in Colombia, the actual 
exportation each year is not easy to 
determine ; but the following figures, ob- 
tained by a trade commissioner of the 
United States, may be taken as a fairly 
accurate estimate of exports from 1906 to 


Columbian Coffee Exports 
Year Sacks (138 lbs.) 
1906 605,705 

1907 -. -. .541,300 

1908 577,900 

1909 673,350 

1910 543,000 

1911 601.600 

1912 888,800 

1913 972,000 

1914 983,000 

1915 1,074,600 

1916 1,153,000 

1917 1,093,000 

1918 1,102,000 

Ecuador. Annual production in Ecua- 
dor runs from 3,000,000 to 8,000,000 
pounds, most of which is exported. The 

/isffo /aeo /SP'O /^s^ /sao /se>o /s/a /s2o 



<^ /200 


^ 800 





No. 3 — Brazil's Coffee Exports, 1850-1920 

Diiifiram based on -^-year avf^rages with quanti- 
ties given in millions of pounds 

greater part of the production is sent to 
Chile and the United States. Production 
has shown only a gradual increase since 
the middle of the nineteenth century, 
when planters began to give some atten- 
tion to coffee cultivation. Exports were 
about 87,000 pounds in 1855; 296,000 
pounds in 1870; and 985,000 pounds in 
1877. By the beginning of the present 
century, production had reached 6,204,000 
pounds; in 1905, it was estimated at 
4,861,000 pounds ; and in 1910, at 8,682,000 
pounds. Exports in 1912 were 6,101,700 
pounds; and 7,671,000 pounds in 1918; 
but there was a falling off to 3,729,000 
pounds in 1919, Several years ago it was 
estimated that the coffee trees numbered 
8,000,000, planted on 32,000 acres. 

Peru. Coffee is one of the minor prod- 
ucts of Peru, and the country does not 
occupy a place of importance in the inter- 
national coffee trade. The larger part of 
,the production is apparently consumed in 
the country itself. Export figures indicate 
that the industry is steadily declining. 
Exports amounted to 2,267,000 pounds in 
1905; to 1,618,000 pounds in 1908; and 
in the five years ending with 1918, exports 
averaged only 529,000 pounds; while fig- 



ures for 1919 show that in that year thev 
fell still lower, to 370,000 pounds. Pro- 
duction is mainly in the coast lands. 

British Guiana. The Guianas are the 
site of the first coffee planting on the 
continent of South America; and accord- 
ing to some accounts, the first in the New 
World. The plants were brought first into 
Dutch Guiana, but there was no planting 
in what is now British Guiana (then a 
Dutch colony) until 1752. Twenty-six 
years later, 6,041,000 pounds were sent to 
Amsterdam from the two ports of De- 
marara and Berbice; and after the colony 
fell into the hands of the English in 1796, 
cultivation continued to increase. Exports 
amounted to 10,845,000 pounds in 1803; 
and to more than 22,000,000 pounds in 
1810. Then there was a falling off, and 
the production in 1828 was 8,893,500 
pounds and 3,308,000 pounds in 1836. In 
1849 British Guiana exported only 109,- 
600 pounds. For a long period thereafter 
there was little production, and practi- 
cally no exportation; exports in 1907, for 
instance, amounting to only 160 pounds. 
With the next year, however, a revival of 
exportation began, and it has continued to 
grow since then. In 1908, exports were 
88,700 pounds; and for the succeeding 
years, up to 1917, the following amounts 
are recorded: 1909, 96,952 pounds; 1910, 
108,378 pounds; 1911, 136,420 pounds; 
1912, 144,845 pounds; 1913 , 89,376 
pounds; 1914, 238,767 pounds; 1915, 
172,326 pounds; 1916, 501,183 pounds; 
1917, 267,344 pounds. In the last-named 
year 4,953 acres were in coffee plantations. 

French Guiana. This colony raises a 
small amount of coffee for local consump- 
tion, and exports a few hundred pounds; 
but it is really an importing and not an 
exporting colony. Coffee cultivation was 
never of much importance, although in 
1775 some 72,000 pounds were exported. 
One hundred and eighty thousand pounds 
were harvested in I860; and 132,000 
pounds in 1870, mostly for local con- 

Dutch Guiana. Regular shipments of 
coffee from Dutch Guiana have been made 
for two centuries, beginning — a few j^ears 
after the plant was introduced — with a 
shipment of 6,461 pounds to the mother 
country in 1723. Seven years later, 472,- 
000 pounds were shipped ; and in 1732 - 
33 exportation reached 1,232,000 pounds. 

Exports were averaging 16,900,000 pounds a 
year by 1760 ; and reached almost 20,600,000 
pounds in 1777. At the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, they amounted to 
about 17,000,000 pounds; but a few years 
later fell off to some 7,000,000 pounds, 
where they remained until about 1840; 
after which they began again to decline. 
Exportation had practically ceased by 1875, 
only 1,420 pounds going out of the country, 
although cultivation still continued, as evi- 
denced by a production of 82,357 pounds 
in that year. In 1890, production was onlj 
15,736 pounds, and exports only 476 
pounds; but since then there has been a 
considerable increase. In 1900, production 
amounted to 433,000 pounds, and exports 
to 424,000 pounds. In 1908, 1,108,000 
pounds were grown, of which 310,000 
pounds were sent abroad; and in 1909, the 
figures were 552,000 pounds produced and 
405,000 pounds exported. No figures are 
available for production in recent years; 
but the exportation of 1,600,000 pounds in 
1917 indicates that plantings have been 
steadily growing. 

Other South American Countries. Of 
the other South American countries, Argen- 
tina, Chile, and Uruguay are coffee-import- 
ing countries; and the coffee-raising 
industry of Paraguay, although more or 
less promising, has yet to be developed. In 
Argentina, a few hundred acres in the sub 
tropical provinces of the north have been 
planted to coffee; but coffee-growing will 
always necessarily remain a very minor in 
dustry. Many attempts have been made to 
establish the industry in Paraguay, where 
favorable conditions obtain, but only a few 
planters have met with success. Their 
product has all been consumed locally. 
Bolivia has much land suitable for coffee 
raising ; and it is estimated that production 
has reached as high as 1,500,000 pounds a 
year, but transportation conditions are such 
as to hold back development for an indefi- 
nite time. Small amounts are now exported 
to Chile. 

Salvador. Coffee was introduced into 
Salvador in 1852, and immediately began to 
spread over the country. Exports were 
valued at more than $100,000 in 1865 ; and 
by 1874-75 the amount exported had 
reached 8,500,000 pounds. The first large 
plantation was established in 1876; and 
since then planting has continued, until 
now practically all the available coffee 



land has been taken up. The area in 
plantations has been estimated at 166,000 
acres, and the annual production at 50,000,- 
000 to 75,000,000 pounds, of which some 
5,000,000 pounds are consumed in the 
country. Since the beginning of the present 
century, exports have in general shown a 
considerable increase, the figures for 1901 
being 50,101,000 pounds ; for 1905, 64,480,- 
000 pounds; for 1910, 62,764.000 pounds; 
for 1915, 67,130,000 pounds ; and for 1920, 
82,864,000 pounds. 

GrUATEMALA. Cultivation of coffee in 
Guatamala became of importance between 
1860 and 1870. In 1860, exports were only 
about 140,000 pounds; by 1863, they had 
increased to about 1,800,000 pounds; and 
by 1870, to 7,590,000 pounds. In 1880 - 81, 
they amounted to 28,976,000 pounds ; and in 
1883-84, to 40,406,000 pounds. Twenty 
years later, they had doubled. In recent 
years, exports have ranged between 75,- 
000,000 and 100,000,000 pounds ; the years 
from 1909 to 1918 showing the following 
results, according to a consular report : 
Guatemala's Coffee Exports 

Cleaned Vnshelled 

Year (pounds) (pounds) 

1909 92,639,800 23,654,600 

1910 50,717,600 19,671,700 

1911 60,689,500 20,959,500 

1912 14,329,800 60,837,500 

1913 70,749,100 20,980,700 

1914 71,136,800 14,999,600 

1915 69,649,500 9,892,000 

1916 85,057,000 3,015,800 

1917 89,259,600 1,410,200 

1918 77,842,800 511,500 

Costa Eica. Coffee raising in Costa Rica 
dates from 1779, when the plant was intro- 
duced from Cuba. By 1845, the industry 
had grown sufficiently to permit an expor- 
tation of 7,823,000 pounds; and twenty 
years later, 11,143,000 pounds were shipped. 
Thereafter, production increased rapidly; 
so that in 1874, the total exports were 32,- 
670,000 pounds, and in 1884 they were more 
than 36,000,000 pounds. In recent years, 
the average production has been around 
35,000,000 pounds. For the crop years 
1916 - 17 to 1920 - 21 exports have been : 
Costa Rica's Coffee Exports, 

Year Pounds 

1916 - 17 27,044,550 

1917 - 18 25,246,715 

191S - 19 30,784,184 

1919 - 20 30,860,634 

1920 - 21 29,401,683 

Nicaragua. Production of coffee in 
Nicaragua began between 1860 and 1870; 
and in 1875, the yield was estimated at 
1,650,000 pounds. By 1879-80, this had 
increased to 3,579,000 pounds; and by 
1889 - 90, to 8,533,000 pounds. In 1890 - 91 
production was 11,540,000 pounds; and in 
1907-08 it was estimated at more than 
20,000,000 pounds. Ten years later, 25,- 
000,000 pounds were produced; and the 
crop of 1918 - 19 was estimated at about 
30,000,000 pounds. Lack of transportation, 
and excess of political troubles, have been 
important factors in holding back develop- 

Honduras. The coffee of Honduras is of 
very good quality ; but production is small, 
and the country is not an important factor 
in international trade. Exports usually 
run less than 1,000,000 pounds. The chief 
obstacle to expansion is said to be lack of 
transportation facilities. 

British Honduras. This colony grows a 
little coffee for its own use, but imports 
most of what it needs. Production had 
reached almost 50,000 pounds in 1904 ; but 
the present average is only about 10,000 
pounds, raised on scattering trees over about 
1,000 acres. 

Panama. A small amount of coffee, of 
which occasionally as much as 200,000 or 
250,000 pounds a year are exported, is 
raised in the uplands of Panama, or is 
gathered from wild trees. The industry 
is not of great importance, and the country 
imports considerable supplies, mostly from 
the United States. 

Mexico. A very good grade of coffee is 
produced in Mexico; and it is said that 
there is sufficient area of good coffee land 
to take care of the demand of the world 
outside of that supplied by Brazil. Pro- 
duction, however, is limited, and to a large 
extent goes to satisfy home needs, leaving 
only about 50,000,000 pounds for export. 
In spite of much government encourage- 
ment in past years, coffee cultivation has 
not made rapid progress, when we remem- 
ber that the country became acquainted 
with the plant as early as 1790. Not until 
about 1870 did the country begin to become 
important in the list of coffee-exporters; 
but by 1878 - 79, shipments amounted to 
about 12,000,000 pounds. This steadily in- 
creased to 29,400,000 pounds in 1891-92. 
Exports in recent years have averaged about 
50,000,000 pounds; but in 1918 were only 



30,000,000. Production has fluctuated 
greatly. In the years preceding the troubled 
revolutionary period, the total output was 
estimated as follows: 1907, 45,000,000 
pounds: 1908, 42,000,000 pounds; 1909, 
81,000,000 pounds ; 1910, 70,000,000 pounds. 
In the ten years preceding 1907, production 
dropped as low as 22,000,000 pounds in 
1902; and rose to 88,500,000 pounds in 
1905. Next to the United States, Germany 
was the chief buyer of Mexican coffee before 
the war; although France and Great Brit- 
ain also took several million pounds each. 

Haiti. For well over a century Haiti has 
been shipping tens of millions of pounds 
of coffee annually; and the product is the 
mainstay of the country's economic life. 
In all that time, however, shipments have 
maintained much the same level. The 
country has been a coffee producer from the 
early years of the eighteenth century, when 
the plants began to spread from the orig- 
inal sprigs in Guiana or Martinique. After 
half a century of growth, exports had risen 
to 885860,000 pounds in 1789 - 90, a mark 
that has never again been reached. Since 
then, exports have ranged between 40,000,- 
000 and 80,000,000 pounds, keeping close to 
the lower mark in recent years because of 
European conditions. They were 38,000,000 
pounds in 1856 ; 55,750,000 pounds in 1866 ; 
and 52,300,000 pounds in 1876. They had 
reached 84,028,000 pounds in 1887 - 88 ; but 
fell back to 67,437,000 pounds in 1897 - 98 ; 
and ten years later, were 63,848,000 pounds. 
In 1917 - 18, they were only about two- 
thirds that amount, or 42,100,000 pounds. 
Some 8,000,000 pounds are consumed yearly 
in the country itself. The coffee planta- 
tions cover about 125,000 acres. 

Dominican Republic. Coffee production 
in the Dominican Republic ranges between 
1,000,000 and 5,000,000 pounds, exports in 
recent years averaging about 3,500,000 
pounds. The quality of the coffee is good ; 
but the plantations are not well cared for. 
Until fifty years ago, the industry was in a 
state of decline from a condition of former 
importance; but it was revived, and by 
1881 it supplied 1,400,000 pounds for ex- 
port. The amount was 1,480,000 pounds 
in 1888 ; 3,950,000 pounds in 1900 ; 1,540,- 
000 pounds in 1909 ; and 4,870,000 pounds 
in 1919. Blight, and disturbed political 
conditions, have hampered development. In 

normal times, Europe takes most of the 

Jamaica. Jamaica began to raise coffee 
about -1730; and from that time on there 
was a steady but slow increase in produc- 
tion. Shipments amounted to about 60,000 
pounds in 1752, and to about 1,800,000 
pounds in 1775. At the beginning of the 
new century, in 1804, exports of 22,000,000 
pounds are recorded ; and in 1814 the figure 
was 34,045,000 pounds. Then exports grad- 
ually fell off, and in 1861 were only 6,700,- 
000 pounds. They were 10,350,000 pounds 
in 1874; and since then, have not varied 
much from 9,000,000 or 10,000,000 pounds 
a year. They were 9,363,000 pounds in 
1900 ; 7,885,000 pounds in 1909 ; and 8,246,- 
000 pounds in 1919. The acreage in coffee 
remains fairly constant, being 24,865 in 
1900 ; 22,275 in 1911 ; and 20,280 in 1917. 
It is said that there are 80,000 acres of 
good coffee land still uncultivated. 

Porto Rico. The cultivation of coffee in 
Porto Rico dates back to the middle of the 
eighteenth century; but exportation does 
not seem to have been much more than a 
million pounds a year until the first years of 
the nineteenth century. Between 1837 and 
1840, the average exportation was about 
10,000,000 pounds; and by 1865, this had 
risen to 24,000,000 pounds. Ten years later, 
it was 25,700,000 pounds. In recent years, 
it has averaged about 37,000,000 pounds; 
the 1921 figure, including shipments to 
continental United States, being 29,968,000 
pounds. Production since 1881 has been 
between 30,000,000 and 50,000,000 pounds ; 
the heaviest being in 1896 when the total 
output was 62,628,337 pounds — the largest 
figure in the island's history. The industry 
was greatly damaged by a disastrous storm 
in 1900, and was also adversely affected by 
the European War,. as a large part of Porto 
Rico's crop goes to Europe. Porto Rican 
coffee has not been popular in the United 
States, which takes only limited amounts. 
Cuba is one of the island's best customers. 

Guadeloupe. Coffee production in 
Guadeloupe reached its highest point in 
the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
when more than 8,000,000 pounds were 
raised. The figure was about 6,000,000 in 
1808; but the output declined during the 
succeeding decades, and forty years later 
was only 375,000 pounds. The amount pro- 
duced in 1885 was 986,000 pounds; and 



there has been a gradual increase, so that 
the crop has been large enough to permit 
the exportation of 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 
pounds, or more, since the beginning of the 
present century. Exports in 1901 were 
1,449,000 pounds; in 1908, 2,266,000 
pounds ; and in 1918, 2,144,000 pounds. 

Other West Indian Islands. Some little 
coffee is gathered for home consumption in 
many other West Indian islands, but little 
is exported. The island of Martinique, 
which is said to have seen the introduction 
of the coffee plant into the western hemi- 
sphere, does not now raise enough for its 
own use. Cuba was formerly one of the 
important centers of production; but for 
various reasons the industry declined, and 
for many years the country has imported 
most of its coffee supply. A century ago, 
the plantations numbered 2,067 ; and the 
annual exportation amounted to 50,000,000 
pounds. When the island became inde- 
pendent, steps were taken to revive coffee 
planting; and in 1907 there were 1,411 
plantations and 3,662,850 trees, producing 
6,595,700 pounds of coffee. The Cubans, 
however, now find it convenient to obtain 
their coffee from the neighboring island of 
Porto Rico and from other sources ; and im- 
portations have remained around 20,000,000 
pounds a year. In Trinidad and Tobago, 
exports have reached as high as 1,000,000 
pounds a year ; but in recent times they have 
fallen off heavily. St. Vincent exported 485 
pounds in 1917, and Grenada, 251 pounds 
in 1916. The Leeward Islands exported 
1,415 pounds in 1917, and 2,946 pounds in 
1916, the acreage being 274, the same as for 
many years past. 

Arabia. The home of the famous Mocha 
coffee still produces considerable quantities 
of that variety, although the output, com- 
paratively speaking, is not large. The chief 
district is the vilayet of Yemen ; and the 
product reaches the outside world mainly 
through the port of Aden, although before 
the war much of this coffee was exported 
through Hodeida. The port of Massowah, 
in the last two or three years, has been 
drawing some of the supply of Mocha for 
export. No statistics are available to show 
the production of Mocha coffee ; but an esti- 
mate made by the oldest coffee merchant in 
Aden places the average annual output at 
45,000 bags of 176 pounds each, or 7,920,000 
pounds. Although this is the only district 
in the world that can produce the particular 

grade of coffee known as Mocha, there is 
little systematic cultivation, and large areas 
of good coffee land are planted to other 
crops to provide food for the natives. When 
transportation facilities are provided, so 
that this food can be imported, it is pre- 
dicted that the output of Mocha coffee will 
be doubled. 

Aden is a great transhipping port for 
coffee from Asia and Africa, and more than 
half its exports are re-exports from points 
outside of Arabia. The following figures 
will show the proportion of Arabian coffee 
coming into Aden for export as compared 
with that from other producing sections : 

Aden's Coffee Receipts for Re-Expoet 

Imports 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 

from (pounds) (pounds) (pounds) 

Abyssinia (via Jibuti) .4,529,280 6,174,896 4,337,760 

Mocha and Ghizan ....3,555,104 6,562,752 3,075,024 

Somaliland (British) .. 394,128 396,592 245,840 
Straits Settlements . . . 672,224 

Zanzibar and Pemba .. 92,512 795,312 764,288 

All other countries ... 162,064 307,104 323,616 

Total 9,405,312 14,236,656 8,746,528 

British India. Cultivation of coffee was 
begun systematically in India in 1840 ; and 
twenty years later, the country exported 
about 5,860,000 pounds. For the next eight 
years the exports remained at about that 
figure; but in 1859 they amounted to 11,- 
690,000 pounds; and by 1864 they had 
doubled, rising in that year to 26,745,000 
pounds. They have continued at between 
20,000,000 and 60,000,000 pounds ever 
since, reaching their highest point in 1872 
with 56,817,000 pounds. In recent years, 
production and exportation have declined; 
the exports in 1920 being only 30,526,832 
pounds. The area under coffee has been 
between 200,000 and 300,000 acres for fifty 
years or more, reaching its highest point 
in 1896, with 303,944 acres. Recently the 
area has been slowly decreasing. 

Ceylon. The island of Ceylon was form- 
erly one of the important producers of 
coffee; and the industry was a flourishing 
one until about 1869, when a disease ap- 
peared that in ten or fifteen years practi- 
cally ruined the plantations. Production 
has gone on since then, but at a steadily 
declining rate. In late years, the island 
has not produced enough for its own use, 
and is now ranked as an importer rather 
than as an exporter. It is said that system- 
atic cultivation was carried on in Ceylon 
by the Dutch as early as 1690; and ship- 
ments of 10,000 to 90,000 pounds a year 


I _ 

tury, exports in one year, 1741, going as 
high as 370,000 pounds. The English took 
the island in 1795, and thirty years later, 
they began to expand cultivation. Exports 
had risen to 12,400,000 pounds in 1836 ; and 
they continued to increase to a high point 
of 118,160,000 pounds in 1870; but in the 
next thirty years they declined, until they 
were only 1,147,000 pounds in 1900. The 
total acreage in coffee at one time reached 
as high as 340,000; but as the coffee trees 
were att'ected by the leaf disease, this land 
was turned to tea; and in 1917 there were 
only 810 acres left in cotfee. 

Dutch East Indies. The year 1699 saw 
the importation from the Malabar coast of 
India to Java of the cotfee plants which 
were destined to be the progenitors of the 
tens of millions of trees that have made the 
Dutch East Indies famous for two hundred 
years. Twelve years afterward, the first 
trickle of the stream of coffee that has con- 
tinued to flow ever since found its way 
from Java to Holland, in a shipment of 894 
pounds. About 216,000 pounds were ex- 
ported in 1721; and soon thereafter, ship- 
ments rose into the millions of pounds. 

From 1721 to 1730 the Netherlands 
East India Co. marketed 25,048,000 pounds 
of Java coffee in Holland; and in the de- 
cade following, 36,845,000 pounds. Ship- 
ments from Java continued at about the 
latter rate until the close of the century, 
although in the ten years 1771 - 80 they 
reached a total of 51,319,000 pounds. The 
total sales of Java coffee in Holland for the 
century were somewhat more than a quarter 
of a billion pounds, which represented 
pretty closely the amount produced. 

With the beginning of the nineteenth 
century, coffee production soon became 
much heavier; and in 1825 Java exported, 
of her own production, some 36,500,000 
pounds, besides 1,360,000 pounds brought 
from neighboring islands to which the cul- 
tivation had spread. In 1855, the amount 
was 168,100,000 pounds of Java coffee, and 
4,080,000 pounds of coffee from the other 
islands. This is the highest record for the 
half-century following the beginning of the 
regular reports of exports in 1825. From 
1875 to 1879 the average annual yield was 
152,184,000 pounds. In 1900, production 
in Java was 84,184,000 pounds; in 1910, 
it was 31,552,000 pounds, and in 1915 it 
had jumped to 73,984,000 pounds. 


On the west coast of Sumatra coffee was 
regularly cultivated, according to one ac- 
count, as early as 17-83 ; but it was not until 
about 1800, that exportation began, with 
about 270,000 pounds. By 1840, exports 
were averaging 11,000,000 to 12,250,000 
pounds per year. Ofificial records of pro- 
duction date from 1852, in which year the 
figures were 16,714,000 pounds. Five years 
later the recorded yield was 25,960,000 
pounds, the high-water mark of Sumatra 
production. The total output in 1860 was 
21,400,000 pounds; and 22,275,000 pounds 
in 1870. The average from 1875 to 1879 
was 17,408,000 pounds; and from 1895 to 
1899, it was 7,589,000 pounds. The yield 
was 5,576,000 pounds in 1900; 1,360,000 
in 1910; and 7,752,000 in 1915. 

In Celebes, the first plants were set out 
about 1750 ; but seventy years later produc- 
tion was only some 10,000 pounds. This 
soon increased to half a million pounds; 
and from 1835 to 1852 the yield ran between 
340,000 and 1,768,000 pounds. From 1875 
to 1879, production averaged 2,176,000 
pounds; from 1885 to 1889, 2,747,000 
pounds; and from 1895 to 1899, 707,000 
pounds. In 1900, it was 680,000 pounds; 
in 1910, 272,000 pounds ; and in 1915, 272,- 
000 pounds. 

Planting under government control, 
largely wdth forced labor, has been the 
special feature of coffee cultivation in the 
Dutch East Indies. At first the govern- 
ment exercised what was practically a 
monopoly; but private planting was more 
and more permitted ; and in the latter part 
of the nineteenth century, the amount of 
coffee produced on private plantations ex 
ceeded that raised by the government. The 
government has now entirely given up the 
business of coffee production. 

The total production of coffee in Java, 
Sumatra, and Celebes, in 1920, in piculs of 
136 pounds, was as follows : 

Dutch East Indies' Coffee Production 
Kind of Quantity Produced in 

Coffee Java Sumatra Celebes Total 

and Bali 
(piculs) (piculs) (piculs) (piculs) 
Liberica . 14,972 6,243 2,074 23,289 

Java 16,312 24,291 70,621 111,224 

Robusta .. 411,235 256,645 4,998 672,878 

Total .. 442,519 287,179 77,693 807,391 

Straits Settlements. Trade in coffee is 
a transhipping trade, Singapore acting as a 



clearing center for large quantities of 
coffee from the neighboring islands. In 
1920, the imports were 25,914,267 pounds; 
and the exports, 26,856,000 pounds. 

Federated Malay States. The acreage 
in coffee in the Federated Malay States is 
steadily declining. In 1903, coffee planta- 
tions covered 22,700 acres; in 1913, 7,695 
acres ; and in 1916, 4,312 acres. There was 
formerly a considerable export ; but appar- 
ently local production is now required for 
home consumption, as in 1920 exports were 
practically nothing, and about 9,800 pounds 
were imported. 

British Nortpe Borneo. Total exports of 
coffee have reached as high as 50,000 
pounds, which was the figure in 1904; but 
they are much less now; being 5,973 
pounds in 1915 ; 15,109 pounds in 1916 ; and 
1,980 pounds in 1918. 

Sarawak. Previous to 1912, the exporta- 
tion of coffee from Sarawak was 20,000 to 
45,000 pounds annually. In 1912, a coffee 
estate of 300 acres was abandoned, and since 
that time there have been no exports. 

Philippines. Coffee raising was former- 
ly one of the chief industries of the Philip- 
pines; but it has now greatly declined, 
partly because of the blight. Exports 
reached their highest point in 1883, when 
16,805,000 pounds were shipped. Since 
then, they have fallen off steadily to noth- 
ing; and the islands are now importers, 
although still producing considerable for 
their own use. The area still under cultiva- 
tion in 1920 was 2,700 acres ; and the pro- 
duction in that year was given as 2,710,000 
pounds, as compared with 1,580,000 pounds 
in 1919, and an average of 1,500,000 pounds 
for the previous five years. 

Guam. Coffee is a common plant on the 
island but is not systematically cultivated. 
There is no exportation, but a Navy De- 
partment report says that the possible ex- 
port is not less than seventy-five tons 

Hawaii. A certain amount of coffee has 
been produced in the Hawaiian Islands for 
many years, exports being recorded as 49,- 
000 pounds in 1861; as 452,000 pounds in 
1870 ; and as 143,000 pounds in 1877. The 
trees grow on all the islands ; but nearly all 
the coffee produced is raised on Hawaii. 
The trees are not carefully cultivated; but 
the coffee has an excellent flavor. The- 
amount of land planted to coffee is about 

6,000 acres. The exports go mostly to con- 
tinental United States. The exports are 
increasing, the figures up to 1909 ranging 
usually between 1,000,000 and 2,000,000 
pounds, and now usually running between 
2,000,000 and 5,000,000 pounds. Including 
shipments to continental United States, 
Hawaii exported 5,775,825 pounds in 1918 ; 
3,649,672 pounds in 1919 ; 2,573,300 pounds 
in 1920 ; and 4,979,121 pounds in 1921. 

Australia. Queensland is the only state 
of the Commonwealth in which coffee grow- 
ing has been at all extensively tried; and 
here the results have, up to the present 
time, been far from satisfactory. The total 
area devoted to this crop reached its highest 
point in the season 1901 - 02 when an area 
of 547 acres was recorded. The. area then 
continuously declined to 1906 - 07, when it 
was as low as 256 acres. In subsequent 
seasons the area fluctuated somewhat; but, 
on the whole, with a downward tendency. 
In 1919 - 20, only 24 productive acres were 
recorded, with a yield of 16,101 pounds. 
The country is now listed among the con- 
suming rather than the producing countries. 

Abyssinia. This country, usually cred- 
ited with being the original home of the 
coffee plant, still has, in its southern part, 
vast forests of wild coffee whose extent is 
unknown, but whose total production is 
believed to be immense. It is of inferior 
grade, and reaches the market as ' ' Abyssin- 
ian" coffee. There is also a large district 
of coffee plantations producing a very good 
grade called "Harari", which is considered 
almost, if not quite, the equal of the 
Arabian Mocha. This is usually shipped 
to Aden for re-export. Abyssinia's coffee 
reaches the outside world through three 
different gate-ways ; and as the neighboring 
countries, through which the produce passes, 
also produce coffee, no accurate statistics 
are available to show the country's annual 
export. The total probably ranges from 
10,000,000 to 20,000,000 pounds a year. 
Coffee was shipped from Abyssinia to the 
extent of 6,773,800 pounds in 1914, over 
the Franco-Ethiopian railroad; 10,054,000 
pounds in 1915; and 9,064,000 pounds in 
1916. Export figures of the port of Mas- 
sowah include a large amount of Abyssin- 
ian coffee, but the proportion is unknown. 
At this port 108,680 pounds of coffee were 
exported in 1914; and 1,221,880 pounds in 
1915. Abyssinian coffee exported by way of 
the Sudan amounted to 232,616 pounds iiL 




1914; to 140,461 pounds in 1915; and to 
4,164,600 pounds in 1916. 

British East African Protectorate. 
The acreage in coffee has greatly increased 
in recent years. It was estimated at 1,000 
acres in 1911 ; and by 1916, it had grown 
to 22,200 acres. Production, as shown by 
the exports, has likewise increased greatly; 
and exports in recent years have averaged 
about 8,000,000 pounds a year. They were 
10,984,000 pounds in 1917; and were 18,- 
735,000 pounds in 1918. 

Uganda Protectorate. The acreage in 
coffee has been steadily increasing, as shown 
bv the following figures: 1910, 697 acres; 
1914, 19,278 acres ; 1916, 23,857 acres ; 1917, 
22,745 acres. In 1909, 33,440 pounds of 
coffee were produced ; and by 1918, this had 
grown to 10,000,000 pounds. The average 
for the five years, 1914-18, was 5,076,000 

Nyasaland Protectorate. Twenty-five 
years ago, this colony exported coffee in 
amounts ranging from 300,000 to more than 
2,000,000 pounds. Production has now so 
declined, that only 122,000 pounds were 
exported in 1918 ; and the average for recent 
years has been about 92,000 pounds. The 
acreage in bearing in 1903 was 8,234; and 
in 1917 it was 1,237. 

Nigeria. Production has been falling off 
in recent years. Exports were 35,000 
pounds in 1896 ; 57,000 pounds in 1901 ; and 
70,000 pounds in 1909. In 1916 and 1917, 
however, they were only about 3,000 

Gold Coast. This colony formerly pro- 
duced considerable coffee, exporting 142,000 
pounds in 1896. There have been no 
exports in recent years, except about 440 
pounds in 1916, and 660 pounds in 1917. 


coffee were more than 7,500,000 pounds in 
1897, indicating a very extensive produc- 
tion. But since then, there has been a 
steady decline ; and in 1918 only about 440,- 
000 pounds were shipped. 

Somali Coast (French). Exports of 
coffee from this colony amounted to more 
than 5,000,000 pounds in 1902; and since 
then, they have remained fairly steadily at 
that figure, showing considerable increase 
in late years. Total exports in 1917 were 
11,200,000 pounds. 

Italian Somaliland. Some coffee ap- 
pears to be grown in this colony; but ex- 

ports have been inconsiderable for many 

Sierra Leone. Production has been 
steadily declining for twenty years. Ex- 
ports were 33,376 pounds in 1903; 17,096 
pounds in 1913 ; and 8,228 pounds in 1917. 

Mauritius. In former times this island 
was an important coffee producer, exports 
in the early part of the nineteenth century 
running as high as 600,000 pounds. To-day 
there is practically no export, and only 
about 30 acres are in bearing, producing 
4,000 to 8,000 pounds a year. 

Reunion. This island also was once a 
notable grower of coffee. A century ago, 
production was estimated as high as 10,- 
000,000 pounds; and this rate of output 
continued well through the nineteenth 
century. In the present century, produc- 
tion has fallen off; and only about 530,000 
pounds were exported in 1909. The de- 
crease has continued, so that the average in 
recent years has been only about 25,000 

Coffee Consumption 

Of the million or more tons of coffee 
produced in the world each year, prac- 
tically all — with the exception of that 
which is used in the coffee-growing coun- 
tries themselves — is consumed by the 
United States and western Europe, the 
British dominions, and the non-producing 
countries of South America. Over that vast 
stretch of territory beginning with western 
Russia, and extending over almost the whole 
of Asia, coffee is very little known. In the 
consuming regions mentioned, moreover, 
consumption is concentrated in a few coun- 
tries, which together account for some 
ninety percent of all the coffee that enters 
the world's markets. These are, the United 
States, which now takes more than one-half, 
and Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Hol- 
land, Belgium, Switzerland, and Scandi- 

The United Kingdom stands out conspicu- 
ously among the nations of western Europe 
as a small consumer of coffee, the per 
capita consumption in that country being 
only about two-thirds of a pound each year. 
France and Germany are by far the biggest 
coffee buyers of Europe so far as actual 
quantity is concerned; although some of 
the other countries mentioned drink much 
more coffee in proportion to the population. 
The Mediterranean countries and the 




J»00 /SOO /a/O A9SO 

No. 4 — Woklh's Coffee Consumption, 1850-1920 

Diagram showing the relationship between the 
leading coffee-consuming countries 

Balkans are of only secondary importance 
as coffee drinkers. Among the British 
dominions, the Union of South Africa takes 
much the largest amount, doubtless because 
of the Dutch element in its population ; 
while Canada, Australia, and New Zealand 
show the influence of the mother country, 
consumption per head in the last two being 
no greater than in England. 

In South America, Brazil, Bolivia, and 
all the countries to the north, are coffee 
producers. Of the southern countries, Ar- 
gentina is the chief coffee buyer, with Chile 
second. In the western hemisphere, how- 
ever, the largest per capita coffee consumer 
is the island of Cuba, which raises some 
coffee of its own and imports heavily from 
its neighbors. 

The list of coffee-consuming countries in- 
cludes practically all those that do not raise 
coffee, and also a few that have some coff'ee 
plantations, but do not grow enough for 
their own use. These countries are listed 
on page 287. Consumption figures can be 
determined with fair accuracy by the im- 
port figures; although in some countries, 
where there is a considerable transit trade, 
it is necessary to deduct export from import 
figures to obtain actual consumption figures. 
The import figures given are the latest avail- 
able for each country named. 

On account of the very wide fluctuations 
in imports during the war and the period 
following the war, per capita figures of 

consumption are of only relative value, as 
they have naturally changed radically in 
recent years. For the most part, however, 
the trade has about swung back to normal ; 
and per capita figures based on the amounts 
retained for consumption, as given in the 
General Coffee Consumption Table, are 
fairly close to those for the years before 
the war. As per capita calculations must 
take into account population as well as 
amounts of coffee consumed; and as popu- 
lation figures are usually estimates, the re- 
sults arrived at by different authorities 
are likely to vary slightly, although usu- 




/S/-9 /920 

Coffee Imports, lUl<')-lt)2() 

In this diagram a comparison is drawn between the 
coffee imports of the leading consuming coun- 
tries over a critical 5-year period 

ally they are not far apart. In figuring 
the per capita amounts in the table on 
page 288, latest available estimates of popu- 
lation have been used. The figures show 
that the following are the ten leading- 


General Coffee Consumption Table 

Country Year 

United States 1921a 

Canada 1921c 

Newfoundland 1920 c 

United Kingdom 1921 » 

France 1921 a 

Spain 1920 

Portugal 1919a 

Belgium 1921 a 

Holland 1921 a 

Denmark 1921 a 

Norway 1921 a 

Sweden 1921 a 

Finland 1921 a 

Rnssiii 1916 

Austria-Hungary (former) 1917 

Austria 1921 e 

Germany (former) 1913 

Germany (present) 1921' 

Poland 1920 

Bulgaria 1914 

Rumania 1919 

Greece 19208 

Switzerland 1921* 

Italy 1920 

Algeria 1920 

Tunis 1920 

Egypt 1921a 

Union of So. Africa 1920 

Northern Rhodesia 1920 

Southern Rhodesia 1920 

Mozambique 1919 

Ceylon 1920 

China 1920 

Japan 1920 

Philippines 1920 

Canary Islands 1917 

Cyprus 1918 

Australia 1920c 

New Zealand 1920 

Cuba 1920c 

Martinique 1918 

Panama 1920 

Argentina 1919 

Chile 1920 

Uruguay 19218 

Paraguay 1920 







.,345,366,943 b 








34.363,728 d 


















































































































a Preliminary figures. 

b Figures are for continental U. S. Imports include both foreign coffee and coffee from our Island posses- 
sions. Exports include both foreign and domestic exports from continental U. S. and also exports to our 
island possessions. 

'•Fiscal year, d Entered for home consumption. 

eFirst six months. Imports in 1920 were 6,042,808 pounds; exports 93,034 pounds. 

f Eight months, May - December. k First eleven months. 

h Exports of foreign coffee. Domestic exports were 48,463 pounds. 

i Exports of foreign coffee. Domestic exports were 208,445 pounds. 



countries in the per capita consumption of 
coffee in pounds : 

1. Sweden 15.25 6. Norway 10.95 

2. Cuba 13.79 7. Holland 10.22 

3. Denmark 13.19 8. Finland 8.25 

4. United States. 12.09 9. Switzerland . 8.17 

5. Belgium 11.06 10. France 7.74 

The per capita consumption of the most 
important coffee-consuming countries, 
based on the large table, is given with the 
1913 per capita figures for comparison : 

Per Capita Coffee Consumption Table 

Country Year Pounds Pds., 1913 

United States 1921 12.09 8.90b 

Canada 1921^ 1.93 2.17= 

Newfoundland ..... 1920a o.l9 0.19" 

United Kingdom . . . 1921 0.72 0.61b 

France 1921 7.74 6.41 

Spain 1920 2.33 1.64 

Portugal 1919 0.86 1.16 

Belgium 1921 11.06 12.27 

Holland 1921 10.22 18.80 

Denmark 1921 13.19 12.85 

Norway 1921 10.95 12.29 

Sweden 1921 15.25 13.41 

Finland 1921 8.25 8.85 

Russia 1916 0.05 0.16 

Austria-Hungary . . . 1917 0.34 2.54 

Germany 1921 4.10 5.43 

Roumania 1919 0.29 1.04 

Greece 1920 2.97 1.19 

Switzerland 1921 8.17 6.48 

Italy 1920 1.84 1.79 

Egypt 1921 1.53 1.15 

Union of So. Africa . 1920 S.SOd 4.19^ 

Ceylon 1920 0.43 0.36 

China 1920 0.001 0.01 

Japan 1920 0.01 0.0O4 

Cuba 1920a 13.79 10.00 

Argentina 1919 4.40 3.74 

Chile 1920 3.06 3.04 

Uruguay 1921 3.61 e 

Paraguay 1920 0.26 ^ 

Australia 1920a 0.42 0.64 

New Zealand 1920 0.24 0.29 

a Fiscal year. 

bFiscal year 1913. 

cFiscal year ending March 31, 1914. 

d Including both white and colored population. 

eNot available. 

Tea and Coffee in England and the U. S. 

The rise of the United States as a coffee 
consumer in the last century and a quarter 
has been marked, not only by steadily in- 
creased imports as the population of the 
country increased, but also by a steady 
growth in per capita consumption, show- 
ing that the beverage has been continually 
advancing in favor with the American peo- 
ple. To-day it stands at practically its 
highest point, each individual man, woman, 
and child having more than 12 pounds a 
year, enough for almost 500 cups, allotted 
to him as his portion. This is four times 

/sea /fft^ /ssa /sse> /&ao /^/o /&po 

No. 6 — World's Consumption of Tea and 

Diagram showing their relationship, 1900-1920 

as much as it was a hundred years ago; 
and more than twice as much as it was in 
the years immediately following the Civil 
War. In general it is fifty percent more 
than the average in the twenty years pre- 
ceding 1897, in which year a new high level 
of coffee consumption was apparently es- 
tablished, the per capita figure for that year 
being 10.12 pounds, which has been ap- 
proximately the average since then. 

Since the advent of country-wide pro- 
hibition in the United States on July 1, 
1919, about two pounds more coffee per 
person, or 80 to 100 cups, have been con- 
sumed than before. Part of this increase 
is doubtless to be charged to prohibition; 
but it is yet too early to judge fairly as 
to the exact effect of "bone-dry" legisla- 



tion on coffee drinking. The continued 
growth in the use of coffee in the United 
States has been in decided contrast to the 
per capita consumption of tea, which is less 
now than half a century ago. 

In the United Kingdom, the reverse eon- 
ilition prevails. Tea drinking there stead- 
ily maintains a popularity which it has 
enjoyed for centuries; while coffee appar- 
ently makes no advance in favor. In this 
respect, the country is sharply distin- 
guished from its neighbors of western Eu- 
rope, in many of w^hich coffee drinking has 
been much heavier, considering the popu- 
lation, even than in the United States. 
The contrast between the tastes of the two 
countries in beverages is shown clearly by 
the per capita figures of tea and coffee 
consumption for half a century, as they 
appear in the table, next column. 

Coffee Consumption in Europe 

On the continent of Europe, however, 
coffee enjoys much the same sort of popu- 
larity that it does in the United States. 
The leading continental coffee ports are 
Hamburg, Bremen, Copenhagen, Amster- 
dam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Havre, Bor- 
deaux, Marseilles, and Trieste ; and the na- 
tionalities of these ports indicate pretty 
well the countries that consume the most 
coffee. The northern ports are tranship- 
ping points for large quantities of coffee 
going to the Scandinavian countries, as well 
as importing ports for their own countries ; 
and these countries have been among the 
leading coffee drinkers, per head of popu- 
lation, for many decades. Norway, for in- 
stance, in 1876 was consuming about 8.8 
pounds of coffee per person; Sweden, 5 
pounds; and Denmark, 5.2 pounds. The 
per capita consumption of various other 
countries at about the same period^ 1875 to 
1880, has been estimated as follows : Hol- 
liand, 17.6 pounds ; Belgium, 9.1 pounds ; 
Germany, 5.1 pounds; Austria-Hungary, 
2.2 pounds; Switzerland, Q.Q pounds; 
France, 3 pounds ; Spain, 0.2 pounds ; Por- 
tugal, 0.7 pounds; and Greece, 1.6 pounds. 

Today, the leading country of the world 
in point of per capita consumption is 
Sweden (15.25 pounds) ; but Holland held 
that position for a long while. During the 
World War the disturbance^ of trade cur- 
rents, and the high price of coffee, greatly 
reduced the amount of coffee drinking ; and 

Tea and Coffee Consumption Pee Capita 

Year United States United Kingdom 

Cofifee Tea Coffee Tea 

pounds pounds pounds pounds 

1866 4.96 1.17 1.02 3.42 

1867 5.01 1.09 1.04 3.68 

1868 6.52 .96 1.00 3.52 

1869 6.45 1.08 .94 3.63 

1870 6.00 1.10 .98 3.81 

1871 7.91 1.14 .97 3.92 

1872 7.28 1.46 .98 4.01 

1873 6.87 1.53 .99 4.11 

1874 6.59 1.27 .96 4.23 

1875 7.08 1.44 ,98 4.44 

1876 7.33 1.35 .99 4.50 

1877 6.94 1.23 .96 4.52 

1878 6.24 1.33 .97 4.66 

1879 7.42 1.21 .99 4.68 

1880 8.78 1.39 .92 4.57 

1881 8.25 1.54 .89 4.58 

1882 8.30 1.47 .89 4.69 

1883 8.91 1.30 .89 4.82 

1884 9.26 1.09 .90 4.90 

1885 9.60 1.18 .91 5.06 

1886 9.36 1.37 .87 4.92 

1887 8.53 1.49 .80 5.02 

1888 6.81 1.49 .83 5.03 

1889 9.16 1.25 .76 4.99 

1890 7.77 1.32 .75 5.17 

1891 7.»4 1.28 .76 " 5.36 

1892 9.59 1.36 .74 5.43 

1893 8.23 1.32 .69 5.40 

1894 8.01 1.34 .68 5.51 

1895 9.24 1.39 .70 5.65 

1896 8.08 1.32 .69 5.75 

1897 10.04 1.56 .68 5.79 

1898 11.59 .93 .68 5.83 

1899 10.72 .97 .71 5.95 

1900 9.84 1.09 .71 6.07 

1901 10.43 1.12 .76 6.16 

1902 33.32 .92 .68 6.07 

1903 10.80 1.27 .71 6.04 

1904 11.67 1.31 .68 6.02 

1905 11.98 1.19 .67 6.02 

1906 9.72 1.06 .66 6.22 

1907 11.15 .96 .67 6.26 

1908 9.82 1.03 .66 6.24 

1909 11.43 1.24 .67 6.37 

1910 9.33 .89 .65 6.39 

1911 9.29 1.05 .62 6.47 

1912 9.26 1.04 .61 6.49 

1913 8.90 .96 .61 6.68 

1914 10.14 .91 .63 6.89 

1915 10.62 .91 .71 6.87 

1916 11.20 1.07 .66 6.56 

1917 12.38 .99 1.02 6.03 

1918 10.43 1.40 1.19 6.75 

1919 9.13 .87 .76 8.43 

1920 12.78 .84 .74 8.51 

Figures for all except most recent years are taken 

from the Stati8ti<-al Abstract publications of the two 

countries. For the United States the figures given 
apply to fiscal years ending June 30, and for the 
United Kingdom to calendar years. 



the Dutch took to drinking tea in consider- 
able quantities. 

France. Second only to the United 
States, in the total amount of coffee con- 
sumed, is France ; although that country 
before the war occupied third place, being 
passed by Grcrmany. Havre is one of the 
great coffee ports of Europe ; and has a 
coffee exchange organized in 1882, only a 
short time after the Exchange in New York 
began operations. France draws on all the 
large producing regions for her coffee ; but 
is especially prominent in the trade in the 
West Indies and the countries around the 
Caribbean Sea. Imports in 1921 (prelim- 
inary) amounted to 322,419,884 pounds; 
exports to 1,154,769 pounds; and net con- 
sumption, to 321,265,115 pounds. 

Germany. Hamburg is one of the world 's 
important coffee ports ; and in normal times 
coffee is brought there in vast amounts, not 
only for shipment into the interior of Ger- 
many, but also for transhipment to Scandi- 
navia, Finland and Russia. Up to the out- 
break of the war, Germany was the chief 
coffee-drinking country of Europe. During 
the blockade, the Germans resorted to sub- 
stitutes; and after the war because of high 
prices, there was still some consumption of 
them. German coffee imports since the war 
have not quite climbed back to their former 
high mark; and the per capita consump- 
tion, judged by these figures is still some- 
what low. Importations amounted to 
90,602,000 pounds in 1920. The amount of 
total imports was 371,130,520 pounds in 
1913; total exports, 1,783,521 pounds; and 
net imports, 369,346,999 pounds. 

Netherlands. Netherlands is one of the 
oldest coffee countries of Europe, and for 
centuries has been a great transhipping 
agent, distributing coffee from her East 
Indian possessions and from America 
among her northern neighbors. Before 
sending these coffee shipments aloner. how- 
ever, she kept back enough plentifully to 
supply her own people, so that for many 
years before the war she led the world in 
per capita consumption. As far back as 
1867 - 76, coffee consumption was averaging 
more than 13 pounds per capita. In the 
year before the war, the average was 18.8 
pounds. The blockade, and other abnormal 
conditions during the war, threw the trade 
off; and it is still subnormal. In 1920 the 
net imports were about 96,000,000 pounds, 
Avhich would give a per capita consump- 

tion of about 14 pounds if it all went into- 
consumption. But part of it was probably 
stored for later exportation, as indicated 
by the figures for 1921, which show heavy 
exports and a c&nsequent lower figure for 
consumption. Eighty per cent of the Neth- 
erlands coffee trade is handled through 

Consumption of coffee is now slowly 
going back to normal, but the change in 
source of imports — which before the war 
came largely from Brazil but which war 
conditions turned heavily toward the East 
Indies — is still in evidence. Per capita 
consumption of coffee in Holland up to the 
outbreak of the war was as follows : 
Coffee Consumption ?*:» Capita in Holland 





1847-56 ... 

. 9.6 

19()7 .... 


1857-66 ... 

. 7.1 

1908 .... 


1867-76 ... 

. 18.3 

1909 .... 

. ... 16.7 

1877-86 ... 

. 16.7 

1910 .... 

.... 15.7 

1887-96 ... 

. 12.8 

1311 .... 

. ... 15.8 

1897-1906 . 

. 16.7 

1912 .... 



. 17.2 

1913 .... 

. ... 18.8 

Other Countries op Europe. Denmark^ 
Norway, and Sweden are all heavy coft'ee 
drinkers. In 1921 Sweden had the highest 
per capita consumption in the world, 15.25 
pounds. Before the war, these three coun- 
tries each consumed about as much per 
capita as the United States does to-day, 12 
to 13 pounds. The 1921 imports for con- 
sumption! were as follows: Denmark, 43,- 
122,417 pounds; Norway, 29,665,623 
pounds; Sweden, 89,660,766 pounds. Aus- 
tria-Hungary was formerly an important 
buyer of coffee, large quantities coming 
into the country yearly through Trieste. 
Imports in 1913 totaled 130,951,000 pounds ; 
and in 1912, 124,527,000 pounds. In 1917 
the war cut down the total to 17,910,000 
pounds net consumption. Finland shares 
with her neighbors of the Baltic a strong 
taste for coffee, importing, in 1921, 27,- 
968,000 pounds, about 8.25 pounds per 
capita. In the same year, Belgium had a 
net importation of 83,824,000 pounds. 

Spain, in 1920, consumed 48,513,821 
pounds. Portugal, in 1919, imported 6.- 
926,575 pounds; and exported 1,258,271 
pounds, leaving 5,668,304 pounds for home 
consumption. Coffee is not especially pop- 
ular in the Balkan States and Italy; im- 
portations into the last-named country in 
1920 amounting to 66,494,925 pounds net. 
Switzerland is a steady coffee drinker, con- 

> The 1921 figures for all countries given are pre- 




IS \S 




A Meeting of the Coffee Brokeks of Amsterdam, 1820 
Reproduced from an old print 

Sliming 31,535,260 pounds in 1921. Russia 
was never fond of coffee ; and her total im- 
ports in 1917, according to a compilation 
made under Soviet auspices, were only 
4,464,000 pounds. 

Other Countries. The Union of South 
Africa, in 1920, imported 27,798,000 pounds 
net, or about 3.8 pounds per capita. Cuba 
purchased 39,981,696 pounds in the fiscal 
year 1920 ; Argentina, 37,541,000 pounds in 
1919; Chile, 12,358,000 pounds in 1920; 
Australia, 2,239,000 pounds in 1920; and 
New Zealand, 283,633 pounds in that year. 

Three Centuries of Coffee Trading 
The story of the development of the 
world's coffee trade is a story of about 
three centuries. When Columbus sailed for 
the new world, the coffee plant was un- 
known even as near its original home as his 
native Italy. In its probable birthplace in 
southern Abyssinia, the natives had enjoyed 
its use for a long time, and it had spread 
to southwestern Arabia ; but the Mediter- 
ranean knew nothing of it until after the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. It then 
crept slowly along the coast of Asia Minor, 
through Syria, Damascus, and Aleppo, 
until it reached Constantinople about 1554. 
It became very popular ; coffee houses were 
opened, and the first of many controversies 
arose. But coffee made its way against all 

opposition, and soon was firmly established 
in Turkish territory. 

In those deliberate times, the next step 
westward, from Asia to Europe, was not 
taken for more than fifty years. In general, 
its introduction and establishment in 
Europe occupied the whole of the seven- 
teenth century. 

The greatest pioneering work in coffee 
trading was done by the Netherlands East 
India Company, which began operations in 
1602. The enterprise not only promoted the 
spread of coffee growing in two hemi- 
spheres ; but it was active also in introduc- 
ing the sale of the product in many Euro- 
pean countries. 

Coffee reached Venice about 1615, and 
Marseilles about 1644. The French began 
importing coffee in commercial quantities 
in 1660. The Dutch began to import 
Mocha coffee regularly at Amsterdam in 
1663 ; and by 1679 the French had devel- 
oped a considerable trade in the berry be- 
tween the Levant and the cities of Lyons 
and Marseilles. Meanwhile, the coffee drink 
had become fashionable in Paris, partly 
through its use by the Turkish ambassador, 
and the first Parisian cafe was opened in 
1672. It is significant of its steady popu- 
larity since then that the name cafe, which 
is both French and Spanish for coffee, has 



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2 coo 









1 1 1 1 ^J 





Als mccdc dc Gocdcrc 
d." Rdpcclive Kjnicrcn a 

vnn PjniculiLTcn, aangcliouJen Gocdcren en vcrdcre Rcftantcn en KIciniijIiccdcn, die by 
handcn nioijrcn z^n 

Dc lx)vcnna:indc B-unk- Peeper, C;innccl, Fouly, Nagelen , gcR(X)ke Nooten Nfusratcn en Mannetges Nooten, 
worded Vcrkogt met een fiiLUnd tot den Ecrfle Maart 1791 Egtcr lx:lioud dc Conipagnic aan haar de Facultyt 
tni dc Bruine PccjxT, welkc voor den EeiRc April 1790 nog mogt uordcn aangebragt, ten alien tyden te nn^en 
\ crkoopcn ; en wordcn alle do ani.k;rc aangcflaagen Gocdercn , nict dc Gerclcr\eerde Schccpco aangcbragt {ca by hct 
N:ijaar> Vcrkooi>billct vcrmdd) Vcrkogt ma eeo ftilftand tot den Eerfte Augustus 1790. 

Tc Amftcrdam, by NICOLAAS BYL, op den Nicuwcndyk, D'tikkcr «n de Ooft-Iiufitbc Compigni 


Reproduction of an advertisement by the Dutch East India Company 



come to mean a general eating or drinking 

Active trading in coffee began in Ger- 
many about 1670, and in Sweden about 

Trading in coflfee in England followed 
swiftly upon the heels of the opening of the 
first coffee house in London in 1652. By 
1700, the trade included not only exporting 
and importing merchants, but wholesale 
and retail dealers; the latter succeeding the 
apothecaries who, up to then, had enjoyed a 
kind of monopoly of the business. 

Trade and literary authorities * on coffee 
trading tell us that in the early days of the 
eighteenth century the chief supplies of 
coffee for England and western Europe 
came from the East Indies and Arabia. 
The Arabian, or — as it was more generally 
known — Turkey berry, was bought first- 
hand by Turkish merchants, who were ac- 
customed to travel inland in Arabia Felix, 
and to contract with native growlers. 

It was moved thence by camel transport 
through Judea to Grand Cairo, via Suez, 
to be transhipped down the Nile to Alex- 
andria, then the great shipping port for 
Asia and Europe. By 1722, 60,000 to 70,- 
000 bales of Turkish (Arabian) coffee a 
year were being received in England, the 
sale price at Grand Cairo being fixed by the 
Bashaw, who "valorized" it according to 
the supply. "Indian" coffee, which was 
also grown in Arabia, was brought to 
r Bettelfukere (Beit-el- fakih) in the moun- 
tains of southwestern Arabia, where Eng- 
lish, Dutch, and French factors went to buy 
it and to transport it on camels to Moco 
(Mocha), whence it was shipped to Europe 
around the Cape of Good Hope. 

In the beginning, "Indian" coffee was 
inferior to Turkish coffee ; because it was 
the refuse, or what remained after the 
Turkish merchants had taken the best. But 
after the European merchants began to 
make their own purchases at Bettelfukere, 
the character of the "Indian" product as 
sold in the London and other European 
; markets was vastly improved. Doubtless 
the long journey in sailing vessels over 
tropic seas made for better quality. It was 
estimated that Arabia in this way exported 
about a million bushels a year of "Turkish" 
and "Indian" coffee. 

1 Broadbent, Humphrey. The Domestick Coffee Man. 
London. 1720. 

Brndley, Richard. The vertu and use of coffee with 
reqard to the plague and other infectious distempers. 
London, 1721. 

The coffee houses became the gathering 
places for wits, fashionable people, and 
brilliant and scholarly men, to whom they 
afforded opportunity for endless gossip 
and discussion. It was only natural that 
the lively interchange of ideas at these 
public clubs should generate liberal and 
radical opinions, and that the constituted 
authorities should look askance at them. 
Indeed the consumption of coffee has been 
curiously associated with movements of 
political protest in its whole history, at least 
up to the nineteenth century. 

Coffee has promoted clear thinking and 
right living wherever introduced. It has 
gone hand in hand with the world's on- 
ward march toward democracy. 

As already told in this work, royal orders 
closed the coffee houses for short periods in 
Constantinople and in London ; Germany 
required a license for the sale of the 
beverage; the French Revolution was 
fomented in coffee-house meetings ; and the 
real cradle of American liberty is said to 
have been a coffee hovise in New York. It 
is interesting also to note that, while the 
consumption of coffee has been attended by 
these agitations for greater liberty for three 
centuries, its production for three centuries, 
in the Dutch East Indies, in the West 
Indies, and in Brazil, was very largely in 
the hands of slaves or of forced labor. 

Since the spread of the use of coffee to 
western Europe in the seventeenth century, 
the development of the trade has been 
marked, broadly speaking, by two features : 
(1) the shifting of the weight of produc- 
tion, first to the West Indies, then to the 
East Indies, and then to Brazil; and (2) 
the rise of the United States as the chief 
coffee consumer of the world. Until the 
close of the seventeenth century, the little 
district in Arabia, w'hence the coffee beans 
had first made their way to Europe, con- 
tinued to supply the whole w^orld's trade. 
But sprigs of coffee trees were beginning 
to go out from Arabia to other promising 
lands, both eastward and westward. As 
previously related, the year 1699 was an 
important one in the history of this expan- 
sion, as it was then that the Dutch success- 
fully introduced the coffee plant from Ara- 
bia into Java. This started a Far Eastern 
industry, whose importance continues to 
this day, and also caused the mother coun- 
try, Holland, to take up the role of one of 
the leading coffee traders of the world, 



which she still holds. Holland, in fact, 
took to coffee from the very first. It is 
claimed that the first samples were intro- 
duced into that country from Mocha in 
1616 — long before the beans were known in 
England or France — and that by 1663, 
regular shipments were being made. Soon 
after the coffee culture became firmly es- 
tablished in Java, regular shipments to the 
mother country began, the first of these 

Pbe-Wak Average Annual Production of 
Coffee by Continents 

Fiscal years: 1910-1914 
Total pounds: 2,311,917,200 

being a consignment of 894 pounds in 1711. 
Under the auspices of the Netherlands East 
India Co. the system of cultivating coffee 
by forced labor was begun in the East In- 
dian colonies. It flourished until well into 
the nineteenth century. One result of this 
colonial production of coffee was to make 
Holland the leading coffee consumer per 
capita of the world, consumption in 1913, 
as recorded on page 290, having reached as 
high as 18.8 pounds. It has long been one 
of the leading coffee traders, importing and 
exporting in normal times before the war 
between 150,000,000 and 300,000,000 pounds 
a year. 

The introduction of the coffee plant into 
the new world took place between 1715 and 
1723, It quickly spread to the islands and 
the mainland washed by the Caribbean. 
The latter part of the eighteenth centur}^ 
saw tens of millions of pounds of coffee 

being shipped yearly to the mother coun- 
tries of western Europe ; and for decades, 
the two great coffee trade currents of the 
world continued to run from the West 
Indies to France, England, Holland, and 
Germany ; and from the Dutch East Indies 
to Holland. These currents continued to 
flow until the disruption of world trade- 
routes by the World War; but they had 
been pushed into positions of secondary im- 
portance by the establishing of two new 
currents, running respectively from Brazil 
to Europe, and from Brazil to the United 
States, which constituted the nineteenth 
century's contribution to the history of the 
world's coffee trade. 

The chief feature of the twentieth cen- 
tury's developments has been the passing 
by the United States of the half-way mlark 
in world consumption; this country, since 

C-OST^ /?/C^ 

Pre- War Average Annual Production of 
Coffee by Countries 

Fiscal years: 1910-1914 
Total pounds: 2,311,917,200 

the second year of the World War, having 
taken more than all the rest of the world 
put together. The world's chief coffee 
"stream," so to speak, is now from Santos 
and Rio de Janeiro to New York, other 
lesser streams being from these ports to 
Havre, Antwerp, Amsterdam, and (in nor- 
mal times) Hamburg; and from Java to 
Amsterdam and Rotterdam. It is said that 
a movement, fostered by Belgium and 
Brazil, is under way to have Antwerp suc- 
ceed Hamburg as a coffee port. 



The rise of Brazil to the place of all- 
important s^ource of the world's coffee was 
•entirely a nin^eteentth oentury development. 
When the coffee tree found its true home 
in southern Brazil in 1770, it began at once 
to spread widely over the area of excellent 
soil; but there was little exportation for 
thirty or forty years. By the middle of 
the nineteenth century Brazil was con- 
tributino; twice as much to the w^orld's com- 
merce as her nearest competitor, the Dutch 
East Indies, exports in 1852 -53 bein^ 
2,353,563 ba^s from Brazil and 1,190,543 
Ij&gs from the Dutch East Indies. The 
world's total that year was 4,567,000 bags, 
so that Brazilian coffee represented about 
one-half of the total. This proportion was 
roughly maintained during the latter half 
•of the nineteenth century, but has gradu- 


Pke-Wak Average Annual Imports of Coffee 
INTO THE United States by Continents 

Fiscal years: 1910-1914 
Total pounds: 899,339,327 

:ally increased since then to its present 

The most important single event in the 
history of Brazilian production was the 
carrying out of the valorization scheme, by 
which the State of Sao Paulo, in- 1906 and 
1907,. purchased 8,474,623 bags of coffee, 
and stored it in Santos, in New York, and 
in certain European ports, in order to 
stabilize the price in the face of very heavy 
production. At the same time, a law was 
passed limiting the exports to 10,000,000 

bags per year. This law has since been 
repealed. The story of valorization is told 
more fully in chapter XXXI. The coffee 
thus purchased by the state was placed in 
the hands of an international committee, 
which fed it into the world 's markets at 
the rate of several hundred thousand bags 
a year. Good prices were realized for all 
coffee sold; and the plan was successful, 
not only financially, but in the achievement 

-cosr/i /?/c^ 

-l/\/SST /A/O/SS 

Pre- War Average Annual Imports of Coffee 
INTO THE United States by Countries 

Fiscal years: 1910-1914 
Total pounds: 899,339,327 

of its main object, the prevention of the 
ruin of planters through overproduction. 

Another valorization campaign was 
launched by Brazil in 1918, and a third in 
1921. Early in 1918, the Sao Paulo gov- 
ernment bought about 3,000,000 bags. Sub- 
sequent events caused a sharp advance in 
prices, and at one time it was said that 
the holdings showed a profit of $60,000,000. 
The Brazil federal government appointed 
an official director of valorization, Count 
Alexandre Sieiliano. A federal loan of 
£9,000,000, with 4,535,000 bags of valorized 
coffee as collateral, was placed in London 
and New York in May, 1922. 

European consumption during the -last 
century has been marked by the growth, of 
imports into France and Germany; these 
being the two leading coffee drinkers of the 
world, aside from the United States. Ger- 
many held the lead in European consump- 
tion during the whole of the nineteenth 



Trend of European Coffee Consumption for Seventy Years 

Year Germany France Holland Aus.-Hung. Belgium 

(pounds) (pounds) (pounds) (pounds) (pounds) 

1853 104,049,000 48,095,000 46,162,000 44,716,000' 41.270.000 

1863 146.969,000 87.524,000 30.299.000 44,966.000 39,305,000 

1873 215,822.000 98.841.000 79.562.000 71,111.000 49,874.00f) 

1883. 251,706,000 150,468,000 130.380,000 74,145,000 62,846,0(JO 

1893 269,.S81.000 152,203,000 75,562,000 79,438.000 52,046,000 

19a3 403,070,000 246,122.000 78.328,000 104,200.000 51,859,000 

1913 369,347,000 254,102,000 116,749,000 130,951,000 93,250,000 

century, and also in this century until all 
imports were stopped by the Allied navies; 
although, in actual imports, Holland for 
many years showed higher figures. Both 
Holland and England have acted as dis- 
tributers, re-exporting each year most of 
the coffee which entered their ports. In 
the last half-century, the chief consumers, 
in the order named, have been Germany. 
France, Holland, Austria-Hungary, and 
Belgium. However, with the removal of 
the duty on coffee in the last-named coun- 
try in 1904, imports trebled; and Belgium 
took third place. The table at the top of 
this page shows the general trend of the 
trade for the last seventy years. 

Most of the coffee for these countries 
has for many years been supplied by 
Brazil, even Holland bringing in several 
times as much from Brazil as from the 
Dutch East Indies. Special features of the 
European trade have been the organization, 
in 1873, and successful operation, in Ger- 
man}^, of the world's first international 
syndicate to control the coffee trade; and 
the opening of coffee exchanges in Havre 
in 1882, in Amsterdam and Hamburg, in 
] 887 ; in Antwerp, London, and Rotterdam, 
in 1890 ; and in Trieste in 1905. 

The advance of coffee consumption in the 
United States, the chief coffee-consuming 
country in the world, has taken place 
through about the same period as the ad- 
vance of production in Brazil, the chief 
producing country ; but it has been far less 
rapid. From 1790 to 1800, coffee imports 
for consumption ranged from 3,500,000 to 
32,000,000 pounds. The figures in the next 
column show the net importations of coffee 
into this country since the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. 

The chief source of supply, of course, 
has been Brazil; and the commercial and 
economic ties created by this immense cof- 
fee traffic has knit the two countries closely 
together. Brazil is probably more friendly 
to the United States than any other South 

American country, as shown by her action 
in following this country into the World 
War against Germany. She also grants the 
United States certain tariff preferentials a.s 
a recognition of the continued'policy of this 
country of admitting coffee free of duty. 
The chief port of entry of coffee into the 
United States is New York, which for 
decades has recorded entries amounting 
from sixty to ninety percent of the coun- 
try's total. Since 1902, New Orleans has 
shown a big advance, and in 1910 imported 
some thirty-five percent of the total. The 
only other port of importance is San 
Francisco, where imports have been in- 
creasing in recent years because of the 
growth of the trade in Central American 

Throughout the century and a third of 
steady increase of importations of coffee. 

Coffee Imports, United States, for 120 Years 
l^et Imports 





1800 a . . 


1906 . . . 

. 804,808,594 

1811a ... 


1907 . . . 

. 935,678,412 

1821a ... 


1908 . . . 

. 850.982.919 

1830a ... 


1909 . . . 

. 1,006,975,047 

184<^)a . . . 


1910 . . . 

. 813.442.972 



1911 ... 

. 869.489,902 

1860 . . . . 


1912 . . . 

. 880,838,776 

1870 . . . . 


1913 . . . 

. 859.166.618 

1880 . . . 


1914 ... 

. 991,953,821 

1890 . . . . 


1915 . . . 

. 1,051,716,023 



1916 ... 

. 1,131,730,672 

1901 . . . . 


1917 . . . 

. 1,267.975.290 

1902 . . . . 


1918 ... 

. 1.083.480.622 

1903 . . . 

867,385 063 

1919 ... 

. 968.297,668 

1904 . . . 

960 878 977 

1920 . . . 

. 1.364,252.073 

1905 . . . 

year ending Sept 

1921 . . . 
30; all ( 

. 1,309,010,452 

a Fiscal 

)ther years end 

June 30. 

Congress has for the most part permitted 
its free entry; as a rule, resorting to taxa- 
tion of "the poor man's breakfast cup" 
only when in need of revenue for war pur- 
poses. At times, the free entry has been 
qualified ; but for the most part, coffee has 
been free from the burden of customs 



The country's coffee trade before the 
Civil War was without special incident; 
but since that time, the continued growth 
has brought about manipulations that have 
often resulted in highly dramatic crises ; 
organizations to exercise some sort of regu- 
lation in the trade; the development of a 
trade in substitutes ; the advance of the sale 
of branded package coffee; the institution 
of large advertising campaigns; and other 
interesting features. These are treated more 
in detail in chapters that follow. 

Coifee Drinking in the United States 
Is the United States using more coffee 
than formerly, allowing for the increase in 
population ? Of course there are sporadic 
increases, in particular years and groups of 
years, and they may indicate to the casual 
observer that our coffee drinking is mount- 

Uj'Oijjio t—r— 0OcOff>(Ji oo — 
Ju«nt.1iiS2 WoooooooooooooOoo ffiff) S>V«lue 

100 p-^ 1 I . I I I r— r-^ r— , 20 

90 1^ 7^/ 'S 

85 '-^ -/.^L , 17 

80 r— — vy 1 V- '6 

75 -i ^ ^-^ 15 

70 -i 7^^ /^ 14 

65 i / v-/ 13 

feo '^y— ^/ — '^ 

50 l-J. 10 

45 i-J- 9 

40 -!-l 8 

35—3 7 

30 ,J. 6 

25 ^'Ij- 5 

20 ^ : 4 

15 3 

10 a 

5 I 

I I I I I I I I I I I I I 

I'ke-War Ciiakt of Coffee Imports 

Quantity and value of net imports of coffee into the 
United States for the fiscal years 1851 to 1914 
in five-year averages. Solid line represents 
quantity, figures in million pounds on left side. 
Dotted line represents value, figures in million 
dollars on right side 

ing rapidly. And then there is the steadily 
growing import figure, double what it was 
within the memory of a man still young. 


iOu)*o vor-r-oooo<n<nOo- 

Cents S2 ««ooooo0ooooooco50> 5}Ro«b; 

l"7 • — 

• / 






























































I're-War Consumption and Price Chart 

Import price and per capita consumption of coffee 
in the United States for the fiscal years 1851 
to 1914, in five-year averages. Solid line repre- 
sents import price per pound. Dotted line 
represents per capita consumption 

But the apparent growth in any given 
year is a matter of comparison with a near- 
by year, and there are declines as well as 
jumps; and, as for the gradual growth, it 
must always be remembered that, according 
to the Census Bureau, some 1,400,000 more 
people are born into this country every 
year, or enter its ports, than are removed 
by death or emigration. At the present 
rate this increase would account for abouu 
17,000,000 pounds more coffee each year 
than was consumed in the year before. 

The question is : Do Mr. Citizen, or Mrs. 
Citizen, or the little Citizens growing up 
into the coffee-drinking age, pass his or her 
or their respective cups along for a second 
pouring where they used to be satisfied 
with one, or do they take a cup in the 
evening as well as in the morning, or do 
they perhaps have it served to them at an 
afternoon reception where they used to get 
something else? In other words, is the 
coffee habit becoming more intensive as 
well as more extensive ? 

There are plenty of very good reasons 
why it should have become so in the last 



twenty-five or thirty years ; for the improve- 
ments in distributing, packing, and prepar- 
ing coffee have been many and notable. It 
is a far cry these days from the times when 
the housewife snatched a couple of minutes 
amid a hundred other kitchen duties to set 
a pan oyer the fire to roast a handful of 
green coffee beans, and then took two or 
three more minutes to pound or grind the 
crudely roasted product into coarse gran- 
ules for boiling. 

For a good many years, the keenest wits 
of the coffee merchants, not only of the 
United States but of Europe as well, have 
been at work to refine the beverage as it 
comes to the consumer's cup; and their 
success has been striking. Now the con- 
sumer can have his favorite brand not only 
roasted but packed air-tight to preserve its 
flavor ; and made up, moreover, of growths 
brought from the four corners of the earth 
and blended to suit the most exacting taste. 
He can buy it already ground, or he can 
have it in the form of a soluble powder ; he 
^an even get it with the caffein element 
ninety-nine percent removed. It is pre- 
served for his use in paper or tin or fiber 
boxes, with wrappings whose attractive de- 
signs seem to add something in themselves 
to the quality. Instead of the old coffee 
pot, black with long service, he has modern 
shining percolators and filtration devices; 
with a new one coming out every little 
while, to challenge even these. Last but not 
least, he is being educated to make it 
properly — tuition free. 

It would be surprising, with these and 
dozens of other refinements, if a far better 
average cup of coffee were not produced 
than was served forty years ago, and if the 
coffee drinker did not show his apprecia- 
tion by coming back for more. 

As a matter of fact, the figures show that 
he does come back for more. We do not 
refer to the figures of the last two years, 
which indeed are higher than those for 
many preceding years, but to the only aver- 
ages that are of much significance in this 
connection ; namely, those for periods of 
years going back half a century or more. 
Five-year averages back to the Civil War 
show increa.sing per capita consumption for 
continental United States (see table). 

It will be seen that the gain has been a 
decided one, fairly steady, but not exactly 
uniform. In the fifty years, John Doe has 
not quite come to the point where he hands 


Five-year Per capita Five-year Per capita 
Period Pounds Period Pounds 
















1907 ■ 















1802 - 



up his cup for a second helping and keeps 
a meaningful silence. Instead, he stipu- 
lates, "Don't fill it quite full; fill it about 
five-sixths as full as it was before." That 
is a substantial gain, and one that the next 
fifty years can hardly be expected to dupli- 
cate, in spite of the efforts of our coffee 
advertisers, our inventors, and our vigor- 
ous importers and roasters. 

The most striking feature of this fifty- 
year growth was the big step upward in 
1897, when the per capita rose two pounds 
over the year before and established an 
average that has been pretty well main- 
tained since. Something of the sort may 
have taken place again in 1920, when there 
was a three-pound jump over the year 
before. If will be interesting to see whether 
this is merely a jump or a permanent rise ; 
whether our coffee trade has climbed to a 
hilltop or a plateau. 

In this connection it should be noted that 
the government's per capita coffee figures 
apply only to continental United States, 
and that in computing them all the various 
items of trade of the noncontiguous posses- 
sions (not counting the Philippines, whose 
statistics are kept entirely separate from 
those of the United States proper) are care- 
fully taken into account. 

But for the benefit of students of coffee 
figures it should be added that this method 
does not result in a final figure except for 
one year in ten. The reason is that between 
censuses the population of the country is 
determined only by estimates; and these 
estimates (by the U. S. Bureau of the 
Census) are based on the average increase 
in the preceding census decade. The in- 
crease between 1910 and 1920, for instance, 
is divided by 120, the number of months 
in the period, and this average monthly in- 
crease is assumed to be the same as that 
of the current year and of other years fol- 
lowing 1920. Until new figures are obtained 
in 1930, the monthly increase will continue 
to be estimated at the same rate as the 
increase from 1910 to 1920, or about 118,- 



000. This figure will be used in computing 
the per capita coffee consumption. But 
when the 1930 figures are in, it may be 
found that the estimates were too low or 
too high, and the per capita figures for all 
intervening years will accordingly be sub- 
ject to revision. This will not amount to 
much, probably five-hundredths of a pound 
at most ; but it is evident that between 1920 
and 1930 all per capita consumption figures 
issued by the government are to be con- 
sidered as provisional to that extent at least. 
In the 1920 Statistical Abstract the gov- 
ernment has revised its per capita coffee 
and tea figures to conform to actual instead 
of estimated population figures between 
1910 and 1920, with the result that these 
figures are slightly different from those 
published in previous editions of the Ab- 
stract. Figures from 1890 to 1910 have also 
heen slightly changed, as they were orig- 
inallv computed by using. population figures 
as of June 1, w^hereas it is desirable to have 
computations based on July 1 estimates to 
make them conform to present per capita 

Reviewing the 1921 Trade in the 
United States 

According to the latest available foreign 
trade summaries issued by the government, 
the United States bought more coffee in 
1921 than in any previous calendar year of 
our history, although the total imports did 
not quite reach the highest fiscal-year mark. 
Our purchases passed the 1920 mark by 
more than 40,000,000 pounds and were 
higher than those of two years ago by 
a.500.000 pounds. 

But this record was made only in actual 
amounts shipped, as the value of imported 
coffee was far below that of immediately 
preceding years. Coffee values, however, 
fell off less than the average values for all 
imports, the decrease for coffee being 
forty-three percent and for the country's 
total imports fifty-two percent. 

Exports of coffee were somewhat less in 
quantity than in 1920, and about the same 
as in 1919; although the value, like that of 
imports, w^as considerably less than in either 
previous year. 

Re-exports of foreign coffee were con- 
siderably below the 1920 mark, in both 
quantity and value, and indeed were less 
than in several years. The amount of tea 
re-exported to foreign countries was only 
about half that shipped out in 1920, show- 

ing a continuation of the tendency of the 
United States to discontinue its services as 
a middleman, which raised the through 
traffic in tea several million pounds during 
the dislocation of shipping. 

Actual figures of amounts and values of 
gross coffee imports for the three calendar 
years, 1919-1921, have been as follows: 

Pounds Value 

1921 1.340,979,776 $142,808,719 

1920 1.297,439,310 252.450.651 

1919 1.337.564.067 261.270,106 

This represents a gain of three and three- 
tenths percent over 1920 in quantity and of 
only about one-fifth of one percent over 
1919. The decrease in value in 1921 was 
forty-three percent from the figures for 
1920 and forty-five percent from those of 

Domestic exports of coffee, mostly from 
Hawaii and Porto Rico, amounted to 34,- 
572,967 pounds valued at $5,895,606, as 
compared with 36,757,443 pounds valued at 
$9,803,574 in the calendar year 1920, or a 
decrease of six percent in quantity and 
forty percent in value. In 1919 domestic 
exports were 34,351,554 pounds, having a 
value of $8,816,581, practically the same in 
quantity, but showing a falling off of thirty- 
three percent in value. 

Re-exports of foreign coffee amounted to 
36,804,684 pounds in 1921, having a value 
of $3,911,847, a decline of twenty-five per- 
cent from the 49,144,691 pounds of 1920 
and of fifty-four percent from the 81,129,- 
691 pounds of 1919 ; whereas in point of 
value there was a decrease of fifty-six per- 
cent from 1920, which was $9,037,882, and 
of eighty-eight percent from that of 1919, 
which was $16,815,468. 

The average value per pound of the 
imported coffee, according to these figures, 
works out at little more than half that of 
either 1920 or 1919, illustrating the precipi- 
tate drop of prices w^hen the depression 
came on. The pound value in 1921 was 
10.6c. ; for 1920, 19.4c. ; and for 1919, 19.5c. 
These values are derived from the valua- 
tions placed on shipments at the point of 
export, the "foreign valuation" for which 
the much discussed "American valuation" 
is proposed as a substitute. They accord- 
ingly do not take into account costs of 
freisrht. insurance, etc. 

It is interesting to note that the average 
valuation of 10.6c. a pound for coffee 



shipped during the calendar year is a sub- 
stantial drop from the 13.12c. a pound that 
was the average for the fiscal year 1921, 
showing that the decline in values con- 
tinued during the last half of the calendar 

Coffee imports in 1921 continued to run 
in about the same well-worn channels as 
in previous years, according to the figures 
showing the trade with the producing coun- 
tries. The United States, as heretofore, 
drew almost its whole supply from its 
neighbors on this side of the globe ; the 
countries to the south furnishing ninety- 
seven percent of the total entering our 
ports. The three chief countries of South 
America contributed eighty-five percent; 
and the share of Brazil alone was sixty-two 
and five-tenths percent. 

Brazil's progress to her normal pre-war 
position in our coffee trade is rather slow, 
although she continues to show a gain in 
percentage each year. Formerly we ob- 
tained seventy percent to seventy-five per- 
cent of our coffee from that country; but 
war conditions, diverting nearly all of 
Central America's production to our ports, 
reduced the proportion to almost half. In 

1919 this had risen to fifty-nine per cent, in 

1920 it was somewhat over sixty percent, 
and in 1921 it attained a mark of sixty-two 
and five-tenths percent. The actual amount 
shipped, which was 839,212,388 pounds hav- 
ing a value of $77,186,271, was about seven 
percent higher than in 1920, which was 
785,810,689 pounds valued at $148,793,593 ; 
and about the same percent higher than 
that of 1919 — 787,312,293 pounds valued 
at $160,038,196. Although the actual pound- 
age showed an increase, it will be noted that 
the value fell off almost one-half as com- 
pared with 1920, and more than one-half 
as compared with the year before. 

The real feature of the year, and perhaps 
the most interesting development in the 
coffee trade of this country in recent years, 
is the steady advance of Colombian coffee. 

In the year before the war, we obtained 
from our nearest South American neighbor 
87,176,477 pounds of coffee valued at $11,- 
381,675, which was about ten percent of our 
total imports. In 1919, the first year after 
the war, this amount was almost doubled, 
being 150,483,853 pounds with a value of 
$30,425,162. In 1920, there was a further 
increase to 194,682,616 pounds valued at 
$41,557,669, and in 1921 the high mark of 

249,123,356 pounds valued at $37,322,305 
was reached. This was a gain of twenty- 
eight percent over 1920 shipments ; and, 
although the value was less than in the year 
before, the decrease was only ten percent 
in a year when the average fall in value was 
forty-three percent. 

It will be news to many people interested 
in the coffee trade that the value of Colom- 
bian coffee now imported into the United 
States is almost half the value of the 
Brazilian coffee — $37,000,000 as compared 
with $77,000,000. The number of pounds 
imported is a little less than one-third the 
Brazilian contribution; but at the present 
rate of increase, it will pass the half mark 
in a few years. 

Colombia and Venezuela together now 
supply considerably more than half as much 
coffee as Brazil in value, and more than 
one-third as much in quantity. The average 
value of Colombian coffee in 1921 was about 
fifteen cents a pound, as compared with 
eleven cents for Venezuelan, nine cents for 
Brazilian, ten cents for Central American, 
and ten and six-tenths cents for total cof- 
fee imports. 

Shipments from Venezuela showed a drop 
in quantity of nine percent as compared 
with 1920 imports, being 59,783,303 pounds 
valued at $6,798,709; in 1920 they were 
65,970,954 pounds valued at $13,802,995; 
and in 1919, they were 109,777,831 pounds 
valued at $23,163,071. 

The figures relating to imports from 
Central America are of interest as showing 
to what extent we are continuing tc hold 
the trade of the war years, when nearly all 
coffee shipped from that region came to the 
United States. Although there has prob- 
ably been a considerable swing back to the 
trade with Europe, the 1921 figures show 
that a large percent of the trade that this 
country gained during the war is being 
retained. Imports in 1921 were consider- 
ably lower than in 1920 or in 1919, but were 
still more than three times as heavy as in 
1913, the last year of normal trade. 

The displacement of Central America's 
trade by the war, and the extent to which 
it has so far returned to old channels, are 
illustrated in the table of Imports into the 
United States from Central America in 
thB last nine years on page 301. 

As Germany was very prominent in pre- 
war trade, it is likely that more and more 
coffee will be diverted from the United 



Imports Into the United States from 
Central America 

Year Pounds Value 

1913 36.326.440 $4,635,359 

1914 44,896.856 5,465,893 

1915 71,361.288 8,093,532 

1916 111.259,125 12,775,921 

1917 148.031.640 15,751,761 

1918 195.259.628 19,234,198 

1919 131.638,695 19.375,179 

ir>20 159.204,341 30,388,567 

1921 118,607,382 12,308,250 

States as German imports gradually in- 
crease to their old level. 

Imports from Mexico in 1921 were 
greater by thirty-eight percent than in 1920, 
but were less than in 1919, and were still 
much below the normal trade before the 
war. The total was 26,895,034 pounds hav- 
ing a value of $3,475,122, as compared with 
19,519,865 pounds valued at $3,873,217 in 
the year before, and with 29,567,469 pounds 
valued at $5,434,884 in 1