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MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



ALLEGANY COUNTY 



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MARYLAND 
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



m. hK 




ALLEGANY COUNTY 



BALTIMORE 

THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS 

1900 




SBt fritbtnreaft iompang 



COMMISSION 



JOHN WALTER SMITH, President. 

GOVERNOR OF MARYLAND. 



JOSHUA W. HERING, . . . 

COMPTROLLER OF MARYLAND. 



• • 



DANIEL C. GILMAN, .... Executive Officer. 

PRESIDENT OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS CNIVERSITY. 

R. W. SILVESTER, Secretary. 

PRESIDENT OF THE MARYLAND AttRlCrLTCRAL COLLEGE. 



SCIENTIFIC STAFF 

Wm. Bullock Clark, ..... State Geologist. 

superintendent of the survey. 



Edward B. Mathews, . Assistant State Geologist. 



Charles S. Prosser, Chief of Division of Appalachian Geology. 



L. A. Bauer, . Chief of Division of Terrestrial Magnetism. 



C. C. O'Harra ..... Assistant Geologist. 



R. B. Eowe, ..... Assistant Geologist. 



Also with the cooperation of several members of the scientific 
bureaus of the National Government. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 

To His Excellenev John Walter Smith, 

Governor of Maryland and President of the Geological Survey 
Commission. 

Sir: — I have the honor to present herewith a report on The Physi- 
cal Features of Allegany County. The Volume constitutes the first 
of a series of reports on county resources, and is accompanied by an 
Atlas with large scale topographical and geological maps. The infor- 
mation brought forward in these publications is of both economic and 
educational significance and I believe will prove of interest and value 
both to those who are residents of the countv and those from a distance 
who may be considering sites for homes or for the investment of 
capital therein. I am, 

Very respectfully, 

Wm. Bullock Clark, 

State Geologist. 
Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, November, 1900. 



I 



CONTENTS 



PAOE 

PREFACE 17 

INTRODUCTION 23 

THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. By Cleveland Abbe, Jr. 27 

Introductoky 27 

Physiographic Divisions 28 

The Plateau District 28 

The Topography of the Plateau District 28 

The Drainage of the Plateau District 30 

The Structure of the Plateau District 32 

Stream Adjustments in the Plateau District 33 

The Ridge District 34 

The Topography of the Ridge District 34 

The Drainage of the Ridge District 37 

The Structure of the Ridge District 40 

Stream Adjustments in the Ridge District 40 

Topographic History 49 

Stages in the Topographic History 49 

The Present Stage 49 

The Terrace-forming Stage 50 

The Shenandoah Plain Stage 51 

The Schooley Plain Stage 53 

The Paleozoic Period and the Appalachian Revolution 54 

TnE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. By Cleophas C. O'Hakka. . . 57 

Introductory 57 

•Geographic and Geologic Relation* 57 

Historical Review GO 

Bibliography 69 

Stratigraphy and Areal Distribution S5 

The Silurian 8t> 

The Juniata Formation 86 

The Tuscarora Formation 87 

The Clinton Formation 89 

The Niagara Formation 91 

The Salina Formation 92 

The Devonian 94 

The Helderbcrg Formation 94 

The Oriskany Formation 98 

The Romucy Formation 103 

The Jennings Formation 106 

The Hampshire Formation 108 



12 CONTENTS 

PAttB 

The Carboniferous 109 

The Pocono Formation 109 

The Greenbrier Formation 1 10 

The Mauch Chunk Formation 112 

The Pottsvllle Formation 113 

The Allegheny Formation 1 15 

The Conemaugh Formation 118 

The Monongahela Formation 124 

The Permian 128 

The Dunkard Formation 128 

The Pleistocene 130 

The Alluvial and other Late Deposits 130 

Structure 132 

The Orleans Anticline 132 

The Town Hill Svncline 136 

The 8tratford Ridge Anticline 138 

The Oldtown and Pratt Valley Folds 139 

The Polish Mountain Syncline 141 

The Tussey Mountain Anticline 142 

The Martin Mountain and Collier Mountain Anticlines 144 

The Big Spring Run Syncline 144 

The Martin Spring Branch Syncline 144 

The Collier Run 8vncline 144 

The Evitts Mountain Anticline 145 

The Evitts Creek Syncline 146 

The Wills Mountain Anticline 148 

The Rawlings Syncline 149 

The Fort Hill Anticline 150 

The Georges Creek Syncline 150 

Dip, Strike and Pitch 152 

Faults 153 

Structure Sections 154 

Interpretation of the Sedimentary Record 155 

General Character and Variation of Sediments 155 

The Earlv Paleozoic Period 1 55 

The Tuscarora Period 156 

The Later Silurian Period 158 

The Helderberg Period 1 59 

The Oriskany Period 160 

The Devonian 8hale Period 160 

The Lower Carboniferous Period 162 

The Coal Measures Period 162 

Subsequent History 1 63 

THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. By Wm. B. Ci.aick, 

C. C. OMIarra, R. B. Rowe, and II. Ries 165 

Coals 1 66 

Description of the Coal Basin 166 



v 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 13 

PAGE 

History of its Development 167 

Names used for the Coal Basin 168 

The Coal Veins 169 

The Pottsville Coals 109 

The Allegheny Coals 171 

The Conemaugh Coals 175 

The Monongahela Coals 176 

Clays 180 

Fire-clavs 181 

Shales 182 

Sedimentary Clays 184 

Residual Clays 184 

Limb and Cement Product* 185 

Building Stones* 187 

Road Materials 188 

Iron Ore 189 

Mineral and Ordinary 8prings 191 

Miscellaneous Material* 192 

THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. By Clarence \V. Dorset 195 

Introduction 195 

The Formation of Soils 195 

External and Internal Conditions of the Soil 197 

Historical Sketch 198 

Soil Formations 200 

The Juniata 201 

The Tuscarora 201 

The Clinton 202 

The Niagara 203 

The Salina 30 a 

The Heiderbenr 204 

The Oriskany 206 

The Romney-Jeunings 207 

The Hampshire 20s 

The Pocono 209 

The Greenbrier- Mauch Chunk 210 

The Pottsville 210 

The Allegheny 210 

The Conemaugh 211 

The Monongahela 211 

The Dunkard 212 

Alluvial Soils 212 

THE CLIMATE OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. By Oliver L. Pashig 217 

Introduction 21 7 

Temperature 219 



14 CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Rainfall 223 

Description of Stationh 228 

Cumberland 228 

Boettcherville 22£ 

Westeruport 229 

Flintstone 23a 

Frostburt: 230 

Mount Savage 230 

Oldtown 230 

THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. By F. H. Newell 233 

THE MAGNETIC DECLINATION IN ALLEGANY COUNTY. By L. A. 

Bauer 25S 

Description of Stations 254- 

On the Establishment of the Surveyor's Meridian Line at Cumber- 
land 259 

THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. By George B. Sudworth 263 

Introduction 268 

Location 264 

Topographic Features 264 

8oil 265 

Water Flow 265 

Wooded Regions 267 

Character of the Forests 267 

Composition of Forests 268 

General Distribution of Forest Trees 269 

Distribution of Principal Timber Trees 270 

Distribution of Subordinate Timber Trees 272 

Distribution of Occasional Timber Trees 274 

Important Timber Trees : Their Abundance and Uses 275 

Relation of Lumbering and Mining to Reproduction 279 

Forest Fires and Their Relation to Reproduction 282 

Management and Utilization of Forest Resources 285 

Protection of Forest Lands from Fire 286 

Exclusion of Grazing from Forest Lands 287 

Regulation of Indiscriminate Cutting 288 

Regulation of Indiscriminate Clearing 290 

THE FLORA AND FAUNA OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. By C. Hart Mer- 
man and Edward A. Preble 291 

The Life Zones of Allegany County. By C. Hart Merriam 291 

The 8ummer Birds of Western Maryland. By Edward A. Preble 296 



k 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATE FACING PAGE 

I. Cumberland aud the Narrows of Wills Mouutain, from Shriver Ridge 23 

II. View of Model of Allegany County 28 

III. View from Wills Mountain, showing Escarpment of Tuscarora Sand- 

stone 36 

IV. Anticline in Saliua formation at Cement Mills, Cumberland 40 

V. Georges Creek Valley, near Barton 48 

VI. The Narrows of Wills Creek, near Cumberland 52 

VII. Views of Allegany County 60 

Fig. 1.— Toll-house on the National Road 60 

«* 2. — Pulp-mill, near Westernport 60 

VIII. View of North Branch of the Potomac, near Keyser, W. Va 64 

IX. View from Dans Rock, looking across the Potomac Valley 86- 

X. Geological Sections in Allegany County 92 

Fig. 1. — Characteristic Exposure of Clinton Sandstone 92 

" 2. — Hard Strata in Helderberg Formation, Devil's Backbone. 92 

XI. Geological Sections in Allegany County 100 

Fig. 1. — Fold in Oriskany Sandstone, near Mouth of South Branch 

of the Potomac 100 

Fig. 2. — Oriskany Exposure, Monster Rock, near Keyser, W. Va. . 100 

XII. Geological Sections in Allegany County 112 

Fig. 1. — Exposure of Jennings Sandstone, Corriganville 112 

»« 2. — Exposure of Pottsville Sandstone, Westernport 1 12 

XIII. Geological Sections in Allegany County 120 

Fig. 1.— The "Railroad Seam," near Piedmont 120 

" 2.— View of " Big Vein " Coal, in Ocean Mine No. 3 120 

XIV. Geological Sections in Allegany County 136- 

Fig. 1. — Faulted Anticline in Silurian Strata,* five miles southwest 

of Cumberland 130 

Fig. 2. — Sharp Fold in Devonian Sandy Shales near Little Orleans. 136- 

XV. Dans Rock, showing Pottsville Conglomerate 148 

XVI. Structural Sections in Allegany County 160 

XVII. Coal-mining in Allegany County 176- 

Fig. 1. — Pumping Station, Consolidation Coal Co 176- 

»» 2.— Mining Plant at Ocean No. 1 176 

XVIII. Hydrography of Allegany County 233 

Fig. 1. — Car used in Measuring Velocity of River Water 233 

44 2. — Measuring Velocity of River Water from Boat 23S 

XIX. Price Electric Current Meters, with Buzzers 236- 

XX. Hydrography of Allegany County 240 

Fig. 1. — Georges Creek at Westernport, near the Confluence with 

North Branch of Potomac 240 



16 ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATE FA CI NO PAOK 

Fig. 2. — Georges Creek at Westernport, looking up-stream from 

Washington Street Bridge 240 

XXI. Wills Creek at Cumberland 244 

XXII. Dam at Cumberland for Divertiug Water into tbe Chesapeake and 

Ohio Canal 248 

XXIII. Map of Allegany County, showing the lines of equal Magnetic 

Declination 254 

XXIV. Map of Allegany County showing Wooded Areas 264 

XXV. Forests of Allegany County 206 

Fig. 1.— Thin Forest Cover, Potomac River 206 

<< 2. — Farm and Forest Land, Martin Mountain 266 

XXVI. Forests of Allegany County 270 

Fig. 1.— Wooded Hill in Southwestern Allegany County 270 

" 2. — Narrow Agricultural Valley in Southeastern Allegany 

County 270 

XXVII. Forests of Allegany County 274 

Fig. 1.— Scrub Pine, near Oldtown 274 

«* 2.— Defective Large White Pine in Young Hardwood, Fifteen- 
mile Creek 274 

XXVIII. Forests of Allegany County 280 

Fig. 1. — Neglected Farmland, Eastern Allegany County 280 

" 2.— Shortleaf Pine and Pitch Pine, Town Hill 280 

XXIX. Forests of Allegany County 284 

Fig. 1. — Pitch Pine, near Pine Plains, Eastern Allegany County . . . 2*4 

ti 2. — Table Mountain Pine, Dans Mountain 284 

XXX. Forests of Allegany County 288 

Fig. 1 Shortleaf Pine and Hardwood, near Piney Grove 2S8 

" 2. — Cut over Hardwood Forest, Savage Mountain 288 

FIGURE PAOK 

1. Present Drainage in vicinity of Cumberland 41 

2. Present Drainage about Cumberland, on Shenandoah Plain 44 

8. Present Drainage about Cumberland, on Schooley Plain 48 

4. Columnar Section of the Geological Formations of Allegany County 86 

5. Columnar Section showing the Leading Coal Veins of Allegany County. . . 16ft 

6. Absolute Maximum, Average Maximum, Mean, Aver aire Minimum, and 

Absolute Minimum Temperatures for Allegany County 222 

7. Fluctuations in Mean Annual Temperature at Cumberland 223 

8. Fluctuations in the Mean Annual Rainfall at Cumberland 226 

9. Monthly Rainfall at Cumberland (average for 25 years) 227 

10. Average Number of Rainy days in the Valley of Allegany County 228 

11. Discharge of North Branch of the Potomac at Cumberland for 1895 241 

12. Discharge of North Branch of the Potomac at Cumberland for 1896 241 

18. Discharge of North Branch of the Potomac at Cumberland for 1S97 242 

14. Pure Growth of White Pine, near Flintstone 272 

15. Portable Steam Sawmill '276 



PREFACE 

The present volume on Allciranv Count v inaugurates a new series 
of reports dealing with the physical features of the several counties 
of Maryland. Not onlv the geoloirv aiul mineral resources of A lie- 
gany County will he considered hut also the physiography, soils, 
climate, hydrography, magnetic declination, forests and life character- 
istics. The geological chapters are limited to a descriptive discussion 
of the stratigraphy and structure, the systematic treatment of the 
geology and the paleontology awaiting later consideration. 

The Introduction contains a hrief statement regarding the location 
and boundaries of Allegany County and its chief physical charac- 
teristics. 

lite Physioyraphy of Atlvyuny County, by Cleveland Abbe, Jr., 

i 

embraces a discussion of the surface characteristics of the region, 
including not only a description of the outward forms but presenting 
reasons for their existence and resisting the processes by which they 
have been produced. l)r. Abbe's general report on the physiography 
of the whole state in Vol. I of the Marvland Weather Service is here 
supplemented by a detailed discussion of the physiography of Alle- 
gany County. 

The Geoloyy of Allcyany County* by Cleophas C. O'llarra, deal:- 
with the stratigraphy and structure of the county. An historical 
sketch is given of the previous work done in this field, to which is 
apj>ended a complete bibliography. The chapter dealing with the 
interpretation of the sedimentary record deserves especial mention 
since it gives an interesting history of this portion of Western ^Mary- 
land. 

The Mineral Ilrsourcrs of Allrynny Connty % by Wm. I>. Clark, C. 
C. O'llarra, R. 11 Rowe and II. Hies deals with the economic wealth 
of Allegany County, contained in it> rock> — the coal, brick, cement 
and other industries are described. 



«) 



18 PREFACE 

The Soils of Allegany County, by C. W. Dorsey, contains a discus- 
sion of the leading soil types of the county and their relation to the 
several geological formations. It is an important article, showing 
the close relations between the soils and geological formations. This 
investigation was conducted under the direct supervision of Prof. 
Milton Whitney, Director of the U. S. Soil Survey of the Department 
of Agriculture, who detailed Mr. Dorsey to carry on the actual work 
in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Survey. 

The Climate of Allegany County, by O. L. Fassig, is a valuable 
digest .of the leading climatic features of the county. Dr. Fassig is 
a Section Director in charge of the Baltimore Office of the U. S. 
Weather Bureau and has a thorough knowledge of Maryland Climate. 

The Hydrography of Allegany County, by F. H. Newell, gives an 
excellent account of the available water power in the upper Potomac 
basin. Mr. Xewell is the Chief of the Division of Hydrography of 
the U. S. Geological Survey and his paper is an important contribu- 
tion to the hydrography of Allegany County. 

The Magnetic Declination in Allegany County, by L. A. Bauer,, 
contains much important information for the local surveyors of the 
county. Dr. Bauer is the Chief of the Division of Terrestrial Mag- 
netism of the IT. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and has been engaged 
for several years past in making a magnetic survey of Maryland under 
the auspices of the State Geological Survey. 

The Forests of Allegany County, by G. B. Sudworth, is a contribu- 
tion of much significance to the forestry interests of Maryland. Mr. 
Sudworth has studied the forestry conditions of the county with much 
care and has brought together many important facts regarding the 
present and future prospects of the lumber industry. Mr. Sudworth 
is Dendrologist of the Forestry Division of the IT. S. Department of 
Agriculture. 

The Fauna and Flora of Allegany County, by C. Hart Merriam 
and Edward A. Preble, contains a discussion of the life zones of the 
county, together with a list of the summer birds of Western Maryland. 
Dr. Merriam is the Chief of the Biological Survey of the IT. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture and Mr. Preble one of his associates. Tliey 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 19 

have boon engaged in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Sur- 
vey in a study of the life characteristics of the Appalachian region. 

The State Geological Survey desires to extend its thanks to the 
several National organizations which have liberally aided it in the 
preparation of many of the papers contained in this volume. The 
Director of the U. S. Geological Survey, the Superintendent of the 
IT. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Chief of the U. S. Weather 
Bureau, the Chief of the Biological Survey and the Chiefs of the 
Soil and Forestry Divisions of the Department of Agriculture have 
granted every facility in the conduct of the several investigations. 
The value of the report has been much enhanced thereby. 

The illustrations contained in the volume have been obtained from 
various sources. Many of the photographs were taken by the authors 
of the several papers while in the field. The Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad and the Consolidation Coal Company have also generously 
loaned some of the most effective illustrations used. The view from 
Wills Mountain is the work of the Wertz's Art Studio of Cum- 
berland, while the views from Dans Mountain were taken by Mr. 
L. E. Jewell, of the Johns Hopkins University. 



I 



THE 



PHYSICAL FEATURES 



OF 



ALLEGANY COUNTY 



THE PHYSICAL FEATURES OF ALLEGANY 

COUNTY 



INTRODUCTION. 



Allegany county occupies a central position among the three 
mountainous counties of Western Maryland. It is located between the 
parallels 39° 26' and 39° 44' north latitude and the meridians 73° 20' 
and 79° 4' west longitude and covers an area of 477 square miles. 
The county is bounded on the north by Mason and Dixon's line, 
which runs between it and Somerset, Bedford and Fulton counties, 
Pennsylvania; on the east by Sideling Hill Creek, which separates 
it from Washington county, Maryland; on the southeast and south 
by the Potomac river, separating it from Morgan, Hampshire and 
Mineral counties, West Virginia; and on the west by Garrett county, 
Maryland, the boundary being a straight line drawn from the top of 
Savage Mountain where it is crossed by the Mason and Dixon's line 
to the middle of the mouth of Savage river. 

Allegany county, as an independent division of the state, dates 
from 1789, when an act was passed by the General Assembly creating 
out of the then existing confines of Washington county a new county 
which should include all that portion of the state lying to the west of 
Sideling Hill Creek. This continued to be the limits of Allegany 
county until 1872, when the General Assembly of that year created 
out of the western part of the county the new county of Garrett, 
which was to include all that portion of Allegany county lying to the 
north and west of " a line beginning at the summit of Big Backbone, 
or Savage Mountain, where that mountain is crossed by Mason and 
Dixon's line and running thence by a straight line to the middle of 
Savage river where it empties into "the Potomac river/' Several 



24 INTRODUCTION 

attempts were made to establish this line, but they were unsuccessful 
until 1898, when the Maryland Geological Survey was requested by 
Governor Lowndes, in accordance with an act of the General Assem- 
bly of that year, to accurately locate the boundary. The line was 
an extremely difficult one to run since the points were not intervisible, 
and the country rough and mountainous. The w r ork was successfully 
accomplished at the close of the summer of 1898 and the line marked 
with suitable monuments. 

The largest place in the county is Cumberland, built on the site of 
old Fort Cumberland of colonial days, a progressive city of 20,000 
inhabitants. It is the county-town and the center of the commercial 
life of the upper Potomac valley. Other prosperous towns are 
Frostburg, Lonaconing and Westernport. 

There are few regions more salubrious in climate or more beautiful 
in scenic surroundings than Allegany county. It is crossed from 
north to south by a succession of tree-clad mountains, while the inter- 
vening valleys are dotted with prosperous farms. Along its full 
length from west to east the Potomac river meanders through a beau- 
tiful valley, in part bordered by a broad, alluvial floodplain that 
affords rich farming lands, but more often confined by a deep, narrow 
gorge that presents the wildest of mountain scenery. Few regions 
anywhere are better provided with natural advantages for comfort- 
able residence. 

The economic resources of Allegany county are very extensive, the 
annual output aggregating several million dollars in value. Among 
the developed and undeveloped products are coal, fire-clay, cement- 
rock, iron ore, building-stone, road-metal, brick-shales, alluvial clays 
and mineral waters. To these should be added a great variety of 
soils, capable of producing diversified crops. 

Allegany county has from an early period possessed unusual facili- 
ties for the transportation of its products. The construction of the 
Cumberland Turnpike Road by private enterprise early in the cen- 
tury, and its extension westward to the Ohio by the general govern- 
ment as a National Road, brought Allegany county at an early day 
into direct communication with the regions both to the east and the 



\ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 25 

west of the Alleghenies. With the improvement in methods of trans- 
portation Allegany county early benefited, as the era of internal im- 
provement brought toward the middle of the century the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal within its 
confines. Its valuable coal had alreadv to some extent reached dis- 
tant markets bv means of rafts floated down the Potomac river, but 
with the advent of the railroad and canal the shipment of coal, iron, 
fire-brick and the products of the soil was rendered possible on a large 
scale, and Allegany county advanced from that time forward with 
rapid strides until it has come to reach its present position of com- 
mercial prosperity. Other railroads were gradually added, the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad system tapping the region from the north while the 
West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railway entered the county 
from the south. Two local railroads, the Cumberland and Pennsyl- 
vania and the Georges Creek and Cumberland, constructed mainly 
for the purpose of removing the great output of coal from the Georges 
Creek basin, supply the necessary transportation facilities to the most 
prosperous districts of the county. 

The succeeding chapters are devoted to a consideration of the 
physiography, the geology, the soils, the hydrography, the climate, 
the terrestrial magnetism, the forestry, and the fauna and flora of the 

county. 

W. B. C. 



THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY 

COUNTY 

BY 

CLEVELAND ABBE. Jr. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

There are, in general, two methods of studying the topography of 
anv area. The first and older method describes the outward forms 
of the surface features and classifies them according to their outward 
resemblances and dissimilarities onlv. The second and later method 
seeks, from a study of the outward forms, to discover the reasons for 
their existence and the processes by which they have been produced. 
When these latter are understood, it then becomes possible to classify 
surface forms according to the origin or genesis of each, i. e. to 
classify them on a genetic basis. The present physiographic study of 
Allegany county aims to so present its topography and topographic 
development as to make clear the reasons why the county has the 
surface features which characterize it These features, when rightly 
interpreted, reveal successive stages in the geologic and topographic 
historv of the countv. 

In Maryland the boundaries of the Appalachian Province include 
the three westernmost counties of the state, viz., Garrett, Allegany 
and Washington, and also the western portion of Frederick county. 1 
This topographic province has been divided into three sub-provinces; 
namely, the Alleghany Plateau, the Greater Appalachian Valley and 
the Blue Ridge or Catoctin district. The major portion of Allegany 
county lies in the western part of the Greater Appalachian Valley, 

i Maryland Geological Survey Reports, vol. Hi, pi. Hi, Map showing the Physio- 
graphic Provinces of Maryland. 



28 TIIK PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

and includes about one-half of that portion of the sub-province which, 
because of its peculiar topography, is called the district of the Alle- 
ghany Ridges. The western part of the county takes in a narrow 
strip along the eastern edge of the Alleghany Plateau. 

PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS. 

As Allegany county lies in two of the subdivisions of the Appa- 
lachian Province, it may be divided into two corresponding, well- 
marked topographic districts. One of these districts includes all that 
portion of the county which lies to the west of the eastern foot of 
Dans and Piney mountains, and will be called the Plateau District, 
as it is a portion of the Alleghany Plateau sub-province. The other 
district includes that portion of the county lying between Piney 
Mountain and Sideling Creek. As this portion of the county lies 
within the sub-province of the Alleghany Ridges, it will be called 
the Iiidge District. 

THE PLATEAU DISTRICT. 

The Topography of the Plateau District. — The topography of the 
Plateau District is simple when compared with that of some other 
portions of ilaryand, such as the Piedmont Province. It consists of 
an elevated area lying between two long parallel mountain crests, and 
may be most conveniently divided into the general upland, the bound- 
ing mountains, and the outer slopes of the latter. 

The general upland, lying between the parallel northeast-south- 
west ridges of Dans and Rig Savage mountains, has a strongly rolling 
surface. This is due to the steep-sided stream valleys, which often 
cut deeply into what would be, otherwise, an even surface lying 
about 2100 feet above mean sea-level. The undulations of the 
surface are most strongly marked along a line about midway between 
the bounding crests. They gradually fade out on either side this* 
line, melting into the gentler, even slopes which lead up from it to 
the boundaries. This rolling surface is most, continuously and typic- 
ally developed over that portion of the district, lying between Fro^t- 
biirg and the Pennsylvania line. Frostburg, itself, occupies one of the 
broader interstream areas. Going southwest ward from Frostburg, 



MARYLAND GEOLOGIC* I. SURVEY. 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE II 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SlttVEY 20 

which is at an altitude of about 2000 foot, the general surface rise? 
gradually. The average elevation of the upland thus increase? from 
about 1000 feet at the Pennsylvania line, to nearlv 2T>00 feet near 
the southwestern corner of the countv. This increase in elevation 
south westward is accompanied by an increase in the number and 
<lepth of the stream valleys. The general upland thus becomes more 
and more cut up and dissected. This is best shown by the reproduc- 
tion of the model of the county, .Plate II, and the topographic map 
of the countv contained in the Phvsical Atlas. 

The altitudes attained by a number of hills belonging to the present 
general upland are given in the accompanying Table of Elevations. 
They show the gradual rise of the surface* southward, which is down- 
ward in the table, and when studied with a view to variations above 
or below a mean plane do not reveal a very great range. This latter 
fact suggests the idea that formerly the surface of the plateau was 
less rolling and lay an almost even surface, several hundred feet above 
present stream channels. 

TABLE OF ELEVATIONS OF THE PLATEAU DISTRICT, ALLEGANY CO. 

General rpluml. 



Crest of 


Bip Savage Mt. 


2780 


feet. 


288i» 


ii 


2i>42 


it 


2920 


it 


2t>:!0 


ti 


3022 


ti 


2900 


t> 


3400 


ti 


2851* 


it 



11MK) 


feet. 


1!»77 


ii 


SI OK 


tt 


2021 


tt 


2241 


ii 


2200 


tt 


2120 


ti 


2400 


t i 



Crest of 


Duns- Little Allegheny. 


2155 


feet. 


22 <W 


it 


2407 


» t 


2410 


^ 


2U21 


i . 


2SS2 


t« 


27HW 


tt 


27W) 


ti 



The slopes of the upland pass rather gradually into the slopes 
leading to the boundaries of the district. These boundaries are the 
long, straight, even crests of Big Savage Mountain on the west and 
Dans Mountain on the ea*t. They owe their prominence to upturn- 
ings of the resistant .Pottsville sandstone which now forms the crests 
of both mountains. Because of this sudden upward bending of the 
.strata around the edges of the plateau, the outer slopes of the bound- 



30 THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

ing mountains are much steeper than the inner slopes which lead 
back towards the elevated general upland. The boundaries of the 
plateau therefore have unsymmetrical slopes, the steeper and shorter 
falling, often precipitously, to the valleys of the Savage and the 
Potomac rivers, the longer, gentler slopes melting back into the 
upland. 

One remarkable and characteristic feature of both boundaries is 
the almost unbroken continuity of their crests. Throughout its 
length in Maryland, Dans Mountain and its continuation, Little Alle- 
gheny, is but three times crossed by streams. On the south the Po- 
tomac cuts its way across in a gorge at Piedmont, W. Ya., fifteen miles 
to the northeast, Braddock Run crosses the mountain in a narrow 
V-shaped gorge 1200 feet deep, and four miles farther on Jennings 
Run cuts a somewhat similar gorge across Little Allegheny. Big 
Savage Mountain is not crossed by streams equal in size to those just 
mentioned, and therefore has not been so deeply cut by gorges. The 
interstream stretches of Dans Mountain maintain a more nearly 
uniform, though lower altitude than docs the less deeply but more 
minutely interrupted crest of Big Savage Mountain. The average 
crestline altitude of the latter mountain is 2913 feet, that of the 
former is 2517 feet above mean sea-level. The trend of the crests 
of both mountains is parallel to the general northeast-southwest trend 
of all this portion of the Appalachians. 

The Drainage of the Plateau District. — The streams of the Plateau 
District are all comparatively small, with the single exception of the 
North Branch of the Potomac. Georges Creek, which is the largest 
of the streams, is about 15 miles in length. It drains the greater 
portion of the district, flowing midway between Dans and Big Savage 
mountains southwestward to join the North Branch of the Potomac 
at Westernport. The valley of Georges Creek Ls slightly tortuous 
in character and very deep in comparison with its width. As the 
stream is subject to spring and fall floods, considerable quantities of 
soil and debris have been washed into the channel from the steep 
slopes leading down from the hilltops of the upland. Consequently 
a narrow flood-plain of boulders, coarse gravel and sand has been 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 31 

formed. The southward increase in depth of the valley is accounted 
for by increased steepness of the side slopes. The creek is fed by 
numerous small streams heading along Dans and Savage Mountains 
and occupying narrow, steep-sided ravines in which minor flood-plains 
are also developing as the result of the rapid waste of the less 
resistant strata. 

The northern portion of the general upland is drained by Braddock 
and Jennings runs, two tributaries to Wills Creek. These two 
streams differ from Georges Creek in leaving the Plateau District 
through transverse gaps in the northern part of its eastern boundary, 
i. e. Piney and Little Allegheny mountains. They run against the 
inward or westward dipping strata of these mountains and are there- 
fore in striking contrast to Georges Creek, which follows down the 
southward sloping axis of the stratigraphic trough which makes up 
the Plateau District. Their valleys are characteristically narrow and 
steepsided. Jennings Run has developed a rather narrow but well- 
defined valley lowland between Mt. Savage and Little Allegheny. 
This is probably due to locally resistant layers near Mt Savage. The 
sharp ravines and steeper grades which mark the headwaters of these 
streams indicate that they are, at present, more aggressive than the 
headwaters of Georges Creek; but it is not certain that they will long 
continue so. The steep and narrow gorge w r hich now characterizes 
the lower course of Georges Creek indicates that that stream has been 
actively at work in recent times, eroding the yielding rocks of the 
Lower Coal measures (Allegheny formation). This activity has not 
yet affected its headwaters. In the deepening and widening of their 
valleys, the two northern streams are now opposed by the resistant 
Pocono and Pottsville strata. These have a much lower elevation at 
the mouth of Georges Creek than they have where Braddock Kun 
and Jenuings Run cross them. Therefore Georges Creek will be 
able to reduce its valley-floor to a lower level more quickly and easily 
than can Braddock and Jennings runs. 

Besides noticing these three leading drainage lines, attention should 
be called to the large number of small streams, most of them inter- 
mittent in character, which drain the eastern slope or face of Dans 



32 THK I'lIT-rOOKAPKY O? ALLEOA.W COCyTY 

Mountain. Th'-y have brough* on r . by a ^»rt of etching process, the 
feevral layer? of which the mountain ir made up. By removing the 
yielding -trara underlying the resi-tant -uinmit rock • Pottiville 1. the 
«re*t has eorne to present a precipitous rocky face on the eastern side. 
At somewhat regular interval- -pur- run from the fwt of this cliff 
and reach one-half wav down the mountain to rounded kn-bs of 
Pocono Mind-tone, while in behind these eminenctr- gullies and 
ravine* are growing along the yielding Maueh Chunk and Gret- nbrier 
Htrata, reaching on either side from the main furrows leading down 
the hlope to the North Branch of the Potomac. Still lower down, 
at about JSOO feet, are rounded foothills marking the junction of the 
Hampshire and Jennings formation-. 

The Strut-fare of the Plateau Distrirt. — The structure of the 
Plateau District is comparatively -imple. The rocks which enter 
into ite composition are the youngest Paleozoic strata in the county. 
They are of many degrees of resistance, and range from the slowly 
yielding quartzitic Pocono sandstone to the yielding shales of the 
Hampshire and Dunkard formations. The structure sections accom- 
panying the report on the geology of the county <P1. XVI) show 
that these strata are but slightly disturbed. It appears that they 
have been bent into a broad shallow trough or syncline. The central 
depression of this trough now stands higher than the deep valleys of 
Savage and Potomac rivers on either side. The trough is much 
longer than it is wide, and extends from Somerset county, Penn- 
sylvania, across Maryland and continues southwest ward for a number 
of miles into West Virginia. The strata contained in this trough 
hIiow very slight and unimportant minor disturbances, but the trough 
a* a whole is tipped slightly south westward, or its longer axis is 
ol>served to rise gently towards the northeast. This inclination of 
the longer axis Ls not sufficient to cause a convergence of the outcrops 
of the different strata. On the contrary, the long parallel crests of 
Big Savage, Little Savage and Dans mountains do not betray, within 
the boundaries of Maryland, the fact of this tipping. The strata 
which make up the Plateau District therefore appear on the eastern 
slope of Dans Mountain as long parallel bands of rock dipping some- 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 33 

what steeply northwestward into the mountain. "Within the limits of 
the upland area the strata lie for the most part almost horizontal, 
tipping up rather rapidly only in the immediate vicinity of the two 
bounding crestlines. 

There are, then, within the Plateau District two distinct types of 
structure which will affect the topography and drainage-pattern of 
the district. Along the boundaries the structure is essentially mono- 
clinal, while within the upland area the structure is horizontal in 
character. 

Stream Adjustments in the Plateau District, — The streams of the 
district present several interesting examples of both adjustment and 
non-adjustment to the structural features just outlined. The only 
marked example of complete adjustment to the existing structure is 
furnished by Georges Creek. This stream, which occupies an axial 
position in that portion of the plateau which in former times would 
seem to have been the bottom of the great trough, probably belongs 
to the class of consequent streams which were described by Professor 
Davis in his study of the Pennsylvania drainage. These streams 
always occupy positions which they would be compelled to take if the 
configuration of the surface were determined only by the foldings 
and dislocations of the strata. The tributaries to Georges Creek in 
general confirm this classification of the main stream. They run into 
the creek almost at right angles to its general direction after having 
themselves followed courses down the gentle dip of the strata on 
either side of the structural trough. The headwaters of many of 
these side-streams show a tendency, sometimes very marked in its 
character, to develop along the more yielding bands which run 
parallel to the general trend of the boundaries in the vicinity of the 
crestlines. Among the better marked examples of this incipient 
adjustment to the structure as it is revealed by erosion, may be 
mentioned the headwaters of "Winebrenner Run, Elk Lick Run and 
Wrights Run. 

The most marked cases of discordant or unadjusted drainage are 
those of Braddock Run and Jennings Run. These two streams, as 
has already been mentioned, drain the northern portion of the district 



•> 



34 THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

by cutting their way eastward directly across the crests of Dans and 
Piney mountains. They are thus in striking contrast to Georges 
Creek and its tributaries. It is only in the tendency of their head- 
waters to seek out adjusted subsequent courses along the tilted strata 
on the western slopes of Dans Mountain that they bear any resem- 
blance to Georges Creek. Beyond the boundaries of the district they 
become a part of the Wills Creek drainage system of the Ridge 
District, and here show more perfect adjustment to existing struc- 
tures. Their discordant location upon the boundary of the Plateau 
District and the adjustments of their lower courses, seem to be very 
clearly connected with the development of certain topographic fea- 
tures of the Ridge District. The discussion of these streams will 
therefore be deferred until the drainage development of a portion 
of the Ridge District has been considered. 

The remaining streams of the Plateau District, those small streams 
flowing down the east slope of Dans Mountain, show a slight degree of 
adjustment along their headwaters. Their upper courses are gener- 
ally in narrow vales between the knobs of Pocono sandstone and the 
Pottsville which forms the crest. The major portion of their courses 
lies at right angles to the strike or outcrop of the strata and they run 
against the dip. They have developed chiefly as wet-weather streams 
on the valley slopes, gradually increasing in length as the Potomac 
has cut its valley deeper. 

THE RIDGE DISTRICT. 

The Topography of the Ridge District. — The topography of the 
Ridge District is much more varied than is that of the Plateau Dis- 
trict. The most distinctive features of the topography are the sets 
of long, parallel, sharp-crested ridges and narrow intervening valleys 
which here cross the state from northeast to southwest. The general 
parallelism of the prominent topographic features is best shown by 
the model of the county (Plate II). The model of the State of 
Maryland x and the hypsometric map a also bring out these features. 

The most prominent ridges of the district are Wills Mountain, 

> Maryland Geol. Survey, Vol. i, 1S97, plate i. Mbid., plate vi. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 35 

rising to a height of 1870 feet; Martin Mountain, above 1980 feet; 
Warrior Mountain, 2135 feet; Polish Mountain, 1740 feet; and Town 
Hill, 2000 feet. Minor ridges such as the Devil's Backbone west of 
Wills Mountain, Shriver Ridge at Cumberland and Fort Hill are 
sometimes found subdividing the valleys between the major eleva- 
tions. In nearlv all cases the ridges are the southward continuations 
of elevations which are perhaps more typically developed in Penn- 
sylvania. Their distinctive features in that state are the long, even 
and uninterrupted crestline, the generally uniform and but slightly 
ravined slopes, and the marked mutual parallelism of direction. Such 
a description will apply equally well to the Maryland ridges. In 
Allegany county, however, a number of the ridges do not pass com- 
pletely across the state, but decline in elevation quite rapidly just 
before reaching the Potomac. The resultant rather tapering points 
leading down to lower levels in the immediate vicinity of the Potomac 
are well illustrated in the southern terminations of Warrior Mountain 
and Polish Mountain. The minor ridges are also characterized by 
even crestlines and a general parallel arrangement which is in har- 
mony with that of the larger ones. They are, however, much more 
frequently interrupted by the crossing and recrossing of streams, 
while their slopes are somewhat less frequently dissected by small 
streams. 

The cross-profiles of die ridges are commonly very expressive of 
the internal structure or the attitude of the strata which make them. 
Some of the ridges are due to the arching up of a stratum of resistant 
sandstone or quartzite. Then either slope has its steepness controlled 
by the inclination of that resistant layer. If the arch is symmetrical, 
giving equal inclination on either side, that fact will appear in the 
symmetrical cross-profile of the ridge. Should one side have a steeper 
dip than the other, as is the case in Wills Mountain, then the slopes 
of the ridge are found to be unequal. Sometimes, as in Shriver 
Ridge, the ridge is due to a resistant stratum underlain and overlain 
by yielding layers, the whole being inclined in one direction. Then 
by the removal of the yielding strata, the resistant one has been 
brought into relief as a ridge whose one side is of gentle slope agree- 



36 TIIE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUXTY 

ing with the dip of the rocks, while the other side is steep where 
undermining has gone on by the removal of the yielding rocks lying 
below the ridge-making stratum. Such ridges may be called mono- 
clinal ridges, since the strata which make them are all inclined in the 
one direction. Those ridges and mountains which, like "Wills Moun- 
tain, are arches of rock, may be called anticlinal ridges. Wills 
Mountain and Evitts Mountain are the best examples of this type of 
ridge. Warrior Mountain is also anticlinal in structure, but its crest 
owes its prominence not to the resistance of a roof of sandstone, but 
to its Oriskany sandstone flanks, which have prevented streams 
from attacking the weak limestone core. There is one other type of 
ridge in this district, viz., the synclinal ridge. Such a ridge is char- 
acterized by a trough-like internal arrangement of its strata with a 
bed of resistant rock forming the crest or serving as a barrier along 
the sides and protecting the more yielding rocks beneath it Town 
Hill, with its narrow capping of Pocono sandstone protecting the 
Hampshire shales beneath it, seems to be the only example of such a 
ridge in this district. 

The area occupied by the higher and more important ridges is a 
comparatively small proportion of the "Ridge District. By far the 
greater area is occupied by the valleys between these ridges. As 
these valleys have an average elevation above mean sea-level of about 
900 feet, the mean elevation of the district is several hundred feet 
(800) below that of the Plateau District. These valleys are the result 
of erosion, which has removed the more yielding rocks, leaving the 
resistant strata as ridges. Xo ease lias been found where a present 
valley in the Ridge District coincides as closely with a structural 
trough or syncline as was found to be the case with the Georges 
Creek valley in the Plateau District. All the larger valleys seem to 
have been determined, both as to position and direction, by the 
arrangement of the more yielding rocks. They therefore belong to 
the same general class of valley < as those smaller ones carved by the 
headwaters of the tributaries to Geonres Creek. They have been 
developed subsequent to the deformation of the strata and are not 
consequent upon original troughs and ridges. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




VIEW FROM WILLS MOUNTAIN, SHOWING ESCARPMENT OK TUSCAKOKA SANDSTONE. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 37 

To the casual observer these subsequent valleys appear to have 
very uneven floors. The streams which now occupy the valleys often 
flow at. the bottom of steep-sided ravines or gorges, a hundred or two 
hundred feet in depth in many cases, while their tributaries have cut 
up the surface very considerably. Thus there are very few interstream 
areas which afford even stretches more than two or three miles in 
extent. The general impression of the traveler is that the country 
is very hilly. If, however, one ascends one of the higher ridges, such 
as Shriver Ridge at Cumberland, or Pine Ridge north of Oldtown, 
the appearance of the valley topography is changed. The many 
small valleys and ravines drop out of sight. The hills are seen to be 
of nearly the same height and their level, slightly rounded tops seem 
to unite in a single broad, gently rolling surface. The even and 
level appearance which the valley floors thus take on is yet more 
marked when they are viewed from a point near the crest of one of 
the higher ridges, such as Warrior Mountain. 

It is an interesting fact that the accordant hilltops in the one 
valley rise to the same level as do those in neighboring valleys. 
When the bounding ridges do not come quite to the Potomac, it is 
possible to trace their levels around the southern termination of the 
ridges from one valley to the next. The general level to which most 
of the hillcrests seem to rise is about nine hundred feet above mean 
sea-level, but this is not an absolutely constant figure. The general 
level rises to about one thousand feet towards the Pennsylvania 
boundary and increases gradually going westward to the same eleva- 
tion in the vicinitv of Cumberland. 

a. 

The Drainage of the Ridge District. — The drainage of the district 
is entirely into the Potomac, and except in one case, that of Fifteen- 
mile Creek, the streams have a general southward direction parallel 
with the ridges. The courses of the streams, especially the smaller 
ones, are generally direct and closely parallel with the smaller ridges. 
The larger streams, however, do not adhere strictly to this general 
rule: but, in many cases, after flowing parallel with a larger ridge 
for some distance, make a sudden turn and cut through the ridge in 
narrow V-shaped gorges, after which they again turn southward and 



38 TIIE PIIYSIOCfRAPHY OF ALLEGAXY COUNTY 

resurae their parallel courses. The most marked instances of these 
transverse gorges with parallel courses on either side are found in 
Wills Creek, which has to cross Wills Mountain before it reaches the 
Potomac, and Town Creek, which crosses Warrior Mountain in its 
upper course, and then, after flowing southward parallel with this 
ridge for a number of miles, again turns eastward and cuts back and 
forth through the northern extremity of Stratford Ridge. In the 
case of Fifteenmile Creek, the general direction of the stream is 
southeastward instead of southwestward, as is the case with all the 
other streams. This course takes the stream more directlv to the 
Potomac, but compels it to cross several high ridges of resistant 
rocks instead of following one of the southwestward valleys on the 
yielding rock. Many of the small side-streams of this creek have 
sought out courses along bands of yielding rock crossed by the main 
stream, so that their courses are developed in conformity with the 
general direction of the streams of the district. Most of the streams 
of the district are characterized by somewhat meandering courses, 
particularly along their lower courses. The range of the meandering 
is often restricted to the valley limits as bounded by the smaller ridges. 
Such is the case with Evitte Creek. Sometimes, however, the stream 
is found to range beyond the minor barriers of the valley, in its 
course crossing from one side to the other of ridges of resistant rocks. 
Thus, Town Creek crosses the northern end of Stratford Ridge, com- 
posed of Oriskany sandstone, and Sideling Hill Creek meanders across 
a number of minor ridges between Town Hill and its mouth. These 
streams are all characterized by flood-plains or rich bottom-lands of 
moderate extent, and their meandering courses are, in part, due to 
their present flood-plain conditions. These bottom-lands, however, 
form the floors of meandering trenches from 50 to 200 feet in depth 
and bounded by steep, even precipitous sides. In spite of the graded 
channels now occupied by the streams, these deep and comparatively 
narrow trenches indicate recent down-cutting of the streams. It is 
probable, therefore, that the meandering courses, though in part 
accentuated by the present stream-cutting activities, in large part have 
been inherited from some former different condition of the streams. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 39 

These meandering lower courses seem to characterize chiefly the larger 
streams, and are best illustrated by Town Creek, Sideling Hill Creek 
and Evitts Creek. These characteristics are not confined to the 
streams flowing into the Potomac from the north, but are also to be 
found among the streams of West Virginia which empty into the 
same river in this district. 

Another characteristic of certain streams is that of deflected lower 
courses. The most marked instance of this deflection is found in 
Big Spring Run, which enters the Potomac at Oldtown. This 
stream in its upper course flows southward along the western foot of 
Warrior Mountain. After reaching the southern extremity of the 
ridge, where it is about 1£ miles from the Potomac, instead of con- 
tinuing southward, it turns sharply around the nose of the ridge and 
follows a longer southeast course to Oldtown, four miles from the 
point where it would have entered the Potomac if it had followed the 
more direct course. Another example of deflection, though on a 
smaller scale, is found in the case of Maple Hun, a small tributary 
which enters Town Creek opposite the northern end of Stratford 
Ridge. This stream flows southwestward until within a quarter of a 
mile of the creek, then, instead of continuing in this direction, it 
turns abruptly down stream and flows parallel with Town Creek for 
nearly a mile before entering it. A ridge about 100 feet high and 
with an elevation above sea-level of something more than 700 feet 
stands between the two streams throughout this distance. 

Many of the streams, such as Sideling Hill Creek and Fifteenmile 
Creek show r slight deflections up or down stream where they approach 
most nearly to the Potomac; but the only other well-marked instance 
showing considerable deflection seems to be that of the stream which 
flows into the Potomac opposite Paw Paw, W. Va. It rises between 
Green Ridge and Town Hill, flows southwestward for a mile and a 
half, until, when within the same distance of the Potomac, it turns 
sharply to the southeast around the southern end of Town Hill. 
After uniting with a small southwestward flowing stream on the east 
side of Town Hill, it continues its course southeastward to the Poto- 
mac. It is noteworthv that these deflections are all down stream 



40 THE THYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

with reference to the Potomac, and that thev are confined almost 
entirely to the larger streams. 

The Structure of the Ridge District. — The structure of the Ridge 
District is very different from that of the Plateau District. Begin- 
ning with the arch on the west, of which "Wills Mountain is the core, 
the same series of rocks appears again and again as one travels east- 
ward across the countv. The reason for this is that the rocks have 
been folded into arches and troughs, whose axes run northeast-south- 
west, and which are now cut across by the general surface of the 
district. Thus the edges of the cut strata appear on the surface as 
parallel or convergent bands. Where the axes of the folds are almost 
horizontal, the recurring bands of rock run parallel for considerable 
distances. "When" an arch or a trough rises or sinks, the bands draw 
closer together or diverge. Sometimes a great arching of the strata 
brings up above the levels of the stream-channels a bed of heavy 
sandstone, or of limestone flanked by sandstone. Then the streams 
are found to etch out surrounding strata and leave an anticlinal ridge. 
Again, in past ages a great trough may have buried a sandstone bed 
below the ancient stream-levels, thus preventing its removal. In 
such cases it often happens that the arches on either side of the 
trough will be removed completely, while the trough remains as the 
crest of a synclinal ridge. Between the anticlines and the synclines, 
the rocks come to the surface only as eastward- or w T estward-dipping 
beds. Thus the foundations are furnished for monoclinal, synclinal 
and anticlinal ridges and valleys. 

Stream Adjustments in the Ridge District. — In discussing the 
topography of the Ridge District, the valleys have already been 
described and referred to as of subsequent origin. The streams 
occupying such valleys are always, in part at least, confined to them. 
In a number of cases in the Ridge District, it has been found that 
at one or more points certain streams will break their way across 
bounding ridges or mountains. They thus become, for a short dis- 
tance, transverse in character and lose the close adjustment to struc- 
ture which distinguishes a number of them. Many of the streams 
are characterized by adjusted course's, at least in so far as they are 



i 




ANTICLINE IN SALINA FORMATION AT CEMENT MILLS, CUMBERLAND. 



MABYLASD 



related to the more important structural features. This class includes 
Evitts Creek, the stream draining Frog Hollow, the two streams on 
either side of Shrivcr Ridge, and one or two smaller streams. Some 
of these streams, notably Town Creek, while following adjusted 
courses so far as the major features are concerned, yet betray a 
rather general disregard for the minor variations in resistance pos- 




drftiiini;i' in vicinity of Cum 



sessed by many of the valley-making rocks. Most of the streams of 
any importance, however, embrace within single systems both ad- 
justed and transverse features. Thus, Wills Creek follows yielding 
strata for a long distance, only to turn iihntptly across "Wills Mountain 
at Cumberland. Its principal tributary on the south, Brnddock Run, 
also follows an adjusted course in part, but above Allegany Grove it 
is located transversely aero** Piney Mountain. Jennings Run is 
similar. 



42 THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGAXY COOTTY 

The streams of the Ridge District are thus seen to show three 
different elates or degrees of adjustment to the arrangement of the 
underlying rocks. These three degrees are of double significance. 
At first sight it is evident that only the smaller and weaker, perhaps 
also only the younger, streams belong to the first class, which includes 
the streams closely adjusted to the smaller differences among the 
rocks. The streams belonging to the second class are in most cases 
among the larger, stronger streams of the district. The third class 
of stream*, those showing l>csides adjustments, transverse characters 
even with respect to the strongest structural features, include only the 
strongest and largest streams of the county. Further study will 
show that in general these three degrees of adjustment among the 
streams indicate three epochs in the topographic development of the 
county. The smaller, more delicately adjusted streams indicate the 
most recent changes: the larger, more discordant streams point back 
farther and farther into the past. 

To illustrate this, consider the geologically recent history of Town 
Creek. Just before the creek excavated the meandering trench 
which it now occupies, it flowed through a comparatively broad and 
gently rolling valley which extended from "Warrior Mountain on the 
west to Polish Mountain and Green Ridge on the east. The general 
characteristics and indubitable former existence of this higher valley- 
floor are manifest to any one who will ascend one of the flat-topped 
hills or ridges. Standing on Pine Ridge near the gorge of the creek, 
for example, and looking thence across the remarkably accordant 
tops of all the neighboring hills, one may easily imagine the young 
gorge to be filled again with all the waste rock and earth which the 
streams have recently carried awav. When such a restoration has 
been made, all the sharp inequalities of the present surface disappear. 
Stratford Ridge becomes a low, even insignificant mound, and Pine 
Ridge, together with many other hills and ridges, unite to form 
a common broad valley-floor, standing about 000 feet above mean sea- 
level near the Potomac and rising slowly to 1000 feet at the Penn- 
sylvania line. This even, level valley must have been occupied by a 
winding stream, just as to-day small streams occupying similar valleys 
are found to be meandering and uncertain in direction. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 43 

The fact that to-day Town Creek is flowing in a deep trench indi- 
cates that its basin has been elevated, giving the stream opportunity 
to cut its channel deeper than it did at the time when it fashioned the 
broad valley now standing above it. The old elevated valley itself 
indicates that, during the period preceding the elevation just referred 
to, the land had remained stationary long enough to allow the stream 
to cut its channel as low as possible and the rains and rills to wear 
down the more yielding rocks of the valley close to the level of the 
stream. Even beds of more resistant sandstone, such as that found 
in Stratford Ridge, were well worn down by the rain and other 
agencies, so that, as the stream spread out its broadening flood-plain of 
bottom-land and shifted its course about, its channel stood across 
rocks which formerlv made hills as often as across those which had 
alwavs been vallev-floors. When the elevation occurred which 
caused the creek to entrench itself, the stream cut down rapidly, keep- 
ing the windings which it had in its flood-plain condition. To-day, 
therefore, the stream shows a general course which is independent of 
the minor variations in resistance found in the rocks of its broader 
valley. Smaller streams which have grown since this elevation 
occurred have taken advantage of the various kinds of rocks and have 
developed most strongly along those which have been the easiest to 
remove. As these streams started later, they have not been able to 
attain as great a size as have those streams which were in existence 
before the elevation took place. 

In some cases the development of these younger, smaller and better- 
adjusted streams has resulted in decided changes in drainage lines. 
A striking and interesting example is found in Hraddock Run, of the 
Wills Creek system. 

The period of lower level which permitted Town Creek to carve 
such a wide, evenly-floored valley, gave Wills Creek similar oppor- 
tunity. At that time, however, Braddock Run did not pursue its 
present course northeast from Allegany Grove, but ran eastward to 
join Wills Creek or perhaps the Potomac, after cutting across Wills 
Mountain through a gap now seen about one mile northeast of Alle- 
gany Grove. The present valley between Piney and Wills mountains 



44 



THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGAKY COENTY 



is hut the successor of a wider valley which in those days had been 
worn out on the same yielding, soluble limestones and shales that are 
found there as valley-makers to-day. This former valley was due to 
the work of two small streams, one (b) flowing northward emptied 
into Wills Creek just where it turned to cross Wills Mountain, the 
other (a) flowing southward joined Braddock Run near where it also 
crossed the same sandstone harrier. 




— Dr»lii»se abnut 



At that time, both Wills Creek and Braddock Run were smaller 
than they are to-day; still Wills Creek must have been the larger, and 
therefore the more powerful, even then, for it had in addition to 
Jennings Run a considerable tributary from the north. The stream 
arrangement at this time was as shown in Fig. 2. When the eleva- 
tion occurred, as a result of which both Town Creek and Wills Creek 
deepened their channels, the two streams a and b also went to work 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 45 

with renewed vigor. These two tributaries were limited in their 
rates of down-cutting by the rates at which their two main streams, 
Wills Creek and Braddock Kun, could reduce their channels. The 
superior power of Wills Creek, due to its greater size, would soon 
become apparent, and as a result, b would have the advantage of a 
lower outlet than a. This advantage possessed by b resulted in the 
gradual but continual shortening of a by the capture of its head- 
waters. Finally, when Wills Creek had cut its gorge down close to 
its present level, and b had lowered its channel in a corresponding 
degree, a was entirely extinguished. Braddock Run, which had been 
long delayed in its gap-cutting by the heavy sandstone of Wills 
Mountain and by its own small volume, was then tapped by the head- 
waters of b and led out along its present course into Wills Creek (see 
Fig. 7). Thus the gorge cut in Wills Mountain by Braddock Run 
has come to be abandoned and is but a wind-gap, while the activity 
of a small subsequent stream has caused a marked change in the 
course of the Run. 

A yet more marked change in course is now threatening Braddock 
Run. Warrior Run (Fig. 1, Wr.), which empties into the Xorth 
Branch at Brady, has been rapidly working its way around the south 
end of Wills Mountain, pushing up in between it and Dans Mountain 
until at the present time the headwaters at Winchester reach within 
a mile of the larger stream where it turns northward at Allegany 
Grove. The steep slopes and deep, sharply incised channels of the 
Warrior Run headwaters contrast very strongly with the open, gently 
sloping and much higher valley of Braddock Run. This contrast is 
very clearly shown by the contour lines on the topographic map of 
the county. Steep slopes, whether found on hills or in stream chan- 
nels, indicate rapid wearing away of the land surface, while mild and 
gentle slopes always indicate localities of more gradual wasting. In 
the present case it is clear that the headwaters of Warrior Run are 
rapidly (in a geological and geographical ?ense) encroaching upon the 
domain of Braddock Run. Alreadv the former stream has reduced 
its valley to levels several scores of feet below the levels of correspond- 
ing points on the northern side of the saddle-like divide, and it can be 



4*> THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

but a short time, geologically, before the working backward of its 
headwaters will intersect and undercut the channel and vallev of the 
much less active, though larger, stream. The upper portion of 
Braddock Run will then be drawn off to the Xorth Branch via "War- 
rior Run, while the lower course, much shrunken in volume, will 
still flow into Wills Creek. 

The reasons for the superior power of Warrior Run are not difficult 
to find. In the first place Warrior Run, which falls 470 feet in 4 
miles, has a much steeper slope than has Braddock Run, which falls 
the same vertical distance only after flowing for about 7 mile3. 
Warrior Run therefore has much more power to cut down its channel 
and to push back its headwaters. In the second place, by reason 
of the rapid plunging of the Wills Mountain anticline or arch, 
Warrior Run is able to avoid crossing the resistant sandstone of that 
mountain and has made its course entirely on the yielding rocks lying 
above. Thus this stream, finding less resistance offered by the rocks 
it crosses, can rapidly lower its grade, while Braddock Run and Wills 
Creek, opposed in "The Narrows" by the sandstone, are continually 

delayed. 

i. 

Tn .studying the minor discordances of Town Creek and Wills 
Creek, the younger gorges of these streams were supposed to have 
been reiillod by the materials carried from them, thus restoring the 
former wide vallev-floors between the highest ridges and mountains 
of the district. There are many hills and ridges in neighboring val- 
leys whose accordant tops rise to elevations corresponding with those 
in the two valleys mentioned. This suggests that similar restorations 
carried on at large would produce a number of similar and even 
confluent valley-floors. Such a general restoration, indeed, would 
reveal the fact that the vallevs were etched out and leveled, at about 
the same time and to the same depth, over a very wide expanse of 
territory. Because the limestone valley of the Shenandoah best shows 
this old lowland plain, the epoch during which it was produced is 
sometime* called the Shenandoah Plain Epoch, and the plain itself the 
Shenandoah Plain. 

When one attempts to unravel the reasons for the greater dis- 



^ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 47 

cordanccs which exist between the structure and the larger streams 
of the Ridge District, he must look back to period* in the topographic 
history yet earlier than the Shenandoah Plain Epoch. Here, again,, 
the first step may be a restoration of earlier forms by supposing that 
the rocks which have been removed are back in place. Restore them 
not only to the level of the Shenandoah Plain, but beyond to the 
general levels of the yet higher ridges and mountains. The result is 
even more striking than in the first case. Instead of a series of com- 
paratively even-bottomed valleys lying between well-marked ridges 
a broad gently rolling surface is found to have existed. It was crossed 
from south to north by long low ridges, whose locations corresponded 
with the present crests of Dans Mountain, Savage Mountain, Martin 
Mountain, Warrior Mountain, and perhaps Town Hill and Sideling 
Hill. Between these divides were broad shallow valleys coinciding- 
in general location with the present larger valleys. The great areal 
extent of this old almost plain surface is evidenced bv manv level 
mountain crests which rise to the same general altitude. One of 
these, School ey Mountain, in Pennsylvania, has given its name to- 
the general feature. 1 

The restoration assumed would bury the present sandstone crest of 
Wills Mountain several hundred feet deep beneath a series of shales, 
and limestones which are now found forming valleys and low-lying 
areas. This fact makes it probable that in the period being treated, 
the area between Dans Mountain and Martin Mountain was a broad 
level valley occupied by the predecessor of the present Potomac. 
At that time it would have been easy and natural for a moderate- 
sized tributary, growing westward from the Potomac at Cumberland,, 
to develop a branching system of streams across the buried crest of 
Wills Mountain and even to push its headwaters a short distance back 
behind the then low-lvine; ridge of Dans Mountain and Pinev Moun- 
tain. This scheme of the drainage is sketched in Fig. 3. 

The stream arrangements shown in this sketch must have been 
completed rather near the close of the long period of erosion which 

1 For more detailed description of the Schnoley Plain see Maryland Weather Ser- 
vice, vol. i, pp. 110.121, lSiW. 



48 



THE PHYSIOGHA1 



' ALLEGAKT COCKTY 



produced the Schooley Plain. This is evident, because the discordant 
position, of Wills Creek and its tributaries across Piney Mountain 
could best be obtained at a time when the ridges of resistant rocks 
were well reduced and probably rather deeply covered with a mantle 
of disintegrated rock. The course taken at this time by the Potomac 
across Dans, Xnobly, Martin and other mountains is also evidence of 
the low, mild character of the topography. 




Fig. Jl.— Drainage about Cumberland, on Schooley Plain. 



The stream-revival which caused the etching out of the Shenan- 
doah, the Town Creek, and other valleys, also started Wills Creek on 
a period of rapid down-cutting. In the course of the first rapid 
trenching of the stream-channels, the buried crest of the Wills Moun- 
tain arch was notched by Jennings Run and Braddock Run. The 
further removal of the overlying beds exposed the whole long arch of 
sandstone. Finally, when the valleys and notches had been reduced 




GEORGES CREEK VALLEY, 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 49 

to the general level of the then low-lying Shenandoah Plain, Wills 
Mountain stood out as a long ridge whose crest was cut in two places 
by watergaps (Fig. 2, *\Yg and Xr). One of these is still a watergap 
and is occupied by Wills Creek, i. e. it is " The Narrows." The 
other notch is now the windgap from which Braddock Run has been 
diverted (Fig. 7). During this cutting down to the Shenandoah 
Plain, Jennings Run developed a small subsequent tributary along 
the easy path between Little Allegheny and Wills mountains. This 
stream has in later time developed more rapidly than its older 
brothers, Jennings Run and Braddock Run. This is for the reason 
that it is located along yielding rocks, while the other branches have 
to contend with both Pocono and Pottsville sandstones. It is now 
the main stream of Wills Creek. 

TOPOGRAPHIC HISTORY. 

Stages in the Topographic History. 

In the foregoing discussion of the topography of Allegany county, 
certain features have been referred to as if they were stages or mile- 
stones in the series of changes which the surface features of the 
county have been passing through. It will be a convenient way of 
summing up and correlating the features already considered if the 
several stages of topographic history are taken up in order and briefly 
considered. Six stages may at present be clearly distinguished. 
They may be named: 

1. The Present or Channel-cutting Stage. 

2. The Terrace-forming Stage. 

3. The Shenandoah Plain Stage. 

4. The Schooley Plain Stage. 

5. The Appalachian Mountain Stage. 

6. The Rock-forming or Paleozoic Stage. 

THE PRESENT STAGE. 

At the present time all the streams of Allegany county are at work 
fashioning their channels. In many cases they are putting the finish- 
ing touches to the even slopes which they prefer to flow on, and some 



50 TIIE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGAXY COUNTY 

streams have even completed this slope in places. All the streams, 
however, are here and there interrupted by rapids and shallows, 
which show that, in spite of the plains or bottom-lands built during 
floods, they have not yet perfectly graded their channels. The 
Potomac has reduced its channel to so flat a slope that the low dam 
for the canal at Cumberland backs up the water for a distance of two 
miles upstream. But even this large stream, flowing eight or ten 
feet below its flood-plain during its ordinary stages, has many un- 
reduced ledges in its channel. 

The present downward tendency of the streams may be traced 
back to the close of the Shenandoah Plain period, for it has resulted 
in the carving out of trenches below the general level of that plain. 

THE TERRACE-FORMIXG STAGE. 

This down-cutting has not been uninterrupted, however. Border- 
ing the lower courses of all the larger streams of the county, and of 
manv of the smaller streams, are two well-defined stream-terraces. 
Such stream-terraces indicate former positions of the stream-bed, and 
when found along the banks of a stream indicate that its vertical 
cutting has been interrupted for a while. Instead of cutting ver- 
tically, the stream may have cut horizontally, or even stopped cutting 
and begun to build up by depositing gravel and sand. 

The stream-terraces in Allegany county arc usually gravel-strewn, 
often deeply so; but never consist wholly of gravels and sand. Always 
beneath this looser covering can be found smooth, even surfaces 
which were cut across the bedding of the rocks by the streams and 
later strewn with gravel and sand. The higher terrace has an eleva- 
tion of about 800 feet along the Potomac above Cumberland, and the 
one next below stands at about 650 or 700 feet. This lower one is 
geiierally better defined, particularly at Cresaptown and Cedar Cliff 
and above Riverside station, on the West Virginia Central and Pitts- 
burg Railway. The 800-foot terrace forms the cobble-strewn hills 
overlooking Cumberland and South Cumberland, while the town is 
built on the lower one. 

These terraces, with one or two lower and minor ones in the imme- 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 51 

diate vicinity of the stream?, may be traced along the Potomac from 
one side of the county to the other, and also up the larger streams 
flowing into it. Going up the tributary streams the terraces natur- 
allv rise, since the smaller volumes of these streams will alwavs leave 
their channels steeper than that of the Potomac. The levels also 
seem to draw together somewhat. The best traces of the terraces 
can be found near Allegany Grove (1000 feet) on Braddock Run, 
about Corriganville, and between that place and Ellerslie (750 
feet), on Wills Creek. They also occur along the lower courses of 
the streams joining the Potomac at Oldtown (720 feet); and all along 
Town Creek at about 080 feet. 

Since these terraces are both cut out of the rock and slightly built 
up also, it is evident that tliey are the indices of stages in the post- 
Shenandoahan down-cutting. Just why they were formed is not yet 
clear. They may indicate a temporary loss of speed due to a slight 
westward tilting of the river channel and a consequent cessation in 
downward cutting accompanied by deposition of gravels. Or it may 
prove to be the case that these benches indicate the positions of the 
land during periods of temporary rest when the streams really cut 
down to their lowest possible grade — the rock-plains of the terraces. 
Whatever may be their final explanation, these terraces are still 
significant as indicating that there has not been a steady downward 
tendency of the streams, but an intermittent one. Periods of rest or 
of sluggish work, accompanied by lateral cutting, succeeded periods 
of active vertical attack. 

THE SIIEXANDOAH TLAIX STAGE. 

Immediately preceding the uplift which inaugurated the recent 
gorge-cutting and terrace-forming activities, there came a period of 
some length during which not only Allegany county but the whole 
Atlantic slope stood fast with reference to sea-level. This gave the 
streams the opportunity to etch out valleys on the yielding limestones 
and shales, while they left the more resistant rocks standing. So 
long a time was allowed that the valleys thus determined by yielding 
rocks were worn down very low indeed. Their surfaces were almost 



52 THE PHYSI0GKAPIIY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

smooth, even plains; the streams began to wind back and forth across 
flat bottom-lands and paid no attention to the rocks which, earlier, 
had formed low ridges in the valleys. The later gorge-cutting dis- 
sected these level valley-floors, but many hill-tops and ridges between 
the streams still retain a portion of this old intermontane plain. To 
it belong the tops of many hills along Town Creek, Evitts Creek and 
Fifteenmile Creek, reaching elevations of about 900 feet above sea- 
level. 

Along the meandering course of the Potomac, also, are many hills 
rising to 900 or 1000 feet, and lying between still higher ridges. 
They are most noticeable between Paw Paw and Little Orleans, 
where they have an elevation of about 900 feet. About Cumberland, 
also, the old valley-level is preserved in the crest of Shriver Ridge 
(1100 feet) and the long flat spur (1115 feet) forming the north end 
of Knobly Mountain. These traces of the Shenandoah Plain, found 
in the hilltops bordering the meandering and trenched Potomac lend 
support to the theory that these meanders are inherited from flood- 
plain meanders of the Shenandoah Plain stage. The fact that the 
meanders are not found cutting across ridges which rise above the 
Shenandoah Plain is additional evidence in favor of this theorv. 

The Shenandoah Plain period also gave opportunity for the further 
and closer adjustment of many streams in existence at the opening of 
the period. This was notably the case with Wills Creek, Fifteen- 
mile Creek and Town Creek. Xumbers of smaller streams which 
came into existence during this period started on yielding rocks and 
in later times have simply continued along their originally subsequent 
courses. Towards the close of the period, however, many streams 
lost their finer adjustments by reason of their flood-plained condition. 
The best instances of this have been referred to already, viz., Town 
Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. Other smaller streams seem to have 
l>een thrown out of adjustment by the influence of the broad flood- 
plain along the Potomac. This is notably the case with the streams 
entering near Oldtown and also with Sideling Hill Creek. These 
streams instead of joining the Potomac by the most direct line, which 
is the rule, are deflected down stream when within two miles or less 
of the river. 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL S 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE V 



t 




V 






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{ 


1 .* m- 




[ 


m f 




1 -j& 


, b 1 i 




1 


11 ( 


wL 


1 v/*fjgg 








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JJrmt 





MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 53 

THE SCHOOLEY PLAIN STAGE. 

The gorge-cutting period was inaugurated by a general warping 
and uplifting of the Shenandoah Plain, the uplift being greatest in 
the southwestern districts and least in the east. The Shenandoah 
Period was inaugurated by a closely similar uplift of the Schooley 
Plain. The Schooley Plain was produced in the same way as the 
Shenandoah Plain. The main difference between the two features 
is the absence from the Schooley Plain of extensive mountain ranges 
or ridges looking down upon it. This resulted simply from the fact 
that the earlier period was of much longer duration, so that oppor- 
tunity was given for the complete reduction to the general level of 
the zones of resistant rock. Of this former surface there are now 
numerous remnants to be found in the long even crests of the higher 
ridges in the county. On account of the much greater erosion 
which this older plain has suffered, its traces are much fewer than are 
those of the younger Shenandoah Plain. They are preserved only 
by the most resistant rocks of the countv; but thev are sufficient to 
show that the old surface was widespread and imposed upon all the 
rocks of a large area regardless of differences in resistance. 

By the time that the agents of denudation had established this 
surface, all the streams had adjusted themselves to the structures 
revealed by the widespread planing off. Probably all the well- 
grown streams of the time had meandering courses, except the young- 
est streams, initiated towards the close of the period which would 
have had more direct and vigorous paths. Among these younger 
streams were probably found the forerunners of Jennings Run, 
Braddock Run and Fifteenmile Creek, as their present discordant 
courses are at variance with features which were then much less 
significant than they are to-day. The other streams, such as Evitts 
Creek and Sideling Hill Creek, probably existed during the Schooley 
Plain period as smaller, adjusted, subsequent streams flowing into the 
contemporary representative of the North Branch of the Potomac. 
Wills Mountain lav several hundred feet below that surface, not vet 
revealed by the erosion which followed upon the uplifting of the 
plain. Town Hill also was still in embryo, but for a differeiit reason. 



54 THE PHYSIOGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

The hard sandstone which was to form its crest was not buried beneath 
many feet of overlying rocks, but lay almost at the surface of the 
plain. It had formed the floor of a trough of rock which had been 
folded down so low that it escaped removal in the general planing 
off which resulted in producing the Schooley Plain. Thus when 
re-elevation revived the streams and enabled them to etch out the 
softer rocks, this long slab of sandstone still remained to protect the 
rocks beneath it. A similar reason may be found for the preserva- 
tion of the coal-beds of the Georges Creek basin. These would not 
now be available had it not been for the fortunate accident whereby 
the broad synclinal trough of the Plateau District was so greatly 
depressed below the general level to which the whole county was 
reduced. Because of this depression, the coal-formations were not 
worn away from this district. Since their position was higher over 
the western portion of the county, they were all removed during its 
reduction to the Schoolev Plain. 

THE PALEOZOIC PERIOD AM) THE APPALACHIAN REVOLUTION. 

Thus far one may read the history of Allegany county topography 
from existing surface features. The earliest stage related in that his- 
tory, the Schooley Plain, cannot be the beginning, however. The 
very folds and breaks in the great series of strata which form the 
foundations and skeleton of present topography, themselves suggest 
the possibility of a time, preceding all the periods just recounted, 
when the earth's surface was cut into vallevs and mountains which 
were due directly to the great folds now traceable only where valleys 
cut down across them. If there ever was such a time and such 
topography, the scenery must have been much grander than it is 
to-day. Thousands upon thousands of feet of rock have been re- 
moved since the folding began, so that the folds themselves must 
have given rise to mountains five or six times as high as the present 
Appalachians with some correspondingly deep valleys between. These 
would have been the earliest mountains and valleys. 

It is probable, however, that the surface which would have thus 
appeared, never existed in an altogether unmodified state. As soon 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 55 

as the folds appeared above the sea, the rain and wind and frost would 
have begun to wear away their surfaces, cut out gullies and cross- 
valleys, rapidly changing the new surface. Thus the earliest land 
topography here would have been at best, the original folds, troughs 
and ridges, modified by the rain and other denuding agents. 

These folds were produced in rocks of horizontal strata deposited 
on the floor of a great sea. This sea washed the western shores of 
a land-area located about where the present Blue Ridge is, and it was 
the waste washed from this land which formed the rocks of the sea- 
floor. According to geological chronology, those rocks are said to 
be of Paleozoic age, and the sea in which they were deposited may 
be called the Paleozoic sea. This period, during which the present 
rocks were being deposited in the Paleozoic sea, is the earliest one 
of which there is any trace in Allegany county. In fact, it was the 
beginning of the geographic history of the county. The great fold- 
ing and upthrusting of the horizontal strata on this old sea-floor put 
an end to further accumulations by raising them above sea-level. 
The change was so complete and tremendous and comparatively 
rapid that it is often spoken of as a revolution. Since it resulted in 
the building up of the forerunners of the Appalachian Mountains, it 
is usually referred to as the Appalachian Revolution. 

It should be remembered, however, that the present Appalachians 
resulted only indirectly from this so-called revolution^ The imme- 
diate predecessor of the present topography of Allegany county was 
a broad, almost featureless plain, and the mountains, ridges, valleys 
and cliffs of to-day have all resulted from the wearing away of areas 
of yielding rock and the continuance of the resistant ones standing 
out in relief. 



THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

BY 

CLEOPHAS C. OHARRA 



INTRODUCTORY. 

Particular attention is given in the following pages to the strati- 
graphy, structure and areal distribution of the various formations 
exposed in Allegany county; the processes and conditions under which 
the sediments were deposited; and the forces that have operated in 
bringing about the present attitude of the strata. A brief review of 
previous work is given, and a bibliography is added. Only such gen- 
eral references to the paleontology, physiography and soils of the 
region have been made as are necessary to give a clear understanding 
of the geological features since these branches are more fully dis- 
cussed in other places. 

GEOGRAPHIC AND GEOLOGIC RELATIONS. 

The situation and boundaries of Allegany county have been de- 
scribed in earlier pages. Although bounded on the north and west 
by straight lines whose combined length approximates only 50.8 
miles, the entire periphery is about 145 miles, the amount being very 
much increased bv the tortuous channels of the Potomac river and 
Sideling Hill Creek. 

The county contains several mountains of importance. Naming 
them in order from the east, they are: Town Hill, Green Ridge, 
Stratford Ridge, Polish Mountain, Warrior Mountain, Tussey Moun- 
tain, Martin Mountain, Collier Mountain, Evitts Mountain, Nicholas 
Mountain, Shriver Ridge Mountain, Wills Mountain, Allegheny 
Mountain and Dans Mountain. The last two, which may really be 



58 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

considered as one mountain, and which are alluded to in this paper 
as the Dans-Allegheny Mountain, form a part of the great Allegheny 
Front. Tussey Mountain dies out almost immediately after entering 
the eountv from Pennsylvania, and Evitts Mountain bfccomes oblit- 
erated nearly as quickly. Other ridges and hills of less geological 
importance are named on the map. 

The drainage of the county is wholly to the south. Among the 
more important streams entering the Potomac are the following: 
Sideling Hill Creek, Fifteenmile Creek, Town Creek, Martins Spring 
Run, Colliers Run, Evitts Creek, Wills Creek, Georges Creek and 
Stony Run. Among the other streams, lying wholly or partly within 
Allegany county, whose waters eventually find their way into the 
Potomac are Flintstono Creek, Murley Branch, Jennings Run, Brad- 
dock Run, Moores Run, Jackson Run, Hill Run, Elk Lick Run, 
Matthew Run, Xeffs Run, Winebrenner Run, Staub Run, Wrights 
Run, Squirrel Xeck Run, Koontz Run, Laurel Run, Bartlett Run, 
Mill Run, Rock Gully Creek, .Maple Run, White Sulphur Creek, 
Piney Ridge Run. Flintstone Creek, Murley Branch and Maple 
Run flow into Town Creek; Jennings Run and Braddock Run flow 
into AVills Creek; Rock Gully Creek flows into Evitts Creek; White 
Sulphur Creek and Piney Ridge Run flow into Fifteenmile Creek; 
while all of the others named enter Georges Creek. 

The area covered by Allegany county forms an integral part of 
the Appalachian Province, hence an accurate and exhaustive study of 
the geology of the county can be made only by adequate reference to 
the conditions governing the complete geologic history of the entire 
province. The province it .self is composed of three genetically re- 
lated physiographic divisions, the principal features of which have 
been brought about by geographic conditions that no longer exist- 1 
The eastern division is a part of the ancient continent of Appalachia, 
a land-mass of uncertain area from which most of the sediments of 
the Appalachian Province were derived. The western limit of this 
division of the province is now represented by the Blue Ridge. 

1 Willis, Bailey. The Northern Appalachians, Geographic Monographs, vol. i, 

1HJI.V 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 59 

Lying to the west of Appalachia there was a great inland sea in which 
the sediments from this ancient continent were gradually laid down. 
The littoral zone of this mediterranean sea having received many 
thousands of feet of various kinds of sediments, was from time to time 
affected by powerful organic movements, possibly not yet ceased, the 
result of which has been to bring the formerly almost horizontal 
beds into a greatly folded condition. This old littoral zone, now 
constituting the central physiographic division of the province, cor- 
responds to what is sometimes known as the Greater Appalachian 
Valley, using that term in its wider sense to include the area between 
the Blue Ridge and the Alleghany Front. Along the outskirts of 
the littoral zone the strata were much less influenced bv the enormous 
forces which so disturbed the central and eastern divisions; and, 
although considerably elevated, they have, as a rule, been left in a 
more nearly horizontal position. This part which now forms the 
Alleghany Front and the Alleghany Plateau constitutes the western 
physiographic division of the Appalachian Province. 

Structurally, the area which is covered bv the central and western 
physiographic divisions as above defined, is divided somewhat differ- 
ently. According to the structure, two divisions are recognized, but 
the line of separation falls much farther east. In Maryland, the 
western structural division known as the district of open folding is 
limited on the eastern side by North Mountain, while the western 
limit extends beyond the western borders of the state. East of North 
Mountain lies the structural division known as the district of close 
folding. In Maryland it occupies approximately the position of the 
Hagerstown Valley. 

Structurally, then, Allegany county lies wholly within a single dis- 
trict, that of open folding. Physiographieally, it include* parts of two 
divisions, viz., the Greater Appalachian Valley and the Alleghany 
Plateau. Stratigraphieally, it is not referable to any well-defined 
district or division. The stratigraphic features are, in a sense, much 
the same as for all of the area west of the great limestone valley. 
Furthermore, the various structural features, as well as the contacts 
of the various formations found in the countv, extend in maiiv 



60 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

instances without a break or disappearance for miles bevond the 
limits of the county. It will thus be seen that the county is not a 
geological unit and has not been so considered in this paper. How- 
ever, lying along the Potomac and favorably situated for the display 
of the structural, physiographic and stratigraphic features of a con- 
tinuous series of sediments, from the middle Silurian to the late 
Carboniferous or Permian, rich in easily accessible and well-preserved 
fossils, and containing also in the western part large deposits of 
economic importance, the county has for many years been known as 
a region of peculiar interest, and one deserving careful geologic 
studv. 

HISTORICAL REVIEW. 

The most prominent physiographic features of Allegany county 
have long been known. Natural facilities for a careful study of 
the rocks have always been good, and in addition, especially favorable 
opportunities have at times been provided by means of the various 
extensive improvements made for military and commercial purposes. 
During the middle of the eighteenth century military expeditions to 
Fort Cumberland and beyond necessitated the construction of a good 
road from the Atlantic coast to the Ohio valley. George Washington, 
in a letter to Colonel Bouquet, dated " Camp at Fort Cumberland, 
2, August, 1758," says that the first good road for commercial inter- 
course between the traders of Virginia and Pennsylvania and the 
Indians along the Ohio was by way of AVills Creek [Cumberland], 
which place had been selected by intelligent Indians who had been 
hired to choose the most favorable route of communication. He 
further states that the Ohio Company in 1753 opened the road at a 
considerable expense, and that in the following year his own troops 
greatly repaired it. In 1755 it was widened and completed by Gen- 
eral Braddock to near Fort Duquesne. Early in the present century 
the National Road w r as surveyed and constructed, the military road 
being in part utilized for this purpose. Later extensive surveys were 
made for the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and for the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad, the latter reaching Cumberland in the year 1842 and 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE V 




Fig. 1.— TOLL-HOUSE ON THE NATIONAL 




VIEWS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 61 

the former in 1850. These surveys, references to which are given 
in the bibliography, added much to the general knowledge of the 
physiography and gave considerable detailed information concerning 
the character of the rocks and their folded condition, but there appears 
to have been little attention given to the purely scientific study of the 
geology of the area. 

During the autumn of 1831, Samuel Whyllys Pomeroy traveled 
through the county and made some hasty observations on the geology 
along the National Road, particularly in the vicinity of Cumberland 
and Frostburg (2). 

In " Some Notices of the Geology of the Country between Balti- 
more and the Ohio River, with a Section illustrating the Superposi- 
tion of the Rocks/' by AVilliam E. A. Aiken, published in the 
American Journal of Science, volume xxv, 1834, we have one of the 
earliest attempts to explain the structure of the mountains and to 
correlate the various kinds of rocks (3). Unhappily, Mr. Aiken's 
observations in Allegany county were so meagre that many of the 
conclusions were necessarily faulty and little definite advance was 
made. 

In the same year, 1834, J. T. Ducatel, State Geologist, and J. H. 
Alexander, State Topographical Engineer, in a " Report on the Pro- 
jected Survey of the State of Maryland, pursuant to a resolution of 
the General Assembly," give general statements concerning the 
geology of the county (4). Mention is made of the mineral and 
warm springs near Flintstone, and of the Frostburg coal-field. Much 
of the information was taken from the collection of reports and 
letters of the engineers of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 

In his " Report of a Geological Reconnaissance made in 1835 from 
the seat of government by way of Green Bay and the Wisconsin 
territory on the Coteau du Prairie, an elevated ridge dividing the 
Missouri from the St. Peters river," G. W. Featherstonhaugh gives 
considerable geological information concerning Allegany county (8). 
He traveled under the direction of the United States government 
and passed through the county while en route westward, evidently 
entering the county by the National Road. East of Cumberland he 



62 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

makes little mention of the rocks, but refers to fossils found in the 
limestone at Flintstone. This limestone he erroneously correlates 
with the Carboniferous limestone further west. Shriver Ridge is 
mentioned as being composed of shale and limestone with " produda" 
" spirifer" and " cardia." The Wills Creek gorge he describes 
with considerable detail, and gives a sketch of the same. A crude 
hypothesis for the anticlinal structure of Wills and neighboring 
mountains is also given. From Cumberland he went to Frostburg, 
thence down the Georges Creek valley to the Potomac, which he 
ascended beyond the mouth of Savage river, then returned along the 
Potomac to Cumberland. He speaks briefly of the Georges Creek 
coal area and believed that the coal-bearing strata were deposited 
after the movement which produced the folding to the east. 

About this time much interest began to be manifested in the coal, 
iron, cement, and fire-clay of the coal basin. With the prospect of 
an opportunity to ship by rail and canal, a greater interest was 
aroused in the mineral wealth of the county, various mining com- 
panies were incorporated, and reports began to appear giving more 
or less accurate descriptions of the geology of this part of the state. 
Some of these papers show the result of original work; but not a few 
were only compilations from the writings of others. 

In a report dated October, 1836, to the Georges Creek Coal and 
Iron Company, one of the earliest companies to develop the mineral 
resources of the Georges Creek basin, J. II. Alexander and P. T. 
Tyson give two maps of portions of the Georges Creek area, one 
columnar section known as the " Dug Hill Section," one structure 
section and various other details (10). Two months later, Mr. 
Ducatel, the State Geologist, in his official report to the Governor 
of Maryland, included a description of the Frostburg coal-field in 
which the columnar section made for the Georges Creek Coal Com- 
pany is given. In this report there is also given a carefully prepared 
hachured map of the entire area on which the various streams, towns 
and mines are located and named. Frostburg is given on the map 
as Frost Town, and the coal area is called afteT it. 

During this year, 1836, the State Topographical Engineer, J. H» 



\ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 63 

Alexander, directed the execution of a chain of triangles with a plane- 
table survey over a part of the Georges Creek area. The work of 
this survey was accomplished at individual expense, but the results 
were generously offered for the use of the state survey. 

During the same year, 1836, George V. Hughes made a report 
to the Maryland Mining Company in which he gives the result of 
an examination of the coal measures and iron ore deposits belonging 
to the company (9). The paper includes various analyses and 
columnar sections. 

In this year also, James C. Booth studied the area and published 
the results in a short paper entitled " Report of the Examination and 
Survey of the Coal-fields and iron ores belonging to the Barton and 
New York Coal Company " (7). The next year, 1837, further notes 
by Mr. Booth, as well as short reports by L. How T ell and John Powell 
were published for the same company. 

On February 9, 1837, Professor Philip T. Tyson read before the 
Maryland Academy of Sciences and Literature a paper entitled " A 
description of the Frostburg coal formation of Allegany county, 
Maryland, with an account of its geological position " (12). Later 
this was published in the Transactions of the Society. With the de- 
scription of the area one columnar section and two structure sections 
are given. 

In the same year, D. B. Douglas spent three weeks in the coal- 
field. He made a columnar section and studied the physical and 
chemical character of the coals (15). 

The following year, 1838, Benjamin Silliman made a brief study 
of the area in the employ of the Maryland Mining Company (16). 

During the year 1840, the State Geologist, J. T. Ducatel, made a 
study of the physical geography, geology and agricultural and mineral 
resources of "Western Maryland (23). The results of his observations 
were published in the " Annual Report of the Geologist of Maryland, 
1840 " (23). This is a paper of 46 pages, 30 pages of which are, how- 
ever, taken up with a study of the area now included in Garrett 
county. Mr. Ducatel's report was the first published document of 
any considerable length which reviewed with reasonable accuracy the 



64 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COLTIT 

geology of the entire county. It includes the geology and physical 
geography with remarks on the actual agricultural condition, pros- 
pects and resources, as well as information concerning the mineral 
wealth of the county and the best means of developing it. Two 
columnar sections of the coal-fields, one structure section along the 
" Cumberland and National roads," and a topographical map of Alle- 
gany and AVashington counties on the scale of 1 : 400,000 are given. 

The year 1842 is one of particular interest on account of Sir 
Charles Lyell's visit to the county. In May of that year he passed 
through the county by way of the National Road, stopping at Cum- 
berland and Frostburg. In the vicinity of the latter place a number 
of plants and marine shells were obtained from the coal measures. 
Among the shells, he mentions Bellerophon, Euomphalus, Nucula, 
Lozonema and Producta — seventeen species in all. Of the plants, 
Bunbury, who described them, gives Danaeites, Neuropteris, Pecop- 
teris, Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Stigmaria y Asterophyllites and 
Calamites — twenty species altogether (30). 

In 1844, the classic paper " A Report to the Navy Department of 
the United States on American coals applicable to steam navigation 
and other purposes," by Walter R. Johnson was published (27). 
Coals from several Maryland mines were among those studied. 

During the next few years little original investigation was carried 
on in the county, but this period marks the time of much of the 
valuable work done by the illustrious brothers, W. B. Rogers, Direc- 
tor of the Geological Survey of Virginia, and H. D. Rogers, State 
Geologist of Pennsylvania, who published many reports giving valu- 
able information concerning the geology of their respective states, 
much of which information was extremely helpful in interpreting the 
geology of Allegany county. 

In 1852 reports were published by the Phoenix Mining and Manu- 
facturing Company which included a " topography of the mineral 
regions " by Professor Forrest Sheppard and a report on the topog- 
raphy and structure of the coal-field by Professor C. U. Shepard (33). 

Two years later, 1854, George W. Hughes, President and Engineer 
of the Hampshire Coal and Iron Company, published a report dealing 
especially with the lands controlled by his company (34). 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, 



ALLEBANY COUNTY, PLATE V 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY G5 

In 1855, Robert G. Rankin published a report on the economic 
value of the semi-bituminous coal of the Cumberland basin (36). 
This is an excellent paper in which the author gives a description of 
the basin, analyses, use and origin of the coal and the facilities for 
transportation. 

In 1859 a great advance was made in the historical study of the 
rocks. Professor James Hall, State Geologist of New York, who 
was so exhaustively studying the Paleozoic fossils of his own state, 
made also from time to time large collections from several of the states 
to the west and south. In September, 1856, he visited Cumberland, 
made some geological examinations and studied the extensive collec- 
tion of Mr. Andrews. Later Professor Hall purchased Mr. Andrews' 
collection and continued his studies upon it. Three years after his 
visit volume 3 of the Paleontology of the State of Xew York was 
published. In this volume sixty-three species are described from 
Cumberland and vicinity, many of which are figured. Several of the 
subsequent paleontological reports published under the direction of 
Professor Hall also contain descriptions and figures of numerous 
species from the same locality. 

The year 1860 marks the appearance of the state geological map 
by Philip T. Tyson, published in his official report as. State Agricul- 
tural Chemist (40). This map, which is on the scale of twelve miles 
to the inch, represents the first serious attempt to arrange in accurate 
detail the various geological formations in Allegany county. With 
the map there are three structure sections, one of which crosses the 
county from west to east near the Maryland-Pennsylvania line. 

During the summer of 1868, Professor James T. Hodge of Boston, 
studied the coal basin and made an extensive survey of the coal 
properties (47). In his report, published the following year, he gives 
much attention to property lines, but also discusses the coal region 
as a whole, including the drainage of the basin, access to the coal-bed, 
system of mining, area covered by the Big Vein and product of Big- 
Vein coal to the acre. To the property-owner this has been a most 
valuable work, but the report is now almost wholly inaccessible. 

In 1874, Professor James Hall published his paper on u The 



66 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Niagara and Lower Helderberg Groups; their relations and geo- 
graphical distribution in the United States" (51). In this paper 
brief but valuable references arc made to the relations of the groups 
as they occur at Cumberland. 

In 1878, under the direction of the United States Navy Depart- 
ment, B. F. Sherwood, Theodore Zeller and Henry L. Snyder made 
careful experiments on various coals, including the Frostburg coal 
(58). Particular attention was given to the physical structure of the 
coal, to its action w T hile burning, to its heat-producing power and to 
the residual ash, clinker and soot. 

In 1878, Professor J. J. Stevenson published two articles in the 
American Journal of Science on the geology of portions of Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland and West Virginia. In one article particular men- 
tion is made of the terraces in Garrett and Allegany counties, and in 
this article the causes of the present physiographic features are dis- 
cussed (60). The other article deals with the Upper Devonian 
rocks (61). 

The year 1882 was one of particular interest in the development 
of a correct knowledge of the structural geology of the county. 
Among the important publications w r hich appeared during this year 
was a paper by Howard Grant Jones and one by Professor I. C. 
White. In Mr. Jones' paper a section west of Cumberland was 
given which was accompanied by a discussion of the correlation of the 
various rocks (72). Professor White later reviewed the work and 
rectified some of Mr. Jones' conclusions. Professor White's paper 
is the first publication showing conclusively the conformity and 
proper relations of the rock formations as found in the western part 
of Allegany county (76). 

It w T as during this year also that report TT of the Second Geological 
Survey of Pennsylvania was published (75). This report is by Pro- 
fessor J. J. Stevenson and deals with the geology of Bedford and 
Fulton counties, which lie immediately north of Allegany county. 
In this report frequent reference is made to Allegany county, and 

much of the general discussion concerning the Pennsylvania counties 
is directly applicable to it. 



t 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 67 

In the Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, 
vol. xiv, 1886, K. S. Cook gives an account of the manufacture of 
fire-brick at Mt. Savage, which included a discussion of the occur- 
rence and composition of the clay and a description of the methods of 
manufacture (90). 

During the years 1883-4-5 considerable topographical mapping was 
done in Western Maryland and adjacent portions of West Virginia 
by the United States Geological Survey. The topographic party in 
the early part of the work was in charge of Mr. S. IT. Bodfish. Later, 
Mr. BodfisVs health having failed, Mr. AY. T. Griswold took charge 
of the party and remained in charge during the following two field 
seasons (86). During the year 1886 much of this work was examined, 
reviewed and prepared for publication by Mr. Merrill Hackett (87). 
Of the sheets surveyed at this time which include portions of Alle- 
gany county, only those covering the Piedmont and the Romney 
quadrangles have been published. 

In the year 1897, topographic work was resumed in Allegany 
county by the United States Geological Survey in connection with 
the Maryland Geological Survey, since which time the survey of the 
county has been completed. 

In volume 34 of the American Journal of Science, 1887, Professor 
J. J. Stevenson discusses the lower Carboniferous rocks of Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland and the Virginias, and mentions various Allegany 
county localities (05). 

In the same journal and in the same year, Professor I. C. White 
discusses the probable causes which have brought about the deposition 
of rounded boulders at high altitudes on the eastern side of the Alle- 
ghanies and makes particular mention of the vicinity of Cumberland 
(96). 

In the 42d Annual Keport of the New York State Museum, 1889, 
Professor John M. Clarke discusses "The Hercynian Question," in 
connection with which he gives important notes on some of the for- 
mations in the region about Cumberland (101). 

During the year 1891, Bulletin Xo. 65 of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey was published. This is by Professor I. C. White on 



68 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

" The Stratigraphy of the Bituminous Coal Field of Pennsylvania, 
Ohio and West Virginia " (113). In this bulletin reference is made 
to the Coal Measures of Maryland, and the map which accompanies 
the bulletin includes the Cumberland-Georges Creek district. 

It was in May of this year, 1891, that the students in the Geo- 
logical Department of the Johns Hopkins University visited Allegany 
county under the direction of the late Professor George H. Williams 
for the purpose of studying Appalachian geology. The results of 
their study are given in volume xi, number 94, of the University 
Circulars for that year (114). 

In 1893, in the Maryland AVorld's Fair Book, entitled " Maryland, 
its Resources, Industries and Institutions," a general summary of 
the geology of the state was published by Professors George H. AVil- 
liams and William B. Clark of the Johns Hopkins University, in 
which the geology of Western Maryland is discussed at considerable 
length (144). With this publication there is a geological map of 
the state in which the areal distribution of the various formations 
and the structure of the rocks of Allegany county are represented in 
much greater detail and accuracy than on any previous map. 

In 1894, Mr. Howard Shriver, of Cumberland, published a short 
paper containing a catalogue of fossils found in the vicinity of Cum- 
berland (150). 

In the Fourteenth Annual Report of the United States Geological 
Survey, published during the saine year, 1894, Joseph D. Weeks, 
under the title of " The Potomac and Roaring Creek Coal Fields," 
describes at some length the Cumberland-Georges Creek district, and 
gives a columnar section of the same (151). 

During the years 1894 and 1895, H. O. Hofman and C. D. Demond 
describe, in the Transactions of the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, extensive experiments which were carried on by them for 
the purpose of determining the refractiveness of fire-clays (148). 
Various experiments were made with the Mt. Savage fire-clay, and in 
the paper a number of analyses are given. 

In 1896, the Piedmont Folio, No. 28 of the Geologic Atlas of the 
United States, was published by the United States Geological Survey 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 69 

(159). The geological work was done by Messrs. N. H. Darton and 
Joseph Tail under the direction of Air. Bailey Willis, and was begun 
in the autumn of 1894. The quadrangle covered by this folio in- 
cludes a small area in the southwestern part of Allegany county, and 
the geology of the entire quadrangle is very similar to that of this 
county. Several of the formational names used in the folio have 
been adopted by the Maryland Geological Survey, and much of the 
discussion concerning the various geological features is directly 
applicable to Allegany county. 

In the early part of the year 1896, the Maryland Geological Survey 
was organized, and at the opening of the field season began work in 
various parts of the state. Since then three volumes have been pub- 
lished by the survey under the direction of Professor William B. 
Clark, State Geologist. In volume I a general preliminary discussion 
of the various geological features of the state is given, including 
much new and valuable information concerning the stratigraphic, 
physiographic, economic and structural features of Allegany county. 

Volume II includes a description of the various building stones and 
of the geologic maps of the state, with particular mention of Alle- 
gany county. 

Volume III treats especially of the highways of the state, their 
present conditions and the material at hand in each of the counties for 
road-construction. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

CONTAINING REFERENCES TO THE GEOLOGY AND ECONOMIC RESOURCES OF 

ALLEGANY COUNTY. 

1824. 

1. Shrivek, James. An Account of the Examination and Surveys, 
with Remarks and Documents relative to the Chesapeake and Ohio 
and Lake Erie Canal*. Baltimore, 1S24. 11G pp., map. 

1832. 

2. Pomeroy, Sam. AVhyllys. Remarks on the Coal Region be- 
tween Cumberland and Pittsburg, and on the Topography, Scenery, 



70 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

etc., of that portion of the Alleghany Mts. [Letter written Nov., 
1831.] 

Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxi, 1832, pp. 342-347. 

1834. 

3. Aiken, William E. A. Some of the notices of the Geology of 
the Country between Baltimore and the Ohio River, with a section 
illustrating the superposition of the rocks. 

Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxvi, 1834, pp. 219-232, plate. 

4. Ducatel, J. T., and Alexander, J. H. Report on the Pro- 
jected Survey of the State of Maryland, pursuant to a resolution of 
the General Assembly. 8vo. 39 pp. Annapolis, 1834. Map. 

Md. House of Delegates, Dec. Sess., 1833 (Annapolis, 1834). 
Another edition, Annapolis, 1834, 8vo., 58 pp. and map. 
Another edition, Annapolis, 1834, 8vo., 43 pp. and folded table. 

5. Merceb, Chas. Fenton. Report of the lion. Charles Fenton 
Mercer [on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal] . 

House Misc. Doc., 23rd Cong., 1st Sess., Doc. 414. Washington, 1834, 
378 pp. 

1836. 

6. Anon. Charter, etc., of the Georges Creek Coal and Iron 
Company, containing a detailed account of the Geology, &c, of this 
locality. Baltimore, 1836. 

7. Booth, Jas. C. Report of the Examination and Survey of the 
Coal Lands, etc., belonging to the Boston Purchase, near Cumber- 
land, in the State of Maryland. New York, D. Fanshaw, 1836. 

8. Featherstonhaugh, G. W. Report of a Geological Recon- 
naissance made in 1835 from the seat of government by way of Green 
Bay and the Wisconsin Territory on the Coteau du Prairie, an ele- 
vated ridge dividing the Missouri from the St. Peters River. 169 pp. 
4 plates. Washington, 1836. 

9. Hughes, George W. Report of an Examination of the Coal 
Measures, including the Iron-ore deposits, belonging to the Mary- 
land Mining Company, in Allegany County, &c, &c. 1836. 

1837. 

10. Ducatel, J. T., and Alexander, J. H. Report on the new 
Map of Maryland, 1836. 8vo. 104 pp. and 5 maps. [Annapolis, 
1837.] 

Md. House of Delegates, Sess. Dec., 1836. 
Another edition, 117 pp. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 71 

11. Eldredge, N. T. Report of the Special Agent sent to exam- 
ine the Mines of the Company. Sm. 8vo. 13 pp. New York, 1837. 

12. Tyson, Philip T. A description of the Frostburg Coal For- 
mation of Allegany County, Maryland, with an account of its geo- 
logical position. 

Trans. Md. Acad. Sci. and Lit., 1S;J7, pp. 02-98, plate. 

1838. 

13. Anon. Report upon the Surveys for the Extension of the 
Baltimore and Ohio railroad from its present termination near Har- 
per's Ferry, on the Potomac, to Wheeling and Pittsburg on the Ohio 
river. Svo. 13S pp. 

14. Anon. Charter of the Carroll White Sulphur Spring Com- 
pany, in Allegany County, Maryland, with a scientific Report upon 
the situation, properties, composition, etc., of the springs. 1838. 

15. Douglas, D. B. Report on the Coal and Iron Formation of 
Frostburg and Upper Potomac in the States of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia. Brooklyn (?), 1838, with map. 

16. Silliman, B. Extracts from a report made to the Maryland 
Mining Company, 1S38. 

1839. 

17. Erickson, Captain. Report of Captain Erickson, Civil Engi- 
neer, London, showing the cost of the coal of the Maryland Mining 
Company per ton, delivered at the several cities of Washington, 
Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York. 1839. 

18. Sheppard, F. Report to the Potomac and Allegany Coal and 
Iron Manufacturing Company. 1839. 

19. Silliman, B. Extract from a report made to the Maryland 
and New York Coal and Iron Company. 1839. 

20. Weld, Henry Thomas. A Report made by Henry Thomas 
Weld, Esq., of the Maryland and New York Iron and Coal Company's 
Land, <S:c. 

1840. 

21. Alexander, J. II. Report on the Manufacture of Iron, 
addressed to the Governor of Maryland by J. H. Alexander. Printed 
by order of the Senate. Annapolis, 1840. 8vo. 369 pp., 3 plates. 

22. Anon. Charters of the Union Potomac Company and the 
Union Company, with a description of their Coal and Iron Mines, &c. 
1840. 



72 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

1841. 

23. Ducatel, J. T. Annual Report of the Geologist of Maryland, 
1840. 8vo. 46 pp. [Annapolis, 1840.] Map and sections. 

Another edition, 8vo., 59 pp. and 3 plates; also Md. House of Delegates, 
Dec. Sess., 1840, n. d., 8vo., 43 pp., 3 plates. 

24. Rogers, Henry D. An Inquiry into the Origin of the Appa- 
lachian Coal Strata — Bituminous and Anthracitic. 

Trans. Assoc. Anier. Geol. and Nat., 1842, pp. 433-474. 

25. Rogers, W. B. and H. D. On the Physical Structure of the 
Appalachian Chain as Exemplifying the Laws which have Regulated 
the Elevation of Great Mountain Chains. 

Repts. Amer. Assoc. Geol. and Nat., 1842, pp. 474-531. 
(Absts.) British Assoc. Repts., 1842, Pt. II, pp. 40-42. 
Proc. Assoc. Amer. Geol. and Nat., 1840-42, pp. 70-71. 
Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xliii, 1842, pp. 177-178; vol. xliv, 1843, pp. 359-362. 

1843. 

26. Sillimax, Benj. Lecture VII. Coal, its Origin and Organic 
Remains. Pittsburg, 1843. 

1844. 

27. Johnson, W. R. A Report to the Navy Department of the 
United States on American Coals applicable to steam navigation and 
to other purposes. 

Exec. Doc. House, 28th Cong., 1st Sess., vol. vi, 1844, No. 270, pp. 1-607. 
Sen. Doc. No. 386, 28th Cong., 1st Sess., vol. vi, June 6, 1844, 607 pp. 

1845. 

2S. Lonsdale, W. 

Appendix Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol. i, 1S45, pp. -127-429. (See 
Lyell, Chas.) 

29. Lyell, Chas. Travels in North America, with Geological 
Observations on the United States, Canada and Nova Scotia. 2 vols. 
12 mo. New York, 1845. 

Another edition. 2 vols. 12mo. London, 1845. 

Second English edition. London, 1855. 

German edition, translated by K. T. Wolff, Halle, 1840. 

1846. 

30. Bunburv, C. J. F. On some remarkable Fossil Ferns from 
Frostburg, Md., collected by Mr. Lyell. (Read Dec. 3, 1845.) 

Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc, London, vol. ii, 1840, pp. 82-91, 2 plates. 
(Abst.) Amer. Jour. Sci., 2nd ser., vol. ii, 1840, pp. 427-428. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 73 

1848. 

31. Taylor, R. C. Statistics of Coal. The geographical and 
geological distribution of Mineral Combustibles or Fossil Fuel. Svo. 
745 pp. Philadelphia, 1848. 

1S50. 

32. Johnson, W. R. The Coal Trade of British America with 
Researches on the Character and Practical Values of American and 
Foreign Coals. 1850. 8vo. 179 pp. 

1852. 

33. Anon. Documents relating to the Phoenix Mining and Manu- 
facturing Company's Cumberland Coal and Iron. Comprising ex- 
tracts from various official reports made under direction of Govern- 
ment officers and others. New York, 1852. 52 pp. and map. 

1854. 

34. Higgins, James. The fourth Annual Report of James Ilig- 
gins, M. D., State Agricultural Chemist, to the House of Delegates 
of the State of Maryland. Svo. 02 pp. Baltimore, 1854. 

Also Md. House of Delegates, Jan. Sess., 1853. 

35. Hughes, Geo. W. Report of Coal. Geo. W. Hughes, Presi- 
dent and Engineer of the Hampshire Coal and Iron Company of 
Virginia and Maryland. 35 pp. with map. New York, 1854. 

1855. 

36. Rankin, Robert G. A Report on the economic value of the 
semi-bituminous coal of the Cumberland coal basin. New York, 
1855. 71 pp. and 2 plates. 

185G. 

37. Lesley, J. P. Manual of Coal ami its Topography, or 
Geology of the Appalachian Region of the United States of America. 
Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1S56. 

38. Phillips, G. Jenkins. Prospectus of the lialcarras Conl and 
Iron Company, Allegany county, Maryland. New York, 1856. 
15 pp. with plate. 

1S5S. 

39. Rooeks. II. 1). The (Jcolotiv of Pennsvlvaiiia. 2 vols. (vol. ii 
in two parts) and map*. 4to. Philadelphia, 1S5-S. 



74 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

1860. 

40. Tyson, P. T. First Report of Philip T. Tyson, State Agricul- 
tural Chemist, to the House of Delegates of Maryland, January, 
1860. 8vo. 145 pp. Annapolis, 1860. Maps. 

Md. Sen. Doc. [E]. 
Md. House Doc. [C]. 

1861. 

41. Hall, James. Paleontology. Vol. iii, Part I. Containing 
Descriptions and Figures of the Organic Kemains of the Lower Hel- 
derberg Group and the Oriskany Sandstone. 1855-1S59. Geolog- 
ical Survey of New York, Albany, 1861. 

1862. 

42. Tyson, Philip T. Second Report of Philip T. Tyson, State 
Agricultural Chemist, to the House of Delegates of Maryland, Jan., 
1862. 8vo. 92 pp. Annapolis, 1862. 

Md. Sen. Doc. [P], 

1866. 

43. Daddow, S. H., and Bannon, Benj. Coal, Iron and Oil; or 
the Practical American Miner. 8vo. 808 pp. Maps, sections, 
illustrations. B. Bannon, Pottsville, Pa., 1866. 

1867. 

44. Anon. Reports on the Iron Interests of the Cumberland Coal 
and Iron Company. New York, 1867. 14 pp. 

45. Hall, James. Paleontology, Vol. iv, part I. Containing 
Descriptions and Figures of the Fossil Brachiopoda of the Upper 
Helderberg, Hamilton and Chemung Groups, 1862-1866. Geological 
Survey of New York, Albany, 1867. 4to. 427 pp., 63 plates. 

1869. 

46. Anon. Cumberland Bituminous Coal. 

Engf. and Min. Jour., vol. viii, 1809, p. 153. 

47. Hodge, Jas. T. Report of the Coal Properties of the Cum- 
berland Coal Basin in Maryland, from surveys and examinations 
made during the summer of 1868. New York, 1869. 65 pp. 

1871. 

48. Tyson, P. T. Section of Cumberland Coal Basin. 

Proc. Anier. Phil. Soc, vol. xi t 1871, pp. 9-13. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 75 

1872. 

49. Stephens, Thomas. Mining Summary. Maryland. 

Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. xiv, 1872, p. 411. 

1873. 

50. MacFarlane, James. The Coal Regions of America, their 
Topography, Geology and Development. New York, 1873. 

IS 74. 

51. Hall, Jas. The Niagara and Lower llelderberg Groups; 
their relations and geographical distribution in the United States. 

Proc. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. xxiii, 1H74, pp. 321-33."i. 
27th Kept. N. Y. State Museum, Albany, LS74, pp. 117-1 31. 

52. Merrill, "NVm. E. Extension of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal to the Ohio River. Including Reports by J. S. Sedgwick, 
Totten, Poussin, Lesley and Latrobe. 

House Doe. No. 208, 43rd Cong., 1st Sess., .">9 pp. 

1S75. 

53. Anon. The Maryland Coal Company's Cumberland Coal. 

Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. xix, 1S75, p. 1. 

1870. 

54. Fontaine, Wm. M. The Conglomerate Series of West Vir- 
ginia. 

Amer. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. xi, 1S70, pp. 276-284, 374-3S4. 

1877. 

55. Anon. Assessed Valuation of Coal and Mining Corporations 
in Allegany County, Maryland. 

Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. xxiii, 1877, p. 242. 

56. Schoot, Chas. A. Tables, "Distribution:? and Variations of the 
Atmospheric Temperature in the United States. 

Smithsonian Contrib. Knowledge, vol. xxi, 1S7G, 300 pp., \) diagrams, 2 
plates, 3 charts. 

1S78. 

57. Cook, George II. lieport on the* Clay Deposits of AVood- 
bridge, South Amboy, and other places in Xew Jersey, etc. Svo. 
Geol. Survey of New Jersey, 1878. Pp. 300, 341, 35L 

58. Sherwood, E. F., Zeller, Theo., Sxydek. Henry L. Report 
on the two kinds of Coal submitted by the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Railroad agency. Washington, 1878. 30 pp. 



76 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

59. Lowdermilk, Will H. History of Cumberland [etc.], with 
maps and illustrations, by Will H. Lowdermilk. 8vo. Washington, 
D. C, 1878. 

60. Stevenson, John J. On the Surface Geology of Southwest 
Pennsylvania, and adjoining portions of Maryland and West Vir- 
ginia. 

Amer. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. xv, 1878, pp. 245-250. 

61. The Upper Devonian Rocks of Southwest Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Amer. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. xv, 1878, pp. 423-430. 

1879. 

62. Anon. Review of the Coal Trade of 1878. 

Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. xxvii, 1879, pp. 1-10. 

63. Catn, Peter. Second Annual Report of Peter Cain, Inspec- 
tor of Mines. Annapolis, 1878. 8vo. 16 pp. 

64. Frazer, Persifor, Jr. Classification of Coals. (Read May 
1877.) 

Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. vi, 1879, pp. 430-451. 

65. McCreath, Andrew A. Second Report of Progress in the 
Laboratory of the Survey at Harrisburg. 

Kept. 2nd Geol. Survey, Pa. MM, Harrisburg, 1879. 

1880. 

66. Brown, Thomas. The Maryland Union Coal Company. 

Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. xxx, 1880, p. 3. 

67. Dana, J. D. Manual of Geology. 3rd edit. 

68. Fontaine, Wm. M., and White, I. C. The Permian or Upper 
Carboniferous Flora of West Virginia and S. W. Pennsylvania. 

Kept. 2nd Geol. Survey Pa. PP, llarrisburg, 1880, 143 pp. and 38 plates. 

69. Riordan, O. Second Annual Report of Owen Riordan, In- 
spector of Mines for Allegany and Garrett Counties. For year end- 
ing Dec, 1879. 8vo. 31 pp. 

Md. House and Sen. Doc, 1S80 [J]. 

70. Stevenson, J. J. Surface Geology of Southwest Pennsylvania 
and adjacent portions of West Virginia and Maryland. (Read April, 
1879). 

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. xviii, 1879, pp. 289-316. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 77 

1861. 

71. Brown, T. Second Annual Report of T. Brown, Inspector 
of Mines for Allegany and Garrett counties. 8vo. 40 pp. 

Md. House and Senate Doc, 1SS1 [F]. 

1SS2. 

72. Jones, Howard Grant. Xotes on the Cumberland or Poto- 
mac Coal Basin. (Read Sept. 11, 1880.) 

Proe. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. xix, 1882, pp. 11-110. 

73. Lesley, J. P. (The Cumberland or Potomac Coal Basin.) 
Remarks on the paper by Mr. Jones. 

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., Phila., vol. xix, 1882, p. 110. 

74. Sciiarf, J. T. History of Western Maryland, being a history 
of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany and 
Garrett Counties from the earliest period to the present day. 2 vols. 
4to. Philadelphia, 1882. 

75. Stevenson, J. J. The Geology of Bedford and Fulton Coun- 
ties, Pennsylvania. 

2nd Geol. Survey Pa., Kept. T2. Harrisburg, 1S82, 8va, 382 pp., two maps. 

76. White, I. C. Notes on the Geology of West Virginia. A 
Rectification of the Sections made by Mr. Howard Grant Jones, M. S. 
(Read June 17, 1881.) 

Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. xix, 1882, pp. 438-446. 

1883. 

77. Smock, J. C. The Useful Minerals of the United States. 

Mineral Resources U. S. Washington, 1883, pp. 664, 690-693. 

78. Wilbur, F. A. Clav. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1882. Washington, 18s;i, pp. 463-475. 

1884. 

79. Brown, T. Report of T. Brown, Inspector of Mines for 
Allegany and Garrett Counties. Annapolis, 1884. 64 pp. 

Md. House and Senate Doc, 1884 [D]. 

80. Rogers, William Barton. A Reprint of Annual Reports 
and other papers, on the Geology of the Virginias. 

Sm. 8vo. Appleton, 1884. 

81. Smock, J. G. Geologico-geographical Distribution of the Iron 
Ores of the Eastern United States. 

Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. xxxWi, New York, 18S4, pp. 217-21S, 230-232. 
Trans. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. xii, 1884, pp. 130-144. 



7S THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

82. Swank, James M. History of the Manufacture of Iron in all 
Ages. Philadelphia, 1884. 

83. Weeks, Joseph I). Report on the Manufacture of Coke. 

Tenth Census, vol. x. Washington, 1884. 

1885. 

84. Anon. General Mining News — Maryland. 

Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. xl, 1885, p. 204. 

85. Armstrong, S. C. (Compiler). Coal. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1883-84. Washington, 1885. 

8G. Gannett, Henry. Administrative Reports. Topographic 
work in Maryland. 

5th Ann. Report. IT. S. Geol. Survey, 1883-1884. Washington, 1885, pp. 7-8. 

87. Administrative Reports. Topographic work in 

Maryland. 

Cth Ann. Report U. S. Geol. Survey, 1884-1885. Washington, 1885, p. 8. 

88. Swain, Geo. F. Report on the water power of the Middle 
Atlantic Watershed. 

Tenth Census, vol. xvi. Washington, 1*85, pp. 513-600. 

1886. 

SO. Ashbcrner, Chas. A. Coal. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1885. Washington, 1886, pp. 33-34. 

90. Cook, R. S. The Manufacture of Fire-brick at Mount Savage, 
Marvland. 

Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. xiv, 1886, pp. 698-706. 

91. Lesley, J. P. Annual Report of the Geological Survey of 
Pennsylvania for 1885. 8vo. Harrisburg, 1886. Pp. 227-249. 

92. Peale, A. C. Lists and analyses of the mineral Springs of 
the U. S. 

Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 32, 1S8G. pp. 51-53. 

House Misc. Doc, 49th Cong., 2nd Sess., vol. viii, No. 164. 

Do. Pumpelly, R. (Editor). Mines and Metallurgical Establish- 
ments East of the 100th Meridian. 

Tenth Census, vol. xv, Mining Industries of the U. S. Washington. 1886, 
pp. 3-36. 

1887. 
94. Ashburner, Chas. A. Coal. 

Mineral Resources I*. S., 1886. Washington, 1887, pp. 221-279. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 79 

95. Stevenson", John J. Notes on the Lower Carboniferous 
groups along the easterly side of the Appalachian area in Pennsyl- 
vania and the Virginias. 

Amcr. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. xxxiv. 1887, pp. .'57-44. 

96. White, T. C. Rounded Boulders at High Altitudes along 
some Appalachian Rivers. 

Amer. Jour. Sci., 3rd ser., vol. xxxiv, 1887, pp. ."{74-381. 

1SSS. 

97. Ashiurner, Chas. A. Coal. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1887. Washington, 1888, pp. 169, 171, 177, 263- 
270, 337. 

98. Day, D. T. Useful Minerals of the United States. 

Mineral Resources V. S., 18S7. Washington, 18S8, pp. 739-742. 

99. Hall, James, and Clarke, J. M. Paleontology, vol. vii. 
Texts and Plates containing descriptions of the Trilobites and other 
Crustacea of the Oriskany, Upper Holderberg, Hamilton, Portage, 
Chemung and Catskill Groups. Geological Survey of New York, 
Albanv, 1888. 

100. Swank, Jas. M. The Iron and Steel Industries of the 
United States in 1887 and 1888. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1887. Washington, 1888. 

1889. 

101. Clarke, J. M. The ITercynian Question. 

42nd Ann. Rept. N. Y. State Museum, pp. 40S-437. Albany, 1889. 

102. Merrill, G. P. The Collection of Building and Ornamental 
Stones in the U. S. National Museum. 

Smithsonian Rept., 1886, pt. IT, 1SS9. 

103. Miller, S. A. North American Geology and Paleontology 
for the use of Amateurs, Students and Scientists. 8vo. 664: pp. 
Cincinnati, 1890. 

104. Sciiuchert, Chas. A List of Fossils Occurring in the 
Oriskanv Sandstone of Marvland, New York and Ontario. 

8th Ann. Rept. N. Y. State Geol. Albany, 1*99, pp. :>0-51. 

42nd Ann. Rept. X. Y. State Museum. Albany, 1KM», pp. 396-400. 

10.">. Ward, Lester F. The Geographical Distribution of Fossil 
Plants. 

Sth Ann. Rept. V. S. Geol. Survey, 1886-87. Washington, 1889, part IT, 
pp. 663-960, maps. 



80 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

1890. 

106. Ashbueneb, Chas. A. Coal. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1888. Washington, 1890. 

107. MacFarlane, J. R. An American Geological Railway 
Guide. 2nd edit. 8vo. 426 pp. Appleton, 1890. 

108. Scharf, J. T. Report of the Commissioner of Land Office. 
Report from Jan. 1st, 1888, to Jan. 1st, 1890, .... with a series of 
carefully prepared articles on Maryland's resources. . . . 1890. 

Md. House of Delegates, Dec. Sess., 1890, 8vo., 148 pp. 

1891. 

109. Jones, John H. (Spec. Agt.). Census Bulletins of the Coal 
Industry in 1889. 

Eng. and Min. Jour., vol. li, 1891, p. 238. 

110. Keyes, Charles Rollin. Paleozoic fossils of Maryland. 

Johns Hopkins Univ. Cir. No. 94, vol. xi, 1891, pp. 28-29. 

111. Kinnecut, L. P., and Rogers, J. F. Fire-clay from Mount 
Savage, Allegany Co., Md. 

Jour. Anal, and Appl. Chem., vol. v, 1891, p. 542. 

112. Watkins, J. Elfreth. The Development of the American 
Rail and Track as illustrated by the Collection in the U. S. National 
Museum. 

Report of the U. S. Nat. Mus. for 1889, p. 671. Washington, 1891. 

113. White, Israel C. Stratigraphy of the Bituminous Coal 
Field of Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia* 

Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 65, 1891. 

House Misc. Doc, 51st Cong., 2nd Sess., vol. xiii, No. 136. 

114. Williams, G. H. The Geological Excursions by University 
students across the Appalachians in May, 1891. 

Johns Hopkins Univ. Cir. No. 94, vol. xi, 1891, pp. 25-27. 

115. Williams, H. S. Correlation Papers — Devonian and Car- 
boniferous. 

Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 80, 1891. 

House Misc. Doc, 52nd Cong., 1st Sess., vol. xix, No. 24. 

1892. 

116. Anon. Fire-Brick Industry. 

The Iron Belt, Roanoke, Va., vol. iii, Nov. 1892, pp. 4-5. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 81 

117. Babb, Cyrus C. The Hydrography of the Potomac Basin. 

Amer. Soc. Civ. Eng., vol. xxvii, 1892, pp. 21-33. 

IIS. Clark, Wm. B. The Surface Configuration of Maryland. 

Monthly Kept. Md. State Weather Service, vol. ii. 1892, pp. S5-89. 

119. Jones, J. H. Coal. 

House Misc. Doc, 52nd Cong., 1st Sess., vol. i, pt. I, No. 3-10. 
Eleventh Census, Kept, on Mineral Industries, 1S92, pp. 345-422. 

120. Lesley, J. P. A Summary description of the Geology of 
Pennsylvania. 3 vols. Harrisburg, 1892. 

121. Parker, E. W. Coal. 

Mineral Kesources U. S., 1869-90. Washington, 1S92. 

122. Peale, A. C. Mineral Waters. 

Mineral Kesources U. S., 1889-90. Washington, 1892. 

123. Scharf, J. TnoMAS. The Natural Resources and advantages 
of Maryland, being a complete description of all of the counties of the 
State and City of Baltimore. Annapolis, 1892. 

124. Williams, G. H. The Universitv and its Xatural Environ- 
ment. 

Johns Hopkins Univ. Cir. No. 90, vol. xi, 1892, pp. 54-5G. 

1893. 

125. Clark, Wm. Bullock. The Available Water Power of 
Maryland. 

Monthly Kept. Md. State Weather Service, vol. iii, 1893, pp. 7-9. 

126. Physical Features [of Maryland]. 

Maryland, its Kesources, Industries and Institutions. Pp. 11-54. Balti- 
more, 1893. 

127. The Leading Features of Maryland Climate. 

Monthly Kept. Md. State Weather Service, vol. iii, 1893, pp. 1-0. 

128. Gannett, Henry. The Average Elevation of the United 
States. 

13th Ann. Kept. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1891-2, pt. II. Washington, 1893, 
pp. 283-289. 

129. Hill, R. T. Clay Materials of the United States. 

Mineral Kesources U. S., 1S91. Washington, 1893. 

130. Howard, A. B. First Annual Keport of the Bureau of 

Industrial Statistics of Maryland. Annapolis, 1893. 
6 



82 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

131. Keyseb, W. Iron. 

Maryland, its Resources, Industries and Institutions, pp. 100-112. Balti- 
more, 1893. 

132. Parker, E. W. Coal. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1891. Washington, 1893. 

133. Coal. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1892. Washington, 1893. 

134. Peale, A. C. Mineral Waters. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1891. Washington, 1893. 

135. Mineral Waters. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1892. Washington, 1893. 

136. Schumann, C. H. The Manufacture of Bricks. 

Cassier's Magazine, vol. iv, 1893, pp. 403-47. 

137. Spencer, S. B. Natural and Artificial Cements. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1891. Washington, 1893. 

138. Stevenson, J. J. Origin of Pennsylvania Anthracite. 

Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. v, 1893, pp. 39-70, pi. II. 

139. Whitney, Milton. The Soils of Maryland. 

Md. Agri. Exper. Sta., Bull. No. 21. College Park, 1893, 58 pp., map. 

140. Agriculture and Live Stock [of Maryland]. 

Maryland, its Resources, Industries and Institutions. Baltimore, 1893, 
pp. 152-217. 

141. Soils of Maryland. 

Monthly Kept. Md. State Weather Service, vol. iii, 1893, pp. 15-22, map. 

142. Williams, G. H. [The Appalachian Region and the Itin- 
erary from Washington, D. C, to Cumberland, Maryland.] 

Geological Guidebook of the Rocky Mt. Excursion, Comte Rendu de la 
5me Ses. Congrgs Geolog. Internet. Washington, 1893, pp. 268-279. 
House Misc. Doc, 53rd Cong., 2nd Sess., vol. xiii, No. 107, pp. 268-279. 

143. Mines and Minerals [of Maryland]. 

Maryland, its Resources, Industries and Institutions. Baltimore, 1893, 
pp. 89-153. 

144. Williams, G. H., and Clark, W. B. Geology [of Mary- 
land] . 

Maryland, its Resources, Industries and Institutions. Baltimore, 1893, 
pp. 55-89. 

145. Willis, Bailey. The Mechanics of Appalachian Structure. 

13th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1891-92, pt. II. Washington, 1893, 
pp. 211*281, plates and maps. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 83 

1894. 

146. Clark, "NVm. Bullock. The Climatology and Physical Fea- 
tures of Maryland. 

1st Biennial Kept. Md. State Weather Service, 1894. 

147. Gannett, Henry. Results of Primary Triangulation. 

Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 122, 1894, pp. 04-65. 
House Misc. Doc., 53rd Cong 1 ., 1st Sess., vol. ix, No. 78. 

148. Hofman, H. O., and Demoxd, C. D. Some Experiments for 
Determining the Refractiveness of Fire-clays?. 

Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. xxiv, 1894, pp. 42-06. See also 1895. 

149. Parker, E. AV. Coal. 

Mineral Resources U. S., 1893. Washington, 1894. 

150. Shriver, Howard. Catalogue of Fossils Found at Cumber- 
land, Md. (n. d.) 4 pp. 

151. AVeeks, Joseph D. The Potomac and Roaring Creek Coal- 
fields in West Virginia. 

14th Ann. Kept. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1S92-93, pt. II. Washington, 1894, 
pp. 567-590. 

1895. 

152. Baird, G. W. Experiment to Determine the Economic 
Vaporization of George's Creek Cumberland Coal, Under Condi- 
tions of Actual Practice on Board the Dolphin in port. 

Jour. Amer. Soc. Naval Eng., vol. vii, 1895, pp. 329-331. 

153. Dana, J. D. Manual of Geology. 4th edit. 8vo. New 
York, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 1895. 

154. Hofman, II. O. Further Experiments for Determining the 
Fusibility of Fire-clays. 

Trans. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., vol. xxv, 1895, pp. 3-17. See 1894. 

155. Kemp, James. The Ore Deposits of the United States. 8vo. 
343 pp. New York, 1895. 

156. Newell, F. H. Report of Progress of the Division of 
Hydrography, 1S93-94. 

Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, No. 131, 1895. 

House Misc. Doc, 54th Cong., 1st Sess., vol. — , No. 318. 

157. Parker, E. W. Coal. 

16th Ann. Kept. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1894-95, pt. IV. Washington, 1S95. 

158. Ries, Heinrich. Technology of the Clay Industry. 

16th Ann. Kept. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1894-95, pt. IV. Washington, 1S95, 
pp. 523-575. 



84 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

1896. 

159. Daeton, N". H., and Taff, Joseph. Piedmont Folio, Ex- 
planatory sheets. 

U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, folio 28. Washington, 1896. 

160. Parker, E. W. Coal. 

17th Ann. Kept. U. S. Geol. Surv., 1895, pt. III. Washington, 1896. 

161. Whitney, Milton. Texture of some Important Soil Forma- 
tions. 

U. S. Dept. Agri., Div. Agri. Soils, Bull. No. 5. Washington, 1896. Illus- 
trated, 23 pp., 35 plates. 

162. Willis, Bailey. The Northern Appalachians. 

The Physiography of the United States. 

Geographic Monographs, I. American Book Co., 169 pp., 1896. 

1897. 

163. Clark, William Bullock. Historical Sketch embracing 
an Account of the Progress of Investigation Concerning the Physical 
Features and Natural Resources of Maryland. 

Md. Geol. Surv., vol. i, pt. II, pp. 43-138. Baltimore, 1897. 

164. Outline of Present Knowledge of the Physical 

Features of Maryland embracing an Account of the Physiography, 
Geology and Mineral Resources. 

Ibid., pt. Ill, pp. 139-228. 

165. Mathews, Edward B. Bibliography and Cartography of 
Maryland, including Publications relating to the Physiography, Geol- 
ogy and Mineral Resources. 

Ibid., pt. IV, pp. 229-401. 

166. Nicolls, William Jasper. The Story of American Coals. 
8vo. 405 pp. Philadelphia, 1897. 

167. Parker, E. W. Coal. 

18th Ann. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv., 189fi, pt. V. Washington, 1897. 

1898. 

168. Bauer, L. A. Report on the Survey of the Boundary-line 
between Allegany and Garrett Counties. 8vo. 48 pp. Baltimore, 
1898. 

169. Clark, Wm. Bullock. Administrative Report containing 
an Account of the Operations of the Survey during 1896 and 1897. 

Md. Geol. Surv., vol. i, pt. I, pp. 25-43. 



k 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 85 

170. Mathews, Edward B. An Account of the Character and 
Distribution of Maryland Building Stone?, etc. 

Md. Geol. Surv., vol. i, pt. IT, pp. 125-241. 

171. The Maps and Map-makers of Maryland. 

Md. Geol. Surv., vol. i, pt. Ill, pp. 337- ISS. 

172. Nicolls, William Jasper. Above Ground and Bolow in 
the George's Creek Coal Region. (Published for the Consolidation 
Coal Company.) Sin. 8vo. 32 pp. Baltimore, 1898. 

173. Parker, E. W. Coal. 

19th Ann. Kept. U. S. Geol. Survey, 1897-98, pt. VI. 

174. White, I. C. The Pittsburg Coal Bed. 

Amer. Geol., vol. xxi, pp. -19-60, 1S9S. 

1899. 

175. Abbe, Cleveland, Jr. A General Report on the Physiog- 
raphy of Maryland. 

Md. Weather Service, vol. i, pt. II, pp. 39-216. 

176. Clark, William Bullock. The Relations of Maryland 
Topography, Climate and Geology to Highway Construction. 

Md. Geol. Surv., vol. iii, pt. II, pp. 47-106. 

177. Newell, F. H., and others. Report of progress of stream 
measurements for the calendar year 1897, including papers by 
Dwight Porter, J. B. Lippincott and other hydrographers. 

19th Ann. Rept, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1897-98, pt. IV. Washington, 1899. 



STRATIGRAPHY AND AREAL DISTRIBUTION. 

With the exception of some scattering Pleistocene deposits, all of 
the geological formations exposed in Allegany county are of Paleo- 
zoic age. The Pleistocene deposits are too poorly defined to receive 
satisfactory mapping, but the areal distribution of the Paleozoic for- 
mations is indicated on the geological map in the Physical Atlas ac- 
companying this report, while their lithologieal features are shown 
on the columnar sections. 

The stratigraphie relations of the several geological formations, all 
of which are herein described, are shown in the following table: 



86 



THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 



TABLE OF ALLEGANY COUNTY FORMATIONS. 
Cenozoic. 

Pleistocene Alluvial, etc. 

Paleozoic. 

Permian Dunkard. 

Carboniferous Monongahela, 

Conemaugh, 

Allegheny, 

Pottsville, 

Mauch Chunk, 

Greenbrier, 

Pocono. 

Devonian Hampshire, 

Jennings, 
Romney, 
Oriskany, 
Helderberg. 

Silurian Salina, 

Niagara, 
Clinton, 
Tuscarora, 
Juniata. 

The Silurian. 



MaSBBSESE. 



Ifaurh Chunk 



Pleistocene 



Dunkard 



Conemaugh 



A»f"«R7 



Pottavllle 



nr^nn^ar- 



Pocono 



Hampshire 



Jennings 



Romney 



ftriitanT | 

Helderberg 



8aUna 
Niagara* 



canton 



Tuaoarora 



Juniata 



Fig. 4. 



THE JUNIATA FORMATION. 

The Juniata formation, known farther north as the Lower or Red 
Medina or Levant Red Sandstone, (IV b) receives its name from the 
Juniata river, Pennsylvania, along which it is typically developed. 
It includes the oldest rocks that appear at the surface in Allegany 
county and outcrops in only one locality. This outcrop is in the 
gorge just northwest of Cumberland where Wills Creek cuts through 
Wills Mountain. 

The formation is made up of dull red sandstones and shales inter- 
bedded without any regularity of succession. The sandstones are 
hard, fine-grained, quartzitic near the top, cross-bedded and mica- 
ceous. Some of the beds exposed are more than one foot in thick- 
ness, but most of them are less than six inches. A few of the beds 
contain small rounded or flattened pellets of brittle yellowish-green 



MARYLAND QEOLOSICAL SURVEY. 



COUNTY, PLATE 1) 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 87 

or reddish clay, the largest of which are usually less than one-half 
inch in diameter. 

The shale beds varv from less than one inch to six feet or more in 
thickness. In general, they are considerably thicker than the sand- 
stones, and the total thickness of shale in the exposure is much greater 
than the total thickness of sandstone. The shales, like the sandstones, 
are almost always distinctly micaceous and weather readily. 

a. »■ • 

The depth to which, "Wills Creek has cut into the formation is 530 
feet. However, 140 feet of this, computed according to the hori- 
zontal distance and supposed average dip, is concealed by the heavy 
talus derived from the overlying Tuscarora quartzite. Along the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on the north side of Wills Creek the 
upper 370 feet is well shown, there being in all of this not more than 
twenty feet hidden. Here all of the remainder of the Juniata is 
concealed, but 140 feet below, on the opposite side of the creek, along 
the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad, an additional exposure 
of thirty feet may be seen. With the exception of the 140 feet con- 
cealed, the measurements were all made with a steel tape. 

Notwithstanding the good exposure of much of the formation, the 
various strata of shales and sandstones are more or less inclined to 
grade into each other, so that no satisfactory detailed section can be 
given. The top of the formation is considered as beginning with the 
highest distinct red shale bed, which is six inches thick. where best 
shown. This may be seen in the small excavation at the spring on the 
north side of Wills Creek near the east end of the Narrows, a few 
feet above the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad track. Here the red 
shale bands quickly become of little importance, and the whiteness 
of the sandstone gradually but rapidly increases, the Juniata forma- 
tion thus being separated from the Tuscarora by a transition zone of 
only a few feet in thickness. 1 

THE TUSCARORA FORMATION. 

The Tuscarora formation, perhaps nearly identical with the White 
Medina of the Pennsylvania and New York surveys, receives its 

1 For a discussion of contacts and transition zones, see Lesley, J. P., A Summary 
Description of the Geology of Pennsylvania, in three volumes. Vol. i, pp. (5*27 to 
021), Harrisburg, 1892. 



88 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

name from Tuscarora Mountain, Pennsylvania, where the formation 
is most typically developed. It is brought to the surface in five 
places in the county, viz., in Wills Mountain, where, lying conform- 
ably upon the Juniata, it gives rise to the higher portions of that 
mountain; in Evitts Mountain and in Tussey Mountain, of which it 
makes up almost the entire exposed surfaces; and in two small areas 
along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad near Potomac Station, south- 
east of the southern end of "Wills Mountain. The smaller of these 
last areas has been excavated about twenty feet in order to give a 
suitable grade for the railroad track. The larger area lias a perpen- 
dicular exposure of more than one hundred feet above the railroad 
and extends to the southwest as a well-marked low ridge for a distance 
of nearlv five hundred vards. 

The formation is made up of snow-white to light gray quartzite, 
frequently cross-bedded and consisting usually of medium-coarse 
quartz grains in a very hard siliceous matrix. In some of the beds 
scattering quartz pebbles are found, but these are never abundant, 
and usually are not larger than wheat grains. Yellowish-green, hard 
clay pebbles of various sizes are sometimes found, but they are not 
common. 

With the exception of casts of Arthrophycus harlani, no forms of 
positive organic origin have been found in the Tuscarora of this 
county. Even Arthrophycus harlani is not abundant in any of the 
Allegany county exposures, although the faces of some of the upper 
beds along Wills Creek in the Narrows are pretty well covered by 
the casts. Casts of Arthrophycus are also shown, and possibly to a 
better advantage in the outcrops along the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road near Potomac Station. This plant form was found in greater 
abundance in the upper beds, the lower beds apparently being nearly 
destitute of them. 

In general, the rocks are highly indurated and massive, and do not 
weather readily. In the Narrows and in Rocky Gap on Evitts Moun- 
tain, heavy talus slopes conceal the lower faces of the cliffs, while the 
overhanging walls of white rock give to these gorges a very rugged 
appearance. To some extent the same is true of the gap in Tusscys 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SUliVEY 89 

Mountain, but this gap is so near the point where the mountain 
pitches beneath the surface that the walls of the gorge are very low. 
The total thickness of the formation is shown only in the "Wills 
Creek gorge in Wills [Mountain. Here the thickness is 287 feet, a 
good measurement having been obtained by means of a line dropped 
from the top of the Narrows to the Tuscarora-Juniata contact at a 
point near the Baltimore and Ohio "Railroad yard limits. 

THE CLINTON FORMATION. 

The Clinton formation is identical with the Clinton rocks of the 
New York section, the name being first used by the New York 
survey on account of the excellent development of the rocks in that 
state in the vicinity of Clinton. This formation lies conformably 
upon the Tuscarora quartzite and immediately surrounds the areas 
covered bv the Tuscarora formation. 

The largest area flanks Wills Mountain on either side, and con- 
tinuing south-southeast beyond Crcsap, encloses the smaller Tus- 
carora areas on the Potomac where that river makes a strong bend to 
the southeast. Another area lies to the northeast of Cumberland 
where, coining in from Pennsylvania, it flanks the southern end cf 
Evitts Mountain. A third area lies further east and holds the same 
relation to Tussev Mountain northwest of Flintstone that the second 
area holds to Evitts Mountain. 

The Clinton is composed essentially of thin reddish and green ish- 
vellow shales, while sandstone beds, some of which are of considerable 
thickness, occur in it, and a few thin beds of limestone appear in the 
upper part. Two important beds of iron ore are also found in it. 
In the lower part, where light colored shales predominate, the several 
transition sandstones present are more or less quartzitic, but are of 
no very great thickness. These lower sandstones are l>est seen on 
the south side of Wills Creek at the east end of the Narrows. 

Xear the top of the formation there is a light gray massive sand- 
stone generally about ten feet thick. This is well shown along the 
Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad about fortv rods west of Brady, where 
the thickness is a little less than ten feet, and where the sandstone is 



90 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY' 

overlain by a six-inch bed of hematitic iron ore, known as the upper 
Clinton iron ore. A sandstone which apparently corresponds to the 
above-mentioned sandstone was seen on the National Road northeast 
of Cumberland, a little west of the Sixmile House, one hundred yards 
west of the junction of the Johnston Road with the National Road. 

The limestones of the formation are seldom six inches in thickness, 
and are much inclined to occur in layers about two inches thick, 
interbedded with shale bands of similar thickness. The limestones 
are almost always highly fossiliferous. 

The shales occupy most of the lower part of the formation, besides 
a considerable space in the middle and upper portions. These also 
frequently contain fossils. In color, they are usually a yellowish 
green or olive where freshly broken, but the flat exposed surfaces 
frequently have a marked scarlet color. Near the bottom of the 
formation the shales have more of a dull grayish brown appearance 
and are less fossiliferous. 

The lower Clinton iron ore includes two beds separated, where 
best seen, by six feet of greenish calcareous shale. The thickness of 
the lower bed averages about four and one-half feet and is 160 feet 
above the bottom of the formation, as shown on the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad southeast of Cresap between the two small Tuscarora 
exposures. The other bed, six feet higher, not fully exposed, shows 
a thickness of eight feet where observed southeast of Cresap, and is 
ten feet thick at Cumberland, north of the cement mill, where it is 
cut through by Wills Creek. All of the iron ore beds are fossilifer- 
ous, the upper bed of the lower ore being sometimes excessively filled 
with the various Clinton fossils. 

The following partial section was measured on the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad southeast of Cresap: 

Foot. 

Red iron ore band. (Not exposed to the top) 8 

Calcareous greenish shale 6 

Red iron ore band 4% 

Fine brownish red and green arenaceous shale with several 

thin but compact sandstones or quartzites near the bottom, 160 

Clinton-Tuscarora contact 

Total amount exposed 178% 



MABYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 91 

Along the south side of Wills Creek, at the east end of the Narrows, 
the full thickness of the Clinton shows the following section: 

Feet. 
Shales and f ossiferous limestone, mostly concealed 33 

Reddish shale with a few thin limestone bands (more or less 
concealed and perhaps containing* the upper Clinton iron 

ore near the top) 29 

Fossiliferous gray shale and blue limestone, with five and one- 
half feet of shaly sandstone near the bottom 28 

Concealed 57 

Reddish olive fossiliferous shale 24 

Concealed 238 

Fossiliferous iron ore (Lower Clinton ore) 10 

Rusty olive shale 17 

Fossiliferous olive-colored shale 85 

Rusty shale at top. Uneven bands of gray sandstone at bot- 
tom interstratified with olive shales 3f> 

Olive-colored shales with thin beds of brownish gray quartzite, 27 

Clinton-Tuscarora contact 

Total thickness of Clinton 584 

THE NIAGARA FORMATION. 

The Niagara formation, the name of which is derived from Niagara 
Falls. New York, where excellent exposures of these rocks have given 
opportunity for their careful study, lies conformably on the Clinton 
and, surrounding the outcrops of that formation, occupies areas 
closely related to them in size, in shape, and in geographical distribu- 
tion. 

The westernmost area lies as a narrow belt around the base of 
Wills Mountain and extends southward to the Potomac river near 
Potomac Station. The second area lies as a sharp loop around the 
southern end of Kvitts Mountain with a narrow projection southward 
along its pitching anticline, while the third area is similarly situated 
about Tussey Mountain. 

In Allegany county the Niagara is pretty much concealed, the 
areas about Evitts and Tussey mountains affording no satisfactory 
exposures, while the Wills Mountain area shows only one complete 
section. This is on the Potomac river just west of the cement-mill 
near Potomac Station. The formation is made up almost wholly of 
thin limestones with shale partings. The shale partings become of 



92 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

considerable thickness in the upper portions where they predominate 
over the limestones. In the lower portions the limestones predom- 
inate and the partings are very thin. A few thin sandstones are found 
near the top interbedded with the shales and limestones. 

The thickness of the formation as measured along the south side of 
Wills Creek in Cumberland is 260 feet. The rocks are, however, 
mostly concealed and the upper and lower limits of the formation 
cannot be accuratelv determined. In the Potomac Station section 
the formation was found to be 317 feet thick, but owing to the con- 
siderable folding here the measurement may not be exact. The true 
thickness certainly approximates 300 feet, and this may with propriety 
be considered as the thickness for the county. The section as meas- 
ured by It. B. Rowe along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad near 
Potomac Station is as follows: 

Foot. 
Niagara-Salina contact 

Black shales with layers of sandstone and an occasional layer 
of Umestone 22 

Mostlj' dark blue limestone with shale partings. Very fossil- 
iferons at top, less fossiliferous near the bottom. Some 
folding, but the measurement is believed to be fairly 
accurate 225 

Dark blue limestone with thin shale partings. So much folded 
that.the thickness can be only estimated 70 

Niagara-Clinton contact 

Total thickness of formation 317 

THE SALINA FORMATION. 

The Salina formation receives its name from Salina, New York, 
where it is typically developed. The rocks of this formation follow 
those of the Niagara conformity and are distributed about Wills 
Mountain. Evitts Mountain and Tussev Mountain in much the same 
manner as the two preceding formations. Along the eastern base of 
Wills Mountain the Salina has been cut through by the meanderings 
of the Potomac, thus throwing portions of the outcrop on the West 
Virginia side. 

The formation is composed of sandstones, shales and limestones. 
The sandstones predominate near the bottom and the limestones in 
the upper portions, while the shales are rather abundant throughout 



MARYLAND'QEO LOGICAL SURVEY 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE X 




OK CLINTON SANDSTONE, 




GEOLOGICAL SECTIONS IN ALLEGANY COUNTY, 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY 93 

the formation. Cement rock of importance is found in the lower 
part. The location of the four cement beds of commercial value is 
given in the section below. 

The rocks of this formation are not well exposed except along 
Wills Creek in Cumberland, along the Potomac river near Potomac 
Station, and along Flintstone Creek at Flintstone. Much of the 
Wills Creek section can be made out only with difficulty, but the 
Potomac section is well shown. West of the cement mill in Cumber- 
land the red sandstone beds at the bottom of the formation can be 
readily seen, as can also considerable portions of the shales and lime- 
stones, including the cement series. Immediately north of Plint- 
stone, along Flintstone Creek, various lower beds are fairly well 
exposed. Around Evitts Mountain the rocks are almost wholly con- 
cealed. The Potomac section, the best exposed section of Salina in 
the county, measures as follows: 1 

Feet. 
Salina-Helderberg contact 

Gray papery shales, dark drab magnesian limestone, dark blue 
limestone and yellowish and green sandstones in various 
relations to each other and all thin bedded. Fossils 

(Ostracods) are present, especially near the bottom 450 

" Fourth " cement rock. A twelve-inch band of limestone is 

found about five feet from the bottom 17 

Bluish gray shaiy rock with some thin arenaceous and cal- 
careous beds 19y 2 

" Third " cement rock 12y 2 

Light greenish, fossiliferous shales with some calcareous and 

arenaceous layers 54 

" Second " cement rock 15 

Massive fossiliferous limestones alternating with thin cement 

layers 15 

" First " cemen t rock G 

Bluish green shale with three and one-half feet of darker 

shale at the top. Fossiliferous 15 

Greenish gray sandstone \i l / 2 

Light brown disintegrated rock, probably limestone originally S 

Greenish gray massive sandstone 7 

Bright yellow sandstone y 3 

Thinly bedded greenish gray sandstone 2y 2 

Dark, fine-grained shale i:'.y 2 

Salina-Niagara contact 

Total thickness of Salina 030 

1 Sectiou of K. B. Rowe. 



94 the geology of allegany county 

The Devonian, 
the helderberg formation. 

The Helderberg formation, so called from its typical locality, the 
Helderberg Mountains of New York, is considered by some geologists 
as the lowest Devonian formation, while others regard it as the 
highest Silurian formation. It follows the Salina of the Silurian 
with perfect conformity and, like all of the preceding formations, is 
exposed only in the central and west-central portions of the county. 
The easternmost and largest area, shaped like a much constricted 
letter W, lies to the east, west and south of Tussey Mountain, and 
by its prominent double bifurcation makes up a large part of Warrior 
Mountain and Martin Mountain. On the state line east of Tussey 
Mountain the Helderberg belt is less than one-half mile wide, while 
the width of the corresponding outcrop on the western side is con- 
siderably greater. Southward, owing to the pitching of the Tussey 
Mountain anticline, these bands gradually approach each other until, at 
a point near Eush, the two coalesce. Within less than one mile south- 
ward the area again becomes bifurcated, but this time, owing to the 
synclinal nature of the fold, the projecting parts are separated by 
the Oriskany formation, which immediately follows the Helderberg. 
Of the two southern Helderberg projections, the one furthest east 
is the more extensive, and includes within it Flakes Knob, the highest 
point in the county east of the Alleghany Front. This part of the 
area narrows southward, but caps Warrior Mountain to within almost 
a mile of where the mountain ceases to be a distinct topographic 
feature. The projection lying further west is much narrower than 
the one to the east, but continues almost as far south and acts as a 
capping for Collier Mountain. 

The next area of Helderberg lies further west and flanks the out- 
crop of Salina around Evitts Mountain in much the same way that 
the first area does the Salina around Tussey Mountain. The bifur- 
cation at the north caused by the Evitts Mountain anticline is quite 
like that produced by the Tussey Mountain anticline. The forma- 
tion continues southward in one long, continually narrowing band to 
within one and one-half miles of the Potomac, where the Helderberg 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 95 

ending in a sharp point passes beneath the Oriskany to appear again 
at the roadside by the canal, where the Potomac has cut entirely 
through the overlying Oriskany and into the Helderberg for a dis- 
tance of fully a hundred feet The eastern part of this area forms 
much of the crest and western slope of Nicholas Mountain, while the 
contact line along the western side is clearly marked by a row of 
hills extending from the state line southward. This row of hills 
reaches almost as far south as does the Helderberg outcrop, but 
finally coalesces with Nicholas Mountain. 

East of Wills Mountain a belt of Helderberg averaging less than 
one-half mile in width comes into the county from the north, and 
extending southward along the western slope of Shriver Ridge, passes 
through the western part of Cumberland and across the Potomac into 
West Virginia. The Potomac in its very perceptible eastward bend 
nearly three miles above Cumberland, and again in the more promi- 
nent eastward bend about six miles above Cumberland, has carved 
out two small portions of this belt from tl\e West Virginia area. 
These patches are mostly concealed, but their contact with the Salina 
is fairly well shown. Northward the Helderberg-Salina contact is 
largely concealed, but the limestone quarries which occur in the 
lower part of the Helderberg along the western base of Shriver Ridge 
afford a convenient means of judging the approximate western out- 
crop of the Helderberg. Shriver Ridge marks the eastern limit, as 
the contact lies on its western slope a short distance below the top. 

West of Wills Mountain there is a band of Helderberg correspond- 
ing in position to the eastern belt, but by reason of the perpendicular 
attitude of the strata, this belt is considerably narrower than the one 
on the eastern side. Following closely the general direction of Wills 
Mountain, it crosses the Potomac river at Potomac Station. Along 
the belt north of the National Road the Helderberg-Salina contact is 
usually not well shown, but the Helderberg-Oriskany contact is 
prominent, the latter being represented by the steep ridges to the 
north and south of Corriganville. South of the National Road 
neither contact is well shown, although slight topographic features 
usually indicate their positions with reasonable accuracy. 



96 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Another Helderberg area of considerable extent is exposed south 
of Kawlings. This forms the body of the steep isolated ridge known 
as Fort Hill, which extends southward along the Potomac for a dis- 
tance of about four miles. 

In addition to the above-mentioned areas, two very slight expos- 
ures may be seen along the West Virginia Central Railroad on the 
north and south sides of Monster Rock near Keyser, "West Virginia. 
They are of little importance except in so far as they are of value in 
helping to work out the structure in that part of the county. 

Lithologically, the Helderberg is pre-eminently a limestone forma- 
tion. Argillaceous materials occur as impurities in some of the beds, 
but these are not important, and sandstones are almost wholly lacking. 
Thin bands of chert, which arie white or yellowish-white in color, 
occur sparingly throughout the upper part of the formation. Most 
of the limestone in the upper part is heavily bedded, and much of it 
is highly fossiliferous. The lower part of the Helderberg is a dark 
blue thin-bedded limestone which in breaking gives a decided ring. 
This corresponds to the Tentaculite limestone of New York, which 
in Maryland is over 400 feet thick. In the field the contact between 
the Salina and the Tentaculite limestone is very marked because of 
the different weathering qualities of the two rocks. The Salina 
rock weathers into soil very completely, while the Tentaculite lime- 
stone leaves innumerable small, thin, dark blue slabs upon the surface. 

In Western Maryland the Tentaculite limestone is mapped as a 
part of the Helderberg formation. This is done because the litho- 
logical break between it and the Salina is very marked and can be 
followed in the field, as shown above, while there is no lithological 
break between the Tentaculite and Lower Pentamerus subformations, 
and the division for mapping purposes cannot be made here. Pro- 
fessor James Hall of the New York survey always insisted that the 
Tentaculite should be considered as a portion of the Helderberg, 
while Professor James D. Dana considered it as a portion of the 
Waterlime (Salina) formation. Since Professor Hall's death, even 
the geologists of the New York survey have been inclined towards 
Dana's view. The Tentaculite limestone of Western Maryland has 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 97 

not only a greater thickness but also a more abundant fauna than 
that of the Xew York region. 

This fauna, as will be .shown in the more complete systematic 
reports, belongs to the Silurian and Devonian. It is too premature, 
at least, to assign all of the Ilelderberg of Maryland to either the 
Devonian or Silurian svstems. 

The thickness of the formation is nearly eight hundred feet. The 
two partial sections given below are believed to represent the full 
thickness as well as a duplication of some of the middle beds as 
indicated. The Potomac section extends from the bottom of the 
formation to and includes a few inches of the coralline ledge. The 
thirty-six foot massive Stromatopom bed of the Devil's Backbone 
section is believed to come in immediately above this, the other beds 
of the section continuing upward in the order named to the top of 
the formation. 

The Devil's Backbone section, measured along the Huntingdon and 
Broadtop Railroad east of Wills Creek is as follows: 

Feet. 
Helderberg-Oriskany contact 

Concealed 42 

Light gray fossiliferous limestone with numerous layers, a 

very light-colored chert 22 

Light gray massive fossiliferous limestone. Breaks into rec- 
tangular blocks 16 

Shaly limestone 1 y 2 

Bluish gray limestone, breaking into shaly fragments. 

Weathering indicates much argillaceous material 18 

Massive Stromatopora beds 36 

Shaly limestone, somewhat nodular 10 

Light gray massive limestone with upper part containing 

layers of light-colored chert 45 

Thinly bedded limestone, the weathered surface covered 

with small bryozoans 16 

Dark blue massive limestone, very hard and difficult to 

break.. .Upper part filled with Pentamcrus galeatus 36 

Fine shaly fossiliferous limestone 16 

Massive dark blue fossiliferous limestone 40 

Slightly argillaceous, thinly bedded, fossiliferous limestone. 14 
Gray arenaceous fossiliferous limestone with layers of 

cherty material 16 

Concealed to bottom of formation 

Total thickness of exposure at this place 328 1 /, 

7 



• • • • 



98 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

The measurements made at Potomac Station are as follows: 

Feet. 
Upper beds concealed. Very massive light gray limestone 

with a few feet of nodular limestone near the top. 

Coralline layer near the top 05 

Mostly concealed, but sufficiently exposed to show that the 

beds are generally made up of thin grayish limestones. 

Some massive beds are present 240 

Generally thin-bedded, dark blue limestone, but with some 

heavy beds. Fossilif erous 148 

Thinly bedded, dark blue fossiliferous limestones with 

occasional papery shales 92 

Helderberg-Salina contact 

Total thickness of exposed Helderberg 575 

THE ORISKANY FORMATION. 

The Oriskanv formation receives its name from Oriskanv Falls, 
New York, at which place it is well shown. In middle and western 
Allegany county the Oriskanv, although thin compared with most of 
the other Paleozoic formations, on account of its zigzag course and 
usually more or less inclined position, covers a not insignificant part 
of the surface. To speak definitely, the Oriskany-Romney contact 
is more than one hundred miles in length, being considerably greater 
than that of any other contact line in the county. Coming in across 
the Maryland-Pennsylvania state line near Flintstone and going south- 
ward, the Oriskany constitutes the eastern slope of Warrior Mountain. 
Returning northward near Big Spring Run, it forms much of the 
western slope of Warrior Mountain. It enters quite largely into the 
structure of Martin Mountain and completely covers the central and 
southern portions of Collier Mountain, including the two projections 
near the Potomac. It also constitutes the western slope of the north- 
ern part of Martin Mountain continuing beyond the state line. 
Branching south of the state line, one part returns southward and 
forms much of the eastern slope of Nicholas Mountain. It continues 
to the Potomac, but turning northward once more it help3 to form 
the line of hills that flank Nicholas Mountain on the west, then again 
passes beyond the state line. 

A little further to the west a narrow strip along Shriver Ridge 
cuts across the county in a northeast-southwest direction through 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 99 

Cumberland. West of Wills Mountain a still narrower strip comes 
in from the north, runs approximately parallel with considerable por- 
tions of Wills Creek and Braddock Run, then bending to the east 
takes a more nearly north and south direction and passes across the 
Potomac near Potomac Station. Another area extends from Raw- 
lings, south west ward through Keyser, West Virginia. Geologic- 
ally, the outcrop is not discontinuous between these points, but a 
small part of it has been cut off from the county by a bend in the 
Potomac river north of Monster Rock. A very small area is also 
found near the bend of the river east of Monster Rock, a short 
distance from Keyser, West Virginia, but this is greatly obscured by 
the comparatively recent river deposits. 

Tn addition to the above-mentioned areas, there are two others 
well shown east and northeast of Oldtown, besides one or more obscure 
patches in the bed of a ravine west of Corriganville. The smaller of 
the Oldtown areas covers less than half a square mile and outcrops 
immediately north of the Potomac and just west of the mouth of the 
South Branch. The other area forms Stratford Ridge, lying just 
west of the lower course of Town Creek. These last two areas are 
minor extensions or spurs of the much higher ridge south of the 
Potomac in West Virginia. 

The Oriskanv formation in Allegany county consists of two well- 

<■ Oil- 

marked lithological divisions which grade into each other. The lower 
part, resting conformably upon the Helderberg, is a blue-black chert 
in nodules and layers, separated by thin beds of dark gray arenaceous 
shale. This is the " chert lintel " of the Piedmont folio. 1 The upper 
part of the formation is a greenish gray, bluish gray, brownish gray or 
white sandstone, which is often calcareous. 

The chert in an unweathered condition is in hard, deep blue-black 
masses and shows a great tendency to break into small-sized nodular 
or angular blocks with smooth conchoidal fractures. The unweath- 
ered surfaces have at times a pearly white appearance and the 
weathered specimens are almost invariably light colored. Specimens 
in which weathering has been carried on to an extreme degree usually 

i Geologic Atlas of U. S. Piedmont Folio, No. 28. 



* * 

* * 



100 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

show a yellowish brown color and are more or less arenaceous and 
spongy. The Helderberg-Oriskany contact line can often he easily 
followed by these chert fragments even if all other traces of the 
contact are gone. So numerous are the fragments in many places 
that in some well-cultivated fields they lie sufficiently close together 
to almost completely hide the surface of the ground. This is par- 
ticularly noticeable in some of the fields near the tops of Warrior 
Mountain, Martin Mountain and Nicholas Mountain. In the vicinity 
of Flakes Knob on Warrior Mountain the chert beds have been worn 
entirely through, and on the top of this highest point the underlying 
limestone is exposed. Surrounding this high knoll is a heavy talus 
of the chert blocks. Near the top of Martin Mountain on the 
National Road a good exposure shows the chert weathered to spongy 
blocks sufficiently soft to be easily cut with a knife. The same thing 
may be observed in other places, although usually it is not so well 
shown. We3t of Wills Mountain on the Georges Creek and Cumber- 
land Railroad and on the Eckhart branch of the Cumberland and 

9 

Pennsylvania Railroad the same alteration has taken place, but some 
of the beds here show a more or less bright-colored banded structure. 
This is apparently due to a rearrangement of the ferruginous contents, 
thus leaving some portions with a peculiar bluish gray color, while 
other portions show yellowish, brownish or reddish parallel bands. 
No outcrop in the northern part of the county shows the full thick- 
ness of the chert, but the outcrop at the Devil's Backbone compared 
with outcrops near Keyser, West Virginia, and near North Branch 
seems to indicate pretty conclusively that these beds thicken rapidly 
southward. 

The upper portion, or sandstone member, of the Oriskany when 
wholly unweathered is usually hard and compact, and is at times 
rather inclined to resemble a very arenaceous limestone. The texture 
is sometimes fine, but the rock is more often coarse-grained, and in 
the upper part of the formation one or more bands of conglomerate 
are always present. In the exposures near Keyser, West Virginia, 
the lower part of the formation is shaly, while the middle and upper 
portions apparently contain a greater percentage of coarse material 



?• •! *•! ••• • • 

»•• • •! • • • • 

• • • • • 



MARYLAND 6K0I.0QICA1. SURVEY. 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE X 





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FlO. l.-FOLU IS OKISKANV SANDSTONE, NEAR MOUTH C 




FlO. 2.— OKISKANV I 

GEOLOGICAL SECTION'S IN ALLEGANY COUNTY. 






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MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 101 

than elsewhere. Generally fossils are extremely abundant, occurring 
in irregular bands varying in thickness from one or two inches to 
several feet. The sandstone easily losing its calcareous cement, 
weathers readily to a very friable, dirty-buff, porous rock, in which 
condition large block* can be easily shattered by a single blow of the 
hammer. In many places protected from denudation, the rock has 
completely disintegrated, leaving beds of dirty brownish-yellow sand. 
In this loose sand, under favorable conditions, well-preserved fossils 
may be procured. Pockets are frequently found in the less weathered 
rocks in which fossils free from the matrix are also beautifully pre- 
served. It is to these pockets that many collectors owe their finest 
cabinet specimens. 

Excellent exposures of the Oriskany are frequent, but the full 
thickness is not often shown. The thickness as measured on the 
south side of Monster Rock near Keyser, West Virginia, is three 
hundred feet, and at 21st Bridge, three hundred and forty feet; on 
the Williams Road, two and one-half miles east of Cumberland, 
only one hundred and fifty-five feet are exposed. On the eastern 
slope of Warrior Mountain no good measurement could be obtained, 
but apparently the thickness there where best shown is less than at 
Cumberland. The following section was obtained along the West 
Virginia Central Railroad at the base of Monster Rock, opposite 
Keyser, West Virginia: 

Feet. 

Oriskanv-Romnev contact 

Fine-grained fossiliferous conglomerate 12 

Coarse sandstone with few fossils G 

Fine-grained fossiliferous conglomerate 4 

Coarse hut slightly shaly sandstone 4% 

Coarse-grained fossiliferous sandstone 8 

Fossiliferous conglomerate 1 

Coarse fossiliferous sandstone .'iVa 

Very fossiliferous coarse conglomerate y 2 

Coarse-grained fossiliferous sandstone 12 

Fossiliferous sandstone, mostly coarse-grained 156 

Coarse shaly, almost non-fossiliferous, sandstone 25M» 

Black nodular chert 07 

Concealed 

Total thickness measured 300 



102 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COOTY 

On the Williams Road, two and one-half miles east of Cumberland, 
the Oriskany section is as follows: 

Oriskanv-Romnev contact 

Coarse sandstone, almost black and non-fossiliferous 2 

Much-decomposed yellowish sandstone with many fossils... 1* 

Concealed 6 

Slightly fossiliferous conglomerate, the individual particles 

being of characteristic wheat-grain size 4 

Concealed TV* 

Very fossiliferous conglomerate ^ 

Concealed 2 

Blue calcareous fossiliferous sandstone l 1 ^ 

Coarse, much-weathered, fossiliferous sandstone 2«/ 2 

Concealed iv/ 2 

Very coarse fossiliferous brown sandstone 3 

Fossiliferous conglomerate much like the wheat-grain con- 
glomerate above 1 

Brown fossiliferous sandstone 29 

Concealed 42 

Sandstone and concealed, mostly concealed 30 

Concealed 

Total thickness measured 156 

The Oriskany-Helderberg contact is not shown here, and there is 
at lea^t 00 feet of chert still to add to the thickness. 

In the well-weathered Williams Road exposure the conglomerate 
bands are easily distinguished from the intervening finer material, 
but in the Monster Rock section, where the present face of the rock 
has been exposed only a few years, the lines of separation are much 
less clearly marked. This indistinctness, which is one of appearance 
rather than reality, is largely due to the bluish-gray color of many 
of the pebbles, as well as to the calcareous cement which is present in 
the conglomerate bands and in the finer sandy portions. 

In general, the individual pebbles of the conglomerate are fairly 
well rounded, usually of approximate wheat-grain size, and seldom 
larger than peas. In many places the rocks are densely crowded with 
fossils. This is particularly true of the formation in the vicinity of 
Cumberland, the locality from which Professor Hall has described 
so many forms. Frequently the conglomerate bands partake of this 
fossiliferous nature, but the fossils are usually more abundant in the 



k 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 103 

finer portions. In Warrior Mountain the exposure* are usually not 
good, and where exposed the fossils are less abundant, the sandstone 
there being less calcareous and highly compact. 

The Oriskany sandstone, although playing an important part in the 
composition of the mountains of Allegany county, owes much of its 
prestige, especially in the more calcareous areas, to the protection of 
the less easily disintegrating Oriskany chert beds. 

THE ROMNEY FORMATION. 

The Komney formation, corresponding in the main with the Mar- 
cellus and Hamilton formations further north, takes its name from 
Eomney, West Virginia, where it is extensively developed. The 
passage from the Oriskany to the Komney is particularly abrupt, a 
distinct lithologic difference existing within a space of two inches. 
This contact is admirably shown on the Williams Road near the 
church two and one-half miles east of Cumberland, as well as on the 
north and south sides of Monster Rock along the West Virginia Cen- 
tral Railroad. It is also seen to good advantage on the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad one-fourth of a mile south of Rawlings, and on the 
same railroad about two miles northeast of Keyser, West Virginia. 
In various places along the east side of Warrior Mountain the con- 
tact is disclosed, but the opportunities for studying it are not so good 
here as elsewhere. 

Xext to the Jennings the Romney is the most widely distributed 
formation in the county. The largest area lies along the Potomac 
river in the vicinity of Oldtown. It includes the valleys of Big 
Spring Run and Saw Mill Run and much of the lower course of Town 
Creek and sends a narrow belt northward along the eastern side of 
Warrior Mountain bevond the state line into Pennsvlvania. Further 
west along either side of the southern end of Martin Mountain there 
are small, elongated Romney areas which coincide approximately 
with the narrow valleys of Collier Run and Martin Spring Run. 
In the Evitts Creek vallev a belt of considerable width comes into the 
county from Pennsylvania and passing southward is divided by a large 
Jennings area, the two Romney bands thus formed passing along 



H>4 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

down on the higher slopes of the valley and continuing southward 
help to cover the Maryland projection west of the southern end of 
Nicholas Mountain. At the foot of Alleghany Front another area :& 
ahowu which, like several of the succeeding formations, stretches as 
a »i>iiie\vhat narrow belt entirely across the county. Near Rawlings 
a prominent offshoot projects from this belt across the Potomac into 
\Ve»t Virginia. On the eastern side of Monster Rock a slight, syn- 
clinal fold has preserved a very small area, but this is almost wholly 
concealed. 

In general the formation is an argillaceous fissile shale, intensely 
black and papery near the base, but more often of a drab color above, 
the upper part weathering into fine angular fragments. Owing to a 
lack of hard material, the formation is prominent in the valleys, where 
it forms low ridges or rounded hills. 

The sandstones and sandy shales of the formation are comparatively 
unimportant. However, on the Williams Road two and one-half 
miles east of Cumberland near the middle of the formation, there is 
a bed of brownish-gray sandstone weathering readily into irregular 
rhombs or lozenges, the whole being fifty feet thick. Thin irregular 
streaks of sandy shale are shown at various horizons below the middle 
of the formation on the Haltimoro and Ohio Railroad in the cut im- 
mediately north of 21st Bridge on the West Virginia Central Rail- 
road. Northeast of Cumberland, between Shriver Ridge and Evitts 
Creek, there is a series of well-defined parallel ridges which appar- 
entlv owe their preservation largely to shaly sandstone. In the Town 
Creek valley east and west of Saw Mill Run the various Romney 
ridges there appear to be quite free from sandstone. Most of these 
ridges show to good advantage the characteristic weathering of the 
upper mIihIcm. On the ridge west of Saw Mill Run two miles north- 
went, of Ohltown, the exposed shales have completely broken up into 
fine irregularly angular, almost cubical blocks of various sizes usually 
cnii«idenil»ly smaller than walnuts. These small fragments at this 
phn'<< are in «ueh extreme abundance that they lie upon the surface 
nf the riiljie jiml within the angle of rest and in beds so deep and so 
firiiiii ntlv cul'ject to tfravitatiouul movement that vegetation is lim- 
Hh| mImhH wholly to ntunted pines. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 105 

The intensely black shales at the bottom are verv carbonaceous 
but do not contain coal seams. However, along Collier Run, where 
the lower beds can be easily reached, as well as along the road near 
the Warm Spring iron bridge one mile south of Flintstone, the shales 
have been fruitlessly worked with the idea that they might prove to 
be coal-bearing. 

About one hundred and fiftv feet from the bottom of the formation 
there are several bluish-gray fossiliferous limestone bands. These 
are apparently never absent, although in the well-exposed Williams 
Road section none of them can be seen. This is perhaps due to the 
effect of weathering, as certain evidences indicate their probable pres- 
ence. These bands are individually rarelv three feet, usually less 
than one foot thick, but the total thickness in the best exposed sec- 
tions is more than twenty feet. They are shown to good advantage in 
the West Virginia Central Railroad cut at 21st Bridge, one mile 
northeast of Keyser, West Virginia. They are found less clearly 
shown on the county road along the lower course of Martin Spring 
Branch east of the Oriskanv fork at the south end of Martin Moun- 
tain, where a little of the limestone has been burned for fertilizing 
purposes. Tn various other places more or less limestone is shown 
but the exposures are not of sufficient importance to demand special 
mention. 

One of the upper beds, about six inches thick, known as the Xauti- 
lus Ledge, shows great persistence, having been found at several 
widely separated localities. Another bed, usually from tw'o to two 
and one-half feet thick, is honevcombed with concretionary nodules. 
These nodules, which are from one-half inch to four inches in diam- 
eter and generally more or less ferruginous, gradually weather free 
from their matrix and mav be found in manv localities scattered about 
in considerable numl>ers over the ground. 

Iron-ore pockets have been found in various localities along the 
eastern base of Warrior Mountain near the bottom of the Romney 
formation. Iron ore may also be seen between and slightly to the 
west of the two Orisknny outcrops northeast of Old town. There are 
indications of the ore elsewhere, but in no case can the exact horizon 



10G THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

be definitely located, nor can the full thickness at any place be learned. 
It is evidently very near or at the bottom of the Komney, and the 
theory has been advanced x that its presence indicated a possible local 
unconformity between the Oriskany and the Romney formations. 

THE JENNINGS FORMATION. 

The Jennings formation, closely related to the Chemung and 
Portage of the Pennsylvania arid the New York Geological Surveys, 
is so called from its typical development in Jennings Gap and along 
Jennings Branch, Virginia. It follows the Komney with perfect 
conformity and has a considerably greater areal distribution than any 
other formation in the county. It occurs in four large areas. 
Farthest east is the much dissected strip east of Town Hill running 
from the state line southward beyond the Potomac river. A long 
irregularly shaped area w ? est of Green Eidge extends entirely across 
the county; it is scarcely more than a mile in width in the southern 
part, but in the northern part, on the state line, it is about seven 
miles wide. Polish Mountain lies in the northwestern part of this 
area. In the lower part of the Evitts Creek valley and in the big 
bend of the Potomac immediately south, there are two good-sized 
areas which for our purpose here may be considered as one. There 
is also a strip nearly a mile wide and about twenty-five miles long 
stretching northeast-southwest across the widest part of the county on 
the eastern slope of Alleghany Front. 

The deposits of this formation are almost wholly arenaceous. In 
the lower and middle parts the thin layers of sandy shales and 
quartzose sandstones are interbedded with no regularity of sequence 
or of thickness. In the upper part heavy quartzitic sandstones pre- 
dominate, but even here the sandv shales are in considerable abund- 
ance. In connection with the heavy quartzitic beds there are sev- 
eral more or less important beds of conglomerate, some of which are 
fossiliferous. Fossils also occur in the sandstones at various horizons, 
the fossiliferous beds being densely crowded, usually sharply defined 

1 Oarton. N. H. Notes on the Stratigraphy of a portion of Ceutral Appalachian 
Virginia, Ainer. Geol., vol. x, July, 18*.H2, p. 10. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 107 

and seldom more than a few inches in thickness. The lower shales 
of the Jennings are thin and black, somewhat resembling those at 
the base of the Romney formation. The upper part of the Jennings 
is lithologically indefinite. The paleontological evidence indicates 
that the formation extends about six hundred and fifty feet above the 
heaviest conglomerate. This conglomerate is prominent in many 
parts of the county and from its situation so near the top of the 
formation can be used advantageously as a guide in tracing the upper 
contact. This conglomerate in Jennings Run is thirty-five feet thick, 
the lower six feet of which is flaggy and contains only scattered peb- 
bles. The remainder is massive and is highly charged with flattened 
or rounded white quartz pebbles of various sizes up to one inch or 
more in diameter. This conglomerate is apparently continuous over 
the county. It is well marked by a line of hills along the eastern 
slope of Alleghany Front and near the southern end of this line of 
hills four and one-half feet of the bed is shown. Whether or not 
this represents the entire thickness at this point could not be learned. 
At various intermediate points the conglomerate does not show, but 
this is thought to be due not so much to its thinness as to more com- 
plete concealment. Remnants of the same conglomerate are seen 
along the top of Polish Mountain. It is not well shown on Green 
Ridge, although there is abundant evidence of its presence, but along 
the eastern flank of Town Hill it appears to be of considerable thick- 
ness. Along the Little Orleans-Oronoko Road near the western end 
of the big bend of the Potomac about three miles west of Little 
Orleans the abundance of loose conglomerate boulders indicates a 
considerable thickness there. The individual pebbles are quite large, 
equaling the largest found in Jennings Run. Above this big con- 
glomerate, as well as below it, there are thinner conglomerates which, 
although they may be of very varying thickness, are nevertheless 
generally present. They are usually greatly iron-stained, but when 
not so they much resemble some of the Carboniferous conglomerates. 
However, to one accustomed to observing them, the more flattened 
nature of the pebbles and the very characteristically smooth fracture 
across both matrix and pebbles at once distinguish the Jennings 
from the Carboniferous conglomerates. 



108 TIIE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

The thickness of the formation appears to vary within rather wide 
limits. Along Jennings Run it is thought to be between thirty-five 
hundred and four thousand feet, although no good measurement 
could be made. Along the Potomac near the mouth of Town Creek 
it is approximately five thousand feet. 

THE HAMPSHIRE FORMATION. 

The Hampshire formation, approximately equivalent to the Cats- 
kill of the North, receives its name from Hampshire county, West 
Virginia, where it is extensively developed. In Allegany county 
these rocks are exposed in three areas as follows: First, in the eastern 
part where Sideling Hill Creek and the Potomac river have carved 
out small portions of the wide belt which underlies Sideling Hill 
further east. Since these several small patches are closely related 
structurally, they may here be considered together as one area. 
Second, a belt nearly three miles wide which runs northeast-soutlrvvest 
across the county forming the base of Town Hill. Third, a strip 
averaging perhaps one-half a mile in width which lies along the 
eastern face of Alleghany Front and stretches entirely across the 
county. The patches included under the first area are largely con- 
cealed bv their own detritus. The rocks in the second area are well 
exposed only along the Potomac river and in the gap of Fifteenmile 
Creek. In the western area the rocks are shown to good advantage 
along Jennings Run. They are shown to less advantage along Brad- 
dock Run, and in the Potomac gorge they are largely concealed. 

In composition the Hampshire is an extensive monotonous series 
of cross-bedded, flaggy and massive sandstones and fine-grained very 
fissile sandy and argillaceous shales. The shales are usually bright 
red or brownish red, although some gray and green or even yellowish 
shales are seen. These latter colors occur more frequently near the 
top of the formation, and this is particularly noticeable just outside 
of the county immediately east of the mouth of Sideling Hill Creek. 
The sandstone beds near the bottom are heavy, being in several in- 
stances more than twenty feet in thickness. The shales and sand- 
stones frequently merge gradually into each other, both laterally and 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 109 

vertically, and arc interbedded without anv constant order of sue- 
cession. 

The thickness of the Hampshire along Jennings Run is nineteen 
hundred feet. Along the Potomac river in the Town Hill syncline a 
measurement of nineteen hundred twenty-five feet was obtained. 
The Jennings Run measurement is believed to be quite accurate and 
the measurement in the Town Hill syncline approximately so. 

The Carboniferous, 
the pocoxo formation. 

The Pocono formation, named from Pocono Plateau, Pennsyl- 
vania, where it is well developed, is the basal member of the Car- 
boniferous and lies conformably upon the Hampshire formation of 
the Devonian. Of these rocks there are only three narrow areas 
shown in the county. One occupies a position along the eastern 
slope of Alleghany Front, capping a line of knobs which extend 
across the county. The other two, separated by the Pifteenmile 
Creek gorge, form the crest of Town Hill. 

Little study of the formation could be made on Town Hill, but it 
is known to consist largely of a very massive conglomerate in which 
the milky quartz pebbles are pretty w r ell rounded. The size of the 
pebbles varies much, ranging up to three-fourths of an inch in diam- 
eter or even larger. In the western part of the county the litho- 
logical character of the formation is very different. The entire 
thickness is shown, although to poor advantage, on the Cumberland 
and Pennsylvania Railroad in the first tunnel east of Eckhart, w T here 
the thickness is two hundred and fifty-eight feet. In the Potomac 
gorge between Western]* >rt and Keyser, West Virginia, there is an 
exposure of only thirty feet, but this may represent the entire thick- 
ness of the formation at that point. It has been so considered in 
the Piedmont folio. 1 

In the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad section the bottom 
of the formation extends sixty feet east of the east end of the tunnel, 

iGeoloidc Atlas of the United States, Piedmont Folio, Washington, lHWi. 



110 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

while the top extends ninety feet west of the west end. The lower 
part of the formation here is a coarse, cross-bedded, grayish-green, 
micaceous sandstone. About one hundred feet above the bottom 
there is a four- or five-foot band of grayish, impure, friable sandstone 
frequently showing a prominent bluish coating. Scattering pebbles 
of various sizes up to two inches in longest direction are present. 
These are angular, subangular or well-rounded and of clear or smoky 
quartz, but seldom milky as in the conglomerate of the same forma- 
tion on Town Hill. At various horizons above this there are thin 
bands of fine conglomerate, the pebbles of which are inclined to be of 
the nature of milky quartz. Xear the middle of the section there is a 
space of nearly thirty feet which is largely taken up with shales, some 
of which bear slight traces of plant remains. The upper part of the 
section show T s mostly grayish-green or reddish-green micaceous, flaggy 
sandstones with some interbedded grayish, greenish, yellowish or 
reddish shales. 

In the Potomac gorge section the formation is made up of gray, 
cross-bedded sandstone with only a few widely scattered pebbles. 

THE GREENBRIER FORMATION. 

The Greenbrier formation, so-called from Greenbrier county, West 
Virginia, lies conformably upon the Pocono and outcrops in Alle- 
gany county only in a single narrow band extending high up along 
the eastern face of the Alleghany Front from the Maryland-Pennsyl- 
vania state line southward through the county, cutting across the 
Potomac river almost midway between Westernport, Maryland, and 
Keyser, West Virginia. 

The formation consists mainly of limestone strata. Sandstones and 
arenaceous limestones are most prominently developed in the low T er 
part. Shales preponderate near the middle while the upper part is 
mostly composed of highly fossiliferous and more nearly pure lime- 
stones. Many of the lower arenaceous beds show a peculiar banding 
on the weathered surfaces apparently as if they were highly cross- 
bedded. 

The formation is well shown in only one place in the county, viz., 



I 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 111 

at the mouth of Stony Kun below the water-tank on the "West Virginia 
Central Railroad, two miles southeast of Westernport. Even here 
some of the beds are hidden. In the only other places in the county 
where one might hope to get good sections, viz., along Braddock Run 
and along Jennings Run, the formation is largely concealed by soil 
and by talus from the heavy Pottsville sandstones and conglomerates 
above. As a result no measurements can be made in the northern 
part of the county, but judging from measurements in various places 
outside of the state, it seems quite certain that the formation grows 
continually thinner northward from Stony Run. 1 Much interest 
is attached to this formation because it is in great measure the Appa- 
lachian representative of the great Carboniferous limestones of the 
Central Mississippi states. 

At the mouth of Stony Run the following section was made: 

Feet. Inches. 
Greenbrier-Mauch Chunk contact 

Heavy dark bluish gray fossiliferous limestone 4 6 

Argillaceous shale. Fossiliferous, especially in the upper 
part. Drab colored on fresh surface, but inclined to 
show as a dull red shale on account of its prominent 

ferruginous surface coating 8 

Massive bluish fossiliferous limestone 7 

Concealed 10 

Massive bluish fossiliferous limestone 1 6 

Massive bluish, highly fossiliferous limestone, weathers 

very irregularly 3 6 

Thinly bedded fossiliferous limestone with thin bands of 

olive-green fossiliferous shale 10 10 

Concealed 9 

Reddish brown, much disintegrated sandstone 9 

Concealed 20 

Heavy, pinkish green, mottled, slightly fossiliferous lime- 
stone 2 6 

Concealed 11 

Red sandy shale with thin green layers near top and 

bottom 3 

Greenish red shaly arenaceous limestone 1 

Concealed 3 

Red sandy shale with a few thin shaly defined green argil- 
laceous bands 32 



1 Lesley, J. P. A Summary Description of the Geology of Pennsylvania in Three 
Volumes, vol. iii, part i, pai^e 1791, Harrisburg, 1895. See also the Geologic Atlas]of 
the United States, Piedmont and Franklin Folios. 



112 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Feet. Inches. 
Concealed 6 

lied shaly sandstone 1 

Massive sandstone in streaks or layers of pink, green and 

white 6 

Red arenaceous shale 10 

Red shaly sandstone 9 

Calcareous, pinkish gray sandstone 2 6 

Concealed 7 

Shalv sandstone 1 6 

Mostly concealed, some shaly sandstone showing 20 

Very arenaceous pinkish green limestone 26 

Concealed 5 

Bluish arenaceous limestone 7 

Concealed 8 

Below this comes a coarse grayish sandstone which is considered 
as marking the top of the Pocono, thus giving for the total thickness 
of the Greenbrier at this place two hundred and twenty-seven feet. 

THE MAUCH CHUNK FORMATION. 

The Mauch Chunk formation, which is very similar to the Canaan 
formation of the Piedmont quadrangle, receives its name from Mauch 
Chunk, Pennsylvania, where the formation is well shown. Like the 
preceding formation, it is exposed in Allegany county only along the 
eastern face of the Alleghany Front. This formation, together with 
the underlying Greenbrier, lies obscurely in the depressions extend- 
ing in a line across the county between the heavy crest of Alleghany 
Front and the Pocono knobs a little lower down on the eastern face. 

The Mauch Chunk is composed chiefly of red arenaceous and argil- 
laceous shales, the argillaceous shales being a bright red and par- 
ticularly prominent in the lower part. A little above the middle of 
the formation there lies in one almost continuous body about one 
hundred feet of soft, flaggy, fine-grained, reddish-green to brownish- 
red sandstone. The sandstones are very generally micaceous, as are 
also many of the middle and upper shales. 

Between the Mauch Chunk and the Greenbrier there is a greenish 
brecciated sandstone which near the mouth of Stonv Run is four feet 
thick. At the top of the Mauch Chunk there is also a four-foot transi- 
tion band of highly brecciated reddish arenaceous limestones above 



GEOLOGIC* L SURVEY. 




Fin. l.-EXI-OSt* 



'OK RICH XV ILL E. 




FlO, 2.-EXPOSURE OF I'OTTSVILLE SANDSTONE. WESTERXPORT. 
GEOLOGICAL SECTIONS IN ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 113 

which lie the lower flags of the succeeding Pottsville formation. This 
breccia ted limestone can be seen to best advantage on the Cumber- 
land and Pennsylvania Railroad one hundred twenty rods east of 
Barrelville. It is apparently continuous southward, since a similar 
brecciated limestone at the same horizon may be seen outcropping on 
the Keyser-Piedmont wagon road on the West Virginia side of the 
Potomac about one and one-half miles below Piedmont. 

The total thickness of the formation in the Potomac gorge east of 
Westernport is about eight hundred feet. Along Jennings Run, 
twenty-five miles to the northeast, the space occupied by the Mauch 
Chunk and Greenbrier combined is approximately nine hundred 
and thirty feet or about one hundred feet less than the combined 
thickness of the two formations in the Potomac gorge. 

« 

THE POTTSVILLE FORMATION. 

The Pottsville formation, which is approximately equivalent to the 
Blackwater formation of the Piedmont quadrangle, receives its 
name from Pottsville, Pennsylvania, near which place it is exten- 
sively developed. It is this formation w T hich, at its easternmost out- 
crop in the county, makes the bold crest of Alleghany Front, and dip- 
ping westward passes beneath the surface and forms the massive 
floor of the Cumberland-Georges Creek coal district. It is to this 
formation more than to any other that is due the preservation of the 
present area of the coal-field. By its resistance to erosion it has 
governed the position of Alleghany Front, and although its eastern 
edge is greatly notched by Jennings Run, by Braddock Run and by 
the Potomac river, the latter having, indeed, cut into the formation 
westward across the svnclinal axis, the formation nevertheless retains 
its full thickness throughout almost all of the area in Allegany 
county west of the easternmost Pottsville outcrop. The formation 
is slightly cut into by Georges Creek near the southern end of the 
coal basin, but passes beneath the creek bed a few yards north of the 
Cumberland and Pennsylvania car-shops in the northern suburbs 
of Westernport. 

Messrs. N. H. Darton and Joseph A. Taff, in their general de- 
s 



114 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

scription of the Blackwater formation with which the Pottsville so 
closely agrees, mention the following important characteristics of the 
area in the northeastern part of the Piedmont quadrangle: "In 
the vicinity of Piedmont the uppermost and lowest sandstone beds 
are conglomeritic and are one hundred and ten and thirty feet thick 
respectively, while the medial sandstone is fine-grained and only 
fourteen feet thick." • The triple character of the formation can 
be readily made out by means of the many extensive outcrops of 
sandstone and conglomerate ledges; nevertheless there is no really 
good exposure of the whole formation found in the county, the 
softer strata being very largely concealed. Furthermore this, like most 
of the other Carboniferous formations, shows exceedingly rapid 
changes within short distances, so that a measurement in one locality, 
even if favorable conditions prevail, will but poorly suffice, so far as 
details are concerned, for an area only a short distance away. 

It is perhaps for this reason alone that such wide discrepancy is 
observed in the details of all published sections made near the Potomac 
in the southern part of the Georges Creek basin. The following sec- 
tion, constructed from measurements made at various places, is be- 
lieved to represent with reasonable accuracy the general character of 
the Potteville formation in that vicinity: 

Feet. Inches. 
Pottsville-Allegheny contact 

Massive sandstone 20 

Coal, frequently impure of accompanied by black or gray 

shales [Westernport or " Two-foot " coal] 2 

Shale and heavy sandstone 85 

Shale with coal streaks 30 

Flaggy sandstone and shale 12 

Coal 1 6 

Impure fire-clay - 8 

Flaggy sandstone 14 

Coal [Blooming-ton or ** Railroad " coal] 1 6 

Shale 2- 

Shale, flaggy sandstone and concealed 80 

Coal and coaly shale 3 

Black, yellow and gray arenaceous shales 7 

Greenish flaggy sandstone ; • •' 3 ^ 

Fottsville-Mauch Chunk contact 

Total thickness of Pottsville 296 

- - — 1 * 1 .^ .^ — ^^^— 

•Geologic Atlas of the United 8tatea, Piedmont Folio, Washington, 1896. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 115 

No good measurement of the Pottsville can be obtained in the 
northern part of Allegany county, but the following section has been 
measured a little north of the state line near Wellersburg, Somerset 
county, Pennsylvania, in the gap of Gladdens Run through Little 
Allegheny Mountain : * 

Vevt. I none*. 
Massive sandstone 75 

Mount Savage coal 4 

Mount Savage fire-clay 7 6 

Conglomerate sandstone 125 

Dark, shaly sandstone 10 

Shale 1 

Coal and shale 8 

Impure fire-clay 10 

Dark shales with iron ore 20 

Massive sandstone 35 

Total thickness 288 2 

Along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad west of Piedmont, West 
Virginia, is a coal seam popularly known as the Railroad Seam, which 
has been named the Bloomington coal, and near the top of the forma- 
tion is a two-foot seam named the Westernport coal. 

THE ALLEGHENY FORMATION. 

The Allegheny formation, identical with the Allegheny river series 
of Pennsylvania, immediately follows the Pottsville, and like it, 
underlies most of the Georges Creek basin. It outcrops on the east- 
ern side of the basin high up on the western slope of Dans and Little 
Allegheny mountains. In a similar manner its western edge shows 
along the eastern slope of Savage Mountain, but of this last outcrop 
Allegany county includes only a small portion near the ilaryland- 
Pennsvlvania line. The entire thickness of the formation is shown 
in the southern part of the basin on the hillsides along the Potomac 
but northward the formation disappears beneath the bed of Georges 
Creek one mile below Barton. 

The formation consists mainly of irregularly interbedded shales 
and sandstones with several coal seams of greater or less importance. 

1 White, I. ('. Stratigraphy of the Bituminous Coal Fields of Pennsylvania, Ohio 
and West Virginia, l\ S. O. S. Bull. No. <55, p. ISO, Washington, lS'.H. 



116 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

At the base is the poorly exposed Bluebaugh seam which has been 
opened at Warrior Run. About 35 feet above this is the Parker seam 
shown in various parts of the coal basin and supposed to be the equiva- 
lent of the Clarion coal of Pennsylvania. About the center of the 
formation is the Davis or Six-foot coal, the most important of all the 
coals in this formation. It is supposed to be the equivalent of the 
Lower Kittanning of Pennsylvania. About 30 feet beneath it streaks 
of coal may usually be found which together compose the unworked 
Split-six. At the top of the formation is the Thomas or Three-foot 
seam. 

Most of the sandstones are thinly bedded and disintegrate easily, 
so that the face of the outcrop is generally hidden by a gently sloping 
cover of loose shale and soil delimited by the more massive Potts- 
ville sandstone below and the heavy Mahoning sandstone above. 

The following section was measured near the Franklin gravity 
plane a short distance from the mouth of Savage river: 

Feet. 
Sandstone, apparently the Mahoning 

Concealed 25 

Sandy ferruginous shale 60 

Sandstones and concealed 50 

Sandstone, flaggy near top 60 

Shale 6 

Coal [Davis or " Six-foot "] 6 

Concealed 30 

Flaggy and shaly sandstone 61 

Coal [Parker] 1 

Shale 19 

Conglomeritic sandstone of Pott svi lie 

Total thickness of Allegheny formation 318 

A more detailed section was obtained as follows near Franklin 
village on Georges Creek. 

Feet. 
Massive sandstone, apparently the Mahoning 

Qreenish shaly sandstone. A coal vein near the top 

[Thomas] 55 

Massive sandstone 24 

Ferruginous shale, showing spheroidal weathering 3 

Pine black and brown shales 8 

Grayish green, slightly nodular shale 10 

Fine grayish green shale 4 

Arenaceous shale 9 

Greenish sandstone and shale 26 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 117 

Feet. 

Shaly sandstone 6 

Fine shale and concealed 9 

Shaly sandstone 13% 

Concealed 30 

Coal [Davis] 6 

Sandstone, shale and concealed 7 

Flaggy sandstone 16 

Massive sandstone 4 

Shale 2 

Coal [" Split-six "] 3 

Concealed 90 



Total thickness of Allegheny formation 325% 

Professor I. C. White, in Bulletin 05 of the United States Geo- 
logical Survey, gives the following measurements for the vicinity of 
We8ternport: 

Feet. Inches. 
r Coal 2 

Coal, Upper Freeport [Thomas]. . J Shale and bone. ... 1 

[ Coal 2 5 

Concealed 10 

Shale, bluish 10 

Coal, Lower Freeport 2 

Fire-clay 2 

Concealed 10 

Sandstone, hard 2 

Sandstone, shaly 5 

Shales, sandstones and concealed 55 

{Bituminous slate . . 5 
Coal 2 7 

Dark shales and concealed 10 

Massive sandstone, gray 50 

Shales, drab 5 

' Coal, slatv .... 1 
Coal, bony .... 8 

Coal, Upper Kittanning [Davis] . ( Coal, good .... 1 4 

Slate, hard .... y 2 

Coal, good 2 ft 5 fty 2 

Fire-clay, sandy 3 

Shales, with nodular iron ore 2 

Fire-clay, impure 4 

Flaggy sandstone 20 

Concealed 25 

Fire-clay, sandy 10 

Flaggy sandstone and sandy shales 25 

Concealed and sandy shales 40 



Total 307 6y 2 



118 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

In the northern part of the coal basin the thickness cannot be 
learned, nor is there a good exposure anywhere along the lines of 
outcrop on the eastern and western borders of the basin. 

Near the mouth of Georges Creek, as seen beneath Mr. Merrill's 
mine, there is a coal seam almost thirtv feet below the " six-foot." 
The section obtained at Mr. MerrilPs mine for this part of the forma- 
tion is as follows: 

Feet. 

Coal [Davis] 

Shale 9 

Sandstone and shale 11 

Shale 4 

Shaly sandstone 1 

Shale 4 

Coal [" Split-six "] 3 

THE CONEMAUGH FORMATION. 

The Conemaugh formation, so-called from Conemaugh river, Pa., 
follows the Allegheny in regular order and lies within the area out- 
lined by that formation. In the northern part of the basin the Alle- 
gheny has been cut deeply by Jennings Run and its tributaries, while 
at the southern end Georges Creek has made a long incision into it, 
the bifurcation extending northward to within one mile of Barton. 

The Conemaugh, formerly called the " Barren Measures," is largely 
a shale formation. A sandstone, sometimes rather massive, is gen- 
erally found near the bottom. This is apparently equivalent to the 
Mahoning sandstone of Pennsylvania. A second sandstone occa- 
sionally quite massive, is found twenty or thirty feet below the top. 
The latter sandstone is generally not less than twenty feet thick and 
is sometimes conglomeritic, especially in the lower parts. Two hun- 
dred yards east of the Hofman mine opening an exposure above 
and below the railroad switch gives a thickness of thirty-eight feet 
with neither the top nor bottom shown. A few rods east of Eckhart 
on the ^National Road near the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, thirty feet of the sandstone is exposed, but here also the top 
and bottom are concealed. Likewise, immediately east of the long 
railroad bridge near Detmold Run, fourteen feet is exposed, and in 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 119 

the village of Miller, east of Lonaconing, twenty-five feet is shown, 
but in each case the top and bottom are hidden. This sandstone is 
flaggy near the top and, like most of the other Coal Measures sand- 
stones, is highly charged with iron, contains much mica and is highly 
cross-bedded. 

A sandstone which is frequently conglomeritic is found a little 
below the middle of the formation. Thirty-six feet of this conglom- 
eritic sandstone is show r n to good advantage at Barton on the hillside 
south of the Potomac tramwav. 

The shales are chiefly argillaceous, and the coals, of which there 
are several, are usually impure; one coal seam of some importance 
known as the " Four-foot " or Barton coal is approximately 2. r >0 feet 
above the bottom of the formation. Irregular beds of iron ore are 
frequent and two or three limestones are present. A limestone bed, 
perhaps the thickest limestone of the formation, is poorly exposed on 
the Potomac gravity plane about 235 feet below the top of the 
formation. It is bluish-black in color, slightly fossiliferous and six 
feet thick. It measures as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

Massive limestone 1 6 

Shaly limestone 6 

Massive limestone 8 

Shaly limestone 4 

Massive limestone 3 

Another limestone was found in a ravine at the roadside one mile 
west of Mount Savage. This is apparently about one hundred feet 
higher than the limestone at the Potomac Plane. The measurement 
of the entire exposure here is as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

Concealed 

Black shale 10 

Very coaly shale 3 

Black, somewhat coaly shale 1 8 

Impure coal 2 8 

Black shale with very thin coal streaks 4 

Coalv shale 1 1 

Coal, apparently all good . .'. 2 4 

Shale, dark above, gray in lower part 1 5 

Clay '. 7 

Massive, bluish gray, argillaceous limestone 2 1 



120 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Feet. Inches. 
Massive light gray argillaceous breccia ted limestone 1 9 

Very argillaceous limestone 4 6 

Soft weathered shale 4 

Iron-ore band 4 

Black coalv shale 2 

Concealed 

Thirty feet below this section there is a thin highly ripple-marked 
sandstone exposed in the road-bed two hundred yards west of the coal 
outcrop. 

For a complete section of the entire formation no more detailed 
section can be given than that published by Professor P. T. Tyson ' 
many years ago, as obtained from measurements made on the 
eastern side of Dug Hill near Lonaconing, the hill having received 
this name on account of the excavations made especially for these 
measurements on Laurel Run and on Mill Run. It is not easv to 
decide just which stratum of Professor Tyson's section coincides with 
the lower limit of the Conemaugh, but the section as given below is 
believed to have its lowest measurement ^within a few feet of the 
contact. Although on account of the variability of the strata the 
measurements mav seem to have been taken more in detail than nee- 
essary and less attention given to recording the degree of purity of 
the various coal seams and iron-ore bands than mav be desirable for 
economic purposes, nevertheless the section will perhaps always re- 
main an important one for this division of the Coal Measures at Lona- 
coning. In the absence of good exposures elsewhere it has in the 
past been largely depended upon as a guide for other parts of the coal 
basin. 

The section is as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

44 Big Vein " coal [from Dug Hill measurements] 

Shale with iron ore at the top 12 

Fire-clav 3 

Limestone 1 6 

Shale 15 6 

Sandstone, fine-grained 20 

Shale 27 6 

1 Proc. Amer. Philoa. Soc. xi, 1871, pp. 9-13. 




Fid. l.-THK 



** 


.. '5, -.t-s 


j 


--- 


m 

& KM 


• , 1 


1 




^ ■ • 



FlQ. a- VIEW OF "BIG VEIN " COAL, IN OCEAN MINE, NO. 3. 
GEOLOGICAL SECTIONS IN ALLEGANY COUNTV. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL 8URVEY 121 

Feet. Inches. 

Coal 2 6 

Shale 4 

Shale with iron ore at the top 16 8 

Shale, ferruginous 1 

Coal 3 9 

Shale 1 

Coal 1 

Shale, with three bands of iron ore 2 G 

Fire-clay with iron ore 3 

Shale 6 

Coal 1 

Shale with iron ore 7 

Fire-clay with iron ore nodules 2 

Shale & 

Coal 1 g 

Shale 2 6 

Fire-clay with two bands of iron ore 5 ft 

Sandstone 1 6 

Shale with four bands of iron ore 6 6 

Shale with two bands of iron ore nodules 6 6 

Iron ore 7 

Shale with iron ore 4 3 

Coal * 

Shale with iron ore 6 

Coal 1 6 

Shale 2 

Coaly shale 2 3 

Shale with iron ore 2 Z 

Coal 2 1 

Shale 6 

Fire-clay with iron ore 2 8 

Shale with iron ore 4 10 

Shale, ferruginous 2 6 

Iron ore 1 6- 

Coal 3 

Shaly sandstone 2 

Shale 4 6 

Coal 2 fr 

Limestone 3 

Fire-clay 3 6. 

Coal . ." 8 

Shale 1 6 

Shnle, ferruginous 1 6 

Shale 1 

Coal 1 3 

Shale 1 3 

Coal 1 6 

Shale 1 ft 



122 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Feet. Inches. 
Coal i (j 

Shale, brown 2 8 

Shale, arenaceous and nodular 5 

Shaly sandstone 8 

Shale 4 6 

Coal 1 6 

Fire-clay 7 4 

Shale, ferruginous 5 

Shale with nodules 7 

Shale, ferruginous 2 

Shale 1 

Sandstone 39 

Shale 15 

Fire-clay with iron ore 3 

Limestone 6 

Fire-clay with iron ore 2 

Shale 10 

Sandstone [from measurements on Laurel Run] 44 

Coal 8 

Shale 10 

Limestone 2 2 

Sandstone 23 6 

Shale 6 

Hard black band 6 

Shale, very ferruginous 6 

Shale [from measurements on Mill Run] 4 6 

Coal, shaly, hard, good 5 8 

Fire-clay, sandy 4 

Ore in shaly fire-clay 6 

Limestone 6 

Sandstone 33 

Shale 9 6 

Fossiliferous ferruginous shale 11 



Total thickness of strata now considered as Conemaugh, 495 6 

An excellent section recently obtained by Professor Charles S. 
Prosser of the Maryland Geological Survey gives the thickness of the 
Conemaugh on Phoenix Hill two miles below Barton as approximately 
630 feet. This section is as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 
44 Big Vein " coal 

Black shales with thin layers of sandstone 41 G 

Concealed in part 93 6 

Thin-bedded sandstone with coal streak at base 10 

Black clay shales 4 6 



/ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 123 

Coal 2y 2 in. ■ Feet. Inches. 

Black clay shale. . . 1% 

Coal 7 

Black clay shale. . . 2 ft. 

Coal 11 

Black clay shale. .. 7 The Franklin or so-called 

Coal 3 " Dirt-v Nine-foot " 10 

Black clay shale. . . 5 

Coal 5 

Black clay shale. . . 2 4 

Coal 2 6 

Fire-clay and shales 24 

Brownish sandstone 2 G 

Concealed 23 

Coal 3 

Concealed 15 

Drab to yellowish shales 10 C 

Coal 9 

Sandy jshales with iron nodules 14 9 

Mostly concealed 38 

Shales 17 r> 

Bituminous shale 1 6 

Shales with limestone concretions 21 

Concealed 25 

Shales and sandstone 28 9 

Brownish gray compact sandstone 1 

Concealed, probably containing Barton or " Four-Foot " 

coal 37 6 

Yellowish gray shales 2 

Coal < 4 

Shales and thin-bedded sandstones 28 6 

Thin-bedded sandstones and shales r> 

Impure fire-clay and shales 10 

Yellowish sandy shales 20 

Bluish to yellowish shales 23 

Massive sandstone 12 

Concealed 20 

Coal 1 9 

Fire-clay 2 6 

Yellowish shales with iron nodules 15 6 

Massive sandstone 1 

Concealed 20 3 

Olive to yellowish shales 11 6 

Concealed, with sandstone blocks 8 9 

Massive sandstone 3 9 

Concealed and sandy shales 21 

Conemaugh-Allegheny contact 



'V 



Total thickness of Conemaugh 630+ 



I 



124 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

THE MONONGAHELA FORMATION. 

The Monongahela formation received its name from the Monon- 
gahela river, along which stream it is well developed. The floor of 
the " Big Vein " coal distinctly marks the base of the formation, 
while its upper limits in the few small areas where the full thickness 
still remains is marked by the roof of the Koontz (Waynesburg) coal. 

The formation has been much dissected by erosion and, retaining 
only a minor proportion of its former distribution, is broken into 
many distinct areas. The most extensive of these lies around and 
largely to the south of Frostburg. Its northern end lies upon and 
helps to make the high transverse divide which separates the drainage 
of Jennings and Braddock runs from that of Georges Creek, and has 
thus survived the cutting that has so seriously affected the northern 
and southern portions of the basin. This area is very irregular in 
outline. It extends southward to Lonaconing, and one narrow area 
reaches northward to within almost half a mile of Mount Savage. 
Three of its prominent westerly projections extend across the county 
line into Garrett county. An oval area of small extent lies upon the 
county line about one and one-half miles southwest of Frostburg as 
an outlier of the above-mentioned larger area from which it has been 
cut off by the branches of Winebrenner Run, a tributary of Georges 
Creek. North of Frostburg and west of the Cumberland and Penn- 
sylvania Railroad there is an area of considerable size which is sepa- 
rated from the larger area to the south by the headwaters of Jennings 
Run. A rapidly disappearing remnant of Monongahela, covering 
perhaps twenty acres, caps a prominent hill north-northwest of Mount 
Savage, one-half mile south of the state line. The area is oval in 
shape and the greatest thickness above the " Big Vein " is less than 
seventv-five feet. 

In the southern part of the basin east of Georges Creek there are 
several isolated areas. The largest of these, lying southeast of Lona- 
coning, covers less than three square miles and retains the full thick- 
ness of the formation. None of the others reach an area of two 
square miles and none show the full thickness. Several areas lie 
west of Georges Creek south of Koontz Run, but only one of these, 



/ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 125 

the small one west of Moscow, is wholly within Allegany county. That 
just west of Lonaconing is one of the largest and retains the full 
thickness of the formation. 

The Monongahela formation is composed almost wholly of easily 
disintegrating materials. Only rarely do the sandstones become 
sufficiently thick and massive to form noticeable topographic features, 
although in Washington Hollow near Eckhart and on the hillsides east 
of the village of Miller many loose sandstone boulders were found 
which are quite massive and conglomeritic. The surface of the hill- 
sides covered by the Monongahela is smooth and gently sloping. The 
characteristic topographic feature commonly known as the " bench/' 
which is so frequently seen above the Big Vein, is due generally to 
the relatively easy weathering properties of the coal and to the hard- 
ness of the heavv underlving sandstone. 

Near the top of AVesternport Hill above the Franklin tramroad 
is a micaceous sandstone about twentv-five feet thick. This is near 
the middle of the formation and apparently varies greatly in char- 
acter. Other thinner sandstones are interbedded among the shales, 
but their exact location is generally not easy to determine. 

The shales of the Monongahela are arenaceous and argillaceous and 
vary in color from a light gray through green and brown to an intense 
black. Iron-ore bands are not infrequent, and in the lower part of 
the formation they are sometimes of considerable thickness. 

The number of persistent limestones is not definitely known. Some 
of those which in places show good exposures are evidently so len- 
ticular in character that they can seldom be safely correlated with 
those in distant areas. In the mine shaft sunk bv the Borden Min- 
ing Company three miles south of Frostburg, two limestones were 
found about forty and fifty feet above the " Big Vein " coal. In the 
Consolidation Coal Company's pumping shaft not far distant two 
limestones were also found, one thirty-three feet above the " Big 
Vein," while the other was more than two hundred feet above. An 
additional limestone bed is exposed near by but a few feet above the 
mouth of the shaft. One mile north of Frostburg along the upper 
railroad track near the New York mine, loose boulders of a massive 



126 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

limestone are shown which indicate a stratum not more than fifty 
feet above the " Big Vein " coal. Likewise, in the vicinity of the 
Koontz mine, a variable limestone is found about forty feet above 
the " Big Vein," and one-half mile west of Vale Summit in a ravine 
on the west side of the Georges Creek and Cumberland Kailroad a 
limestone is found at about the same horizon. Near the new furnace, 
one-half mile west of the New Detmold mine, a three and one-half 
foot bed is shown one hundred and five feet above the " Big Vein," 
while near the top of Westernport Hill loose limestone boulders indi- 
cate a bed there occupying about the same position. 

The limestones frequently appear brecciated on weathered sur- 
faces, are usually slightly fossiliferous and are almost invariably dark 
in color when fresh. 

Owing to the detritus which covers the well-weathered hillsides in 
the northern and in the southern ends of the basin, good sections of 
the Monongahela can be obtained only near the central part Meas- 
urements made by Professor Tyson near Lonaconing, and by the 
Consolidation Coal Company at their pumping shaft, include all of 
the strata now considered as Monongahela, and since the Borden 
Mine shaft has passed through the lower half of the formation, we 
have three good measurements in as many different places. The 
measurements obtained at Borden Shaft are as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 

Top of shaft 

Hard gray sandstone G 6% 

Shale 12 6 

Coal [Tyson] 3 4 

Shale 8 5y 2 

Sandstone 2 4 

Shale and sandstone 5 2 

Sandstone 1 

Shale 7 

Limestone 2 

Shale 2 9 

Limestone and shale 7 8 

Shale 8 9y 3 

Coal and shale [Redstone] 8 3 

Fire-clay 1 *y 3 

Black shale '. 18 2% 

Sandstone 4 r 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 127 

Feet. Inches. 

Shale 2 7 

Elkgarden or " Big Vein " coal 12 6% 

Total thickness exposed 110 9% 

In the Consolidation Coal Company's shaft, which is situated about 
two miles south of Frostburg, the measurements are: 

_ Feet. Inches. 
Top of shaft 

Unconsolidated surface material 8 .1 

Limestone with boulders 5 7 

Siliceous fire-clay 3 11 

Sandstone 10 

Shale 4 10 

Sandstone 1 8 

Shale 20 

Coal 5 

Shale 5 8 

Sandstone 14 2 

Shale 38 

Coal ^ 10 

Shale I [Tyson] 3 

Coal J 1 8 

Shale 16 

Sandstone 4 

Shale 25 

Sandstone 1 

Coal 2 6 

Shale 18 

Sandstone 10 

Shale 9 6 

Limestone 5 6 

Shale 7 8 

Coal and shale [Kedstone] 7 4 

Shale 18 9 

Sandstone 1 2 

Coal and shale 3 7 

Elkgarden or *' Big Vein " coal 9 

Total thickness exposed 239 4 

Professor Tyson's measurements are as follows: 

Feet. Inches. 
Shale above 

Coal 6 

Limestone with shale 12 

Fire-clav 13 9 

Concealed 3 9 



128 THE GEOLOGY OF AIXEGAXT OOCXTY 



Shale with iron nodules 27 3 

Shale 27 9 

Fine-grained sandstone 3 6 

Shale 2 6 

Coal with two inches of shale 4 3 

Fire-clay 10 

Coal 3 6 

Fire-clay 3 

Coarse shaly f micaceous sandstone 51 

Shale 42 6 

Coal 4 6 

Shale 2 

Coal 1 

Shale 4 9 

Coal 10 

Shale 1 3 

Shaly sandstone 1 

Ferruginous shale 4 8 

Elkgarden or " Big Vein " coal 14 



Total thickness of Monongahela at Lonaconing 238 9 

THE PERMIAN. 

THE DUXKAKD FORMATION. 

Several of the highest hills near the central part of the coal basin 
are capped by strata which are equivalent to the Dunkard series of 
Pennsylvania. The largest of these areas, on which Frostburg is situ- 
ated, caps the irregularly shaped divide which separates the head- 
waters of Georges Creek, Braddock Run and Jennings Run. An area 
of considerable size lies to the north of Lonaconing and another lies 
to the west. Both extend into Garrett county. A much smaller 
area lies to the south. A dumbbell-shaped area lies west of Ocean 
and a small oval patch lies north of Upper Ocean. A fair-sized area 
lies also between Ocean and Vale Summit. 

Stratigraphically the Dunkard formation conformably follows and 
includes everything above the Monongahela. The higher slopes of 
the hills on which the formation lies are in every case well rounded 
and show almost no natural outcrops. Shales and limestones are 
known to be prominent, sandstones are present but apparently not 



i 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 129 

important, and coal-beds, although shown in some places, seem to be 
of little consequence. The shales have a dull reddish-green color, but 
were seen only where considerably weathered. The lowest limestone 
observed is exposed in the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad 
cut near the Consolidation Coal Company's pumping shaft two miles 
south of Frost-burg. This is composed of an upper dark massive fossil- 
iferous layer twenty-eight inches thick and a lower, somewhat shaly 
bluish-gray stratum forty-three inches thick. About 300 feet above 
this, on the hill east of the pumping shaft, there is an abandoned 
limestone quarry in which the partially exposed limestone containing 
small scattering fossils seems to have a thickness of about six feet. 
Fifteen feet higher there is another thinner limestone as indicated 
by loose blocks on the surface. A very argillaceous limestone seven 
and one-half feet thick is exposed about 250 yards north of the Frost- 
burg tunnel. This seems to be several feet above the bottom of the 
Dunkard formation and possibly lies at the same horizon as the one 
seen in the railroad cut near the pumping shaft. 

But little can be said of the coal seams in the Dunkard formation, 
and so far as known none are more than twelve inches thick. One 
bed having this thickness is exposed a few feet above the limestone 
north of the Frostburg tunnel. Others were seen at this place, but 
they were of much less thickness. Near the pumping shaft two coal 
seams are known to lie more than 300 feet above the bottom of the 
formation, but their thickness could not be learned. 

No detailed section of the formation can be given, but its greatest 
thickness is about four hundred feet. 

The Permian character of these strata has been maintained bv some, 
and thev are classified as Permian in Volume One of The Maryland 
Geological Survey in conformity with the results obtained by Pro- 
fessors Fontaine and White in their study of similar strata in Penn- 
sylvania and West Virginia. Their work in the higher strata there 
has shown a gradual decrease and final disappearance of coal, a great 
change in plant life and important changes in physical conditions. 
Lithologically, in Maryland, the Dunkard appears but little different 

from the higher Coal Measures except in the lesser importance of its 
9 



130 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

coal seams and possibly in the greater abundance of its limestones. 
The fossils thus far found in the formation are not numerous and 
have not yet been described. All of those collected have been confined 
wholly to minute forms found in the limestones. The plant form 
Pecopteris elliptica described by Bunbury, is thought to have come 
from the Dunkard formation, but this is not certain. 1 

The Pleistocene. 

the alluvial and other late deposits. 

Well-rounded boulders and coarse gravels of quartzite and con- 
glomerate are found in the western part of the county scattered 
loosely upon the hillsides, extending at Cumberland as much as 300 
feet above the Potomac river, or a little more than 900 feet above 
tide. At Piedmont, West Virginia, where the river bed is 300 feet 
higher, similar boulders have been found as much as 1060 feet above 
sea-level. These and other deposits of like nature have been de- 
scribed and discussed by Professors J. J. Stevenson and I. C. White, 
both of whom consider them of glacial or post-glacial age. 8 

At a considerably lower level in several places along the Potomac 
river deposits of clay, coarse gravels and boulders are found which 
sometimes show coarse stratification. This is particularly notice- 
able in the vicinity of Cumberland and in some of the Baltimore 
and Ohio and West Virginia Central Railroad cuts between Cum- 
berland and Westernport, as well as along the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad near the eastern part of the county between Paw Paw, West 
Virginia, and the mouth of Sideling Hill Creek. The gravels and 
boulders are usually well-rounded and polished and consist for the 
most part of fragments of Paleozoic materials such as are found in 

> Fontaine, Wm. M., and Wbite, I. C. The Permian, or Upper Carboniferous, Flora 
of West Virginia and S. W. Pennsylvania. Second Geological Survey of Pennsyl- 
vania, Report PP, p. iii, Harrisburg, 1880. 

* Stevenson, John J. On the Surface Geology of Southwest Pennsylvania and ad- 
joining portions of Maryland and West Virginia. A. J. 8., vol. xv, 1878, pp. 245-250. 

White, I. C. Rounded Boulders at high altitudes along some Appalachian Rivers. 
A. J. S., vol. xxxiv, 1887, pp. 374-381. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 131 

the immediate vicinity. Near the railroad tunnel just north of 
Paw Paw the stratification may be 3een to excellent advantage, the 
deposits there extending upwards as much as sixty feet above the bed 
of the Potomac river. Some of the materials found here have evi- 
dently been carried a considerable distance, since among them are 
chert fragments, evidently from the Helderberg formation, the near- 
est outcrop of which is more than ten miles distant. Distinct strati- 
fication may also be seen in a few favorable places between Cumber- 
land and Westernport. 

It mav be of interest to describe in this connection a fossiliferous 
limestone-chert breccia found by the author between Cumberland 
and Westernport. Professor I. C. White has described an appar- 
ently similar deposit along Patterson Creek in West Virginia, but 
does not mention the presence of fossils. 1 The two deposits possibly 
have the same origin. The breccia is made up of small angular, 
slightly water-worn, frequently flattened fragments of chert and 
limestone, evidently derived from the Helderberg formation on which 
it is found. The cementing material is lime. It is hard but vesicular 
and forms no little portion of the entire mass. 

As vet onlv a small collection of this breccia has been examined, 
but among the fossils thus far found the following have been identified 
by Professor H. A. Pilsbry: 

Pupa (Bifidaria) armifrra, Say. 

Zen if aides minusculus, Binn. 

StrobilopSj probably virgo, Pils. or affinix, Pils. 

Helicina occulta, Sav. 

Heiicodiscus lineatus, Sav. 

Polygyra hirsuta. 

Polygyra albocabris, Say (?). 

Polygyra, species undetermined. 

The breccia is apparently of quite recent origin, and there is some 
reason for believing that it may be forming at the present time. 
Professor Pilsbry says that Helicina occulta is one of the most abun- 

1 White, I. C. Rounded Boulders at high altitudes along some Appalachian rivers. 
A. J. 8., :id series, vol. xxxiv, 1887, pp. M74-381. 



132 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

dant and characteristic fossils of the Iowa loess and is now almost 
extinct, being confined to a few very restricted though widely sepa- 
rated areas, and that it has not hitherto been known to occur in Mary- 
land, either recent or fossil. The other species have been previously 
recognized as living in Maryland. 

STRUCTURE. 

THE ORLEANS ANTICLINE. 

The Orleans anticline, known in Pennsylvania as the Whip Cove 
anticline, enters Allegany county from the north near the point where 
Sideling Hill Creek crosses the state line. It may be considered as 
including the area covered by the Jennings formation east of Town 
Hill. The several small patches of Hampshire that have been carved 
out by the meanderings of the Potomac river and Sideling Hill 
Creek along the eastern side may also be considered with this anti- 
cline, although the easternmost parts of the areas might perhaps be 
more conveniently considered with the Sideling Hill syncline outside 
of the county. 

The exact position of the main anticlinal axis on the state line is 
concealed, but it is apparently east of Sideling Hill Creek and the 
Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania from data collected in 
that state has so indicated it. West of the creek the dip was ob- 
served in various places in the bottom of the ravine which runs nearly 
parallel with the state line. Two hundred yards west of the creek 
there is a very perceptible anticline, although the exact position of the 
axis is concealed. The west limb of this anticline dips quite regu- 
larly 27° to 28° W. East of the axis the dip is complicated. At a 
point one hundred yards west of the creek the dip is 38° E. This 
rapidly decreases eastward to almost zero, then as rapidly increases 
again to 50° E., which in turn quickly decreases to zero, this last 
measurement having been obtained in the bed of Sideling Hill Creek. 
East of the creek along the state line the rocks are concealed. 

The anticline running nearly parallel with Town Hill extends en- 
tirely across the county, including the two larger West Virginia areas 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 133 

that have been carved out by the sinuosities of the Potomac river. 
In general the fold is composite, as is indicated by the presence of 
various small anticlines situated near where the main axis evidently 
lies. 

On the National Road, about one mile south of the state line, the 
various attitudes of the strata are well shown and three anticlines are 
there disclosed. The evidence seems to indicate that the main axis 
crosses the National Road about one mile west of Sideling Hill 
Creek. At this point there is a very perceptible anticline, the west 
limb dipping 43° W., the east limb dipping 14° E. This last dip 
changes within one-half mile east to 21° W., and this a little further 
east is followed by an anticline, the eastern limb of which dips 52° E. 
At the edge of the county, where the road crosses the creek near the 
Hampshire-Jennings contact, the dip is 36° E. West of the main 
anticlinal axis as located, the dip rapidly swings around from 43° W. 
through zero to 40° E., but one-half mile west there is another anti- 
cline with the west limb dipping 4° W. Continuing westward the 
dip is slight until the Jennings-Hampshire contact four miles west is 
reached, near which place there is a small anticline with east and west 
limbs dipping 00° E. and 41° W. respectively. This is followed by 
strata dipping more and more gently westward. 

Southward from the National Road the anticline turns a little more 
to the east, passing only a few rods west of the great bend in Sideling 
Hill Creek, where the east limb dips 48° E. and the west limb 61° 
to 85° W. Continuing southward the axis crosses Fifteenmile Creek 
three-fourths of a mile west of Little Orleans, the village which sug- 
gested the name here used in describing the anticline. Where the 
axis crosses the creek the east limb of the anticline dips 14° E., the 
west limb 50° W. The dip of the east limb gradually increases east- 
ward until at the mouth of the creek the dip is 90°. On the Potomac 
river, one-fourth mile north of Little Orleans, a dip of 54° W. is 
shortly followed to the east by a dip of 7S° W. Beyond this, east- 
ward, the dip passes somewhat rapidly through zero to 57 D E., near 
which attitude the strata remain until within two hundred yards of 
the mouth of Sideling Hill Creek. Here there is a small syncline 



134 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

with west limb dipping 44° E. and east limb dipping 53° W. At 
the mouth of the creek the dip is 34° W. On Fifteenmile Creek, 
west of the main anticlinal axis, the strata dip on an average about 
40° W. until near the Jennings-Hampshire contact, where there is 
a syncline with east and west limbs dipping 40° W. and 38° E. respec- 
tively. 

South of Fifteenmile Creek the axis extends in a more southerly 
direction and cuts across the West Virginia projection about one mile 
west of Doe Gully tunnel on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and 
almost parallel with it. Where the anticline is first crossed by the 
Potomac south of Fifteenmile Creek its limbs dip 82° W. and 63° E. 
Along the river west of the axis the dip of the strata changes gradu- 
ally, decreasing to 47° W. at the Jennings-Hampshire contact near 
the big bend in the river. East of the axis also the dip is pretty 
regular, passing gradually through 74° E., 54° E., 44° E., 54° E., 
42° E. to 56° E., the last measurement, 56° E., having been made 
one mile east of Doe Gullv at the end of the bend in the river. The 
strata through which Doe Gully tunnel is cut dip 53° E. near the 
north end and 54° E. near the south end, the strike being 34° E. in 
a line with the tunnel. In the West Virginia area west of the tun- 
nel, as well as in most of the Maryland peninsular area immediately 
to the south, the dip is not shown. However, going up the Potomac 
from the south end of the tunnel, the dip can be pretty frequently 
made out. The anticlinal axis having turned considerably to the 
west of its usual direction, crosses the river about one mile below 
Bairds on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, where the limbs of the 
anticline dip 74° W. and 45° E. Along this east and west section of 
the river, as in the one near Doe Gully Station, no secondary folding 
can be observed. The dip of 74° W. gradually increases to 82° W., 
then slowly decreases to 61° W. at the bend of the river near Bairds. 
East of the axis the dip gradually passes through 42° E., 54° E., 43° 
E., 36° E., 39° E., and 54° E., the latter dip, 54° E., being shown 
at the Jennings-Hampshire contact as well as farther east at the bend 
in the river. 

Apparently taking more nearly its general course of S. 25° W., 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 135 

the axis passes across the next West Virginia area where its position 
is hidden but is shown again on the Potomac between Bairds and Mag- 
nolia in a much confused condition. Here five anticlines appear. 
The main axis is situated somewhere west of the canal tunnel north 
of Paw Paw and apparently crosses the river about one-half mile west 
of the tunnel. West of the axis the dip oscillates rapidly, 69° being 
the dip of the steepest strata observed. East of the axis the dip is 
less changeable, although considerable fluctuation occurs. Imme- 
diately above the opening at the northern portal of the canal tunnel 
a small asymmetric anticline is exposed which dips 44° W. and 28° E. 
The tunnel, which is three thousand four hundred and forty feet long, 
runs nearly with the strike, but at the south end this anticline is not 
seen, the dip being 36° E. At the north end, where a very large 
amount of rock has been removed in order to provide a suitable ap- 
proach to the tunnel, a most magnificent slickenside surface of more 
than one thousand square yards is exposed. The surface has a slant 
of 52° W. and, although uncovered more than half a century ago, it 
is everywhere marked by the usual slickenside striation and still 
retains a high polish. 

In the Hampshire formation at the bend in the river at Magnolia 
the dip is 78° E. Going westward the dip gradually grows less until 
it reaches 21° E. at a point about three-fourths of a mile west of the 
easternmost part of the bend. On the Maryland side of the river op- 
posite the north end of the Paw Paw tunnel on the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad there is a strong anticline, the east line of which dips 30° E. 
The dip of the west limb could not be determined. At each end of 
the tunnel the dip is 41° E. Across the river from Paw Paw at the 
edge of the canal a small anticline is exposed. It is also shown a 
short distance further north at the canal, and is presumably identical 
with the one seen at the north end of the canal tunnel. 

Almost three-fourths of a mile west of Paw Paw on the county road 
there is a fold which apparently locates the axis of the main anti- 
cline. The west limb has a dip of 80°, which gradually decreases to 
40° one-fourth of a mile further west. The dip of the east limb is 
71° and this decreases to 40° within a distance of eighty rods. South 



136 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

of the county road the anticlinal axis apparently becomes much de- 
flected to the west, although this cannot be definitely proven. 

Along the river on the south side of the county only one obscure 
anticline was detected and this is about one hundred rods west of the 
point where Little Cacapon river enters the Potomac. The west 
limb dips 66° W., but gradually and uninterruptedly grows less 
steep. The dip of the east limb is not known, but opposite the mouth 
of Little Cacapon the dip is 32° E. In the absence of other evidence 
the Orleans anticline is considered as passing across the river and out 
of the county along the position of this, the only observed anticline 
in the region. 

THE TOW r N HILL SYNCLINE. 

The Town Hill syncline, extending entirely across the county, has 
the general direction of N. 25° E., and may be considered to embrace 
the area covered by the two long narrow belts of Pocono at the top 
of Town Hill, the flanking area of Hampshire in the hollow of which 
the Pocono rests, together with that part of the Jennings included in 
the western slope of Green Ridge. So far as can be observed, this 
syncline is but little complicated, being particularly simple and sym- 
metrical where cut through by the Potomac river. On the National 
Road near the eastern Pocono-Hampshire contact the dip is 24° W. 
Going eastward the dip slowly increases to 48° W., this observation 
having been made near the fork in the road about one mile west of 
Piney Grove. Near here the dip quickly changes through zero to 
52° E., which position the strata retain a few rods west of Piney 
Grove post-office. From this point eastward the strata rapidly regain 
their westerly dip and at the post-office the dip is 57° AV. One-fourth 
of a mile further east the dip is 23° W. This is soon followed by 
a fold, the presence of which is indicated by the position of the strata 
one-half mile east of the post-office where the dip is 25°-30° E. 
Beyond this the influence of the Orleans anticline becomes paramount. 

On the National Road, west of the top of Town Hill, one small 
symmetrical anticline is seen with limbs dipping 28°. This is one- 
half mile west of the Pocono-Hampshire contact. Continuing west- 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




i :: 'fc*\§8i8 ■life*?* »;r^" - 1'L/'-" 


- 



Fia. 2.-SHARP FOLDS IN DEVONIAN SANDY SHALES, SEAR LITTLE ORLEANS. 
GEOLOGICAL SECTIONS IN ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 137 

ward this is followed by a regular easterly dip, gradually changing 
through 28° E., 38° E., 45° E., 32° E., 53° E., 35° E., and 50° E. 
The dip of 38° E. was measured at the side of the creek between 
Town Hill and Green Ridge, that of 32° E. is shown on the summit 
of Green Ridge near the Hampshire- Jennings contact, while the 
measurement of 50° E. was obtained near the bridge over Eif teen- 
mile Creek. A few yards west of the creek the dip is 70° E., and 
further west the strata are more and more influenced bv the Pratt 
Valley folds. 

Along Fifteenmile Creek, as well as along the county road which 
runs nearly parallel with it, good exposures are frequent. West 
from the axis, which is in the center of the Town Hill Gap, the strata 
gradually become more steeply inclined until at the top of Green 
Ridge, where the creek road enters the ridge road, the dip is 40° E. 
Two miles south of this point attitudes of 50° to 54° were found on 
the western slope of the ridge. East of the axis the dip of the strata 
is more complex. Within three-fourths of a mile from the center of 
the gap the dip changes from zero to 44° W. Between this point and 
the Hampshire-Jennings contact further east, tw T o secondary anticlines 
appear. As a result of these the dip changes from 44° W. to 55° 
E., then to 35° W. and again to 32° E., the latter dip indicating the 
position of the strata near the Hampshire-Jennings contact. A few 
rods east of this contact line the dip is 38° E., after which the influ- 
ence of the svnclinal axis ceases to be felt. 

Near the southern end of Town Hill various observations were 
made which compare favorably with measurements obtained further 
north. On the Okonoko-Orleans road one and one-half miles north 
of the southern limit of the Pocono a dip of 50° W. was observed. 
Three-fourths of a mile south and a few rods west of this exposure a 
dip of 49° W. is shown. One hundred and twenty-five yards further 
west the dip is 21° W. Along the county road leading from Town 
Hill to Green Ridge there are various exposures. One in the bed 
of the ravine shows a dip of 01° E., and a few rods further west a dip 
of 40° E. was seen. This quickly decreases to 38° E., but at the top 
of Green Ridge the strata dip 52° E. Continuing northwestward 



138 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

down to and along Town Creek the dip is generally quite steep, 
being much of the time considerably more than 50° E. and in several 
places 90°. 

THE STRATFORD RIDGE ANTICLINE. 

This anticline clearly asserts itself in the two Oriskany exposures 
east and northeast of Oldtown, and a good exposure locates the posi- 
tion of the axis. About one mile east of Oldtown on the canal near 
the water level, the dip on the west side of the axis is 30° W. The 
strata here are bent into a nearly symmetrical arch almost one hun- 
dred feet high, although on the east side near the canal level the 
strata quickly become steeper and plunge beneath the surface with a 
dip of 63° E. In the long narrow strip of Oriskany to the northeast 
of this the position of the area corresponds to that of the axis of the 
anticline. Here the rocks of the Oriskany formation being largely 
free from covering, show the anticlinal nature of the ridge distinctly. 
Almost at the extreme northern limit of the area where the countv 
road and a small tributary of Town Creek cut across the ridge a dip 
of 12° was measured on the west side of the axis. Farther east where 
Town Creek cuts into the eastern side of the Oriskany the strata 
have an apparent overturned, dip, the attitude there being 70° W. 
This seems to swing back through 90° very soon, as only a few rods 
further east a good exposure shows a dip of 44° E. Continuing east 
along the creek toward Green Ridge the strata wherever exposed show 
a strong dip, but at some places where the rocks are concealed there is 
an undoubted undulation, this fact being rendered evident by a dip 
of 70° W., observed near the angle formed by the creek as it turns 
west-northwestward from Green Ridge. Two miles south of this, 
where Town Creek makes an abrupt turn to the east, the dip near the 
Jennings-Romney contact is 53° E. This gradually increases east- 
ward to 62° E., which observation was made where the creek turns 
southward. Along the West Virginia side of the Potomac, both east 
and west of the Stratford Ridge axis minor folds are shown, but on the 
Maryland side the strata are worn down and concealed in such a 
manner that these minor folds are not very apparent and, indeed, their 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 139 

influence seems to die out almost immediately after passing across the 
river into Allegany county. A few yards east of the mouth of the 
South Branch the dip is 15° E., but this gradually increases without 
serious interruption to 90° near by, at which attitude the strata remain 
for much of the distance between the mouth of South Branch and 
the Jennings-Ronmey contact. Between this contact and the mouth 
of Town Creek the dip is about 55° E. Nearly one-half mile west 
of the main axis a fold of some importance is seen on the West Vir- 
ginia side, but it is concealed in Maryland. The limbs dip 15° E. 
and 25° W. 

One-half mile south of the north end of the Stratford Ridge area 
along the county road running parallel to and west of the axis a dip of 
21° W. was found. Xorth of this area, where the creek cuts across 
the Jennings-Romney contact zone, the dip is 65° E. This increases 
to 81° E. about one-fourth of a mile nearer Green Ridge, but de- 
creases to 22° E. near where the creek turns south parallel to Green 
Ridge. 

The effects brought about in the formation of the Stratford Ridge 
anticline are no doubt felt considerably further north than the Oris- 
kany area extends, possibly even reaching for a considerable distance 
north of the creek, but owing to the paucity of exposures the true 
conditions cannot be made out. 

THE OLDTOWN AND PRATT VALLEY FOLDS. 

In the extensive area of Romney shales east, west and north of 
Oldtown the extreme poverty of exposures prevents any precise de- 
scription of the structural details, but such definite observation as can 
be made shows that the strata are considerably folded. Whether or 
not these folds are very persistent or important in any way is not 
known. As a consequence, therefore, the structure sections for this 
part of the county have been made upon data that is necessarily 
somewhat conjectural, but the general condition of the strata is evi- 
dently that of gentle and frequent undulation and they have been 
so represented. 

Pratt Valley may be roughly considered as including the compara- 



140 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

tively low area lying between Polish Mountain and Green Ridge north 
of the lower course of Town Creek. With the exception of the ex- 
posures along the National Road the conditions for studying the 
exact features of the structure in this area are even more meagre than 
in the Oldtown area. The valley is very densely wooded, and over a 
considerable portion of the area the only means of gaining any knowl- 
edge of the underlying formation is to examine the loose shales lying 
in the cavities left by uprooted trees. On the National Road three 
hundred yards east of Pratt post-office a beautiful, almost symmetrical, 
anticline is seen. The west limb dips 40° W. and the east limb dips 
44° E. For nearly one-half mile west of this the dip gradually de- 
creases, finally reaching as low as 6° W. at a point about four hun- 
dred yards west of Pratt post-office. West of this point the dip 
increases more and more under the influence of the Polish Mountain 
syncline. About one-third of a mile east of the axis an exposure 
shows the strata dipping 30° E., but two hundred and fifty yards 
further east they dip 85° W. Beyond this for nearly a mile the strata 
are concealed. When next seen the dip is to the east. South of the 
National Road no distinct traces of these anticlines can be found, 
although various measurements on Town Creek and northward on 
some of its branches indicate much variation of dip with the probable 
presence of several folds. 

At a point two miles west of Pratt two anticlines near each other 
are poorly shown on the National Road. Their limbs, so far as can 
be observed, dip nearly symmetrically at 30° to 40°. At a point 
almost one-half mile west of this the dip is 45° E., but three hundred 
yards further west the dip has decreased to 35° E. East of the two 
anticlines, which in fact may be considered as flexures of one main 
anticline, the dip changes rapidly until Fifteenmile Creek is reached. 
Starting with a dip of 30° E. the dip undulates through 90°, 50° E., 
40° E., 87° W., 35° W., 70° E., 50° E., 45° E., the last measure- 
ment being one hundred fifty yards west of Fifteenmile Creek. The 
dip of 35° W. and 70° E. shows a crumpled anticline about five hun- 
dred yards west of the creek. We thus have at least three separate 
and distinct positions along the National Road in Pratt Valley where 
anticlines are developed. 



i 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 141 

By comparing this valley with the corresponding area north of the 
state line in Pennsylvania, it will be observed that the positions of 
the Pratt Valley anticlines correspond quite closely to the positions 
of important anticlines in Bedford county as worked out by the Second 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. 1 Beginning with the eastern- 
most, these anticlines are known as the Broad Top anticline, the 
Snyders Ridge anticline and the Shavers Creek anticline. In the 
absence of opposing evidence it seems, with the information at hand, 
that we may say without probability of serious error that the above- 
named anticlines as traced out in Pennsylvania extend into Maryland 
and, crossing the National Road at or near the points suggested, con- 
tinue an indefinite distance southward, being apparently seriously de- 
flected and possibly entirely dissipated by other more or less important 
folds before reaching the Potomac river. 

THE POLISH MOUNTAIN SYNCLINE. 

This syncline follows the trend of Polish Mountain and is the 
gradually shallowing prolongation of the much more prominent 
Clearsville syncline of Pennsylvania. On the National Road the 
dip on the east side of the synclinal axis approximates 20° W., while 
on the west side it is about 40° E. On the Williams Road, about 
two miles south of the National Road, the strata on the east side of 
the syncline are concealed; but on the west side between Town Creek 
and the crest of the mountain the dip varies from 22° E. to 30° E. 
Near the south end of the mountain various observations were made, 
but only those on the western side of the axis are trustworthy. They 
indicate the average dip to be very nearly the same as that shown 
on the Williams Road. Further south the syncline becomes lost 
amidst the confusion of other folds. No rocks higher than those of 
the Jennings formation are contained within this svncline in Alle- 
gany county. Along the top of the mountain a heavy conglomerate 
is shown south of the Williams Road, but where the mountain is 
crossed by the National Road the conglomerate has apparently been 

'Stevenson, J. J. (ieology of Bedford and Fulton Counties, Report T~\ Second 
Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, 1.H82. 



142 THE GEOIjOGT OF AIXEGA3FT COCTTT 

worn completely away, although its former position is shown by a 
few scattering but much weathered bonlders. This conglomerate 
capping is apparently the same as the heavy conglomerate seen in 
many other places in the county near the top of the Jennings, and in 
Pennsylvania where the opportunities for studying the rocks of this 
syncline are better than in Maryland, the Pennsylvania Geological 
Survey has similarlv located it and has correlated it with the Che- 
mung Upper Conglomerate/ 

THE TUSSEY MOrSTAnT AyTICXCTE- 

• 

Within that structural division of the Appalachian system of which 
Allegany county forms a part, the folds of predominating importance 
are usually those long anticlines which are of sufficient magnitude to 
bring up the Silurian rocks. Of such anticlines Allegany county 
has three that are well developed. All of these enter the county 
from Pennsylvania, but in each case the position of the anticline be- 
comes entirely obliterated or very much disturbed before reaching the 
Potomac river. The Tussey Mountain anticline is the easternmost 
and most quickly obliterated one and at the state line occupies the 
position of Tussey Mountain. Continuing nearly southward across 
the National Road and then more nearly southwest the anticline 
bifurcates, one branch following the direction of Warrior Mountain, 
the other that of Martin Mountain. 

Near the state line where the Tuscarora of Tussey Mountain is cut 
through by Flintstone Creek the dip on the west side of the anticline 
is 18° W. Although not well known, it is apparently about the same 
on the east side. Further east the strata where not concealed show a 
varying dip, the Clinton being much folded there. Along Flintstone 
Creek northward from Flintstone for half a mile or more the general 
dip is 40° to 50° E. One and one-half miles west of Flintstone 
Creek on the National Road a dip of 40° E. is shown. One-half 
mile further west the dip is 5° W., the intervening area apparently 
representing the position of the main anticline. Further west, as far 

'Stevenson, J. J. Geology of Bedford and Fulton Counties, Report T2, p. 81, 
Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, 1882. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 143 

as the abandoned limekiln in the Helderberg formation, three miles 
west of Flintstone, the dip varies from 20° to 30° W., but the ex- 
posures are not good. Along a small ravine, about one mile south 
of the National Road and running nearly parallel with it, various 
measurements indicate the general attitude of the strata to be much 
the same as along the National Road. However, further east along 
the Murley Branch road considerable confusion of dip exists and this 
is found to be due to the presence of a minor fold running parallel 
with Murley Branch. The exact position of the axis of this minor 
fold is best seen a little more than half a mile east of Rush on the 
Williams Road. A few feet of the red sandstone near the bottom 
of the Salina is there shown in a small anticline whose liml>s have a 
dip of 15°. The same anticline with a similar exposure of Salina is 
brought to view on the ravine two hundred yards south of this. It 
cannot be traced further south. The anticline is not well shown 
northward from the Williams Road, but its presence is sufficiently 
indicated to enable one to trace it for a distance of more than two 
miles. The Tussey anticline bifurcates in the vicinity of Rush, and 
the Murley Branch fold is no doubt one expression of the beginning 
of bifurcation. 

On the county road leading west-northwest from Rush, various out- 
crops indicate a much disturbed condition of the strata. At least 
four anticlinal flexures cross the road within a mile of Rush. The 
positions of the axes of these folds cannot be actually seen, but their 
presence is sufficiently indicated by various exposures along the road. 
The dip at Rush near the iron bridge over Murley Branch is 55° 
to 75° E. 

In the double southern extensions of the Tussey anticline but few 
measurements of the attitude of the strata can be obtained. The 
Warrior Mountain branch can be easily traced to within a mile of the 
Potomac. Along the eastern side on the county road running near 
the Oriskany-Romney contact the dip varied but slightly, 27° E. 
being the greatest dip observed and 17° E. the lowest. The dip 
along the western side is much the same. 

In the vicinity of Twiggtown the western projection of the Tussey 



144 THE GEOLOGT OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Mountain anticline in turn becomes bifurcated, the western projection 
of this bifurcation forming the Collier Mountain anticline with east 
and west dips of about 40°. 

THE MARTIN MOITNTAIN AND COLLIER MOUNTAIN ANTICLINES. 

The Martin Mountain anticline occupies the position of that moun- 
tain and has been formed by a bifurcation of the larger anticline 
south of Rush Ridge. The dip varies from 35° to 50°, the two limbs 
having approximately the same inclination. Near the Potomac the 
dip is less, scarcely reaching 25° on either side. 

THE BIG SPRING RUN 8YNCLINE. 

Tin's syncline, which is formed by the gradually separating branches 
of the Tussey Mountain anticline, occupies the triangular Romney 
area west of the southern end of Warrior Mountain and includes 
within it a considerable portion of the valley of Big Spring Run. 
The rocks are almost wholly concealed, but along the Potomac river 
the observations indicate that the strata are considerably, although not 
deeply, plicated. 

THE MARTIN SPRING BRANCH SYNCLINE. 

This is a narrow syncline lying between Martin Mountain and 
Collier Mountain, and extends from the Potomac river northward 
to within about two miles of Twiggtown. It occupies the position 
of the long narrow Romney area in which Martin Spring Branch 
lies, and is in general appearance much like the Collier Run syncline 
which lies to the west of Collier Mountain. The dip on either side 
varies between 20° and 45°. 

THE COLLIER RUN SYNCLINE. 

Collier Run syncline stretches across the county in a general north- 
east-southwest direction. In its southern and middle portions it is 
flanked by Collier Mountain and Nicholas Mountain and is marked 
by a long narrow strip of Romney shales within which Collier Run 
lies. Near the headwaters of Collier Run, Nicholas Mountain and 
Martin Mountain gradually coalesce and become one synclinal ridge, 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 145 

Nicholas Mountain losing its identity and its name. Martin Moun- 
tain, still capped by Oriskany rocks, continues northward beyond 
the state line. 

Along Collier Run the dip of the syncline on either side is steep 
and seldom less than 30° near the Komney-Oriskany contact. It is 
generally more than 40°. More varying measurements, as might be 
expected, were obtained in the Romney exposures, but since the 
measurements usually express only unimportant local conditions they 
need not be given here. On the Potomac at the Romney-Oriskany 
contact on the east side of the syncline the dip is 39° W. At the 
corresponding point on the western side it is only 20° E., but in- 
creases farther west. The synclinal nature of Martin Mountain, 
where crossed by the National Road, is well indicated by the many 
measurements obtained, the dip on the east side being from 60° W. to 
80° W., while on the western side the dip is much less, it being not 
more than 35° E. 

THE EVITTS MOUNTAIN ANTICLINE. 

This anticline enters the county from Pennsylvania and is dis- 
tinctly marked for a short distance by Evitts Mountain. On the 
National Road, and for three or four miles further south, it is not 
well marked topographically, but south of the Williams Road the axis 
of the anticline gradually takes the position occupied by Nicholas 
Mountain. 

Near the southern end of Evitts Mountain a branch of Evitts 
Creek has cut deeply across the Tuscarora quartzite and has disclosed 
to good advantage both limbs of the anticline. On the west side of 
the Tuscarora-Clinton contact the dip is 54° W. On the eastern side 
at the corresponding point it is 18° E. On the county road running 
around the southern end of the mountain a measurement of 50° W. 
was obtained on the west side and 22° E. on the east side. On the 
National Road the position of the axis seems to be just east of where 
the Johnson Road enters the National Road from the south. Imme- 
diately at this point of union the dip is 39° W. One hundred yards 
further west in the outcrop of red sandstone near the bottom of the 

10 



146 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Salina the dip is 67° W. Continuing westward the dip in the Hel- 
derberg limestone undulates through 54° W., 70° E. f and 72° W. 
Fifty yards east of the Johnson-National road fork the dip is 21° E. 
Nearly one-half mile further east the Hinckle Road enters the Na- 
tional Koad from the south, at which point the dip is 32° E. One- 
half mile east of this where a county road from the north enters the 
National Road the dip is 17° E. Still further east, in the lower part 
of the Salina, the dip is 25° E., but increases shortly to 35° E., then 
rapidly to 78° E., then decreases to 30° E. near the middle of the 
Helderberg. East of this the dip gradually increases until near the 
position of the Collier Run syncline. On the Hinckle Road near 
the bottom of the Salina the dip is 18 E., gradually increasing south- 
eastward to 36° near the Romney-Oriskany contact. Three-fourths 
of a mile south of the National Road on the Johnson Road the dip is 
42° E., while further south, near the fork in the road, it is 34° E. 
East of this for half a mile the prevailing dip is less than 15°. On 
the Williams Road the anticlinal axis appears to be almost in the 
bottom of the valley on the western side of Nicholas Mountain. Here 
a small sharp anticline is exposed. East of this anticline, as far as 
Collier Run, all of the outcrops show an easterly dip of the strata, 
the dip varying from 7° to 34°. West of the anticline, as far as 
Evitts Creek, all of the outcrops show a westerly dip of the strata, 
the dip varying from 50° to 72°. Along the Potomac river the dip 
on the eastern side of the axis varies from 20° E. to 42° E., while on 
the western side the range of dip is from 15° W. to 54° W. 

THE EVITTS CREEK SYNCLINE. 

The Evitts Creek valley, together with the low-lying West Virginia 
and Maryland areas to the south, practically includes all of the Evitts 
Creek syncline. It is bounded on the east by a row of Oriskany 
hills which extend from the state line southward to near the Potomac 
river, where the hills become gradually absorbed by Nicholas Moun- 
tain. Shriver Ridge, in Maryland, and Knobly Mountain, in West 
Virginia, both protected by Oriskany sandstone, lie along the western 
side. 



*\ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 147 

In that part of the syncline which lies north of the Potomac river 
outcrops are frequent. Along the National Road, and along the 
Baltimore and Ohio "Railroad, this is particularly true. In addition 
to these a countv road about one mile south of the National Road 
discloses the attitude of the strata in many places, and on the eastern 
side of the syncline along the Williams Road a good series of ex- 
posures is also shown. In addition to these, many other more scat- 
tering and less easily located exposures were found. With but rare 
exception these exposures all show that the axis of the syncline is 
throw r n far toward the eastern part of the valley, as is also Evitts 
Creek in much of its course. North of the National Road and west 
of Evitts Creek the dip is to the east in every place observed and in 
some instances the easterly dip continues a considerable distance east 
of the creek. Along the eastern side of Shriver Ridge the dip is 
30° E. to 35° E., although about one and one-half miles south of the 
state line a measurement of 44° E. was obtained. One mile south 
of the state line on Evitts Creek the strata stand upright, as they were 
observed to do also two miles south of the state line. On the Na- 
tional Road about one-half mile east of the creek the dip is also 90% 
but this may be a very local feature, since between this point and 
Evitts Creek there are two anticlines. Where Evitts Creek crosses 
the National Road the dip is 27° W. East of Evitts Creek on the 
Williams Road at the Jennings-Romney contact the dip is 70° W. 
Continuing eastward the dip varies through f>0°, 65°, 72°, and 59°, 
the last measurement having been obtained near the Roiimey-Oris- 
kany contact. Going south from Cumberland, then east along the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the dip, with insignificant exceptions, 
remains from 15° E. to 20° E. until within about one-fourth of a 
mile of the mouth of Evitts Creek, where a small amount of folding 
is observed. Just west of the creek the dip is 16° E., but the only 
observations in this locality east of the creek show a considerable 
dip to the west. In view of these facts it seems quite evident that the 
main axis of the svncline crosses the Potomac river at or near the 
point where Evitts Creek enters it. 

In that part of the syncline which is occupied by the large west- 



148 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

wardly projecting area west of the southern end of Nicholas Mountain 
no good outcrops were seen, the surface there being almost wholly 
covered by river-washed materials. 

THE WILLS MOUNTAIN ANTICLINE. 

This anticline, like the Evitts Mountain and Tussey Mountain 
anticlines, is distinctly marked by a ridge of Tuscarora quartzite. It 
enters Allegany county from the north and continues in an approxi- 
mate S. 30° W. direction as a prominent topographic feature for a 
distance of more than ten miles. The eastern limb of the anticline 
has a moderate dip. The west limb dips steeply. Near the Tus- 
carora-Clinton contact line along the east side the prevailing dip is 
less than 30° and shows but very little variation, while along the 
corresponding contact line on the west the dip approaches and some- 
times exceeds 70°. 

The structure of the mountain is most admirably shown in the 
Wills Creek gorge known as " The Narrows," where, acting like a 
veritable saw and keeping pace with the gradually rising strata, the 
creek has cut for itself a narrow passage across the mountain and has 
thus disclosed on either side a rocky arch of magnificent proportions. 
Here immense talus slopes extending upward more than five hundred 
feet, are overhung by high precipitous walls of massive white 
quartzite. Toward the east end of the gorge, where the talus is less 
prominent, the strata may be seen to descend slowly, the dip increas- 
ing to 24° E. at the Tuscarora-Clinton contact. At the western end 
of the gorge the dip is precipitous, the well-exposed Tuscarora strata 
there plunging beneath the surface with a dip of 72° W. 

South of the National Road, Wills Mountain becomes gradually 
deflected from its general course of S. 30° W., and for some distance 
before reaching Cresap runs nearly due south. At Cresap the Tus- 
carora passes beneath the surface, and with its disappearance the 
mountain becomes obliterated. 

As a result of the eastward deflection of the southern end of Wills 
Mountain, some minor folding has been brought about along the Po- 
tomac river southeast of Cresap, where the upper beds of the Tus- 



k 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE X 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 149 

earora are raised to the surface in two sharp anticlines. One of these 
anticlines has exposed almost one hundred feet of the Tuscarora and 
can he traced for nearly five hundred yards in a general south-south- 
west direction. The smaller anticline which lies a short distance 
southeast of this is not sufficiently individualized to he distinctly 
traced longitudinally and is scarcely more than sufficiently prominent 
to bring the Tuscarora to the surface. 

In the northern part of the county east of the Tuscarora-Clinton 
contact line east of Wills Mountain the dip increases slightly but 
rarely reaches more than 40° E. West of the axis the dip in the 
Clinton wherever exposed is great. Further west in the Helderberg 
and Oriskany format ions several excellent exposures give a prevail- 
ing dip of 00°. This is admirably shown at the " Devil's Backbone " 
near Oorriganville, as well as at either end of the low enlongated 
hill lying just west of the " Narrows. " 

Xear the state line, a short distance west of the long narrow Oris- 
kany area there is a slight fold which in some low places brings the 
Oriskany to the surface again. Immediately west of this the dip 
is steep, but continuing westward it gradually grows more nearly hori- 
zontal. 

South of Braddock Run the high pitch of the strata is fully as 
prominent as further north and the excellent exposure at Potomac 
Station shows the strata in much the same attitude as at the " Devil's 
Backbone/' 

THE KAWLIXGS SYNCLINE. 

By the Rawlings synclinc is designated that small, poorly defined 
structural region which lies to the north and east of Rawlings and 
which is marked by a southward projection of the Romney forma- 
tion across the Potomac river into "West Virginia. The upright 
strata of the Oriskany and the Helderberg may be considered as occu- 
pying the eastern side, while on the west the limits are poorly de- 
fined except near Rawlings, where the rather steeply dipping Oris- 
kany strata are well shown. Good exposures are almost wholly lack- 
ing, but a study of the areal geology in connection with the topogra- 



150 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

phy leads at once to correct conclusions as to the general synclinal 
nature of the fold. 

THE FORT HILL ANTICLINE. 

The high isolated Oriskany-Helderberg hill extending southward 
from Rawlings for a distance of more than four miles is a rapidly dis- 
appearing remnant of the Fort Hill anticline which extends from 
Rawlings to Keyser, West Virginia. The anticline has been much 
obscured by the corrosive action of the Potomac river and much of it 
now lies on the West Virginia side. Along the western side the 
prevailing dip of the Oriskany strata is from 70° W. to 90° W., 
although south of Monster Rock, in an exposure near the West Vir- 
ginia Central Railroad bridge, an overturned dip of 65° E. may be 
clearly seen. Near Rawlings, where the Oriskany passes beneath 
the surface, the west limb dips 28° W., while a little further south 
the east limb dips 42° E. At Monster Rock the anticline is quite 
narrow and near Rawlings it comes to a point. Midway between the 
two the width is considerablv more than a mile. 

In the projecting area occupied by Monster Rock the east limb of 
the anticline is seen to dip gently to the east for a short distance, but 
before passing beyond the river the strata rise again with a dip to the 
west. The little syncline thus produced is worthy of notice, as it is 
apparently the prolongation of the Rawlings syncline which, passing 
along down the western side of Knobly Mountain in West Virginia, 
re-enters Allegany county near Monster Rock as indicated. 

THE GEORGES CREEK SYNCLINE. 

The Frostburg syncline is defined on the east by the Wills Moun- 
tain and Foot Hill anticlines already described. The western limit 
is west of Savage Mountain beyond the borders of Allegany county, 
hence need not receive further mention here. The full width of this 
syncline, of which only the eastern and central portions li;> in Alle- 
gany county, remains approximately ten miles throughout its entire 
course across the state. This measurement, however, is not to be 
confused with the width of the high valley lying between Savage 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 151 

Mountain and Dans-Little Allegheny Mountain which occupies 
scarcely more than one-half of the svnclinal fold. The axis of the 
syncline has been designated with considerable detail by means of 
the various mining operations in the coal basin. Its general direction 
is X. 28° to 30° E. passing through Franklin, Barton, Moscow and 
Lonaconing. It lies a little to the west of TVesternport and passes 
through the immediate vicinity of Mount Savage. 

Steeply-dipping Silurian and Devonian strata occupy the eastern 
border of the syncline, but gradually growing less steep westward 
from Wills Mountain they disappear one by one beneath the high- 
lying Carboniferous strata of the coal basin. 

In the gap through which Jennings Run flows, where many of the 
strata, particularly those of the Hampshire formation, have an excel- 
lent exposure, the gradually decreasing inclination of the beds may 
be clearly seen. Numerous good exposures further south along 
Braddock Run and still further south in the Potomac gorge also aid 
materially in arriving at correct conclusions concerning the structure 
of this part of the county. 

At the Jennings- Hampshire contact in the Jennings Run gap the 
dip is 68° W. At the Hampshire-Pocono contact the dip has gradu- 
ally decreased to 2S° "W. At the Pocono-Greenbrier contact it is 
17° W., while at the Mauch Chunk-Potts ville contact the dip is only 
13° W. Further west the dip continues to gradually grow less. 

In the Potomac gorge and along Braddock Run the favorable places 
for observation cannot he conciselv described but the measurements 
obtained correspond closely to those made along Jennings Run. 

These measurements were all obtained near the level of the streams 
mentioned, hence following the various formations upward to the posi- 
tions which they occupy in the higher parts of the Alleghany Front 
the dip is found to increase slightly. Opportunities are not good for 
learning definitely how much this increase is, but it is known that 
the Pottsville dips from 10° TV. to 22° TV. where lxst exposed along 
the high crest of Dans-Little Allegheny Mountain. 

Outcrops of strata in Allegany county suitable for accurate meas- 
urement of the dip are rare west of the synclinal axis. Southward 



152 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

from the state line the Allegany-Garrett line gradually approaches 
the position of the synclinal axis, hence the western limb of the syn- 
cline is but poorly represented in Allegany county. It seems, how- 
ever, that the steepness increases somewhat less rapidly west of the 
axis and the prevailing dip of the Pottsville in the northwest corner 
of the county is thought to be not greater than 12° E. to 15° E. 

DIP, STRIKE, ANT) PITCH. 

Certain facts of prime importance in the study of Appalachian 
structure which have abundant illustration in Allegany county and 
which have been brought out to some extent in the description of the 
individual folds demand particular mention. These relate to dip, 
strike, and pitch. It was observed that the three principal anticlines 
in the county, viz., the Tussey Mountain anticline, the Evitts Moun- 
tain anticline and the Wills Mountain anticline all have moderate 
easterly dips. The same is not true, however, of their westerly dips. 
The west limb of the Tussey Mountain anticline, so far as is shown 
in Allegany county, happens to have apparently about the same dip 
as the east limb, but the west limb of the Evitts Mountain anticline 
has a dip more than twice as great as the east limb, while the dip of 
the west limb of the Wills Mountain anticline is almost three times 
as great as the dip of the east limb. A similar condition is observed 
to prevail in connection with many of the less important folds, hence 
we may say that the Allegany county anticlines tend to develop limbs 
sloping gently to the east and steeply to the w T est. Expressed in terms 
of synclines, we may say that the synclines tend to develop steeply- 
sloping limbs on the east side of their axes and gently-sloping limbs 
on the west side. These facts are in accord with observations made 
throughout almost the entire Appalachian region, and it is upon these 
facts that many able geologists have based the theory that the de- 
forming force which produced these folds came from the southeast. 
These facts alone seem inadequate to prove the truth of the theory, 
but that the initial force did really originate in that direction has 
been pretty generally accepted by geologists. 

The strike of the beds, as in most other parts of the Appalachian 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 153 

region, varies within rather narrow limits. The Tusscy Mountain 
anticline and the Evitts Mountain anticline extend approximately X. 
27° E., while the Town Hill syncline, the Collier Run syncline, the 
Wills Mountain anticline, and the Georges Creek syncline all have 
a direction approximately X. 80° E. Observations in many other 
places show that in no case worthy of special note do the beds lie at 
great variance to the general direction given. 

Nearly all of the folds show more or less axial pitch and this pitch 
is downward to the south almost without exception. The exact na- 
ture of this pitch along many of the folds cannot be easily computed, 
but from field observations on the major anticlines it seems that even 
in extreme cases the pitch scarcely reaches five degrees. It is to this 
pitching of the folds that much of the characteristic structure of the 
Appalachian Region is due. The effect of the pitch on the area! 
distribution of the formations is best illustrated in Allegany county 
bv the Evitts Mountain anticline. At the state line on the north the 
axis of this anticline is indicated by the tongue-shaped area of Tus- 
carora quartzite. Southward the Tuscarora narrows and disappears 
beneath the later Clinton formation. The Clinton continuing south- 
ward upon the axis also narrows and disappears beneath the succeed- 
ing Niagara formation. This in like manner is followed in regular 
order by the Salina, the Helderberg and the Oriskany. The pitch in 
the southern part of the county is slight, as is evidenced by the emer- 
gence of the Helderberg again where the Potomac has cut across 
Nicholas Mountain. Similar areal distribution of formations brought 
about by pitching of the folds may be observed in almost every fold 
west of Town Hill. In much of tiie Georges Creek syncline this is 
not quite so apparent, but in the northern part of the county the up- 
ward pitch to the north becomes perceptible, and as a result the coal 
measures all come to the surface within some fifteen miles north of 
the state line. 

FAULTS. 

Faulting is rare and the amount of vertical movement is never great. 
Only the more thinly bedded strata present instances of faulting 



154 TIIE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

worthy of note, and none of the observed faults have more than a 
local extent. 

In the Jennings formation along the Williams Road on the hillside 
near the eastern edge of Cumberland there is a fault whose throw 
seems to be considerable, but no definite idea as to the exact amount 
of displacement could be gained. 

On the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad west of Cedar Cliff, about 
three miles south of Cumberland, a small, clearly faulted anticline 
is seen in the red shaly sandstone bands near the bottom of the Salina 
formation. The throw here is only a few feet. 

Other faults occur, but so far as observed they are of no special 
moment except in the general relation which they bear to the more 
important structural features of the region. 

STRUCTURE SECTIONS. 

On the structure-section sheet (Plate XVI) twelve structure sec- 
tions are given. They represent the strata as they would appear 
along the sides of trenches cut across the county on the section lines 
and extending downward to the position of sea-level. All of the sec- 
tions extend in the direction N*. 60° W., S. 60° E. which is approxi- 
mately perpendicular to the prevailing strike. The relative posi- 
tions of the various section lines have been chosen with especial ref- 
erence to lines along which most favorable conditions for field obser- 
vations were found, combined wherever possible without sacrificing 
accuracy with such positions as best reveal the various structural 
changes. For this reason the distances between the section lines vary. 
Those crossing the eastern and central portions of the county are ap- 
proximately two miles apart, while the distances between those lying 
wholly within the western part of the county average about four 
miles. 

On the structure-section sheet the straight line at the upper edge 
of each blank space represents the section-line along or near which 
the field observations w^ere made; the straight line on which the sec- 
tion rests indicates the position of sea-level; while the undulating line 
at the top represents the surface configuration along the section-line. 



maryland geological survey 155 

Interpretation of the Sedimentary Record. 

general character and variation of sediments. 

The three chief topographic phases of. sedimentation indicated by 
sandstones, shales and limestones are well represented in Allegany 
county. Reviewing briefly that which has been given in detail in 
earlier pages, we find that four formations, the Tuscarora, the Oris- 
kany, the Pocono and the Pottsville, are entirely or largely composed 
of heavy sandstones; that nearly the whole of the Helderberg and 
the Niagara, as well as much of the Salina and the Greenbrier are 
made up of limestones; and that all of the other Paleozoic forma- 
tions consist more or less completely of soft shales and thin-bedded 
limestones and sandstones. 

Marked changes in the character of the formations as they extend 
across the county are observed in only a few instances. The Oris- 
kany and the Jennings thicken considerably toward the west, the 
Greenbrier thickens to the south and the Pocono apparently thickens 
to the north. Lithologically the Pocono on Town Hill differs ma- 
terially from the Pocono in the western part of the county. In the 
east it is very massive and coarsely conglomeritic wherever observed, 
while in the western portion it is much less massive and is free from 
heavy conglomerate. The other formations do not change except in 
minor particulars, and as these changes have been mentioned else- 
where they need not be repeated here. 

THE EARLY PALEOZOIC PERIOD. 1 

In early Cambrian time a long strait extending from the region of 
the? Gulf of St. Lawrence southward to Alabama occupied approxi- 
mately the position now occupied by the greater Appalachian valley. 
It separated a mountainous Archean continent known as Appalachia 
from a comparatively low-lying land area covering the Central States 
region. During Cambrian time erosion greatly reduced the height 

1 For the discussion of this period as well as for much that follows the author has 
drawn liberally from the writings of others, especially of the members of the Appa- 
lachian division of the United States Geological Survey and of the State Geological 
Surveys of Pennsylvania and New York. 



156 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

of the Archean continent and the detritus thus obtained was de- 
posited to the westward while the sea gradually transgressed eastward. 
Near the close of the Cambrian period the western land area began to 
sink and the strait gradually widening westward to Wisconsin and 
beyond the Mississippi formed a great mediterranean sea. Conditions 
were then poorly suited for the transfer of land-derived sediments, and 
a long period of limestone deposition set in. In course of time a dis- 
turbance of conditions took place and the limestone deposition gave 
way to a widespread distribution of shale. The deposition of this 
shale, besides indicating an uplift of the eastern land from which the 
sediments were derived, marks also a recession of the shore line and 
a probable shallowing of the sea. This shale, known in Maryland as 
the Martinsburg formation, was followed by a series of reddish shales 
and sandstones — the Juniata formation in Maryland — the upper part 
of which is exposed in Allegany county. With the history of this 
formation the immediate geological history of Allegany county be- 
gins. As shown on a previous page, the sandstones of the Juniata 
multiply and thicken toward the top and thus indicate a steady ap- 
proach to conditions of shallow water deposition. 

THE TUSCARORA PERIOD. 

With the advent of the Tuscarora period a decided change in the 
factors of decomposition was introduced. The lithologic characters 
of this formation, which have been described on a previous page, 
indicate that the sediments were laid down in shallow water. How r - 
ever, to say that the Tuscarora formation is a product of shallow water 
deposition is only a meagre introduction to the explanation of the 
conditions involved. Dr. A. C. Spencer, in his paper on " The 
Geology of Massanutten Mountain in Virginia," has given a clear 
summary of the probable factors which operate to bring about such 
concentration and deposition of materials, and has discussed these 
factors in the light of sediments in the Massanutten area similar to the 
Tuscarora of Maryland. He says " The concentration of the more 
resistant products of rock-decay for the formation of extensive sand- 
stones is a process of great complexity. During the early part of a 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 157 

topographic cycle when denudation exceeds decomposition, the numer- 
ous rapid streams deliver to the sea large quantities of coarse materials 
of mixed composition which may be partially sorted by the waves 
and somewhat widely distributed by marine currents; but as drainage 
becomes more mature there will be a tendency for stream-derived 
detritus to accumulate at the mouths of large rivers, often without 
much wave-washing. Jn either case the deposits will be more or less 
heterogeneous, and the same will be true of the deposits derived by a 
transgressing sea from a land surface covered by a deep residual 
mantle. Such coarse-grained heterogeneous deposits would be con- 
fined to a rather narrow littoral zone, but brought a second time 
under the action of the waves by a slight elevation of the land, they 
would be re-sorted, the less resistant components would Ik* largely 
ground up and removed as fine silt and the zone of coarse sediments 
would be moved seaward. At the same time the rivers might be 
bringing fresh material, but with continued slow, or intermittent rise 
of the land accompanied by marine planation, these and the older 
surviving materials becoming mingled, the final result would be a 
mass of sand and pebbles composed almost entirely of quartz." l 

The uniform nature of the qnartzite indicates a time of comparative 
quiescence and but one source of material. The period was perhaps 
initiated by a gradual but rapid uplift of the land accompanied by a 
shallowing of the sea which prevailed until the close of the period. 
As to the position of the shore-line at this time with reference to 
Allegany county but little is known except that it was in all proba- 
bility a considerable distance east of the countv. Southward in West 
Virginia and northward in Pennsylvania the formation is consid- 
erably thicker and in each of these areas the deposits are inclined to 
be coarser than in Allegany county, this being particularly true in 
Pennsvlvania. "Whether the lesser thickness of the formation in Alle- 

t 

gany county is due to local or remote causes is not known. A shal- 
lowing of the sea may have deflected the currents or a deepening of 
the sea may have lessened their power, in either of which cases much 
of the sediment would have been deposited elsewhere. 

'Spencer, A. C. The Geology of Massanutten Mountain in Virginia. Washing- 
ton, 1897. 



158 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

THE LATER SILURIAN PERIOD. 

With the advent of the Clinton, conditions very similar to those 
immediately preceding the Tuscarora seem for a time to have pre- 
vailed. The red shales, with alternating sandstones, were again 
introduced, but they are more thinly bedded than those of the Juniata. 
That the Tuscarora represents only temporary invasion of pure 
quartzose materials which interrupted the deposition of red clays and 
sands may be possible. The topographic cycle may have advanced 
sufficiently slowly to allow the waves of marine planation to cut their 
way across the old littoral deposit and to reach again the region of 
uncovered crystalline rocks. If detritus was obtained in this way 
the waves would perhaps be unable to properly sort it but might be 
able to deliver the lighter materials to strong currents and thereby 
bring about the distribution as we find it. Whatever may have been 
the conditions it seems evident that the subsidence soon became suf- 
ficiently great to bring about decidedly new conditions. With the 
deposition of the upper part of the Clinton formation, limestone and 
iron ore were both introduced, the iron being of comparatively little 
importance in the Juniata except as a coloring matter, while the lime- 
stone is wholly absent. 

Concerning the Niagara period, Professor James Hall says that the 
condition of the ocean seems to have been favorable to the production 
of corals and crinoids and to the deposition of calcareous beds of 
magnesian character, the sea being comparatively shallow. 1 In Alle- 
gany county the calcareous beds have been in part replaced by argil- 
laceous sediments apparently indicating occasional changes in marine 
currents at this time. The corals and crinoids were acted upon with 
considerable energy by the waves, as is indicated by the immense 
quantity of broken and worn fragments thrown heterogeneously 
together and cemented by the calcareous mud produced by a more 
complete trituration of some of the materials. 

These finely comminuted deposits, profusely filled with fragments 
of organic remains uniformly deposited over wide areas, show an un- 

1 Twenty-eighth Annual Report of the New York State Museum of Natural History. 
The Fauna of the Niagara Group. Albany, 1879, p. 101. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SUBVEY 159 

disturbed transition upward, and the abundance of carbonate of 
lime coming into the sea and entering into the secretions of the various 
marine organisms indicates the presence of much calcareous material 
easy of access. The Silurian limestone was evidently the source of 
this material, as it had no doubt been raised above the level of the sea 
in various places and thus brought under the influence of aerial 
degradation. 

The lower portions of the Salina add further proof of the shallow 
water conditions. The red sandstone of that formation, with its salt, 
gypsum and fish remains, as found further north, was certainly laid 
down in reasonably shallow water and in all probability in more or 
less land-locked bays. At any rate, although no very great struc- 
tural disturbance appears to have taken place at this time, the condi- 
tions affecting marine life appear to have been very greatly changed. 
In Allegany county no fossils have been found in the red sandstone 
and the presence of salt and gypsum has not been proven, but the 
conditions of deposition are believed to have been much the same as 
further north. Whatever may have been the condition, it is evident 
that when the Helderberg period was initiated the organic life which 
came with it was very unlike that which prevailed during the time 
immediately preceding the shaly sandstone deposition. 1 

THE HELDERBERG PERIOD. 

From the general character of the Helderberg fossils it would 
seem that the depth of the water at this time was perhaps not far 
different from that of much of the later Silurian period, but one thing 
of especial note is the almost entire absence in the Helderberg of 
mechanical detritus, such as sand and clay. Apparently the surface 
configuration of the land was very subdued. Possibly conditions of 
base-level erosion now prevailed such as had existed during Lower 
Silurian time. If such were the case the streams, being weak, would 
be unable to transport the heavier detritus in suspension, but might 
continue to carry much calcareous matter in solution. The adjacent 

1 Clarke, J. M. The Hercynian Question. Forty-second Annual Report of the 
Trustees of the State Museum of Natural History. Albany, 1889, p. 436. 



160 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

seas then being free from muddy sediments but highly charged with 
carbonate of lime would be in favorable condition for the growth of 
animal organisms such as the Helderberg contains, and extensive 
limestone beds would be formed from the detritus produced by them. 

THE ORISKANY PERIOD. 

With the advent of the Oriskany a great change in the character 
of the sediments again took place. As has been stated elsewhere, the 
formation is made up of highly fossilif erous sandstones and conglom- 
erates separated from the Helderberg proper by a transition zone 
of interbedded limestone. We have alreadv seen how the coarse 
quartzitic detritus which contributed the sands of the Tuscarora may 
have been gradually stored up on a pre-Tuscaroran Coastal Plain. 
The events in the concentration of materials to supply the sands and 
pebbles of the Oriskany were perhaps much the same. As in the case 
of the Tuscarora, an upward earth-movement evidently initiated the 
principal factors of final distribution. Simultaneous with this the 

shallowness of the sea became sufficiently accentuated to admit of the 

t. 

currents acting with much energy, thereby enabling them to transport 
heavy materials for considerable distances. 

The supply of carbonate of lime continued throughout the period in 
sufficient abundance to admit of prolific marine life. In many places 
the formation is a mass of shells and casts and the abundant cementing 
material is often so prominently calcareous that a perfectly fresh 
specimen has much the appearance of a true limestone. 

THE DEVONIAN SHALE PERIOD. 

The Roraney, Jennings and Hampshire formations are largely 
composed of fine sediments, and may here be treated together. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Willis, the lowlands of the early Devonian were gen- 
eral from New York to Georgia, continuing low in the southern 
Appalachian area throughout the Devonian, but northward becoming 
considerably elevated, produced mountains probably several thousand 
feet high, the degradation of which supplied the later Devonian 
sediments. 1 Near the close of the Oriskany period the area covered 

» Piedmont Folio, U. 8. Geol. Survey, 1896. 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE XVI. 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 161 

by Allegany county seems to have been elevated and possibly to a 
sufficient extent to allow of some erosion, although this is not proven. 
However, in Virginia and Pennsylvania, local non-eonformities exist 
between the Oriskany and the Romney, and it seems probable that the 
changes in Allegany county were in harmony with the movements 
which brought about the non-conformities to the north and south. 
The lower shales, resting with sharp contrast upon the Oriskany, are 
extremely fine and highly carboniferous. Various hypotheses have 
been given to explain the manner of deposition of these fine sedi- 
ments. It would seem that a gentle subsidence after emergence 
might so affect the currents that, sweeping swiftly over the arenaceous 
beds they might thoroughly wash away any superficial coating which 
may have previously collected there. The land surface was no doubt 
low, and thus for a long time not in a condition to supply coarse 
detritus. H. D. Rogers, in his admirable paper on the origin of the 
Appalachian strata, long ago suggested that these black sediments 
possibly accumulated in a very widely spread sea marsh or marine 
savannah, the carboniferous part of the shales being the result of plant 
growth. 1 

The argillaceous portions evidently came from a low-lying land 
surface. During the removal of the heterogeneous Coastal Plain 
detritus which furnished the materials for much of the Oriskany 
formation, the land surface farther inland was low and unaffected bv 
rapid streams and gradually became covered with a coating of chemi- 
cally disintegrated materials awaiting future transportation. Dis- 
turbances which we know occurred near the close of the Oriskany 
period may have easily brought about conditions favorable for the 
slow removal of this residual mantle. 

A general but perhaps slight depression allowed the deposition of 
the limestone near the bottom of the Romney, following which 
shallow water conditions with only minor interruptions continued 
until after the beginning of the Carboniferous time. 

Rogers, II. D. The Geology of Pennsylvania, vol. ii, p. 791. Philadelphia, 185H. 



11 



162 THE GEOLOGY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

THE LOWER CARBONIFEROUS PERIOD. 

In Allegany county there is little apparent difference between the 
highest Devonian and the lowest Carboniferous sediments except in 
color and coarseness. In each case the sediments are almost wholly 
of quartzose materials and indicate shallow water and mountainous 
land conditions. Cross-bedding, ripple-marks and thin coal seams all 
attest a preparatory step toward the marshy condition of the Coal 
Measures. 

The limestones and shales following the Pocono formation indicate 
a degradation of the Devonian mountains and an almost unvarying 
relation of land and sea. That the land appeared above the surface, 
however, in places not far from the Allegany county area seems 
proven by the bands of limestone-shale breccia at the Greenbrier- 
Mauch Chunk and the Mauch Chunk-Pottsville contacts. 

THE COAL MEASURES PERIOD. 

Following the limestones and shales of the lower Carboniferous 
period massive conglomerates, sandstones, shales, limestones, coals, 
fire-clays, etc., were laid down in rapid but irregular succession. The 
features of this deposition being much the same throughout a large 
part of the Appalachian region, a detailed discussion of the period 
need not be entered upon here. The general conditions which pre- 
vailed may be stated in the following words: " During middle and 
later Carboniferous time there ensued that general vertical movement 
of the eastern land area and the region of the interior sea which 
resulted in the withdrawal of the sea to the Mississippi embayment. 
The movement was not simple; it was composed of many episodes of 
uplift and subsidence, among which uplift preponderated. In the 
repeated oscillations of level the sea swept backward and forth over 
wide areas. It received from the Coastal Plain the coarse quartz 
detritus which had accumulated during previous ages, and the waves 
and currents of the shallow sea spread the concentrated sandstones 
and pebbles in beds which alternated with materials of less ancient 
derivation. The Carboniferous strata include shale and sandy shale, 
derived more or less directly from lands of moderate elevation, and 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 163 

also the coal beds, each of which marks the prolonged existence of a 
marsh in which the peat-making plants grew. When the marsh sank 
beneath the sea the peat beds were buried beneath sands and shales, 
and the peat, by a process of distillation, became coal." * 

SUBSEQUENT HISTORY. 

In the review of the sedimentary record we have seen how eleva- 
tion and subsidence followed each other with varying rapidity while 
the large volume of Paleozoic sediments was being deposited. It 
seems probable that during this time some lateral pressure was also 
exerted upon these sediments, producing incipient anticlines and 
synclines. It was not, however, until near the close of Paleozoic 
time that structural changes of exceptional magnitude were mani- 
fested throughout the entire Appalachian province. The strata 
which had been deposited upon each other in an approximately hori- 
zontal position were then squeezed and folded to an enormous degree, 
the forces being applied laterally in a direction perpendicular to the 
course of the present mountain ranges. How long this compression 
continued is not known. Suffice it to sav that the earliest Mesozoic 
records show a new axis of drainage and that most of the rivers, in- 
stead of flowing to the west as the Paleozoic rivers had done, were 
then flowing to the east. 

That there has been vertical upward movement of importance since 
the close 1 of Paleozoic time is evidenced by the development of well- 
marked physiographic features, such as the Cretaceous and Tertiary 
peneplains and the various river terraces found along the streams of 
the county. 

i Piedmont Folio, l\ S. Geol. Survey, 181MJ. 



THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY 

COUNTY 

BY 

WM. B. CLARK, C. C. OHARRA, R. B. ROWE AND H. RIES 



The economic resources of Allegany county are confined almost 
' wholly to its western portion. The chief product is coal, but the 
output of fire-clay and cement-rock has been, and is now, of much 
importance. Other products, such as iron ore, building-stone, road- 
metal, brick-shales, alluvial clays, etc., have been or may be worked 
to advantage. 

In the middle and eastern parts of the county some of the lime- 
stones are a source of good agriculture lime and of excellent road- 
metal, although at present used only for local purposes. Mineral 
springs also, which have had some notoriety in the past, might pos- 
sibly be made valuable again under favorable conditions. The pre- 
dominating rocks in these portions of the county are shales and 
sandstones which give little* promise of future value as mineral pro- 
ducers, but this dearth of mineral wealth is in part compensated for 
by the fertility of the soil; and the output of farm and forest pro- 
ducts may always be depended upon as a source of revenue. 

In the preceding pages, under the heads of Stratigraphy and Struc- 
ture, much has been slid that needs to be studied in connection 
with this chapter. Certain formations are there shown to contain 
minerals and rocks which are known to be of economic importance, 
and the geological positions of the strata bearing them are carefully 
located, together with their areal distribution. Other formations, 
from the data given, seem to contain no mineral or rock of commer- 
cial value, and judging from work carried on in these formations 



166 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

elsewhere it seems that the information, so far as the economic 
resources of the formations are concerned, is final. Some exceptions 
may occur and mention of such will be made in the following pages. 
The various products will be taken up separately and discussed with 
such detail as their importance may seem to demand. 

Coals. 1 

The coal region of Allegany county is confined to a narrow belt 
near its western boundary. The coal seams occur in the Pottsville, 
Allegheny, Conemaugh and Monongahela formations, the first three 
containing the so-called " small-vein coals " and the last the " big-vein 
coal," which for more than half a century has been the source of the 
finest steam coal of the country. 

) DESCRIPTION OF THE COAL BASIN. 

The Coal Basin of Allegany county lies in a high, hilly, gently 
synclinal valley between the Dans-Little Allegheny Mountain belt 
on the east and Savage Mountain on the west, and extends across the 
county from the Maryland-Pennsylvania line south-southwestward 
to the Potomac river. Its length is approximately twenty miles and 
its average breadth is about five miles. The northern end of the 
district lies wholly in Allegany county, but southward the Allegany- 
Garrett county line gradually encroaches upon the basin until at the 
Potomac river the county line lies less than a mile west of the central 
axis of the syncline. 

The prominent transverse ridge on which Frostburg stands con- 
nects the highest slopes of Dans and Savage mountains, dividing the 
valley into two unequal parts, and thus determines two distinct and 
unequal areas of drainage. The smaller area lying to the north of 
Frostburg is drained by Jennings Run and Braddock Run, while the 
southern portion, which forms about three-fourths of the entire coal 
basin, is drained by Georges Creek. 

1 A much more detailed report on the coal deposits of the state will soon be pub- 
lished by the Maryland Geological Survey. This will contain full discussions of the 
areal distribution, methods of mining and colorimetric properties of the different 
coals. 



MAEYLA.ND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 167 

Jennings Run takes its rise just north of Frostburg and flowing first 
in a general north-northeasterly direction, approximately along the 
synclinal axis, then in an easterly direction, passing through the deep 
gorge in Little Allegheny Mountain, enters Wills Creek about one 
and one-half miles south of the state line. Braddock Run rises east 
of Frostburg, near Eckhart, flows nearly eastward through the Dana- 
Little Allegheny gap and also joins Wills Creek, entering it at the 
west end of the " Narrows." The source of Georges Creek, the 
principal stream of the coal basin, is about two miles northwest of 
Frostburg on the eastern slope of Savage Mountain. Flowing in a 
general south-southeasterly direction, until it reaches the central axis 
of the basin south of Frostburg, it becomes deflected to the south- 
southwest and then follows quite closely the axis of the basin, receiv- 
ing important tributaries from either side, until it enters the Potomac 
at Westernport. 

The various formations of the Coal Measures are generally com- 
posed of easily eroded materials, and consequently have suffered deep 
cutting by the various streams, so that, although the lower beds are but 
slightly affected, the upper beds are now represented only by irregular 
or rounded areas left as remnants on the tops of the higher hills. In 
this way, in addition to the two outcrops of the several coal seams 
along the outer edges of the basin, two outcrops have been produced 
along the gorges cut by the various streams. As the streams descend 
from higher to lower levels these outcrops continually rise higher 
above the stream beds, thus necessitating the use of steep gravity 
planes in the southern part of the basin in order to transfer the coal 
from the mine openings on the hillsides to the railroads in the valley 
below. 

HISTORY OF ITS DEVELOPMENT. 

Coal was discovered by a Mr. Riser near the present site of Frost- 
burg in 1804, and, although various openings were made from time to 
time and a small amount of coal taken out, more than a quarter of a 
century passed by before mining operations of any note were inaugu- 
rated. The first eastern shipment of coal was made in 1830 from the 



168 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

old Xeff mine, now the Eckhart mine of the Consolidation Coal Com- 
pany. The coal was loaded on barges at Cumberland and floated 
down the Potomac river to Washington. Although profitable for 
a time, this mode of conveyance was too destructive of life and prop- 
erty to be long utilized and was soon abandoned. The first ship- 
ments of coal over the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad were made in 
1842, and over the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal from Cumberland in 
1850. Since then shipments have been continuous and the record of 
annual output is complete from 1842 to the present time. 

NAMES USED FOR THE COAL BASIN. 

The names by which the coal basin and the coal seams of Allegany 
county are known are often confusing to the general reader. Owing 
to the fact that Fort Cumberland early gained great notoriety as a 
frontier outpost, and the important and thriving city which now 
occupies its former site became the business center of the upper 
Potomac valley, the Coal Basin, although the coal lay several miles 
to the west of the citv, came to be known as the " Cumberland Coal 
Region." Primarily the term referred to that part of the coal area 
lying around and to the north of Frostburg. Later, as mines were 
opened throughout the whole length of Georges Creek, the term 
" Georges Creek Coal Region " also came into use. In the mean- 
time Frostburg, rapidly growing and favorably situated with refer- 
ence to the entire coal field, gave its name to the region without, 
however, supplanting either of the other two. This name, although 
much used locally, has never gained a firm footing in the trade litera- 
ture of Maryland coal. The coal trade seems to prefer the terms 
Cumberland and Georges Creek, and as a result of this preference the 
combined term Cumberland-Georges Creek District or Basin is now 
gaining precedence in scientific literature. In this way there need 
be no confusion with the coal districts of neighboring areas and the 
coal-trade interests of the Georges Creek valley may be fully pro- 
tected. 

According to the classification given by Mr. Joseph D. Weeks of 
the United States Geological Survey, the Cumberland-Georges Creek 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



169 



District is one of four districts which make up the so-called Potomac 
Coal Basin. 1 The other three are the Wellersburg District of Penn- 
sylvania, the Elk Garden District of West Virginia and the Upper 
Potomac District of West Virginia, the latter two districts including 
also that part of the coal area of Garrett county which lies along the 
Potomac river. 



Formations. 

Monongahela 

250 fee 



■' ■'■'■ .'.'■fi g 






Conemaugh 

000 to &>5 feet 



Allegheny 

275 to 300 feet 



Pottsville 

450 to 500 tof 



1 \ . ' *, v.- IV ' 



■ . - . . I J- • .• 




# 






THE COAL VEINS. 



Coal Veins. 

Koontz coal [ Wayncsburg] 

Shales and limestone 

Tmon {"Gas ") coal [Scwicklcy] 

Shale 

Elkgarden {"Fourteen- foot " or 

"Big-cein") coal [Pittsburg] 

Sandstone and shales 

Franklin entity Xinc-foot") 
coal [Little Clarksburg] 

Shales and Sandstone 

Barton ("Four-foot") coal [Bakerstown] 

Sandstones and shales 

Thomas ("Three- foot") coal [Upper Freeport] 

Sandstones and shales 

Davis ("Six-foot") coal [Lower Kittannina] 

Shales and sandstones 

Parker coal [Cla'ion] 

Bluettaugh coal [lintokvillt] 
Western port ("Two- foot") eoal 

Sandstone 

BUtomington ["Bailroad") coal 

Shale 



r ; i : \ 1 ••• : '. 



Gray sandstone and conglomerates 



Fig. 5.— Section showing position of leading coal veins. 

The coal veins of Allegany county are found in the Monongahela, 
Conemaugh, Allegheny and Pottsville formations. Their character 
and position will be discussed in the following pages. The relations 
of the leading seams are shown in the above figure. 



1 Weeks, Jos. D. The Potomac and Roaring Creek Coal Fields in West Virginia. 
U. 8. (;. S. Ann. Kept., 1 WhM*:',, pt. II, pp. 567-.V.J0. 



170 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

THE POTTSVILLE COALS. 

The Pottsville veins are much less important commercially in 
Maryland than in Virginia, where they are represented by the impor- 
tant New River and Pocahontas coals. In Maryland only two veins 
have been exploited hitherto, and both of them, so far as known, are 
of small areal extent and thickness. The two veins are known respec- 
tively as the Bloomington (Railroad) coal and the Westernport (Two- 
foot) coal. 

The Bloomington {Railroad) Coal. — The Bloomington coal, so 
named from the fact that it is well developed along the line of the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to the west of Bloomington, covers a 
considerable area in southwestern Allegany county and adjacent por- 
tions of Garrett county. It has been commonly known under the 
name of the " Railroad Seam." Numerous attempts have been made 
to work this coal but with indifferent success, on account of the vari- 
able thickness and quality of the coal. The vein varies from one foot 
or less to nearlv three feet in thickness, and this occurs within 
short distances. The coal is often very impure, bands of slate occur- 
ring in it. The following section near Piedmont represents the 
general character of the seam in the Potomac valley in the south- 
western portion of the county, where it is best developed: — 

Feet. Inches. 

Sandstone x 

Coal 3 

8hale 5 

Coal 2 10 

Shale 2 

Coal 1 

Black shale 1 

The Railroad seam occurs about 125 feet below the top of the 
Pottsville formation and about 170 feet above the Mauch Chunk 
shales. 

The Westernport (Two-foot) Coal. — The Westernport coal, so-called 
from its occurrence in the vicinity of Westernport, is only worked 
at the present time at a single locality on the east side of the lower 
Georges Creek valley. This vein, which has been referred to at 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 171 

times as the " Two-foot vein/' is limited so far as known to the south- 
ern portion of the Georges Creek basin. This coal is somewhat 
variable in thickness, like the Bloomington vein, but is usually about 
2 feet 10 inches to 3 feet in thickness, and generally contains more or 
less slate interstratified with the coal. The lower bench carries more 
or less sulphur at times. The following section shows the thickness 
and character of the coal at the opening to the northeast of 
Westernport: 

Feet. Inches. 

Sandstone x 

Coal 1 8 J 

Slate 1 

Coal 1 3 

Fire-Clay x 

The Westernport coal is found at 20 feet below the top of the 
Pottsville formation and about 115 feet above the Bloomington coal. 

Other Coals. — At each of the three fire-clay mines near the Alle- 
gany line in the northern part of the coal basin a coal seam of some 
importance is found usually immediately above the fire-clay bed, the 
exact equivalency of which cannot be determined. Its thickness 
averages about two feet, but sometimes increases to four feet. It is 
about seventy-five feet below the top of the Pottsville formation. 1 
This coal is mined at the Mount Savage and the Savage Mountain 
mines and has been used to some extent in burning the fire-brick. 

THE ALLEGHENY COALS. 

The Allegheny coals are among the most important of the small- 
vein coals in Maryland and are also worked extensively in the adja- 
cent states of Pennsylvania and West Virginia, affording the impor- 
tant Somerset countv coals of the former and several of the chief 

t/ 

mines of the Davis Coal and Coke Company in the latter as well as 
many others further west. 

The Allegheny coals, together with the Conemaugh coals above, 
undoubtedly have a great future in Maryland in the days to come 
when the Big Vein coal becomes more nearly exhausted. The areal 

'See Gladden's Run Section. Bull. 65, U. S. G. S., p. 180. 



172 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

extent of these small veins is so much greater than that of the more 
important Big Vein that the volume of small-vein coal in the state 
far exceeds that contained in the Big Vein, although its removal has 
proved to be much more difficult and expensive. 

The Bluebaugh Coal. — The Bluebaugh coal, designated by this 
name locally, is confined, so far as known, to the northeastern rim of 
the Georges Creek basin, where it outcrops along the margin of the 
field from near Dans Rock northward. This coal lies at or near the 
base of the Allegheny formation and is very variable in thickness, 
changing rapidly within short distances. It generally contains bands 
of slate and some bone-coal. A mine opening at Warrior Run to 
the north of Dans Rock shows the following section: 

Feet. Inches. 

Sandstone and shale x 

Coal 1 

Slate 1 4 

Coal 3 4 

Slate 1 

Coal 1 1 

Shale x 

The vein is found but a few feet above the top of the Pottsville 
conglomerate. The Bluebaugh coal occupies a position very near 
that of the Brookville coal in Pennsylvania and it has been thought 
to be the approximate equivalent of that vein. 

The Parker Coal. — The Parker coal so-called locally, is confined 
to approximately the same area as the Bluebaugh coal, and like that 
coal is variable in thickness. It varies from a few inches to very 
nearly 5 feet, but like most of the other small-vein coals, generally 
carries considerable slate, which greatly interferes with economy in 
mining. The Parker vein has been worked to some extent in the 
vicinity of Barrellville where it affords the following section: 

Feet. Inches. 

Slate and bone coal x 

Coal 8 

Shaly sandstone tt 

Coal 2 

Sandy shale x 

This vein thickens somewhat to the southward toward Warrior 
Run, where it has been estimated that a thickness of nearly 5 feet is- 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 173 

reached. The Parker coal is situated about 30 feet above the Blue i 
baugh coal. Its position indicates that it must be the approximate 
equivalent of the Clarion coal of Pennsylvania. 

The Davis (Six-foot) Coal. — The Davis coal, so named by the 
geologists of the U. S. Geological Survey on account of its extensive 
development at and near Davis, West Virginia, is one of the most 
important of the small-vein coals. It is commonly known in Alle- 
gany county as the Six-foot coal. 

Starting at an elevation of about two hundred feet above the bed 
of the Potomac river near Westernport, the outcrops going northward 
gradually approach the level of Georges Creek until at a point a few 
rods north of Franklin they pass beneath its surface. The identity 
of the Six-foot coal is apparently better preserved throughout the 
basin than that of the Barton or the Thomas coals, and in addition 
to the openings at the mines now worked near Westernport this seam 
has been exploited in various places along the eastern slope of Savage 
Mountain and on the western slope of Dans and Little Allegheny 
mountains. Near Westernport, where the seam approaches six feet 
in thickness, the coal has been mined for a number of years, and 
although seldom put upon the market as a competitor of the Big Vein 
coal, it has nevertheless supplied a considerable part of the demand 
in Westernport and Piedmont, and is now finding a wider market. 

Throughout the lower Georges Creek valley the Davis coal reaches 
a greater thickness, and is more important than any other coal except 
the Big Vein. This coal always contains partings of either shale 
or sandstone, while bone-coal is not infrequent. There is at times 
considerable sulphur in the lower bench. At some points in the 
lower Georges Creek valley the Davis vein is quite clean and, in 
general, seems to improve in quality southward. The following 
section is typical of the lower Georges Creek basin: 

Feet. I nches. 

Shale overlain by sandstone x 

Bone coal 

Top coal 10 

Bone coal *> 

Coal 1 u 

Slate * 

Coal 2 2 

Shale x 



174 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

The Davis vein in Allegany county generally has a roof composed 
of shale, overlain by heavy sandstone. The Davis coal is situated 
about 125-150 feet above the base of the Allegheny formation. This 
vein is generally regarded as the approximate equivalent of the lower 
Kittanning coal of Pennsylvania. 

The Thomas (Three-foot) Coal — The Thomas coal, so-called by the 
geologists of the U. S. Geological Survey on account of its occurrence 
at Thomas, West Virginia, covers an extensive area in the Georges 
Creek basin, outcropping around the higher margins of the syncline, 
and also cut through by the Georges Creek itself in its lower course. 
This seam is commonly known in the region as the " Three-foot " 
vein (by some erroneously called " Four-foot " vein), although it sel- 
dom contains workable coal of that thickness. The vein varies in 
thickness from 2 feet 6 inches to 3 feet 2 inches. It thickens to the 
southward and at Thomas has nearly twice the thickness reached in 
the Georges Creek valley. This coal is quite clean and has been 
successfully opened to the north of Westernport. The following sec- 
tion of the " Three-foot " vein represents its thickness and character 
throughout the lower Georges Creek area: 

Feet. Inches. 

Shale x 

Bony coal 3-5 

Bone 7 

Coal 2 10 

Fire-clay x 

The Thomas vein has a very characteristic shale roof and a fire-clay 
floor. It is situated directly at the top of the Allegheny formation, 
and about 155 feet above the Davis coal before described. The coal 
is generally regarded as the approximate equivalent of the upper 
Freeport coal of Pennsylvania. 

Other Coals. — Several other coal veins are found in the Allegheny 
formation, but none of them have been successfully exploited, and 
under present conditions cannot be regarded as having much com- 
mercial value. The most important is the so-called " Split Six-foot 
Vein," which in the lower Georges Creek Valley has been found 
to contain locally nearly four feet of workable coal. Partings of slate 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 175 

and bone seriously interfere with the value of the vein. It is situ- 
ated about 25 to 35 feet below the Davis coal. 

THE CONEMAUGH COALS. 

The Conemaugh coals are of less importance than the Allegheny 
coals, although affording one vein that has already been successfully 
exploited in the Georges Creek basin and in adjacent areas. This 
coal, the Barton (Four-foot) coal, may be regarded as possessing 
much future commercial value. 

The Barton {Four-foot) Coal. — The Barton coal, so-called from its 
occurrence in the vicinity of Barton, covers a considerable area in the 

t, 7 

Georges Creek region. This vein is locally called the "Four-foot" 
vein, although, by an unfortunate interchange of names, it ha3 at 
times been erroneously referred to bv some as the " Three-foot " vein. 
The Barton coal varies in thickness from 2 feet inches to 2 feet 11 
inches, its thickness, therefore, being considerably less than its name 
indicates. Its principal features appear fairly persistent throughout 
the southern part of the basin, where it has been most examined. Like 
all of the coal-beds situated below the Big Vein, its position in the 
north-central part of the district is so far beneath the surface that it 
may be considered of little immediate value, even though the purity 
and thickness should prove wholly satisfactory. Southward, how- 
ever, it gradually approaches the surface and emerges above the bed 
of Georges Creek fifty yards north of the long railroad bridge one- 
half mile north of the village of Moscow. At this point, where a 
small amount of coal has been taken out by private individuals for 
home use, the thickness is 2 feet 8 inches. One-half mile east of 
Barton on the Potomac tramroad, where this seam has been opened, 
the workable coal is 2 feet G inches thick. 

Southward from its point of emergence above Georges Creek the 
coal outcrops along the hillsides, and, continually rising higher above 
the creek level, can be easily traced by means of the manv excavations 
made in it. 

The Barton coal is generally quite clean at the points where it 
has been opened in the central and lower portions of the Georges 



176 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Creek valley. The following section of the Barton coal is character- 
istic of the lower Georges Creek area: 

Feet. Inches. 

Black jack, bone and slate x 

Coal 2 4 

Bone coal x 

The Barton coal is situated about 250 feet above the Thomas coal 
and is commonly about 425 feet below the Big Vein. It is prob- 
ably the equivalent of the Bakerstown coal of adjacent states, 
although this equivalency cannot be very satisfactorily shown. 

The Franklin (Dirty Nine-foot) Coal. — The Franklin coal, so- 
called from Franklin in the lower Georges Creek valley, where a 
good section of the vein is exposed in the old Franklin Plane, is 
locally called the " Dirty Nine-foot " vein. This coal had never been 
worked to any great extent, and has little commercial value. It is, 
as its popular name signifies, very dirty, and at many points entirely 
unworkable. With its contained slates it varies in thickness from 5 
feet 10 inches to 10 feet 4 inches. It is somewhat thicker at Franklin 
than in the portions of the Georges Creek valley to the north and 
south of it. The following section near the Franklin Plane shows 
the general character of the coal : 

Feet. Inches. 

Sandstone x 

Shale 1 6 

Shale with thin coal vein 8 

Coal 2 8 

Slate and coal x 

The Franklin coal is the approximate equivalent of the Little 
Clarksburg Vein of West Virginia. 

Other Coals. — There are a number of other small veins found in 
the Conemaugh formation, but they have little commercial value, 
either on account of the extreme thinness of the coal vein itself or the 
numerous slates which are interstratified with the coal. It is hardly 
probable that they can ever be worked with profit. 

THE MONONGAHELA COALS. 

The Monongahela coals, although of much less areal extent than 
those which have hitherto been described, are by far the most impor- 
tant in Allegany county, since they contain the wonderful Fourteen- 
foot or Big Vein. The smaller Monongahela coals are much less 



MARYLAND GEOL08ICAL SURVEY. 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE X 



I 





FlG. li.-MINING PLANT AT OCEAN. NO. 1. 



COAL MINING IN ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 177 

important than several of the small veins occurring in the Allegheny 
and Conemaugh formations and their operation hitherto has not been 
attended with any great success. The three more important veins 
found in the Monongahela formation are the Elkgarden (Fourteen- 
foot or Big Vein) coal, the Tyson (Gas) coal, and the Koontz 
(Waynesburg) coal. 

The Elkgarden (Fourteen-foot or Big Vein) Coal — The Elkgarden 
coal, so named by the geologists of the U. S. Geological Survey from 
Elkgarden, West Virginia, where this seam is well represented, is 
generally referred to in Maryland as the Fourteen-foot or Big Vein 
coal and is much more extensively developed in the Georges Greek 
Basin than in West Virginia. The Big Vein originally covered an 
extensive area in the Georges Creek Basin, but in the more than a 
half of a century that this coal has been actively mined large 
tracts have become entirely exhausted. It occurs at present in 
largest volume in the central and northern portions of the field, in the 
vicinity of Frostburg. This Big Vein varies in thickness from 5 or 
7 feet up to more than 20 feet, the latter thickness having, more- 
over, been exceeded at one or two isolated points where pockets of 
unusual thickness have been reached. Its usual thickness is from 10 
to 12 feet and, in general, it has been found to thicken southward. 
The coal is very clean and of the highest quality, affording a low per- 
centage of both ash and sulphur. It is in most respects the finest 
steam-coal known, and is extensively used where the highest grade 
coals are demanded. The following section made just below Lona- 
coning, is representative of the Big Vein coal in that part of the 
Georges Creek Basin: 

Feet. Inches. 

Slate x 

Wild coal 1 

Fire-clay 1 

Roof coal ~ 

Bony coal N 

Breast coal s 

Slate 1 

Coal 4 in. | 

Slate 1 ! 

Coal 1 ft. V Bottom coal . . 'J SA 

Slate f; j 

Coal 10 J 

12 



178 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

The Elkgarden coal occurs at the base of the Monongahela forma- 
tion, and is probably the equivalent of the Pittsburg Vein of Penn- 
sylvania and TVest Virginia, although on account of the structural 
conditions under which it is found it differs materially from the latter 
in its physical and chemical properties. 

Thin persistent bands of slate or dry partings subdivide the Big 
Vein coal into three definite members, each of which possesses spe- 
cial characteristics. These beds are known as Roof coal, Breast coal 
and Bottom coal. 

The Roof coal includes several more or less important layers of coal 
of varying purity and thickness separated by thin beds of shale. 
Except in the northern part of the basin these roof coals are not 
removed in mining, since they are of particular importance as a sup- 
port for the overlying strata. 

The Breast coal is the thickest and the most valuable member of 
the Big Vein coal. North of Frostburg it seems to retain its purity 
through a thickness of scarcely more than two feet, while south of 
Lonaconing it is sometimes more than seven feet thick and without 
impurities. Xear the top there is a two to eight-inch layer of bony 
coal, but this is rarely sufficiently impure to necessitate its rejection. 
Near the bottom there is a four to six-inch band of soft " mining 
ply " which is jet black, has a brilliant luster, and shows a strong 
tendency to break into small cubical blocks. 

The Bottom coal is from two and one-half to three feet thick and 
generally contains two thin slate bands. Other impurities are some- 
times present but they are seldom of a very serious nature. On 
account of the slate bands the Bottom coal for many years was not 
mined, but under an improved system of mining these thin slates are 
now easily removed and the coal readily taken up. 

On the whole the slates thin perceptibly from north to south and 
the coal members 'thicken greatly in that direction, the total thick- 
ness of workable coal in the vicinity of Franklin being in some places 
considerablv more than fourteen feet. 

The structure of the coal is chiefly columnar though sometimes 
shaly. The columnar portions generally have a deep, shining jet 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 179 

appearance, the shaly portions a dull black. The cohesion is weak, a 
slight blow causing fracture. 

The coal is semi-bituminous and contains on an average about nine- 
teen per cent, volatile carbon, seventy-four per cent, fixed carbon, 
less than six per cent, ash and less than one per cent, sulphur. 

The Big-Vein coal is mined by all of the leading coal companies, 
among them The Consolidation Coal Co., The Georges Creek Coal 
and Iron Co., The Black, Sheridan, Wilson Co., The American Coal 
Co., the Maryland Coal Co., the New Central Coal Co. and the Davis 
Coal and Coke Co. 

The Tyson (Gas) Coal. — The Tyson coal, often referred to locally 
as the hi Gas " coal, is found widely in the Georges Creek Basin. 
Attempts have been made from time to time to work this coal, but 
the results have not been very satisfactory. The vein varies from 4 
feet 7 inches to 7 feet 3 inches in thickness. The coal is moderately 
clean, but in other respects is inferior to the Big Vein coal in quality. 
Like the Big Vein, the Tyson coal is separated by thin slates into 
three members, the top coal being generally more than twelve inches 
thick, the middle coal from three to four feet and the bottom from 
one to two and one-half feet. Near Franklin the thickness of good 
workable coal is seven feet, but in the vicinity of Lonaconing it is 
scarcely four feet. The following section represents the general 
character of the Tyson seam in the Georges Creek region. 

Feet. Inches. 

Shale x 

Coal with thin slates 2 

Shale and fire-clay x 

The Tyson seam occurs at about 120 feet above the top of the Big 
Vein. It is probably the equivalent of the Sewickley coal of Penn- 
sylvania. 

The Koontz Coal. — The Koontz coal, so-called from its occurrence 
in the vicinity of Koontz near the head of Koontz Run, has been pros- 
pected with some success, but the coal has not been worked to any 
great extent up to the present time. The areal extent of the Koontz 
is very small, occupying the higher lands of the Georges Creek Basin. 



180 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

The vein varies from 5 feet 9 inches to 7 feet 9 inches. The coal is 
moderately clean, but like the Tyson vein, is inferior to the Big 
Vein. Near the Koontz mine, where this seam has been perhaps 
the most extensively worked, great trouble was occasioned by numer- 
ous fissures, on account of which the mining of it was finally aban- 
doned. The main drift entered this seam a distance of 1164 feet, 
during the course of which twenty-one fissures were found, one of 
the fissures being more than twelve feet in thickness. The following 
section represents the general character of the seam in its typical 
locality. 

Feet. Inches. 

Coal 2 3 

Bone 4 

Coal 6 

Bone 7 

Coal 1 3 

81ate 10 

Coal 5 

Shale x 

The Koontz seam caps the Monongahela formation and is found 
at an elevation of about 110-130 feet above the Tyson vein and about 
230-250 feet above the top of the Big Vein. The Koontz coal is the 
probable equivalent of the Waynesburg coal of Pennsylvania. 

Other Coals. — Several other small veins are found in the Monon- 
gahela formation, one on the west side of the valley being found at 
29 feet above the Big Vein and containing about 4£ feet of coal. 
This coal has been hardly more than prospected for as yet, and it is 
doubtful if it has any commercial importance. It is the approximate 
equivalent of the Redstone coal of Pennsylvania. 

Clays. 

The clay resources of Allegany county include fire-clays, residual 
clays, sedimentary clays and shales. They represent an inexhaust- 
ible supply of material capable of being used in the manufacture of 
different grades of clay products. While the value of the fire-clays 
has been known since an early date, the other clay materials remain 
practically untouched. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 181 

FIRE-CLAYS. 

All of the beds of fire-clay thus far discovered in the county lie 
in the Pottsville formation, their position being under the Homewood 
sandstone. Extending across the western border of the county in a 
N.E.-S.W. direction is the great synclinal trough of the Georges Creek 
coal basin, and it is near the rim of this that the fire-clay beds outcrop 
and are mined. These fire-clays were first discovered in 1837 at 
Mt. Savage, and employed for lining two blast-furnaces then in use 
at that locality by the Maryland and New York Coal and Iron Com- 
pany. 

In 1841 a fire-brick plant was opened at Mt. Savage, which has 
been in operation ever since, so that now bricks made from Mt. Savage 
fire-clay bear a national reputation. 

The fire-clay beds have been opened up at three different mines, 
viz., on Savage Mountain, 2$ miles northwest of Frostburg, on the 
same mountain 2£ miles west of Mt. Savage, and on Little Alle- 
gheny Mountain 2 miles west of Ellerslie. At these three points the 
clay occurs in a bed from 8-14 feet thick, and is commonly overlain 
by a thin bed of coal. Two types of fire-clay are found, viz., the 
soft or plastic clay and the hard or flint clay. Both possess the im- 
portant quality of refractoriness, and they may even agree closely 
in composition, but they differ widely in plasticity. The soft clay is 
highly plastic, while the hard clay, even after being ground, is devoid 
of this character. They therefore serve two different purposes: the 
one acts as a bond, the other decreases the shrinkage; and they are 
consequently mixed in suitable proportions, care being taken to use 
as much of the hard as possible. 

No fixed method of occurrence of the two clays exists, for in one 
mine the soft may be on top, while in another the hard clay forms the 
upper members. 

In mining the custom is to run in a drift from the face of the slope 
until the bed of clay is met and then follow it with gangways in dif- 
ferent directions. In these gangways tracks are laid for the cars. 
Owing to the looseness of the roof, much timbering has to be em- 
ployed. 



182 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

The prevailing method of manufacture is to charge the hard and 
soft clay into a wet pan, adding the necessary amount of water. This 
results in grinding up the clays and tempering or. mixing them at the 
same time. One exception to this is the Ellerslie works, where the 
clay receives a preliminary grinding in a dry pan. 

The tempering in the wet pan takes but a few minutes, and one 
pan can in 5 or 6 hours temper enough clay for eight or ten thousand 
brick. 

The tempered mixture is carried to the molding tables and pressed 
by hand in wooden molds, after which the soft bricks are spread out 
on brick-drying floors heated by flues underneath. After remaining 
several hours on this floor, the bricks are put into a repressing 
machine, which not only makes the bricks denser but gives them a 
more regular shape. They are then burned in kilns, of which sev- 
eral different types of either up or down-draft pattern are used in the 
Allegany county works. A noteworthy feature of the Union Mining 
Company's plant at Mt. Savage is the use of two continuous kilns, 
which arc heated by means of producer gas, generated in producers 
run on a track alongside the kiln. The use of these producers causes 
economy of fuel and, furthermore, with the continuous kiln system 
the waste heat is used for heating up the chambers not yet burned. 
The burning occupies 5-6 days, and the cooling several days more. 

The Mt. Savage Enameled Brick Company is engaged in the manu- 
facture of enameled brick, the raw materials used being a mixture of 
hard and soft fire-clay. The bricks made are mostly white, although 
other colors are used. Recently the company has undertaken the 
manufacture of fancy shapes. Among the buildings in which large 
quantities of these bricks are used are the Buffalo Post Office; Back 
Bay Station, Boston; Union Depot, Boston; etc. 

SHALES. 

The Carboniferous and Devonian rocks of Allegany county con- 
tain a vast series of shales, as can be seen from an inspection of the 
geological map and sections accompanying this report. 

Shale is simply clay which has been consolidated by pressure, and, 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 183 

consequently, when ground and mixed with water, it usually develops 
the same degree and kind of plasticity that soft clay shows. It is 
often found especially adapted to the manufacture of vitrified goods, 
for its extreme fineness of grain and homogeneity permit it to soften 
evenly and thoroughly l>y the action of heat. Allegany county pos- 
sesses a large supply of this material, distributed not only in the east- 
ern but also in the western half of the countv. The former are of 
Devonian and the latter of Carboniferous age. 

The Carboniferous shales are at times closelv associated with the 
coal-seams, while at others thev are several feet distant from them. 
It is a common custom among coal miners to speak of shale under- 
lying coal as fire-clay; and while this often holds true in some regions, 
it must not be taken as a universal fact. 

Along the Georges Creek valley there are numerous outcropping 
beds of shale, some of them favorably located for working. Among 
them may be mentioned outcrops on the hillside opposite Gannon's 
plane between Franklin and Piedmont, West Virginia; on the east 
side of Georges Creek at Barton; also in Gannon's new tunnel oppo- 
site Franklin School House, and again beyond the pumping shaft. 

On the western side of Savage Mountain the Mauch Chunk shale 
is well exposed, and in places affords very plastic outcrops. Its mix- 
ture with the neighboring fire-clays might yield interesting results. 
These shales are usually fine-grained, moderately hard and would 
probably grind up to plastic mixtures without much trouble. 

The Devonian shales form a series of beds of great thickness in 
Allegany county, and are well exposed in places, especially east of 
Cumberland. 

While they also occur at the southern end of the county, still they 
are usually hidden by a heavy covering of talus. At Keyser, West 
Virginia, the Romney shales are exposed along the railroad tracks 
on the north side of the creek. 

Passing east from Cumberland, one traverses a series of outcrops 
of Jennings, Portage, Genesee, Hamilton and Marcellus shales. The 
upper portions could be well utilized in the manufacture of clay pro- 
ducts, and even the lower parts may find similar use. 



184 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

At South Cumberland, at a point near the crossing of Evitts Creek 
by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the upper shales of the Jennings 
(Portage) are yielding excellent results in the manufacture of a brick 
of high density and fine red color. The shales employed here, 
although in part appearing extremely hard, slake down to a plastic 
clay. The South Cumberland Brick Works have five kilns in opera- 
tion here. 

At Potomac Station the Clinton and Salina shales are well ex- 
posed, the former on the hill above the cement works and the latter on 
the slope to the south and adjoining the quarries. The Salina, owing 
to its siliceous character, is not worth considering, but the Clinton, 
if not too calcareous, might be useful. 

The Juniata (Medina) shales are exposed along the northern side 
of the " Narrows " just west of Cumberland, but they are so inter- 
bedded with sandstone as to render their working impracticable. 

Aside from their use in the manufacture of clay products, such as 
brick, terra cotta, etc., there is still another direction in which the 
shales might be employed, and that is for the manufacture of Port- 
land cement. 

The shales at Keyser, West Virginia, have Helderberg limestone 
near by, the Carboniferous shales in Georges Creek valley are not far 
from Carboniferous limestone, and the same conditions apply to the 
shales around Cumberland. 

SEDIMENTARY CLAYS. 

Sedimentary clays are mostly found in the broader valleys. They 
underlie the flats at Cumberland, Potomac, etc. They are commonly 
siliceous, and while well adapted to the manufacture of common brick 
or even flower pots, their use ends there. 

RESIDUAL CLAYS. 

Residual clays, derived from the Helderberg limestone, occur in 
the northern central portion of the county on the Maryland side of 
the Potomac river. At Bier and at Keyser it is used exclusively for 
the manufacture of brick. At Cumberland both brick and pottery 
are made. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 185* 

In the north-central part of the county the residual clays resulting 
from the decomposition of the Helderberg and Silurian limestone* 
are available in abundance but have been little used. 

In addition to the soft clays the argillaceous shales of the Romney 
and Jennings formations would no doubt afford an inexhaustible 
supply of good clay if for any reason it should seem desirable to work 
them. 

Lime and Cement Products. 

Lime and hydraulic cement are extensive products of Allegany 
county. That part of the Salina formation commonly known as the 
" Waterlime Group " which is so much utilized in the northern Appa- 
lachian region for the manufacture of hydraulic cement, is worked at 
Cumberland and at Potomac. Operations have been important and 
almost continuous at Cumberland since 1836, at which time the 
cement from the Salina beds was first used in Maryland. "Work at 
Potomac was begun in 1891, since which time the cement rock there 
has been mined extensively. 

Thp cement mine at Cumberland, which is under the management 
of the Cumberland Hydraulic Cement and Manufacturing Company,, 
is situated on the south side of Wills Creek, where the cement beds 
are folded and well exposed, allowing convenient access to the rock 
along the strike. At Potomac, where the rock is mined by the Cum- 
berland and Potomac Cement Company, the strata stand upright and 
are even better exposed than at Cumberland. 

The cement rock proper occurs, as earlier shown, in beds of vary- 
ing thickness separated by impure calcareous shales. Only four of 
these beds have sufficient thickness and purity to be economically 
worked. These all lie within the " cement series " of the Salina 
formation, and vary in thickness from six to seventeen feet. 

The first or lowest cement rock is of but little value when worked 
alone, but when mixed with material from the other beds can be used 
to advantage. The second is worked most extensively and yields the 
finest quality of cement. The third is not so good as the second, but 
can be profitably used by mixing with it. The fourth is also not so- 
good as the second, but is better than either of the others. 



186 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

In general, the rock varies from a dark bluish gray to a dull black; 
is quite shaly, frequently showing thin limestones, breaks readily and 
usually contains few or no fossils. The chemical composition of the 
rock at Cumberland has been found to be as follows: 

Carbonate of lime 41.80 

Carbonate of magnesia 8.60 

Silica 24.74 

Alumina 16.74 

Oxide of iron 6.30 

Aside from the exposures at Cumberland and Potomac, the cement 
beds are not well shown in Allegany county, although with a little 
effort they might be reached in other localities. In the north-central 
part of the county the beds are doubtless developed as fully as further 
west, but they are not well exposed and lack of transportation facili- 
ties necessarily prevents their development. 

The Helderberg formation supplies nearly all of the lime made in 
the county. The limestone is extensively burned at several places 
in the immediate vicinity of Cumberland, and in addition to sup- 
plying the local demand for building purposes, considerable shipments 
are made. A kiln at a small quarry north of Cresap near the Georges 
Creek and Cumberland Kailroad supplies a part of the Frostburg 
demand. In a few places west and southwest of Flintstone small 
kilns have been constructed, but the burning of the lime has been 
carried on at very irregular intervals and then only for local use, 
chiefly for fertilizing purposes. 

In addition to the Helderberg limestone, the Coal Measures lime- 
stones have been burned to some extent for agricultural and building 
purposes and have also been used for fluxing iron ores. For the latter 
purpose one of the higher limestones of the Dunkard formation, quar- 
ried about two miles southeast of Frostburg, was used extensively 
during the time of the development of the Carboniferous iron ores in 
the Cumberland-Georges Creek region. The heavy limestone of the 
Conemaugh exposed on the Potomac gravity-plane was quarried for 
a time, but that has been abandoned. Other limestones of the Coal 
Measures have been burned occasionally in a small way, but at present 
they are rarely used. 



i 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 187 

The Greenbrier limestone would no doubt make lime of excellent 
quality, but it has apparently never been tested in Allegany county. 
The outcrops, however, are usually not good, and even on Stony Run, 
where the formation is best exposed, many of the purest beds are not 
accessible. 

Likewise the Niagara and the Romney limestones are rarely well 
exposed, and the far greater ease of access to the excellent Helderberg 
limestone will perhaps always prevent their use. 

Building Stone. 

Building stone in almost unlimited quantity is found in the Tils- 
carora, Oriskany, Pottsville and Conemaugh formations. The heavy 
Carboniferous sandstones and conglomerates of the Pottsville and 
the Conemaugh have been used considerably for heavy bridge ma- 
terial on the various railroads in the county and for general founda- 
tion work in the coal basin. For all of these purposes this material 
has proved to be satisfactory, but no building of importance has 
been constructed entirely of it, the highly iron-stained condition of 
this stone precluding its use for such purposes. 

The Oriskany formation has in the past furnished the material 
used in the construction of many good buildings in Cumberland, the 
most prominent being the Protestant Episcopal Church, the stone 
for which was quarried from a hillside near the center of the city. 
When fresh, this stone varies in color from a pure white to a bluish- 
gray, but w r ith slight exposure it changes to a light brown or buff. 
It is made up of medium fine to coarse slightly angular fragments held 
together usually by a calcareous cement. Owing to its rapid dis- 
coloration and to the marked disintegration around the numerous 
fossils which this stone contains, its use in the construction of impor- 
tant buildings is much less extensive than in former years. Its con- 
venience, however, to Cumberland and the ease with which it is quar- 
ried give to this stone a permanent local value. 

The Tuscarora quartzite, until comparatively recently, has been 
little used. It is less heavilv bedded than the Oriskanv and much 
harder to dress, but owing to its almost snowy whiteness and its com- 



188 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

parative freedom from substances likely to mar its beauty, the Tus- 
carora deserves, and is now commanding, much more attention than 
formerly, especially in the vicinity of Cumberland, where it is found. 
The stone thus far quarried from the Tuscarora has been used largely 
for curbs, steps and cemetery work, as well as for trimmings in some 
of the best buildings in Cumberland. It is nowhere systematically 
quarried for building purposes, but it can be advantageously reached 
by railroad in many places along Wills Mountain. 

Road Materials. 

Good road material is abundant in Allegany county. Limestone 
in available quantity is found at several geological horizons and only 
in the eastern part of the county is it wholly absent. The cherty 
beds at the bottom of the Oriskany formation disintegrate deeply into 
a talus of small angular fragments which furnish an easily prepared 
material of excellent quality. The massive limestone beds in the 
Helderberg formation below the cherty layers, although nowhere 
systematically quarried for road use, have nevertheless furnished at 
various times large quantities of highly satisfactory stone for use on 
the National Road. 

Some of the Niagara limestones might be of local value should a 
demand for them arise, but these are perhaps too much concealed 
and too near the better exposed Helderberg to be used very exten- 
sively. Likewise the limestone beds near the bottom of the Romney 
formation are available in a few places, but their impurities and their 
general concealment will no doubt always prevent their extensive use. 

Greenbrier limestone makes excellent road-metal, and although 
not worked in Allegany county, large quantities have been brought 
into the county and used as ballast on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road. In Allegany county the Greenbrier can be successfully quar- 
ried in only three localities, viz., on Jennings Run, Braddock Run 
and on Stony Run. Even at these places the outcrops are much 
concealed. 

The Coal Measures limestones are numerous but rarely well ex- 
posed. Along the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad about 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 189 

two hundred and fifty yards north of the Frost burg tunnel limestone 
from the lower part of the Dunkard formation has been obtained for 
the streets of Frostburg. Formerly a considerable amount of ma- 
terial was obtained for the same purpose in the upper part of the 
Dunkard formation near the Consolidation Coal Company's pumping 
shaft two miles south of Frostburg. Monongahela limestone appar- 
ently of excellent quality could be procured at slight expense along 
the Carlos Branch Railroad south of Frostburg. This is a massive 
dark blue limestone which gives a very perceptible metallic ring 
when struck with a hammer. For local uses other limestones in the 
coal basin could be made available if desired. 

The enormous talus slopes of Tuscarora quartzite in the Narrows 
near Cumberland vield an abundance of hard white rock which for 
several vears has been crushed for use as railroad ballast. 

Iron Ore. 

No iron ore is now mined within the county and the future gives 
little promise in this direction. Allegany county in the past, how- 
ever, has been closely connected with the iron trade and of this especial 
mention needs to be made. As earlv as 1837 the iron industrv w r as 
fairly inaugurated. During this year the Georges Creek Coal and 
Iron Company began the erection of a furnace at Lonaconing fifty 
feet high and fourteen and one-half feet wide at the boshes. In 
June, 1839, it was making about seventy tons of good foundry iron 
per week, using coke as fuel. In 1837 two large blast furnaces were 
begun at Mount Savage by the Xew York Coal and Iron Company 
and were completed during the following year. In 1845 the same 
company built another furnace, but it was not lined and was never 
used. The Mount Savage rolling-mill was built in 1843 especially 
to roll iron rails and during the summer of 1844 it rolled the first 
heavy rails rolled in America. In honor of that event the Franklin 
Institute of Philadelphia awarded a medal to the proprietors in 
October, 1844. The rails were of inverted U form and weighed, 
forty-two pounds to the yard, and the first few hundred tons were laid 
on the railroad between Mount Savage and Cumberland. J. M. 



190 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Swank says that Allegany county is entitled to two of the highest 
honors in connection with the American iron trade: "It built the 
first successful coke furnace and rolled the first heavy iron rails." * 
In 1846 a furnace was built at Cumberland which at first used char- 
coal and afterwards used coke. This furnace was not long in opera- 
tion. The blast furnace at Mount Savage continued in operation 
longer, but the gradually changing conditions of the iron trade caused 
its final abandonment in 1868. The foundry, however, was not given 
up and continues in operation at the present time. 

So far as known, most of the iron ore used in Allegany county 
came from the Coal Measures strata. Much of it was found near 
the middle of the Conemaugh formation, but not a little was obtained 
from the lower part of the Monongahela. According to Professor 
Tyson, the fossil ore of the Clinton formation was also used exten- 
sively for a time both at Mount Savage and at Lonaconing. 

Iron ore occurs in almost every geological formation in the county 
and even where not well exposed may frequently reveal itself as loose 
pieces lying upon the surface of the ground. Much of the ore i3, 
however, of no practical value, but when the condition of the iron 
trade is not at its best, attempt at the development even of the richest 
of deposits is almost sure to prove unsuccessful. Aside from the Car- 
boniferous and Clinton ores which have already been worked, the 
only horizon which, so far as known, might give even the slightest 
hopes of success is near the bottom of the Romney. Iron ore has 
been prospected for in many localities, but in no place has it been 
found in sufficient quantity to be available. It is liable to occur in 
pockets of no great extent, and generally of slight thickness. 

The iron ores of the Clinton formation are exposed to good ad- 
vantage in several places in the county where they can be easily 
reached at anv time if desired. The lower ore is one hundred 
sixty feet above the Clinton-Tuscarora contact, as observed south of 
Cumberland on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad one mile south of 
Bradys. Here the ore is in two bands, the lower one four and one-half 

1 Swank, James M. History of the Manufacture of Iron in all Ages. Philadelphia,. 
1884. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 191 

• 

feet thick and the upper one more than eight feet thick. Between 
the two are six and one-half feet of shales. Apparently the ore bed 
exposed on both sides of Wills creek west of the cement mill in 
Cumberland is the same as that near Bradys, but the twin character 
is not so prominently developed at Cumberland. The upper Clinton 
ore band, very similar to those just mentioned, is found immediately 
above the ten-foot sandstone, near the top of the formation. This 
ore was formerly mined, and for a time furnished much of the ore 
used in the county. 

The Clinton ore is a highly fossilif erous hematite varying in color in 
weathered outcrops from a dull brown to a deep red. Concerning 
the changes brought about in the limestone beds, in connection with 
which the ore was formed, Professor J. P. Lesley says: " The pro- 
toxide of iron is mostly in combination with carbonate of lime as a 
triple compound, carbonate of protoxide of iron and lime. The iron- 
ore beds when followed far enough beneath drainage level, show 
by chemical analysis that this is their constitution. Above drainage 
their carbonate of lime has been dissolved and carried off; their car- 
bonate of iron has received a double charge of oxygen, and remains 
behind as red hematite iron ore." 

The Coal Measures ore bands are carbonates and limonites, the 
relative purity and thickness of which vary greatly. Little is known 
regarding the character and extent of these deposits, as they have been 
but little exploited hitherto. Their position and approximate thick- 
ness are indicated in the various sections which have been given in 
the chapters on the Stratigraphy and Structure. 

Mineral and Ordinary Springs. 

The only springs in Allegany county that have been especially 
noted for their mineral properties are the sulphur springs situated 
in the north-central part of the county. One of these, known as the 
Flintstone Sulphur Spring, is near the center of the village of Flint- 
stone, and was for many vears a source of considerable revenue. 
About four miles southeast of Flintstone there is a group of springs 
formerly considered of much importance. These are situated be- 



192 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

tween Polish Mountain and Green Ridge on property once owned 
by William Carroll, and are known as the Carroll White Sulphur 
Springs. The sulphur in these springs, as well as in the Flintstone 
spring, is very perceptible to the taste, and a deposit of sulphate 
•quickly settles upon the rocks over which the water flows. 

Little need be said concerning the ordinary springs except to speak 
of their abundance and general distribution. Along the Tuscarora- 
Clinton, the Oriskany-Romney, and the Mauch Chunk-Pottsville con- 
tact lines excellent springs are particularly numerous. Many good 
springs occur elsewhere, but throughout the greater part of the 
county they are not so strong nor so regularly distributed as along 
the lines indicated. A few important exceptions occur. These are 
often closely related to disturbed strata, an excellent example of which 
may be seen to good advantage at the " Big Spring " one mile south- 
west of Rush. This is perhaps the strongest spring in the county and 
its waters flow from a local anticline in the Helderberg limestone. 

Miscellaneous Materials. 

In addition to the economic resources already discussed, the pos- 
sible development of some other industries deserves mention. Glass- 
sand is now obtained in the Narrows near Cumberland as a by-pro- 
duct in the crushing of Tuscarora quartzite for railroad ballast. The 
quality of the sand thus obtained is excellent, but for extensive use 
the rock is too difficult to pulverize. The Oriskany sandstone is the 
great glass-sand producer of the Northern Appalachians and there 
are such extensive outcrops of this rock in Allegany county that the 
question of its utility has merited some study. Owing to the great 
abundance of good glass-sand elsewhere, and the somewhat limited 
demand for the article as compared with the supply, it is necessary 
for the rock to be of the highest quality and most favorably located 
to become of economic value. So far as known, no special prospect- 
ing has been done hitherto to learn of the possible value of the Oris- 
kany sandstone as a glass-sand producer in Allegany county, but the 
surface indications are unfavorable. Generally this sandstone is 
highly iron-stained, but where not so, especially along Warrior Moun- 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 193 

tain, its exposed surfaces show a hardness almost equal to that of the 
Tuscarora. 

The deep red argillaceous shales at the bottom of the Mauch Chunk 
possess qualities which seem to indicate their adaptability as a cheap 
paint, and it has been used, although not extensively, for that purpose. 
Recently attention has been called to the dark reddish-brown loam 
which is sometimes found at the outcropping edge of the Big Vein 
coal, where seepage of its highly charged iron waters has caused the 
deposition of much ferruginous coloring matter. Recently several 
car-loads of this loam were shipped from near the Potomac mine to 
the paint works at Keyser, "West Virginia, for testing as to its value 
as a paint producer. 

Near the bottom of the Pottsville formation a four-foot bed of black 
siliceous oolitic rock, strikingly like some of the Tennessee phosphate 
rock, has been observed. Upon analysis it was found that the rock 
contains considerable phosphate, but not in sufficient quantities to 
make it of economic value. It is not impossible that further investi- 
gation in other areas may reveal deposits richer in phosphate. The 
only place in Allegany county where this phosphatic rock has been 
observed is about forty feet above the bed of the Potomac river on 
the wagon road one and one-fourth miles southeast of Westernport. 
The rock here is much weathered and possesses little of the character- 
istics of the fresh material. Loose slabs of the rock, in a much less 
weathered condition, were found in considerable abundance on the 
West Virginia side of the Potomac. 



13 



14 

fcfc 

»4 



194 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF ALLEGANY COTSTT 

LIST OF OPERATORS Df MDfERAL PRODUCTS IN 

ALLEGANY COUNTY. 

Coal. 

SAME. 

Consolidation Coal Company Baltimore. 

Black, Sheridan, Wilson Com pan j 

Georges Creek Coal and Iron Company 

Big Vein Coal Company 

Lonaeoning Coal Company 

Barton Mining Company Barton. 

Sinclair Mining Company Cumberland. 

Malcolm Sinclair 

Borden Mining Company Frostbarg. 

H. & A. Hitchins 

American Coal Company Lonaeoning. 

Maryland Coal Company " 

New Centra] Coal Company 41 

A. J. Merrill Westernport. 

J. O. J. Greene 

Atlantic and Georges Creek Consolidation Coal Co. . . Piedmont, W. Va. 

Piedmont-Cumberland Coal Company •* 

Piedmont Mining Company •* 

Davis Coal and Coke Company Philadelphia, Pa. 

Clays and Shales. 

P. A. Bier BSer. 

Peter Alkise Cumberland. 

H. Brant 

Eichner Bros 

Queen City Brick and Tile Company 

James Gardner A Sons •» 

Savage Moon tain Fire-Brick Works Frost burp. 

Knight and Pnrgit Keyser, W. Va. 

Union Mining Company Mount Savage. 

Monnt Savage Enameled- Brick Company ii 

George E. Rawlings Pinto. 

Lime and Cement. 

Chas. F. Treascher Cresaptown. 

Robert Oss •» 

Joseph Dress man Comber land. 

Cumberland Hydraulic-Cement Company " 

Wm. T. Mallan ." •»' 

Cumberland Valley Cement Company " 

8. K. Berry " Flintstone. 

Cumberland and Potomac Cement Company Pinto. 

C. Long & Bros. 

G. M. Rawlings 



** 



»k 



tt 



it 



Building-Stones. 

Beall Bros, (sandstone) Cumberland. 

Flint and Chert. 

John Dressman Cumberland. 



THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

BY 

CLARENCE W. DORSEY 



Introduction. 

The soils of Allegany county are so closely related to the geological 
formations from which they are derived that a knowledge of the 
rock formations throws much light upon the soils which are found 
there. From an agricultural standpoint, the soil may be regarded 
as the uppermost layer of the earth's crust which supports vegetation. 
It is often spoken of as the debris of rocks more or less mixed with 
decayed organic matter. In its composition, soil consists of frag- 
ments of rocks and the products of rock decomposition, together with 
the remains of animal and vegetable life, the mass being permeated 
with more or less water containing various substances in solution. 

The Formation of Soil. 

The mechanical forces which are active in the formation of soils 
are, to a great extent, familiar to everyone. The result of their 
action is to continually break rock-masses into smaller fragments until 
they are reduced to such a size that the roots of plants can obtain 
support when the processes of soil formation are greatly hastened. 
In the w r inter, water which has penetrated the joints and crevices of 
rocks becomes frozen, thereby causing the rocks to be pried asunder. 
The roots of trees effect the same result by wedging rocks apart. 
The reduction of rocks to fine particles is brought about by the beat- 
ing of the rains. The grinding of particles of dust carried by the 
winds, the friction of the wind itself and the erosive power of moving 
water and ice. Rocks expand on heating during the day and con- 
tract at night, causing the particles to become loosened and in time 



196 THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

to fall apart. This action is more pronounced in mountainous coun- 
tries than in regions of less elevation. 

The chemical forces which act upon rocks are not so easily recog- 
nized by the inexperienced observer, but they are nevertheless pow- 
erful in promoting rock degeneration and their action may be noticed 
hundreds of feet below the earth's surface. Rains falling upon the 
earth dissolve substances contained in rocks, leaving the relatively 
insoluble particles of matter. This is illustrated in a marked degree 
in limestone areas, as the soil-covering in this case consists of the 
insoluble particles of limestone forming but a small portion of the 
original rock, mixed, perhaps, with organic matter. This solvent 
action of rain-water is attributed mainly to the various acids it holds 
in solution. The atmosphere likewise contains small quantities of 
acid which promote rock decomposition. The roots of plants press- 
ing against rocks help to remove portions of the latter by solution. 
Even on bare rock surfaces it is found that bacteria and other low 
forms of plants exert considerable influence in promoting rock-decay. 

Certain iron-bearing minerals found in rocks tend to break down 
as they unite with water and the oxygen of the atmosphere. This 
oxidizing process, or rusting, is especially true of rocks which con- 
tain a large proportion of iron-bearing minerals, and the more porous 
the rock is the more rapidly will oxidation take place. Another 
chemical agency which is important in promoting rock decomposition 
is hydration or the assumption of water by rocks. The effects of 
hydration are noticed hundreds of feet below the surface of the earth 
and rock masses increase in size proportionally as they chemically 
unite with the underground waters. 

These are the processes which operate in breaking up rocks and 
making them suitable as supports for vegetation to take root and 
flourish. As soon as these destructive forces have furnished rock- 
debris sufficient for the larger plants to thrive, the soil-forming pro- 
cesses are greatly aided by the decay of the roots and other portions 
of the plant. Small forms of animal life also help to enrich and 
build up the soil. 

Many of the forces, however, which have been enumerated as 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 197 

operative in forming arable soils from rocks are, moreover, the 
agents by which the soil covering is removed and it is found that a 
sort of equilibrium is maintained between the forces which produce 
the soils and those that destroy them. 

External and Internal Conditions of the Soil. 

From an agricultural point of view, a soil is of value only when it 
is capable of bringing to the farmer a sufficient return for the money 
or labor that he has bestowed upon it. The capacity of a soil to 
produce plant growtli not only depends upon the conditions within 
the soil, but also upon the conditions surrounding it. The soil itself 
must be of such a degree of fineness that the roots of plants may 
penetrate it and allow the rain-water to enter so that it may be 
utilized by the growing plant. The soil must also be permeable to 
air or its productiveness will be greatly diminished. The soil, more- 
over, must furnish the various elements which are essential to the 
growth of the plant, and to this end these elements must be present 
in the soil in an available condition. The proper temperature con- 
ditions must be maintained, that is, the soil must be able to store up 
the heat of the sun's rays in the daytime and give them out at night 
to prevent the serious effects due to sudden change of temperature. 
These are some of the internal conditions which affect the fertilitv of 

« 

soils. 

The views concerning soil fertility, however, have changed con- 
siderably during the last few years. Formerly it was supposed that 
their chemical composition was the controlling factor in the pro- 
ductiveness, but more recent investigations show that the tempera- 
ture and moisture conditions which are dependent to a great extent 
upon the physical condition of the soil itself determine its fertility. 

The external conditions which modify the agricultural value of 
the soil can be mentioned onlv brieflv in this connection. Climate 
is probably the most important factor, and this depends on latitude, 
elevation above sea-level, nearness to the sea, general configuration 
of the country, and the direction and character of the winds. The 
local topography is also an important factor. The methods employed 



198 THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

in cultivation, the adaptability of the soils to certain special crops, 
and the relative amount of cleared areas exert considerable influence 
upon the agricultural value of the soils of any region. The distance 
from market and transportation facilities must also be considered. 

From an agricultural standpoint Allegany county does not com- 
pare favorably with the other counties of the state, as its prominence 
depends almost wholly on its mineral resources. The surface of the 
county is rough and broken, consisting mainly of a series of long 
ridges separated by steep-sloped, narrow valleys. The growing sea- 
sons are short with hot days and cool nights and the winters are long 
and severe. The soils themselves do not possess any considerable 
degree of fertility, so it is readily seen that the conditions in the 
county are not favorable for any great agricultural advancement to 
be made without a large expenditure of energy and perseverance. 

The principal agricultural products of the county are corn, oats, 
rye and potatoes. Small amounts of hay, wheat, fruit and buckwheat 
are also produced. Probably three-fourths of the county is still 
uncleared, and from the sale of timber in these wooded areas con- 
siderable income is derived. This is especially the case with sales of 
tan-bark and railroad ties in the eastern part of the county. 

Historical Sketch. 

Comparatively little has been written concerning the soils of Alle- 
gany county. Probably the first one to attempt any scientific exam- 
ination of them was Dr. James Higgins, who was State Agricultural 
Chemist from 1849 until 1859. Dr. Higgins visited various counties 
of the state, examined the soils and agricultural conditions and issued 
a series of reports, six in number, in which the results of his work 
are set forth. At a subsequent date, 1867, he published a volume 
in which the entire work was summarized. It is only in the Fourth 
Annual Report that Dr. Higgins has discussed the soils of Allegany 
county at any length. In his report he describes the important soil 
formations, publishes chemical analyses and recommends fertilizers 
and methods of cultivation for the different soils. 

The soils which Dr. Higgins describes are the Red Rock, or Red 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 199 

Sandstone soils, the Limestone Clay soils, the Shaly Red Sandstone 
soils, the Potomac Bottom soils, and the Loamy soils of the coal region. 
These names will be correlated with the present names in the descrip- 
tions of the separate formations, so that no further mention of them 
need be made in this connection. 

In 1892 J. Thomas Scharf published in a popular form a book 
describing the natural resources and advantages of the counties of 
Maryland. In this paper mention is made of the soils and agricul- 
tural conditions of Allegany county. Scharf describes the soils of 
the county as sandy loams along the different streams, and loams 
mixed with limestone, slate and sand in the mountains. 

In connection with the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion and Johns Hopkins University, Professor Milton Whitney con- 
ducted scientific investigations of Maryland soils for a number of 
years. This work was carried on in 1891, and in 1892 Professor 
Whitney was made Chief of the Division of Soils in the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. Since that time soil investigations have 
been carried on in the state under his personal direction and the 
present report on the soils of Allegany county is made under his 
supervision. 

Professor Whitney's work on the soils of Maryland consisted of a 
classification of the soils of the state based upon the distribution of 
the geological formations and a series of investigations upon the phy- 
sical properties of the soils themselves. As Physicist of the Mary- 
land Experiment Station, Professor Whitney showed that the relation 
of the various soils of the state to the different crops depended upon 
their physical conditions rather than upon their chemical composition. 
A large number of experiments and examinations were made in 
which it was shown that the productiveness of the soil depends upon 
the moisture and heat conditions it maintains for the growing crop. 
An examination then of the texture and structure, or the physical 
condition in which the soil exists, explains in a satisfactory manner 
these essential conditions within the soil. 

Several bulletins and reports were published in which the results 
of this work were set forth. The most important of these reports 



200 THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

which deal with the soils of Allegany county are the Fourth Annual 
Report of the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station for 1891 ; 
Bulletin No. 4 of the U. S. Weather Bureau issued in 1892; Bulletin 
No. 21 of the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, published 
in 1893, and the chapter on Agriculture in Maryland: Its Industries, 
Institutions and Resources, prepared for the World's Fair in 1893. 

In these reports Professor Whitney describes the soils derived 
from the Helderberg, Oriskany, Catskill, Hamilton, Niagara and 
Clinton formations. Chemical and mechanical analyses were pub- 
lished and many of their physical properties were discussed with ref- 
erence to their productiveness. Professor Whitney's work will also 
be referred to in connection with the description of the separate soil 
formations. 

Soil Formations. 

Any description of the various soils that are derived from the 
different rock formations in the county will show that there is a 
great similarity between certain of the soil-types. Thus it will be 
found that all the soils derived from fine-grained, homogeneous 
shales will have certain common characteristics. The soils derived 
from the different sandstone formations will also closely resemble 
each other in many particulars, while the soils derived from red sandy 
shales will be intimately related. 

This only serves to emphasize what was stated at the beginning 
of this paper, that the soils of any given region closely resemble the 
rocks to which they owe their origin. 

Since the climatic conditions are practically alike over the entire 
area of the county, mechanical analyses of the soil are of great im- 
portance in showing the texture of the soil. These explain in a very 
satisfactory manner the relations of the soil to moisture and to heat. 
A series of such mechanical analyses is given in the succeeding pages. 
Stated in general terms, the more clay a soil contains the more 
moisture will it hold, but the relative amounts of coarser grades of 
soil particles must also be taken into account. The term clay in- 
cludes those particles of soil which have a diameter of from .0001 to 
.005 mm. without reference to their chemical composition. 



MAKYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 201 

Chemical analyses of the principal types of soils found in the 
county are also published. These chemical analyses were made by 
Dr. F. K. Cameron of the Division of Soils in the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. In the following pages the different soils will be 
given according to the geological formation on which they rest and 
from which they have been derived. 

THE JUNIATA. 

The Juniata is so limited in its occurrence that the soils derived 
from its decomposition need only be mentioned. In the small area 
it occupies in The Narrows, west of Cumberland, the soil consists of 
heavy red sandy loams in which there is an admixture of shale frag- 
ments. No attempt is made at cultivation and but few trees find 
footing in the loose slipping mass of soil and undecomposed rock. 

THE TUSCARORA. 

The soils of the Tuscarora formation are also relatively unim- 
portant. There are three areas in the county: Wills Mountain and 
the southern extension of Evitts and Tussey mountains. The oc- 
currence of the formation as steep mountainous ridges is against its 
being of any great agricultural value. Probably in not one of the 
three areas where the formation occurs is it cultivated with the pos- 
sible exception of the area at the base of Tussey's Mountain. Here 
there appears to be a considerable area of washed material from the 
slopes of the mountain which is partly cleared and cultivated, but in 
none of the other areas was a single cultivated field observed. In 
many places there are large areas devoid of soil-covering, while in 
other places, along the foot of Wills Mountain especially, there are 
huge piles of rock-talus. 

The rock from which the soils of this formation are derived is a 
coarse quartz sandstone which is hard and massive and usually of a 
white or gray color. The soils partake very largely of the nature of 
the rock and consist of whitish sandy loams in which there is a slight 
amount of organic matter. The sandstone does not disintegrate 
readily, so that the soils are always shallow except in small pockets 
where they have accumulated. 



202 THE SOILS OF ALLEGAJTT COUXTY 

Most of the area is strewn with large masses of the resistant gray 
sandstone. The average depth of the soil covering rarely exceeds 
16 inches. As there are practically no cleared areas in the formation 
no idea can be gained of the productiveness of the Tnscarora soils. 
At present they only support a scant growth of pines and scrub oaks. 
The mechanical analyses of two samples of Tnscarora soils from 
Tussey^s Mountain show a large percentage of sand with rather small 
amounts of silt and clay. 

THE CLDTTOX. 

The Clinton formation, like the Tuscarora, occupies only three 
small areas in Allegany county, two to the east and one to the west 
of Cumberland. From an agricultural standpoint, the area in the 
valley west of Flintstone is perhaps the most important. Each area 
occupied by the Clinton is rolling with broad, rounded hills and 
often local areas of bottom-land. The greater portion of its surface 
is cleared and cultivated, except in the area west of Cumberland on 
each side of Wills Mountain, where it is not farmed to any great 
extent. 

The rocks of the formation consist mainlv of brown and reddish 
shales, which are fine-grained and quite uniform in texture. In addi- 
tion there are minor beds of limestone. 

The soils of the Clinton are typical shale soils. They are shallow, 
of a light yellow or grayish color, and consist of fragments of unde- 
composed shale mixed with the finest particles of clay. These soils 
are light and easily stirred, but they do not retain moisture well and 
cannot be classed as strong soils, although they probably represent 
the best class of shale soils found in the countv. Generally the sur- 
face soil contains a larger percentage of clay than the subsoil, which 
grades into gray undecomposed shale about 18 inches from the sur- 
face. 

It is difficult to make these soils productive, for in bad seasons they 
dry out and fire the crops. Rye probably succeeds better than other 
grain crops, as from 12 to 15 bushels are produced per acre. In good 
seasons wheat does fairly well, and eight bushels per acre may be 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 203 

considered an average yield. Oats, on account of the fact that they 
ripen late in the season, are much damaged by dry seasons. Corn, 
if it is planted early, yields fair crops, but otherwise it is not culti- 
vated with profit. When the season is favorable enough to get a 
good stand of clover it lasts for two or three years, but much difficulty 
is usually experienced in getting it started. These lands before they 
are cleared are usually covered with a light growth of oak and pine. 

In shale soils of this character any course of treatment is helpful 
which will deepen the soils and thereby increase their water-holding 
capacity. Deep plowing will effect this and heavy applications of 
stable manure will be beneficial. Applications of common salt have 
also been found useful on this class of soils in promoting the decom- 
position of the thin flat pieces of shale. 

From the mechanical analyses of these soils, it is seen that the 
coarsest grades of sand are represented with fair amounts of silt and 
clay. In these analyses no account is taken of the shale fragments 
larger than 2 mm. in diameter. These form a large part of the soil 
and make it loose so that it is easily dried out. 

THE NIAGARA. 

The Niagara formation occurs in four well-defined areas in the 
county, very closely associated with the areas of the Clinton forma- 
tion in their occurrence. It consists mainly of thin bands of lime- 
stone interbedded with fine-grained shales and is not very important 
from an agricultural standpoint on account of the relatively small 
area it occupies. The soils derived from the Niagara belong to the 
better class of those found in the county, and, though rather shallow, 
are usually quite fertile. They are yellowish loams containing con- 
siderable clay mixed with fragments of shale. They can largely be 
improved and oats, rye, grass and wheat succeed fairly well on them, 
but as in most of this region the yields per acre are not very large. 

THE SALINA. 

The soils of the Salina occupy pretty nearly the same areas as the 
Clinton shales, but the areas stand out usually as more pronounced 



204 THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

ridges than the broad low hills of the Clinton. The soils closely 
resemble the materials from which they are derived and they prove to 
be fairly productive. Occurring as they do in the same localities as 
the Helderberg limestone, it is interesting to compare the two classes 
of soils, and it is found that in good seasons they are nearly as pro- 
ductive as the heavier limestone soils. 

The soils are brown or red in color, and although they contain 
some sand, they may be classed above the better grade of sandstone 
soils. They usually have a depth of about 22 inches. These soils 
are well drained and are heavy enough to hold moisture and are 
easily improved. Twelve bushels of wheat per acre can be raised and 
good yields of grass, corn, oats and rye are also raised with fair 
crops of each. They may be classed as wheat and grass lands. 

The Salina soils can be cultivated profitably and may be considered 
among the better class of strong loam soils found in the county. By 
referring to their mechanical analyses, it will be seen that they are 
composed of the finest grades of sand with a good proportion of clay. 
The samples analyzed are all subsoils and in each case are heavier 
than the surface materials. 

THE HELDERBERG. 

There are four important areas of the Helderberg in Allegany 
county. Two of these occur as V-shaped areas east of Cumberland, 
while the other two extend across the county through and to the west 
of Cumberland. 

The Helderberg, from its occurrence with the Oriskany sandstone, 
usually forms steep ridges which are held up by the more resistant 
Oriskany formation. In some of the areas of the Helderberg there 
are comparatively level stretches of country, but generally the forma- 
tion consists of long, steep slopes presenting differences in elevation 
of several hundred feet. 

The Helderberg is principally a limestone formation, although it 
contains beds of shales. The soils of the Helderberg may be de- 
scribed as strong and fertile, although they may not have any great 
depth. They probably rank as the best in the county, and the better 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 205 

class of these limestone soils will compare favorably with the best 
agricultural regions of the state. 

These soils, as distinguished from the subsoils, are usually red 
or yellow heavy loams, while the subsoils are generally strong red or 
yellow clay loams. They are stiff and firm and retain the moisture 
and are quite well adapted to grass and wheat. They are spoken of 
as natural Bluegrass lands. Timothy does very well upon them, 
giving one and one-half tons per acre, while fifteen bushels of wheat 
per acre is an average yield. Corn is not raised to any great extent be- 
cause the continual cultivation in the spring and summer is apt to 
leave the field in a condition to be easily washed and furrowed by 
gullies. It is customary to keep the fields protected as much as pos- 
sible to prevent washing. Oats, rye and clover succeed quite well. 

While the Helderberg soils are generally strong and fertile there 
are some areas where they are poor and unproductive. This is 
especially true in the case of the soils derived from the cherty mem- 
bers of the Helderberg. These are light and shallow and filled with 
pieces of cherty limestone. Eye and potatoes do fairly well, but the 
other crops generally grown in this region do not succeed. These 
soils are sometimes spoken of as limestone gravel soils and they are 
well adapted to the growth of peaches, grapes and small fruits. 
There are some very successful orchards on the south and southeast 
slopes of these cherty areas. 

There is a considerable area of limestone soil in the valleys along 
the Potomac river southwest of Cumberland in the region about 
Black Oak Bottom Station. Here the soil is deep, but it is not as 
productive as might be expected from the favorable location. This 
is doubtless due to the fact that there is need of underdraining, for 
the ground receives the drainage from the hills and is apt to be too 
wet and spouty. 

Dr. Higgins has named these the Clay Limestone soils and de- 
scribed them as dark loams with a tough reddish clay subsoil. The 
difference in their fertility he ascribes to the greater abundance of 
phosphoric acid in some localities than in others. Professor Whit- 
ney, in the reports mentioned, called them the Helderberg Limestone 



206 THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

soils and describes them as strong yellow clay soils which are naturally 
well drained and capable of a high state of cultivation. They are 
uniform in texture and well adapted to grass and wheat. The chem- 
ical analysis of this soil which he published gives but little clue to its 
productiveness. 

The mechanical analyses of the Helderberg show only small 
amounts of sand while the bulk consists of silt and clay. The analyses 
of these soils easily explain their strength and productiveness. The 
analysis of the cherty sample is quite similar to the analyses given 
of the Clinton shale soils. The samples which contain the greatest 
amounts of clay are usually considered the strongest and most 
valuable. 

THE ORISKANY. 

The Oriskany formation occupies a large area in the center of the 
county and two or three minor areas in the western part. The forma- 
tion includes most of the mountainous ridges and the intervening 
valleys in the center of the county, and in the other areas where it 
occurs it forms long narrow ridges with the Helderberg. The forma- 
tion, although it occupies quite a large area in the county, is not 
important from an agricultural standpoint. The rocks of the Oris- 
kany are described as coarse, white, friable, slightly calcareous sand- 
stones. 

The soils derived from the disintegration of the Oriskany are 
usually shallow sandy loams with a small percentage of organic 
matter. They are gray or yellow in color, and over most of the area 
there is a covering of gravels and boulders ranging in diameter from 
a few inches to several feet. 

Along the lower levels of this area the soil is usually a heavier 
loam, but along the summits of the mountains the soil consists of a 
very shallow covering of sandy loam mixed with large boulders and 
masses of rock. In some parts of the area the rock surfaces are bare 
of soil-covering, with here and there an occasional pine tree which 
finds footing in the rock crevices. By far the larger part of the 
area is uncleared and covered with a light growth of pines and oaks. 
Where the Oriskany is cleared it is found that rye and potatoes sue- 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 207 

ceed better than other crops, although corn, oats and clover do rea- 
sonably well for such light sandy soils. Along the higher parts of 
the mountains the soils are warm and dry and fair crops of corn are 
raised on fields where the soil covering seems only to consist of a loose 
mass of white sandstone fragments. There is no doubt that peaches, 
grapes and small fruits would succeed on the protected slopes of these 
rocky areas, but up to the present time no attempt has been made 
to introduce them. 

In the Fourth Annual Report of the Maryland Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, Professor Whitney has described these soils as 
lacking uniformity in texture and naturally poor, but capable of some 
improvement. He has classed them as Mountain Pasture Soils. 

THE ROMNEY-JENNINGS. 

The Komney-Jennings formation probably occupies the largest area 
in Allegany county. Most of the eastern part of the county consists 
of these two formations, and there are two good-sized areas in the 
western part. The Romney-Jennings are two distinct geological 
formations, but the soils are so nearly alike that they can be de- 
scribed together. 

In the eastern part of the county the surface is rolling with one or 
two rather prominent ridges. In the other areas there is consider- 
able rolling upland with some bottom-land. The rocks of these 
formations are fine-grained shales with minor beds of sandstone. 
Thin bands of limestone occur as well as beds of coarse conglomerate. 

The soils derived from these two formations are quite uniform over 
the entire area. They are shallow soils with an average depth of 
about 18 inches and possess little agricultural value, and where un- 
cleared there is a light growth of pine and oak. In some areas of the 
formation, however, especially in the eastern part of the county, 
there are some farms which have been considerably improved and 
produce fairly well. 

The color of these soils is grayish and yellowish and they contain 
a large proportion of shale. On the steep slopes the soil particles 
are washed away nearly as fast as they are formed, so that often these 



208 THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

slopes are only covered with a slight layer of shale fragments. These 
soils are rather typical shale soils and quickly dry out and fire the 
crops. Kye and oats do fairly well and corn is profitable if it is 
planted early. Seven bushels of wheat, fifteen bushels of oats and 
from fifteen to twenty-five bushels of corn per acre are said to be 
average yields on the Komney-Jennings. Such soils need to be care- 
fully treated and will not stand hard farming. Many of the slopes 
in this area that are cultivated should be allowed to grow up in forest 
or else they will soon be swept clear of soil-covering. Some of the 
angles of the steepest of these slopes were measured and found to be 
as high as 40°. 

Deep plowing would be beneficial to these soils; turning under 
green manures and stable manures would also increase their water- 
holding capacity. Applications of common salt have also been found 
to be useful on these soils in promoting the decay of the shale frag- 
ments contained in the soil. 

Dr. Higgins and Professor Whitney have both described these 
soils. Dr. Higgins calls them the Ked Shaly Sandstone soils and 
states that their great disadvantage is their shallowness and the injury 
they receive from washing. Professor Whitney described them as 
Mountain Pasture Lands. They are naturally poor, he states, but 
are capable of some improvement. They consist of fine-grained 
powdery material with fragments of the original rock. Mechanical 
analyses of these soils show them to be composed principally of the 
finest grades of sand and silt. 

THE HAMPSHIBE. 

The Hampshire occurs in the eastern part of the county and again 
along the eastern slope of Dans Mountain in the western part. In 
both areas the formation is hilly with steep slopes, although there is 
a small amount of level upland. The rocks of the formation are red 
and brown shales and fine sandstones. 

The soils of the formation are not important in Allegany county, 
although they are quite valuable farm lands in Garrett county. Only 
the area in the eastern part of the countv is farmed to anv extent, as 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 209 

the area on the eastern slope of Dans Mountain is uncleared, and 
there are no wagon-roads leading to it with the exception of two or 
three wood-roads. The soils are red and brown sandy loams with a 
scattering of flat shaly rocks on the surface. These soils grade from 
a typical shale soil to a rather heavy type of sandstone soil which 
produces fairly well. The shale soils are shallow, sandy soils which 
wash badly and are hard to improve. The areas of the heavy type 
of Hampshire soils are small and are derived from the fine-grained 
sandstone members of the formation. 

The Hampshire soils produce an average of about 12 bushels of 
wheat, from 15 to 20 bushels of corn and about 20 bushels of oats 
per acre. Grass holds fairly well and these soils make fair pasture 
lands. They are more productive than the Romney-Jennings soils, 
although the analyses of samples from the eastern part of the county 
do not show as large percentages of clay as the Romney-Jennings 
contain. The greatest part of the soil, according to the analyses 
given, consists of very fine sand and silt. 

Dr. Higgins describes these soils as the Red Sandstone soils and 
states that they belong to the class known as quick soils. He also 
states that they are light and porous and do not suffer from drought 
and moisture. Professor Whitney in his description states that they 
are good strong lands adapted to grass and wheat. 

THE POCONO. 

The Pocono forms the capping of Town Hill Mountain in the 
east of the county and a line of foothills along the east front of Dans 
Mountain in the western part. Neither of these areas is of any value 
for fanning purposes, although there is some attempt at cultivation 
in the eastern part of the county. The rocks from which the Pocono 
soils are derived are hard, thin-bedded flaggy sandstones and the 
soils closely resemble the parent rock. They are sandy with a slight 
mixture of vegetable material. These soils rarely exceed 10 inches 
in depth and they are probably the poorest soils in the county. They 
are hard to cultivate on account of the fragments of rocks in the soil 
and the boulders which are strewn over the surface. They consist 
almost entirely of sand with small amounts of silt and clay. 

14 



210 THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

THE GREENBRIER-MAUCH CHUNK. 

The only area of GreenbrieivMauch Chunk in the county lies in a 
slight depression between the outlying ridge of Pocono sandstone and 
the eastern front of Dans Mountain. The area is almost entirely 
forested and is difficult of access. The rocks of these two formations 
are grayish limestones with red and brown shales and sandstones. 
The soils are usually loams which are capable of being improved and 
cultivated with profit. Often, however, there is difficulty in getting 
rid of the huge boulders which come down the mountain side from 
the Pottsville formation. These soils are not deep but are heavy 
enough to retain moisture, and they closely resemble the better class 
of Hampshire soils. 

The formations included in the Coal Measures occupy the entire 
portion of the county west of Dans Mountain known as Georges 
Creek Valley. The surface of the valley is hilly but there is some 
level upland. Considerable of the area is cleared and one is surprised 
that not more of the better class of land is cultivated. The soils are 
derived from several formations and each one will be briefly de- 
scribed. These soils all closely resemble one another and consist of 
a series of loams ranging from light sandy loams to heavy loams. 

THE POTTSVILLE. 

The Pottsville forms the capping of Dans Mountain and is prac- 
tically valueless from an agricultural standpoint. The soils range 
from heavy loams of a good depth to only a shallow covering of 
coarse sandy loam strewn with huge masses of sandstone. But little 
of the area is cleared and it is usually covered with a light growth of 
oak, chestnut and hickory. Where cultivation is practiced, however, 
fair yields of buckwheat, rye and oats are harvested. 

THE ALLEGHENY. 

The Allegheny formation occurs on both sides of Georges Creek 
Valley as a series of outlying hills and slight depressions between the 
hills and the mountain tops. There is quite a large proportion of 
cleared land in the area and much of it could be farmed with profit. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 211 

There is only a slight amount of it cultivated, however, as the people 
of the valley depend entirely upon the coal mines for a livelihood 
rather than upon fanning. 

The rocks from which the soils of the Allegheny formation are 
derived are mostly sandstones with small beds of sandy shales. The 
soils are yellow loams of no great depth, but they could easily be im- 
proved and made profitable farm lands. At present they are mostly 
used for pastures, although oats, rye, buckwheat and potatoes are 
raised. In some areas where this formation occurs the surface is 
strewn with boulders and rock masses, although small pieces of flaggy 
sandstone are mixed with the soils. 

In the depressions, or " Sags," between the outlying hills and moun- 
tain tops the drainage is poor and swamps result. The soils in these 
areas are usually coarse, sandy soils, quite shallow and contain a large 
percentage of organic matter. None of these areas are cultivated 
and underbrush, mosses and ferns grow abundantly. Oats, rye and 
buckwheat are probably the only staple crops which could be farmed 
with profit on these cold, swampy soils. From the analyses it is 
seen that they are composed principally of sand and silt. 

THE CONEMAUGH. 

The Conemaugh, in the northern part of Georges Creek Valley, 
embraces some of the best farming land of the valley. In the Cone- 
maugh there is more of an attempt to cultivate the land than in any 
of the other formations of the area. The soils derived from the 
disintegration of the Conemaugh shales and sandstones are probably 
not much better than those of the Allegheny. They consist of yfellow 
shaly loams about 18 inches in depth. These soils, like those of the 
Allegheny formation, are adapted to oats, rye, potatoes and buck- 
wheat. 

THE MONONGAHELA. 

The Monongahela occupies the center of Georges Creek Valley 
and the soils are similar to those already described as occurring there. 
They are not uniform in texture and may range from a leachy, grav- 
elly soil to heavy dark loams. Considerable of the area is cleared and 



212 THE SOILS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

only those crops raised which are most valuable for local purposes. 
Rye is grown especially for the straw, and as much hay is made as is 
possible to supply the mules which work in the mines. Much of the 
area is devoted to gardens by the miners. Over most of the area the 
soils are yellowish loams about 18 inches in depth. 

THE DUNKABD. 

The Dunkard occurs in the central portion of the valley capping 
the hills in the vicinity of Lonaconing and Frostburg. The soils 
closely resemble the other soils of the area. They consist of sandy 
and clay loams, yellow in color and rarely exceed 20 inches in depth. 
They are not cultivated to any great extent. Oats, corn, rye and 
potatoes are grown upon them, but the yields are not very large. 

ALLUVIAL SOILS. 

The alluvial soils found in Allegany county include those areas of 
river-deposited sediment found along the principal streams of the 
county. Such soils vary greatly in texture, composition and agri- 
cultural value, depending largely upon the size of the streams and 
the materials from which these soils are derived. These soils belong 
to the pleistocene period, although many areas of alluvial soils are still 
in process of formation and are subject to change with the overflows 
of the various streams along which they occur. The area southwest 
of Cumberland, on the North Branch of the Potomac river, is prob- 
ably the most important area found in the county and many large and 
prosperous farms are located there. Along Evitts Creek and the 
Potomac at North Branch Station there are large areas which are 
profitably cultivated, while many areas of less importance are found 
along the smaller streams of the county. 

In the areas mentioned the soils vary in texture from gravelly 
loam, composed of large rounded gravel mixed with sand and clay, to 
heavy clay loams which are derived from the decomposition products 
of shaly limestones and fine-grained sandstones. Alluvial soils are 
usually regarded as fertile soils on account of the rather high per- 
centage of organic matter they contain and the thorough mixture of 
the various rock particles which compose them. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 213 

The soils in the valley southwest of Cumberland and along Evitts 
Creek are mainly derived from the wash of limestone hills and closely 
resemble rich fertile soils derived from pure limestone. These soils, 
from their position, rarely suffer from drought in dry seasons, and 
therefore are well adapted to grass and corn, while wheat does fairly 
well on the better drained bottom-lands. Many of these soils suffer 
from the lack of underground drainage, and thorough drainage should 
be the first step in their cultivation. Wheat on these heavy lands 
has a tendency to disease and makes a coarse, rank growth of straw, 
while grass succeeds quite well and large crops are made every year. 

Along the larger streams the distinction between first and second 
bottoms is made. The first bottom usually refers to the lowest land 
lying along the stream, while the second bottom refers to a distinctly 
higher terrace sloping gradually back to the hills. The first bottoms 
are usually considered the better, although the crops are subject to 
overflow r during almost any season of the year. The second bottoms 
are generally " spouty " or '* springy," and during the spring and 
early summer they are apt to be wet and unfit for cultivation. 

Alluvial soils which are subject to overflow may have thick de- 
posits of sand or gravel left upon them in times of high water, or the 
rich fertile loam may be entirely swept away during times of flood. 
Along the smaller streams there may be small, local areas where the 
streams have cut wide valleys. Such areas make good farm-land, 
but generally along the small streams the deposits consist mainly of 
coarse sand, gravel and even masses of huge boulders. These coarse 
deposits are of little or no agricultural value. 



THE SOIL8 OF ALLEGAHT COUNTY 



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THE CLIMATE OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

BY 

OLIVER L. FASSIG 



Introduction. 

So variable are the elements of the weather in an inland region in 
our latitudes that many years of continuous observations of tempera- 
ture and rainfall are required to obtain an accurate average value. 

To obtain a value for the mean annual temperature correct within 
1° Fahrenheit requires from twentv to thirtv years of dailv obser- 
rations. In the tropics near the ocean, where weather conditions are 
more uniform, an equally accurate value may be obtained from four 
or five vears of observations. 

Allegany county is particularly fortunate in the possession of a 
long series of valuable observations of climatic conditions. One of 
the tirst objects to claim the attention of Professor Joseph Henry, 
after the establishment of the Smithsonian Institution in 1>49, was 
the organization of an extensive network of stations for recording 
weather ronditions, and cullecting facts for the study of American 
storms. Professor Henrv sixm succeed* d in enlisting the services of 
a devoted body of intelligent observers. Among the early and faith- 
ful members of this ^vstem was Mr. Kdwin Thomas Shrive r of Cum- 
berland. Mr. Sh river began the daily reading of the thermometer, 
and his observations of wind and weather, in Januarv of 1S59. With 
splendid persistence, and with the true spirit of devotion to science, 
he continued his daily observations uninterruptedly for thirty-seven 
vears. Tn 1871 the measurement of rainfall was added to his record. 
The last report of Mr. Shriver, for January. l>9ti, made a month 
before his death, was as complete as those of his early days. Few 
individual records of the weather in this country can compare with 



218 THE CLIMATE OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

those of Mr. Shriver in completeness and continuity. But two 
records in Maryland are longer. Frederick has a continuous record 
from about 1821, but made by numerous observers; Baltimore has a 
record, though not entirely continuous and made under different 
auspices, beginning in 1817. To Cumberland belongs the distinction 
of having the longest continuous record in Maryland made by a single 
observer. 

The topography of Allegany county is described in detail else- 
where in this volume. It is desirable here to bear in mind only the 
most general topographic features. The county is in the heart of 
the Alleghany mountain system; its surface is made up of parallel 
ranges rising in places to elevations of nearly 3000 feet, and extend- 
ing northeast and southwest. The valleys are narrow. The popula- 
tion of the county is mostly in the valleys, largely along the Potomac 
river, at elevations varying between 700 feet and 1000 feet above 
sea-level. Cumberland, Boettcherville, Westernport, Flintstone, and 
Oldtown are all under 1000 feet elevation and have approximately 
similar climatic conditions. The annual and monthly values for tem- 
perature and rainfall at all of these stations, as shown by accompany- 
ing tables, agree very closely with the normal values obtained from 
Mr. Shriver's long record for Cumberland, after making due allow- 
ance for the short periods of observation. The climate of Cumber- 
land represents very well the climate of the valleys of Allegany 
county. 

Climatic conditions change rapidly with change in elevation. In 
round numbers the mean temperature falls 1° Fahrenheit for every 
300 feet in elevation above the surface of the earth. A similar fall 
in the mean temperature is experienced, at sea-level, in the Middle 
Atlantic states, by traveling northward about 40 miles. To state the 
same fact in another way: Frostburg, at an elevation of about 1500 
feet above Cumberland, should have a mean annual temperature of 
about 5° Fahrenheit less than that at Cumberland, or about 48°. 
A similar fall in the mean annual temperature is met with in going 
northward from Cumberland, across the state of Pennsylvania, into 
the southern portions of New York state. 



k 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 210 

At the present time we have but little over one year's observations 
for Frostburg, a period totally inadequate to establish a reliable mean 
value for the annual temperature. The mean annual temperature 
obtained for the period from September, 1898, to August, 1899, is 
50.7° Fahrenheit. During this period the temperature at neigh- 
boring stations was about 1.5° above normal; substracting this amount 
from 50.7°, we have 49.2° as a closer approximation to the normal 
value for Frostburg. Probably a still more accurate value would 
be the mean for five years of observations made at the neighboring 
station of Grantsville, in Garrett county, which has about the same 
elevation as Frostburg and is but a few miles to the north. This is 
48°. 

Temperature. 

The climatic factor of most concern to us, viewed from the stand- 
point of personal comfort, is the variability of the temperature in 
our vicinity. In tables and diagrams here presented, may be found 
the average annual and monthly values for all stations established in 
Allegany county, the mean daily variation, the mean monthly varia- 
tion, and the absolute extremes of temperature. In Table I may be 
found the results of Mr. E. T. Shriver's extremely valuable record 
of the temperature at Cumberland for thirty-seven years. The nor- 
mal mean temperature for the year is 51.5°; the annual average 
has varied between the limits of 49.1° in 1867 and 54.6° in 1893. 
The mean monthly temperatures have a range varying from 18° dur- 
ing the winter months to less than 10° during the summer months. 
January is the month of greatest variation, with February a close 
second, while August is decidedly the month of least variation. 

Table 11 presents the mean monthly and annual temperatures for 
each station in Allegany county at which observations have been made 
during a period of one year or more. The average daily range, the 
average monthly range, and the absolute maximum and minimum 
values are also shown. In the valleys the average daily range of 
temperature is about 24°, at Frostburg the average daily range is 
but 21°. 



THE CLIMATE OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

—MONTHLY AND ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURES 
AT CUMBERLAND FROM 1859-1895. 

Record or E. T. Shbiyeh. 



1V.ii- 




Feb. 


Mar. 


„,„„ 


June 


July 


*» 


Sept. 


Out. 


Nor. 


Dec. 


! 


























































3d.fi 


m; 




48.8 | 55.5 


71.8 


73.0 


73.11 


04.8 


5S.5 


44 


6 


































1863. 


81.9 


31.8 


34.5 




58 4 


06 4 


74.8 7S.4 




61.3 


4S 




83.8 


50.5 




Sll.3 


WW 


85.9 


46 1 


03.7 


70.0 


70.5 1 74.0 


70.9 


60.6 


4! 


8 






18B5. 




ai.s 




50.0 


66.5 


74.9 


74.3 88.6 


71.11 


48.3 




t 


S4.0 


51.3 


1880. 


81.4 


S7.9 


37.3 


51.4 


SS.9 


71.1 


73.5 67.0 


64.4 


51.4 










1807. 




31.7 


86.3 


49 


54.0 


09.9 


70.9 


69.9 


03.6 


48.0 


41 






411.1 




















































4S.H 








































1871. 


98.9 


80.7 


41.4 


49.5 


03.0 




78.0 




01.1 


54.1 


4(1 




80.5 


51.4 


1872. 


30.9 


31.4 


83.3 


51.8 


03.9 


73.0 


T8.6 




06.4 


53.6 


;;s 


!i 


97.9 


51.7 


1878. 




89.3 


36.0 


S1.7 


01.5 


73.8 


74.0 


7L3 


84.8 


53.9 


HH 


11 








86 


30.1 






03.0 


74.0 


74.4 




67,1) 


58.0 


4(1 




35.0 


53.8 


1875. 


. ao.o 


85.3 


80.0 


47 


63.0 


71.0 


73.0 


09.0 


03.0 


53.0 


4(1 




37.0 


49.S 


1878. 


! 88.0 


35.3 


30.5 


49.0 


03.0 


73.0 




73.0 


03.0 


49.0 


41 


(1 




































1878. 


S9.0 


86.0 


46 


55.0 




65..1 


76.4 














































1880. 


< SU.O 


30.9 


36.5 


58.0 






71.0 


70.0 


08.0 


50.0 


ns 


9 


ttui 


SI. 5 


1881. 


35.0 


37.6 


87.0 


ar.n 


E5.0 


67.8 


73.5 


75.0 


70.0 




l:l 


D 


83.8 








37. a 


43.7 


50.5 


67.0 


68.1 




H9.0 


06,0 


55.8 


ll 


1) 






1888. 


, 37.0 


33.4 


35.0 


48.0 


63.5 


611.9 


78.9 


ea,s 


B2.H 


58.9 






30.0 


53.0 










4HA 


014 


68.7 


70.5 


70.0 


08 


50.8 


41 


It 


33.3 


































1880. 


95.0 


39.9 


40.3 


54.8 


01.4 




























05.8 


69.6 




70.3 




50.0 


8S 


i 1 83.9 




























































1890. 






3fl.3 


51.8 


01 4 


73.8 




68. 8 


03.9 


53.T 




3 31.8 


53.3 


1881. 


38.8 


38.0 


85.9 


54.3 


60.9 


70.1 




70,5 07.1 


51.5 


441 


9 ; 39.6 




1899. 


30.0 


34.5 


85.7 


49 8 


63 8 


73.3 


79.9 


75.9 04.0 


53.0 


41 


i 81.6 


51.9 


1898. 


35.3 


88.8 


411(1 


55.3 


64 8 


7S.1 


??. T 


74.0 1 66.0 


50.7 


44 


3 , 40.6 


«.« 


1894. 


Ui.l) 


31.9 




51.0 


03.8 


78.3 


75.3 


70.8 1 08.8 


55.0 




fl 






1895. 


80.0 


33.0 
33.9 


87.8 
86.0 


53.0 
60.8 


03.3 
00.9 


79.3 
70.1 


70.3 


74.0 | 70.0 


4S.8 
53. S 
14.4 


49 


8 


88.9 


51.0 


Means SO. 8 


71.1 


64.3 


41.4 


83.5 
17.3 


51.5 


Range 18.11 


16.0 


10.4 


13.0 


13.1 


9.8 


11.0 


M 


9 


7 


6.3 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



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222 THE CLIMATE OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

The highest temperature ever officially recorded in Allegany 
county and also in the state of Maryland, is 109°, the maximum of 











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Fin. t>. 

(a) Absolute maximum temperature* in Allegany County. 
16) Average maximum temperature! In Allegany County, 
tt) Normal temperatures In Allegany County. 
td) Average minimum temperatures In Allegany County. 
(el Absolute minimum temperatures In Allegany County, 

July 3, 1898, reported by Mr. F. F. Brown of Boettcherville, near 
Cumberland. On the 13th of February of the following year a 



MARYLAND GEO LOGICAL SURVEY 



temperature of — 22° Fahrenheit was reported from Frostburg, the 
lowest officially recorded within, the limits of Allegany county. 

The occurrence of the absolute maximum and absolute minimum 
of temperature for Allegany county within the short period of two 
successive seasons is a striking coincidence, and has probably fixed 
the absolute range of temperature, 131°, for this county for many 
years to come. The records for the highest and for the lowest tem- 
peratures were broken throughout the state on these dates. 

The fluctuations in temperature from year to year at Cumberland 
from 1859 to 1895 are graphically shown in Figure 7. From 1861 
to 1871 the mean temperature was continuously below the average, 
while from 1872 to 18S4 and from 1889 to 1894 it was above, ex- 
cepting for the years 1875 and 1879. 



Rainfall. 

The rainfall record for Allegany county begins with August, 1871, 
and extends to the present time without interruption. The record 
from 1871 to December, 1895, is that of Mr. E. T. Shriver. 

In 1840 Mr. T. L. Patterson kept a record of the rainfall at Cum- 
berland for nearly one year, in connection with the construction of 
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 

In Table III we have the results of the long series of observations 
for Cumberland extending over a period of twenty-seven years. The 
maximum and minimum amounts of rainfall for each month and for 
the year are in italics, to show more clearly the fluctuations. The 
variations are graphically shown in the diagrams of Figures 8 and 9. 

At the valley stations, Cumberland, Boettcherville, Westernport, 



224 



THE CLIMATE OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 



and Flintstone the annual rainfall is approximately 34 inches. We 
have at present but little more than one year's observations of rainfall 
at the high-level station at Frostburg. From September, 1898, to 
August, 1899, the rainfall measured 47.66 inches at this place. 
During the same period the fall at Cumberland was about 38.74 



TABLE III.— RAINFALL AT CUMBERLAND, 1871-1895. 

Record of E. T. Shriver. 



Year 



1871.. 
1872.. 
1873.. 
1874.. 
1875.. 
1876.. 
1877.. 
1878.. 
1879.. 
1880.. 
1881.. 
1882.. 
1883.. 
1884.. 
1885.. 
1886.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1889.. 
1890.. 
1 891 . . 
1892. . 
1893.. 
1894.. 
1895.. 



Jan. 



0.55 
2.50 
2.40 
1.00 
1.40 
0.80 
3.90 
1.00 
2.16 
1.98 
3.65 
1.80 
1.85 
3.80 
2.90 
0.30 
3.85 
3.01 
1.46 
2.93 
3.18 
0.72 
1.22 
3.53 



Means 



2.16 



Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


0.70 


0.50 


1.20 


2.80 


2.60 


2.70 


2.70 


2.90 


2.80 


4.20 


4.40 


4.90 


2.40 


1.80 


6.50 


1.50 


1.70 


4.00 


1.20 


2.20 


1.20 


0.30 


2.90 


4.60 


1.50 


4.00 


1.30 


1.60 


3.30 


4.60. 


0.6O 


3.30 


2.20 


1.90 


2.90 


4.60 


1.50 


2.60 


2.10 


1.70 


3.90 


2.70 


1.30 


1.40 


0.60 


1.10 


1.90 


4.10 


2.76 


4.17 


2.44 


2.34 


5.84 


2.35 


3.47 


1.74 


1.72 


1.29 


5.22 


3.82 


4.93 


4.50 


4.53 


8.80 


2.08 


2.05 


2.80 


2.20 


2.57 


4.73 


5.38 


4.05 


3.64 


5.14 


1.96 


5.33 


3.33 


4.61 


2.52 


1.30 


1.79 


2.58 


0.86 


l.Ol 


1.83 


3.53 


2.18 


3.62 


4.02 


2.87 


4.38 


1.57 


2.61 


5.64 


3.87 


5.50 


2.15 


3.25 


2.56 


3.47 


3.76 


4.34 


2.07 


3.52 


3.22 


7.02 


3.10 


2.74 


4.24 


5.18 


3.58 


7. IS 


3.07 


1.67 


3.99 


7.47 


2.02 


2.57 


7.69 


5.17 


2.72 


2.62 


8.21 


3.31 


10.08 


1.15 


3.58 


1.00 


3.96 


4.37 


2.12 


1.40 


3.76 


1.33 


2.41 


6.13 


1.64 


3.23 


0.98 


2.45 


1.63 


1.52 


4.42 


2.49 


2.57 


2.90 


2.49 


3.38 


3.75 


3.36 



Aug. 



3.20 
3.00 
3.80 
2.80 
6.10 
0.90 
1.30 
1.70 
4.60 
1.62 
0.31 
8.09 
1.46 
1.49 
3.87 
3.25 
1.12 
8.00 
1.52 
7.07 
3.44 
1.90 
3.74 
1.15 
1.81 



Sept. 



Oct. 



3.09 



2.40 
2.90 
0.40 
2.10 
2.50 
8.20 
2.20 
1.30 
1.00 
2.80 
2.09 
8.50 
2.59 
0.93 
0.75 
1.38 
3.68 
2.95 
4.16 
6.77 
2.46 
2.36 
1.97 
1.74 
0.15 



6.30 
4.80 
2.00 
0.80 
1.30 
0.60 
3.70 
3.30 
2.00 
2.13 
2.05 
1.31 
2.09 
1.98 
4.14 
0.50 
0.39 
2.60 
2.84 
6. 65 
2.21 
0.24 
4.37 
2.25 
1.20 



Nov. 



2.25 
1.30 
1.30 
1.80 
3.80 
1.90 
5.10 
2.30 
2.10 
2.43 
1.33 
1.44 
0.87 
0.92 
1.73 
4.15 
0.82 
2.60 
5.34 
1.83 
2.92 
3.16 
2.01 
0.63 

0.34 



2.71 2.45 



2.17 



Dec. 



0.70 
2.10 
1.10 
1.10 
2.40 
1.30 
0.80 
2.70 
3.40 
3.45 
4.50 
1.10 
1.75 
4.25 
1.55 
1.77 
8.00 
1.53 
1.63 
8.77 
3.42 
1.73 
0.80 
2.63 
2.51 



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21.65 
32.50 
28.90 
29.50 
30.60 
29.40 
29.70 
22.50 
33.99 
29.52 
45.98 
32.29 
35.43 
25.90 
32.00 
32.97 
41.06 
40.17 
52.42 
46.29 
34.66 
30.04 
28.12 
28.03 



32.86 



inches, which is 5.29 inches above the normal for Cumberland. 
Allowing a similar excess for this year at Frostburg we have 42.37 
inches as an approximate normal rainfall for Frostburg, or between 
8 and 9 inches more than at the valley stations. The monthly values 
for all stations are given in Table IV. 

In Figure 8b we have a graphic representation of the distribution 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



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15 



226 THE CLIMATE OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

of rainfall during the year at Cumberland, based on twenty-seven 
years of observations. The curve indicates a fairly well-distributed 
rainfall throughout the year, with a maximum during the summer 
months and a minimum in winter. A marked feature of the curve 
is the sudden deflection downward during the month of April, indi- 
cating a decrease in the rainfall. A similar diminution in the 
amount of precipitation is shown in the records for all the stations 
in Allegany county. 

Figure 8c shows that there has been no period of one month without 
some rain at Cumberland since August, 1871, though during Sep- 
tember, 1895, there was but 0.15 inch. In this connection a quotation 
from a recent letter received from Mr. T. L. Patterson of Cumber- 



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Fin. 8. — Fluctuations In the mean annual rainfall at Cumberland. 

land by the writer is interesting: " In 1838 there was no fall of rain 
here from Hay until early in October, excepting a smart shower on 
the 4th of July. It was the hottest and dryest year I have ever 
known." 

In Figure 10, representing the average number of rainy days dur- 
ing each month of the year, we see again a fairly equal distribution of 
rain throughout the year, a characteristic feature of the weather in 
regions traversed by cyclonic storms. 

While the amount and character of the rainfall of Allegany 
county are affected to a considerable extent by local topography, the 
chief controlling factor is the position of the county with reference 
to the centers of passing cyclonic storms. The rainfall and storm- 
paths have been carefully investigated for Maryland by Mr. F. J, 



MARYLAND 



Wab, the meteorologist of the Maryland State Weather Service, and 
the results recently published in Volume I of its reports. 



* 



mm 



Figure 10 shows the fluctuations in the amount of rainfall from 
year to year at Cumberland from 1872 to 1898, a period of twenty- 



23B THE CLIMATE OK ALLEGANY COUNTY 

seven years. In Table IV the average monthly and annual rainfall 
is given for each station and also the average number of rainy days 
during the year. 

Description of Stations. 
Cumberland. — The early observations of Mr. E. T. Shriver were 
made at 8 A. St. daily. After 1871 he adopted the hours prescribed 
by the Smithsonian Institution, namely: 7 A. M-, 2 P. M., and 9 P. M. 
The location of the station was near Washington and Allegany streets. 
The climatic factors recorded were temperature, rainfall, humidity, 
wind direction and force, cloudiness, and the general character of 
the weather. After the death of Mr. Shriver the observations were 
continued by Mr. Webster Bruce for about one year. 




FlO. 10. — Average number of raluj- daya In the valleys ol Alleg-any County. 

In May of 1889 Mr. Howard Shriver began an elaborate series of 
observations at his residence near Fayette and Smallwood streets, and 
has continued them without interruption to the present time. Mr. 
Shriver's instrumental equipment is very complete, comprising maxi- 
mum and minimum self-registering thermometers, exposed and wet- 
bulb thermometers, a Draper's self-recording thermometer, a barom- 
eter, and a rain-gage. 

In comparing the two series of temperature observations made in 
Cumberland during the period of simultaneous observations from 
1889 to 1896, a difference of nearly four degrees is observed in the 
value for the mean annual temperature. How much of this discrep- 
ancy may be accounted for by difference in hours of observation, in 
the character of the thermometers used, and to difference of exposure, 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 229 

it is difficult to determine. The monthly mean values of Mr. Howard 
Shriver are uniformly from 3° to 5° higher than those of his brother. 
They are also higher than the readings at Boettcherville and Western- 
port by an equal amount. Comparing the mean daily maximum 
values with those at the neighboring stations at Flint-stone and Wcst- 
ernport we find a close agreement. In the minimum readings, on 
the other hand, there is a wide difference, Mr. Howard Shriver's 
values being nearly 7° higher, as shown by the following figures: 

Cumberland. Flintstone. Wcsternport. 

Mean daily maximum 65.1° 04.6° 63.5° 

" minimum 40.3° 30.4° 3D. 5° 

" range 18.8° 25.2° 24.0° 

The discrepancy in the mean annual temperature must therefore be 
sought in the readings of the minimum thermometer. 

The two series of temperature observations at Cumberland have 
been separately reduced to mean values in Table TI. 

Bokttcherville. — In 1801 Mr. Howard Shriver loaned some of 
his instruments to Mr. F. F. Brown in order to secure comparative 
observations in a neighboring locality. In November of 1891 Mr. 
Brown became a regular observer of the Maryland State Weather 
Service. From 1891 to October, 1897, temperature readings were 
made dailv at 7 A. M. and 2 P. M. Since October, 1S97, Mr. Brown 
has used self -registering maximum and minimum thermometers. The 
rainfall has been recorded regularly since November, 1891. The 
station is located at Boettcherville, about three miles to the west of 
Cumberland, in the narrow east and west valley of Braddock Run, 
and has an elevation of 780 feet above sea-level; it is at the base of a 
ridge, which rises abruptly to an elevation of about 1300 feet. 

Wkstkrxport. — Observations were begun in Wcsternport by Pro- 
fessor Oliver II. Bruce in November, 1S94, and have been continued 
without interruption to the present time. The station is equipped 
with a maximum and a minimum self-registering thermometer and 
a standard rain-gage". Wcsternport is built upon a slight eminence in 
a vallev entirelv shut in bv mountains. The citv has an elevation of 
about 1000 feet above sea-level. 



230 THE CLIMATE OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Flintstone. — The station at Flintstone was established in Febru- 
ary of 1896 and continued in operation a little over two years. It 
was provided with the usual instrumental equipment of the Maryland 
State Weather Service, namely, a maximum and a minimum self- 
registering thermometer and a rain-gage. From February to May, 
1896, observations were made by Mr. Newton T. Downs, from June, 
1896, to April 1, 1898, by Mr. Justin Barkman. The town of Flint- 
stone is closely hemmed in by mountains, the valley at this point 
being not over half a mile wide. 

Frostbit;. — The station at Frostburg w r as established but little 
over a year ago by Mr. G. G. Townsend. Observations were begun 
on June 1, 1S9S, and were continued, with the assistance of Mrs. 
Townsend, to the present time. Frostburg has an elevation of about 
2100 feet above sea-level, and is the only active high-level station 
within the limits of Allegany county. The observations consist of 
daily readings of the maximum and minimum thermometers and a 
rain-gage. In addition the direction of the wind and state of the 
weather are recorded. 

The situation of Frostburg, upon the divide between Jennings 
Run and Georges Creek, permits a free movement of the atmosphere 
from any direction. We have at the present time a little more than 
one year of observations. While this record is not sufficient to deter- 
mine definitely the character of the climate, there is sufficient evidence 
to show that conditions are distinctlv different from those of the lower 
stations. 

Mount Savage. — We have one complete year's record of the tem- 
perature at Mount Savage, made by Mr. T. C. Atkinson in 1846. 
Mr. Atkinson reported to the Smithsonian Institution the daily read- 
ing? of the thermometer at 7 A. M., 2 P. M., and 9 P. M. Observa- 
tions were made at the Evrie House. 

Oldtowx. — The record at Oldtown covers but a fraction of one 
year, from May to August, 1895, and consists of readings of the 
maximum and minimum thermometers and the rain-gage by Dr. H. 
C. Shipley. 



MABTLAND GEOLOGICAL SUEVBT 



231 









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Kio. 2.-MEASVKING VBLOCtTY OF KIVLCH WATER FHOM BOAT. 
HVDROGKAPIiy OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY 

COUNTY 



BY 

F. H. NEWELL 



Owing to the peculiar shape of Allegany county a study of its 
hydrography involves not merely an examination of a few small 
streams but the consideration of problems whose successful solution 
affects the prosperity of large communities situated in several states. 
The county, as described in other chapters, extends along the north 
side of the Potomac river for a distance of about 93 miles following 
the course of the stream, and extending back or northerly from it for 
a distance of from five to fifteen or twenty miles. For simplicity of 
description, the name Potomac is here applied, not only to the main 
stream formed by the junction of the North and South forks at a 
point about opposite the center of the county, but also to the North 
Fork itself which, above this point, forms the southern boundary of 
the area under consideration. The general course of the river is 
easterly, crossing the trend of the ranges which make up the moun- 
tain svstem. and the Potomac thus receives from the north a con- 
siderable number of small streams draining the narrow valleys. Tak- 
ing these in order down the stream, that is, from west to east, the first 
is Georges Creek, the only stream of importance whose drainage area 
is almost entirely included within the county; following this are 
Wills Creek, Evitts Creek, Big Spring Kun, Town (-reek, 15-mile 
Creek, and, finally, Sideling Creek, forming the eastern boundary of 
the countv. ]Most of these streams rise in Bedford countv, Penn- 
svlvnnia, and flow in a general southerly direction across the narrow 
strip of Maryland constituting Allegany county. 



234 THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

The Potomac and the smaller tributaries flowing along or within 
the boundaries of Allegany county receive the run-off from precipita- 
tion w T hich has fallen upon relatively steep and undulating surfaces 
covered for the most part w T ith woodland or scattered growth of trees. 
The valuable timber of the original forest has long since been cut 
away, leaving the unmerchantable wood or second growth. The 
valleys and rounded hills have been partly cleared and brought under 
cultivation; there are no ponds or marshes such as occur in the north- 
ern glaciated regions of the United States, and thus there is little 
to retain the water in its course from the hillsides to the various 
creeks. The run-off is rapid and the amount of water percolating 
into the soil to reappear as springs and to feed the summer flow is 
relatively small. In times of deficient rainfall the streams shrink 
rapidly to mere rivulets, and this diminution in discharge has pre- 
vented the utilization of the flowing water in the production of power. 

The principal industrial uses of the streams and springs of the 
region are in town or municipal supply and in manufacturing opera- 
tions. There is, however, a large problem inseparably connected 
with the study of water resources which may be considered as bear- 
ing on the negative side, that is to say, whose proper solution may 
result in preventing injury to these resources rather" than promoting 
them; this is the great question of stream-pollution — one which is 
not only of interest to the people of the county, but to all persons 
resident along the streams flowing from this area. 

The matter of stream-pollution within or near Allegany county 
has already become one of public interest and has even reached the 
acute stage of contention in the courts; it is therefore not desirable 
to discuss the matter in a way which might be considered as reflecting 
upon one side or another, but to give merely some of the principal 
physical facts noted by a reconnaissance of the area. These w f ill be 
given in connection with statements regarding the quantity of water 
found bv the measurements made at various times. ' 

The only svstematic series of observations of flow of water within 
or near Allegany county has been that made at Cumberland, the 
results of which have been given from time to time in the reports 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 235 

of the Division of Hydrography of the United States Geological 
Survey. Observations of river height were begun on June 11, 1894, 
at the West Virginia Central Railroad bridge about 200 yards below 
the dam on the Potomac. The gage was a vertical rod 10 feet 
long, bolted to the east end of the abutment of the head-gates above 
the dam. The channel consists of loose rocks and did not change 
notably. The discharge measurements were made from the bridge. 1 
Measurements were made not only of the discharge of the river but 
also of the amount of water taken out above the dam bv the feeder 
of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. On June 5, 1895, when there 
were 216 cubic feet per second, or second-feet, in the river, there 
were in the canal feeder 40 second-feet On June 6 the river dis- 
charged 530 second-feet and the canal feeder carried 79 second-feet; 
on June 13 the river discharged 149 second-feet and the canal feeder 
carried 38 second-feet; on July 17 the river discharged 266 second- 
feet and the canal feeder carried 79 second-feet. 9 Measurements 
were continued through 1896, the results being shown on pages 22-24 
of the Eighteenth Annual Report, Part IV, of the United States 
Geological Survey.* Observations were discontinued in November, 
1897/ 

The following tables give the daily gage height as observed during 
the years 1895, 1896 and 1897: 

The heights of water noted above show from day to day the eleva- 
tion of the surface of the stream as noted upon an arbitrary gage. 
In order to interpret these into quantity of flow it has been necessary 

1 Report of Progress of the Division of Hydrography for the calendar 
year 1893 and 1894, Bulletin of the U. S. Geological Survey, No. 131, Washing- 
ton, 1895, p. 8S. 

8 Report of Progress of the Division of Hydrography for the calendar 
year 1895, Bulletin of the U. S. Geological Survey, No. 140, Washington, 
1896, p. 46. 

* For daily gage heights, 1896, see Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper 
No. 11, of the U. S. Geological Survey, Washington. 1897, p. 8. 

1 Water-Supply and Irrigation Paper No. 15, of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
Washington, 1898, p. 15: Report of Progress of Stream Measurements for the 
Calendar Year 1898, extract from the Nineteenth Annual Report, Part IV, 
Washington, 1899, p. 146. 



236 



THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 



to make a number of measurements of the amount of water passing 
the given point. For this purpose the locality has been visited at 
various dates given below, the width of the stream ascertained, and 
also its depth at short, intervals across from one side to the other. 
At the same time the speed with which different parts of the current 

DAILY GAGE HEIGHT OF POTOMAC RIVER AT CUMBERLAND, MD., 

FOR 1895. 



Day 


Jan. 


1 


3.00 


4 

5 


3.00 
3 00 


r* 


4.80 


8 


0.00 


9 


4.80 


10 

11 


4.70 
4.10 


14 

15 


3.50 


10 


3 . 00 


17 


3. 90 


18 

21 

22 


8.90 
4.00 


28 


4 00 


24 


3.70 


20 


3.40 


30 


3.70 







Feb. 



3.60 
3.00 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
3.50 
8.40 
3.40 
3.40 
3.40 
3.30 
3.40 
3.40 
3.40 
3.40 
3.40 
3.40 
3.40 
8.40 
3.40 
3.00 
4.10 
5.00 



Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


8ept. 


Dec. 


0.00 


3.90 


3.40 


8.00 


3.10 


2.80 


1.00 « 




5.70 


8.80 


3.80 


3.00 


3.40 


2.70 


1.00 






4.90 


4.40 


3.80 


8.00 


3.30 


2.70 


1.00 . 






4.00 


3.90 


3.00 


2.90 


3.10 


2.70 


1.90 






4.20 


3.80 


3.00 


2.90 


8.10 


2.70 


1.90 






4.00 


3.70 


3.40 


8.00 


8.20 


2.00 


1.90 






8.80 


3.00 


8.30 


3.00 


3.20 


2.00 


1.80 






, 3.80 


3.80 


3.20 


3.00 


8.20 


2.00 


0.80 . 






J 4.20 


5.00 


3.40 


2.90 


3.30 


2.50 


0.70 






4.00 


5.50 


3.20 


2.90 


3.70 


2.50 


0.50 






4.00 


4.70 


3.20 


2.90 


3.40 


2.40 


0.50 






3.80 


4.70 


8.70 


2.80 


3.20 


2.40 


0.60 . 






3.80 


8.90 


3.70 


2.80 


3.20 


2.40 


1.10 






4.50 


3.80 


3.70 


3.80 


8.80 


2.80 


1.20 , , 






4.80 


3.80 


3.50 


3.30 


3.80 


2.20 


1.00 , , 






5.20 


3.80 


3.30 


8.20 


3.30 


2.10 


0.90 : , 






4.70 


3.80 


3.40 


3.20 


3.00 


2.00 


0.90 1 . 






4.50 


3.70 


3.40 


8.10 


3.00 


1.90 


0.80 






4.30 


3.00 


3.40 


3.00 


2.90 


1.80 


0.70 , 






4.10 


3.50 


3.30 


3.00 


2.90 


1.70 


0.50 : 






3.80 


8.40 


3.40 


2.90 


2.70 


1.00 


0.40 






3.70 


3.40 


3.40 


3.00 


2.70 


1.30 


0.30 i 


J. 00 


3.70 


3.30 


3.40 


3.00 


2.70 


1.20 


0.20 J 


5.20 


, 3.70 


3.30 


3.40 


3.00 


2.70 


1.10 


0.10 i 


3.90 


, 3.70 


3.20 


3.30 


2.90 


2.70 


1.00 


(<i) S 


3.90 


4.50 


3.30 


3 . 20 


3.00 


2.70 


0.90 


.... J 


3.00 


4.30 


3.30 


3.30 


3.00 


2.70 


0.90 


.... < 


2.90 


4.80 


3.30 


3.20 


3.30 


2.80 


0.90 


.... i 


3.90 


5.10 


3.30 


3.10 


3.20 


2.90 


0.90 


< .... 


2.90 


4.50 


3.40 


3.10 


3.00 


2.90 


0.80 


.... 


*.10 


| 4.50 


■ • • • 


3.10 


• • ■ • 


2.80 


0.90 


... i 


3.00 



m) Water 5 inches below g&ge. Readings discontinued till December 22. 



is moved has been ascertained by means of suitable devices known as 
current meters. These usuallv consist of small wheels or turbine 
screws so constructed that the flowing water causes them to revolve. 
The rate of revolution of the wheel is dependent upon the speed of 
the water. Each revolution is made known or recorded bv suitable 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




PRICE ELECTRIC CURRENT METERS, WITH BUZZERS. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



237 



electrical device, and when the relation between the revolution of 
the wheel of the current meter and the velocity of the stream has once 
been ascertained it is a relatively simple mechanical matter to com- 
pute the rate of flow at any point across or beneath the surface of a 
river. The following table gives in cubic feet per second, or second- 



DAILY GAGE HEIGHT OF POTOMAC RIVER AT CUMBERLAND, MD., 

FOR 18<W. 



July j Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. 



5.50 
4.50 
4.50 
3.50 
3.40 
3.30 
3.10 
3.10 
3.10 




3.10 

3.10 

3.10 

3.20 

3.20 

5.50 

4.50 

3.80 

3.80 

3.70 

3.601 

3.50 

3.50 

3.40 

3.20 

3.10 

3.10 

3.20 

3.30 

3.30 

3.20J 

3 . 30i 

3.30 

3.40 

3.30 

3.30 

3.20 

3.20 

3.90i 

4.00 



3.70 
3.50 
3.40 
3.30 
3.30 
3.30 
3.30 
3 .20 
3.30 
3.30 
3.40 
3.60 
3.40 
3.30 
3.30 
3.30 
3.30 
3.30 
3.30 
3.30 
3.20 
3.20 
3.20 
3.20 
3.20 
3.20 
3.10 
3.10 
3.10 
3.10 
3.20 



feet, the results of these measurements made at various times since 
1894. It also shows the height of water, the area of the section in 
square feet, and the average or mean velocity of the entire stream 
at that time and place. 

From the observations of height of water and the measurements 
of discharge made at various times, rating tables have been made 



238 



THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 



giving approximately the amount of water flowing in the stream 
corresponding to different heights on the gage. This has been con- 
structed by plotting upon cross-section paper the height of water and 
the discharge by the relative distance from one side of the drawing; 
in other words, by plotting these points according to rectangular 

DAILY GAGE HEIGHT OF POTOMAC RIVER AT CUMBERLAND, MD., 

FOR 1897. 



Day 



1. 
2. 
8. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 

11. 
13. 
18. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
28. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 



Jan. Feb. 



3 
3 
3 
i 3 
4 
4 
3 
3 
8 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
8 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
8 
3 
3 
3 



.20 
.20 
.30 
.30 
.00 



3.40 
3.50 
8.60 
3.40 
3.40 



.00i 3.50 
.70J 4.50 
.40. 4.20 
.30, 4.00 
.40 
.20 
.20 
.20 
.20 



3.70 
3.60 
3.50 
3.70 
4.00 
20 4.20 



.20 
.40 
.70 
.50 
.40 
.40 



4.70 
4.50 
5.00 
4.80 
3.50 
3.50 



. 50 10 50 
.40 8.70 
.40i 6.20 



.30 
.30 
.30 
.30 
.30 
.30 
.30, 



5.10 
4.50 
4.30 
4.00 



Mar. 


Apr. 


4.00 


3.50 


3.80 


3.40 


3.90 


3.40 


5.20 


3.70 


4.90 


8.80 


6.00 


3.70 


5.00 


3.60 


4.40 


5.20 


4.60 


5.40 


4.20 


4.50 


4.00 


4.50 


4.00 


4.10 


3.90 


4.00 


3.80 


3.80 


4.00 


3.90 


3.80 


3.90 


3.70 


3.70 


4.00 


3.70 


4.50 


3.00 


4.80 


3.70 


4.60 


3.50 


4.20 


3.80 


4.00 


3.80 


4.20 


3.30 


4.10 


3.20 


4.00 


8.10 


3.90 


8.00 


3.80 


3.00 


3.70 


3.00 


3.60 


2.90 


3.60 


* • • • 



May 



June 



3.50 
7.50 
5.50 
5.00 
4.60 
4.10 
4.10 
3.90 
3.70 
3.70 
3.60 
4.00 
4.40 
5.40 
4.60 
4.30 
3.90 
3.80 
3.70 
3.50 
8.80 
3.30 
3.80 
8.00 
3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
3.00 
2.90 
2.90 
2.90 



2.90 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.80 
2.90 
2.70 
2.70 
2.70 
2.60 
2.50 
2.50 
8.00 
8.00 
2.90 
2.90 
2.90 
3.00 
3.00 
2.90 
2.90 
3.00 
2.90 
2.90 
2.90 
2.90 
2.80 



July 



Aug. Sept. 



2.70 

2.70 

2.70 

2.70 

2.70 

2.60 

2.60 

2.70 

2.70 

2.70 

2.80 

2.90 

2.90 

2.80 

2.80 

2.80J 

2.70! 

2.80 

2.80 

2.90 

3.20 

8.00 

3.00 

3.00 

3.00 

2.90 

3.20 

3.10 

3.10 

8.10 

3.00 



8.00 

8.00 

2.90 

2.90 

3.50 

3.20 

3.10 

3.20 

3.10 

3.00 

3.00 

2.90 

2.90i 

2.80 

3.00 

3.00 

2. 90' 

2.80J 

2.90 : 

2.901 

2.90 

2.90| 

2.90 

2.90 

2.90 

3.00 

8.00 

3.00 

2.90' 

2.80 

2.60 



2.60 
2.50 
2.50 
2.50 
2.40 
2.40 
2.20 
1.90 
1.80 
1.80 
1.70 
1.60 
1.50 
1.40 
1.30 
1.20 
1.20 
8.20 
3.00 
2.90 
2.80 
2.70 
2.60 
2.80 
3.00 
8.00 
2.90 
2.80 
2.80 
2.70 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



2.20 
2.00 
1.90 
1.70 
1.70 
1.60 
1.50 
1.40 
1.40 
1.50 
1.30 
1.80 
1.30 
1.40 
1.50 
1.50 
1.40 
1.40 
1.40 
1.40 
1.40 
1.30 
1.30 
1.50 
1.60 
1.60 
1.70 
1.70 
2.40 
2.70 
2.70 



2.80 
3.00 
3.00 
8.10 
3.00 
2.90 
2.90 
3.00 
4.00 
3.40 
3.40 
3.80 
3.20 
8.20 
3.50 
8.50 
3.40 
3.30 
3.30 
3.20 



co-ordinates. Through the series of points thus obtained a smooth 
curve has been drawn averaging the conditions and giving for each 
tenth of a foot height on the gage a corresponding flow of discharge. 
These rating tables are given below in condensed form. 

By applying the values given in the above tables, a statement has 
been prepared of the average daily flow throughout the period. From 



\ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



239 



LI8T OF DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS MADE ON POTOMAC RIVER AT 

CUMBERLAND, MDJ 



No. 



o 

mi 

3 
4 
5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

U 

12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 



Date. 



Mar. 
Apr. 



1894. 

May 24 

1895. 

30 

10 

25 

3 

9 

23 

5 

6 



Apr. 
May 
May 

May 
June 
Juue 
June 13 
Julv 17 

1896. 
June 24 
Aiitf. 6 
Nov. 18 
Feb. 10 
Mar. 27 
June 25 
8ept. 1 
8ept. 22 



Hydrographer. 




C. C. Babb 


23 

29 1 
29 1. 
29 hi 
29 h 
29 hi 
29 hi 
29 h 
29 h 
29 h 
76 

W. B. i 
W. B. 

68 


• • • • uu ■•••••■«••• 

do 


T). C. Humphreys. . 


A. P. Davis 















4.50 
5.40 
3.30 
3.75 
3.40 
3.40 
2.95 
3.10 
3.00 
3.05 

3.31 
3.30 
3.38 
3.75 
3.93 
3.00 
2.60 
2.70 



Area of 

section 

(square 

feet). 



1,106 

1,0*8 
1,500 
423 
722 
465 
569 
373 
445 
334 
857 

580 
355 
577 



Mean 
| velocity 
; (feet per 
1 second). 



2.60 

3.17 
3.88 
1.49 
2.39 
1.67 
1.46 
0.69 
1.37 
0.86 
0.97 

1.42 
1.71 
1.33 



Discharge 
(second- 
feet). 



3,037 

3,446 
6,054 
630 
1,728 
777 
831 
256 
609 
287 
345 

822 

605 

765 

1,307 

1,995 

425 

86 

92 



1 Gaging* include discharge of canal feeders. 



RATING TABLES FOR POTOMAC RIVER AT CUMBERLAND, MD., 

1895, 1896 AND 1897. 





Discharge in second-feet. 




Discharge in second-feet. 


Gage 








Gage 
Height in 


-— ■ — 


— 




Height in 










feet. 








feet. 










1H»5. 


1896. 


1897. 




1895. 


1896. 


1897. 


2.7 


160 


160 


110 


4.3 


3,070 


3,070 


3,015 


2.8 


200 


200 


140 


4.4 


3,325 


3,325 


3,295 


2.9 


250 


240 


180 


4.5 


3,580 


3,580 


3,575 


3.0 


325 


800 


255 


4.6 


3,835 


3,835 


3,855 


3.1 


425 


400 


375 


4.7 


4,090 


4,090 


4,135 


3.2 


MK 
«»«*•» 


500 


525 


4.8 


4,345 


4,345 


4,415 


3.3 


650 


650 


680 


4.9 


4,600 


4,600 


4,695 


3.4 


800 


800 


835 


5.0 


4,855 


4,855 


4,975 


3.5 


1,030 


1,000 


990 


5.2 


5,365 


5,365 


5,535 


3.6 


1,285 


1,285 


1,165 


5.5 


6,130 


6,180 


6,375 


3.7 


1,540 


1,540 


1,365 


6.0 


7,405 


7,405 


7,775 


3.8 


1,795 


1,795 


1,615 


7.0 


• • • • 


• « « • 


10,575 


3.9 


2,050 


2,050 


1,895 


s.o 


• ■ • • 


.... 


13,375 


4.0 


2,305 


2,305 


2,175 


9.0 


• ■ • • 


• • • • 


16,175 


4.1 


2,560 


2,560 


2,455 


10.0 


• • • • 


• • • • 


18,975 


4.2 


2,815 


2,815 


2,735 


11.0 


• • > • 


■ ■ • • 


21.775 



240 



THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 



these averages a condensed table giving the greatest and least flow for 
each month and the average for that month in second-feet has been 
compiled for convenience of reference. The average flow for the 
month is also given in another form in comparison with the area 

ESTIMATED MONTHLY DISCHARGE OF POTOMAC RIVER AT 

CUMBERLAND, MD. 

[DRAINAGE area, 891 SQUARE miles.] 



Month. 



1895. 



Discharge in second-feet. 



Maximum. 



Minimum. 



January 

February 4,855 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 



1890. 

January 

February i 4,600 

March ' 12,505 

April 4,855 

May 3,580 

June | 2,560 

July : 17,600 



7,405 


325 


4,855 


650 


7,405 


1,540 


6,385 


525 


1,795 


425 


650 


200 


1,540 


160 


2,815 


240 



August . . . 
September 
October . . 
November 
December. 



1,795 
17,600 
6,130 
6,130 
1,540 



Per annum 17,600 



1897. 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September (a) 
October (a). . . 



2,175 

20,375 

7,775 

6,095 

11,975 

255 

525 

990 

525 

110 



400 
300 
650 
240 
500 
800 
200 
140 
240 
400 
400 



140 



525 

835 

1,165 

180 

180 

80 

85 

85 

10 

20 



Mean. 



1,844 

1,128 

3,185 

1,875 

870 

355 

431 



438 

1,498 

1,991 

1,792 

1,351 

1,396 

2,141 

656 

859 

868 

1,116 

654 



1,230 



836 

3,610 

2,744 

1,570 

2,162 

165 

199 

256 

70 

40 



Run-off. 



Depth in 
inches. 



2.39 
1.32 
4.12 
2.35 
1.13 
0.46 
0.55 



0.56 
1.81 
2.57 
2.24 
1.75 
1.75 
2.77 
0.85 
1.07 
1.12 
1.39 
0.84 



18.72 



1.08 
4.21 
3.55 
1.96 
2.79 
0.21 
0.25 
0.33 
0.09 
0.04 



Second- 
feet per 
square 
mile. 



2.07 
1.27 
3.57 
1.10 
0.98 
0.40 
0.48 



0.49 
1.68 
2.28 
2.01 
1.52 
1.57 
2.40 
0.74 
0.96 
0.97 
1.25 
0.73 



1.88 



0.94 
1.05 
3.08 
1.76 
2.42 
0.19 
0.22 
0.29 
0.08 
0.04 



(a) Approximate. 



% 



MARYLAND &EOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



ALLEOANY COUNTY, PLATE XX. 





HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



\ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL 



241 



drained. That is to say, above the point of measurement there are 
891 square miles; if it is assumed that the water comes equally from 
all parts of this surface (which, however, it does not do) and that the 
average for the month is 1,782 second-feet, there would be an average 




of the Potomac 



for 1S!l5aud ISBfi. 



of 2 second-feet per square mile drained. This expression is of con- 
venience in considering the probable amount discharged from a 
larger or smaller drainage area of similar character, that is to say, 



■242 



THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 



from a portion of the drainage area above Cumberland, embracing 
say 500 square miles, it is reasonable to assume that about 1,000 
cubic feet per second flowed during the month. As a matter of fact, 
however, the run-off from a smaller drainage area is usually relatively 
greater than from a large drainage area, because the smaller often 
includes a greater proportion of mountain or rough land at the head- 
waters of the streams. The table also gives the average flow per 
month in terms of depth in inches over the whole surface drained. 



■ " ,"- :'•■. *„';; ° c ; D *°; °', l 


! 


J 


"•" 


i 








j i i 


Jill I 


ill 1 1 1 


1 ILL 1 II 4- n 


1 1 IIIU A U i 





The rainfall records give the precipitation upon the surface in depth 
in inches and the amount flowing from the surface has also been 
computed in depth in inches for convenience of comparison of the 
run-off with the rainfall. 

In addition to the measurements of discharge at Cumberland, a 
number of determinations of the flow of various streams were made 
during the reconnaissance of the Potomac Basin before mentioned. 
This was carried on during the unusual drought of the fall of 1897, 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 243 

the field work being by Mr. Arthur P. Davis and his assistants, Mr. 
E. G. Paul and Mr. Gerard H. Matthes. 1 

The country was systematically examined as far as practicable and 
facts bearing upon the quantity of water and also upon its utiliza- 
tion or pollution were obtained. - From time to time samples of water 
were taken. These were referred to the Supervising Surgeon-Gen- 
eral of the [Marine Hospital for examination, the results being pub- 
lished in a report * by the latter organization. The following details 
have been taken largely from the field-notes of the Kydrographers 
above named. 

The water of the Xorth Branch of the Potomac, even near its 
head, is naturally somewhat dark in color, and it is stated by the 
older inhabitants of the region that it has always been thus dark, 
owing, probably, to the presence of decaying vegetable matter from 
the forests. This discoloration is further increased bv the effluents 
from sawmills, tanneries and coal mines, so that at the old mill- 
dam near Keyser, where the polluted water, agitated by the falls, 
boils and foams, a thick layer of whitish-brown froth is formed. 
Within the northern part of its drainage area, including Allegany 
county, and particularly in the vicinity of Cumberland, are, as is 
well known, a considerable number of large coal mines furnishing 
employment to hundreds of laborers. The drainage water from 
these mines, as they are deepened, becomes considerable in quantity, 
and as this is pumped directly into the smaller streams, stains the 
waters of the creeks w r hich, above point of inflow, are usually bright 
and clear. 

The headwaters of the North Branch proper are at the Potomac 
Spring near the Fairfax Stone on the present West Virginia and 
Maryland state line at an elevation of about 3,000 feet. From this 
the river flows in a northeasterly direction for about 46 miles, form- 
ing the dividing line between Garrett county, Maryland, and Grant 
county, West Virginia, to the confluence of Savage river, where the 

1 Drainage Basin of the Potomac, Fifty-fifth Congress, second session, Sen. 
Doc. No. 90; also Nineteenth Annual Report, Part IV, pp. 132-101. 

7 Bacteriological Examination of the Potomac River, Senate Doc. No. 211, 
Fifty-fifth Congress, second session. 



244 THE HYDBOORAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

elevation is over 950 feet. 1 From this point on it forms the boundary 
of Allegany county, separating it from Mineral county, West Vir- 
ginia. From the mouth of Savage river the course is southeasterly 
for a distance of 6 miles to Keyser, on the West Virginia side of the 
river. Here the stream abruptly resumes its northeasterly course 
and continues for 23 miles, reaching Cumberland at an elevation of 
600 feet. At this point again, the river sharply turns and continues 
southerly for 12 miles, where it joins the South Branch to form the 
main Potomac. 

Along the upper part of its course, down to Westernport, the most 
westerly town in Allegany county, the North Branch flows through 
a narrow, tortuous valley, the steep, wooded hillsides of which afford 
little opportunity for settlement. The roads are few and bad, and 
the West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railway affords the only 
means of transportation. The extensive lumber trade in this region 
is responsible for a number of small settlements along the river and 
the existence of the two towns of Bayard, West Virginia, with an 
estimated population of 700, and Gonnania, West Virginia, with an 
estimated population of GOO inhabitants. 

Owing to its considerable fall along this section, which averages 46 
feet per mile, but in some portions exceeds 60 feet per mile, the river 
assumes much the nature of a mountain torrent, presenting one con- 
tinuous series of riffles and falls, the latter in some instances having 
a drop of 5 feet and over. There seems to be little opportunity for 
developing the waterpowers of this stream, however considerable they 
may be. Freshets are frequent and heavy, and would inflict serious 
damage to the cheaper forms of milldams. Stone and brush dams, 
crib dams, and loose-rock dams would either be sw r ept away or would 
require incessant repairs and rebuilding. On account of the narrow- 
ness of the valley, waste-weirs would be impracticable, and dams 
would have to be built to withstand the heaviest floods passing over 
them, which would render their construction elaborate and expensive. 
It is only difficult to find good mill sites. The following discharge 
measurements, made in September and October of 1897, will serve to 

x Nineteenth Annual Report, Part IV, U. S. Geological Survey, p. 141. 



i 



MARYLAND SEOLOQICAl SURVEY. 




\ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 245 

throw light upon the capacity of the river during the dry season: 
September 23 a measurement made at Gormania, West Virginia, 
gave a discharge of 54 second-feet. On September 25 the discharge 
of the river at Schell was 136 second-feet. Measurements made 
above the junction with Savage river on September 27 and October 
27 gave discharges of 122 and 102 second-feet, respectively, the 
latter fairly representing the capacity of the Xorth Branch at this 
point during the severe drought of 1897. These results, together 
with the large amount of available head and the fact that the river 
does not freeze over in winter, seem to indicate that there would be 
ample power at all times for average milling purposes. The fact 
that no attempt has been made by any of the sawmills and tanneries 
along the river to make use of waterpower has, however, sufficient 
explanation. The first-named enterprises use steam by preference, 
because they are primarily of a temporary character, liable to be 
shifted whenever it may be found advantageous to shorten the dis- 
tance which the raw materials are to be hauled, and also because 
they are supplied with an abundance of fuel, at no cost, in the form 
of sawdust. The tanneries, though of a more permanent character, 
invariably prefer steam power, because, besides being able to utilize 
tan bark as fuel, they require the use of steam in their processes. 

A small waterpower has been developed by two mills at Blaine, 
West Virginia, but the amount is trifling in comparison with what 
might be obtained at that point. One 15-inch and one 18-inch turbine 
under 7£ feet head furnish about 8 horsepower to a small woolen mill. 
On the same mill-race is situated a sawmill and grist-mill combined, 
which obtains about 25 horsepower from one 30-inch turbine under 9 
feet head. Water is taken from the river at a point about one-half 
mile above the mills, where there is a low natural dam across the river. 

The more important tributaries were visited and the discharges 
measured. September 24 the discharge of Buffalo Creek at Bayard, 
West Virginia, was found to be 23 second-feet. The water was 
heavily laden with sawdust from the Buffalo Lumber Company. 
Stony river, the principal tributary above the mouth of Savage river, 
was visited September 25. Its discharge* was 38 seeond-feet. This 



246 THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

stream flows through a hilly region, covered with thick timber 
growths, and has no settlements along it except a few logging camps. 
The headwaters rise in the highest part of the Potomac Basin, at an 
altitude of 4,000 feet. September 25 Abram Creek showed a dis- 
charge of 7.4 second-feet. The water of this creek carries much 
coaldust from the mines at Elk Garden, West Virginia, and also 
receives sawdust from a sawmill at Emory, West Virginia. 

The North Branch all along this upper section is polluted by large 
quantities of sawdust produced by fourteen sawmills, some of which 
discharge the sawdust directly into the river, and others into the 
tributaries. The more important of these are the sawmill of the 
J. L. Bumbarger Company, at Dobbin, West Virginia, with a capacity 
of 100,000 feet of lumber a day, the saw- and planing-mills of 
M. N. Wilson, at Wilson, Maryland, with a capacity of 20,000 feet 
of lumber a day, and of the Buffalo Lumber Company, at Bayard, 
West Virginia, with a capacity of 50,000 feet of lumber a day. It 
furthermore receives the wastes from two tanneries — those of the 
Middlesex Leather Company, at Bayard, West Virginia, with a 
capacity of from 600 to 800 hides a day, and the J. T. Hoffmann's 
Sons Company, at Gormania, West Virginia, with a capacity of 300 
hides a day. The wastes from the latter establishments consist of 
tan liquor, lime water, and a certain amount of tan bark, which is 
washed from the banks at times of high water. The total amount 
of this pollution is such that the river, especially during the dry 
season, has a foul appearance in spite of its dashing course over the 
bowlders of its rough but picturesque bed. The water has a dark- 
brown tinge, very suggestive of contamination by tan liquor, and 
particles of sawdust are extremely plentiful and are carried for long 
distances. In many places where irregularities in the current have 
caused accumulations of sawdust, small banks and bars composed of 
solid strata of sawdust are to be found. It is a noteworthy fact that 
Stony river, though free from artificial pollution, exhibits to a certain 
degree the same dark color peculiar to the waters of the main river. 

About 2 miles above Westernport, Savage river empties into the 
North Branch. It is a small stream of great purity, having its 



V 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL 6UBVEY 247 

headwaters in Garrett county. Only two small sawmills are located on 
its banks, and the pollution caused by them is insignificant. A dis- 
charge measurement made October 27 at the mouth of the stream, 
above the intake of the Piedmont water supply, gave a discharge of 
11.3 second-feet. The town of Piedmont and part of Westernport 
are supplied with drinking water by a gravity system, from a reser- 
voir which is kept filled by pumping water from Savage river. The 
quantity pumped daily is estimated at 375,000 gallons. 

One-half mile above Westernport, at Luke, is the factory of the 
Piedmont Pulp and Paper Mill Company, which has a daily capacity 
of 40 tons of book paper and 50 tons of pulp. In the process of 
manufacturing the pulp from spruce and poplar wood the wood-fiber 
is disintegrated by treating with bisulphite of lime, and a number of 
chemical residuals are formed which are discharged into the river. 
These chemicals consist principally of sulphates and sulphites of cal- 
cium, some free sulphuric and sulphurous acids, chloride of calcium 
used in bleaching the fiber, and a large amount of resinous matter. 
An analysis, made of a sample of the effluent from one of the 
digesters, shows acids as follows: 

Grams per liter. 

SO, (sulphuric acid and sulphates) 1.030 

SO, (sulphurous acid, sulpho-acids, etc.) 8.800 

Total SO, after complete oxidation 12.030 

It further appears from the analysis that but little of the acid 
occurs in a free state, being chiefly combined with organic matter 
contained in the effluent 

Besides these chemical compounds, wastes of a more solid nature 
are discharged into the river at this point. A small amount of pulp 
is lost in the washing of the fiber; its escape is more or less accidental, 
signifying a loss against which the owners of the mill keep careful 
watch. The sediments from the filter tanks, representing the ma- 
terials carried in suspension by the river water, are screened out 
before the water can be used in the process of manufacturing pulp 
and paper, and are returned into the river. The filtering plant, 
established solely for this purpose, was put in at a cost of $35,000. 
The water of the North Branch is, therefore, hardly fit for industrial 



248 THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

purposes, much less for domestic use. The action of the acids on the 
clay contained in the water, together with the small amount of pulp 
referred to, forms a gray compound which is found to coat the stones 
in the bed of the river below the mill, and is frequently spoken of 
as waste pulp. 

The North Branch, in passing the towns of Piedmont and West- 
ernport, receives a large amount of impurity in the form of sewage 
and garbage, and is badly polluted by the water of Georges Creek, 
which enters the river at Westernport. This small stream, in its 
course of 17 miles, receives the effluents of a number of coal mines, 
besides the drainage and sewage of several towns, the most important 
of which are Frostburg, Lonaconing and Westernport, with popula- 
tions of 6,000, 4,200 and 2,000 respectively. 

When measured at Westernport September 28, 1897, the discharge 
of Georges Creek was found to be 6 second-feet, a very low stage. 
The water, which is very clear, possesses such acidity that horses and 
cattle refuse to drink it, and no living organisms can be seen in it. 
An analvsis shows acids as follows: 

V 

Grams per liter. 

Combined sulphuric acid, as SO, 0.7350 

Free sulphuric acid, as SO. 0.1047 

Sulphurous acids and sulphites None. 

The water also contains a large quantity of alumina. The presence 
of the sulphuric acid and sulphates is due to the large percentage of 
ferric sulphate contained in the coal-mine effluent. Being an un- 
stable compound, it breaks up when acted upon by the oxygen of the 
air, parting with the iron which settles on the rocks in the bed, form- 
ing a coating of ferric hydroxide which gives to the entire stream a 
very rusty appearance. 

The North Branch, between Westernport and Keyser, West Vir- 
ginia, has little fall. Near the latter town it passes over an old mill- 
dam. The fall, though slight, causes a thick froth to form on the 
water, covering the entire river below the dam with a white coat of 
scum several inches deep, a strong evidence of the foulness of the 
water. The town of Keyser, which has an estimated population of 
3,500, although not situated on the banks of the North Branch, adds 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE X 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 249 

materially to the pollution of the latter. New Creek, a tributary of 
the North Branch, passes through the town and carries off, besides 
sewage, the effluents from the Keyser woolen-mills. The waste water 
resulting from the washing of the wool with sal soda and soap prob- 
ably constitutes the most obnoxious element in this effluent, contain- 
ing as it does much animal matter subject to decay. The pollution 
from this source alone is estimated at 1,200 gallons a day. Besides 
this, a variety of chemicals are discharged into the water, together 
with much coloring matter used in dyeing the wool. On New Creek 
fr miles above Kevser is situated a tannerv owned bv the United States 
Leather Company with a capacity of GO hides a day. All waste tan 
liquor is discharged into the creek, the waters of which are discolored 
for a distance of 3 miles below the tannerv. There are two small 
sawmills on this stream, but the sawdust discharged by them is 
insignificant in amount. The discharge of New Creek was measured 
near its mouth on September 20, and found to be 3.5 second-feet. 
There are a number of mills and manufactories of various kinds at 
Keyser, all of which were visited, but none w T ere found to contribute 
in any measure to the pollution of the river. At the Baltimore and 
Ohio car shops, at the time of visit, a sewer to drain the sewage 
of the shops into the North Branch was under construction. The 
number of hands employed aggregates 160. 

Along the 23 miles of its course from Keyser down to Cumberland, 
the North Branch receives no pollution other than that from natural 
sources. A distillerv on Cranberry Run and the works of the Cum- 
berland Cement Company, both situated near Pinto post-office, were 
visited, but no wastes observed at these points. The river along this 
section has an average fall of 12 feet per mile and riffles are few T in 
number. 

At Cumberland, the North Branch assumes a totally different 
aspect. A tight dam maintained across the river at this point by the 
Chesapeake and Ohio ('anal Company for diverting the water of the 
river into the head of the canal, impounds the water over a distance 
of a mile, causing baek water for about 3 miles up the river. Above 
this dam is the mouth of AVills Creek, which flows through the city, 



250 THE HYDROGRAPHY OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

receiving a large quantity of sewage and refuse from a papei>inill, 
a brewery, a distillery, cement works, a tannery, dye works, and a gas 
plant. The city of Cumberland has a population of about 15,000. 
The mayor states that about one-half of the houses in the city are 
provided with sewers which drain directly or indirectly into the 
Potomac. A supply of 2,500,000 gallons of water is furnished daily 
to the people of the city, and the resulting drainage must be more 
than 1,000,000 gallons per day, most of which is discharged into 
Wills Creek. Along this stream are located a number of coal mines, 
the drainage of which also reaches the creek. A discharge measure- 
ment made September 28, 1897, above the paper-mill gave a dis- 
charge of 12.5 second-feet. As may be expected, the refuse thrown 
into Wills Creek, the polluting substances carried by the waters of 
the North Branch as enumerated above, and the sewage from the city 
of Cumberland accumulate in the pond above the dam as if in a set- 
tling basin. This is the case especially in seasons of low water, when 
no water passes over the crest' of the dam. About 400 yards above 
the dam is the intake of the Cumberland waterworks; the water is 
pumped from the river directly into the water mains and is served 
to the inhabitants without being purified through filter beds or other 
artificial means. Serious complaints have arisen from year to year 
during the dry season, when the water, besides being unpalatable, is 
scarcely clean enough for laundering purposes. Of the large per- 
centage of impurities which the water contains at such times, a por- 
tion is doubtless made up of sewage from the city that has backed up 
to the point of intake. The city authorities have for several years 
looked about for a better source of supply, but as yet no improve- 
ments have been made. 

Wills Creek is one of the most important tributaries of the North 
Branch of the Potomac. It flows across the narrowest part of Alle- 
gany county, only about 6 miles of the main stream, measuring from 
the mouth upward, being included within its boundaries. It receives 
the drainage from portions of Somerset and Bedford counties, Penn- 
sylvania. Much of the catchment area is open, cleared, or cultivated 
land', and there is a considerable population residing within the area 
deriving support from coal-mining, brick-making, and similar indus- 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 251 

tries, as well as agriculture. The discharge of this creek, on Sep- 
tember 28, 1897, was 12.5 second-feet; on May 12, 1898, at Cum- 
berland, the flow was 381 second-feet, and on the next day 368 
second-feet. The waters are polluted by the drainage from about 
twenty coal mines and by the refuse from the Cumberland Paper 
Company, manufacturers of manila and fiber papers. The w r ater 
is taken from Wills Creek for the digesters, but as it contains too 
much sulphur for the boilers a supply for steam purposes is obtained 
from Braddocks Run. 

Below Wills Creek and down to the confluence with the South 
Branch, two tributaries are received — Evitts Creek from the north 
and Patterson Creek from the south. The discharge of the former 
at its mouth, on September 25, 1897, was 21 second-feet, and of the 
latter 12.3 second-feet. There are a few small mills along these 
streams, but no indication of pollution of the water. 

East of Evitts Creek is a small stream known as Frog Hollow, the 
water of which is taken under the canal above Lock Ko. 71 by a small 
culvert. The discharge, on September 25, 1897, was about 0.1 of a 
second-foot. During the summer the water disappears altogether. 

Below the junction of the North and South forks is Town Creek, 
which receives the drainage of a considerable portion of the eastern 
part of Allegany county, its headwaters being in Bedford county, 
Pennsylvania. It is a clear, beautiful stream, its waters not being 
polluted. There are reported to be two mills on this creek, beside 
several good waterpowers as yet undeveloped. The discharge, on 
September 25, 1897, was 11 second-feet. Pursley Run, which dis- 
charges opposite Pawpaw, and 15-mile Creek, which discharges near 
Little Orleans, are small streams with turbid waters. Each of these 
creeks, on September 26, 1897, was flowing about .5 of a second-foot. 
The eastern boundary of the county is formed by Sideling Creek, 
which rises in Bedford county, Pennsylvania, and furnishes power 
to several grist-mills and sawmills. Its waters arc clear and not 
polluted. The discharge, on September 26, 1897, wae 1 second-foot. 
Back water from a dam in the Potomac extends up the mouth of 
this creek, the measurement just noted being made above the head 
of this. 



t 



THE MAGNETIC DECLINATION IN ALLEGANY 

COUNTY 



BY 

L. A. BAUER 



Magnetic observations for the purpose of determining the mag- 
netic declination of the needle, or the " variation of the compass," 
have been made by the Maryland Geological Survey at various points 
within the county or along its boundaries. The values obtained 
thus far are given in the tables below. For a description of the 
methods and instruments used, reference must be made to the " First 
Eeport upon Magnetic Work in Maryland," Vol. I, Maryland Geo- 
logical Survey Report. This report gives likewise an historical 
account of the phenomena of the compass needle and discusses fully 
the difficulties encountered by the surveyor on account of the many 
fluctuations to which the compass needle is subject. Surveyors of 
the county desiring a copy of this report should address the State 
Geologist. 

TABLE I.— MAGNETIC DECLINATIONS OBSERVED BY L. A. BAUER, WITH 
U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY MAGNETOMETER No. IS. 



No 



Station. 



Lati- 
tude. 



Longi- 
tude. 



Magnetic 
Declination. 



Date. 



At date 

(West). 



On Jan. 

1. ISM) 

i West i. 



1 Cumberland 



»> 



it 



3 Westernport 

4 . Lonaconing 

5 Paw- Paw . . . 



39 30 



39 40 



o / 

78 40 
78 40 



30 29 70 02 



30 34 



39 32 



78 50 
78 26 



Remarks. 



o / ■ o / 

Oct. 10, 1800 | 4 02.7 4 12.4 



Aug. 14, 1897 



4 00.4 4 13.5 



Aug. », 1807 3 40.2 ' 3 53.4 
Aug. 31, 1808 I 3 51.0 3 55.0 
June 12, 1899 | 4 10.8 4 12.4 



Camp Hill. 

South meridian 

stone, Poor 

House Farm. 



In W. Virginia. 



254 



THE MAGNETIC DECLINATION IN ALLEGANY COUNTY 



TABLE II.— MAGNETIC DECLINATIONS ALONG BOUNDARY LINE BETWEEN 
ALLEGANY AND GARRETT COUNTIES, MARYLAND. 



No. 


Station. 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


West 

Declination 

on Jul}' 1, 

1898. 


West 

Declination 

on Jan. 1, 

19U0. 


1 


Moi 
« 

San 


und 1 


o / 

39 43.4 
39 42.5 
39 42.4 
39 41.2 
39 40.5 
39 39.3 
39 38.6 
39 37.9 
39 37.3 
39 35.7 
39 35.1 
39 34.7 
39 33.0 
39 32.8 
39 31.8 ' 
39 31 
39 30.1 
39 29.7 
39 28.8 
39 38.8 
39 28.0 


o / 

78 54.8 
78 55.4 
78 55.7 
78 56.1 
78 56.6 
78 57.3 
78 57.7 
78 58.2 
78 58.5 
78 59.5 

78 59.9 

79 00. 1 
79 01.2 
79 01.3 
79 01.9 
79 02.4 
79 03.0 
79 03.8 
79 04.0 
79 04.0 
79 03.7 


o / 

4 07.7 
4 06.5 

3 58.4 

4 04.1 
4 04.7 
3 59.9 

3 59.3 

4 03.4 
3 57.9 
8 53.3 
3 54.3 
3 54.6 
3 56.4 
3 55.6 
3 51.3 
3 51.3 
3 48.5 
3 47.5 
3 40.1 
3 07.1 
3 11.1 


o / 
4 12.2 


2 
3 


< 2 

ipson Rock 


4 11.0 
4 02.9 


4 
5 


Moi 
Dai 


und 4 

« 5 


4 08.6 
4 09.2 


6 


7 


4 04.4 


7 


' 8 


4 03.8 


8 
9 


* 9 

* 10 


4 07.9 
4 02.4 


10 


» 13 


8 57.8 


11 


* 14 


3 58.8 


12 


* 15 


3 59.1 


13 


» 18 


4 00.9 


14 
15 
16 


» 21 

» 22 


4 00.1 
8 55.8 
3 55.7 


17 


< 23 


3 53.0 


18 


* 24 


3 52.0 


19 


» 26 


3 44.6 


20 
21 


' 27 

liells A 


8 11.6 
3 15.6 











These observations were made in connection with the survey of 
the boundary line in the summer of 1898, L. A. Bauer being Chief 
of Party and W. M. Brown, observer. Mr. Brown's readings taken 
with the needle to his engineer's transit were reduced to the mean 
of day and referred to the Coast and Geodetic Survey magnetometer 
Xo. 18. See Report on the Boundary Line. 



Description of Stations. 

TABLE I. 

1. Cumberland. — In the large, open area on Camp Hill, north of Rose Hill 
Cemetery and south of Wills Creek. To find station, go 75 paces along the 
north iron fence of cemetery, starting from northeast corner, then 75 paces 
at right angles towards Wills Creek. According to town map, this area is 
subdivided into lots and streets, but no sign of the latter on the ground at 
present. Station may have been between Sedgewick and Niagara Streets. 
According to the map it is about 4,G67 feet due west of middle point of 
Decatur Street, on which Mosman's astronomical and magnetic stations of 
1864 were located. Station is also about 2,744 feet west of court house and 



-.a 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 255 

about 1,280 feet north, and may possibly be over a cement mine. Site was 
selected in the absence of the County Surveyor by Thomas L. Patterson. 

2. Cumberland. — At the South Meridian Stone of the County Meridian 
Line on the Poor House Farm. [See Report of Establishment of Meridian 
Line.] 

3. Westerxport. — On the north side of hill, along road leading down to 
the river from W. Va. R. R. station, and about 100 yards east of last house. 

4. Lonacojtes'g. — In the south part of baseball field, south of Maryland 
Coal Company's office. The precise point is marked by a locust stake and 
can be pointed out by Mr. F. E. Bracket, Superintendent of the Coal 
Company. 

5. Paw-Paw. — Morgan County, W. Va., near the frame house, on the hill 
in the large, open field opposite the R. R. station. The precise point was 
37 feet from northwest corner of fence, 67 feet from northeast corner, and 
29 feet in front of gate. 

TABLE II. 

1. Mound on Mason and Dixon line. " On the summit of Big Backbone or 
Savage mountain, where that mountain is crossed by Mason's and Dixon's 
line." Reached bj r mountain road from Mount Savage railroad station. A 
more roundabout way, but a better road, is" from Frostburg by way of 
Finzell postoflfice. The gate-house of the Standard Oil Pipe Line is about 
50 yards to the north of the mound. The mound, consisting of stone en- 
tirely, was built between two rocky ledges. No hole could be dug, as the 
precise point was in the crevice of a large, deeply embedded sandstone rock. 
The subsurface marks are two iron expansion bolts l in this rock, one of 
the bolts being 9 inches to the east of the precise point, and the other 9 
inches to the west. The precise subsurface point is therefore midway be- 
tween the crosses on the bolts. The crevice was enlarged sufficiently so 
that the surface stone (a rough sandstone 3 feet high and about 70 inches 
square) could be wedged into the lower rock. Around this stone was 
thrown up a substantial mound consisting, in the absence of earth, of 
large and small stones. A half -inch hole in the top of the stone marks the 
precise point. In order that this stone might be replaced easily in case it 
should be thrown out of position in some manner, two good solid sandstone 
rocks jutting out of the ground along the line were marked by iron ex- 
pansion bolts placed in true line. The first bolt is 15.18 feet back of hole in 
stone; the second, 22.84 feet in front of it (toward mouth of Savage river). 
Besides this a bolt was placed forward in line in sandstone rock 154% feet. 

2. Mound on Mount Savage fire-clay hill. About 500 feet from second 
dump on fire-clay incline plane. Most easily reached from Mount Savage 
or from Finzell. Marking stone is 3% feet high and 8 x 10 inches square, 
with a hole in top marking precise center. Mound, trench, subsurface 
stone as prescribed. Pitch pine tree 18 inches in diameter stands about 9 
feet north of mound. 

3. Mound on Piney Hill, better known as Cranberry Hill. About 300 feet 



1 These bolts wedge tight in driving; the head is one inch square, and 
they are y 2 inch in diameter and 2*/ 2 inches long. 



256 THE MAGNETIC DECLINATION IN ALLEGANY COUNTY 

east of mountain road known as Cranberry road, running* north from 
National Pike to fire-clay mine. The subsurface stone is about 5 inches 
thick with center marked on it; on this was placed a stone 2*/ 2 feet high 
and 5 x 10 inches square with hole in top. Mound and trench around the 
stone as usual. 

4. Mound on Roaring Hill. About % mile north of National Pike, where 
old toll-gate formerly was, not far from house occupied at present by John 
Workman. A subsurface stone (with center), mound and trench as usual. 
The upper stone is 2 feet long and 5 x 12 inches square, the longer dimension 
being along the line. A drill hole started in top of stone marks precise 
point. 

-5. Mound on National Pike. V/ 2 mile from Frostburg, on south side of 
pike and about 56 feet west of iron columns marking site of old toll-gate. 
The principal stone is dressed, of white marble, 3 feet long and 6x6 inches 
square, with corners rounded off to prevent chipping. A %-inch hole in 
top marks precise point, and the top of stone is lettered as follows: 



On the east side of stone is the letter A and on the west side O. The monu- 
ment rests on a flat rock (the subsurface mark) and is set in a mixture of 
broken stone and hydraulic cement. The usual mound and trench sur- 
round the monument. 

6. Mound on hill south of National Pike. About % of a mile south of pike, 
between two runs, on level piece of cleared ground near an old road and 
near Frostburg pipe line for water supply, and not many feet west of 
artesian well. The upper rock is 2% feet long and about 6 inches square on 
top. A drill hole started in top marks center. Subsurface stone, mound 
(9 feet in diameter) and trench as usual. 

7. Mound near old Braddock road, on hill north of Winebrenner Run, iy 9 
mile north of Midlothian. The mound is about 50 yards north of the Brad- 
dock road. The upper stone is about 3 feet long, 8 inches square, rudely 
dressed and with center marked in top. Subsurface mark, mound and 
trench as prescribed. 

8. Mound on hill south of Winebrenner Run. % of a mile northwest of 
Midlothian. On the face of hill sloping toward N. E. upon lower part of 
spur, about half-way to top of hill and near an old log road, one quarter of 
a mile south of Benjamin Filer's house, which is in sight. The upper stone 
is 2.2 feet long and 8 inches square on top with center marked. Subsurface 
stone, mound and trench as usual. 

9. Mound on hill north of Staub Run. About % of a mile northwest of 
Carlos, on farm belonging to William Filer. In the woods, about 100 yards 
south of rail fence at brow of hill, where miner's path intersects fence. 
This path leads down to road coming out at Carlos. The upper stone is a 
red sandstone, about 5 inches thick and about 2y 3 feet long, with hole 
drilled in top. Subsurface stone, mound, trench. Mound had to consist 
chiefly of stone. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 257 

10. First mound on hill south of Staub Run. About % of a mile west of 
Carlos. Take road as far as William Filer's house, then follow miner's path 
to mine opening about VL> mile, then bear to the right to cutting. The hill 
belongs to the Consolidation Coal Company. 

11. Second mound on hill south of Staub Run. About 268 paces south of 
first mound. The two mounds were placed so near to each other so as to give 
intervisible points to the north and south. From north mound, mounds 
9, 7, 4 and 1 are visible (or can be made so), and from south mound No. 12 
can be seen. 

12. Mound on north side of Koontz Hill. South of Wright's Run and 
reached from either Lonaconing, Midland or Ocean. A road passes within 
20 yards of the mound and continues northward on down the hill to Ocean, 
or southward past Cutter's barn down the hill to Lonaconing. Not a very 
good looking stone, but a substantial one, forms the principal stone. The 
mound consists chiefly of stone. 

13. Mound on south side of Koontz Hill. About 2 miles northwest of 
Lonaconing. On the south side of lane leading to the west of gate to Cut- 
ter's barn and house, and 70 yards from the gate. The farm belongs to the 
New Central Coal Co., and is rented by Barney Cutter, whose brother. Henry, 
is at present living on the place. The precise point is marked by a cross cut 
in stone, 3% feet long and about 7x7 inches square. In center of cross was 
drilled a y 8 -ineh hole. From this mound, mound No. 15 can be seen by 
planting a pole on top of it. 

14. Mound on Pea Ridge road. On the north side of the road leading from 
Lonaconing to Pea Ridge, about 1% mile from Lonaconing. Center stone is 
about 13 inches square and about 3y 2 feet long, resting about 2 feet in the 
ground. Precise point was marked with a pick in center of stone. No sub- 
surface mark. Mound about iy 2 foot high and 6 feet in diameter, consisting 
of earth and stone thrown up against center stone. 

15. Mound on hill west of Lonaconing. On property of Maryland Coal 
Company; near fence on west side of meadow south of house occupied by 
Mr. Weir, who is the present tenant of the farm. Precise point is marked 
by a cross and V4"> ncn h°l e in center of top of central stone of mound. 
Subsurface stone, mound and trench as usual. From this mound are visible 
several points in the line as far south as Franklin Hill. 

16. Mound on Detmold Hill. On the west end and on the highest point of 
the hill. Reached by Miller road running from Detmold to Grantsville, with- 
in about 14 °f a mile to the west of mound. Mound is built on an undis- 
turbed, solid stone with subsurface mark on it, and around a smooth, up- 
right stone, 3 feet long and 6x9 inches on top. 

17. Mound near Miller Road. South of Detmold Hill, between Laurel Run 
and Miller Road, which runs from George's Creek road to Grantsville; one 
rod north of road and about y 4 of a mile from Robert Green's farm. The 
precise point is marked by a hole in the central stone, which is 3 feet long 
and 8 x 10 inches on top. Subsurface mark, mound, trench. 

18. Stone on North Pickell Hill. About *4 mile to the north of next 
mound (No. 19). No mound was built, but simply a stone 2 feet long and 
4 x 14 inches on top was set in the ground and stones firnily packed around 
it. The stone is north of a road to meadow on hill. Coal mines are on 
fire on this hill. 

17 



258 THE MAGNETIC DECLINATION IN ALLEGANY COUNTY 

19. Mound on South Pickell Hill. Reached from Barton by taking county 
road to Grantsville, or also from Moscow, mound being about 2 miles west 
of latter point. Constructed in the usual manner. Precise point is a cross 
cut in top of central stone. 

20. Mound on Bartlett Road. On county road leading from Barton to 
Grantsville, about iy 2 rod north of road, on land owned by Wm. Sommer- 
ville. Constructed in the prescribed manner. 

21. Mound on Swanton Hill. Reached from Barton by a very steep road 
to top of hill. Mound is about 40 paces north of barbed-wire fence dividing 
the American Coal Co. property from that of the Swanton Coal Co. The 
precise location can be pointed out by Peter Shaw, who lives on top of hill. 
The central stone of the mound has a cross cut in the top and the letters 
A and G rudely cut in the sides. Franklin Hill mound (No. 24) can be seen 
from this point; also No. 15. 

22. Mound on Phoenix Hill. Reached from Morrison switch by taking 
Phoenix Hill road. It is on the summit of the hill in a meadow owned by 
Davis Coal Co. and leased by John Lannon. Built in the usual manner. 

23. Monument on county road south of Phoenix Hill. Reached from 
Franklin railroad station. On the north side of the road. A good, sub- 
stantial stone firmly set in the ground and smaller stones packed around it. 
The mound is about three rods east of U. P. Gannon's house. 

24. Mound on north side of Franklin Hill. On the highest point of the 
hill reached by the line. About 50 feet to the south the hill breaks off very 
abruptly and only a short distance beyond the tramway curves around the 
hill to the west. The central stone is about 2y 2 feet long and about 12 
inches square. A cross cut in the top marks the precise point. Subsurface 
stone, mound and trench. 

25. Mound on south side of Franklin Hill. About 20 yards north of county 
road where it crosses bridge over the Davis coal mine plane. The subsur- 
face mark is a cross cut in a sandstone about 1% foot long, 8 inches wide 
and 10 inches thick, lying with the longer dimension at right angles to the 
line. On this solid stone rests a dressed marble post 2*/ 2 feet long and 6 
inches square. Around the stone is a mound 8 feet in diameter, consisting 
of earth and stone; a trench encircles the mound. The stone is lettered on 
top: 



Md. G. S. '. 
1898 : 



On the west side is the letter (/ and on the east side A. The precise center 
is marked by a half-inch hole drilled in the top of the stone. 

26. Mound at mouth of the Savage. On the south side of the road leading 
to Bloomington about 100 feet above the Savage River. The central stone 
is a dressed marble post, 2y 2 feet long and 6 inches square, marked and 
lettered as in the case of No. 24. 

27. Bolt in rock at mouth of Savage River. Set with plaster of Paris in 
a good, firm rock close to the river. Bolt is % inch in diameter; head about 
iy 4 inch round. For references and distances to other marks at the mouth 
of the Savage, see page 33. 



maryland geological survey 259 

On the Establishment of the Surveyor's Meridian Line at 

Cumberland. 1 

In compliance with the instructions received by the State Geologist 
from the Board of County Commissioners through their clerk, Mr. 
W. J. Miller, under the date of July 21, 1897, the writer established 
and permanently marked a true meridian line in Cumberland, 
August 13-14, 1S97. An act of the Assembly, passed at the session 
of 1870 2 and codified in 1882, 3 authorizes the County Commissioners 
to have such a line established at the expense of the county. 

Test observations made in the City Park, near the court house, 
where an unofficial meridian line had already been marked by the 
U. S. Geological Survey, proved conclusively that this site was not a 
suitable one for the objects of a surveyor's meridian line. 4 Upon the 
suggestion of Mr. Thomas Patterson, it was finally decided to put 
the line on the County Poor House Farm. When subsequently 
informed, Governor Lowndes signified his approval of the selected 
site. 

The method employed in obtaining the meridian line was that of 
alt-azimuth observations on the sun ; these observations were made on 
August 14, 1897, the same instruments* being used as in the mag- 
netic work of the Maryland Geological Survey. The accuracy aimed 
at was that the meridian line shall be correct to one minute. 

The monuments marking the ends of the line, which is 404.94 feot 
long, as substantial granite posts 7 inches square and 4£ feet long; 
they are suitably lettered and firmly planted. In the center of each 
monument is leaded a brass dowel, 1 inch in diameter and 3 inches in 

1 A MS. copy of this report was forwarded to the County Commissioners 
upon the completion of the work. 

* Laws of Alar viand, 1870, chapter 359. 
'Maryland Code, 1*88, vol. i. art. 25, sections 77-K2. 

4 An electric car line passes directly in front of the park. Magnetic obser- 
vations made in the vicinity of the south meridian stone of the U. S. Geologi- 
cal Survey Line gives the value of the magnetic declination fully y 4 ° too 
high. 

* The instruments belong to the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey and 
have been loaned temporarily to the Maryland Geological Survey. For de- 
scriptions and illustrations of them, see Maryland Geological Survey Report, 
vol. i, part v. 



260 



THE MAGNETIC DECLINATION IN ALLEGANY COUNTY 



length. The line passing through the centers of the crosses cut on 
these bolts is the true north and south line. 

The magnetic declination (variation of the compass) reduced to 
its average value for the day (24 hours) was found to be at the south, 
or reference, monument: 

Date. Amount. 

August 14, 1897 4° 06.4' west. 

This, as will be seen by referring to Table 1, agrees very well with 
the value that was obtained on October 10, 1890, on Camp Hill, 
near Eose Hill Cemetery, viz., 4° 02'. 7. If we refer this value to 
August 14, 1897, we get 4° 05'.2. It would seem, therefore, that 
the site selected on the County Poor House Farm is free of local 
disturbing influences. 

The annual change of the magnetic declination may be taken 
to be at the present time as: 

3' (three minutes). 

The table * below shows how the magnetic declination has changed 
at Cumberland between the years 1750 and 1900. 



Year. 


Needle 


| Year. 

i 


Needle 


Year. 


Needle 


pointed 


pointed 


pointed 




O / 


i 
| 


° ' 




o / 


1750 


2 03 W. 


1800 


42 E. 


1850 


49 W. 




1 41 W. 


j 1805 


45 E. 




1 08 W. 


1760 


1 22 W. 


1 1810 


46 E. 


1860 


1 27 W. 


1765 


1 08 W. 


1815 


45 E. 1 


1865 


1 47 W. 


1770 


41 W. 


1820 


43 E. 


1870 


2 08 W. 


1775 


21 W. 


1825 


33 E. 


1875 


2 29 W. 


1780 


02 W. 


1830 


20 E. 


1880 


2 50 W. 


1785 


13 E. 


l\$oO • • 


03 E. 




3 11 W. 


1790 


25 E. 


1840 


15 W. 


1890 


3 32 W. 




85 E. 


1845 


83 W. 


1895 


3 53 W. 


1800 


! 42 E. 

i 


1850 


49 W. 


1900 


4 12 W. 



These figures enable the surveyor to ascertain the precise amount 
of change of the magnetic declination or pointing of the compass 
between any two dates between 1750 and 1900. It should be empha- 



1 Extracted from Report of Maryland Geological Survey, vol. i, pt. v, p. 482. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



261 



sized, however, that when applying the quantities thus found in the 
re-running of old lines, the surveyor should not forget that the table 
cannot attempt to give the correction to be allowed on account of the 
error of the compass used in the original survey. 

To reduce an observation of the magnetic declination to the mean 
value for the day of 24 hours, apply the quantities ' given in the table 
below with the sign as affixed: 



Month. 



January. . . . 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 
September . 
October. . . . 
November. . 
December . . 




3 



o 



£ 



-1.1 - 

-1.51- 
-2.5 - 
-4.0 - 
-4.0|- 
— 3.6 - 
-3.4 
-4.7 
-4.4 
-2.?. 



3. 4 — 3. 7 — 3.3 
4.1 -4.2 -3.0 
5.0-4.5—3.0 
4.51-4.5 — 3.8| 
4.4 -4.7 -4.2 
5.1 -4.1*1-3.7 



6 

P.M. 



1.3-0.2 
1.2,-0.8 
2.3'-1.2 
2.3-1.2 



2.3 
2.6 



-0.1) 
-1.2 



-2.8 —1.8 



4.6 -4.2-4.0 
3.3 -3.4 -2.4 
2.0l-2.7'-2.6 -1.8 
1.6 '-2.41-2.31-1.8 



1.9 
■1.4 



-0.6 
-0.3 



-1.3!-0.4 



1.0 
1.1 



-0.2 
-0.3 



+ 0.2 
-0.4 
-0.5 
1-0.2 
+ 0.1 
-0.2 
-0.3 
+ 0.8 
—0.1 
-0.4 
+ 0.2 
+ 0.1 



TRUE BEARINGS TAKEN AT SOUTH MERIDIAN STONE. 

Tip of Court House Tower 12° 28' E. of S. 

Spire of St. Patrick's Catholic Church, middle 

of ball ( J ) 31 53 E. of S. 

The latitude of the south meridian stone mav be taken to be 
39° 40' and the longitude 76° 46' W. of Greenwich or 1° 45' W. of 
Washington. To obtain true local mean time, subtract from eastern 
or standard time 15 minutes and 4 seconds. 

In conclusion, it may be well to state the purposes of the meridian 
line. They are: 

1. To enable the surveyor to determine readily at any time the 
declination or the " variation of the compass " at the County Seat 
and thus to provide the means for determining the amount of change. 



1 P'rom Report of Maryland Geological Survey, vol. i, pt. v, p. 457. 



202 THE MAGNETIC DECLINATION IN ALLEGANY COUNTY 

2. To furnish a common line whose magnetic bearing from year 
to year, as well as its true one, has been accurately determined, on 
which surveyors can from time to time test and compare their com- 
passes. 

Tt gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the able assistance ren- 
dered in the establishment of the line bv Messrs. Patterson and 
Shriver, surveyors. 



i 



THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

BY 

GEO. B. SUDWORTH 



Introduction. 

An explanation of the circumstances under which this investigation 
took place seems proper. The earnest desire of Professor William 
B. Clark, State Geologist of Maryland, to develop all the economic 
resources of the state, naturally led to a consideration of the forests. 
The writer was detailed to examine the forests of Allegany county 
as a beginning of this work. The co-operation of the U. S. Division 
of Forestry in this work was deemed proper on the ground that the 
information obtained would be of mutual value both to the Division 
of Forestry and the Maryland Geological Survey. 

With the exception of the photographs taken, all expenses attend- 
ing this field work were defrayed by the Maryland Geological Survey. 
These photographs, some of which are reproduced for the present 
paper, number about ninety, and remain the property of the Division 
of Forestry. 

The purpose of this investigation was to supply information as to 
the condition, composition, character and uses of the forests of this 
county. The relation of timber-cutting, grazing, and forest fires 
to reproduction were also subjects of special study, with a view to 
pointing out a means of abating their evil effects, and thus increasing 
the productiveness of Allegany forests. 

The examination of this county was accomplished by personal 
travel either on foot, by rail, or by team and wagon. As only the 
southern and western boundaries of the countv are accessible bv rail, 
most of the necessary travel was performed on foot and by team. 

The county is well provided with private and public wagon-roads 



264 THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

and trails, giving abundant opportunity for thoroughly exploring the 
region from east to west and from north to south. 

The method of examining the county was, briefly, to gain first a 
general impression of the topography and location of the wooded 
portions by inspection from the summits of the highest mountains 
or hills. A careful study of the various forest growths, the effects 
of fires, timber-cutting, and mining was then carried out by actual 
travel over representative portions of the wooded sections, including 
all of the larger mountains. The photographs taken illustrate the 
main features studied. 

Several county officials and other residents of the county identified 
with railway and mining interests have kindly supplied important 
data on the local prices of lumber and the amount of timber con- 
sumed for mining props. Thanks are due for such information to 
Mr. Somerville of Lonaconing, .Messrs. Davidson, Armstrong, and 
B. S. Randolph of Frostburg, and to Mr. J. W. Cook of Cumberland. 
Special thanks are due Mr. B. S. Randolph for his cordial attention 
to the writer while visiting the mines and timberlands of the Con- 
solidation Coal Company. 

Location. 

Washington, Allegany and Garrett counties form the western, 
tongue-like portion of Maryland. Allegany county constitutes the 
middle or narrowest section, with Garrett on the west and Wash- 
ington on the east. The south boundary of Allegany county is 
defined by the Potomac river; the east boundary, by Sideling Hill 
Creek; the north boundary, by Pennsylvania (roughly between longi- 
tude 78° 20' and 79° 55'); while the west boundary is formed by a 
straight line from the crest of Savage Mountain at the Mason and 
Dixon Line to the mouth of Savage river. 

The area of this county is 477 square miles, or 305,280 acres. 

Topographic Features. 

The surface of this county is uniformly broken into low moun- 
tains and hills, trending mostly in a northeasterly and southwesterly 



s 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 265 

direction. The intervening valleys are, for the most part, narrow, 
merging into low foothills which form the lower slopes to the higher 
mountains. 

The salient features in the topography are the long high ridges 
known as Town Hill, Warrior Ridge, Wills Mountain and Dans 
Mountain. Sideling Hill and Savage Mountain are equally promi- 
nent barriers on the east and west, but are mainlv outside of Alle- 
gany county. The west boundary of the county lies on the east 
slope of Savage Mountain, while the east boundary lies at the bottom 
of the west slope of Sideling Hill. The elevation of these mountains 
ranges from 1,000 to 2,900 feet. 

Most of the larger mountains have long and gradual slopes, in- 
cluding also broad flat benches at elevations of 800 to 1,200 feet 
Less commonly, the mountain slopes are precipitous, notably on the 
south border of the countv. The surface of the mountains and 
higher hills is often broken by exposed boulders of quartzite and 
sandstone. The summits of the mountains are marked by mostly 
bare rocky cliffs. 

Soil. 

The soil of nearly all the hills and mountain slopes is thin, being 
composed largely of fine slaty shale. Cultivated portions are rap- 
idly worn out, and even where the timber grows the soil is often poor 
in humus. This poor top-soil under forest cover is due partly to a 
necessarily slow disintegration of the substratum of pure shale and 
broken rock which lies close to the surface and partly to the fre- 
quent forest fires which continually destroy the enriching leaf mould. 

The soil of the lower hills and valleys is rocky, but deeper and 
richer. The best agricultural lands are, therefore, situated mostly 
in the valleys and on low adjacent hills (Plate XXV, Fig. 2). Con- 
siderable land has been cleared on the higher mountain slopes, but it 
is far less productive than the lower areas. 

Water Flow. 

The countv is well watered bv numerous rockv streams fed by 
innumerable cold springs among the low hills and on the higher 



2GG THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

mountain sides. All are tributary to the Potomac river. The 
most important of these streams are Sideling Hill Creek, Fifteen-Mile 
Creek, Flint river, Town Creek, and Georges Creek. They vary in 
width from twelve to twenty-five feet and carry from six to fifteen 
inches of water. At high water their volume is increased to two or 
three times the normal flow. 

The water of most of these streams is pure and wholesome. That 
of Georges Creek and several of its tributaries is, however, so strongly 
impregnated with iron, sulphur and drainage from coal and fire-clay 
mines as to be unw r holesome. No fish exist in these waters. 

In earlier days these streams supplied waterpower for small saw- 
mills and flour-mills throughout this region. Few r of these mills are 
in existence now. The flow of streams is chiefly important to farmers 
in affording an abundant and convenient supply of water for stock. 
The small transient steam sawmills also depend on this source of 
water supply. The maintenance of the numerous springs peculiar to 
this region is of prime importance to nearly all farmers and residents 
of the smaller towns, many of which depend on this source of water 
supply. 

At present these resources are well protected by forest cover, as 
are also the headwaters of all the streams draining the county. 

As indicating the close relationship, however, between water flow 
and forest cover it is interesting to note in this connection that the 
oldest inhabitants of this region assert the existence of a greater rush 
of water in the spring and fall of recent years than was formerly 
observed, w y hen the countrv w r as more continuouslv wooded. In 
earlier times the larger streams are said to have carried a uniform 
flow, with little or no sudden increase during spring and fall. The 
heavy rains and melting snow under present conditions, however, 
occasion an immediate and often dangerous rise of water in the larger 
streams at certain points. The rise of water sometimes prevents 
farmers crossing fords for a week or more, thus cutting off their 
communication with markets, etc. To obviate such difficulties, the 
county has built a few new roads to avoid impassable fords. 

The explanation of this rush of water is simple. Increased, indis- 



MARYLAND QEOLOOICAL SURVEY. 




Fio. 1.— THIS 




FlQ. 3.- FARM AND FOREST LAND, MARTIN MOUNTAIN 
FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



r^ 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 267 

criminate clearing of woodland, especially on the larger slopes, brings 
about a more direct and rapid drainage than was permitted by the 
original close forest cover of the county. 

Wooded Regions. 

With the exception of a few treeless swampy meadows of small 
size, the entire county was once a continuous forest. The heaviest 
timber existed in the coves, on the low hills, and on the lower slopes 
and benches of the mountains, where the soil is deepest and most 
porous. The rocky upper slopes and summits appear to have borne 
a forest of small stunted trees. 

The wooded portions of the county are now confined to the larger 
hills and mountain ridges, with irregular extensions into the valleys. 
Most of the streams also bear fringes of forest growth. Roughly 
estimated, the agricultural land of this county is about thirty per 
cent of the entire area, the remainder being -mostly in forests with a 
small per cent of brush land. The latter, however, contains forest 
tree species of brush size, and is, therefore, to be classed strictly as 
reforested land. 

The forests of the mountains form for the most part a continuous 
cover down to the usually cleared valleys (Plate XXV). Only occa- 
sional clearings and worn-out, abandoned farms are seen on the 
mountain sides; but wherever these cleared lands have been long 
neglected, they are already reforested, or are rapidly becoming so 
as shown in Plate XXVIII, Fig. 1. 

Character of the Forests. 

The character of the forests, changeable throughout, varies especi- 
ally from north to south. The prevailing growth is deciduous, but 
this is conspicuously mingled with patches, and often large areas 
of conifers, the latter being somewhat more abundant in the central 
and southern parts of the county. 

Small detached hills in these regions bear a pure growth of conifers 
as seen in the region of Pine Hill and Piney Grove, while portions 
of surrounding slopes are covered largely with deciduous forest. In 



268 THE FORESTS OF ALLEGAXY COrXTY 

other cases similar hills bear a growth chiefly of conifers on their 
north slopes and a deciduous forest on their south slopes. As a rule 
the larger mountain slopes bear a variously mixed growth of conifers 
and deciduous trees, sometimes evenly mingled or with the conifers 
in alternating vertical belts. The slopes near the larger waterways 
also bear conspicuous fringes of conifers, which give way to the 
hardwoods higher up on adjacent slopes. 

CoMPOsmox of Forests. 

The peculiar position of Western Maryland, intermediate be- 
tween the Xorth and the South, gives Allegany county a forest flora 
rich in species. The higher summits, coves and valleys exhibit a 
climate and soils closely similar to those of the more northern states, 
while the climate and soils of the lower valleys, glades and hills are 
characteristic also of the adjacent southern states. As a result, there 
is a conspicuous association of northern and southern tree species. 
This association is of more than passing interest, since the kinds 
represented are of economic importance. Conifers and hardwoods 
of the middle South and North mingle here almost on the same 
ground. 

The following is a complete list of coniferous and hardwood trees 
of Allegany countv: 

COXIFERS. 

1. White Pine Finns strobus. 

2. Pitch Pine Finn* rigida. 

3. Scrub Pine Pi hum virginiana. 

4. Table-Mountain Pine Finns pungtns. 

5. Shortleaf Pine Finns echinata. 

6. Hemlock Tsnga canadensis. 

7. Red Juniper Jnnipems virginiana. 

HARDWOODS. 

8. Butternut Jnglans cinerea. 

9. Black Walnut Jnglans.nigra. 

10. Bitternut Hickory Hicoria minima. 

11. Shagbark Hickory Hicoria ovata. 

12. Mockernut Hickory Hicoria alba. 

13. Pignut Hickory . .". Hicoria glabra. 

14. Small Pignut Hickory Hicoria odorata. 

15. White Willow Salix alba. 

16. La r^e- tooth Aspen Fopulus grandidentata. 

17. River Birch Belnla nigra. 

18. Sweet Birch Betnla lenta. 

19. Hornbeam Ostrya virginiana. 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 269 

20. Blue Beech Carp inn* earoliniana. 

21. Beech Fagux atropunieea. 

22. Chestnut f.'axtavea dt ntata. 

28. White Oak Quereux alba. 

24. Post Oak Qm reux minor. 

25. Chestnut Oak Quereux prinux. 

26. Swamp White Oak Querent platanoidex. 

27. Red Oak Querent rubra. 

28. Scarlet Oak Quereux roeeinea. 

29. Yellow Oak Quereux velntina. 

30. Pin Oak Querent paluxtrix. 

31 . Barren Oak Querent* puutila. 

32. Slippery Elm I'lmnx pubexeenx. 

83. American Elm VI mux wnericana. 

34. Hackberry Celtix occidental ix. 

35. Red Mulberry Varus rubra. 

36. Cucumber-tree Magnolia acuminata. 

37. Tulip-tree TAnodtndron tufipiftra. 

38. Papaw Aximina triloba. 

39. Sassafras Saxxafrax xaxxafrux. 

40. Witch Hazel Ifuinamtlix rirginiana. 

41. Sycamore Platanux widtnttdix. 

42. Sweet Crab Pyrux eoronaria. 

43. Serviceberry Amelauehier eanadeuxix. 

44. Cockspur Crataeyux erux-galli. 

45. Scarlet Haw Crataeyux roceinea. 

46. Pear Haw Crataeyux tomentoxa. 

47. Small-leaf Haw Crataeyux nniflora. 

48. Wild Plum Prnnux aim ricana. 

49. Wild Red Cherry Prnnux pennxylranica. 

50. Sour Cherry Prunux ceraxux. 

51. Black Cherry Pntnu* xerotina. 

52. Redbud Cercix eanadenxix. 

53. Honey Locust Oleditxia triaeanthox. 

54. Locust Robiuia pseudacacia. 

55. Allan thus Ailanthnx grand uloxa. 

56. Staghorn Sumach Rhux hirta. 

57. Dwarf 8umach Rhux copatlina. 

58. Mountain Maple Acer tpicatum. 

59. 8triped Maple Acer pennxyhanienm. 

60. Sugar Maple leer xaccharum. 

61. Silver Maple icer xarcharinum. 

62. Red Maple Aeer rub rum. 

63. White Basswood Tilia heterophylla. 

64. Dogwood Corunxflorida. 

65. Black Gum Xyxxa xylvatica. 

66. Mountain Laurel Kalmia latifolia. 

67. Rhododendron Rhoilwlcudron maximum. 

68. Persimmon JJiospyrox rirginiana. 

69. Black Ash Fraxinux nigra. 

70. White Ash Fraxinux nmerieana. 

71. Green Ash Fraxinux lanceolata. 

72. Nannyberry Viburnum prunifolium. 

General Distribution of Forest Trees. 

The limitation of certain trees to particular areas forms somewhat 
conspicuous features in the composition of the forests of this region. 
There are, of course, no very sharp lines of separation between the 



270 THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

ranges of tree species, but within general limits, at which there is 
more or less overlapping or mingling of two or more species, it may 
be noticed that finally one kind of tree disappears and another ap- 
pears. For example, in ascending one side of a mountain, Beech, 
Maple, Basswood, etc., may appear at the base of the mountain. 
Above these a succeeding zone may contain Chestnut, Sweet Birch, 
etc. ; and the next higher zone, Chestnut Oak, Table-mountain Pine, 
Wild Red Cherrv, etc. These zones blend into each other more or 
less by the mingling of the trees peculiar to each zone. Similarly 
defined areas of tree growth of still other species may be met with 
on the opposite slope of the same mountain. Or in passing from 
deep valleys on a mountain side to adjoining ridges or benches at the 
same altitude, often there may be found an assemblage of trees 
peculiar to each of these dissimilar localities. 

The explanation of these phenomena is believed to lie in the fact 
that certain trees have become so completely adapted to a given kind 
or condition of soil (dry, moist, loose or compact), or climate, that 
they cannot exist where the required soil and climate are wanting. 
Thus the presence of a northern climate in portions of this region 
appears to account for the presence, by extension, of northern trees 
into this county which are prevalent in their wider northern range 
under the same conditions. The more cosmopolitan trees of this 
region are conspicuous over a greater area, while the less widely 
adapted kinds appear within narrower limits. 

The part also which some trees and shrubs play by taking first 
possession of denuded lands, thus rendering the soil favorable by 
protection of moisture for the introduction of still other trees, is a 
most interesting and practical consideration in the distribution of 
trees. This is especially true where fire and the axe have destroyed 
a part or the whole of an original forest. The full value of all the 
trees in a region cannot be determined without a knowledge of the 
relationship of species in their natural succession. 

DISTRIBUTION OF PBINCIPAL TIMBER TREES. 

The most conspicuous of the timber species are the White Oak, 
Chestnut Oak, Red Oak, Chestnut and White Pine. They form 




MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 




ANY COUVl'V. 




.IBOAKY CCUN' 



FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUKTV. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 271 

forests in which, according to exposure and altitude, the one or the 
other predominates; in fewer instances areas occur with mixtures of 
all five species, together with other kinds which do not form forests. 

The White Oak occurs on all the low hills and on the lower and 
middle slopes and benches of the high mountains. Originally it also 
occupied the high valleys now cleared. Its presence usually indi- 
cates the deeper, richer, and less rocky soils. 

The Chestnut Oak appears commonly on all the upper, rocky, 
gravelly slopes and summits of the mountains and hills. It grows 
persistently even on precipitous slopes where the surface consists en- 
tirely of broken quartzite and sandstone ; but here the trunks are short 
and gnarled. The larger and better formed trees are found where 
the rock is broken and carries a thin cover of soil. The White and 
Chestnut Oak often occur together, but in most cases the one or 
the other prevails under the peculiar conditions which suit it best. 
Few and scattering White Oaks are found on the rocky sites chosen 
by the Chestnut Oak, and vice versa. 

Chestnut is confined chiefly to poor, dry, gravelly, southern, east- 
ern and western slopes. It is sometimes mingled with Chestnut 
Oak, but more often constitutes the principal growth over a consid- 
erable area, giving way in richer moist coves and on benches to 
White Oak and other hardwoods, and appearing again on the thinner 
soils. As with Chestnut Oak, the best growth occurs on the middle 
and lower slopes; that found on and near the summits of the moun- 
tains is short and of small diameter. 

The Red Oak is a constant associate of the White Oak, Chestnut 
Oak and Chestnut, but far less abundant than these species. In 
stands of 60 to 80 trees to the acre the Red Oak forms only from 
five to ten per cent. It is a tree singularly well adapted to a variety 
of soils, often producing well-formed trunks even in the deep crevices 
of almost bare rock. The largest trees occur in rich coves and sinks 
where the underlying rock is broken. 

The White Pine occurs almost entirely on northern and eastern 
slopes, ascending to the summits of the highest mountains (Mt. 
Savage, Warrior Ridge and Dans Mountain). It is especially con- 



272 



THE FORESTS OF ALLEGAXY COUXTV 



spicuoiis along the rocky north slopes of streams, often forming 
dense, narrow belts of pure growth down to the water's edge 
(Fig. 14). Higher up on the slopes it is usually mingled with hard- 
woods. The White Pine forest shown in Fig. 14 is composed 
chiefly of young timber (25 to 75 years old), ranging from C to occa- 
sionally 15 inches in diameter, and under CO feet in height. A 
much older, scattered growth of this pine is found among hardwoods. 
Under these conditions the trunks are 18 to 30 inches in diameter 




and 80 to 100 feet high. The White Pine of this county grows best 
in moist, well drained, clayey loam soils, such as produce the finest 
White Oak. 



DISTRIBUTION OF SUBORDINATE TIMBER TEEES. 

The next most conspicuous timber trees are, among conifers, the 
Pitch Pine, Shortleaf Pine, Tahle-mountain Pine and Scrub Pine. 
Of hardwoods, the principal remaining species are Sugar Maple, Red 
Maple, Sbagbaik Hickory, Tulip-tree, White Ash, White Basswood, 
Locust, Black Gum and American Elm. The pines commonly pass 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 273 

for one species. Together, they constitute an important element 
in the forest cover of very exposed, bare, rocky, southern slopes. 

The Scrub Pine forms a dense cover in the poorest shaly soils on 
the lower southern slopes of the high ridges, or more frequently on 
the south side of low hills throughout the middle and southern sec- 
tions of the county (Plate XXVIT, Fig. 2). It is peculiarly adapted 
to exposed, sterile soils, often taking possession of abandoned, worn- 
out fields to the exclusion of all other species. In richer ^oils and less 
exposed localities it gives way to patches of hardwoods. Most of the 
Scrub Pine now standing is of small size, ranging from two to six 
inches, with occasional trees eight to fourteen inches in diameter. 
The largest trees which grow on least exposed sites have straight 
clear trunks twenty to thirty feet long. The growth found on the 
most exposed, precipitous sites is usually low, crooked, and much 
branched. 

At higher elevations, comprising the middle benches and summits 
of the mountains, Pitch and Table-mountain Pine occupy sterile, 
rocky situations on southern, southeastern and southwestern ex- 
posures. Scattered individuals also occur mingled with hardwoods 
on the low shaly hilltops adjacent to the mountains (Plate XXIX, 
Figs. 1, 2). Where these pines form the principal growth, the two 
species are usually mingled in about equal numbers. Not infre- 
quently, however, the Table-mountain Pine forms pure open stands 
of ten to fifty acres on narrow, rocky benches high up on the moun- 
tain sides. In exceptional instances also, stunted Shortleaf Pine is 
to be seen among these mountain groves, notably on Town Hill. 
Little merchantable timber is produced by the Pitch Pine and Table- 
mountain Pine, as their principal growth is low and much branched 
and the wood coarse-grained and knotty. 

The hardwoods of this group appear more or less scattered among 
the deciduous species already mentioned as forming forests. One 
of the most abundant of these is the Sugar Maple. It occurs in all 
the moist rocky coves and in the vicinity of streams throughout the 

count v. Its ability to thrive in the seams of almost bare limestone 

• » 

and quartzitic rock is remarkable. "Well-formed large trees were 
18 



274: THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

frequently met where only a scanty deposit of soil had filled the 
narrow crevices in the rock. 

Closely associated with the Sugar Maple, but in fewer numbers, 
are the Red Maple, White Basswood, White Ash, Shagbark Hickory, 
Locust, Tulip-tree and Beech. These scantily represented species 
form open forests in which none occur abundantly or continuously, 
but at irregular and often long intervals. These trees were doubtless 
more abundant in former years. The present economic value of this 
growth is small, except for fuel, as no considerable yield of any one 
kind can be secured without very wide culling. 

DISTRIBUTION OF OCCASIONAL TIMBER TREES. 

Still less prominently represented are a few other valuable timber 
trees, notably the Black Walnut, Butternut, Mockernut and Pignut 
Hickory, Swamp White Oak, Cucumber-tree, Black Cherry, Syca- 
more, Black Ash and Ked Juniper. Excepting the Black Ash and 
Swamp White Oak, which are peculiar only to swampy glades of 
the high valleys, all of these trees are found as stragglers among 
the preceding more abundant kinds. Very probably the original 
forests of this region contained much larger numbers, as the special 
conditions favorable to their growth are prevalent. 

The other trees enumerated are nearly all small and of little im- 
portance. They are generally distributed among the more conspicu- 
ous forest growth. A few only are confined to certain localities, and 
interesting because of their rarity in this region, or special usefulness 
in establishing a cover under which better kinds may grow. Among 
those species are the Sweet Birch and Wild Red Cherry, which occur 
only on the highest summits. The latter is not a tree of economic 
value and is mentioned onlv on account of its raritv. The Sweet 
Birch supplies an important furniture wood in mountainous parts 
of the adjacent states where the rocky soil is deep and rich. The 
timber produced is of large size. In Allegany county, however, this 
Birch is necessarily small on account of the present extremely sterile 

soil. 

The Barren Oak is the most conspicuous of small trees in the 



k 



COUNTY, PLATE X 





TlQ. ^.-DEFECTIVE LARGE WHITE PINE IN YOUNG 



FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



I 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 275 

region. It forms low, dense, brushy thicket? high up on the moun- 
tains and ridges wherever the original deciduous forests have been 
entirely cut or burned off. Being partial to the poor, shaly soils of 
these high elevations, it serves a useful purpose in establishing a 
ground cover, which prevents violent washing of the soil. Useful 
timber species soon follow under the protection of the more hardy 
Barren Oak. 

Finally, the Ilackberry, Sweet Crab, Thorny Haws, Wild Plum, 
Servieeberrv, Eedbud, Naunvberrv and Sumachs are small fore- 
runners in the natural reforestation of abandoned cleared lands in 
the valleys on the lower hills. Together with briars and other shrubs, 
these small trees take complete possession of such lands in from ten 
to fifteen or more years. Following this growth may be seen the 
slow, sure introduction of the better kinds of forest trees. 

Important Timber Trees: Their Abundance and Uses. 

The most abundant and commercially important timber trees of 
this region are White Pine, Shortleaf Pine, Hemlock, White Oik, 
Chestnut Oak, Red Oak, Chestnut, Shagbark Hickory, Sugar Maple, 
White Ash, Tulip-tree, Basswood and Black Walnut. Other species 
represented supply much useful timber, but occur too sparingly to 
afford large supplies. 

The original forests of this county produced considerable White 
and Shortleaf Pine and large quantities of White Oak, Yellow Poplar 
and Hickory timber, together with an abundance of Chestnut Oak 
and Hemlock tan-bark. The timber was large and of excellent 
quality, and is estimated to have frequently given an acre yield of 
from 8,000 to 10,000 board feet, over large areas, or possibly more 
in some localities. 

The old, slow water sawmills made but small inroads upon this 
supply; but evidence is everywhere present of the nearly complete 
culling made later by portable steam sawmills (Fig. 15). The latter 
have so completely lumbered out the large s<mnd timber on all the 
principal streams, in the once heavily wooded coves and on the rich 
mountain lynches and gentle slopes, that at present sizable timber 
of good quality is scarce and distant from public roadways. 



276 



THE FORESTS OF ALLEOASY CVUNTY 



Most of the large White Pine is now gone. Defective old White 
Pines are frequently seen scattered over slopes now covered with 
young hardwood forests (Piute XXVII, Fig. 2); only an occasional 
sound White Pine is to he found, 

Shortleaf Pine is similarly exhausted. Small groups and scat- 
tered single trees are to he found in patches of hardwoods on farms 
in the lower hill country, or forming thin helts skirting the lower 
slopes of the higher, wooded mountains. Only occasional Inrge 




trees are to he found (Plate XXX, Fig. 1). The majority are now 
too few or of too small size to furnish any considerable amount of 
timber. 

The saw timber now available consists chiefly of White Oak, Chest- 
nut Oak, Red Oak and Chestnut, with only occasional logs of second 
growth White Pine, Shortleaf Pine, Pitch Pine, Basswood and Shag- 
bark Hickory. The approximate acre yield of timber now standing 
amounts to from less than 500 to about 2,000 board feet; exceptional, 
isolated small bodies would cut from 3,000 to 6,000 feet per acre. 
These supplies occur, however, at long intervals, and, as already 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 277 

stated, are profitably reached only by small portable sawmills, which 
find employment mostly for only a few months in one place. Siz- 
able timber is especially scarce near railways and the principal 
wagon-roads, over which the original stock has largely been taken. 

A few portable sawmills are cutting small quantities of the above- 
mentioned timber at various points through the northern and middle 
portions of the county. In some cases the output is a mixed cut of 
hardwoods and pine, while in other localities the cut is principally 
either oak or pine. The best quality of lumber produced is oak. 
The pine cut is very knotty and of second- or third-rate quality. 
Owing most likely to the absence of convenient railway connections, 
a comparatively low price, $8.00 to $12.50 per 1,000 board feet, is 
received for the average local output of lumber. 

The demand for mining props and railway ties is apparently large 
and relatively more profitable to the producer than lumber. The 
output of this material is, however, confined chiefly to localities near 
the coal and fire-clay mines and the railways in the western part of 
the county, and to the region of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Poor roads and high hills render 
it unprofitable to haul such heavy material from the more distant 
interior sections lying to the north. 

The mining props cut show that nearly all the trees of the region 
contribute to this material. The species commonly cut are White 
Oak, Chestnut Oak, Scarlet Oak and Rod Oak, Shagbark Hickory, 
Pignut Hickory and Mockernut Hickory, Chestnut, Red Mulberry, 
Locust, Sugar Maple, Red Maple, Black Gum, White Ash, Black 
Cherry, White Pine, Pitch Pine, Scrub Pine, Table-mountain Pine 
and Shortleaf Pine. All are used without distinction, but those most 
highly prized for their strength and durability are White Oak, 
Chestnut and Locust. The props range from five to seven inches 
in diameter at the butt, and are nine feet long. It is rare, therefore, 
that a tree furnishes more than three props. The present stand of 
young timber fit for this purpose affords a yield of 35 to 50 props 
per acre. Where the stand is largely Chestnut and Locust, which 
is often the case, such cuttings may be made approximately every 



278 THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

ten to fifteen years. For young forests containing mixtures of the 
other species mentioned, a cutting for mining props can be made 
in from fifteen to eighteen or more years. Excluding the conifers, 
much of this material is supplied by coppice sprouts, the Chestnut 
and Locust far outstripping the other hardwoods in growth. The 
remainder of the props comes from pole stock, grown from seed, 25 to 
30 years old. The annual consumption of mining props in the coal 
and fire-clay mines of western Allegany county is roughly esti- 
mated at about 1,000,000. This represents an annual culling of 
about 28,000 acres. 

The wastefulness of cutting such timber as White Oak, Hickories, 
Maples, White Ash and White Pine at the short interval of fifteen 
to eighteen years should be apparent, and will be discussed later. 
The use of the other less valuable timber species, and especially the 
rapid growing Chestnut and Locust is more advisable. 

This county has produced large quantities of Chestnut Oak tan- 
bark and considerable Hemlock in the western part. The sources 
of supply are, however, now greatly diminished or exhausted. No 
bodies of Hemlock exist in the county. The small quantity of 
young timber scattered along rocky north slopes of streams in west- 
ern Allegany, is insufficient to supply tan-bark. 

The once abundant stand of Chestnut Oak has likewise been 
nearly exhausted by bark peelers. The comparative lightness of this 
product has enabled producers to secure bark from even the steep, 
rocky slopes of the highest mountains, from which the hauling of 
heavier saw-timber would have been unprofitable. The large tanning 
establishment which continued for many years at Gilpintown, in 
the north central part of the county, had to be abandoned a number 
of years ago for lack of tan-bark. 

With scarcely an exception, the exploitation of tan-bark in the 
past was attended by a total waste of the timber, and most of the 
bark peeling of the present time leaves the trunks unused. The only 
exception observed by the writer was in recent work on the lands 
of the Consolidated Coal Company in the western part of the county. 
Here all peeled Chestnut Oak is being sawed up for mining timber 
with the other timber stripped from coal-bearing land. 



i 



maryland geological survey 279 

Relation of Lumbering and Mining to Reproduction. 

It would be difficult to find a region in which the useful timber 
has been more generally removed than in this county, and at the 
same time, one in which so much forest cover has been left intact. 
Doubtless only the non-agricultural nature of the greater part of the 
original forest-bearing regions has prevented an almost complete 
deforestation. Tn cutting the timber no pains were taken to assist 
the reproduction of original timber species. The purpose of all cut- 
tings was the same, whether for sawlogs, tan-bark, ties, or mining 
props; the largest amount of useful material, regardless of conse- 
quences, was the prime object. That all but the twenty-five or thirty 
per cent of arable land in the county has continued to bear a forest 
cover, is evidence of the greatest natural persistence in reproduction, 
which often takes place under very unfavorable conditions. 

The reforesting of denuded land in this humid region is, therefore, 
one of the easiest problems. In spite of abusive methods of lumber- 
ing and other cutting there is no evidence of the disappearance of any 
<?f the original timber species. A careful study of the young tim- 
ber and seedlings shows all the old species to be present in the young 
growth. The absence, however, of large-sized trees of certain 
species, in fact, sometimes of any but small seedlings, usually sug- 
gests to the casual observer that once prevalent trees have perma- 
nently disappeared from a region. The fact also that the commer- 
cial supply of such timber as White and Shortleaf Pine appears to 
remain exhausted, may add to the impression that these trees can 
never again produce the original abundance of timber. But the 
uatural reproduction of these trees in this region is peculiarly good. 
It required one to two or more hundred years to produce the supply 
of large White and Shortleaf Pine found in this county fortv vears 
ago; and the various stages of struggle between the contending hard- 
woods and pines for the possession of this ground were unseen by those 
who cut off the finally dominant pines. Much of the area thus 
wooded now bears a principally young deciduous forest with only 
scattered remnants of the once abundant pine; trees which at the 
time the larger timber was taken escaped the axe either because they 



280 THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

were too defective for use or of undersize. The old defective trees 
have continued to exist, and the undersized are now large enough for 
saw-timber, but generally too few to claim attention. 

The establishment of another growth of pine like the one removed 
can be accomplished only by another long struggle. The seed trees 
left standing are centers of reproduction. But each of the pines 
must spread under conditions best suited to its reproduction. The 
White Pine of this county will establish itself in pure growth on 
cleared land on exceptionally moist, protected, portions of northern 
slopes, and elsewhere only under the moderate shade of young hard- 
woods. Once established, however, the young pines do not require 
further protection; but, as a matter of fact, they must remain sup- 
pressed till accident or design removes enough of the hardwoods to 
allow the pines to grow up. 

The Shortleaf Pine must spread from the few seed trees left here 
and there by pushing into sunny, partly shaded openings among the 
hardwoods. It makes a successful stand in such places, if it outstrips 
or keeps up in height growth with the hardwoods. 

This reproduction of pine, which is going on now, would, if unin- 
terrupted, require so many years that the generation of settlers who 
saw and helped to remove the original crop of pine could not witness 
the perfection of the returning crop. Moreover, the commercial condi- 
tions of the region are now greatly changed from those attending the 
former growth. The present increasing and constant demand for 
small-sized timber in this region prevents the White or Shortleaf 
Pine and many other useful timbers from reaching mature growth. 
Thousands of pine props are made from very young trees, thus cut- 
ting off all chance for the production of the more valuable mature 
timber. 

In conclusion, it may be restated that while the present and past 
cutting of saw-timber, tie*, mining props and timber for tan-bark has 
locally depleted or entirely exhausted the supply of timber, it has not 
materially changed the composition of the forests now standing. The 
original species remain, and the hardwoods promptly increase wher- 
ever the axe, fire and grazing are withheld; the conifers come back 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 



-LEGANY COUNTY, PLATE X 





FlQ. 2.— SHOKTLEAF PINE AND PITCH PINE, TOWN HILL. 
FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 281 

more slowly. Moreover, as already shown, where cleared agricul- 
tural land is long abandoned, this land quickly reverts to the- original 
forested condition. 

It is not to be presumed, however, that with a widespread and 
complete removal of existing species a serious change would not be 
made in the composition of the subsequent forest growth. The 
reproduction of all trees, as with other plants, depends emphatically 
on the presence of seed trees, be they far from or near the cleared 
land. But the lumbering and other timber-consuming industries of 
previous years have by chance left enough seed trees to assure the 
perpetuation of all species for the present. 

The removal of large* deposits of coal from beneath wooded areas 
may permanently change the surface, kill the existing timber and 
retard subsequent reproduction. 

As is well known to those familiar with these coal-mining opera- 
tions, as much as possible of the big coal-veins, about 6 to 9 feet 
thick and lying in a horizontal position, is taken out before aban- 
doning the mines. In agricultural regions these worked-out coal- 
beds may doubtless l>e left sufficiently shored up by pillars of coal to 
prevent any collapsing of the surface*. Tn the rougher hill country, 
however, mostly with brush or forest cover, such expensive precau- 
tions are not likelv to be taken. The coal is taken out and the sur- 
face left to sink or retain its position, as circumstances permit. When 
coal-beds lie over one hundred feet below tin* surface, the unsup- 
ported cavity seems not tn result in any but an irregular depression 
in the surface. "Where the removal of deposits is nearer the surface 
CM) to TT) feet), the final dropping of the surface is usually violent. 
Cavernous pits are produced which engulf the fnrcst growth in min- 
gled masses of variously tilted, fallen and upright trunks; but much 
of this continues to grow. The timber thus involved is almost en- 
tirelv inaccessible. These breaks in the surface are gradnallv much 
smoothed in their more abrupt portions by the washing and sliding 
of soil and rocks. Smaller vegetation covers the bare spots, and the 
undermined rough surface is finallv overgrown with brush and forest 
trees. 



282 THE FOBESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Wherever coal lands hearing considerable useful timber are con- 
trolled by ownership, the usual plan is to remove all usable timber 
before the coal is mined. This takes all sound trees down to about 
three inches in diameter. If uninterrupted, the final recovery by 
original species is well assured. For when carefully examined, the 
forest floor of such denuded lands is found to contain well established 
seedlings of the principal timber species from two to ten years old. 
In addition to these, much of the sapling growth comprising the same 
kinds survives the destructive lumbering methods employed and also 
the caving-in of the surface. 

The much greater value of the coal deposit must always properly 
have precedence over the present timber crop lying above, and also 
over that which would have been possible during the term of years 
necessary for the land to recuperate from the effects of the under- 
mining. It only remains to be said, therefore, respecting the rela- 
tionship of coal-mining operations and forest reproduction that there 
is an appreciable loss in timber production on undermined forest 
land. The period of this loss will vary, according to the purpose 
for which the timber rotations are taken, from twenty to one hundred 
or more years. The actual annual loss of timber growth for the 
species represented could not be accurately stated without an ex- 
tended study of the productiveness of abandoned coal lands. 

Some permanent damage is also to be mentioned as a result of 
a fixed change in the surface of undermined forest, lands. The inac- 
cessibility of such lands for future lumber operations is greatly in- 
creased. In many places the timber is likely to be difficult to get at, 
and the building of roadways is expensive on so broken a surface. 

Forest Fires and tiieir Relation to Reproduction. 

Forest fires have been widely prevalent in this county, but their 
effects are not strikingly evident. Types of the widespread and long- 
enduring devastation so common in the more western timbered states 
are nowhere seen in this region. However severe the damage done 
may be, the ravages of Allegany county fires are soon greatly con- 
cealed by rapid and abundant reproduction. Moreover, very little 
large timber appears to have been killed by fire. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 283 

Two factors explain the rapid recovery and small injury to large 
timber. The largest areas of timber land are comprised in the prin- 
cipal mountain ranges. The most prevalent fires have occurred in 
these localities. Xow the principal reason that destructive fires do 
not occur, is in the fact that there is no deep humus and little accumu- 
lated debris to feed a deep burning fire. In its present condition, the 
soil and humus cover in these forests is only from one to two inches 
deep and lies on bare rock and shale. Large areas bear no soil or 
humus at all, except in the crevices of the rock, while elsewhere the 
bare soil is composed largely of slaty shale. 

With very little dry, fallen timber or brush, the fires occurring in 
these sections are fed mostlv bv the heavv fall of leaves. The ex- 
posed rock and shale immediately beneath permits only a surface 
fire, which almost never reaches the tree roots lying deep in crevices 
or beneath the shale. 

The ordinary effect upon the larger timber trees is a noticeable 
but harmless scorching of the thick bark from two to six feet up; the 
resin-covered trunks of the Table-mountain, Pitch and Shortleaf Pine 
bear the higher fire marks. The greatest damage to large timber 
observable within recent times resulted from a fire which occurred 
about six years ago. Considerable dry, down timber in some locali- 
ties where selective cutting for saw-timber had been done, attended 
by a dry season, resulted in an unusually severe fire. Few large 
trees were killed, but many were badly burned in spots at the collar, 
evidently from the burning of unused logs and treetops lying near 
or in contact with green trunks. While these burney trees sur- 
vived the fire perfectly, the trunks are, as a result of burning, with- 
out an exception, decaying at the heart and deteriorating for saw- 
timber. 

The effect of surface fires on seedlings and coppice sprouts is disas- 
trous in killing most growth from one to ten feet high. The thin- 
barked stems of all species are severely scorched so that they die 
down to the ground. An encouraging feature is, however, that the 
roots of seedlings over one year old are rarely killed. They pro- 
duce vigorous sprouts the following season. The scorching of Chest- 



284 THE FORESTS OK ALLEGANY COUNTY 

nut and Oak sprouts is often so slight as to kill only the thin bark, 
leaving the sapwood uninjured; a few immature leaves are then put 
forth, but the stems finally die down to the ground. 

While in general the damage by fires in this region appears not to 
be great, especially since there is little or no apparent decrease in the 
forest, cover, nevertheless, the combined effects upon all ages of 
growth are very appreciable. The greatest damage is done in the 
periodic destruction of from one to ten or more years' growth of seed- 
lings and coppice sprouts. A few T very young seedlings are also killed. 
Clearly, therefore, the productiveness of these forests is much 
reduced ; in fact, where fires run through this young growth at short 
intervals it is practicallv held at a standstill for manv vears. Actual 
growth is confined only to such saplings and older trees as are, from 
their size, capable of withstanding light fires. The direct, effect of 
retarded reproduction would be much more apparent to consumers of 
timber in the region than it is now, if these forests were systematically 
cut over for the fullest utilization of timber. The present timber- 
producing stock would eventually be exhausted. Wooded areas 
which now give the impression to many of being constantly stocked 
and improving would soon be reduced to an unproductive state. Many 
acres of woodland are thus to be found which yield practically noth- 
ing, from the fact that all small stock is periodically destroyed. 

Closelv related to this retardation is the fact that constant destruc- 
tion of humus reduces the productive power of the forest soil, both in 
point of richness and in the power of retaining moisture. A loss of 
the latter directly affects all agricultural lands below the wooded 
mountain slopes. For with all small vegetation and absorbing humus 
burned off, a large percentage of rain- and snow-water rushes over the 
clean surface to wash and erode the tilled lands below. 

The common belief expressed by many people in this region, that 
the frequency of forest fires is beneficial in rendering each succeed- 
ing fire less and less dangerous is a pernicious fallacy, overlooking the 
damage just recited. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL S 



ALLEGANY COUNTY, PLATE X 




—PITCH PINE, NEAR PINE PLAINS, EASTERN Al.LEGANV COUNTY. 




Fid. 2.-TABLE MOUNTAIN PINE, DANS MOUNTAIN. 



FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



fc 



maryland geological survey 285 

Management and Utilization of Forest Resources. 

Without a much more detailed examination than was possible in 
the brief time given the work by the writer, it would not be possible 
to formulate an adequate plan of management for the various forest 
types and conditions of this county. The needs of different sections 
of the county are not the same, and would, therefore, require special 
study. It is believed, however, that a statement of some of the 
general needs of Allegany county forests in point of treatment and 
utilization will not be out of place, and may even prove of consid- 
erable practical value to intelligent owners of woodlots. Indeed, it 
is gratifying to state in this connection that the farmers and other 
owners of woodlands, and officers in charge of forest lands in this 
region are remarkably well informed upon the condition and com- 
position of their forests. The average intelligent farmer is per- 
fectly familiar with the location and character of the principal timber 
trees of his region, and recognizes most of them even in their younger 
stages of growth. Such information is of great practical value, and 
with the suggestions to be given, will, for the time being, enable 
thoughtful men to improve their woodlots considerably. 1 

Xearly sixty years of constant drain upon the forests of this county 
has reduced them to a state of the lowest productiveness, which has 
in turn led to an impression among many people that this resource is 
irretrievably gone. As already pointed out, however, the rapid 
natural reproduction in this region is most encouraging for a recupera- 
tion of these depleted forests if the latter can be placed under a con- 
servative management. Moreover, it is believed that the large per- 
centage of rocky hills and mountain land now in forest can be most 
profitably held in this condition; in fact, much of the hill and moun- 
tain land, once cleared and now abandoned, was evidently neglected 
because of low agricultural productiveness. 

In conclusion, attention is called to the following general recom- 

1 For careful improvement and utilization of their forest lands owners 
are especially recommended to apply to the Division of Forestry, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, for Circular 21, entitled " Practical Assistance 
to Farmers, Lumbermen and Others in Handling' Forest Lands." (1S98.) 



286 THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

mendations which are believed to be important in the management 
of woodlands in this county, both as looking to increased production 
of timber and to the protection of agricultural lands from erosion 
and the consequent deterioration. Discussions of these recommenda- 
tions follow in detail : 

1. Protection of forest lands from fire. 

2. Exclusion of grazing from forest lands. 

3. Regulation of indiscriminate cutting. 

4. Regulation of indiscriminate clearing. 

Protection of Forest Lands from Fire. 

Sufficient has been said as to the injury to forests by fires. 

Fires in this region are commonly believed to be caused through 
the carelessness of pleasure parties, hunters, woodsmen and other peo- 
ple in the forests. 

The penalty imposed by the Maryland law x for wilfully or care- 
lessly setting forest fires appears to be adequate, but it is believed 
will never completely control the evil. The great difficulty under 

w 

1 By an early statute in this state, it was forbidden to maliciously set 
on fire any woods, fences, marshes, lands, leaves, or rubbish thereon, within 
the counties of Baltimore, Anne Arundel, Frederick, Montgomery, Allegany, 
Queen Anne's, Harford, Cecil, or Prince George's, so as to occasion any loss, 
damage, or injury to other persons, under penalty of a fine not exceeding 
$100, one-half to the informer and the other half to the county, besides the 
costs; or, if unable to pay this fine, by imprisonment not over six months. 
A slave thus convicted might be punished by whipping, not exceeding thirty- 
nine lashes, on the bare back, unless his owner chose to pay a fine not 
exceeding ten pounds. The owner of property injured or destroyed by such 
fires might recover its value from the party who caused it. 

By an act passed March 29, 1838, entitled " An act to repair injuries done 
by fire from railroad engines," it was provided, that if any woods, fields, 
or other property, real or personal, be burned or injured by fire from 
engines, the company should pay the loss. Actions for damages under this 
act were to be tried at the first term of the court in which they are brought, 
if process be served on the defendant ten days before the court convenes, 
or, if not, then at the court next following. Service might be had upon 
any director, officer, attorney, agent, or servant of the defendant. Upon 
failure to appear, the court might, after the second term, upon proof of 
. service by the sheriff's return, or by affidavit, enter a judgment by default 
against the defendant, by a jury impanelled at bar, as in cases of writs 
of inquiry. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 287 

the present status of securing conviction must always render this law 
an inadequate protection unless special provision be made to enforce 
it. This can be accomplished thoroughly only through the services 
of special officers. 

Protection from forest fires in other states has been secured by the 
appointment of fire-wardens, whose duties are to enforce the fire law 
and exterminate forest fires. Chief fire-wardens are now regularly 
appointed by state authority in Xew York, Pennsylvania and Minne- 
sota. In other states, where, as yet, these officers are not provided, 
local officers of the law (constables, etc.) have been made fire-wardens. 
The benefit of these systems of fire service in states, counties and 
townships possessing woodland is unquestionably great. As an 
example of this, it may be stated that the work of fire-wardens in the 
Preserve counties of northeastern Xew York has resulted in a recent 
very marked control and reduction in the number of forest fires. In 
addition to the special state fire-w r arden of Xew York, over two hun- 
dred supervisors in these counties are appointed deputy fire-wardens. 
The state provides that a compensation of two to two and one-half 
dollars a day be paid to deputy fire-wardens for actual time spent in 
fighting fires. In special cases of need these officers may hire a tem- 
porary force of men to assist in subduing fires; and for such service 
a per diem rate of two dollars is paid. 

The establishment of a fire service for Western Maryland seems 
imperative. This section combines the most heavily wooded coun- 
ties — Washington, Allegany and Garrett — and should, therefore, 
very fitly form the basis for establishing such protection. It is be- 
lieved that the plan of combining the duties of fire-wardens with 
those of supervisors of these counties would be thoroughly feasible. 

Exclusion of Grazing from Forest Lands. 

The damage done to forest land by grazing is in the destruction 
of seedlings, by tramping and browsing, and in laying bare the 
surface, which is afterward dried out and washed. Under these con- 
ditions reproduction is either seriously checked or prevented. 

A well-managed forest cannot serve for two purposes — good paa- 



288 THE FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

ture and the fullest production of timber. If woodland affords good 
grass pasture it is proof that the ground is not fully stocked with 
trees; and if trees are wanting in grassy places, most likely it is be- 
cause the incoming seedlings have been trampled down from season 
to season by grazing cattle and so crowded out by the hardier grasses. 
A properly stocked forest managed for short rotations of small tim- 
ber, such as mining props, ties, etc., should afford no forage for stock. 
Grazing should be relegated to cleared lands or to brush and wood- 
lands intended only for grazing. 

Regulation of Indiscriminate Cutting. 

The injuries resulting from indiscriminate cutting are: removing 
needed seed trees of the most useful species, the leaving of old trees 
which are suppressing valuable young growth, and neglecting to lop 
waste tops and trunks which otherwise fail to rot and supply fuel for 
fire. 

Timber-cutting in the past has not left a sufficient number of seed 
trees of the valuable species. The loss of a proper number of seed 
trees is a disadvantage to the forest in depriving it of immediate 
means of reproducing the kinds thus taken out. The return of 
species from distant sources is slow and involves a loss of valuable 
time. Care should be taken, therefore, in marking trees to be cut 
out, that three to four seed trees of all the original useful timber 
species of a locality be left evenly distributed on every acre. 

The timely removal of old trees which are suppressing and dam- 
aging young timber is urgent. The need of such discriminative 
cutting is very apparent in the forests of this county. As an example 
of this need may be mentioned the suppression caused by a single 
large White Oak standing on the lower east slope of Warrior Moun- 
tain. Eight large sapling White Pines, four White Oaks, two Hick- 
ories, two Walnuts, and one Shortleaf Pine were all entirely over- 
topped by the heavy crown of the old White Oak, and were becoming 
stunted and twisted in their efforts to reach the needed light The 
removal of the White Oak would have allowed these saplings to 
advance. Failure to relieve them at the proper time has already pre- 



t 




Via. 1.-SHOKT1.KAF PINK AM) HARDWOOD, ! 



Jtt&n j&KBe^Z 


CSS 


• 




r 

\ 






gggis&^ii 


" 



FIG. 2.— CUT-OVKR HARDWOOD FOREST, SAVAGE MOUNTAI> 
FORESTS OF ALLEGANY COUNTY. 



fc 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 289 

vented five to six years of profitable growth. Suppression of this 
kind is easily recognized and remedied by any intelligent farmer or 
woodsman. 

In the majority of cases where timber is cut for sawlogs, ties and 
props, from 10 to 30 per cent or more of the trees is left on the 
ground as waste tops; and in the case of timber cut for tan-bark, the 
entire trunks are commonly left unused. The danger of neglecting 
unlopped, waste treetops, especially of hardwoods, is that the timber 
is usually braced up from the ground where it seasons thoroughly and 
rots very slowly, affording additional fuel for forest fires. The 
burning of this material was observed to have done severe damage to 
large trees standing near or in contact with it. 

Strict economy would not allow hardwood tops to be wasted when 
thev can be cut into fuel. But if circumstances are such as to make 
this entirely impracticable or unprofitable, the refuse should be cut 
and disposed on the ground so that it will decay as rapidly as possible. 
The essential point is to bring it all in contact with the ground, where 
it will decay. To accomplish this properly it will be necessary to 
lop all large limbs which stand above ground. 

Precaution should be used in felling large timber so as not to drop 
a big top, which must be left unused, near or in contact with large 
standing trees. Such refuse tops should be placed, in felling, in 
open places distant as far as possible from standing timber in order to 
avoid burning the latter in case of fire. The labor of properly reduc- 
ing waste hardwood tops will often be considerable, while the lopping 
of the much smaller branches of unused conifer tops can be done 
more quickly. 

Most farmers can easily carry out these precautions when doing 
the cutting themselves or superintending it. It will be difficult, 
however, to enforce this extra work in contract cutting, except under 
the most rigid insistence. In the case of timber stolen, which not 
infrequently occurs in the mountain forests, attention to waste tops 
will of course be entirely neglected. 



10 



290 the forests of allegany county 

Regulation of Indiscriminate Clearing. 

Examples of injudicious clearing are to be seen in many sec- 
tions of this county, and include the instances where narrow hill- 
tops, mountain ridges and steep slopes have been stripped of their 
forest cover. Heavy surface washing and deep trenching follow 
these clearings not only on the high slopes thus cleared, but also on 
the better lands lower down. The result is a constant impoverish- 
ment of the soil. The rapid deterioration of these naturally thin 
hill soils under constant surface washing is abundantly attested in the 
fact that many acres are now abandoned. Reference has been made 
also to the increased rise of water in streams during the spring and 
fall as a result of indiscriminate clearing. 



THK FAUNA AND FLORA 

THE LIFE ZONES AND AREAS OF ALLEGANY 

COUNTY 

BY 

C HART MHRRIAM 



The best guide to the agricultural capabilities of a region is afforded 
by the distribution of the native animals and plants; for experience 
has shown that areas characterized in a state of nature by the presence 
of particular species are adapted to the cultivation of particular 
varieties of agricultural crops. The importance of this fact is so 
great that the national government has been engaged for years in a 
biological survey of the United States with a view to determining the 
boundaries of the areas inhabited bv different associations of animals 
and plants. 

It has been found that !Xorth America may be divided primarily 
into two vast regions: a northern or Boreal, and a southern or Austral, 
according to the sources from which the native animals and plants 
were derived. The boundary between these areas lies, in the main, 
north of the United States, but disconnected arms or tongues of the 
Boreal area push far southward into the United States along the sum- 
mits of the higher mountain ranges — the Alleghanies in the east 
and the Eockv Mountains and Sierra-Cascade svstem in the far west. 

t. t/ 

The state of Maryland, owing to its southern position, is in the 
southern* or Austral region, but the high mountains in the western 
part of the state are so much colder than the lower lands on the east 
that their summits are in places inhabited by species characteristic of 
the northern or Boreal region. Excepting these small mountain 
summits, the total area of which is insignificant, Maryland lies wholly 



292 THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

within the Austral region. This region is commonly divided into 
several belts, known to naturalists as Lower Austral, Upper Austral, 
and Transition. The Transition, as its name implies, is a belt of 
overlapping of northern and southern types. The Lower Austral, or 
Austroriparian, belt begins on the east coast at the mouth of Chesa- 
peake Bay and takes a southerly and westerly course around the south- 
ern end of the Alleghanies. The Upper Austral, or Carolinian, belt 
extends from the neighborhood of Xew York City southerly along 
the coast to Chesapeake Bay and includes the whole state of Mary- 
land except the mountains. The mountains fall mainly within the 
Alleghanian division of the Transition zone, and, as already remarked, 
a few of their higher summits are strongly tinged with Boreal forms. 

While the Boreal region has too cold a climate for successful agri- 
culture, all of the Austral zones are of agricultural importance. The 
whole of the state of Maryland, therefore, so far as its climatic con- 
ditions and life zones are concerned, is an agricultural state — no part 
being too cold for the cultivation of crops. The rainfall and humidity 
also are neither too scanty nor too excessive for agriculture; hence, 
except where unfavorable topographic and soil conditions prevent, the 
whole state may be made productive. 

A very hasty examination of Allegany and Garrett counties 
recently made by my assistants, Vernon Bailey and E. A. Preble, at 
the request of Professor William Bullock Clark, Director of the 
Maryland Geological Survey, shows that Garrett county and the 
western part of Allegany county (west of Piney Mountain and the 
Potomac valley) are mainly in the Alleghanian area of the Transition 
zone, and that the eastern part of Allegany county (east of Cumber- 
land) is mainly in the Carolinian area of the Upper Austral zone. 

Tongues of the Carolinian fauna, characterized by the tulip tree, 
sycamore, red bud, sassafras, sweet gum, dogwood, and scrib pine, 1 
occupy the narrow valleys of the North Branch of the Potomac 
river, Wills Creek, Jennings Run and Braddock Run, and reach up, 

•Among the characteristic animals of the Carolinian area of Maryland are the 
opossum, fox squirrel, cardinal bird, Carolina wren, tufted titmouse, gnatcatcher, 
Carolina chickadee and summer tanager. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 293 

as a rule, to an altitude of 1200 or 1300 feet. Above this, the whole 
county, except the warmest slopes, which are tinged with Carolinian 
forms, belongs to the Transition zone. In darrett county, in the 
upper part of the Transition zone (above 2000 feet altitude) cold 
sphagnum and alder swamps abound. These swamps contain a strong 
admixture of high Transition and even Boreal species, such as the 
J unco, or Slate-colored Snowbird (J unco hyemalis), Solitary Vireo 
(Vireo solitaries), Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica maculosa), 
Canadian Warbler (Wilson ia canadensis), Kedbreasted Nuthatch 
(Sitta canadensis), Hermit Thrush (Ilylocichla aonalaschkae pallasii), 
Redbacked Mouse (Evolomys gapperi), Canadian White-footed 
Mouse (Peromyscus canadensis), two species of Jumping Mouse, or 
Jerboa (Zaptis hudsonius and Z. insignis), Varying Hare (Lepus 
americanus virginianus), and the northern Sooty Shrew (Sorex 
funieus), all of which were obtained by E. A. Preble at Finzel post- 
office, six miles north of Frostburg. Still farther west the Boreal 
tinge is even stronger, and in some very extensive swamps between 
Accident and Bittinger (mainly on the west side of the wagon road) 
Mr. Preble found spruce trees common. The cutting off of the 
spruce and hemlock from these small boreal islands lets in the hot 
sun and results, in numerous instances, in changing the fauna and 
flora from Canadian to Alleghanian. 

The fauna of Allegany county is a mixture of Carolinian and Alle- 
ghanian species and comprises, so far as known, no boreal islands. 
The Potomac valley, and valleys of the principal streams, are Caro- 
linian; the uplands, Alleghanian. 



THE SUMMER BIRDS OF WESTERN MARYLAND 

BY 

EDWARD A. PREBLE 



During the summer of 1899 three short trips were made to west- 
ern Maryland for the purpose of studying its fauna and flora in the 
joint interests of the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the Mary- 
land Geological Survey. The time spent in the field aggregated 
about a month. Special attention was paid to birds and mammals— 
the plants, for lack of time, being merely noted incidentally with 
reference to their bearing on the different life areas of the region. 

A short preliminary trip was made in May. Reaching Frostburg, 
near the western border of Allegany county, eleven miles west of 
Cumberland, a suitable place for a few days' work was found in 
Finzel, a postoffice near the northeast corner of Garrett county, about 
a mile and a half west of the main ridge of Great Savage Mountain, 
at this point having an altitude of nearly 3000 feet. Finzel lies some 
400 feet lower. About midway in distance and altitude between 
Finzel and Great Savage lies Little Savage Mountain. These ridges 
are covered with a rather sparse growth of oaks and chestnuts. In 
the shallow depression between them is a dense swamp, the main 
source of Savage river. This swamp is densely grown up to hemlock 
(Tsuga canadensis), black spruce (Picea mariana), tamarack (Larix 
laricina) and several other species, with a dense undergrowth com- 
posed mainly of Rhododendron maximum. To the west of Finzel 
the country is cut up by numerous ridges mainly covered with oak 
and chestnut, the intervening valleys being rather swampy and tra- 
versed by small brooks, and usually clothed with heavy forest, hem- 
lock and rhododendron predominating and often extending nearly to 
the summit of the ridges on their western slopes. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 295 

After spending several days about Finzel, mainly engaged in trap- 
ping mammals; having obtained a fair knowledge of the mammalian 
fauna, it seemed desirable to ascertain the conditions in other por- 
tions of the county. The turnpike road was traversed westward from 
Frostburg across Great Savage, Meadow and Xegro mountains to 
Keyser Ridge, and thence, leaving the turnpike, the country was 
examined southward to Accident, across Negro Mountain to Bittinger, 
thence by a circuitous route to Grantsville, and back to Frostburg. 
Several large tracts of coniferous woods were located and gave promise 
of interesting results if visited later in the season. 

Beginning June 17th, 5 days were spent in studying and collect- 
ing the birds about Finzel, among which were several species not be- 
fore recorded as breeding within the state. On June 22, the point of 
study was shifted westward to Grantsville in Garrett county, a small 
town situated on a ridge overlooking the valley of the Castleman, 
about two miles south of the Pennsylvania line, and a point of de- 
parture was located at a farmhouse about two miles east of town from 
which the valley of the Castleman and the ridges to the eastward 
could be easily worked. Most of the country is covered with a rather 
heavy growth of deciduous trees, oaks and chestnuts predominating. 
A good-sized tract of hemlock stands near the turnpike three miles 
east of Grantsville and a considerable quantity also remains on the 
western slopes of the ridges near the Castleman, where red-berried 
elder and rhododendron abound. At this point the valley of the 
Castleman lies at an altitude of about 2100 feet, while the ridges 
in the vicinity rise four or five hundred feet higher. 

White pine was formerly found in this region in great abundance, 
but has now almost entirely disappeared. The axe of the lumber- 
man has latterly been directed to the hemlock and spruce, which in 
turn are fast disappearing. 

On June 27 the field of observation was transferred to Bittinger, 
a postoffice about nine miles south of Grantsville on the plateau be- 
tween the north and south branches of the Castleman. Its altitude 
is about 2600 feet. Considerable tracts of hemlock and spruce occur 
in the vicinity, and in their shade were found Taxus minor, Dirca 



296 THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

palustris, Oxalis acetosella and other northern plants, and also many 
interesting birds to be mentioned later. 

On July 1 another change was made to Mountain Lake Park in the 
southern part of Garrett county. Here, as throughout the county, 
the face of the country is traversed by numerous chestnut ridges 
having a general northeast and southwest trend, but coniferous for- 
ests are entirely absent. In the vicinity of Kearney, some hemlock 
woods still remain and there are several species of birds not observed 
at Mountain Lake Park. A considerable quantity of hemlock occurs 
on the western slopes of Great Savage Mountain in the vicinity, with 
an undergrowth of Rhododendron maximum, Taxus minor, and 
Oxalis acetosella. 

Study and collecting trips were also made to Rawlings, Dans Moun- 
tain, Oldtown, and Little Orleans, where short stops were made to 
ascertain what birds were common in the vicinity. 

Following is a list of the birds observed during the several trips. 
They w T ere all seen between June 17 and July 24 (with the exception 
of Otocoris), and while of course the nests of all the species were not 
found, there is no doubt that all were breeding in the vicinity. A 
male horned lark in full song, observed near Accident on May 18, 
was doubtless breeding. Several olivebacked thrushes were seen 
near the borders of the tamarack swamp near Finzel on May 15 and 
may breed there, but since they may have been migrants, and since 
they were not found there in June, the species is not included in the 
following list. The wild turkey occurs throughout the wilder parts 
of the region but was not observed. The number of species recorded 
would doubtless have been considerably increased had it been possible 
to devote the time entirely to birds. 



LIST OF SUMMER BIRDS IN WESTERN MARYLAND. 

Ardea virescens. Green Heron. — Though doubtless occurring 
elsewhere in the region, Green Herons were observed only along the 
Potomac and its tributaries. One was seen near Rawlings and a 
number of adults and young were observed at Little Orleans and Old- 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 297 

town. At the latter place two broods of young, which had left the 
nests and were climbing about among the branches, were seen. 

Philohela minor. Woodcock. — The tracks and borings of a Wood- 
cock were seen at the ed^e of a swamp at Finzel, and several were 
seen at Grantsville and Mountain Lake Park. 

Actitis mactilaria. Spotted Sandpiper. — Several were noticed 
on the shores of the Castleman, near Grantsville, and also a number 
along the Potomac at Oldtown and Little Orleans. 

Aegialitis vocifera. Killdeer Plover. — A pair of Killdeer 
Plovers were seen in a field near Rawlings on July 21. 

Colinus virginianus. Quail. — This species seemed to be fairly 
common throughout the region. It was heard several times near 
Grantsville, where they are said to be abundant some seasons. Sev- 
eral were heard between Grantsville and Bittinger, and the species 
was also noted at Mountain Lake Park, Rawlings, Oldtown, and Little 
Orleans. 

Bonasa umbellus. Ruffed Grouse. — This species was abundant 
in the higher parts of the region. Three females each, with a brood 
of young, were observed near Finzel and the birds seemed equally 
abundant near Grantsville, and were also observed at Bittinger and 
on Dans Mountain, near Rawlings. 

Zenaidura macroura. Mourning Dove. — The Mourning Dove 
was noted in small numbers at Bittinger, Mountain Lake Park and 
Sw ? anton. It was abundant near Rawlings and Oldtown. 

Cathartes aura. Turkey Buzzard. — This species was seen in 
small numbers at Bittinger, Swanton, Dans Mountain, Oldtown and 
Little Orleans. 

Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. — A pair seen at Moun- 
tain Lake Park, and one in deep woods near Swanton. Its actions 
seemed to indicate that it had a nest in the vicinitv. 

Accipiter cooper i. Cooper's Hawk. — One was seen perched in a 
dead tree on a partially cleared hillside near Swanton. I decoyed it 
quite near by imitating the cry of a bird in distress. 

Buteo borealis. Red-tailed Hawk. — Onlv seen once, a few miles 
north of Rawlings. The bird was mailing about over the valley. 



208 THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Buteo lineatus. Red-shouldered Hawk. — A very noisy pair seen 
daily at Finzel, and the species was also noted near Grantsville. A 
nest in a large birch in deep woods near Bittinger had probably been 
occupied by a pair of these birds, which were several times observed 
in the vicinity. 

Buteo latissimus. Broad-winged Hawk. — One was taken on the 
summit of the ridge about three miles east of Grantsville. 

Falco sparverius. Sparrow Hawk. — This species was noted at 
Grantsville, Bittinger and near Mountain Lake Park, only one being 
seen at each place. 

Megascops asio. Screech Owl. — The familiar notes of this species 
were heard several times during the night of June 24, at Grantsville. 
Though doubtless found throughout the region, the bird was not 
elsewhere noted. 

Bubo virginianus. Great Horned Owl. — The remains of a brood 
of full-grown young were seen in the woods near Finzel. I saw one 
near Bittinger, one evening about dusk, perched on a high dead tree, 
at the edge of the forest. It soon started off in search of food. 

Coccyzus americanus. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. — Several were 
seen and heard at Finzel and one was taken on June 20. 

Coccyzus erythrophthalmus. Black-billed Cuckoo. — One was 
taken near Grantsville on June 26. 

Ceryle alcyon. Kingfisher. — One was seen near Oldtown on 
July 23. 

Dryobates villosus. Hairy Woodpecker. — Fairly common over 
the higher portions of the region. One was taken at Finzel and 
several seen in oak and chestnut woods near Grantsville. A pair, 
accompanied by young, were seen in deep woods near Bittinger. 

Di-yobates pubescens. Downy Woodpecker. — Evidently not com- 
mon. The species was noted at Grantsville, Bittinger, and near 
Rawlings, only a single individual being noted in each case. 

Sphyrapicus varius. Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. — Rather 
common and generally distributed over the higher portions of the 
region. A few were noted near Finzel. A pair seen near Grants- 
ville June 23 evidently had a nest near by. Old birds, accompanied 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 299 

by young not long from the nest, were seen at Bittinger and Moun- 
tain Lake Park, and later both old and young birds were observed at 
S wanton. 

Ceophloeas pileatus abieticola. Northern Pileated Woodpecker. 
— A bird of this species was seen in heavy mixed woods near S wanton. 
It doubtless occurs sparingly throughout the region, as it was heard 
in several places. 

Melanerpes erythroccphalus. Red- headed Woodpecker. — Quite 
generally distributed and common throughout the greater part of 
Garrett county traversed. It was fairly common about Grantsville 
and abundant at Bittinger and Mountain Lake Park. The birds 
seemed to delight in the tall dead oaks and chestnuts left in the clear- 
ings. They paid frequent visits to the cultivated cherry trees which 
are common throughout the region. 

Colaptes auratus luteus. Northern Flicker. — Very common and 
generally distributed throughout the region. 

Antrostomus vociferus. Whippoorwill. — Whippoorwills were 
heard nightly at Finzel and near Grantsville. I also heard several at 
Swanton during the night of July 18, but did not note the species 
elsewhere. 

Chordeiles virginianus. Xighthawk. — A few were seen at Bit- 
tinger, Mountain Lake Park, Swanton, Rawlings and Oldtown. 

Chaetura pelagica. Chimney Swift. — This species was very gen- 
erally distributed throughout the region and was everywhere common, 
and in the vicinity of the towns, abundant. 

Troch Has colubris. Ruby-throated Hummingbird. — The ruby- 
throat seemed to be uncommon. Only one was seen at Bittinger and 
one near Eawlings. A number were noted at Swanton and along 
the roadsides near Oldtown. 

Tyrannus tyrannus. Kingbird. — Bather common and generally 
distributed throughout the region, being noted at all the places 
visited. 

Myiarchus crinitus. Crested Flycatcher. — Rather common 
near Grantsville, Mountain Lake Park, Swanton and about Rawlings 
and Dans Mountain. 



300 THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Sayornis phoebe. Phoebe. — Generally distributed but rather rare. 
With the exception of Mountain Lake Park, it was seen in small 
numbers at all the localities visited. 

Contopus virens. Wood Pewee. — Fairly common and very gen- 
erally distributed, being noted as more or less common at all the 
localities visited. 

Empidonax virescens. Acadian Flycatcher. — This species was 
seen on onlv one occasion, at Oldtown. 

Empidonax traillii alnorum. Alder Flycatcher. — A number 
were seen in alder thickets in the meadows and springy places near 
Mountain Lake Park, and two males were taken July 3 and 4. They 
were rather active and frequently uttered their characteristic note, 
but were shy and generally kept concealed on the opposite side of a 
thicket of alders, and the specimens taken were secured with some 
difficulty. 

Empidonax minimus. Least Flycatcher. — One was seen and 
taken in an apple orchard near Grantsville. 

Otocoris alpestris praticola. Prairie Horned Lark. — While 
driving through Garrett county on May 18, I saw a male bird of this 
species. He was on a rail fence singing lustily and was not at all shy. 
It was near the town of Accident, about ten miles from the northwest 
corner of the countv. There can be little doubt that the bird was 
breeding. 

Cyanocitta cristata. Blue Jay. — This bird was noted as common 
at all the places visited except Oldtown and Little Orleans. Young, 
not long from the nest, being fed by their parents, w T ere observed at 
Bittinger on June 28. They had notes very similar to those of young 
crows. 

Corvus corax principalis. Northern Raven. — A pair of ravens 
were seen on several occasions at Finzel. They were said to have a 
nest in a large hemlock near that place which they had occupied for 
several successive seasons. 

Corvus americanus. Common Crow. — Fairly common and gen- 
erally distributed, being noted at all the localities visited. Young 
birds not long from the nest were seen at Grantsville and Bittinger 
late in June. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 301 

Dalichonyx oryzivorus. Bobolink. — A pair of Bobolinks were 
observed in a field near Grantsville- on June 23. The bird is said to 
be a regular summer visitor, but is not common. No others were 
seen. 

Mohthrus ater. Oowbird. — A small flock of Cowbirds was seen 
in a field near Rawlings on July 22. 

Agelaius phoenicvus. Kedwinged Blackbird. — Quite common 
in the meadows and low fields in the vallev of the Castleman near 
Grantsville. A few were also seen at Mountain Lake Park, Bit- 
tinger and Old town. 

Sturnella magna. Meadow Lark. — Common and quite gener- 
ally distributed throughout the region. Numbers were seen at 
Grantsville, Bittinger, Mountain Lake Park, Kawlings and Oldtown. 

Icterus galbula. Baltimore Oriole. — During my stay near 
Grantsville I saw several in a cherrv tree near the house. At Moun- 
tain Lake Park, T took one, which was feeding on the berries of the 
" Service Tree " (Amelanchier). Several individuals, evidently a 
family, were seen in the oak woods near the base of Dans Mountain, 
near Rawlings. 

Quiscalus (juisrula. Purple Grackle. — Several bands, consisting 
of old birds accompanied by young not long from the nest, were seen 
at Bittinger. They seemed interested mainly in the cherry trees, 
which at the time were loaded with ripening fruit. They were very 
noisy, and except when feeding, were quite shy. Specimens taken 
were intermediate between quiscula and aeneus, as might be expected. 
The species was also noted at Mountain Lake Park and Swanton. 

Asiragalmus tristis. American Goldfinch. — This species was 
common and very generally distributed throughout the region, being 
seen almost daily at all the places visited. 

Pooecetes gramineus. Vesper Sparrow. — This species was abund- 
ant in the fields about Finzel, Grantsville and Bittinger and was also 
noted at Kawlings. 

Ammod ramus savanna rum passcrmus. Grasshopper Sparrow. 
— A number of these birds were seen along roadsides in the vicinity 
of Bawlings. 



302 THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Spizella socialis. Chipping Sparrow. — This familiar species was 
common and very generally distributed throughout the region. A 
nest containing four fresh eggs was found at Finzel on June 21. 

Spizella pus ilia. Field Sparrow. — This species was noted in con- 
siderable numbers at all the places visited, excepting Oldtown and 
Little Orleans. 

Junco hyemalis carolinensis. Carolina Junco. — Fairly common 
about the open portions of the hemlock woods in the vicinity of 
Finzel. It was also seen in the vicinity of a hemlock forest about 
3 miles east of Grantsville on June 22. During my stay at Bittinger 
the species was observed daily and young, apparently just from the 
nest, were seen June 29. 

During a drive through Garrett county, on May 18, I found a nest 
of this species near Bittinger, containing four apparently fresh eggs. 
The site was beneath the edge of a mossy bank within a few feet of 
the highway. 

Melospiza fasciafa. Song Sparrow. — This bird was noted as 
common at all the places visited. 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus. Towhee. — Noted in considerable num- 
bers in scrubby oak woods in the vicinity of Finzel, Grantsville, Moun- 
tain Lake Park, Swanton, and on Dans Mountain, near Kawlings. 

Cardinalis cardinalis. Cardinal. — This species was rather com- 
mon in the valley of the Potomac near Bawlings, Oldtown and Little 
Orleans. In the higher portions of the region it was observed but 
once, in the valley of the Castleman about three miles northeast of 
Grantsville. 

Zamelodia ludoviciana. Bosebreasted Grosbeak. — Bather com- 
mon in mixed and deciduous woods about Finzel. I saw a pair in 
mixed woods near Bittinger, and one near Swanton. 

Cyanospiza cyanea. Indigo Bunting. — Common and very gen- 
erally distributed throughout the region, being noted at all the places 
visited excepting Bittinger and Swanton, where it was probably over- 
looked. A nest found near Grantsville on June 23 contained young 
just hatched. 

Piranga erythromelas. Scarlet Tanager. — Fairly abundant at 
all the places visited excepting Oldtown and Little Orleans. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SUKVEY 303 

Progne subis. Purple Martin. — Several colonies were observed 
about Mountain Lake Park, and a colony at Frostburg in the north- 
western part of Allegany county. 

Petrocheliclon lunifrons. Cltff Swallow. — This familiar species 
noted in the vicinity of nearly every farmhouse throughout the higher 
part of Garrett county. It was common near Finzel, Grantsville, Bit- 
tinger and Mountain Lake Park. Great numbers of their nests were 
seen beneath the overhanging portions of the old-fashioned barns. 

Ilirundo erythrogaster. Barx Sw t allow. — Generally distributed 
and common throughout the region, being noted, usually in large 
numbers, at every place visited, excepting Oldtown. They nested 
in nearly every barn through the country. In the vicinity of Grants- 
ville, June 22-27, great numbers of yoitng birds just from the nest 
were observed. 

Clivicola riparia. Bank Swallow. — A single bird was seen at 
Little Orleans on July 24. 

Ampelis cedrorum. Cedar Waxwing. — Noted in abundance at 
Finzel, Grantsville, Bittinger, Mountain Lake Park and Swanton. 
A nest found at the latter place on July 19 contained three eggs. A 
few individuals were also seen at Oldtown. 

Yireo olivaceus. Red-eyed Vireo. — This species was very abund- 
ant and generally distributed throughout the region, being observed at 
all the places visited. 

Vireo flarifrons. Yellow-throated Vireo. — A number were 
observed in thickets bordering the Potomac at Oldtown. 

Vireo solitarius. Solitary Vireo. — This species was fairly com- 
mon in hemlock and mixed woods near Finzel, Grantsville and Bit- 
tinger. I took a specimen near Kearney, a few miles southeast of 
Mountain Lake Park, and the song of one was heard at Swanton. I 
also saw several on Dans Mountain. Specimens taken at Finzel and 
near Kearney show some slight approach in measurements and color 
of upper parts to V. s. alii cola, but, on the whole, seem much nearer 
to the typical form. 

MinotiUa varia. Black and "White "Warbler, — Common and 
quite generally distributed. It was seen at all the places visited ex- 



304 THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

cepting G rants ville and Little Orleans, where it was probably present, 
but overlooked. About the base of Dans Mountain, near Rawlings, 
a number were seen searching for food on the rail fences, often at a 
considerable distance from the roads. 

Helmitherus vermivorus. "Worm-eating Warbler. — One was 
taken about half-way up Dans Mountain, near Rawlings, on July 21, 
and a day or two later I saw one at Oldtown. 

Ilehninthophila chrysoptera. Golden-winged Warbler. — A num- 
ber were seen and one taken in young growth near Swanton, and I 
saw several on Dans Mountain near Rawlings. 

Composthlypis americana. Parula Warbler. — One was seen at 
Oldtown on July 23, and another the day following at Little Orleans. 

Dendroica aestiva. Yellow Warbler. — A pair observed near 
Grantsville late in June, and several at Oldtown and Little Orleans, 
were the only ones noted during my trip. 

Dendroica caerulescens. Black-throated Blue Warbler. — 
Rather common at Finzel and Bittinger, where deserted nests were 
noticed and at Swanton. I also took an individual near Kearney, a 
few miles southeast of Mountain Lake Park. Several specimens 
taken exhibit considerable black on the back, supposed to be indicative 
of subspecies cairnsii, but which seems more likely to be an indication 
of high plumage increasing in intensity as the bird grows older. 

Dendroica maculosa. Magnolia Warbler. — Common in the 
hemlock and spruce forests throughout the higher portions of Garrett 
county. It was noted in considerable numbers at Finzel, Bittinger 
and Swanton, and several seen in a grove of hemlocks near Kearney 
several miles southeast of Mountain Lake Park. A nest found near 
Bittinger on June 27 contained three fresh eggs; another was depos- 
ited the next dav. The nest was situated in a small hemlock about 
four feet from the ground, a characteristic situation. The late date 
would seem to indicate a second litter, though I saw no young birds. 

Dendroica pennsylvanica. Chestnut-sided Warbler. — A com- 
mon bird over most of the higher portions of Garrett county. Many 
were observed at Finzel, and a newly-built nest was seen. It was 
also common at Grantsville and Mountain Lake Park, and young birds 
were taken on Dans Mountain, near Rawlings, on July 21. 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 30f> 

Dendroica blaclrbitrniae. Blackburnian "Warbler. — Rather com- 
mon in the hemlocks about Finzel. I saw one near Bittinger on 
June 30 and took one on Dans Mountain, near Rawlings, on July 21. 

Dendroica virens. Black-throated Green Warbler. — A female 
was seen at Finzel on June 18. 

Dendroica discolor. Prairie Warbler. — Several were seen in 

bushv woods at Oldtown Julv 22-23. 

t. « 

Seiurus aurocapillus. Oven-bird. — A very common specie9 
throughout the region. 

Seiurus noveboracensis. Water-thrush. — This species was fairly 
common about Finzel, especially in a swamp between Big and Little 
Savage Mountains. Xearly every small stream flowing through low 
woods had a pair or two. A single bird was observed at S wanton. 

Seiurus motacilla. Louisiana Water-thrush. — Though normally 
affecting low altitudes, this species frequently follows small streams 
up to their source. One was thus observed near Finzel along a brook 
flowing through a dense hemlock forest, whose undergrowth of Rhodo- 
dendron and Kalmia also afforded a congenial shelter to S. novebora- 
censis. Several were seen along Crabtree Run, near Swanton, and 
I took a specimen on Dans Mountain July 21. 

Geothlypis trichas. Maryland Yellow-throat. — Xoted in rather 
small numbers at Finzel, Grantsville, Mountain Lake Park, Rawlings, 
Oldtown and Little Orleans. 

Icteria virens. Yellow-breasted Chat. — A pair or two noted in 
the vicinitv of Finzel. It was rather common about Mountain Lake 
Park, Swanton, Rawlings, Oldtown, and Little Orleans. 

Wilsonia mi t rat a. Wilson's Warbler. — In thickets of young 
growth on the lower slopes of Dans Mountain, near Rawlings, this 
species was rather common. 

Wilsonia canadensis. Canadian Warbler. — This was the most 
abundant warbler at Finzel, where old birds were seen feeding young 
just from the nest about June 20. The species was rather common 
in the rhododendrons, which abounded in favorable situations in the 
vallev of the Castleman near Grantsville. It was also rather com- 
mon about Swanton. 

20 



306 THE FAUNA AND FLORA OF ALLEGANY COUNTY 

Setophaga ruticilla. American Redstart. — A pair observed at 
Finzel, and a number seen at Swanton, Rawlings, Oldtown and Little 
Orleans. 

Galeoscaptes carolinensis. Catbird. — A very abundant breeder 
throughout the region. 

Harporhynchvs rufus. Brown Thrasher. — A few were seen near 
Finzel, Grantsville and Bittinger. 

Thryothorus ludovicianus. Carolina Wren. — One was noted in 
a garden near Oldtown. 

Thryomanes beivickii. Bewicks Wren. — I saw one by the road- 
side near Bittinger on June 30, and found both old and young birds 
rather common on Dans Mountain, near Rawlings, on July 21. 

Troglodytes aedon. House Wren. — A male in full song was seen 
several times about Little Orleans on July 24. 

Certhia familiaris fusca. Brown Creeper. — A female was taken 
in heavy hemlock woods near Bittinger on June 28. 

Sitta carolinensis. White-breasted Xuthatch. — Verv common 
and generally distributed throughout the region. 

Sitta canadensis. Red-breasted Xuthatch. — A small flock of 
these birds, evidently a family, was seen on the branches of a tall 
dead tree, in the deep woods near Bittinger. It was also seen near 
Finzel about the middle of May, when it was doubtless breeding. 

Parus bicolor. Tufted Titmouse. — A number were seen in 
thickets beside the Potomac near Oldtown on July 23. 

Parus atricapillus. Black-capped Titmouse. — Rather common 
about Finzel, Bittinger and Mountain Lake Park. 

Hylocichla mustelinus. Wood Thrush. — A very common bird 
about Finzel, Grantsville, Bittinger and Mountain Lake Park. Its 
song was also heard on Warrior Mountain about 4 miles north of Old- 
town. 

Hylocichla fuscescens. Wilson's Thrush. — Generally distributed 
over the higher portions of Garrett county, being common about 
Finzel, Grantsville, Bittinger, Mountain Lake Park and Swanton. A 
few were also seen on Dans Mountain, near Rawlings. 

Hylocichla aonalaschlcae pallasii. Hermit Thrush. — Several of 



MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 307 

these birds were heard in the " oak barrens " near Finzel. Its song 
was also heard once near Grantsville and once at Bittinger. In the 
white oak woods near Mountain Lake Park, several were heard and 
two taken. 

Menila migratoria. Robin. — A vey common breeder throughout 
the region. 

Sialia sialis. Bluebird. — Common and generally distributed 
throughout the region. A brood of young, accompanied by their 
parents, was seen near Finzel on June 17. 



i 




INDEX 



Abbe. Cleveland, Jr., 17, 85. 
Abram Creek, discharge of. 246. 
Acadian Flycatcher. < 



Miral products of Allegany 



of. 

300. 

Alexander, J. H., 61, 62, 63, 70. 71. 

Allegany county, agricultural pro- 
ducts of, 198. 

Allegany county, area of, 264. 

Allegany county, birds of, 293-307, 

Allegany county, boundaries of, 23, 
264. 

Allegany county, climate of, 217. 

Allegany county, economic re- 
sources of, 24. 

Allegany county, flora and fauna 
of. 291. 

Allegany county, forests of. 263. 

Allegany county, forest 



285. 



of. 



Allegany county, geographic and 
geologic relations of. 57. 

Allegany county, geological forma- 
tions of. 86. 

Allegany county, geology of. 57. 

Allegany county, hydrography of, 
233. 

Allegany county. Important moun- 
tains of. 57. 

Allegany county, importunt streams 
of. 58. 

Allegany county, lite zones and 
areas of. 291. 

Allegany county, list of conifers 
and hardwood trees of, 268. 

Allegany county, location of. 2.1. 

Allegany county, magnetic derlina- 

Allegnnv county, mineral resources 
of. 165. 



Allegany county, physical features 
of. 21. 23. 

Allegany county, physiography of, 
27. 

Allegany county, rainfall in. 223. 

Allegany county, soils of, 195, 265. 

Allegany county soils, analyses of, 
214-216. 

Allegany county, stratigraphy and 
area! distribution of forma- 
tions in, 85. 



219. 

Allegany county, topographic feat- 
ures of, 264. 

Allegany county, topographic map 

of, 64. 

Allegany county, watcrflow in, 265. 
Allegany county, wooded regions of, 

267. 
Allegany Grove, terraces at, 51. 
Alleghany Plateau, 27. 
Alleghanlan fauna, 293. 
Allegheny coals. 171. 
Allegheny formation, 31. 115. 166, 

169. 
Allegheny formation, composition 

of, 115. 
Allegheny formation, extent of, 

Allegheny formation, sections in, 

116. 117. 118. 
Allegheny formation soils. 210. 
Allegheny formation, thickness of, 

115. 117. UK. 
Alluvial and other late deposits, 

130. 
Alluvial soils, 212. 
American Coal Company. 179. 
American Goldflni 



310 



INDEX 



Analysis of effluent from Savage 

river, 247. 
Analyses of soils from Allegany 

county, 214-216. 

Andrews, , 65. 

Anticlinal ridges, 36. 

Anticlines, 132-136, 138, 139, 140, 

142-146, 148, 149, 150, 152, 154, 

163. 
Appalachia, 58, 155. 
Appalachian Province, 27, 58. 
Appalachian Province, boundaries 

of, 27. 
Appalachian revolution, 54, 55. 
Appalachian strata, origin of, 161. 
Appalachian structure, 152. 
Archean continent, 155. 
Areal distribution of geological 

formations in Allegany county, 

85. 
Argillaceous sediments, 158. 

Armstrong, , 264. 

Armstrong, S. C, 78. 
Ashburner, Chas. A., 78, 79, 80. 
Atkinson, T. C, 230. 
Austral faunal region, 291. 



Babb, Cyrus C, 81. 

Bally, Vernon, 292. 

Baird, G. W., 83. 

Baltimore Oriole, occurrence of, 

301. 
Bank Swallow, occurrence of, 303. 
Bannon, Benj., 74. 
Barkman, Justin, 230. 
Barn Swallow, occurrence of, 303. 
" Barren Measures," 118. 
Barren Oak, occurrence of, 275. 
Bartlett Road, magnetic station on, 

258. 
Barton (Four-foot) coal, 119, 175, 

176. 
Bauer, L. A., 7, 17, 84, 253, 254. 
Beech, occurrence of, 274. 
Bewicks Wren, occurrence of, 306. 
Bibliography, 69. 
" Big Spring," 192. 
Big Spring Run syncline, 144. 
" Big Vein " coal, 65, 124, 177. 
Biological survey of the United 

States, 291. 
Birds of Allegany county, 293-307. 



Black Ash, occurrence of, 274. 

Black-billed Cuckoo, occurrence of, 
298. 

Blackbird, occurrence of, 301. 

Blackburnian Warbler, occurrence 
of, 305. 

Black-capped Titmouse, occurrence 
of, 306. 

Black Cherry, occurrence of, 274. 

Black Sheridan Wilson Company, 
179. 

Black Spruce, occurrence of, 294. 

Black-throated Blue Warbler, in- 
currence of, 304. 

Black-throated Green Warbler, oc- 
currence of, 305. 

Black Walnut, occurrence of, 274. 

Blackwater formation, 114. 

Black and white Warbler, occur- 
rence of, 303. 

Bloomington (Railroad) coal seam, 
115, 170. 

Bluebaugh coal seam, 116, 172. 

Bluebird, occurrence of, 307. 

Bluegrass land, 205. 

Blue Jay, occurrence of, 300. 

Blue Ridge (Catoctin) district, 27. 

Bobolink, occurrence of, 301. 

Bodfish, S. H., 67. 

Boettcherville, elevation of, 229. 

Boettcherville, meteorological sta- 
tion at, 229. 

Booth, Jas. C, 63, 70. 

Borden mine, 126. 

Borden Mining Co., 125. 

Boreal faunal region, 291. 

Brackett, F. E., 255. 

Braddock, General, 60. 

Braddock Road, magnetic station 
on, 256. 

Breccia, 162. 

Breccia, limestone chert, 131. 

Brick, 181, 182, 184. 

Broad Top anticline, 141. 

Broad-winged Hawk, occurrence 
of, 298. 

Brown, F. F., 222, 229. 

Brown Creeper, occurrence of, 30C. 

Brown, Thomas, 76, 77. 

Brown Thrasher, occurrence cf, 
306. 

Brown, W. M., 254. 

Bruce, Oliver H., 229. 

Bruce, Webster, 228. 



INDEX 



311 



Buckwheat, 210. 

Buffalo Creek, discharge of, 245. 
Buffalo Lumber Company, 246. 
Building-stone in Allegany county, 

165, 187, 188, 194. 
Bunbury, C. J. F., 64, 72, 130. 
Butternut, occurrence of, 274. 

C. 

Cain, Peter, 76. 

Cambrian time, early, 155. 

Cameron, F. K., 201. 

Canadian Warbler, occurrence of. 
305. 

Carboniferous, 109. 

Carboniferous shales, 183. 

Cardinal bird, occurrence of, 292, 
302. 

Carolina Chickadee, 292. 

Carolina Junco, occurrence of, 302. 

Carolina Wren, occurrence of, 292, 
306. 

Carolinian fauna in Maryland, 292. 

Carroll White Sulphur Springs, 
192. 

Catbird, occurrence of, 306. 

Cedar Waxwing, occurrence of, 303. 

Cement, 93, 165, 185, 194. 

Cement rock, analysis of, 186. 

Channel-cutting stage, 49. 

Chemung Upper Conglomerate, 142. 

Chert, 96, 99, 100, 103, 131, 194. 

" Chert lintel," 99. 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, 25. 

Chestnut, occurrence of, 271, 294, 
295. 

Chestnut Oak, occurrence of, 271. 

Chestnut-sided Warbler, occur- 
rence of, 304. 

Chimney Swift, occurrence of, 299. 

Chipping Sparrow, occurrence of, 
302. 

Clarion coal seam. 116. 

Clark, Wm. Bullock, 7. 9. 17. 68, 
69, 81, 83, 84. 165, 263, 292. 

Clarke, J. M., 67, 79, 159. 

Clays, 87, 130. 165. 184. 194. 200. 

Clays, residual, 184. 

Clays, sedimentary, 184. 

Clearing, regulation of indiscrimi- 
nate, 290. 

Clearsville syncline, 141. 

Cliff Swallow, occurrence of, 303. 

Climate of Allegany county, 217. 



Climate, influence on soils of, 197. 
Clinton formation, 153, 158, 190. 
Clinton formation, composition of, 

89. 
Clinton formation, description of, 

89. 
Clinton formation, section in, 90, 

91. 
Clinton formation, thickness of, 

90-91. 
Clinton soils, 202. 
Close folding, district of, 59. 
Clover, 203, 205. 

Coal, 113, 115-129, 162. 165-180, 194. 
Coal basin, description of, 166. 
Coal basin, history of its develop- 
ment, 167. 
Coal basin, names used for, 168. 
Coal, first shipment of, 167. 
Coal Measures. 153, 161. 
Coal Measures limestone, 188. 
Coal Measures Period, 162. 
Coal Measures strata, 190. 
Coal-mining, effect on forest 

growth of, 281. 
Coal veins, position of, 169. 
Collier Mountain anticline, 144. 
Collier Run syncline, 144, 153. 
Commission, 5. 
Conemaugh coals, 175. 
Conemaugh formation, 118, 119, 

120, 121, 122, 123, 166, 169, 176, 

186, 187, 190. 
Conemaugh formation, composi- 
tion of, 118. 
Conemaugh formation, extent of, 

118. 
Conemaugh formation, thickness 

of, 122. 
Conemaugh soils, 211. 
Conglomerate. 102. 106, 107, 109. 

110, 130, 142, 160, 162, 187. 
Conifers, 267. 
Consolidation Coal Company. 19, 

125-127, 179. 
Contents, 11. 
Corn, 203. 204. 208, 209. 
Cook, George H., 75. 
Cook, J. W., 264. 
Cook, R. S., 67. 78. 
Cooper's Hawk, occurrence of, 297. 
County Commissioners, Board of, 

259. 
Cowbird, occurrence of, 301. 



Crested Flycatcher, occurrence of, 

299. 
Cretaceous peneplain, 163. 

Cuckoo, occurrence of, 2U8. 

Cucumber- tree, occurrence of, 274. 

Cumberland basin, report on bi- 
tuminous coal of, 65. 

Cumberland, chart showing rain- 
fall at, 227 

Cumberland climate or. 218. 

" Cumberland Coal Region." 168. 

Cumberland, diagram showing dis- 
charge of North Branch at, 
241. 

Cumberland, magnetic station at, 
254, 255. 

Cumberland, drainage about, on 
Schooley plain, 48. 

Cumberland, drainage about, on 
Shenandoah plain, 44. 

Cumberland, elevation of, 218. 

Cumberland, establishment of sur- 
veyor's meridian Hue at, 259. 

Cumberland fluctuations in the 
mean annual rainfall at, 226. 

Cumbe land, fhictua Ions In mean 
annual temperature at. 223. 

Cumberland Hydraulic Cement and 
Manufacturing Company, 185. 

Cumberland, nieteoro logical station 
at. 228. 

Cumberland, monthly estimated 
flfacharge at, 240. 

Cumberland, observutlons of flow 



of ( 



, 234. 



Cumberland and Pennsylvania 
Railroad. 25. 

Cumberland and Potomac Cement 
Company. 185. 

Cumberland, present drainage in 
vicinity of. 41. 

Cumberland, rating tables for Po- 
tomac river at. 239. 

Cumberland, table showing dis- 
charge measurements of Poto- 

Cumberland, table of rainfall at, 

Cumberland, terraces at. 50. 
Cumberland Turnpike Road, 24. 
Current, speed of. 235. 
Cutting, regulation of lndiscrlml- 



Daddow, S. H„ 74. 

Dana. J. D., 76, S3, 96. 

Darton, N. H.. 69. 84, 106, 113. 

Davidson, , 264. 

Davis Coal and Coke Company, 
171, 179. 

Davis (Six-foot) coal seam, 116, 
173. 

Davis, Arthur P., 343. 

Davis, Wm. M., 33. 

Day. D. T., 79. 

Deflected lower courses of streams, 
39. 

Dcmond. C. D-, 68, 83. 

Description of the coal' brain. 166. 

Description of magnetic stations. 
254. 

Description of meteorological sta- 
tions. 228. 

Detmold Hill, magnetic station on, 
257. 

Devil's Backbone section, 97. 

Devonian formations. 94 151. 

Devonian Shale Period, 160. 

Diagram showing discharge of 
North Branch of the Potomac 
at Cumberland, 241. 

Dip of strata. 152. 

Discbarge of Abram Creek, 246. 

Discharge of Evitts Creek. 251. 

Discharge of Frog Hollow 251. 

Discharge of Georges Creek, 248. 

Discharge of New Creek, 249. 

Discharge of North Branch, meas- 
urements of, 245. 

Discharge of Patterson Creek. 251. 

Discharge of Pursley Run, 251. 

Discharge of Savage river, 247. 

Discharge of Sideling Creek. 251. 

Discharge of Stony river. 245. 

Discharge of Town Creek, 251. 

Discharge of tributaries of North 
Branch, measurements of, 245. 

Dorsey, C. W., 18, 195. 

Douglas, D. B.. 63. 

Dove, occurrence of, 297. 

Downs. Newton T.. 230. 

Downy Woodpecker, 
298. 



INDEX 



313 



Drainage about Cumberland on 

Shenandoah plain, 44. 
Drainage about Cumberland at 

present, 41. 
Drainage of Plateau District, 30. 
Drainage of Ridge District, 37. 
Ducatel, J. T., 61, 62, 63, 69, 72. 
Dunkard formation, 32, 128-130, 

186, 189. 
Dunkard formation, composition 

of, 128. 
Dunkard formation, extent of, 128. 
Dunkard formation, thickness of, 

129. 
Dunkard soils, 212. 

E. 

Economic materials, miscellaneous, 
192. 

Eckhart mine, 168. 

Eldredge, N. T.. 71. 

Elk Garden District, 169. 

Elkgarden (Fourteen-foot or Big 
Vein) coal seam, 177. 

Elevation of valleys in Ridge Dis- 
trict, 36. 

Elevations of the Plateau District, 
table of, 29. 

Enameled brick, 182. 

Erickson, Capt., 71. 

Evitts Creek, discharge of, 251. 

Evitts Creek syncline. 146. 

Evitts Mountain anticline, 145, 152. 

F. 

Fassig. O. L., 18, 217. 

Faults, 153. 

Faunal zones, description of, 292. 

Featherstonhaugh, G. W., 61, 70. 

Felling timber, 289. 

Field Sparrow, occurrence of, 302. 

Fifteenmile Creek, discharge of, 

251. 
Firebrick, 67, 68. 182. 
Fires, laws against setting. 286. 
Fire-clay, 67, 68. 162. 165, 171. 181, 

182. 
Fire-clay, use of. 67, 182. 
Fires, forest, and their relation to 

reproduction of forests. 282. 
Fire-wardens, 287. 
Flint, 194. 



Flintstone, meteorological station 
at, 230. 

Flintstone Sulphur Spring, 191. 

Flora and fauna of Allegany 
county, 291. 

Flow of water at Cumberland, ob- 
servations of, 234. 

Fluctuations in mean annual tem- 
perature at Cumberland, 223. 

Flycatcher, 299, 300. 

Fontaine, Wm. M., 75, 76, 129, 130. 

Formations in Allegany county, 
table of, 86. 

Forests of Allegany county, 263. 

Forests, character of, 267. 

Forests, composition of. 268. 

Forest fires, law against setting, 
286. 

Forest fires and their relation to 
reproduction of forests, 282. 

Forest lands, exclusion of grazing 
from, 287. 

Forest lands, protection from fire 
of, 286. 

Forest resources, management and 
utilization of, 285. 

Forest trees, general distribution 
of, 269. 

Forestry survey, method of, 263. 

Fort Hill anticline, 150. 

Fox Squirrel, occurrence of, 292. 

Franklin (Dirty-Nine-foot) coal 
seam; 176. 

Franklin Hill, magnetic station on, 
258. 

Frazer. Persifor. Jr., 76. 

Frog Hollow, discharge of, 251. 

Frostburg. elevation of. 230. 

Frostburg. mean annual tempera- 
ture of, 218. 

Frostburg. meteorological station 
at, 230. 

Frostburg syncline, 150. 

" Frost Town," 62. 

G. 

Gage, description of. 235. 
Gannett, Henry, 78, 81, 83. 
Garrett county, creation of, 23. 
Genesee shales, 183. 
Geographic and geologic relations, 

Geology of Allegany county, 57. 



314 



•INDEX 



Georges Creek coal area, early men- 
tion of, 62. 

Georges Creek Coal and Iron Com- 
pany, 62, 179, 189. 

Georges Creek basin, coal-beds of, 
54. 

Georges Creek Coal Region, 168. 

Georges Creek, discharge of, 248. 

Georges Creek and Cumberland 
Railroad, 25. 

Georges Creek syncline, 150, 153. 

Georges Creek, valley of, 30. 

Oilman, Daniel C, 5. 

Glass-sand, 192. 

Gnatcatcher, 292. 

Golden-winged Warbler, occur- 
rence of, 304. 

Goldfinch, occurrence of, 301. 

Gorges, transverse, 38. 

Grass, 203, 204. 

Grasshopper Sparrow, occurrence 
of, 301. 

Gravel, 30, 50, 130, 212. 

Grazing, exclusion of, from forest 
lands, 287. 

Green Heron, occurrence of, 296. 

Great-horned Owl, occurrence of, 
298. 

Great Savage Mt, altitude of, 294. 

Greater Appalachian Valley, 27. 

Greenbrier formation, 32, 110, 111, 
112, 155. 

Greenbrier formation, composition 
of, 110. 

Greenbrier formation, extent of, 
110. 

Greenbrier formation, section in, 
111, 112. 

Greenbrier-Mauch Chunk soils, 210. 

Greenbrier formation, thickness 
of, 112. 

Greenbrier limestone, 187, 188. 

Griswold, W. T., 67. 

Grouse, occurrence of, 297. 

Gypsum, occurrence of, 159. 

H. 

Hackberry, occurrence of, 275. 

Hackett, Merrill, 67. 

Hairy Woodpecker, occurrence of, 

298. 
Hall, James, 65, 74, 75, 79. 96, 102, 

158. 



Hamilton shales, 183. 

Hampshire formation, 32, 36, 132, 

135, 136, 151, 160. 
Hampshire formation, composition 

of, 108. 
Hampshire formation, extent of, 

108. 
Hampshire formation, thickness of, 

109. 
Hampshire soils, 208. 
Hawks, occurrence of, 297, 298. 
Helderberg formation, 94, 97, 143, 

146, 149, 153, 155, 184, 186. 
Helderberg formation, description 

of, 94. 
Helderberg formation, thickness 

of, 97. 
Helderberg Period, 159. 
Helderberg soils, 204. 
Hemlock, occurrence of, 294, 295, 

296. 
Henry, Joseph, 217. 
Hering, Joshua W., 5. 
Heron, occurrence of, 296. 
Higgins, James, 73, 198, 205, 208, 

209. 
Hill, R. T., 81. 

Historical review of geology of Al- 
legany county, 60. 
Historical sketch of soil work, 198. 
Hodge, James T., 65, 74. 
Hofman, H. O., 68, 83. 
Hofman mine, 118. 
Hoffmann's Sons Company, 246. 
Homewood sandstone, 181. 
House Wren, occurrence of, 306. 
Howard, A. B., 81. 
Howell, L., 63. 
Hughes, Geo. W., 63, 70, 73. 
Hummingbird, occurrence of, 299. 
Hydraulic cement, 185. 
Hydrography of Allegany county, 
233. 

I. 

Illustrations, 15. 

Indigo Bunting, occurrence of, 302. 

Industrial uses of streams and 

springs, 234. 
Interpretation of the sedimentary 

record, 155. 
Iron ore, 90, 105, 119, 120, 165, 186, 

189. 



i 



INDEX 



315 



i) 



J. 

Jennings formation, 136, 141. 154. 
155, 160. 185. 

Jennings formation, composition 
of, 106. 

Jennings formation, extent of. 106. 

Jennings formation, thickness of. 
108. 

Jennings shales, 183. 

Jewell. L. E., 19. 

Johns Hopkins University, investi- 
gations by, 68. 

Johnson, Walter R., 64, 72, 73. 

Jones, Howard Grant, 66. n. 

Jones, John H., 80, 81. 

Juniata formation, 86, 87. 156. 

Juniata formation, composition of. 
86, 87. 

Juniata formation, description of. 
86. 

Juniata formation, thickness of, 87. 

Juniata soils, 201. 

K. 

Kemp, James, 83. 

Keyes, Chas. R., 80. 

Keyser, W., 82. 

Kingbird, occurrence of, 299. 

Killdeer Plover, occurrence of, 297. 

Kingfisher, occurrence of, 298. 

Kinnecut, L. P., 80. 

Koontz (Waynesburg) coal seam, 

124, 179. 
Koontz Hill, magnetic station at. 

257. 
Koontz mine. 126. 

L. 

Lark, occurrence of, 300, 301. 
Law against setting forest fires. 

286. 
Least Flycatcher, occurrence of, 

300. 
Lesley, J. P., 73, 77, 78, 81. 87, 111, 

191. 
Levant Red Sandstone. 86. 
Life zones and areas of Allegany 

county, 291. 
Lime, 165, 185, 194. 
Limestone, 44, 46. 51. 62, 89. 90. 91. 

92. 95, 96. 105, 110, 112. 119. 125. 

126. 128. 129. 131, 155. 156. 159. 

160, 162, 186, 187, 188. 203. 204, 

205, 212. 



Limestone clay soils, 199. 

List of birds in Allegany county, 
296. 

List of conifers and hardwood 
trees in Allegany county, 268. 

Little Clarksburg Vein, 176. 

Loams, 193. 201. 203, 205. 210, 211. 

Loamy soils, 199. 
• Locust, occurrence of, 274. 

Lonaconing, magnetic station at. 
255, 257. 

Lonsdale, W., 72. 

Louisiana Water- thrush, occur- 
rence of, 305. 

L,owdermilk. Will H., 76. 

i„ower Carboniferous Period. 162. 

Lower Kittanning coal, 116. 

Lower Pentamerus sub-formations, 
96. 

Lowndes, Lloyd, 24. 259. 

Lumbering, relation of, to repro- 
duction of timber, 279. 

Lyell. Chas., 64, 72. 

M. 

MacFarlane, James, 75, 80. 

Magnetic declination in Allegany 
county, 253. 

Magnetic declination, changes in, 
260. 

Magnetic declinations, table show- 
ing, 253. 254. 

Magnetic stations, descriptions of, 
254. 

Magnetic station on Bartlett Road, 
description of, 258. 

Magnetic station on Braddock 
Road, description of, 256. 

Magnetic station at Cumberland, 
description of. 254. 255. 

Magnetic station on Franklin Hill, 
description of. 258. 

Magnetic station on Koontz Hill, 
description of. 257. 

Magnetic station at Lonaconing, 
description of. 255. 257. 

Magnetic station at mound on Ma- 
son and Dixon Line, descrip- 
tion of, 255. 

Magnetic station on Miller Road, 
description of, 257. 

Magnetic station at Mount Savage, 
description of, 255. 



310 



INDEX 



Magnetic station on National Pike, 
description of, 256. 

Magnetic station on North Pickell 
Hill, description of, 258. 

Magnetic station at Paw Paw, de- 
scription of, 255. 

Magnetic station on Pea Ridge 
Road, description of, 257. 

Magnetic station on Phoenix Hill, 
description of, 258. 

Magnetic station on Piney Hill, 
description of, 255. 

Magnetic station on Roaring Hill, 
description of, 256. 

Magnetic station at mouth of Sav- 
age river, description of, 258. 

Magnetic station on Staub Run, 
description of, 257. 

Magnetic station on South Pickell 
Hill, description of, 258. 

Magnetic station on Swanton Hill, 
description of, 258. 

Magnetic station at Westernport, 
description of, 255. 

Magnetic station on Winebrenner 
Run, description of, 257. 

Magnolia Warbler, occurrence of, 
304. 

Mahoning sandstone, 118. 

Manufacture of fire-clay, 182. 

Marcellus formation, 103. 

Marcellus shales, 183. 

Martin Mountain anticline, 144. 

Martin Spring Branoh syncline, 
144. 

Martinsburg formation, 156. 

Maryland Agricultural Experiment 
Station, 199. 

Maryland Coal Company, 179. 

Maryland Geological Survey, or- 
ganization of, 69. 

Maryland Mining Company, 63. 

Maryland Weather Service, 47, 227.. 

Maryland Yellow-throat, occur- 
rence of, 305. 

Mason and Dixon Line, descrip- 
tion of magnetic station on, 255. 

Mathews. Edward B., 7. 84, 85. 

Matthes, Gerard H., 243. 

Mauch Chunk formation, 32. 

Mauch Chunk formation, composi- 
tion of, 112. 

Mauch Chunk formation, extent of, 
112. 



Mauch Chunk formation, thickness 
of, 113. 

Mauch Chunk shale, 183. 

McCreath, Andrew A., 76. 

Meadow Lark, occurrence of, 301. 

Measurements of discharge of 
North Branch, 245. 

Measurement of water height, 235. 

Mechanical analyses of soils and 
subsoils from Allegany county, 
214-216. 

Mercer, Chas. Fenton, 70. 

Meridian line, establishment of the 
surveyor's, at Cumberland, 259. 

Meridian line, method used in ob- 
taining, 259. 

Merriam, C. Hart, 18, 291. 

Merrill, G. P., 79. 

Merrill, Wm. E., 75. 

Meteorological stations In Alle- 
gany county, table of, 231. 

Meteorological station at Boettch- 
erville, 229. 

Meteorological station at Cumber- 
land, 228. 

Meteorological station at Flint- 
stone, 230. 

Meteorological station at Oldtown, 
230. 

Meteorological station at Mt. Sav- 
age, 230. 

Meteorological station at Western- 
port, 229. 

Middlesex Leather Company, 246. 

Miller, S. A., 79. 

Miller, W. J., 259. 

Miller Road, magnetic station on, 
257. 

Mineral products, list of operators 
in, 194. 

Mineral resources of Allegany 
county, 165. 

Mineral Springs, 165, 191. 

Mining, relation of to reproduction 
of timber, 278. 

Mockernut, occurrence of, 274. 

Monoclinal ridges, 36. 

Monongahela formation, 166, 16y, 
176, 189, 190. 

Monongahela formation, composi- 
tion of. 125. 

Monongahela formation, extent of, 
124. 



INDEX 



317 



Monongahela formation, section in, 

126, 127. 
Monongahela formation, thickness 

of, 126-128. 
Monongahela soils, 211. 
Monthly discharge of Potomac 

river at Cumberland (table), 

240. 
Mt. Savage bricks, 181. 
Mt. Savage, magnetic station at, 

255. 
Mt. Savage, meteorological station 

at, 230. 
Mt. Savage Enameled Brick Com- 
pany, 182. 
Mt. Savage fire-clay, 68. 
Mountains, important, in Allegany 

county, 57. 
Mountain Pasture soils. 207. 
Mourning Dove, occurrence of, 297. 

N. 

" The Narrows," 49, 148. 

National Pike, magnetic station on, 

256. 
National Road, anticlines on, 133. 
Nautilus Ledge, 105. 
New Central Coal Company, 179. 
New Creek, discharge of. 249. 
New York Coal and Iron Company, 

189. 
" New Detmold mine, 126. 
Newell, F. H., 18. 83, 85. 233. 
Niagara formation, 91. 155. 
Niagara formation, composition of. 

91. 
Niagara formation, description of, 

91. 
Niagara formation, section in, 92. 
Niagara formation, thickness of, 

92. 
Niagara limestone. 188. 
Niagara Period, 158. 
Niagara soil, 203. 
Nicolls, Wm. Jasper, 84. 85. 
Nighthawk, occurrence of. 299. 
North Branch, description of, 243, 

247-250. 
North Branch, measurements of 

discharge of. 245. 
North Branch, pollution of. 243. 
North Pickell Hill, magnetic sta- 
tion on, 257. 



Northern Flicker, occurrence of, 
299. 

Northern Pileated Woodpecker, oc- 
currence of, 299. 

Northern Raven, occurrence of, 
300. 

Nuthatch, occurrence of, 306. 

O. 

Oak, occurrence of. 294. 295. 
Oats, 203, 205. 208. 209. 211. 212. 
O'Harra. C. C. 7, 17, 57, 165. 
Oldtown, meteorological station at, 

230. 
Oldtown and Pratt Valley folds, 

139. 
Open folding, district of. 59. 
Operators in mineral products, 194. 
Opossum, 292. 
Oriskany formation, 36, 38, 98. 138, 

144. 146. 149, 153, 155, 187, 188, 

192. 
Oriskany formation, composition 

of, 99. 
Oriskany formation, extent of, 99. 
Oriskany formation, description of, 

98. 
Oriskany formation, section In, 

101. 102. 
Oriskany formation, thickness of, 

101. 
Oriskany period, 160. 
Oriskany soils. 206. 
Orleans anticline, 132. 
Oven-bird, occurrence of, 305. 
Owl, occurrence of. 298. 
Oralis acitosclla, 296. 

P. 

Paint rock, 193. 

Paleozoic Period, the early, 155. 

Paleozoic Period and The Appala- 
chian Revolution. 54. 

Paleozoic sea, 55. 

Paleozoic strata, 32. 

Parker, E. W.. 81-85. 

Parker coal seam, 116, 172. 

Parula Warbler, occurrence of. 304. 

Potomac Basin, altitude of, 246. 

Potomac river, 236. 237, 238. 

Potomac river at Cumberland, 
table showing daily gage 
height of, 236, 237, 238. 



318 



INDEX 



-, 262. 



Patterson, — 

Patterson Creek, discharge of, 251. 

Patterson, T. L., 223, 226. 

Paul, E. G., 243. 

Paw Paw, magnetic station at, 

255. 
Peale, A. C, 78, 81. 
Pea Ridge Road, magnetic station 

on, 257. 
Peat, 163. 
Peneplains, 163. 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 25. 
Permian formations, 128. 
Pewee, occurrence of, 300. 
Phillips, O. Jenkins, 73. 
Phoebe bird, occurrence of, 300. 
Phoenix Hill, magnetic station on, 

258. 
Phoenix Mining Manufacturing 

Company, 64. 
Phosphate rock, 193. 
Physical features of Allegany 

county, 21, 23. 
Physiography of Allegany county, 

27. 
Physiographic divisions, 28. 
Piedmont Pulp and Paper Mill 

Company, 247. 
Pignut Hickory, occurrence of, 274. 
Pilsbry, H. A., 131. 
Piney Hill, magnetic station on, 

255. 
Pitch of strata, 152. 
Pitch Pine, occurrence of, 273. 
Pittsburg Vein, 178. 
Plateau District, drainage of, 30. 
Plateau District, table of elevations 

of, 29. 
Plateau District, topography of, 28. 
Plateau District, stream adjust- 
ment in, 33. 
Plateau District, structure of, 32. 
Pleistocene, The, 130. 
Pocono formation, 31, 32, 34, 36, 49, 

136, 155, 162. 
Pccono formation, composition of, 

109. 
Pocono formation, extent of, 109. 
Pocono formation, thickness of, 

109. 
Pocono Plateau, 109. 
Pocono sandstone, 49. 
Pocono soils, 209. 
Polish Mt. syncline, 141. 



Pomeroy, Samuel Whyllys, 61, 69. 

Portage formation, 106. 

Portage shales, 183. 

Potatoes, 206, 211, 212. 

Potomac Bottom soils, 199. 

Porter, Dwight, 85. 

Pottsville coals, 170. 

Pottsville formation, 29, 31, 32, 34, 

49, 151, 155, 166, 169, 181, 187. 
Pottsville formation, composition 

of, 114. 
Pottsville formation, extent of, 113. 
Pottsville formation, section in, 

114, 115. 
Pottsville formation, thickness of, 

114. 
Pottsville sandstone, 29. 
Pottsville soils, 210. 
Powell, John, 63. 
Prairie Horned Lark, occurrence 

of, 300. 
Prairie Warbler, occurrence of, 305. 
Pratt Valley, 139-141. 
Preble, Edward A., 18, 292, 294. 
Preface, 17. 
Present or Channel-cutting stage, 

49. 
Prosser, Charles S., 7, 122. 
Pumpelly, R., 78. 

Purple Grackle, occurrence of, 301. 
Purple Martin, occurrence of, 303. 
Pursley Run, discharge of, 251. 

Q. 

Quail, occurrence of, 297. 
Quartz, 109, 110. 

Quartzite. 33, 87, 88, 89, 106, 130, 
145, 148, 153, 187. 

R. 

Railroad coal seam, 115. 

Rainfall affected by topography, 

226. 
Rainfall, table of average monthly 

and annual, 225. 
Rainfall in Allegany county, 223. 
Rainfall at Cumberland (chart), 

227. 
Rainfall at Cumberland, table of, 

224. 
Rainfall, fluctuations in the mean 

annual, at Cumberland, 226. 
Randolph, B. S., 264. 




IXDEX 



319 



Rankin, Robt. 0., 65, 73. 

Rating tables for Potomac river at 
Cumberland, 239. 

Raven, occurrence of, 300. 

Rawlings syncline, 149. 

Redbird, occurrence of, 275. 

Red-breasted Nuthatch, occurrence 
of, 306. 

Red-eyed Vireo, occurrence of, 303. 

Red-headed Woodpecker, occur- 
rence of, 299. 

Red Juniper, occurrence of, 274. 

Red Maple, occurrence of, 274. 

Red Medina, 86. 

Red Oak, occurrence of, 271. 

Red sandstone soils, 199. 

Red-shouldered Hawk, occurrence 
of, 298. 

Redstart, occurrence of, 306. 

Redwinged Blackbird, occurrence 
of, 301. 

Reforesting, 279. 

Relation between waterfiow and 
forest-cover, 266. 

Reproduction, relation of lumber- 
ing and mining to, 279. 

Residual clays, 184. 

Review, historical, of the geology 
of Allegany county, 60. 

Rhododendron maximum, 294, 295, 
296. 

Ridge District, drainage of, 37. 

Ridge District, elevation of valleys 
in, 36. 

Ridge District, stream adjustment 
in, 40. 

Ridge District, structure of, 40. 

Ridge District, topography of, 34. 

Ries, H., 17. 83, 165. 

Riordan, O., 76. 

Riser, , Frostburg coal discov- 
ered by. 167. 

River height, observations of, 235. 

Road-metal, 165, 188. 189. 

Roaring Hill, magnetic station on, 
256. 

Robin, occurrence of, 307. 

Rogers. H. D., 64, 72, 73. 161. 

Rogers. J. F., 80. 

Rogers, W. B.. 64, 77. 

Romney formation. 139, 144. 149. 
160. 185, 188. 

Romney formation, composition of, 
104. 



Romney formation, extent of, 103, 
105. 

Romney-Jennings soil, 207. 

Romney shales, 183. 

Rosebreasted Grosbeak, occurrence 
of, 302. 

Rowe, R. B., 7, 17, 93, 165. 

Ruby-throated Hummingbird, oc- 
currence of, 299. 

Ruffed Grouse, occurrence of, 297. 

Rumbarger Company, J. L., 246. 

Run-off, 234. 

Rye, 202, 204, 205, 208, 211, 212. 

S. 

Salina formation, 92, 143, 146, 153, 
154, 155, 159, 185. 

Salina formation, composition of, 
92. 

Salina formation, description of, 
92. 

Salina formation, thickness of, 93. 

Salina soils, 203. 

Salt in Allegany county, 159. 

Sand, 30, 202. 

Sandpiper, 297. 

Sandstone, 29. 32, 33, 36, 38, 43, 46, 
54. 86, 87. 89, 91, 99, 100, 101, 
104, 106, 108, 110, 112, 114. 115, 
118. 119, 120, 125, 128, 143, 145, 
146. 154, 155, 159, 160, 162, 165, 
187. 201, 204, 206, 207, 209, 210, 
211, 212. 

Savage river, analysis of effluent 
from, 247. 

Savage river, magnetic station at 
mouth of, 258. 

Savage river, discharge of, 247. 

Savage river, pollution of, 247. 

Scharf, J. Thomas, 77, 80, 81, 199. 

Scarlet Tanager, occurrence of, 302. 

Schooley Plain, 48. 

Schooley Plain stage, 53. 

Schoot, Chas. A.. 75. 

Schuchert, Chas., 79. 

Schumann, C. H., 81. 

Screech Owl, occurrence of, 298. 

Scrub Pine, occurrence of, 273. 

Section showing position of lead- 
ing coal veins, 169. 

Section in Allegheny formation, 
116. 117, 118. 

Section in Barton coal seam. 176. 



Section in Bloomlngton coal s 

170. 
Section In Bluebaugh coal e 



Section in Conemaugh formation, 

119, 120. 
Section In Davis coal seam, 173. 
Section in Franklin coal seam, 
Section in Green brier formation, 

111, 113. 
Section in Monongahela formation, 

126. 127, 128. 
Section In Helderberg formation, 

97. 



102. 
Section in Potts ville formation, 

114, 115. 
Section in Parker coal seam, 172. 
Section In Sallna formation, 93. 
Section In Thomas coal seam, 174. 
Section in Tyson coal seam, 179. 
Section in Westernport coal seam. 

171. 
Sedimentary clays, 184. 
Sediments, general character and 

variation of, 155. 
Sedimentary record, interpretation 

of, IBS. 
Serviceberry, occurrence of, 275. 
Staagbark Hickory, occurrence of, 

274. 
Sbales, 36, 44, 51. 62, 86, 87, 89, 90. 

91. 99, 104, 105, 106, 108. 110, 

112, 115, 118, 119, 125, 128. 144, 

155, 156, 15S, 162, 165, 1S2, 184, 

194, 202, 204, 207, 211. 
Sbaly Red Sandstone soils, 199. 
Sharp-shinned Hawk, 

of 297 
Shavers Creek anticline, 141. 
Shenandoah Plain, 49, 52. 
Shenandoah Plain epoch, 46. 
Shenandoah Plain stage, 51. 
Shepard. C. U„ 64. 
Sheppard, Forrest. 64, 71. 
Sherwood, B. F.. 66, 75. 
Shipley. H. C, 230. 
Shrlver, . 262. 



Shrlver, Edwin Thomas, 217, 219. 
223. 224, 228. 

Shrlver, Howard. 68, S3. 228, 229. 

Shrlver, Jas., 69. 

Sideling Creek, discharge of, 251. 

Sideling Hill syncline, 132. 

Sllllman, Benj., 63, 71, 72. 

Silvester, R. W. t 5. 

Silurian formations, 86, 142. 

Silurian limestone, 159. 

Silurian Period, Later, 15S. 

Silurian rocks, 151. 

Smith. John Walter, 6, 9. 

Smithsonian Institution, establish- 
ment of, 217. 

Smock, J. C, 77. 

Snyders Ridge anticline, 141. 

Soils of Allegany county, 195, 265. 

Soil, composition of. 195. 

Soil, external and internal condi- 
tions of, 197. 

Soil formations, 200. 

Soil, formation of, 195. 

Soils, mechanical analyses of, 214- 
216. 

Soil work, historical sketch of, 198. 

Solitary Vireo, occurrence of, 303, 

Somervllle. H. L... 264. 

Song Sparrow, occurrence of, 302. 

South Plckell Hill, magnetic sta- 
tion on, 258. 

Sparrow, occurrence of, 301. 302. 

Sparrow Hawk, occurrence of, 298. 

Speed of current, 256. 

Spencer, A. C, 156. 

Spencer, S. B., 82. 

Split-six coal seam, 116, 174. 

Spotted Sandpiper, occurrence of. 
297. 

South Cumberland Brick Works, 
184. 

Staub Run, magnetic station on, 
256, 257. 

Stephens. Thos., 75. 

Stevenson, J. J., 66, 67, 76, 77, 79, 
82, 130, 141, 142. 

Stony river, discharge of, 245. 

Stratford Ridge anticline, 138, 139. 

Stratigraphy and areal distribution 
of Allegauy county, 85. 

Streams of Allegany county, 58. 

Stream adjustments in the Plateau 
District. 33.