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The present book is a careful revision of the edition of 1888. 
This revision was planned and actually begun in the lifetime of 
Professor Greenough and has been carried out in accordance 
with principles that met with his full approval. The renimi- 
bering of the sections has made it possible to improve the 
arrangement of material in many particulars and to avoid a cer- 
tain amount of repetition which was inevitable in the former 
edition. Thus, without increasing the size of the volume, the 
editors have been able to include such new matter as the advance 
in grammatical science has afforded. The study of historical 
and comparative syntax has been pursued with considerable vigor 
during the past fifteen years, and the well-established results of 
this study have been inserted in their appropriate places. In 
general, however, the principles and facts of Latin syntax, as 
set forth by Professor Greenough, have stood the test both of 
scientific criticism and of practical use in the class-room, and 
accordingly the many friends of Allen and Greenough's Gram- 
mar will not find the new edition strange or unfamiliar in its 
method or its contents. The editors have seen no occasion to 
change long-settled nomenclature or to adopt novel classifica- 
tions when the usual terms and categories have proved satis- 
factory. On the other hand, they have not hesitated to modify 
either doctrines or forms of statement whenever improvement 
seemed possible. 

In the matter of " hidden quantity" the editors have been even 
more conservative than in the former revision. This subject is 
one of great difficulty, and the results of the most recent investi- 
gations are far from harmonious. In many instances the facts 



are quite undiscoverable, and, in general, the phenomena are of 
comparatively slight interest except to special students of the 
arcana of philology. No vowel has been marked long unless the 
evidence ^seemed practically decisive. 

The editors have been fortunate in securing the advice and 
assistance of Professor E. S. Sheldon, of Harvard University, for 
the first ten pages, dealing with phonetics and phonology. They 
are equally indebted to Professor E. P. Morris, of Yale Univer- 
sity, who has had the kindness to revise the notes on historical 
and comparative syntax. Particular acknowledgment is also 
due to Mr. M. Grant Daniell, who has cooperated in the revision 
throughout, and whose accurate scholarship and long experience 
as a teacher have been of the greatest service at every point. 

Septembeb 1, 1903. 




Lbttebs and Sounds 1-lt) 

Alphabet ; Classification of Sounds 1-3 

Orthography, Syllables, Pronunciation 3-5 

Quantity and Accent 5-^7 

Combinations ; Phonetic Changes 7-10 


Parts of Speech ^ 11, 12 

Inflection; Root, Stem, and Base 12-14 

Gender, Number, and Case 14-16 

Declension of Nouns 16-45 

General Rules of Declension 17 

First Declension 18-20 

Second Declension 20-^4 

Third Declension 24-37 

Mute Stems 25, 26 

Liquid and Nasal Stems 27, 28 

Pure i-Stems 29,30 

Mixed i-Stems 30,31 

Irregular Nouns 33, 34 

Greek Nouns 34-86 

Rules of Gender 36, 37 

Fourth Declension 37-39 

Fifth Declension 39,40 

Defective and Variable Nouns 40-44 

Names of Persons 45 

Inflection of Adjectives 46-62 

First and Second Declensions 46-49 

Third Declension 49-54 

Comparison 55-57 

Numerals 58-62 

Inflection of Pronouns 63-71 

Personal, Reflexive, Possessive, Demonstrative 63-67 

Relative, Interrogative, Indefinite 68-71 

Correlatives (Pronouns and Adverbs) 71 

Conjugation of Verbs 72-125 

Inflection 72 

Signification : Voice, Mood, Tense 73-75 

Personal Endings 76, 77 




Forms: Stem and Verb-Endings ...••• 77-31 

The Verb Sum 81-83 

Regular Verbs 84-103 

The Four Conjugations ; Principal Parts 84, 85 

Formation of the Three Stems 85-89 

Synopsis of the Verb 90 

Peculiarities of Conjugation 91 

First Conjugation 92-96 

Second Conjugation • 96, 97 

Third Conjugation 98,99 

Fourth Conjugation 100, 101 

Verbs m -15 of the Thbd Conjugation 102,103 

Deponent Verbs 103-106 

Periphrastic Conjugations 106-108 

Irregular Verbs 108-115 

Defective Verbs 116-119 

Impersonal Verbs 119, 120 

Classified Lists of Verbs 121-125 

Pabtiolbs 126-139 

Adverbs 126-130 

Prepositions 130-136 

Conjunctions 137-139 

Interjections 139 


Roots and Stems 140,141 

Suffixes: Primary; Significant Endings 141-143 

Derivation of Nouns 143-148 

Derivation of Adjectives 148-154 

Nouns with Ad jective Suffixes ; Irregular Derivatives .... 154-156 

Derivation of Verbs 156-159 

Compound Words 160-162 


Intboductobt Notb 163 

Thb Sbntbkcb 164-208 

Definitions : Subject and Predicate, Modification, etc 164-168 

Agreement: the Four Concords 168 

Nouns : Apposition ; Predicate Agreement 168-170 

Adjectives 170-176 

Rules of Agreement 171, 172 

Special Uses 172-175 

Pronouns 176-192 

Personal and Demonstrative 176-180 

Reflexive 180-183 

Possessive 188, 184 



«. , . PAGE 

^la^ive 184_lgj, 

Indefinite ^ 189-101 

Alius and alter 202 

Verbs 193-196 

Verb and Subject, Incomplete Sentences 193-196 

Pakticles : Adverbs, Conjunctions, Negatives 196-204 

Questions !!!!.' 206-208 

CoNSTBucTiON OP Cases 209-276 

Introductory Note * ' 209 

NoMmATiYE Case 2io 

Vocative Case * 210 

Genitive Case ' 210^224 

Genitive with Nouns 211-216 

Possessive Genitive 211 212 

Genitive of Material, of Quality '213 

Partitive Genitive , 213-216 

Objective Genitive , . . . . 216 216 

Genitive with Adjectives ... 216* 217 

Genitive with Verbs . 218^223 

Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting 218 219 

Verbs of Reminding 219 

Verbs of Accusing, Condemning, and Acquitting 220 

Verbs of Feeling 221 

Interest and rgfert . 221 222 

Verbs of Plenty and Want ; Special Verbs 222, 223 

Peculiar Genitives : Exclamatory, etc 223, 224 

Dative Case 224-239 

Indirect Object with Transitives 226-227 

Indirect Object with Intransitives ........... 227-232 

Dative of Possession 232 233 

Dative of the Agent 233, 234 

Dative of Reference 234-236 

Ethical Dative 236 

Dative of Separation 236, 237 

Dative of the Purpose or End 237 

Dative with Adjectives 238, 239 

Accusative Case 240-248 

Direct Object 240-242 

Cognate Accusative 242-244 

Two Accusatives 244-246 

Idiomatic and Special Uses 247, 248 

Ablathtb Case 248-265 

Uses of the Ablative Proper 249-256 

Ablative of Separation 249,260 

Ablative of Source and Material 260-252 

Ablative of Cause 252,253 



Ablative of Agent 253, 264 

Ablative of Comparison 254, 255 

Uses of the Ablative as Instramental 256-265 

Ablative of Means or Instrument 256-258 

Ablative of Manner 258 

Ablative of Accompaniment 258, 259 

Ablative of Degree of Difference 250, 260 

Ablative of Quality 260 

Ablative of Price .• 261,262 

Ablative of Specification 262,263 

Ablative Absolute 263-265 

Uses of the Ablative as Locative 265 

Time and Place 266-273 

Special Uses of Prepositions 274, 275 

Syntax of the Verb 276-386 

Moods , 276-293 

Introductory Note 276, 277 

Indicative Mood 277 

Subjunctive in Independent Sentences 278-283 

Hortatory Subjunctive 278, 279 

Hortatory Subjunctive in Concessions 279 

Optative Subjunctive 280, 281 

Deliberative Subjunctive , , 281 

Potential Subjunctive 282, 283 

Imperative Mood 283-285 

Prohibition (Negative Command) 285 

Infinitive Mood 286-292 

Infinitive as Noun 286, 287 

Infinitive with Impersonate 287, 288 

Complementary Infinitive 289, 290 

Infinitive with Subject Accusative 290 

Infinitive of Purpose ; Peculiar Infinitives 290, 291 

Exclamatory Infinitive 292 

Historical Infinitive 292 

Tenses 293-308 

Introductory Note 293 

Tenses of the Indicative 293-301 

Present Tense 293-295 

Imperfect Tense 296-297 

Future Tense 298 

Perfect Tense 298-300 

Pluperfect Tense 300 

Future Perfect Tense 300 

Epistolary Tenses 301 

Tenses of the Subjunctive ., 301-306 

Sequence of Tenses 302-306 



Tenses of the Infinitive 307, 308 

Participles 309-316 

Distinctions of Tense 309-311 

Uses of Participles 311-314 

Future Active Participle 314, 316 

Gerundive (Future Passive Participle) 316, 316 

Gerund and Gerundive 316-319 

Supine 320 

Conditional Sentences 321-338 

Introductory Note 321,322 

Protasis and Apodosis 322,323 

Classification of Conditions 323-326 

Simple Present and Past Conditions 326, 326 

Future Conditions 326-328 

Conditions Contrary to Fact 328-330 

General Conditions 331 

Conditional Relative Clauses 332,333 

Condition Disguised 333, 334 

Condition Omitted 334,336 

Complex Conditions 336 

Clauses of Comparison (Conclusion Omitted) 336 

Use of Si and its Compounds 337, 338 

Concessive Clauses ^ 338, 339 

Clauses of Proviso 340 

Clauses op Purpose (Final Clauses) 340-343 

Clauses of Characteristic 343-346 

Clauses of Result (Consecutive Clauses) 346-348 

Causal Clauses 348-360 

Temporal Clauses 360-369 

UM, at, com, qoandS, as Indefinite Relatives 360 

Postqaam, abi, at, simal atqae 361 

Cam Temporal 362-364 

Com Causal or Concessive 364, 365 

Anteqaam and priasqoam 366, 366 

Dun, dOBec, and qooad 367-369 

Clauses with qain and qaominus 369-361 

Substantive Clauses 362-384 

Introductory Note 362 

Substantive Clauses of Purpose and Infinitive Clauses .... 362-367 

Substantive Clauses of Result (Consecutive Clauses) 367-369 

Indicative with qood 369, 370 

Indirect Questions 370-373 

Indirect Discourse 373-384 

Introductory Note 373, 374 

Declaratory Sentences 374-377 

Subordinate Clauses 377, 378 



Tenses of the Infinitive 378,379 

Tenses of the Subjunctive 379, 380 

Questions in Indirect Discourse 380, 381 

Commands in Indirect Discourse 381 

Conditions in Indirect Discoui-se 381-384 

Intermediate Clauses 384-386 

Informal Indirect Discourse 385 

Subjunctive of Integral Part (Attraction) 386 

Important Rules op Syntax 387-392 

Order op Words 393-400 

General Rules 398-398 

Special Rules 398, 399 

Structure of the Period 399, 400 


Quantity 401-405 

Rhythm 406-409 

Introductory Note 405, 406 

Measures of Rhythm ; Feet 406-409 

The Musical Accent ; Caesura ; DisBresis 409 

Versification 410-426 

The Verse ; Scansion and Elision 410, 411 

Dactylic Verse 411-414 

Dactylic Hexameter 411, 412 

Elegiac Stanza ; Other Dactylic Verses 413, 414 

Iambic Verse 414-416 

Iambic Trimeter 414, 415 

Other Iambic Measures 416 

Trochaic Verse 417 

Mixed Measures . , 418 

LogaoBdic Verse 418-421 

Metres of Horace 421-425 

Index to the Metres of Horace 423-425 

Other Lyric Poets 425 

Miscellaneous Measures 425, 426 

Early Prosody 426,427 

Miscellaneous 428-431 

Reckoning of Time 428, 429 

Measures of Value, Length, and Capacity 429-431 

Glossary of Terms 432-435 

Index of Verbs 436-444 

Index of Words and Subjects 445-475 

Latin Authors and their Works 476,477 

Parallel References 479-490 





Latin Grammar is usually treated under three heads: 1. Words and 
Forms; 2. Syntax; 3. Prosody. Syntax treats of the function of words 
when joined together as parts of the sentence ; Prosody of their arrange- 
ment in metrical composition. 



1. The Latin Alphabet is the same as the English (which is 
in fact borrowed from it) except that it does not contain J, U, 
and W. 

Note 1. — The Latin alphabet was borrowed in very early times from a Greek 
alphabet (though not from that most familiar to us) and did not at first contain the 
letters G aud Y. It consisted of capital letters only, and the small letters with which 
we are familiar did not come into general use until the close of the eighth century of 
our era. 

Note 2. — The Latin names of the consonants were as follows : — B, be (pronounced 
hay); C, ce (pronounced kay); D, de {day); F, ef; G, ge (gay); H, ha; K, ka; L, el; 
M, em; N, en ; P, pe (pay); Q, qu (koo); R, er; S, ea; T, te (tay); X, ix; Z, zeta (the 
Greek name, pronounced dzayta). The sound of each vowel was used as its name. 

a. The character C originally meant G, a value always retained in 
the abbreviations C. (for Gaius) and Cn. (for Gnaeus). 

Note. — In early Latin C came also to be used for K, and K disappeared except be- 
fore a in a few words, as Kal. (Kalendae), Karthago. Thus there was no distinction in 
writing between the sounds of g and k. Later this defect was remedied by forming 
(from C) the new character G. This took the alphabetic place formerly occupied by 
Z, which had gone out of use. In Cicero*s time (see N. D. ii. 93), Y (originally a form 
of V) and Z were introduced from the ordinary Greek alphabet to represent sounds in 
words derived from the Greek, and they were put at the end of the Latin alphabet. 

6. I and'V were used both as vowels and as consonants (see § 5). 

Note. — V originally denoted the vowel sound u (oo), and F stood for the sound of 
our consonant w. When F acquired the value of our f, V came to be used for the 
sound of w as well as for the vowel u. 

In this book i is used for both vowel and consonant i, u for vowel u, and 
Y for consonant u : — ius, vir, iuvenis. 




Classification of Sounds 

2. The simple Vowels are a, e, i, o, u, y. 

The Diphthongs are ae, au, ei, eu, oe, ni, and, in early Latin, ai, 
oi, ou. In the diphthongs both vowel sounds are heard, one fol- 
lowing the other in the same syllable. 

3. Consonants are either voiced (sonant) or voiceless (surd). 
Voiced consonants are pronounced with the same vocal murmur 
that is heard in vowels ; voiceless consonants lack this murmur. 

1. The voiced consonants are b, d, g, 1, r, m, n, z, consonant i, y. 

2. The voiceless consonants are p, t, c (k, q), f, h, s, z. 

4. Consonants are further classified as in the following table : 

IM.BIALS Dentals Palatals 

Voiced (mediae) 




Mutes Voiceless (tenues) 



o (k, q) 








n (before c, g, q) ^ 



Fricatives (Spirants) 


8, a 


», z 



consonant i 

Double consonants are z (= cs) and x (= dz) ; h is merely a breathing. 

1. Mutes are pronoanced by blocking entirely, for an instant, the passage of the 
hreath through the mouth, and then allowing it to escape with an explosion (distinctly 
heard before a following vowel). Between the explosion and the vowel there may be 
a slight. puff of breath (h), as in the Aspirates (ph, th, ch).3 

2. Labials are pronounced with the lips, or lips and teeth. 

3. Dentals (sometimes called Linguals) are pronounced with the tip of the tongue 
touching or approaching the upper front teeth. 

4. Palatals are pronounced with a part of the upper surface of the tongue touching 
or approaching the palate.' 

5. Fricatives (or Spirants) are consonants in which the breath passes continuously 
through the mouth with audible friction. 

6. Nasals are like voiced mutes, except that the mouth remains closed and the 
breath passes through the nose. 

1 Strictly a labio-dentcU, pronounced with the under lip touching the upper teeth. 

s The aspirates are almost wholly confined to words borrowed from tlfe Greek. In 
early Latin such borrowed sounds lost their aspiration and became simply p, t, c. 

> Palatals are often classed as (1) velarSf pronounced with the tongue touching or ris- 
ing toward the soft palate (in the back part of the mouth), and (2) palatals, in which the 
tongue touches or rises toward the hard palate (farther forward in the mouth) . Compar« 
the initial consonants in key and coo/, whispering the two words, and it will be observed 
that before e and i the k is sounded farther forward in the mouth than before a, o, or u. 

§§ 6, 6] ORTHOGRAPHY 3 

5. The vowels i and u serve as consonants when pronounced 
rapidly before a vowel so as to stand in the same syllable.^ Con- 
sonant 1 has the sound of English consonant y; consonant u (v) 
that of English consonant w. 

Consonant i and a (▼) are sometimes called Semivowels. 

NoTB 1. — The Latin alphabet did not distinguish between the vowel and consonant 
sounds of i and u, but used each letter (I and V) with a double value. In modern books 
i and u are often used for the vowel sounds, j and v for the consonant sounds ; but in 
printing in capitals J and U are avoided : — I V LI V S (Ittlius) . The characters J and U are 
only slight modifications of the characters I and V. The ordinary English sounds of 
3 and. V did not exist in classical Latin, but consonant a perhaps approached English v 
in the pronunciation of some persons. 

Note 2. — In the combinations qu, ga, and sometimes tn, a seems to be the conso- 
nant (w) . Thus, aqua, angnis, cdnsuetos (compare English quarts ang^Ush, suave) . In 
these combinations, however, a is reckoned neither as a vowel nor as a consonant.' 


6. Latin spelling varied somewhat with the changes in the 
language and was never absolutely settled in all details. 

Thus, we find Inbet, vortS, as earlier, and libet, vertd, as later forms. Other 
variations are optumas and optlmas, gerondus and gerendus. 

The spelling of the first centuiy of our era, known chiefly from 
inscriptions, is tolerably uniform, and is commonly used in modem 
editions of the classics. 

a* After y (consonant n), o was anciently used instead of n (voltas, 8er?08), 
and this speUing was not entirely given up until the middle of the first 
century of our era. 

bm The older quo became cu in the Augustan period ; in the second cen- 
tury of our era the spelling qua established itself in some words : — 

com, older quom ;* eqiios, ecns, later eqaus ; seqaontor, secantnr, later sequuntur ; 
similarly ezstingaont, ezstingunt, later ezatingaunt. 

NoTB. — In most modem editions the spelling qua is adopted, except in cam. 

c. Between consonant i and a preceding a, e, o, or n, an i was developed 
as a transient sound, thus producing a diphthong ai, ei, etc, before the con- 
sonant i. In such cases but one i was written : as, M (for fAi-iS), miius 
(for tmai-ins), pfiius (for fpei-ius). 

1 Compare the English word Indian as pronounced in two syllables or in three. 
3 In such words it is possible that the preceding consonant was labialized and that 
no distinct and separate consonant a was heard. 

* The spelling qaam is very late and without authority. 

4 WORDS AND FORMS [§§ 6-8 

d* Similarly in oomponnds of iadS but one i was written (as, ocm-icifi, 
not con-iici5); but the usual pronunciation probably showed consonant i 
followed by vowel i (see § 11. e). 

NoTB. — Some yariatioiis are due to later changes in Latin itself, and these are not 
now recognized in classical texts. 

1. Unaccented ti and ci, when followed by a vowel, came to be pronounced alike ; 
hence nflntlS was later spewed with a c and dicl5 with a t. 

2. The sound of h was after a time lost and hence this letter was often omitted (as, 
arCua for harfina) or mistakenly written (as, humor for amor). 

3. The diphthong ae early in the time of the Empire acquired the value of long open 
e (about like English e in there) ^ and similarly oe after a time became a long dose e 
(about like the English ey in t?iey) ; and so both were often confused in spelling with 
e : as, ceena or caeoa for the correct form c6na. 


7. Every Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels or 
diphthongs : — 

Brci-if mo-n8, fl-li-us, fe-r5-ci-t&-te. 

a* In the division of words into syllables a single consonant (including 
consonant i and y) between two vowels is written and pronounced with 
the following vowel. Doubled consonants are separated : — 
pa-ter, ml-li-tSs, in-ifi-ri-a, di-vi-do ; mit-t5, tol-15. 

NoTB 1. — Some extend the rule for single consonants to any consonant group (as 
Bp, 8t, gn) that can begin a word. In this book, dix-lt, sax-om, etc. are preferred to 
di-xit, sa-zum ; the pronunciation was probably dic-sit, sac-sum. 

Note 2. — A syllable ending with a vowel or diphthong is called open: all others 
are called close. Thus in pa-ter the first syllable is open, the second close. 

b» In compounds the parts are separated : — 
ab-est, ob-Utas, dis-cexnS, dn-plex, di-stfi. 


8. The so-called Roman Pronunciation of Latin aims to repre- 
sent approximately the pronunciation of classical times. 

Vowels : ft as in father; & as in idea. 

^SLsehf (prolonged), or a in date; 4 as eh t (clipped) or e in neL 
X as in machine; I as in holiest or sit, 

5 as in holy; 5 as in obey, 

a as 00 in boot; ii as oo in fooL 

y between n and i (French u or German U). 

Diphthongs : ae like ay; el as in eight; oe like oy in boyf 

eu as eh'oo: au like ow in now; ul as on'ee. 


Consonants are the same as in English, except that — 

c and g are as in comej gety never as in dty^ gem, 

B as in sea^ lips, never as in ease. 

Consonant i is like y in young; v (consonant u) like w in wing. 

n in the combinations na and nf probably indicates nasalization of the 
preceding vowel, which was also lengthened ; and final m in an 
unaccented syllable probably had a similar nasalizing effect on 
the preceding vowel. 

ph, th, ch, are properly like p, t, k, followed by h (which may, for con- 
venience, be neglected) ; but ph probably became like (or nearly 
like) f soon after the classical period, and may be so pronounced 
to distinguish it from p. 

z is as dz in adze. 

bs is like pa ; bt is like pt. 

Note. — Latin is sometimes pronounced with the ordinary English sounds of the 
letters. The English pronunciation should be used in Roman names occurring in 
English (as, Julius Csssar) ; and in familiar quotations, as, e pluribus unum ; viva 
voce; vice versa; a fortiori; veniy vidiy vici, etc. 


9. The Quantity of a Vowel or a Syllable is the time occupied 

in pronouncing it. Two degrees of Quantity are recognized, — 

long and short. 

a» In syllables, quantity is measured from the beginning of the vowel 
or diphthong to the end of the syllable. 

10. Vowels are either long or short bt/ nature^ and are pro- 
nounced accordingly (§ 8). 

a« A vowel before another vowel or h is short : as in vU, nihil. 

b. A diphthong is long : as in Shdea, fSedus. So, also, a vowel derived 
from a diphthong : as in ezcludO (from fez-claudd). 

c. A vowel formed by contraction is long : as in nil (from nihil). 
d* A vowel before ns, nf, gn, is long : as in cdnstans, inferd, magnus. 
Note. — But the quantity of the vowel before gn. is not certain in all cases. 

e. A vowel before nd, nt, is regularly short : as in anuuidus, amant. 

In this book all vowels known to be long are marked (a, e, etc.), and 
short vowels are left unmarked (a, e, etc.). Vowels marked with both signs 
at once (I, I, etc.) occur sometimes as long and sometimes as short. 

NoTK. — The Romans sometimes marked vowel length by a stroke above the letter 
(called an apex), as, A ; and sometimes the vowel was doubled to indicate length. An 
I made higher than the other letters was occasionally used for i. Bnt none of these 
devices came into general use. 


11. The Quantity of the Syllable is important for the position 
of the accent and in versification. 

a* A syllable containing a long vowel or a diphthong is said to be long 
by nature : as, ma-ter, aes, au-l». 

&• A syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants 
(except a mute before 1 or r) or by a double consonant (z, z) is said to be 
long by position, but the vowel is pronounced short : as, est, ter-ra, saz-um, 


NoTB. — When a consonant is doubled the pronunciation should show this dis- 
tinctly. Thus in mit-t5 both t's should be pronounced as in out-talk (not merely a 
single t as in better). 

c. A syllable containing a short vowel followed by a mute before 1 or r 
is properly short, but may be used as long in verse. Such a syllable is said 
to be common. 

Note 1. — In syllables long by position, but having a short vowel, the length is 
partly due to the first of the consonants, which stands in the same syllable with the 
vowel. In syllables of *' common " quantity (as the first syllable of patrem) the ordi- 
nary pronunciation was pa-trem, but in verse pat-rem was allowed so that the syllable 
could become long. 

Note 2. — In final syllables ending with a consonant, and containing a short vowel, 
the quantity in verse is determined by the following word : if this begins with a vowel 
the final consonant is joined to it in pronunciation ; if it begins with a consonant the 
syllable is long by position. 

Note 3. — In rules for quantity h is not counted as a consonant, nor is the appar- 
ently consonantal u in qu, gu, su (see § 5. n. 2). 

d* A syllable whose vowel is a, e, o, or u, followed by consonant i, is 
long whether the vowel itself is long or short : as, 4-i5, mil-ior, pe-ius. 

In such cases the length of the syllable is indicated in this book by a 

circumflex on the vowel. 

Note. — The length of a syllable before consonant i is due to a transitional sound 
(vowel i) which forms a diphthong with the preceding vowel: as, a-io (for t*i-i6), 
mit-ior (for fmai-ior). See § 6. c. 

ۥ In some compounds of iaci5 (as, in-ici5) the consonant i of the simple 
verb was probably pronounced (though not written). Thus the first syl- 
lable was long by position : as, in-icio (for in-iicio). See § 6. </. 

In such cases the length of the syllable is not indicated in this book by 
a circumflex on the vowel. 

/. When a syllable is long by position the quantity of the vowel is not 
always determinable. The vowel should be pronounced short unless it is 
known to be long. 

Note. — The quantity of a vowel under these circumstances is said to be hidden. 
It is often determined with a greater or less degree of certainty by inscriptional evi- 
dence (see § 10. N.) or by other means. In this book, the quantity of all such vowels 
known to be long is marked. 

§§ 12-14] ACCENT 


12. Words of two syllables are accented on the first syllable : 
as, RO'ma, fi'dfis, tan'gO. 

Words of more than two syllables are accented on the Penult ^ 
if that is long (as, ami'cas, monc'tur, contin'git) ; otherwise on the 
Antepenult (as, do'minus, a'Ucris, dissociA'bilis). 

Urn When an enclitic is joined to a word, the accent falls on the syllable 
next before the enclitic, whether long or short : as, dSI^que, llmarS^e, tlbfne, 
itit^que {and . . . *o), as distinguished from i'tique (therefore). So (accord- 
ing to some) ez^inde, ec^'quando, etc. 

Exceptions : 1. Certain apparent compounds of facid retain the accent of the 
simple verb: as, benefft'cit, caleffl^cit (see § 266. a). 

NoTK. — These were not true compoands, but phrases. 

2. In the second declension the genitive and vocative of nouns in -ins and the 
genitive of those in -ium retain the accent of the nominative : as, Come'ii, Vergili, 
inge^'iii (see § 49. c). 

3. Certain words which have lost a final vowel retain the accent of the com- 
plete words : as, illfc for illfce, pr5du^c for piddGce, sati'n for sati'sne. 


13. In some cases adjacent words, being pronounced together, 
are written as one : — 

unasquisque (Qnus qoisqae), siquis (si qnis), qa&r§ (quA r5), qaamobrem (quam 
ob rem ; cf . quas ob res), respublica (res publica), iusiurandum (ifis iurandum), 
pateifamiliAs (pater famili&s). 

NoTB. — Sometimes a slight change in pronunciation resulted, as, especially in the 
old poets, before est in homdst (homo est), pericttlumst (periculnm est), ausnst (ausus est), 
qnalist (qualis est). Similarly there occur vin', scin' for visne, scisne, sis (si vis), s5d6s 
(si audgs), sultis (si vultls). Compare in English somebody, to breakfast; he \<j, /'uc, 
thou Wt. 

Phonetic Changes 

14. Latin, the language of the ancient Romans, was properly, as its name implies, 
the language spoken in the plain of Latium, lying south of the Tiber, which was the first 
territory occupied and governed by the Romans. It is a descendant of an early form 
of speech commonly called Indo-European (by some Indo-Oennanic) , from which 
are also descended most of the important languages now in use in Europe, including 
among others English, German, the Slavic and the Celtic languages, and further some 
now or formerly spoken in Asia, as Sanskrit, Persian, Armenian. Greek likewise 

1 The Penult is the last syllable but one ; the Antepenult, the last but two. 

8 WORDS AND FORMS [§§ 14, 16 

belongs to the same family. The Romance (or Romanic) langnages, of which the 
most important are Italian, French, Provencal, Spanish, Portuguese, and Roumanian, 
are modern descendants of spoken Latin. 

The earliest known forms of Latin are preserved in a few inscriptions. These in- 
crease in number as we approach the time when the language began to be used in litera- 
ture ; that is, about B.C. 250. It is the comparatively stable language of the classical 
period (b.c. 80-a.d. 14) that is ordinarily meant when we speak of Latin, and it is 
mainly this that is described in this book. 

15. Among the main features in the changes of Latin from 
the earliest stages of the language as we know it up to the forms 
of classical Latin may be mentioned the following : — 

Vowel Changes 

1. The old diphthong ai became the classical ae (aedilis for old aidilis), 
old oi became oe or u (iinus for old oinos), and old ou became u (duc5 for 
old douco). 

2. In compound verbs the vowel a of the simple verb often appears as i 
or e, and ae similarly appears as i : — 

facid, factum, but confidd, conf actum ; caedd, but occido, and similarly cecldi, 
perfect of caedo (cf. cado, occido ; cecidi, perfect of cad5). 

Note. — This change is commonly ascribed to an accentuation on the first syl- 
lable, which seems to have been the rule in Latin before the rule given above (see § 12) 
became established. The original Indo-European accent, however, was not limited by 
either of these principles ; it was probably a musical accent so-called, consisting in a 
change of pitch, and not merely in a more forcible utterance of the accented syllable. 

3. Two vowels coming together are often contracted : — 

cogo for tco-ago; prom5 for fpro-emo; nil for nihil; dSbeS for fde-hibeo 

Consonant Changes 

4. An old s regularly became r between two vowels (rhotacism), passing 
first through the sound of (English) z : — 

cram (cf. est); generis, genitive of genus. ^ 

Note. — Final s sometimes became r by analogy: as, honor (older honSs), from the 
analogy of honSris, etc. 

5. A dental (t, d) often became s, especially when standing next to t, d, 
or 8 : as, equestris for fequettris, casus for fcadtus (cf . 6, below). 

6. Many instances of assimilation, partial or complete, are found : — 

cessi for tced-si ; summus for tsupmus ; scriptus for scribtus (b unvoicing to 
p before the voiceless t); and in compound verbs (see § 16). 

1 A similar change can be seen in English: as, were (cf. waB)^ lorn (cf. /o«e). 


Dissimilation, the opposite kind of change, prevented in some cases the 
repetition of the same sound in succcessive syllables : — 

Thus, paiHia for palilia(from PalSs) ; meridies for tmedidiSs; n&tar&lis with suffix 
-alia (after r), but popuUris with -tris (after 1). 

7. Final s was in early Latin not always pronounced : as, plSna(8) fidSi. 

NoTB . — Traces of this pronunciation existed in Cicero' s time. He speaks of the omis- 
sion of final 8 before a word beginning with a consonant as ** countrified **{8uhru8tieum) . 

8. A final consonant often disappears : as, yirgS for frirgdn ; lac for 
flact ; cor for fcord. 

9. 6, c, and h unite with a following s to form z : as, r§x for fregs ; dux 
for fducs ; traxi for ftrahsi.^ 

10. G and h before t become c : as, rectum for f regtum ; &ctum for fagtum ; 
tractum for ftrahtum.^ 

11. Between m and s or m and t, a p is often developed : as, sumpsi for 
f sums! ; emptnm for fSmtum. 

16. In compounds with prepositions the final consonant in the preposition was often 
assimilated to the following consonant, but usage varied considerably. 

There is good authority for many complete or partial assimilations ; as, for ad, 
ace-, Sigg'f app-, att-, instead of ado-, adg-, etc. Before a labial consonant we find com- 
(comb-, comp-, comm-), but con- is the form before c, d, f, g, cons, i, q, s, t, cons, v ; we 
find conl- or coU-, conr- or con-; c5- in c5nect5, cSniveS, c5nitor, cSnubium. In usually 
changes to im- before p, b, m. Ob and sub may assimilate b to a following c, f , g, or 
p ; before 8 and t the pronunciation of prepositions ending in b doubtless had p ; surr-, 
snmm-, occur for subr-, subm-. The inseparable amb- loses b before a consonant. 
Circom often loses its m before i. The s of dis becomes r before a vowel and is assimi- 
lated to a following f ; sometimes this prefix appears as d!-. Instead of ex we find ef- 
before f (also ecf-). The d of red and sCd is generally lost before a consonant. The 
preposition is better left unchanged in most other cases. 

Vowel Variations 

17. The parent language showed great variation in the vowel 

sounds of kindred words.^ 

a«- This variation is often called by the German name Ablaut. It has 
left considerable traces in the forms of Latin words, appearing sometimes 
as a difference of quantity in the same vowel (as, u, u ; e, e), sometimes as a 
difference in the vowel itself (as, e, o ; i, ae) : * — 

tego, I cover, toga, a robe ; pendo, I weighs pondus, weight; fides, faith^ fidus, 
faithful^ foedus, a treaty ; miser, toretcJiedy maestus, sad ; dare, to give, 
donom, a gift; lego, I rule, rex, a king; dux, a leader, duco (for oldei 
doQco) , I lead. Compare English drive, drove (drave) , driven ; bind, bound, 
band; sing, sang, sung; etc. 

1 Really for ftraghsi. The h of trahd represents an older palatal sound (see § 19). 
3 Really for ftraghtum. These are cases of partial assimilation (cf. 6, above). 
s This variation was not without regularity, but was confined within definite limits. 
^ In Greek, however, it is more extensively preserved. 

10 WORDS AND FORMS [§§ 18, 19 

Kindred Forms 

18. Both Latin and English have gone through a series of phonetic changes, dif- 
ferent in the two languages, hut following definite laws in each. Hence hoth pre- 
serve traces of the older speech in some features of the vowel system, and both show 
certain correspondences in consonants in words which each language has inherited from 
the old common stock. Only a few of these correspondences can he mentioned here. 

19. The most important correspondences in consonants between 
Latin and English, in cognate words, may be seen in the following 
table: — 1 



p: pater 

f : father, earlier /oder* 

f from bh : fero, frater 

b : to hear, brother 

b ** ** lubet, libet 

V, f : loTue, lief 

t: tu, tennis 

th: tkou, iMn^ 

d : duo, dent- 

t : tvoo, tooth 

f from dh : fadd 

d: do 

d " " medius 

d: mid 

b " " ruber 

d: red 

c : cord-, comu 

h: heart, horn 

qu: quod 

wh: what 

g : genus, gustus 

c, k, ch : kin, choose 

h (from gh): hortus, haedus 

y, g : yard, goat 

cons, i: iugum 

y: yoke 

Y : ventus, ovis 

w : wirid, erne 

V from gv : vivus (for tgvivos), 
▼eni5 (for tgvemio). 

qu, c, k : quick, come 

Note 1. — Sometimes a consonant lost in Latin is still represented in English: as, 
niv- (for fsniv-), Eng. snow ; anser (for fhanser), Eng. goose. 

Note 2. — From these cases of kindred words in Latin and English must be care- 
fully distinguished those cases in which the Latin word has been taken into English either 
directly or through some one of the modern descendants of Latin, especially French. 
Thus facio is kindred with Eng. do, but from the Latin participle (factum) of this verb 
comes Eng./ac^, and from the French descendant {fait) of factum comes Eng./eo^. 

^ The Indo-European parent speech had among its consonants voiced aspirates 
(bh, dh, gh) . All these suffered change in Latin, the most important results beinjg, 
for bh, Latin f , b (English has b, v, or f) ; for dh, Latin f , b, d (English has d) ; for gh, 
Latin h, g (English has y, g). The other mutes suffered in Latin much less change, 
while in English, as in the other Germanic languages, they have all changed consid- 
erably in accordance with what has been called Grimm's Law for the shifting of mntes. 

2 The th in father is a late development. The older form fader seems to show an 
exception to the rule that English th corresponds to Latin t. The primitive Germanic 
form was doubtless in accordance with this rule, but, on account of the position of the 
accent, which in Germanic was not originally on the first syllable in this word, the 
consonant underwent a secondary change to d. 

* But to the group st of Latin corresponds also English st ; as in Latin sto, English 



20. Words are divided into eight Fails of Speech: Nouns, 
Adjectives (including Participles), Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, 
Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections. 

a* A Noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea : as, Caesar ; 
Roma, Rome ; domuay a house ; virtus, virtue. 

Names of particular persons and places are called Proper Nouns ; other 
nouns are called Common. 

Note. — An Abstract Noon is the name of a quality or idea : as, aud&cia, boldness ; 
.senectus, old age. A Collective Noun is the name of a group, class, or the like : as, tnrba, 
crowd; ezercitus, army. 

b. An Adjective is a word that attributes a quality : as, bonus, good ; 
iortis, hrave, strong. 

Note 1. — A Participle is a word that attributes quality like an adjective, but, being 
derived from a verb, retains in some degree the power of the verb to assert : as, — 
Oaesar cdnsul creatua, CsBsar having been elected consul. 

Note 2. — Etymologically there is no difference between a noun and an adjective, 
both being formed alike. So, too, all names originally attribute quality, and any com- 
mon name can still be so used. Thus, King WUliam distinguishes this William from 
other Williams, by the attribute of royalty expressed in the name king. 

ۥ A Pronoun is a word used to distinguish a person, place, thing, or 
idea without either naming or describing it : as, is, he ; qui, who ; nSs, we. 

Nouns and pronouns are often called Substantives. 

dm A Verb is a word which is capable of asserting something : as, sum, 
/ am ; amat, he loves. 

Note. — In all modem speech the verb is usually the only word that asserts any- 
thing, and a verb is therefore supposed to be necessary to complete an assertion. 
Strictly, however, any adjective or noun may, by attributing a quality or giving a 
name, make a complete assertion. In the infancy of language there could have been 
no other nxeans of asserting, as the verb is of comfMiratively late dev^opment. 

e* An Adverb is a word used to express the time, place, or manner of 
an assertion or attribute : as, splendide mendax, gloriously false ; hodie natus 
est, he was bom to-day. 

Note. — These same functions are often performed by cases (see §§ 214-217) of 
nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, and by phrases or sentences. In fact, all adverbs 
were originally cases or phrases, but have become specialized by use. 

/. A Preposition is a word which shows the relation between a noun or 
pronoun and some other word or words in the same sentence : as, per agros 
it, he goes over the fields : e pliiribus iinum, one out of many. 

NoTK. — Most prepositions are specialized adverbs (cf. § 219). The relations ex- 
pressed by prepositions were earlier expressed by case-endings. 

l2 WORDS AND FORMS m 20-22 

g» A Conjunction is a word which connects words, or groups of words,, 
without affecting their grammatical relations : as, et, and ; sed, hu. 

Note. — Some adverbs are also used as connectives. These are called Adverbiali 
Conjunctions or Conjunctive (Relative) Adverbs: as, ubi, where; dSnec, untii. 

hm Interjections are mere exclamations and are not strictly to be classed 
as parts of speech. Thus, — heiu, halloo I b, oh/ 

Note. — Interjections sometimes expre§s an emotion which affects a person or thing 
mentioned, and so have a grammatical connection like other words: as, vae victis, woe 
to the conquered (alas for the conquered) ! 


21. Latin is an inflected language. 

Inflection is a change made in the form of a word to show its. 
grammatical relations. 

a* Inflectional changes sometimes take place in the body of a word, or 
at the beginning, but oftener in its termination : — 

vox, a voice ; vdcis, of a voice ; vocS, I call ; vocat, he calls ; vocet, let him call ; 
▼ocivit, he has coiled; tangit, h£ touches; tetigit, he touched, 

b. Terminations of inflection had originally independent meanings which 
are now obscured. They correspond nearly to the use of prepositions,, 
auxiliaries, and personal ptonouns in English. 

Thus, in vocat, the termination is equivalent to ^ or site; in vdcis, to the 
preposition of; and in vocet the change of vowel signifies a change of mood. 

c. Inflectional changes in the body of a verb usually denote relations of 
tense or mood, and often correspond to the use of auxiliary verbs in Eng- 
lish : — 

frangit, ?ie breaks or is breaking ; fregit, he broke or fia^ broken ; mordet, he 
bites; momordit, he bit.^ 

22. The inflection of Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Par- 
ticiples to denote gender, number, and case is called Declension^ 
and these parts of speech are said to be declined. 

The inflection of Verbs to denote voice, mood, tense, number, 
and person is called Conjugation, and the verb is said to be con- 

Note. — Adjectives are often said to have inflections of comparison. These are, 
however, properly stem-formations made by derivation (p. 55, footnote). 

^ The only proper inflections of verbs are those of the personal endings ; and the 
changes here referred to are strictly changes of stemf but have become a part of tho 
system of inflections. 

§§23-25] ROOT, STEM, AND BASB 18 

23. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections axe 
not inflected and are called Particles. 

Note. — The term Particle is sometimes limited to such words as num, -ne, an {inter- 
rogaUv€)f n5n, n6 (negative) ^ si {conditional) ^ etc., which are used simply to indicate 
the form or construction of a sentence. 

Root, Stem, and Base 

24. The body of a word, to which the terminations are attached, 
is called the Stem. 

The Stem contains the idea of the word without relations ; but, except 
in the first part of a compound (as, arti-fez, artificer), it cannot ordinarily he 
used without some termination to express them.^ 

Thus the stem v5c- denotes voice; with -s added it becomes y5z, a voice or the 
voice, as the subject or agent of an action ; with -is it becomes vocis, and signifies 
of a voice. 

Note. — The stem is in many forms so united with the termination that a compari- 
son with other forms is necessary to determine it. 

25. A Root is the simplest form attainable by analysis of a 

word into its component parts. 

Such a form contains the main idea of the word in a very general sense, 
and is common also to other words either in the same language or in kin. 
dred languages.^ 

Thus the root of the stem yoc- is voc, which does not mean to caU, or I caU, 
or calling, but merely expresses vaguely the idea of calling, and cannot be used 
as a part of speech without terminations. With Sl- it becomes yoc&-, the stem of 
vocare {to caU) ; with fty- it is the stem of voc&vit (he called) ; with at»- it becomes 
the stem of voc&tus {called) ; with AtiSn- it becomes the stem of vocAtionis {of a 
caUing), With its vowel lengthened it becomes the stem of vdx, voc-is (a voice : 
that by which we call). This stem voc-, with -fills added, means belonging to a 
voice ; with -fila, a little voice. 

Note. — In inflected languages, words are built up from Boots, which at a very 
early time were used alone to express ideas, as is now done in Chinese. Boots are 
modified into Stems, which, by inflection, become fully formed words. The process by 
which roots are modified, in the various forms of derivatives and compounds, is called 
Stem-building. The whole of this process is originally one of composition, by which 
significant endings are added one after another to forms capable of pronunciation and 
conveying a meaning. 

Boots had long ceased to be recognized as such before the Latin existed as a sepa- 
rate language. Consequently the forms which we assume as Latin roots never really 
existed in Latin, but are the representatives of forms used earlier. 

1 Another exception is the imperative second person singular in -e (as, rege). 
* For example, the root sta is found in the Sanskrit tishthdmi, Greek tarrifu, Latin 
sisteze and st&re, German fie^eit/ and English stand* 

14 WORDS AND FORMS [§§ 26-30 

26. The Stem may be the same as the root: as induc-ls^of a leader^ 
fer-t, he bears; but it is more frequently formed from the root — 

1. By changing or lengthening its vowel : as in scoIks, sawdust (scab, 
shave)\ r§g-is, of a king (reg, direct)', vtc-is, of a voice (voc, call), 

2. By the addition of a simple suffix (originally another root) : as in fuga-, 
stem of fuga, flight (fug + a-) ; regi-6, you rule (reg + stem-ending %-) ; 
sini-t, he allows (si + n%-).^ 

3. By two or more of these methods : as in diici-t, he leads (dug + stem- 
ending %-). 

4. By derivation and composition, following the laws of development 
peculiar to the language. (See §§ 227 ff.) 

27. The Base is that part of a word which is unchanged in 

inflection : as, serv- in servus ; mSns- in mgnsa ; ign- in ignis. 

a. The Base and the Stem are often identical, as in many consonant 
stems of nouns (as, reg- in reg-is). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, 
the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the 
inflectional termination. Thus the stem of servus is servo-; that of meosa, 
mensa- ; that of ignis, igni-. 

28. Inflectional terminations are variously modified by com- 
bination with the final vowel or consonant of the Stem, and thus 
the various forms of Declension and Conjugation (see §§ 36, 164) 


29. The Genders distinguished in Latin are three : Masculine, 
Feminine, and Neuter. 

30. The gender of Latin nouns is either natural or grammatical. 

a. Natural Gender is distinction as to the sex of the object denoted : as, 
puer (m.), boy ; puella (f.), girl; rex (m.), king; regina (f.), queen. 

Note 1. — Many noans have both a masculine and a feminine form to distinguish 
sex : as, cervus, cerva, stag^ doe ; cliCns, clienta, dient ; victor, victrix, conqueror. 

Many designations of persons (as nauta, saUor) usually though not necessarily male 
are always treated as masculine. Similarly names of tribes and peop/e^ are masculine : 
as, RJtetftnl, the Romans; Persae, the Persians. 

Note 2. — A few neuter nouns are used to designate persons as belonging to a class : 
as, maacipiom tuum, your slave (your chattel). 

Many pet names of girls and boys are neuter in form : as, Paegnium, Glycerium. 

Note 3. — Names of classes or collections of x)ersons may be of any gender: as» 
exercitus (m.), acigs (f.), and agmen (n.), army; operae (f. plur.), workmen; c5piae 
(f. plur.), troops; een&tas {jk.), senate; cohors (f.), cohort; concilium (k.), eouncQ, 

1 These suffixes are Indo-European stem-endings. 


6* Grammatical Gender is a formal distinction as to sex where no actual 
sex exists in the object. It is shown by the form of the adjective joined 
with the noun: as, lapis magnus (m.), a great stone; manus mea (f.), my 

Genexal Rules of Gender 

31. Names of Male beings, and of Rivers, Winds, Months, and 

Mountains, are masculine: — 

pater, father; lulius, Julius; Tiberis, the Tiber; auster, south voivd; Unu&- 
rius, January ; Apenninus, the Apennines. 

Note. — Names of Months are properly adjectives, the masculine noun mSnsis, 
monthj being understood : as, lanuarius, January. 

a* A few names of Rivers ending in -a (as, Allia), with the Greek names 
Lethe and Styx, are feminine ; others are variable or uncertain. 

h* Some names of Mountains are feminine or neuter, taking the gender 
of their termination : as, AlpSs (f.), the Alps; S5racte (k.). 

32. Names of Female beings, of Cities, Countries, Plants, Trees, 
and Gems, of many Animals (especially Birds), and of most ab- 
stract Qualities, b.tq feminine : — 

miter, mother; lulia, Julia; RSma, Rome; Italia, Italy; rosa, rose; pinus, 
pine; sapphirus, soppAtre; anas, duck; vSritas, trutJi. 

a. Some names of Towns and Countrieis are masculine : as, Sulmd, Gabi! 
(plur.) ; or neuter, as, Tarentum, Illyricum. 

6. A few names of Plants and Grems follow the gender of their termina- 
tion: as, centaureum (n.), centaury; acanthus (m.), bears/oot; opalus (m.), 

Note. — The gender of most of the above may also be recognized by the termina- 
tions, according to the rules given under the several declensions. The names of Roman 
women were usually feminine adjectives denoting their gens or house (see § 108. 6). 

33. Indeclinable nouns, infinitives, terms or phrases used as 

nouns, and words quoted merely for their form, are neuter : — 

fas, right; nihil, nothing; gumm!, gum; scire tuum, your knowledge (to 
know) ; triste vale, a sad farewell; hoc ipsum diu, this very '* long.'''* 

34. Many nouns may be either masculine or feminine, accord- 
ing to the sex of the object. These are said to be of Common 
Gender: as, ezsul, exile; bOs, ox or cow; -parens, parent. 

Note. — Several names of animals have a grammatical gender, independent of sex. 
These are called epicene. Thus lepus, hare, is always masculine, and vulpes, fox, is 
always feminine. 



35. Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, and Participles are declined 
in two Numbers, singular and plural; and in six Cases, nominar- 
tive, genitive^ dative^ accusative^ ablative^ vocative. 

a» The Nominative is the case of the Subject of a sentence. 

h* The Genitive may generally be translated by the English Possessive, 
or by the Objective with the preposition of. 

€• The Dative is the case of the Indirect Object (§ 274). It may usually 
be translated by the Objective with the preposition to or for, 

dm The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object of a verb (§ 274). It 
is used also with many of the prepositions. 

e. The Ablative may usually be translated by the Objective with frmriy 
biff withy in, or at. It is often used with prepositions. 

/. The Vocative is the case of Direct Address. 

g» All the cases, except the nominative and vocative, are used as object- 
cases ; and are sometimes called Oblique Cases (casus obliqul), 

h. In names of towns and a few other words appear traces of another 
case (the Locative), denoting the place where : as, R5mae, at Rome ; ruri, in 
the country. 

Note. — Still another case, the Instrumental, appears in a few adverbs (§ 215. 4). 


36. Declension is produced by adding terminations originally significant to differ- 
ent forms of stems, vowel or consonant. The various phonetic corruptions in the lan- 
guage have given rise to the several declensions. Most of the case-endings, as given 
in Latin, contain also the final letter of the stem. 

Adjectives are, in general, declined like nouns, and are etymologically to be classed 
with them; but they have several peculiarities of inflection (see § 109 ft,), 

37. Nouns are inflected in five Declensions, distinguished by 
the final letter (characteristic) of the Stem, and by the case-ending, 
of the Genitive Singular. 

Decl. 1 Chabacteristic S. Gen. Sing, ae 

2 5 I 

3 X or a Consonant la 

4 ii US 

5 9 6i 

cr* The Stem of a noun may be found, if a consonant stem, by omitting 
the case-ending ; if a vowel stem, by substituting for the case-ending the 
characteristic voweL 


38. The following are General Rules of Declension : — 

a. The Vocative is always the same as the Nominatiye, except in the 
singular of nouns and adjectives in -ns of the second declension, which have 
-e in the vocative. It is not included in the paradigms, unless it differs 
from the nominative. 

6. In neuters the Nominative and Accusative are always alike, and in 
the plural end in •&. 

ۥ The Accusative singular of all masculines and feminines ends in -m ; 
the Accusative plural in -s. 

d» In the last three declensions (and in a few cases in the others) the 
Dative singular ends in -L 

e» The Dative and Ablative plural are always alike. 

/• The Grenitive plural always ends in -am. 

g» Final -i, -o, -a of inflection are always long ; final •« is short, except in 
the Ablative singular of the first declension ; final -• is long in the first and 
fifth declensions, short in the second and third. Final -is and -us are long in 
plural cases. 

Case-endings of the Five Declensions 

39. The regular Case-endings of the several declensions are 
the following: — ^ 

Decl. I 

Decl. II 

Decl. HI 

Decl. IV 

Decl. V 



dl. 2Va 

jn.,F. Mm 






' -US -nm 






(modified stem) 






-€i (-6) 







-€1 (.6) 



-um -am 

-em (-im) (like nom.) 












-e -am 

(like nom!) 







-1 -a 

-Ss -a, -la 







-am, -lam 




, -la 



-ibas (-ubus) 




-5b -a 

-fis (-Is) -a, -la 




^For ancient, rare, and Greek forms (which are here omitted), see nnder the 
fteyeral declensioiiS' 



40. The Stem of nouns of the First Declension ends in a-. The 
Nominative ending is -a (the stem-vowel shortened), except in 
Greek nouns. 

41. Latin nouns of the First Declension are thus declined : — 

Stella, F., star 

Stem stellft- 





a star 




of a star 




to or for a star 




a star 




with, from, by, etc. 

a star 








of stars 




to or for stars 








with, from, by, etc. 



a* The Latin has no article ; hence stella may mean a star, the star, or 
simply star. 

Gender in the First Declension 

42. Nouns of the first declension are Feminine. 

Exceptions : Nouns masculine from their signification : as, nanta, sailor. So a 
few family or personal names: as, MiirSna, Dolabella, Scaeyola^; also, Hadzia, the 

Case-Forms in the First Declension 

43. a. The genitive singular anciently ended in -al (dissyllabic), which 
is occasionally found : as, aula!. The same ending sometimes occurs in the 
dative, but only as a diphthong. 

1 Scaevola is really a feminine adjective, used as a noun, meaning little l^t hand; 
but, being used as the name of a man (originally a nickname), it became masculine. 
Original genders are often thus changed by a change iu the sense of a noun. 





b» An old genitive in -as is preserved in the word f amiUSs, often used in 
the combinations pater (mater, filius, filia) famili&s, father ^ etc., of a family 
(plur. patres familias or familiarum). 

ۥ The Locative form for the singular ends in -ae ; for the plural in -is (cf . 
p. 34, footnote): as, R5mae, at Rome; AthSnis, at Athens. 

<!• The genitive plural is sometimes found in -um instead of -arum, espe> 
cially in Greek patronymics, as, Aeneadum, sons of ^neas^ and in compounds 
with -c01a and -gSna, signifying dwelling and descent : as, caelicolum, celes- 
tials ; TrSiugenum, sons of Troy ; so also in the Greek nouns amphora and 

ۥ The dative and ablative plural of dea, goddess, fHia, daughter, end in 
an older form -abiis (deabus, filiabus) to distinguish them from the corre- 
sponding cases of deus, god, and filias, son (dels, filiis). So rarely with other 
words, as, liberta, freed-woman ; mula, she-mule ; equa, mare. But, except 
when the two sexes are mentioned together (as in formulas, documents,, 
etc.), the form in -is is preferred in all but dea and filia. 

Note 1. — The old ending of the ablative singular (-ftd) is sometimes retained in 
early Latin: as, praid&d, booty (later, praedA). 

Note 2. — In the dative and ablative plural -eis for -is is sometimes found, and -i!s 
(as in taenils) is occasionally contracted to -Is (taenis) ; so regularly in words in -Aia (as, 
BAis from Baiae). 

Greek Nouns of the First Declension 

44. Many nouns of the First Declension borrowed from the 
Greek are entirely Latinized (as, aula, court) ; but others retain 
traces of their Greek case-forms in the singular. 

Electro, f. 

synopsis, F. 

art of music, F. 


Electra (-ft) 


musica (-6) 




musicae (-6s) 






Clectram (-&n) 


miisicam (-^n) 




musica (-S) 

Andromache, F. 

jEneas, M. 

Persian, M. 


Andromache (-a) 


PersSs (-a) 


Andromaches (-ae) 








AndroraachCn (-am) 

Aenean (-am) 

PersSn (-am) 


AndroiiiachS (-a) 


Persg (-a) 


AndroinachS (-a) 

Aenea (-a) 



Anchiies, m. 

son of jEneas, M. 

comet, M. 



Aeneadte (-a) 

comgtSs (-a) 










Anchisfin (-am) 


comet6n (-az 


Anchise (-ft) 

Aeneade (-ft) 

com5ta (-€) 


AnchisS (-ft, -a) 

Aeneadfi (-a) 


There are (besides proper names) about thirty-five of these words, several being 
names of plants or arts : as, crambC, cabbage ; musicS, music. Most have also regular 
Latin forms : as, comfita ; but the nominative sometimes has the a long. 

a. Greek forms are found only in the singular; the plural, -when it 
occurs, is regular : as, cometae, -arum, etc. 

h. Many Greek nouns vary between the first, the second, and the third 
declensions : as, Bodtae (genitive of Bodtes, -is), Thucydidas (accusative plu- 
ral of Thucydides, -is). See § 52. a and § 81. 

Note. — The Greek accusative Scipiadam, from ScipiadSs, descendant of the Scipios, 
is found in Horace. 


45. The Stem of nouns of the Second Declension ends in &- : 
as, viro- (stem .of vir, T/iaw), servo- (stem of servus or servos, slave), 
bello- (stem of beUum, war). 

a» The Nominative is formed from the stem by adding s in masculines 
and feminines, and m in neuters, the vowel 6 being weakened to fi (see 
§§ 6. a, 46. N.i). 

6« In most nouns whose stem ends in r^ the s is not added in the Nomi- 
native, but is lost, and e intrudes before r,^ if not already present : as, 
agar, stem agr5- ^ ; cf . puer, stem puero-. 

Exceptions : eras, hesperus, iflniperus, mSrus, numerus, tanrus, nmems, nterus, 
virus, and many Greek nouns. 

Cm The stem-vowel 5 has a variant form €,^ which is preserved in the 
Latin vocative singular of noi^ns in -us : as, servS, vocative of servus, slave. 

Note. — In composition this 8 appears as I. Thus, — belli-eer, warlike (from beU*/*-, 
stem of bellum, war). 

46. Nouns of the Second Declension in -us (-os) and -um (-om) 
are thus declined : — 

1 Compare the English chamber from French chambre. 

< Compare Greek &yp(n^ which shows the original o of the stem. 

* By so-called Ablaut (see § 17. a). 

§§ 46, 47] 



semis, M., slave 

bellum, N., war 

Pomplius, M., Pompey 

Stbm servo- 

Stem bello- 

Stem Pompiio- 




servus (-os) 

-US (-OB) bellum 
















servuxn (-om) 

-um (-om) bellum 














Pompei (-Si) 































Note 1. — The earlier forms for nominative and accasative were-os, -om, and these 
were always retained after u and ▼ up to the end of the Republic. The terminations 
8 and m are sometimes omitted in inscriptions : as, CornClio for ComSlios, Cornfiliom. 

Note 2. — Stems in quo-, like equo-, change qu to p before u. Thus, — ecus (earlier 
equos), eqoi, aquS, ecum (earlier equom), eque. Modem editions disregard this principle. 

47. Nouns of the Second Declension in -er and -ir are thus de- 
clined : — 

pner, m., boy ager, M,,fleld yir, m., man 

Stem pueio- 





















TEM agro- 


































Note. — When e belongs to the stem, as in pner, it is retained throughout; other- 
wise it appears only in the nominative and vocative singular, as in ager. 

22 DECLENSION OF NOUNS [§§ 48, 49 

Gender in the Second Declension 

48. Nouns ending in -us (-os), -er, -ir, are Masculine ; those end- 
ing in -um (-on) are Neuter. 

Exceptions: Names of countries and towns in -as (-oe) are Feminine: as, 
Aegyptas, Corinthus. Also many names of plants and gems, with the following : 
alvus, h^y ; carbasus, linen (pi. carlMisa, sailSf k.) ; colas, distaff; hamas, ground; 
▼annas, winnowing-shovel. 

Many Greek nouns retain their original gender : as, arctas {T.),the Polar Bear ; 
methodus (f.), method. 

a. The following in -us are Neuter ; their accusative (as with all neuters) 
is the same as the nominative : pelagns, sea ; yirus, poison ; vulgus (rarely 
M.), the crotvd. They are not found in the plural, except pelagns, which has 
a rare nominative and accusative plural pelage. 

NoTB. — The nominative plural neuter cCtS, sea monsters, occurs; the nominative 
singalar cStas occurs in V itmvius. 

Case-Forms in the Second Declension 

49. a* The Locative form of this declension ends for the singular in -! : 
as, humi, on the ground; Corinthi, at Corinth; for the plural, in -is: as, 
Philippis, at Philippi (cf. p. 34, footnote). 

b. The genitive of nouns in -ius or -ium ended, until the Augustan Age, 
in a single -i : as, fili, of a son ; Pompei, of Pompey (Pompeius) ; but the 
accent of the nominative is retained: as, ing^'ni, of genius.^ 

ۥ Proper names in -ius have -i in the vocative, retaining the accent of 
the nominative : as, Vergili. So also, fiUus, son ; genius, divine guardian : as, 
audi, mi fill, hear, my son. 

Adjectives in -ius form the vocative in -ie, and some of these are occa- 
sionally used as nouns : as, Lacedaemonie, Spartan, 

Note. — Greek names in -ius have the vocative -le : as, Lyrcius, vocative L3rrcie. 

d. The genitive plural often has -um or (after ▼) -om (cf. § 6. a) instead 
of -orum, especially in the poets: as, deum, superum, divom, of the gods; 
yirum, of men. Also in compounds of vir, and in many words of money, 
measure, and weight : as, Seyinun, of the Seviri ; nummum, of coins ; iugerum, 
of acres. 

e» The original ending of the ablative singular (-Od) is sometimes found 
in early Latin : as, 6naiy5d (later, GnaeO), Cneius. 

/• Proper names in -ilins, -^ius, -dins (as, Auruncnldins, B6i), are declined 
like Pompeius. 

1 The genitive in -ii occurs once in Virgil, and constantly in Ovid, but was probably 
unknown to Cicero. 

§§ 40-62] 



g. Dens (m.), god^ is thas declined : — 


NoM. deus 

Gen. del 

Dat. de6 

Ace. deum 

Abl. de5 


del (dil), dl 
de6ram, deum 
deb (dilB), dls 
delB(dilB), diB 

Note. — The vocatiye singular of deus does not occur in classic Latin, but is said 
to have been dee ; deus (like the nominative) occurs in the Vulgate. For the genitive 
plural, divum or divom (from divus, divine) is often used. 

50. The following stems in ero-, in which e belongs to the stem^ 
retain the e throughout and are declined like puer (§ 47) : — 

adulter, ad^uXUTer; gener, Hon-in-Xmo; puer, hoy; 

Mceiy father-irtrlaw ; vesper, evening; Liber, Bacchus. 

Also, the adjective liber, free, of which Uberi, children, is the plural (§ 111. a), 
and compounds in -fer and -ger (stem fero-, gero-) : as, Iflcifer, morning star ; 
armiger, squire, 

a. An old nominative socerns occurs. So vocative puere, hoy, as if from 
tpuents (regularly puer). 

&• Vir, man, has genitive viri ; the adjective satur, sated, has satiiri ; ves- 
per, evening, has ablative yespere (locative yesperi, in the evening). 

Cm Mulciber, Vulcan, has -beri and -bri in the genitive. The barbaric 
names Hiber and Celtiber retain e throughout. 

51. The following, not having e in the stem, insert it in the 
nominative singular and are declined like ager (§ 47) : — 

agcr, field, stem agra- ; coluber, snake ; magister, master ; 

aper, hoar ; 
arbiter, judge ; 
auster, south wirid ; 
cancer, crab; 
caper, goat; 

conger, sea eel ; 
culter, knife; 
faber, smith; 
fiber, heaver; 
liber, hook; 

minister, servant; 
oleaster, wild olive ; 
onager (-grus), wUd ass; 
scomber (-brus), mackerel. 

Greek Kouns of the Second Declension 

52. Greek nouns of the Second Declension end in -os, -(Js, mas- 
culine or feminine, and in -on neuter. 

They are mostly proper names and are declined as follows in 
the Singular, the Plural, when found, being regular : — 


mythos, m. 

Ath58, M. 

Delos, F. 

llion, N 







AthSs (-6) 





Ath6 (-1) 










Athon (-um) 

Delon (-um) 





• Del5 







a. Many names in -es belonging to the third declension have also a 
genitive in -i : as, Thucydides, Thucydidi (compare § 44. h), 

bm Several names in -er have also a nominative in -us: as, Teucer or 
Teucnis. The name Panthus has the vocative Pantha (§ 81. 3). 

c« The genitive plural of certain titles of books takes the Greek ter- 
mination -on : as, Ge5rgic5n, of the Georgics, 

d. The termination -oe (for Greek -ot) is sometimes found in the nomi- 
native plural : as, Adelphoe, the Adelphi (a play of Terence). 

e. Greek names in -eus (like Orpheus) have forms of the second and 
third declensions (see § 82). 


53. Nouns of the Third Declension end in a, e, i, 0, y, c, 1, n, 
r, 8, t, z. 

54. Stems of the Third Declension are classed as follows : — 

' a. Mute stems. 
h. Liquid and Nasal stems. 

I. Consonant Stems < 
II. I-Stems « 

' a. Pure i-stems. 
6. Mixed i-stems. 

55. The Nominative is always derived from the stem. 
The variety in form in the Nominative is due to simple modi 
fications of the stem, of which the most important are — 

1. Combination of final consonants : as of c (or g) and s to form z ; dux, 
duels, stem duo-; rex, regis, stem reg-. 

2. Omission of a final consonant : as of a final nasal ; le5, le5nis, stem 
le5n-; 5rati5, 5rationis, stem 5rati5n-. 

3. Omission of a final vowel : as of final 1 ; calcar, calcaris, st^m calcari-. 

4. Change of vowel in the final syllable : as of a to e ; princeps (for -caps), 
principis, stem princip- (for -cap-). 



Consonant Stems 
Mute Stems 

56. Masculine and Feminine Nouns with mute stems form the 
Nominative by adding s to the stem. 

A labial (p) is retained before 8 : as, princep-s. 

A lingual (t, d) is dropped before 8 : as, mHes (stem milit-), c&8t58 (stem 

A palatal (c, g) unites with 8 to form z : as, dux (for f duc-s), rSz (for 

a. In dissyllabic stems the final syllable often shows e in the nomina- 
tive and i in the stem : as, princeps, stem princip- (for -cap-). 

57. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : 

princeps, c, chief 

r&diz, F., root 

mHes, M., soldier 

Stem princip- 

Stem rftdic- 


Stem milit- 




















































cust5s, c., guard 

dux, e., leader 

rex, M., king 

Stbm custod- 

Stem duc- 


Stem rSg- 





























[§§ 57-^ 



























a* In like manner are declined — 

ariSs, -etis (m.), ram; comes, -itis (c), companion; lapis, -idis (m.), stone; 
ifidex, -icis (m.), judge; comix, -icis (f.), raven^ and many other nouns. 

58. Most mute stems are Masculine or Feminine. Those that 
are neuter have for the Nominative the simple stem. But, — 

a. Lingual Stems (t, d) ending in two consonants drop the final mute : 
as, cor (stem cord-), lac (stem lact-). So also stems in ftt- from the Greek : 
as, poema (stem poemat-). 

b* The stem capit- shows a in the nominative (caput for fcapot). 

59. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 

cor, N., heart 
Stbm cord- 














caput, N., head 
Stem capit- 








poema, n., poem 
Stem poemat- 

poem ate 














60. The following irregularities require notice : — 

a. Greek neuters with nominative singular in -a (as poema) frequently 
«nd in -is in the dative and ablative plural, and rarely in -Gram in the geni- 
tive plural ; as, poematis (for poematibus), poematSrum (for po6matum). 

6* A number of monosyllabic nouns with mute stems want the geni- 
tive plural (like cor). See § 103. g. 2. 



Liquid and Naaal Stems (A n^ r) 

61. In Masculine and Feminine nouns with liquid and nasal 
stems the Nominative is the same as the stem. 

Exceptions are the following : — 

1. Stems in on- drop n in the nominative : as in legiS, stem legiSn-. 

2. Stems in din- and gin- drop n and keep an original 5 in the nominative : as 
in virgd, stem virgin-.^ 

3. Stems in in- (not din- or gin-) retain n and have o instead of 1 in the nom- 
inative : as in coxnicen, stem coinicin-.^ 

4. Stems in tr- have -ter in the nominative : as, pater, stem patr-.' 

62. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 

cdnsul, M., consul leo, m., lion virg5, f., maiden pater, m.^ father 
Stem cdnsul- Stem ledn- Stem virgin- Stem pair- 





















































virgin 6b 









Note 1. — Stems in 11-, rr- (n.) lose one of their liquids in the nominative: as, far, 
f arris; mel, mellis. 

Note 2. — A few masculine and feminine stems have a nominative in -s as well as 
in -r : as, bonds or honor, arbds or arbor. 

Note 3. — Canis, dog^ and ittvenls, youths have -is in the nominative. 

1 These differences depend in part upon special phonetic laws, in accordance with 
which vowels in weakly accented or unaccented syllables are variously modified, and 
in part upon the influence of analogy. 

2 These, no doubt, had originally ter- in the stem, but this had become weakene<i 
to tr- in some of the cases even in the parent speech. In Latin only the nominative and 
vocative singular show the e. But cf . Mftspitris and UIspiteriB (M4[r]8-piter), quoted by 
Priscian as old forms. 



[§§ 63-66 

63. In Neuter nouns with liquid or nasal stems the Nomina- 
tive is the same as the stem. 

Exceptions: 1. Stems in in- have e instead of i in the nominative: as in 
ndmen, stem ndmin-. 

2. Most stems in er- and or- have -as in the nominative : as, genus, stem gener-.^ 

64. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 

nomen, n., name genus, n., race corpus, n., body aeqnor, n., sea 
Stbm nomin- Stem gener- Stem corpor- Stem aeqnor- 






















































So also are declined opus, -eris, work; pignus, -eris or -oris, pledge, etc. 

Note. — The following real or apparent liquid and nasal stems have the genitive 
plural in -ium, and are to he classed with the i-stems : imber, linter, uter, venter ; glis, 
mas, mils, [frgn]; also virSs (plural of vis: see §79). 


65. Nouns of this class include — 

1. Pure i-Stems : 

a. Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic ^ nouns in -is and four in -er. 
b» Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar. 

2. Mixed i-Stems, declined in the singular like consonant stems, 
in the plural like i-stems. 

1 These were originally s-stems (cf. § 15. 4). 

2 I.e. having the same number of syllables in the nominative and genitive singular. 




Pure ^Steins 

66. Masculine and Feminine parisyllabic nouns in -is form the 
Nominative singular by adding s to the stem. 

Four stems in bri- and tri- do not add a to form the nominative, but drop i 
and insert e before r. These are imber, linter, fiter, venter. 

67. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 


F., thirst 

turris, f., tower 

ignis, u.^fire 

imber, m., rain 

Stem siti- 

Stem torri- 

Stem igni- 

Stem imbri- 



















turrim (-em) 





turrl (-e) 

ignl (-e) 

imbrI (-e) 
















turris (-fis) 

ignis (-fis) 

imbris (-8s) 





68. In Neuters the Nominative is the same as the stem, with 
final i changed to e : as, mare, stem mari-. But most nouns ^ in 
which the i of the stem is preceded by al or ar lose the final vowel 
and shorten the preceding &: as, animil, stem animali-.^ 

a. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar have -i in the ablative singular, -ium in the 
genitive plural, and -ia in the nominative and accusative plural : as, animal, 
animali, -ia, -iixm. 

1 Such are animal, bacch&nal, bidental, capital, cervical, cubital, lupercal, minutal, 
pateal, qnadrantal, toral, tribunal, vectigal ; calcar, cochlear, exemplar, Ucunar, laquear, 
Incar, laminar, lup&nar, palear, pulvinar, torcular. Cf. the plurals dent&Iia, frontftlia, 
genullia, spons&lia ; alt&ria, plantiria, specul&ria, t&l&ria ; also many names of festivals, 
as, Satum&lia. 

2 Exceptions are augur&le, colUre, fdcile, navale, penetrale, r&mAle, ecutftle, tibiAle; 
alve&re, capilUre, cochleaie. 



[§§ 69-71 

69. Nouns of this class are declined as follows : — 

sedile, n. , seat animal, n. , animal calcar, n. , spur 
Stem se^li- Stem animali- Stem calcari- 






-e or — 



ani mails 












-e or — 
































Mixed /-Stems 

70. Mixed i-stems are either original i-stems that have lost their 
i-forms in the singular, or consonant stems that have assumed i- 
forms in the plural. 

Note. — It is sometimes impossible to distinguish between these two classes. 

71. Mixed i-stems have -em in the accusative and -e in the abla- 
tive singular, -ium in the genitive ^ and -is or -€8 in the accusative 
plural. They include the following: — 

1. Nouns in -es, gen. -is.^ 

2. Monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a consonant : as, ars, p5ns, arx. 

3. Polysyllables in -ns or -rs : as, aliens, cohors. 

4. Nouns in -tas, genitive -talis (genitive plural usually -Tim)^ : as, civitas. 

5. Penates, optimates, and nouns denoting birth or abode {patrials) in -as, 
-is, plural -ates, -ites : as, Arpinas, plural Arpinates ; Quiris, plural Quirites. 

6. The following monosyllables in -s or -x preceded by a vowel : dos, 
fraus, glis, lis, mas, mus, nix, nox, strix, vis. 

1 There is much variety in the practice of the ancients, some of these words having 
-ium, some -um, and some both. 

2 These are acinacSs, aedSs, alcSs, caedSs, cautSs, cULdSs, comp&gSs, contagSs, famSs, 
fglSs, fldSs (plural), indolSs, labSs, luSs, mSlSs, molfis, nubSs, palumbSs, prSlSs, propages, 
pubSs, sedSs, saepSs, sordfis, strag^s, struSs, subolSs, tSbSs, torqufis, tudSs, vfitSs, vehSs, 
veprSs, verrSs, vulpSs ; aedSs has also nominative aedis. 

§§ 72-76] 



72. Nouns of this clajss are thus declined : — 


iibes, F., doud 
Stbm ]iab(i)- 

arbs, F., city 
Stem urb(i)- 

nox, F., night 
Stem iiO€t(i)- 


cliSns, M., client 
Stem cUe]it(i)- 

aetis, F., age 
Stem aetAt(i)- 









































clientiom ^ 

aet&tum - 













Summary of ^Stems 

73. The i-declension was confused even to the Romans themselves, nor was it stable 
at all periods of the language, early Latin having i-forras which afterwards disap- 
peared. There was a tendency in nouns to lose the i-forms, in adjectives to gain them. 
The nominative plural (-Is) 8 was most thoroughly lost, next the accusative singular 
(-im), next the ablative (-i) ; while the genitive and accusative plural (-ium, -is) were 
retained in almost all. 

74. iHstems show the i of the stem in the following forms : — 

a* They have the genitive plural in -ium (but some monosyllables lack 
it entirely). For a few exceptions, see § 78. 

b. All neuters have the nominative and accusative plural in -ia. 

c. The accusative plural (m. or f.) is regularly -is. 

d* The accusative singular (m. or f.) of a few ends in -im (§ 75). 
Cm The ablative singular of all neuters, and of many masculines and 
feminines, ends in -i (see § 76). 

75. The regular case-ending of the Accusative singular of i- 
stems (M. or F.) would be -im : as, sitis, sitim (cf . stella, -am ; senrus, 
-um); but in most nouns this is changed to -em (following the 

consonant declension). 

1 Rarely cHentum. 2 Also aetfttlum. Cf. § 71. 4. 

* An old, though not the original, ending (see p. 32, footnote 2). 


a. The accusative in -im is found exclusively — 

1. In Greek nouns and in names of rivers. 

2. In buris, cucamis, r&viSf sitis, tussis, vis. 

8. In adverbs in -tim (being accusative of nouns in -tis), as, partim ; and in 

&• The accusative in -im is found sometimes in febris, puppis, restis, 
turris, securis, sementis, and rarely in many other words. 

76. The regular form of the Ablative singular of i-stems would 
be -i : as, sitis, siti ; but in most nouns this is changed to -e. 

«• The ablative in -i is found exclusively — 

1. In nouns having the accusative in -im (§ 75) ; also sectiris. 

2. In the following adjectives used as nouns : aequalis, ann&lis, aqufllis, con- 
salaris, gentilis, molaris, primipilaiiB, tribnlis. 

3. In neuters in -e, -al, -ar : except baccar, iubar, rSte, and sometimes mare. 

&• The ablative in -i is found sometimes — 

1. In avis, cl&vis, febris, finis, ignis,^ imber, liix, navis, ovis, pelvis, puppis, 
sementis, strigilis, tarns, and occasionally in other words. 

2. In the followmg adjectives used as nouns : aifinis, bipennis, can&lis, famili- 
aris, n&t&lis, rivalis, sapiSns, tridens, tpxemis, voc&lis. 

NoTB 1. — The ablative of iamSa is always famS (§ 105. e). The defective mane has 
sometimes m&ni (§ 103. h. n.) as ablative. 

Note 2. — Most names of towns in -e (as, Praeneste, Tergeste) and SOracte, a moun- 
tain, have the ablative in -e. Caere has CaerSte. 

Note 3. — Canis and invenis have cane, iuvene. 

77. The regular Nominative plural of i-stems is -fis,^ but -is is 
occasionally found. The regular Accusative plural -is is common, 
but not exclusively used in any word. An old form for both 
cases is -Ss (diphthong). 

78. The following have -um (not -ium) in the genitive plural; 

1. Always, — canis, iuyenis,' ambages, mare (once only, othervrise want- 
ing), YOlucris ; regularly, sedes, yates. 

2. Sometimes, — apis, caedes, clades, mensis, strues, suboles. 

3. Very rarely, — patrials in -as, -atis; -is, -itis; as, Arpinas, Arpinatum; 
Samms, Samnitum. 

1 Always in the formula aquA et igni iaterdic! (§ 401) . 

2 The Indo-European ending of the nominative plural, -88 (preserved in Greek in 
consonant stems, as 6pTv^f 6pTvy-€s)j contracts with a stem- vowel and gives -Ss in the 
Latin i-declension (cf. the Greek plural tfeis). This -€s was extended to consonant 
stems in Latin. * Canis and invenis are really n-stems. 




Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension 

79. In many nouns the stem is irregularly modified in the nomi- 
native or other cases. Some peculiar forms are thus declined : — 

bos, c. 

senez, m. 

car5, F. 

OS, N. 

vis, F. 

ox, cow 

old man 
















viB (rare) 






VI (rare) 






























bobua (bubus) 










viriB (-Sb) 


bobus (bubus) 





sua, c. 



nix, F. 

iter, N. 

























































1 Also lupiter. 


a. Two vowel-stems in u-, gru- and su-, which follow the third declension, 
add 8 in the nominative, and are inflected like mute stems : grus has also 
a nominative gniis ; s&s has both siiibus and subus in the dative and ablative 
plural, grus has only gruibus. 

b. In the stem bov- (bou-) the diphthong ou becomes 5 in the nominative 
(bSs, bdvis). 

In nay- (nau-) an i is added (navis, -is), and it is declined like turns (§ 67). 

In I5v- (= Zcvs) the diphthong (ou) becomes u in lu-piter (for -pftter), 
genitive ISvis, etc. ; but the form luppiter is preferred. 

c* In iter, itineris (n.), iecur, i»cinoris (iecoris) (n.), supellSz, supellectilis 
(f.), the nominative has been formed from a shorter stem ; in senez, senis, 
from a longer ; so that these words show a combination of forms from two 
distinct stems. 

d. In nix, nivis the nominative retains a g from the original stem, the g 
uniting with s, the nominative ending, to form x. In the other cases the 
stem assumes the form niv- and it adds i in the genitive plural. 

ۥ Vas (n.), yasis, keeps s throughout ; plural yasa, yasorum. A dative 
plural yasibus also occurs. There is a rare singular y&sum. 

The Locatiye Case 

80. The Locative form for nouns of the third declension ends 
in the singular in -i or -e, in the plural in -ibus : as, riiri, in the 
country ; Carthagini or Carthagine, at Carthage; Tiallibus, at Tralle%} 

Greek Nouns of the Third Declension 

81. Many nouns originally Greek — mostly proper names — 
retain Greek forms of inflection. So especially — 

1. Genitive singular in -os, as, tigridos. 

2. Accusative singular in -a, as, aethera. 

3. Yoealiye singular like the stem, as, Perici§, Orpheu, Atla. 

4. Nominative plural in -^s, as, herS^s. 

5. Aoousative plural in -&8, as, herdSs. 

1 The Indo-European locative singular ended in -I, which became -S in Latin. Thus 
the Latin ablative in -e is, historically considered, a locative. The Latin ablative in 
-i (from -id) was an analogical formation (cf . -a from -&d, -6 from -M), properly belong- 
ing to i-stems. With names of towns and a few other words, a locative function was 
ascribed to forms in -i (as, Carthagini), partly on the analogy of the real locative of 
o-stems (as, Corinttal, § 49. a) ; but forms in -S also survived in this use. The plural 
-bus is properly dative or ablative, but in forms like Trallibus it has a locative func- 
tion. Cf« Pliilippis (§ 49. «), in which the ending -is is, historicaUJr considered, either 
locative, or instrumental, or both, and AthCnis (§ 43. c), in which the ending is formed 
on the analogy of o-stems. 

§§ ^A 83] 



82. Some of these forms are seen in the following examples : — 

her58, m., hero lampas, f., torch luisis, f., base ti^ris, c, tiger nils, f., naiad 

Stem her&- 

Stem lampad- 

Stem basi- 


Stem ( *!«^^ 
I tigii- 

^' STBMBAid- 











tigrlB(-idoB) naidoB 


her 61 









tigrin(-ida) n9.ida 
















ba8lum(-e6n) tigrium 












tigrfB(-idftB) naid&B 

Proper Names 














































Paride, PaiT 





MoTB. — The regular Latin forms may be used for most of the abore. 

83. Other peculiarities are the following : — 

a. Delphinus, -i (m.), has also the form delphin, -Inis ; Salamis, -is (r.)^ 
has acc. SaUnnina. 

b» Most stems in U- (noro. -is) often have also the forms of i-stems : as^ 
tigris, gen. -Idis (-Idos) or -is ; acc. -Idem (-!da) or -im (-in) ; abl. -!de or -L. 
But many, including most feminine proper names, have acc. -idem (-ida) 
abl. -ide, — not -im or -L (These stems are irregular also in Greek.) 

1 Dative, hSrdisin (once only). 


c. Stems in on- sometimes retain -n in the nominative: as, Agamem- 
ii5n (or Agamemn5), genitive -6nis, accusative -6na. 

d. Stems in ont- form the nominative in -6n: as, horizdn, Xenophon; 
but a few are occasionally Latinized into on- (nom. -6) : as, Dracd, -Snis ; 
Antiph5, -5nis. 

e» Like Simois are declined stems in ant-, ent-, and a few in unt- (nomi- 
native in -as, -is, -us) : as. Atlas, -antis ; Trapezus, -untis. 

/• Some words fluctuate between different declensions : as Orpheus be- 
tween the second and the third. 

g. -5n is found in the genitive plural in a few Greek titles of books : as, 
Dletamorphdsedn, of the Metamorphoses (Ovid's well-known poem); Ge5rgicdn, 
of the Georgics (a poem of Virgil). 

Gender in the Third Declension 

84. The Gender of nouns of this declension must be learned 
by practice and from the Lexicon. Many are masculine or femi- 
nine by nature or in accordance with the general rules for gen- 
der (p. 15). The most important rules for the others, with their 
principal exceptions, are the following: — ^ 

85. Masculine are nouns in -or, -Os, -er, -6s (gen. -itis), -ex (gen. 
-icis): as, color, fl5s, imber, gurges (gurgitis), vertex (verticis). 

Exceptions are the following : — 

a. Feminine are arbor ; cos, dos ; linter. 

h. Neuter are ador, aequor, cor, marmor ; 5s (oris) ; also os (ossis) ; 
cadaver, iter, tuber, uber, ver ; and names of plants and trees in -er : as, 
acer, papaver. 

86. Feminine are nouns in - 6, -fis, -6s, -is, -us, -x, and in -s preceded 
by a consonant : as, legiO, civitas, nubes, avis, virtus, arx, urbs. The 
nouns in -o are mostly those in -d6 and -g5, and abstract and collec- 
tive nouns in -iO. 

Exceptions are the following : — 

a. Masculine are led, leonis ; ligo,-onis ; serm5, -5nis ; also cardo, harpago, 
margo, ordo, turbo ; and concrete nouns in -id : as, pugio, unio, papilio ; ^ 
acinaces, aries, celes, lebes, paries, pes ; 

1 Some nouns of doubtful or variable gender are omitted. 

2 Many nouns in -6 (gen. -Snis) are masculine by signification : as, gero, carrier; 
restio, ropemaker ; and family names (originally nicknames) : as, Cicerd, NasS. See 
§§236. c, 255. 




Nouns in -nis and -guis : as, isnis, sanguis ; also axis, caulis, collis, cucumiSy 
ensis, fasds, follis, fustis, lapis, mensis, orbis, piscis, postis, pulyis, ydmis ; 

caliz, fornix, grex, phoenix, and nouns in -ex (gen. -icis) (§ 85) ; 
dens, fons, m5ns, pGns. 

Note. — Some nouns in -is and -ns which are masculine were originally adjectives 
or participles agreeing with a masculine noun: as, Aprilis (sc. mfinsis), ii., April; 
oriSns (sc. 851), m., the east; annalis (sc. liber), m., tfie year-book. 

b» Neuter are yas (yasis) ; crus, iiis, piis, rus, tils. 

87. Neuter are nouns in -a, -e, -1, -n, -ar, -ur, -Us : as, poSma, mare, 
animal, nOmen, calcar, rObur, corpus ; also lac and caput. 

Exceptions are the following : — 

a» Masculine are s&l, sOl, pecten, yultur, lepus. 
bm Feminine is pecus (gen. -udis). 


88. The Stem of nouns of the Fourth Declension ends in u-. 
This is usually weakened to 1 before -bus. Masculine and Femi- 
nine nouns form the nominative by adding s ; Neuters have for 
nominative the simple stem, but with fi (long). 

89. Nouns of the Fourth Declension are declined as follows : 


(, F., hand 

lacus, M., lake 


genu, N., knee 


Stbm mann- 

Stem lacu- 

Stem genu- 












































m annum 
























Gender in the Fourtii Declension 

90. Most nouns of the Fourth Declension in -us are Masculine. 

ExcepiioTis : The following are Feminine : acus, anus, colas, domas, idfis (phiral), 
manas, nurus, portictts, qainqoAtrfis (plural), socrns, txiboa, with a few names of 
plants and trees. Also, rarely, penus, apeciis. 

91. The only Neuters of the Fourth Declension are oom% genu, 
pecii (§ 106./), veru.^ 

Case-Forms in the Fourth Declension 

92. The following peculiarities in case-forms of the Fourth 
Declension require notice : — 

a» A genitive singular in -i (as of the second declension) sometimes 
occurs in nouns in -tus : as, senatus, genitive sen&ti (regularly senatoa). 

&• In the genitive plural -uum is sometimes pronounced as one sylla- 
ble, and may then be written -urn : as, ctttrum (Aen. vi. 653) for curmnm. 

c» The dative and ablative plural in -ilbus are retained in partus and 
tribus; so regularly in artus and lacus, and occasionally in other words; 
portus and specus have both -ubus and -ibus. 

d. Most names of plants and trees, and coins, distaff, have also forms of 
the second declension : as, ficiis, Jig, genitive ficus or lid. 

e. An old genitive singular in -uis or -uos and an old genitive plural in 
-uom occur rarely : as, senatuis, senatuos ; fluctuom. 

-/• The ablative singular ended anciently in -ud (cf. § 43. N. 1) : as, 

93. Domus (f.), hou9e^ has two stems ending in u- and o-. Hence 
it shows forms of both the fourth and second declensions : 



domnum (domdnim) 


dom5s (domfLs) 


Note 1. — The Locative is domi (rarely domui), at home. 

Note 2. — The Grenitive domi occurs in Plautus ; domdntm is late or poetic. 

1 A few other neuters of this declension are mentioned by the ancient grammarians 
as oocnrring in certain cases. 





dom^ (domi, loc.) 


domui (dom6) 




domo (domu) 




94. Most nouns of the Fourth Declension are formed from 
verb-stems, or roots, by means of the suffix -tus (-sas) (§ 238. b) : 

cantas, aoTig, can, cand, sing ; cAsut (for tcad-ttts), chance, cad, cad5, faU; 
ezsolatas, exile, from ezsuld, to he an exile (exsul). 

a. Many are formed either from verb-stems not in use, or by analogy : 
cdnsuUltus (as if from tconsuld, -&re), ten&ttts, incestas. 

b» The accusative and the dative or ablative of nouns in -tus (-sus) form 
the Supines of verbs (§ 159. 6): as, spectatom, petitmn; dictu, yisu. 

c. Of many verbal derivatives only the ablative is used as a noun : as, 
iussu (meO), hy (my), command * so iniussu (populi), without {the people's) order. 
Of some only the dative is used : as, diyisai. 


95. The Stem of nouns of the Fifth Declension ends in 6-, which 
appears in all the cases. The Nominative is formed from the stem 
by adding s. 

96. Nouns of the Fifth Declension are declined as follows : — 

res, F., thing 

dies, M., day 

fides, v., faith 




Stem fid$- 









di« (die) 


.61 (.e) 



diei (die) 


-ei (-e) 































Note. — The 8 of the stem is shortened in the genitive and dative singular of lldCs^ 
spSft, i^, but in tbese it is found long in early Latin. In the aocmaative singular e 
is always short. 


Gender in the Fifth Declension 

97. All nouns of the Fifth Declension are Feminine, except 
diSs (usually M.), day^ and meridiSs (M.), noon. 

a* Dies is sometimes feminine in the singular, especially in phrases indi- 
cating a fixed time, and regularly feminine when used of time in general: 
as, constituta die, on a set day; locga dies, a long time. 

Case-Forms in the Fifth Declension 

98. The following peculiarities require notice : — 

a. Of noims of the fifth declension, only dies and res are declined through- 
out. Most want the plural, which is, however, found in the nominative or 
accusative in acies, effigies, eluvies, fades, giacies, series, species, spes.^ 

&• The Locative form of this declension ends in -€. It is found only in 
certain adverbs and expressions of time : — 

hodie, to-day ; die quarts (old, qu&rti), thefowrih day ; 

perendie, day after to-morrow ; pridiS, the day before, 

c. The fifth declension is closely related to the first, and several nouns 
have forms of both : as, materia, -ies ; saeyitia, -ies. The genitive and dative 
in -ci are rarely found in these words. 

d. Some nouns vary between the fifth and the third declension : as, 
requies, saties (also satias, genitive -atis), plebes (also plebs, genitive plSbis), 
fames, genitive famis, ablative fame. 

NoTB. — In the genitive and dative -Si (-Si) was sometimes contracted into -€i: 
as, tribunns plSbA, tribune of the people (plSbSs). Genitives in -i and -S also occur: 
as, dii (Aen. i. 636), pl61>i-8citum, aciS (B. 6. ii. 23). A few examples of the old geni- 
tive in -$8 are found (cf. -&8 in the first declension, § 43. 6). The dative has rarely -€, 
and a form in -i is cited. 

Nouns wanting in the Plural 

99. Some nouns are ordinarily found in the Singular number 
only (sinffuldria tantum). These are — 

1. Most proper names : as, Caesar, Casar; Gallia, Gaul, 

2. Names of things not counted, but reckoned in mass : as, aurum, gold; 
aer, air; triticum, wheat, 

3. Abstract nouns: as, ambitid, ambition; fortitiidS, courage; calor, heat. 

1 The forms faciCnun, speciSrum, speciSbus, spSmm, spSbns, are cited by grammarians, 
also 8p€rS8, sp^ribus, and some of these occnr in late authors. 

§§100-102] DEFECTIVE NOUNS 41 

100. Many of these nouns, however, are used in the plural in 
some other sense. 

a* The plural of a proper name may be applied to two or more persons 
or places, or even things, and so become strictly common : — 

duodedm Caesar^s, the twelve CcBsars, 
Galliae, tfie two Gauls (Cis- and Transalpine). 
Castores, Castor and Pollux ; IoySs, images of Jupiter, 

6. The plural of names of things reckoned in mass may denote particular 
objects: as, aera, bronze utensils, nives, snowjlakes; or different kinds of a thing : 
as, acres, airs (good and bad). 

c. The plural of abstract nouns denotes occasions or instances of the quality, 
or the like : — 

quaedam excellentiae, some cases of superiority ; ot;a> periods of rest ; caldr§8» 
frigora, times of heat and cold. 

Nouns wanting in the Singular 

101. Some nouns are commonly or exclusively found in the 
Plural (plurdlia tantum). Such are — 

1. Many names of towns : as, Athenae (Athens), Thurii, Philippi, Veil. 

2. Names of festivals and games: as, Olympia, the Olympic Games; Baccha' 
nalia, feast of Bacchus ; Quinquatriis, festival of Minerva ; ludi ROmani, the 
Roman Games, 

3. Kames of classes: as, optimates, /Ae upper classes; maiores, ancestors; 
liberi, children; penates, household gods; Quirites, citizens (oi Rome). 

4. Words plural by signification: as, arma, weapons; axtua, joints ; divi- 
fa'ae, riches; acalae, stairs ; yaWaie, folding-doors ; fores, double-doors; angustiae, 
a narrow pass (narrows) ; moenia, city walls, 

NoTK 1. — Some words, plural by signification in Latin, are translated by English 
nouns in the singular number: as, dgliciae, delight, darling; faucgs, throat; fldCs, lyre 
(also singular in poetry) ; Insidiae, ambush; cervicSs, neck; viacera,, flesh. 

NoTB 2. — The poets often use the plural number for the singular, sometimes for 
metrical reasons, sometimes from a mere fashion : as, 6ra (for 6s), the face ; sc8ptra (for 
scSptrum), sceptre; silentia (for silentium), silence. 

102. Some nouns of the above classes (§ 101. 1-4), have a corre- 
sponding singular, as noun or adjective, often in a special sense : 

1. As noun, to denote a single object: as, Bacchanal, a spot sacred to 
Bacchus; optimas, an aristocrat, 

2. As adjective : as, Cato Maior, Cato the Elder, 

3. In a sense rare, or found only in early Latin: as, scala, a ladder: 
yalya, a door; artns, a joint. 


Koiiiui Defective in Oertain Caeee 
103. Many nouns are defective in case-forms: ^ — 

a. Indeclinable nouns^ used only as nominative and accusative singular: 
ffts, nefasy instar, nihil, opus (need), secns. 

NoTB 1. — The indeclinable adjective neoMW is used as a nominative or aecnsative. 
NoTB 2.— The genitive nihiti and the ablative nihiU (from nihUam, nothing) occor. 

b» Nouns found in one case only (monoptotes) t — 

1. In the nominative singular: glds (f.). 

2. In the genitive singular : dicis, nanci (v.). 

3. In the dative singular : dlvisoi (m.) (cf. § 94. e). 

4. In the accusative singular : amnssim (m.) ; ▼Cnnm (dative vin5 in Tacitus). 
6. In the ablative singular: pondd (n.) ; mftne (n.) ; astd (m.), by craft; iussa, 

iniussfi, nAtfi, and many other verbal nouns in -us (m.) (§ 04. c). 

NoTB. — nftne is also used as an indeclinable accusative, and an old form mAni is 
«used as ablative. PondO with a numeral is often apparently equivalent to pounds. A 
nominative singular attns and a plural ast&s occur rarely in later writers. 

6. In the accusative plural : infiti&a. 

C0 Nouns found in two cases only (diptotes): — 

1. In the nominative and ablative singular : fors, forte (f.). 

2. In the genitive and ablative singular : spontis (rare), sponte (f.). 
8. In the accusative singular and plural : dicam, dicAs (f.). 

4. In the accusative and ablative plural : fozfta, foris (f.) (cf. for§e), used as 

d» Nouns found in three cases only (triptotes) : — 

1. In the nominative, accusative, and ablative singular : impetus, -nm, -d (m.)* ; 
hies, -em, -9 ('«)• 

2. In the nominative, accusative, and dative or ablative plural: grftt6e,-ibii8(F). 
8. In the nominative, genitive, and dative or ablative plural ; iCgeia, -am, -ibus 

<N.) ; but iflgenun, etc., in t^ singular (of. § 105. 5). 

e» Nouns found in four cases only (tetraptotes) : — 

In the genitive, dative, accusative, ablative singular: didSsis, -T, -em, -e (f.). 

/• Nouns declined regularly in the plural, but defective in the singular : — 

1. Nouns found in the singular, in genitive, dative, accusative, ablative: frOgis. 
4, -em, -e (f.) ; opis, -i (once only), -em, -e (f. ; nominative Ope as a divinity). 

2. Nouns found in the dative, accusative, ablative : preci, -em, -e (f.). 

8. Nouns found in the accusative and ablative : cassem, -e (f.) ; soidem, -e (f.). 
4. Nouns found in the ablative only : amb&ge (f.) ; fance (f.) ; obice (c). 

g» Nouns regtdar in the singular, defective in the plural : — 

1 Some early or late forms and other rarities are omitted. 

> The dative singular impetui and the ablative plural impetilnui ooeur once each. 

§§ 103-105] VARIABLE NOUNS 43 

1. The follawing neuters have in the plural the nonunatlve and accvsalive 
only : fel (fella), far (farra), hordeam (hordea), iQs, broth (itira), mel (mella), mtmnttr 
(mannara), pfts (pfira), nls (rOra), tils or thfls (tflra). 

Note. — The neater ifls, rig?Ut has only iiira m classical writers, hut a very rare geni- 
tive plural iurom occurs in old Latin. 

2. calx, cor, cos, crux, fax, faex, lanx, Iflx, nex, da (oris),^ os (ossis),' pftx, pix, 
roe, 8&1, sol, vas (vadis), want the genitive plural. 

3. Most nouns of the fifth declension want the whole or part of the phiral 
(see § 98. a). 

hm Nouns defective in both singular and plural : — 

1. Noun found in the genitive, accusative, ablative singular; nomhiative, 
accusative, dative, ablative plural: vicit, -em, -e; -es, -ibus. 

2. Noun found in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative stngnlar; 
gttnitiTe plural wanting: dapis, -i, -em, -e; -es, -ibus.' 


104. Many nouns vary either in Declension or in Gender. 

105. Nouns that vaiy in Declension are called hetero elites.^ 

a. Coins (f.), distaff; domus (f.), house (see § 93), and many names 
of plants in -us, vary between the Second and Fourth Declensions. 

h* Some nouns vary between the Second and Third : as, ifigerum, -f, -0, 
ablative -o or -e, plural -«, -um, -ibus ; Mulciber, genitive -beri and -beris ; 
sequester, genitive -tri and -tris ; yas, yasis, and (old) yasum, -i (§ 79. e). 

Cm Some vary between the Second, Third, and Fourth : as, penus, penum, 
genitive peni and penoris, ablative penii. 

d» Many nouns vary between the First and Fifth (see § 98. c). 

e. Some vary between the Third and Fifth. Thus, — requies has geni- 
tive -etis, dative wanting, accusative -etem or -em, ablative -€ (once --ete) -, 
fames, regularly of the third declension, has ablative fame (§ 76. k. 1), 
and piibes (m.) has once dative pubS (in Plautus). 

/. Pecus varies between the Third and Fourth, having pecoris, etc., but 
also nominative pedi, ablative pecQ ; plural pecna, genitive pecuum. 

gr. Many vary between different stems of the same declension : as, femur 
(n.), genitive -oris, also -inis (as from ffemen); iecur (n.), genitive iecinoris, 
iocinoris, iecoris ; miinas (n.), plural miinera and munia. 

1 The ablative plural drilms is rare, the classical idimn being in Ore onminm, in every- 
body's mouth J etc., not in Sribae omnium. 

2 The genitive plural ossium is late ; ossuum (from ossua, plural of a neuter u-stem) 
is early and late. 

* An old nominative daps is cited. 

* That is, "nouns of different inflections" (Jhepos, another y and «fX£y«, to inflect). 



106, 107 

106. Nouns that vary in Gender are said to be heterogeneous.^ 

a» The following have a masculine form in -as and a neuter in -um : 
balteus, caseus, clipeus, coUom, cingulum, pileus, tergum, yallum, with many 
others of rare occurrence. 

hn The following have in the Plural a different gender from that of the 
Singular : — 

balneae (f.), hoXhs (an establishment). 

caelos (m. ace, Lucr.). 

carbasa (n.) (-drum), sai/s. 

dSliciae (f.), ptt. 

epulae (F.),/eaat 

frSni (m.) or frSna (n.), a bridle. 

ioca (n.), loci (M.),jest8. 

loca (y.), loci (m., usually topics, passages in books). 

rflstri (m.), rftstra (n.), rakes. 

balneum (n.), bath ; 
caelum (n.), heaven ; 
carbasus (f.), a sail; 
deliciam (n.), pleasure; 
epulom (n.), feaM ; 
frenom (if.), a bit; 
iocus (m.), a jest; 
locus (h.), place; 
rflstrum (n.), a rake; 

Note. — Some of these nouns are heteroclites as well as heterogeneous. 

107. Many nouns are found in 

aedes, -is (f.), temple; 

aqua (f.), water ; 

auzilium (n.), help; 

bonum (x.), a good ; 

career (m.), dungeon; 

castrum (n.), /ort; 

comitium (n. ), place of assembly ; 

c5pia (f.), pleidy ; 

fides (f.), harp-string; 

finis (m.), end; 

fortuna (¥.),fortunje; 

gr&tia (v.), favor (rarely, thanks); 

hortus (m.), a garden; 

impedimentum (n.) hindrance; 

littera (f.), letter (of alphabet) ; 

locus (m.), place [plural loca (n.)] ; 

ludus (m.), sport; 

mos (m.), habit, custom; 

nat&lis (m.), birthday; 

opera (f.), work; 

[ops,] opis (f.), help (§ 103./. 1) ; 

pars (f.), part; 

rostrum (n.), beak of a ship; 

sId (m. or n.), salt; 

tabella (f.), tablet; 

the Plural in a peculiar sense: — 

aedSs, -inm, house. 

aquae, mineral springs, a watering-place. 

auxilia, auxiliaries. 

bona, goods, property, 

carcergs, barriers (of race-course). 

castra, camp. 

comitia, an election (town-meetlTig). 

copiae, stores, troops. 

fides, lyre. 

fines, bounds, territories. 

fortunae, possessions. 

grfttiae, thanks (also, the Graces). 

horti, pleasure-grounds. 

impedimenta, baggage. 

Utterae, epistle, literature. 

loci,^ topics, places in books, 

ludi, public games. 

mdres, character. 

n&tales, descent, origin. 

operae, day-laborers ("hands"). 

op€s, resources, wealth. 

partSs, part (on the stage), party. 

rostra, speaker'* s platform, 

sales, witticisms. 

tabellae, documents, records. 

1 That is, "of different genders" {Hrepos, another, and y^vos, gender). 
3 lu early writers the regular plural. 



108. A Roman had regularly three names: — (1) the praenOmen, 
or personal name ; (2) the nOmen, or name of the gen% or house ; 
(3) the cOgnGmen, or family name : — 

Thus in Marcus Tullius Cicerd we have — 
M&rcas, the praendmen, like our Christian or given name ; 
Tnllias, the nSmen, properly an adjective denoting of the TuUian gSm (or 

?iou8e) whose original head was a real or supposed TuUus ; 
Cicero, the cdgnomen, or family name, often in origin a nickname, — in this 

case from cicer, a vetch, or small pea. 

NoTB. — When two persons of the same family are mentioned together, the cogno- 
men is usually pnt in the plural : as, Publius et Sezrius SulUie. 

a* A fourth or fifth name was sometimes given as a mark of honor or 
distinction, or to show adoption from another gens. 

Thus the complete name of Scipio the Younger was Pablins ComSlins ScipiS 
Africanas AemiliAnas: AfricAnut, from his exploits in Africa; AemiliAiios, as 
adopted from the JSmilian gtna.^ 

Note. — The Romans of the classical period had no separate name for these addi- 
tions, but later grammarians invented the word agnomen to express them. 

6. Women had commonly in classical times no personal names, but were 
known only by the nomen of their gens. 

Thus, the wife of Cicero was Terentia, and his daughter Tullia. A second 
daughter would have been called Tallia secanda or minor, a third daughter, Tullia 
tertia, and so on. 

Cm The commonest praenomens are thus abbreviated : — 

A. Aulas. L. Lucius. Q. Quintns. 

App. (Ap.) Appius. M. Marcus. Ser. Servius. 

C. (6.) Gaius (Caius) (cf. § 1. a). M\ Mflnius. Sex. (S.) Sextus. 
Cn. (Gn.) Gnaeus {Cneitui). M2m. Mamercus. Sp. Spuiius. 

D. Decimns. N. (Num.) Numerius T. Titus. 

K. Kaeso {Caeso). P. Pfiblius. Ti. (Tib.) Tiberius. 

NoTK 1. — In the abbreviations C. and Cn., the initial character has the value of G 

1 In stating officially the full name of a Boman it was customary to include the 
prctenoniina of the father, grandfather, and great-grandfather, together with the name 
of the tribe to which the individual belonged. Thus in an inscription we find M. TVL- 
LIVS M. F. M. N. M. PR. COR. CICERO, i.e. Uarcus TttllittS Mirci filitts M&rci nepos Marci pro- 
nepos ComSliil tribu Cicero. The names of grandfather and great-grandfather as well as 
that of the tribe are usually omitted in literature. The name of a wife or daughter is 
usually accompanied by that of the husband or father in the genitive : as, Postumia 
Scrvi Sulpicii (Suet. lul. 50), Postumia, wife of Servius Sulpicius; Caecilia MetelH 
(Div. i. 104), Caecilia, daughter of Metellus. 



[§§ 109, 110 


109. Adjectives and Participles are in general formed and de- 
clined like Nouns, differing from them only in their use. 

1. In accordance with their use, they distinguish gender by different 
forms in the same word, and agree with their nouns in gender, number, and 
case. Thus, — 

bonas paer, the good boy. 
bona puella, the good girl. 
bonum donam, the good gift. 

2. In their inflection they are either (1) of the First and Second Declen- 
sions, or (2) of the Third Declension. 


110. Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions (ft- and 
o-stems) are declined in the Masculine like servus, puer, or ager ; 
in the Feminine like stella ; and in the Neuter like bdlum. 

The regular type of an adjective of the First and Second Declen- 
sions is bonus, -a, -um, which is thus declined : — 

bonus, bona, bonum, good 




Stbm bono- 

Stem bon&- 

Stem bono- 













































If no, 111] 



NoTB. — Stems in 41MH baye nominative -cos Huob), -^va, -com (-quom), aocnsative 
-com (-qaom), -quam, -oun (-quom), to avoid quu- (see §§ 6. 6 and 46. n. 2). Thus, — 
NoM. propinoQS (-qtKM) propinqoa propinoiim {-q^xem) 

6bn. propinqui propinquae propinqul, etc. 

But most modern editions disregard this principle. 

€U The Genitive Singular masculine of adjectives in -I110 ends in -li, and 
the Vocative in -ie ; not in -1, as in nouns (c£. § 49. b, c) ; as, LacedaemoniuSy 
-ii, -ie. 

NoTB. — The possessive mens, my, has the vocative mascnline mi (cf. § 145). 

111. Stems ending in n>- preceded by e form the Nominative 
Masculine like puer (§ 47) and are declined as follows: — 

miser, misera, misenim, wretched 




Stem misero- 

Stem miserft- 


Stem misero- 









































a. Like miser are declined asper, gibber, lacer, liber, prosper (also pros- 
perns), satur (-ura, Hirum), tener, ^ith compounds of -fer and -ger : as, saeti- 
ger, -era, -erum, bristle-bearihg ; also, usually, dexter. In these the e belongs to 
the stem ; but in dextra it is often omitted : as, deztra manus, the right hand. 

Note. — Stems in 6ro- (as piteCnts), with m5rieSra8, propSrns, have the regular nomi- 
native masculine in -as. 

h. The following lack a nominative singular masculine in classic use : 
cetera, infera, postera, snpera. They are rarely found in the singular except 
in certain phrases : as, posterd die, the next day. 

Note. — An ablative feminine in -5 is found in a few Greek adjectives: as, lectid 
octSphoiG (Verr. v. 27). 



[§§ 112, 113 

112. Stems in ro- preceded by a consonant form the Nominative 
Masculine like ager (§ 47) and are declined as follows : — 

niger, nigra, nigrum, black 




Stem nigro- 

Stem nigr&- 


Stem nigio- 









































a. Like niger are declined aeger, ater, crSber, faber, glaber, iAteger, ludicer, 
macer, piger, pulcher, ruber, sacer, scaber, sinister, taeter, yaf er ; also the pos- 
sessives noster. Tester (§ 145). 

113. The following nine adjectives with their compounds have 
the Genitive Singular in -ius and the Dative in -i in all genders : 

alius (n. aliud), other. tdtus, whole. alter, -terius, ^ oilier. 

nailus, no^ none, ullus, any. neuter, -txlus, neither. 

solus, alone. flnus, one. uter, -trins, which (of two). 

Of these the singular is thus declined : — 















































































a* The plural of these words i^ regular, like that of bonus (§ 110). 

b» The genitive in -ius, dative in -i, and neuter in -d are pronominal in 
origin (cf. illius, illi, illud, and § 146). 

c. The 1 of the genitive ending -ius, though originally long, may be made 
short in verse ; so often in alterius and regularly in utriusque. 

dm Instead of alius, alterius is commonly used, or in the possessive sense 
the adjective alienus, belonging to another, another*s, 

€• In compounds — as alteruter — sometimes both parts are declined, 
sometimes only the latter. Thus, alter! utri or alterutri, to one of the two. 

Note. — The regular genitive and dative forms (as in bonus) are sometimes found 
in some of these words: as, genitive and dative feminine, allae; dative masculine, 
alio. Bare forms are alls and alid (for alius, aliud) . 


114. Adjectives of the Third Declension are thus classified: — 

1. Adjectives of Three Terminations in the nominative singular, — one 
for each gender : as, acer, acris, acre. 

2. Adjectives of Two Terminations, — masculine and feminine the same : 
as, levis (m., f.), leve (n.). 

3. Adjectives of One Termination, — the same for all three genders : as, 

a. Adjectives of two and three terminations are true i-stems and hence retain 
in the ablative singular -i, in the neuter plural -ia, in the genitive plural -ium, and 
in the accusative plural regularly -is (see §§ 73 and 74). ^ 

Adjectives of Three and of Two Terminations 

115. Adjectives of Three Terminations are thus declined : — 

acer, acris, acre, keen, Stem icri- 
SiNGULAR Plural 
































acris (-l^s) 

acris (-6s) 









^ But the forms of some are doubtful. 


a. Like &cer are declined the following stems in ri- : — 
aUoer, campetter, celeber, eqnester, palflster, pe4ester, pater, salfiber, silvMter, 
terrester, volacer. So also names of months in -ber: as, OctSbar (of. 

NoTB 1. — Tlds f onnatioii is comparatiyely late, and henoe, hi the poets and hi early 
Latin, either the masculine or the feminine form of these adjectives was sometimes 
used for both genders : as, coettts alacris (Enn.). In others, as faenebris, fonebris, iUiis- 
tris, Ificabris, mediocris, mnliebris, there is no separate masculine form at all, and these 
are declined like lerit (§ 116). 

NoTS 2. — Celsr, celeiii, celere, swift, has the genitive plural celemm, used only as a 
noun, denoting a military rank. The proper name Celer has the ablative in -e. 

116. Adjectives of Two Terminations are thus declined : — 

• levis, leve, 


Stem levi- 



M., F. 


M., r . 




















levis (-6s) 







Note. — Adjectives of two and three terminations sometimes have an ablative in -• 
in poetry, rarely in prose. 

Adjectives of One TemdnatiiMi 

117. The remaining adjectives of the third declension are Con- 
sonant stems ; but most of them, except Comparatives, have the 
following forms of litems : — ^ 

-i in the ablative singular (but often -e) ; 

-ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter ; 

-ium in the genitive plural ; 

-IS (as well as -es) in the accusative plural masculine and feminine. 

In the other cases they follow the rule for Consonant stems. 

a. These adjectives, except stems in 1- or t-, form the nominative singu- 
lar from the stem by adding s : as, atr5x (stem atr5c- + s), egSns (stem 
egent- + s).* 

h. Here belong the present participles in -ns (stem nt-) * : as, am&ns, monSiis. 
They are declined like egens (but cf. § 121). 


1 For details see § 121. * Stems in nt- omit t before the nominative -a. 



118. Adjectives of one termination are declined as follows : — 

atroz, fierce, Stem atrdc- 

egSns, needy. Stem egent- 


91. y W* 


m.m, F. 






' egena 

















atroci (-e) 

atroci (-e) 


egenti (-e) 

egenti (-e) 

















atrocis (-Ss) 


egentia (-6a) 







119. Other examples are the following: 


concors, harmonicms 
Stem concord- 

praeceps, headlong 
Stem praecipit- 

M., F. 














NoM. concordSa concordia 

Gen. concordium concordium 

Dat. concordibua concordibua 

Aec. concordia (-6a) concordia 

Abl. concordibua concordibua 

M., F. 






N. ■ 






praecipitea praecipitia 

[praecipitium] ^ 
praecipitibua praecipitibua 
praecipitia (-6a) praecipitia 
praecipitibua praecipitibua 

1 Given by grammarians, but not found. 




iens, going 





Stem etint- 


Stem ^vit- 


Jtt.y ly» 


JS.j 7* 


Ha, Jfa 































eunte (-1) 







NoM. euntds euntia 

Gen. euntium euntium 

Dat. euntibus euntibus 

Ace. eunils (-Ss) euntia 

Abl. euntibus euntibus 


parSs paria 

parium parium 
paribus paribus 
paiis (-5s) paria 
paribus paribus 

divitSs [ditia] 

divituxn divitam 
divitibus divitibns 
divitis (-«s) [ditia] 
divitibus divitibus 

fiber, fertile 
Stem fiber- 

vetus, old 
Stem veter- 





AK., Jr. 

uberl ^ 







vetere (-1) 


vetere (-1) 

























Note. — Of tbese vetns is originally an s-stem. In most s-stems the r has intraded 
itself into the nominative also, as bi-corpor (for fbi-corpos), dfigener (for fdi-genes). 

^ An ablative in •« is very rare. 

§§ 120, 121] 



Declension of Comparatives 
120. Comparatives are declined as follows : — 


melior, 6et^er 
Stem meUdr- for melids- 

plfis, mmt 
Stem plfir- for plfli 






meliore (-1) 

meliorSs (-is) 



meliore (-1) 







M.} F> 

pl^rSs (-la) 









a. All comparatiyes except plQs are declined like melior. 

h. The stem of comparatives properly epded in 8s-; but this became or 
in the nominative masculine and feminine, atid 5r- in all other cases except 
the nominative and accusative singular neuter, where a is retained and d is 
changed to ti (of. hon5r, -oris; corpus, -^ris). Thus comparatives appear to 
hav« two terminations. 

c. The neuter singular plus is used only as a noun. The genitive (rarely 
the ablative) is used only as an expression of value (cf. § 417). The dative 
is not found in classic use. The compound complures, severaly has sometimes 
neater plural complHria. 

Case-Forms of Consonant Stems 
121. In adjectives of Consonant stems — 

a. The Ablative Singular commonly ends in -i, but sometimes -e. 
1 . Adjectives used as nouns (as superstes, survivor) have -e. 
•J. Participles in -ns used as such (especially in the ablative absolute, 
§ 419), or as nouns, regularly have -e ; but participles used as adjectives 
have regularly -i : — 

domino imperante, at tke master^ 8 command; ah amante, by a lover; ab amantl 
maliere, ly a Umng woman. 


3. The following have regularly -i : — amens, anceps, concors (and other 
compounds of cor), cdnsors (but as a substantive, -e), degener, hebes, ingens, 
inops, memor (and compounds), par (in prose), perpes, praeceps, praepes, teres. 

4. The following have regularly -e : — caeles, compos, ^fdeses], dives, hospes, 
particeps, pauper, princeps, sdspes, superstes. So also patrials (see §71.5) and 
stems in at-, it-, nt-, rt-, when used as nouns, and sometimes when used as 

b» The Grenitive Plural ends commonly in -ium, but has -am in the 
following : ^ — 

1. Always in eompos, dives, inops, particeps, praepes, pxinceps, supplex, and 
compounds of nouns which have -urn : as, qoadru-pSs, bi-color. 

2. Sometimes, in poetry, in participles in -ns : as, sil^ntam coneiliiun, a coun- 
cil of the sUent shades (Aen. vi. 432). 

c* The Accusative Plural reg^arly ends in -is, but comparatives com- 
monly have -es. 

d. Vetiis (gen. -Sris) and pubes (gen. -Sris) regularly have -e in the abla- 
tive singular, -a. in the nominative and accusative plural, and -am in the 
genitive plural. For uber, see § 119. 

6. A few adjectives of one termination, used as nouns, have a feminine 
form in -a : as, clienta, hospita, with the appellative Iun5 Sospita. 

Irregularities and Special Uses of Adjectives 

122. The following special points require notice : — 

a. Several adjectives vary in declension : as, gracilis (-as), hilaris (-us), 
in .rmis (-us), bicolor (-orus). 

b. A few adjectives are indeclinable : as, damnas, frugi (really a dative 
of service, see § 382. 1. n. 2), nequam (originally an adverb), necesse, and the 
pronominal forms tot, quot, aliquot, totidem. Potis is often used as an inde- 
clinable adjective, but sometimes has pote in the neuter. 

c. Several adjectives are defective : as, ezspes (only nom.), ezlSx (ezlegem) 
(only nom. and ace. sing.), pemox (pemocte) (only nom. and abl. sing.); 
and prim5ris, semineci, etc., which lack the nominative singular. 

d. Many adjectives, from their signification, can be used only in the 
masculine and feminine. These may be called adjectives of common gender. 

Such are adulescens, youthful; [tdeses], -idis, slothful; inops, -opis, poor; 
sospes, -itis, safe. Similarly, senez, old man, and iuvenis, young man, are some- 
times called masculine adjectives. 

For Adjectives used as Nouns, see,§§ 288, 289; for Nouns used as Adjectives, see 
§321. c; for Adjectives used as Adverbs, see § 214; for Adverbs used as Adjectives, 
see § 321. d. 

1 Forms in -um sometimes occur in a few others. 



123. In Latin, as in English, there are three degrees of com- 
parison : the Po%itive^ the Comparative^ and the Superlative, 

124. The Comparative is regularly formed by adding -ior (neu- 
ter -ius),^ the Superlative by adding -issimus (-a,-um), to the stem of 
the Positive, which loses its final vowel : — 

cams, dear (stem cAro-); carior, dearer; c&riBalmuB, dearest. 

levis, light (stem levi-) ; levior, lighter ; leyiBsimus, lightest. 

f@llx, Aapp2^ (stem fglic-) ; fellcior, happier; f€licisBimuB, Aoppiest. 

hebes, dull (stem hebet-) ; hebetior, duller ; hebetisBimus, dullest. 

Note. — A form of diminutive is made upon the stem of some comparatives: as, 
grandiufr-cttltts, a little larger (see § 243). 

a* Participles when used as adjectives are regularly compared : — 

patiSns, patient; patientior, patientiBBimuB. 
apertus, open; apertlor, apertlBBimuB. 

125. Adjectives in -er form the Superlative by adding -rimus to 
the nominative. The comparative is regular : — 

&cer, keen; 9<;rior, ftcerrimuB. 

miser, wretched; miserlor, miserrimuB. 

a. So yetus (gen. yeteris) has superlative yeterrimus, from the old form 
yeter ; and maturus, besides its regular superlative (miturissimus), has a rare 
form maturrimus. 

For the comparative of yetus, yetustior (from yetustus) is used. 

126. Six adjectives in -lis form the Superlative by adding -limua 
to the stem clipped of its final i-. These are facilis, difficilis, simi- 
lis, dissimilis, gracilis, hnmilis. 

facilis (stem facili-), easy; facilior, facillimuB. 

127. Compounds in -dicus {saying) and -yolus (filling) take in 
their comparison the forms of the corresponding participles dicSna 
and volens, which were anciently used as adjectives : — 

maledicna, slanderous; maledicentior, maledlcentlBBiinuB. 
malevolus, spiteful; malevolentior, malevolentiBBixnuB. 

1 The comparative suffix (earlier -ios) is akin to the Greek -Iwvt or the Sanskrit -iyans. 
That of the superlative (-issimus) is a douhle form of uncertain origin. It appears to 
contain the is- of the old suffix -is-to-s (seen in ^d-i(rro-t and English sweetest) and also 
the old -mo-s (seen in pri-mus, mini-mas, etc.) . The endings -limus and -rimus are formed 
hy assimilation (§ 15. 6) from -simus. The comparative and superlative are really new 
stems, and are not strictly to he regarded as forms of inflection. 


a. So, by analogy, compounds in -ficus : — 
milgnificttB, grand; magnificentior, magnificentisBimna. 

128. Some adjectives are compared by means of the adverbs 
xnagis, rmre^ and maxime, most. 

So especially adjectives in -us preceded by e or i : — 
idOneos, fit ; magis IdGneus, iiiazim§ iddneus. 

Note. — But plus has piissimtts in the superlative, — a form condemned by Cicero, 
but common in inscriptions; equally common, however, is the irregular pientissimus. 

Irregular Comparison 

129. Several adjectives have in their comparison irregular 
forms : — 

bonus, good; melior, better; optimuB, best, 

malus, had; p^or, worse; pessimus, worst. 

mSgnus, great; mSior, greater; maximas, greatest, 

parvus, smaU; minor, less; minimus, leasL 

multus, mvjch; plus(N.)(§ 120), more; plurimua, most. 

multi, many; pltir6s, m,ore; plUrimi, m^ost. 

nSquam (indecl., § 122. &), nSquior; nequlssimuB. 


frugl (indecl., § 122. 6), ttse- frug&llor; frOgaliesimus. 

fulj worthy; 

dexter, on the rights handy; dexterior; dextimua. 

Note. — These irregularities arise from the use of different stems (cf . § 127) . Thus 
f rugilior and fnigaiissimus are formed from the stem frugali-, hut are used as the com- 
parative and superlative of the indeclinable frugi. 

Defective Comparison 

130. Some Comparatives and Superlatives appear without a 

Positive : — 

Ocior, swifter; (kdaaimua, swiftest. 

potior, pr^erable ; ^ potiaaimua, most important. 

a» The following are formed from stems not used as adjectives : ^ — 

^ The old positive potis occurs in the sense of able, possible. 

3 The forms in -tr& and -terns were originally comparative (cf. alter), so that the 
comparatives in -tenor are douhle comparatives. Inferus and snperus are comparatives 
of a still more primitive form (cf. the English comparative in -er). 

The superlatives in -timus (-tumtts) are relics of old forms of comparison ; those in 
-mu8 like imns, snmmns, piimus, are still more primitive. Forms like extremus are 
superlatives of a comparative. In fact, comparison has always been treated with an 
accumulation of endings, as children a&j furtherer aadfurtherest. 


cis, citrft (adv., on this aide): citerlor, hither; citdmua, hithermost. 

de (prep., down): deterior, worse; deterrimus, worst. 

in, intr& (prep., in, loithin): inteiior, inner; intiinua, inmost. 

prae, prO (prep., b^ore): prior, former ; primus, ^rs^. 

prope (adv., near): propior, n.earer; proximuB, next. 

ultr& {sdY., beyond): uXteTioT, farther ; nMxauu, farthest. 

ft. Of the following the positive forms are rare, except when used as 
nouns (generally in the plural): — 

exterus, outward ; exterior, owier; extr^mus (extimus), ou^rno^. 

Inferus, below (see §111.6); Inferior, lower ; Infimus (Imus), lowest. 
posterns, /oZZotoingr ; posterior, Zo^r; poBtr6mu8 (postumns), toaf. 

superus, above; eaperior, higher ; aupremus orsumnms, higheaL 

But the plurals, ezteii, foreigners; inferi, the gods below; posteii, posterity; 
snpexi, the heavenly gods, are common. 

Note. — The superlative postumus has the special sense of last-bom, and was a well- 
known surname. 

131. Several adjectives lack the Comparative or the Superla- 
tive : — 

€V* The Comparative is rare or wanting in the following : — 

bellas, inclutns (or inclittts), nonist 

caesitts, invictus, plus, 

falsas, invitus, sacer, 

fidas (with its compounds), meritus, vafer. 

6. The Superlative is wanting in many adjectives in -ills or -bilis (as, 
agilis, probabilis), and in the following : — 

Actadsus enlis proclivis snrdns 

agrestis ingens propinquas tadtanms 

alacer ieiunas sator tempestSvus 

arcanus longinqaus segnis teres 

caecns obliqnas seras vicinas 

diatomus opunas supinus 

€• From iuyenis, youth, senez, old man (cf. § 122. d), are formed the com- 
paratives iimior, younger, senior, older. For these, however, minor natii and 
miiior natu are sometimes used (natu being often omitted). 

The superlative is regularly expressed by minimus and mazimus, with 
or without natii. 

Note. — In these phrases n&tfi is ablative of specification (see § 418). 

d» Many adjectives (as aureus, golden) are from their meaning incapable 
of comparison. 

Note. — But each language has its own usage in this respect. Thus, nicer, glossy 
black, and Candidas, shining white, are compared ; but not ftter or albns, meaning absO' 
lute dead black or white (except that Plautus once has fttrior). 



[§§ 132, 133 


132. The Latin Numerals may be classified as follows : — 

I. Numeral Adjectives: 

1. Cardinal Numbers, answering the question how manyf as, miiis, tme ; 
duo, two, etc. 

2. Ordinal Numbers,^ adjectives derived (in most cases) from the Ca«rdi- 
nals, and answering the question which in order f as, primus, ^r^r^; seciin- 
du8, second, etc. 

3. Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a time f 
as, singoli, one at a time ; bini, two by two, etc. 

11. Numeral Adverbs, answering the question how often f as, semel, 
once ; bis, twice, etc. 

Cardinals and Ordinals 

133. These two series 

are as follows : — 




1. tlnus, una, ^um, one 

primus, -a, -urn, first 


2. duo, duae, duo, two 

secundus (alter), secovd 


3. trfis, tria, three 

tertius, third 


4. quattuor 


nil or IV 

5. qnlnque 



6. sex 



7. septem 



8. octO 



9. novem 


vim or IX 

10. decern 



11. ilndecim 



12. duodecim 



13. tredecim (decern (et) tr6s) 

tertius decimus (decimus 

(et) tertius) xiii 

14. quattuordecim 

qu&rtus decimus 

xiiii or XIV 

15. quindecim 

quintus decimus 


16. sSdecim 

sextiiR decimus 


17. septendecim 

Septimus decimus 


18. duodfivigintl (octOdecim) 

duodevicensimus (octavus decimus) xviii 

^ The Ordinals (except secundus, tertius, octiLvus, n5nus) are formed by means of suf- 
fixes related to those used in the superlative and in x^art identical with them. Thus, 
decimus (compare the form mflmus) may be regarded as the last of a series of ten ; pri- 
mus is a superlative of a stem akin to pr5 ; the forms in-tus (quftrtus, quintus, sextus) may 
be compared with the corresponding Greek forms in -ro%t and with superlatives in 
-w-To-s, while the others have the superlative ending -timus (changed to -simus) . Of the 
exceptions, secundus is a participle of sequor ; alter is a comparative form (compare 
•repoi in Greek), and nSnus is contracted from fnovenos. The cardinal multiples of ten 
are componnds of -gint- Hen' (a fragment of a derivative from decern). 

§§ 133, : 







tindeylgintl (novendecim) Ilnd6vlc6n8imus(n0nus decimus) xviiii or xix 



vlc6nsimu8 (vlgfinsimus) 



yiginti finiiR 

vlcfinsimus primus 


{or tiiius et vlgintl, efc.) (tLnus et vicensimus, etc.) 








xxxx or XL 




J^ or L 
















Lxxxx or xc 






centum (et) tlnus, estc. 

centensimus primus, efc. 



ducenti, -ae, -a 





















septingent6nsi mus 













CO (cio) or M 


quinque milia (mlllia) 

quinquiens mlllensimus 



decern mIlia (millia) 

deciens millensimus 



centum milia (millia) 

centiens millensimus 


Note 1. — The forms in -Cnsimtts are often written without the n : as, vicSsimas, etc. 

Note 2. — The forms octodecim, novendecim are rare, duodSvieinti {two from twenty) ^ 
undSviginti {one from twenty), being used instead. So 28, 29; 38, 39; etc. may be 
expressed either by the subtraction of two and on^ or by the addition of eight and 
niTie respectively. 

Declension of Cardinals and Ordinals 

134. Of the Cardinals only unus, duo, tr6s, the hundreds above 
one hundred, and mille when used as a noun, are declinable. 

a. For the declension of Unus, see § 113. It often has the meaning of 
same or only. The plural is used in this sense ; but also, as a simple nu- 
meral, to agree with a plural noun of a singular meaning : as, iina castra, 
one camp (cf. § 137. ft). The plural occurs also in the phrase uni et alteri, one 
party and the other (the ones and the others). 

b. Duo,^ twoy and ties, three, are thus declined : — 

1 The form in -o is a remnant of the dual number, which was lost in Latin, but is 
found in cognate languages. So in ambS, both, which preserves -^ (of. di^w and § 620. h) . 





1 134, 135 




H. 1 Wm 





















duds (duo) 











Note. — AmbS, bothf is declined like duo. 

c. The hundreds, up to 1000, are adjectives of the First and Second 
Declensions, and are regularly declined like the plural of bonus. 

d» Mille, a thousand^ is in the singular an indeclinable adjective : — 

mille modls, in a thousand ways. 
cum mille hominibus, with a iJumsand men. 

mille trah6ns variOs colOr^s (Aen. iv. 701), dratoing out a thousand various 

In the plural it is used as a neuter noun, and is declined like the plural 
of sedile (§69): milia, miliam, milibtts, etc. 

Note. — The singular mille is sometimes found as a noun in the nominative and 
accusative : as, nuUe hominum misit, he sent a thotbsand (of) men ; in the other cases 
rarely, except in connection with the same case of milia : as, cum octd nulibas peditum, 
mille equitum, with eight thousand foot and a thov>sand horse. 

e. The ordinals are adjectives of the Fii'st and Second Declensions, and 
are regularly declined like bonus. 

135. Cardinals and Ordinals have the following uses : — 

a* In numbers below 100, if units precede tens, et is generally inserted : 
duo et yiginti ; otherwise et is omitted : yiginti duo. 

hm In numbers above 100 the highest denomination generally stands 
first, the next second, etc., as in English. Et is either omitted entirely, or 
stands between the two highest denominations : — mQle (et) septingenti 
sezaginta quattuor, 1764. 

Note. — Observe the following combinations of numerals with substantives: — 
unns et viginti milites, or viginti mllitSs (et) onus, 21 soldiers. 
duo milia quinsenti militfis, or dtto milia militom et qaingenti, 2600 soldiers. 
militSs mille ducenti trigintA untts, 1231 soldiers. 

ۥ After milia the name of the objects enumerated is in the genitive : 

duo milia hominum, two tfwusand men.^ 

cum tribus milibus militum, wUh three thousand soldiers. 

milia passuum tria, three thousand paces (three miles). 

d. For million, billion, trillion, etc., the Romans had no special words, 
but these numbers were expressed by multiplication (cf. § 138. a). 

1 Or, in poetry, bis mille homines, twice a t?iotuand men. 

§§ 136-137] 



e« Fractions are expressed, as in English, by cardinals in the numerator 
and ordinals in the denominator. The feminine gender is used to agree 
with pars expressed or understood : — two-sevenths, duae septimae (sc. partSs) ; 
three-eighthsj trgs octayae (sc. partes). 

One-half is dimidia pars or dimidium. 

Note l.^When the numerator is onCf it is omitted and pars is expressed: one- 
third, tertia pars ; one-fourth, qnirta pars. 

NoTB 2. — TVlien the denominator is but one greater than the numerator, the nnmer- 
ator only is given: two-thirds, duae partSs; three-fourths, trSs partSs, etc. 

NoTB 3. — Fractions are also expressed by special words derived tram as, a pound : 
as, triSns, a third; Ms, two-thirds. See § 837. 


136. Distributive Numerals are declined like the plural of 

NoTK. — These answer to 
many at a time? 

1. singnfi, one by one 

2. Inni, two by two 

3. temi, trini 

4. quatemi 

5. quini 

6. sem 

7. septeni 

8. octOni 

9. noveni 

10. deni 

11. undeni 

12. daodeni 

13. temi deni, etc- 

the interrogative quotCni, how many of eachf or how 

18. octOni deni or duo- 


19. noveni deni or un- 


20. viceni 

21. viceni sing^li, etc, 
30. triceni 

40. quadrageni 
60. quinquageni 
60. sezageni 
70. septuageni 
80. octOgeui 
90. nonageni 






















bina milia 


dena milia 


centena milia 

137. Distributives are used as follows : — 

a* In the sense of so many apiece or on each side : as, singula singulis, one 
apiece (one each to each one) ; agri septena iugera plibi divisa sunt, i.e. seven 
jugera to each citizen (seven jugera each), etc. 

h» Instead of cardinals, to express simple number, when a noun plural in 
form but usually singular in meaning is used in a plural sense : as, bina 
castra, two camps (duo castra would mean two forts), • With such nouns tnni, 
not temi, is used for three : as, trina (not tema) castra, three camps ; tema 
castra means camps in threes, 

c. In multiplication : as, bis bina, twice two ; ter septenis diebus, in thrice 
seven days, 

d. By the poets instead of cardinal numbers, particularly where pairs or 
sets are spoken of : as, bina hastilia, two shafts (two in a set). 



138, 139 

Numeral Adverbs 
138. The Numeral Adverbs answer the question quotiens 

1. semel, once 

12. duodeciens 

40. quadr&giens 

2. bis, twice 

13. terdeciens 

60. quInquagiSns 

3. ter, ihrice 

14. quaterdeciens 

60. sex3giens 

4. quater 

15. qnindeciens 

70. septuSigiens 

6. qulnquifins (-€s)i 

16. 8€deci€ns 

80. octOgiens 

6. sexiSns 

17. septi6sdeci6ii8 

90. nOnftgiens 

7. septiSns 

18. duodevlciens 

100. centiSns 

8. octiens 

19. undeylciSns 

200. ducentiens 

9. noviSTiR 

20. ylciSns 

300. trecentiSns 

10. deciSns 

21. semel Ylcifins,^ eto. 

1000. mlliens 

11. t&ndeciens 

80. triciens 

10,000. decifins mlliens 

a* Numeral Adverbs are used with miUe to express the higher numbers : 

ter et triciens (centina nulla) 8§8tertlam, 3,300,000 sesterces (three and thirty 

times a hundred thousand sesterces). 
viciSs ac septiSs millgs (centSna milla) sestertlam, 2,700,000,000 sesterces 

(twenty-seven thousand times a hundred thousand). 

Note. — These large nnmbers are used almost ezclusiyely in reckoning money, 
and centSna milia is regularly omitted (see § 634). 

Other Ntunerals 
139. The following adjectives are called Multiplicatives : — 

simplex, sirtgle ; duplex, d<yuble, twofold ; triplex, triple, thre^old ; quadruplex, 
quinquiplex, septemplex, decemplex, centuplex, sesquiplex (1^), multiplex 

a. Proportionals are : duplus, triplus, quadruplus, octnplos, etc., ttoice as 
great, thrice as great, etc. 

b. Temporals : bimus, trimus, of two or three years* age ; biemiis, triennis, 
lasting tico or three years ; bimestris, trimestris, of two or three months ; biduum, 
a period of two days; biennium, a period of two years. 

c. Partitives : binarius, tem&rius, of two or three parts. 

d. Other derivatives are: iiniO, unity; binio, the two (of dice); primanus, 
of the first legion; primarius, of the first rank; denarius, a sum ot 10 asses; 
binus (distributive), double, etc. 

^ Forms in -ns are often written without the n. 
3 Also written viciCnB et semel or yicifins semel, etc. 

§§ 140-143] PERSONAL PRONOUNS 63 


140. Pronouns are used as Nouns or as Adjectives. They are 
divided into the foUowing seven classes: — 

1. Personal Pronouns : as, ego, /. 

2. Reflexive Pronouns : as, se, himself, 

3. Possessive Pronouns : as, meus, my, 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns : as, hie, this ; iUe, that, 

5. Relative Pronouns : as, qui, who, 

6. Interrogative Pronouns : as, quis, who f 

7. Indefinite Pronouns : as, aliqois, some one, 

141. Pronouns have special forms of declension. 

NoTB. — These special forms are, in general, survivals of a very ancient form of 
declension differing from that of nouns. 

Personal Pronouns 

142. The Personal pronouns of the first person are ego, /, nGs, 
we; of the second person^ tu, thou or you^ v58, ye or you. The 
personal pronouns of the third person — he^ she^ ity they — are 
wanting in Latin, a demonstrative being sometimes used instead. 

143. Ego and t& are declined as follows : — 

First Person 
Singular . Plural 

NoM. ego, / nSs, we 

Gen. mei, of me nostrum, nostri, of us 

Dat. mihi (mi), to me nSbis, to us 

Ace. me, me n58, us 

Abl. me, by me nSbis, by us 

Second Person 

NoM tu, thou or you v5s, ye or you 

Gbn. tm, of thee or you yestnim, yestri ; TOstmm (-tri) 

Dat. tibi v5bis 

Ace. te v5s 

Abl. tS vSbis 

a. The plural n58 is often used for the singular ego ; the plural v5s is 
never so used for the singular tu. 

64 PRONOUNS [§§ 143, 144 

Note. — Old forms are genitive mis, tis; accusative and ablative mSd, tCd (cf. 
§43. N. 1). 

b» The forms nostmm, yestrum, etc., are used partUively : — 

finusquisque nostrum, each one of v^. 
yestrum omnium, of aU of you. 

Note. — The forms of the genitive of the personal pronouns are really the genitives 
of the possessives : mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, genitive singular neuter : nostrum, ves- 
trum, genitive plural masculine or neuter. So in early and later Latin we find fina 
vestr&rum, one of you {women). 

c. The genitives mei, tui, sui, nostri, yestri, are chiefly used objectively 


memor sis nostri, he mindful of us (me). 
m§ tui pudet, / am ashamed of you. 

d. Emphatic forms of tii are tiite and tutemet (tntimet). The other 
cases of the personal pronouns, excepting the genitive plural, are made 
emphatic by adding -met : as, egomet, y5smet. 

Note. — Early emphatic forms are mSpte and tSpte. 

6. Reduplicated forms are found in the accusative and ablative singu- 
lar : as, meme, tete. 

/• The preposition cum, with, is joined enclitically with the ablative : as, 
tecum loquitur, he talks with you. ^ 

Refleziye Pronouns 

144. Reflexive Pronouns are used in the Oblique Cases to refer 
to the subject of the sentence or clause in which they stand (see 
§ 299) : as, sS amat, he loves himself. 

am In the^r*^ and second persons the oblique cases of the Personal pro- 
nouns are used as Reflexives: as, me yided, / see myself; te laudas, you 
praise yourself; n5bis persuademus, we persuade ourselves. 

b. The Reflexive pronoun of the third person has a special form used 
only in this sense, the same for both singular and plural. It is thus 
declined : — 

Gen. sui, of himself herself itself themselves 
Dat. sibi, to himself herself itself themselves' 
Ace. se (sese), himself herself itself themselves 
Abl. se (sese), [by"] himself herself itself themselves 

Note 1. — Emphatic and reduplicated forms of 86 are made as in the personals (see 
§ 143. d, e). The preposition cum is added enclitically: as, sScum, vnth himse^, etc. 
Note 2. — An old form sSd occurs in the accusative and ablative. 

146, 146] 



Possessive Pronouns 
145. The Possessive pronouns are : — 

First Febson. meus, my 
Second Person. tuns, ihyy your 
Third Person. suus, hisy her, its 

noster, our 
vaster, your 
suus, their 

These are really adjectives of the First and Second Declensions, and are 
so declined (see §§ 110-112). But mens has regularly mi (rarely meus) in 
the vocative singular masculine. 

NoTB. — Suu8 is used only as a reflexive, referring to the snbject . For a possessive 
pronoun of the third person not referring to the subject, the genitive of a demonstrative 
must be used. Thus, patrem sttum occidit, Ae killed his {own) father; but patrem 6iu& 
ocodit, he IdUed his (somebody else's) /a^Aer. 

a. Emphatic forms in -pte are found in the ablative singular : snOpte. 

h. A rare possessive ciiius (quoius), -a, -um, whose, is formed from the 
genitive singular of the relative or interrogative pronoun (qui, quis). It 
may be either interrogative or relative in force according to its derivation, 
but is usually the former. 

Cm The reciprocals one another and each other are expressed by inter sS or 

alter . . . altenim : — 

alter altezins Sva frangit, they break each other^s eggs (one ... of the other), 
inter se. amant, they love one anotJier (they love among themselves). 

Demonstrative Pronouns 

146. The Demonstrative Pronouns are used to point out or 

designate a person or thing for special attention, either with nouns 

as Adjectives or alone as Pronouns. They are : — hie, this; is, 

ille, iste, that; vdth the Intensive ipse, self\ and Idem, same; ^ and 

are thus declined : — 

hie, this 












































1 These demonstratives are combinations of o- and i- stems, which are not clearly 




Note 1. — Hie is a compound of the stem ho- with the demonstrative enclitic -ce. 
In most of the cases final e Is dropped, in 'some the whole termination. But in these 
latter it is sometimes retained for emphasis : as, hfiius-ce, his-ce . In early Latin -c alone 
is retained in some of these (hSrunc). The vowel in hie, hdc, was originally short, and 
perhaps this quantity was always retained. Die and iste are sometimes found with 
the same enclitic: illic, illaec, iliac; also illoc. See a, p. 67. 

Note 2. — For the dative and ablative plural of hic the old form hibos is sometimes 
found ; haec occurs (rarely) for ttae. 

is, that 










ei, ii (i) 










eis, iis (is) 





.. eds 





eis, lis (is) 




eae ea 

earum edmm 

eis, iis (is) eis, iis (is) 

eas ea 

eis, lis (is) eis, iis (is) 

Note 3. — Obsolete forms are eae (dat. fem.), and e&bns or ibns (dat. plur.). For 
dative ei are found also hi and ei (monosyllabic) ; ei, ^, etc., also occur in the plural. 

ille, that 












































Iste, ista, istud, that (yonder), is declined like ille. 

Note 4. — ille replaces an earlier ollus (oUe), of which several forms occur. 

Note 5. — Iste is sometimes foimd in early writers in the form ste etc. The first 
syllable of ille and ipse is very often used as short in early poetry. 

Note 6. — The forms ilH, isti (gen.), and illae, istae (dat.), are sometimes found; 
also the nominative plural istaece, illaece (for istae, illae). See a, p. 67. 

ipse, self 





























ipsi ipsae ipsa 

ipsorum ipsanim ipsorom 

ipsis ipsis ipsis 

ips5s ipsas ipsa 

ipsis ipsis ipsis 




None 7. — Ipse is compounddd of is and -pse (a pronominal particle of uncertain 
origin: cf. § 145. a), meaning »e^f. The former part was originally declined, as in 
reipse (for rC eipse), in fact. An old form ipsus occurs, with superlative ipsissimus, 
ovjn self, used for comic effect. 

NoTB 8. — The intensive -pse is found in the forms eapse (nominative), eumpse, 
eampse, edpse, eapse (ablative). 

idem, the same 



M* F* 


M. F. N. 


idem e&dem 


idem (ei-) eaedem eftdem 


^insdem ^iusdem 


eOrundem e&randem e5randem 


eidem eidem 


eisdem or isdem 


eundem eandem 


eOsdem easdem e&dem 


eSdem eadem 


eisdem or isdem 

NoTB 9. — Idem is the<lemonstrative is with the- indeclinable suffix -dam. The mas- 
culine idem is for fisdem ; the neuter idem, however, is not for fiddem, but is a relic of 
an older formation. A final m of is is changed to n before d : as, eundem for eumdem, 
etc. The plural forms idem, isdem, are often written iidem, iisdem. 

a. nie and iste appear in combination with the demonstrative particle -c, 
shortened from <e, in the following forms : — 





H. F. 





illuc (Uloc) 

istic istaec 

istuc (istoc) 




illuc (illoc) 

istnnc istanc 

istuc (istoc) 





istoc istic 



N., Ace. 



NoTB 1. — The appended -ce is also found with pronouns in numerous combinations : 
as, hfiiusce, hnnce, hdnmoe, hftmnce, hdsce, hisce (cf . § 14(i. n. 1), illiusce, isce ; also with the 
interrogative -ne, in hdcine, hSscine, istucine, illicine, etc. 

NoTB 2. — By composition with ecce or em, behold.' are formed eccum (for ecce 
eum), eccam, ecc5s, eccas; eccillum (for ecce ilium); ellum (for em ilium), ellam, ellSs, 
ellas ; eccistam. These forms are dramatic and colloquial. 

b» The combinations h^usmodi (huiuscemodi), eiusmodi, etc., are used as 
indeclinable adjectives, equivalent to talis, stich: as, res Eiusmodi, such a 
thing (a thing of that sort : cf. § 345. a). 

For uses of the Demonstrative Pronouns, see §§ 296 ff. 




Relative Pronouns 
147. The Relative Pronoun qui, who^which^ is thus declined :• 












































Interrog^ative and Indefinite PxDnouns 

148. The Substantive Interrogative Pronoun quia, whof quid, 
what? is declined in the Singular as follows : — 

SC} F. 

















The Plural is the same as that of the Relative, qui, quae, quae. 

a. The singular quis is either masculine or of indeterminate gender, 
but in old writers it is sometimes distinctly feminine. 

bm The Adjective Interrogative Pronoun, qui, quae, quod, what kind off 
what f which t is declined throughout like the Relative : — 
Substantive Adjective 

quis vocat, wh>o calls f qui homd vocat, wh>at man calls f 

quid vides, what do you see f quod templum vidSs, whnt temple do you see f 

Note. — But qui is often used without any apparent adjective force; and quis is 
very common as an adjective, especially with words denoting a person : as, qu! nomi- 
nat mS ? wha calls my name f quis diCs fuit ? what day was it f quis homo ? what man ? 
but often qu! homo ? what kind of man ? nescid qui sis, / know not who you are. 

ۥ Quisnam, pray, who f is an emphatic interrogative. It has both sub- 
stantive and adjective forms like quis, qui. 

149. The Indefinite Pronouns quis, any one, and qui, any, are 
declined like the corresponding Interrogatives, but qua is com- 
monly used for quae except in the nominative plural feminine : — 


Substantive : quia, any one ; quid, anything. 

Adjective : qm, qua (quae), qnod, any, 

€Mr» The feminine forms qua and quae are sometimes used substantively. 
&• The indefinites quia and qui are rare except after si, nisi, ne, and num, 
and in compounds (see § 310. a, b). 

Note. — After these particles qui is often used as a substantive and quis as an adjec- 
tive (cf. §148. 6. N.). 

Case-Forms of qui and quis 

150. The Relative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns are 
originally of the same stem, and most of the forms are the same 
(compare § 147 with § 148). The stem has two forms in the mas- 
culine and neuter, quo-, qui-, and one for the feminine, qu&-. The 
interrogative sense is doubtless the original one. 

€r. Old forms for the genitive and dative singular are qudius, quoi. 

b» The form qui is used for the ablative of both numbers and all genders; 
but especially as an adverb (howy by which way^ in any way)^ and in the combi- 
nation qmcum, with whom, as an interrogative or an indefinite relative. 

Cm A nominative plural ques (stem qui-) is found in early Latin. A dative 
and ablative qvSa (stem quo-) is not infrequent, even in classic Latin. 

€f* The preposition cum is joined encliticaUy to all forms of the abla- 
tive, as with the personal pronouns (§ 143./) : as, quQcum, quicnm, quibuscum. 

NoTB. — But occasionally com precedes : as, cum quo (luv. iv. 9). 

Compounds of guts and qut 

151. The pronouns quis and qui appear in various combinations. 

«r. The adverb -cumque (-cunque) (cf. quisque) added to the relative 
makes an indefinite relative, which is declined like the simple word : as, 
quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque, whoever, whatever ; ciiiuscumque, etc. 

Note. — This suffix, with the same meaning, may be used with any relative : as, 
qualiscumqae, of whatever sort ; qvanddcnmqne (also rarely qoandSqtte), whenever; ttM- 
ciunque, wherever. 

h. In quisquis, whoever, both parts are declined, but the only forms in 
common use are quisquis, quidquid (quicquid) and qu5quo. 

NoTB 1. — Rare forms are quemquem and quibttsquibas ; an ablative quiqui is some- 
times found in early Latin ; the ablative feminine quaquA is both late and rare. Cuicui 
occurs as a genitive in the phrase cuicui modi, of whatever kind. Other cases are 
cited, but have no authority. In early Latin quisquis is occasionally feminine. 

Note 2. — Quisquis is usually substantive, except in the ablative qudquS, which is 
more commonly an adjective. 




ۥ The indefinite pronouns quidam, a certain (one) ; qmyis, qnilibet, any 
you please, are used both as substantives and as adjectives. The first part 
is declined like the relative qui, but the neuter has both quid- (substantive) 
and quod- (adjective) : — 

qaldam qoaedam quiddam (quoddam) 

qoivlB quaevia quid^a (quodvia) 

Quidam changes m to n before d in the accusative singular (quendam, m. ; 
quandam, f.) and the genitive plural (qoSmndam, m., x. ; quarundam, f.). 

d» The indefinite pronouns quispiam, some, any, and quisquam, any at all, 
are used both as substantives and as adjectives. Quispiam ha» feminine qaae- 
piam (adjective), neuter quidpiam (substantive) and quodpiam (adjective^ ; 
the plural is very rare. Quisquam is both masculine and feminine ; the 
neuter is qnidquam (quicquam), substantive only ; there is no plural. Ullus, 
-a, -nm, is commonly used as the adjective corresponding to quiaqnam. 

e. The indefinite pronoun aliquis (substantive), some one, aliqui (adjec- 
tive), some, is declined like quia and qui, but aliqua is used instead of aliquae 
except in the nominative plural feminine : — 







aliquia (aliqui) 


aUquid (aliquod) 









aliquid (aUquod) 


















Note. — Aliqui is sometimes used substantively and aliquis as an adjective. 

/. The indefinite pronoun acquis (substantive), whether any one, ecqrn 
(adjective), whether any, is declined like aliquia, but has either ecqnae or 
ecqua in the nominative singular feminine of the adjective form. 

Note.— Bcquis (ecqui) has no genitive singular, and in the plural occurs in the 
nominative and accusative only. 

g. The enclitic particle -que added to the interrogative gives a universal : 
as, quiaqne, every one; uterque, each of two, or hoih» Qniaque is declined 

§§ 161, 162] 



like the interrogatiye qnis, qm : — substantive, quiaque, quidque ; adjective, 
qmqne, quaeque, quodque. 

In the compound imiisqiiisque, every single one, both parts are declined 
(genitive nniusc^usque), and they are sometimes written separately and even 
separated by other words : — 

ne in fino quidem qaSque (Lael. 02), not even in a single one. 

h» The relative and interrogative have rarely a possessive adjective 
cfiins (-a, -mn), older qndiiis, whose ; and a patrial ciUas (diiat-), of what 

ۥ Quantns, how great, qualis, of what sort, are derivative adjectives from 
the interrogative. They are either interrogative or relative, corresponding 
respectively to the demonstratives tantus, talis (§ 152). Indefinite com- 
pounds are qnantnacumque and qualiscumque (see § 151. a). 


152. Many Pronoans, Pronominal Adjectives, and Adverbs 
have corresponding demonstrative^ relative^ interrogative^ and 
indefinite forms. Such parallel forms are called Correlatives. 
They are shown in the following table: — 




Indbf. Bel. 











some one 



quantus ? 



so great 

how (as) great 

how great f 

however great 




qnftlis ? 




of what sort f 

of whatever kind 








where f 










whither f 


(to) somewhere 






that way 

which way 

which way f 










whence f 


from somewhere 



quando ? 







at some tijne 






so many 


how many f 

however many 

some, several 



quotiSns ? 



80 often 


how often f 

however often 

at several times 



153. The inflection of the Verb is called its Conjugation. 

Voice, Mood, Tense, Person, Number 

154. Through its conjugation the Verb expresses Voice, Mood, 
Tense, Person, and Number. 

a* The Voices are two : Active add Passive. 

6* The Moods are four : Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, and In- 

Note. — The Indicative, Subjunctive, and Imperative are called Finite Moods in 
distinction from the Infinitive. 

Cm The Tenses are six, viz. : — 
.1. For continued action, Present, Imperfect, Future. 

2. For completed action, Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect. 

The Indicative Mood has all six tenses, but the Subjunctive has no 
future or future perfect, and the Imperative has only the present and the 
future. The Infinitive has the present, perfect, and future. 

d» The Persons are three : First, Second, and Third. 

e* The Numbers are two : Singular and Plural. 

Noun and AdjectiTe Forms 

155. The following Noun and Adjective forms are also included 
In the inflection of the Latin Verb : — 

a. Four Participles,* viz. : — 

Active: the Present and Future Participles. 

Passive : the Perfect Participle and the Gerundive.* 

5. The Grerund : this is in form a neuter noun of the second declension, 
used only in the oblique cases of the singular. 

c. The Supine : this is in form a verbal noun of the fourth declension 
in the accusative (-am) and dative or ablative (-u)^ singular. 

1 The Infinitive is strictly the locative case of an abstract noun, expressing the 
action of the verb (§ 451). 

^ The Participles are adjectives in inflection and meaning, hut have the power of 
verbs in construction and in distinguishing time. 

' The Gerundive is also used as an adjective of necessity, duty, etc. (§ 158. d). In 
late use it became a Future Passive Participle. ^ Originally locative. 

;,§ lo($, 157] VOICES AND MOODS 78 

Signification of the Forms of the Verb 


156. The Active and Passive Voices in Latin generally cor- 
respond to the active and passive in English ; but — 

a* The passive voice often has a reflexive meaning : — 

f erro acdngor, I gird myself with my sword, 
Tomtts vertitur, Turnus turns (himself), 
induitor vestem, he puts on his (own) clothes. 

NoTB. — This use corresponds very nearly to the Greek Middle voice, and is doubt- 
less a survival of the original meaning of the passive (p. 76, footnote 2). 

&• Many verbs are passive in form, but active or reflexive in meaning. 
These are called Deponents (§ 190): ^ as, hortor, / exhort; sequor, I follow. 

Cm Some verbs with active meaning have the passive form in the perfect 
tenses ; these are called Semi-Deponents : as, auded, audere, ausus sum, dare. 


157. The Moods are used as follows : — 

a* The Indicative Mood is used for most direct assertions and interroga- 
tions: as, — yalesne? valed, are you wellf I am well. 

&• The Subjunctive Mood has many idiomatic uses, as in commands, condi- 
tions, and various dependent clauses. It is often translated by the English 
Indicative; frequently by means of the auxiliaries may, might, would, should;^ 
sometimes by the (rare) Subjunctive ; sometimes by the Infinitive ; and 
often by the Imperative, especially in prohibitions. A few characteristic 
examples of its use are the following : — 

eimus, let us go; nS abeat, let him not depart. 

adsum ut videam, I am here to see (that I may see). 

to. tA qoaealeris, do not thou inquire. 

be&tus 818, m^y you be blessed. 

quid morer, why should I delay f 

nesciO quid scntMon, I know not what to write. 

si moneam, audiat, if I shovJd warn, he would hear. 

1 That is, verbs which have laid aside (deponere) the passive meaning. 

2 The Latin uses the subjunctive in many cases where we use the indicative ; and 
we use a colorless auxiliary in many cases where the Latin employs a separate verb 
with more definite meaning. Thus, / may write is often not scribam (subjunctive) , but 
licet mihi scxibere ; I can write is possum scxibere ; I would write is scribam, scrfberem, 
or scnber© velim (vellem) ; I should write, (if, etc.), scriberem (si) . . ., or (implying duty) 
oportet mS scnbere. 

74 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB [§§ 167, 168 

c« The Imperative is used for exhortation^ entreaty y or command ; but the 
Subjunctive is often used instead (§§ 439, 450) : — 

liber estd, he ahaU be free, 

ne 088a legito, do not gather the hones, 

d. The Infinitive is used chiefly as an indeclinable noun, as the subject 
or complement of another verb (§§ 452, 456. n.). In special constructions it 
takes the place of the Indicative, and m^y b^ translated by that mood in 
English (see Indirect Discourse, § 580 ft,). 

Note. — For the Syntax of the Moods, see § 436 ft. 

158. The Participles are used as follows : — 

a. The Present Participle (ending in -ns) has commonly the sajne 
meaning and use as the English participle in -ing ; as, voc&ns, call- 
ing ; legentes, reading, (For its inflection, see egSns, § 118.) 

b» The Future Participle (ending in -tirus) is oftenest used to ex- 
press what is likely or about to happen : as, rScturus, a^otut to rule ; 
auditUrus, ahovt to hear. 

Note. — With the tenses of esse, to be^ it forms the First Periphrastic Conjngstion 
(see § 195) : as, urbs est casura, t?ie city is about to fall ; minsurus eram, I was going 
to stay, 

c. The Perfect Participle (ending in -tus, -sua) has two uses : — 

1. It is sometimes equivalent to the English perfect passive participle : 
as, tectus, sheltered ; acceptus, accepted ; ictus, having been struck ; and often 
has simply an adjective meaning : as, acceptus, acceptable, 

2. It is used with the verb to he (esse) to form certain tenses of the pas- 
sive : as, Yocatus est, he was (has been) called. 

Note. —There is no Perfect Active or Present Passive Participle in Latin. For 
substitutes see §§ 492, 493. 

d* The Gerundive (ending in -ndus), has two uses : — 

1. It is often used as an adjective implying obligation, necessity, or 
propriety (ought or must) : as, audiendus est, he must he heard. 

Note. — When thus used with the tenses of the verb to be (esse) it forms the Second 
Periphrastic Conjugation: dSligendtts erat, he ought to have been chosen (§ 196). 

2. In the oblique cases the Gerundive commonly has the same meaning 
as the Gerund (cf. § 159. a), though its construction is different. (For 
examples, see § 503 ft,) 


Gerund and Supine 

159. The Gerund and Supine are used as follows : — 

a. The Gerund is a verbal noun, corresponding in meaning to the English 
verbal noun in -ing (§ 502): as, loquendi cattaa;/or the sake of speaking. 

Note. — The Grerund is found only in the ohlique cases. A corresponding nomi- 
native is supplied by the Infipitive : thus, scnbere est utile, writing (to write) is use- 
ful ; but, ars scribendi; the art of writing. 

h. The Supine is in form a noun of the fourth declension (§ 94. 6), 
found only in the accusative ending in -turn, -^om, and the dative or abla- 
tive ending in -to, -sxk. 

The Supine in -urn is used after verbs and the Supine in -ii after adjec- 
tives (§§509, 510): — 

vSnit spectfltum, he came to see ; mir&bile dictfl, wonderful to teU. 

Tenses of the Finite Verb 

160. The Tenses of the Indicative have, in general, the same 
meaning as the corresponding tenses in English : — 

Urn Of continued action, 

1. Present : scribo, I write, I am writing, I do write. 

2. Imperfect : scribSbam, I wrote, I was writing, I did write. 

3. Future : sciibam, I ahaU write. 

h. Of completed action, 

4. Perfect : scrips!, I have written, I wrote. 

5. Pluperfect : scnpseram, I had written. 

6. Future Perfect : scripserS, I shall have written. 

161. The Perfect Indicative has two separate uses, — the Per- 
fect Definite and the Perfect Historical (or Indefinite). 

1 . The Perfect Definite represents the action of the verb as completed 
in present time, and corresponds to the English perfect with have: as, 
scrips!, / have written. 

2. The Perfect Historical narrates a simple act or state in past time 
without representing it as in progress or continuing. It coiTesponds to the 
English past or preterite and the Greek aorist : as, scripsit, he wrote. 

162. The Tenses of the Subjunctive are chiefly used in depend- 
ent clauses, following the rule for the Sequence of Tenses ; but 
have also special idiomatic uses (see Syntax). 

For the use of Tenses in the Imperative, see §§ 448, 449. 




Personal Endings 

163, Verbs have regular terminations ^ for each of the three 
Persons, both singular and plural, active and passive.? These are : 






am-0, / love. 


amo-r, I am loved. 



am&-B, thou lovesU 

-ris (-re): 

am&-ris, thou art loved. 



ama-t, he love*. 


ama-tur, he is loved. 



amSrinas, we love. 


ama-miir, we are loved. 



ama-tis, you love. 


amSrmim, you are loved. 



amariit, they love. 


ama-ntur, they are loved. 

a* The Perfect Indicative active has the special terminations ' : — 

SiNo. 1. -i: 

am9,v-I, I loved. 

2. -is-ti 

am&y-is-ti, tkou lovedst. 

3. -i-t: 

amftv-i-t, ?ie loved. 

Plub. 1. -i-mns: 

am&v-i-mtts, we 


2. -i8-ti8 : 

amftv-is-tlA, you loved. 

3. -€rant (-Sre) 

amav-«rant (-Sre), they loved. 

b» The Imperative has the following terminations : — 

Present Active 

2. — : 

2. -t5: 

3. -to: 

am&, love thou. 


Future Active 

amfirtd, thou shall love. -tdte : 

am&-td, he shall love. -ntd : 

am9r-te, love ye. 

am&-t5te, ye i^iaU love. 
ama-ntd, Viey shall love. 

^ Most of these seem to be fragments of old pronouns, whose signification is thus 
added to that of the verb-stem (of. § 36). But the ending -mini in the second person 
plural of the passive is perhaps a remnant of the participial form found in the Greek 
-/Acvos, and has supplanted the proper form, which does not appear in Latin. The pei^ 
sonal ending -nt is probably connected with the participial nt- (nominative -ns). 

3 The Passive is an old Middle Voice, peculiar to the Italic and Celtic languages, 
and of uncertain origin. 

< Of these terminations -! is not a personal ending, but appears to represent an 
Indo-European tense-sign ^i of the Perfect Middle. In -is-ti and -is^tis, -ti and -tis are 
personal endings ; for -is-, see § 169. c. m. In -i-t and -i-mns, -t and -mus are personal 
endings, and i is of uncertain origin. Both -Smnt and -6re are also of doubtful origin, 
but the former contains the personal ending -nt. 

§§ 163, 164] THE THREE STEMS 77 

Singular Prbsjbnt Passive piy^jral 

2. -re : am&-xe, he thou lowd, .mini : amft^miid, be ye 2ooed. 

FuTURB Passive 

2. -tor : amft^tor, fhjou shatt be loved, 

3. -tor : amSr-tor, he ahaU be loved, -ntor : ama-ntor, they shall be loved. 

Forms op the Verb 

The Three Stems 

164. The forms of the verb may be referred to three stems, 
called (1) the Present, (2) the Perfect, and (3) the Supine stem. 

1. On the Present stem are formed — 

The Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative, Active and Passive. 

The Present and Imperfect Subjunctive, Active and Passive. 

The Imperative, Active and Passive. 

The Present Infinitive, Active and Passive. 

The Present Participle, the Grerundive, and the Gerund. 

2. On the Perfect stem are formed — 

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Active. 
The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Active. 
The Perfect Infinitive Active. 

8. On the Supine stem are formed ^ — 

a* The Perfect Passive Participle, which combines with the forms of the 
verb sum, be, to make — 

The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect Indicative Passive. 

The Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive. 

The Perfect Infinitive Passive. 

6. The Future Active Participle, which combines with esse to make 
the Future Active Infinitive. 

c» The Supine in -urn and -&. The Supine in -am combines with iri to 
make the Future Passive Infinitive (§ 203. a). 

Note. — The Perfect Participle with fore also makes a Future Passive Infinitive 
(as, amfttus fore). For fore (fatfimm esse) at with the subjunctive, see § 569. 3. a. 

1 The Perfect Passive and Future Active Participles and the Supine, though strictly 
noon-forms, each with its own suffix, agree in having the first letter of the suffix (t) 
the same and in suffering the same phonetic change (t to s, see § 15. 5) . Hence these 
forms, along with several sets of derivatives (in -tor, -tfira, etc., see § 238. 6. n.^), were 
felt by the Romans as belonging to one system, and are conveniently associated with 
the Snpine Stem. Thus, from ping5, we have pictam, pictns, pictarus, pictor, pictfira ; 
from xided, nsom (for fxld-tttm), iteas (part.), nsus (noun), lisfirus, liiiS, risor, risibilis. 



[§§ 166, 166 


165. Every form of the finite verb is made up of two parts : 

1. The Stem (see § 24). This is either the root or a modification or 
deyelopment of it. 

2. The Ending, consisting of — 

1. the Signs of Mood and Tense (see f§ 168, 169). 

2. the Personal Ending (see § 163). 

Thus in the verb yocft-bA-s, you were caUing, the root is yog, modified into the 
verb-stem yoc&-, which by the addition of the aiding -bAs becomes the imperfect 
tense voc&b&s ; and this ending consists of the tense-sign bA- and the personal 
ending (-s) of the second person singular. 

166. The Verb-endings, as they are formed by the signs for 
mood and tense combined with personal endings, are — 








— lej 















- B 

























in, rv 




' -d-m 



1 -s ^ 8 . 






^ -4 p « 
















-lis (-re) 


In Acti' 








-ba-r -re-r 

-bi-ris (-re) -rS^ris (-re) 

-bi-tar -rS-tar 

-bA-mor -rS-mur 

-bi-mini -rS-mini 

-ba-ntar -re-ntar 



-be-ris (-re) 

"3 e 

ni, rv» 

-5-ri8 (-re) 

1 These numerals refer to the four conjugations given later (see § 171). 







Sing. 1. -i -eri-m 

2. -is-ti -«ri-8 

3. -i-t -eri-t 
Plub. 1. -i-mu8 -eri-mns 

2. -is-tis -eri-tia 

S. -dru-nt (-€re) -eri-nt 


Sing. 1. -era-m 

2. -er&-s 

3. -era-t 
Plub. 1. -erA-maa 

2. -er&-ti8 

3. -era-nt 







Future Perfect 

Sing. 1. -er-5 

2. -eri-a 

3. -eri-t 
Plur. 1. -eri-maa 

2. -ari-tia 

3. -eri-nt 

indicative subjunctive 


anm aim 

ea aia 

eat ait 

aumua nmaa 

eatia aitia 

aunt aint 


-ti (-tae, 



-ti (-tae, 

-toa (-ta, 

-ti (-tae, 

Sing. 2. 




Plub. 2. -te Sing. 2. -re 



2. -tSte 

3. -ntS 

2. -tor 

3. -tor 


Plub. 2. -mini 


3. -ntor 

For convenience a table of the Noun and Adjective forms of 

the verb is here added. 


Pbes. -re (Pres. stem) i, n, it. -ri ; iii. -i 

Pbbf. -iaae (Perf. stem) -taa (-ta, -tun) eaae 

FuT. -tfima (-a, -om) eaae -torn iri 

Pbbs. -na, -ntia 
FuT. -tfinxa, -a, -urn 


Pbbf. -taa, -ta, -torn 
6bb. -ndaa, -nda^ -ndom 


-ndi, -nd5, -ndun, -nd5 -torn, -til 

80 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB [§§ 167, 168 

167. A long vowel is shortened before the personal endings 
-m (-r), -t, -nt (-ntiur): as, ame-t (for older amM), habe-t (for hab&>t), 
mone-nt, mone-ntur. 

168. The tenses of the Present System are made from the Pres- 
ent Stem as follows : — ^ 

a. In the Present Indicative the personal endings are added directly to 
the present stem. Thus, — present stem ara- : ara-s, ara-mus, ar&-tis. 

hm In the Imperfect Indicative the suffix -bam, -baa, etc. (originally a com- 
plete verb) is added to the present stem : as, ara-bam, ara-bas, ara-bamus. 

Note. — The form ftiam was apparently an aorist of the Indo-European root bhu 
(cf. fui, fatfiras, <f)(Kay English &e, been), and meant I was. This was added to a com- 
plete word, originally a case of a verbal noun, as in I was a-seeing; hence vidS-tiam. 
The form probably began in the Second or Third Conjugation and was extended to the 
others. The a was at first long, but was shortened in certain forms (§ 167). 

c. In the Future Indicative of the First and Second Conjugations a similar 
suffix, -bo, -bis, etc., is added to the present stem : as, ari-b9, ara-bis, mone-bd. 

Note. — The form fbd was probably a present tense of the root bhu, with a future 
meaning, and was affixed to a noun-form as described in b. n. 

€l« In the Future Indicative of the Third and Fourth Conjugations the 
terminations -am, -€s, etc. (as, teg-am, teg-es, audi-am, audi-es) are really sub- 
junctive endings used in a future sense (see «). The vowel was originally 
long throughout. For shortening, see § 167. 

e. In the Present Subjunctive the personal endings were added to a 
form of the present stem ending in 6- or a-, which was shortened in certain 
forms (§ 167). Thus, ame-m, ame-s, tega-mus, tega-nt. 

Note 1. — The vowel S (seen in the First Conjugation: as, am-S-s) is an inherited 
subjunctive mood-sign. It appears to be the thematic vowel e (§ 174. 1) lengthened. 
The & Of the other conjugations (mone-A-s, reg-ft-s, audi-&-s) is of uncertain origin. 

Note 2. — In a few irregular verbs a Present Subjunctive in -im, -is, etc. occurs : 
as, 8im, 818, 8imtt8, velim, veils, etc. This is an old optative, i being a form of the Indo- 
European optative mood-sign y5- (cf. siem, siSs, siet, §170. b. n.). The vowel has 
been shortened in the first and third persons singular and the third person plural. 

/• In the Imperfect Subjunctive the suffix -rem, -res, etc. is added to the 
present stem : as, ama-rem, ama-res, mone-rem, tege-rem, audi-rem. 

Note. — The stem element -rS- is of uncertain origin and is not found outside of 
Italic. The r is doubtless the aorist sign s (cf . es-se-m, es-sS-s) changed to r between 
two vowels (§ 15. 4). The 5 is probably the subjunctive mood-sign (see e). 

1 The conjugation of a verb consists of separate formations from a root, grad- 
ually grouped together, systematized, and supplemented by new formations made on 
old lines to supply deficiencies. Some of the forms were inherited from the parent 
speech ; others were developed in the course of the history of the Italic dialects or of 
the Latin language itself. 

§§ 169, 170] VERB-ENDINGS 81 

169. The tenses of the Perfect System in the active voice are 
made from the Perfect Stem as follows : — 

a* In the Perfect Indicative the endings -i, -isti, etc. are added directly 
to the perfect stem : as, amay-isti, tex-istis. 

h. In the Pluperfect Indicative the suffix -eram, -eras, etc. is added to the 
perfect stem : as, amay-eram, monu-eras, tez-erat. 

Note. — This seems to represent an older t-is-&m etc. formed on the analogy of 
the Future Perfect in -er5 (older t-i8-5: see c helow) and influenced by eram (inperfect 
of sum) in comparison with erd (future of sum). 

c. In the Future Perfect the suffix -er6, -cris, etc. is added to the perfect 
stem : as, amay-er5, monu-eris, tez-erit. 

Note. — This formation was originally a subjunctive of the s-aorist, ending prob- 
ably in t-is-o. The -is- is doubtless the same as that seen in the second person singular of 
the perfect indicative (vid-is-ti), in the perfect infinitive (vid-is-se), and in the plu- 
perfect subjunctive (vid-is-sem), s being the aorist sign and i probably an old stem 

d. In the Perfect Subjunctive the suffix -erim, -eris, etc. is added to the 
perfect stem : as, amay-erim, monu-eris, tez-erit. 

Note. — This formation was originally an optative of the s-aorist (-er- for older 
-is-, as in the future perfect, see c above). The 1 after r is the optative mood-sign ! 
shortened (see § 168. e. n. 3). Forms in -is, -it, -imtts, -itis, are sometimes found. The 
shortening in -Is, -Imus, -Itis, is due to confusion with the future perfect. 

e. In the Pluperfect Subjunctive the suffix -issem, -isses, etc. is added to 
the perfect stem : as, amay-issem, monu-isses, tex-isset. 

Note. — Apparently this tense was formed on the analogy of the pluperfect indica- 
tive in ^-is-am (later -er-am, see 6), and influenced by essem (earlier fessCm) in its 
relation to eiam (earlier fesftm).! 

The Verb Sum 

170. The verb sum, he^ is both irregular and defective, having 
no gerund or supine, and no participle but the future. 

Its conjugation is given at the outset, on account of its impor- 
tance for the inflection of other verbs. 

1 The signs of mood and tense are often said to be inserted between the root (or 
verb-stem) and the personal ending. No such insertion is possible in a language 
developed like the Latin. All true verb-forms are the result, as shown above, of com- 
position; that is, of adding to the root or the stem either personal endings or fully 
developed auxiliaries (themselves containing the personal terminations), or of imita- 
tion of such processes. Thus vldgbamus is made by adding to vidS-, originally a signifi- 
cant word or a form conceived as snch, a full verbal form fbamus, not by inserting 
-b£- between vidS- and -mas (§ 168. 6). 




Principal Parts : Present Indicative sum, Present Infinitive esse, 
Perfect Indicative foi, Future Participle fntums. 

Pbbsbnt Stem es- 

Pebfect Stem fu- 

SupiNE Stem fat- 













1. sum, / am 


2. 3s, thou art (you are) 


3. est, he (she, it) is 


1. stimns, tve are 


2. estis, you are 


3. sunt, they are 



1. eram, / was 


2. eras, you were 


3. erat, he (she, it) was 


1. erftmus, we were 


2. eratis, you were 


3. erant, they were 



1. erd, / shall be 

2. eris, you will be 

3. erit, he will be 

1. erimuB, we shall be 

2. eritis, you will be 

3. enint, they will be 


1. fui, / was (have been) 



2. fuistl, you were 


3. fuit, he was 


1. fnimuB, we were 


2. fuiatlB, you were 


3. fuSrunt, fu6re, they were 



1. fueram, / had been 


2. fuerSB, you had been 


3. fuerat, he had been 


1 All translations of the Sabjonctive' are misleading, and hence none is given ; see 
§ 167. 6. 

§ 170] THE VERB SUM 83 

Plur. 1. fuerftmuB, we had been fuiasfimuB 

2. fuerfttis, you had been fuissfitiB 

3. fuerant, they had been fuissent 

Future Perfect 
Sing. 1. txxKx^y I shall have been Plur. 1. ixiexiaiMA, we shall have been 

2. fueris, you will have been 2. fueritis, you will have been 

3. fuerit, he will have been 3. fueriat, they will have been 

Present Sing. 2. 6s, be thou Plur. 2. este, be ye 

Future 2. e8t6, thou shall be 2. est5te, ye shall be 

3. est6, he shall be 3. 8iint5, they shall be 

Present esse, to be ' - 
Perfect fuisse, to have been 
Future futHnis esse or fore, to be about to be 


Future futtlrus, -a, -um, about to be 

a* For essem, eaaSa, etc., forem, fores, foret, forent, are often used ; so fore 
for fatnms esse. 

bm The Present Participle, which would regularly be f s5ns,^ appears in 
the adjective in-sdns, innocent, and in a modified form in ab-sens, prae-sens. 
The simple form ens is sometimes found in late or philosophical Latin as a 
participle or abstract noun, in the forms ens, being ; entia, things which are. 

Note. — Old forms are: — Indicative: Future, escit, escunt (strictly an inchoa- 
tive present, see § 263. 1). 

Subjunctive: Present, siem, sifis, siet, sient; foam, fuAs, fuat, tuant; Perfect, ffivi- 
mvLB; Pluperfect, fnvisset. 

The root of the verb sum is es, which in the imperfect is changed to br (see § 15. 4), 
and in many forms is shortened to s. Some of its modifications, as found in several 
languages more or less closely related to Latin, may be seen in the following table, — 
the Sanskrit sydm corresponding to the Latin sim (siem) : — 

Sanskrit Greek 

as-mi sydm (optative) tfifu ^ 

as-i syds (val ^ 

' as-ti sydt iarl 

s-mas sydma iffuJp 

s-tha sydta kvri 

s-anti syus kvrl^ 

The Perfect and Supine stems, fa-, fut-, 
the English be. 

1 Compare Sankrit sant^ Greek wy. 



s-um sim {siem) 


es sis {sies) 


es-t sit {siet) 


s-umus simvs 


es-tis sitis 


s-unt sint {sienf) 


■e kindred with the Greek f<f>v, and w 

3k w¥. 2 Old form. 


The Four Conjugations 

171. Verbs are classed in Four Regular Conjugations, distin- 
guished by the stem-vowel which appears before -re in the Present 
InfinitiYe Active : — 

Conjugation Infinitive Ending Stem 

First -Sre (amftre) ft 

Second -Sre (monftre) S 

Third -Sre (regSre) S 

Fourth -Ire (audire) I 

The Principal Parts 

172. The Principal Parts of a verb, showing the three stems 
which determine its conjugation throughout, are — 

1. The Present Indicative (as, amd) 1 i. . j.v t* i. o^ 

o rri. T> i. T ij -A- / - X r showing the Present Stem. 

2. The Present Infinitive (as, ama-re) J ° 

3. The Perfect Indicative (as, amay-i), showing the Perfect Stem. 

4. The neuter of the Perfect Participle (as, amat-um), or, if that form 
is not in use, the Future Active Participle (amat-unis), showing the Supine 

173. The regular forms of the Four Conjugations are seen in 
the following : — 

First Conjugation : — 

Active, am5, am&re, amavi, amatam, love. 

Passive, amor, am&ri, amatus. 

Present Stem ama-, Perfect Stem amav-. Supine Stem amit-. 

Second Conjugation : — 

Active, deleo, delete, d§l§vi, deletum, blot cut. 

Passive, dSleor, deleri, deletus. 

Present Stem dele-, Perfect Stem delev-, Supine Stem delet-. 

In the Second conjugation, however, the characteristic e- rarely appears 
in the perfect and perfect participle. The conuiion type is, therefore : — 

Active, moneS, monSre, monai, monitom, warn. 

Passive, moneor, monSri, monitns. 

Present Stem monS-, Perfect Stem monu-, Supine Stem monit-. 

173, 174] PRESENT STEM 85 

Third Conjugation : — 

Active, tegd, tegSre, tSxi, tSctom, coftier. 

Passive, tegor, tegi, tSctas. 

Present Stem tegS-, Perfect Stem t§z-, Supine Stem tict-. 

Fourth Conjugation : — 

Active, andiS, antire, aadivi, auditam, hear. 

Passive, audior, audM, auditos. 

Present Stem and!-, Perfect Stem audiv-, Supine Stem audit-. 

u. In many verbs the principal parts take forms belonging to two or 
more different conjugations (cf. § 189): — 

1, 2, domo, domftre, domai, domitttin, subdue. 

2, 3, maned, manSre, oUUim, minsum, remain. 

3, 4, pets, petira, petivi, p«titam, seek, 

4, 3, vincio, vinclre, vlnxl, vinctom, hvnd. 

Such verbs are referred to the conjugation to which the Present stem 

Preaent Stem 

174. The parent (Indo-European) speech from which Latin comes had two main 
classes of verbs : — 

1. Thematic Verbs, in which a so-called thematic vowel (*/o, in Latin %) appeared 
between tlie root and the personal ending: as, leg-i-tis (for fleg-e-tes), leg-n-nt (for 
tlcg-o-nti).i * 

2. Athematic Verbs, in which the personal endings were added directly to the root: 
as, e»-t, et-tis (root ss)*, dl-mui (dO, root da), fer-t (ferS, root fsr). 

Of the Athematic Verbs few survive in Latin, and these are counted as irregalar, 
except such as have been forced into one of the four " regular " conjugations. Even 
the irregular verbs have admitted many forms of the thematic type. 

Of the Thematic Verbs a large number remain. These may be divided into two 
classes : — 

1. Verbs which preserve the thematic vowel e or o (in Latin i or a) before the per- 
sonal endings. — These make up the Third Conjugation. The present stem is formed 
in various ways (§ 176), but always ends in a short vowel Vo (Latin ^4) . Examples are 
tego (stem teg*/*-), stemimns (stem stemVo-) for ftter-no-mos, plectont (stem plectVo") 
for tpleo-to-nti. So ndscS (stem gn56C*/«-) for gn5-BO-9. Verbs like nSsod became the 
type for a large number of verbs in -flc5, called inceptives (§ 263. 1). 

2. Verbs which form the present stem by means of the suffix 3^/©-, which already 
contained the thematic vowel Vo* ~ Verbs of this class in which any vowel (except 
tt) came in contact with the suffix y*/^- suffered contraction so as to present a long^ 
vowel &-, S-, 1-, at the end of the stem. In this contraction the thematic */o disappeared. 
These became the tyx>es of the First, Second, and Fourth conjugations respectively. 
In imitation of these long vowel-stems numerous verbs were formed by the Romans 
themselves (after the mode of formation had been entirely forgotten) from noun- and 

1 Cf . X^-e-r€, \iy-i>^fuv ; Doric X^-o-i^i. 
> Cf. ia^l, i<r-r4 (see p. 83, note). 


adjectiye-stems. This came to be the regular way of forming new verbs, just as in 
English the borrowed sufiiz -ize can be added to nouns and adjectives to make 
verbs: as, macadamize, modernize. 

Thematic verbs of the second class in which a consonant or u came into contact 
with the suffix yVo- suffered various phonetic changes. Such verbs fall partly into 
the Third Conjugation, giving rise to an irregular form of it, and partly into the Fourth, 
and some have forms of both. Examples are : — (c5n)spicl9 (-spicSre) for fspekyS ; veniQ 
(venire) for f (g)vem-y5 ; cupiS, capSre, but cupm ; orior, oritur, but oriri. Note, however, 
pltto (pluere) for fpltt-yo ; and hence, by analogy, acttd (acuere) for facu-yd. 

In all these cases many cross-analogies and errors as well as phonetic changes have 
been at work to produce irregularities. Hence has arisen the traditional system which 
is practically represented in §§ 175, 176. 

175. The Present Stem may be found by dropping -re in the 
Present Infinitive : — 

am&->i»r-8t&m ama-; monS-re, stemmonS^; tegS-re, stem tegS-; audi-re, stem 

176. The Present Stem is formed from the Root in all regu- 
lar verbs in one of the following ways : — 

a. In the First, Second, and Fourth conjugations, by adding a long 
vowel (a-, e-, i-) to the root, whose vowel is sometimes changed : as, voca-re 
(voc), mone-re (men, of. memini), sopi-re (sop).^ 

Note. — Verb-stems of these conjugations are almost all really formed from noun- 
stems on the pattern of older formations tisee § 174). 

bm In the Third Conjugation, by adding a short vowel %* to the root. 
In Latin this % usually appears as %, but e is preserved in some forms. 
Thus, tegi-8 (root teg), ali-tis (al), regu-nt (reg) ; but teg^ris (teg^re), al^ris. 

1. The stem-vowel Vo (Vu) may be preceded by n, t, or sc : ^ as, tem-ni-tis, 
tem-ntt-nt, tem-nS-ris (tem) ; plec-ti-8 (pleo) ; crS-sci-tis (ore). 

2. Verbs in -i5 of the Third Conjugation (as, capiS, capSre) show in some forms 
an i before the final vowel of the stem : as, cap-i-unt (cap), fug-i-unt (fug). 

c. The root may be changed — 

1. By the repetition of a part of it (reduplicaJbion) : as, gi-gn-e-re (gen). 

2. By the insertion of a nasal (m or n) : as, flnd-e-re (fid), tang-e-re (tag). 

1 Most verbs of the First, Second, and Fourth Conjugations form the present stem by 
adding the suffix -y Vo~ ^ & noun-stem. The & of the First Conjugation is the stem-ending 
of the noun (as, plant£-re, from plantil-, stem of planta). The 6 of the Second and the 1 
of the Fourth Conjugation are due to contraction of the short vowel of the noun-stem 
with the ending -yVo~* Thus albSre is from albV,-, stem of albus ; finire is from fini-, 
stem of finis. Some verbs of these classes, however, come from ro6ts ending in a vowel. 

2 This is the so-called " thematic vowel." 

8 In these verbs the stem-ending added to the root is respectively -b%-, -t*/^., 

176, 177] PERFECT STEM 87 

d. In some verbs the present stem is formed from a noan-stem in u- : 
as, stata-e-re (statu-s), aestu-a-re (aestu-s) ; cf . acuO, acuere.^ 

NoTB 1. — A few isolated forms use the simple root as a present stem: as, fer-re, 
fer-t; es-se; veHe, vul-t. These are ;!oanted as irregular. 

Note 2. — In some verbs the final consonant of the root is doubled before the stem- 
vowel: as, peU-i-tis (pel), mitt-i-tis (mit). 

e. Some verbs have roots ending in a vowel. In these the present stem 
is generall^r identical with the root : as, da-mus (da), fle-mus (stem fle-, root 
form unknown).' But others, as rui-mus (ru), are formed with an addi- 
tional vowel according to the analogy of the verbs described in d. 

Note. — Some verbs of this class reduplicate the root: as, si-st-e-re (sta, cf. st&re). 

Perfect Stem 

177. The Perfect Stem is formed as follows : — 

a» The suffix y (u) is added to the verb-stem : as, Toca-v-i, audi-v-i ; or 
to the root : as, son-u-i (sona-re, root son), mon-u-i (monS-re, mon treated 
as a root).* 

Note. — In a few verbs the vowel of the root is transposed and lengthened : as, 
stift-v-! (sternO, stab), 8pr6-v-i (spernS, spar). 

&• The suffix 8 is added to the root : as, carp-s-i (carp), tez-i (for teg-s-i, 


Note. — The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear in the perfect: 
as, finx-i (fig, present stem flng6-), sftnx-i (sac, present stem sanci-). 

€• The root is reduplicated by prefixing the first consonant — generally 

with 8, sometimes with the root-vowel: as, ce-cid-i (cad5, cad), to-tond-i 

(tended, tond). 

Note. — Infld-i (for t'e-M-i, flnd-6), scid-i (for fscl-scid-i, scindo), the reduplication 
has been lost, leaving merely the root. 

dm The root vowel is lengthened, sometimes with vowel change : as, leg-i 
(16g-5), em-i («m-o), vid-i (v!d-e-d), fug-i (fttg-i-6), eg-i (ftg-o). 

ۥ Sometimes the perfect stem has the same formation that appears in 
the present tense : as, vert-i (vert-5), solv-i (solv-6). 

/• Sometimes the perfect is formed from a lost or imaginary stem : as, 
peti-v-i (as if from fpeti-ft, fpeti-re, pet). 

1 These are either old formations in -3rVo" i^ which the y has disappeared after the 
u (as, statud for fstatu-yS) or later imitations of such forms. 

« In some of the verbs of this class the present stem was originally identical with 
the root ; in others the ending -yVo" w*8 added, but has been absorbed by contraction. 

» The v-perfect is a form of uncertain origin peculiar to the Latin. 

* The 8-perfect is in origin an aorist. Thus, dix-i (for fdics-i) corresponds to the 
Greek aorist ^-dei^a (for f^-deiKa-a). 

88 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB [§§ 178, 179 

Supine Stem 

178. The Supine Stem may be found by dropping -urn from the 
Supine. It is formed by adding t (or, by a phonetic change, s) — 

a* To the present stem : as, ama-t-um, dele-t-um, audi-t-um. 
b» To the root, with or without 1 : as, cap-t-um (capid, cap), moni-t-um 
(moneo, mon used as root), cas-um (for fcad-t-um, cad), lec-t-um (leg). 

Note 1. — By phonetic change dt and tt become s (dSfgnsum, yersum for tdS-fend- 
t-tim, fyert-t-um) ; bt becomes pt (scnp-t-om for fsciib-t-iim) ; gt becomes ct (reo-t-um 
for treg-t-um).i 

Note 2. — The modifications of the present stem sometimes appear in the supine : 
as, tinc-t-um (ting:o, tig), tSn-s-um for ftend-t-um (ten-d-o, ten). 

Note 3. — The supine is sometimes from a lost or imaginary verb-stem : as, peti-t-um 
(as if from fpeti-o, fpeti-re, pet). 

Note 4. — A few verbs form the supine stem in 8 after the analogy of verbs in d 
and t: as, fal-&-um (falld), pal-&-um (pell5). 

Forms of Conjugation 

179. The forms of the several conjugations from which, by 
adding the verb-endings in § 166, all the moods and tenses can 
be made are as follows : — 

«• The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add a- to the 
root to form the present stem : * as, am&-re ; with a few whose root 
ends in a (ffor, ffi-ri ; flO, flfi-re ; niJ, na-re ; st(J, sta-re). 

1. The stem-vowel a- is lost before -6 : as, amo = tania-(y)6 ; and in the 
present subjunctive it is changed to e : as, ame-s, ame-mus. 

2. The perfect stem regularly adds v, the supine stem t, to the present 
stem: as, ama-y-i, ama-t-um. For exceptions, see § 209. a. 

6. The Second Conjugation includes all verbs which add 6- to the 
root to form the present stem : as, monS-re ; with a few whose root 
ends in 6 ; as, fle-fl, fl6-re ; ne-(J, n6-re ; re-or, r6-ri (cf. § 176. e). 

1. In the present subjunctive a is added to the verl>stem : as, mone-a-s, 
mone-a-mus (cf. § 168. e). 

2. A few verbs form the perfect stem by adding v (u), and the supine 
stem by adding t, to the present stem : as, dele-v-i, dele-t-um. But most 
form the perfect stem by adding v (u) to the root, and the supine stem by 
adding t to a weaker form of the present stem, ending in i: as, mon-u-i, 
moni-t-um. For lists, see § 210. 

^ For these modifications of the supine stem, see § 15. 5, 6, 10. 

3 The present stem is thus the verb-stem. For exceptions, see § 209. a. 


c. The Third Conjugation includes all verbs (not irregular, see 
§ 197) which add 6- to the root to form the present stem : as, tegS- 
re, capS-re ; with a few whose root ends in e : as, se-rfi-re for fse-se-re 
(reduplicated from se, cf. s&tum). 

1. The stem-vowel 6 is regularly lost before -5, and becomes u^ before 
-nt and I before the other endings of the indicative and imperative: as, 
teg-d, tegi-t, tegu-nt; in the imperfect indicative it becomes S: as, teg§- 
bam, tege-bas, etc. ; in the future, e : as, tege-s (except in the first person 
singular, tega-m, tega-r) ; in the present subjunctive, a : as, tega-s. 

Verbs in -15 lose the i before a consonant and also before i, i, and h 
(except in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive). 
Thus, — capi-at, capi-unt, capi-ebat, capi-es, capi-et, capi-ent; but, cap-it 
(not fcapi-it), cap-eret. 

2. All varieties of perfect and supine stems are found in this conjuga- 
tion. See lists, § 211. The perfect is not formed from the present stem, 
but from the root. 

d» The Fourth Conjugation includes all verbs which add i- to the 
root to form the present stem : as, audi-re.' In these the perfect and 
supine stems regularly add v, t, to the verb-stem : as, audi-v-i, audi- 
t-um.* Endings like those of the third conjugation are added in the 
third person plural of the present (indicative and imperative), in 
the imperfect and future indicative, and in the present subjunctive : 
as, audi-unt, audl-Sbat, audi-Stis, audi-at, the i being regularly short 
before a vowel. 

ۥ The Present Imperative Active (second person singular) is the 
same as the present stem : as, ami, monS, tegS, audi But verbs in -iO 
of the third conjugation omit i : as, capS (not fcapie). 

/. The tenses of completed action in the Active voice are all regu- 
larly formed by adding the tense-endings (given in § 166) to the 
perfect stem : as, am&v-I, amftv-eram, am&v-erO, amAv-erim, amav-issem, 

g» The tenses of completed action in the Passive voice are formed 
by adding to the perfect participle the corresponding tenses of con- 
tinued auction of the verb esse : as, perfect amAtus sum ; pluperfect 
am&tus eram, etc. 

1 The genmdive varies between -endns and -nndus. 

'^ A few are formed from noun-stems, as fini-re (from fini-B) , and a few roots perhaps 
end in i ; but these are not distinguishable in form, 
s For exceptions, see § 212. b. 




Synopsis of the Verb 

180. The following synopsis shows the forms of the verb ar- 
ranged according to the three stems (§ 164). Am(J, a regular verb 
of the first conjugation, is taken as a type. 

> Principal Parts : Active^ ambj amare, amavi, amatum. 

Passive, amor, amari, amatus sum. 

•♦ • *. . 

Present stem ami- ^e^sct stem am&v- Supine stem amit- 

Present stem, ama- 



























Gerundive ama-ndus 

GERUND ama-ndl 

Perfect stem, amfiy- 

Perf. amSv-i 

Pluperf. amav-eram 

FuT. Perf. am&v-ero 







Supine stem, amat- 

am&t-UB sum 
amat-u8 eram 
am&t-UB ero 

amSLt-uB aim 
amftt-UB esBem 




Supine stem, amfit- 


am&t-flniB esBe 


amSLt-uB obbo 
amat-um Iri 

FuT. amSLt-flruB 

SUPINE amSt-um am&t-il 

Perf. amSt-u8 


Peculiarities of Conjugation 

181. In tenses formed upon the Perfect Stem, v between two 
vowels is often lost and contraction takes place. 

a. Perfects in -ayi, 4vi, -^yi, often contract the two vowels into i, €, 5, 
respectiyely : as, amasse for amavisse ; amarim for amaverim ; amassem for 
amavisaem ; consuerat for cGnsueverat ; flSstis for flevistis ; nSsse for n5vi88e. 
So in pei-f ects in -vi, where the v ia a part of the present stem : as, comm5rat 
for commoverat. 

NoTB. — The first person of the perfect indicative (as, amftvi) is never contracted, 
the third very rarely. 

&• Perfects in -ivi regularly omit v, but rarely contract the vowels ex- 
cept before at and ss, and very rarely in the third person perfect : — 

attdiexam for aodiveram ; audisse for andivisse ; audlsli for aadivisti ; abiit for 
abivit ; abidrunt for ablvSrunt 

NoTB 1. — The forms sirli, sirit, siritis, slrint, for siverls etc. (from siverd or siverim), 
are archaic. 

Note 2. — In many forms from the perfect stem is, iss, sis, are lost in like manner, 
when s would be repeated if they were retained: as, dixt! for dixisti (x = c8); trixe 
for trilxisse ; Svisti for fivftsist! ; vizet for vixisset ; 6r6ps€mtt8 for CrfipsissCmus ; dScCsse 
-or dScessisse. These forms belong to archaic and colloquial usage. 

182. Four verbs, — dicO, dQc5, faciO, fertJ, — with their compounds, 
drop the vowel-termination of the Imperative, making die, dftc, fXc, 
fSr; but compounds in -fidO retain it, as, cGnfice. 

Note. — The imperative forms dice, duce, face (never fere), occur in early Latin. 

a. For the imperative of sci5, the future form sdto is always used in the 
singular, and scitOte usually in the plural. 

183. The following ancient forms are found chiefly in poetry : 

1. In the fourth conjugation, -ibam, -ibS, for -iebam, -iam (future). These 
forms are regular in eO, go (§ 203). 

2. In the present subjunctive, -im: as in duim, perduim, retained in 
religious formulas and often in comedy. This form is regular in sum and 
volo and their compounds (§§ 170, 199). 

3. In the perfect subjunctive and future perfect indicative, -aim, -s6 : as, 
fazim, faz5, iusso, recepsd (= fecerim etc.) ; ausim (= ausus aim). 

4. In the passive infinitive, -ier : as, vocarier for vocari ; agier for agi. 

5. A form in -asso, -assere is found used as a future perfect : as, amassis, 
from am5 ; levasso, from lev5 ; impetrassere, from impetr5 ; itidicassit, from 
iudico (cf. § 263. 2. b, n.). 





184. The First Conjugation includes all verbs which add fi- to 
the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends 
in a-. The verb amO, love, is conjugated as follows : — 

Principal Parts : Present Indicative amd, Present Infinitive amare, 

Perfect Indicative amavi, Supine amatiim. 

Pbssbnt stiem amIU 


SupiNB STEM am&t- 




am5,^ / love, am loving, do love 


amfts, thou lovest (you love) 


amat, he (she, it) loves 


aui&muB, we love 


aiu&tis, you love 


amant, they love 



amftbam, / loved, was loving, did love 


amfib&B, you loved 


aiuSlbat, he loved 


aniabSLmuB, we loved 


aui&b&tiB, you loved 


am&bant, they loved 



am&b5, I shall love 
am&bis, you will love 
ani&bit, he will love 

amftbimuB, we shall love 
am&bitiB, you will love 
am&bunt, they will love 

1 The stem- vowel a- is lost before -5, and in the Present Subjunctive becomes €-. 
3 The translation of the Subjunctive varies widely according to the construction. 
Hence no translation of this mood is given in the paradigms. 





amavl, / lovedf have loved 
amaviatf, you loved 
amavit, he loved 

amaviinus, we loved 
amaYistlB, you loved 
amavSrunt (-8re), they loved 



amaveraxn, / had loved 
amaverfts, you had loved 
amaverat, he had loved 

amaver&maB, we had loved 
amaver&tiS; you had loved 
amaverant, they had loved 














Future Perfect 


amavero, / shall have loved 
amaveriB, you will have loved 
amaverit, he will have loved 


amaverlmuB, we shall have loved 
amaveritiB, you will have loved 
amaverint, they will have loved 


Present amft, love thou ainftte, love ye 

Future am&t5, thou shall love am&t5te, ye shall love 
amfttd, he shall love amant5, they shall love 

Present amftre, to love 
Perfect amaviBBe or amftBBe, to have loved 
Future amatfLniB esse, to be about to love 

Present amftna, -antU, loving 
Future amatflruB, -a, -um, about to love 

Genitive amandi, of loving Accusative amandum, loving 

Dative amand5, for loving Ablative amand5, by loving 

amatam, to love amatfL, to love 





Principal Parts : Present Indicative amor, Present Infinitive amari, 

Perfect Indicative amatus sum.^ 

Pbksbnt stem am&- 

SupiNB STEM am&t- 



amor,' / am louedj being loved 
am&ris (-re), you are loved 
amfttur, he is loved 

amftmur, we are loved 
amftmini, you are loved 
amantur, they are loved 


amSris (-re) 





amSLbar, / was loved, being loved 
am&b&ris (-re), you were loved 
amftbSltur, he was loved 

am&b&mur, we were loved 
ainftbfixnini, you were loved 
amftbantur, they were loved 

amSbrSris (-re) 





amSLbor, / shall be lotted 
am&beris (-re), you will be loved 
amftbitur, he will be loved 

amftbimur, we shall be loved 
am&biminr, you will be loved 
am&buntur, they will be loved 

1 Fai, fuisti, etc., are sometimes used instead of sum, es, etc. ; so also fueiam instead 
of eram and faer5 instead of er5. Similarly in the Perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive 
ftterim, fueris, etc. are sometimes used instead of sim, sis, etc., and fuissem instead of 

2 The stem-vowel H- is lost before -or, and in the Present Subjunctive becomes 6-. 
' The translation of the Subjunctive varies widely according to the constructioD 

Hence no translation of this mood is given in the paradigms. 





amatus snin,^ / wtzs loved 
amatuB ea, you were loved 
amatus est, he was loved 

amatX Btuntui, we were loved 
amati estis, you were loved 
amati sunt, they were loved 



amatus sixn ^ 
amatus sis 
amatus sit 

am&tl sXmus 
amati sitis 
amati sint 


amatus eram,^ / liad been loved 
amatus erSs, you had been loved 
amatus erat, he had been loved 

amaH erSLxnus, we had been loved 
amati erfttis, you had been loved 
amatf erant, they had been loved 

amatus essem ^ 
amatus ess6s 
am&tus esset 

amati essSmua 
amati essfitis 
amatJ essent 

Future Perfect 


amatus er5,^ I shall have been loved 
amatus eris, you will have, etc. 
amatus erit, he will have, etc. 


amati erlmus, we shall have^ etc. 
amati erltis, you will have, etc. 
amati erunt, they will have^ etc. 


Present amftre, be thou loved 
Future amSLtor, thou shalt be loved 
amator, he shall be loved 

amftminl, be ye loved 

amantor, they shall be loved 


Present amftrl, to be loved 

Perfect amatus esse, to have been loved 

Future amatum Irl, to be about to be loved 


Perfect am&tus, -a, -um, loved (beloved, or having been loved) 

Future (Gerundive) amandus, -a, -um, to-be-loved (lovely) 

1 Bee page 9^, footnote 1. 





185. The Second Conjugation includes all verbs which add 5- 
to the root to form the present stem, with a few whose root ends 

in 6-. 

Principal Parts : Active, moneO, monSre, monui, monitam; 
Passive, moneor, moneri, monitus sum. 

Present stem monS- 

Pbrfbct stem monu- 

SupiNE STEM monit- 





moneo, / toam moneaxn 
mon6B, you warn moneSLs 
monet, he warns moneat 









moneor monear ^ 

monfiris (-re) moneSLris (-re) 
mon6tur monefttur 



















monCbar monSrer 

moneb&ris (-re) monSrSris (-re) 
monfib&tur monSrfitiir 













monSberis (-re) 




1 See § 179. 6. 1. 




Active Voice 











Passive Voice 
indicative subjunctive 
monitus sum ^ monitus aim ^ 

monuifltis monueritis 

, monufimnt (-re) monuerint 


monitus ea 
monituB est 

moniti sumus 
moniti estis 
moniti sunt 

monitus sis 
monitus sit 

moniti s&nus 
moniti sitis 
moniti sint 













monitus eraxn ^ monitus essem ^ 

monitus erSLs 
monitus erat 

moniti er&mus 
moniti erfttis 
moniti erant 

monitus essSs 
monitus esset 

moniti ess6mus 
moniti essfitis 
moniti essent 

Future Perfect 





Present mon6 
FnTURE monStS 


Future Perfect 
monitus er5 ^ 
monitus eris 
monitus erit 

moniti erimus 
moniti eritis 
moniti erunt 







Present monSre 
Perfect monuisse 
Future monitfbrus esse 


monitus esse 
monitum Irl 

Present raonCns, -entis Perfect monitus, -a, -um 

Future monittirus, -a, -um Gerundiyb monendus, -a,-um 


monendl, -do, -dum, -dd monitum, roonittl 

1 See footnote 1 on page 94. 





186. The Third Conjugation includes all verbs (not irregular, 
see § 197) which add S- to the root to form the present stem, with 
a few whose root ends in g-. 

Prixcipal Parts : Active^ tes5, tegto, tezi, tSctum ; 
Passive, tegor, tegi, tSctus sum. 

Present stem tege- 


Perfect stem tiz- ^ 

Supine stem tSct- 






teg6,* / cover 
tegie, you cover 
tegit, he covers 




tegor * tegar * 
tegeria (-re) tegSria (-re) 
tegitur tegfttur 







tegimur teg&mur 
teglmini tegftminl 
teguntur tegantur 









tegSbar tegerer 
tegSbSria (-re) tegerSria (-re) 
tegfibatur tegerfitur 





teg6b&mur tegerSmur 
tegSbfiminl tegerSminI 
tegSbantur tegerentur 



tegaxn * 



tegfiria (-re) 






1 TliA nfirfpnt. affl 

tm in fhiB nrtninorgfirt 

Ti \a gl-nroxra ftwmt%A fi>/\iYi fViA r^exrA' • ^Sy- ib fni* 

tgg-s- (see § 15. 9). a See § 179. c. I. 




Active Voice 

Passive Voice 








tectua sum ^ 

tectua aim ^ 



tectua ea 

tectua bIb 



tecLua eat 

tectua ait 



t@ctl aumua 

tecti almua 



tecti estis 

tecti altia 


(-re) texerint 

tecti aunt 

tecti Bint 





tectua eram ^ 

tectuB eaaem ^ 



tectua erfta 

tectuB eaaSa 



tectuB erat 

tectuB eaaet 

texeramiia texisBemus 

tecti erftmua 

tecti eaaemua 



tectI erStia 

tecti eaBfitia 



tecti erant 

tecti eBBent 

Future Perfect 




tectua ero ^ 


tectuB eria 


tectua erit 


t@c1I erimua 


tectI eritia 


tecti erunt 

Singular Plural 




tege tegite 




tegit5 tegitdte 


tegit5 tegunta 








tectua eBBe 


tectOma eaae 

tectum Irl 


tegCna, -entia 


tectua, -a, -um 


tectAma, -a, -um 


tegendua (-undi 




-do, -dum, -d5 

tectum, tectu 

1 See footnote 1 on page 94. 





187. The Fourth Conjugation includes all verbs which add i- 
to the root to form the present stem. 

Principal Parts : Active^ audi5, andire, andiyi, aaditum ; 
Passive, aiidior, audiri, auditus sum. 


Febfkct stem aadiv- 

Supnnfi 8TS1C aafit- 









audid, / hear 
audia, you hear 
audit, he hears 

audiam ^ 



audXris (-re) 

audiar ^ 
audi&ris (-re) 











audiSbam ^ 






audiSbar ^ 



audlrSris (-re) 












audiam ^ 







audiar ^ 
audieris (-re) 


1 See § 179. d. 




Active Voice 
indicative subjunctive 










audiYenint (-re) audiverint 













Future Perfect 





Passive Voice 
indicative subjunctive 

audltus sum ^ auditus aim ^ 

auditus es 
audituB est 

auditl sumus 
auditl estis 
auditl sunt 

auditus sis 
auditus sit 

auditl slmus 
audit! sitis 
auditl sint 


auditus eram ^ 
auditus er&s 
auditus erat 

auditl erftmus 
auditl erfttis 
auditl erant 

auditus essem ^ 
auditus ess6s 
auditus esset 

auditl essfimus 
audit! essStis 
audit! essent 

Future Perfect 
auditus er5 ^ 
auditus eris 
auditus erit 

auditl erimus 
auditl eritis 
audit! erunt 



Singular Plural Singular 

audi audlte audire 

audits audltfite auditor 

audits audiuntS auditor 







auditfLrus esse 



auditus esse 
auditum Irl 

audifins, -ientis Perfect 

auditllrus, -a, -um Gerundive 

audituS) -a, -um 
audieudus, -a, -um 


audiendl, -do, -dum, -do auditum, auditCi 

^ See footnote 1, p. 94. 





188. Verbs of the Third Conjugation in -iO have certain forms 
of the present stem like the fourth conjugation. They lose the 
i of the stem before a consonant and also before i, i, and 6 (except 
in the future, the participle, the gerund, and the gerundive).^ 
Verbs of this class are conjugated as follows : — 

Principal Parts : Active, capi5, capSre, cepi, captum; 
Passive, capior, capi, captus sum. 

Present stem capie- (cape-) Perfect stem cSp- Supine stem capt^ 





capio, / take 




capis, you take 


caperis (-re) 

capiftris (-re) 

capit, he takes 
















capifibam caperem 

Future Perfect 


capifibar caperer 






capifiris (-re) 

capiet, etc. 

capifitur, etc. 



cepi ceperim 

captus sum captus aim 



ceperam cepissem 

captus eram captus essem 

Future Perfect 
captus er5 

1 This is a practical working rule. The actual explanation of the forms of such 
verbs is not fully understood. 

§§ 188-190] 



Active Voice 

Singular Plural 
cape capite 


Passive Voice 



Singular Plural 

capere capimini 


capito capitote 
capito capinnto 





captHrus esse 


captuB eBse 
captum In 



capiSna, -ientis 
capturas, -a, -um 


captuB, -a, -um 
capienduB, -a, -um 




-d5, -dnm, -dd 

captum, -ttl 

Parallel Forms 

189. Many verbs have more than one set of forms, of which 
only one is generally found in classic use : — 

lav5, layare or lavSre, wash (see § 211. e). 
seated^ scatSre or scatSre, gu^h forth. 
ludifico, -Are, or ludificor, -ari, mock. 
falgo, falgSre, or fulged, fulgSre, shine. 


190. Deponent Verbs have the forms of the Passive Voice, 
with an active or reflexive signification : — 


' First conjugation : miror, mir&ri, mir&tus, admire. 
Second conjugation : yereor, yereri, yeritus, fear. 
Third conjugation : sequor, sequi, secfitns, follow. 
Fourth conjugation : partior, partui, partatus, share. 





Pres. miror 

mirazis (-re) 




Impf. mir&bar 
FuT. mir&bor 
Ferf. mIratUB sum 
Plup. mlr&tUB eram 
F. P. miratUB er5 

verSriB (-re) 


veritUB Bum 
veritUB eram 
verituB er5 

sequeriB (-re) 




secutuB Bum 
secutuB eram 
sectltuB ero 

partlriB (-re) 




partltuB ero 


Pres. mirer 
Impf. mirSLrer 
Perf. xnir&tuB aim 
Plup. mIr&tUB eBBem 

veritUB aim 

secatUB aim 
sectltuB eBBem 

partitua aixn 

Pres. mir&re 
FuT. mirator 





Pass, mlrftri 
Perf. mIratUB eaae 
FuT. xniratfLruB 


veritUB eaae 








Pres. mirSLnB 
FuT. mir3.t{LruB 
Perf. mIratUB 
Ger. mIranduB 





mirandi, -5, etc. verendi, etc. sequendi, etc. partiendi, etc. 


mlrfttum, -tH veritum, -til secittum, -tti partXtum, -tti 

§ 190, 191] DEPONENT VEBBS 105 

a. Deponents have the participles of both voices : — 

aeqainsj foUowing. stctitSiniB, abotU to follow. 

secutas, having foUotoed, sequendus, to hefoUUmtd, 

h» The perfect participle generally has an active sense, but in verbs 
otherwise deponent it is often passive : as, mercatus, hought ; adeptus, gained 
(or hewing gained^ 

Cm The future infinitive is always in the active form : thus, sequor has 
secuturus (-a, -um) esse (not secutum iri). 

€l« The gerundive, being passive in meaning, is found only in transitive 
verbs, or intransitive verbs used impersonally : — 

hoc cSnfitendttm est, this must be acknowledged. 
moziendom est omnibus, all must die. 

e« Most deponents are intransitive or reflexive in meaning, correspond- 
ing to what in Greek is called the Middle Voice (§ 156. a. n.). 

/*• Some deponents are occasionally used in a passive sense : as, criminor, 
/ accuse, or / am accused, 

ffm About twenty verbs have an active meaning in both active and 
passive forms : as, mereO or mereor, / deserve, 

191. More than half of all deponents are of the First Conju- 
gation, and all of these are regular. The following deponents 
are irregular : — 

adsentior, -iri, adsinsus, assent. obliviscor, -I, oblitus, forget. 

apiscor, (-ip-), -i, aptus (-eptus), get, oppezior, -iri, oppertus, await, 

defetiscor, -i, -fessus, faint, ordior, -in, Srsus, begin. 

ezpergiscor, -i, -penSctas, rouse. orior, -Iri, ortos (oritarns), rise (3d 
ezperior, -iri, expertas, try. conjugation in most forms). 

fateor, -Sri, fassus, cor^ess. padscor, -i, pactas, bargain. 

fraor, -i, fractiis (truitas), enjoy. patior (-petior), -i, passas (-pessus), 
ftmgor, -i, f anctoa, fu^, suffer. 

gradior (-gredior), -i, gresans, step. -plector, -i, -plexus, clasp. 

irilscor, -i, irfttus, be angry. proficiscor, -i, pzofectus, set out. 

labor, -i, l&psas, faU. queror, -i, questus, complain. 

loqnor, -i, locfitns, speak. reor, rSri, ratus, Ihirik. 

mStior, -iri, mSnsut, measure. reverter, -i, reversus, return. 

-mimscor, -I, -mentna, think. ringor, -i, rictas, SMid. 
mfnior,-i (-iri), mortiias (moritflrus), die. seqaor, -i, secfitus, follow. 

nandscor, -i, nactus (iiftncta8),JZnd. tueor, -Sri, toitus (tutus), d^end. 

nlscor, -i, nAtus, be b<mi. uldscor, -i, ultus, avenge. 

nftor, -i, nlsus (nixus), strive. fitor, -i, fisus, use, employ. 

Note. — The deponent comperior, -iri, compertns, is rarely found for comperiS, -ire. 
Rjevertor, until the time of Augustus, had regularly the active forms in the perfect sys- 
tem, reverti, revertenun, etc. 

106 CONJUGATION OF THE VERB [§§ 191-194 

a. The following deponents have no supine stem : — 
devertor, -tl, turn aside (to lodge). medeor, -Srif heal, 

diffiteor, -^ri, deny. reminiscor, -i, call to mind, 

fatiscor, -i, gape. vescor, -i, feed upon. 

' liquor, -i, melt (intrans.)* 

Note. — Deponents are really pasisive (or middle) verbs whose active voice has 
disappeared. There is hardly one that does not show signs of having been used in 
the active at some period of the language. 


192. A few verbs having no perfect stem are regular in the 
present, but appear in the tenses of completed action as deponents. 
These are called Semi-deponents. They are : — 

auded, audSre, ausus, dare. gaudeo, gaudSze, gftvisus, rejoice, 

fidd, fidSre, fisus, trust. soled, solera, solitus, he word. 

a. From audeo there is an old perfect subjunctive ausim. The form sSdes 
(for si audes), an thou wilt^ is frequent in the dramatists and rare elsewhere. 

h. The active forms yapuld, yapulare, he flogged, and yened, yenire, he sold 
(contracted from yenum ire, go to sale), have a passive meaning, and are 
sometimes called neutral passives. To these may be added fieri, to he made 
(§ 204), and exsulare, to he hanished (live in exile); cf. accedere, to he added. 

Note. — The following verbs are sometimes found as semi-deponents: inrS, iurire, 
ittratas, swear ; nubo, nabere, niipta, marry ; placed, placSre, placitus, please. 


193. A Periphrastic form, as the name indicates, is a " roundabout way of speak- 
ing." In the widest sense, all verb-phrases consisting of participles and sum are Peri- 
phrastic Forms. The Present Participle is, however, rarely so used, and the Perfect 
Participle with sum is included in the regular conjugation (amitus sum, eram, etc.). 
Hence the term Periphrastic Conjugation is usually restricted to verb-phrases con- 
sisting of the Future Active Participle or the Gerundive with sum. 

Note. — The Future Passive Infinitive, as amitum iri, formed from the infinitive 
passive of eo, go, used impersonally with the supine in -um, may also be classed as a 
periphrastic form (§203. a). 

194. There are two Periphrastic Conjugations, known respec- 
tively as the First (or Active) and the Second (or Passive). 

a. The First Periphrastic Conjugation combines the Future Active 
Participle with the forms of sum, and denotes a future or intended action. 

6. The Second Periphrastic Conjugation combines the Gerundive with 
the forms of sum, and denotes ohligation^ necessity, or propriety, 

c. The periphrastic forms are inflected regularly throughout the Indica- 
tive and Subjunctive and in the Present and Perfect Infinitive. 

§§ 196, 196] 



195. The First Periphrastic Conjugation : 



Future Perfect 



amaturus sum, 1 am about to love 
amaturus eram, / was about to love 
amaturus ero, / shall be about to love 
am&turus fui, / have been, was, about to iove 
amaturus fueram, / had been about to love 
amaturus f uero, / shall have been about to love 


amaturus sim 
amaturus essem 
amaturus fuerim 
amaturus fuissem 


amaturus esse, to be about to love 
amaturus fuisse, to have been about to love 

So in the other conjugations : — 

Second : monitunis sum, I am about to advise. 
Third : tectums sum, I am about to cover. 
Fourth : aaditiiras sum, I am about to hear. 
Third (in -io) : captiirus sum, I am about to take. 

196. The Second Periphrastic Conjugation : — 






Future Perfect 



amandus sum, / am to be, jnust be, loved 
amandus eram, / was to be, had to be, loved 
amandus ero, / shall have to be loved 
amandus fui, / ums to be, had to be, loved 
amandus f ueram, / had had to be loved 
amandus fuero, / shall have had to be loved 

amandus sim 
amandus essem 
amandus fuerim 
amandus fuissem 

amandus esse, io have to be loved 
amandus fuisse, to have had to be loved 



£§§ 196-198 

So in the other conjugations : — 

Second : monendus svoAy I um to he^ must hCy advised. 
Third : tegendut som, / am to be, must be, covered. 
Fourth : audiendus sum, I am to be, must be, heard. 
Third (in -io) : capiendos sum, I am to be, must be, taken. 


197. Several verbs add some of the personal endings of the 
present system directly to the root,^ or combine two verbs in 
their inflection. These are called Irregular Verbs. They are 
sum, volG, ferO, edd, dO, eO, queO, fiO, and their compounds. 

Sum has already been inflected in § 170. 

198. Sum is compounded without any change of inflection with 
the prepositions ab, ad, d^ in, inter, ob, prae, pr6 (earlier form prOd), 
6ub, super. 

a. In the compound pr5sum (help), pr5 retains its original d before e : 
Principal Parts : prosam, prddesse, prolui, profutijius 


Fut. Perf. 



Singular Plural 

Singular Plural 

prOsum pr5sumii8 
prOdes prodestis 
prOdest prOsunt 

pr()sim prOsimus 
prflflis prOiEdtis 
prOsit prOsint 

prOderam pr(3der3,mus 
prOderO prOderimus 
prOfuI prOfuimus 

prOfueram prSfuer&mos 
prOfaerO prOfuerimus 

prOdessem prOdessemus 

prOfuerim prOfuerimos 
pr5fiiissem prOfuissSmus 

Present prOdes, prOdeste Future prOdestQ, prOdestOte 


Present prOdesse Perfect prOfoisse 

Future 'prOfuturos esse 

Future prOfuttLrus 

1 These are atberaatic verbs, see § 174. 2. 

§§ 198, 199] 



bm Sum is also compounded with the adjective potis, or pote, able, making 
the verb possum (be able, can). Possum is inflected as follows : — i 

Principal Parts : possum, posse, potui^ 




















FuT. Psrf. 















Pres. posse 


Perf. potuisse 


Pres. potens (adjective), powerful 


YOlO, nOlO, malO 

Principal f ^*^^^' ''''"®' ^""^"^ "" 

Parts : ] ^°^' ^^' ^^^ ^ 
I maid, malle, malui, 

-, be willing, will, wish 
', be unwilling, will not 
— , be more willing, prefer 

Note. — NS15 and m&lS are compounds of volS. 11515 is for ne-yol5, and m&ld for mA- 
▼old from mage-volo. 


FuT. Perf. 

vult (volt) 

vultis (voltis) 


volam^ voles, etc. 


non VIS 
non vult 

non vultis 


nolam, noles, etc. 








malam, males, etc. 

1 The forms p«tl8 snm, pote sum, etc. occur in early writers. Other early forms are 
potesse ; possiem, -is, -et ; poterint, potitit (for possit) ; potestur and possitnr (used with 
£t passive infinitive, ef. § 205. a). 

3 Potoi is from an obsolete fpotSre. > Vis is from a different root. 



[§§ 190, 200 



velim, -Is, -it, 



veliinus, -itis. 



vellem,^ -68, -et, noUem 


■ vellemus, -etis 

, -ent 











noli, nolite 
nolito, etc. 












volens, -entis 

nolens, -entis 

Note. — The forms sis for si vis, sultis for si valtis, and the forms n8vis (ng-vis), 
nSrelt, m&vold, mft volant, m&velim, mavellem, etc., occur in early writers. 

200. FerO, bear, carry, endure * 

Principal Parts : fer5, ferre,^ tttli, latum 

Present stem fer- 

Perfect stem tul- 



















Future Perfect tulero 


feror ferimur 

ferris (-re) ferimim 

fertur feruntur 



latus sum 

lS.tus eram 

latus ero 

1 Vellem is for tvel-sfim, and velle for fvel-se (cf. es-se), the s heing assimilated to 
the 1 preceding. 

2 Fero has two independent stems: fer- in the present system, and tul- (for tol-) in 
the perfect from tol, root of toll5. The i)erf ect tetali occurs in Plautus. In the parti- 
ciple the root is weakened to tl-, latum standing for ttl&tum (cf. rXi^r^t). 

8 Ferre, ferrem, are for ffer-se, ffer-sgm (cf. es-se, es-sem), s heing assimilated to pre- 
ceding r; or ferre, ferrem, may be for fferese, fferesSm (see § 15. 4). 











ferrem ^ 




latus sim 




latus essem 




ferre ferir 








fertor feru 






latus esse 


laturus esse 

latum iri 



ferens, -entis 

Perfect l&tus 



Gerundive ferendus 



ferendi, -do, -dum, -do 

latum, latii 

a» The compounds of fer5, conjugated like the simple verb, are the 
following : — 






au-, ab- 










di8-, di- 





ex-, 5- 

























Note. — In these compounds the phonetic changes in the preposition are especially 
to be noted, ab- and an- are two distinct prepositions with the same meaning. 

1 See note 3, page 110. 

3 SnstuH and rabULtnm also supply the perfect and particit)le of the Verb toUS. 




201. EdO, edere, Sdi, Ssam, eat^ is regular of the third conjuga- 
tion, but has also an archaic present subjunctive and some alter- 
native forms directly from the root (ED), without the thematic 
vowel. These are in full-faced type. 





ed5, edis (S8% edit (est) 
edimus, editis (estis), edunt 
edSbam, edebas, etc. 


edam (edim), edas (edis), edat (edit) 
edamus (edimus), edatis (editis), edant (edint) 
ederem, ederes (esses), ederet (esset) 
ederemus (essSmus), ederStis (essetis), ederent (< 






ede (is) 

edite (este) 


edito (Ssto) 
edito (est5) 

editote (estOte) 




edere (esse) 

Present edens, -entis 



Future esurus ' 


esiirus esse 




-dum, -do 





a» In the Passive the following irregular forms occur in the third per- 
son singular : Present Indicative estur. Imperfect Subjunctive essetur. 

1 In 68 etc. the e is long. In the corresponding forms of sum, e is short. The differ- 
ence in quantity between Sdo and H etc. depends upon inherited vowel variation (§ 17. a)- 
3 Old iormfl are Sssanis and supine (ssom. 




202. The iiregalar verb di^give^ is conjugated as foUowB: — 
Principal Farts : d5, dire, dedi, datum 

Pbssbnt Stem djl- 

Pbrfect Stbh ded- 

Supine Stem dat- 








Future Perfect dedero 


do damus 

das datis 

dat dant 





daris (-re) 
datus sum 
datus eram 
datus ero 






dem, des, det, etc 

-, dgris (-re), detur, etc. 

datus sim 
datus essem 


da date 

dato datote 
dato danto 

dare daminl 


dator dantor 



daturus esse 


datus esse 
datum iri 


dSns, dantis Perfect datus 

daturus Gerundive dandns 


dandi, -dd, -dum, -dd 

datum, datu 

For compoonds of d5, see § 209. a. N. 




203. ^» 90-^ Principal Parts : ed, ire, ii (lYi), itum 




Future Perfect 


eo, is, it 
imus, itis, eunt 
ibam, ibas, ibat 
ibamus, ibS.tis, ibant 
ibo, Ibis, ibit 
ibimus, ibitis, ibunt 
ii (ivi) 

ieram (iveram) 
iero (ivero) 

Present i Future 



earn, eas, eat 
eamus, eatis, eant 
irem, ires, iret 
iremus, iretis, irent 

ierim (iverim) 
issem (ivi^sem) 

Present ire 

Perfect isse (ivisse) 

Future iturus 

ito, itote 
ito, eunto 

Future iturus esse 

Present iens, gen, euntis 

GERUND eundi, -do, -dum, -do 

Gerundive eundum 
SUPINE itum, itii 




Impf. adibar 


FuT. adibor 


Perf. aditiiB sum 


Plup. aditus eram 


F. P. aditus er6 



adirl aditus esse 

a. The compounds ade5, approach, ineS, enter, and some others, are tran- 
sitive. They are inflected as follows in the passive : — 


Pues. adear 

Impf. adlrer 

Perf. aditus sim 

Plup. aditus essem 

PART, aditus adeundus 

Thus inflected, the forms of e5 are used impersonally in the third person 
singular of the passive : as, itum est (§ 208. rf). The infinitive iri is used with 
the supine in -um to make the future infinitive passive (§ 1 93. n.). The verb 
yened, he sold (i.e. yenum eo, go to sale), has also several forms in the passive. 

b. In the perfect system of eo the forms with y are very rare in the simple 
verb and unusual in the compounds. 

ۥ ii before s is regularly contracted to i : as, isse. 

1 The root of e5 is ei (weak form i) . This ei becomes i except before a, o, and u, 
where it becomes e (cf . c5, earn, eunt) . The strong form of the root, i, is shortened 
before a vowel or final -t ; the weak form, i, appears in itum and itums. 

|§ 203, 204] 



d,» The compound ambid is inflected regularly like a verb of the fourth 
conjugation. But it has also ambibat in the imperfect indicatiye. 
e. Pro with e5 retains its original d : as, pr0de5, prddis, pxMit. 

204. FaciO, facere, f6ci, factam, make^ is regular. But it has im- 
perative fac in the active, and, besides the regular forms, the future 
perfect faza, perfect subjunctive faxim. The passive of laciO is — 

fio, fiSn, factus sum, he made or become. 

The present system of fiO is regular of the fourth conjugation, 
but the subjunctive imperfect is fieiem, and the infinitive fieri. 

NoTK. — The forms in brackets are not used in good prose. 



Future Perfect 

flO, fis, fit 

[fimus], [fitis], fiunt 
fiebam, fiebas, etc. 
fiam, fies, etc. 
factus sum 
factus eram 
factus ero 


flam, fias, fiat 
fiamus, fiatis, fiant 
fierem, fier@8, etc. 

factus sim 
factus essem 


[fi, fite, fito, 


Present fieri 


Perfect factus esse 

FuTURB factum iri 


PsKFBCT factus Gerundits faciendus 

a. Most compounds of facid with prepositions weaken & to i in the present 
stem and to S in the supine stem, and are inflected regularly like verbs in -15 : — 

conficio, conficSre, cdnfeci, confectum, ^nisA. 
cdnficior, cdixflci, confectus. 

h. Other compounds retain a, and have -fi5 in the passive : as, benefaciS, 
-facere, -fed, 'factum; passive benefiS, -fiexi, -f actus, benefiu These retain the 
accent of the simple verb : as, bene-f&'cis (§ 12. a, Exc). 

c. A few isolated forms of fio occur in other compounds : — 

cdnfit, it happens, cdnfiont ; oSnfiat ; confieiet, cdnfieresit ; confieri. 

defit, U lacks, defiant ; defiet ; dSfiat ; defieri. 

effleri, to be effected. 

infiS, begin (to speak), infit. 

interfiat, let him perish ; interfieri, to perish. 

supeifit, U remains over ; superfiat, supeifieri. 

1 The imperative is rarely found, and then only in early writers. 





205. Some verbs have lost the Present System, and use only 
tenses of the Perfect, in which they are inflected regularly. 
These are — 

coepi,^ / began 

Future Perfect 


5di,^ / hate 

coepi odi 

coeperam oderam 

coepero odero 

coeperim oderim 

coepissem odissem 


memini,' / remember 









coepturus esse 

osurus esse 


coeptus, begun osus, hating or hated 

coepturus osurus, likely to hate 

a. The passive of coepI is often used with the passive infinitive: as, 
coeptus sum vocari, / began to be called, but coepi vocare, / began to cdl. 
For the present system incipid is used. 

Note. — Early and rare forms are coepid, coepiam, coeperet, coepere. 

&• The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect of Mi and memini have 
the meanings of a Present, Imperfect, and Future respectively : — 

ddi, I kate ; oderam, I hated {was hating) ; odero, I shall hate. 

Note 1. — A present participle meminSns is early and late. 

Note 2. — Noyi and cSnsaSvi (usually referred to n$80o and cdnsuSscS) are often used 
in the sense of I know (have learned) and / am accustomed (have become accustomed) 
as preteritive verbs. Many other verbs are occasionally used in the same way 
476. N.). 

1 Root AP (as in apiscor) with co(ii-). 
3 Root OD, as in fidium. 

s Root HBN, as in mSns. 


206. Many verbs are found only in the Present System. Such 
are maereO, -€re, he sorrowful (cf. maestus, Bad)\ feriO, -ire, strike. 

In many the simple verb is incomplete, but the missing parts 
occur in its compounds : as, vadO, vadere, in-Y&si, in-v&sum. 

Some verbs occur very commonly, but only in a few forms : — 

€i» Ai5y / say : — 

iNDic. PRES. &i6, ais,i ait ; , , ftiunt 

Impf. diebam,^ S.i6bas, etc. 

SUBJV. Fbes. , SkiSs, &iat ; , , diant 

IMPER. ai (rare) 

FART. ftiens 

The vowels a and i are pronounced separately (a-is, a-it) except some- 
times in old or colloquial Latin. Before a vowel, one i stands for two (see 
§ 6.'c) : — thus Aio was pronounced ai-y5 and was sometimes written aiid. 

&• Inqnam, / say, except in poetry, is used only in direct quotations 
(cf. the English quoth). 

iNDic. Pbes. inquam, inquis, inquit ; inquimus, inquitis (late), inquiunt 

Impf. , , inquifibat ; , , 

Fdt. , inqui^s, inquiet ; , , 

Perf. inquil, inqulsti, ; , , 

IMFER. Pres. inque 

Fdt. inquitO 

The only common forms are inquam, inqnia, inquit, inquiimt, and the 
future inqoies, inquiet. 

c The deponent fari, to speak, has the following forms : — 

INDIC. Pres. , , f atur ; , , f antur 

FuT. f abor, , f abitur ; , , 

Perf. , , fatus est ; , , f atl sunt 

Plup. fatus eram, , fatus erat ; , , 

IMFER. Pres. fare 

TNvnf. Prbs. farl 

FART. Pres. fans, fantis, etc. (in singular) 

Perf. fatus (having spoken) 

Ger. fandus {to he spoken of) 

OERX7ND, ^671. faudl, oM. faudO SUPINE f atd 

Several forms compounded with the prepositions ex, prae, pr5, inter, 
occur : as, praefatnr, praefamur, affari, prSfatns, interfatur, etc. The com- 
pound mfans is regularly used as a noun (child), Infandus, nefandus, are 
used as adjectives, unspeakable, abominable. 

1 The second singular ais with the interrogative -ne is often written ain. 
a An old imperfect aibam, aib&s, etc. (dissyllabic) is sometimes found. 




d» QueO, 1 cariy nequeS, / cannot^ are conjugated like e5. They are rarely 
used except in the present. Quad is regularly accompanied by a negative. 
The forms given below occur, those in full-faced type in classic prose. 
The Imperative, Gerund, and Supine are wanting. 





qae5 qaeam 
quia qae&8 
quit queat 

nequeo (non qued) 






quimus qaeamus 


queant queant 








quibat quiret 












quivit quiverit (-ierit) 
quiverunt (-ere) quierint 


nequivit (nequiit) 
nequivgrunt (-quifire) 






nequiverat (-ierat) 
nequiverant (-ierant) 


nequivisset (-quisset) 

quire quiase 



nequlvisse (-quisse) 


nequiens, nequeuntSs 

Note. — A few passive forms are used with passive infinitives : as, quitur, qaenntur, 
quitus 8um,que&tur,queantur,nequitur,nequitum ; but none of tlieseoccurs in classic prose. 

§§ 206, 207] 



€• Quaesd, / asky beg (original form of quaerO), has — 
iNDic. Pres. quaes5, quaestimus 

Note. — Other forms of qaaesd are found occasionally in early Latin. For the per- 
fect system (qoaesivi, etc.), see quaerS (§211. d). 

fm Ovare, to triumph^ has the following : — 

INDIC. Pres. ovSs, ovat 
suBjy. Prbs. ovet 

Impf. ov&ret 
PART. ovftns, OV&ttU'US, ovfttus 

GER. ovandi 

f^» A few verbs are found chiefly in the Imperative : — 

Pres. singular salvS, plural salvSte, Fut. salvSto, hail ! (from sal- 
vus, safe and sound). An infinitive salvere and the indica- 
tive forms salved, salvetis, salySbis, are rare. 

Pres. singular aY§ (or havS), plural avSte, Fut. avetd, fiail or fare- 
well. An infinitive avere also occurs. 

Pres. singular cSdo, plural cSdite (cette), gioe^ teU. 

Pres. singular apage, begone (properly a Greek word). 


207. Many verbs, from their meaning, appear only in the third 
person singular^ the infinitive, and the gerund. These are called 
Impersonal Verbs, as having no personal subject.^ The passive 
of many intransitive verbs is used in the same way. 





Pass. Conj. i 

it is plain 

it is allowed 

it chances 

it restUts 

it is fought 

















licuit, -itum est 



pugnatum est 





ptign&tum erat 





pugnatum erit 















pugnatum sit 





pugnatum esset 










pdgnatum esse 

-staturum eiwe 

-itiinim esse 

-ttirum esse 

pugnatum Irl 

1 With impersonal verbs the word it is used in English, having usually no repre- 
sentative in Latin, though id, hoc, illud, are often used nearly in the same way. 


208. Impersonal Verbs may be classified as follows : — 

a. Verbs expressing the operations of nature and the time of day : — 

yesper&scit (inceptive, § 263. 1), it grows late. ningit, it snows. 
Ificiscit hoc, it is getting light. fulgurat, it lightens, 

grandinat, it hails. tonat, it thunders. 

pluit, it rains. rorat, the dew falls. 

Note. — In these no subject is distinctly thought of. Sometimes, however, the verb 
is used personally with the name of a divinity as the subject : as, luppiter tonat, JTupiter 
thunders. In poetry other subjects are occasionally used : as, fandae saza pluont, the 
dings rain stones. 

b» Verbs of feeling, where the person who is the proper subject becomes 
the object, as being himself affected by the feeling expressed in the verb 
(§ 354. h) : — 

miseret, it grieves. paenitet (poenitet), it repents. 

piget, it disgusts. padet, it shames. 

taedet, it wearies. 

miseret me, I pity (it distresses me) ; podet mS, I am ashamM. 

Note. — Such verbs often have also a passive form : as, misereor, I pity (am moved 
to pity) ; and occasionally other parts: as, paenituras (as from fpaenid), paenitendus, 
padendas, pertaesum est, pigitom est. 

c. Verbs which have a phrase or clause as their subject (cf. §§ 454, 
569. 2) : — 

accidit, contingit, evenit, obtingit, obvenit, fit, it Jiappens. 

libet, it pleases. delectat, iuvat, it delights. 

licet, it is permitted. oportet, it is fitting, ought. 

certttm est, it is resolved. necesse est, it is needful. 

constat, it is clear. praestat, it is better. 

placet, it seems good (pleases). interest, rSfert, it concerns. 

▼idetur, it seems, seems good. vacat, there is leisure. 

decet, it is becoming. restat, superest, it remains. 

Note. — Many of these verbs may be used personally; as, vac5, / have leisure. 
Libet and licet have also the passive forms libitum (licitum) est etc. The participles 
libSns and licSns are used as adjectives. 

<?• The passive of intransitive verbs is very often used impersonally (see 
synopsis in § 207) : — 

ventom est, th£y came (there was coming). 

pdgnatur, tJiere is fighting (it is fought). 

itur, 8om£ one goes (it is gone). 

parcitur mihi, I am spared (it is spared to me, see § 372). 

Note. — The impersonal use of the passive proceeds from its original reflexive (or 
middle) meaning, the action being regarded as accomplishing itself (compare the 
French oela se fait) . 

§§ 209, 210] classified lists of verbs 121 

Classified Lists of Verbs 

First Conjugation 

209, There are about 360 simple verbs of the First Conjuga- 
tion, most of them formed directly on a noun- or adjective-stem : 

anno, arm (arma, arma); caecd, to blind (caecas, blind); exsuld, be an exile 
(exsul, an exile) (§ 269). 

Their conjugation is usually regular, like amo ; though of many only a few 
forms are found in use. 

a. The following verbs form their Perfect and Supine stems irregularly. 
Those marked * have also regular forms. 

cxepo, crepai («crep&vi), -crepit-, resound, plied, *-plicni, *-plicit-, fold, 

cnbo, *cabai, -cubit-, lie dovm. potd, potftvi, *p5t-, drink, 

do, dire, dedi, dAt-, give (da). 8ec5, secai, sect-, cut, 

domo, domai, domit-, subdue, sond, sonui, sonit-,^ sound. 

fried, fdctti, *frict-, rub. 8t5, steti, -stat- (-stit-), stand, 

ivvo (ad-iavo), idvi, idt-,^ help, tond, tonui, *-to]iit-, thunder, 

inicd, micai, , glitter, vetd, vetui, vetit-, forbid, 

need, %iecai, aecat- (-nect-), IdU.^ 

Note. — Compounds of these verbs have the following forms: — 

crepo: con-crepuit dis-crepui or -crepdvi; in-crepui ot-crepdvi. 

do: drcufn-, inter-t pessum-y satis-j super-, venunv-ddy -dediy -dat-y of the first con- 
jugation. Other compounds belong to the root dha, puty and are of the third 
conjugation: as, conddy ooTidirey eondidiy conditum. 

taicH: di-nUcdvi, ^micdt- ; e-micui, 'Tnicdt-. 

plied: re-y sub- {sup-)y mtUti-pHooy -plicdviy -plicdt-; ex-plico (unfold), -ui, -it-; 
(explain), -dviy -dt-; im-plioo, -dvi (-ut), -dtum {-itum). 

•to: eonnsto, -stitiy (stdturus); ad-y re-sto, -stitiy ; ante- (anti-), inter-y super- 

stdy steti, ; circum-stdf -steti {-stiti), ; prae-stOy -stitiy -stit- {-stdt-); 

di-Mo, ex-sto, no perfect or supine (future participle ez-stdturus). 

Second Conjugation 

210. There are nearly 120 simple verbs of the Second Conju- 
gation, most of them denominative verbs of condition, having a 
corresponding noun and adjective from the same root, and an 
inceptive in -8c6 (§ 263. 1): — 

calefi, be warm; calor, warmth; calidus, warm; calescS, grow warm, 
iimedyfear; timoc, /ear; timidus, timid; per-timdsco, to take fright. 

^ Futare Participle also in -atiirtts (either in the simple verb or in composition). 
* Vaco lias regularly aeeivi, necatam, except in composition. 


a. Most verbs of the second conjugation are inflected like moneo, bnt 
many lack the supine (as, arced, ward off; caie5, lack; eged, need; timeo, 
fear), and a niunber have neither perfect nor supine (as, maered, he sad). 

b» The following keep e in all the systems : — 

deleo, deatray deleie delSvi deletnm 

fled, toeep flere flivi fletom 

ned, sew nere neri [n§tum] 

vied, plait viire [vievi] vietum 

corn-pled, JiU up ^ -plere -plevi -pletum 

c. The following show special irregularities : — 

algeo, alsi, be cold. mulceo, mulsi, male-, soothe. 

aided, ftrsi, arsurus, bum. mulged, mulsi, muls-, miUc. 

aaded, ausus sam, dare. (cd)iiived, -nivi (-nixi), , roink. 

anged, auxi, aact-, increase, (ab)oled, -oldvi, -olit-, destroy. 

caved, cavi, cant-, care. pended, pependi, -pdns-, har^. 

censed, censtfi, cens-, wdue. pranded, piandl, prans-, dine. 

cied, civi, cit-, excite. rided, risl, -lis-, laugh. 

doced, docai, doct-, teach. seded, sedi, sess-, sit. 

f aved, f&vi, fattt-, favor. soled, solitas sum, be wonL 

ferved, fervi (ferbui), , glow. sorbed, sorbtti (sorpsi), , suck. 

loved, fdvi, fdt-, cherish. sponded, spopondi, spdns-, pledge. 

fulged, fulsi, , shine. strided, stridi, , whiz. 

gauded, gAvisas sum, r^oice. su&ded, saasi, suas-, urge. 

haered, haesi, haes-, cling. tened (-tined), tenui, -tent-, Iiold. 

indulged, indnlsi, indult-, itidulge. terged, tersi, ters-, wipe. 

iubed, iusu, inss-, order. tonded, -totondi (-tondi), tdns-, shear. 

liqued, licni (liqui), , melt. torqued, torn, tort-, twist. 

luced, lux!, , shine. toned, tormi, tost-, roast. 

Inged, Iflxi, , mourn. turged, tursi, , sweU. 

maned, mansi, m&ns-, wait. urged, ursi, , urge. 

misced, -cui, mixt- (mist-), mix. vided, vidi, vis-, see. 

morded, momordi, mors-, bite. voved, vdvT, vdt-, vow. 
moved, mdvi, mdt-, move. 

Third Conjugation 
211. The following lists include most simple verbs of the 
Third Conjugation, classed according to the formation of the Per- 
fect Stem : — 

a. Forming the perfect stem in s (x) (§ 177. h and note): — 

angd, anxi, , choke. claudd, clausi, claus-, shvi. 

carpd, carpsi, carpt-, pluck. cdmd, cdmpsi, cdmpt-, comb, dtek. 

cedd, cessi, cess-, yield. cequd, coxi, coct-, cook. 

cingd, cind, cinct-, bind. -cutid, -cusn, -coss-, shake. 

1 And other compounds of -pled. 




-demo, dempsi, dfimpt-, take avoay, 

died, dizi, diet-, say. 

divido, dlvisl, di^s-, dwide. 

duc5, ddxi, duct-, guide. 

emungd, -munxi, -munet-, clean out. 

fig5, fix!, fiX'^fx. 

fingo [fio], finxi, fict-, /a^ion. 

flectd, flexi, flex-, heiid. 

>fllgd, -flixi, -flkt-, , amite. 

flao, flfixi, flox-,^10. 

trendd, , ires- (freM-), gnash. 

trigo, fiixi, ftict-, fry. 

gero, gessi, gest-, carry. 

iungd, ianxi, iunct-, join. 

laedo, laesi, laes-, hurt. 

-licio, -lex!, -lect-, ejUice (elicn!, -licit-). 

ludo, lusi, Ifis-, play. 

mergo, mersi, mers-, plunge. 

mitto, misi, miss-, send. 

nectd [nec], nexi (nexai), nex-, weave. 

nubo, nupsi, nupt-, marry. 

^eetd, pexi, pex-, comb. 

pergd, perrexi, penect-, go on. 

pingd [pio], pinxl, pict-, paint. 

plango [flag], planxi, planet-, beajt. 

plaudo, plaum, plans-, applaud. 

plectS, plexi, plex-, braid. 

premo, press!, press-, press. 

promd, -mpsi, -mpt-, brijig out. 

h. Reduplicated in the perfect (§ 

-cadd, cecidi, c&s-, faU. 
eaedd, cecidi, caes-, cut. 

«ano, cecini, , sing. 

carro, cncurri, curs-, run. 

discd [dig], didici, , learn. 

-do [dha], -did!, -dit- (as in ab-dd, etc., 

with crSdd, yend5), put. 
fallo, fefelH, fals-, deceive. 
pangd [PAo], pepi^ (-pSgl)i p*ct-,/(Mten, 

Jix^ bargain. 
pared, pep«icl (pars!), (parsfirus), spare. 

qnatid, (-cnssi), quass-, shake. 
rftdd, r&s!, rfts-, scrape, 
rego, rSxi, rect-, rule. 

repo, rSpsi, , creep. 

rodo, rosi, rSs-, gnaw. 
scalpd, scalps!, scalpt-, scrape, 
scrib5, scrips!, script-, write. 
sculpo, scalps!, sculpt-, carve. 

serpo, serpsi, , crawl. 

spargd, spars!, spars-, scatter. 
-spiciS, -spex!, -spect-, mew. 
-stinguo, -stinx!, rstinct-, quench. 
strings, strinx!, strict-, bind. 
stru5, striix!, struct-, build. 
siigo, sQx!, suet-, suck. 
sumd, sfimpsi, sumpt-, take. 
snrgo, sarrSxi, surrSct-, rise. 
tego, tex!, tect-, shelter. 
temnd, -temps!, -tempt-, despise. 
tergd, tersl, ters-, wipe. 
tingS, tinxi, tinct-, stain. 
traho, tr&x!, tr&ct-, drag. 
trudd, triis!, trils-, thrust. 
ungu5 (ungd), unxi, dnet-, anoint. 
uro, nssi, ust-, bum. 
vadd, -v&si, -vfts-, go. 
vehd, vSxi, vect-, draw. 
vivo, vixi, vict-, live. 

177. c):_ 

parid, peperi, part- (paritdrus), bring 

pell5, pepuli, puis-, drive. 
pend5, pependi, pdns-, weigh. 

posed, poposci, , demand. 

pungd [pco], pQpugi (-pdnxi), pfinct-, 

sistd [sta], stiti, Stat-, stop. 
tangd [tag], tetigi, t&ct-, touch. 
tends [ten] ,tetendi (-tend!), tent-, stretch. 
tundo [tud], tntttdi, tdns- (-tus-), beat. 

c. Adding u (v) to the verb-root (§ 177. a) : — 

alo, aloi, alt- (alit-), nourish. composes, compescui, — 

cernS, crSvi, -cret-, decree. consuls, -lui, cSnsult-, consult. 

colS, colui, cult-, dwell, till crescS, erSvi, erSt-, increase. 

, restrain. 




-cttmbo [cub], -cabtti, -cabit-, lie dovm. rapid, rapui, rapt-, seize. 

depsS, depstti, depat-, knead. 

fremS, fremai, , roar. 

gem5, gemui, , groan. 

gignd [oen], genu!, genit-, beget. 
metd, meaaui, -meaa-, reap. 
mold, molai, molit-, grind, 
occulS, occului, occult-, hide, 
(ad)olS8Cd, -evi, -ult-, grow up. 
pAaco, pavi, paat-, feed. 
percello, -culi, -cula-, upset. 
pond [pos], posui, poait-, put. 
quiSacS, qaievi, quiet-, rest. 

aciacd, acivi, acit-, decree. 
aerS, aSyi, aat-, sow. 
aero, aerui, aert-, entwine. 
aind, aivl, ait-, permit. 
apernd, aprS^, aprSt-, scorn. 
atemS, atrAvi, atr&t-, strew. 

aterto, -atertui, , snore. 

atrepo, atrepni, , sound, 

auSacd, au5^, auet-, be word, 
texo, texni, text-, weaioe, 

tremS, tremui, , tremble, 

Yomd, Yomui, , vomit. 

d* Adding iv to the verb-root (§ 177./) : — 

arceaad,^ -ivi, arceaait-, summon, 

capeaaS, capeaaivi, , undertake, 

cupio, cupiyi, cupit-, desire. 

inceaao, inceaaivi, , aUack. 

laceaao, laceaam, laceaait-, provoke. 

pet5, petivi, petit-, seek. 
quaero, quaeaivi, quaeait-, seek, 

rud5, rudivl, , bray, 

aapid, aaplvi, , be wise. 

tero, trivi, trit-, rub. 

e. Lengthening the vowel of the root (cf. § 177. d): — 

Ag^i ^g!, act-, drive. 

capid, cepi, capt-, take. 

edd, edi, eaum, eat (see § 201). 

emo, emi, empt-, buy. 

facio, feci, fact-, make (see § 204). 

fodio, fSdi, foaa-, dig. 

frangd [frag], fregi, frflct-, break. 

fugiS, ffigi, (fugiturua),^ee. 

fundd [fud], fudi, ffia-, pour, 

iacid, ieci, iact-, throw (-icid, -iect-). 

Iav5, Uvi, lot- (laut-), wash (also regu- 
lar of first conjugation). 

legd,' 15gl, ISct-, gather, 

lixi5 [li], 16vi (Uvi), lit-, smear. 

linquS [lic], -liqui, -lict-, leave. 

n5ac5 [gno], novi, not- (co-gnit-, A-gnit> 
ad-gnit-), know. 

rumpd [rup], rfipi, rupt-, burst. 

acabd, acabi, , scratch. 

vinco [vie], ^ci, vict-, conquer. 
/• Retaining the present stem or verb-root (cf. § 177. e): — 

acuo, -ui, -ut-, sharpen. 
argu5, -ui, -fit-, accuse. 
bib5, bibi, (p5tua), drink. 
-cendd, -cendi, -cena-, kindle. 

(con)gru5, -ui, , agree. 

ciidd, -cudi, -cua-, forge. 

faceaaS, -ii (faceaai), faceaait-, execute 

-fendo, -fendi, -fena-, ward off. 

flndo [fid], fidifB flaa-, split. 

ico, ici, let-, hit. 

imbud, -ui, -Qt-, give a taste of, 
lu5, lui, -lut-, wash. 
mandS, mandi, mana-, chew. 
metuo, -ui, -ut-, fear. 
minuo, -ui, -fit-, lessen. 

-nuo, -nui, , nod. 

pandd, pandi, p&na- (paaa-), open. 
pinad, -ai, pina- (pinat-, piat-), bruise. 
prehendd, -hendi, -hena-, seize. 
rud, rui, rut- (ruitfirua), faJll. 

^ Sometimes accersd, etc. 

3 The following compounds of lego have -Idzi : diligd, intellegd, neglegd. 
8 In this the perfect stem is the same as the verb-root, having lost the reduplica- 
tion (§177. c. N.). 

§§ 211, 212] 



flcando, -scendi, -acSnsus, climb, 
scindd [scid], sddi,^ sciss-, tear. 
8id5, 8ldi(Hiedi), -sess-, aetUe, 
solvo, 8ol^ solat-, loose, pay. 

spad, -ni, , spit. 

statuo, -oi, -ut-, establish. 

stemno, -ui, , sneeze. 

stiidd, stiidi, , whiz. 

suo, sai, 8ut-, sew. 
(ez)ao, -ui, -fit-, put off. 
tribuS, -ui, -fit-, assign. 
yelld, velli (-vulsi), vuls-, pluck. 
veiio, -▼eni, vers-, sweep. 
▼erto, verti, vers-, turn. 
viso [vid], visi, vis-, visit. 
▼olvo, volvi, volfit-, turn. 

Note. — Several have no perfect or supine: as, cland5, limp; fati8c5, gape; hiscO, 
yawn; toUS (sastuli, subULtum, supplied from suffers), raise; vergd, indinje. 

Fourth Conjugation 

212. There are — besides a few deponents and some regular 
derivatives in -ilriO, as, CsuriO, be hungry (cf. § 263. 4) — about 
60 verbs of this conjugation, a large proportion of them being 
descriptive verbs: like — 

ciocio, croak; mfigio, bellow; tinnid, tinkle. 

a. Most verbs of the Fourth Conjugation are conjugated regularly, like 
audio, though a number lack the supine. 
h. The following verbs show special peculiarities : — 

amido, amin (-cui), amict-, clothe. 

aperiS, apemi, apert-, open. 
compexio, -peri, compert-, ^7u2. 
farcid, farsi, fartum, stuff. 

ferio, , , strike. 

fulcid, fulai, f ult-, prop. 

hauiiS, hausi, haust- (hausfirus), drain. 

operio, openii, opert-, cover. 

lepezio, repperi, xepert-,^nd. 

aaepiS, saepsi, saept-, hedge in, 

salio (-silio), salui (salu), [salt- (-suit-)], 

sancid [sac], s&nzi, s&nct-, sarvction, 
sarcid, sarsi, sart-, patch. 
sentid, sSnsi, sSns-, /eet. 
sepelid, sepelivi, sepult-, bury. 
venid, vini, vent-, come. 
Yindd, vinzi, vinct-, bind. 

For Index of Verbs, see pp. 436 ff. 

1 See footnote 3, page 124. 

126 PARTICI.ES [§§ 213, 214 


213. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections 
are called Particles. 

In their origin Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions are 
either (1) case-forms^ actual or extinct, or (2) compounds and 

Particles cannot always be distinctly classified, for many adverbs are 
used also as prepositions and many as conjunctions (§§ 219 and 222). 


Derivation of Adverbs 

214. Adverbs are regularly formed from Adjectives as follows : 

a. From adjectives of the Jirst and second declensions by changing the 
characteristic vowel of the stem to -e : as, care, dearly, from cams, dear (stem 
caro-) ; amice, like a friend, from amlcaa, friendly (stem amico-). 

Note. — The ending -5 is a relic of an old ablative in -Sd (ef. § 48. n. 1). 

6. From adjectives of the third declension by adding -ter to the stem. 
Stems in nt- (nom. -ns) lose the t-. All others are treated as i-stems : — 

fortiter, bravely, from fortis (stem forti-), brave. 
ficriter, eagerly, from acer (stem acri-), eager. 
yigilanter, watchfully, from vigilans (stem vigilant-). 
prGdenter, prudently, from prudens (stem prudent-), 
aliter, otherwise, from alius (old stem ali-). 

Note. — This suffix is perhaps the same as -ter in the Greek -repo; and in uter, alter. 
If sOfthese adverbs are in origin either neuter accusatives {d.d) or masculine nominatives. 

c. Some adjectives of the first and second declensions have adverbs of 
both forms (-e and -ter). Thus diirus, hard, has both dure and diiriter; 
miser, toretched, has both misere and miseriter. 

d. The neuter accusative of adjectives and pronouns is often used as an 
adverb : as, multum, much ; facilS, easily ; quid, why. 

This is the origin of the ending -ius in the comparative degree of ad- 
verbs (§218): as, acrius, more keenly (positive acriter); facilius, mtyre easily 
(positive facilS). 

Note. — These adverbs are strictly cognate accusatives (§ 390). 

6. The ablative singular neuter or (less commonly) feminine of adjectives, 
pronouns, and noims may be used adverbially: as, talsb, falsely ; at6. 

§§ 214-216] DERIVATION OF ADVERBS 127 

quickly (with shortened o); tMjSl (via), straight (straightway); crSbr5, fre- 
quently; volgd, commonly ; fortS, by chance; spoilt^, of one's oivn accord. 

NoTB. — Some adverbs are derived from adjectives not in use : as, abundS, pUnti- 
fully (as if from fabundas ; cf . abundS, abound) ; saepS, often (as if from fsaepis, dense, 
close-p€u:ked; cf. saepSs, hedge^ and saepid, hedge in). 

215. Further examples of Adverbs and other Particles which 
are in origin case-forms of nouns or pronouns are given below. 
In some the case is not obvious, and in some it is doubtful. 

1. Neuter Accusative forms: n5n (for nfi-oinom, later finum), not; iterum (compara- 
tive of i-, stem of is), a second time; demum (superlative of d6, down)^ at last. 

2. Feminine Accusatives: partim, partly. So statim, on the spot; saltim, at least 
(generally saltern), from lost nouns in -tis (genitive -tis). Thus -tim became a regular 
adverbial termination ; and by means of it adverbs "were made from many noun- and 
verb-stems immediately, without the intervention of any form which could have an 
accusative in -tim: as, sSparfttim, separately ^ from sSparfttus, separate. Some adverbs 
that appear to be feminine accusative are possibly instrumental : as, palam, openly ; 
peiperam, wrongly ; tain, so ; qoam, as. 

3. Plural Accusatives: as, ali&s, elsewfiere ; foris, out of doors (as end of motion). 
So perhaps quia, becau^. 

4. Ablative or Instrumental forms: qui, where; intr&, within; extrft, outside; qui, 
how; aliqui, somehow; foris, out of doors; qud, whither; aded, to that degree; ultro, 
beyond; citr5, this side (as end of motion) ; retrd, back; ill5c (for fillS-ce), weakened to 
iUuc, thither. Those in -tr5 are from comparative stems (cf. ills, cis, re-). 

5. Locative forms: ibi, there; nbi, where; lin, ilU-c, there; peregri (peregriS), abroad; 
hic (for fhi-ce) , here. Also the compounds hodie (probably for fhSdiS) , to^ay ; peiendiS, 
day after to-morrow. 

6. Of uncertain formation: (1) those in -tns (usually preceded by 1), with an abla- 
tive meaning: as, funditus, /ror*i t?ie bottom, utterly; divinitus, from above, provi- 
dentially; intus, within; penitus, within; (2) those in -dem, -dam, -dS: as, quidem, 
indeed; quondam, once; quandS (cf. d5nec), when; (3) dum (probably accusative of 
time), while; iam, now. 

216. A phrase or short sentence has sometimes grown together 

into an adverb (cf . notwithstanding ^ neverthelessj besides) : — 

postmodo, presently (a short time after), 
denuo (for dS novo), anew. 
videlicet (for vid« Kcet), to wit (see, you may), 
nihilominus, nevertheless (by nothing the less). 

Note. — Other examples are: — anteft, old antideft, before (ante eft, probably abla- 
tive or instrumental) ; Hied (in loco), on the spot, immediately; prSrsus, absolutely (pr5 
vorsns, straight ahead) ; rursus (re-vorsus), again; quotannis, yearly (quot annis, as many 
years as there are) ; quam-ob-rem, wherefore ; cSminuB, hand to hand (con manns) ; Sminus, 
at long range (ex manns) ; nimimm, without doubt (ni mimm) ; ob-viam (as in ire obviam, 
to go to meet) ; pridem (cf. prae and -dem in i-dem), /or some time; forsan (fors an), per- 
haps (it's a chance whether); forsitan (fors sit an), perhaps (it would be a chance 
whether) ; scilicet (tsci, MceX)ythat is to say (know, you may; cf. i-licet, you may go) ; 
ftctutam (actu, on the act, and turn, tlien). 

128 particles [§ 217 

Classification of Adverbs 
217. The classes of Adverbs, with examples, are as follows : — 

a. Adverbs of Place ^ 

hic, here. hue, hither. hinc, hence. hftc, hy this way. 

ibi, there. eo, thither. inde, thence. e&, by that way. 

istic, there. iat&c, thither, utinc, Vience. ista, by that way. 

iinc, t^ere. Uluc, thither. illinc, tAence. illa(ilUc), '* '* 

nbi, wfiere. quo, whither, nnde, whence. qa&, by what way. 

alicabi, somewhere, aliqttd, somewhither^ alicunde,yromsome- aliqaa,&y some toa^. 

ipo) somewhere. where. 

ibidem, in the same eddem, to the same indidem, from the e2dem, by the same 
place. place. same place. way. 

alibi, elsewhere^ in alid, elsewhere^ to aliunde, from an- ali&, in another 
another place. another place. other place. way. 

nbinbi, whereoer. quoquo, whitherso- undecunque, wfience- qu&qnft, in whatever 

ever. soever. way, 

nbivis, anywhere^ qnoyis, anywhere^ undique, /rom ecery quivis, by whatever 
where you will. whither you will. quarter. way. 

sicubi, if anywhere, siquo, if anywhere slcnnde, if from any- siquft, if anywhere. 

(anywhither). where. 

nScubi, lest any- nequo, lest any- nScunde, lest from nequft, lest any- 
where, whither. anywhere. where. 

Note. — The demonstrative adverbs hic, ibi, istic, illi, illic, and their correlatives, 
correspond in signification with the pronouns hic, is, iste, iUe (see § 146), and are often 
equivalent to these pronouns with a preposition : as, inde » ab eo, etc. So the relative or 
interrogative ubi corresponds with qui (quis), ali-cubi with aliquis, ubiubi with quisquis, 
8i-cttbi with siquis (see §§ 147-151, with the table of correlatives in § 152). 

usque, all the way to; nsquam, anywhere; nusquam, nowhere; citro, to this side; 
intrd, inwardly; ultro, beyond (or freely j i.e. beyond what is required); 
potr5, further on. 

quSrsnm (for qu5 vorsum, whither turned?), to what end? hSrsum, this way; 
prorsum, forward (prSrsus, utterly); introrsum, inwardly; retrSrsum, back- 
ward; sursum, upward; deorsum, downward; seorsum, apart; aliSrsom, 
another way. 

h. Adverbs of Time 

quandS, when f (interrogative) ; cum (qnom), when (relative) ; nt, when, as^ nunc, 
now; tunc (turn), then; mox, presently; iam, already; dum, whUe; iam din, 
iam dudum, iam pridem, long ago, long since. 

1 All these adverbs were originally case-forms of pronouns. The forms in -bi and 
-ic are locative, those in -5 and -uc, 41 and i&c, ablative (see § 215) ; those in -inc aro 
from -im (of uncertain origin) with the particle -co added (thus iUim, illin-c). 

§§ 217, 218] ADVERBS 129 

piimam (pximo), ^rs^ ; delude (posteA), next after; postrSmom (poBtr6m5),^naZZy; 

posteaqiiam, postquam, wJien (after that, aa 8oon as). 
oinqaam (unqaam), ever; nomquam (nunquam), never; semper, always. 
aliquandd, cU some time, cU length; quanddque (qoandScamque), whenever; dSnique, 

at last. 
qnotiSiis (qaoties), how often; totiSna, so often; allquotiSns, a number of times. 
cotidig, every day ; hodie, to-day ; heri, yesterday ; cr&s, to-morrow ; pridie, the day 

before ; poatxIdiS, the day after ; in diSs, from day to day, 
nondom, not yet; necdum, nor yet; vizdam, scarce yet; qnam primam, oa soon as 

possible; saepe, often; ciibTO, frequently ; iam nSn, no longer. 

c. Adverbs of Manner, Degree, or Cause 

qnam, how, a>s ; tarn, so ; qaamyis, however much, although ; paene, aimost ; magis, 

more; valdS, greatly; vix, hardly. 
car, qu&re, why ; ided, idcircd, proptere&, on this account, because; ed, therefore; 

ergo, itaque, igitar, ther^ore. 
ita, sic, so; at (ati), a«, how; atat, atcamque, however. 

d. Interrogative Particles 

an, -ne, anne, atram, atramne, nam, whether. 

ndnne, annon, whether not ; namqaid, ecqaid, whether at all. 

On the use of the Interrogative Particles, see §§ 332, 335. 

e. Negative Particles 

non, not (in simple denial) ; haad, minimS, not (in contradiction) ; nS, not (in pro- 
hibition) ; nSye, nea, ru>r ; nSdam, much less. 

ne, lest; neqae, nee, nor; n6 . . . qaidem, not even. 

non modo . . . verum (sed) etiam, not only . . . but also. 

non modo . . . sed n6 . . . qaidem, not ordy not . . . but not even. 

si mintts, if not; qudminas (qaSminas), so 03 not. 

qain (relative), but that; (interrogative), why not f 

ne, nee (in composition), not; so in nescid, I know not; neg5, I say no (ai5, 1 say 
yes) ; negotiam, business (fnec-otiam) ; nSm5 (nS- and hemd, old form of homo), 
no one ; ne qais, lest any one ; neqae enim, for . . . not. 

For the nse of Negative Particles, see § 325 fif . 

For the Syntax and Peculiar uses of Adverhs, see § 320 ff. 

Comparison of Adverbs 

218. The Comparative of Adverbs is the neuter accusative of 
the comparative of the corresponding adjective ; the Superlative 
is the Adverb in -5 formed regularly from the superlative of the 
Adjective : — 

130 PARTICLES [§§ 218-220 

cftrS, dearly (from cflma, dear) ; c&riiui, cfiiiosimS. 

misers (miseriter), wretchedly (from miter, ufretched) ; miseriiui, miserxime. 

leviter (from levis, light) ; levius, levisslme. 

audftcter (audftciter) (from aud&x, bold) ; aud&ciua, audftciaaimS. 

benS, loell (from bonus, good) ; meliua, optime. 

malS, iU (from malas, bad) ; p§iua, pesaimS. 

a. The following are irregular or defective : — 

diu, long (in time) ; didtiaa, difttlaaimS. 

potiua, raJLher ; potJaaJmnm, first of aU, in pr^erence to all. 

•aepe, often; saepiua, oftener, again; saepiaaime. 

satis, enough ; satiua, pr^erable. 

secus, otherwise; sStiua, worse. 

multom (molto), magla, mazime, much, more^ most. 

param, not enough ; minua, less ; minlme, leaM. 

nuper, newly; nuperrime. 

tempere, seasonably; temperiua. 

Note. — In poetry the comparative mage is sometimeB used instead of magis. 


2 19. Prepositions were not originally distinguished from Adverbs in form or mean- 
ing, but have become specialized in use. They developed comparatively late in the 
history of language. In the early stages of language development the cases alone 
were sufficient to indicate the sense, but, as the force of the case-endings weakened, 
adverbs were used for greater precision (cf . § 338) . These adverbs, from their habitual 
association with particular cases, became Prepositions ; but many retained also their 
independent f uncticb as adverbs. 

Most prepositions are true case-forms : as, the comparative ablatives eztr&, infri, supra 
(for fexterft, finferi, fsttperft), and the accusatives circum, c5ram, cum (cf. § 215) . Circiter 
is an adverbial formation from circum (cf. § 214. b. n.) ; praeter is the comparative of 
prae, propter of prope.i Of the remainder, versus is a petrified nominative (participle 
of vertS) ; adversus is a compound of versus ; tr&ns is probably an old present participle 
(cf . in-trft-re) ; while the origin of the brief forms ab, ad, di, ex, ob, is obscure and 

220. Prepositions are regularly used either with the Accusar 
live or with the Ablative. 

a. The following prepositions are used with the Accusative : — 

ad, to. circiter, about. intrft, inside. 

adversus, against. cia, citra, this side. iuzt&, near. 

adversum, tovKurds. contrft, against. ob, on account of 

ante, before. arg&, towards. penes, in the power of. 

apnd, at, near. eztr&, outside. per, through, 

circft, around. Infra, below. pone, behind. 

circum, around. inter, among. post, after. 

1 The case-form of these prepositions in -ter is doubtful. 

§§ 220, 221] PREPOSITIONS 181 

piaeter, beifond. secondttm, next to. altift, on the further fide. 

ptope, near, sopri, above. renaa, towards. 

propter, on account of. trine, across. 

&• The following prepositions are used with the Ablative : — * 

a, ib, abe, away from, by. e, ex, out of. 

abeqae, voUhoutj hut for. prae, in comparison wUfi. 

coram, in presence of. pr6, in front of for. 

cam, vrith. eine, unthout. 

de, from. tenue, up to, as far as. 

Cm The following may be used with either the Accusative or the Abla- 
tive, but with a difference in meaning : — 

in, into, in. sub, under. 

subter, heneaJLh. super, above. 

In and sub, when followed by the accusative, indicate motion to, when by 
the ablative, rest in, a place : 

venit in aedis, he came into the house; erat in aedibas, he was in the house. 
discipllna in Britannii reperta atque inde in Galliam trftnsl&ta esse existi- 

m&tnr, the system is thought to have been discovered in Oreat Britain and 

thence brought over to Gaul. 
eiab nice cGnsederat, he had seated himse^ under an ilex. 
sob legSs mittere orbem, to subject the world to laws (to send the world under 


221. The uses of the Prepositions are as follows : — 

1. A, ab, away frorti^ from, off from, with the ablative. 

a. Of place : as, — ab urbe profectus est, he set out from the city. 

b. Of time : (1) from : as, — ab hOrft tertia ad vesperam, from the third hour 
till evening ; (2) just after : as, — ab eO magistratd, after [holding] that office. 

c. Idiomatic uses : & reliquls differunt, they differ from the others; & parvulis, 
from early childhood ; prope ab urbe, near (not far from) the city ; llberftre ab, 
to set free from; occlsus ab hoste (periit ab hoste), slain by an enemy; ab hac 
parte, on Vtis side ; ab r6 §ius, to his advantage ; S, r6 pUblica, for the interest of 
the state. 

2. Ad, to, towards, at, neary with the accusative (cf. in, into). 

a. Of place : as, — ad urbem vSnit, ?ie came to the city ; ad meridiem, towards 
the south ; ad exercitum, to the army ; ad hostem, toward the enemy ; ad urbem, 
near the city. 

b. Of time : as, — ad nOnam hOram, till the ninth hour. 

c. With persons : as, — ad eum vSnit, he came to him. 

1 For palam etc., see § 432. 

^ Ab signifies direction /rom the object, but often towards the speaker ; compare d6^ 
down from, and ex, out of. 

132 PARTICLES [§ 221 

d. Idiomatic uses: ad supplicia descendunt, they resort to punishment; ad 
haec respondit, to this he answered ; ad tempus, at the [fit] time ; adire ad rem 
publicam, to go into public life ; ad petendam p&cem, to seek pea>ce ; ad latera, 
on thefiank; ad arma, to arras; ad hunc modum, in this way ; quern ad modum, 
how^ as; ad centum, nearly a hundred; ad hOc, besides; omnSs ad tmum, aXL Ut 
a man; ad diem, on the day. 

3. Ante, in front of, before, with the accusative (cf. post, after), 

a. Of place : as, — ante portam, in front of the gate ; ante exercitum, in advance 
of the army. 

b. Of time : as, — ante bellum, b^ore the voar. 

c. Idiomatic uses : ante urbem captam, before the city was taken ; ante diem 
quintum (a.d.v.) Kal., the fifth day before the Calends; ante quadriennium, four 
years before or ago ; ante tempus, too soon (before the time). 

4. Apud, at J by, among, with the accusative. 

a. Of place (rare and archaic) : as, — apud forum, at Vie forum (in the market- 

b. With reference to persons or communities : as, — apud Helv6ti5s, am&ng 
the Helvetians; apud populum, before the people; apud aliquem, at one'^s house; 
apud se, at horns or in his senses ; apud CicerOnem, in [the works of] Cicero. 

5. Circ&, about, around, with the accusative (cf. circum, circiter). 

a. Of place : templa circ& forum, the temples about the forum; circa se habet, 
he has with him (of persons). 

b. Of time or number (in poetry and later writers) : circS. eandem hOram, 
about the same hour ; circa idus OctObrls, about the fifteenth of October; circa 
decem milia, about ten thousand, 

c. Figuratively (in later writers), about, in regard to (cf. d§) : circa quem 
ptlgna est, with regard to whom, etc. ; circa deOs neglegentior, rather neglectful of 
(i.e. in worshipping) the gods, 

6. Circiter, about, with the accusative. 

a. Of time or number : circiter idus Novembrls, about the thirteenth of Novem- 
ber; circiter meridiem, about noon. 

7. Circum, a^out, around, with the accusative. 

a. Of place: circum haec loca, ^^ea&out; circum Capuam, rmund Capua; 
•circum ilium, with him; iSgatiO circum Insulas missa, an embassy sent to the 
islands rowid about; circum amlc5s, to his friends round about, 

8. ContrS, opposite, against, with the accusative. 

contra italiam, over against Italy ; contra haec, in answer to this, 

a. Often as adverb: as, — haec contra, this in reply ; contra autem, hut on 
the other hand ; quod contra, whereas, on the other hand, 

9. Cum, with, together with, with the ablative. 

§ 221] PREPOSITIONS 138 

a. Of place: as, — vftde mficum, go with me; cum omnibus impedlmentis, 
with all [their] baggage. 

6. Of time : as, — prima cum lace, at early dawn (with first light). 

c. Idiomatic uses : mftgnO cum dol5re, with great sorrow ; commanicftre ali- 
quid cum aliquG, share something with some one; cum malO suO, to his own hurt; 
cOnfligere cum hoste, to fight with the enemy ; esse cum t6l5, to go armed ; cum 
silentiO, in silence. 

10. D6, down from, from, with the ablative (cf. ab, away from ; 
ex, out of). 

a. Of place : as, — d6 caelO demissus, sent down from heaven ; de nftvibus 
desillre, to jump down from the ships, 

h. Figuratively, concerning, about, of:^ as, — c5gn^cit d5 ClOdl caede, Ae 
learns of the murder of Clodiu^ ; cOnsilia d6 bellO, plans of war. 

c. In a paitilive sense (compare ez), out of of: as, — tinus d6 plSl^e, one of the 
people. • 

d. Idiomatic uses : multis d6 causis, for mxiny reasons ; quSL d6 causd,, for 
which reason ; de imprOvIsO, of a sudden ; dS industria, on purpose ; d6 integrO, 
anew ; de tertia vigilia., just at midnight (starting at the third watch) ; de mSnse 
Decembr! nftvigare, to sail as early as December, 

11. Ex, Hjfrom (the midst, opposed to in), out of with the abla- 
tive (cf, ab and d6). 

a. Of place : as, — ex omnibus partibus silvae 6volav6runt, they flew out from 
all parts of the forest; ex Hispania, [a man] from Spain. 

b. Of time : as, — ex e6 die quintus, the fifth day from thaJt (four days after) ; 
ex hoc die, from this day forth. 

c. Idiomatically or less exactly : ex cOnsulattl, right after his consulship ; 
ex §ius sententia, according to his opinion ; - ex aequ5, justly ; ex improvise, 
unexpectedly; ex tua re, to your advantage; magna ex parte, in a great degree; 
ex equO ptignare, to fight on horseback ; ex tLsu, expedient ; e regiOne, opposite ; 
quaerere ex aliquO, to ask of some one; ex senattLs cOnsultO, according to the 
decree of the senate ; ex fuga, in [their] flight (proceeding immediately from it) ; 
tlnus e ffliis, one of the sons. 

12. In, with the accusative or the ablative. 
1. With the accusative, into (opposed to ex).- 

a. Of place : as, — in Italiam contendit, Tie hastens into Italy. 

b. Of time, tUl, until : as, — in ItLcem, till daylight. 

c. Idiomatically or less exactly: in meridiem, towards the south; amor in 
(erga, adversus) patfem, love for his father ; in aram cOnftigit, he fled to the altar 
(on the steps, or merely to) ; in dies, from day to day ; in longittldinem, length- 
wise; in latittidinem patebat, extended in width; in haec verba iilrare, to swear 
to these words ; hunc in modum, in this way ; OratiO in Catilinam, a speech against 

1 (y originally meant /rom (cf. off). 

134 PARTICLES [§ 221 

Catiline; in perpetuum, forever; in p^ius, /or t?ie worse; in diem ylveie, to live 
from hand to movth (for the day). 

2. With the ablative, i7i, any among. 

In yery yarious connections : as, — in castris, in the camp (cf . ad castra, to, at, 
or near the camp) ; in mari, on the sea; in urbe esse, to be in town; in tempore, 
in season ; in scribendO, while writing ; est mihi in auimO, I have it in mind^ I 
intend ; in ancorls, at anchor ; in hOc homine, in the caae of this man ; in dubio 
esse, to he in doubt. 

13. Infr&, belowy with the accusative. 

a. Of place : as, — ad mare Infr& oppidum, by the sea behw the town; infra 
caelum, under the sky. 

b. Figuratively or less exactly: as, — Infra HomSrum, later than Homer; 
infra trSs pedes, less than three feet; Infra elephantOs, sm^jJUer than elephards; 
Infra InfimOs omnis, the lowest of the low. 

14. Inter, between^ among, with the accusative. 

inter m6 et ScIpiOnem, between myself and Scipio ; inter Os et offam, between 
the cup and the lip (the mouth and the morsel) ; inter hostium tela, aviid 
the weapons of the enemy ; inter omnis primus, first of ail ; inter biben- 
dum, while drinking ; inter s6 loquuntur, they talk together. 

16. Ob, towards, on account of, with the accusative. 

a. Literally : (1) of motion (archaic) : as, — ob RGmam, towards Rome 
(Ennius) ; ob viam, to the road (preserved as adverb, in the way of). (2) Of place 
in which, before^ in a few phrases : as, — ob oculOs, before the eyes. 

b. Figuratively, in return for (mostly archaic, probably a word of account, 
balancing one thing against another) : as, — ob mulierem, in pay for the woman ; 
ob rem, for gain. Hence applied to reason, cause, and the like, on account of 
(a similar mercantile idea), for : as, — ob eam causam, for that reason ; quam ob 
rem (quamobrem), wher^ore, why. 

16. Per, through, over, with the accusative. 

a. Of motion: as, — per urbem Ire, to go through the city; per mtirOs, over 
the walls. 

b. Of time : as, — per hiemem, throughout the winter. 

c. Figuratively, of persons as means or instruments : as, — per homines ido- 
ne5s, through the instrumentality of suitable persons ; licet per m6, you (etc.) may 
for all me. Hence, stat per m^j itis through my inMrumentality ; so, per se, in 
and of itself. 

d. Weakened, in many adverbial expressions : as, — per iocum, in jest; per 
speciem, in show, ostentatiously. 

17. Prae, in front of, with the ablative. 

a. Literally, of place (in a few connections) : as, — prae s6 portare, to carry 
in one''s arms ; prae s6 ferre, to carry before one, (hence figuratively) exhibit, pro- 
claim ostentatiously, make known. 

§ 221] PREPOSITIONS 135 

b. Figoratively, of hindrance, as by an obstacle in front (compare English 
for) : as, — prae gaudiO conticuit, ke loas silent for joy, 

c. Of comparison : as, — prae mSgnitudine corporum suOrum, in comparison 
with their own great size, 

18. Praeter, along by, hy^ with the accusative. 

a. Literally : as, — praeter castra, by the camp (along by, in front of) ; praeter 
oculos, before the eyes, 

b. Figuratively, beyond^ besides, more than, in addition to, except : as, — praeter 
spem, beyond hope; praeter alios, more than others; praeter paucSs, with the 
exception of a few. 

19. Prt, in front of, with the ablative. 

sedens pr6 aede Castoris, sitting in front of the temple of Castor ; pr6 popul5, 
in presence of the people. So pr6 rOstrls, on [the front of] the rostra; 
pro contiOne, b^ore the assembly (in a speech). 

a. In various idiomatic uses: prO lege, in defence of the law; prO vitulfi, 
irtMead of a heifer ; prO centum mllibus, as good as a hundred thousand ; prO 
rata parte, in due proportion ; prO hac vice, for this once ; prO cOnsule, in place 
of consul; prO viribus, considering his strength; prO virili parte, to the best of 
on^i's ability; prO tu& prudentia., in accordance with your wisdom. 

20. Propter, near, by, with the accusative. 

propter t6 sedet, he sits next you. Hence, on account of (cf. all along of) : 
as, — propter metum, through fear. 

21. Secundum,^ yt^^^ behind, following, with the accusative. 

a. Literally: as, — Ite secundum me (Plant.), go behind me; secundum litus, 
near the shore; secundum fliimen, along the stream (cf. secundO flumine, down 

b. Figuratively, according to: as, — secundum naturam, according to nature. 

22. Sub, under, up to, with the accusative or the ablative. 

1. Of motion, with the accusative : as, — sub montem succfidere, to come close 
to the hill. 

a. Idiomatically : sub noctem, towards night ; sub lucem, near daylight ; sub 
haec dicta, at (following) these words. 

2. Of rest, with the ablative : as, — sub love, in the open air (under the heaven, 
personified as Jove) ; sub monte, at the foot of the hill. 

a. Idiomatically : sub eOdem tempore, about the same time (just after it). 

23. Subter, under, below, with the accusative (sometimes, in poetry, 
the ablative). 

subter togam (Liv.), under his mantle; but, — subter litore (Catull.), below 
the shore. 

24. Super,* with the accusative or the ablative. 

1 Old participle of sequor. 2 Comparative of sub. 

136 PARTICLES [§ 221 

1. With the accusative, above, over, an, beyond, upon, 

a. Of place : super vS,llum praecipitftrl (lug. 58), to be hurled over ifie ram- 
part ; super laterSs coria indtlcuntur (B.C. ii. 10), hides are drawn over the bricks; 
super terrae tumulum statui (Legg. ii. 65), to be placed on the mound of earth; 
super Numidiam (lug. 19), beyond Numidia. 

b. Idiomatically or less exactly: vulnus super vulnus, unmnd upon wound; 
super vlnum (Q. C. viil. 4), over his wine, 

2. With the ablative, concerning, about (the only use with this case in 

h&c super re, concerning this thing; super t&lire, about such an affair; llt- 
terSfi super tantd. r6 exspect&re, to wait for a letter in a matter of such 

a. Poetically, in other senses : llgna super focO largS repOnens (Hor. Od. i. 
0. 5), piling logs generously on the fire ; nocte super medi& (Aen. iz. 61), after 

25. Suprft, on top ofj above, with the accusative. 

8upr& terram, on the surface of the earth. So also figuratively : as, — supr& 
hanc memoriam, b^ore our remembrance; supr& mOrem, mxire than 
usual; supr&quod, besides. 

26. Tenus (postpositive), cw far as, up to, regularly with the abla- 
tive, sometimes with the genitive (cf. § 359. b). 

1. With the ablative : TaurO tenus, as far as Taurus; capulO tenus, up to the 

2. With the genitive : Cum&rum tenus (Fam. viii. 1. 2), as far as Cumae. 

Note 1. — Tenus is frequently connected with the feminine of an adjective pronoun, 
making an adverbial phrase: as, bActenus, hitherto; quitenus, so far as; dS bac rC 
li&ctentt8, 80 much for that (about this matter so far). 

NoTB 2. — Tenus was originally a neuter noun, meaning line or extent. In its use 
with the genitive (mostly poetical) it may be regarded as an adverbial accusative 
(§397. a). 

27. Trans, across, over, through, hy, with the accusative. 

a. Of motion : as, — tr9.ns mare currunt, they run across the sea ; tr&ns flu- 
men f erre, to carry over a river ; tr&us aethera, through the sky ; tr&ns caput iace, 
throw over your head. 

b. Of rest : as, — trans RhSnum incolunt, they live across the Rhine. 

28. IJltrA, beyond (on the further side), with the accusative. 

cis Padum ultr&que, on this side of the Po and beyond; ultr&eum numenun, 
more than that number; ultra fidem, incredible; ultra modum, immod- 

Note. — Some adverbs appear as prepositions : as, intns, insuper (see § 21d). 
For Prepositions in Compounds, see § 267. 

§§ 222-224] CONJUNCTIONS 187 


222. Gonjanctions, like prepositions (cf. § 219), are closely related to adverbs, and 
are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, or obscured phrases : as, 
quod, an old accusative ; dum, probably an old accusative (cf . turn, cum) ; v6r5, an old 
neuter ablative of vCras; niliildminus, none the lees; proinde, lit. forward from there. 
Most conjunctions are connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be re- 
ferred to their original case-forms. 

223. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or sentences. They 
are of two classes, Coordinate and Subordinate : — 

€t» Coordinate, connecting coordinate or similar constructions (see § 278. 
2. a). These are: — 

1. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connecUon or separation of thought 
as well as oi words : as, et, and; aat, or; neque, nor. 

2. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought : 
as, sed, hut. 

3. Causal, introducing a cause or reason : as, nam, for. 

4. Illative, denoting an inference : as, igitnr, therefore. 

hm Subordinate, connecting a subordinate or independent clause with 
that on which it depends (see § 278. 2. b). These are : — 

1. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis: as, si, if; nisi, unless. 

2. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition : as, ac si, as if. 

3. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission: as, quamquam, although 
(lit. however much it may be true that, etc.). 

4. Temporal : as, postquam, after. 

6. Consecutive, expressing result : as, at, so that 

6. Final, expressing purpose : as, at, in order thai; ne, tJiat not. 

7. Causal, expressing cause : as, quia, decause. 

224. Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately- 
distinguished in Latin than in English. The following list 
includes the common conjunctions ^ and conjunctive phrases : — 


a. Copulative and Disjunctive 

et, -que, atqne (ac), and. 

et . . . et ; et . . . -qae (atque); -que . . . et ; -qne . . . -que (poetical), both . . . and. 

etiam, quoque, neqae non (necndn), quin etiam, itidem (item), also. 

cum . . . tarn ; tam . . . tum, both . . . and; not ordy . . . but also. 

1 Some of these have been included in the classification of adverbs. See also list 
of Correlatives, § 152. 

138 PARTICLES [§ 224 

qua . . . qa&, on the one hand , , . on the other hand. 

modo . . . modo, now . . . now. 

aut . . . aat; vel . . . vel (-ve), either . . . or. 

sive (seu) . . . sive, whether . . . or. 

nee (neque) . . . nee (neque); neque . . . nee ; nee . . . neque (rare), neither . . . nor. 

et . . . neque, both . . . and not. 

nee . . . et ; nee (neque) . . . -que, neither (both not) . . . and, 

h. Adversative 

sed, autem, verum, vero, at, atqui, bat. 

tamen, attamen, sed tamen, verum tamen, hut yet, nevertheless. 

nihildminus, none the less. 

at vero, but in truth; enimverd, for in truth. 

ceterum, on the other hand., but. 

c. Causal 

nam, namque, enim, etenim, for. 

quapropter, quare, quamobrem, qudcirca, unde, viher^ore, whence. 

d. Illative 

ergd, igitur, itaque, ideo, idcireo, inde, proinde, ther^ore^ axicordingly. 


a. Conditional 

81, if; sin, but if; nisi (ni), unless j if not; quod si, but if. 
modo, dum, dummodo, si modo, if only, provided. 
dummodo ne (dum ne, modo ne), provided only not. 

h. Comparative 

ut, uti, sicut, just as; velut, as, so as; prout, praeut, ceu, like as, according as. 
tamquam (tanquam), quasi, ut si, ac si, velut, veiuti, velut si, as if. 
quam, atque (ac), as, than. 

c. Concessive 

etsi, etiamsi, tametsi, even if; quamquam (quanquam), although. 
quamvis, quantumvis, quamlibet, quantumlibet, however much, 
licet (properly a verb), ut, cum (quom), though, suppose, whereas. 

fl. Temporal 

cum (quom), quando, when; ubi, ut, when, as; cum primum, ut piimom, nbi primum, 

simul, simul ac, simul atque, as soon as; postquam (poste&quam), after. 
prius . . . quam, ante . . . quam, b^ore; n5n ante . . . quam, not . . . until. 
dum, usque dum, d5nec, quoad, until, as long as, white. 

§§ 224-226] INTERJECTIONS 189 

e. Consectttiye and Final 

at (ati), qao, ao tkat^ in order that. 

ne, ut ne, lest (that . . . not^ in order that not) ; nSve (neu), tkat not, nor. 

quin (after Degatives), quominus, but that (so as to prevent), that noL 

/. Causal 

qaia, qaod, qaoniam (tqaom-iam), quandd, because. 

cum (quom), since. 

qaanddqaidem, si quidem, quippe, ut pote, since indeed^ inasmuch as. 

propterea . . . qaod, for this reason . . . that. 

On the use of Ck>njanction8, see §§ 323, 324. 


225. Some Interjections are mere natural exclamations of feeling; others ai*e 
derived from inflected parts of speech, e.g. the imperatives em, lo (probahly for erne, 
take); age, oome, etc. Names of deities occur in hercie, pol (from Pollux), etc. Many 
Latin interjections are borrowed from the Greek, as euge, euboe, etc. 

226. The following list comprises most of the Interjections in 
common use : — 

0, en, ecce, ehem, papae, y&h (of astonishment). 

id, evae, eyoe, eohoe (of joy). 

hen, ehea, yae, alas (of sorrow). 

hens, eho, ehodom, ho (of caMing) ; st, hist. 

eia, eage (of praise). 

pro (of attestation) : as, pr5 pador, shame I 

140 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§227-230 


227. AH formation of words is originally a process of composition. An element 
significant in itself is added to another significant element, and thns the meaning of 
the two is combined. No other combination is possible for the formation either of 
inflections or of stems. Thus, in fact, words (since roots and stems are significant 
elements, and so words) are first placed side by side, then brought under one accent, 
and finally felt as one word. The gradual process is seen in sea voyage^ sea-nymph, 
seaside. But as all derivation, properly so called, appears as a combination of unin- 
flected stems, every type of formation in use must antedate inflection. Hence Tvords 
were not in strictness derived either from nouns or from verbs, but from stems which 
were neither, because they were in fact both ; for the distinction between noun-stems 
and verb-stems had not yet been made. 

After the development of Inflection, however, that one of several kindred words 
which seemed the simplest was regarded as \h& primitive form, and from this the otiier 
words of the group were thought to be derived. Such supposed processes of formation 
were then imitated, often erroneously, and in this way new modes of derivation arose. 
Thus new adjectives were formed from nouns, new nouns from adjectives, new adjec- 
tives from verbs, and new verbs from adjectives and nouns. 

In course of time the real or apparent relations of many words became confused, 
so that nouns and adjectives once supposed to come from nouns were often assigned 
to verbs, and others once supposed to come from verbs were assigned to nouns. 

Further, since the language was constantly changing, many words went out of use, 
and do not occur in the literature as we have it. Thus many Derivatives survive of 
which the Primitive is lost. 

Finally, since all conscious word-formation is imitative, intermediate steps in deriva- 
tion were sometimes omitted, and occasionally apparent Derivatives occur for which 
no proper Primitive ever existed. 


228. Roots ^ are of two kinds : — 

1. Verbal, expressing ideas of action or condition (sensible phenomena). 

2. Pronominal, expressing ideas of position and direction. 

From verbal roots come all parts of speech except pronouns and certain 
particles derived from pronominal roots. 

229. Stems are either identical with roots or derived from them. 
They are of two classes: (1) Noun-stems (including Adjective- 
stems) and (2) Verb-stems. 

Note. — Noun-stems and verb-stems were not originally different (see p. 163), and 
in the consciousness of the Romans were often confounded ; but in general they were 
treated as distinct. 

230. Words are formed by inflection : (1) from roots inflected 
as stems; (2) from derived stems (see § 232). 

1 For the distinction between Roots and Stems, see §§ 24, 25. 

§§231-233] PRIMARY SUFFIXES 141 

231. A root used as a stem may appear — 

a. With a short vow^ : as, dnc-is (dux), dug ; nec-is (nez) ; i-s, i-d. So 
in verbs : as, es-t, fer-t (cf . § 174. 2). 

b* With a long vowel ^ : as, luc-is (lux), luc ; pac-is (p&z). So in verbs : 
duc-o, i-s for f eis, from e5, ire ; f&tur from fari. 

c* W^ith reduplication : as, fur-fur, mar-mor, mur-mur. So in verbs : as, 
gi-gnO (root gen), si-std (root sta). 


232. Derived Stems are formed from roots or from other stems 
by means of suffixes. These are : — 

1. Primary : added to the root, or (in later times by analogy) to verb- 

2. Secondary : added to a noun-stem or an adjective-stem. 

Both primary and secondary suffixes are for the most part pronominal 
roots (§ 228. 2), but a few are of doubtful origin. 

Note 1. — The distinction between primary and secondary suffixes, not being orig- 
inal (see § 227), is continually lost sight of in the development of a language. Suffixes 
once primary are used as secondary, and those once secondary are used as primary. 
Thus in hosticas (hosti + cas) the suffix -cus, originally ko- (see § 234. II. 12) primary, as 
in pauctts, has become secondary, and is thus regularly used to form derivatives ; but 
in pudlcus, apricus, it is treated as primary again, because these words were really or 
apparently connected with verbs. So in English -able was borrowed as a primary 
suffix (tolerable, eatable), but also makes forms like clubbable, salable; some is prop- 
erly a secondary suffix, as in toilsome, lonesome, but makes also such words as meddle- 
some, venturesome. 

NoTB 2. — It is the stem of the word, not the nominative, that is formed by the 
derivative suffix. For convenience, however, the nominative will usually be given. 

Primary Suffixes 

233. The words in Latin formed immediately from the root by 
means of Primary Suffixes, are few. For — 

1. Inherited words so formed were mostly further developed by the 
addition of other suffixes, as we might make an adjective lone4y-some-ish^ 
meaning nothing more than lone, lonely, or lonesome. 

2. By such accumulation of suffixes, new compound suffixes were formed 
which crowded out even the old types of derivation. Thus, — 

1 The difference in vowel-quantity in the same root (as duo) depends on inherited 
variations (see § 17. a). 

142 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 233, 234 

A word like mSnt, oMiitia, by the suflSx 5n- (nom. -d), gave mentid, and this, 
being divided into men + tid, gave rise to a new type of abstract noons in -tio : 
as, lSg&-ti5, embawy, ^ 

A word like auditor, by the sufSx io- (nom. -ius), gave rise to adjectives like 
aaditdr-ins, of which the neater (auditorium) is used to denote the j^ce where 
the action of the verb is performed. Hence tfirio- (nom. -tocinm), n., becomes a 
regular noun-suffix (§ 250. a). 

So in English such a word as suffocation gives a suffix -ation, and with this is 
made starvation^ though there is no such word as starvate. 

234. Examples of primary stem-suffixes are : — 

I. Vowel suffixes : — 

1. 0- (m., N.), fl- (f.), found in nouns and adjectives of the first two declen- 
sions : as, sonus, Ifidns, vagus, toga (root teg). 

2. i-, as in ovis, avis ; in Latin frequently changed, as in rfipSs, or lost, as in 
scobs (scobis, root scab). 

3. U-, disguised in most adjectives by an additional i, as in sui-vis (for tsuad- 
vis, instead of tsuft-dus, cf. ii8ijs)^ ten-uis (root ten in tendo), and remaining alone 
only in nouns of the fourth declension, as acus (root ak, sharp ^ in ftcer, acies, 
cJici>s), pecu, genu. 

II. Suffixes with a consonant : — 

1. to- (m., n.), td- (f.), in the regular perfect passive participle, as tSctos, 
tectum ; sometimes with an active sense, as in pdtus, pr&nsus ; and found in a 
few words not recognized as participles, as pfitus (cf. pfirus), altus (aid). 

2. ti- in abstracts and rarely in nouns of agency, as messis, vestis, pars, 
mens. But in many the i is lost. 

3. tu- in abstracts (including supines), sometimes becoming concretes, as 
actus, IQctus. 

4. no- (m., n.), nA- (f.), forming perfect participles in other languages, and in 
Latin making adjectives of like participial meaning, which often become nouns, 
as magnus, plSnus, regnum. 

5. ni-, in noims of agency and adjectives, as ignis, sSgnis. 

6. nu-, rare, as in manus, pmus, comu. 

7. mo- (mft-), with various meanings, as in animus, almus, firmus, forma. 

8. vo- (va-) (commonly uo-, ui-), with an active or passive meaning, as in 
equus (equos), arvum, cdnspicuus, exiguus, vacivus (vacuus). 

9. ro- (ra-), as in ager (stem ag-ro-), integer (cf. int&ctus), sacer, pleri-que (cf. 
plenus, plgtus). 

10. lo- (UI-), as in caelum (for tcaed-lum), chisel, exemplum, sella (for fsedla). 

11. yo- (ya-), forming gerundives in other languages, and in Latin making 
adjectives and abstracts, including many of the iirst and fifth declensions, as 
eximius, aud&da, P15rentia, pemiciSs. 

12. ko- (ka-), sometimes primary, as in pauci (cf. iravpos), locus (for stlocus). 
In many cases the vowel of this termination is lost, leaving a consonant stem : 
as, apex, cortex, loqufix. 

§§234-286] DERIVATION OF NOUNS 148 

13. en- (on-, Sn-, 5n-), in nouns of agency and abstracts : as, aspergS, compAgo 
(-inis), ger5 (Italia). 

14. men-, expressing meanSj often passing into the action itself : as, agmen, 
flumen, fnlmen. 

15. ter- (tor-, tSr-, tor-, tr-), forming nouns of agency : as, pater (i.e. protector), 
trater (i.e. supporter), or&tor. 

16. tro-, forming nouns of means: as, claustrum (claud), mOlctram (mdlo). 

17. es- (os-), forming names of actions, passing into concretes: as, genus 
(generis), tempus (see § 15. 4). The infinitiye in -ere (as in reg-ere) is a locative of 
this stem (-er-e for t-es-i). 

18. nt- (ont-, ent-), forming present active participles : as, legSns, with some 
adjectives from roots unknown : as, frequens, zecSns. 

The above, with some suffixes given below, belong to the Indo-European 
parent speech, and most of them were not felt as living formations in the 

Significant Endings 

235. Both primary and secondary suffixes, especially in the 
form of compound suffixes, were used in Latin with more or less 
consciousness of their meaning. They may therefore be called 
Significant Endings. 

They form: (1) Nouns of Agency; (2) Abstract Nouns (in- 
cluding Names of Actions) ; (3) Adjectives (active or passive). 

Note. — There is really no difference in etymology between an adjective and a 
noun, except that some formations are habitually used as adjectives and others as 
nopus (§ 20. b. N. 2). 

Nouns of Agency 

236. Nouns of Agency properly denote the off ent or doer of an 
action. But they include many words in which the idea of agency 
has entirely faded out, and also many words used as adjectives. 

a« Nouns denoting the agent or doer of an action are formed from roots 
or verb-stems by means of the suffixes — 

-tor (-Bor), M. ; -trix, f. 

can-tor, can-trix, singer ; can-ere (root can), to svng, 

vic-tor, vic-triz, conqueror (victorious) ; vinc-ere (vie), to conquer, 
tdn-sor (for ftond-tor), tdns-trix (for 

ttond-trix), hair-cutter; tond-ere (tond as root), to shear. 

peti-tor, candidate; pet-4^re (pet; peti- as stem), to seek. 

144 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§236-238 

By analogy -tor is sometimes added to noim-stems, but these may be stems 
of lost verbs : as, via-tor, traveller , from via, way (but cf. the verb inyiS). 

Note 1. — The termination -tor (-sor) has the same phonetic change as the supine 
ending -tam (-sum), and is added to the same form of root or verb-stem as that ending. 
The stem-ending is t5r- (§234. II. 15), which is shortened in the nominative. 

Note 2. — The feminine form is always -trix. Masculines in -sor lack the feminine, 
except expulsor (expaltrix) and tdnsor (tonstxiz). 

&• t-, M. or F., added to verb-stems makes nouns in -es (-itis, -etis ; stem 
it-, et-) descriptive of a character : — 

prae-stes, -stitis, (verb-stem from root sta, stAre, starid), guardian, 
teges, -etis (verb-stem tege-, cf. tego, cover) ^ a coverer^ a mat. 
pedes, -itis (p§8, ped-is, foot, and i, root of ire, go), fooUaoldier, 

c. -5 (genitive -5nis, stem on-), m., added to verb-stems^ indicates a person 
employed in some specific art or trade : — 

com-bibo (bib as root In bibo, bibere, drink), a poUcompanion, 
gero, -onis (oes In gerd, gerere, carry), a carrier. 

Note. — This termination is also used to form many nouns descriptive of personal 
characteristics (cf. §255). 

Names of Actions and Abstxact Nouns 

237. Names of Actions are confused, through their termina- 
tions, with real abstract nouns (names of qualities)^ and with con- 
crete nouns denoting means and instrument. 

They are also used to express the concrete result of an action 
(as often in English). 

Thus legio is literally the act of collecting, but comes to mean legion (the body 
of soldiers collected) ; cf. leny in English. 

238. Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions are formed from 
roots and verb-stems by means of the endings — 

a. Added to roots or forms conceived as roots — 

NoM. -or, M. 

-68, F. -US, N. 

Gen. -6ri8 

-is -eris or -oris 

Stem 6r- (earlier 


1- er- (earlier ©/©s-) 

tim-or, fear ; 

timere, to fear. 

am-or, love; 

amare, to love. 

sed-es, seat; 

sedere, to ait. 

caed-es, slaughter; 

caedere, to kill. 

genus, hirth, race; 

GEN, to he horn (root of gignd, hear). 

1 So conceived, but perhaps this termination was originally added to noun-stems. 


Note. — Many nouns of this class are formed by analogy from imaginary roots: 
as facinas from a supposed root facin. 

b. Apparently added to roots or verb-stems — 

NoM. -16, F. -tia (-816), F. -tflra (-sflra), f. -tus, m. 

Gen. -16iil8 -tldnls (-Bl6nlB) -tfirae (-sflrae) -ttLs (-sfls) 

Stem 16n- tl6ii- (sl6n-) tfLrft- (sflrft-) tu- (au-) 

leg-id, a collecting (levy), a legion; legere, to collect, 

reg-io, a direction, a region; regere, to direct. 

Yocjl-tio, a caUing; voc&re, to coil. 

moli-tid, a toiling ; mdliri, to toil, 

8crip-tara, a writing ; scribere, to write. 

sen-sns (for tsent-tns), /ee^ing ; aentire, to feel. 

Note 1. — ^ti5, -tiira, -tu» are added to roots or verb-stems precisely as -tor, with the 
same phonetic change (cf . § 236. a. v. i). Hence they are conveniently associated with 
the supine stem (see § 178). They sometimes form nouns when there is no correspond- 
ing verb in use : as, sexiAtas, senate (cf . senex) ; mentis, mention (cf . mSns) ; ffitura, off- 
spring (cf. fStns); litterfttiiia, literature (cf. Utterae) ; cOnsaUltus, oonsiUship (cf. oOnsul). 

Note 2. —Of these endings, -tus was originally primary (cf . § 234. II. 3.) ; -16 is a com- 
pound formed by adding 5n- to a stem ending in a vowel (originally 1) : as, diciS (cf . 
-dicas and dicis) ; -tid is a compound formed by adding 5n- to stems in ti- : as, gradAtiS 
(cf. gradAtim); -tura is formed by adding -la, feminine of -nis, to stems in tn-: as, 
nat^za from nAtns ; statnza from status (cf . flgiiia, of like meaning, from a simple u- 
stem, fflgu-e; and mAtilras, Mfttuta). 

239. Nouns denoting actSy or means and results of acts, are 
formed from roots or verb-stems by the use of the suflBxes — 

-men, n.; -mentum, n.; -m6nlam, n. ; -m6nla, f. 
ag-men, line ofmarch, band ; ag, root of agere, to lead. 

cert&-men, contest, battle ; certft-, stem of certAie, to contend. 

So colurmen, piUar ; mo-men, movement; n5-men, name; flfl-men, stream. 

testi-moninm, testimony ; test&ri, to witness. 

qneri-mdnia, complaint; queri, to complain. 

-m5niiim and -mSnia are also used as secondary, forming nouns from other 
nouns and from adjectives : as, sancti-mSnia, sanctity (sanctus, holy) ; matri- 
moninm, marriage (mater, mother). 

Note. — Of these endings, -men is primary (cf . § 234. II. 14) ; -mentum is a compound 
of men- and to-, and appears for the most part later in the language than -men : as, 
m5men, movement (Lucr.) ; mSmentum (later). So elementnm is a development from 
i/-M-N-a, l-mr-n*8 (letters of the alphabet), changed to elementa along with other nouns 
in -men. -mdninm and -mdnia were originally compound secondary suffixes formed 
from m6n- (a by-form of men-), which was early associated with mo-. Thus almus 

146 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 239, 241 

(stem aimo'), fostering; Almte, a river near Rome; aUmteU, ttqtport. But the last 
was formed directly from al5 when -mdnia had beoome establiahed as a supposed 
primary suffix. 

240. Nouns denoting means or instrument are formed from roots 
and verb-stems (rarely from noun-stems) by means of the neuter 
suffixes — 

-bulum, -culum, -brum, -crum, -truin 

pft-balnm, fodder ; p&scere, to feed. 

8ta-buium, stall ; st&re, to stand. 

rehi-culum, wagon ; yehere, to carry. 

candeU-bmm, candiestick; candSUfCaTidte (a secondary formation). 

sepul-cmm, tomb ; sepelire, to bury. 

claus-trum (tclaud-trom), bar ; claadere, to shut. 

aiartrvaa^ plough ; uSae, to plough. 

Note. — tram (stem tro-) was an old formation from tor- (§234. II. 15), with the 
stem suffix o-, and -clum (stem clo- for tlo-) appears to be related ; -culam is the same 
as -dam; -bulam contains lo- (§ 234. II. 9, 10) and -brum is clowly related. 

a* A few masculines and feminines of the same formation occur as nouns 
and adjectives : — 

fa-bula, tale ; f Ari, to speak. 

ridi-culus, laughable; ridSre, to laugh. 

fa-ber, smith; facere, to make. 

late-bra, hiding-place ; latSre, to hide. 

tere-bra, auger ; terere, to bore. 

mulo-tra, milk-pail ; mulgSre, to milk. 

241. Abstract Nouns, mostly from adjective-stems, rarely from 
noun-stems, are formed by means of the secondary feminine suf- 

-ia (-168), -tia (-ties), -tfta, -tfls, -tfidd 

audic-ia, boldness ; aad&z, bold. 

panper-iSs, poverty ; pauper, poor. 

tristi-tia, sadness ; tristis, sad. 

segni-tiCs, laziness; sSgnis, lazy. 

boni-t&s, goodness; bonus, good. 

senec-tus, age; senez, old. 

m&gni-tud5, greatness; mAgnns, great, 

1 . In stems ending in o- or &- the stem-vowel is lost before -ia (as anperb-ia) 
and appears as i before -tas, -tus, -tia (as in boni-t&s, above). 

2. Consonant stems often insert i before -tas : as, loquSz (stem loqaac-), 
loquaci-tas ; but hones-tas, mAies-tas (as if from old adjectives in -es), uber-tas, 
volap-taa. o after i is changed to e : as, plus (stem pio-), pie-tas ; socius, sode^as. 




a* In like manner -dA and -g5 (f.) form abstract nouns, but are asso- 
ciated with verbs and apparently added to verb-stems : — 

cupi-d5, desire^ from cupere, to desire (as if from stem cupi-). 

dulce-dd, suoeetMss (cf. dulds, svoeet)^ as if from a stem dulci-, of. diiloe<«cd. 

lumbA-g5, lumbago (cf. Iambus, loin)^ as if from tlumbd, -ftre. 

Note. — Of these, -ia is inherited as secondary (cf. § 234. II. 11). -tia is formed by 
adding -ia to stems with a t-sufiix : as, militia, from miles (stem milit-) ; molestia 
from molesttts ; clSmentia from clSmfins ; whence by analogy, mali-tia, av&ri-tia. -tils 
is inherited, but its component parts, tA- + ti-, are found as suffixes in the same sense: 
as, senecta from senez ; iCmen-ti8 from sCmen. -tfis is tii- + ti-, cf. servitu-dS. -d5 and 
-go appear only with long vowels, as from verb-stems, by a false analogy ; but -d5 is. 
do- + oii-: as, cupidvs, capid5; gravidas, giavCdd (cf. gravfr405) ; albidus, alMdS (cf. al- 
bescd) ; formidns, Aof, formidS (cf. formidnlotas), {hot flash?) fear; -g6 is possibly co- + 
on- ; cf . vorix, vorigS, but cf . CethfiQis. -tttdS is compounded of -d5 with tu-stems,. 
which acquire a long vowel from association with verb-stems in u- (cf . volfimen, from 
volvo) : as, cdnsuCtd-dd, valStu-dS, habitu-dS, sollicitii-dd ; whence servitndO (cf . servitus,. 

6. Neuter Abstracts, which easily pass into concretes denoting offices 
and groups, are formed from noun-stems and perhaps from verb-stems by 
means of the suffixes — 

-ium, -tium 

hospit-ium, hospitality, an inn ; ^ 
colleg-inm, colleagueship, a coUege ; 
auspic-ium, soothsaying, an omen ; 
gaud-inm, joy ; 
effug-ium, escape; 
benefic-ium, a kindness ; 
desider-iom, longing; 

adverb-inm, adverb; 
interlun-inm, time of new moon ; 
rSgifug-imn, flight of the kings ; 
servi-tinm, slavery, the slave class ; 

hospes (gen. hospit-is), a guest, 

collSga, a colleague. 

auspex (gen. auspic-is), a sootksayer^ 

gandSre, to rejoice. 

eifagere, to escape. 

benefacere, to ben^ ; cf . beneficus. 

dSnder&re, to miss, from tdS-sidSs, out 

of place, of missing soldiers. 
ad verbum, [added] to a verb. 
inter IflnAs, between moons. 
rSgis fuga, flight of a king. 
servus, a slave. 

Vowel stems lose their vowel before -ium : as, colleg-inm, from collega. 

Note. — ^ium is the neuter of the adjective suffix -ius. It is an inherited primary 
suffix, but is used with great freedom as secondary, -tiam is formed like -tia, by add- 
ing -ium to stems with t : as, ezit-ium, eqait-ium (cf . exitns, equitSs) ; so, by analogy,, 
calvitium, servitinm (from calvus, senms)'. 

Cm Less commonly, abstract nouns (which usually become concrete) are 
formed from noun-stems (confused with verb-stems) by means of th& 
suffixes — 

^ The abstract meaning is put first. 


-nia, F. ; -nium, -lium, -cinium, n. 

pecfi-nia, money (ckattela) ; pecu, calUe. 

contici-nium, the hush of night; conticiscere, to become stiU. 

anzi-liam, help ; augere, to increoae. 

latrd-dnium, robbery; latrd, robber (cf. latrdcinor, rob, im- 

plying an adjective flatrodnus). 

Por Diminutives and Patronymics, see §§ 243, 244. 


242. Derivative Adjectives, which often become nouns, are 
-either Nominal (from nouns or adjectives) or Verbal (as from roots 
or verb-stems). 

Nominal Adjectives 

243. Diminutive Adjectives are usually confined to one gen- 
der, that of the primitive, and are used as Diminutive Nouns. 

They are formed by means of the suffixes — 

-uluB (-a, -um), -oluB (after a vowel), -cuius, -eUua, -iUus 

iiy-alu8, a streamlet ; rivus, a brook. 

gladi-olus, a small sword ; gladius, a sword. 

fili-olas, a little son ; filias, a son. 

fni-ola, a little daughter ; filia, a daughter. 

&tri-oliim, a little hall; fttrium, a hall. 

homun-culus, a dwarf; homd, a man. 

auri-cula, a little ear ; auris, an ear. 

munus-culiim, a little gift ; munus, n. , a gift. 

codic-illi, u)riting-taUets ; cddex, a block. 

mis-ellas, rather vrretched ; miser, wretched. 

lib-elluSf a little book ; liber, a book. 

aure-olus (-a, -urn), golden; aureus (-a, -um), golden. 
parv-olas (later parv-ulus), very small; parvus (-a, -urn), little. 

maius-culus, somewhat larger; maior (old maids), greater. 

Note 1. — These diminutive endings are all formed by adding -lus to various stems. 
The formation is the same as that of -alas in § 261. But these words became set- 
tled as diminutives, and retained their connection with nouns. So in English the 
diminutives whitish^ reddish, are of the same formation as bookish and snappish. 
-culas comes from -las added to adjectives in -cos formed from stems in n- and a- : as, 
iaven<as, Aorun-cas (cf. Auruncaldius), pris-cas, whence the ca becomes a part of the 
termination, and the whole ending (-cuius) is used elsewhere, but mostly with n- and s- 
.stems, in accordance with its origin. 

Note 2. — Diminutives are often used to express affection, pity, or contempt: as, 
'd$liciolae, little pet; maliercula, a poor (weak) woman \ Graeculus, a miserable Greek- 

§§243-246] NOMINAL ADJECTIVES 149 

a. -cio, added to stems in n-, has the same diminutive force, but is used 
with masculines only : as, homun-cid, a dwarf (from honi5, a man), 

244. Patronymics, indicating descent or relationshipj are formed 
by adding to proper names the suffixes — 

-adSs, -idSs, -Idea, -eus, m. ; -fts, -is, -Sis, f. 

These words, originally Greek adjectives, have almost all become nouns 
in Latin : — 

AtlAs: Atlanti-adSs, Mercury; Atlant-idSs (6r. plur.), the Pleiads, 

Sdpid : Scipi-ades, son of Scipio. 

Tyndarens: Tyndar-ides, Castor or Pollux, son of Tyndarus; Tyndar-is, 

Helen, daughter of Tyndarus. 
Anchises : Anchisi-ades, ^neas, son of Anchises, 
Thgaeus : Thes-idSs, son of Theseus. 
Tydeus : T^d-idea, Diomedes, son of Tydeus. 
Oilens : Ai&x (Kl-eua, son of Oileus. 
Ciaseua : Ciase-is, JSecvba, daughter of Cisseus. 
Thaom&a : Thaumant-iAa, Iris, daughter of Thaumas, 
Heapems : Hesper-idea (from Heaper-ia, -idia), plur., the daughters of Hesperus, 

the Hesperides. 

245. Adjectives meaning/wK o/, prone to^ are formed from noun- 
stems with the suffixes — 

-5bus, -ISns, -lentuB 

flncta-oaua, billoivy ; fluctua, a billow. 

fonn-oana, beautiful; forma, beauty. 

pesical-oaua, dangerous; pericalmn, danger. 

peati-lina, peati-lentua, pestilent ; peatia, pest. 

yino-lentua, -nn-oana, given to drink ; vinum, wine. 

246. Adjectives meaning provided with are formed from nouns 
by means of the regular participial endings — 

-tuB, -atns, -Itua, -fltus 

fiinea-tua, deadly; fanua (st. fOner-, older fdn%a-), death. 

honea-tua, honorable; honor, honor. 

faaa-taa (for tfavea-tua), favoraJble ; favor, favor. 

barb-Ataa, bearded ; barba, a beard. 

torr-itua, turreted ; tarria, a tower. 

com-ntaa, horned ; coma, a horn. 

NoTB. — fttus, -ittts, -iitas, imply reference to an imaginary verb-stem ; -tus is added 
directly to nouns without any such reference. 


247. Adjectives of various meanings, but signifying in gen- 
eral made of or belonging to, are formed from nouns by means of 
the suffixes — 

-euB, 'ivLB, -&oeu8, -Icius, -aneus (-neas), -tiouB 

aur-eus, golden; aarum, gold, 

patr-ias, po^erno/ ; patidT, a father. 

ux5r-ia8, uxorious ; uxor, a wife. 

ro8-&cett8, of rosea ; rosa, a rose. 

later-icios, qf brick ; later, a brick. 

praesent-Aneas, operaiiTkg insUmUy ; praeaSns, present. 

extr-ftneus, exterrual; extrft, voUhovt. 

sabterr-Anens, sfMerranean ; sab terra, underground, 

aallg-neos, of willow; salix, wiUow. 

▼olft-ticas, winged (voULtus, a flight) ; voUre, to fly. 

domes-tictts, of the Jiouse, domestic ; domus, a house, 

8ily&-tictt8, sylvan ; silva, a wood. 

Note. — ^ius is originally primitiye (§ 234. II. 11) ; -eus corresponds to Greek -cios, 
-eos, and has lost a y-sound (cf . yo-, § 234. 11. 11) ; -Idas and -Aceus are formed by add- 
ing -ias and -ens to stems in Ire-, Sl-o- (suffix ko-, § 234. II. 12) ; -neus is no- + -eus 
(§ 234. II. 4) ; linens is formed by adding -neus to &-stems ; -ticns is a formation with 
-ens (cf. hosti-cus with silvi-ticas), and has been affected by the analogy of participial 
stems in to- (nominative -tus). 

248. Adjectives denoting pertaining to are formed from noun- 
stems with the suffixes — 

-aiis, -aria, -alls, -niB, -tUla 

nAtfir-alis, natural; nAtiira, nature. 

popul-Aris, fellow-countryman ; populus, a people, 

patrn-Slis, cousin; patruus, unde. 

host-ilis, hostile ; hostis, an enemy. 

cur-ulis, curule ; cumis, a chariot. 

Note. — The suffixes arise from adding -lis (stem 11-) to various vowel stems. The 
long vowels are due partly to confusion between stem and suffix (cf . vitA-lis, from 
vitA-, with rSg-Alis), partly to confusion with verb-stems: cf. Apnlis (aperire), edulis 
(edere), with senilis (senex). -ris is an inherited suffix, but in most of these formations 
-Aris arises by differentiation for -Alls in words containing an 1 (as niilitnAris). 

249. Adjectives with the sense of belonging to are formed by 
means of the suffixes — 

-anus, -6nua, -Inns ; -as, -Cnsis ; -ous, -aciis (-acus), -lens ; -eus, 

-eius, -iciUB 

1. So from common noims : — 

mont-Anus, of the mxmntains ; mdns (stem monti-), mxmntain. 

veter-Anus, veteran; vetus (stem veter-), old. 

anteluc-Anus, b^ore daylight ; ante lucem, b^ore light. 

§§ 249, 250] 



terr-Snus, earthly; 

ser-enas, calm (of evening stillness) ; 

coU-inus, of a hill ; 

diT-inas, divine; 

libert-inas, of the class offreedmen ; " 

ctti-&8, of what country f 

infim-Ss, of the lowest rank ; 

terra, earth. 

sSrus, late, 

collis, hill. 

diYus, god. 

llbcrtus, one^sfreedman, 

quia, who f 

infimus, lovoest. 

for-ensis, of a market-place, or the Forum ; forum, a market-place. 

civi-cus, civiCy of a citizen ; 

fullon-icus, ofafuUer; 

mer-&cus, pure ; 

femin-eus, of a woman, feminine ; 

lact-eus, milky ; 

pleb-eius, of the commons, plebeian ; 

patr-icias, patrician; 

civia, a citizen. 
fuUo, a fuller. 
memm, pure wine. 
fSmina, a woman. 
lac, milk (stem lacti-). 
plSbSa, the commoTis. 
pater, father. 

2. But especially from proper nouns to denote belonging to or coming from ; 
Rom-inna, Roman; 
Soll-ani, Sulla^s veterans ; 
Cyzic-gnl, Cyzicenes, people of Cyzicus ; 
Lignr-mas, of Liguria; 
Arpin-fts, ofArpinum ; 
Sidli-dnaia, Sicilian; 
ni-acua, Trojan (a Greek form) ; 
Platdn-icaa, Platonic; 
Aqoil-eiaa, a Roman name ; 

Roma, Rome. 
Sidlia, Sicily. 
Ilium, Troy. 

Aquil-eia, a town in Italy ; 1 qu . 

a. Many derivative adjectives with these endings have by usage become 
nouns : — 

Siiv-Anna, m., a god of the woods ; ailva, a wood. 

membr-ftna, f., skin; membrum, limb. 

Aemili-anna, m., name of Scipio Africanus ; Aemilia (gSns). 

lani-Sna, f., a butcher^ s stall ; 
Aufidi-Snns, m. , a Roman name ; 
inqnil-mua, m., a lodger; 
Caec-ina, used as m., a Roman name ; 
m-ina, f., afaU; 

laniua, Indcher. 
tAufidius (Aufidus). 
incola, an inhabitant. 
caecus, blind. 

ru5, fall (no noun existing), 
doctor, teacher. 

doctr-ina, f., learning ; 

Note. — Of these terminations, -Anus, -Snus, -mus are compounded from -nus added 
to a stem-vowel : as, area, arcftnus ; collis, collinus. The long vowels come from a con- 
fusion with verb-stems (as in plS-nns, fini-tus, tribii-tus), and from the noun-stem in a- : 
as, arcanus. A few nouns occur of similar formation, as if from verb-stems in 5- and 
U-: as, colonas (cold, cf. incola), patrdnus (cf. patrS, -ftre), tribfinus (cf. tribao, tribus), 
Portunus (cf. portus), Vacfina (cf. vaco, vacuus). 

250. Other adjectives meaning in a general way belonging to 
(especially of plcicea and times) are formed with the suffixes — 

152 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 260, 251 

-ter (-tria), -ester (-estris), -timus, -nus, -emus, -umus, -ternus (-tnrniui) 

paias-ter, of tJie marshes ; palus, a marsh. 

pedes^ter, of the foot-soldiers ; pedes, a footman, 

sSmes-tiis, lasting six months ; ■- sex mgnses, six months. 

sily-ester, silv-estris, woody ; silva, a wood. 

fini-timus, neighboring, on the borders ; finis, an erui. 

mari-timos, of the sea ; mare, sea. 

ver-nus, vernal; v6r, spring. 

hodi-emus, of to-day ; hodie, to-day. 

di-umus, daily ; dies, day. 

hes-ternus, of yesterday ; heri (old hesi), yesterday. 

diu-turnus, laMing ; diii, long (in time). 

Note. — Of these, -ester is formed by adding tri- (cf . tro-, § 234. II. 16) to stems in 
t- or d-. Thus tpedet-tri- becomes pedestri-, and others follow the analogy, -nus is an 
inherited suffix (§ 234. II. 4). -emtts and -umus are formed by adding -nus to s-stems : 
as, ditti-nus (for tditts-nus), and hence, by analogy, hodiemus (hodiS). By an extension 
of the same principle were formed the suffixes -temus and -tumus from words like 
patemus and noctumas. 

a. Adjectives meaning belonging to are formed from nouns by means of 
the suffixes — 

-ftriuB, -t5rius (-sSrius) 

ordin-arius, regular; 5rd5, rank, order. 

argent-arius, of silver or money ; argentom, silver. 

extr-ftrius, stranger; extrft, outside. 

meri-t5ritt8, prqfUaMe ; meritus, earned. 

dgyor-sdrius, of an inn (cf. § 264. 5) ; dSvorstts, turned aside. 

Note 1. — Here -ius (§ 234. II. 11) is added to shorter forms in -arts and -or : as, pecu- 
li&ritts (from peculiftris), bellatSrius (from beU&tor). 

Note 2. — These adjectives are often fixed as nouns (see § 254). 

Verbal Adjectives 

251. Adjectives expressing the action of the verb as a qiiality 
or tendency are formed from real or apparent verb-stems with the 
suffixes — 

-Sbc, -iduB, -uluB, -vus (-uus, -ivus, -ttvus) 
denotes dt, faulty or aggressive tendency; -tlvus is oftener passive. 

pfign-ftx, pu^Tiactot^a ; pfignftre, fo^^^t. 

aad-ftx, bold ; audere, to dare. 

cup-idus, eager ; cupere, to desire. 

bib-olus, thirsty (as dry earth etc.) ; bibere, to drink. 

proter-vus, violenJt, wanton ; prSterere, to trample. 

§§ 261-253] VERBAL ADJECTIVES 168 

noc-aus (noc-ivas), hutiful, injurioua; nocire, to do harm, 

teddAvuB, restored ; lecideie, to faU back. ^ 

cap-tiYU8, captive ; m. , a prisoner of war ; capere, to take, 

NoTB. — Of these, -&x is a reduction of -Actts (stem- vowel ft- + -cu8), become inde- 
pendent and used with verb-stems. Similar forms in -8z, -Ox, -ix, and -fix are found 
or employed in derivatives : as, imbrex, m., a rain-tile (from imber); senex, old (from 
seni-s) ; ferox, fierce (from feras) ; atrdx, savage (from &ter, black) ; celdx, f., a yacht 
(cf . cell5) ; fSlix, happy, originally fertile (cf . fCld, suck ) ; fiducia, f., coiifidence (as 
from ffldux) ; cf. also victiix (from victor). So manducus, chewing (from mandd). 

-idns is no doubt denominative, as in herbidus, grassy (from herba, herb) ; tumidus^ 
swollen (cf. tumu-lus, hill; tumul-tus, uproar); callidtts, tough, cunning (cf. callum^ 
tough flesh) ; mucidus, slimy (cf . milctts, slime) ; t&bidus, wasting (cf. taMs, waiting 
disease). But later it was used to form adjectives directly from verb-stems. 

^Itts is the same suffix as in diminutives, but attached to verb-stems. Cf . aemulas, 
rivalling (cf . imitor and imigo) ; sSdulus, sitting by, attentive (cf . domi-seda, hom^ 
staying, and sSdo, set, settle, hence calm) ; pendulus, hanging (cf . pondd, ablative, in 
weight ; perpendicalum, a plummet ; appendix, an addition) ; ^trigalus, covering (cf . 
stragSs) ; legulus, a picker (cf. sacri-letnis, a picker up of things sacred). 

-vtts seems originally primary (cf. § 234. II. 8), but -ivus and -tivus have become 
secondary and are used with nouns: as, aestivus, of summer (from aestus, heat); 
tempestivtts, timely (from tempus) ; cf. domes-ticus (from domus). 

252. Adjectives expressing passive qualities^ but occasionally 
active, are formed by means of the suffixes — 

-ills, -billB, -iuB, -tills (-sUis) 

frag-ilis, frail ; frangere (frag), to break. 

no-bilis, well knoym, famous ; noscere (ono), to know. , 

exim-ius, choice^ rare (cf. e-greg-ius) ; eximere, to take out^ select. 

ag-ilis, active; agere, to drive. 

hab-ilis, handy ; hab€re, to hold. 

al-tilis, fattened (see note) ; alere, to nourish. 

Note. — Of these, -ius is primary, but is also used as secondary (cf . § 241. b. N.) . -ills 
is both primary (as in agilis, fragilis) and secondary (as in similis, like, cf . 6fUQS, o/xaXoSf 
English same) ; -bills is in some way related to -bulum and -brum (§ 240. n.) ; in -tills 
and -sills, -lis is added to to- (so-), stem of the perfect participle : as, fossilis, dug up 
(from fossas, dug) ; voiatilis, winged (from YoVktvLS, flight). 

253. Verbal Adjectives that are Participial in meaning are 
formed with the suffixes — 

-nduB, -bundus, -cundua 

a. -ndus (the same as the gerundive ending) forms a few active or reflex- 
ive adjectives: — 

seco-ndns, second (the following), favorable ; seqni, to follow. 
rota-ndus, round (whirling) i ; rotare, to whirl. 

1 Cf . volvendis mCnaibas (Aen. i. 269), in the revolving months ; cf . oriundi ab Sabinis 
(Liv. i. 17), sprung from the Sabines, where oriundi =orti. 

154 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 253, 264 

b* -bundns, -cnndns, denote a continuance of the act or quality expressed 
by the verb : — 

▼itft-bandus, avoiding ; vitfire, to shun. 

treme-bondus, trembling ; tremere, to tremble. 

mori-bundus, dying, at the point of death ; monri, to die. 

f A-cundus, eloquent ; f£ri, to speak. 

fg-cundus, fruitful ; root fe, nourish. 

tra-cundtts, irascible ; cf . ur&sci, to be angry. 

Note. — These must have been originally nominal: as in the series, rubas, red 
bush; nibidus (but no frubictts), ruddy; RubicSn, Red River (cf. Mini5/a river of 
Etruria; Minius, a river of Lusitania); rubicondus (as in ayerrancus, homon-ciilns). 
So turba, commotion; turbS, a top; turbidus, roily y etc. Cf. apexabo, longabo, gravSdo, 

c. Here belong also the participial suffixes -minus, -mnus (cf. Greek 
-/tAcvos), from which are formed a few nouns in which the participial force is 
still discernible : — ^ 

fe-mina, woman (the nourisher) ; root fe, nouri^. 

alu-mnus, a foster-child, nursling ; alere, to nourish. 

Nouns with Adjective Suffixes 

254. Many fixed forms of the Nominal Adjective suffixes men- 
tioned in the preceding sections, make Nouns more or less regu- 
larly used in particular senses : — 

1. -alius, person employed about anything : — 

argent-arius, m. , silversmith, broker, from argentum, silver. 

Corinthi-arius, m. , worker in Corinthian bronze (sarcastic nickname of Augustus), 

from (aes) Corinthiom, Corinthian bronze. 
centon-Srius, m., ragman, from centd, patchwork. 

2. -aiia, thing connected with something : — 

argent-aria, f., bank, from argentum, silver. 
arSn-ariae, f. plural, sandpits, from arena, sand. 
Asin-aria, f., name of a play, from asinns, ass.^ 

3. narium, place of a thing (with a few of more general meaning) : — 

aer-arium, n. , treasury, from aes, copper. 
tepid-ariam, n. , v)arm bath, from tepldus, warm. 
sud-4rium, n., a towel, cf. sudo, -fire, 8V}eat. 
sal-arinm, n., salt m^oney, salary, from s&l, salt. 
calend-arium, n., a note-^ook, from calendae, calends. 

iCf. §163. footnote 1. 

2 Probably an adjective with f&bnla, play, understood. 


4. -tdria (-sdria) : — 

Agita-toria, p., a play of Plautus, The Carter y from agitAtor. 
▼or--8dna, f., a tack (nautical), from vorsua, a turn. 

5. -t5riiun (-sSrium), place of action (with a few of more general meaning) : 

deyor-soriiiiii, n., an inn^ as from dSvorto, turn aside. 
audi-toriiim, n., a lecture-room, as from aadiS, hear, 
ten-toriom, n., a tent, as from tendS, stretch. 
tec-t5riam, n., planter, as from tego, tectus, cover. 
por-toriom, n., toll, cf. portd, carry, and portus, harbor. 

6. -He, animal-stall : — 

bov-Oe, N., catUe-staU, from b5s, bdvis, ox, cow. 
oy-ile, N., sheepfold, from ovis, stem ovi-, sheep. 

7. -al for -ale, thing connected with the primitive : — 

capit-al, N., headdress, capital crime, from caput, head, 
pcnetr-ale (especially in plural), n., inner apartment, cf. penetro, enter. 
Satum-alia, n. plural (the regular form for names of festivals), feast of Sat- 
urn, from S&tumus. 

8. -etum, N. (cf. -atns, -utus, see § 246. n.), -torn, place of a thing, especially 
with names of trees and plants to designate where these grow : — 

qiterc-^tiim, k. , oak grove, from qaercos, oaJc. 
oHv-€tiun, N., olive grove, from oliva, an olive tree. 
salic-tnm, v., a willow thicket, from salix, a willow tree. 
Argil-Stum, v., The Clay Pit, from argilla, clay. 

9. 'CUB (sometimes with inserted i, -icus), -icus, in any one of the gen- 
ders, with various meanings : — 

▼ili-cns, M., a steward, vili-ca, f., a stewardess, from villa, farm-house. 

fabr-ica, f., a workshop, from faber, workman. 

am>icu8, m., am-ica, t., friend, cf. amftre, to love. 

bubnl-cu8, M., 07^4endeT, from bab-ulus, diminutive, cf. bds, ox 

cant-icum, n. , song, from cantus, act of singing. 

rubr-ica, f., red paint, from ruber, red. 

10. -eus, -ca, -eum, with various meanings : — 

alv-ens, m., a trough, from alvus, the beily. 

capr-ea, f., a wild she-goat, from caper, he-goat. 

flamm-enm, v., a bridal veil, from flamma, flame, from its color. 

11. -ter (stem tri-), -aster, -ester : — 

equea-ter, m., knight, for tequet-ter. 

seqn-ester, m., a stake-holder, from derivative of sequor, foUow- 

ole-aater, m. , wHd olive, from olea, an olive tree. 

166 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 265-269 


255. The suffix -0 (genitive -Onis, stem 5n-), usually added to 
verb-stems (see § 236. c)^ is sometimes used with noun-stems to 
form nouns denoting possessed of. These were originally adjec- 
tives expressing quality or character^ and hence often appear as 
proper names : — 

epulae, a feast; epnl-o, a f easier, 

nAsus, a Wise; nas-d, with a large noae (also as a proper name). 
Yolns (in bene-volus), toishing ; yol-onSs (plural), volunteers, 
frbns, forehead ; front-o, big-fiead (also as a proper name), 
curia, a curia ; curi-o, head of a curia (also as a proper name), 
restis, a rope; resti-o, a rope-maker, 

a. Rarely suffixes are added to compound stems imagined, but not used 
in their compound f orpa : — 

ad-yerb-ium, adverb; ad, to, and yerbnm, verb, but without the intervening 

Ulti-fand-iam, large estate ; Utas, toide, fundas, estate, but without the inter- 
vening tUltifandas. 

su-ore-taur-ilia, a sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull ; sQs, sunne, ovia, 
sheep, taorus, bull, where the primitive would be impossible in Latin^ 
though such formations are common in Sanskrit. 


256. Verbs may be classed as Primitive or Derivative, 

1. Primitive Verbs are those inherited by the Latin from the parent speech. 

2. Derivative Verbs are those formed in the development of the Latin 
as a separate language. 

257. Derivative Verbs are of two main classes : — 

1. Denominative Verbs, formed from nouns or adjectives. 

2. Verbs apparently derived from the stems of other verbs. 

Denomiiiative Verbs 

258. Verbs were formed in Latin from almost every foim of 
noun-stem and adjective-stem. 

259. 1. Verbs of the Firat Conjugation are formed directly 
from &-stems, regularly with a transitive meaning: as, foga, 
flight ; fogfire, put to flight. 

§§ 259-261] DENOMINATIVE VERBS 167 

2. Many verbs of the First Conjugation are formed from o- 
stems, changing the o- into A-. These are more commonly tran- 
sitive : — 

8timal5, -are, to incite, from stimulus, a goad (stem stimulo-). 

aequo, -ire, to inake even, from aequus, even (stem aequo-). 

hibernd, -&re, to pass the winter, from hibemus, of the winter (stem hiberno-). 

albd, -Ire, to whiten, from albus, white (stem albo-). 

pio, -Ire, to expiate, from plus, pure (stem pio-). 

noYd, -die, to renew, from novus, new (stem novo-). 

aims, -Are, to arm, from arma, arms (stem armo-). 

damnd, -&re, to injure, from daxnnum, injury (stem damno-). 

3. A few verbs, generally intransitive, are formed by analogy 
from consonant and i- or u-stems, adding & to the stem : — ^ 

vigild, -&re, to watch, from vigil, awake. 

ez8ul5, -&re, to he in exile, from ezsul, an exile. 

auspicor, -&ri, to take the auspices, from auspez (stem anspic-), augur. 

pnlvero, -&xe, to turn (anything) to dust, from pulvis (stem pnlver-for pulvis-), 

aestuS, -ftre, to surge, boil, from aestus (stem aestu-), tide, seething, 
levo, -&re, to lighten, from levis (stem levi-), light. 

260. A few verbs of the Second Conjugation (generally in- 
transitive) are recognizable as formed from noim-stems ; but most 
are inherited, or the primitive noun-stem is lost : — 

albeS, -Sre, to be white, from albus (stem albV*-)? white. 
cSneo, -ere, to be hoary, from cAnus (stem cAnV*-)) hoary. 
cULred, -ere, to shine, from clArus, bright. 
clauded, -ere, to be lame, from daudus, lame. 
algeo, -^re, to be cold, cf. algidns, cold. 

261. Some verbsof the Third Conjugation in-uO,-uere, are formed 
from noun-stems in u- and have lost a consonant i : — 

statuo (for tstatu-yS), -ere, to set up, from status, position. 

metnd, -ere, to fear, from metus, fear. 

acuo, -ere, to sharpen, from acus, needle. 

argu5, -ere, to clear up, from inherited stem targu-, bright (cf. Apyvpos). 

Note. — Many verbs in u are inherited, being formed from roots in u: as, fluS, 
flnere, flow ; so-lvo (for fsC-luO, cf. \Oia), solvere, dissolve. Some roots have a parasitic 
u : as, loquor, locatns, speak. 

1 The type of all or most of the denominative formations in §§ 269-262 was inherited, 
bat the process went on in the development of Latin as a separate language. 

158 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 262, 263 

262. Many i-verbs or verbs of the Fourth Conjugation are 
formed from instems : — 

molior, -iri, to toil, from mdlSs (-is), mciaa. 
finio, -ire, to bound, from finis, end. 
sitid, -ire, to thirst, from sitis, thirst. 
stabilid, -ire, to establish, from stabilis, staUe. 

a. Some arise by confusion from other stems treated as i-stems : — 

bnllio, -ire, to boU, from bulla (stem bulla-), bubble. 

condid, -ire, to preserve, from condus (stem condo-), storekeeper. 

ins&nio, -ire, to rave, from fns&xitts (stem insJlno-), mad. 

gestio, -ire, to show wild longing, from gestus (stem gestn-), gesture. 

Note. — Some of this form are of doubtful origin : as, 5rdior, begin^ cf . 5rdd and 
exSrdium. Tlie formation is closely akin to that of verbs in -io of the third conjuga- 
tion (p. 102). 

h. Some are formed with -id from consonant stems : — 

cuBt5di5, -ire, to guard, from cQstos (stem cfistdd-), guardian. 
fulguiiS, -ire, to lighten, from fulgur, lightning. 

NoTB. — Here probably belong the so-called desideratives in -arid (see § 263. 4. n.). 

Verbs from Other Verbs 

263. The following four classes of verbs regularly derived 
from other verbs have special meanings connected with their 

Note. — These classes are all really denominative in their origin, but the forma- 
tions had become so associated with actual verbs that new derivatives were often 
formed directly from verbs without the intervention of a noun-stem. 

1. Inceptives or Inchoatives add -sc5 * to the present stem of verbs. 
They denote the beginning of an action and are of the Third Conjuga- 
tion. Of some there is no simple verb in existence : — ^ 

cal§-8c5, grow warm, from caled, be wami. 

iabft-8c5, begin to totter, from labo, totter. 

sci-sco, determine, from scio, know. 

con-cupi-sco, conceive a desire for, from cupio, desire. 

alS-sco, grow, from alo, feed. 

So ir&-8cor, get angry ; cf . iri-tus. 

iUTene-sco, grow young ; cf. iuvenis, young man. 

mite-SCO, grow mild; cf. mitis, mild. 

vesperft-scit, it is getting late ; cf . vesper, evening. 

1 For -8C0 in primary formation, see § 176. b. 1. 


Note. — Inceptives properly have only the present stem, but many use the perfect 
and supine systems of simple verbs: as, cal68c5, grow warnit calui; ftrdSscd, blaze 
forth, ftrsi; proflciscor, set out, profectus. 

2. IntensivesoT Iteratives are formed from the Supine stem and end 

in-t6 or -itO (rarely -85). They denote sl forcible or repeated action, but 

this special sense often disappears. Those derived from verbs of 

the First Conjugation end in -itO (not -AtO). 

iac-t5, hurly from iacio, throw. 
donm-t5, be sleepy^ from doimiS, sleep. 
vol-it5, flit J from volo, fly. 
▼Sndi-td, try to sell, from vendo, sell. 
qnas-sd, shatter, from quatiS, shake. 

They are of the first conjugation, and are properly denominative. 

a. Compound suffixes -tit5, -sitS, are formed with a few verbs. These 
are probably derived from other Iteratives ; thus, cantitS may come from 
cant5, iterative of canS, sing, 

b» Another form of Intensives — sometimes called Meditatives, or verbs 
of practice — ends in -es85 (rarely -isad). These denote a certain energy or 
eagerness of action rather than its repetition :• — 

cap-esso, lay hold on, from capi5, taJce. 

fac-esso, do (with energy), from facio, do. i 

pet-esso, pet-issd, seek (eagerly), from pet5, seek. 

These are of the third conjugation, usually having the perfect and 
supine of the fourth : — 

arcesso, arcessSre, arcessivi, arcessitum, summon. 
lacessd, lacessSre, lacessiyi, lacessitom, provoke. 

Note. — The verbs in -essfi, -issd, show the same forlnation as lerAsaS, impetr&ssere, 
ittdic&ssity etc. (§ 183. 5), but its origin is not fully explained. 

3. Diminutives end in -1115, and denote a feeble or pettj/ action : — 

cav-iUor, ^'es<, cf. cavUla, raillery. 
cant-ill5, chirp or warble, from cant5, sing. 

Note. — Diminutives are formed from verb-stems derived from real or supposed 
diminutive nouns. 

4. Desideratives end in -turiO (-suriO), and express longing or wish- 
ing. They are of the fourth conjugation, and only two are in com- 
mon use : — 

par-torio, be in labor, from pario, bring forth. 
e-surio (for ted-tari5), be hungry, from edo, eat. 

Others are used by the dramatists. 

Note. — Desideratives are probably derived from some noun of agency: as, Cmp- 
turio, wish to buy, from §mptor, buyer. VisS, go to see, is an inherited desiderative of 
a different formation. 

160 FORMATION OF WORDS [§§ 264, 266 


264. A Compound Word is one whose stem is made up of two 
or more simple stems. 

a. A final stem-vowel of the first member of the compound usually dis- 
appears before a vowel, and usually takes the form of i before a consonant. 
Only the second member receives inflection.^ 

&. Only noun-stems can be thus compounded. A preposition, however, 
often becomes attached to a verb. 

265. New stems are formed by Composition in three ways : — 

1. The second part is simply added to the first : — 

80-ove-taurilia (sus, ovis, taarus), the aacriflce of a swine^ a sheep, and a bull 

(cf. § 255. a), 
septen-decim (septem, decern), seventeen. 

2. The first part modifies the second as an adjective or adverb 

(Determinative Compounds) : — 

lati-fandiam (Utus, fundus),- a large landed estate. 
omni-potSns (omnis, potens), omnipotent, 

3. The first part has the force of a case, and the second a verbal 
force (Objective Compounds) : — 

agri-cola {agei, field, tcola akin to colo, cidtivate), a farmer, 
armi-ger (arma, arms, tger akin to geiO, carry), armor-bearer, 
comi-cen (comfl, horn, teen akin to cano, sing), horn-blower. 
cami-fez (caio, flesh, tfez akin to facio, make), executioner. 

a. Compounds of the above kinds, in which the last word is a nomiy 
may become adjectives, meaning possessed of the quality denoted : — 

flli-pes (ftla, wing, pSs, foot), wing-footed. 

m&gn-^animus (mignus, great, animus, soul), great-sotUed, 

an-ceps (amb-, at both ends, caput, h£ad), double. 

Note. — Many compounds of the above classes appear only in the form of some 
further derivative, the proper compound not being found in Latin. 

^ The second part generally has its usual inflection ; but, as this kind of composi- 
tion is in fact older than inflection, the compounded stem sometimes has an inflection 
of its own (as, comicen, -cinis ; liicifer, -feii ; iudex, -dicis), from stems not occurring in. 
Latin. Especially do compound adjectives in Latin take the form of i-stems: bs» 
animus, ezanimis; n5nna, abnSrmis (see§73). In composition, stems regularly have 
their uninflected form : as, igni-spicium, divining by fire. But in o- and ft-stems the 
final vowel of the stem appears as i-, as in &li-p68 (from &la, stem &!&-) ; and i- is so 
common a termination of compounded stems, that it is often added to stems which do 
not properly have it: as, fldri-comus, flower-crowned (from flos, flor-is, and coma, Aatr>. 


S3rntactic Compounds 

266. In many apparent compounds, complete words — not 
stems — have grown together in speech. These are not strictly 
compounds in the etymological sense. They are called Syntac- 
tic Compounds. Examples are : — 

a. Compounds of facid, factO, with an actual or formerly existing noun- 
stem confounded with a verbal stem in e-. These are causative in force : 
consue-facio, IiabUiuite (cf . consue-^co, become axicustomed), 
cale-facio, cale-factO| to heat (cf. cal§-8Co, grow warm), 

h» An adverb or noun combined with a verb : — 
bene-dicd (bene, well^ died, speak) ^ to bless. 
satis-fadd (satis, enough, fado, do), to do enough (for). 

Cm Many apparent compounds of stems : — 
fide-ittbeo (fide, surety, iubeS, commxiind), to give surety, 
man-soetas (manui, to the hand, suetas, accustomed), tame, 
Mard-por (Mftrd pner), slave of Marcus, 
luppiter (tlu, old vocative, and pater), father Jove, 
anim-advertS (animum advertd), attend to, punish, 

d. A few phrases forced into the ordinary inflections of nouns : — 
pro-consul, proconsul (for pr5 consule, instead of a consul), 
trium-vir, triumvir (singular from trium virdrupi). 

septen-trio, the Bear, a constellation (supposed singular of septem triones, 
the Seven Plough-Oxen). 

In all these cases it is to be observed that words, not stems, are united. 

267. Many syntactic compounds are formed by prefixing a 

Particle to some other part of speech. 

a* Prepositions are often prefixed to Verbs. In these compounds the 
prepositions retain their original adverbial sense : — 
a, ab, AWAY : &-mittere, to send away. 
ad, TO, TOWARDS : af-ferre (ad-fero), to bring. 
ante, before : ante-ferre, to prefer ; ante-cellere, to excel, 
circiim, around : drcum-mfinire, to fortify completely, 
com-, con- (cum), together or forcibly : cdn-ferre, to bring together; col- 

locdre, to set firm. 
de, i>owN, UTTERLY : de-spicere, despise ; de-stniere, destroy. 
5, ex, out: ef-ferre (ec-fero), to carry forth, uplift. 
in (with verbs), in, on, against : in-ferre, to bear against, 
inter, between, to pieces : inter-rumpere, to interrupt. 
ob, towards, to meet : of-ferre, to offer ; ob-venire, to meet. 
sob, under, up from under : sub-stmere, to build beneath; sub-diicere, to leadup. 
super, UPON, over and above : super-flaere, to overflow. 


Note 1. — In such compounds, however, the prepositions sometimes have their 
ordinary force as prepositions, especially ad, in, circom, tr&ns, and govern the case of 
a noun : as, titsaire flomen, to cross a river (see § 388. b). 

Note 2. — Short a of the root is weakened to i before one consonant, to e before 
two: as, faciS, o5nflci0, confeetus; iacid, 9icif, Siectos. But long a is retained: as, 

6. Verbs are also compounded \pith the following inseparable particles, 
which do not appear as prepositions in Latin : — 

amb- (am-, an-), around : amb-ire, to go nbotU (of. dfi^j, about). 

dis-, ^-, ASUNDER, APART : dls-cidere, to depart (cf. duo, two) ; ^-vidire, U> 

per-, FORWARD: por-tendere, to hold forth, predict (cf. ^n^, forth). 
red-, re-, back, again: red-ire, to return; re-clQdere, to open (from claado, 

shut) ; re-ficere, to repair (make again). 
sM-, se-, APART: se-cemd, to separate; cf. sfid-itid, a going apart, secession 

(ed, Ire, to go). 

c. Many Verbals are found compounded with a preposition, like the 
verbs to which they correspond : — 

per-fuga, deserter; cf. per-fugi5. 

trft-dox, mnenbranch; cf. tra-duco (trans-dficd). 

ad-vena, danger; cf. ad-veni5. 

con-ittx (con-iunx), spouse; cf. con-inngo. 

in-dex, pointer aid; cf. in-dico. 

pxat-MS, guardian ; cf . prae-sideo. 

com-bibo, boon companion ; cf . com-bibo, -$re. 

d. An Adjective is sometimes modified by an adverbial prefix. 

1. Of these, per- (less commonly prae-), very; sub-, somewhat ; in-, noty are 
regular, and are very freely prefixed to adjectives : — 

per-mAgnus, very large. in-nocuus, harmless. 

per-pauci, very few. in-imicus, unfriendly, 

sub-rustiais, raiher clownish. in-s&nas, insane. 

sab-fuscus, darkish. in-finitus, boundless. 

prae-longus, very long. im-pams, impure. 

Note. — Per and sub, in these senses, are also prefixed to verbs : as, per-terre5, terrify; 
sab-ride5, smile. In igndsco, pardon, in- appears to be the negative prefix. 

2. The negative in- sometimes appears in combination with an adjective 
that does not occur alone : — 

in-ermis, UTUirmed (cf. arma, arms). 

im-bellis, unwarlike (cf. beUum, war). 

im-punis, without punishment (cf. poena, punishment). 

im-tegcr, untoucJied, whole (cf. tangd, to touch, root tag). 

in-vitus, unwilling (probably from root seen in vi-^, thou wishest^. 



«o8. The study of formal grammar arose at a late period in the history of lan- 
guage, and^lealt with language as a fully developed product. Accordingly the terms 
of Sjmtax correspond to the logical habits of thought and forms of expression that 
^ grown up at such a period, and have a logical as well as a merely grammaticdt 
meaning. But a developed syntactical structure is not essential to the expression of 
thought. A form of words — like 5 puensm pvlchmml oh! beautiful hoy — expresses 
a thought and might even be called a sentence ; though it does not logically declare any- 
thing, and does not, strictly speaking, make what is usually called a sentence at all. 

At a very early period of spoken language, word-forms were no doubt si^ficant 
in themselves, without inflections, and constituted the whole of huiguage,— just as to 
a child the name of some familiar object will stand for all he can say about it. At a 
somewhat later stage, such uninflected words put side by side made a rudimentary 
form of proposition : as a child mi^^t say^Zre bright ; horse run. With this began the 
firet form of logical distinction, that of Subject and Predicate ; but as yet there was no 
distinction in form between noun and verb, and no fixed distinction in function. At a 
later stage forms were differentiated in function and — by various processes of com- 
position which cannot be fully traced — Inflections were developed. These served to 
express person, tense, case, and other grammatical relations, and we have true Parts 
of Speech. 

Not until language reached this last stage was there any fixed limit to the asso- 
ciation of words, or any rule prescribing the manner in which they should be combined, 
^t gradually, by usage, particular forms came to be limited to special functions (as 
nouns, verbs, adjectives), and fixed customs arose of combining words into what we 
now call Sentences. These customs are in part the result of general laws or modes of 
thought (logic), resulting from our habits of mind (General Grammar); and in part 
are what may be called By-Laws, established by custom in a given language {Particu- 
lar Grammar), and making what is called the Syntax of that language. 

In the fully developed methods of expression to which we are almost exdusively 
accustomed, the unit of expression is the Sentence: that is, the completed statement, 
with its distinct Subject and Predicate. Originally sentences were simple. But two 
simple sentence-lomit may be used together, without the grammatical subordination 
of either, to express a more complex form of thought than could be denoted by one 
alone. This is paratavu (arrangement side by side). Since, however, the two sen- 
tences, independent in form, were in fact used to express parts of a complex whole 
and were therefore mutually dependent, the sense of unity found expression in con- 
junctions, which denoted the grammatical subordination of the one to the other. This 
is hypotaxis (arrangement under, subordination) . In this way, through various stages 
of development, which correspond to our habitual modes of thought, there were pro- 
duced virions forms of complex sentences. Thus, to express the complex idea I beseech 
you to pardon me, the two simple sentence-forms quaesd and ignSscas were used side by 
side, quaesS ignose&s; then the feeling of grammatical subordination found expression 
in a conjmctlon, qnaeaS at Ignascis, forming a complex sentence. The results of these 
processes constitute the subject-matter of Syntax. 


164 SYNTAX: THE SENTENCE [§§ 26»-272 

Kinds of Sentences 

269. A Sentence is a form of words which contains a State- 
:ment, a Question, an Exclamation, or a Command. 

a. A sentence in the form of a Statement is called a Declarative 
.Sentence : as, — canis currit, the dog runs, 

h. A sentence in the form of a Question is called an Interroga- 
tive Sentence: as, — canisne currit? does the dog run? 

c. A sentence in the form of an Exclamation is called an Exclama- 
tory Sentence : as, — quam celeriter currit canis ! how fast the dog runs ! 

d. A sentence in the form of a Command, an Exhortation, or an 
Entreaty is called an Imperative Sentence: as, — i, curreperAlpis, ^o, 
trun across the Alps ; currat canis, let the dog run. 

Subject and Predicate 

270. Every sentence consists of a Subject and a Predicate. 
The Subject of a sentence is the person or thing spoken of. 

The Predicate is that which is said of the Subject. 

Thus in canis currit, the dog runs, canis is the subject, and currit the predicate. 

271. The Subject of a sentence is usually a Noun or Pronoun, 
or some word or group of words used as a Noun : — 

equit&s ad Caesarem ven^runt, the cavalry came to Casaar. 

hQmftnum est errare, to err is human. 

quaeritur num mors malum sit, the question is whether death is an evU. 

a. But in Latin the subject is often implied in the termination of 
the verb : — 

sedS-mus, we sit. curri-tis, you run. inqui-t, says he. 

272. The Predicate of a sentence may be a Verb (as in canis 
'Currit, the dog runs), or it may consist of some form of sum and 
a Noirn or Adjective which describes or defines the subject (as in 
^Caesar consul erat, Ccesar was consul). 

Such a noun or adjective is called a Predicate Noun or Adjective, 
:and the verb sum is called the Copula (i.e. the connective). 

Thus in the example given, Caesar is the subject, consul the predicate noim, and 
terat the copula (see § 283). 

J§ 273, 274] VERB AND OBJECT 165 

Transitiye and IntransitlTe Verbs 

273. Verbs are either Transitive or Intransitive. 

1. A Transitive Verb has or requires a direct object to complete 
its sense (see § 274) : as, — frfttrem cecidit, he Blew his brother. 

2. An Intransitive Verb admits of no direct object to complete 
its sense: — 

cadO, IfaU (or am falling) . s6l lucet, the sun shines (or is shining). 

Note 1. — Among transitive verbs Factitive Verbs are sometimes distinguished 
as a separate class. These state an act which produces the thing expressed by the- 
word which completes their sense. Thus mSnsam fScit, he made a table (which was- 
not in existence before), is distinguished from mSnsam percussit, he struck a table 
(which already existed). 

Note 2. — A transitive verb ma^ trften be used absolutely ^ i.e. without any object 
expressed : as, — arat, ?ie is ploughing, where the verb does not cease to be transitive^ 
because the object is left indefinite, as we see by adding, — quid, what? agnun suum,. 
his land. 

Note 3. — Transitive and Intransitive Verbs are often called Active and Neuter 
Verbs respectively. 


274. The person or thing immediately affected by the action of 
a verb is called the Direct Object. 

A person or thing indirectly affected by the action of a verb 
is called the Indirect Object. 

Only transitive verbs can have a Direct Object ; but an Indirect 
Object may be used with both transitive and intransitive verbs 
(§§ 362, 366) : — 

pater vocat fHium (direct object), the father calls his son. 
mihi (ind. obj.) agmm (dir. obj.) ostendit, he shmoed me afield, 
mihi (ind. obj.) placet, it is pleasing to me. 

Note. — The distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs is not a fixed dis- 
tinction, for most transitive verbs may be used intransitively, and many verbs usually 
intransitive may take a direct object and so become transitive (§ 388. a). 

a. With certain verbs, the Genitive, Dative, or Ablative is used 

where the English, from a difference in meaning, requires the direct 

object (Objective) : — 

hominem videO, I see the man (Accusative). 

homini serviO, I serve the man (Dative, see § 367). 

hominis misereor, IpUy the man (Grenitive, see § 354. a). 

homine amIcO litor, I treat the man as a friend (Ablative, see § 410). 

166 SYNTAX : THE SBNTKNCE [§§ 274-277 

b. Many verbs transitive in Latin are rendered into English by 

an intransitive verb with a preposition; — 

petit aprum, he aims at tfie boar. 

laadem affectat, A« strives c^ter praise. 

cClrat Taletfidinein, ?ie takes care of his health, 

meum casom doluemnt, tkey grieved at my misfortuihe. 

rklet nostram ftmentiam (Quinct. 55), he laughs at our stupidity. 

275. When a transitive Terb is changed from the Active to the 
Passive voice, the Direct Object becomes the Subject and is put 
in the Nominative case : — 

Active : pater fUiam vocat, the father calls his son. 

Passive : filius & patre vocatur, the son is called by his f other . 

Active : Iflnam et ttelUs yidemus, loe see the moan and the stars. 

Passive : IGna et stella* videntur, the moon and stairs are seen (appear). 


276. A Subject or a Predicate may be modified by a single word, 
or by a group of words (a phrase or a clause). 

The modifying word or group of words may itself be modified in 
the same way. 

a. A single modifying word may be an adjective, an adverb, an 
appositive (§ 282), or the oblique case of a noun. 

Thus in the sentence yir fortis patienter fert, a brave man endures pattenUj/, 
the adjective fortis, brave^ modifies the subject yir, man^ and the adverb patienter, 
patiently, modifies the predicate fert, endures. 

ft. The modifying word is in some cases said to limit the word 
to which it belongs. 

Thus in the sentence pueri patrem video, J see ^ boy^s father, the genitive 
pueri limits patrem (by excluding any other father). 

277. A Phrase is a group of words, without subject or predicate 
of its own, which may be used as an Adjective or an Adverb. 

Thus in the sentence vir fait 8ninin& ndbilit&te, he was a man of the highest 
ru^Uity, the words summ& ii5bilit&te, of the highest nobility, are used for the 
adjective nobilis, noble (or nobilissimus, very noble), and are called an Adjective 

So in the sentence migni celerit&te vSnit, he cams with great speed, the words 
m&gnft celeritate, with great speedy are used for the adverb celexlter, quidUy (or 
celerrime, very quieldy}, and are called an Adverbial Phrase. 

§§ 278, 279] CLAUSES AND SENTENCES 167 

Clauses and Sentences 

278. Sentences are either Simple or Compound. 

1. A sentence containing a single statement is called a Simple 

2. A sentence containing more than one statement is called 
a Compound Sentence, and each single statement in it is called 
a Clause. 

«• If one statement is simply added to another, the clauses are 

said to be Coordinate. They are usually connected by a Coordinate 

Conjunction (§ 223. a) ; but this is sometimes omitted : — 

divide et imperft, divide and control. But, — 
veni, vidl, vici, I came, I aaw^ I conquered. 

h. If one statement modifies another in any way, the modifying 
clause is said to be Subordinate, and the clause modified is called 
the Main Clause. 

This subordination is indicated by some connecting word, either 

a Subordinate Conjunction (§ 223. h) or a Relative: — 

oderint dum metuant, let them hate so long as they fear. 

servum misit quern s€cum habebat, he sent the slave whom he had with him. 

A sentence containing one or more subordinate clauses is some- 
times called Complex. 

Note. — A subordinate clause may itself be modified by other subordinate clauses. 

279. Subordinate Clauses are of various kinds. 

a. A clause introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb 
is called a Relative Clause : — 

Mosa prCfluit ex monte Yoseg5, qui est is finibus Lingonum (B. G. iv. 10), 
the Meuse rises in the Vosges mountains, which are on the borders of the 

For Relative Pronouns (or Relative Adverbs) serving to connect independent sen- 
tences, see § 308. /. 

h, A clause introduced by an Adverb of Time is called a Tem- 
poral Clause : — 

cam tacent, clamant (Cat. i. 21), ivhile they are silent, they cry aloud. 
homioSs aegri morbO gravi, cum iactantur aestu febrique, si aquam gelidam 
biberint, primO relevari videntur (id. i. 81), men suffering with a severe 
stckness, wJien they are tossing with the heat cf fever, if they drink cold 
water, seem at first to be relieoed. 

168 SYNTAX: AGREEMENT [§§ 27»-281 

c. A clause containing a Condition, introduced by si, if (or some 
equivalent expression), is called a Conditional Clause. A sentence 
containing a conditional clause is called a Conditional Sentence. 

Thus, 81 aquam gelidam biberint, primS relev&ri videntur (in 6, above) is a Con- 
ditional Sentence, and si . . . bibeiint is a Conditional Clause. 

d. A clause expressing the Purpose of an action is called a Final 
Clause : — 

edO at vivam, 1 eaiio live (that I may live). 

misit legates qui dicerent, he sent ambassadors to say (who should say). 

e. A clause expressing the Kesult of an action is called a Con- 
secutive Clause : — ^ 

tarn longe aberam ot n5n viderem, I was too far away to see (so far away that 
I did not see). 


280. A word is said to cigree with another when it is required 
l)y usage to be in the same Gender, Number, Case, or Person. 

The following are the general forms of agreement, sometimes 
called the Four Concords : — 

1. The agreement of the Noun in Apposition or as Predicate 
<§§ 281-284). 

2. The agreement of the Adjective with its Noun (§ 286). 

3. The agreement of the Relative with its Antecedent (§ 305). 

4. The agreement of the Finite Verb with its Subject (§ 316). 

a. A word sometimes takes the gender or number, not of the w^ord 
with which it should regularly agree, but of some other word implied 
in that word. 

This use is called Synesis, or constructio ad sensum (construction 
ikccording to sense). 


281. A noun used to describe another, and denoting the same 
person or thing, agrees with it in Case. 

The descriptive noun may be either an Appositive (§ 282) or a 
Predicate noun (§ 283). 

^ Observe that the classes defined in a-e are not mutually exclusive, but that a 
.single clause may belong to several of them at once. Thus a relative clause is 
usually subordinate, and may be at the same time temporal or conditional; and 
^subordinate clauses may be coordinate with each^ other. 

282] APPOSITION 169- 


282. A noun ujsed to describe another, and standing in the same* 
part of the sentence with the noun described, is called an Apposi- 
tive, and is said to be m apposition : — 

extemus timor, maximum concordiae yincnlum, iungSbat animOs (Liv. ii. SO), 
fear of the foreigner, the chief bond of harmony, united their hearts.. 
[Here the appositive belongs to the eulject.] 

quattuor hic prlmum Smen equOs vidl (Aen. ill. 537), I saw here four horseSy 
the first omen, [Here both nouns are in the predicate.] 

litterSs 6raec&3 senex didici (Cat. M. 26), I learned Greek when an old man. 
[Here senex, though In apposition with the subject of didici, really states 
something further: viz., the time, condition, etc., of the act {Predicate- 

a. Words expressing parts may be in apposition with a word 
including the parts, or vice versa (Partitive Apposition) : — 

Nee P. Popilius neque Q. Metellus, clarissiml viri atque amplissimT, vim 
tribQnlciam sustinSre potuSrunt (Clu. 96), neither PuUius Popilius nor 
(iuintus Metellus, [both of them] distinguished and honorable men, could- 
withstand the power of the. tribunes. 

Gnaeus et Pdblius ScipidnSs, Cneius and Publius Scipio (the Scipios). 

&• An Adjective may be used as an appositive: — 

ea Sex. ROscium inopem recSpit (Rose. Am. 27), she received Sextus Rosciuar 
in his poverty (needy). 

c. An appositive generally agrees with its noun in Gender and 
Number when it can : — 

sequuntur n&turam, optimam dacem (Lael. 19), they follow nature, the best 

omnium doctrln&rum inyentricSs Ath^nlbs (De Or. 1. IS), Athens, discoverer- 

of all learning. 

Note. — But such agreement is often impossible : as, — Olim truncas eram ficulnus,. 
inutUe fignnin (Her. S. i. 8. 1), I once was a fig-tree trunk, a useless log. 

d. A common noun in apposition with a Locative (§ 427) is put in 

the Ablative, with or without the preposition in : — 

Antiochiae, celebri quondam nrbe (Arch. 4), at Antioch, once a famous city. 
Albae cOnstitSrunt, in nrbe mtinltft (Phil. iv. 6), they halted at Alba, a forti- 
fied town. 

For a Genitive in apposition with a Possessive Pronoun or an Adjective, see § 302. e.. 
For the so-called Appositional Genitive, see § 343. d. 
For the construction with nSmen est, see § 373. a. 

170 SYNTAX: AGRBEMENT [§§283-286 

« Predicate Noun or Adjective 

283. With siiin and a few other intransitive or passive verbs, a 
noun or an adjective describing or defining the subject may stand in 
the predicate. This is called a Predicate Noun or Adjective. 

The verb sum is especially common in this construction, and when 
so used is called the copula (i.e. connective). 

Other verbs which take a predicate noun or adjective are the so- 
called copulative verbs signifying to become^ to be made, to be named, 
to appear, and the like. 

284. A Predicate Noun or Adjective after the copula sum or a 
copulative verb is in the same case as the Subject : — 

pacis semper auctor ful (Lig. 28), I have always been an adviser of peace. 
quae pertinacia quibusdam, eadem aliis c5nstantia vidSr! potest (Marc. 31), 

what may seem obstinacy to some, may seem to others consistency. 
€iits mortis sedetis altirSs (Mil. 79), you sit as avengers of his death. 
habe&tur vii Sgr^ius Paolus (Cat. iv. 21), let Paulas be regarded as an 

extraordinary man. 
ego patrdnus exstiti (Rose. Am. 5), I have come forward as on advocate. 
dicit nOn omiUs bonOs esse be&tds^ he says thai not all good men are happy. 

a, A predicate noun referring to two or more singular nouns is 

in the plural : — 

cdnsules creantur Caesar et Servilius (B. C. iii. 1), Cassar and Servilius are 
elected consuls. 

b» Sum in the sense of exist makes a complete predicate without a 

predicate noun or adjective. It is then called the substantive verb : — 

sont viri fortes, there are (exist) brave men. [Cf . vixSre fortes ante Agamem- 
nona (Hor. Od. iv. 9. 25), brave men lived before Agam,emnon.\ 

For Predicate Accusative and Predicate Ablative, see §§ 392, 415. n. 

Attrilmtive and Predicate Adjectives 

285. Adjectives are either Attributive or Predicate. 

1. An Attributive Adjective simply qualifies its noun without 
the intervention of a verb or participle, expressed or implied: as, 
— bonas imperator, a good commander; stellae l&cldae, bright stars; 
verbum Graecum, a Greek word. 


2. All other adjectiyes are called Predicate Adjectives : — 

stellae Ificidae erant, the stars were bright. 

sit ScipiO cULrus (Cat. iv. 21), let Scipio be illustrious. 

homines mitis reddidit (Inv. i. 2), has rendered men mild. 

tria praedla CapitOnI propria trftduntur (Rose. Am. 21), three farms are 

handed over to Capito as his own. 
consilium cep€niBt plSnom sceleris (id. 28), t?iey formed a plan full of 


Note. — A predicate adjective may be used with sum or a copulative verb (§ 283) ; it 
may have the constructiou of a predicate accusative after a verb of naming, calling y or 
the like (§ 393. n.) ; or it may be used in apposition like a noun (§ 282. b). 

Rules of Agreement 

286. Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Participles agree 

with their nouns in Gender^ Number^ and Cobb : — 

vir fortift, a brave man. 

ilia mulier, that woman. 

urbinm mSgnarum, of great cities. 

cum dacenljs mllitibus, with two hundred soldiers. 

imperStor victns est, the general was beaten. 

secdtae sunt tempestatSs, storms followed. 

Note. — All rules for the agreement of adjectives apply also to adjective pronouns 
and to participles. 

«. With two or more nouns the adjective is regularly plural, but 

often agrees with the nearest (especially when attributive) : — 

Nisus et Euryalus prim! (Aen. v. 294), Nisus and Euryalus first. 
Caesaris omni et grSti& et opibus f ruor (Fam. i. 9. 21), I enjoy all Cassar's favor 
and resources. 

Note. — An adjective referring to two nouns connected by the preposition cum is 
occasionally plural (synesis, § 280. a): as, — luba cum LabienO capti (B. Afr. 6?), Juha 
and Labienus were taken. 

h. A collective noun may take an adjective of a different gender 

and number agreeing with the gender and number of the individuals 

implied (sy nests, § 280. a) : — 

pars certare parftti (Aen. v. 108), a part ready to contend. 

coloniae aliquot deductae, Prisci Latin! appeUftti (Liv. i. 3), several colonies 

were planted (led out) [of men] called Old Latins. 
multitud5 convicti sunt (Tac. Ann. xv. 44), a multitude were convicted. 
m&gna pars raptae (id. i. 9), a large part [of the women] were seized, 

NoTB. — A superlative in the predicate rarely takes the gender of a partitive geni- 
tive by which it is limited: as, — vglocisslmum animalium delphinus est (Plin. N. H. 
ix. 20), the dolphin is the swiftest [creature] €f creatures. 

172 SYNTAX: ADJECTIVES [§§287,288 

287. One adjective may belong in sense to two or more nouns 
of different genders. In such cases, — 

1. An Attributive Adjective agrees with the nearest noun: — 

maltae operae ac labOris, of irmch trouble and toil, 
vita mOrSsque mei, my life and character. 

si r6s, si vir, si tempus ullum dignum fuit (Mil. 10), if any thing^ if any 
man, if any time was fit, 

2. A Predicate Adjective may agree with the nearest noun, if the 

nouns form one connected idea : — 

facias est strepitus et admurmur^tid (Verr. i. 45), a noise of assent was made 
(noise and (Qurmur). 
Note. —This is only when the copula agrees with the nearest subject (§ 317. c). 

3. But generally, a Predicate Adjective will be masculine, if nouns 
of different genders mean living beings.; neuter, if things without 

life : — 

uxor deinde ac liberi amplezi (Liv. ii. 40), then his wife and children enibraced 

labor (m.) volaptasqae (f.) societftte qu&dam inter sS nftturS.!! sunt iancta (n.) 
(id. V. 4), labor and delight are bound together by a certain natural alli- 

4. If nouns of different genders include both living beings and 
things without life, a Predicate Adjective is sometimes masculine (or 
feminine), sometimes neuter, and sometimes agrees in gender with 
the nearest if that is plural : — 

rex rSgiaque classis unS, profecti (Liv. xxi. 50), the king and the royal fleet set 

out together. 
n&tura inimica sunt libera civit^ et rSx (id. xliv. 24), by nature a free state 

and a king are fiostile. 
IggatOs sortSsque Or&;uli exspectand&s (id. v. 15), that the ambassadors and 

the replies of the oracle should be waited for.* 

a. Two or more abstract nouns of the same gender may have a 
Predicate Adjective in the neuter plural (cf. § 289. c): — 

stultitia et temeritfts et iniustitia . . . sunt fugienda (Fin. iii. 39),/o{Zy, rash- 
ness, and injustice are [things] to be shunned. 

Adjectives used Substantively 

288. Adjectives are often used as Nouns (subgtantively)^ the 
masculine usually to denote men ov people in general of that kind, 
the feminine women^ and the neuter things : — 



omnes, aU men (everybody). 
m&iOres, ancestors. 
B5m&ni, Romans, 
llbi^rta, afreedwoman, 
sapiens, a sage (philosopher), 
boni, the good (good people). 

omnia, aU things (everything). 
minOr^, descendants. 
barbarl, barbarians. 
Sablnae, the Sabine wives. 
amicus, a friend. 
bona, goods, property. 

Note. — The plural of adjectives, pronouns, and participles is very common in this 
use. The singular is comparatively rare except in the neuter (§ 289. a, c) and in words 
that have become practically nouns. 

a» Certain adjectives have become practically nouns, and are often 

modified by other adjectives or by the possessive genitive : — 

tuus vicinus prozimus, your next-door neighbor. 
propinqui cSteri, his other relatives. 
meus aequ&lis, a man of my own age. 

§ias familiizis Catillna (Har. Resp. 6), his intimate friend Catiline. 
Ijeptae nostrl ^amiliixisfumus (Fam. ix. 13. 2), a very close friend of our friend 

&. When ambiguity would arise from the substantive use of an 

adjective, a noun must be added : — 

bonI, the good ; omnia, everything (all things) ; but, — 
potentia onminm rSrom, power over everything. 

c. Many adjectives are used substantively either in the singular 
or the plural, v\rith the added meaning of some noun which is under- 
stood from constant association : — 

Africus [ventus], the southwest wind; lanuarius [m6nsis], January; vitu- 
lina [carO], veal (calf's flesh) ; fera [bestia], a wUd beast; patria [terra], 
the fatherland ; Gallia [terra], Gaul (the land of the Galli) ; hibema 
[castra], vointer quarters ; trir6mis [navis], a three-banked galley, trireme; 
argentarius [faber], a silversmiUi; rCgia [domus], the palace; Latlnae 
[fsriae], the Latin festival. 

NoTB. — These adjectives are spedjic in meaning, not generic like those in § 288. 
1 They include the names of winds and months (§ 31). 
I For Nouns used as Adjectives, see § 321. c. 
I For Adverbs used like Adjectives, see § 321. d. 

289. Neuter Adjectives are used substantively in the following 
special senses : — 

a. The neuter singular may denote either a single object or an 
abstract quality : — 

rapt5 vivere, to live by plunder. in ftridS, on dry ground. 

honestnm, an honorable act, or virtue (as a quality), 

opus est matarato, there is need of haste, [Cf. impersonal passives, § 20». rt. ^ 

174 SYNTAX: ADJECTIVES [§§ 289-2»l 

b* The neuter plural is used to signify objects in general having 
the quality denoted, and hence may stand for the abstract idea : — 

honesta, howynMe deeds (in general). praeterita, thepatlb (lit., bygones). 
oninSs fortia laudant, aU men praise bravery (brave things). 

c. A neuter adjective may be used as an appositive or predicate 
&oun with a noun of different gender (cf . § 287. a) : — 

triste lupus stabuUs (Eel. iii. 80), the wolf [is] a grievous thing for the fold. 
yarium et mGtAbile semper fSmina (Aen. iv. 669), vx>man is ever a changing 

and fickle thing. 
maloin mihi vid€tur esse mors (Tuse. i. 0), death seems to me to be an evil. 

d. A neuter adjective may be used as an attributive or a predicate 
adjective with an infinitive or a substantive clause : — 

istuc ipsnm nOn esse (Tusc. i. 12), tfiat very ^* not to be."*^ 

hflmSnam est errftre, to err is human. 

aliud est errftre Caesarem nolle, aliud nOlle misereri (Lig. 16), i^ is one thing 

to be wnwilling that Ccesar sJiould err, another to be unmlling that he 

should pity. 

Adjectives with Adverbial Force 

290. An adjective, agreeing with the subject or object, is often 
used to qualify the action of the verb, and so has the force of an 
adverb : — 

primus vSnit, he was the first to come (came first). 

nfillus dubitO, I no way doubt. 

laeti audiere, they were glad to hear. 

erat HOmae frequens (Rose. Am. 16), he was often at Rome. 

serus in caelum redeSs (Hor. Od. i. 2. 45), mayst thou return late to heaven. 

Comparatives and Superlatives 

291. Besides their regular signification (as in English), the 
forms of comparison are used as follows : — 

a* The Comparative denotes a considerable or excessive degree of 
a quality: as, — brevier, rather short ; audacior, too hold. 

b. The Superlative (of eminence) often denotes a very high degree 
of a quality without implying a distinct comparison : as, — mSns 
altissimus, a very high mountain. 

Note. — The Superlatire of Eminence is much used in complimentary references 
to persons and may often be translated by the simple positive. 


e. With quam, vel, or tons the Superlative denotes the highest pos- 
sible degree : — 

qnam ptfiximi, as many as possible. 

qnam. maxlmi potest (mazimS qnam potest), as much OA can he. 

Tel minimns, the very least. 

vir iniui doctiBiimntt the one most learned man. 

NoTK 1. — A high degree of a quality is also denoted by such adverbs as 
ndtf, very, or by per or pfae in composition (§ 267. d. 1) : as, — rsM mataa, very bad= 
pessimas; penn&gavs, very great; pKaealtns, very high (or deep). 

NoTK 2. — A low degree of a quality is indicated by tub in composition : as, — svb- 
risticas, rather elownish , or by Jainns, not very ; minimi, not at aU; param, not enottgh ; 
ate satis, not much. 

NoTK 3. — The comparatire m&iteSs (for miidif s aAtIi, greater by Mrth) has the spe- 
cial signaiication of ancestors; so mlafrSs often means diescendanis. 

For the Superlfttiye with qnisque, see § 313. b. For the constmetkni of a snbstftBtlve 
after a ComparatiYe, see §§ 406, 407 ; for that of a clause, see § 036. c, 571. a. Wot the 
Ablative of Degree of Difference with a Comparatiye (mmltO etc.), see § 414. 

292. When two qualities of an object are compared, both adjec- 
tives are in the Comparative : — 

Umgior qnam Utior aci^s erat (Liv. xxvii. 48), the line was longer than it uhu 

broad (or, rather long than broad). 
Tailor qnam gritior (id. zzii. 88), more true than agreeable. 

Note. — So also with adverbs: as, — libentins quam yirins (Mil. 78), with more 
freedom than truth. 

a. Where magis is used, both adjectives are in the positive : — 

diaeitna magis quam sapiSna (Att. x. 1. 4), eloquent rather than wise. 
cUlzi magis quam honesti (lug. 8), more renowned than honorable. 

NoTK. — A comparative and a positive, or even two positives, are sometimes con- 
nected by foaa. This use is rarer and less elegant than those before noticed : — 
eUris miiOribus quam vetasfis (Tac. Ann. iv. 61), of a family more famous thmik 

veliementivs quam cantC (Tac. Agr. 4), with more fury than good heed. 

293. Superlatives (and more rarely Comparatives) denoting 

order and succession — also medius, [oetems], rdiqaus — usually 

designate not what object^ but what part of it^ is meant : — 

summiia mCns, the top of the hill. 

in oltimA plateft, at the end of the place. 

prior ficti6, the earlier part of an action. 

leliqiii captlvi, the rest of the prisoners. 

in coUe medi5 (B. 6. i 24), half way up the hiU (on the middle of the hill). 

inter cHeiam plUnitiem (lug. 02), in a region elsewhere level. 

NoTS. — A similar use is found in sSra (multil) nocte, late at night, and the like. Bat 
medium viae, the middle of the way ; moltam diSi, much of the day, also occur. 

176 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§294,295 


294. A Pronoun indicates some person or thing without either naming or describ- 
ing it. Pronouns are derived from a distinct class of roots, which seem to have denoted 
only ideas of place and direction (§ 228. 2), and from which nouns or verbs can very 
rarely be formed. They may therefore stand for Nouns when the person or thing, 
being already present to the senses or imagination, needs only to be pointed out, not 

Some pronouns indicate the object in itself, without reference to its class, and have 
no distinction of gender. These are Personal Pronouns. They stand syntactically 
for Nouns, and have the same construction as nouns. 

Other pronouns designate a particular object of a class, and take the gender of the 
individuals of that class. These are called Adjective Pronouns. They stand for 
Adjectives, and have the same construction as adjectives. 

Others are used in both ways ; and, though called adjective pronouns, may also be 
treated as personal, taking, however, the gender of the object indicated. 

In accordance with their meanings and uses. Pronouns are classified as f oUoprs : — 
Personal Pronouns (§ 295). Interrogative Pronouns (§ 333). 

Demonstrative Pronouns (§296). Relative Pronouns (§303). 
Reflexive Pronouns (§ 299). Indefinite Pronouns (§ 309). 

Possessive Pronouns (§ 302). 

Personal Pronouns 

295. The Personal Pronouns have, in general, the same con- 
structions as nouns. 

a. The personal pronouns are not expressed as subjects, except for 
distinction or emphasis : — 

t6 vocO, I ccUl you. But, — 

quis m6 vocat ? ego te voc5, wlio is calling mef I (emphatic) am calling you. 

ft. The personal pronouns have two forms for the genitive plural, 

that in -um being used partltively (§ 346), and that in -i oftenest 

objectively (§ 348) : — 

md,ior vestrum, the elder of you. 

habetis ducem memorem vestri, oblltam sul (Cat. iv. 19), you ?iave a leader 

who thinks (is mindful) of you and forgets (is forgetful of) himself. 
pars nostrum, a part (i.e. some) of us. 

Note 1. — The genitives nostrum, vestrum, are occasionally used objectively (§ 348) : 
as, — cupidus vestrum (Verr. iii. 224), /ond of you ; custds vestrum (Cat. iii. 29) , the guar- 
dian of you (your guardian). 

Note 2. — " One of themselves " is expressed by tLnus ez suis or ipsis (rarely ex sC), 
or unus sudrum. 

c. The Latin has no personal pronouns of the third person except 
the reflexive s6. The want is supplied by a Demonstrative or Kela- 
tive (§§ 296. 2, 308./). 


Demonstrative Pronouns 

296. Demonstrative Pronouns are used either adjectively or 

1. As adjectives, they follow the rules for the agreement of adjec- 
tives and are called Adjective Pronouns or Pronominal Adjectives 
(§§ 286,287): — 

h5c proeliO factO, after this battle was fought (this battle having been fought). 

eodem proeliO, in the same battle. 

ex ei8 aedificiis, out of those buildings. 

2. As substantives, they are equivalent to personal pronouns. This 
use is regular in the oblique cases, especially of is : — 

Caesar et exercitus eias, Ccesar and his army (not suus). [But, Caesar 

exercitum suam diuiisit, Ccesar disbanded his [own] army.] 
si obsid€s ab eis dentur (B. G. i. 14), if hostages should be^ given by them 

(persons just spoken of). 
hi sunt extra pr5vinciain trans Rhodanum primi (id. i. 10), they (those just 

mentioned) are the first [inhabitants] across the Rhone, 
iUe minimum propter adulescentiam poterat (id. i. 20), he (emphatic) had 

very little power, on account of his youth. 

cr. An adjective. pronoun usually agrees with an appositive or 
predicate noun, if there be one, rather than with the word to which 
it refers (cf . § 306) : — 

hlc locus est unus quO perfugiant ; hie portus, haec arx, haec ftra soci5rum 
(Verr. v. 126), this is the only place to which they can flee for r^uge; this 
is the haven, this the citadel, this the altar of the allies. 

rerum caput h5c erat, hie fOns (Hor. £p. i. 17. 45), this was the head of things^ 
this the source. 

earn sapientiam interpretantur qaam adhuc mortalis nem5 est c5nseciltus 
[for id . . . quod] (Lael. 18), they explain thai [thing] to be wisdom which 
no man ever yet attained. 

297. The main uses of hie, ille, iste, and is are the following: — 

«. Hie is used of what is near the speaker (in time, place, or 
thought). It is hence called the demonstrative of the first person. 

It is sometimes used of the speaker himself ; sometimes for " the 
latter" of two persons or things mentioned in speech or writing; 
more rarely for " the former," when that, though more remote on the 
taritten page, is nearer the speaker in timey place, or thought Often 
it refers to that which has^i^^^ been mentioned. 

178 SYJNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§297,288 

6. nie is used of what is remote (in time, etc.) ; and is hence called 
the demonstrative of the third person. 

It is sometimes used to mean " the former " ; also (usually follow- 
ing its noun) of what ia famous or well-known ; often (especially the 
neuter illud) to mean << the following/' 

c. late is used of what is between the two others in remoteness : 
often in allusion to the person addressed, — hence called the demon- 
strative of the second person. 

It especially refers to one's opponent (in court, etc.), and fre- 
quently implies antagonism or contempt. 

d. Is is a weaker demonstrative than the others and is especially 

common as a personal pronoun. It does not denote any special object, 

but refers to one just mentioned, or to be afterwards explained by a 

relative. Often it is merely a correlative to the relative qui : — 

venit mihi obviam tuos puer, is mihi litterdiS abs te reddidit <AU. ii. 1. 1), 

your hoy met me, he delivered to me a letter from you. 
earn qmem, one whom. 
earn cOnsulem qui n^n dubitet (Cat. iv. 24), a consul who will not heaitaie. 

e. The pronouns luc, ille, and is are used to point in either direction, 
back to something just mentioned or forward to something about to 
be mentioned. 

The neuter forms often refer to a clause, phrase, or idea : — 

est iUud quidem vel maximum, animum vid6re (Tusc i. 52), thxA is in troth 
a very great thvng^ — to seethe soul. 

/. The demonstratives are sometimes used as pronouns of refer- 
ence, to indicate with emphasis a noun or phrase just mentioned : — 

nuUam yirttis aliam merc€dem dSsIderat praeter hanc laudis (Arch. 28). 
virtue woofUs no other reward except that [just mentioned] of praise. 

Note. — But the ordinary English use of that of is hardly known in Latin. Com- 
monly the genitive construction is continued without a pronoun, or some other con- 
struction is preferred : — 

cum ei SiraOnides artem memoriae polliceretur : obliyiSnis, inquit, mallem (Fin. ii. 
104), when Simxynides prom,ised him the art of memory , "/ should prefer," 
said he, ** [that] of forgetfulnesa." 
Caesaris exercitus PompeiAnos ad Pharsalum vicit, the army of CsBsar d^eated 
that of Pompey (the Pompeians) at PharsaXus. 

298* The main uses of idem and ipse are as follows : — 

cu When a quality or act is ascribed with emphasis to a person 
or thing already named, is or idem (often with the concessive quidem) 
is used to indicate that person or thing : — 


per anum servom et earn ez gladi&tOriO ItLdO (Att. i. 16. 6), by meaiM of a 

single slave, and thai too one from the gladiatorial school, 
Yincula, et ea sempitema (Cat. iv. 7), imprisonment^ and that perpetual, 
Ti. Gracchus rSgnum occup&re cOnfttus est, vel rSgnavit is quidem paucOs 
mensls (Lael. 41), Tiberitis Oracchu^ tried to iisurp royal power, or 
rather he actiuilly reigned a few months. 

NoTB. — So rarely with ille : as, — nunc deztra ingeminans ictus, nunc iUe sinistra 
(Aen. Y. 457), now dealing redoubled blows with his right hand, now (he) with his Iqft. 
[In imitation of the Homeric 5 ye: cf. Aen. v. 334; ix. 796.] 

b. Idem, the same, is often used where the English requires an 
adverb or adverbial phrase (also, too, yet, at the same time): — 

Or&tiO splendida et grandis et eadem in primis facSta (Brut. 273), an oration, 

brilliant, able, and very witty too, 
cum [haec] dicat, negat idem esse in DeO gr&tiam (N. D. i. 121), wfien he 

says this, he denies also that there is mercy with God (he, the same man). 

NoTS. — This is really the same use as in a above, but in this case the pronoun 
cannot be represented by a pronoun in English. 

c. The intensive ipse, self, is used with any of the other pronouns, 

with a noun, or with a temporal adverb for the sake of emphasis : — 

turpe mihi ipsi videbatur (Phil. i. 9), even to me (to me myself) it seemed 

id ipsom, that very thing; quod ipstun, which of itself alone, 
in eum ipstun locum, to that very place. 
turn ipsom (Off. ii. 60), at that very time. 

NoTB 1. — The emphasis of ipse is often expressed in English hjjust, very, mere, etc. 

I^otb2. — In English, the pronouns himse^ etc. are used both intensively (as, he 
will corns himMlf) and reflexively (as, he wUl kill him^lf) : in Latin the former would 
be translated by ipse, the latter by sS or sSsS. 

d. Ipse is often used alone, substantively, as follows : — 

1. As an emphatic pronoun of the third person : — 

idque rel pablicae praeclanim, ipsis glOriOsum (Phil. ii. 27), and this was 

splendid for the state, glorious for themselves. 
omn€s bon! quantum in ipsis fuit (id. ii. 29), all good men so far as was in 

their power (in themselves). 
di capiti ipsius generique resenrent (Aen. viii. 484), may the gods hold in 

reserve [such a fate] to fall on his own and his son-in-law'' s head. 

2. To emphasize an omitted subject of the first or second person : — 
vOblscum ipsi recordamini (Phil. ii. 1), remember in your own minds (your- 
selves with yourselves). 

3. To distinguish the principal personage from subordinate persons : — 

ipse dixit (cf. a.{nhz f0a), he (the Master) said it. 

NOmentanus erat super ipsum (Hor. S. ii. 8. 23), Nomentanus was above [the 
host] himself [at table]. 

180 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§298-^00 

e. Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of a reflexive (see § 300. h). 
/. Ipse usually agrees with the subject, even when the real empha- 
sis in English is on a reflexive in the predicate : — 

me ipse cOnsOlor (Lael. 10), I console myself. [Not mS ipsom, as the Eng- 
lish would lead us to expect.] 

Reflexive Pronouns 

299. The Reflexive Pronoun (s6), and usually its corresponding 
possessive (suus), are used in the predicate to refer to the subject 
of the sentence or clause : — 

85 ex n&vl prOiecit (B. G. iv. 25), he threw himsf^f from the efdp, 
Dumnorlgem ad se vocat (id. i. 20), he caXU Bumnorix to him. 
sese castris tenfibant (id. iii. 24), they kept themadves in camp. 
contemni se putant (Cat. M. 65), they think they are despised. 
Caesar sufts cOpias subdue! t (B. G. i. 22), Ccesar leads up his troops. 
Caesar statuit sibi RhSnum esse trdJiseundum (id. iv. 16), Ccesar decided that 
he must cross the Rhine (the Rhine must be crossed by himself). 

a* For reflexives of the first and second persons the oblique cases 
of the personal pronouns (mei, tui, etc.) and the corresponding pos- 
sessives (meus, taus, etc.) are used : — 

morti m8 obtull (Mil. 94), I have exposed myself to death. 

hinc tS reglnae ad limina perfer (Aen. i. 389), do you go (bear yourself) 

hence to the queen^s threshold. 
quid est quod tantis nds in labOribus exerceftmus (Arch. 28), wfiat reason is 

there why we should exert ourselves in so great toils f 
singulis Tobis novSnOs ex turmis manipulisque vestii similes €ligite (Li?. 

xxi. 54), for each of you pick out from t?ie squadrons and maniples nine 

like yourselves. 

300. In a subordinate clause of a complex sentence there is a 
double use of Reflexives. 

1. The reflexive may always be used to refer to the subject of its 
own clause (Direct Reflexive) : — 

itldic&rl potest quantum habeat in sS bonl cQnstantia (B. G. i. 40), it can be 
determined how much good firmness possesses (has in itself). 
• [Caesar] n5luit eum locum vac&re, ne GeimSni 6 sals finibus translrent 
(id. i. 28), CcBsar did not wish this place to lie vacant^ for fear the Ger- 
mans would cross over from their territories. 

81 qua signific&tio virtiitis eluceat ad quam se similis animus adplicet et 
adiungat (Lael. 48), if any sign of virtue shine forth to which a eimUar 
disposition may attach itself. 


2. If the subordinate claase expresses the words or thought of the 
subject of the main clause, the reflexive is regularly used to refer to 
that subject (Indirect Reflexive) : — 

petiSrunt at sibi lic^ret (B. G. i. 30), they begged that it might he aliowed. 

them (the petitioners). 
Iccius nOntium mittit, nisi subsidium sibi submitt&tur (id. ii. 6), Icciua send» 

a message that unless rdief be furnished him, etc. 
decima legiO el grfttiSA egit, quod d6 sfi optimum iCLdicium fecisset (id. i. 41>r 

the tenth legion thanked him because [they said] ha had expressed a high 

opinion of them, 
Bl obsidSs ab eis (the Helvetians) sibi (Csesar, who is the speaker) dentur, 86 

(Caesar) cum els pftcem esse factamm (id. i 14), [Ciesar said that] if 

hostages were given him by them he would make peace with them. 

NoTB. — Sometimes the person or thing to which the reflexive refers is not the 
grammatical subject of the main clause, though it is in effect the subject of discourse : 
Thus, — cum ipsi ded nihil minus gratum futurum sit quam nOn omnibus patere ad sS 
placandum viam (Legg. ii. 25), since to God himself nothing will be less pleasing than 
that the way to appease him ihovld not be open to aU men, 

Urn If the subordinate clause does not express the words or thought 
of the main subject, the reflexive is not regularly used, though it is 
occasionally found : — 

sunt ita multi ut eSs career capere nOn possit (Cat. ii. 22), they are so many 
that the prison cannot hold them. [Here sS could not be used ; so also 
in the example following.] 

ibi in proximis villis ita bipartite f uSrunt, ut Tiberis inter eos et pOns inter- 
esset (id. iii. 5), there they stationed themselves in the nearest farm- 
houses, in two divisions, in such a manner that the Tiber and the bridge 
were between them (the divisions). 

ndn fuit e5 contentus quod ei praeter spem acciderat (Manil. 25), he was not 
content with that which had happened to him beyond his hope. 

Compare : qui fit, Maecen3.s, ut nemo, quam sibi sortem seu rati5 dederit 
seu fors obigcerit, ilia contentus vivat (Hor. S. i. 1. 1), how comes it, 
Moecenas, that nobody lives contented with tfiat lot which choice has 
assigned hini or chance has thrown in his way f [Here sibi is used to 
put the thought into the mind of the discontented man.] 

6. Ipse is often (is rarely) used instead of an indirect reflexive, 
either to avoid ambiguity or from carelessness ; and in later writers 
is sometimes found instead of the direct reflexive : — 

cflr d€ su& virtute aut de ipsius diligentiS. d€spgrarent (B. 6. i. 40), why 
(he asked) should they despair of their own courage or his diligence f 

omnia aut ipsds aut hostSs populates (Q. C. iii. 6. 6), [they said that] either 
they themselves or the enemy had laid all waste. [Direct reflexive.] 

182 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§300,301 

qui s6 ex hl8 minus timid5s ezistim&rl volebant, nOn sS hostem vereri, Bed 
angustiSfl itineris et md,gnitudinem 8ilv9.l:uin quae intercederent inter 
ipsos (the persons referred to by se above) atque Ariovistum . . . timere 
dicebant (B. G. i. 39), those of them who wished to he thought less timid 
said they did not fear the enemy, but were afraid of the narrows and the 
vast extent of the forests which were between themselves and Ariomstus. ' 

audlstis nCLper dicere leg&tOs TyndaritanOs Mercurium qui sacns anniver- 
s&rils apad eos coleretur esse 8ublS.tum (Verr. iv. 84), you have just heard 
the ambassadors from Tyndaris say that the statue of Mercury which was 
worshipped with annual rites among them was taken away. [Here Cicero 
wavers between apad eos colebatur, a remark of his own, and apod se 
coleretur, the words of the ambassadors, eos does not strictly refer to 
the ambassadors, but to the people — the Tyndaritani.^ 

301. Special uses of the Reflexive axe the following : — 

a. The reflexive in a subordinate clause sometimes refers to the 

subject of a suppressed main clause : — 

Faetus omnis librOs quOs frater suus reliquisset mihi dOn^vit (Att. 11. 1), 
Pcetus gave me all the books which (as he said in the act of donation) 
his brother had l^ him, 

b. The reflexive may refer to any noun or pronoun in its own clause 
which is so emphasized as to become the subject of discourse: — 

Sdcratem cIvSs sai interf ecSrunt, Socrates was put to death by his oum feUow- 

qui poterat saltls sua culquam nOn prob&rl (Mil. 81), hxm can any one fail 

to approve his own safety f [In this and the preceding example the 

emphasis is preserved in English by the change of voice.] 
hunc si secuti erunt sal comites (Cat. 11. 10), this man, if his companions 

follow him. 

NoTB. — Occasionally the clause to which the reflexive really belongs is absorbed : 
as, — studeO sanare sibi ipsos (Cat. ii. 17), / am amdous to cure these m^nfor their own 
beneJU (i.e. ut s&ni sibi sint). 

c. Suus is used for one^s own as emphatically opposed to tTiat of 

others, in any part of the sentence and with reference to any -word 

in it: — 

sttis flammis delete Fiden9,s (Li v. iv. 33), destroy Fidenoe with its own fires 
(the fires kindled by that city, figuratively). [Cf. Cat i. 32.] 

d. The reflexive may depend upon a verbal noun or adjective: — 
8tt! laus, self-praise. 

habetis ducem memorem vestrl, oblltum sai (Cat. iv. 19), you have a leader 

mindful of you, forgetful of himself. 
perditi homines cum sui similibus servis (Phil. i. 5), abandoned men wUh 

slaves like themselves. 

§§ 301, 302] POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 188 

e. The reflexive may refer to the subject implied in an infinitive 

or verbal abstract used indefinitely : — 

contentum suis rebus esse maximae sunt divitlae (Par. 61), the greatest 

wealth is to be content with one^s own, 
Gui prOposita sit cdDseryd.tiO sui (Fin. v. 37), one whose aim is self-preservation. 

/". Inter se (nOs, v6s), among themselves (ourselves, yourselves), is 

regularly used to express reciprocal action or relation : — 

inter se c5nfl!gunt (Cat. i. 26), contend with eaxh other, 
inter se continentur (Arch. 2), are joined to eojch other. 

Possessive Pronouns 

302. The Possessive Pronouns are derivative adjectives, which 
take the gender, number, and case of the noun to which they 
belong^ not those of the possessor : — 

haec OmSmenta sunt mea (Val. iv. 4), these are my jewels, [mea is neuter 

plural, though the speaker is a woman.] 
mei sunt OrdinSs, mea discriptio (Cat. M. 69), mine are the rotos, mine the 

arrangement, [mea is feminine, though the speaker is Cyrus.] 
multa in nostro coUegiS praeclHra (id. 64), [there are] many fine things in 

our college, [nostrd is neuter singular, though men are referred to.] 
Germ&il safts cOpi9£ castrls eduxSrunt (B. G. i. 61), the Germans led their 

troops out of the camp. 

41. To express possession and similar ideas the possessive pro- 
nouns are regularly used, not the genitive of the personal or reflexive 
pronouns (§ 343. a) : — 

domus mea, my house, [Not domas mei. ] 
pater noster, our father, [Not pater nostri.] 
patrimOnium tutim, your inheritance. [Not tui.] 

l^OTE 1. — Exceptions are rare in classic Latin, common in later writers. For 
the use of a possessive prononn instead of an Objective Oenitive, see § 348. a. 

NoTB 2. — The Interrogative Possessive cClittS, -a, -am, occurs in poetry and early 
Latin : as, — ctdnm pecus (Eel. iii. 1) , whose fiock f The genitive cflitts is generally used 

h* The possessives have often the acquired meaning oi peculiar to, 
favorable or propitious towards, the person or thing spoken of : — 

[petere] ut sal dementia ac m&nsu€tadine ut9.tur (B. G. ii. 14), they asked 
(they said) thxit he would show his [wonted] clemency and humanity. 

IgnOrantI quern portum petat ntillus sans ventus est (Sen. Ep. 71. 8), to 
him who knows not what port he is hound to, no wind is fair (his own). 

tempore too pugn3,st! (Li v. zxxviii. 45. 10), did you fight at a fit time? 

NoTB. — This use is merely a natural development of the meaning of the possess* 
ive» and the pronoun may often be rendered literaUy. 

184 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§ 3Q2, 303 

e. The possessives are regularly omitted (like other pronouns) 

when they are plainly implied in the context : — 

Bocium fraadftvit, he cheated his partner, [aociiim raom would be distinctiv^e, 
hie partner (and not another's) ; suom soclom, emphatic, his own part ner. ] 

d. Possessive pronouns and adjectives implying possession are 

often used substantively to denote some special class or relation : — 

nostrl, (mr countrymen^ or men of our party. 

suds continSbat (B. G. i. 15), he held hia men in check, 

flamma eztrSma meSrum (Aen. ii. 481), last flames of my countrymen. 

SuU&nl, the veterans of Sultans army; Pompgi&nl, the partisans of Pompey. 

NoTB. — There is no reason to suppose an ellipsis here. The adjective becomes 
a noun like other adjectives (see § 288). 

e. A possessive pronoun or an adjective implying possession may 

take an appositive in the genitive case agreeing in gender, number, 

and case with an implied noun or pronoun : — 

mea. solias caus& (Ter. Heaut. 129), for my sake only, 
in nostrO nmn<nm flgttl (Mil. 92), amid the tears of us aJX, 
ex Annianft MilOnis domO ( Att. iv. 3. 3) , out of Annius Miio^s house. [Equiva- 
lent to ex Amu Milonis dome.] 
nostra omnium patria, the country of us all. 
suum ipsitts rSgnam, his own kingdom. 

For the special reflexive use of the possessive Bans, see §§ 299, 300. 

Relative Pronouns 

303. A Relative Pronoun agrees with some word expressed or implied either in 
its own clause, or (often) in the antecedent (demonstrative) clause. In the fullest con- 
struction the antecedent is expressed in both clauses, with more commonly a corre- 
sponding demonstrative to which the relative refers : as, — iter in ea loca facere coepit, 
quibus in locis esse GermanOs audiebat (B. G. iv. 7), he began to march into those 
PLACBS in which places he heard the Germans were. But one of these nouns is com- 
monly omitted. 

The antecedent is in Jjatin very frequently (rarely in English) found in the relative 
clause, but more commonly in the antecedent clause. 

Thus relatives serve two uses at the same time : — 

1. As Nouns (or Adjectives) in their own clause: as, — ei qui Alesiae obsidebantur 
(B. G. vii. 77), thx)3e who were besieged at Alesia. 

2. As Connectives : as, — T. Balventius, qui superiOre annO primum pilum duxerat 
(id. V. 35), Titus Balventius, who the year before had been a centurion of the first rank. 

When the antecedent is in a different sentence, the relative is often equivalent 
to a demonstrative with a conjunction: as, — quae cum ita sint (=:et cum ea ita sint), 
[and] since this is so. 

The subordinating force did not belong to the relative originally, but was developed 
from an interrogative or indefinite meaning specialized by use. But the subordinat- 
ing and the later connective force were acquired by qui at such an early period that 
the steps of the process cannot now be traced. 

§§304^06] RELATIVE PRONOUNS 185 

304. A Relative Pronoun indicates a relation between its own 
clause and some substantive. This substantive is called the Ante- 
cedent of the relative. 

Thus, in the sentence — 
earn nihil d€lect&bat quod fas esset (Mil. 43), nothiTig pleased him which was 
the relative quod connects its antecedent nihil with the predicate f&s 
asset, indicating a relation between the two. 

305. A Relative agrees with its Antecedent in Gender and 

Number; but its CoBe depends on its construction in the clause 

in which it stands : — 

ea dies qnam cOnstituerat yenlt (B. G. i. 8), that day which he had appointed 

pontem qui erat ad Gen9,vam lubet rescindl (id. i. 7), he orders the bridge 

which was near Geneva to be cut down. 
AduatucI, de quibus supra diximus, domum revertCrunt (id. ii. 29), the 

Aduatuci, of whom we have spoken above, returned home, 

KoTK. — This role applies to all relative words so far as they are variable in form: 
as, qnalis, quantas, qoicumque, etc. 

a. If a relative has two or more antecedents, it follows the rules 

for the agreement of predicate adjectives (§§ 286, 287) : — 

filium et filiam, quos valde dilexit, un6 tempore amisit, he lost at the same 

tim^ a son and a daughter whom he dearly loved. 
g^randes natu matrgs et parvull liberl, qaorum utr5ramqae aetas misericor- 

diam nostram requirit (Yen*, v. 129), aged matrons and little children, 

whose time of life in each case demands our compassion. 
Otiom atque divitiae, quae prima mortal6s putant (Sail. Cat. 36), idleness avd 

toealth, which men count the first (objects of desire). 
eae frugfis et fructOs quos terra gignit (N. D. ii. 87), those fruits and crops 

which the earth produces. 
For the Person of the verb agreeing with the Relative, see § 316. a. 

306. A Relative generally agrees in gender and number with an 
appositive or predicate noun in its own clause, rather than with 
an antecedent of different gender or number (cf. § 296. a): — 

mare etiam quern Neptannm esse dlcSbas (N. D. iii. 62), the sea, too, which 

you said was Neptune. [Not quod.] 
Thebae ipsae, quod BoeOtiae caput est (Liv. xlii. 44), even Thebes, which is 

the chief city of BoRotia. [Not quae.] 

Note. — This rule is occasionally violated: as, — flumen quod appellatur Tamesis 
(B. G. V. 11), a river which is called the Thames. 

186 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§306,307 

a. A relative occasionally agrees with its antecedent in case (by 

attraction) : — 

8l aliquid agSs eorum quorum cOnsuesti (Fam. y. 14), if you should do some- 
thing of what you are used to do. [For eorum quae.] 

Note. — Occasionally the antecedent is attracted into the case of the relative: — 
urbem quam statuO vestra est (Aen. i. 573), the city which I am founding is yours. 
Naucratem, quern convenire Yolui, in navi nOn erat (PI. Am. 1009), Naucrates, 
whom I wished to meet, was not on board the ship. 

6. A relative may agree in gender and number with an implied 
antecedent : — 

quartum genus ... qui in vetere aere ali6nO vacillant (Cat. ii. 21), a fourth 

class, who are staggering under old debts. 
unus ex eO numerC qui parfttl erant (lug. 36), one of the number [of those] 

10^0 were ready. 
coniurav6re pauci, de qua [i.e. coniiiratiOne] dicam (Sail. Cat. 18), a few 

Jiave conspired, of which [conspiracy] I wUl speak. 

Note. — So regularly when the antecedent is implied in a possessive pronoun : as, 
^nostra acta, quos tyrannos vocas (Vat. 29), the deeds of uSf whom you call tyrants. 
[Here quds agrees with the nostrum (genitive plural) implied in nostra.] 

Antecedent of the Relative 

307. The Antecedent Noun sometimes appears in both clauses; 
but usually only in the one that precedes. Sometimes it is 
wholly omitted. 

a. The antecedent noun may be repeated in the relative clause : — 

loci natura erat haec quern locum nostrl d^lSgerant (B. G. ii. 18), t?ie nature 
of the ground which our men had chosen was this. 

b. The antecedent noun may appear only in the relative clause, 
agreeing with the relative in case : — 

quas res in cOnsulatG nostrO gessimus attigit hie versibus (Arch. 28), ?ie has 
touched in verse the things which I did in my consulship. 

quae prima innocentis mihi defensid est oblata suscSpi (Sull. 92), I under- 
took the first drfence of an innocent man that was offered me. 

Note. — In this case the relative clause usually comes first (cf. § 308. d) and a 
demonstrative usually stands in the antecedent clause : — 

quae pars civitatis calamitatem populo Romano intulerat, ea princeps poenas per- 

solvit (B. G. i. 12), that part of the state which had brought disaster on the 

Roman people was the first to pay the penalty. 
quae gratia currum fuit vivis, eadem sequitur (Aen. vi. 653), the same pleasure 

that they took in chariots in their lifetime follows them (after death), 
qui fit ut nemo, quam sibi sortem ratio dederit, ilia contentus vivat (cf . Hor. S. i- 

1. 1), how does it happen that no one lives contented with the lot which choice 

has assigned him? 

§§307,308] RELATIVE PRONOUNS 187 

c. The antecedent may be omitted, especially if it is indefinite : — 

qui decimae legiOnis aquilam ferebat (B. G. iv. 25), [the man] whx) bore the 

eagle of the tenth legion. 
qui cOgnOscerent misit (id. 1. 21), Ae sent [men] to reconnoitre, 

a. The phrase id quod or quae rSs may be used (instead of quod 
alone) to refer to a group of words or an idea : — 

[obtrect&tum est] GablniO dicam anne Pomp§iO ? an utrlque — id quod est 
yerius? (Manil. 57), an affront has been offered — shall I say to Gdbinius 
or to Pompey f or — which is truer — to both f 

multam sunt in vSn&tidnibus, qaae res vlr^ alit (B. G. iv. 1), they spend 
much time in hunting, which [practice] increa>ses their strength. 

Note. — Butqaod alone often occnrs : as, — Gassins noster, quod mihi magnae volup- 
tati fait, hostem reiecerat (Fam. ii. 10), our friend Caasius — which was a great satis- 
faction to me — had driven back the enemy. 

€. The antecedent noun, when in apposition with the main clause, 

or with some word of it, is put in the relative clause : — 

firmi [amici], ciiius generis est magna p€nilria (Lael. 62), steadfast friends, 
a class of which there is great lack (of which class there is, etc. ). 

/. A predicate adjective (especially a superlative) belonging to the 

antecedent may stand in the relative clause : — 

vasa ea qnae pulcherrima apud eum viderat (Verr. iv. 63), those most beauti- 
ful vessels which he had seen at his house. [Nearly equivalent to the 
vessels of which he had seen some very beautiful ones.^ 

Special Uses of the Relative 

308. In the use of Relatives, the following points are to be 
observed : — 

a. The relative is never omitted in Latin, as it often is in Eng- 
lish : — 

liber quern mihi dedisti, the book you gave me. 

is sum qui semper ful, I am the same man I always was. 

e5 in loc5 est dS qud tibi locutus sum, he is in the place I told you of. 

h. When two relative clauses are connected by a copulative con- 
junction, a relative pronoun sometimes stands in the first and a 
demonstrative in the last : — 

erat profectus obviam legiOnibus Macedonicis quattuor, quSs sibi conciliare 
pecunia cOgitabat easque ad urbem adducere (Fam. xii. 23. 2), he had 
set out to meet four legions from Macedonia^ which he thought to win over 
to himself by a gift of money and to lead (them) to the city. 


c. A relative clause in Latin often takes the place of some other 

construction in English, — particularly of a participle, an appositive, 

or a noun of agency : — 

leges quae nunc sunt, the existing laws (the laws which now exist). 

Caesar qui Galliam Yicit, Coisar the conqueror of Gavd. 

itista gloria qui est fructus virttltis (Pison. 67), true glory [which is] the fruit 

of virtue, 
ille qui petit, the plaintiff (he who sues), 
qui legit, a reader (one who reads). 

d. In formal or emphatic discourse, the relative clause usually 

comes first, often containing the antecedent noun (cf. § 307. h) : — 

quae pars clvitfttis Helvetiae Inslgnem calamitfttem populO BOm&nO intulerat, 
ea princeps poenfts persolvit (B. G, i. 12)^ the portion of the Helnetvan 
slate which had brought a serious disaster on the Bwnan people was the 
first to pay the penalty, 

NoTB. — In colloquial language, the relative clause in such cases often contains a 
redundant demonstrative pronoun which logically belongs in the antecedent clause: 
as, — ills qui oOnsulte cavet, diutine uti bene licet partom bene (Plaut. Bad. 1240), 
he who is on his guard, he may long enjoy w?iat he has well obtained. 

e* The relative with an abstract noun may be used in a parenthet- 
ical clause to characterize a person, like the English siich : — 

quae vestra prudentia est (Gael. 45), such is your wisdom, [Equivalent to 
pro yestri prudentU.] 

audlssSs cOmoedSs vel iSctOrem vel lyristSn, vel, quae mea fiberilit&s, omnes 
(Plin. Ep. i. 15), you would have listened to comedians, or a reader^ or a 
lyre-player, or — such is my liberality — to all of them. 

/. A relative pronoun (or adverb) often stands at the beginning of 
an independent sentence or clause, serving to connect it with the 
sentence or clause that precedes : — 

Caesar statuit exspectandam classem; qaae ubi convSnit (B. G. iii. 14), 
CoBsar decided that he must wait for the fl.eet; and when this had come 
together, etc. 

quae qui audiebant, and those who heard this (which things). 

quae cum ita sint, and sinee this is so. 

qn5mm quod simile factum (Cat. iv. 13), what deed of theirs like thisf 

quo cum vSnisset, and when he had come there (whither when he had come). 

NoTJB. — This arrangement is common even when another relative or an interrog- 
ative follows. The relative may usually be translated by an English demonstrative, 
with or without and. 

g. A relative adverb is regularly used in referring to an antecedent 
in the Locative case; so, often, to express any relation of place instead 
of the formal relative pronoun : — 

§§ 308-310] INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 189 

mortuus Cumis qu5 8& contulerat (Liv. ii. 21), having died at CumtB^ tokUher 
he hxid retired, [Here in qoaxn urbem might be used, but not in qu&s.] 

locus qud aditus nOn erat, a place to which (whither) Viere ioob no access, 

regna unde genus ddcis (Aen. v. 801), ike kingdom from which you derive 
your race. 

unde petitur, the d^endant (he from whom something is demanded). 

h. The relatives qui, quAlis, quantas, quot, etc. are often rendered 

simply by as in English : — 

idem quod semper, th>e same as always. 

cum esset talis quAlem te esse videO (Mur. 32), since he was such a man as I 

see you are. 
tanta dimic&tio quanta numquam fuit (Att. yli. 1. 2), such a fight as never 

was b^ore. 
tot mala quot sidera (Ov. Tr. i. 5. 47), as many trovhles as stars in the sky. 

i. The general construction of relatives is found in clauses intro- 
duced by relative adverbs : as, ubi, quO, unde, cum, qu&r€. 

Indefinite Pronouns 

309. The Indefinite Pronouns are used to indicate that some 
person or thing is meant, without designating what one, 

310. Quia, quispiam, aliquis, quidam, are particular indefinites^ mean- 
ing 9ome^ a certain^ any. Of these, quia, any one, is least definite, 
and quidam, a certain one, most definite ; aliquis and quispiam, some 
one, stand between the two: — 

dixerit qnis (quispiam), som£ one may say. 

aliqm philoaophi ita pntant, some philosophers think so. [quidam would mean 

certain persons defined to the speaker^s mind, though not named.] 
habitant hic quaedam mulierSs pauperculae (Ter. Ad. 647), some poor women 

live here [i.e. some women he knows of ; some women or other would 

be aliquae or nescid quae]. 

a. The indefinite quia is rare except in the combinations si quia, if 
any; niai quia, if any . . . not; nS quia, lest any, in order that none; 
num quia (ecquia), whether any ; and in relative clauses. 

bm The compounds quiapiam and aliquia are often used instead of 
quia after al, niai, nS, and num, and are rather more emphatic : — 

quid A hoc quispiam voluit deus (Ter. Eun. 876), wJuxt if some god had 

desired thisf 
nisi alicui suOrum negf^tium daret (Nep. Dion. 8. 2), unless he shoiUd employ 

some one of his friends. 
cavebat Pompiius onmia, n6 aUquid vOs timSrStis (Mil. 66), Pompey took 

every precaution^ so that you might have no fear. 

190 SYNTAX: PRONOUNS [§§ 311-313 

311. In a particular negative aliquis (aliqui), some one (some)^ is 
regularly used, where in a universal negative quisquam, any oney 
or alius, any, would be required : — 

iustitia numquam nocet cuiquam (Fin. i. 60), justice never does harm to any- 
body, [alicui would mean to somebody who possesses it] 

nOn sine aliqud mettl, not without some fear. But, — sine 0115 metu, wiUiout 
any fear. 

cum aliquid nOn habeas (Tusc. i. 88), wfien there is something you have not. 

NoTB. — The same distinction holds between quis and aliquis on the one hand, and 
qttisquam (ullns) on the other, in conditional and other sentences when a negative is 
expressed or suggested : — 

SI quisqaam, ille sapiens fuit (Lael. 9), if any man was (ever) a sage^ he was. 
dum praesidia iilla fuerunt (Rose. Am. 126), while there were any armed forces. 
SI quid in te peccavi (Att. iii. 15. 4), ^ / have done wrong towards you [in anj 
particular case (see § 310)]. 

312. Quivis or quilibet {any one you will)^ quisquam, and the cor- 
responding adjective Wus, any at all, are general indefinites. 

Quivis and quilibet are used chiefly in affirmative clauses^ quisquam 
and ullus in clauses where a universal negative is expressed or sug- 
gested : — 

nOn cuivfs homini contingit adire Corinthum (Hor. Ep. i. 17. S6),itis not every 

man^s luck to go to Corinth, [ndn cuiqoam would mean not any man's.] 
quemlibet modo aliquem (Acad. ii. 132), anybody you will, provided it be 

somebody. • 

si quisquam est timidus, is ego sum (Fam. vi. 14. 1), if any man is timorous, 

I am he. 
si tempus est uUum iure hominis necandl (Mil. 9), if there is any occasion 

whatever when homicide is justifiable. 

Note. — The use of the indefinites is very various, and must be learned from the 
Lexicon and from practice. The choice among them may depend merely on the point 
of view of the speaker, so that they are often practically interchangeable. The differ- 
ences are (with few exceptions) those of logic, not of syntax. 

313. The distributives quisque (every), uterque (each of two), and 
finus quisque (every single one) are used in general assertions : — 

bonus liber melior est quisque quO mftior (Plin. Ep. i. 20. 4), th^ larger a 

good book is, the better (each good book is better in proportion, etc. ). 
amb5 exercitus sufis qaisqne abeunt domOs (Li v. ii. 7. 1), both armies go 

away, every man to his home. 
uterque utrique erat exercitus in cOnspectu (B. 6. vii. 35), each army was 

in sight of the other (each to each). 
pOnite ante oculOs flnum qnemque rSgum (Par. i. 11), sei, before your eyes each 

of the kings. 


a. Quisque regularly stands in a dependent clause, if there is one: — 

quQ quisque est soUertior, hOc docet Ir&cundius (Rose. Com. 31), the keener- 
wUted a man is, the more impatiently he teaches. 

Note. — Quisque is generally postpositive ^ : as, suum cuique, to every man his own. 

h. Quisque is idiomatically used with superlatives and with ordinal 

numerals : — 

nObilissimus qoisqae, all the noblest (one after the other in the order of their 

pilm5 qndqae tempore (Rose. Am. 86), aJb the very first opportunity. 
antlquissimum quodque tempus (B. G. i. 4o), the most ancient times, 
decimus quisque (id. y. 62), one in ten. 

Note 1. — Two superlatives with quisque imply a proportion : as, — sapientissimus 
quisque aequissimO animo moritur (Cat. M. 83), the loisest m^n die with the greatest 

Note 2. — Quotus quisque has the signification of how manyj prayf often in a dis- 
paraging sense {how few) : — 

quotus enim quisque disertus? quotus quisque iuris peritus est (Plane. 62) t for how 

few are eloquent! how few are learned in the law ! 
quotus enim istud quisque fecisset (Lig. 26), /or how many would have done this? 
[i.e. scarcely anybody would have done it]. 

314. KSmO, no one, is used of persons only — 

1. As a substantive: — 
neminem aee&sat, he accuses no one. 

2. As an adjective pronoun instead of nullus : — 

vir ngmo bonus (Legg. ii. 41), no good man. 

Note. — Even when used as a substantive, n6m5 may take a noun in apposition: 
as, — ngmo scxiptor, nobody [who is] a writer. 

a* Nullus, no, is commonly an adjective ; but in the genitive and 

ablative singular it is regularly used instead of the corresponding 

cases of nSmO, and in the plural it may be either an adjective or a 

substantive : — 

nnUum mittitar t€lum (B. C. ii. 13), iwt a missile is thrown. 

naU5 hoste prohibente (B. G. iii. 6), u)ithx)ut opposition from the enemy. 

nullius insector ealamitatem (Phil. ii. 98), I persecute the misfortune of no one. 

nuUo adiuvante (id. x. 4), with the help of no one (no one helping). 

nulli erant praed6n6s (Flacc. 28), there were no pirates. 

nuUi eximentur (Pison. 94), none shall be taken away. 

For n5n ngmo, non niiUus (non nulli), see § 326. a. 

1 That is, it does not stand first in its clause. 

2 As, in taking things one by one oflf a pile, each thing is uppermost when you 
take it. 


Alius and Alter 

315. Alius means simply other^ another (of an indefinite niun- 
ber) ; alter, the other (of two), often the second in a series ; cSteri 
and rdiqui, all the rest, the others ; alteruter, one of the two : — 

propterea quod alind iter hab^rent nallum (B. 6. i. 7), because (as they 

said) Viey had no other way. 
finl epistulae respondl, yeniO ad alteram (Fam. ii. 17. 6), one letter I have 

answered, I come to the other. 
alteram genus (Oat. ii. 19), tke second class. 
iecissem ipse m6 potius in profundum ut c8ter58 cOnseryftrem (Sest. 45), I 

should have rather thrown myself into the deep to save the rest. 
Seryllius cOnsul, reliqoique magistrfttOs (B. C. iii. 21), ServUius the consul 

and the rest of the magistrates. 
cum sit necesse alteram atram vincere (Fam. vi. 3), since it ynust he that one 

of the two should prevail. 

Note. — Alter is often ased, especially with negatives, in reference to an indefinite 
number where one is opposed to all the rest taken singly : — 

dam ne sit te ditior alter (Hor. S. i. 1. 40), «o long as another is not richer tfian 
you (lit. the other, there being at the moment only two persons considered). 
nOn nt magis alter, amicus (id. i. 5. 33), a friend such that no other is more so. 

a. The expressions alter . . . alter, the one . . . the otJier, alios . . . 
alius, one . . . another, may be used in pairs to denote either division 
of a group or reciprocity of action : — 

altexl dimicant, alter! yictOrem timent (Fam. vi. 3), one party fights, the 

other fears the victor. 
alteram alter! praesidiO esse iusserat (B. C. iii. 89), he had ordered each (of 

the two legions) to support the other. 
alii gladils adoriuntur, alii fragments saeptOrum (Sest. 79), some make an 

aUack with swords, others with fragments of the railings. 
aUus ex alid causam quaerit (B. G. vi. 87), they ask each other the reason. 
aUus aliam percontftmur (PI. Stich. 370), we keep asking each other. 

&• Alius and alter are often used to express one as well as another 

(the other) of the objects referred to: — 

alter c5nsulum, one of the [two] consuls. 

aUud est maledlcere, aUad acctlsftre (Gael. 6), it is one thing to slander, 
another to accuse. 

c* Alius repeated in another case, or with an adverb from the same 
stem, expresses briefly a double statement : — 

alias aliad petit, one man seeks one thing, another another (another seeks 

another thing), 
iussit aliSs alibi fodere (Liv. xliv. 38), fie ordered different persons to dig in 

different pUices. 
alii alid locO resistfibant (B. C. ii. 39), some halted in one place, some in anoiher. 

§§ 316, 317] VERB AND SUBJECT 198 


Agreement of Verb and Subject 

316. A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Per- 
son: — 

ego statuO, I resolve, senatas dScrevit, the senate ordered. 

silent leges inter arma (Mil. 11), the laws are dumb in time of war. 

NoTB. — In verb-forms containing a participle, the participle agrees with the sub- 
ject in gender and number <§ 286): — 

dratio est babita, the plea was delivered. bellnm ezortum est, a war arose. 

«. A verb having a relative as its subject takes the person of the 
expressed or implied antecedent : — 

adsum qui feci (Aen. ix. 427), here am I who did it. 

tu, qui scis, omnem diligentiam adhibebis (Att. v. 2. 3), you^ who know, 

wiU use aU diligence. 
videte quam despiciamar omnSs qui somas 6 mtlnicipils (Phil. iii. 16), see 

how all of us are scorned who are from the free toums. 

5. A verb sometimes agrees in number (and a participle in the verb- 
form in number and gender) with an appositive or predicate noun : — 

axnantium Irae amOris integr&tiO est (Ter. And. 656), tJie quarrels of lovers 

are the renewal of love. 
nOn omnis error stultitia dicenda est (Div. ii. 90), not every error should be 

called folly, 
Corinthus lumen Graeciae exstinctam est (of. Manil. 11), Corinth^ the light 

of Greece, is put out. 

Doable or Collective Subject 

317. Two or more Singular Subjects take a verb in the Plural: 

pater et avus mortni sunt, his father and grandfather are dead. 

NoTB. — So rarely (by synesis, § 280. a) when to a singular snbject is attached an 
ablative with com: as, — dux cum aliquot prmcipibus capiontur (Li v. xxi. 60), the 
general and several leading m£n are taken. 

a. When subjects are of different persons, the verb is usually in 

the first person rather than the second, and in the second rather than 

the third : — 

si tu et Tullia valetis ego et Cicer5 valSmns (Pam. xiv. 6), if you and Tullia 
are toefl, Cicero and I are weXL [Notice that the first person is also 
first in order, not last, as by courtesy in English.] 

Note. — In case of different gmders a participle in a verb-form follows the rule for 
predicate adjectives (see § 287. 2rA). 

194 SYNTAX: VERBS [§317 

ft. If the subjects are connected by disjunctives (§ 223. a), or if 
they are considered as a single whole, the verb is usually singular : — 

quern neque fid€s neque ius ifirandum neque ilium misericordia repressit 

(Ter. Ad. 306), notfaith, nor oath^ ruiy^ nor mercy ^ checked him. 
sen&tus populusque ROmd.nus intellegit (Fain. y. 8), the Roman senate and 

people understand. [But, neque Caesar neque ego habit! essemus (id. 

xi. 20), neither CcBsar nor I should have been considered.'] 
f&ma et vita innocentis defenditur (Rose. Am. 15), <Ae reputation and life of an 

innocent man are defended. 
est in eO virtus et probity et summum ofBcium summaque observantia (Fam. 

xiii. 28 a. 2), in him are to he found worthy uprightness, the highest sense 

of duty, and the greatest demotion. 

NoTB. — So almost always when the subjects are abstract nouns. 

c. When a verb belongs to two or more subjects separately, it often 
agrees with one and is understood with the others : — 

intercedit M. Ant5nius Q. Cassius tribUnl plebis (B. C. i. 2), Mark Antony 
and Qy^intus Cassius, tribunes of the people, interpose. 

h5c mihi et Peripat€tici et vetus Academia concedit (Acad. ii. 113), this both 
the Peripatetic philosophers and the Old Academy grant me. 

d. A collective noun commonly takes a verb in the singular ; but 
the plural is often found with collective nouns when individuals are 
thought of (§ 280. a) : — 

(1) sen^tus haec intellegit (Cat. i. 2), tJie senate is aware of this. 

ad hlberna exercitus redit (Liv. xxi. 22), the army returns to winter-quarters. 
plebSs a patribus secessit (Sail. Cat. 33), the plebs seceded from the patricians. 

(2) pars praed3£i agebant (lug. 32), a part brought in booty. 

cum tanta multitiidd lapid@s conicerent (B. G. ii. 6), when such a croiod were 
throwing stones. 

Note 1. — The point of view may change in the course of a sentence : as, — equita- 
tum omnem . . . quern habebat praemittit, qui videant (B. 6. i. 15), Ae sent ahead aU 
the cavalry he had, to see (who should see). 

Note 2. — The singular of a noun regularly denoting an individual is sometimes 
used collectively to denote a group : as, Poenus, the Carthaginians; miles, the soldiery; 
eques, the cavalry. 

6. Quisque, each, and tinus quisque, every single one, have very often 
a plural verb, but may be considered as in partitive apposition with a 
plural subject implied (cf. § 282. a): — 

sibi quisque habeant quod suum est (PI. Cure. 180), let every one keep his 
own (let them keep every man his own). 

Note. — So also aterqne, each (of two), and the reciprocal phrases aUus . . . alium, 
alter . . . alterum (§316. a). 


Omission of Subject or Verb 

318. The Subject of the Verb is sometimes omitted : — 

a. A Personal pronoun, as subject, is usually omitted unless em- 
phatic : — 

loquor, I speak. But, ego loquor, it is I thai speak, 

h. An indefinite subject is often omitted: — crSderSs, you would 
have supposed ; putftmus, we (people) think ; dicunt, ferunt, perhibent, 
they say. 

Cm A passive verb is often used impersonally without a subject ex- 
pressed or understood (§ 208. d) : — 

ditl atqae ftcriter pfignAtum est (B. G. i. 26), theyfoy^ghJb long and vigorously. 

319. The verb is sometimes omitted : — 

a. DicO, faciO, agO, and other common verbs are often omi^^ed in 

familiar phrases : — 

qu()r8um haec [spectant], what does this aim atf 

ex ungue leOnem [cognosces], you will know a lion by his claw. 

quid multa, what need of many words f (why should I say much ?) 

quid ? quod, w?iat of this, that . . . ? (what shall I say of this, that . . • ?) 

[A form of transition.] 
Aeolus haec contr& (Aen. i. 76), Molus thus [spoke] in reply. 
turn Gotta [inquit], then said Cotta. 
61 meliOra [dulnt] ! (Gat. M. 47), Heaven forfend (may the gods grant better 

things) ! 
unde [venis] et quO [tendis] ? (Hor. S. ii. 4. 1), where from and whither 

bound? [Cf. id. i. 9. 62 for the full form.] 

6. The copula sum is very commonly omitted in the present indica- 
tive and present infinitive, rarely (except by late authors) in the sub- 
junctive : — 

tu coniCinz (Aen. iv. 113), you [are] his wife. 

quid ergO ? audS^issimus ego ex omnibus (Rose. Am. 2), wh^ then f am I 
the boldest ofaUf 

omnia praeclara rara (Lael. 79), all the best things are rare, 

potest incidere saepe contentiO et compar&tiO d6 duObus honestls utrum 
honestius (Off. i. 162), there may often occur a comparison of two 
honoraMe actions, as to which is the more honorable. [Here, if any 
copula were expressed, it would be sit, but the direct question would 
be complete without any.] 

accipe quae peragenda prius (Aen. vi. 136), hear what is first to be accom- 
plished. [Direct : quae peragenda prius ?] 

196 syntax : particles [§§ 320, 321 


320. The proper f miction of Adverbs, as petrified case-forms, is to modify Verbs : 
as, — celeriter ire, to go with speed. It is from this use that they derive their name 
(adverbiom, from ad, to, and verbum, verb ; see § 2AX. h) . They also modify adjectives, 
showing in what manner or degree the quality described is manifested : as, splendidS 
meud&z, gloriotisly false. More rarely they modify other adverbs : as, nimis graviter, 
too severely. Many adverbs, especially relative adverbs, serve as connectives, and 
are hardly to be distinguished from conjunctions (see § 20. g, v.).^ 

321. Adverbs are used to modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other 

am A Demonstrative or Relative adverb is often equivalent to the 
corresponding Pronoun with a preposition (see § 308. g) : — 

eo [ = in ea] impOnit vasa (lug. 76), upon them (thither, thereon, on the 

beasts) he piets the camp-utenaUs. 
eo milites impOnere (B. G. i. 42), to put soldiers upon them (the horses), 
apud eOs qu5 [ = ad quos] s6 contulit (Verr. iv. 38), among those to whom 

(whither) h£ resorted. 
qui eum necasset unde [ = qu3] ipse natus esset (Rose. Am. 71), one who should 

have killed his own father (him whence he had his birth). 
condiciOnSs misers administrandanim pr5vinci9,rum nbi [ = in qaibus] 

se Veritas periculGsa est (Flacc. 87), O / vrretched terms of managing the 

provinces, where strictness is dangerous. 

bm The participles dictnm and factum, when used as nouns, are itegu- 

lai'ly modified by adverbs rather than by adjectives ; so occasionally 

other perfect participles : — 

praeclarg facta (Nep. Timoth. 1), glorious deeds (things gloriously done), 
molta facitS dicta (Off. i. 104), many witty sayings. 

c, A noun is sometimes used as an adjective, and may then be modi- 
fied by an adverb : — 

■victor exercitufi, the victorious army. 

admodam puer, quite a boy (young). 

magis vir, more of a man (more manly). 

populum late r6gem (Aen. i. 21), a people ruling far and wide. 

Note. — Very rarely adyerbs are used with nouns which have no adjective foit:e 
but which contain a verbal idea : — 

hinc abitio (Plant. Rud. 503), a going away from here. 

quid cogitem de obviam itione (Att. xiii. 50), what I think about going to meet 
(him). [Perhaps felt as a compound.] 


1 For the derivation and classification of adverbs, see §§ 214-217. 

§§ 321, 322] ADVERBS 197 

d. A few adverbs appear to be used like adjectives. Such are 
obviam, palam, sometimes contr&, and occasionally others : — 

fit obviam ClOdiO (Mil. 20), he f alia in with (becomes in the way of) Clodius. 

[Cf. the adjective obrias : as, — si ille obrias el futQrus nOn erat (id. 47), 

if he was liGt likely to faU in with him.'\ 
haec commemorO quae sunt palam (Pison. 11), I mention these facts^ which 

are well-known, 
alia probabilia, coiitr& alia dicimus (Off. ii. 7), we call some things probable^ 

others the opposite (not probable). [In this use, contrfl contradicts a 

previous adjective, and so in a manner repeats it.] 
eri semper l3nit&s (Ter. And. 176), my master^ s constant (always) gentleness. 

[An imitation of a Greek construction.] 

NoTB. — In some cases one can hardly say whether the adverb is treated as an 
adjective modifying the noun, or the noun modified is treated as an adjective (as in 
c above). 

For propias, pxidiS, palam, and other adverbs used as prepositions, see § 432. 

322. The following adverbs require special notice : — 

€K. Etiam (et iam), alsoj even, is stronger than quoque, also, and 
usually precedes the emphatic word, while quoque follows it : — 

nOn verbis s5lum sed etiam vl (Verr. ii. 64), not only by words^ bvt also by 

hoc quoque maleficium (Rose. Am. 117), this crime too. 

h. Nunc ^ means definitely now, in the immediate present, and is 
rarely used of the immediate past. 

lam means now, already, at length, presently, and includes a refer- 
ence to previous time through which the state of things described has 
been or will be reached. It may be used of any time. With nega- 
tives iam means (no) longer. 

Turn, then, is correlative to cum, when, and may be used of any 

time. Tunc, then, at that time, is a strengthened form of tum 

(ftum-ce, cf . nunc) : — 

ut iam antell dixi, as I hone already said before. 

81 iam satis aetS,tis atque rOboris haberet (Rose. Am. 140), if he had attained 

a suitable age and strength (lit. if he now had, as he will have by and by). 
non est iam iSnitatl locus, there is no longer room for m^rcy. 
quod iam erat instittitum, which had come to be a practice (had now been 

nunc quldem delSta est, tunc fl5rebat (Lael. 13), tiow {'tis true) she [Greece] 

is ruined, then she was in her glory, 
torn cum rggnftbat, at the tim^ when he reigned. 

1 For tnum-ce ; cf. tunc (for ttum-ce). 

198 SYNTAX: PARTICLES [§§322,323 

€• CertO means certainly, cert6 (usually) at least, at any rate: — 
certd 8cid, I Icnow for a certainty ; ego certe, I at least, 

d* Primum means first {first in order, or for the first time), and 
implies a series of events or acts. PrimO means at first, as opposed 
to afterwards, giving prominence merely to the difference of time : — 

hoc piimoxn senti5, this I hold in the first place. 

aedis piimd ruere rSbamur, at first we thought the house wasfaUing. 

Note. — In enamerations, primum (or primo) is often followed by deinde, secondly, in 
the next place, or by tum, then, or by both in succession. Deinde may be several times 
repeated {secondly, thirdly, etc.). The series is often closed by dSnique or postrSmo, 
lastly, finally. Thus, — primum de genere belli, deinde de magnitudine, tum de im- 
peratore deligendo (Manil. 6), first of the kind of war, next of its magnitude, then of 
the choice of a commander. 

e. Quidem, indeed, gives emphasis, and often has a concessive mean- 
ing, especially when followed by sed, autem, etc. : — 

hoc quidem vld€re licet (Lael. 54), this surely one may see. [Emphatic] 
[s^curit&s] specig quidem blanda, sed reapse multis locis repudianda (id. 47), 

{tranquillity) in appearance, His true, attractive, but in reality to he 

rejected for many reasons. [Concessive.] 

/. N6 . . . quidem means- not even or not . . . either. The emphatic 
word or words must stand between n6 and quidem : — 

sed ne lugurtha quidem quietus erat (lug. 51), hid Jugurtha was not quid 

ego autem ne irSscI possum quidem iis quOs valde amQ (Att. ii. 19. 1), huJt I 

cannot even get angry with those whom I love very much. 

Note. — Equidem has the same senses as quidem, but is in Cicero confined to the 
first person. Thus, — equidem adprobabO (Fam. ii. 3. 2), I for my part shall approve. 


323. Copulative and Disjunctive Conjunctions connect similar 

constructions, and are regularly followed by the same case or mood 

that precedes them: — 

scriptum senatui et populO (Cat. iii. 10), written to the senate and people. 
ut eas [partis] sanares et c0nflrm3,res (Mil. 68), thM you might cure and 

strengthen those parts. 
neque meS. prudentia neque humanis cOnsiliis frStus (Cat. ii. 29), relying 

neither on my own foresight nor on human wisdom. 

1 For the classification of conjunctions, see §§ 223, 224. 


a. Conjunctions of Comparison (as at, quam, tamquam, quasi) also 
commonly connect similar constructions : — 

his igitur qoam physicis potius credendum ezIstimSs (Div. ii. 37), (2o yoni 
think these are more to be trusted than the natural philosophers f 

hominem callidiCrem vidi nSminem quam PhormiOnem (Ter. Ph. 591), a 
shrewder man I never saw than Phormio (cf. § 407). 

at n5n omne yinum sic n5n omnis natura vetustate coac€scit (Cat. M. 66), 
as every wine does not sour with age, so [does] not every nature. 

in me qaasi in tyrannum (Phil. ziv. 15), against me as againjit a tyrant 

h. Two or more coordinate words, phrases, or sentences are often 

put together without the use of conjunctions (Asyndeton^ § 601. c) : 

omnSs di, homines, aU gods and men. 

summl, medii, infiml, the highest^ the middle cla>ss^ and the lowest. 
iura, I6g6s, agrOs, libertatem nObIs reliquenint (B. G. vii. 77), they have l^ 
wa our rights^ our laws^ our fields, our liberty. 

c. 1. Where there are more than two coordinate words etc., a con- 
junction, if used, is ordinarily used with all (or all except the first) : — 

ant aere ali€nG aut m&gnitMine tribut(^rum aut iniurift potentiOrum (B. G. 

vi. 13), by d^t, excessive taxationy or oppression on the part of the 

at soDt mOrOsI et anxil et Trftcundl et difficilSs senSs (Cat. M. 65), hid (you 

say) old men are capricious, solicitou^f choleric, and fussy. 

2. But words are often so divided into groups that the members 
of the groups omit the conjunction (or express it), while the groups 
themselves express the conjunction (or omit it) : — 

propudium illud et portentum, L. AntOnius Inslgne odium omnium homi- 
num (Phil. xiv. 8), that wretch and monster, Lucius Antonius, the abomi- 
nation of all men. 

utrumque Sgit graviter, auct5rit&te et off^nsiOne an! ml nGn acerba, (Lael. 
77), he acted in both cases with dignity, withx)vi loss of authority and 
with no bitterness of feeling. 

3. The enclitic -que is sometimes used with the last member of a 

series, even when there is no grouping apparent : — 

v5ce voltti m5tGque (Brut. 110), by voice, expression, and gesture. 
ctiram consilium vigilautiamque (Phil. vii. 20), care, wisdom, and vigilance. 
qu5rum auctGrit&tem dignitatem volunt&temque defenderfts (Fam. i. 7. 2), 
whose dignity, honor, and wishes you had defended. 

d. Two adjectives belonging to the same noun are regpilarly con- 
nected by a conjunction : — 

mnltae et graves causae, many weighty rea,s(ms. 

vir liber ac fortis (Rep. ii. 34), a free and brave man. 

200 SYNTAX: PARTICLES [§§323,324 

e. Often the same conjunction is repeated in two coordinate clauses : 

et . . . et (-que . . . -que), both . . . and. 

aut . . . aut, either , , . or. 

vel . . . vel, either , . . or. [Examples in § 324. e.] 

8iye (sen) . . . siTe (sea), whether . , . or. [Examples in §324./.] 

/. Many adverbs are similarly used in pairs, as conjunctions, partly 
or wholly losing their adverbial force : — 

nunc . . . nonOf tam . . . tam, iam . . . iam, now . . . now. 

modo . . . modo, now . . . now. 

simul . . . simal, at the same time . . . atthe same time. 

qa& . . . qui, now . . . noto, both . . . and, alike [this] and [that]. 

modo ait modo negat (Ter. Eun. 714), now he says yes, now no. 

simul gr&ti&s agit, simul grS.tul3,tur (Q. C. vi. 7. 15), he thinks him and at 

the same time congratulates him. 
erumpunt saepe vitia amicOrum tnm in ipsOs amicus tum in alienos (Lael. 

76), the faults of friends sometimes break out, now again^ their friends 

themselves, now against strangers. 
qofl marls quA feminSs (Pi. Mil. 1113), both mules and females. 

g. Certain relative and demonstrative adverbs are used correla- 

tively as conjunctions: — 

ut (rel.) . . . ita, sic (dem.), as (while) . . . so (yet). 

tam (dem.) . . . quam (rel.), so (as) . . . as. 

cum (rel.) . . . tum (dem.), while . . . so also; not only . . . but also. 

324. The following Conjunctions require notice : — 

a. Et, and, simply connects words or clauses ; -que combines more 

closely into one connected whole, -que is always enclitic to the word 

connected or to the first or second of two or more words connected : 

cum coniugibus ct llberls, with [their] wives and children. 

ferrO ignlque, with fire and sword. [Not as separate things, but as the 

combined means of devastation.] 
aqud. et Ignl interdictus, forbidden the use of water and fire. [In a legal 

formula, where they are considered separately.] 

h. Atque (ac), and, adds with some emphasis or with some implied 
reflection on the word added. Hence it is often equivalent to and so, 
and yet, and besides, and then. But these distinctions depend very 
much upon the feeling of the speaker, and are often imtranslatable:— 

omnia honesta atque inhonesta, everything honorable and dishonorable (too, 

without the slightest distinction), 
usus atque disciplina, practice avid theory beside (the more important or less 

atque ego cr6d5, and yet I believe (for my part). 

f 324] CONJUNCTIONS 201 

Cm Atque (ac), in the sense of <iSy than, is also used after words of 
comparison and likeness : — 
slmul atque, as soon as. 

nan secus (nOn aliter) ac 8l, not otherwise than if, 
pro eO ac debul, as tooa my duty (in accordance as I ought), 
aequfi ac tu, as much <is you. 

hand minus ac iussi faciunt, they do just as they are ordered. 
For and not, see § 328. a. 

d. Sed and the more emphatic verum or v6r(J, but, are used to intro- 
duce something in opposition to what precedes, especially after nega- 
tives (not this . . . but something else). At (old form ast) introduces 
with emphasis a new point in an argument, but is also used like the 
others ; sometimes it means at least. At enim is almost always used 
to introduce a supposed objection which is presently to be overthrown. 
At is more rarely used alone in this sense. 

Autem, howeveVy now, is the weakest of the adversatives, and often 
marks a mere transition and has hardly any adversative force percep- 
tible. AtquI, however, now, sometimes introduces an objection and 
sometimes a fresh step in the reasoning. Quod ai, but if, and if, now if, 
is used to continue an argument. 

NoTB. — Bt, -que, and atqne (ac) are sometimes used where the English idiom would 
suggest but, especially when a negative clause is followed hy an affirmative clause 
oontinning the same thought: as, — impetum hostes ferre nOn potuerunt ac terga 
Terterunt (B. G. iv. 35), the enemy could not stand the onset, but turned their backs. 

e. Aut, or, excludes the alternative ; rel (an old imperative of volG) 
and -Te give a choice between two alternatives. But this distinction 
is not always observed : — 

aed quis ego sum aut quae est in m6 facultfts (Lael. 17), but who am I or 

what special capacity have I f [Here vel could not be used, because in 

fact a negative is implied and both alternatives are excluded.] 
ant bibat aut abeat (Tusc. v. 118), let him drink or (if he won^t do that, then 

let him) quit, [Here vel would mean, let him do either as ho chooses.] 
'^ta t&lis fuit vel fort&nft vel gl5ri& (Lael. 12), his life was such either in 

respect to fortune or fame (whichever way you look at it). 
8l propinqnOs habeant imbScilliOres vel anim5 vel fortune (id. 70), if they 

have relatives beneath them either in spirit or in fortune (in either respect, 

for example, or in both). 
ant deOrum ant r§gum filil (id. 70), sons either of gods or of kings, [Here 

one case would exclude the other.] 
implic&tl vel Osa dilltamO vel etiam officils (id. 85), entangled either by 

dose intimacy or even by obligations, [Here the second case might 

exclude the first.] 


/. Sive (seu) is properly used in disjunctive conditions (if either . . . 
or if), but also with alternative words and clauses, especiallj with 
two names for the same thing ; — 

8iTe inrid€ns slye quod ita putaret (De Or. i. 01), either laughingly or because 

he really thought so. 
sive deae sea sint yolacrSs (Aen. iii. 262), whether they (the Harpies) are 
goddesses or birds. 

g. Vel, even, for instance, is often used as an intensive particle with 
no alternative force : as, — vel minimus, the very least. 

h. Nam and namque, for, usually introduce a real reason, formally 
expressed, for a previous statement ; enim (always postpositive), a 
less important explanatory circumstance put in by the way ; etenim 
(for, you see ; for, you know ; for, mind you) and its negative neque 
enim introduce something self-evident or needing no proof. 

(ea vita) quae est sola vita nOminanda. nam dum sumus inclusi in his 
compagibus corporis, munere qu5dam necessitatis et gravi opere per- 
fungimur; est enim animus caelestis, etc. (Cat. M. 77), (that life) 
which alone deserves to be called life ; for so long as we are covfined by 
the body^s frame, we perform a sort of necessary function and heavy 
task. For the soul is from heaven. 

harum trium sententiS,rum null! pr5rsus adsentior. nee enim ilia prima 
vera est (Lael. 57), for of course that first one isn^t true. 

i. £rg5, therefore, is used of things proved formally, but often has 

a weakened force. Igitur, then, accordingly, is weaker than ergO and 

is used in passing from one stage of an argument to another. Itaque, 

therefore, accordingly, and so, is used in proofs or inferences from the 

nature of things rather than in formal logical proof. All of these are 

often used merely to resume a train of thought broken by a digression 

or parenthesis. IdcircS, for this reason, on this account, is regularly 

followed (or preceded) by a correlative (as, quia, quod, si, ut, n6), and 

refers to the special point introduced by the correlative. 

malum mihi videtur esse mors, est miserum igitur, quoniam malum. certS. 
ergo et el quibus ev6nit iam ut morerentur et ei quibus 6venturum est 
miseri. mihi ita vidstur. ngmO ergo nOn miser. (Tusc. i. 9.) Deaik 
seems to me to be an evil. * It is wretched, then, since it is an evU. ' Certainly. 
* Therefore, all those who have already died and who are to die hereafter are 
wretched.'^ So it appears to me. ' There is no one, therefore, who is not 
> wretched."* 

1 , quia natura mutari nOn potest, idcirco ygrae amicitiae sempitemae sunt 

\ "- ^ (Lael. 32), because nature cannot be changed, for this reason true friend- 

ships are eternal. 

I \ 


J. Autem^ enim^ and v6r5 are postpositive V so generally igitur and 
often tamen. 

km Two conjunctions of similar meaning are often used together 
for the sake of emphasis or to bind a sentence more closely to what 
precedes : as, at v6r6, but in truth, but surely y stilly however; itaque 
ergd, accordingly then; namque, for; et-enim, /or, you see, for of 
course (§ 324. h). 

For Conjunctions introducing Subordinate Clauses, see Syntax. 

Negative Particles * 

325. In the use of the Negative Particles, the following points 
are to be observed : — 

326. Two negatives are equivalent to an affirmative : — 

nemd n5n audiet, every one wiU hear (nobody will not hear), 
ndn possum non cOnfit€ri (Fam. ix. 14. 1), J must confess, 
ut . . . ne non timbre quidem sine aliqu5 timSre posslmus (Mil. 2), so that we 
cannot even he relieved of fear without some fear, 

a* Many compounds or phrases of which nQn is the first part express 
an indefinite afl&rmative : — 

nOn nullus, some; n5n nuUl (=aliqai), some few, 
ndn nihil (= aliquid), something, 
nOn n€mO (= aliquot), sundry persons, 
ndn numquam (= aliquotiens), sometimes, 

6. Two negatives of which the second is n5n (belonging to the 

predicate) express a universal affirmative : — 

nemo nOn, nullus nOn, nobody [does] noty i.e. everybody [does]. [Cf. nOn 

nemO, not nobody, i.e. som^ody."] 
nihil nOn, everything, [Cf. nSn nihil, something."] 
numquam non, never not, i.e. always. [Cf. non numquam, sometimes.] 

Cm A statement is often made emphatic by denying its contrary 

(Litotes, § 641): — 

nOn semel (=saepi88im6), often enough (not once only). 

non haec sine numine dTvom 6veniunt (Aen. ii. 777), these things do not 

occur without the will of the gods. 
haec ndn nimis exquirO (Att. vii. 18. 3), not very much, i.e. very little. 

NoTB. — Compare non nuUas, nSn nSmo, etc., in a above. 

1 That is, they do not stand first in their clausa 
3 For a list of Negative Particles, see § 217. e. 

204 SYNTAX: PARTICLKS [§§327-320 

327. A general negation is not destroyed — 

1. By a following nfi . . . quidem, 7iot ei^en, or n5n modo, not only .•— 

numquam til non modo Gtium, sed ne bellum qaidem nisi nefftrium concuplsti 
(Cat. 1. 25), not only have you never desired repose, buJt you have never 
desired any war except one which was infamous. 

2. By succeeding negatives each introducing a separate subordi- 
nate member : — 

eaque nesciSbant nee ubi nee qtiSllia essent (Tusc. iii. 4); they knew not where 
or of what kind these things were. 

3. By neque introducing a coordinate member : — 

nequeS satis mlr3rl neqne conicere (Ter. Eun. 547), I cannoi wonder enough 
nor conjecture. 

328. The negative is frequently joined with a conjunction or 
with an indefinite pronoun or adverb. Hence the forms of nega- 
tion in Latin differ from those in English in many expressions : — 

nflUI (nentn) crSdO (not n5n crSdS filli), / do not Mieve either (I believe 

sine fiUo perlcul5 (less commonly cum null5), with no danger (without any 

nihil umqaam audlvl itHcundius, I never heard anything more amusing. 
Cf. nego haec esse vSra (not died n5n esse), I say this is not true (I deny, etc.). 

a. In the second of two connected ideas, and not is regularly ex- 
pressed by neque (nee), not by et nOn : — 

hostes terga verterunt, neque prius fugere d^stiteront (B. 6. i. 53), the enemy 
turned and fled, and did not stop fleeing until, etc. 

Note. — Similarly nee quisquam is regularly used for et nSmS ; neque finvs for et 
nfillns; nee umquam for et nnmqoam ; neve (nen), for et nS. 

329. The particle immo, nay, is used to contradict some part of 

a preceding statement or question, or its form ; in the latter case, 

the same statement is often repeated in a stronger form, so that 

immo becomes nearly equivalent to yes {nay hut^ nay rather): — 

causa igitur nOn bona est? immo optima (Att. iz. 7. 4), is tAe eaxae then noi 
a good one f on the contrary, the best. 

a. Minus, less (especially with si, if, quO, in order that), and minimS, 

lea^t, often have a negative force : — 

si minus possunt, if they cannot. [For qu5 minus, see § 658. 6.] 
aadftcissimus ego ex omnibus ? minimS (Rose. Am. 2), am I the bolder of 
them all? by no means (not at all). 


Forms of Interrogation 

330. Questions are either Direct or Indirect. 

1. A Direct Question gives the exact words of the speaker : — 
quid est? what isitf ubi sum ? where am If 

2. An Indirect Question gives the substance of the question, adapted 
to the form of the sentence in which it is quoted. It depends on a verb 
or other expression of asking, doubting , knowing, or the like : — 

rogavit quid esset, he asked what it was. [Direct : quid est, what is it f] 
nesciO ubi aim, I know not where I am. [Direct : ubi sum, wh^re am If] 

331. Questions in Latin are introduced by special interrogative 
words, and are not distinguished by the order of words, as in 

Note. — The form of Indirect Questions (in English introduced by whether f or by 
an interrogative pronoun or adverb) is in Latin the same as that of Direct ; the differ- 
ence being only in the verb, which in indirect questions is regularly in the Subjunc- 
tive (§574). 

332. A question of simple fact^ requiring the answer t/es or no, 
is formed by adding the enclitic -ne to the emphatic word : — 

tune id veritus es (Q. Fr. i. 8. 1), did ron fear that f 

hicine vir usquam nisi in patrid. morietur (Mil. 104), shxill this man die any- 
where bvt in his rvative land f 

is tibi mortemne videtur aut dolCrem tlmSre (Tusc. v. 88), does he seem to 
you to fear death or pain f 

a. The interrogative particle -ne is sometimes omitted : — 

pat€re tua cCnsilia n5n sentis (Cat. i. 1), do you not see that your schemes are 
manifest f (you do not see, eh ?) 

Note. — In such cases, as no sign of interrogation appears, it is often doubtful 
whether the sentence is a question or an ironical statement. 

6. When the enclitic -ne is added to a negative word, as in nOnne, 
an affirmative answer is expected. The particle num suggests a nega- 
tive answer : — 

nonne animadvertis (N. D. iii. 89), do you not observe f 
num dubium est (Rose. Am. 107), there is no doubt, is there f 

NoTB. — In Indirect Questions nam commonly loses its peculiar force and means 
simply whether, 

1 For a list of Interrogative Particles, see § 217. d. 

206 SYNTAX: QUESTIONS [§§332-335 

c. The particle -ne often when added to the verb, less commonly 
when added to some other word, has the force of nOnne : — 

meministine m6 in senatu dicere (Cat. i. 7), donH you remember my saying 

in the Senate f 
rSctene interpreter sententiam tuam (Tusc. iii. 37), do I not rightly interpret 
your meaning f 
. Note 1. — This was evidently the original meaning of -ne ; but in most cases the 
negative force was lost and -ne was used merely to express a question. So the English 
interrogative no? shades off into eh? 

Note 2. — The enclitic -ne is sometimes added to other interrogative words : as, 
ntrunme, whether? anne, or; qaantane (Hor. S. ii. 3. 317)y/ioio big? quSne male (id. ii.3. 
295), by what curse? 

333. A question concerning some special circumstance is formed 
by prefixing to the sentence an interrogative pronoun or adverb 

as in English (§ 152) : — 

quid exspectfts (Cat. ii. 18), what are you looking forward to? 

qu5 igitur haec spectant (Fam. vi. 6. 11), whither then is all this tending? 

Icare, ubi es (Ov. M. viii. 232), Icarus^ where are you? 

quod vectigal v5bis tutum fuit? quern socium defendistis? cni praesidiS 
classibus vestrls f uistis ? (Manil. 32), what revenue has been safe for you f 
what ally have you d^ended ? whom have you guarded with your fleets f 

Note. — A question of this form becomes an exclamation by changing the tone of 
the voice: as, — 

qii&Ils vir erat! what a man fie was! 

quot calamitates pass! sumus! how many misfortunes we have suffered! 

qu5 studio coDsentiunt (Cat. iv. 15), with to fiat zeal they unite! 

a. The particles -nam (enclitic) and tandem may be added to inter- 
rogative pronouns and adverbs for the sake of emphasis : — 

quisnam est, pray who is it? [quis tandem est? would be stronger.] 
ubinam gentium sumos (Cat. i. 9), where in the world are we? 
in qua tandem urbe hOc disputant (Mil. 7), in wfiat city, pray, do they main- 
tain this ? 

Note — Tandem is sometimes added to verbs : — 
ain tandem (Fam. ix. 21), you donH say so! (say you so, pray?) 
itane tandem uxOrem duxit Antipho (Ter. Ph. 231), so then^ eh? Antipho's got 

Double Questions 

334. A Double or Alternative Question is an inquiry as to 
which of two or more supposed cases is the true one. 

335. In Double or Alternative Questions, utrum or -ne, whether^ 
stands in the first member ; an, anne, or, annOn, necne, or not^ in the 
second ; and usually an in the third, if there be one : — 


atmm nescis, an prO nihilO id putSs (Fam. x. 26), is it that you donH know^ 

or do you tliink nothing of itf 
vOsne L. Domitium an vOs Domitius dCseruit (B. C. ii. 32), did you desert 

f Lucius Domitius^ or did Domitius desert you f 
quaerO servOsne an llberOs (Rose. Am. 74), I ask whether slaves or free. 
utrum hostem an vOs an fortunam utrlusque popull ignOrfttis (Liy. xxi. 10), 

is it the enemy, or yourselves, or the fortune of the two peoples, that you 

do not know f 

Note. — Anne for an is rare. Necne is rare in direct questions, but in indirect ques- 
tions it is commoner than anndn. In poetry -ne . . , -ne sometimes occurs. 

a. The interrogative particle is often omitted in the first mem- 
ber ; in which case an or -ne (anne, necne) may stand in the second: — 

GabiniO dicam anne Pomp^iO an utrique (Manil. 67), shall I say to Gabinius, 

or to Pompey, or to both f 
sunt haec tua verba necne (Tusc. iii. 41), are these your words or not? 
quaeslYl S, Catilina in conventu apud M. Laecam fuisset necne (Cat. ii. 13), 

I asked Caiiline whether he had been at the meeting at Marcus LoBca^s 

or not. 

b. Sometimes the first member is omitted or implied, and an (anne) 
alone asks the question, — usually with indignation or surprise : — 

an tu miserOs put&s illOs (Tusc. i. 13), what I do you think those men wretched f 
an iste umquam d6 86 bonam spem habuisset, nisi de vObIs malam opIniOnem 
animO imbibisset (Verr. i. 42), would he ever ?iave had good hopes about 
himself unless he had conceived an evil opinion of you f 

c. Sometimes the second member is omitted or implied, and utrum 
may ask a question to which there is no alternative : — 

atram est in clS.rissim!s civibus is, quern . . . (Flacc. 45), is he among the 
noblest citizens, whom, etc. ? 

d. The following table exhibits the various forms of alternative 
questions : — 




. . an . . . an 

. . annon (necne, see § 335. v.) 

. . an (anne) 

. . an 

. . -ne, necne 

. . necne 

. . -ne 

Note. — From double (altemative) questions must be distinguished those which are 
in themselves single, but of which some detail is alternative. These have the common 
disjunctive particles ant or vel (-ve) . Thus, — quaerO num iniuste ant improbe f ecerit 
(Off. iii. 54), I a>sk whether he acted unjustly or even dishonestly. Here thdre is no 
doable question. The only inquiry is whether the man did either of the two things 
supposed, not which of the two he did. 

208 SYNTAX: QUESTIONS [§§336,337 

Question and Answer 

336. There is no one Latin word in common use meaning sim- 
ply ycB or no. In answering a question affirmatively^ the verb or 
some other emphatic word is generally repeated ; in answering 
negatively^ the verb, etc., with nOn or a similar negative : — 

yaletne, id he well? valet, yes (he is well). 

eratne tficum, voas he vnth youf ndii erat, no (he was not). 

num quidnam novl? there is nothing new, is there? nihil sflnS, oh I nothing. 

a. An intensive or negative particle^ a phrase, or a clause is some- 
times used to answer a direct question : — 

1. Eor YES : — 

y€rO, in truth, true, no doubt, yes. ita y6r0, certainly (so in truth), etc. 

etlam, even so, yes, etc. s9.n6 qnidem, yes, no doubt, etc. 

ita, so, true, etc. ita est, it is so, true, etc. 

s9,ne, surely, no doubt, doubtless, etc. 

certs, certainly, unquestionably, etc. 

factum, true, U^s afaxi, you We right, etc. (lit., it was done). 

2. For NO : — 

nOn, not so. ntlllO modO, by no meara. 

minims, not at all (lit., in the smallest degree, cf. § 329. a). 

minimfi vSrO, no, not by any means; oh! no, etc. 

n5n quidem, why, no; certainly not, etc. 

nOn hercle ySrO, why, gracious, no ! (certainly not, by Hercules I) 

Examples are : — 

quidnam? an laud&tiOnes? ita, why, whatf is it eulogies? juM so. 

aut etiam aut non respondSre (Acad. ii. 104), to answer (categorically) yes or no. 

estne ut fertur forma? sftne (Ter. Eun. 361), is she as h/indsome as they 

say she is ? (is her beauty as it is said ?) oh! yes. 
miser ergO Archeld,us ? certS si iniustus (Tusc. y. 35), was Archelau^ wretched 

then ? certainly, if he was unjust. 
an haec contenmitis ? minimS (De Or. ii. 295), do you despise these things ? not 

at all. 
yolucribusne et ferls? minime yero (Tusc. i. 104), to the birds and beasts? 

why, of course not. 
ex tul animi sententia tu uz5rem hab^s ? ndn hercle, ex mel animi sententiSL 

(De Or. ii. 260), Lord! no, etc. 

337. In answering a double question, one member of the alterna- 
tive, or some part of it, must be repeated : — 

yidisti an d6 auditO nuntias ? — egomet vidi (Plant. Merc. 902), did you see 
it or are you repeating something you have heard ? — I saw U myself. 



338. The Cases of nouns express their relations to other words in the sentence. 
The most primitive way of expressing such relations was by mere juxtaposition of unin- 
flected forms. From this arose in time composition, i.e. the growing together of stems, 
by means of which a complex expression arises with its parts mutually dependent. 
Thus such a complex as armi-gero- came to mean arm^bearing ; fldi-oen-, playing on the 
lyre. Later, Cases were formed by means of suffixes expressing more definitely such 
relations, and Syntax began. But the primitive method of composition still continues 
to hold an important place even in the most highly developed languages. 

Originally the Indo-European family of languages, to which Latin belongs, had at 
least seven case-forms, besides the Vocative. But in Latin the Locative and the Instru- 
mental were lost ^ except in a few words (where they remained without being recog- 
nized as cases), and their functions were divided among the other cases. 

The Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative express the simplest and perhaps the 
earliest case-relations. The Nominative is the case of the Subject, and generally ends 
in -8. The Vocative, usually without a termination, or like the Nominative (§ 38. a), 
perhaps never had a suffix of its own.^ The Accusative, most frequently formed by the 
sufiix -m, originally connected the noun loosely with the verb-idea, not necessarily 
expressed by a verb proper, but as well by a noun or an adjective (see § 386). 

The Genitive appears to have expressed a great variety of relations and to have 
had no angle primitive meaning ; and the same may be true of the Dative. 

The other cases perhaps at first expressed relations of place or direction (to, from, 
AT, with), though this is not clear in all instances. The earlier meanings, however, 
have become confused with each other, and in many instances the cases are no longer 
distinguishable in meaning or in form. Thus the Locative was for the most part lost 
from its confusion with the Dative and Ablative ; and its function was often performed 
by the Ablative, which is freely used to express the place where (§ 421). To indicate 
the case-relations — especially those of place — more precisely. Prepositions (originally 
adverbs) gradually came into use. The case-endings, thus losing something of their 
significance, were less distinctly pronounced as time went on (see § 38, phonetic decay) , 
and prepositions have finally superseded them in the modem languages derived from 
Latin. But in Latin a large and various body of relations was still expressed by case- 
forms. It is to be noticed that in their literal use cases tended to adopt the preposition, 
and in their Jigttrative uses to retain the old construction. (See Ablative of Separation, 
§§402-404; Ablative of Place and Time, $421 ff.) 

The word cftsus, case, is a translation of the Greek irruxris, a falling away (from the 
erect position) . The term wrQirii was originally applied to the Oblique Cases (§ 36. g) , 
to mark them as variations from the Nominative, which was called 6p^j erect {casus 
rectus). The later name Nominative {casus ndminattvvs) is from nomino, and means 
the naminff case. The other case-names (except Ablative) are of Greek origin. The 
name Genitive (casus genetivus) is a translation of yevncfi [wrwo^it], from 7^rof (c/om), 
and refers to the class to which a thing belongs. Dative {casus dativus, from d5) is 
translated from doriK-fi, and means the case of giving. Accusative {accusdtivus, from 
accuse) is a mistranslation of alnariK-h (the case of causing), from air la, cause, and 
meant to the Romans the case of accusing. The name Vocative {vocativus, from voce) 
fs translated from K\irriK-fi (the case of calling). The name Ablative {ablatlvus, from 
Abiatus, aulcrt) means taking from. This case the Greek had lost. 

1 Some of the endings, however, which In Latin are assigned to the dative and 
ablative are doubtless of locative or instrumental origin (see p. 34, footnote). 
« The e-vocative of the second declension is a form of the stem (§ 46. c). 



339. The Subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative : — 

Caesar Rhenum trSnsIre decrSverat (B. G. iv. 17), CoBsar had determined to 
cross the Rhine. 

For the omission of a pronominal sabject, see § 295. a. 

a. The nominative may be used in exclamations : — 

en dextra fidSsque (Aen. iv. 607), lo^ the faith and plighted word! 
ecce tuae litterae dfi VarrOne (Att. xiii. 16), lo and behold^ your letters about 
Note. — But the accusative is more common (§ 397. d). 


340. The Vocative is the case of direct address : — 

Tibeiine pater, te, sAncte, precor (Li v. ii. 10), father Tiber, thee, holy one, 

I pray. 
res omnia mihi tecum erit, HortSnsi (Verr. i. 33), my whole attention will be 

devoted to you, HortensivB. 

a. A noun in the nominative in apposition with the subject of 
the imperative mood is sometimes used instead of the vocative : — 

audi tu, populus Albanus (Liv. i. 24), hear, thou people of Alba. 

b. The vocative of an adjective is sometimes used in poetry instead 

of the nominative, where the verb is in the second person : — 

qu5 moriture ruis (Aen. x. 811), whither art tliou rushing to thy doom? 
cens5rem trabeate saltit&s (Fers. iii. 29), robed you salute the censor, 

c. The vocative macte is used as a predicate in the phrase macte 

estO (virtute), success attend your (valor) : — 

^ iuberem t6 macte virtute esse (Liv. ii. 12), I should bid you go on and prosper 
in your valor. 
macte novS. virtute puer (Aen. ix. 641), success attend your valor, boy! 

Note. — As the original quantity of the final e in macte is not determinable, it may 
be that the word was an adverb, as in bene est and the like. 


341. The Genitive is regularly used to express the relation of 
one noun to another. Hence it is sometimes called the adjective 
case, to distinguish it from the Dative and the Ablative, which 
may be called adverbial cases. 

I. Genitiye with Vonns: 


The uses of the Genitive may be classified as follows : — 

1. Of Possession (§ 343). 

2. Of Material (§ 344). 

3. Of Quality (§ 345). 

4. Of the Whole, after words designating a Part 
(Partitive, §346). 

6. With Nouns of Action and Feeling (§ 348). 

III. Cnltiv. Witt V.r1»: I J" ^J ""'""'fy' Ff "»«.«»«• (§« f>. 3fl. 35*^ 

\ 2. Of Accusing, etc. (Charge or Penalty) (§ 352). 


342. A noun used to limit or define another, and not meaning 
the same person or thing, is put in the Genitive. 

This relation is most frequently expressed in English by the prepo- 
sition of J sometimes by the English genitive (or possessive) case : — 

librl CiceioniB, the books of Cicero, or Cicero^s hooka, 
inimlcl Caesaris, CcBsar^s enemies, or the enemies of CcBsar, 
talentum auri, a talent of gold. 
vir sammae virtutis, a man of the greatest courage. 

But observe the following equivalents : — 

yac&ti5 laboris, a respite from toil. 

X>etitiO consnUtiis, candidacy for the consulship. 

regnum dvitHtis, royal power oyer the state. 

Possessive Genitive 

343. The Possessive Genitive denotes the person or thing to 
which an object, quality, feeling, or action belongs: — 

Alezandri canis, Alexander's dog. 

potentia Pompei (Sail. Cat. 19), Pompey'^s power. 

AriOYisti mors (B. G. v. 29), the death of Ariovistus. 

peiditonim temeritas (Mil. 22), the recklessness of desperate men. 

Note 1. — The Possessiye Genitive may denote (1) the actual owner (as in Alex- 
ander's dog) or author (as in Cicero* s writings), or (2) the person or thing that possesses 
Bome feeling or quality or does some act (as in Cicero* s eloque7ice, the strength of the 
bridge, Catiline's evil deeds). In the latter use it is sometimes called the Subjective 
Grenitive ; but this term properly includes the possessive genitive and several other 
genitive constructions (nearly all, in fact, except the Objective Genitive, § 347). 
NoTB 2. — The noun limited is understood in a few expressions : — 

ad Castoris [aedes] (Quinct. 17), at the [temple] of Castor. [Cf. St. PauVs.] 

Flaccus Claudi, Flaccus [slave] of Claudius. 

Hectoris Andromache (Aen. iii. 319), Hector's [wife] Andromache. 


a. For the genitive of possession a possessive or derivative adjec- 
tive is often used, — regularly for the possessive genitive of the per- 
sonal pronouns (§ 302. a) : — 

liber meas, my hook. [Not liber me!.] 

aliSna pericula, other men's dangers. [But also aliSnun.] 

SalUna tempora, the times of Sulla. [Oftener Sullae.] 

&• The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, connected 

with its noun by a verb (Predicate Genitive) : — 

haec domus est patiis mei, this house is my father^ s. 

lam me Pompei totum esse scis (Fam. ii. 13), you know I am now all for JPotn- 

pey (all Pompey's). 
summa laus et tua et Brfiti est (Fam. xii. 4. 2), the highest praise is due both 

to you and to Brutus (is both yours and Brutus^s). 
compendi facere, to save (make of saving). 
lacri facere, to get the ben^t of (make of profit). 

NoTB. — These genitives bear the same relation to the examples in § 343 that a 
predicate noun bears to an appositive (§§ 282, 283). 

c. An infinitive or a clause, when used as a noun, is often limited 
by a genitive in the predicate : — 

neque sui ifidic! [erat] discernere (B. C. i. 35), nor was it for his judgment to 

decide (nor did it belong to his judgment). 
cdiasYis hominis est errare (Phil. xii. 5), it is any man^s [liability] to err. 
neg&vit moris esse GraecOrum, ut in convivio virOrum accumberent mulieres 

(Verr. ii. 1. 66), Ae said it was not the custom of the Greeks for women to 

appear as guests (recline) at the banquets of men. 
sed timidi est optare necem (Ov. M. iv. 116), but His the coward's part to 

wish for death. 
stalti erat sperd,re, su&dere impodentis (Phil. ii. 23), U was folly (the part of 

a fool) to hope^ ^oinJtery to urge. 
sapientis est pauca loqul, it is wise (the part of a wise man) to say little. 
[Not sapiens (neuter) est, etc.] 

NoTB 1. — This construction is regular with adjectives of the third declension 
instead of the neuter nominative (see the last two examples). 

Note 2. — A derivative or possessive adjective may be used for the genitive In this 
construction, and invst be used for the genitive of a personal pronoun : — 
mentiri ndn est meum [not mei], it is not for me to lie. 
bumanom [for hominis] est errare, U is man*s nature to err (to err is human). 

d. A limiting genitive is sometimes used instead of a noun in appo- 
sition (Appositional Genitive) (§ 282) : — 

n6men insaniae (for nomen insania), the word madness, 
oppidum Antiochiae (for oppidum Antiochia, the regular form), t?ie city of 

§§344-346] PARTITIVB GENITIVE 218 

Genitive of Material 

344. The Genitive may denote the Substance or Material of 
which a thing consists (cf. § 403): — 

talentum ami, a tcUenit of gold, flUmina lactis, rivers ofmUk. 

Genitive of Quality 

345. The Genitive is used to denote Quality, but only when 
the quality is modified by an adjective : — 

vir sumniae virttitis, a man of the highest courage. [But not vir ▼irtQtis.] 
magnae est dSliberitidiiiB, it is an affair €f great deliberation, 
mAffd formica laboris (Hor. S. i. 1. 33), the ant [a creature] of great toU, 
ille autem sul iudici (Nep. Alt. 9), but fie [a man] of independent (his own) 

Note. — Compare Ablative of Quality (§ 415) . In expressions of quality, the geni- 
tive or the ablative may often be used indifferently : as, praestanti prfideatii vir, a 
man of surpassing wisdom ; maximT anind homS, a man of the greatest courage. In 
classic prose, however, the genitive of quality is much less common than the abla- 
tive; it is practically confined to expressions of measure or number, to a phrase with 
eins, and to nouns modified by m&gntts, maximas, sammus, or tantns. In general the 
Genitive is used rather of essential, the Ablative of special or incidental characteristics. 

a. The genitive of quality is found in the adjective phrases ^us 

modi, cuius modi (equivalent to t&lis, such ; qu&lis, of what sort): — 

eius modi sunt tempestat^s cOnsecutae, utl (B. G. iii. 29), such storms fol- 
lowed, tfiat, etc. 

&. The genitive of quality, with numerals, is used to define meas- 
ures of length, depth, etc. (Genitive of Measure): — 

fossa triom pedum, a trench of three feet [in depth]. 
mtirus sedecim pedum, a waU of sixteen feet [high]. 

For the Genitive of Quality used to express ind^nite t;a/u6, see § 417. 

Partitive Genitive 

346. Words denoting a Part are followed by the Genitive of 
the Whole to which the part belongs. 

a. Partitive words, followed by the genitive, are — 
1 . Nouns or Pronouns (cf . also 3 below) : — 

pars militum, part of the soldiers, quis nostrum, which qfusf 

nihil erat reliqui, there was nothing left. 

nSmO eoium (B. 6. viL 66) j not a man of them. 

magnam partem eomm interfecCrunt (id. ii. 28), they kiUed a large part of them. 


2. Numerals, Comparatives, Superlatives, and Pronominal words like 
alius, alter, nullus, etc.: — 

tlnus tribfindrum, one of the tribunes (see c below). 

sapientom oct^vus (Hor. S. ii. 3. 206), the eighth of the wise men, 

milia passuum sescenta (B. G. iv. 3), six hundred, miles (thousands of paces). 

m&ior fr&trom, the elder of the brothers, 

anim&liam fortiOra, the stronger [of] animals. 

Sueb(}rum gSns est longS maxima et bellicOsissima Germflndrum omnium 

(B. G. iv. 1), the tribe of the Suevi is far the largest and most warlike of 

all the Germans. 
alter cdnsulom, one of the [two] consuls. 
ntLUa eArum (B.G. iv. 28), not one of them (the ships). 

3. Neuter Adjectives and Pronouns, used as nouns : — 

tantum spati, so much [of] space. 

aliquid nummorum, a few pence (something of coins). 

id loci (or locorum), that spot of ground; id temporis, at that time (§ 397. a), 

pl&na urbis, tlie level parts of the town, 

quid novi, what news? (what of new?) 

paulum frumenti (B. C. i. 78), a lUtle grain, 

pltis doldris (B. G. i. 20), more grirf, 

soi aliquid timoiis (B. C. ii. 29), somefear of his own (something of his ownfear). 

Note 1. — In classic prose neuter adjectives (not pronominal) seldom take a parti- 
tive genitive, except multam, tantum, quantum, and similar words. 

Note 2. — The genitive of adjectives of the third declension is rarely used parti- 
tively : — nihil novi (genitive) , nothing new ; but, — nihil memoiabile (nominative) , noihr 
ing worth mention (not nihil memoxftbilis). 

4. Adverbs, especially those of Quantity and of Place : — 

parum 5ti, not much ease (too little of ease). 

satis pecuniae, money enough (enough of money). 

plQrimum tolias Galliae equitatti valet (B. G. v. 3), is strongest of all Gavl 

in cavalry, 
ubinam gentium sumus (Cat. i. 9), where in the world are we (where of 

nations) ? 
ubicumque texramm et gentium (Yerr. v. 143), whereoer in the whole world, 
res erat eO iam loci ut (Sest. 68), the basin^ess had now reajched such a point 

that, etc. 
eO miseriarum (lug. 14. 3), to that [pitch] of misery. 
inde loci, next in order (thence of place). [Poetical.] 

b* The poets and later writers often use the partitive genitive 

after adjectives, instead of a noun in its proper case : — 

sequlmur te, s&ncte deorum (Aen. iv. 676), we follow thee, holy deity. [Por 

s&ncte deus (§ 49. g. n.)] 
nigrae lAnSrum (Plin. H. N. viii. 193), black wools. [For nigrae ISnae.] 
expedltl militnm (Liv. xxx. 9), light-armed soldiers. [For expediti milites.] 
hominum cunct5s (Ov. M. iv. 631), all men. [For cflnctds homines ; cf. e.] 

§§346-348] OBJECTIVE GENITIVE 215 

c. Cardinal numerals (except milia) regularly take the Ablative 
with 6 (ex) or d6 instead of the Partitive Genitive. So also quidam, 
a certain one^ commonly, and other words occasionally : — 

unus ex tribunis, one of the tribunes. [But also, tlnus tribdnSrum (cf. a. 2).] 

minumus ex ilHs (lug. 11), the youngest of them. 

medius ex tribus (ib.), the middle one of the three. 

quidam ex militibas, certain of the soldiers. 

unus de multis (Fin. ii. 66), one of the many. 

pauci de nostris cadunt (B. G. i. 15), a few of our men fall. 

hominem de comitibus meis, a man of my companions. 

d. Uterque, both (properly each), and quisque, each, with Nouns 

are regularly used as adjectives in agreement, but with Pronouns 

take a partitive genitive : — 

uterque consul, both the consuls; but, uterque nostrum, both of us. 
unus quisque vestrum, each one of you. 
utraque castra, both camps. 

e. Numbers and words of quantity including the whole of any 
thing take a case in agreement, and not the partitive genitive. So 
also words denoting a part when only that part is thought of : — 

nos omnes, all of us (we all). [Not omnes nostnim.] 

quot sunt hostis, how many of the enemy are there f 

cave inimic5s, qui multi sunt, beware of your enemies^ who are many. 

mult! milites, many of the soldiers. 

nSmo Rdmanus, not one Roman. 

Objective Genitive 

347. The Objective Genitive is used with Nouns, Adjectives, 
and Verbs. 

348. Nouns of action^ agency^ 2JiA feeling govern the Genitive 
of the Object : — 

c^ritas tui, affection for you. dgsiderium oti, longing for rest. 

vacatid muneris, relief from duty. gratia benefici, gratitude for kindness. 

fuga maldnim, refuge from disaster. precatiO dedrom, prayer to the gods. 

contentid hondram, struggle for office, opinio yirtutis, reputation for valor. 

NoTB. —This usage is an extension of the idea of belonging to (Possessive Genitive). 
Thus in the phrase odiam Caesaris, hate of CsBsar, the hate in a passive sense belongs 
to Caesar, as odiumi though in its active sanse he is the object of it, as hate (cf. a). 
The distinction between the Possessive (subjective) and the Objective Genitive is very 
unstable and is often lost sight of. It is illustrated by the following example : the 
phrase amor patris, love of a father^ may mean love felt by a father y a father* s love 
(subjective genitive), or love towards a father (objective genitive). 


a. The objectiye genitive is sometimes replaced by a possessive 
pronoun or other derivative adjective: — 

mea invidia, my unpopularity (the dislike of which I am the object). [Cf. 

odium mei (Har. Reap. 6), hatred of me.] 
laud&tor mens (Att. i. 16. 6), my eulogist (one who praises me). [Cf. nostri 

laud&tor (id. i. 14. 6).] 
Clodiftnum crimen (Mil. 72), the murder of Clodiua (the Clodian charge). [As 

we say, the Nathan murder,] 
metus hostnis (lug. 41), fear of the enemy (hostile fear). 
ea quae faciSbat, tu& s6 fldtlci& facere dicebat (Verr. v. 176), what he was 

doing ^ he said he did relying on you (with your reliance), 
neque neglegentia tuA, neque id odi5 fecit tu5 (Ter. Ph. 1016), he did this 

neither from neglect nor from hatred of you, 

b. Rarely the objective genitive is used with a noun already lim- 
ited by another genitive : — 

animi mult&nim rSrum percursiO (Tusc. iv. 31), the mind^a traversing of inany 

c. A noun with a preposition is often used instead of the objec- 
tive genitive : — 

odium in Antonium (Fam. x. 5. 3), hate of Antony. 

merita ergft mS (id. i. 1. 1), services to me. 

meam in t5 piet&tem (id. i. 9. 1), my devotion to you. 

impetus in arbem (Phil. zii. 29), an attack on the city. 

excessus § viti (Fin. iii. 60), departure from life. [Also, ezcessus vitae, 

Tusc. i. 27.] 
adoptiO in Domitiam (Tac. Ann. xii. 25), the adoption of DomUius. [A late 

and bold extension of this construction.] 

NoTB. — So also in late writers the dative of reference (cf. § 366. 6): as, — loni^o 
bell5 materia (Tac. H. i. 89), resotarces for a long war. 


349. Adjectives requiring an object of reference govern the 
Objective Genitive. 

a» Adjectives denoting desire, knowledge, memory/, fulness^ power , 
sharing, guilt, and their opposites govern the genitive : — 

avid! laudis (Manil. 7), greedy of praise. 

fastidiOsus litter&mm, disdaining letters. 

iuris peiltus, skilled in law. [So also the ablative, lure, cf. § 418.] 

memorem vestii, oblitum sui (Cat. iv. 19), mindful ofyou^ forgetful ofhimsdf. 

rationiB et or&tiSnis expertSs (Off. i. 50), devoid of sense and speech. 

nostrae cdnsuStfldinis imperlti (B.G. iv. 22), unacquainted with our customs. 


planus fidei, fuU of good faith, 

omnis spei egSnam (Tac. Ann. i. 63), destitute of all hope. 
tempest&tam potentem (Aen. 1. 80), having sway over the storms. 
impot6ns irae (Li v. zxix. 9. 9), ungov€rTici>le in anger. 
coniOrAtidiiis particip6s (Cat. ill. 14), sharing in the conspiracy. 
affinis rei capit&liB (Verr. ii. 2. 94), involved in a capital crime. 
insOns colpae (Liv. xxil. 49), innocent of guilt. 

b. Participles in -ns govern the genitive when they are used as 
adjectives, i.e. when they denote a constant disposition and not a 
2J articular act : — 

si quern tui amantiOrem cOgnOvistI (Q. Fr. i. 1. 15), ^ you have become 
acquainted voith any one more fond of you. 

moltittLdO insolens belli (B. C. ii. 36), a croiod unused to war. 

erat lagurtha appetens gloxiae milit&rii} (lug. 7), Jugurtha was eager for mili- 
tary glory. 

NoTS 1. — Participles in -ns, when used as participles, take the case regularly gov- 
emed by the yerb to which they belong : as, — Sp. Maelium rtgnom appetentem inter- 
emit (Cat. M. 56), he put to death Spurius MsBlius, who was aspiring to royal power. 

Note 2. — Occasionally participial forms in -ns are treated as participles (see note 1) 
even when they express a disposition or character: as, — virtus quam alii ipsam tem- 
perantiam dicunt esse, alii obtemperantem temperantiae praeceptis et earn subsequen- 
tern (Tusc. iv. 30), observant of the teachings of temperance and -obedient to her. 

c. Verbals in -4x (§ 251) govern the genitive in poetry and later 
Latin: — 

ittstum et ten&cem prSpoaiti virum (Hor. Od. iii. 8), a man just and steadifast 

to his purpose. 
circufl capdjc pepuli (Ov. A. A. i. 136), a circus big enough to hold the people. 
cibi viniqne capd^issimus (Liv. ix. 16. 13), a very great eater and drinker 

(very able to contain food and wine). 

<f. The poets and later writers use the genitive with almost any 

adjective, to denote that with reference to which the quality exists 

( Genitive of Specification) : — 

callidus rei nulit&ria (Tac. H. ii. 32), skilled in soldiership. 
paaper aquae (Hor. Od. iii. 30. 11), scant of water. 
ndtus animi patemi (id. ii. 2. 6), famed for a paternal spirit. 
fessi lenxm (Aen. i. 178), weary of toil. 

integer vitae scelexisque purus (Hor. Od. 1. 22. 1), upright in life^ and unstained 
by guilt. 

NoTB. — The Genitive of Specification is only an extension of the construction with 
adjectives requiring an object of reference (§ 349). Thus callidus denotes knowledge ; 
pauper, want ; poms, innocence ; and so these words in a manner belong to the classes 
under a. 

For the Ablative of Specification, the prose construction, see § 418. For Adjectives 
of likeness etc. with the Genitive, apparently Objective, see § 386. c For Adjectives 
with animi (locative in origin), see § 358. 


Verbs of Remembering and Forgetting 

350. Verbs of remembering ^jlA. forgetting take either the Accu- 
sative or the Genitive of the object : — 

a. Memini takes the Accusative when it has the literal sense of 
retaining in the mind what one has seen, heard, or learned. Hence 
the accusative is used of persons whom one remembers as acquaint- 
ances, or of things which one has experienced. 

So obliviscor in the opposite sense, — to /or^e^ literally, to lose all 

memory of Q, thing (very rarely, of a person). 

Cinnam memini (Phil. v. 17), 7 remember Cinna, 

utinam avum tuum meminissSs (id. i. 34), oh! that you could remember your 

grandfather! (but he died before you were born). 
Postumium, c^ius statuam in IsthmO meminisse te dicis (Att. xiii. 32), Postu- 

miu8, whose statue you say you remember (to have seen) on the Isthmus. 
omnia meminit Siron Epictiri dogmata (Acad. ii. 106), Siron remembers aJU 

the doctrines of Epicurus. 
multa ab aliis audita meminSrunt (De Or. ii. 355), they remember many things 

that they have heard from others. 
totam causam oblitus est (Brut. 217), he forgot the whole ca^e. 
hinc iam obli^ascere Graios (Aen. ii. 148), from henc^orth forget the Greeks 

(i.e. not merely disregard them, but banish them from your mind, as if 

you had never known them). 

b. Memini takes the Genitive when it means to be mindful or 
regardful of a person or thing, to think of somebody or something 
(often with special interest or warmth of feeling). 

So obliviscor in the opposite sense, — to disregard, or dismiss from 
the mind, — and the adjective oblitus, careless or regardless. 

ipse sui meminerat (Verr. ii. 136), hs was mindful of himself (of his own 

faciam ut hfiius loci dieique meique semper memineris (Ter. Eun. 801), I will 

make you remember this place and this day and me as long cw you live. 
nee me meminisse piggbit Elissae, dum memor ipse mei (Aen. iv. 335), nor 

shall I feel regret at the thought of Elissa, so long as I remember myself. 
meminerint verecundiae (Off. i. 122), let them cherish modesty, 
humanae infiimitatis memini (Liv. xxx. 31. 6), I remember human weakness. 
oblivisci tempoTum meorum, meminisse actionam (Fam. i. 9. S), to disregard 

my own interests, to be mindful of the matters at issue. 
nee tamen Epicun licet oblivisci (Fin. v. 3), and yet I must not forget Epicurus. 
obliviscere caedis atque incendidrum (Cat. i. 6), turn your mind from slaughter 

and conflagrations (dismiss them from your thoughts). 

§§ 350, 361] ._ GENITIVE WITH VERBS 219 

Note 1. — With both memini and obliviscor the personal and reflexive pronouns are 
regularly in the Genitive ; neuter pronouns and adjectives used substantively are regu- 
larly in the Accusative ; abstract nouns are often in the Grenitive. These uses come 
in each instance from the natural meaning of the verbs (as defined above). 

Note 2. — Memini in the sense of mention takes the Genitive : as, — eundem Achil- 
lam cfiitts supra meminimus (B. C. iii. 108) , that same Achillas whom I mentioned 

c. Reminiscor is rare. It takes the Accusative in the literal sense 
of call to mind, recollect ; the Genitive in the more figm*ative sense 
of he mindful of: — 

dolcls morions reminlscitur Argds (Aen. x. 782), as he dies he calls to mind 

his beloved Argos. 
reminisceretur et veteris incommodi popull ROm&nl et pristinae virtutis Helv€- 

ti5ram (B. G. i. 13), let him remember both the former discomfiture of the 

Roman people and the ancient valor of the Helvetians. [A warning, — 

let him bear it in mind (and beware) ! ] 

d. Recorder, recollect, recall, regularly takes the Accusative : — 

recordare consinsum ilium thefttrl (Phil. i. 30), recall that unanimous agree- 

msnt of the [audience in the] theatre, 
recordamini omnis civillB dissSnsiones (Cat. iii. 24), call to mind all the civil 


Note.— Recorder takes the genitive once (Pison. 12) ; it is never used with a per- 
sonal object, but may be followed by d6 with the ablative of the person or thing 
(cf. §351. N.): — 

d6 15 recordor (Scaur. 49), / remember about you. 

dS iUis (lacrimis) recordor (Plane. 104), / am reminded of those tears. 

Verbs of Reminding; 

351. Verbs of reminding take with the Accusative of the per- 
son a Genitive of the thing; except in the case of a neuter pro- 
noun, which is put in the accusative (cf. § 390. c). 

So admoneO, commoneO^ commonefaciO; commonefiS. But moneS with 

the genitive is found in late writers only. 

Catilina admonfibat alinm egestatis, alium cupiditatis suae (Sail. Cat. 21), 

Catiline reminded one of his poverty, another of his cupidity. 
eos hoc moneO (Cat. ii. 20), I give them this warning. 
quod V08 lex commonet (Verr. iii. 40), that which the law reminds you of. 

Note. — All these verbs often take d6 with the ablative, and the accusative of nouns 
as well as of pronouns is sometimes used with them : — 

saepius te admoneo d€ syngrapha Sittiana (Fam. viii. 4. 5) I remind you again and 

again of Sittius's bond. 
offlcium vostrum ut vos malo cOgatis commonerier (Plant. Ps. 160), that you may 
. by misfortune force yourselves to be reminded of your duty. 


Verbs of Accusing:, Condemning, and Acquitting 

352. Verbs of accumig^ condemning^ and acquitting^ take the 

Genitive of the Charge or Penalty : — 

arguit mS faiti, he accuses me of tkeft, 

pecal&tiis damnatus (pecaniae ptiblicae damn&tus) (Flacc. 43), condemned for 

video nOn t€ absoltitum esse improbitatis, sed illos damnatOs esse caedis 

(VeiT. ii. 1. 72), I see, not that you were acquitted of outrage, but thai 

they were condemned for homicide. 

a. Peculiar genitives, under this construction, are — 

capitis, as in damnare capitis, to sentence to death. 
maiest&tis [laesae], treason (crime against the dignity of the state), 
repetandflmm [rerum], extortion (lit. of an action for reclaiming money). 
YOti damnatus (or reus), bound [to the payment] of one^s vow, i.e. success- 
ful in one's effort, 
pecaniae (damnare,, see note), 
dupli etc., as in dupli condemnaie, condemn to pay twofold. 

NoTB. — The origin of these genitive constructions is pointed at by pecaniae dam- 
nare (Gall. XX. 1. 38), to condemn to pay money ^ in a case of injary to the person; 
qnantae pectiniae iudicati essent (id.xx.l.47),^ot(; muc^ money they were adjudged to pay, 
in a mere suit for debt; cdnfessi aeris ac debit! iudicati (id. xx. 1. 42), adjudged to owe 
an admitted sum due. These expressions show that the genitive of the penalty conies 
from the use of the genitive of value to express a sum, of money due either as a debt or as 
a fine. Since in early civilizations all offences could be compounded by the payment of 
fines, the genitive came to be used of other punishments, not pecuniary. From this to 
the genitive of the actual crime is an easy transition, inasmuch as there is always a 
confusion between crime and penalty (cf . Eng. guilty of death) . It is quite unnecessary 
to assume an ellipsis of cximine or iudiciS. 

353. Other constructions for the Charge or Penalty are — 

1. The Ablative of Price : regularly of a definite amount of fine, 
and often of indefinite penalties (cf. § 416) : — 

FrusinatSs tertia parte agrl damnati (Liv. x. 1), the people of FruHno con- 
demned [to forfeit] a third part of their land. 

2. The Ablative with d€, or the Accusative with inter, in idiomatic 
expressions : — 

d6 alea, for gambling ; d6 ambitu, for bribery. 

de pecCinils repetandis, of extortion (cf. § 862. a). 

inter sicOriOs (Rose. Am. 90), as an assassin (among the assassins). 

d€ yl et md,iestatis damn3,ti (Phil. i. 21), convicted of assault and treason. 

Notes. — The accusative with ad and In occurs in later writers to express the pen- 
ally: as, — ad mortem (Tac. Ann. xvi. 21), to death; ad (in) metana, to the mines. 

§§354,356] GENITIVE WITH VERBS 221 

Verbs of Feeling 

354. Many verbs of feeliivg take the Genitive of the object 
which excites the feeling. 

a. Verbs of ;pityj as misereor and miserescO, take the genitive : — 

miseremini familiae, iudic^s, miser^mini patris, miseremini fili (Flacc. 106), 

home pUy on the family, etc. 
miserere animl nOn digna ferentis (Aen. ii. 144), pity a 8<ml that endures 

unworthy things. 
misereecite regis (id. viii. 573), pity the king. [Poetical.] 

Note. — But miseror, oonuniMror, bewail, take the aocusative: as, — communem 
condiciSnem miseran (Mur. 56), bewail the common lot. 

6. As impersonals, miseret, paenitet, piget, pudet, taedet (or pertaesum 
est), take the genitive of the cause of the feeling and the accusative 
of th& person affected: — 

quos inf&miae suae neque pudet neque taedet (Verr. i. 35), who are neither 

ashamed nor weary of their dishonor. 
me miseret paiietum ipsOrum (Phil. ii. 60), I pity the very waUs. 
mS ciyitd,tis momm piget taedetque (lug. 4), / am sick and tired of the ways 

of the state. 
decemvirdrum vos pertaesum est (Liv. iii. 67), you became tired of the decemvirs. 

c. With miseret, paenitet, etc., the cause of the feeling may be ex- 
pressed by an infinitive or a clause : — 

neque mS paenitet mortfllfs inindcitl&s habSre (Rab. Post. 32), nor am I sorry 

to have deadly enmities. 
non dedisse istunc pudet; m6 quia n5n accipi piget (PI. Pseud. 282), h£ is 

ashamed not to have given; I am sorry because I have not received. 

NoTB. — Miseret etc. are sometimes used personally with a neuter pronoun as sub- 
ject : as, — nOn te baec pudent (Ter. Ad. 764), do not these things shame you? 

Interest and Refert 

355. The impersonals interest and refert take the Genitive of 
the person (rarely of the thing) affected. 

The subject of the verb is a neuter pronoun or a substantive 
clause : — 

Clodl intererat MilOnem perlre (cf. Mil. 56), it was the interest of Clodius that 

Milo should die. 
aliquid quod illonxm magis quam svlSl rStnlisse viderStur (lug. Ill), something 

which seemed to be more for their interest than his own. 
video enim quid me& intersit, quid utriusque nostrum (Fam. vii. 23. 4), for 1 

see what is for my good an/dfor the good of us both. 


a. Instead of the genitive of a personal pronoun the correspond- 
ing possessive is used in the ablative singular feminine after interest 
or r6f ert : — 

quid tua id rfifert? mSgnl (Ter. Ph. 723), how does thai concern youf much, 

[See also the last two examples above.] 
vehementer intererat vestrft qui patr€s estls (Plin. Ep. iv. 13. 4), it would he 

very much to your advantage^ you who are fathers. 

Note. — This is the only construction with rSfert in classic prose, except in one 
passage in Sallust (see example above). 

b. The accusative with ad is used with interest and rSfert to ex- 
press the thing with reference to which one is interested : — 

m&gnl ad honorem nostrum interest (Fam. xvi. 1), it is of great consequence 

to our honor. 
rSfert etiam adfructus (Varr. R. R. i. 16. 0), it makes a difference as to the crop. 

Note 1. — Very rarely the person is expressed by ad and the accusative, or (with 
rtfert) by the dative (probably a popular corruption): — 

quid id ad mS aut ad meam rem refert (PI. Pers. 513), what difference does that 

make to me or to my interests? 
quid referat intra naturae finis vfyent! (Hor. S. i. 1. 49), what difference does it 

make to me who live within the limits of natural desire f 
nOn referre dedecori (Tac. Ann. xv. 65), that it makes no difference as to the 
Note 2. — The degree of interest is expressed by a genitive of value, an adverb, 
or an adverbial accusative. 

Verbs of Plenty and Want 

356. Virbs of Plenty and Want sometimes govern the geni- 
tive (cf . § 409. a. N.) : — 

convlvium vicinorum compleO (Cat. M. 46, in the mouth of Cato), I Jill up the 
banquet with my neighbors. 

implentur veteris Bacchi pinguisque feiinae (Aen. i. 215), they fill themselves 
with old wine and fat venison. 

n6 quis auxili egeat (B. G. vi. 11), lest any require aid. 

quid est quod defensiSnis indigeat (Rose. Am. 34), what is there that needs 

quae ad c5ns5landum m§.i5ris ingeni et ad ferendum singul9,ris virtutis indi- 
gent (Fam. vi. 4. 2), [sorrows] which for their comforting need more abil- 
iby^ and for endurance unusual courage. 

Note. — Verbs of plenty and want more commonly take the ablative (see §§ 409. a. 
401), except egeo, which takes either case, and indigeS. But the genitive is by a Greek 
idiom often used in poetry instead of the ablative with aU words denoting separatm 
and want (cf. § 357. 6. 3): — 

abstineto irarum (Hor. Od. iil. 27. 69), refrain from, wrath. 

operum solutis (id. iii. 17. 16), /ree/rom toils. 

desine moUinm querell&rum (id. ii. 9. 17), have done with weak complaints. 

§§357-369] PECULIAR GENITIVES 228 

Genitiye with Special Verbs 

357. The Genitive is used with certain special verbs. 

a. The genitive sometimes follows potior, get possession of; as 
always in the phrase potiri rerum, to he master: of affairs : — 

illlus regni potiri (Fam. i. 7. 5), to become master of that kingdom, 
Cleanthes 851em dominftrl et rSrum potiri putat (Acad. ii. 126), Cleanthes 
thinks the sun holds sway and is lord of tfie universe. 
Note. — But potior usually takes the ablative (see §410). 

b» Some other verbs rarely take the genitive — 

1 . By analogy with those mentioned in § 354 : — 

neque huius sis veritus fSminae prlm&riae (Ter. Ph. 071), and you had no 
respect for this highrbom lady, 

2. As akin to adjectives which take the genitive : — 

fastldit mei (Plant. Aul. 245), he disdains me. [Cf. fastldidsus.] 
studet tm (quoted N. D. iii. 72), he is zeaXcmsfor you, [Cf. studiOsus.] 

3. In imitation of the Greek: — 

iostitiaene prius mirer, belllne labdrum (Aen. xi. 126), shall I raiher admire 

his justice' or his toils in warf 
neque ille sSpositi ciceris nee longae invldit avSnae (Hor. S. ii. 6. 84), nor did 

he grudge his garnered peas, etc. [But cf. invidus, parcus.] 
labSram dgcipitur (Hor. Od. ii. 13. 38), he is beguiled of his woes, 
m6 laboram levfts (PL Rud. 247), you relieve me of my troubles, ^ 

358. The apparent Genitive animi (really Locative) is used with 
a few verbs and adjectives oi feeling and the like: — 

AntiphO m6 excruciat animi (Ter. Ph. 187), Antipho tortures my mind (me in 

my mind), 
qui pendet animi (Tusc. iv. 35), who is in suspense, 
me animi fallit (Lucr. i. 922), my mind deceives me. 
So, by analogy, dSsipiebam mentis (PI. Epid. 138), I was out of my head; 
aeger animi, sick at heart; cOnfusus animi, disturbed in spirit. 
s3jiu8 mentis aut animi (PI. Trin. 454)^ sound in mind or heart, 


359. Peculiar Genitive constructions are the following : — 

a. A poetical genitive occurs rarely in exclamations, in imitation 

of the Greek ( Genitive of Exclaination) : — 

dl immortales, mercimoni lepidi (PL Most. 912), good heavens! what a charm- 
ing bargain ! 
fo^eris heu taciti (Prop. Iv. 7. 21), alas for the unspoken agreement! 


6. The genitive is often used with the ablatives causa, gratia, for 
the sake of; ergO, because of; and the indeclinable instar, like; also 
with pridiS, the day before; postridiS, the day after; tenus, a^ far as: 
hondris causft, with due respect (for the sake of honor), 
yerbi gratia, for example. 
gius \%pB erg5, on account of this law, 
equus instar montU (Aen. ii. 15), a horse huge as a mountain (the image of 

a mountain). 
laterum tenus (id. x. 210), as far as the sides. 

NoTB 1. — Of these the genitive with causft is a deyelopment from the possessive 
genitive and resembles that in ndmen ins&niae (§ 343,(7) . The others are of various origin. 

Note 2. — In prose of the Repablican Period pxidii and postiidiS are thus used only 
in the expressions pridiJ (postridiS) ftius di6i, the day before {after) that (cf . " the eve, the 
morrow of that day"). Tacitus uses the construction with other words : as, — postridiJ 
insidianun, the day after the plot. For the accusative, see § 432. a. Tenus takes also 
the ablative (p. 136). 


360. The Dative is probably, like the Genitive, a grammatical case, that is, it is 
a form appropriated to the expression of a variety of relations other than that of the 
direct object. But it is held by some to be a Locative with the primary meaning of 
to or towardSf and the poetic uses (like it dimor cael5, Aen. v. 451) are regarded as 
survivals of the original use. 

In Latin the Dative has two classes of meanings : — 

1. The Dative denotes an object not as caused by the action, or directly affected by 
it (like the Accusative), but as reciprocally sharing in the action or receiving it conr 
scionMy or actively. Thus in dedit paero libnun, he gave the boy a book, or fScit mihi 
iniuriam, he did me a torong, there is an idea of tiie boy*s receiving the book, and of my 
feeling the wrong. Hence expressions denoting persons, or things with personal 
attributes, are more likely to be in the dative than those denoting mere thijigs. So 
in Sx>anish the dative is used whenever a person is the object of an action ; yo veo al 
honibre, I see [to] the man. This difference between the Accusative and the Dative 
(i.e. between the Direct and the Indirect Object) depends upon the point of view implied 
in the verb or existing in the mind of the writer. Hence Latin verbs of similar meaning 
(to an English mind) often differ in the case of their object (see § 367. a). 

2. The Dative is used to express the purpose of an action or that for which it serves 
(see § 382). This construction is especially used with abstract expressions, or those 
implying an action. 

These two classes of Datives approach each other in some cases and are occasion- 
ally confounded, as in §§ 383, 384. 

The uses of the Dative are the following : — 

1. Indirect Object (general ( 1. With Transitives (§ 362). 

use): I 2. With Inlransitives (§§ 366-.'?72). 

1. Of Possession (with esse) (§ 373). 

2. Of Agency (with Gerundive) (§ 374). 

2. Special or Idiomatic Uses : \ 3. Of Reference (datlvus commodl) (§§ 376-381). 

4. Of Purpose or End (predicate use) (§ 382). 

5. Of Fitness etc. (with Adjectives) (§§383, 384). 



361. The Dative is used to denote the object indirectly affected 
by an action. 

This is called the Indirect Object (§ 274). It is usually denoted 
in English by the objective with to: — 

cedite tempori, yiM to the occasion. 

prOvincia Ciceroni obtigit, the province feU by lot to Cicero, 

inimicis n5n cr€dimus, we do not trust [to] our enemies. 

Indirect Object with Transitives 

362. The Dative of the Indirect Object with the Accusative 
of the Direct may be used with any transitive verb whose mean- 
ing allows (see § 274) : — 

d5 tibi librum, I give you a hook. 

iUnd tibi affirmO (Fam. i. 7. 6), this I assure you. 

commendO tiU §iu8 omnia negOtia (id. i. 3), I put all his affairs in your hands 

(commit them to you), 
dabis profecto misericordiae quod ir&cundiae negd,vistl (Deiot. 40), you will 

surely grant to mercy what you reused to wrath. 
litteras & te mihi stator tuus reddidit (Fam. il. 17), your messenger delivered 

tom^a letter from you. 

a. Many verbs have both a transitive and an intransitive use, and 
take either the Accusative with the Dative, or the Dative alone : — 

mihi id aamm credidit (cf. Plaat. Aul. 15), he trusted that gold to me. 
eqao ng erudite (Aen. ii. 48), put not your trust in the horse. 
concessit sen&tns postaUtidnl tuae (Mar. 47), the senate yielded to your demand. 
concedere amicis qoidquid velint (Lael. 38), to grant to friends all they may 

363. Certain verbs implying motion vary in their construction 
between the Dative of the Indirect Object and the Accusative 
of the End of Motion (§§ 426, 427): — 

1. Some verbs implying motion take the Accusative (usually with 
ad or in) instead of the Indirect Object, when the idea of motion pre- 
vails : — 

litteras quas ad Pompeium scrlpsi (Att. iii. 8. 4), the letter which I have written 
[and sent] to Pompey. [Cf. n5n quO hab€rem quod tibi scribereni (id. 
iy. 4 a), not that I had anything to write to you.] 


litterae extemplO R5main scrlptae (Liv. xli. 16), a letter was invmediateiy vrriUen 

[and sent] to Borne, 
hostis in fugam dat (B. G. v. 51), A€ puts the enemy to flight, [Cf. at me dem 

fugae (Att. vii. 23), to take to flight.] 
omnes rem ad Pompeiam deferri volant (Fam. i. 1), aU wish the mcUter to be 

put in thb hands of Pompey (referred to Pompey). 

2. On the other hand, many verbs of motion usually followed by 

the Accusative with ad or in, take the Dative when the idea of motion 

is merged in some other idea : — 

mihi litteras mittere (Fam. vii. 12), to send me a letter, 
eum librum tibi misi (id. vii. 19), 7 sent you that book, 
nee quicquam quod nOn mihi Caesar detulerit (id. iv. 13), and nothing which 

Coisar did not communicate to me. 
cQres at mihi vehantar (id. viii. 4. 5), taJce care that they be conveyed to me. 
cam alius alii subsidium ferrent (B. 6. ii. 26), while one lent aid to another. 

364. Certain verbs may take either the Dative of the person and 
the Accusative of the thing, or (in a different sense) the Accusative 
of the person and the Ablative of the thing ^ : — 

dOnat coron&8 snis, he presents wreaths to his men; or, 

dOnat Bads corSnis, he presents his men with wreaths. 

▼incala exuere sibi (Ov. M. vii. 772), to shake cff the leash (from himself). 

omnis armis exuit (B. G. v. 61), he stripped them all of their arms. 

Note 1. — InterdicS, /or&id, takes either (1) the Dative of the person and the Abla- 
tive of the thing, or (2) in later writers, the Dative of the person and the Accusative of 
the thing : — 

aquft et igni alicui interdicere, to forbid one the use of fire and water. [The regular 

formula for banishment.] 
interdixit histrionibus scaenam (Suet. Dom. 7), he forbade the actors [to appear on] 

the stage (he prohibited the stage to the actors). 
fSminis (dat.) purpurae usu interdicemus (Liv. xxxiv. 7), shall we forbid women 
the wearing of purple ? 
Note 2. — The Dative with the Accusative is used in poetry with many verbs of 
preventing J protecting, and the like, which usually take the Accusative and Ablative. 
Intercludo and prohibeS sometimes take the Dative and Accusative, even in prose : — 
hisce omnis aditus ad Sullam intercliidere (Rose. Am. 110), to shut these men ofT 
from all access to Sulla (close to them every approach). [Cf. uti commeata 
Caesarem intercluderet (B. G. i. 48), to shut Cassar off from supplies.l 
himc (oestrum) arccbis pecori (Greorg. iii. 154), you shall keep this away from the 

flock, [Cf . ilium arcuit Gallia (Phil. v. 37), he excluded him from Gaul.] 
85l8titium pecoii defendite (Eel. vii. 47) , keep the summer heat from the flock. [Cf . 
uti 86 a contumSliis inimlcorum dcfenderet (B. C. i. 22), to defend himself 
from the slanders of his enemies.] 

1 Such are d5n5, imperti5, indad, exu5, adsperco, inspergS, circnmdS, and in poetry 
accingd, implied, and similar verbs. 


365. Verbs which in the active voice take the Accusative and 
Dative retain the Dative when used in the passive : — 

ntintiabantur haec eadem Cflrioni (B. C. ii. 37), these same things were 
announced to Curio. [Active : nflntiibant (quidam) baec eadem COrioni.] 

nee doceudl Caesaris propinquis 6ius spatium datur, nee tribunis pl6bis sui 
perlculi dfiprecandi facultSa tribuitur (id. i. 5), no time is given Ccesar's 
relatives to inform him, and no opportunity is granted to the tribunes of 
the plebs to avert danger from themselves. 

prOvineiae privStis dficemuntur (id. i. 6), provinces are voted to private 

Indirect Object with Intransitives 

366. The Dative of the Indirect Object may be used with any 

Intransitive verb whose meaning allows : — 

cedant arma togae (Phil. ii. 20), let arms give place to the gown, 

Caesari respondet, he replies to Ccesar. 

Caesaii respondetur, a reply is given to Coesar (Caesar is replied to) . [Cf . § 372. ] 

respond! maximis crimlnibus (Phil. ii. 36), I have answered the heaviest charges, 

ut ita cuique Cveniat (id. ii. 119), tJiat it may so turn out to each. 

Note 1. — Intransitive verbs have no Direct Object. The Indirect Object, there- 
fore, in these cases stands alone as in the second example (but cf. § 362. a). 

Note 2. — C6do, yields sometimes takes the Ablative of the thing along with the 
Dative of the person : as, — cedere alicni possessiSne hortOrum (cf . Mil. 76) , to give up to 
one the possession of a garden. 

«• Many phrases consisting of a noun with the copula sum or a 

copulative verb are equivalent to an intransitive verb and take a 

kind of indirect object (cf. § 367. a, n.^): — 

auctor esse alicni, to advise or instigate on^ (cf. persalided). 

quis huic rei testis est (Quinct. 37), wh>o testifies (is witness) to this fact? 

is finis populatidmbas fait (Liv. ii. 30. 9), this put an end to the raids. 

b» The dative is sometimes used without a copulative verb in a 
sense approaching that of the genitive (cf. §§ 367. d, 377) : — 

legatus fratri (Mur. 32), a lieutenant to his brother (i.e. a man assigned to his 

ministrl sceleribus (Tac. Ann. vi. 36), agents of crime. [Cf. sgditionis minis> 

tri (id. i. 17), agents of sedition.] 
miseiiis suis remedium mortem exspectare (Sail. Cat. 40), to look for death 

as a cure for their miseries. [Cf. solus mearum miseriarumst remedium 

(Ter. Ad. 294).] 

Note. — The cases in a and b differ from the constructions of § 367. a. n.^ and 
§ 377 in that the dative is more closely connected in idea with some single word to 
which it serves as an indirect object. 


Indirect Object with Special Verbs 

367. Many verbs signifying to favor ^ helpy pleasey trusty and 
their contraries ; also to believe^ persuade^ command^ obey, serve, 
resist, envy, threaten, pardon, and spare} take the Dative : — 

cur mihi invid€s, why do you envy me f 

mihi parcit atque Igndscit, Tie spares and pardons me. 

ignOfice patriO dolori (Liv. ill. 48), excuse a father^ s grirf. 

subvenl patriae, opitulare conlegae (Fam. z. 10. 2), coTiie to the aid of your 

country, help your colleague. 
mihi nOn displicet (Clu. 144), U does not displease me. 
n5n omnibas serriO (Att. xiil. 49), I am not a servant to eoery man. 
nOn parcam operae (Fam. xiii. 27), I will spare no pains. 
sic mihi persu&Bl (Cat. M. 78), $o I have persuaded myself, 
mihi Fabius dSbSbit ignOscere si minus §ias famae parcere yidSbor quam antea 

cOnsuluI (TuU. 3), Fabius will have to pardon me if I seem to spare hxs 

reputation less than I huve heretofore regarded it. 
hale legion! Caesar cOnfid^bat mazimS (B. G. i. 40. 15), in this legion Ooesar 

trusted most. 

In these verbs the Latin retains an original intransitive meaning. 
Thus : invidBre, to envy, is literally to look askance at ; servire is to he 
a slave to ; sufidSre is to make a thing pleasant (sweet) to, 

a* Some verbs apparently of the same meanings take the Accusative. 

Such are iuv5, adiuvd, help; laedO, injure; iubed, order; deficiO, /ail; 
delects, please : — 

hic pulvis oculam meum laedit, this dust hurts my eye. [Cf. multa ocolia 
nocent, many things are injurious to the eyes.] 

NoTB 1. — nd5 and c5nfid5 take also the Ablative (§ 431) : as, — multum nfitflrft loci 
oOnfidebant (B. G. iii. 9), they had great confidence in the strength of their position. 

Note 2. — Some common phrases regularly take the dative precisely like verbs of 
similar meaning. Such are >- praesto esse, be on h^nd (cf . adesse) ; mOrem gerere, 
humor (cf. moriger&ri) ; gratum facere, do a favor (cf. grStlflc&ri) ; dictO audi§ns esse, 
be obedient (cf. oboedire) ; cui fidem habebat (B. O. i. 19), in whom hs had conjidenca 
(cf. c5nfid«Mit). 

So also many phrases where no corresponding verb exists. Such are ^ ben^ (male, 
pulchre, aegre, etc.) esse, be well {ill, etc.) off; iniuriam facere, do injustice to ; diem 
dicere, bring to trial (name a day for, etc.); agere gn*&ti&s, express one's thanks; 
habere gratiam,/ee2 thankful; referre g^atiam, repay a favor; opus esse, be neces- 
sary ; damnum dare, inflict an injury; acceptum (ezpensum) ferre (esse), credit 
{charge); honOrem habgre, to pay honor to. 

1 These include, among others, the following: advertor, cCdd, cridd, faved, fidS, 
IgndscS, imper5, indulged, invided, irftscor, mxnitor, noced, pared, pared, placed, xedstfi^ 
aerviS, studed, so&ded (persuaded), susodnsed, tempexd (obtempexd). 


h. Some verbs are used tranntively with the Acousative or intran- 
sitively with the Dative without perceptible difference of meaning. 

Such are adfklor, aemiilor, dSspeit^, praestSlor, med^or : — 

adul&tus est Aatdnid (Nep. Att. 8), he flattered Antony » 

adulari Nerdnem (Tac. Ann. xvi. 10), to fritter Nero, 

p&cem n5n despGrSs (Att. yiii. 15. 3), you do not despair qf peace, 

sidttti desp6r&re vetuit (Clu. 68), lie forbade Him to despair o/8(tfety, 

c. Some verbs are used transitively with the Accusative or intran- 
sitively with the Dative with a difference of meaning : — ^ 

paxtl clYium cOnsolunt (Off. i. 86), Hufy consult for a part of the dtUiens, 
cum ti cOUAiluissem (Fam. zi. 29), when I had consulted yotu 
metu^ns paeris (Plant. Am. 1118), anxiofusfor the ehildren, 
nee metaunt deos (Ter. Hec. 772), they fear not even the gods, [So also timed.] 
prOspicite patriae (Cat. iv. 8), have regard for the state. 
prOspicere sedem senecttltl (Liv. iv. 40. 14), to provide a habitation for old a^ge, 
[So also provided.] 

4l. A few verbal nouns (as insidiae, ambttsh; obtemperfttiO^ obedi- 
ence) rarely take the dative like the corresponding verbs : — 

insidlae cdnsaU (Sail. Cat. 82), the plot against thje consul (of. ihsidior). 
obtemper&tiO Ugibos (Legg. i. 42), obedience to the laws (cf. obtempeto). 
sibi ip8i respdnsiO (De Or. ill. 207), an anstver to himseif (cf. respondeS). 

NoTB. — In these cases the dative depends immediately upon the verbal force of the 
noun and not on any complex idea (cf . § 366. a, b), 

368. The Dative is used — 

1. With the impersonals libet (lubet), it pleases^ and licet, it is 

allowed : — 

quod mihi maxime lubet (Fam. i. 8. 3), what most pleases me. 
quasi tibi nOn licSret (id. vi. 6), cu ^ you were not permitted, 

2. With verbs compounded with satis, bene, and male : — 

miki ipse numquam satisfaciO (Fam. 1. 1), I neeer satiny myself, 
optimO viro maledlcere (Deiot. 28), to speak ill of a most excellent man. 
pulchrum est benefacere rei pfiblicae (Sail. Cat. 3), it is a glorious thing to 
ben^ the state, 

NoTK. — These are not real compounds, but phrases, and were apparently felt as 
such by the Romans. Thus, — satis officio me6, satis illOmm volnntati qni a me hoc 
petiverunt factum esse arbitrabor (Verr. v. 130) , I shall consider that erwugh has been 
done for my duty, erwughfor the wi^ies of those who asked this of me. 

1 See the Lexicon nnder caveS, convenio, cupi5, Insists, numeS, pracvcrtS, recipiS, re- 
nuntiS, solvd, saocSdd. 


3. With grfttificor, grfltulor, nubO^ permittO, plaudS, probO, studeO, sup- 
plicO, excellO: — 

PompSid s6 gr9.tific9,ri putant (Fam. i. 1), they suppose they are doing Pompey 

a service, 
grd.tulor tibi, ml Balbe (id. vi. 12), I congratulate you^ my dear Balbus. 
tibi permittO respondere (N. D. iii. 4), I give you leave to answer, 
mihi plaudO ipse doml (Hor. S. i. 1. 66), I applaud myself at hom£. 
cum inimici M. Font^I vObIs ac populO ROm^no minentur, amid ac propinqui 

supplicent ydbis (Font. 35), while the enemies of Marcus Fonteius are 

threatening you and the Roman people too., while his friends and relatives 

are beseeching you. 

NoTB.'^ Misceo and inngo sometimes take the dative (see § 413. a. n.) . HaereS usually 
takes the ahlative, with or without in, rarely the dative : as, — haerentem capiti coiO- 
nam (Hor. S. i. 10. 49), a wreath dinging to the head, 

a. The dative is often used by the poets in constructions which 

would in prose require a noun with a preposition. So especially 

with verbs of contending (§ 413. b) : — 

contendis HomSrd (Prop. i. 7. 3), you vie with Homer, [In prose : cum Homeio.] 
placitOne etiam ptignabis amSri (Aen. iv. 38), will you struggle even against a 

love that pleases you f 
tibi certat (Eel. v. 8), vies with you, [tecum.] 

differt sennSni (Hor. S. i. 4. 48), differs from prose, [& sezmone, § 401.] 
lateri abdidit Snsem (Aen. ii. 553), buried the sword in his side, [in latere, 

§ 430. ] 
For the Dative instead of ad with the Accusative, see § 428. h, 

369. Some verbs ordinarily intransitive may have an Accusa- 
tive of the direct object along with the Dative of the indirect 
<cf. § 362. a): — 

cni cum r€x crucem min&retnr (Tusc. i. 102), and when the king threatened 

him with the cross. 
CrStensibus obsides imper&vlt (Manil. 35), Tie exacted hostages of the Cretans. 
omnia sibi IgnQscere (Veil. ii. 30), to pardon ante's self everything. 
Ascanione pate^ R5m9,nas invidet arces (Aen. iv. 234), does the father envy 

Ascanius his Roman citadels f [With invide5 this construction is poetic 

or late.] 

«. With the passive voice this dative may be retained : — 

qui iam nunc sanguinem meum sibi indulgeri aequum cgnset (Liv. xl. 15. 16), 
wh,o even now thinks it right that my blood should be granted to him as a 

singulis censoribus denarii trecenti impdrati sunt (Verr. ii. 137), three hun- 
dred denarii were exacted of each censor, 

Scaevolae concessa est facundiae virtus (Quint, xii. 3. 9), to Scaevola has 
been granted excellence in oratory. 


Indirect Object with Compounds 

370. Many verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, in, inter, ob, 
post, prae, pr<$, sub, super, and some with circum, admit the Dative 
of the indirect object : — 

neque enim adsentior eis (Lael. 13), for I do riot agree with them. 

quantum natura hominis pecudibus antec€dit (Off. i. 105), so far as mail's 
nature is superior to brutes. 

si 8ibi ipse cOnsentit (id. i. 5), if he is in accord wiUi himself. 

virtutes semper voluptatibus inhaerent (Fin. i. 68), virtues are always con- 
nected with pleasures. 

omnibus negStiis non interfuit sOlum sed praefuit (id. i. 6), he not ordfj had 
a hand in all matters, but took the lead in them. 

tempestati obsequi artis est (Fam. i. 9. 21), it is a point of skill to yield to 
the weather. 

nee umquam succumbet inimicis (Deiot. 36), and he will never yield to his 

cum et Brutus cuilibet dacum praeferendus vid6r6tur et Vatinius nulli nOn 
esset postferendus (Veil. ii. 69), since Brutus seemed worthy of being put 
before any of the generals and Vatinius deserved to be put after aU of them, 

a. In these cases the dative depends not on the preposition, but 
on the compound verb in its acquired meaning. Hence, if the acquired 
meaning is not suited to an indirect object, the original construction 
of the simple verb remains. 

Thus in convocat sads, ?ie calls his men together, the idea of calling is not so 
modified as to make an indirect object appropriate. So hominem interficere, to 
m,ake way with a man (kill him). But in praeficere imperatorem bello, to put a 
man as commander-in-chief in charge of a war, the idea resulting from the com- 
position is suited to an indirect object (see also b, §§ 371, 388. b). 

Note 1. — Some of these verbs, being originally transitive, take also a direct object : 
as, — ne offeramus nos periculis (Off. i. 83), that we may not expose ovrselves to perils. 

Note 2. — The construction of § 370 is not different in its nature from that of §§ 362, 
366, and 367 ; but the compound verbs make a convenient group. 

h. Some compounds of ad, ante, ob, with a few others, have acquired 
a transitive meaning, and take the accusative (cf . § 388. b): — ^ 

nds oppugnat (Fam. i. 1), he opposes us. 

quis audeat bene comitatam aggredl (Phil. xii. 26), who would dare encounter 

a man well attended f 
mfinns obire (Lael. 7), to attend to a duty. 

1 Such verbs are aggredior, adeo, antec6d5, anteed, antegredior, conveniS, ineo, obed, 
offendo, oppngno, praecSd5. subeo. 


c. The adjective obvlus and the adverb obviam with a verb take 
the dative : — 

si ille obvius ei futtlrus nOn erat (Mil. 47), if hs was not intending to get in 

his way. 
mihi obviam y€nistl (Fam. ii. 16. 3), you came to meet me. 

371. When place or motion is distinctly thought of, the verbs 
mentioned in § 370 regularly take a noun with a preposition : 

inhaeret in visceribaa (Tusc. iv. 24), it remains fixed in the vitals. 

homine conifLnctO mictim (Tull. 4), a man united to me. 

cum h5c concurrit ipse Eumen€s (Nep. Eum. 4. 1), with him Eum^eries him- 
self engages in combat (runs together). 

inserite oculOs in curiam (Font. 43), fix your eyes on the senate-house. 

Ignis qui est ob 58 offtisus (Tim. 14), the fire which is diffused before the sight. 

obicitur contrS istOrum impetus Macedonia (Font. 44), MajcedonUz is set to 
wttfutand their attacks. [Cf. si quis ySbis error obiectus (Caec. 5), if 
any mistake has been caused you.'^ 

in segetem flamma incidit (Aen. ii. 304), the fire falls upon the standing corn. 

Note. — But the usage varies in different authors, in different words, and often in 
the same word and the same sense. The Lexicon must be consulted for each verb. 

372. Intransitive verbs that govern the dative are used imper- 
%onally in the passive (§ 208. d). The dative is retained (cf. § 365): 

cul parol potuit (Liv. xxi. 14), who could be spared? 

noh modo n5n invidetur illi aetali v^rum etiam favStur (Off. ii. 45), that age 

(youth) not only is not enviedy but is eoen favored. 
tempori serviendum e8t(Fam. iz. 7), we must serve the exigency of the occasion. 

Note. — In poetry the personal construction is sometimes found : as, — ciir invideor 
(Hor. A. P. 56), why am I envied f 

Dative of Possession 

373. The Dative is used with esse and similar words to denote 

Possession : — 

est mihi domi pater (Eel. iii. 33), I have a father at home (there ia to me), 
homini cum deO similitude est (Legg. i. 25), man has a likeness to God. 
quibns op@s nullae sunt (Sail. Cat. 37), [those] who have no wealth. 

Note. — The Grenitive or a Possessive with esse emphasizes the possessor; the 
Dative, the fao0 of possession: as, — liber est meus, ths book is mine (and no one's 
else) ; est mihi liber, / have a book (among other things). 

a. With nSmen est, and similar expressions, the name is often put 
in the Dative by a kind of apposition with the person; but the 
Nominative is also common : — 

§§ 373-876] DATIVB OF THE AGENT 288 

(1) cui Afiicino fuit oCgnOmen (Liv. xxy. 2), whose (to whom) surname was 

puerO ab inopid, Egerio inditum nOmen (id. i. 34), the name Egerius was given 
the hoy from his poverty. 

(2) puer5 nOmen est Marcus, the hoy^s name is Marcus (to the boy is, etc.). 
cui ndmen Arethusa (Verr. iv. 118), [a fount] called Arethusa. 

Note. — In early Latin the dative is usual ; Cicero prefers the nominative, Livy the 
dative ; Sallust uses the dative only. In later Latin the genitive also occurs (cf . § 343. d) : 
as, — Q. MetellO Macedonici nOmen inditum est (Veil. i. 11), to Quintus Metellus the 
name of Macedonicus was given. 

h. DStam takes the dative ; so occasionally absum (which regu- 
larly has the ablative) : — 

hoc unum Caesaii defuit (B.G. iv. 26), this only was lacking to CoBSar. 
quid huic abesse poterit (De Or. i. 48), what can be wanting to him f 

Dative of the Agent 

374. The Dative of the Agent is used with the Gerundive to 
denote the person on whom the necessity rests : — 

haec Yobis prOvincia est defendenda (Manil. 14), this province is for you to 

d^end (to be defended by you). 
mihi est plignandum, I have to fight (i.e. the need of fighting is to me : cf. 

mihi est liber, / have a book, § 373. n.). 

a. This is the regular way of expressing the affent with the Second 
or Passive Periphrastic Conjugation (§ 196). 

Note 1. --The Ablative of the Agent with ab (§ 405) is sometimes used with the Sec- 
ond Periphrastic Conjugation when the Dative would be ambiguous or when a stronger 
expression is desired : — 

qttibus est 4 v5b!8 cOnsulendum (Manil. 6),/or whom you must consult. [Here two 

datives, quibus and vobis, would have been ambiguous.] 
rem ab omnibut vSbis piovidendam (Rabir. 4), that the matter must he attended to 
by all of you. [The dative might mean /or all of you."] 
Note 2. — The Dative of the Agent is either a special use of the Dative of Posses- 
sion or a development of the Dative of Reference (§ 376). 

375. The Dative of the Agent is common with perfect parti- 
ciples (especially when used in an adjective sense), but rare with 
other parts of the verb : — 

mihi dSliberS,tum et c5nstitutum est (Leg. Agr. i. 25), I have deliberated and 

resolved (it has been deliberated by me). 
mild r^ prOvisa est (Verr. iv. 91), the matter has been provided for by me. 
eac dissimillimls bestiolis communlter cibus quaeritur (N. D. ii. 123), so by 

very differevd creaiures food is sfmght in commjon. 


a. The Dative of the Agent is used by the poets and later writers 
with almost any passive verb ; — 

neque cernitur ulli (Aen. i. 440), nor is seen by any. 

fellx est dicta soroxi (Ov. Fast. iii. 1. 597), sJie was called happy by her sister. 
Aelia Paetina Narcissd foveb&tur (Tac. Ann. xii. 1), JElia Pastina was 
faviyred by Narcissus, 

b. The dative of the person who sees or thinks is regularly used 
after videor, seem : — 

videtur mihi, it seems (or seems good) to me. 
dis aliter visum [est] (Aen. ii. 428), it seemed otherwise to the gods. 
videor mihi perspicere ipsius animum (Fam. iv. 13. 6), I seem (to myself) to see 
the soul of the man himself. 

Note. — The verb probftre, approve (originally a mercantile word), takes a Dative 
of Reference (§ 376), which has become so firmly attached that it is often retained with 
the passive, seemingly as Dative of Agent : — 

haec sententia et illi et nobis probabatur (Fam. i. 7. 5), this view met both his 

approval and mine (was made acceptable both to him and to me), 
hoc consilium plfirisqae nOn probabatur (B. C. i. 72), this plan was not approved by 
the majority. [But also, consilium & cunctis probabatur (id. i. 74).] 

Dative of Reference 

376. The Dative often depends, not on any particular word^ but 
on the general meaning of the sentence {Dative of Reference). 

The dative in thjs construction is often called the Dative of 
Advantage or Disadvantage/ as denoting the person or thing for 
whose benefit or to whose prejudice the action is performed. 

tibi aras (Plaut. Merc. 71), you plough for yourself. 

tuas r6s tibi habetd (Plaut. Trin. 266), keep your goods to yourself (formula 

of divorce), 
laudavit mihi f ratrem, he praised my brother (out of regard for me ; laudavit 

fratrem meum would imply no such motive). 
meritOs mactavit honOrSs, taurum Nepttlno, taunim tibi, pulcher ApollO 

(Aen. iii. 118), h£ offered the sacrifices due, a bull to Neptune, a bull to 

thee, beautiful Apollo. 

Note. — In this construction the meaning of the sentence is complete without the 
dative, which is not, as in the preceding constructions, closely connected with any sin- 
gle word. Thus the Dative of Reference is easily distinguishable in most instances 
even when the sentence consists of only two words, as in the first example. 

377. The Dative of Reference is often used to qualify a whole 
idea, instead of the Possessive Genitive modifying a single word : 

1 Dativus commx)dl aut incommodi. 

§§377-379] DATIVE OF REFERENCE 235 

iter Poenis vel corporibus suis obstruere (Cat. M. 76), to block tJie march of 
the Cartfiaginians even with their own bodies (to block, etc., for the dis- 
advantage of, etc.). 

se in cOnspectum nautis dedit (Verr. v. 86), he pvt himself in sight of the 
sailors (he put himself to the sailors into sight). 

versatur mihi ante oculOs (id. v. 123), it comes before my eyes (it comes to me 
before the eyes). 

378. The Dative is used of the person from whose point of view 
an opinion is stated or a situation or a direction is defined. 

This is often called the Dative of the Person Judging,^ hut is 
merely a weakened variety of the Dative of Reference. It is used — 

1. Of the mental point of view (in my opinionf according to me, 
etc.) : — 

Plato mihi unus instar est centum mUium (Brut. 191), in my opinion (to me) 

Plato alone is worth a hundred thousand. 
erit ills mihi semper deus (Eel. i. 7), ^ will always be a god to me (in my 

quae est ista servitus tam cl3,r5 homini (Par. 41), wfiat is that slavery ojccording 

to the view of this distinguished man f 

2. Of the local point of view (as you go in etc.). In this use the 
person is commonly denoted indefinitely by a participle in the dative 
plural : — 

oppidum primum Thessaliae venientibus ab EpIrO (B. C. iii. 80), the first town 
of Thessaly cw ycm come from Epirus (to those coming, etc.). 

laevS. parte sinum intrant (Liv. xxvi. 26), on the left as you sail up the gulf 
(to one entering). 
• est urbe egressis tumulus (Aen. ii. 713), there is, as you come out of the city, 
a mound (to those having come out). 

Note. — The Dative of the Person Judging is (by a Greek idiom) rarely modified by 
nolSns, volSns (participles of n51o, volo), or by some similar word: — 

ut quihusque helium invitts ant cupientibus erat (Tac. Ann. i. 69), as each might 

receive the war reluctantly or gladly. 
ut militibus labOs volentibus esset (lug. lQQi)y that the soldiers might assume the 
task willingly. 

379. The Dative of Reference is used idiomatically without 
any verb in colloquial questions and exclamations : — 

qu5 mihi fortOnam (Hor. Ep. i. 5. 12), of what use to me is fortune? 
unde mihi lapidem (Hor. S. ii. 7. 116), where can I get a stone f 
quo tibi, Tilll (id. i. 6. 24), what use for you, TUliusf 

1 Dativus iudicantis. 


«• The dative of reference is sometimes used after interjections : 

ei (hei) mild (Aen. ii. 274), ah me! 

vae yictis (Liv. v. 48), %ooe to the conquered, 

em tibi, there, iake that (there for you) ! [Cf. § 380.] 

Note. — To express for — meaning instead of, in d^ence of^ in behalf of — the 
ablative with pr5 is used : — 

pr5 patrii mori (Hor. Od. iii. 2. 13), to die for one's ootmtry, 
ego ibO pr6 tC (Plant. Most. 1131), Itoill go instead of you. 

Ethical Dative 

380. The Dative of the Personal Pronouns is used to show a 
certain interest felt by the person indicated.^ 

This construction is called the Ethical Dative.^ It is really a 
faded variety of the Dative of Eeference. 

quid mihi Celsus agit (Hor. Ep. i. 8. 16), pray w?iat is CelsuB doing f 

8U6 slbi serrit patri (Plant. Capt. 5), he servies his mim father. 

at tibi repents venit mihi Canlnins (Fam. ix. 2), hid, look you, cf a sudden 

tomes to me Caninius. 
hem tibi talentum argenti (PI. True. 80), hark ye, a tdlenJt of silver. 
quid tibi vis, what would you have (what do you wish for yourself) ? 

Dative of Separation 

381. Many verbs of taking away and the like take the Dative 
(especially of a person) instead of the Ablative of Separation 
(§ 401). 

Such are compounds of ab, dS, ex, and a few of ad : — 

aureum ei detr3.zit amiculum (N. D. iii. 8S), he took from him his cloak of 

hunc mihi terrOrem Sripe (Cat. i. 18), take from me this terror. 
yitam adulSscentibas vis anfert (Cat. M. 71), violence deprives young men of 

nihil enim tibi detr&xit senfttus (Fam. i. 5 b), for the senate has taken nothing 

from you. 
neo mihi hunc errCrem ei:torqu6tf volO (Cat. M. 86), nor do I wish ^is error 

wrested from me. 

Note. *~ The Dative of Separation is a variety of the Dative of Reference. It repre- 
sents the action as done to the person or thing, and is thus more vivid than the Ablative. 

1 Compare " I '11 rhyme you so eight years together.'' — As You Like It, iii. 2. 
3 Datwvs ethicus. 

§§ 381, 382] DATIVE OF THE PURPOSE OR END 237 

a. The distinct idea of motion requires the ablative with a prep- 
osition — thus generally with names of things (§ 426, 1) : — 
ilium ex periculo eripuit (B. G. iv. 12), he dragged him ovi of dxmger. 

Note. — Sometimes the dative of the person and the ablative ol the thing with a 
preposition are both used with the same verb : as, — mihi praeda d6 manlbus eripitur 
(Verr. ii. 1. 142) , the booty ie wrested from my handa. 

Dative of the Purpose or End 

382. The Dative is used to denote the Purpose or End, often 
with another Dative of the person or thing affected. 

This use of the dative, once apparently general, remains in 
only a few constructions, as follows : — 

1. The dative of an abstract noun is used to show that /or which 
a thing serves or which it accomplishes, often with another dative of 
the person or thing affected ; — 

rei publicae cladi sunt (lug. 85. 43), ifiey are ruin to the stale (they are for a 

disaster to the state). 
mllgnO Usui nostris fuit (B. G. iv. 25), it wa^ of great service to our men (to 

our men for great use), 
tertiam aciem nostris snbsidio misit (id. i. 52), he sent the third line oa a reli^ 

to our men. 
siUs salfiti fuit (id. yii. 50), he was the salvation of his men, 
evenit facile quod dis cordi esset (Li v. i. 39), tfiat came to pass easily which 

wa>s desired by the gods (was for a pleasure [lit. heart] to the gods). 

NoTS 1. — This oonstruction is often called the Dative of Service, or the Donble 
Dative construction. The verb is usually sum. The noun expressing the end for 
which is regularly abstract and singular in number and is never modified by an adjec- 
tive, except one of degree (mAgnus, minor, etc.), or by a genitive. 

Note 2. — The word frfigl used as an adjective is a dative of this kind : — 
c5gis me dicere inimicum Ti^ifi (Font. 89) , you compel m6 to call my enemy Honest, 
homines satis fortes et plane frugS (Verr. iii. 67), men brave enough and thoroughly 
honest, Cf. er5 frflgi bonae (Plant. Pseud. 468), / will be good for some- 
thing, [See § 122. 6.] 

2. The Dative of Purpose of concrete nouns is used in prose in a 
few military expressions, and with freedom in poetry : — 

locum castxis d^ligit (6. G. vii. 16), he selects a site for a camp. 
receptui canere, to sound a retreat (for a retreat), 
receptui aignum (Phil. xiii. 15), the signal for retreat. 
optavlt locum r§gn5 (Aen. iii. 109), ?ie chose a place for a kingdom, 
locum insidiis circumspectare (Liv. xxi. 53), to look about for a place for an 
ambush. [Cf. locum seditidnis quaerere (id. iii. 46).] 

For the Dative of the Gerundive denoting Purpose, see § 505. b. 


Dative with Adjectives 

383. The Dative is used after Adjectives or Adverbs, to denote 
that to which the given quality is directed^ for which it exists^ or 
towards which it tends. 

Note. — The dative with certain adjectives is in origin a Dative of Purpose or End. 

384. The Dative is used witli adjectives (and a few Adverbs) of 
fitness, nearness, likeness, service, inclination, and their opposites : ^ 

Dihil est tarn n&turae aptum (Lael. 17), nothing is so fitted to nature. 

nihil difficile amanti putd (Or. 33), I think nothing hard to a lover. 

castris idOneum locum delegit (B. G. i. 49), he selected a place suitable for a 

tribtini nobis sunt amid (Q. Fr. i. 2. 16), the tribunes arefrvendly to us. 

esse propitius potest nemini (N. D. i. 124), he can he gracious to nobody. 

m&gnis autem viiis prosperae semper omnSs r€s (id. ii. 167), bui to great men 
everything is always favorable. 

s6d€s huic nostr5 n5n importuna sermoni (De Or. iii. 18), a place not unsuit- 
able for this conversation of ours. 

cui f and5 erat afflnis M. TuUius (Tull. 14), to which estate Marcus Tullius was 
next neighbor. 

convenienter n&turae vivere (Off. iii. 13), to live in accordance with nature 
(ofioXoyovfiivuts rj </>i6a'€i). 

Note 1. — So, also, in poetic and colloquial use, with idem : as, — invitum qui servat 
idem facit Occident! (Hor. A. P. 467), he who saves a man against his will does the same 
as one who kills him. 

Note 2. — Adjectives of likeness are often followed by atque (ac), cm. So also 
the adverbs aequS, pariter, similiter, etc. The pronoun idem has regularly atque or a 
relative : — 

SI i>arem sapientiam habet ac formam (Plant. Mil. 1251), if?ie has sense equal to 

his beauty (like as his beauty), 
te suspicor eisdem rebus quibus me ipsum commoveri (Cat. M. 1), I suspect you are 
disturbed by the same things by which I am. 

385. Other constructions are sometimes found where the dative 
might be expected : — 

a. Adjectives oi fatness or use take oftener the Accusative with ad 
to denote the purpose or end ; but regularly the Dative oi persons : — 

aptus ad rem militS,rem,./^ /or a soldier'' s duty. 

locus ad insidiis aptior (Mil. 53), a place fitter for lying in wait. 

nobis utile est ad banc rem (cf. Ter. And. 287), it is of use to us for this thing. 

1 Adjectives of this kind are accommod&tus, aptns ; amicus, inimicus, infestus, invisus, 
molestus ; idSneus, opportunus, proprius ; utilis, inutilis ; afiinis, finitimus, propinquus, 
yicintts ; par, dispar, similis, dissimilis ; iucundus, gr&tus ; notus, igndtus, and others. 


&• Adjectives and nouns of inclination and the like may take the 
Accusative with in or erga : — 

cOmis in oxdrem (Hor. Ep. ii. 2. 183), kind to his wife. 

dlvina bonitSs erg& hominSs (N. D. ii. 60), the divine goodness towards mevu 

d3 benevolenti^ quam quisque habeat ergfi nSs (Off. i. 47), in regard to each 

man's good will which he has towards us. 
gr&tiOrem me esse in te (Fam. xi. 10), that I am more grateful to you. 

Cm Some adjectives of likeness^ nearness, belonging^ and a few 
others, ordinarily requiring the Dative, often take the Possessive 
Genitive : — * 

quod ut ill! proprium ac perpetuum sit . . . opt&re debetis (Manil. 48), which 

you ought to pray m^y be secure (his own) and lasting to him, [Dative.] 
fuit hoc quondam proprium populi R5m&ni (id. 82), this was OTice the peculiar 

characteristic of the Roman people, [Genitive. ] 
cum ntriqae sis maxime necessSxius (Att. ix. 7 a), since you are especially 

bound to both. [Dative.] 
prOctir&tor aequ^ atriusque necess&rius (Quinct. 86), an agent alike closely 

connected wUh both, [Genitive.] 

1. The genitive is especially used with these adjectives when they are 
used wholly or approximately as nouns : — 

amicus Ciceioni, friendly to Cicero. But, Ciceronis amicus, a friend of Cicero ; 

and even, Cicerdnis amicissimus, a very great friend of Cicero. 
creticus et eius aequftlis paean (Or. 215), the cretic and its equivalent thepa^n. 
hi erant affinSs istius (Verr. ii. 86), these were this man's feUows. 

2. After similis, like, the genitive is more common in early writers. 
Cicero regularly uses the genitive of persons, and either the genitive or the 
dative of things. With personal pronouns the genitive is regular (mei, tui, 
etc.), and also in veri similis, probable : — 

dominl similis es (Ter. Eun. 496), yofu 're like your master (your master's like). 

ut essSmus similes dedrum (N. D. i. 01), tJiat we might be like the gods. 

est similis mMoniin suom (Ter. Ad. 411), Ae's like his ancestors. 

patris similis esse (Off. i. 121), to be like his father. 

simia quam similis turpissima b€stia nobis (N. D. i. 97, quoted from Enn.), 

how like M« is that wretched beast the ape! 
si enim hOc ilK simile sit, est illud huic (id. i. 90), for if this is like that, that 

is like this. 

Note. — The genitive in this construction is not objective like those in § 349, but 

I)osse8sive (cf. § 343). 

For the Dative or Accusative with propior, prozimiis, propins, prozimS, see § 432. a. 

1 Such are aequ&lis, affinis, aliCnus, arnicas, cSgnatus, communis, oSnsaneuineas, contra- 
lius, displLr, familiAris, fuutimus, inimicus, neoess&rins, pSr, pecali£ris, propinquus, proprins 
(regularly genitive), saoer^ similis, superstes, vidnns. 



386. The Accnsative originally served to connect the noun more or less loosely 
with the verb-idea, whether expressed by a verb proper or by a verbal noun or adjec- 
tive. Its earliest use was perhaps to repeat the verb-idea as in the Cognate Accusative 
fy^n A face, fight a battle, see § 300) . From this it would be a short step to the Factitive 
Accusative (denoting the result of an act, as in mak» a tdbk, drUl a hole, of. § 273. k.^). 
From this last could easily oome the common aocnsative (of Affecting, break a table, 
plug a hole, see § 387. a) . Traces of all these uses appear in the language, and the loose 
oonneotiou of noun with verb-idea is seen in the use of stems in composition (of. § 265. 3) .i 
It is impossible, however, to derive the various constructions of the accusative with 
certainty from any single function of that case. 

The uses of the accusative may be classified as follows : 

{1. Directly affected by the Action (§ 387. a). 

( 1. Predicate Accusative (Of Naming etc) (§ 393). 
II. Two Accasatives: | 2. Of Asking or Teaching (§ 396). 

I 3. Of Concealing ({ 396. c). 

1. Adverbial (§ 397. a). 

2. Of Specification (Greek Accusative) (§ 397. 6). 

3. Of Extent and Duration (§$ 423, 425). 

4. Of Exclamation (§ 397. d). 

5. Subject of Infinitive ({ 397. e). 

III. Idiomatic Uses: 

Direct Object 

887. The Direct Object of a transitive verb is put in the Ac- 
cusative (§ 274). 

a. The Accusative of the Direct Object denotes (1) that which is 
directly affectedy or (2) that which is caused or produced by the action 
of the verb : — 

(1) Brutus Caesarem interfScit, Brutua killed Ccoaar, 

(2) aedem facers, to make a temple. [Of. proelium pfigaftre, to fight a battle, 

§ 390.] 

Note. — There is no definite line by which transitive verbs can be distinguished 
from intransitive. Verbs which usually take a direct object (expressed or implied) 
are called transitive, but many of these are often used intransitively or absolutely. 
Thus timed, I fear, is transitive in the sentence inimicum time5, 1/ear my enemy, but 
intransitive {absolute) in ndU timSre, don't be afraid. Again, many verbs are transi- 
tive in one sense and intransitive in another : as, — HelvStios superftvSrant Rfim^ni, the 
Romans overcame the Helvetians ; but nihil mperftbat. Toothing remained (was left over) . 
So also many verbs commonly intransitive may be used transitively with a alight 
change of meaning : as, *— ridfe, you are laughing ; but mC ridfs, you *re laughing ai tne. 

^ Compare armiger, armor-bearer, with anna gerere, to bear anns ; lldicen, iyr^player, 
with fldibtts canere, tp (play on) sing to the lyre. Compare also istanc tftctio (Plaut.) , the 
[act of] touching her, with istanc tangere, to touch her (§ 388* d, n.^). 


&• The object of a transitive verb in the active voice becomes its 

subject in the passive, and is put in the nominative (§ 275) : — 

Bratus Caesarem inter! Scit, Bruttis killed Casaar. 

Caesar & BrutO interf ectus est, Cassar was killed &y Srutua. 

domom aedificat, ?ie builds a Jiouse. 

domos aediflc&tur, t?ie house is building (being built). 

388. Certain special verbs require notice. 

a. Many verbs apparently intransitive, expressing feelingy take 
an accusative, and may be used in the passive : — 

meum c&suxa luctomque dolu6runt (Sest. 145), tJiey grieved at my calamity 

and sorrow. 
8l n5n Acrisiam risissent luppiter et Venus (Hor. Od. iii. 16. 6), if Jupiter 

and Venus had not laughed at Acrisius. 
xidetur ab omnI conventu (Hor. S. i. 7. 22), he is laughed at by the whale 


For the Cognate Accusative with verbs of taste, smell, and the like, see § 390. a. 
Note. — Some verbs commonly intransitive may be used transitively (especially in 
poetry) from a similarity of meaning with other verbs that take the accusative : — 
gemSns ignOminiam (Georg. iii. 226), groaning at the disgrace, [Cf. doled.] 
festiaire fugam (Aen. iv. 575), to hasten their jlight. [Of. accelerQ.] 
oOmptOs arsit crinis (Hor. Od. iv. 9. 13), she burti^d with love for his well-combed 
locks. [Cf . adamo.] 

b. Verbs of motion, compounds of circum, trftns, and praeter^ and 
a few others, frequently become transitive, and take the accusative 
(cf . § 370. b) : — 

mortem obire, to die (to meet death). 

cdnsaUtom ineunt (Liv. ii. 28), they enter upon the consulship. 
nSmlnem conveni (Fam. iz. 14), I met no one. 
8l insulam adisset (B. G. iv. 20), if he should go to the island. 
tr&nsire flumen (id. ii. 23), to cross the river (cf. § 895). 
elves qui circumstant senAtum (Cat. i. 21), Vie citizens who stand about the 
NoTB. — Among such verbs are some compounds of ad, In, per, and sub. 

Cm The accusative is used after the impersonals decet, dSdecet, dSlec- 

tat, iuvat, oportet, f allit, fugit, praeterit : — 

ita nt Yds decet (Flaut. Most. 729), so as b^ts you. 

mS pedibus delectat claudere verba (Hor. S. ii. 1. 28), my delight is (it 

pleases me) to arrange words in measure. 
nisi mfi fallit, unless I am mistaken (unless it deceives me), 
mvit me tibi tuSs litterSs prSfuisse (Fam. v. 21. 8), it pleased me that your 

literary studies had profited you. 
t5 nOn praeterit (Fam. 1. 8. 2), it does not escape your notice. 


Note 1. — So after latet in poetry and i>08t-classical prose: as, — latet pierosque 
(Plin. N. H. ii. 82), it is unknoion to most persons. 

Note 2. — These verbs are merely ordinary transitives with an idiomatic significa- 
tion. Hence most of them are also used personally. 

Note 3. — Decet and latet sometimes take the dative: — 
ita nSbis decet (Ter. Ad. 928), thus it befits us, 
hostlque ROma latet (Sil. It. xii. 614), and Rome lies hidden from the foe. 

d. A few verbs in isolated expressions take the accusative from 

a forcing of their meaning. Such expressions are : — 

ferlre foedos, to strike a treaty (i.e. to sanction by striking down a victim), 
vincere iadidom (sponsidnem, rem, hoc), to prevail on a trials etc. [As if the 

case were a difficulty to overcome ; cf. vincere iter, Aen. vi. 688.] 
aeqoor n3,vigSTe (Aen. i. 67), to sail the sea. [As if it were transire, § 388. 6.] 
maiia afipera itirO (id. vi. 351), I swear by the rough seas (cf. id. vi. 324). 

[The accusative with verbs of swearing is chiefly poetic] 
noctis dormire, to sleep [whole] nights (to spend in sleep). 

Note 1. — These accusatives are of various kinds. The last example approaches 
the cognate construction (cf. the second example under § 390). 

Note 2. — In early and popular usage some nouns and adjectives derived from tran- 
sitive verbs retain verbal force sufficient to govern the accusative : — 

quid tibi istanc tactiO est (Plant. Poen. 1308), toAa^ buMness heme you to touch herf 

[Cf . tang5.] 
mirabundi bSstiam (Ap. Met. iv. 16),/mW of wonder at the creature. [Cf. miior.] 
vitabundus castra (Liv. xxv. 13), trying to avoid the camp. [Cf. vito.] 

389. Many verbs ordinarily transitive may be used ohBolutelyy 
having their natural object in the ablative with dS (§ 273. N. 2) : — 

priusquam PompOnius de §ius adventfl cOgnOsceret (B. C. iii. 101), before 
Pomponius could learn of his coming. [Cf. eins adventti cogmt5, his 
arrival being discovered.] 

For Accusative and Grenitive after Impersonals, see § 354. b. For the Accusative 
after the impersonal Gerundive with esse, see § 500. 3. 

Cognate Accusative 

390. An intransitive verb often takes the Accusative of a noun 
of kindred meaning, usually modified by an adjective or in some 
other manner. 

This constriiction is called the Connate Accusative or Accusative 

of Kindred Signification : — 

tiitiOrem vitam vivere (Verr. ii. 118), to live a safer life. 

tertiam iam aetatem hominum viv€bat (Cat. M. 81), he was now living the 

third generation of men. 
servitutem servire, to be in slavery. 
coire societ&tem, to [go together and] form an alliance. 

§390] CX)6NAT£ ACCUSATIVE 248 

•• Verbs of itute, smell, and the like take a cognate aecnsatiYe 
of the quality : — 

▼inmn redolSns (FluL ii. 68), smelling [oi] vriwe, 

herbam laelki BapinDt (Plin. H. N. xi. 18), Me kone^ iasies [of} grmss^ 

olSre matitiam (Rose. Com. 20), to have the odor ofmatiee. 

Corditbae nStIs pofitls, ptngue qoiddam sonantibus atque peregnnran (Arch. 

29), to poets bom at Cordova, whose speech had a somewhat thkk and 

foreign a/xent. 

6. The cognate accusative is often loosely used by the poets : — 

huic errOrl similem [errorem] Ins&nlre (Hor. S. ii. 3. 62), to suffer a ddusion 

like this. 
salt&re Cycl5pa (id. i. 5. 63), to danee the GyelopB (represent in dancing). 
Bacch&n&lia vivere (lav. ii. 3), to live in reveUlnga. 
Amacylllia tesoiitrB (ScL i. 6), to re^ho [the nasie of] Amaryllis, 
intonnit laeyum (Aen. ii. 603), it thundered on ths 1^. 
dulce ridentem, dulce loquentem (Hor. Od. i. 22. 23), sweetly smiling^ smssUy 

acerba tn^ns (Aen. ix. 704), looking fiercely. [Cf. Eng. ^'tc^look daggers."] 
tonrum clSmat (id. vii. 300), he cries harafdy. 

Cm A neuter pronoun or an adjective of indefinite meaning is very 
common as cognate accusative (cf. §§ 214. d, 397. a): — 

Empedoctei molta afia peecat (N. D. 1. 20), Empedoc^ csmn^ts maiyy other 

ego illad adseatior TheophrastO (De Or. iii. 184)^ in this I agree yiith TAeo- 

uMiltam to lata ielellit €^ni() (Verr. ii. 1. 88), you were mwch deceived in this 

expectation (this expectation deceived yoamuch). 
plfis yaleO, I have more strength, 
plaxi&iiim potest, fie is strongest. 
^ quid me ista laedunt (Leg. Agr. ii. 32), what harm do those things dom/tt 
hoc te moneO, I give you this warning (cf. d, n. ^}. 
id laetor, 7 r^oice at this (cf. d. k. i). 
quid moror, why do I delay f 
quae hominfis arant, n&yigant, aedificant (Sail. Cat. ii. 7), what m^n do in 

ploughing, sailing, and building. 

<f . So in many eommon phrases : — 

si ff^^ iUie afi yelit (B. 6. i. 34), if he should want mnythit^ of him (If he 

should want him in anything). 
Bimiqiad, Oeta, aliud m6 vis (Ter. Ph. 151), can I do anything more for youy 

Geta (there is nothing you want of me, is there)? [A common form 

of leave-taking] 
qoM est quod, ete., why is it that, etc.? [Cf. h5c erat quod (Aen. iL 664), 

was it for this that, etc.?] 


NoTB 1. — In these cases substantives with a d^hite meaning would be in some 

other construction : — 

in hoc eodem peccat, he errs in this same point. 
bonis rSbus laetari, to r^oice at prosperity, [Also : in, dS, or ex.] 
d^ testaments monere, to remind one of the will. [Later: genitiyei § 351.] 
offici admonere, to remind one of his duty. [Also : dC officid.] 
Note 2. — In some of these cases the connection of the accusatiye with the verb has 

so faded out that the words have become real adverbs: as, — multum, plus, pluiimiim; 

plgrumque, /or the most part, generally; cfiterum, cStera, /or the rest, otJiervoise, hut; 

^nmum, first ; nihil, by no msans, not at all; aliquid, somewhat; quid, why ; facile, easily. 

So in the comparative of adverbs (§ 218). But the line cannot be sharply drawn, and 

some of the examples under h may be classed as adverbial. 

Two Accusatives 

391. Some transitive verbs take a second accusative in addi- 
tion to their Direct Object. 

This second accusative is either (1) a Predicate Accusative or 
(2) a Secondary Object. 

Predicate Accusative 

392. An accusative in the Predicate referring to the same per- 
son or thing as the Direct Object, but not in apposition with it, 
is called a Predicate Accusative. 

393. Verbs of naming^ choosing^ appointing^ making^ esteeming^ 
showing^ and the like, may take a Predicate Accusative along 
with the direct object : — 

5 Spartace, quem enim t6 potius appellem (Phil. xiii. 22), Spartajcus^ for 

what else shall I call you (than Spartacus) ? 
CicerOnem cdnsulem creare, to elect Cicero consul. 
m6 augurem n0minav6runt (Phil. ii. 4), they nominated me for augur. 
cum gr&ti9.s ageret quod sS consulem fecisset (De Or. ii. 268), when he thanked 

him because he had made him consul (supported his caCtididacy). 
hominem prae b& nSminem putavit (Rose. Am. 135), Jie thought nobody a man 

in comparison with himself. 
docem s6 praebuit (Vat. 33), he cffered himself as a leader. 

Note. — The predicate accusative may be an adjective: as, — homines mitis red- 
didit et mAnsuStos (Inv. i. 2), has made men mild and gentle. 

a. In changing from the active voice to the passive, the Predicate 
Accusative becomes Predicate Nominative (§ 284) : — 

rex ab suis appell&tur (B. G. viii. 4), he is called king by his subjects. [Active : 
sui eum rSgem appellant.] 


Secondary Object 

394. The Accusative of the Secondary Object is used (along 
with the direct object) to denote something more remotely affected 
by the action of the verb. 

395. Transitive verbs compounded with prepositions sometimes 
take (in addition to the direct object) a Secondary Object, origi- 
nally governed by the preposition : — 

Caesar GermanOs flumen traicit (B. C. i. 83), Cansar throws the Germans 

across the river, 
idem ius iurandum adigit Afraniam (id. i. 76), he exacts the same oath from 

quOs Fomp^ius omnia sua praesidia circumduxit (id. iii. 61), whx)m Pompey 

conducted through all his garrison. 

Note 1. — This construction is common only with trftdacQ, tr&icid, and tr&nsportS. 
The preposition is sometimes repeated with compounds of tr&ns, and usually with 
compounds of the other prepositions. The ablative is also used : — 

ddnec res suas tnUis Halyn flumen traicerent (Liv. xxxviii. 25), till they should get 

their possessions across the river Halys, 
(exercitus) Pado traiectus CremOnam (id. xxi. 56), the army was conveyed across 
the Po to Cremona (by way of the Po, § 429. a), 
NoTB 2. — The secondary object may be retained with a passive verb : as, — Belgae 
Rhenum traducti sunt (B. 6. ii. 4), the Belgians were led over the Rhine. 

Note 3. — The double construction indicated in § 395 is possible only when the force 
of the preposition and the force of the verb are each distinctly felt in the compound, 
the verb governing the direct, and the preposition the secondary object. 

But often the two parts of the compound become closely united to form a transitive 
verb of simple meaning. In this case the compound verb is transitive solely by virtue 
of its prepositional part and can have but one accusative, — the same which was for- 
merly the secondary object, but which now becomes the direct. So traicio comes to 
mean either (1) to pierce (anybody) [by hurling] or (^) to cross (a river etc.): — 

gladiO hominem traiecit, he pierced the man with a sword. [Here iacio has lost 
all transitive force, and serves simply to give the force of a verb to the mean- 
ing of trans, and to tell the manner of the act.] 
Bhodanum traiecit, he crossed the Rhone, [Here iaciS has become simply a verb 
of motion, and traicio is hardly distinguishable from tr&nsed.] 
In these examples hominem and Rhodanum, which would be secondary objects if trftiScit 
were used in its primary signification, have become the direct objects. Hence in the 
passive construction they become the subjects and are put in the nominative : — 
homo traiectus est gladiO, the man was pierced with a sword, 
Bhodanus traiectus est, the Rhone was crossed. 
The poetical traiectus lora (Aen. ii. 273), pierced with thongs^ comes from a mixture of 
two constructions : (1) eum traiecit lOra, he rove thongs through hitUf^ and (2) eum 
traiecit lOns, he pierced him with thongs. In putting the sentence into a passive form, 
the direct object of the former (15ra) is irregularly kept, and the direct object of the 
latter (earn) is made the subject. 

1 Perhaps not found in the active, but cf. triiectS fune (Aen. v. 488). 


396. Some verbs of asking and teachinff may take two accusa- 
tives, one of the Person (direct object)^ and the other of the Thing 
(secondary object) : — 

mS Mntentiam rogftvit, he asked me my opinion. 
dtiism divSa rogat (Hor. Od. ii. 16. 1), he prays the gods for rest. 
luMC piaetSiem postolftb&s (Tull. 39), you demanded this of the prcBtor. 
aedilis popalam rogftre (Liv. vi. 42), to ask the people [to elect] CBdiles. 
doc6re paeros elementa, to teach children their A B CPs, 

NoTB. — This constmctioii is found in classical authors with 5x6, po8o5, reposoG, rogo, 
iBterrogS, iUlgitS, dooed. 

a. Some verbs of asking take the ablative of the person with a 
preposition instead of the accusative. So, always, petO (ab)^ quaerG 
(ex, ab, dS); usually poscO (ab), flAgitO (ab)^ postnlO (ab), and occa- 
sionally others : — 

p&cem ab RSm&iis petiSrunt (B. 6. ii. 13), they sought peace from the Romans. 
quod quaeslvit ez mS P. ApulSius (Phil. vi. 1), wh£d Publius Apuleius asked 
of me, 

6. With the passive of some verbs of asking or teaching, the^er- 

son or the thing may be used as subject (cf. c. n. ^) : — 

Caesar sententiam rogfttus est, Ccesar was asked his opinion, 

id ab eO flftgit&b&tur (B. C. i. 71), this was urgently demanded of him. 

Note. — The accusative of the thing may be retained with the passive of logS, and 
of verbs of teaching, and occasionally with a few other verbs: — 

fuerant h9c rogati (Gael. 64), they had been asked this. 

poscor meum Laelapa (Ov. M. vii. 771), / am asked for my iMlaps. 

CicerO cuncta edoctus (Sail. Cat. 45), Cicero, being informed of everything. 
But with most verbs of asking in prose the accusative of the thing becomes the 
subject nominative, and the accusative of the person is put in the ablative with a 
preposition: as, — ne postulantur quidem vires £ senectnte (Cat. M. M), strength is 
not even expected of an old man (asked from old age). 

c. The verb cSlO, conceal, may take two accusatives, and the usually 
intransitive lateO, lie hid, an accusative of the person: — 

nOn te celftvl seimSnem T. Amp! (Fam. ii. 16. 3), I did not conceal from, you 

the talk of Titus Ampius. 
nee latuSre doll fr&trem Itln()nis (Aen. i. 130), nor did the wUes of Juno 

escape the notice of her brother, 

NoTB 1. — The accusative of the person with lateS is late or poetical (§ 383. c. n. ^). 

NoTB 2. — All the double constructions indicated in § 396 arise from the waver- 
ing meaning of the verbs. Thus doced means both to show a thing, and to instruct 
a person; cei5, to keep a person in the dark, and to hide a thing; rog5, to question 
a person, and to ask a question or a thing. Thus either accusative may be regarded 
as the direct object, and so become the subject of the passive (cf. b above), bat for 
convenience the accusative of the thing is usually caUed secondary. 


Idiomatic Uses 
397. The Accusative has the following special uses : — 

a. The accusative is found in a few adverbial phrases (Adverbial 
Accusative) : — 

id temporis, <jA thai time; id (istuc) aet&tis, at thxxt age. 

id (quod) genus, of that (what) sort (perhaps originally nominative). 

meam vicem, on my part. 

bonam partem, in a great measure ; maximam partem, for the m>ost part. 

viiile (moliebre) secus, of the male (female) sex (probably originally in 

quod si, but ^ (as to which, if) ; quod nisi, if not. 

6. The so-called synecdochical or Greek Accusative, found in poetry 
and later Latin, is used to denote the part affected ; — 

caput nectentur (A en. y. 309), their heads shall he hound (they shall be bound 

about the head), 
^dentis oculos suffecti sanguine et Igni (id. ii. 210), their glaring eyes bUood- 

shot and blazing with fire (suffused as to their eyes with blood and fire). 
nQda genii (id. i. 320), with her knee hare (bare as to the knee), 
femur tr&gulA ictus (Liv. zxi. 7. 10), wounded in the thigh by a dart. 

NoTB. — This construction is also called the Accusative of Specification. 

c» In many apparently similar expressions the accusative may be 
regarded as the direct object of a verb in the middle voice (§ 166. a) : 

inutile ferrom cingitur (Aen. ii. 610), he girds on the useless steel. 

nodo sinus collScta fluentis (id. i. 320), having her flowing folds gathered in 

a knot. 
umeros instemor pelle le6mB (id. 11. 722), I cover my shoulders with a lion's 

prOtinus induitur faciem coltumque Dianae (Ov. M. ii. 425), forthwith she 

assumes the shape and garb of Diana. 

d. The Accusative is used in Exclamations : — 

o f ortun3.tam rem publicam, O fortunate republic I [Cf . 6 fortunSta mora 

(Phil. xiv. 31), oh, happy death I (§339. a).] 
6 m6 infelicem (Mil. 102), oh, unhappy 1 1 
m@ miseram, oA, wretched me I 
en'quattuor ftrSs (Eel. v. 66), lo^four altars! 
ellum (= em ilium), there he is ! [Cf. § 146. a. n. 3.] 
eccOs (= ecce eOs), there they are, look at them ! 
pr6 deum fidem, good heavens (O protection of the gods) ! 
bdcine saeclum (Ter. Ad. 304), O this generation I 
huncine hominem (Verr. v. 62), this man, good heavens ! 


Note 1. — Such expressions usually depend upon some long-forgotten verb. The 
substantive is commonly accompanied by an adjective. The use of -ne in some cases 
suggests an original question, as in quid? what? why? tell me. 

Note 2. — The omission of the verb has given rise to some other idiomatic accnsa- 
tives. Such are : — 

sallitem (sc. dicit) (in addressing a letter), greeting. 
mS dius fidius (sc. adiuvet), so help me heaven (the god of faith), 
undo mihi lapidem (Hor. S. ii. 7. 116), where can I get a stone? 
quo mihi fortunam (Hor. Ep. i. 5. 12), of what use to me is fortune? [No verb 
thought of.] 

€. The subject of an infinitive is in the accusative : — 

intelleg5 te sapere (Fam. vii. 32. 3), I perceive that you are wise, 
eas r§s iactftri nOlebat (B. 6. i. 18), h>e was unwilling thai these matters sTiotdd 
be discussed. 

Note. — This construction is especially common with verbs of hnowingj thinking, 
telling, and perceiving (§580). 

/. The accusative in later writers is sometimes used in apposition 

with a clause : — 

deserunt tribunal . . . mantis intentant^s, causam discordlae et initiam armo- 
rum (Tac. Ann. i. 27), they abandon the tribunal shaking their fists, — 
a cause of dissension and the beginning of war. 

Note. — This construction is an extension (under Greek influence) of a usage more 
nearly within the ordinary rules, such as, — Eumenem prddidere Antiocho, pacis merce- 
dem (Sail. Ep. Mith. 8), they betrayed Eumenes to Antiochus, the price of peace, [Here 
Eumenes may be regarded as the price, although the real price is the betrayal.] 

For the Accusative of the End of Motion, see § 427. 2 ; for the Accusative of Dura- 
tion of Time and Extent of Space, see §§ 423, 425 ; for the Accusative with Prepositions, 
see § 220. 


398 • Under the name Ablative are included the meanings and, in part, the forms 
of three cases, — the Ablative proper, expressing the relation from; the Locative, 
IN ; and the Instrumental, with or by. These three cases were originaUy not wholly 
distinct in meaning, and their confusion was rendered more certain (1) by the develojK 
ment of meanings that approached each other and (2) by phonetic decay, by means of 
which these cases have become largely identical in form. Compare, for the first, the 
phrases & parte dextera, on the right; quam ob causam, from which cause; ad famam, 
AT (in consequence of) the report; and, for the second, the like forms of the dative 
and ablative plural, the old dative in -€ of the fifth declension (§ 96), and the loss of the 
original -d of the ablative (§ 49. e; cf. §§ 43. n. \ 92. f, 214. a. n.). 

The relation of from includes separation, source, cause, agent, and comparison; 
that of WITH or by, accompaniment, instrument, means, manner, quality, and price; 
that of IN or at, pla^x, time, circumstance. This classification according to the 
original cases (to which, however, too great a degree of certainty should not be 
attached) i is set forth in the following table : — 

^ Thus the Ablative of Cause may be, at least in part, of Instrumental origin, and 
the Ablative Absolute appears to combine the Instrumental and the Locative. 


I. Ablative Proper {from) 

II. Instromental Ablative 

1. Of Separation, Privation, and Want (§ 400). 

2. Of Source (participles of origin etc.) (§ 403). 

3. Of Cause (labdrS, exsiliS, etc.) (§404). 

4. Of Agent (with ab after Passives) (§ 405). 

5. Of Comparison (than) (§406). 

1. Of Manner, Means, and Instrument (§408ff.). 

2. Of Object of the Deponents fitor etc. (§ 410). 

3. Of Accompaniment (with cum) (§413). 

4. Of Degree of Difference (§ 414). 

5. Of Quality (with Adjectives) (§416). 

6. Of Price and Exchange (§ 416). 

7. Of Specification (§418). 

8. Ablative Absolute (§419). 

in. Locative AbUtive {in^ r 1. Of Place w^ere (commonly within) (§421). 
oUf at): \ 2. Of Time and Circumstance (§ 423). 

399. The Ablative is used to denote the relations expressed in 
English by the prepositions /roiw; m, at; withj by: — 

liberftre metfl, to deliver from fear. 
exciiltns doctzinft, traiTied in learning. 
hoc ipso tempore, at this very time. 
caecos avaritii, blind with avarice. 
occisus gladio, slain by the sword. 

Ablative of Separation 

400. Words signifying Separation or Privation are followed by 
the ablative. 

401. Verbs meaning to remove, set free, he absent, deprive, and 
want, take the Ablative (sometimes with ab or ex) : — 

ocnlis s6 privavit (Fin. v. 87), he deprived himself of eyes. 

omm GalliU R5m3.nls interdlcit (B. G. i. 46), he (Ariovistus) bars the Romans 

from the whole of Gaul. 
ei aqua et igni interdicitur (Veil. ii. 45), he is debarred the use of fire and 

water. [The regular formula of banishment.] 
Yolnpt&tibas carSre (Cat. M. 7), to lack enjoyments. 
n5n eged medicing, (Lael. 10), I want no physic. 
levftmur soperstitidiie, liberSmur mortis metii (Fin. i. 68), we are relieved 

from superstition, we are freed from fear of death. 
floluti a cupiditatibus (Leg. Agr. i. 27), freed from desires. 
multds ez his incommodis pecunia se llberasse (Verr. v. 23), that many have 

freed themselves by money from these inconveniences. 

For the G«nitive with verbs of separation and wantf see § 356. n. 


402. Verbs compounded with fi, ab, ds, ez, (1) take the simple 
Ablative when used figuratively; but (2) when used literally to 
denote actual reparation or motion^ they usually require a prepo- 
sition (§ 426. 1) : — 

(1) cSnfttfl desistere (B. 6. i. 8), to desist from the attempt 
dSsine commftnibus locis (Acad. ii. 80), quit commonplaces. 
abire magistratG, to leave one*s office. 

abstinSre inifirift, to refrain from wrong. 

(2) & pr5posit5 aberr&re (Fin. v. 83), to wander from the point. 

de provincUl decedere (Verr. ii. 48), to withdraw from one^s province. 

Bb iGra abIre (id. ii 114), to go outside of the law. 

ex civit&te excessSre (B. G. vi. 8), they departed from the state. [But cf. 

finibas suls excesserant (id. iv. 18), they had left their own territory.] 
A mSgnO demissum nOmen laio (Aen. i. 288), a name descended (sent down) 

from great lulus. 

For the Dative used instead of the Ablative of Separation, see § 381. For the Abla- 
tive of the actual pla^ie whence in idiomatic expressions, see §§ 427. 1, 428./. 

a. Adjectives denoting freedom and want are followed by the 
ablative : — 

urbs ntida praesidid (Att. vii. 13), the city naked of defence, 

immtlnis militi& (Liv. i. 43),/ree of military service. 

plebs orba tribunis (Leg. iii. 9), the people deprived of tribunes. 

NoTB. — A preposition sometimes occurs: — 

2 calpft vacuus (Sail. Cat. 1^)^ free from blame. 

liberi ft dSlicils (Leg. Agr. i. ^)f free from luxuries. 

Messana ab his rfibus vacua atque nuda est (Verr. iv. 3), Messana is empty and 
bare of tTiese things. 
For the Genitive with adjectives of want, see § 349. a. 

Ablative of Source and Material 

403. The Ablative (usually with a preposition) is used to denote 
the Source from which anything is derived, or the Material of 
which it consists : — 

1. Source: — 

Rhenus oritur ex Lepontiis (6. 6. iv. 10), the Bhine rises in (from) the 

country of the Lepontii. 
ab his 8erm5 oritur (Lael. 5), the conversation is begun by (arises from) them. 
cilius ratiOnis vim atque uti1itd,tem ex illO caelesti Epicflrl voliinune acc^pi- 

mus (N. D. i. 43), of this reasoning we have learned the power awl 

advantage from that divine book of Epicurus. 
suftvitfttem odOrum qui afflarentur 6 fldxibas (Cat« M. 69), the svfeetmess of 

the odors which breathed from t\e flowers. 


2. Mftterial: — 
erat totus ez fnnde et acnUcId faotUB (Clu. 72), he tooa eiUirely maxU up qf 

fraud caid falsehood. 
valv&s mdgnificenti0r6s, ez aaro atque cbore perfectiOres (Verr. iv. 124), 

more splendid doors, more finely vsrought of gold and ivory. 
factum de cautibus antrum (Ov. M. i. 575), a cave formed of rocks. 
templum de mannore p5nam (Georg. iii. 13), I HI build a temple ofmxLrUe, 

Note 1. — In poetry the preposition is often omitted. 

NoTB 2. — The Ablatire of Material is a development of the Ablative of Scarce. 
For the Grenitive of Material, see § 344. 

a. Participles denoting birth or origin are followed by the Abla- 
tive of Source^ generally without a preposition : — * 

love n&tus et Maia (N. D. iii. 56), son of JupUer and Maia. 
€dite regibos (Her. Od. i. 1. 1), desceiidant of kings. 
quo sanguine crCtus (Aen. ii. 74), bom of what blood. 
genitae Panffione (Ov. M. vi. 666), daughters of Pandion. 

Note 1. — A preposition (ab, d8, ez) is osually expressed with pronomm, with the 
name of the mother, and often with that of other ancestors : — 

ez mS hic natus ndn est sed ez fratre meo (Ter. Ad. 40), this is not my son, but 

my brother's (not bom from me, etc.). 
cum ez tttraqne [uzOre] filius natus esset (De Or. i. 183), ecuih wife having had 

a son (when a son had been bom of each wife). 
Belus et omnes a B615 (Aen. i. 730), Belus and all his descendants. 
Note 2. — Rarely, the place of birth is expressed by the ablative of source: as, — 
•desideravit C. Fleginatem Flacentifl, A. Graninm Pateofis (B. G. iii. 71), he lost Cains 
^egintis of PlacsTitia, Aulus Granius of Puteoli. 

Note 3. — The Roman tribe is regularly expressed by the ablative alone: as,— 
Q. Verrem filteilil (Yerr. i. 23), QuirUus Verres of the MondUan tribe. 

h. Some verbs may take the Ablative of Material without a prep- 
osition. Such are c5nst£re, cOnsistere, and continSri.' But with c6n- 
stfire, ez is more common : — 

domus amoenitajs nCn aedlficio sed silvft cCnstftbat (Nep. Att. 13), (Ae charm 

of the house consisted not in the buildings but in the woods, 
ez animd cOnst&mus et corpore (Fin. iv. 19), we consist of soul and body. 
vita oospore et apliitG continetur (Marc. 28), life consists of body and spirit. 

c. The Ablative of Material without a preposition is used with 

facere, fieri, and similar words, in the sense of do withy become of: — 

quid h5c homlne faci&tis (Yerr. iL 1. 42), whaJt are you going to do with this 

quid TnlliolA mea fiet (Fam. xiv. 4. 3), what will become of my dear Tullia f 
quid t6 futunim est (Yerr. ii. 155), what will become of you f 

1 As aitat, tatas, Uitns, cenitas, ertus, prSgnAtus, generatus, crStas, cre&tas, oriniidtts. 

2 The ablative with cQiisistere and continSrl is probably locative in origin (of. § 481) . 


d. The Ablative of Material with ex, and in poetry without a 

preposition, sometimes depends directly on a noun : — 

nOn pauca p6cula ex auro (Verr. iv. 62), not a few cups of gold, 
scopulis pendentibus antrum (Aen. i. 166), a cave of hanging rocks. 

For Ablative of Source instead of Partitive Oenitive, see § 346. c. 

Ablative of Cause 

404. The Ablative (with or without a preposition) is used to 
express Cause : — ^ 

neglegentia plectimur (Lael. 85), we are chastised for negligence. 
gubematOris ars utilitate n5n arte laudatur (Fin. i. 42), the piloVs skill is- 

praised for its service, rwt its skill. 
certiB de causis, for cogent reasons. 

ex Yulnere aeger (Rep. ii. 38), disabled by (from) a wound, 
mare & sole lucet (Acad. ii. 105), the sea gleams in the sun (from the son). 

a. The Ablative of Cause without a preposition is used with labOrO- 
(also with ex), exsiliO, exsultO, triumphs, lacrimS, ardeS : — 

doleO t6 aliis mails (Fam. iv. 3), J am sorry that you suffer with 

other ills. [Cf. ex aere alieno labOrare (B. C. iii. 22), to labor under 

debt (from another^s money).] 
exsultare laetitia, triumphare gaudio coepit (Clu. 14), she began to exult in 

gladness, and triumph in joy. 
exsilui gaudid (Fam. xvi. 16), I jumped for joy. [Cf. lacrimO gaudio (Ter. 

Ad. 409), I weep for joy.] 
ardere doldre et ira (Att. ii. 19. 5), to be on fire with pain and anger. 

For gaade5 and glorior, see § 431. 

5, The motive which influences the mind of the person acting is. 
expressed by the ablative of cause ; the object exciting the emotion 
often by ob ^ or propter with the accusative : — 

nOn ob praedam aut spoliandl cupidine (Tac. H. i. 63), not for booty or through 

lust of plunder. 
amicitia ex se et propter se expetenda (Fin. ii. 83), friendship must be sought 

of and for itself. 

Note. — But these constructions are often confused: as, — parere legibus propter 
metam (Par. 34), to obey the laws on account of fear. [Here metum is almost equiva- 
lent to "the terrors of the law," and hence propter is used, though the ablative would 
be more natural.] 

1 The causCy in the ablative, is originally source^ as is shown by the use of ab, dS,, 
ez ; but when the accusative with ad, ob, is used, the idea of cause arises from nearness. 
Occasionally it is difficult to distinguish between cause and m^ans (which is the old 
Instrumental case) or circumstance (which is either the Locative or the Instrumental). 

^ Originally a mercantile use : cf . ob decem mints, for the price of ten minsB. 

§§ 404, 405] ABLATIVE OF AGENT 263 

c. The ablatives causft and gr&M, for the sake of, are used with a 
genitive preceding, or with a pronoun in agreement : — 

ea causa, on accouvt of this ; qua gratia (Ter. Eun. 99), for what purpose f 

mea causa, for my sake ; mea gratia (Plaut.), for my sake. 

ex mea et rel ptiblicae causa, for my own sake and the republic's, 

praedictiOnis causa (N. D. iii. 5), by way of prophecy. ^ 

exempli gratia (verb! gratia), for example. 

sui purgandi gratia, for the sake of clearing t?iemselves. 

Note. — But sritia with possessives in this use is rare. 

Ablative of Agent 

405. The Voluntary Agent after a passive verb is expressed by 
the Ablative with ft or ab : — 

laudatur ab his, culpatur ab iUis (Hor. S. i. 2. 11), he is praised by these, 

blamed by those. 
ab animo tuO quidquid agitur id agitur a tS (Tusc. i. 52), whatever is done by 

your sovl is dime by yourself, 
a filiis in iadicium vocatus est (Cat. M. 22), lie was brought to trial by his sons. 
cum a ctmcto consessu plausus esset multiplex datus (id. 64), when great 

applause had been given by the whole audience. 
n€ yirtHs ab audAciA Yincer€tur (Sest. 92), that valor might not be overborne 

by audacity. [Aadacia is in a manner personified.'] 

NoTB 1. — This construction is developed from the Ablative of Source. The agent 
is conceived as the source or author of the action. 

NoTB 2. — The ablative ot the agent (which requires a or ab) must be carefully 
distinguished from the ablative of instrumsntf which has no preposition (§ 409). Thus 
— occisns cladiS, slain by a smooi'd; but, occisus ab hoste, slain by an enemy. 

NoTB 3. — The ablative of the agent is commonest with nouns denoting per«on«, but 
it occurs also with names of things or qualities when these are conceived as performing 
an action and so are partly or wholly personified^ as in the last example under the rule. 

a. The ablative of the agent with ab is sometimes used after intran- 
sitive verbs that have a passive sense : — 
perire ab hoste, to be stain by an enemy, 

h. The personal agent, when considered as instrument or means, 
is often expressed by per with the accusative, or by opera with a 
genitive or possessive : — 

ab explSratoiibns certior factus est (B. 6. i. 21), he was informed by scouts (in 

person). But, — 
per ezploratorgs Caesar certior factus est (id. 1. 12), Caesar was informed by 

(means of) scouts. 
elautae opera Neptuni (Plaut. Rud. 609), washed cleanby the services of Neptune, 
nOn mea operft Svenit (Ter. Hec. 228), it haenH happened through me (by my 

exertions). [Cf. eins opera, B. 6. v. 27.] 



NoTB l.-*Tli« ftblative of means or instrument is often nsed instead of the abla- 
tive of agent, especially in military phrases: as, — haec ezcubitdribiis tenebantnr 
(B. G. yii. 69), theae (redoubts) were held by means of aentineh. 

NoTB 2. — An animal is sometimes regarded as the means or instrument, some- 
times as the agent. Hence both the simple ablative and the ablative with ab ooenr : — 
equd vehl, to ride on horseback (be conveyed by means of a horse) . [Not ab equo.] 
clipe5s & mfiribtts esse derCtaOs (Div. i. 99), that the shields were gnawed by mice. 
For the Dative of the Agent with the Gerundive, see § 374. 

Ablative of Comparison 

406. The Comparative degree is often followed by the Ablar 

tive ^ signifying than : — 

CatO est Cicerdne €loquentior, Cato is more eloquent than Cicero, 

quid nSbis dadbus labOriOsius est (Mil. 5), what more burdened with toU than 

we two f 
vilios argentnm est auro, virtfitibus aurum (Hor. Ep. i. 1. 52), silver is less 

precious than gold, gold than virtue. 

a. The idiomatic ablatives opiniOne, spS, aolitfl, diets, aeqtiO^ crOdi- 

bili, and iQ8t0 are used after comparatives instead of a clause : — 

celerius opinidne (Fam. xiv. 2B), faster than one would think. 
s6rius spS omnium (Li v. xxvi. 26), later than all hoped (than the hope of all), 
amnis solitS cit3.tior (id. xxiii. 19. 11), a stream swifter than Us wcmt. 
gravius aequo (Sail. (jat. 61), more seriously than was right. 

407. The comparative may be followed by quam, than. When 
quam is used, the two things compared are put in the same case : 

n5n callidior es quam hlc (Hose. Am. 49), you are not more cunning than he. 

cdntidnibus accommod&tior est quam ifidicus (Clu. 2) y Jitter for popular assem- 
blies than for courts. 

misericordia dignior quam contumelift (Fison. 32), more worthy of pity tJian of 

a. The construction with quam is required when the first of the 
things compared is not in the Nominative or Accusative. 

NoTB 1. — There are several limitations on the use of the ablative of comparisen, 
even when the first of the tilings compared is in the nominative or accusative. Thns 
the quam construction is regularly used (1) when the comparative is in agreement 
with a genitive, dative, or ablative : as, — senex est eO meliOre condiciOne <iuam adules- 
cens (Cat. M. 08), an old man is in this respect in a better position than a young man ; 
and (2) when the second member of the comparison is modified by a clause : as, — minor 
fuit aliquantO is qui primus fabulam dedit quam ei qui, etc. (Brut. 73), he who first 
presented a play was somewhat younger than those who, etc. 

1 This is a branch of the Ablative of Separation. The object with whicb anything 
is compared is the starting-point /rom which we reckon. Thns, " Cieero is eloq{«eBt " ; 
but, starting from himt we come to Gate, who is ** more so than he.'* 


Notb2. — The poets sometimes use the ablative of comparison where the prose 
oonstmction requires qoam: as,— pane eged iam meUitiB jwtiOre plaoan^ (Hor. Ep. 
i. 10. 11), I now want orecui better than honey-cakes. 

NoTB 3. — Relative pronouns having a definite antecedent never take quam in this 
construction, but always the ablative: as, — rez erat Aeneas ndbis, qu5 iustior alter 
nee, etc. (Aen. i. 544), ^neaa was our king, than whom no other [was] more righteoiis. 

&• In sentences expressing or implying a general negative the 

ablative (rather than quam) is the regular construction when the first 

member of the comparison is in the nominative or accusative : — 

nihil d€testd.bilius didecore, nihil foedios servitfite (Phil. iii. S6), nothing is 

more dreadful than disgrace^ nothing viler than eLwoery. 
ngmiuem esse cariOrem tS (Att. x. 8 a. 1), thaJL no one is dearer than you, 

c. After the comparatives plUs, minus, amplius, longius^ without 
quam, a word of measure or number is often used with no change in 
its case : — 

pltis septingenti capti (Liv. xli. 12), more than Mven hundred were taken. 

plGs tertUl parte interfectft (B. G. iii. 6), mxyre than a third part being slain, 

[Ablative Absolute.] 
aditus in latitddinem nOn amplius dncentSrum pedum relinquSbfttur (id. ii. 

29), an approach of not more than two hundred feet in width was left. 

[Genitive of Measure : § 346. 6.] 

NoTK. — The noun takes the case required by the context, without reference to the 
comparative, which is in a sort of apposition : " seven hundred were taken [and] more. ' ' 

d. Alius is sometimes followed by the ablative in poetic and collo- 
quial use ; in formal prose it is followed by ac (at^oe), et, more rarely 
by nisi, quam : — 

nee quicquam alind Hbert&te commOni (Fam. xi. 2), nothing dee than the comr 

mon liberty, 
alias Lysippo (Hor. Ep. ii. 1. 240), another than Lysippus. 
nnm aliud videtur esse ac meOram bonOram dIreptiO (Dom. 51), does it seem 

anything different from the plundering of my property t 
erat historia nihil aliud nisi annftlium cOnfectiO (De Oi. ii. 52), history was 

nothing else but a compiling of records. 

ۥ The comparative of an adverb is usually followed by quam, rarely 
by the ablative except in poetry : — 

tempus te citius quam 5r&tio dSficeret (Kosc. Am. 89), time would faH you 

sooner than words. But, — 
cur olivum sanguine vipeiino cautius vitat (Hor. Od. i. 8. 9), why does he shun 

oU more carefully than viper^s blood f 

NoTB. — Prepositions meaning b^ore or beyond (as ante, prae, piaeter, supri) are 
sometimes used with a comparative: as,— scelere ante aUSs immanior omnis (Aen. i. 
347), more mofistrous in crime than all other men. 



408. Means, Instrument, Manner, and Accompaniment are denoted by the Instru- 
mental Ablative (see § 398), but some of these uses more commonly require a prepo> 
sition. As they sill come from one source (the old Instrumental Case) no sharp line 
can be drawn between them, and indeed the Romans themselves can hardly have 
thought of any distinction. Thus, in omnibus precibas orabant, they entreated with 
every [kind of] prayer^ the ablative, properly that of means, cannot be distinguished 
from that of mxinner. 

Ablative of Means or Instrument 

409. The Ablative is used to denote the means or instrument 
of an action : — 

certantes pfignis, calcibus, anguibus, morsfi dSnique (Tusc. v. 77), fighting 
with fists, heels, nails, and even teeth. 

cum pGgnis et calcibus conclsus esset (Verr. iii. 56), when he had been pum- 
melled with their fiMs and heels. 

mels laboribas interitti rem ptlblicam llberd.vl (Sail. 33), by my toils I have 
saved the state from ruin. 

multae istftnim arborum meS, manu sunt satae (Cat. M. 69), many of those 
trees were set out with my own hands, 

▼i victa vis, vel potius oppressa virtfite aud&cia est (Mil. 30), violence was 
overcome by violence, or rather, boldness was put down by courage. 

a. The Ablative of Means is used with verbs and adjectives of 
filling, abounding, and the like : — 

Deus bonis omnibus explSvit mundum (Tim. 3), God has filled the world with 

aU good things. 
aggere et cr&tibus frs As explent (B. G. vii. 86), they fill up the ditches with 

earth and fa^c ss. 
t{>tum montem hominibus complSvit (id. i. 24), he filled the whole mountain 

with men. 
opimus praeda (Verr. ii. 1. 132), rich with spoils. 

vita plena et c5nferta voluptatibas (Sest 23), lifefilled and crowdedwith delights. 
Forum AppI differtum nantis (Hor. S. i. 6. 4), Forum Appii crammed with 


Note. — In poetry the Genitive is often used with these words. Compled and Impled 
sometimes take the genitive in prose (cf . § 356) ; so regularly plSnus and (with personal 
nouns) compiettts and refertus (§ 349. a): — 

omnia plena Ittctus et maerSris fuerunt (Sest. 128), everything wasfuU of grief 

and mjouming. 
Ollam dSn&ridrum implere (Fam. ix. 18), to fill a pot with mjoney. [Here evidently 

colloquial, otherwise rare in Cicero.] 
convivium vicinorum compleO (Cat. M. 46, in the mouth of Cato), I fill up the ban- 

quet with my neighbors. 
cum completus merc&tSrum career esset (Verr. v. 147), when the prison was full of 


410. The deponents Qtor, fruor, fungor, potior, yescor, with several 
of their compounds,^ govern the Ablative : — 

tLtar vestrft benignitAte (Arch. 18), 1 will avail myself of your kindness. 

ita mihi salv& rS pfiblicA vOblscum perfrul liceat (Cat. iv. 11), so may I enjoy 

with you the state secure and prosperous, 
fungi in&Ql manere (Aen. yi. 885), to perform an idle service, 
anro herds potitur (Ov. M. vii. 166), the hero takes the gold. 
lacte et ferlnft carne yescebantur (lug. 89), they fed on milk and gam£. 

Note. — This is properly an Ablatiye of Means (instrumental) and the yerbs are 
Teally in the middle yoice (§ 156. a). Thus fitor with the ablatiye signifies I employ 
myself (or avail myself) by m^ans of, etc. But these earlier meanings disappeared 
from the language, leaying the construction as we find it. 

a. Potior sometimes takes the Genitive, as always in the phrase 

potlri rSrum, to get control or be master of affairs (§ 357. a) : — 

tOtlus GalUae s^s^ potlrl posse spirant (B. G. i. 8), they hope they can get 
possession of the whole of Gaul. 

NoTB 1. — In early Latin, these yerbs are sometimes transitiye and take the 
accusatiye : — 

functus est ofaciam (Ter. Ph. 281), he performed the part, etc. 
ille patria potitur commoda (Ter. Ad. 871), he enjoys his ancestral estate, 
NoTx 2. — The Gerundiye of these yerbs is used personally in the passiye as if the 
yerb were transitiye (but cf. § 500. 3): as, — HeracllO omnia utenda ac i>ossidenda tra- 
diderat (Verr. ii. 46), fie had given over everything to Heracliusfor his use andposses' 
sion (to be used and possessed). 

411. Opus and fisus, signifying need^ take the Ablative: — ^ 

magistr&tlbas opus est (Leg. ill. 6), there is need of magistrates, 
nunc yiribas usus (Aen. yiii. 441), now there is need of strength. 

Note. — The ablatiye with usas is not common in classic prose. 

a. With opus the ablative of a perfect participle is often found, 

either agreeing with a noun or used as a neuter abstract noun : — 

opus est tu& ezpzOmptft maliti& atque astatift (Ter. And. 723), I must hone 

your best cunning and cleverness set to v>ork, 
proper&t5 opus erat (cf. Mil. 49), there was need of haste. 

Note 1. — So rarely with usas in comedy: as, — quid istis usust cSnscriptis (PI. 
Bacch. 749), whaVs the good of having them in writing? 

Note 2. — The omission of the noun giyes rise to complex constructions : as, — quid 
opus factOst (cf. B. G. i. 42), what must he done? [Cf. quid opus est fieri? with qu6 
facts opus est?] 

1 These are abutor, dentor (yery rare), dCfungor, dSfruor, perfruor, perfungor. 

^ This construction is properly an instrumental one, in which opus and usus mean 
^Dork and service, and the ablatiye expresses that with which the work is performed 
or the seryice rendered. The noun usus follows the analogy of the yerb utor, and the 
ablative with opus est appears to be an extension of that with usus est. 


6. Opu 18 oltfin found in the predicate, with the iking needed in ••% 

the nominative as subject : — 

doz nWa et asetor opoa est (Fain. u. 6. 4), toe need a Mtf and retpotui&Ie 
edmaer (a ohiaf, etc., Is necessary for us). 

si quid ipsi opus esset (B. 6. i. d4), ^ Ae him»e{f wcaUed eaajflAing (if any- 
thing ahonld be necessary for him). 

quae opus sunt (Cato R. R. 14. 3)» Mngs which are requiwed. 

▲bUtiye of Manner 

412. The Manner of an aotion is denoted by the Ablative ; usu- 
ally with cum, unless a limiting adjective is used with the noun r 

cum eelsiitite Ttoit, he tame wUh speed. But, — 
sommft oeleiit&te vdrnt^ he came with the greateiA speed, 
quid r^ert qui m6 latiSne cOgfttis (Lael. 26), vAal difference doee it make in 
what way you compel me f 

a. But cum is often used even when the ablative has a limiting 

adjective: — 

qaantfi id com peilcolS f€cerit (B. G. i. 17), at what risk he did this. 
nOn miadra cm taadio recubant (Plln. £p. ix. 17. 8), th^ recline with no less 

b. With such words of manner as modO, pactO, ratiOne, iit&, v^ vifl, 

and with stock expressions which have become virtually adverbs (as 

silentiG, V!kr% Imfirifl), cum is not used : — 

apis Matl&ae mdie modoqoe carmina fing& (Hor. Od. iv. 2. 28), in the style 
and masmer of a Matinian bee I fashion somjgs. 

NoTB. — So in poetry the ahlatire of manner often omits com: as,— *inseqnitiir ca- 
malS aquae mOns (Aen. i. 105), a mountain of water follows in a moM, [Of. monnnze 
(id. i. 124) ; rinds (id. i. 123).] 

Ablative of AocomiMLniinest 

413. Accompaniment is denoted by the Ablative, regularly with 


com coniog^bns ac libezis (Att. viti. 2. S), wWi wiioes and chUdren. 

com fonditdiibns sagittftxilsque fiamen transgress! (B. G. ii. 19), haxing 

crossed the river with the archers and stingers. 
quae supplicatiO si cam ceteris c5nferfttur (Cat. ill. 16), if this thanksgining 

he. compared with others. 
quae [I^x] esse com tBo vetat (Mil. 11), the law which forbids [one] to go 

ermed (be with a weapon). 
A seam anda edtkxeriA (Cat. i 30), (^ Ae lends out with him his associa ^ B S. 

[Fer aCcQfli, see f 144. 6. ir.i.] 


a. The ablatiye is used without cum in some military phrases, and 

here and there by early writers : — 

sntanqadbatar omnibiis cdpiXs (B. 6. ii. 19), he followed close wUh all hie 

forces. [But also cam omiiibas cdpiis, id. L 26.] 
hde praesidiS profectiis est (Verr. ii. 1. 86), with this force he set ovt. 

Note. — MisoeS and innsS, with some of their compounds, and oSnfimdS take either 
(1) the Ablative of Aooompaniment with or without com, or (2) sometimes the Dative 
(mosUy poetical or late) : — 

mixta dolore yoluptfts (B. Al. 56), pleasure mingled with pain. 
cC^ius animnmcom sa5 misceat (Lael. 81), whose soul he may mingle with his own. 
fletnmque cmfiri miscuit (Oy. M. iv. 140), and mingled tears with blood. 
Caesar eas cohortis cum exercitii sa5 coniunzit (B. G. i. 18), Casar united those 

cohorts with his own army. 
aer coniunctus tenia (Lncr. t. 662), air united with earth. 
humanO capiti cervicem equinam iungere (Hor. A. P. 1), to join to a human head 
a horse* s neck. 

h. Words of Contention and the like require cum : — 

armls com hoste cert&re (Off. iii. 87), to fight with the enemy in arms. 
libenter haec cmn Q. Catold disput&rem (Manil. 66), I should gladly discuss 
these matters with Quintvs Catulus. 

Note. — But words of contention may take the Dative in poetry (see § 368. a). 

Ablative of Degree of Difference 

414. With Comparatives and words implying comparison the 
ablative is used to denote the Degree of Difference : — 

qnlnqne mllibas passaum distat, it is five miles distant. 

SL mHihiia passaum circiter daObns (B. 6. v. 82), at a distance of about two 

miles. [For ft as an adverb, see § 433. 8.] 
aliquot ante anma (Tnsc. i. 4), several years before. 
aUquaittS post snspexit (Rep. yi. 9), a while after^ he looked up. 
mnlt5 m6 vigilftre ftcrins (Cat. i. 8), thai I watch much more sharply. 
nihild erat ipse Cyclops quam aries pradentior (Tusc. y. 115), the Cyclops 

himself was not a whit wiser than the ram. 

a. The ablatives qu5 . . . eO (h6c), and quantff . . . tantff, are used 
correlatively with comparatives, like the English the . . . the ^ : — 

qud minus cnpiditfitis, e9 pills auctOrit&tis (Liv. xxiv. 28), the less greedy the 

more weight (by what the less, by that the more), 
qoanto erat gravior oppQgn&tiO, tant5 crebriOrSs litterae mittebantnr (B. G. 

V. 45), the seserer the siege vms^ the more frequently letters were sexL 

1 In this phrase the is not the definite article hut a pronominal adyerb, being the 
Anglo-Saxon thyt the instrumental case of the pronoun that, that. This pronoun is 
uaed \MQk as lelatiye (by whidi, by how mucA) and as demonstratiye (by thai, by so 
much). Thus the ... the corresponds exactly to qn5 . . . e5. 


Note.— : To this coDStruction are doubtless to be referred all cases of qii5 and ed 
<li5c) with a comparative, even when they have ceased to be distinctly felt as degree 
of difference and approach the Ablative of Cause : — 

e5que me minus paenitet (N. D. i. 8), and for that reason I regret less, etc. (by so 

much the less I regret), 
haec e5 facilius faciebant, quod (B. 6. iii. 12), this they did the more easily for this 
reason^ hecause, etc. [Of. hoc m&iore spe, quod (id. iii. 9).] 

6. The Ablative of Comparison (§ 406) and the Ablative of Degree 
of Difference are sometimes used together with the same adjective : — 

paul5 minus ducentis (B. C. iii. 28), a little less than tioe^ hundred, 
patria, qaae mihi yit& me& multd est cftrior (Cat. 1. 27), my country , which 
is much dearer to me than life. 

But the construction with quam is more common. 

Ablative of Quality 

415. The quality of a thing is denoted by the Ablative with an 
adjective or genitive modifier. 

This is called the Descriptive Ablative or Ablative of Quality : — ^ 

animd meliore sunt gladi&tOrSs (Cat. ii. 26), the gladiators are of a better 

quae cum asset civitas aequissimd lure ac foedere (Arch. 6), as this was a 

city with perfectly equal constitutional rights. 
mulierem eximifi palchritudine (Verr. ii. 1. 64), a woman of rare heaviy. 
Aristoteles, yir snmmo ingeni5, 8cienti&, c5pi& (Tusc. i. 7), Aristotle, a man of 

the greatest genius, learning, and gift of expression. 
d6 DomitiO dixit versum Graecum e&dem Bentetiti& (Deiot. 25), concerning 

Domitiu^ he recited a Greek line of the same tenor. 

Note. — The Ablative of Quality (like the Grenitiye of Quality, § 345) modifies a sub- 
stantive by describing it. It is therefore equivalent to an adjective, and may be either 
attributive or predicate. In this it differs from other ablatives, which are equivalent 
to adverbs. 

a. In expressions of quality the Genitive or the Ablative may 

often be used indifferently ; hut physical qualities are oftener denoted 

by the Ablative (cf . § 345. n.) : — 

capill5 sunt promisso (B. G. v. 14), th£y huve long hair. 

ut capite opertd sit (Cat. M. 34), to have his head covered (to be with covered 

quam f uit inbecillus P. Af ricftnl fllius, quam tenui aut nfilU potius yaletudine 

(id. 36), hxm weak was the son of Africanus, of whaJt feiMe healthy or 

rather none at all ! 

^ It was originally instrumental and appears to have developed from accompani- 
ment (§ 413) and manner (§ 412). 

§§416,417] ABLATIVE OF PRICE 261 

Ablative of Price 

416. The priee of a thing is put in the Ablative : — 

agrum vendidit sestertium sex milibus, fie sold the land for 6000 sesterces. 
AntOnius rSgna addlxit pecanift (Phil. vii. 16), Antony sold thrones for money. 
logSs ridiculOs : quia cen& poscit (PL Stich. 221), jokes : who wants them for 

(at the price of) a dinner? 
mAgDo illl ea cunctatiO stetit (Liy. ii. 36), that hesitation cost him dear. 

Note. — To this head is to be referred the Ablative of the Penalty (§ 353. 1). 

417. Certain adjectives of quantity are used in the Genitive to 

denote indefinite value. Such are magni, parvi, tanti, quanti, pluris, 

minSris : — 

mea mlgni interest, it is of great consequence to me. 

illud parvi rgfert (Manil. 18), this is of small ajccount. 

est mihi tanli (Cat. ii. 15), Uis worth the price (it is of so much). 

Verrgsne tibi tanti fuit (Verr. ii. 1. 77), was Verres of so much account to 

tant5ne minoxis decumae venierunt (id. iii. 106), were the tithes sold for so 

much less f 
ut tS redimas captum quam queas rninimd : si nequeas paulalo, at qaanti queas 

(Ter. Eun. 74), to random yourself when captured^ at the cheapest rate 

you can; if you can't for a small sum, then at any rate for what you can. 

Note. —These are really Genitives of Quality (§ 345. 6). 

a. The genitive of certain colorless nouns is used to denote indefi- 
nite value. Such are nihil! (nili), nothing; assis, a farthing (rare) ; 
flocci (a lock of wool), a straw : — 

ii5n flocd faciO (Att. xiii. 50), I care not a strata. [Colloquial.] 
utinam ego istuc abs te factum nili penderem (Ter. Eun. 94), O that I cared 
nothing for this being done by you'! [Colloquial.] 

&. With verbs of exchanging, either the thing taken or the thing 
given in exchange may be in the Ablative of Price. Such are mutO, 
commutO, permutO, vertO : — 

fidem suam et religiOnem pecunia commutare (Clu. 129), to barter his faith 

and conscience for mxmey. 
exsilium patria sede mtitavit (Q. C. iii. 7. 11), he exchanged his native land 

for exile (he took exile in exchange for his native land). 
v6lox saepe Lucretilem mutat Lycaed Faunus (Hor. Od. i. 17. 1), nimble 

Faunas often changes Lycceus for Lucretilis. [He takes Lucretilis at 

the price o/Lycseus, i.e. he goes /rom Lycseus to Lucretilis.] 
vertere ffineribas triumphOs (id. i. 35. 4), to change the triumph to the funeral 

train (exchange triumphs for funerals). [Poetical.] 


Note. — With verbs of exchanging cum is often used, perhaps with a different con- 
ception of the action: as, — aries . . . cum croce5 mutabit vellera lat5 (Eel. iv. 44), the 
ram shall change hiafieece/or [one dyed with] the yellow saffron, 

c. With verbs of buying and seUing the simple Ablative of Price 
must be used, except in the case of tanti, quanti, plliris, minSris : — 

qnanti earn €mit? yili . . . quot minis? quadr&ginta minis (PI. Epid. 51), 
whaJt did he buy her for f Cheap, For how many minx f Forty. 

Ablative of Specification 

418. The Ablative of Specification denotes that in respect to 

which anything is or is done : — 

virtttte praecSdunt (B. G. i. 1), they excel in courage, 

claudcis alterO pede (Nep. Ages. 8), lame of one foot. 

tingofi haesitantes, voce absoni (De Or. i. 116), hesitating in speech, harsh in 

sunt enim homines nOn f§ sed nomine (Off. i. 105), for they are men not in 

fact, but in nam^. 
m&ior o&ta, older; minor n&tfi, younger (of. § 131. c). 
paulum aetftte prOgressI (Cat. M. 33), somewhat advanced in age. 
corpore senex esse poterit, animS numquam erit (id. 38), he may be an old nuin 

in body, he never will be [old] at heart. 

a. To this head are to be referred many expressions where the abla- 
tive expresses that in accordance tcith which anything is or is done : — 

med inre, with perfect right; but, meo modo, in my fashion. 

meft 8eBtenti&, in my opinion; but also more formally, ex me& seatentia. 

[Here the sense is the same, but the first ablative is specification, the 

second sourccl 
propinqoitate conitLnctOs atqne nfitfira (Lael. 60), closely allied by kindred and 

nature. [Here the ablative is not different in sense from those above, 

but no doubt is a development of means.] 
qvd vincit viribas (id. 55), who surpasses in strength. [Here it is impossible 

to tell whether yiribus is the means of the superiority or that in respect 

to which one is superior.] 

NoTB. — As the Romans had no such categories as we make, it is impossible to 
classify all uses of the ablative. The ablative of specification (originaUy instru- 
mental) is closely akin to that of manner ^ and shows some resemblance to means and 

For the Supine in -u. as an Ablative of Specification, see § 510. 

b. The adjectives dignus and indignus take the ablative : — 

vir patre, avo, miUoribus sufs dignissimus (Phil. iii. 25), a man moet toorthy 

of his father, grandfather, and ancestors. 
te omnI honore indignissimum iudicavit (Vat. 39), he judged you entirely 

unworthy of every honor. 

§§ 418, 419] ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE 263 

NoTB 1. — So the TBrb di^nor in poetry and later prose : as, — baud eqnidem tali me 
dignor honore (Aen. i. 335), 1 do not deem myself worthy of such an honor. 

NoTB 2. — Dianas and indicnns sometimes take the genitive in colloquial usage and 
in poetry: — 

curam dignissimam tuae virtiitis (Balbus in Att. viii. 16), care moei worthy of 

your noble character, 
dignus salntis (Plaut. Trin. 1153), worthy ofsqfety. 

magnOnun haud umqnam indignus aydrum (Aen. xii. 649), never unworthy of my 
great ancestors. 

Ablative Absolute 

419. A noun or pronoun, with a participle in agreement, may 
be put in the Ablative to define the time or circumstances of an 
action. This constiuction is called the Ablative Absolute : — ^ 

Caesar, acceptis litteiis, nuntium mittit (B. G. v. 46), having received the 

letter, CoBsar sends a messenger (the letter having been received), 
quibns rebas cdgnitis Caesar apud mllites cOntiOnfttur (B. C. i. 7), having 

learned this, Coesar makes a speech to the soldiers, 
fug&t5 omnI equit&tu (B. 6. vii. 68), aU the cavcUry being put to flight, 
interfectd Indfltionmro (id. vi. 2), upon the death of Indutiomarus, 
nOndum hieme cdnfecta in finis Nervi5nim contendit (id. vi. 3), though the 

winter was not yet over, he hastened into the territory of the Nervii, 
compressi [snnt] c5n9,t11s ntUl5 tumultu ptlblicS concit&t5 (Cat. i. 11), the 

attempts were put down without exciting any general alarm. 
n€ v5bis quidem omnibus rS etiam turn prob&ti (id. ii. 4), since at that time 

the facts were not yet proved eoen to all of you. 

Note. — The ablative absolute is an adverbial modifier of the predicate. It is^ 
however, not grammatically dependent on any word in the sentence: hence its name 
absolute (abBolutns, i.e./ree or unconnected). A substantive in the ablative absolute 
very seldom denotes a person or thing elsewhere mentioned in the same clause. 

a. An adjective, or a second noun, may take the place of the parti- 
ciple in the Ablative Absolute construction : — * 

exiga& parte aestfttis reliqoi (B. G. iv. 20), when but a small part of the sum- 
mjer was left (a small part of the summer remaining). 

L. Domitid Ap. Clandio cdnsulibus (id. v. 1), in the consulship of Lucius Domi- 
tius andAppius Claudius (Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius [being] 
consuls). [The regular way of expressing a date, see § 424. g.] 

nil desx>erandum Teucrd duce et auspice Teucro (Hor. Od. i. 7. 27), tJiere 
should be tio despair under Teucer's leadership aiid auspices (Teucer 
being leader, etc.). 

1 The Ablative Absolute is perhaps of instrumental origin. It is, however, some- 
times explained as an outgrowth of the locative^ and in any event certain locative 
constructions (of place and time) must have contributed to its development. 

3 The present participle of esse, wanting in Latin (§ 170. b), is used in Sanskrit and 
Greek as in English. 


b. A phrase or clause, used substantively, sometimes occurs as 
ablative absolute with a. participle or an adjective: — 

incertd quid peterent (Li v. xxviii. 36), as it was uncertain wliaJb they should 

aim at (it being uncertain, etc.). 
comperto v&num esse formldinem (Tac. Ann. i. 66) ^ when it was found that 

the alarm was groundless. 
cHr praetere&tur dfimSnstratd (Iny. ii. 34), wh£n the reason for omitting it has 

been explained (why it is passed by being explained). 
Note. — This construction is very rare except in later Latin. 

c. A participle or an adjective is sometimes used adverbially in 

the ablative absolute without a substantive : — 

consultd (Off. i. 27), on purpose (the matter having been deliberated on), 
mihi optatd veneris (Att. xiil. 28. 3), you wiXL come in accordance with my 

sereno (Liv. xxxi. 12), under a clear sky (it [being] clesur). 
nee auspic&td nee litfttd (id. v. 38), with no auspices or favorable sacrifice, 
tranquillo, ut &iunt, quilibet gubernfttor est (Sen. Ep. 85. 34), in good 

weather, as they say, any man ^s a pilot, 

420. The Ablative Absolute often takes the place of a Sub- 
ordinate Clause. 

Thus it may replace — 

1. A Temporal Clause (§ 541 ff.): — 

patre interfecto, [his] father having been kiUed, [This corresponds to com 
pater interfectus asset, when his father had been killed.] 

recentibtts sceleris ^ius vestigiis (Q. C. vii. 1. 1), while the traces of the crime 
were fresh. [Cf. dam recentia sunt vestigia.] 

2. A Causal Clause (§ 540) : — 

at ei qui Alesiae obsidebantur praeteiitfl die quS. auxilia suOrum exspecta- 
verant, consumptd omnI frumento, concilia coftctO c5nsultd,bant (B. G. 
vii. 77), but those who were under siege at Alesia, since the time, etc., 
had expired, and their grain had been exhausted, calling a council (see 5 
below), consulted together. [Cf. cum difis praeterisset, etc.] 

D&reus, desperftta p&ce, ad reparandas virls intendit animum (Q. C. iv. 6. 1), 
Darius, since he despaired of peace, devoted his energies to recruiting 
his forces. [Cf. cum pacem desperaret.] 

3. A Concessive Clause (§ 527) : — 

at eo repugnante flSbat (cOnsul), immo v€rG e6 fiebat magis (Mil. 34), but 

though he (Clodiuci) opposed, he (Milo) was likely to be elected consul; 

nay, rather, etc. 
turribus excit&tis, tamen h3s altitud5 puppium ex barbaris navibus supe- 

rabat (B. G. iii. 14), although towers had been built up, still the high 

stems of the enemy^s ships rose above them. 

§§ 420-422] ABLATIVE OF PLACE 265 

4. A Conditional Clause (§ 521): — 

occurrebat el, mancam et debilem praetdram futdram suam, cdnsnle Kilone 
(Mil. 25), it occurred to him that hia proetorship would he maimed and 
feeble, if MHo were consul, [si Blilo cdnsul esset.] 

qua. (regiOne) subftctA licSbit decurrere in illud mare (Q. C. ix. 3. 13), if this 
region is aulniued, we shall he free to run down into that sea. 

qii& quidem detrftctft (Arch. 28), if this he taken away. 

5. A Clause of Accompanying Circumstance : — 

ego haec ft ChrysogonO meft sponte, remStS Sex. Rdscio, quaer5 (Kosc. Am. 
130), of my own accord, without reference to Sextus Roscius (Sextus 
Boscius being put aside), I ask these questions of Chrysogonus, 

nee impeiante nee sciente nee praesente domind (Mil. 29), witliout their master'' s 
giving orders, or knowing it, or heing present. 

Note. — As the English Nominative Absolute is far less common than the Abla- 
tive Absolute in Latin, a change of form is generally required in translation. Thus 
the present participle is oftenest to be rendered in English by a relative clause with 
token or while; and the perfect passive participle by the perfect active participle. 
These changes may be seen in the following example : — 

At illi, intermisso spatio, imprudenti' But they, having paused a space^ while 

bus nostris atque occupdtis in munitiOne our men were unaware and busied in for- 
castrorum, subitO se ex silvis eiecerunt ; tifying the camp, suddenly threw them- 
impetitcixxe in eos facto qui erant in sta- selves out of the woods ; then, making an 
tione pro castris conlocati, acriter pQg- attack upon those who were on guard in 
naverunt ; dudbusque missis subsidiO front of the camp, they fought fiercely ; 
cohortibus a Caesare, cum hae (perexi- and, though two cohorts had been sent by 
gud intermisso loci spatio inter se) cOn- Csesar as reinforcements, after these had 
stitissent, noyOgenerepugnaeper^er7t/t« taken their x)08ition {leaving very little 
nostris f per mediOs audacissime perrupe- space of ground between them), as our 
runt seque inde incolnmis receperunt. — men were alarmed by the strange kind 
Caksar, B. 6. y. 15. of fighting, they dashed most daringly 

through the midst of them and got off 

For the Ablative with Prepositions, see § 220. 

Ablative of Place 

421. The Locative Case was originally used (literally) to denote the place where 
and (figuratively) to denote the time when (a development from the idea of place). 
But this case was preserved only in names of towns and a few other words, and the 
place where is usually denoted by the Ablative. In this construction the Ablative was, 
no doubt, used at first without a preposition, but afterwards it became associated in 
most instances with the preposition in. 

422. In expressions of Time and Place the Latin shows a 
variety of idiomatic constructions (Ablative, Accusative, and Loc- 
ative), which are systematically treated in § 423 ff. 



423. Time wherij or within whieh^ is expressed by the Abla- 
tive ; time how long by the Accusative. 

1. Ablative: — 

cOnstitdtft die, on the appoirded day ; prim& luce, at daybreak. 
quota hOr&, al what o^clock f tenia yigiliS,, in the third watch. 
tribus proximis annis (lug. 11), within the last three years. 
didbas vlgiutl quinque aggerem exstruxSrunt (B. G. vil. 24), within twenty- 
five days they finished building a mound. 

2. Accusative : — 

dies continuOs trigint&, for thirty days together. 

cum tridnam iter fScisset (B. G. ii. 16), when he had marched three days. 

NoTB. — The Ablative of Time is loccUive in its origin (§ 421) ; the Accusative is the 
same as that of the extent of space (§ 425). 

424. Special constructions of time are the following: — 

a. The Ablative of time within which sometimes takes in, and the 

Accusative of time how long per, for greater precision : — 

in diebus proximis decem (lug. 28), within the next ten days. 
ludl per decem di€s (Cat. iii. 20), games for ten days. 

b. Duration of time is occasionally expressed by the Ablative:— 

mllitSs quinque hdxis proelium sustinuerant (B. C. i. 47), the men had sus- 
tained the fight five hours. 

Note. — In this use the period of time is regarded as that within whidi the act is 
done, and it is only implied that the act lasted through the period. Of. inter annos 
quattuordecim (B. G. i. 2/S) ^ for fourteen years. 

c. Time during which or within which may be expressed by the 

Accusative or Ablative of a noun in the singular, with an ordinal 

numeral : — 

qomto die, within [just] four days (lit. on the fifth day). [The Roman!! 

coimted both ends, see § 631. d."] 
regnat iam sextom animm, he ?ias reigned going on six years. 

d. Klany expressions have in Latin the construction of time when 
where in English the main idea is rather of plaice : — 

ptLgna CannSnsI (or, apud Cannes), in the fight at CanMB. 
ludls ROm&nIs, at the Roman games. 
omnibus Gallicis bellls, in all the Gallic wars. 

§§424,425] TIMB AND PLACE 267 

e« In many idiomatic expressions of time, the AocusatiTe with ad, 
in, or sub is used. Such are the following: — 

supplicdtiO decreta est in Kalend&s linaAxifts, a thanksgiving was voted for 

the first of January. 
conY6n6rant ad diem, they aaaemUed on the [appointed] day. 
ad vesperom, tiU evening ; sub vesperum, towards evening, 
sab idem tempus, about the same time; sub noctem, ai nigktfalL 

/. Distance of time before or after anything is variously expressed : 

post (ante) trSs annOs, post tertium annum, trSs post annOs, tertium post 
annum, tribus post annis, terti5 post annO (§ 414), three years after. 

tribus annIs (tertio annO) post exsilium (postquam eiectus est), three years 
after his exile. 

YiSB tribus proximis annIs, vfithin the last three years. 

paucis annIs, a few years hence. 

abhinc annOs tr6s (tribus annIs), ante hds tr&s annOs, three years ago. 

triennium est cum (tr€s anni sunt cum), it is three years since. 

octavo mense quam, the eighth month after (see § 4S4. n.). 

ff. In Dates the phrase ante diem (a. d.) with an ordinal, or the 
ordinal alone, is followed by an accusative, like a preposition ; and 
the phrase itself may also be governed by a preposition. 

The year is expressed by the names of the consuls in the ablative 
absolute, usually without a conjunction (§ 419. a) : — 

is dies erat a. d. v. Kal. Apr. (quintum Kalend&s Aprllls) L. RsOne A. Gabinio 
cOnsulibus (B. G. 1. 6), that day was the Wi before the calends of April 
(March 28), in the consulship of Piso and Oabinius. 

in a. d. v. Kal. Nov. (Cat. i. 7), to the 6th day before the caXends of November 
(Oct 28). 

XV. Kal. Sextllls, the lUh day before the calends of August (July 18). [Full 
form : qointS dedmS di§ ante Kalend&s.] 

For the Roman Calendar, see § 631. 

Extent of Space 
425. Extent of Space is expressed by the Accusative : — 

fos8&8 quindecim pedSs UtSs (6. G. vii. 72), trenches fifteen feet broad. 

prOgressus nulia passuum circiter duodecim (id. v. 9), having advanced about 
twelve miles. 

in oxnni vltft soft quemque S. r6ct& cOnscienti& tr&nsversmn ongnem non 
oportet discedere (quoted in Att. xiii. 20), in all one^s life^ one should 
not depart a naiPs breadth from straightforward conscience. 

NOTS. — This AocusatiTe denotes the object through or over which the action takes 
place, and is kindred with the AoousatiTe of the End of Motion (§ 427. 2). 


a. Measure is often expressed by the Genitive of Qualiiy (§ 345. h) : 
vallum duodecim pedum (B. G. vii. 72), a rampart of twelve feet (in height). 

h. Distance when considered as extent of space is put in the Accu- 
sative; when considered as degree of difference^ in the Ablative 
(§ 414) : — 

milia passuum tria ab eOrum castrls castra p5nit (6. G. i. 22), he pitches his 

camp three miles from their camp. 
quinque dierum iter abest (Liv. xxx. 29), it is distant five days'* march. 
trlgint& nulibos passuum Infr3, eum locum (B. G. vi. 35), thirty milea below 

that place (below by thirty miles). 

Relations of Place 

426. Relations of Place ^ are expressed as follows : — 

1. The place from which, by the Ablative with ab, d6, or ex. . 

2. The place to which (or end of motion), by the Accusative Tvith 
ad or in. 

3. The pla^e where, by the Ablative with in {Locative Ablative), 

Examples are : — 

1. Place /rom which : — 

ft septentrionef from the north, 

cum ft ydbis discesserO (Cat. M. 79), wfien I leave you, 
d5 prdvincift decSdere, to come away from one^s province, 
dS monte, down from the mountain. 

negotiator ez Afiicft (Verr. ii. 1. 14), a merchant from Africa. 
ex Britaimia obsidSs misSrunt (B. G. iv. 38), they sent hostages from BrUaiiL 
MOsa prOfluit ex monte VosegO (id. iv. 10), the Meuse (flows from) rises in 
the Vosges mountains. 

2. Place to which (end of motion): — 

nocte ad Nervios pervSn^runt (B. G. ii. 17), they came by night to the Nervii. 
adibam ad istom fundum (Caec. 82), I was going to that estate. 
in Africam n9.vigd.vit, he sailed to Africa ; in Italiam profectus, gon^ to Italy. 
leg&tum in Treyer5s mittit (B. G. iii. 11), he sends his lieutenant into tJie 
[country of the] Treveri. 

1 Originally all these relations were expressed by the cases alone. The accusative, 
in one of its oldest functions, denoted the end of motion ; the ablative, in its proper 
meaning of separation, denoted the place from which^ and, in its locative function, the 
place wfiere. The prepositions, originally adverbs, were afterwards added to define 
more exactly the direction of motion (as in to umoard, toward us), and by long asao< 
elation became indispensable except as indicated below. 

§§ 426, 427] RELATIONS OF PLACE 269 

3. Place where : — 

in h&c urbe vltam dSgit, he passed his life in this city. 

si in GalliA remanerent (B. G. iv. 8), if they remained in Gaul. 

dum haec in Venetis geruntur (id. iii. 17), while this was going on among the 

oppidum in insuUl positum (id. vii. 58), a town situated on an island. 

427. With names of towns and small islands, and with domus 
and rus, the Relations of Place are expressed as follows : — 

1. The place from which, by the Ablative without a preposition. 

2. The plaice to which, by the Accusative without a preposition. 

3. The place where, by the Locative.^ 

^Examples are : — 

1. TlsLce from which : — 

Romft profectos, having set out from Bome; R5m& abesse, to he absent from 

domS abire, to leave home; rure reversus, having returned from the country. 

2. FlsLce to which : — 

cum Romam seztO die MutinS. vSnisset (Fam. xi. 6. 1), when he had come to 

Bome from Modena in five days (on the sixth day). 
D€lO Rhodnm, to sail from Delos to Bhodes. 
rus Ih^t I shall go into the country. 
domam iit, he went home,^ [So, sufts domos abXre, to go to their homes.'\ 

3. Place where (or at which) : — 

ROmae, at Bome (ROma). Ath6nls, at Athens (AthSnae). 

RhodI, at Bhodes (Rhodus). L&nuvl, at Lanuvium. 

Sami, at Samos. Cypri, at Cyprus. 

Tiburl or Tibure, at TUmr. Curibus, at Cures. 

Philippis, at Philippi. Caprels, at Capri (Capreae). 

domi (rarely domai), at home. rtlrl, in the country. 

a. The Locative Case is also preserved in the following nouns, 
which are used (like names of towns) without a preposition : — 
belli, militiae (in contrast to domi), abroad^ in military service. 
huml, on the ground. vesperl (-e), in the evening. 

foris, out of doors. animi (see § 368). 

herl (-e), yesterday. temperi, betimes. 

Cf. Infgllcl arbori (Liv. i. 26), on the ill-omened (barren) tree; terra marlque, 
by land and sea. 

^ The Locative has in the singular of the first and second declensions tUe same form 
as the Genitive, in the plural and in the third declension the same form as the Dative 
or Ablative. (See p. 34, footnote.) 

2 The English home in this construction is, like domnm, an old accusative of the 
end of motion. 


428. Special uses of place /ro7n which^ to which^ and where are 
the following : — 

€u With names of towns and small islands ab is often used to 
denote from the vicinity of, and ad to denote towardsy to the neighbor- 
hood of: — 

at A Matiiii discfideret (Phil. xiv. 4), tJiat he should retire from Modena 
(which he was besieging). 

erat i Gergovia despectos in castra (B. G. yii. 45), there toa» from about 
Oergovia a view into the camp. 

ad Aleaiam proficlscuntur (id. vii. 76), they set out for Alesia, 

ad Aleaiam perveniaiit (id. yii. 79), they arrive at Alesia (i.e. in the neighbor- 
hood of the town). 

D. Laelius cum classe ad Brandisiom v€nit (B. C. iii. 100), Deeimus Ladius 
came to Brundisium with a fleet (arriving in the harbor). 

b. The general words urbs, oppidnm, Insula require a preposition 

k) express the place from which, to which, or where : — 

ab (ex) urbe, from the city. in urbe, in the city. 

ad nrbem, to the city. ROmae in urbe, in the city of Rome. 

in urbem, into the city. R5m9. ex urbe, from the city of Rome. 

ad urbem ROmam (ROmam ad urbem), to the city of Rome. 

Cm With the name of a country, ad denotes to the borders; in with 
the accusative, into the country itself. Similarly ab denotes away 
from the outside ; ex, out of the interior. 

Thus ad Italiam pervSnit would mean he came to the frontier, regardless of 
the destination ; in Italiam, he went to Italy, i.e. to a place within it, to Rome, 
for instance. 

So ab itallA profectus est would mean ?ie came away from the frontier, regard- 
less of the original starting-point; ex ItaliA, Ae came from Italy, from within, as 
from Rome, for instance. 

d» With all names of places at, meaning near (not in), is expressed 
by ad or apud with the accusative. 

pfigna ad CannSs, the fight at Cannae. 

conchas ad C^ietam legunt (De Or. ii. 22), at Caieta (along the shore), 
ad (apud) Inferos, in the world below (near, or among, those below), 
ad forls, at the doors. ad iftnuam, at the door. 

Note 1. — In the neighborhood of may be expressed by circ& with the aocnsatiye; 
among, by apad with the aceusatiye : — 

apod GraeoOs, among the Greeks. apud me, at my house. 
apnd Solensis (Leg. ii. 41), at Soli. circa Capuam, round about Capua. 
NoTK 2. — In citing an author, apud is regularly used ; in citing a particular work, 
in. Thus, — apad Xenophdntem, in Xenophon; but, in Xenophdntls OeoonondeO, in 
Xenophon's (Bconomicus. 


0. Large islands, and all places when thought of as a territory and 
not as a locality y are treated like names of countries : — 

in Sidlia, m SicUy. 

in Ithact leporSs illati moriuntur (Plin. H. N. viiL 226), in Ithaca hares^ when 
carried there, die, [ Ulysses lived at Ithaca would require ithacae.] 

/• The Ablative without a preposition is used to denote the place 
from which in certain idiomatic expressions : — 

cessisset patxii (Mil. 68), he would have left his country, 

patii& pellere, to drive out of the country. 

maun mittere, to emancipate (let go from the hand). 

g» The poets and later writers often omit the preposition with the 
place from which or to which when it would be required in classical 
prose: — 

mSnls Acheronte remissOs (Aen. y. 99), the spirits returned from Acheron. 

Scythii profecti (Q. C. iv. 12. 11), setting outfr m Scythia, 

Italiam LS,yIniaque vSnit Utora (Aen. i. 2), Jte came to Italy and the Lavinian 

texram Hesperlam veni6s (id. ii. 781] , you shaU come to the Hesperian land. 
Aegyptnm proficiscitur (Tac. Ann. ii. 59), he sets out for Egypt 

h. In poetry the place to which is often expressed by the Dative, 
occasionally also in later prose : — 

it cl&mor caelo (Aen. v. 451), a shout goes up to the sky, 
facilis descensus AvemS (id. vi. 126), easy is the descent to Avemus. 
diadema capiti repQnere iussit (Yal. Max. v. 1. 9), he ordered him to put back 
the diadem on his head. 

i. The preposition is not used with the supine in -um (§ 509) and 
in the following old phrases: — 

ezsequi&s Ire, to goto the funeral. InfitiSs Ire, to resort to denial. 

pessam Ire, to goto ruin, pessum dare, to ruin (cf. pezdo). 

vSnnm dare, to sell (give to sale). [Hence vSndere.] 

v6nam Ire, to be sold (go to sale). [Hence vSnln.] 

for&s (used as adverb), out: as, — forfts Sgredl, to go out of doors, 

suppeti&s advenlie, to come to one's oMistance, 

J» When two or more names of place are used with a verb of motion, 
each must be under its own construction : — 

qoadridud qaO haec gesta sunt res ad Chryaogonom in castra L. Snllae VoU- 
teirAa d^fertur (Rose. Am. 20), within four days after this was done, the 
matter was reported to Chrysogonus in Build's camp at Volaterra^ 

NoTK. — Tbe accasative with or withont a preposition is often nsed in Latin when 
motion to a place is implied but not expressed in English (see k, v,). 


k. Domum denoting the place to which, and the locative domi^ may 

be modified by a possessive pronoun or a genitive : — 

domum regis (Deiot. 17), to the king^s house. [But also in M. Laecae domiim 

(Cat. i. 8), to Marcus LoBca^s house.] 
domi meae, at my house ; domi Caesaris, at Ccesar^s house, 
domi snae vel alienae, at his own or another^s house. 

Note. — At times when thus modified, and regularly when otherwise modified, in 
domum or in domo is used : — 

in domum privatam conveniunt (Tac. H. iv. 55) , they come together in a private house. 
in Marci Grass! castissimA domo (Gael. 9), in the chaste home of Marcus Crassus. 
[Gf. ex Anniana M:l3nis domo, § 302. e.] 

429. The place where is denoted by the Ablative without a 
preposition in the following instances: — 

1. Often in indefinite words, such as loc(J, parte, etc. : — 

quibus loc5 positis (De Or. iii. 153), when these are set in position. 

qui parte belli vicerant (Liv. xxi. 22), the branch of warfare in which they 
were victorious. 

locis certis horrea cOnstituit (B. C. iii. 32), he established granaries in par- 
ticular places. 

2. Frequently with nouns which are qualified by adjectives (regu- 
larly when t5tU8 is used) : — 

media, urbe (Liv. i. 33), in the middle of the city. 
tOt& Sicilia (Verr. iv. 51), throughout Sicily (in the whole of Sicily). 
tOt& Tairacina (De Or. ii. 240), in all Tarracina. 

cunctd. Asia atque Graeci& (Manil. 12), throughout the whole of Asia and 
Greece too. 

3. In many idiomatic expressions which have lost the idea of place : 

pendemus animis (Tusc. i. 96), we are in suspense of mind (in our minds), 
socius peiicufis vOblscum aderO (lug. 85. 47), I will he present with you, a 
companion in dangers. 

4. Freely in poetry : — 

litore curvO (Aen. iii. 16), on the loinding shore. 

antro seclusa relinquit (id. iii. 446), she leaves them shut up in the cave. 

Epiro, Hesperia (id. iii. 503), in Epirus, in Hesperia. 

premit altum corde dolOrem (id. i. 209) , Ae keeps down the pain deep in his heart. 

a. The way by which is put in the Ablative without a preposition: 

yi& breviOre equitSs praemisi (Fam. x. 9), J sent forward the aavatry by a 

shorter road. 
AegaeO mari trd,iecit (Liv. xxxyii. 14), he crossed by way of the ^gean Sea. 
prOvehimur pelag5 (Aen. iii. 506), we sail forth over the sea. 

Note. — In this use the way by which is conceived as the means of passage. 

§§42^-431] RELATIONS OF PLACE 273 

b» Position is frequently expressed by the Ablative with ab (rarely 

ex), properly meaning from: — ^ 

& tergO, in the rear; & sinisti'S,, on the Wt hand. [Cf. hinc, on this side.] 

& parte Pomp§, on the side of Pompey. 

ex alter& parte, on the other side. 

mfign& ex parte, in a great degree (from, i.e. in, a great part). 

430. Verbs of placing, though implying motion, take the con- 
struction of the place where : — 

Such are pOn0, loc0, collocO, statuO, cOnstituO, etc. : — 

qui in 88de ac domS collocftvit (Par. 25), who put [one] into his place and 

statoitiir eques ROmftnus in Apr6nl conidyiS (Verr. iii. 62), a Roman knight 

is brought into a banquet of Apronius. 
Insula Delos in AegaeO man posita (Manil. 55), the island of Detos, sit^wted in 

the JEgean Sea. 
8l in UnO Pompeio omnia pCnerStis (id. 59), if you made everything depend on 

Pompey alone. 

Note. — Compounds of p5n5 take various constructions (see the Lexicon under 
each word). 

431. Several verbs are followed by the Ablative. 

These are acquiSscO, dSlector, laetor, gaudeO, glOrior, nitor, stO, maneO, 

fidO, cOnfidO, cOnsistO, contineor. 

nominibns yeterum glOriantur (Or. 169), they glory in the names of the ancients. 

[Also, de dlvitils (in virtute, circa rem, aliquid, haec) gloriarl.] 
spS nitl (Att. iii. 9), to rely on hope. 
prddentift fldSns (Off. i. 81), truHting in prudence. 

Note. — The ablative with these verbs sometimes takes the preposition in (but 
fido In is late), and the ablative with them is probably locative. Thus, — in quibtts 
causa nititur (Cael. 25), on whom the case depends. 

"With several of these verbs the neuter Accusative of pronouns is often found. For 
fido and confidS with the Dative, see § 367. 

a. The verbals frStas, contentus, and laetus take the Locative Abla- 
tive : — 

fr6tu8 gr&tiA Brtttl (Att. v. 21. 12), relying on the favor of Brutus. 
laetus praedi, rejoicing in the booty. 

contentus sorte, content with his lot. [Possibly Ablative of Cause.] 
nOn fuit contentus glSilA (Dom. 101), he loos not content with the glory. 

Note. — So intentus, rarely: as, — aliqu5 negdtiS intentus (SaU. Cat. 2), intent 
on some occupation. 

1 Apparently the direction whence the sensuoitt impression oomes. 



Adverbs and Pxepositions 

132. Certain Adverbs and Adjectives are sometimes nsed as 
Prepositions : — 

a. The adverbs pridiS^ postiidie, propius, prozime, less frequently the 
adjectives propior and proidmus, may be followed by the Accusative : — 

pridifi Ndn&s BiftiSa (Att. ii. 11), the day b^ore the Nones of May (see § 631). 

poBtrldifi IfldSs (Att. zvi. 4), the day after the games, 

propius peiiciilaiii (Liv. zxi. 1), nearer to danger, 

propior montem (log. 49), nearer the hiU. 

proximus maxe Oceanum (B. G. iii. 7), nearest the ocean. 

Note. — PifdiC and postridie take also the Qenitiye (§ 359. () . Fxopiar, froipiu, pfoxi- 
mus, and proziiiii, take also the Dative, or the Ablative with ab: — 

propins Tiberi qnam Theimopylis (Nep. Hann. 8), nearer to the Tiber than to Ther- 

Sngambri qui snnt proximi RhSnd (B. 6. \i. 35), the Sugambri, who are nearest 

to the Rhine, 
proximiiB t postrBmS (Or. 217) , next to the last, 

b. Usque sometimes takes the Accusative, but Usque ad is much 
more common : — 

t^^Tm^j^ t^ue Libyae (lust. i. 1. 6), to the bounds of Libya. 
tlsque ad castra hostium (B. G. i. 51), to the enemy^s camp. 

Cm The adverbs palam, procol, simul, may be used as prepositions 
and take the Ablative: — 

rem crSditOrl palam popalS solvit (Liv. vi. 14), Tie paid the dM to his creditor 

in the presence of the people. 
baud procal castria in modum mQnicipI exstrficta (Tao. H. iv. 22), not far 

from the camp, built up like a toum, 
simnl nSbis habitat barbaras (Ov. Tr. v. 10. 29), close among ica dtoeSs the 


Note. — But simnl regularly takes cum ; procul is usually followed by ab in classic 
writers ; and the use of palam as a preposition is comparatively late. 

d» The adverb dam is found in early Latin with the Accusative, 
also once with the Genitive and once in classical Latin with the 
Ablative : — 

clam Eiitran suam (PI. MiL 112), unknoum to his mother. 
elam patzia (id. Merc 43), without his father^ s knowledge, 
clam vobia (B. C. ii. 32. 8), without your knowledge, 

^ Vot a list of Prepoaitiona with their ordinary «aaa, aae % 881. 


433. Prepositions often retain their original meaning as Ad- 
verbs : — 

1. Ante and post in relations of time : — 

quOs paulO ante diximus (Brut. 32), whom I mentioned a lUUe while ago. 
post tribus di6bas, three day» after (cf . § 424. /). 

2. Adversua, dxcher, ptope : — 

n€m5 adTeraus Ibat (Liv. zzxvii. 13. 8), no one toevif out in opposition. 
drdter pars qu&rta (Sail. Cat. 56), about the fourth part. 
prope exanim&tus, Tiearly lifeless. 

3. A or ab, off, in expressions of distance, with the Ablative of 

Degree of Difference (§ 414) : — 

iL mflibos passaam circiter duObus R^teiftnOram adyentitm ezspectlttmiDt 
(B. G. y. 32), tA a distannce of about two mUee (about two miles ofiF) ttoy 
awaited Vie cq^proajch of the Romans. 

4. In general, prepositions ending in -ft : — 

Aeolus haec contrft (Aen. i. 76), thus j^oIus in reply. 

forte fuit iOztft tumulus (id. iii. 22), there happened to he a mound close by. 

434. Some Prepositions and Adverbs which imply comparison 
are followed, like comparatives, by qaam, which may be separated 
by several words, or even clauses. 

Such words are ante, prius, post, posteft, pndie^ postiidiS; also magis 
and prae in compounds : — 

neqoe ante dimlsit earn qnam-fidsm dedit (Liv. xzziz. 10), nor did he lot him 

go ufiiU he gave a pledge. 
post diem tertinm qtiam dixerat (Mil. 44), tfie third day after he said it. 
CatO ipse lam servire qnam ptlgnare mavult (Att. vii. 16), Cato himself by this 

time had rather be a slave than fight. 
GallOrum qnam B0m&n5rum Imperia praefene (B. G. i. 17), [they] pr^er the 

rule of OavXs to that of Romans. 

NoTB. — The ablatiye of time is sometimes followed hj qnam in the same way 
(§424./) : as, — oetavO mense <iaam (Liv. xxi. 15), xoithin eight months after, etc. 

435. The following Prepositions sometimes come after their 
nouns : ad, citrS, drcum, oontrft, dS, 6 (ez), inter* luztft, penes, propter, 
ultril; BO regularly tenns and versas, and occasionally others: — 

[usos] qoem penes arbitrium est et ius et norma loquendl (Hor. A. P. 72), 
custom, -vnier who^ control is the choice, right, and rule of speech. 

ctdus ft m6 corpus est cremStum, quod contr& decuit ab illG meam (Cat. M. 
84), whose body I burned [on the funeral pile], while on the contrary 
(contrary to wliich) mine should have been burned by him. 

276 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§436 


436. The Syntax of the Verb relates chiefly to the use of the Moods (which express 
the mamier in which the action is conceived) and the Tenses (which express the time of 
the action) . There is no difference in origin between mood and tense ; and hence the 
nses of mood and tense frequently cross each other. Thus the tenses sometimes have 
modal significations (compare indicative in apodosis, § 517. c ; future for imperative, 
^ 449. h) ; and the moods sometimes express time (compare subjunctive in future con- 
ditions, §516. &, and notice the want of a future subjunctive). 

The parent language had, besides the Imperative mood, two or more forms with 
modal signification. Of these, the Subjunctive appears with two sets of termina- 
tions, -a-m, -4-8, in the present tense (moneam, dicam), and -€-m, -6-«, in the present 
(amem) or other tenses (essem, dixissem). The Optative was formed by IS-, i-, with the 
present stem (sim, duim) or the perfect (dixerim). (See details in §§ 168, 169.) 

Each mood has two general classes or ranges of meaning. The uses of the Sub- 
junctive may all be classed under the general ideas of wUl or desire and of action 
vividly conceived; and the uses of the Optative under the general ideas of wish and 
•of action vagudy conceived. 

It must not be supposed, however, that in any given construction either the sub- 
junctive or the optative was deliberately used becaiLse it denoted conception or possi- 
bility. On the contrary, each construction has had its own line of development from 
more tangible and literal forms of thought to more vague and ideal; and by this 
process the mood used came to have in each case a special meaning, which was after- 
wards habitually associated with it in that construction. Similar developments have 
taken place in English. Thus, the expression / would do this has become equivalent 
to a mild command, while by analysis it is seen to be the apodosis of a present condi- 
tion contrary to fact (§ 617) : if I were you, etc. By further analysis, / would do is 
seen to have meant, originally, / should have wished (or / did wish) to do. 

In Latin, the original Subjunctive and the Optative became confounded in meaning 
and in form, and were merged in the Subjunctive, at first in the present tense. Then 
new tense-forms of the subjunctive were formed,^ and to these the original as well as 
the derived meanings of both moods became attached (see § 438) . All the independent 
uses of the Latin subjunctive are thus to be accounted for. 

The dependent uses of the subjunctive have arisen from the employment of some 
independent subjunctive construction in connection with a main statement. Most fre- 
quently the main statement is prefixed to a sentence containing a subjunctive, as 
a more complete expression of a complex idea (§ 268). Thus a question implying a 
general negative (quin rogem? why shouldn't I ask?) might have the general nega- 
tive expressed in a prefixed statement (nulla causa est, there is no reason) ; or abeat, 
let him go away, may be expanded into sine abeat. When such a combination comes 
into habitual use, the original meaning of the subjunctive partially or wholly dis- 
appears and a new meaning arises by implication. Thus, in misit ISgatos qui diceient, 
he sent ambassadors to say (i.e. who should say), the original hortatory sense of the 
subjunctive is partially lost, and the mood becomes in part an expression of purpose. 
Similar processes may be seen in the growth of Apodosis. Thus, telle banc opinidnem, 
luctum sttstuleris, remove this notion, you will have donk away wUh gri^ (i.e. if you 
remove, etc.). 

1 For the signification of the tense-endings, see §§ 168, 169. 

§§ 436, 437] 



The Infinitiye is ori^nally a verbal noun (§ 451), modifying a verb like other nouns : 
▼olo vidSre, lit. " I wish for-seeing " : compare English "what went ye out for to see ? " 
But in Latin it has been surprisingly developed, so as to have forms for tense, and some 
proper modal characteristicSi and to be used as a substitute for finite moods. 

The other noun and adjective forms of the verb have been developed in various 
ways, which are treated under their respective heads below. 

The proper Verbal Constructions may be thus classified : — 

I. Indicative: Direct Assertion or Question (§437). 

1. Exhortation or Command (§439). 

2. Concession (§440). 

3. Wish (§441). . 

4. Question of Doubt etc. (§444). 

5. Possibility or Contingency (§446). 

( a. Independent 

n. Subjunctive: 

b. Dependent 

m. Imperative 

: \ 2. 
I 3. 

IV. Infinitive: 

1. Conditions ( Future (less yiyid)(§ 616. 6, c). 
I Contrary to Fact (§ 617). 

2. Purpose (with ut, ng) (§531). 

3. Characteristic (Relative Clause) (§535). 

4. Result (with ut, ut n5n) (§537). 
6. Time (with cum) (§ 546). 

6. Intermediate (Indirect Discourse) (§592). 

7. Indirect Questions or Commands (§§ 574, 

1. Direct Commands (often Subjunctive) (§448). 

Statutes, Laws, and Wills (§449. 2). 

Prohibitions (early or poetic use) (§ 450. a), 
a. Subject of esse and Impersonal Verbs (§§ 452, 454). 

6. Objective 
tions : 

c. Idiomatic 

1. Complementary Infinitive (§456). 

2. Indirect Discourse (with Subject Accusative) 


1. Purpose (poetic or Greek use) (§460). 

2. Exclamation (with Subject Accusative) 


3. Historical Infinitive (§463). 


437. The Indicative is the mood of direct assertions or ques- 
tions when there is no modification of the verbal idea except that 
of time. 

a. The Indicative is sometimes used where the English idiom 
would suggest the Subjunctive : — 

longum est, U woidd be tedious [if, etc.]; satius erat, it would have been bet- 
ter [if, etc.]; perseqm possum, I might foUovo up [in detail]. 

Note. —Substitutes for the Indicative are (1) the Historical Infinitive (§ 463), and 
(2) the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse (§580). 

For the Indicative in Conditions, see §§ 515, 516 ; for the Indicative in implied Com- 
mands, see § 449. b. 

278 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§488,439 


438. The Subjunctive in general expresses the verbal idea witii 
some modification^ such as is expressed in English by auxiliaries, 
by the infinitive, or by the rare subjunctive (§ 157. 5). 

a. The Subjunctive is used independently to express — 

1. An Exhortation or Command (Hortatory Subjunctive: § 439). 

2. A Concession (Concessioe Subjunctive: §440). 

3. XYf'uh {Optalice Subjunctive: §441). 

4. A Question of Doubt etc. (^Deliberative Subjunctive: § 444). 

5. A Possibility or Contingency (Potential Subjunctive: § 446). 
For the special idiomatic uses of the Sabjunetive in Apodosis, see § 514. 

b» The Subjunctive is used in dependent clauses to express — 

1. Condition : future or contrary to fact (§§ 516. 6, c, 517). 

2. Purpose (Ftnai, § 531). 

3. Characteristic (§ 535). 

4. Result (Consecutive, § 537). 

5. Time (Temporal, §546). 

6. Indirect Questoon (§ 574). 

c. The Subjunctive is also used with Conditional Particles of Com- 
parison (§ 524), and in subordinate clauses in the Indirect Discourse 
(§ 580). 


Hortatory Subjunctive 

439. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used in the present tense 
to express an exhortation or a command. The negative is nS. 

hOs latrOnSs interfid&mas (B. G. vii. 38), let V3 kiU these robbers. 
caveant intemperantiam, meminennt yerScundiae (Off. i. 122), let them shun 
excess and cherish modesty. 

NoTK 1, — The hortatory subjunctive occurs rarely in the perfect (except in pro- 
hibitions: §450) : as, — Epiciirus hOc viderit (Acad. ii. 19), let Epicurua look to this. 

NoTB 2. — The term hortatory 8ubjunctit>e is sometimes restricted to the first per- 
son plural, the second and third persons heing designated as thejiusive stdguMtcHve; 
hut the constructions are substantially identical. 

^ These modifications are of various kinds, each of which has had its own special 
development (cf. § 436). The subjunctive in Latin has also many idiomatic uses (as in 
clauses of Result and Time) where the English does not modify the verbal idea at aB, 
but expresses it directly. In such cases the Latin merely takes a different view of 
the action and has develoi)ed the construction differently from the English. 


Note 3. — Once in Cicero and occasionally in the poets and later writers the nega- 
tive with the hortatory subjunctive is nSn : as, — a legibus n5n reofidAmas (Clu. 155), let 
us not abandon ihe lanos. 

a. The Second Person of the hortatory subjunctive is used onlj 
of an indefinite subject^ except in prohibitions, in early Latin, and in 
poetry : — 

initlrias fortunae, quSfi ferre nequeds, defugiendO relinquas (Tusc. v. 118), the 
tmronga of fortune^ which you cannot hear^ leaoe behind by flight. 

ezori&re aliquis ultor (Aen. iv. 625), rise, some avenger, 

istO bono utare dum adsit, cum absit ne requiras (Cat. M. 33), use this bless- 
ing while it is present; when it is wanting do not regret it. 

doceafl iter et sacra Ostia pandas (Aen. vi. 109), show us the way and lay open 
the sacred portals. 
For Negative Commands {prohibitions) ^ see §450. 

6. The Imperfect and Pluperfect of» the hortatory suhjunctive 

denote an unfulfilled obligation in past time : — 

moreretar, inqui^s (Rab. Post. 20), he should have died, you will say. 
potius doceret (Off. iii. 88), he should rather have taugld. 
ng poposcisses (Alt. ii. 1. 3), you should not have asked, 
saltern aliquid de pondere dStrSzisset (Fin. iv. 57), at least he should have 
taken something from the weight. 

NoTB 1. — In this construction the Pluperfect usually differs from the Imperfect 
only in more clearly representing the time for action as momentary or as past. 

Note 2. — This use of the subjunctive is carefully to be distinguished from the 
potential use (§ 446). The difference is indicated by the translation, should or ought 
(not would or might). 

440. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used to express a conces- 
sion,^ The Present is used for present time, the Perfect for past. 
Tlie negative is n6. 

sit fur, sit sacrilegus: at est bonus iraperator (Verr. v. 4), grant he is a 

thief, a godless wretch : yet he is a good general. 
faerit aliis ; tibi quand{) esse coepit (Verr. ii. 1. 37), suppose he was [so] to 

others ; when did he begin to be to you f 
ii€mQ is nmquam fuit: ne fuerit (Or. 101), there never was muih a one [you 

will say] : granted (let there not have been), 
ne sit summum malum dolor, malum cert6 est (Tusc. ii. 14), granted that 

pain is not the greatest evil, at least it is an eovL 

Note. — The concessive subjunctive with quamvis and licet is originally hortatory 

(§527. a, 6). 

For oth^ methods of expressing Concession, see § 527. 

For the Hortatory Subjunctive denoting a Proviso, see § 528. a. 

1 Many scholars regard the concessive subjunctive as a development of the Optative 
Subjunctive in a wish. 

280 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§441,442 

Optative Subjunctive 

441. The Optative Subjunctive is used to express a Wish. The 
present tense denotes the wish as possible^ the imperfect as unac- 
oompliahed in present time, the pluperfect as unaccomplished in 
past time. The negative is ne : — 

ita vivam (Att. v. 16), as true as I live^ so may I live. 

ne vivam si sciO (id. iv. 16. 8), I wish I may not live if I know. 

di 16 perduint (Deiot. 21), the gods confound thee! 

valeant, valeant civ68 mei ; sint incolumes (Mil. 93), farewell^ farewell to my 

fellow-citizens ; may they he secure from harm. 
dl facerent sine patre forem (Ov. M. viii. 72), would tJiat the gods allowed me 

to he without a father (but they do not) 1 

a. The perfect subjrmctive in a wish is archaic : — 

di faxint (Fam. xiv. 3. 3), may the gods grant. 

quod di Omen averterint (Phil. xii. 14, in a religious formula), and may the 
gods avert this omen. 

442. The Optative Subjunctive is often preceded by the par- 
ticle utinam ; so regularly in the imperfect and pluperfect : — 

falsus utinam y&t€s sim (Liv. xxi. 10. 10), J wish I may he a false prophet. 
utinam ClOdius viveret (Mil. 103), would that Clodius were now alive. 
utinam mS mortuum vidisses (Q. Fr. i. 3. 1), would you had seen me dead. 
utinam nS Y<5r6 scriberem (Fam. v. 17. 3), would that I were not writing the 

Note. — Utinam non is occasionally used instead of ntinam nS: as, — utinam sus- 
ceptus n5n essem (Att. ix. 9. 3), icovld that I had not heeri born. 

a. In poetry and old Latin uti or ut often introduces the optative 
subjunctive ; and in poetry si or si with the subjunctive sometimes 
expresses a wish : — 

ut pereat positum rObigine telum (Hor. S. ii. 1. 43), may the weapon unused 

perish with rust. 
6 SI angulus ille accedat (id. ii. 6. 8), O if that corner might only he added! 
81 nunc s6 nObis ille aureus ramus ostendat (Aen. vi. 187), if now that golden 
branch would only show itself to us ! 

Note 1. — The subjunctive with uti (ut) or utinam was originally deliberative, 
meaning how may /, etc. (§ 444) . The subjunctive with si or 6 si is a protasis (§ 512. a), 
the apodosis not being expressed. 

Note 2. — The subjunctive of wish without a particle is seldom found in the imper- 
fect or pluperfect except by sequence of tenses in Indirect Discourse (§ 585): as, — ac 
venerata Ceres, ita culm5 surgeret alt5 (Hor. S. ii. 2. 124), and Ceres worshipped [with 
libations] that so she might rise with tall stalk, [In addressing the goddess directly 
the prayer would be : ita surgSs.] 


&• Velim and vellem, and their compounds, with a subjimctiye or 
infinitive, are often equivalent to an optative subjunctive : — 

velim tibi persaade&s (Fam. ix. 13. 2), I should like to have you believe (I 

should wish that you would persuade yourself). 
d6 MenedSmO vellem vSrum faisset, d@ r^glnft yelim yerum sit (Att. xv. 4. 4), 
about Menedemua I wish it had been true ; about the queen I wish it may be. 
nollem accidisset tempus (Fam. iii. 10. 2), I wish the time never had come. 
maUem Cerberum metnerSs (Tusc. 1. 12), I had rather have had you afraid 
of Cerberus (I should have preferred that you feared Cerberus). 

Note. — Velim etc., in this use, are either potential subjunctives, or apodoses with 
the protasis omitted (§ 447. 1. N.). The thing wished may be regarded as a substantive 
clause used as object of the verb of wishing (§ 565. n. ^). 

Deliberative Subjunctive 

443. The Subjunctive was used in sentences of interrogative form, at first when 
the i^>eaker wished information in regard to the will or desire of the person addressed. 
The mood was therefore fiortatory in origin. But such questions when addressed by 
the speaker to himself, as if asking his own advice, become deliberative or, not infre- 
quently, merely exdamatory. In such cases the mood often approaches the meaning 
of the Potential (see § 445). In these uses the subjunctive is often caUed peliberative 
or Dubitative. 

444. The Subjunctive is used in questions implying (1) doubty 
indignation^ or (2) an impossibility of the thing's being done. 
The negative is nOn. 

quid agam, iadices? quO m6 vertam (Verr. v. 2), what am I to do, judges f 

whither shall I turn f 
etiamne eam salutem (PI. Rud. 1275), shaU I greet her f 
quid hoc homine facias? quod supplicium dignum libidini §ius inveni&s (Verr. 

ii. 40), what are you to do with this man f what fit penalty can you devise 

for his wantonness f 
an ego nOn venirem (Phil. ii. 8), what, shoidd I not have come f 
quid dicerem (Att. vi. 3. 9), what was I to say f 
quis enim c81aveiit ignem (Ov. H. xv. 7), who could conceal the flame? 

Note. — The hortatory origin of some of these questions is obvious. Thus, — quid 
faciSmus ? =faciamas [aliquid] , quid ? let us do —what ? (Compare the expanded form 
quid vis faci&mus ? what do you wish us to do ?) Once established, it was readily trans- 
ferred to the past: quid faciam? what am I to do? quid facerem? what was I to do? 
Questions implying impossibility, however, cannot be distinguished from Apodosis 
(of. §517). 

a. In many cases the question has become a mere exclamation, 
rejecting a suggested possibility : 

mihi umquam bonQrum praesidium dgfuturum putarem (Mil. 94), could 1 
think that the defence of good men would ever fail me! 
Note. — The indicative is sometimes used in deliberative questions : as, — quid ag6, 
what am I to do? 

282 SYNTAX: THE VERB flS 446-447 

Potential Subjunctive 

445. Of the two principal uses of the Subjunctive in independent sentences (cf. 
§436), the seeond, or Potential Subjunctive,^ is found in a variety of sentenee-forms 
having as their common el^nent the fact that the mood represents the acticm as merely 
conceived or possible, not aa desired {PiortcUorif, optative) or rea> (indicative). Some 
of these nsea are very old and may go back to the Indo-Euroi>ean parent siieech, but 
no satisfactory connection between the Potential and the Hortatory and Optative 
Subjunctive has been traced. There is no single English equivalent for the Potential 
Subjunctive; the mood must be rendered, according to circumstances, by the auxil- 
iaries would, shoidd, may, might, can, could. 

446. The Potential Subjunctive is used to suggest an action 
as possible or conceivable. The negative is n6n. 

In this use the Present and the Perfect refer without distinction to 
the immediate/z^ura; the Imperfect (occasionally the Perfect) topaM 
time ; the Pluperfect (which is rare) to what miffht have happened. 

447. The Potential Subjunctive has the following uses : — 

1. In cautious or modest assertions in the first person singular of 

expressions of saying, thinking, or wishing (present or perfect) : — 

pace tu& dixerim (Mil. 108), I would say by your leave. 

haud sciam an (Lael. 51), I should incline to think. 

tu velim sic ezistim€s (Fam. xii. 6), / shxmld like you to think so. 

certum affirm 9x6 non ausim (Liv. iii. 23), I should not dare to assert as sure. 

Note. — Vellem, nollem, or mallem expressing an unfulfilled wish in present time 
may be classed as independent potential subjunctive or as the apodosis of an nnex- 
pressed condition (§521): as — veUem adesset M. Antonius (Phil. i. 16), I could wish 
Antony were here. 

2. In the indefinite second person singular of verbs of saying, think- 
ing, and the like (present or imperfect) : — 

crgdas n5n dg puer5 scriptnm sed a puero (PI in. Ep. iv. 7. 7), you wouid 
think thai it was written not about a boy hvt by a boy. 

crederes victOs (Liv. ii. 43. 9), you would have thought them conquered. 

reOs diceres (id. ii. 35. 6), you would have said they were culprits. 

videres susurros (Hor. S. ii. 8. 77), you might have seen them whispering (lit. 

fretO assimilare posms (Ov. M. v. 6), you might compare it to a sea. 

3. With other verbs, in all persons, when some word or phrase in 
the context implies that the action is expressed as merely possible ot 
conceivable : — 

1 The name Poteniial St^nnctive is not precisely deseriptiye, bnt is faeA in 
grammatical usage. 

91 447, 448] IMPERATIVE MOOD 283 

nU ego contalcrim iHcundd s&nuB amlc6 (Hor. S. i. 5. 44), when m my senses 

I should compare nothing with an interesting friend. 
f orttLnam citius repeiifts quam retiiiefts (Pub. Syr. 168V, you may sooner find 

foertiuve th€ai keep iL 
aliquis dicat (Ter. And. 640), somebody may say. 

NoTB. — In this use the subjunctive may be regarded as the apodosia of an unde- 
veloped protasis. When the conditional idea becomes clearer, it finds expression iit 
a formal protasis, and a conditional sentence is developed. 

a« Forsitan, perhaps, regularly takes the Potential Subjunctive 

except in later Latin and in poetry, where the Indicative is also 

common : — 

forsitan qaaerfttis qui iste terror sit (Rose. Am. 6), you may perhaps inquire 

what this aJtarm is, 
forsitan temerS fecexim (id. 31), perhaps I hane acted rashiy. 

Note. — The subjunctive clause with forsitan (=for8 sit an) was originally an Indi- 
rect Qnestion : it would he a chance whether, etc. 

6. FortBLsaey perhaps, is regularly followed by the Indicative; some- 
times, however, by the Subjunctive, but chiefly in later Latin: — 
quaeres fortaase (Pam. zv. 4. 13), perhaps you will ask. 

Note. — Other expressions tor perhaps are (1) forsan (chiefly poetical; construed 
with the indicative or the subjunctive, more commonly the indicative), fors (rare and 
poetical ; construed with either the indicative or the subjunctive). Forait (or fors sit) 
occurs once (Hor. S. i. 6. 49) and takes the subjunctive. Fortaase is sometimes followed 
by the infinitive with subject accusative in Plautus and Terence. Fortassis (rare ; con- 
strued like fortasse) and fortasse an (very rare; construed with the subjunctive) are 
also found. 


448. The Imperative is used in Commands and Entreaties : — 

cdnsulite v5bls, prdspicite patriae, cSnservftte v5s (Cat. iv. S)^ ha/oe a care for 

yoursdves, guard Uie country , preserve yourselves. 
die, M&rce Toll!, sententiam, Marcus TuUiuSy state your opinion. 
t€ ipsum cancnte (Hor. S. t 3. 35), examine yowrseilf. 
Vive, valSque (id. ii. 5. 110), farewell^ bless you (live and be well) I 
miserere animi nOn digna ferentis ( Aen. ii. 144) ^ pity a soul bearing Undeserved 


«. The third person of the imperative is antiquated or poetic : — 

olUs salCbs populi suprema l€z estd {J^'^g^- iii. 8), the safety of the people shall 
be their first law. 

itista imperia anata, elsque clv€s roodestg pftrentS (id. ill. 6), let there be law- 
ful authorities, and let the citizens strictly obey them. 

NoTB. — In prose the Hortatory Subjunctive is commonly used instead (§ 439). 

284 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§ 449 

449. The Future Imperative is used in commands, etc., where 
there is a distinct reference to future time : — 

1. In connection with some adverb or other expression that indi- 
cates at what time in the future the action of the imperative shall take 
place. So especially with a future, a future perfect indicative, or 
(in poetry and early Latin) with a present imperative : — 

eras petito, dabitur (PI. Merc. 769), oak to-morrow [and] U shaU he given, 
cum val^ttidinl cOnsulueris, turn consulito nftvigatiODl (Fam. xvi. 4. 3), when 

you fiave attended to your healthy then look to your sailing. 
Fhyllida mitte mihl, meus est nS,tali8, I0II& ; cum f aciam vitul& pr5 f rtLg^ibus, 

ipse venito (Eel. iii. 76), send Phyllis to me, it is my birthday, loUas; 

when I [shall] sacrjfijce a heifer for the harvest, come yourself. 
die quibus in terrls, etc., et Fhyllida sOlus habetd (id. iii. 107), tell in what 

lands, etc., and have Phyllis for yourself. 

2. In general directions serving for all time, as Precepts, Statutes, 
and Wills : — 

is iuris clvilis ctistOs estS (Legg. iii. 8), let him (the prsetor) be the guardian 

of civil right. 
Borea fiante, ne aratS, sSmen n6 iacitd (Plin. H. K. xviii. 334), when the north 

wind blows, plough not nor sow your seed. 

a. The verbs sciO, memini, and habed (in the sense of consider) regu- 
larly use the Future Imperative instead of the Present : — 

flUol5 me auctum scitd (Att. i. 2), learn that I am blessed with a little boy. 

sic habetd, ml Tird (Fam. xvi. 4. 4), so understand it, my good Tiro. 

de palla mementd, amd,bO (PI. Asin. 930), remember, dear, about the gown, 

b. The Future Indicative is sometimes used for the imperative ; 

and quin (why not ?) with the Present Indicative may have the force 

of a command : — 

si quid accident novl, faciSs ut sciam (Fam. xiv. 8), you wiU let me know if 

anything new happens. 
quIn accipis (Ter. Haut. 832), here, take it (why not take it?). 

c. Instead of the simple Imperative, cura ut, fac (fac ut), or velim, 
followed by the subjunctive (§ b^b), is often used, especially in col- 
loquial language : — 

cura at R5mae sis (Att. i. 2), take care to be at Rome. 

fac at valsttidinem cures (Fam. xiv. 17), see that you take care of your health. 

domi adsitis facite (Ter. £un. 506), be at home, do. 

eum mihi velim mittS,s (Att. viii. 11), J wish you would send it to me. 

For commands in Indirect Discourse, see § 588. 

For the Imperative with the force of a Conditional Clause, see § 521. 6. 


Prohibition (Negative Command) 

450. Prohibition is regularly expressed in classic prose (1) by 
ndi with the Infinitive, (2) by cav6 with the Present Subjunctive, 
or (3) by n6 with the Perfect Subjunctive : — ^ 

(1) noU patare (Lig. 33), do not suppose (be unwilling to suppose). 
noli impudens esse (Fam. zii. 30. 1), donH he shameless, 

nSlite c5gere sociOs (Verr. ii. 1. 82), do not compel the aUies. 

(2) cave putes (Att. vii. 20), don^t suppose (take care lest you suppose). 
cave ignOscas (Lig. 14), do not pardon. 

cavS festings (Fam. xvi. 12. 0), do not be in haste, 

(3) xi§ necesse habaeris (Att. xvi. 2. 6), do not regard it as necessary, 
ne Bis admirfttas (Fam. vii. 18. 3), do not be surprised. 

hoc facitO; hOc nS fSceris (Div. ii. 127), thoushaU do this^ thou shaJt not do that, 

ne Apellae quidem dizeris (Fam. vii. 25. 2), do not tell Apella even. 

ne vOs quidem mortem timaeritis (Tusc. 1. 98), nor must you fear death. 

All three of these constructions are well established in classic prose. The first, 
which is the most ceremonious^ occurs oftenest ; the third, though not discourteous, is 
usually less formal and more peremptory than the others. 

Note 1. — Instead of nSli the poets sometimes use other imperatives of similar 
meaning (cf. § 457. a): — 

parce pias scelerare manus (Aen. iii. 42), forbear to defile your pious hands, 
cetera mitte loqui (Hor. Epod. 13. 1), forbear to say the rest, 
iugfi quaerere (Hor. Od. i. 9. 13), do not inquire. 
NoTS 2. — CavS ne is sometimes used in prohibitions ; also vid6 nS and (colloquially) 
tac ne : as, — fac nS quid aliud cures (Fam. xvi. 11), see that you attend to nothing else. 
Note 3. — The present subjunctive with nC and the perfect with cave are found in 
old writers ; ne with the present is common in poetry at all periods : — 
ne exspectetis (PI. Ps. 1234), do not wait. 
ne metofts (Mart. Ep. i. 70. 13), do not fear, 
cave quicquam responderis (PI. Am. 608), do not make any reply. 
Note 4. — Other negatives sometimes take the place of ne : — 
nihil ignOveris (Mur. 65), grant no pardon (pardon nothing), 
nee mihi illud dixeris (Fin. i. 25), and do not say this to me. 
Note 6. — The regular connective, and do not, is neve. 

a. The Present Imperative with nS is used in prohibitions by early 

writers and the poets : — 

n6 time (PI. Cure. 520), don't be afraid. 

nimium n€ crede colOrl (Eel. ii. 17), trust not too much to complexion. 

equO n6 credite (Aen. ii. 48), trust not the horse. 

&• The Future Imperative with n6 is used in prohibitions in laws 
and formal precepts (see § 449. 2). 

1 In prohibitions the subjunctive with ne is hortatory ; that with cave is an object 
clause (cf. §§ 450. y, ^, 565. n. i). 

286 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 461, 452 


45 1« The tofinitiye is properly a noun denoting the action of the verb abstractly. 
It differs, howeTer, from other abstract nouns in the following points: (I) it oft^i 
admits the distinction of tense ; (2) it is modified by adverbs, not by ac^ectives; (3) it 
governs the same case as its verb ; <4) it is limited to special constructions. 

The Latin Infinitive is the dative or locative case of such a noun ^ and was origi- 
nally used to denote Purpose; but it has in many constructions developed into a sub- 
stitute for a finite verb. Hence the variety of its use. 

In its use as a verb, the Infinitive may take a Subject Accusative (§ 397. e), origi- 
nally the object of another verb on which the Infinitive depended. Thus ittbed tC valSre 
is literally / command you for being well (cf. substantive clauses, § 562. n.). 

Infinitive as Noun 

452. The Infinitive, with or without a subject accusative, may 
be used with est and similar verbs (1) as the Subject, (2) in Appo- 
sition with the subject, or (3) as a Predicate Nominative-^ 

1. As Subject : — 

dolere malum est (Fin. v. 84), to suffer pain is an evil. 

bellum est sua vitia nosse (Alt. ii. 17), it ^s a fine thing to know one's awn 

praestat compSnere fluct&s (Aen. i. 135), it is better to calm the vfoves. 

2. In Apposition with the Subject : — 

proinde quasi iniuriam facere id demum asset imperi5 Htl (Sail. Cat. 12), 
just as if this and this alone, to commit ir^juMice, were to use power. 
[Here facere is in apposition with id.] 

3. As Predicate Nominative : — 

id est convenienter n9.turae vivere (Fin. iv. 41), Viat is to live in conformity 
with nature. [Cf. uti in the last example.] 

Note 1. — An infinitive may be used as Direct Object in connection with a Predi- 
cate Accusative (§ 393), or as Appositive with such Direct Object: — 

istuc ipsum non esse cum fueris miserrimum puto (Tusc. i. 12), for I think thi* 
very thing most wretched, not to be when one has been. [Here istuc ipsnm 
belongs to the noun non esse.] 
miserazi, invidSre, gestire, laet&n, haec omnia morbOs Graea appellant (id. iii. 7), 
to feel pity, envy, desire, joy, — all these things the Greeks oaU diseases. 
[Here the infinitives are in apposition with haec] 

^ The ending -9 (amire, monCre, regere, audire) was apparently locative, the ending -i 
(am&n, mongii, re|^, audiri) apparently dative ; but this difference of case had no signifi- 
cance for Latin syntax. The general Latin restriction of the i-infinitives to the passive 
was not a primitive distinction, but grew up in the course of time. 

^ In these eonstraetions the abstract idea expressed by tlie infinitive is represented 
as having some quality or belonging to some thing. 


Note 2. — An Appositive or Predicate noun or adjective used with an infiuitiYe in 
any of these constructions is put in the Accusative, whether the infinitive has a sub- 
ject expressed or not. Thus, — nOn esse cnpidun pecunia est (Par. 51), to hefrteftova 
desires (not to be desirous) is money in hand. [No Subject Accusative.] 

a. The infinitive as subject is not common except with est and 
similar verbs. But sometimes, especially in poetry, it is used as the 
subject of verbs which are apparently more active in meaning : — 

qnOs omnia eadem cnpere, eadem odisae, eadem metaere, in tinnm co€git 
(lug. 31), oU of whom the fact of desiring^ hatijig, and feanng the same 
things has united into one. 

ingenu&s didicisse fideliter artis emoUit mOres (Ov. P. ii. 0. iS), faithfuUy to 
have learned liberal arts softens the manners. 

posse loqul eiipitiir (Ov. M. ii. 483), the power of speech is taken away. 

453. Rarely the Infinitive is used exactly like the Accusative 
of a noun : — 

be&te vivere alii in alio, vOs in volupt&te pOnitis (Fin. ii. 86)^ a happy life 

different [philosopherB] base an different things, you on pleasure. 
quam malta . . . facimus causa amicOnun, precan ab indignO, supplicAre, etc. 

(Lael. 57), how many things we do for our friends' sake, ask favors from 

an unworthy person, resort to entreaty, etc. 
nihil explOrfttum babefls, ne am&re quidem aut amSri (id. 97), ycm have noth- 

in{i assured, not even loving and being loved. 

Note. — Many complementary and other constructions approach a proper aocusa- 
tivB nse of the infinitive, but their development has been different from that of the 
examples above. Thus, — avaritia . . . superbiam, crudelitatem, deOsneCIegere, omnia 
venalia babSre edocuit (Sail. Cat. 10), avarice taught pride y cruelty, to neglect the gods, 
and to Tiold everything at a price. 

Infinitive as Apparent Subject of Impersonals 

454. The Infinitive is used as the apparent Subject with many 
impersonal verbs and expressions : 

Such are libet, licet, oportet, decet, placet, visum est, pudet, piget, 
necesse est, opus est, etc. : — 

llbet mihi cdnsider&re (Quinct. 48), it suits me to consider, 

necesse est mod (Tusc. ii. 2), it ia necessary to die. 

quid attinet glOriOsg loqni nisi cOnstanter loquare (Fin. ii. 89), whaigood does 

it do to talk boastfully unless you speak consistently f 
neque m6 vixisse paenitet (id. 84), I do not feel sorry to hone lived. 
gnbeniSre me taed^bat (Att. ii. 7. 4), I was tired of being pilot 

NoTTB. — This nae is a development ot the Complementaiy Infinitive (§456); bat 
the infinitives approach the subject construction and may be conveniently regarded as 
tbe subjects of the impersonals. 

288 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§465 

455. With impersonal verbs and expressions that take the In- 
finitive as an apparent subject, the personal subject of the action 
may be expressed — 

1. By a Dative, depending on the verb or verbal phrase : — 

rogant ut id sibi facere liceat (B. G. i. 7), they oak that it be allowed them to 

do this, 
nOn lubet enim mihi deplOrftre vltam (Cat. M. 84), for it does not please me 

to lament my life, 
visum est miU de senecttite aliquid cOnscrlbere ( id. 1), it seemed good to 

me to write something about old age, 
quid est tarn secundum n&ttiram quam senibas Smori (id. 71), w?iat is so 

much in ajccordance with nature as for old men to die f 
exstingui homini suO tempore optd.bile est (id. 85), for a man to die at the 

appointed time is desirable. 

2. By an Accusative expressed as the subject of the infinitive or 
the object of the impersonal : — 

si licet vivere eum quern Sex. Naevius nOn volt (Quinct. 94), if it is allowed 

a man to live against the wiU of Sextus NceviiLS. 
nOnne oportuit praescisse xn5 ante (Ter. And. 239), oiight I not to have knovm 

b^orehand f 
or&t5rem irasci minimS decet (Tusc. iv. 54), it is particularly unbecoming for 

an orator to lose his temper, 
puderet mi dicere (N. D. i. 109), I should be a,shamed to say, 
cOnsilia ineunt quOrum eds in vestlgiO paenit€re necesse est (B. G. iv. 5), they 

form plans for which they must at once be sorry, 

NoTB. — Libet, placet, and yisam est take the dative only; oportet, pndet, pieet, and 
generally decet, the accusative only ; licet and necesse est take either case. 

a« A predicate noun or adjective is commonly in the Accusative; 
but with licet regularly, and with other verbs occasionally, the Dative 
is used : — 

expedit bonas esse v5bis (Ter. Haut. 388), it is for your advantage to be good. 
licuit esse dtidsS Themistocll (Tusc. i. 33), Themistocles might have been inac- 
tive (it was allowed to Themistocles to be inactive), 
mihi neglegenti esse nOn licet (Att. i. 17. 6), I miwt not be negligent. [But 

also neglegentem.] 
ctir his esse liberos non licet (Flacc. 71), why is it not allowed these men to 

be free? 
nOn est omnibus stantibas necesse dicere (Marc. SS)^ it is not necessary for 
aU to speak standing, 

NoTB. — When the subject is not expressed, as being indefinite (one, anybody), a 
predicate nonn or adjective is regularly in the accusative (cf. §452. 3. n.*): as,— 
vel pace vel bellO cl&rom fieri licet (Sail. Cat. 3), one can become illustrious either in 
peace or in war. 


Complementary Infinitive 

456. Verbs which imply another action of the same mbject to 
complete their meaning take the Infinitive without a subject 

Such are verbs denoting to he Me, dare, undertake, remember, for- 
get y he accustomed, hegin, continue, cease, hesitate, learn, know how, 
fear, and the like : — 

hoc queO dicere (Cat. M. 32), this I can say. 

mittO quaerere (Rose. Am. 53), I omit to ask. 

vereor laad&re praesentem (N. D. i. 58), I fear to praise a man to his face. 

Gt6 ut mS,turgs venire (Alt iv. 1), I beg you will make haste to come, 

oblivisci nOn possum quae volO (Fin. ii. 104), I cannot forget that which I 

desine id me docSre (Tusc. ii. 20), cease to teach me that. 
dicere solebat, he used to say. 
audeC dicere, I venture to say. 
loqui posse coepi, I began to be able to speak. 

NoTK. — The peculiarity of the Complementary Infinitive construction is that no 
Subject Accusative is in general admissible or conceivable. But some infinitives 
usually regarded as objects can hardly be distinguished from this construction when 
they have no subject expressed. Thus vol5 dicere and void m5 dicere mean the same 
thing, / wish to speak, but the latter is object-infinitive, while the former is not 
apparently different in origin and construction from qued dicere (complementary infin- 
itive), and again volo eum dicere, / wish him to speak, is essentially different from 
either (cf. §563. b). 

457. Many verbs take either a Subjunctive Clause or a Com- 
plementary Infinitive, without difference of meaning. 

Such are verbs signifying willingness, necessity, propriety, resolve, 

command, prohibition, effort, and the like (cf. § 563) : — 

dScemere optfibat (Q. C. iii. 11. 1), he was eager to decide. 
optavit at tolleretur (Off. iii. 94), he was eager to be taken up. 
oppfignire contendit (B. G. v. 21), h£ strove to take by storm. 
contendit at caperet (id. y. 8), Ae strove to take. 
helium gerere c(^nstituit (id. iv. 6), he decided to carry on war. 
cOnstitueram at manSrem (Att. xvi. 10. 1), I had decided to remain. 

Note 1. — For the infinitive with subject accusative used with some of these verbs 
instead of a complementary infinitive, see § 563. 

Note 2. — Some verbs of these classes never take the subjunctive, but are identi- 
cal in meaning with others which do : — 

e5s quOs tutiUi debent dcserunt (Off. i. 28), they forsake those whom they ought to 

aved pugnftre (Att. ii. 18. 3),I*m anxious tofighi. 

290 SYNTAX: THE VERB [|§ 467-400 

a. In poetry and later writers many verbs may have the infini- 
tiye^ after the analogy of verbs of more literal meaning that take 
it in prose : — 

furlt tS reperire (Hor. Od. i. 15. 27), he rages to find thee, [A forcible way 

of saying capit (§§ 457, 563. &).] 
saeytt ezstii^aere nOmen (Ov. M. i. 200), he rages to Uot out the name. 
fuge qaaerere (Hor. Od. i. 9. 13), forbear to oafc (cf. § 450. n. ^). 
parce pifts acelerAre mantUs (Aen. iii. 42), foH)ear to d^fUe your pUms hands. 

458. A Predicate Noun or Adjective after a complementary 
infinitive takes the case of the subject of the main verb : — 

fieifqme stnd€bam €ius prt!Ldenti& doetior (Lael. 1), I vxts eager to become 

more wise through his wisdom. 
BciO qwun soleSs esse occopfttus (Fam. zri. 21. 7), I know how bus^ you 

usually are (are wont to be). 
hrevia esse labOrO, obBcClras fiG (Hor. A. P. 26), J struggle to be britf, I become 


Infinitive with Subject Aocusative 

459. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative is used with verbs 
and other expressions of knowing, thinking^ telling^ and perceiving 
{Indirect Discourse^ § 579) : — 

dlcit montem ab hostibus tenSri (B. G. 1. 22), he says thai the hiU is held by 
the enemy. [Direct : mSns ab hostibus tenStur.] 

Infinitive of Purpose 

460. In a few cases the Infinitive retains its original meaning 
of Purpose. 

a. The infinitive is used in isolated passages instead of a subiunc- 

tive clause after habeO^ dO, ministrO : — 

tantum habeO pollicfixi (Fam. i. 5 a. 3), ao rmich I have to promise. [Here 

the more foimal construction would be quod pollicear.] 
ut loYl bibere ministraret (Tusc. i. 65), to serve Jove voith wine (to drink), 
inerldie bibere datO (Cato R. R. 89), give (to) drink at noonday. 

6. PacStus, soStus, and their compounds, and a few other partici- 
ples (used as adjectives), take the infinitive like the verbs from which 
they come : — 

id quod parfttl sunt facere (Quint. 8), t?iat v)hich they are ready to do. 
adsiiefactl mperAxi (B. 6. vi. 24), used to bevftg conquered. 
curra saccSdere suStl (Aen. iii. 541), used to being harnessed to theckaarioL 
c(^pi&i bellAre cOnsuetfts (B. Afr. 78), forces accustomed to fighting. 


NoTB. — In prose these words more oommonly take the Gemnd or Gerundive con- 
stmction (§ 503 ff .) either in the genitive, the dative, or the accusative with ad : — 
insuetus n&yicandi (B. O. v. 6), untiaed to making voyc^ges. 
alendls liberis sueta (Tac. Ann. xiv. 27), accustomed to supporting children. 
corpora insueta ad oneia portanda (B. C. 1. 78), bodies unused to carry hurdefis. 

e. Tlie poets and early writers often use the infinitive to express 
purpose when, there is no analogy with any prose construction : — 

fllins intrO lit vidSre quid agat (Ter. Hec. 846), your son has gone in to see what 

he is doing, [In prose : the supine i^som.] 
nOn ferrO LibycCs popalAre Penfttls venimus (Aen. i. 627)^ we have not come 

to lay uMUte with the sword the Libyan homes, 
lOricam dOnat habere virO (id. v. 262), he gives the hero a breatiplate to wear, 

[In prose: habendam.] 

NoTB. — So rarely in prose writers of the classic period. 

For the Infinitive used instead of a Substantive Clause at Purpose, see § 467. 

For tempos est aUze, see § 604. n. s. 

Peculiar InlliiitiTes 

461. Many Adjectives take the Infinitive in poetry, following a 
Greek idiom : — 

durus compdneze verstLs (Hor. S. 1. 4. 8), harsh in composing verse. 
cantazi dlgnns (Eel, v. 64), worthy to be sung. [In prose : qui cantetnr.] 
fortis tzflctixe serpentis (Hor. Od. i. 37. 26), brave to handle serpents. 
cantfize perlU (Eel. z. 32), skilled in song. 
faeilds anrem piaebfae (Prop. iii. 14. 15), ready to lend an ear. 
nescia vind peetora (Aen. xiL 627), hearts not knowing how to yield. 
t6 videre aegrOtI (Plant. Trin. 76), sick of seeing you. 

a. Karely in poetry the infinitive is used to express result : — 

fingit eqnnm docilem magister Ire viam quA mOnstret eqnes (Hor. Ep. i. 2. 64), 
the trainer makes the horse gentle so as to go in the road the rider points 

hfc levlre . . . i)anperem lab5ribus vocfttus audit (Hor. Od. li. 18. 38), he, 
when called, hears, so as to rdieve the poor man of his troubles. 

NoTB. — These poetic constructions were originally regular and belong to the Infin- 
itive as a noun in the Dative or Locative case (§ 461). They had been supplanted, 
however, by other more formal constructions, and were afterwards restored in part 
throogh Greek inftucoce. 

b» The infinitive occasionally occurs as a pure noun limited by a 

demonstrative, a possessive, or some other adjective : — 

hdc bSh ddlfire (Fin. IL 18), this freedom from pain. [Of. tOtum h5c beats 

idTeze (Tuflc. T. 33), this whole matter of the happy life.] 
nooftram iriYvze (Pers. i 9), our life (to live). 
stire tnnm (id. i. 27), yowr knowledge (to know). 

292 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 462, 463 

Exclamatory Infinitive 

462. The Infinitive, with Subject Accusative,^ may be used in 
Exclamations (cf. § 397. d) : — 

te in tantfis aerumnas propter me incidisse (Fam. xiv. 1), cUaSj that you 

should havefaUen into such grief for me I 
m§ne inceptO dSsistere victam (Aen. i. 37), what I I beaten desist from my 


Note 1. — The interrogative particle -ne is often attached to the emphatic word (as 
in the second example). 

Note 2. — The Present and the Perfect Infinitive are used in this construction with 
their ordinary distinction of time (§ 486). 

a. A subjunctive clause, with or without ut, is often used ellip- 
tically in exclamatory questions. The question may be introduced 
by the interrogative -ne : — 

quamquam quid loquor ? t6 at ulla rSs frangat (Cat. i. 22), yet why do 1 

speak f [the idea] ihat anything shouM bend you I 
egone at t& interpellem (Tusc. ii. 42), wftat, I interrupt you f 
ego tibi ir&scerer (Q. Fr. i. 3), I angry with you f 

Note. — The Infinitive in exclamations usually refers to something actually oc- 
curring ; the Subjunctive, to something contemplated. 

Historical Infinitive 

463. The Infinitive is often used for the Imperfect Indicative 
in narration, and takes a subject in the Nominative : — 

tum Catillna poUicSri novas tabolas (Sail. Cat. 21), then Catiline promised 
abolition of debts (clean ledgers). 

ego inst&re ut mlhi respondSret (Verr. ii. 188), / kept urging him to answer me. 

pars cMere, alii inseqai ; neque signa neque OrdinSs observare ; ubi quemque 
periculum cSperat, ibi resistere ac pi5pal8&re; arma, tela, eqol, virf, 
hostSs atque elves permixti; nihil cOnsiliO neque imperiQ agi; fors 
omnia regere (lug. 51), a part give way, others press on ; they hold neither 
to standards nor ranks; where danger overtook them, there each would 
stand and fight ; arms, weapons, horses^ men, foe and friend, mingled 
in confusion ; nothing went by counsel or command ; chance ruled cUl. 

Note. — This construction is not strictly historical, but rather descriptive, and is 
never used to state a mere historical fact. It is rarely found in subordinate clauses. 
Though occurring in most of the writers of all periods, it is most frequent in the his- 
torians Sallust, Livy, Tacitus. It does not occur in Suetonius. 

^ This construction is elliptical ; that is, the thought is quoted in Indirect Discourse, 
though no verb of saying etc. is expressed or even, perhaps, implied (compare the 
French dire que). Passages like taancine ego ad rem nitam misexam mi memoriLM? 
(Plant. Rud. 188) point to the origin of the construction. 

§§ 404, 466] TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE 298 


464. The number of possible Tenses is very great. For in each of the three times, 
Present, Past, and Future, an action may be represented as going oUf completed, or 
beginning; as habitual or isolated; as defined in time or ind^nite (a^ristic) ; as 
determined with reference to the time of the speaker, or as not itself so determined 
but as relative to some time which is determined ; and the past and future times may 
be near or remote. Thus a scheme of thirty or more tenses might be devised. 

But, in the development of forms, which always takes place gradually, no language 
finds occasion for more than a small part of these. The most obvious distinctions, 
according to our habits of thought, appear in the following scheme : — 

1. Definite (fixing the time of the action) 2. Indefinite 


Present: a. I am writing. d. I have written, g. I write. 

Past: \i. I was writing. e, I had written. h.. I wrote. 

Future: q. I shall be writing. f. I shall have written. i. I shall write. 

Most languages disregard some of these distinctions, and some make other distinc- 
tions not here given. The Indo-European parent speech had a Present tense to express 
a and g, a Perfect to express d, an Aorist to express h, a Future to express c and i, and 
an Imperfect to express b. The Latin, however, confounded the Perfect and Aorist 
in a single form (the Perfect scripsi), thus losing all distinction of form between d and 
h, and probably in a great degree the distinction of meaning. The nature of this con- 
fusion may be seen by comparing dixi, dicavi, and didlci (all Perfects derived from the 
same root. Die), with ^^et^a, Skr. adiksham, diScixo-i Skr. dide(;a. Latin also devel- 
oped two new forms, those for e (scripseram) and / (scripserS), and thus possessed six 
tenses, as seen in § 154. c. 

The lines between these six tenses in Latin are not hard and fast, nor are they pre- 
cisely the same that we draw in English. Thus in many verbs the form corresponding 
to I have written (d) is used for those corresponding to I am writing (a) and I write (g) 
in a slightly different sense, and the form corresponding to / had written (e) is used in 
like manner for that corresponding to I was writing (6). Again, the Latin often uses 
the form for / shall fiave written (/) instead of that for I shall write (i). Thus, n5vi, / 
have learned, is used for I know; constiterat, he had taken his position, for ?ie stood; 
cognovero, I shall have learned, for / shall be aware. In general a writer may take his 
own point of view. 


Incomplete Action 

PRESENT tense 

465. The Present Tense denotes an action or state (1) as now 
taking place or exiBting^ and so (2) as incomplete in present time, 
or (3) as indefinite^ referring to no particular time, but denoting a 
general truth : — 

294 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 465, 466 

senfttus haec intellegit, consul videt, hic tamen Tivit (Cat. L 2), the seriate 

knows this, the consul sees U^ yet this man lives. 
. tibi concSdo mefts sSdls (Div. i. 104), / give you my seat (an offer which may 

or may not be accepted), 
ezspectd quid veils (Ter. And. 34), I await yourplecumre (what you wish), 
ttl Actionem instituis, ille aciem instniit (Mur. 22), you arrange a case^ he 

arrays an army. [The present is here used of regular employmemt.'i 
minora dl neglei^t (N. D. ill. 86), Ihe gods disregard trifles. [Greneral 

obsequium amlcOs, vSriUls odium parit (Ter. And. ^), flaUery gains friends^ 

truth hatfred. [General truth.] 
NoTB. — The present of a general truth is sometimes called the Gnomic Present. 

a. The present is regularly used in quoting writers whose works 
are extant : — 

Eplctlrus vSrO ea dicit (Tusc. ii. 17), but Epicurus says such things, 

apud ilium UlizOs l&ment&tor in volnere (id. ii. 49), in him (Sophocles) 

Ulysses laments over his wound. 
PolyphSmum Hom6rus cum ariete colloquentem fadt (id. y. 115), Homer 
brings in (makes) Polyphemus talking with his ram. 

Present with iam diu etc. 

466. The Present with expressions of duration of time (espe- 
cially iam dift, iam dUdum) denotes an action continuing in the pres- 
ent, but begun in the past (cf. § 471. 6). 

In this use the present is commonly to be rendered by the perfect 
in English : — 

iam dltl IgnSiO quid ag&s (Fam. vii. 9), for a long time I hone not known what 

you were doing. 
t6 iam dtldum hortor (Cat. i. 12), / have long been urging you. 
patimar multOs iam annOs (Verr. v. 126), we suffer now these many years. 

[The Latin perfect would imply that we no longer staffer.] 
anni sunt octO cum ista causa vers&tur (cf. Clu. 82), it is n,ow eight years 

that this case has been in hav/d. 
annum iam audis Cratippum (Off. i. 1), for a year you have been a hearer of 

adhHc Plancius mO retinet (Fam. xiv. 1. 3), so far Plandus has kept me here. 

NoTB 1. — The difference in the two idioms is that the English states the begiimii^! 
and leaves the continuance to be inferred, while the Latin states the continuance and 
leayes the beginning to be inferred. Compare he has long suffered {and still e%^ers) 
with Ae still suffers {and has suffered long). 

NoTX 2. — Similarly the Present Imperative with iam flfidam indicates tbat the 
action oommanded ought to have been doTte or was Ufishedfor long ago (cf. the Per- 
fect Imperative in Greek): as, — iam diidum snmite poenas (Aen. ii. 103), ex€ict the 
penalty long delayed. 

§§467-469] PRESENT TENSE 296 

Gonatiye Present 

467. The Present sometimes denotes an action attempted or 
begun in present time, but never completed at all (Conative Pres- 
ent^ of. § 471. c) : — 

iam iamque mantL tenet (Aen. ii. 680), and noto, men now^ he attempta to 

grasp him, 
d€D858 fertnr in hosUs (id. ii. 611), ^ starts to rush into the thickest of the foe. 
dicern5 qu!nqaagint& dierum BUpplic&ti(3n€8 (Phil. ziv. 20), I move for fifty 

days^ thanksgiving. [CI. sen&tna dicrSvit, the senate ordained.] 

Present for Future 

468. The Present, especially in colloquial language and poetry, 
is often used for the Future : — 

imasne sessum (De Or. iii. 17), shall we take a seat f (are we going to sit ?) 
hodiS nxOrem dficis (Ter. And. 821), are you to be married to-day 9 
quod s! fit, pereO funditus (id. 244), if this happens, I am vtterly undone. 
ecqnid m6 adiavls (Clu. 71), wonH you give me a litUe help f 
in ius vocO t6. n6n eo. nrtn is (PI. Asin. 480), I summon you to the court. 
I wonH go. You wonH ? 

Note. — Eo and its compounds are especially frequent in this use (cf. where are 
you going to-morrow f and the Greek elfu in a future sense). Verbs of necessity ^ 
possibility, wish, and the like (as possum, yolo, etc.) also have reference to the future. 

For other uses of the Present in a future sense, see under Conditions (§ 516. a. v.), 
antequam and priusquam (§ 551. c), dum (§ 553. v.^), and § 444. a. n. ^ 

Historical Present 

469. The Present in lively narrative is often used for the His- 
torical Perfect : — 

affertur ntmtius Syracus&i ; cunitux ad praetOrium ; Cleomen€s in publico 
esse nOn andet ; inclfidit 86 donii (Verr. v. 92), the news is brought to Syra- 
cuse ; they run to headquarters ; Cleomenes does not venture to be abroad ; 
he shuts himself up at home. 

Note. — This usage, common in all languages, comes from imagining past events 
as going on before our eyes {repraesentdtio, § 585. h. n.). 
For the Present Indicative with dum, while, see § 556. 

a. The present may be used for the perfect in a summary enumera- 
tion of past events {Anrialistic Present) : — 

R5ma interim cr€scit Albae nilnls: duplic&tur civium numenis; Caelius 
additur urbi mOns (Liv. i. 80), Rome meanwhile grows as a result of tlw 
fall of Alba: the number of citizens is doubled; the CasXian hill is aMed 
to thetovm. 

296 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 470, 471 


470. The Imperfect denotes an action or a state as continued 
or repeated in past time : — 

hunc aadiebant antea (Manil. 13), they used to hear of him b^ore, 

[Socrates] ita censebat itaque disseruit (Tusc. i. 72), Socrates thought so (habit- 
ually), and so he spoke (then). 

prtidens esse patabatur (Lael. 6), Jie was (generally) thought wise, [The per- 
fect would refer to some particular case, and not to a state of things.] 

iamque rubescebat AurOra (Aen. ill. 521), and now the dawn woa blushing. 

ara vetus stabat (Ov. M. vi. 326), an old altar stood there. 

Note. — The Imperfect is a descriptive tense and denotes an action conceived as 
in progress or a state of things as actually observed. Hence in many verbs it does 
not differ in meaning from the Perfect. Thus rSx erat and r6x fuit may often be used 
indifferently ; but the former describes the condition while the latter only states it. 
The English is less exact in distinguishing these two modes of statement. Hence the 
Latin Imperfect is often translated by the English Preterite ; — 

Haedui graviter fergbant, neqne legatOs ad Caesarem mittere audebant (B. G. v. 
6), the HsRdui were displeased^ and did not dare to send envoys to Caesar. 
[Here the Imperfects describe the state of things.] But, — 
id tttlit factum graviter Indutiomarus (id. v. 4), Indutiomarus was displeased at 

this action. [Here the Perfect merely states the fact.] 
aedificia vicosque habebant (id. iv. 4), they had buildings and villages. 

471. The Imperfect represents a present tense transferred to 
past time. Hence all the meanings which the Present has derived 
£«om the continuance of the action belong also to the Imperfect in 
reference to past time. 

a. The Imperfect is used in descriptions : — 

erant omnino itinera duo . . . mOns altissimus impendebat (B. G. i. 6), there 
were in aU two ways , , , a very high mountain overhung. 

6. With iam diu, lam dudum, and other expressions of duration of 
time, the Imperfect denotes an action continuing in the past but be- 
gun at some previous time (cf. § 466). 

In this construction the Imperfect is rendered by the English Plu- 
perfect : — 

iam dudum flebam (Ov. M. iii. 656), I had been weeping for a long time. 
copiSfi quas diu comparabant (Fam. xi. 13. 5), the forces which they had long 
been getting ready. 

c. The Imperfect sometimes denotes an action as begun {Inceptive 
Imperfect), or as attempted or only intended (Conative Imperfect; cf. 
§ 467) : — 


in ezsilium eici5l>am quein iam ingressum esse in bellum vidSbam (Cat. ii. 

14), was I trying to send into exile one who I saw had already gone 

injto war f 
hunc igitur diem sibi prOpOnSns MilO, cruentis manibus ad ilia augosta cen- 

turiftrum auspicia yeniSbat (Mil. 43), was Milo coming (i.e. was it likely 

that he would come), etc. ? 
si licitum esset veniSbant (Verr. v. 129), they were coming if it had been aUowed 

(they were on the poiat of coming, and would have done so if, etc.). 

Note. — To this head may be referred the imperfect with iam, denoting the begin- 
ning of an action or state: as, — lamque arva tenSbant ultima (Aen. yi. 477), and now 
they werejuat getting to the farthest fields, 

d. The Imperfect is sometimes used to express a surprise at the 
present discovery of a fact abeady existing : — 

tu quoque ader&s (Ter. Ph. 858), o^, you are here too ! 
ehem, tun hie erfla, ml Phaedria (Ter. Eun. 86), what! you here^ Phcedria f 
& miser ! quant& laborAbAs Charybdl (Hor. Od. i. 27. 19), unhappy boy, wh^t 
a whirlpool you are struggling in [and I neyer knew it] I 

€. The Imperfect is often used in dialogue by the comic poets 
where later writers would employ the Perfect : — 

ad amicum Calliclem quoi rem aibat mandasse hic suam (PI. Trin. 956), to 
his friend Callicles, to whom, he said, he had intrusted his property. 

praes&gibat ml animus frfistrft me Ire quom exibam domO (PI. Aul. 178), my 
mind mistrusted when I went from home that I went in vain. 

Note. — So, in conyersation the imperfect of verbs of saying (cf . as I was a-saying) 
is common in classic prose : — 

at medici quoque, ita enim dicCbJs, saepe falluntur (N. D. iii. 15), but physicians 

algOj — for that is what you were saying just now^ — are often mistaken. 
haec mihi fere in mentem yeniCtant (id. ii. 67, 168), this is about what occurred 
to me, etc. [In a straightforward narration this would be ygngrunt.] 

/. The Imperfect with negative words often has the force of the 
^English auxiliary could or would : — 

itaque (Damocles) nee pulchrOs illOs ministratOres aspidebat (Tusc. v. 62), 
tfier^ore he could not look upon those beautiful slaves. [In this case did 
not would not express the idea of continued prevention of enjoyment by 
the oyerhauging sword.] 

nee enim dum eram vObiscum animum meum yideb&tis (Cat. M. 79), for, yo\ 
know, while I was with you, you could not see my soul. [Here the Per- 
fect would refer only to owe moment.'] 

lientulus satis erat fortis 6rat6r, sed cOgitandl nOn ferSbat labOrem (Brut. 268), 
LentUhis was bold enough as an orator, but could not endure the exertion 
of thinking hard. 

For the Epistolary Imperfect, see §479; for the Imperfect Indicative in apodosis 
contrary to fact, see §617. fe. c. 

298 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 472, 473 


472. The Future denotes an action or state that will occur 

a. The Future may have the force of an Imperative (§ 449. b). 

h. The Future is often required in a subordinate clause in Liatin 

where in English futurity is sufficiently expressed by the main clause : 

cum aderit yid€bit, when he is there he will see (cf. § 547). 

s9ji9,bimar si volemtts (Tusc. iii. 13), we shaU be healed if we wish (cf . § 516. a). 

Note. — But the Present is common in future protases (§516. a. n.). 

Completed Action 
perfect tense 

Perfect Definite and Historical Perfect 

473. The Perfect denotes an action either as now completed 
(Perfect Definite^ or as having takeii place at some undefined point 
of past time (Historical or Aoristic Perfect). 

The Perfect Definite corresponds in general to the English Perfect 
with have; the Historical Perfect to the English Preterite (or Past): 

(1) at ego f§ci, qui GraecOs litter^s senex didici (Cat. M. 26), as / have done, 

who have learned Greek in my old age. 
diuturnl silent! finein hodiernus dies attulit (Marc. 1), this day hxis pvt an 
end to my long-continued silence, 

(2) tantum bellam extrSmS. hieme appar&vit, ineunte vera suscepit, media 

aestate confecit (Manll. 35), so great a war he made ready for at the end 
of winter^ undertook in early spring^ and finished by midsummer. 

Note. — The distinction between these two uses is represented by two forms in 
most other Indo-European languages, but was almost if not wholly lost to the minds 
of the Romans. It must be noticed, however, on account of the marked distinction 
in English and also because of certain differences in the sequence of tenses. 

a* The Indefinite Present, denoting a customary action or a general 
trvlh (§ 465), often has the Perfect in a subordinate clause referring 
to time antecedent to that of the main clause : — 

qui in compedibus corporis semper fuSront, etiam cum solfiti sunt tardius 
ingrediantur (Tusc. i. 75), they who have ahoays been in the fetters of the 
body, even when released move more slowly. 

simul ac mihi colUbitum est, praestC est imSgO (N. D. i. 108), as soon as I 
have taken a fancy, the image is before my eyes. 

§§473-476] PERFECT TENSE 299 

haec moiie effagiimtisr, etiam si n5n SvSnSnmt, tamen quia pMsont ^yenlre 
(Tosc. i. 86), these things are escaped by death even if they have not [yet] 
Aoppened, because they stiU may happen. 

NoTB. — This use of the perfect is especially common in the protasis of Gener<al 
Conditions in present time (§ 518. 6). 

474. The Perfect is sometiiiies used emphatically to denote that 
a thing or condition of things that once existed no longer exists : 

fait ista quondam in hSc r6 pGblica virttls (Cat. i. 3), there was once such vir- 
tue in this commonwealth, 

habnit, nOn habet (Tusc, i. 87), he had, he has no longer. 

filium babeO . . . immo habui ; nunc habeam necne incertumst (Ter. Haut. 
93), I have a son, no, I hxid one; whether I have now or not is uncertain. 

foimns TrOes, fait Ilium (Aen. ii. 325), we have ceased to be Trojans, Troy is 
no more. 

Special Uses of the Perfect 

475. The Perfect is sometimes used of a general truth, espe- 
cially with negatives {Gnomic Perfect) : — 

qui studet contingere nietam multa talit fecitque (Hor. A. F. 412), he who 
aims to reajch the goal, first bears and does many things. 

n5n aeris acervus et aurl dedaxit corpore febris (id. Ep. i. 2. 47), the pile of 
brass and gold removes not fever from the frame. 

Note. — The gnomic perfect strictly refers to past time ; but its use implies that 
something which never did happen in any known case never does happen, and never 
will (cf . the English " Faint heart never won fair lady ") ; or, without a negative, 
that what has once happened will always happen under similar circumstances. 

a. The Perfect is often used in expressions containing or implying 
a negationj where in affirmation the Imperfect would be preferred : — 

dicebat melius quam scnpsit HortSusius (Or. 132), Hortensius spoke better 
than he wrote. [Here the negative is implied in the comparison : com- 
pare the use of qoisqoam, alias, etc. (§§311, 312), and the French ne 
after comparatives and superlatives.] 

476. The completed tenses of some verbs are equivalent to the 
incomplete tenses of verbs of kindred meaning. 

Such are the preteritive verbs Odi, I hate; memini, I remember ; nOvi, 
I know; cOnsuGyiy I am accustomed^ with others used preteritively, 
as vSnerat (= aderat, hs was at hand, etc.), cOnstitSnmt, th^y stand firm 
(have taken their stand), and many inceptives (see § 263. 1) : — 

1 Cf . dStestor, remimscor, sciS, soled. 

300 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§476^78 

qui di€s aestus maximOs efficere consuevit (B. G. iv. 29), which day generally 

makes the highest tides (is accastomed to make). 
cfLius splendor obsolevit (Quinct. 69), whose splendor is now all faded. 

Note. — Many other verbs are occasionally so used: as, — dum oculos certamen 
irerterat (Idv. xxxii. 24), while the contest had turned their eyes (kept them tnmed). 
[Here averterat = tenfibat.] 


477. The Pluperfect is used (1) to denote an action or state 
completed in past time ; or (2) sometimes to denote an action in 
indefinite time, but prior to some past time referred to : — 

(1) loci nS,tura erat haec, quern locum nostri castris delggerant (B. 6. ii. 18), 

this was the nature of the ground which our men had chosen for a camp. 
Yiridovix summam impen ten@bat e3.rum omnium civitatum quae defece- 
rant (id. iii. 17), Viridovix held the chi^ command of aU those tribes which 
had revolted. 

(2) neque v€rO cum aliquid mand&verat cOnfectum put^bat (Cat. iii. 16), hut 

when he had given a thing in charge he did not look onUas done. 
quae si quandO adepta est id quod el fuerat concupitum, tum fert alacrit&tem 
(Tusc. iv. 15), if it (desire) et?er has gained what it had [previously] 
desired, then it produces joy. 
For the Epistolary Pluperfect, see § 479. 


478. The Future Perfect denotes an action as completed in the 

future : — 

ut sSmentem feceris, ita met6s (De Or. ii. 261), as you sow (shall have sown), 

so shall you reap. 
carmina tum melius, cum venerit ipse, canSmus (Eel. iz. 67), then shall we 

sing our songs better, when he himself has come (shall have come), 
si illius insidiae clariores hac Itice fuerint, tum denique obsecrabo (Mil. 6), 

when the plots of thai man have been shown to be as clear as daylight, 

then, and not till then, shall I conjure you. 
ego certe meum officium praestitero (B. G. iv. 2b), I at least shaM have done 

my duty (i.e. when the time comes to reckon up the matter, I sTiaU be 

found to have done it, whatever the event). 

Note. — Latin is far more exact than English in distinguishing between mere 
future action and action completed in the future. Hence the Future Perfect is much 
commoner in Latin than in English. It may even be used instead of the Future, from 
the fondness of the Romans for representing an action as completed : — 

quid inventum sit paulo post viderS (Acad. ii. 76), what has been found outlshaU 

see presently. 
qui Antonium oppresserit bellnm taeterrimum cSnfCcerit (Fam. x. 19), whoever 
crushes (shall have crushed) Antony will finish (will have finished) a most 
loathsome war. 



479. In Letters, the Perfect Historical or the Imperfect may 
be used for the present, and the Pluperfect for any past tense, as 
if the letter were dated at the time it is supposed to be received: — 

neque tamen, haec cum sciiMtMun, eram nescius quantis oneribus premerere 

(Fam. V. 12. 2), nor while I write this am I ignorard under what burdens 

you are weighed down. 
ad tuSs omnls [epistulas] rescripseram pridi6 (Att. ix. 10. 1), I answered all 

your letters yesterday. 
cum quod scrlberem ad 13 nihil bab^rem, tamen has dedi litteras (Att. Ix. 16), 

thxmgh I have nothing to write to youy still I write this letter. 

Note. — In this use these tenses are called the Epistolary Perfect, Imperfect, and 
Pluperfect. The epistolary tenses are not employed with any uniformity, but only 
when attention is particularly directed to the time of writing (so especially scnbSlMun, 
dabam, etc.). 


480. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Independent Clauses de- 
note time in relation to the time of the speaker. 

The Present always refers U^ future (or indefinite) time^ the Im- 
perfect to either past or present^ the Perfect to either future or 
past^ the Pluperfect always to past. 

481. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses were 
habitually used in certain fixed connections with the tenses of the 
main verb. 

These connections were determined by the time of the main 
verb and the time of the dependent verb together. They are 
known, collectively, as the Sequence of Tenses. 

Note. — The so-called Sequence of Tenses is not a mechanical law. Each tense 
of the subjunctive in dependent clauses (as in independent) originally denoted its 
own time in relation to the time of the speaker, though less definitely than the corre- 
sponding tenses of the indicative. Gradually, however, as the complex sentence was 
more strongly felt as a unit, certain types in which the tenses of the dependent 
clause seemed to accord with those of the main clause were almost unconsciously 
regarded as regular, and others, in which there was no such agreement, as excep- 
tional. Thus a pretty definite system of correspondences grew up, which is codi- 
fied in the rules for the Sequence of Tenses. These, however, are by no means 
rigid. They do not apply with equal stringency to all dependent constructions, and 
they were frequently disregarded, not only when their strict observance would have 
obscured the sense, but for the sake of emphasis and variety, or merely from care- 

302 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 482, 483 

Sequence of Tenses 

483. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses fol- 
low speoial rules for the Sequence of Tenses. 

With reference to these rules all tenses when used in independ- 
ent clauses are divided into two classes, — PriTnary and Secondary. 

1. Primary. — The Primary Tenses include all forms that express 
present or future time. These are the Present, Future, and Future 
Perfect Indicative, the Present and Perfect Subjunctive, and the 
Present and Future Imperative. 

2. Secondary. — The Secmidary Tenses include all forms that re- 
fer to past time. These are the Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect 
Indicative, the Imperfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive, and the His- 
torical Infinitive. 

Note. — To these maybe added certain forms less commonly osed in independent 
danses: — (1) Primary: Present Infinitive in Exclamations; (2) Secondary: Perfect 
Infinitiye in Exclamations (see §§462, 485. a. n.). 

The Perfect Definite is sometimes treated as primary (see § 485. a). 

For the Historical Present, see § 485. e ; for the Imperfect Subjonctiye in Apodosis, 
see § 485. h. 

483. The following is the general rule for the Sequence of 

In complex sentences a Primary tense in the main clause is 
followed by the Present or Perfect in the dependent clause, and 
a Secondary tense by the Imperfect or Pluperfect : — 

Primary Tenses 

rogd, I asik^ am asking ^ quid faciis, what you are doing. 

rogabo, I shall ask \ quid feceris, what you did, were doing^ 

rog&vi (sometimes), I have asked \ have done^ have been doirtg. 

j quid factfirus sis, what you will do. 

ut nos moneat, to warn us. 

ut nos monefts, to warn us. 

quasi oblitus sit, as if he h^d forgotten. 


I shall have asked 


Jie writes 


h^ will write 

scribe (scxlbitS), 



h£ writes 


^ The term is sometimes extended to certain relations between the tenses of sub- 
ordinate Terbs in the indicative and those of the main verb. These relations do not 
differ in principle from those which we are considering; bat for conTenienoe the term 
Sequence of Tenses is in this book restricted to subjonctives, in aooozdance with the 

usual practice. 

§§48d-485] SEQUENCE OF TENSES 308 


zogSbam, I aaked^ was asking ) quid faceres, tohont you were doing. 

zog&^ / aaked, hone asked 

rogayezam, I had asked 

quid fScisses, what you had done, had 

been doing. 
quid factdrus easSSt what you toould do. 

sczipsit, he wrote at nos monSret, to warn vjs. 

sczipsit, he wrote ^ qjELa^obUtu^esBet^a^ if he had forgotten. 

484. In applying the rule for the Sequence of Tenses, observe — 

(1) Whether the main verb is (a) primary or (b) secoDdary. 

(2) Whether the dependent verb is to denote completed action(i.e. 
past with reference to the main verb) or incomplete action (i.e. pres- 
ent or future with reference to the main verb). Then — 

a. If the leading verb is primary j the dependent verb must be in 
the Present if it denotes incomplete action, in the Perfect if it denotes 
completed action. 

6. If the leading verb is secondary , the dependent verb must be in 
the Imperfect if it denotes incomplete oniony in the Pluperfect if it 
denotes completed action : — 

(1) He writes [primary] to warn [incomplete action] us^ scxibit at nOs moneat. 
I ask [primary] what you were doing [now past], rogd quid f Seeds. 

(2) He wrote [secondary] to warn [incomplete] us, scxipait at nOs numSxet. 
I asked [secondary] what you were doing [incomplete], rog&vi quid faceres. 

c. Notice that the Future Perfect denotes action completed (at 
the time referred to), and hence is represented in the Subjunctive by 
the Perfect or Pluperfect : — 

He shows that if they come (shall have come), many will perish, demSnstrat, si 

yeneiint, multOs interiturOs. 
He showed that if they should come (should have come), many wouJd perish, 

dSmonstrSyit, si yenissent, multOs interittlrOs. 

485. In the Sequence of Tenses the following special points 
are to be noted : — 

«. The Perfect Indicative is ordinarily a secondary tense, but 
allows the primary sequence when the present time is clearly in the 
writer's mind : — 

ut satis easet praesidi proyisom est (Cat. ii. 26), provision has been made that 
there should be ample guard. [Secondary sequence.] 

addfizi hominem in quO satisfaoere ezteris nfttiOnibos pos8flti8'(yerr. i. 2), / 
haioe brought a man in whose person you can make sati^acUon to foreign 
nations. [Secondary sequence ] 

304 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§485 

est enim tSs iam in eum locum adducta, ut quamquam multum inteigit inter 
eOrum causSus qui dimicant, tamen inter victOri&s nOn multum interfu- 
tQrum putem (Fam. v. 21. 3), fw affairs have been brought to such a pass 
^lat, though there is a great difference between the causes of those who are 
fighting, still I do not think there will be much difference between their vic- 
tories. [Primary sequence.] 

ea adhibita doctrina est quae vel vitiOsissimam natfiram excolere possit (Q. Fr. 
i. 1. 7), such instruction has been given as can train even the faultier 
nature. [Primary sequence.] 

NoTB. — The Perfect Infinitive in exclamations follows the same rule : — 
quemquamne fuisse tam soeleratnm qui hoc fingeret (Phil. xiy. 14), was any one so 

abandoned as to imagine this? [Secondary.] 
adedn rem redisse patrem ut extimSscam (Ter. Ph. 153), to think that things have 

come to such a pass that I should dread my father! [Primary.] 

h. After a primary tense the Perfect Subjunctive is regularly used to 
denote any past action. Thus the Perfect Subjunctive may repi^ent — 

1. A Perfect Definite: — 

nOn dubitO quin omnes tul scxipseiint (Fam. v. 8), I do not doubt that all 
your friends have written. [Direct statement: sciipserunt.] 

quS. re nOn IgnOrO quid accidat in ultimis terrls, cum audierim in Italia que- 
rellas civium (Q. Fr. i. 1. 33), ther^ore I know well what happens at the 
ends of the earth, when I have heard in Italy the complaints of citizens. 
[Direct statement : audivi.] 

2. A Perfect Historical : — 

me autem hic laudat quod rettulerim, nOnquod patefecexim (Att. xii. 21), me 
he praises because I brought the matter [before the senate], not because I 
brought it to light, [Direct statement : rettulit.] 

3. An Imperfect : — 

81 forte ceciderunt, tum intellegitur quam faerint inopSs amlc5rum (Lael. 53), 

if perchance theyfaU (have fallen), then one can see how poor they were 

in friends. [Direct question : quam inopes erant?] 
qui status rSrum fuerit cum has litterds dedl, scire poteris ex C. Titi5 Stra- 

bOne (Fam. xii. 6), what the condition of affairs was when I wrote this 

letter, you can learn from Strabo. [Direct question : qui status erat?] 
quam civitati cams fuerit maerore funeris indicatum est (Lael. 11), how dear 

he was to the state has been shown by the gri^ at his funeral. [Direct 

question : quam c^rus erat ?] 
ex epistulis intellegi licet quam frequens fuerit PlatOnis auditor (Or. 15), it 

may be understood from his letters how constant a hearer he was of Plato. 

[Direct question : quam frequ6ns erat ?] 

Note. — Thus the Perfect Subjunctive may represent, not only a Perfect Definite 
or a Perfect Historical of a direct statement or question, but an Imperfect as well. 
This comes from the want of any special tense of the subjunctive for continued past 
action after a primary tense. Thus, miror quid fScerit may mean (1) / wonder what fie 
has done, (2) Iioonder what he did (hist, perf.), or (3) I wonder what he was doing. 


c. In clauses of Result, the Perfect Subjunctive is regularly (the 
Present rarely) used after secondary tenses : — 

Hortensius firdSbat dicendl cupidit9.te 8lc ut in ntQl5 umquam flagrantius 
studium videiim (Brut. 302), Hortensius was so hot with desire of speak- 
ing that I have nener seen a more burning ardor in any man, 

[Siciliam Verr^s] per triennium ita vezavit ac perdidit ut ea restitui in antl- 
qaum statum ntillO modO possit (Verr. i. 12), for three years Verres so 
racked and ruined Sicily that she can in no way be restored to her former 
state. [Here the Present describes a state of things actually existing.] 

yideor esse cdnsecutus ut nOn possit Dol&bella in Italiam pervenire (Earn, 
zii. 14. 2), I seem to have brought it about that Dolahdla cannot come into 

NoTB 1. — This constraction emphasizes the result ; the regular sequence of tenses 
would subordinate it. 

NoTB 2. — There is a special fondness for the Perfect Subjunctive to represent a 
Perfect Indicative : — 

Thorius erat ita nOn superstitidsus ut ilia plurima in sua patria et sacrificia et 
&na contemneret ; ita nOn timidus ad mortem ut in acie sit ob rem publicam 
interfectas (Fiu. ii. 63), Thorius was so little superstitious that he despised 
[contemnebat] the many sacrifices and shrines in his country ; so little timor- 
ous about death that he was killed [interfectus est] in battle, in defence of 
the state. 

<f . A general truth after a past tense follows the sequence of tenses : 

ex bis quae tribuisset, sibi quam mutd,bilis esset reput9.bat (Q. C. iii. 8. 20), 
from what she (Fortune) had bestowed on him, he reflected how inconstarit 
she is. [Direct: mut&bilis est.] 

ibi quantam vim ad stimuland5s animOs Ira haberet apparuit (Liv. xxxiii. 37), 
here it appeared what power anger has to goad the mind. [Direct : habet. ] 

NoTB. — In English the original tense is more commonly kept. 

e. The Historical Present (§ 469) is sometimes felt as a primary^ 

sometimes as a secondary tense, and accordingly it takes either the 

primary or the secondary sequence : — 

rogat ut ciixet quod dizisset (Quinct. 18), he asks him to attend to the thing he 
had spoken of. [Both primary and secondary sequence.] 

Note. — After the historical present, the subjunctive with cum temporal must 
follow the secondary sequence : — 

quo cum vSnisset cognSscit (B. C. i. 34), when he had corns there he learns. 
cum esset pugn&tom horis quinque, nostrique gravius premerentur, impetum in 
cohortis faciont (id. i. 46), when they had fought for Jive hours , and our 
men were pretty hard pressed^ they m<ike an attack on the cohorts. 

f. The Historical Infinitive regularly takes the secondary se- 
quence : — 

interim cotldie Caesar HaeduOs frumentum, quod essent polliciti, 
(B. 6. i. 16), meanwhile CcBsar demanded of the Hasdui every day the grain 
which they had promised. 

306 SYNTAX: THK VERB [§486 

g. The Imperfect and Pluperfect in conditions contrary to fact 
(§ 517) and in the Deliberative Subjunctive (§ 444) are not affected 
by the sequence of tenses : — 

quia tale sit, ut vel si ignSrarent id homines vel si obmutoissent (Fin. ii. 49), 
hecayjiM it is such that even if men were ignorant of Uy or had been 
silent about it, 

quaerO & t6 cfLr C. Comelium n5n dSfenderem (Vat. 5), Task you why I was 
not to defend Caius ComeUusf [Direct : car n5n dSfenderem?] 

h» The Imperfect Subjunctive in present conditions contrary to 
fact (§ 517) is regularly followed by the secondary sequence : — 

si alii consoles essent, ad te potissimum, Paule, mitterem, ut eOs milii quam 
amlcissim5s redderes (Fam. xv. 18. 3), if there were other consuU, I should 
send to you, PauluSy in pr^erence to oily that you migJit make them as 
friendly to me as possible. 

Bl bOIAs eOs dfoeres miserOs quibus moriendum esset, neminem exciperSs 
(Tnsc. i. 9), if you were to call only those wretched who must die, you 
would except no one. 

i. The Present is sometimes followed by a secondary sequence, 
seemingly because the writer is thinking of past time : — 

sed si r6s cOget^ est quiddam tertium, quod neque Selici5 nee mihi dieplice- 
bat: ut neque iacSre rem pateremur, etc. (Fam. i. 5 a. 3), but%fths case 
shaU demand^ there is a third [course] lohich neither Sdicius nor myself 
disapproved, that we should not oMow, etc. [Here Cicero is led by the 
time of displicSbat.] 

sed tamen ut scires, haec tibi sciibo (Fam. xiii. 47), but yet that you may know, I 
write thus. [As if he had used the epistolary imperfect scribebam (§ 479). ] 

ctdus praecepti tanta Ylis est nt ea nOn homini cuipiam sed DelphicO deo 
tribaerStur (Legg. i. 58), such is the force of this precept, that it vyas 
ascribed not to any man, but to the Delphic god. [The precept was an 
old one.] 

j» When a clause depends upon one already dependent, its se- 
quence may be secondary if the verb of that clause expresses past 
time, even if the main verb is in a primary tense : — 

sed tamen quft r6 accideiit ut ex mels superiOribus litterls id suspicareie nesci5 

(Fam. ii. 16), but yet how it happened that you suspected this from my 

precious letter, I don't know. 
tantam pr8fici«i» videmnr ut ft Oraecis n6 verbGrum quidem c5pia vincere- 

mar (N. D. i. 8), we seem to have advanced so far that even in abundance 

of words we are not surpassed by the Greeks. 

KoTTB. — So regularly after a Perfect InfinitiTe which depends on a primary tense 
(§ 585. a). 



486, Except in Indirect Discourse, only the Present and Per- 
fect Infinitives are used. 

The Present represents the action of the verb as in progress with- 
out distinct reference to time, the Perfect as completed. 

For the Tenses of the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse see § 584. 

a* With past tenses of verbs of necessity, propriety , and possibility 
(as dSbui, oportuit, potui), the Present Infinitive is often used in 
Latin where the English idiom prefers the Perfect Infinitive : — 

numne, si Coriol^us habuit amIcOs, feire contra, patriam arma illl cum 

CoriolftnO debugmnt (Lael. 36), if Coriolanus had friends^ ougM they to 

have home arms with him against their fatherland f 
pecunia, quam his oportuit civitatibus prO frtlment(^ dari (Verr. iii. 174), 

moTiey which ought to have been paid to these staJtesfor grain, 
consul esse qui potui, nisi eum vitae cursum tenuissem S, pueritia (Rep. i. 10), 

how couLd I have become consul had I not from boyhood followed that 

course of life f 

h. With verbs of necessity, propriety, and possibility, the Perfect 
Infinitive may be used to emphasize the idea of completed action : — 

tametsi statim vidsse debeO (Rose. Am. 73), although I ought to win my case 

at once (to be regarded as having won it). 
beUum quod possumus ante hiemem pezfgcisse (Liv. xxxvii. 19. 5), a war 

which we can have completed brfore winter, 
nil ego, s! peccem, possum nescisse (Ov. H. xvi. 47), if I should go wrong ^ 

I cannot have done it in ignorance (am not able not to have known). 

NoTB. — With the past tenses of these verbs the perfect infinitive is apparently 
due to attraction : — 

qnod iam pridem factum esse oportuit (Cat. i. 5), (a thing) which ought to have 

been done long ago. 
haec facta ab illo oportebat (Ter. Haut. 536), this ought to have been done by him. 
turn decnit metuisse (Aen. x. 94), then was the tims to fear (then you should have 

c. In archaic Latin and in legal formulas the Perfect Active Infini- 
tive is often used with ii515 or vol(5 in prohibitions : — 

Chaldaeum nSquem consuluisse velit (Cato R. R. v. 4), let him not venture to 

have consulted a soothsayer. 
n5l!t5 devellisse (PI. Poen. 872), do not have them plucked. 
n^quis humasse velit Aiacem (Hor. S. 11. 3. 187), let no one venture to have 

buried Ajaz. 
NEiQVis EORVM BACANAL HABVI8E VELET (S. C. de Bac. 1), let no One of them 

venture to have had a pUicefor Bacchanalian worship. 

808 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§486 

d. With verbs of wishing^ the Perfect Passive Infinitive (com- 
monly without esse) is often used emphatically instead of the Present: 

domesticac(lr& t6 levfltmn VolO (Q. Fr. iii. 9. 3), I wish you reUeoei ^fprkoak 

illOs monitos volO (Cat. ii. 27), I wish them thorougldy warned. 
qui illam [patriam] exs^ctam cupit (Fin. iv. OC), who is eager for her utter 

illud 16 esse admonitam volO (Gael. 8), I wish you to be v)eU adoised qfthut. 
qui 86 ab omnibus dSsertos potius quam abs tS defensos esse malimt (Caecil 

21), w?io prefer to be deserted by aU rather than to be defended by you, 

NoTB. — The participle in this case is rather in predicate agreement (with or with- 
out esse) than nsed to form a strict perfect infinitive, though the foil form can hardly 
be distinguished from that construction. 

e» In late Latin, and in poetry (often for metrical convenience)^ 
rarely in good prose, the Perfect Active Infinitive is used emphatically 
instead of the Present, and even after other verbs than those of wish- 
ing : — 

nemO eOrum est qui n5n peiisse t6 cupiat (Verr. 11. 149), there is no one of 
them who is not eager for your death. 

haud equidem premendO alium me extnliBse velim (Liy. zxiL 59. 10), I 
woidd not by crushing another exalt myself. 

sunt qui nOlint tetigisse (Hor. S. 1. 2. 28), there are those who would not touch. 

commisisse cavet (Hor. A. P. 168), he is cautious of doing. 

nunc quem tetigisse timSrent, anguis er^ (Ov. M. viii. 733), again you be- 
came a serpent which they dreaded to touch. 

fr&trSsque teudentSs op3,c5 FSlion imposulsse 01ymp5 (Hor. Od. ill. 4. 51), 
and the brothers striving to set Pelion on dark Olympus. 

/. After verbs of feeling the Perfect Infinitive is used, especially 
by the poets, to denote a completed action. 

So also with satis est, satis habeO, melius est, contentus sum, and in 
a few other cases where the distinction of time is important : — 

nOn paenitebat lntercap€dinem scrlbendl fecisse (Fam. xvl. 21), I was not 

sorry to have made a respite of writing. 
pudet m6 nOn praestitisse (id. xiv. 3), I am ashamed not to have shown. 
sunt quOs pulverem Olympicum coliegisse iuvat (Hor. Od. i. 1. 3), some 

delight to have stirred up the dust at Olympia. 
quiesse erit melius (Liv. iii. 48), it will be better to have kept qui^. 
ac si quis amet sczipsisse (Hor. S. i. 10. 60), than if one should choose to hatt 

id solum dixisse satis habeO (Yell. ii. 124), I am content to have said only 


1 V<fl5, and less frequently n515, mild, and capiO. 

f § 487^90] 



I. Farticiplefl: 

a. Present and 


487 . The seYeial Noun and AdjectiTe forms associated with the yerb are employed 
as follows: — l 

1. Attribatiye(§494). 

2. Simple Predicate (§496). 

3. Periphrastic Perfect (passive) (§495. n.)- 

4. Predicate of Circumstance (§ 496). 
6. Descriptive (Indirect Discourse) (§ 497 d). 
1. Periphrastic with esse (§ 498. a). 

Periphrastic with fai (= Pluperfect Subjonc- 
tive) (§498.6). 
1. As Descriptive Adjective (§500. 1). 
Periphrastic with esse (§ 500. 2). 
Of Purpose with certain verbs (§ 500. 4). 

1. (lenitive as Subjective or Objective Genitive (§504). 

2. Dative, with Adjectives (of Fitness), Nouns, Verbs (§505). 

3. Accusative, with certain Prepositions (§ 50f>). 
. 4. Ablative, of Means, Comparison, or with Prepositions (§507). 

Accusative Supine (in -urn), with Verbs of Motion (§ 609). 
Ablative Supine (in -u), chiefly with Adjectives (§ 610). 

5. Future 

e. Grerundive 


Gentnd or 

III. Supine: 



488. The Participle expresses the action of the verb in the form 
of an Adjective, but has a partial distinction of tense and may 
govern a case. 

NoTB. — Thus the participle combines all the functions of an adjective with some 
of the functions of a verb. As an Adjective, it limits substantives and agrees with 
them in gender, number, and case (§286). As a Verb, it has distinctions of time 
(§ 489) and often takes an object. 

Distiiictions of Tense in Participles 

489. Participles denote time as present^ pasty or future with 
respect to the time of the verb in their clause. 

Thus the Present Participle represents the action as in progress at 
the time indicated by the tense of the verb, the Perfect as completed^ 
and the Puture as still to take pla^e, 

490. The Present Participle has several of the special uses of 
the Present Indicative. Thus it may denote — 

1. An action continued in the present but begun in the past (§ 466) : 

quaerenti mihi iam diu carta rSs nulla veniebat in mentem (Fam. iv. 13), 
thovjgh I had long sought, no certain thing came to my mind. 

1 For the Syntax of the Infinitive, see §§ 451 fF., 486. 

310 SYNTAX : THE VERB [§§ 49(M9S 

2. Attempted action (§ 467) : — 

C. Fl&miniO restitit agrum Picentem dividenti (Cat. M. 11), he resisted Flo- 
miniia when aUemptin^f to divide the Picene territory, 

3. Rarely (in poetry and later Latin) futurity or purpose, with a 

verb of motion : — 

Eurypylum scitantem Orftcula mittimus (Aen. ii. 114), we send Eurypylusto 
consult the oracle. [Cf. § 468.] 

491. The Perfect Participle of a few deponent verbs is used 
nearly in the sense of a Present. 

Such are, regularly, ratus, solitus, veritus ; commonly, arbitratns, 

fisus, ausus, secutus, and occasionally others, especially in later 

writers : — 

rem incr6dibilem rati (Sail. Cat. 48), thinking the thing incredible, 

Insidias yeritus (B. G. ii. 11), fearing an ambuscade. 

cohortitus militSs docuit (B. C. iii. 80), encouraging the men, he showed. 

iratus dixisti (Mur. 62), you spoke in a passion. 

ad pugnam congressi (Liv. iv. 10), meeting in fight. 

492. The Latin has no Present Participle in the passive. 

The place of such a form is supplied usually by a clause with dum 
or cum : — 

obiere dam calciantur mftttltinO duo Caesar&s (Plin. N. H. yii. 181), tico 
Ccesars died while having their shoes put on in the morning. 

mSque ista d6lectant cum Latlne dlcuntur (Acad. i. 18), those things please 
me when they are spoken in Latin. 

Note. — These constructions are often used when a participle might be employed : — 
die, hospes, Spartae n5s te hic vidisse iacentis, dam Sanctis patriae legibns obse- 
quimor (Tusc. i. 101), tell it, stranger, at Sparta, that you saw us lying hen 
obedient to our country^s sacred laws. [Here dum obseqnimar is a transla- 
tion of the Greek present participle ir€i66fjxyoi.] 
dum [Ulixes] sibi, dum sociis reditum parat (Hor. Ep. i. 2. 21), Ulysses, whik 
securing the return of him^Jf and his companions. [In Greek: ApvOfuvm] 

493. The Latin has no Perfect Participle in the active voice. 
The deficiency is supplied — 

1. In deponents by the perfect passive form with its regular active 

meaning : — 

nam singula^ [navis] nostri consectati exptignav6runt (B. G. iii. 15), for our 
men, having overtaken them one by one, captured them by boarding. 

Note. — The perfect participle of several deponent verbs may be either active or 
passive in meaning (§ 190. 6). 

§§493-496] USES OF PARTICIPLES 811 

1 , . ^^^^^ verbs, either by the perfect passive participle in the 
ablative absolute (§ 420. n.) or by a temporal clause (especially with 
cum or postquam) : — 

itaque convocatis centurionibua mllites certiOres facit (B. G. iii. 5), and ao, 
saving ccUled the centuriona together y he informs the soldiers (the centu- 
rions having heen called together). 

cum vgnisset animadvertit collem (id. vii. 44), having come (when he had 
come), he noticed a hiU. 

postquam id animnm advertit cOpifts suSs Caesar in prozimum collem subducit 
(B. G. i. 24), having observed this (after he had observed this) Ccesar 
M, his troops to the nearest hill. 

Uses of Participles 

494. The Present and Perfect Participles are sometimes used 
as attributives, nearly like adjectives : — 

aeger et fiagrflns animus (Tac. Ann. iii. 54), his sick and passionate mind. 
cum antiquissimam sententiam tum compxob&tam (Div. i. 11), a view at once 

most ancient and weU approved. 
fiigna numquam ferS mentientia (id. i. 16), signs hardly ever deceitful. 
auspiciis ntuntur coftctis (id. i. 27), they Tise forced auspices. 

a. Participles often become complete adjectives, and may be com- 
pared, or used as nouns : — 

qu5 mulierl esset rfis caatior (Caec. 11), thaJb the matter might be more secure 

for the woman. 
in illis artibus praestantissimus (De Or. i. 217), pre&ninent in those arts. 
sibi indnlgentes et corporl deservientSs (Legg. i. 39), the self-indulgent, and 

slaves to the body (indulging themselves and serving the body), 
rgcte facta paria essedfibent (Par. 22), right deeds (things rightly done) ought 

to be like in value (see § 821. 6). 
male parta male dllabuntur (Phil. ii. 66), iU got, ill spent (things ill acquired 

are ill spent). 
cOnsuCttidO valentls (De Or. ii. 186), the habit of a man in health. 

495. Participles are often used as Predicate Adjectives. As 
such they may be joined to the subject by esse or a copulative verb 
(see § 283) : _ 

GaUia est divisa (B. G. i. 1), Gaul is divided. 

locus qui nunc saeptas est (Uv. i. 8), the place which is now enclosed. 

videtis ut senectus sit operOsa et semper agSns aliquid et mdliSns (Cat. M. 26), 

you see how busy old age is, always aiming and trying at something. 
nemo adhuc convenire m6 voluit cui fuerim occup&tus (id. 32), nobody 

hitherto has [ever] toished to converse with me, to whom I have been 


312 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§406,496 

Note. — From this predicate use arise the compoHnd tenses of the passiye, — the 
participle of completed action with the incomplete tenses of esse developing the idea 
of past time : as, interfectus est, lie Wds (or has been) killed^ lit. he is having-been-kUled 
(i.e. already slain). 

The perfect participle used with ful etc. was perhaps originally an intensified expres- 
sion in the popular language for the perfect, pluperfect, etc. 

At times these forms indicate a state of affairs no longer existing : — 
cOtem quoque eOdem locO sitam fuisse memorant (Liv. i. 36. 5), t?iey say that a 
whetstone was (once) deposited in this same pla/x. [At the time of writing 
it was no longer there.] 
anna quae fixa in parietibus fuerant, hurm inventa sunt (Div. i. 74), the arms 
which had heenfastened on the walls were found upon the ground. 
But more frequently they are not to be distinguished from the forms with sum etc. 

The construction is found occasionally at all i)eriods, but is most common in Livy 
and later writers. 

496. The Present and Perfect Participles are often used as a 
predicate, where in English a phrase or a subordinate clause would 
be more natural. 

In this use the participles express timey causct occasion, condition, 
concession, characteristic (or description), manner, means, attendant 
circumstances : — 

▼olventes hostllia cadavera amicum reperiebant (Sail. Cat. 61), while rolling 

over the corpses of the enemy they found a friend, [Time.] 
paululum commorfttus, slgna'canere iubet (id. 59), after delaying a little while, 

he orders them to give tf^e signal, [Time.] 
longius prosequi veritus, ad CicerOnem pervSnit (B. G. v. 62), because he 

feared to follow further^ he came to Cicero. [Cause.] 
qui flclret laxls dare inssus habCnfls (Aen. i. 68), who might know haw to 

give them loose rein when hidden. [Occasion.] 
danmfltum poenam sequi oportebat (B. G. i. 4), if condemned^ punishment 

must overtake him. [Condition.] 
salutem inspSrantibos reddidistl (Marc. 21), you have restored a safety for 

which we did not hope (to [us] not hoping). [Concession.] 
Dardanius caput ecce puer detSctus (Aen. z. 133), the Trojan boy urith his 

head uncovered. [Description . ] 
nee trepidSs in usum poscentis aevi panca (Hor. Od. ii. 11. 6), be iu>t anxioui 

for the needs of age that demands little. [Characteristic] 
incitftti fuga, montis altissimOs petebant (B. C. iii. 93), in headlong flight they 

made for the highest mountains. [Manner.] 
mllites subleyfttj alii ab alils m^gnam partem itineris cOnficerent (id. i. 68), 

the soldiers, helped up by each other, accomplished a considerable part of 

the route. [Means.] 
hCc laud&ns, PompSius idem itirftyit (id. iii. 87), approving this, Pompey took 

the same oath. [Attendant Circumstance.] 
aut sedSns aut ambnULns disputftbam (Tnsc. i. 7), J conducted the discussion 

either sitting or walking. [Attendant Circumstance.] 

§§496,4»7] USES OF PARTICIPLES 313 

NoTB 1. — These uses are especially frequent in the Ablative Absolute (§ 420). 
NoTB 2. — A coordinate clause is sometimes compressed into a perfect participle : — 
, instructSs Ordines in locum aequum deducit (Sail. Cat. 59), he draws up the lineSf 

and leads them to level ground, 
ut hi5s trftdttctSs necaret (B. G. v. 6), that he might carry them over and put them 
to death, 
NoTS 3. — A participle with a negative often expresses the same idea which in 
English 18 given by without and a verbal noun: as, — miserum est nihil prGflcientem 
ang[ (N. D. iii. 14) » it is wretched to vex oneself without effecting anything. 

NoTB 4. — Acceptum and expensum as predicates with feire and referre are book- 
keeping terms: as, — quas pecunias ferCbat eis expSnafts (Verr. ii. 170), what sum^ he 
charged to them. 

497. A noun and a passive participle are often so united that 
the participle and not the noun contains the main idea : — ^ 

ante conditam condendamve urbeni (Li v. Pref.), b^ore the city was built or 

ilU libertatem xmminiitam clvium ROmlUiCrum nOn tulSrunt; vOs Sreptam 
vitam neglegetis (Manil. 11), th^ did not endure the infringement of the 
citizens''' liberty ; will you disregard the destruction of their lives f 

I)OSt nat58 homines (Brut 224), since the creation of man, 

iam & condit& urbe (Phil. iii. 0), even from the founding of the city, 

a» The perfect participle with a noun in agreement, or in the 

neuter as an abstract noun, is used in the ablative with opus, need 

(cf. §411. a): — 

opus facts est viaticd (PI. Trin. 887), there is need of laying in provision, 
mAtfiitto opus est (Liv. viii. 13. 17), there is need of haste, 

6. The perfect participle with habeO (rarely with other verbs) has 
almost the same meaning as a perfect active, but denotes the contin- 
ued effect of the action of the verb : — * 

fidem quam habent spectfttam iam et diu cognitam (Caecil. 11), myftddity-j 

which they have proved and long knovm. 
cohortis in acid lxxx cSnstitfltaa habebat (B. C. iii. 80), he had eighty cohorts 

stationed in line of battle. 
nefariOs duces captds iam et comprehSnsds tenStis (Cat. iii. 16), you have now 
captured the infamous leaders and hold them in custody, 

€, A verb of effecting or the like may be used in combination with 
the perfect participle of a transitive verb to express the action of that 
verb more forcibly : — 

1 Compare the participle in indirect discourse in Greek (Goodwin's Greek Grammar, 
§ 1588) ; and the English " 'T was at the royal feast /or Persia won*' (Dryden), i.e./or 
the conquest of Persia. 

« The perfect with haoe^ in modem languages of Latin stock, has grown out of this 
use of habed. 

314 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§497-499 

praefecios su58 multl missSs fScerunt (Verr. iii. 134), many discharged their 

officers (made dismissed), 
hie trflns&ctum reddet omne (PI. Capt. 345), he will get it cUl done (restore it 

adSmptum tibi iam fax5 omnem metum (Ter. Haut. 341), I wiU relieve you 

of all fear (make it taken away), 
illam tibi incSnsam dabo (Ter. Ph. 974), 1 will make her angry with you. 

Note. — Similarly void (with its compounds) and cupid, with a perfect participle 
without esse (cf. § 486. d), 

d. After verbs denoting an action of the senses the present paxtici- 

ple in agreement with the object is nearly equivalent to the infinitive 

of indirect discourse (§ 680), but expresses the action more vividly : 

ut eom nSmO umquam in equ5 sedentem vlderit (Verr. v. 27), so that no one 
ever saw him sitting on a horse. [Cf. Tusc. iii. 31.] 

Note. — The same construction is used after faci5, indticd, and the like, with the 
name of an author as subject : as, — XenophOn facit Sdcratem disptttantem (N. D. i. 
31), Xenophon represents Socrates disputing. 

Future Participle (Active) 

498. The Future Participle (except futurus and ventums) is 
rarely used in simple agreement with a noun, except by poets 
and later writers. 

a. The future participle is chiefly used with the forms of esse 
(often omitted in the infinitive) in the Active Periphrastic Conjuga- 
tion (see § 195) : — 

morere, Diagord,, n5n enim in caelum adscgnsurus es (Tusc. i. Ill), die, 

Diagoras, for you are not likely to rise to heaven, 
spSrat adulSscens diu se victurum (Cat. M. 68), the young man hopes to lite 

long (that he shall live long), 
neque petitums umquam cOnsuUtum vidSrStur (Off. iii. 79), and did not seeni 

likely ever to be a candidate for the consulship, 

b. With the past tenses of esse in the indicative, the future parti- 
ciple is often equivalent to the pluperfect subjunctive (§ 517. d). 
For f uturum fuisse, see § 589. b, 

499. By later writers and the poets the Future Participle is 
often used in simple agreement with a substantive to express — 

1. Likelihood or certainty : — 

rem ausus plus famae habituram (Liv. ii. 10), having dared a Mng which would 
have more repute. 

§§ 499, 600] GERUNDIVE 316 

^^ -Purpose, intention, or readiness : — 
€greditur castrls ROmSnus vallum invasflrus (Llv. iii. 60. 8), tAe Boman cornea 

out of the camp with the iritention of attacking the rampart. 
disperses per agrOs mllitCs equitibus invasuris (id. xxxi. 36), while the horse 

were ready to attack the soldiers scattered through the fields. 
Bl pexitfiias abis (Aen. ii. 676), if you are going away to perish. 

3. Apodosis: — 
dedit mihi quantum maximum potuit, datfirus apaplius si potuisset (Plin. Ep. 
iii. 21. 6), he gave me as much as he could, ready to give me more if he 
had been able. [Here daturas is equivalent to dedisset.] 

Gerundive (Future Passive Participle) 

NoTK. — The participle in -due, commonly called the Gerundive, has two distinct 
uses: — 

(1) Its predicate and attribute use as Participle or Adjective (§ 600). 

(2) Its use with the meaning of the Grerund (§ 503). This may be called its gerun- 
dive use. 

500. The Gerundive when used as a Participle or an Adjective 
IS always passive, denoting necessity, obligation, or propriety/. 

In this use of the Gerundive the following points are to he 
observed : — 

1. The gerundive is sometimes used, like the present and perfect 
participles, in simple agreement with a noun : — 

fortem et conservandum virum (Mil. 104), a brave mun, and worthy to be pre- 

gravis initlria facta est et nOn ferenda (Flacc. 84), a grave and intolerable 
vyrong has been done. 

2. The most frequent use of the gerundive is with the forms of esse 
in the Second (or passive) Periphrastic Conjugation (see § 196) : — 

nOn agitanda rCs erit (Verr. v. 179), will not the thing have to be agitated f 

3. The neuter gerundive of both transitive and intransitive verbs 
may be used impersonally in the second periphrastic conjugation. 

With verbs that take the dative or ablative, an object may be ex- 
pressed in the appropriate case ; with transitive verlos, an object in 
the accusative is sometimes found : — 

temporl serviendum est (Fam. ix. 7. 2), one must obey the time. 

legibus parendum est, the laws must be obeyed. 

utendnm exercitatiOnibus modicis (Cat. M. 36), we must use moderate exercise. 

agitandumst vigilias (PI. Trin. 869), I have got to stand guard. 

via quam nobis ingrediendom sit (Cat. M. 6), the way we have to enter. 

316 SYNTAX: THE VERB M§ 600-603 

4. After verbs signifying to give, deliver, agree for, have, receive^ 
undertake, demand,^ a gerundive in agreement with the object is used 
to express purpose : — 

redemptor qui columnam illam conduxerat fadendam (Div. ii. 47), the con- 
tractor who had undertaken to make that column, [ The regular construc- 
tion with this class of verbs.] 

aedem Castoris haboit tuendam (Verr. ii. 1. 150), he had the temple of Ccutor 
to take care of. 

nftvis atque onera adsenranda ctLrftbat (id. ▼. 146), he took care that the ships 
and cargoes shx)uld he kept. 


501. The Gerund is the neuter of the Gerundive, used sub- 
stantively in the Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Ablative. 

502. The Gerund expresses an action of the verb in the form 
of a verbal noun. 

As a noun the gerund is itself governed by other words ; as a 

verb it may take an object in the proper case : — 

ars bene disseiendi et vera ac falsa diifidicaiidi (De Or. ii. 157), the art ofdi^ 
coursing weU, and distinguishing the true and the false. 

Note. — The NomiDative of the gerund is supplied by the Infinitive. Thus in the 
example aboye, the verbal nouns discoursing and distinguishing ^ if used in the nomi- 
native, would be expressed by the infinitives disserere and dliudicire. 

The Gerund is the neuter of the gerundive used impersonally, but retaining the 
verbal idea sufficiently to govern an object. . It may therefore be regarded as a noun 
(cf. m&tttiat5 opof est, §497. a) with a verbal force (cf. istanc t&ctid, p. 240, footnote). 


503. When the Gerund would have an object in the Accusa- 
tive, the Gerundive ^ is generally used instead. The gerundive 
agrees with its noun, which takes the case that the gerund would 

have had : — 

par&tiOrSs ad omnia perlcula subeunda (B. G. i. 5), readier to undergo aU 
dangers. [Here subeunda agrees with pericula, which is itself governed 
by ad. The (inadmissible) construction with the gerund would be ad 
snbenndnm pericula ; ad governing the gerund, and the gerund governing 
the accusative pencula.] For details, see §§ 504-507. 

I Such verbs are aociplS, adn5t5, attribuS, conducS, curS, dCnOtS, d6p06o5, d5, dIvidS, 
d5n5, Sdioo, SdoceS, fer5, babeS, loc5, mando, obiciS, permitto, pet5, p(hi5, praebeS, prSpSofi, 
relinqud, rog5, suscipiS, trftdS, vove$. 

3 The gerundive construction is probably the original one. 


NoTB 1. — In this nse the gerand and the gerondiye are translated in the same 
way, but have really a different construction. The gerundive is a pasHve participle, 
and agrees with its noun, though in translation we change the voice, just as we may 
translate vigiliae agitandae sont (guard miut be kept) by / miLat stand guard. 

Note 2. — In the gerundive construction the verbs fitor, fruor, etc., are treated like 
transitive verbs governing the accusative, as they do in early Latin (§ 410. a. n. ^ ) : as, 
— ad perfmend&s volnpt&tes (Off. i. ^JS) /for enjoying pleasures, 

a. The following examples illustrate the parallel constructions of 
Gerund and Gerundive : — 

Gbn. cOnsiliam | ,^ \ -^ [ ct design of taking the city, 

Dat. da4i operam | *^* , "^ . [ ^ attends to tiUing the fields, 

. t * j» ( ™^ pftrendum 1 ., (to obey me. 

Ace. veniont ad ^ , ' ^ _ > they conie { . f 

\ pftcem petendam j [to seek peace. 

Abl. terit tempos | -k a* i ti r i ^^ spends time in writing letters, 

NoTK 1. — The gerund with a direct object is practically limited to the Genitive aiul 
the Ablative (without a preposition) ; even in these cases the gerundive is commoner. 

Note 2. — The gerund or gerundive is often found coordinated with nominal con- 
structions, and sometimes even in apposition with a noun : — 

(1) in forO, in curia, in amicOrum pericufis propulsandis (Phil. vii. 7), in the forum, 

in the senate-house^ in defending my friends in jeopardy, 

(2) ad res diversissimas, pirendum atqne imperandom (Li v. xxi. 4t)ffor the most 

widdy different things, obeying and commanding. 

Genitive of the Gerund and GemndiTe 

504. The Genitive of the Gerund and Gerundive is used after 
nouns or adjectives, either as subjective or objective genitive : — 

Vivendi finis est optimus (Cat. M. 72), it is the best end of living. [Sub- 

neque cobbUS. habeadi neque arma capiendi spatiO dat5 (B. G. iv. 14), time being 
given neither for forming plans nor for taking arms, [Objective. ] 

nOn tarn commutandarum quam evertendarum rSrum cupidOs (Off. ii. 3), desir- 
ous not so much of changing as of destroying the state. [Objective.] 

Note 1. — In these uses the gerund and the gerundive are about equally common. 
Note 2. — In a few phrases the Infinitive is used with nouns which ordinarily 
have the genitive of the gerund or gerundive : as, — tempus est abire, it is time to go. 

a. The genitive of the gerund sometimes takes a direct object, espe- 
cially a neuter pronoun or a neuter adjective used substantively : — 

nfUla causa itista cuiquam esse potest contr& patriam anna capiendi (Phil. ii. 
53), no one can have aju^ cause for taking up arms against his country. 
artem vSra ac falsa diludicandl (De Or. ii. 157), f^ art of distinguishing true 
* from false. 

318 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§604,505 

NoTB 1. — The genitive of the gerund or gerundive is used (especially in later Latin) 
as a predicate genitive. When so used it often expresses purpose : — 

quae postquam glOriOsa modo neque belli patrandi cOgnOvit (lug. 88), when fie 
perceived that these were only brilliant deeds and not likely to end the war. 
Aegyptum proficiscitur cdgnSsoendae antiqttit&tis (Tac. Ann. ii. 59), fie sets out for 
Egypt to study old times. 

h. The genitive of the gerund or gerundive with causa or gratia 
expresses purpose (§ 633. b) : — 

pabulandi aut framentandi causd. prOgressI (B. C. i. 48), having advanced for 

the purpose of collecting fodder or supplies. 
vitandae suspicionis causa (Cat. i. 19), in order to avoid suspicion. 
simulandi grftti& (lug. 37), in order to deceive. 
ezercendae memoriae gr&ti& (Cat. M. 88), for the sake of training the memory. 

c. The genitive of the gerund is occasionally limited by a noun or 

pronoun (especially a personal pronoun in the plural) in the objective 

genitive instead of taking a direct object : — 

r§iciendi trinm itidicam potestas (Yerr. ii. 77), the power of challenging three 

jurors (of the rejecting of three jurors). 
8Ui colligendl faculty (B. G. iii. 6), the opportunity to recover themselves. 

Dative of the Gerund and Gerundive 

505. The Dative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used in a few 
expressions after verbs : — ^ 

diem praestitit open faciendo (Verr. ii. 1. 148), fie appointed a day for doing the 

praeesse agr5 colendo (Rose. Am. 50), to take charge of cultivating the land. 
esse solvendd, to be able to pay (to be for paying). 

Note. — The dative of the gerund with a direct object is never found in classic 
Latin, but occurs twice in Plautus. 

a. The dative of the gerund and gerundive is used after adjec- 
tives,* especially those which denote ^^ness or adaptability: — 

genus armOrum aptum tegendis corpoiibus (Liv. xxxii. 10), a sort of armor 

suited to the defence of tfie body. 
reliqua tempora dSmetendis fructibus et percipiendis accommodata sunt (Cat. M. 

70), tfie other seasons are fitted to reap and gatfier in tfie harvest. 
perferendfs mllitum mandatis iddneus (Tac. Ann. i. 23), suitable for carrying 

out tfie instructions of tfie soldiers. 

NoTB. — This construction is very common in Livy and later writers, infrequent 
in classical prose. 

1 Such are praeesse, operam dare, diem dicere, locum capere. 

3 Such are accommod&tus, aptas, ineptus, bonus, habilis, idoneus, pftr, ntilis, inntUis. 
But the accusative with ad is common with most of these (cf . § 385. a). 


h. The dative of the gerund and gerundive is used in certain legal 

phrases after nouns meaning officers, offices, elections, etc., to indicate 

the function or scope of the office etc. : — 

comitia cdnsalibus rogandis (Div. i. 33), elections for nominating consuls. 
triumvir colSniis dSdficandis (lug. 42), a triumvir for planting colonies. 
triumviri rei pfiblicae cdnstitueiidae (title of the Triumvirate), triumvirs (a com- 
mission of three) for settling the government. 

Accusative of the Gerund and Gerundive 

506. The Accusative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used 
after the preposition ad, to denote Puipose (cf. § 533): — 

m6 vocSs ad acxibendiuii (Or. 34), you summ^m me to write. 

vivis n5n ad deponendam sed ad cSnfirmandam audaciam (Cat. i. 4), you live 

not to put off but to confirm yovr daring. 
nactus adittls ad ea conanda (B. C. i. 31), having found means to undertake 

these things. 

NoTB 1. — Other prepositions api>ear in this construction ; inter and ob a few times, 
circft, in, ante, and a few others very rarely: as, inter agendum (Eel. iz. 24), while 

Note 2. — The Accusatiye of the gerund with a preposition never takes a direct 
object in classic Latin. 

Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive 

507. The Ablative of the Gerund and Gerundive is used (1) 
to express manner^ means^ cause^ etc.; (2) after Comparatives; 
and (3) after the propositions ab, d6, ex, in, and (rarely) pr5 : — 

(1) multa pollicendd persu&det (lug. 46), he persuades by large promises. 
Latins loquendS cuivis par (Brut. 128), equal to any man in speaking Latin. 
his ipsis legendis (Cat. M. 21), by reading these very things. 

obscHram atque humilem conciendo ad 83 multittldinem (Li v. i. 8), calling to 
them a mean and obscure multitude. 

(2) nullum officium referenda grftti& magis necess&rium est (Off. i. 47), no duty 
is more important than repaying favors. 

(3) in re geiendA versSri (Cat. M. 17), to he employed in conducting affairs. 

Note 1. — The Ablative of the Gerund and (Jerundive is also very rarely used 
with verbs and adjectives: as, — nee continnandd abstitit magistr&tu (Liv. iz. 34), he 
did not desist from continuing his magistracy. 

Note 2. — The ablative of the gerund rarely takes a direct object in classic prose. 

1 In this use the ablative of the gerund is, in later writers nearly, and in mediseval 
writers entirely, equivalent to a present participle : as, — cum unA diSmm FiiBNDo sSdis- 
set, quidam miles generSsus inzta earn EQurrANDo vSnit (Gesta Romanorum, 66 [58]), 
as one day she sat weeping, a certain knight came riding by (compare § 507, fourth 
example) . Hence come the Italian and Spanish forms of the present participle (as maiv- 
dando, esperando), the true participial form becoming an adjective in those languages. 

320 SYNTAX: THE VERB [§§ 608-610 


508. The Supine is a verbal abstract of the fourth dedension ($ 94. b), haying no 
distinction of tense or person, and limited to two uses. (1) The form in -um is the 
Accusative of the end of motion (§ 428. i) . (2) The form in -u. is usually Dative of pur- 
pone (§ 382), but the Ablative was early confused with it. 

509. The Supine in -ttm is used after verbs of motion to express 
purpose. It may take an object in the proper case : — 

quid est, Imusne sessom? etsi admonitnm vSnimus t6, n5n fl&gitiltam (De Or. 

iii. 17), hovo nov), aJiaU voe be seated f though vje have come to remindj not 

to entreat you. 
nflptom dare (coUocftre), to give in marriage, 
venerunt questam initlriSs (Liv. iii. 25), they came to complain of wrongs. 

Note 1. — The supine in -um is especially common withe5, and with the passive 
infinitive izi forms the future infinitive passive : — 

fuere elves qui rem publicam perditum irent (Sail. Cat. 36), there were cttizens who 

went about to ruin the republic. 
SI Bciret se tmcid&tam Ixi (Div. ii. 22), if he (Pompey) had known that he was 
going to be murdered, [Rare except in Cicero. For the more usual way of 
expressing the future passive infinitive, see § 569. 3. a.] 
Note 2. — The supine in -um is occasionally used when motion is merely implied. 

510. The Supine in-u^ is used with a few adjectives and with 
the nouns ffts, nefis, and opus, to denote an action in reference to 
which the quality is asserted : — 

rem nOn modo visfi foedam, sed etiam audita (Phil. ii. 63), a thing not oniy 

shocking to see, but even to hear cf. 
quaerant quid optimam facti! sit (Verr. ii. 1. 68), they ask what is best to do. 
si hoc fas est dictfl (Tusc. ▼. 88), if this is lawful to say, 
videUs nef&s esse dictfl iniseram f uisse tftlem senectutem (Cat. M. 13), you 

see U is a sin to say that such an old a/ge was wretched. 

Note 1. — The supine in -fi is thus in appearance an Ablative of Specification (§ 418). 

Note 2. — The supine in -u is found especially with such adjectives as indicate an 

effect on the senses or the feelings, and those which denote ease, difficulty, and the 

like. But with facilis, difflcilis, and lucandus, ad with the gerund is more common : — 

nee visa facilis nee dicta adfabilis iilli (Aen. iii. 621), he is not pleasant for any 

man to look at or address. 
difficilis ad distlnguendum similitudo (De Or. ii. 212), a likeness difficult to dis- 
Note 3. — With all these adjectives the poets often use the Infinitive in the same 
sense: as, — faciles aurem praebCre (Prop. ii. 21. 15), indulgent to lend an ear. 

Note 4. — The supine in -u with a verb is extremely rare: as, — pudet dicta (Tac. 
Agr. 32), it is a shame to tell. [On the analogy of padendnm dicta.] 

^ The only common supines in -a are aoditfi, dicta, facta, inventll, memoifttfi, iiati, 
▼istt. In classic use this supine is found in comparatively few verbs. It is never 
followed by an object-case. 



511. The Conditional Sentence differs from other complex sentences in this, that 
the form of the main clause (afodosis) is determined in some degree by the nature 
of the subordinate clause (protasis) upon the truth of which the whole statement 
depends. Like all complex sentences, however, the Conditional Sentence has arisen 
from the use of two independent sentence-forms to express the parts of a thought 
which was too complicated to be fully expressed by a simple sentence. But because 
the thoughts thus expressed are in reality closely related, as parts of a single whole, the 
sentences which represent them are also felt to be mutually dependent, even though 
the relation is not expressed by any connecting word. Thus, Speak the word : my ser- 
vant shall be healed is a simpler and an earlier form of expression than ^ thou speak 
the word, etc. 

The Conditional Particles were originally pronouns without conditional mean- 
ing: thus, 81, \f, is a weak demonstrative of the same origin as sic, so (si-ce like 
hi-ce, see § 215. 5), and had originally the meaning of in that way, or in some way. 
Its relative sense (if) seems to have come from its use with sic to make a pair of correla- 
tives: thus . . . thus (see § 512. 6). 

In its origin the Conditional Sentence assumed one of two forms. The condition 
was from the first felt to be a condition, not a fact or a command ; but, as no special 
sentence-form for a condition was in use, it employed for its expression either a state- 
ment of /ac< (with the Indicative) or a form of mild com,mand (the Subjunctive). 
From the former have come all the uses of the Indicative in protasis ; from the latter 
all the uses of the Subjunctive in protasis. The Apodosis has either (1) the Indicative, 
expressing the conclusion as a fact, and the Present and Perfect Subjunctive, express- 
ing it originally as /uture — and hence more or less doubtftd — or (2) the Imperfect 
and Pluperfect Subjunctive expressing it as /titurum in praeterito,^ and so unfurled 
in the present or past. Thus, — xidSs, m&iore cachinn5 concutitur, you laugh, he shakes 
with more boisterous laughter, is the original form for the Indicative in protasis and 
apodosis; si ridSs originally means merely you laugh in som/e way or other, and so, 
later, if you kmgh. So rogSs AristSnem, neget, ask Arista, he would say no, is the 
original form of the subjunctive in protasis and apodosis ; si rog6s would mean ask in 
some way or other. In si rogires, neglret, the Imperfect rog&rSs transfers the command 
of rogis to past time,^ with the meaning suppose you had asked, and si would have the 
same meaning as before ; while negaret transfers the future idea of neget to past time, 
and means he was going to deny. Now the stating of this supposition at all gives 
rise to the implication that it is untrue in point of fact, — because, if it were true, 
there would ordinarily be no need to state it as a supposition : for it would then be a 
simple fact, and as such would be put in the indicative fi Such a condition or conclusion 

1 The futurum in praeterito is a tense future relatively to a time absolutely past. 
It denotes a future act transferred to the point of view of past time, and hence is 
naturally expressed by a past tense of the Subjunctive : thus dixisset, he would have 
said=:dictnivLB fait, Ae was about to say [but did not]. As that which looks towards 
the future from some point in the past has a natural limit in present time, such a 
tense (the imi)erfect subjunctive) came naturally to be used to express 2^ present con- 
dition purely ideal, that is to say, contrary to fact. 

3 Compare potius diceret, he should rather have said (§ 439. 6). 

» There are, however, some cases in which this implication does not arise : as, — 
deeiSns centSna dedissCs, nil erat in locafis (Hor. S. i. 3. 15), if you'd given him a mil- 
Hon, there was nothing in his coffers. 


(originally past, meaning svppose you had asked [yesterday], he was going to deny) 
came to express an unfulfilled condition in the present: suppose (or if) you were 
now asking t he would [now] deny — just as in English ought, which originally meant 
owedf^ has come to express a present obligation. 

For the classification of Conditional Sentences, see § 513. 


612. A complete Conditional Sentence consists of two clauses, 
the Protasis and the Apodosis. 

The clause containing the condition is called the Protasis ; 
the clause containing the conclusion is called the Apodosis : — 

si qui exire volant [protasis], cOnlvCre possum [apodosis] (Cat. ii. 27), if 

any wish to depart, I can keep my eyes shut, 
si est in exsiliO [protasis], quid amplius postulatis [apodosis] (Lig. 13), if 

he is in exiUy what more do you askf 

It should be carefully noted that the Apodosis is the main clause 
and the Protasis the dependent clause. 

a. The Protasis is regularly introduced by the conditional particle 
8i, if, or one of its compounds. 

Note. — These compounds are sm, nisi, etiam si, etsf, tametsi, tamenetsi (see €k)ndi- 
tional and Concessive Particles, p. 138). An Indefinite Relative, or any relative or 
concessive word, may also serve to introduce a conditional clause : see Conditional 
Relative Clauses (§§519, 542) ; Concessive Clauses (§527). 

6. The Apodosis is often introduced by some correlative word or 
phi'ase : as, ita, turn (rarely sic), or ea condiciGne etc. : — 

ita enim senectus honesta est, si sS ipsa d6fendit (Cat. M. 38), on this cfrndU 

tion is old age homrraUe, if it defends itself, 
si quidem m6 am3itet, turn istuc prOdesset (Ter. Eun. 446), if he loved wic, 

then this would be profitable. 
sic scribes aliquid, si vacabis (Att. xii. 38. 2), if you are (shall be) at leisure, 

then you will write something. 

c. The Apodosis is the principal clause of the conditional sen- 
tence, but may at the same time be subordinate to some other 
clause, and so appear in the form of a Participle, an Infinitive, or 
a Phrase : — 

sepulttira quoque prohibituri, ni rgx humari iussisset (Q. C. viii. 2. 12), intend- 
ing also to deprive him of burial, unless the king had ordered him to be 

1 ** There was a certain lender which ought him five hundred pieces." — Tyndale*s 
New Testament. 


quod si praetereft nSmO sequ&tur, tamen &€ cum sOlft decimS, legiOne itflram 
[esse] (B. G. i. 40. 14), but if no one else should follow, he would go with 
the tenth legion alone. 

si quOs adyersum proelium commoveret, hds reperire posse (id. 40. 8), {/ the 
los8 of a battle alarmed any, they might find, etc. 

NoTB. — When the Apodosis itself is in Indirect Discourse, or in any other depend- 
ent constmction, the verb of the Protasis is regularly in the Subjunctive (as in the above 
examples, see § 589). 


513. Conditions are either (1) Particular or (2) General. • 

1. A Particular Condition refers to a definite act or series of acts 
occurring at some definite time. 

2. A Greneral Condition refers to any one of a class of acts which 
may occur (or may have occurred) at any time. 

514. The principal or typical forms of Conditional Sentences 
may be exhibited as follows : — 


A. Simple Conditions (nothing implied as to fulfilment) 

I. Present Time 

Present Indicative in both clauses: — 
si adest, bene est, if he is [now] here, it is well, 

2. Past Time 

Imperfect or Perfect Indicative in both clauses: — 

si aderat, bene erat, if he wa^s [then] here, it was well. 

si adfuit, bene fuit, if he has been [was] here, it has been [was] well. 

B. Future Conditions (as yet unfulfilled) 

I. More Vivid 

a# Future Indicative in both clauses : — 
si aderit, bene erit, if he is (shall be) here, it will be well. 

h. Future Perfect Indicative in protasis, Future Indicative in 
apodosis : — 

si adfnerit, bene erit, if he is (shall have been) here, it will [then] be well. 


2. Less Vivid 

a. Present Subjunctive in both clauses: — 
n adsit, bene sit, if he akouid he {or were to be) here, it would be toeU. 

6. Perfect Subjunctive in protasis, Present Subjunctive in apod- 

osis: — 

si adfaerit, bene sit, if he should be (should have been) h£re, U would [then] 
be well. 

0. Conditions Contrary to Fact 

I. Present Time 

Imperfect Subjunctive in both clauses: — 
si adesset, bene esset, if he were [now] Aere, it would be well (but he is not here). 

2. Past Time 

Pluperfect Subjunctive in both clauses: — 

si adfuisset, bene faisset, if he had [then] been here, it %»ould have been well 
(but he was not here). 

Note. — The use of tenses in Protasis is very loose in English. Thus if he u 
cUive now is a fbbsbnt condition, to be expressed in Latin by the Present Indicative; 
if he is alive next year is a futurz condition, expressed in Latin by the Future 
Indicative. Again, if Tie were here now is a prssbnt condition contrary to fact, 
and would be expressed by the Imperfect Subjunctive ; if he were to see me thut 
is a^FUTUBB condition less vivid, to be expressed by the Present Subjunctive; and so 
too, if you advised hinit he would attend may be future less vivid.i 


General Conditions do not usually differ in form from Particular 
Conditions {A, By and (7), but are sometimes distinguished in the 
cases following : — 

I. Present General Condition (Indefinite Time) 

a. Present Subjunctive second person singular (Indefinite Subject) 
in protasis, Present Indicative in apodosis: — 

si hoc dic&s, creditnr, if any one [ever] says this, it is [always] bdieved, 

6. Perfect Indicative in protasis, Present Indicative in apodosis: 
si quid dixit, creditur, if he [ever] says anything, it is [always] bdieved. 

1 In most English verbs the Preterite (or Past) Subjunctive is identical in form 
with the Preterite Indicative. Thus in such a sentence as if he loved his father, he 
would not say this, the verb loved is really a Preterite Subjunctive, though this does 
not appear from the inflection. In the verb to be, bowever, the Subjunctive were has 
been preserved and differs in form from the indicative was. 


2. Past General Condition (Repeated Action in Past Time) 

ft. Pluperfect Indicative in protasis, Imperfect Indicative in apod- 
osis : — 

si quid dixexat, crSdfib&tnr, if he [ever] aaid anything, it was [always] believed. 

h. Imperfect Subjunctive in protasis, Imperfect Indicative in apod- 
osis : — 

8i quid diceret, crSdSUtar, if he [ever] said anything, it was [always] 
beUeoed (= whatever he said was always believed).^ 

Simple Present and Past Conditions — Nothing Implied 

515. In the statement of Present and Past conditions whose 
falsity is not implied^ the Present and Past tenses of the Indica- 
tive are used in both Protasis and Apodosis : — 

si tfL exercitasqae valStis, bene est (Fam. v. 2), if you and the army are weU^ 
it is well, [Present Condition.] 

haec igitur, si ROmae es ; sin abes, aut etiam si ades, haec negOtia sic s€ habent 
(Att. V. 18), this, then, if you are at Rome; hut if you are away — or even 
if you are there — tkese matters are as follows. [ Present Condition. ] 

si Caesarem prob&tis, in me offenditis (B. C. ii. 32. 10), if you favor Ccesar, 
you find fault with me. [Present Condition.] 

si qui mftgnls ingenils in eO genere exstitSrant, nOn satis GraecOnim gldriae 
respondSnxiit (Tosc. i. 3), if any have shovm themselves of great genius in 
that department, they have failed to compete with the glory of the Greeks. 
[Past General Condition, not distinguished in form from Particular.] 

accSpi ROm& sine epistul& tuft fasciculum litter&rum in quO, si modo valuisti 
et K5mae fuisti, Pbilotlml duc5 esse culpam nOn tuam (Att. v. 17), / have 
received from Rome a bundle of letters without any from you^ which, pro- 
vided you have been well and at Rome, I take to be the fault of PhUotimus, 
not yours. [Mixed : Past condition and Present conclusion.] 

quas litter&s, si ItOmae es, vidSbis put^sne reddendfts (id. v. 18), as to this 
letter, if you are at Rome, you wiU see whether in your opinion it ought 
to be delivered. [Mixed : Present and Future.] 

si nemO impetrflvit, adroganter rogd (Lig. 30), ^ no one has succeeded in obtain- 
ing it, my request is presumptuous. [Past and Present.] 

1 Cf . the Greek forms corresponding to the various types of conditions : — 

A. 1. €l rpdaaei roGro^ KoXCn Ix"* 2. el Hvpaaae toOto, koXCos elx^v. 

B. 1. ^Air rpda-ffxi rovro, koKQs l^€i. 2. €/ irpd<r<roi rovro, KoXm hv ex®*- 

C. 1. €l ^vpoffae rovro, Ka\(at hv efxev. 2. el llirpa^€ rovro, iroXwi Ar l^xc"- 
2>. 1. idv Til xXivryf KoXd^erai. 2. etris kXirroL, ixoXdl^ero, 


a. In these conditions the apodosis need not always be in the In- 
dicative, but may assume any form, according to the sense : — 

si placet . . . vide&mus (Cat. M. 15), ^ you please^ let xls see. [Hortatory 

Subjunctive, §439.] 
8l nOndum satis cernitis, record&miiu (Mil. 61), if you do not yet see clearly, 

recoUect, [Imperative.] 
si quid habSs certius, yelim scire (Att. iv. 10), if you have any trustworthy 

information, I should like to knmo it. [Subjunctive of Modesty, § 447. 1.] 

NoTB. — Although the form of these conditions does not imply anything as to the 
truth of the supposition, the sense or the context may of course have some such impli- 
cation : — 

nOlite, si in nostrO omnium fletu nullam lacrimam aspexistis MilOnis, hOc minas 
ei parcere (Mil. 92), do not, if amid the weeping of ua all you have seen no 
tear [in the eyes] of Milo, spare him the less for that. 
petimus a Y5bis, iudices, si qua divina in tantis ingeniis commendatid dSbet 
esse, ut eum in vestram accipiatis fidem (Arch. 31), we ask you, judges, 
if there ought to be anything in such genius to recommend it to tis cs 
by a recommendation of the gods, that you receive him under your pro- 
In these two passages, the protasis really expresses cause: but the cause is put by 
the speaker in the form of a non-committal condition. His hearers are to draw the 
inference for themselves. In this way the desired impression is made on their minds 
more effectively than if an outspoken causal clause had been used. 

Future Conditions 
516. Future Conditions may be more vivid or leas vivid. 

1. In a more vivid future condition the protasis makes a distinct 
supposition of a future case, the apodosis expressing what will be the 
logical result. 

2. In a less vivid future condition, the supposition is less distinct, 
the apodosis expressing what would be the result in the case supposed. 

a. In the more vivid future condition the Future Indicative is used 
in both protasis and apodosis : — 

sAnftbimnr, si volemus (Tusc. iii. 13), we shall be healed if we wish. 
quod 8l legere aut audire voietis, . . . reperietis (Cat. M. 20), if you will 
[shall wish to] read or hear, you will find. 

Note. — In English the protasis is usually expressed by the Present Indicative, 
rarely by the Future with shall. Often in Latin the Present Indicative is found in 
the protasis of a condition of this kind (cf . § 468) : — 

si vlncimus, omnia nObis tuta erunt ; sin metu cesserimus, eadem ilia advorsa fient 
(Sail. Cat. 58), if we conquer, all things will be safe for us; but if we yield 
through fear, those same things will become hostile. 
si pere5, hominum manibus periisse iuvabit (Aen. iii. 606), if I perish, it wiQ he 
pleasant to have perished at the hands of men. 



6. In the less vivid future condition the Present Subjunctive is 
used in both protasis and apodosis : — 

haec 8l tecum patria loqu&tur, nOnne impetrftre dSbeat (Cat. i. 19), if ycmr 
country should thus speak with you, ought she not to prevail? 

quod si quia deus mihi largi&tur, . . . valdS reciisem (Cat. M. 83), but if some 
god were to grant me this, I should stoutly refuM. 

Note. — The Present Subjunctive sometimes stands in protasis with the Future 
(or the Present) Indicative in apodosis from a change in the point of view : — ^ 

si dSigenter attendimns, inteUegSmus (Inv. ii. M), if we attend (should attend) 

carefully, we shall understand. 
nisi hoc dicat, 'Mure feci," ndn babet defensidnem (id. i. 18), unless he should 
say this, "I acted Justifiably," he has no defence. 

ۥ If the conditional act is regarded as completed before that of the 
apodosis begins, the Future Perfect is substituted for the Future 
Indicative in protasis, and the Perfect Subjunctive for the Present 
Subjunctive : — 

8ln cum potuer5 nOn vSnerd, tum erit inimlcus (Att. 'm. 2 k, 2), but if I do not 

come when 1 can, he will be unfriendly. 
si & cor5n& relictus tim, nOn queam dicere (Brut. 192), if I should be deserted 
by the circle of listeners, I should not be able to speak. 

Note. — The Future Perfect is often used in the apodosis of a future condition: 
as, — vehementer mihi gratum ficeris, si hunc adulescentem humanitate tua compre- 
henderis (Fam. xiii. 15), you will do (will have done) me a great favor, if you receive 
this young man with your usual courtesy. 

€l» Any form denoting or implying future time may stand in the 
apodosis of a future condition. So the Imperative, the participles in 
-dus and -rus, and verbs of necessity, possibility, and the like : — 

alios finis cdnstltoendus est, si prius quid maxim6 reprehendere Scipi5 solitus 
sit dlxerO (Lael. 60), another limit muM be set, if 1 first state what Scipio 
was wont most to find fault with. 

si me praecSperit f&tum, vOs mandftsse memento (Q. C. ix. 6. 26), if fate cuts 
me off too soon, do you remember that I ordered this. 

nisi oculls videritis Insidifts MilOnl 9, Cl5di0 factfts, nee dSprecftturi sumus nee 
postuULtfiri (Mil. 6), unless you see with your own eyes the plots laid against 
Milo by Clodius, I shaU neither beg nor demand, etc. 

nOn possum istum accOs&re, si cupiam (Verr. iv. 87), J cannot accuse him, if 
I should (so) desire, 

1 It often depends entirely upon the view of the writer at the moment, and not 
upon the nature of the condition, whether it shall be stated vividly or not ; as in the 
proverbial " If the sky falls, we shall catch larks " the impossible condition is iron- 
ically put in the vivid form, to illustrate the absurdity of some other supposed condi- 
tion stated by some one else. 


e. Rarely the Perfect Indicative is used in apodosis with a Pres- 
ent or even a Future (or Future Perfect) in protasis, to represent the 
conclusion rhetorically as already accomplished : — 

si h5c bene fixum in animO est, vicistis (Liv. xxi. 44), if this is well fixed in 
your minds, you have conquered. [For you wiU have conquered.] 

si eundein [animum] habueritis, vicimus (id. xxi. 43), if you shaU have kept 
Vie same spirit, we have conquered. 

/• A future condition is frequently thrown back into past time, 
without implying that it is contrary to fact (§ 517). In such cases 
the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive may be used : — 

n5n poterat, nisi dScert^re vellet (B. C. iii. 44), he voas not able, unless he 
wished to fi^ht. 

tumulus apparuit, ... si luce palam iretur hostis praeventtirus erat (Lir. 
xxii. 24), a hiU appeared . . . if they should go openly by daylight, the 
enemy would prevent. [The first two appear like Indirect Discourse, 
but are not. An observer describing the situation in the first example 
as present would say ndn potest nisi velit (see d), and no indirect dis- 
course would be thought of.] 

Caesar si peteret, . . . nOn quicquam proficeret (Hor. S. i. 3. 4), if even Ccesar 
were to ajik, he would gain nothing. [Here the construction is not con- 
trary to fact, but is simply si petat, n5n proficiat, thrown into past time.] 

Conditions Contrary to Fact 

517. In the statement of a supposition impliedly fcUse^ the Im- 
perfect and Pluperfect Subjunctive are used in both protasis and 
apodosis.^ The Imperfect refers to present tims, the Pluperfect 
to past: — 

si viveret, verba Sius andiretis (Rose. Com. 42), %fhe were living, you would 
hear his words. [Present.] 

nisi tu amisisses, numquam recepissem (Cat. M. 11), unless you had lost it. I 
should not have recovered it. [Past.] 

si meum consilium valoisset, tU hodie egSiSs, r6s puhlica n5n tot duces ami- 
sisset (Phil. ii. 37), if my judgment haud prevailed [as it did not], yow 
would this day he a beggar, and the republic would not have lost so inany 
leaders. [Mixed Present and Past.] ♦ 

^ The implication of falsity, in this construction, is not inherent in the snbjnuc- 
tiye ; but comes from the trarufer of a future coTidition to past tivne. Thus the time 
for the happening of the condition has, at the moment of writing, already passed ; so 
that, if the condition remains a condition, it must be contrary to fact. So past forms 
of the indicative implying a future frequently take the place of the subjnnctiTe in 
apodosis in this construction (see c, d, below, and §511). 


a. In conditions contrary to fact the Imperfect often refers to past 
time, both in protasis and apodosis, especially when a repeated or con- 
tinued dction is denoted, or when the condition if true would still exist : 

si nihil litteils adiavftxentur, numquam s6 ad e&ram studium contulLssent 
(Arch. 16), if they had not been helped at all by literature, they never 
toould have given their attention to the study qf it, [Without the condi- 
tion, Adiavibantar.] 

hie si mentis esset suae, ausus esset edficere exercitum (Pison. 60), if he were 
of sane mind, wouli he have dared to lead out the army f [Here esset 
denotes a continued state, past as well as present.] 

nOn concidissent, nisi illud recept&culum classihus nostrls pat6ret (Verr. ii. 
3), [the power of Carthage] would not have fallen, unless that station had 
been [constantly] open to our fleets, [Without the condition, patfibat.] 

b» In the apodosis of a condition contrary to fact the past tenses 
of the Indicative may be used to express what was intended, or likely, 
or already begun. In this use, the Imperfect Indicative corresponds 
in time to the Imperfect Subjunctive, and the Perfect or Pluperfect 
Indicative to the Pluperfect Subjunctive : — 

fA licitum esset, m&tres YeniSbant (Verr. y. 120), the mothers were coming if 

it had been allowed. 
in amplexOs flliae ruSbat, nisi llctOres obstitissent (Tac. Ann. xvi. 82), he was 

about rushing into his daughter's arms, unless the lictors had opposed. 
iam tUta tenebam, nl gSns crtldelis ferrO invftsisset (Aen. vi. 868), I was just 

reaching a place of so^fety, had not the fierce people attacked me. 

Note 1. — Here the apodosis may be regarded as elliptical. Thos, — matres venie- 
bant (et TSnissent), the matrons were coming (and would have kept on) if, etc. 

Note 2. — With paene (and sometimes prope), almost, the Perfect Indicatiye is used 
in the apodosis of a past condition contrary to fact: as, — pons iter paene hostibus 
dedit, m udus yir fnisset (Liv. ii. 10), t?ie bridge had almjost given a passage to the 
foe, if it had not been for one hero, 

ۥ Verbs and other expressions denoting necessity, propriety, possi- 
bility, duty, when used in the apodosis of a condition contrary to 
facty may be put in the Imperfect or Perfect Indicative. 

Such are oportet, decet, dSbe5, possum, necesse est, opus est, and the Sec- 
ond Periphrastic Conjugation : — * 

n5n potoit fieri sapiSns, nisi natus esset (Fin. ii. 103), he couJd not have become 

a sage, if he had not been bom. 
si priv&tus esset hOc tempore, tamen is erat dCligendns (Manil. 50), if he were 

at this time a private citizen, yet he ought to be appointed. 

1 Observe that all these expressions contain the idea of f ntnrity (cf . p. 328, footnote) . 
Thns, decet mi [hodiS] Ire czfts, means it is proper for me [to-day] to go to-morrow ; 
and, decCbat mB [hen] irs hodiS, it was proper for me [yesterday] to go to-day, usually 
with the implication that / fiave not gone as I was bour^ to do. 


quod esse caput debSbat, si probarl posset (Fin. iv. 23), what (mght to he the 

main pointy if it could be proved. 
si ita putdsset, certe opt&bilius MilOnl fait (Mil. 31), if he had thought so^ surely 

it would have been pr^eraMefor Milo. 

Note 1. — In Present conditions the Imperfect Subjunctive (oportSret, possem, etc.) 
is the rule, the Indicative being rare ; in Past conditions both the Subjunctive (usually 
Pluperfect) and the Indicative (usually Perfect) are common. 

For pftr eraty melius fait, and the like, followed by the infinitive, see § 521. n. 

NoTK 2. — The indicative construction is carried still further in poetry: as, — a 
Ddn allum iactaret odOrem, laurus erat (Georg. ii. 133), it were a laurel, but for giving 
out a different odor. 

d. The participle in -urus with eram or fui may take the place of 
an Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive in the apodosis of a condi- 
tion contrary to fact : — 

quid enim fatiimm fait [= fuisset], si . . . (Li v. ii. 1), whal would have hap- 
pened if, etc. 

relictari agrOs erant, nisi ad eOs Metellus litterfis mlsisset (Verr. ill. 121), they 
would have abandoned their fields, if Metellus had not sent ^lem a letter. 

neque ambigitur quln ... id factilrus fuerit, si . . . (Li v. ii. 1), nor is there 
any question that he would have done it, if, etc. [Direct : fedsset.] 

adeO par&ta sSditiO fuit ut OthOnem rapturi fuerint, nl incerta noctis timuis- 
sent (Tac. H. 1. 26), so far advanced was the conspiracy that they would 
have seized upon Otho, had they njot feared the hazards of the night. [In 
a main clause: rapaissent, ni timuissent.] 

e. The Present Subjunctive is sometimes used in poetry in the 
protasis and apodosis of conditions contrary to fact : — 

nl comes admoneat, inmat (Aen. vi. 293), had not his companion warned him, 
he would have rushed on. [Cf . tu si hic sis, aliter senti&s (Ter. And. 310), 
if you were in my place, you would think differently.'] 

Note 1. — This is probably a remnant of an old construction (see next note). 

Note 2. — In old Latin the Present Subjunctive (as well as the Imperfect) is used 
in present conditions contrary to fact and the Imperfect (more rarely the Pluperfect) 
in past conditions of the same kind. Thus it appears that the Imperfect Subjunctive, 
like the Imperfect Indicative, once denoted past time, even in conditional sentences. 
Gradually, however, in conditional sentences, the Present Subjunctive was restricted 
to the less vivid future and the Imperfect (in the main) to the present contrary to fact, 
while the Pluperfect was used in past conditions of this nature. The old construction, 
however, seems to have been retained as an archaism in poetry. 

/. In Plautus and Terence absque mS (t5, etc.) is sometimes used to 
introduce conditions contrary to fact : — 

absque t6 esset, hodi6 nusquam viverem (PI. Men. 1022), if it were not for 

you, I should not be alive to-day. 
absque eO esset, r6ct6 ego mihi vidissem (Ter. Ph. 188), if it had not been for 

him, I should have looked autfor myself. 



518. General Conditions (§ 513. 2) have usually the same forms 
as Particular Conditions. But they are sometimes distinguished 
in the following cases : — 

a. The Subjunctive is often used in the second persoji singular j to 
denote the act of an indefinite subject {you = any one). Here the 
Present Indicative of a general truth may stand in the apodosis : — 

▼ita htLmftna prope uti ferrum est : si exerce&s, conteritur ; si nOn ezercefts, 
tamen rOblgO interflcit (Cato de M.), human life is very like iron: if 
you use it^ it wears away; if you dont use it^ rust still destroys it, 

virt&tem necessSriO glOria, etiamsl tH id nOn ag&s, consequitur (Tusc. i. 91), 
glory necessarily foUows virtue^ even if that is not one^s aim. 

8l prohibita impilne tr&nscenderis, neque metus ultra neque pudor est (Tac. 
Ann. iii. 64), if you once overstep the bounds with impunity ^ there is no 
fear or shame any more. 

b. In a general condition in present time, the protasis often takes 
the Perfect Indicative, and the apodosis the Present Indicative. For 
past time, the Pluperfect is used in the protasis, and the Imperfect in 
the apodosis : — 

si quOs aliqu3. parte membrOrum intitilis n5t&v§runt, nec9,rl iubent (Q. C. iz. 

1. 25), if they [ever] mark any infirm in any part of their limbs, they 

[always] order them to be put to death. [Present.] 
si & i)erseqaendO hostis deterrSre neqaiverant, ab tergO circumyeniSbant (lug. 

50), if [ever] they were unable to prevent the enemy from pursuing , they 

[always] surrounded them in the rear. [Past.] 

c. In later writers (rarely in Cicero and Caesar), the Imperfect and 
Pluperfect Subjunctive are used in protasis, with the Imperfect In- 
dicative in apodosis, to state a repeated or customary action in past 
time (Iterative Subjunctive): — 

si quis & dominO prehenderetur, concursu militum eiipiSbfttar (6. C. iii. 110), 
if any (runaway) was arrested by his master, he was (always) rescued by 
a mob of soldiers. 

acctbs&tOrSs, si faculty incideret, poems adficiSbantur (Tac. Ann. vi. 30), t?ie 
accusers, whenever opportunity offered, were visited with punishment. 

8l quis collegam appellfisset, ab eO ita di8c§dSbat ut paenitSret nOn priOris 
decretO stetisse (Liv. iii. 36. 8), if any one appealed to a colleague, he 
[always] came off in such case that he repented not having submitted to 
the decree of the formjer decemvir. [Cf . S5crat6s, quam s6 cumque in 
partem dedisset, omnium fuit facile princeps (De Or. iii. 60), in whatever 
direction Socrates turned himself, he was (always) easily the foremost (if 
in any, etc.).] 


Conditional Relative Clauses 

519. A clause introduced by a Relative Pronoun or Relative 
Adverb may express a condition and take any of the construc- 
tions of Protasis^ (§ 514): — 

qui enim yitils modum adpdnit, is partem suscipit yitiSnim (Tusc. iy. 42), he 

who [only] 8et8 a limit to faults, takes up the side of the fauUs. [= si 

qois adponit. Present, nothing implied.] 
qui mentlrl solet, pfiierftre cOnsufivit (Rose. Com. 46), wJioever is in the habit of 

lying, is accustomed to swear falsely. [= ai quia solet. Present, nothing 

quicqiiid potoit, potuit ipsa per sS (Leg. Agr. i. 20), whatever power she hadj 

she had by herself. [= si quid potuit. Past, nothing implied.] 
quod qui faciet, nOn aegritddine solum vac&bit, sed, etc. (Tusc. iv. 38), and 

he who does (shall do) this, will be free not only, etc. [= n quia faciet. 

Future, more vivid.] 
qoiaqaia hue Tenerit, y&pulftbit (PI. Am. 800), whoever comes here shall get a 

thrashing, [= ai quia TSnexit. Future, more vivid.] 
qoS volSs, sequar (Clu. 71), whithersoever you wish (shall wish), I will follow. 

[= ai qao volea. Future, more vivid.] 
philo8ophia,cui qui p&reat,omne tempus aetatissine molesti&possit d6gere(Cat. 

M. 2), philosophy^ which if any one should obey, he would be able to spend 

his whole life without vexation. [= si quis p£reat. Future, less vivid.] 
qnaecomqae v5s causa hflc attulisset, laet&rer (De Or. ii. 15), I should be glad, 

wJudever cause had brought you here (i.e. if any other, as well as the one 

which did). [= ai . . . attulisset. Contrary to fact] 

The relative in this construction is always indefinite in meaning, 
and very often in form. 

520. The special constructions of General Conditions are some- 
times found in Conditional Relative Clauses : — 

1. The Second Person Singular of the Subjunctive in the protasis 

with the Indicative of a general truth in the apodosis (§ 618. a) : — 

bonus tantum modo sSgnior fit ubi neglegfis, at malus improbior (lug. 31. 28), 
a good man merely becomes less diligent when you don*t watch him, but a 
bad mxin becomes more shameless. [Present General Condition.] 

2. The Perfect or Pluperfect Indicative in the protasis and the 

Present or Imperfect Indicative in the apodosis (§ 518. b) : — 

com hUc yeni, hC^c ipsum nihil agere m6 delectat (De Or. ii. 24), whenever I 
come here, this very doing nothing delights me (whenever I have come, 
etc.). [Present General Condition.] 

^ As in the Greek of hv, &ra9, etc. ; anji in statutes in English, where the phrases 
if any person shall and whoever shall are used indifferently. 

§§ 520, 621] CONDITION DISGUISED 883 

cum rosam ▼ideiat, tnm incipere vSr axUtrftbltm (Verr. v. 27), whenever he 
9aw (had seen) a rose, then he thought spring toaa beginning. [Past 
General Condition.] 

3. In later writers (rarely in Cicero and Caesar) the Imperfect or 
Pluperfect Subjunctive in the protasis and the Imperfect Indicative 
in the apodosis (§ 618. e): — 

uU imbecillitas mSteriae postul&re viderl^tor, pilae interpSnuntar (B. C. ii. 
16), whereoer the toeahnesa of the timber seemed to reqwre, piles were put 
between, [Past General Condition: interp5iiiintur = jaterp5ai1>antar.] 

qaocoinqne 86 intalisset, victOriam sScum trahSbat (Liv. yi. 8), whereoer he 
advanced, he carried victory with him. [Past General Condition.] 

Condition Disguised 

521. In many sentences properly conditional, the Protasis is 
not expressed by a conditional clause, but is stated in some other 
form of words or implied in the nature of the thought. 

a* The condition may be implied in a Clause, or in a Participle^ 
Noun, Adverb, or some other word or phrase : — 

facile m6 i>aterer — illO ipsS iHdice quaerente — prO Sex. ROsciO dicere (Rose. 

Am. 85), I should readily allow myself to speak for Roscivs if that very 

judge were conducting the trial. [Present contrary to fact : si quaereret, 

nOn mihi, nisi admonitS, vSnisset in mentem (De Or. ii. 180), itw&uld not Jiane 

come into my mind unless [I had been] reminded, [Past contrary to 

fact: nisi admonitus essem.] 
nfiUa alia g€ns tanta mole cladis n5n obruta esset (Liv. xzii. 64), there is no 

other people that would not haxe been crushed by such a weight qf disaster. 

[Past contrary to fact: si alia foisaet.] . 
n^mO umqoam sine mftgnft spe immortalitatis s6 prO patri& offerret ad mortem 

(Tusc. i. 32), no one, withovl great hope of immortality, would ever expose 

himself to deaihfor his country. [Present contrary to fact : nisi magnam 

quid hunc pauc5rum annOrum accessio iuv&re xx)tui8set (Lael. 11), what good 

could the addition of a few years have done him (if they had been added) ? 

[Past contrary to fact : si accessissent.] 
qaid igitur mihi fer&rum lani&tus oberit ntiiil sentient! (Tusc. i. 104), what 

harm will the mangling by wild beasts do me if I donH feel anything 

(feeling nothing) ? [Future more vivid : si nihil sentiam.] 
iadtftta semel prOclIvI l&buntor siistinerique nUllO raodO possunt (id. iv. 42), 

if once given a push, they ^ide down rapidly and can in no way be 

checked. [Present General : si incit&ta sunt.] 


Note. — In several phrases denoting necessity , propriety , or the like, the Imper- 
fect, Perfect, or Pluperfect Indicative of esse is used in the apodosis of a condition 
contrary to fact, the protasis being implied in a subject infinitive (cf . 517. c) : — 

quantO melins fuerat prSmissttm nOu esse serv&tum (Off. iii. 94), how much better 
wovld it have been if the promise had not been kept! [promissum . . . 
servatum = a prOmissum nOn esset servatum.] 
mori praecl&rum fuit (Att. viii. 2. 2), it wovld have been hxmorahle to die. 
sed erat aequius Triirium aliquid de dissensione nostra iudicare (Fin. ii. 119), but it 
would be mjore equitable if Triarius pa^ed judgment on our dispute. [Tri- 
arium iudicare = si Triarius iudicaret.] 
satins fuit amittere milites (In v. ii. 73), it would have been better to lose tlie soldiers. 
[amittere = si amisisset.] 

b» The condition may be contained in Si,wi8h (Optative Subjunctive), 
or expressed as an exhortation or command {Hortatory Subjunctive 
or Imperative) : — 

tttinam quidem faissem 1 molestus nObis nOn esset (Fam. xii. 3), I uoish I 

h>ad been [chief] : he would not noxo be troubling U8 (i.e. if I had been). 

[Optative Subjunctive.] 
n&ttlram expellas furc9,, tamen tisque recurret (Hor. Ep. i. 10. 24), drive ovt 

nature with a pitchfork^ still she will ever return. [Hortatory.] 
xogSs enim AristOnem, neget (Fin. iv. 69), for ask Arista, he would deny. 
manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria (Cat. M. 22), 

old men keep their mental powers, only let them keep their zeal and dUi- 

gence (§ 628. n. ). [Hortatory. ] 
telle banc opiniOnem, lactam sastuleris (Tasc. i. 30), remove this notion, and 

you will hate done away with grief. [Imperative.] 

Note. — The so-called Concessive Subjunctive with nt and nS often has the force 
of protasis (§ 527. a. n.) : as, — ut enim rationem Plato niillam adferret, ipsa auctoritate 
me frangeret (Tusc. i. 49), even if Plato gave no reasons, [still] he would overpower 
me by his mere authority. 

ۥ Rarely the condition takes the form of an independent clause: 

ridSs : m§.iOre cachinnO concutitur (luv. iii. 100), you laugh ; he shakes with 

louder laughter (= if you laagh, he shakes), 
commove: senti€s (Tusc. iv. 64), stir him up, [and] you^Ufind, etc. 
de panpert&te agitur : multl patientSs pauperis commemorantar (id. iii. 67), 

we speak of poverty; many patient poor are mentioned. 

For Conditional Relative Clauses, see §§ 519, 520. 

Condition Omitted 

522. The Protasis is often wholly omitted, but may be inferred 

from the course of the argument : — 

poterat Sextilias impune negftre : quis enim redargaeret (Fin. ii. 55), Sextilius 
might have denied with impunity; for who would prove him wrong (if be 
had denied)? 

§§522,523] COMPLEX CONDITIONS 335 

a. In expressions signifying necessity y propriety, and the like, the 
Indicative may be used in the apodosis of implied conditions, either 
future or contrary to fact ; — 

quod contr& decoit ab ill5 meum [corpus cremftrl] (Cat. M. 84), whereas on 
the other hand mine ought to have been harnl by him. 

nam n5s decSbat domum lugSre ubi esset aliquis in lucem editus (Tusc. i. 
115), for it were fitting for us to mourn the house where a man has been 
bom (but we do not). 

quantO melius faexat (Off. iii. 94), how much better it would have been. 

illud ezat aptias, aequum culque conc6dere (Fin. iv. 2), it would be more fit- 
ting to yield each one his rights. 

ipsum enim exspect&re mAgnnm fait (Phil. ii. 103), would it have been a great 
matter to wait for the man himself f 

lon^am est ea dicere, sed . . . (Sest. 12), it would be tedious to tell^ etc. 

NoTB 1. — In this constmction, the Imperfect Indicative refers to present time; 
the Pluperfect to simple past time, like the Perfect. Thus oportCbat means it ought 
to be [now], but is not; oportnexat means it ought to have bee7i, but was not. 

Note 2. — In many cases it is impossible to say whether a protasis was present 
to the mind of the speaker or not (see third example above). 

Complex Conditions 

523. Either the Protasis or the Apodosis may be a complex idea 
in which the main statement is made with expressed or implied 
qualifications. In such cases the true logical relation of the 
parts is sometimes disguised : — 

si quis hOrum dixisset ... si verbum de rS pUblicft f Scisset . . . multa plOra 
dixisse quam dixisset putftretur (Rose. Am. 2), if any of these had spoken^ 
in case he had said a word about politics he would be thought to have said 
much more than he did say. [Here the apodosis of dixisset is the whole 
of the following statement (si . . . pntArStor), which is itself conditioned 
by a protasis of its own : si verbum, etc.]. 

quod si in hOc mund5 fieri sine deO nOn potest, nS in sphaera quidem eOsdem 
mOtflB sine dlvinO ingeniO potuisset imitSxI (Tusc. i. 63), now if that can^ 
not be done in this universe without divine agency^ no more could [Archi- 
medes] in his orrery have imitated the same revolutions without divine 
genius. [Here si potest (a protasis with nothing implied) has for its 
apodosis the whole clause which follows, but potuisset has a contrary- 
to-fact protasis of its own implied in sine . . . ingenio.] 

peream male d nOn optimum erat (Hor. S. ii. 1. 6), confound me (may I 
perish wretchedly) if it wouldn't be better. [Here peream is apodosis to 
the rest of the sentence, while the true protasis to optimum erat, contrary 
to fact, is omitted.] 


Gattses of Comparison (Condusion Omitted) 

524, Conditional Clauses of Comparison take the Subjunctive, 
usually in the Present or Perfect unless the sequence of tenses 
requires the Imperfect or Pluperfect. 

Such clauses are introduced by the comparative particles tamquam, 
tamquam si, quasi, ac si, ut si, velut si (later velut), poetic oeu (all mean- 
ing as if), and by quam si (than if) : — 

tamquam clausa sit Asia (Fam. xii. 9), as if Asia were closed. 
tamquam si claudus sim (PI. Asin. 427), just as if I were lame, 
ita hOs [honOrSs] petant, quasi honestS vixexint (lug. 85), they seek fhem 

(ofiSces) just as if they had lived Jionorably, 
quasi y&c6 nOn specie visa iadicentur (Acad. ii. 58), as if forsooth visible things 

were not judged by their appearance, 
similiter facis ac si me zogis (N. D. ili. 8), you do exactly as if you asked me. 
crtLdelitatem horrerenti velut si c5ram adesset (B. G. 1. 82), they dreaded hv» 

cruelty (they said), as if he were present in person. 
hic inge;item ptignam cemimus ceu cetera nusquam bellaforent (Aen. ii. 438), 

here we saw a great battle, as if there were no fighting elsewhere. [Bat 

sometimes with the indicative in poetry, as id. v. 88.] 
magis a me abesse videbare quam si domi essSs (Att. vi. 5), you seemed to 

be absent from me more than if you were at home. 

Note 1. — These subjunctive clauses are really future conditions with apodosis 
implied in the particle itself. Thus in tamqnam si cUadas sim the protasis is introduced 
by si, and the apodosis implied in tamquam. 

Note 2. — The English idiom would lead us to expect the Imperfect and Pluperfect 
Subjunctive (contrary to fact) with these i>articles; but the point of view is different 
in the two languages. Thus the second example above is translated JiMt cw if Iwert 
lame, — as if it were a present condition contrary to fact; but it really means Ju«< as 
[it would be] if I sfiould [at some future time] be lame, and so is a less vivid future 
condition requiring the Present Subjunctive. Similarly quasi honestS vixerint, as if 
they had lived honorably, is really as [they would do in the future] if they should have 
lived honorably and so requires the Perfect Subjunctive (§516. c). 

a. Even after a primary tense, the Imperfect or Pluperfect Sub- 
junctive (contrary to fact) is often used in conditional clauses of 
comparison : — 

aeque a te pet5 ac si mea neg()tia essent (Fam. xiii. 48), I entreat you as much 

as if it were my own business. 
§ius neg5tium sic velim suscipiSs ut si esset res mea (id. vii. 20. 1), I woM 

have you undertake his business as though it were my affair. 

XoTB. — The practice differs with the different partioles. Thus in Cicero a clause 
with tamqnam or quasi almost always observes the sequence of tenses, but with quam a 
the Imperfect or Pluperfect is the rule. 


Use of si and its Compounds 

525. The uses of some of the more common Conditional Parti- 
cles may be stated as follows : — 

a. Si is used for affirmative, nisi (ni) and si nOn for negative con- 

1. With nisi (generally unless) the apodosis is stated as universally true 
except in the single case supposed, in which case it is (impliedly) not true : — 

nisi ConOn adest, maereO, unless Conon is here, I mourn (i.e. I am always in 
a state of grief except in the single case of Conon's presence, in which 
case I am not). 

2. With si non (if not) the apodosis is only stated as true in the (negative) 
case supposed, but as to other cases no statement is made : — 

si Con5n n$ii adest, maere(), if Conon is not here, I mourn (i.e. I mourn in 
the single case of Conon^s absence, nothing being said as to other cases 
in which I may or may not mourn). 

NoTB. — It often makes no difference in which of these forms the condition is 

3. Sometimes nisi si, except if, unless, occurs : — 

nOli putilre mS ad quemquam longiCJrSs cy ^^tulSs scrlbere, nisi si quis ad m6 
plura scripsit (Fam. xiv. 2), . . . excep^ ^ase one writes more to me. 

Note. — Ni is an old form surviying in a few conveiA iial phrases and reappear- 
ing in poets and later writers. 

b* Nisi v6r5 and nisi forte regularly introduce an objection or excep- 
tion ironically y and take the Indicative : — 

nisi TeiS L. Caesar crddslior yisus est (Cat. iy. 18), unless indeed Lucius 

CcBsar seemed too cruel. 
nisi forte yolnmas EpicfLreOrum opIniOnem sequi (Fat. 87), unless^ to be sure, 

we choose t) follow the notion of the Epicureans. 

Note. — This is the regular way of Introducing a reductio ad absurdum in Latin. 
Nisi alone is sometimes used in this sense: as, — nisi unum hOc faciam ut in puteO 
cenam coquant (Fl. Aul. 365), unless I do this one thing, [make them] oooA; dinner 
in tJie well. 

ۥ Sive (sen) . . . sive (sen), whether . . . or, introduce a condition 
in the form of an akemative. They may be used with any form of 
condition, or with different forms in the two members. Often also 
they are used without a verb : — 

nam illO locO libentissimS soleO titl, siye quid m6cum ipse cOgitO, slye quid 
scrlbO aut leg5 (Lepg. ii. l),/>r I enjoy myself most in that place, whether 
I am thinking by myself, or am either writing or reading. 

Note. T- Siye . . . sen and sen . . . siye are late or poetic. 


d. Sin, hut ifj often introduces a supposition contrary to one that 

precedes : — 

accus&tor ilium defeudet si poterit ; sin minus poterit, neg&bit (Iny. ii. 88), 
ike accuser will d^end him if he can ; hut if he cannot^ he will deny, 

e. Nisi is often used loosely by the comic poets in the sense of only 
when a negative (usually nesciO) is expressed, or easily understood, in 

the main clause : — 

nesci5 : nisi mS dixisse nemini certO sciO (Ter. Ph. 952), I dorCt know : only 
I am sure that I haven't told anybody, 


526 . The concessive idea is rather vague and general, and takes a variety of forms, 
each of which has its distinct history. Sometimes concession is expressed by the Hor- 
tatory Subjunctive in a sentence grammatically independent (§440), but it is more 
frequently and more precisely expressed by a dependent clause introduced by a con- 
cessive particle. The concessive force lies chiefly in the Conjunctions (which are 
indefinite or conditional in origin), and is often made clearer by an adversative par- 
ticle (tamen, certS) in the main clause. As the Subjunctive may be used in independ- 
ent clauses to express a concession, it is also employed in concessive clauses, and 
somewhat more frequently than the indicative. 

527. The Particles of Concession (meaning although^ granting 
that) are quamvis, ut "..^x^ etsi, tametsi, etiam si, quamquam, and cum. 

Some of these take the Subjunctive, others the Indicative, ac- 
cording to the nature of the clause which each introduces. 

a* Quamvis and ut take the Subjunctive : — 

quamvis ipsi InfantSs sint, tamen . . . (Or. 76), however incapable of speaking 

they themselves may be, yet, etc. 
quamvis scelerati ill! fuissent (De Or. i. 230), however guilty they might have 

quamvis c5mis in amicls tuendls faerit (Fin. 11. 80), amiable as he may have 

been in keeping his friends. 
at nSminem alium rogasset (Mil. 46), even if he had asked no other. 
at enim non efficias quod vis, tamen mors ut malum n5n sit efficies (Tosc. i. 

16), for even if you do not accomplish what you wish, still you will prove 

that death is not an evil. 
at ratiOnem Plat5 nullam adf arret (id. i. 49), though Plato adduced no reasons. 

Note. — Quamvis means literally as m,uch as you will. Thus in the first example 
above, let them be as incapable as you will, stUlj etc. The subjunctive with qoamvis 
is hortatory, like that with nS (§ 440) ; that with ut (ut non) is of uncertain origin. 

h. Licet, although, takes the Present or Perfect Subjunctive: — 

licet omnes mihi terr5res perlculaque impendeant (Hose. Am. 31), though all 
terrors and perils sJwuld menace me. 


Note. — Licet is properly a verb in the present tense, meaning it is granted. Hence 
the subjnnctive is by the sequence of tenses limited to the Present and Perfect. The 
concessive clause with licet is hortatory in origin, but may be regarded as a substan- 
tive clause serving as the subject of the impersonal verb (§ 565. n.^). 

c. £tsi, etiam si, tametsi, even iff take the same constructions as si 
(see § 514) : — 

etsl abest m&tttrit&s, tamen nOn est infltile (Fam. vi. 18. 4), though ripeness 

of age is warding^ yet it is not useless, etc. 
etsi numquam dubium fuit, tamen perspiciO (id. v. 19), although it has never 

been doubtful, yet I perceive, etc. 
etsi statueram (id. v. 5), though I had determined. 
etsi nihil aliud abstalissStis, tamen contentOs vOs esse oportebat (Soil. 90), 

even if you had taken away nothing else, you ought to have been satined. 
etiam si quod scrlbSA n5n habSbis, scrlbitO tamen (Fam. xvi. 26), even if you 

[shall] have nothing to write, still write. 
sed ea tametsi vOs parvi pendebfttis (Sail. Cat. 62. 9), but although you regarded 

those things ajs of small account. 

Note 1. — Tametti with the subjunctive is very rare. 

Note 2. — A protasis with si often has a concessive force: as, — ego, si essent ini- 
micitiae mihi cum C. Caesare, tamen hOc tempore rei publicae cOnsulere . . . debcrem 
(Prov. Cons. 47), as for me, even if I had private quarrels with CsBsar, it wouJd still 
be my duty to serve the best interests of the state at this crisis. 

d. Quamquam, although j introduces an admitted faxit and takes the 

Indicative : — 

omnibus ^- quamqaam mit ipse suls cl3,dibu8 — pestem d^nflntiat (Phil. xiv. 
8), though he is breaking down under his disoMers, still he threatens all 
with destruction. 

Note. — Qvamqiuun more commonly means and yet, introducing a neto proposition 
in the indicative: as, — qnamqoam haec quidem iam tolerabilia vidSbantur, etsi, etc. 
(Mil. 76), and yet these, in truth, seemed now bearable, though, etc. 

c. The poets and later writers frequently use quamvis and quam- 
quam like etsi, connecting them with the Indicative or the Subjunc- 
tive, according to the nature of the condition : — 

qtxamquam moverStar (Li v. xxxvi. 34), although he was moved. 

Folli5 amat nostram, quamvis est rOstica, miUutm (Eel. ill. 84), Pollio loves 

my mtMe, though she is rustic. 
quamvis pervSnerfts (Li v. it. 40), though you had com>e. 

/• Ut, as, with the Indicative, may be equivalent to a concession : 

vfirum ut errare potuisti, sic dScipI t6 nOn potuisse quia nOn videt (Fam. x. 
20. 2), suppose you could have been mistaken, who does not see that you 
cannot have been deceived in this way f 

For com concessive, see §549; for qui concessive, see § 5.^. e. For concession ex- 
pressed by the Hortatory Subjunctive (negative nS), see § 440. 



528. Dam, modOf dummodo, and tantum ut, introducing a Proviso, 
take the Subjunctive. The negative with these particles is n6 : 

Gderint dam metaant (Off. i. 97), let them kate, if only they fear. 

valetUdO modo bona sit (Brat. 64), provided the health be good, 

dummodo inter me atqae t6 mnros intersit (Cat. i. 10), provided only the loaU 

(ox the city) is between tis. 
tantam ot sciant (Att. xvi. 11. 1), provided only they know. 
modo ne sit ex pecudum genere (Off. i. 105), provided [in pleasure] he be 

not of the herd of cattle. 
id faciat saepe, dam ne lassus fiat (Cato R. R. v. 4), let him do this often, 

provided he does not get tired. 
dommodo ea (severitfts) nS TariStar (Q. Fr. i. 1. 20), provided only it (strictness) 

be not aJlowed to swerve. 
tantam nS noceat (07. M. ix. 21), only let it do no harm. 

Note. — The Sahjanctive with modo is hortatory or optative; that with dum and 
dummodo, a development from the use of the Subjunctive with dnm in temporal clauses, 
§ 653 (compare the colloquial so long as my health is good, I don*t care). 

a* The Hortatory Subjunctive without a particle sometimes ex- 
presses a proviso : — 

sint MaecenfttSs, nOn deerunt MarOnCs (Mart. viii. 56. 5), so there be Mcece- 
nases, Virgils will not be lacking. 

6. The Subjunctive with ut (negative n6) is sometimes used to de- 
note a proviso, usually with ita in the main clause : — 

probd,ta condiciO est, sed ita at ille praesidia dedficeret (Att. vii. 14. 1). the 
terms voere approved, but only on condition that he should withdraw the 

Note. — This is a development of the construction of Characteristic or Result. 
For a clause of Characteristic expressing Proviso, see § 535. d. 


529. The Subjunctive in the clause of Purpose is hortatory in origin, coming 
through a kind of indirect discourse construction (for which see §592). Thus, misit 
ISgitOs qui dioerent means he sent ambassadors who should say, i.e. who were directed 
to say ; in the direct orders the verb would be dicite, which would become dicant in the 
Indirect Discourse of narrative (§ 588) or dicerent in the past (cf . hortatory subjunctive 
in past tenses, § 439. 6). The Subjunctive with at and n6 is, in general, similar in 

530. A clause expressing purpose is called a Final Clause. 

531. Final Clauses take the Subjunctive introduced by ut (uti), 
negative nS (ut n6), or by a Relative Pronoun or Adverb: — 


1. Pure GlauBes of Purpose, with ut (uti) or n6 (ut nS), express the 
purpose of the maiii verb in the form of a modifying clause: — 

ab arfttrO abduz6rant CinciDn&tam, at dict&tor essat (Fin. U. 12), they brought 
Cincinnaius/rom the plough that he might be dictator, 

ut sint aaziliO 8uls, subsistunt (B. C. i. 80), they halt in order to support (be 
an aid to) their own men, 

nd mllitfis oppidum inrumperent, port&s obstruit (id. L 27), he barricaded the 
gateSj in order that the soldiers might not break into the tmon. 

sc&lfls i>ar&rl iubet, n6 quam facultfttem dimittat (id. i. 28), he orders scaling- 
ladders to be got ready ^ in order not to let slip any opportunity. 

ttt nS sit impune (Mil. 81), that it be not with impunity. 

Note 1. — Sometimes the conjunction has a oorrelatiye (ide5, ideiio5, eQ oSnsiUS, etc.) 
in the main clause (cf . § 661. a) : — 

legum idciioS servi sumus, at liberi timns (Clu 146), /or this reason we are suilitject 

to the laws, that we may be free. 
copias transduxit e5 cSnsiliS, ut castellum expugnaret (cf. B. G. ii. 9), Ae led the 
troops across toith this design — to storm the fort. 
NoTX 2. — Ut n5n sometimes occurs in clauses of purpose when nSn belongs to some 
particular word: as, — at plura ii5ii dicam (Manil. 44), to avoid unnecessary talk. 

2. Relative Clauses of Purpose are introduced by the relative pro- 
noun qui or a relative adverb (ubi, unde, quO, etc.). The antecedent 
is expressed or implied in the main clause: — 

mittitor L. DScidius Saxa qui loci n&tilram perspiciat (B. C. i. 66), Lucius 

Decidius Saxa is sent to examine the ground (who should examine, etc.). 
scribebat (^r&tiOnfis quiis alii dicerent (Brut. 206), he wrote speeches for other 

men to deliver, 
e5 exstlnctd fore unde discerem n^minem (Cat. M. 12), that when he was dead 

there would be nobody from whom (whence) I could learn, 
huic n3 ubi coas'steret quidem contrft te locum rellquisti (Quinct. 78), you 

have ^ft him no ground even to make a stand against you. 
habebam quo cdnfugerem (Fam. iv. 6. 2), 1 Aad [a retreat] whither I might fiee. 

Note. — In this construction qal=at is (etc.), ubisnt ibi, and so on (§ 537. 2). 

a. The ablative quO (= ut eO) is used as a conjunction in final 
clauses which contain a comparative : — 

comprimere eOrum audaciam, qa5 facilius c6ter0ram animi frangerentui 
(Fam. XV. 4. 10), to repress their audacity, that the spirit of the others 
might be broken more easily (by which the more easily). 

libert&te Gsus est, qu5 impunius dic&x asset (Quinct. 11), Ae took advantage 
of liberty^ that he might bliuter wiUi more impunity. 

NoTB. — OccasionaUy qa5 introduces a final clause that does not contain a compara- 
tive : as, — L. Sulla exeicitum, qa5 sibi fidum faceret, luxuriOse habnerat (Sail. Cat. 11), 
Lucius Svlla had treated the army luxuriously , in order to make it devoted to him. 

For qadminus (=at eo minas) after verbs of hindering, see §'558. b. 


532. The principal clause, on which a final clause depends, is 
often to be supplied from the context : — 

ac ne longum sit . . . iussimus (Cat. iii. 10), and, not to be tediov^, we ordered, 
etc. [Strictly, in order not to he tedious, I say we ordered^] 

sed ut ad Dionysium rede&mus (Tusc. v. 63), but to return to DionysiiLS. 

sed ut eOdem revertar, causa haec fuit timOris (Fam. vi. 7. 3), but, to return 
to the same point, this wcls the cause of fear, 

satis incOnsider9.ti fuit, nS dicam audS^cis (Phil. ziii. 12), it was the act of one 
rash enough, not to say daring. 

Note 1. — By a similar ellipsis the Subjanctive is used withnSdum (sometimes n€), 
still less, not to mention that : — 

nSdum salvi esse possimus (Clu. 95), much less could we be safe, 

nSdttm isti nOn statim conquisituri sint aliquid sceleris et flagiti (Leg. Agr. ii. 97), 

far more will they hunt up at once some sort of crime and scandal, 
nSdum in man et via sit facile (Fam. zvi. 8), still less is it easy at sea and on a 

quippe secundae res sapientium animOs f atigant ; nS illi corruptis mOribus vic- 
tOriae temperArent (Sail. Cat. 11), for prosperity overmasters the sotU even 
of the wise; mu^h less did they with their corrupt morals put any clieck on 
Note 2. — With nSdtim the verb itself is often omitted: as, — aptius humanitad 
tuae quam tota Peloponnesus, nCdum Patrae (Fam. vii. 28. 1), Jitter for your refine- 
m^ent than all Peloponnesus, to say nothing of Patras. 

For Substantive Clauses involving purpose, see §§ 563-566. 

533. The Purpose of an action is expressed in Latin in various 
ways ; but never (except in idiomatic expressions and rarely in 
poetry) by the simple Infinitive as in English (§ 460). 

The sentence, thsi/ came to seek peace, may be rendered — 

(1) v6nerunt ut p9,cem peterent. [Final clause with ut (§ 631. 1).] 

(2) v6n6runt qui pftcem peterent. [Final clause with Relative (§ 531. 2).] 

(3) [venSrunt ad petendum p^cem.] Not found with transitive verbs (§ 606, 

N. 2), but cf. ad p&rendum senatui. [Gerund with ad (§ 606).] 

(4) venerunt ad petendam pacem. [Gerundive with ad (§ 606).] 

(6) venSrunt p9.cem petend! causd. (grd,tia). [Gen. of Gerund with causa 
(§ 604. 6).] 

(6) v€n6runt pftcis petendae causS, (gratia.). [Gen. of Gerundive with cansa 

(§ 604. 6).] 

(7) v6n6runt pacem petlturi. [Future participle (§ 499. 2); in later writers.] 

(8) venerunt pacem petltum. [Supine in -um (§ 609).] 

These forms are not used indifferently, but — 

a. The usual way of expressing purpose is by ut (negative n5), 
unless the purpose is closely connected with some one wordy in which 
case a relative is i^ore common : — 


legatOs ad Dumnorigem mittunt, ut eO dfiprecatOre a S6quanls impetrarent 
(B. G. i. 9), tJiey send envoys to Dumnorix, in order through his interces- 
sion to obtain (this favor) from the Sequani. 

milit^s misit ut eOs qui ftigerant persequerentur (id. v. 10), Ae sent the sol- 
diers to follow up those who had fled, 

Curi5 praemittit equites qui primum impetum sustineant (B. C. ii. 26), Curio 
sends forward cavalry to withstand the first attack, 

5. The Gerund and Grerundive constructions q| purpose are usually 
limited to short expressions, where the literal translation, though not 
the English idiom, is nevertheless not harsh or strange. 

c. The Supine is used to express purpose only with verbs of motion, 
and in a few idiomatic expressions (§ 509). 

cf . The Future Participle used to express purpose is a late con- 
struction of inferior authority (§ 499. 2). 

For the imetical Infinitive of Purpose, see § 460. c. For the Present Participle in 
a sense approaching that of purpose, see § 490. 3. 


534. The relative clause of Characteristic with the Suhjunctive is a development 
peculiar to Latin. A relative clause in the Indicative merely states something as a 
fact which is true of the antecedent; a characteristic clause (in the Subjunctive) 
defines the antecedent as a person or thing of such a character that the statement 
made is true of him or it and of all others belonging to the same class. Thus, — non 
potest ezercitum is contlnSre imper&tor qui sS ipse non continet (indicative) means simply, 
that commander who does not (as a fact) restrain himself cannot restrain his army ; 
whereas non potest ezercitum is continSre imper&tor qui sS ipse n5n contineat (subjunctive) 
would mean, that commander who is not such a man as to restrain himself, etc., 
that is, who is not characterized by self-restraint. 

This construction has its origin in the potential use of the subjunctive (§445). 
Thus, in the example just given, qui sS ipse n5n contineat would mean literally, who 
would not restrain him^f (in any supposable case), and this potential idea passes 
over easily into that of general quality or characteristic. The characterizing force 
is most easily felt when the antecedent is indefinite or general. But this usage is 
extended in Latin to cases which differ but slightly from statements of fact, as in 
some of the examples below. 

The use of the Subjunctive to express Result comes from its use in Clauses of 
Characteristic. Thus, non sum ita hebes ut haec dicam means literally, I am not dull 
in the manner (degree) in which I should say this, hence, I am not so dull as to say 
this. Since, then, the characteristic often appears in the form of a supposed result, 
the construction readily passes over into Pure Result, with no idea of characteristic ; 
as, — tantus in curia clamor factus est ut popnlus concuireret (Verr. ii. 47), su^h an outcry 
was made in the senate-house that the people hurried together, 

535. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive is often used to 
indicate a characteristic of the antecedent, especially where the 
antecedent is otherwise undefined : — 


neqne enim tH is es qui neodAs (Fam. v. 12. 6), for you are not such a one as 

not to know. [Here is is equivalent to suchj and is defined only by tlie 

relative clause that follows.] 
mnlta dicunt quae viz intellegam (Fin. iv. 2), Uiey say many things which 

(such as) I hardly understand, 
pftcl quae nihil habitara sit Insidi&rum semper est cOnsalendum (Off. i. 35), 

we must always aim at a peace which shaU hone no plots. 

a. A Kelatiye Cl^se of Characteristic is used after general expres- 
sions of existence or non-existencey including questions which, imply 
a negative. 

So especially with sunt qui^ there are [some] who; quia est qui, who 
is there who ? — 

sunt qui discessum animl ft corpore putent esse mortem (Tusc. i. 18), there are 
some who think that the departure of soul from body constitutes death. 

erant qui censerent (B. C. li. 30), tJiere were some who were of the opinion^ etc. 

erant qui Helvidium miserflrentur (Tac. Ann. xvi. 20), there were some who 
pitied Hdvidius. [Cf. est cum (n. ", below).] 

quis est qui id nOn mazimis efferat laudibus (Lael. 24), who is there that does 
not extol it vrith the highest praise f 

nihil video quod timeam (Fam. ix. 16. 3), I see nothing to fear. 

nihil est quod adventum nostrum ezthnSscAs (Fam. ix. 26. 4), Giere is no rea- 
son why you should dread my coming. 

unde agger comportftrl posset nihil erat reliqaum (B. C. ii. 15), there was noth- 
ing Uftfrom which an embankment could be got together. 

NoTB 1. — After general negatives like n6m5 est qui^ the Subjunctive is regular ; 
after general affirmatives like sunt qui, it is the prevailing construction, but the Indio 
ative sometimes occurs ; after mult! (n5n niilli, quidam) sunt qui, and similar expres- 
sions in which the antecedent is partially defined, the choice of mood depends on the 
shade of meaning which the writer wishes to express : — 

sant bSstiae quaedam in quibus inest aliquid simile virtutis (Fin. v. 38), there are 

certain animals in which there is something like virtue. • 
But, — invent! mnlti sunt qui vitam profundere pr5 patria parftti essent (0£f. i. S4) , 
many were found of such a character as to be ready to give their lives for 
their country. 
Note 2. — Characteristic clauses with sunt qui etc. are sometimes called Relative 
Glauses with an Indefinite Antecedent, but are to be carefully distinguished from the 
Indefinite Relative in protasis (§ 520). 

Note 3. — The phrases est cum, fuit com, etc. are used like est qui, sunt qui : as, — 
ac fait com mihi quoque initium requiescendi fore iustum arbitiJLrer (De Or. i. 1), attd 
there was a time when I thought a beginning of rest would be justifiable on my part. 

6. A Eelative Clause of Characteristic may follow llnus and aStas : 

nil admlrftri prope rSs est iina solaque quae possit facere et servftre befttnni 
(Hor. Bp. i. 0. 1), to wonder at Jiothing is almost the sole and only thing 
that can make and keep one happy. 

851us es c&ius in victOrift ceciderit nSmO nisi armStus (Deiot. 34), you are the 
only man in whose mctory no one has fallen vmless armed. 


e. A clause of Kesult or Characteristic with qnam at, quani qui 

(rarely with quam alone), may be used after comparatives : — 

Canachl signa rigidlSra sant quam at imitentar veriUtem (Brut. 70), the statuea 
of Canachus are too stiff to represent nature (stiff er than that they should). 

maioxSs arbors caedebant quam quAs f erre miles posset (Liv. zxxiii. 5), they cid 
trees too large for a soldier to carry (larger than what a soldier could carry). 

NoTB. — This construction corresponds in sense to the English too . . . to, 

d» A relative clause of characteristic may express restriction or 

proviso (cf . § 528. h) : — 

quod sciam, so far as I know (lit. as to what I know). 

Cat5nis 5r3.ti5nes, quAs quidem invenerim (Brut. 65), the speeches of Cato, at 

least such as I have discovered, 
aervus est nSmG, qui modo toler&bill condiciOne sit servitGtis (Cat. iv. 16), 

there is not a slavey at least in any tolerable condition of slavery, 

e. A Relative Clause of Characteristic may express cause or conces- 
sion : — 

peccasse mihi videor qui 9. t£ discesserim (Fam. zvi. 1), I seem to myself to 

have done wrong because I have l^ you. [Causal.] 
virum simplicem qui n5s nihil cSIet (Or. 230), O guileless man, wha hides nothr 

ing from us I [Causal . ] 
egomet qui sSr5 GraecS^s litter^ attigissem, tamen complHrSs Atfa€nis dies 
sum commorfttus (De Or. i. 82), I myself, though I began Greek literature 
latCf yetj etc. (lit. [a man] who, etc.). [Concessive.] 

Note 1. — In this use the relative is equivalent to com is etc. It is often preceded 
by lit, utpote, or quippe : — 

nee cdnsul, at qnl id ipsum quaesisset, moram certamini fecit (Liv. zlii. 7), nor 
did the consul delay the fights since he had sought thai very thing (as [being 
one] who had sought, etc.). 
Lucius, frater Sins, ntpote qui peregrg depfignArit, familiam ducit (Phil. v. 30), 
LuciuSf his brother f leads his household, inasmtich as he is a man who has 
fought it out abroad. 
convivia cum patre nOn inibat, quippe qui ne in oppidum quidem nisi perraro 
veniret (Rose. Am. 52), he did not go to dinnerparties with his father, since 
he did not even come to town except very rarely. 
Note 2. — The Relative of Cause or Concession is merely a variety of the Charac- 
teristic construction. The quality expressed by the Subjunctive is connected with the 
action of the main verb either as cause on account of which (since) or as hindrance 
in ^Ue qf which (Ai.THonoH). 

/• Dignas, indignus, aptus, idOneus take a subjunctive clause with 
a relative (rarely ut). The negative is n5n : — 

digna in qnibus Slaborftient (Tusc. i. 1), (things) worth spending their toil on 

(worthy on which they should, etc.). 
dIgna res est uM tQ nerv^Vs intend&s tuOs (Ter. Eun. S12), the affair is worthy 
of your stretching your sinews (worthy wherein you should, etc.). 


idOneus qui impetret (Manil. 57), ftt to obtain, 

indignl at redimeremttr (Li v. xxii. 59. 17), unworthy to he ransomed. 

Note 1. — This construction is sometimes explained as a relative clause of purpose, 
but it is more closely related to characteristic. 

Note 2. — With dignus etc., the x)oets often use the Infinitive : — 
fOns rivO dare n6men id5neus (Hor. Ep. i. 16. 12), a source fit to give a name to a 

aetas mollis et apta re^^ (Ov. A. A. i. 10), a time of life soft and easy to he fftiided. 
vivere dignus eras (Ov. M. x. 633), you were worthy to live, 


536. The Subjunctive in Consecutive Clauses is a development of the use of that 
mood in Clauses of Characteristic (as explained in § 534). 

537. Clauses of Result take the Subjunctive introduced by ut, so 
that (negative, ut nOn), or by a relative pronoun or relative adverb. 

1. Pure Clauses of Result, with ut or ut nOn, express the result of 
the main verb in the form of a modifying clause : — 

tanta vis probit3.tis est ut earn in hoste dOigAmns (Lael. 29), so great is the 

power of goodness that we love it even in an enemy. 
pugnatur &criter ad novissimum agmen, ade5 ut paene terga convertant 

(B. C. i. 80), there is sharp fighting in the rear, so (to such a degree) that 

they almost tdkefiight. 
multa rumor adfingebat, ut paene bellum cOnfectum videretur (id. i. 63), 

rumor added many false reports, so that the war seemed almo^ ended. 

2, Relative Clauses of Result are introduced by the relative pro- 
noim qui or a relative adverb (ubi, unde, qu5, etc.). The antecedent is 
expressed or implied in the main clause. 

The Relative in this construction is equivalent to ut with the corre-' 
spending demonstrative : — qui = ut is (etc.), ubi = ut ibi, and so on : 

nam est iimocetitia affecti5 talis animi quae noceat nSminl (Tusc. iii. 16), for 

innocence is such a quality of mind as to do harm to no one, 
sunt aliae causae quae plane efficiant (Top. 59), there are other causes such as 

to hring to pass, 
nulla est celerit&s quae possit cum animi celerit&te contendere (Tosc. i. 43), 

there is no swiftness which can compare with the swiftness of the mind. 
quis nS,vigd,vit qui ndn s^ mortis periculO committeret (Manil. 31), wha went to 

sea who did not incur the peril of death f 

NoTB 1. — Since the relative clause of Result is a development from the relative 
clause of Characteristic (§ 534), no sharp line can be drawn between the two construc- 
tions. In doubtful cases, it is better to attempt no distinction or to describe the clause 
as one of Characteristic. 

Note 2. — Clauses of Result are often introduced by such correlative words as tam, 
t&lis, tanttts, ita, sic, aded, usque eo, which belong to the main clause. 

537,538] CLAUSES OF RESULT 347 

a. A Negative Eesult is introduced by ut nOn^ ut nSmO, qui nOn, etc., 
not by n6 : — 

multis gravibusque volneribus cOnfectus at iam se sustinere non posset (B. 6. 

ii. 25), tL8ed up with many severe wounds so that he could no longer stand. 
tanta Yl in Pomp^I equitSs impetum feoerunt ut eOrum nem5 cdnsisteret (B. C. 

iii. 93), they attacked Pompey''s cavalry with such vigor thai not one of 

them stood his ground. 
nSmO est tarn senez qni s^ annum non putet posse vlvere (Cat. M. 24), nobody 
is so old OS not to think that he can live a year. 

Note. — When the result implies an effect intended (not a simple purpose), ut nS 
or nS is sometimes used as being less positive than ut n5n : — pibrum] ita corrigas nS 
mihi nooeat (Caecina, Fam. yi. 7. 6), correct the book so that it may not hurt me, 

bm Frequently a clause of result or characteristic is used in a re- 
strictive sense, and so amounts to a Proviso (cf . § 535. d) : — 

h5c ita est titile at nS plftnG inlfld&mor ab accusd^tOribus (Rose. Am. 55), this 
is so far useful that we are not utterly mocked by the accusers (i.e. useful 
only on this condition, that, etc.). 

nihil autem est molestum qaod n5n dSsiderSs (Cat. M. 47), but nothing is 
troublesome which (= provided that) you do not miss. 

c. The clause of result is sometimes expressed in English by the 

Infinitive with to or so as to or an equivalent ; — 

tarn longg aberam ut nOn vid€rem, I was too far away to see (so far that I 
did not see ; cf. § 535. c). 

NoTB. — Result is never expressed by the Infinitive in Latin except by the poets in 
a few passages (§ 461. a). 

538. The constructions of Purpose and Result are precisely 

alike in the affirmative (except sometimes in tense sequence^ 

§ 485. c) ; but, in the negative^ Purpose takes n6, Result ut nOn 

etc. : — 

cust5d!tus est n5 effugeret. Tie wa^ guarded in order that he might nx)t escape, 
custodxtus est at non effugeret, he was guarded so that he did not escape. 

So in negative Purpose clauses nC quia, nS quid, n6 ullus, nS quO, nS 
quandS, nScubi, etc. are almost always used ; in negative Result clauses, 
ut nSm^, ut nihil, ut nullus, etc. : — 

(1) cernere ne qais eos, nea quis contingere posset (Aen. i. 413), that no one 

might see them, rio one touch them. [Purpose.] 
ne quando llberis prOscrlptOrum bona patria reddantur (Kosc. Am. 145), lest 

at some time the patrimony of the proscribed should be restored to their 

ipse ne quo inciderem, reverti FormiSs (Att. viii. 3. 7), that I might not come 

upon him anywhere, I returned to Formice. 

348 SYNTAX: CAUSAL CLAUSES [§§538-540 

diflpositis explOrfttOribuB nScttbi ROmftnl cOpUto trSdtLcerent (B. G. vil. 35) , 
haoing stationed acouta here and there in order that the Romans might 
not lead their troops across anywhere, 

(2) multl ita sunt iinbecilll sen6s at nfiUom offici munus exsequi possint (Cat. 
M. 35), many old men are sofedble thai they cannot perform any dvity to 
society. [Result.] 

qui Bummum bonum sic Instituit ut nihil habeat cum virtUte coniunctum 
(Off. i. 5), who has so settled the highest good thai it has nothing in com- 
mon with virtue. 

For clauses of Result or Characteristic with qoin, see § 559. For Substantive Clauses 
of Result, see §§ 567-571. 


539. Causal Clauses take either the Indicatiye or the Subjunctive, according to 
their construction ; the idea of caitse being contained, not in the mood itself, but in 
the form of the argument (by implication), in an antecedent of causal meaning (like 
proptere&), or in the connecting particles. 

Quod is in origin the relative pronoun (stem quo-) used adverbially in the accusative 
neuter (cf . § 214. <2) and gradually sinking to the position of a colorless relative con- 
junction (cf. English that and see § 222). Its use as a causal particle is an early 
special development. Quia is perhajMS an accusative plural neuter of the relative stem 
qui-, and seems to have developed its causal sense more distinctly than quod, and at 
an earlier period. It is used (very rarely) as an interrogative, why? {ao in classical 
Latin with nam only), and may, like quandS, have developed from an interrogative to 
a relative particle. 

Quoniam (for qaom iam) is also of relative origin (quom being a case-form of the 
pronominal stem quo-). It occurs in old Latin in the sense of when (cf. quom, cum), 
from which the causal meaning is derived (cf . com causal) . The Subjunctive with qnod 
and quia depends on the principle of Informal Indirect Discourse (§692). 

QoandS is probably the interrogative quam {how f) compounded with a form of the 
pronominal stem do- (cf . dam, d5-nec) . It originally denoted time (first interrogatively, 
then as a relative), and thus came to signify cause. Unlike quod and quia, it is not 
used to state a reason in informal indirect discourse and therefore is never followed 
by the Subjunctive. 

540. The Causal Particles qaod and quia take the Indicatiye, 
when the reason is given on the authority of the writer or 
speaker; the Subjunctive, when the reason is given on the 
authority of arwther : — 

1. Indicative : — 
cum tibi agam grflti&s quod mS vivere coSgisti (Att. ill. 8), when I may thaiOc 

you that you have forced vm to live, 
cfir igitur pacem h5l5 ? quia turpis est (Phil. vii. 9), why then do I not tnsh 

for peace f Because it is disgraceful. 
ita fit at adsint proptereS. quod officium sequuntur, taceant antem quia peri- 

cnlum vitant (Rose. Am. 1), so it Mppens that they attend because they 

follow duty^ but are silent because they seek to avoid danger. 


2. Subjunctive : — 

mihi grdtulabftre qaod aacQssSs m€ meam pristinam dignitfttem obtm^re 

(Fam. iv. 14. 1), you congraiulated me because [as you said] yoa had 

heard tfuU I had regained my former dignity, 
noctu ambulabat Tbemistocles quod somnuin capere n5ii posset (Tusc. iv. 44), 

Themistocles used to walk about at night because [as be said] he could not 

mea mftter Irftta est quia nOn xedienm (PI. Cist. 101), my mother is angry 

because I did n't return, 

NoTB 1. — Quod introduces either t^/act or a statement, ^nd accordingly takes either 
the Indicative or the Subjunctive. Quia regularly introduces a fact ; hence it rarely 
takes the Subjunctive. Qaoniam, inasmuch as, since, when now, now that, has refer- 
ence to motives, excuses, justifications, and the like and takes the Indicative. 

Note 2. — Under this head what the speaker himself thought under other circum- 
stances may have the Subjunctive (§592. 3. n.) : as, — ego laeta visa sum quia soror 
vSnisset (PI. Mil. 387), / seemed (in my dream) g^ad because my sister had come. 

So with quod even a verb of saying may be in the Subjunctive: as, — rediit quod 
se oblitum nesciO quid diceret (Off. i. 40), ^ returned because he said he had forgotten 

Note 3. — N5n quod, n5n quia, n5n qu5, introducing a reason expressly to deny it, take 
the Subjunctive ; but the Indicative sometimes occurs when the statement is in itself 
true, though not the true reason. In the negative, non quin (with the Subjunctive) 
may be used in nearly the same sense as n5n quod non. After a comparative, quam 
qu5 or quam quod is used : — 

pngiles ingemescunt, n5n quod doleant, sed quia profundenda vOce omne corpus 

intenditur (Tusc. ii. 66), boxers groan, not because they are in pain, but 

because by giving vent to the voice Vie whole body is put in a state of 


ndn quia recUor ad Alpis via esset, sed credens (Li v. xxi. 31. 2), not becauee the 

route to the Alps was more direct, but believing, etc. 
n5n quin pari virtute et voluntate alii fuerint, sed tantam cansam nOn habuerunt 
(Phil. vii. 6), not that there were not others of equal courage and good-ioill, 
btU they had not so strong a reason. 
haec amdre magis impulsns scribenda ad te putavi, quam qu5 te arbitrtrer monids 
et praeceptis egere (Fam. x. 3. 4), this I thought I ought to write to you, 
rather from the impulse of (prompted by) affection than because I thought 
that you needed advice and suggestion. 

a. Quoniam and quandS, stnee, introduce a reason given on the 
authority of the writer or speaker^ and take the Indicative : — 

locus est & m6, quoniam ita Murena volnit, retr^tandus (Mur. 64), I must 

review the point, since Murena has so wished. 
qoandS ita vis. dl bene vortant (PI. Trin. 673), sinee you so wish, may the 

gods bless the undertaking. 
qoandS ad m&iOra nftli sumus (Fin. v. 21), since we are bom for greater things. 

Note. — The Subjunctive with quoniam is unclassical. Quand5, since, in the causal 
sense, is mostly archaic or late. Quandd, when, is used as interrogative, relatiye, and 
indefinite: as, — quaadS? hodif, when? to-day; n quandd, if ever. 


b. Causal clauses introduced by quod, quia, quoniam, and quando 
take the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse, like any other dependent 
clause (see § 580). 

c. A Relative, when used to express causey regularly takes the Sub- 
junctive (see § 535. e). 

d. Cum causal takes the Subjunctive (see § 549). 

For Substantive Clauses with quod, see § 572. 


541. Temporal Clauses are introduced by particles which are almost all of rela- 
tive origin. They are construed like other relative clauses, except where they have 
developed into special idiomatic constructions. ^ 

For list of Temporal Particles, see p. 138. 

Temporal Clauses may be classified as follows : — 

I. Conditional Relative Clauses : ubi, at, cam, quando, in Protasis (§ 542) . 
II. Clauses with postquam, ubi, etc. (Indicative), (§ 543). 

III. Clauses with cum ( J- ?™ t«"'P°,«'l «§ 54{W48) . 

I 2. Cum causal or concessive (§ 549). 

IV. Clauses with antequam and priusquam (Indicative or Subjunctive) (§551). 
v. Clauses with dum, donee, and quoad (Indicative or Subjunctive) (§§ 552-556). 

Conditional Relative Clauses 

542. The particles ubi, ut, cum, quando, either alone or com- 
pounded with -cumque, may be used as Indefinite Relatives (in the 
sense of whenever)^ and have the constructions of Protasis (cf. 
§514): — 

cum id malum neg&s esse, capior (Tusc. ii. 29), wJienever you (the indi- 
vidual disputant) deny it to be an evil, I am misled. [Present general 

quod profectO cum me nulla vis cogeret, facere n5n auderem (Phil. v. 61), 
which I would surely Twt venture to do^ a^s long as no force compelled me. 
[Present, contrary to fact: cf. § 517.] 

cum videas e5s dol5re non frangi, d€beas existlmare, etc. (Tusc. ii. 66), when 
you see that those are not broken by pain^ you ought to infer ^ etc. [Pres- 
ent general condition : cf. § 518. a.] 

com rosam viderat, turn incipere ver arbitrabatur (Verr. v. 27), whenever he saw 
a rose he thought spring had begun. [Past general condition : cf . § 518. 6.] 

id ubi dixisset, bastam in finis e5rum €mittebat (Liv. 1. 32. 13), when he had 
said this, he would cast the spear into their territories. [Past General 
Condition, repeated action : see § 618. c] 

1 Witb all temporal particles the Subjunctive is often found depending on some 
other principle of construction. (See Intermediate Clauses, § 591.) 

§ 543] POSTQUAM, UBI, ETC. 351 

Temporal Clauses with pasiquam ubh etc. 

543. The particles postquam (poste&quam), ubi, ut (ut primum, ut 
semel), simul atque (simul ac, or simul alone), take the Indicative 
(usually in the perfect or the historical preserU) : — 

inilit€8 postqaam yictCriam adepti sunt, nihil reliqui yictis fScSre (Sail. Cat. 11), 

when the soldiers had won the victory^ they l^ nothing to the vanquished, 
posteSquam forum attigisti, nihil fecisti nisi, etc. (Fam. xy. 16. 3), sin^e you 

came to the forum, you have done nothing except, etc. 
ttbi omnis idem sentire intellezit, posterum diem ptLgnae cOnstituit (B. 6. 

iii. 23), when he understood that all a^greed (thought the same thing), he 

appointed the next day for the battle, 
Catilina, ubi eOs cony Suisse yidet, sScSdit (Sail. Cat. 20), when Catiline sees 

that they have come together, he retires. 
Pomp§ius ut equitatum suum pulsum yidit, aci6 excessit (B. C. iii. 94), when 

Pompey saw his cavalry beaten, he l^t the field, 
Qt semel 6 FlraeeO eloquentia §yecta est (Brut. 51), as soon as eloquence had 

set sail from the Piraeus, 
nostri simul in aridO c5nstit§runt, in hostis impetum f€c6runt (B. G. iy. 26), 

our men, as soon as they had taken a position on dry ground, made an 

attack on the enemy. 
simul atque introductns est, rem c5nf6cit (Clu. 40), as soon as he was brought 

in, he did the job, 

a* These particles less commonly take the Imperfect or Pluperfect 
Indicative. The Imperfect denotes a past state of things ; the Plu- 
perfect, an action completed in past time : — 

postquam structi utrimque stAbant, duces in medium prOc€dunt (Liy. i. 

23), wh^n they stood in array on both sides, the generals advance into 

the midst, 
P. Africauus posteaqnam bis cOnsul et censor fuerat (Caecil. 69), when Afri- 

canus had been (Le. had the dignity of haying been) twice consul and 

postquam id difficilius ylsnm est, neque f acultas perficiendi dabatur, ad Pom- 

p^ium trS,nsi€runt (B. C. iii. 60), when this seemed too hard, and no means 

of effecting it were given, they passed over to Pompey, 
post diem quintum qnam iterum barbari male pugnftyerapt [= yicti sunt], 

legatl 9. Bocch(^ yeniunt (lug. 102), the fifth day after the barbarians were 

beaten the second time, envoys come from Bacchus, 
haec iuyentHtem, ubi famili9.r€s opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant 

(Sail. Cat. 13), when their inherited resources had given out, etc. 
ubi pericula yirt^te piopulerant (id. 6), when they had dispelled the dangers by 

their valor, 

YoT the use of ubi, ut, either alone or compounded with -ctunqae, as Indefinite Rela- 
tiyes, see § 642. 

352 syntax : temporal clauses [f § 544, 646 

Uses of Cum 

544. The conjunction cum (quom) is a case-form of the relative pronoun qui. It 
inherits from qui its subordinating force, and in general shares its coDStnictiiiiis. 
But it was early specialized to a temporal meaning (cf . torn, dam) , and its range of usage 
was therefore less wide than that of qui ; it could not, for examplci introduce clauses 
of purpose or of result. 

With the Indicative, besides the simple expression of definite time (corre^wnding to 
simple relative clauses with the Indicative), it has a few special uses, — conditional, 
explicative, com irmtrswn — all easily derived from the temporal use. 

With the Subjunctive, cum had a development parallel to that of the qul-clause of 
< 'liaracteristic, — a development not less extensive and equally peculiar to Latin. 
From ^Lf^rAng the time the cam-clause passed over to the description of the time by 
means of its attendant circumstances of cause or concession (cf. since, whiie). 

In particular, cam with the Subjunctive was used in narrative (hence the past 
tenses. Imperfect and Pluperfect) as a descriptive clause of time. As, however, the 
present participle in Latin is restricted in its use and the perfect active participle is 
almost wholly lacking, the historical or narrative cam-clause came into extensive use 
to supply the deficiency. In classical writers the narrative cam-clause (with the Sub- 
junctive) has pushed back the defining clause (with the Imperfect or Pluperfect Indica- 
tive) into comparative infrequency, and is itself freely used where the descriptive or 
characterizing force is scarcely perceptible (cf . the qal-clause of Characteristic, § S34). 

Cum Temporal 

545. A temporal clause with cum, wheit, and some past tense of 
the Indicative dates or defines the time at which the action of the 
main verb occurred : — 

eO [lituO] regiOnSs dlrSxlt turn cum urbem condidit (Div. i. 30), ^ tmced vnih 

it the quarters [of the sky] aJb the time he founded the city, 
cum occiditur Sex. ROscius, ibidem fuSrunt servl (Rose. Am. 120), when 

Boscius was slain, the slaves were on the spot, [occiditur is historical 

quem quidem cum ex urbe peUSbam, hOc pr5vid6bam animO (Cat. iii. 16), 

wJien I was trying to force him (conative imperfect) from the city, I 

looked forward to this. 
fulgentis gladiOs hostium videbant Decil cum in aciem eOnim inruebant (Tusc. 

ii. 59), the Decii saw the flashing swords of the enemy when they rushed 

upon theif line. 
tum cum in Asia rgs magnSs permultl Amiserant (Manil. 19), at that time, 

when many had lost great fortunes in Asia. 

Note 1. — This is the regular use with all tenses in early Latin, and at all times 
with the Perfect and the Historical Present (as with postqaam etc.). With the Imper- 
fect and Pluperfect the Indicative use is (in classical Latin) much less common than 
the Subjunctive use defined below (§546). 

NoTB 2. — This construction must not be confused with that of com, whenever , in 
General Conditions (§ 542). 

§ 545, 546] CUM TEMPORAL 358 

M. When the time of the main clause and that of the temporal 

clause are absolutely identieal, cum takes the Indicatiye in the same 

tense as that of the main verb : — 

maxima, sum laetitift adfectus cum audi^ cOnsulem t8 factum esse (Faui. 
XY. 7), 1 loas very mtich pleased when I heard that you had been elected 

546. A temporal clause with cum and the Imperfect or Pluper- 
fect Subjunctive describes the circumstances that accompanied or 
preceded the action of the main verb: — 

com essem OtiOsus in TusculftnG, accSpi taSs litterSs (Fam. ix. 18. 1), when I 

tocM taking my ease in my house at Tusculum, I received your letter. 
cum servlli bellS premerStor (Manil. 30), when she (Italy) was under the load 

of the Servile War, 
com id nantiJLtam esset, mStOrat (B. G. i. 7), when this had been reported^ he 

made (makes) haste, 
cum ad Cybistra quinque dies essem moratus, r6gem Ariobarz&nem Insidils 

liberd.yi (Fam. xv. 4. 6), after remaining at Cybistra for five days, I freed 

King Arioba;rzanes from plots. 
is cam ad me LftodicSam vSnisset mScumque ego eum vellem, repente per- 

CUS8US est atrOcissimIs litterls (id. ix. 25. 3), w?ien he had come to me at 

Laodicea and I withed him to remain with me, he was suddenly, etc. 

NoTB 1. — This coostmction is very common in narratiye, and cum in this use is often 
called narrative cam. 

Note 2. — Cum with the Imperfect or Pluperfect Indicative does not (like cam with 
the Imperfect or Pluperfect Subjunctive) describe the time by its circumstances; it 
defines the time of the main verb by denoting a coexistent state of things (Imperfect 
Indicative) or a result attained when the action of the main verb took place (Pluper- 
fect). Thus the construction is precisely that of postqnam etc. (§ 543. a). 

Note 3. — The distinction between the uses defined in §§545, 546, may be illustrated 
by the following; examples: (1) He had a fever when he was in Spain (Shakspere). 
Here the to^en-clause defines ike time when Gsesar had the fever, — namely, in the year 
of his Spanish campai^ (B.C. 49). In Latin we should use cum with the Imperfect 
Indicative. (2) Columbus discovered America tohen he was seeking a new route to 
India; here the to/ien-clause does not define or date the time of the discovery; it 
merely describes the circumstances under which America was discovered, — namely, 
in the course of a voyage undertaken for another purpose. In Latin we should use the 
Imperfect Subjunctive. 

Note 4. — The distinction explained in Note 3 is unknown to early Latin. In 
Plautus quom always has the Indicative unless the Subjunctive is required for some 
other reason. 

a. When the principal action is expressed in the form of a tem- 
poral clause with cum, and the definition of the time becomes the 
main clause, com takes the Indicative. 

Here the logical relations of the two clauses are invertied ; hence 
cum is in this use called cum inversum : — 


di€s nOndum decern intercesserant, cam ille alter filius Infftns nec&tar (Clu. 

28), ten days had not yet passed, when the other infard son was killed. 

[Instead of when ten days had not yet passed, etc.] 
iamque ItLx app&rSbat cum prdcedit ad inllit^ (Q. C. vii. 8. 3), and day wa» 

already dawning when he appears hefofre the soldiers. 
hOc facere noctH appar&bant, cum mfttrSs familiae repente in publicum prd- 

corrSrunt (B. G. vii. 26), they were preparing to do this by night, when the 

women suddenly ran ovt into the streets, 

547. Present time with cum temporal is denoted by the Pres- 
ent Indicative ; future time, by the Future or Future Perfect 
Indicative : — 

incidunt tempora, cum ea, quae maxima videntur digna esse iQst5 homine, 
fiunt contrftria (Off. i. 31), times occur when those things which seem 
especially worthy of the upright man, become the opposite. 

nOn dubit&bO dare operam ut te videam, cum id satis commode facere poteio 
(Fam. xiii. 1), I shaU not hesitate to take pains to see you, when I can do 
it conveniently, 

longum illud tempus cum nOn ero (Att. xii. 18), that long time when I shall 
be no more. 

cum ySneris, cOgnOscSs (Fam. y. 7. 3), when you com£ (shall have come), 
you will find out. 

548. Cum, whenever, takes the construction of a relative clause 
in a general condition (see § 542). 

For present time, either the Present or the Perfect Indicative is 
used ; for past time, regularly the Pluperfect Indicative. 

For est cum etc., see § 535. a. v. '. 

Qitn Causal or Concessive 

549. Cum causal or concessive takes the Subjunctive : — 

id difBcile ndn est, cum tantum equitd,tu yale&mus (B. C. iii. 86), this is not 
difficult since we are so strong in cavalry, [Causal.] 

cum sOlitudO Insidiftrum et mettis pl6na sit, ratio ipsa monet amiciti&s com- 
par9,re (Fin. i. 66), since solitude is full of treachery and fear, reason it- 
self prompts us to contract friendships, [Causal.] 

cum prim! 5rdinSs concidissent, tamen ftcerrimS reliqui resist^bant (B. G. 
vii. 62), though the first ranks had fallen, still the others resisted mgor- 
ously. [Concessive.] 

brevi spatiO Iegi5n6s numero hominum expl6verat, cum initio nOn amplius 
duobus milibus habuisset (Sail. Cat. 66), in a short time he had filled 
out the legions with their complement of men, though at the start he had 
not had more than two thousand, [Concessive.] 

§§ 549-651] ANTEQUAM AND PRIU8QUAM 356 

Cum causal may usually be translated by since; cum concessiye by 
although or while; either, occasionally, by when. 

Note 1. — Cum in these uses is often emphasized by ut, utpote, quippe, praesertim: 
as, — nee reprehendO: qnippe cum ipse istam reprehensiOnem nOn fuserim (Att. x.3a), 
I find nofavlt ; since I myself did not escape that blame. 

Note 2. — These causal and concessive uses of cum are of relative origin and are 
parallel to qui causal and concessive (§535. e). The attendant circumstances are re- 
garded as the cavLse of the action, or as tending to hinder it. 

Note 8. — In early Latin cum (quom) causal and concessive usually takes the Indic- 
ative: as, — quom tua res distrahitur, utinam videam (PI. Trin. 617), since your prop- 
erty is being torn in pieces, that I may see, etc. 

a* Cum with the Indicative frequently introduces an explanatory 
statement, and is sometimes equivalent to quod, on the ground that: — 

cam tacent, cl&mant (Cat. i. 21), when they are silent^ they cry out (i.e. their 
silence is an emphatic expression of their sentiments). 

gr&tulor tibi cam tantum vales apud Dolabellam (Fam. ix. 14. 3), I congraiw- 
Idle you that you are so strong with DolaJbdla. 

Note. — This is merely a special use of cum temporal expressing coincident time 
(§545. a). 

b* Cum . . . turn, signifying both . . . and, usually takes the Indica- 
tive ; but when cum approaches the sense of while or though, the Sub- 
junctive is used (§ 549) : — 

cam multa nOn probd, tam illad in primis (Fin. i. 18), while there are many 
things I do not approve^ there is this in chiefs [Indicative.] 

com difficile est, tam nS aequum quidem (Lael. 26), not only is it difficult 
but even unjust. 

cam res t5ta Acta sit pueriliter, tum nS efficit quidem quod vult (Fin. i. 19), 
while the whole thing is childishly got up, he does not even make his point 
(accomplish what he wishes). [Subjunctive ; approaching cum causal.] 

Aftfequam and Priusquam 

550. Anteq^m and priusquam, before, introduce Glauses of Time which resemble 
those with cum temporal in their constructions. Priusquam consists of two parts (often 
written separately and sometimes separated by other words), the comparative adverb 
prlus, sooner (before), which really modifies the main verb, and the relative particle 
quam, than, which introduces the subordinate clause. The latter is therefore a rela- 
tive clause, and takes the Indicative or the Subjunctive (like other relative clauses) 
according to Uie sense intended. The Subjunctive with priusquam is related to that of 
purpose (§ 529) and is sometimes called the Anticipatory or Prospective Subjunctive. 
Antequam, like priusquam, consists of two words, the first of which is the adverb ante, 
before, modifying the main verb. Its constructions are the same as those of priusquam, 
but the latter is commoner in classic prose. 

551. Antequam and priusquam take sometimes the Indicative 
sometimes the Subjunctive. 


a. With antequam or priusqoam the Perfect Indicative states a 
fact in past time: — 

antequam tuas l§gi litteras, hominem Ire copiebam (Att. ii. 7. 2), brfore I 

read your letter, I wisJved the man to go. 
neque ante dimisit earn quam fidem dedit adulSscens (Liv. xxxix. 10), ami 

she did not let the young man go till he pledged hia faith. 
neque prius fugere dgs titer unt quam ad fldmen perveneront (B. 6. i. 53), mr 

did they stop running until they rea/ihed the river. 

Note. — The Perfect Indicative in this construction is regolar when the main 
clause is negative and the main verb is in an historical tense. The Imperfect Indicative 
ia rare ; the Pluperfect Indicative, very rare. The Perfect Subjunctive is rare and 
ante-dassicaly except in Indirect Discourse. 

&• With antequam or priusquam the Imperfect Subjunctive is com- 
mon when the subordinate verb implies purpose or expectancy in past 
time, or when the action that it denotes did not take place : — 

ante pugnS^ri coeptum est quam satis instrueietur acies (Liv. xxii. 4. 7), the 
fight was begun h^ore the line could he properbj formed. 

priusquam tu suum sibi venderes, ipse possSdit (Phil. ii. 96), before you cotdd 
sell him his own property, he took possession of it himself, 

piiasqoam tglum abici posset aut noetri propius accedeient, omnis YSri acies 
terga vertit (B. C. ii. 34), before a weapon could be thrown or our men 
approached nearer, the whole line about Varus tookfliglit. 

Note 1. — The Pluperfect Subjunctive is rare, except in Indirect Discourse by se- 
quence of tenses for the Future Perfect Indicative (§ 484. c): as, — antequam homines 
nefarii de med adventu audire potuissent, in Macedoniam perrexi (Plane. 98), before 
those evU men could learn of my coming, I arrived in Macedonia. 

Note 2. — After an historical present the Present Subjunctive is used instead of the 
Imperfect: as, — neque ab eo prius Domitiani milites discedunt quam in oonspectum 
Oaesaris dSducitur (B. C. i. 22), and the soldiers of Domitius did (do) ruot leave him 
until he was (is) conducted into Csesar's presence. So, rarely, the Perfect Subjunctive 
(as B. G. iii. 18). 

e. Antequam and priusquam, when referring to future time, taJ^e the 
Present or Future Perfect Indicative ; rarely the Present Subjunctive: 

priusquam d6 ceteris r€bus responded, dS amIcitiS pauca dicam (Phil. ii. 3), 
b^ore I reply to the rest, I will say a little about friendship. 

nOn defatigabor antequam ill5rum ancipites vias perceper5 (De Or. iii. 145), 
I shall not weary tUl I have traced out their doubtful ways. 

antequam yeniat litter^ mittet (Leg. Agr. ii. 53), befofre he comss, fie loill send 
a letter. 

NoTB 1. — The Future Indicative is very rare. 

Note 2. — In a few cases the Subjunctive of present general condition is found with 
antequam and priusquam (cf. §518. a): as, — in omnibus negotiis priusquam aggrediaie, 
adhibenda est praeparatio diligent (Off. i. 73), in all undertakings, before you proceed 
to action, careful preparation must be used. 

§f 562-664] DlTJf, DONEC, AND QUOAD 857 

DuiHt Dihtec, and Quoad 

552. As an adverb meaning/or a time, awhiie, dun is fonnd in old lAtin, chiefly 
as an enclitic (cf. vixdnm, ndndum). Its use as a conjunction comes either through 
conelatioii (cf. cum . . . tun, ai . . . sic) or through substitution for a conjunction, as 
in the English the moment I saw it, I understood. Quoad is a compound of the rela- 
tive qu5, up to which point, with ad. The origin and early history of ddaec are unknown . 

553. Dam and quoad, until^ take the Present or Imperfect Sub- 
junctive in temporal clauses implying intention or expectancy : — 

exspectas fortasse dam dicat (Tusc. ii. 17), y(m are waiting perhaps for him 
to say (until he say). [Dum is especially common after ezspectd.] 

dum reliquae nS.v€8 convemrent, ad hOram nOnam exspect&vit (B. G. iv. 23), 
he waited till the ninth hour for the rest qf the ships to Join him. 

comitia diiata [sunt] dum lex ferrStur (Att. iv. 17. 3), Vie election was post- 
poned wnlU a law should he passed. 

an id ez8X>ectamu8, quoad ne vestigium quidem Asiae civitatum atque urbium 
lelinquatur (Phil. xi. 25), shall we wait for this until not a trace is Itft of 
the states arid cities of Asia f 

EpaminOnd&s exercebd,tar pliirimum luctand5 ad eum finem quoad stS.ns 
complecti posset atque contendere (Nep. Epam. 2), Mpaminondas trained 
himseHfin wrestling so far as to he able (until he should be able) to grapple 
standing andjight (in that way). 

Note 1. — D5nec is similarly used in poetry and later Latin: as, — et duxit longe 
donee curvata coirent inter se capita (Aen. xi* 860), and drew it (the bow) until the 
curved tips touched each other. 

NoTJB 2. — Dun, until, may be used with the Present or Future Perfect Indicative 
to state a future fact when there is no idea of intention or expectancy; but this con- 
struction is rare in classic prose. The Future is also found in early Latin . D5nec, until j 
is similarly used, in poetry and early Latin, with the Present and Future Perfect Indica- 
tive, rarely with the Future : — 

ego in ArcanO opperior dum ista cOgnoscd (Att. x. 3), I am. waiting in the villa at 

Arcm until I find this out. [This is really dum, while.'\ 
mihi iisque curae erit quid agas, dam quid egeris scierd (Fam. xii. 19. 3), / shall 
always feel anxious as to what you are doing, until I actually know (shall 
have known) what you have done. 
delicta mftiOrum lues donee templa refSeeris (Hor. Od. ill. 6. 1), you shall suffer for 

the sins of your ancestors until you rehuild the temples. 
ter centum regnabitur annos, donee geminam partu dabit Ilia prOlem (Aen. i. 272), 
sway shall he hddfor thrice a hundred years, until Ilia shall give hirth to 
twin offspring, 

554. DOnec and quoad, until^ with the Perfect Indicative denote 

an actual fact in past time : — 

dSnec rediit silentium fuit (Liv. xxiii. 31. 9), there was silence until he returned. 
Iisque eO timni ddnec ad r§iciendOs iudicSs vSnimus (Verr. ii. 1. 17), I was 

anxious until the moment when we came to challenge the jurors. 
ROmae fuSrunt quoad L. Metellos in prGvinciam profectus est (id. IL 62), 

they remained at Rome until Lucius Metellus set ovtfor the province. 


NoTB. — Dun, untU, with the Perfect Indicative is rare: as, — mansit in oondi- 
cidne usque ad eum finem dam iudices r£iecti sunt (Yerr. i. 16), ?ie remained true to the 
agreement until the Jurors were challenged, 

555. Dum, dOnec, and quoad, a8 long as^ take the Indicative : — 

dam anima est, spSs esse dlcitur (Att. ix. 10. 3), as long as there is life, there 

is said to he hope. 
dam praesidia tllla fuerant, in Sullae praesidils fuit (Rose. Am. 126), so long 

as there were any garrisons, he was in the garrisons of Sulla. 
dam longius & munltiOne aberant Galll, plus multitudine telQrum prOficiebant 

(B. G. vii. 82), so long as the Gauls were at a distance from thefortificar 

tions, they had the advantage because of their missiles. 
ddnec gratus eram tibi, Persarum vigui r€ge be9,tior (Hor. Od. iii. 9. 1), cw 

long OS I enjoyed thy favor, I flourished happier than the king of Vie 

quoad potuit fortissimo restitit (B. G. iv. 12), he resisted bravely as long as 

he could. 

Note 1. — Donee in this use is confined to poetry and later writers. 

Note 2. — Quam diu, as long as, takes the Indicative only : as, — se oppid6 tarn diu 
tenuit quam diu in prOvincia Parthi fuSnint (Fam. xii. 19. 2), he kept himself within t?ie 
town as long as the Parthians were in the province. 

556. Dum, whilcy regularly takes the Present Indicative to de- 
note continued action in past time. 

In translating, the English Imperfect must generally be used : — 

dam haec geruntur, Caesarl nuntifttum est (B. G. i. 46), while this vxis going 

on, a message was brought to Coesar. 
haec dam aguntur, intered. Cleomenes iam ad El5ri litus pervenerat (Verr. v. 

91), while this was going on, Cleomenes meanwhile had come down to ike 

coast at Elorum. 
h5c dum narrat, forte audlvl (Ter. Haut. 272), I happened to hear this whUe 

she was telling it. 

Note. — This construction is a special use of the Historical Present (§ 469). 

a. A past tense with dum (usually so long as) makes the time em- 
phatic by contrast ; but a few irregular cases of dum with a past tense 
occur where no contrast is intended : 

nee enim dum eram vObiscum, animum meum yidOb&tis (Cat. M. 79), for 
while I was with you, you could vx)t see my soul. [Here the time when 
he was alive is contrasted with that after his death.] 
. coorta est pugna, par dum constabant Ordin€s (Li v. xxii. 47), a cor\flict begatu 
well matched as long as the ranks stood firm. 

But, — dum oculds hostium certSmen averterat (id. xxzii. 24), while tk 
struggle kept the eyes of the enemy turned away. 

dam unum adscendere gradum con&tus est, vSnit in x)ericulain (Mar. 55), 
whUe he attempted to climb one step [in rank] he fell into danger. 


Note. — In later writers, dun sometimes takes the Subjunctive when the classical 
usage would require the Indicat\ve, and d5nec, untU, is freely used in this manner 
(especially by Tacitus) : — 

dum ea in SamniO gcrerentur, in Etruria interim bellum ingens concitur (Liv. x. 
18), while this was being done in Samniunif meanwhile a great war was 
stirred up in Etruria. 
ilia quidem dum te fugeret, hydrum nOn vidit (Georg. iv. 457), while she was fleeing 

from you sh£ did not see the serpent. 
dum per ^cos dSport&rStur, condormiebat (Suet. Aug. 78), while he was being car- 
ried through the streets he used to fall dead asleep. 
Rhenus servat ndmen et violentiam cursus (qua Germaniam praevehitur) donee 
OceanO misceatur (Tac. Ann. ii. 6), the Rliine keeps its name and rapid course 
(where it borders Germany) until it mingles with the ocean. 
temporibusque August! dicendis nOn defucre decOra ingenia d5nec gliscente adu- 
latiOne dSterrSrentnr (id. i. 1), for describing the times of Augustus there 
was no lack of talent until it was frightened away by the increasing servility 
of the age. 
For dum, provided that, see § 528. 

Clauses with QuTx and QuOminus 

657. The original meaning of quin is how not? why not? (qui-ng), and when 
used with the Indicative or (rarely) with the Subjunctive it regularly implies a general 
negative. Thus, quin ego hoc rogem? why shouldn't I ask this? implies that there is 
no reason for not asking. The implied negative was then expressed in a main clause, 
like nulla causa est or fieri non potest. Hence come the various dependent construc- 
tions introduced by quin. 

Qttominus is really a phrase (qu5 minus), and the dependent constructions which it 
introduces have their origin in the relative clause of purpose with quo and a com- 
parative (see § 531. a). 

558. A subjunctive clause with quin is used after verbs and 
other expressions of hindering^ resisting^ refusing^ doubting^ de- 
laying., and the like, when these are negatived^ either expressly or 
by implication : — 

n5n h€Lm3Jia tllla neque divina obstant quin sociOs am!c5s trahant exscindant 

(Sail. Ep. Mith. 17), no human or divine laws prevent them from taking 

captive and exterminaiing th^ir friendly allies. 
at ne Sues8i5nes quidem deterrgre potuerint qum cum his cdnsentlrent (B. G. 

ii. 3), that they were unable to hinder even the SuessUmes from making 

common cause with them. 
n5n posse militCs continSri quin in urbem inramperent (B. C. ii. 12), that the 

soldiers could not be restrained from bursting into the city. 
nOn recfisat qum iudicSs (Deiot. 48), he does not object to your judging. 
neque recus&re qum armis contendant (B. G. iv. 7), and that they did not 

refuse to fight. 
praeterire nOn potiu qmn scxiberem ad te (Caesar ap. Cic. Att. iz. 6 a), J could 

not neglect to write to you. 


Trfiverl totlos hiemis nHUnin tempus intennlBfiniiit qoin iSg&tOB mitttfeiit 

(B. G. V. 65), the Treoen let no part ofkhe wivier pass without sending 

ambaasadora, [Cf. B. G. v. 63; B. C. i. 78.] 
nOn ctiiictandum exlstimavit quin ptign& dScertflret (B. G. iii. 23), he thought 

he ought not to delay risking a decisive battle, 
paulum 9iuit quin Varum intezficeret (B. C. ii. 36), he Just missed killing 

Varus (it lacked little but that he should kill). 
Deque multum ftfuit quin castrls ezpellerentor (id. 11. 36), they caane near being 

driven out of the camp. 
facere nOn possum qain cotldie ad te mittam (Att. xU. 27. 2), I cannot help 

sending to you every day. 
fieri nullO modO poterat quin CleomenI parcerStor (Yerr. v. 104), it was out 

of the question that Cleomenes should not be spared. 
ut effici nOn possit quin e5s odezim (Phil. zi. 36), so that nothing can prevent 

my hating them. 

a. Quin is especially common with n0n dubitO, 1 do not doubt , n5n 
est dubium, there is no dovht, and similar expressions : — 

nOn dubitabat qain el crederSmua (Att. vi. 2. 3), Ae did not doubt- that ire 
believed him. 

illud cave dubites qoin ego omnia faciam (Fam. y. 20. 6), do not doubt that 
I will do aU. 

qnis ignOrat quin tria Graec5rum genera sint (Flacc. 64), who is ignorant 
that there are three races of Greeks f 

nOn erat dubium quin HelvStii plurimum possent (cf. B. G. 1. 3), there was iw 
doidft that the Helvetians were most powerful. 

neque Caesarem f ef ellit quin ab lis cohortibus initlum victOriae ariretur (B. C. 
ill. 04), and it did not escape Ccesar^s notice that the beginnirig of the vic- 
tory came from those cohorts. 

Note 1. — Dubito without a negative is regularly followed by an Indirect Ques- 
tion ; so sometimes non dubit5 and the like : — 

nOn nulli dubitant an per Sardiniam veniat (Fam. Ix. 7), some doubt wheUier be 

is coming through Sardinia. 
dubitate, si potestis, a quS sit Sex. R5scius oocisas (Rose. Am. 78), dotibty if yon 

can, by wfiom Sextus Roscius was murdered. 
dubitabam tu has ipsas litteras essSsne accepturus (Att. xy<9), I doubt tchether 

you will receive this very letter. [Epistolary Imperfect (§ 479).] 
qo&lis sit futurus, ne vOs quidem dubitatis (B. C. ii. 32), and what it (the outcome) 

will be, you youradves do not doubt. 
nOn dabit5 quid sentiant (Fam. xv. 0), / do not doubt what they think. 
dubium ill! non erat quid fnturam esset (id. viii. 8. 1),U w<is not doubtful to him 

what was going to happen. 
Note 2. — Non dubitd in the sense of / do not hesitate commonly takes the Infini- 
tive, but sometimes quin with the Subjunctive : — 

nee dubitare ilium appell&re sapientem (Lael. 1) , and not to hesitate to call him a sage. 
dubitandum ndn exlstimavit quin proflctscerCtar (B. G. ii. 2), he did not think hf 

ought to hesitate to set out. 
quid dubitfts utl temporis opporttinitate (B. C. ii. 34), why do you hesitate to take 

advantage of the favorable moment ? [A question implying a negative.] 

§§ 668, 660] CLAUSES WITH QUiN AND QUOlilNUS 361 

bm Verbs of hindering and refusing often take the subjunctive with 
nS or quOminus (= ut eO minus), especially when the verb is not nega- 
tived : — 

plura nfi dicam tuae m6 lacrimae impediunt (Plane. 104), your tears prevent 

me from speaking further. 
nee aetas impedit qudminas agri colendl studia teneftmus (Cat. M. 60), nor 

does age prevent us from retaining an interest in tillVng the soil 
nihU impedit qudminus id faeere possimus (Fin. i. 83), nothing hinders u>s 

from being able to do that. 
obstitisti n5 transire eOpiae possent (Verr. v. 5), you opposed the passage of 

the troops (opposed lest the troops should cross). 

NoTB. — Some verbs of hindering may take the Infinitiye : — 
nihil obest dicere (Fam. ix. 13. 4), there is nothing to prevent my saying it. 
prohibet acoSdere (Caec. 46), prevents him from approaching, 

559. A clause of Result or Characteristic may be introduced by 
quin after a general negative, where quin is equivalent to qui (quae, 
quod) noa: — 

1. Clauses of Result : — 

n^md est tarn fortis quin [= qu! nOn] rel novit&te pertoxbetnr (B. G. vi. 39), 
no one is so brave as not to be disturbed by the unexpected occurrence. 

n€mO erat adeO tardus quin patAret (B. C. i. 69), no one was so slothful as n>ot 
to think, etc. 

quis est tarn d6m€ns qain sentiat (Balb. 43), who is so senseless as not to 
think, etc.? 

nil tam difficilest qain quaerendO investlgftrl possiet (Ter. Haut. 676), tith- 
ing ^s so hard but search will find it out (Herrick). 

2. Clauses of Characteristic ; — 

n6m0 nostrum est quin [ = qui nOn] sciat (Rose. Am. 66), there is no one of 

us whjo does not know. 
nSmO fait mllitum qain YalneraxStor (B. C. iii. 68), t?iere was not one of the 

soldiers who was not wounded. 
ecquis fuit qoin lacrimaret (Verr. v. 121), was there any one who did not shed 

quis est qain inteUegat (Fin. v. 64), who is there who does not understand f 
hOrum nihil est qain [ = quod n5n] intereat (N. D. iii. 80), there is none of 

these (elements) which does not perish. 
nihil est ill5rum qain [ = quod nOn] ego ill! ^Qxerim (Fl. Bac. 1012), there is 

nothing of this that I have not told him. 

NoTB. — Quin sometimes introduces a pure clause of result with the sense of ut n6n : 
as, — nnmquam tam male est Siculis quin aliqnid facete et commode dicant (Verr. iv. 
95), things are never so had with the Sicilians but that they have something pleasant 
or witty to say. 

For quin in independent constructions, see § 449. b. 



560. A clause which is used as a noun may be called a Substantive Clause, as 
certain relative clauses are sometimes called adjective clauses. But in practice the 
term is restricted to clauses which represent a nominative or an accusative case, the 
clauses which stand for an ablative being sometimes called adverbial clauses. 

Even with this limitation the term is not quite precise (see p. 367, footnote 1). The 
fact is rather that the clause and the leading verb are mutually complementary ; each 
reinforces the other. The simplest and probably the earliest form of such sentences 
is to be found in tlie paratactic use (see § 268) of two verbs like vol5 abe&s, dicamns 
cSnse5, adeam optimum est. From such verbs the usage spread by analogy to other 
verbs (see lists on pp. 363, 367, footnotes), and the complementary relation of the 
clause to the verb came to resemble the complementary force of the accusative, espe- 
cially the accusative of cognate meaning (§ 390). 

561. A clause used as a noun is called a Substantive Clause. 

a* A Substantive Clause may be used as the Subject or Object of 
a verb, as an Appositive, or as a Predicate Nominative or Accusative. 

KoTE 1. — Many ideas which in English take the form of an abstract noun may be 
rendered by a substantive clause in Latin. Thus, he demanded an investigation may 
be postul&bat ut quaestiS habSrStur. The common English expression for with the 
infinitive also corresponds to a Latin substantive clause: as, — it remains for nie to 
speak of the piratic war, reliquom est ut dS bellS dicam pizftticd. 

KoTE 2. — When a Substantive Clause is used as subject, the verb to which it is 
subject is called impersonal, and the sign of the construction in English is commonly 
the so-called expletive it. 

562. Substantive Clauses are classified as follows : — 

1. Subjunctive Clauses ( a. Of purpose (command, wiah^ fear) (§§ 563, 664). 

(ut, ne,utnon, etc.). \ h. Of result (happen^ effect^ etc.) (§668). 

2. Indicative Clauses with quod : Fact, Specification, Feeling (§ 672). 

3. Indirect Questions: Subjunctive, introduced by an Interrogative Word 

(§§ 573-676). 

4. Infinitive Clauses | ^- Yf" ^^""^^ ""^ ordering wisMng, etc. (§ 668). 

\ b. Indirect Discourse (§ 579 ff.). 

Note. — The Infinitive with Subj ect Accusative is not strictly a clause, but in Latin 
it has undergone so extensive a development that it may be so classed. The uses of 
the Infinitive Clause are of two kinds: (1) in constructions in which it replaces a sub- 
junctive clause with ut etc. ; (2) in the Indirect Discourse. The first class wiU be dis- 
cussed in connection with the appropriate subjunctive constructions (§563) ; for Indirect 
Discourse, see § 579 ff . 

Substantive Clauses of Purpose 

563. Substantive Clauses of Purpose with ut (negative ii6) are 
used as the object of verbs denoting an action directed toward the 


Such are, verbs meaning to admonish^ asky hargaiuy commavdy de- 
creCy determiney permity persuadey resolve, urge, and wish : — ^ 

monet nt omnes suspicion^ 'ntet (B. G. i. 20), he warns him to avoid all 

hort&tiir eOs nS animO deficiant (B. C. i. 10), ^ urges them not to lose heart. 
te rogO atque 0r5 ut eum iuves (Fam. xiii. QQ)^ I beg and pray you to aid him, 
his uti conqairerent imper&yit (B. G. i. 28), he ordered them to search. 
persu&det CasticO ut r^gnum occuparet (id. i. 3), he persuades Casticus to 

usurp royal power. 
Bills imper&vit nS quod omnInO telum rSiceient (id. i. 46), h£ ordered his men 

not to throw back any weapon at all. 

Note. — With any verb of these classes the poets may use the Infinitive instead of 
an object clause : — 

bortamur fan (Aen. ii. 74), we urge [him] to speak. 

ne quaere docSri (id. vi. 614), seek not to be told. 

temptat pracvcrtere (id. i. 721), she attempts to turm, etc. 
For the Subjunctive without ut with verbs of commandingf see § 565. a. 

a. lubeO, order, and veto, forbid, take the Infinitive with Subject 
Accusative ; — 

Labienom iugum mentis ascendere iubet (B. G. i. 21), Ae orders Labienus to 

ascend the ridge of the hill. 
libexos ad s6 adduci iussit (id. ii. 5), Ae ordered the children to be brought to him. 
ab opere ISg&tos discedere vetuerat (id. ii. 20), he had forbidden the lieutenants 

to leave the work. 
vetuere [bona] reddi (Liv. ii. 6), they forbade the return of ike goods (that the 
goods be returned). 

Note. — Some other verbs of commanding etc. occasionally take the Infinitive: — 
I>ontem imperant fieri (B. C. i. 61), they order a bridge to be built. 
res monet cavSre (Sail. Gat. 52. 3), the occasion warns us to be on our guard. 

h. Verbs of wishing take either the Infinitive or the Subjunctive. 

With volO (nOlO, malS) and cupi5 the Infinitive is commoner, and 
the subject of the infinitive is rarely expressed when it would be the 
same as that of the main verb. 

With other verbs of wishing the Subjunctive is commoner when 
the subject changes, the Infinitive when it remains the same. 

1. Subject of dependent verb same as that of the verb of wishing: — 

augur fieri volui (Fam. xv. 4. 13), I unshed to be made augur. 
cupiO vigil iam meam tibi tradere (id. xi. 24), I am eager to hand over my watch 
to you. 

1 Such verbs or verbal phrases are id ag5, ad id venio, caved (nS), cSnseo, c6g5, con- 
cedo, cdnstittto, euro, dScerno, 5dic5, Mgito, hortor, imperS, insto, mandd, metu5 (nS), 
moned, negdtium do, operam do, oro, persuaded, pet5, postuld, praecipiS, precor, prSnuntid, 
quaerS, rogo, seised, timed (ng), vereor (ne), vided, void. 


ifldicem mS esse, nOn doctOrem volO (Or. 117), I wiah to be a judge, not a 

m§ Caesaris mllitem die! volul (B. C. ii. 32. 13), I wished io he caUed a soldier 

of Ca^ar. 
cupiO me esse cl@mentem (Cat. i. 4), / desire to he merciful, [But regularly, 

cupiO esse clSinSns (see § 457).] 
omnis hominSs, qui sSsS student praestflre ceteris auimalibus (Sail. Cat. 1), 

aU men who wish to excel other living creatures. 

2. . Subject of dependent verb different from that of the verb of wishing : 

volO tS scire (Fam. ix. 24. 1), / wish you to know. 

vim volumus ezstingui (Sest. 92), we wish violence to he put down. 

te tuft fiul virttlte cupimus (Brut. 331), toe wiah you to reap the fruits of your 

cupi5 ut impetret (Fl. Capt. 102), / wish he m>ay get i^. 
numquam optabO ut aadiAtis (Cat. ii. 15), I vjiU never desire that you shall 


For volo and its compounds with the Subjunctive without ut, see § 565. 

c. Verbs of permitting take either the Subjunctive or the Infini- 
tive. Patior takes regularly the Infinitive vrith Subject Accusative ; 
so often sinO : — 

permlsit ot faceret (De Or. ii. 366), permitted him to make. 

GoncedO tibl ut ea piaeteie&s (Rose. Am. 54), / aUow you to pass by these 

tubem&cnla statu! passus nCn est (B. C. i. 81), he did not aUow tenta to he 

▼inuin importftil nOn sinunt (B. G. iv. 2), Ihey do not dUow wine to be imparted. 

d. Verbs of determining^ decreeing^ resolving, bargaining, take 
either Hhe Subjunctive or the Infinitive : — 

cOnstituerant ut L. B^stia querer§tur (Sail. Cat. 48), they had determined thai 

Lucius Bestia sTiould complain. 
proeliO supersedere statuit (B. G. ii. 8), he determined to r^use battle. 
de bonis rSgis quae reddi cSnsuerant (Li v. ii. 5), about the hinges goods^ v^ich 

they had decreed should be restored. 
decemit uti c5n8ul6s dilectum habeant (Sail. Cat. 84), decrees that the consuls 

shaU hold a levy. 
edict5 ne quia iniussti pugnflret (Li v. v. 19), having commanded that none 

should fight without orders. 

Note 1. — Different verbs of these classes with the same meaning vary in their 
construction (see the Lexicon). For verbs of bargaining etc. with the Gerundive, see 

NoTB 2. — Verbs of decreeing and voting often take the Infinitive ol the Second 
Periphrastic conjugation:— Regulus captivOs reddendSs [esse] nOncensuit (Off. i. 39), 
Segtdus voted that the captives should not be returned. [He said, in giving liis f ormsl 
opinion: captivi non reddendi sunt.] 


e. Verbs of caution and effort take the Subjunctive with. ut. But 
cdnor, try, commonly takes the Complementary Infinitive : — 

cur& at quam priinum inteUegam (Fam. xiii. 10. 4), let me know cm aoon as pos- 
sible (take care that I may understand). 

dant operam at habeant (Sail. Cat. 41), they take pairts to have (give their 
attention that, etc.). 

impellere ati Caesar ndmixiflrgtar (id. 40), to induce them to name CoBsar (that 
Caesar should be named). 

con&Uis est Caesar leficere pontis (B. 0. i. 50), CcBsar tried to rebuild the bridges. 

Note 1. — CSnor si also occurs (as B. G. i. 8) ; cf. miror si etc., § 572. b, n. 
Note 2. — Ut nC occurs occasionally with verbs of cavtion and effort (cf. § 631): — 
curd et provide at nSquld d difit (Att. xi. 3. 3), take care and see that he lacks nothing. 
For the Subjunctive with quin and qadminus with verbs of hindering etc., see § 558. 

564. Verbs of fearing take the Subjunctive, with ni afl&rma- 
tive and nS nOn or ut negative. 

In this use nS is commonly to be translated by thaty ut and nS nOn 
by thcU not : — 

timed n5 Verr6s f§cerit (Verr. v. 3), I fear that Verres ha^ done, etc. 

ne animum offenderet verSbatur (B. G. i. 19), he feared that he should hurt 
the feelings, etc. 

ne ezhSrediretor veritns est (Rose. Am. 58), he feared that he should be dis- 

5T&tor meta5 nS langaSscat seneotQte (Cat. M. 28), I fear the orator grows 
feeble from old age. 

vereor ut tibi possim concedere (De Or. i. 35), I fear that I cannot grant you, 

baud san6 perlculum est n§ n5n mortem optandam putet (Tusc. v. 118), there 
is no danger that he wiU not think death desirable. 

Note. — The subjunctive in nS-clauses after a verb of fearing is optative in origin. 
To an independent nS-sentence, as n6 aocidat, may it not happen^ a verb may be prefixed 
(cf . § 660), making a complex sentence. Thus, vidS nS aocidat ; dr5 nS accidat ; cavet nS 
accidat ; when the prefixed verb is one of fearing, timed nS accidat becomes let it not hap- 
pen, btU I fear that it may. The origin of the vt-clause is similar. 

565. VolG and its compounds, the impersonals licet and oportet, 
and the imperatives die and fac often taJse the Subjunctive with- 
out ut : — 

vol5 amSs (Att. il. 10), I wish you to love. 

quam vellem me invit&ssSs (Fam. x. 28. 1), how I wish you had invited me ! 

mSllem Cerbemm metaerSs (Tusc. i. 12), I had rather you feared Cerberus. 

sint enim oportet (id. i. 12), for they muM exist. 

qoeramdr licet (Caec. 41), loe are allowed to complain, 

fac filigfts (Att. iii. 13. 2), do love ! [A periphrasis for the imperative ffilige, 

loroe (cf. §449. c).] 
die exeat, teiX him to go out. 


Note 1. — In such cases there is no ellipsis of at. The expressions are idiomatic 
remnants of an older construction in which the subjunctives were hortatory or optative 
and thus really independent of the verb of wishing etc. In the classical period, how- 
ever, they were doubtless felt as subordinate. Compare the use of cavS and the sub- 
junctive (without ne) in Prohibitions (§ 450) , which appears to follow the analogy of fac. 

Note 2. — Licet may take (1) the Subjunctive, usually without ut ; (2) the simple 
Infinitive ; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative ; (4) the Dative and the Infini- 
tive (see § 455. 1). Thus, / may go is licet eam, licet ire, licet ml ire, or licet mihi Ire. 

For licet in concessive clauses, see § 527. h. 

Note 3. — Oportet may take (1) the Subjunctive without ut; (2) the simple Infini- 
tive ; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. Thus I must go is oportet eam, oportet 
ire, or oportet m6 ire. 

a. Verbs of commanding and the like often take the subjunctive 
without ut : — 

huic mandat RSm5s adeat (B. G. iii. 11), he orders him to visit the Bemi, 
rogat finem faciat (id. i. 20), he asks him to cease. 

MnSsthea vocat, classem aptent socii (Aen. iv. 289), he caUs Mnestheus [and 
orders that] his comrades shall make ready the fleet. 

Note.. — The subjunctive in this construction is the hortatory subjunctive used to 
express a command in Indirect Discourse (§ 588). 

Substantive Clauses of Purpose with Passive Verbs 

566. A Substantive Clause used as the object of a verb becomes 
the subject when the verb is put in the passive {Impersonal Con- 
struction) : — 

Caesar ut cognosceret postul9>tum est (B. C. i. 87), Ccesar was requested to 

make an investigation (it was requested that CsBsar should make an 

si erat HeracliO ab sen9,tu mandatum ut emeret (Verr. iii. 88), if Heraclius 

had been instructed by the senate to buy. 
8l persuasum erat CluviO ut mentiretur (Rose. Com. 51), if Cluvius had been 

persuaded to lie. 
put5 concedi nobis oportgre ut GraecO verb5 utamnr (Fin. iii. 15), I thimk 

we must be allowed to use a Greek word. 
ng quid eis noceatur a Caesare cavetur (B. C. i. 86), Ccesar takes care tJiat no 

harm shall be done them (care is taken by Caesar lest, etc. ). 

a. With verbs of admonishing, the personal object becomes the 
subject and the object clause is retained : — 

admoniti sumus ut caveremus (Att. viii. 11 d. 3), tae were warned to he careful. 
cum mongretur at cautior asset (Div. 1. 51), when he was advised to he wxyrt 

moneri visus est ne id faceret (id. 56), he seemed to be warned not to do it. 


b. Some verbs that take an infinitive instead of a subjunctive 
are used impersonally in the passive, and the infinitive becomes the 
subject of the sentence : — 

loqni nOn concMitur (B. G. yi. 20), it ia not aXUmed to speak, 

c. With iubeO, veto, and cOgO, the subject accusative of the infinitive 
becomes the subject nominative of the main verb, and the infinitive is 
retained as complementary (Personal Construction) : — 

adesse iubentur i)ostxIdi3 (Verr. ii. 41), they are ordered to be present on the 

following day, 
ire in exsilium iussus est (Cat. ii. 12), he was ordered to go into exile. 
SimOnides yetitus est n&vig&re (Diy. ii. 134), Simonides was forbidden to sail. 
Mandubil ezire cOguntur (B. G. yii. 78), the Mandubii are compelled to go out. 

Substantive Clauses of Result (Consecutive Clauses) 

567. Clauses of Result may be used substantively, (1) as the object of faci5 etc. 
<§ 568) ; (2) as the subject of these same verbs in the passive, as well as of other verbs 
and verbal phrases (§ 569) ; (3) in apposition with another substantive, or as predicate 
nominative etc. (see §§ 670, 571) .i 

568. Substantive Clauses of Result with ut (negative ut n5n) 
are used as the object of verbs denoting the accomplishment of 
an effort.^ 

Such are especially faciO and its compounds (eflSlciO, cOnficiG, etc.) : — 

efficiam ut intellegatis (Clu. 7), I wUl make you understand (lit. effect that 

you, etc.). [So, faciam at intelleg&tis (id. 9).] 
comme9.tus ut portdxl possent efficiebat (B. G. ii. 5), made it possible that 

supplies could be brought. 
perfSci ut 6 r€gnO ille discSderet (Fam. xy. 4. 6), I brought about his departure 

from the kingdom, 
quae llbertSs ut laetior esset rSgis superbia fScerat (Liv. ii. 1), the arrogance 

of the king had made this liberty more welcome. 
eyincunt mstandO ut litterae darentur (id. ii. 4), by insisting they gain their 

point, — that letters should be sent. [Here evincunt = efficiunt.] 

1 In all these cases the clause is not strictly subject or object. The main verb orig- 
inally conveyed a meaning sufficient in itself, and the result clause was merely com- 
plementary. This is seen by the frequent use of ita and the like with the main verb 
(ita accidit at, etc.). In like manner purpose clauses are only apparently subject or 
object of the verb with which they are connected. 

2 Verbs and phrases taking an ut-clause of result as subject or object are accSdit, 
accidit, additur, altera est res, committS, consequor, contingit, jpfflciS, gvenlt, facio, fit, fieri 
potest, fore, lmpetr5, integrum est, mds est, muiitts est, necesse est, prope est, rSctum est, 
relinquitur, reliquum est, restat, tanti est, tantum abest^ and a few others. 


Note 1. — The ezpreasions teceie ut, oommittere ut, with the subjimctive, often form 
a periphrasis for the simple yerb : as, — in-^^tus f6ci nt Flaminium e senatu Cicerem 
(Cat. M. 42), it was with reluctance that I expelled Flaminvua/rom the senate. 

569. Substantive Clauses of Result are used as the subject of 
the following : — 

1. Of passive verbs denoting the dccomplishment of an effort : — 

impetrfttum est ut in senfttli recitirentor (litterae) (B. C. i. 1)^ they succeeded 
in having the letter read in the sencAe (it was brought about that, etc.). 

ita efficitur at omne corpus mortSie sit (N. D. iii. 30), it therefore is made 
out that every body is mortal. 

2. Of Im personals meaning t^ happens, it remains, it follows, it is 
necessary, it is added, and the like (§ 568, footnote) : — 

accidit at esset Itlna plena (B. G. iv. 29), it happened to hefuU moon (it hap- 
pened that it was, etc.). [fiere at esset is subject of accidit.] 

reliquum est at officils certemas inter nOs (Fam. vii. SI) ^ it remains for ta to 
vie loith each other in courtesies. 

restat at hOc dabitSxnas (Rose. Am. 88), it is l^for us to doubt this. 

sequitur at doceam (N. D. ii. 81), the next thing is to show (it follows, etc.). 

Note 1. — The infinitive sometime9 occurs: as, — nee enim acciderat mihi opns 
esse (Fam. vi. 11. l),/or it had not happened to be necessary to me. 

Note 2. — If eoesse est often takes the subjonctive without nt : as, — concSdas necesse 
est (Rose. Am. 87), you must grant. 

3. Of est in the sense of it is the fact that, etc. (mostly poetic): — 

est at virO yir l&tius ordinet arbusta (Hor. Od. iii. 1. 9), it is the fact that one 
man plants his vineyards in under rows than another. 

a» Foie (or futllram esse) ut with a clause of result as subject is 
often used instead of the Future Infinitive active or passive; so 
necessarily in verbs which have no supine stem : — 

spSrO fore ut oontingat id nSbls (Tusc. i. 82), / ?iope that vnU be our happy lot. 
cum yid€rem fore at nSn possem (Cat. ii. 4), when I saw Uiat I should net be able. 

570. A substantive clause of result may be in apposition with 
another substantive (especially a neuter pronoun): — 

illud etiam restiterat, at t6 in ins §ducerent (Quinct. 33), this too remained — 
for them to drag you into court. 

571. A substantive clause of result may serve as predicate 
nominative after mOs est and similar expressions : — 

est mos hominum, at nolint eundem pluribus rSbus excellere (Brut. 84), it i» 
the way of men to be unwilling for one man to excel in several things. 

§§ 671, 672] INDICATIVE WITH QUOD 369 

a. A result olause, with or without ut, frequently follows quam 
after a comparative (but see § 583. c) : — 

Canach! signa rigidiOra sunt quam ut imitentur veritatem (Brut. 70), the statues 
of CanachiLS are too stiff to represent nature (stiff er than that they should) . 

perpessus est omnia potius quam indicaret (Tusc. ii. 52), he endured all rather 
than betray, etc. [Regularly without ut except in Livy.] 

b* The phrase tantum abest, it is so far [from being the case], 
regularly takes two clauses of result with ut: one is substantive, the 
subject of abeat ; the other is adverbial j correlative with tantum: — 

tantum abest ut nostra mirSmur, ut tlsque eO difficilSs ac mOrOsI sunus, at 
nobis nOn satis facial ipse Demosthenes (Or. 104), so far from admiring 
my own works, I am difficult and captious to thai degree that not Demos- 
thjsnes himself saiis/ies me. [Here the first ut-K^lause is the subject of 
abest (§ 569. 2); the second, a result clause after tantum (§ 537); and 
the third, after usque eo.] 

c, Karely, a thought or an idea is considered as a result, and is 
expressed by the subjunctive with ut instead of the accusative and 
infinitive (§ 580). In this case a demonstrative usually precedes : 

praeclSnim illud est, ot eCs . . . amemus (Tusc. iii. 12), this is a noble thing, 

that we shffuXd love, etc. 
yeri simile nOn est ut ille anteponeret (Verr. iv. 11), it is not likely that he 


For Relative Clauses with quin after verbs of hindering etc., see § 568. 

Indicative with Quod 

572. A peculiar form of Substantive Clause consists of quod 
(in the sense of that^ the fact that) with the Indicative. 

The clause in the Indicative with quod is used when the state- 
ment is regarded as a fact : — 

alterum est vitium, quod quidam nimis mSgnam studium conferunt (Off. i. 19), 
it is another fault that some bestow too much zeal, etc. [Here ut c5nferant 
could be used, meaning that some should bestow ; or the accusative and 
infinitive, meaning to bestow (abstractly) ; quod makes it a fact that men 
do bestow, etc.] 

inter inanimum et animal hoc maxime interest, quod animal agit aliquid 
(Acad. ii. 37), this is the chief difference between an inanimate object and 
an animal, Viat an animal aims at something. 

qaod rediit nObls mlrabile vid6tur (Off. iii. Ill), that he (Regains) rdumed 
seems wonderful to us, 

accidit perincoinmodS quod eum nnsquam vidisti (Att. i. 17. 2), it happened 
very unluckily that you nowhere saw him. 


opportOnissima ras accidit quod GermSni venerunt (B. G. iv. 13), a very for- 
tunate thing happened, (namely) that the Germans came. 

praetereO quod earn sibl domum s^demque delegit (Clu. 188), I pass over the 
fa^t that she chose thai house and home for herself. 

mittO quod possessa per vim (Flacc. 79), / disregard the fojct thai they were 
seized by violence. 

Note. — Like other substantive clauses, the clause with quod may be used as sub- 
ject, as object, as appositive, etc., but it is commonly either the subject or in apposi- 
tion with the subject. 

a. A substantive clause with, quod sometimes appears as an accu- 
sative of specificationy corresponding to the English whereas or as 
to the fact that : — 

quod mihi dS nostrO statu gratularis, minimS mlr^mur t€ tuls praeclSxis operi- 
bus laetari (Fam. i. 7. 7), as to your congratulating me on our condition, 
we are not ai all surprised thai you are pleased with your own noble loorks. 

quod de domo scnbis, ego, etc. (Fam. xiv. 2. 3), as to whai you write of the 
house, I, etc. 

5. Verbs ol feeling and the expression of feeling take either quod 

(quia) or the accusative and infinitive (Indirect Discourse) : — 

quod scribis . . . gaudeO (Q. Fr. iii. 1. 9), J am glad thai you write. 

faciO libenter quod eam nOn possum praeterire (Legg. i. 63), I am glad that I 

cannot pass it by. 
quae perfecta esse vehementer laetor (Rose. Am. 136), I greatly rejoice thai 

this is finished, 
qui quia nOn habuit a m6 turmas equitum f ortasse suscSnset ( Att. vi. 3. 5), who 

perhaps feels angry that he did not receive sqvxidrons of cavalry from me. 
molests tuli te senatui gratias non egisse (Fam. x. 27. 1), I was displeased 

thai you did not return thanks to the senate. 

Note. — Miror and similar expressions are sometimes followed by a clause with si.i 
This is apparently substantive, but really protasis (cf. § 563. c. n. i). Thus, — miror 
si quemquam amicum habere potuit (Lael.54), I wonder if he could ever have a friend. 
[Originally, If this is so, I wonder at it.] 

Indirect Questions 

573. An Indirect Question is any sentence or clause which is 
introduced by an interrogative word (pronoun, adverb, etc.), and 
which is itself the subject or object of a verb, or depends on any 
expression implying uncertainty or doubt. 

In grammatical form, exclamatory sentences are not distin- 
guished from interrogative (see the third example below). 

1 Cf . the Greek Oavfid^uf el. 


574. An Indirect Question takes its verb in the Subjunctive : 

quid ipse sentiam expOnam (Div. i. 10), I will explain what I think. [Direct : 
quid sentio ?] 

id possetne fieri cOnsuluit (id. i. 82), he consulted whether it could he done, 
[Direct: potestne?] 

quam sis aad&x omnes intellegere potuerunt (Rose. Am. 87), aU could under- 
stand how hold you are, [Direct : quam es audflx I] 

doleam necne doleam nihil interest (Tosc. ii. 20), it is of no account wTiether I 
suffer or not. [Double question.] 

quaesivl & Catilln& in conirenttL apud M. Laecam fnisaet necne (Cat. ii. 18), / 
asked Catiline whether he had heen at the meeting at Marcus LcBcd*s or 
not. [Double question.] 

rogat me quid sentiam, lie asks me what I think. [Cf. rogat m6 sententiam, he 
asks me my opinion.'] 

hoc dubium est, nter nostrum sit inverecundior (Acad. ii. 126), this is doubt- 
ful, which of us two is the less modest. 

incerti qafttenus VolerO ezercSret victOriam (Liv. ii. 55), uncertain how far 
Yolero would push victory. [As if dubitantCa quJlteniM, etc.] 

NoTB. — An Indirect Question may be the subject of a verb (as In the fourth exam- 
ple), the direct object (as in the first), the secondary object (as in the sixth), an apposi- 
tive (as in the seventh). 

575. The Sequence of Tenses in Indirect Question is illus- 
trated by the following examples : — 

died quid faciam, I tell you what I am doing. 

died quid facturus sim, / tell you what I will (shall) do. 

died quid fScerim, / tdl you what I did {have done, was doing). 

dizi quid facerem, / told you what I was doing. 

dizi quid fScissem, I told you what I had done {had heen doing). 

£zl quid factfiros esaem, I told you what I would {should) do (was going to do). 

dizi quid factflxns fuissem, I told you what I would {should) haive done. 

«. Indirect Questions referring to future time take the subjunc- 
tive of the First Periphrastic Conjugation : — 

prOspiciO qal concursfia futflri sint (Caecil. 42), I foresee whxdkthrongs there 

will he. [Direct : qui erunt ?] 
qttid ait fotflnnn crfia, fuge quaerere (Hor. Od. i. 9. 18),/or6ear to ask what will 

he on the morrow. [Direct : quid exit or futiiram est ?] 
posth^ nOn scrlbam ad tS quid factfirus sim, sed quid fScerim (Att. x. 18), 
hereafter I shall not write to you what I wrn going to do, hut what I have 
done. [Direct: quid fadia (or factfiius eria) ? quid fSdati ?] 

Note. — This Perii^rastic Future avoids the ambiguity which would be caused by 
using the Present Subjunctive to refer to future time in such clauses. 

&• The Deliberative Subjunctive (§ 444) remains unchanged in an 
Indirect Question, ezeept sometimes in tense : — 


qa5 me Tertam nesciO (Clu. 4), I do Tiot know which way to turn, [Direct: 

qa5 mS Tertam ?] 
neque satis cOnstftbat quid agerent (B. G. iii. 14), and it was not very clear what 

they were to do. [Direct : quid agflmas ?] 
nee quisquam satis certain habet, quid aut speret aut timeat (Liv. xxii. 7. 10), 

nor is any one well assured what he shall hope or fear. [Here the future 

participle with sit could not be used.] 
incertO quid peterent aut yit&rent (id. xxviii. 36. 12), since it was doubtful 

(ablative absolute) whai they should seek or shun, 

c. Indirect Questions often take the Indicative in early Latin and 

in poetry : — 

vlneam quo in agrO cOnserl oportet sic observ&tO (Cato R. R. 6. 4), in what 
soil a vineyard should be set you must observe thus, 

d. WesciO quis, when used in an indefinite sense {somebody or other), 
is not followed by the Subjunctive. 

So also nesciO qu0 (unde, etc.), and the following idiomatic phrases 

which are practically adverbs : — 

mirum (nimirum) quam, marvellously (marvellous how), 
mirum quantum, tremendously (marvellous how much), 
imm&ne quantum, monstrously (monstrous how much). 
s&n6 quam, immensely, 
vald6 quam, enormously. 

Examples are : — 

qui istam nescio quam indolentiam mSgnopere laudant (Tusc. iii. 12), who 

greaUy extol that freedom from pain, whatever it is, 
mirum quantum prOfuit (Liv. ii. 1), it helped prodigiously, 
ita fSLtO nescio quo contigisse arbitror (Fam. xv. 13), I think it happened so 

by somefatatity or other. 
nam suOs valde quam paucOs habet (id. xi. 13 a. 3), for he has uncommonly 

few of his own. 
sang quam sum g9,visus (id. xi. 13 a. 4), I was immensely glad, 
immane quantum discrepat (Hor. Od. i. 27. 6), is monstrously at variance. 

576. In colloquial usage and in poetry the subject of an In- 
direct Question is often attracted into the main clause as object 
(Accusative of Anticipation) : — 

n5sti Marcellum quam tardus sit (Fam. viii. 10. 3), you know how slow Mar- 
ceUus is, [For ndsti quam tardus sit Marcellus. Cf. ** I know thee who 
thou art."] 

Cf . potestne igitur e&rum rerum, qu& rS f uttirae sint, ulla esse praesfinsiO (DiT. 
ii. 16), can there be, then, any foreknowledge as to those things, why they 
wUl occur? [A similar use of the Objective Crenitive.] 

§§ 576, 577] INDIRECT DISCOURSE 873 

Note. — In some cases the Object of Anticipation becomes the Subject by a change 
of voice, and an apparent mixture of relative and interrogative constructions is the 
result : — 

quidam saepe in parva pecQnia perspiciuntur quam sint leves (Lael. 63), it is often 
seen, in a trifling matter of money, haw unprincipled some people are (some 
I)eople are often seen through, how unprincipled they are). 
quern ad modum Pompeium oppugnarent a me indicati sunt (Leg. Agr. i. 5), it has 
been shown by me in what way they attacked Pompey (they have been shown 
by me, how they attacked). 

€t* An indirect question is occasionally introduced by si in the 

sense of whether (like if in English, cf. § 572. b. n.): — 

circumfunduntur hostSs si quern aditum reperire possent (B. G. vi. 37), the 

enemy pour round [to see] if they can find entrance. 
visam si domi est (Ter. Haut. 170), 7 wUl go see if he is at home, 

NoTB. — This is strictly a Protasis, but usually no Apodosis is thought of, and the 
clause is virtually an Indirect Question. 

For the Potential Subjunctive with forsitan (originally an Indirect Question), see 
§ 447. a. 


577. The use of the Accusative and Infinitive in Indirect Discourse {oratio ohliqua) 
is a comx>aratively late form of speech, developed in the Latin and Greek only, and 
perhaps separately in each of them. It is wholly wanting in Sanskrit, but some forms 
like it have grown up in English and German. 

The essential character of Indirect Discourse is, that the language of some other 
person than the writer or speaker is compressed into a kind of Substantive Clause, the 
verb of the main clause becoming Infinitive, while modifying clauses, as well as all 
hortatory forms of speech, take the Subjunctive. The person of the verb necessarily 
caniomaa to the new relation of persons. 

The construction of Indirect Discourse, however, is not limited to reports of the 
language of some i)erson other than the speaker ; it may be used to express what any 
one — whether the sx)eaker or some one else — says, thinks, or perceives, whenever that 
-which is said, thought, ov perceived is capable of being expressed in the form of a com- 
plete sentence. For anything that can be said etc. can also he reported indirectly as 
-well as directly. 

The use of the Infinitive in the main clause undoubtedly comes from its use as a 
case-form, to complete or modify the action expressed by the verb of saying and its 
object together. This object in time came to be regarded as, and in fact to all intents 
became, the subject of the infinitive. A transition state is found in Sanskrit, which, 
though it has no indirect discourse proper, yet allows an indirect predication after verbs 
of saying and the like by means of a predicative apposition, in such expressions as 
" The maids told the king [that] his daughter [was] bereft of her senses." 

The simple form of indirect statement with the accusative and infinitive was after- 
-wards amplified by introducing dependent or modifying clauses ; and in Latin it became 
a common construction, and could be used to report whole speeches etc., which in other 
lan^n^ages would have the direct form. (Compare the style of reporting speeches in 
English, -where only the person and tense are changed.) 

The Subjunctive in the subordinate clauses of Indirect Discourse has no significance 
except to make more distinct the fact that these clauses are subordinate ; consequently 
no direct connection has been traced between them and the uses of the mood in simple 


aentences. It is probable that the sub j unctiye in indirect qaestions (§ 674) , in informal 
indirect discourse (§092), and in clauses of the integral part (§ 693) represents the 
earliest steps of a movement by which the subj unctiye became in some degree a mood 
of subordination. 

The Subjunctive standing for hortatory forms of speech in Indirect Discourse is 
simply the usual hortatory subjunctive, with only a change of person and tense (if 
necessary), as in the reporter's style. 

578. A Direct Quotation gives the exact words of the original 
speaker or writer {Ordtio Recta). 

An Indirect Quotation adapts the words of the speaker or 
writer to the construction of the sentence in which they are 
quoted {Ordtio Ohllqua). 

Note. — The term Indirect Discourse {ordtio obliqtia) is used in two senses. In 
the wider sense it includes all clauses — of whatever kind — which express the words 
or thought of any person indirectly f that is, in a form different from that in which the 
person said the words or conceived the thought. In the narrower sense the term Indi- 
rect Discourse is restricted to those cases in which some complete proposition is cited 
in the form of an Indirect Quotation, which may be extended to a narrative or an 
address of any length, as in the speeches reported by Cesar and Livy. In this book 
the term is used in the restricted sense. 

Formal Indirect Discourse 

579. Verhs and other expressions of knowing^ thinking^ tellingy 
and perceivings^ govern the Indirect Discourse. 

Note. — Inquam, said I (etc.) takes the Direct Discourse except in poetry. 

Declaratory Sentences in Indirect Discourse 

580. In Indirect Discourse the main clause of a Declaratoiy 
Sentence is put in the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. All 
subordinate clauses take the Subjunctive : — 

sciO me paene incredibilem rem poUic^ri (B. C. iii. S6), I know that I am 
promising an almost in^edible thing. [Direct : polHceor.] 

nOn arbitror tS ita sentire (Fam. x. 26. 2), I do not suppose that you fed 
thus. [Direct: sentiis.] 

sp€rO me liber&tum [esse] de metu (Tusc. ii. 67), I trust I have been freed 
from fear. [Direct : liber&tus sum. ] 

^ Such are : (1) knowing, 8ci5, oSgnoscd, compertum liabe9, etc. ; (2) thinking, pvto. 
existimd, arbitror, etc. ; (3) telling, d!c5, nantiS, referS, poHioeor, pr5mitt5, certiSrem fado, 
etc. ; (4) perceiving, sentiS, comperiS, videS, audid, etc. So in general any word thiit 
denotes thought or mental and visual perception or their expression may govern tbe 
Indirect Discourse. 


[dioit] esse nfin nfillSs quorum auctOrit&B pltbrimum valeat (B. G. i. 17), he 

aaya there are some, whose ivftuence most prevaUa, [Direct : sunt nSn 

null! . . . yalet.] 
nisi iOxftsset, scelus sS factumm [esse] arbitrftb&tur (Yerr. ii. 1. 123), he 

thought he should incur guUtj unless he shotdd take the oath. [Direct : 

nisi iQr&vezo, faciam.] 

€»• The verb of saying etc. is often not expressed, but implied in 
some word or in the general drift of the sentence : — 

cOnsulis alterlus nOmen invisum clvitfttl fuit: nimium Tarqoinios rSgnO 
adsaSsse; initinm ft FrIscO factum; rSgnftsee dein Ser. Tullium, etc. 
(Liy. ii. 2), the name of the other consvl was hat^l to the state; the Tar- 
quins (they thought) ?iad become too much accustomed to royal power ^ etc. 
[Here invisum implies a thought, and this thought is added tu the 
form of Indirect Discourse.] 

orantes ut urbibus saltern — iam enim agrSs dSpl5r&t5s esse — opem senfttus 
ferret (id. xli. 6), prayiji/g that the senate would at lea^ bring aid to the 
cities — for the fields [they said] were already given up as lost. 

h. The verb neg5, deny, is commonly used in preference to to5 with 
a negative : — 

[StOicI] negant quidquam [esse] bonum nisi quod honestum sit (Fin. ii. 68), 
the Stoics assert that nothing is good but what is right. 

c. Verbs oi promising, hoping, expecting, threatening, swearing, 
and the like, regularly take the construction of Indirect Discourse, 
contrary to the English idiom : — 

minS^tur sSs5 abire (PI. Asin. 604), he threatens to go away. [Direct : abeo, 

I am going away."} 
sperantse maximum fructum esse captfizds (Lael. 79), they hope to gain the 

utmost advantage. [Direct: capiSmus.] 
sp€rat se absolutum iii (Sull. 21), ?ie hopes that lie shall be acquitted. [Direct : 

qnem inimicissimum futurum esse prOmittO ac spondeo (Mur. 00), who I 

promise and warrant will be the bitterest of enemies. [Direct : exit.] 
dolor fortit&dinem se deUlit&tarum min&tur (Tusc. v. 76), pain threatens to 

wear down fortitude. [Direct: debilitftbd.} 
c5nfld5 me quod velim facile ft te impetrfttflium (Fam. xi. 16. 1), I trust I 

shall easily obtain from you what I wish. [Direct : quod yoIo, impe- 


Note. — These yerbs, however, often take a simple Ck>mplem6ntary Infinitive (§ 456^ 
So regularly in early Latin (except 8p6i5): — i 

polliceiitar obsides dare (B. Q. iv. 21), they promise to give homages. 
piOnuffl dolium vini dare (PI. Cist. 542), I promised to ffive ajar of wine. 

1 Compare the Greek aorist infinitive after similar verbs. 


d. Some verbs and expressions may be used either as verbs of 
sayingj or as verbs of commanding, effecting^ and the like. These 
take as their object either an Infinitive with subject accusative or a 
Substantive clause of Purpose or Result, according to the sense. 

1. Infinitive with Subject Accusative (Indirect Discourse) : — 

landem sapientiae statuO esse maximam (Fam. v. 13), I fiold that the glory of 
wisdom is the greatest, [Indirect Discourse.] 

res ipsa mon6bat tempas esse (Att. x. 8. 1), the thing itself warned that it 
was time. [Of. monSre at, warn to do something,] 

fac mihi esse persaftsum (N. D. i. 76), suppose that I am persuaded of that 
[Cf. facere at, bring it about that.] 

hoc volunt persu&d€re, nSn interire anim&s (B. G. vi. 14), they wish to con- 
vince that souls do not perish, 

2. Subjunctive (Substantive Clause of Purpose or Result) : — 

statuunt at decern milia hominum mittantar (B. G. vii. 21), they resolve that 

10,000 men shall be sent, [Purpose clausa (cf. § 663).] 
huic persuftdet ati ad hostis trftnseat (id. iii. 18), he persuades him to pass 

over to the enemy, 
Pomp^ius suls praedlzerat at Caesaris impetum exciperent (B. C. liL 92), 

Pompey had instructed his men b^orehand to await Ccesar^s attack, 
denuntiftvit at essent animO parati (id. iii. 86), he bade them be alert and 

steadfa^ (ready in spirit). 

Note. — The infinitive with subject accusative in this construction is Indirect Dis- 
course, and is to be distinguished from the simple infinitive sometimes found with these 
verbs instead of a subjunctive clause (§ 563. d). 

581. The Subject Accusative of the Infinitive is regularly ex- 
pressed in Indirect Discourse, even if it is wanting in the direct: 

Orfttor sum, I am an orator ; dicit sS esse Or&tOrem, he says he is an oraJbor, 

Note 1. — But the subject is often omitted if easily understood: — 
ign5ecere imprudentiae dixit (B. 6. iv. 27), fie said he pardoned their rashness. 
eadem ab aliis quaerit : reperit esse vera (id. i. 18), he inquires about these same 
things from others; ?ie finds that they are true. 
Notb 2. — After a relative, or quam (than) , if the verb would be the same as that of 
the main clause, it is usually omitted, and its subject is attracted into the accusative : — 
te suspicor eisdem rebus quibus mS ipsum commoveri (Gat. M. 1), J 8y,spect that 

you are disturbed by the same things as I, 
cOnfidO tamen haec quoque tibi n5n minus grata quam ipsds UbrSs futura (Plin. 
Ep. iii. 6. 20), J trust that these fa^s too will be no less pleasing to you than 
the books tfiemjselves. 
Note 3. — In poetry, by a Greek idiom, a Predicate Noun or Adjective in the indi- 
rect discourse sometimes agrees with the subject of the main verb : — 

vir bonus et sapiens ait esse par&tns (Hor. Ep. i. 7. 22), a good and wise man says 

he is prepared, etc. [In prose : ait s6 esse paz&tnm.] 
sensit mediOs dSUpsus in hostis (Aen. ii. 377), he found himself faUen among the 
foe, [In prose: sS esse dfiUpsnm.] 

§§ 682, 683] INDIRECT DISCOURSE 377 

582. When the verb of %ay%ng etc. is passive^ the construction 
may be either Personal or Impersonal. But the Personal con- 
struction is more common and is regularly used in the tenses of 
incomplete action : — 

be&te Ylzisse yideor (Lael. 16), I seem to Iiave lived happUy, 

EpamlnOndfis fidibus praecl&rfi cecinisse didtur (Tusc. i. 4), Epaminondoa ia 

said to have played exceUenUy on the lyre. 
miilti idem facttlrl esse dicontnr (Fam. zvi. 12. 4), many are said to he about 

to do the same thing, [Active : dicant multSs factfiros (esse).] 
priml tr&dttntur arte quadam verba vinzisse (Or. 40), they first are related to 

have Joined toords wi^ a certain ^cUL 
Bibulus audiebAtor esse in Syria (Att. v. 18), it was heard that Btbulus was in 

Syria (Bibulus was heard, etc.). [Direct : Bibnlas est.] 
ceterae IllyricI legiOnSs secattlrae sper&bantur (Tac. H. ii. 74), the rest of the 

legions of lUyricum were expected to follow. 
▼idemnr enim quiettlrl fuisse, nisi essSmus lacessltl (De Or. ii. 230), it seems 

that we should have kept quiet, if we fiad not been molested (we seem, etc.). 

[Direct: quiSssSmus . . . nisi essSmns lacessiti.] 

KoTB. — The poets and later writers extend the personal use of the passive to verbs 
which are not properly verba sentiendi etc. : as, — colligor dominae placuisse (Ov. Am. 
ii. 6. 61), it is gathered [from this memorial] that I pleaded my mistress. 

a. In the compound tenses of verbs of saying etc., the impersonal 
construction is more common, and with the gerundive is regular : — 

traditum est etiam Homerum caecum fuisse (Tusc. v. 114), it is a tradition, 
too, that Homer was Uind. 

ubi tyrannus est, ibi nOn vitiOsam, sed dicendum est plftn6 ntUlam esse rem 
ptiblicam (Rep. iii. 43), where there is a tyrant, it must be said, not that 
the commxmweaUh is evil, but that it does not exist at all. 

Note. — An indirect narrative begun in the personal construction may be continued 
with the Infinitive and Accusative (as De Or. ii. 299; Liv. v. 41. 9). 

Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse 

583. A Subordinate Clause merely explanatory^ or containing 
statements which are regarded as true independently of the quo- 
tation, takes the Indicative : — 

quis neget haec omnia quae videmus deOrum potestate administr&ri (Cat. iii. 

21), who can deny that aU these things we see are ruled by the power of 

the gods f 
c^us ingenia putabat ea quae gesserat posse celebr9,rl (Arch. 20), by whose 

genius he thought that those deeds which he had done could be celebrated. 

[Here the fact expressed by quae gesseiat, though not explanatory, is 

felt to be true without regard to the quotation : quae gessisset would 

mean, what Marius claimed to have done.] 


Note. — Sach a clause in the indicative is not regarded as a part of the Indirect 
Discourse ; but it often depends merely upon the feeling of the writer whether he shall 
use the Indicative or the Subjunctive (cf. §§591-^93). 

a. A subordinate clause in Indirect Discourse occasionally takes 
the Indicative when the fact is emphasized : — 

factum 6iu8 hostis perlculum . . . cum, Cimbrls et Teutonis . . . pulsis, non 
minOrem laudem exercitus quam ipse imperStor meritus videbator (B. G. 
i. 40), that a trial of this enemy had been made when^ on the d^eat of the 
Cimbri and Teutoni, the army seemed to have deserved no less credit tMn 
the commander himself. 

h. Clauses introduced by a relative which is equivalent to a 
demonstrative with a conjunction are not properly subordinate, and 
hence take the Accusative and Infinitive in Indirect Discourse (see 
§308./): — 

MSrcellus requislsse dicitur Archimedem ilium, quern cum audisset inter- 
fectum permolest^ tuUsse (Verr. iv. 131), Marcellus is said to have sought 
for Archimedes, and when he heard that he was slain, to have been greatly 
distressed, [quern = et euxn.] 

cSosent tlnum quemque nostrum mundi esse partem, ex quo [= et ex eo] 
illud natura consequi (Fin. iii. 64), they say that each one ofvs is a part 
of the universe, from which this naturally follows. 

Note. — Really subordinate clauses occasionally take the accusative and infinitive : 
as, — quern ad modum si n5n dedatur obses pro rupt5 foedus sS habitunun, ^c deditam 
inviolatam ad suds remissurum (Liv. ii. 13), [he says] as in case the hostage is net 
given up he shall consider the treaty as broken^ so if given up he will return her 
unharmed to her friends. 

c. The infinitive construction is regularly continued after a com- 
parative with quam : — 

addit se prius occisum iri ab eO quam me viol&tnm in (Att. ii. 20. 2), Ae adds 
that he himseJf will be killed by him, b^ore I shaU be injured. 

n5nne adflrmavi quidvls m€ potius perpessuram quam ex Italia exitumm 
(Fam. ii. 16. 3), did I not assert that I would endure anything rather 
than leave Italy f 

Note. — The subjunctive with or without ut also occurs with quam (see § 535. c). 

Tenses of the Infinitive in Indirect Discourse 

584. The Present, the Perfect, or the Future Infinitive^ is used 
in Indirect Discourse, according as the time indicated is present 
past^ OT future with reference to the verb of sat/ing etc. by which 
the Indirect Discourse is introduced : — 

1 For various ways of expressing the Future Infinitive, see § 164. 3. c. 


cadS, lamfaUing. 
dicit w6 cadeie, be aays he iafaUing. 
dixit ai cadere, he said he tBoe falling. 

cadSbam, I was f (Ming; ceddi, IfeU^ htmefaUen; 
ceddeiam, I had faUen. 
dicit aS ceddiaae, ?ie says he wasfaUing^ feU, hasfailen, had fallen. 
dixit aS cecidiase, he said he fell, had fallen. 

cadam, I shaM fall. 
dicit ae cftafinim [eaae], he says he s?iall faU. 
dixit ae c&afimin [eaae], he said he should faU. 

ceddero, I shall hxive fallen. 
dicit foie at cedderit [rare], he says he shall have fallen. 
dixit fore ot ceddiaaet [rare], he said he shotdd have fallen. 

a,. All varieties of past time are usually expressed in Indirect 
Discourse by the Perfect Infinitive, which may stand for the Imper- 
fect, the Perfect, or the Pluperfect Indicative of the Direct 

Note. — Continued or repeated action in past time is sometimes expressed by the 
Present Infinitive, which in such cases stands for the Imperfect Indicative of the Direct 
Discourse and is often called the Imperfect Infinitive. 

This is the regular construction after memini when referring to a matter of actual 
experience or observation : as, — te memini haec dicere, / remefmber ycur saying this 
(that you said this). [Direct : dixiati or dicfbfts.] 

h* The present infinitive posse often has a future sense : — 

totlus Galliae sSsS potiri posse spirant (B. G. i. 3), they hope thai they shall 
he able to get possession of aU Gaul. 

Tenses of the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse 

585. The tenses of the Subjunctive in Indirect Discourse fol- 
low the rule for the Sequence of Tenses (§ 482). They depend for 
their sequence on the verb of saying etc. by which the Indirect 
Discourse is introduced. 

Thus in the sentence, dixit ae Romam iturom ut coasnlem videret, he said he 
should go to Rome in order that he might see the consul, vidSret follows the aequfince 
of dixit without regard to the Future Infinitive, iturum [eaae], on which it directly 

Note. — This rule applies to the subjunctive in subordinate clauses, to that which 
stands for the imi)erative etc. (see examples, § 588), and to that in questions (§686). 

a. A subjunctive depending on a Perfect Infinitive is often in the 
Imperfect or Pluperfect, even if the verb of saying etc. is in a pri- 
mary tense (ct § 485. f) ; so regularly when these tenses would have 
been used in Direct Discourse : — 


Tarquinium dixisse fenmt turn exsolantem 86 intellSxisse qu5s fidOs amicus 
haboisset (Lael. 63), they teU ua thai Tarquin 8aid that then in his exile 
he had found out what faithful friends he had had, [Here the main Yerb 
of saying, f emnt, is primary y but the time is carried back by dixisae and 
intellSzisse, and the sequence then becomes secondary.] 

tantum profedsse yidSmur ut & Graecis n6 verbOrum quidem cOpi& yincetemnr 
(N. D. i. 8), we seem to have advanced so far thaJt even in abundance of 
words we are not surpassed by the Greeks. 

Note 1. — The proper sequence may be seen, in each case, by turning the Perfect 
Infinitive into that tense of the Indicative which it represents. Thus, if it stands for 
an imperfect or an historical perfect, the sequence will be secondary ; if it stands for 
a perfect definite, the sequence may be either primary or secondary (§ 485. a). 

Note 2. — The so-called imperfect infinitive after memini (§584. a. n.) takes the 
secondary sequence : as, — ad me adire qudsdam memini, qui dicerent (Fam. iii. 10. 6), I 
remember that some persons visited me, to tell me, etc. 

h. The Present and Perfect Subjunctive are often used in depend* 

ent clauses of the Indirect Discourse even when the verb of sai/ing' 

etc. is in a secondary tense : — 

dicSbant . . . totidem NerviOs (pollic€ri) qui longissim6 absint (B. G. ii. 4), 
they said that the Nervii, who live farthest off, promised as many. 

Note. — This construction comes from the tendency of language to refer all time 
in narration to the time of the speaker (repraesentatio). In the course of a long pa^ 
sage in the Indirect Discourse the tenses of the subjunctive often vary, sometimes fol> 
lowing the sequence, and sometimes affected by repraesentatio. Examples may be 
seen in B. 6. i. 13, vii. 20, etc. 

Certain constructions are never affected by repraesentatio. Such are the Imperfect 
and Pluperfect Subjunctive with com temporal, anteqnam, and priusquam. 

Questions in Indirect Discourse 

586. A Question in Indirect Discourse may be either in the 
Subjunctive or in the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. 

A real question, asking for an answer, is generally put in the 
Subjunctive ; a rhetorical question, asked for effect and implying 
its own answer, is put in the Infinitive : — 

quid sibi vellet ? cur in BuSa possession's veniret (6. G. i. 44), wh/it did he 
want f why did he come into his territories f [Real question. Direct : 
quid "^8 ? cur vems ?] 

nam recentium iniuriSxum memoriam [sS] dSpOnere posse (id. 1. 14), coidd 
he lay aside the memory of recent wrongs? [Rhetorical Question. 
Direct : num possum ?] 

quern signum daturum f ugientibus ? quern ausiirum AlezandrO succ6dere (Q. C. 
iii. 6. 7), wfio will give the signal on the retreat f who will dare succeed 
Alexander? [Rhetorical. Direct: quis dabit . . . audebit.] 


Note 1. — No sharp line can be drawn between the Subjunctive and the Infinitive 
in questions in the Indirect Discourse. Whether the question is to be regarded as 
rhetorical or real often depends merely on the writer's point of view : — 

utmm partem regni petitunun esse, an t5tum 6reptiiram (Liv. xlv. 19. 15), wUl you 

ask part of the regal power (he said), or seize the whole? 
quid tandem praetori fadendom fnisse (id. xzxi. 48), what, pray , ought aprs&tor to 

?iave done? 
quid repente factum [esse] cur, etc. (id. zxxiv. 54), what had suddenly happened, 
that, etc. ? 
Note 2. — Questions coming immediately after a verb of asking are treated as Indi- 
rect Questions and take the Subjunctive (see § 574). .This is true even when the verb 
of asking serves also to introduce a passage in the Indirect Discourse. The question 
may be either real or rhetorical. See quaetivit, etc. (Liv. xxxvii. 15). 
For the use of tenses, see § 585. 

587. A Deliberative Subjunctive (§ 444) in the Direct Dis- 
course is always retained in the Indirect : — 

cor aliqnOs ex siils ftmitteret (B. C. i. 72), why (thought he) should he lose 
some of his men f [Direct : cfir ftmittam ?] 

Commands in Indirect Disooorse 

588. All Imperative forms of speech take the Subjunctive in 
Indirect Discourse : — 

remimsceretiir veteris incommodi (B. G. i. 13), remember (said he) the ancient 

disaster, [Direct: reminlscere.] 
finem faeiat (id. i. 20), let him maJce an end, [Direct : fac] 
ferrent opem^ adiaT&rent (Liy. ii. 6), let them bring aid, let them help, 

a. This rule applies not only to the Imperative of the direct dis- 
course, but to the Hortatory and the Optative Subjunctive as well. 

Note 1. — Though these subjunctives stand for independent clauses of the direct 
disoooTse, they follow the rule for the sequence of tenses, being in fact dependent on 
the verb of saying etc. (cf. §§ 483, 685). 

Note 2. — A Prohibition in the Indirect Discourse is regularly expressed by n6 with 
the present or imperfect subjunctive, even when n5Ii with the infinitive would be used 
in the Direct: as, — n6 pertorbftrentar (B. 6. vii. 29), do not (he said) he troubled. 
[Direct; ndlite perturb&ri. But sometimes ndllet is found in Indirect Discourse.] 

Conditions in Indirect Discourse 

589. Conditional sentences in Indirect Discourse are expressed 
as follows : — 

1. The Protasis, being a svhordinaie clause^ is always in the 

2. The Apodosis, if independent and not hortatory or optative, 
is always in some form of the Infinitive. 


a. The Present Subjunctive in the apodosis of less vivid future 
conditions (§ 516. b) becomes the Future Infinitive like the Future 
Indicative in the apodosis of more vivid future conditions. 

Thus there is no distinction between more and less vivid future 
conditions in the Indirect Discourse. 

Examples of Conditional Sentences in Indirect Discourse are — 

1. Simple Present Condition (§515): — 

(dixit) 8l ipse populO ROinanO nOn praesctiberet quein ad modum suO iure 
titerStur, nOn oportere ses€ a popuIO ROmanO in suO iure impediri (B. 6. 
i. 36), ke said that if he did not dictate to the Roman people how they 
should use their rights^ he ought not to he interfered with by the Roman 
people in the exercise of his rights. [Direct : si ndn piaescribo . . . noa 

praedic&vit ... si pace titi velint, iniquum esse, etc. (id. i. 44), ?ie asserted 
that if they wished to enjoy pea^e, it was unfair, etc. [Direct : si volunt 
. . . est. Present tense kept by reprOiesentatid (§ 685. h. x.).] 

2. Simple Past Condition (§ 515): — 

non dicam n6 illud quidem, si maxime in culpa fueiit ApollOnius, tamen in 
hominem honestissimae civitatis honestissimum tarn graviter animad- 
vert!, caus& indicts,, nOn oportuisse (Verr. v. 20), I will not say this 
either, that, even if Apollonius was very greatly infauU, still an honorable 
man from an honorable state ought not to have been punished so severely 
without having his case heard. [Direct: si fuit . . . non oportait.] 

3. Future Conditions (§516): — 

(dixit) quod si praetereft n€mO sequ&tur, tamen 86 cum sCla decim& legiOne 
itorum (B. G. i. 40), but if nobody else should follow, still he woiUd go 
with the tenth legion atone. [Direct : si sequetar . . . ibo. Present tense 
by repra^eserMtid (§ 586. 6. n.).] 

Haeduis sS obsidSs redditiirum ndn esse, neque eis . . . bellum illatflmm. si 
in e5 manSrent, quod convSnisset, stipendiumque quotannis penderent : 
si id nOn fecissent, longe eis fratemum n5men populi R6mftni afata- 
rum (id. i. 36), he said that he would not give up the fiostages to the 
Haedui, but would not make war upon them if they observed the agreement 
which hod been made, and paid tribute yearly ; but that, if they should 
not do this, the name of brothers to the Roman people would be far from 
aiding them. [Direct : reddam . . . inf eram ... si manebunt . . . pen- 
dent: si non fecerint . . . aberit.] 

id Datames ut audivit, sensit, si in turbam ezisset ab homine tarn necessa- 
ri5 s€ relictum, futurum [esse] ut cSteri consilium sequantur (Nep. Dat 
6), wh^n Datames heard this, he saw that, if it shoutd get abroad that he 
had been abandoned by a man so closely connected with him, everybody 
else would follow his example. [Direct : si exiedt . . . aeqaentiir.] 


(putftyfount) nisi xd6 elvitftte ezpnliMent, obttnfire 86 nOn poese licentiam 
cnpiditaium fiu&ram (Alt. x. 4), tJiey thought that urUeas they drofoe me 
out of the state, they could not have free play for their desires. [Direct : 
nisi (CiceiGnem) ezpaletimus, obtinere non poterimos.] 

6. In changing a Condition contrary to fa>ct (§ 617) into the Indi- 
rect Discourse, the following points require notice : — 

1. The Protasis always remains unchanged in tense. 

2. The Apodosis, if activey takes a peculiar infinitive form, made by com- 
bining the Participle in -Grus with fuisse. 

3. If the verb of the Apodosis is passive or has no supine stem, the pe- 
riphrasis fnturum fuisse ut (with the Imperfect Subjunctive) must be used. 

4. An Indicative in the Apodosis becomes a Perfect Infinitive. 
Examples are : — 

nee s6 saperstitem filiae futflrum faisse, nisi spem ulclscendae mortis ^ius 
in aoxiliO commllitOnum habuisset (Liv. iii. 50. 7), and that he should 
not now he a survinoTj etc., unless he had had hope^ etc. [Direct: ndn 
snperstes essem, nisi habuissem.] 

illud Asia cOgitet, n&llam & s€ neque belli externi neque disoordiftrum do- 
mestic&rum calamitAtem Afntflram fuisse, si hOc imperiO nOn tenSrStur 
(Q. Fr. i. 1. 34), let ulsta (personified) think ofthis^ that no disaster, etc., 
toould not be hers, if she were not held by this govemmewL [Direct : 
abesset, u non tenfirer.] 

quid inimiciti&rum crSditis [me] ezceptuzum fuisse, si Insontls lacesaissem 
(Q. C. vi. 10. 18), what enmities do you think I should have incurred, if 
I had wantonly OMaUed the innocent f [excipiBsem ... si lacessissem. ] 

invitum s€ dicere, nee dictfimm fuisse, nl cSritfts rel publicae vinceret (Liv. 
ii. 2), that he spoke unwillingly and should not have spoken^ did not love 
for the state preoaU. [Direct: nee dixisaeiii . . . ni vinceret.] 

nisi eO tempore quidam ntintil d6 Caesaris vlctOrift . . . essent all&ti, exlsti- 
mabant plerlquefutOmm fuisse uti [oppidum] 2initter6tur (B. C. iii. 101), 
most people thought that unless at that time reports of Ccesar^s victory 
had been brought, the town would have been lost, [Direct : nisi essent 
alUti . . . ^missum esset.] 

quorum s! aetas potuisset esse longinquior, futurum fuisse ut omnibus per- 
fects artibus hominum vita Srudiretur (Tusc. iii. 60), if life could have 
been longer, human existence would have been embellished by every art in 
its perfection. [Direct: si potuisset . . . Srudita esset.] 

at pierlque ezlstimant, SI &crius insequi volnisset, bellum e9 di3 potuisse 
finire (B. C. iii. 61), but most people think that, ifhehad chosen to follow 
up the pursuit more vigorously, he could have ended the war on that day. 
[Direct : si volulsset . . . potnit.] 

Caesar respondit ... si alic^us iniuriae sibi cSnscius fnisset, n6n fuisse dif- 
ficile cav6re (B. G. i. 14), Coesar replied that if [the Roman people] had 
been aware of any wrong act, it would not have been hard for them to take 
precautions. [Direct: si fuisset, ndn difficile foit (§ 517. c).] 



[§§ 589-691 

Note 1. — In Indirect Discourse Present Conditions contrary to fact are not dis- 
tinguished in the apodoaU fh)m Past Conditions contrary to fact, but the protaMs may 
keep them distinct. 

Notb 2. — The periphrasis futanun fuisse at is sometimes used from choice when 
there is no necessity for resorting to it, but not in CsBsar or Cicero. 

Note 3. — Very rarely the Future Infinitive is used in the Indirect Discourse to ex- 
press the Apodosis of a Present Condition contrary to fact. Only four or five examples 
of this use occur in classic authors : as, — Titurius clamabat si Caesar adesaet neque 
Camutes, etc., neque EburOnes tanta cum contemptiOne nostra ad castra Tentuxte esse 
(B. 6. y. 29), TUuriu8 cried out that if Csesar werepresentf neither wotdd the Car- 
nutes, etc., nor would the Eburones be coming to our camp with such contempt. 
[Direct: si adesset . . . venirent.] 

590. The following example illustrates some of the foregoing 
principles in a connected address : — 


SI pScem populus ROmftnos cum 
HelvStils faceret, in eam partem itflrds 
atque ibi futfiros Helvetids, ubi eOs 
Caegar constituisset atque esse ▼olois- 
set: sin bellO persequl perseverSret, 
reminiscerStur et veteris incommodi 
popuU KOmftnl, et pristinae virtutis 
HelvetiOrum. Quod imprOvIsO tinum 
pSgum adortus esset, cum el qui fltlmen 
transissent suis auxilium f erre nOn pos- 
sent, n6 ob eam rem aut suae m^gnO 
opere virtfltl triboeret, aut ipsos despi- 
caret: 88 ita & patribus mftiOribusque 
suis didicisse, ut magis virtQte quam 
dolO contenderent, aut Insidils niteren- 
tur. Qud. r6 n6 committexet, ut is locus 
ubi cdnstitissent ex calamit&te popull 
ROm&nl et intemeciOne exercittks nO- 
men caperet, aut memoriam proderet. 
— B. G. i. 13. 


Si pftcem populus ROmSnus cum 
HelvStils faciet, in eam partem ibant 
atque ibi erunt Helvetii, ubi eOs tH 
constittteris atque esse volueris: on 
bellO persequl persevSiabis, leminisceie 
[inquit] et yeteris incommodi popull 
ROmftnl, et pristinae virtutis Hdve- 
tiOrum. Quod impr0vls5 tinum pftgum 
adortus es, cum el qui fltimen trSnsie- 
xant suis auxilium f erre nOn possent, nS 
ob eam rem aut tnae m&gnO opere vir- 
tdtl tribaeris, aut nSs dSspezeiis: nos 
ita & patribus m&iOribusque nostiis didi- 
cimuB, ut magis yirtdte quam dolO con- 
tendftmus, aut Insidils mtftmur. Qu& r6 
n5II committere, ut hie locus ubi consti- 
timns ex calamitfite popull ROm&nl et 
intemeclOne exercitOs nOmen capiat, 
aut memoriam prSdat. 

Intermediate Clauses 

591. A Subordinate clause takes the Subjunctive — 

1. When it expresses the thought of some other person than the 
speaker or writer (Informal Indirect Discourse), or 

2. When it is an integral part of a Subjunctive clause or equiva- 
lent Infinitive (Attraction).^ 

1 See note on Indirect Discourse (§ 577). 


Informal Indirect Discourse 

592. A Subordinate Clause takes the Subjunctive when it 
expresses the thought of some other person than the writer or 
speaker : — 

1. When the clause depends upon another containing a wishy a 
commandy or a questwrty expressed indirectly, though not strictly in 
the form of Indirect Discourse : — 

animal sen tit quid sit quod deceat (Off. i. 14), an animal feels what it is thai 

huic imperat qu&s possit adeat clvitftt^s (B. G. iv. 21), he orders him to visit 
what stales he can. 

hunc sibi ex anim5 scrHpulum, qui 86 dies noctlsque stimalat ac pungit, ut 
€veU&tis postulat (Rose. Am. 6), he begs you to pluck from his heart this 
doubt thai goads and stings him day and night, [Here the relative 
clause is not a part of the Purpose expressed in ivellfltis, but is an 
assertion made by the subject of postalat] 

2. When the main clause of a quotation is merged in the verb of 
sayingy or some modifier of it : — 

si quid de his rSbus dicere vellet, fScI potest&tem (Cat. iii. 11), if he wished 
to say anything about these maUers, I gave him a chance, 

tulit d6 caede quae in AppiS. yi& facta esset (Mil. 15), he passed a law con- 
cerning the murder which (in the language of the bill) took place in the 
Appian Way. 

nisi restitttisseiit statuSs, vehementer min&tur (Verr. ii. 162), he threatens them 
violently unless they should restore the statues. [Here the main clause, 
^Hhat he will inflict punishment,^' is contained in min&tur.] 

lis auxilium suum pollicitus si ab Suebis premerentur (B. 6. iv. 19), he 
promised them his aid if they should be molested by the Suevi. [= polli- 
citus 88 aoxilinm Utfirum, etc.] 

prohibitiO tollendl, nisi pacttts esset, vim adhib€bat pactiOnI (Verr. iii. 37), 
the forbidding to take away unless he came to terms gave force to the 

3. When a reason or an explanntory fact is introduced by a rela- 
tive or by quod (rarely quia) (see § 540) : — 

Paetus omnis librOs quSs fr&ter suus reUqisisset mihi dOn&vit (Att. ii. 1. 12), 
Patus presented to me aU the books which (he said) his brother had left. 

Note. — Under this head even what the speaker himself thought under other cir- 
cumstances may have the Subjunctiye. So also with quod even the yerb of saying may 
be in the Subjunctiye (§ 540. v.^). Here belong also nSn quia, ndn quod, introducing a 
reason expres^ to deniy it. (See § 540. n. '.) 


Sttbjttncdve of Integral Port (Attraction) 

593. A clause depending upon a Subjunctive clause or an 
equivalent Infinitive will itself take the Subjunctive if regarded 
as an integral part of that clause : — ^ 

imperat, dum res ifldicetur, hominem adservent : cum ifLdicftta sit, ad ae ut 
adddcant (Verr. iii. 56), lie orders tkem, tiU the affair should be decided, 
to keep the man; when it is judged^ to bring him to him, 

etenim quia tarn dissoltltO animO est, qui haec cum videat, tacSre ac neglegere 
poflsit (Rose. Am. 32), for who is so reckless of spirit that^ when he sees 
these thingSy he can keep silent and pass them by f 

mOs est Athenis laadftrl in cOntiOne eOs qui sint in proeliis interfecti (Or. 
151), it is the custom at Athens for those to be publicly eulogized who 
have been slain in battle. [Here Uudin is equivalent to ut laudentor.] 

a. But a dependent clause may be closely connected grammatically 
with a Subjunctive or Infinitive clause, and still take the Indicative, 
if it is not regarded as a necessary logical part of that clause : — 

quOdam modO postulat ut, quern ad modum est, sic etiam appelletur, tyrannus 
(Att. X. 4. 2), in a mxinner he demands that as he is, so he may be caUed, 
a tyrant. 

nattbra f ert ut els faveftmus qui eadem perlcula quibus nOs pexffincti sumns 
ingrediuntur (Mar. 4), nature prompts us to feel friendly Uywards those 
who are entering on the sam^ dangers which we have parsed through, 

n6 hostes, quod tantum multitudine potexant, suOs circumvenire possent 
(B. G. ii. 8), lest the enemy, because they were so strong in numbers, should 
be able to surround his men. 

sX mea in t6 essent ofiBcia sClum tanta quanta magis & t6 ipsO praedicari 
quam & m6 ponderftrl solent, verScundius 9, te . . . peterem (Earn. ii. 6). 
if my good services to you were only so great as they are wont rather to 
be caMed by you tlian to be estimated by me, I sJiouUl, etc. 

Note 1. — The use of the Indicative in such clauses sometimes serves to emphasize 
the fact, as true independently of the statement contained in the subjunctive or infini- 
tive clause. But in many cases no such distinction is perceptible. 

Note 2. — It is often difficult to distinguish between Informal Indirect Discourse 
and the Integral Part. Thus in imperilvit ut ea flerent quae opus eeeent, essent may 
stand for sunt, and then will be Indirect Discourse, being a part of the thought, but 
not a part of the order ; or it may stand for eruut, and then will be Integral Part, being 
a part of the order itself. The difficulty of making the distinction in such eases is 
evidence of the close relationship between these two constructions. 

1 The subjunctiye in this use is of the same nature as the subjunctive in the main 
clause. A dependent clause in a clause of purpose is really a part of the purpose, as 
is seen from the use of should and other auxiliaries in English. In a result danse this 
is less clear, but the result oonstruction is a branch of the characteristic (§ 53ft), to 
whieh category the dependent clause in this case evidently belongs when it takes tiie 



1. A noun used to describe another, and denoting the same person or 

thing, agrees with it in Case (§282). 

2. Adjectives, Adjective Pronouns, and Participles agree with their 

nouns in Gender, Number, and Case (§ 286). 

3. Superlatives (more rarely Comparatives) denoting order and succes- 

sion — also mediuB, (cetems), reliquus — usually designate uot what 
dbjecty but what part of it, is meant (§ 293). 

4. The Personal Pronouns have two forms for the genitive plural, that 

in -am being used pariitivelyy and that in -i oftenest objectively 

5. The Reflexive Pronoun (sS), and usually the corresponding possessive 

(suns), are used in the predicate to refer to the subject of the sen- 
tence or clause (§ 299). 

6. To express Possession and similar ideas the Possessive Pronouns 

must be used, not the genitive of the personal or reflexive pro- 
nouns (§ 302. a). 

7. A Possessive Pronoun or an Adjective implying possession may take 

an appositive in the genitive case agreeing in gender, number, and 
case with an implied noun or pronoun (§ 302. e). 

8. A Relative Pronoun agrees with its Antecedent in (render and Num- 

ber, but its Case depends on its construction in the clause in 
which it stands (§ 305). 

9 . A Finite Verb agrees with its Subject in Number and Person (§ 316). 

10. Adverbs are used to modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs 

(§ 321). 

11. A Question of simple fact, requiring the answer yes or no, is formed 

by adding the enclitic -ne to the emphatic word (§ 332). 

12. When the enclitic -ne is added to a negative word, — as in nSnne, — 

an qffirmative answer is expected. The particle num suggests a 
negative answer (§ 332. 6). 

13. The Subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative (§ 339). 

14. The Vocative is the case of direct address (§ 340). 

15. A noun used to limit or define another, and not meaning the same 

person or thing, is put in the Genitive (§ 342). 

16. The Possessive Crenitive denotes the person or thing to which an 

object, quality, feeling, or action belongs (§ 343). 


17. The genitive may denote the Substance or Material of which a 

thing consists (§ 344). 

18. The genitive is used to denote Quality, but only when the quality is 

modified by an adjective (§ 345). 

19. Words denoting a pari are followed by the Grenitive of the whole to 

which the part belongs {Partitive Genitive, § 346). 

20. Nouns of action, agency, and feeling goyern the Genitive of the object 

{Objective Genitive, § 348). 

21. Adjective* denoting desire, knowledge, memory, fulness, power, sharing, 

guilt, and their opposites ; participles in -ns when used as adjectives; 
and verbals in -&x, govern the Genitive (§ 349. a, b, c). 

22. Verbs of remembering and forgetting take either the Accusative or 

the Genitive of the object (§ 350). 

23. Verbs of reminding take with the Accusative of the person a Genitive 

of the thing (§ 351). 

24. Verbs of accusing, condemning, and acquitting take the Genitive of 

the charge or penalty (§ 352). 

25. The Dative is used of the object indirectly affected by an action 

{Indirect Object, § 361). 

26. Many verbs signifying to favor, help, please, trust, and their contraries ; 

also, to believe, persuade, command, obey, serve, resist, envy, threaten, 
pardon, and spare, take the Dative (§ 367). 

27. Many verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, in, inter, ob, post, prae, 

pr5, snb, super, and some with circum, admit the Dative of the 
indirect object (§ 370). 

28. The Dative is ujed with esse and similar words to denote Possession 

(§ 373). 

29. The Dative of the Agent is used with the Gerundive, to denote the 

person on whom the necessity rests (§ 374). 

30. The Dative often depends, not on any particular word, but on the 

general meaning of the sentence {Dative of Reference, § 376). 

31. Many verbs of taking away and the like take the Dative (especially 

of 2^ person) instead of the Ablative of Separation (§ 381). 

32. The Dative is used to denote the Purpose or End, often with another 

Dative of the person or thing affected (§ 382). 

33. The Dative is used with adjectives (and a few adverbs) of fitness, 

nearness, likeness, service, inclination, and their opposites (§ 384). 


34. The Direct Object of a transitive verb is put in the Accusative 

(§ 387). 

35. An intransitive verb often takes the Accusative of a noun of kindred 

meaning, usually modified by an adjective or in some other man- 
ner (Cognate AccuscUive^ § 390). 

36. Verbs of naming, choosing, appointing, making, esteeming, showing, and 

the like, may take a Predicate Accusative along with the direct 
object (§ 393). 

37. Transitive verbs compounded with prepositions sometimes take (in 

addition to the direct object) a Secondary Object, originally gov- 
erned by the preposition (§ 394). 

38. Some verbs of asking and teaching may take two Accusatives, one of 

the Person, and the other of the Thing (§ 396). 

39. The subject of an Infinitive is in the Accusative (§ 397. e), 

40. Duration of Time and Extent of Space are expressed by the Accusa- 

tive (§§ 424. c, 425). 

41. Words signifying separation or privation are followed by the Abla- 

tive (Ablative of Separation, § 400). 

42. The Ablative, usually with a preposition, is used to denote the source 

from which anything is derived or the material of which it consists 
(§ 403). 

43. The Ablative, with or without a preposition, is used to express cause 

(§ 404). 

44. The Voluntary Agent after a passive verb is expressed by the Abla- 

tive with a or ab (§ 405). 

45. The Comparative degree is often followed by the Ablative signifying 

than (§ 406). 

46. The Comparative may be followed by quam, than. When quam is 

used, the two things compared are put in the same case (§ 407). 

47. The Ablative is used to denote the means or instrument of an action 

(§ 409). 

48. The deponents, utor, fruor, fongor, potior, and yescor, with several of 

their compounds, govern the Ablative (§ 410). 


49. Opus and usus, signifying need, are followed by the Ablative (§ 411). 

50. The manner of an action is denoted by the Ablative, usually with 

cum unless a limiting adjective is used with the noun (§ 412). 


51. Accompaniment is denoted by the Ablative, regularly with cum 

(§ 413). 

52. With Comparatives and words implying comparison the Ablative is 

used to denote the degree of difference (§ 414). 

53. The quality of a thing is denoted by the Ablative with an adjective 

or genitive Modifier (§ 415). 

54. The price of a thing is put in the Ablative (§ 416). 

55. The Ablative of Specification denotes that in respect to which any- 

thing is or is done (§ 418). 

56. The adjectives dignus and indignns take the Ablative (§ 418. 5). 

57. A noun or pronoun, with a participle in agreement, may be put in 

the Ablative to define the time or circumstances of an action 
(Ablative Absolute, § 419). 

An adjective, or a second noun, may take the place of the participle in the 
ablative absolute construction (§ 419. a). 

58. Time when, or within which, is denoted by the Ablative; time how 

long by the Accusative (§ 423). 

59 . Relations of Place are expressed as follows : — 

1. The place from which, by the Ablative with ab, de, ex. 

2. The place to which (or end of motion^, by the Accusative with 

ad or in. 

3. The place where, by the Ablative with in (Locative Ablative). 

(§ 426.) 

60. With names of toions and small islands, and with dornns and rus, the 

relations of place are expressed as follows : — 

1. The place from which, by the Ablative without a preposition. 

2. The place to vjhich, by the Accusative without a preposition. 

3. The place where, by the Locative. (§ 427.) 

61. The Hortatory Subjunctive is used in the present tense to express 

an exhortation, a command, or a concession (§§ 439, 440). 

62. The Optative Subjunctive is used to express a wish. The present 

tense denotes the wish as possible, the imperfect as unaccomplished 
in present time, the pluperfect as unaccomplished in past time 
(§ 441). 

63. The Subjunctive is used in questions implying (1) doxiht, indignation, 

or (2) an impossibility of the thing's being done (Deliberative 5m//- 
junctive, § 444). 


64. The Potential Subjunctive is used to suggest an action as possible or 

conceivable (§ 446). 

65. The Imperative is used in commands and entreaties (§ 448). 

66. Prohibition is regularly expressed in classic prose (1) by noli with the 

Infinitive, (2) by cave with the Present Subjunctive, (3) by ne with 
the Perfect Subjunctive (§ 450). 

67. The Infinitive, with or without a subject accusative, may be used 

with est and similar verbs (1) as the Subject, (2) in Apposition with 
the subject, or (3) as a Predicate Nominative (§ 452). 

68. Verbs which imply another action of the same subject to complete their 

meaning take the Infinitive without a subject accusative (Comple- 
mentary Infinitive, § 456). 

69. The Infinitive, with subject accusative, is used with verbs and other 

expressions of knowing, thinking, telling, and perceiving (^Indirect 
Discourse, see § 459). 

70. The Infinitive is often used for the Imperfect Indicative in narration^ 

and takes a subject in the Nominative (^Historical Infinitive, § 463). 

71. Sequence of Tenses. In complex sentences, a primary tense in 

the main clause is followed by the Present or Perfect Subjunctive 
in the dependent clause ; a secondary tense by the Imperfect or 
Pluperfect (§ 483). 

72. Pai*ticiple8 denote time as present, past, or future with respect to the 

time of the verb in their clause (§ 489). 

73. The Gerund and the Gerundive are used, in the oblique cases, in 

many of the constructions of nouns (§§ 501-507). 

74. The Supine in -um is used after verbs of motion to express Purpose 

(§ 509). 

75. The Supine in -u is used with a few adjectives and with the nouns 

fas, nefas, and opus, to denote Specification (§ 510). 

76. Dum, modo, dummodo, and tantum ut, introducing a Proviso, take 

the Subjunctive (§ 528). 

77. Final clauses take the Subjunctive introduced by ut (uti), negative 

ne (ut ne), or by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb (§ 531). 

78. A Relative Clause with the Subjunctive is often used to indicate a 

characteristic of the antecedent, especially where the antecedent is 
otherwise undefined (§ 535). 

79. Dignus, in^gnus, aptus, and iddneus, take a Subjunctive clause with 

a relative (rarely with ut) (§ 535./). 


80. Clauses of Result take the Subjunctive introduced by ut, so thai 

(negative, ut n6n), or by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb 
(§ 087). 

81. The Causal Particles quod, quia, and quoniam take the Indicative 

^hen the reason is given on the authority of the writer or speaker; 
the Subjunctive when the reason is given on the authority of 
another (§ 540). 

82. The particles postquam (posteaquam), ubi, at (ut primum, ut semel), 

simul atque (simul ac, or simul alone) take the Indicative (usually 
in the perfect or the historical present) (§ 543). 

83. A Temporal clause with cum, when, and some past tense of the Indica- 

tive dates or defines the time at which the action of the main verb 
occurred (§ 545). 

84. A Temporal clause with cum and the Imperfect or Plttperfect Sub- 

junctive describes the circumstances that accompanied or preceded 
the action of the main verb (§ 546). 

85. Cum Causal or Concessive takes the Subjunctive (§ 549). 

For other concessive particles, see § 527. 

86. In Indirect Discourse the main clause of a Declaratory Sentence is 

put in the Infinitive with Subject Accusative. Ail subordinate 
clauses take the Subjunctive (§ 580). 

87. The Present, the Perfect, or the Future Infinitive is used in Indirect 

Discourse, according as the time indicated is present, past, or future 
with reference to the verb of saying etc. by which the Indirect Dis- 
course is introduced (§ 584). 

88. In Indirect Discourse a real question is generally put in the Subjunc- 

tive; a rhetorical question in the Infinitive (§ 586). 

89. All Imperative forms of speech take the Subjunctive in Indirect 

Discourse (§ 588). 

90. A Subordinate clause takes the Subjunctive when it expresses the 

thought of some other person than the writer or speaker (^Informal 
Indirect Discourse, § 592). 

91. A clause depending on a Subjunctive clause or an equivalent Infini- 

tive will itself take the Subjunctive if regarded as an integral part 
of that clause (Attraction, § 593). 

For Prepositions and their cases, see §§ 220, 221. 

For Conditional Sentences, see § 512 ff. (Scheme in § 514.) 

For ways of expressing Purpose, see § 633. 

§§ 596-597] ORDER OF WORDS 393 


595. Latin differs from English in having more freedom in the 
arrangement of words for the purpose of showing the relative 
importance of the ideas in a sentence. 

596. As in other languages, the Subject tends to stand first, the 
Predicate last. Thus, — 

Paasftni&s LacedaemoniuB m&gnus hom5 sed varius in omnl genere vltae fait 
(Nep. Faus. 1), Pattsaniaa the LacedxBmonian was a great man, hut in- 
consistent in the whole course of his life. 

Note. — This happens because, from the speaker's ordinary i>oint of view, the sub- 
ject of his discourse is the most important tiling in it, as singled out from all other 
things to be spoken of. 

a. There is in Latin, however, a special tendency to place the verb itself 
last of all, after all its modifiers. But many writers purposely avoid the 
monotony of this arrangement by putting the verb last but one, followed 
by some single word of the predicate. 

597. In connected discourse the word most prominent in the 
speaker's mind comes first, and so on in order of prominence. 

This relative prominence corresponds to that indicated in Eng- 
lish by a graduated stress of voice (usually called emphasis). 

«• The difference in emphasis expressed by difference in order of words 
is illustrated in the following passages : — 

apud XenophOntem autem moriSns Cyrus m§,ior haec dicit (Cat. M. 79), in 

Xenophon too, on his death-bed Cyrus the elder utters these words. 
Cyrus quidem haec morions ; nOs, si placet, nostra videamus (id. 82), Cyrus, 

to be sure, utters these words on his deat?i-bed ; let us, if you please, con- 

sider our own case. 
Cyrus quidem apud Xenoph5ntem eO serm5ne, quern mori€ns habuit (id. 

30), Cyrus, to be sure, in Xenophon, in that speech which he uttered on 

his deatMyed. 

Note. — This stress or emphasis, however, in English does not necessarily show 
any violent contrast to the rest of the words in the sentence, but is infinitely varied, 
constantly increasing and diminishing, and often so subtle as to be unnoticed except 
in careful study. So, as a general rule, the precedence of words in a Latin sentence 
is not mechanical, but corresponds to the prominence which a good speaker would 
mark by skilfully managed stress of voice. A Latin written sentence, therefore, has 
all the clearness and expression which could be given to a spoken discourse by the best 
actor in Cnglish. Some exceptions to the rule will be treated later. 

The first chapter of Caesar's Gallic War, if rendered so as to bring- 
out as far as possible the shades of emphasis, would mn thus : — 




Gallia est omnis divisa in partis 
tris, quftrum unam incoliint Belgae, 
aliam Aqolt&ni, tertiam qui ipsOrum 
lingu& Celtae, nostra Galli appellan- 
tur. HI omnSs lingua, instittltls, legi- 
bu8 inter bS differunt. GallOs ab 
AquIt&niB Garumna flfunen, & Belgis 
M&trona et SSquana dlvidit. Horum 
omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, prop- 
tere& quod ft culttl atque hOm&nitate 

GAUL,^ in the widest senae^ is di- 
vided' into three parto,' which are 
vnhabiited^ (as follows): one^ by the 
Belgians, another* by the Aquitani, 
the third by a people called in fkeir 
own'^ language Celts, in ours Gauls. 
These ^ in their language,^ institutioiis, 
and laws are ail of them ^^ different. 
The GAULS" (proper) are separated 12 
from the Aqaitani by the river Garonne^ 
from the Belgians by the Mame and 
Seine, Of these 1* (tribes) the brav- 
est of all^^ are the Belgians, for the 
reason that they live farthest ^^ away 

1 GAUL: emphatic as the subject of discourse, as with a title or the like. 

3 Divided : opposed to the false conception (implied in the use of omnis) that the 
country called Gallia by the Romans is one. This appears more clearly from the fart 
that Cffisar later speaks of the Oalli in a narrower sense as distinct from the other two 
tribes, who with them inhabit Oallia in the wider sense. 

* Parts : continuing the emphasis begun in divisa. Not three parts as opposed to 
any other number, but into par^« at all. 

^ Inhabited : emphatic as the next subject, ** The inhabitants of these parts are, etc." 

^ One : given more prominence than it otherwise would have on account of its close 
connection with quftrum. 

> Another, etc. : opposed to one. 

^ Their own, ours : strongly opposed to each other. 

B These (tribes) : the main subject of discourse again, collecting under one head 
the names previously mentioned. 

9 Language, etc. : these are the most prominent ideas, as giving the striking points 
which distinguish the tribes. The emphasis becomes natural in English if we say 
** these have a different language, different institutions, different laws.** 

^^ All of them : the emphasis on all marks the distributive character of the adjec- 
tive, as if it were "every one has its own, etc." 

11 GAULS : emphatic as referring to the Gauls proper in distinction from the other 

13 Separated : though this word contains an indispensable idea in the connection, yet 
it has a subordinate position. It is not emphatic in Latin, as is seen from the fact that 
it cannot be made emphatic in English. The sense is: The Oauls lie between the 
Aquitani on the one side, and the Belgians on the other. 

18 Of THESE : the subject of discourse. 

14 All : emphasizing the superlative idea in ** bravest ** ; they, as Gauls, are assumed 
to be warlike, but the most so of all of them are the Belgians. 

16 Farthest away : one might expect absont (are away) to have a more emphatic 
place, but it is dwarfed in importance by the predominance of the main idea, the effemi- 
nating influences from which the Belgians are said to be free. It is not that they live 
farthest off that is insisted on, but that the civilization of the Province etc., which 
would soften them, comes less in their way. It is to be noticed also that abeimt has 
already been anticipated by the construction of coltn and still more by longistimE, so 
that when it comes it amounts only to a formal part of the sentence. Thus, — ' * becaose 
the civilization etc. of the Province (which would soften them) is farthest from them." 




from the civilization and rbfinbmbnt 
of the ProYince, and because they are 
LEAST 1 of all of them subject to the 
visits of traders^^ and to the (conse- 
quent) importation of sach things as ' 
tend to soften^ their warlike spirit; 
and are also nearest ^ to the Germans^ 
who live cusross the Rhine,^ and with 
whom they are incessantly'^ at war. 
For the same reason the Helvetians, aJs 
well, are superior to all the other Gauls 
in valor, because they are engaged in 
dLmost daily battles with the Germans, 
either defending their own boundaries 
from them^ or themselves making war 
on those of the Germans, Of all this 
country, one part — the one which, 
as has been said, the CkxuJLs (proper) 
occupy — BEOiNS at the river Rhone. 
Its boondaxies are the river Garonne^ 
the ocean, and the confines of the Bel- 
gians. It even reaches on the side 
of the Sequani and Helvetians the river 
Rhine. Its general direction is towards 
the north. The Belgians begin at 
the extreme limits of Gaul ; they reach 

prdvinciae longissime absunt, minime- 
que ad eOs merc&t5r€s saepe comme- 
ant atque ea quae ad effSminandOs 
animOs pertinent Important, proximl- 
que sunt Grerm&nia, qui trftns RhSnum 
incolunt, quibuscum continenter hel- 
ium gerunt. Qu& dS caus& HelvStil 
quoque reliquOs GallOs virtute praec6- 
dunt, quod fere cotldiftnls proelils cum 
Germ&nis contendunt, cum aut suis 
finibus eds prohibent, aut ipsi in eOrum 
finibus helium gerunt. EOrum tina 
pars, quam Gall6s obtlnSre dictum 
est, initium capit S, flumine Rhodano ; 
continStur Garumna. flumine, OceanO, 
finibus Belgarum; attingit etiam ah 
S€quanls et HelvStiis fliimen Rhenum ; 
vergit ad septentriOn^s. Belgae ab 
extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur: 
pertinent ad inferlGrem partem flu- 
minis RhSni; spectant in septentriO- 
nem et orientem sOlem. Aquit&nia 
3. Garumnd. flumine ad_ PyrSnaeOs 
mentis et eam partem OceanI quae 
est ad Hisp3jiiam pertinet; spectat 
inter occasum sOlis et 8eptentri5n6s. 

(on this side) as far as the lower part 

of the Rhine. They spread to the northward and eastward. 

Aquitania extends from the Garonne to the Pyrenees, and that part of the 
ocean that lies towards Spain. It runs off westward and northward. 

&• The more important word is never placed last for emphasis. The 
apparent cases of this usage (when the emphasis is not misconceived) are 
cases where a word is added as an afterthought, either real or affected, and 
so has its position not in the sentence to which it is appended, but, as it 
were, in a new one. 

1 Least : made emphatic here by a common Latin order, the chi<ismu8 (§ 596. /) . 

^ Traders : the fourth member of the chiasmus , opposed to cnltu and humanitate. 

3 Such things as : the importance of the nature of the importations overshadows the 
fact that they are imported, which fact is anticipated in traders. 

^ So/ten : cf . what is said in note 15, p. 394. They are brave because they have 
less to so/ten them, their native barbarity being taken for granted. 

6 Nearest : the same idiomatic prominence as in note 1 above, but varied by a special 
usage combining chiasmus and anap?iora (§ 598./). 

^ Across the Rhine : i.e. and so are perfect savages. 

^ Incessantly: the continuance of the warfare becomes the all-important idea, as 
if it were " and not a day passes in which they are not at war with them." 

896 ORDER OF WORDS [§698 

598. The main rules for the Order of Words are as follows : — 

am In any phrase the determining and most significant word comes 
first: — 

1. Adjective and Noun : — 

omnia homines decet, evebt man ought (opposed to some who do not). 

Lucius Catillna ndbili genere n&tus fuit, m&gnA vl et animi et corporis, 
. sed ingenio malO pr&vGque (Sail. Cat. 5), LucivLS Catiline was horn of a 
NOBLE family^ with gbeat force of mind and body, but with a nature 
that was evil and depraved. [Here the adjectives in the first part are 
the emphatic and important words, no antithesis between the nouns 
being as yet thought of ; but in the second branch the noun is meant 
to be opposed to those before mentioned, and immediately takes the 
prominent place, as is seen by the natural English emphasis, thus mak- 
ing a chiasmvsA] 

2. Word with modifying case : — 

quid magis EpamlnOndam, ThSb&nSmm imper3,t5rem, quam victSiiae The- 
bftnOrum cOnsulere decuit (In v. i. 69), what should Epaminxmdas, com- 
mander of the Thbbans, ?iave aimed at more than the victory of the 
Thehans 1 

lacrima nihil citius ftrSscit (id. i. 109), nothing dries quicker than a tear. 

nem5 fere laudis cupidus (De Or. i. 14), hardly any one desirous of glort 
(cf. Manil. 7, avidi laudis, eager /or glory), 

b* Numeral adjectives, adjectives of quantity, demonstrative, relative, 
and interrogative pronouns and adverbs, tend to precede the .word or words 
to which they belong : — 

cum aliqua perturb3.ti5ne (Off. i. 137), with some disturbance. 
hoc un5 praest9.mus (De Or. i. 32), in this one thing we excel. 
ceterae ferS artSs, th>e other arts. 

Note. — This happens because such words are usually emphatic ; but often the 
words connected with them are more so, and in such cases the pronouns etc. yield the 
emphatic place : — 

causa aliqua (De Or. i. 260), soms case. 

stilus ille tuus (id. i. 257), that well-known style of yours (in an antithesis; see 

passage), [nie is idiomatic in this sense and position.] 
R5mam quae apportata sunt (Verr. iv. 121) , what were carried to Rous (in contrast 
to what remained at Syracuse). 

c. When sum is used as the Substantive verb (§ 284. ft), it regularly 
stands first, or at any rate before its subject : — 

est virl magn! punire sontis (Off. i. 82), it is the duty of a great man to pun- 
ish the guilty. 

1 So called from the Greek letter X {chi)\ on account of the criss-cross arrangement 
of the words. Thus, "x* (see / below) . 



tf. The verb may come first, or have a prominent position, either (1) 
ecause the idea in it is emphatic ; or (2) because the predication of the 
tonole statement is emphatic ; or (3) the tense only may be emphatic : — 

(1) dicebat idem Cotta (Off. ii. 69), Cotta tised to say the same thing (opposed 

to others' boasting). 
Idem fecit adulescfins M. AntOnius (id. ii. 49), the samething was done by 

Mark Antony in his youth, [Opposed to dixi just before.] 
tacis amice (Lael. 9), you act kindly. [Of. amicS facis, ymi are very kind 

(you act kindly).] 

(2) prOpgnsior benlgnitfts esse dCbCbit in calamitOsOs nisi forte erunt digni 

calamitate (Off. ii. 62), liberalUy ought to be readier toward the unfoHu- 

note unless perchance they really deserve their misfortune. 
praeserUm cum scribat (Panaelius) (id. iii. 8), especially when he does say 

(in his books). [Opposed to something omitted by him.] 
<3) fuimus Trees, fuit Ilium (Aen. ii. 325),toe have ceased to be Trojans, Troy 

is now no more. 

loquor autem d6 commtinibus amicitiis (Off. iii. 46), but I am speaking now 
of common friendships, 

e. Often the connection of two emphatic phrases is brought about by 
giving the precedence to the most prominent part of each and leaving the 
less prominent parts to follow in inconspicuous places : — 

plurfis Solent esse causae (Off. i. 28), there are usually several reasons, 
quos amisimus civis, eOs Martis vis perculit (Marc. 17), what fellow-cUizens 

we have lost, have been stricken down by the violence of war. 
maximas tibi omn€s gratias agimus (id. 33), we all render you the warmest 

haec r6s tinlus est propria Caesaris (id. 11), this exploit belongs to Coesar 

obiQrgatiOnes etiam nOn numquam incidunt necessariae (Off. i. 136), occa- 
sions for rebuke also sometimes occur which are unavoidaMe. 

/. Antithesis between two pairs of ideas is indicated by placing the pairs 
either (1) in the same order (anaphora) or (2) in exactly the opposite order 
(chiasmus) : — 

(1) rgrum cOpia verbOrum cOpiam gignit (De Or. ui. 126), abundance of mat- 

ter produces copiousness o/ expression. 

(2) leges suppliciO improbOs afficiunt, defendunt ac tuentur bonOs (Legg. ii. 

13), the laws visit punishments upon the wicked, but the good they 
defend and protect. 

NoTB. — Chiasmus is very common in Latin, and often seems in fact the more inarti- 
ficial construction. In an artless narrative one might hear, "The women were all 
drowned, they saved the men." ' ^^^^ *" 

nOn igitur utilit»tem amicitia sed utilitas amicitiam cOnsecuta est (Lael 61) it is 
not then that friendship has followed upon advantage, but advantage upon 
friendship. [Here the chiasmus is only grammatical, the ideas heine in the 
parallel order.] (See also p. 395 ; longissime, minimg, proxinu ) 

398 ORDER OF WORDS [§§698,599 

g. A modifier of a phrase or some part of it is often embodied within 
the phrase (cf . a) : — 

d6 commUnl hominum memoria (Tusc. i. 69), in regard to the universal 
memory of man. 

h. A favorite order with the poets is the interlocked, by which the attri- 
bute of one pair comes between the parts of the other (synchysis) : — 
et superiectO pavidae nat&runt aequore dammae (Hor. Od. i. 2. 11). 

NoTB. — This is often joined with chiasmus: as, — arma nOndom expiatis uncta 
cruOribos (id. ii. 1. 5). 

i. Frequently unimportant words follow in the train of more emphatic 
ones with which they are grammatically connected, and so acquire a promi- 
nence out of proportion to their importance : — 

dictitftbat se hortulOs aliquOs emere velle (Off. iii. 68), ke gave out that he 
wanted to buy some gardens, [Here aliquos is less emphatic than emere, 
but precedes it on account of the emphasis on hortulds.] 

j» The copula is generally felt to be of so little importance that it may 
come in anywhere where it sounds well ; but usually under cover of more 
emphatic words : — 

consul ego quaeslvl, cum vOs mihi essStis in c5nsili5 (Rep. iii. 28), as consul 

I held an investigation in which you attended me in cowncU. 
falsum est id tOtum (id. ii. 28), that is all false. 

k» Many expressions have acquired an invariable order : — 

r€s pablica ; populus R5m9.nus ; honOris caus& ; pace tanti viri. 

Note. — These had, no doubt, originally an emphasis which required such an 
arrangement, but in the course of time have changed their shade of meaning. Thos, 
senattts populusque Rom&nus originally stated with emphasis the official bodies, bnt 
became fixed so as to be the only permissible form of expression. 

I. The Romans had a fondness for emphasizing persons, so that a name 
or a pronoun often stands in an emphatic place : — 

[dixit] venftlls quidem se hortOs nOn habere (Off. iii. 68), [said] that he didn't 
have any gardens for sale, to be sure. 

in. Kindred words often come together (figara etymclogica) : — 

ita sSnsim sine sensu aet^ sen^scit (Cat. M. 38), thus gradually^ vnthmd 
being perceived, man^s life grows old. 

Special Rules 
599. The following are special rules of arrangement : — 

a. The negative precedes the word it especially affects ; but if it belongs 
to no one word in particular, it generally precedes the verb ; if it is espe- 
eially emphatic, it begins the sentence. (See example, 598. f. n.) 

§§ 699-601] STRUCTURE OF THE PERIOD 399 

6. Itaqne regularly comes first in its sentence or clanse; enim, antem, 
yer5, quoque, never first, but usually second, sometimes third if the second 
word is emphatic ; quidem never first, but after the emphatic word ; igitnr 
usually second ; ng . . . qnidem include the emphatic word or words. 

c. Inquam, inquit, are always used parenthetically, following one or more 
words. So often credS, dpmor, and in poetry sometimes precor. 

<*• (1) Prepositions (except tenus and versus) regularly precede their 
nouns ; (2) but a monosyllabic preposition is often placed between a noun 
and its adjective or limiting genitive : — 

quem ad modum ; quam ob rem ; m&gn5 cum metH ; omnibus cum c5piis ; 
ntilla in r6 (cf. § 698. i). 

e* In the arrangement of clauses, the Relative clause more often comes 
first in Latin, and usually contains the antecedent noun : — 

quo8 amisimus civis, eOs M&rtis vis perculit (Marc. 17), those citizens whom 
we have lost, etc. 

f» Personal or demonstrative pronouns tend to stand together in the 
sentence : — 

cum V08 mihi essStls in cOnsiliO (Rep. ill. 28), when you attended me in 

Structore of the Period 

600. Latin, unlike modem languages, expresses the relation of words to each other 
by inflection rather than by position. Hence its stractore not only admits of great 
variety in the arrangement of words, but is especially favorable to that form of sen- 
tence which is called a Period. In a period, the sense is expressed by the sentence as a 
wTiole, and is held in suspense till the delivery of the last word. 

An English sentence does not often exhibit this form of structure. It was imitated, 
sometimes with great skill and beauty, by many of the earlier writers of English prose ; 
bat its effect is better seen in poetry, as in the following passage: — 

High on a throne of royal state, which far 
Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind, 
Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand 
Showers on her kings barbaric pearl and gold, 
Satan exalted sat. — Paradise Lostf ii. 1-^. 

But in argument or narrative, the best English writers more commonly give short 
clear sentences, each distinct from the rest, and saying one thing by itself. In Latin, 
on the contrary, the story or argument is viewed as a whole; and the logical relation 
among all its parts is carefully indicated. 

601. In the structure of the Period, the following rules are to 
be observed : — 

a* In general the main subject or object is put in the main clause, not 
in a subordinate one : — 

Hannibal cum recSusuisset auxilia GadSs profectus est (Liv. xxi. 21), when 
HannUxd had retnewed the auxiliaries^ he set cut for Cadiz. 

400 ORDER OF WORDS [§601 

VolscI exiguam spem in armls, alia, undique abBcissft, cum tentSssent, prae- 
ter cetera adversa, locO quoque inlquO .ad pugnam congress!, inlquiOre 
ad fugam, cum ab omnI parte caederentur, ad precSs & certamine versi 
dSditO imper&tOre tr&ditlsque armls, sub iugum missi, cum singulis 
yestlmentis, XgnOminiae cladisque pl^nl dimittuntur (Li v. iv. 10). [Here 
tlie main fact is the return of the Volsciana. But Uie striking circum- 
stances of the surrender etc., which in English would be detailed in a 
number of brief independent sentences, are put into the several subor- 
dinate clauses within the main clause so that the passage gives a com- 
plete picture in one sentence.] 

6t Clauses are usually arranged in the order of prominence in the mind 
of the speaker ; so, usually, cause before result ; purpose, manner, and the 
like, before the act. 

ۥ In coordinate clauses, the copulative conjunctions are frequently 
omitted (asyndeton). In such cases the connection is made clear by some 
antithesis indicated by the position of words. 

€f« A change of subject, when required, is marked by the introduction 
of a pronoun, if the new subject has already been mentioned. But such 
change is often purposely avoided by a change in structure, — the less 
important being merged in the more important by the aid of participles 
or of subordinate phrases : — 

quem ut barbari incendium efftlgisse vid€runt, tells 6minus missis inter- 
fecerunt (Nep. Ale. 10), when the barbarians saw that he had escaped, 
THET Virew darts at him at long range and JciUed him. 

celeriter cOnfectO negOtiS, in hibema legiOnSs redOxit (B. G. vi. 3), t?ie mat- 
ter was soon finished, and he led the legions, etc. 

e. So the repetition of a noun, or the substitution of a pronoun for it, 
is avoided unless a different case is required : — 

dolGrem si nOnpotuerO frangere occult&bO (Phil. xii. 2\),if I cannot conquer 
the pain, I wiU hide it. [Cf . if I cannot covqaer I wiU hide the pain.] 

/• The Romans were careful to close a period with an agreeable succes- 
sion of long and short syllables. Thus, — 

quod scis nihil prOdest, quod nescis multum obest (Or. 166), wJuxt you know 
is of no v^Ct what you do not know does great harm. 

NoTB. — In rhetorical writing, particularly in oratory, the Romans, influenced by 
their study of the Greek orators, gave more attention to this matter than in other 
forms of composition. Quintilian (ix. 4. 72) lays down the general rule that a clanse 
should not open