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Xntbrbd at Stationbrs' Haix 

Copyright, x888, by 

Copyright, 1903, by 









• edition. 

editors 1 

set for 

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The present book is a careful revision of the edition of 1888. 
This revision was planned and actually begun in the lifetime of 
Professor Greenough and has been carried out in accordance 
with principles that met with his full approval. The renum- 
bering of the sections has made it possible to improve the 
arrangement of material in many particulars and to avoid a cer- 
tain amount of repetition which was inevitable in the former 
edition. Thus, without increasing the size of the volume, the 
editors have been able to include such new matter as the advance 
in grammatical science has afforded. The study of historical 
and comparative syntax has been pursued with considerable vigor 
during the past fifteen years, and the well-established results of 
this study have been inserted in their appropriate places. In 
general, however, the principles and facts of Latin syntax, as 
set forth by Professor Greenough, have stood the test both of 
scientific criticism and of practical use in the class-room, and 
accordingly the many friends of Allen and Greenough's Gram- 
mar will not find the new edition strange or unfamiliar in its 
method or its contents. The editors have seen no occasion to 
change long-settled nomenclature or to adopt novel classifica- 
Mons when the usual terms and categories have proved satis- 
vctory. On the other hand, they have not hesitated to modify 
4ther doctrines or forms of statement whenever improvement 
Vemed possible. 
In the matter of " hidden quantity" the editors have been even 
)re conservative than in the former revision. This subject is 
B of great difficulty, and the results of the most recent investi- 
Hons are far from harmonious. In many instances the facts 

• • • 




are quite undiscoverable, and, in general, the phenomena are o; 
comparatively slight interest except to special students of the^ 
arcana of philology. No vowel has been marked long unless the 
evidence seemed practically decisive. ) 

The editors have been fortunate in securing the advice and 
assistance of Professor E. S. Sheldon, of Harvard University, for 
the first ten pages, dealing with phonetics and phonology. They, 
are equally indebted to Professor E. P. Morris, of Yale Univer-i 
sity, who haa had the kindness to revise the notes on historical! 
and comparative syntax. Particular acknowledgment is also 
due to Mr. M. Gi-ant Daniell, who has cooperated in the revision 
throughout, and whose accurate scholarship and long experience 
as a teacher have been of the greatest service at every point. 

Seftbmbeb 1, 1908. 






Alphabet ; Classification of Sounds 1-3 

Orthography, Syllables, Pronunciation 3-6 

Quantity and Accent 6-7 

Combinations ; Phonetic Changes 7-10 

Words and their Forms 11-16 

Parts of Speech 11, 12 

Inflection; Root, Stem, and Base 12-14 

Gender, Number, and Case 14-16 

Declbnsion of Nouns 16-46 

General Rules of Declension 17 

First Declension 18-20 

Second Declension 20-24 

Third Declension 24-37 

Mute Stems 26,26 

Liquid and Nasal Stems 27,28 

Purei-Stems 29,30 

Mixed i-Stems 30, 31 

Irregular Nouns 33, 34 

Greek Nouns 34-36 

Rules of Gender 36, 37 

Fourth Declension 37-39 

Fifth Declension 89,40 

Defective and Variable Nouns 40-44 

Names of Persons 46 

Inflection of Adjectives 46-62 

First and Second Declensions 46-49 

Third Declension 49-54 

Comparison 66-67 

Numerals 68-62 

Inflection of Pronouns 63-71 

Personal, Reflexive, Possessive, Demonstrative 63-67 

Relative, Interrogative, Indefinite 68-71 

Correlatives (Pronouns and Adverbs) 71 

Conjugation of Verbs 72-126 

Inflection 72 

"''niflcation : Vc^ce, Mood, Tense . • 78-76 

"^' onal Endings 76,77 




Forms: Stem ftnd Verb-Endings 77-81 

The Verb Sum 81-83 

Regular Verbs 84-103 

The Four Conjugations ; Principal Farts 84, 86 

Formation of the Three Stems 86-89 

Synopsis of the Verb 00 

Peculiarities of Conjugation 91 

First Conjugation 92-96 

Second Conjugation 96, 97 

Third Conjugation 98,99 

Fourth Conjugation 100, 101 

Verbs in -io of the Third Conjugation 102, 103 

Deponent Verbs 103-106 

Periphrastic Conjugations 106-108 

Irregular Verbs 108-116 

Defective Verbs 116-119 

Impersonal Verbs 119,120 

Classified ListB of Verbs 121-126 

Particles 126-139 

Adverbs 126-130 

Prepositions 130-136 

Conjunctions 137-139 

Interjections 139 

Formation of Words 140-162 

Roots and Stems 140, 141 

Suffixes: Primary; Significant Endings 141-143 

Derivation of Nouns 143-148 

Derivation of Adjectives 148-164 

Nouns with Adjective Suffixes ; Irregular Derivatives .... 164-166 

Derivation of Verbs 166-169 

Compound Words 160-162 


Introductory Note 163 

The Sentence 164-208 

Definitions : Subject and Predicate, Modification, etc 164-168 

Agreement : the Four Concords 168 

Nouns : Apposition ; Predicate Agreement 168-170 

Adjectives 170-176 

Rules of Agreement 171, 172 

Special Uses 172-176 

Pronouns 176-192 

Personal and Demonstrative 176-180 

Reflexive .*.... lSO-183 

Possessive 1^*^ _ 





Relative 184-189 

Indefinite 180-191 

Alios and alter 192 

Vbbbs 193-195 

Verb and Subject, Incomplete Sentences 198-195 

Particles : Adverbs, Conjunctions, Negatives 196-204 

QuBSTiONS 205-208 

CoNSTsucTiON OP Cases 209-275 

Introductory Note 209 

Nominative Case 210 

Vocative Case • - • 210 

Genitive Case 210-224 

Genitive with Nouns 211-216 

Possessive Grenitive 211,212 

Genitive of Material, of Quality 213 

Partitive Genitive 213-215 

Objective Genitive 215,216 

Genitive with Adjectives 216, 217 

Genitive with Verbs 218-223 

Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting 218, 219 

Verbs of Reminding 219 

Verbs of Accusing, Condemning, and Acquitting 220 

Verbs of Feeling 221 

Interest and refert 221,222 

Verbsof Plenty and Want; Special Verbs 222,223 

Peculiar Genitives : Exclamatory, etc 223, 224 

Dative Case 224-239 

Indirect Object with Transitives 226-227 

Indirect Object with Intransitives 227-232 

Dative of Possession 232,233 

Dative of the Agent 233,234 

Dative of Reference 234-236 

Ethical Dative 236 

Dative of Separation 236,237 

Dative of the Purpose or End 237 

Dative with Adjectives 238,239 

' Accusative Case 240-248 

Direct Object 240-242 

Cognate Accusative 242-244 

Two Accusatives 244-246 

Idiomatic and Special Uses 247, 248 

Ablative Case 248-265 

Uses of the Ablative Proper 249-255 

Ablative of Separation 249,250 

^blative of Source and Material 250-252 

*-=^ Uive of Cause 252,253 


Ablative of Agent 263, 25- 

Ablative of Comparison 264, 25.' 

Uses of the Ablative as Instrumental 266--20« 

Ablative of Means or Instrument 266-2 5> 

Ablative of Manner 25< 

Ablative of Accompaniment 268, 26J 

Ablative of Degree of Difference 269, 20(. 

Ablative of Quality 26( 

Ablative of Price 261, 26S 

Ablative of Specification 262, 261 

Ablative Absolute 263-26^ 

Uses of the Ablative as Locative 265 

Time and Place 2Q6-27S 

Special Uses of Prepositions 274, 276 

Syntax of the Verb 276-386 

Moods 276-293 

Introductory Note 276, 277 

Indicative Mood 277 

Subjunctive in Independent Sentences 278-283 

Hortatory Subjunctive 278, 279 

Hortatory Subjunctive in Concessions 279 

Optative Subjunctive 280, 281 

Deliberative Subjunctive 281 

Potential Subjunctive 282, 283 

Imperative Mood 283-285 

Prohibition (Negative Command) 285 

Infinitive Mood 286-292 

Infinitive as Noun 286,287 

Infinitive with Impersonals 287, 288 

Complementary Infinitive 289, 290 

Infioitive with Subject Accusative 290 , 

Infinitive of Purpose ; Peculiar Infinitives 290, 291 

Exclamatory Infinitive 292 

Historical Infinitive 292 

Tenses 298-308 

Introductory Note 293 

Tenses op the Indicative 293-801 

Present Tense 298-296 

Imperfect Tense 296-297 

Future Tense 298 

Perfect Tense 298-300 

Pluperfect Tense 300 

Future Perfect Tense 800 

Epistolary Tenses SOI 

Tenses op the Subjunctive 301-3r 

Sequence of Tenses 302-.'' 



Tbksbs of tub Infinitive - . . . 807, SOS 

F*RTicii-UiS aoo-3iu 

DisdnctioiiB of Tenaa 800-311 

Uses of FanlciplBB 311-314 

Future Active Participle 314,315 

Gerundive (t'utiire Passive Parttclple) 816, Sie 

Gbrund and Gueunuivb 816-310 


CoHDitiosAL Sebtences 321-SSS 

Introductory Note 321,322 

FrotaslB and Apodofiis 822,323 

Classificatiou of Conditioaa 823-325 

Simple Present and Past Condi lions 825,320 

Future Conditions 826-3a8 

Conditions Contrary to Fact 328-330 

General Conditions ' 831 

Conditional Relative Clauses 832,333 

Conditiou Disgtdaed 883,834 

Conditfoa Omitted 334,335 

Complex Conditions 336 

Claueea of Comparison (Conclusion Omitted) 330 

Use of Si and its Compounds 337,388 

CoHCEssivE Clauses 338, 33B 

Clacheb or Pnoviao 340 

Cladhes of Fuhpobb (Final Cladseh) 340-343 

ClADBES of CuARACTEaiBTIC 343— 140 

CLAnsBS Of Sesult (CoNBECuTivE Claubes) 346-348 

Causal Clauses 848-860 

Temporal Cladsbs 350-369 

Obi, ut, cum, quando, as Indefinite Relatives 860 

Poatquam, abi, at, simnl atqae 861 

Com Temporal 852-364 

Cud Causal or Concessive . . - 364, 366 

Anteqaam and prinsquam 856,360 

Dom, dinec, and quoad 867-358 

Cladsbs with quia and qn&miDna 860-361 

VSobbtantivb Cucseb 862-384 

■ Introductory Note 362 

I Substantive Clauaes of Purpose and lufinitive Clauses .... 382-367 

I SubstaiiUve Clausea of Result (Conaecnttve Clauses) 367-369 

1 Indicative with quod 

Indirect Questions 370-873 

HECT Discoubse 873-884 

Introductory Note 373,374 

i\ Declaratory Sentences ^T-* 

I rdinate Clausea ^ 




Tenses of the Infinitiye 378, 379 ,' 

Tenses of the Subjunctive 379, 380 

Questions in Indirect Discourse 380, 381 

Commands in Indirect Discourse 381 

Conditions in Indirect Discourse 381-^384 

Intermediate Clauses 384-386 

Informal Indirect Discourse 385 

Subjunctive of Integral Part (Attraction) 386 

Important Rules op Syntax 387^92 

Order of Words 393-400 

General Rules 398-398 

Special Rules 398, 399 

Structure of the Period 399, 400 



Quantity 401-406 ^^ 

Rhythm 406-409 ^^ 

Introductory Note 406, 406 [^ 

Measures of Rhythm ; Feet 406-409 J 

The Musical Accent ; Caesura ; Diaeresis 409 ^ 

Versification 410-426 \ 

The Verse; Scansion and Elision 410,411 } 

Dactylic Verse 411-414 \ 

Dactylic Hexameter 411, 412 | 

Elegiac Stanza ; Other Dactylic Verses 413, 414 

Iambic Verse 414-416 

Iambic Trimeter 414, 416 

Other Iambic Measures 416 

Trochaic Verse 417 

Mixed Measures 418 

Logaoedic Verse 418-421 

Metres of Horace 421-425 

Index to the Metres of Horace 423-425 

Other Lyric Poets 425 

Miscellaneous Measures ... 426, 426 

Early Prosody 426,427, 

Miscellaneous 428-43q 

Reckoning of Time 428, 421 

Measures of Value, Length, and Capacity 429-481 1 

Glossary op Terms 432-43r^ 

Index of Verbs 436-4^ 

Index of Words and Subjects 445-4 j 

Latin Authors and their Works 476,4^^-^] 

"Parallel References ^'^^'^4^^ 





Latin Grammar is usually treated under three heads: 1. Words and 
Forms; 2. Syntax; 3. Prosody. Syntax treats of the function of words 
when joined together as parts of the sentence ; Prosody of their arrange- 
ment in metrical composition. 



1. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English (which is 
in fact borrowed from it) except that it does not contain J, U, 
and W. 

Note 1. — The Latin alphabet was borrowed in very early times from a Greek 
alphabet (thoagh not from that most familiar to us) and did not at first contain the 
letters 6 and T. It consisted of capital letters only, and the small letters with which 
we are familiar did not come into general use until the close of the eighth century of 
our era. 

Note 2. — The Latin names of the consonants were as follows : — B, be (pronounced 
bay); C, ce (pronounced kay); D, <?e {day); F, ef; G, ge {gay); H, ha; K, ka; L, el; 
M, em; W, en ; P, pe {pay); Q, qu {koo); R, er; S, es; T, te {tay); X,ix; Z, zeta (the 
Greek name, pronounced dzayta). The sound of each vowel was used as its name. 

a. The character C originally meant G, a value always retained in 
the abbreviations C. (for Gaius) and Cn. (for Gnaeus). 

Note. — In early Latin C came also to be used for K, and K disappeared except bo- 
fore a in a few words, as Kal. (Kalendae), Karthigo. Thus there was no distinction in 
writing between the sounds of g and k. Later this defect was remedied by forming 
(from C) the new character G. This took the alphabetic place formerly occupied by 
Z, which had gone out of use. In Cicero's time (see N. D. ii. 93), Y (originally a form 
of V) and Z were introduced from the ordinary Greek alphabet to represent sounds in 
words derived from the Greek, and they were put at the end of the Latin alphabet. 

h. I and V were used both as vowels and as consonants (see § 6). 

Note. — V originally denoted the vowel sound u {oo)y and P stood for the sound of 
our consonant w. When P acquired the value of our f , V came to be used for the 
sound of w as well as for the vowel u. 

In this book i is used for both vowel and consonant i, u for vowel u, and 
v for consonant u : .:— ius, vir, iuvenis. 




Classification of Sounds 

2. The simple Vowels axe a, e, i, o, u, y. 

The Diphthongs are ae, au, ei, eu, oe, ui, and, in early Latin, ai, 
oi, ou. In the diphthongs both vowel sounds are heard, one fol- 
lowing the other in the same syllable. 

3. Consonants are either voiced {sonant) or voiceless (surd). 
Voiced consonants are pronounced with the same vocal murmur 
that is heard in vowels ; voiceless consonants lack this murmur. 

1. The voiced consonants are b, d, g, 1, r, m, n, z, consonant i, y. 

2. The voiceless consonants are p, t, c (k, q), f, h, s, z. 

4. Consonants are further classified as in the following table : 

IiABLLLa Dentals Paultaxs 

' Voiced (medico') 





Voiceless (tenuis) 



o (k, q) 

^ Aspirates 







n (before o, g, q) 



Fricatives (Spirants) 


B, « 


By Z 




consonant i 

Double consonants are z (= cs) and z (= dz) ; h is merely a breathing. 

1. Mates are pronounced by blocking entirely, for an instant, the passage of the 
breath through the month, and then allowing it to escape with an explosion (distinctly 
heard before a following vowel). Between the explosion and the vowel there may be 
a slight puff of breath (h), as in the Aspirates (ph, th, ch).2 

2. Labials are pronounced with the lips, or lips and teeth. 

3. Dentals (sometimes called Linguals) are pronounced with the tip of the tongue 
touching or approaching the upper front teeth. 

4. Palatals are pronounced with a part of the upper surface of the tongue touching 
or approaching the palate.' 

6. Fricatives (or Spirants)" are consonants in which the breath passes continuously 
through the mouth with audible friction. 

6. Nasals are like voiced mutes, except that the mouth remains closed and the 
breath passes through the nose. 

1 Strictly a lahio-dentcdy pronounced with the under lip touching the upper teeth. 

a The aspirates are almost wholly confined to words borrowed from the Greek. In 
early Latin such borrowed sounds lost their aspiration and became simply p, t, c. 

« Palatals are often classed as (1) velara, pronounced with the tongue touchhig or ris- 
ing toward the soft palate (in the back part of the mouth), and (2) palatals, in which the 
tongue touches or rises toward the hard palate (farther forward in the mouth) . Compare 
the initial consonants in key and coolt whispering the two words, and it wiU be observed 
that before e and i the k is sounded farther forward in the mouth than before a, o, or u. 

§§ 6, 6] ORTHOGRAPHY 3 

5. The vowels i and u serve as consonants when pronounced 
rapidly before a vowel so as to stand in the same syllable.^ Con- 
sonant i has the sound of English consonant y; consonant u (y) 
that of English consonant w. 

Consonant i and u (v) are sometimes called Semivowels. 

NoTB 1. — The Latin alphabet did not distinguish between the vowel and consonant 
sounds of i and u, but used each letter (I and V) with a double value. In modem books 
i and u are often used for the vowel sounds, j and v for the consonant sounds ; but in 
printing in capitals J and U are avoided : — I V Li vs (Ittlius) . The characters J and U are 
only slight modifications of the characters I and V. The ordinary English sounds of 
3 and V did not exist in classical Latin, but consonant u perhaps approached English v 
in the pronunciation of some persons. 

Note 2. — In the combinations qu, gn, and sometimes su, u seems to be the conso- 
nant (w) . Thus, aqua, anguis, cdnsuStus (compare English quarts anguisht suave) . In 
these combinations, however, u is reckoned neither as a vowel nor as a consonant.^ 


6. Latin speUing varied somewhat with the changes in the 
language and was never absolutely settled in all details. 

Thus, we find lubet, vort5, as earlier, and libet, verto, as later forms. Other 
variations are optumus and optimus, gerondus and geiendus. 

The spelling of the first century of our era, known chiefly from 
inscriptions, is tolerably uniform, and is commonly used in modern 
editions of the classics. 

a. After y (consonant n), o was anciently used instead of u (voltns, servos), 
and this spelling was not entirely given up until the middle of the first 
century of our era. 

&• The older quo became cu in the Augustan period ; in the second cen- 
tury of our era the spelling quu established itself in some words : — 

cam, older quom ;^ equos, ecus, later equus ; sequontor, secuntur, later sequuntur ; 
similarly ezstingnont, ezstingunt, later ezstinguunt. 

NoTB. — In most modem editions the spelling quu is adopted, except in cum. 

c. Between consonant i and a preceding a, e, o, or u, an i was developed 
as a transient sound, thus producing a diphthong ai, ei, etc., before the con- 
sonant i. In such cases but one 1 was written : as, &id (for t*i-i5)» mAius 
(for fmai-ius), p^ius (for fpei-ius). 

1 Compare the English word Indian as pronounced in two syllahles or in three. 
« In such words it is possihle that the preceding consonant was lahialized and that 
no distinct and separate consonant u was heard. 

• The spelling quum is very late and without authority. 


4 WORDS AND FORMS [§§ 6-8 

cf • Similarly in compounds of IacIo but one i was written (as, con-icio, 
not con-iicio); but the usual pronunciation probably showed consonant 1 
followed by vowel i (see § 11. e). 

Note. — Some variations are due to later changes in Latin itself, and these are not 
now recognized in classical texts. 

1. Unaccented ti and ci, when followed by a vowel, came to be pronounced alike ; 
hence nuntio was later speKed with a c and diciS with a t. 

2. The sound of h was after a time lost and hence this letter was often omitted (as, 
arena for harSna) or mistakenly written (as, hOmor for &mor). 

3. The diphthong ae early in the time of the Empire acquired the value of long open 
e (about like English e in tJiere)^ and similarly oe after a time became a long close e 
(about like the English ey in tfiey) ; and so both were often confused in spelling with 
e : as, coena or caena for the correct form cfina. 


7. Every Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels or 
diphthongs : — 

a-ci-e, mo-ne, fi-li-us, fe-ro-ci-ta-te. 

a. In the division of words into syllables a single consonant (including 
consonant i and v) between two vowels is written and pronounced with 
the following vowel. Doubled consonants are separated : — 
pa-ter, mf-li-tes, in-ifl-ri-a, di-vl-d5 ; mit-t5, tol-15. 

Note 1. — Some extend the rule for single consonants to any consonant group (as 
sp, 8t, gn) that can begin a word. In this book, diz-it, saz-iun, etc. are preferred to 
dl-xit, sa-zum ; the pronunciation was probably dic-sit, sac-sum. 

Note 2. — A syllable ending with a vowel or diphthong is called open: all others 
are called dose. Thus in pa-ter the first syllable is open, the second close. 

b* In compounds the parts are separated : — 
ab-est, ob-latus, dis-cemo, du-plez, d!-st5. 


8. The so-called Roman Pronunciation of Latin aims to repre- 
sent approximately the pronunciation of classical times. 

Vowels : a as in father; & as in idea, 

5 as ehf (prolonged), or a in date; 6 as ehf (clipped) or e in net 
I as in machine; I as in holiest or sit, 

6 as in holy; 5 as in obey. 

ii as 00 in boot; H a,s oo in foot. 

y between u and i (French u or German u). 


IPHTH0NG8 : ae like ay; ei as in eight; oe like oy in boy, 

enB^aeh^oo; au like ow in now; ui 0.3 oo^ee. 


Consonants are the same as in English, except that — 

c and g are as in come^ get, never as in city, gem, 

a as in sea, lips, never as in ease. 

Consonant i is like y in young; v (consonant u) like w in wing, 

n in the combinations ns and nf probably indicates nasalization of the 
precediDg vowel, which was also lengthened ; and final m in an 
unaccented syllable probably had a similar nasalizing effect on 
the preceding vowel. 

ph., th, ch, are properly like p, t, k, followed by h (which may, for con- 
venience, be neglected) ; but ph probably became like (or nearly 
like) f soon after the classical period, and may be so pronounced 
to distinguish it from p. 

z is as (iis in adze, 

ba is like ps *, bt is like pt. 

NoTB. — Latin is sometimes pronounced with* the ordinary English sounds of the 
letters. The English pronunciation should be used in Roman names occurring in 
English (as, Julius Cmsar) ; and in familiar quotations, as, e pluribus unum ; viva 
voce; vice versa; a fortiori; veni, vidi, vici, etc. 


9. The Quantity of a Vowel or a Syllable is tlie time occupied 
in pronouncing it. Two degrees of Quantity are recognized, — 
long and short 

€L. In syllables, quantity is measured from the beginning of the vowel 
or diphthong to the end of the syllable. 

10. Vowels are either long or short hy nature^ and are pro- 
nounced accordingly (§ 8). 

0. A vowel before another vowel or h is short : as in via, nUul. 
6. A diphthong is long : as in Skdes, fdedus. So, also, a vowel derived 
from a diphthong : as in ezcludd (from fex-claudo). 

Cm A vowel formed by contraction is long : as in nil (from nihil). 
(Z* A vowel before ns, nf, gn, is long : as in constans, infero, magnus. 
NoTB. — But the quantity of the vowel before gn is not certain in all cases. 

e, A vowel before nd, nt, is regularly short : as in amandus, amant. 

In this book all vowels known to be long are marked (a, e, etc.), and 
short vowels are left unmarked (a, e, etc.). Vowels marked with both signs 
at once (a, e, etc.) occur sometimes as long and sometimes as short. 

Note. — The Romans sometimes marked vowel length by a stroke above the letter 
(called an ai)ex), as, A ; and sometimes the vowel was doubled to indicate length. An 
I made higher than the other letters was occasionally used for i. But none of these 
devices came into general use. 


11. The Quantity of the Syllable is important for the position 
of the accent and in versification. 

a« A syllable containing a long vowel or a diphthong is said to be long 
by nature : as, ma-ter, aes, au-l&. 

b. A syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants 

(except a mute before 1 or r) or by a double consonant (x, z) is said to be 

long by position^ but the vowel is pronounced short : as, est, ter-ra, saz-um, 


Note. — When a consonant is doubled the pronunciation should show this dis- 
tinctly. Thus in mit-to both t's should be pronounced as in out-talk (not merely a 
single t as in better). 

Cm A syllable containing a short vowel followed by a mute before 1 or r 
is properly short, but may be used as long in verse. Such a syllable is said 
to be common. 

Note 1. — In syllables long by position, but having a short vowel, the length is 
partly due to the first of the consonants, which stands in the same syllable with the 
vowel. In syllables of '* common " quantity (as the first syllable of patrem) the ordi- 
nary pronunciation was pa-trem, but in verse pat-rem was allowed so that the syllable 
could become long. 

Note 2. — In final syllables ending with a consonant, and containing a short vovrel, 
the quantity in verse is determined by the following word : if this begins with a vowel 
the final consonant is joined to it in pronunciation ; if it begins with a consonant the 
syllable is long by position. 

Note 3. — In rules for quantity h is not counted as a consonant, nor is the appar- 
ently consonantal u in qu, gu, su (see § 5. n. 2). 

cf. A syllable whose vowel is a, e, o, or u, followed by consonant i, is 
long whether the vowel itself is long or short : as, Il-i5, mi-ior, p^ius. 

In such cases the length of the syllable is indicated in this book by a 
circumflex on the vowel. 

Note. — The length of a syllable before consonant i is due to a transitional sound 
(vowel i) which forms a diphthong with the preceding vowel: as, A-io (for fai-io), 
ml-ior (for fmai-ior). See § 6. c. 

em In some compounds of iacio (as, in-icio) the consonant i of the simple 
verb was probably pronoimced (though not written). Thus the first syl- 
lable was long by position : as, in-ici5 (for in-iicio). See § 6. rf. 

In such cases the length of the syllable is not indicated in this book by 
a circumflex on the vowel. 

/• When a syllable is long by position the quantity of the vowel is not 
always determinable. The vowel should be pronounced short unless it is 
known to be long. 

Note. — The quantity of a vowel under these circumstances is said to be hidden. 
It is often determined with a greater or less degree of certainty by inscriptional evi- 
dence (see § 10. N.) or by other means. In this book, the quantity of all such vowels 
known to be long is marked. 

§§ 12-14] ACCENT 


12. Words of two syllables are accented on the first syllable : 
3LSy RG'ma, fi'des, tan'gG. 

Words of more than two syllables are accented on the Penult ^ 
Lf tliat is long (as, ami'cus^ monS'tur, contin'git); otherwise on the 
Antepenult (as, do'minus, a'ltois, dissocia'bilis). 

cr« When an enclitic is joined to a word, the accent falls on the syllable 
next before the enclitic, whether long or short : as, dS&'que, SmarSVe, tibrne, 
it&'que (and . . . «o), as distinguished from i^tllque (therefore). So (accord- 
ing to some) ez'inde, ec'quando, etc. 

^Exceptions : 1. Certain apparent compounds of facid retain the accent of the 
simple verb : as, benef&'cit, calefH^'cit (see § 266. a). 

NOTB. — These were not true compounds, but phrases. 

2. In the second declension the genitive and vocative of nouns in -iua and the 
genitive of those in -ium retain the accent of the nominative : as, Corned, Vergi'li, 
inge^n! (see § 49. c). 

8. Certain words which have lost a final vowel retain the accent of the com- 
plete words : as, illi^c for ilirce, proda^c for prodace, sati^'n for sati'sne. 


13. In some cases adjacent words, being pronounced together, 
are written as one : — 

finusquisque (unus quisque), siquis (si quia), quAre (qua rS), quamobrem (quam 
ob rem ; cf . quas ob i§8), rSspublica (r§s p&blica), lasifirandum (ifis ifirandom), 
paterfamilias (pater familias). 

NoTB. — Sometimes a slight change in pronunciation resulted, as, especially in the 
old poets, before est in homost (hom5 est), periculumst (pexiculttm est), ausust (ausus est) , 
qualist (qtiAlis est). Similarly there occur vin', scin' for visne, scisne, sis (si v!s), sodSs 
(si audSs), sultis (si vnltls). Compare in English somebody ^ to breakfast; he *8f I've, 
thou *rt. 

Phonetic Changes 

14. Latin, the language of the ancient Romans, was properly, as its name implies, 
the language si>oken in the plain of Latium, lying south of the Tiber, which was the first 
territory occupied and governed by the Romans. It is a descendant of an early foi;m 
of speech commonly called Indo-European (by some Indo-Germanic) y from which 
are also descended most of the important languages now in use in Europe, including 
among others English, German, the Slavic and the Celtic languages, and further some 
now or formerly spoken in Asia, as Sanskrit, Persian, Armenian. Greek likewise 

^ The Penult is the last syllable but one ; the Antepenult, the last but two. 

8 WORDS AND FORMS [§§ 14, 1 

belongs to the same family. The Romance (or Romanic) languages, of which th 
most important are Italian, French, Provencal, Spanish, Portugaese, and Roumanian 
are modern descendants of spoken Latin. 

The earliest known forms of Latin are preserved in a few inscriptions. These in 
crease in number as we approach the time when the language began to be used in litera 
ture; that is, about b.c. 250. It is the comparatively stable language of the classical 
period (b.c. 80-a.d. 14) that is ordinarily meant when we speak of Latin, and it k 
mainly this that is described in this book. 

15. Among the main features in the changes of Latin from 
the earliest stages of the language as we know it up to the forms 
of classical Latin may be mentioned the following : — 

Vowel Changes 

1. The old diphthong ai became the classical ae (aedllis for old aidilis), 
old oi became oe or ii (iinus for old oinos), and old ou became a (duc5 for 
old douco). 

2. In compound verbs the vowel a of the simple verb often appears as i 
or e, and ae similarly appears as i : — 

facio, factum, but cdnficio, confectum ; caed5, but occido, and gimilarly cecidi, 
perfect of caedo (cf. cado, occidd ; cecidi, perfect of cad5). 

Note. —This change is commonly ascribed to an accentuation on the first syl- 
lable, which seems to have been the rule in Latin before the rule given above (see § 12) 
became established. The original Indo-European accent, however, was not limited by 
either of these principles ; it was probably a musical accent so-ealled, consisting in a 
change of pitch, and not merely in a more forcible utterance of the accented syllable. 

3. Two vowels coming together are often contracted : — 

cogo for tco-ago; promo for tpro-emo; nil for nihil; debeo for tde-hibeo 

Consonant Changes 

4. An old s regularly became r between two vowels (rhotacisTn), passing 
first through the sound of (English) z : — 

eram (cf. est); generis, genitive of genus.^ 

Note. — Final s sometimes became r by analogy: as, honor (older honos), from the 
analogy of honoris, etc. 

5. A dental (t, d) often became s, especially when standing next to t, d, 
or 8 : as, equestris for fequettris, casus for fcadtus (cf . 6, below). 

6. Many instances of assimilation, partial or complete, are found : 

cessi for tced-si ; summus for tsupmus ; acriptus for scribtus (b unvoicing to 
p before the voiceless t); and in compound verbs (see § 16). 

1 A similar change can be seen in English: as, were (of. was)^ lorn (cf. lose). 


Dissimilation, the opposite kind of change, prevented in some cases the 
repetition of the same sound in succcessive syllables : — 

Thus, panlia for palilia(from PalSs) ; meridies for fmedidiSs; n&tur&lis with suffix 
-alls (after r), but populazis with -aris (alter 1). 

7. Final • was in early Latin not always pronounced : as, plitta(s) ildSi. 

NoTBJ. — Tracesof thispronunciation existed in Cicero's time. He speaks of the omis- 
sion of final s before a word beginning with a consonant as '* countrified ' ' {aubrusticum) .- 

8. A final consonant often disappears : as, virg5 for f virgSn ; lac for 
flact ; cor for f cord. 

9. G, c, and h unite with a following s to form x : as, rex for fregs ; dux 
for -j-ducs ; traxi for f trahsi.^ 

10. G and h before t become c : as, rectum for f regtum ; actum for fagtum ; 
tractum for ftrahtum.^ 

11. Between m and s or m and t, a p is often developed : as, sumpsi for 
tsumsi ; emptum for f emtum. 

16. In compounds with prepositions the final consonant in the preposition was often 
assimilated to the following consonant, but nsage varied considerably. 

There is good authority for many complete or partial assimilations ; as, for ad, 
ace-, agg-, app-, att-, instead of ade-, adg-, etc. Before a labial consonant we find com- 
(comb-, comp-, comm-), but con- is the form before c, d, f, g, cons, i, q, s, t, cons, v ; we 
find conl- or coU-, oonr- or corr-; c5- in conecto, conived, conitor, conubium. In usualiy 
changes to im- before p, b, m. Ob and sub may assimilate b to a following c, f, g, or 
P ; before « and t the pronunciation of prepositions ending in b doubtless had p ; sun-, 
summ-, occur for subr-, subm-. The inseparable amb- loses b before a consonant. 
Circum often loses its m before i. The s of dis becomes r before a vowel and is assimi- 
lated to a following f ; sometimes this prefix appears as di-. Instead of ex we find ef- 
bef ore f (also ecf-) . The d of red and sSd is generally lost before a consonant. The 
preposition is better left unchanged in most other cases. 

Vowel Variations 

17. The parent language showed great variation in the vowel 
sounds of kindred words.^ 

a. This variation is often called by the German name Ablaut, It has 
left considerable traces in the forms of Latin words, appearing sometimes 
as a difference of quantity in the same vowel (as, u, ii ; e, e), sometimes as a 
difference in the vowel itself (as, e, o ; i, ae) : * — 

teg5, I cover, toga, a robe ; pend5, 1 weigh, pondus, laeigM; fidCt, faith^ fidus, 
faithful, fbedus, a treaty ; miser, wretc?ied, maestus, sad ; dare, to give, 
d9num, a gift; rego, I rule, r6x, a king; dux, a leader, dQc5 (for older 
douc5) , I lead. Compare English drive, drove {drave) , driven ; bind, bound, 
band; sing, sang, sung; etc. 

1 Really for ttraghsi. The h of trah5 represents an older palatal sound (see § 19). 

2 Really for ttraghtum. These are cases of partial assimilation (cf. 6, above). 

8 This variation was not without regularity, but was confined within definite limits. 
* In Greek, however, it is more extensively preserved. 

10 WORDS AND FORMS [§§ 18, 1» 

Kindred Fomis 

18. Both Latin and English have gone through a series of phonetic changes, dii- 
ferent in the two languages, but following definite laws in each. Hence both pre- 
serve traces of the older speech in some features of the vowel system, and both sbov 
certain correspondences in consonants in words which each language has inherited from 
the old common stock. Only a few of these correspondences can be mentioned here. 

19. The most important correspondences in consonants between 
Latin and English, in cognate words, may be seen in the following 
table : — ^ 

Latin English 

p: pater f : /a</^, earlier /oder* 

f from bh : fero, frater b : to 6ear, brother 

b ** " lubet, libet v, f : love, lief 

t : tu, tenuis th : thou, thin, ^ 

d : duo, dent- t : two, tooth 

i from dh : f acid d : do 

d ** ** medius d: mid 

b ** ** ruber d: red 

c : cord-, comQ h : heart, horn 

qu: quod wh: what 

g : genus, gustus c, k, ch : kin, choose 

h (from gh) : hortus, haedus y, g : yard, goat 

cons, i : iugum y : yoke 

Y : ventus, ovis w : wind, ewe 

NoTB 1. — Sometimes a consonant lost in Latin is still represented in English : as, 
niv- (for tsni^-), Eng. snow; anser (for fhanser), Eng. goose. 

Note 2. — From these cases of kindred words in Latin and English must be care- 
fully distinguished those cases in which the Latin word has been taken into English either 
directly or through some one of the modern descendants of Latin, especially French. 
Thus faclo is kindred with Eng. do, but from the Latin participle (factum) of this verb 
comes 'Eng. fact, and from the French descendant (fait) of factum comes 'Eng.feat. 

^ The Indo-European parent speech had among its consonants voiced aspirates 
(bh, dh, gh). All these suffered change in Latin, the most important results being, 
for bh, Latin f , b (English has b, v, or f) ; for dh, Latin f , b, d (English has d) ; for gb. 
Latin h, g (Engli^ has y, g). The other mutes suffered in Latin much less change, 
while in English, as in the other Grermanic languages, they have all changed consid- 
erably in accordance with what has been called Grimm's Law for the shifting of mutes. 

2 The th in father is a late development. The older iorm fader seems to show an 
exception to the rule that English th corresponds to Latin t. The primitive Grermanic 
form was doubtless in accordance with this rule, but, on account of the position of the 
accent, which in Germanic was not originally on the first syllable in this word, the 
consonant underwent a secondary change to d. 

> But to the group st of Latin corresponds also English st ; as in Latin 8t5, English 



20. Words are divided into eight Parts of Speech: Nouns, 
Adjectives (including Participles), Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, 
Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections. 

fit* A Noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea : as, Caesar ; 
R5iiia, Rome ; donms, a house ; virtus, virtue. 

Names of particular persons and places are called Proper NoTins ; other 
nouns are called Common. 

NoTB. — An Abstract Nonn is the name of a quality or idea : as, aud&cia, boldness ; 
senecttts, old age. A CoUectiye Noun is the name of a group, class, or the like : as, turba, 
crowd ; exercitus, army. 

h» An Adjective is a word that attributes a quality: as, bonus, good; 
lortis, brave, strong. 

NoTB 1. — A Participle is a word that attribntes quality like an adjective, but, being 
derived from a verb, retains in some degree the power of the verb to assert : as, — 
Caesar consul crepitus, Cassar having been elected consul. 

NoTB 2. — EtymologicaUy there is no difference between a noun and an adjective, 
both b^ng formed a)ike. So, too, all names originally attribute quality, and any com- 
mon name can still be so used. Thus, King William distinguishes this William from 
other Williams, by the attribute of royalty expressed in the name king. 

c* A Pronoun is a word used to distinguish a person, place, thing, or 
idea without either naming or describing it : as, is, he ; qui, who ; nos, voe. 

Nouns and pronouns are often called Substantives. 

d* A Verb is a word which is capable of asserting something : as, sum, 
/ am ; amat, he loves. 

Note. — In all modem speech the verb is usually the only woi-d that asserts any- 
thing, and a verb is therefore supposed to be necessary to complete an assertion. 
Strictly, however, any adjective or noun may, by attributing a quality or giving a 
name, make a complete assertion. In the infancy of language there could have been 
no other means of asserting, as the verb is of comparatively late development. 

ۥ An Adverb is a word used to express the time, place, or manner of 
an assertion or attribute : as, splendide mendaz, gloriously false ; hodie natus 
est, he was horn to-day. 

Note. — These same functions are often performed by cases (see §§ 214-217) of 
nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, and by phrases or sentences. In fact, all adverbs 
were originally cases or phrases, but have become specialized by use. 

/. A Preposition is a word which shows the relation between a noun or 
pronoun and some other word or words in the same sentence : as, per agros 
it, he goes over the fields; e pluribus unum, one out of many. 

Note. — Most prepositions are specialized adverbs (cf. § 219). The relations ex- 
pressed by prejwsitions were earlier expressed by case-endings. 

12 WORDS AND FORMS [§§ 20-2 

g. A Conjunction is a word which connects words, or groups of 'wordi 
without affecting their grammatical relations : as, et, and ; sed, hvi, 

NoTB. — Some adverbs are also used as connectiyes. These are called Adverbia 
Conj unctions or Conjanctive (Relative) Adverbs: as, ubi, where; donee, until. | 

h^ Interjections are mere exclamations and are not strictly to be classed) 
as parts of speech. Thus, — heus, halloo I 6, oh I 

Note. — Interjections sometimes express an emotion which affects a person or thing 
mentioned, and so have a grammatical connection like other words: as, vae victls, wot 
to the conquered (alas lor the conquered) I 


21. Latin is an inflected language. 

Inflection is a change made in the form of a word to show its 
grammatical relations. 

a* Inflectional changes sometimes take place in the body of a word, or 
at the beginning, but oftener in its termination : — 

vox, a voice; vocis, of a voice ; voc5, 1 call; vocat, he calls; vocet, let him call; 
vocavit, ?ie hoB called; tangit, he touches; tetigit, he touched, 

hm Terminations of inflection had originally independent meanings which 
are now obscured. They correspond nearly to the use of prepositions, 
auxiliaries, and personal pronouns in English. 

Thus, in rocat, the termination is equivalent to he or she; in vocis, to the 
preposition of; and in vocet the change of vowel signifies a change of mood. 

ۥ Inflectional changes in the body of a verb usually denote relations of 
tense or mood, and often correspond to the use of auxiliary verbs in Eng- 
lish : — 

frangit, he breaks or is breaking ; fregit, he broke or has broken; mordet, h 
bites; momordit, fie bit,^ 

22. The inflection of Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Par- 
ticiples to denote gender, number, and case is called Declension, 
and these parts of speech are said to be declined. 

The inflection of Verbs to denote voice, mood, tense, number, 
and person is called Conjugation, and the verb is said to be con- 

Note. — Adjectives are often said to have inflections of comparison. These are, 
however, properly stem-formations made by derivation (p. 65, footnote). 

1 The only proper inflections of verbs are those of the personal endings ; and the 
changes here referred to are strictly changes of afcm, but have become a part of the 
system of inflections. 

§§2a-25] ROOT, STEM, AND BASE 13 

23. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections are 
not inflected and are called Particles. 

NoTB. — The term Particle is sometimes limited to such words as nam, -ne, an (inter- 
rogative) ^ n5n, qS (negative) , si (conditional), etc.» which are used simply to indicate 
the lorm or constraction of a sentence. 

Root, Stem, and Base 

24. The body of a word, to which the terminations are attached, 

is called the Stem. 

The Stem contains the idea of the word without relations ; but, except 
in the first part of a compound (as, arti-fez, artificer), it cannot ordinarily be 
used without some termination to express them.^ 

Thus the stem y5c- denotes voice; with -s added it becomes y5z, a voice or the 
voice, as the subject or agent of an action ; with -is it becomes vdcis, and signifies 
of a voice. 

Note. — The stem is in many forms so united with the termination that a compari- 
son with other forms is necessary to determine it. 

' 25. A Root is the simplest form attainable by analysis of a 

word into its component parts. 

Such a form contains the main idea of the word in a very general sense, 
and is common also to other words either in the same language or in kin- 
dred languages.^ 

Thus the root of the stem voc- is voc, which does not mean to call, or I call, 
or caUing, but merely expresses vaguely the idea of calling, and cannot be used 
as a part of speech without terminations. With a- it becomes voca-, the stem of 
voc&re (to call) ; with av- it is the stem of vocAyit (he called) ; with ftto- it becomes 
the stem of vocatus (called) ; with ation- it becomes the stem of voc&tionis (of a 
caXling). With its vowel lengthened it becomes the stem of vox, voc-is (a voice: 
that by which we call). This stem y5c-, with -aiis added, means belonging to a 
voice; with -fila, a little voice. 

Note.— In inflected languages, words are built np from Boots, which at a very 
early time were used alone to express ideas, as is now done in Chinese. Roots are 
modified into Stems, which, hy inflection, become fully formed words. The process by 
which roots are modified, in the various forms of derivatives and compounds, is called 
Stern^wlding. The whole of this process is originally one of composition, by which 
significant endings are added one after another to forms capable of pronunciation and 
conveying a meaning. 

Roots had long ceased to be recognized as such before the Latin existed as a sepa- 
rate language. Consequently the forms which we assume as Latin roots never really 
existed in Latin, but are the representatives of forms used earlier. 

1 Another exception is the imperative second person singular in -e (as, rege). 

2 For example, the root sta is fouTid in the Sanskrit tishthdmi, Greek taryifUy Latin 
sistere and stare, German fieJ^en^ and English stand. 

14 WORDS AND FORMS [§§ 26-30 

26. The Stem maybe the same as the root: as in due-is, (?f a leader^ 
fer-t, he hears; but it is more frequently formed from the root — 

1. By changing or lengthening its vowel : as in scob-s, sawdust (scab. 
shave)) reg-is, of a king (reg, direct)} voc-is, of a voice (voc, call), 

2. By the addition of a simple suffix (originally another root) : as in fuga-, 
stem of fuga, flight (fug + a-) ; regi-s, you rule (reg + stem-ending %-); 
sim-t, he allows (si + n%-).^ 

3. By two or more of these methods : as in duci-t, he leads (dug + stem- 
ending Vo")- 

4. By derivation and composition, following the laws of development 
peculiar to the language. (See §§ 227 ff.) 

27. The Base is that part of a word which is unchanged in 

inflection : as, serv- in servus ; mgns- in mSnsa ; ign- in ignis. 

a. The Base and the Stem are often identical, as in many consonant 
stems of nouns (as, reg- in reg-is). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, 
the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the 
inflectional termination. Thus the stem of servus is servo- j that of tnensa, 
mensa- ; that of ignis, igni-. 

28. Inflectional terminations are variously modifled by com- 
bination with the final vowel or consonant of the Stem, and thus 
the various forms of Declension and Conjugation (see §§ S6, 164) 


29. The Genders distinguished in Latin are three : Masculine, 
Feminine, and Neuter. 

30. The gender of Latin nouns is either natural or graw/maticat 

a. Natural Grender is distinction as to the sex of the object denoted : as, 
puer (m.), hoy; puella (f.), girl; rex (m.), king; regina (f.), queen. 

NoTB 1. — Many nouns have both a masculine and a feminine form to distinguish 
sex: as, cervus, cerva, stag^ doe; cliens, clienta, client; victor, victrix, conqveror. 

Many designations of persons (as nauta, sailor) usuaUy though not necessarily male 
are always treated as masculine. Similarly names of tribes and peoples are masculine : 
as, RSmani, the Romans; Persae, the Persians. 

Note 2. — A few neuter nouns are used to designate persons as belonging to a class: 
as, mancipium taum, your slave (your chattel). 

Many pet names of girls and boys are neuter in form : as, Paegnium, Glycerinm. 

Note 3. — Names of classes or collections of persons may be of any gender: as, 
ezercitas (m.), acigs (f.), and agmen (n.), army; operae (f. plur.), workmen; copiae 
(f. plur.), troops; seiuLtus (m.), senate; cohors (f.), cohort; conciUom (n.), council. 

1 These suf&xes are Indo-European stem-endings. 


bm Grammatical Gender is a formal distinction as to sex where no actual 
sex exists in the object. It is shown by the form of the adjective joined 
with the noun : as, lapis magnus (m.), a great stone ; manus mea (f.), my 

General Rules of Gender 

31. Names of Male beings, and of Rivers, Winds, Months, and 
Mountains, are masculine: — 

pater, father; lulius, Julius; Tiberis, tJie Tiber; aaster, south wind; Unua- 
rius, January ; Apennmus, tJie Apennines. 

Note. — Names of Months are properly- adjectiyes, the masculine nonn mCnsis, 
month, being onderstood : as, lanuarius, January. 

dm A few names of Rivers ending in -a (as, Allia), with the Greek names 
Lethe and St]^, are feminine ; others are variable or uncertain. 

&. Some names of Mountains are feminine or neuter, taking the gender 
of their termination: as, Alpes (f.), the Alps; Sdracte (k.). 

32. Names of Female beings, of Cities, Countries, Plants, Trees, 
and Gems, of many Animals (especially Birds), and of most ab- 
stract Qualities, sltg feminine: — 

mater, mother; lulia, Julia; Roma, Borne; Italia, Italy ; rosa, rose; pinus, 
pine; sapphiros, sapphire; anas, d/vuck; Veritas, truth. 

a. Some names of Towns and Countries are masculine : as, SulmS, Gabii 
(plur.) ; or neuter, as, Tarentum, Dlyricum. 

&• A few names of Plants and Gems follow the gender of their termina- 
tion: as, centaureum (n.), centaury; acanthus (m.), hearsfoot; opalus (m.), 

NoTB. — The gender of most of the above may also be recognized by the termina- 
tions, according to the rules given under the several declensions. The names of Roman 
women were usually feminine adjectives denoting their gens or house (see § 108. &). 

33. Indeclinable nouns, infinitives, terms or phrases used as 
nouns, and words quoted merely for their form, are neuter : — 

fas, right; nihil, nothing; gummi, gum; scire tuum, your knowledge (to 
know) ; triste vale, a sadfareweU; hoc ipsum diu, this very '* long."*^ 

34. Many nouns may be either masculine or feminine, accord- 
ing to the sex of the object. These are said to be of Common 
Gender: as, exsul, exile; Ws, ox or cow; parSns, parent. 

Note. — Several names of animals have a grammatical gender, independent of sex. 
These are called epicene. Thus lepus, hare, is always masculine, and vulpCs, fox, is 
alwajrs fOTiinine. 



35. Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, and Participles are declined 
in two Numbers, singular and plural; and in six Cases, nrnnina- 
tive^ genitive^ dative^ accusative^ ablative^ vocative. 

a» The Nominatiye is the case of the Subject of a sentence. 

6# The "Genitive may generally be translated by the English Possessive, 
or by the Objective with the preposition of. 

c* The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object (§ 274). It may usually 
be translated by the Objective with the preposition to or for, 

dm The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object of a verb (§ 274). It 
is used also with many of the prepositions. 

6. The Ablative may usually be translated by the Objective with from, 
by, withy in, or at. It is often used with prepositions. 

/. The Vocative is the case of Direct Address. 

g. All the cases, except the nominative and vocative, are used as object- 
cases ; and are sometimes called Oblique Cases (casus ohllqui). 

hm In names of towns and a few other words appear traces of another 
case (the Locative), denoting the place where : as, R5mae, at Rome ; ruri, in 
the country. 

Note. — Still another case, the Instrnmental, appears in a few adverbs (§ 215. 4). 


36. Declension is produced by adding terminations originally significant to differ- 
ent forms of stems, vowel or consonant. The various phonetic corruptions in the lan- 
guage have given rise to the several declensions. Most of the case-endings, as given 
in Latin, contain also the final letter of the stem. 

Adjectives are, in general, declined like nouns, and are etymologically to be classed 
with them ; but they have several peculiarities of inflection (see § 109 ff .) . 

37. Nouns are inflected in five Declensions, distinguished by 
the final letter (characteristic) of the Stem, and by the case-ending 
of the Genitive Singular. 

Dbcl. 1 Characteristic S Gen. Sing, ae 

2 6 1 

3 i or a Consonant la 

4 • tt fia 

5 ® ei 

a. The Stem of a noun may be found, if a consonant stem, by omitting 
the case-ending ; if a vowel stem, by substituting for the case-ending the 
characteristic vowel. 



38. The following are General Rules of Declension : — 

a* The Vocative is always the same as the Nominative, except in the 
singular of nouns and adjectives in -us of the second declension, which have 
•e in the vocative. It is not included in the paradigms, unless it differs 
horn the nominative. 

hm In neuters the Nominative and Accusative are always alike, and in 
;he plural end in -X. 

c» The Accusative singular of all masculines and f eminines ends in -m ; 
;he Accusative plural in -s. 

cf • In the last three declensions (and in a few cases in the others)^ the 
Dative singular ends in -L 

e* The Dative and Ablative plural are always alike. 

f» The Genitive plural always ends in -tun. 

ffm Final -i, -o, -u of inflection are always long ; final -a is shorty except in 
ihe Ablative singular of the first declension ; final -e is long in the first and 
ifth declensions, short m the second and third. Final -is and -us are long in 
plural caaes. 

Case-endings of the Five Declensions 

39, The regular Case-endings of the several declensions are 
ihe following: — ^ 

Decl. I 






Decl. II 

M. K. 

-U8 -um 

-ae -I 

-ae -5 

-am -um -um 

-a -a 

-a -e -tun 

Decl. Ill 

Decl. IV Decl. V 



(modified stem) 



-em (-im) (like nom.) 


(like nom.) 

M. N* 

-U8 -fl 


-ui (a) -ft 

-um -a 


-ua -H 


-61 (-6) 
-61 (-6) 

K.V. -ae -I -a 

Gen. -&mm -(^nim 
D.Ab. -18 -18 

Ace. -^ -OS -a 


-6b -a, -ia 

-um, -ium 
-68 (-is) -a, -ia 

-Qb -na -68 

-unm -6rum 

•ibiia (-ubus) -6bus 

-us -ua -68 

1 For ancient, rare, and Greek forms (wMcb are here omitted), see under tb0 
seyeral declensions. 



40. The Stem of nouns of the First Declension ends in a-. The 
Nominative ending is -a (the stem-vowel shortened), except in 
Greek nouns. 

41. Latin nouns of the First Declension are thus declined : — 

Stella, F., star 

Stem stella- 





a star 




of a star 




to or for a star 




a star 




tvithffromy by, etc. 

a star 








of stars 




to or for stars 








with, from, by, etc. 



a. The Latin has no article ; hence stella may mean a star, the star, or 
simply star. 

Gender in the First Declension 

42. Nouns of the first declension are Feminine. 

Exceptions : Nouns masculine from their signification : as, nauta, sailor. Sot 
few family or personal names: as, MurSna, Dolabella, Scaevola^; also, Hadxia, ^ 

Case-Forms in the First Declension 

43. a. The genitive singular anciently ended in 4a (dissyllabic), whid 
is occasionally found : as, aula!. The same ending sometimes occurs in tb 
dative, but only as a diphthong. 

1 Scaevola is really a feminine adjective, used as a noun, meaning little l^t hani\ 
but, being used as the name of a man (originally a nickname), it became maacullB^ 
Original genders are often thus changed by a change in the sense of a noun. 

§§ 43, 44] 



6* An old genitive in -as is preserved in the word familias, often used in 
the combinations pater (mater, filius, filia) familias, father^ etc., of a family 
(plur. patres familias or famUiarum). 

ۥ The Locative form for the singular ends in -ae ; for the plural in -is (cf . 
p. 34, footnote): as, R5mae, at Rome; Athenis, at Athens. 

d* The genitive plural is sometimes found in -um instead of -anun, espe- 
cially in Greek patronymics, as, Aeneadum, sons of JEneas, and in compounds 
with -cSla and -gSna, signifying dwelling and descent : as, caelicolum, celes- 
tials ; Troiugenum, sons of Troy ; so also in the Greek nouns amphora and 

ۥ The dative and ablative plural of dea, goddess, fHia, daughter, end in 
an older form -abus (deabus, filiabus) to distinguish them from the corre- 
sponding cases of deus, god, and filius, son (dels, filiis). So rarely with other 
words, as, liberta, freed-woman ; mula, she-mvle ; equa, mare. But, except 
when the two sexes are mentioned together (as in formulas, documents, 
etc.), the form in -is is preferred in all but dea and fHia. 

NoTB 1. — The old ending of the ablative singular (-ftd) is sometimes retained in 
early Latin: as, praidad, booty (later, praeda). 

NoTB 2. — In the dative and ablative plural -eis for -is is sometimes found, and -lis 
(as in taeniis) is occasionally contracted to -is (taenis) ; so regularly in words in -iUa (as, 
BiUs from siiae). 

Greek Nouns of the First Declension 

44. Many nouns of the First Declension borrowed from the 
Greek are entirely Latinized (as, aula, court) ; but othera retain 
traces of their Greek case-forms in the singular. 

Electra, F. 

NoM. Electra (-S) 

Gen. Electrae 

Dat. Electrae 

Ace. Electram (-ftn) 

Abl. ElectriL 

Andromache, f. 

NoM. AndromachS (-a) 

Gen. AndromachSa (-ae) 

Dat. Andrbmachae 

Ace. AndromachSn (-am) 

Abl. Andromache (-a) 

Voc. Andromache (-a) 

synopsis, f. 






^neas, M. 

Aenean (-am) 
Aenea (-a) 

art of music, F. 

musica (-e) 
musicae (-es) 
musicam (-en) 
musica (-e) 

Persian, M. 

Perses (-a) 
Pers6n (-am) 
Perse (-a) 


Anchises, M. 

son of^neas, M. 

comet, M. 



AeneadSa (-a) 

comStSs (-a) 










AnchisSn (-am) 


comStto (-am) 


AnchisS (-£) 

Aeneade (-ft) 

cometft (-^) 


AnchisS (-ft, -a) 

AeneadS (-a) 


There are (besides proper names) about thirty-five of these words, several being 
names of plants or arts: as, crambS, cabbage; musics, music. Most have also regnlai 
Latin forms : as, comSta ; bat the nominative sometimes has the a long. 

a* Greek forms are found only in the singular; the plural, -when it 
occurs, is regular : as, cometae, -&rum, etc. 

b* Many Greek nouns vary between the first, the second, and the thirl 
declensions : as, Bo5tae (genitive of Bo5tes, -is), Thuc^didas (accusative pli> 
ral of Thiictdidgs, -is). See § 52. a and § 81. 

Note. — The Greek accusative dcipiadam, from ScipiadSs, descendant of the Sdpioi' 
is found in Horace. 


45. The Stem of nouns of the Second Declension ends in 5-: 
as, viro- (stem of vir, man), servo- (stem of servus or servos, slav^}^ 
bello- (stem of bellum, war). 

a. The Nominative is formed from the stem by adding s in masculines 
and feminines, and m in neuters, the vowel 9 being weakened to il (s^ 
§§ 6. a, 46. N.i). 

hm In most nouns whose stem ends in r6- the s ig not added in the Nomi- 
native, but is lost, and e intrudes before r,^ if not already present: as> 
ager, stem agrd- ^ ; cf . puer, stem puero-. 

Exceptions : erus, hesperus, iflnipexus, moms, nttmerus, taurus, amems, ntti^ 
virus, and many Greek nouns. 

c. The stem-vowel 6 has a variant form g,* which is preserved in tfe 
Latin vocative singular of nouns in -us : as, servS, vocative of seryua, s/a'^ 

Note. —In composition this » appears as I. Thus, — belli-ger, warlike (from bcU«/r 
stem of bellum, war). 

46. Nouns of the Second Declension in -us (-os) and -um (-on! 
are thus declined : — 

1 Compare the English chamber from French chambre. 

« Compare Greek dypSs, which shows the original o of the stem. 

8 Bj so-called Ablaut (see § 17. a). 

§ 46, 47] 



servus, M., slave 

bellum, N., war 

PompSius, M., Pompey 


' / Stem servo- 

Stem bello- 

Stem Pomp^io- 







servus (-os) 

-US (-OS) 

















servum (-cm) 

-um (-om) 















Pompgl (-ei) 
































Note 1. — The earlier forms for nominative and accusative were -os, -om, and these 
rere always retained after u and v up to the end of the Republic. The terminations 
and m are sometimes omitted in inscriptions : as, ComSlio for ComSlios, CornSUom. 

Note 2. — Stems in quo-, like equo-, change qu to c before u. Thus, — ecus (earlier 
luos) , equi, equ'd, ecum (earlier equom) , eque. Modem editions disregard this principle. 

47. Nouns of the Second Declension in -er and -ir are thus de- 

lined :- 


puer, M., boy 

ager, ^i., field 

vir, M., man 

Stem puero- 

Stem agro- 

Stem viro- 



















































Note. — When e belongs to the stem, as in puer, it is retained throughout; othei^ 
ivise it appears only in the nominative and vocative singular, as in ager. 


Gender in the Second Declension 

48. Nouns ending in -us (-os), -er, -ir, are Masculine ; those end 
ing in -um (-on) are Neuter. 

Exceptions: Names of countries and towns in -ns (-os) are Feminine: asj 
Aegyptas, Corinthus. Also many names of plants and gems, with the following; 
alvus, belly; carbasus, linen (pi. carbasa, saiUj n.) ; colas, distaff; humus, groud, 
vamius, winnowinjg-ahcyod. 

Many Greek nouns retain their original gender : as, arctus (f.), the Polar Bm^ 
methodus (f.), method. 

a. The following in -us are Neuter ; their accusative (as with all neutera 
is the same as the nominative : pelagus, sea ; yirus, poison ; yulgus (rareii 
M.), the crowd. They are aot found in the plural, except pelagus, which btj 
a rare nominative and accusative plural pelage. 

Note. — The nominative plural neuter c6tC, sea monsters , occurs; the nominatit 
singular cStus occurs in Yitruvius. 

Case-Forms in the Second Declension 

49. a* The Locative form of this declension ends for the singular in 
as, humi, on the ground; Corinthi, at Corinth; for the plural, in -Is: ^ 
Philippis, at Philippi (cf. p. 34, footnote). 

\. h. The genitive of nouns in -ius or -ium ended, until the Augustan A? 
in a single -i : as, fill, of a son ; Pompei, of Pompey (Pomplius) ; but tb( 
accent of the nominative is retained: as, ingS'ni, of genius.^ 

c. Proper names in -ius have -i in the vocative, retaining the accent o 
the nominative : as, Verglli. So adso, filius, son ; genius, divine guardian : ^ 
audi, mi fili, hear, my son. 

Adjectives in -ius form the vocative in -ie, and some of these are occ* 
si on ally used as nouns : as, Lacedaemonie, Spartan. | 

Note. — Greek names in -ius have the vocative -ie : as, Lyrdos, vocative Lyrcie. 

d» The genitive plural often has -um or (after v) -om (cf. § 6. a) instfi^ 
of -5rum, especially in the poets : as, deum, superum, divom, of the go^' 
yirum, of men. Also in compounds of vir, and in many words of money 
measure, and weight : as, Seyirum, of the Seviri ; nummum, of coins ; iugewH 
of acres. 

e. The original ending of the ablative singular (-5d) is sometimes fonn^ 
in early Latin : as, Gnaiy5d (later, Gnaeo), Cneius. 

/• Proper names in -aius, -eius, -^ius (as, AurunculSius, Bdi), are declii^ 
like Pomplius. 

1 The genitive in -11 occurs once in Virgil, and constantly in Ovid, but was probabl: 
unknown to Cicero. 

5§ 49-62] 



g* Deus (m.), god, is thus declined: — 


NoM. deu8 

Gen. del 

Dat. de5 

Ace. deum 

Abl. ded 


del (dil), dl 
dedmin, demn 
dels (dils), dis 
delB(dils), diB 

NoTB. — The vocative singular of deus does not occur in classic Latin, but is said 
3 have been dee ; deus (like the nominative) occurs in the Vulgate. For the genitive 
ilural, divum or divom (from divus, divine) is often used. 

50. The following stems in ero-, in which e belongs to the stem, 
etain the e throughout and are declined Uke puer (§ 47) : — 

adulter, adulterer; gener, aon-iri-law; puer, boy ; 

socer, faiker-ivAaw ; vesper, emeniTig ; Liber, Bacckua. 

Also, the adjective liber, free, of which libeii, chUdren, is the plural (§ 111. a), 
ind compounds in -fer and -ger (stem fero-, gero-) : as, Ificifer, morning star ; 
inniger, squire. 

a. An old nominative socerus occurs. So vocative puere, hoy, as if from 
•puerus (regularly puer). 

h» Vir, man, has genitive viri ; the adjective satur, sated, has saturi ; vea- 
>er, evening, has ablative yespere (locative vesperi, in ike evening), 

c. Mulciber, Vulcan, has -beri and -bri in the genitive. The barbaric 
lames Hiber and Celtiber retain e throughout. 

51. The following, not having e in the stem, insert it in the 
lominative singular and are declined like ager (§ 47) : — 

ager, .^(2, stem agro- ; coluber, 8naA;e; magister, master; 

aper, hoar; 
arbiter, judge ; 
auster, south wind ; 
cancer, crab; 
caper, goat; 

conger, sea eel ; 
culter, knife; 
faber, smith; 
liber, heaver; 
liber, hook; 

minister, servavJt; 
oleaster, wHd olive ; 
onager (-grus), wild ass; 
scomber (-bros), mackerel. 

Greek Nouns of the Second Declension 

52. Greek nouns of the Second Deplension end in -os, -<J8, mas- 
culine or feminine, and in -on neuter. 

They are mostly proper names and are declined as follows in 
the Singular, the Plural, when found, being regular : — 


mythos, m. 

Ath5s, M. 

Delos, F. 

lUon, K. 







Athoa (-6) 





Atho (-1) 










AthSn (-um) 

Delon (-um) 












a» Many names in -es belonging to the third declension have also a 
genitive in -i : as, Thucydides, Thucydidi (compare § 44. h). 

&• Several names in -er have also a nominative in -us : as, Teucer or 
Teucrus. The name PanthQs has the vocative Panthfl (§81. 8). 

c. The genitive plural of certain titles of books takes the Greek ter- 
mination -5n : as, Georgicdn, of the Georgics. 

d» The termination -oe (for Greek -oi) is sometimes found in the nomi- 
native plural : as, Adelphoe, the Adelphi (a play of Terence). 

e. Greek names in -eus (like Orpheus) have forms of the second and 
third declensions (see § 82). 


53. Nouns of the Third Declension end in a, e, i, S, y, c, 1, n, 
r, 8, t, X. 

54. Stems of the Third Declension are classed as follows : — 

r a. Mute stems. 

I. Consonant Stems -i , ▼ • -j j xt i i. 

[ &. Liquid and Nasal stems. 

' a. Pure i-stems. 

h. Mixed i-stems. 

II. I-Stems ■ 

55. The Nominative is always derived from the stem. 
The variety in form in the Nominative is due to simple modi- 
fications of the stem, of which the most important are — 

1. Combination of final consonants : as of c (or g) and s to form z ; dm 
duels, stem duo-; rex, regis, stem rSg-. 

2. Omission of a final consonant : as of a final nasal ; leo, leonis, stem 
Icon-; 5ratio, oratiSnis, stem oration-. 

3. Omission of a final vowel : as of final 1 ; calcar, calcaris, stem calcari-. 

4. Change of vowel in the final syllable : as of a to e ; princeps (for -c*ps} 
principis, stem princip- (for -cap-). 



Consonant Stems 

Mute Steins 

56. Masculine and Feminine Nouns with mute stems form the 
ominative by adding s to the stem. 

A labial (p) is retained before s : as, princep-s. 

A lingual (t, d) is dropped before s : as, miles (stem milit-), cust5s (stem 

A palatal (c, g) unites with s to form x : as, dux (for fduc-s), rex (for 

€M,* In dissyllabic stems the final syllable often shows e in the nomina- 
ve and 1 in the stem : as, princeps, stem princip- (for -cap-). 

57. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 

princeps, c, chief 

radix, f., root 

miles, M., soldier 

Stbm princip- 

Stem radic- 


Stem milit- 





















































custos, c, guard 

dux, c, leader 

rex, M., king 

Stem custod- 

Stem duc- 

Stem rSg- 































[§§ 67^ 



























€U In like manner are declined — 

ariSs, -etis (m.), ram; comes, -itis (c), companion; lapis, -idis (m.), stone: 
iudez, -icis {m.)^ judge; corniz, -ids (f.), raven^ and many other nouns. 

58. Most mute stems are Masculine or Feminine. Those that 
are neuter have for the Nominative the simple stem. But, — 

a* Lingual Stems (t, d) ending in two consonants drop the final inut«: 
as, cor (stem cord-), lac (stem lact-). So also stems in &t- from the Greek: 
as, poCma (stem poCmat-). 

b» The stem capit- shows tt in the nominative (caput for fcapot). 

59. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 


:or, N., h^eari 

caput, N., head 

poema, n., poem 

Stem cord- 

Stem capit- 


Stem poSmat- 



















































60. The following irregularities require notice i — 
a* Greek neuters with nominative singular in -a (as poema) frequentlj 
end in -is in the dative and ablative plural, and rarely in -drum in the geni* 
tive plural ; as, poematis (for poematibus), poemat5rum (for poematum). 

b» A number of monosyllabic nouns with mute stems want the geni' 
tive plural (like cor). See § 103. ^. 2. 



Liquid and Nasal Stems (/; n, r) 

61, In Masculine and Feminine nouns with liquid and nasal 
)ins the Nominative is the same as the stem. 
Exceptions are the following : — 

1. Stems in on- drop n in the nominative : as in legi5, stem legion-. 

2. Steins in din- and gin- drop n and keep an original o in the nominative : as 
virgd, stem virgin-.^ 

B. Stems in in- (not din- or gin-) retain n and have e instead of i in the nom- 
Ltive : as in comicen, stem comicin-.^ 
4. Stems in tr- have -ter in the nominative : as, pater, stem patr-.^ 

62. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 

cQnsul, M., consvZ leo, m., lion virgo, f., maiden pater, u., father 
Stbm consul- Stbm ledn- Stem virgin- Stem patr- 























virgin em 







































Note 1. — Stems in H-, rr- (n.) lose one of their liquids in the nominative: as, far, 
arris ; mel, mellis. 

Note 2. — A few masculine and feminine stems have a nominative in -s as well as 
in -r : as, honSs or honor, arbds or art>or. 

Note 3. — Canis, dog^ and luvenis, youth, have -is in the nominative. 

^ These differences dex)end in part upon special phonetic laws, in accordance with 
which vowels in weakly accented or unaccented syllables are variously modified, and 
in part upon the influence of analogy. 

^ These, no doubt, had originally ter- inthe stem, but this had become weakened 
to tr- in some of the cases even in the parent speech. In Latin only the nominative and 
vocative singular show the e. But cf. Maspitris and Maspiteris (Ma[r]8-piter), quoted by 
Priscian as old forms. 



[§§ 63^6 

63. In Neuter nouns with liquid or nasal stems the Nominar 
tive is the same as the stem. 

Exc^tioTM : 1. Stems in in- have e instead of i in the nominative : as is 
nomen, stem nomin-. 

2. Most stems in er- and or- have -us in the nominative : as, genus, stem gener-.^ 

64. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 

nomen, n., name genua, n., race corpus, v., body aequor, n., sea 
Stem nomin- Stem gener- Stem corpor- Stem aequor- 





















































So also are declined opus, -eris, work; pignus, -eris or -oris, pledge, etc. 


Note. — The following real or apparent liquid and nasal stems have the genltW 
plural in -ioni, and are to be classed with the i-stems : imber, linter, iiter, Tenter ; gOs, 
mas, mus, [tr6n]; also virgs (plural ol vis: see §79). 


65. Nouns of this class include — 

1. Pure i-Stems : 

a. Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic ' nouns in -is and four in -er. 

b. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar. 

2. Mixed i-Stems, declined in the singular like consonant stemi 
in the plural like i-stems. 

1 These were originally s-stems (of. § 15. 4). 

2 I.e. haying the same number of syllables in the nominative and genitive aingnli 

§§ 66-68] 



Pure ^Sterns 

66. Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic nouns in -is form the 
Nominative singular by adding a to the stem. 

Four steins in bri- and tri- do not add s to form the nominative, but drop i 
and insert e before r. These are imbeif linter, Gter, yenter. 

67. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 

sitis, F 

., thirst 

turris, f., totoer 

Isnis, M.,flre 

imber, m., rain 

Strm siti- 

Stem turii- 

Stem igni- 

Stem imbii- 



















turrim (-em) 





turri (-e) 

igiii (-e) 

imbri (-e) 
















turris (-6s) 

Ignis (-6s) 

iiribris (-6s) 





68. In Neuters the Nominative is the same as the stem, with 
final i changed to e : as, mare, stem marl-. But most nouns ^ in 
which the i of the stem is preceded by al or fir lose the final vowel 
and shorten the preceding a : as, animfil, stem animfili-.^ 

a. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar have -i in the ablative singular, -ium in the 
genitive plural, and -ia in the nominative and accusative plural : as, animal, 
animali, -ia, -ium. 

1 Such are animal, txacchlnal, bidental, capital, cemcal, cubital, lupercal, minutal, 
puteol, quadrantal, toral, tribunal, vectlffal ; calcar, cochlear, exemplar, lacunar, laquear, 
liicar, luminar, lupanar, palear, pulvinar, torcular. Cf. the plurals dentalia, frontalia, 
sennalia, sponsalia ; alt&ria, plantajia, gpecularia, talaria ; also many names of festivals, 
as, Saturnalia. 

> Exceptions are augurale, coU&re, focale, navale, penetrale, r&nuUe, scut&to, tlbiale; 
alveare, capillire, cochle&re. 



[§§ 69-71 

69. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 

sedQe, n. , seat animal, n. , animcU calcar, n. , spur 

Stjem calcHii- 






-e or — 















-e or — 
































Mixed ^Sterns 

70. Mixed i-stems are either original i-stems that have lost theii 
i-forms in the singular, or consonant stems that have assumed i- 
forms in the plural. 

NoTB. — It is sometimes impossible to distinguish between these two classes. 

71. Mixed i-stems have -em in the accusative and -e in the abla- 
tive singular, -ium in the genitive ^ and -is or -68 in the accusative , 
plural. They include the following: — 

1. Noims in -es, gen. -is.* I 

2. Monosyllables in -« or -z preceded by a consonant : as, ars, pons, an 

3. Polysyllables in -ns or -rs : as, aliens, cohors. 

4. Nouns in -tas, genitive -talis (genitive plural usually -um) * : as, civitas. 

5. Penates, optimates, and nouns denoting birth or abode {patrials) in -as. 
-is, plural -ates, -ites : as, Arpinas, plural Arpinates ; Quiris, plural Qiiirites. 

6. The following monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a vowel : dos, 
fraus, glis, lis, mas, mus, nix, nox, strix, vis. 

1 There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having 
-ium, some -um, and some both. 

3 These are acinacgs, aedSs, alcSs, caedSs, cautSs, cl&dSs, comp&g6s, contiLc^s, famSs, 
fSlSs, fid68 (plural), indolfis, UbSs, luSs, mSlSs, mdlSs, nabSs, palumbSs, prSlis, propigH. 
pubSs, sSdes, saepSs, sordSs, str&gSs, straSs, subolCs, tIbSs, torqnSs, tudfis, v&tGa, veliH 
▼eprgs, verrgs, vnlpCs ; aedSs has also nominative aedis. 

§§ 72-76] 



72. Nouns of this class are thus declined : 



ibgs, p., doud 
Stbh nab(i)- 

urbs, p., dty 
Stsm urb(i)- 

noz, F., night 
Stem noct(i)- 


clifins, H., client 
Stem clieiit(i)- 

aetis, F., age 

Stbu aet&t(i). 









































clientium * 











■ noctl8(-Ss) 



Summary of ^Stems 

73. The i-declension was confused even to the Romans themselves, nor was it stable 
at all periods of the language, early Latin having i-forms which afterwards disap- 
peared. There was a tendency in nouns to lose the i-forms, in adjectives to gain them. 
The nominative plural (-Is) ^ was most thoroughly lost, next the accusative singular 
(-im), next the ablative (-i) ; while the genitive and accusative plural (-ium, -is) were 
retained in almost all. 

74. I-stems show the i of the stem in the following forms : — 

a. They have the genitive plural in -ium (but some monosyllables lack 
it entirely). For a few exceptions, see § 78. 

b. All neuters have the nominative and accusative plural in -ia. 
€?. The accusative plural (m. or f.) is regularly -is. 

d. The accusative singular (m. or f.) of a few ends in -im (§ 75). 
e» The ablative singular of aH neuters, and of many masculines and 
feminines, ends in -i (see § 76). 

75. The regular case-ending of the Accusative singular of i- 
stems (M. or f.) would be -im : as, sitis, sitim (cf . stella, -am ; servus, 
-um); but in most nouns this is changed to -em (following the 

consonant declension). 

1 Rarely clientum. 2 Also aetatium. Cf. § 71. 4. 

» An old, though not the original, ending (see p. 32, footnote 2).. 


a* The accusative in -im is found exclusively — 

1. In Greek nouns and in names of rivers. 

2. In buris, cucumis, rilvis, sitis, tassis, vis. 

3. In adverbs in -tim (being accusative of nouns in -tis), as, partim ; and in 

&• The accusative in -im is found sometimes in febris, puppis, restis, 
turris, securis, sementis, and rarely in many other words. 

76. The regular form of the Ablative singular of i-stems would 
be -i : as, sitis, siti ; but in most nouns this is changed to -e. 

a. The ablative in -i is found exclusively — 

1. In nouns having the accusative in -Im (§ 75) ; also seciiris. 

2. In the following adjectives used as nouns : aequalis, annAlis, aqualis, cost 
salads, gentOis, moUiis, primipilaris, tribiilis. 

8. In neuters in -e, -al, -ar : except baccar, iubar, rete, and sometimes mare. 

h. The ablative in -i is found sometimes — 

1. In avis, cl&vis, febris, finis, ignis, ^ imber, Iflz, n&vls, ovis, pelvis, puppifli 
sementis, strigilis, turns, and occasionally in other words. 

2. In the following adjectives used as nouns : affinis, bipennis, canaUs, famili- 
aris, natalis, rivalis, 8api§ns, tridens, trirSmis, vocalis. 

Note 1. — The ablative of famSs is always famS (§ 105. e) . The defective mine hAS 
sometimes man! (§ 103. 6. n.) as ablative. 

Note 2. — Most names of towns in ^ (as, Praeneste, Tergeste) and SSiacte, a moun- 
tain, have the ablative in -e. Caere has CaerSte. 

Note 3. — Canis and ^uvenls have cane^ iuvene. 

77. The regular Nominative plural of instems is -Cs,^ but -is is \ 
occasionally found. The regular Accusative plural -is is common, 
but not exclusively used in any word. An old form for bothi 
cases is -Ss (diphthong). 

78. The following have -um (not -ium) in the genitive plural: 

1. Always, — canis, iuvenis,^ ambages, mare (once only, otherwise want- 
ing), Yolucris ; regularly, sSdes, vates. 

2. Sometimes, — apis, caedes, clades, mensis, strues, subolSs. 

3. Very rarely, — patrials in -as, -atis; -is, -itis; as, Arpinas, ArpinAtoin; 
Samius, Samnitttm. 

1 Always in the formula aqui et igni Interdici (§ 401). 

2 The Indo-European ending of the nominative plural, -88 (preserved in Greek in 
consonant stems, as 6pTv^t 6pTvy-€s)i contracts with a stem-vowel and gives -€8 in the 
Latin i-declension (of. the Greek plural fcts). This *€8 was extended to consonant 
stems in Latin. 8 canis and invenis are really n-stems. 




Inegular Nouns of the Third Declension 

79. In many nouns the stem is irregularly modified in the nomi- 
native or other cases. Some peculiar forms are thus declined : — 

b5s, c. 

senex, m. 

card, p. 

08, K. 

tIb, f. 

ox, cow 

old man 
















vis (rare) 






vl (rare) 





























bobuB (bubus) 










virifa (-is) 


bobus (bubus) 





sus, c. 



nix, F. 

iter, N. 

























































1 Also Jupiter. 


a* Two vowel-stems in u-, gru- and su-, which follow the third declension, 
add s in the nominative, and are inflected like mute stems : grvLs has also 
a nominative gruis ; sus has both suibus and subus in the dative and ablative 
plural, grus has only gniibus. 

b* In the stem boy- (boa-) the diphthong ou becomes 5 in the nominative 
(bos, bSvis). 

In nay- (naa-) an 1 is added (nayis, -is), and it is declined like torris (§ 67). 

In My- (= Zevs) the diphthong (on) becomes u in lu-piter (for -piter), 
genitive ISvis, etc. ; but the form luppiter is preferred. 

Cm In iter, itineris (n.), iecur, iecinoris (iecoris) (k.), supellex, supellectilis 
(f.), the nominative has been formed from a shorter stem ; in senez, sem 
from a longer ; so that these words show a combination of forms from two 
distinct stems. 

d» In nix, niyis the nominative retains a g from the original stem, the g 
uniting with s, the nominative ending, to form z. In the other cases the 
stem assumes the form niy- and it adds i in the genitive plural. 

€• Vas (n.), yasis, keeps s throughout ; plural yasa, yasdrum. A dativ« 
plural yasibus also occurs. There is a rare singular yftsum. 

The Locatiye Case 

80. The Locative form for nouns of the third declension ends 
in the singular in -i or -e, in the plural in -ibus: as, ruii, in th 
country; Carthagim or Carthfigine, at Carthage; Tndlibus, at Tralltt} 

Greek Nouns of the Third Declension 

81. Many nouns originally Greek — mostly proper names — 
retain Greek forms of inflection. So especially — 

1. Genitive singular in -os, as, tigridos. 

2. Accusative singular in -a, as, aethera. 

3. Vocative singular like the- stem, as, Pericl§, Orphan, Ati&. 

4. Nominative plural in -£s, as, heroes. 

5. Accusative plural in -&s, as, her5&s. 

1 The Indo-European locative singular ended in -I, which became -8 in Latin. Thtf 
the Latin ablative in -e is, historically considered, a locative. The Latin ablative ii 
-i (from -id) was an analogical formation (cf . -a from -*d, -5 from -od), properly belong 
ing to i-stems. With names of towns and a few other words, a locative function ^ 
ascribed to forms in -i (as, Cartfailgini), partly on the analogy of the real locative <^ 
o-stems (as, Connthi, § 49. a) ; but forms in -S also survived in this use. The ploi* 
-bus is properly dative or ablative, but in forms like TralUbus it has a locative tnit 
tion. Gf . PhiUppls (§ 49. a), in which the ending -is is, historically considered, eitbti 
locative, or instrumental, or both, and Athfinis (§ 43. c), in which the ending is form^ 
on the analogy of o-stems. 

i2, 83] 



92. Some of these forms are seen in the following examples : — 

hgros, M.y hero lampas, f., torch basis, f., base tigils, c, tiger nais, f., naiad 

Stum hero- 

Stem lampad- 

f SxEMbasi- 

Stem 1 ^^' Stem nlid- 





tigris nais 





tigris(-idos) naidos 





tigii naidl 





tigrixi(-ida) naida 





tigTl(-ide) naide 





tigrSs nftidSs 




ba8iam(-e5n) tigrium naidtun 





tigribus nS.idibus 





tigrls(-id&s) n&id&s 

Proper Names 







































T> • 1 / « X fParidem, 
Penclem(-ea,-en) ( Parim(-in) 




Paride, Pari 





NoTR.—The reguli 

\r Latin forms 

may be used for most of the above. 

83. Other peculiarities are the following : — 

a. Delphinus, -i (m.), has also the form delphin, -inis ; Salamis, -is (f.), 
as ace. Salamina. 

h. Most stems in Id- (nom. -is) often have also the forms of i-stems : as, 
gris, gen. -idis (-Idos) or -is ; ace. -Idem (-Ida) or -im (-in) ; abl. -Me or -i. 
»ut many, including most feminine proper names, have ace. -idem (-ida)} 
bl. -ide, — not -im or -L (These stems are irregular also in Greek.) 

1 Datiye, hSrSisin (once only). 


c« stems in oiir sometimes retain -n in the nominatiye : as, Agaa 
non (or Agamemnd), genitive -5nis, accusative -Sna. 

d. Stems in ont- form the nominative in -dn: as, horizSn, Xenopld 
but a few are occasionally Latinized into 5n- (nom. -5) : as, Draco, -oi 
AntiphO, -Qnis. 

6* Like Simois are declined stems in ant-, ent-, and a few in unt- (nci 
native in -as, -Is, -us) : as, Atlas, -antis ; Trapezus, -untis. 

/• Some words fluctuate between different declensions : as Orpheus 
tween the second and the third. 

g» -fin is found in the genitive plural in a few Greek titles of books: 
Metamorphdseon, of the Metamorphoses (Ovid's well-known poem); GeSrgk 
of the Georgics (a poem of Virgil). 

Gender in the Third Declension 

84. The Gender of nouns of this declension must be leam 
by practice and from the Lexicon. Many are masculine or fe: 
nine by nature or in accordance with the general rules for gt 
der (p. 15). The most important rules for the others, with th 
principal exceptions, are the following : — ^ 

85. Masculine are nouns in -or, -58, -er, -Ss (gen. -itis), -ex (ge 
-ids): as, color, flOs, imber, gorges (gurgitis), vertex (verticis). 

Exceptions are the following : — 

a. Feminine are arbor ; c5s, dds ; linter. 

b. Neuter are ador, aequor, cor, marmor ; 5s (oris) ; also os (ossis) ; 
cadaver, iter, tuber, uber, ver; and names of plants and trees in -er: 

acer, papaver. 

86. Feminine are nouns in -6, -Ss, -6s, -is, -us, -x, and in -s precei 
by a consonant : as, legi5, civitas, nub5s, avis, virtus, aix, urbs. T! 
nouns in -5 are mostly those in -d5 and -g5, and abstract and collfi 
tive nouns in -i5. 

Exceptions are the following : — 

a. Masculine are leo, leonis ; ligo, 5nis ; serm5, -5nis ; also card5, harpaj 
margo, ord5, turbo ; and concrete nouns in -id : as, pugi5, unio, papiliS ; ' 
acinaces, aries, celes, lebes, paries, pes ; 

1 Some nouns of donbtful or variable gender are omitted. 

3 Many noons in -5 (gen. -5nis) are masculine by signification : as, ser5, carrii 
restio, ropemaker; and family names (originally nicknames): as, Cicerd, Naso. S 
§§236. c, 255. 




Koims in -nis and -^nis : as, ignis, sanguis ; also axis, caulis, collis, cucumis, 

iis, fascis, f ollis, fustis, lapis, mensis, orbis, piscis, postis, pulyis, yOmis ; 


calix, fornix, grex, phoenix, and nouns in -ex (gen. -ids) (§ 85); 

dens, fons, mons, pons. ^ 

Note. — Some nouns in -is and -ns which are masculine were originally adjectlTea 
participles agreeing with a masculine noun: af, Aprills (sc. mSnsis), m., April; 
ins (sc. sol), M., t?ie east; ann&lis (sc. liber), m., t?ie year-book. 

b. Neuter are vas (vasis) ; cms, iiis, piis, riis, tus. 

B7. Neuter are nouns in -a, -e, -1, -n, -ar, -ur, -iis : as, poSma, mare, 
inal, nOmen, calcar, rObur, corpus ; also lac and caput. 
Exceptions are the following : — 

a. Masculine are sal, sol, pecten, yultur, lepus. 
&. Feminine is pecus (gen. -udis). 



88. The Stem of nouns of the Fourth Declension ends in u-. 
lis is usually weakened ta.i before -bus. Masculine and Femi- 
le nouns form the nominative by adding a; Neuters have for 
minative the simple stem, but with ti (long). 

89. Nouns of the Fourth Declension are declined as follows : 

anus, F., Jiand 

Lacus, M., lake 

genii, n., knee 

Strm manu- 

Stem lacu- 


Stem genu- 



u. manus 





N. manus 





T. manui(-1i) 





c. manxmi 





L. manu 





M. mantis 





N. manuum 





T. manibuB 





c. man08 





L. manibuB 






Gender in the Fourth Declension 

90. Most nouns of the Fourth Declension in -us are Masculine 

JSxceptiora : The following are Feminine : acus, anus, colus, domiis, Idas (plural) 
manus, nuras, porticas, qumqu&trus (plural), socroSf tribus, with a few names o 
plants and trees. Also, rarely, penus, specus. 

91. The only Neuters of the Fourth Declension are comii, 
peca (§ 105./), veru.^ 

Case-Forms in the Fourth Declension 

92. The following peculiarities in case-forms of the FourtI 
Declension require notice : — 

«• A genitive singular in -i (as of the second declension) sometiinB 
occurs in nouns in -tus : as, senatus, genitive senati (regularly senatus). 

6. In the genitive plural -uum is sometimes pronounced as one syll* 
ble, and may then be written -um : as, currum (Aen. vi. 653) for curruuffl' 

Cm The dative and ablative plural in -iibus are retained in partus as 
tribus ; so regularly in artus and lacus, and occasionally in other word 
portus and specus have both -ubus and -ibus. 

<!• Most names of plants and trees, and colus, distaff, have also forms 
the second declension : as, ficus, Jigy genitive ficiis or fici. 

6. An old genitive singular in -uis or -uos and an old genitive plural 
-uom occur rarely : as, senatuis, fienatuos ; fluctuom. 
• /. The ablative singular ended anciently in -iid (cf . § 43. n. 1) : ^ 

93. Domus (F.), houae^ has two stems ending in u- and o-. Henfl 
it shows forms of both the fourth and second declensions : 







domtls (domi, loc.) 

domuum (domdnun) 


domui (domo) 




domos (domfls) 


domo (domii) 


Note 1. — The Locative is domi (rarely domui), at home. 

Note 2. — The Grenitive domi occurs io Plautus ; domorum is late or poetic. 

1 A few other neuters of this declension are mentioned by the ancient grammari^ 
as occurring in certain cases. 

§§ 94-96] 



94. Most nouns of the Fourth Declension^are formed from 
verb-stems, or roots, by means of the suflSx -tus (-sua) (§238. b) : 

canttts, song^ can, cano, sing; cAsas (for tcad-tas), cJuincej gad, cad5, faU; 
ezsolatus, exUey from exsolo, to he an exUe (ezsul). 

a. Many are formed either from verb-stems not in use, or by analogy : 
consal&ttts (as if from tconsulo, -£re), senAtas, incestas. 

6* The accusative and the dative or ablative of nouns in -tus (-bus) form 
the Supines of verbs (§J[59. &): as, spectatum, petitum; dictu, yisu. 

c. Of many verbal derivatives only the ablative is used as a noun : as, 
iussu (me6), by (my) command; so iniussu (populi), without (the people's) order. 
Df some only th6 dative is used : as, diyisuL 


95. The Stem of nouns.of the Fifth Declension ends in €-, which 
appears in all the cases. The Nominative is formed from the stem 
by adding s. 

96. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are declined as follows : — 

res, F., thin^ 

dies, M., day 

fides, T,y faith 

Stem re- 

Stem die- 










di6i (die) 


-61 (-6) 



diei (diS) 


-61 (-6) 
































Note.— The 6 of the stem is shortened in tjie genitive and dative singular of fldSs, 
pes, rSs, but in these it is found long in early Latin. In the accusative singular e 
s always short. 


• Gender in the Fifth Declension 

97. All nouns of the Fifth Declension are Feminine, except 
diige (usually M.),' day^ and meridiSs (M.), noon. 

a. Dies is sometimes feminine in the singular, especially in phrases indi- 
cating a fixed time, and regularly feminine when used of time in general: 
as, c5nstitata die, on a set day; longa diSs, a long time, 

Case-Forms in the Fifth Declension 

98. The following peculiarities require notice : — 

a» Of nouns of the fifth declension, only dies and res are declined througb- 
out. Most want the plural, which is, however, found in the nominative or 
accusative in acies, effigies, eluyies, facies, glacies, series, species, spes.^ 

h. The Locative form of this declension ends in -6. It is found only i- 
certain adverbs and expressions of time : — 

hodiS, to-day; di§ quart5'(old, quart!) , the fourth day; 

petendii, day after to-morrow ; pi!di8, the day before. 

ۥ The fifth declension is closely related to the first, and several nouQJ 
have forms of both : as, materia, -ies ; saevitia, -iSs. - The genitive and dative 
in -ei are rarely found in these words. 

d. Some nouns vary between the fifth and the third declension : as 
requies, saties (also satias, genitive -atis), plebes (also plebs, genitive plebis' 
fames, genitive famis, ablative fame. 

NoTK. — In the genitive and dative -€i (-81) was sometimes contracted into ^^• 
as, trlbunns pl5b^, tribune of the people (plebes) . Genitives in -i and -€ also occur 
as, dii (Aen. i. 636), plgbi-scitum, aciS (B. G. ii. 23). A few examples of the old gen^ 
tive in -es are found (of. -as in the first declension, § 43. 6). The dative has rarely-^ 
and a form in -i is cited. 

Nouns wanting in the Plural 

99. Some nouns are ordinarily found in the Singular numbet 
only {singuldria tantum). These are — 

1. Most proper names: as, Caesar, Ccesar; Gallia, Gaul, 

2. Names of things not counted, but reckoned in mass : as, aurum, goli 
aer, air; triticmn, wheat, 

3. Abstract nouns : as, ambitio, ambition; fortitiidd, courage; calor, heoi 

1 The forms faciSnun, speciSrum, specifibus, sperum, spSbus, are cited by grammariaB 
also spirts, spSribtts, and some of these occur in late authors. 



100. Many of these nouns, howeyer, are use*^ 
some other sense. 

a. The plural of a proper name may be applied to t 
or places, or even things, and so become strictly commo 

duadecim CaeaaiBa, the tivetve CcBsara. 

GaJIiae, the tioo Gavin (Cis- and Transalpine). 

CastoiBs, Castor and Poliwi^ ; lorSa, image* t^ Jupiter. 

b. The plural of names of things reckoned in maas mi 
objects: as, aera, bronze ulentUs, nires, tnotaflokei ; or differ 
as, aetEs, airt (good and bad). 

c. The plural of abstract nouns denotes occoixom or tW. 
or the like: — 

qoaeOam ezceUentlae, some case* of tuperioritj/ ; otU, p& 
ftfgon, Umea ofheat and cold. 

Nouns wanting In the SlngnUr 

101. Some nouns are commonly or exclusive 
Plural (plurdlia tatUum). Such are — 

1. Many Damea of towns : &a,Athena.e (^A then*), Tbui 

2. Names of festivals and games; as, Olympia, lie Oiyn 
nilla, /foirt of Bacchvt; Qulnquitras, /««(iu<i/ of Minervi 
Roman Games, 

3. Names of classes : as, optlmltfa, tie upper clanut; 
iibeii, ckUdren; penates, household god*; Qniiitas, citizent 

i. Words plural by signification: as, arma, weapons; 
Hae, ricket; acAlae, stairs; vslvae, folding-doori ; fores, dou. 
i narrow pass (narrows); moeni*, dt]/ mails. 

Note 1. — Some words, plural by signification In Latin, are 
nauas in tbe singular number : aa, dilieiaa, delighl, darling; fau 
(also singular in poetry) ; lasiiiae, amimsk ; cenlctt, neck ; vls: 

Note 2. — The poets often use the plural number foe the si 
metrical reasons, sometimes from a mere fashion : as, Sr> (for it) 
Keptnun), sceptre; Gilentia (for ailenWiim), aSence. 

108. Some nouns of the above classes (§101.1 
spending singular, as noun or adjective, often in 

1. As noun, to denote a single object: as, Bacchan 
Bacchus; optimas, an aristocrat, 

2. As adjective : as, Cato Maiot, Cato the Elder. 

3. In a aense rare, or found only in early Latin: 
valta, a door; artuB, a Joint. 


Nouns Defective in Certain Cases 

103. Many nouns are defective in case-forms : ^ — 

a. Indeclinable nouns, used only as nominative and accusative singular: 

fas, nefas, instar, nihil, opus (need)f secns. 

NoTB 1. — The indeclinable adjective necesse is nsed as a nominative or accasative. 
Note 2. — The genitive nihil! and the ablative nihilo (from nihllum, nothing) occur. 

b* Nouns found in one case only (monoptotes) : — 

1. In the nominative singular: glSs (f.). 

2. In the genitive singular : dicis, nauci (k.). 

3. In the dative singular : divisui (m.) (cf. § 04. c). 

4. In the accusative singular : amussim (m.) ; rSnum (dative vend in Tacitus). 

5. In the ablative singular: pondd (k.) ; m&ne (n.) ; astu (m.), by craft; iussu, 
ininssfi, n&tfi, and many other verbal nouns in -as (m.) (§ 04. c). 

Note. — M&ne is also used as an indeclinable accusative, and an old form man! is 
nsed as ablative. Pond5 with a numeral is often apparently equivalent to pounds, A 
nominative singular astus and a plural astiia occur rarely in later writers. 

6. In the accusative plural : tnfitifts. 

€• Nouns found in two cases only (diptotes): — 

1. In the nominative and ablative singular : fors, forte (f.). 

2. In the genitive and ablative singular : spontis (rare), sponte (f.). 

3. In the accusative singular and plural : dicam, dicas (f.). 

4. In the accusative and ablative plural: foras, foils (f.) (cf. fores), used ^ 

d» Nouns found in three cases only (triptotes) : — 

1. In the nominative, accusative, and ablative singular : impetus, -um, -fi (m.)^: 
lues, -em, -€ (f.). 

2. In the nominative, accusative, and dative or ablative plural : gratSs, -ibas (f). 

3. In the nominative, genitive, and dative or ablative plural : itigeia, Mim, -ibus 
(n.) ; but iagerom, etc., in the singular (of. § 105. b). 

€m Nouns found in four cases only (tetraptotes) : — 

In the genitive, dative, accusative, ablative singular: diciSnis, -i, -em, -e (f.)- 

/. Nouns declined regularly in the plural, but defective in the singular : — 

1. Nouns found in the singular, in genitive, dative, accusative, ablative: frugis 
-i, -em, -e (f.) ; opis, -i (once only), -em, -e (f. ; nominative Ops as a divinity). 

2. Nouns found in the dative, accusative, ablative: preci, -em, -e (f.). 

3. Nouns found in the accusative and ablative : cassem, -e (f.) ; sordem, -e (t.) 

4. Nouns found in the ablative only : ambage (f.) ; fauce (f.) ; obice (c). 

gr» Nouns regular in the singular, defective in the plural : — 

1 Some early or late forms and other rarities are omitted. 

3 The dative singular impetul and the ablative plural impetibus occur once eacb. 

§§103-105] VARIABLE NOUNS 48 

1. The following neuters have in the plural the nominative and accusatiye 
only : fel (fella), far (faira), hordeum (hordea), ius, broth (iura), mel (mella), mannar 
(murmuia), pus (pura), rus (rura), tus or thus (tora). 

Note. — The neater ius, right y has only iura in classical writers, but a very rare geni- 
tive plural iumm occurs in old Latin. 

2. calx, cor, cos, crux, fax, faex, lanx, Ifix, nex, os (Sris),^ os (ossis),' pflx, pix, 
r5s, sal, sol, vas (vadis), want the genitive plural. 

3. Most nouns of the fifth declension want the whole or part of the plural 
(see § 98. a). 

h* Nouns defective in both singular and plural : — 

1. Noun found in the genitive, accusative, ablative singular; nominative, 
accusative, dative, ablative plural: vicis, -em, -e; -es, -ibus. 

2. Noun found in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular; 
genitive plural wanting: dapis, -i, -em, -e; -es, -ibus.^ 


104. Many nouns vary either in Declension or in Gender. 

105. Nouns that vary in Declension are called hetero elites.^ 

a. Colus (p.), distaff; domus (p.), house (see § 93), and many names 
of plants in -us, vary between the Second and Fourth Declensions. 

6. Some nouns vary between the Second and Third : as, idgerum, -i, -o, 
ablative -5 or -e, plural -a, -um, -ibus ; Mulciber, genitive -beri and -beris ; 
sequester, genitive -tri and -tris ; vas, vasis, and (old) yasum, -i (§ 79. e). 

c. Some vary between the Second, Third, and Fourth : as, penus, penum, 
genitive peni and penoris, ablative penu. 

€?. Many nouns vary between the First and Fifth (see § 98. c). 

e. Some vary between the Third and Fifth. Thus, — requies has geni- 
tive -etis, dative wanting, accusative -etem or -em, ablative -e (once -ete) ; 
fames, regularly of the third declension, has ablative fame (§76. n. 1), 
and pubes (m.) has once dative piibe (in Plautus). 

/. Pecus varies between the Third and Fourth, having pecoris, etc., but 
also nominative pecii, ablative pecii; plural pecua, genitive pecuum. 

g* Many vary between different stems of the same declension : as, femur 
(n.), genitive -oris, also -inis (as from f femen) ; iecur (n.), genitive iecinoris, 
iocinoris, iecoris ; miinus (n.), plural miinera and miinia. 

1 The ablative plural 5ribu8 is rare, the classical idiom being in ore omnium, in every- 
body's mouth J etc., not in oribus omnium. , 

2 The genitive plural ossium is late ; ossuum (from ossua, plural of a neuter u-stem) 
is early and late. 

8 An old nominative daps is cited. 

* That is, "nouns of different inflections" {irepos^ anotTier^ and kKLvw, to injlect). 



[§§ 106, 107 

106. Nouns that vary in Gender are said to be heterogeneous,^ 

a. The following have a masculine form in -as and a neuter in -am : 
balteas, caseas, cUpeus, collam, cingalam, pileus, tergam, vallum, with many 
others of rare occurrence. 

h. The following have in the Plural a different gender from that of the 
Singular : — 

bakieae (f.), haiki (an establishment). 

caelos (m. ace, I^ucr.). 

carbasa (n.) (-dram), sails, 

dSliciae (f.), pet. 

epalaa (v.), feast, 

freni (m.) or frena (ir.), a bridle. 

ioca (n.), iod (m.), Jests. 

loca (n. ), loci (h. , usually topics, passages in books). 

rastri (m.), r&stra (n.), rakes. 

balneom (ir.), bath ; 
caelum (n.), heaven; 
carbasus (f.), a sail; 
dSlicium (n.), pleasure; 
epalom (ir.), feast ; 
frSnam (n.), a bit; 
iocas (m.), a jest; 
locas (m.), place; 
rastrum (n.), a rake; 

Note. — Some of these nouns are heteroclites as well as heterogeneoos. 

107. Many nouns are found in 

aedSs, -is (f.), temple; 

aqua (f.), water; 

aozilium (n.), help; 

bonam (n.), a good; 

career (m.), dungeon; 

castram (n. ) , f(yrt ; 

comitiam (n.), place of assembly ; 

copia (f.), plenty; 

fides (f.), Iiarp-string ; 

finis (m.), end; 

fortiina (f.), fortune ; 

grAtia (r.) /favor (rarely, tfianks); 

hortus (m.), a garden; 

impedimentam (n.) hindrance; 

litters (f.), letter (of alphabet) ; 

locas (m.), place [plural loca (n.)] ; 

ludas (m.), sport; 

mos (h.), habits custom; 

nAt&lis (m.), birthday; 

opera (f.), work; 

[ops,] opis (f.), help (§ IDS. /. 1) ; 

pars (p.), part; 

rostrum (n.), beak of a ship; 

sAl (A. or k.), salt; 

tabella (f.), tablet; 

the Plural in a peculiar sense: — 

aedSs, -ium, house. 

aquae, mineral springs^ a watering-place. 

aozilia, auxiliaries. 

bona, goods, property. 

carceres, barriers (of race-course). 

castra, camp. 

comitia, an election (toumr-meeting), 

copiae, stores, troops. 

fides, lyre. 

fln§s, bounds, territories. 

fortfinae, possessions. 

grAtiae, thanks (also, the Graces). 

horti, pleaswre-grounds. 

impedimenta, baggage. 

litterae, epiaUe, literature. 

loci,^ topics, places in books, 

liidi, public games, 

mores, cJiaracter. 

n&tales, descent, origin. 

operae, day-laborers ("hands"). 

op§8, resources, wealth. 

partSs, part (on the stage), party, 

rSstra, speaker* s platform. 

sales, witticisms. 

tabellae^ documents, records. 

1 That is, "of different genders'* {trepoi, another, and y4vos^ gender), 

2 In early writers the regular plural. 





108. A Roman had regularly three names: — (1) the iiraenOmen, 
or personal name ; (2) the nOmen, or name of the gen9 or house ; 
(3) the cognomen, or family name : — 

Thus in Marcus Tullius Cicero we have — 
Marcus, the piaendmen, like our Christian or given name ; 
Tullius, the ndmen, properly an adjective denoting of the TvUian g^ra (or 

house) whose original head was a real or supposed TuIUab ; 
Cicero, the c5gn6meii, or family name, often in origin a nickname, — in this 

case from cicer, a vetch, or small pea. 

Note. — When two persons of the same family are mentioned together, the eognd- 
men is usually put in the plaral : as, Publius et Senrius SaUae. 

a, A fourth or fifth name was sometimes given as a mark of honor or 
distinction, or to show adoption from another gens. 

Thus the complete name of Scipio the Younger was Publius Cornelius Scipio 
Africanus AemiliAnus: Afric&nus, from his exploits in Africa; AemiliSnus, as 
adopted from the jEmilian gSna.^ 

Note. — The Romans of the classical period had no separate name for these addi- 
tions, but later grammarians Invented the word agnomen to express them. 

b. Women had commonly in classical times no personal names, but were 
known only by the ndmen of their gSns» 

Thus, the wife of Cicero was Terentia, and his daughter Tullia. A second 
daughter would have been called Tullia secunda or minor, a third daughter, Tullia 
tertia, and so on. 

c* The commonest prsenomens are thus abbreviated : — 

A. Aulus. 

App. (Ap.) Appius. 

C. (G.) Giius (Caius) (cf. § 1. a). 
Cn. (Gn.) Gnaeus (Cneiiui). 

D. Decimus. 

K. Kaeso {Caeso). 

L. Lucius. 
M. MUrcus. 
M\ M&nius. 
Mam. MUmercus. 
N. (Num.) Numerius 
P. PabUus. 

Q. Quintus. 
Ser. Servius. 
Sex. (S.)SeztU8. 
Sp. Spurius. 
T. Titus. 
Ti. (Tib.) Tiberius. 

Note 1.- 

In the abbreviations C. and Cn., the initial character has the value of G 

1 Li stating officially the full name of a Roman it was customary to include the 
praenomina of the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, together with the name 
of the tribe to which the individual belonged. Thus in an inscription we find M. TVL- 
LIVS M, F. M. N. M. PR. COR. CICERO, i.e. Mftrcus TuUius Marci fillus Marci nepfls Marci pro- 
nepds Cornfilia tribu Cicero. The names of grandfather and great-grandfather as well as 
that of the tribe are usually omitted in literature. The name of a wife or daughter is 
usually accompanied by that of the husband or father in the genitive : as, Postumia 
Servi Sulpicii (Suet. lul. 50), Postumia, wife of Servius Sulpicius; Caecilia Metelli 
(Div. i. 104), Caecilia, daughter of Metellus. 



[§§ 109, 110 


109. Adjectives and Participles are in general formed and de- 
clined like Nouns, differing from them only in their use. 

1. In accordance with their use, they distinguish gender by different 
forms in the same word, and agree with their nouns in gender^ number, and 
case. Thus, — 

bonus puer, the good boy. 
bona paella, the good girl. 
bonum ddnum, the good gift. 

2. In their inflection they are either (1) of the First and Second Declen- 
sions, or (2) of the Third Declension. 


110. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions (fi- and 
o-stems) are declined in the Masculine like servus, puer, or ager; 
in the Feminine like stella ; and in the Neuter like helium. 

The regular type of an adjective of the First and Second Declen- 
sions is bonus, -a, -um, which is thus declined : — 

bonus, bona, bonum, good 




Stem bono- 

Stem bonar 
















































Note. — Stems in quo- have nominative -cas (-qnos), -qva^ -^um (-quom), accusative 
-cum (-quom), -quam, -cum (-quom), to avoid quu- (see §§ 6. 6 and 46. N. 2). Thus,— 
KoM. propincos (-qaos) propinqoa propinooin (-quom) 

Gbn. piopinqui propinquae propinqui, etc. 

But most modem editions disregard this principle. 

a* The Genitive Singular masculine of adjectives in -iua ends in -11, and 
the Vocative in -ie ; not in -i, as in nouns (cf . § 49. ft, c) ; as, Lacedaemonius, 
-ii, -ie. 

NoTK. — The possessive meus, my, has the vocative masculine mi (cf. % 146). 

111. Stems ending in ro- preceded by e form the Nominative 
Masculine like puer (§ 47) and are declined as follows: — 

miser, misera, miserum, toretcAed 




Stem misero- 

Stem misera- 


Stem miseio- 









































a. Like miser are declined asper, gibber, lacer, liber, prosper (also pros- 
perns), satur (-ura, -urum), tener, -with compounds of -fer and -ger : as, saeti- 
ger, -era, -erum, bristle-bearing ; also, usually, dezter. In these the e belongs to 
the stem ; but in dextra it is often omitted : as, dextra manus, the right hand. 

Note. — Stems in 8ro- (as procerus), with mdrigSrus, propSrus, have the regular nomi- 
native masculine in -us. 

h. The following lack a nominative singular masculine in classic use : 
cetera, infera, postera, supera. They are rarely found in the singular except 
in certain phrases : as, poster5 die, the next day. 

Note. — An ablative feminine in -6 is found in a few Greek adjectives: as, lecticS 
octdphord rVerr. v. 27). 



[§§ 112, 118 

112. Stems in no- preceded by a consonant form the Nominative 
Masculine like ager (§ 47) and are declined as follows : — 

niger, nigra, nignim, black 




Stsm nigro- 

Stsm nigra^ 










































a. Like niger are declined aeger, ater, creber, faber, glaber, integer, Ifidicer, 
macer, piger, pulcher, ruber, sacer, scaber, sinister, taeter, yaf er ; also the pos- 
sessives noster, yester (§ 145). 

113. The following nine adjectives with their compounds have 
the Genitive Singular in -ius and the Dative in -i in all genders : 

alias (n. aliad), other. t5tu8, whole. alter, -terius, the other, 

nGUus, no, none, fiUus, any. neuter, -tiias, neither. 

sdlus, alone. finus, one. uter, -txius, which (of two). 

Of these the singular is thus declined : — 
















iinluB , 
































































a» The plural of these words is regular, like that of bonus (§ 110). 

h* The genitive in -ius, dative in -i, and neuter in -d are pronominal in 
origin (cf. Ulius, illi, illud, and § 146). 

e. The i of the genitive ending -ius, though originally long, may be made 
short in verse ; so often in alterius and regularly in utriusque. 

d,» Instead of alius, alteriua is commonly used, or in the possessive sense 
the adjective alienus, belonging to anothevy another^s, 

€• In compounds — as alteruter — sometimes both parts are declined, 
sometimes only the latter. Thus, alteri utri or alterutri, to one of the two. 

Note. — The regalar genitive and dative forms (as in honvtt) are sometimes ionnd 
in some of these words: as, genitive and dative feminine, aliae; dative masculine, 
alio. Bare forms aiCLig^nd aUd (for alias, aliud). 


114. Adjectives of the Third Declension are thus classified: — 

1. Adjectives of Three Terminations in the nominative singular, — one 
for each gender : as, acer, Scris, acre. 

2. Adjectives of Two Terminations, — masculine and feminine the same : 
as, levis (m., f.), lere (n.). 

3. Adjectives of One Termination^ — the same for all three genders : as, 

Or* Adjectives of two and three terminations are true iHBtems and hence retain 
in the ablative singular -i, in the neuter plural -ia, in the genitive plural -ium, and 
in the accusative plural regularly -is (see §§ 73 and 74).^ 

Adjectives of Three and of Two Terminations 

115. Adjectives of Three Terminations are thus declined : — 

acer, acris, &cre, keen, Stem acri- 
SiNGULAR Plural 
































acris (-Ss) 

acris (-Ss) 









1 Bat the forms of soine are doubtful. 


a. Like acer are declined the following stems in ri- : — 

alacer, campester, celeber, equester, paluster, pedester, pater, saluber, silvestei, 
terrester, volucer. So also names of months in -ber: as, October (cf. 

Note 1. — ^This formation is comparatively late, and hence, in the poets and in early 
Latin, either the masculine or the feminine form of these adjectives was sometimes 
used for both genders : as, coetus alacris (Enn.). In others, as faenebris, funebris, illus- 
tris, luin^brls, mediocris, maliebris, there is no separate masculine form at all, and these 
are declined like levis (§ 116). 

NoTB 2. — Celer, celeris, celere, swift y has the genitive plural celerum, used only as a 
noun, denoting a military rank. The proper name Celer has the ablative in -e. 

116. Adjectives of Two Terminations are thus declined: — 

levis, leve, 


Stem levi- 



Al** te • 


Ai., Jr. 




















levis (-6b) 







Note. — Adjectives of two and three terminations sometimes have an ablative in ■< 
in poetry, rarely in prose. 

Adjectives of One Termination 

117. The remaining adjectives of the third declension are Con- 
sonant stems ; but most of them, except Comparatives, have the 
following forms of i-stems : — ^ 

-i in the ablative singular (but often -e) ; 

-ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter ; 

-ium in the genitive plural ; 

-is (as well as -es) in the accusative plural masculine and feminine. 

In the other cases they follow the rule for Consonant stems. 

a. These adjectives, except stems in 1- or r-, form the nominative sing^ 
lar from the stem by adding s : as, atroz (stem atroc- + s), egens (stem 
egent- + s).^ 

&• Here belong the present participles in -ns (stem nt-) * : as, amans, moneos 
They are declined like egens (but cf. § 121). 

1 For details see § 121. ' Stems in nt- omit t before tbB nominative -s. 




118. Adjectives of one tennination axe declined as follows : — 

atrQz, flerce. Stem atrQc- 

egSns, needy, Stem egent- 


S&*y f • 


M., F. 























atroci (-6) 

atrod (-6) 


egenti (-«) 

egenti (-e) 

















atrocis (-Sb) 


egentls (-Sb) 







119. Other examples are the following : 

ooncors, harmonious 
Stem concord- 

praeceps, headlong 
Stem praecipit- 

OH. concora 

EN. concordiB 

AT. concordl 

cc. concordem 

BL. concordl 




























concordiB (-6b) concordia 
concordibuB concordibuB 

praecipitiB praecipitia 

[praecipitium] ^ 
praecipitibuB praecipitibua 
praecipitiB (-6b) praecipitia 
praecipitibua praecipitibua 

1 Given by grammarians, bat not found. 




iSns, going 
Stem eont- 

par, equal 
Stem par- 


diyes, rick 
Stem diTit- 

Jn«y IT* 

KoM. igns 

Gbn. euntis 

Dat. eunti 

Ace. euntem 

Abl. eunte (-1) 





eunte (-1) 

Htj X • 























NoM. euntte euntta 

Gbn. eunttum eunttum 

Dat. eunttbus euntibus 

Ace. euntis (-6s) euntta 

Abl. euntibus eunttbus 

fiber, fertile 
Stem aber- 


parSs parla 

parium partum 
partbus partbus 
parls (-6s) parta 
paribus paribus 

divitis ( 

) [<Ktta] 

yettts, old 
Stem veter- 















Sl.y F* 

vetere (-1) 

vetere (4) 
























Note. — Of thMe ▼•tas is originally an ft-stem. In most s-stems the r has intztiii 
itself into the nominative also, as U-corpor (for fbi-corpos), dCfMner <for t48-«eiies). 

* An ablative in -• is very rare. 

§§ 120, 121] 



Declension of Comparatives 
120. Comparatives are declined as follows : — 

melior, better 
Stsm melior- for melids- 

plfis, more 
Stem plfir- for piai 





meliore (-1) 

meliorSa (-Is) 



meliore (-i) 







BI.* V* 

pliirSs (-is) 









a. All comparatiyes except plus are declined like melior. 

&• The stem of comparatiyes properly ended in Ss-; but this became or 
in the nominatiTe masculine and feminine, and 5r- in all other cases except 
the nominative and accusative singular neuter, where 8 is retained and 5 is 
changed to ii (cf . hondr, -5ri8 ; corpus, -dris). Thus comparatives appear to 
have two terminations. 

e» The neuter singular plQs is used only as a noun. The genitive (rarely 
the ablative) is used only as an expression of value (cf. § 417). The dative 
is not found in classic use. The compound complurSs, several^ has sometimes 
aeuter plural oompluria. 

Case-Forms of Consonant Stems 

121. In adjectives of Consonant stems — 

a» The Ablative Singular commonly ends in -i, but sometimes -e. 

1 . Adjectives used as nouns (as superstes, survivory have -e. 

2. Participles in -ns used as such (especially in the ablative absolute, 
)419), or as nouns, regularly have -e; but participles used as adjectives 
lave regularly -i : — 

domlnd imperante, at the ma,ster''8 command; ab amante, bff a lover; ab amanti 
maliere, by a loving woman. 



8. The following have regularly -i: — amSns, anceps, concors (and other 
compounds of cor), cOnaors (but as a substantive, -e), degener, hebes, ingess, 
inops, memor (and compounds), p&r (in prose), perpes, praeceps, praepes, teres. 

4. The following have regularly -e : — caeles, compos, [fdeses], diyes, liospes, 
particeps, pauper, pnnceps, sOspes, superstes. So also patrials (see § 7 1 . 5) and 
stems in at-, it-, nt-, rt-, when used as nouns, and sometimes when used as 

h. The Genitive Plural ends commonly in -iom, but has -am in the 
following : 1 — 

1. Always in compos, dives, inops, particeps, praepes, pxinceps, sapplez, and 
compounds of nouns which have -am : as, quadra-pSa, bi-color. 

2. Sometimes, in poetry, in participles in -na : as, ailentum concilium, a covn- 
cil of the sUent shades (Aen. vi. 432). 

c. The Accusative Plural regularly ends in -is, but comparatives com- 
monly have -es. 

<f • Vetus (gen. -Ms) and p&bes (gen. -Sris) regularly have -e in the abla- 
tive singular, -a in the nominative and accusative plural, and -tun in the 
genitive plural. For uber, see § 119. 

e« A few adjectives of one termination, used as nouns, have a feminine 
form in -a : as, clienta, hospita, with the appellative Iun5 Sdspita. 

Irregttlarities and Special Uses of Adjectives 

122. The following special points require notice : — 

a. Several adjectives vary in declension : as, gracilis (-us), hilaris (-Qs} 
inermis (-us), bicolor (-Srus). 

h* A few adjectives are indeclinable : as, damnas, friigi (really a dative 
of service, see § 382. 1. n. ^), nequam (originally an adverb), necesse, and tb 
pronominal forms tot, quot, aliquot, totidem. Potis is often used as an ind^ 
clinable adjective, but sometimes has pote in the neuter. 

c« Several adjectives are defective : as, ezspes (only nom.), ezlez (ezlegeoi 
(only nom. and ace. sing.), pemox (pemocte) (only nom. and abl. sing)- 
and primdris, sSmineci, etc., which lack the nominative singular. 

d. Many adjectives, from their signification, can be used only in tbe 
mascuHne and feminine. These may be called adjectives of common gender 

Such are aduleacena, youthful; [tdSaea], -idis, slothful; inops, -opis, poor' 
aSapea, -itia, s(rfe. Similarly, aenez, old man, and iuvenia, young man, are som^ 
times called masculine adjectives. 

For Adjectives used as Nouns, see §§ 288, 289; for Nouns used as Adjectives, see 
§321. c; for Adjectives used as Adverbs, see §214; for Adverbs used as AdjectiTes- 
see § 321. d, 

1 Forms in -um sometimes occur in a few others. 




123. In Latin, as in English, there are three degrees of com- 
parison: the Positive^ the Comparative^ and the Superlative. 

124. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ior (neu- 
ter -ius),^ the Superlative by adding -issimus (•«, -um), to the stem of 
the Positive, which loses its final vowel : — 

c^lrus, dear (stem ciro-) ; cftrior, dearer; cftriaaimus, dearest, 

levis, light (stem levl-) ; levior, lighter ; leviMimiui, lighiest. 

tSiix, Tiappi/ (stem UUc-) ; fellcior, happier; t&lciawim'aB, happiest. 

hebes, duU (stem hebet-) ; hebetlor, duller ; hebetlMimiui, dullest. 

Note. — A form of diminutive is made upon the stem of some comporatiTes : as, 
grandins-colus, a little larger (see § 243). 

a. Participles when used as adjectives are regularly compared : — 
patiens, patient ; patientior, patientiBilmoB. 
apertus, open; apertior, apertiBsimus. 

125. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by adding -rimus to 
the nominative. The comparative is regular: — 

ftcer, keen; Scrior, acerrimoB. 

miser, wretched; miserior, miserrimus. 

a. So yetus (gen. yeteris) has superlative yeterrimuS) from the old form 
yeter ; and maturus, besides its regular superlative (maturissimus), has a rare 
form maturrimus. 

For the comparative of yetus, yetustior (from yetustus) is used. 

126. Six adjectives in -lis form the Superlative by adding -limus 
to the stem clipped of its final i-. These are facilis, difficilis, simi- 
lis, dissimilis, gracilis, humilis. 

facilis (stem facili-), easy; facilior, facillimiui. 

127. Compounds in -dicus {Baying) and -volus (filling) take in 
their comparison the forms of the corresponding participles dicSns 
and yolSns, which were anciently used as adjectives : — 

maledictiB, slanderous; maledlcentior, maledlcentlBsimus. 
malevolus, spiteful; malevolentior, malevolentissimiui. 

1 The comparative suffix (earlier -iSs) is akin to the Greek 4<avt or the Sanskrit -iyans. 
That of the superlative (-issimus) is a doable form of uncertain origin. It appears to 
contain the is- of the old suffix -is-to-s (seen in ri8-ia-To-s and English sweetest) and also 
the old -mo-s (seen in pri-mus, mini-mus, etc.) . The endings -limus and -rimus are formed 
by assimilation (§ 15. 6) from -simus. The comparative and superlative are really new 
stems, and are not strictly to be regarded as forms of inflection. 

66 COMPARISON OF ADJ£CTIV£S [§§ 127-130 

a^ So, by analogy, compounds in -flcaa : — 
mftgnificns, grand; mftgnificontior, mSgnificentiMlmiis. 

128. Some adjectives are compared by means of the adverbs 

magis, morey and nuudmS, most. 

So especially adjectives in -us preceded by e or i : — 
id6neuB, JU; magis idOneus, maxime idOneus. 

NoTB. — But pint has piifsimns in the superlatiyey — a form condemned by Cicero, 
bat common in inscriptions; equally conmion, however, is the irregular pientissimiis. 

Irregular Comparison 

129. Several adjectives have in their comparison irregular 

forms : — 

bonus, good; melior, better; optimna, best, 

mains, bad; p^or, worse; pesaimna, toors^. 

mfignus, great; mdior, greater; masdmua, greatest. 

I>arvns» smaU; minor, less; minimua, least. 

multus, much; pltls(N.) (§ 120), more; plt]^imua, mosL 

multl, many; plftrSs, more; pluriml, most. 

nSquam (indecL, § 122. 6), n6quior; nfignlaiifmna. 


frOgl (indecl., § 122. 6), use- frOgftlior; frOgSUiaalmiia. 

fid, worthy; 

dexter, on the right, handy; dexterior ; dextimua. 

NoTB. — These irregularities arise from the use of different stems (cf. § 127) . Thus 
frngSUor and frftgilissimos are formed from the stem f rugili-, but are used as the coiq- 
parative and superlative of the indeclinable frngi. 

Defective Comparison 

130. Some Comparatives and Superlatives appear without a 
Positive : — 

Odor, swifter; Ociaaimus, swiftest, 

potior, pr^eraJMe; ^ potiaaimoa, most important. 

a» The following are formed from stems not used as adjectives: * — 

1 The old positive potis occurs in the sense of able, possible. 

'The forms in -tii and -tents were originally comparative (cf. alter), so that the 
eompaiatives in -terior are double comparatives. Infertts and saperas are com.paratiTes 
of a still more primitive form (cf. the English comparative in -er). 

The superlatives in -timas (-tumas) are relics of old forms of comparison ; tliofle i£ 
-mns like imus, snmmns, piimns, are still more primitive. Forms like extrSmas an 
superlatives of a comparative. In fact, comparison has always been treated -with ai 
accumulation of endings, as children s&j furtfierer oad/UrtherMt, 

§§130,131] DEFECnVB COMPARISON 67 

cis, citrft (adv., <m this side): citerior, hither; citimiui, hUhermosL 

dS (prep., down): deterlor, worse; detenliiiiui, worsL 

in, intrft (prep., tn, voithin): interior, inner; intimiis, inmost. 

prae, pro (prep., d^ore): prior, former ; pTfaau, first. 

prope (adv., near): propior, nearer; prozimns, next. 

vHtrfk (adv., beyovid): ulterior, /arfAer; xjlUmQBf farihesL 

h» Of the following the positiye forms are rare, except when used as 
nouns (generally in the plural) : — 

eztems, outward; exterior, oiUer; extrtmiui (extfmiui), outmost. 

Inferus, below (see § 111. 6) ; Inferior, lower ; Inflmns (Iknus), lowest. 
poB^TUs, following ; posterior, Zoster; po8tr6ma8 (postnmus), lost, 

superus, o&ooe; superior, Ai^Aer; suprgmus or suniniuii, highesL 

But the plurals, eztezi, foreigners; iiiferi, the gods below; postMl, posterity; 
supeii, the heemerdy gods, are common. 

KoTE. — The superlatiye postuniis has the special sense of /cM^^om, and was a well- 
known surname. 

131. Several adjectives lack the Comparative or the Superla- 
tive : — 

a. The Comparative is rare or wanting in the following : — 

beUos, inclotus (or inclitos), aomsy 

caesios, invictas, pias, 

falsus, inyitos, sacer, 

fidos (with its compounds), meritos, vaftr. 

&• The Superlatiye is wanting in many adjectives in -ills or -bilia (as, 
agilia, prohabilis), and in the following : — 

ftctnSstts ezilis prScfiyis saidns 

agxestis ingSas piopinqous tacitnraus 

alacer ieifinot sator tempestiyos 

arcintts longinqous sSgnis teres 

caecus obHqoas sSrns -vicinos 

didtuBiM opimas supinas 

Cm From iuvenis, youth, senex, old man (of. § 122. d), are formed the com- 
paratives iiinior, younger, senior, older. For these, however, minor natn and 
m&ior nattt are sometimes used (natii being often omitted). 

The superlative is regularly expressed by minimus and maximus, with 
or without nitu. 

Note. — In these phrases a&tft is ablative of specification (see § 418). 

d. Many adjectives (as aureus, golden) are from their meaning incapable 

of comparison. 

NoTK. — But each language has its own usage in this respect. Thus, nicer, ^ossy 
black, and Candidas, shinmg white, are compared ; but not &ter or allms, naeaniog abao^ 
lute dead black or white (except that Plautus once has Atrior). 



[§§ 132, IS] 


132. The Latin Numerals may be classified as follows : — , 

L Numeral Adjectives: 

1. Cardinal Numbers, answering the question how manyf as, untis, one; I 
duo, twoy etc. i 

2. Ordinal Numbers,* adjectives derived (in most cases) from the Cardi- I 
nals, and answering the question which in order t as, primus, ^r,s^ / secim- | 
dus, second, etc. 

3. Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a time! 
as, singuli, one at a time ; blni, two by two, etc. 

IL Numeral Adverbs, answering the question how often? as, semel, j 
once; bis, tmce, etc. 

Cardinals and Ordinals ^ 

133. These two series are as follows : — 




1. tlnus, tin a, tlnum, one 

prTmuB, -a, -urn, first 


2. duo, duae, duo, two 

secundus (alter), second 


8. tres, tria, three 

tertius, third 


4. quattuor 



6. quTnque 



6. sex 



7. septem 



8. octO 



9. novem 


vini or IX 

10. decern 

decimus . 


11. tSndecim 



12. duodecim 



18. tredecim (decern (et) trSs) 

tertius decimus (decimus 

(et) tertius) xiii 

14. qnattuordeclm 

qu&rtus decimus 

Aim or XIV 

15. quindecim 

quintus decimus 


16. sedecim 

sextus decimus 


17. septendecim 

Septimus decimus 


18. duodevlgintl (octOdecim) 

duodSvIcensimus (oct&vus decimus) xviii 

1 The Ordinals (except secundas, tertius, octftvtts, nSnas) are formed by means of snf- 
fixes related to those used in the superlative and in part identical with them. Thus, 
decimus (compare the form infimus) may be regarded as the last of a series of ten ; pri- 
mus is a superlative of a stem akin to pro ; the forms in -tus (quflrtus, quintus, sextus) may 
be compared with the corresponding Greek forms in -roSf and with superlatives in 
-w-To-f , vrhile the others have the superlative ending -timus (changed to -flimus) . Of the 
exceptions, secundus is a participle of sequor ; alter is a comparative form (compare 
-repot in Greek) , and nSnus is contracted from fnovenos. The cardinal multiples of ten 
''re compounds of -gint- *ten' (a fragment of a derivative from decem). 

§§ 133, 134] 






10. Undevlgiiitl (novendecim) tlndSYlcSnsimu8(nOnusdecimiis)zyiiii or xix 

20. ylgintl vlcfinsimus (vlgensimus) 

21. ylgintl flnus ylcfinsimus primus 

(or tlnus et ylgintl, etc.) (tlnus et vicensimus, etc,) 



80. triginta 

40. quadrSginta 

50. qulnqu^nta 

60. sexSginia 

70. septuftgintft 

80. octOgintft 

00. nOnSgintft 

100. centiim 

101. centum (et) Unus, etc 
200. ducenti, -ae, -a 

800. trecentl 

400. quadringentl 

500. quingenti 

600. seacentl 

700. septingenti 

800. octingenti 

000. nDngentI 

KKK). mllle 

5000. qulnqne milia (mlllia) 

10,000. decern mflia (mlllia) 

100,000. centum mIlia (mlllia) 









centensimus primus, etc, 










quinquiens mlllensimus 

deciSns mlllfinsimus 

xxxx or XL 

4^ or L 




Lxxzxor xc 








00 (cio) or M 


centiSns mlUgnsimus 

NOTB 1. — The forms in -Snsimtts are often written without the n : as, yfcSslmus, etc. 

NoTB 2. — The forms octSdecim, noyendecim are rare, daodSyiglnti (two from twenty), 
findSyisintl (one from twenty), heing used instead. So 28, 29; 38, 39; etc. may he 
expressed either hy the suhtraction of two and one or hy the addition of eight and 
nine respectiyely. 

Dedension of Cardinals and Ordinals 

134. Of the Caxdinals only Onus, duo, Ms, the hundreds above 
one hundred, and mille when used as a noun, are declinable. 

a« For the declension of iinas, see § 113. It often has the meaning of 
same or only. The plural is used in this sense ; but also, as a simple nu- 
meral, to agree with a plural noun of a singular meaning : as, una cattra, 
one camp (cf. § 137. &). The plural occurs also in the phrase urn et alter!, one 
party and the other (the ones and the others). 

b. Doo,^ two, and ties, three, are thus declined : — * 

1 The form in -o is a remnant of the dual number, which was lost in Latin, but is 
found in cognate languages. So in amb5, both, which preserves -9 (cf . 9j&u) and § 629. b) . 




[§§ 134, 135 

























du5s (duo) 



trSB (triB) 








Note. — Aiiibd, hothf is declined like dao. 

ۥ The hundreds, up to 1000, are adjectives of the First and Second 
Declensions, and are regularly declined like the plural of bonus. 

<!• MillB, a thousand, is in the singular an indeclinable adjective : — 

mnie modls, in a th<msand loays. 
cum mille hominibus, with a thousand men, 

mnie trahens vari5s col5r6s (Aen. iv. 701), drawing out a thotisand varum 

In the plural it is used as a neuter noun, and is declined like the plural 
of sedile (§ 69) : milia, milium, milibus, etc. 

Note. — The singular nulle is sometimes found as a noun in the nominatiye and 
accusative: as, mille hominom misit, lie sent a thousand (of) tnen; in the other cases 
rarely, except in connection with the same case of milia : as, com oct5 mllibas pedititin, 
mille equitum, with eight thousand foot and a thousand horse, 

e. The ordinals are adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and 
are regularly declined like bonus. 

135. Cardinals and Ordinals have the following uses : — 

a* In numbers below 100, if units precede tens, et is generally inserted: 
duo et viginti ; otherwise et is omitted : viginti duo. 

h. In numbers above 100 the highest denomination generally stands 
first, the next second, etc., as in English. Et is either omitted entirely, or 
stands between the two highest denominations : — m31e (et) septingenti 
sexaginta quattuor, 1764. 

Note. — Observe the following combinations of numerals with substantives:— 
anus et viginti militfis, or yiginti militSs (et) onus, 21 soldiers. 
dtto milia quingenti militSs, or duo milia militiun et quingenti, 2600 soldiers, 
milites mille dttcenti triginta unus, 1231 soldiers, 

e. After milia the name of the objects enumerated is in the genitive : 

duo milia hominum, two thousand men,^ 

cum tribus milibus militum, with three thousand soldiers, 

milia passuum tria, three thousand paces (three miles). 

d. For million, billion, trillion, etc.; the Romans had no special words, 
but these numbers were expressed by multiplication (cf. § 138. a). 

^ Or, in poetry, bis mille hominSs, twice a thousand men. 

S§ 136-137] 



e. Fractions are expressed, as in English, by cardinals in the numerator 
and ordinals in the denominator. The feminine gender is used to agree 
i77ith pars expressed or understood : — two-sevenths, duae septimae (sc. partSs) ; 
ihree-eighthSf tres octavae (sc. partes). 

One-half is dimidia pars or dimidium. 

Note 1. — When the numerator is one, it is omitted and pars is expressed: one- 
third, tertia pars ; one-fourth, quarta pars. 

NOTB 2. — When the denominator is hut one greater than the numerator, the numer- 
ator only is given : two-thirds, duae partes ; three-fourths, tr6s partSs, etc. 

No^B 3. — Fractions are also expressed hy special words derived ^m as, a pound : 
as, trifins, a third; Ms, two-thirds. See § 637. 


136. Distributive Numerals are declined like the plural of 

Note. — These answer 

to the interrogative quotCn!, AO10 

many of each? or he 

many at a Hmef 


singnifi, one by one 18. 

octOni deni or 





Mni, two hy two 





temi, trini 


noveni deni or un- 

















vioeni singuli, 







































dena nulla 


temi deni, etc. 




centena nulla 

137. Distributives are used as follows : — 

a« In the sense of so many apiece or on each side : as, singula singulis, one 
apiece (one each to each one) ; agri septena iugera plebi diTisa sunt, i.e. seven 
jugera to each citizen (seven jugera each), etc. 

bm Instead of cardinals, to express simple number, when a noun plural in 
form but usually singular in meaning is used in a plural sense : as, bina 
castra, two camps (duo castra would mean twofortsy With such nouns trini, 
not temi, is used for three: as, trina (not tema) castra, three camps; tema 
castra means camps in threes. 

e. In multiplication : as, bis bina, twice two ; ter septenis diebus, in thrice 
seven days, 

d. By the poets instead of cardinal numbers, particularly where pairs or 
sets are spoken of : as, bina hastilia, tu}0 shafts (two in a set). 



Numeral Adyerbs 

[§§ 188, m 

138. The Numeral Adverbs answer the question quotiSns 
(quotiSs), how many times? how often f 

1. semel, once 

12. duodecifins 

40. quadrSgienfl 

2. bis, twice 

18. terdeciens 

60. qnlnquSgiens 

3. ter, thrice 

14. quaterdeciens 


4. quater 

15. quIndeciSns 

70. septuSgiens 

6. qulnqoiens (-es)i 

16. sedecifins 

80. octOgK^ns 

6. sexifiDS 

17. septifisdecifins 

90. DOn&giens 

7. septiens 

18. duodeylciSns 

100. centiSns 

8. octifins 

19. tindeylcienB 

200. ducentienR 

9. noviens 

20. ylcidns 

800. trecenti^ns 

10. deciens 

21. semel ylciens,^ etc. 

1000. mllienn 

11. Undeciens 

80. tricidns 

10,000. deciens mUiens 

a* Numeral Adverbs are used with miUe to express the higher numbers : 

ter et tilcifint (centina milia) sfistertiaiii, 3,300^000 teetercea (three and thirty 

times a hundred thousand sesterces), 
▼icifis ac septifis miliSs (centSna milia) sSstertittm, £,700,000,000 sesterces 

(twenty-seven thousand times a hundred thousand). 

NoTB. — These large numbers are used almost exclusively in reckoning money, 
and centSna milia is regularly omitted (see §634). 

Other Numerals 
139. The following adjectives are called Multiplicatives: — 

simplex, single; duplex, double, twofold; triplex, triple, threefold; quadroplex, 
qninqniplex, septemplex, decemplex, centnplex, sesquiplex (1^), multiplez 

a* Proportionals are : duplns, triplus, quadruplus, octuplus, etc., ttmce as 
great, thrice as great, etc. 

&• Temporals : bimus, trimus, of two or three years* age ; biennis, triemzi^j 
lasting two or three years ; bimestris, trimestris, of two or three months ; biduum, 
a period of two days; biennium, a period of two years, 

c. Partitives : binarius, temarius, of two or three parts. 

d. Other derivatives are: uni5, unity; bini5, the two (of dice); prunanus, 
of the first legion; primarius, of the first rank; denarius, a sum of iO asses] 
binus (distributive), doMe, etc. 

1 Forms in -ns are often written without the n. 
3 Also written viciSns et semel or vIciSns semel, etc. 

§§ 140-143] PERSONAL PRONOUNS 68 


140. Pronouns are used as Nouns or as Adjectives. They are 
divided into the following seven classes : — 

1. Personal Pronouns : as, ego, /. 

2. Reflexive Pronouns : as, 8§, himself, 

3. Possessive Pronouns : a((, mens, my. 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns: as, hic, this; iUe, ihat. 

5. Relative Pronouns : as, qui, who, 

6. Interrogative Pronouns : as, quis, who f 

7. Indefinite Pronouns : as, aliquis, some one, 

141. Pronouns have special forms of declension. 

NoTB. — These special forms are, in general, survivals of a very ancient form of 
declension differing from that of nouns. 

Personal Pronouns 

142. The Personal pronouns of the first person are ego, I, nUa, 
we; of the second person^ ttt, thou or t/ou^ vCs, ye or j/ou. The 
personal pronouns of the third person — he^ she^ it^ they — are 
wanting in Latin, a demonstrative being sometimes used instead. 

143. Ego and t& are declined as follows : — 

First Person 





n58, we 


mtl, of me 
mihf (mi), to me 

nostrum, nostri, of us 


n5bis, to us 


me, me 

nOs, us 


me, hy me 

ndbis, hy us 

Second Person 


tu, thou or you 

vos, ye or you 


tiu, of thee or you 

yestrum, vestrl ; yostrum (-trf) 










a. The plural n5s is often used for the singular ego ; the plural yOs is 
never so used for the singular tu. 

64 PRONOUNS [§§ 143, 144 

NoTB.— Old forms are genitiTe mis, tis; aocnsatiTe and ablatiye mU, tM (cf. 
§43. K. 1). 

5. The forms nostmin, Testrnm, etc., are used partUively : — 

flnasqnisqae nostrum, each one of us. 
▼estnun omniam, of all of you. 

NoTB. — The forms of the genitive of the personal pronouns are really the genltiTes 
of the possessives: mel, tni, sal, nostri, vestii, genitive singular neuter: nostrum, ves- 
tmm, genitive plural masculine or neuter. So in early and later Latin we find vu 
vestrArum, one of you {women). 

c. The genitives mei, ti4 siu, nostri, Testri, are chiefly used objectitfel^ 


memor sis nostil, he mindful of us (me). 
m% tui pudet, I am ashamed of you, 

d. Emphatic forms of t& are tQte and tutemet (tiitimet). The other 
cases of the personal pronouns, excepting the genitive plural, are made 
emphatic hy adding -met : as, egomet, ySsmet. 

NoTB. — Early emphatic forms are mfipte and tCpte. 

e. Reduplicated forms are found in the accusative and ablative singu- 
lar : as, mSme, tet€. 

/• The preposition cam, withy is joined enclitically with the ablative : as, 
tecum loquitur, he talks with you. 

Reflexive Pronouns 

144. Reflexive Pronouns are used in the Oblique Cases to refer 
to the subject of the sentence or clause in which they stand (see 
§ 299): as, sS amat, Tie loves himself. 

a. In the first and second persons the oblique cases of the Personal pro- 
nouns are used as Reflexives: as, me vided, / see myself; te landas, you 
praise yourself; n5bis persuademus, we persuade ourselves, 

h* The Reflexive pronoun of the third person has a special form used 
only in this sense, the same for both singular and pluraL It is thus 
declined : — 

Gen. sui, of himself herself itself themselves 
Dat. sibi, to himself herself itself themselves 
Ace, se (sese), himself herself itself themselves 
Abl. s€ (sese), [6y] himself herself itself themselves 

Note 1. — Emphatic and reduplicated forms of sS are made as in the personals (see 
§ 143. d, e) . The preposition cum is added enclitically : as, stexun, with himself, etc. 
Note 2. — An old form sSd occurs in the accusative and ablativa 

§S 146, 146] 



noster, our 
▼ester, your 
suns, their 

Possessiye Pronouns 

145. The Possessive pronouns are : — 

F1B8T Pebson. mens, my 
Second Person. tans, thyy your 
Thibd Person. sunSy his, her, its 

These are really adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are 
so declined (see §§ 110-112). But mens has regularly mi (rarely mens) in 
tlie yocatiye singular masculine. 

Note. — Sans is used only as a reflexive, referring to the subject. For a possessive 
pronoun of the third person not referring to the subject, the genitive of a demonstrative 
must he used. Thns, patrem sunm occidit, he killed his {oym) father; but patrem dias 
occidit, he kitted fUs (somebody else's) /otAer. 

a* Emphatic forms in -pte are found in the ahlative sing^ular : snOpte. 

b» A rare possessive ciiins (quoins), -a, -um, whose, is formed from the 
g^enitive singular of the relative or interrogative* pronoun (qui, quis). It 
may he either interrogative or relative in force according to its derivation, 
but is usually the former. 

ۥ The reciprocals one another and each other are expressed hy inter sS or 
alter . . . alterum : — 

alter alterius 5va fcangit, they break each other^s eggs (one ... of the other). 
inter sS amant, they love one another (they love among themselves). 

Demonstrative Pronouns 

146. The Demonstrative Pronouns are used to point out or 

designate a person or thing for special attention, either with nouns 

as Adjectives or alone as Pronouns. They are : — hie, this; is, 

iUe, late, th^t; with the Intensive ipse, self^ and idem, same; ^ and 

are thus declined : — 

hiC| this 













































I These demonstratives are comhinations of 0- and i- stems, which are not clearly 




NoTB l.-rHie is a oompoimd of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -ee. 
In most of the cases final e is dropped, in some the whole termination. Bat in these 
latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis: as, hoius-ce, bis-oe. In early Latin -ciUone 
is retained in some of these (hiSnmc). The vowel in luc, h5c, was originally sliort, and 
perhaps this qnantity was always retained, me and iste are sometimes found with 
the same enclitic: lIUc, ilUec, ilhic ; also illoc. See a, p. 67. 

NoTB 2. — For the dative and ablative plural of liic the old form hilms is sometimes 
foond; haee oocors (rarely) for liae. 


is, that 


H. F. lv« 

ei, ii(I) eae ea 

eOnim eamm eSmm 

MS, iu (u) eis, iu (is) eis, lis (is) 

eSs eas ea 

eSa, iSs(la) em, iis^) eis, lis (is) 

Note 3. — Obsolete forms are eae (dat. fern.), and e&bus or ibas (dat. plur.). Foi 
dative ei are found also ei and m (monosyllabic); ei, eos, etc., also occur in the ploial. 
























me, that 













































Iste, ista, istnd, that (yonder), is declined like ille. 

Notb 4. — llle replaces an earlier ollus (olle), of which several forms occur. 

Notb 5. — iBte is sometimes found in early writers in the form ste etc. The fiR< 
syllable of ille and ipse is very often used as short in early poetry. 

Notb 6. — The forms ilG, ist! (gen.), and illae, istae (dat.), are sometimes found; 
also the nominative plural istaeoe, iUaece (for istae, illae). See a, p. 67. 

ipse, seHf 



F. K. 



ipsa ipsum 



ipsius ipsius 



ipsi ipsi 



ipsam ipsum 



ipsa ips5 





ipsi ipsae ipsa 

ipsSmm ipsamm ipsOmm 

ipsis ipsis ipsiis 

ipsds ipsis ipsa 

ipsis ipsis i^aSa 




^ NoTB 7. — Ipse is componnded of is and -pse (a pronominal particle of nncertain 
origin: cf. §145. a), meaning se^. The former part was originally declined, as in 
reapse (for r5 eUpse), in fact. An old form ipsus occurs, with snperlatiYe ipsissimus, 
own self, used for comic effect. 

Note 8. — The intensive -pse is found in the forms eapse (nominative), emnpse, 
«ainpse, edpse, eapse (ahlative). 

idem, the same 



aim Vm 


M. Vm Xf. 


idem e&dem 


idem (ei-) eaedem eXdem 


Siusdem liusdem 


ednmdem earundem eSnmdem 


eidem eidem 


eisdem or isdem 


eundem eandem 


eSsdem easdem eXdem 


eodem eadem 


eisdem or isdem 

Note 9. — Idem is the demonstrative is with the indeclinable suffix -dem. The mas- 
collne idem is for fisdem ; the neuter idem, however, is not for fiddem, but is a relic of 
an older formation. A final m of is is changed to n before d : as, eandem for eomdem, 
etc. The plural forms idem, isdem, are often written udem, iisdem. 

a« nie and iste appear in combination with the demonstrative particle -c, 
shortened from -ce, in the following forms : — 


M. F. 

NoK. ilUc illaec 

Ace. illanc Ulanc 

Abl. msc ill&c 


iliac (illoc) 
iliac (illoc) 

M. F. 

istic Istaec 

istanc istanc 

ittSc ist&c 


ittac (istoc) 
istuc (istoc) 


N., Ace. 



Note 1. — The appended -ce is also found with pronouns in numerous combinations : 
s, hiliusce, himce, hdrunce, hanmoe, hSsce, hisce (cf . § 146. n. 1), ilHttsce, isce ; also with the 
iterrogative -ne, in hdcine, hSscine, istucine, iUicine, etc. 

Note 2. — By composition with ecce or em, behold! are formed eccum (for ecce 
am), eccam, eccos, eccis; eccillum (for ecce illiun); ellum (for em ilium), ellam, ellos, 
Uas ; eccistam. These forms are dramatic and colloquial. 

&• The combinations hMusmodi (hdiuscemodi), einsmodi, etc., are used as 
adeclinable adjectives, equivalent to talis, such: as, res eiusmodi, such a 
iing (a thing of that sort : cf. § 345. a). 

For uses of the Demonstrative Pronouns, see §§ 296 ff. 



[§§ U7-H9 

Relative Pronouns 
147. The Relative Pronoun qui, who^which^ is thus declined :■ 












































Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns 

148. The Substantive Interrogative Pronoun quis, who? 
what? is declined in the Singular as follows : — 


Al.| f • 

















The Plural is the same as that of the Relative, qui, quae, quae. 

a. The singular quis is either masculine or of indeterminate gender, 
but in old writers it is sometimes distinctly feminine. 

&• The Adjective Interrogative Pronoun, qui, quae, quod, what kind off 
what f which t is declined throughout like the Relative : — 

Substantive Aiwtbctive 

quia Tocat, w?io calls f qui homS vocat, what man calU 9 

quid vides, what do you see f quod templum vides, what temple do you see* 

Note. — But qui is often used without any apparent adjective force; and qais^ 
very common as an adjective, especially with words denoting a person : as, qui naa>- 
nat mS 7 who calls my n^ne f quis diSs fait ? what day was it f quis homS ? what man- 
but often qui hom5? w?iat kind of mxinf nesciS qui sis, I know not who you ore. 

ۥ Quisnam, pray, who f is an emphatic interrogative. It has both sab- 
stantive and adjective forms like quis, qui. 

149. The Indefinite Pronouns quis, any^ne^ and qui, any^ 9^ 
declined like the corresponding Interrogatives, but qua is com- 
monly used for quae except in the nominative plural feminine : 


Substantive : quia, any one ; quid, anything. 

Adjective : qui, qua (quae), quod, any. 

a. The feminine forms qua and quae are sometimes used substantively. 

b. The indefinites quis and qui are rare except after si, nisi, ne, and num, 
and in compounds (see § 310. a, &). 

Note. -^ After these particles qui is often used as a substantive and quis as an adjec- 
tive (cf. §148. 6. N.). 

Case-Forms of qui and quis 

150. The Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns are 
originally of the same stem, and most of the forms are the same 
(compare § 147 with § 148). The stem has two forms in the mas- 
culine and neuter, quo-, qui-, and one for the feminine, qui-. The 
interrogative sense is doubtless the original one. 

a. Old forms for the genitive and dative singular are qudius, quoi. 

b. The form qui is used for the ablative of both numbers and all genders ; 
but especially as an adverb (howy by tchich way, in any way), and in the combi- 
nation quicum, with whom, as an interrogative or an indefinite relative. 

c. A nominative plural qnes (stem qui-) is found in early Latin. A dative 
and ablative qms (stem quo-) is not infrequent, even in classic Latin. 

d. The preposition cum is joined enclitically to all forms of the abla- 
tive, as with the personal pronouns (§ 143./) : as, qu5cum, quicum, quibuscum. 

Note. — But oocasionaUy cam precedes : as, com qa5 (Inv. iv. 9). 

Compounds of quis and qui 

151. The pronouns quis and qui appear in various combinations. 

a. The adverb -cumque (-cunqne) (cf. quisqne) added to the relative 
makes an indefinite relative, which is declined like the simple word : as, 
quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque, whoever, whatever; c^iuscumque, etc. 

NoTB. — This suffix, with the same meaning, may be used with any relative: as, 
quiliscomque, of whatever sort; qoandScamque (also rarely qtiandSque), w?ienever; ubi- 
camque, wherever, 

b» In quisquis, whoever, both parts are^ declined, but the only forms in 
common use are quisquis, quidquid (quicquid) and qu5quo. 

NoTB 1. — Rare forms are quemquem and qttibnsquibtts ; an ablative quiqui is some- 
times found in early Latin ; the ablative feminine qa&qua is both late and rare. Cuicui 
occurs as a genitive in the phrase caicui mod!, of whatever kind. Other cases are 
cited, but have no authority. In early Latin quisquis is occasionally feminine. 

Note 2. — Quisquis is usually substantive, except in the ablative qu5qu5, which is 
more commonly an adjective. 




c. The indefinite pronouns quidam, a certain (one) ; qniyis, qoilibet, any 
you please, are used both as substantives and as adjectives. The first part 
is declined like the relative qui, but the neuter has both quid- (substantive) 
and quod- (adjective) : — 

qnidam quaedam quiddam (quoddam) 

quivla quaevit quidvis (quod^^) 

Quidam changes m to n before din the accusative singular (quendam, h.; 
quandam, f.) and the genitive plural (quorundam, m., n. ; quarundam, f.). 

d* The indefinite pronouns quispiam, some, any, and quisquam, any at dU, 
are used both as substantives and as adjectives. Quispiam has feminine quae- 
piam (adjective), neuter quidpiam (substantive) and qnodpiam (adjective); 
the plural is very rare. Quisquam is both masculine and feminine ; the 
neuter is quidquam (quicquam), substantive only ; there is no plural. Ullns, 
-a, -um, is commonly used as the adjective corresponding to quisquam. 

e. The indefinite pronoun aliquis (substantive), some one, aliqiu (adjec- 
tive), some, is declined like quis and qui, but aliqua is used instead of aliquae 
except in the nominative plural feminine : — 







aliquis (aliqul) 


aliquid (aliquod) 









aliquid (aliquod) 



















Note. — Aliqui is sometimes used substantively and aliquis as an adjective. 

/. The indefinite pronoun ecquis (substantive), whether any one, ecqm 
(adjective), whether any, is declined like aliquis, but has either ecquae or 
ecqua in the nominative singular feminine of the adjective form. 

Note. — Bcquis (ecqui) has no genitive singular, and in the plural occurs in tbe 
nominative and accusative only. 

gr. The enclitic particle -que added to the interrogative gives a universal 
as, quisque, every one; uterque, each of two, or both. Quisque is declined 

§§ 161, 162] 



like the interrogative qiiu, qiu : — Bubstantiye, quisqiWy quidqne ; adjectiye, 
qulque, quaeqne, quodque. 

In the compound unusquisque, every single one, both parts are declined 
(genitive uniuscdiusque), and they are sometimes written separately and even 
separated by other words : — 

ne in find quidem quSque (Lael. 92), not eoen in a single one, 

h. The relative and interrogative have rarely a possessive adjective 
ciUus (-a, -um), older quoins, whose ; and a patrial ciUas (c&iat-), of what 

i* Quantus, how great, qualis, of what sort, are derivative adjectives from 
the interrogative. They are either interrogative or relative, corresponding 
respectively to the demonstratives tantus, talis (§ 152). Indefinite com- 
pounds are quantoscumqiie and qualiscimiqiie (see § 151. a). 


152. Many Pronouns, Pronominal Adjectives, and Adverbs 
have corresponding demonstrative^ relative^ interrogative^ and 
indefinite forms. Such parallel forms are called Correlatives. 
They are shown in the following table: — 




Indef. Bel. 











S(mie one 



quantus ? 



80 great 

how (as) great 

how great? 

however great 




. quaUs ? 




of what sort? 

of whatever kind 


















whither f 


(to) somewhere 






that way 

which way 

which way f 










whence f 


from somewhere 










at some time 






80 many 


how many f 

" however many 

some, several 



quotiens ? 



80 often 


how often f 

however often 

at several times 



153. The inflection of the Verb i& called its Conjugation. 

Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, Number 

154. Through its conjugation the Verb expresses Voice, Mood, 
Tense, Person, and Number. 

a. The Voices are two : Active and Passive. 

b» The Moods are four: Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and In- 

Note. — The Indicative, Subjunctive, and Imperative axe called Finite Moods'^ 
distinction from the Infinitive. 

c. The Tenses are six, viz. : — 

1. For continued action, Present, Imperfect, Future. 

2. For completed action, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect. 

The Indicative Mood has all six tenses, but the Subjunctive has no 
future or future perfect, and the Imperative has only the present and the 
future. The Infinitive has the present, perfect, and future. 

d. The Persons are three: First, Second, and Third. 

e. The Numbers are two : Singular and Plural. 

Noun and Adjective Forms 

155. The following Noun and Adjective forms are also included 
in the inflection of the Latin Verb : — 

a. Four Participles,* viz. : — 

Active: the Present and Future Participles. 
Passive : the Perfect Participle and the Gerundive.* 

b. The Grerund : this is in form a neuter noun of the second declension, 
used only in the oblique cases of the singular. 

c« The Supine : this is in form a verbal noun of the fourth declension 
in the accusative (-um) and dative or ablative (-u)* singular. 

1 The Infinitive is strictly the locative case of an abstract noun, expressing ^ 
action of the verb (§ 451). 

3 The Participles are adjectives in .inflection and meaning, but have the power o' 
verbs in construction and in distinguishing time. 

« The Grerundive is also used as an adjective of necessity ^ duty, etc. (§ 158. d)- ^ 
late use it became a Future Passive Participle. ^ Originally locative. 

§§166,167] voices and moods 78 

Signification op the Forms of the Verb 


156. The Active and Passive Voices in Latin generally cor- 
respond to the active and passive in English ; but — 

a. The passive voice often has a reflexive meaning : — 

fend acdngor, I gird myself with, my sword. 
Ttinins vertitur, Turnus turns (himself), 
induitnr vestem, ?ie puts on his (own) clothes. 

Note. — This use corresponds very nearly to the Greek Middle voice, and is doubt- 
less a survival of the original meaning of the passive (p. 76, footnote 2). • 

b» Many verbs are passive in form, but active or reflexive in meaning. 
These are called Deponents (§ 190):^ as, hortor, / exhort; sequor, I follow, 

c: Some verbs with active meaning have the passive form in the perfect 
tenses ; these are called Semi-Deponents : as, auded, audere, ansns stun, dare. 


157. The Moods are used as follows : — 

a* The Indicative Mood is used for most direct assertions and interroga- 
tions: as, — Talesne? Yal&&f are you well f I am well, 

b» The Subjunctive Mood has many idiomatic uses, as in commands, condi- 
tionSy and various dependent clauses. It is often translated by the English 
Indicative ; frequently by means of the auxiliaries may, might, would, should;^ 
sometimes by the (rare) Subjunctive ; sometimes by the Infinitive ; and 
often by the Imperative, especially in prohibitions. A few characteristic 
examples of its use are the following : — 

eamtts, let ils go; n6 abeat, let him not depart. 

adsom ut videam, I am here to see (that I may see). 

tH nS qnaesietis, do not thou inquire, ( 

be&tus 818, may you he blessed, 

quid morer, why should I delay f j 

nesciO quid sciibam, I know not what to write, \ 

si moneam, audiat, if I should warn, he would hear. 

1 That is, verbs which have laid aside (deponere) the passive meaning. 

2 The Latin uses the subjunctive in many cases where we use the indicative ; and 
we use a colorless auxiliary in many cases where the Latin employs a separate verb 
with more definite meaning. Thus, I may write is often not sciibam (subjunctive) , but 
licet mlhi scnbere ; / can write is pessnm scnbere ; / would write is scnbam, scriberem, 
or sciibcre velim (vcllem) ; I should write, {if, etc.), scriberem (si) . . ., or (implying duty) 
oportet mS scnbere. 


a I^jj. . "'^'^ "^ bone*. 

°'™oMoorf. - 

1^ J^te Panieip,,3 ^ ''""''"*" 
^^« I>rese„t Parti. T "'""^ "" ^°"«^ : - 

-imTi/rn:''- *<'^;C"* *« the e! ; "'' -«««) has tw, 

4«y an adjectiv- *"". acceofe^ .-English n-^, . 
- It IS U3e^ ije Q,eanu,„ . „ ''' Ictiis. *«. P*'^^*^* Passive 

— « - ,r.^, »o L,^^-> '^o/../^'- -rtai. t«.s,s of the «. 

*°*» 18 different. 


Oenind and 'Supine 

159. The Gerund and Supine are used as follows; — 

a, Tlie Genrnd is a verbal noim, correspond ing in meaning to the English 

verbal noun in -ing (§ 602): as, loqueodl c»n»i,/or the take of speaking. 

NoTB. — The Qerond ia tonnd only in the obUqae cases. A corregponding doihI- 
Dative is supplied by the Infinitive ; 'ihae, (criMn est fitile, writing (to write) ii uw- 
fai; but, ais scribendi, the art ijfviriling. 

b. The Supine is in form a noun of the fourth declension (§ S4. fi), 
found only iu the accusative ending In -tiun, -turn, and the dative or abla- 
tive ending in -tfi, -en. 

The Supine in -nm ia used after verba and the Snpine in -fi after adjeo- 
tives (§§509,510): — 

T6aU ipectitiua, he came loaee; mtr&bile dicta, wonder^ to tell. 

Tenses of the Finite Verb 

160. The Tenses of the Indicative have, in general, the same 
meaning as the corresponding tenses in English : — 

a. Of continued action, 

1. Pebbbnt : actibS, I vrrite, I am writing, I do write. 

2. Impbbfkct : aotbibam, I wrote, I wat writing, I did wrUe. 
8. FUTDBB : BCribam, I «AaU lorite. 

h. Of completed action, 
4. pBRPEOT : sedpBl, / have writUn, I wn^. 
&. Plopbrfbct : Bcnpoema, I had written. 
Q. FuTDKB Perfect : Bciipseio, I «AaU have written. 

161. The Perfect Indicative has two separate uses, — the Per- 
fect Definite and the Perfect Historical (or Indefinite). 

1. The Perfect Definite represents the action of the verb as completed 
n present time, and corresponds to the English perfect with have : as, 
cripsi, / have written. 

2. The Perfect Historical narrates a simple act or state in past time 
vithout representing it as in progress or continuing. It corresponds to the 
English past or preterite and the Greek aorist: as, scripsit, he wrote. 

162. The Tenses of the Subjunctiye are chiefly used in depend- 
nt clausee, following the rule for the Sequence of Tenses ; but 
Lave also special idiomatic uses (see Syntax). 

For Itae nse ol Tensas in the Imperative, see {{ 44S, 440. 


ۥ The Imperative is used for exhortation, entreatyy or command ; but the 
Subjunctive is often used instead (§§ 439, 450) : — 

liber esto, he 8haU he free. 

nS 08«a legitd, do not gather the bones. 

d* The Infinitive is used chiefly as an indeclinable noun, as the subject 
or complement of another verb (§§ 452, 456. n.). In special constructions it 
takes the place of the Indicative, and may be translated by that mood in 
English (see Indirect Discourse, § 580 ff.). 

NoTB. — For the Ssrntaz of the Moods, see § 436 ff. 

158. The Participles are used as follows : — 

a. The Present Participle (ending in -ns) has commonly the same 
meaning and use as the English participle in -ing ; as, Yocans, call- 
ing ; legentSs, reading. (For its inflection, see egSns, § 118.) 

ft. The Future Participle (ending in -firus) is oftenest used to ex- 
press what is likely or abotU to happen : as, rSctttrus, about to rule; 
auditUrus, about to hear. 

NoTK. — With the tenses of esse, to 6e, it forms the First Periphrastic Conjugation 
(see § 195) : as, orbs est c&sura, the city is aboiU to fall ; m&nsums eram, / was going 
to stay, 

e. The Perfect Participle (ending in -tus, -sus) has two uses : — 

1. It is sometimes equivalent to the English perfect passive participle : 
as, tectus, sheltered ; acceptus, accepted; ictus, having been struck; and often 
has simply an adjective meaning : as, acceptus, acceptable. 

2. It is used with the verb to be (esse) to form certain tenses of the pas^ 
sive : as, vocatus est, he was (has been) called. 

Note. — There is no Perfect Active or Present Passive Participle in Latin. For 
substitutes see §§ 492, 493. 

d* The Gerundive (ending in -ndus), has two uses : — 

1. It is often used as an adjective implying obligation, necessity, or 
propriety (ought or must) : as, audiendus est, he must be heard. 

Note. — When thus used with the tenses of the verb to be (esse) it forms the Second 
Periphrastic Conjugation: dSligendus erat, he ought to have been chosen (§ 196). 

2. In the oblique cases the Gerundive commonly has the same meaning 
as the Gerund (cf. § 159. a), though its construction is different. (Foi 
examples, see § 503 ff.) 


Gerund and "Supine 

159. The Gerund and Supine are used as follows : — 

a. The Gerund is a verbal noun, corresponding in meaning to the English 
-verbal noun in -ing (§ 502): as, loquendi causa, /or the sake of speaking. 

Note. — The Gleriind is found only m the oblique cases. A corresponding nomi- 
native is supplied by the Infinitive : thus, scribere est utile, writing (to write) is use- 
fvl ; but, ars sciibendi, t?ie art of writing. 

b. The Supine is in form a noun of the fourth declension (§ 94, ft), 
found only in the accusative ending In -torn, svaa, and the dative or abla- 
tive ending in -tii, -su. 

The Supine in -um is used after verbs and the Supine in -vl after adjec- 
tives (§§509,610): — 

vSnit spectatum, Tie came to see; mir&bile dictu, wonderful to teU, 

Tenses of the Finite Verb 

160. The Tenses of the Indicative have, in general, the same 
meaning a^ the corresponding tenses in English: — 

a* Of continued action, 

1. Present : scribo, / vmte, I am nyriting, I do write, 

2. Imperfect : scxibSbam, I wrote^ I was writing, I did write, 

3. Future : scribam, I shaXL write, 

&• Of completed action, 

4. Perfect : scrips!, I have written, I wrote, 

5. Pluperfect : scripseram, / had written. 

6. Future Perfect : scripsero, I shall have written, 

161. The Perfect Indicative has two separate uses, — the Per- 
fect Definite and the Perfect Historical (or Indefinite). 

1. The Perfect Definite represents the action of the verb as completed 
in present time, and corresponds to the English perfect with have: as, 
scripsi, / have written, 

2. The Perfect Historical narrates a simple act or state in past time 
without representing it as in progress or continuing. It corresponds to the 
English past or preterite and the Greek aorist: as, scripsit, he wrote, 

162. The Tenses of the Subjunctive are chiefly used in depend- 
ent clauses, following the rule for the Sequence of Tenses ; but 
have also special idiomatic uses (see Syntax). 

For the use of Tenses in the Imperative, see §§ 448, 440. 



Personal Endings 


163. Verbs have regular terminations ^ for each of the three 
Persons, both singular and plural, active and passi ve.^ These are : 

1. -in(-5): 

2. -s: 

3. -t: 

1. -mils: 

2. -tis: 

3. -nt: 


am-5, / love. 
ama-fi, thou lovest. 
ama-t, he loves, 

amft-mus, toe love, 
ama-tis, you love. 
ama-nt, they love. 


-lis (-re): 




amor, / am loved. 
am&-ris, thou art loved. 
amartur, he is loved. 

amarinixr, we are loved- 
ama-mini, you are love<^- 
ama-ntor, they are lovei 

a» The Perfect Indicative active has the special terminations ' : — 

SiNO. 1. 



Plur. 1. 



-i-mus : 
-is-tis : 

3. -erant (-€re) : 

am&v-i, I loved. 
am&v-is-ti, tkou lovedst. 
am&v-i-t, ?ie loved. 
am&v-i-mns, we loved. 
am&v-is-tis, you loved. 
am9.v-eru]it (-dre), thsy loved. 

&• The Imperative has the following terminations : 

Present Active 

2. — : am&, love thou. 


am&-te, love ye. 

Future Active 

2. -to : am&-to, thou shalt love. -tote : am&-tote, ye shaU Unve. i 

3. -to : am&-td, he shaU love. -nt5 : ama-ntd, they shaU love. I 


1 Most of these seem to be fragments of old pronouns, whose signification is th&-' 
added to that of the verb-stem (of. § 36). But the ending -mini in the second person 
plural of the passive is perhaps a remnant of the participial form found in the Grf^ 
-/lews, and has supplanted the proper form, which does not appear in Latin. The ?«'' 
sonal ending -nt is probably connected with the participial nt- (nominative -ns). 

2 The Passive is an old Middle Voice, peculiar to the Italic and Celtic Iangiug«^ 
and of uncertain origin. 

' Of these terminations -i is not a personal ending, but appears to represent s^ 
Indo-European tense-sign -ai of the Perfect Middle. In -is-ti and -ift-tis, -ti and -tis t^ 
personal endings ; for -is-, see § 169. c. n. In -i-t and -i-mus, -t and -mus are peisoc^ 
endings, and i is of uncertain origin. Both -Snint and -Sre are also of doubtful origin 
but the former contains the jmrsonal ending -nt. 

§§ 163, 164] 



2. -re.: 

2. -tor: 

3. -tor: 

Singular Presbnt Passive 

am&-re, be thou loved. -mini : 

Future Passive 

am^tor, thou shaU he loved. 

am^-tor, ?ie shaU be loved. -ntor : 

amft-mini, be ye loved. 

ama-ntor, tkey 8haU be loved. 

Forms of the Verb 

The Three Stems 

164. The forms of the verb may be referred to three stems, 
called (1) the Present, (2) the Perfect, and (3) the Supine stem. 

1. On the Present stem are formed — 

The Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative, Active and Passive. 

The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive, Active and Passive. 

The Imperative, Active and Passive. 

The Present Infinitive, Active and Passive. 

The Present Participle, the Gerundive, and the Gerund. 

2. On the Perfect stem are formed — 

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Active. 
The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Active. 
The Perfect Infinitive Active. 

3. On the Supine stem are formed ^ — 

a* The Perfect Passive Participle, which combines with the forms of the 
rerb sum, &e, to make — 

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Passive. • 

The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive. 

The Perfect Infinitive Passive. 

&• The Future Active Participle, which combines with esse to make 
lie Future Active Infinitive. # 

ۥ The Supine in -am and -u. The Supine in -um combines with iri to 
aake the Future Passive Infinitive (§ 203. a). 

NoTB. — The Perfect Participle with fore also makes a Future Passive Infinitive 
as, amfttos foze). For fore (futurttm esse) ut with the subjunctive, see § 569. 3. a. 

1 The Perfect Passive and Future Active Participles and the Supine, though strictly 
loixn-forms, each with its own suffix, agree in having the first letter of the suffix (t) 
tie same and in suffering the same phonetic change (t to s, see § 15. 5). Hence these 
orms, along. with several sets of derivatives (in -tor, -tfira, etc., see § 238. b. n.I), were 
elt^ by the Romans as belonging to one system, and are conveniently associated with 
be Supine Stem. Thus, from pingo, we have pictum, pictus, pictiirtts, pictor, pictura ; 
roxn lUflS, lisom (for fiid-tam), lisus (part.), lisus (noun), lisfmis, lisiS, zisor, lisibilis. 



[§§ 165, lae 


165. Eveiy f oim of the finite verb is made up of two parts : 

1. The Stem (see § 24). This is either the root or a modification or 
development of it. 

2. The Ekdiko, consisting of — 

1. the Signs of Mood and Tense (see §§ 168, 160). 

2. the Personal Ending (see § 163). 

Thus in the verb vocA-bft-s, you were caUing, the root is voc, modified into the 
verb-stem voci-, which by the addition of the ending -bis becomes the imperfect 
tense vocftbfts ; and this ending consists of the tense-sign b&- and the personal 
ending (-s) of the second person singular. 

166. The Verb-endings, as they are formed by the signs for 
mood and tense combined with personal endings, are — 





SiNO. 1. -6 

& * a 



8. -t 



Plur. 1. -mas 


2. -tis 


8. -nt 

- B 



SiMo. 1. -ba-m 


2. -bft-s 


• 3. -ba-t 


Plur. 1. -ba-mus 


2. -bft-tis 


8. -ba-nt 



indicative subjunctivb 


-ris (-re) 





-ris (-re) 







-bA-ris (-re) 






-rS-ris (-le) 







SlNO. 1. -b-d 
2. -bi-s 
8. -bi-t 

Plur. 1. .bi-mns 
2. -bi-tia 
8. -ba-nt 






m, IV 





-be-ria (-re) | ^ 

►bi-tar ® = 

-bi-mor ^ ^ 

-bi-minl J a 


m, iv» 
-^ris (-r«) 


^ These numerals refer to the four 

conjugations given later (see § 171). 







SiN^o. 1. -I -eri-m 

2. -is-ti -eri-s 

3. -i-t -eri-t 
Pi^tJK. 1. -i-mns -eri-mus 

2. -is-tis -eri-tis 

8. -era-nt (-Sre) -exi-nt 


SixG. 1. -era-m -isse-m 

2. -era-8 -isse-s 

8. -era-t -isse-t 

PL.UB. 1. -era-mns -issS-mns 

2. -era-tis -isse-tis 

8. -era-nt -isse-nt 

Future Perfect 

8iKO. 1. -er-6 

2. -eri-8 

8. -eri-t 
Plxtr- 1. -eri-mua 

2. -eri-tis 

8. -eri-nt 




•nm sim 

es sis 

est sit 

somna sunns 

estis sitis 

sunt sint 


-ti (-tae, 



-ti (-tae, 













-tas (-ta, 

-ti (-tae, 

Future Perfect 

' ex5 


SiKO. 2. Plub. 2. -te Sing. 2. -re 


2. -t5 

3. -t5 

2. -tSte 

3. -nt5 

2. -tor 

3. -tor 


Plub. 2. -mini 


3. -ntor 

For convenience a table of the Noun and Adjective fonns of 

the verb is here added. 


Pres. -re (Pres. stem) i, ii, iv. -ri ; iii. -I 

Pert, -isse (Perf. stem) -tas (-ta, -turn) esse 

FuT. -torus (-a, -«m) esse -turn in 

Pres. -ns, -ntis 
FuT. -tfiros, -a, -om 


Perf. -tas, -ta, -tarn 
Gee. -ndus, -nda, -ndnm 


-ndl« -add, -ndom, -nd5 -turn, -tfl 


167. A long vowel is shortened before the personal endings 
-m (-r), -t, -nt (-ntiir): as, ame-t (for older am&t), habe-t (for habe-t). 
mone-nt, mone-ntur. 

168. The tenses of the Present System are made from the Pres- 
ent Stem as follows : — ^ 

a. In the Present Indicative the personal endings are added directly to 
the present stem. Thus, — present stem ara- : ara-s, aza-mns, ara-tis. 

&• In the Imperfect Indicative the suffix -bam, -bas, etc. (originally a com- 
plete verb) is added to the present stem : as, ara-bam, ara-bas, ara-bamus. 

Note. — The form ^ham was apparently an aorist of the Indo-European root bht 
(of. ftti, futurns, <f>j^ta, English be^ been), and meant JtrcM. This was added to a com- 
plete word, originally a case of a verbal noun, as in J was a^eeing; hence vidC-baiiL 
The form probably began in the Second or Third Conjugation and was extended to the 
others. The a was at first long, but was shortened in certain forms (§ 167). 

e. In the Future Indicative of the First and Second Conjugations a similar 
suffix, -b5, -bis, etc., is added to the present stem : as, ara-b5, ara-bis, mone-bo. 

Note. — The form tb5 was probably a present tense of the root bhu, with a future 
meaning, and was affixed to a noun-form as described in 6. k. 

d. In the Future Indicative of the Third and Fourth Conjugations the 
terminations -am, -es, etc. (as, teg-am, teg-es, audi-am, audi-€s) are really sub- 
junctive endings used in a future sense (see «). The vowel was originallr 
long throughout. For shortening, see § 167. 

e. In the Present Subjunctive the personal endings were added to a 
form of the present stem ending in e- or a-, which was shortened in certain 
forms (§ 167). Thus, ame-m, ame-s, tega-mus, tega-nt. 

Note 1. — The vowel 6 (seen in the First Conjugation: as, am-f-s) is an inherited 
subjunctive mood-sign. It appears to be the thematic vowel e (§ 174. 1) lengthened. 
The & of the other conjugations (mone-&-8, reg-A-s, audi-A-s) is of uncertain origin. 

Note 2. — In a few irregular verbs a Present Subjunctive in -im, -is, etc. occurs: 
as, slm, 818, simus, velim, veils, etc. This is an old optative, i being a form of the Indo- 
European optative mood-sign y6- (cf. siem, si§8, siet, §170. 6. N.). The vowel has 
been shortened in the first and third persons singular and the third person plnral. 

/• In the Imperfect Subjunctive the suffix -rem, -t€8, etc. is added to the 
present stem : as, ama-rem, ama-res, mon&-rem, tege-rem, audi-rem. 

Note. — The stem element -rS- is of uncertain origin and is not found outside of 
Italic. The r is doubtless the aorist sign s (cf . es-se-m, es-sS-s) changed to r between 
two vowels (§ 15. 4). The 8 is probably the subjunctive mood-sign (see e). 

1 The conjugation of a verb consists of separate formations from a root, grad- 
ually grouped together, systematized, and supplemented by new formations made on 
old lines to supply deficiencies. Some of the forms were inherited from the parent 
speech ; others were developed in the course of the history of the Italic dialects or of 
the Latin language itself. 

S§ 169, 170] VEBB-ENDINGS 81 

169. The tenses of the Perfect System in the active voice are 
made f lom the Perfect Stem as follows : — 

am In the Perfect Indicative the endings -i, -isti, etc. are added directly 
to the perfect stem : as, amav-isti, t§x-istis. 

h» In the Pluperfect Indicative the suffix -eram, -eras, etc. is added to the 
perfect stem : as, amav-eram, monu-eras, tez-erat 

Note. — This seems to represent an older ^-iBrkm etc. formed on the analogy of 
the Future Perfect in -er6 (older t-is-5: see c below) and influenced by eram (imperfect 
of sum) in comparison with erO" (future of sum). 

Cm In the Future Perfect the suffix -er5, -eris, etc. is added to the perfect 
stem : as, amaY-er5, monu-eris, tex-erit 

NoTB. — This formation was originally a subjunctive of the s-aorist, ending prob- 
ably in t-ifl^. The -is^ is doubtless the same as that seen in the second person singular of 
the perfect indicative (vid-is^-t!), in the perfect infinitive (vld-ifr^e), and in the plu- 
perfect subjunctive (vid-is-sem), s being the aorist sign and i probably an old stem 

dm In the Perfect Subjunctive the suffix -erim, -eris, etc. is added to the 
perfect stem : as, amav-erim, jnonu-eris, tex-erit. 

NoTB. — This formation was originally an optative of the s-aorist (-er- for older 
-is-, as in the future perfect, see c above). The i after r is the optative mood-sign i 
shortened (see § 168. e. n. ^. Fortns in -is, -it, -imus, -itis, are sometimes found. The 
shortening in -Is, -Imus, -Itis, is due to confusion with the future perfect. 

«• In the Pluperfect Subjunctive the suffix -issem, -isses, etc. is added to 
the perfect stem : as, amay-issem, monu-isses, tex-isset. 

Note. — Apparently this tense was formed on the analogy of the pluperfect indica- 
tive in t-ift-Am G&ter -er-nam, see 6), and influenced by essem (earlier feseSm) in its 
relation to eram (earlier feslm).! 

The Verb Sum 

170. The verb sum, Je, is both irregular and defective, having 
no gerund or supine, and no participle but the future. 

Its conjugation is given at the outset, on account of its impor- 
tance for the inflection of other verbs. 

1 The signs of mood and tense are often said to be inserted between the root (or 
verb-stem) and the personal ending. Ko such insertion is possible in a language 
developed like the Latin. All true verb-forms are the result, as shown above, of com- 
position; that is, of adding to the root or the stem either personal endings or fully 
developed auxiliaries (themselves containing the personal terminations), or of imita- 
tion of such processes. Thus vidSbftmns is made by adding to yidS-, originally a signifi- 
cant word or a form conceived as such, a full verbal form tb&mus, not by inserting 
-ba- between vidS- and -mus (§ 168. &). 




Principal Parts : Present Indicative sum, Present Infinitive esse, 
Perfect Indicative fiu, Future Participle fotums. 

Frbsxkt Stbm es- 


Prrtkct Stbm fa- 

SupiNB Stbm fot- 


Sing. 1. sum, / am 

2. 6s, thou art (you are) 

8. est, he (shey it) is 

Plub. 1. sumus, toe are 

2. estlB, you are 

8. sunt, they are 




1. eram, / tmw 

2. er&B, you were 

8. erat, he (shet it) was 

1. erftmuB, we were 

2. erfttlB, you were 
8. erant, they were 










Sing. 1. er5, / shall be 
2. eris, you will be 
8. erit, he will be 

Plub. 1. erimua, we shall be 
2. eritlB, you will be 
8. erunt, they will be 




1. ful, / was (have been) 

2. fuisti, you were 
8. fuit, he was 

1. f uimus, we were 

2. fuistia, you were 

8. fuSrunt, fu6re, they were 


Sing. 1. fueram, / had been 
2. f uerSa, you had been 
8. fuerat, he had been 










1 An translatioiis of the Subjunctive are misleading, and hence none la ffivni' see 
J1W.6. * 





Plub. 1. fuerftmuB, toe had been 

2. fuerfttia, you had been 

3. fuerant, they had been 




Future Perfect 
Smo. \, tvieiby I shall have be^^ Plur. 1, ixieiixnMBi we shall have been 
2. fueris, you will have been 2. fueritis, you toUl have been 

d. fuerlt, he wiU have been 3. f uerlnt, they will have been 

Present Sing. 2. 6s, be thou Plur. 2. este, be ye 

VxjTVKR 2. estO, thou shalt be 2. estdte, ye shall be 

3. e8t5, he shall be 3. snntS, Oiey shaU be 

Prbsbnt esse, to be j 
Perfect fuisse, to haaejif^n^\. 
Future futf&niB ess/or fore^io be about to be 


Future f uttlnia, -a, -um, abotU to be 

a. For essem, essSs, etc., forem, forSs, foret, lorent, are often used; so fore 
for futums esse. 

h. The Present Participle, which would regularly be fsOns,^ appears in 
the adjective in-«5n8, innocent, and in a modified form in ab-sens, prae-sSns. 
The simple form Sns is sometimes found in late or philosophical Latin as a 
Darticiple or abstract noun, in the forms ens, being ; entia, things which are. 

Note. — Old forms are: — Indicative: Future, escit, escunt (strictly an inchoa- 
;iye present, see § 263. 1). 

Subjunctive: Present, siem, 8i6s, siet, sient; faam, fnls, foat, foant; Perfect, f&yl- 
nas ; Pluperfect, ffiyisset. 

The root of the verb sum is es, which in the imperfect is changed to er (see § 15. 4), 
ind in many forms is shortened to. s. Some of its modifications, as found in several 
anguages more or less closely related to Latin, may be seen In the following table, — 
lie Sanskrit sydm corresponding to the Latin sim (siem) : — 

Sanskrit Greek 

as-mi «yam (optative) K/i/xi^ 

as-i gyae itrtrl ^ 

aa-ti syat ktrrl 

s-mas syama liriUv 

B-tha sifdta itrri 

a^uitii syus tprl^ 

be English 5e. 

^ Oompare Sankrit sant, Qreek ofr 



s-nm sim (siem) 


es sis (sies) 


es-t sU (met) 


8-umus stmus 


es-tis sitis 


s-unt sint (sient) 


:e kindred with the Qreek If^v, and w 

»k ofv. * Old form. 

84 CONJUQAnOK OF THE YEBB [§§ 171-ll| 

Tlis Fbiir CPujogrtimiB 

171. Verbs are classed in Four Regular Conjugations, distil^ 
guished by the stem-Yowel which appears before -xe in the Presen 
Infinitive Active : — 

Conjugation Infinittve ENDnra Stem 

First -Sr« (amBre) ft 

Second -€re (monSre) 6 

Third -^e (reg&re) S 

Fourth -ire (audlre) I 

The Principal Pirts 

172. The Principal Parts of a verb, showing the three stemt 
which determine its conjugation throughout, are — 

1. The Present Indicative (as, am5) 1 , . ., ■rfc_ . o. 
o n^i^ Ty^ i,T A '4.' / - N f showing the Present Stem. 

2. The Present Innnitive (as, ama-re) J ^ 

8. The Perfect Indicative (as, amav-i), showing the Perfect Stem. 

4. The neuter of the Perfect Participle (as, am&t-nm), or, if that fom 
is not in use, the Future Active Participle (ain&t-anu), showing the Supim 

173. The regular forms of the Four Conjugations are seen in 
the following : — 

First Conjugation : — 

Active, amo, amftre, amftvl, am&tmn, love. 

Passive, amor, amAii, am&tus. 

Present Stem ama-, Perfect Stem am&v-, Supme Stem am&t-» 

Second Conjugation : — 

Active, dSleo, delSre, dSlSvI, dSietnm, llot <mt. 

Passive, dSleor, deleri, dSlStns. 

Present Stem dei$-. Perfect Stem dSlSv-, Supine Stem d818t-. 

In the Second conjugation, however, the characteristic 6- rarely appear? 
in the perfect and perfect participle. The common type is, therefore : — 

^ Active, mone5, monSre, montti, monitom, warn. 
Passive, moneor, mo&Sii, monitus. 
Present Stem monS-, Perfect Stem mono-. Supine Stem menit-. ' 

S 173, 174] PRESENT STEM 85 

Third Conjugation : — 

Active, tegd, tegSre, tez!, tSctam, cover. 

Passive, tegor, teg!, tSctas. 

Present Stem tegS-, Perfect Stem tSz-, Supine Stem tSet-. 

Fourth Conjugation : — 

Active, audio, aadire, aadlvf, atidilfQii) keor. 

Passive, andior, aoditl, aadltcs. 

Present Stem audi-, Perfect Stem aadfv-, Supine Stem audit-. 

«• In many verbs the principal parts take forms belonging to two or 
oaore different conjugations (cf. § 189): — 

1, 2, domo, domare, domui, domituin, svbdue, 

2, 3, maneo, manere, mlbisi, mansum, remain. 

3, 4, peto, petSre, petivf, pelitnm, seek. 

4, 3, vincio, vincire, vinzi, vinctum, hivd. 

Such verbs are referred to the conjugation to which the Present stem 

Present Stem 

174. The parent (Indo-European) speech from which Latin comes had two main 
classes of verbs : — 

1. Thematic Verbs, in which a so-called tTiematic vowel (%, in Latin %) appeared 
between the root and the personal ending: as, leg-i-tis (for tl«g-«-te8), leg-u-nt (for 

2: Athematic Verbs, in which the personal endings were added directly to the root : 
as, es-t, es-tis (root bs)*, dft-mus (do, root da), fer-t (ferS, root feb). 

Of the Athematic Verbs few survive in Latin, and tiiese are counted as irregular, 
except such as have been forced into oue of the four " regular " conjugations. Even 
the irregular verbs have admitted many forms of the thematic type. 

Of the Thematic Verbs a large number remain. These may be divided into two 
classes: — 

1. Verbs which preserve the thematic vowel e or o (in Latin i or u) before the per- 
sonal endings. — These make up the Third Conjugation. The present stem is formed 
in various ways (§ 176), but always ends in a short vowel •/© (Latin %). Examples are 
tego (stem tegV^-), stemimus (stem stemVe-) for fster-no-mos, plectunt (stem plectVo-) 
for tplec-to-nti. So nSsco (stem gn58C%-) for gno-sc-6. Verbs like ntJscS became the 
type for a large number of verbs in -scS, called inoeptives (§ 263. 1). 

2. Verbs which form the present stem by means of the suffix yVo~> which already 
contained the thematic vowel •/©. —Verbs of tliis class in which any vowel (except 
tt) came in contact with the suffix yVo* suffered contraction so as to present a long 
vowel £-, 6-, i-, at the end of the stem. In this contraction the thematic Vo disappeared. 
These became the types of the First, Second, and Fourth conjugations respectively. 
In imitation of these long vowel-stems numerous verbs were formed by the Romans 
themselves (after the mode of formation had been entirely forgotten) from noun- and 

1 Cf . X^-€-Te, Xiy-o-fAcv ; Doric Xdy-o-vri. 
3 Cf. iff'Tlf ia-rd (see p. 83, note). 


adjective-fltems. This came to be the regular way of forming new verbs, jnat asin 
English the borrowed suffix -ize can be added to nouns and adjectiyes to make 
verbs: as, macadamize, m.odemize. 

Thematic verbs of the second class in which a consonant or a came into contact 
with the sufllx yVo- suffered various phonetic changes. Such verbs fall partly into 
the Third Conjugation, giving rise to an irregular form of it, and partly into the Fourth, 
and some have forms of both. Examples are : — (c5n)8pici5 (-«pic§re) for fspckyo ; Tcnii 
(venire) for f (g) vem-y5 ; cupiS, cupSro, but cupiyi ; orior, oiitor, but oriri. Note, however, 
pltt5 (pluere) for tplu-y5 ; and hence, by analogy, acu5 (acuere) for facu-yS. 

In all these cases many cross-analogies and errors as well as phonetic changes have 
been at work to produce irregularities. Hence has arisen the traditional system wbicli 
is practically represented in §§ 175, 176. 

175. The Present Stem may be found by dropping -re in the 
Present Infinitive : — 

amA-re, stem amU-; monS-re, stem monS-; tegS-re, stem tegS-; aad!-ie, stem 

176. The Present Stem is formed from the Root in all regu- 
lar verbs in one of the following ways : — 

a. In the First, Second, and Fourth conjugations, by adding a lon§ 
vowel (a-, 8-, i-) to the root, whose vowel is sometimes changed : as, Yoci-R 
(voc), mone-re (men, of. memini), sopi-re (sop).^ 

NoTB. — Verb-Stems of these conjugations are almost all really formed from noofr 
stems on the pattern of older formations (see § 174). 

b» In the Third Conjugation, by adding a short vowel %* to the wo^ 
In Latin this % usually appears as i/u, but e is preserved in some form-'- 
Thus, tegi-8 (root teg), ali-tis (al), regu-nt (reg) ; but teg^ris (tegg-re),aK^n*" 

1. The stem-vowel e/o (Vu) ™ay be preceded by n, t, or sc : • as, tem-ni-tit 
tem-nn-nt, tem-nS-ris (tem) ; plec-ti-s (plec) ; cre-sci-tis (ore). 

2. Verbs in -i5 of the Third Conjugation (as, capio, capSre) show in some fonns 
an i before the final vowel of the stem : as, cap-i-nnt (cap), fng-i-ont (fug). 

<5. The root may be changed — 

1. By the repetition of a part of it (reduplication) : as, gi-gn-e-re (obn). 

2. By the insertion of a nasal (m or n) : as, find-e-re (fid), tang-e-re (tag). 

1 Most verbs of the First, Second, and Fourth Conjugations form the present stem ^^ 
adding the suffix -jrVo- to a noun-stem. The a of the First Conjugation is the stem-endiDl 
of the noun (as, planta-re, from planta-, stem of planta). The S of the Second and tb«i 
of the Fourth Conjugation are due to contraction of the short vowel of the noun-s^s 
with the ending -jrV©-- Thus albSre is from alb%-, stem of albus ; finire is from fi"^- 
stem of finis. Some verbs of these classes, however, come from roots ending in a vowd 

2 This is the so-called " thematic vowel." 

8 In these verbs the stem-ending added to the root is respectively -n%-, -t*.'i' 

{§ 176, 177] P£RF£CT STEM 87 

d» In some verbs the present stem is formed from a noon-stem in n- : 
as, statn-e^e (statu-s), aestn-a-re (aestn-s) ; cf . aciiO, acuere.^ 

NoTB 1. — A few isolated forms use the simple root as a present stem: as, ftor-re, 
fer-t ; es-se ; veHe, ▼nl-'t. These are counted as irregular. 

NoTB 2. — In some verbs the final consonant of the root is doubled before the stem- 
vowel: as, pell-i-tis (pel), mitt-i-tis (hit). 

ۥ Some verbs have roots ending in a vowel. In these the present stem 
is generally identical with the root : as, da-mas (da), flS-mus (stem fle-, root 
form unknown).^ But others, as nii-miis (Ru), are formed with an addi- 
tional vowel according to the analogy of the verbs described in d. 

Note. — Some verbs of this class reduplicate the root: as, si-st-e-re (sta, cf. stftre). 

Perfect Stem 

177. The Perfect Stem is formed as follows : — 

a* The suffix y (a) is added to the verb-stem: as, Yocft-y-i, andi-y-I; or 
to the root : as, son-o-i (sona-re, root son), mon-nri (mon&-re, mon treated 
as a root).* 

Note. — In a few verbs the vowel of the root is transposed and lengthened: as, 
•tra-v-i (stems, stab), sprS-v-i (spemS, spar). 

b» The suffix s is added to the root : as, carp-s-I (carp), tSz-I (for tSg-s-I, 


Note. — The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear In the perfect: 
as, finx-i (fig, present stem fingS-), sSnx-i (sac, present stem sane!-). 

c« The root is reduplicated by prefixing the first consonant — generally 

with ft, sometimes with the root-vowel: as, ce-cid-i (cad5, cad), to-tond-i 

(tondeO, tond). 

Note.— Infld-i (for ffe-fld-i, flnd-5), »cid-i (for fsci-scid-i, scind5), the reduplication 
has been lost, leaving merely the root. 

cf • The root vowel is lengthened, sometimes with vowel change : as, leg-i 
(lftg-6), 6m-i (6m-5), yid-i (yid-e-5), fug-i (fiig-i-5), cg-i (Xg-6). 

e. Sometimes the perfect stem has the same formation that appears in 
the present tense : as, vert-i (vert-5), solv-i (soIvhS). 

/• Sometimes the perfect is formed from a lost or imaginary stem : as, 
peti-y-I (as if from tP^i-^* fP^-'®* pjkt). 

1 These are either old formations In -jrVo* ii^ which the y has disappeared after the 
a (as, status for tstata-yS) or later imitations of such forms. 

^ In some of the verbs of this class the present stem was originally Identical with 
the root; in others the ending -vVo" ^^^ added, but has been absorbed by contraction. 

s The v-perfect is a form of uncertain origin i)eculiar to the Latin. 

* The 8-perfect is in origin an aorist. Thus, dix-I (for fdics-i) corresponds to the 
Greek aorist i-dei^ (for tl-deiic<r-a). 


Supine Stem 

178. The Supine Stem may be found by dropping -um from the 
Supine. It is formed by adding t (or, by a phonetic change, s)— 

a. To the present stem : as, ama-t-nm, dele-t-um, au^-t-um. 
6. To the root, with or without I : as, cap-t-um (capio, cap), moni-t-am 
(moneo, moh used as root), cas-om (for fcad-t-um, cad), leo-t-um (leg). 

Note 1. — By phonetic change dt and tt become 8 (dSf&isom, versom for fdHend- 
t-om, fvert-t-am) ; bt becomes pt (scnp-t-om for fsczib-t-om) ; gt becomes ct (reo-t-iun 
for tre«-t-um).i 

NoTB 2. — The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear in the supine: 
as, tinc-t-um (tingo, tig), tgn-s-um for ftend-t-um (ten-d-6, ten). 

Note 3. — The supine is sometimes from a lost or imaginary yerb-stem : as, peti-tnun 
(as if from fpeti-o, fpeti-re, pet). 

Note 4. — A few verbs form the supine stem in s after the analogy of yerbs in ^ 
and t: as, fal-4-am (falld), pul-s-am (pell5). 

Fonns of Conjugation 

179. The forms of the several conjugations from which, by 
adding the verb-endings in § 166, all the moods and tenses can 
be made are as follows : — 

a. The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add i- to the 
root to form the present stem : ^ as, am&-re ; with a few whose root 
ends in a (ffor, fa-ri; fl6, £Ia-re; n6, na-re; stC, stft-re). 

1. The stem-vowel a- is lost before -5 : as, amo = tama-(y)5 ; and in the 
present subjunctive it is changed to e : as, ame-s, ame-mus. 

2. The perfect stem regularly adds v, the supine stem t, to the preseni 
stem : as, ama-v-i, ama-t-um. For exceptions, see § 209. a. 

6. The Second Conjugation includes all verbs which add 6- to the 
root to form the present stem : as, monS-re ; with a few whose root 
ends in 6 ; as, fle-O, fl6-re ; ne-5, n6-re ; le-or, r6-ri (cf . § 176. e). 

1. In the present subjunctive a is added to the verbnstem : as, mone^-s, 
mone-a-mus (cf. § 168. e). 

2. A few verbs form the perfect stem by adding v (u), and the supine 
stem by adding t, to the present stem : as, dele-v-i, dele-t-um. But m(^ 
form the perfect stem by adding v (u) to the root, and the supine stem by 
adding t to a weaker form of the present stem, ending in i: aa, moiHH 
monl-t-um. For lists, see § 210. 

1 For these modifications of the supine stem, see § 15. 5, 6, 10. 

s The present stem is thus the yerb-stem. For exceptions, see § 209. a. 


ۥ The Third Conjugation includes all verbs (not irregular^ see 
§ 197) which add &- to the root to form the present stem : as^ tegS- 
re, capS-re ; with a few whose root ends in e : as, se-rfi-re for fse-se-re 
(reduplicated from se, cf. s&tam). 

1. The stem-vowel S is regularly lost before -5, and becomes a * before 
•Hi and 1 before the other endings of the indicative and imperative : as, 
teg-o, tegi-t, tegu-nt; in the imperfect indicative it becomes e: as, tegS- 
bam, tege-bas, etc. ; in the future, e : as, tege-s (except in the first person 
singular, tega-m, tega-r) ; in the present subjunctive, a : as, tega-s. 

Verbs in -id lose the i before a consonant and also before 1, i, and S 
(except in the "future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). 
Thus, — capi-at, capi-unt, capi-ebat, capi-es, capi-et, capi-ent; but, cap-it 
(not f capi-it), cap-eret. 

2. All varieties of perfect and supine stems are found in this conjuga- 
tion. See lists, § 211. The perfect is not formed from the present stem, 
but from the root. 

d. The Fourth Conjugation includes all verbs which add i- to the 
root to form the present stem : as, audi-re.* In these the perfect and 
supine stems regularly add v, t, to the verb-stem : as, audi-v-i, audi- 
t-um.* Endings like those of the third conjugation are added in the 
third person plural of the present (indicative and imperative), in 
the imperfect and future indicative, and in the present subjunctive : 
as, audi-unt, audi-Sbat, audi-etis, audi-at, the i being regularly short 
before a vowel. 

e. The Present Imperative Active (second person singular) is the 
same as the present stem : as, am&, monS, tegS, audi. But verbs in -id 
of the third conjugation omit i : as, cap6 (not fcapie). 

/• The tenses of completed action in the Active voice are all regu- 
larly formed by adding the tense-endings (given in § 166) to the 
perfect stem : as, amUv-i, amftv-eram, amav-erO, am&v-erim, amav-issem, 

gr. The tenses of completed action in the Passive voice are formed 
by adding to the perfect participle the corresponding tenses of con- 
tinued action of the verb esse : as, perfect am£tU8 sum ; pluperfect 
amatus eram, etc. 

^ The gerundive varies between -endas and -undus. 

3 A few are formed from noun-stemg, as fini-re (from fini-s), and a few roots perhaps 
end in i ; but these are not distinguishable in form. 
• For exceptions, see § 212. 6, 




Synopsis of the Verb 

180. The following synopsis shows the forms of the verb ar- 
ranged according to the three stems (§ 164). AmO, a regular verb 
of the first conjugation, is taken as a type. 

Principal Parts : Active^ am5, amare, amayi, amatom. 
Passive, amor, amari, amatus sum. 

GERUND ama-ndl 

Perfect stem^ amAv- 

Supine stem, amftt- 

FuT. Perf. 


amftt-UB anm 
amftt-uB eram 
amflt-uB er5 




amftt-ua aim 
am&t-u8 esaem 



Supine stem, amflt* 


amftt-uB esse 
am&t-tlniB esse am&t-um Xii 

Put. am&t-tlraB 

SUPINE amftt-um amftt-fl 


Perf. amftt-us 



r » » 

Pbbfbgt 8TBM amfiv- SupiNB STBM amAt- 


Present stem, am&- | 





amo-r 1 
amft-bar ^ 
















Gerundive ama-ndns 


Peculiarities of Conjagation 

181. In tenses formed upon the Perfect Stem, v between two 
vowels is often lost and contraction takes place. 

a. Perfects in -ayi, -eyi, -dvi, often contract the two vowels into a, S, 5, 
respectively : as, amasse for amavisse ; amarim for anuLverim ; amassem for 
amayissem ; c5nsaerat for consugyerat ; flestis for flevistis ; n5sse for nOyisse. 
So in perfects in -yi, where the y is a part of the present stem : as, commdrat 
for commOyerat. 

NoTB. — The first person of the perfect indicative (as, amAvi) is never contracted, 
the third very rarely, 


&• Perfects in -iyi regularly omit y, but rarely contract the vowels ex- 
cept before st and ss, and very rarely in the third person perfect: — 

andiexam for audiveram ; aadisse for audivisse ; aadisti for aadivisti ; abiit for 
at^yit ; abiSrtmt for abivSrant. 

NoTB 1. — The forms tSiis, suit, siritis, drint, for siveris etc. (from 8lver9 or siveilm), 
are archaic. 

Note 2. — In many forms from the perfect stem is, las, sis, are lost in like manner, 
when 8 would be repeated if they were retained: as, dixti for dizisti (x = c8); trftze 
fortribdssd; Cvftsti f or Svasisti ; vizet f or vixisset ; SrfipsSmttS for SrCpsissiEmas; dScSsse 
for dSoessisse. These fonns belong to archaic and coUoqaial nsage. 

182. Four verbs, — dic5, duc5, faci(J, ferO, — with their compounds, 
drop the vowel-termination of the Imperative, making die, dUc, fSc, 
&r; but compounds in -ficiO retain it, as, cOnfice. 

NoTB. — The imperative forms dice, duce, face (never fere), occur hi early Latin. 

a» For the imperative of sci5, the future form scitS is always used in the 
singular, and scitote usually in tfie plural. 

183. The following ancient forms are found chiefly in poetry : 

1. In the fourth conjugation, -ibam, -ib5, for -iebam, -iam (future). These 
forms are regular in c5, go (§ 203). 

2. In the present subjunctive, -im: as in duim, perduim, retained in 
religious formulas and often in comedy. This form is regular in sum and 
vol5 and their compounds (§§ 170, 199). 

3. In the perfect subjunctive and future perfect indicative, -sim, -sC : as, 
fazim, faz5, iussQ, receps5 (= fecerim etc.) ; ausim (z= ausus sim). 

4. In the passive infinitive, -ier : as, voc&rier for vocari ; agier for agi. 

6. A form in -Ils85, -assere is found used as a future perfect : as, amassis, 
from amO ; levassQ, from leY5 ; impetrassere, from impetrO ; iiidicassit, from 
iudic5 (cf . § 263. 2. h. n.). 





184. The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add a- to 
the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends 
in a-. The verb amO, love^ is conjugated as follows : — 

Principal Parts : Present Indicative amO, Present Infinitive amare, 
Perfect Indicative amayi, Supine amatnm. 

Pbbbbnt stkm anUU 



SXTPIKB BTBM aillftt- 


amS,^ / love, am loving, do love 


amfts, thou lovest (jyou love) 


amat, he (she, it) loves 



amamua, we love 


amfttia, you love 


am ant, they love 



amabam, / loved, was loving, did love 


amftbas, you loved 


amftbat, he loved 


amabamuB, we loved 


am&bati8, you loved 


amabant, they loved 



amab5, / shall love 
am&bis, you will love 
amftbit, he wUl love 

amablmus, we shall love 
amabitia, you will love 
amabtmt, they will love 

\ ^« ^T^^®^ *" *® ^"^ ^®'**™ "'' *^^ ^^ *^e Present Subjunctive becomes 5- 
X, ««V^ f**^*^ ^^ **^® Subjunctive varies widely according to the constmctio: 
Hence no translation of this mood is given in the paradigms. 





aniayl, / loved, have loved 
amavisti, you loved 
amavit, he loved 

amaviiiias, toe loved 
amavistiB, pou loved 
amayerunt (-Sre), they loved 



amaveram, / had loved 
amaverSs, you had loved 
am&verat, he had loved 

amayerSmuB, we had loved 
amaver&tis^ you had loved 
amliyerant, t?iey had loved 














Future Perfect 


amayer5, / shall have loved . 
amayeris, you toiil have loved 
amayerit, he toiU have loved 


am&yerimu8, we shall have loved 
amayeritia, you will have loved 
amayerint, Ihey will have loved 



Pbesbnt amft, love thou amftte, love ye 

Future amStd, thou shalt love amStdte, ye shall love 
amflto, he shall love amantd, they shall love 


Prbsemt amflre, to love 

Pbefsct %m&yiB8e or amftsse, to have loved 

Future amattLma ease, to be about to hve 

Present am&na, -antiB, loving 
Future amatflruB, -a, -um, about to love 

GEHXTiyB amandl, of loving Accusative amandum, loving 

Dative amandd, for loving Ablative amandd, by loving 


amatum, to love am&tii, to love 





Pbincipal Parts : Present Indicative amor, Present Infinitive affliii, 

Perfect Indicative am&tiis snm.^ 

SnpiHB smc amlt- 



amor,' / am lovedy being laved 
amftrla (-re), you are loved 
amfttnr, he is loved 

amftmnr, we are loved 
amftminl, you are loved 
amantar, they are loved 


amSris (-re) 





amftbar, / was loved, being loved 
amabftrla (-re), you were loved 
amftbfttur, he was loved 

amftbftmnr, we were loved 
amftbftmini, you were loved 
amftbantur, they were loved 

amftreris (-re) 





amftbor, / shall be loved 
amftberis (-re), you will be loved 
amftbitur, he tvill be loved 

amabimur, we shall be loved 
amftbimini, you will be loved 
amftbuntur, they will be loved 

1 Fnf , folstl, etc., are sometimes used instead of sum, es, ete. ; so also tveiam inst^ 
of eram and fuerO instead of er9. Similarly in the Perfect and Pluperfect Sabjoocti^ 
fuerim, faeris, etc. are sometimes used instead of sim, sis, etc., and foissem instea-i '- 

« The stem-vowel t- is lost before -or, and in the Present Subjunctive becomes I- 
« The translation of the Subjunctive varies widely according to the construdi - 
Hence no translation of this mood is given in the paradigms. 

J 184] 




amfttas suin,^ / waa loved 
am§,taa en, you were loved 
am&tuB est, he teas loved 

amati stunuB, toe were loved 
amatl estts, you were loved 
am&tl Bont, they were loved 



am&tns fllm ^ 
amatuB sis 
am&ttiB Bit 

am&tl BfmuB 
am&tl BitiB 
am&tX Bint 


am&tuB eram,^ / had been loved 
am&tuB erSB, you had been loved 
am&tuB erat, he had been loved 

am&tl erSxnuB, we had been loved 
am&tl erfttiB, you had been loved 
am&tl erant, they had been loved 

am&tuB eBBem ^ 
am&tuB OBBte 
am&tuB esset 

am&tl oBBSmiXB 
am&U OBBfitiB 
am&tl OBBont 

Future Perfect 


am&taB er6,^ / shall have been loved 
am&tuB erlB, you will have^ etc. 
am&tns erit, he will have^ etc. 


am&tl erimuB, we shall have, etc 
amatl eritiB, you will have, etc. 
am&tl eront, they will have^ etc. 


amftre, be thou loved 
amfttor, thou shalt be loved 
amfttor, he shall be loved 


amftmlnl, be ye loved 

amantor, they shall be loved 


Present amftrX, to be loved 

Perfect amatuB OBse, to have been loved 

Future amatum ui, to be about to be loved 


Perfect am&tna, -a, -um, loved (beloved, or having been loved) 

Future (Gerundive) amanduB, -a, -um, to4>e4oved (lovely) 


^ See page 94, footnote 1. 






185. The Second Conjugation includes all verbs which add 5- 
to the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends 

in (h* 

Pbincipal Parts : Active^ moneS, monSre, montu, monitam; 
Passive^ moneor, moneri, monitns sum. 

Prbsbnt stem monS- Pbrfbct stsm mono-* Suitbtb stem monit- 





moi\e6f I warn moneam^ 
monte, you warn monefts 
monet, he warns moneat 









monSria (-re) 




monear * 
monearia (-re) 





















monebaria (-re) 


monfirSrifl (-re) 



monaberia (-re) 




1 See § 179. 6. 1. 

§ 185] 



Active Voice 


monul monueiim 

monuistit monueris 

monuit monuerit 

momiimua monuerimuB 

moxmistis monueritia 

mon.u6runt (-re) monuerint 



Passive Voice 


monitiu sum ^ monitus Bim ^ 

monitiu bXs 
monitoB Bit 

moniti BlmuB 
moniti bIUb 
moniti Bint 

monituB eat 

moniti Bui^tiB 
moniti eatdB 
moniti sunt 







monituB eram ^ monitoB eaaem ^ 





monitua erfta 
monitna erat 

moniti eramaa 
moniti er&tia 
moniti erant 

monitna eaafia 
monitna eaaet 

moniti eaaSmna 
moniti eaafitia 
moniti eaaent 

Future Perfect 





Future Perfect 
monitna er5 ^ 
monitna eria 
monitna erit 

moniti erimna 
moniU eritia 
moniti emnt 

Phbsbnt monfi 
FuTUBB monSt5 



monfite Pbbsbnt 

monStdte Futujub 








Prbbbnt monfire 

Pbrfkct monniaae 

FuTUBB monitl&ma eaae 

Prbssnt monSna, -entiLa 

Futurb monitfLrnB) -a, -nm 


monitna eaae 
monitnm Irl 


Perfect monitna, -a, -nm 
Gebundiyb monendna^ -a,-nm 


monendS, -d5, -dnm, -dd monitnm, monitfl 

1 See footnote 1 on page 94. 





186. The Third Conjugation includes all verbs (not irregxilar, 
see § 197) which add ^ to the root to form the present stem, with 
a few whose root ends in 8-. 

Principal Parts : Active, tegO, tegSre, t&d» tSctum ; 
Passive^ tegor, tegi, tectus sum. 

PBBsmrr stbm tege- 


Pbbfbct stbm t6x- ^ 



teg5,* / cover tegam * 

tegiB, you cover 
tegit, he covers 































tegerlB (-re) 





tegfiris (-re) 





tegfibar tegerer 

tegebSriB (-re) tegerfiria (-re) 
tegfibfttur tegerfitur 








tegSriB (-re) 




1 The perfect stem in this conjugation is always formed from the root; tSs- is foi 
i«e-s- (see § 15. 9) . < See § 170. c. 1. 




Active Voice 

Passive Voice 








tSctos som^ 

tectus slm^ 



tectus es 

tectus sis 



tSctus est 

tectus sit 



tgcti sumus 

tecti simus 



tecti estis 

tecti sitis 

texSrunt ( 

-re) tSxerint 

tecti sunt 

tecti sint 





tectus eram ^ 

tectus essem ^ 



tectus erfts 

tectus ess6s 



tectus erat 

tectus esset 


\ t@xi8s6mu8 

tecti erftmus 

tecti essSmus 



tecti erfttis 

tecti essfitis 



t@ctl erant 

tecti essent 

Future Pbrfbot 

Future Perfect 


tectus er5 ^ 


tectus eris 


tectus erit 


tecti erimus 


tectt eritis 


tecti eruut 


Singular Plural 




tege tegite 




tegit5 tegitote 


tegit5 tegunta 








tectus esse 


tectl&nui esse 

tectum iri 



tegSns, -entis 


tectus, -a, -um 


tSctl&ms, -a, -urn 


tegendus (-undus) 


egendX, -d5y -dunii -d5 


tectum, tectd 

1 See footnote 1 on page 94. 

C"?^l-" -4 






18T. The Foaith Conjogstion indudes all verbs which add I- 
to the root to f oim the present stem. 

Pakts : Aciwe^ aadifi, anffiie, 

r, aadn^ aiwifhia sum 


SupiNB BTBM audit- 






audi5, / hear 
audSa, you hear 
audit, he Aeon 












aadXris (-re) 


audifiiia (-re) 



audiSbam ^ 













audifibar ^ audSrer 

audiSbfiri8(-re) audirfiria (-re) 
audifib&tiir audirfitmr 












audifiris (-re) 


* See § 179. d. 

J 187] 



Active Voice 
indicative subjunctive 

audiYl audiverim 
audlyiatl audiyeria 
audMt audiverit 

Passive Voice 


auditua anm ^ auditua aim ^ 
auditua ea auditua ab 
auditua eat auditua ait 

audiyimua audiverimua 
audlviatia audiyeritia 
aadiy6ra]it(-re) audiverint 

auditl aumua 
auditl eatia 
auditl aunt 

auditl almua 
auditl altia 
auditl alnt 


audiYeram audiyiaaem 
audiYerfts audiyisate 
audiyerat audiyiaaet 

auditua eram ^ auditua eaaem ^ 
auditua erfta auditua eaafia 
auditua erat auditua eaaet 

audlyerfimua audiyiaafimna 
audiyerfttia audlYiaaStlB 
audiyerant audiyiaaent 

auditl erAmua 
auditl eratia 
auditl erant 

auditl eaaSmua 
auditl eaaStia 
auditl eaaent 

Future Perfect 


auditua er5 ^ 
auditua eria 
auditua erit 






auditl erimua 
auditl eritia 
auditl erunt 

Singular Plural 
Present audi audita 

ITtttttvk AiiHTfl:/^ AiidTl:AtA 




X U A U JIB CiUULAw^ aiM^Utt^wV 

audlt5 audiuntS 


Present audire 
Perfect audiyiaae 
Future auditfLma eaae 



auditua eaae 
auditum Irl 


Present audiSna, -ientia Perfect 

Future auditflrUB) -a, -um Gerunditb 


audiendi; -dO, -dum, -d5 auditum, auditfl 

auditua, -a, -um 
audieadua, -a, -um 

^ ii^ct^^ot^ It p. 94. 





188. Verbs of the Third Conjugation in -16 have certain forms 
of the present stem like the fourth conjugation. They lose the 
i of the stem before a consonant and also before I, i, and S (except 
in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive).^ 
Verbs of this class are conjugated as follows : — 

Principal Parts : Active, capiS, capSre, c^I, captnm; 
Passive, capior, capl, capias sum. 

Pbbsent stem capie- (cape-) Peufbct stem cSp- Supine stem capt- 











capi5, / take 




capiB) you take 


caperis (-re) 

capiftris (-re) 

capit, he takes 
















capiSbam caperem 

capiSbar caperer 

capiet, etc. 


capifiriB (-re) 
capifitur) etc. 



cepi ceperim 

captus sum captus sim 



ceperam cepissem 

captus eram captus essem 

Future Perfect 


Future Perfect 
captus er5 

1 This is a practical working rule. The actual explanation of the forms of such 
erbs is not fully understood. 

§§ 188-190] 



Active Voice 

Singular Plural 
cape capite 


capit5 capit5te 
capit5 capiunto 

Passive Voice 


Singular Plural 

capere capimlni 




Present capere 
PsRFECT ceplBse 
PiTTUKE capttiras esse 



captus esse 
captum In 



capiSnS) -ientiB Perfect 

captfLruB, -a, -lun Gerundive 

captus, -a, -um 
capiendus, -a, -um 


capiendV-d5, -dum, -d5 


captum, -ttL 

Parallel Forms 

189. Many verbs have more than one set of forms, of which 
only one is generally found in classic use : — 

lay5, layaie or lavSre, wash (see § 211. «). 
seated, scatere or scatSre, gush forth, 
Ifidifico, -Are, Or ludificor, -Ad, mock. 
falgo, fulgSre, or f algeo, fulgere, shine. 


190. Deponent Verbs have the forms of the Passive Voice, 
vdth an active or reflexive signification : — 


' First conjugation : miror, m!rftii, mirfttus, admire. 
Second conjugation : yereor, yer§ii, yeritus, fear. 
Third conjugation : sequor, seqai, seciitas, follow. 
Fourth conjugation : partior, partiri, partitus, share. 







mirftxis (-re) 

▼ereor sequor 
verSxls (-re) sequexis (-re) 
verStur sequitor 

partXris (-re) 




TerSmur sequlmur 
verSminl sequiminl 
verentor sequnntor 







mlr&lYui ■am 
mlrfttiu eram 
xnlrfttmi 6r5 

yerSbar sequSbar 
verSbor sequar 
Veritas aam secHtas aam 
vedtas eram secHtos eram 
Veritas er5 secHtas erO 


partitas eram 


mlrfttuB Bim 
mir&tiw eBsam 

verear sequar 
verSrer sequerer 
Veritas sim secHtas Bim 
Veritas essem sectttos essem 


partltus sim 
partltiis essem 



verSre sequere 
verfitor sequitor 




mir&ttui ease 
xnlrattLniB esBe 

verSrZ sequX 
Veritas esse secutus esse 
veritilras esse sectlttLras esse 


partitas esse 
partitflras esm 



verSns sequfins 
veritflrus secutGros 
Veritas sectltas 
verendus seqaendas 



mirandl, -5, etc. 

verendl, etc. sequendl, etc. 


partiendf , etc. 

mlrfttam, -tfL 

veritam, -tiX - seciLtam, -ta 

partltam, -ta 

|§ 190, IW] DEPONENT VERBS 105 

€^« Deponents have the participles of both voices : — 

9eqn9nBf following. weciLtAiUB^ about to follow. 

Becfitos, having followed. sequendas, to befoUowed. 

hm The perfect participle generally has an active sense, but in verbs 
otherwise deponent it is often passive : as, mercatus, bought ; adeptus, gained 
(or having gained). 

Cm The future infinitive is always in the active form : thus, seqvor has 
secutilnis (-a, -urn) esse (not seditum iri). 

<f • The gerundive, being passive in meaning, is found only in transitive 
verbs, or intransitive verbs used impersonally : — 

hoc cSnfitendam est, this must be a^iknowledged. 
moriendum est omnibus, ail must die. 

e. Most deponents are intransitive or reflexive in meaning, correspond- 
ing to what in Greek is called the Middle Voice (§156. a. k.). 

fm Some deponents are occasionally used in a passive sense : as, criminor, 
/ accuse, or / am accused. 

g. About twenty verbs have an active meaning in both active and 
passive forms : as, mere5 or mereor, / deserve, 

191. More than half of all deponents are of the First Conju- 
gation, and all of these are regular. The following deponents 
are irregular : — 

adsentior, -ixl, adsSnsus, assemt, obliviscor, -i, oblitns, forget. 

aplscor, (-ip-), -I, aptii8(-epta8), get. opperior, -ui, oppertus, await. 

defetiacor, -i, -fessns, faint. Qrdior, -iii, orsas, begin. 

ezperg^scor, -I, -pexrSctas, rouse. orior, -iii, ortas (oiitfims), rise (3d 
ezperior, -izi, ezpertns, try. conjugation in most forms), 

fateor, -iri, fassns, confess. padscor, -i, pactus, bargain. 

iroor, -i, frGctus (froitus), enjoy. patior (-petior), -i, pasaus (-peasus), 
f nngor, -I, fdnctiis, fvJIfil. suffer, 

gradior (-gredior), -i, gressus, step. -plector, -i, -plezns, cZaap. 

bftscor, -i, irfttas, be angry. piDfidacor, -I, profectiis, set out. 

Ubor, -I, Iflpstts, fall. queror, -i, questaa, complain. 

loqnor, -i, locfitaa, speak. reor, rSri, ratas, think. 

mStior, -in, mSnana, measure. revertor, -I, reveraus, return. 

-miniacor, -i, -mentas, think. ringor, -I, rictos, snarl. 
morior,-! (-iri), mortuna (morituroa), die. aequor, -i, aecfitua, follow. 

nanciacor, -i, nactua (n&iictu8),^nd. tueor, -eri, taitua (tutoa), dtfend. 

niacor, -i, nitna, be born. ulciacor, -i, oltua, a:v€nge. 

nitor, -i, niaua (nizaa), strive. fitor, -i, fiaua, use, employ. 

NOTB.— The deponent comperior, -iri, compertns, is rarely found for comperiS, -ire. 
Reyertor, until the time of Augnstus, had regularly the active forms in the perfect sys- 
tem, reverti, reverteram, etc. 

106 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB [§f 191-194 

a. The following deponents haye no supine stem : — 

dfivertor, -ti, turn aside (to lodge). medeor, -€d, hedL 

difflteor, -€rl, deny. reminiscor, -I, caU to mind. 

fatiscor, -i, gape, yescor, -i, feed upon. 
liquor, -I, melt (intrans.). 

NoTB. — Deponents are really passiye (or middle) yerbs whose actiye yoice has 
disappeared. There is hardly one that does not show signs of haying been used in 
the actiye at some period of the language. 


192. A few verbs having no perfect stem are regular in the 
present, but appear in the tenses of completed action as deponents. 
These are called Semi-deponents. They are : — 

audeS, audSre, ausus, dare. gaudeS, gaudSre, g&visus, r^oice. 

Iid5, fidSre, fistts, trust. soleo, solSre, solitas, be wont. 

a. From aude5 there is an old perfect subjunctiye ausim. The form sdd^ 
(for 81 audes), an thou unit, is frequent in the dramatists and rare elsewhere. 

b» The actiye forms yapuld, yapulare, be flogged, and ySneS, yenire, be sold 
(contracted from ySnum ire, go to sale), haye a passiye meaning, and are 
sometimes called neutral passives. To these may be added fieri) to be made 
(§ 204), and ezsulare, to be banished (liye in exile) ; cf . accedere, to be added. 

Note. — The following yerbs are sometimes found as semi-deponents: iSrS, iflrare, 
itrfttas, swear; nilbd, nfibere, nupta, m^rry; placed, placSre, plucitaB, please. 


193. A Periphrastic form, as the name indicates, is a " ronndahont way of speak- 
ing." In the widest sense, all verb-phrases consisting of participles and sum are Peri- 
phrastic Forms. The Present Participle is, however, rarely so used, and the Perfect 
Participle with snm is included in the regular conjugation (anultns sum, eram, etc.)* 
Hence the term Periphrastic Conjugation is usually restricted to verb-phrases con- 
sisting of the Future Active Participle or the Gerundive with snm. 

Note. — The Future Passive Infinitive, as am£tam m, formed from the infinitive 
passiye of e5, ^o, used impersonally with the supine in -um, may also be classed as a 
periphrastic form (§203. a). 

194. There are two Periphrastic Conjugations, known respec- 
tively as the First (or Active) and the Second (or Passive). 

a* The First Periphrastic Conjugation combines the Future Active 
Participle with the forms of sum, and denotes a, future or intended action. 

b» The Second Periphrastic Conjugation combines the Gerundive with 
the forms of sum, and denotes obligation, necessity, or propriety. 

c. The periphrastic forms are inflected regularly throughout the Indica- 
te and Subjunctiye and in the Present and Perfect Infinitive. 




» ) 

195. -The First Periphrastic Conjugation : — 






Future Perfect 

^ Present 


amaturus sum, 1 am about to love 
amatunis eram, / was about to love 
amaturus ero, / shall be about to love ' 
amaturus fui, / have been, was, about to love 
am&turus fueram, / had been about to love 
amaturus f uero, / shall have been about to love 


amaturus sim 
amaturus essem 
am&turus fuerim 
am&turus fuissem 


amaturus esse, to be about to love 
amaturus fuisse, to have been about to love 

So in the other conjugations : — 

Second : monitflras sum, I am about to advise. 
Third : tSctflrus sam, I am ahovt to cover. 
Fourth : auditilnis sum, I am about to hear. 
Third (in -id) : captiinis sum, I am about to take. 

196. The Second Periphrastic Conjugation : — 






Future Perfect 



amandus sum, / am to be, must be, loved 
amandus eram, / was to be, had to be, loved 
amandus ero, / shall have to be loved 
amandus fui, / was to be, had to be, loved 
amandus fueram, / had had to be loved 
amandus fuero, / shall have had to be loved 


amandus sim 
amandus essem 
amandus fuerim 
amandus fuissem 


amandus esse, to have to be loved 
amandus fuisse, to have had to be loved 



[§§ 196-198 

So in the other conjugations : — 

Second : numendtts sum, I am to be, mtut be, advised. 
Third : tegendos sum, I am to be, must be, covered. 
Fourth : audiendus sum, / am to be, must be, heard, 
Tliird (in -15) : capiendus som, I am to be, must be, taken. 


197. Several verbs add some of the personal endings of the 
piesent system directly to the root,^ or combine two verbs in 
their inflection. These are called Irregular Verbs. They a^ 
sum, TOlG, feril, ed0, dO, eO, queO, fiO, and their compounds. 

Sam has already been inflected in § 170. 

198. Sum is compounded without any change of inflection with 
the prepositions ah, ad, dS, in, inter, oh, prae, prO (earlier form prOd), 
suh, super. 

a« In the compound prOsum (help), pr5 retains its original d before e : 

Principal Fabts : prSsam, prodesse, prSfoi, piofatflnis 


FuT. Pbrf. 


Singular Plural 

prOsum prOsumus 

prOdes prOdestis 

prOdest prOsont 

prOderam prOder&mus 

prOderO prOderimus 

prOfuI prOfuimus 

prOfaeram pr5fuer&mus 

prOfuerO prOfuerimos 


Sir^ular Plural 

prOsim prtelmus 

prOsIs pr<3titi8 

prOsit prOsint 

prOdessem prOdessSmus 

prOfuerim prOfuerimus 
prOfuissem prOfuissemus 


Present prOdes, prOdeste Future prOdestO, prOdestOte 


Present prOdesse Perfect prOfuisse 

Future prOfutHrus esse 

Future prOfutGrus 

1 These are athematic verbs, see § 174. 2. 

$§ 198, 190] 



b. Sum is also compounded with the adjective potis, or pote, able, making 
the verb possum (be able, can). Possum is inflected as follows : — i 

Principal Parts: possum, posse, potai^ 




















Fdt. Pbrf. 















Pres. posse 


Pbrf. potuisse 




X>oteD8 (adjectiye), povoerful 


volS^ nSUif mS16 

Parts : 

' vol5, velle, yolui, — 
n515, ndlle, ndlui, — 
maid, malle, malui. 

-, be willing, will/wish 
', be unvnlling, will not 
— , be more willing, prefer 

Note. — lTol5 and m&15 are compounds of void. lVdl5 is for ne-yolS, and m&lS for m&- 
▼olo from mage-TolS. 





vult (volt) 

vultis (voltis) 


volam, volSs, etc. 


Pluperfect volueram 
Fut. Perf. voluerO 


non vis 
non vult 

non vultis 


nolam, ndl§s, etc. 








malam, m&les, etc. 

^ The forms potis stun, pote sum, etc. occur in early writers. Other early forms are 
potesse ; poMiMn, -Ss; -et » poterint, potisit (for possit) ; potestur and possitur (used with 
a passive infinitive, of. § 20$. a). 

3 FotuI is'from^m obsolete fpo't^. ' Vis is from a different root. 



[§§ 190, 21 






velim, -is, -it, 
velimus, -Stis, -int 
vellem,^ -6s, -€t, 
vellemus, -Stis, -ent 











noil, nolite 
nolitC, etc. 





YolSns, -entis nolens, -entis 

Note. — The forms sis for si vis, sfiltis for si vultis, and the forms nSvis (nS-Tis), 
nSvolt, mAyol5, m&yoluiit, m&velim/m&Tellem, etc., occur in early writers. 

200. FerO, bear, carry, endure ' ~ 

Principal Parts : fer5, ferre,^ tall, latum 
Present stem far- Perfect stem tol- Supine stbm Ult- 


feror f erimur 

ferris (-re) f erimini 

fertur f eruntur 



l&tus sum 

latus eram 

latus ero 


















Future Perfect tulero 

1 Vellem is for fvel-sSm, and velle for frel-se (cf. es-se), the s being assimilated to 
the 1 preceding. 

3 Fer5 has two independent stems : fer- in the present system, and tal- (for tot) in 
the perfect from tol, root of toUd. The perfect tetttl! occurs in Plautus. In the parti- 
ciple the root is weakened to tl-, Utum standing for ttUtum (cf. rXt7r6s). 

8 Ferre, fcrrcm, are for ffer-se, ffer-sfim (cf. es-se, es-sem), s being assimilated to pre- 
ceding r ; or ferre, ferrem, may be for fferese, fferesSm (see § 15. 4). 

i 200] 









f erar - 



f errer- . - 



latus slm 




latus essem 




ferre ferin 








fertor ferui 






latus esse 


l&turus esse 



latum iri. 


ferens, -entis 

Perfect latus . 




Gerundive ferendus> 




f erendi, -do, -dum, -do 

latum, latu 

cr« The compounds of ferO, conjugated like the simple verb, are the 
following : — 






aa-, ab- 










dia-, di- 





ex-, «- 

























Note. — In these compounds the phonetic changes in the preposition are especially 
to be noted, ab- and au- are two distinct prepositions with the same meaning. 

1 See note 3, page 110. 

3 Snitnli and sublfttom also supply the perfect and participle of the verb toll5. 




201. EdO, edere, M, team, eat, is regular of the third conjuga- 
tion, but has also an archaic present subjunctive and some alter- 
native forms directly from the root (ed), without the thematic 
vowel. These are in full-faced type. 




ed5, edis (Ss^), edit (est) 
edimnsy editis (MiB), edunt 
edfibam, edfibfts, etc. 


edam (edim), edfis (edu), edat (edit) 

edfimus (edimus), edatis (editis), edant (edint) 

ederem, ederOs (SsaSs), ederet (Ssset) 

ederSmufl (Sesimus), ederStis (SssCtis), ederent (Sesent) 





ede (6e) 
edit5 (tetS) 
edit6 (6et5) 




edere (Ssse) 
$8uru8 esse 


edite (6ete) 
edit5te (SstOte) 


Pbesent edgns, -entis 
FuTUBB Ssums * 


edendi, -dO) -dum, -d5 

Ssum, Ssn ' 

a» In the PassiYe the following irregular forms occur in the third per- 
son singular : Present Indicative estor, Imperfect Subjunctive essStur. 

1 In 68 etc. the e is long. In the corresponding forms of torn, e is short. The diffe^ 
ence in quantity between 6d5 and H etc. depends apon inherited vowel variation (§ 17. a). 
3 Old forms are fssftrot and supine Sssom. 

§ 202] 



202. The irregular verb do, give^ is conjugated as follows : — 

Principal Farts : dd, dSre, dedi, datum 

PsBSRKT Stbm dX^ 

Pbrfrct Stem ded- 

SuriNB Stem dat- 




Impssfbot ' 




d5 damus 

d&s datis 

dat dant 





;PnTiTJis Pesfbot dederO 

daris (-re) 
datus sum 
datus eram 
datus erO 






dem, des, det, etc. 

y deris (-re), detur, etc. 

datus sim 
datus essem 




d& date dare damini 

dat5 dat5te dator 

dat6 dantd dator dantor 



daturus esse 


datus esse 
datum Iri 


dftns, dantis Perfect datus 

daturus Gbrukdiyb dandus 


dandly -d5, -dum, -d0 


datum, datti 

For oompounds of dS, see § 209. a. v. 







BO, go,^ Principal Parts : e5, in, iE G^» ^ttxaai 


eo, 18, it 

Imus, Uis, eunt 
ibam, ibas, ibat 
Ib&mus, Ib&tis, ibant 
ib5y ibis, ibit 
ibimus, Ibitis, Ibunt 
ii (ivi) 

ieram (iveram) 
iero (Ivero) 

Present I Fdtdrb ltd, Itote 

ite ltd, eunto 


earn, eas, eat 
eamus, eatis, eant 
Irem, ires, iret. 
Iremus, irStis, irent 

ierim (iTerim) 
issem (lyiflsem) 

Present ire 

Perfect isse (ivisse) Future iturus esse 

Present i6ns, gen, euntis Future iturus Gbrundiyb eundum 

GERUND eundi, -do, -dum, -d6 SUPINE itum, itu 

a. The compounds ade9, approach, ined, enter, and some others, are tran- 
sitive. They are inflected as follows in the passive : — 


Pres. adeor 

Impf. adibar 

FuT. adibor 

Perf. aditus sum 

Plup. aditus eram 

F. P. aditus erO 

iSFiNi, adirl aditus esse 

Pres. adear 

Impf. adirer 

Perf. aditus aim 

Plup. aditus essoin 

PART, aditus adeunduE 

Thus inflected, the forms of e6 are used impersonally in the third persw 
singular of the passive : as, itum est (§ 208. d). The infinitive iri is used iritf 
the supine in -urn to make the future infinitive passive (§ 1 93. k.). The ver: 
vene5, be sold (i.e. venum e5, go to sale), has also several forms in "the passiTe. 

b. In the perfect system of eo the forms with v are very rare in the sin?-* 
verb and unusual in the compounds. 

c. ii before s is regularly contracted to I : as, isse. 

I 208, 204] 



€f • The compound ambi5 is inflected regularly like a verb ol the fourth 
onjugation. But it has also ambibat in the imperfect indicatiye. 
e* Pr5 with e5 retains its original d : as, prdde5, prddis, prOdit 

204. Faci6, facere, fSci, factum, make^ is regular. But it hxus im- 
)erative fac in the active, and, besides the regular forms, the future 
)erf act £az5, perfect subjunctive faTini, The passive of faciO is — 

fid, fiSri, tactus sam, be made or become. 
The present system of fio is regular of the fourth conjugation, 
Dut the subjunctive imperfect is fierem, and the infinitive fieri. 

NOTB. — The forms in brackets are not used in good prose. 


Future Perfect 

fi5, &, fit 

[fimus], [Atis], flaQt 
figbam, fiebas, etc. 
fiam, fi§8, etc. 
factus sum 
f actus eram 
factus erd 


[fi, fite, fito, 


fiam, flas, fiat 
fiamus, fi&tis, fiant 
fierem, fierSs, etc. 

factus sim 
factus esaem 


Present fieri 


Perfect factus ease 

Future factum Iri 


Perfect factus Gerundive faciendus 

a* Most compounds^f faciS with prepositions weaken X to lin the present 
stem and to S in the supine stem, and are inflected regularly like verbs in -15 : — 

confldd, conficSre, cdnf^ci, conf ectttm, ^niA^ 
conficior, confici, confectas. 

6. Other compounds retain a, and have -f!5 in the passive : as, benefaciS, 
-tacere, 4kif -factum ; passive benefIS, -fieri, -factus, benefit. These retain the 
accent of the simple verb : as, bene-f&^cis (§ 12. a, Exc). 

e* A few isolated forms of fio occur in other compounds : — 

cSaflt, it happens^ cdnfiant ; cdnfiat ; cdnfieret, cfinfiArent ; coafiinL 

dSllt, U tocis, difinnt; dSfiet; deflat; defiexL 

effleri, to be ^ected, 

infiS, begin (to speak), Infit 

iaterfiat, let him perish ; interfleil, to perish. 

lopeillt, it remaina over; soperfiat, toperfieil 

1 Tbe Imperative is rarely found, and then only in early writers. 





205. Some verbs .have lost the Present System, and use only 
tenses of the Perfect, in which they are inflected regularly. 
These are — 

ooepi;^ / began 

Future Perfect 


- 5di,a I hate 


coepi odi 

coeperam oderam 

coepero odero 

memini,^ / remernber 


coeperim oderim 







coepturus esse 

osurus esse 







coeptus, begun osus, hating or hated 

coepturus osurus, likely to hate 

a* The passive of coepI is often used with the passive infinitire: a* 
coeptus sum vocari, / began to be called^ but coepi vocare, / began to c^- 
For the present system incipio is used. 

Note. — Early and rare forms are coepio, coepiam, coeperet, coepere. 

i^. The Perfect, Pluperfect, -and Future Perfect of 5di and memimb^^ 
the meanings of a Present, Imperfect, and Future respectively : — 
odi, / ?iate; oderam, I hJated (was Tutting) ; 5der5, 1 shaU hate. 

Note 1. — A present participle meminSns is early and late. 

Note 2. — Novi and c5n8tt6vi (usually referred to nSscd and consuSscS) are oft^ <^ 
In the sense of I know (have learned) and I am accustomed (haye beoome aociutao^ 
as.preteritiye verbs. Many other verbs are occasionally used in the same way 
476. N.). 

1 Root AP (as in aplscor) with co(]i.). 
3 BootOD,. as in Sdium. , 

* Boot MEN, as in miiis. 




206. Many verbs are found only in the Present System. Such 
are maere9, -6re, he sorrowful (cf . maestus, Bad) ; feriO, -ire, strike. 

In many the simple verb is incomplete, but the missing parts 
occur in its compounds : as, yadO, yadere, in-y&si, in-y&siun. 

Some verbs occur very commonly, but only in a few forms : — 

«• Ai5, / say : — 
iNDic. Fees. ftiO, ais,^ ait : , , &iant 


Fees. ftiO, ais,^ ait ; , - 

Impf. &iebam,3 &iebSs, etc. 
P&ES. , SASs, &iat; 


al (rare) 

The vowels a and i are pronounced separately (a-is, a-it) except some- 
imes in old or colloquial Latin. Before a vowel, one i stands for two (see 
6. c) : — thus &i5 was pronounced gl-y5 and was sometimes written aii5. 

b. Inqnam, / sat/y except in poetry, is used only in direct quotations 
cf. the English quoth). 

iNOic. PRES. inquam, inquis, inquit ; inquimus, inquitis (late), Inquiunt 

Impf. , , inquiSbat; , , 

FuT. 'J inqui^s, inquiet ; , , 

Perf. inqui!, inquisti, ; , , 

IMPER. Prbs. inque 
FuT. inquitO 

The only common forms are inquam, inquis, inquit, inquiunt, and the 
iture inqnies, inquiet. 
Cm The deponent fari, to speak, has the following forms : — 

INDIC. Fres. , , fatur; -= — , , f antur 

FuT. f abor, , f abitur ; , , 




Fbrf. , — 

FiiUP. fatus eram, 
Fres. fare 
Fres. farl 

-, fatus est ; 

-, fati sunt 

-, fatus erat ; 

Fres. fans, fantis, etc. (in singular) 

Ferf. fatus {Tiaving spoken) 

Ger. faDdus (to be spoken of) 

GERUND, ^en. fandl, oW. fandO supine fatu 

Several forms compounded with the prepositions ex, prae, pr6, inter, 
tour : as, praefatur, praefamur, afiari, profatus, interfatur, etc. The com- 
)and infans is regularly used as a noun (child), Infandus, nefandus, are 
led as adjectives, unspeakable^ abominable, 

1 The second singnlar ai« with the interrogative -ne is often written ain. 
3 An old Imperfect ailMun, ai1>a8, etc. (dissyllabic) is sometimes foun4. 





dm QueO, / can, neqneO, / cannot^ are conjugated like eO. They are rarel jr 
used except in the present. Quad is regularly accompanied by a negative. 
The forms given below occur, those in full-faced type in classic prose. 
The Imperative, Grerund, and Supine are wanting. 















neqoeS (nSn qaed) 
























quivit quiverit (-ierit) 

quiyiniBt (-^re) quierint 





nequlFit (nequiit) neqnivezlt 

nequIvSrunt (-quiere) noqnlveiint 







neqolvdrat (-ierat) nequhriaset (-qidsset) 

nequiverant (-ierant) nequlBsent 




neqiilTiaM (-quisse) 


nequiSns, nequeantSs 

Note. ~ A f ew passive forms axe used with passive infinitlFeB : as, guitar, qaeutir, 
f altu MuiyquoitBr,! uM]itar,n6quitar,B6qiiitttm ; but none of theseooeors in claisBlo prose. 

>6, 2073 



^» / askf beg (original form of qiiaoi5)) has — 
ieri>io. J^BJBS. quaesO, qnaestUauB 

ToTK. — Other foims of f ium5 are found oocaaioiially in early Latin« For the per- 
syatem (quaeaivi, etc), see foaerS (§ 211. cQ. 

f • Orare, to triumphy has the following : — 

iNi>ic. Prb8. ov8s, ovat 
suBJV. P&S8. ovet 

Impv. ovftret 
PART. ovftns, ovfttOms, ovfttna 

QEB. ovandl 

gm A few verbs are found chiefly in the Imperative : — 

Prb8. singular salyi, plural salTSte, Fut. salyStS, haUt (from sal- 
yus, 9afe and 9ound), An infinitive salvSze and the indica* 
tive forms salveS, salvStis, salvSUs, are rare. 

Phxs. s i ngu l ar avS (or havS), plural avite, Fut. avStd, hail or /ore- 
vxXL An infinitive avSre also occurs. 

Pbbs. singular cMo, plural cMite (eette), gioe^ teU. 

Pbbs. singular apage, hegtme (properly a Greek word). 


207. Many verbs, froin their meaning, appear only in the third 
person singtilar^ the infinitive^ and the gerund. These are called 
Impersonal Verbs, as having no personal subject.^ The passive 
of many intransitive verbs is used in the same way. 





Pass. Cokj. i 

it U plain 

it is aUcwed 



it is fought 

















licuit, -itum est 



pfignfttum est 





pQgnfttum erat 





pfignfttnm erit 















pfignfttum sit 





pfignfttum esMi 










pfignfttum esse 

-stfttHrom eiM 

-ittlrum eess 


pOgnfttum III 

1 With impenonal verbs the word it is used in English, having osoally no wpf 
Bentatlve in Latin, thoogh id, h6e, illud, are often used nearly in the seme way. 



208. Impersonal Verbs may be classified as follows : — 

a« Verbs expressing the operations of nature and the time of day : — 

▼esperfttcit (inceptive, § 263. 1), it grows late. ningit, it snovos. 

ladscit hdc, it is getting light f olgaiat, it lightens. 

grandinat, it hails. tonat, it thunders, 

pluit, it rains. rSrat, the dew falls. 

NoTB. — In these no subject is distinctly thought of. Sometimes, howeyer, tiie yeri 
is used personally with the name of a diyinity as the subject : as, luppiter tonat, Jupitei 
thunders. In poetry other subjects are occasionally used : . as, fondae saxa plannt, t/u 
slings rain stones. 

bm Verbs of feeling^ where the person who is the proper subject becomes 
the object) as being himself affected by the feeling expressed in the YeiV 
(§ 364. h) : — 

misexet, it grieves. paenitet (poenitet), it repents. 

piget, it disgusts. podet, it shames. 

taedet, it wearies. 

miaeret m8, I pity (it distresses me) ; pudet mS, I am ashamed. 

NoTS. — Such yerbs often haye also a passive form : as, misereor, I pity (am moyed 
to pity) ; and occasionally other parts: as, paenitfinis (as from tpaeniS), paenitendns, 
pudendtts, pertaetom est, pigitnm est. 

C4 Verbs which have a phrase or clause as their subject (cf. §§ 454. 
569. 2): — 

acddit, contingit, Syenit, obtingit, obyenit, fit, it happens. 

libet, it pleases. delectat, iuyat, it delights, 

licet, it is permitted. oportet, itisftting, ought. 

certom est, it is resohoed, nesesse est, it is needifid, 

constat, it is clear. praestat, it is better. 

placet, it seems good (pleases). interest, rfifert, it concerns, 

yidetur, it seems^ seems good. yacat, there is leisure. 

decet, it is becoming. xestat, snperest, it remains. 

NoTB. — Many of these yerbs may be used personally; as, yaco, I have leisurt 
Libet and licet have also the passive forms libitum (licitam) est etc. The participles 
lib^as and licCns are used as adjectives. 

d* The passive of intransitive verbs is yery often used impersonally (s^ 
synopsis in § 207) : — 

yentom est, they came (there was coming). 

pfignatur, there is fighting (it is fought). 

itnr, some one goes (it is gone). 

pardtnr mihi, I am spared (it is spared to me, see § 872). 

NoTB. — The impersonal use of the passive proceeds from its original refiexioe (<>' 
middle) meaning, the action being regarded as acoon^ithing itself (compare the 
French oe^a sefait). 

i§ 209, 210] classified lists of verbs 121 

Classified Lists of Verbs 

First Conjugation 

209, There are about 860 simple verbs of the First Conjuga- 
tion, most of them formed directly on a noun- or adjective-stem : 

armd, €arfn {arma^ anna) ; caeco, to blind (caecas, btind) ; ezstild, he <m ezUe 
(exsal, an exUe) (§ 259). 

Their conjugation is usually regular, like amS ; though of many only a few 
{orms are found in use. 

Urn The following verbs form their Perfect and Supine stems irregularly. 
Those marked ♦ have also regular forms. 

crepd, crepui (-crepivi), -crepit-, resound. plied, ♦-plicni, ♦-plicit-, fold, 

cub5, *ciibiii, -cubit-, lie down, p5t5, pdtavi, *pdt-, drinJc, 

45, dftre, dedl, d&t-, give (da). seed, secui, sect-, cut 

domd, domni, domit-, subdue. sond, sonai, sonit-,^ sound. 

fried, fiical, *fiict-, rub. std, steti, -stat- (-stit-), stamd. 

iav5 (ad-iav5), iil^, iflt-,^ help. tono, tonui, ^-tonit-, ffiunder. : 

micd, micul, , glitter. veto, vetui, vetit-, forbid. 

need, *necai, necflt- (-nect-), kiU.^ ' ' 

KoTiB. — Comiwands of these verbs have the f ollowing'f orms : — 

crep6 : con-creputf dis-^repui or -crepdvi ; in-crepui or -crcpawi. 

d5 : circumrf inter-f pessum-, aatis-t super-f venum-do, -dedit -dat-, of the first con- 
jugation. Other compounds belong to the root dha, putf and are of the third 
conjugation : as, condOt cond!&ref condidif conditum. 

inioS: dt-micavi, -mtca^-; e-micui, -micdt-. 

plio5: re-, «tt6- (sup-), mviti-pHcOf -p/icavt, -plicdt'; ex-plico (unfold), -mi, -it-; 
(explain), -a»i, -at-; imrplico, -dvi (-w«)> -dtum (-itum). 

•t6: coTirStdf stiti, (stdturus); ad-, resto, stitiy -; ante- (anti-), inter-, super- 

stOf stetif ; circum^to, steti (stiti), ; praesto, -stiti, -stit- (stdt-); 

di-sto, ex^to, no perfect or supine (future participle exstdturus). 

Second Conjugation 

210, There are nearly 120 simple verbs of the Second Conju- 
gation, most of them denominative verbs of condition, having a 
corresponding noun and adjective from the same root, and an 
inceptive in -8c5 (§ 268. 1): — 

cale5, he warm; calor, warmth; calidas, warm; calSscd, grow warm. 
timed, fear ; timor, fear ; timidus, timid ; per-tim§sco, to take fright. 

^ Future Participle also in -itfiras (either in the simple verb or in composition)'. 
'ireoS has regularly necftvl, necitam, except in composition. 



[§§ 210, 211 

a* Most Ttrbs of the second conjugation are inflected like moneS, but 
many lack the supine (as, aroe5, ward off; care5, lack; egeO, need; timed, 
/ear)f and a number have neither perfect nor supine (as, maere5, be sad), 

b* The following keep 5 in all the systems : — 

dileS, destroy dSlixe dil8^ dSlStom 

fled, toeep flSre flS^ fletmn 

ne5, sew nSxe nS^ [nStom] 

yM, plait viire [TiiTi] ▼ietom 

corn-pled, ^U up ^ -plSre -plS^ -plStom 

e» The following show special irregularities : — 

alged, alsl, be cold, 
ifded, irri, Xzsfiras, bum, 
aoded, aaf OS sum, dare, 
aageS, aozl, aoct-, increase. 
caTed, ci^, caot-, care, 
cdased, cdnsol, cdns-, value, 
cied, ciTl, cit-, excite. 
doced, docnl, doct-, teach. 
faved, f &▼!, faot-, favor. 

ferved, feni (fexboi), , glow. 

foyed, fdyl, fdt-, cherish, 

falged, falsi, , shine, 

gaaded, gflylias sum, r^oice. 
haered, haesl, haes-, di'ng, 
ladolged, indolsl, indolt-, indulge. 
iabed, iassi, loss-, order, 

liqaed, licol (liqal), , mdt. 

Iflced, lilJd, , shine. 

Iflged, Iflid, , mourn. 

maaed, mlnsi, mins-, wait, 
miaced) -cui, mixt- (mist-), mix, 
morded, momordl, mors-, bite. 
moved, mdrl, mdt-, move. 

mnlced, mnlsl, mols-, soothe. 
mulged, malsl, male-, mUk. 

(cd)]iiTed, -ni^ (-nizl)f , uHnk, 

(ab)oled, -oMtI, -olit-, destroy. 
pended, pependi, -pSns-, hang, 
pranded, psaacB, prias-, dine. 
lided, risi, -zls-, laitg?L 
•eded, sdti, sess-, sit, 
soled, solitas stun, be u>onL 

sorbed, soxbui (soxpsi), , suck. 

sponded, spepondl, spfins-, pledge. 

strlded, stiidi, , whiz. 

soided, sxAAy snis-, urge. 

tened (-tined), tenoi, -tent-, hM. 

terged, tersi, ters-, wipe. 

tended, -totondi (-tondi), tdns-, shecar. 

toxqoed, torti, tort-, twisL 

toned, toznsi, tost-, roasL 

torged, tnrsi, , sweU. 

orged, nrsl, , urge. 

Tided, ^di, yis-, see. 
Tored, TdTi, Tot-, vow. 

Third Con jugation 

211. The following lists include most simple verbs of the 

Third Conjugation, classed according to the formation of the Pe^ 

feet Stem : — 

a. Forming the perfect stem in • (x) (§ 177. b and note): — 

angd, iaxi, , choke. claodd, dausl, claos-, shut 

carpd, carpel, carpt-, plwik, cdmd, cdmpsi, cdmpt-, comb^ d«k, 

cddd, cessi, cess-, y\M,. ooqod, coxl, coct-, cool;, 

eingd, dnzl, dnet-, bind, -cntid, -casiri, -coss-, shake, 

^ And other componnds of -pled. 

8 211] 



dSm5, ddmpsi, dSmpt-, take away. 

dicdf cQxi, diet-, »ay, 

divido, diiasi, divis-, divide. 

daco, dOxi, dact-, guide. 

Smnnsdf -mdnzi, -mfinct-, clean out 

fig5, fizi, fix.-,Jlx, 

fingo £fig], finzi, tct-^ fashion, 

fleets, flezi, flex-, bend. 

-fligd, -flizi, -flict-, , smite. 

flad, flfizi, fiaz-, flow. 

frendd, , fret- (frest-), gnash. 

trigs, frixi, fnct-, fiy. 

geiS, geasi, gest-, carry. 

inngS, ifinzi, ifinct-, join. 

laedS, laesi, laet-, hurt. 

-liciS, -lezi, -lect-, entice ((Slicol, -licit-). 

16do, Ifls!, Ifit-, play. 

mergo, mersl, men-, plunge. 

mitts, misi, miss-, send. 

nectS [kbc], nezl (nezui), nez-, v>eave. 

nflbS, nfipsi, ndpt-, marry, 

pectS, pezi, pez-, comb. 

pergo, pexrSzi, pexrSct-, go on. 

pingS [pio], pinzi, pict-, paint. 

plango [flag], planzi, pl&nct-, heat. 

plandS, plausi, plaus-, applaud. 

plectS, plezi, plez-, braid. 

pxemS, press!, pxess-, press. 

pxomS, -mpsi, -mpt-, bring out. 

bm Reduplicated in the perfect (§ 

cadS, cecldi, cis-, faU. 
caedS, cecidi, caes-, cut. 

cans, cedni, , sing. 

currS, cocttxzi, ctirs-, run. 

discs [dic], didici, , learn. 

-do [dha], -didi, -dit- (as in ab-dS, etc., 

with^iSdo, ySudS), put. 
fallo, fef elfi, fals-, deceive. 
pangS [fag], pepigi (-pSgi), pact-,/as^en, 

fix, bargaifL 
paxcS, peperci (paisi), (parsdras), spare. 

€• Adding n (v) to the verb-root (§ 177. a) : — 

al5, alol, alt- (alit-), nouriak. composes, oompSscul, -— — , retitrain. 

eemS, cxSrl, -cidt-, decree. cSnsalS, -lal, cSnsalt-, consult. 

col9, Golal, cult-, dwells tUl. crSscS, crS^, crit-, increase. 

qnatiS, (-cnssi), qaass-, shak^ 
rido, rflsi, ris-, scrape. 
regd, rSzi, rSct-, rule. 

lepo, rSpsi, , creep. 

rSdS, rdsi, rSs-, gnaw. 
scalps, scalps!, scalpt-, scrape. 
scnbS, scripn, script-, write. 
scalps, sculps!, sculpt-, carve. 

seipS, serps!, , crawl. 

sparg5, spars!, spars-, scatter. 
-spiciS, -spezi, -spect-, view. 
-stingnS, -srinz!, -stinct-, quench. 
strings, str!n:ri, strict-, bind. 
stm5, strdz!, strdct-, build. 
sflgS, sflz!, sflct-, suck. 
sfimS, sumps!, sfimpt-, take. 
surgS, surrSz!, surrSct-, rise. 
teg5, tSzI, tSct-, shelter. 
temnS, -temps!, -tempt-, despise. 
tergS, ters!, ters-, uHpe. 
tingS, tinz!, rinct-, stain. 
trahS, trizi, trict-, drag. 
trddS, trfis!, trds-, thrust. 
unguS (ungo), flnz!, unct-, anoint. 
firS, uss!, ust-, bum. 
▼Add, -tAsI, -yis-, go. 
▼eho, vSz!, vect-, draw. 
^▼6, vizi, ^ct-, live. 

177. c): — 

pariS, peperi, part- (paritfiros), bring 

pellS, pepull, puis-, drive. 
pendS, pependi, pSns-, weigh. 

poscS, poposd, , demand. 

pungS [pdg], pupngi (-pfinzi)f pdnct-, 

sistS [sta], stiti, stat-, stop. 
tangS [tag], tetig!, t&ct-, touch. 
tend5 [ten] , tetend! (-tendi),tent-, stretch. 
tund5 [tud], ttttudi, tdns- (-tds-), beat 




-cumbo [cub], -cabai, -cubit-, lie down. rapid, rapui, rapt-, seize. 

depBO, depsui, depst-, knead, 
fremo, fremui, —■ — , roar, 

gemd, gemoi, , groan. 

gigno [qen], genu!, genit-, &e^e^. 
metS, messui,- -mess-, reap, 
mold, molui, molit-, grind, 
occulS, occtilai, occult-, hide, 
(ad)ole8Cd, -evi, -ult-, grow up. 
p&sco, pay!, past-, feed, 
percello, -culi, -culs-, upset. 
pond [pos], posni, posit-, jpttt. 
quiesco, quiSvi, quiet-, rest. 

scisco, scivi, scit-, decree. 
sero, sevi, sat-, sow. 
sero, serui, sort-, entwine. 
sinS, sivi, sit-y permit. 
spemo, sprdvi, sprdt-, scorn. 
stemd, strfl^, strat-, strew. 

stertd, -stertui, , snore, 

strepo, strepui, , sound. 

suesco, suevi, suet-, he wont. 
tezo, tezui, text-, weave. 

tremo, tremui, , tremble, 

Yomo, yomui, , vomit. 

d. Adding iv to the verb-root (§ 117, f) : — 

arcesso,^ -iv!, arcessit-, summon. 

capessd, capessivi, , undertake. 

cupid, cupi^, cupitr, desire. 

incessd, incessi^, , attack. 

lacessd, lacessivf, lacessit-, provoke. 

petd, petivi, petit-, seek. 
quaerd, quaesivi, quaesit-, seek, 

rudd, rudiyi, , bray. 

sapid, sapiyi, , be wise. 

terd, triyi, trit-, rub. 

e. Lengthening the vowel of the root (cf. § 177. d): 

Agd, eg!, act-, drive. 

capid, cepi, capt-, take. 

edd, ddi, esum, eat (see § 201). 

emd, emi, dmpt-, buy. 

facid, fdc!, fact-, make (see § 204). 

fodid, fddi, foss-, dig. 

frangd [frag], frd^, fract-, break. 

fugid, fugi, (fugiturus), ^66. 

fundd [fud], fudi, fus-, pour, 

iadd, ieci, iact-, throw (-icid, -iect-). 

lavd, layi, lot- (laut-), wash (also regu- 
lar of first conjugation), 
legd,^ leg!, Idct-, gather, 
lino [li], ley! (li^), lit-, smear, 
linqud [lic], -liqu!, -lict-, leave, 
ndscd [oNo], ndv!, ndt- (cd-gnit-, ft-gnit-, 

ad-gnit-), knjow. 
rumpd [rup], rupi, rupt-, burst, 
scabd, scab!, , scratch. 

yincd [vie], vici, vict-, conquer, 
/• Retaining the present stem or verb-root (cf. § 177. «): — 

acttd, -u!, -fit-, sharpen. 
argud, -u!, -ut-, accuse. 
bibd, bibi, (pdtus), drink. 
-cendd, -Cend!, -cens-, kindle. 

(con)grud, -ui, , agree. 

cudd, -cud!, -CUS-, forge. 

facessd, -ii (facessi), facesslt-, execute. 

-fendd, -fendi, -fens-, ward off. 

findd [fid], fidi,^ fiss-, split. 

!cd, ici, ict-, hit. 

imbud, -ui, -ut-, give a taMe of, 

lud, lu!, -l&t-, wash. 

mandd, mand!, m&ns-, cheiw, 

metud, -ui, -flt-, fear. 

minud, -u!, -Qt-, lessen, • 

-nud, -nu!, ^nod, 

pandd, pandi, pans- (pass-), open. 
pinsd, -SI, pins- (ptnst-, pist-), bruise. 
prehendd, -hendi, -hens-, seize, 
rud, mi, rut- (ruiturus), faU, 

1 Sometimes accersd, etc. 

2 The following compounds of legd have -Idxi : diligd, inteUegd, neglegd. 

8 In this the perfect stem is the same as the verb-root, having lost the reduplica- 
tion (§177. c. N.). 




scando, -scendi, -scensuB, dinib, 
8cind5 [scid], sddi,^ sciss-, tear. 
8id5, sidi (-sedl), -sess-, settle, 
solvo, soM, Bolut-, loose, pay. 

spuo, -oi, , spit. 

statud, -al,--at-, establish. 

stemuo, -ui, , sneeze. 

strido, stridi, , whiz. 

suo, sul, silt-, sew. 
(ex)u6, -ui, -ut-, ptU off. 
tribud, -ui, -ut-, assign* 
▼ell5, velli (-vulsi), vuls-, pluck. 
vetro, -verri, vers-, sweep. 
vert5, verti, yers-, turn. 
viso [vid], '^81, yis-, visit. 
volvo, volvi, volfit-, turn. 

Note. — Several have no perfect or supine: as, claudO, limp; fatisod, gape; bisc5, 
yawn; toUo (sustuli, sublatum, supplied from sufferS), raise; vergS, incline. 

Fourth Conjugation 

212. There are — besides a few deponents and some regular 
derivatives in -ilrio, as, SsuriO, be hungry (of. § 263. 4) — about 
60 verbs of this conjugation, a large proportion of them being 
descriptive verbs : like — 

crdcio, croaJc; mugio, bellow; tinnio, tinkle. 

Urn Most verbs of the Fourth Conjugation are conjugated regularly, like 
audio, though a number lack the supine. 

h. The following verbs show special peculiarities : — 

amicid, asuzi (-cui), amict-, cloths. 
aperio, aperui, apert-, open. 
comperio, -peri, compert-, find. 
farcio, tarsi, fartum, stuff. 

ferio, , , strike. 

fulcio, falsi, fait-, prop. 
haorid, haasi, baast- (baasuras), drain. 
opexio, operai, opert-, cover. 
repexid, xeppexl, xepeit-,^nd. 

saeplS, saepsi, saept-, fiedge in. 

saUS (-81115), salai (saUi), [salt- (-salt-)], 

sancio [sac], sflnzi, sanct-, sanction. 
sarcio, sarsi, sart-, patch. 
sentio, sensi, sens-, feel. 
sepelld, sepelivi, sepult-, bury. 
venio, veni, vent-, come. 
vincio, vinxi, vinct-, bind. 

For Index of Verbs, see pp. 436 ff. 

1 See footnote 3, page 124. 

126 PARTICLES [S§ 218, 214 


213. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections 
are called Particles. 

In their origin Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions are 
either (1) caue-form^^ actual or extinct, or (2) compounds and 

Particles cannot always be distinctly classified, for many adverbs are 
used also as prepositions and many as conjunctions (§§ 219 and 222). 


Dbbivation of Advbbbs 

214. Adverbs are regularly formed from Adjectives as follows : 

a. From adjectiyes of the first and second declensions by changing the 
characteristic rowel of the stem to -^ : as, dure, dearly j from cams, dear (stem 
cixo-) ; amicS, like a friend, from amicaSf friendly (stem amioo-). 

Note. — The ending -6 is a relic of an old ablative in -^d (cf. § 43. n. 1). 

bm From adjectives of the third declension by adding -ter to the stem. 
Stems in nt- (nom. -ns) lose the t-. All others are treated as i-stems : — 

fortiter, bravely, from foitis (stem forti-), brave. 
Icriter, eagerly, from Acer (stem icri-), eager. 
vigilanter, watchfully, from vigiULns (stem vigilant-), 
prfidenter, prvdewUy, from prfidens (stem prfident-). 
aliter, otherwise, from alios (old stem ali-). 

Note. — This suffix is perhaps the same as -ter in the Greek -repot and in uter, alter. 
If sOfthese adverbs are in origin either neater accusatives (cf.d) or masculine nominatiYes. 

e» Some adjectives of the first and second declensions have adverbs of 
both forms (-e and >ter). Thus dums, hard, has both, diirS and dnriter; 
miser, wretched, has both misere and miseriter. 

dm The neuter accusative of adjectives and pronouns is often nsed as an 
adverb : as, mnltum, much ; facilS, easily ; quid, why. 

This is the origin of the ending -ius in the comparative deg^ree of ad- 
verbs (§218): as, icrins, more keenly (positive icriter); facilius, more easUy 
(positive faclU). 

NoTB. —These adverbs are etrieUj cognate aeensatives ({ 390). 

•• The ahlaiive singular neuter or (less commonly) frminine of adJectivM, 
prononns, and nouns may be used adverbiaUy: as, falsO, fidsely; tXA, 

§§ 214-216] DERIVATION OF ADVERBS 127 

quickly (with shortened o); rScti (rU), Hraight (straightway); crCbr5, frt- 
quently ; volgd, commonly; fortft, by chance; spontS, of one* s own accord. 

NoxB. — Some adverbs are derived from adjectives not in use: as, atmndS, plentt" 
fully (as if from fabundus ; cf . abondO, abound) ; saep^, often (as if from fiaepis, dense, 
close-packed; cf. saepSs, hedge^ and saepid, hedge in), 

215. Further examples of Adverbs and other Particles which 
are in origin case-forms of nouns or pronouns are given below. 
In some the case is not obvious, and in some it is doubtful. 

1. Center Accusative forms: n5ii (for nS-oiaom, later finum), not; itenim (compara- 
tive of i-, stem of it), a second time; d6mimi (superlative of dS, down), at last, 

2. Feminine Accusatives: partim, partly. So statim, on the spot; saltim, at least 
(generally saltern), from lost nouns in -tis (genitive -tis). Thus -tim became a regular 
adverbial termination ; and by means of it adverbs were made from many noun- and 
verb-stems immediately, without the intervention of any form which could have an 
aoensative in -tim: as, sSpar&tim, separately, from sSpar&tas, separate. Some adverbs 
that appear to be feminine accusative are possibly instrumental: as, paUun, openly; 
perperam, wrongly; tam, so; quam, as, 

3. Plural Accusatives : as, aliAs, eleewhere ; foxis, out of doors (as end of motion). 
So i>erhaps quia, because, 

4. Ablative or Instrumental forms: quA, where; intrl, toithin; eztit, outside; qui, 
fiow; aliqni, somehow; foxis, out of doors; quO, whither; adeS, to that degree; nltrS, 
beyond; citr5, this side (as end of motion) ; retrd, back; iU5c (for till5-Ge), weakened to 
iUuc, thither. Those in -tro are from comparative stems (cf. file, cis, re-). 

5. Locative forms : ibi, there ; nbi, where ; Uli, ilfi-c, there ; peregxi (peregrS), abroad; 
hlc (for fbi-ce) , Tiere, Also the compounds bodiS (probably for fhddlf) , to-day ; perendiS, 
day after to-mxtrrow, 

6. Of uncertain formation : (1) those in -tas (usually preceded by i), with an abla- 
tive meaning: as, fnnditas, /rom the bottom, utterly; divinitus, from above, prodr 
dentially; intus, witMn; penitat, within; (2) those in -dem, -dam, -dS: as, quidem, 
indeed; quondam, once; quand5 (cf. d5nec), when; (3) dum (probably accusative of 
time), while; iam, now, 

216. A phrase or short sentence has sometimes grown together 

into an adverb (cf. notwithstandingj nevertheless^ besides): — 

postmodo, presently (a short time after). 
dSnnd (for dS nov5), anew, 
vidiUcet (for vid8 licet), to wit (see, you may), 
nihildminns, nevertheless (by nothing the less). 

KoTB. — Other examples are: — ante&, old antidoi, before (ante oi, probably abla- 
tive or instrumental) ; DicS (in loc5), on the spot, immediately; prSrsus, absolutely (pr5 
▼onus, straight ahead) ; rfirsus (re-vorsus), again; quotannis, yearly (quotaanis, as many 
years as there arfl) ; quam-ob-rem, wher^ore ; cSminus, hand to hand (con maaus) ; Smiaus, 
at long range (ex manus) ; nlminun, without doubt (nl mimm) ; ob-viam (as in Ire obviam, 
to go to meet) ; pridem (cf. prae and -dem in i-dem), /or some time; fonan (fort an), per- 
haps (it's a chance whether); forsitan (fors sit an), perhaps (it would be a chance 
whether) ; w^cet (facl, licet), that is to say (know, you may ; cf . I-lloet, you may gci) ; 
Ictfttum (ftetfi, on the act, and tum, then). 

128 particles [§217 

Classification of Adverbs 
217. The classes of Adverbs, with examples, are as follows : — 

a. Adverbs of Place ^ 

hic, Jiere. hflc, hither, hinc, hence, h&c, by this way. 

ibi, there, ed, thither, inde, thence, e&, by that way. 

istic, there, istfic, thither, istinc, thence, ista, by that way. 

imc, there, \Mz, thither, muc^ thence, iUfl (ilUlc), '' '' 

abi, where, qti5, whither, ande, whence. qa&, by what way. 

alicnbi, aomewhere, aliqad, somewhither^ ahaaiAt, from some- aJ^tO^by somjeway. 

(to) somewhere, where, 

ibidem, in the same eddem, to the same indidem, from the eAdem, by the same 

place, place, same place, way, 

alibi, elseio Aere, in alid, elsewhere, to aliunde, from an- ali£, in another 

another place, another place. other place, way. 

aUabi, wherever, qadqud, whitherso- undecnnque, whence- qti§qu&, in whatever 

ever. soever. way. 

abi^s, anywhere, qaovis, anywhere, nndique, from every qxiSms, by whateter 

where you will, whither you will, quarter, way. 

sicubi, if anywhere. Biqu5, if anywhere slcunde, if from any- siqtUl, if anywhere. 

(anywhUJier). where, 

necabi, lest any- n§qud, lest any- nScunde, lest from nequA, lest any- 

where. whither, anywhere, where. 

Note. — The demonstraUve adverbs hie, ibi, islic, iUi, ilSc, and their correlatives, 
correspond in signification with the pronouns hie, is, iste, ille (see § 146), and are often 
equivalent to these pronouns with a preposition : as, inde » ab eo, etc. So the relative or 
interrogative nbi corresponds with qui (quis), ali-cubi with allquis, ubiubi with quisqais, 
81-Cttbi with siqnis (see §§ 147-151, with the table of correlatives in § 152). 

usque, aU the way to; nsquam, anywhere; nusqnam, nowhere; citr5, to this side; 
intro, inwardly; ultro, beyond (or freely, i.e. beyond what is required); 
porr5, further on. 

quSrsum (for quo vorsum, whither turned?), to what end? h5ranm, this way; 
T^tdisvan, forward (prSrsus, utterly); introrsum, inwardly; xetrSrsnm, back- 
ward; sdrsum, upward; deorsum, downward; seorsum, apart; aliSrsnm, 
another way. 


h. Adverbs of Time 

quandd, when? (interrogative); cum (quom), when (relative); ut, to^n, as; mmc, 
now; tunc (turn), then; moz, presently; iam, already; dum, while; lamdio, 
iam dfidum, iam piidem, long ago, long since. 

1 All these adverbs were originaHy case-forms of pronouns. The forms in -bi and 
-ic are locative, those in -5 and -uc, -a and -Sc, ablative (see § 215) ; those in -inc art 
from -im (of uncertain origin) with the particle -ce added (thus iUim, illin-c). 

§§ 217, 2180 ADVERBS 129 

pximiun ($timS), first; deinde (posteA), next after ; ^8trimvaa{go8txinui), finally ; 

posteaquam, postqaam, w?ien (after tkcEt, a>s soon as), 
tunquam (anqoam), ever; niunqaam (ntinqaam), never; semper, always, 
aliquando, at sometime, at, length; qoandoqne (quanddcamque), whenever; dSnique, 

at last, 
quotiens (quoties), Tiow often; totiens, so often; aliquotiSns, a number of times, 
cotidi§, every day; hodie, to-day; heri, yesterday ; eras, to-morrow; pridie, tke day 

before; postridie, the day after; in dies, from day to day, 
nondum, not yet ; necdum, nor yet ; yixdtun, scarce yet ; quam piimam, oa soon as 

possible ; saepe, often ; crebro, frequently ; iam n5n, no longer, 

c. Adyerbs of Maimer, Degree, or Cause 

qttam, Jiow, as; tarn, so; quamyis, hxrweoer much, atthxmgh; paene, aJmost; magis, 

more; valde, greatly; vix, hardly, 
cur, qu&rS, why ; ideS, idcirco, propterea, on this account, because; w, therefore; 

ergo, itaqae, igitur, therefore, 
ita, 8ic, so; ut (uti), as, how; otut, utcumqae, however, 

d. Interrogatiye Particles 

an, ->ne, anne, atram, uttomne, nam, whether. 

nonne, annon, whether not; numquid, ecquid, whetJier at aU, 

On the use of the Interrogative Particles, see §§ 332, 335. 

e. Negatiye Particles 

non, not (in simple denial) ; hand, minime, not (in contradiction) ; nS, not (In pro- 
hibition) ; neve, neu, vjor; nedam, much less, 

n§, lest; neque, nee, nor; n§ . . . quidem, not even, 
: non modo . . . verum (sed) etiam, n^t only , , . but also, 

n5n modo . . . sed ne , . . quidem, not orUy not ... but not even, 

81 minus, if not; qud minus (quominus), so as not, 

quin (relative), but that; (interrogative), why not? 

ne, nee (in composition), not; so in nesci5, / know not; neg5, I say no (SA6, 1 say 
yes) ; negStium, business (tnec-^tium) ; nemd (n§- and hemo, old form of homo), 
no one; nS quis, lest any one; neque enim, for , . . not 

For the use of Negative Particles, see § 325 ff . 

For the Syntax and Peculiar uses of Adverbs, see § 320 ff . 

Comparison of Adverbs 

'. 218. The Comparative of Adverbs is the neuter accusative of 
the comparative of the corresponding adjective ; the Superlative 
is the Adverb in -6 formed regularly from the superlative of the 

I Adjective : — 

180 PABTICLES ^ [§§218-220 

oiri, dearly (from cirat, dear) ; eftrius, cArlsiimS. 

miflerS (miseriter), vfretchedly (from mlaer, wretched) ; miserins, misenime. 

leyiter (from teTis, light) ; leviiis, leviaaimS. 

audftcter (aadficiter) (from andftz, bold) ; aadadus, andftclMdmfi. 

benS, toell (from bonus, good) ; melius, optimS. 

malS, ill (from malut, bad) ; p^us, pesaimS. 

a» The following are irregular or defective : — 

difi, loTig (in time) ; diHtius, diHtiaaimS. 

potius, rather; potiirimnm, ^rrt of all, inpr^erence to aXL 

•aepe, often; saepius, oftener, again; saepissime. 

Mtis, enough; satiua, preferable, 

Mcas, othervoise; sfitius, toorse. 

molttim (multo), magia, maxlm9, much, more, moaL 

panim, not enough; mlnmi, leas; minimS, leaeL 

Bflper, newly; napenliiie. 

tempers, eeaaonably; temperius. 

NoTB. — In poetry the comparatiye nutge is sometimes nsed instead of nuicia. 


2 19. Prepositions were not originally distingnished from Adverbs in form or mean- 
ing, but have become specialized in use. Tiiey developed comparatively late in the 
history of language. In the early stages of language development the cases alone 
were sufficient to indicate the sense, but, as the force of the case-endings weakened, 
adverbs were used for greater precision (cf . § 338) . These adverbs, from their habitual 
association with particular cases, became Prepositions ; but many retained also their 
independent function as adverbs. 

Most prepositions are true case-forms : as, the comparative ablativesextrS, infzt, supift 
(for teztexi, finf exi, ftaperfi), and the accusatives circum, coram, cum (cf . § 215 ) . Ciiciter 
is an adverbial formation from circom (cf. § 214. b. N.) ; praeter is the comparative of 
prae, propter of prope.i Of the remainder, versus is a petrified nominative (participle 
of TcrtS) ; adrerstts is a compound of versus ; trins is probably an old present participle 
(cf . in-trl>re) ; while the origin of the brief forms ab, ad, dS, ex, ob, is obscure and 

220. Prepositions are regularly used either with the Accusa- 
tive or with 'the Ablative. 

4f* The following prepositions are used with the Accusative : — 

* ad, to, drciter, about. intr&, inside, 

adversns, againat. cis, citrfl, this side, lilxt&, near, 

aAyennm, towards, eontisi, against. ^' oh, on account of , 

^ ante, b^ore. erg&, towards. ^ penes, in the power of* 

apod, at, near. extra, outside. per, through, 

V citcA, arouiid. faitl, below. p5ne, behiiid, 

i 6isDam» around. inter, among, ^ post, <nfier. 

1 The case^f onn of these prepositions in -ter is doabtfuL 

§§220,221] ' PREPOSITIONS 131 

praeter, beyond. secundam, next to. altrA, on the further side, 

prope, near, suprH, dbove. versus, towards. 

propter, on account of. tr^uis, across. 

&• The following prepositions are used with the Ablative : — ^ 

a, fib, abs, away from, by. e, ex, out of. 

absque, without, but for. prae, in comparison with. 

coram, in presence of. pro, in front of, for. 

cum, with. sine, withord. 

de, from. tenus, up to, as far as. 

c. The following may be used with either the Accusative or the Abla- 
tiTe, but with a difference in meaning : — 

in, into, in. sub, under. 

subter, beneath. super, above. 

In and sub, when followed by the accusative, indicate motion to, when by 
tlie ablative, rest in, a place : 

v^nit in aedis, he came into the house ; erat in aedibus, he was in the house. 
disciplina in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam transl9,ta esse exlsti- 

mfltur, the system is thought to have been discovered in Ghreat Britain and 

thence brought over to Gaul. 
sub ilice cOnsSderat, he had seated himself under an ilex. 
sub leg§s mittere orbem, to subject the world to laws (to send the world under 


221. The uses of the Prepositions are as follows : — 

1. A, ab, away frorrif^ from, off from, with the ablative. 

a. Of place : as, — ab urbe profectus est, he set out from the city, 

b. Of time : (1) from : as, — ab hora tertia ad vesperam, from the third hour 
till evening ; (2) just after : as, — ab eO magistratti, after [holding] that office, 

c. Idiomatic uses : a reliquis differunt, they differ from the others; a parvulls, 
from early childhood ; prope ab urbe, near (not far from) the city ; liberare ab, 
to set free from; occlsus ab hosts (periit ab hoste), slain by an enemy; ab hac 
parte, on this side ; ab r6 6ius, to his advantage ; a r6 ptiblica, for the interest of 
the state. 

2. Ad, to J towards, at, near, with the accusative (cf. in, intoy 

a. Of plaee : as, — ad urbem v6nit, he came to the city ; ad meridiem, towards 
the south; ad exercitum, to the army ; ad hostem, toward the enemy ; ad urbem, 
near the city. 

b. Of time : as, — ad nOnam hOram, tUl the ninth horir. 

c. With persons : as, — ad eum v6nit, Ae came to him. 

1 For palam etc., see § 432. 

2 Ab signifies direction /rom the object, but often towards the speaker; compare dS, 
down from, and ex, out of. 

132 PARTICLES [§ 221 

d. Idiomatic uses: ad supplicia dSscendunt, they resort to punishment; ad 
haeo respondit, to this he answered; ad tempus, at the [fit] time; adire ad rem 
pQblicam, to go into public life; ad petendam pftcem, to seek peace; ad latera, 
on the flank; ad arma, to arms; ad hunc modum, in this way ; quern ad modum, 
hovo^ as; ad centum, nearly a hundred; ad hOc, besides; omnSs ad fLnam, clU to 
a man; ad diem, on the day. 

3. Ante, in froivt ofy before, with the accusative (cf . post, after), 

a. Of place : as, — ante portam, in front cf the gate; ante exercitum, in advance 
of the army. 

b. Of time : as, — ante bellum, b^ore the war. 

c. Idiomatic uses : ante urbem captam, b^ore the city was taken ; ante diem 
quintum (a.d.y.) Eal., the fifth day b^ore the Calends; ante quadriennium, four 
years before or ago; ante tempus, too soon (before the time). 

4. Apud, at, by, among, with the accusative. 

a. Of place (rare and archaic) : as, — apud forum, at the forwn (in the market- 

b. With reference to persons or communities : as, — apud Helv3tiOs, amxmg 
the Helvetians; apud populum, b^ore the people ; apud aliquem, at one^s house; 
apud sS, at hom^ or in his senses; apud CicerOnem, in [the works of] Cicero. 

5. Circft, abotU, around, with the accusative (cf. circum, cirdter). 

a. Of place : templa circft forum, the temples about the forum; circft s6 habet, 
he has with him (of persons). 

6. Of time or number (in poetry and later writers) : circ& eandem hOram, 
about the sam^e hour; circft IdOs OctObrls, about the fifteenth of October; ciic& 
decern milia, about ten thousand. 

c. Figuratively (in later writers), about, in regard to (cf. dS) : circ& quern 
pUgna est, with regard to to/bm, etc. ; circft deOs neglegentior, raUier neglectful of 
(i.e. in worshipping) t?ie gods. 

6. Circiter, about, with the accusative. 

a. Of time or number : circiter Idtls Novembrls, about the thirteenth cf Novem- 
ber; circiter meridiem, about noon. 

7. Circum, ahout, around, with the accusative. 

a. Of place: circum haec loca, hereabout; circum Capuam, round Capua; 
circum ilium, wUh him; I6g&ti0 circum InsulSs missa, an embassy sent to the 
islands round about; circum amicus, to his friends round about. 

8. Contrft, opposite, against, with the accusative. 

contra Italiam, over against Italy ; contrft haec, in answer to this. 

a. Often as adverb : as, — haec contrft, this in reply; contrft autem, but w 
the other hand; quod contra, whereas, on the other hand. 

9. Cum, with, together with, with the ablativa 

§ 221] PREPOSITIONS 138 

a. Of place: as, — v3de m^cam, go with me; cum omnibus impedlmentb, 
yjoith aU [their] baggage. 

b. Of time : as, — prima cum luce, ai early datum (with first light). 

c. Idiomatic uses: mSgnO cum dolOre, toith great sorrow; commtinic&re ali- 
quid cum aliquO, aJiare something with some one; cum mal5 suO, to his won hurt; 
c5ixfllgere cum hoste, to fight with the enemy; esse cum tel5, to go armed; cum 
silentiO, in silence, 

10. D6, down from, from, with the ablative (cf. ab, away from ; 
ex, out of). 

a. Of place : as, — de caelO d€missus, sent down from heaven ; d6 nftTibus 
desUire, to jump down from the ships. 

b. figuratively, concerning, about, of:^ as, — cOgnOscit d6 ClOdl caede, lie 
learns of the murder of Clodius; cOnsilia d6 bellO, plans of war. 

c. In a partitive sense (compare ex), out of, of: as, — unus d6 plebe, one of the 

d. Idiomatic uses: multls d6 causis, for many reastms; quft dS caus&, for 
which reason; dfi improvise, of a sudden; d6 industria, on purpose; de integrO, 
anew ; d6 tertia vigilia, just at midnight (starting at the third watch) ; de mSnse 
DecembrI navigare, to sail as early as December. 

11. Ex, hffrom (the midst, opposed to in), out of, with the abla- 
tive (cf. ab and d6). 

a. Of place : as, — ex omnibus partibus silvae €volav6runt, they flew out from 
aU parts of the forest; ex Hispania, [a man] from Spain. 

b. Of time : as, — ex eO die quintus, the fifth day from that (four days after) ; 
ex hoc die, from this day forth. 

c. Idiomatically or less exactly : ex cOnsulatG, right after his consulship ; 
ex §iu8 sententia, according to his opinion; ex aequO, justly; ex imprOvIsO, 
unexpectedly; ex tua re, to your advantage; magna ex parte, in a great degree; 
ex equO ptlgnare, to fight on horseback; ex Gstl, expedient; e regiOne, opposite; 
quaerere ex aliquO, to ask of some one; ex senatSs cOnsultO, according to the 
decree of the senate; ex fuga, in [their] flight (proceeding immediately from it) ; 
tUius e fllils, one of the sons. 

12. In, with the accusative or the ablative. 
1. With the accusative, into (opposed to ex). 

a. Of place : as, — in Italiam contendit, he hastens into Italy. 

b. Of time, tUl, until: as, — in lucem, till daylight. 

c. Idiomatically or less exactly: in meridiem, towards the south; amor in 
(erga, ad versus) patrem, love for his father; in aram cOnfugit, he fled to the altar 
(on the steps, or merely to) ; in dies, from day to day; in longittidinem, length- 
wise; in latitadinem patebat, extended in width; in haec verba iOrare, to swear 
to these words ; hunc in modum, in this way ; OratiO in Catillnam, a speech a^/ainst 

1 0/ originally meant /rom (cf. off). 

134 PARTICLES [§ 221 

Catiline; in perpetuum, forever; in p6ius,/or the worse; in diem vivere, to live 
from Tiand to mouth (for the day). 

2. With the ablative, in, on, among. 

In very various connections : as, — in castrls, in the camp (cf. ad castra, to, at, 
or near the camp) ; in marl, on the sea; in urbe esse, to be in Union; in tempore, 
in season; in 8crlbend5, whUe writing; est mihi in anim5, / have it in mind, I 
intend; in ancorls, at anchor; in h5c homine, in the case of this man; in dabid 
esse, to he in doubt, 

13. Infrft, below, with the accusative. 

a. Of place : as, — ad mare Infra, oppidum, by the sea below the town; lufrft 
caelum, under the sky, 

b. Figuratively or less exactly: as, — Infra Hom6rum, later than Homer; 
Infra tr€s pedes', less than three feet; Infra elephantOs, smaXier than elephants; 
Infra infimOs omnis, the lowest of the low. 

14. Inter, between, among, with the accusative. 

inter me et ScIplCnem, between mysdf and Scipio ; inter 68 et ofEam, hetu)een 
the cup and the lip (the mouth and the morsel) ; inter hostium tela, amid 
the weapons of the enemy ; inter omnis primus, ^rst ofaU; inter biben- 
dum, while drinking ; inter sS loquimtur, they talk together, 

15. Ob, towards, on account of, with the accusative. 

a. Literally : (1) of motion (archaic) : as, — ob ROmam, towards Borne 
(Ennius) ; ob viam, to the road (preserved as adverb, in the way of), (2) Of place 
in which, brfore, in a few phrases : as, — ob oculOs, before the eyes. 

b. Figuratively, in return for (mostly archaic, probably a word of account, 
balancing one thing against another) : as, — ob mulierem, in pay for the tooman; 
ob rem, for gain. Hence applied to reason, cause, and the like, on account of 
(a similar mercantile idea), for : as, — ob eam causam, for that reason; quam ob 
rem (quamobrem), wher^ore^ why. 

16. Per, through, over, with the accusative. 

a. Of motion: as, — per urbem Ire, to go through the cUy; per mtlrGs, over 
the walls. 

b. Of time : as, — per hiemem, throughout the winter. 

c. Figuratively, of persons as means or instruments : as, — per homines idO- 
neOs, through the instrumentality of suitable persons ; licet per me, you (etc.) may 
for all me. Hence, stat per me, it is through my instrumentality ; so, per se, in 
and of itself, 

d. Weakened, in many adverbial expressions : as, — per locum, in Jest; per 
speciem, in shoWy ostentatioudy, 

17. Prae, in front of with the ahjative. 

a. Literally, of place (in a few connections) : as, — prae s6 portare, to carry 
in one'^s arms ; prae se ferre, to carry b^ore one^ (hence figuratively) exhUHt, pro- 
claim osterdatiously^ make known* 

i 221] PREPOSITIONS 135 

6. Eigoratiyely, of hindrance, as by an obstacle in front (compare English 
for) : as, — prae gaudi5 conticuit, lie was silent for joy, 

c. Of comparison : as, — prae mSgnitudine corporum suOrum, in comparison 
jovth their ovm great size, 

18. Praeter, along hy^ by, with the accusative. 

a. Literally : as, — praeter castra, by the camp (along by, in front of) ; praeter 
[>calos, b^ore the eyes. 

b. Figuratively, beyond^ besides, more than, in addition to, except : as, — praeter 
spem, beyond hope; praeter aliOs, m>ore than others; praeter paucOs, wiJth the 
exception of a few. 

19. PrO, in front ofj with the ablative. 

sedans prO aede Castoris, sitting in front of the temple of CaMor ; prO populO, 
in presence of the people. So pr5 rostris, on [the front of] the rostra ; 
pro conti5ne, before the assembly (in a speech). 

a. In various idiomatic uses: prO lege, in defence of the law; prO vituld*, 
instead of a heifer; pr5 centum milibus, 08 good as a hundred thousand; prO 
rat^ parte, in due proportion ; prO hac vice, for this once ; prO c5nsule, in place 
of consul; prO viribus, considering his strength; prO virili parte, to the best of 
one's ability; prO tu^ prudentia, in accordance with your wisdom. 

20. Propter, near, by, with the accusative. 

propter tfi sedet, he sits next you. Hence, on account of (cf. aU along of) : 
as, — propter me turn, through Jear. 

21. Secundum/ ^*i^5^ behind, following, with the accusative. 

a. Literally: as, — Ite secundum me (Plaut.), go behind me; secundum litus, 
near the shore; secundum flflmen, along the stream (cf. secundS fliimine, down 

b. Figuratively, according to: as, — secundum n9,tiiram, according to nature. 

22. Sub, under, up to, with the accusative or the ablative. 

1. Of motion, with the accusative : as, — sub montem succSdere, to come close 
to the hill. 

a. Idiomatically: sub noctem, towards night ; sub Iticem, near daylight ; sub 
haec dicta, at (following) these words. 

2. Of rest, with the ablative : as, — sub love, in the open air (under the heaven, 
personified as Jove) ; sub monte, at the foot of the hill. 

a. Idiomatically : sub eOdem tempore, about the same time (just after it). 

23. Subter, under, below, with the accusative (sometimes, in poetry, 
the ablative). 

subter togam (Liv.), under his mantle; but, — subter lltore (Catull.), below 
the shore. 

84. Super,' with the accusative or the ablative. 

1 Old participle of sequor. s Comparative of sub. 

136 PAKTICLES [§ 221 

1. With the accnsatiTe, above, over, on, beyond, upon, 

a. Of place : super vftllum praecipitftrl (lug. 68), to be hurled over the ram- 
part; super laterfis coria indUcuntur (B.C. ii. 10), hides are drawn over the bricks; 
super terrae tumulum statui (Legg. ii. 65), to 6e placed on the mound of earth; 
super Numidiam (lug. 19), beyond Numidia, 

b. Idiomatically or less exactly: vulnus super vulnus, wound upon wound; 
super vlnum (Q. C. viii. 4), over his wine, 

2. With the ablative, concerning, about (the only use with this case in 

hflc super rfi, concerning this thing; super UllI re, about such an qffdir; lit- 
terfis 8ui)er tantft r6 exspectftre, to wait for a letter in a matter of such 

a. Poetically, in other senses : llgna super focO large rep5n6ns (Hor. Od. i. 
9. 6), piling logs generously on the fire; nocte super medift (Aen. iz. 61), after 

25. Supri, on top of, above, with the accusative. 

suprft terrain, on the surface of the earth. So also figuratively : as, — supr§ 
hanc memoriam, before our remembrance; suprft m6rem, more than 
usual; suprft quod, besides, 

26. TenuB (postpositive), as far as, up to, regularly with the abla- 
tive, sometimes with the genitive (cf. § 359. h), 

1. With the ablative : TaurO tenus, oAfar as Taurus; capulO tenus, uptoth^ 

2. With the genitive : Cumftrum tenus (Fam. viii. 1. 2), as far as Cumae. 

NoTB 1. — Tenus is frequently connected with the feminine of an adjective prononn, 
making an adverbial phrase: as, hftctenus, hitherto; qofttenus, so far as; dS hac re 
hftctenus, so much for that (about this matter so far): 

NoTS 2. — Tenus was originaUy a neuter noun, meaning line or extent. In its use 
with the genitive (mostly poetical) it may be regarded as an adverbial accusatire 
(§387. a). 

27. Trans, across, over, through, by, with the accusative. 

a. Of motion: as, — trftns mare currunt, they run across the sea; trftns flu- 
men f erre, to carry over a river ; trftns aethera, through the sky ; trftns caput lace, 
throw over your head. 

b. Of rest : as, — trftns RhQnum incolunt, they live across the Rhine. 

28. Ultrft, beyond (on the further side), with the accusative. 

cis Padum ultrftque, on tAis side of the Po and beyond; ultrft eum numerum, 
more than thai number; ultrft fidem, incredUfle; ultrft modum, immod- 

NoTK. — Some adverbs appear as prepositions: as, intas, insaper (see § 219). 
For Prepositions in Compounds, see § 267. 

§§ 222-224] CONJUNCTIONS 187 


222. Conjunctions, like prepositions (cf . § 219) , aie closely related to adyerbs, and 
are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, or obscured phrases: as, 
qiuod, an old accusative ; dtun, probably an old accusative (cf . torn, cam) ; v6r5, an old 
neuter ablative of vSms; nlldlominus, wyM the leas; proinde, lit. /onoard/rom there. 
Mpst conjunctions are connected with pnynrnnintd adverbs, which cannot always be re- 
ferred to their original case-forms. 

; 223. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They 
are of two classes, Coordinate and Subordinate : — 

a. Codrdinate, connecting coordinate or similar constructions (see § 278. 
2. a). These are: — 

1. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a eormecUcm or aeparation of thought 
"as well as of words: as, et, and; ant, or; neque, Tior, 

2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought : 
as, sed, but. 

8. Causal, introducing a cause or reason : as, nam, for. 
4. niative, denoting an inference : as, igitor, therefore, 

b* Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with 
that on which it depends (see § 278. 2. b). These are : — 

1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis : as, si, if; nisi, unleas. 

2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition : as, ac si, 08 (A 

3. Concessive, denoting a concesrion or admission : as, quamqoam, although 
(lit. liowever much it may be true that, etc.). 

4. Temporal: as, postquam, c^fter, 

5. Consecutive, expressing result : as, at, so th/it. 

6. Final, expressing purpose : as, at, in order that; nS, that not. 

7. Causal, expressing cause : as, quia, because. 

224. Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately 
distinguish^ in Latin than in English. The following list 
includes the common conjunctions * and conjunctive phrases : — 


a. Copulatiye and Disjunctive 

et, -qoe, atqae (ac), and. 

et . . . et j et . . . -qae (atqae); -^ae . . . et ; -qae . . . -qoe (poetical), both , . . and. 

etiam, qaoqae, neqae n5n (necadn), qain etiam, itidem (item), also. 

cam . . . tarn ; tarn . . . tarn, both . . . and; not only . . . but also. 

1 Some of these have been included in the classification of adverbs. See also list 
of Correlatives, § 152. 

138 PARTICLES [§ 2211 

qnft . . . qnft, on the one hand , , , onthe other hand. 

modo . . . modo, novo . . . now. 

ant . . . ant; tcI . . . yel (-ve), either . . . or. 

siTe (sen) . . . sive, whether . . . or. 

nee (neqae) . . . nee (neque); neqae . . . nee ; nee . . . neqae (rare), neither . . . nor, 

et . . . neqae, both . . . and not. 

nee . . . et ; nee (neqae) . . . -qne, neither {both not) . . . and. 

b. Adyersative 

•ed, antem, yfiram, ySrS, at, atqai, but. 

tamen, attamen, sed tamen, yemm tamen, but yet, nevertheless. 

nihilominas, none the less. 

at yer5, but in truth; enimvSrd, for in truth. 

ceteram, on the other hxvnd, but. 

c. Causal 
nam, namqae, enim, etenim, for. 

qnapropter, qaard, qaamobrem, qaocirca, ande, wher^ore^ whence. 

d. niative 

erg5, igitar, itaqae, ide5, idcireS, inde, proinde, ther^ore^ accordingly. 


a* Conditional 

•I, if; am, but if; nisi (ni), unless, if not; qaod si, but if. 
modo, dam, dammodo, si modo, if ordy, provided. 
dammodo nS (dam n§, modo ne), provided ordy not. 

b. Compaxative 

at, atl, 8icat,iu^ as; yelat, as, so as; proat, piaeat, cea, like oa, according as. 
tamqaam (tanqaam), qaasi, at si, ac si, yelat, yelati, yelat si, as if. 
qaam, atqae (ac), as, than. 

c. Concessive 

etsi, etlamsl, tametsi, even if; qaamqaam (qaanqaam), although. 
quamyis, qaantamyis, qaamlibet, quantamlibet, howeoer much. 
licet (properly a yerb), at, cam (quom), though, suppose, wliereas. 

d. Temporal 

cam (qnom), qoandS, when; abi, at, when, as; cam pxlmum, at pifmom, ubi pxlmnoii 

simal, timal ac, simal atqae, as soon as; postquam (poste&qaam), after. 
priat . . . qaam, ante . . . qaam, b^ore; n5n ante . . . qaam, not . . . until. 
dam, (Isqae dam, d5nec, qaoad, until, as long as, while. 

§ 224-226] INTERJECTIONS 139 

e* Consecative and Final 

Lt (uti), qtt5, 80 that, in order that. 

le, at ng, lest (that . . . not, in order thxxt not) ; nSve (neu), thaJt noi, rwr, 

|um (after negatives), qaominus, bid that (so as to prevent), that not 

/• Causal 

luia, quod, quoniam (tquom-iam), qttand5, because. 

zvLTH (qaom), since, 

quanddqttidem, si quidem, quippe, ut pote, since indeed, inasmiu^ as. 

propterea . . . quod, for this reason . . . that. 

On the use of Gonjanctions, see §§ 323, 321. 


225. Some Interjections are mere nataral exclamations of feeling; others are 
derived from inflected parts of speech, e.g. the imperatives em, lo (probably for erne, 
take) ; age, come, etc. Names of deities occur in herclS, pel (from PoUux), etc. Many 
Latin interjections are borrowed from the Greek, as cage, euhoe, etc. 

226. The following list comprises most of the iDterjections in 
common use : — 

5, §n, ecce, ehem, papae, vih (of astonishment). 

io, Svae, fivoe, euhoe (of joy). 

heu, Iheu, vae, alas (of sorrow). 

heus, eho, ehodum, Ao (of calling) ; at, hist. 

eia, euge (of praise). 

pro (of attestation) : as, pro pndor, sJiame I 

140 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 227-230 


227. All formation of words is originally a process of composition. An element 
significant in itself is added to another significant element, and thus the meaning of 
the two is combined. No other combination is possible for the formation either of 
inflections or, of stems. Thus, in fact, words (since roots and stems are significant 
elements, and so words) are first placed side by side, then brought under one accent, 
and finally felt as one word. The gradual process is seen in sea voyage, seor-nymph, 
seaside. But as all derivation, properly so called, appears as a combination of nnin- 
fleeted stems, every type of formation in use must antedate inflection. Hence words 
were not in strictness derived either from nouns or from verbs, but from stems which 
were neither, because they were in fact both ; for the distinction between nonn-stems 
and verb-stems had not yet been made. 

After the development of Inflection, however, that one of sevei*al kindred words 
which seemed the simplest was regarded as the primitive form, and from this the other 
words of the group were thought to be derived. Such supposed processes of formation 
were then imitated, often erroneously, and in this way new modes of derivation arose. 
Thus new adjectives were formed from nouns, new nouns from adjectives, new adjec- 
tives from verbs, and new verbs from adjectives and nouns. 

In course of time the real or apparent relations of many words became confused, 
so that nouns and adjectives once supposed to come from nouns were often assigned 
to verbs, and others once supposed to come from verbs were assigned to nouns. 

Further, since the language was constantly changing, many words went oat of use, 
and do not occur in the literature as we have it. Thus many Derivatives survive of 
which the Primitive is lost. 

Finally, since all conscious word-formation is imitative, intermediate steps in deriva- 
tion were sometimes omitted, and occasionally apparent Derivatives occur for which 
no proper Primitive ever existed. 


228. Roots ^ are of two kinds : — 

1. Verhcdf expressing ideas of action or condition (sensible phenomena). 

2. Pronominal^ expressing ideas of position and direction. 

From verbal roots come all parts of speech except pronouns and certain 
particles derived from pronominal roots. 

229. Stems are either identical with roots or derived from them. 
They are of two classes: (1) Noun-stems (including Adjective- 
stems) and (2) Verb-stems. 

NoTB. — Noun-stems and verb-stems were not originally different (see p. 163), and 
in the consciousness of the Romans were often confounded ; but in general they were 
treated as distinct. 

230. Words are formed by inflection : (1) from roots inflected 
as stems ; (2) from derived stems (see § 232). 

1 For the distinction between Roots and Stems, see §§ 24, 25. 

§§231-233] PRIMARY SUFFIXES 141 

231. A root used as a stem may appear — 

a. With a short vowel : as, due-is (dux), dug ; nec-is (nez); i-s, i-d. So 
in verbs; as, es-t, fer-t (cf. § 174. 2). 

hm With a long vowel ^ : as, luc-is (lux), luc ; pac-is (pax). So in verbs: 
duc-o, i-8 for f eis, from e5, ire ; fatur from fari. 

c. With reduplication : as, fur-fur, mar-mor, mur-mur. So in verbs : as, 
gi-gno (root gen), si-stO (root sta). 


232. Derived Stems are formed from roots or from other stems 
by means of mffixea. These are : — 

1. Primary : added to the root, or (in later times by analogy) to verb- 

2. Secondary : added to a noun-stem or an adjective-stem. 

Both primary and secondary suffixes are for the jnost part pronominal 
roots (§ 228. 2), but a few are of doubtful origin. 

NoTB 1. — The distinction between primary and secondary suffixes, not being orig- 
inal (see § 227), is continually lost sight of in the development of a language. Suffixes 
once primary are used as secondary, and those once secondary are used as primary. 
Thus in hosticus (hosti + cus) the suffix -^us, originally ko- (see § 234. II. 12) primary, as 
in pauctts, has become secondary, and is thus regularly used to form derivatives; but 
in padlctts, apricus, it is treated as primary again, because these words were really or 
apparently connected with verbs. So in English -able was borrowed as a primary 
suffix (tolerable f eatable) f but also makes forms like clubbable^ salable; some is prop- 
erly a secondary suffix, as in toilsome^ lonesome, but makes also such words as meddle^ 
som^f venturesome. 

NoTB 2. — It is the stem of the word, not the nominative, that is formed by the 
derivative suffix. For convenience, however, the nominative will usually be given. 

Primary Suffixes 

233. The words in Latin formed immediately from the root by 
means of Primary Suffixes, are few. For — 

1. Inherited words so formed were mostly further developed by the 
addition of other suffixes, as we might make an adjective lone^y-some-ish, 
meaning nothing more than lone, lonely, or lonesome. 

2. By such accumulation of suffixes, new compound suffixes were formed 
which crowded out even the old types of derivation. Thus, — 

1 The difference in vowel-quantity in the same root (as d5c) depends on inherited 
variations (see § 17. a). 

142 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 233, 234 

A word like mSiis, mentis, by the suffix 5n- (nom. -5), gave mentid, and this, 
being divided into men + ti5, gave rise to a new type of abstract noons in -tid: 
as, l€g&-ti5, embassy. 

A word like auditor, by the suffix io- (nom. -ius), gave rise to adjectives like 
anditor-ius, of which the neuter (auditdrium) is used to denote the place where 
the action of the verb is performed. Hence toria- (nom. -tdrium), n., becomes a 
regular noun-suffix (§ 250. a). 

So in English such a word as suffocation gives a suffix -ationi and with this is 
made starvation, though there is no such word as starvate. 

234. Examples of primary stem-suffixes are : — 

I. Vowel suffixes : — 

1. 0- (m., N.), ft- (p.), found in nouns and adjectives of the first two declen- 
sions : as, sonns, ladus, vagus, toga (root teg). 

2. i-, as in ovis, avis ; in Latin frequently changed, as in rupes, or lost, as in 
scobs (scobis, root scab). 

3. a-, disguised in most adjectives by an additional i, as in suft-vis (for tsuad- 
vis, instead of fsuft-dus, cf. vd^), ten-uis (root ten in tendo), and remaining alone 
only in nouns of the fourth declension, as acus (root ak, sharp, in ftcer, acies, 
wKf^s), peca, genfi. 

n. Suffixes with a consonant : — 

1. to- (m., n.), ta- (f.), in the regular perfect passive participle, as tCctos, 
tectum ; sometimes with an active sense, as in potus, pransus ; and found in a 
few words not recognized as participles, as pGtus (cf. purus), altus (alo). 

2. ti- in abstracts and rarely in nouns of agency, as messis, vestis, pars, 
mSns. But in many the i is lost. 

3. tu- in abstracts (including supines), sometimes becoming concretes, as 
ftctus, luctus. 

4. no- (m., N.), nft- (p.), forming perfect participles in other languages, and in 
Latin making adjectives of like participial meaning, which often become nouns, 
as magnus, planus, rSgnum. 

6. ni-, in nouns of agency and adjectives, as ignis, sSgnis. 

6. nu-, rare, as in manus, pinus, comu. 

7. mo- (mfi-), with various meanings, as in animus, almus, firmus, forma. 

8. vo- (va-) (commonly uo-, ua-), with an active or passive meaning, as in 
equns (equos), arvum, cdnspicuus, eziguus, vacivus (vacuus). 

9. ro- (rft-), as in ager (stem ag-ro-), integer (cf. intactus), sacer, plSii-qoe (cf. 
plSnus, pletus). 

10. lo- (Ifi-), as in caelum (for tcaed-lum), chisd^ ezemplum, seUa (for tsedla). 

II. yo- (yft-), forming gerundives in other languages, and in Latin making 
adjectives and abstracts, including many of the first and fifth declensions, as 
ezimius, audftcia, Fldrentia, pemiciSs. 

12. ko- (kft-)« sometimes primary, as in paud (cf. raOpot), locus (for atlocus). 
In many cases the vowel of this termination is lost, leaving a consonant stem: 
as, apex, cortex, loquftz. 

|§ 234-236] DERIVATION OF NOUNS 143 

13. en- (on-, 9n-, 5n-), in nouns of agency and abstracts : as, aspergS, compftgd 
^-Inis), gero (-onis). 

14. men-, expressing means, often passing into the action itself: as, agmen, 
a.u.znen, fulmen. 

15. ter- (tor-, tSr-, t5r-, tr-), forming nouns of agency : as, pater (i.e. protector), 
frater (i.e. supporter), 5r&tor. 

16. tro-, forming nouns of means: as, claastrum (claud), mfilctnun (mulo). 

17. es- (o8-), forming names of actions, passing into concretes: as, genus 
(generis), tempus (see § 15. 4). The infinitive in -ere (as in reg-ere) is a locative of 
tlxis stem (-er-e for t-«s-i). 

18. nt- (ont-, ent-), forming present active participles : as, legSns, with some 
adjectives from roots unknown : as, frequSns, recens. 

The above, with some suffixes given below, belong to the Indo-European 
parent speech, and most of them were not felt as living formations in the 

Significant Endings 

235. Both primary and secondary suiBxes, especially in the 
form of compound suffixes, were used in Latin with more or less 
consciousness of their meaning. They may therefore be called 
Significant Endings. 

They form : (1) Nouns of Agency ; (2) Abstract Nouns (in- 
cluding Names of Actions) ; (3) Adjectives (active or passive). 

NoTB. — There is really no difference in etymology between an adjective and a 
noun, except that some formations are habitually used as adjectives and others as 
nouns (§ 20. 6. n. 2). 

Nouns of Agency 

236. Nouns of Agency properly denote the off ent or doer of an 
action. But they include many words in which the idea of agency 
has entirely faded out, and also many words used as adjectives. 

a» Nouns denoting the agent or doer of an action are formed from roots 
or verb-stems by means of the suffixes — 

-tor (-sor), M. ; -triz, P. 

can-tor, can-tr!z, singer; can-ere (root can), to sing. 

vic-tor, vic-trix, con>queror (victorioiLs) ; vinc-ere (vie), to conquer. 
t5n-8or (for ttond-tor), tons-trix (for 

ttond-trix), hair-cutter; tond-Cre (tond as root), to shear. 

peti-tor, candidate; pet-Sre (pet; peti- as stem), to seek. 

144 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 236-238 

By analogy -tor is sometimes added to noun-stems, but these may be stems 
of lost verbs : as, via-tor, traveller, from via, way (but cf. the verb inyio). 

NoTB 1. — The termination -tor (-sor) has the same phonetic change as the supine 
ending -tum (-sum), and is added to the same form of root or verh-stem as that ending. 
The stem-ending is tor- (§234. II. 15), which is shortened in the nominative. 

Note 2. — The feminine form is always -trix. Masculines in -sor lack the feminine, 
except expttlsor (expultrix) and tonsor (tonstziz). 

b» t-, M. or F., added to verb-stems makes nouns in -es (-itis, -etis ; stem 
it-, et-) descriptive of a character : — 

prae-stes, -stitis, (verb-stem from root sta, stare, stand), guardian. 
teges, -etis (verb-stem tege-, cf. tego, cover), a coverer, a mat. 
pedes, -itis (pes, ped-is, foot, and i, root of ire, go), foot-soldier. 

c. -5 (genitive -onis, stem on-), m., added to verb-stems^ indicates a person 
employed in some specific art or trade : — 

com-bibo (bib as root in bib5, bibere, drink), a pot-companion. 
gero, -onis (ges in gero, gerere, carry), a carrier. 

Note. — This termination is also used to form many nouns descriptive of personal 
characteristics (cf. §255). 

Names of Actions and Abstract Nouns 

237. Names of Actions are confused, through their termina- 
tions, with real abstract nouns (names of qualities)., and with con- 
crete nouns denoting means and instrument. 

They are also used to express the concrete result of an action 
(as often in English). 

Thus legio is literally the act of collecting, but comes to mean legion (the body 
of soldiers collected) ; cf. levy in English. 

238. Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions are formed from 
roots and verb-stems by means of the endings — 

a* Added to roots or forms conceived as roots — 

NoM. -or, M. -6s, F. -us, N. 

Gen. -5ris -is -eris or -oris 

Stem 6r- (earlier 6s-) i- er- (earlier «/o»-) 

tim-or, /car; timere, to fear. 

am-or, love ; amire, to love. 

sed-es, seat ; sedere, to ait. 

caed-Ss, slaughter; caedere, to kill. 

genus, birth, race; gen, to be bom (root of giguS, bear). 

1 So conceived, but perhaps this termination was originally added to noun-stems. 


NoTB. — Many nouns of this class are formed by analogy from imaginary roots: 
ks facinas from a supposed root facin. 

bm Apparently added to roots or verbHstems — 

N'OM. -16, p. -tl6 (-sl6), F. -tiira (-silra), f. -tu»; m. 

Gr£N. -i5ni8 -ti5nis (-siSnis) -t&rae (-silrae) -tils (-sua) 

Stem i6n- ti5n-(sl5n-) tfira- (silra-) tu-(8U-) 

leg-io, a collecting {levy), a legion; legere, to collect. 

reg-io, a direction, a region; regere, to direct, 

voc&-tio, a caUing ; vocftre, to caU, 

moli-ti5, a toiling ; mdliri, to toU. 

' scrip-tura, a vrriting ; scribere, to write, 

sen-sus (for ^atut-tvis), feeling ; sentire, to feel, 

NoTB 1. — ^ti5, -tara, -tus are added to roots or verb-stems precisely as -tor, with the 
same phonetic change (cf . § 236. a. n. i). Hence they are conveniently associated with 
the supine stem (see § 178). They sometimes form nouns when there is no correspond- 
ing verb in use : as, senatus, senate (cf . senex) ; menti5, mention (cf . mSns) ; fStora, off- 
spring (cf.fStas); litteratura, literature {ct. litterae); consalatus, consulship (cf. cSnsul). 

NoTiE 2. — Of these endings, -tus was originally primary (cf . § 234. II. 3.) ; -15 is a com- 
pound formed by adding on- to a stem ending in a vowel (originally i) : as, diciS (cf . 
-dicus and dicis) ; -tio is a compound formed by adding 5n- to stems in Id-: as, gradatiS 
(cf . gxad&tim) ; -tura is formed by adding -ra, feminine of -rus, to stems in ta- : as, 
natura from nfttus ; statura from status (cf . flgura, of like meaning, from a simple u- 
stem, ffigtt-s; and maturus, Matuta). 

239. Nouns denoting acts^ or means and results of acts, are 
formed from roots or verb-stems by the use of the suffixes — 

-men, n.; -mentum, n.; -m5nlum, n. ; -m5nia, f. 
ag-men, line of march, hand ; ag, root of agere, to lead, 

cert&-men, contest, battle; certl-, stem of cert&re, to contend. 

So colu-men, pillar ; m5-men, movement ; no-men, nam^ ; flir-men, stream, 

testi-^ndniom, testimony ; test&ri, to witness, 

queri-mdnia, complaint; qneri, to complain, 

-mdnium and -m5nla are also nsed as secondary, forming nouns from other 
nouns and from adjectives : as, sancti-mSnia, sanctity (sanctus, holy) ; matri- 
mOnimn, marriage (mater, mother). 

Note. — Of these endings, -men is primary (cf . § 234. II. 14) ; -mention is a compound 
of men- and to-, and appears for the most part later in the language than -men: as, 
mSmen, movement (Lucr.) ; momentum (later). So elementum is a development from 
L-H-N-a, l'mrn*s (letters of the alphabet), changed to elementa along with other nouns 
in -men. -mSnium and -monia were originally compound secondary suffixes formed 
from mdn- (a by-form of men-), which was early associated with mo-. Thus almus 

146 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§289,241 

(stem alm.O')f fostering ; AlmOn, a river near Rome; alimonia, support. But the last 
was formed directly from aid when -monia had become established as a supposed 
primary suffix. 

240. Nouns denoting means or instrument are formed from roots 
and ver1>stems (rarely from noun-stems) by means of the neuter 
suffixes — 

-bulum, -culuxu, -brum, -crum, -truxn 

pft-bulum, fodder ; pascere, to feed. 

8ta-bulum, staU ; stare, to stand, 

vehi-culom, wagon ; vehere, to carry. 

cand§la-brum, candlestick ; candela, ca ndle (a secondary formation). 

sepul-crum, tomb ; sepelure, to bury. 

claus-trum (tclaud-trum), bar ; claudere, to shut. 

ara-trum, plough; arare, to plough. 

Note. — ^trum (stem tro-) was an old formation from tor- (§234. II. 16), with the 
stem sufi&x o-, and -clum (stem clo- for tlo-) appears to be related ; -Cttlom is the same 
as -clttm ; -bulum contains lo- (§ 234. II. 9, 10) and -brum is closely related. 

a» A few masculines and f eminines of the same formation occur as nouns 
and adjectives : — 

fft-bula, tale ; fflrl, to speak, 

ridi-colus, laughable; ridere, to laugh, 

fa-ber, smith; facere, to m/ike. 

late-bra, hiding-place; latSre, to hide, 

tere-bra, aitgrer ; terere, to bore. 

mulc-tra, milk-pail ; mulgSre, to milk. 

241. Abstract Nouns, mostly from adjective-stems, rarely from 
noun-stems, are formed by means of the secondary feminine suf- 
fixes — 

-la (-i§s), -tia (-tiSs), -t5s, -tus, -tiid5 

audSc-ia, boldness; audax, bold, 

paupei-ies, poverty ; pauper, poor. 

tiisti-tia, sadness; tristis, sad. 

segni-ties, laziness; segnis, lazy. 

boni-tas, goodness; bonus, good, 

senec-tus, ape; senex, old. 

magni-tud5, greatness; magnus, great 

1. In stems ending in o- or S- the stem-vowel is lost before -ia (as superb-ia) 
and appears as i before -tas, -tus, -tia (as in boni-tas, above). 

2. Consonant stems often insert i before -tas : as, loqiiaz (stem loqnac-), 
loqu&ci-tas ; but hones-tas, m&ies-tas (as if from bid adjectives in -es), iiber-tas, 
volup-tas. after i is changed to e : as, pius (stem pio-), pie-tas ; socius, sode-tas. 

8 241] 



€i0 In like maimer -49 and -g5 (f.) form abstract nouns, but are asso- 
ciated with verbs and apparently added to verb-stems : — 

cupi-d9, desire, from cupere, to desire (as if from stem cupl-). 

dttlcS-d5, sweetness (cf. dulds, sweet), as if from a stem dolc^, of. dolciHicd. 

Iiunbft-g5, lurnbago (cf. lumbus, loin), as if from tlumbd, -ire. 

NoTB. — Of these, -ia is inherited as secondary (cf. § 234. II. 11). -tia is formed by 
adding -ia to stems with a t-suffix : as, militia, from nules (stem milit-) ; molestia 
from molestus ; dementia from dSmSns ; whence by analogy, mali-tia, ay&ri-tia. -tia 
is inherited, but its component parts, ta- + ti-, are found as suffixes in the same sense : 
as, senecta from senex ; sSmen-tis from sSmen. -tfis is tii- + ti-, cf . serritfl-dS. -d9 and 
-eo appear only with long vowels, as from verb-stems, by a false analogy; but -d9 is 
do--i-5n-: as, cnpidiis, cnpidS; giayidus, grayCdo (cf. gnye-«c9); albidus, albMS (cf. al- 
bSacd) ; formidas, hot, formidS (cf. fonnidiildsus), (?iot flash f) fear; -gS is possibly oo-+ 
5n- ; cf. Torix, TorAgS, but cf . CethSgas. -tadS is compounded of -d9 with tii-stems, 
-which acquire a long vowel from association with verb-stems in u- (cf . yolfimen, from 
▼o1t5) : as, c5nsafta-d9, valfitfi-dS, habitu-dS, soUicitfi-dS ; whence senrltfidS (cf. serritus, 

&• Neuter Abstracts, which easily pass into concretes denoting offices 
and groups, are formed from noun-stems and perhaps from verb-stems by 
means of the suffixes — 

-ium, -tium 

hoBpit-ium, hospitality, an inn ; ^ 
coUSg-ium, coUeagueship, a college ; 
auspic-iom, soothsaying, an omen; 
gaud-iom, Joy ; 
eifug-iom, escape; 
benefic-ium, a kindness ; 
desider-ium, longing; 

adyerb-iom, adverb; 
interlfln-ium, time of new moon ; 
rSgifng-ium, fligM of the kings ; 
•ervi-tiam, slavery, the slave class; 

hospes (gen. hospit-is), a guest, 

coUega, a colleague, 

auspex (gen. auspic-is), a soothsayer, 

gaudere, to rejoice, 

effngere, to escape, 

benefacere, to benefit ; cf . beneficns. 

denderAre, to miss, from tdS-sidSs, out 

of place, of missing soldiers, 
ad verbum, [added] to a verb. 
inter IQnfts, between moons. 
rSgis fuga, flight of a king. 
servns, a dave. 

Yowel stems lose their vowel before -iom : as, collSg-iam, from collSga. 

NoTB. — ^iom is the neuter of the adjective suffix -las. It is an inherited primary 
suffix, but is used with great freedom as secondary, -tium is formed like -tia, by add- 
ing -ium to stems with t: as, exit-iom, eqult-ium (cf. exitus, equitSs) ; so, by analogy, 
calvitium, seryitium (from calvus, seiyns). 

ۥ Less commonly, abstract nouns (which usually become concrete) are 
formed from noun-stems (confused with verb-stems) by means ol the 
suffixes — 

1 The abstract meaning is put first. 

148 ^ FORMATION OF WORDS [§§241-243 

-nla, F. ; -nluixi) -liuiU) -cinium, K. 

pecfl-nUi money (cliaUels) ; peed, caiMe. 

contici-iiium, ths hush of night ; conticSscere, to become stiU, 

auxi-Uam, help ; augSre, to increase. 

Utro-dniom, robbery; latrd, . ro6&er (cf. latrocinor, rob, im- 

plying an adjective tlatrodnas). 

For Diminutives and Patronymics, see §§ 243, 244. 


242. Derivative Adjectives, which often become nouns, are 
either Nominal (from nouns or adjectives) or Verbal (as from roots 
or verb-stems). 

Nominal Adjectives 

243. Diminutive Adjectives are usually confined to one gen- 
der, that of the primitive, and are used as Diminutive Nouns. 

They are formed by means of the suffixes- 

-uluB (-a, -um), -oluB (after a vowel), -cuius, -ellus, -illus 

xiy-ulus, a streamlet; rlvus, a brook, 

gladi-olus, a small sword; gladius, a sword, 

fHi-olas, a little son ; filius, a son. 

fHi-ola, a little daughter ; filia, a daughter, 

Stri-oliim, a littXe hall; atrium, a haU. 

homun-culUG, a dwarf; homo, a man. 

auii-cola, a little ear ; auris, an ear, 

milnas-culam, a little gift; mflnas, n., a gift, 

codic-illi, wrUing4aJblets ; codex, a block. 

mis-elluG, rather wretched; miser, wretched. 

Iib-ellu8, a little book ; liber, a book, 

aure-olns (-a, -um), golden; aureus (-a, -um), golden, 
parv-olus (later parv-ulus), very small; parvus (-a, -um), little. 

maius-culus, somewhat larger; maior (old maios), greater. 

NoTB 1. — These diminutive endings are all formed by adding -las to various stems. 
The formation is the same as that of -ulus in § 251. But these words became set- 
tled as diminutives, and retained their connection with nouns. So in English the 
diminutives whitishf reddish, are of the same formation as bookish and snappish. 
-cnltts comes from -las added to adjectives in -cub formed from stems in n- and s-: as, 
iaven-cas, Aaran-cas (cf. Aorancal^ias), pris-cus, whence the ca becomes a part of the 
termination, and the whole ending (-calas) is used elsewhere, but mostly with n- ands- 
stems, in accordance with its origin. * 

NoTB 2. — Diminutives are often used to express affection, pity, or contempt: as, 
dSliciolae, little pet,- maliercala, a poor (weak) woman; Graecalus, a miserable Greek. 

§ 243-246] NOMINAL ADJECTIVES 149 

• -cid, added to stems in n-, has the same diminutive force, but is used 
/i-tli masculines only : as, homun-cid, a dwarf (from homS, a man), 

1244. Patronymics, indicating descent or relationship^ are formed 
yy adding to proper names the suffixes — 

•adCs, -ides, -IdCs, -eus, m. ; -&b, -is, -Sis, f. 

These words, originally Greek adjectives, have almost all become nouns 
XI IL^atin: — 

Atlas: Atlanti-ades, Mercury ; Atlant-idSs (Gr. plar.), the Pleiads. 

Sapio : Scipi-ades, son of Scipio, 

Tyndareus: Tyndar-ides, Castor or PoUvx, son of Tyndarus; Tyndar-is, 

B.elen^ daughter of Tyndarus. 
Anchises : Anchisi-ades, ^neas^ son of AncMses, 
ThSseus : Thes-ides, son of Theseus. 
Tydeas : T^d-ides, Diomedes, son of Tydeus. 
OHeus : Aiiz Oil-eas, son of Oileus. 
CisseuG : Cisse-is, Hecuba^ daughter of Cisseus. 
Thaom&s : Thaumant-ias, Im, daughter of Thaumas. 
Hespems : Hesper-ides (from Hespei-is, -idis), plur. , the daughters of Hesperus^ 

the Hesperides. 


245. Adjectives meaning/wH of^ prone to^ are formed from noun- 
stems with the suffixes — 

-osus, -lens, -lentus 

flucttt-dsuG, billowy ; fluctas, a hUlow. 

form-5sa6, beautiful; forma, beauty. 

peticnl-osas, dangerous; pericalom, danger. 

peati-lens, pesti-lentus, pestilent ; pestis, pest. 

vino-lentus, yin-osas, given to drink; vinum, wine. 

246. Adjectives meaning provided with are formed from nouns 
hy means of the regular participial endings — 

-tus, -&tus, -Itus, -fitus 

fdnes-tus, deadly ; fdnus (st. faner-, older ffin%8-), death. 

hones-tus, honorable; honor, honor. 

faus-tus (for tfaves-tus), favorable ; favor, favor. 

barb-atus, bearded ; barba, a beard. 

tarr-itas, turreted ; turrls, a tower. 

com-fltus, fiorned ; comfl, a hmn. 

NoTB. — -^Ittts, -itus, -fitus, imply reference to an imaginary verb-stem ; -tus is added 
directly to nonns without any such reference. 

160 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 247-24U 

S47. Adjectives of various meanings, bat signifying in gen- 
eral made of or belonging to^ are formed from nouns by means of 
the suffixes — 

-ens, -ins, -Aoens, -lotus, -ftneus (-nens), -tious 

aor-eaa, golden; anrom, gold. 

patr-ios, jMx^emoZ; pater, a /o^Aer. 

nzdr-iua, vzoriofiu; uxor, a wife, 

ros-ftcdoa, qfroees; rosa, a rose, 

later-Idtta, cf brick ; later, a brick. 

praesent-ftnetts, operating inetanUy ; praesSns, present, 

eztr-ftneua, extemaX; eztrft, vsOhmit, 

aubterr-ftnetts, wbterranean ; aub terrft, wnderground. 

aalig-neua, qf willow; aalix, willow, 

▼olft-ticaa, winged (Yolfttoa, a flight) ; ToUre, to fly, 

domes-ticua, of the house, domestic ; domaa, a house, 

silvft-ticaa, sylvan; aflya, a wood, 

NoTB. — itts is originally primitiye (§ 234. II. 11) ; -ens corresponds to Greek -«cof, 
-€os, and has lost a y-sound (cf . yo-, § 234. II. 11) ; -icias and -Acens are formed by add- 
ing -ius and -eus to stems in i-o-, &-o- (suffix ko-, §234. II. 12); -nens is no- + -ens 
(§ 234. n. ^ ; -Anens is formed by adding -nens to ft-stems ; -ticns is a formation with 
-ens (cf. hotti-cns with silTft-ticus), and has been affected by the analogy of participial 
stems in to- (nominative -tus). 

248. Adjectives denoting pertaining to are formed from noun- 
stems with the suffixes — 

-alls, -ftris, -«lls, -nis, -tUis 

n&tfir-ilia, naturoU ; n&tfira, nature, 

popol-ftria, fellow-countryman; populaa, a people, 

patm-Alia, cousin; patmua, unde, 

host-Ilia, hostile; hoatia, an enemy, 

cur-aiis, curule; cnmis, a chariot, 

NoTB. — The suffixes arise from adding -Us (stem 11-) to yarions vowel stems. The 
long vowels are due partly to confusion between stem and suffix (cf . vitA-lis, from 
yit&-, with iic4Ui8), partly to confusion with verb-stems: cf. Aprilis (apeilre), ediilis 
(edere), with senilis (senex). -ris is an inherited suffix, but in most of these formations 
"Axis arises by differentiation for 4Uis in words containing an 1 (as mI]it-4Uis). i 

249. Adjectives with the sense of belonging to are formed by 
means of the suffixes — 

-ftnus, -finns, -Inns; -fts, -6nsis ; -ens, -acus (-Aous), -ions ; -ens, 

-eins, -icius 
1. So from common nouns : — 

mont-inoa, of the mountains ; m5na (stem monti-), iTiouiitain. 

▼eter-Anna, veteran; vetna (stem veter-), old, 

antelflc-Anua, before daylight; ante Ifloem, btfore light. 

§ 249, 260] 



tMT-6iitt8, earthly; 

aer-Snus, calm (of evening stillness) ; 

coU-Inus, of a hiU; 

dlv-inas, divine; 

libert-ittus, of the class offreedmen; 

c^-As, of whaJb country f 

iiifim-&8, of the lowest rank ; 

terra, &irth, 

•Sms, late* 

coUis, h%a. 

divas, god. 

Ubertus, one'^sfreedman. 

quis, wlio f 

inflmaB, lotoest. 

f or-ftnsis, of a market-place^ or the Forum ; forum, a market-place. 

tivi-cas, civic J of a citizen; 

folldn-ictts, of a fuller ; 

mer-Acns, pure ; 

fSmin-etts, of a womxm, feminine; 

lact-eus, milky ; 

plSb-eias, of the commons, plebeian ; 

patr-idtts, patrician; 

civis, a citizen. 
folio, a fuller. 
merum, pure wine. 
fSmina, a woman. 
lac, milk (stem lacti-). 
plSbis, the commons. 
pater, father. 

2. But especially from proper nouns to denote belonging to or coming from : 
Rfim-Antts, Boman; 
Sull-Ani, SuXla^s veterans ; 
Cyzic-Sni, CyziceneSy people of Cyzicus ; 
Lignr-inus, ofLiguria; 
Arpin-fts, ofArpinum ; 
Sidli-Snsis, Sicilian; 
Ili-acu8, Trojan (a Greek form) ; 
Platdn-ictts, Platonic; 
Aqnil-^ius, a Boman name ; 


R5ma, Rome. 
Sieilia, Sicily. 
lUum, Troy. 


Aquil-eia, a town in Italy 

a* Many derivative adjectives with these endings have by usage become 
nouns : — 

Silv-inus, m., a god of the woods; sllva, a wood. 

membr-Sna, f., Mn; membrum, limb. 

Aemili-ftnus, m., name of Scipio Africanus ; Aemilia (gSna). 

lanius, butcJier. 
tAufidius (Aufidus). 
incola, an inhabitant. 
caecus, Uind. 

ra5, fall (no noun existing), 
doctor, teacher. 

lani-Sna, f., a butcJier^s stall; 

Aufidi-Snus, M., a Boman name ; 

inqoil-inas, m., a lodger; 

Caec-&ia, used as m., a Boman name ; 

ru-tna, f., a fall; 

doctr-ina, f., learning; 

Note. — Of these terminations, -Inus, -Sniis, -inus are compounded from -nus added 
to a stem-vowel : as, axca, arcinus ; coUis, oollinus. The long vowels come from a con- 
fusion with verb-stems (as in plS-nus, fini-tus, tribt-tus), and from the noun-stem in &• : 
as, arcinus. A few nouns occur of similar formation, as if from verb-stems in 9- and 
fi-: as, oolSnus (col5, cf. incola), patrSnus (cf. patrS, -^Ire), tribfmus (cf. tribuS, tribus), 
Portfinut (cf. porttts), Vacflna (cf. vac5, vacnus). 

280. Other adjectives meaning in a general way lelonging to 
(especiaUy of places and times) are formed with the suffixes — 

152 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 250, 251 

-ter (-trie), -ester (-estris), -timuB, -nus, -ernus, -umus, -ternus (-turnus) 

palQs-ter, of t^e marshes ; paltls, a marsh. 

pedes-ter, of the foot-soldiers ; pedes, a footman. 

8$m68-trl8, lasting six months ; sex mSnses, six m^mJOis, 

silY-ester, silv-estris, woody ; silva, a wood, 

fini-timas, netghboriTtg^ on the borders; finis, an end, 

maxi-timas, of the sea ; mare, sea. 

ySr-ntts, vernal ; ver, spring. 

hodi-emus, of to-day ; hodiS, to-day, 

di-omtts, daily; dies, day. 

hes-teinus, of yesterday; heri (old hesi), yesterday. 

did-tnmus, Uisting ; did, long (in time). 

Note. — Of these, -ester is formed by adding tri- (cf. tro-, § 234. n. 16) to stems in 
t- or d-. Thus tpedet-tri- becomes pedestri-, and others follow the analogy, -nns is an 
inherited suffix (§ 234. II. 4). -emus and -umos are formed by adding -nus to s-stems: 
as, diur-Bus (for fdias-nas), and hence, by analogy, hodiemus (hodiS). By an extension 
of the same principle were formed the suffixes -ternus and -turnus from words like 
patemus and noctumus. 

a* Adjectives meaning belonging to are formed from nouns by means of 

the suffixes — 

-atiuB, -torluB (-sSrlus) 

5rdin-iritt8, regular; 5rd5, rank, order, 

argent-Arius, of silver or money ; argentum, silver, 

extr-Arius, stranger; extra, outside. 

meii-tdrias, prqfttaJUe ; meritus, earned, 

dSvor-sorius, of an inn (cf . § 254. 5) ; devorsus, turned oMde. 

NoTB 1. — Here -ius (§ 234. II. 11) is added to shorter forms in -iris and -or : as, pecu- 
li&rius (from peculilris), bellat5rlu8 (from belUtor). 

NoTB 2. — These adjectives are often fixed as nouns (see § 254). 

Verbal Adjectives 

251. Adjectives expressing the action of the verb as a quality 
or tendency are formed from real or apparent verb-stems with the 
suffixes — 

-&Z, -Idas, -ulu8, -vus (-una, -Ivus, -f^vus) 
denotes a, faulty or aggressive tendency; -ti[vus is oftener passive. 

^Hgnrix, pugnacious ; jtfignlrt, to fight, 

aud-&x, bold ; audere, to dare. 

cup-idus, eager ; cupere, to desire, 

bib-ulus, thirsty (as dry earth etc.) ; bibere, to drink. 

proter-vus, violent, wanton ; prdterere, to trample. 

§§ 261-253] VERBAL ADJECTIVES 163 

noc-aus (noo-iyus), hur^lj injurious; noc$re, to do harm, 

recid-ivas, restored ; reddere, to fall hack. 

cap-tivu8, captive; m., a prisoner of war ; capere, to take. 

NoTB. — Of these, -ftz is a redaction of 4lca8 (stem-vowel &- + -ca8), become inde- 
pendent and used with verb-stems. Similar forms in -^x, -4x, -iz, and -ux are found 
or employed in derivatives: as, imbrex, m., a rain-tile (from imber); senex, old (from 
seni-s) ; ferSx, fierce (from ferns) ; atrSx, savage (from iter, black) ; celox, f., a yacht 
<cf. cello); fSlix, Jiappy, originally /er^iZe (cf. fSlo, suck ); ffdiicia, f., confidence (as 
from ffidux) ; cf. also victrix (from victor). So mandficus, chewing (from mandd). 

-idtts is no doubt denominative, as in herbidus, grassy (from herba, ?ierb) ; tomidiis, 
suDollen (cf. tnma-liis, hill; tumul-tas, uproar); calUdns, toughf cunning (cf. callum, 
tauffh fiesh) ; mucidas, slimy (cf . mucus, «/tme) ; tftbidus, wasting (cf. tftbCs, wcuting 
ciisease). But later it was used to form adjectives directly from verb-«tems. 

-ulus is the same suffix as in diminutives, but attached to verb-stems. Gf . aemulus, 
rivalling (cf . imitor and im&g5) ; sedulus, sitting by, attentive (cf . domi-seda, hom^ 
staying^ and sSdo, set^ settle^ hence calm) ; pendulus, hanging (cf . pond5, ablative, in 
tveight; perpendiculum, a plummet; appendix, an addition); str&gulus, covering (cf. 
stx3LgH) ; legulus, a picker (cf. sacri-legus, a picker up of things sacred), 

"TUB seems originally primary (cf. § 234. II. 8), but -ivus and -tivus have become 
secondary and are used with nouns: as, aestivus, of summer (from aestus, heat); 
-tempestivus, timely (from tempus) ; cf . domes-ticus (from domus). 

252. Adjectives expressing passive qualities^ but occasionally 
active, are formed by means of the suffixes — 

-Uis, -bUis, -iu8, -tilis (-sUIb) 

frag-ilis, frail ; frangere (frag), to break, 

n5-bilis, weilX known^ famous; noscere (gno), to know. 

ezim-ius, choice, rare (cf. S-greg-ias) ; eximere, to take out, select, 

ag-ilis, active; agere, to drive. 

hab-ilis, handy ; habSre, to hold. 

al-tilis, fattened (see note) ; alere, to nourish. 

NoTB. — Of these, -lus is primary, but is also used as secondary (cf . § 241. 6. N.) . -ills 
is both primary (as in agilis, fragilis) and secondary (as in similis, like^ cf . d;xos, o/MiXof , 
English 8am£) ; -bilis is in some way related to -bulum and -brum (§ 240. n.) ; in -tilis 
and -«ilis, -lis is added to to- (so-), stem of the perfect participle: as, fossilis, dug up 
(from fossus, dug); volfttilis, winged (from yoykXxiS^ flight), 

253. Verbal Adjectives that are Participial in meaning are 
formed with the suffixes — 

-nduB, -bunduB, -cundus 

a* -ndns (the same as the gerundive ending) forms a few active or reflex- 
ive adjectives : — 
^ sectt-ndus, second (the following), favorable; sequi, tofoUow. 
rotu-ndus, round (whirling) ^ ; rotare, to whirl. 

1 Cf . Tolyendis mSnsibus (Aen. i. 269), in the revolving months ; cf . oriundi ab Sablnls 
(Liv. i. 17), sprung from the Sabines, where oriundi =orti. 

154 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 26S, 254 

&• -bandiu, -amdiu, denote a continuance of the act or quality expressed 
by the verb : — 

▼Iti-bnndus, avoiding; yitAre, to shun, 

treme-iraikdiss, tremJbiing ; tremere, to tremble, 

moii-lrandas, dying ^ at the point of death ; moriri, to die, 

fft-condas, eloquent; fixl, to speak, 

f9-candu8, fruilfal ; root fb, naurijih, 

irft-candtts, irascible; . cf. irftsci, to he angry, 

NoTB. — These must have been originally nominal: as in the series, mbns, red 
bush; rabidtts (bnt no frabicns), ruddy; Rubicda, Red River (cf. MiniS, a river of 
Etroria; niniiu, a river of LuBitania); rabicaiidiis (as in aTemmcas, bomiin-calas). 
So tnrba, eommotion; tnrU, atop; tnrbidas, roUy, etc. Cf. apexaU, loncab5, sxaTSdo, 

ۥ Here belong also the participial suffixes -minus, -mnus (cf. Greek 
-ficvos), from which are formed a few nouns in which the participial force is 
still discernible : — ^ 

f<-mina, woman (the nourisher) ; root fb, nourish, 

alu-mnns, a foster-child, nursling; alere, to nourish. 

Voans with Adjective Suffixes 

254. Many fixed fonns of the Nominal Adjective suffixes men- 
tioned in the preceding sections, make Noims more or less regu- 
larly used in particular senses : — 

1. -Irius, person employed about anything.: — 

argent-drius, m. , silversmith, broker, from argentom, silver, 

Corinthi-Aritts, m. , worker in Corinthian bronze (sarcastic nickname of Angnstns), 

from (aes) Corlnthiom, Corinthian bronze, 
centdn-irius, m., ragman, from centd, patchwork. 

• 2. -JLria, thing connected with something : — 

argent-Aria, f., bank, from argentom, silver, 
arSn-iriae, f. plural, sandpits, from arSna, sand, 
Asin-iria, f., name of a play, from asinns, ass,^ 

3. -irium, place of a, thing (with a few of more general meaning): — 

aer-Ariom, v,, treasury, from aes, copper, 
ttpid-iriom, v,, warm bath, from tepidns, warm, 
sfld-iriom, n., a towd, cf. sfidS, -Are, sweat, 
•al-Ariom, n., saU money, salary, from sAl, salt, 
calend-Ariom, n., a noteA>ook^ from calendae, calends, 

lOf. §163. footnote 1. 

2 Probably in adjective with fAbnla, ptay^ understood. 


4. -tSria (-sSria): — 

Agitft-tdria, f., a play of Plaatos, The Carter ^ from agititor. 
▼or-adxia, f., a tack (nautical), from yorstts, a turn. 

5. -tOrinm (-sSrinm), place of action (with a few of more general meaning) : 

dSTOFHMzitim, K., an inn^ as from dSyorto, turn aside* 
audi-torimii, n., a lecture-room^ as from aadld, fiear, 
ten-toriam, n., a tent^ as from tendS, stretch. 
tde-tSriom, n., plaster, as from tego, tectus, cover. 
por-tSxiom, v., toll, cf. port5, carry, and portus, harbor. 

6. -He, animal-stall : — 

boY-ile, v., catUe-stall, from bSs, UyIs, oz, cow. 
or-Ue, v., sheep/old, from ovis, stem otI-, sheep. 

7. -«1 for -ale, thing connected xoiih the primitive : — 

capit-al, N., headdress, capital crime, from caput, head. 
penetr-ftle (especially in plural), v., inner apartment, cf. penetrS, enter, 
S&tnrn-aiia, n. plural (the regular form for names of festivals), feast of Sat- 
urn, from Sfttomus. 

8. -etnm, N. (cf. -ituB, -fltus, see § 246. N.),-tum,pteceo/a thing, especially 
with names of trees and plants to designate where these grow : — 

qaerc-Stom, k., oak grove, from quercus, oak. 
oCy-€tttm, N., olive grove, from oHya, an olive tree. 
salic-tom, v., a willow thicket, from saliz, a willow tree. 
Argil-Stum, v.. The Clay Pit, from argilla, clay. 

9. -CU8 (sometimes with inserted i, -lens), -icus, in any one of the gen- 
ders, with various meanings : — 

▼ili-caa, X., a steward, Tfll-ca, f., a stewardess, from tSLUl, farm-house. 

fabr-ica, f., a workshop, from faber, workman. 

am-icns, m., am-Ica, v., friend, cf. amlre, to love. 

bdbul-cus, M., ox4ender, from bCb-ulus, diminutive, cf. bOa, ox. 

cant-icom, v., song, from cantns, act of singing. 

rubr-ica, f., red paint, from ruber, red. 

10. -eus, -ea, -eum, with various meanings : — 

alv-eua, m., a trough^ from alvus, the heUy. 

capr-ea, f., a 'wild she-goat, from caper, he-goat. 

flamm-eum, k., a bridal veil, from flamma, flame, from its color. 

11. -ter (stem tri-), -aster, -ester : — 

eqoes-ter, m., knight, for feqnet-ter. 

■equ-ester, m., a stake-holder, from derivative of sequor, follow. 

ole-aster, m. , wHd olive, from olea, an olive tree. 

156 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 265-269 


255. The suffix -9 (genitiye -Qnis, stem On-), usually added to 
verb-stems (see § 236. c), is sometimes used with noun-stems to 
form nouns denoting possessed of. These were originally adjec- 
tives expressing quality or charactery and hence often appear as 
proper names : — 

epulae, a feast; epol-d, afeaster. 

oiBos, a nose; nas-o, with a large nose (silso as a proper name), 
▼das (in bene-rolus), vnshing; rol-dnes (plural), volunteers, 
fr^ins, forehead ; front-o, big-head (also as a proper name). 
ciiria, a curia; c6ii-5, head of a curia (also as a proper name), 
restis, a rope; resti-o, a rope-maker. 

a. Rarely suffixes are added to compound stems imagined, but not used 
in their compound form : — 

ad-yerb-ium, adverb; ad, to, and yerbiim, verb, but without the Interyening 

l&ti-fand-iiim, large estaie ; latus, wide, fandas, estate, but without the inter- 
yening tUtifandas. 

su-OTe-tanr-ilia, a sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull ; sus, stoine, oris, 
sheep, tauras, bull, where the primitive would be impossible in Latin, 
though such formations are common in Sanskrit. 


256. Verbs may be classed as Primitive or Derivative. 

1 . Primitive Verbs are those inh erited by the Latin from the parent speech. 

2. Derivative Verbs are those formed in the development of the Latin 
as a separate language. 

257. Derivative Verbs are of two main classes : — 

1. Denominative Verbs, formed from nouns or adjectives. 

2. Verbs apparently derived from the stems of other verbs. 

Denominative Verbs 

258. Verbs were formed in Latin from almost every form of 
noun-stem and adjective-stem. 

259. 1. Verbs of the First Conjugation are formed directly 
from §-stems, regularly with a transitive meaning: as, faga, 
flight; fugfire, put to flight. 


2. Many verbs of the First Conjugation are formed from o- 
stems, changing the o- into a-. These are more commonly tran- 
sitive: — 

stimuid, -Ire, to incite^ from stimulas, a goad (stem stimulo-). 

aequo, -ire, to make even, from aequus, even (stem aequo-). 

hibemd, -&re, to pass the mnter, from hibemus, of the winter (stem hibemo-). 

albo, -are, to whiten, from albus, white (stem albo-). 

pio, -are, to expiate, from plus, pure (stem pio-). 

novo, -are, to renew, from novas, new (stem novo-). 

armo, -are, to arm, from arma, arms (stem armo-). 

damno, -are, to injure, from damnum, injury (stem danmo-). 

8. A few verbs, generally intransitive, are formed by analogy 
from consonant and i- or u-s terns, adding a to the stem : — ^ 

vigilo, -are, to watch, from vigil, awake. 

exsulo, -£re, to he in exile, from ezsul, an exile. 

auspicor, -ar!, to take the auspices, from auspex (stem auspic-), augur. 

pulverd, -are, to turn (anything) to dust, from pulvis (stem pulver-for pulvis-), 

aestud, -ire, to surge, boil, from aestus (stem aestu-), tide, seething. 
levo, -are, to lighten, from levis (stem levi-), lighJb. 

260. A few verbs of the Second Conjugation (generally in- 
transitive) are recognizable as formed from noun-stems ; but most 
are inherited, or the primitive noun-stem is lost : — 

al1)e5, -ere, to he white, from albus (stem albVe-)? white. 
caneo, -ere, to he hoary, from canus (stem canVe-)» hoary, 
clareo, -ere, to shine, from clarus, bright. 
claudeo, -ere, to he lame, from claudus, kmie. 
algeo, -ere, to be cold, cf. algidus, cold, 

261. Some verbs of the Third Conjugation in-u9,Hiere, are formed 
from noun-stems in u- and have lost a consonant i : — 

status (for tstatu-yo), -ere, to set up, from status, position. 

metud, -ere, to fear, from metus, fear. 

acuo, -ere, to sharpen, from acus, needle. 

argno, -ere, to clear up, from inherited stem targu-, bright (cf. dpyvpos). 

Note. — Many verbs in u are inherited, being formed from roots in a: asj flaS, 
flttere, flow ; so-lvo (for fsS-luS, cf . XiJw), solvere, dissolve. Some roots have a parasitic 
tt : a8,*loquor, locutus, speak. 

1 The type of all or most of the denominative f ormatioDS in §§ 259-262 was inherited, 
but the process went on in the development of Latin as a separate language. 

158 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 202, 263 

262. Many l-yerbs or verbs of tihe Fourth Conjugation are 
formed from i-stems : — 

mdlior, -iri, to toil, from mdlSs (-is), mass, 
finid, -ire, to bound, from finis, end. 
sitiS, -ire, to thirst, from sitis, thirst, 
stabilio, -ire, to establish, from stabilis, stable. 

a« Some arise by confusion from other stems treated as i-stems : — 

bnllid, -ire, to boil, from bulla (stem bulUL-), bubble. 

condid, -ire, to preserve, from condus (stem condo-), storekeeper. 

insftnid, -ire, to rave, from insAnus (stem ins&no-), mad. 

gestiS, -ire, to show wUd longing, from gestos (stem gestu-), gesture. 

NoTB. — Some of this form are of doabtfal origin: as, Srdior, begin, cf. 5rd5 and 
ex5rdiam. The formation is closely akin to that of verbs in -19 of the third conjuga- 
tion (p. 102). 

b» Some are formed with -15 from consonant stems : — 

cdstSdiS, -ire, to guard, from cflstds (stem cfi8t6d-), ^arduzn. 
fttlguiid, -ire, to lighten, from fulgor, lightning. 

NoTB. — Here probably belong the so-called desideraHves in -nriS (see § 263. 4. n.). 

Verlw from Other Verbs 

263. The following four classes of verbs regularly derived 
from other verbs have special meanings connected with their 

NoTB. — These classes are all really denominatiye in their origin, but the forma- 
tions had become so associated with actual verbs that new deriyatives were often 
formed directly from yerbs without the intervention of a noun-stem. 

1. Inceptives or Inchoatives add -scO * to the present stem of verbs. 
They denote the beginning of an action and are of the Third Conjuga- 
tion. Of some there is no simple verb in existence : — 

calS-8c5, ^010 warm, from caleo, be warm. 

Iaba-8c5, begin to totter, from labo, totter. 

8ci-8c5, determine, from sdd, know. 

con-cnpi-sco, conceive a desire for, from cupiS, desire. 

ali-8c5, grow, from al5, feed. 

So irft-scor, get angry ; cf . irft-tus. 

Inyen8-sc5, grow young; cf. layenis, young man. 

miti-sed, grow mUd; cf. mitis, mild. 

▼teperiHKit, it is gdting late; cf. Tosper, evening. 

1 For -fo5 in primary formation, see § 176. b. "L 


IQ'OTB. — Inoeptives properly have only the present stem, but many use the perfect 
and supine systems of simple verbs: as, cal8ic5, ^roio toamif calui; ftrdSic5, hl€use 
forth^ Arsi ; proflclscor, «et out^ profectus. 

2. Intensi ves or Iteratives are formed from the Supine stem and end 

in -t5 or -itO (rarely -sO) . They denote 2^ forcible or repeated action, but 

this special sense often disappears. Those derived from verbs of 

the First Conjugation end in -itO (not -AtO). 

iac-t5, hurlf from iaciS, throw. 
dormi-t5, be sleepy ^ from domiid, sle^, 
YoMtd, flit, from Yold, fly» 
▼indi-t5, try to seU, from ySndS, sell. 
quas-sd, shatter, from quatiS, shake. 

They are of the first conjugation, and are properly denominative. 

u* Compound suffixes -tit5, sM, are formed with a few verbs. These 
are probably derived from other Iteratives ; thus, cantitS may come from 
cantd, iterative of can5) sing. 

b» Another form of Intensives — sometimes called Meditatives, or verbs 
of practice — ends in -essS (rarely -issS). These denote a certain energy or 
eagerness of action rather than its repetition : — 

cap-e8s5, lay hold on, from capiS, tdke. 
fac-essS, do (with energy), from faciS, do. 
pet-esao, pet-issS, seek (eagerly), from pet5, seek. 

These are of the third conjugation, usually having the perfect and 
supine of the fourth : — 

arcessd, arceasSre, arcestivi, arcessitom, summon. 
lacesso, lacessSre, lacessm, lacessitum, provoke. 
NoTB. — The yerbs in -essS, -issS, show the same formation as lerftssS, impetxtssere, 
iudicAsslt, etc. (§ 183. 5), but its origin is not fully explained. 

3. Diminutives end in -1115, and denote q, feeble or petty action : — 

cav-illor, jest, cf . cayilla, raillery. 
cant-iU5, chirp or warUe, from canto, sing. 

Note. — Diminutives are formed from verb-stems derived from real or supiwsed 
diminutive nouns. 

4. Desideratives end in -tuHiS (-suri0), and express longing or wishr 
ing. They are of the fourth conjugation, and only two are in com- 
mon use : — 

par-turi5, be in labor, from parid, bring forth, 
S-8ori5 (for ted-torid), be hungry, from edo, eat. 

Others are used by the dramatists. 

Note. — Desideratives are probably derived from some noun of agency: as, imp> 
tnriS, wish to buy, from 8mptor, buyer, VisS, go to see, is an inherited desiderative of 
a different formation. 

160 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 264, 26a 


264. A Compound Word is one whose stem is made up of two 
or more simple stems. 

a. A final stem-vowel of the first member of the compound usually dis- 
appears before a vowel, and usually takes the form of i before a consonant. 
Only the second member receives inflection.^ 

b» Only noun-stems can be thus compounded. A preposition, however, 
often becomes attached to a verb. 

265. New stems are formed by Composition in three ways : — 

1. The second part is simply added to the first : — 

sa-ove-taunlia (sfls, ovis, taorus), the sacrifice of a swine^ a sheep, and a bull 

(cf. § 266. a). 
septen-dedm (aeptem, decern), seventeen. 

2. The first part modifies the second as an adjective or adverb 

(Determinative Compounds) : — 

Uti-fandituii (Ifttas, fundus), a large landed estaJte. 
omni-potens (onmis, potens), omnipotent, 

3. The first part has the force of a case, and the second a verbal 

force {Objective Compounds) : — 

agri-cola (ager,^eZc{, tcola akin to cold, cultivate), a farmer. 
armi-ger (arma, arms, tger akin to ger5, carry), armor-bearer. 
comi-cen (comfi, horn, teen akin to cano, sing), horn-blower. 
cami-fex (card, flesh, tfex akin to facio, make), executioner. 

a* Compounds of the above kinds, in which the last word is a noun, 
may become adjectives, uiesimng possessed of the quality denoted: — 

Sli-pds (aia, wing, pes, foot), wing-footed. 

m&gn-animus (m&gnus, greaty animus, soul), great-sotUed. 

an-ceps (amb-, at both ends, caput, h^ad), double. 

Note. — Many compounds of the above classes appear only in the form of some 
further derivative, the proper compound not being found in Latin. 

1 The second part generally has its usual inflection ; but, as this kind of composi- 
tion is in fact older than inflection, the compounded stem sometimes has an inflectioD 
of its own (as, comicen, -cinis ; liicifer, -feri ; iiidex, -dicis), from stems not occurring in 
Latin. Especially do compound adjectives in Latin take the form of i-stems: as, 
animus, exanimis; nSrma, abnormls (see § 73) . In composition, stems regularly have 
their uninflected form : as, ignl-spicium, divining by fire. But in o- and i-stems the 
final vowel of the stem appears as i-, as in ali-pSs (from &la, stem aUL-) ; and i« is so 
common a termination of compounded stems, that it is often added to stems which do 
not properly have it: as, fl5ri-comuB, flower-crowned (from flSs, flor-is, and coma, Aatry 


Syntactic Compounds 

266. In many apparent compounds, complete words — not 
items — have grown together in speech. These are not strictly 
3oinpoiinds in the etymological sense. They are called Syntac- 
tic Compounds. Examples are : — 

<e* Compounds of facio, facto, with an actual or formerly eidsting noun- 
Btem confounded with a verbal stem in e-. These are causative in force : 
cdnsue-facio, habituate (cf . cdnsaS-scS, become accustomed). 
cale-fadS, cale-fact5, to heat (cf. cal6-8c5, grow warm), 

5. An adverb or noun combined with a verb : — 
bene-dic5 (bene, well, died, speak) , to bless. 
satia-fadS (satis, enough, fadS, do), to do enough (for). 

€• Many apparent compounds of stems : — 
fide-iubed (fide, surety, iabeo, command), to give surety. 
mftn-saitas (manui, to the hand, suStas, accustomed), tame. 
Mard-por (lULrd paer), slave of Marcus. 
lappiter (tin, old vocative, and pater), father Jove, 
anim-adyertS (animom adverto), aJttend to, punish. 

<f • A few phrases forced into the ordinary inflections of nouns : — - 
^o-cdnsnl, proconsul (for pro cSnsule, instead of a consul). 
triuii-vir, triumvir (singular from trium virdrnm). 

septen-trio, the Bear, a constellation (supposed singular of septem tiiSnes, 
the Seven Plough-Oxen). 

In all these cases it is to be observed that words, not stems, are united. 

267. Many syntactic compounds are formed by prefixing a 
Particle to some other part of speech. 

a. Prepositions are often prefixed to Verbs. In these compounds the 
prepositions retain their original adverbial sense : — 
jl, ab, JLWAT : ft-mittere, to send away. 
ad, TO, TOWARDS : af-ferre (ad-fero), to bring. 
ante, bbfobb : ante-ferre, to pr^er; ante-cellere, to excel. 
dream, around: drcum-mSnire, to fortify completely. 
com-, con- (cum), together or forcibly : con-ferre, to bring together; col- 

loc&re, to set firm. 
d5, DOWN, utterly : dS-spicere, despise ; de-stmere, destroy. 
§, ez, out: ef-ferre (ec-fero), to carry forth, uplift. 
in (with verbs), in, on, against : in-ferre, to bear against. 
inter, bbtwbbn, to pieces : inter-rumpere, to interrupt. 
ob, TOWARDS, to mbet : of-f erre, to offer ; ob-venire, to m>eet. 
•ob, UNDER, UP FROM X7NDER: sab-stmere, to buHd beneath; sub-dficere, toleadup. 
taper, upon, oveb and above : super-flaere, to overflow. 


NoTB 1. — In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes have their 
ordinary force as prepositions, especially ad, in, circam, tr&ns, and govern the case of 
a noun : as, tiflatire liftmen, to cross a river (see § 388. 6). 

NoTB 2. — Short a of the root is weakened to i before one consonant, to e before 
two : as, faci5, o5nflcl5, cdnfectus ; iaci5, 8ici5, Siectos. But long a is retained : as, 

&• Verbs are also compounded with the following inseparable particles, 
which do not appear as prepositions in Latin : — 

amb- (am-, an-), around : amh-hre, to go about (cf. dfjuf>lj about), 

dis-, di-, ASDNDBR, APART : dls-oSdere, to depart (cf. dao, two) ; di-vidfire, to 

per-, forward: por-tendere, to hoJdforth^ predict (cf. porrS, /ortA). 
red-, re-, back, again: red-hre, to return; re-cl6dere, to open (from daudo, 

shut) ; re-ficere, to repair (make again). 
sM-, ai-, APART : sS-cemS, to separate ; cf . sM-itid, a going apart, secession 

(e5, ire, to go), 

c. Many Verbals are found compounded with a preposition, like the 
verbs to which they correspond : — 

per-faga, deserter; cf. per-fagi5. 

trft-doz, vine-branch; cf. trft-dflc5 (trftna-ddc5). 

ad-vena, stranger; cf. ad-veni5. 

con-iux (con-iflnz), spouse; cf. con-iang5. 

in-dez, pointer out; cf. in-dic5. 

praeHMS, guardian; cf. prae-side5. 

com-bibd, boon companion; cf. com-bib5, -Sre. 

d» An Adjective is sometimes modified by an adverbial prefix. 

1. Of these, per- (less commonly prae-), very; sub-, somewhat ; in-, not, are 
regular, and are very freely prefixed to adjectives : — 

per-mignns, very large, in-nocnus, liarmless. 

per-paucl, very few, in-imicus, unfriendly, 

sab-rfisticas, rather clownish, in-s&nus, insane. 

sttb-fuscas, darkish, ih-finltos, boundless. 

prae-longtts, very long. im-pOras, impure. 

NoTB. — Per and sub, in these senses, are also prefixed to verbs : as, per-terre9, terrify ; 
snb-nde({, smile. In IgnteoO, pardon, in- appears to be the negative prefix. 

2. The negative in- sometimes appears in combination with an adjective 
that does not occur alone : — 

in-ermis, unarmed (cf. arma, arms), 

im-bellis, unwarlike (cf. bellnm, war), 

hn-pflnis, without punishment (cf. poena, punishmefnt), 

in-teger, untouched, whole (cf. tangd, to touch, root tag). 

in-vitos, unwillinjg (probably from root seen in vl-s, thou wishett^. 



268. The study of formal grammar arose at a late period in the history of lan- 
guage, and dealt with language as a fully developed product. Accordingly the terms 
of Syntax correspond to the logical habits of thought and forms of expression that 
had grown up at such a period, and have a logical as well as a merely grammatical 
meaning. But a developed syntactical structure is not essential to the expression of 
thought. A form of words — like o pttenim pulchruml oh! beautiful boy — expresses 
a thought and might even be called a sentence ; though it does not logically declare any- 
thing, and does not, strictly speaking, make what is usually called a sentence at all. 
At a very early period of spoken language, word-forms were no doubt significatft 
in themselves, without inflections, and constituted the whole of language, — just as to 
a child the name of some familiar object will stand for all he can say about it. At a 
somewhat later stage, such uninflected words put side by side made a rudimentary 
form of proposition : as a child might say ^rc bright ; horse run. With this began the 
first form of logical distinction, that of Subject and Predicate ; but as yet there was no 
distinction in form between noun and verb, and no fixed distinction in function. At a 
later stage forms were differentiated in function and — by various processes of com- 
position which cannot be fully traced — Inflections were developed. These served to 
express person, tense, case, and other grammatical relations, and we have true Parts 
of Speech. 

Not until language reached this last stage was there any fixed limit to the asso- 
ciation of words, or any rule prescribing the manner in which they should be combined. 
But gradually, by usage, particular forms came to be limited to special functions (as 
nouns, verbs, adjectives), and fixed customs arose of combining words into what we 
now call Sentences. These customs are in part the result of general laws or modes of 
thought (logic), resulting from our habits of mind {General Grammar)] and in part 
are what may be called By-Laws, established by custom in a given language {Particu- 
lar Grammar), and making what is called the Syntax of that language. 

In the fully developed methods of expression to which we are almost exclusively 
accustomed, the unit of expression is the Sentence : that is, the completed statement, 
with its distinct Subject and Predicate. Originally sentences were simple. But two 
simple sentence-forms may be used together, without the grammatical subordination 
of either, to express a more complex form of thought than could be denoted by one 
alone. This is parataxis (arrangement side by side). Since, however, the two sen- 
tences, independent in form, were in fact used to express parts of a complex whole 
and were therefore mutually dependent, the sense of unity found expression in con- 
junctions, which denoted the grammatical subordination of the one to the other. This 
is hypotaxis (arrangement under, subordination) . In this way, through various stages 
of development, which correspond to our habitual modes of thought, there were pro- 
duced various forms of complex sentences. Thus, to express the complex idea / beseech 
you to pardon me, the two simple sentence-forms quaesd and ignSscas were used side by 
side, qtiaesd igndsc&s ; then the feeling of grammatical subordination found expression 
in a conjunction, quaesS ut Ignoscas, forming a complex sentence. The results of these 
processes constitute the subject-matter of Syntax. 


164 SYNTAX : THE SENTENCE [§§ 269-272 

^ Slinds of Sentences 

269. A Sentence is a form of words which contains a State- 
ment, a Question, an Exclamation, or a Command. 

a. A sentence in the form of a Statement is called a Declarative 
Sentence : as, — canis corrit, the dog runs. 

h. A sentence in the form of a Question is called an Interroga- 
tive Sentence: as, — canisne currit? does the dog run? 

ۥ A sentence in the form of an Exclamation is called an Exclamar 
tory Sentence : as, — quam celeriter currit canis I how fast the dog runs! 

d. A sentence in the form of a Command, an Exhortation^ or an 
Entreaty is called an Imperative Sentence : as, — i, corre per Alpis, go^ 
run across the Alps ; currat canis, let the dog run. 

Subject and Predicate 

270. Every sentence consists of a Subject and a Predicate. 
The Subject of a sentence is the person or thing spoken of. 

The Predicate is that which is said of the Subject. 

Thus in canis coxrit, the dog runs^ canis is the subject, and cunit the predicate. 

271. The Subject of a sentence is usually a Noun or Pronoun, I 
or some word or group of words used as a Noun : — 

eqnitSs ad Caesarem ygngrunt, the cavalry came to Coesar. 

htlm9,num est errftre, to err is human. 

quaeritur num mors malum sit, the question is whether death is an evil. \ 

a. But in Latin the subject is often implied in the termination of 
the verb : — 

sedS-mus, we sit. corri-tis, you run. inqui-t, says he. 

272. The Predicate of a sentence may be a Verb (as Jh canis 
currit, the dog runs)^ or it may consist of some form of sum and 
a Noun or Adjective which describes or defines the subject (as in 
Caesar cOnsul erat, Caesar was consul). 

Such a noun or adjective is called a Predicate Noun or Adjective, 
and the verb sum is called the Copula (i.e. the connective). 

Thus in the example given, Caesar is the subject, cdnsol the predicate noun, and 
erat the copula (see § 283). 

g§ 278, 274] . VERB AND OBJECT 166 

Transitiye and Intransitiye Verbs 

273. Verbs are either Transitive or Intransitive. 

1 . A Transitive Verb has or requires a direct object to complete 
its sense (see § 274) : as, — Mtrem cecidit, he slew his brother. 

2. An Intransitive Verb admits of no direct object to complete 
its sense: — 

cadO, IfaU (or am falling), sOl lucet, the sun shines (or is shining). 

NoTB 1. — Among transitive verbs Factitive Verbs are sometimes distinguished 
as a separate class. These state an act which produces the thing expressed by the 
-w^ord which completes their sense. Thus mSnsam fScit, he made a table (which was 
not in existence before), is distinguished from mSnsam percussit, he struck a table 
(^which already existed). 

Note 2. — A transitive verb may often be used absolutely ^ i.e. without any object 
expressed: as, — arat, he is ploughing, where the verb does not cease to be transitive 
because the object is left indefinite, as we see by adding, — quid, whatf agnim Buiun, 
his land, 

NoTB 3. — Transitive and Intransitive Verbs are often called Active and Neuter 
Verbs re8i)ectively. 


274. The person or thing immediately affected by the action of 
a verb is called the Direct Object. 

A person or thing indirectly affected by the action of a verb 
is called the Indirect Object. 

Only transitive verbs can have a Direct Object ; but an Indirect 
Object may be used with both transitive and intransitive verbs 
(§§362,366): — 

pater vocat filium (direct object), the father calls his son, 

mihi (ind. obj.) agnim (dir. obj.) ostendit, fie showed me afield, 

mihi (ind. obj.) placet, it is pleasing to me. 

Note. — The distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs is not a fixed dis- 
tinction, for most transitive verbs may be used intransitively, and many verbs usually 
intransitive may take a direct object and so become transitive (§ 388. a), 

a. With certain verbs, the Genitive, Dative, or Ablative is used 

where the English, from a difference in meaning, requires the direct 

object (Objective) : — 

hominem vide5, 1 see the man (Accusative). 

homini serviG, I serve the man (Dative, see § 867). 

hominis misereor, I pity the man (Genitive, see § 854. a). 

homine amicd Utor, I treat the man ofi a friend (Ablative, see § 410). 

166 SYNTAX: THE SENTENCE,^ [§§274-277 

6. Many verbs transitive in Latin are rendered into English by 

an intransitive verb with a preposition: — 

petit aprum, he aims at tke boar. 

lattdem aSectat, he strives after praise. 

ctlrat Yaletadinem, Ae takes care of his health, 

meum c&sam dola€rant, they grieved at my misfortune. 

ridet nostram amentiam (Quinct. 55), he laughs at our stupidity. 

275. When a transitive verb is changed from the Active to the 
Passive voice, the Direct Object becomes the Subject and is put 
in the Nominative case : — 

Active: pater filium vocat, thefaJbher calls his son. 
Passive : filius S. patre voc&tur, the son is called by his father. 
Active : Ifinam et steU&s yidSmus, we see the moon and the stars. 
Passive : Iflna et stellae videntur, the moon and stars are seen (appear). 


276. A Subject or a Predicate may be modified by a single word^ 
or by a group of words {a, phrase or a clause). 

The modifying word or group of words may itself be modified in 
the same way. 

a. A single modifying word may be an adjective, an adverb, an 
appositive (§ 282), or the oblique case of a noun. 

Thus in the sentence vir fortis patienter fert, a brave man- endures patiently ^ 
the adjective fortis, brave, modifies the subject vir, man, and the adverb patienter, 
patiently, modifies the predicate fert, endures. 

6. The modifying word is in some cases said to limit the word 
to which it belongs. 

Thus in the sentence pueri patrem vided, I see the boy^s father, the genitive 
pueri limits patrem (by excluding any other father). 

277. A Phrase is a group of words, without subject or predicate 
of its own, which may be used as an Adjective or an Adverb. 

Thus in the sentence vir fuit summa nobilitate, he was a man of the highest 
nobility, the words summa nobilitate, of the highest nobility, are used for the 
adjective nSbilis, noble (or nobilissimus, very noble), and are called an Adjective 

So in the sentence mftgna celeritite vgnit, he came with great speed, the words 
magna celeritate, with great speed, are used for the adverb celeiiter, quickly (or 
celerrime, very quickly), and are called an Adverbial Phrase. 

§§ 278, 279] CLAUSES AND SENTENCES 167 

Clauses and Sentences 

278. Sentences are either Simple or Compound. 

1. A sentence containing a single statement is called a Simple 

2. A sentence containing more than one statement is called 
a Compound Sentence, and each single statement in it is called 
a Clause. 

a. If one statement is simply added to another, the clauses are 

said to be Coordinate. They are usually connected by a Coordinate 

Conjunction (§ 223, a) ; but this is sometimes omitted : — 

divide et impera, divide and control. But, — 
vgni, vidi, vlci, I came, I saw, I conquered. 

ft. If one statement modifies another in any way, the modifying 
clause is said to be Subordinate, and the clause modified is called 
the Main Clause. 

This subordination is indicated by some connecting word, either 

a Subordinate Conjunction (§ 223. b) or a Eelative; — 

Gderint dum metuant, let them Tiate so long as they fear. 

servum mlsit quern 8€cum habebat, he sent the date whom he had with him. 

A sentence containing one or more subordinate clauses is some- 
times called Complex. 

NoTB. — A subordinate clause may itself be modified by other subordinate clauses. 

279. Subordinate Clauses are of various kinds. 

a. A clause introduced by a Eelative Pronoun or Eelative Adverb 

is called a Eelative Clause : — 

Mesa prCfluit ex monte YosegG, qui est in finibus Lingonum (B. G. iy. 10), 
the Meuse rises in the Vosges mountains, which are on the borders of the 

For Relative Pronouns (or Relative Adverbs) serving to connect independent sen- 
tences, see § 308. /. 

b, A clause introduced by an Adverb of Time is called a Tem- 
poral Clause : — 

cum tacent, clftmant (Cat. i. 21), while they are silent, they cry aloud. 

homlD^s aegri morbO gravl, cum iactantur aestu febxique, 8l aquam gelidam 
biberint, primO relevarl videntur (id. i. 81), inen suffering with a severe 
sickness, when they are tossing with the heat of fever, if they drink cold 
water, seem at first to be relieved. 

168 SYNTAX: AGREEMENT [§§279-281 

ۥ A clause containing a Condition, introduced by si, if (or some 

equivalent expression), is called a Conditional Clause. A sentence 

containing a conditional clause is called a Conditional Sentence. 

Thus, 8i aquam gelidam biberint, primo reley&ri videntur (in b, above) is a Con- 
ditional Sentence, and si . . . bibeiint is a Conditional Clause. 

d* A clause expressing the Purpose of an action is called a Final 

Clause : — 

edO ut vivam, I eat to live (that I may live). 

misit leg&tOs qui dicerent, ?ie sent ambassadors to say (who should say). 

e. A clause expressing the Result of an action is called a Con- 
secutive Clause : — * 

tarn longe aberam at non viderem, I was too far away to see (so far away that 
I did not see). 


280. A word is said to agree with another when it is required 
by usage to be in the same Gender, Number, Case, or Person. 

The following are the general forms of agreement, sometimes 
called the Four Concords : — 

1. The agreement of the Noun in Apposition or as Predicate 
(§§ 281-284). 

2. The agreement of the Adjective with its Noun (§ 286). 

3. The agreement of the Relative with its Antecedent (§ 305). 

4. The agreement of the Finite Verb with its Subject (§ 316). 

a. A word sometimes takes the gender or number, not of the word 
with which it should regularly agree, but of some other word implied 
in that word. 

This use is called Synesis, or constructio ad sensum (construction 
according to sense). 


281. A noun used to describe another, and denoting the same 
pei*son or thing, agrees with it in Case. 

The descriptive noun may be either an Appositive (§ 282) or a 
Predicate noun (§ 283). 

1 Ohserve that the classes defined in a-e are not mutually exclusive, but that a 
single clause may belong to several of them at once. Thus a relative clause is 
usually subordinate, and may be at the same time temporal or conditional; and 
subordinate clauses may be coordinate with each other. 

§ 282] APPOSITION 169 


282. A noun used to describe another, and standing in the same 
part of the sentence with the noun described, is called an Apposi- 
tive, and is said to be in apposition : — 

externus timor, maximum coucordiae vincttlum, iungSbat animOs (Liv. ii. 39), 
fear of the foreigner, the chi^ bond of harmony, united their hearts, 
[Here the appositive belongs to the 8uhject,'\ 

quattuor hie primum 5men equos vidi (Aen. iii. 637), I saw here four horses, 
the first omen, [Here both nouns are in the predicate.] 

litterSs Graecas senex didici (Cat. M. 26), I learned Greek when an old man, 
[Here senex, though in apposition with the subject of didid, really states 
something further: viz., the tim>e, condition, etc., of the act (Predicate 

a. Words expressing parts may be in apposition with a word 
including the parts, or vice versa (Partitive Apposition) : — 

Nee P. Popilius neque Q. Metellus, clSlrissimi vizi atque amplissimi, vim 
tribtiniciam sustin6re potuSrunt (Clu. 96), neitfier Pvblius Popilius nor 
Q^intus Metellus, [both of them] distinguished and honorable men, could 
unthstand the power of the tribunes. 

Gnaeus et Pdblius ScipiSnes, Cneius and Publius Scipio (the Scipios). 

6. An Adjective may be used as an appositive: — 

ea Sex. B5scium inopem recSpit (Rose. Am. 27), she received Sextus Roscius 
in his poverty (needy). 

c. An appositive generally agrees with its noun in Gender and 
Number when it can : — 

sequuntur natGram, optimam ducem (Lael. 19), they follow nature, the best 

omnium doctrinarum inyentrices AthenSs (De Or. i. 13), AtJiens, discoverer 

of all learning. 

Note. — But such agreement is often impossible : as, — Olim tnincuB eram ficulnus, 
inutile Ggnum (Her. S. 1. 8. 1), I once was a fig-tree trunks a useless log. 

d. A common noun in apposition with a Locative (§ 427) is put in 

the Ablative, with or without the preposition in : — 

Antiochiae, celebri quondam orbe (Arch. 4), aJb Antioch, once a famous city. 
Albae cOnstitSrunt, in urbe munlta (Phil. iv. 6), tJiey haUed at Alba, a forti- 
fied town. 

For a Genitive in apposition with a Possessive Pronoun or an Adjective, see § 802. e. 
For the so-called Appositional Genitive, see § 343. d. 
For the construction with ndmen est, see § 373. a. 

170 SYNTAX: AGREEMENT [§§283-286 

Predicate Noun or Adjectire 

283. With sum and a few other intransitive or passive verbs, a 
noun or an adjective describing or defining the subject may stand in 
the predicate. This is called a Predicate Noun or ^^djective• 

The verb sum is especially common in this construction, and when 
so used is called the copula (i.e. connective). 

Other verbs which take a predicate noim or adjective are the so- 
called copulative verbs signifying to become, to be made^ to be named, 
to appear, and the like. 

284. A Predicate Noun or Adjective after the copula sum or a 
copulative verb is in the same case as the Subject : — 

pftcis semper auctor ful (Lig. 28), I have always been an adviser of peace, 
quae pertinftcia quibusdam, eadem alils constantia vidSrl potest (Marc. 31), 

w?iat may seem obstinacy to some, may seem to others consistency. 
§iu8 mortis sedetis ultores (Mil. 79), you sit as avengers of his death, 
habe&tur yir egregius Paulus (Cat. iv. 21), let Paulus be regarded as an 

extraordinary man, 
ego patrdnas exstiti (Hose. Am. 5), I have come forward as an advocate, 
dlclt nOn omnls bonOs esse be&tos, he says that not all good men are happy. 

a. A predicate noun referring to two or more singular nouns is 

in the plural: — 

cSnstties creantur Caesar et Servllius (B. C. iii. 1), C(Bsar and ServUius are 
elected consuls. 

b. Sum in the sense of exist makes a complete predicate without a 

predicate noun or adj ective. It is then called the substantive verb : — 

sunt virl fortes, there are (exist) brave men, [Cf. vizere fortes ante Agamem- 
nona (Hor. Od. iv. 9. 26), brave men lived b^ore Agamemnon.^ 

For Predicate Accusative and Predicate Ablative, see §§ 392, 415. n. 

Attributive and Predicate Adjectives 

285. Adjectives are either Attributive or Predicate. 

1. An Attributive Adjective simply qualifies its noun without 
the intervention of a verb or participle, expressed or implied: as, 
-^ bonus imperator, a good commander; stellae lilcidae, bright stars; 
verbum Graecum, a Greek word. 



2. All other adjectives are called Predicate Adjectives : — 

stellae Ificidae erant, the stars were bright. 

sit Sclpi5 cUras (Cat. iv. 21), let Scipio he iUustrioue. 

homines mitis reddidit (Inv. i. 2), Jias rendered men mild. 

tria praedia CapitOnI propria trSlduntar (Rose. Am. 21), three forme are 

handed over to Capito as his ovm. 
cGnsilium cSperunt plinom sceleris (id. 28), fhej/ formed a plan full of 


NoTiB. — A predicate adjective may be used with sum or a copulative verb ({ 283) ; it 
may have the constructiou of a predicate accusative after a verb of naming, calling , or 
tlie like (§ 393. v.) ; or it may be used in apposition like a noun (§ 282. 6). 

Rules of Ag;reement 

286. Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Participles agree 

i?srith their nouns in Gender^ Number^ and Case : — 

vir fortis, a brave man. 

nia molier, that woman. 

urbiam mftgnimm, of great cities. 

cum ducentis mllitibus, with two hundred soldiers. 

imper&tor victus est, t?ie general was beaten. 

secfitae sunt tempest&t€s, storms followed. 

Note. — All rules for the agreement of adjectives apply also to adjective pronouns 
and to participles. 

a. With two or more nouns the adjective is regularly plural, but 
often agrees with the nearest (especially when attributive) : — 

NIsus et Euryalus primi (Aen. v. 294), Nisus and EuryaXus first 
Caesaris onmi et gratis, et opibus fruor (Fam. i. 9. 21), I enjoy all Ccesar'^s favor 
and resources. 

NoTB. — An adjective referring to two nouns connected by the preposition cum is 
occasionally plural (synesis, § 280. a): as,— luba cum LabienO capti (B. Afr. 52), Juba 
and Labienus were taken. 

b. A collective noun may take an adjective of a different gender 

and number agreeing with the gender and number of the individuals 

implied (synesisy § 280. a): — 

pars cert&re parftti (Aen. v. 108), a part ready to contend. 

colOniae aliquot dedactae, PrIscI Latin! appell&ti (Liv. i. 3), several colonies 

were planted (led out) [of men] caUed Old Latins. 
multitUdd convlcti sunt (Tac. Ann. xv. 44), a multitude were convicted. 
mftgna pars raptae (id. i. 9), a large part [of the women] were seized. 

KoTB. — A superlative in the predicate rarely takes the gender of a partitive geni- 
tive by which it is limited: as,— vHScissimum animalium delphlnus est (Plin. N. H. 
ix. 20), the dolphin is the swiftest [creature] of creatures. 

172 SYNTAX: ADJECTIVES [§§287,288 

287. One adjective may belong in sense to two or more nouns 
of different genders. In such cases, — 

1. An Attributive Adjective agrees with the nearest noun : — 

multae operae ac labOris, of much trouble and toU. 
vita mOresque mei, my life and character. 

si r68, 8l vir, si tempus fillum dignum fuit (Mil. 19), if any thing ^ if any 
man^ if any time was fit, 

2. A Predicate Adjective may agree with the nearest noun, if the 

nouns form one connected idea : — 

factos est strepitus et admurmuratiO (Verr. i. 45), a noise of assent was made 
(noise and murmur). 
Note. — This is only when the copula agrees with the nearest suhject (§ 317, c). 

3. But generally, a Predicate Adjective will be masculine, if nouns 

of different genders mean living beings; neuter, if things without 

life : — 

uxor delude ac llberl amplexi (Liv. ii. 40), then his wife and children embraced 

labor (m.) yoluptftsque (f.) societSlte qu3,dam inter sS nSX^SAl sunt inncta (n.) 

(id. V. 4), labor and delight are hound together by a certain natural odU- 


4. If nouns of different genders include both living beingg and 
things without life, a Predicate Adjective is sometimes masculine (or 
feminine), sometimes neuter, and sometimes agrees in gender with 
the nearest if that is plural : — 

rex r6giaque classis tina profecti (Liv. xxi. 60), the king and the royal fijeet set 

out together. 
n&ttLra inimlca sunt libera clvitSte et rSx (id. xliv. 24), lyy nature a free state 

and a king are hostile. 
leg&tOs sortesque Oraculi exspectandas (id. v. 15), that the ambassadors and 

the replies of the oracle shmild be waited for, 

a. Two or more abstract nouns of the same gender may have a 
Predicate Adjective in the neuter plural (cf. § 289. c) : — 

stultitia et temeritSs et iniOstitia . . . sunt fagienda (Fin. iii. 89), /o%, rashr 
ness, and injustice are [things] to be shunned. 

Adjectives used Substantively 

288. Adjectives are often used as Nouns (sttbstantivelyythe 
masculine usually to denote men ot people in general of that kind, 
the feminine women, and the neuter things : — 


omnes, aU men (everybody). omnia, all things (everything). 

mdiOres, ancestors. minOrSs, descendants, 

ROmanl, Romans, barbarl, barbarians. 

liberta, afreedwoman, Sablnae, t?ie SabiTie wives. 

sapiens, a sage (philosopher). amicus, a friend. 

boni, the good (good people). bona, goods, property. 

NoTB. — The plural of adjectives, pronouns, and participles is very common in this 
use. The singular is comparatively rare except in the neuter (§ 289. a, c) and in words 
-tliat have become practically nouns. 

a* Certain adjectives have become practically nouiis^ and are often 

XDLodifLed by other adjectives or by the possessive genitive : — 

tuus vicinus prozimus, your next-door neighbor. 
propinqiu c@teri, his other relatives. 
meus aequalis, a man of my own age. 

§ius familiaris Catilina (Har. Resp. 6), his intimate friend Catiline. 
I^eptae nostri familiarissimus (Fam. ix. 13. 2), a very close friend of our friend 

b» When ambiguity would arise from the substantive use of an 
adjective, a noun must be added : — 

bonI, the good; omnia, everything (all things) ; but, — 
potentia onmium rgrum, power over everything. 

ۥ Many adjectives are used substantively either in the singular 
or the plural, with the added meaning of some noun which is under- 
stood from constant association : — 

Africus [ventus], the southwest wind; ISnu&rius [mgnsis], January; vitu- 
llna [car5], veal (calf's flesh) ; fera [bSstia], a wild beoM; patria [terra], 
t?ie fatherland ; Gallia [terra], Gaul (the land of the Galll); hibema 
[castra], vnnter quarters ; trirgmis [navis], a three-banked galley j trireme; 
argent&rius [faber], a silversmith; rSgia [domus], the palace; Latlnae 
[fSriae], the Latin festival. 

Note. — These adjectives are tpedfic in meaning, not generic like those in § 288. 
They include the names of winds and months (§ 31). 
For Nouns used as Adjectives, see § 321. c. 
For Adverbs used like Adjectives, see § 321. d. 

289. Neuter Adjectives are used substantively in the following 
special senses : — 

a. The neuter singular may denote either a single object or an 

abstract quality ; — 

raptS vivere, to live by plunder. in &rid5, on dry ground. 

honestum, an homyrabU act, or virtue (as a quality). 

opus est mAttirato, tliere is need of haste. [Of. impersonal passives, § 208. d.] 

174 SYNTAX: ADJECTIVES [§§280-291 

b. The neuter plural is used to signify objects in general having 
the quality denoted, and hence may stand for the abstract idea : — 

honesta, honoraJbie deeds (in general). praeterita, the past (lit., bygones). 
oiunSs fortia laudant, aXL men praise bravery (brave things). 

c. A neuter adjective may be used as an appositive or predicate 
noun with a noun of different gender (cf . § 287. a) : — 

tiiste lupus stabulls (Eel. iii. 80), the wolf [is] a grieoous thing for the fold. < 
yarium et miitAbile semper fSmina (Aen. iv. 669), woman is ener a changing 

and fickle thing, 
malum mihl vidstur esse mors (Tusc. i. 9), death seemx to me to he an evil I 

d. A neuter adjective may be used as an attributive or a predicate 
adjective with an infinitive or a substantive clause: — 

istac ipsom nOn esse (Tusc. i. 12), that very ^^ not to be,'* ^ 

Ykfminum. est errftre, to err is human, 

aliud est err&re Caesarem nolle, aliud nolle miserSrl (Lig. 16), it is one thing 

to be unwilling that Coesar shx)uld err, another to be ununlling thai hi 

sJiould pity. 

Adjectives with Adverbial Force 

290. An adjective, agreeing with the subject or object, is often 
used to qualify the action of the verb, and so has the force of an 

adverb : — 

pzimas vSnit, he was the first to come (came first). 

noUus dubitO, I no way doubt. 

laeti audiere, they were glad to hear, 

erat BOmae frequens (Rose. Am. Id), he was often at Rome. 

8§ra8 in caelum redeSs (Hor. Od. i. 2. 45), mayst tliou return late to heaven. 

Comparatives and Superlatives 

291. Besides their regular signification (as in English), the 
forms of comparison are used as follows : — 

a* The Comparative denotes a considerable or excessive degree of 
a quality: as, — brcvior, rather short; audAcior, too bold, 

b» The Superlative (of eminence) often denotes a vert/ high degree 
of a quality without implying a distinct comparison: as, — mOns 
altissimus, a very high mountain^ 

NoTB. — The Superlative of Eminence is much used in compUmentary referenoei 
to persons and may often be translated by the simple positive. 


o. With quam, vel, or tinus the Superlative denotes the highest pos- 

*I>Ze degree : — 

qaam plaiimi, as many as possible, 

qaam mazimS potest (mazimS qaam potest), 03 much as can be. 

vel minimtts, the very least. 

vir Unas doctissimas, the one most learned man. 

^OTB 1. — A high degree of a quality is also denoted by snch adyerbs as adnvdun, 
aide, very, or by per or prae in composition (§ 267. d. 1): as, — valdJ malus, very bad= 
essimus; pemuLgnuB, very great; praealtus, very high (or deep). 

^OTB 2. — A low degree of a quality is indicated by sub in composition : as, — sub- 
asticas, rather clownish, or by minus, not very ; minimS, not at all; parom, not enough ; 
i5ii satis, not much, 

NoTB 3. —The comparative m&idrSs (for niAi6r68 nitii, greater by birth) has the spe- 
dal signiiication of ancestors ; so minSrSs often means descendants. 

For the Superlative with quisque, see § 313. 6. For the construction of a substantive 
if ter a Comparative, see §§ 406, 407 ; for that of a clause, see § 536. c, 571. a. For the 
Ablative of Degree of Difference with a Comparative (malt5 etc.), see § 414. 

292. When two qualities of an object are compared, both adjec- 
tives are in the Comparative : — 

longior quam l&tior aci€s erat (Li v. xxvii. 48), the line was longer tJian it was 

broad (or, ratfier long than broad), 
vSrior quam gratior (id. xzii. 88), more true than agreeable. 

Note. — So also with adverbs: as, — libentiuB quam vCrius (Mil. 78), with more 
freedom than truth. 

a. Where magis is used, both adjectives are in the positive : — 

disertus magis quam sapiSns (Att. z. 1. 4), eloquent rather than wise. 
cUIn magis quam honest! (lug. 8), more renowned than honorable. 

Note. — A comparative and a positive, or even two positives, are sometimes con- 
nected by quam. This use is rarer and less elegant than those before noticed : — 

cUiis m&i5ribus quam vetustis (Tac. Ann. iv. 61), of a family more famous than 

vehementiuB quam cautS (Tac. Agr. 4), with more fury than good heed. 

293. Superlatives (and more rarely Comparatives) denoting 
. order and succession — also medius, [ceterus], reliquus — usually 
^ designate not what object^ but what part of iL, is meant : — 

summas mOns, the top of the hill, 

in ultimS plated, at the end of the place. 

prior SctiO, the earlier part of an action. 
,^ reliqoi captlvi, the rest of the prisoners, 
p m coUe medio (B. G. 1. 24), halfway up the hill (on the middle of the hill). 

inter cSteram planitiem (lug. 92), in a region elsewhere level. 

Note. ~ A similar use is found in 8Sr& (multfi) nocte, late at night, and the like. But 
mediun viae, t?ie middle of the way ; mnltum di$!, much of the day, also occur. 

176 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§ 204, 295 


294. A Pronoun indicates some person or thing without either naming or describ- 
ing it. Pronouns are derived from a distinct class of roots, which seem to have denoted 
only ideas of place and direction (§ 228. 2), and from which nouns or verbs can very 
rarely be formed. They may therefore stand for Nouns when the person or thing, 
being already present to the senses or imagination, needs only to be pointed out, not 

Some pronouns indicate the object in itself, without reference to its class, and have 
no distinction of gender. These are Personal Pronouns. They stand syntactically 
for Nouns, and have the same construction as nouns. 

Other pronouns designate a particular object of a class, and take the gender of the 
individuals of that class. These are called Adjective Pronouns. They stand for 
Adjectives, and have the same construction as adjectives. 

Others are used in both ways ; and, though called adjective pronouns, may also be 
treated as personal, taking, however, the gender of the object indicated. 

In accordance with their meanings and uses, Pronouns are classified as follows: — 
Personal Pronouns (§ 295) . Interrogative Pronouns (§ 333) . 

Demonstrative Pronouns (§ 296). Relative Pronouns (§ 303). 
Reflexive Pronouns (§ 299). Indefinite Pronouns (§ 309). 

Possessive Pronouns (§ 302). 

Personal Pronouns 

295. The Personal Pronouns have, in general, the same con- 
structions as nouns. 

a. The personal pronouns are not expressed as subjects, except for 
distinction or emphasis : — 

te vocO, I call you. But, — 

quis m3 vocat ? ego t6 voc5, who is caUing me? I (emphatic) am caUing you. 

5. The personal pronouns have two forms for the genitive plural, 

that in -um being used partitively (§ 346), and that in -i oftenest 

objectively (§ 348) : — 

m&ior vestrum, the elder of you. 

habetis ducem memorem vestn, oblitum sui (Cat. iv. 19), you have a leader 

who thinks (is mindful) of you andforgeis (is forgetful of) himself. 
pars nostrum, apart (i.e. some) of us. 

Note 1. — The genitives nostram, vestrum, are occasionally used objectively (§ 348) : 
as, — capidus vestnun (Verr. iii. 224), /ond of you ; ciistSs vestrom (Cat. iii. 29), theguar- 
dianofyou (your guardian). 

Note 2. — " One of themselves ** is expressed by unus ex suis or ipsis (rarely ex s£), 
or unus 8a5ram. 

c. The Latin has no personal pronouns of the third person except 
the reflexive s5. The want is supplied by a Demonstrative or Rela- 
tive (§§ 296. 2,^08./). 


Demonstrative Pronouns 

296. Demonstrative Pronouns are used either adjectively or 
iubstantively. . 

1. As adjectives, they follow the rules for the agreement of adjec- 
tives and are called Adjective Pronouns or Pronominal Adjectives 
(§§286,287); — 

hoc proelid factO, after this battle was foughJb (this battle having been fought). 

eddem proelio, in the same battle, 

ex eis aedificils, out of those buildings. 

2. As s ubstantives, they are equivalent to personal pronoims. This 
use is regular in the oblique cases, especially of is : — 

Caesar et exercitus eius, CoBsar and his army (not suus). [But, Caesar 

exercitum suum dimlsit, Coesar disbanded his [own] army.] 
si obsid€s ab eis dentur (B. G. i. 14), if hostages should be given by them 

(persons just spoken of), 
hi sunt extra prOvinciam tr^ns Bhodanum piimi (id. i. 10), they (those just 

mentioned) are the first [inhabitants] across the Rhone, 
iUe minimum propter adulescentiam poterat (id. i. 20), he (emphatic) had 

very litHe power, on account of his yovih, 

a. An adjective pronoun usually agrees with an appositive or 
predicate noun, if there be one, rather than with the word to which 
it refers (cf . § 306) : — 

hic locus est tinus qu5 perfugiant ; hie portus, haec arx, haec &ra sociOrum 
(Verr. v. 126), this is the only place to which they canfieefor refuge; this 
is the haven, this the citadel, this the altar of the allies. 

r€rum caput hoc erat, hic f 5ns (Hor. Ep. i. 17. 45), this was the head of thirigs, 
this the source. 

earn sapientiam interpretantur quam adhHc mortSIis nSmO est cOnsectltus 
[for id . . . quod] (Lael. 18), they explain thai [thing] to be wisdom which 
no man ever yet attained, 

297. The main uses of hic, ille, iste, and is are the following: — 

a. ffic is used of what is near the speaker (in time, place, or 
thought). It is hence called the demonstrative of the first person. 

It is sometimes used of the speaker himself ; sometimes for " the 
latter" of two persons or things mentioned in speech or writing; 
more rarely for " the former," when that, though more remote on the 
written page, is nearer the speaker in time, place, or thought. Often 
it refers to that which has just been mentioned. 

178 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§ 297, 2W 

&• nie is used of what is remote (in time, etc.) ; and is hence callec 
the demonstrative of the third person. 

It is sometimes used to mean " the former '^ ; also (usually follow 
ing its noun) of what 'v&famotis or well-known ; often (especially thf 
neuter illud) to mean << the following." 

c. I8te is used of what is between the two others in remoteness: 
often in allusion to the person addressed, — hence called the demon' 
strative of the second person. 

It especially refers to one's opponent (in court, etc.), and fre- 
quently implies antagonism or contempt. 

dm b is a weaker demonstrative than the others and is especially 

common as a personal pronoun. It does not denote any special object 

but refers to one just mentioned, or to be afterwards explained by a 

relative. Often it is merely a correlative to the relative qui : — 

yfinit mihi obviam tuus puer, is mlhi lltterfts abs tS reddidit (Att. ii. 1. 1). 

your boy met me, he delivered to me a letter from you. 
earn quern, one w?U)m. , 

etun cOnsolem qui nOn dabitet (Cat. iv. 24), a consul who wiU not hesitate. 

ۥ The pronouns hie, ille, and is are used to point in either direction, 
back to something just mentioned or forward to something about io 
be mentioned. 

The neuter forms often refer to a clause, phrase, or idea : — 

est iUad quidem vel maximum, animum vidSre (Tasc. i. 62), tJiat is in truth 
a very great thing, — to seetfie soul. 

/. The demonstratives are sometimes used as pronouns of refer- 
ence, to indicate with emphasis a noun or phrase just mentioned : — 

ntillam virtus aliam mercSdem dSsIderat praeter hanc laudis (Arch. 28), 
virtue toants no other reward except that [just mentioned] of praise. 

Note. — But the ordinary English use of that of is hardly known in Latin. Com- 
monly the genitive construction is continued without a pronoun, or some other con- 
struction is preferred : — 

cum ei SimOnides artem memoriae polliceretur : obfiyiSnis, inquit, mallem (Fin. ii. 
104), when Simonides promised him the art of memory, **I should prefer," 
said he, " [that] of forgelfvlness." 
Caesaris ezercitus PompeiftnSs ad Pharsalum vicit, the army of Cmsar d^eated 
that of Pompey (the Pompeians) at Pharsalus. 

298. The main uses of Idem and ipse are as follows : — 

a. When a quality or act is ascribed with emphasis to a person 
or thing already named, is or idem (often with the conoessiye quidem) 
is used to indicate that person or thing : — 


X>6r tlnnm semun et earn ex gladi&tSriO ItldG (Att. i. 16. 5), by meam of a 
single slave, and that too one from the gladiatorial school, 

^incula, et ea sempiterna (Cat. iv. 7), imprisonment, and that perpetual. 

"Ti. Gracchus regnum occup&re cOnatus est, vel rSgnftvit is qaidem paucOs 
m€D8is (Lael. 41), Tiberius Gracchus tried to usurp royal power, or 
rather he actually reigned a few months, 

I^OTB. — So rarely with ille : as, — nunc dextra ingeminans ictus, nunc iUe sinistra 
(.A^exi. V. 467), now dealing redoubled blows with his right hand, now (he) with his l^t, 
{Ttl imitation of the Homeric dye: cf. Aen. v. 334; iz. 796.] 

&• Idem, the same, is often used where the English requires an 
adverb or adverbial phrase (also, too, yet, at the same time): — 

GrfttiO splendlda et grandis et eadem in primis fac€ta (Brut. 273), an oration, 

brilliant, able, and very witty too, 
cam [haec] dicat, negat idem esse in De5 gr&tiam (N. D. i. 121), w?ien he 

says this, he denies also that there is mercy with Ood (he, the same man). 

NoTK. — This is really the same use as in a ahove, but in this, case the pronoun 
cajinot be represented by a pronoun in English. 

c. The intensive ipse, self, is used with any of the other pronouns, 

with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis : — 

tarpe mihi ipsi videbatur (Phil. i. 9), even to me (to me myself) it seemed 

id ipsum, tJuU very thing; quod ipsom, which of itself alone, 
in eum ipsom locum, to that very place, 
torn ipsom (Off. ii. 60), at that very time. 

Note 1. — The emphasis of ipse is often expressed in English hyjust, very, mere, etc. 

Note 2. — In English, the pronouns himself etc. are used both intensively (as, he 
will come himself) and reflexively (as, he will kill himself) : in Latin the former would 
be translated by ipse, the latter by eg or sSsS. 

d. Ipee is often used alone, substantively, as follows : — 

1. As an emphatic pronoun of the third person : — 

idque re! publicae praeclftrum, ipsis glOriOsum (Phil. ii. 27), and this was 

splendid for t%e state, glorious for themselves. 
omnSs boni quantum in ipsis fuit (id. ii. 29), aU good men so far as wa^ in 

their power (in themselves), 
d! capiti ipsius generique reservent (Aen. viii. 484), may the gods hold in 

reserve [such a fate] to fall on his own and his son-in4aw^s head, 

2. To emphasize an omitted subject of the first or second person : — 

vObtecum ipsi recordaminl (Phil. ii. 1), remember in your own minds (your- 
selves with yourselves). 

3. To distingpiish the principal personage from subordinate persons : — 

ipse dixit (cf. a^&s l0a), he (the Master) said it, 

NOment&nus erat super ipsom (Hor. S. ii. 8. 23), Nomentanus was above [the 
host] himself [at table]. 

180 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§298 300 

e. Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of a reflexive (see § 30O. b). 
/• Ipse usually agrees with the subject, even when the real empha- 
sis in English is on a reflexive in the predicate : — 

mg ipse c0n85lor (Lael. 10), I console myaeif, [Not me ipsom, as the !Eiig- 
lish would lead us to expect.] 

Reflexive Pxonoons 

299. The Reflexive Pronoun (sC), and usually its corresponding 
possessive (suus), are used in the predicate to refer to the subject 
of the sentence or clause : — 

se ex navl pr5iecit (B. G. iv. 25), he threw himself from the ship. 
Dumnorlgem ad sS vocat (id. i. 20), he caXLs Dumnorix to him, 
sese castrls tenSbant (id. iii. 24), they kept themselves in camp. 
contemnl sS putant (Cat. M. 65), they think they are despised. 
Caesar suis c5pida subducit (B. 6. i. 22), Coesar leads up his troops. 
Caesar statuit sibi Bhenum esse transeuudum (id. iv. 16), Ccesar decided that 
he must cross the Rhine (the Rhine must be crossed by himself). 

a. For reflexives of the first and second persons the oblique cases 
of the personal pronouns (mei, tui, etc.) and the corresponding pos- 
sessives (meus, tuus, etc.) are used : — 

morti me obtull (Mil. 94), I have exposed myself to death. 

hiuc te re^nae ad limina perfer (Aen. i. 389), do you go (bear yourself) 

Jience to the queen's threshold. 
quid est quod tantis nos in labOribus exerceSLmus (Arch. 28), w?ud reason is 

there why we should exert ourselves in so great toils f 
singulis vobis nov^nOs ex turmis manipulisque vestxf similes Sligite (Liv. 

xxi. 54), for each of you pick out from the squadrons and maniples nine 

like yourselves. 

300. In a subordinate clause of a complex«sentence there is a 
double use of Reflexives. 

1. The reflexive may always be used to refer to the subject of its 
own clause (Direct Reflexive) : — 

itidic&rl potest quantum habeat in se boni cOnstantia (B. G. L 40), t£ can he 
determined how much good firmness possesses (has in itself). 

[Caesar] nOluit eum locum vac&re, ne German! 3 snls finibus trfinsirent 
(id. i. 28), Caesar did not wish this place to lie vacant, for fear the Ger- 
mans would cross over from their territories. 

si qua signific&tio virtatis eltlceat ad quam se similis animus adplicet et 
adiongat (LaeL 48), if any sign of virtue shine forOi to which a simUat 
disposition may attach VMf. 


2. If the subordinate clause expresses the words or thought of the 
s\i"bject of the main clause, the reflexive is regularly used to refer to 
'klia^t subject (Indirect Reflexive) : — 

petierunt at sibi licSret (B. G. i. 30), they begged that it might be allowed 

them (the petitioners). 
Iccius nuntium mittit, nisi subsidium sibi submitt&tur (id. it 6), Icciua sends 

a message that unless relief be furnished himy etc. 
decima legiO el gr&tiSs 6git, quod d@ se optimum iudicium fecisset (id. i. 41), 

the tenth legion thanked him because [they said] Ae had expressed a high 

opinion of them, 
el obsides ab eis (the Helvetians) sibi (Caesar, 'who is the speaker) dentur, se 

(Caesar) cum els pacem esse facturum (id. i. 14), [Caesar said that] if 

hostages were given him by them he would make peace with them, 

NoTB. — Sometimes the person or thing to which the reflexive refers is not the 
grammatical subject of the main clause, though it is in effect the subject of discourse : 
TbuSy — cum ipsi de5 nihil minus gratum futurum sit quam nOn omnibus patere ad se 
placandnm viam (Legg. ii. 26), since to God himself nothing wUl be less pleasing than 
that the way to appease him siwuld not be open to all men, 

a. If the subordinate clause does not express the words or thought 
of the main subject, the reflexive is not regularly used, though it is 
occasionally found : — 

sunt ita midti ut eds career capere n5n possit (Cat. ii. 22), th^ey are so m^ny 
that the prison cannot Jiold them. [Here se could not be used ; so also 
in the example following.] 

ibi in proximls villls ita bipartite f uerunt, ut Tiberis inter eds et p5ns inter- 
esset (id. iii. 5), tfiere they stationed themselves in the nearest farm- 
houseSy in two divisions, in such a manner that the Tiber and the bridge 
were between them (the divisions). 

ndn fuit e5 contentus quod ei praeter spem acciderat (Manil. 25), h£ was not 
content with that which had happened to him beyond his hope. 

Compare : qui fit, Maecenas, ut n€mO, quam sibi sortem sen ratl5 dederit 
sen fors obiCcerit, ilia contentus vivat (Hor. S. i. 1. 1), how comes it, 
McBcenas, that nobody lives contented with that lot which choice has 
assigned him or chance ?ias thrown in his way f [Here sibi is used to 
put the thought into the mind of the discontented man.] 

ft. Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of an indirect reflexive, 
either to avoid ambiguity or from carelessness ; and in later writers 
is sometimes found instead of the direct reflexive : — 

cflr de sua virtate aut d6 ipslos dlligentia d6sp6rarent (B. G. i. 40), why 
(he asked) sJumld they despair of their oum courage or his diligence f 

omnia aut ipsos aut host€s populates (Q. C. iii. 6. 6), [they said that] either 
they themselves or the enemy had laid aU waste, [Direct reflexive.] 

182 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§ 300, 301 

qui 86 ex his minus timidOs exlstim&rl volSbant, nOn sfi hostem vererl, sed 
angu8ti9s itineris et m&gnitudinem silvdrum-quae interc^erent inter 
ipsos (the persons referred to by se above) atque Ariovistum . . . timbre 
dicebant (B. G. L 39), those of them who wished to he thought less timid 
said they did not fear the enemy ^ hid were afraid of the narrows and the 
vast extent of the forests which were between themselves and Ariovisttis. 

audlstis naper dicere leg&tOs Tyndarit&nOs Mercurium qui sacris anniver- 
s&rils apud eos colerStur esse subUtum (Verr. iv. 84), you have just heard 
the amhoModors from Tyndaris say that the statue of Mercury which was 
worshipped with annual rites among them vKts taken away. [Here Cicero 
wavers between apud eos colebfttur, a remark of his own, and apod se 
colerStar, the words of the ambassadors, eos does not strictly refer to 
the ambassadors, but to the people — the TyndaritanL] 

301. Special uses of the Reflexive are the following : — 

a. The reflexive in a subordinate clause sometimes refers to the 

subject of a suppressed main clause : — 

Paetus omnis librOs quSs f rater snas rellquisset mihi dOn&vit (Att. ii. 1), 
Pastu^ gave me all the hooks which (as he said in the act of donation) 
his brother had l^ him. 

6. The reflexive may refer to any noun or pronoun in its own clause 
which is so emphasized as to become the subject of discourse: — 

Socratem clv6s sai interfecSrunt, Socrates was put to death by his ovmfeUoW' 

qui poterat salQs sua cuiqaam nOn prob&rl (Mil. 81), how can any one fail 

to approve his own safety? [In this and the preceding example the 

emphasis is preserved in English by the change of voice.] 
banc si sectitl erunt sui comites (Cat. ii. 10), this man, if his companions 

follow him. 

NoTB. — Occasionally the clause to which the reflexive really belongs is absorbed : 
as, — studeO sanare sibi ipsos (Cat. ii. 17), / am anxious to cure these m^nfor their own 
benefit (i.e. at s&nl sibi sint). 

c. Suus is used for one^s own, as emphatically opposed to that of 

others, in any part of the sentence and with reference to any word 

in it : — 

sals flammis delete FldfinSs (Liv. iv. 33), destroy FideruB with its own fires 
(the fires kindled by that city, figuratively). [Cf. Cat. i. 32.] 

d. The reflexive may depend upon a verbal noun or adjective: — 
sai laus, self-praise. 

habetis ducem memorem vestrl, oblltum soi (Cat. iv. 19), you have a leader 

mindful of you, forgetful of himself. 
perditi homings cum sai simUibus flervis (Phil. i. 6), abandoned men with 

slaves like them^lif^, 


e» The reflexive may refer to the subject implied in an infinitive 

or verbal abstract used indefinitely : — 

coutentum sals rebus esse maximae sunt divitlae (Par. 51), the greatest 

weaUh is to be content toith one^s own, 
cui prOposita sit cOnservatiO sui (Fin. v. 87), one whose aim is self-preservation. 

f. Inter sS (nOs, vOs), among themselves (ourselves, yourselves), is 

regularly used to express reciprocal action or relation : — 

inter se cGn^gunt (Cat. i. 25), contend with each other, ^ 
inter 85 continentur (Arch. 2), are joined to each other. 

Possessive Pronouns 

302. The Possessive Pronouns are derivative adjectives, which 
take the gender, number, and case of the noun to which they 
belong^ not those of* the possessor : — 

haec Om&menta sunt mea (Val. iv. 4), these are my jewels, [mea is neuter 

plural, though the speaker is a woman.] 
mei sunt GrdinSs, mea dlscilptiO (Cat. M. 59), mine are the rows, mine the 

arrangement, [mea is feminine, though the speaker is Cyrus.] 
multa in nostro collegia praecUra (id. 64), [there are] many fine things in 

our college, [nostrd is neuter singular, though men are referred to.] 
Germ&m buSlb cOpi^ castrls €duxerunt (B. 6. i. 51), the Germans led their 

troops out of the camp. 

a. To express possession and similar ideas the possessive pro- 
nouns are regularly used, not the genitive of the personal or reflexive 
pronouns (§ 343. a): — 

domus mea, my house. [Not domus me!.] 
pater noster, our father. [Not pater nostri.] 
patrimOnium taam, your inheritance. [Not tni.] 

Note 1. — Exceptions are rare in classic Latin, common in later writers. For 
the use of a i>oss68sive pronoun instead of an Objective Genitive, see § 348. a. 

NoTB 2. — The Interrogative Possessive c&ius, -a, -um, occurs in poetry and early- 
Latin : as, — cdium pecus (Eel. iii . 1) , whose flock f The genitive cdias is generally used 

5. The possessives have often the acquired meaning oi peculiar to, 
favorable or propitious towards y the person or thing spoken of : — 

[petere] at 8U& clementi§, ac mansuStudine titatur (B. G. ii. 14), they asked 
(they said) that he would show his [wonted] clemency and humanity. 

IgnOrantI quern portum petat nuUus suus ventus est (Sen. Ep. 71. 3), to 
him who knows not what port he is bound to, no wind is fair (his own). 

tempore tuo ptign£Lsti (Li v. xxxviii. 45. 10), did you fight at a fit time? 

NoTB. — This use is merely a natural development of the meaning of the possess- 
ive, and the pronoun may often be rendered Uterally. 

184 STNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§802,303 

ۥ The possessives are reg^ulaxly omitted (like other pronouns) 

when they are plainly implied in the context : — 

socium fraud&^it, he cJiecUed his partner, [sodiim soiim would be distinctive, 
his partner (and not another's) ; saumsociiim, emphatic, hisotonpcurtner.] 

d* Possessive pronouns and adjectives implying possession are 

often used substantively to denote some special class or relation : — 

nostri, our countrymen, or men of our party. 

BUOB continSbat (B. 6. i. 15), he held his men in check. 

fl^mnna. extrSma mednmi (Aen. IL 431), last flames of my countrymen. 

SullSui, the veterans of Suila^s army; Pomp^&nl, the partisans of Pampey. 

NoTB. — There is no reason to sappose an ellipsis here. The adjective becomes 
a noun like other adjectives (see § 288). 

e. A possessive pronoun or an adjective implying possession may 

take an appositive in the genitive case agreeing in gender, number, 

and case with an implied noun or pronoun : — 

mea solins cansd (Ter. Heaut. 129), for my sake only. 
in nostr5 omnitim fletu (Mil. 92), amid the tears ofusaU. 
ex Afitiiang Mil5nis domO ( Att. iv. 3. 3) , out of Annius MHo^s house. [Equiva- 
lent to ez Ann! ttilonis dom5.] 
nostra omnium patria, the country of us aU. 
suum ipsins rSgnum, his own kingdom. 

For the special reflexive use of the possessive suus, see §§ 299, 300. 

Relative Pronouns 

303. A Relative Pronoun agrees with some word expressed or implied either in 
its own clause, or (often) in the antecedent (demonstrative) clause. In the fullest con- 
struction the antecedent is expressed in both clauses, with more commonly a corre- 
sponding demonstrcUive to which the relative refers : as, — iter in ea loca facere coepit, 
qaibas in lods esse Germanos audiebat (B. 6. Iv. 7), he began to march into those 
PLACES in which placbs he heard the Oermans were. But one of these nouns is com- 
monly omitted. 

The antecedent is in Latin very frequently (rarely in English) found in the relative 
clause, but more commonly in the antecedent clause. 

Thus relatives serve two uses at the same time : — 

1. As Nouns (or Adjectives) in their own clause: as, — ei qui Alesiae obsidebantnr 
(B. G. vii. 77), those who were besieged at Alesia. 

2. As Connectives : as, — T. Balventius, qui superiOre ann5 primum pilum duxeiat 
(id. V. 35), Titus Balventius, who the year before had been a centurion oftheflrstrank. 

When the antecedent is in a different sentence, the relative is often equivalent 
to a demonstrative with a conjunction : as, — quae cum ita sint (=et cum ea ita sint), 
[and] since this is so. 

The subordinating force did not belong to the relative originally, but was developed 
from an interrogative or indefinite meaning 8i)ecialized by use. But the subordinat* 
ing and the later connective force were acquired by qui at such an early period that 
the steps of the process cannot now be traced. 

>§ 304-306] RELATIVE PRONOUNS 186 

304L A Relative Pronoun indicates a relation between its own 
clause and some substantive. This substantive is called the Ante- 
cedent of the relative. 

Thus, in the sentence — 

earn nihil dSlectftbat qaod fSs esset (MO. 43), nothing pleased him which was 

the relative quod connects its antecedent nihil with the predicate f&s 

esset, indicating a relation between the two. 

305. A Relative agrees with its Antecedent in 0-ender and 
Number; but its Case depends on its construction in the clause 
in which it stands : — 

ea dies quam cOnstitaerat yenit (B. G. i. 8), thai day which he had appointed 

pontem qui erat ad Gen&vam iubet rescind! (id. i. 7), Ae orders the bridge 

which was near Geneva to be cvi down. 
AduatncI, d6 quibas supra diximus, domum reverternnt (id. ii. 29), tJie 

Aduatuci^ of wJiom we have spoken above, returned home, 

NoTB. — This rule applies to all relative words so far as they are variable in form : 
as, qoftlis, qnantns, qulcomque, etc. 

a. If a relative has two or more antecedents, it follows the rules 

for the agreement of predicate adjectives (§§ 286, 287) : — 

fllium et flliam, quSs valdS dilSxit, unO tempore ftmlsit, he lost at the same 

tim£ a son and a daughter whom he dearly loved. 
grandSs n&tti m&tr6s et parvull liberi, qudrom utrGrumque aetfis misericor- 

diam nostram requlrit (Verr. v. 129), ajged matrons and little children, 

whose time of life in each case demands our compassion. 
Otium atque divitiae, quae prima mort^USs putant (Sail. Cat. 36), idleness and 

wealth, which men count the first (objects of desire), 
eae frug6s et fructfls quos terra gignit (N. D. ii. 87), those fruits and crops 

which the earth produces. 

For the Person of the verb agreeing with the Relative, see § 316. a, 

306. A Relative generally agrees in gender and number with an 
appositive or predicate i^oun in its own clause, rather than with 
an antecedent of different gender or number (cf. § 296. a): — 

mare etiam quem Neptflnum esse dlcSbSs (N. D. ill. 52), the sea, too, which 

you said was Neptune. [Not quod.] 
Thebae ipsae, quod BoeOtiae caput est (Liv. xlii. 44), even Thebes, which is 

the chief city of Boeotia. [Not quae.] 

NoTB. — This rule is occasionally violated: as, — flumen quod appeU&tur Tamesis 
(B. 0. T. 11), a river which is called the Thames. 

186 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§806,307 

a. A relative occasionally agrees with its antecedent in case (by 

attraction) : — 

A aliquid agSis eorum quorum cOnsuest! (Fam. y. 14), ify(m nhould do somt^ 
thing of what you are used to do, [For eorum quae.] 

Note. — Occasionally the antecedent is attracted into the case of the relatiire : — 
urbem quam statuO vestra est (Aen. i. 573), the city which I am founding is yotirs. 
Naucratem, quern con venire volui, in navi nOn erat (PI. Am. 1009), NaucrcUes^ 
whom I wished to meet, was not on board the ship, 

6. A relative may agree in gender and number with an irriplied 
antecedent : — 

quartum genus ... qui in vetere aere ali6n5 vacillant (Cat. ii. 21), a fourth 

elass^ who are staggering under old debts. 
tinus ex eO numerO qui parati erant (lug. 36), one of the number [of those] 

who were ready, 
coniuravere panel, d6 qua [i.e. coniflratiOne] dicam (Sail. Cat. 18), a few 

have conspired^ of which [conspiracy] I wUl speak. 

Note. — So regularly when the antecedent is implied in a possessive pronoun : as, 
— nostra acta, quos tyrannOs vocas (Vat. 29), the deeds of uSf whom you call tyrants, 
[Here quSs agrees with the nostrum (genitive plural) implied in nostra.] 

Antecedent of the Relative 

307. The Antecedent Noun sometimes appears in both clauses ; 
but usually only in the one that precedes. Sometimes it is 
wholly omitted. 

a* The antecedent noun may be repeated in the relative clause : — 

loci nattira erat haec quern locum nostri d@l€gerant (B. G. ii. 18), the nature 
of the ground which our men had chosen was this. 

6. The antecedent noun may appear only in the relative clause, 
agreeing with the relative in case : — 

quas res in cOnsulattL nostrO gessimus attigit hlc versibus (Arch. 28), he has 
touched in verse the things which I did in my con,sulship, 

quae prima innocentis mihi defensiS est oblata suscSpI (Soil. 92), I under- 
took the first defence of an innocent m(in that was offered me. 

Note. — In this case the relative clause usually comes first (cf. § 308. <2) and a 
demonstrative usually stands in the antecedent clause : — 

quae pars civitatis calamitatem populO B5mano intulerat, ea princeps poenas per- 

solvit (B. G. i. 12), that part of the state which had brought disaster on the 

Romxin people was the first to pay the penalty, 
quae gratia currum fuit vivis, eadem sequitur (Aen. vi. 653), tlie same pleasure 

that they took in chariots in their lifetime follows them (after death), 
qui fit ut nemO, quam sibi sortem ratio dederit, ill! contentus vivat (cf . Hor. S. i. 

1.1), how does it happen that ru> one lives contented with the lot which cfioioe 

has assigned himf 

f§ 307, 308] RELATIVE PRONOUNS 187 

€?• The antecedent may be omitted, especially if it is indefinite : 

qui decimae legiOnis aquilam ferebat (B. G. iv. 25), [the man] who bore the 

eagle of the tenth legion, 
qui cognOscerent misit (id. i. 21), he sent [men] to reconnoitre. 

<*• The phrase id quod or quae r6s may be used (instead of quod 
alone) to refer to a group of words or an idea : — 

[obtrectatum est] GabiniO dicam anne Pomp6iO? an utrlque — id quod est 
v6rius? (Manil. 57), an affront has been offered-— shall I say to Gabinifia 
or to Pompey f or — which is truer — to both ? 

multum sunt in v6nati5nibus, quae res vir6s allt (B. G. iv. 1), th^ spend 
much time in hunting^ which [practice] increases their strength. 

Note. — Butquod alone often occurs : as, — Cassius noster, quod mihi magnae volup- 
tati fuit, hostem rSiecerat (Fam. ii. 10), our friend Cassius — which wa^ a great satis- 
fcuition to me — had driven back the enemy. 

e. The antecedent noun, when in apposition with the main clause, 
or with some word of it, is put in the relative clause ; — 

firm! [amici], ciiius generis est mS^na p^nuria (Lael. 62), steadfast friends, 
a class of which there is great lack (of which class there is, etc.). 

/. A predicate adjective (especially a superlative) belonging to the 
antecedent may stand in the relative clause : — 

vSsa ea quae pulcherrima apud eum viderat (Verr. iv. 63), those most beauti- 
ful vessels which he had seen at his house. [Nearly equivalent to the 
vessels of which he had seen some very beautiful ones.'\ 

Special Uses of the Relative 

308. In the use of Relatives, the following points are to be 
observed : — 

a. The relative is never omitted in Latin, as it often is in Eng- 
lish : — 

liber quern mihi dedisti, the book you gave me. 

is sum qui semper fui, I am the sam^ man I always was. 

eO in locG est de quo tibi loctitus sum, hsis in the place I told you of. 

b» When two relative clauses are connected by a copulative con- 
junction, a relative pronoun sometimes stands in the first and a 
demonstrative in the last : — 

erat profectus obviam legiOnibus Macedonicis quattuor, qu&s sibi concili^re 
peciinia cOgitd.bat easque ad urbem adducere (Fam. xii. 23. 2), he ?iad 
set out to meet four legions from Macedonia, which he thought to win over 
to himself by a gift of money and to lead (them) to the city. 



Cm A relative clause in Latin often takes the place of some other 

construction in English, — particularly of a participle, an appositi ve, 

or a noun of agency : — 

l6g6B quae nunc sunt, tfie existing laws (the laws which now exist). 

Caesar qui Galliam vicit, Cassar the conqueror of Oaul, 

iOsta gloria qui est frQctus virtatis (Pison. 57), tnie glory [which is] thejruit 

of virtue, 
ille qui petit, the plaintiff (he who sues), 
qui legit, a reader (one who reads). 

(i. In formal or emphatic discourse, the relatiye clause usually 

comes first, often containing the antecedent noun (cf . § 307. b) : — 

quae pars civitfttis HelvStiae Inslgnem calamit&tem popul5 ROm&nO intulerat, 
ea princeps poen&s persolvit (B. G. i. 12), the portion of the Helvetian 
state which had brought a serious disaster on the Roman people wa^ the 
first to pay the penalty. 

Note. — In colloquial language, the relative clause in such cases often contains a 
redundant demonstrative pronoun which logically helongs in the antecedent clause: 
as, — ille qui c<>nsulte cavet, diutine uti bene licet partum bene (Plant. Bud. 1240), 
lie who is on his guard, fie may long enjoy what he has well obtained, 

e. The relative with an abstract noun may be used in a parenthet- 
ical clause to characterize a person, like the English such : — 

quae vestra prtldentia est (Gael. 45), sudi is your wisdom, [Equivalent to 
pro vestrS. prttdenti&.] 

audissSs cOmoedOs vel lectOrem vel lyrist^n, vel, quae mea liberalitas, onmSs 
(Plin. £p. i. 15), you would have listened to comedians, or a reader, or a 
lyre-player, or — such is my liberality — to cUl of them, 

/. A relative pronoun (or adverb) often stands at the beginning of 
an independent sentence or clause, serving to connect it with the 
sentence or clause that precedes : — 

Oaesar statuit ezspectandam classem; quae ubi conv6nit (B. G. iii. 14), 
CcBsar decided that he must wait for the fleet; and when this had come 
together, etc. 

quae qui audiebant, and those who heard this (which things). 

quae cum ita sint, and since this is so. 

qnSnun quod simile factum (Cat. iv. 13), whM deed of theirs like this? 

quo cum vSnisset, and when he had come there (whither when he had come). 

Note. — This arrangement is common even when another relative or an interrog- 
ative follows. The relative may usually be translated by an English demonstratiye, 
with or without and. 

gr. A relative adverb is regularly used in referring to an antecedent 
in the Locative case; so, often, to express any relation of place instead 
of the formal relative pronoun : — 

§§ 308-310] INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 189 

mortuus C^mls quS s3 contolerat (Liv. ii. 21), having died at Cumce, whither 
he had retired, [Here in quam arbem might be used, but Dot in qu&s.] 

locus quo aditus ndn erat, a place to which (whither) there was no access^ 

rSgna onde genus ducis (Aen. v. 801), t?ie kingdom from which you derive 
your race. 

trnde petitur, the drfendant (he from whom something is demanded). 

H. The relatives qui, qu&lis, quantus, quot, etc. are often rendered 

simply by as in English: — 

idem quod semper, the same as always. 

cum esset t&lis qu&lem t6 esse video (Mur. 32), since he was such a man as I 

see you are. 
tanta dimicS.tiO quanta numquam fuit (Att. yii. 1. 2), such a fight as never 

wa4i before. 
tot mala quot sidera (Ov. Tr. i. 6. 47), as many troubles as stars in the sky. 

i. The general construction of relatives is found in clauses intro- 
duced by relative adverbs : as^ ubi, qu9, unde, cum, quarS. 

Indefinite Pronouns 

309. The Indefinite Pronouns are used to indicate that some 
person or thing is meant, without designating what one. 

310. Quia, quispiam, aliquis, quidam, are particular indefinites^ mean- 
ing some, a certain, any. Of these, quis, ant/ on£, is least definite, 
and quidam, a certain one, most definite ; aliquis and quispiam, some 
one, stand between the two : — 

dizerit quia (quispiam), som£ one may say. 

aliqui philosophi ita putant, som e philosophers think so. [quidam would mean 

certain persons defined to the speaker's mind, though not named.] 
habitant hie quaedam mulierSs pauperculae (Ter. Ad. 647), some poor women 

live here [i.e. some women he knows of ; some women or other would 

be aliquae or nesciS quae]. 

a. The indefinite quis is rare except in the combinations si quia, if 
any; nisi quis, if any . . . not ; n6 quis, lest any, in order that none ; 
^ num quia (ecquis), whether any ; and in relative clauses. 

b» The compounds quispiam and aliquis are often used instead of 
quis after si, nisi, nS, and num, and are rather more emphatic : — 

quid si hoc quispiam voluit deus (Ter. Eun. 875), what if some god had 

desired this? 
nisi alicui suOrum negOtium daret (Nep. Dion. 8. 2), unless he shxmld employ 

some one of his friends. 
cavebat Pomp^ius omnia, n6 aliqnid vOs timSrStis (Mil. 66), Pompey took 

every precaution, so that you might have no fear. 

190 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§311-513 

311. In a particular negative aliquis (aliqui), some one (some), is 
regularly used, where in a universal negative quisquam, any one, 
or Qllus, any^ would be required : — 

itbstitia numqaam nocet cniquam (Fin. i. 50), justice never does harm to any- 
body, [alicui would mean to somebody who possesses it.] 

nOn sine aliquo metti, not without some fear. But, — sine all5 metu, vtUhoui 
any fear. 

cum aliqoid n6n habe^ (Tusc. i. 88), when there is something you have not. 

NoTB. — The same distinction holds between quis and aliqais on the one hand, and 
qaisquam (Alias) on the other, in conditional and other sentences when a negative is 
eipressed or suggested : — 

SI quiaquam, ille sapiens fnit (Lael. 9), if any man was (ever) a sage, he was. 
dam praesidia tlU fuemnt (Rose. Am. 126), while there were any anned forces. 
si quid in te peccavi (Att. iii. 15. 4), t/ J have done wrong towards you [in any 
particular case (see § 310)]. 

312. Qoivis or quilibet {any one you will), quisquam, and the cor- 
responding adjective Qllus, any at all, are general indefinites, 

Quivis and qmlibet are used chiefly in affirmative clauses^ quisquam 
and Wus in clauses where a universal negative is expressed or sug- 
gested : — 

DOn coiyis homini contingit adire Corinthum (Hor. Ep. i. 17. 36), t< is Tiot every 

man's luck to go to CorirUh, [non coiquam would mean not any man^s.] 
qnemlibet mode aliquem (Acad. ii. 132), anybody you will, provided U be 

si quisquam est timidus, is ego sum (Fam. vi. 14. 1), if any man is timorous^ 

I am he. 
si tempus est dUom itire hominis necandl (Mil. 9), if there is any occasion 

whatever when homicide is justifiable. 

NoTK. — The use of the indefinites is very various, and must be learned from the 
Lexicon and from practice. The choice among them may depend merely on the point 
of view of the speaker, so that they are often practically interchangeable. The differ- 
ences are (with few exceptions) those of logic, not of syntax. 

313. The distributives quisque {every), uterque {each of two), and 
taus qtdsque {every single one) are used in general assertions : — 

bonus liber melior est quisque quG m&ior (Plin. Ep. i. 20. 4), the larger a 

good book is, the better (each good book is better in proportion, etc.). 
ambO exercitus suSs quisque abeunt domOs (Liv. ii. 7. 1), both armies go 

away, every man to his home. 
uterque utiique erat exercitus in c5nspecttl (B. G. vii. 35), each army was 

ir^ sight of the other (each to each). 
pOnite ante oculOs unum quemque rSgum (Par. 1. 11), set b^ore your eyes each 

of the kings. 


cr • Quisque regularly stands in a dependent clause, if there is one : — 

quo quisque est sollertior, h5c docet irS^^uodius (Rose. Com. 31), the keener- 
witted a man is^ the more impatiently he teaches, 

^^OTE. — Quisqne is generally postpositiye ^ : as, snom caiqne, to every man his own. 

&• Quisque is idiomatically used with superlatives and with ordinal 

mrmerals : — 

nObilisslmus quisque, all the noblest (one after the other in the order of their 

prlm5 quoque tempore (Rose. Am. 36), at the very first opportunity, 
antlquissimam quodque tempus (B. 6. i. 46), the most ancient times. 
decimus quisque (id. v. 62), one in ten. 

^OTE 1. — Two superlatives with qnisqne imply a proportion : as,— sapientlsslmus 
quisque aequissimd animd moritur (Cat. M. 83), the toisest men die toith the greatest 

NoTK 2. — Quotas quisque has the signification of fioto many, prayf often in a dis- 
paraging sense {how few) : — 

quotus enim quisque disertns? quotus quisque iuris peritus est (Plane. 62), /or Aoto 

few are eloquent! how few are learned in the law I 
quotus enim istud quisque fecisset (Ldg. 26), /or how many would have done thisf 
[i.e. scarcely anybody would have done it]. 

314. NSmG, no one^ is used of persons only — 

1. As a substantive : — 
neminem acctisat, ?ie accuses no one. 

2. As an adjective pronoun instead of n&llus: — 

yir nemS bonus (Legg. ii. 41), no good man. 

None. — Even when used as a substantive, nSm5 may take a noun in apposition: 
as, — nSmo scxiptor, nobody [who is] a writer. 

a. NttUus^ no, is commonly an adjective ; but in the genitive and 

ablative singular it is regularly used instead of the corresponding 

cases of nSmC, and in the plural it may be either an adjective or a 

substantive : — 

nnllum mittitur t€lum (B. C. ii. 13), not a missile is thrown. 

naud hoste prohibente (B. G. iii. 6), without opposition from the enemy. 

nnllius insector ealamit&tem (Phil. ii. 98) , I persecute the misfortune of no one. 

nnllo adiuvante (id. z. 4), with the help of no one (no one helping). 

ttolli erant praedQnfis (Flace. 28), there were no pirates. 

nalli eximentur (Pison. 94), none shall be taken away. 

For n5n nCmS, non nflUus (n5n nulli), see § 326. a. 

1 That is, it does not stand first in its clause. 

3 As, in taking things one by one oft a pile, each thing is uppermost when you 
take it 


AU$is and Alter 

315. Alius means simply other^ another (of an indefinite num- 
ber); alter, the other (of two), often the second in a series; ceteri 
and reliqui, all the restj the others ; altemter, one of the two .• — 

proptereft quod aliud iter habSrent nulloiu (B. 6. i. 7), because (as they 

said) they had no other way. 
flnl epistulae respondl, veniO ad alteram (Fam. ii. 17. 6), one letter I have 

answeredj I come to the other. 
alteram genus (Cat. ii. 19), the second doss. 
iecissem ipse m6 potius in profandum at ceteros cOnserTSrem (Sest. 45), / 

should have rather thrown mysdf into the deep to save the rest. 
Sen^us consul, reliquique magistr&tus (B. C. iii. 21), Servilius the consul 

and the rest of the magistrates. 
cum sit necesse alteram atram vincere (Fam. vi. 3), since it must be that one 

of the two shmild prevail. 

Note. — Alter is often used, especially with negatives, in reference to an indefinite 
number where one is opposed to all the rest taken singly : — 

dum ne sit te ditior alter (Hor. S. i. 1. 40), w long as another is not richer than 
you (lit. the other, there being at the moment only two persons considered). 
nOn ut magis alter, amicus (id. i. 5. 33), a friend such that no other is more so. 

a* The expressions alter . . . alter, the one . . . the other, alius . . . 
alius, one . . . another, may be used in pairs to denote either division 
of a group or reciprocity of action : — 

alter! dimicant, altexi victOrem timent (Fam. vi. 3), one party fights, the 

other fears the victor. 
alteram alter! praesidi5 esse iusserat (B. C. iii. 89), ?ie ?iad ordered each (of 

the two legions) to support the other. 
alii gladils adoriuntur, alH fragmentis saeptOrum (Sest. 79), some make an 

attack with swords, others with fragments of the railings. • 

alias ex alio causam quaerit (B. G. vi. 37), tTiey ask eaxh other the reason. 
alias alium percontS.mur (PI. Stich. 370), we keep asking each other. 

h» Alius and alter are often used to express one as well as another 

(the other) of the objects referred to: — 

alter cOnsulum, one of the [two] consuls. 

atiad est maledicere, aliad (Gael. 6), it is one thing to stonder, 
anotJier to accuse. 

ۥ Alius repeated in another case, or with an adverb from the same 
stem, expresses briefly a double statement : — 

alias aUad petit, one man seeks one thing, another another (another seeks 

another thing). 
. inssit alids alibi fodere (Liv. zliv. 33), Tie ordered different persons to dig tn 

different places. 
alii aUd locC resistSbant (B. C. ii 39), some halted in onepla/ce, some in another. 

§§ 316, 317] VERB AND SUBJECT 193 


Agreement of Verb and Subject 

316. A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Per- 
son.: — 

ego 8tatu5, I resolve. sen&tos dScrSvit, the senate ordered. 

silent leges inter arma (Mil. 11), the laws are dumb in time of war. 

KoTR. — In yerb-forms containing a participle, the participle agrees with the sub- 
ject in gender and number (§ 286) : — 

Oratio est habita, the plea was delivered. bellum exortnm est, a war arose. 

a. A verb having a relative as its subject takes the person of the 
expressed or implied antecedent : — 

adsum qui f$ci (Aen. ix. 427), here am I who did it. 

tti, qui scis, omnem dlligentiam adhibsbis (Att. t. 2. 3), you, wfio know, 

will use ail diligence. 
videte quam despici&mur omnSs qui somns 6 mlinicipils (Phil. iii. 16), see 

how ail of us are scorned who are from the free towns. 

6. A verb sometimes agrees in number (and a participle in the verb- 
form in number and gender) with an appositive or predicate noun : — 

amantium Irae amOris integrStiO est (Ter. And. 555), the quarrels of lovers 

are the renewal of love. 
nOn omnis error stultitia dicenda est (Biy. ii. 00), not every error s?iould be 

caUed folly. 
Corinthus lumen Graeciae exstinctom est (of. Manil. 11), Corinthy the light 

of Greece, is put out. 

Double or Collective Subject 
317. Two or more Singular Subjects take a verb in the Plural: 

pater et ayus mortal sunt, his father and grandfather are dead. 

Note. — So rarely (by synesis, § 280. a) when to a singular subject is attached an 
ablative with cum: as, — dux cum aliquot principibus capiuntur (Liy. xxi. 60), tfie 
general and several leading men are taken. 

a. When subjects are of different persons, the verb is usually in 

the^r^^ person rather than the second, and in the second rather than 

the third : — 

si tH et TuUia valetis ego et Cicer5 yalemns (Fam. xiy. 5), if you and TuUia 
are well, Cicero and I are well. [Notice that the first person is also 
first in order, not last, as by courtesy in English.] 

Note. — In case of different genders a participle in a yerb-f orm f oUows the rule for 
predicate adjectiyes (see § 287. 2-4). 

194 SnSTAX: VERBS £§317 

5. If the subjects are connected bj disjunctives (§ 223. a), or if 
they are considered as a single whole, the verb is usually singular : — 

quern aeqoe fides meqae if» iarandnm neqne illam misericordia xepressit 

(Ter. Ad. 906), noifaitht wor ootft, nay, nor mercy, checked him. 
aenatns populnsque Bdmanus urteUegit (Fam. v. 8), Uie Roman senate and 

people underttand. [Bat, neque Caesar neqae ego habiti essenms (id. 

XL 20), neither CcBtar nor I akauld have been considered.'] 
fibna et vita innoceutis defenditiir (Bosc Am. 15), the reputation and l\fe of an 

innocent man are d^ended, 
est in eO viitils et probitSs et sommam officium sammaque observantia (Fam. 

xiiL 28 A. 2), in him are to be found worth, uprightness, the highest sense 

qfdutjf, and the greatest devotion. 

NoTK. — So almost always when the sab jeets are abstract noons. 

c. When a verb belongs to two or more subjects s^arately, it often 
agrees with one and is understood with the others : — 

inteicedtt M. AntOnins Q. Cassias tribilni pl^bis (B. C. i. 2), Mark Antony 
and Quintus Cassius, tribunes of the people, interpose. 

hoc mihi et Peripatetic! et vetus Academia concedit (Acad. ii. 113), this both 
the Peripatetic philosophers and the Old Academy grant me. 

d. A collective noun commonly takes a verb in the singular ; but 
the plural is often found with collective nouns when individuals are 
thought of (§ 280. a) : — 

(1) sen&tus haec inteUegit (Cat. i. 2), the senate is aware of this. 

ad hibema exercitus redit (Liv. xxi. 22), the army returns to winter-quarters. 
plebes a patribos sicessit (Sail. Cat. 33), the plebs seceded from the patricians. 

(2) pars praedSs agebant (lug. 32), a part brought in booty. 

cum tanta maltitfido lapides conicerent (B. 6. ii. 6), when such a crovod toere 
throwing stones. 

Note 1. — The point of view may change in the course of a sentence : as,— equita- 
tum omnem . . . quern habebat praemittit, qui videant (B. G. i. 15), h^ sent ahead all 
the cavalry he hadf to see (who should see). 

Note 2. — The singular of a noun regularly denoting an individual is sometimes 
used collectively to denote a group : as, Poenus, the Carthaginians; miles, t?ie soldiery; 
eques, the cavalry. 

6. Quisque^ each, and anus quisque, every single one, have very often 
a plural verb, but may be considered as in partitive apposition with a 
plural subject implied (cf. § 282. a): — 

sibi qulsque habeant quod suum est (PL Cure. 180), let every one keep his 
own (let them keep every man his own). 

Note. —So also ntezqne, eac^ {of two), and the reciprocal phrases alias . . . aUun, 
altar . . . alteram (§ 315. a). 


Omission of Subject or Verb 

318. The Subject of the Verb is sometimes omitted : — 

a* A Personal pronomi^ as subject, is usually omitted unless em- 
pliatic : — 

loquor, I speak. But, ego loquor, it is I that speak, 

5. An indefinite subject is often omitted: — crSder^, you would 
7i,cbve supposed ; putfimus, we (people) think ; dicont, ferunt, perhibent, 
they say. 

Cm A passive verb is often used impersonally without a subject ex- 
pressed or understood (§ 208. d)\ — 

din atque ftcriter pttgnatam est (B. G. 1. 26), they fought long and mgorously, 

319. The verb is sometimes omitted : — 

a. Died, faciS, agC, and other common verbs are often omitted in 

familiar phrases : — 

quGrsum haec [spectant], wTiat does this aim at? 

ex ungue leOnem [c5gn6sces], you wiU know a lion by his daw. 

quid multa, what need of many words f (why should I say much ?) 

quid ? quod, what of this, that . . . ? (what shall I say of this, that . . • ?) 

[A form of trausition.] 
Aeolus haec contr& (Aen. 1. 76), JSolus thus [spoke] in reply. 
turn Cotta [inquit], then said Cotta, 
dl meliOra [duint] 1 (Cat. M. 47), Heaven forfend (may the gods grant better 

unde [venls] et quO [tendis]? (Hor. S. 11. 4. 1), where from and whither 

bound? [Cf. id. 1. 9. 62 for the full form.] 

b. The copula sum is very commonly omitted in the present indica- 
tive and present infinitive, rarely (except by late authors) in the sub- 
junctive : — 

ttL coniunx (Aen. iv. 113), you [are] his wife. 

quid ergO ? audftcissimus ego ex omnibus (Rose. Am. 2), what then f ami 
the boldest of aU f 

omnia praecl&ra rara (Lael. 79), all the best things are rare. 

potest incidere saepe contentiO et comparfttiO d6 duGbus honestis utrum 
honestius (Off. i. 162), there may often occur a comparison of two 
honorable actions, oa to which is the more Tumorable. [Here, if any 
copula were expressed, it would be sit, but the direct question would 
be complete without any.] 

aocipe quae peragenda prius (Aen. vi. 136), hear what is first to be accom" 
plished. [Direct : quae peragenda pzias ?] 

196 syntax : particles [§§ 320, 321 



320. The proper function of Adverbs, as petrified case-forms, is to modify Verbs: 
as, — celeriter Ire, to go with speed. It is from this use that they derive their name 
(adverbium, from ad, to, and verbom, verb; see § 241. 6). They also modify adjectives, 
showing in what manner or degree the quality described is manifested : as, splendide 
mendaz, gloriously false. More rarely they modify other adverbs: as, nimis snra^iter, 
too severely. Many adverbs, especially relative adverbs, serve as connectives, and 
are hardly to be distinguished from conjunctions (see § 20. g, n.).^ 

321. Adverbs are used to modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other 

a. A Demonstrative or Relative adverb is often equivalent to the 
corresponding Pronoun with a preposition (see § 308. g) : — 

e§ [ = in ea] imp5nit y&sa (lug. 75), upon them (thither, thereon, on the 

beasts) he puU the camp-utensils. 
eo militSs imp5nere (B. 6. i. 42), to put soldiers upon them (the horses), 
apud eOs qn5 [ = ad quSs] s6 contulit (Verr. iv. 38), among those to whom 

(whither) he resorted. 
qui eum nec9sset nnde [ = quo] ipse nS^tus esset (Rose. Am. 71), one who shotdd 

have killed his own father (him whence he had his birth). 
condici5n€s miserOs administrand&rum prOvinciarum ubi [ = in qoibos] 

sevfiritas periculOsa est (Flacc. 87), 0/ wretched terms of managing the 

provinces, where strictness is dangerous. 

b. The participles dictum and factum^ when used as nouns, are regu- 

lai'ly modified by adverbs rather than by adjectives ; so occasionally 

other perfect participles : — 

praeclare facta (Nep. Timoth. 1), glorious deeds (things gloriously done), 
multa facete dicta (Off. i. 104), many witty sayings. 

c. A noun is sometimes used as an adjective, and may then be modi- 
fied by an adverb : — 

victor exercitus, tJie victorious army. 

admodom puer, quite a boy (young). 

magis vir, more of a man (more manly). 

popalam late r6gem (Aen. i. 21), a people ruling far and wide. 

Note. — Very rarely adverbs are used with nouns which have no adjective force 
but which contain a verbal idea : — 

hinc abitiO (Plant. Rud. 503), a going away from here. 

quid c5gitem de obviam itiSne (Att. xiii. 50), what I think about going to mui 
(him). [Perhaps felt as a compound.] 

1 For the derivation and classification of adverbs, see §§ 214-217. 

j§ 321,322] ADVERBS 197 

<f. A few adverbs appear to be used like adjectives. Such are 
>l>^viaiii, palam, sometimes contra, and occasionally others : — 

fit obviaxn ClOdio (Mil. 29), fie falls in with (becomes in the way of) Clodius. 

[Of. the adjective obvius : as, — si ille obvius ei futtirus non erat (id. 47), 

ifke wets not likely to fall in with him.'] 
haec commemorO quae sunt palam (Pison. 11), / mention these facts, which 

are well-known, 
alia probabilia, contra alia dicimus (Off. ii. 7), we call some things probable, 

others the opposite (not probable). [In this use, contra contradicts a 

previous adjective, and so in a manner repeats it.] 
eri semper I6nit3s (Ter. And. 175), my master^ s constant (always) gentleness. 

[An imitation of a Greek construction.] 

Note. — In some cases one can hardly say whether the adverb is treated as an 
adjective modifying the noun, or the noun modified is treated as an adjective (as in 
c above). 

For propius, pridiS, palam, and other adverbs used as prepositions, see § 432. 

322. The following adverbs require special notice : — 

a» Etiam (et iam), also, even, is stronger than quoque, also, and 
usually precedes the emphatic word, while quoque follows it : — 

nOn verbis solum sed etiam vl (Verr. ii. 64), not only by words, but also by 

hoc quoque maleficium (Rose. Am. 117), this crime too. 

&. Nunc * means definitely now, in the immediate present, and is 
rarely used of the immediate past. 

lam means now, already, at length, presently, and includes a refer- 
ence to previous time through which the state of things described has 
been or will be reached. It may be used of any time. With nega- 
tives iam means (no) longer. 

Turn, then, is correlative to cum, when, and may be used of any 

time. Tunc, then, at that time, is a strengthened form of tum 

(ttum-ce, cf . nunc) : — 

ut iam ante^ dlxl, as I have already said before. 

81 iam satis aetatis atque rOboris haberet (Kosc. Am. 149), if he had attained 

a suitable age and strength (lit. if he now had, as he will have by and by), 
non est iam l€nitati locus, there is no longer room for mercy. 
quod iam erat Institutum, which had corns to be a practice (had now been 

nunc quidem deleta est, tunc flOrfibat (Lael. 13), n.ow ('tis true) she [Greece] 

is ruined, then she was in her glory. 
tum cum rggn&bat, at the time when he reigned. 

1 For fnum-ce ; cf. tunc (for ftum-ce). 

198 SYNTAX: PARTICLES £§§322,323 

c. Certfi means certainly, certg (usually) at lea^t, at any rate: — 
certd add, 1 krwwfor a certainty; ego certe, I at least. 

d. Primum means first {first in order, or for the first time), and 
implies a series of events or acts. PrimO means at first, as opposed 
to afterwards, giving prominence merely to the difference of time : — 

hoc pximam sentiO, this I hold in the first place, 

aedls primo mere rSMmur, at first we thought the house was falling, 

NOTB. — In enumerations, primum (or pxim5) is often followed by deinde, secondly, in 
the next place, or by turn, then, or by both in succession. Delude may be several times 
repeated (secondly, thirdly, etc.). The series is often closed by dSnique or postremo, 
lastly, finally. Thus, — piimum de genere belli, deinde de magnitudine, turn de im- 
peratOre deligendO (Manil. 6), first of the kind of war, next of its magnitude, then oj 
the chouse of a commander. 

e. Quidem, indeed, gives emphasis, and often has a concessive mean- 
ing, especially when followed by eed, autem, etc. : — 

h(k2 qnidem vidSre licet (Lael. 54), this surely one may see. [Emphatic.] 
[sectiritas] specie qaidem blanda, sed re&pse multls locis repudianda (id. 47), 

{tranquillity) in appearance, His true, attractive, but in reality to be 

r^ectedfor many reasons. [Concessive.] 

/. N6 . . . quidem means not even or not . . . either. The emphatic 
word or words must stand between nS and qaidem : — 

sed nS lugortha qaidem quietus erat (lug. 61), but Jugurtha was not quid 

ego autem n§ Ir3scl possum quidem ils qu5s valde am<J (Att. ii. 19. 1), but I 
^ cannot even get angry with those whom I love very much. 

KoTB. — Bqnidem has t)ie same senses as qaidem, but is in Cicero confined to the 
first person. Thus, — eqaidem adprobabO (Fam. ii. 3. 2), I for my part shall approve. 


323. Copulative and Disjunctive Conjunctions connect similar 

constructions, and are regularly followed by the same case or mood 

that precedes them: — 

sciiptum sen&tui et populo (Cat. ill. 10), written to the senate and people. 
ut efts [partis] sanarSs et cOnflrmSxSs (Mil. 68), that you might cwre aiid 

strengthen those parts. 
neque me& prfldentid. neque humanls c<Jn8ilil8 fr6tus (Cat. ii. 29), rdyvaii 

neither on my own foresight nor on human wisdom. 

I Tot Hie ctossification of conjunctions, see {§ 223, 224. 


€L. Conjunctions of Comparison (as ut, quam, tamquam, quasi) also 
commonly connect similar constructions : — 

his igitur qnam physicis potius cr^dendum ezistimSA (Div. ii. 37), do you 
thivk these are more to be trusted than the natural philosophers f 

hominem callidlOrem vidl nSminem quam PhormiOnem (Ter. Ph. 691), a 
shrewder man I never saw than Phormio (cf. § 407). 

at nOn omne vlnum sic nOn omnis nS.tura Tetost&te coac^Bcit (Cat. M. 65), 
as every wine does not sour with age, so [does] not every nature. 

in me quasi in tyrannum (Phil. xiv. 15), against me as against a tyrant. 

h. Two or more coordinate words, phrases, or sentences are often 

put together without the use of conjunctions (Asyndetquj § 601. c) : 

omnes dl, homines, aU gods and men. 

Biimml, medil, InfimI, the highest, the middle class, and the lowest. 
iiira, I6g6s, agr5s, libertatem nObIs rellqu6runt (B. G. vli. 77), they have ^ft 
us our rights, our laws, our fields, our liberty. 

c. 1. Where there are more than two coordinate words etc., a con- 
junction, if used, is ordinarily used with all (or all except the first): — 

aut aere aliSnO aut md.gnitudine tributOrum aut inltlrift potentiOrum (B. G. 

vi. 13), by debt, excessive taxation, or oppression on the pari of the 

at sunt mOrOsI et anxil et !rd,cundl et dif&cilSs senSs (Cat. M. 65), but (you 

say) old men are capricious, soliciUms, choleric, and fussy. 

2. But words are often so divided into groups that the members 
of the groups omit the conjunction (or express it), while the groups 
themselves express the conjunction (or omit it): — 

propudium illud et portentum, L. AntOnius Insigne odium omnium homi- 
num (Phil. xiv. 8), that wretch and monster, Lucius Antonius, the abomi- 
nation of all men. 

utmmque 6git graviter, auctdrit&te et offfinsiOne animi nOn acerbd. (Lael. 
77), he acted in both cases with dignity, without loss of authority and 
with no bitterness of feeling. 

3. The enclitic -que is sometimes used with the last member of a 

series, even when there is no grouping apparent : — 

voce voltu mOttSque (Brut. 110), 6y voice, expression, and gesture. 
cHram consilium vigUantiamque (Phil. vii. 20), care, wisdom, and vigUanoe. 
quorum auctOritatem dignitatem voluntatemque defenderas (Fam. i. 7. 2), 
whose dignity, honor, and wishes you had defended. 

d. Two adjectives belonging to the same noun are regularly con* 

nected by a conjunction : — 

multae et gravOs causae, many weighty reasons. 

vir Uber ac fortis (Rep. ii. 34), a free and brave man. 

200 SYNTAX: PARTICLES [§§323,384 

e. Often the same conjunction is repeated in two coordinate claiLses :j 

et . . . et (-que . . . -que), both . . . and, \ 

ant . . . aut, either . . . or, 

▼el . . . vel, either , , , or, [Examples in § 324. e.] 

sive (sen) . . . sive (seu), whether . , . or, [Examples in §324./.] 

/. Many adverbs are similarly used in pairs, as conjunctions, partly 

or wholly losing their adverbial force : — 

nunc . . . nunc, tain . . . tttxn, iam . . . iam, now , . , now, - 

modo . . . modo, rvow . . . now. 

simol . . . simul, at the same time , . . at the same time. 

qa& . . . qu&, now , , , now, both , , , and, alike [this] and [that]. 

modo ait modo negat (Ter. Eun. 714), now he says yes, now no. 

simal gratis agit, simul gratul&tur (Q. C. vi. 7. 15), he thanks him and at 

the same time congratulates him, 
erumpunt saepe vitia amic5rum tum in ips58 amIcOs tum in alien5s (Lael. 

76), thp. faults of friends sometimes break out, now against their friends 

themselves, now against strangers, 
qnh marls quft feminSs (PI. Mil. 1113), both males and females. 

g. Certain relative and demonstrative adverbs are used correla- 

tively as conjunctions: — 

ut (rel.) . . . ita, sic (dem.), as (while) , , . so {yet), 

tam (dem.) . . . qaam (rel.), so (as) . . . as. 

cum (rel.) . . . tum (dem.), while . . , so also; not only , . , but also. 

324. The following Conjunctions require notice : — 

a* Et, andy simply connects words or clauses ; -que combines more 

closely into one connected whole, -que is always enclitic to the word 

connected or to the first or second of two or more words connected : 

cum coniugibus et liberis, with [their] wives and children. 

£err5 Ignlque, with fire and sword. [Not as separate things, but as the 

combined means of devastation.] 
aqua et Ignl interdictus, forbidden the use of water and fire. [In a legal 

formula, where they are considered separately.] 

b. Atque (ac), andy adds with some emphasis or with some implied 
reflection on the word added. Hence it is often equivalent to and so, 
and yet, and besides, and then. But these distinctions depend very 
much upon the feeling of the speaker, and are often untranslatable: — 

omnia honesta atque inhonesta, everything honorable and disfionordUe (too, 

without the slightest distinction), 
tisus atqae discipllna, practice and theory beside (the more important or less 

atque ego cr§d5, and yet I believe (for my part). 

i 324] CONJUNCTIONS 201 

e« Atque (ac)^ in the sense of as, than, is also used after words of 

comparison and likeness : — 

simul atque, as soon as. 

nOn secus (nOn aliter) ac si, not otherwise than if, 

pr5 eO ac debul, as was my duty (in accordance as I ought). 

aequ3 ac tu, as much as you, 

liaud minus ac iussi f aciunt, they do just as they are ordered. 

For and not, pee § 328. a. 

cf . Sed and the more emphatic vSrum or v6r6, but, are used to intro- 
duce something in opposition to what precedes, especially after nega- 
tives (not this . . . but something else). At (old form ast) introduces 
with, emphasis a new point in an argument, but is also used like the 
others ; sometimes it means at least. At enim is almost always used 
to introduce a supposed objection which is presently to be overthrown. 
At is more rarely used alone in this sense. 

Autem, however, now, is the weakest of th6 adversatives, and often 
marks a mere transition and has hardly any adversative force percep- 
tible. Atqui, however, now, sometimes introduces an objection and 
sometimes a fresh step in the reasoning. Quod si, but if, and if, now if, 
is used to continue an argument. 

NoTB. — Et, -que, and atque (ac) are sometimes used where the English idiom would 
suggest butf especially when a negative clause is followed by an affirmative clause 
continuing the same thought: as, — impetum hostes ferre non potuerunt ac terga 
verterunt (B. G. iv. 35), the enemy could not stand the onset, but turned their backs. 

e, Aut, or, excludes the alternative; vel (an old imperative of volO) 
and -ve give a choice between two alternatives. But this distinction 
is not always observed : — 

sed quls ego sum aut quae est in m3 facultas (Lael. 17), but who am I or 

what special capacity have I f [Here vel could not be used, because in 

fact a negative is implied and both alternatives are excluded.] 
aut bibat aut abeat (Tusc. v. 118), let him drink or (if he won't do that, then 

let him) quit. [Here vel would mean, let him do either as he chooses.] 
vita talis fuit vel fortune vel glQviS, (Lael. 12), his life was such either in 

respect to fortune or fame (whichever way you look at it). 
8l propinquOs habeant imbecilliorgs vel animO vel f ortuna (id. 70), if they 

have relatives beneath them either in spirit or in fortune (in either respect, 

for example, or in both), 
aut deOrum aut regum filii (id. 70), sons either of gods or of kings. [Here 

one case would exclude the other.] 
implic&ti vel ustL dititumO vel etiam officiis (id. 86), entangled either by 

dose intimacy or even by obligations. [Here the second case might 

exclude the first.] 


/. Sive (seu) is properly used in disjunctive conditions {if either . . . 
or if)j but also with alternative words and clauses, especially -with 
two names for the same thing : — 

slve inriddns siye quod ita putSret (De Or. i. 01), either laughingly or because 

he really thought so, 
8iye deae seu sint volacrSs (Aen. iil. 262), whether they (the Harpies) are 

goddesses or birds, 

g» Vel, everiyfor instance, is often used as an intensive particle with 
no alternative force : as, — vel minimus, the very least. 

h. Nam and namque, for, usually introduce a real reason, formally 
expressed, for a previous statement; enim (always postpositive), a 
less important explanatory circumstance put in by the way ; etenim 
(J^or, you see ; for, you know ; for, mind you) and its negative neque 
enim introduce something self-evident or needing no proof. 

(ea Ylta) quae est sOla vita nOminanda. nam dam sumus inclusi in his 
comp&gihus corporis, mdnere quOdam necessit&tis et gravi opere per- 
fuDgimur; est enim animus caelestis, etc. (Cat. M. 77), (that Ufe) 
which alone deserves to be called life; for so long as we are confined by 
the body^s frame^ we perform a sort of necessary function and heavy \ 
task. For the soul is from heaven, 

hd.rum trium sententiftnim nuUl prOrsus adsentior. nee enim ilia prima 
vera est (Lael. 67), for of course that first one isnH true, 

4. ErgO, therefore, is used of things proved formally, but often has 
a weakened force. Igitur, then, accordingly, is weaker than erg5 and 
is used in passing from one stage of an argument to another. Itaque, 
therefore, accordingly, and so, is used in proofs or inferences from the 
nature of things rather than in formal logical proof. All of these are 
often used merely to resume a train of thought broken by a digression 
or parenthesis. IdcircO, for this reason, on this account, is regularly 
followed (or preceded) by a correlative (as, quia, quod, si, ut, n5), and 
refers to the special point introduced by the correlative. ^ 

malum mihiyidetor esse mors, est miserum Igitor, quoniam malum. certS. 
ergo et ei quibus ^venit iam ut morerentur et el quibus eventurom est 
miserl. mihi ita videtur. nem5 ergo nOn miser. (Tusc. L 9.) Death ' 
seems to me to be an evil, ^Itisvoretched,then,sinceitisaneml.* Certainly. 
* Ther^ore, all those who have already died and who are to die hereafter are 
wretched,^ So it appears to me, * There is no one, therefore^ who is not 

quia natdra mlit&rl n5n potest, iddrco v^rae amicitiae sempitemae sunt 
(Lael. 32), because nature cannot be changed, for this reason true friend- 
ships are eternal. 

5§ 324^326] IIEGATIVE PARTICLES 208 

J^ Autem, enim^ and vSrO are postpositive V so generally Igitur and 
often tamen. 

A;. Two conjunctions of similar meaning are often used together 
for the sake of emphasis or to bind a sentence more closely to what 
precedes : as, at v6r6, but in truth, but surely, still, however; itaque 
erg5, accordingly then; namque, for; et-enim^ for, you see, for of 
course (§ 324. h). 

For Conjunctioiis introducing Subordinate Clauses, see Syntax. 

Negative Particles ^ 

325. In the xise of the Negative Particles, the following points 
are to be observed : — 

326. Two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative : — 

nem5 non audiet, eoery one will hear (nobody will not hear). 
n5n possum non c0nfit€rl (Fam. ix. 14. 1), J mtist confess, 
ut . . . ne non timSre qnidem sine aliqa5 timOre possimus (Mil. 2), so thaJt we 
cannot even be relieved of fear vntJiovt some fear, 

a. Many compounds or phrases of which nOn is the first part express 
an indefinite affirmative : — 

n5n ntillus, some; nOn nulll (=aliqul), some few. 
n5n nihil (= aliquid), something, 
nQn nSmO (= aliquot), sundry persons, 
n5n numquam (= aliquotiSns), sometimes, 

&. Two negatives of which the second is nOn (belonging to the 

predicate) express a universal affirmative : — 

nemO nOn, ntillus n5n, nobody [does] ru>ty i.e. everybody [does]. [Cf. ndn 

nSmO, not nobody ^ i.e. somfbody,"] 
nihil nOn, eoerything. [Cf. nOn nihil, something.'} 
numquam n5n, never not, i.e. always, [Cf. n5n numquam, sometimes.'] 

c. A statement is often made emphatic by denying its contrary 

(Litotes, § 641) : — 

nOn semel (= saepissimS), often enough (not once only). 

n5n haec sine ntlmine dlvom eveniimt (Aen. ii. 777), these things do not 

occur without the wUl of the gods. 
haec ndn nimis exquirO (Att. vii. 18. 3), not very much, i.e. very little, 

NOTB. — Compare non naUas, n5n nemS, etc., in a aboye. 

1 That is, they do not stand first in their clause. 
3 For a list of Negative Particles, see § 217. e. 

204 SYNTAX: PARTICLES [§§ 827-^329 

327. A general negation is not destroyed — 

1. By a following n6 . . . qtudem^ not even, or nCn modo, not only : — 

niunqaam tH n5n modo Otium, sed nS bellum qaidem nisi nef&rium concupisti 
(Cat. i. 26), not only have you never desired repose, but you have never 
desired any war except one which was infamous, 

2. By succeeding negatives each introducing a separate subordi- 
nate member : — 

eaque nesciSlMuit nee ubi nee quftlia essent (Tasc. iii. 4), they knew not where 
or of what kind these things were. 

3. By neque introducing a coordinate member : — 

nequeo satis mlrftrl neque conlcere (Ter. Eun. 647), I cannot wonder enough 
nor conjecture, 

328. The negative is frequently joined witii a conjunction or 
with an indefinite pronoun or adverb. Hence the forms of nega- 
tion in Latin differ from those in English in many expressions : — 

nnlU (neutii) cr6d5 (not non cr§d5 Qlli), I do njot believe either (I believe 

sine Gilo perlculO (less commonly earn nfiUo), with no danger (without any 

nihil urnqnam audlvl itlcundius, I never heard anything more amusing. 
Cf. nego haec esse vera (not died non esse), I say this is not true (I deny, etc.). 

a. In the second of two connected ideas, and not is r^ularly ex- 
pressed by neque (nee), not by et nOn : — 

hostes terga verterunt, neqae prius fugere d6stit6runt (B. G. i. 63), the enemy 
turned and fled, and did not stop fleeing untU, etc. 

Note. — Similarly nee quisquam is regularly used for et nCmS; neque alias for et 
n&llas; nee amqaam for et namqaam ; nSve (nea), for et nS. 

329. The particle immo, nay, is used to contradict some part of 

a preceding statement or question, or its form ; in the latter case, 

the same statement is often repeated in a stronger form, so that 

immo becomes nearly equivalent to yes (nay but^ nay rather): — 

causa igitur n5n bona est? immo optima (Att. ix. 7. 4), is the cav^ then not 
a good one f on the contrary, the best. 

a. Minus, less (especially with si, if, quC, in order that), and minimS^ 

leastf often have a negative force : — 

si minus possunt, if they cannot. [For quo minus, see § 668. &.] 
audacissimus ego ex omnibus ? minim§ (Rose. Am. 2), am I the boldest of 
them all? by no means (not at all). 


Forms of Interrogation 

330. Questions are either Direct or Indirect. 

1. A Direct Question gives the exact words of the speaker : — 
quid est ? what iaitf ubi sum ? wliere am If 

2. An Indirect Question gives the substance of the question, adapted 
to the form of the sentence in which it is quoted. It depends on a verb 
or other expression of asking, doubting, knowing, or the like ; — 

rogavit quid esset, ?ie asked what it was. [Direct : quid est, whxd isitf'\ 
iiesci<J ttbi aim, I know not where I am. [Direct : ubi sum, where am If} 

331. Questions in Latin are introduced by special interrogative 
words, and are not distinguished by the order of words, as in 

NoTK. — The form of Indirect Questions (in English introduced by whetJieTf or by 
an interrogative pronoun or adverb) is in Latin the same as that of Direct ; the differ- 
ence being only in the verb, which in indirect questions - is regularly in the Subjunc- 
tive (§674). 

332. A question of simple fact, requiring the answer i/es or no, 

is formed by adding the enclitic -ne to the emphatic word : — 

tune id veritus es (Q. Fr. i. 3. 1), did you /car that f 

hicine vir usquam nisi in patria morietur (Mil. 104), shall this man die any- 

where bat in his ruUive land f 
is tibi mortemne videtur aut dol5rem timere (Tusc. v. 88), does he seem to 

you to fear death or pain f 

a. The interrogative particle -ne is sometimes omitted : — 

patfire tua cOnsilia nOn sentis (Cat. i. 1), do you not see that your schemes are 
manifest f (you do not see, eh ?) 

Note.— In such cases, as no sign of interrogation appears, it is often doubtful 
whether the sentence is a question or an ironical statement. 

6. When the enclitic -ne is added to a negative word, as in nCnne, 
an affirmative answer is expected. The particle num suggests a nega- 
tive answer : — 

nonne animadvertis (N. D. iii. 89), do you not observe f 

anm dnbium est (Rose. Am. 107), there is no doubt, is there f 

Note. — In Indirect Questions num commonly loses its peculiar force and means 
simply whether. 

^ For a list of Interrogative Particles, see § 217. d. 

206 SYNTAX: QUESTIONS [§§332-335 

c. The particle -ne often when added to the verb, less commonlj 
when added to some other word, has the force of nOnne : — 

meministlne m6 in senftttl dicere (Cat. i. 7), donH you remember my saying 

inthe Senaief 
rSctine interpretor sententiam toam (Tusc. iii. 37), do I riot rightly interpret 
your meaning f 

Note 1. — This was evidently the original meaning of -ne ; but in most cases the 
negative force was lost and -ne was used merely to express a question. So the English 
interrogative nof shades off into ehf 

Note 2. — The enclitic -ne is sometimes added to other interrogative words : as, 
tttnmme, w?iet?ier? anne, or; qnantane (Hor. S. ii. 3. 317), how higf qu5ne maid (id. ii. 3. 
295), by what curse f 

333. A question concerning 9<yme special circumstance is formed 
by prefixing to the sentence an interrogative pronoun or adverb 

as in English (§ 152) : — 

quid ezspectas (Cat. ii. 18), what are you looking forward to ? 

qa5 igitur haec spectant (Fam. vi. 6. 11), whither then is all this tending f 

Icare, ubi es (Ov. M. viii. 232), Icaru8, where are you? 

quod vectlgal vObls ttitam fuit? quern socium dSfendistis? cni praesidid 
classibus vestrls f uistis ? (Maail. 32), wliat revenue ha9 been safe for you f 
wJiat aUy Jiave you dtfended f whom have you guarded wUh your JleeU f 

Note. — A question of this form becomes an exclamation by changing the tone of 
the voice: as, — 

qo&lis vir erat! what a man he was ! 

quot calamitates pass! sumus! Tiow many misfortunes we have steered! 

quo studio cOnsentiunt (Cat. iv. 15), with what zeai they unite! 

a. The particles -nam (enclitic) and tandem may be added to inter- 
rogative pronouns and adverbs for the sake of emphasis : — 

qnisnam est, pray who is itf [quis tandem est? would be stronger.] 
ubinam gentium sumus (Cat. i. 9), where in the world are wef 
in quA tandem urbe hOc disputant (Mil. 7), in what city, pray, do they main- 
tain this ?. 

Note — Tandem is sometimes added to verbs: — 
ain tandem (Fam. iz. 21), you don*t say so! (say you so, pray?) 
itane tandem uxOrem duxit Antipho (Ter. Ph. 231), so then, ehf Antipho*s got 

Double Questions 

334. A Double or Alternative Question is an inquiry as to 
which of two or more supposed cases is the true one. 

335. In Double or Alternative Questions, utmm or-ne, whether^ 
stands in the first member ; an, anne, or, annOn, necne, or not^ in the 
"^cond ; and usually an in the third, if there be one : — 


atram nescis, an prO nihilO id put&s (Fam. x. 20), iait ihaJt you donH know, 

or do you think nothing of it? 
vOsne L. Domitium an yOs Domitias dSseniit (B. C. ii. 32), did you desert 

Lucius DomitiuSy or did Domitius desert youf 
quaerO servOsae an liberOs (Rose. Am. 74), I ask whether slaves or free, 
ntrum hostem an vOs an fortQnam utrlusque popull ignOrfttis (Li v. xxi. 10), 

is U the enemy, or yourselves, or the fortune of the two peoples, that you 

do not know f 

Note. — Anne for an is rare. Necne is rare in direct questions, but in indirect ques- 
tions it is commoner than anndn. In poetry -ne . . . -ne sometimes occurs. 

a. The interrogative particle is often omitted in the first mem- 
ber ; in which case an or -ne (amne, necne) may stand in the second: — 

GablniO dicam anne Pomp^iO an ntrique (Manil. 67), shall I say to OaMnius, 

or to Pompey, or to both f 
sunt haec tua verba necne (Tusc. iii. 41), are these your words or notf 
qnaeslvl S, Catillnft in conyentu apud M. Laecam fuisset necne (Cat. ii. 13), 

I asked CaJLUine wJiether he had been ai the meeting at Marcus LoBca^s 


b. Sometimes the first member is omitted or implied, and an (anne) 
alone asks the question, — usually with indignation or surprise: — 

an tti miserOs putdjs ill5s (Tusc. i. 13), what ! do you think those men wretched f 
an iste umquam d6 sS bonam spem habuisset, nisi de vObls malam opIniOnem 
animO imbibisset (Yerr. i. 42), wovXd he ever have had good hopes about 
him.self unless he had conceived an evil opinion of you f 

c. Sometimes the second member is omitted or implied, and utrum 
may ask a question to which there is no alternative : — 

utrum est in cUrissimls clvibus is, quern . . . (Flacc. 46), is he among the 
noblest citizens, whom, etc.? 

d. The following table exhibits the various forms of alternative 
questions : — 


. . . an . . . an 


. . . annon (necne, see § 335. k.) 

. . . an (anne) 
. . . an 
, . . -ne, necne 
. . necne 




. . -ne 

NoTB. — From double {alternative) questions must be distinguished those which are 
in themselyes single, but of which «>me detail is altematiye. These haye the common 
disjonctiye particles ant or yel (-ye) . Thus, — quaerO num iniiiste ant improbe f ecerit 
(Off. iii. 54), I ask whether he acted unjustly or even dishonestly. Here there is no 
double question. The only inquiry is whether the man did eitTier of the two things 
supposed, not which of the two he did. 

208 SYNTAX: QUESTIONS [§§336,337 

Question and Answer 

336. There is no one Latin word in common use meaning sim- 
ply ye9 or no. In answering a question affirmatively^ the verb or 
some other emphatic word is generally repeated; in answering 
negatively^ the verb, etc., with nOn or a similar negative : — 

valetne, is he well? valet, yes (he is well). 

eratne tecum, tww ke with youf non erat, no (he was not). 

num quidnam novl? there is nothing new, is there f nihil sane, oh I nothing. 

a. An intensive or negative particle, a phrase, or a clause is some- 
times used to answer a direct question : — 

1. For YES : — 

verO, in truths true^ no doubt^ yes> ita v6rO, certainly (so in truth), etc. 

etiam, even 80, yea, etc. s&nS quidem, yeSy no doribt, etc. 

ita, «o, true, etc. ita est, itiseo, true^ etc. 

Bftn6, surelyy no doubt, doubtless, etc. 

certC, certainly, unquestionably, etc. 

factum, true, it^s a fact, you^re right, etc. (lit., it was done). 

2. For NO : — 

nOn, not so. nfLll5 mod5, by no means, 

minime, not at all (lit., in the smallest degree, cf. § 329. a). 

minim© vCrO, no, not by any means; oh! no, etc. 

n5n quidem, why, no; certainly not, etc. 

nOn hercle vCrO, why, gracious, no! (certainly not, by Hercules I) 

Examples are : — 

quidnam? an laudfttiOnds? ita, why, whatf is it eulogies? just so. 

aut etiam aut n5n respond6re (Acad. ii. 104) , to answer (categorically) yes or no. 

estne ut fertur forma? sfinS (Ter. Eun. 361), is she as handsome as they 

say she is f (is her beauty as it is said ?) oh! yes. 
miser erg5 Archel&us ? certS si initistus (Tusc. v. 35), was ArcJielaus vjretched 

then t certaiiUy, if he was ur^ust. * 

an haec contemnitis ? minimfi (De Or. ii. 296) , do you despise these things f not ^ 

yolucribusne et ferls? minimS yeio (Tusc. i. 194), to the birds and bea^ftsf j 

why, of course not. 
ex tul animi sententift td uxGrem hab€s? n5n hercle, ex mel animi sententia 

(De Or. ii. 260), Lord! no, etc. 

337. In answering a double question, one member of the alterna- 
tive, or some part of it, must be repeated : — 

yfdistl an de audltG ntlntifts ? — egomet vidl (Plant Merc 902), did you see 
U or are you repeating something you have heardt — I saw it mysdf. 



338. The Cases of nouns express their relations to other words in the sentence. 
Xlie most primitive way of expressing such relations was by mere juxtaposition of unin- 
fected forms. From this arose in time composition, i.e. the growing together of stems, 
l>y Tueans of which a complex expression arises with its paits mutually dependent. 
Xlms such a complex as aimi-gero- came to mean arm-bearing ; fldi-cen-, playing on the 
lyre* Later, Cases were formed by means of suffixes expressing more definitely such 
relations, and Syntax began. But the primitive method of composition still continues 
to Ixold an important place even in the most highly developed languages. 

Originally the Indo-European family of languages, to which Latin belongs, had at 
lea.8t seven case-forms, besides the Vocative. But in Latin the Locative and the Instru- 
ixieutal were lost^ except in a few words (where they remained without being recog- 
ixized as cases), and their functions were divided among the other cases. 

The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative express the simplest and perhaps the 
earliest case-relations. The Nominative is the case of the Subject, and generaUy ends 
in -s. The Vocative, usually without a termination, or like the Nominative (§ 38. a), 
perhaps never had a suffix of its own.2 The Accusative, most frequently formed by the 
suffix -m, originally connected the noun loosely with the verb-idea, not necessarily 
expressed by a verb proper, but as well by a noun or an adjective (see § 386). 

The Genitive appears to have expressed a great variety of relations and to haye 
liad no single primitive meaning ; and the same may be true of the Dative. 

The other cases perhaps at first expressed relations of place or direction (to, from, 
AT, with), though this is not clear in all instances. The sarlier meanings, however, 
liave become confused with each other, and in many instances the cases are no longer 
distinguishable in meaning or in form. Thus the Locative was for the most part lost 
from its confusion with the Dative and Ablative ; and its function was often performed 
by the Ablative, which is freely used to express the place where (§ 421). To indicate 
the case-relations — especially those of place — more precisely. Prepositions (originally 
adverbs) gradually came into use. The case-endings, thus losing something of their 
significance, were less distinctly pronounced as time went on (see § 36, phonetic decay) ^ 
and prepositions have finally superseded them in the modem languages derived from 
Latin. But in Latin a large and various body of relations was still expressed by case- 
forms. It is to be noticed that in their literal use cases tended to adopt the preposition, 
and in th&i figurative uses to retain the old construction. (See Ablative of Separation, 
§§402-404; Ablative of Place and Time, §421 if.) 

The word casus, cose, is a translation of the Greek TrrOxnit a falling away (from the 
erect position). The term irTw<rt$ was originally applied to the Oblique Cases (§ 35. g), 
to mark them as variations from the Nominative which was called dpd'fit ^f^ct {casus 
rectvs). The later name Nominative {casus ndmindttws) is from n5mino, and means 
the naming case. The other case-names (except Ablative) are of Greek origin. The 
name Genitive {casus genetivus) is a translation of y^vLKii [jrTw<rtf], from yivot {class), 
and refers to the class to which a thing belongs. Dative {casus dativus, from d5) is 
translated from doriKi^, and means the case of giving. Accusative {accusdtivuSf from 
accttso) is a mistranslation of alruvn.K'fi (the case of causing), from ahia, cause, and 
meant to the Romans the case of accusing. The name Vocative {vocdtxvus, from voc5) 
is translated from KkTyriKii (the case of calling). The name Ablative {abldttvus, from 
ablatus, aoferS) means taking from. This case the Greek had lost. 

1 Some of the endings, however, which in Latin are assigned to the dative and 
ablative are doubtless of locative or instrumental origin (see p. 34, footnote). 
^ The e-vocative of the second declension Is a form of the stem (§ 45. c). 


339. The Subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative : — 

Caetar Rh6num tr&nfiire decrSyerat (B. G. iv. 17), C(B8ar had determined to 
cro9S the Rhine. 

For the omiision of a pronominal subject, see § 296. a. 

a. The nominative may be used in exclamations : — 

Sn dextra fidfisque (Aen. iv. 697), lo, the faith and plighted word ! 
ecce tuae litterae d6 VarrGne (Att. xiii. 16), lo and beholdy your letters about 
NoTB. — But the aecusatiye is more common (§ 397. d)* 



340. The Vocative is the case of direct address : — 

Tibeiine pater, t6, sincte, precor (Liv. ii. 10), father Tiber^ thee, holy one, 

I pray. 
res omnis mihi tecum erit, Hortinsi (Verr. i. 33), my whole aUentUm will be 

devoted to you, Horteneitis. 

a. A noun in the nominative in apposition with the subject of 
the imperative mood is sometimes used instead of the vocative : — 
audi ta, populus AlbAnus (Liv. i. 24), hear, thou people of Alba. 

&• The vocative of an adjective is sometimes used in poetry instead 

of the nominative, where the verb is in the second person : — 

qu5 moritfire ruis (Aen. z. 811), whither art thou rushing to thy doomf 
c6nsOrem txabe&te saliltfis (Pers. iii. 29), robed you ^ute the ceneor. 

c. The vocative macte is used as a predicate in the phrase macte 

estG (virtute), success attend your (valor) : — 

iuberem t6 macte yirtfLte esse (Liv. ii. 12), I should bid you go on and prosper 

in your valor. 
macte noY& virttite puer (Aen. ix. 641), success attend your valor, boy! 

Note. — As the original quantity of the final e in macte is not determinable, it may 
be that the word was an adyerb, as in bene est and the like. 


341. The Genitive is regularly used to express the relation of 
one noun to another. Hence it is sometimes called the adjective 
case, to distinguish it from the Dative and the Ablative, which 
may be called adverbial cases. 

I. Genitlye with Noons: 


The iises of the Genitive may be classified as follows : — 

' 1. Of Possession (§ 343). 

2. Of Material (§ 344). 

3. Of Quality (§ 346). 

4. Of the Whole, after words designating a Part 
(Partitive, §346). 

^ 5. With Nouns of Action and Feeling (§ 348). 

II. G^^nitiye with Adjectiyes: ( l' ^^^^^^Jt ^^^T*'^"" ^7, Sf^J^^'^ ^^ ^^^' 

* \ 2. Of Specification (later use) (§ 349. d). 

HI. Genltiv. with V«b.: ( J" % ^'"^^' ^f^^^- (§5 ^. 361 384)^ 

\ 2. Of Accusing, etc. (Charge or Penalty) (§ 362). 


342. A noun used to limit or define another, and not meaning 
the same person or thing, is put in the Genitive. 

This relation is most frequently expressed in English by the prepo- 
sition o/, sometimes by the English genitive (or possessive) case : — 

librl Clcerdnis, the books of Cicero, or Cicero^s books. 
iuindcl Caesaris, Cassar^s enemies, or the enemies of Coeaar, 
talentam aoxi, a talent of gold. 
yir summae yirtfltis, a man of the greatest courage. 

But observe the following equivalents : — 

yacfttiO lahSris, a respite from toil, 

petltiO consolatils, candidaey ifOR tlie consulship. 

rSgnam dyitatis, royal power over the state. 

Possessive Genitive 

343. The Possessive Genitive denotes the person or thing to 
which an object, quality, feeling, or action belongs: — 

Alezandxl canis, Alexander's dog. 

potentia Pomp^ (Sail. Cat. 19), Pompey's power, 

ArioTisti mors (B. G. v. 29), tAe death of Ario^iatus. 

peiditSram temeritSs (Mil. 22), the recklessness of desperate men, 

NoTB 1. — The Possessiye Genitlye may denote (1) the actual owner (as in Ale^ 
under' » dog) or author (as in Cicero* s writings), or (2) the person or thing that possesses 
Bome feeling or quality or does some act (as in Cicero's eloquence, the strength of the 
bridge, Catiline's evU deeds). In the latter nse it is sometimes called the Subjectiye 
Gtonitiye ; but this term properly includes the possessiye genitlye and seyeral other 
genitlye constructions (nearly all, in fact, except the Objectiye Genitlye, $ 347). 
NoTB 2. — The noun limited is understood in a few expressions : — 

ad Gastoris [aedes] (Quinct. VI), at the [temple] <tf Castor, [Gf. 8t, PauVs,] 

Flaceus Claudi, Flaecus [slaye] of Claudius, 

Hectoris AndromachS (Aen. iii. 319), Hector's [wife] AndromxLche, 


a. For the genitive of possession a possessive or derivative adjec- 
tive is often used, — regularly for the possessive genitive of the per- 
sonal pronouns (§ 302. a) : — 

liber meus, my book. [Not liber mei.] 

aliSna perlcula, otJier men's dangers. [But also alidram.] 

SttlULna tempora, the times of Sulla. [Oftener SulUe.] 

b. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, connected 

with its noun by a verb (Predicate Genitive) : — 

haec domus est patris mei, this house is my father^ s, 

iam me Pompei tOtum esse scis (Fam. ii. 13), you know I am now aUfor Pom- 

pey (all Pompey's). 
summa laus et tua et Brfiti est (Fam. xii. 4. 2), the highest praise is due both 

to you and to Brutus (is botb yours and Brutus's). 
compendi facere, to save (make of saving), 
lacri facere, to get the ben^ of (make of profit). 

NoTB. — These genitives bear the same relation to the examples in § 343 that a 
predicate noun bears to an appositive (§§ 282, 283). 

c. .An infinitive or a clause, when used as a noun, is often limited 
by a genitive in the predicate : — 

neque sui iiidici [erat] discemere (B. C. i. 36), nor was it for his judgment to 

decide (nor did it belong to his judgment). 
cfiiusTis hominis est err^re (Phil. xii. 6), it is any man^s [liability] to err. 
negftvit moris esse GraecOrum, ut in conviviO virOrum accumberent mulierSs 

(Verr. 11. 1. 66), he said it was not the custom ofth6 Greeks for women to 

appear as guests (recline) at the banquets of men. 
sed timid! est optftre neeem (Ov. M. iv. 116), but His the coward's part to 

wish for death. 
•talti erat spSr^re, suSdere impudentis (Phil. ii. 23), it wasfoUy (the part of 

a fool) to hopCf effrontery to urge. 
sapientis est pauca loqul, it is wise (the part of a wise man) to say little. 
[Not sapiSns (neuter) est, etc.] 

NoTBl. — This construction is regular with adjectives of the third declension 
instead of the neuter nominative (see the last two examples). 

NoTB 2. — A derivative or possessive adjective may be used for the genitive in this 
construction, and mtist be used for the genitive of a personal pronoun : — 
mentiri nOn est menm [not mei], it is not for me to lie. 
humAnom [for hominis] est errare, it is man's nature to err (to err is human). 

d. A limiting genitive is sometimes used instead of a noun in appo- 
sition (Appositional Genitive) (§ 282) : — 

nCmen ins&niae (for nomen insania), the word madness, 
oppidum Antiochiae (for oppidom Antiochia, the regular form), the cUy of 

j§ a44-346] PARTITIVE GENITIVE 213 

Genitive of Material 

344. The Genitive may denote the Substance or Material of 
which a thing consists (cf. § 403): — 

talentum auri, a talent of gold, flumina lactis, rivers of milk. 

Genitive of Quality 

345. The Genitive is used to denote Quality, but only when 
the quality is modified by an adjective : — 

vir sammae virtiltis, a man of the highest courage. [But not vir ▼irtfltis.] 
magnae est dSliberAtioiiis, it is an affair of great deliberation. 
magni formica labdiia (Hor. S. i. 1. 33), the ant [a creature] of great toU. 
ille autem sai ifidici (Nep. Att. 9), but he [a man] of independent (his own) 

Note. — Compare Ablative of Quality (§ 415) . In expressions of quality, the geni- 
tive or the ablative may often be used indifferently : as, praestanti prfidenti& vir, a 
man of mrpassing wisdom ; maximi animi homS, a man of the greatest courage. In 
classic prose, however, the genitive of quality is much less common than the abla- 
tive; it is practically confined to expressions of measure or number, to a phrase with 
eius, and to nouns modified by magnns, maximus, sommus, or tantus. In general the 
Genitive is used rather of essential, the Ablative of special or incidental characteristics. 

a. The genitive of quality is found in the adjetjtive phrases dius 

modi, cuius modi (equivalent to tftlis, such ; quSlis, of what sort): — 

eitts modi sunt tempestd.tSs cOnsectLtae, uti (B. G. iii. 29), such storms fol- 
lowed, that, etc. 

6, The genitive of quality, with numerals, is used to define meas- 

ui'es of length, depth, etc. (Genitive of Measure): — 

fossa triom pedum, a trench of three feet [in depth], 
mtirus sSdecim pedum, a waU of sixteen feet [high]. 

For the Genitive of Quality used to express ind^nite value, see § 417. 

Partitive Genitive 

346. Words denoting a Part are followed by the Genitive of 
the Whole to which the part belongs. 

a. Partitive words, followed by the genitive, are — 

1. Nouns or Pronouns (cf. also 3 below) : — 

pars militum, part of the soldiers, quis nostrum, which ofusf 

nihil erat reliqui, there was nothing left, 

n6m5 eorum (B. G. vii. 66), not a man of them. 

magnam i>artem eorum interfecerunt (id. ii. 23), theykHXed a large pari of them. 


2. Numerals, Comparatives, Superlatives, and Pronominal -wards lik( 
alius, alter, niillus, etc.: — 

Unus tiibanomm, one of the trUmnes (see c below). 

sapientum octftvus (Hor. S. ii. 3. 296), the eighth of the wise men, 

milia passuom sescenta (B. G. iv. 3), six hundred miles (thousands of paces). 

mftior frAtmm, the elder of the brothers, 

anim&liam forti5ra, the stronger [of] animoUs. 

Su6b<)rum gSns est longS maxima et bellicOsissima Germflnoniiii onuiiiiin 

(B. 0. iv. 1), the tribe of the Siievi is far the largest and most warlike of 

aU the Oermans. 
alter cSnsulam, one of the [two] consuls, 
nlllla einun (B.G. iv. 28), not one of them (the ships). 

3. Neuter Adjectives and Pronouns, used as nouns : — 

tantum spati, so much [of] spcu^e. 

aliquid nammdrom, a few pence (something of coins). 

id loci (or locdrum), thai spot of ground; id temporis, at thai tvne (§ 397. a). 

plftna ozbie, tlie level parts of the toum, 

quid novi, wluxt news? (what of new?) 

I>aulum framenti (B. C. i. 78), a little grain, 

plus doldris (B. G. i. 20), more grief, 

8111 aliquid timdris (B. C. ii. 29), some fear of his own (something of his own fear). 

Note 1. — In classic prose neuter adjectives (not pronominal) seldom take a i)arti- 
tive genitive, except multum, tantom, quanttim, and similar words. 

Note 2. — The genitive of adjectives of the thiird declension is rarely used parti- 
tively : — nihil novi (genitive) , nothing new ; but, — nihil memoribile (nominative) , noth- 
ing worth mention (not nihil memor&bilis). 

4. Adverbs, especially those of Quantity and of Place : — 

parum 5ti, not much ease (too little of ease). 

satis pecflniae, money enough (enough of money). 

plOrimum tdtius Galliae equitatu valet (B. G. v. 3), is strongest of aU Gaul 

in cavalry, 
ubinam gentium sumus (Cat. i. 9), wJiere in the world are we (where of 

nations) ? 
ubicumque terrflmm et gentium (Verr. v. 143), wherever in the whole world. 
r6s erat e5 iam loci ut (Sest. 68), the business had now reached suxih a point 

that, etc. 
e5 miserifirum (lug. 14. 3), to that [pitch] of misery, 
inde loci, next in order (thence of place). [Poetical.] 

b* The poets and later writers often use the partitive genitive 
after adjectives, instead of a noun in its proper case : — 

sequimur t6, sftncte deorum (Aen. iv. 676), we follow thee, O holy deity, [For 

8&ncte deus (§ 49. g, n.)] 
nigrae Ulnfiinm (Plin. H. N. vui. 193), black wools, [For nigrae UbiM.] 
expediti militum (Li v. xxx. 9), light-armed soldiers, [For expediti militSs.] 
bominum cUnctOs (Ov. M. iv. 631), all men, [For cflnctSs bominte ; cf. e.] 

f§ 34^-848] OBJECTIVE GBNITTSTE 216 

<?• Cardinal numerals (except n^Oia) regularly take the Ablative 
witli. 6 (ex) or dS instead of the Partitive Genitive. So also quidam, 
at. c&rtain one, commonly, and other words occasionally : — 

-anus ex tiibQnis, one of the tribunes. [But also, Hnxxs tzibflnSram (cf. a. 2).] 

xninumns ex iUis (lug. 11)^ the youngest of them. 

xnedius ex tzibat (ib.), the middle one of the three. 

quidam ex mHitibtts, certain of the soldiers. 

Unus d5 multis (Fin. iL 66), one of the many. 

pauci d5 nostris cadunt (B. G. i. 16), a few of our men fall. 

hominem dS comitibat meis, a jnan of my companions. 

<I. Uterque, both (properly each), and quisque, each, with Koims 

ax-e regularly used as adjectives in agreement, but with Pronouns 

t^aJs:e a partitive genitive : — 

uterque consul, both the consuls; but, uterque nostmin, both of us. 
tmus quisque yestrum, each one of you. 
utraque castza, both camps. 

e. Numbers and words of quantity including the whole of any 

-tiling take a case in agreement, and not the partitive genitive. So 

also words denoting a part when only that part is thought of : — 

noS'omnes, all of us (we all). [Not omnes nostram.] 

quot sunt hostSs, Turn many of the enemy are there f 

cave inimlcOs, qui multl sunt, beware of your enemies^ who are many. 

multl militSs, many of the soldiers. 

nSmO Romanus, not one Roman. 

Objective Genitive 

347. The Objective Genitive is used with Nouns, Adjectives, 
and Verbs. 

348. Nouns of action, agency, ojidfeelinff govern the Genitive 
of the Object : — . 

c&rit&s tui, ejection for you, deGdderium 5ti, longing for rest. 

vac&tiO mfineris, relief from duty. grfttia benefici, gratitude for kindness. 

fuga malomm, refuge from disaster. prec&tiO deorum, prayer to the gods. 

contentiO hononua, struggle for office, opinio virtatiB, reputation for valor. 

NoTB. — This usage is an extension of the idea of belonging to (Possessiye Genitive). 
Thus in the phrase odinm Caesaris, hate of Csesar, the hate in a passive sense belongs 
to CsBsar, as odium, though in its active sense he is the object of it, as fiate (cf. a). 
The distinction between the Possessive (subjective) and the Objective Genitive is very 
unstable and is often lost sight of. It is iUustrated by the f oUowing example : the 
phrase amor patris, love of a father, may mean love felt by a father, a father's love 
drabjectiye genitive), or love towards afat?ier (objective genitive). 


a. The objective genitive is sometimes replaced by a possessive 
pronoun or other derivative adjective : — 

mea invidia, my unpopularity (the dislike of which I am the object). [Of. 

odium mei (Har. Resp. 5), hatred o/me.] 
laudator meus (Alt. i. 16. 5), my eulogist (one who praises me). [Cf. nostri 

laudator (id. i. 14. 6).] 
Clodianom crimen (Mil. 72), the murder of Clodius (the Clodian charge). [As 

we say, the Nathan murdeT.'\ 
metus hostilis (lug. 41), fear of the enemy (hostile fear), 
ea quae faciebat, toi se HduciS facere dicSbat (Verr. y. 176), what he was 

doing y he said he did relying on you (with your reliance), 
neque neglegentia toi, neque id odi5 f^cit too (Ter. Ph. 1016), he did this 

neitJierfrom neglect nor from hatred of you, 

b. Rarely the objective genitive is used with a noun already lim- 
ited by another genitive : — 

animi multarum rerum percursiS (Tusc. iv. 31), tfie mind^8 traversing of many 

c. A noun with a preposition is often used instead of the objec- 
tive genitive : — 

odium in Antonium (Fam. z. 6. 3), hate of Antony, 

merita erg& mS (id. i. 1. 1), services to me. 

meam in to pietatem (id. i. 9. 1), my devotion to you, 

impetus in urbem (Phil. xll. 29), an attack on the city, 

ezcessus e vita (Fin. iii. 60), departure from life, [Also, ezcessns vitae, 

Tusc. i. 27.] 
adoptiO in Bomitium (Tac. Ann. xii. 25), the adoption of Domitiiu, [A late 

and bold extension of this construction.] 

NoTB. — So also in late writers the dative of reference (cf. § 366. &): as,— lon^o 
bello materia (Tac. H. i. 89), resources for a long war, 


349. Adjectives requiring an object of reference govern the 
Objective Genitive. 

a» Adjectives denoting desirey knowledge, memory , fulness, power y 

sharing, guilt, and their opposites govern the genitive : — 

avidi laudie (Manil. 7), greedy of praise. 

fastidiOsus litterarum, disdaining letters. 

iuris peritus, skiUed in law. [So also the ablative, ifire, cf. § 418.] 

memorem vestri, oblitum sui (Cat. iv. 19), mindful ofymi, forgetful of himself. 

ratiSnis et orStionis expertfis (Off. i. 60), devoid of sense and speech. 

nostrae consuetfidinis Imperitl (B.G. iv. 22), unacquainted with our customs. 


planus fidei, full of good faith, 

omnis spei egenam (Tac. Ann. i. 63), destitvie of all hope, 
tempestatum potentem (Aen. L 80), having sway ofoer the storms. 
iinxK>t6n8 irae (Li v. xxiz. 9. 9), ungovernahle in anger, 
coniurationis participSs (Cat. iii. 14), sharing in the conspiracy. 
affinis rei capitalis (Verr. ii. 2. 94), involved in a capital crime. 
Ins5ns culpae (Liv. zxii. 49), innocent of guilt, 

5. Participles in -ns govern the genitive when they are used as 
adjectives, i.e. when they denote a co7istant disposition and not a 
particular act : — 

si quern tui amantiorem c5gn0visti (Q. Fr. i. 1. 15), if you have become 

acquainted with any one more fond of you, 
multitudO in80l€ns beUi (B. C. ii. 36), a crowd unused to war. 
erat lugurtha appet€ns gloriae militaris (lug. 7), Jugurtha was eager for mili- 
tary glory, 

NoTB 1. — Participles in -ns, when used as participles, take the case regularly gov- 
erned by the verb to which they belong: as, — Sp. Maelium i^guum appetentem inter- 
emit (Cat. M. 56), lie put to death Spurius Mxlius, who was aspiring to royal power, 

NoTB 2. — Occasionally participial forms in -ns are treated as participles (see note 1) 
even when they express a disposition or character: as, — virtus quam alii Ipsam tem- 
perantiam dicunt esse, alii obtemperantem temperantiae praeceptis et eam subsequen- 
tem (Tusc. iv. 30), observant of the teachings of temperance and obedient to her. 

c. Verbals in -fix (§ 251) govern the genitive in poetry and later 
Latin: — 

iiistum et tenScem prSpositi virum (Hor. Od. iii. 3), a man just and steadfast 

to his purpose. 
circus capazpopuli (Ov. A. A. i. 136), a circus big enough to hold the people. 
cibi Yinique capacissimus (Liv. ix. 16. 13), a very great eater and drinker 

(very able to contain food and wine). 

d. The poets and later* writers use the genitive with almost any 

adjective, to denote that with reference to which the quality exists 

(^Genitive of Speeiflcation) : — 

callidus rei mHitHris (Tac. H. ii. 32), skilled in soldiership. 
pauper aquae (Hor. Od. iii. 30. 11), scant of water. 
n5tu8 animi patemi (id. ii. 2. 6), famed for a paternal spirit. 
fessi rerum (Aen. i. 178), weary of toil. 

integer vitae scelerisque ptirus (Hor. Od. i. 22. 1), upright in life, and unstained 
by guilt. 

NoTB. — The Gtenitive of Specification is only an extension of the construction with 
adjectives requiring an object of reference (§ 349). Thus caUidus denotes knowledge ; 
pauper, want ; piiniSy innocence ; and so these words in a manner belong to the classes 
under a. 

For the Ablative of Specification, the prose construction, see § 418. For Adjectives 
of liheMSS etc. with the Genitive, apparently Objective, see § 385. c For Adjectives 
with anind (locative in origin), see § 368. 



Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting 

350. Verbs of remembering said forgetting take either the Accu- 
sative or the Genitive of the object : — 

a. MeminI takes the Accusative when it has the literal sense of 
retaining in the mind what one has seen, heard, or learned. Hence 
the accusatiye is used of persons whom one remembers as acquaint- 
ances, or of things which one has experienced. 

So obliviscor in the opposite sense, — to forget literally, to lose nU 

memory of^ thing (very rarely, of a person). 

Ciniiam memini (Phil. y. 17), 1 remember Cinna. 

utinam avam tuum meminissSs (id. i. 34), oh! that you could remember your 

grandfather! (but he died before you were bom). 
Postamium, ctUus statoam in IsthmO meminisse tS dicis (Att. ziii. 32), Postur 

miuSy whose statue you say you remember (to have seen) on the Isthmus. 
omnia meminit Siron Epicurl dogmata (Acad. ii. 106), Siron remembers all 

the doctrines of Epicurus. 
multa ab aliis audita meminSrunt (De Or. ii. 355), tJiey remember many things 

that they have heard from others. 
t5tam causam oblitus est (Brut. 217), he forgot the whole case, 
hinc iam obliviscere Graids (Aen. ii. 148), from hencrforth forget the Greeks 

(i.e. not merely disregard them, but banish them from your mind, as if 

you had never known them). 

6. Memini takes the Genitive when it means to he mindful or 
regardful of a person or thing, to think of somebody or something 
(often with special interest or warmth of feeling). 

So obliviscor in the opposite sense, — to disregard, or dismiss from 
the mind, — and the adjective oblitus, careless or regardless. 

ipse 8tti meminerat (Verr. ii. 136), he was minjdfid of himself (of his own 

faciam ut hMus loci di^que mliqne semper memineris (Ter. Eun. 801), IwiU 

make you remember this place and this day and ms as long as you live. 
nee me meminisse pigebit Elissae, dum memor ipse mel (Aen. iv. 335), nor 

shall I fed regret at the thought of Elissa, so long as I remember myself. 
meminerint yerScundiae (Off. i. 122), let them cherish modesty. 
hamftnae infirmit&tis memini (Liv. xxx. 31. 6), I remember human weakness. 
obllvisci temporum meOrum, meminisse &ctidnttm (Fam. i. 9. 8), to disregard 

my own interests, to be minc^ful of tht matters at issue. 
nee tamen Epiciiri licet oblivisci (Fin. v. 3), and yet I must not forget Epicwrus. 
obliviscere caedis atque incendiorum (Cat. i. 6), turn your mind from sUsugUer 

and conflagrations (dismiss them from your thoughts). 

§ 350, 361] GENITIVE WITH VERBS 219 

^OTB 1. — With both memini and obliviscorthe personal and reflexive pronouns are 
'egularly in the Genitiye ; neater pronouns and adjectives used substantively are regu- 
arly in the Accusative ; abstract nouns are often in the Grenitive. These uses come 
ji eacli instance from the natural meaning of the verbs (as defined above). 

NoTB 2. — Memini in the sense of mention takes the Genitive : as, — eundem Achil- 
Lam cdius supra meminimus (B. G. iii. 108) , that same Achillas wJiom I mentioned 

e. Reminiscor is rare. It takes the Accusative in the literal sense 
of call to mind, recollect ; the Genitive in the more figurative sense 
of be mindful of: — 

dnlcis moriens reminlscitur Argos (Aen. z. 782), as he dies he calls to mind 

his beloved Argos. 
reminlsceretur et veteris incommodi popull K5manl et pristinae virtatis Helve- 

tiOrum (B. G. i. 13), let him remember both the former discomfiture of the 

Roman people and the ancient valor of the Helvetians. [A warning, — 

let him bear it in mind (and beware) 1 ] 

dm Recorder, recollect , recall, regularly takes the Accusative: — 

record&re coB&5nsam ilium the3,trl (Phil. i. 80), recall that unanim^ous agree- 
ment of the [audience in the] theatre. 

record&minl omnis civilis dissSneiones (Cat. iii. 24), call to mind all the civil 

Note. — Recorder takes the genitive once (Pison. 12) ; it is never used with a per- 
sonal object, but may be followed by dS with the ablative of the person or thing 
(cf. §351. N.): — 

dS t6 recorder (Scaur. 49), I remember about you. 

d6 iUIs (lacrimis) recorder (Plane. 104), I am reminded of those tears. 

Verbs of Reminding 

351. Verbs of reminding take with the Accusative of the per- 
son a Genitive of the thing ; except in the case of a neuter pro- 
noun, which is put in the accusative (cf. § 390. c). 

So admoneO, commoner, commonefaciS, commonefiS. But moneO with 

the genitive is found in late writers only. 

Catilina admonebat aliom egestAtis, alium capidit£tit suae (Sail. Cat. 21), 

Catiline reminded one of his poverty ^ another of his cupidity, 
e58 hoc moneO (Cat. ii. 20), I give them this warning. 
quod v5s l6x commonet (Yerr. iii. 40), that which the law reminds you of. 

KoTE. — All these verbs often take dS with the ablative, and the accusative of nonns 
as well as of pronouns is sometimes used with them : — 

Baepius te admoneO dS syngraphA Sittiana (Fam. viii. 4. 6) I remind you again and 

again of Sittius's bond. 
oflleiun vostrum ut vOs maid cOgatis commoncrier (Plant. Ps. 150), that you may 
by m^fortune force yourselves to be reminded of your duty. 


Verbs of Accusing, Condemning, and Acquitting 

352. Verbs of accusing^ condemning^ and acquitting^ take the 
Genitive of the Charge or Penalty : — 

arguit m6 furti, he accuses me of theft. 
' pecQlatus damn3,tits (pecfiniae publicae damiid>tiis) (Flacc. 43), condemned for 

video n5n t6 absolutum esse impxobitatis, sed illos damnatOs esse caedis 

(Verr. ii. 1. 72), / «ee, not that you were acquitted of outrage j but thai 

they were condemned for homicide. 

a. Peculiar genitives, under this construction, are — 

capitis, as in damnare capitis, to sentence to death. 
maiestatis [laesae], treason (crime against the dignity of the state), 
repetundaium [r6rum], ext(yrtion (lit. of an action for reclaiming money). 
Yoti damnatus (or reus), hound [to the payment] of one*s vowy i.e. success' 

ful in one's effort, 
pecfiniae (damnare, itidicare, see note), 
dupli etc., as in dupli condemnlU'e, condemn to pay twofold. 

Note. — The origin of these genitive constructions is pointed at hy pecuniae dam- 
nare (Gell. XX. 1. 38), to condemn to pay money, in a case of injury to the i)erson; 
quantae pecuniae iudicati essent (id.xx. 1.^7), how much money they were adjudged to pay, 
in a mere suit for debt ; confess! aeris ac debit! iudicat! (id. xx. 1. 42), adjudged to owe 
an admitted sum due. These expressions show that the genitive of the penalty comes 
from the use of the genitive of value to express a sum of money due either as a debt or as 
a fine. Since in early civilizations all offe^pes could be compounded by the payment of 
fines, the genitive came to be used of other punishments, not pecuniary. From this to 
the genitive of the actual crime is an easy transition, inasmuch as there is always a 
confusion between crime and penalty (cf . Eng. guilty of death) . It is quite unnecessary 
to assume an ellipsis of ciimlne or iiidicid. 

353. Other constructions for the Charge or Penalty are — 

1. The Ablative of Price : regularly of a definite amount of fine, 
and often of indefinite penalties (cf. § 416) : — 

Frusinat^s tertia parte agri damn^ti (Liv. x. 1), the people of Frusino cortr 
demned [to forfeit] a third part of their land. 

2. The Ablative with d6, or the Accusative with inter, in idiomatic 

expressions : — 

d6 alea, for gambling ; dS ambitu, for bribery. 

d6 pecuniis repetundis, of extortion (cf. § 352. a). 

inter sic9.ri5s (Rose. Am. 90), as an assassin (among the assassins). 

de vl et maiestatis damnati (Phil. i. 21), convicted of assault and treason. 

Note. — The accusative with ad and in occurs in later writers to express the pen' 
city: as,— ad mortem (Tac. Ann. xvi. 21), to death; ad (in) metaUa, to the mines. 

§ 354, 366] GENITIVE WITH VERBS 221 

Verbs of Feeling 

354. Many verbs of feeling take the Genitive of the object 
vhicli excites the feeling. 

ce. Verbs of pity^ as misereor and miserSscG, take the genitive : — 

miseremini familiae, itidicSs, miseremihi paths, miser^minl fili (Flacc. 106), 

have pity on the family^ etc. 
miserere animl nOn digna ferentis (Aen. ii. 144), pity a sold that endures 

unworthy things. 
miserescite regis (id. viii. 673), pity the king. [Poetical.] 

NoTB. — But miseror, commiBeror, bewail f take the accusative: as, — communem 
condicionem miserari (Mur. 55), bewail the common lot. 

h. As impersonals, miseret, paenitet, piget, pudet, taedet (or pertaesum 
est), take the genitive of the cause of the feeling and the accusative 
of ^^e person affected: — 

quos infamise suae neque pudet neque taedet (Verr. i. 35), who are neither 

ashamed nor weary of their dishonor. 
me miseret parietum ipsorum (Phil. ii. 69), I pity the very waUs. 
mS civit9,tis monun piget taedetqu^ (lug. 4), / am sick arid tired of the ways 

of the state. 
decemvirdrum vos pertaesum est (Liv. iii. 67), you became tired of the decemvirs. 

c. With miseret, paenitet^ etc., the cav^se of the feeling may be ex- 
pressed by an infinitive or a clause : — 

neque m€ paenitet mortSlis inimiciti&s habSre (Rab. Post. 32), Tior am I sorry 

to have deadly enmities. 
non dedisse Istunc pudet ; in@ quia non accSpi piget (PI. Pseud. 282), he is 

ashamed not to have given; I am sorry because I have not received. 

Note. — Miseret etc. are sometimes used personally with a neuter pronoun as sub- 
ject: as,— nOn te haec pudent (Ter. Ad. 754), do not these things shams you? 

Interest and Refert 

355. The impersonals interest and rSfert take the Genitive of 
the person (rarely of the thing) affected. 

The subject of the verb is a neuter pronoun or a substantive 

clause : — 

Clodi intererat MilOnem perire (cf. Mil. 56), it was the interest of Clodius that 

MUo should die. 
aliquid quod ill5ram magis quam suA r€tulisse yld€r€tur (lug. Ill), something 

which seemed to be more for their interest than his own. 
video enim quid mea intersit, quid utiiusque nostrum (Fam. vii. 23, 4), for I 

see what is for my good and for the good of us both. 


a. Instead of the genitive of a personal pronoun the correspond- 
ing possessive is used in the ablative singular feminine after interest 
or rtf art : — 

quid tu& id rSfert? m9gnl (Ter. Fh. 723), how does thai concern you? iMuk. 

[See also the last two examples above.] 
vehementer iiitererat vestra qui patrSs estis (Plin. Ep. iv. 13. 4), it woivM he 

very much to your advantage^ you who are fathers. 

Note. — This is the only coustruction with rSfert in classic prose, except in one 
passage in Sallast (see example above). 

b. The accusative with ad is used with interest and rSfert to ex- 
press the thing with reference to which one is interested : — 

m&gnl ad honSrem nostrum interest (Fam. xvi. 1), it is of great consequence 

to our honor, 
r^fert etiam ad fractus (Yarr. R. R. i. 16. 6), it makes a difference as to the crop. 

Note 1. — Very rarely the person is expressed by ad and the accusatiye, or (with 
rSfert) by the dative (probably a popular corruption): — 

quid id ad mS aut ad meam rem refert (PI. Pers. 513), whai difference does that 

make to me or to my interests f 
quid referat intra natiirae finis viventi (Hor. S. i. 1. 49), what difference does it 

make to me who live within the litnits of natural desire? 
nOn referre dSdecoii (Tac. Ann. xv. 65), that it makes no difference as to the 
Note 2. — The degree of interest is expressed by a genitive of value, an adverb, 
or an adverbial accusative. 

Verbs of Plenty and Want 

356. Verbs of Plenty and Want sometimes govern the geni- 
tive (of. § 409. a. N.) : — 

convlvium vicinorum compleO (Cat. M. 46, in the mouth of Cato), J^ up the 
banquet with my neighbors. 

implentur veteris Bacchi pinguisque fennae (Aen. i. 215), theyfUl themselves 
with old wine and fat venison. 

ne quis auxili egeat (B. G. vi. 11), lest any require aid. 

quid est quod dSfensionis indigeat (Rose. Am. 34), what is there thaJt needs 

quae ad cOnsOlandum m&iOris ingeni et ad ferendum singularis virtutis indi- 
gent (Fam. vi. 4. 2), [sorrows] which for their comforting need more abU- 
ity^ and for endurance unusual courage. 

Note. — Verbs of plenty and want more commonly take the ablative (see §§ 409. a, 
401), except eged, which takes either case, and indigeo. But the genitive is by a Greek 
idiom often used in poetry instead of the ablative with all words denoting separatum 
and want (cf. § 357. 6. 3): — 

abstineto irftrum (Hor. Od. iii. 27. 69), refrain from wrath. 

openmi solutis (id. iii. 17. W), free from toils. 

desine moUium querelUrum (id. ii. 9. 17), have done with weak con^lainU 

§ 357-359] PECULIAR GENITIVES 223 

Genitive with Special Verbs 
357. The Genitive is used with certain special verbs. 

ce. The genitive sometimes follows potior^ get possession of; as 
always in the phrase potiri rerum^ to he master of affairs : — 

illius regni potiri (Fam. i. 7. 6), to become master of that kingdom, 
Cleanthes eOlem dominarl et lerum potiri putat (Acad. it. 126), Cleanthes 
thinks the sun holds sway and is lord of the universe. 
Note. — But potior usually takes the ablative (see §410). 

5. Some other verbs rarely take the genitive — 

1 . By analogy with those mentioned in § 354 : — 

neque htlius sis veritus fSminae primariae (Ter. Fh. 971), and you had no 
respect for this highrbom lady, 

2. As akin to adjectives which take the genitive : — 

fastidit mei (Plaut. Aul. 245), h>e disdains me. [Cf. fastidiOsus.] 
studet to! (quoted N. D. iii. 72), he is zealous for you. [Cf. studiCsus.] 

3. In imitation of the Greek: — 

iustitiaene prius mirer, belline laborum (Aen. xi. 126), shall I rather admire 

his justice or his toils in war? 
neque ille sSpositi ciceris nee longae invidit avenae (Hor. S. ii. 6. 84), nor did 

he grudge his garnered peas, etc. [But cf. in vidua, parcus.] 
laborum decipitur (Hor. Od. ii. 13. 38), ?ie is beguiled of his woes. 
m6 laborum levas (PI. Rud. 247), you relieve me of my troubles, 

358. The apparent Genitive animi (really Locative) is used with 
a few verbs and adjectives oi feeling and the like : — 

AntiphO mS ezcruciat animi (Ter. Ph. 187), Ardipho tortures my mind (me in 

my mind), 
qui pendet animi (Tusc. iv. 35), who is in suspense. 
me animi fall it (Lucr. i. 022), my mind deceives me. 
So, by analogy, desipiebam mentis (PI. Epid. 138), I was out of my head. 
aeger animi, sick at heart; cOnfOsus animi, disturbed in spirit. 
sSnus mentis aut animi (PI. Trin. 454), sound in mind or heart. 


359. Peculiar Genitive constructions are the following : — 

a. A poetical genitive occurs rarely in exclamations, in imitation 

of the Greek ( Genitive of Exclamation) : — 

dl immort^es, mercimoni lepidi (PI. Most. 912), good heavens! what a charm' 

ing bargain I 
foederis heu taciti (Prop. iv. 7. 21), alas for the unspoken agreement I 


6. The genitive is often used with the ablatives causa, gratia, for 

the sake of; ergC, because of; and the indeclinable instar, like; also 

with pridiS, the day before; postridiS, the day after; tenus, as far as: 

hondris causft, with due respect (for the sake of honor). 

yerbl gr&ti&, for example. 

gius legis ergO, on account of this law. 

equus Instar montis (Aen. ii. 15), a horse huge as a mountain (the image of 

a mountain), 
laterum tenos (id. x. 210), as far as the sides. 

Note 1. — Of these the genitive with caxLsSL is a development from the possessive 
genitive and resembles that in ndmen insaniae (§ 343.(2) . The others are of various origin. 

Note 2. — In prose of the Republican Period pridiS and postndiS are thus used only 
in the expressions pridi6 (postridiS) ftiusdiSI, the day before {after) that (cf. "the eve, the 
morrow of that day ' ') . Taci tus uses the construction with other words : as, — postridie 
insidi&nun, t?ie day after the plot. For the accusative, see § 432. a. Tenos takes also 
the ablative (p. 136). 


360. The Dative is probably, like the Grenitive, a grammatical case, that is, it is 
a form appropriated to the expression of a variety of relations other than that of the 
direct object. But it is held by some to be a Locative with the primary meaning of 
to or towards, and the poetic uses (like it clamor caelo, Aen. v. 451) are regarded as 
survivals of the original use. 

In Latin the Dative has two classes of meanings : — 

1. The Dative denotes an object not as caused by the action, or directly affected by 
it (like the Accusative), but as reciprocally sharing in the action or receiving it con- 
sdously or actively. Thus in dedit puerd librum, he gave the boy a book, or fScit mihi 
iniuriam, he did me a wrong, there is an idea of the boy*s receiving the book, and of my 
feeling the wrong. Hence expressions denoting persons, or things with personal 
attributes, are more likely to be in the dative than those denoting mere things. So 
in Spanish the dative is used whenever a person is the object of an action ; yo veo al 
hombre, I see [to] the man. This difference between the Accusative and the Dative 
(i.e. between the Direct and the Indirect Object) depends upon the point of view implied 
in the verb or existing in the mind of the writer. Hence Latin verbs of similar meaning 
(to an English mind) often differ in the case of their object (see § 367. a). 

2. The Dative is used to express the purpose of an action or that for which it serves 
(see § 382). This construction is especially used with abstract expressions, or those 
implying an action. 

These two classes of Datives approach each other in some cases and are occasion- 
ally confounded, as in §§ 383, 384. 

The uses of the Dative are the following : — 
1. Indirect Object (general / 1. With Transitives (§ 362). 


use): \ 2. With Intransitives (§§ 366-372). 

1. Of Possession (with esse) (§ 373). 

2. Of Agency (with Gerundive) (§ 374). 

3. Of Reference (dativus commx)di) (§§ 37&-381). 

4. Of Purpose or End (predicate use) (§ 382). 
6. Of Fitness etc. (with Adjectives) (§§ 383, 384). 

2. Special prWipnjatipVws: - 



361. The Dative is used to denote the object indirectly affected 
by an action. 

This is called the Indirect Object (§ 274). It is usually denoted 
in ^English by the objective with to : — 

c6dite tempoii, yidd to the occasion. 

prOvincia Ciceroni obtigit, the province fell by lot to Cicero, 

inimicis nOn credimus, we do not trust [to] our enemies. 

Indirect Object with Transitives 

362. The Dative of the Indirect Object with the Accusative 
of the Direct may be used with any transitive verb whose mean- 
ing allows (see § 274) : — 

do tibi librum, J give you a book, 

illud tibi affirmo (Fam. i. 7. 5), this I assure you, 

commendO tibi eius omnia negOtia (id. i. 3), Ipvi cUl his chairs in your hands 

(commit them to you), 
dabis profectO misericordiae quod iracundiae negavistl (Deiot. 40), you will 

surely grant to mercy what you reused to wrath. 
litteras a te mihi stator tuus reddidit (Fam. ii. 17), your messenger delivered 

to me a letter from, you, 

a. Many verbs have both a transitive and an intransitive use, and 
take either the Accusative with the Dative, or the Dative alone : — 

mihi id aarnm credidit (cf. Flaut. Aul. 15), he trusted that gold to me, 
equo n6 crfidite (Aen. ii. 48), x^t not your trust in the horse. 
concessit sen&tus postulatiom tuae (Mur. 47), th£ senate yielded to your demand. 
concSdere amicis quidquid velint (Lael. 88), to grant to friends all they may 

363. Certain verbs implying motion vary in their construction 
between the Dative of the Indirect Object and the Accusative 
of the End of Motion (§§ 426, 427) : — 

1. Some verbs implying motion take the Accusative (usually with 
ad or in) instead of the Indirect Object, when the idea of motion pre- 

litteras quas ad Pompeium scrlpsi (Att. iii. 8. 4), the letter which I have written 
[and sent] to Pompey. [Cf. nCn quo habSrem quod tibi scriberem (id. 
iv. 4 a), not that I had anything to write to you.'] 


litterae extemplO Rdmam Borlptae (LIy. zli. 16), a letter was immediateiy uniUen 

[and Bent] to Rome. 
hostis in fugam dat (B. G. v. 51), ^ puts the enemy to flight, [Of. ut md dem 

fugae (Att. Yii. 23), to take to flight.] 
omnSs rem ad Pompcium dMerrI volunt (Fam. i. 1), oZZ wish the matter to hi 

put in the hands of Pompey (referred to Pompey). 

2. On the other hand, many verbs of motion usually f ollo^wed by 

the Accusative with ad or in, take the Dative when the idea of motion 

is merged in some other idea ; — 

mihi litterSs mittere (Fam. vii. 12), to send me a letter. 
eum librum tibi misl (id. vii. 19), I sent you that book. 
nee quicquam quod nOn mihi Caesar detulerit (id. iv. 13), and nothing which 

CcBsar did not communicate to me, 
cilres ut mihi vehantor (id. viii. 4. 5), take care that they he conoeyed to me. 
cum alius alii subsidium ferrent (B. G. ii. 26), while one lent aid to another. 

364. Certain verbs may take either the Dative of the person and 

the Accusative of the thing, or (in a different sense) the Accusative 

of the person and the Ablative of the thing ^: — 

dOnat coronfts suis, he presents wreaths to his men; or, 

dOnat sttSs corSnis, he presents his men with wreaths, 

vincula exuere sibi (Oy. M. yii. 772), to shake off the leash (from himself). 

omnis annis exult (B. G. v. 51), he stripped them all of their arms. 

NoTB 1. — Interdicd, /or&i(2, takes either (1) the Dative of the person and the Abla- 
tive of the thing, or (2) in later writers, the Dative of the person and the Accusative of 
the thing ; — 

aqni et igni alicoi interdicere, to forbid one the use offlre and water, [The regular 

formula for banishment.] I 

interdmt histridnibusscaenam (Suet. Dom. 7), he forbade t?ie actors [to appear on] 

the stage (he prohibited the stage to the actors). 
fSminis (dat.) purpurae usil interdicemus (Liv. xxdv. 7), shall we forbid women 
the wearing of purple f 
Note 2. — The Dative with the Accusative is used in poetry with many verbs of 
preventing, protecting, and the like, which usually take the Accusative and Ablative. 
Interclttdd and prohibeS sometimes take the Dative and Accusative, even in prose:— 
hisce omnis aditus ad Sullam intercludere (Rose. Am. 110), to shut these men off 
from all access to Sulla (close to them every approach). [Cf. uti oomnieitfi 
Caesarem intercluderet (6. G. i. 48), to shut Csssar off from supplies.] 
hunc (oestrum) arcebis pecoii (Georg. iii. 154), you shall keep this away from th$ 

flock, [Cf . iUum arcuit GaUia (Phil. v. .^), he excluded him from Oaul.] 
sSlstitiam pecoii defendite (Eel. vii. 47), keep the summer heat from the flock. [Cf. 
uti 86 ft contamSliis inimicOrum defenderet (B. G. i. 22), to defend himeHf 
from the slanders of his enemies.] 

1 Such are d5n5, impertiS, IndnS, eza5, adspergO, InspergS, dreuiidS, and in poetiy 
aocingo, impUc5, and similar verbs. 


565. Verbs which in the active voice take the Accusative and 
itive retain the Dative when used in the passive : — 

nuntiabantur haec eadem Curidni (B. .C. ii. 87), these same things were 
announced to Curio. [Active : nfintiabant (quidam) haec eadem Cflrioni.] 

nee doceiidi Caesaris propinquis Sins spatium datur, nee tribunis plSbis sui 
periculi dfiprecandi facultas tribuitiir (id. i. 6), no time is given C<Bsar''s 
relatives to inform him, and no opportunity is granted to the tribunes of 
the plebs to avert danger from themselves, 

prOvinciae privatis decemuntur (id. i. 6), provinces are voted to private 

Indirect Object with Intransitives 

366. The Dative of the Indirect Object may be used with any 

ntransitive verb whose meaning allows : — 

cedant arma togae (Phil. ii. 20), let arms give place to the gown, 

Caesari respondet, he replies to Ccesar, 

Caesari respondetur, a reply is given to Ccesar (Caesar is replied to) . [Cf . § 372. ] 

respond! maximis criminibus (Phil. ii. 36), / have answered the heaviest charges, 

lit ita cuique Sveniat (id. ii. 119), that it may so turn out to each. 

NoTB 1. — Intransitive verbs have no Direct Object. The Indirect Object, there- 
fore, in these cases stands alone as in the second example (but cf. § 362. a). 

Note 2. — CSdo, yield, sometimes takes the Ablative of the thing along with the 
Dative of the person : as, — cedere alicui possessione hortdrum (cf . Mil. 75), to give up to 
one the possession of a garden, 

a. Many phrases consisting of a noun with the copula sum or a 

copulative verb are equivalent to an intransitive verb and take a 

kind of indirect object (cf. § 367. a, n.^): — 

auctor esse alicui, to advise or instigate one (cf. persuaded). 

quis huic rei testis est (Quinct. 37), who testifies (is v^itness) to this fact? 

is finis populationibus fuit (Li v. ii. 30. 9), this put an end to the raids, 

h. The dative is sometimes used without a copulative verb in a 
sense approaching that of the genitive (cf. §§ 367. d, 377) : — 

legatus fratri (Mur. 32), a lieutenant to his brother (i.e. a man assigned to his 

mhiistrl sceleribus (Tac. Ann. vi. 36), agents of crime, [Cf. seditidnis minis- 

tri (id. i. 17), agents of sedition.] 
miseiils suis remedium mortem (Sail. Cat. 40), to look for death 

08 a cure for their miseries. [Cf. s5lus mearum miseriSrumst remedium 

(Ter. Ad. 294).] 

NoTB.— The cases in a and b differ from the constructions of § 367. a, n.> and 
§ 377 in that the dative is more closely connected in idea with some single word to 
which it serves as an indirect object. 


ladiiect Object with Special Yerbs 

367. Many verbs signifying to favavy helpj please^ trtist, an 
their contraries ; also to believe^ perwuade^ command^ obey^ sens 
resuit envjf^ threaten^ pardon^ and wpare^ take the Dative : — 

cfir ■dU invideB, wkg do yad any met 

■dU pucit fttqiie igndacii, he 9pare» amd pardons me. 

IgnOsoe putrid dolod (Ur. iiL 48), accuse a father's gritf. 

BubTenl pfttzia*, opitoUre ooolegM (Fam. z. 10. 2), come to the aid of you 

eoimlry, kelp yowr coUeague. 
■dU nOn displic^ (Cla. 144), U does not displease me. 
nOa ir*«*VT* aerriO (Att. xiiL 49), I am not a servant to eoery nuau 
nOn pttrcam apene (Fun. ziiL 27), J will spare no pains. 
de ■dU peranifll (Cat. M. 78), so I hose persuaded myseif. 
■dU Fabios dSbei^t igndscere si minus ^os fiimae parcere yidebor qnam ante! 

oOdsqIuI (Toll. 3), Fabius vnU hone to pardon me if I seetn to spare hk 

jngmtctftoH less tkoan I have heretofore regarded U. 
huie tegiW Caesar cOnfidCbat inazime (B. 6. i. 40. 15), in this legion CcBsai 

In these verbs the Latin retains an original intransitive meaning. 
Thus : invidSre, to envy^ is literally to look askance at ; servire is to be 
a slave to ; soidSre is to make a thing pleasant (sweet) to. 

a. Some verbs apparently of the same meanings take the Accusative. 

Such are inrO, adrarft, help; laedQ, injure; inbe5, order; difido, fail; 
delects, please : — 

hic polYis ocolnm meom laedit, this dust hurts my eye. [Cf . multa ocolis 
Bocent, many things are ii^rious to the eyes.'\ 

Non 1. — KdS and oQnfidS take also the Ablative (§ 431) : as, — mnltnm aitiiia loel 
oOniidebant (B. 6. iii. 9), they Aod great confidence in the strength of their position. 

NoTS 2. — Some common phrases regularly take the dative precisely like verbs of 
similar meaning. Snch are — praestd esse, be on hand (cf. adesae) ; m5rem gerere, 
humor (cf. mSriceiixi) ; gratnm facere, do a favor (cf . ciStiflcan) ; dictO audiens esse, 
be obedient (cf. oboedize) ; cni fidem habebat (B. O. i. 19), in whom he had eor^denee 
(cf. coBfiOSbat). 

So also many phrases where no corresponding verb exists. Snch are — bene (male, 
ptokfare, aegre, etc.) esse, be well (ill, etc.) off; iniuriam facere, do injustice to ; diem 
dicere, bring to trial (name a day for, etc.); agere gratias, eaqtress one's thartki: 
habere gratiam,/eeZ thankful; referre gratiam, repay a favor; opus esse, be neea- 
sary; *^i""nnin dare, inflict an if^ury; aoceptom (expensnm) ferre (esse), eredt/ 
(Aarge); lionArem habere, to pay honor to. 

I These inelnde, among others, the foUowing: advenor, cSdo, ci€d5, faveS, fido, 
\gtaso6, iapei^, iodvlCBS, iavideo, xiiseor, miaitor, aooeS, paio5, pftieS, pUceS, mitto, 
ierriS, stadeS, toidsS (yersoIdeS), saflceaseS, tempei5 (oMeoqietS). 


&* Some verbs are used transitively with the Accusatiye or intranr 
t'l-v^ly with the Dative without perceptible difference of meaning. 

Sixch are adulor, aemulor, desperO, praestdlor, medeor : — 

Sbdulatus est Antonio (Nep. Att. 8), Tie flattered Antony. 

SbdtU&rl Nezonem (Tac. Ann. zvi. 19), toflxOter Nero, 

pficedi nCn d€8p6r38 (Att. viii. 15. 3), you do not despair of peace. 

saluti d^er^re vetuit (Clu. 68), he forbade him to despair of saffiy. 

^?. Some verbs are used transitively with the Accusative or intran- 
'vti.^ely with the Dative with a difference of meaning : — ^ 

parti clvium cOnsulunt (Off. i. 85), they consult for a part of the citizens. 
cum te cOnsoluissem (Fam. zi. 29), when I had consulted you. 
metuens pneiis (Flaut. Am. 1113), anxious for the children. 
nee metuunt deos (Ter. Hec. 772), they fear not even the gods. [So also timeo.] 
pr5spicite patriae (Cat. iv. 3), Jiave regard for the state. 
prOspicere sedem senectHtl (Liv. iy. 49. 14), to provide a Jiabitationfor old age. 
[So also provided.] 

d,m A few verbal nouns (as insidiae, arnhush; obtemperfttiO; ohedi- 
erhce) rarely take the dative like the corresponding verbs : — 

Insldiae cdnsuli (Sail. Cat. 32), the plot against the consul (cf. msidior). 
obtemper&tiO ISgibns (Legg. i. 42), obedience to the laws (cf. obtempero). 
sibi ipsi respOnsiO (De Or. iii. 207), an answer to himself (cf. responded). 

NoTB. — In these cases the dative depends immediately upon the verbal force of the 
noun and Jiot on any complex idea (cf . § 366. a, b), 

368. The Dative is used — 

1. With the impersonals libet (lubet), it pleases, and licet, it is 
allowed : — 

quod mihi maximS lubet (Fam. i. 8. 3), what most pleases me. 
quasi tibi nOn Uc6ret (id. vi. S), aa if you were not permitted. 

2. With verbs compounded with satis^ bene, and male : — 

mihi ipse numquam satisfaciO (Fam. i. 1), J never satisfy myself. 
optimO vii5 maledlcere (Deiot. 28), to speak ill of a most excellent man. 
pulchrum est benefacere rei pfiblicae (Sail. Cat. d)y it is a glorious Mng to 
ben^t the stale. 

Note. — These are not real compounds, but phrases, and were apparently felt as 
such by the Romans. Thus, — satis officio meO, satis illOrum voluntati qui a me hOc 
petlverunt factvm esse arbitrabor (Verr. v. 130), I shall consider that enoiLgh has been 
done for my dtUy, enough for the wishes of those who Usked this of me. 

1 See the Lexicon under cave9, oonvenid, cupid, InsistO, maaeS, praevertS, recipid, ra- 
n&ntiS, BOlvO, 8ueo8d5. 


3. With grfttificor, grfttalor, nftbO, permittO, plaudO, probO, studeS, sa; 

plicO, ezoellO : — 

PompSio 86 gratificftrl putant (Fam. i. 1), they suppose they are doing I^ompeg 

a service. 

gratulor tibi, ml Balbe (id. vi. 12), I congratulate you, my dear Balbus. 
tibi permittO respondere (N. D. iii. 4), / give you leave to answer. 
mihi plaudO ipse domi (Hor. S. i. 1. 66), / applaud myself at home. 
cum inimlcl M. Font§I vObls ac populO ROmanO minentur, amici ac propinqni 
supplicent vSbis (Font. 35), while the enemies of Marcus FoniHtts an 
threatening ycm and the Roman people too, while his friends and relatite^ 
are beseeching you, 
NoTK. — Miaoe5 and iungS sometimes take the dative (see § 413. a. n.). HaereS usnally || 
takes the ablative, with or without in, rarely the dative : as,— haerentem capiti coin- I 
nam (Hor. S. i. 10. 49), a wreath dinging to the head. 1 

a. The dative is often used by the poets in constructions which | 

would in prose require a noun with a preposition. So especially 

with verbs of contending (§ 413. h) : — 

contendis HomSiQ (Prop. i. 7.3), you vie with Homer. [In prose : cum Homero.] 
placitOne etiam pugnabis amori (Aen. iv. 38), will you struggle even against a 

love that pleases you f 
tibi certat (Eel. v. 8), vies with you. [tecum.] 

diSert sermon! (Hor. S. i. 4. 48), differs from prose, [a sexmone, § 401.] 
lateri abdidit ensem (Aen. ii. 653), buried the sword in his side, [in latere, 

§ 430. ] 
For the Dative instead of ad with the Accusative, see § 428. A. 

369. Some verbs ordinarily intransitive may have an Accusa- 
tive of the direct object along with the Dative of the indirect 
(cf. § 362. a): — 

cui cum rSx crucem minar€Uir (Tuisc. i. 102)* and when the king threatened 

him with the cross. 
Cretensibus obsid^s imperavit (Manil. 85), Ae exacted hostages of the Cretans. 
omnia sibi ignOscere (Veil. ii. 30), to pardon one^s self everything. 
Ascanione pater ROmanas invidet arces (Aen. iv. 234), does the father envy 

Ascanius his Boman citadels f [With invideo this construction is poetic 

or late.] 

a. With the passive voice this dative may be retained : — 

qui iam nunc sanguinem meum sibi indulggrl aequum censet (Liv. xl. 15. 16), 
who even now thinks it right that my blood should be granted to him as a 

singulis cSnsdribus dfinaril trecenti imperatl sunt (Verr. ii. 137^ three hun- 
dred denarii were exacted of each censor. 

Scaevolae concessa est facundiae virtus (Quint, xii. 3. 9), to Scaew^ ha9 
been granted excellence in oratory. 


Indirect Object with Compounds 

370. Many verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, in, inter, ob, 
s-t, pxae, pr5, sub, super, and some with circum, admit the Dative 
the indirect object : — 

neque enlm adsentior eis (Lael. 13), for I do not agree with them. 

quajitum nsltura hominis pecudibus antecSdit (OS. i. 106), so far oa marl's 
nature is superior to brutes. ^ 

8l Bibi ipse cOnsentit (id. i. 5), if he is in accord with himseHf. 

virtutes semper voluptatibus inbaerent (Fin. i. 68), loirtues are always con- 
nected with pleasures. 

omnibus negotiis nOn interfuit solum sed praefuit (id. i. 6), ?ie not only had 
a hand in all maiters, but took the lead in them. 

tempestati obsequi artis est (Fam. i. 9. 21), it t8 a point of skiU to yield to 
the weaiher. 

nee umquam succumbet inimids (Deiot. 36), and he will never yield to his 

cum et Brutus cuilibet ducum praeferendus yid6r€tur et Vatlnius nGlli n5n 
esset postferendus (Veil. ii. 60), since Brutus seemed worthy • of being pvi 
before any of the generals and Vatinius deserved to be put after all of them. 

a. In these cases the dative depends not on the preposition, but 
on the coijipound verb in its acquired meaning. Hence, if the acquired 
meaning is not suited to an indirect object, the original construction 
of the simple verb remains. 

Thus in convocat suos, he calls his men together, the idea of calling is not so 
modified as to make an indirect object appropriate. So hominem interficere, to 
make way with a man (kill him). But in praeficere imperfttorem beU5, to put a 
man (M commander-inrchief in charge of a war, the idea resulting from the com- 
position is suited to an indirect object (see also 6, §§ 371, 388, b). 

Note 1. —Some of these verbs, being originally transitive, take also a direct object ; 
as,— ne offeramus nos periculis (Oif. i. 83), that we may not expose ourselves to perils. 

Note 2. — The construction of § 370 is not different in its nature from that of §§ 362, 
3G6, and 367 ; but the compound verbs make a convenient group. 

6. Some compounds of ad, ante, ob, with a few others, have acquired 
a transitive meaning, and take the accusative (cf. § 388. b): — ^ 

nSs oppfignat (Fam. i. 1), ^ opposes us. 

quis audeat bene comit&tum aggredi (Phil. xii. 25), w?io would dare encounter 

a man well attended f 
mfinos obire (Lael. 7), to attend to a duty. 

1 Such verhs are ageredlor, ade5, antecidS, aiitee5, antegredior, convents, ineS, obeo, 
offends, oppugns, praec6d5, snbeS. 


e. The adjective obvius and the adverb obviam with a verb take 
the dative : — 

si ille obvius ei futilras nOn erat (Mil. 47), if he was jwt iTitending to g^ a 

his way. 
ndhi obviam vSnistI (Fam. ii. 16. 3), you came to meet me. 

371. When place or motion is distinctly thought of, the verbs 
mentioned in § 370 regularly take a noun with a preposition : 

inhaeret in visceribas (Tusc. iv. 24), it remairis fixed in the vitals. 

homine conitLnctO mecttm (Tull. 4), a man united to me. 

cum ]i9c concurrit ipse £umen@s (Nep. £um. 4. 1), with him JEutnenes him- 
self engages in combat (runs together). 

Inserite ocnlOs in cfiiiam (Font. 43), flx your eyes on the senate-house. 

Ignis qui est ob 5s offOsus (Tim. 14), the fire which is diffused b^ore the sight 

obicitur contrft istOram impetus Macedonia (Font. 44), Macedonia is set to 
withstand their aJUacks. [Cf. si qois yoUs error obiectus (Oaec. 6), ij 
any mistake has been caused you."] 

in segetem flamma incidit (Aen. ii. 804), the fire falls upon the standing com. 

NoTB. — Bat the usage varies in different authors, in different words, and often in 
the same word and the same sense. The Lexicon must be consulted for each verb, j 

372. Intransitive verbs that govern the dative are used imper- 
sonally. in the passive (§ 208. d). The dative is retained (cf. § 865): 

cui parol potuit (Liv. xxi. 14), who could he spared? 

nOn modo nOn invidetur ill! aetati v€rum etiam favStur (Off. ii. 45), thai age 

(youth) not only is not envied, but is even favored. 
tempori serviendum e8t(Fam. ix. 7), we must serve the exigency of the occasiojL 

NoTB. — In poetry the personal construction is sometimes found : as, — cur invideor 
(Hor. A. P. 56), why am I envied f 

Dative of Possession 

373. The Dative is used with esse and similar words to denote 

Possession : — 

est mihi domi pater (Eel. iii. 33), J have a father at hom^ (there is to me). 
homini cum deO similitude est (Legg. i. 26), man has a likeness to God. 
qnibns opes ntillae sunt (Sail. Cat. 37), [those] who have no wealth 

Note. — The Grenitive or a Possessive with esse emphasizes the possessor; the 
Dative, the fact of possession: as, — liber est meus, the book is miks (and no one's 
else) ; est mihi liber, / havb a book (among other things). 

a. With nSmen est^ and similar expressions, the name is often put 
in the Dative by a kind of apposition with the person; but the 
Nominative is also common : — 

§§ 378-375] DATIVE OF THE AGENT 283 

(1) cni Africans fuit cQgnOmen (Liy. zzy. 2), whose (to whom) surname was 

puer5 ab inopia Egerid inditum nOmen (id. i. 34), tAe name Egeriua was given 
the boy from his poverty. 

(2) puerO nOmen est Marcas, tJie boy^s nam^ is Marcus (to the boy is, etc.). 
cui nOmen Arethusa (Yen*, iv. 118), [a fount] called AreUiusa. 

I^OTB. — In early Latin the dative is usual ; Cicero prefers the nomlnatiye, Liyy the 
d ative ; Sallnst uses the dative only. In later Latin the genitive also occurs (cf . § 343. d) : 
SLS, — Q. Metello Macedonici nOmen inditum est (Veil. i. 11), to Qmnttts Jfetellus the 
Thartve of Macedonicus was given, 

h» DSsum takes the dative ; so occasionally absum (which regu- 
larly has the ablative) : — 

hoc tinum Caesaii defuit (B.6. iv. 26), this only %oas lacking to Ccesar. 
quid hoic abesse poterit (De Or. i. 48), what can be wanting to him f 

Dative of the Agent 

374. The Dative of the Agent is used with the Genindive to 
denote the person on whom the necessity rests : — 

haec Yobis prOvincia est d@fendenda (Manil. 14), this province is for you to 

d^end (to be defended by you), 
mihi est ptignandum, I have to fight (i.e. the need of fighting is to me : cf. 

mihi est liber, I have a booky § 373. n.). 

a. This is the regular way of expressing the agent with the Second 
or Passive Periphrastic Conjugation (§ 196). 

Note 1. — The Ablative of the Agent with ab (§ 406) is sometimes used with the Sec- 
ond Periphrastic Conjugation when the Dative would be ambiguous or when a stronger 
expression is desired : — 

quibus est a vobis c5nsulendum (Manil. 6), for whom you must consult, [Here two 

datives, qnibus and vdbis, would have been ambiguous.] 
rem ab onmibns v5bi8 providendam (Rabir. 4), that the matter must be attended to 
by all of you, [The dative might mean /or all of you,] 
Note 2.— The Dative of the Agent is either a special use of the Dative of Posses- 
sion or a development of the Dative of Reference (§ 876). 

375. The Dative of the Agent is common with perfect parti- 
ciplea (especially when used in an adjective sense), but rare with 
other parts of the verb : — 

mihi dellber&tum et cOnstitutum est (Leg. Agr. i. 25), I have deliberated and 

resolved (it has been deliberated by me). 
mihi res prOvisa est (Verr. iv. 91), the matter has been provided for by me. 
sic dissimillimis bestiolis communiter cibus quaeritur (N. D. ii 123), so by 

very different creatures food is sought in common. 


a. The Dative of the Agent is used by the poets and later ^writers 
with almost any passive verb : — 

neque cernitur ulli (Aen. i. 440), nor t« seen by any, 

fellx est dicta soiori (Ov. Fast. iii. 1. 597), sJie was called happy b^f her sister. 
Aelia Faetina Narcissd fovebatur (Tac. Ann. zii. 1), ^lia Pastina was 
favored by Narcissus. 

d. The dative of the person who sees or thinks is regularly used 
after videor, seem : — 

videtur mihi, it seems (or seems good) to me, 

die aUter visum [est] (Aen. ii. 428), U seemed otherwise to the gods. 
videor mihi perspicere ipslus animum (Fam. iv. 13. 6), I seem (to myself) to «ee 
the soul of the man himself. 

NoTK. — The verb prob&re, approve (originally a mercantile word), takes a Dative 
of Reference (§ 376), which has become so firmly attached that it is often retained with 
the i>as8ive, seemingly as Dative of Agent : — 

haec sententia et ilfi et nSbls probabatur (Fam. i. 7. 5), this view met both hii 

approval and mine (was made acceptable both to him and to me). 
hoc consilium plSrisqae non probabatnr (6. C. 1. 72), this plan was not apprtmed by 
the majority. [But also, consilium & ciiiictis probabatur (id. i. 74).] 

Dative of Reference 

376. The Dative often depends, not on any particular word^ but 
on the general meaning of the sentence {Dative of Reference), 

The dative in this construction is often called the Dative of 
Advantage or Disadvantage,^ as denoting the person or thing for 
whose benefit or to whose prejudice the action is performed. 

tibi aras (Plaut. Merc. 71), you plough for yourself. 

tuas r6s tibi habeto (Plaut. Trin. 266), keep, your goods to yourself (formula 

of divorce), 
laudavit mihi f ratrem, he praised my brother (out of regard for me ; landavit 

fratrem meum would imply no such motive). 
meritOs mactavit honOrgs, taurum Neptfino, taurum tibi, pulcher ApollO 

(Aen. iii. 118), he offered the sacrifices due^ a bull to Neptune, a buU to 

thee, beautiful Apollo. 

Note. — In this construction the meaning of the sentence is complete without the 
dative, which is not, as in the preceding constructions, closely connected with any sin- 
gle word. Thus the Dative of Reference is easily distinguishable in most instances 
even when the sentence consists of only two words, as in the first example. 

377. The Dative of Reference is often used to qualify a whole 
idea, instead of the Possessive Genitive modifying a single word ; 

1 Dattvus commxfdt aut incomtnodi, . 

§§ 377-379] DATIVE OF REFERENCE 286 

iter Poems vel corporibus suls obstmere (Cat. M. 75), to Uock the march of 

the Carthaginians even wi^ their own bodies (to block, etc., for the dis^ 

advantage of, etc.). 
86 in cOnspectum nautis dedit (Verr. y. 86), he pvi himself in sight of the 

sailors (he put himself to the sailors into sight), 
versatur mihi ante oculOs (id. v. 123), it comes b^ore my eyes (it comes to me 

before the eyes). 

378. The Dative is used of the person from whose point of view 
an opinion is stated or a situation or a direction is defined. 

This is often called the Dative of the Person Judging,^ but is 
merely a weakened variety of the Dative of Reference. It is used — 

1. Of the mental point of view (in my opinion^ according to me, 
etc.) : — 

Plat5 mihi tLnus instar est centum milium (Brut. 101), in my opinion (to me) 

Plato alone is worth a hundred thousand. 
erit ille mihi semper deus (Eel. i. 7), he will always he a god to me (in my 

quae est ista servitfls tam cld,rO homini (Par. 41), whaJb is that slavery according 

to the view of this distinguished man f 

2. Of the Ic^al point of view (as you go in etc.). In this use the 
person is commonly denoted indefinitely by a participle in the dative 
plural : — 

oppidum prlmum Thessaliae yenientibas ab EpIrO (B. C. iii. 80), the first town 
of Thessaly as you come from Epirus (to those coming, etc.). 

laey& parte sinum intrant! (Liy. xxvi. 26), on the left as you sail up the gulf 
(to one entering). 

est urbe egressis tumulus (Aen. ii. 718), there is, as you come out of the city, 
a mound (to those having come out). 

Note.— The Dative of the Person Jud^ng is (by a Greek idiom) rarely modified by 
nolSns, volSns (participles of n515, vol5), or by some similar word; — 

nt quibusqae bellum invitis aut cupientibas erat (Tac. Ann. i. 59), as ea^ might 

receive the war reluctantly or gladly. 
at militibus lab^ volentibus esset (Ing. 100), that the soldiers might assume the 
task willingly. 

379. The Dative of Reference is used idiomatically without 
any verb in colloquial questions and exclamations : — 

quo mihi fortQnam (Hor. Ep. i. 5. 12), of what use to me is fortune? 
unde mih! lapidem (Hor. S. ii. 7. 116), where can I get a stone f 
quOtibi, Tilli (id. i. 6. 24), what use for you, TUliusf 

1 Dativus iudicantis. 


a. The dative of reference is sometimes used after interjections : 

ei (hei) mihi (Aen. ii. 274), ah me I 

vae Tictis (Liv. v. 48), woe to the conquered, 

em tibi, there, take that (there for you) ! [Cf. § 380.] 

NoTB. — To express fob — meaning instead of, in d^enoe of, in hehaJf (/— tlie 
ablative with pr9 is used : — 

pr5 patrii mori (Hor. Od. iii. 2. 13), to die for one*8 country. 
ego ibO pr5 19 (Plant. Most. 1131), Itoill go instead of you. 

Ethical Datiye 

380. The Dative of the Personal Pronouns is used to show a 
certain interest felt by the person indicated.^ 

This construction is called the Ethical Dative.^ It is really a 
faded variety of the Dative of Eeference. 

quid mihi Celsus agit (Hor. Ep. i. 3. 16), pray what is Celsus doing f 

8u0 sibi servit patrl (Plant. Capt. 6), he serves his own father.. 

at tibi repente venit mihi Canlnius (Fam. iz. 2), but, look you, of a sudden 

comes to me Caninius. 
hem tiM talentum argenti (PI. True. 60), Iiark ye, a talewt of silver. 
quid tibi vis, what would you have (what do you wish for yourself) ? 

Dative of Separation 

381. Many verbs of taking away and the like take the Dative 
(especially of a person) instead of the Ablative of Separation 
(§ 401). 

Such are compounds of ab, d6, ex, and a few of ad : — 

aureum ei detr9jdt amiculum (N. D. iii. 83), he took from him his cloak of 

hunc mihi terrOrem gripe (Cat. i. 18), take from me this terror. 
Yitam adttlSscentibus vis aufert (Cat. M. 71), violence deprives young men of 

nihil enim tibi detr&dt senfttus (Fam. i. 6 b), for the senatchas taken nothing 

from you. 
nee mihi hunc errOrem extorqu6rI volO (Cat. M. 85), nor do I wish this error 

wrested from me. 

Note. — The Dative of Separation is a variety of the Dative of Reference. It repre- 
sents the action as done to the person or thing, and is thus more vivid than the Ablative. 

1 Compare " I *11 rhyme you so eight years together."— J« Tou Like It, iii. 2. 
3 Dattvits ethicua. 

§§ 381, 382] DATIVE OF THE PURPOSE OR END 237 

€L. The distinct idea of Ttvotion requires the ablative with a prep- 
osition — thus generally with names of things (§ 426. 1) : — 
ilium ex peiicolS Sripuit (B. G. iv. 12), Ae dragged him out of danger, 

l^OTiB. — Sometimes the dative of the person and the ablative of the thing with a 
preposition are both used with the same verb : as, — mihi praeda d6 numibus eripitur 
(Verr. 11. 1. 142), the booty is wrested from my hands, 

Datlye of the Purpose or End 

382. The Dative is used to denote the Purpose or End, often 
with another Dative of the person or thing affected. 

This use of the dative, once apparently general, remains in 
only a few constructions, as follows : — 

1. The dative of an abstract noun is used to show that /or which 
a thing serves or which it accomplishes , often with another dative of 
the person or thing affected : — 

rel publicae cl&di sunt (lug. 85. 43), they are ruin to the stale (they are for a 

disaster to the state). 
mSgnO fisui nostrls fuit (B. G. iv. 25), it was of great service to our m^n (to 

our men for great use), 
tertiam aciem nostrls 8absidi5 misit (id. i. 52), he sent the Uiird line as a relief 

to our men. 
suls aalfili fult (id. vii. 50), Jie was the salvation of his men. 
evCnlt facile quod dis cordi esset (Liv. i. 39), that cam^ to pass easily which 

was desired by the gods (was for a pleasure [lit. heart] to the gods). 

NoTB 1. — This oonstmction is often called the Dative of Service, or the Double 
Dative construction. The verb is usually sum. The noun expressing the end for 
which is regularly abstract and singular in number and is never modified by an adjec- 
tive, except one of degree (mignns, minor, etc.), or by a genitive. 

NoTB 2.— The word fragi used as an adjective is a dative of this kind : — 
c5gis me dicere inimicum Frugi (Font. 39) , you compel me to call my enemy Honest. 
homines satis fortes et plane frngi (Verr. iii. 67), men brave enough and thoroughly 
honest. Gf. erO friigi bonae (Plant. Pseud. 468), I will be good for some- 
thing. [See § 122. 6.] 

2. The Dative of Purpose of concrete nouns is used in prose in a 
few military expressions, and with freedom in poetry : — 

locum eastris deligit (B. G. vii. 16), he selects a site for a camp. 
receptoi canere, to sound a retreat (for a retreat), 
nceptoi signum (Phil. xiii. 15), the signal for retreat. 
opt&vit locum r8gn5 (Aen. iii. 109), Tie chose a place for a kingdom. 
locnm insidiis circumspectftre (Liv. xxi. 53), to look about for a place for an 
ambush, [Cf. locum seditiSnis quaerere (id. iii. 46).] 

-For the Dative of the Gerundive denoting Purpose, see § 605. 5. 


Datiye with Adjectiyes 

383. The Dative is used after Adjectives or Adverbs, to denote 
that to which the given quality is directed^ for which it exists, or 
towards which it tends. 

NoTB. — The dative with certain adjectives is in origin a Dative of Purpose or End. 

384. The Dative is used with adjectives (and a few Adverbs) of 
fitness, nearness, likeness, service, inclination, and their opposites : ^ 

nihil est tarn nfttiirae aptum (Lael. 17), nothing is so fitted to nature. 

nihil difficile amanti putO (Or. 83), I think nothing hard to a lover, 

castris idOneum locum delegit (B. G. i. 49), he selected a place suitable for a 

tribiini ndbis sunt amici (Q. Fr. i. 2. 16), the tribunes are friendly to us, 

esse propitius potest nSmini (N. D. i. 124), he can be gracious to nobody. 

m&gnis autem viris prosperae semper omn^s res (id. ii. 167), but to great men 
everything is always favorable. 

B€des huic nostrO n5n importuna sermSni (De Or. iii. 18), a place not unsuit- 
able for this conversaiion of ours. 

cui fundo erat afflni^ M. Tullius (Tall. 14), to which estate Marcus TuUius was 
next neighbor. 

convenienter naturae vivere (Off. iii. 13), to live in accordance with nature 
{bixokoyovfiivioi ry 0()<r6(). 

Note 1. — So, also, in poetic and colloquial use, with idem : as, — invitum qui servat 
idem facit Occident! (Hor. A. P. 467), ?ie who saves a man against his will does the same 
as one who kills him. 

Note 2. — Adjectives of likeness are often followed by atque (ac), as. So also 
the adverbs aequS, pariter, similiter, etc. The pronoun idem has regularly atqne or a 
relative : — 

SI parem sapientiam habet ac formam (Plant. Mil. 1251), %fhe has sense equal to 

his beauty (like as his beauty), 
te suspicor eisdem rebus quibus me ipsum commoveri (Cat. M. 1), I suspect you are 
disturbed by the sam^ things by which I am. 

385. Other constructions are sometimes found where the dative 
might be expected : — 

a* Adjectives of fitness or tise take oftener the Accusative with ad 
to denote the purpose or end ; but regularly the Dative oi persons : — 

aptus ad rem mllitSrem, fit for a soldier^ s duty. 

locus ad insidiAs aptior (Mil. 53), a place fitter for lying in wait. 

nobis atile est ad hanc rem (cf. Ter. And. 287), it is of use to us for this thing. 

1 Adjectives of this kind are accommod&tus, aptus ; arnicas, inimicns, Infbstus, invlsiu, 
molesttts ; idoneus, opportunus, proprius ; utilis, iniitilis ; affinis, finitimos, propinqwu, 
vicinus; pftr, dispftr, similis, dissimiUs; iucundus, gritus; nStus, igndtns, and othezs. 


&. Adjectives and nouns of inclination and the like may take the 
^o<3usative with in or erga : — 

cOmis in uxorem (Hor. Ep. ii. 2. 133), kind to his wife. 

divlna bonitSs ergft hominSs (N. D. ii. 60), the divine goodness towards men. 

de beneyolentia quam quisque habeat erga nos (Ofi. i. 47), in regard to each 

man's good will which he has towards us. 
gr9.ti5rem m6 esse in te (Fam. xi. 10), that I am more graJtefuX to you. 

€?. Some adjectives of likeness, nearness, belonging, and a few 
o-tliers, ordinarily requiring the Dative, often take the Possensive 
Grenitive: — * 

quod ut ill! proprium ac perpetuum sit . . . optftre debetis (Man 11. 48), which 

you ought to pray may be secure (his own) and lasting to him. [Dative.] 
fuit h5c quondam proprium populi Roman! (id. 32), this was once the peculiar 

characteristic of the Roman people. [Genitive.] 
cum utriqae sis maximS necess^rius (Alt. ix. 7 a), since you are especially 

hound to both. [Dative.] 
prOctirator aeque tttriasque necessftrius (Quinct. 86), an agent alike closely 

connected with both. [Genitive.] 

1. The genitive is especially used with these adjectives when they are 
\ised wholly or approximately as nouns : — 

amicus Ciceroni, friendly to Cicero. But, CicerSnis amicus, a friend of Cicero ; 

and even, Cicerdnis amicissiraus, a very great friend of Cicei'o. 
creticus et eins aequd.lis paean (Or. 215), the cretic and its equivalent the pasan. 
hi erant afflnSs istins (Verr. ii. 36), tfiese were this man^sfeUows. 

2. After similis, like, the genitive is more common in early writers. 
Cicero regularly uses the genitive of persons, and either the genitive or the 
dative of things. With personal pronouns the genitive is regular (mei, tui, 
etc.), and also in veri similis, probable : — 

domin! similis es (Ter. Eun. 496), ymi We like your master (your master's like). 

ut essemus similes deorum (N. D. i. 91), that we might be like the gods. 

est similis m&iomm suom (Ter. Ad. 411), he'^s like his ancestors. 

patris similis esse (Off. i. 121), to be like his father. 

simia quam similis turpissima bestia nobis (N. D. i. 97, quoted from Enn.), 

how like us is that wretched beast tJie ape t 
si enim h5c ilH simile sit, est illud huic (id. i. 90), for if this is like that, that 

is like this. 
Note. — The genitive in this construction is not objective like those in § 349, but 

possessive (cf. §343). 

For the Dative or Accusative with propior, proximtts, propius, proximS, see § 432. a. 

1 Such are acquMis, afiinis, aliBnus, amicus, cogn&tus, oommunis, cSnsanguineus, contrft- 
riu8, dispir, familiiris, finitlmus, Inimicus, necessarius, pir, peculiAris, propinquus, propria 
(regularly genitive), saccr, similis, superstes, viclnos. 



386. The Accusative originally served to connect the noun more or leas loosely 
with the verb-idea, whether expressed by a verb proper or by a verbal nonn or adjee- 
tive. Its earliest use was perhaps to repeat the verb-idea as in the Cognate AccnsatlFe 
{run a race, fight a battle, see § 390) . From this it would be a short step to the Factitive 
Accusative (denoting the result of an act, as in make a table, drill a hole, cf . § 273. n.I). 
From this last could easily come the common accusative (of Aff ecting, breaJk a table, 
plug a hole, see § 387. a) . Traces of all these uses appear in the language, and the loose 
connection of nonn with verb-idea is seen in the use of stems in composition (cf . § 265. 3) .^ 
It is impossible, however, to derive the various constructions of the accusative with 
certainty from any single function of that case. 

The uses of the accusative may be classified as follows : 

1. Directly affected by the Action (§ 387. a). 

I. Primaiy Object: 

(1. iJirectly affected by the Action (§ 387. a). 

1. Predicate Accusative (Of Naming etc.) (§ 393). 
II. Two Accttsatives: \ 2. Of Asking or Teaching (§ 396). 

Of Concealing (§ 396. c). 
f 1. Adverbial (§ 397. a). 

2. Of Specification (Greek Accusative) (§ 397. h), 

3. Of Extent and Duration (§§ 423, 425). 

4. Of Exclamation (§ 397. d). 

5. Subject of Infinitive (§ 397. e). 

III. Idiomatic Uses: 

Direct Object 

387. The Direct Object of a transitive verb is put in the Ac- 
cusative (§ 274). 

a. The Accusative of the Direct Object denotes (1) that which is 
directly affected, or (2) that which is caused or produced by the action 
of the verb : — 

(1) Brutus Caesarem interfScit, Bmius killed C<B8ar, 

(2) aedem f acere, to make a temple. [Cf . proelium pugnare, to fijghi a haiik^ I 

§ 390.] 

Note. — There is no definite line by which transitive verbs can be distinguished J 
from intransitive. Verbs which usually take a direct object (expressed or implied) ' 
are called transitive, but many of these are often used intransitively or abaolvtely. 
Thus times, I fear, is transitive in the sentence inimicum timed, I fear my enemy, bnt 
intransitive {absolute) in n51i timSre, donH be afraid. Again, many verbs are transi- 
tive in one sense and intransitive in another: as, — HelvStiSs sttpexftvenrnt R5mini, the 
Romans overcame the Helvetians ; but nihil super&bat, nothing remained (was left over). 
So also many verbs commonly intransitive may be used transitively with a slight 
change of meaning: as, — xldSs, you are laughing; but m6 ndSs, you *re laughing at me. 

1 Compare armlger, armorbearer, with anna gerere, to bear arms; fldioen, lyr^^ilayer, 
with lldibtts canere, to (play on) sing to the lyre. Compare also istanc UctiS (Plant.), the 
[act of] touching her, with istaac tangere, to touch her (§ 388. d. k.S). 


i^. The object of a transitive verb in the active voice becomes its 
\xt>ject in the passive, and is put in the nominative (§ 275) : — 

BrAtus Caesaiem interf 6cit, Brutus killed CcBsar, 

Caesar & Brut5 interf ectuB est, CcBsar was killed by Brutus, 

domam aedificat, he buiMs a house, 

domus aedific&tur, the house is building (being built). 

388. Certain special verbs require notice. 

«. Many verbs apparently intransitive, expressing feeling^ take 
accusative, and may be used in the passive : — 

meum c&sum Ifictumqae dolu6runt (Sest. 145), they grieved at my calamity 

and sorrow, 
8l nOn Aciisiom rlsissent luppiter et Venus (Hor. Od. iii. 16. 6), (f Jupiter 

and Venus Juxd not laughed at Acrisius, 
xidetor ab omni conventu (Hor. S. i. 7. 22), he is laughed at by the whole 


For tfaie Cognate Acctusatiye witli verbs of taste, smell, and the like, see § 390. a, 
NoTB. — Some verbs commonly intransitive may be used transitively (especially in 
poetry) from a similarity of meaning with other verbs that take the accusative : — 
gemSns ignOminiam (Georg. iii. 226), groaning at the disgrace, [Of. doled.] 
festiiULre fugam (Aen. iv. 575), to hasten their flight, [Of. accelerd.] 
oOmpt^ ftrsit crinis (Hor. Od. iv. 9. 13), she burned with love for his well-conibed 
locks. [Of. adamS.] 

&• Verbs of motion, compounds of circum, trftns, and praeter, and 
a few others, frequently become transitive, and take the accusative 
(cf . § 370. b) : — 

mortem obire, to die (to meet death). ^ 
consttUtom ineunt (Liv. ii. 28), ^ey enter upon the consulship, 
neminem convSnl (Fam. iz. 14), I met no one, 
8l insulam adisset (B. G. iv. 20), if he should go to the island, 
tr&nsire flfimen (id. ii. 23), to cross the river (cf. § 895). 
Gives qui circumstant senStom (Cat. i. 21), IJie citizens who stand about the 
NoTB. — Among such verbs are some compounds of ad, in, per, and sub. 

c. The accusative is used after the impersonals decet, dSdecet, dSlec- 
tat, ittvat, oportet, f allit, fugit, praeterit : — 

ita ut vSs decet (Plant. Most. 729), so as bqfits you. 

mS pedibus delectat claudere verba (Hor. S. ii. 1. 28), my delight is (it 

pleases me) to arrange words in measure. 
niffi mS fallit, unless I am mistaken (unless it deceives me). 
iHvit me tibl tu3s litterSs prMuisse (Fam. v. 21. 8), it pleased me that your 

literary studies had prqfUed you, 
ti nOn praeterit (Fam. i. 8. 2), it does not escape your notice. 


NoTB l.*~So after latat in poetry and post-classical prose: as, — latet plirosqoft 
(Pliu. N. H. ii. 82), it is unknown to most persons. 

Note 2. — These verbs are merely ordinary transltives with an idiomatic significar 
tion. Hence most of them are also used personally. 

NoTB 3. — Decet and latet sometimes take the dative: — 
ita ndbfs decet (Ter. Ad. 928), thtis it befits us. 
hostlque R6ma latet (Sil. It. zii. 614), and Rome lies hidden from the foe. 

d. A few verbs in isolated expressions take the accusative from 

a forcing of their meaning. Such expressions are : — 

ferire foedus, to strike a treaty (i.e. to sanction by striking down a victini). 
yincere ifidicinm (sponsionem, rem, h5c), to prevail on a trial, etc. [As if the 

case were a difficulty to overcome ; cf . vincere iter, Aen. vi. 688. J 
aeqaor n&vig&re (Aen. i. 67), to aaU the sea. [As if it were transire, § 388. b.] 
maxia aspera iilrO (id. vi. 861), / swear by Uie rough seas (cf. id. vi. 324). 

[The accusative with verbs of swearing is chiefly poetic] 
noctis dormire, to sleep [whole] nights (to spend in sleep). 

NoTB 1. — These accusatives are of various kinds. The last example approaches 
the cognate construction (cf. the second example under § 890). 

NoTB 2. — In early and popular usage some nouns and adjectives derived from tran- 
sitive verbs retain verbal force sufficient to govern the accusative : — 

quid tibi istanc tactiO est (Plant. Poen. 1308), what business have you to touch her? 

[Cf . tangS.] 
mirabundi bSstiam (Ap. Met. iv. 16), full of wonder at the creature. [Cf. miror.J 
vitabundus castra (liv. xxv. 13), trying to avoid the camp. [Cf. vito.] 

389. Many verbs ordinarily transitive may be used absoltUelff, 
having their natural object in the ablative with dg (§ 273. N. 2): — 

priusquam PompOnius dS 6ius adventfi c5gn0sceret (B. C. iii. 101), before 
Pamponius could learn of his coming. [Cf. Sins adventa cognito, his 
arrival being discovered.] 

For Accusative and Genitive after Impersonals, see § 354. 5. For the Aocnaative 
after the impersonal Grerundive with esse, see § 600. 3. 

Cognate Accusative 

390. An intransitive verb often takes the Accusative of a noun 
of kindred meaning, usually modified by an adjective or in some 
other manner. 

This construction is called the Cognate Accusative or Accusative 
of Kindred Signification : — 

tutiOrem vitam vivere (Verr. ii. 118), to live a safer life. 

tertiam iam aet&tem hominum vivebat (Cat. M. 31), he was noto living Hu 

third generation of men. 
servitfitem servire, to be in slavery. 
coire societ&tem, to [go together and] form an alliance. 


• Yerbs of tastCf smeU, and the like take a cognate accusative 
f tilzLe quality : — 

^v^niim redolgns (Phil. ii. 63), smelling [of] wine, 
]:&er1>am mella sapiunt (Plin. H. N. xi. 18), the hxyney toMea [of] grass, 
olere malitiam (Rose. Com. 20), to have the odor of malice, 
Oordubae natis poetis, pingue qniddam sonantibus atque peregrinum (Arch. 
26), to poets bom at Cordova, whose speech had a somewhat thick and 
foreign accent. 

&. The cognate accusative is often loosely used by the poets : — 

huic errOri similem [errorem] Insanire (Hor. S. ii. 8. 62), to suffer a ddusion 

like this, 
saltare Cyclopa (id. i. 5. 63), to dance the Cyclops (represent in dancing). 
Bacchanalia vlvere (luv. ii. 3), to live in revellings, 
Amaiyllida reson^e (Eel. 1. 5), to reecho [the name of] AmaryUis, 
intonuit laevum (Aen. ii. 693), it thundered on the left. 
dulce ridentem, dulce loquentem (Hor. Od. 1. 22. 23), sweetly smiling, sweetly 

. acerba tuens (Aen. ix. 794), looking fiercely. [Cf. Eng. "to look daggers.*'] 
torvum cl^unat (id. vii. 399), he cries harshly, 

c. A neuter pronoun or an adjective of indefinite meaning is very 
common as cognate accusative (cf. §§ 214. d, 397. a): — 

EmpedoclSs multa alia peccat (N. D. i. 29), Empedocles commits many other 

ego iUud adsentior TheophrsustO (De Or. iii. 184), in this I agree with Theo- 

moltixm te ista fefellit opinio (Yerr. ii. 1. 88), you were much deceived in this 

expectation (this expectation deceived you much), 
plfis yaleO, I have more strength, 
pluiimam potest, he is strongest, 

quid mS ista laedunt (Leg. Agr. ii. 32), what harm do those things dome? 
h5c te moned, I give you this warning (cf. d. k. ^), 
id laetor, I r^oice at this (cf. d. n. ^). 
quid moror, why do I delay f 
quae homines arant, navigant, aedificant (Sail. Cat. ii. 7), w?iat men do in 

ploughing, sailing, and building. 

d» So in many common phrases : — 

si quid ille s6 velit (B. G. i.' 34), if he should want anything of him (if he 

should want him in anything). 
ntimqaid, Geta, aliud m6 vis (Ter. Ph. 151), can I do anything more for you^ 

Oeta (there is nothing you want of me, is there)? [A common form 

of leave-taking.] 
quid est quod,; etc., why is it that, etc.? [Cf. hoc erat quod (Aen. ii. 664), 

was it for this that, etc.?] 


NoTB 1. — In these cases snbstantiyes with a d^nite meaning wonld be in aoane 

other construction : — 

in hoc efidem peccat, he errs in this same point, 
bonis rSbns laetari, to rejoice at prosperity, [Also : in, d6, or ex.] 
di testimentS monere, to remind one of the wiXl, [Later : genitive, § 351.] 
ottd admonere, to remind one of his duty, [Also : d6 officio.] 
NoTB 2. — In some of these cases the connection of the accusative with the verb has 

so faded out that the words have become real adverbs: as, — multom, plus, plurinmm; 

plSnun^ue, /or t?ie most part, generally; cStenun, cStera, /or the rest, otherwise, but; 

pnmam.fjb'st; nihil, by no means, not at aU; aliquid, somewhat; \vaA,why; facile, eaaly. 

So in the comparative of adverbs (§ 218). But the line cannot be sharply drawn, and 

some of the examples under b may be classed as adverbial. 

Two Accusatives 

391. Some transitive verbs take a second accusative in addi- 
tion to their Direct Object. 

This second accusative is either (1) a Predicate Accusative or 
(2) a Secondary Object. 

Predicate Accusative 

392. An accusative in the Predicate referring to the same per- 
son or thing as the Direct Object, but not in apposition with it, 
is called a Predicate Accusative. 

393. Verbs of naming^ choodng^ appointing^ making^ esteeming, 
showing, and the like, may take a Predicate Accusative along 
with the direct object : — 

6 Spartacei quern enim t6 potius appellem (Phil. xiii. 22), O Spartacus^ for 

what else shaU I caU you (than Spartacus)? 
CicerOnem consulem, to elect Cicero consul, 
me angurem n0minav6runt (Phil. ii. 4), they nominated me for augur. 
cum gratias ageret quod sS cdnsulem fScisset (De Or. ii. 268), when he thanked 

him because he had made him consul (supported his candidacy), 
hominem prae 86 nfiminem putSvit (Rose. Am. 135), Ae thought nobody a man 

in comparison with him^df. 
ducem s€ praebuit (Vat. 38), he offered him,self as a leader. 

Note.— The predicate accusative may be an adjective: as, — homines mitis red- 
didit et mAnsuStSB (Inv. i. 2), has made men mild and gentle, 

a. In changing from the active voice to the passive, the Predicate 
Accusative becomes Predicate Nominative (§ 284) : 

r«xabsuIsappellfttur(B. Q,Ym,4),hei8calledHngbuhi8 9ubie(^, [Active: 
Bul eum r^sem appellant.] 


Secondary Object 

394. The Accusative of the Secondary Object is used (along 
v^ii:li the direct object) to denote something more remotely affected 
>y -the action of the verb. 

395. Transitive verbs compounded with prepositions sometimes (in addition to the direct object) a Secondary Object, origi- 
aally governed by the preposition : — 

Caesar GermgjiOs flOmen tr^cit (B. C. i. 83), Cccsar throws the Germans 

across the river, 
idem ius iurandum adigit Afriniom (id. i. 76), he exacts the same oaJlh from 

qnOs Pompgius omnia sua praesidia circumdtizit (id. Hi. 61), whom Pompey 

conducted through all his garrison, 

NoTB 1. — This construction is common only with tzftdnoS, tr&ici5, and trftnsportd. 
Xhe preposition is sometimes repeated with compounds of trftns, and usually with 
compounds of the other prepositions. The ablative is also used : — 

donee res suas trftns Halyn flumen traicerent (Liv. xzzviii. 25), till they should get 

their possessions across the river Halys. 
(exercitus) Pad5 traiectus CremOnam (id. zxi. 56), the army was conveyed across 
the Po to Cremona (by way of the Po, § 429. a). 
NoTB 2. — The secondary object may be retained with a passive verb : as, — Belgae 
lUignum traducti sunt (B. 6. ii. 4), the Belgians were led over the Rhine, 

NoTB 3. — The double construction indicated in § 395 is possible only when the force 
of the preposition and the force of the verb are each distinctly felt in the compound, 
the verb governing the direct, and the preposition the secondary object. 

But often the two parts of the compound become closely united to form a transitive 
verb of simple meaning. In this case the compound verb is transitive solely by virtue 
of its prepositional part and can have but one accusative, — the same which was for- 
merly the secondary object, but which now becomes the direct. So trfticiS comes to 
mean either (1) to pierce (anybody) [by hurling] or (2) to cross (a river etc.):— 

gladio hominem traiecit, he pierced the man with a sword, [Here iadd has lost 
all transitive force, and serves simply to give the force of a verb to the mean- 
ing of trans, and to tell the manner of the act.] 
Rhodanum traiecit, he crossed the Rhone. [Here iaciS has become simply a verb 
of motion, and trfticid is hardly distinguishable from trftnsed.] 
In these examples hominem and Rhodanum, which would be secondary objects if trftiScit 
were used in its primary signification, have become the direct objects. Hence in the 
passive construction they become the subjects and are put in the nominative : — 
homO traiectus est gladiO, the man was pierced with a sword, 
Rhodanus traiectus est, the Rhone was crossed. 
The poetical tiiiectas lora (Aen. ii. 273), pierced with thongs, comes from a mixture of 
two constructions : (1) eum traiecit lOra, he rove thongs through him,^ and (2) eura 
traiecit lOris, he pierced him with thongs. In putting the sentence into a passive form, 
the direct object of the former (15ra) is irregularly kept, and the direct object of the 
latter (earn) is made the subject. 

1 Perhaps not found in the active, but cf . tr&iectS ffine (Aen. r. 488). 


396. Some verbs of asking and teaching may take two accusa- 
tives, one of the Person {direct object)^ and the other of the Thing 
{secondary object): — 

mh tententiam rog3.yit, he asked me my opinion. 

dtiam diTos rogat (Hor. Od. ii. 16. 1), he prays the gods for rest. 

liaee praetdrem p08tuld.b3fi (Tull. 89), you demanded this of the prcetor, 

aediliB populum rogftre (Liv. vi. 42), to ask the people [to elect] cediles. 

docfire puerds elementa, to teach children their A B CPs. 

NoTB. — This constmction is found in classical authors with 5ro, posed, zeposoo, rogo. 
interrocS, fliCitS, aoced. 

a. Some verbs of asking take the ablative of the person with a 
preposition instead of the accusative. So, always, pet5 (ab)^ quaeriJ 
(ex, ab, de); usually poscO (ab), fiagitO (ab), postulO (ab)^ and occa- 
sionally others : — 

p9.cem ab RSm&nis petiSrunt (B. 6. ii. 13), they sought peace from the Bomans. 
quod quaeslvit ex me P. Apul^ius (Phil. vi. 1), what Ptiblius Apuleius asked 
of me, 

h. With the passive of some verbs of asking or teaching^ thej^er- 

son or the thing may be used as subject (cf. c. n. ^) : — 

Caesar sententiam rog&tus est, Cassar was asked his opinion. 

id ab e5 flSgit&b&tur (B. C. i. 71), this was urgently demanded of him. 

NoTB. — The accusative of the thing may be retained with the passiye of rogo, and 
of verbs of teaching, and occasionally with a few other verbs: — 

fuerant h5c rogati (Cael. 64), they had been asked this. 

poscor meum Laelapa (Ov. M. vii. 771), / am asked for my LaeHaps. 

CicerO ciincta edoctus (Sail. Cat. 45), Cicero, being informed of everything. 
But with most verbs of asking in prose the accusative of the thing becomes the 
subject nominative, and the accusative of the person is put in the ablative with a 
preposition: as, — ne x>ostulantur quidem vires & senectute (Cat. M. 34), strength is 
not even expected of an old man (asked from old age). 

c. The verb c615, conceal, may take two accusatives, and the usually 
intransitive late0, lie hid, an accusative of the person: — 

nOn te c6l3.vl sennSnem T. Ampi (Fam. ii. 16. 3), I did not conjceal from you 

the talk of Titus Ampiu^. 
nee latu^re doll fratrem lunOnis (Aen. i. 130), ihor did the wiles of Juno 

escape the notice of her brother. 

NoTB 1. — The accusative of the person with lateS is late or poetical (§ 388. c. v. i). 

NoTB 2. — All the double constructions indicated in § 396 arise from the wayer- 
ing meaning of the verbs. Thus doced means both to show a thing, and to instruet 
a person; c615, to keep a person in the dark, and to hide a thing; TOffi,\ti question 
a person, and to ask a question or a thing. Thus either accusative may be regarded 
as the direct object, and so become the subject of the passive (cf . b above), but for 
convenience the accusative of the thing is usuaUy called secondary. 


Idiomatic Uses 
397. The Accusative has the following special uses : — 

cr. The accusative is found in a few adverbial phrases (Adverbial 
dLcctcsative) : — 

id temporisy at that time; id (istuc) aet&tis, at that age. 

id (quod) genus, of that (what) sort (perhaps originally nominatiye). 

meam vlcem, on my part, 

bonam partem, in a great measure ; maximam partem, for the mo8t part, 

virile (muliebre) secus, of the male (female) sex (probably originally in 

quod si, &ut ^ (as to which, if) ; quod nisi, if not, 

h. The so-called synecdochical or Greek Accusative, found in poetry 
a nd later Latin, is used to denote the part affected : — 

caput nectentur (Aen. v. 309), their heads shall be bound (they shall be bound 

about the head). 
&rdenti8 oculos suffecti sanguine et Igni (id. ii. 210), their glaring eyes blood- 

shot and blazing with fire (suffused as to their eyes with blood and fire), 
ntida genu (id. i. 320), with her knee bare (bare as to the knee), 
femur trSgulS. ictus (Li v. xxi. 7. 10), wounded in the thigh ^y a dart, 

NoTB. — This constraction is also called the Accusative of Specification. 

c. In many apparently similar expressions the accusative may be 
regarded as the direct object of a verb in the middle voice (§ 156. a) : 

InQtile fenum cingitur (Aen. ii. 610), he girds on the useless steel, 

nodO sinus coll€cta fluentis (id. i. 320), having her flowing folds gathered in 

a knot, 
umeros iustemor pelle leOnis (id. ii. 722), / cover my shoulders with a lion's 

prOtinus induitur faciem cultumque Di3iiae (Ov. M. ii. 425), forthwith she 

assumes the shape and garb of Diana, 

d» The Accusative is used in Exclamations : — 

forttinatam rem publicam, O fortunate republic t [Cf . f ortiinata mors 

(PhU. xiv. 31), oh, happy death! (§339. a).] 
5 m6 infelicem (Mil. 102), oA, unhappy II 
m^ miserum, ah, wretched me I 
en quattuor SrSs (Eel. v. 66), Zo, four altars I 
ellum (= em ilium), there he is ! [Cf. § 146. a. s. 2.] 
eccOs (= ecce eOs), there they are, look at them I 
pro deum fidem, good heavens (O protection of the gods) ! 
hOcine saeclum (Ter. Ad. 304), O this generation! 
huncme hominem (Verr. v. 62), this man^ good heavens ! 


NOTB 1. — Sach expressions usually depend upon some long-forgotten verb. The 
substantiye is commonly accompanied by an adjective. The use of -ne in some cases 
suggests an original question, as in quid? lokatf whyf tell me. 

NoTB 2. — The omission of the verb has given rise to some other Idiomatic accosar 
tives. Such are : — 

salntem (sc. dicit) (in addressing a letter), greeting, 
m8 dlus fidius (sc. adiuvet), so help me Iieaven (the god of faith), 
unde mihi lapidem (Hor. S. ii. 7. 116) » where can 1 get a stone? 
quo mihi fortttnam (Hor. Ep. i. 5. 12) , of what use to me is fortune? [No verb 
thought of.] 

e. The subject of an infinitive is in the accusative : — 

intellegO t8 sapere (Fam. vii. 32. 3), I perceive thai you are wise. 
eiB iH iact&rl nOlSbat (B. G. 1. 18), he was unwilling that these matters shovld 
be discussed. 

Note. — This construction is especially common with verbs of knowing, thinking, 
idling, and perceiving (§580). 

/. The accusative in later writers is sometimes used in apposition 

with a clause : — 

dSserunt tribunal . . . mantis intentantSs, causam discordlae et initiam armo- 
rum (Tac. Ann. i. 27), they abandon the tribunal shaking their fists,— 
a cause of dissension and the beginning of war. 

Note. — This construction is an extension (under Greek influence) of a usage more 
nearly within the ordinary rules, such as, — Eumenem prodidere AntiochO, pacismeroe- 
dem (Sail. Ep. Mith. 8), they betrayed Eumenes to Antiochus, the price of peace. pSere 
Eumenes may be regarded as the price, although the real price is the betrayal.] 

For the Accusative of the End of Motion, see § 427. 2 ; for the Accusative of Dura- 
tion of Time and Extent of Space, see §§ 423, 425 ; for the Accusative with Prepositioiis, 
see §220. 


398. Under the name Ablative are included the meanings and, in part, the forms 
of three cases, — the Ablative proper, expressing the relation from; the Locative, 
IN ; and the Instrumental, with or by. These three cases were originally not whoUy 
distinct in meaning, and their confusion was rendered more certain (1) by the develop- 
ment of meanings that approached each other and (2) by phonetic decay, by means of 
which these cases have become largely identical in form. Compare, for the first, the 
phrases £ parte dextera, on the right; quam ob cattsam, from which cause; ad &nam, 
AT (in consequence of) the report; and, for the second, the like forms of the daUve 
and ablative plural, the old dative in -e of the fifth declension (§ 96), and the loss of the 
original -d of the ablative (§ 49. e; cf. §§ 43. n. \ 92./, 214. a. n.). 

The relation of fboh includes separation, source, cause, agent, and comparison; 
that of WITH or by, accompaniment, instrument, means, manner, qtuUiiy, and price; 
that of IN or at, place, time, circumstance. This classification according to the 
original cases (to which, however, too great a degree of certainty should not be 
attached) 1 is set forth in the following table: — 

1 Thus the Ablative of Cause may be, at least in part, of Instrumental origin, and 
the Ablative Absolute appears to combine the Instrumental and the Locative. 


I. Ablatiye Proper (from) 

n. Instrumental Ablatiye 


1. Of Separation, Privation, and Want (§ 400). 

2. Of Source (participles of origin etc.) (§403). 

3. Of Cause (Ubdrd, exsilio, etc.) (§404). 

4. Of Agent (with ab after Passives) (§ 406). 
6. Of Comparison (than) (§406). 

1. Of Manner, Means, and Instrument (§ 408 ff.). 

2. Of Object of the Deponents ator etc. (§ 410). 

3. Of Accompaniment (with cum) (§413). 

4. Of Degree of Difference (§414). 

5. Of Quality (with Adjectives) (§416). 

6. Of Price and Exchange (§ 416). 

7. Of Specification (§418). 

8. Ablative Absolute (§419). 

III. Locative Ablative (in, r 1. Of Place loAere (commonly within) (§421). 
on, at): \ 2. Of Time and Circumstance (§ 423). 

399. The Ablative is used to denote the relations expressed in 

English by the prepositions /rom; in, at; with^ by: — 

llberftre metii, to deliver from fear, 
excultus doctiini, trained in learning. 
liOc lps6 tempore, at this very time. 
caecus av&ritiA, blind with avarice, 
occlsus gladio, slain by the sword. 

Ablative of Separation 

400. Words signifying Separation or Privation are followed by 
the ablative. 

401. Verbs meaning to remove, set free, be absent, deprive, and 
want, take the Ablative (sometimes with ab or ex) : — 

ocufis s6 privavit (Fin. v. 87), he deprived himself of eyes. 

omn! Gallia R5md.nis interdicit (B. G. i. 46), lie (Ariovistus) bars the Romans 

from the whole of Gaul. 
e! aqot et igni interdlcitor (Veil. ii. 45), he is ddnirred the use of fire and 

rooter. [The regular formula of banishment.] 
voloptatibus carSre (Cat. M. 7), to lack enjoyments. 
nOn ege5 medicina (Lael. 10), / want no physic, 
lev&mnr superstitione, liberamur mortis metfi (Fin. 1. 68), we are relieved 

from superstition^ we are freed from fear of death, 
Boltiti i cupiditatibus (Leg. Agr. i. 27), freed from desires. 
malt5s ex his incommodis pecuni& s€ liberS,sse (Verr. y. 23), th>at many have 

freed themselves by money from these inconveniences. 

For the Genitive with verbs of separation and want, see $ 366. n. 


402. Verbs compounded with ft, ab, de, ez, (1) take the simj 
Ablative when used figuratively; but (2) when used literallj 
denote actual separation or motion, they usually require a prejj 
sition (§ 426. 1) : — 

(1) con&tfl desustere (B. G. i. 8), to desist from the attempt. 
desine communibus locls (Acad. ii. 80), quit commonplaces, 
abire magistrfttfi, to leave one^s office, 

abstinere inifixU, to refrain from wrong, 

(2) ft piSpositd aberrare (Fin. v. 83), to wander from the point, 
dS provincift d6cedere (Verr. ii. 48), to withdraw from one^s province. 
Ab ifire abIre (id. ii. 114), to go ovisvde of the law, 

ez civitftte excessSre (B. G. vi. 8), they departed from the state. [But ci 
finibas sals excesserant (id. iv. 18), they had l^ their own territory.] 

ft mSgn5 demissum nOmen Iul5 (Aen. i. 288), a name descended (sent down 
from great lulus. 

For the Dative used instead of the Ablative of Separation, see § 381. For the Abb| 
tive of the actual p/ace whence in idiomatic expressions, see §§ 427. 1, 428./. 

a. Adjectives denoting freedom and want are followed by th< 
ablative : — 

urbs nUda praesidiS (Att. vii. 13), the city naked of defence. 

immtUiis militift (Liv. i. 43),yree of military service, 

plebs orba tribilms (Leg. iii. 9), the people deprived of tribunes. 

NoTB. — A preposition sometimes occurs: — 

a culpft vacuus (Sail. Cat. 1^), free from blame. 

liberi ft dSliciis (Leg. Agr. i. 2fl), free from luxuries, 

Messana ab his rSbus vacua atque nuda est (Verr. iv. 3), Messana is empty and 
bare of these things. 
For the Genitive with adjectives of want, see § 349. a. 

Ablative of Source and Material 

403. The Ablative (usually with a preposition) is used to denote 
the Source from which anything is derived, or the Material of 
which it consists : — 

1. Source: — 

Rhenus oritur ex Lepontiis (B. G. iv. 10), the Rhine rises in (from) tke 

country of the Lepontii. 
ab his sermQ oritur (Lael. 5), the conversation is begun by (arises from) them. 
c^ius ratiOnis vim atque titilitatem ex ill5 caelesti Epictiri volfimine accepi- 

mus (N. D. i. 43), of this reasoning we have learned the power and 

advantage from that divine book of Epicurus. 
suftvitatem odOrum qui aifiarentur e floribas (Cat. M. 59), the saeetness of 

the odors which breathed from the flowers. 


2. Material; — 

erat totus ex fraude et mendacio f actus (Clu. 72), he was entirely made up oj 

fraud and falsehood, 
valvas magiiificentiOres, ex auro atque ebore perfectiOrfis (Verr. iv. 124), 

more splendid doors, more finely wrought of gold and ivory. 
factum de cautibus antrum (Ov. M. i. 675), a cave formed of rocks, 
templum de maimore ponam (Georg. iii. 13), I HI build a temple of marble. 

Note 1. — In poetry the preposition is often omitted. 

NoTK 2. — The Ablative of Material is a development of the Ablative of Source, 
'or the Grenitive of Material, see § 344. 

a. Participles denoting birth or origin are followed by the Abla- 

ive of Source, generally without a preposition: — ^ 

love natus et Maia (N. D. iii. 66), son of Jupiter and Maia. 
edite regibus (Hor. Od. i. 1. 1), descendant of kings. 
qu5 sanguine cretus (Aen. ii. 74), bom of what blood. 
genitae Pandione (Ov. M. vi. 666), daughters of Pandion. 

Note 1. — A preposition (ab, d6, ex) is usually expressed with pronouns, with the 
name of the mother, and often with that of other ancestors : — 

ex m6 hic natus n5n est sed ex fratre meo (Ter. Ad. 40), this is not my son, but 

my brother* 8 (not born from me, etc.) . 
cum ex utraque [uxore] filius natus esset (De Or. i. 183), each wife having had 

a son (when a son had been born of each wife). 
Belus et omnes a BSld (Aen. i. 730), Belus and all his descendants. 
Note 2. — Rarely, the place of birth is expressed by the ablative of source: as, — 
desideravit C. Fleginatem Placenti^, A. Granium FateoHs (B. C. iii. 71), he lost Caius 
Fleginas of Placentia, Axilus Granius of Puteoli. 

Note 3. — The Roman tribe is regularly expressed by the* ablative alone: as, — 
Q. Verrem Romilil (Verr. i. 23), Quintus Verres of the Romilian tribe. 

6. Some verbs may take the Ablative of Material without a prep- 
osition. Such are cOnstare, cOnsistere, and continSri.^ But with c5n- 
stftre, ex is more common : — 

domus amoenitas nOn aedificio sed silvi cOnstSlbat (Nep. Att. 18), the charm 

of the house consisted rwt in the buildings but in the woods, 
ex animo cOnstamus et corpore (Fin. iv. 19), we consist of soul and body. 
vita corpore et spIritCi continetur (Marc. 28), life consists of body and spirit. 

e. The Ablative of Material without a preposition is used with 

facere, fieri, and similar words, in the sense of do withy become of: — 

quid hoc homine faciatis (Verr. ii. 1. 42), what are you going to do with this 

quid Tulliola mea fiet (Fam. xiv. 4. 3), what wiU become of my dear Tullia f 
quidte futurum est (Verr. ii. 165), what will become of you f 

1 As nftttts, satus, Cditus, genitus, ortus, pidgnatus, gener&tus, crCtus, creitus, orinndns. 
> The ablative with cdnsistere and continSii is probably locative in origin (cf . § 431). 


d. The Ablative of Material with ex, and in poetry without a 

preposition, sometimes depends directly on a noun : — 

n5n pauca pOcula ex anf5 (Verr. iv. 62), not a few cups of gold, 
scopulis pendentibus antrum (Aen. i. 166), a cave of hanging rocks. 

For Ablatiye of Source instead of Partitive Grenitive, see § 346. c. 

Ablative of Cause 

404. The Ablative (mth or without a preposition) is used to 
express Cause : — ^ 

neglegentiA plectimur (Lael. 85), we are chcutiaedfor negligence. 
gabem&tOris ars utilit&te nOu arte laudator (Fin. i. 42), the pUoVa skiU is 

praised for its aervicey not its akUl. 
certis de causis, for cogent reasons. 

ex Yulnere aeger (Rep. ii. 38), disabled by (from) a wound. 
mare A sole lucet (Acad. ii. 105), the sea gleams in the sun (from the sun). 

a. The Ablative of Cause without a preposition is used with labGrS 
(also with ex), exsiliO, exsultO, triumphO, lacrimO, firdeO : — 

doled t6 aliis maHs labOrftre (Fam. iv. 3), J am sorry that you suffer with 

other Uls. [Cf. ex aere alignd labOrare (B. C. ill. 22), to labor under 

debt (from another's money).] 
ezsultare laetitiA, triumphSlre gaudiS coepit (Clu. 14), she began to exult in 

gladness, and triumph in joy. 
exsilul gaudio (Fam. xvi. 16), I jumped for joy, [Cf . lacrimO gandid (Ter. 

Ad. 409), liioeepforjoy.'] 
3.rd6re dolore et irA (Att. ii. 19. 5), to &e on fire with pain and anger. 

For gaudeo and glorior, see § 431. 

h. The motive which influences the mind of the person acting is 
expressed by the ablative of cause ; the object exciting the emotion 
often by ob * or propter with the accusative : — 

nOn ob praedam ant spoliandi cupidine (Tac. H. 1. 63), not for booty or through 

lust of plunder. 
amicitia ex sS et propter 8§ expetenda (Fin. ii. 83), friendship must be sought 

of and for itself , 

Note. — But these constructions are often confused: as, — parere legibus propter 
metum (Par. 34), to obey the laws on account of fear, [Here mettim is almost equiva- 
lent to "the terrors of the law,'' and hence propter is used, though the ablative would 
be more natural.] 

1 The causCf in the ablative, is originally sourcCf as is shown by the use of ab, dS, 
ez ; but when the accusative with ad, oT>, is used, the idea of cause arises from nearness. 
Occasionally it is difficult to distinguish between cause and means (which is the old 
Instrumental case) or circumstance (which is either the Locative or the Instrumental). 

2 OriginaUy a mercantile use: cf. ob decem minas, /or the price of ten mints. 

i 404, 406] ABLATIVE OP AGENT 263 

c» The ablatives causfi and grfitift, for the sake of, are used with a 

enitive preceding, or with a pronoun in agreement : — 

e& causft, on account of this; qu& gratia (Ter. Eun. 09), for what purpose f 

ine& causa, for my sake ; mea gratia ^Plaut.), for my sake. 

ex mea et rel pflblicae causa, for my own sake and the republic'' s, 

praedictiOnis causa (N. D. iii. 6), by way of prophecy. 

exempli gratia (verb! gratia), for example. 

sui piirgandl gratia, for the sake of clearing themselves. 

NoTB. — But sratiA with possessives in this use is rare. 

Ablative of Agent 

4€5. The Voluntary Agent after a passive verb is expressed by 
the Ablative with a or ab : — 

laudatur ab his, culpatur ab illis (Hor. S. i. 2. 11), Tie is praised by these, 

blamed by those. 
ab animo tuO quidquid agitur id agitur a te (Tusc. i. 62), whatever is done by 

your soul is done by yourself. 
a filiis in iddicium vocatus est (Cat. M. 22), he was brought to trial by his sons. 
cum a cunct6 consessu plausus esset multiplex datus (id. 64), when great 

applause had been given by the whole audience. 
n6 virtus ab audacia vinceretur (Sest. 02), that valor might not be overborne 

by audacity. [Audacia is in a manner personyied.l^ 

NoTB 1. — This construction is developed from the Ablative of Source. The agent 
is conceived as the source or author of the action. 

NoTB 2. — The ablative of the a^ent (which requires a or ab) must be carefully 
distinguished from the ablative of instrument, which has no preposition (§ 409) . Thus 
— occisus i\aAi^, slain by a sword; but, occisus ah hoste, slain by an enemy. 

Note 3. — The ablative of the agent is commonest with nouns denoting |)er«on«, but 
it occurs also with names of things or qualities when these are conceived as performing 
an action and so are partly or wholly personified, as in the last example under the rule. 

«• The ablative of the agent with ab is sometimes used after intran- 
sitive verbs that Have a passive sense : — 
perfre ab hoste, to be slain by an enemy. 

b* The personal agent, when considered as instrument or means, 
is often expressed by per with the accusative, or by operfi with a 
genitive or possessive : — 

ab exploriltSiibas certior f actus est (B. G. i. 21), ^ xoas informed by scouts (in 

person). But, — 
per explorfitores Caesar certior factus est (id. i. 12), Coesar itxw informed by 

(means of) scouts. 
elautae opera Neptfini (Plant. Rud. 609) , washed clean by the services of Neptune. 
nGn mea opera evSnit (Ter. Hec. 228), it hasnH happened through me (by my 

exertions). [Cf. Sius opera, B. G. v. 27.] 


NoTB 1. — The ablative of means or instrument is often used instead of the abb 
tive of agent, especially in military phrases: as, — haec excubitoribus tenebantm 
(B. G. vii. 69), these (redoubts) were hdd by means of sentinels. 

NoTB 2. — An animal is sometimes regarded as the means or instrumeTZt, some- 
times as the agent. Hence both the simple ablative and the ablative with al> occur : — 
equd vehi, to ride on horseback (be conveyed by means of a horse). [Not ab equo.^ 
clipeOs I mfiribus esse derOsOs (Div. i. 99), that the shields were gnawed by mice. 
For the Dative of the Agent with the Gerundive, see § 374. 

Ablative of Comparison 

406. The Comparative degree is often followed by the Abla- 
tive ^ signifying than : — 

Cat5 est CicerSne 6loquentior, Cato is more eloquent than Cicero, 

quid nSbis daSbas labOriOsios est (Mil. 5), whai more burdened with toil than 

we two f 
villus argentum est anr5, virtutibus aurum (Hor. Ep. i. 1. 62), silver is less 

precious than gold, gold than virtue, 

a. The idiomatic ablatives opiniGne, spS, solitO, dictO, aequG^ >credi- 

bili, and i&stO are used after comparatives instead of a clause : — 

celerius opinione (Fam. xiv. 23), faster than one would think, 
serius 8p§ omnium (Li v. xxvi. 26), later than all hoped (than the hoi>e of all). I 
amnis solitS citatior (id. xxiii. 19. 11), a stream swifter than its wont. I 

gravius aequo (Sail. Cat. 61), more seriously than was right. 

407. The comparative may be followed by quam, than. When 
quam is used, the two things compared are put in the same case : 

n5n callidior es quam hie (Rose. Am. 49), you are not more cunning than he. 

contidnibas accommodSLtior est quam iudiciis (Clu. 2), Jitter for popular assem- 
blies than for courts, 

miseiicordiA dignior quam contumelia (Pison. 32), more worthy of pity than of 

a. The construction with quam is required when the first of the 
things compared is not in the Nominative or Accusative. 

NoTB 1. — There are several limitations on the use of the ablative of comparison, 
even when the first of the things compared is in the nominative or accusative. Thus 
the quam construction is regularly used (1) when the comparative is in agreement 
with a genitive, dative, or ablative : as, — senex est e6 melidre condiciOne quara adules- 
cens (Cat. M. 68), an old man is in this respect in a better position than a young man ,* 
and (2) when the second member of the comparison is modified by a clause : as, — minor 
fuit aliquantO is qui primus fabulam dedit quam ei qui, etc. (Brut. 73), he who first 
presented a play was somewhat younger than those who, etc. 

1 This is a branch of the Ablative of Separation. The object with which anything 
is compared is the starting-point/rom which we reckon. Thus, " Cicero is eloqjnent " ; 
but, starting from him, we come to Cato, who is *' more so than he." 


Notb: 2. — The poets sometimes use the ablative of comparison where the prose 

3Tistruction requires quam: as, — pane ege6 iam melHtis poti5re placentis (Hor. Ep. 

10. 11), / now want bread better than honey-cakes. 

Note 3. — Relative pronouns having a definite antecedent never take quam in this 

onstruction, but always the ablative: as, — rex erat Aeneas nobis, quo iustior alter 

.ec, etc. (Aen. i. 544), Miieas was our king, than whom no other [was] more righteoits. 

6. In sentences expressing or implying a general negative the 

tblative (rather than quam) is the regular construction when the first 

Daember of the comparison is in the nominative or accusative : — 

nihil detestabilius dedecore, nihil foedius servitute (Phil. iii. 36), nothing is 

more dreadful than disgrace^ nothing viler than slavery. 
neminem esse c^riOrem te (Att. x. 8 a. 1), that no one is dearer than you. 

c. After the comparatives plus, minus, amplius, longius, without 
quam, a word of measure or number is often used with no change in 
its case : — 

plus septingenti capti (Li v. 3di. 12), more than seven hundred were taken. 

plus tertia parte interfect& (B. G. iii. 6), mxyre than a third part being slain. 

[Ablative Absolute.] 
aditus in latitudinem nOn amplius ducentSram pedum re1inquebS,tur (id. ii. 

29), an approach of not more than two hundred feet in width was left. 

[Genitive of Measure : § 346. 6.] 

NoTB. — The noun takes the case required by the context, without reference to the 
comparative, which is in a sort of apposition : " seven hundred were taken [and] more." 

d. Alius is sometimes followed by the ablative in poetic and collo- 
quial use ; in formal prose it is followed by ac (atque), et, more rarely 
by nisi, quam : — 

nee quicquam aliud llbertate communi (Fam. zi. 2), nothing else thanthe cowr 

mon liberty. 
alius Lysipp5 (Hor. Ep. ii. 1. 240), anotlier than Lysippus. 
nam aliud videtur esse ac me5rum bonOrum direptiO (Dom. 51), does it seem 

anything different from the plundering of my property f 
erat historia nihil aliud nisi annalium cOnfectiO (De Or. ii. 52), history was 
nothing else but a compiling of records. 

e* The comparative of an adverb is usually followed by quam, rarely 
by the ablative except in poetry : — 

tempus t€ citius quam oratid dgficeret (Kosc. Am. 89), time would fail you 

sooner than words. But, — 
cur olivum sanguine viperind cautius vltat (Hor. Od. i. 8. 9), why does he shun 

oil more carefully than viper'' s blood f 

Note.— Prepositions meaning before or beyond (as ante, prae, praeter, snprft) are 
sometimes used with a comparative: as, — scelere ante aU9s immanior omnlsJAen. i. 
347), more monstrous in crime than all other msn. 



408. Means, Instrument, Miinner, and Accompaniment are denoted by tbe 
mental Ablative (see § 398), but some of these uses more commonly require a prep>o- 
sition. As they all come from one source (the old Instrumental Case) no sharp lice 
can be drawn between them, and indeed the Romans themselves can hardly have 
thought of any distinction. Thus, in omnibas precibns drabant, thejf entreated with 
every [kind of] prayer^ the ablative, properly that of meanSf cannot be distinguished 
from that of manner. 

Ablative of Means or Instnunent 

409. The Ablative is used to denote the means or instrument 

of an action : — 

certantes pflgius, calcibns, ungoibas, morsfl dSnique (Tusc. v. 77), fighting 
with fists, heels, nails, and even teeth, 

cum pugnis et calcibus concisus asset (Verr. iii. 56), when he had been pum- 
melled with their flMs and heels. 

mels laboribns interitu rem publicam llber&vi (Sull. 33), by my toils I hate 
saved the staJiefrom ruin. 

multae istSLrum arborum me3. mana sunt satae (Cat. M. 59), many of those 
trees were set out with my own hands, 

yi victa vis, vel potius oppressa virtfite audftcia est (Mil. 30), violence was 
overcome by violence, or rather, boldness was put down by courage. 

a. The Ablative of Means is used with verbs and adjectives of 
filling^ abounding, and the like : — 

Beus bonis omnibus expl^vit mundum (Tim. 3), God JiasfUed the world with 

aU good things. 
aggere et crAtibus fossils explent (B. G. vii. 86), they fill up the ditches with 

earth and fascivjes. 
tOtum montem hominibus compl^vit (id. i. 24), he filled the whole mouTUain 

with men. 
opimus praeda (Verr. ii. 1. 132), rich with spoils. 

vita plena et cOnferta voluptatibu8(Sest.23), lifefiXled and crowded withdeiights. 
Forum AppI differtum nautis (Hor. S. i. 5. 4), Forum Appii crammed with 


NoTB. — In poetry the Grenitive is often used with these words. CompleS and impleo 
sometimes take the genitive in prose (cf . § 356) ; so regularly plSnos and (with personal 
nouns) complStus and refeitus (§349. a): — 

omnia plena luctiis et maeroris fuerunt (Sest. 128), everything was full of grief 

and mourning. 
Ollam dSnftridrum implere (Fam. ix. 18), to fill a pot with money. [Here evidently 

colloquial, otherwise rare in Cicero.] 
convivium vicinorum comple5 (Cat. M. 46, in the mouth of Cato), I fill up the ban- 
quet with my neighbors. 

cum computus mercfitSrum career esset (Verr. v. 147), w?ien tTie prison wasfidl of 



HO. The deponents fitor, fraor, fungor, potior, yescor, with several 
their compounds,^ govern the Ablative : — 

tLtar vestrft benignit&te (Arch. 18), I miU avail myself of your kindnesa, 
ita mihi salvft re pablic& vOblscam perfrul liceat (Cat. iv. 11), so may I enjiyy 

with you the state secure and prosperous. 
fungi in&nl munere (Aen. vi. 885), to perform an idle service. 
anrd herOs potitur (Ov. M. vii. 166), t?ie hero takes the gold, 
lacte et ferlnft came vescebantar (lug. 89), they fed on milk and game, 

NoTS. — This is properly an Ablative of Means (instrumental) and the verbs are 
ally in the middle voice (§ 156. a), Tbns utor with the ablative signifies / employ 
yself (or avail myself) by means of, etc. But these earlier meanings disappeared 
onoL the language, leaving the construction as we find it. 

d^ Potior sometimes takes the Genitive, as always in the phrase 

otiri rSrom, to get control or he master of affairs (§ 367. a) : — 

t5tias Galliae 86s3 potirl posse spirant (B. G. i. 8), they hope they can get 
possession of the whole of Gaul, 

NoTS 1. — In early Latin, these verbs are sometimes transitive and take the 
iccusative: — 

fiinctns est officiom (Ter. Ph. 281), he performed the part ^ etc. 
iUe patria potitur commoda (Ter. Ad. 871), he enjoys his ancestral estate. 
Note 2. — The Gerundive of these verbs is used personallyin the passive as if the 
verb were transitive (but cf. $ 500. 3): as, — HeracliO omnia utenda ac possidenda tra- 
diderat (Verr. ii. 46), Ae had given over everything to Heradiusfor his use and posses* 
sion (to be used and possessed). 

411. Opas and tisus, signifying need, take the Ablative: — ^ 

magistrfttibus opus est (Leg. iii. 5), there is need of magistrates, 
nunc viiibus tLsus (Aen. viii. 441), now there is need of strength. 

Note.— The ablative with usus is not common in classic prose. 

a. With opus the ablative of a perfect participle is often found, 
either agreeing with a noun or used as a neuter abstract noun : — 
opus est tuft expzGmptft malitift atque asttitift (Ter. And. 723), I must have 

your best cunning and cleverness set to work, 
properit5 opus erat (cf. Mil. 49), there was need of haste. 

Nora 1.— So rarely with usus in comedy: as,-— quid istis usust odnscnptis (PI. 
Bacch. 749), wliat 's the good of having them in writing ? 

Note 2. — The omission of the noun gives risei to complex constructions : as, — quid 
opua facttet (cf. B. G. i. 42), what must be done? [Cf. quid opus est fieri? with qud 
facts opus est?] 

^ These are aMtor, deiltor (very rare), dCfongor, dCfraor, perfraor, perfongor. 

1 This construction is properly an instrumental one, in which opus and usas mean 
\Dwk and Krvxce^ and the ablative expresses that with which the work is performed 
or the service rendered. The noun flsus follows the analogy of the verb fitor, and the 
ablative with (vos est appears to be an extension of that with ftsos est. 


&• Opus is often found in the predicate^ with the thing needed 1 
the nominative as subject : — 

dox nobis et auctor opus est (Fam. ii. 6. 4), toe 7iee(2 a chief and respon^^S*^ 

adviser (a chief, etc., is necessary for us). 
8l quid ipsi opus esset (B. G. i. 34), if he himself warded anything (if 

thing should be necessary for him). 
quae opus sunt (Cato R. R. 14. 3), things which are required, 

Ablatiye of Manner 

412. The Manner of an action is denoted by the Ablative ; usxz- 

ally with cum, unless a limiting adjective is used with the nouix : 

cam celeiitflte vSnit, he came with speed. But, — 
somnul celerit&te vgnit, h£ came with the greatest speed, 

quid rgfert quA m6 ratione cCgd,tis (Lael. 26), what difference does it make €m, 
wJiat way you compel me f 

a* But cum is often used even when the ablative has a limiting 

adjective ; — 

qoantd id com periculd f6cerit (B. G. i. 17), at what risk he did this. 
n5n minore cum taedid recubant (Plin. Ep. ix. 17. 3), they recline with no les9 

b» With such words of manner as modO, pactO, ratiOne, ritu, vi, via, 
and with stock expressions which have become virtually adverbs (as 
silentiO, iure, iniuri&), cum is not used : — 

apis Matlnae m5re modoque carmina fingo (Hor. Od. iv. 2. 28), in the style 
and manner of a Matinian bee I fashion songs. 

Note. — So in poetry the ablative of manner often omits com: as, — insequitur ca- 
mul5 aquae mdns (Aen. i. 105), a mountain of water follows in a m,ass, [Cf. mttnnnie 
(id. i. 124) ; rimis (id. i. 123).] 

Ablative of Accompaniment 

413. Accompaniment is denoted by the Ablative, regularly with 

cum : — 

com coniugibas ac libeiis (Att. yiii. 2. 3), with wives and children. 

com funditdribus sagittlriisque flumen transgress! (B. G. ii. 19), Juivivg 

crossed the river with the archers and dingers. 
quae supplic3>tiO si cam ceteris c5nferatur (Cat. iii. 15), if this thanksgiving 

he compared with others. 
quae [iSx] esse cum tel5 vetat (Mil. 11), the law which forbids [one] to go 

armed (be with a weapon), 
si sScum suOs edtixerit (Cat. i. 30), if he leads out with him his associates. 

[For sScum, see § 144. b. n.*.] 


CL. The ablative is used without cum in some military phrases, and 

ere and there by early writers : — 

BubsequSbatur omnibus copiis (B. G. ii. 19), he foUowed close with aU hU 

forces. [Bat also cum omnibus copiis, id. i. 26.] 
boc praesidio profectus est (Verr. ii. 1. 86), with this force he set out. 

NoTB. — Misceo and iungo, with some of their compounds, and oSnfundS take either 
1) the Ablative of Accompaniment with or without cum, or (2) sometimes the Dative 
naostly x>oetical or late) : — 

mixta dolore voluptas (B. Al. 66), pleasure mingled with pain. 
ciiius animumcam suo misceat (Laei. 81), whose soul he may mingle with his own. 
fletumque cruori miscuit (Ov. M. iv. 140), and mingled tears with blood. 
Caesar eas cohortis cum exercitu 8u5 cpniunxit (B. C. i. 18), Cassar united those 

cohorts with his own army. 
aer coniiinctus terns (Lncr. v. 562), air united with earth. 

hiimand capiti cervicem equinam iungere (Hor. A. P. 1), iojoin to a human head 
a horse's neck. 

h. Words of Contention and the like require cum : — 

armis cum hoste certd,re (Off. iii. 87), to fight with the enemy in arms. 
libenter haec cum Q. Catuld disputS,rem (Mauil. 66), I should gladly discuss 
these matters with Qy^intus Catulus. 

IToTE. — But words of contention may take the Dative in poetry (see § 368. a). 

Ablative of Degree of Difference 

414. With Comparatives and words implying comparison the 
ablative is used to denote the Degree of Difference : — 

quinque milibus passaum distat, it is five miles distant. 

ft milibus passuum circiter duObus (B. G. v. 82), at a distance of about two 

miles. [For a as an adverb, see § 433. 3.] 
aliquot ante annis (Tusc. i. 4), severat years h^ore. 
aliqoantd post suspexit (Rep. vi. 9), a while after, he looked up. 
malt5 m6 yigil&re 9,criu8 (Cat. i. 8), that I watch much more sharply. 
mhild erat ipse CyclSps quam arigs prGdentior (Tusc. v. 116), the Cyclops 

himself was not a whit wiser than the ram. 

a. The ablatives quO . . . eO (hOc), and quantO . . . tantO^ are used 

correlatively with comparatives, like the English the . . . the ^ : — 

qa5 minus cuplditfttis, eo plus auctoritatis (Liv. xxiv. 28), the less greed, the 

mare weight (by what the less, by that the more), 
quants erat gravior opptignfttiO, tanto cr6bri5res litterae mittebantur (B. 6. 

V. 45), the severer the siege was, the m^re frequently letters were sent. 

1 In this phrase the is not the definite article but a pronominal adverb, being the 
Anglo-Saxon thy, the instrumental case of the pronoun thsBt, that. This pronoun is 
used both as relative (&^ which, by how muxh) and as demonstrative (&y that, by so 
mucH). Thus the , . » the corresponds exactly to qa5 . . . e9. 


Note. — To this cooBtmctioii are doubtless to be referred all cases of qnB audi 
(hdc) with a oomparative, even when they have ceased to be distinctly felt as d< 
of difference and approach the Ablatiye of Cause: — 

•9que me minus paenitet (N. D. i. 8), and for that reason I regret less, etc. (by »] 

much the less I regret). 
haec eS facilius faciebant, quod (B. 6. ill. 12), this they did the more etuily/ortiM] 
reasorit hecattse, etc. [Of. h5c m&iOre spe, quod (id. iii. 9) .J 

&• The Ablative of Comparison (§ 406) and the Ablative of Pegree 

of Difference are sometimes used together with the same adjective : — 

paal5 minus dncentis (B. C. iii. 28), a little less than two hundred, 
patria, quae mihi vitft meft molto est c&rior (Cat. i. 27), my couniry, vfMek 
is much dearer to me than life. • 

But the construction with quam is more common. 

Ablative of Quality 

415. The quality of a thing is denoted by the Ablative with an 
adjective or genitive modifier. 

This is called the Descriptive Ablative or Ablative of Quality : — ^ 
animS meliore sunt gladifttOrSs (Cat. ii. 26), the gladiators are of a better 

quae cum esset civitfis aequissimd ifire ac foedere (Arch. 6), as this was a 

city with perfectly equal constitutional rights. 
molierem ezimift pulchritudine (Verr. ii. 1. 64), a woman of rare beauty. 
Aristoteles, vir summo ingenio, scientU, copia (Tusc. i. 7), Aristotle, a man of 

the greatest genius, learning, and gift of expression. 
d6 DomitiO dixit versum Graecum eftdem sententil (Deiot. 25), concerning 

Domitivs he recited a Greek line of the same tenor. f 

Note. — The Ablative of Quality (like the Gtenitiye of Quality, § 345) modifies a sub- | 

stantive by describing it. It is therefore equivalent to an adjective, and may be either \ 

attributive or predicate. In this it differs from other ablatives, which sure equivalent i 

to adverbs. \ 

a. In expressions of quality the Genitive or the Ablative may | 
often be used indifferently ; but physical qualities are of tener denoted ^ 
by the Ablative (cf . § 345. n.) : — j 

capiUo sunt promisso (B. G. v. 14), they have long hair. 

ut capite aperto sit (Cat. M. 34), to have his head covered (to be with covered 

quam fuit inbecillus P. Af ric&nl fllius, quam tenoi aut nOllA potios valetndine 

(id. 36), how weak was the son of Africanus, of what feeble heaJUh, or 

rather none at aMI 

^}\7^ff^.^^^^^ instrumental and appears to have developed from aooofiuMni- 
ment (§ 413) and manner (§ 412). 

416, 417] ABLATIVE OF PRICE 261 

Ablative of Price 
416. The price of a thing is put in the Ablative : — 

agruni y€ndidit s^stertium sex milibas, he 8old the land for 6000 sesterces. 
AntOnius rGgna addixit pecSnia (Phil. vii. 16), Antony sold thrones for money. 
logOs ridiciil5s : quis ceni poscit (PI. Stich. 221), jokes : who wants them for 

(at the price of) a dinner? 
magnd iUl ea ctoctatiO stetit (Liy. ii. 36), that Iiesitation cost him dear, 

l^OTK. — To this head is to be referred the Ablative of the Penalty (§ 353. 1). 

417. Certain adjectives of quantity are used in the Genitive to 
lenote indefinite value. Such are mftgni, parvi, tanll, qixanti, plfiris, 
minSris : — 

ine& m&gni interest, it is of great consequence to m«. 

Ulud paryi r€fert (Manil. 18), this is of small account, 

est mibi tanti (Cat. ii. 16), it is worth the price (it is of so much). 

Verresne tibi tanti fuit (Verr. ii. 1. 77), was Verres of so much account to 

tantone mindris decumae yeniSrunt (id. iii. 106), were the tithes sold for so 

much less t 
ut t6 redim&s captum quam que9.s minimo : si nequeas paululd, at quanti que9s 

(Ter. Eun. 74), to ransom yourself when captured, at the cheapest rate 

you can ; if you can't for a smaU sum, then at any rate for what you can. 

Note. —These are really (Jenitives of Quality (§ 346. h), 

a. The genitive of certain colorless nouns is used to denote indefi- 
nite value. Such are nihil! (nili), nothing; assis^ a farthing (rare) ; 
fLocci (a lock of wool), a straw : — 

nOn flocd faciO (Att. xiii. 60), J care not a straw. * [Colloquial.] 
atinam ego istuc abs te factum ml! penderem (Ter. Eun. 94), O that I cared 
nothing for this being done by you I [Colloquial. ] 

5. With, verbs of exchanging^ either the thing taken or the thing 
given in exchange may be in the Ablative of Price. Such are mfitG, 
commutO, permfit^, vertO : — 

fidem suam et religl5nem pecQnia commtitftre (Clu. 129), to barter his faith 

and conscience for numey. 
exsillam patrid. sede mut&vit (Q. C. iii. 7. 11), ?ie exchanged his native land 

for ezUe (he took exile in exchange for his native land). 
v6l6x saepe LucrStilem mfitat Lycaeo Faunus (Hor. Od. i. 17. 1), nimble 

Faunus often changes LyccBus for LucretUis, [He takes Lucretilis at 

the price o/Lycseus, i.e. he goes /rom Lycseus to Lucretilis.] 
vertere fSneribas triumphOs (id. i. 36. 4), to change the triumph to the funeral 

train (exchange triumphs for funerals). [Poetical.] 


Note. — With verbs of exchanging com is often used, perhaps with a dififerent oo 
ception of the action: as, — aries . . . com croceo mutabit vellera luto (£cl. iv. 44), t 
ram shall change hisjleece/or [one dyed witii] ths yeiiow saffron. 

c. With verbs of buying and selling the simple Ablative of Pric 
must be used, except in the case of tanti, quanti, pluris, minOris : — 

qoanti earn emit? vill . . . quot mimls? quadragintft minis (PL £pid. 51] 
whai did he buy her for f Cheap. For how many mincB f Forty. 

AblatiTB of Specification 

418. The Ablative of Specification denotes that in respect to 

which anything i% or is done : — 

virtfite praecedunt (B. G. i. 1), they excel in courage. 

claudus alter5 pede (Nep. Ages. 8), lame of one foot. 

linguA haesitant^s, voce absoni (De Or. i. 115), hesitating in speech, harsh in 

sunt enim homines nOn r8 sed nomine (Off. i. 105), for they are men not in 

fact, but in name. 
m&ior natfi, older; minor n&tfi, younger (of. § 131. c). 
paulum aet&te prOgressI (Cat. M. 83), somewhat advanced in age. 
corpore senex esse poterit, animo numquam erit (id. 38), he may be an old man 

in body, he never will be [old] at heart. 

a* To this head are to be referred many expressions where the abla- 
tive expresses that in accordance with which anything is or is done : — 

med ifire, with perfect right; but, meo mod5, in my fashion. 

meA sententiA, in my opinion; but also more formally, ex mea sententil. 

[Here the sense is the same, but the first ablative is speeificalion, the 

second source."] 
propinquitate coniunct5s atque nAtfirA (Lael. 60), closely allied by kindred and j 

nature. [Here the ablative is not different in sense from those above, ' 

but no doubt is a development of mearus."] 
qui vincit viribus (id. 55), who surpasses in strength. [Here it is impossible j 

to tell whether yiribas is the means of the superiority or that in respect ' 

to which one is superior.] 

Note. — As the Romans had no such categories as we make, it is impossible to 
classify all uses of the ablative. The ablative of spec^cation (originally instru- 
mental) is closely akin to that of manner, and shows some resemblance to means and 

For the Supine in -S as an Ablative of Specification, see § 510. 

&. The adjectives dignus and indignus take the ablative: — 

vir patre, av5, mSioribus suls dignissimus (Phil. iii. 25), a man most worthy 

of his father, grandfather, and ancestors. 
t6 omnl hondre indignissimum iudicavit (Vat. 39), he judged you entirdy 

unworthy of epery honor. 

f§ 418, 419] ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE 268 

NoTiB 1. — So the verb dignor in poetry and later prose : as, — baud equidem t&li m5 
iignor hondre (Aen. i. 336), / do not deem myse^ worthy of such an honor, 

Note 2. — Dignus and indignus sometimes take the genitive in colloquial usage and 
in poetry : — 

curam dignissimam tuae virtutis (Balbus in Att. viii. 16), care most worthy of 

your noble character. 
dignus salutis (Plaut. Trin. 1163), worthy of safety. 

magnOrum baud umquam indignus avonun (Aen. zii. 649), never unworthy of my 
great ancestors. 

Ablative Absolute 

419. A noun or pronoun, with a participle in agreement, may 
be put in the Ablative to define the time or circumstances of an 
action. This construction is called the Ablative Absolute : — ^ 

Caesar, acceptis litteris, ndntium mittit (B. G. v. 46), having received the 

letter, Cassar sends a messenger (the letter having been received), 
quibos rebtts cognitis Caesar apud milit€s c5nti0n&tur (B. C. i. 7), having 

learned this, C<Bsar maJces a speech to the soldiers. 
fugatd omni equitatu (B. G. vii. 68), all the cavalry being put to flight. 
interfecto Indiltiomaro (id. vL 2), upon the death of Indutiomarus. 
n5ndum hieme confecta in finis Nerviorum contendit (id. vi. 3), though the 

winter was not yet over, he hastened into the territory of the Nervii. 
compressi [sunt] cCnatus null5 tumultu publice concitato (Cat. i. 11), the 

attempts were put down without exciting any general alarm. 
n6 vObis quidem omnibus re etiam turn probata (id. ii. 4), since at that time 

the facts were not yet proved even to aXl of you. 

Note. — The ablative absolute is an adverbial modifier of the predicate. It is, 
however, not grammatically dependent on any word in the sentence: hence its name 
absolute (absoliitas, i.e. free or unconnected). A substantive in the ablative absolute 
very seldom denotes a person or thing elsewhere mentioned in the same clause. 

a. An adjective, or a second noun, may take the place of the parti 
ciple in the Ablative Absolute construction : — * 

exiguft parte aestSltis reliquH (B. G. iv. 20), when but a small part of the sum- 
mer was left (a small part of the summer remaining). 

L. Domitio Ap. Claudio consuiibus (id. v. 1), in the consulship of Lucius Domi- 
tins and Appius Claudius (Lucius Bomitius and Appius Claudius [being] 
consuls). [The regular way of expressing a date, see § 424. g.] 

nil desperandum Teacro duce et auspice Teucrd (Hor. Od. i. 7. 27), there 
sJiould be no despair under Teucer^s leadership and auspices (Teucer 
being leader, etc.). 

iThe Ablative Absolute is perhaps of instrumental origin. It is, however, some- 
times explained as an outgrowth of the locative^ and in any event certain locative 
constructions (of place and time) must have contributed to its development. 

3 The present participle of esse, wanting in Latin (§ 170. &), is used in Sanskrit and 
Greek as in English. 


&• A phrase or clause, used substantively, sometimes occurs as' 
ablative absolute with a participle or an adjective : — 

incertd quid peterent (Li v. zxyiii. 36), as it was uncertain ivhat they skov^i 

aim at (it being uncertain, etc.). 
compertd vanum esse formidinem (Tac. Ann. i. 66), wJien it zoos fouTid M. 

the alarm was groundless, 
cur praetere&tur dSmdnstratd (Inv. ii. 34), when the reason for omitting it h<u 

been explained (why it is passed by being explained). 
NoTB. — This construction is yery rare except in later Latin. 

c. A participle or an adjective is sometimes used adverbially in 

the ablative absolute without a substantive : — 

consulto (Off. i. 27), on purpose (the matter having been deliberated on), 
mihi opt&to veneris (Att. xiii. 28. 3), you vnll come in accordance with my 

serSnd (Liv. xxxi. 12), under a clear sky (it [being] clear), 
nee auspicito nee lltatd (id. v. 38), with no auspices or faoorahle scLcrifice. 
tranquillS, ut &iunt, quilibet gubern&tor est (Sen. Ep. 85. 34), in good 

weather, as they say, any man 'a a pilot. 

420. The Ablative Absolute often takes the place of a Sub- 
ordinate Clause. 

Thus it may replace — 

1. A Temporal Clause (§ 541 ff.): — 

patre interfectd, [his] father having been killed. [This corresponds to coin 
pater interf actus esset, when his father had been kUled.] 

recentibus sceleris §ius vestigiis (Q. C. vii. 1. 1), while the traces of the crime 
were fresh. [Cf. dam recentia sunt vestigia.] 

2. A Causal Clause (§ 540) : — 

at ei qui Alesiae obsidebantur praeterit& diS qua auxilia su5rum exspecta- 
verant, consumpto omnI frfimentd, couciliO co&ctO consultabant (B. 6. 
vii. 77), but those who were under siege at Alesia, since the timey etc., 
Aod expired, and their grain had been exhausted, calling a council (see 5 
below), consulted together. [Cf. cum dies piaeterisset, etc.] 

BS^rSus, d§8p§rata pace, ad reparandas virls intendit animum (Q. C. iv. 6. 1), 
Darius, since he despaired of peace, devoted his energies to recruUing 
his forces. [Cf. com pacem desperaret.] j 

3. A Concessive Clause (§ 527) : — 

at eo repfignante fi^bat (c5nsul), immo vSrO eO fISbat magis (Mil. 34), but 

though he (Clodius) opposed, he (Milo) was likely to be elected consul; 

nay, rather, etc. 
turribus excitStis, tamen hSs altitiidO puppium ex barbarls nSvibus supe- 

rabat (B. G. iii. 14), aUhough towers had been buiU up, stiU the high 

stems of the enemy's ships rose above them. 


420--122] ABLATIVE OP PLACE 265 

4. A Conditional Clause (§ 521): — 
occurrSbat el, mancam et debilem praettlram futtb*am suam, cdnsnle llildne 

(Mil. 25), U occurred to him that his proetorship woiUd be maimed and 

feeble, if Milo were consul, [si Mild cdnsul esset.] 
qti& (regiOne) solMlcta licebit decurrere in illud mare (Q. C. ix. 3. 13), if this 

region is subdued, we shall be free to run down into that sea, 
qua. quidem detrictft (Arch. 28), if this be taken away, 

5. A Clause of Accompanying Circumstance: — 

ego haec & ChrysogonO me& sponte, remdtS Sez. Rdscid, quaeT(^ (Rose. Am. 
130), of my own accord, without rrference to Sextos Boscius (Sextus 
Roscius being put aside), I ask these questions of Chrysogonus. 

nee imperante nee sdente nee praesente doming (Mil. 29), without their master^ s 
giving orders, or knowing it, or being present, 

NoTB. — As the English Nomlnatiye Absolute is far less common than the Abla- 
tive Absolute in Latin, a change of form is generally required in translation. Thus 
the present participle is oftenest to be rendered in English by a relative clause with 
wTien or while; and the perfect passive participle by the perfect active participle. 
These changes may be seen in the following example : — 

At illi, intermisso spatio, imprHdenti- But they, Jiaving paused a space, while 

btis nostris atqne occupdtis in munitiOne our m/en were unaware and busied in for- 

castrOrum, subito se ex silvis eiecerunt ; - tifying the camp, suddenly threw them- 

impetHqxie in eOs facto qui erant in sta- selves out of the woods ; then, making an 

tiOne pro castris conlocati, acriter pug- attack upon those who were on guard in 

navemnt ; dudbuaque missis subsidiO front of the camp, they fought fiercely ; 

coJiortibus a Caesare, cum hae (perexi- and, though two cohorts had been sent by 

gvS intermisso loci ^atio inter se) cOn- Csesar as reinforcements, after these had 

stitissent, novo genere pugnae perterritis taken their position (leaving very little 

nostriSt per mediOs audacissime perrupe- space of ground between them), as our 

runt seque inde incolumis receperunt. — men were aiarmed by the strange kind 

Cabsab, B. G. V. 15. of fighting, they dashed most daringly 

through the midst of them and got off 
For the Ablative with Prepositions, see § 220. 

Ablative of Place 

421. The Locative Case was originally used (literally) to denote the p^ace w?iere 
and (figuratively) to denote the tims when (a development from the idea of place). 
But this case was preserved only in names of towns and a few other words, and the 
p2ace \Dhert is usually denoted by the Ablative. In this construction the Ablative was, 
no doubt, used at first without a preposition, but afterwards it became associated in 
most instances with the preposition in. 

422. In expressions of Time and Place the Latin shows a 
variety of idiomatic constructions (Ablative, Accusative, and Loc- 
ative), which are systematically treated in § 423 ft. 



423. Time when, or within which, is expressed by the Abla- 
tive; time how long]pij the Accusative. 

1. Ablative: — 

cGn8titt!it& di6, on the appointed day ; prlmH l^ce, at daybreak. 
quotft hOrft, at what o^clock f tertid. yigiliS,, in the third watch. 
tribus proximis annis (lug. 11), within the last three years. 
diSbus viginti quinque aggerem exstruxSrunt (B. G. vii. 24), within twenty- 
ftoe days they finished building a mound. 

2. Accusative : — 

dies continues trigintd., for thirty days together. 

cum triduum iter fScisset (B. G. ii. 16), when he had marched three days. 

Note. — The Ablative of Time is locative in its origin (§ 421) ; the Accusative is the 
same as that of the extent of space (§ 425). 

424. Special constructions of time are the following : — 

a. The Ablative of time within which sometimes takes in, and the 

Accusative of time how long per, for greater precision : — 

in diebus proximis decern (lug. 28), within the next ten days. i 

Itidl per decern dies (Cat. iii. 20), gam^for ten days. ^ 

h. Duration of time is occasionally expressed by the Ablative:— \ 

militSs quinque horis proelium sustinuerant (B. C. i. 47), the men had sus- 
tained the fight five hours. 

Note. — In this use the period of time is regarded as that within which the act is 
done, and it is only implied that the act lasted through the period. Cf . inter anuds 
quattuordecim (B. G. i. 26), for fourteen years. 

c. Time during which or within which may be expressed by the 

Accusative or Ablative of a noun in the singular, with an ordinal 

numeral : — 

qainto die, within [just] four days (lit. on the fifth day). [The Romans 

counted both ends, see § 631. d.] 
regnat iam seztum annum, he has reigned going on six years. 

d. Many expressions have in Latin the construction of time when^ 
where in English the main idea is rather of place : — 

pagna CanngnsI (or, apud Cannas), in the fight at CanwB. 
ladls ROmanis, at the Roman games. 
omnibus Gallicis bellls, in all the Gallic wars. 


, 426] TIME AND PLACE 267 

^« In many idiomatic expressions of time, the Accusative with ad, 
L^ or sub is used. Such are the following : — 

supplic&tiO decrSta est in KalencUla I&nuflrUls, a thankagiving was voted for 

the first of January. 
conygnerunt ad diem, they osaenMed on the [appointed] day, 
ad Yespemm, tiU evening ; sub yesperum, towards evening. 
sub idem tempos, aJbout the eame time; sub nocte'm, at nigWoM* 

f. Distance of time before or after anything is variously expressed : 

post (ante) tr^s annOs, post tertium annum, trSs post annOs, tertium post ' 
annum, tribus post annis, tertiO post annO (§ 414), three years after. 

tribus annIs (tertiO annO) post exsilium (postquam eiectus est), three years 
after his exile. 

his tribus proximls annIs, within the last three years. 

paucis annIs, a few years hence. 

abhinc annOs trgs (tribus annIs), ante hOs trSs annOs, three years ago. 

triennium est cum (trSs anni sunt cum), it is three years since. 

oct&yO mSnse quam, the eighth month after (see § 434. n.). 

g. In Dates the phrase ante diem (a. d.) with an ordinal, or the 
ordinal alone, is followed by an accusative, like a preposition ; and 
the phrase itself may also be governed by a preposition. 

The year is expressed by the names of the consuls in the ablative 
absolute, usually without a conjunction (§ 419. a) : — 

is diss erat a. d. v. Kal. Apr. (quintum KalendSA Aprllls) L. PIsOne A. GablniO 

c5nsulibus (B. G. i. 6), that day was the ^h before the calends of April 

(March 28), in the consulship of Pisa and Oabinius. 
in a. d. y. Kal. Nov. (Cat. i. 7), to the &th day b^ore the calends of November 

(Oct. 28). 
xy. Kal. Sextllls, the \Wt day before the calends of August (July 18). [Full 

form : quinto decimS die ante Kalend&s.] 

For the Roman Calendar, see § 631. 

Extent of Space 
425. Extent of Space is expressed by the Accusative : — 

fossas quindecim pedSs latSs (B. G. yii 72), trenches fifteen feet broad. 

prOgressus milia passuum circiter duodecim (id. y. 9), having advanced about 
twelve miles. 

in onmi yit& sua quemque & recta cOnscientia transyersum nngoem nCn 
oportet discedere (quoted in Att. xiii. 20), in all one^s life, one should 
not depart a naiVs breadth from straightforward conscience. 

KoTB. — This Accosatiye denotes the object through or over which the action takes 
place, and is kindred with the Accusatiye of the End of Motion (§ 427. 2). 


a. Measure is often expressed by the Gexutive of Qualiiy (§ 345. b) 
yftUum duodecim pedum (B. G. vii. 72), a rampart ofi/a>AnefeA (in height). 

h. Distance when considered as extent of space is put in the Accu- 
sative; when considered as degree of difference, in the Ablative 
(§ 414) : — 

mnia passuum tria ab eOnim castrls castra pOnit (B. G. i. 22), he pitches his 

camp three miles from their camp. 
quinque di€rum iter abest (Liv. zxz. 20), it is distant five days* march. 
trlgintft milibos passuum Infrft eum locum (B. G. vi. 35), thirty miles below 

that place (below by thirty miles). 

Relations of Place 

426. Relations of Place ^ are expressed as follows : — 

,/i. The pla^e from which, by the Ablative with ab, d6, or ex. 

2. The pla^e to which (or end of motion), by the Accusative with 
ad or in. 

3. The pla^^e where, by the Ablative with in (Locative Ablative). 

"Examples are : — 

1. Place from which : — 

ft septentriSne, from the north. 

cum Sl Ydbis discesserO (Cat. M. 70), wJien I leave you, 
dS prSvindfl decSdere, to come away from 07ie*s province, 
d§ monte, down from the mountain. 

negOti&tor ez Afiici (Yerr. ii. 1. 14), a merchant from Africa. 
ez BzitaimiA obsidSs mlsSrunt (B. G. iv. 38), they sent hostages from Britain. 
MOsa prGfluit ez monte YosegO (id. iv. 10), the Meuse (flows from) rises in 
the Vosges mx>untains. 

2, Place to which (end of motion): — 

nocte ad Neryios pervenerunt (B. G. ii. 17), they came by night to the Kenii 
adibam ad istom fandtim (Caec. 82), I was going to that estate. 
in Afiicam n&vig&vit, he sailed to Africa ; in Italiam profectus, gone to Italy. 
leg&tum in Treveros mittit (B. G. ill. 11), ^e sends his lieutenant into Vie 
[country of the] Treveri. 

^ Originally all these relations were expressed by the cases alone. The aocnsative, 
in one of its oldest functions, denoted the end of motion ; the ablative, in its proper 
meaning of separation, denoted the place from which, and, in its locative function, the 
place where. The prepositions* originally adverbs, were afterwards added to define 
more exactly the direction of motion (as in to usward, toward us), and by long asso* 
elation became indispensable except as indicated below. 

§ 426, 427] RELATIONS OF PLACE 269 

3. Place to^er^: — 
in liflc orbe yitam dCgit, he passed hie life in this city. 
si in GallU remanSrent (B. G. iv. 8), if they remained in OauL 
dum haeo in Venetis geruntor (id. ill. 17), while this toas going on among the 

0£pidum in insnU pofiitum (id. yii. 68), a town situated on an island. 


427. With names of tatvns and small islands^ and with domus 
axid Ills, the Relations of Place are expressed as follows : — 

1. • The place from which, by the Ablative without a preposition. 

2. The place to which, by the Accusative without a preposition. 
V 3. The place where, by the Locatiye.^ 

Examples are : — 

1 . Place from which : — 

R5nUl profectus, having set out from Rome; RSmft abesse, to be absent from 

domS abire, to leave hom^; rare reversus, having returned from the country. 

2. Place to toAtcA .* — 

cum Romam sextO di6 Mating ySnisset (Fam. zi. 6. 1), when he had come to 

Rome from Modena in Jive days (on the sixth day). 
DelG Rhodtim n&yigare, to sail from JDelos to Rhodes. 
riis ibO, I shaU go into the country. 
domom lit, he went home.^ [So, suSs domSs abire, to go to their homes.'\ 

3. Place where (or at which) : — 

ROmae, at Rome (ROma). AthSnls, at Athens (Ath^nae). 

Rhodi, at Rhodes (Rhodus). L&nuvl, at Lanuvium. 

SamI, at Samos. Cyprl, at Cyprus. 

Tlburi or Tibure, at Tibur. Curibus, at Cures. 

Philippis, at PhUippi. Caprels, at Capri (Capreae). 

domi (rarely domoi), at home. rCLrl, in the country. 

a. The Locative Case is also preserved in the following nouns, 
which are used (like names of towns) without a preposition : — 
belli, mllitiae (in contrast to domi), abroad^ in military service. 
humi, on the ground. vespeii (-e), in the evening. 

forls, out of doors. animi (see § 3&8). 

herl (-e), yesterday. tempeii, betimes. 

Cf. Infellcl arborl (Liv. i. 26), on the ill-omened (barren) tree; terrft marlque, 
by land and sea. 

^ The Locative has in the singular of the first and second declensions the same form 
as the Grenitire, in the plural and in the third declension the same form as the Dative 
or Ablative. (See p. 34, footnote.) 

> The English home in this construction is, like domnm, an old accusative of the 
eTid qf motion. 


428. Special iises of place /ro?n which^ to which^ and where ar 
the following : — 

a. With names of towns and smaU islands ab is often used u 
denote from the vicinity of^ and ad to denote towards^ to the neighbor 
hood of: — 

at & Mutiiia discederet (Phil. ziv. 4), that he should retire from Modena 

(which he was besieging), 
erat a Gergoviil despectus in castra (B. G. yii. 45), ^lere was from about 

Gergovia a view into the camp, 
ad Alesiam proficlscuntur (id. vii. 76), tJiey set ovtfor Alesia. 
ad Alesiam perveniunt (id. vii. 79), they arrive at Alesia (i.e. in the neighbor- 
hood of the town). 
D. Laelius cum classe ad Brandisiam y6nit (B. C. iii. 100), Decimus Ladm 
came to Brundisium with a fleet (arriving in the harbor). 

5. The general words urbs, oppidum, insula require a preposition 

to express the place from which, to which, or where : — 

ab (ex) urbe, from the city, in urbe, in the city. 

ad urbem, to the city. BOmae in urbe, in the city of Rome. 

in urbem, into the city. ROm& ex urbe, from the city of Rome, 

ad urbem ROmam (ROmam ad torbem), to the city of Rome. 

c. With the name of a country, ad denotes to the borders; in with 
the accusative, into the coimtry itself. Similarly ab denotes away 
from the outside ; ex, out of the interior. 

Thus ad Italiam penrenit would mean he came to the frontier, regardless of 
the destination ; in italiam, he went to Italy, i.e. to a place within it, to Rome, 
for instance. 

So ab ItaliA profectns est would mean he came away frwn thefrojdier, regard- 
less of the original starting-point; ex Italic, lie came from Italy, from within, as 
from Rome, for instance. 

d. With all names of places at, meaning near (not in), is expressed 
by ad or apud with the accusative. 

pdgna ad Cannas, the fight at Cannae. 

conchas ad Caietam legunt (De Or. ii. 22), at Caieta (along the sliore). 

ad (apud) Inferos, in the world below (near, or among, those below). ] 

ad foris, at the doors. ad ianuam, at the door. 

Note 1. —In the nmghborhood of may be expressed by circi with the aocosatJTe; 
among, by apud with the accusative: — 

apud GraecOs, among the Greeks. apud me, at my house. 

apud Solensis (Leg. ii. 41), at Soli. circa Capuam, round ahotU Capua- 
in T^!!o ■" ^"^.^^^i^^S an author, apud is regularly used ; in citing a particular i/»r4, 
x;4 Jn^S^nfmH!!'''''''^^ ''' Xenop^ion; but, in Xenophantis Oeconomic*, in 


3. Xiarge islands, and all places when thought of as a territory and 
s as a locality y are treated like names of countries : — 

in Sicilia, in Sicily. 

in Ithaca lepores illati moriuntur (Plin. H. N. yiii. 226), in Ithaca hares, when 
carried there, die, [Ulysses lived at Ithaca would require Ithacae.] 

y. The Ablative without a preposition is used to denote the place 
om uihich in certain idiomatic expressions : — 

cessisset patria (Mil. 68), he would have left his country. 

patria pellere, to drive ofd of the country. 

manu mittere, to emancipate (let go from the hand). 

g. The poets and later writers often omit the preposition with the 

lace froTa which oi to which when it would be required in classical 

rose : — 

m3jils Acheronte remissOs (Aen. v. 99), <Ae spirits returned from Acheron, 

ScythiH profecti (Q. C. iv. 12. 11), setting out from Scythia. 

Italiam LS.ymiaque vSnit litora (Aen. i. 2), lie came to Italy and the Lavinian 

terram. Hesperiam veni6s (id. ii. 781), you shall come to the Hesperian land, 
Aegyptom proficlscitur (Tac. Ann. ii. 59), he sets out for Egypt 

h. In poetry the place to which is often expressed by the Dative, 

occasionally also in later prose : — 

it clSlmor caelo (Aen. v. 451), a shout goes up to the sky, 
facilis descensus Avemo (id. yi. 126), easy is the descent to Avenrms, 
diad€ma capiti rep5nere iussit (Val. Max. y. 1. 9), Ae ordered him to put ba>ck 
the diadem on his head, 

i. The preposition is not used with the supine in -um (§ 609) and 

in the following old phrases: — 

exsequias Ire, to go to the funeral. InfitiSs Ire, to resort to denial. 

pessum Ire, to go to ruin. pessum dare, to ruin (cf. perdo). 

v6num dare, to sell (give to sale). [Hence" vendere.] 

ygnum Ire, to he sold (go to sale). [Hence yenire.] 

forSfl (used as adverb), out: as, — foras 6gredl, to go out of doors. 

suppeti&s advenlre, to come to one^s assistance. 

j. When two or more names of place are used with a verb of motion, 
each must be imder its own construction : — 

quadriduO quO baec gesta sunt res ad Chrysogonam in castra L. Sullae Vola- 
tenras defertur (Rose. Am. 20), within four days after this was done, the 
matter was reported to Chrysogonus in Sulla^s camp at Volaterroe. 

NoTB.— The accnsatiye with or without a preposition is often nsed in Latin when 
motion to a place is implied but not expressed in English (see kfV,). 


k* Domtim denoting the place to which, and the locatiTe domi^ 

be modified by a possessive pronoun or a genitive : — 

domam rigia (Deiot. 17), to the king^a hotise, [But also In M. Laecae 

(Cat i. 8), to Marcus L<Bca^8 house.] 
domi meae, at my house ; domi Caeaaris, at CcBsar^s house, 
domi auae yel aliinae, at his own or another^s house. 

NoTB. — At times when thns modified, and rogolarly when otherwise modified, zr^ 
domom or in dom5 is used : — 

in domom priv&tam conveniunt (Tac. H. iy. 55) , thep come together in aprivateko'u^ . 
in Marcl Crassi castissimft domS (Gael. 9), in the chaste honw of Marcus Crasguc 
[Of. ez Annian& MilOnis domO, § 902. e.] 

429. The place where is denoted by the Ablative without a 
preposition in the following instances: — 

1. Often in indefinite words^ such as locO, parte, etc. : — 

quibus loc5 positis (De Or. iii. 153), when these are set in position. 

quA parte belli vlcerant (Liv. xxi. 22), the branch of warfare in which thq 
were victoriotis. 

locia certis horrea c5nstituit (B. C. iii. 32), he established granaries in par- 
ticular places. 

2. Frequently with nouns which are qualified by adjectives (regv- 

larly when tOtus is used) : — 

media, orbe (Liv. i. 33), in the middle of the city. 
tOta Sidlift (Verr. iv. 61), throughout Sicily (in the whole of Sicily). 
tOt& Tarracinft (De Or. ii. 240), in all Tarracina. 

ctUictft Asia atque Graedi (Manil. 12), througfumt the whole of Asia aid 
Greece too. 

3. In many idiomatic expressions which have lost the idea of place: 

pendSmus animis (Tusc. i. 96), we are in suspense of mind (in our minds), 
socius peiiculis y5blscam aderO (lug. 85. 47), I wiU be present with you, a 
companion in dangers. 

4. Freely in poetry : — 

litore curyO (Aen. iii. 16), on the winding shore. 

antio s^clOsa relinquit (id. iii. 446), she leaves them shut up in the cove. 

Epiro, Hesperia (id. iii. 503), in Epirus^ in Hesperia. 

premit altum corde dolGrem (id. i. 209), he keeps down thepaindeep in his heaii 

a. The way by which is put in the Ablative without a preposition: 

yiA breyidre equitSs praemlsl (Fam. x. 9), I sent forward the caoalry by a 

sJiorter road. 
Aegaeo mar! trftiecit (Liv. xxxyii. 14), he crossed by way cf the JEgean Sea- 
prOyehimur pelagS (Aen. iii. 506), we saUfoHh over the sea. 
Note. —In this use the way by which is conoeiyed as the meona of 

429-481] RELATIONS OF PLACE 273 

Jpm Position is frequently expressed by the Ablative with ab (rai'ely 

:), properly meaning /row; — ^ 

a tergO, in the rear; ft sinistral, on the left havd. [Of. hinc, on this side.] 

a parte Pomp§i^&, on the side ofFompey. 

ex altera, parte, on the other Bide. 

mSgna ex parte, in a great degree (fromy i.e. in^ a great part). 

430. Verbs of placing^ though implying motion, take the con- 
truction of the place where : — 

Such are p0nO, locO^ collocO, statuO, c5nstitu($, etc. : — 

qui in side ac domo coUoc&vit (Par. 25), whx> pvi [one] into hie place and 

statuitur eques ROmanus in AprOnI conWviS (Yerr. Hi. 62), a Roman knight 

is brought into a banquet of Aproniua. 
Insula D€lo8 in AegaeG maxi posita (Manil. 65), the island of Delos, situated in 

the ^gean Sea. 
Bl in UnO Pompeid omnia p6ner€tis (id. 50), \f you made everything depend on 

Pompey alone. 

NoTB. — Compounds of pSnS take varioos oonstractions (see the Lexicon under 
each word). 

431. Several verbs are followed by the Ablative. 

These are acquiCscO, dSlector, laetor^ gaudeO, glOrior, nitor, stO^ mane9, 

fidO, c5nfid9, cSnsistO, contineor. 

Bominibns yeterum glOriantur (Or. 169), they glory in the names of the ancients. 

[Also, d6 diyitils (in yirtute, circi rem, aliquid, haec) glOridxi.] 
8p5 nitl (Att. iii. 9), to rdy on hope. 
ptfldentia fidens (Off. i. 81), trusting in prudence. 

Note. — The ablatiye with these verbs sometimes takes the preposition in (but 
fid5 in is late), and the ablative with them is probably locative. Thus, — in quibus 
causa nititur (Cael. 25), on whom the case depends. 

With several of these verbs the neuter Accusative of pronouns is often found. For 
fidS and c5nfid5 with the Dative, see § 367. 

a. The verbals frStus, contentus, and laetus take the Locative Abla- 
tive : — 

frgttis grfitii BrQtl (Att. v. 21. 12), relying on the favor of Brutus. 
laetus praedi, r^oicing in the booty. 

contentos sorte, content with his lot. [Possibly Ablative of Cause.] 
n5n fait contentos glSii& (Dom. 101), he was not content with the glory. 

Note.— So lataatoiy suely: as, — aliquO negStid intentus (Sail. Cat. 2), intent 
on some oedquUion. 

^ Apparently the direction whence the sensuous impression comes. 


Adverbs and Prepositions 

432. Certain Adverbs and Adjectives are sometimes used as 
Prepositions : — 

a. The adverbs pridiS, postridiS, propius, prozimS, less frequently tli€ 
adjectives propior and prozimus^ may be followed by the Accusative : — 

pridie Ndn&s MftiSa (Att. ii. 11), the day before the Nones of May (see § 631). 

po8tridi€ Itldos (Att. xvi. 4), the day after the games. 

propiUB pericalam (Liv. xxi. 1), nearer to danger, 

propior montem (lug. 49), nearer the hiU. 

proximuB mare Gceanum (B. G. iii. 7), nearest the ocean. 

Note. — PridiS and postridiS take also the Grenitiv^e (§ 359. b) . Propior, propins, proxi- 
mas, and proximS, take also the Dative, or the Ablative with ab : — 

propius Tibezi quam Thermopylis (Nep. Hann. 8), nearer to the Tiber than to Ther- 

Sagambri qui sunt proximi Rhfind (B. G. vi. 35), t?ie Sugambri, who are nearest 
to the Rhine. 1 

proximus & postremS (Or. 217), next to the last. ^ 

5. Usque sometimes takes the Accusative^ but fisque ad is much 

more common : — 

terminds flsque Libyae (lust. i. 1. 5), to the bounds of Libya. 

tisque ad castra hostium (B. G. 1. 51), to the enemy* s camp. \ 

c. The adverbs palam, procul, simul, may be used as prepositions \ 
and take the Ablative: — 

rem crSdit^ii i>alam popalo solvit (Liv. vi. 14), he paid the debi to his creditor I 

in the presence of the people. 
baud procul castns in modum mdnicipl ezstructa (Tac. H. iv. 22), not far 

from the camp, built up like a toion. 
simul ndbis habitat barbarus (Ov. Tr. v. 10. 29), close avwng us dwells the 


NoTB. — But simul regularly takes cum ; procul is usually followed by ab in classic 
writers ; and the use of palam as a preposition is comparatively late. 

<f. The adverb dam is found in early Latin with the Accusative, 
also once with the Genitive and once in classical Latin with the 
Ablative : — 

clam nitrem suam (Fl. Mil. 112), unknown to his mother, 
clsun paferts (id. Merc. 43), without his father^ s knowledge, 
clam Tint (B. C. ii. 32. 8), without your knowledge. 

1 For a list of PrepositionB with their ordinary uses, see § 221. 


433. Prepositions often retain their original meaning as Ad- 
verbs : — 

1. Ante and post in relations of time : — 

qu(38 paulO ante diximus (Brut. 32), whoi^ I mentioned a little while ago. 
post tribus diSbus, three days after (cf. § 424. /). 

2. Adverstts, circiter, prope : — 

nSmO adversus ibat (Liv. xxxvii. 13. 8), no one went out in opposition, 
circiter pars quarta (Sail. Cat. 56), about the fourth part. 
prope ezanim&tus, nearly l{feless. 

3. A or ab, off, in expressiotis of distance^ with the Ablative of 

Degree of Difference (§ 414) : — 

& mllibus passuum circiter du^bus R5md,n5ram adventum exspect3.bant 
(B. G. v. 32), at a distance of about two miles (about two miles off) they 
awaited the approach of the Romans. 

4. In general, prepositions ending in -ft : — 

Aeolus haec contrl (Aen. i. 76), thus ^olus in reply. 

forte fult itizta tumulus (id. iii. 22), there happened to he a mound close by. 

434. Some Prepositions and Adverbs which imply comparison 
are followed, like comparatives, by quam, which may be separated 
by several words, or even clauses. 

Such words are ante, prius, post, posteft, pridiS, postridiS ; also magis 
and prae in compounds : — 

neque ante dimlsit eum qaam fidem dedit (Liv. zzxix. 10), nor did he let him 

go until he gave a pledge. 
post diem tertium qaam dixerat (Mil. 44), the third day after he said it. 
CatG ipse iam servire quam pugn&re m&vult (Att. yii. 15), Cato himself by this 

time had rather be a slave than fight. 
6all5rum qaam R6man5rum imperia piaefexre (B. G. i. 17), [they] prtfer the 

rule of Gauls to that of Romans. 

NoTB. — The ablative of time is sometimes followed by quam in the same way 
(§ 424./) : as, — octavo mense quam (Liv. zzi. 15), within eight months after ^ etc.^ 

435. The following Prepositions sometimes come after their 
nouns : ad, citrS, circum, contra, dS, S (ex), inter, itizta, penes, propter, 
ultra; so regularly tenus and versus, and occasionally others: — 

[tlsos] qaem penes arbitrium est et ius et norma loquendl (Hor. A. P. 72), 
cuiom^ under whose control is the choice^ rights and rule of speech. 

ctdus 9. m6 corpus est crem&tum, qaod contr& decuit ab illd meum (Cat. M. 
84), whose body I burned [on the funeral pile], while on the contrary 
(contrary to which) mine should have been burned by him. 



436. The Syntax of the Verb leUXes chiefly to the use of the Moods (yrhicb. express 
the manner in which the action is-conceived) and the Tenses (which express the time ol ) 
the action). There is no difference in origin between mood and t^ise; and lience the 
uses of mood and tense frequently cross each other. Thns the tmses sometimes have 
modal significations (compare indicative in apodosis, § 517. c ; future for imperative, 
$ 449. b); and the moods sometimes express time (compare subjunctiYe in future con- 
ditions, \ 516. h, and notice the want of a future subjunctive). 

The parttit language had, besides the Imperative mood, two or more forms with 
modal signification. Of these, the Subjunctive appears with two sets of termina- 
tions, -A-m, -ft-s, in the present tense (moneam, dicam), and -e-m, -e-s, in the present 
(amem) or other tenses (essem, dixissem) . The Optative was formed by i^, I-, ^with the 
present stem (sim, dnim) or the perfect (dixeiim). (See details in §§ 168, 169.) 

Each mood has two general classes or ranges of meaning. The uses of the Sub- 
junctive may all be classed under the general ideas of toiU or desire and of action 
vividly conceived; and the uses of the Optative under the general ideas of wish and 
of action vaguely conceived. 

It must not be supposed, however, that in any given construction either the sub- 
junctive or the optative was deliberately used because it denoted conception or possi- 
bility. On the contrary, each construction has had its own line of development from | 
more tangible and literal forms of thought to more vague and ideal ; and by this 
process the mood used came to have in each case a special meaning, which was after- 
wards habitually associated with it in that construction. Similar developments have 
taken place in English. Thus, the expression I would do this has become equivalent 
to a mild command, while by analysis it is seen to be the apodosis of a present condi- 
tion contrary to fact (§ 517) : if I were you, etc. By further analysis, / wotdd do is 
seen to have meant, originally, I should Tuwe unshed (or / did wish) to do. 

In Latin, the original Subjunctive and the Optative became confounded in meaning 
and in form, and were merged in the Subjunctive, at first in the present tense. Then 
new tense-forms of the subjunctive were formed,^ and to these the original as well as 
the derived meanings of both moods became attached (see § 438). All the independent 
uses of the Latin subjunctive are thus to be accounted for. 

The dependent uses of the subjunctive have arisen from the employment of some 
independent subjunctive construction in connection with a main statement. Most fre- 
quently the main statement is prefixed to a sentence containing a subjunctive, as 
a more complete expression of a complex idea (§ 268). Thus a question implying a 
general negative (quin rogem? why shouldn't I ask?) might have the general nega- 
tive expressed in a prefixed statement (nfilla causa est, there is no reason) ; or abcat, 
let htm go away, may be expanded into sine abcat. When such a combination comes 
mto habitual use, the original meaning of the subjunctive partially or wholly dis- 
appears and a new meaning arises by implication. Thus, in misit ISgatSs qui dicerent, 

snbTimot-^ • **^''* '^ *^^ ^^•®* ^^^ ^^^^^ *^^>» *^® original hortatory sense of the 
Similar n^ ** Partially lost, and the mood becomes in part an expression of purpose, 
luctum Bul^^^^ ™^^ ^® ®®®" '" *^® growth of Apodosis. Thus, toU© banc opiaioneffl, 
remove, etc.). ^^^^^ ^^** notion, you wUl have done away with gri^ (i.e. if you 

For the signification of the tense-endings, see §§ 168, 169. 

§ 436, 437] 



Tlie Infinitive is originally a verbal noun (§ 461), modifying a verb like other nouns : 
olo -vidgre, lit. *' I wish f or-seeing " : compare English " what went ye out for to see ? " 
»u.t in Latin it has been surprisingly developed, so as to have forms for tense, and some 
roper modal characteristics, and to be used as a substitute for finite moods. 

Tlie other noun and adjective forms of the verb have been developed in various 
irays, which are treated under their respective heads below. 

Xlie proper Verbal Constructions may be thus classified : — 

I. Indicative: Direct Assertion or Question (§437). 

1. Exhortation or Command (§439). 

2. Concession (§440). 

3. Wish (§441). 

4. Question of Doubt etc. (§444). 

5. Possibility or Contingency (§446). 

II. Subjunctive: 

III. Imperative: 

IV. Infinitive: 

a. Independent 

b. Dependent 

a. conditions { ^r rfto^SK' '"" 

2. Purpose (with ut, ne) (§531). 

3. Characteristic (Belative Clause) (§535). 

4. Result (with ut, ut nSn) (§637). 

5. Time (with cum) (§546). 

6. Intermediate (Indirect Discourse) (§692). 

7. Indirect Questions or Commands (§§ 574, 

1. Direct Commands (often Subjunctive) (§448). 

2. Statutes, Laws, and Wills (§449. 2). 

3. Prohibitions (early or poetic use) (§ 450. a). 

a. Subject of esse and Impersonal Verbs (§§ 452, 454). 

6. Objective 
tions : 

c. Idiomatic 

1. Complementary Infinitive (§456). 

2. Indirect Discourse (with Subject Accusative) 


1. Purpose (poetic or Greek use) (§460). 

2. Exclamation t^ith Subject Accusative) 


3. Historical Infinitive (§463). 



437. The Indicative is the mood of direct assertions or ques- 
tions when there is no modification of the verbal idea except that 
of time. 

«• The Indicative is sometimes used where the English idiom 
would suggest the Subjunctive : — 

longom est, it would be tedious [if, etc.]; satius erat, it would have been bet- 
ter [if, etc.]; persequi possum, I might follow up [in detail]. 

Note. — Substitutes for the Indicative are (1) the Historical Infinitive (§ 463), and 
(2) the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse (§680). 

For the Indicative in Conditions, see §§ 615, 516 ; for the Indicative in implied Com- 
mands, see § 449. 6. 

278 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 438, 49 


438. The Subjunctive in general expresses the verbal idea with 
some modification^ such as is expressed in English by auxiliaries, 
by the infinitive, or by the rare subjunctive (§ 157. b). 

a. The Subjunctive is used independently to express — 

1. An Exhortation or Command {Hortatory Sttbjunctive: § 439^. 

2. A Concession (^Concessive Subjunctive: §440). 

3. A Wish {Optative Subjunctive: § 441). 

4. A Question of Doubt etc. {Deliberative Subjunctive: § 444). 

5. A Poyibility or Contingency {Potential Subjunctive: § 446). 
For the special idiomatic uses of the Subjunctive in ApodosiSi see § 514. 

5. The Subjunctive is used in dependent clauses to express — 

1. Condition: future or contrary to fact (§§ 516. 6, c, 517). 

2. Purpose {Finaly § 531). 

3. Characteristic (§ 535). 

4. Result {Consecutive, § 537). 

5. Time {Temporal, § 546). 

6. Indirect Question (§ 574). 

c. The Subjunctive is also used with Conditional Particles of Com- 
parison (§ 524), and in subordinate clauses in the Indirect Discoui'se 
(§ 580). 

Subjunctive in Independent Sentences 

Hortatory Subjunctive 

439. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used in the present tense 
to express an exhortation or a command. The negative is n6. 

hOs latrOn^s interfidlmus (B. G. vii. 38), let us kill these robbers. 
caveant intemperantiam, meminerint verecundiae (Off. i. 122), let them shun 
excess and cherish modesty. 

Note 1. — The hortatory subjunctiYe occurs rarely in the perfect (except in pro- 
hibitions: § 450) : as, — Epicunis h5c viderit (Acad. ii. 19), let Epicurus look to this. 

NoTB 2. — The term hortatory subjunctive is sometimes restricted to the first pe^ 
son plural, the second and third persons being designated as the jussive adjunctive; 
but the constructions are substantially identical. 

1 These modifications are of various kinds, each of which has had its own special 
development (cf . § 436) . The subjunctive in Latin has also many idiomatic uses (as in 
clauses of Result and Time) where the English does not modify the verbal idea at all, 
but expresses, it directly. In such cases the Latin merely takes a different view of 
the action and has developed the construction differently from the English. 


KoTS 3. — Once in Cioezo and occasionally in the poets and later writers the nega- 
re -with the hortatory subjunctive is ndn : as, ~ a legibus n6n recSdamus (Clu. 155) , let 
: not abandon the laws, 

€L. The Second Person of the hortatory subjunctive is used only 
I an indefinite whjeet, except in prohibitions, in early Latin, and in 
oetry : — 

iniuri3j9 fortunae, quas ferre nequeSs, defugiendO relinqa^s (Tusc. v. 118), the 
torongs of fortune, which you cannot oear, leave behind by flight. 

exori&re aliqois ultor (Aen. iv. 625), rise, some avenger. 

ist5 bon6 fitare dum adsit, cum absit nS xequiras (Cat. M. 33), use this hUss- 
ing while it is present ; when U is wanting do not regret it. 

doce&a iter et sacra Ostia pand&s (Aen. yi. 109), sJww us the way and lay open 
the sacred portals. 
For Negative Commands (prohibitions), ses § 450. 

6. The Imperfect and Pluperfect of the hortatory subjunctive 

denote an unfulfilled obligation in past time : — 

moreretor, ixiquiSs (Bab. Post. 29), he shovld have died, you will say. 
potiufi docSret (Off. iii. 88), he should rather have taught. 
ne poposcisses (Att. ii. 1. 8), you should not have asked. 
saltem aliquid d6 pondere detrftzisset (Fin. iv. 57), at least he should have 
taken something from the weight. 

NoTB 1. — In this construction the Pluperfect usually differs from the Imperfect 
only in more clearly representing the time for action as momentary or as past. 

Notb2. — This use of the subjunctive is carefully to be distinguished from the 
potential use (§ 446). The difference is indicated by the translation, should or ought 
(not would or might). 

440. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used to express a conceth 
sion,^ The Present is used for present time, the Perfect for past. 
The negative is n6. 

sit fur, sit sacrilegas : at est bonus imperfttor (Verr. v. 4), grant Jie is a 

1M^, a godless wretch : yet he is a good general. 
faerit alils ; tibi quandO esse coepit (Verr. ii. 1. 37), suppose he was [so] to 

Others ; when did he begin to be to you f 
ngmO is umquam fuit : nS fuerit (Or. 101), there never was such a one [you 

will say] : granted (let there not have been), 
ni sit summum malum dolor, malum cert6 est (Tusc. ii. 14), granted that 

pain is not the greatest evU, at least it is an evil. 

NoTB.--The concessive subjunctive with quamvis and licet is originally hortatory 
(§527. a, 6). 

For other methods of expressing Concession, see § 527. 

For the Hortatory Subjunctive denoting a Proviso, see § 528. a. 

1 Many scholars regard the concessive subjunctive as a development of the Optative 
Subjunctiye in a wish. 

280 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 44:1, 442 

Optative Subjunctive 

441. The Optative Subjunctive is used to express a Wish. The 
present tense denotes the wish as possible^ the imperfect as itTtac- 
complished in present time, the pluperfect as unaccomplished in 
past time. The negative is n6 : — 

ita vivam (Att. v. 16), as true as I live, so may I live. 

ne yiyam si scid (id. iv. 16. 8), I wish I may not live if I know. 

dl t£ perdoint (Deiot. 21), the gods confound thee! 

yaleant, valeant elves mel ; sint incolum^ (Mil. 93), farewell, farewell to ^ny 

feUow-citizens ; may they he secure from harm. 
61 facerent sine patre forem (Ov. M. viii. 72), would that the gods allowed me 

to be without a father (but they do not) I 

a. The perfect subjunctive in a wish is archaic : — 

dl faxint (Fam. xiv. 8. 3), may the gods grant. 

quod dl Omen averterint (Phil. xii. 14, in a religious formula), and may the 
gods avert this omen. 

442. The Optative Subjunctive is often preceded by the par- 
ticle utinam ; so regularly in the imperfect and pluperfect : — 

falsus utinam vatSs aim (Liv. zxi. 10. 10), I wish I may be a false prophet. 
utinam ClOdius viveret (Mil. 103), wouM that Clodius were now aiive. 
utinam m3 mortuum vidisses (Q. Fr. i. 3. 1), would you had seen me dead. 
utinam n@ v^rS sciiberem (Fam. v. 17. 3), would that I were not writing the 

Note. — Utinam non is occasionally used instead of utinam nS: as, — utinam bus- 
ceptus non essem (Att. ix. 9. 3), would that I had not been bom. 

a. In poetry and old Latin uti or ut often introduces the optative 
subjunctive ; and in poetry si or 6 si with the subjunctive sometimes 
expresses a wish : — 

ut pereat positum rObigine tSlum (Hor. S. ii. 1. 43), may the weapon unused 

perish with rust. 
81 angulus ille accedat (id. ii. 6. 8), if that corner might only be added! 
8l nunc s6 nobis ille aureus rd.mus ostendat (Aen. vi. 187), if now that golden 
branch would only show itself to us I 

Note 1. — The subjunctive with uti (ut) or utinam was originally deliberative, 
meaning how may 7, etc. (§ 444). The subjunctive with si or o si is a protasis (§ 512. a), 
the apodosis not being expressed. 

Note 2. — The subjunctive of wish without a particle is seldom found in the imper- 
fect or pluperfect except by sequence of tenses in Indirect Discourse (§585): as, — ac 
venerata Ceres, ita culmO surgeret altd (Hor. S. ii. 2. 124), and Ceres worshipped [with 
libations] that so alie might rise with tall stalk. [In addressing the goddess directly 
the prayer would be : ita surgas.] 


h» Velim and vellem, and their compounds, with a snbjunctiye or 
Lnfinitive, are often equivalent to an optative subjunctive : — 

velim tibi persuaders (Fam. ix. 13. 2), I should like to have you hdleoe (I 

should wish that you would persuade yourself). 
d6 Menedgmd veliem verum fuisset, de r^gina velim verum sit (Att. xv. 4. 4), 
about Menedemus I wish it had been true; oibout the queen I wish it may he. 
nSUem accidisset tempus (Fam. Hi. 10. 2), I wish the time never had come, 
maUem Cerberum metueres (Tusc. i. 12), I had rather have had you afraid 
of Cerberus (I should have prefen*ed that you feared Cerberus). 

Note. — Velim etc., in this use, are either potential subjunctives, or apodoses with 
tlie protasis omitted (§ 4^7. 1. n.). The thing wished may be regarded as a substantive 
clause used as object of the verb of wishing (§ 565. N.^). 

Deliberative Subjunctive 

443. The Subjunctive was used in sentences of interrogative form, at first when 
the speaker wished information in regard to the will or desire of the person addressed. 
The mood was therefore hortatory in origin. But such questions when addressed by 
the speaker to himself, as if asking his own advlc^ become deliberative or, not infre- 
quently, merely exclamatory. In such cases the mood often approaches the meaning 
of the Potential (see §445). In these uses the subjunctive is often csMed Deliberative 
or Dubitative. 

444. The Subjunctive is used in questions implying (1) douhty 
indignation^ or (2) an impossibility of the thing's being done. 
The negative is n5n. 

quid agam, indices? quo mS vertam (Verr. v. 2)^ what am I to do, judges f 

whither shall I turn f 
etiamne earn salutem (PI. Bud. 1275), shxill I greet her f 
quid hoc homine facias? quod supplicium dignum libidini §ius invenias (Verr. 

ii. 40), what are you to do with this man f what fit penalty can you devise 

for his wantonness f 
an ego nCn vemrem (Phil. ii. 3), what, should I not have come f 
quid dicerem (Att. vi. 3. 9), what was I to say f 
quis enira cglUveiit Tguem (Ov. H. xv. 7), who could conceal the flame f 

Note. — The hortatory origin of some of these questions is ob-^^lous. Thus, — quid 
faciamtts ?=faciamtt8 [aliqaid], quid ? let us do — what? (Compare the expanded form 
quid vis faciamus ? what do you wish us to do ?) Once established, it was readily trans- 
ferred to the past: quid faciam? what am I to do f quid facerem? what was I to do f 
Questions implying impossibility, however, cannot be distinguished from Apodosis 
(of. §617). 

a. In many cases the question has become a mere exclamation, 
rejecting a suggested possibility : 

mihi umquam bonOrum praesidium defuttirum putarem (Mil. 94), could 1 
think that the defence of good men would ever fail me I 
Note. — The indicative is sometimes used in deliberative questions : as, — quid ago, 
what am I to do? 


PotPiitlnl Sobjmictive 

445. Of the two principal uses of the Snbjonctiye in independent sentences t 
§ 436), the second, or Potential Sabjunctive,^ is fonnd in a yariety of sentence-fo] 
having as their common element the fact that the mood represents the action as mere] 
conceived or possible, not as desired {hortatory, optcUive) or real {indicative). Sock 
of these nses are very old and may go back to the Indo-European parent speech, bat 
no satisfactory connection between the Potential and the Hortatory and Optatire 
Snbjunctiye has been traced. There is no single English equivalent for the Potential 
Sabjnnctiye; the mood most be r^idered, according to circumstances, by the auxil- 
iaries would, shotUd, may, might, can, ootUd, 

446. The Potential Subjunctive is used to suggest an action 
as possible or conceivable. The negative is nOn. 

In this use the Present and the Perfect refer without distinction to 
the immediate/w^Mre; the Imperfect (occasionally the Perfect) to past 
time ; the Pluperfect (which is rare) to what might have happened. 

447. The Potential Subjunctive has the following uses : — 

1. In cautious or modest assertions in the first person singular of 

expressions of saying, thinking, or wishing (present or perfect) : — 

p&ce ta& dixerim (Mil. 103), I would say by your leave, 

hand sciam an (Lael. 51), I ahoiUd incline to think. 

ta velim sic existim^s (Fam. xii. 6), I sliouid like you to think so. 

certain afEirm^re n5n ausim (Liv. iii. 23), I should not dare to assert as sure. 

NoTB. — Vellem, nollem, or mallem expressing an unfulfilled wish in present time 
may be classed as independent potential subjunctive or as the apodosis of an unex- 
pressed condition (§ 521): as — veUem adesset M. AntOnius (Phil. i. 16), / could wish 
Antony were here. 

2. In the indefinite second person singular of verbs of saying, think- 
ing, and the like (present or imperfect) : — 

credos n5n d6 puerO scrlptum sed S, puerO (Plin. Ep. iv. 7. 7), you wordd 
think that it was written not about a hoy but by a boy. 

crSderes victCs (Liv. ii. 43. 9), you would have thought ihem conquered. 

reOs diceres (id. ii. 35. 5), you would have said they were culprits. 

videres susurrOs (Hor. S. ii. 8. 77), you might have seen them whispering (lit. 

fretd assimil9,re possis (Ov. M. v. 6), you might compare it to a sea. 

3. With other verbs, in all persons, when some word or phrase in 
the context implies that the action is expressed as merely possible oi 
conceivable : — ^ 

1 The name Potential Subjunctive is not precisely descriptive, but is fixed fa 
grammatical usage. 

§§ 447, 448] IMPERATIVE MOOD 288 

nil ego contalerim itlcundS sinus amIcO (Hor. S. i. 6. 44), when in my senses 
I sJiovld compare nothing with an interesting friend. 

forttinaxn citius reperiSs quam retinefis (Pub. Syr. 168), you may sooner find 
fortune than keep it. 

aliquis dicat (Ter. And. 640), somebody may say. 

Note. — In this use the subjunctive may be regarded as the apodosis of an unde- 
veloped protasis. When the conditional idea becomes clearer, it finds expression in 
a formal protasis, and a conditional sentence is developed. 

«. Forsitan^ perhaps y regularly takes the Potential Subjunctive 
except in later Latin and in poetry, where the Indicative is also 
common ; — 

forsitan quaeratis qui iste terror sit (Rose. Am. 6), you may perhaps inquire 

what this alarm is. 
forsitan temerg fecerim (id. 31), perhaps I have acted rashly. 

Note. — The subjunctive clause with forsitan (=for8 sit an) was originally an Indi- 
rect Question : it would be a chance whether ^ etc. 

&• TortBi^^i^, perhaps, is regularly followed by the Indicative; some- 
times, however, by the Subjunctive, but chiefly in later Latin: — 
luaeres fortasse (Fam. xv. 4. 13), perhaps you will ask. 

Note. — Other expressions tor perhaps are (1) forsan (chiefly poetical; construed 
with the indicative or the subjunctive, more commonly the indicative), fors (rare and 
poetical ; construed with either the indicative or the subjunctive). Forsit (or fors sit) 
occurs once (Hor. S. i. 6. 49) and takes the subjunctive. Fortasse is sometimes followed 
by the infinitive with subject accusative in Plautus and Terence. Fortassis (rare ; con- 
strued like fortasse) and fortasse an (very rare ; construed with the subjunctive) are 
also .found. 


448. The Imperative is used in Commands and Entreaties : — 

•cSnsulite vObls, prSspicite patriae, conservftte v5s (Cat. iv. 3), hxive a care for 

yourselves^ guard the country^ preserve yourselves. 
^Cc, Marce Tulli, sententiam, Marcus Tullius^ state your opinion. 
t6 ipsum concute (Hor. S. i. 8. 35), examine yourself. 
yive, valeque (id. ii. 6. 110), farewell, bless you (live and be well) ! 
miserere animi nOndlgna ferentis (Aen. ii. 14A),pity a soulbearing undeserved 


a* The third person of the imperative is antiquated or poetic : — 

oUls salus popul! snprgma l6z estd (Legg. iii. 8), the safety of the people shaU 
he their first law. 

i&sta imperia sunto, eisque elves niodestS pftrento (id. iii. 6), let there be law- 
ful authorities^ and let the citizens strictly obey them. 

Note. — In prose the Hortatory Subjunctive is commonly used instead (§ 439). 

284 SYNTAX: THE VERB ^ £§ 

449. The Future Imperative is used in commands, etc., whei 
there is a distinct reference to future time : — 

1. In connection with some adverb or other expression that indi- 
cates at what time in the future the action of the imperative sJiclU take 
place. So especially with a future, a future perfect indicative, or 
(in poetry and early Latin) with a present imperative : — 

cr&B petit5, dabitur (PI. Merc. 760), ask to-morrow [and] it shall be given. 
cum valetddinl cOnsulaeris, turn consulito nftyigatiODi (Fam. xvi. 4. 3), tohen 

you have attended to your health, then look to your sailing. 
Phyllida mitte mihl, meiis est nat&lis, lolla ; cum faciam vitula pr5 friig^ibiis, 

ipse yenitS (Eel. iii. 76), send PhyUisto me, it is my birthday, Zolicts; 

when I [shall] sacrifice a heifer for the harvest, come yourself. 
die quibus in terrls, etc., et Phyllida sOlus hab€t5 (id. iii. 107), teU in 'what 

landA, etc., and have Phyllis for yourself. 

2. In general directions serving for all time, as Precepts, Statutes^ 
and Wills : — 

is iQris civllis cOstOs estd (Legg. iii. 8), let him (the praetor) be the guardian 

of civU right, 
BoreSl flante, n6 arfttd, sSmen ne iacito (Plin. H. N. zviii. 334), when the north 

loind blows, plough not nor sow your seed. 

a* The verbs 8ci5, memini, and habe5 (in the sense of consider^ regu- 
larly use the Future Imperative instead of the Present : — i 

fUiolO mS auctum scitS (Att. i. 2), learn that I am blessed with a little boy. 

sic habet5, mi TirO (Fam. xvi. 4. 4), so understand it, my good Tiro. \ 

dQ palla memento, amd,b5 (PL Asin. 939), remember, dear, about the gown. 

h. The Future Indicative is sometimes used for the imperative ; ' 

and quin (why 7iot ?) with the Present Indicative may have the force i 

of a command : — j 

si quid acciderit novi, fades ut sciam (Fam. xiv. 8), you will let me know if ' 

anything new happens. I 

quIn accipis (Ter. Haut. 882), here, take it (why not take it?). ' 

c. Instead of the simple Imperative, cura ut, fac (fac ut), or velim, 
followed by the subjunctive (§ 565), is often "used, especially in col- 
loquial language : — 

cura ut Romae sis (Att. i. 2), take care to be at Rome. 

fac ut valetudinem ciir6s (Fam. xiv. 17), see that you take care of your heaUh. 

domi adsitis facite (Ter. Eun. 606), be at home, do. 

eum mihi yelim mittas (Att. viii. 11), I wish you would send it to me. 

For commands in Indirect Discourse, see § 588. 

For the Imperative with the force of a Conditional Clause, see § 521. 6. 


Prohibition (Negative Command) 

450. Prohibition is regularly expressed in classic prose (1) by 
Loli with the Infinitive, (2) by cav6 with the Present Subjunctive, 
)r (3) by ng with the Perfect Subjunctive : — ^ 

(1) noli putare (Lig. 33), do not suppose (be unwilling to suppose). 
noU impudSns esse (Fam. xii. 30. 1), don''t he shameless. 

nolite cogere sociOs (Verr. ii. 1. 82), do not compel the allies. 

(2) cave putes (Att. vii. 20), don't suppose (take care lest you suppose). 
cave IgnoscSs (Lig. 14), do not pardon. 

cave festines (Fam. xvi. 12. 6), do not he in haste. 

(3) ne necesse habueris (Att. xvi. 2. 5), do not regard it as necessary. 
ne 818 admiratus (Fam. vii. 18. 3), do not he surprised. 

hoc facitO; hoc ne feceiis (Div. ii. 127), thoushaU do this^ thou shalt not do that. 

ne Apellae quidem dixeris (Fam. vii. 25. 2), do not tell Apella even. 

ne v5s quidem mortem timaeritis (Tusc. L 98), nor must you fear death. 

All three of these constructions are well established in classic prose. The first, 
which is the most ceremonious, occurs oftenest; the third, though not discourteous, is 
usually less formal and more peremptory than the others. 

Note 1. — Instead of noli the poets sometimes use other imperatives of similar 
meaning- (cf. §467. a): — 

parce pias scelerare manus (Aen. iii. 42), /orftear to defile your pious hands. 
cetera mitte loqui (Hor. Epod. 13. 7) ^ forbear to say the rest. 
fttge quaerere (Hor. Od. i. 9. 13), do not inquire. 
Note 2. — Cave ne is sometimes used in prohibitions ; also vldS nS and (colloquially) 
fac ne : as, — fac nS quid aliud cures (Fam. xvi. 11), see that you attend to nothing else. 
Note 3. — The present subjunctive with ne and the perfect with cave are found in 
old writers ; nS with the present is common in poetry at all periods : — 
ne exspectetis (PI. Ps. 1234), do not wait. 
n5 metuas (Mart. Ep. i. 70. 13), do not fear. 
cave quicquam responderis (PL Am. 608), do not make any reply. 
Note 4. — Other negatives sometimes take the place of ne : — 
nihil ignOveris (Mur. 65), grant no pardon (pardon nothing), 
nee mihi illud dixeris (Fin. i. 25), and do not say this to me. 
Note 6. — The regular connective, and do notf is ngve. 

a. The Present Imperative with n6 is used in prohibitions by early 
writers and the poets : — 

d6 time (PI. Cure. 520), don't be afraid. 

nimium n6 crede color! (Eel. ii. 17), trust nx)t too much to complexion. 

equO nS crSdite (Aen. ii. 48), trust not the horse. 

b. The Future Imperative with n5 is used in prohibitions in laws 
and formal precepts (see § 449. 2). 

} In prohibitions the subjunctive with n6 is hortatory; that with cavS is an object 
clause (cf . §§ 450. n. 2, 566. N. i ) . 



286 SYNTAX. THE VERB [88«li 


451. The Infinitive is properly a noun denoting the action of the yerb abstractly 
It differs, however, from other abstract nouns in the following points : (1) it ofte:: 
admits the distinction of tense; (2) it is modified by adverbs, not by defectives; (3) it 
governs the same case as its verb ; (4) it is limited to special constructions. 

The Latin Infinitive is the dative or locative case of such a noun ^ and was orig:- 
nally used to denote Purpose ; but it has in many constructions developed into a sab- 
stitute for a finite verb. Hence the variety of its use. 

In its use as a verb, the Infinitive may take a Subject Accusative (§ 397. e), origi- 
nally the object of another verb on which the Infinitive depended. Thus iabeo ti vaSre 
is literally / command you for being well (cf. substantive clauses, § 562. n.). 

Infinitive as Noun 

452. The Infinitive, with or without a subject accusative, may 
be used with est and similar verbs (1) as the Subject, (2) in Appo- 
sition with the subject, or (3) as a Predicate Nominative.^ 

1. As Subject : — 

dolSre malum est (Fin. v. 84), to svffer pain is an evU. 

bellum est sua vitia nbsae (Att. ii. 17), ifs a fine thing to kmow one*s own 

praestat compdnere flucttis (Aen. i. 135), it is better to calm the waves, 

2. In Apposition with the Subject : — i 

proinde quasi iniuriam facere id d€mum esset imperiO uti (Sail. Cat. 12). 
jttst as if this and this alone, to commit iiyusticef were to use power. I 
[Here facere is in apposition with id.] 

3. As Predicate Nominative : — 

id est convenienter nS,turae vivere (Fin. iv. 41), that is to live in ccnformUy 
with nature. [Cf. uti in the last example.] 

Note 1. — An infinitive may be used as Direct Object in connection with a Predi- 
cate Accusative (§ 393), or as Appositive with such Direct Object: — 

istuc ipsum n5n esse cum fueris miserrimum puto (Tusc. i. 12), for ItMnk this 
very thing most wretched, not to be wlien one has been. [Here istnc ipsun 
belongs to the noun non esse.] 
miserari, invldSre, gestire, laetaii, haec omnia morbOs Oraeci appellant (id. iii. 7), 
to feel pity, envy, desire, joy, — all these things the Greeks call diseases. 
[Here the infinitives are in apposition with haec.] 

1 The ending -* (amslre, monSre, regere, aadire) was apparently locative, the ending -i 
(amari, mongii, regi, audiri) apparently dative ; but this difference of case had no signifi- 
cance for Latin syntax. The general Latin restriction of the i-infinitives to the passiTO 
was not a primitive distinction, but grew up in the course of time. 

a In these constructions the abstract idea expressed by the infinitive is represented 
as having some quality or belonging to some thing. 


N'OTB 2. — An Appositive or Predicate nonn or adjective nsed with an infinitive in 
r of these constructions is put in the Accusative, wliether the infinitive has a sub- 
b expressed or not. Thus, — n6n esse cupidum pecunia est (Par. 61), to be free from 
ires (not to be desirous) is money in hand, [No Subject Accusative.] 

cr. The infinitive as subject is not common except with est and 
[nilar verbs. But sometimes, especially in poetry, it is used as the 
bject of verbs which are apparently more active in meaning : — 

qu5s omnis eadem cupere, eadem odisse, eadem metuere, in tlnum coegit 
(lug. 31), aU ofw'x)m the fact of desiring, hating, and fearing the same 
things has united, into one. 

ingenuas didicisse fidsliter artis emollit m5rSs (Ov. P. ii. 0. 48), faiUrfuUy to 
have learned liberal arts softens the manners. 

posse loqui eripitur (Ov. M. ii. 483), the power of speech is taken away. 

453. Rarely the Infinitive is used exactly like the Accusative 
►f a noun : — 

be&t6 vivere alii in alio, vSs in voluptate pOnitis (Fin. ii. 86), a happy life 
different [philosophers] base on different things, you on pleasure. 

quam multa . . . f acimus causa amic5rum, precari ab indignO, supplic&re, etc. 
(Lael. 57), Jiow many things we do for our friends^ sake, a^k favors from 
an unworthy person, resort to entreaty, etc. 

nihil explOratum habeas, ne amare quidem aut amSii (id. 07), you have noth- 
ing assured, not even loving and being loved. 

NoTB. — Many complementary and other constructions approach a proper accusa- 
tive use of the infinitive, but their development has been different from that of the 
examples above. Thus, — avaritia . . . superbiam, crudelitatem, deOs neglegere, omnia 
venalia babere edocuit (Sail. Cat. 10), avarice taught pride, cruelty ^ to neglect the gods, 
and to hold everything at a price. 

Infinitive as Apparent Subject of Impersonals 

454. The Infinitive is used as the apparent Subject with many 
impersonal verbs and expressions : " 

Such are libet, licet, oportet, decet, placet, visum est, pudet, piget, 

Decesse est, opus est, etc. : — 

libet mihi cdnsiderire (Quinct. 48), it suits me to consider, 

necesse est moii (Tusc. ii. 2), it is necessary to die. 

quid attinet glOrios€ loqui nisi constanter loquare (Fin. 11. 89), what good does 

it do to talk boastfully unless you speak consistently f 
neque m6 vixisse paenitet (id. 84), I do not feel sorry to have lived. 
gubemare m6 taedebat (Att. ii. 7. 4), I was tired of being pilot. 

NoTB.— This use is a development of the Complementary Infinitive (§466); but 
the infinitives approach the subject construction and may be conveniently regarded as 
the subjects of the impersonals. 

288 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§ 45 

455. With impersonal verbs and expressions that take the In 
finitive as an apparent subject, the personal subject of the actioj 
may be expressed — 

1. By a Dative, depending on the verb or verbal phrase : — 

rogant at id sibi facere liceat (B. 6. i. 7), they ask that it be aUowed them to 

do this. 
nOn lubet enim mihi d6plOr&re vltam (Cat. M. 84), for U does not please nu 

to lament my life, 
Tlsum est mihi d6 senectCLte aliquid c5nscrlbere ( id. 1), it seemed good to 

me to write something about old age. 
quid est tarn secundum n&ttlraDi quam senibus Smorl (id. 71), whctt is so 

much in accordance with nature as for old men to die f 
exstingul homini su5 tempore optabile est (id. 85), for a man to die at the 

appointed time is desirable. 

2. By an Accusative expressed as the subject of the infinitive or 
the object of the impersonal : — 

sX licet vivere eum quern Sex. Naevius n6n volt (Quinct. 04), if it is aUotoed 

a man to live against the will of Sextus Ncevius. 
ndnne oportuitpraescisse mg ante (Ter. And. 239), ought I not to have known 

beforehand f 
Srttorem irSscI minimg decet (Tusc. iv. 54), it is particularly unbecoming for 

an orator to lose his temper. 
puderet m5 dicere (N. D. i. 109), I sliould be ashamed to say. | 

cOnsilia ineunt quorum eos ift vestlgiO paenit^re necesse est (B. G. iv. 5), they ' 

form plans for which they must at once be sorry. j 

NoTB. — Libet, placet, and visttin est take the dative only; oportet, pudet, piget, and 
generally decet, the accusative only ; licet and necesse est take either case. 

a. A predicate noun or adjective is commonly in the Accusative ; 
but with licet regularly, and with other verbs occasionally, the Dative 
is used : — 

expedit bonas esse vObIs (Ter. Haut. 888), it is for your advantage to be good. 
licuit esse otiosd Themistocli (Tusc. i. 33), Themistocles might have been inac- 
tive (it was allowed to Themistocles to be inactive), 
mihi neglegenti esse nOn licet (Att. i. 17. 6), I must not be negligent. [But 

also neglegentem.] ^ 

ctir his esse libcrSs nOn licet (Flacc. 71), why is it not aXUmed these men to 

be free? \ 

nOn est omnibus stantibus necesse dicere (Marc. 33), it is not necessary for 
all to speak standing. I 

NoTB. — When the subject is not expressed, as being indefinite (one, anybody), a 
predicate noun or adjective is regularly in the accusative (cf. §462. 3. n.2): as,— 
vel pace vel bello clarum fieri licet (Sail. Cat. 3), one can become iUustrioua either in 
peace or in war. 


Complementary Infinitive 

456. Verbs which imply another action of the same subject to 
oroplete their meaning take the Infinitive without a subject 

Such are verbs denoting to he able, dare, undertake, remerriber, for- 
^et^y he accustomed, begin, continue, cease, hesitate, learn, know how, 
^ecLTj and the like : — 

h5c queO dicere (Cat. M. 32), this I can say. 

mitt5 quaerere (Rose. Am. 53), I omit to ask, 

vereor laudare praesentem (N. D. i. 68), I fear to praise a man to his face, 

6r5 ut matures yenire (Att. iv. \),Ibeg you will make haste to come. 

oblivisci non possum quae vol5 (Fin. ii. 104), I cannot forget that which 1 

d^sine id m6 docere (Tusc. ii. 20), cease to teach me that. 
dicere sol^bat, he used to say. 
aude5 dicere, I venture to say. 
loqui posse coepi, I began to be able to speak. 

Note. — The peculiarity of the Complementary Infinitire construction is that no 
Subject Accusative is in general admissible or conceivable. But some infinitives 
usually regarded as objects can hardly be distinguished from this construction when 
"they have no subject expressed. Thus vol5 dicere and volo m6 dicere mean the same 
-thing, / wish to speak, but the latter is object-infinitive, while the former is not 
apparently different in origin and construction from queo dicere (complementary infin- 
itive), and again volo eum dicere, / wish him to speak, is essentially different from 
either (cf. §563. b), 

457. Many verbs take either a Subjunctive Clause or a Com- 
plementary Infinitive, without difference of meaning. 

Such are verbs signifying willingness, necessity, propriety, resolve, 

command, prohibition, effort, and the like (cf . § 563) : — 

dScemere optS.bat (Q. C. iii. 11. 1), ^e was eager to decide. 
optavit ut toUeretur (Off. iii. 94), he was eager to be taken up, 
oppugnare contendit (B. G. v. 21), he strove to take by storm. 
contend it ut caperet (id. v. 8), he strove to take. 
bellum gerere cOnstituit (id. iv. 6), he decided to carry on war. 
cdnstitueram at manSrem (Att. xvi. 10. 1), I had decided to remain. 

Note 1. — For the infinitive with subject accusative used with some of these verbs 
instead of a complementary infinitive, see § 663. 

Note 2. — Some verbs of these classes never take the subjunctive, but are identi- 
cal in meaning with others which do : — 

e6s quGs tutiri debent deserunt (Off. i. 28), they forsake thx>se whom they ought to 

aveO piigiiare (Att. ii. 18. S),I*m anxious to fight. 

290 SYNTAX: THE VEBB [!§^6r- 

a. In poetry and later writers many verbs may have the m,i 
tive, after the analogy of verbs of more literal meaning that 1 
it in prose : — 

furit t6 reperire (Hor. Od. i. 15. 27), ?ie rages to find thee. [A forcible ^waj 

ol saying cupit (§§ 457, 663. 6).] 
saeyit exstingaere nOmen (Ov. M. i. 200), he rages to blot out the ruvne. 
fuge quaerere (Hor. Od. i. 9. 13), forbear to ask (cf. § 450. n. i). 
parce pi&s scelerire manus (Aen. iii. 42), forbear to d^Ue your pious hands. 

458. A Predicate Noun or Adjective after a complementajj 
infinitive takes the case of the subject of the main verb: — | 

flerique studebam ^ius prudenti& doctior (Lael. 1), I was eager to hecimw ■ 

more wise through his wisdom. 
BciO quam soleds esse occup&tas (Fam. xvi. 21. 7), J know how busy you 

usually are (are wont to be). i 

breyis esse labOrO, obscurus fid (Hor. A. P. 25), / struggle to be bri^, I becomi^ 

obscure. . 

Infinitive with Subject Accusative I 

459. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative is used with verbs 
and other expressions of hnowiiig^ thinking^ telling^ and perceiving 
{Indirect Discourse^ § 579) : — 

dicit montem ab hostibus tenSii (B. 6. i. 22), he says that the hiU is heid hK a 
the enemy. [Direct : mons ab hostibus tengtur.] f 

Infinitive of Purpose ' 

460. In a few cases the Infinitive retains its original meaning I 
of Purpose. j 

a. The infinitive is used in isolated passages instead of a subjunc- j 
tive clause after habeO, d5, ministrS : — y 

tantum habeO poUicSri (Fam. i. 5 a. 3), so much I have to promise. [Here 

the more formal construction would be quod poUicear.] 
ut lovi bibere ministraret (Tusc. i. 65), to sertie Jove with wirie (to drink), 
meridig bibere dato (Cato R. R. 89), give (to) drink at noonday. ^ 

PlesV^^**^^' s'l^us, and their compounds, and a few other partici- 
thev ^^^^ ^^ adjectives), take the infinitive like the verbs from whicfi 

^»uSiSf^*" ^^* **^«^® (Quint. 8), that wAicA they are ready to do. 
^^iiH *^" "operari (B. G. vi. 24), used to being conquered. 
^^Pifts bLni!!".®'^®^^ <Ae"' "^* 641), t£«ai to being harnessed to the ctotot 
^" consuetas (B. Afr. 73), forces accustomed to fighting 


^^^OTB. — In prose these words more commonly take the Gerand or Grerundiye con- 
rix<3-t;ion (§ 503 ff.) either in the genitivei the dative, or the accusative with ad: — 
xusuetus nlvisandi (B. G. v. 6), unused to making voyages. 
flOendis liberis sueti (Tac. Ann. ziv. 27), accustomed to supporting children, 
€X>rpora insueta ad onera portanda (B. C. i. 78), bodies unused to carry burdens. 

<5. The poets and early writers often use the infinitive to express 
oirpose when there is no analogy with any prose construction : — 

fUius intrd iit videre quid agat (Ter. Hec. 345), your son has gone in to see whxU 

he is doing. [In prose : the supine ^sum.] 
n5n ferrO LibycOs populare Pen9,tis vSnimus (Aen. i. 527), we have not come 

to lay wcvste with the sword the Libyan homes. 
iGricam ddnat habere yir5 (id. v. 262), he gives the hero a breastplate to wear. 

[In prose: habendam.] 

l^OTB. — So rarely in prose writers of the classic period. 

For the Infinitive used instead of a Substantive Clause of Purpose, see § 457. 

For tempus est abiie, see § 504. n. ^, 

Peculiar Infinitives 

461. Many Adjectives take the Infinitive in poetry, following a 
Greek idiom : — - 

durus compdnere versiis (Hor. S. i. 4. 8), harsh in composing verse, 
cantari dignus (Eel. v. 54), worthy to be sung. [In prose : qui cantetur.] 
fortis tiactare serpentis (Hor. Od. i. 87. 26), brave to handle serpents. 
cantaie periti (Eel. x. 32), skiUed in song. 
facilgs aurem praebere (Prop. iii. 14. 15), ready to lend an ear. 
nescia vine! pectora (Aen. zii. 527), hearts not knowing how to yiM. 
te vidSre aegrOti (Plaut, Trin. 75), sick of seeing you. 

«• Rarely in poetry the infinitive is used to express result : — 

fingit equum docilem magister ire viam qua mOnstret eques (Hor. Ep. i. 2. 64), 
the trainer makes the horse gentle so as to go in the road the rider points 

hlc levare . . . pauperem labOribus vocatus audit (Hor. Od. ii. 18. 88), ?ie, 
when caUedy hears, so as to relieve the poor man of his troubles. 

NoTX. — These poetic constructions were originally regular and belong to the Infin- 
itive as a noun in the Dative or Locative case (§ 451). They had been supplanted, 
however, by other more formal constructions, and were afterwards restored in part 
through Greek influence. 

6. The infinitive occasionally occurs as a pure noun limited by a 

demonstrative, a possessive, or some other adjective : — 

hoc n5n dolSre (Fin. ii. 18), this freedom from pain. [Cf. tOtum hOc beSlte 

vfvere (Tosc. v. 88), this whole matter of the happy life.] 
nostmm vivere (Pers. i. 0), our life (to live), 
scire taum (id. 1. 27), your knowledge (to know). 

292 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§ 4^, « 

Ezdamatory Infinitive 

462. The Infinitive, with Subject Accusative/ may be used in 
Exclamations (cf. § 397. d) : — 

te in tantas aerumnSs propter m6 incidisse (Fam. ziv. 1), alas^ that y<ni 

sJiould have fallen into such grief for me ! 
m§ne incept5 desisteie victam (Aen. i. 37), what ! I beaten desist from my 


NoTB 1. — The interrogative particle -ne is often attached to the emphatic word (as 
in the second example). 

NoTB 2. — The Present and the Perfect Infinitive are used in this construction with 
their ordinary distinction of time (§ 486). 

a. A subjunctive clause, with or without ut, is often used ellip- 
tically in exclamatory questions. The question may be introduced 
by the interrogative -ne : — 

quamquam quid loquor ? te at uUa rSs frangat (Cat. i. 22), yet why do 1 

speak f [the idea] that anything shovM bend you ! 
egone at t6 interpellem (Tusc. ii. 42), what^ I interrupt you f 
ego tibl ir&scerer (Q. Fr. L 3), I angry with you f 

Note. — The Infinitive in exclamations usually refers to something actually oc- 
curring ; the Subjunctive, to something contemplated. 

Historical Infinitive 

463. The Infinitive is often used for the Imperfect Indicative 
in narration, and takes a subject in the Nominative : — 

tum Catilina poUicSri novSs tabal3.s (Sail. Cat. 21), then Catiline promised 
abolition ofddAs (clean ledgers). 

ego instare ut mihi responderet (Verr. ii. 188), I kept urging him to answer me. 

pars cedeie, alii insequi ; neque signa neque OrdinSs observtre ; ubi quemqae 
periculum c6perat, ibi resistere ac pxopalsare; arma, tela, eqai, viri, 
hostSs atque Gives permixt!; nihil c0nsili5 neque imperiS agi; fors 
omnia regere (lug. 51), a part give way, others press on ; they hold neither 
to standards nor ranks; where danger overtook them, there each toould 
stand and fight; arms, weapons, horses, men, foe and friend, mingled 
in confusion ; nothing went by counsel or command ; chance ruled all. 

Note. — This construction is not strictly historical, but rather descriptive, and is 
never used to state a mere historical fact. It is rarely found in subordinate clauses. 
Though occurring in most of the writers of all periods, it is most frequent in the his- 
torians Sallust, Llvy, Tacitus. It does not occur in Suetonius. 

1 This construction is elliptical ; that is, the thought is quoted in Indirect Disoonne, 
though no verb of saying etc. is expressed or even, perhaps, implied (compare the 
French dire que). Passages like hancine ego ad rem n&tam misenun mS msmoiibS? 
(Plant. Bud. 188) point to the origin of the construction. 



464. The number of possible Tenses is very great. For in each of the three times, 
'r-esent. Past, and Future, an action may be represented as going on, completed, or 
^ginning; as habitual or isolated; as defined in time or indefinite (aoristic); as 
'.etermined with reference to the time of the speaker, or as not itself so determined 
^ut as relative to some time which is determined ; and the past and future times may 
»e near or remote. Thus a scheme of thirty or more tenses might be devised. 

But, in the development of forms, which always takes place gradually, no language 
inds occasion for more than a small part of these. The most obvious distinctions, 
i^usording to our habits of thought, appear in the following scheme : — 

1. Definite (fixing the time of the action) 2. Indefinite 


Present: a. I am writing, d. I have written. g. I write. 

Past: b. I was writing, e. I had written. h. I wrote. 

Future: c. I shall be writing, f. I shall have written, i. I shall write. 

Most languages disregard some of these distinctions, and some make other distinc- 
tions not here given. The Indo-European parent speech had a Present tense to express 
a and g, a Perfect to express d, an Aorist to express h, a Future to express c and t, and 
a,n Imperfect to express b. The Latin, however, confounded the Perfect and Aorist 
in a single form (the Perfect scripsi), thus losing all distinction of form between d and 
Tif and probably in a great degree the distinction of meaning. The nature of this con- 
fusion may be seen by comparing dizi, dicavi, and didid (all Perfects derived from the 
same root, dig), with ^Sei^ay Skr. adiksham, SiSeixa, Skr. dide<;a, Latin also devel- 
oped two new forms, those for e (scnpseram) and / (8Ciipser5), and thus possessed six 
tenses, as seen in § 154. e. , 

The lines between these six tenses in Latin are not hard and fast, nor are they pre- 
cisely the same that we draw in English. Thus in many verbs the form corresponding 
to / Tiave written (d) is used for those corresponding to lam writing (a) and I write (g) 
in a slightly different sense, and the form corresponding to / had written (e) is used in 
like manner for that corresponding to I was writing (b). Again, the Latin often uses 
the form for / shall have written (/) instead of that for I shall write (i). Thus, novi, / 
have learned, is used for / know; constiterat, Ae had taken his position, for he stood; 
cognovero, I shall have learned, ior I shall be aware. In general a writer may take his 
own point of view. 

tenses of the indicative 

Incomplete Action 


465. The Present Tense denotes an action or state (1) as now 
taking place or existing, and so (2) as incomplete in present time, 
or (3) as indefinite^ referring to no particular time, but denoting a 
general truth : — 

294 STNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 466, 466 

BenfttUB haec intellesit, cOnsol Tidet, hic tamen yvht (Cat. i. 2), the senaU i 

knows this, the consul sees U, yet this man lives, 
tibi concedo meas s&lis (Diy. L 104), I give you my seat (an offer which may 

or may not be accepted), 
exspecto quid velis (Ter. And. 34), I await your pleasure (what yon wish), 
ta ^ti5nem Institiiis, iU^aciem instmit (Mar. 22), you arrange a case^ he 

arrays an army. [The present is here used of regular einployment.l 
niin6ra di neglegoiit (N. D. iii. 86), the gods disregard trffles. [General 

obsequium amIcOs, yeritfts odium patit (Ter. And. 68), flattery gains friends, 

truih haired, [General truth.] 
NoTK. — The present of a general truth is sometimes called the Gnomic Present. 

a. The present is regularly used in quoting writers whose works 
are extant : — 

EpicQrus ySrO ea fficit (Tusc. ii. 17), but Epicurus says such things, 

apud ilium ITlixes lamentfttnr in volnere (id. 11. 49), in him (Sophocles) 

Ulysses laments over his wound. 
PolyphSmum HomSrus cum ariete colloquentem fadt (id. y. 115), Homer 
brings in (makes) Polyphemus talking with his ram. 

Present with iam dm etc. 

466. The Present with expressions of duration of time (espe- 
cially iam diu, iam dudum) denotes an action continuing in the pres- 
ent, but begun in the past (cf. § 471. i). 

In this use the present is commonly to be rendered by the perfect 
in English : — 

iam ditl ignoio quid ag^ (Fam. vli. 0), for a long time I have not known what 

you were doing. 
te iam dudum hortor (Cat. i. 12), I have long been urging you. 
patimar multos iam annOs (Verr. v. 126), we suffer now these many years. 

[The Latin perfect would imply that we no longer suffer. '\ 
anni sunt oct5 cum ista causa vers&tur (cf. Clu. 82)', it is now eight years 

that this case has been in hand. 
annum iam audis Cratippum (Off. i. 1), for a year you have been a hearer of 

adhiic Plancius m6 retinet (Fam. xiv. 1. 8), so far Plancius has kept me here. 

Note 1. — The difference in the two idioms is that the English states the beginning 
and leayes the continuance to be inferred, while the Latin states the continuance and 
leaves the beginning to be inferred. Compare he has long suffered {and stUl suffers) 
with he still suffers (and has sufered long). 

Note 2. — Similarly the Present Imperative with iam dudum indicates that the 
action commanded ought to have been done or was wis?iedfor long ago (cf. the Per- 
fect Imperative in Greek): as,— iam dudum stUnite poenas (Aen. ii, 103), exact thi 
penalty long delayed. 

167-469] PRESENT TENSE 295 

Conative Present 

467. The Present sometimes denotes an action attempted or 
^un in present time, but never completed at all {Conative Pres- 
to cf. § 471. c) : — 

iam iamquQ manti tenet (Aen. ii. 580), and now^ even now^ he attempts to 

grasp him, 
d^nsOs fertur in hostis (id. ii. 611), ^ starts to rush into the thickest of the foe. 
d§cem5 quinquagintS. diSrum Bupplic&ti0n€8 (Phil. xiy. 29), I move for fifty 

days'* thanksgiving, [Cf. senatus decr§vit, the senate ordained,] 

Present for Fatiire 

468. The Present, especially in colloquial language and poetry, 
often used for the Future : — 

imusne sessum (De Or. iii. 17), shaU we take a seat f (are we going to sit ?) 
hodie uxOrem ducis (Ter. And. 321), are you to be married to-day f 
quod si fit, pereO fundi tus (id. 244), if this happens^ I am utterly undone, 
ecquid m6 adiuvas (Clu. 71), wonH you give me a little help f 
in itls vocG te. n5n e5. nOn is (Pi. Asin. 480), I summon you to the court. 
I wonH go. You won't f 

NoTB. — B5 and its compounds are especially frequent in this use (cf. where are 
fou going to-morrow? and the Greek el/u in a future sense). Verbs of necessity ^ 
iOssibUity, wish, and the like (as possum, yol5, etc.) also have reference to the future. 

For other uses of the Present in a future sense, see under Conditions (§ 516. a.m.), 
intequam and priusquam (§ 551. c), dum (§ 553. n.^), and § 444. a, N. 

Historical Present 

469. The Present in lively narrative is often used for the His* 
torical Perfect : — 

affertur nuntius Syracusas ; curritur ad praet5rium ; Cleomen^s in ptLblicO 
esse nOn audet ; inclddlt s6 domi (Verr. v. 02), the news is brought to Syra- 
cuse ; they run to headquarters ; Cleomenes does not venture to be abroad ; 
he shuts himself up at home. 

Note. — This usage, common in all languages, comes from imagining past events 
as going on before our eyes {repraesentdtio, § 585. 6. n.). 
For the Present Indicative with dum, whUe, see § 556. 

a» The present may be used for the perfect in a summary enumera- 
tion of past events (Annalistic Present) : — 

ROma interim crSscit Albae rulnis: dapUc&tor civium numerus; Caelius 
additor urbl mOns (Liv. i. SO), Borne meanwhile grows as a result of the 
fall of Alba : the number of citizens is doubled; the Cadian hill is added 
to the town. 

296 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§470,41 


470. The Imperfect denotes an action or a state as continued 
or repeated in past time : — 

hone aadiStMmt anteft (Manil. 13), they used to hear of him b^ore. 

[Socrates] ita cSnsettat itaque dissemit (Tusc. i. 72), Socrates thought so (habit- 
ually), and so he spoke (then). 

prCtdSns esse putdbatur (Lael. 6), he was (generally) thought voise, [The per- 
fect would refer to some particular case, and not to a state of things.] 

lamque rabSscebat AurOra (Aen. ilL 521), and now the dawn was blushing. 

ftra vetus st&bat (Ov. M. vi. 326), an old aJtar stood there. 

NoTB. — The Imperfect is a descriptive tense and denotes an action conceived as 
in progress or a state of things as actually observed. Hence in many verbs it does 
not differ in meaning from the Perfect. Thus rSz erat and rSz fuit may often be used 
indifferently ; but the former describes the condition while the latter only states it. 
The English is less exact in distinguishing these two modes of statement. Hence the 
Latin Imperfect is often translated by the English Preterite : — 

Haedui graviter fer$l>ant, neque legatos ad Caesarem mittere aadebant (B. 6. v. 
6), tTie Hmdui were displeased^ and did not dare to send envoys to Csbsot. 
[Here the Imperfects describe the state of things.] But, — 
id tulit factum graviter Indutiomarus (id. v. 4), Indutiomarus was displeased at 

this action. [Here the Perfect merely states the fact.] 
aedificia vicosque babSbant (id. iv. 4), they had buildings and villages. 

471. The Imperfect represents a present tense transferred to 
past time. Hence all the meanings which the Present has derived 
from the continuance of the action belong also to the Imperfect in 
reference to past time. 

a. The Imperfect is used in descriptions : — 

erant omninO itinera duo . . . mOns altisslmus impendebat (B. G. i. 6), there 
were in aU two ways ... a very high mountain overhung. 

b. With lam diu, iam dudum, and other expressions of duration of 
time, the Imperfect denotes an action continuing in the past hut be- 
gun at some previous time (cf. § 466). 

In this construction the Imperfect is rendered by the English Plu- 
perfect : — 

iam dudum flebam (Ov. M. iii. 656), I had been weeping for a long time. 
cOpias qu^ difl comparabant (Fam. zi. 13. 6), the forces which tliey had bng 
been getting ready. 

c. The Imperfect sometimes denotes an action as begun (Inceptive 
Imperfect), or as attempted or only intended (Conative Imperfect: cf. 
§467): — 


in ezsilmm §ici§baiii quern iam ingressam esse in bellam vidSbam (Cat ii. 

14), was I trying to send into exile one who I saw had already gone 

inio war f 
hunc igitur diem sibi prOpOnens MilO, cruentis manibus ad ilia augusta cen- 

turi^Urum auspicia yeniebat (Mil. 43), was MUo coming~{i.e. was it likely 

that he would come), €tc. ? 
8l licitum esset YeniSbant (Verr. v. 129), they were coming if it had been allowed 

(they were on the point of coming, and would have done so if, etc.). 

NoTB. — To this head may be referred the imperfect with iam, denoting the begin- 
rving of an action or state: as, — iamqae arva tenSbant ultima (Aen. yi. 477), and now 
t?vey were just getting to tJie farthest fields, 

d. The Imperfect is sometimes used to express a surprise at the 
jpreserU discovery of a fact already existing : — 

tti quoque aderas (Ter. Ph. 858), o/i, you are here too I 
ehem, ttin hic erfts, ml Phaedria (Ter. Eun. 86), wJuUI you Jiere, PJusdriaf 
& miser ! quanta labSrabfts Charybdl (Hor. Od. i. 27. 19), unhappy boy, what 
a whirlpool you are struggling in [and I never knew it] ! 

6. The Imperfect is often used in dialogue by the comic poets 
-where later writers would employ the Perfect : — 

ad amicum Calliclem quoi rem aibat mandate hIc suam (PL Trin. 956), to 
his friend CaUicles, to whom, he said, he had intrusted his property. 

praesHgibat ml animus frustrft me Ire quom exibam domO (PL Aul. 178), my 
mind mistrusted when I went from home that I went in vain. 

Note. — So, in conversation the imperfect of verbs of saying (cf . as I was a-saying) 
is common in dassic prose : — 

at medic! quoque, ita enim dicSbEs, saepe falluntur (K. D. iii. 15), but physicians 

also, — for that is what you were saying just now, — are often mistaken. 
haec mihi fere in mentem veniSbant (id. ii. 67, 168), this is about what occurred 
to me, etc. [In a straightforward narration this would be vSnSront.] 

/. The Imperfect with negative words often has the force of the 
English auxiliary could or would : — 

itaque (Dftmocles) nee pulchrOs illOs ministr&tOr^ aspiciSbat (Tusc. v. 62), 
therrfore Tie covld not look upon those beautiful slaves. [In this case did 
not would not express the idea of continued prevention of enjoyment by 
the overhanging sword.] 

nee enim dum eram vobiscum animum meum videb&tis (Cat. M. 79), for, you 
know, while I was with you, you could not see my soul. [Here the Per- 
fect would refer only to one mmnent.] 

Lentulus satis erat fortis QratOr, sed cOgitandi nOn ferebat labOrem (Brut. 268), 
Lentulus was bold enough as an orator, but could not endure the exertion 
of thinking hard. 

For the Epistolary Imperfect, see §479; for the Imperfect Indicative in apodosis 
contrary to fact, see § 517. 6, c. 

298 SYNTAX : THB VERB [§§ 472, 473 


472. The Future denotes an action or state that will occur 

a. The Future may have the force of an Imperative (§ 449. h). 

5. The Future is often required in a subordinate clause in Latin 

where in English futurity is sufficiently expressed by the main clause : 

cum aderit videbit, wlien Jie is tfiere he wiU see (cf. § 547). 

8&n&bimar si YolSmus (Tusc. iii. 13), we shaU be heal^ if we wish (cf. § 516. a). 

Note. — Bat the Present is common in future protases (§516. a. n.). 

Completed Action 

Perfect Definite and Historical Perfect 

473. The Perfect denotes an action either as now completed 
(Perfect Definite), or as having taken place at some undefined point 
of past time {Historical or Aoristic Perfect), 

The Perfect Definite corresponds in general to the English Perfect 
with have; the Historical Perfect to the English Preterite (or Past): i 

(1) ut ego feci, qui Graec^ litterSs senex didici (Cat. M. 26), as J hocoe done, 

who have learned Greek in my old age. 
dluturnl silenti finem hodiernus dies attulit (Maro. 1), IMs day has pvi an 
end to my long-continued silence. 

(2) tantum bellum extrema hieme apparftvit, ineunte v6re anscSpit, mediS 

ae8t3,te confecit (Manil. 35), so great a war he made ready for at the end 
of winter , undertook in early spring^ and finished by midsummer. 

Note. — The distinction between these two uses is represented by two forms in 
most other Indo-European languages, but was almost if not wholly lost to the miuds 
of the Romans. It must be noticed, however, on account of the marked distincticn 
in English and also because of certain differences in the sequence of tenses. 

a. The Indefinite Present, denoting a citstomary a^ion or a general 
truth (§ 465), often has the Perfect in a subordinate clause referring 
to time antecedent to that of the main clause : — 

qui in compedibas corporis semper fuSrant, etiam cum solfifi sant tardius 
ingrediuntur (Tusc. i. 75), they who have always been in the fetters of the 
body, even when releoMd move more slowly. 

simul ac mihi combitam est, praestO est imagO (N. D. i. 108), as soon as I 
have taken a fancy, the image is b^ore my eyes. 


§ 47a-476] PERFECT TENSE 299 

haec morte effagiontur, etiam si nCn ey§nSraiit, tamen quia ponnat 6TenIr« 
(Tusc. i. 86), these things are escaped by death even if they have not [yet] 
happened^ because they still may happen. 

Note. — This use of the perfect is especially common in the protasis of General 
Conditions in present time (§ 518. b). 

474. The Perfect is sometimes used emphatically to denote that 
BL thing or condition of things that once existed no longer exists : 

fait ista qnondam in hftc r6 publicft virtus (Cat. i. 3), there was once such vir- 
tue in this commonweaMh, 

habuit, nOn habet (Tusc. i. 87), he Jiad, he has no longer, 

filium habeO . . . immo habui ; nunc habeam necne incertumst (Ter. Haut. 
03), 1 have a son, no, I had one ; whether I have now or not is uncertain. 

fnimus TrOes, fait Ilium (Aen. ii. 325), we have ceased to be Trojans, Troy is 
no more. 

Spedal Uses of the Perfect 

475. The Perfect is sometimes used of a general truthy espe- 
cially with negatives {Gnomic Perfect) : — 

qui studet contingere metam multa tulit fddtque (Hor. A. P. 412), ?ie who 
aims to reach the goal, first bears and does many things. 

nOn aeris acervus et aurl dSdiixit corpore febris (id. Ep. i. 2. 47), the pile of 
brass and gold removes not fever from the frame. 

Note. — The gnomic perfect strictly refers to past time ; but its use implies that 
something which never did happen in any known case never does happen, and never 
MoiXl (cf. the English " Faint heart never won fair lady ") ; or, without a negative, 
that what has once happened will always happen under similar circumstances. 

a. The Perfect is often used in expressions containing or implying 
a negation^ where in affirmation the Imperfect would be preferred : — 

dicebat melius quam scripsit Hort^nsius (Or. 132), Hortensius spoke better 
than he wrote. [Here the negative is implied in the comparison : com- 
pare the use of qaisquam, fiUas, etc. (§§311, 312), and the French ne 
after comparatives and superlatives.] 

476. The completed tenses of some verbs are equivalent to the 
mcomplete tenses of verbs of kindred meaning. 

Such are the preteritive verbs Mi, I hate; memini, Iremember; nCvi, 
I know; cOnsuSvi, lam accustomedy^ with others used preteritively, 
as ySnerat (= aderat, he wa^ at hand, etc.), cOnstitfirunt, they stand firm 
(have taken their stand), and many inceptives (see § 263. 1) : — 

1 Cf. dStestor, reminiscor, scid, 8ole5. 

800 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§476- 

qol dies aestOs mazimGs efficere consaSvit (B. G. iv. 29), which day genen 

makes the highest tides (is accustomed to make), 
ctlius splendor obsolevit (Quinct. 69), whose splendor is now all faded. 

KoTB. — Many other verbs are occasionally so used: as, — dnm oculds certai^ 
iTertemt (liv. xxzii. 24), while the contest had tvmed their eyes (kept them tnrn^ 
[Here tTOrterat = tenfilMit.] 


477. The Pluperfect is used (1) to denote an action or sta 
completed in past time ; or (2) sometimes to denote an action 
indefinite time, but prior to some past time referred to : — 

(1) loci nfttura erat haec, quern locum nostri castrls delegerant (B. G. ii. I 

this was the nature of the ground which our men had cliosen for a can 
Viridovlx summam imperl tenebat earum omnium civitatum quae defe 
lant (id. iii. 17), Viridovix held the chi^ command of aXL those tribes wh 
had revolted. 

(2) neque v€rO cum aliquid mandlverat cOnfectum put^bat (Cat. iii. 16), t 

when he had given a thing in charge he did y^t look on it as done. 
quae si quandO adepta est id quod el fuerat concupltum, turn fert alacritSt^ 
(Tusc. iv. lb)^if it (desire) ever has gained what it had [previouslj 
desired^ then it produces joy. 
For the Epistolary Pluperfect, see § 479. 



478. The Future Perfect denotes an action as completed in tlj 
future: — * , 

ut semen tem feceris, ita metSs (De Or. ii. 261), od yon sow (shall have sowd| 

so shall you reap, 
carmina tum melius, cum veneiit ipse, canSmus (Eel. iz. 67), then shaU ti 

sing our songs better, when he him^eJfhas come (shall have come). , 
si illlus Insidiae clariOrgs hac luce fuerint, tum dSnique obsecrabO (Mil. 6 

when the plots of that man have been shown to be as clear as dayligi\ 

then, and not tUl then, sJiaU I conjure you. 
ego certe meum officium praestitero (B. G. iv. 26), I at least s?iaU have doi 

my duty (i.e. when the time comes to reckon up the matter, I shall i 

found to have done it, whatever the event). 

Note. — Latin is far more exact than English in distinguishing between mei 
future action and action completed in the future. Hence the Future Perfect is mud 
commoner in Latin than in English. It may even be used instead of the Future, froi 
the fondness of the Romans for representing an action as completed : — 

quid inventum sit paulO post videro (Acad. ii. 76), what has been found out I shd 

see presently. 
qui AntOninm oppresserit bellum taeterrimum c6nf6cerit (Fam. x. 19), whoeva 
cruahea (shall have crushed) Antony will finish (will have finished) a moi 
loathsome war. 



479. In Letters, the Perfect Historical or the Imperfect may 
"be used for the present, and the Pluperfect for any past tense, as 
if the letter were dated at the time it is supposed to be received: — 

neque tamen, haec cum scxibSbam, eram nescius quantis oneribus premerSre 

(Fam. Y. 12. 2), nor while I xorUe this am I ignorant under wJuU burdens 

you are weighed down. 
ad tuas omnls [epistul^] resciipsezam pridiS (Att. ix. 10. 1), I answered aU 

your letters yesterday, 
cum quod scrlberem ad te nihil hab€rem, tamen h^ dedi litterSs (Att. ix. 16), 

though I have nothing to wrUe to you, stiU I write this letter. 

NoTB. — In this use these tenses are called the Epistolary Perfect, Imperfect, and 
Pluperfect. The epistolary tenses are not employed with any uniformity, but only 
T^hen attention is particularly directed to the time of writing (so especially scribSlMun, 
daham, etc.). 


480. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Independent Clauses de- 
note time in relation to the time of the speaker. 

The Present always refers U> future (or indefinite) time^ the Im- 
perfect to either past or present^ the Perfect to either future or 
pa^t^ the Pluperfect always to past. 

481. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses were 
, habitually used in certain fixed connections with the tenses of the 

main verb. 

These connections were determined by the time of the main 
verb and the time of the dependent verb together. They are 
known, collectively, as the Sequence of Tenses. 

Note. — The so-called Sequence of Tenses is not a mechanical law. Each tense 
of the snbjunctive in dependent clauses (as in independent) originally denoted its 
own time in relation to the time of the speaker, though less definitely than the corre- 
sponding tenses of the indicative. Gradually, however, as the complex sentence was 
more strongly felt as a unit, certain types in which the tenses of the dependent 
clause seemed to accord with those of the main clause were almost unconsciously 
'., regarded as regular, and others, in which there was no such agreement, as excep- 
' tional. Thus a pretty definite system of correspondences grew up, which is codi- 
, fied in the rules for the Sequence of Tenses. These, however, are by no means 
' rigid. They do not apply with equal stringency to all dependent constructions, and 
,. they were frequently disregarded, not only when their strict observance would have 
obscured the sense, but for the sake of emphasis and variety, or merely from care- 

808 SYNTAX: THE VEBB [§§482,488 

Segoenoe of Tenses 

483. The tenses of the Subjunctiye in Dependent Clauses fol- 
low special rules for the Sequence of Tenses. 

With reference to these rules aU tenses when used in independ- 
ent clauses are divided into two classes, — Primary and Secondary. 

^J^ Pkimary. — The Primary Tenses include all forms that express 
present ot future time. These are the Present, Future, and Future 
Perfect Indicative, the Present and Perfect Subjunctive, and the 
Present and Future Imperative. 

^,^. SbcoITdaby. — The Secondary Tenses include all forms that re- 
fer to past time. These are the Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect 
Indicative, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive, and the His- 
torical Infinitive. 

NoTB. — To these may be added certain fomls less oommonly used in independent 
daases: — (1) Primary: Present Infinitive in Exclamations; (2) Secondary: Perfect 
Infinitive in Exclamations (see §§ 462, 485. a. n.)< 

The Perfect Definite is sometimes treated as primary (see § 485. a). 

For the Historical Present, see § 485. e ; for the Imperfect Subjunctive in Apodosis, 
see § 486. A. 

^ 483. The following is the general rule for the Sequence of 
Tenses: — ^ 

In complex sentences a Primary tense in the main clause is 
followed by the Present or Perfect i^i the dependent clause, and 
a Secondary tense by the Imperfect or "Pluperfect : — 

Primary Tenses 

rogo, I ask, am asking 

rog&bd, I shall ask 

DOg&vi (sometimes), I fiave asked 
rogavero, I sliaU have asked 

quid f aciils, wTiat you are doing, 

quid feceris, what you did, were doing, 

have done, have been doing, 
quid factfiios sis, what you wiU do. 

Bciibit, hevrrites 1 i -^ ^ . 

acrlbet, hewiUwrite | «t nSs iwrn^t, to warn ua. 

sciibe (sciibitd), write at nSs monefls, to warn us. 

Bciibit, he writes quaai obUtus sit, as if he fiad forgotten. 

1 The term is sometimes extended to certain relations between the tenaet of sub- 
ordinate verbs in the indicative and those of the main verb. These relations do not 
differ In principle from those which we are considering ; but for oonvenienoe tht term 
Sequence of Tenses is in this book restricted to subjunctives, in accordance with the 
usual practice. 

8§ 483^86] SEQUENCE OF TENSES 808 

Secondary Tenses 

xogftbam, I dsked, was asking 

rogavi, I asked, have asked 

rogaveram, I had asked 

quid faceres, wJiat you were doing. 

quid fecisses, what you had done, had 
been doing. 

quid facturas ess§s, wJiat you wouM do. 
scripsit, he wrote at ii5a moneret, to warn us. 

scnpsit, "^ h£ wrote quasi oblitus esset, as if he had forgotten. 

\^ 484, In applying the rule for the Sequence of Tenses, observe — 

^ Whether the main verb is (a) primary or (b) secondary. 

jP) Whether the dependent verb is to denote completed action (i.e. 
past with reference to the main verb) or incomplete action (i.e. pres- 
ent or future with reference to the main verb). Then — 

fa. If the leading verb is primary ^ the dependent verb urust be in 
the Present if it denotes incomplete a^tion,in the Perfect if it denotes 
completed action, 

)b» If the leading verb is secondary, the dependent verb must be in 
the Imperfect if it denotes incomplete action, in the Pluperfect if it 
denotes completed action : — 

(1) He writes [primary] to warn [incomplete action] us, scnbit ut nOs moneat. 
I ask [primary] what you were doing [now past], rogo quid fSceris. 

(2) He wrote [secondary] to warn [incomplete] us, scripsit ut nos monSret. 
I asked [secondary] what you were doing [incomplete], rog&Ti quid facerSs. 

c. Notice that the Future Perfect denotes action completed (at 
the time referred to), and hence is represented in the Subjunctive hj 
the Perfect or Pluperfect : — 

He shows that if they come (shall have come), many will perish., demonstrat, si 

▼enerint, multOs interituros. ,. 
He showed that if they should come (should have come), many would perish, 

demonstravit, si yenissent, multOs interittlrCs. 

485. In the Sequence of Tenses the following special points 
are to be noted : — 

a. The Perfect Indicative is ordinarily a secondary tense, but 
allows the primary sequence when the present time is clearly in the 
writer's mind: — 

ut satis esset praesidi provisum est (Cat. ii. 26), provision has been made that 
Uiere shovM he ample guMrd. [Secondary sequence.] 

addfixi hominem in quO satisfacere exteris natidnibus possetis (Verr. i. 2), I 
have brought a m^an in whose person you can make satisfaxtion to foreign 
nations. [Secondary sequence.] 

804 SYNTAX : THE VEBB [§ 48S 

est enim rfis iam in enm locum addacta, nt qnamqnam multam intersit inter 
e5ram causfts qui dimicant, tamen inter victOrifts n5n multam interfa- 
tdrum potem (Fam. ▼. 21. 3), for chairs have been brought to such a pan 
that, though there is a great difference between the causes of those who art 
fighting, stiU I do not thi^ik there will be much difference between their vie- 
tories. [Primary sequence.] 

ea adhibita doctrlna est quae vel vitiOsissimam n&turam excolere possit (Q. Fr. 
i. 1. 7), such instruction has been given as can train even the favMiest 
nature, [Primary sequence.] 

NoTB. — The Perfect Infinitive in exclamations follows the same rule : — 
quemquamne faiaae tarn soeleiatum qui hOc flnceret (Phil. ziy. 14), w<ms any one so 

abandoned as to imagine thisf [Secondary.] 
adeOn rem rediaae patrem ut extimSscam (Ter. Ph. 153), to think that things Turn 

come to such a pass that I should dread my father I [Primary .J 

h. After a primary tense the Perfect Subjunctive is regularly used to 
denote any past action. Thus the Perfect Subjunctive may represent— 

1. A Perfect Definite : — 

nOn dubitO quin omnSs tul scxfpseiint (Fam. y. 8), I do rwt doubt that all 
your friends have written, [Direct statement: scripserunt.] i 

quft re nOn IgnOrO quid accidat in ultimls terrls, cum audieiim in Italia que- 
rell&s clvium (Q. Fr. i. 1. 33), therefore I know well what happens at the 
ends of the earth, when I have heard in Italy the complaints of citizens. 
[Direct statement : audivl] 

2. A Perfect Historical : — 
m6 autem hic laudat quod rettalerim, n5n quod patefScerim (Att. zii. 21), me 

he praises because I brought the matter [before the senate], not because I 
brought it to light. [Direct statement : xettnlit.] 

3. An Imperfect : — 

si forte cecidernnt, tum intellegitur quam fnerint inop6s amlcOrum (Lael. 53), 

if perchance they fall (have fallen), then one can see how poor they were 

in friends. [Direct question : quam inop&s erant?] 
qui status rSrum f uerit cum h3s litteras dedl, scire poteris ex C. TitiO Stra- 

bOne (Fam. xii. 6), wJuxt the condition of affairs was when I wrote this i 

letter, you can learn from Strdbo. [Direct question : qui status erat?] 
quam clvitatl carus fuerit maerOre fdneris indicatum est (Lael. 11), how d&xr 

he was to the state has been shown by the grief at his funeroL [Direct 

question : quam c^us erat ?] 
ex epistulis intellegl licet quam frequSns fuerit PlatOnis auditor (Or. 15), it 

may be understood from his letters how constant a hearer he was of Plato. 

[Direct question : quam f requSns erat ?] 

NoTB. — Thus the Perfect Subjunctive may represent, not only a Perfect Definite 
or a Perfect Historical of a direct statement or question, but an Imperfect as well. 
This comes from the want of any special tense of the subjunctiye for oontinaed past 
action after a primary tense. Thus, miror quid f Scerit may mean (1) I wonder tohat he 
\as done, (2) I wonder wfiat he did (hist, perf .), or (3) I wonder what he was doing. 


c. In clauses of Eesult, the Perfect Subjunctive is regularly (the 
resent rarely) used after secondary tenses : — 

Hortensius firdebat dicendl cupidit&te sic ut in nullO umquam flagrantius 
stadium videiim (Brut. 302), Horteimus was so hot with desire of speaks 
ing that I have never seen a more burning ardor in any man, 

[Siciliam Yerrgs] per triennium ita Yex&vit ac peididit ut ea restitul in anti- 
quum statum nulls mod5 possit (Verr. i. 12), for three years Verres so 
racked and ruined Sicily tliat she can in no way he restored to her former 
state. [Here the Present describes a state of things actually existing.] 

videor esse cdnsecfitas ut nOn possit Dolftbella in Italiam pervenlre (Earn, 
xii. 14. 2), I seem to have brought it about that DolabeUa cannot come into 

NoTB 1. — This construction emphasizes the result ; the regular sequence of tenses 
¥Ould subordinate it. 

NoTB 2. — There is a special fondness for the Perfect Subjunctive to represent a 
Perfect Indicative : — 

Thorius erat ita ndn superstitidsus ut ilia plurima in sua patria et sacrificia et 
&na contemneret ; ita ndn timidus ad mortem ut in acie sit ob rem publicam 
interfecttts (Fin. ii. 63), Thorius was so little superstitious that he despised 
[contemnebat] the mxmy sacrifices and shrines in his country ; so little timor-- 
ous about death that Tie was killed [interfectus est] in battle, in defence of 
the state, 

d» A general truth after a past tense follows the sequence of tenses : 

ex his quae tribuisset, sibi quam mutabilis asset reput&bat (Q. 0. iii. 8. 20), 
from what she (Fortune) had bestowed on him, he reflected how inconstant 
she is, [Direct : matabiUs est.] 

ibi quantam vim ad stimulandOs anim5s Ira habSret appftruit (Liv. xxxiii. 37), 
here it appeared what power anger has to goad the mind, [Direct : habet. ] 

Note. — In English the original tense is more commonly kept. 

c. The Historical Present (§ 469) is sometimes felt as a primarj/y 

sometimes as a secondary tense, and accordingly it takes either the 

primary or the secondary sequejice : — 

rogat ut cJiret quod dixisset (Quinct. 18), ^ asks him to attend to the thing he 
f had spoken of. [Both primary and secondary sequence.] 

Note. — After the historical present, the subjunctive with cum temporal must 
follow the secondary sequence : — 

qnO cum vSnisset cognoscit (B. G. i. 34), when he had come there he learns, 
cum esset pugnfttum hOris quinqne, nostrique gravius premerentnr, impetum in 
cohortis facinnt (id. i. 46), when they had fought for five hours, and our 
men were pretty hard pressed, they make an attack on the cohorts, 

/. The Historical Infinitive regularly takes the secondary se- 
quence : — 

interim cotldiS Caesar HaeduOs friimentum, quod essent polliciti, flilgit&ro 
(B. G. i. 16), meanwhile Ca^ar demanded of the Hosdui eoery day the grain 
which they had promised. 


gr. The Imperfect and Pluperfect in conditions contrary to fact 
(§ 617) and in the Deliberative Subjunctive (§ 444) are not affected 
by the sequence of tenses : — 

quia t&le sit, ut vel si igndr&rent id homines vel si obmutaissent (Fin. ii. 49)^ 
becaiue U U auch thai even if men were ignorant of it, or had been 
silent about U, 

quaerO & t6 cfLr C. Comelium nOn dSfenderem (Vat. 6), I ask you why I was 
not to dtfend Caivs Cornelius f [Direct : cfir non dSfendeiem ?] 

h. The Imperfect Subjunctive in present conditions contrary to 
fact (§ 617) is regularly followed by the secondary sequence : — 

Bl alii cCnsolSs essent, ad t3 potissimum, Paule, mitterem, ut eOs milii quam 
amlcissimOs redderSs (Fam. xv. 18. 3), if there were other consuls, I should 
send to you, Paulu^, in pr^erence to all, that you might make them a& 
friendly to me as possible. 

si sOlOs e58 £cer§8 miserOs quibus moriendum esset, n€ininem exciperes 
(Tusc. i. 9), if you were to call only those wretched who must die, you 
would except no one. 

i. The Present is sometimes followed by a secondary sequence, 
seemingly because the writer is thinking of past time : — 

sed si T^s cOget, est quiddam tertium, quod neque SeliciO nee mihi displicS- 
bat: ut neque iacSre rem pateremur, etc. (Fam. i. 6 a. 3), but if the case 
sJudl demand, there is a third [course] which neither Selicius nor myself 
disapproved, thai we shxmld not allow, etc. [Here Cicero is led by the 
time of displicebat.] 

sed tamen ut scirSs, haec tibi sciibo (Fam. xiii. 47), but yet thai you m^y kjtow^ I 
unite thus. [As if he had used the epistolary imperfect sciibSbam (§ 470). ] 

cflius praeceptl tanta vis est ut ea nOn homini cuipiam sed DelpbicO ded 
tribaerStor (Legg. i. 58), such is the force of this precept, thai ii wm 
ascribed not to any man, but to the Delphic god, [The precept was an 
old one.] 

J. When a clause depends upon one already dependent, its se- 
quence may be secondary if the verb of that clause expresses past 
time, even if the main verb is in a primary tense : — 

sed tamen qua r6 acdderit ut ex mels superiQribus litterls id saspicarSre nescid 

(Fam. ii. 16), but yet how it happened thai you suspected Ihis from my 

previous letter, I don't know. 
tantum profScisse vidSmur ut § Graecls nS verbOrum quidem cOpi& yinceri- 

iniir (N. D. i. 8), we seem to have advanced so far thai even in abundance 

of words we are not surpassed by the Greeks, 

Note. — So regularly after a Perfect Infinittve which depends on a primary tense 
($586. a). 



486, Except in Indirect Discourse, only the Present and Per- 
fect Infinitives are used. 

The Present represents the action of the verb as in progress with- 
out distinct reference to time, the Perfect as completed. 

For the Tenses ol the Infinitive in Indirect Discoorse see § 584. 

a. With past tenses of verbs of necessity, propriety, and possibility 
(as 6Bhul, oportuit, potui), the Present Infinitive is often used in 
Latin where the English idiom prefers the Perfect Infinitive : — 

numne, si Coriolanus habuit amIcOs, ferre contra patriam arma illl cum 

Corioland debngrunt (Lael. 36), if Coriolanus had friends^ ouglU tkey to 

have home arms with him against their fat?ietland t 
pectUiia, quam his oportuit civitatibus prO frumentO dari (Verr. iii. 174), 

nwney which ought to have been paid to these stales for grain, 
consul esse qui potui, nisi eum vitae cursum tenuissem & pueriti& (Rep. i. 10), 

how could I have become consul had I not from boyhood followed that 

course of life f 

5. With verbs of necessity, propriety, and possibility, the Perfect 
Infinitive may be used to emphasize the idea of completed action : — 

tametsi statim vicisse debeO (Rose. Am. 73), although I ought to win my case 

at once (to be regarded as iiaving won it), 
bellum quod possumus ante hiemem perfecisse (Liv. xzxvii. 19. 6), a war 

which we can have completed before winter. 
nil ego, si peccem, possum nescisse (Ov. H. xvi. 47), if I should go wrong, 

I cannot have don^ it in ignorance (am not able not to have known). 

Note.— With the past tenses of these verbs the perfect infinitive is apparently 
due to attraction : — 

quod iam pridera factum esse oportuit (Cat. i. 5), (a thing) which ought to have 
been done long ago. 
y haec facta ab illO oportebat (Ter. Haut. 536), this ought to have been done by him, 

turn decuit metuisse (Aen. x. 94), then was the time to fear (then you should have 

c. In archaic Latin and in legal formulas the Perfect Active Infini- 
tive is often used with n616 or vol6 in prohibitions : — 

Chaldaeum n6quem consuluisse velit (Cato R. R. v. 4), let him not venture to 

have covsvUed a soothsayer. 
nGlItO devellisse (PI. Poen. 872), do not have them plucked. 
n6quis humasse velit Ai&cem (Hor. S. ii. 3. 187), let no one venture to have 

buried Ajax, 


venture to have ?iad a place for Bacchanalian worship. 

808 SYNTAX: THS VERB [$4^ 

d. With verbs of tvishing^ the Perfect Passive Infinitive (com 
monly without esse) is often used emphatically instead of the Present 

domesticft cClrft i& leTatom volO (Q. Fr. iii. 9. 8), I wish you rdieved ofprivat 

illOs monitds \o\6 (Cat. ii. 27), I wish them thoroughly warned. 
qui illam [patriam] ezstinctam cupit (Fin. iv. 66), who is eager for her tUtet 

illud te esse admonitam volO (Gael. 8), I wish you to be weU advised of this. 
qui s6 ab omnibus desertds potius quam abs te defensds esse mS.lunt (Caecil. 

21), who prefer to he deserted by all rather than to be drfended by you. 

NoTB. — The participle in this case is rather in predicate agreement (with or with- 
out esse) than used to form a strict perfect infinitive, though the full form can hardly 
be distinguished from that construction. 

e. In late Latin, and in poetry (often for metrical convenience), 
rarely in good prose, the Perfect Active Infinitive is used emphatically 
instead of the Present, and even after other verbs than those of tmsh- 
ing : — 

n€mO eOrum est qui nOn perisse t€ cupiat (Yerr. ii. 149), there is ru> one of 
them who is not eager for your death. 

baud equidem premendO alium m€ extuUsse velim (liv. zxii. 59. 10), 1 
would not by crushing another exaXt myself. 

sunt qui nOlint tetigisse (Hor. S. i. 2. 28), there are those who would not touch. 

commisisse cavet (Hor. A. P. 168), he is cautious of doing. 

nunc quern tetigisse timerent, anguis er^ (Ov. M. viii. 783), again you be- 
came a serpent which they dreaded to touch. 

fratresque tendentgs opacO Pelion imposolsse OlympO (Hor. Od. iii. 4. 61), 
and the brothers striving to set Pelion on dark Olympus. 

f» After verbs of feeling the Perfect Infinitive is used^ especially 
by the poets, to denote a completed action. 

So also with satis est, satis habeS, melius est, contentus sum, and in 
a few other cases where the distinction of time is important : — i 

nOn paenitebat intercapedinem scrlbendl fecisse (Fam. xvi. 21), I was not 

sorry to have made a respite of writing. 
pudet m€ nCn praestitisse (id. xiv. 8), I am ashamed not to have shown. 
sunt quOs pulverem Olympicum coUdgitse iuvat (Hor. Od. i. 1. 3), som 

delight to have stirred up the dust at Olympia. 
qoiesse erit melius (Liv. iii. 48), it unit be better to have kept qui^, 
ac si quis amet scxipsisse (Hor. S. i. 10. 60), than if one should choose to have 

id solum dizisse satis habeO (Yell. ii. 124), I am content to fume said only 


^ V<d5, and less frequently aSlo, ]iull5» and euirfS, 

§ 487-490] 



I. Participles: 

a. Present and 
Perfect : 

b. Fntnre 

c. Gerandive 


487. The several Noun and Adjective forms associated with the verb are employed 
s follows: — 1 

1. Attributive (§494). 

2. Simple Predicate (§495). 

3. Periphrastic Perfect (passive) (§495. n.). 

4. Predicate of Circumstance (§ 496). 

5. Descriptive (Indirect Discourse) (§ 497 d). 

1. Periphrastic with esse (§498. a). 

2. Periphrastic with ful (= Pluperfect Subjunc- 
tive) (§498.6).. 

1. As Descriptive Adjective (§600. 1). 
Periphrastic with esse (§ 600. 2). 
Of Purpose with certain verbs (§ 500. 4). 
' 1. Genitive as Subjective or Objective Genitive (§604). 

2. Dative, with Adjectives (of Fitness), Nouns, Verbs (§605). 

3. Accusative, with certain Prepositions (§506). 

4. Ablative, of Means, Comparison, or with Prepositions (§607). 


Gerund or 

III. Supine: 

(1. Accusative Supine (in -um), with Verbs of Motion (§509). 
2. Ablative Supine (in -u), chiefly with Adjectives (§510). 


488. The Participle expresses the action of the verb in the form 
of an Adjective, but has a partial distinction of tense and may 
govern a case. 

Note. — Thus the participle combines all the functions of an adjective with some 
of the functions of a verb. As an Adjective, it limits substantives and agrees with 
them in gender, number, and case (§286). As a Verb, it has distinctions of time 
(§ 489) and often takes an object. 

Distinctions of Tense in Participles 

489. Participles denote time as present^ past, or future with 
respect to the time of the verb in their clause. 

Thus the Present Participle represents the action as in progress at 
the time indicated by the tense of the verb, the Perfect as completed, 
and the Future as still to take pla^e, 

490. The Present Participle has several of the special uses of 
the Present Indicative. Thus it may denote — 

1. An action continued in the present but begun in the past (§ 466) : 

qoaerenti mihi iam diu certa r€s nulla veniebat in mentem (Fam. iv. 18), 
though I had long sought, no certain thing came to my mind. 

I For the Syntax of the Infinitive, see §§ 451 fif., 486. 

310 SYNTAX : THE VEBB [§§ 490-' 

2. Attempted action (§ 467) : — 

C. Fl&miniO restitit agrum Plcentem dividend (Cat. M. 11), Aa resisted Fi 
miniuB when aUempling to divide the Ptcene territory. 

3. Rarely (in poetry and later Latin) futurity or purpose, -with 
verb of motion : — 

Eurypylum sdtantem Orftcula mittimus (Aen. ii. 114), we eervd Eurypylus \ 
consult the oracle. [Cf. § 468.] 

491. The Perfect Participle of a few deponent verbs is usee 
nearly in the sense of a Present. 

Such are, regularly, ratus, solitus, veritus ; commonly, arbitrStus 
fisus, ausus, secutus, and occasionally others, especially in latei 

writers : — 

rem incredibilem rati (Sail. Cat. 48), thinking the thing incredible. 

Xnsidi&s yeritus (B. G. ii. 11), fearing an ainiuscade. 

cohort&tus milit^s docuit (B. C. iii. 80), encouraging the meuy Tie showed. 

Ir&tus dixisti (Mur. 62), you spoke in a passion. 

ad pagnam coiigressi (Liv. iy. 10), meeting in fight. 

492. The Latin has no Present Participle in the passive. 

The place of such a form is supplied usually by a clause with duo 
or cum : — 

obiCre dam calciantur mftttltlnO duo CaesarSs (Flin. N. H. vii. 181), two 

CcBsars died while having their shoes put on in the morning. 
mSque ista delectant cum Lat!n6 dicuntor (Acad. i. 18), those things please 
me when they are spoken in Latin. 

NOTB. — These constructions are often used when a participle might be employed : — 
die, hospes, Spartae n5s te hic vidisse iacentis, dum Sanctis patriae legibus obse- 
qttimur (Tusc. i. 101), tell it, stranger, at Sparta, that you saw us lying hen 
obedient to our country* s sacred laws. [Here dam obsequimnr is a transla- 
tion of the Greek present participle ireiOSftevoi.] . 
dam [mixes] sibi, dum sociis reditum parat (Hor. Ep. i. 2. 21), Ulystes, while 
securing the return of himself and his companions. [In Greek; dpv6fuim.] 

493. The Latin has no Perfect Participle in the active voice. 
The deficiency is supplied — 

1. In deponents by the perfect passive form with its regular active 

meaning : — 

nam singulas [navis] nostrl consectati expugnavSrunt (B. G. iii. 16), /or our 
men, having overtaken them one by one, captured them by boarding. 

NoTB. — The perfect participle of several deponent verbs may be either active or 
passive in meaning (§ 190. b). 

i 493-496] USES OF PARTICIPLBS 811 

2. In other verbs, either by the perfect passive participle in the 
blative absolute (§ 420. n.) or by a temporal clause (especially with 
am or postquam): — 

itaque conyocatfs centurionibas mllitSs certiOrSs facit (B. G. iii. 6), and 8o, 
having called the centuriona together^ he informs the soldiers (the centu- 
rions having been called together). 

cum venisset animadvertit collem (id. vii. 44), having come (when he had 
come), he noticed a hill. 

postquam id animam advertit cOpifts su3s Caesar in prozimum collem subdticit 
(B. G. i. 24), Iiaving observed this (after he had observed this) Caesar 
led his troops to the nearest hill. 

Uses of Participles 

494. The Present and Perfect Participles are sometimes used 
as attributives, nearly like adjectives : — 

aeger et flagrans animus (Tac. Ann. iii. 54), his sick and passionate mind. 
cum antiquissimam sententiam tum comprohatam (Div. i. 11), a view at once 

most ancient and well approved. 
signa numquam fer6 mentientia (id. i. 16), signs hardly ever deceitful. 
auspiciis atuntur coactis (id. i. 27), they use forced auspices, 

a. Participles often become complete adjectives, and may be com- 
pared, or used as nouns : — 

quo mulierl esset rSs cautior (Caec. 11), thai the matter might he more secure 

for the woman. 
in illls artibus praestantissiinas (De Or. 1. 217), pre&ninent in those arts. 
sibi indulgentes et corpori deservientes (Legg. i. 39), the self-indiUgent, and 

slaves to the body (indulging themselves and serving the body). 
rScte facta pari a esse debent (Par. 22), right deeds (things rightly done) otight 

to be like in value (see § 821. b). 
male parta male dll9,buntur (Phil. ii. 65), ill got, iU spent (things ill acquired 

are ill spent). 
^ cOnsuStudO valentis (De Or. ii. 186), the habit of a man in health. 

495. Participles are often used as Predicate Adjectives. As 
such they may be joined to the subject by esse or a copulative verb 
(see § 283) : — 

Gallia est di^sa (B. G. i. 1), Gaul is divided. 

locus qui nunc saeptns est (Li v. i. 8), i^ place which is now enclosed. 

vidStis ut senectds sit oper5sa et semper agens aliquid et mSliens (Cat. M. 26), 

you see how busy otd age is, always aiming and trying at something. 
nSmO adhuc convenire me voluit cui fuerim occup&tus (id. 32), nobody 

hitherto has [ever] wished to converse with me, to whom I have been 

^^ engaged.''* 

312 SYNTAX: THB VERB L§§ -*05, 4 

NoTK.— From this predicate uae arise the compound tenses of the passi^v^e^ U 

participle of completed action with the incomplete tenses of esse developing tJae id* 
of past time : as, interfectus est, he was (or has been) killed, lit. he is having^ye^r^r-JcUl^ 

(i.e. already slain). . . „ . .^ ^ 

The perfect participle nsed with fui etc. was perhaps originally an intensified espi-ei 
sion in the popular language for the perfect, pluperfect, etc. 

At times these forms indicate a state of affairs no longer existing : — 
oOtem quoque eOdem locO sitam fuisse memorant (Liv. i. 36. 5), tJiey sajf tJhat #; 
whetstone was (once) deposited in this same place. [At the time of ^vrrltUn^ 
it was no longer there.] 
anna quae fixa in parietibns fuerant, hnmi inventa sunt (Div. i. 74), if9^ €3Lrm^ 
which had been fastened on the walls were found upon the ground. 
But more frequently they are not to be distinguished from the forms with smxi eto. 

The construction is found occasionally at all periods, but is most common iia. X^^rr 
and later writers. 

496. The Present and Perfect Participles are often used, as a j 
predicate, where in English a phrase or a subordinate clause w^ould ' 
be more natural. ^ 

In this use the participles express time, cause, oceasiany condition. ^ 
concession J characteristic (or description), manner, means, attend^sn^^ 

circumstances : — | 

volventSs hostlUa cadavera amicum reperiebant (Sail. Cat. 61), while roUip?^ F 

over the corpses of the enemy they found a friend. [Time. ] \ 

paululum commoratus, signa canere iubet (id. 69), after delaying a little while^ , 

he orders them to give the signal. [Time.] y 

longius prosequi veritus, ad CicerCnem pervfinit (B. G. v. 62), because he .! 

feared to follow further, he came to Cicero. [Cause.] 
qui sclret lax3^ dare iussus habenas (Aen. i. 63), who might hnoio how to . 
give them loose rein when bidden. [Occasion.] y 

damnatum poenam sequl oport€bat (B. G. i. 4), if cortdemned^ punishmeni > 

must overtake him. [Condition.] 
salutem inspcrantibus reddidisti (Marc. 21), you have restored a safety for 

which we did not hope (to [us] not hoping). [Concession.] 

Dardanius caput ecce puer detectus (Aen. x. 133), the Trojan boy with his ' ! 

head uncovered. [Description.] I 

nee trepides in usum poscentis aevi panca (Hor. Od. ii. 11. 5), 5e not onxiows i 

for the needs of age that demands little. [Characteristic] ' 

incitati fuga mentis altissimOs petebant (B. C. iii. 93), in headlong flight they 

made for the highest mountains. [Manner.] 
milit^s sublevati alii ab alils magnam partem itineris cOnficerent (id. i. 68), 
the soldiers, helped up by each other, accomplished a conaiderabU part of 
the route. [Means.] 
^^ Uudftns, Pomp§iu8 idem iQravit (id, iii. 87), approving this, Pompey took 
the same oath. [Attendant Circumstance.] 

^^ a^t "nbulfins disputabam (Tusc. i. 7), I conducted the discussion 
^ther stUing or walking. [Attendant Circumstance.] 

§§ 496, 497] USES OF PARTICIPLES 818 

l^^TB 1. — These Qses are especially frequent in the Ablative Absolute (§ 420). 
NoTB 2. — A coordinate clause is sometimes compressed into a perfect participle : — 
instructoa Ordines in locum aequum deducit (Sail. Cat. 59), he draws up the lineSf 

and leads them to level ground. 
ut hOs traductds necaret (B. G. v. 6), that he might carry them over and put them 
to death, 
"NoTS 3. — A participle with a negative often expresses the same idea which in 
Cnglish is given by without and a verbal noun: as, — miserum est nihil pr5flcientem 
angi (N. D. iii. 14), it is wretched to vex oneself without effecting anything. 

Note 4. — Acceptum and ezpSnsum as predicates with ferre and referre are book- 
keeping terms: as, — quas pecunias fer6l>at eis expSnsas (Verr. ii. 170), what sum^he 
charged to them, 

497. A noun and a passive participle are often so united that 
the participle and not the noun contains the main idea : — ^ 

ajite conditam condendamve urbem (Liv. Pref.), b^ore the city wa^ built or 

ill! libertatem imminutam ctvium Hdm&nOrum nOn tulSrunt; vds ereptam 
vltam neglegetis (Manil. 11), they did not endure the infringement of the 
citizens^ liberty ; will you disregard the destruction of their lives f 

post natos homines (Brut. 224), since the creation of man. 

iam a conditH urbe (Phil. iii. 9), even from the founding of the city. 

a* The perfect participle with a noun in agreement, or in the 
neuter as an abstract noun, is used in the ablative with opus, need 
(cf. §411. a): — 

opus facto est viatico (PI. Trin. 887), tfiere is need of laying in provision. 

mitur&to opus est (Liv. viii. 38. 17), there is need of haste, 

h. The perfect participle with habeO (rarely with other verbs) has 
almost the same meaning as a perfect active, but denotes the contin- 
ued effect of the action of the verb : — ^ 

fidem quam habent Bpect&tam iam et diu cSgnitam (Caecil. 11), my fidelity ^ 

which they have proved and long known. 
cohortls in acifi lxxx cdnstitfltas habebat(B. C. iii. 89), he had eighty cohorts 
f stationed in line of battle, 

nefarios duc6s captos iam et comprehSnsos tenStis (Cat. iii. 16), you have now 
captured the infamous leaders and hold them in custody. 

c. A verb of effecting or the like may be used in combination with 
the perfect participle of a transitive verb to express the action of that 
verb more forcibly : — 

1 Compare the participle in indirect discourse in Greek (Goodwin's Greek Grammar, 
§ 1588) ; and the English " 'T was at the royal feast /or Persia won " (Dryden), i.e./or 
the conquest of Persia, 

^ The perfect with have^ in modern languages of Latin stock, has grown out of this 
use of habeS. 

814 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 497-4! 

praefectOs soOs multl miaaSs fecSrnnt (Verr. iii. 134), many discharffed'^the 

officers (made dismissed), 
hic trAns&ctam reddet omne (PL Capt. 346), Ae vnU get it dU done (restore i 

adSmptam tibi iam faz5 omnem metum (Ter. Haut. 341), I will relieve yo\ 

of aU fear (make it taken away), 
illam tibi incensam dabd (Ter. Ph. 974), / wiU make her angry with you. 

NoTB. — Similarly void (with its compounds) and cupiS, with a perfect participle 
without esse (cf. § 486. d). 

d* After verbs denoting an action of the senses the present partici- 
ple in agreement with the object is nearly equivalent to the infinitive 
of indirect discourse (§ 580), but expresses the action more vividly ; 

ut eum nCmO umquam in equ5 sedentem viderit (Yerr. v. 27), so thai no one 
ever saw him sitting on a horse. [Cf. Tusc. iii. 31.] 

NoTB. — The same construction is used after facid, indac9, and the like, with the 
name of an author as subject : as, — XenophOn f acit SOcratem disputantem (N. D. i 
31), Xenophon represents Socrates disputing. 

Futore Participle (Active) ' 

498. The Future Participle (except fut&ms and ventQrus) is 
rarely used in simple agreement with a noun, except by poets 
and later writers. 

a. The future participle is chiefly used with the' forms of esse 
(often omitted in the infinitive) in the Active Periphrastic Conjuga- 
tion (see § 195) : — 

morere, Diagora, ndn enim in caelum adscSnsdrus es (Tusc. i. Ill), di«, 

Diagoras^ for you are not likely to rise to heaven, 
spSrat adul6sc€n8 diti se ricturum (Cat. M. 68), the young man hopes to live 

long (that he shall live long), 
neque petitorus umquam cOnsulatum vidSrStur (Off. iii. 79), and did not seem 
likely ever to be a candidate for the consulship. 

b» With the past tenses of esse in the indicative, the future parti- 
ciple is often equivalent to the pluperfect subjunctive (§ 617. d). 
For futurom fuisse, see § 589. b. 

499. By later writers and the poets the Future Participle is 
often used in simple agreement with a substantive to express— 

1. Likelihood or certainty : — 

rem ausus plOs f amae habitiiram (Liv. 11. 10), having dared a thing which wmid 
have more repute. 

^§ 499, 500] ' GERUNDIVE 315 

2. Purpose, intention, or readiness : — 

egreditur castrls R5m3.nus vftUum invasfirus (Liv. iii. 60. 8), tJie Roman comes 
out of the camp with the iviention of attacking the rampart. 

dispersOs per agrOs milites equitibus invasuris (id. xxxi. 36), lohUe the horse 
were ready to attack the soldiers scattered through the fields. 

8l periturus abis (Aen. ii. 676), if you are going away to perish. 

3. Apodosis : — 

dedit mihi quantum maximum potuit, daturus amplius si potuisset (Plin. Ep. 
iii. 21. 6), he gave me as much as lie couldj ready to give me more if he 
had been able. [Here daturus is equivalent to dedisset.] 

Gerundive (Future Passive Participle) 

NOTB. — The participle in -dtis, commonly called the Gerundive, has two distinct 
uses: — 

(1) Its predicate and attribute use as Participle or Adjective (§ 500). 

(2) Its use with the meaning of the Gerund (§ 503). This may be called its gerun- 
dive use. 

500. The Gerundive when used as a Participle or an Adjective 
is always passive, denoting necessity/, obligation^ or propriety. 

In this use of the Gerundive the following points are to be 
observed : — 

1. The gerundive is sometimes used, like the present and perfect 
participles, in simple agreement with a noun : — 

fortem et conservaiidum virum (Mil. 104), a brave man, and worthy to be pre- 

gravis initlria facta est et n5n ferenda (Flacc. 84), a grave and intolerable 
wrong has been done. 

2. The most frequent use of the gerundive is with the forms of esse 
in the Second (or passive) Periphrastic Conjugation (see § 196) : — 

•*- nOn agitanda r6s erit (Verr. v. 179), wiU not the thing have to be agitated? 

3. The neuter gerundive of both transitive and intransitive verbs 
may be used impersonally in the second periphrastic conjugation. 

* With verbs that take the dative or ablative, an object may be ex- 

pressed in the appropriate case ; with transitive verbs, an object in 
the accusative is sometimes found : — 

tempori serviendum est (Fam. iz. 7. 2), one must obey the time. 

iSgibus p&rendum est, the laws must be obeyed. 

fitenduip exercitatiOnibus modicis (Cat. M. 36), we mv^ use moderate exercise. 

agitandumst vigilias (PI. Trin. 869), I have got to stand guard. 

via quam n5blB ingrediendum sit (Cat. M. 6), ^ way we have to enter. 

816 SYNTAX : THB VERB [§§ 600-603 

4. After verbs signifying to ^ve, deliver, agree far, have, receive^ 
undertake, demand,^ a gerundive in agreement with the object is used 
to express purpose : — 

redSmptor qui columnam illam conduxerat faciendam (Diy. ii. 47), the con- 
tractor who had undertaken to make thai, column, [The regular construc- 
tion with this class of verbs.] 
aedem Castoris habuit tuendam (Verr. ii. 1. 150), he had the temple of Castor 

to take care of. 
nftYls atque onera adservanda ctLrftbat (id. y. 146), he took care that the ships 
and cargoes shouM be kept, 


501. The Gerund is the neuter of the Gerundive, used sub- 
stantively in the Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative. 

502. The Gerund expresses an action of the verb in the form 
of a verbal noun. 

As a noun the gerund is itself governed by other words ; as a 
verb it may take an object in the proper case : — 

ars bene disseren^ et vera ac falsa dufidicandi (De Or. ii. 157)| the art of dis- 
coursing well, and distinguishing the true and the false. 

Note. — The Nominative of the gerund is supplied by the Infinitive. Thus in the 
example above, the verbal nouns discoursing and distinguishing, if used in the nomi- 
natif e, would be expressed by the infinitives disserere and diiudicare. 

The Gerund is the neuter of the gerundive used impersonally, but retaining the 
verbal idea sufl8ciently to govern an object. It may therefore be regarded as a noun 
(of. mattlratd opas est, §497. a) with a verbal force (cf.istanc tactio, p. 240, footnote). 


503. When the Gerund would have an object in the Accusa- 
tive, the Gerundive ^ is generally used instead. The gerundive 
agrees with its noun, which takes the case that the gerund would 
have had : — 

parati5rgs ad omnia pericula subeunda (B. G. i. 5), readier to undergo all 
dangers. [Here subeunda agrees with pericula, which is itself governed 
by ad. The (inadmissible) construction with the gerund would be ad 
subeundum pericula ; ad governing the gerund, and the gerund governing 
the accusative pericula.] For details, see §§ 504-507. 

^ Such verbs are accipio, adnStS, attribuS, condiico, euro, dSnotS, d6po8c5, dS, divid5, 
dSno, Sdic5, 6doceo, fer5, habeo, loco, mando, obiciS, pennitto, peto, p5no, praebed, prtpono, 
relinquS, rogo, 8U8Cipl5, tridS, vove5. j ■ 

2 The gerundive construction is probabl y the original -ctTe. q ^)uti<r 

fj»; -^-^ • <i 


NoTB 1. — In this use the gemnd and the gerundiye are translated in the same 
way, but have really a different construction. The gerundive is a, passive participle, 
and agrees with its noun, though in translation we change the voice, just as we may 
translate vigiliae agltandae sunt (guard miLSt be kept) hy I must stand guard. 

NoTB 2. — In the gerundive construction the verbs utor, fraor, etc., are treated like 
transitive verbs governing the accusative, as they do in early Latin (§ 410. a. n. i) : as, 
— ad perfruendas voluptates (Off. i. ^)t for enjoying pleasures. 

«• The following examples illustrate the parallel constructions of 
Gerund and Gerundive : — 

Gen. consilium | , t^. t -^ [ a design of taking the city. 

Dat. dat operam { - \ a- \^^ attends to tilling the fields. 

. . . J ( mihi parendum 1 ., (to obey me. 

Ace. veniunt ad -{ . ' . , > they come \ . ; 

{ pacem petendam J {to seek peace. 

Abl. terit tempos \ -, ^. . ^ ,- \ he spends time in writing letters. 
'^ \ scribendis epistuhs J 

NoTK 1. — The gerund with a direct object is practically limited to the Genitive and 
the Ablative (without a preposition) ; even in these cases the gerundive is commoner. 

Note 2. — The gerund or gerundive is often found coordinated with nominal con- 
structions, and sometimes even in apposition with a noun : — 

(1) in foro, in curia, in amicorum periculis propulsandis (Phil. vii. 7), in theforumy 

in the senate-housey in defending my friends in jeopardy. 

(2) ad res diversissimas, parendum atque imperandom (Li v. xzi. ^),for the most 

widely different things^ obeying and commanding. 

^ Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive 

504. The Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive is used after 

nouns or adjectives, either as subjective or objective genitive : — 

vivend! finis est optimus (Cat. M. 72), it is the beat end of living. [Sub- 
neque consili habendi neque arma capiend! spatiO dat5 (B. 6. iv. 14), time being 
► given Tieither for forming plans nor for taking arms. [Obj active. ] 

nOn tam commdtandarum quam evertendlrum«rerum cupid5s (Off. ii. 8), desir- 
ous not so much of changing as of destroying the state. [Objective.] 

Note 1. — In these uses the gerund and the gerundive are about equally common. 
Note 2. — In a few phrases the Infinitive is used with nouns which ordinarily 
have the genitive of the gerund or gerundive: as, — tempus est abire, it is time to go. 

a. The genitive of the gerund sometimes takes a direct object, espe- 
cially a neuter pronoun or a neuter adjective used substantively : — 

ntilla causa iusta cniquam esse potest centra, patriam arma capiendl (Phil. ii. 

68), no one can nave a iu^t cause for taking up arms against his country. 
artem vera ac falsa dliudicandi (De Or. ii. 157), the art of distinguishing true 

from false. 

318 SYNTAX: THE VEBB [§§604,506 

Note 1. — The genitive of the genmd op gerundive is used (especially in later Latin) 
as a predicate genitive. When so used it often expresses purpose : — 

quae postquam glOriOsa modo neque belH patrandi oogndvit (lug. 88), toTien he 
perceived that these were only brilliant deeds and not likely to end the war. 
Aegyptum proflciscltur cSgnSscendae antiquititis (Tac. Ann. ii. 69), Tie sets out for 
Egypt to study old times, 

b. The genitive of the gerund or gerundive with causa or gratia 
expresses purpose (§ 633. b)\ — 

pabulandi aut frflmentandl causft prOgressI (B. C. i. 48), having advanced for 

ike purpose of collecting fodder or supplies. 
vitandae suspidonis causa (Cat. i. 19), in order to avoid suspicion. 
simulandi grfttia (lug. 37), in order to deceive. 
exercendae mem5riae gratia (Cat. M. 38), for the sake of training the memory. 

c. The genitive of the gerund is occasionally limited by a noun or 
pronoun (especially a personal pronoun in the plural) in the objective 
genitive instead of taking a direct object : — 

rgiciendX trium iudicum potestas (Verr. ii. 77), tAe power of chaUenging three 

jurors (of the rejecting of three jurors), 
stti colligendi facultas (B. G. iii. 6), the opportunity to recover themselves. 

Dative of the Gerund and Gerundiye 
505. The Dative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used in a few 

expressions after verbs : — ^ 

diem praestitit open f aciend5 (Verr. ii. 1. 148) , he appointed a day for doing the 

praeesse agr5 colend5 (Rose. Am. 50), to take charge of cultivating ths land. 
esse solvcndo, to be able to pay (to be for paying). 
Note. — The dative of the gerund with a direct object is never found in classic 
Latin, but occurs twice in Plautus. 

a. The dative of the gerund and gerundive is used after adjec- 
tives^ especially those which denote ^^wess or adaptability: — 

genus armSrum aptum tegendis corporibus (Liv. zxxii. 10), a sort of armor 

suited to the defence of the body. 
reliqua tempera demetendis fructibus et percipiendis accommodata sunt (Cat. M. 

70), the other seasons are fitted to reap and gather in the harvest. 
perferendis militum maadatis iddneus (Tac. Ann. i. 23), suitable for carrying 
mU the instructions of the soldiers. 
Note. — This construction is very common in Livy and later writers, infrtquent 
in classical prose. 

1 Such are praeesse, operam dare, diem dicere, locum capere. 

2 Such are accommodatus, aptus, ineptus, bonus, habilis, IdSneus, pftr, fitUis, inttilis. 
But the accusative with ad is common with most of these (cf . § 386. a). 


ft. The dative of the gerund and gerundive is used in certain legal 

>lnrases after nouns meaning officers, offices, elections, etc., to indicate 

[^l=Le function or scope pf the office etc. : — 

comitia consulibus rogandis (Div. i. 33), elections for nominating consuls. 
triamvir coldniis deducundis (lug. 42), a triumvir for planting colonies. 
triumviri rei pilblicae constitaeiidae (title of the Triumvirate), triumvirs (a com- 
mission of three) for settling the government. 

Accusative of the Gerund and Gerundive 

506. The Accusative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used 
after the preposition ad, to denote Purpose (cf, § 533): — 

m3 vocSs ad scribendum (Or. 34), you summon me to write. 

vivis nOn ad deponendam sed ad cdnfirmandam audaciam (Cat. i.'4), you live 

not to puJt off hut to confirm your daring. 
nactus aditus ad ea c5nanda (B. 0. i. 81), having found means to undertake 

these things. 

Note 1. — Other prepositions appear in this construction ; inter and ob a few times, 
circa, in, ante, and a few others very rarely: as, inter agendum (Eel. ix. 24), while 

NoTB 2. — The Accusative of the gerund with a preposition never takes a direct 
object in classic Latin. 

Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive 

507. The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used (1) 
to express manner,^ means^ cause, etc.; (2) after Comparatives; 
and (3) after the propositions ab, dS, ex, in, and (rarely) pr6 : — 

(1) multa poUicendS persuadet (lug. 46), he persuades by large promises. 
Latlne loquendd cuivis p3.r (Brut. 128), equal to any man in speaking Latin. 
his ipsis legendis (Oat. M. 21), ly reading these very things. 

obscuram atque humilem conciendo ad s3 multitudinem (Liv. i. 8), calling to 
them a mean and obscure multitude. 

(2) nullum officium referenda gr&tia magis necessarium est (Off. i. 47), no duty 
is more important than repaying favors. 

(3) in re gerendA versarl (Cat. M. 17), to be employed in conducting affairs. 

NoTB 1. — The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive is also very rarely used 
with verbs and adjectives: as, — nee continuandS abstitit magistratu (Liv. ix. 34), he 
did not desist from continuing his magistracy. 

Note 2. — The ablative'of the gerund rarely takes a direct object in classic prose. 

1 In this use the ablative of the gerund is, in later writers nearly, and in mediaeval 
writers entirely, equivalent to a present participle : as, — cum una dierum flendo sSdis^ 
set, qtiidam miles generSsus iuxta eam EQurrANDo vgnit (Gesta Romanorum, 66 [58]), 
08 one day she sat weeping, a certain knight came riding by (compare § 507, fourth 
example) . Hence come the Italian and Spanish forms of the present participle (as man- 
dando, esperando), the true participial form becoming an adjective in those languages. 

820 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 508-61U 


608. The Saplne is a verbal abstract of the fourth dedenslon (§ 94. b), liaving no 
distinction of tense or person, and limited to two uses. (1) The form in -lun is the 
Accusative of the end of motion ($ 428. t) . (2) The form in -u is usually Dative of pur- 
pose (§ 382), but the Ablative was early confused with it. 

509. The Supine in -urn is used after verbs of motion to express 
purpose. It may take an object in the proper case : — 

quid est, Imusne seasnm ? etsi admonitum vSnimus t€, nOn flagit&tum (De Or. 

iii. 17), how now, shall we be seated f l^wugh we have come to remind, not 

to evdreai you. 
nflptum dare (collocSlre), to give in marriage, 
venerunt questnm iniurifts (Liv. iii. 26), they came to complain of wrongs. 

Note 1. — The supine in -um is especially common withe5, and with the i>assive 
infinitive in forms the future infinitive passive : — 

fuere cives qui rem publicam perditum irent (Sail. Cat. 36), there were citizens who 

went about to ruin the republic. 
ri sciret se tnicid&tam Iri (Div. ii. 22), t/ Ae (Pompey) had known thai he was 
going to be murdered, [Rare except in Cicero. For the more usual way of 
expressing the future passive infinitive, see § 569. 3. a.] 
Note 2. — The supine in -am is occasionally used when motion is merely implied. 

510. The Supine in-fl^ is used with a few adjectives and with 
the nouns fas, neffls, and opus, to denote an action in reference to 
which the quality is asserted : — 

rem n5n mode visfl foedam, sed etiam audita (FhiL ii. 63), a thing not only 

shocking to sec, but even to hear of. 
quaerunt quid optimum factu sit (Verr. ii. 1. 68), they ask what ia best to do. 
8l h5c fas est dictu (Fuse. y. 38), if this is lawful to say. 
yidetis nefa^s esse dicta miseram fuisse talem senecttltem (Cat. M. 13), you 

seeitis a sin to say that such an old age was wretched. 

Note 1. — The supine in -a is thus in appearance an Ablative of Specification (§ 418). 

Note 2. — The supine in -a is found especially with such adjectives as indicate an 

effect on the senses or the feelings, and those which denote eaact d^culty, and the 

like. But with facilis, difilcilis, and iucnndus, ad with the gerund is more common: — 

nee visii facilis nee dicta adfabilis uUi (Aen. iii. 621), ?ie is not pleasant for any 

man to look at or address. 
difficilis ad distinguendum similitudO (De Or. ii. 212), a likeness difficult to dis- 
Note 3. — With all these adjectives the poets often use the Infinitive in the same 
sense: as,— faciles aurem praebfire (Prop. ii. 21. 15), indulgent to lend an ear. 

Note 4. — The supine in -u with a verb is extremely rare: as, — pudet dictfi (Tac. 
Agr. 32), it is a shame to tell. [On the analogy of pudendum dictu.] 

^ The only common supines iu -u are audita, dicta, facta, inventa, memorfttn, nitii, 
visa. In classic use this supine is found in comparatively few verbs. It is nevei 
followed by an object-^aso. 



511. The Conditional Sentence differs from other complex sentences in this, that 
the form of the main clause (afodosis) is determined in some degree by the nature 
of the subordinate clause (fbotasis) upon the truth of which the. whole statement 
depends. Like all complex sentences, however, the Conditional Sentence has arisen 
from the use of two independent sentence-forms to express the parts of a thought 
which w^as too complicated to be fully expressed by a simple sentence. But because 
the thoughts thus expressed are in reality closely related, as parts of a single whole, the 
sentences which represent them are also felt to be mutually dependent, even though 
the relation is not expressed by any connecting word. Thus, Speak the word : my ser- 
vant shcUl be healed is a simpler and an earlier form of expression than J[f thou speak 
the word, etc. 

The Conditional Particles were originally pronouns without conditional mean- 
ing: thus, 81, if, is a weak demonstrative of the same origin as sic, so (si-oe like 
hi-ce, see §215. 5), and had originally the meaning of in that way, or in some way. 
Its relative sense {if) seems to have come from its use with sic to make a pair of correla- 
tives : thv^ . . . thus (see § 512. 6). 

In its origin the Conditional Sentence assumed one of two forms. The condition 
was from the first felt to be a condition, not a fact or a command ; but, as no special 
sentence-form for a condition was in use, it employed for its expression either a state- 
ment oi fact (with the Indicative) or a form of wild 4;ommand (the Subjunctive). 
From the former have come all the uses of the Indicative in protasis ; from the latter 
all the uses of the Subjunctive in protasis. The Apodosis has either (1) the Indicative, 
expressing the conclusion as a fact, and the Present and Perfect Subjunctive, express- 
ing it originally ba future — and hence more or less doubtful — or (2) the Imperfect 
and Pluperfect Subjunctive expressing it stsfuturum in praeterito,^ and so unfurled 
in the present or past. Thus, — ridSs, mHiore cachinnS concutitur, you laugh, he shakes 
with mx>re boisterous laughter, is the original form for the Indicative in protasis and 
( apodosis; si rides originally means merely you laugh in some way or other, and so, 
later, if you laugh. So rogSs AristSnem, neget, ask Aristo, he would say no, is the 
original form of the subjunctive in protasis and apodosis; si roges would mean ask in 
som£ way or other. In si rogares, negaret, the Imperfect rogarSs transfers the command 
of rogSs to past time,^ with the meaning suppose you had asked, and si would have the 
same meaning as before ; while negaret transfers the future idea of neget to past time, 
and means he was going to deny. Now the stating of this supposition at all gives 
rise to the implication that it is untrue in point of fact, — because, if it were true, 
there would ordinarily be no need to state it as a supposition : for it would then be a 
^ simple fact, and as such would be put in the indicative.' Such a condition or conclusion 

1 The futHrum in praeterito is a tense future relatively to a time absolutely past. 
) It denotes a future act transferred to the point of view of past time, and hence is 

naturally expressed by a past tense of the Subjunctive : thus dixisset, he would have 
«aid=dicturus fuit, he was about to say [but did not]. As that which looks towards 
the future from some point in the past has a natural limit in present time, such a 
tense (the imperfect subjunctive) came naturally to be used to express & present con- 
dition purely ideal, that is to say, contrary to fact. 

2 Compare potius diceret, he should rather have said (§ 439. b). 

* There are, however, some cases in which this implication does not arise : as, — 
deciSns centSna dedissSs, nil erat in locuHs (Hor. 8. i. 3. 15), if you*d given him a mil- 
lion, there was nothing in his coffers. 


(originally put, meaning suppose you had asked [yesterday], he wa>s going to deny 
came to express an unfulfilled condition in the present: suppose (or if) you wen 
now asking f he would [now] deny — just as in English ought, which originally meant 
owed,^ has come to express a present obligation. 

For the classification of Conditional Sentences, see § 513. 


512. A complete Conditional Sentence consists of two clauses, 
the Protasis and the Apodosis. 

The clause containing the condition is called the Protasis; 
the clause containing the conclusion is called the Apodosis : — 

si qui exlre volunt [protasis], c5nlv6re possum [apodosis] (Cat. ii. 27), if 

any wish to depart, I can keep my eyes shut, 
8l est in exsili5 [protasis], quid amplius posiulatis [apodosis] (Lig. 18), if 

h^iain exile, whaJt more do you askf 

It should be carefully noted that the Apodosis is the main clause 
and the Protasis the dependent clause. 

a. The Protasis is regularly introduced by the conditional particle 
si^ if, or one of its compounds. 

Note. — These compounds are sin, nisi, etlam si, etsi, tametsi, tamenetsi (see Condi- 
tional and Concessive Particles, p. 138). An Indefinite Relative, or any relative or 
concessive word, may also serve to introduce a conditional clause: see Conditional 
Relative Clauses (§§619, 642) ; Concessive Clauses (§527). 

b. The Apodosis is often introduced by some correlative word or | 
phrase : as, ita, turn (rarely sic), or ea condiciSne etc. : — j 

ita enim senecttis honesta est, si sS ipsa d€fendit (Cat. M. 3S), on this condi- ] 
tion 18 old age honorable, if it defends itself, i 

si quidem me amd,ret, turn istuc pr5desset (Ter. Eun. 446), if he loved me, ' 
then this would be profitable, 

sic scribes aliquid, si vac&bis (Att. zii. 38. 2), if you are (shall be) at leisure, J, 
then you will write something. I 

Cm The Apodosis is the principal clause of the conditional sen- i 

tence, but may at the same time be subordinate to some other . 

clause, and so appear in the form of a Participle, an Infinitive, or i 

a Phrase : — 

sepulttira, quoque pFohibituri, nl rSx hutnarl iussisset (Q. C. viii. 2. 12), intend- 
ing also to deprive him of burial, urUess the king had ordered him to be 

1 ** There was a certain lender which ought him five hundred pieces." ^- Tyndak'i 
New Testament, 


qaod si praetereft n^mO sequfttur, tamen 86 cum s0l3, decimS. legiOne Itflram 
[esse] (B. G. 1. 40. .14), but if no one else should follow, he would go toith 
the tenth legion alone. 

si quOs adversum proelium commoveret, hSs reperire posse (id. 40. 8), if the 
loss of a battle alarmed any, they might find, etc. 

^NoTB. — When the Apodosis itself is in Indirect Discourse, or in any other depend- 
T\t construction, the verb of the Protasis is regularly in the Subjunctive (as in the aboye 
txiampleSy see § 589). 


513. Conditions are either (1) Particular or (2) General. 

1. A Particular Condition refers to a definite act or series of acts 
occurring at some definite time. 

2. A General Condition refers to any one of a class of acts which 
may occur (or may have occurred) at any time. 

514. The principal or typical forms of Conditional Sentences 
may be exhibited as follows : — 


A. Simple Conditions (nothing implied as to fulfilment) 

I. Present Time 

Present Indicative in both clauses: — 
si adest, bene est, ifJieia [now] here, it is weU. 

2. Past Time 

Imperfect or Perfect Indicative in both clauses: — 

81 aderat, bene erat, if he was [then] h£re, it was welL 

s! adfoit, bene f uit, if he has been [was] here, it has been [was] toeK. 

B. FuTUBB Conditions (as yet unfulfilled) 

I. More Vivid 

a. THiture Indicative in both clauses : — 
81 adeiit, bene erit, if he is (shall be) here, U wiU be wM. 

h. Future Perfect Indicative in protasis, Future Indicative in 
apodosis: — 

si •dfudsit, bene exit, if he is (shall have been) here, it will [then] be well. 


a* LessViyld j 

a. Present Subjunctive in both clauses: — 
81 adsit, bene sit, if he should be {or were to be) A«re, U vHJuld be tJoeU. 

6. Perfect Subjunctive in protasis, Present Subjunctive in apod- 

osis: — 

81 adf uerit, bene sit, if he should be (should have been) here^ jt would [then] 
be well. 

0. Conditions Contrary to Fact 

I. Present Time 

Imperfect Subjunctive in both clauses; — 
si adesset, bene esset, if he were [now] ^ere, it wotUd be vfeU (but he is not here). 

2. Past Time 

Pluperfect Subjunctive in both clauses: — 

81 adfuisset, bene foisset, if he ?Md [then] been here, ii would Jiav* been well 
(but he was not here). 

NoTB. — The use of tenses in Protasis is very loose in English. Thus if he is 
alive now is a present condition, to be expressed in Latin by the Present Indicative ; 
if he is alive next year is a future condition, expressed in Latin by the Future 
Indicative. Again, if he were here now is a present condition contrary to fact, 
and would be expressed by the Imperfect Subjunctive ; %f he were to see me thus 
is a FUTURE condition less vivid, to be expressed by the Present Subjunctive ; and so 
too, if you advised him, he would attend may be future less vivid.^ 


General Conditions do not usually differ in form from Particular 
Conditions (A, B, and C), but are sometimes distinguished in the 
cases following : — 

I. Present General Condition (Indefinite Time) 

a. Present Subjunctive second person singular (Indefinite Subject) 
in protasis, Present Indicative in apodosis: — 

si hoc dicas, creditur, if any one [ever] says this, it is [always] belieted. 

6, Perfect Indicative in protasis, Present Indicative in apodosis : 
81 quid dixit, creditur, if he [ever] says anything, it is [always] believed. 

1 In most English verbs thfe Preterite (or Past) Subjunctive is identical in form 
with the Preterite Indicative. Thus in such a sentence as ^ ^ loved his father, he 
would not say this, the verb loved is really a Preterite Subjunctive, though this does 
not appear from the inflection. In the verb to be, however, the Subjunctive were has 
been preserved and differs in form from the indicative was. 


3. Past General Condition (Repeated Action in Past Time) 
cr. Pluperfect Indicative in protasis, Imperfect Indicative in apod- 

81 quid dizerat, crSdebatur, if he [ever] said anything^ it was [always] believed. 

h» Imperfect Subjunctive in protasis, Imperfect Indicative in apod- 
sis : — 

81 quid diceret, crSdSb&tur, }/ he [ever] said anything^ it was [always] 
believed (= whatever he said was always belie?ed).^ 

Simple Present and Past Conditions — Nothing Implied 

615. In the statement of Present and Past conditions whose 
falsity 18 NOT implied^ the Present and Past tenses of the Indica- 
tive are used in both Protai^is and Apodosis : — 

si ttL exercitosque valStis, bene est (Fam. v. 2), if you and the army arewdl, 

it ia well, [Present Condition.] 
haec igitar, si ROmae es ; sin abes, aut etiam si ades, haec negOtia sic s€ habent 
(Att. v. 18), this, then, if you are at Rome; but if you are away — or even 
^ if you are there — these matters are aa follows. [ Present Condition. ] 

si Caesarem probatis, in m6 offenditis (B. 0. ii. 82. 10), if you favor CoBsar, 
you find fauU with me, [Present Condition. ] 
V si qui magnis ingenils in eO genera exstitS^tunt, nOn satis Graec5nim gl^riae 
respond^nuit (Tusc. i. 3), ^ any have sh>own themselves of great genius in 
that department, they have failed to compete with the glory of the Greeks. 
[Past General Condition, not distinguished in form from Particular.] 
accSpI R0m3. sine epistula tua fasciculum litterftrum in quO, si modo valuisti 
I et ROmae fuisti, Philotlml daco esse culpam nOn tuam (Att. v. 17), I have 

received from Rome a bundle of letters with>ovt any from you, which, pro- 
vided you have been well and at Rome, I take to be the fault of Philotimv^j 
not yours. [Mixed : Past condition and Present conclusion.] 
qu9,s litterSs, si ROmae es, vidSbis put€sne reddendSs (id. v. 18), oa to this 
letter, if you are at Rome, you will see whether in your opinion it ought 
to he delivered. [Mixed : Present and Future.] 
81 nemO impetrayit, adroganter rog5 (Lig. 30), ifnx) one has succeeded in obtaivr 
ing it, my request is presumptuous. [Past and Present.] 

1 Of. the Greek forms corresponding to the various types of conditions : — 

A. 1. 6/ irpdffcrei tovto, Ka\Qs l^x*** 2. el tTrpacae tovto, Ka\Clis etx^v, 

B. 1. ihv irpdaaTj Toirro^ koKCjs l^et. ^ 2. el wpdaaoi tovto, koXus Slv ^x^'" 
G. 1. tl ifTpaaae tovto, fcaXuis hv eXx^v* 2. el ewpa^e tovto, koXQs Av i^rx^v. 
D. I. idv rts KXiirTy, KoXdj^erai. 2. et tls kX^vtoi, iKoKdj^ero. 


a. In these conditions the apodosis need not always be in the Id 
dicative^ but may assume any form, according to the sense : — 

si placet . . . videamas (Cat. M. 16), if you please, let us see. [Hortatorj 

Subjunctive, §439.] 
si nOndum satis cernitis, record&mini (Mil. 61), if you do not yet see clearly. 

recollect, [Imperative.] 
si quid hab€s certius, velim scire (Att. iv. 10), if you have any trustworthy 

information, I should like to know it. [Subjunctive of Modesty, § 447. 1/ 

Note. — Although the form of these conditions does not imply anything as to the 
truth of the supposition, the sense or the context may of course have some such impli- 
cation : — 

nOUte, 81 in nostiO omnium fletu nuUam lacrimam aspexistis Mildnis, hOc minus 
ei parcere (Mil. 92), do not^ if amid the weeping of ua all you have seen m 
tear [in the eyes] of MUo, spare him the leas for that, 
petimus a vObIs, iudices, si qua divina in tantis ingeniis commendatio dSbet 
esse, ut eum in vestram accipiatis fidem (Arch. 31), we ask you, Judg€4y 
if there ought to he anything in such genius to recommend it to us as 
by a recommendation of the gods, that you receive him under your pro- 

In these two passages, the protasis really expresses cause: but the cause is put by 
the speaker in the form of a non-committal condition. His hearers are to draw the 
inference for themselves. In this way the desired impression is made on their minds 
more effectively than if an outspoken causal clause had been used. 

Future Conditions 
616. Future Conditions may be more vivid or lesn vivid, 

1. In a more vivid future condition the protasis makes a distinct 
supposition of a future case, the apodosis expressing what toiU he the 
logical result. 

2. In a less vivid future condition, the supposition is less distinct, 
the apodosis expressing what would he the result in the case supposed. 

a. In the more vivid future condition the Future Indicative is used 
in both protasis and apodosis : — 

sinlbimur, si volemus (Tusc. iii. 13), we shall be healed if we wish. 
quod si legere aut audire voletis, . . . reperietis (Cat. M. 20), if you wiU 
[shall wish to] read or hear, you will find. 

Note. — In English the protasis is usually expressed by the Present Indicative, 
rarely by the Future with shall. Often in Latin the Present Indicative is found in 
the protasis of a condition of this kind (cf . § 468) : — 

81 Tincimus, omnia n5bTs tuta erunt ; sin metu cesserimus, eadem ilia advorsa fient 
(Sail. Cat. 68), if we conquer, all things will be safe for us; biU if we yield 
through fear, those sam£ things will become hostile. 
A pere5, hominum manibus periisse iuvabit (Aen. iii. 606), if I perish, U wUl he 
pleasant to have perished at tJie hands of msn. 


&• In the less vivid future condition the Present Subjunctive is 
Lsed in both protasis and apodosis : — 

haec fii tecum patria loquator, nOnne dSbeat (Cat. i. 19), if your 
country should thus speak with you, ought she not to prevail? 

quod 8l quis deus mihi laigiatur, . . . valde recusem (Cat. M. 83), but if some 
god were to grant me this, I should stoutly refuse. 

NoTB. — The Present Subjunctive sometimes stands in protasis with the Future 
(or the Present) Indicative in apodosis from a change in the point of view: — ^ 

si diligenter attendamus, inteUeggmus (Inv. ii. 44), ^ we attend (should attend) 

carefully f we shall understand. 
nisi hoc dicat, "iure feci," n5n habet dofensionem (id. i. 18), unless he should 
say thiSf **I acted justifiably /' he has no defence, 

c* If the conditional act is regarded as completed before that of the 

apodosis begins, the Future Perfect is substituted for the Future 

Indicative in protasis, and the Perfect Subjunctive for the Present 

Subjunctive : — 

sin cum potuerO nOn venero, turn erit inimicus (Att. ix. 2 a.. 2), but if I do not 

come when I can, he will he unfriendly. 
si a corOnS relictus aim, n6n queam dicere (Brut. 102), if I should he deserted 
by the circle of listeners, I should nfii he able to speak. 

NoTB. — The Future Perfect is often used in the apodosis of a future condition: 
as, — vehementer mihi gratum fecerie, si hunq! adulescentem humanitate tua compre- 
henderis (Fam. xiii. 15), you will do (will haVe done) me a great favor, if you receive 
this young man with your usual courtesy. 

d. Any form denoting or implyuag future j;iine may stand in the 
apodosis of a future condition. Sqfthe Imperative, the participles in 
-dus and -rus, and verbs of necessity, possibility, and the like : — 

alius finis constituendus est, si prius quid maximS reprehendere ScipiO solitus 
sit dixerO (Lael. 59), another limit muM he set, if I first state what Scipio 
was wont most to find fault with. 

si m6 praecgperit fatum, vOs raandSsse mement5 (Q. C. ix. 6. 26), if fate cuts 
me off too soon, do you rememher that I ordered this. 

nisi oculis videritis Insidias MilQnl 3, ClOdiS factas, nee dSprecaturi sumus nee 
postulaturi (Mil. 6) , unless you see with your own eyes the plots laid against 
Milo by Clodius, I shall neither beg nor demand, etc. 

nOn possum istum acctisare, si cupiam (Verr. iv. S7), I cannot accuse him, if 
I should (so) desire. 

1 It often depends entirely upon the view of the writer at the moment, and not 
upon the nature of the condition, whether it shall be stated vividly or not ; as in the 
proverbial "If the sky falls, we shall catch larks" the impossible condition is iron- 
ically put in the vivid form, to illustrate the absurdity of some other supposed condi- 
tion stated by some one else. 


6. Barely the Perfect Indioative is used in apodosis with. a. J^re& 
ent or even a Future (or Future Perfect) in protasis, to represent th 
conclusion rhetorically as already accomplished : — 

Bl hoc bene fizum in animO est, yicistis (Liv. zzi. 44), if this is weUJiacecL h 
your minds, you have conquered. [For you will have conquered. ] 

s! eandem [animuzn] habaeritis, vidmus (id. xxi. 43), if you shall hctve kept 
the same spirit, we have conquered. 

/. A future condition is frequently thrown back into past time, 
without implying that it is contrary to fact (§ 517). In such cases 
the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive may be used : — 

nOn poterat, nisi d6cert&re yeUet (B. C. iii. 44), he was not able, unless he 
wished to fight. ^ 

tumulus app&ruit, ... si lUce palain iretor hostis praeventurus erat (Xiiv. 
xzii. 24), a hiU appeared . . , if they should go openly by daylight^ the 
enemy would prevent. [The first two appear like Indirect Discoiirse, 
but are not. An observer describing the situation in the first example 
as present would say ndn potest nisi velit (see d), and no indirect ^is- 
course would be thought of.] 

Caesar si peteret, . . . nOn quicquam prOficeret (Hor. S. i. 3. 4), if even Co&scir 
were to ask, he would gain nothing. [Here the construction is not con- 
trary to fact, but is simply si petat, non proficiat, thrown into past time. ] 

Conditions Contrary to Fact 

517. In the statement of a supposition impliedly faise^ the Im- 
perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive are used in both protasis and 
apodosis.^ The Imperfect refers to present time^ the Pluperfect 
to past: — 

si viveret, verba gius audirStis (Rose. Com. 42), \f he were living, you would 

hear his words. [Present.] 
nisi tu amisisses, numquam recepissem (Cat. M. 11), unless you had lost it, I 

should not have recovered it. [Past.] 
si meum c5nsilium valaisset, tfi bodiS egeres, r€s ptiblica nOn tot ducSs ami- 

sisset (Phil. ii. 37), if my judgment had prevailed [as it did not], you 

would this day be a beggar, and the republic would not have lost so many 

leaders. [Mixed Present and Past.] 

1 The implication of falsity, in this construction, is not inherent in the subjunc- 
tive ; but comes from the transfer of a future condition to past time. Thus the time 
for the happening of the condition has, at the moment of writing, already passed ; bo 
that, if the condition remains a conditiont it must be contrary to fact. So past forms 
of the indicative implying a future frequently take the place of the subjunctive in 
apodosis in this construction (see c, d, below, and §611). 


€^. In conditions contrary to fact the Imperfect often refers to past 
ime, both in protasis and apodosis, especially when a repeated or con- 
tinued action is denoted, or when the condition if true would still exist : 

si nihil litteris adiuvarentur, numquam sS ad eS»rum studium contulissent 
(Arch. 16), if they had not been helped at all by literature, they never 
would have given their attention to the study of U. [Without the condi- 
tion, adiuvabantar.] 

hic s! mentis easet suae, ausus esset educere ezercitum (Pison. 50), if Tie were 
of sane mind, would he have dared to lead out the army f [Here esset 
denotes a continued state, past as well as present.] 

nOn concidissent, nisi illud receptaculum classibus nostrls patSret (Yerr. ii. 
8), [the power of Carthage] wovld not have fallen, urdess that station had 
been [constantly] open to our fleets. [Without the condition, patebat] 

6. In the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact the past tenses 
of the Indicative may be nsed to express what was intended, or likely, 
or already begi^n. In this use, the Imperfect Indicative corresponds 
in time to the Imperfect Subjunctive, and the Perfect or Pluperfect 
Indicative to the Pluperfect Subjunctive : — 

si licitum esset, matres TeniSbant (Verr. v. 129), the mothers were coming if 

it had been allowed, 
in amplextis fiyae luebat, nisi lict6r€s obstitissent (Tac. Ann. xvi. 32), he was 

about rushing into his daughter's arm^, unless the lictors had opposed. 
iam tuta tenebam, nl g€ns crud€lis ferrO iny&sisset (Aen. yi. 358), I was just 

reaching a place of safety, had not the fierce people attacked me. 

Note 1. — Here the apodosis may be regarded as elliptical. Thus, — matres venie- 
bant (et vSnissent), the matrons were coming (and would have kept on) iff etc. 

'Note 2. — With paene (and sometimes prope), almx)st, ihe Perfect Indicative is used 
in the apodosis of a past condition contrary to fact: as, — pdns iterpaene hostibus 
dedit, ni unus vir fuisset (Liv. ii. 10), the bridge had almost given a passage to ths 
foe^ if it had not been for one hero. 

c» Verbs and other expressions denoting necessity, propriety, possi- 
hiliUj, duty, when used in the apodosis of a condition contrary to 
fact, may be put in the Imperfect or Perfect Indicative. 

Such are oportet, decet, debeo, possum, necesse est, opns est, and the Sec- 
ond Periphrastic Conjugation : — ^ 

nOn potuit fieri sapiens, nisi natus esset (Fin. ii. 103), he could not have become 

a sage, if he had not been bom. 
si prlv9,tus esset h6c tempore, tamen is eiat deiigendus (Manil. 60), if he were 

at this time a private citizen^ yet he ought to be appointed. 

1 Observe that ail these expressions contain the idea of fnturity (cf . p. 328, footnote). 
Thus, decet mS [hodig] ire eras, means it is proper for me [to-day] to go to-morrow ; 
and, decCbat m6 [heri] ire hodi6, it was proper for me [yesterday] to go fo-day, usnally 
with the implication that I have not gone as I was bound to do. 


gaod esse caput dCMlMit, si probilrl posset (Fin. iv. 23), what ought toheihi 

main point, if it could be proved, 
A ita put&Bset, cert6 optabilius MilOni fait (Mil. 81), if?iehad thought so^ aurdji 

it would have been prrferablefor Milo. 

NoTB 1. — In Present conditions the Imperfect Sabjonctive (oportSiet, possem, etc..' 
is the rule, the Indicative being rare ; in Past conditions both the Subjunctive (asually 
Pluperfect) and the Indicative (usually Perfect) are common. 

For pftr erat, melius fait, and the like, followed by the infinitive, see § 521. k. 

Note 2. — The indicative construction is carried still further in poetry: as, — si 
nOn alium iactaret odOrem, laurus erat (Georg. ii. 133), it were a laurel, but for giving 
out a different odor, 

d. The participle in -flrus with eram or fui may take the place of 
an Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in the apodosis of a condi- 
tion contrary to fact : — 

quid enim futflram foit [= faisset], si . . . (Li v. 11. 1), what would have hap- 
pened if etc. 

relicturi agrOs erant, nisi ad eOs Metellos litterSs misisset (Verr. iiL 121), they 
would have abandoned their fields, if MettUui had not sent them a letter. 

neque ambigitur qain ... id factums fuerit, si . . • (Li v. ii. 1), nor is there 
any question that he would have done it, if, etc. [Direct : fedsset.] 

adeO par3,ta sSditiO fuit ut OthOuem rapturi fuerint, nl incerta noctis timuis- 
seDt (Tac. H. i. 26), so far advanced was the conspiracy that they wjuld 
have seized upon Otho, had they not feared the hazards of the night [In 
a main clause: rapuissent, m timuissent.] 

e. The Present Subjunctive is sometimes used in poetry in the 
protasis and apodosis of conditions contrary to fact : — 

nl comes admoneat, imnat (Aen. vi. 293), had not his companion warned him. 
Tie would have rusJied on. [Cf. tu si hic sis, aliter sentias (Ter. And. 3K)), 
if you were in my place, you would think differently,'} 

Note 1. — This is probably a remnant of an old construction (see next note). 

Note 2. —In old Latin the Present Subjunctive (as well as the Imperfect) is used 
in present conditions contrary to fact and the Imperfect (more rarely the Pluperfect) I 
in past conditions of the same kind. Thus it appears that the Imperfect Subjunctive, * 
like the Imperfect Indicative, once denoted past time, even in conditional sentences. 
Gradually, however, in conditional sentences, the Present Subjunctive was restricted 
to the less vivid future and the Imperfect (in the main) to the present contrary to fact, J 
while the Pluperfect was used in past conditions of this nature. The old construction] 
however, seems to have been retained as an archaism in poetry. 

/• In Plautus and Terence absque m6 (t6, etc.) is sometimes used to 
introduce conditions contrary to fact : — 

absque te esset, hodifi nusquam viverem (PI. Men. 1022), (f ft were noe/br 

you, I should not be alive to-day, 
absque e6 esset, rCctfi ego mihi vidissem (Ter. Ph. 188), if U had not been for 

Hm^ I shmdd hrwe looked onxtfor mya^. 



518, General Conditions (§ 513. 2) have usually the same forms 
LS Particular Conditions. But they are sometimes distinguished 
JT^ the following cases : — 

«• The Subjunctive is often used in the second person singular, f o 
ienote the act of an indefinite subject {you = any one). Here the 
If^ resent Indicative of a general truth may stand in the apodosis : — 

vita htlm^na prope uti f erruin est : si ezerceaSf conteritur ; si n5n exerceSs, 
tamen rObigO interficit (Cato de M.), human life is very like iron: if 
you use tt, it wears away; if you dont use it, rust still destroys it, 

yirtutem necess9,rid glOria, etiamsi tu id nOn agas, consequitnr (Tusc. i. 91), 
glory necessarily follows virtue, even if that is not one^s aim. 

si prohlbita imptine transcenderis, neque metus ultrg, neque pudor est (Tac. 
Ann. iii. 64), if you once overstep the bounds with impunity, there is no 
fear or shwne any more. 

h» In a general condition in present time, the protasis often takes 
the Perfect Indicative, and the apodosis the Present Indicative. For 
past time, the Pluperfect is used in the protasis, and the Imperfect in 
the apodosis : — 

si qu5s aliqua parte membrOrum intitilis notaverunt, necari iubent (Q. C. ix. 

1. 25), if they [ever] marh any infirm in any part of their limbs, they 

[always] order them to be put to death. [Present.] 
si ft persequendO hostis dcterrere nequiverant, ab tergO circumveniebant (lug. 

50), if [ever] they were unable to prevent the enemy from pursuing, they 

[always] surrouTided them in the rear. [Past.] 

c. In later writers (rarely in Cicero and Caesar), the Imperfect and 
Pluperfect Subjunctive are used in protasis, with the Imperfect In- 
dicative in apodosis, to state a repeated or customary action in past 
time {Iterative Suhjunctwe) : — 

si quis S, dominO prehenderetur, concursti militum eripiebttur (B. C. iii. 110), 
if any (runaway) was arrested by his master, he was (always) rescued by 
amch of soldiers, 

acctbsat5r€s, si facultas incideret, poenls adflciebantur (Tac. Ann. vi. 30), the 
accusers, wJienever opportunity offered, were visited with punishment. 

si quis collSgam appellasset, ab eo ita discSdebat ut paenitSret nCn priOris 
dScretO stetisse (Li v. iii. SQ. 8), if any one appealed to a colleague, he 
[always] came off in such case that he repented not having submitted to 
the decree of the farmer decemvir. [Of. SOcratSs, quam sfi cumque in 
partem dedisset, omnium fuit facile princeps (Be Or. iii. 60), in whatever 
direction SocraUs turned himself, he was (always) easily the foremost (if 
in any, eta.).] 



Conditional Relative Claaaes I 

619. A clause introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relativ 
Adverb may express a condition and take any of the co£ii>trai 
tions of Protasis^ (§ 514): — 

qui enim yitils modum adpdnit, is partem sascipit yitiOmm (Tusc. iv. 42), h 

who [only] sets a limit to fauUSj takes up the side of the faults. [ = a 

quia adpdnit. Present, nothing implied.] 
qui mentlrl aolet, pfiierftre cOnsaSvit (Rose. Com. 46), whoever is in the habit Qj 

lying t is accustomed to swear falsely, [= si quia solet. Present, nothing 

quicquid potoit, potuit ipsa per s6 (Leg. Agr. i. 20), whatever power she ?iad; 

she had by herseif. [= si quid potuit Past, nothing implied.] 
quod qui taciet, nOn aegritttdine sOlum vac&bit, sed, etc. (Tusc. iv. 38), and 

he who does (shall do) tAia, wiU he free not only, etc. [= si quia faciei 

Future, more vivid.] 
quiaquis httc venerit, vapul&bit (PL Am. 309), whoever comes here shall get a 

thrashing. [= si quis vSnerit. Future, more vivid.] 
qud voids, sequar (Clu. 71), whithersoever you wisA (shall wish), I wiU follow. 

[= si qud voles. Future, more vivid.] 
philosophia, cui qui p&reat, om ne tempus aet&tis sine molesti^ possit d€gere (Cat 

M. 2), philosophy, which if any one should obey, he would be able to spend 

his whole life without vexation. [= si quis p&reat. Future, less vivid.] I 
quaecumque vOs causa htlc attulisset, laetS,rer (De Or. ii. 15), 1 should be glad, 

whatever cause had brought you here (i.e. if any other, as v^ell as the one 

which did). [= si . . . attulisset. Contrary to fact.] 

The relative in this construction is always indefinite in meaning^ 
and very often in/orm. 

520. The special constructions of General Conditions are some- 
times found in Conditional Relative Clauses : — 

1. The Second Person Singular of the Subjunctive in the protasis 

with the Indicative of a general truth in the apodosis (§ 518. a) : — 

bonus tantum modo sSgnior fit uU neglegis, at malus improbior (lug. 81. 28), 
a good man merely becomes less diligent when you don^t watch him, InU a 
bad man becomes more shameless. [Present General Condition.] 

2. The Perfect or Pluperfect Indicative in the protasis and the 

Present or Imperfect Indicative in the apodosis (§ 518. h) : — 

cum htlc veni, hOc ipsum nihil agere m6 delectat (Pe Or. ii. 24), whenever I 
come here, this very doing nothing delights me (whenever I have come, 
etc.). [Present General Condition.] 

^ As In the Greek 3* Ap, &rav, etc. ; and In statutes In English, whers th« phrases 
if any person shall and whoever shall are used indifferently. 

i ©20, 621] CONDITION DISGUISED 388 

coin rosam viderat, turn incipere vSr arbitrabitur (Verr. v. 27), whenever he 
saw (had seen) a rose, then he thought spring was beginning. [Past 
Greneral Condition.] 

3. In later writers (rarely in Cicero and Csesar) the Imperfect or 
.^liiperf ect Subjunctive in the protasis and the Imperfect Indicative 
XX the apodosis (§ 518. c): — 

- ubi imbecillitas materiae postulare viderStor, pilae interponuntur (B. C. ii. 
16), whereoer the weakness of the Umber seemed to require, piles were put 
between. [Past General Condition : interponuntar = interponebantar.] 
qtt5cumque s€ intulisset, victOriam secum tiahebat (Liv. yi. 8), wherever he 
advanced, he carried victory with him. [Past General Condition.] 

Condition Disguised 

521. In many sentences properly conditional, the Protasis is 
not expressed by a conditional clause, but is stated in some other 
form of words or implied in the nature of the thought. 

a. The condition may be implied in a Clause, or in a Participle, 
l!^oun, Adverb, or some othqr word or phrase ; — 

facile me paterer — illO ipso iudice quaerente — pr6 Sex. ROsciC dicere (Rose. 

Am. 85), I should readily aUow myself to speak for Roscius if that very 

judge were conducting the trial, [Present contrary to fact : s! quaereret, 

nOn mihi, nisi admonitd, venisset in mentem (De Or. ii. 180), it would not ha-oe 

come into my mind unless [I had been] reminded. [Past contrary to 

fact: nisi admonitus essem.] 
nfilla alia gens tanta mole ctadis nOn obrata esset (Liv. xzii. 54), there is no 

other people thai would not have been crushed by such a weight of disaster. 

[Past contrary to fact : si alia faisset.] 
nem5 umquam sine magna spe immortalitatis se pro patri^ oSerret ad mortem 

(Tusc. i. 32), no one, without great hope of immortality, would ever expose 

himself to death for his country. [Present contrary to fact : nisi magnam 

spem haberet.] 
quid hunc paucSnim annCrum accessio iuvare potuisset (Lael. 11), what good 

could the addition of a few years have done him (if they had been added) ? 

[Past contrary to fact : s! accessissent.] 
quid igitur mihi ferarum laniatus oberit nihil sentient! (Tusc. i. 104), what 

harm will the mangling by wild beasts do me if I donH feel anythmg 

(feeling nothing) ? [Future more vivid: si nihil sentiam.] 
incitata semel pr5clivi labuntur sustingrique nuUo mod5 possunt (id. iv. 42), 

if once given a pu^h, they slide down rapidly and can in no way be 

checked. [Present General: si incitata sunt.] 


NoTB. — In several phrases denoting necessity, propriety, or the like, the Impa- 
feet, Perfect, or Pluperfect Imlicative of esse is used in the apodosis of a coaditios 
contrary to fact, the protasis being implied in a subject infinitive (of. 517. c) : — 

quantO melius fuerat prdmissum nOu esse ser^atum (Off. iii. 94), how mtus/i better 
wottld it have been if the promise had not been kept ! [prOmissom . . . 
servatum — si prOmissum nOn esset servatom.] 
mori praeclAium fait (Att. viii. 2. 2), it woutd have been honorable to die. 
sed erat aequius Tri&rium aliquid de dissensidne nostra ittdic&re (Fin. ii. 119), h%U it 
wovid be more equitable if Triarius passed judgment on our dispute. £Tri- 
arium iudicare = si Triarius iudicaret.] 
satins fait ftmittere milites (Inv. ii. 73), it would have been better to lose tJie sotdier^. 
[amittere=si amlsisset.] 

b. The condition may be contained in a wish {Optative Subjunctive), 
or expressed as an exhortation or command (Hortatory Subjunctive 
or Imperative) : — ' 

ntinam quidem fuissem 1 molestus nObIs nOn esset (Fam. zii. 3), I wish I j 
fiad been [chief] : Jie wovM not now be trouNing us (i.e. if I had been). 
[Optative Subjunctive.] i 

nattiram ezpellas furcd., tamen fisque recnrret (Hor. Ep. i. 30. 24), drive otU ^ 
nature with a pitchfork^ still she unU ever return. [Hortatory.] | 

roges enim AristOnem, neget (Fin. iv. 69), for ask Aristo, he wovld deny. 

manent ingenia senibus, mode permaneat studium et industria (Cat. M. 22), 
old men keep their mental powers, only let them keep their zeal and dili- 
gence (§ 628. N.). [Hortatory.] 

toUe hanc opIniOnem, Itictum sustuleris (Tusc. i. 30), remove this notion, and 
you will have done away with grief. [Imperative.] 

Note. — The so-called Concessive Subjunctive Ynth. at and nS often has the force 
of protasis (§ 527. a. n.) : as, — ut enim ratidnem Plato nullam adferret, ipsa anctQritate 
me frangeret (Tusc. i. 49), even if Plato gave no reasons, [still] Tie would overpower 
me by his mere authority. 


c. Barely the condition takes the form of an independent clause: \ 


rides: ind,iOre cachinnO concutitur (luv. iii. 100), you laugh; he shakes with 

louder laughter (= if you laugh, he shakes). 
commove : sen ties (Tusc. Iv. 64), stir him up, [and] you^UJind, etc. 
de paupertate agitur : multi patient^s pauperis commemorantur (id. iii. 67), 

we speak of poverty; many patient poor are m.enUoned. 

For Conditional Belative Glauses, see §§ 519, 520. 

Condition Omitted 

522. The Protasis is often wholly omitted, but may be inferred 
from the course of the argument : — 

poterat Sextilius impHne neg9,re : quis enim redargueret (Fin. iL 65), SeMiui 
might have denied with impunity; for who would prove him wrong (ii he 
had denied)? 

I§ 622, 628] COMPLEX CONDITIONS 886 

€1. In expressions signifying necessity, propriety, and the like, the 
Indicative may be used in the apodosis of implied conditions, either 
future or contrary to fact : — 

quod contrft decnit ab illO meum [corpus cremarl] (Cat. M. 84), whereas on 
the other Tiand mine ougkb to have been burnt by him. 

nam nOs decibat domum lUgSre ubi esset allquis in Iticem Sditus (Tosc. i. 
115), for it were fitting for us to mourn the house where a man has been 
horn (but we do not). 

quanta melius fuerat (Off. iii. 04), how mvjch better it would have been, 

illud erat aptius, aeqitum caique conc€dere (Fin. iy. 2), it would be more fit- 
ting to yield each one his rights. 

ipsum enim ezspect&re m&gnam fuit (Phil. ii. 103), would it have been a great 
matter to wait for the man himself f 

longam est ea dicere, sad . . . (Sest. 12), it would be tedious to tell, etc. 

NoTB 1. — In this construction, ^e Imperfect Indicative refers to present Hme; 
the Pluperfect to simple past time, like the Perfect. Thus oportSlMit means it ought 
to be [now], but is not; oportuerat means it ought to have been, but was not. 

Note 2. — In many cases it is impossible to say whether a protasis was present 
to the mind of the speaker or not (see third example above). 


Complex Conditions 

523. Either the Protasis or the Apodosis may be a complex idea 
in which the main statement is made with expressed or implied 
qualifications. In such cases the true logical relation of the 
parts is sometimes disguised : — 

si quia hOrum dixisset ... si verbum dQ rS p11blic& fScisset . . . multa pltira 
dixisse quam dixisset puts^retur (Rose. Am. 2), if any of these had spoken^ 
in case he had said a word about politics he would be thought to have said 
much more than he did say. [Here the apodosis of dixisset is the whole 
of the following statement (si . . . putaretur), which is itself conditioned 
by a protasis of its own : si verbum, etc.]. 

quod si in hOc mundO fieri sine de5 nOn potest, n€ in sphaer^ quidem eOsdem 
mOttls sine dIvInO ingeniO potuisset imitari (Tusc. 1. 63), now if that can- 
not be done in this universe without divine agency^ no more could [Archi- 
medes] in his orrery have imitated the same revolutions without divine 
genius. [Here si potest (a protasis with nothing implied) has for its 
apodosis the whole clause which follows, but potuisset has a contrary- 
to-fact protasis of its own implied, in sine . . . ingeniS.] 

peream male sl nOn optimum erat (Hor. S. ii. 1. 6), confound me (may I 
perish wretchedly) if it wouldn't be better. [Here peream is apodosis to 
the rest of the sentence, while the true protasis to optimum erat, contrary 
to fact, is omitted.] 


daases of Comparison (Condasion Omitted) 

524. Conditional Clauses of Comparison take the Subjunctive, 
usually in the Present or Perfect unless the sequence of tenses 
requires the Imperfect or Pluperfect. 

Such clauses are introduced by the comparative particles tamquam. 
tamquam si, quasi, ac si, ut si, velut si (later velut), poetic ceu (all mean- 
ing as if), and by quam si (than if) : — 

tamquam clausa sit Asia (Fam. zli. 9), as if Asia were closed. 
tamquam si claudus sim (PI. Asln. 427), just as if I were lame. 
ita hOs [hon5r6s] petunt, quasi honesty vizerint (lug. 85), they seek them 

(offices) just as if they had li/ced honorably. 
quasi y€rO n5n specie visa iudicentar (Acad. ii. 58), od if forsooth visible things 

were not judged by their appearance. 
similiter facis ac si me rogSs (N. D. iii. 8), you do exa^ctly as if you asked me. 
crtidelitatem horr€rent velut si c5ram adesset (B. G. i. 32), they dreaded hit 

cruelty (they said), as if he were present in person. 
hic ingentem pugnam cemimus ceu cetera nusquam bellaforent (Aen. ii. 43^, 

here we saw a great battle, as if there were no fighting elsewhere. [But 

sometimes with £he indicative in poetry, as id. v. 88.] 
magis a me abesse videb&re quam si domi esses (Att. vi. 5), you seemed to 

be absent from me more than if you were at home. 

Note 1. — These subjanctive clauses are really future conditions with apodosis 
implied in the particle itself. Thas in tamquam s! claudus sim the protasis is intioduoed 
by si, and the apodosis implied in tamquam. 

Note 2. — The English idiom would lead us to expect the Imperfect and Pluperfect 
Subjunctive (contrary to fact) with these particles ; but the point of view is different 
in the two languages. Thus the second example above is translated Ju«^ as ^ I were 
lame, — as if it were a present condition contrary to fact; but it really mesLDBjust as 
[it would be] if I should [at some future time] be lame, and so is a less vivid future 
condition requiring the Present Subjunctive. Similarly quasi honestfi vixerint, as If 
they had lived honorably, is really as [they would do in the future] if they should have 
lived honorably and so requires the Perfect Subjunctive (§616. c). 

a. Even after a primary tense, the Imperfect or Pluperfect Sub- 
junctive (contrary to fact) is often used in conditional clauses of 
comparison : — 

aeque a te petO ac si mea negOtia essent (Fam. xiii. 43), I entreat you as much 

as if it were my own business. 
6ius negOtium sic velim suscipias ut si essct r6s mea (id. vii. 20. 1), I wmM 

have you undertake his business as though it were my affair. 

Note. —The practice differs with the different particles. Thus in Cicero a clause 
with tamquam or quasi almost always observes the sequence of tenses, but with quam si 
the Imperfect or Pluperfect is the rule. 


Use of «r and !!• OomponnjU 

525. The uses of some of the more common Conditional Parti- 
les may be stated as follows : — 

a* Si is used for affirmative, nisi (ni) and so, nOn for negative con- 

1. With nisi (generally unless) the apodosis is stated as univeraally true 
except in the single case supposed, in which case it is (impliedly) not true : — 

nisi ConOn adest, maereO, unleas Conon is here, I mourn (i.e. I am always in 
a state of grief except in the single case of Conon's presence, in which 
case I am not). 

2. With SI non ({/" not) the apodosis is only stated as true in the (negative) 
case supposed, hut as to other cases no statement is made : — 

81 ConOn non adest, maereO, if Conon is not here, I mofum (i.e. I mourn in 
the single case of Conon^s absence, nothing being said as to other cases 
in which I may or may not mourn). 

NoTB. — It often makes no difference in which of these forms the condition is 

3. Sometimes nisi si, except if, unless, occurs : — 

nOlI put9,re m6 ad quemquam longiOrSs epistulSs scribere, nisi si quis ad m3 
plura scrlpsit (Fam. xiv. 2), . . . except in case one writes more to me. 

Note. — HI is an old form surviving in a few conventional phrases and reappear- 
ing in poets and later writers. 

6. Nisi v6r5 and nisi forte regularly introduce an objection or excep- 
tion ironically, and take the Indicative : — 

nisi vero L. Caesar crudelior visus est (Cat. iv. 13), unless indeed Lucius 

CcBsar seemed too cruel 
nisi forte volumas EpicurSOrum opIniOnem sequi (Fat. 37), unless, to he sure, 

we choose to follow the notion of the Epicureans. 

Note. — This is the regular way of introducing a reductio ad absurdum in Latin. 
Nisi alone is sometimes used in this sense: as, — nisi unum h5c faciam ut in puteO 
cenam coquant (PI. Aul. 865), unless I do this one thing, [make them] oooA; dinner 
in the well. 

c. Sive (sen) . . . sive (sen), whether . . . or, introduce a condition 
in the form of an alternative. They may be used with any form of 
condition, or with different forms in the two members. Often also 
they are used without a verb : — 

nam ill5 locO libentissimS sole5 tit!, sive quid mgcum ipse c5git0, sive quid 
scribO aut legO (Legg. ii. l),f>r I enjyy myself most in that pUice, whHher 
I am thinking by myself, or am either writing or reading. 

Note.— Sive . . . seu and seu . . . sive are late or poetic. 


<!• Sin, but if, often introduces a supposition contrary to one th. 
precedes : — 

accClsator ilium defendet si poterit ; sin minus poterit, negabit (Inv. ii. 88 
Uie accuser will defend him if he can ; hut if he cannot, he will deny. 

e. Nisi is often used loosely by the comic poets in the sense of onl 
when a negative (usually nesciO) is expressed, or easily understood^ it 
the main clause : — 

nesciO : nisi m6 dixisse nemini certO sciO (Ter. Ph. 952), I don't know : onk 
I am sure thai I have n't told anybody. 


526 . The concessive idea is rather vague and general, and takes a variety of forms, 
each of which has its distinct history. Sometimes concession is expressed by the Hor- 
tatory Subjunctive in a sentence grammatically independent (§ 440), but it is more 
frequently and more precisely expressed by a dependent clause introduced by a con* 
cessive particle. The concessive force lies chiefly in the Conjunctions (which are 
indefinite or conditional in origin), and is often made clearer by an adversative par- 
ticle (tamen, certS) in the main clause. As the Subjunctive may be used in independ- 1 
ent clauses to express a concession, it is also employed in concessive clauses, and ' 
somewhat more frequently than the indicative. 

527. The Particles of Concession (meaning although^ granting 
that) are quamvis, ut, licet, etsi, tametsi, etiam si, quamquam, and cum. 

Some of these take the Subjunctive, others the Indicative, ac- 
cording to the nature of the clause which each introduces. 

a. Quamvis and ut take the Subjunctive : — 

quamvis ipsi Infantes sint, tamen . . . (Or. 76), howefoer incapable of speaking \ 

they themselves may &e, yet, etc. 
quamvis scelerati illl fuissent (De Or. i. 230), however guilty they might have ' 

been. -] 

quamvis c5mis in amicis tuendis fuerit (Fin. ii. 80), amiable as he may have 

been in keeping his friends. 
ot n^minem alium rogasset (Mil. 46), eoen if he had asked no other. 
nt enim nCn efficias quod vis, tamen mors ut malum n5n sit efficies (Tusc. i. 

16), for even if you do not accomplish what you wish, stiU you mil prove 

that death is not an eoil. 
ut rati5nem PlatO nullam adferret (id. i. 49), though Plato adduced no reasons. 

Note. — Quamvis means literally as much as you will. Thus in the first example 
above, let them be as incapable as you will, still, etc. The subjunctive with qtuunvis 
is hortatory, like that with ne (§ 440) ; that with ut (u^ non) is of uncertain origin. 

h. Licet, although, takes the Present or Perfect Subjunctive:—- 

Ucet omnes mihi terr5r€s periculaque impendeant (RofBC. Am. 81), Umbgh aU 
terrors and perils should menace ine. 


IS^OTS. — Licet is properly a verb in the present tense, meaning it is granted. Hence 
sabjunctive is by the sequence of tenses limited to the Present and Perfect. The 
concessive clause with licet is hortatory in origin, but may be regarded as a substan- 
tive clause serving as the subject of the impersonal verb (§ 565. k.^). 

Cm 'Etal, etiam si, tametsi, even if, take the same constructions as si 
(see § 514) : — 

etsi abest mattlrit3,s, tamen nOn est intltile (Fam. vl. 18. 4), though ripeness 

of age is wanting, yet it is not useless, etc. 
etsi numquam dabium fait, tamen pei*spiciG (id. v. 19), aWuyugh it has never 

been doubtful, yet I perceive, etc. 
etai statuezam (id. v. 5), though I had determined. 
etsi nihil aliud abstulissetis, tamen conteatos v5s esse oportebat (Sull. 00), 

even if you had taken away nothing else, you ought to have been satisfied. 
etiam si quod scribe nOn habebis, scrlbitO tamen (Fam. zvi. 26), even if you 

[shall] have nothing to write, still write. 
sed ea tametsi vOs parvi pendebatis (Sail. Cat. 52. 9), hut although you regarded 

those things a^ of small accouiit. 

Note 1. — Tametsi with the subjunctive is very rare. 

Note 2., — A protasis with si often has a concessive force: as, — ego, si assent ini- 
micitiae mihi cum C. Caesare, tamen hoc tempore rei publicae cOnsulere . . . deberem 
(Prov. Cons. 47), as for me, even if I had private quarrels with CsBsar, it would still 
be my duty to serve the best interests of the state at this crisis. 

d. Quamquam, although, introduces an admitted fact and takes the 

Indicative : — 

omnibus — qaamquam ruit ipse suls cladlbus — pestem dSnuntiat (Phil. ziv. 
8), thofkiugh he is breaking down under his disasters, still he threatens dU 
with destruction. 

Note. — Qnamqaam more commonly means and yet, introducing a new proposition 
in the indicative: as, — qnamquam haec quidem iam tolerabilia vidSbantur, etat, etc. 
(Mil. 76), and yet these, in truth, seemed now bearable, though, etc. 

e. The poets and later writers frequently use qaamvis and quam- 
quam like etsi, connecting them with the Indicative or the Subjunc- 
tive, according to the nature of the condition : — 

qnamqaam mover§tar (Liv. zxxvi. 84), although he was moved. 

PolIiO amat nostram, qaamvis est rustica, musam (£cl. iii. 84), PoUio loves 

my muse, though she is rustic. 
qaamvis pervSner&8 (Liv. ii. 40), though you had come. 

f. Ut, as, with the Indicative, may be equivalent to a concession : 

v6rum ttt errSre potoisti, sic d€cipl tS nOn potuisse quis nOn videt (Fam. x. 
20. 2), WLppose yoa could have been mistaiken, who does not see that you 
cannot Jiave been deceived in this way f 

For cnm concessive, see f 549 ; for qnl concessive, see f 535. e. For eoncession ex- 
pressed by the Hortatory Sabjunctive (negative n0), see { 440. 



528. Dam, modo, dummodo, and tantiun ttt, introducing a ProvLs<^ 
take the Subjunctive. The negative with these particles is ne: 

Oderint dam metuant (Off. i. 97), let them hate, if only they fear. 

valSttldO mbdo bona sit (Brut. 64), ^oxiidked the health he good. 

domniodo inter m6 atque t€ mtlrus intersit (Cat. i. 10), provided only the ted, 

(of the city) is between us. 
tantum at sciant (Att. xvi. 11. 1), provided only they know. 
modo ne sit ex pecudum genere (Off. i. 105), provided [in pleafinre] he U 

not of the herd of cattle. 
id faciat saepe, dam nS lassus ^t (Cato H. B. v. 4), let him do this often. 

provided he does not get tired. 
dommodo ea (seT^ritSs) nS yarietor (Q. Fr. i. 1. 20), provided only it (strictness; 

be not allowed to swerve. 
tantum nS noceat (Or. M. Iz. 21), only lei it do no harm. 

Note. — The Subjunctive with modo is hortatory or optative; that with dmn and 
dummodo, a developmejit from the use of the Subjunctive with dam in temporal clauses, 
$ 553 (compare the colloquial so long as my health is good, I don*t care). 

a. The Hortatory Subjunctive without a particle sometimes ex 

presses a proviso : — 

aint Maecenates, nOn deerunt MarOnSs (Mart, yiii 66. 5), «o there he Maece- 
nases, Virgils wiU not he lacking/. 

ft. The Subjunctive with ut (negative nfi) is sometimes used to de- j 
note a proviso, usually with ita in the main clause : — i 

prob9.ta condiciO est, sed ita ut ille praesidia dSddcetet (Att. vii. 14. 1), ^A^ * 
terms were approved, hiit only on condition that he sliould withdraw tk 

Note. — This is a development of the construction of Characteristic or Result. 
For a clause of CfaaraoteriBtic expressing Proviso, see § 535. 4. 


529. The Subjunctive in the clause of Purpose is hortatory in origin, coming 
through a kind of indirect discourse construction (for which see §592). Thus, misit 
legates qui dicerent means he sent ambassadors who should say, i.e. who were directed 
to say ; in the direct orders the verb would be dicite, which would become dieaat in the 
Indirect Discourse of narrative (§ 688) or dicerent in the past^(cf . hortatory subjunctive 
in past tenses, § 439. 6). The Subjunctive with ut and n6 is, in general, slmifair is 

530. A clause expressing purpose is called a Final Clause. 

531. Final Clauses take the Subjunctive introduced by ut (uti), 
negative n5 (ut ng), or by a Relative Pronoun or Adverb; — 


L. Pure Clauses of Purpose, with ut (uti) or nS (ut n8), express the 
[:;pose of the main verb in the form of a modifying clause: — 

3,b arSLtrO abdOxSrunt Cincinn&tum, ut dictator ^sset (Fin. ii. 12), they brought 

Cincinnatus from the plough that he migJU be dictator. 
ut 8int auxiliO suls, subsistunt (B. C. i. 80), they halt in order to support (be 

an aid to) their own men, 
11$ mllitSs oppidum inrumperent, portS,s obstruit (id. i. 27), he barricaded the 

gates, in order that the soldiers might not break into the town, 
scalds par&ri iubet, ii& quam facultatem dimittat (id. i. 28), he orders scaling- 

ladders to be got ready, in order not to let slip any opportunity. 
at nS sit impHne (Mil. 81), th>at it be not with impunity. 

'NoTia 1. — SometimM the oonjunction has a correlatiYe (ide9, idciro9, e9oOiititi0, etc.) 
L the main clause (cf . § 561. a) : — 

legum idcircd servi sumus, ut Gberi simus (Cln. US), for this reason we are subject 

to the laws, that we may be free. 
copias transduzit ed cSnsilio, at castellum expQgn&ret (cf. B. G. ii. 9), he led the 
troops across with this design — to storm the fort, 
NoTB 2. — Ut nSn sometimes occurs in clauses of purpose when nSa belongs to some 
>articular word: as, — ut plura ndn dicam (Manil. M), to avoid unneoessary talk. 

2. Belative Clauses of Purpose are introduced by the relative pro- 
noun qui or a relative adverb (ubi, unde, quO, etc.). The antecedent 
is expressed or implied in the main clause: — 

mlttitur L. DScidius Saxa qui loci nattLram perspiciat (B. C. i. 66), Luciu>s 

Decidius Saxa i» sent to examirie the ground (who should examine, etc.). 
8Cilb€bat OratiOnSs quia alii dicerent (Brut. 206), ?ie wrote speeches for other 

men to deliver, 
eO exstlnctO fore unde discerem nSminem (Cat. M. 12), that when he was dead 

there loould be nobody from whom (whence) I could learn, 
huic ne ubi cdnsisteret quidem contr& t6 locum rellquisti (Quinct. 73), you 

hane left Mm no ground even to make a stand against you, 
habebam qu5 cdnfugerem (Fam. iy. 6. 2), I had [a retreat] whither I might flee. 

NoTB.^In this construction qai=:ttt is (etc.), ubi = at ibi, and so on (§ 537. 2). 

a. The ablative quO (= ut eO) is used as a conjunction in final 
clauses which contain a comparative : — 

comprimere eOrum audftciam, quo faciUus ceterOnim animi frangerentur 
(Fam. XV. 4. 10), to repress their audacity, that the spirit of the others 
might be broken more easily (by which the more easily). 

llbertate usus est, qu5 impfinius dic9,x esset (Quinct. 11), he took advantage 
of liberty, that he might bluster with more impunity. 

Note. —Occasionally quS introduces a final clause that does not contain a compara- 
tive: as,— L. Sulla exercitum, qad sibi fidumfaceret, luxuriOsS babuerat (Sail. Cat. 11), 
lMdu8 Svlla had treated tf^£ army luxuriotisly, in order to m^ke it devoted to him. 

For quSmiiias (=ttt ed minus) after yerbs of hindering, see § 1X&. b. 


532. The principal clause, on which a final clause depends, i 
often to be supplied from the context : — 

ao n6 longum sit . . . iussimus (Cat. iii. 10), and, not to be tediotis, toe ordered 
etc. [Strictly, in order not to be tedious, I say we ordered.] 

sed ut ad Dionysium redeftmus (Tosc. y. 63), but to return to Dionysitis. 

sed ut eOdem revertar, causa haec fuit timOris (Fam. vi. 7. 3), but, to return 
to the same point, this was the cause of fear, 

satis incOnsIder&tl fait, n6 dicam audScis (Phil. ziii. 12), it was the ctct of one 
rash enough, not to say daring, 

NoTB 1. — By a similar ellipsis the Subjunctive is used withnSdum (sometimes n€), 
stiU less, not to mention that : — 

nSdom salvi esse possimus (Glu. 96), much less could we be safe, 

nSdom isti ii6n statim conqmnturi sint aliquid sceleris et flagiti (Leg. Agr. ii. 97), 

far more will they hunt up at once some sort of crime and scandal. 
nMttm in man et via sit facile (Fam. zvi. 8), still less is it easy at sea and on a 
journey, I 

quippe secundae res sapientium animOs f atigant ; n6 ill! corruptis mOribus vio 
tOriae temperftrent (Sail. Cat. 11), for prosperity overmasters the sovZ eveni 
of the wise; much less did they with their corrupt mordsput any check or* 
victory, i^ 

Notb2. — With nSdum the yerb itself is often omitted: as,— aptius humanitab' 
tuae quam tOta Peloponnesus, nSdum Patrae (Fam. yii. 28. 1), Jitter for your r^ne- 
ment than all Peloponnesus, to say nothing of Patrss, 

For Substantive Clauses inyolyingpt^rpo^e, see §§663-4S66. 

533. The Purpose of an action is expressed in Latin in various | 
ways ; but never (except in idiomatic expressions and rarely in 
poetry) by the simple Infinitive as in English (§ 460). 

The sentence, thei/ came to seek peace^ may be rendered — 

(1) ySnerunt ut pftcem peterent. [Final clause with ut (§ 631. 1).] 

(2) yenSrunt qui pacem peterent. [Final clause with Relative (§ 531. 2).] 

(3) [venSrant ad petendum pftcem.] Not found with transitive verbs (§ 506, 

N. 3), but cf. ad p&rendnm sen&tui. [Gerund with ad (§ 506).] 

(4) venSrunt ad petendam pAcem. [Gerundive vnth ad (§ 506).] 

(5) venerunt pd.cem petendl causft (gr3,ti&). [Gen. of Gerund with caosi 

(§ 504. 6).] j 

(6) vSnerunt pScis petendae causft (grfttift). [Gen. of Gerundive with caoil j 

(§ 504. 6).] ^ 

(7) venfirunt pacem petlturl. [Future participle (§ 499. 2); in later writeis.] 

(8) venSrunt pacem petltum. [Supine in -um (§ 509).] 

These forms are not used indifferently, but — 

a. The usual way of expressing purpose is by ut (negative nfi), 
unless the purpose is closely connected with some one word, in which 
case a relative is more common : — 


legates ad Damnorigem mittunt, ot e6 dSprecfttOre ft SSquanls impetrftrent 
(B. G. i. 9), tJiey send envoys to Dumrwrix, in order through hia intercea- 
9Um to obtain (this favor) from the Sequani, 

mlKt^s nilsit at eOs qui fugerant persequerentur (id. v. 10), he sent the sol- 
diers to follow up those who had fled. 

CtiriO praemittit equites qui primum impetum sustineant (B. C. ii. 26), Curio 
sends forward cavalry to withstand the first attack, 

h. The Gerund and Gerundive constructions of purpose are usually 
limited to short expressions, where the literal translation, though not 
the English idiom, is nevertheless not harsh or strange. 

ۥ The Supine is used to express purpose only with verbs of motion, 
and in a few idiomatic expressions (§ 509). 

d. The Future Participle used to express purpose is a late con- 
struction of inferior authority (§ 499. 2). 

For the poetical Infinitive of Purpose, see § 460. c. For the Present Participle in 
a sense approaching thai of purpose, see § 490. 3. 


534. The relative clause of Characteristic with the Subjunctive is a development 
peculiar to Latin. A relative clause in the Indicative merely states something as a 
fact which is true of. the antecedent; a characteristic clause (in the Subjunctive) 
defines the antecedent as a person or thing qf such a character that the statement 
made is true of him or it and of all others belonging to the same class. Thus, — non 
potest exercitum is continSre imperator qui s€ ipse n5n continet (indicative) means simply, 
that commander who does not (as a fact) restrain himself cannot restrain his army ; 
whereas nSn potest exercitum is continSre imperator qui sS ipse nSn contineat (subjunctive) 
would mean, that commander who is not such a man as to restrain himself, etc., 
that is, who is not characterized by self-restraint. 

This construction has its origin in the potential use of the subjunctive (§445). 
Thus, in the example just given, qui s€ ipse non contineat would mean literally, who 
would not restrain himself (in any supposable case), and this potential idea passes 
over easily into that of general quality or characteristic. The characterizing force 
^ is most easily felt when the antecedent is indefinite or general. But this usage is 
extended in Latin to cases which differ but slightly from statements of fact, as in 
some of the examples below. 

The use of the Subjunctive to express Result comes from its use in Clauses of 
Characteristic. . Thus, n5n sum ita hebes at haec dicam means literally, / am not dull 
in the manner (degree) in which I shoxdd say this, hence, I am not so dull as to say 
this. Since, then, the characteristic often appears in the form of a supposed result, 
the construction readily passes over into Pure Result, with no idea of characteristic ; 
as,— tanttts in ciiril clamor f actus est at populus concnrreret (Verr. ii. 47), such an outcry 
was made in the senate-house that the people hurried together. 

535. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive is often used to 
indicate a characteristic of the antecedent, especially where the 
antecedent is otherwise undefined : — 


neque en!m tn is m qol netdls (Fam. v. 12. 6), for you are not such a one oi 

not to know. [Here ia is equivalent to tuch, and is defined only by ti» 

relative clause that follows.] 
molta dicunt quae vix intellegam (Fin. iy. 2), fhey 9ay many things which 

(snch as) J hardly understand. 
paci quae nihil habitQra sit Insidlamm semper est cOnsalendom (Off. i. 35). 

voe must always aim at a peace which shall have no plots. 

a. A Relative Clause of Characteristic is used after general expres- 
sions of existence or non-existence^ including questions which implj 
a negative. 

So especially with sunt qui, there are [some] who; qois est qui, who 
is there who ? — 

sunt qui discessam animi ft corpore patent esse mortem (Tasc. 1. 18), there are 
some who think that the departure of soul from body constitutes death. 

erant qui censexent (B. C. ii. 30), there were some who were of the opinion, etc. 

erant qni Helvidium miser&rentur (Tac. Ann. xyi. 29), there were some who 
pitied HdvidiiLS. [Cf. est cum (n. *, below).] 

qais est qui id n5n maximis efferat laudibos (Lael. 24), who is there that does j 
not extol it toith the highest praise f * 

nihil video quod timeam (Fam. ix. 16. 8), I see nothing to fear. 

nihil est quod adventum nostram extimesc&s (Fam. ix. 26. 4), there is no rea- 
son why you should dread my coming. 

onde agger comportftrl posset nihil erat reliquum (B. C. ii. 15), there toas noth- 
ing left from which an embankment covM he got together. i 

NoTB 1. — After general negatives like nSmS est qui, the Sabjonctive is regolar; i 
after general affirmatives like sunt qui, it is the prevailing construction, but the Indio- \ 
ative sometimes occurs ; after multi (non nuUi, quidam) sunt qui, and similar ezpreft- 
sions in which the antecedent is partially defined, the choice of mood depends on the I 
shade of meaning which the writer wishes to express : — i 

sunt bSitiae quaedam in quibus inest aliquid simile virtutis (Fin. v. 38), there are I 

certain animals in which there is something like virtue. 
But, — invent! multl sunt qui vitam piofundere pr& patria parati essent (Off. i. 84), 
many were found of such a character as to be ready to give their lives for 
tJieir country. 
NoTB 2. — Characteristic clauses with sunt qui etc. are sometimes called RelatiTe 
Clauses with an Indefinite Antecedent, but are to be carefully distinguished from the 
Indefinite Relative in protasis (§ 520). 

NoTB 3. — The phrases est cum, fait cum, etc. are used like est qui, sunt qni: as,- 
ac fttit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi fore iustum arbitrarer (De Or. i. 1), and 
there was a time when I thought a beginning of rest would be justifiable on my part. 

6. A Relative Clause of Characteristic may follow llnus and sQlns : 

nfl admir&rl prope r6s est fina solaque quae possit facere et servare befttum 
(Hor. £p. i. 6. 1), to wonder at nothing is almost the sole and ofdy thing 
that can make and keep one happy. 

851ns es caius in victQria ceciderit nemO nisi armatus (Deiot. 84), you are ihi 
only man in whose victory no one has fallen unless armed. 


€Sm A clause of Eesult or Cbaracteristio with quam ut, quam qui 
xsbxely with quam alone), may be used after comparatives : — 

CanachI tigna rigidion sunt quam at imitentnr T€rit&tem (Brut. 70), the statues 
of Canachus are too stiff to represent nature (stlffer than that they should). 

maidres arborSs caedGbant quam qu&s ferre miles posset (Liy. xxxiii. 5), they cut 
trees too large for a soldier to carry (larger than what a soldier could carry). 

D^OTB. — This constraction corresponds in sense to the English too . . , to. 

€f« A relative clause of characteristic may express restriction or 

proviso (cf . § 628. b) : — 

quod sciam, so far as I know (lit. as to what I know). 

Cat^^nifl GrfttlGnes, qxAs quidem inreneiim (Brut. 66), the speeches of Goto, at 

least such as I have discovered, 
servna est nemO, qui modo tolerftbili condiciOne sit servitutis (Cat iv. 16), 

there is not a slave^ at least in any tolerable condition of slavery. 

e. A Belative Clause of Characteristic may express cause or conces- 
sion : — 

peccSsse mihi videor qui ft t€ discesserim (Fam. xvi. 1), I seem to myself to 
, have done wrong because I have left you. [Causal. ] 

yirumsimplicem qui nOs nihil cSlet (Or. 230), O guileless man^ who hides noth- 
ing from us I [Causal.] 
egomet qui sSrO Graecfts litterSs attlglssam, tamen compltlres AthSnls dies 
sum commor^tus (De Or. i. 82), J myself^ though I began Greek literature 
late^ yet, etc. (lit. [a man] who, etc.). [Concessive.] 

Note 1. — In this use the relative is equiyalent to com is etc. It is often preceded 
hy nt, tttpote, or qaippe : — 

nee consul, ut qui id ipsum qtiaesisset, moram certamim fecit (Liy. xlii. 1), nor 

did the consul delay the fights since he had sought that very thing (as [being 

one] who had sought, etc.). 

Lucius, f rater #ius, utpote qui peregre ASpttgnarit, familiam ducit (Phil. v. 80), 

^ Lucius, his brother, leads his household, inasmuch as he is a man who has 

fought it out abroad. 
^ conyivia cum patre nOn inibat, quippe qui nS In oppldum quidem nisi perrarO 

' venlret (Rose. Am. 62), he did not go to dinnerparties with his father, since 
Ae did not even come to town except very rarely. 
NoTB 2. — The Relative of Cause or Concession is merely a variety of the Charac- 
teriBtic construction. The quality expressed by the Subjunctive is connected with the 
action of the main verb either as cause on account of which (since) or as hindrance 
in qnte of which (although). 

/. Dignus, indig^us^ aptus, idOneus take a subjunctive clause with 
a relative (rarely ut). The negative is n5n : — 

digna to quibns SlaborSrent (Tusc. 1. 1), (things) worth spending their toil on 

(worthy on which they should, etc.). 
dIgna res est ubl ttl nervOs intendas tu5s (Ter. Eun. 312), the affair is worthy 
dfyour stretching your sinews (worthy wherein you should, etc.). 

846 SYNTAX : CLAUSES OF RESULT [§§ 635-63 

id6neu8 qui Impetrst (Manil. 67), JU to obtain, 

indlgnl at redinMrimiir (Liv. xxii. 69. 17), unworthy to be roMomed. 

NoTB 1. — This constmction is sometimes explained as a relative daase of purpose 
but it is more closely related to characteristic. 

NoTB 2. — With ^snuf etc., the poets often use the Infinitive: — 
fOns rivO dare n6men idOneus (Hor. Ep. i. 16. 12), a tourcefit to give a name to a 

aet&s mollis et apta regl (Ov. A. A. i. 10), a time of life soft and easy to be guided. 
Tivere dignus eras (Ov. M. x. 633), you were worthy to live. 


536. The Subjonctive in Consecative Glauses is a development of the use of that 
mood in Clauses of Characteristic (as explained in § 534). 

537. Clauses of Result take the Subjunctive introduced by ut, so 
that (negative, ut n6n), or by a relative pronoun or relative adverb. 

1. Pure Clauses of Eesult, with ut or ut nOn, express the result of 
the main verb in the form of a modifying clause : — 

tanta yls probitfttis est at earn in hoste dilig&mas (Lael. 29), so great is the 

power of goodness that we love it even in an enemy. 
pUgnatnr flcriter ad novissimum agmen, adeO tt paene terga conTertant 

(B. C. i. 80), there is sharp fighting in the rear, so (to such a degree) that 

they almost take flight. 
multa rOinor adfingebat, at paene bellum cODfectum yiderStor (id. i. 53), 

rumor added many false reports, so that the war seemed almost ended. 

2. Relative Clauses of Result are introduced by the relative pro- 
noun qui or a relative adverb (ubi^ unde, quO, etc.). The antecedent is 
expressed or implied in the main clause. 

The Relative in this construction is equivalent to ut with the corre- 
sponding demonstrative: — qui = ut is (etc.), ubi = ut ibi, and so on : 

nam est innocentia affectiO t&lis animi qaae noceat neminl (Tusc. iii. 16), /or 

innocence is such a quality of mind as to do harm to no one, 
sunt aliae causae quae pl&ne efficiant (Top. 59), there are other causes such as 

to bring to pass. 
ntLlla est celeritdfi quae possit cum auimi celerit&te contendere (Tusc. i. 43), 

there is no swiftness which can compare with the swiftness of the mini. 
quis n&vig&vit qui ndn b6 mortis perlculO committeret (Manil. 31), who toent to 

sea who did not incur the peril of death f 

NoTB 1.— Since the relative clause of Result Is a development from theielatiytf 
clause of Characteristic (§ 534), no sharp line can be drawn between the two constrnc- 
tions. In doubtful cases, it is better to attempt no distinction or to describe the clause 
as one of Characteristic. 

NoTB 2. — Clauses of Result are often introduced by such correlative words as tao, 
tAlif, tanttts, ita, sic, a«e5, fiisque e«, which belong to the main clause. 

§ 637, 638> CLAUSES OF RESULT 847 

€Lm A Kegative Eesult is introduced by ut nOn^ ttt nSmO^ qui nOn^ etc.^ 
DLOt by iiiB: — 

miiltis gravibusque volneribus cGnfectus ut lam se sustiD^re n5n posset (B. G. 

ii. 25), uMd up \D\Jth many severe wounds so that he covM no Umger stand, 
tanta vl in Pomp^i equitSs impetum f Scerunt at eOrum nimd consisteret (B. C. 

iii. 93), they attacked Fompey^s cavalry with such vigor that not one of 

th/em stood his ground, 
nSmO est tarn senex qui s€ annum non putet posse viyere (Cat. M. 24), nobody 
iB aooldas not to think that he can, live a year, 

KoTB. — When the result implies an effect intended (not a simple purpose), at nS 
or nS is sometimes used as being less positive than at n5n: — pibrum] ita corrigas nS 
mihi noceat (Caecina, Fam. vi. 7. 6), correct the book so that it may not hurt me, 

5. I'requently a clause of result or characteristic is used in a re- 
strictive sense, and so amounts to a Proviso (cf. § 535. d): — 

hoc ita est utile at ne pl3.n6 inlfld&mur ab accQsatOribus (Rose. Am. 65), this 
is so far useful that we are not utterly mocked by the accusers (i.e. useful 
only on this condition, that, etc.). 

nihil autem est molestum quod nOn desIderSs (Cat. M. 47), but nothing is 
troublesome which (= provided that) you do not miss. 

e. The clause of result is sometimes expressed in English by the 
Infinitive with to or so as to or an equivalent : — 

tarn long€ aberam ut nOn viderem, J was too far away to see (so far that I 
did not see ; cf . § 535. c). 

Note. — Result is never expressed by the Infinitive in Latin except by the poets in 
a few passages (§ 461. a). 

538. The constructions of Purpose and Result are precisely 
alike in the cffirmative (except sometimes in tense sequence^ 
§ 485. c) ; but, in the negativey Purpose takes nS, Result ut n6n 

etc. : — 

custddltus est nS effugeret, he was guarded in order that he might not escape. 
ctlstOdltus est at non effugeret, ho was guarded so that he did not escape. 

So in negative Purpose clauses n6 quia, nS quid, nS Was, nS quO, n6 
qoandO, nScubi, etc. are almost always used ; in negative Result clauses, 
ut nSin5, ut nihil, ut nWus, etc. : — 

(1) cemere nS qois eOs, neu quis contingere posset (Aen. i. 413), that no one 

might see them^ no one touch them, [Purpose.] 
bI qoandd llberis prOscrlptOrum bona patria reddantur (Rose. Am. 145), lest 

ot som£ time the patrimony of the proscribed should be restored to their 

tpw b6 qn5 inciderem, revertl IFovmiSs (Att. viiL 8. 7), tTiat I might not corns 

upon him anywhere, I returned to Formim. 



difpo6itlB ezplOrfttOribns aiciibi ROmSoI oOpias tr&dilcerent (B. G. vii. 35). 
having sUUioned scovia here and there in order that the Romans mighi 
not l&id their troops across anywhere. 

(2) mum Ita sunt imbficilll seii3s nt nflUmn offlcl mOnus ezseqnl possint (Cat 
M. 35), many old men are so feeble that they cannot perform any dvity to 
society. [Result.] 

qui summam bonum sic Institult nt nihil habeat cum virtute coniunctum 
(OS. i. 5), w7u> has so settled the highest good that it has nothing in com- 
mon with virtue. 

For clauses of Result or Characteristic with qnln, see § 559. For Substantfye Claused 
of Result, see )§ 507-^1. 


639. Causal Clauses take either the Indicatiye or the Subjunctiye, according t. 
their constructiou ; the idea of cause beiug contained, not in the mood itself, but in 
the form of the argument (by impUcatiou), in an antecedent of causal meaning (like 
vropterea), or in the connecting particles. 

Quod is in origin the relative pronoun (stem quo*) used adverbially in the accusative 
neuter (cf . § 214. (2) and gradually sinking to the position of a colorless relative con- 
junction (cf. English that and see §222). Its use as a causal particle is an early 
si>ecial development. Quia is perhaps an accusative plural neater of the relative stem 
4vi-, and seems to have developed its causal sense more distinctly than quod, and at 
an earlier period. It is used (very rarely) as an interrogative, why? (so in classical 
Latin with nam only), and may, like quandS, have developed from an interrogative to 
a relative particle. 

Quoniam (for quom iam) is also of relative origin (quom being a case*form of the 
pronominal stem quo-). It occurs in old Latin in the sense of when (cf. quom, cum), 
from which the causal meaning is derived (cf . cum causal) . The Subjunctive with quod 
and quia depends on the principle of Informal Indirect Discourse (§ 592). 

Quando is probably the interrogative quam {how ?) compounded with a form of the 
pronominal stem do- (cf . dum, dO-nec) . It originally denoted timje (first interrogatively, 
then as a relative), and thus came to signify eauss. Unlike quod and quia, it is not 
used to state a reason in informal indirect discourse and therefore is never followed 
by the Subjunctive. 

540. The Causal Particles quod and quia take the Indicative, 
when the reason is given on the authority of the writer or 
speaker; the Subjunctive^ when the reason is given on the 
authority of another: — 

1. Indicative : — 

cum tibi agam grfttlas quod me Tlvere coSglftil (Att iiL 3), when I may thank 

you that you have forced me to live. 
clir igitur pacem n615 ? quia turpis est (Phil. vii. 9), why then do I not wish 

for peace f Because it is disgraceful. 
ita fit ut adsint propterea quod officium sequuntur, taceant autem quia peri- 

culum vitant (Rose. Am. 1), bo it happens that they attend because they 

foUow duty, but are silent because they seek to avoid danger. 


2. Subjunctive: — 

Biihi gra.tul& quod audissGs m6 meam prtetinam dlgnltfttem obtinSre 

(Fam. iv. 14. 1), you congratulated me because [as you said] yon had 

heard that I had regained my former dignity, 
noctu ambulabat ThemistoclSs qaod somnum capere nGii posset (Tusc. iv. 44), 

Themistoclea used to walk about at night because [as he said] ?ie could not 

mea m3.ter ir&ta est quia nOn rediexim (PI. Cist 101), my mother is angry 

because I did n^t return. 

Note 1. — Quod introduces either h/act or a ttatementf and accordingly takes either 
tl&e Indicative or the Subjunctive. Quia regularly introduces a fact ; hence it rarely 
tcklces the Subjunctive. Quoniam, inasmuch as, since, when now, now that, has refer- 
ence to motives, excuses, justifications, and the like and takes the Indicative. 

Note 2. — Under this head what the speaker himself thought under other circum- 
stances may have the Subjunctive (§ 592. 3. n.) : as, — ego laeta visa sum quia soror 
vSnisset (PI. Mil. 387), 1 seemed (in my dream) glad because my sister had come. 

So with quod even a verb of saying may be in the Subjunctive : as, — rediit quod 
se oblitum nesciO quid diceret (Off. i. 40), ^ returned because he said he had forgotten 

Note 3. — irSn quod, ndu quia, n5n qtt0, introducing a reason expresdy to deny it, take 
the Subjunctive ; but the Indicative sometimes occurs when the statement is in itself 
true, though not the true reason. In the negative, u5n quin (with the Subjunctive) 
may be used in nearly the same sense as non quod ndn. After a comparative, quam 
qud or quam quod is used : — 

pugiles ingemescunt, B5n quod doleant, sed quia profnndenda vOce omne corpus 

intenditur (Tusc. ii. 56), boxers groan, not because they are in pain, but 

because by giving vent to the voice the whole body is put in a state of 


ndn quia rectior ad Alpis via esset, sed credens (Liv. xxi. 31. 2), not because the 

route to the Alps was more direct, but believing, etc. 
ndn quin pari virtute et voluntate alii faerint, sed tan tarn causam n5n habuerunt 
(Phil. vii. 6), 710^ that there were not others of equal courage and good-will, 
but tTiey had not so strong a reason. 
haec am5re magis impulsus scribenda ad t6 put&vi, quam qu5 te arbitrftrer monitis 
et praeceptis egere (Fam. x. 3. 4), this I thought I ought to write to you, 
rather from the impulse of (prompted by) affection than because I thought 
that you needed advice and suggestion, 

a, Quoniam and quandO, sincCf introduce a reason given on the 
authority of the writer or speaker, and take the Indicative : — 

locus est & m€, quoniam ita MurSna voluit, retr3«tandus (Mur. 64), I must 
^ review the point, since Murena has so wisfied. 

qaasd5 ita vis, di bene vortant (Fl. Triu. 573), since you so wish, may the 
i gods bless the undertaking, 

quando ad mS,iOra nati sumus (Fin. v. 21), since we are bom for greater things. 

, Note. — The Subjunctive with quoniam is unclassical. Qoandd, since, in the causal 
sense, is mostly archaic or late. QuandO, when, is used as interrogative, relative, and 
indefinite : as. — quandS ? hodiS, when f to^ay ; 6i quandS, if ever. 

360 SYNTAX : TEMPORAL CLAUSES [§§ 640-542 

5« Causal clauses introduced by quod, quia^ quoniam, and qnaii 
take the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse, like any other dependent 
clause (see § 580). 

c. A Relative, when used to express catise, regularly takes the Sub- 
junctive (see § 535. e). 

d. Cum causal takes the Subjunctive (see § 549). 

For Substantiye Clauses with qaod, see § 672. 


541. Temporal Clauses are introduced by particles which are almost all of rela- 
tiye origin. They are construed like other relative clauses, except where they have 
developed into special idiomatic constructions.^ 

For list of Temporal Particles, see p. 138. 

Temporal Clauses may be classified as follows : — 

I. Conditional Relative Clauses: nbi, at, cum, quandd, in Protasis ^542). 
II. Clauses with postquam, ubi, etc. (Indicative), (§ 543). 

in. CUuses Trith cum ( i- ?|» ^^P^ «« MS-m). 

I 2. Cum causal or concessive (§ 549). 

IV. Clauses with antequam and priusquam (Indicative or Subjunctive) (§ 651). 

y. Clauses with dam, dSnec, and quoad (Indicative or Subjunctive) (§§ 652-556). 

Conditional Relative Clauses 

542. The particles ubi, ut, cum, quandO, either alone or com- 
pounded with -cumque, may be used as Indefinite Relatives (in the 

sense of whenever)^ and have the constructions of Protasis (cf. 
§614): — 

cum id malum negas esse, capior (Tusc. ii. 29), wheneoer you (the indi- 
vidual disputant) deny it to bean evil, / am misled, [Present genera] 

quod profectO cum mg nulla via cogeret, facere non audfirem (Phil. v. 61), 
which I loould surely not venture to do, as long as no force compelled me. 
[Present, contrary to fact: cf. § 517.] 

cum videas e5s dol5re nOn frangi, debelis existim&re, etc. (Tusc. ii. 66), w?ien 
you see that those are not broken by pain, you ought to infer, etc. [Pres- 
ent general condition: cf. § 618. a.] 

cum rosam viderat, tum incipere v6r arbitrabatur (Verr. v. 27), whenever he saw 
a rose he thought spring had begun, [Past general condition : cf . § 518. 6.] 

id ubi dizisset, hastam in finis eOrum Smittebat (Liv. i. 32. 13), when he had 
said this, he would cast the spear into their territories, [Past General 
Condition, repeated action : see § 518. c] 

1 With all temporal particles the Subjunctive is often found depending o& some 
other principle of construction. (See Intermediate Clauses, § 591.) 

543] P08TQUAM, UBI, ETC. 861 

Temporal Clauses with postqaatu, ubs, etc. 

543. The particles postquam (posteaquam), ubi, ut (ut primum, ut 
emel), simul atque (simul ac, or simul alone), take the Indicative 
^usually in the perfect or the historical present): — 

mllites postqaam victOriam adepti sunt, nihil reliqui yictis fec6re (Sail. Cat. 11), 

wlien the soldiers had won the victory^ they left nothing to the vanquisJied, 
poste&quam forum attigisti, nihil fecisti nisi, etc. (Fam. xv. 16. 3), since you 

came to the forum, you have done nothing except, etc. 
ubi omnia idem sentire intellSzit, posterum diem ptignae c5nstituit (B. G. 

iii. 23), tphen he understood that all agreed (thought the same thing), he 

appointed the next day for the bcUUe. 
Catillna, ubi eOs convSnisse yidet, sec6dit (Sail. Cat. 20), when CatUine sees 

that they have come together, he retires, 
Pomp^ius at equitd>tum suum pulsum yidit, aci6 excessit (B. C. iii. 04), when 

Fompey saw his cavalry beaten, he Irft the field. 
ut semel 6 FIraeeO eloquentia Svecta est (Brut. 51), as soon as eloquence had 

set sail from the Pirceia, 
nostrl simul in ftridO cdnstiterunt, in hostis impetum fScSrunt (B. G. iv. 26), 

OUT men, as soon as they had taken a position on dry ground, made an 

attack on the enemy, 
simul atque introductus est, rem cOnfScit (Clu. 40), as soon as he was brought 

in, he did the job. 

a. These particles less commonly take the Imperfect or Pluperfect 
Indicative. The Imperfect denotes a past state of things ; the Plu- 
perfect, an action completed in past time : -»— 

postquam structi utrimque stfltiant, duces in medium prOcSdunt (Liv. i. 

23), when they stood in array on both sides, the generals advance into 

the midst. 
P. Africflnus poste&quam bis cOnsul et censor fuerat (Caecil. 60), when Afri- 

canus had been (i.e. had the dignity of having been) twice consul and 

postquam id difficilius visum est, neque f acult&s perflciendl dab&tur, ad Fom- 
^ p^iam trS.nsi6runt (B. C. iii. 60), when this seemed too hard, and no means 

of Meeting it were given, they passed over to Pompey, 
post diem quintum quam iterum barb)9.rl male pfign&yerant [= victi sunt], 

l6g&tl ft BocchO veniunt (lug. 102), the fifth day after the barbarians were 

heaten the second time, envoys come from Bocchua, 
haeo iuventtLtem, ubi famili9.res op^s difScerant, ad facinora incendebant 

(Sail. Cat. 18), when their inherited resources had given out, etc. 
ttM perlcula virttlte prdpulerant (id. 6), when they had dispelled the dangers by 

Iheir valor. 

For the use of ubi, ut, either alone or compounded with -cnmque, as Indefinite Rela- 
tives, see $542. 

852 syntax : temporal clauses [§§ 544, 545 

Uses of Cum 

644. The conjunction cum (qnooi) is a caM-form of the relatire pTononn qu. It 
inherite from qui its sabordinating foice, and in general shares its constructions. 
Bat it was early specialized to a temporal meaning (cf . torn, dun) , and its range of usage 
was therefore less wide than that of qui; it could not, for example, introduce clauses 
of purpose or of result. 

With the Indicative, besides the simple expression of definite time (corresponding to 
simple relative clauses with the Indicative), it has a few special uses, — conditional, 
explicative, com inversum — all easily derived from the temporal use. 

With the Subjunctive, com had a development parallel to that of the qai-clause of 
Characteristic, — a development not less extensive and equally peculiar to Latin. 
From defining the time the cam-clause passed over to the description of the time by 
means of its attendant circumstances of cause or concession (cf. ^nce, to/Ule). 

In particular, cum with the Subjunctive was used in narrative O^ence the past 
tenses. Imperfect and Pluperfect) as a descriptive clause of time. As, however, the 
present participle in Latin is restricted in its use and the perfect active participle is 
almost wholly lacking, the historical or narrative cum-clause came into extensive use 
to supply the deficiency. In classical writers the narrative cam-«lause (with the Sub- 
junctive) has pushed back the defining clause (with the Imperfect or Pluperfect Indica- 
tive) into comparative infrequency, and is itself freely used where the descriptive or 
characterising force is scarcely perceptible (cf . the qal-sslause of Characteristic, § £34). 

Qim Temporal 

545. A temporal clause with cum, when^ and some past tense of 
the Indicative dates or defines the time at which the action of the 
main verb occurred : — 

eO [lituO] regiOnSs direxit turn cum urbem condidit (Div. i. 30), he traced with 

it the quarters [at Vie sky] at the time he founded the city. 
cum occlditur Sex. ROscios, ibidem fnSrunt servl (Rose. Am. 120), when 

Roscius was slain, the slaves were or^ the spot. [occMitnr Is historical 

quern quidem cum ex nrbe peUSbam, hOc prOvidebam animO (Cat. iii. 16), 

wJien I wa>s trying to force him (conative imperfect) from the city^ I 

looked forward to this. 
folgentls gladiOs hostium videbant Decil cam in aciem eOrum inruebant (Tusc. 

ii. 59), the Decii saw the flashing swords of the enemy wJien they nished 

upon their line. 
turn cum in Asia. rSs mftgnfts permultl ftmlserant (Manil. 10), aJb that time, 

when many had lost great fortunes in Asia. 

NoTB 1. — This is the regular use with all tenses in early Latin, and at all times 
with the Perfect and the Historical Present (as with postquam etc.). With the Imper- 
fect and Pluperfect the Indicative use is (in classical Latin) much less common than 
the Subjunctive use defined below (§646). 

Note 2. — This construction must not be confused with tliat of cum, whenever, in 
General Conditions (§642). 

545, 5463 CUM TEMPORAL 358 

TSThen th% tim« of the main clause and that of the temporal 

clause are ahsolutely identical^ cum takes the Indicative in the same 

.euse as that of the main verb : ^- 

maxim^ sum laetitift adfectus cum audlTl oOngulem tfi factum Mae (Famv 
zv. 7), I toae very much pleated when I heard thai you had heen tiectedf 

546. A temporal clause with cum and the Imperfect or Pluper- 
fect Subjunctive describes the circumstanees that accompanied or 
preceded the action of the main verb: — 

com essem 5ti()8us in Tuscul&nO, acc€pl taSs litterSs (Fam. ix. 18. 1), when I 

1003 taking my ease in my houee at TuecuLum^ I received your Utter, 
cam servili bellO premerStor (Manll. 30), when she (Italy) uuie under the load 

of the Servile War. 
com Id nfiBtultum esset, maturat (B. G. L 7), when this had been reported, he 

made (makes) haste. 
cum ad Cybistra quinque dies essem moratus, rSgem Ariobarz&nem Insidils 

llberavi (Fam. xv. 4. 6), after remaining at Cybistra for five days, I freed 

King Ariobarzanes from plots. 
is cum ad me Laodiceam yenisset mScumque ego eum yeUem, repente per- 

cussus est atrOcissimIs litteris (id. ix. 25. S), when he had come to me at 

Laodicea and I wished him to remain with me, he wa^ suddenly , etc. 

NoTK 1. —This construction is very common in narrative, and cum in tliii use !• often 
called narrative cum. 

Note 2. — Com with the Imperfect or Pluperfect Indicative does not (like cum with 
the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive) describe the time by its cireumatanoee; it 
defines the time of the main verb by denoting a coexistent state of things (Imperfect 
^ Indicative) or a result attained when the action of the main verb took place (Pluper- 
fect). Thus the construction is precisely that of postqnam etc. (§ 543. a). 

Note 3. —The distinction between the uses defined in §§545, 546, may be illustrated 

by the following examples: (1) He had a fever when he was in Spain (Shakspere). 

Here the t(;Ae7M;lause defines the time when Cassar had the fever, — namely, in the year 

' of his Spanish campaign (b.c. 49). In Latin we should use cum with the Imperfect 

Indicative. (2) Columbus discovered America when he was seeking a new route to 

India; here the loAen-clause does not define or date the time of the discovery; it 

merely describes the circumstances under which America was discovered, — namely, 

: -v in the course of a voyage undertaken for another purpose. In Latin we should use the 

Imperfect Subjunctive. 

Note 4.— The distinction explained in Note 8 is unknown to early Latin. In 
Plautus qaom always has the Indicative unless the Subjunctive is required for some 
other reason. 

a. When the principal action is expressed in the form of a tem- 
poral clause with cum, and the definition of the time becomes the 
main clause, cum takes the Indicative. 

Here the logical relations of the two clauses are inverted ; hence 
cam is in this use called cum inversum : — 


dies nOndum decern intercesserant, com ille alter fllius Infans necAtar (CIu 

28), ten days had not yet passed^ wfien the other infant son was killed 

[Instead of when ten days had not yd. passed, etc.] 
iamque ICLz app&rSbat cum procidit ad mllites (Q. C. vii. 8. 3), and day wa 

already dawning when he appears before the soldiers, 
hOc facere noct& appar&bantf cum mfttres familiae repente in publicum pra 

coirSront (B. G. vii. 26), they were preparing to do this by night, when th 

women suddenly ran ovt into the streds. 

547. Present time with cum temporal is denoted by the Pres- 
ent Indicative ; future time, by the Future or Future Perfect 
Indicative : — 

inciduDt tetnpora, com ea, quae maxima videntur digna esse iQst5 homine, 
finiit contr&ria (Off. i. 31), times occur when those things which seem 
especially worthy of the upright man, become the opposite, 

nOn dubitftbO dare operam ut te videam, cam id satis commode facere potero 
(Fam. xiii. I), I shall not ftesitate to take pains to see you, when I can do 
it conveniently, 

longum illud tempos com nGn ex5 (Att. xii. 18), that long time when I shall 
be no more. 

cum rSneris, cOgnOscGs (Fam. y. 7. 3), when you come (shall have come), 
you will find out. 

548. Cum, whenever^ takes the construction of a relative clause 
in a general condition (see § 542). 

For present time, either the Present or the Perfect Indicative is 
used ; for past time, regularly the Pluperfect Indicative. 

For eit com etc., see § 536. a. k. <. 

Otm Causal or Concessive 

549. Cum caiisal or concessive takes the Subjunctive : — 

id difBcile ii()n est, cam tantum equitata vale&mus (B. C. iii. 86), this is not 
difficuU since we are so strong in cavalry. [Causal.] 

cam sOlittidO Insidi&rum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amlcitiSs com- 
parare (Fin. i. 66), since solitude is full of treachery and f ear ^ reason it- 
self prompts us to coTdract friendships, [Causal.] 

cam priml Ordines concidissent, tamen acerrimS reliqui resistebant (B. G. 
vii. 62), though the first ranks had fallen, still the others resisted vigor- 
ously. [Concessive.] 

brevi spatio legiOnCs numerO hominum explSverat, cam initio nOn amplins 
duObus mllibus habaisset (Sail. Cat. 56), in a short time he hadfilki 
out the legions with their complement of men, though at the start he had 
not had more than two thousand, [Concessive.] 


Cum causal may usually be translated by since; cum ooncessire by 
It ho ugh or while; either, occasionally, by when, 

^OTS 1. — Cam in these ases is often emphasized by ut, utpote, qaippe, praesertim: 
», — nee reprehends : qnippe aim ipse istam reprehensionem n5u fuserim (Att. x. 3 a), 
yind no fault ; since I myself did not escape that blanie. 

^OTB 2. — These causal and concessive uses of cum are of relative origin and are 
•strallel to qui causal and concessive (§535. e). The attendant circumstances are re- 
;si,rded as the cause of the action, or as tending to hinder it. 

l^OTB 3. — In early Latin cum (quom) causal and concessive usually takes the Indic- 
Liiive : as, — quom tua res distrahitur, utinam videam (PL Trin. 617), since your prop- 
^rty i8 being torn in pieces, that I may see, etc. 

u. Cum with the Indicative frequently introduces an explanatory 
statement, and is sometimes equivalent to quod, on the ground that: — 

com tacent, clamant (Cat. i. 21), when they are silent, they cry orxt (i.e. their 
silence is an emphatic expression of their sentiments). 

gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud DolS,bellam (Fam. iz. 14. 3), I congrcAu- 
late you thai you are so strong with Dolabella. 

NoTB. — This is merely a special use of cum temporal expressing coincident time 
<§ 545. a). 

6. Cum . . . tum, signifying both . . . and, usually takes the Indica- 
tive ; but when cum approaches the sense of while or though^ the Sub- 
junctive is used (§ 549) : — 

cum molta nOn probS, tum illud in primis (Fin. i. 18), while there are many 
things I do not approve, there is this in chirf. [Indicative.] 

cum difficile est, tum n@ aequum quidem (Lael. 26), not only is it difficvU 
hut even unjust. 

cum r68 tota ficta sit puerlliter, tum nS efficit quidem quod vult (Fin. L 19), 

^ while the whole thing is childishly got up, he does not even make his point 

(accomplish what he wishes). [Subjunctive ; approaching cum causal.] 

Autequatn and Priusquam 

560. Antequam and priusquam, before, introduce Clauses of Time which resemble 
those with cum temporal in their constructions. Priusquam consists of two parts (often 
written separately and sometimes separated by other words), the comparative adverb 
♦ prius, sioomr (before), which really modifies the main verb, and the relative particle 
quam, than, which introduces the subordinate clause. The latter is therefore a rela- 
tive clause, and takes the Indicative or the Subjunctive (Like other relative clauses) 
according to the sense intended. The Subjunctive with priusquam is related to that of 
purpose (§529) and is sometimes called the Anticipatory or Prospective Subjunctive. 
Antequam, like priusquam, consists of two words, the first of which is the adverb ante, 
h^ore, modifying the main verb. Its constructions are the same as those of priusquam, 
but the latter is commoner in classic prose. 

551. Antequam and priusquam take sometimes the Indicatiyoi 
sometimes the Subjunctive. 


a. With antequam or prittsquam the Perfect Indicative states \ 
fact in past time: — 

anteqaam tufts ISgl litterfts, hominem Ire cupiSbam (Att. ii. 7. 2), before \ 

read your letter^ I wished the man to go, 
neque ante dimlsit eum quam fidem dedit adulescSns (Liv. xzxix. 10), anli 

8he did not let the young man go till he pledged his Jfaith, 
neque priua fugere d3stiterunt quam ad flumen pervenerunt (B. G. i. 53), not 

did they stop running untU they reached the river, 

Note. — The Perfect Indicative in this construction is regular when the main 
clause is negative and the main verb is in an historical tense. The Imperfect Indicative 
is rare; the Pluperfect Indicative, very rare. The Perfect Subjunctive is rare and 
ante-classicaly except in Indirect Discourse. 

5. With antequam or priusquam the Imperfect Subjunctive is com- 
mon when the subordinate verb implies purpose or expectancy, in past 
time, or when the action that it denotes did not take place : — 

ante pagnftrl Coeptum est quam satis Instrueretur aciSs (Liv. xxii. 4. 7), the 
fight was begun b^ore the line could be properly formM. 

priusquam td suum sibi venderes, ipse possSdit (Phil. ii. 96), before you covid 
seU him his own property, he took possession of it himself 

priusquam t€lum abici posset aut Dostri propius accederent, omnia V^ri acies 
terga vertit (B. C. ii. 34), before a weapon could be thrown or our men 
approached nearer , the whole line about Varus took flight. 

Note 1. — The Pluperfect Subjunctive is rare, except in Indirect Discourse by se- 
quence of tenses for the Future Perfect Indicative (§ 484. c): as, — antequam homines I 
nefarii de meo adventu audire potuissent, in Macedoniam perresi (Plane. 98), before 
those evil men coidd learn of my coming, I arrived in Macedonia. 

Note 2. — After an historical present the Present Subjunctive is' used instead of the 
Imperfect: as, — neque ab eO prias Domitiani milites discedunt quam in cOnspectum ^ 
Caesaris dedlidltnr (B. C. 1. 22), and the soldiers of Domitius did (do) not leave him 
until Tie was (is) conducted into Cassar^s presence. So, rarely, the Perfect Subjunctive 
(asB. G. iii. 18). 

c. Antequam and priusquam, when referring to future time, take the 
Present or Future Perfect Indicative ; rarely the Present Subjunctive: 

priusquam d@ ceteris rSbus responded, de amiciti^ pauca dicam (PhU. u. 3), i 
before I reply to the rest, I will say a little about friendship. 

ik&n defatlgabor antequam illorum ancipit^s vids perceperd (De Or. iii. 145), 
I shall not weary till I have traced out their doubtful ways. 

antequam veniat litter93 mittet (Leg. Agr. ii. 53), before he comes, he wiU send 
a letter. 

Note 1. — The Future Indicative is very rare. 

Note 2. — In a few cases the Subjunctive of present general condition is found with 
antequam and priusquam (cf. §518. a): as, — in omnibus negotiis priusquam aggrediare, 
adhibenda est praeparatio diligens (Ofif. i. 73), in all undertakings, before you proceed 
to action, careful preparation must be used. 

►4S2— &64] DUM, DONEC, AND QUOAD 367 

DuiUy Donee, and Quoad 

552. As an adverb meaning /or a timet awhile, dum is found in old Latin, chiefly 
a.11 enclitic (cf. vixdum, nondum). Its use as a conjuuctimi comes either through 
rela.t^ioii (cf. cam . . . tam, si . . . sic) or through substitution for a conjunction, as 
t^e Kiiglish the moment I saw it, I understood. Quoad is a compound of the rela- 
e qiio, up to which point, with ad. The origin and early history of donee are unknown. 

553. Dum and quoad, until^ take the Present or Imperfect Sub- 

irLctive in temporal clauses implying intention or expectancy : — 

exspectas fortasse dum dicat (Tusc. ii. 17), you are waiting perhaps for him 

to say (until he say). [Dum is especially common after exspecto.] 
dum reliquae naves ccnvenirent, ad horam nSnara exspectavit (B. G. iv. 23), 

he waited till the ninth hour for the rest of the shi^s to join him. 
coraitia dilata [sunt] dum lex ferretur (Att. iv. 17. 3), the election was post- 
poned until a law should be passed. 
an id exspectamus, quoad n6 vestigium quidem Asiae civitStum atque urbium 
relinquatur (Phil. xi. 26), shall we wait for this until not a trace is l^ of 
the states and cities of Asia? 
" EpaminOndas exercebatur pltirimum luctand(> ad eum finem quoad stans 
complecti posset atque contendere (Nep. Epam. 2), Epaminondas trained 
himself in wresUing so far as to he able (until he should be able) to grapple 
standing and fight (in that way). 

Note 1. — DSnec is similarly used in poetry and later Latin: as, — et diixit long^ 
donee curvata coirent inter se capita (Aen. xi. 860), and drew it (the bow) until the 
curved tips touched each other. 

Note 2. — Dum, untU, may be used with the Present or Future Perfect Indicative 
to state a future fact when there is no idea of intention or expectancy; but this con- 
struction is rare in classic prose. The Future is also found in early Latin. D5nec, untiZ, 
is similarly used, in poetry and early Latin, with the Present and Future Perfect Indica- 
* tive, rarely with the Future : — 

ego in Arcand opperlor dum ista cognoscS (Att. x. 3), lam waiting in the vUla at 

ArcsB until I find this out. [This is really dum, wliile.] 
mihi usque curae erit quid agas, dum quid egeris sciero (Fam. xii. 19. 3), J shall 
always fed anxious as to what you are doing, until I actually know (shall 
have known) what you have done. 
deUcta mftiOrum lues d5nec templa refeceris (Hor. Od. iii. 6. 1), you shall suffer for 
the sins of your ancestors untU you rebuild the temples. 
^v^ ter centum regnabitur ann5s, d5nec geminam partu dabit Ilia prOlem (Aen. i. 272), 

sway shall be held for thrice a hundred years, until Ilia shall give birth to 
twin offspring. 

554. DCnec and quoad, until^ with the Perfect Indicative denote 
an actual fact in past time : — 

donee rediit silentium fuit (Liv. xxiii. 31. 9), there was silence until he returned. 
tisque eQ timul donee ad r§iciend5s itidices venimus (Verr. ii. 1. 17), I was 
, anxious until the moment when we came to cliallenge the jurors. 

R5mae fuSrunt quoad L. Metellus in prCvinciam profectus est (id. ii. 62), 
they remain^ at Rome untU Lucius Metellus set out for the province. 


Note. — Dun, untUf with the Perfect Indicative is rare: as, — m&nsit in concir 
ciOne usque ad eum fiuem dam iudices r6iecti sunt (Verr. i. IG), fie remained trtie to O^ 
agreement until the jurors were diallenged. 

555. Dam, dOnec, and quoad, as long a«, take the Indicative : — 

dam anima est, spSs esse dicitur (Att ix. 10. S), as long as there is life, ikcrt 

18 said to be hope. 
dtim praesidia uUaf arrant, in SuUae praesidils fuit (Rose. Am. 126), so lo-n^ 

as there were any garrisons^ he was in the garrisons of Sulla. 
dam longius & mdniiiOne aberant Galli, plus multiludine telOrum prQfici€baiit 

(B. G. vii. 82), so long as the Gauls were at a distance from the fort{ficU' 

tions, they had the advantage because of their missiles. 
ddnec gratus eram tibi, Perslrum vigul rSge be^tior (Ilor. Od. iii. 9. 1), cls 

long as I enjoyed thy favor ^ I flourished happier than the king of the 

quoad potuit fortissimG restitit (B. G. iv, 12), h^ resisted bravely as long as 

he could. i 

NoTB 1. — D9nec in this use is confined to poetry and later writers. | 

Note 2. — Quam diu, as long as, takes the Indicative only : as, — se oppidO tain diii 
tenuit quam diu in prOvincia Parthi fuSrunt (Fam. xii. 19. 2), he kept himself within the 
town as long as the Parthians were in the province. i 

556. Dam, whilcj regularly takes the Present Indicative to de- 
note continued action in past time. 

In translating, the English Imperfect must generally be used : — ^ 

dam haec geruntur, Caesar! nuntiatum est (B. G. i. 46), while this was going 

on^ a message was brought to Coesar. 
haec dum agantur, intereS Cleomenes iam ad El5rl litus pervgnerat (Verr. v. ji 

91), while this was going on^ Cleomenes meanwhile had come down to the \ 

coast at Elorum. 
hoc dum narrat, forte audivi (Ter. Haut. 272), I happened to hear this while 

she was telling it. 1 

Note. — This construction is a special use of the Historical Present (§ 469). 

a. A past tense with dum (usually so long as) makes the time em- ^ 
phatic by contrast ; but a few irregular cases of dum with a past tense 
occur where no contrast is intended : ^ 

nee enim dum eram v5biscum, animum meum videbatis (Cat. M. 79), for 

while I was with you^ you could not see my soul. [Here the time when 

he was alive is contrasted with that after his death.] 
coorta est puena, par dum constab&nt Ordings (Liv. xxii. 47), a cor{/lict began, 

well matched as long as the ranks stood firm. 
But, — dum oculOs hostium certamen averterat (id. zzxii. 24), while the 

struggle kept the eyes of the enemy turned away. 
dam tlnum adscendere gradum cdnatus est, vSnit in perlculum (Mar. 66), 

while he attempted to clinib one step [in rank] he fell into danger. 


T^OTS. — In later writer^ dam sometimes takes the Subjunctive wbeu the classicf^l 
3Lge TTould require the Indicative, and donee, untUt is freely used in this manner 
ipecially by Tacitus) : — 

dum ea in SamniO gererentttr, in Etruria interim bellum ingens concitur (Li v. x. 
18), while this was being done in Samnium, meanwhile a great war was 
stirred up in Etruria. 
ilia quidem dum te fugeret, bydrum nOn vidit (Georg. iv. 457), while she was fleeing 

from you she did not see the serpent. 
dum per vicOs dSportarStur, condormiebat (Suet Aug. 78), while he was being car- 

vied through the streets he used to fall dead asleep. 
Rhenus servat nOmen et violentiam cursus (qua Germaniam praevebitur) dSnec 
OceanO misceatur (Tac. Ann. ii. 6), the Rhine keeps its name and rapid course 
{where it borders Germany) until it mingles with the ocean. 
temporibusque August! dicendis nOn defuere decdra ingenia donee gliscente adu- 
latidne d6terr6rentur (id. i. 1), for describing the times of Augustus there 
was no lack of talent until it was frightened away by the increasing servility 
of the age. 
For dum, provided that, see § 528. 

Clauses with QuTs and QuOminus 

667. The original meaning of quin is how not? why not? (qui-ne), and when 
used with the Indicative or (rarely) with the Subjunctive it regularly implies a general 
negative. Thus, quln ego hoc rogem? why should nU I ask this? implies that there is 
no reason for not asking. The implied negative was then expressed in a main clause, 
like nulla causa est or fieri ndn potest. Hence come the various dependent construc- 
tions introduced by quio. 

Qudminus is really a phrase (quo minus), and the dependent constructions which it 
introduces have their origin in the relative clause of purpose with quo and a com- 
pai'ative (see § 531. a). 

558. A subjunctive clause with quin is used after verbs and 
other expressions of hindering^ resisting., refusing^ doubting., de- 
laying^ and the like, when these are negatived^ either expressly or 
by implication : — 

nOn htim&na Ulla neque dlvina obstant quin sociOs amfcOs trahant exscindant 

(Sail. Ep. Mith. 17), no human or divine laws prevent them from taking 
> captive and exterminating their friendly allies. 

at ne SuessionSs quidem deterrere potuerint quin cum his consentirent (6. G. 

ii. 3), that they were unable to hinder even the Suessiones from making 

common cause with them. 
nCn posse mllitgs contin?ri quin in urbem inrumperent (B. C. ii. 12), tliat the 

soldiers could not be restrained from bursting in*o the city. 
nOn recusal quin iudices (Deiot. 48), he does not object to your judging. 
neque recfl»&re quin armls contendant (B. G. iv. 7), and that they did not 

refine to fight. 
praeterire nOn potui quln scriberem ad td (Caesar ap. Cic. Att. ix. 6 a), I could 

not neglect to vjrite to you. 


Tlrfiven tOtltis hiemis ntlUum tempus intermlserjmt qum iSgfttOs mitterent 

(B. 6. V. 55), the Treveri let no part of the wilder pass wiihout sending 

ambassadors. [Cf. B. G. v. 53; B. C. i. 78.] 
n6n cuiictandam existim9,vit quin ptlgna dScertftret (B. G. iii. 23), he thoughi 

he ought not to delay risking a decisive battle. 
paulum afuit quin Varum interficeret (B. C. li. 85), he Just missed killing 

Varus (it lacked little but that he should kill), 
neque raultum &fuit quin castrls ezpellerentur (id. 11. 35), they came near being 

driven out of the camp. 
facere nOn possum qain cotldie ad t3 mittam (Att. xii. 27. 2), I cannot help 

sending to you every day. 
fieri ntlllo modO poterat quin CleomenI parcerStur (Yerr. v. 104), it was out 

of the question that Cleomenes should not be spared. 
ut effici n(^n possit qiun e6& oderim (Phil. xi. 86), so that nothing can prevent 

my hating them. 

a. Quin is especially common with nOn dubitO, 1 do not doubt, nSii 

est dubium, there is no dovbt, and similar expressions : — 

nOn dubitabat qum el crederemus (Att. vi. 2. 3), he did not doubt thai we 
believed him. 


illud cav6 dubitCs qmn ego omnia faciam (Fam. y. 20. 6), do not doubt thai 
I will do all. 

quis IgnOrat quin tria GraecOrum genera sint (Place. 64), who is ignorant 
that there are three races of Greeks ? 

nOn erat dubium quin Helv6tii plurimum possent (cf. B. G. i. 3), there was no 
doubt that the Helvetians were most powerful, , 

neque Caesarem fefellit quin ab lis cohortibus initium victOriae oriretur (B. C. 
iii. 94), and it did not escape Ccesar^s notice that the beginning of the vic- 
tory came from those cohorts. 

Note 1. — Dubit5 without a negative is regularly followed by an Indirect Ques- 
tion ; so sometimes n5n dubito and the like : — 

nOn nulli dubitant an per Sardiniam veniat (Fam. ix. 7), some doubt whether he 

is coming through Sardinia. 
dubitate, si potestis, a quo sit Sex. Roscius occisas (Rose. Am. 78), douht^ if you 

can, by whom Sextus Roscius was murdered. 
dubitabam tu has ipsas litteras essSsne accepturus (Att. xv. 9), I doubt whether 

you will receive this very letter. [Epistolary Imperfect (§ 479).] , 

qu&lis sit futurus, ne vOs quidem dubitatis (B. C. ii. 32), and what it (the outcome) ' 

will bey you yourselves do not doubt, 
nOn dubito quid sentiant (Fam. xv. 9), /cfo not doubt what they think. 
dubium illi n5n erat quid futurum esset (id. viii. 8. 1), it was not doubtful to him 

what was going to happen. 
Note 2. — Non dubitS in the sense of I do not hesitate commonly takes the Infini- 
tive, but sometimes quin with the Subjunctive : — 

nee dubitare ilium appellare sapientem (Lael . 1 ) , and not to hesitate to call him a sage. 
dubitandnm nOn existimavit quin proficisceretur (B. G. ii. 2), he did not think he 

ought to hesitate to set out. 
quid dubitas uti temporis opportunitate (B. C. ii. 34), why do you hesitate to take 

advantage of the favorable moment 9 [A question implying a negative.] 

r^ 558, 569] CLAUSES WITH qViN AND QUOlilNUS 861 

&• Verbs of hindering and refusing often take the subjunctive with 
aS or quOminus (= ut e5 minus), especially when the verb is not nega- 
bived : — 

plura ne dicam tuae me lacrimae impediunt (Plane. 104), your tears preverU 

me from speaking further. 
nee aetas impedit quominas agri colendi stasia tene&mus (Cat. M. 00), nor 

does age prevent us from retaining an interest in tilling the sou. 
nihil impedit quominus id facere potsimas (Fin. i. 33), nothing hinders us 

from being able to do that. 
obstitisti ne translre cQpiae possent (Verr. v. 6), you opposed the passage of 

the troops (opposed lest the troops should cross). 

Note. — Some verbs of hindering may take the Infinitive: — 
nihil obest dicere (Fam. ix. 13. 4), there is nothing to prevent my saying it, 
prohibet accSdere (Caec. 46), prevents him from approaching, 

559. A clause of Result or Characteristic may be introduced by 
quin after a general negative, where quin is equivalent to qui (quae, 
quod) nOn: — 

1. Clauses of Result : — 

nem5 est tam fortis quin [= qui nOn] rei novitate perturbStur (B. G. vi. 80), 
no one is so brave as not to be disturbed by the unexpected occurrence. 

nSmO erat ade5 tardus quin put&ret (B. C. i. 69), ru> one was so slothful as not 
to thinkj etc. 

quis est tam dSmens quin oentiat (Balb. 43), who is so senseless as not to 
think, etc.? 

nil tam difiicilest quin quaerendO investlgftrl possiet (Ter. Haut. 676), noth- 
* ing '« 80 hard but search will find it out (Herrick). 

2. Clauses of Characteristic : — 

n6mo nostrum est quin [ = qui n5n] sciat (Rose. Am. 56), there is no one of 

us who does not know. 
n6m5 fuit mllitum quin vulnerarStur (B. C. iii. 63), th^e was not one of the 

. soldiers who was not wounded. 
ecquis fuit quin laciimaret (Verr. v. 121), was there any one who did not shed 
> team's f 

qnis est quin intellegat (Fin. v. 64), who is there who does not understand f 
hOrum nihil est quin [ = quod n5n] intereat (N. D. iii. 30), there is none of 

these (elements) which does not perish. 
nihil est ill6rum quin [ = quod n5n] ego illl dixeiim (PI. Bac. 1012), there is 

nothing bf this that I have not told him. 

Note. — Quin sometimes introduces a pure clause of result with the sens© of ut n5n : 
as,— numquam tam male est Siculis quin aliquid facete et commode dicant (Verr. iv. 
95), things are never so bad with the Sicilians but that thsy ham^ somsihin^f p l ^astmt 
or witty to say. 

For quin in independent constructions, see § 449. b. 



560. A clause which is used as a Doun may be called a Substantive Clause, a 
certain relative clauses are sometimes called adjective clauses. Bat in practice th 
term is restricted to clauses which represent a nominative or an accusative case, tb 
clauses which stand for an ablative being sometimes called adverbial clauses. 

Even with this limitation the term is not quite precise (see p. 367, footnote 1). Th 
fact is rather that the clause and the leading verb are mutually complementary ; eaci 
reinforces the other. The simplest and probably the earliest form of such sentence 
is to be found in the paratactic use (see § 268) of two verbs like volo abeis, dicamoi 
cinseS, adeam optimum est. From such verbs the usage spread by analogy to other 
verbs (see lists on pp. 3C3, 367, footnotes), and the complementary relation ol the 
clause to the verb came to resemble the complementary force of the accusative, espe- 
cially the accusative of cognate meaning (§ 3U0). 

561. A clause used as a noun is called a Substantive Clause. 

a. A Substantive Clause may be used as the Subject or Object of 
a verb, as an Appositive, or as a Predicate Nominative or Accusative. 

Note 1. — Many ideas which in English take the form of an abstract noun may he 
rendered by a substantive clause in Latin. Thus, ?ie demanded an investigation may 
be postaUbat at qnaestiS haberfitor. The common English expression for with the 1 
infinitive also corresponds to a Latin substantive clause: as, — it remains /or me to 
speak of the piratic loar, reliquam est at d6 bello dicam piratioS. 

NoTB 2. — When a Substantive Clause is used as subject, the verb to which it is 
subject is called impersonalt and the sign of the construction in English is commonly 
the so-called expletive it. 

562. Substantive Clauses are classified as follows : — 

1. Subjunctive Clauses ( a. Of purpose (command, wish, fear) (§§ 563, 664). 

(at, n6,atnon,etc.). \ b. Of result {happen, effect, etc.) (§568). 

2. Indicative Clauses with quod : Fact, Specification, Feeling (§ 572). 

3. Indirect Questions: Subjunctive, introduced by an Interrogative Word 

(§§ 573-676). 

4. Infinitive Clauses ( ^- fjf.^ ^f ^ ^* ordering wishing, etc. (§ 663). 

[ 0. Indirect Discourse (§ 679 ff.). 

Note. — The Infinitive with Subject Accusative is not strictly a clause, but in Latiu 
it has undergone so extensive a development that it may be so classed. The uses of 
the Infinitive Clause are of two kinds : (1) in constructions in which it replaces a sub- 
junctive clause with ut etc. ; (2) in the Indirect Discourse. The first class will be dis- 
cussed in connection with the appropriate subjunctive constructions (§663) ; for Indirect 
Discourse, see § 579 ff . 

Substantive Clauses of ParpoM 

583. Snbst«ntiTe Clauses of Purpose with ut (negattra ni) iire 
used as the object of verbs denoting an action directed toward the 



Such are, verbs meaning to admonish, ask, bargain, command, de- 
, determine, permit, persuade, resolve, urge, and wish : — ^ 

monet at omnSs suspIciOnes latet (B. G. 1. 20), he warns him to avoid all 

hortatiir eOs ne animO dgficiant (B. C. i. 19), ?ie urges them not to lose heart, 
te rogO atque 6r5 ut eum iaves (Fam. xiii. 66), 1 beg and pray you to aid him. 
his atj conquirerent imper&vit (B. G. i. 28), he ordered them to search, 
persuMet CasticO ut regnuin occuparet (id. i. 3), he persuades Casticus to 

usurp royal power, 
suls imperavit n€ quod omninO tglum reicerent (id. 1. 46), he ordered his men 

not to throw back any weapon at all, 


Note. — With any verb of these classes the poets may use the Infinitiye instead of 
object clause : — 

hortatnur fan (Aen. ii. 74), we urge piim] to speak. 

ne quaere docSri (id. yi. 614), seek not to be told, 

temptat praevertere (id. i. 721), she attempts to turn, etc. 
For the Subjunctive without ut with verbs of commanding, see § 565. a. 

a. lubeC, order, and veto, forbid, take the Infinitive with Subject 
Accusative : — 

Labienum iugum mentis ascendere iubet (B. G. i. 21), he orders Labienus to 

ascend the ridge of the hUl, 
liberos ad se adduci iussit (id. ii. 6), ^ ordered the children to be brought to him. 
ab opere Ugitoa discedere vetuerat (id. ii. 20), he had forbidden the lieutenants 

to leave the work, 
vetuCre [bona] reddi (Liv. ii. 5), they forbade the return of the goods (that the 
goods be returned). 

Note. — Some other verbs of commanding etc. occasionally take the Infinitive : — 
pontem imperant fieri (B. C. i. 61), they order a bridge to be built, 
res monet cav§re (Sail. Cat. 62. 3), t?ie occasion warns us to be on our guard, 

&. Verbs of wishing take either the Infinitive or the Subj unctive. 

With vole (nOie, mal5) and cupi5 the Infinitive is commoner, and 
the subject of the ijifinitive is rarely expressed when it would be the 
same as that of the main verb. 

With other verbs of wishing the Subjunctive is commoner when 
the subject changes, the Infinitive when it remains the same. 

1. Subject of dependent verb same as that of the verb of wishing: — 

augur fieri volul (Fam. xv. 4. 13), I wished to be made augur, 
cupiO vigiliam meam tibi tradere (id. xi. 24), I am eager to hand over my watch 
to you. 

^tmSh verbs orlrefrbal phwises ure id ag6, ad Id veniS, cave« (n6), cSneeS, c8g5, con- 
cM5, o5n8titu5, cfiro, decerao, €dic5, flagito, hortor, impero, inst5, mandd, metuS (n8), 
moneS, negStium do, operam d5, 5rd, perstUlded, peto, postuld, praecipid, precor, prdnfintid, 
quaei5, togfi^ seisco, time5 (n6), vereor (n6), vide5, volo. 


lUdicem me esse, nOn doctOrem yolO (Or. 117), I wUh to he ajvuige^ riot 

mS Caesaris mllitem did yolul (B. C. ii. 32. 13), I wished to be called a soldii 

of CoBsar. 
cupio me esse clementem (Cat. i. 4), I desire to be merciful. [But regalarlj 

cupiO esse clCmCns (see § 457).] 
omnis homings, qui sSs§ student praestare cSterls animSlibus (Sail. Cat. 1) 

cUl men who wish to excel other living creatures. 

2. Subject of dependent verb different from that of the verb of ttnshing. 

YolO t€ scire (Fam. ix. 24. 1), I wish you to know. 

yim Yolumus ezstingui (Sest. 92), we wish violence to be put down. 

te tu& tmi virtute cupimus (Brut. 331), we wish you to reap the fruits of your 

cupio ut impetret (PI. Capt. 102), I wish he m,ay get it. 
Dumquam optab5 ut audiatis (Cat. ii. 15), I will never desire that you shall 


For TOld and its compounds with the Subjanctive without at, see § 565. 

o« Verbs of permitting take either the Subjunctive or the Infini- 
tive. Patior takes regularly the Infinitive with Subject Accusative ; 
so often 8in5 ; — 

permlsit at faceret (De Or. ii. 366), permitted him to make. 

concgdO tibl ut ea praetereAs (Rose. Am. 54), I allow you to pass by these 

tahem&cula statu! passus nOn est (B. C. i. 81), he did not allow tents to be \ 

▼{hum importari n5n sinunt (B. G. iv. 2), they do not allow wine to be imported. 

d. Verbs of determining , decreeing^ resolving ^ bargaining, take 
eitJUer the Subjunctive or the Infinitive : — 

cOnstituerant ut L. B@stia quereretur (Sail. Cat. 43), they houd determined that 

Lucius Bestia sfiould complain. 
proeliO supersedSre statuit (B. G. ii. 8), he determined to rrfuse battle. 
de bonis r€gis quae reddi cSnsuerant (Liv. ii. 5), about the king^s goodSj which 

they had decreed should be restored. 
d6cernit uti consults dilectum habeant (Sail. Cat. 34), decrees that the consuls 

shall hold a levy. 
edicts nS quis IniussfL pOgniret (Liv. v. 19), having commanded that none 

should fight without orders. 

Note 1. — Different verbs of these classes with the same meaning vary In their 
ionstruction (see the Lexicon). For verbs of bargaining etc. with the Gerundiye, see 

NoTK 2. — Verbs of decreeing and voting often take the Infinitive of the Seoond 
Periphrastic conjugation: — Regulus captivos reddendos [esse] nOn oensuit (Off. i.39), 
Regulus voted that the captives should not be returned* [He said, in giving his formal 
opinion: captivi n6n reddendi sunt.] 


e. Verbs of caution and effort take the Subjunctive with ut. But 
;5nor, trt/, commonly takes the Complementary Infinitive : — 

ctira ut quam primum intellegam (Fam. xiii. 10. 4), let me know as soon aapoS" 

sible (take care that I may understand). 
dant operam at habeant (Sail. Cat. 41), iJiey take pains to Jiave (give their 

attention that, etc.). 
iinx>ellere uti Caesar nominarStar (id. 49), to induce them to name Cceaar (that 

Caesar should he named), 
conatus est Caesar reficere pontis (B. C. i. 50), Cceaar tried to rebuild the bridges. 

Note 1. — Conor si also occurs (as B. G. i. 8) ; cf. miror si etc., § 672. b. n. 
NoTB 2. — Ut n6 occurs occasionally with verbs of caution and effort (cf. §531); — 
cura et prQvide ut nSquid ei dSsit (Att. xi. 3. 3), take care and see that he lacks nothing. 
For the Subjunctive with quin and qudmintts with verbs of hindering etc., see § 558. 

564. Verbs of fearing take the Subjunctive, with n6 af5Srma- 
tive and n6 n6n or ut negative. 

In this use n6 is commonly to be translated by that, ut and nS nOn 
by that not : — 

timeO ne Verres fecerit (Verr. v. 3), I fear thai Verres has done, etc. 

ne animum offenderet verebatur (B. G. i. 19), he feared that he should hurt 
the feelings J etc. 

ne ezhered&retur veritus est (Rose. Am. 58), he feared that he should be dis- 

Crater metuo n5 languescat senecttlte (Cat. M. 28), I fear the orator grows 
fe^lefrom old age, 

vereor ut tibi possim conc€dere (De Or. i. 35), I fear that I cannot grant you. 

haud sane periculum est ne non mortem optandam putet (Tusc. v. 118), there 
is no danger that he will not think death desirable. 

Note. — The subjunctive in nS-clauses after a verb of fearing is optative in origin. 
To an independent ne-sentence, as ne accidat, may it not happen^ a verb may be prefixed 
(cf. § 560), making a complex sentence. Thus, vide nS accidat ; oro n6 accidat ; cavet nS 
accidat ; when the prefixed verb is one of fearing, timeo nS accidat becomes let it not hap- 
pen, but I fear that it may. The origin of the ut-clause is similar. 

565. Vole and its compounds, the impersonals licet and oportet, 
^ and the imperatives die and fac often take the Subjunctive with- 
out ut : — 

vols ames (Att. ii. 10), I wish you to love. 

quam vellem me invitasses (Fam. x. 28. 1), how I wish you had invited me I 

mallem Cerberum metueres (Tusc. i. 12), I had rather you feared Cerberus. 

sint enim oportet (id. i. 12), for they must exist 

queramur licet (Caec. 41), we are allowed to complain. 

fac diligis (Att. iii. 13. 2), do love I [A periphrasis for the imperative dilige, 

love (ct §449. c).] 
die exeat, tell him to go out. 


NoTB 1. — In such cases there Is no ellipsis of ut. The expressions are idiomati 
remnants of an older construction in which the subjunctives were hortatory or optatit 
and thus really independent of the verb of wishing etc. In the classical period, how 
ever, thej were doubtless felt as subordinate. Compare the use of cavC and the sub 
junctive (without nS) in Prohibitions (§ 450), which appears to follow the analogy of lac 

Note 2. — Licet may take (1) the Subjunctive, usually without at; (2) the simpb 
Infinitiye ; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative ; (4; the Dative and the Infini 
tive (see § 455. 1). Thus, / may go is licet earn, licet ire, licet mS ire, or licet mihi ire. 

For licet in concessive clauses, see § 527. 6. 

NoTB 3. — Oportet may take (1) the Subjunctive without ut; (2) the simple Infini- 
tive ; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. Thus / must go is oportet earn, oportet 
ire, or oportet m9 ire. 

a. Verbs of commanding and the like often take the subjunctive 
without ut : — 

huic tnandat RSmOs adeat (B. G. iii. 11), he orders him to visit the Bemi. 
rogat finem faciat (Id. i. 20), he asks him to cease, 

MnSsthea vocat, classem aptent socil (Aen. iv. 289), he calls Mnestheus [and 
orders that] his comrades shall make ready the fleet. 

NoTB. — The subjunctive in this construction is the hortatory subjonctiye used to 
express a command in Indirect Discourse (§ 688). 

Substantive Clauses of Purpose with Passive Verbs 

566. A Substantive Clause used as the object of a verb becomes 
the subject when the verb is put in the passive {Impersonal Conr 
8truction): — 

Caesar at c5gn5sceret postulSltam est (B. C. 1. 87), CcBsar was requested to 

make an investigation (it was requested that CsBsar should malfe an 

8l erat H6racli5 ab senatu mandatum ut emeret (Verr. iii. 88), if Eeraclius 

had been instructed by the senate to buy. 
si persuasum erat Cluvi5 ut mentir5tur (Rose. Com. 51), if Cluvius had been 

persuaded to lie. 
putO concedl nobis oportCre ut GraecO verbO atamur (Fin. iii. 15), I think 

we must be atlowed to use a Greek word. 
n8 quid els noceitur a Caesare cav6tur (B. C. i. 86), CoRsar takes care that no 

harm shall be done them (care is taken by Csesar lest, etc.). 

a. With verbs of admonishinfjj the personal object becomes the 
subject and the object clause is retained : — 

admoniti sumus ut caveremus ( Att. viii. 11 d. 3), we were warw>d to be cartful 
cum mongrgtur ut cautior esset (Div. i. 61), when he was advised to be more 

monen visus est nS id faceret (id. 56), he seemed to be warned not to do it 


&• Some verbs that take an infinitive instead of a subjunctive 
ve used impersonally in the passive, and the infinitive becomes the 
ixbject of the sentence : — 

loqui nOn concGditur (B. G. vi. 20), it is not allowed to speak, 

c. With ittbeO, veto, and cOgd, the subject accusative of the infinitive 
3e comes the siibject nominative of the main verb, and the infinitive is 
retained as complementary (Personal Construction) : — 

adesse iubentur postrldiS (Verr. ii. 41), they are ordered to be present on the 

following day, 
ire in exsilium iussus est (Cat. ii. 12), he was ordered to go into exile, 
SimOnides vetitus est nflyigHre (Div. ii. 134), Slmonideswa^ forbidden to sail. 
Mandubil ez!re c()guntur (B. G. vii. 78), the Mdndubii are compelled to go out. 

Substantive Clauses of Result (Consecutive Clauses) 

567t Clauses of Result may be used substautiyely, (1) as the object of faciS etc. 
(§ 568); (2) as the subject of these same verbs in the passive, as well as of other verbs 
and verbal phrases (§ 560); (3) in apposition with another substantive, or as predicate 
nominative etc. (see §§ 670, 671) .^ 

568. Substantive Clauses of Result with ut (negative ut nOn) 
are used as the object of verbs denoting the accompliBhment of 
an effort? 

Such are especially faciO and its compounds (efficiO, cGnficiG, etc.) : — 

efficiam at inteUeg&tis (Clu. 7), I will make you understand (lit. effect that 
^ you, etc.). [So, faciam ut intellegatis (id. 9).] 

comme&tus ut port&rl possent efficiSbat (B. G. ii. 6), made it possible that 

supplies could be brought. 
perfficl ut 6 r5gn6 ille discederet (Fam. xv. 4. 6), I brought about his departure 

from the kingdom, 
quae Ubert&s ut laetior esset regis superbia fScerat (Liv. ii. 1), the arrogance 

of the king had made this liberty more welcome. 
Cvincunt Instand5 ut litterae darentur (id. ii. 4), by insisting they gain their 
^ point, — that letters should be sent [Here gvincunt = efficiunt.] 

1 In all these cases the clause is not strictly subject or object. The main verb orig- 
inally conveyed a meaning sufficient in itself, and the result clause was merely com- 
plementary. This is seen by the frequent use of ita and the like with the main verb 
(ita accidit ut, etc.). In like manner purpose clauses are only apparently subject or 
object of the verb with which they are connected. 

2 Verbs and phrases taking an ut-clause of result as subject or object are acc€dit, 
accidit, additur, altera est rSs, committd, cdnsequor, contingit, efllcio, Sveiit, facio, fit, fieri 
potest, fore, impetro, integrum est, mSs est, munus est, necesse est, prope est, rSctum est, 
relinquitar, leliquum est, restat, tant! est, tantum abest, and a few others 


NoTB 1. — The expressions facere at, oommittere at, with the subjunctive, often f oim 
a periphrasis for the simple verb : as, — invitus fSci at Flaminium e senatu eiceFem 
^Gat. M. 42), it wan with reluctance that 1 expelled Flaminiusfrom the senate. 

669. Substantive Clauses of Result are used as the subject of 

the following: — 

1. Of passive verbs denoting the accomplishment of an effort : — 

impetr^tum est ut in sen&tii recitarentar (litterae) (B. C. 1. 1), they succeeded 
in having the letter read in the senate (it was brought about that, etc.). 

ita efl&citur ut omne corpus mortaie sit (N. D. iii. 30), it therefore is made 
ovi that every body is mortal. 

2. Of Im personals meaning it happens, it remains, it fallows^ it is 
necessary, it is added, and the like (§ 568, footnote) : — 

accidit ut asset luna plena (B. G. iv. 29), it happened to befuU moon (it hap- 
pened that it was, etc.). [Here ut asset is subject of accidit.] 

reliquum est ut officiis certemus inter nOs (Fam. vii. 31), i^ remains for us to 
vie with each other in courtesies. 

restat ut h6c dubitemus (Rose. Am. 88), it is l^for us to doubt this. 

sequitur ut docaam (N. D. ii. 81), the next thing is to show (it follows, etc.). 

Note 1. — The infinitive sometimes occurs: as, ^- nee enim acciderat mihi opus 
esse (Fara. vi. 11. l),/or it had not happened to be necessary to mc. 

Note 2. — ITecesse est often takes the subjunctive without at : as, — ooncCdSs necesse 
est (Rose. Am. 87), you must grant, 

3. Of est in the sense of it is the fact that, etc. (mostly poetic) : — 

est ut vir5 vir latius ordinet arbusta (Hor. Od. iii. 1. 9), it is the fact that one 
man plants his vineyards in wider rows than another. 

a. Fore (or futllrum esse) ut with a clause of result as subject is 
often used instead of the Future Infinitive active or passive; so 
necessarily in verbs which have no supine stem : — 

sperO fore ut contingat id n()bls (Tusc. i. 82), I hope that will be our happy lot 
cum vidSrem fore ut ndn possam (Cat. ii. 4) , when I saw that I should not be able. 

570. A substantive clause of result may be in apposition with 
another substantive (especially a neuter pronoun): — 

illud etiam restiterat, ut t6 in iiis §diicarant (Quinct. 33), this too remained— 
for them to drag you into court. 

571. A substantive clause of result may serve as predicate 

nominative after mOs est and similar expressions : — 

eat mos hominum, ut nolint eundem pluribus rfibus excellere (Brut. 84); 4i w 
the way of men to be unwillin^f for one man to excel in several things. 


A result clause, with or without ut, frequently follows quam 
fcer a comparative (but see § 583. c) : — 

CanachI signa rigidiOra sunt qaam ut imitentur v^ritatem (Brut. 70), tJie statues 
of Canachus are too stiff to represent nature (stiff er than that they should) . 

perpessus est omnia potius quam indicaret (Tusc. ii. 62), he endured all rather 
than betray, etc. . [Regularly without ut except in Livy.] 

hm The phrase tantum abest, it is so far [from being the case], 

3gularly takes two clauses of result with ut; one is substantive, the 

ubject of abest ; the other is adverbial, correlative with tantum: — 

tantum abest at nostra miremur, at Usque eO difficilds ac mOrOsI simut, at 
hdbls n5n satis faciat ipse Demosthenes (Or. 104), so far from admiring 
my own works, I am difficult and captious to that degree that not Demos- 
thenes himself satisjies me. [Here the Jirst at-clause is the subject of 
abest (§ 569. 2); the second, a result clause after tantum (§ 537); and 
the third, after asque eo.] 

ۥ Rarely, a thought or an idea is considered as a result, and is 
expressed by the subjunctive with ut instead of the accusative and 
infinitive (§ 580). In this case a demonstrative usually precedes : 

praeclarum illud est, ut eds . . . amemus (Tusc. ill. 73), this is a noble thing, 

that we should love, etc. 
yeri simile nOn est at ille anteponeret (Verr. iv. 11), i^ is not likely that he 


Yqiz Belatiye Clauses with qoin after yerbs of hindering etc., see § 568. 

Indicative with Quod 

572. A peculiar form of Substantive Clause consists of quod 
(in the sense of that^ the fact that) with the Indicative. 

The clause in the Indicative with quod is used when the state- 
ment is regarded as a fact: — 

alteram est yitium, quod quidam nimis magnum studium conferunt (Off. i. 19), 
it is another fault that some bestow too much zeal, etc. [Here at conferant 
could be used, meaning thaJt some should bestow ; or the accusatiye and 
infinitive, meaning to bestow (abstractly); quod makes it a fact that men 
do bestow, etc.] 

tQter inanimam et animal hOc maximS interest, quod animal agit aliquid 
(Acad. ii. 37), this is the chi^ difference between an inanimate object and 
an animal, that an animal aims at something. 

quod rediit nObis mir&bile yid^tur (Off. iii. Ill), Vud he (Regulus) returned 
seems wonderful to i^a. 

accidit perincommode quod eum nusquam vidisti (Att. i. 17. 2), it happened 
wry unly^kily that you nowhere saw him. 



opporttlnissima r&s accidit qaod Germ&nl ySnSnint (6. G. iv. 13), a very fa 
tuncUe thing happened, (namely) that the Germans came, 

praetereO quod earn sibi domum s^deinque delegit (Clu. 188), I p<iss overti 
fact that she chose that house and home for herself, 

mittO quod possessa per vim (Flacc. 79), / disregard the fact that they toe 
seized by violence. 

Note. — Like otlier substaotiye clauses, the clause with quod may be used as scl 
jecty as object, as appositiye, etc., but it is commonly either the subject or in appoa 
tion with the subject. 

a. A substantive clause with quod sometimes appears as an accu 
sative of specification, corresponding to the English whereas or (u 
to the fact that : — 

quod mihi d€ nostr5 statu gratularis, minim 6 miramur te tuls praecl^is operi- 
bus laet&ri (Fam. i.7.7)y as to your cov^atidating me on our ccndltion, 
we are not at all surprised that you are pleased with your own noble toorks. 

quod de dom5 sczibis, ego, etc. (Earn. xiv. 2. S), as to what you torite of Va 
house, J, etc. 

h. Verbs oi feeling and the exj^ression of feeling take either qiiod 

(quia) or the accusative and infinitive (Indirect Discourse) : — 

quod scribis . . . gaude5 (Q. Er. iii. 1.0),/ am glad thpt you write. 

faci5 libenter quod eam nOn possum praeterire (Legg. i. 63), I am glad thai I 

cannot pass it by, 
quae perfecta esse vehementer laetor (Rose. Am. 136), I greatly r^oice tkd^ 

this is finished, \ 

qui quia nOn habuit & m6 turmSs equitum fortasse su»c6nset ( Att. vl. 3. 5)^ wh 

perhaps feels angry that he did not receive squadrons of cavalry from me. 
moleste tull te senatui grfttias n5n Sgisse (Fam. x. 27. 1), I was dlspleaaei 

that you did not return thanks to the senate. 

Note. — Miror and similar expressions are sometimes followed by a clause with si.' 
This is apparently substantive, but i*eally protasis (cf. §6<>3. e, n. i). Thus, — miror 
SI quemquam amicum habere potuit (Lael.M), I wonder if he could ever have a friend, 
[Originally, If this is so, I wonder at it,] 

Indirect Questions I 

573, An Indirect Question is any sentence or clause which is [ 
introduced by an interrogative word (pronoun, adverb, etc.), and 
which is itself the subject or object of a verb, or depends on any 
expression implying uncertainty or doubt. 

In grammatical form, exclamatory sentences are not distin- 
guished from interrogative (see the third example below), 

1 Cf . the Greek $av/idi<a e/. 


574. An Indirect Question takes its verb in the Subjunctive : 

quid ipse sentiam expOnam (Div. i. 10), I will explain what I think, [Direct : 

quid sentio ?] 
id possetne fieri cOnsuluit (id. i. 32), he consulted whether it could be done, 

[Direct: potestne?] 
quam sis audax omnSs intellegere potuerunt (Rose. Am. 87), all could under- 
stand flow bold you are, [Direct : quam es audAz I] 
doleam necne doleam nihil interest (Tusc. ii. 20), it is of no account whether I 

suffer <w noi. [Double question.] 
quaesivi a Catilinft in conventa apud M. Laecam ftiisset necne (Cat. ii. 13), I 
asked Catiline whether he had been at the meeting at Marcus Loica^a or 
not. [Double question.] 
rogat m6 quid sentiam, he asks me what I think. [Cf. rogat m8 sententiam, Jie 

asks me my opinion,] 
hoc dubium est, uter nostrum sit inverCcundior (Acad. ii. 126), this is doubt- 
ful, which of us two is the less mx)dest, 
incerti quatenus VolerO exercSret victOriam (Liv. ii. 65), uncertain how far 
Volero wovM push victory. [As if dubitantis qufttenus, etc.] 

Note. — An Indirect Question may be the subject of a yerb (as in the fourth exam- 
ple), the direct object (as in the first), the secondary object (as in the sixth), an apposi- 
tiye (as in the seventh). 

575. The Sequence of Tenses in Indirect Question is illus- 
trated by the following examples : — 

dico quid faciam, I tell you what I am doing, 

dice quid facturus sim, I teU you what I toiU (shall) do, 

died quid fecerim, I teU you what I did {Jiave done, was doing). 

dix! quid facerem, I told you what I was doing, 

dM quid fecissem, I told you what I had done (had been doing), 

dixl quid facturus essem, I told you what I would (should) do (was going to do). 

dixi quid facturus fuissem, I told you what I would (should) have done. 

a. Indirect Questions referring to future time take the subjunc- 
tive of the First Periphrastic Conjugation : — 

prOspiciO qui concursQs futfiri sint (Caecil. 42), I foresee what throngs there 
^ will be, [Direct: qui erunt?] 

quid sit futumm cr9s, fuge quaerere (Hor. Od. i. 9. IS) ^forbear to ask what will 
be on the morrow. [Direct : quid erit or f uturum est ?] 

poBthac n5n scribam ad t6 quid facturus sim, sed quid fecerim (Alt. x. 18), 
hereafter I shall not write to you what I am going to do, but what I have 
done. [Direct : quid facias (or facturus eris) ? quid fecisti ?] 

Note.— This Periphrastic Future avoids the ambiguity which would be caused by 
using the Present Subjunctive to refer to future time in such clauses. 

6. The Deliberative Subjunctive (§ 444) remains unchanged in an 
Indirect Question^ except sometimes in tense : — 


qo5 me Tertam nesciO (Clu. 4), I do not know which way to turn. [I>irect 

quo me yertam ?] 
neque satis cOnstd,bat quid ageient (B. G. iii. 14), and it was not very clear who 

they were to do. [Direct : quid ag&mus ?] 
nee quisquam satis certain habet, quid aut spSret aut timeat (Liv. mrii, 7. 10). 

nor is any one well assured wfiat he shall hope or fear. [Here tlie futun 

participle with sit could not be used.] 
incertO quid peterent aut yit^b:ent (id. xxviii. 36. 12), since it was lioiMfid 

(ablative absolute) what they sho\dd seek or shun. 

c. Indirect Questions often take the Indicative in early Latin aud 

in poetry : — 

Yineam quo in agr5 cOnserl oportet sic observatG (Cato B. B. 6. 4), in wTiat 
soil a vineyard should be set you must observe thus. 

d. NesciO quia, when used in an indefinite sense (somebody or other)^ 
is not followed by the Subjunctive. 

So also nescid quO (unde^ etc.), and the following idiomatic phrases 

which are practically adverbs : — 

mlrum (nimlrum) quam, marvelXously (marvellous how). i 

mirum quantum, tremendously (marvellous how much). 
imm3,iie quantum, monstrou^y (monstrous how much). 
83,ne quam, immensely. 
valde quam, enormously. 

Examples are : — i 

qui istam nescio quam indolentiam m&gnopere laadant (Tuso. iii. 12), who 
greatly extol that freedom from pain, whatever it is. | 

minun quantum prOfuit (Liv. ii. 1), it ?ielped prodigiously. 

ita tSX6 nescid qud contigisse arbitror (Fam. zv. 13), I think U happened so 
by some fatality or other. 

nam 8u5s valde quam paucOs habet (id. xi. 13 a. 3), /or he has uncommonly 
few of his own. • 

sflnS quam sum gavisus (id. xi. 13 a. 4), I was immerady glad. 

immane quantum discrepat (Hor. Od. i. 27. 6), is monstroudy at variance. 

576. In colloquial usage and in poetry the subject of an In- 
direct Question is often attracted into the main clause as object 
(Aecusative of Anticipation) : — 

nOstI MJLrcellum quam tardus sit (Fam. viii. 10. 3), you know how slow Mar- 
cellus is. [For ndsti quam tardus sit MarceUus. Cf. '* I know thee who 
thou art."] 

Cf . potestne igitur eirum reram, qua re futurae sint, tllla esse praesGnsiO (Div. 
ii. 16), can there be, then, any foreknowledge as to those things^ why fhe^ 
wUl occur? [A similar use of the Objective Genitive.] 



IM^OTE. — In some cases the Object of Anticipation becomes the Subject by a change 
f T^oice, and an apparent mixtore of relative and interrogative constructions is the 
esxilt : — 

quidam saepe in parva pecunia perspiciuntur qnam sint levgs (Lael. 63) fit is often 
seeUf in a trifling matter of money , how unprincipled some people are (some 
people are often seen through, how unprincipled they are), 
quern ad modum Pompeium oppugnarent a me indicati sunt (Leg. Agr. i.6)yit has 
been shown by me in what way they attacked Pompey (they have been shown 
by me, how they attacked). 

a. An indirect question is occasionally introduced by si in the 

^ense of whether (like if in English, cf. § 672. b, n.) : — 

circumfundiintur hostes si quern aditum reperlre possent (B. G. vi. 37), the 

enemy pour round [to see] if they can find entrance, 
visam si domi est (Ter. Haut. 170), I will go see if he is at home. 

Note. — This is strictly a Protasis, but usually no Apodosis is thought of, and the 
clause is virtually an Indirect Question. 

For the Potential Subjunctive with forsitan (originally an Indirect Question), see 
§ 447. a. 


677. The use of the Accusative and Infinitive in Indirect Discourse (prdtio obliqua) 
is a comparatively late form of speech, developed in the Latin and Greek only, and 
perhaps separately in each of them. It is wholly wanting in Sanskrit, but some forms 
like it have grown up in English and German. 

The essential character of Indirect Discourse is, that the language of some other 
X>erson than the writer or speaker is compressed into a kind of Substantive Clause, the 
^erb of the main clause becoming Infinitive, while modifying clauses, as well as all. 
hortatory forms of speech, take the Subjunctive. The person of the verb necessarily 
conforms to the new relation of persons. 
» The construction of Indirect Discourse, however, is not limited to reports of the 
language of some person other than the speaker ; it may be used to express what any 
one — whether the speaker or some one else — says, thinksy or perceiveSf whenever that 
which is saidf thought ^ oi perceived is capable of being expressed in the form of a com- 
plete sentence. For anything that can be said etc. can also be reported indirectly as 
well as directly. 

The use of the Infinitive in the main clause undoubtedly comes from its use as a 
case-form to complete or modify the action expressed by the verb of saying and its 
object together. This object in time came to be regarded as, and in fact to all intents 
^ became, the subject of the infinitive. A transition state is found in Sanskrit, which, 
though it has no indirect discourse proper, yet allows an indirect predication after verbs 
of saying and the like by means of a predicative apposition, in such expressions as 
"The maids told the king [that] his daughter [was] bereft of lier senses. '* 

The simple form of indirect statement with the accusative and infinitive was after- 
wards amplified by introducing dependent or modifying clauses ; and in Latin it became 
a common construction, and could be used to report whole speeches etc., which in other 
larnguages would have the direct form. (Compare the style of reporting speeches in 
English, where only the person and tense are changed.) 

The Subjunctive in the subordinate clauses of Indirect Discourse has no significance 
except to make more distinct the fact that these clauses are subordinate ; consequently 
no direct connection has been traced between them and the uses of the mood in simple 


sentences. It is probable that the sub j nnctive in indirect questions (§ 574) , in inf orn 
indirect discourse (§ 592), and in clauses of the integral part (§ 593) represents tj 
earliest steps of a moyement by which the subjunctive became in some degree a iim^ 
of subordination. 

The Subjunctive standing for hortatory forms of speech in Indirect Discourse 
simply the usual hortatory subjunctive, with only a change of person and tense | 
necessary), as in the reporter's style. 

578. A Direct Quotation gives the exact words of the origim 
speaker or writer (Ordtio Be eta). 

An Indirect Quotation adapts the words of the speaker o 
writer to the construction of the sentence in which they ar| 
quoted (Ordtio Obllqua). 

NoTS. — The term Indirect Discourse (oratio ohliqiLa) is used in two senses. Il 
the wider sense it includes all clauses — of whatever kind — which express the wor '\ 
or thought of any person indirectly f that is, in a form different from that in which il' 
person said the words or conceived the thought. In the narrower sense the term In«ii- 
rect Discourse is restricted to those cases in which some complete proposition is citpii 
in the form of an Indirect Quotation, which may be extended to a narrative or n: 
address of any length, as in the speeches reported by Giesar and Livy. In this booik 
the term is used in the restricted sense. 

Formal Indirect Discourse 

579. Verbs and other expressions of knowing^ tldnking^ telling, 
and perceiving,^ govern the Indirect Discourse. 

NoTB. — Inquam, said I (etc.) takes the Direct Discourse except in poetry. 

Declaratory Sentences in Indirect Discourse 

580. In Indirect Discourse the main clause of a Declaratoiy 
Sentence is put in the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. All 
subordinate clauses take the Subjunctive : — 

sciO mg paene incredibilem rem pollicen (B. C. iii. 86), I know that I am 
promising an almost incredible thing, [Direct: polliceor.] 

nOn arbitror tS ita sentire (Fam. x. 26. 2), I do 7wt suppose that you feel 
thus. [Direct: senlis.] 

spSrO m8 liberfttum [esse] de metti (Tusc. ii. 67), / trust I have been freed 
from fear, [Direct: liberatus sum.] 

1 Such are : (1) knowing ^ scio, cognosco, compertum habeo, etc. ; (2) (kinkinfj, pato. 
ezistimd, arbitror, etc. ; (3) fellirigf dico, nuntio, refers, polliceor, promittd, certiorem faciii. 
etc. ; <4) perceiving, senti5, comperiS, videS, audid, etc. So in general any word Ihat 
denotes thought or mental and visual perception or their expression may govern the 
Indirect Discourse. 


[dicit] esse non nullos quOrum auctOritds plUrimom valeat (B. G. i. 17), he 
says there are some^ whose ivfiuence most prevails, [Direct : sunt ndn 
null! . . . valet.] 

niai iur&sset, scelus s5 factfimm [esse] arbitr&b&tur (Verr. ii. 1. 123), he 
\ thoughi he should incur guilty unless he should take the oath. [Direct : 
^si iOrftvezo, faciam.] 

ce. The verb of saying etc. is often not expressed, but implied in 
some word or in the general drift of the sentence : — 

c5nsulis aiterias nOmen iuvlsam clyit9rti luit: nimiam TarquiniSs rSgDO 
adsuessis; initium ft FrisCO factum; rSgnAsse dein Ser. Tullium, etc. 
(Liv. ii. 2), the name of the other consul was hateful to the state; the Tar- 
quins (tbe^ thought) had become too much accustomed to royal power ^ etc. 
[Here invistim implies a thought, and this thought is added in the 
form of Indirect Discourse.] ^ . 

Grantes ut urbibus saltem — iam enitn agrSs Ilepl9rftt5s esse — opem senfttus 
ferret (id. xli. 6), praying that the senate would a< least bring aid to the 
cities — for thefietda [they i9aid] were already given up as lost. 

b» The verb negO, deny, is commonly used in preference to dltH with 
a negative : — 

[StOici] negant quidquam [^sse] bonum nisi quod honestum sit (Fin. ii. 68), 
the Stoics assert that nothing is good but whqt is right. 

c. Verbs oi promising, hoping, expecting, threatening, swearing, 
) and the like, regularly take the construction of Indirect Discourse, 
contrary to the English idiom : — 

'^ min3.tur sesS abire (PI. Asin. 604), he threatens to go away. [Direct : abed, 

I am going away.] 
'^ spSrant se maximum fructum esse captilros (Lael. 79), they hope to gain the 

utmost advantage. [Direct: capiemas.] 
spSrat se absolutum iri (Sull. 21), he hopes that he shall be acquitted. [Direct : 

quern inimicissimum futfirum esse prOmittS ac spondeO (Mur. 90), who I 

promise and warrant will be the bitterest of enemies. [Direct: erit.] 
dolor fortitiidinem sS dSbilitatfirum minatur (Tusc. v. 76), pain threatens to 

wear down fortitude. [Direct: debilit£bd.] 
c6iifid6 me quod velim facile a t6 impetratfimm (Fam. xi. 16. 1), I trust I 

shall easily obtain from you what I wish. [Direct: quod volo, impe- 


Note.— These verbs, however, often take a simple Complementary Infinitive (§ 466). 
So regularly in early Latin (except spero): — i 

pollicentur obsides dare (B. G. iv. 21), they promise to give hostages, 
prOmiai dolium vini dare (PI. Cist. 542), I promised to give ajar of wine. 

1 Compare the Greek aorist infinitive after similar verbs. 


<!• Some verbs and expressions may be used either as verbs of 
saying, or as verbs of commanding, effecting, and the like. These 
take as theii- object either an Infinitive with subject accusative or a 
Substantive clause of Purpose or Besult^ according to the sense. 

1 . Infinitive with Subject Accusative (Indirect Discourse) : — 

laadem sapientiae statuO esse mazimam (Fam. v. 13), I hold that the glory of 
wisdom is the greatest, [Indirect Discourse.] 

rfis ipsa monebat tempus esse (Att. x. 8. 1), the thing itseif warned thai it 
was time. [Cf. monSre at, warn to do something,] 

fac mihi esse persu&sum (N. D. i. 75), suppose that I am persuaded of that. 
[Cf. facere at, bring it about tJiat,] 

hoc volunt persuftd^re, non inteiiie aiiimis (B. G. vi. 14), they wish to con- 
vince that sotds do not perish. 

2. Subjunctive (Substantive Clause of Purpose or Result): — I 

statuunt ut decern milia liominum mittantor (B. G. vii. 21), t?iey resolve thai 

10,000 men shaU he sent. [Purpose clause (cf. § 663).] 
huic persuadet uti ad hostis transeat (id. iii. 18), he persuades him to pa^ 

over to the enemy. 
Pompeius suis praedixerat ut Caesaris impetum exciperent (B. C. iii. 92), 

Pompey had instructed his men beforehand to await Ccesar^s attack. 
deiitlnti3,vit ut essent anim5 par&tl (id. iii. 86), h^ bade them be alert and 

steadfast (ready in spirit). 

NoTB. — The infinitive with subject accusative in this construction is Indirect Dis- 
course, and is to be distinguished from the simple infinitive sometimes found with these 
verbs instead of a subjunctive clause (§ 563. d). 

581. The Subject Accusative of the Infinitive is regularly ex- 
pressed in Indirect Discourse, even if it is wanting in the direct: 

Or&tor sum, I am an orator ; dicit se esse OrfttGrem, he says he is an orator. 

Note 1. — But the subject is often omitted if easily understood: — 
ienSscere imprudentiae dixit (B. G. iv. 27), Ac said fie pardoned their rashness. 
eadem ab aliis quaerit : reperit esse vera (id. i. 18), ?ie inquires cibout these satne 
things from others; he finds that they are true. 
NoTB 2. — After a relative, or quam {than) , if the verb would be the same as that of 
the main clause, it is usually omitted, and its subject is attracted into the accusative : — 
te suspicor eisdem rebus quibus mS ipsum commoveri (Cat. M. 1), J suspect that 

you are disturbed by the same things as I. ^ 

confido tamen haec quoque tibi non minus grata quam Ipsos librSs fntura (Pllu. 
Ep. iii. 5. 20), / trust that these facts too will be no less pleasing to you than 
the books themselves. 
Note 3. — In poetry, by a Greek idiom, a Predicate Noun or Adjective in the indi- 
rect discourse sometimes agrees with the subject of the main verb: — 

vir bonus et sapiens ait esse paratus (Hor. Ep. i. 7. 22), a good and wise man says 

he is prepared, etc. [In prose : ait bB esse par&tum.] 
sensit medios deUpsus in hostis (Aen. ii. 377), he found himself fallen among the 
foe. [In prose : sS esse dSlapsum.] 

§§ &82, 683] INDIRECT DISCOURSE 377 

582. When the verb of saying etc. is passive^ the construction 
may be either Personal or Impersonal. But the Personal con- 
st>i*uction is more common and is regularly used in the tenses of 
incomplete action : — 

be&te yizis8e Tideor (Lael. 15), I seem to haw Zioed JiappUy. 

£paminODda8 fidibus praecl&rd oecinisse ^dtar (Tusc. i. 4), Epaminondds is 

said to have played excellently on the lyre. 
mult! idem facturl esse dicontur (Fam. xvi. 12. 4), many are said to be dboiU 

to do the same thing, [Active : dicant multos facturos (esse).] 
priml tradiintur arte quSdam verba vinxisse (Or. 40), they first are related to 

have joined words wUh a certain skill. 
Bibulus aodKbator esse in Syri& (Att. v. 18), it was heard that Bibulus was in 

^yria (Bibulus was heard, etc.). [Direct: Bibulus est.] 
c€terae niyrici legiSn^s secuttirae spSrabantur (Tac. H. ii. 74), the rest of the 

legions of Illyricum were expected to follow. 
yidemur enim qui^tUrl fuisse, nisi ess^mus lacesslti (De Or. ii. 230), it seems 

that we tiuyM have kept quiet, if we had not been molested (we seem, etc.). 

[Direct: quiSssemus . . . nisi essSmus lacesslti.] 

Note. — The poets and later writers extend the personal use of the passive to verbs 
Tvhich are not properly verba sentiendi etc. : as, — colligor dominae placuisse (Ov. Am. 
ii. 6. 61), it is gathered [from this memorial] that I pleased my mistress. 

a* In the compound tenses of verbs of saying etc., the impersonal 
construction is more common, and with the gerundive is regular ; — 

tridltam est etiam Hom6mm caecum fuisse (Tusc. v. 114), it is a tradition, 
too, t^ixit Homer was blind. 

ubi tyrannus est, ibi nOn vitiOsam, sed dicendum est pl&n€ ntillam esse rem 
pUblicam (Rep. iii. 43), where there is a tyrant, it must be said, not that 
the commonwealth is evU, but that it does not exist at all. 

Note . — An indirect narrative begun in the personal construction may be continued 
with the Infinitive and Accusative (as De Or. ii. 299; Liv. v. 41. 9). 

Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse 

583. A Subordinate Clause merely explanatory, or containing 
^ statements which are regarded as true independently of the quo- 
tation, takes the Indicative: — 

quis neget haec omnia quae videmas de5mm potestate administrarl (Cat. iii. 

21), who can deny that all these things we see are ruled by the power of 

the gods f 
c^us ingenio putabat ea quae gesserat posse celebrari (Arch. 20), by whose 

genius he thought that those deeds which he had done could be celebrated. 

[Here the fact expressed by quae gesserat, though not explanatory, is 

felt to be true without regard to the quotation : quae gessisset would 

mean, what Marius claimed to have done.] 


Note. — Snch a clause in the indicative is not regarded as a part of tlie Indirect 
Discourse ; but it often depends merely upon the feeling of the writer whetlier he shal 
use the Indicative or the Subjunctive (cf. §§ 591-^93). 

a. A subordinate clause in Indirect Discourse occasionally takes 

the Indicative when the fact is emphasized ; — 

factum 6ias hostis perlculum . . . cum, Cimbris et Teutonis . . . pulsis, noQ 
minOrem laudem exercitus quam ipse imi>er3,tor meritus videbator (6. G. 
i. 40), thai, a trial of this enemy had been made when^ on the d^eat of the 
Cimhri and Teutonic the army seemed to have deserved no less credit than 
the commander himself. 

6, Clauses introduced by a relative which is equivalent to a 
demonstrative with a conjunction are not properly subordinate, and 
hence take the Accusative and Infinitive in Indirect Discourse (see 
§308./): — 

M^j'cellus requisisse dicitur Archim€dem illam, quern cum audisset inter- 
f actum permolestS tulisse (Verr. iv. 131), Marcdlus is said to have sougU 
for Archimedes^ and when he heard that he was slain, to have been greatly 
distressed, [quern = et eum.] 
cSusent linum quemque nostrum mundl esse partem, ex quo [= et ex eo] 
illud n3,tur& consequi (Fin. iii. 64), they say that each one of us is a part 
of the universe, from which this naturaUy follows. 

Note. — Really subordinate clauses occasionally take the accusative and infinitive: 
as, — quern ad modum si n5n dedatur obses pr5 rupto foedus sS habitunim, mc deditam 
inviolatam ad suOs remissurum (Liv. ii. 13), [he says] as in case the hostage is not 
given up he shall consider the treaty as broken, so if given up he will return her 
unharmed to her friends. 

c. The infinitive construction is regularly continued after a com- 
parative with quam : — 

addit s6 priuB occlsum Irl ab e5 quam me violatum in (Att. ii. 20. 2), he adds 
that he himself will be killed by him, before I shaU be injured. 

nOnne adflrmarVi quidvis m& potius perpessurum quam ex Italia exitoruin 
(Fam. ii. 16. 3), did I not assert that I would endure anything rather ^ 
than leave Italy f 

Note. — The subjunctive with or without ut also occurs with quam (see §635. c). 

Tenses of the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse * 

584. The Present, the Perfect, or the Future Infinitive^ is used 
in Indirect Discourse, according as the time indicated is present, 
past^ OT future with reference to the verb of saying etc. by which 
the Indirect Discourse is introduced : — 

^ For various ways of expressing the Future Infinitive^ see § 164. 3. c. 


cad5, lam falling. 
dicit sd cadere, he says he iafaUing. 
dixit sS cadere, hs said he was falling. 

cadSbam, ItoasfaUing; ced^ IfcU, have fallen; 
ceddeiam, I had fallen, 
dIcit 88 ceddisse, he says he was falling, fell, has fallen, had fallen. 
dixit sh cecidisse, he said he fell, had fallen, 

cadam, I shaU fall. 
dIcit sS cisflnim [esse], he says he sfiall fall. 
dixit sg casfirom [esse], h£ said he should fall. 

cedderd, I shall Tiave fallen, 
dicit fore ut ceddezit [rare], he says he shall have fallen. 
dixit fore at ceddiaset [rare], he said he should have fallen. 

} «• All varieties of past time are usually expressed in Indirect 
Discourse by the Perfect Infinitive, which may stand for the Imper- 
fect, the Perfect, or the Pluperfect Indicative of the Direct. 

Note. — Continued or repeated action in past time is sometimes expressed by the 
Present Infinitive, which in such cases stands for the Imperfect Indicative of the Direct 
Discourse and is often called the Imperfect Infinitive. 

This is the regular construction after memini when referring to a matter of actual 
experience or observation: as, — te memini haec dicere, I rememher your saying this 
(that you said this) . [Direct : dixist! or dicSbfts.] 

&• The present infinitive posse often has a future sense : — 

totlus Gralliae s&sfi potlrl posse spGrant (B. G. i. 3), they hape that they shaU 
be able to get possession of all Gaul, 

' Tenses of the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse 

585. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse fol- 
low the rule for the Sequence of Tenses (§ 482). They depend for 
their sequence on the verb of saying etc. by which the Indirect 
, Discourse is introduced. 

Thus in the sentence, dixit sS R5mam itfirum ut cSnsulem videret, he said he 
^ should go to Rome in order that he might see the consul, videret follows the sequence 
of dixit without regard to the Future Infinitive, itumm [esse], on which it directly 
^ depends. ^ 

Note.— This rule applies to the subjunctive in subordinate clauses, to that which 
stands for the imperative etc. (see examples, § 588), and to that in questions (§ 586). 

a. A subjunctive depending on a Perfect Infinitive is often in the 
Imperfect or Pluperfect, even if the verb of saying etc. is in a pri- 
mary tense (cf. § 485. ,/); so regularly when these tenses would have 
been used in Direct Discourse : — 


Tarquinium dizisse ferunt turn exsulantem b6 inteUezisse qiiOs fid5s amicos 
habiiisset (Lael. 63), Viey teU us that Tairquin said that then in his exile 
he had found out what faiJthful friends he had had. [Here the main verb 
of saying, f enmt, is primary^ but the time is carried back by dizisse and 
intellezisBe, and the sequence then becomes secondary.] 

tantum piSfedtM iddSmtir ut ft Graecis n6 yerbOrum quidem copia vinceremoi 
(N. D. i. 8), we seent to have advanced so far that even in abundance of 
words we are not surpassed by the Greeks. 

NoTB 1. — The proper sequence may be seen, in each case, by turning the Perfect 
Infinitiye into that tense of the Indicative which it represents. Thus, if it stands for 
an imperfect or an historical perfect, the sequence will be secondary ; if it stands for 
a perfect d^nite, the sequence may be either primary or secondary (§ 485. a) . 

Note 2. — The 8o<<»lled imperfect infinitive after memini (§584. a. n.) takes the 
secondary sequence: as, — ad me adire quOsdam memini, qui dioerent (Fam. iii. 10. 6), 1 
remember that some persons visited me, to tell ms, etc. 

h. The Present and Perfect Subjunctive are often used in depend- 
ent clauses of the Indirect Discourse even when the verb of saying 
etc. is in a secondary tense : — 

dicebant . . . totidem NerviOs (pollic6r!) qui longissime absint (B. G. ii. 4), 
they said that the Nervii, who live farthest off, promised as many. 

NoTB. — This construction comes from the tendency of language to refer aU time 
in narration to the time of the speaker (repraesentatio) . In the course of a long x)a»- 
sage in the Indirect Discourse the tenses of the subjunctive often vary, sometimes fol- 
lowing the sequence, and sometimes affected by repraesentatio. Examples may be 
seen in B. G. i. 13, vii. 20, etc. 

Certain constructions are never affected by repraesentatio. Such are the Imperfect 
and Pluperfect Subjunctive with cum temporal, antequam, and priusquam. 

Questions in Indirect Discourse 

586. A Question in Indirect Discourse may be either in the 
Subjunctive or in the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. 

A real question, asking for an answer, is generally put in the ■ 
Subjunctive ; a rhetorical question, asked for effect and implying 
its own answer, is put in the Infinitive : — 

quid sibi vellet ? ciir in suas possessiongs veniret (B. G. i. 44), what did he 
want f why did he come into his territories f [Real question. Direct : 
quid vis ? cfir venis ?] 

num recentium iniflriSrum memoriam [sg] dfiponere posse (id. 1. 14), could 
he lay aside the memory of recent wrongs? [Rhetorical Question. 
Direct : num possum ?] 

quem signum daturum f ugientibus ? quem ausflrum Alexandre succSdere (Q. C. 
iii. 6. 7), who will give the signal on the retreat f who will dare succeed 
Alexander f [Rhetorical. Direct : quia dabit . . . aud«bit.] 


Note 1. — No sharp line can be drawn between the Subjunctive and the Infinitive 
In questions in the Indirect Discourse. Whether the question is to be regarded as 
T'fietorical or real often depends merely on the writer's point of view : — 

utnim partem regni petitunun esse, an totum Creptliram (Liv. zlv. 19. 15), wUl you 

ask part of the regal power (he said) , or seize the whole f 
quid tandem praetori faciendum fulsse (id. zzxi. 48), what, pray ^ ought aprmtor to 

have done f 
quid repente factum [esse] cur, etc. (id. zxxiy. 54), what had suddenly happenedy 
that, etc. ? 
Note 2. — Questions coming immediately after a verb of asking are treated as Indi- 
lect Questions and take the Subjunctive (see § 674). This is true even when the verb 
of asking serves also to introduce a passage in the Indirect Discourse. The question 
may be either real or rhetorical. See quaesivit, etc. (Liv. xzxvii. 15). 
For the use of tenses, see § 585. 

587. A Deliberative Subjunctive (§ 444) in the Direct Dis- 
course is always retained in the Indirect : — 

cur aliquOs ex suls &mitteret (B. C. i. 72), why (thought he) sho^idd he lose 
some of his men f [Direct : cur &mittam ?] 

CommandB in Indirect Discourse 

588. All Imperative forms of speech take the Subjunctive in 
Indirect Discourse : — 

reminisceretur veteris incommodi (B. G. i. 13), remember (said he) the ancient 

disaster, [Direct: reminiscere.] 
finem faciat (id. 1. 20), let him make an end, [Direct : fac] 
ferrent opem, adiavarent (Liv. ii. 6), let them bring aid, let them help. 

a. This rule applies not only to the Imperative of the direct dis- 
course, but to the Hortatory and the Optative Subjunctive as well. 

Note 1. — Though these suhjunctives stand for independent clauses of the direct 
discourse, they follow the rule for the sequence of tenses, heing in fact dependent on 
the verh of saying etc. (cf. §§ 483, 685). 

Note 2. — A Prohihition in the Indirect Discourse is regularly expressed by n8 with 
the present or imperfect subjunctive, even when noli with the infinitive would be used 
in the Direct: as, — ng perturbirentur (B. G. vii. 29), do not (he said) he troubled, 
[Direct : nolite perturbari. But sometimes noUet is found in Indirect Discourse.] 

Conditions in Indirect Discourse 

589. Conditional sentences in Indirect Discourse are expressed 

as follows : — 

1. The Protasis, being a subordinate clause^ is always in the 


2. The Apodosis, if independent and not hortatory or optative, 
is always in some form of the Infinitive. 


a. The Present Subjunctive in the apodosis of less vivid futture 
conditions (§ 516. b) becomes the Future Infinitive like the Futuie 
Indicative in the apodosis of more vivid future conditions. 

Thus there is no distinction between more and less vivid future 
conditions in the Indirect Discourse. 

Examples of Conditional Sentences in Indirect Discourse axe — 

1. Simple Present Condition (§515): — 

(dixit) ffl ipse populO K6m&n0 non praescxiberet quern ad modum suO iure 
uteretur, nOn oportere s6se & populO ROmanO in suO iure impedln (B. 6. 
i. 86), he said that if he did not dictate to the Roman people how Uiey 
should use their rights^ he ought not to he iiderfered with by the Roman 
people in the exercise of his rights. [Direct : si non praescnbo . . . non 

praedic&yit ... si pace Htl velint, iniqaum esse, etc. (id. i. 44), he asserted 
that if they wished to enjoy peace, it was unfair, etc. [Direct : si yolunt 
. . . est. Present tense kept by repraese^iiatio (§ 686. b. n.).] 

2. Simple Past Condition (§ 515): — 

nOn dicam ne illud quidem, si maxima in culpsl fuerit ApoUCnius, tamen in 
hominem honestissimae clvitsltis honestissimum tam graviter animad- 
vert!, causa indicta, nOn oportuisse (Verr. v. 20), I wiU not say this 
either, that, even if ApoUonius was very greatly in fault, stiU an honorable 
man from an honorable state ought not to have been punished so severely 
without having his case heard. [Direct : si fait . . . n5n oportoit.] 

3. Future Conditions (§ 516) : — 

(dixit) quod si praeterea nem5 sequatur, tamen sS cum 86la decima legiOne 
iturum (B. 6. i. 40), but if nobody else shmdd follow, still he would go 
with the tenth legion atone. [Direct : si sequetar . . . ibo. Present tense 
by repraesentdtid (§ 686. b. n.).] 

Haeduls sS obsid^s reddittlrum ndn esse, neque els . . . bellum ilUtunun, si 
in eO manerent, quod conygnisset, stipendiumque quotannis pendeient : 
si id n5n fecissent, longS eis fratemum n5men populi ROmanI Afutu- 
rum (id. i. 86), he said that he would not give up the hostages to the 
Haedui, but would not make war upon them if they observed the agreement 
which had been made, and paid tribute yearly ; but that, if they should 
-) not do this, the name of brothers to the Roman people would be far from 

aiding them. [Direct : reddam . . . inleram ... si manebunt . . . pen- 
dent: SI ndn fecerint . . . aberit.] 

id DatamSs ut audivit, sSnsit, si in turbam exisset ab bomine tam necessa- 
ri5 se relictum, futurum [esse] ut cSteri consilium sequantur (Nep. Dat. 
6), when Datames heard this, he saw that, if it shmild get abroad that he 
had been abandoned by a man so closely connected witJi hi7n, everybody 
else would follow his example. [Direct: si exierit . . . seqnentor.] 


(pat&ySrunt) nisi mS civitate ezpolissent, obtinSre sS n5n posse licentiam 
cupidit&tum suarum (Att. x. 4), they thought thai unless they drove me 
out of the state, they covM not have free play for their desires. [Direct : 
nisi (Cicerdnem) expulerimas, obtinSre n5n potezimus.] 

b» In changing a Condition contrary to fact (§ 617) into the Indi- 
rect Discourse, the following points require notice : — 

1. The Protasis always remains unchanged in tense. 

2. The Apodosis, if active, takes a peculiar infinitive form, made by com- 
hiining the Participle in -lims with fuisse. 

3. If the verb of the Apodosis is passive or has no supine stem, the pe- 
riphrasis fntiinun fuisse ut (with the Imperfect Subjunctive) must be used, 

4. An Indicative in the Apodosis becomes a Perfect Infinitive. 
Examples are : — 

nee 86 sni>erstitem Miae lutnram fuisse, nisi spem ulclscendae mortis @ius 
in auxili5 commilit5num habuisset (Liv. iti. 50. 7), and that he should 
not now be a survivor, etc., unless he had had hope, etc. [Direct: non 
superstes essem, nisi habuissem.] 

illud Asia c5gitet, niUlam & sS neque belli extern! neque discordi&rum do- 
mesticSrum calamitatem afutfiram fuisse, si hoc imperi5 nOn teneretur 
(Q. Fr. i. 1. 34), let Asia (personified) think of this, that no disaster, etc., 
w(yuJld not be hers, if she were not held by this government, [Direct : 
abesset, si non tenSrer.] 

quid immlciti9>rum crSditis [me] excepturum fuisse, si Insontis lacessissem 
(Q. C. vi. 10. 18), what enmities do you think I ^ould have incurred, if 
I had wardordy assailed the innocent f [excepissem ... si lacessissem.] 

invltum s6 dicere, nee dictfimm fuisse, ni c3,ritds re! ptiblicae vinceret (Liv. 
ii. 2), that he spoke unwillingly and should not have spoken, did not love 
for the state prevail. [Direct: nee dixissem . . . ni vinceret.] 

nisi eO tempore quidam nunti! de Caesaris victoria . . . essent allili, exist!- 
m&bant plSrique futnrum fuisse uti [oppidum] amitteretur (B. C. iii. 101), 
most people thought that unless at that time reports of Coesar^s victory 
had been brought, the town would have been lost. [Direct : nisi essent 
aU&ti . . . ftmissum esset.] 

quCinim si aetas potnisset esse longinquior, f uturum fuisse ut omnibus per- 
fects artibus hominum vita erudiretnr (Tusc. iii. 69), if life could Have 
been longer, human existence would have been embellished by every art in 
its perfection. [Direct: si potuisset . . . erudlta esset.] 

at plerlque eidstimant, si Ocrius InsequI voluisset, bellum e5 di€ potuisse 
finire (B. C. iii. 61), but most people think that, if he had chosen to follow 
up the pursuit more vigorously, he could have ended the war on that day. 
[Direct: si voluisset . . . potuit.] 

Caesar respondit . . . slalicillusiniuriae sibi conscius fuisset, non fuisse dif- 
ficile cav6re (B. G. i. 14), Coesar replied that if [the Roman people] had 
been aware of any vrrong act, it would not have been hard for them to take 
precautions. [Direct: si fuisset, n3n difficile fuit (§ 517. c).] 



[§§ 589^91 

Note 1. — In Indirect Disooorse Present €onditions contrary- to fact are not dis- 
tinguished in the apodosis from Past Conditions contrary to fact, but the protasis may 
keep them distinct. 

Note 2. — The i)eriphra8is fatunun fuisse at is sometimes used from choice when 
there is no necessity for resorting to it, but not in CaBsar or Cicero. 

Note 3. — Very rarely the Future Infinitive is used in the Indirect Discourse to ex- 
press the Apodosis of a Present Condition contrary to fact. Only four or five examples 
of this use occur in classic authors : as, — Titurius clamabat si Caesar adesset neque 
Carnutes, etc., neque EburOnes tanta cum contemptiOne nostra ad castra yentnros esse 
(B. G. V. 29), Titurius cried out that if Cassar were present, neither would the Car- 
nviesj etc., 7U)r would the Eburones be coming to our camp with such contempt. 
[Direct : si adesset . . . venirent.] 

590. The following example illustrates some of the foregoing 
principles in a connected address : — 


Si pd>cein populus ROmftnus cum 
HelvStils faoeret, in eam partem itfirds 
atque ibi futords HelvetiSs, ubi eOs 
Caesar constituisset atque esse voluis- 
set: Bin bell5 persequi persevSraret, 
remim8cer§tur et veteris incommodi 
populi ROmSLnl, et pristinae virtutis 
HelvetiOrum. Quod imprOvisO unum 
pagum adortus esset, cum el qi^ flUmen 
tr&nslssent sals auxilium f erre n5n pos- 
sent, n6 ob eam rem aut suae mSgrt6 
opere virtStl tribueret, aut ipsSs despi- 
ceret: se ita S, patribus mSiOribusque 
suis didicisse, ut magis virttlte quam 
dolO contenderent, aut Insidils niteren- 
tur. QuS, re ne committeret, ut is locus 
ubi constitissent ex calamitSLte populi 
R5m&nl et intemeciCne exercitfls n(V> 
men caperet, aut memoriam proderet. 
— B. G. i. 13. 


SI pdrCem populus ROmSnus cum 
Helv€tils faciei, in eam partem ibunt 
atque ibi erunt Helvetil, ubi eds tu 
cSnstitueris atque esse volueiis: sin 
bell5 persequi persever&bis, reminiscere 
[inquit] et veteris incommodi populi 
R5mSlnI, et pristinae virtutis Helve- 
tiOrum. Quod imprOvIsO Snum pagum 
adortus es, cum el qui fltlmen trfinsie- 
rant suls auxilium ferre n5n possent, ne 
ob eam rem aut tuae m3.gnO opere vir- 
ttltl tribueris, aut n5s despexeiis: nos 
ita 5, patribus md,iOribusque nostiis didi- 
dmnsi ut magis yirtflte quam dolO con- 
tendamus, aut Insidils nitftmur. Qua re 
noli committere, ut hie locus ubi consti- 
timus ex calamitftte populi R5mani et 
intemeciOne exercitus nOmen capiat, 
aut memoriam pr5dat. 

Intermediate Clauses 

591. A Subordinate clause takes the Subjunctive — 

1. When it expresses the thought of some other person than the 
speaker or writer (^Informal Indirect Discourse), or 

2. When it is an integral part of a Subjunctive clause or equiva- 
lent Infinitive (Attraction).^ 

1 See note on Indirect Discourse (§ 577). 


Informal Indirect Discourse 

592. A Subordinate Clause takes the Subjunctive when it 
expresses the thought of some other person than the writer or 
speaker : — 

1. When the clause depends upon another containing a wish, a 
command, or a question, expressed indirectly^ though not strictly in 
tiie form of Indirect Discourse : — 

animal sen tit quid sit quod deceat (Off. i. 14), an animal feds what it is thaJt 

huic imperat quSs possit adeat clvit^ltSs (B. G. iv. 21), ?ie orders him to visit 
u>?uU states he can. 

himc sibi ex animO scrupulum, qui s€ digs noctlsque stimulat ac pungit, ut 
evellatis postulat (Rose. Am. 6), he begs you to pluck from his heart this 
doubt that goads and stings him day and night. [Here the relative 
clause is not a part of the Purpose expressed lq SyelUtis, but is an 
assertion made by the subject of postolat.] 

2. When the main clause of a quotation is merged in the verb of 
saying, or some modifier of it : — 

si quid de his rebus dicere vellet, fSci potest&tem (Cat. iii. 11), if fie wished 
to say anything about these matters,' I gave him a chance. 

tulit d@ caede quae in AppiS. vi^ fkcta esset (Mil. 15), he passed a law con- 
cerning the murder which (in the language of the bill) took place in the 
Appian Way. 

nisi restittussent statuSs, yehementer minatur (Verr. ii. 162), he threatens them 
violently urUess they sh^ould restore the statues. [Here the main clause, 
"that he will inflict punishment,'* is contained in minitur.] 

iis auxilium suum pollicltus si ab SuSbis premerentur (B. G. iv. 19), he 
promised them his aid if they shmUd be molested by the Suevi. [= polli- 
cittts sS auxilium litflrum, etc.] 

prohibitiO tollendi, nisi pactus esset, vim adhibebat pactiOnI (Verr. iii. 87), 
tAe forbidding to take away unless he came to terms gave force to the 

3. When a reason or an explanatory fa^t is introduced by a rela- 
tive or by quod (rarely quia) (see § 540) : — 

Paetus omnis libros quos fr3,ter suus reliquisset mihi dGnavit (Att. ii. 1. 12), 
PoBtus presented to me all the books which (be said) his brother had left. 

Note. —Under this head even what the speaker himself thought under other cir- 
cumstances may have the Sub j unctiye. So also with quod eyen the yerb of saying may 
be iu the Subjunctiye (§ 540. n.^). Here belong also n5n quia, non quod, introducing a 
reason e^resdy to deny it. (See § 540. n. «.) 


Subjunctive of Integral Part (Attraction) 

593. A clause depending upon a Subjunctive clause or an 
equivalent Infinitive will itself take the Subjunctive if regarded 
as an integral part of that clause : — ^ 

imperat, dum r^s iiidicStur, hominem adservent : cum iudic&ta sit, ad 8€ ut 
adducant (Verr. iii. 56), Jie orders them^ till the affair shoiUd be decided^ 
to keep the man; when it isjudged, to bring him to him. 

etenim quis tarn dissolutO animO est, qui haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere 
poasit (Rose. Am. 32), for who is no reckless of spirit that, w?ien he sees 
these things, he can keep silent and pass them by f 

mOs est Athenis laudftri in cOntiOne eOs qui sint in proeliis interfecti (Or. 
151), it is the custom at Athens for those to be publicly eulogized who 
have been slain in battle. [Here laudixi is equivalent to ut laudentai.] 

a. But a dependent clause may be closely connected grammatically 
with a Subjunctive or Infinitive clause, and still take the Indicative, 
if it is not regarded as a necessary logical part of that clause : — 

quOdam mod 5 postulat ut, quem ad modum est, sic etiam appeUetur, tyrannus 
(Att. z. 4. 2), in a manner he demands that as he is, so he may be called, 
a tyrant. 

n&ttlra fert ut els fave&mus qu! eadem pencula quibus n0s perfancti sumus 
ingrediuntur (Mur. 4), nature prompts us to feel friendly towards those 
who are entering on the same dangers which we have passed through. 

n6 hostSs, quod tantum multitMine potexant, suOs circumvenire possent 
(B. G. ii. 8), lest the enemy, because they were so strong in numbers, shcnM 
be able to surround his men. 

si mea in t3 essent officia solum tanta quanta magis & t6 ipso praedic&i 
quam S. m6 ponderS,rI solent, verecundius & t6 . . . peterem (Fam. ii. 6), 
if my good services to you were only so great as they are wont rather to 
be called by you than to be estimated by me, I should, etc. 

NoTB 1. — The use of the Indicative in such clauses sometimes serves to emphasize \ 
thQ fact, as true independently of the statement contained in the subjunctive or infini- 
tive clause. But in many cases no such distinction is perceptible. * 

Note 2. — It is often difficult to distinguish between Informal Indirect Discourse 
and the Integral Part. Thus in imper&vit at ea flerent quae opus essent, essent may 
stand for sunt, and then will be Indirect Discourse, being a part of the thought, but 
not a part of the order ; or it may stand for enmt, and then will be Integral Part, being 
a part of the order itself. The difficulty of making the distinction in such cases is 
evidence of the close relationship between these two constructions. 

1 The subjunctive in this use is of the same nature as the subjunctive in the main 
clause. A dependent clause in a clause of purpose is really a part of the purpose, as 
is seen from the use of should and other auxiliaries in English. In a result clause this 
is less clear, but the result construction is a branch of the characteristic (§ 53^), to 
which category the dependent clause in this case evidently belongs when it takes the 



1. A noun used to describe another, and denoting the same person or 

thing, agrees with it in Case (§ 282). 

2. Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Participles agree with their 

nouns in Gender, Number, and Case (§ 286). 

3. Superlatives (more rarely Comparatives) denoting order and succes- 

sion — also medius, (ceterus), reliquus — usually designate not tohat 
inject, but what part of it, is meant (§ 293). 

4. The Personal Pronouns have two forms for the genitive plural, that 

in -um being used partitively, and that in -i oftenest objectively 
(§ 295. h), 

5. The Reflexive Pronoun (se), and usually the corresponding possessive 

(suus), are used in the predicate to refer to the subject of the sen- 
tence or clause (§ 299). 

6. To express Possession and similar ideas the Possessive Pronouns 

must be used, not the genitive of the personal or reflexive pro- 
nouns (§ 302. a). 

7. A Possessive Pronoun or an Adjective implying possession may take 

an appositive in the genitive case agreeing in gender, number, and 
case with an implied noun or pronoun (§ 302. e). 

8. A Relative Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in Grender and Num- 

ber, but its Case depends on its construction in the clause in 
which it stands (§ 305). 

9. A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Person (§ 316). 

10. Adverbs are used to modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs 

(§ 321). 

11. A Question of simple fact, requiring the answer yes or no, is formed 

by adding the enclitic -ne to the emphatic word (§ 332). 

12. When the enclitic -ne is added to a negative word, — as in nSnne, — 

an affirmative answer is expected. The particle num suggests a 
negative answer (§ 332. b), 

13. The Subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative (§ 339). 

14. The Vocative is the case of direct address (§ 340). 

15. A noun used to limit or define another, and not meaning the same 

person or thing, is put in the Genitive (§ 342). 

16. The Possessive (xenitive denotes the person or thing to which an 

object, quality, feeling, or action belongs (§ 343). 


17. The genitive may denote the Substance or Material of whlcli j 

thing consists (§ 344). 

18. The genitive is used to denote Quality, but only when the quality i 

modified by an adjective (§ 345). 

19. Words denoting a part are followed by the Genitive of the whole t( 

which the part belongs {Partitive Genitive, § 346). 

20. Nouns of action, agency, and /ceZtn^ govern the Genitive of the objeci 

(Objective Genitive, § 348). 

21. Adjectives denoting desire, knowledge, memory, fulness, power, sharing 

guilt, and their opposites ; participles in -ns when used as adjectives 
and verbals in -ax, govern the Genitive (§ 349. a, b, c). 

22. Verbs of remembering and forgetting take either the Accusative oi 

the Genitive of the object (§ 350). 

23. Verbs of reminding take with the Accusative of the person a Genitive 

of the thing (§ 351). 

24. Verbs of accusing, condemning, and acquitting take the Grenitive of 

the charge or penalty (§ 352). 

25. The Dative is used of the object indirectly affected by an action 

(Indirect Object, § 361). 

26. Many verbs signifying to favor, help, please, trust, and their contraries ; 

also, to believe, persuade, command, obey, serve, resist, envy, threaten, 
pardon, and spare, take the Dative (§ 367). 

27. Many verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, 

pr5, sub, super, and some with circum, admit the Dative of the 
indirect object (§ 370). 

28. The Dative is used with esse and similar words to denote Possession 

(§ 373). 

29. The Dative of the Agent is used with the Gerundive, to denote the } 

person on whom the necessity rests (§ 374). 

30. The Dative often depends, not on any particular word, but on the j 

general meaning oi the sentence (Dative of Reference, § 376). 

81. Many verbs of taking away and the like take the Dative (especially 
of a person) instead of the Ablative of Separation (§ 381). 

32. The Dative is used to denote the Purpose or End, often with another 

Dative of the person or thing affected (§ 382). 

33. The Dative is used with adjectives (and a few adverbs) of fitness, 

nearness, likeness, service, inclination, and their opposites (§ 384). 


34. The Direct Object of a transitive verb is put in the Accusative 

(§ 387). 

35. An intransitive verb often takes the Accusative of a noun of kindred 

meaning, usually modified by an adjective or in some other man- 
ner (Cognate Accusative^ § 390). 

36. Verbs of naming^ choosing ^ appointing, making, esteeming, showing, and 

the like, may take a Predicate Accusative along with the direct 
object (§ 393). 

37. Transitive verbs compounded with prepositions sometimes take (in 

addition to the direct object) a Secondary Object, originally gov- 
erned by the preposition (§ 394). 

38. Some verbs of asking and teaching may take two Accusatives, one of 

the Person, and the other of the Thing (§ 396). 

39. The subject of an Infinitive is in the Accusative (§ 397. c). 

40. Duration of Time and Extent of Space are expressed by the Accusa- 

tive (§§424. c, 425). 

41. Words signifying separation or privation are followed by the Abla- 

tive (Ablative of Separation, § 400). 

42. The Ablative, usually with a preposition, is used to denote the source 

from which anything is derived or the material of which it consists 
(§ 403). 

43. The Ablative, with or without a preposition, is used to express cause 

(§ 404). 

44. The Voluntary Agent after a passive verb is expressed by the Abla- 

tive with a or ab (§ 405). 

45. The Comparative degree is often followed by the Ablative signifying 

than (§ 406). 

46. The Comparative may be followed by quam, than. When- quam is 

used, the two things compared are put in the same case (§ 407). 

47. The Ablative is used to denote the means or instrument of an action 

(§ 409). 

48. The deponents, utor, fruor, fongor, potior, and yescoiy with several of 

their compounds, govern the Ablative (§ 410). 

49. Opus and usus, signifying need, are followed by the Ablative (§ 411). 

60. The manner of an action is denoted by the Ablative, usually with 
cum unless a limiting adjective i« "Sftd with the noun (§ 412). 


51. Accompaniment is denoted by the Ablative, regtilarly with cub 
(§ 413)- 

52. With Comparatives and words implying comparison the Ablative i 

used to denote the degree of difference (§ 414). 

53. The quality of a thing is denoted by the Ablative with an adjectiYj 

or genitive Modifier (§ 415). 

54. The price of a thing is put in the Ablative (§ 416). 

55. The Ablative of Specification denotes that in respect to which any 

thing w or is done (§ 418). 

56. The adjectives dignus and indignus take the Ablative (§ 418. &). 

57. A noun or pronoun, with a participle in agreement, may be put iij 

the Ablative to define the time or circumstances of an actioi] 
(Ablative Absolute, § 419). 

An adjective, or a second noun, may take the place of the participle in thi 
ablative absolute construction (§419. a). 


58. Time when, or within which, is denoted by the Ablative; time hm 

long by the Accusative (§ 423). 

59. Relations of Place are expressed as follows: — 

1. ThQ place from which, by the Ablative with ab, de, ex. 

2. The place to which (or end of motion), by the Accusative with 

ad or in. 

3. The place where, by the Ablative with in {Locative Ablative). 

(§ 426.) 

60. With names of towns and small islands, and with domus and rus, the 

relations of place are expressed as follows : — 

1. The place from which, by the Ablative without a preposition. ^ 

2. The place to which, by the Accusative without a preposition. 

3. The place where, by the Locative. (§ 427.) 

61. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used in the present tense to express 

an exhortation, a command, or a concession (§§ 439, 440). 

62. The Optative Subjunctive is used to express a wish. The present 

tense denotes the wish as possible, the imperfect as unaccomplished 
in present time, the pluperfect as unaccomplished in past time 
(§ 441). 

63. The Subjunctive is used in questions implying (1) doubt, indignation, 

or (2) an impossibility of the thing's being done {Deliberative Sulr 
j'unctive, § 444). 


64. The Potential Subjunctive is used to suggest an action as possible or 

conceivable (§ 446). 

65 . The Imperative is used in commands and entreaties (§ 448). 

66. Prohibition is regularly expressed in classic prose (1) by n51i with the 

Infinitive, (2) by cave with the Present Subjunctive, (3) by n5 with 
the Perfect Subjunctive (§ 450). 

67. The Infinitive, with or without a subject accusative, may be used 

with est and similar verbs (1) as the Subject, (2) in Apposition with 
the subject, or (3) as a Predicate Nominative (§ 452). 

68. Verbs which imply another action of the same subject to complete their 

meaning take the Infinitive without a subject accusative (^Comple- 
mentary Infinitive, § 456). 

69. The Infinitive, with subject accusative, is used with verbs and other 

expressions of knowing^ thinking, telling, and perceiving (Indirect 
Discourse, see § 459). 

70. The Infinitive is often used for the Imperfect Indicative in narration, 

and takes a subject in the Nominative (Historical Infinitive, § 463). 

71. Sequence of Tenses. In complex sentences, ?k primary tense in 

the main clause is followed by the Present or Perfect Subjunctive 
in the dependent clause ; a secondary tense by the Imperfect or 
Pluperfect (§ 483). 

72. Participles denote time as present, past, or future with respect to the 

time of the verb in their clause (§ 489). 

73. The Gerund and the Gerundive are used, in the oblique cases, in 

many of the constructions of nouns (§§ 501-507). 

74. The Supine in -um is used after verbs of motion to express Purpose 
• (§ 509). 

75. The Supine in -u is used with a few adjectives and with the nouns 

fas, nefas, and opus, to denote Specification (§ 510). 

76. Dum, mode, dummodo, and tantum ut, introducing a Proviso, take 

the Subjunctive (§ 528). 

77. Final clauses take the Subjunctive introduced by ut (uti), negative 

ne (ut ne), or by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb (§ 531). 

78. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive is often used to indicate a 

characteristic of the antecedent, especially where the antecedent is 
otherwise undefined (§ 535). 

79. Dignus, indignus, aptus, and idoneus, take a Subjunctive clause with 

a relative (rarely with ut) (§ 535./). 


80. Claufles of Result take the Subjunctiye introduced by nt, so tU 

(negative, ut n5n), or by a Relative Pronoun or Rel&tiTe Ady^ 
(§ 637). 

81. The Causal Particles quod, quia, and quoniam take tlie Indicati^ 

when the reason is given on the authority of the writer or speaker 
the Subjunctive when the reason is given on the authority i 
another (§ 540). 

82. The particles postqnam (posteaqnam), ubi, ut (nt pnmuin, ut semel) 

simul atque (simul ac, or simul alone) take the Indicative (usuall] 
in the perfect or the historical present) (§ 543). 

83. A Temporal clause with cum, when^ and some past tense of tlie Indict 

tive dates or defines the time at which the action of the main verl) 
occurred (§ 545). 

84. A Temporal clause with cum and the Imperfect or Pluperfect Snh- 

junctive describes the circumstances that accompanied or preceded 
the action of the main verb (§ 546). 

85. Cum Causal or Concessive takes the Subjunctive (§ 540}. 

For other concessive particles, see § 527. 

86. In Indirect Discourse the main clause of a Declaratory Sentence is 

put in the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. Ail subordinai^ 
clauses take the Subjunctive (§ 580). 

87. The Present, the Perfect, or the Future Infinitive is used in Indire<?i 

Discourse, according as the time indicated v& present^ pasty or future 
with reference to the verb of saying etc. by which the Indirect Dis- 
course is introduced (§ 684). 

88. In Indirect Discourse a real question is generally put in the Subjunc- 

tive ; a rhetorical question in the Infinitive (§ 586). 

89. All Imperative forms of speech take the Subjunctive in Indirect ^ 

Discourse (§ 588). 

90. A Subordinate clause takes the Subjunctive when it expresses the 

thought of some other person than the writer or speaker (^Informal 
Indirect Discourse^ § 592). 

91. A clause depending on a Subjunctive clause or an equivalent Infini- 

tive will itself take the Subjunctive if regarded as an integral part 
of that clause (Attraction, § 598). 

For Prepositions and their cases, see §§ 220, 221. 

For Conditional Sentences, see § 512 if. (Scheme in § 514.) 

For ways of expressing Purpose, see § 633. 

i§ 605-607] ORDER OF WORDS 398 


595. Latin dijffers from English in having more freedom in the 
arrangement of words for the purpose of showing the relative 
mportance of the ideas in a sentence. 

596. As in other languages, the Subject tends to stand first, the 
Predicate last. Thus, — 

Patta&niia Lacedaemonius m^Lgnus homO sed yarios in omnX genere vitae fuit 
(Nep. Paus. 1), Pausanias the Lacedcemonian toas a great man^ but in- 
consistent in the whole course of his life. 

Note. — This hapx)ens because, from the speaker's ordinary point of view, the sub- 
ect of his discourse is the most important thing in it, as singled out from all other 
things to be spoken of. 

cr. There is in Latin, however, a special tendency to place the verb itself 
last of all, after all its modifiers. But many writers purposely avoid the 
monotony of this arrangement by putting the verb last but one, followed 
by some single word of the predicate. 

597. In connected discourse the word most prominent in the 
speaker's mind comes first, and so on in order of prominence. 

This relative prominence corresponds to that indicated in Eng- 
lish by a graduated stress of voice (usually called emphasis), 

€t» The difference in emphasis expressed by difference in order of words 
is illustrated in the following passages : — 

apud XenophOntem autem moriens Cyrus m^ior haec dicit (Oat. M. 79), in 
Xenophon toOf on his death-bed Cyrus the elder utters these words. 

Cyrus quidem haec morigns ; nOs, si placet, nostra videamus (id. 82), Cyrus, 
to be sure, tdters these words on his death-bed; let us, if you please, con- 
sider our own case. 

Cyrus quidem apud XenophQntem e6 sermOne, quem morigns habuit (id. 
30), Cyrus, to be sure, in Xenophon, in thai speech which he uttered on 
his death-bed. 

Note. — This stress or emphasis, however, in English does not necessarily show 
any violent contrast to the rest of the words in the sentence, but is infinitely varied, 
constantly increasing and diminishing, and often so subtle as to be unnoticed except 
in careful study. So, as a general rule, the precedence of wordp in a Latin sentence 
is not mechanical, but corresponds to the prominence which a good speaker would 
mark by skilfully managed stress of voice. A Latin written sentence, therefore, has 
all the clearness and expression which could be given to a spoken discourse by the best 
actor in English. Some exceptions to the rule will be treated later. 

The first chapter of Caesar's Gallic War, if rendered so as to bring 
out as far as possible the shades of emphasis, would run thus : — 




GAUL,! in the toidest seriae, is di- 
vided' into three parts,^ which are 
inhabited^ (as follows): one^ by the 
Belgians, another* by the Aqoitani, 
the third by a people called in their 
own'^ language Celts, in ours Gauls. 
Thbsb b in their language,^ institations, 
and laws are all of them ^^ different. 
The GAULS" (proper) are separated 12 
from the Aquitani by the river Garonne, 
from the Belgians by the Mame and 
Seine, Of these i* (tkibes) the brav- 
est of all^^ are the Belgians, for the 
reason that they live farthest ^^ away 

1 GAUL: emphatic as the svhject of discourse, as with a title or the like. 

3 Divided : opposed to the false conception (implied in the use of omnis) that the 
country called Gallia by the Romans is one. This appears more clearly from the fact 
that GsBsar later speaks of the GcUli in a narrower sense as distinct from the other two 
tribes, who with them inhabit Gallia in the wider sense. 

s Parts : continuing the emphasis begun in divlsa. Not three parts as opposed to 
any other niunber, but into parts at all. 

^ Inhabited : emphatic as the next subject, ** The inhabitants of these i>arts are, etc." 

6 One : given more prominence than it otherwise would have on account of its close 
connection with qniram. 

6 Another, etc. : opposed to one. 

7 Their own, ours : strongly opposed to each other. 

s These (tribes) : the main subject of discourse again, collecting under one head 
the names previously mentioned. 

9 Language, etc. : these are the most prominent ideas, as giving the striking points 
which distinguish the tribes. The emphasis becomes natural in English if we say 
" these have a different language, different institutions, different laws.** 

^^ All of them : the emphasis on ail marks the distributive character of the adjec- 
tive, as if it were ** every one has its own, etc." 

11 GAULS : emphatic as referring to the Gauls proper in distinction from the other 

12 Separated : though this word contains an indispensable idea in the connection, yet 
it has a subordinate position. It is not emphatic in Latin, as is seen from the fact that 
it cannot be made emphatic in English. The sense is: The Gauls lie between the 
Aquitani on the one side, and the Belgians on the other. 

18 Of THESE : the subject of discourse. 

1* All : emphasizing the superlative idea in " bravest *' ; they, as Gauls, are assumed 
to be warlike, but the most so of ail of them are the Belgians. 

16 Farthest away: one might expect absunt (are away) to have a more emphatic 
place, but it is dwarfed in importance by the predominance of the main idea, the effemi- 
nating influences from which the Belgians are said to be free. It is not that they live 
farthest off that is insisted on, but that the civilization of the Province etc., which 
would soften them, comes less in their way. It is to be noticed also that absiint has 
already been anticipated by the construction of cultu and still more by loneissiiDe so 
that when it comes it amounts only to a formal part of the sentence. Thus,— " because 
the civilization etc. of the Province (which would soften them) i^ farthest from them " 

Gallia est omnis divisa in partis 
tris, qu&ram Qnam incolunt Belgae, 
aliam AqoitSui, tertiam qui ipsdruin 
linguft Celtae, nostra Galli appellanj 
tur. Hi omnSs lingua, instittLtis, legi^ 
bus inter s6 differunt. Gallos alj 
Aquit&nis Garumna flumen, a Bel^ 
Matrona et Sequana dividit. HOrun^ 
omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, projH 
teres quod ft cultu atque humanita£e| 

S 697] 



from the oitilization and rbfinbment 
of the ProYince, and becaoBe they are 
i.isAST^ of all of them subject to the 
visits of traders^^ and to the (coiise- 
q^uent) importation of such things as ' 
tend to soften^ their warlike spirit; 
and are also nearest ^ to the Germans^ 
vrho live across the Rhine,^ and with 
^^vhom they are incessantly'^ at war. 
For the same reason the Heltbtians, as 
well, are superior to all the other Gauls 
in valor, because they are engaged in 
almost daily battles with the Germans, 
either defending their own boundaries 
from t?iem, or themselyes making war 
on those of the Germans. Of all this 
country, one part — the one which, 
as has been said, the GatUs (proper) 
occupy — BEGINS at the river Rhone. 
Its boundaries are the river Garonne, 
the ocean, and the confines of the Bel- 
gians. It even bbachbs on the side 
of the Seqwmi and Helvetians the river 
Rhine. Its general direction is towards 
the north. The Belgians begin at 
the extreme limUs of Gaul ; they reach 

prSvinciae longissimfi absunt, minime- 
que ad eOs merc&tOrSs saepe comme- 
ant atque ea quae ad effeminandOs 
animOs pertinent important, proximl- 
que sunt Germanis, qui trftns Rhenum 
incolunt, quibuscum continenter beU 
lum genmt. Qua. de causa HelvStil 
quoque rellquOs Gall5s virtute praec6- 
dunt, quod f er6 cotidi&nis proeliis cum 
Germgjils contendunt, cum aut suis 
finibus eOs prohibent, aut ipsi in e(3rum 
finibus bellum gerunt. EOrum una 
pars, quam GallOs obtinSre dictum 
est, initium capit a fltimine RhodanO ; 
continetur GarumnS. fltimine. Oceans, 
finibus Belg&rum; attingit etiam ab 
SSquanls et Helvetils fltlmen RhSnum ; 
vergit ad septentriOnSs. Belgae ab 
extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur: 
pertinent ad InferiOrem partem flu- 
minis Rhenl; spectant in septentriO- 
nem et orientem sOlem. Aquit&nia 
ft Grarumnft flumine ad_ PyrSnaeOs 
mentis et eam partem OceanI quae 
est ad Hispftniam pertinet; spectat 
inter occ9.sum sOlis et septentriOnSs. 

(on this side) as far as the lower part 

of the Rhine. They spread to the northward and eastward. 

Aquitania extends from the Garonne to the Pyrenees, and that part of the 
ocean that lies towards Spain. It runs off westward and northward. 

h. The more important word is never placed last for emphasis. The 
apparent cases of this usage (when the emphasis is not misconceived) are 
cases where a word is added as an afterthought, either real or affected, and 
so has its position not in the sentence to which it is appended, but, as it 
were, in a new one. 

1 Least : made emphatic here by a common Latin order, the chiasmus (§ 698. f) . 

2 Traders : the fourth member of the chiasmus^ opposed to cultu and httminit&te. 

8 Sttch things as : the importance of the nature of the importations overshadows the 
fact that they are importedy which fact is anticipated in traders. 

* Soften : cf . what is said in note 16, p. 394. They are brave because they have 
less to soften them, their native barbarity being taken for granted. 

6 Nearest : the same idiomatic prominence as in note 1 above, but varied by a special 
usage combining chiasmus and anaphora (§ 698./). 

« Across the Rhine : i.e. and so are perfect savages. 

7 Incessantly : the continuance of the warfare becomes the all-important idea, as 
if it were " and not a day passes in which they are not at war with them." 

896 ORDER OF WORDS [§566 

698. The main rules for the Order of Words are as follows : — 

a* In any phrase the determining and most significant word comes 
first: — 

1. Adjective and Noun : — 

omnis homines decet, .jbtebt man ought (opposed to some who do not). 

L&cius Catillna nSbili genere natus fait, m&gna vl et animi et corporis, 
sed ingenio malO pravOque (Sail. Cat. 5), Lucius Catiline was bom of a 
NOBLE family J with great force of mind and body, but with a natubi 
thaJt was eoil and depraved. [Here the adjectives in the first part are 
the emphatic and important words, no antithesis between the nouns 
being as yet thought of ; but in the second branch the noun is meant 
to be opposed to those before mentioned, and immediately takes the 
prominent place, as is seen by the natural English emphasis, thus mak- 
ing a chiasmusA] 

2. Word with modifying case : — 

quid magis EpamlnOndam, ThSb&norum imperatOrem, quam victoiiae Tii^ 
banOrum cOnsulere decuit (Inv. i. 69), what should Epaminondas, com- 
mander of the Thebans, Iiave aimed at more than the victory of the 

lacrimi nihil citius arSscit (id. i. 109), nothing dries quicker than a tear. 

nSmO fere laudls cupidus (De Or. i. 14), hardly any one desirous of glort 
(cf. Manil. 7, avidi laudis, eager /or glory), 

h. Numeral adjectives, adjectives of quantity, demonstrative, relative, 
and interrogative pronouns and adverbs, tend to precede the word or words 
to which they belong : — 

cum aliqofl perturbatiOne (Off. i. 137), with some disturbance. 
hoc CLnO praestamus (De Or. i. 32), in this one thing we excel. 
cSterae ferG artfis, the other arts. 

Note. — This happens because such words are usually emphatic ; but often the 
words connected with them are more so, and in such cases the pronouns etc. yield the 
emphatic place : — 

causa aliqua (De Or. i. 250), some case. 

stilas ille tuus (id. i. 257), that well-known style of yours (in an antithesis; see 

passage). [Ille is idiomatic in this sense and position.] 
RSmun quae apportata sunt (Verr. iv. 121) , what were carried to Rome (in contrast 
to what remained at Syracuse). 

c. When sum is used as the Substantive verb (§ 284. 6), it regularly 
stands first, or at any rate before its subject : — 

est virl mSgnl ptinlre sontis (Off. i. 82), His the duty of a great man to pun- 
ish the guilty. 

1 So called from the Greek letter X (chi), on account of the criss-cross arrangement 
of the words. Thus, Jx^ (see / below) . 

r &©8] ORDER OF WORDS 397 

<!• The verb may come first, or have a prominent position, either (1) 
.>e5 cause the idea in it is emphatic ; or (2) because the predication of the 
^jul^ole statement is emphatic ; or (3) the tense only may be emphatic : — 

(1) dicebat idem Gotta (Off. ii. 59), Coita, used to say the same thing (opposed 

to others' boasting). 
idem fecit adulSsc^ns M. AntOnius (id. ii. 49), the same thing was done by 

Mark Antony in his yovth. [Opposed to dixi just before.] 
facia amic6 (Lael. 9), you act kindly, [Cf. amicS facis, you are wry kind 

(you act kindly).] 

(2) prOpgnsior benignitas esse debSbit in calamitOsOs nisi forte erant dignl 

calamitate (Off. ii. 62), liberality ought to be readier toward the unfortv^ 
note unless perchance they really deserve fheir mirfortune. 
praesertim cum scnbat (Panaetius) (id. iii. 8), especially when he does say 
(in his books). [Opposed to something omitted by him.] 

(3) faimas TrOes, fait Ilium (Aen. ii. 326), toe have ceased to be Trojans, Troy 

is now no more. 
loqaor autem de commflnibus amlcitils (Off. iii. 45), but I am speaking now 
of common friendships. 

ۥ Often the connection of two emphatic phrases is brought about by 
giving the precedence to the most prominent part of each and leaving the 
less prominent parts to follow in inconspicuous places : — 

pltirfis Solent esse causae (Off. i. 28), there are usually several reasons. 
quOs amisimus civis, e6s Martis vis perculit (Marc. 17), what fellow-citizens 

we have lost, have been Strieker^, down by the violence of war. 
maximas tibi omn6s gratias agimus (id. 33), we all render you the warmest 

haec r6s unlus est propria Caesaris (id. 11), this exploit belongs to Coesar 


obitLrgatiOnSs etiam nOn numquam incidunt necessariae (Off. i. 136), occa- 
sions FOR REBUKE also SOMETIMES occur which are unavoidable. 

/• Antithesis between two pairs of ideas is indicated by placing the pairs 
either (1) in the same order (anaphora) or (2) in exactly the opposite order 
, (chiasmus) : — 

(1) rfirum c5pia verbOrum cOpiam gignit (De Or. iii. 125), abundance of mat- 

ter produces copiousness of expression. 

(2) leges supplici5 improbOs afficiunt, dSfendunt ac tuentur bonOs (Legg. ii. 
f* 13), the laws visit punishments upon the wicked, Imt the good they 

defend and protect. 

Note. — Chiasmus is very common in Latin, and often seems in fact the more inarti- 
ficial construction. In an artless narrative one might hear, "The women were all 
drowned, they saved the men." 

nOn igitur utilitatem amicitia sed utilitas amicitiam c5nsecuta est (Lael. 51), it is 
not then that friendship ha^ followed upon advantage, but advantage upon 
friendship. [Here the chiasmus is only grammatical, the ideas being in tht 
parallel o«ler.] (See also p. 395 : longissimS, minimi, prozimi.) 

398 ORDER OF WORDS [§§ 698, 699 

g» A modifier of a phrase or some part of it is often embodied within 
the phrase (cf . a) : — 

d6 commtlnl hominum memori3. (Tusc. i. 59), in regard to the unitersal 
memory of man, 

h» A favorite order with the poets is the interlocked, by which the attri- 
bute of one pair comes between the parts of the other (synchysis) ; — 
et superiectdpavidaenat^a^t aequore damm^ (Hor. Od. i. 2. 11). 

NoTB. — This IS often joined with chiasmns: as, — arma nOndum explains uiv^ta^ 
cruOribns (id. ii. 1. 5). 

i« Frequently unimportant words follow in the train of more emphatic 
ones with which they are grammatically connected, and so acquire a promi- 
nence out of proportion to their importance : — 

dictit&bat s6 hortul()s aliquOs emere velle (Off. iii. 68), Jie gave ovt that he 
wanted to buy some gardens. [Here aliqnds is less emphatic than emere, 
but precedes it on account of the emphasis on hortalds.] 

J, The copula is generally felt to be of so little importance that it may 
come in anywhere where it sounds well ; but usually under cover of more 
emphatic words : — 

consul ego quaes! vl, cum vOs mihi essStis in cOnsiliO (Rep. iii. 28), as consul 

I hdd an investigation in which you attended me in council, 
falsum est id tOtum (id. 11. 28), that is aU false. 

k» Many expressions have acquired an invariable order : — 

r6s publica ; populus ROm&nus ; honOris causS. ; p3ce tant! virl. 

NoTB. — These had, no donbt, originally an emphasis which required sach an 
arrangement, but In the course of time have changed their shade of meaning. Thus, 
senattts populnsqne Romanus originally stated with emphasis the official bodies, but 
became fixed so as to be the only permissible form of expression. 

I, The Romans had a fondness for emphasizing persons^ so that a name 
or a pronoim often stands in an emphatic place : — 

[(Uxit] v^n^lls quldem se hortSs non habere (Off. ill. 68), [said] tJiat he didn^t 
have any gardens for sale, to he sure. 

tn. Kindred words often come together {figura etymological : — 

Ita senslm sine sensu aetfts senesclt (Cat. M. 88), thus gradually^ unthout 
being perceived, man's life grows old. 

Special Rules 

599. The following are special rules of arrangement : — 

a* The negative precedes the word it especially affects ; but if it belongs 
to no one word in particular, it generally precedes the verb ; if it is espe- 
cially emphatic, it begins the sentence. (See example, 598./. n.) 

§§ 699-601] STRUCTURE OF THE PERIOD 399 

&• Itaqna regularly comes first in its sentence or clause; enim, autem, 
^ireio, quoque, never first, but usually second, sometimes third if the second 
^v^rord is emphatic ; quidem fiever first, but after the emphatic word ; igitur 
T:ftsually second ; ne . . . quidem include the emphatic word or words. 

Cm Inquam, inquit, are always used parenthetically, following one or more 
^words. So often cred5, opinor, and in poetry sometimes precor. 

€f . (1) Prepositions (except tenus and yersus) regularly precede their 
nouns ; (2) but a monosyllabic preposition is often placed between a noun 
a,nd its adjective or limiting genitive : — 

quem ad modum ; quam ob rem ; mSgnO cum metti ; omnibus cum cOpils ; 
nulla in rS (cf. § 598. i). 

e» In the arrangement of clauses, the Relative clause more often comes 
first in Latin, and usually contains the antecedent noun : — 

qads ftmisimus civis, eOs Mftrtis vis perculit (Marc. 17), those citizens wTumi 
we have lost^ etc. 

/• Personal or demonstrative pronouns tend to stand together in the 
sentence : — 

cum Tos mihi essetis in cOnsiliO (Rep. iii. 28), when you attended me in 

Structure of the Period 

600. Latin, unlike modem languages, expresses the relation of words to each other 
by inflection rather than by position. Hence its structore not only admits of great 
variety in the arrangement of words, but is especially favorable to that form of sen- 
tence which is called a Period. In a period, the sense is expressed by the sentence as a 
whole, and is held in suspense till the delivery of the last word. 

An English sentence does not often exhibit this form of structure. It was imitated, 
sometimes with great skiU and beauty, by many of the earlier writers of English prose ; 
but its effect is better seen in poetry, as in the following passage: — 

High on a throne of royal state, which far 

Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind, 

Or where the gorgeons East with richest hand * 

Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold, 

Satan exalted sat. — Paradise Lost, il. 1-6. 

But in argument or narrative, the best English writers more commonly give short 
clear sentences, each distinct from the rest, and saying one thing by itself. In Latin, 
on the contrary, the story or argument is viewed as a whole ; and the logical relation 
among all its parts is carefully indicated. 

601. In the structure of the Period, the following rules ard to 
be observed : — 

a. In general the main subject or object is put in the main clause, not 
in a subordinate one : — 

Hannibal cum recCnsuisset auxilla GadSs profectus est (Liv. xxi. 21), when 
Hannibal had reviewed the avxiUaries, he set out for Cadiz, 

400 ORDER OF WORDS [§ 60J 

YoIbcI exigaam spem in armis, alifi undique abscissa, com tentSssent, pra& 
ter cetera adversa, locO quoque inlqu5 ad ptignam congress!, iniqui5r< 
ad fugam, cum ab omnI parte caederentor, ad preces a certamine vei^ 
deditO imperfttOre trftditlsque armis, sub iugum missi, cum singuHi 
vestimentis, IgnOminiae clSdisque pleni dimittuntur (Liv. iv. 10): [Her( 
the main fact is the return of the Volscians. But the striking circum 
stances of the surrender etc., which in English would be detailed in i 
number of brief independent sentences, are put into the several suboi^ 
dinate clauses within the main clause so that the passage gives a coml 
plete picture in one sentence.] 

6. Clauses are usually arranged in the order of prominence in the mind 
of the speaker ; so, usually, cause before result ; purpose^ manner, and thj 
like, before the act, \ 

ۥ In coordinate clauses, the copulative conjunctions are frequently 
omitted (asyndeton). In such cases the connection is made clear by somJ 
antithesis indicated by the position of words. 

d. A change of subject, when required, is marked by the introduction 
of a pronoun, if the new subject has already been mentioned. But suclj 
change is often purposely avoided by a change in structure, — the les^ 
important being merged in the more important by the aid of participles 
or of subordinate phrases : — 

quern ut barbari incendium eSugisse vld6runt, tells Sminus missis inters 
fecerunt (Nep. Ale. 10), when the barbarians saw that fie had escaped^ 
THET threw darts at him at long range and killed him. 

celeriter c5nfect0 neg0ti5, in hibema Iegi5n6s redtixit (B. G. vi. 8), the mati 
ter wa^ soon finished, and he led the legions, etc. 

e* So the repetition of a noun, or the substitution of a pronoun for it, 
is avoided unless a different case is required : — 

dolOrem sinOnpotuerO frangere occultab5 (Phil. xii. 21), if I cannot conquer 
the pain, I will hide it. [Cf . if I cannot conquer I will hide the p