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Allen's Synonyms and Antonyms 

Copyright, 1920, by Harper & Brothers 

Copyright, Canada, 1920 

Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, England 

Copyright in Great Britain and Ireland 

and in all countries subscribing 

to the Berne Convention 

All rights of publication and translation growing out of copyright in the United States 

of America, 1920, and in Great Britain, 1920, and under treaties with the United States 

of America, and otherwise, are reserved by Harper & Brothers. 

All rights reserved 

Printed in the United States of America 

To My Friend 

In appreciation of the watchful care which re- 
stored me to health, in the year 1914, mak- 
ing possible the carrying on and com- 
pletion of the work, on this book. 


When, about the year 1900, I began work upon a dictionar>- of 
s^Tion^ins I planned to make what would h>e essentially a thorough 
^e^'ision and enlargement of a p^e^'iousIy existing work on the subject. 
But after a short while I was convinced that such a method would 
result in a book with which I should only be dissatisfied. I then decided 
to make a complete original dictionaiy of s^^3on^'ms. la^Tng the emphasis 
upon words of hteraiy- and technical value, but omitting phrases the in- 
clusion of which would swell the book to unreasonable proportions. 

With this end in ^'iew I began the study of the definitions and quota- 
tions given in the Oxford English Dictionary (easily the greatest dictionary 
m any language), thinking I should be able to complete my book in four 
or five years at the most. It soon became plain, however, that the task 
could not be completed in this length of time, for before I had finished 
even the examination of the 15,000 pages of the Oxford English Dictionary 
more than five years had elapsed. But during that time I had made 
about 300,000 memoranda of words. Since the vocabularies of the 
more important special dictionaries — of dialect, of law, medicine, seaman- 
ship, engineering, etc. — are covered in the Oxford work, my notes repre- 
sent a winnowing of ^-i^tually the whole fund of recorded English diction. 

The collation and apphcation of these 300.000 memoranda have 
taken me many years of intense labor; but these memoranda form the 
basis upon which the present dictionary- has been constructed. 

My aim has been to make the scope of the book as broad as possible 
in order to meet the requirements of my most critical advisers, though 
this has not been easy. Some have urged that obsolete and rare words 
be omitted; others have ad%Tsed that they be retained. Some have 
thought the contextual notes superfluous ; others, even among professional 
writers, have considered them highly valuable. And so with other 
features of the book. What some have thought needless, others have 
thought helpful. As a result it has seemed advisable to meet all reason- 
able requirements by including those features which serve any widely 
felt need. 

The surpassing number of words I have had to work upon has 
made it easier to carr^- out a sound and helpful conception of s^Tionymy 
— badly lacking in some manuals of this kind. The fuUness of reference 
to anton^Ttts, and the parenthetical comments that for many thousand 
words note their special status or special limitations upon their use will 
make a new appeal to discriminating writers. 



To the incH'hanical features of the work I have paid special attention. 
I have endeavoretl, by means of a thorough system of cross references, 
to avoid the many repetitions which frequently occur in other dic- 
tionaries of synonyms. Furthermore, I have gone over the proofs 
many times to detect errors and omissions, which easily occur in a 
work so extensive, so complex, and so essentially new in its form of 
presentation; and I therefore believe the first edition of this book to 
be as correct as it is humanly possible to make it. But if any error or 
omission be discovered I shall esteem it a favor if the reader will l)ut 
apprise the publishers, so that corrections may be made in subsequent 

This new presentation of the subject has been by no means the 
result of sudden inspiration. On the contrary, it has been the result 
of long years of unceasing study and experiment. If, therefore, I 
have afforded material help in the study of the micaning of words and 
in the correct use of English — the most resourceful of all languages — 
I shall not have labored in vain. 

I wish hereby to acknowledge my indebtedness to those who have 
followed my work with suggestions and criticisms, and especially to 
Dr. Frederick W. Kilbourne of Meriden, Connecticut, for reading the 
last one hundred galley proofs and to Prof. Alfred D. Sheffield of Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, for seeing through the press the last two hundred 
pages of proofs. 

F. Sturges Allen. 

Springfield, Mass., August, 1920. 


affected. — When a person deliberately uses a diction which is not natural 
and is not chosen simply in order best to convey his meaning, his use 
of words is affected. This is ordinarily due to prudery, excessive niceness 
or fastidiousness, undue desire for show, or a desire to support some 
pretense, as of sympathy, refinement, etc. There are in English 
various words which are typically so used in some senses, and they 
are followed in this book by the word ''affected," as where delectation is 
used for delight, peregrinator for 'pilgrim, confect for make, emporium 
for market, limb for leg, avaunt for awaij, etc. 

Common forms of affectation are the excessive use of euphemisms 
(see EUPHEMISTIC, below) and intensives. 

archaic. — Words that belong to the past but have now fallen into disuse 
in ordinary language, but are for some reason retained in particular 
uses, as in poetry or for their flavor of archaism, are followed by the 
term archaic. Archaic uses may survive with particular individuals, 
as when the word positive is pronounced with the i before the v long 
(as in pine), or the word oblige is pronounced with the i sounded as ee. 
Among the very many words archaically used in English are: ghastful 
for alarming, anhungered for hungry, bestow for apply, host for army, 
facets for facetious, hostel for inn, inform for deformed, etc. 

A word may become obsolete or archaic in general use, but be 
retained in professional use or in some stock phrase, as let in "without 
let or hindrance," hearse or herse for bier in certain ecclesiastical usage. 
Archaic uses often shade almost insensibly into those that are poetic, 
learned, or rare. 

bookish. — Some words are literary in that they are little used out of 
books, but still lack any special literary associations aside from the 
fact that they are rather more formal than ordinary words or that they 
"smell of the shop." Terms decidedly of this character are often 
termed bookish (and are so marked in this book) , as horrific for horrible 
or frightful, tintinnabulum for bell, verve for ardor, horrific for fearful. 
The use of such words often smacks of preciosity or stiltedness. Of 
course here, as in all matters of usage, there is no definite line of dis- 
tinction setting off bookish words as a group from those usually felt 
to be literary, learned, technical, or pedantic. Cf. tech., below. 

colloq. — Those words are designated as colloq. (that is, colloquial) which 
are usually and properly common in ordinary speech or conversation, 


but lack the dignity of association which is necessary to make thcni 
appropriate for formal or elevated discourse. 

The use of these words in ordinary conversation is not suggestive 
of vulgarity, but when used in formal or elevated discourse they lend 
an air of tiippancj' or illiteracy that is offensive to good taste. Words 
which have not become recognized as in good usage even to the extent 
of being colloquial are designated as slang (which see, below). The 
appropriate use of colloquial words lends a charm and easiness to 
informal conversation without which it is likely to appear affected, 
stilted, or pedantic. 

A few examples of colloquialisms are: milksop for coward, flit for 
depart, cabby for cob driver, sieing for liberty, ado for fuss. 
contextual. — As used in this book the word contextual is used for brevity 
in place of "a contextual seyise or usage." Very many words depend 
more or less upon their context or the circumstances of their use for a 
part of the sense or meaning which they are intended to convey. Thus, 
when the question is asked, "Have you done your arithmetic?", we 
must know the facts with reference to which the question was asked 
in order to know what done implies, as learned, memorized, or worked 
the examples of. This dependence of a word upon its context or the 
circumstances of its use exists, to a greater or less degree, in all cases 
where a word of more general meaning is used in place of a word of a 
narrower, or specific, meaning. Thus, whenever we use do in this way, 
we must in each case look beyond the word itself to know the particular 
implication which it is intended to have. 

An almost unlimited number of contextual synonyms might in this 
way be given in any dictionary of synonjTns, as for example animal 
under horse, cow, child, man, womayi, insect, etc.; emotion under passion, 
frenzy, love, hatred, joy, happiness, etc.; move under rush, go, dart, run, 
walk, creep, glide, etc. 

I have attempted to avoid uselessly cluttering the pages of the book 
with an excess of such sjTionyms, but have added general words as 
sjTionyms where it was felt that they would be of service to the user 
of the book. 

Examples of the use of contextual occur on most of the pages, as after 
ecclesiastic under monk, girl under hussy, product under offspring, mark 
under brand, etc. 
euphemistic. — One often has occasion to express what is in itself un- 
pleasant or is conventionally tabooed in direct expression, by using 
terms that have less offensive suggestions than would be involved in 
those precisely or bluntly indicating one's meaning. 

The use of euphemisms is a notable feature of primitive races or 
customs, as where the Greeks designated the avenging Errinnyes by 
the name Eumenides (a name which arose as a euphemism, and literally 
means, "the gracious ones"), or where we use intoxicated for dnnik or 


bowels or intestines for guts (a word once in polite usage and still proper 
in some connections). Other words wholly or often used euphemistic- 
ally are infidelity for adultery, intimacy for illicit amour, departure 
for death, innocent for simpleton. So any word of pleasant connotation 
may be used in place of a word of unpleasant suggestion whenever the 
intended sense will be conveyed. 

fig. — 'When the use of a word in the sense for which it is given involves a 
consciousness that it is more or less transferred or figurative in use, 
the word is followed hy fig. {iov figurative). This has resulted in many 
words being marked fig. which are not figurative in any sense that 
would imply that their use belongs to what is rhetorically called 
figurative, flowery, or ornate discourse; but merely that the sense 
though established in English usage is not one in which the con- 
sciousness of transferred or figurative use is yet entirely forgotten, 
and without the fig. there might be a momentary difficulty in sensing 
the connection. This is the case with blaspheme for abuse, whip for 
abuse, or cosmic for consistent, voice for speaker, day for time. 

Proper names conventionally used as synonyms are also designated 
as fig., where the consciousness of the figure still exists, as where 
Boanerges is used for speaker, Castalia or Hippocrene for spring, Cyclo- 
pean for massive. 

formal. — I have designated by formal those words which are charac- 
teristic of formal or precise discourse, as where insular is used for 
island (as an adjective), protasis for beginning, chamber for bedroom. 
Here again it is difficult to draw the line between those sufficiently 
formal to be so designated and those which are not, and I have omitted 
the designation when there seemed to be any question about its 

intensive. — When the intensive force of a word is a noticeable element of 
its meaning the designation intensive is added after the word. In 
many cases a prefix is added to a word so as to form a new word, but 
in an intensified degree. The commonest prefixes so used are be- and 
en- or em-, as in bedeck, becloud, bespatter, embolden, empoison, enchain; 
but en- and em- are now little used in new combinations, and be- usually 
has a suggestion of excess, often with a note of contempt or disgust, 
as in bedeck, begem, becalm, bespatter, bedraggle. The intensive force 
is plainly felt in some of the older words, now obsolete or archaic, as 
in beshrew (thee), bethink (thee), and in many modern forms, such as 
bedew, enfeeble, empoison, enchase, encarnalize, etc. In many cases 
the intensive force of the prefix em- or en- is lost and the compound 
word has become the ordinary term, as embitter (rather than bitter), 
encircle (rather than circle), emboss (rather than boss). The em- 
phatic form is in some cases so far restricted to poetic use as to justify 
the denomination poetic. 

learned. — 'Many words are common enough in learned discourse, written 



or spoken, but arc nevcrlheless quite out of place in ordinary general 
literature or conversation. Technical terms (here marked as tech.) 
are essentially of the learned class; but many other words which 
cannot properly be classed as technical and yet are not generally 
known to those of ordinary education, are in this work followed Ijy 
the word ^'learned." It would be ridiculous to designate as learned all 
words not understood or which are not at all, or but imperfectly, 
understood by those with only a grammar-school or even a high- 
school education, for of these words, many will be more or less familiar 
to one person and strange to another, who in turn may know well 
wonls unfamiliar or unknown to the first. Words of this class are 
lugubrio7is, dolorous, matiitinal, venial, fallacious, inimical, and these 
are left unmarked, though at times it is difficult to draw the line 
between them and those marked affected, learned, or literary. 

Those words designated as learned, therefore, are only those about 
which there seems to be no question and concerning the nature of 
which a warning should be given to the user of this dictionary. Among 
them are: indite for compose, mordacious for biting, decollate for behead, 
autochthonous for native. Learned words are often, like technical 
terms, more exact in their meanings than more common words. 

literary. — ]\Iany words are chiefly restricted in use to literary expression 
notable for its elevation in form or taste or to formal addresses couched 
in such language, and these are designated as literary. Such words 
carry a suggestion of studied elegance of expression or of learning that 
would lend to their use in colloquial or technical discourse an appear- 
ance of pedantry, stiltedness, or affectation. 

Many or most of these words have once belonged to ordinary dic- 
tion, but have by a long restricted use been set aside for this more 
studied or elegant discourse, as burgeon for bud, distrait for absent-minded. 
The setting apart of words in this way is a process continually going 
on in English. Further common examples of "literary" words are 
froward for perverse, fruition for enjoyment, imbrue for stain, impugn for 
attach, Thespian for dramatic, array for dress, decease for die, fuliginous 
for smoky, infelicitous for unhappy. Cf. formal, above. 

obs. — The abbreviation obs. (for obsolete) is put after such words as have 
fallen into disuse but have seemed notable enough to warrant their 
inclusion among the synonyms. Since Chaucer's time many thousands 
of English words have become obsolete, and the presence of even a 
large part of them would mar a book of English synonjTns of to-day. 
The art of printing has now, as it were, stereotyped our English vocabu- 
lary, so that in these days words comparatively seldom become ob- 
solete. Indeed, there is at present rather a tendency, consciously^ or 
unconsciously, to retain or revive words already partly or wholly 
fallen into disuse, as is seen in the large number of words marked 



Therefore, where there has seemed to be some literary or other 
sufficient reason for including in the book an obsolete word, I have not 
hesitated to do so, as in case of pleat for braid, pleasant for buffoon, 
wick for village. 

obsolescent. — ^Where a word has begun to fall into disuse, but still has 
use enough so that it would be inappropriate to designate it as rare 
or obsolete, I have added the designation obsolescent. As already said, 
words do not now so often become obsolete, the influence of the printing- 
press being to keep in use the vocabulary which we already have. 
Words that are simply falling into disuse and so are obsolescent (as 
incommodious for inconvenient, quiz for hoax) are to be distinguished 
from archaic words which are consciously retained in use or revived for 
the sake of the flavor of archaism associated with them. Cf . archaic, 

rare. — The term rare after a word denotes that the word is rarely used 
in general literature. Rare vrords consist mostly of those which now 
and then appear in literature but have never become common. Thus, 
fledgy for feathery, affright for fear, desipient for foolish were first used 
many years ago, but they have never become established in general 
use. Some words now rare were once common ; where the fact of their 
former frequent occurrence is of notable interest these are usually 
designated as now rare. Rare words ordinarily are of a more or less 
learned or pedantic character, and hence their use is often affected to 
produce a humorous or ironical effect. 

rhetorical. — The word rhetorical is used to designate words which are 
characteristically used in language that is artificially or extravagantly 
elegant, or that specially seeks to convey an extreme or exaggerated 
effect, as where mighty is used for big, or mellifluous for melodious, or 
ivroth for angry. 

slang. — ^When a word as a whole, or in the given sense, has a certain 
arbitrary use, but is considered as generally below the level of educated 
speech, it is designated as slang. 

Slang generally consists of new words or new uses of old words; 
but this is not necessarily so. Mere newness does not make a word 
or sense slang, for many of the new words and senses of words in all 
departments of life, especially in the arts and sciences, are not slang 
in this sense, though they might come under the very broad sense 
of slang as equivalent to jargon, or technical terminology (cf. tech., 
below). Generally speaking, the use of slang is not only inconsistent 
with a refined or elegant diction, but also with that seriousness and 
dignity which is felt to be essential to the general course of conduct and 

Occasionally, terms which arise as slang, such as hoax, jitney, and 
bus, are accepted into good usage, but the great bulk of slang words 
(such as newlywed for benedict, dope for medicine, claret for blood, 


buster for blusterer or a big thing) remain slang as long as they 
are used. 
spec. — The word specific (abbreviated in the text to spec.) denotes that 
a word is a synonjan of the title word only in having a specific, or 
particular and restricted, sense which is included among those for 
which the title word may be used. Specific senses are at the opposite 
extreme from words which have such a general meaning that they are 
denominated contextual (which see, above). 

It is noteworthy that the more exact a person becomes in his designa- 
tion or description, the more specific are the words which he uses. 
Such words when correctly used conduce to accuracy, but they corre- 
spondingly narrow, often belittle, the meaning. 

The designation spec, therefore, often serves as a useful or needed 
warning that a word given as a synonym is so much restricted in its 
meaning that it is not to be used as a general equivalent of the other; 
in many other cases this is obvious without the spec, which is then given 
merely for the sake of uniformity. For examples consult entries on 
almost any page at random, as depart, horse, perceive, shrine, child, 
tech. — The abbreviation tech. (for technical) is added after words such 
as pomiform for apple-shaped, ramus for branch, squama for scale, 
sternum for breastbone, which are chiefly found in, and characteristic of, 
technical usage. Many, perhaps most, of such words are occasionally 
to be found outside of technical literature, but their use then nearly 
always gives an impression of learning or pedantry. Many technical 
terms are the mere jargon, or slang (in the broad sense), of a trade 
or profession, and such terms are not ordinarily included in this 

It is to be noted that technical, as well as learned, terms are ordinarily 
more specific and exact in meaning than popular words, and are also 
barren of much or all of the connotations which lend to the commoner 
words their richness of meaning. 

Jl^" Various characterizations of words other than those given above are 
used in this book, such as British, U. S., hist, (for historical), antiq. (for 
antiquarian or antiquities), stilted, etc. Such designations have mean- 
ings readily inferred from their ordinary significations, and there is 
nothing in their relation to general usage or to each other to call for 
explanation of them here. Thus, the designation British is equivalent 
to "only or distinctively in British usage"; U. S., to "only or 
distinctively in use in the United States"; hist., to "used in historical 
reference or discourse"; antiq., to "used by antiquarians or in 
reference to antiquities"; stilted, to "characteristically used in stilted 



a adjective. 

adj adjective. 

adv adverb. 

Af., Afr Africa. 

Am America. 

anat anatomy. 

antiq antiquities. 

arch architecture. 

archffiol archaeology. 

astrol astrology. 

astron astronomy. 

Bib Biblical. 

biol biology. 

bot botany. 

Brit British. 

Can Canada. 

cf confer (L., compare). 

chem chemistry. 

coUoq colloquial. 

conj conjunction. 

dial dialect, dialectal. 

dim diminutive. 

eccl ecclesiastical. 

econ economics. 

elec electrical. 

Engl English. 

esp especially. 

etc et cetera (L., and so forth). 

ethnol ethnology. 

exclam exclamation. 

fem feminine. 

fig figurative, figuratively. 

Ger. German. 

her heraldry. 

hist historical, hi.story. 

infin infinitive. 

interj interjection. 

math mathematics. 

med medicine. 

metal metallurgy. 

metaph metaphysics. 

meteorol meteorology. 

min mineralogy. 

mythol mythology. 

n noun. 

New Eng New England. 

obs obsolete. 

obsolesc obsolescent. 

p participle. 

philos philosophy. 

physiol physiology. 

pi plural. 

Port Portuguese. 

p.p participle past. 

p. pr participle present. 

prep preposition. 

pron pronoun. 

psychol psychology. 

R. C. Ch Roman Catholic Church. 

Scot Scottish, Scotland. 

sing singular. 

So South. 

Sp Spanish. 

spec specific. 

tech technical. 

theol theology. 

U. S United States. 

V verb. 

var variant (spelling). 

v. i verb intransitive. 

v. t verb transitive. 

zool zoology. 


Every cross reference from a word is to some other synonymous word, 
under which it is given either merely as a synonym or by way of a recip- 
rocal reference at the end. This latter is often done where there are 
two groups of synonyms of overlapping signification. 

The matter in smaller type at the foot of the page consists entirely 
of cross references, the words in the italic type in each case having, under 
the main vocabulary entrance, a list of synonyms including the word 
referred from. Thus, "obloquy: abuse, discredit" means: "see in the 
main Vocabulary the words abuse and discredit, where the word obloquy 
will be found as one of the several synonyms of the other words." 


Under many of the vocabulary entries the synonyms are divided 
into numbered groups, so as to keep together the synonyms for any one 
sense, because the synonyms of a word in one sense usually differ in 
whole or in part from the synonyms of the word in a different sense. 
Where the distinction between the senses is not obvious, I have intro- 
duced a brief hint or definition so as to make this plain, as under abridg- 
ment, arrangement, ask, v. t., assembly, base, n., beak. Frequently the 
difference in meaning between the senses is made clear or more obvious by 
the following antonyms, as under absolute, ask, v. t., branch, body, benefit. 









abandon, v. t. leave, quit, desert, remit, 
renounce, forsake, desolate (rare), forgo 
{rare or archaic), drop, discard, surrender; 
spec, evacuate, forswear, maroon, consign, 
bolt; see relinquish, forgo, abdicate, 


Antonyms: see keep, continue, accom- 
abandoned, a. 1. corrupt, reprobate, un- 
principled, depraved, hardened, irreclaim- 
able, incorrigible, irreformable, irredeem- 
able, lost; spec, shameless; see dissipated. 
Antonyms: see conscientious. 
2. forlorn, lorn {literary), destitute {rare), 
castaway, outcast, derelict, deserted, de- 
sert {archaic). 


abase, v. t. 1. With "himself," "them- 
selves," etc., as object: degrade, lower, de- 
base, demean {not in good usage), sink 
{rare), stoop {rare), bemean. 
2. humble, humiliate, reduce, disgrace, 
prostrate, lower, mortify {rare or spec); 
spec, depose, disrate, disrank, disgrade, 
discrown, uncrown, disbench, disbishop, 
disbar, dispurple, unchurch, discepter. 
Antonyms: see advance, elevate, dig- 

abasement, n. Spec, degradation, debas- 
ing, humiliation, disgrace, etc. » 

abash, v. t. disconcert, confound, confuse, 
discountenance, dash, embarrass, awe; 
spec, shame, overawe; see intimidate. 
Antonyms: see cheer, encourage. 

abashed, a. disconcerted, confounded, 
confused, ashamed, etc. 

abate, v. t. & i. 1. destroy, abolish, reduce. 
Antonyms: see build, preserve. 

2. reduce, decrease, curtail, diminish, re- 
mit, lower, depress, lessen, abridge, slack- 
en, mitigate, relax, slack; spec, qualify, 
intermit, drop, fall {v. i.), sink, subside 
{v. i.), flatten, wane {v. i.), allay. 
Antonyms: see increase, intensify. 

abbreviate, v. t. 1. See shorten. 
2. Referring to words: shorten, clip, re- 
duce, contract, prune. 

abdicate, v. t. abandon, relinquish, re- 
sign, demit; — all four contextual. 

abdomen, n. belly {now becoming vulgar, 
exc. as referring to animals), paunch {dys- 
logistic, exc. of an animal), pod {vulgar), 
corporation {chiefly spec; colloq. or vul- 
gar), guts {pi.; cant or vulgar); spec. 

abdominal, a. ventral, visceral, hemal 
{tech.), alvine {rare); spec, coeliac, uterine, 
abdominous {rare), big-bellied. 

abduct, V. t. transport {contextual), kid- 
nap, rape {esp. in p. p. & p. a. "rapt"; 
archaic), ravish {literary; often with 
"away"), spirit {chiefly with "away"); 
spec, crimp, shanghai. ^ 

abhor, v. t. dislike {contextual), detest, 
hate, contemn, despise, abominate, 
loathe, nauseate {rare). 
Antomjms: see like, love, admire. 

abhorrence, n. dislike {contextual), de- 
testation, despisal, hate, abomination, 
hatred, antipathy, nausea, disgust, loath- 
ing, aversion, horror. 

Antonyms: see liking, love, admira- 
tion, affection. 

ability, n. 1. Referring to the ability to 
do a particular thing: competency, capac- 
ity, power, efficiency, sufficiency. 

X^F" Cross references: see Note. 
abaft: backward. 
abattoir: slaunhterhoii/se. 
abbey: convent. 

abduce: withdraw. 

aberrant: abnormal, wandering, 

abet: aid, incite. 

abide: slai/, du'ell, tarry, con- 
tin ue,. slick, inhere. 
abide, v. I.: endure, await. 
abiding: lasting, constant. 

fS^ See Notes of Explanation. 


Antotnjms: sec in.\bility. 

2. In a general sense: capability {often 
in pi., as in "of great capabilities"), power, 
caliber, strength, cncrgj-; spec, gauge, 
l>arts (pi. ; archaic or literary), masteiliness. 

Antoni/nis: sec inability. 

3. lief erring to a concrete q^^alit7J: talent, 
faculty, hang {colloq.), gift, art, trick, 
knack; spec, hand; see skill, endow- 


Antonyms: see disability. 
abject, a. servile, slavish, sneaking, grov- 
eling, wormy (JiQ-)> cringing, hangdog 
[collvq.), reptile (rare), miderfoot {rare); 

Antonyms: see assuming, assured, im- 

I'lDENT, self-assertive. 

abjure, v. i. 1. recall {contextual), for- 
swear, unswear {rare). 

Antonyms: see maintain, state. 
able, a. 1. quahfied, competent, capa- 
ble, effective {chiefly spec), sufBcient. 
Antonytns: see incapable. 

2. clever, gifted, talented; spec, accom- 
jilished, notable {archaic or rare). 

3. iwwerful, competent, strong, mighty 
{rhetorical), masterly; see skilful, 

Antonyms: see weak. 
abnormal, a. exceptional {contextual), 
irregular, erratic, anomalous, anomalistic 
{rare or tech.), aberrant, eccentric, heter- 
ocUte {rare or gram.), anormal {rare); 
spec, amorphous, bastard, unnatural; 
see monstrous. 

Antonyms: see normal, ordinary. 
abode, n. 1. residence, habitation {for- 
mal or stilted), inhabitance {obs.), hab- 
itance {obs.), dwelling, house, quarters 
{pi.; chiefly spec), seat {archaic or poetic), 
home, domicile {chiefly legal), tenement 
{chiefly spec), place {contextual), rest 
{rare), hole {in contempt), habitat {chiefly 
hot. and zooL), fireside {fig.), nest {fig.), 
harbor {archaic or literary), cunabula {lit- 
erary); spec, place, camp {temporary), 
homestead, headquarters, residency, hos- 
tel, hospice, hospitium, hall, court, palace, 
hibernaculum or {rare) hibernacle, man- 
sion, college, curatage, vicarage, novitiate, 
Magdalen or Magdalene, legation, hos- 
telry, wigwam, heritage, hermitary (rare), 
collectorate, burrow, barracks {pi-); see 
quarters, house. 
2. See STAY. 
abolish, v. t. 1. annul, cancel, nulHfy, 
cass {obs. or Scot.), quash, disannul {em- 
phatic for "annul"), rescind, remove, alDro- 
gate; spec, {chiefly in reference to laws) 
antiquate, overrule, overturn; see re- 

Aintonyms: see establish, confirm, 


2. overthrow, overturn, subvert, eradi- 
cate, remove, cxtiri)ate, suppress, exter- 
minate, extinguish, destroy; spec, reform; 
see ABATE, nullify, annihilate. 
Antonyms: see establish, conclude. 

abominable, a. 1. odious, detestable, ex- 
ecrable, hateful, damnable, accursed, 
heathenish {colloq.), nefarious, impious, 
hideous, horrible, horrid {noiv rare or liter- 
ary), horrific {rare), nefandous {rare), 
nefand {obs.), nameless, unutterable, un- 
Antonyms: see estimable, attractive. 
2. disgusting, foul, loathsome, loathful, 
loathly (/ii/erar?/), loathy (arc/uric j, beastly, 
vUe, nefandous {archaic), revolting, shock- 
ing, putid {rare), nameless. 
Ajitonyms: see pleasant, attractive, 

abominate, v. t. abhor, detest, dislike 
{contextual), execrate, hate. 
Antonyms: see love, like, admire. 

abort, V. t. bear {contextual) , cast {referring 
to beasts only), slink {chiefly dial., referring 
to beasts 07ily). 

abortion, n. 1. miscarriage, cast {refer- 
ring to beasts only), slink or slinking {refer- 
ring to beasts only). 

2, misconception, freak, monstrosity, 
come-to-naught {rare) . 

3. See failure. 

abound, v. i. 1. exuberate {rare); spec. 

2. overflow, flow, swim, teem; spec. lux- 
uriate, revel; see swarm. 

abounding, a. replete, plenteous {archa- 
ic), flowing, full, fertile, fruitful, rife {rare), 
flush, teeming, swimming, fat, rich; see 
Antonyms: see infrequent, deficient, 


about, adv. & prep. 1. around, round, 
circa {Latin). 

2. nearly, approximately, proximately, 
almost, nigh, well-nigh, circa {Latin). 

3. round, circuitously ; spec, alternately, 

4. helter-skelter, zigzag. 

5. concerning, anent {Scot.), touching, 
of, regarding, on, after, respecting, quoad 
{Latin), re {Latin). 

about, a. As used predicatively after "is," 
"was," etc.: 1. afoot, stirring, going, 
moving, doing {colloq.). 
2. near, ready, nigh {archaic). 

above, adv. & prep. 1. over, upon, on. 

2. adv. See aloft. 

3. beyond, exceeding, surpassing, over; 
spec super- (a prefix), hyper- {a prefix). 

Antonyms: see below. 

^iW See Notes of Explanation. 


abrade, v. t. rub {contextual), wear; spec. 

fret, grind, grate; see scrape. 
abrasion, n. rubbing or rub {contextual), 

wearing or wear; spec, fret, graze; see 


abrasive, a. abradent, scrapy; spec, fret- 
ting, graty {colloq.). 

abrasive, n. abradent, abrader {rare); 
spec, carborundum, emery, sand, pumice, 
shagreen, putty, bort, rouge. 
Antonyms: see lubricant. 

abreast, a. beside, alike {contextual), 
alongside; spec, aligned, parallel, even. 

abridge, v. t. 1. abbreviate, compress, 
brief, reduce, contract {chiefly spec), con- 
dense, compact, epitomize, sum {chiefly 
with "up"); spec, razee, abstract, dock; 
see summarize. 
Antonyms: see enlarge, extend. 
2. See shorten, deprive, abate. 

abridgment, n. 1. Referring to the act: con- 
densation, epitomization, compression, 
reduction, abbreviation, contraction; 
spec, elision; see summarization. 

Antonyms: see enlargement, exten- 

2. Referring to the result: spec, condensa- 
tion, epitome, abstract, summary, sum, 
compendium, compend {rare), brief, brevi- 
ary or breviale {obs. or rare), digest, precis 
{tech.; French), comprisal {rare), synopsis, 
bulletin; see summary. 

abrupt, a. 1. steep, sudden, sharp, quick, 
Antonyms: see gradual. 
2. offhand, sudden, hasty, unpremedi- 
tated, precipitate, tout-de-suite {French), 
out-of-hand, jerky. 
Antonyms: see deliberate. 

absence, n. 1. awayness {rare); spec, non- 
attendance, nonappearance, cut {colloq.). 
Antonyms: see presence, attendance. 

2. See absent-mindedness. 

3. deficiency, privation {logic; a loose 
use), want; spec, destitution. 

absent, a. 1. away, abroad {chiefly spec), 
elsewhere, otherwhere {rare); spec, flown, 
distant, gone, exiled, banished, oversea, 
Antonyms: see present. 

2. deficient, missing, wanting, privative 
{logic; a loose use); spec indigent {rare), 
withdrawn, gone. 

3. far-away, dreamy, abstracted, ab- 
sorbed, distant, inattentive, vacant, pre- 
occupied, distrait {literary; chiefly as 
French masc), lost, absent-minded, rapt 
{rhetorical or literary); spec, musing, 

Antonyms: see attentive. 
absent-mindedness, n. abstraction, ab- 
sence, absorption, preoccupation, va- 
cancy, inattention. 

Antonyms: see attention. 
absolute, a. 1. pure, perfect, consum- 
mate, complete, total, entire, round, 
blank, unqualified, dead, clear, positive, 
utter, downright, sheer, thorough, thor- 
oughgoing, stark, essential, mere {rare), 
regular {colloq.), teetotal {colloq.), unal- 
loyed, flat {chiefly colloq.); see thorough. 

Antonyms: see partial, imperfect. 

2. unrestricted, unqualified, unbounded, 
independent, arbitrary, unreserved, un- 
controlled, full, plenary, plenipotentiary 
{chiefly spec), plenipotent, plenary; spec 
categorematic; see autocratic. 

Antonyms: see restricted. 

3. unreserved, unequivocal, unqualified, 
positive, independent, unconditional, un- 
conditioned, peremptory. 

Antonyms: see conditional. 

4. See ACTUAL, self-existent. 
absolutely, adv. purely, utterly, entirely, 

consummately, fiat, flatly, dead, down- 
right, plumb {chiojly U. S.; slang), plum 
{chiefly U. S.; slang), roundly, teetotally 
(colloq.), thoroughly, outright, altogether; 
spec out. 

absolution, n. 1. forgiveness, freeing, 
justification {chiefly eccl.), clearance, 
shrift {eccl.), assoilment (rare), discharge 

Antonyms: see retaliation, punish- 
2. See acquittal. 

absolve, v. t. free, forgive, clear, assoil 
{eccl.), wash {fig.), shrive {eccl.), justify 
{chiefly eccl.), discharge {contextual). 
Antonyms: see punish. 

absorb, v. t. 1. drink {chiefly used with 
"in" or "up"), imbibe, sop, occlude 
{tech.), soak, suck {chiefly with "up"), re- 
sorb {rare); spec reabsorb, ingulf or en- 
gulf, blot, sink. 
Antonyms: see exude, reflect, emit, 

2. Referring to ideas, etc: incorporate, 
imbibe, drink {fig.), take {contextual); 
spec, merge. 

3. occupy, engross, preoccupy, immerse, 
sink, merge, bury, enwrap {literary), de- 
vour, hold {contextual), keep {contextual), 

absorbed, a. engaged, prcoccujiied, oc- 
cupied, deep, sunk, buried, rapt {literary), 
wrapt; see absent. 

absorbent, a. absorptive, bibulous. 

ItZF" Cross references: see Note. 
aboveboard: openly. 
aboTe-xnentioned: aforesaid. 

ahioadi wide-spread, astral/, free, 

absent, wroiifj. [validate. 

abrogate: abolish, revoke, in- 

abscond: depart. 
absent, v. t.: withdraw. 
absolutism: autocracy. 

liST See Notes of Explanation. 



sponp^v, spoiipous (rare), sorbcnt (rare), 

tliirsty [rare or Jig.), sorbcfacicut (rare). 
absorbing, (Z. cngrossiiifj;. 
absorption, /(. 1. imbibition, occlusion 

(tech.); spec. resori)tion (rare), rcubsorp- 

tion, soaking, etc. 
Anton i/ms: see reflection, radiation, 


2. incorporation, imbibition (rare); spec. 

S. engagement, engrossment, preoccupa- 
tion, prepossession. 

abstain, v. i. forbear, refrain, withhold, 
stay, desist, patience (rare). 
Antonyms: see indulge. 

abstainer, n. teetotaler, hydropot (rare), 
rechabite (fig.); spec, teetotum (humor- 

abstemious, a. ascetic, austere, sober, 
frugal, abstinent, temperate, abstaining; 
spec, teetotal, temperance (colloq.). 
Antonyms: see self-gratifying, drink- 

abstinence, n. abstaining, abstention, 
Avithholdment (rare), nephelism (rare), 
temperance, refrainment (rare), forbear- 
ance (rare). 

abstract, a. 1. ideal, metaphysical, trans- 
cendental, imaginary (rare), visionary 
(rare); see academic. 


abstract, n. abridgment, conspectus, sy- 
nopsis, syllabus (chiefly law and spec.); 
spec, docket, brief, note, headnote; see 


Antonyms: see enlargement, exten- 
sion, WHOLE. 
abstract, v. t. 1. withdraw, deduct, elimi- 
nate, remove, subtract, separate (con- 
textual); spec, embezzle, steal (figurative 
or slang). 
2. See REMOVE, summarize, abridge. 

Ardonyyns: see add. 
abstraction, n. wthdrawal, deduction, etc. 
abstruse, a. profound, recondite, abstract, 
deep, high, dark, acroamatic (rare), diffi- 
cult (contextual), esoteric (fig.), subtle; 
spec, far-fetched. 

Antonyms: see evident, clear. 
absurd, a. irrational, preposterous, un- 
reasonable, false (contextual), fallacious, 
sophistic, illogical, incongruous, incoher- 
ent, incredible, nonsensical; spec, silly, 
ludicrous, ridiculous, paradoxical, self- 

Antonyms: see logical, reasonable, 
true, consistent. 
abundance, n. 1. plenty, plenitude (lit- 
erary), copiousness, profusion, profuse- 
ness, plenteousness (chiefly poetic), ampli- 

tude, aflluencc, fullness, rci)lction, frce- 
ness, luxuriance, ojjulence, wealth, rich- 
ness, prodigality, generosity, foison 
(archaic), cheap (archaic), routh (Scot.;) 
spec, flood, exuberance, super-abundance, 
flow, heaviness, lavishness. 
Antonyms: see deficiency, infre- 


abundant, a. abounding, copious, gener- 
ous, luxuriant, plentiful, plenteous (rare 
or literary), opulent, ample, liberal, pro- 
fuse, rich, flush (chiefly spec), plenty 
(chiefly colloq.), fat (rare), free, effuse 
(rare), bounteous, bountiful, affluent 
(rare or literary), numerous (rare); spec. 
generous, lavish, flowing, exuberant, 
prodigal, thick, superabundant, profli- 
gate, rife, teeming, heavy, unstinted, 
Antonyms: see deficient, infrequent, 
meager, scanty. 

abundantly, adz>. aboundingly, copiously, 
generously, galore (chiefly colloq.), etc. 

abuse, n. 1. misuse, misusage, ill-use, mis- 
employment (rare or spec), abusing, mis- 
handling, outrage, despite (archaic), per- 
version; see ill-treatment. 
2. reviling, revilement, vilification, vitu- 
peration, malediction, insultation (rare), 
blasphemy (fig.), scurrility, hbel, oppro- 
brium, obloquy, contumely, rating, rib- 
aldry, tongue-lashing; spec. Billingsgate, 
blackguardism; see defamation, dispar- 

Antonyms: see praise, eulogy, flat- 

abuse, v. t. 1. misuse, misemploy (rare or 
spec), mishandle, pervert, outrage; spec. 
haze; see ill-treat. 
Antonyms: see cherish. 
2. revile, berate (obs. or rare in Eng- 
land), vilify, vituperate, scurrilize, blas- 
pheme (fig.), slang (colloq.), whip (fi^.), 
flay, lash, conviciate (obs. or rare), mis- 
call (rare or dial.), buUyrag (colloq.), flyte 
(archaic or literary), tongue-lash; spec 
blackguard, curse; see insult, dispar- 
age, defame. 

Antonyms: see praise, ennoble, flat- 

abusive, a. vilificatory, vituperative, in- 
solent, blasphemous (fig.), despiteful (lit- 
erary), insulting, scurrilous, opprobrious, 
scandalous, scurrile (archaic), outrageous, 
foul-mouthed (contextual), dyslogistic (lit- 
erary or learned; used of names, senses, 
etc.), contumehous, Thersitical (fig.), rib- 
ald, ribaldrous (archaic); spec, disparag- 
ing, sarcastic, Fescennine (Jig.); see de- 

(^^ Cross references: see Note. | abstinent: abstemious. 

I abusing, n.: abuse. 

t^ See Notes of Explanation. 


Antonyms: see praising, laudatory, 


abut, V. i. join, butt {of seams, etc.); see 


abyss, n. deep (poetic or rhetorical), gulf, 
abysm, swallow (rare), profound, pro- 
fundity, chasm, pit, sink (chiefly spec), 
Antonyms: see height. 

academic, a. 1. collegiate, scholarly, scho- 
lastic, clerkly (archaic). 

2. conventional, formal, cut-and-dried 
(colloq.), budge (archaic). 

3. theoretical, speculative; see abstract. 
accede, v. i. agree, assent, consent, ac- 
quiesce (with "in"), concede, yield, sub- 
scribe, accord (ivith "with"). 

Antonyms: see disagree. 

accent, v. t. accentuate, stress, emphasize, 
ictus (tech.); spec, circumflect (rare). 
Antonyms: see slur. 

accent, n. 1. stress, emphasis, accentua- 
tion, ictus (tech.); spec, circumflex, prime, 
2. See emphasis, modulation, tone. 

accept, V. t. 1. ^ee receive, honor, be- 

2. recognize, embrace, adopt, take, re- 
ceive (referring to laws, etc.). 
Antonyms: see reject, decline. 

acceptable, a. pleasant, welcome, allow- 
able, agreeable, gratifying, grateful, com- 
fortable, gracious (archaic), canny (Scot.); 
spec, answerable, popular, liked, refresh- 
ing; see pleasant, timely. 
Antonyms: see unacceptable. 

acceptance, n. recognition, embracement, 
reception (referring to laws, etc.), etc.; tak- 
ing; spec, vogue. 

Antonyms: see declination, refusal, 

accepted, a. approved; spec, popular, con- 
ventional, orthodox. 

accessible, a. approachable, come-at-able 
(colloq.), get-at-able (colloq.); spec, open, 
patent (rare), ready, compassable, con- 
venient, available. 
Antonyms: see inaccessible. 

accession, n. 1. See coming, addition. 
2. agreement, accordance, assent, assen- 
tation (literary), consent, acquiescence, 
concession, subscription, acceptance (with 
"of"), suffrage (chiefly spec). 
Antonyms: see disagreement. 

accessory, a. 1. contributing, contribu- 
tory, auxiliary, supplementary, supj^le- 
mental, adjective, extra, additional, ad- 
junct, suppletory (learned), suppletive 

(rare), accessary (the less usual form); 
spec, incident (law), appurtenant. 

2. adventitious, adscititious (rare), ap- 
pendant, dependent, supervenient, ac- 
companying, bye (rare or spec), collat- 
eral, accessary (the less usual form). 

Antonyms: see necessary. 

3. abetting, privy, conniving, connivent, 
confederate, participant, assistant, acces- 
sary (the less usual form). 

accessbry, n. 1. adjunct, dependant, ad- 
jective, belonging, accompaniment, ap- 
purtenance, appurtenant, concomitant, 
incident (law), accessary (the less usual 
form); spec, property; see accident. 
2. privy; spec, assistant, participant, 
conniver; see accomplice. 

accident, n. 1. See chance, misfor- 
tune, quality, accessory. 
2. accessory, nonessential, external, in- 
cident, collateral, unessential. 
Antonyms: see essential. 

accidental, a. 1. fortuitous, accessory, 
nonessential, contingent, casual, subsidi- 
ary, external, incident, collateral; spec. 
Antonyms: see consequential, inten- 

2. accessory, incidental, external, adven- 
titious, nonessential, unessential, collat- 
eral, subsidiary. 

Antonyms: see necessary, fundamen- 
tal, inherent. 

3. See occasional. 

acclimatize, v. t. acclimate, season, nat- 

accompaniment, n. attendance, escort, 
convoy (chiefly spec), etc. 

accompany, v. t. attend, escort, company 
(archaic), convoy (chiefly spec), follow; 
spec cavalier, esquire (rare), companion, 
Antonyms: see abandon. 

accompanying, a. attendant, accessory, 
concomitant, comitant (rare). 

accomplice, n. Spec abettor, acces- 
sory; see associate. 

accomplish, v. t. complete, fulfill, per- 
form, effect, achieve, do, attain, execute, 
compass, eifectuate, work, manage, con- 
trive, dispatch, consummate, negotiate 
(spec or colloq.), win, expedite (literary); 
see finish. 

accomplished, a. 1. completed, com- 
plete, fulfilled, performed, done, con- 
summate, etc 

Antonyms: see crude. 
2. Referring to a person, his learning, etc.: 

f^^ Cross references: sec Note. 
abysm: abyss. 
accelerate: quicken, hasten. 
accentuate: accent, emphasize. 

access: attack. 
accessary: accessory. 
acclaim: praise, shout. 
acclivity: slope. 

accommodate: adapt, con- 
furni, arrainjf, furnish, oblige, 

accommodating: obliging. 

%3^ See Notes of Explanation. 


finished, proficient, cultivated, polished 
{chicjly spec), beseen (archaic, an in ''well 
beseen"); spec, learned, versed, read, ex- 
An(oni/ms: see Boouisii, rustic. 

accomplishment, n. 1. fulfillment, doing, 
completion, execution, consummation, 
performance, work, achievement, manage- 
ment, deed, feat [referring to an act), 
negotiation (spec, or colloq.); spec., dis- 
patch, triumph. 

2. (usually in pi.) refinement, embellish- 
ment, acquirement, attainment, acquisi- 
tion; spec, graces (pi.), proficiency, polish 
(used in a generic sense; as, "a man with- 
out polish"). 

accordingly, adv. agreeably, correspond- 
ingly, conformably, consistently, so, there- 

accoucheur, n. obstetrician (chiefly spec), 
man-midwife. "Accoucheur" is French. 

accoucheuse, n. midwife, obstetrician 
(chiefly spec), howdie (Scot.). "Accou- 
cheuse" is French. 

account, n. 1. See computation, con- 
sideration, IMPORTANCE. 

2. reckoning, tally, score (chiefly spec). 

3. statement, report, description, narra- 
tion, narrative, relation, recounting, re- 
countal (rare), rehearsal, recital, recita- 
tion, detailment, record, history (chiefly 
spec), story, tale, rede (archaic or poetic); 
spec, chronicle, travels (pi.), summary, 
detail; see anecdote, narrative. 

4. score, tick (colloq.), battels (pi.; Univ. 
of Oxford), shot (archaic), reckoning. 

account, v. i. Spec, report, return; see 

accountable, a. responsible, answerable, 
hable, amenable; spec, good, solid. 
Antonyms: see unaccountable. 

accountant, n. clerk (contextual), book- 
keeper; spec, actuary (life insurance), au- 
ditor, cashier, teller, controller, sirkar 
(Anglo-Indian) . 

accouterments, n. pi. equipment, gear 
(archaic); spec, harness, clothing, dress, 
trappings (pi.). 

accredited, a. credentialed, authorized, 
sanctioned, acknowledged. 

accretion, n. 1. See growth, addition, 


2. concretion, adhesion. 
accrue, v. i. arise, come, grow, inure or 
enure, redound (said of benefits, advan- 
tages, etc.); spec vest, mature, attach, fall 
(chiefly with "due"). 

accrued, a. due, owing; spec, overdue, 
matured, vested. 

accumulate, v. t. & %. cumulate, mass, 
amass, gather {^sp. with "together"), pile 
(chiefly with "up"), heap (chiefly with 
"up"), agglomerate, aggregate, collect, 
congest, roll (chiefly with "up"), acervate 
(rare), coacervate (rare); spec, scrape 
(ivith "up"), garner, store. 
Antonyms: see scatter. 

accumulation, ?i. amassment, cumula- 
tion, agglomeration, conglomeration, con- 
glomerate, aggregation, heap, aggregate, 
collection, gathering, acervation (rare), 
coacervation (rare); spec, congeries, hud- 
dle, drift, litter; see store, stock. 

accuracy, n. exactness, precision, pro- 
priety, fidelity, justness, truth, etc. 

accurate, a. exact, precise, correct, just, 
faithful, true, close, critical^ strict, nice, 
proper, exquisite; see true. 
Antonyms: see inaccurate, inexact. 

accursed, a. anathematized, cursed (often 
a vulgar oath), execrated, devoted, 
damned (chiefly a vulgar oath), doomed 
(archaic), blasted (chiefly a vulgar oath). 
Antonyms: see blessed. 

accusation, n. indictment, charge, im- 
peachment, arraignment, denunciation, 
taxing, delation (chiefly by an iiiformer), 
impeach (rare); spec, complaint, attack, 
crimination, recrimination. 
Antonyms: see acquittal. 

accuse, v. t. charge, indict, impeach, ar- 
raign, denounce, task, tax, attaint (ar- 
chaic), delate {now bookish or tech.); spec. 
article, recriminate, criminate, incrimi- 
nate, countercharge, report, attack. 
Antonyms: see acquit. 

accuser, n. Spec plaintiff, prosecutor, 
complainant, hbellant, informer, inform- 
ant, delator. 

accustom, v. t. habituate, use, familiarize 
(rare), addict, wont, inure, hackney (used 
vrith "in" ; chiefly in a bad sense); spec. 
train, naturalize; see train. 
Antonyms: see disaccustom. 

accustomed, a. 1. wont, wonted; spec. 
natural; see addicted. 
2. See customary. 

acknowledge, v. t. I. allow, grant, admit, 
agnize (archaic), avouch (rare), avow, 
confess, recognize, yield, concede, testify 
(chiefly Biblical); see answer. 
Antonyms: see contradict, deny. 
2. o-RTi, confess, recognize, admit, avow 
(obs. or rare); spec, father, mother. 

tr^" Cross references: see Note. 
accord, v. t.: give. [moni-e. 

accord, v. i.: agree, accede, har- 
accord, n.: agreement, corres- 
pondence, harmony. 
accordant: consistent, agreeable. 

accost: address, greet. 
accouche: deliver. 
accouchement: lying-in. 
account, v. t.: consider. 
accouter: equip. 
accredit: confirm, believe. 

accroach, i'. i.: encroach. 
accroach, v. t.: usurp. 
ache: pain. 

achieve: accomplish, get. 
acid: sour, rough, acrid, acri- 

l^ See Notes of Explanation. 



3. profess, declare, avow. 

4. M calling "to receipt for": receipt. 

5. See NOTICE. 
acknowledgment, n. 1. confession, rec- 
ognition, admission, allowance, grant, con- 
cession, etc. 

Antonyms: see denial. 
2. profession, declaration, avowal. 

acquaintance, n. Spec, friend, intimate, 
associate, familiar. 
Antonyms: see stranger. 

acquainted, a. 1. Referring to things: see 

2. Referring to persons: spec, familiar 
{which see). "Acquainted" implies no 
more than mere personal intercourse and 
has no general synonym. Cf. know, v. t. 

acquired, a. Spec, learned, adopted, cul- 
tivated, affected. 
Antonyms: see innate. 

acquisition, n. 1. Referring to the act or 
action: gain, acquirement, acquist (lit- 
erary); spec, purchase, usucaption, con- 
quest; see getting. 
Antonyms: see loss. 
2. Referring to the thing: acquirement 
(chiefly spec), acquest (literary); spec. 
spoils (pi.), purchase, trade, bargain, buy 
(colloq.); see gain, accomplishment. 

acquisitive, a. quaestuary (rare); spec. 

acquit, v. 1. 1. See discharge, pay, behave. 

2. exculpate, exonerate, clear, discharge, 

absolve, purge, assoil (obs.), quit (obs. or 

rare) . 

Antonyms: see convict, accuse, blame. 

acquittal, n. 1. See acquittance. 
2. exculpation, acquittance (rare), clear- 
ance, clearing, discharge, purgation (rare), 
absolution (noiv rare or literary); spec. 
compurgation, acquitment (rare). 
Antonyms: see accusation, conviction. 

acquittance, n. 1. See discharge, pay- 
ment, acquittal. 

2. Referring to the document: release, ac- 
quittal (rare, exc. legal); spec, discharge. 

acrid, a. 1. pungent, biting, acid, corrosive, 
virulent, sharp, caustic, rough (contextual), 
mordicant (rare), acrimonious (archaic), 
vitriolic (spec, or fig.), hot (colloq.). 
Antonyms: see bland. 
2. See acrimonious. 

acridity, n. 1. pungency, roughness (con- 
textual), bitingness, acidity, corrosiveness, 
virulence, causticity. 
2. See acrimony. 

acrimonious, a. 1. See ACRID. 
2. tart, corrosive, acid, bitter, acrid, 
sharp, cutting, caustic, pungent, virulent, 

rancorous, atrabilious (rare), vitriolic, 
sour, biting; see sarcastic. 
Antonyms: see smooth, agreeable, 

acrimony, n. acidity, heat, acridity, viru- 
lence, pungency, rancor, etc.; spec, sar- 
casm, asperity. 

acrobat, n. Spec, tumbler, vaulter, equil- 
ibrist, rope-walker, contortionist, funam- 

across, prep, on, over, athwart, over- 
thwart (rare), thwart (archaic or poetic), 
cross {now chiefly dial, or poetic). 

act, n. 1. Referring to an act considered 
as a whole ivithout involving the idea of the 
time occupied or of its going on: deed, per- 
formance, action; see action, l, deed. 
Antonyms: see negligence. 

2. Referring to the proceeding or course of 
acting: see action. 

3. action, move, step, turn, deal, move- 
ment (rare), play, proceeding. 

act, V. i. 1, perform, work, operate, func- 
tion, functionate, go, serve, make ; .spec, do, 
energize, preside, officiate; see work, tell. 

2. Referring to the theater, shows, etc.: per- 
form, play; spec, theatrize (rare), theatri- 
calize (rare), mum, mime, mince, gaff 
(slang, Eng.). 

3. move, proceed, deal, stir. 

4. See BEHAVE, dissemble. 

act, V. t. 1. perform, take (a part), represent, 
impersonate, enact (rare or rhetorical), play, 
assume, support, sustain, render, do (as 
a part, an act, etc.); spec, counterfeit, 
theatricalize (rare); see personate. 
2. See pretend. 

acting, n. performance, representation, 
rendition (U . S.), enaction (rare); spec. 
histrionism, dramaturgy, mummery, per- 
sonation, etc. 

action, n. 1. act (rare), doing (chiefly in 
pi.), acting, performance, movement, 
working, operation; spec, effect, motion, 
play (of the feelings, passions, etc.), oper- 
ance (rare), touch, process, procedure, 
business (theatrical), function, reaction, 
response, conation. // considered as a 
rvhole without reference to the element of 
time these terms are sometimes used as 
synonyms of "act." See act, 1. 
Antonyms: see inactivity, rest. 

2. measure, step, course, procedure, pro- 
vision, proceeding, demarche (French); 
spec, counterstep, precaution; see stroke. 

3. See behavior, transaction, activ- 
ity, BUSTLE. 

4. influence, operation, working, touch; 
see agency. 

tS&= Cross references: see Note. 
acme: height, top. 
acquaint: inform. 

acquiesce: accede. 

acquire: f/et, gain, receive, learn. 

acquirement: acquisition, ac- 

complishment, gelling. 
across : crosswise. 
act: work, tell. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 



6. proceeding (legal), suit, case, cause, 
process; spec, plea (hist, or Scot.), reinanet, 
uiterpleader, replevin, ixssuuipsit, trespass, 
libel, counterclaim, prosecution, etc. 
active, a. 1. acting, operative, operant 
(rare); spec, exertive, conative. 
Anionijms: sec inactive. 

2. energetic, vigorous, assiduous, busy, 
industrious, hustling (colloq., U. S.), vi- 
vacious (chiefly spec), animated, bustling 
(colloq., U. S.), rustling (colloq., U. S.), 
brisk, humming (slatig), deedful (rare), 
pragmatic (rare), deedy (dial.), deliver 
(archaic); spec, strong, sedulous, hght, 
rapid; see nimble, lively, restless. 

Aniomjms: see sluggish, idle, indo- 
lent, LAZY. 

3. See alert, ambitious. 

activity, 7i. 1. energy (chiefly tech.), vigor, 
vivacity (chiefly spec), briskness, actual- 
ity (obs., cxc metaphysics), hustle (U. S.; 
slang or colloq.), rustle (U. S.; slang or 
colloq.), operation (rare), operancy (rare); 
spec, nimbleness. 
Antonyms: see indolence. 

2. See alertness, ambition. 

3. coil (literary), bustle, hustle (17. S.; 
slang or colloq.), rustle (U. S.; slang or 
colloq.), stir, action, turmoil, movement; 
see excitement, bustle. 

Antonyms: see calm, peace. 

actor, n. 1. Spec, agent, doer, performer. 
Ajitonyms: see subject. 
2. player, performer, personator, Thes- 
pian (literary), actress (fem.), histrion 
(rare), impersonator (chiefly spec), dram- 
atis personae (La<i/i; pi.); spec, tragedian, 
tragedienne (Jem.; French), comedian, 
comedienne (fem.; cant), pantomimist, 
farceur (French), caricaturist, burlesquer, 
star, diva (Jem.), ingenue (fem.; French), 
Pierrot {masc; French), Pierrette (fem.; 
French), punchinello (Italian), buffo 
(Italian), comique (French), pantomime 
(hist.), mummer, mime, protagonist, tri- 
tagonist. Cf. puppet. 

actual, a. real, true, very, factual, posi- 
tive, concrete, veritable, absolute, indeed 
(postpositive), tangible, practical, sub- 
stantial, substantive, effective (as opposed 
to "potential"); spec sober, right, hypo- 
static, hypostatical. 
Antonyms: see unreal, visionary, im- 
TIOUS, apparent. 

actuality, n. 1. reality, realism, realness, 
verity, truth, trueness, substantiality, 
sooth (archaic), substance, tangibility, ef- 
fect (chiefly in "in effect"), fact. 

2. In a concrete sense: positive, eternities 
(l)l-), reality, truth, verity, etc 
Antonyms: see illusion, fiction, 


actualize, v. t. realize, substantialize, ver- 
ify (rare), substantiate, reify (rare), 
hypostatize (tech.), eventuate (rare); see 

materialize, PERSONIFY. 

actually, adv. really, truly, veritably, ver- 
ily, indeed. 
actuate, v. t. excite, impel, move, activate 

(tech.); see stimulate, incite. 

adapt, V. t. prepare (contextual), accom- 
modate, fit, conform, suit; spec coordi- 
nate, match, square, arrange, adjust, 
shape, frame, turn, contemper (archaic), 
attemper, harmonize, naturaUze, prepare, 
assimilate; see qualify. 

adaptable, a. pliable, pliant, tractable, 
accommodative, conformable, applicable, 
adaptive, flexible; spec convenient, ver- 
satile, facultative (biol.). 
Antonyms: see intractable, obstinate, 

adaptation, n. preparation (contextual), 
arrangement, accommodation, quaUfica- 
tion, design, etc 

add, V. t. 1. join, unite, put (tvith "with," 
"on," "to"), adjoin (rare), superadd; spec. 
tack, tag (with "on"), adject (rare), aflix, 
attach, postfix, interline, interpolate, en- 
graft {with "on"), annex, append, subjoin; 

see ATTACH. 

Antonyms: see abstract, deduct. 

2. compute (contextual), sum (chiefly 

spec), total, foot (with "up"), cast (tech.); 

spec superadd. 
addict, V. t. apply, devote, give; see apply. 
addicted, a. accustomed (contextual), 

given, devoted. 
addiction, n. application, devotion. 
addition, n. 1. adjection (rare), joining, 

uniting; spec, attachment, annexation, 

subj unction, interhneation, superaddi- 

tion, etc 

2. computation (contextual), summation 
(chiefly spec), totaling, footing (with 

Antonyms: see deduction. 

3. increase; spec raise, enlargement, 
adjunct, accretion, accession, affix, ac- 
cess, increment, appendage, appendix, 
annex, annexation, attachment, sub- 
script, codicil, interlineation, interpola- 
tion, contribution, supplement, equation, 
rider, tag, imitation, extension, prolonga- 
tion, continuation; see prefix, suffix, 

additional, a. extra, further, new, fresh. 

1^=^ Cross references: see Note. 
activate: animate. 
actuary: mathematician. 

acumen: discernment. 
acute: pointed, sharp, intense, 
discerning, sensitive, high. 

adage: saying. 
adamantine: hard, unyielding, 


t:W See Notes of Explanation. 



more, else (postpositive), remanent (rare), 
supervenient (rare); spec, other, ulterior, 
supplementary; see accessory, spare. 

address, v. t. 1. See direct, apply. 
2. accost (in speech; archaic), speak, 
bespeak (archaic); spec, apostrophize, pe- 
tition, salute, memorialize, whisper (ar- 
chaic), pray, stump (colloq.); see greet. 

address, n. 1. speech, talk (a word sugges- 
tive of informality or brevity), parley (rare), 
compellation (archaic); spec, invocation, 
valedictory, salutatory, appeal, petition, 
memorial, prayer, lecture, lecturette, 
(rare), harangue, eulogy, oration, argu- 
ment, sermon, salutation, apostrophe; 

2. See SKILL, TACT. 

adduce, v. t. instance, cite, bring (a charge, 
argument, etc.); see present. 

adequacy, n. sufficiency. 

adequate, a. equal (ivith "to"), commen- 
surate (with "to" or "with"), commensur- 
able (with "with"), sufficient {with "to" or 
"for"), satisfactory (chiefly spec.) , enough, 
enow (archaic), ample, competent, due, 
good, copious; spec, proportionate. 
Antonyms: see inadequate, deficient. 

adherent, n. follower, satellite (literary), 
dangler; spec, hobbler (obs. or hist.), re- 
tainer, sectary, supporter; see disciple, 

adjacency, n. 1. adjoining, contiguity, 
contiguousness, juxtaposition; spec, abut- 
2. See nearness. 

adjacent, a. contiguous, conterminous, 
bordering, adjoining, touching; spec. 
abutting; see near. 

Antonyms: see apart, distant, sepa- 

adjoin, v. t. 1. touch, abut (chiefly spec); 
spec, border, neighbor, side (rare). 
2. See add. 

adjourn, v. i. rise. 

adjourn, v. t. 1. suspend, continue (chiefly 
Scot.); spec, prorogue. Cf. dissolve. 

2. See DEFER. 

adjudge, v. t. judge (rare), award, as- 
sign, give. 

adjunct, a. added, annexed, connected, 
auxiliary; see accessory. 

adjuration, n. conjuration, obtestation, 
appeal (contextual) . 

adjust, V. t. 1. See arrange, adapt, 
2. arrange, dispose, regulate, fix, trim. 

set, coapt {rare)^ rig (chiefly spec); spec. 
register, orient, orientate, size, shape, 
level, collimate, square, justify, true, 
modulate (the voice, tones, light, ete.), comb, 
couch (a lance, etc.), tune, readjust, har- 
monize, rectify, systematize, gait, coordi- 
nate; see tune, size, set, proportion. 
Antonyms: see disarrange. 

adjustment, n. arrangement, disposition, 
trim, etc.; spec, compromise. Cf. adjust. 

administer, v. t. 1. give, dispense, dispen- 
sate (rare); spec, exhibit, distribute. 

2. In law: settle, dispose (rare); spec. 

3. See deliver, manage, contribute. 
admirable, a. good, estimable; spec, ador- 
able; see excellent, fine, estimable, 


Antonyjns: see contemptible. 
admiration, n. 1. wonder (archaic or liter- 

2. approval, approbation (with "of"), es- 
teem (ivith "for"), pleasure (with "in"), 
reverence (with "for"), adoration (with 

Antonyms: see abhorrence, condem- 
admire, v. t. 1. wonder (archaic or literary). 
2. approve, approbate, esteem, love (col- 
loq.); spec, idolize, latrize (rare), revere, 
adore, idolatrize. 

Antonyms: see condemn, abhor, abom- 
admission, n. 1. admittance, reception, 
receipt (rare), adhibition (rare). 

Antonyms: see expulsion. 

2. institution, investiture (tech.), initia- 
tion, inauguration, investure (rare), ves- 
ture (rare); spec, collation, incardination. 

3. See entrance, acknowledg-ment. 
admit, v. t. 1. receive, adhibit (rare), in- 
tromit (rare). 

2. install, induct, invest, vest, institute, 
inaugurate, initiate, enter; spec, matricu- 
late, incardinate. 

Antonyms: see expel. 

3. See acknowledge. 
admixture, 7i. 1. See MIXTURE. 

2. mixture, infusion, teaven. tincture, 
tinge, cast, alloy, spice, sprinkling, season- 
ing, soupgon (French), flavor; see dash. 

admonitory, a. monitory, commonitory 
(rare); see warning, reproving. 

adopt. V. t. 1. arrogate (Roman law), affili- 
ate (rare or fig.); spec, father, mother, 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
adept, a.: skilful, tactful. 
adept, n.: master. 
adhere: stick. 
adhesive: sticky. 
adieu: yood-hy. 

adjoin: touch, border. 
adjoining: adjacent. 
adjudicate, v. t.: decree. 
adjudicate, v. i.: judge. 
adjudication: award, decree, 

adjunct: addition, accessory. 
adjure: tiid, ask. 
admeasure: apportion. 
admonish: warn, advise, reprove. 
ado: trouble. 
adolescence: youth. 

K^" See Notes of Explanation. 
' 9 


2. embrace, espouse, father (fig.), take 
(a person's siilc or part); spec, borrow, 

follow ; sec CHOOSE, COPY. 

Anton i/nis: sec reject. 

adoption, n. 1. arrogation (Roman laio), 
affiliation {rare or fig.), etc. 
2. embrace (rare), embracement, espousal. 

adult, ti. Spec, major, Nestor (fig). 
Antonyms: see infant. 

adulterate, /•. t. falsify (contextual), sophis- 
ticate, blend, dose (rare or tech.), debase, 
doctor (coUoq.), cook (colloq.); spec. \'itiate 
(with "with"), weaken, simpson (slang), 
dash, interpolate, sand, load, fill, dilate, 
thin, drug, lace. 
Antonyms: see purify. 

adulterated, a. impure, sophisticated, etc. 

adulterer, n. fornicator (tech.). 

adultery, n. fornication (tech.), infideUty 
(a euphemism). 

advance, v. i. 1. progress, proceed, make, 
press, push, march, head (against force), 
incede (rare); spec, inch, creep, drive, 

Antonyms: see recede, retreat, re- 

2. rise, appreciate (U. S.; not in good 
usage), enhance; spec. boom. 

Antonyms: see fall, depreciate. 

3. See progress. 

advance, v. t. I. forward, further, promote, 
push, shove (colloq. or slang), speed. 
Antonyms: see abase, retire. 

2. raise, prefer, adduce, suggest, present, 
venture, propound; see propose, offer. 

Antonyms: see suppress, repress. 

3. raise, appreciate (U. S.; not in good 
usage), enhance, boost (slang); spec. 
boom, bull. 

Antonyms: see depreciate. 

4. furnish (beforehand); spec, imprest. 

5. raise, elevate, exalt, promote; aggran- 
dize (rare), prefer (rare or archaic); spec. 
make, dignify, ennoble. 

Antonyms: see abase. 
advance, n. 1. forwarding, furtherance, 
promotion, preference; see aid. 

2. progression, advancement (rare), 
march, procession (rare), progress, ac- 
cess (rare), push, headway, profection 
(obs. or astrol.). 

Antonyms: see recession, retreat. 

3. Spec, imprest. 

4. suggestion, preferment, preference, 
venturing; see proposal, offer. 

5. rise, appreciation (U. S.; not in good 
usage), raise, boost (colloq. or slang), en- 
hancement; spec, boom, spurt. 
Antonyms: see fall, depreciation. 

advanced, a. 1. ripe (as "a ripe age"). 
2. Sec precocious, forward. 

advancing, a. rising; spec, booming. 

advantage, n. 1. superiority, precedence, 
better (used idiomatically) , odds (/;/. and 
sing.), forehand, prize (rare), leverage 
(rare), purchase (meek, or fig.); spec. 
Antonyms: see disadvantage. 


advantageous, a. superior, favorable, 
])rofitable, gainful, good, clever (colloq.), 
expedient, expediential (rare), behoveful 
(archaic), right (contextual), wise (co/t- 
textual), advisable; see beneficial. 
Antonyms: see disadvantageous, un- 
avise, inadvisable. 

adventurer, n. Spec, free lance, condot- 
tiere (Italian), landloper or landlouper 

advertize, v. t. 1. notify, notice, announce, 
proclaim, publish; spec, avow, blaze, 
blazon, noise, trumpet; see proclaim. 
Antonyms: see hide. 

2. Spec, circularize, bill, placard, post, 
poster, cry, quack, push. 

advertizement, n. Spec, notice, bill, 
placard, poster. 

advice, n. 1. counsel, rede (archaic), opin- 
ion, recommendation, advisement (ar- 
chaic), admonition; spec, misadvice, mis- 
counsel, dehortation; see exhortation. 
2. See NOTICE, information. 

advise, v. t. 1. counsel, rede (archaic or 
poetic), recommend, monish (rare), ad- 
monish (literary), guide (contextual) ; spec. 
disadvise, misadvise, miscounsel, dehort 
(rare), exhort. 
2. See INFORM. 

adviser, n. 1. counselor, guide (contextual), 
admonisher; spec, referendary, compra- 
dor (Oriental), assessor. 


advocacy, n. support; see defense, 
advocate, v. t. support, favor, plead; see 


advocate, n. 1. supporter, favorer, plead- 
er; spec, intercessor, interpleader, patron 
(Roman antiq.). 
Antonyms: see opponent. 
2. See LA-ttTER, Christ. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
adorable: estimable, fine. 
adore: worship, admire, love. 
adorn: ornament. 
adrift: afloat. 
adroit: skillful, ready. 
adulate: flatter. 
adult: grown. 

advene: come. 

advent: arrival, coming. 

adventitious: accessory, acci- 

adventure, v. t.: venture. 

adventurous: venturesome. 
ras/i. dangerous, reckless. 

adversary: enemy, opponent. 

adverse: opposed, opposing, 

adversity: misfortuiie, reverse. 
advert: turn {mentally), refer. 
advertence: reference. 
advise: consult. 
advised: deliberate. 
advisement: advice. 

JSi^ See Notes ol Explanation. 


aerate, V. t. aerify; spec, ventilate, inflate. 

aeronaut, 7i. aerostat, navigator (context- 

aeronautics, n. aerostatics, aerostation, 
navigation {contextual); spec, aerodonet- 

aesthetic, a. tasteful, tasty {colloq. and in- 
elegant); see ELEGANT. 

affable, a. sociable, conversable, debonair 
{literary), talkable {rare); spec, accost- 
able {rare), approachable, soft-spoken, 
communicative, free, unreserved. 

Antonyms: see arrogant, ill-tem- 

affair, n. business {chiefly contemptuous), 
proceeding, go {colloq. or vulgar), circum- 
stance, matter {often in pi.), thing {often 
in pi.), concern; spec, finances {pi.), 
fight, battle, duel; see transaction, con- 
cern, THING. 

affect, V. t. touch, reach, take {with 
"disease," "blow," "fancy," etc., as the sub- 
ject), seize {with "idea" or the like as the 
subject), hit {colloq.); spec, possess, at- 
tack, infect, smite, hurt, trouble, move, 
grip, concern, interest, pierce, perturb, 
impress, penetrate, strike, nip {rare); see 
influence, taint, thrill, agitate, ex- 
cite, IMPRESS. 

affectation, n. artificiality, frill {slang), 
mannerism; spec, modishness, profes- 
sion, conventionality, mincingness, etc. 


affected, a. 1. touched, reached, etc.; spec. 
infected, tainted, attacked, seized, dis- 
tempered, concerned, diseased, etc. 
Antonyms: see unaffected, intact. 


3. artificial, nonnatural, unnatural {rare), 
mannered {rare); spec, modish, stagy 
(colloq ), conventional, missish, namby- 
pamby, got-up (colloq.), smirking, minc- 
ing, minikin (rare), niming-piming (rare), 
mealy; see pretentious. 

Antonyms: see artless, sincere, nat- 
ural, simple, unaffected, frank. 

affecting, a. moving, touching, impres- 
sive; spec, piercing, pathetic, pathetical 
(rare), heart-rending, nerve-racking, piti- 
able, tender, feeling, pungent. 

affection, ?i. 1. See feeling, ailment, 

2. regard, fondness, liking, bosom (fig.), 
attachment (contextual), charity (CJiris- 
tian religion; archaic), storge (tech.; rare); 

spec, dotage, idolization, latrization (rare), 
familism; see love. 
Antonyms: see dislike, hatred, ab- 
horrence, ILL-WILL, indifference. 

3. In a medical sense: spec, infection, con- 
affectionate, a. fond (often spec), loving, 
warm, tender, soft (often spec, and then 
colloq. or contemptuous); spec, doting, 
spoony (colloq. or slang), fatherly, moth- 
erly, sisterly, brotherly. 

Antonyms: see indifferent, apa- 
thetic, cold, disagreeable, HATEFUL, 

affiliate, v. t. 1. See join, 
2. filiate; spec, father, mother (with "on" 
or "upon"). 

affirmative, a. predicative, declarative, 
declaratory; spec insistent, insistive 
(rare) . 

afffict, V. t. Spec, strike, beset, smite, 
ply; spec, persecute; see trouble, op- 

affliction, n. Spec, trial, disability, dis- 
ease, misfortune, visitation. 

afford, V. t. 1. In the sense of "to have re- 
sources or means that are adequate" : carry, 
manage, bear, go (colloq.), give; — not good 
synonxjms, but the nearest there are. 


afloat, a. 1. floating. 
Antonyms: see aground. 

2. overflowed, submerged, flooded, 
swamped, swimming; spec, anchorless, 

3. launched, started, afoot, astir, going. 

4. adrift. 

aforesaid, a. forenamed, forementioned, 
said, mentioned, beforesaid, named, 
abovesaid, above-mentioned, afore-men- 
tioned (rare or archaic). "Aforesaid" is 
noio chiefly formal or legal. 

afraid, a. 1. apprehensive (rare), afeard 
(archaic), fearful (obsolete), alarmed, af- 
frighted, terrified, frightsome (rare), tim- 
orous (rare), funky (slang); spec, panic, 
aghast, scary (colloq.). 

Antonyms: see bold, reckless. 
2. See TIMID, apprehensive. 

after, prep. 1. past, beyond, by. 
Antonytns: see before. 

2. following. 

3. In the sense of "according to": to, by. 

4. See ABOUT, for. 

aftermath, n. aftergrowth, rowen (chiefly 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
aerial: atmospheric, airy, lofty. 
aerie: nest. 
aeriform: gaseous. 
affiance, v. t.: betroth. 
affiance, n.: betrothal. 
affianced: betrothed. 
affine: relative. 

affinity: relation, liking, at- 
affirm: swear, state. 
affirmable: predicable. 
affirmance: statement. 
affix, V. '..: add, attach. 
affix, n.: addition, prefix, suffix. 
afflictive: troublesome. 

affluence: abundance, wealth. 
affluent, a.: abundant, rich. 
affluent, n.; tributary. 
affront: insult, offend. 
afoot: preparing, afloat. 
afresh: again. 
aft: asteryi. 
after, a.: hind, subsequent. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 


(h'al. <{• I'. S.), eddish, rowct (dial.); spec. 
fo^, aftercrop. 

afterpiece, n. postlude {miisic). 

aftertaste, ». tang. 

afterwards, adv. subsequently, thereupon 
(formal), thereon (Jarmal), thereafter 
(formal), so, eft (obs. or archaic), eftsoon 
or eftsoons (archaic), hitcr, then. 
Ardotujms: see before, now. 

again, adv. afresh, anew, anon (chiefly lit- 
erary), freshly, newly; spec, encore. 

age, n. 1. oldness, ancientness, ancientry 
(literary), anility (bookish), caducity 
(rare), antiquity (chiefly spec), senility 
(chiefly spec), eld (archaic and poetic), 
senectitude (rare); spec, date, immemori- 
alness (rare), epact. 
Antonyms: see childhood, infancy, 


2. period, scon (often tech.), eon, lifetime 
(fig.), years (pL); spec. 01am (Hebrew 
chronology), kalpa (Hindu cosmology). 
Antonyms: see moment. 
agency, n. 1. action (contextual), operation 
(contextual), mediation, intermediation, 
ministry (rare or spec), instrumentaUty; 
spec, hand, working, procurement, pro- 

2. Spec medium, vehicle, contagion; see 

AGENT, means. 

3. Spec, factorship, commission, proxy, 
mediumship, factorage, delegacy. 

agent, n. 1. actor (rare), doer, operator 
(contextual), worker (contextual); spec. 
reagent, medium, mediary. 
Antonyms: see subject. 

2. attorney (chiefly tech. or spec), servant 
(law), representative, hand (fig.); spec. 
factor, agency, steward, instrument, in- 
strumentality, broker, emissar\-, almoner, 
dummy, intermediary, go-between, en- 
voy, lobbyist, minister, proxy, commis- 
sary-, procurator, consignee, syndic, ne- 
gotiant, coagent, comprador (Oriental); 


Antonyms: see principal. 

3. See MEANS. 

aggravate, v. t. 1. intensify, heighten, 
worsen, exacerbate. 

Antonyms: see expiate, mitigate, mod- 
erate, REDRESS. 
2. See irritate. 

aggregate, n. amount, total, footing, foot, 
sum; spec, summation. 

aggressive, a. offensive, attacking, push- 
ful (colloq.); spec, invasive, incursive. 

aging, a. senescent (tech.), oldening (rare); 
spec, consenescent (rare). 

agitate, v. t. 1. In a physical sense: dis- 
turb, afTcct (contextual), disquiet, per- 
turb, trouble, excite, convulse, toss, 
shake, exercise, discompose, turmoil 
(rare), tempest (rare), commove or com- 
mote (rare); spec, semove (rare), flurry, 
betoss (intensive), heave. 
Antonyms: see calm, pacify. 

2. disturb, trouble, disquiet, perturb, 
convulse, demoralize, solicit (a Latinism; 
rare), commove or commote (rare), tem- 
pest (rare), turmoil (rare); spec, flutter, 
fret, ruffle, ripple, undulate, curl, buzz, 
flurry, heave, churn; see shake. 

Antonyms: see still, deaden. 

3. See discuss. 

agitated, a. 1. In a physical sense: dis- 
turbed, shaken, troublous, troubled, un- 
quiet; spec, ebullient, boihng, ripply, fret- 
ful, ruffled; see rough. 
Antonyms: see calm, stagnant, quiet. 
2. disturbed, distraught (emphatic; chief- 
ly literary), uneasy, tumultuary (emphat- 
ic), ^ tumultuous (emphatic), shaken, un- 
Antonyms: see calm, peaceful, quiet. 

agitating, a. disturbing, disquieting, per- 
turbing, affecting, etc. Cf. agitate. 
Antonyms: see calmative. 

agitation, n. 1. Referring to the action on 
the ?nind: disturbance, commotion, de- 
moraUzation, perturbation, excitement, 
perturbanoy (rare); spec, incendiarism, 
upheaval, demagogism, ebullition. 

2. Referring to the state of mind: turmoil, 
tumult, discomposure, unquiet, unquiet- 
ness; spec, heat, trepidation, tremble, 
twitter (dial. Eng., or colloq., U. S.), twit- 
teration (slang), ferment, perturbation, 
perturbancy (rare). The words under 
sense 1 may also be used in this connection. 

Antonyms: see calm. 

3. Referring to the physical action: dis- 
turbance, commotion, troubling, toss, 
tossing, jactation (chiefly med.), pertur- 
bation (rare) ; spec upheaval, convulsion, 
undulation; see shaking, flurry, ruf- 
fle, upro.\r, fret, boiling, excitement, 

4. Referring to the physical condition or 
manifestation: spec, flurry, ruffle, tumult, 
curl, fret, ebullience, ebullition, flutter, 
whitecap, cat's-paw; see ripple, shake. 
Most of the words under 3 may also be used 
in this sense. 

Antonyms: see calm. 

5. See discussion, disturbance. 
agitator, n. Spec, demagogue. 
ago, adv. back, since. 

t^= Cross references: see Note. 

agglutinate: stick. 

aggression: attack. 

agape: open, ivondering. 

aggrandize: enlarge, elevate. 

aghast: afraid. 

aged: old. 

aggregate, v. t.: unite, collect. 

agile: nimble. 

agglomerate: accumulate. 


agog: eager. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 


agree, v. i. 1. accord {with "to" or "with"), 
harmonize, consist (with "with"), answer 
{with "to"), correspond {with "with" or 
"to"), suit, match, cohere, comport, con- 
sort, coincide, jump, tally, hitch {colloq.), 
chime, concord (rare), jibe {U. S.; col- 
loq.), gee (colloq.), conform (with "with" 
or "to"). 

Antonyms: see disagree, conflict, dif- 

2. accord, harmonize, concur, consent 
(archaic), cotton (colloq. or Eng.), assort 

Antonyms: see object, quarrel. 

3. covenant, stipulate, meet, engage, 
close, arrange; see promise, contract. 

4. See ACCEDE. 

agreeable, a. 1. suitable, accordant, ac- 
cordable, concordant, harmonious, con- 
sonant, fit, answerable, congruous, con- 
sentaneous (archaic); see consistent, 


Antonyms: see inconsistent, unsuit- 

2. pleasant, suave, nice (a term lacking in 
dignity), lovely (colloq. or emphatic), gra- 
cious, lief (archaic), likable, genial, con- 
genial; see affable, good-humored, 


Antonyms: see disagreeable, ill-tem- 

agreeably, adv. 1. well. 


agreed, a. concerted, stipulated, con- 
tracted, covenanted, consented, arranged. 

agreeing, a. 1. accordant (obs. or rare), 
agreeable (obs. or rare), congruent, con- 
sentient, consentive (rare), consensual, 
consentaneous, concentual (fig.). "Agree- 
ing" is not much used as an adjective; the 
other terms are rare or literary. 

Antonyms: see dissentient, discor- 

2. Referring to sound: assonant, conso- 
agreement, n. 1. accord, accordance, con- 
cord, consistence, consistency, coinci- 
dence, harmony, chime, correspondence, 
concert (literary), concinnity (literary), 
consonance, unison, match, consort 
(rare), conformity, concentus (rare), line, 
keeping, consonancy, congruence, con- 
gruity, coherence, conformation ; see con- 

Antonyms: see inconsistbtJcy, dis- 

2. Referring to the mind: concert, meet- 
ing (in "meeting of the minds"; legal), con- 
currence, consension (rare), consensus, 
consentience (rare), unanimity, under- 
standing, concentus (bookish), consent, 
(archaic), concent (fig.), rapport (French). 

Antonyms: see objection, disagree- 
ment, QUARREL. 

3. Referring to the result of the act: en- 
gagement, transaction, pact, covenant 
(chiefly spec), convention, paction (chiefly 
spec), compact, arrangement, league 
(chiefly spec), bargain, deal, cheap (ar- 
chaic); spec interim, concordat, cartel or 
(German) Kartel, sponsion, affiance; see 

PROMISE, contract. 

4. Of sounds: assonance, consonance. 

5. See accession. 

agricultural, a. rural, prandial (literary 
or tech.), georgic (literary), georgical (lit- 
erary), geofonic (rare). 

agriculture, n. husbandry, farming, geo- 
fonics (rare; usually pedantic), agronomy 

agriculturist, n. husbandman, farmer 
(the usual word), agronomist (tech.). 

aground, a. grounded, aland (archaic); 
spec ashore, stranded, struck. 
Antonyms: see afloat. 

ahead, adv. before, on, forward, forth, 
forthright (archaic). 
Aiitonyms: see backward. 

aid, V. t. 1. help, assist, bestead (literary), 
comfort (obs. or legal); spec avail, abet 
(in wrongdoing), relieve, sustain, uphold, 
patronize (rare or spec), succor, befriend, 
favor, serve, subserve, coassist (rare), 
strengthen, speed (archaic), hand; see 
Antonyms: see hinder, defeat, oppose. 
2. further, promote, advance, strengthen, 
support, second, foster, nourish, favor, 
facilitate, bolster (with "up"), boost (col- 
loq. or slang; U. S.); spec, prosper, sub- 
sidize, encourage, patronize. 

Antomjms: see hinder, defeat, blight, 
prevent, oppose. 

aid, n. 1. cooperation (stilted or spec), as- 
sistance, help, aidance (rare), comfort 
(obs. or legal); spec abettal or abetment 
(in wrongdoing), sustenance (rare or liter- 
ary), support, succor, strengthening, ser- 
vice, boot (archaic), suppeditation (rare), 
sustainment (rare), relief; see support. 
Antonyms: see hindrance, defeat, op- 

2. furtherance, fosterage, nourishment, 
advancement, support, favor, sustain- 
ment (rare), promotion, boost (colloq. or 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
agonize, v. t.: pain. 

agonize, v. i.: suffer, struggle. 
agony: pain, ecstasy. 

agrarian: rural. 
ahead: forward. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 


slang; U. S.), maintenance, conduco- 
ment (rare); spec, patronage. 
Antonijms: see obstacle, hindrance, 

3. NiT AIDER. 

aider, n. I. helper, associate, assistant, 
coadjutor [rare or spec.), coadjutant 
{rare), helpmate or ((he original, but now 
the less usual, form) helpmeet; spec, co- 
worker, cooperator, ally, henchman, tool, 
stool, decoy, acolyte, second, etc. 
2. promoter, furtherer, favorer, etc. Cf. 

AID. ('. /. 

ail, V. t. I. Referring to the body: affect, 
trouble, distress. 
2. Referring to the jnind: sec trouble. 

ailing, a. invalid, indisposed, unwell, ill 
(chiefly predicative), sick {chiefly U. S. or 
literary); spec, sickness, sickly, sickish, 
sicklied (rare), bad {contextual), poorly, 
peaked, unhealthy, morbid, puling {col- 
loq.), pathological (tech.), pathologic 
(rare), down (colloq.), unsound, complain- 
ing, infirm, cacochymic (obs.), maladive 
(rare), valetudinarian (rare), valetudi- 
nary (rare), invalidish (rare); see dis- 

Antonyms: see well, healthy, a^igor- 
ous, he.\rty. 

ailment, n. disorder, ail (rare), complaint, 
indisposition, trouble, affection, ill (chiefly 
in pi.), illness, sickness, infirmity, weak- 
ness; spec, decline; see disease. 

aim, V. t. 1. direct, train, level, point, pre- 
sent; spec, fire, shoot, sight. 
2. Referring to a missile: direct, drive, 
peg (colloq.); spec, shoot, throw. 

aim, V. i. 1. point, drive; — all also used fig. 
2. See intend. 

aim, n. 1. object, mark, target, shot, visie 
(Scot.); spec, butt, bull's-eye, white. 

2. marksmanship. 

3. See object. 

aimed, a. directed (contextual), pointed; 
spec, direct, point-blank, straight. 
Antonyms: see aimless. 

aimless, a. 1. chance, random blind, 
blindfold (flg.), undirected; spec, harum- 
Antonyms: see aimed. 
2. See purposeless. 

air, n. 1. atmosphere, heaven, aerosphere 
(rare); spec, miasma. 

2. Spec, manner, action, bearing, atti- 
tude, way, domineer (colloq.), bridle, 

3. Chiefly in pi.: affectation (contextual), 

frill (chiefly in pi.; colloq., U. S.); spec. 
show, mannerism, style; see pretense. 
4. See WIND, melody. 
airy, a. I. See atmospheric, gaseous, un- 
substantial, light, exposed, avindy. 

2. light, thin, delicate, tenuous, aerial, 
ethereal, etherial, aeriform (rare), celes- 
tial (fig.). 

Antonyms: see clumsy, hea\'y. 

3. iSee exposed. 

alar, a. Referring to the wings: alate, 
winglike, wing-.shaped, winged, alated. 

alarm, n. 1. See fear. 
2. signal (contextual), alarum; spec, toc- 

alarming, a. frightful, scary (cnllnq.), ter- 
rific (710W rare, exc. as an expletive), dread- 
ful, dread (rather literary or formal), ter- 
rifying, terrible, startling, ghastful (a?- 
chaic); see horrible. 
Antonyms: see reassuring. 

alarmist, n. scai'emonger, pessimist, dis- 
quietist (rare); spec, terrorist. 

alas, inter j. alack, ohone (Scot. & Irish), 
ah, woe. 
Antonyms: sec euhoe. 

alcoholic, a. spirituous, hard, ardent, 
strong (contextual). 

alert, a. 1. .See nimble. 
2. Referring to mental quality: active, 
quick, live (chiefly U. S.), lively, nimble 
(rare or contextual), awake; see ready, 
Antonyms: see sluggish, stupefied. 

alertness, n. 1. nimbleness (cf. nimble). 
2. actiAdty, liveliness, quickness, nimble- 
ness (rare or contextual); spec, watchful- 

alienate, V. t. 1. See transfer. 
2. separate, estrange, wean, disunite, dis- 
affect; spec, disacquaint. 

alight, V. i. 1. descend, fight, perch, settle, 
drop, pitch, fall, land; spec, ground; see 
Antonyms: see rise. 

2. See dismount. 

3. Spec, detrain. 

align, V. t. range, line (vnth "up"); spec. 
coUimate (tech.). 

alike, a. 1. same, like, identical, selfsame 
(emphatic) , twin (of two); spec, consub- 
stantial, duplicate; see equal. 
Antonyms: see different, distinct. 
2. See similar. 

alikeness, n. 1. sameness, likeness, identi- 
ty, etc. 
2. See srMiLARrTY. 

X^^ Cross references: see Note. 
air, r. t.: ventilate, express, dis- 
aisle: body, alley. 
akin: related. 

alack: alas. 
alacritous: ready. 
alamode: stylish. 
alarm, v. t.: frighten. 
alarmed: afraui. 

alarum: alarm. 
alcove: recess. 
alias, a.: otherwise. 
alias, n.: name. 
alien: foreign. 

fS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



all, a. whole, any (in sentences of universal 
exclusion, as in "there is no hope of any 
relief," "I cannot give you any encourage- 
ment"), every (distributive), each (implying 
separation in consideration or treatment); 
— not truly synonyrns of "all" nor of each 
other, but often analogous in use. 
Antonyms: see few, many. 

all, n. whole, enth'ety, everything, every- 
body; — specific or partial synonyms only. 
Antonyms: see part, none. 

alley, n. Spec, frescade (rare), mall, lane, 
aisle (an inaccurate use), byway. 

alley, n. taw. 

all- healing, a. panacean (learned). 

allied, a. 1. See united, related. 
2. In scientific usage: kindred, related, 
congeneric, cognate, akin. 
Antonyms: see unrelated. 

allowance, 7i. 1. See permission, ac- 

2. Spec, fee, aid, share, subvention, com- 
mission, pension, livery (historical), viati- 
cum, pin money, quarterage, pittance; see 


3. Ration (chiefly mil. or formal), feed 
(colloq.); spec, dietary. 

4. In sports: odds (pi. & sing.), law (tech.); 
spec, bisque. 

alloy, n. I. See mixture, admixture. 

2. garble (rare); spec, amalgam, spelter 

(rare), brass, bronze, iatten, temper, 

pinchbeck, billon. 
alloy, V. t. 1. adulterate, mix, temper; 

spec, amalgamate. 
Antonyms: see purify. 


alluvium, n. deposit (contextual), wash 

(contextual); spec, geest, drift, gravel, 

sand, waste, till, delta, warp. 
ally, n. 1. associate, confederate. 
Antonyms: see enemy, opponent. 

2. In scientific classification: congener. 
alms, n. dole, charity; spec, pittance, 

maundy (Eng.). 

aloft, adv. 1. above (contextual), on high; 
spec, heaven-high, overhead. 
2. See up. 

alone, a. sohtary, only (rare), single 
(now rare), sole (archaic), isolated, sep- 
arate, lone (poetic or archaic), lonely (em- 
phatic), lonesome (rare), solus (masc; 
Latin), sola (fern.; Latin); spec, unac- 
companied, unattended, forsaken, de- 
serted, abandoned, detached, compan- 
ionless, desolate. 

alone, adv. 1. solitary, only (rare), sepa- 
rately, solely, singularly (rare). 


aloof, a. apart, distant, off, away. 

aloud, adv. 1. out, audibly. 
Antonyms: see silently. 
2. See LOUDLY. 

alphabet, n. Christcross-row (hist, or ar- 
chaic), letters (pi.); spec, ogham or ogam, 
glossic, glossotype, palaeotype, futhorc. 

also, adv. besides, moreover, more, like- 
wise, too, further or (less usual) farther, 
yet, similarly, withal (archaic), forby (ar- 
chaic), furthermore or (less usual) far- 
thermore, therewithal (archaic), eke (ar- 
chaic), thereto (archaic). 

altar, n. shrine, sanctuary; spec, super- 
altar, chantry, marae, thymele, Com- 
munion table, Lord's table, Holy table, 
table (for short). 

alter, v. t. modify, change; spec, interpo- 
late; see FALSIFY, CHANGE. 

Antonyms: see continue, maintain, fix. 
alternate, v. t. interchange, vary, rotate; 

see reciprocate. 
alternation, n. interchange, interchange- 

ableness, variation, rotation; see recipro- 
alternative, n. choice, side, horn (of a 

dilemma; rhetoric and logic), disjunction 

(logic) . 
although, conj. notwithstanding, though, 

howbeit, albeit, maugre (archaic), despite 

(literary or learned) . 
always, adv. 1. ever (archaic or literary), 

tW Cross references; see Note. 

aliment, n.: food. 

aliment, v. t.: feed. 

alimentary: nutritious. 

alimentation: nutrition, feed- 
ing, [sensitive. 

alive: living, lively, swarming, 

allay: appease, abate, mitigate, 
moderate, calm. 

allegation: statement. 

allege: state. 

allegiance: constancy. 

allegorical: metaphorical. 

all-embracing: comprehensive. 

alleviate: mitigate. 

alleviation: mitigation. 

alleviative: mitigatory. 

alliance: union, confederacy, 
relation, amour. 

allied: united, related. 

allocate: place, apportion, ar- 

allocation: placing, apportion- 
ment, arrangement. 

allot: apportion, appropriate. 

allotment: apportionment, ap- 
propriation, share. 

allow: acknowledge, concede, ap- 
portion, permit, grant. 

allowable: acceptable, permis- 

all-powerful: omnipotent. 

allude: refer. 

allure: attract. 

allurement: attraction. 

alluring : attractive. 

allusion: reference. 

allusive: referential. 

ally, v. t.: unite, league. 
almighty: omnipotent. 
almost: about. 
almshouse: poorhouse. 
along, adv.: lengthwise, for- 
along, prep.: by. 
alongside: abreast. 
aloof : apart. 
already: before. 
alterable: changeable. 
alterative: changing. 
altercate: dispute. 
altercation: dispute. 
alternately: about. 
altitude: height. 
altogether: absolutely. 
amalgam: alloy, mixture. 
amalgamate: alloy, mix. 

%^ See Notes of Explanation. 



perpetually, eternally, evermore (archaic 
or literary), everlastingly, forever. 
Aittouijnis: see nevku. 

2. ^'(r CONSTANTLY. 

amanuensis, /(. scrivener, scribe, WTiter; — 

{all three contextual); spec, khoja. 
amateur, n. Spec, dilettante, Corinthian 

amateurish, a. nonprofessional; spec. 
Corinthian (.%•)• 
Antonyms: see profession.\l. 

amatory, a. erotic, amorous, lovesome 
(archaic); spec, gallant (rare), tender, 
languorous, languishing. Anacreontic 
(rare), Sapphic (rare), silly (rare orcolloq.), 
spoony (colloq. or slang); spec, toysomc, 
erotomaniac, nymphomaniac. 

Antonyms: see man-hating, woman- 
hating, APATHETIC. 

ambiguous, a. uncertain, doubtful, equivo- 
cal, dilogical (rare), double, questionable, 
mistakable; spec, left-handed, oracular. 
Antonyms: see definite, unquestion- 

ambition, n. 1. See desire. 
2. energy, activity, push (colloq.), emula- 
tion, aspiration. 

ambitious, a. 1. See desirous. 

2. energetic, active, pushing (colloq.), 
pushful (colloq.); spec. Icarian (fig.). 

Antonyms: see lazy, unambitious. 

3. Referring to a person, his imagination, 
etc.: spec, bold, audacious, aspiring, soar- 

4. Referring to what shows ambition: spec. 
bold, audacious; see pretentious, showy. 

Antonyms: see simple. 
amble, n. Spec, jog-trot, dog- trot, niggle; 

see pace. 
ambush, n. trap (contextual), ambuscade, 

ambushment, bUnd, bushment (obs.). 
ambush, v. t. trap (contextual), waylay, 

ambuscade, forelay (obs. or dial.), wait 

ambush, V. t. wait (archaic), lurk (rare). 
amend, v. t. 1. improve, reform, mend 

(rare or dial.), rectify (rare); see correct, 

Antonyms: see spoil, impair. 

2. See REFORM. 

amendable, a. improvable, corrigible, re- 
formable; see corrigible. 

amendment, n. 1. improvement, reform, 
reformation; spec, progress; see correc- 
tion, redress. 

2. Sec reformation. 

amidst, prep. 1. Referring to position in 
or near the middle: amid (poetic or formal), 
mid or often (as an aphetic form) 'mid 
(poetic), midst or often (as an aphetic 
form), 'midst (archaic). 
2. See among. 

ammunition, n. supplies (pi.; contextual), 
munition (often in pi.); spec, missiles 
(pi.), archery, powder, shot (pL), bullets 
(pi.), shell (pi.), etc. 

among, prep, amongst (less usval than 
among, esp. in the primary local sense), 
amidst, in. 

amount, n. 1. See sum, aggregate, 
2. deal, lot (colloq.); spec, quantity. 

amount, v. i. total. 

amour, n. 1. See love. 
2. love affair, loves (pi.), intrigue (con- 
textual), gallantry, alliance (contextual), 
amourette (dim.); spec, intimacy (euphe- 
mistic); see courtship. 

amputate, v. t. sever (contextual); spec. 

amulet, n. periapt (rare), charm, talis- 
man ; spec, phylactery. 

amusing, a. diverting, light, funny, odd 
(colloq.), good, delicious; see laughable. 
Antonyms: see dull, sad, serious, 

analogous, a. parallel, correlative, corre- 
sponding, similar, cognate, equivalent, 
Antonyms: see opposite, contrasting. 

analogue, n. parallel, correlative, corre- 
late (rare), parallelism, equivalent. 
Antonyms: see opposite, contrast. 

analogy, n. parity (rather literary or learn- 
ed), correlation, equivalence, parallelism, 
proportion (rare), similarity, correspond- 
Antonyms: see contrast, opposition. 

analysis, n. 1. separation, resolution, dis- 
section, di\'ision, anatomy (fig.), reduc- 
tion; spec, partition, pilpul; see deco.m- 

POSITION, disintegration. 

2. In grammar: parsing, construction; 
.spec, scansion. 

analytical, a. divisive, resolvent, separa- 
Antonyms: see compositive. 

analyze, v. t. 1. separate, resolve, dissect, 
anatomize (fig.); spec, partition; see de- 
compose, disintegrate. 

(^^ Cross references: see Note. 
amass: accumulate. 
amaze: surprise. 
amazement: surprise. 
amazing : surprising. 
ambit: circuit, hound. 
ambrosial: divine, fragrant. 
ameliorate: improve, mitigate. 

amenable: accountable. 
amends: compensation. 
amenity: pleasantness. 
amerce: fine. 
amiable: lovable, kindly. 
amicable: friendly. 
amiss: wrong. 
amity: peace. 

a,Taiiesty z forgetfulness, pardon. 
amorous: amatory. 
amorphous: formless. 
ample: abundant, adequate. 
amplify: enlarge 
amplitude: abundance, size, 
amuse: divert. 
amusement: diversion. 

(W See Notes of Explanation. 



Antonyms: see compose. 
2. In grammar: parse, construe; spec. 

anarchical, a. lawless, ungoverned. 
Antonyms: see law-abiding. 

anarchistic, a. red (colloq.), lawless; spec. 
nihilistic, dynamitic. 

anarchy, n. misrule, lawlessness; spec. 
nihilism, dynamitism. 
Antonyyns: see government. 

anatomize, v. t. dissect; spec, hominisect, 

anatomy, n. 1. dissection; spec, homini- 
section, calliscction, sentisection, vivisec- 
tion, phytotomy, topography, zootomy. 


ancestor, n. predecessor {contextual), an- 
cestry (a collective), forebear {orig. Scot.; 
now literary), stock (a collective), fore- 
elder {rare), forerunner; spec, root {fig.), 
patriarch, progenitor, forefather, father, 
ancestress, grandam {literary; fig.), pro- 
genitress, progenitrix, foremother {rare). 
Antonyms: see descendant, offspring. 

ancestral, a. forefatherly; spec, patrimon- 
ial, hereditary. 

ancestry, n. lineage, progeniture. 

anchor, 1. Spec, kedge, bower, sheet 
anchor, killick {chiefly Eng.), grapnel. 
2. See HOLD. 

anchorage, n. riding, berth {contextual); 
spec, harborage, roadstead, road. 

ancient, a. Did {cojitextual) , early {co7i- 
textual), primitive, high, pristine {usually 
in a good sense), vetus {Latin); spec, pre- 
historic; see antiquated, obsolete. 
Antonyms: see new, modern, recent. 

ancillary, a. auxiliary, subordinate. 

andiron, n. fire-dog or {for short) dog. 

anecdote, n. account {contextual), inci- 
dent {contextual); spec, haggada. 

angel, n. 1. spirit {contextual), celestial 
{contextual); spec, cherub, seraph, virtue, 
archangel, principality, power, throne, 
dominion, Ariel, Belial, Gabriel. 
2. See minister, demon, genius. 

angelic, a. 1. celestial {contextual), se- 
raphic {chiefly spec), cherubic {chiefly 
2. See heavenly. 

anger, n. ill-temper {contextual), displeas- 
ure {contextual), choler {literary), ire {lit- 
erary), wrath, indignation, indignance 
{rare), indignancy {rare), spleen, dudgeon 
(archaic), madness {colloq.), vexation, 
gall, bile, heat, mad {slang; colloq., U. S., 

or dial.), dander {colloq., U. S., or dial.), 
despite {archaic), corruption {colloq. or 
dial.), irritation {contextual); spec, fury, 
frenzy, rage, passion, furiousness, exas- 
peration, furiosity {rare). 
Antonyms: see pleasure. 

anger, v. t. exasperate madden, provoke, 
incense, inflame, excite {contextual); spec. 
chafe, enrage, infuriate, huff {colloq.). 
Antonyms: see please. 

angle, n. 1. corner, bend {primarily spec), 
point; spec, cant, nook, elevation, de- 
pression, shoulder, elbow, knee, crotch, 
cusp, bull's-nose. 
2. See POINT, FISHHOOK, aspect. 

angry, a. displeased, wrathful, wrathy 
{colloq.), incen,sed, irate or ireful {literary), 
wroth {rhetorical), dark {fig.), hot {colloq.), 
heated, black {fig.), mad {colloq.), riley 
{colloq., U. S.), huffy {colloq.), exasper- 
ated, wood {archaic); spec, furious, in- 
furiated, infuriate {literary), passionate, 
impassionate {rare), rabid, raging, in- 
dignant, fevered, fiery, high, rough. 

Antonyms: see pleased, apathetic, un- 

angular, a. cornered, sharp, edgy, ab- 
rupt, cranky {esp. dial.; Eng.), angulous 
{rare) . 
Antonyms: see straight, curved. 

animal, n. 1. organism {contextual); spec 
invertebrate, vertebrate, brute, beast, 
zoon {tech.), vermin, creature {in U. S. 
esp. of cattle), fauna (a collective), flesh (a 
collective). "Animal," except in technical 
usage, is generally distinguished from 
"man" and also is chiefly used of verte- 

2. Spec, beastliness, brutality, bestiality, 
brutishness, blood (fig.). 

animal, a. 1. Spec, bestial, brutal, brut- 
ish, zooid {tech.), zoic {tech.), holozoic 

Antonyms: see spiritual, human, veg- 
etable, mineral. 
2. See sensual, unreasoning. 

animate, v. t. 1. energize, inspire, quicken 
{archaic), vivify, vitalize, enliven {rare), 
actuate {contextual), inform {literary or 
spec), imbue, activate {tech.), spirit 
{rare); spec, pervade, revive, raise, spir- 
Antonyms: see kill, paralyze. 
2. See enliven, incite, encourage. 

ankle, n. tarsus {tech.). 

anneal, v. t. temper, toughen; spec bake. 

tS= Cross references: see Note. 
anathema: curse. 
anchoret: religious, hermit. 
anchorless: afloat. 
ancientness: age. 
anent: about. 

anew: again. 
anguish: pain. 
animadversion: comment, cen- 
animadvert: comment. 
animalize: brutalize. 

animated: living, active. 
animosity: ill-will. 
annex: add, attach. 
annexation: addition, attach- 
annexed: adjunct . 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



annihilate, c. /. abolish (contextual), de- 
stroy, obliterate, dissolve, nullify (rare), 
efface (context uol), uncreate, blot (ron- 
textual), unmake (rare), extinguish, an- 
nul (rare), discrcate (rare), nothuig (rare); 


Antonyms: sfc create, preserve. 

anniversary, n. mind day (obs.); spec. 
centenary, centennial, triennial quadren- 
nial, quinquennial, sextennial, septennial, 
octennial, decennial, birthday, birthnight, 
jubilee, year day (obs.). 

annotate, v. t. gloze, gloss, commentate 
(rare); spec, marginalize (rare), margin, 

annotation, n. 1. Referring to the act: 
glozing, glossing, commentation (rare). 
2. Referring to the result: comment (con- 
textunl), note (contextual), gloss, scholium 
(tech.), gloze; spec, margin (rare), mar- 
ginalia (pL), interlineary, postil (hist.). 

annotator, n. commentator, glossist, glos- 
sator, glosser, glossographer (rare), scho- 
liast (tech.). 

announce, v. t. advertize, intimate, de- 
clare, tell, herald, bruit (literary), notify, 
signify, signal, annunciate, enunciate (jor- 
mal), enounce (rare); spec, sound, usher, 
call, denounce, presage, advertize, bill, 
post, cry, bulletin; see proclaim. 
Antonyms: see hide. 

announcement, n. intimation, annunci- 
ation, notification, declaration, notice, 
advertizement, enunciation (formal); spec. 
indiction, banns (pi.), bulletin, obituary, 
obit (archaic), proclamation. 

annoy, v. t. distress (contextual), disturb 
(contextual), vex, touch, plague, tor- 
ment, harass, irk (archaic), curry (Jig.), 
pester, exulcerate (archaic), fret, molest 
(archaic), displeasure (rare); spec, nag, 
rag (colloq. or slang), ruffle, pinprick, ear- 
Tsng, bore; see irritate, trouble, tease. 
Antonyms: see please, elate, pac- 
ify, CALM. 

annoyance, n. 1. distress (contextual), 
disturbance (contextual), harassment, ex- 
ulceration (rare), molestation (archaic); 


2. Referring to what annoys: vexation, 
plague, thorn, torment, pest, pester, nui- 
sance, gall, bore ; see irritation, trouble. 

Antonyms: see comfort. 

3. Referring to the state of mind: vexa- 
tion, displeasure, disquiet, ruffle; see ir- 

annoying, a. displeasing (contextual), vex- 
atious, plaguesome (colloq.) , plaguey (col- 
loq.), thorny, painful, worrisome, irksome. 
Antonyms: see calmative, sedative. 

annual, a. yearly. 

annular, a. ring-shaped, round (context- 
ual), annulated, annulate, cricoid (tech.; 
chiefly spec). 

anoint, v. t. anele (archaic), oint (archaic), 
inunct (chiefly spec.; rare), smear (now 
only contemptuous); spec, oil, grease, 
chrism, balsam, salve. 

anonymous, a. nameless, unnamed, un- 
known (a loose contextual use). 

another, a. Spec, second, other (archaic 
or rare), different. 

answer, v. i. 1. Referring to making de- 
fense against a charge, as in law: defend, 
plead (law); spec, reply, rejoin, rebut, 
surrejoin, surrebut. 

2. reply, respond, retort, return (context- 
ual), rejoin, replicate (rare); spec, sub- 
join, recriminate. 

3. react, respond; spec, counteract. 

4. See agree, ser\t]. 

answer, v. t. 1. As in law: defend. 

2. reply, respond, retort, rejoin, say (con- 
textual), replicate (rare). 

Antonyms: see question. 

3. acknowledge; spec, receipt. 

4. solve. 

5. See satisfy, settle. 

answer, n. 1. As used in law: defense, 
plea; spec, rebutter, reply, rejoinder, 
replication, surrejoinder, surrebutter. 

2. reply, response, retort; spec, coun- 
terblast, countercharge, contraremon- 
strance, repartee, antiphony, subjoinder, 
oracle, anthem. 

Antonyms: see question. 

3. acknowledgment; spec, receipt. 

4. solution. 

5. reaction, response. 

answering, a. responsive, replying, re- 

sponsory (obs.). 
antedate, v. 1. 1. precede (in time), predate. 
Antonyms: see postdate. 

2. mistime (contextual), anachronize 

(rare) . 
antediluvian, a. prediluvian, antedilu- 

\'ial, prediluvial. 
anteprandial, a. preprandial; — both rare. 
anteroom, n. vestibule; spec, hall, lobby, 

anthem, n. respond (rare), responsory; 

spec, offertory. 

XW Cross references: see Note. 
annual: yearly. 
annul: abolish, invalidate. 
annulus: ring. 
annunciate: announce. 
annunciation: announcement. 
annunciatory: proclamatory. 

anomalous: abnormal. 

anon: soon, a^ain. 

answerable: accountable, ac- 

antagonism: opposition. 

antagonist: opponent, competi- 

antagonize: oppose. 
antecede: precede, [viousness. 
antecedence: precedence, pre- 
antecedent: preceding, previ- 
antecessor: predecessor. 
anterior: previous, fore. 

XS' See Notes of Explanation. 



anthology, n. posy (rare), florilegium 
(rare) . 

anticipate, v. t, 1. preconceive, foresee 
(fig.), precognosce (rare); spec, hope, 
reckon {used with "that" and a dependent 
clause), suspect, forefeel (rare), forebode, 
intuit {rare or tech.); see expect, fore- 

2. forestall, forerun, devance (rare), fore- 
come (rare), prevent (rare). 

anticipation, n. 1. presentiment, fore- 
sight, preconception, preassurance (rare); 
spec, forefeeling (rare), reckoning, fore- 
boding, hope, prolepsis, intuition; see 

2. forestalment, prevenience (rare), pre- 
vention (rare) ; spec, prevenance. 

anticipatory, a. 1. anticipant, anticipa- 
tive, precognoscent (rare), presentient 
(rare); spec, proleptic (rare); see expect- 
ant, HOPEFUL. 

2. anticipant, prevenient (learned), pre- 
venting (rare). 

anticlimax, n. bathos (learned), come- 
down (colloq.). 

antidote, n. remedy (contextual), alexi- 
pharmic (learned), Theriac (archaic; fig.), 
mithridate (obs. or hist.), counterpoison, 
obvietam (ohs. or hist.); spec, counter- 
charm, countervenom, bezoar (archaic). 
Antomjms: see poison. 

antiquarian, n. antiquary; spec, archae- 
ologist, archseologer (rare), palseologist. 

antiquarianism, n. Spec, palseology, 

antiquate, v. t. age, outdate, unmodern- 
ize (rare). 

antiquity, n. 1. age (contextual), old (ar- 
chaic or poetic), oldness, ancientness. 

2. Referring to the people of antiquity: eld 
(archaic or poetic); spec, foreworld (rare). 

Antonyms: see modernness, newness, 

3. See RELIC. 

antlers, n. pi. head, attire; — both collec- 
tives, and hunting terms. 

anvil, 71. stithy (rare); spec, teest. 

anxiety, n. distress (contextual), trouble 
(contextual), care, disquiet, concern, con- 

cernment, uneasiness, suspense, solici- 
tude; see apprehension. 

anxious, a. distressed (contextual), trou- 
bled (contextual), careful (rare), uneasy, 
concerned, solicitous; see timid, appre- 

Antonyms: see careless, bold, calm, 

anybody, n. any one. 

anyhow, adv. anyways, anyway, anywise. 

anything, n. aught (literary), ought (tfie 
less usual spelling). 

apart, a. 1. separate, aloof, away, aside; 
spec, distant, foreign. 
2. See unrelated. 

apart, adv. 1. separately, aside, away, 
aloof, asunder. 

Antonyms: see together, adjacent, 
2. independently. 

apathetic, a. dull, phlegmatic, calm (con- 
textual), cold, sluggish, cold-blooded, in- 
ert (literary or learned), impassive, indif- 
ferent, insensible, nerveless, torpid, tor- 
pent (rare); spec, languid, languishing, 
languorous, listless, lethargic, inexcitable, 
A ntonyms: see eager, excited, ardent, 
angry, impetuous, compassionate, 
emotional, emphatic, energetic, sus- 
ceptible, SPIRITED, amatory, AFFEC- 
TIONATE, hateful, etc. 

apathy, n. dullness, sluggishness, inert- 
ness (literary or learned); spec, languor, 
torpor, lethargy, lassitude, calm (context- 
ual), etc. 

apiece, adv. individually, each, severally. 

apostasy, n. 1. recreancy, tergiversation 
(rare), abandonment, perversion, seces- 
sion, lapse, relapse. Cf. backslide. 
Antonyms: see constancy. 


apostate, n. 1. renegade, recreant, turn- 
coat, pervert or (colloq.) vert, transfuge 
(rare), tergiversator (rare); spec, back- 


apostate, a. recreant. 

apostatize, v. i. 1. renegade, secede, re- 

It^^ Cross references: see Note. 

antic, a.: grotesque, frisky, buf- 

antic, n.: buffoon, caper. 

anticipant: anticipatory, ex- 

antifebrile: febrifuge. 

antipathy: aversion, abhor- 
rence, incompatibility. 

antipodal: opposite. 

antipodes: underworld. 

antipyretic: febrifuge. 

antiquated: old, old-fashioned, 
obsolete, chronic. 

antique: old, old-fashioned. 

antithesis: contrast. 

antithetic: contrasting. 
antitype: foreshadow. 
antler: horn. 

anyway, anyways: anyhow. 
apace: rapidly. 
apache: desperado. 
apartment: room, suite. 
ape, «.; simian, imitator. 
ape, V. I.: imitate. 
apelilie: simian. 
aperient: cathartic. 
aperture: opening. 
apex: top, cusp, height. 
aphorism: saying. 
apiary: beehive. 
apish: simian, imitative. 

assurance, verti- 

revelation, dis- 

justificatory, ex- 

aplomb, a.: 
aplomb, n.: 



apologist: justifier, excuser. 
apologue: fable. 
apology: justification, excuse, 

apophthegm: saying. 
apostrophe: address. 
apotheosize: deify. 
appall: frighten, dismay. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 


lapse, lapse, fall, vert {colloq., Eng.); sec 


2. See DKSERT. 

appanage, n. adjunct, appurtenance, pro- 
priiun {(eeh.), \no\wrty (eonlexlual); spec. 
perquisite, prerogative. 

apparatus, /;. 1. rigging, machine, ma- 
chinery, mechanism, gear, plant, enginery 
(often fig.); spec, tackle. 

apparent, a. 1. See evident. 
2. seeming, ostensible, ostensive (rare), 
semblable {rare or literary), evident (rare); 
spec, phenomenal, external, sensible; see 


Antonyms: see hidden, actual. 

apparently, culv. seemingly, etc., methinks 
(archaic and usually poetic). Cf. appar- 
ent, 2. 

apparition, n. 1. See appearance. 
2. specter, appearance, phantasm, phan- 
tom, image, show, shadow, umbrage (^^7- 
erary), idol (literary or learned), phasm 
(rare), shape (now rare or contextual), 
phantast (rare), phantasma (rare), eido- 
lon (learned); spec, double, wraith, fetch, 
double - ganger, bogy, boodie (Scot.), 
epiphany, Christophany, blue-devils (col- 
loq.), illusion; see ghost, semblance. 

apparitional, a. phantom, phantasmic 
(rare), phantasmal. 

appeal, v. i. 1. turn; spec, refer; cf. ap- 
peal, n., 2. 

2. apply, ask, pray, sue, entreat (rare), 
cry (fig.), plead, go (contextual; esp. vrith 
"up"), petition. 

appeal, n. 1. As used in law: counter- 
plea (rare); spec, recusation, plaidoyer. 

2. apphcation, turning, reference, address 
(rare), prayer; spec, memorial. 

3. application, request, asking, call, cry, 
prayer, entreaty, plea, suit; spec, oath, 

4. »S'ee attraction. 

appear, v. i. 1. show (now colloq.) , emerge, 
issue, peer (archaic), spring (chiefly spec), 
offer, develop, come (contextual); spec. 
figure, rise, sparkle, coappear, compear 
(law), issue, loom, glimpse (archaic). 
Antonyms: see disappear, vanish. 
2. See SEEM. 

appearance, n. 1. appearing, manifesta- 
tion, show (colloq.), rise, apparition 
(learned) ; spec, shadow, reapparition, 
avatar, gUmpse, outcrop, gleam. 
Antonyms: see disappearance. 

2. species (tech.), pluise, guise, aspect, fig- 
ure, look, favor (archaic), face, form, 
shape, surface, shadow, phantasm, ghost, 
complexion, cast, color, show (now rhetor- 
ical or poetic, exc. as referring to an illusory 
or deceiving appearance), portraiture 
(rare), visage (rare); spec, perspective, 
smoke, facies (natural hist.); see aspect. 

3. phenomenon; spec, meteor (esp. tech.). 

4. semblance; spec, likeness. 

5. See apparition. 

appease, v. t. 1. See satisfy, pacify. 
2. slake, quench, assuage, allay, mitigate, 
lay (archaic); see satisfy. 

appeasement, n. 1. See satisfaction. 
2. slaking, assuagement, etc. Cf. ap- 
pease, 2. 

appendage, n. 1. attachment, pendicle 
(chiefly Scot.), codicil (fig. or spec); spec. 
chatelaine, chatelaine (French), fob, pen- 
dant, tang, crook. 
2. *See PROCESS. 

appendix, n. attachment, addition, codi- 
cil (fig. or spec); spec, excursus. 

appetite, n. 1. belly (fig.), hunger, desire, 
craving, maw (fig. or spec); spec, malacia 
(tech.); see thirst. 
Anto7iyms: see disgust, surfeit. 

2. See DESIRE. 

applaud, V. t. Spec, acclaim, clap, cheer, 
encore, chirrup (Eng.; slang), claque 
(cant or slang); see praise. 
Antonyms: see condemn, censure. 

applaud, V. i. Spec, acclaim, clap, cheer, 
huzza, stomp. 

applause, ?i. 1. See praise. 
2. Referring to what is done by way of 
praise: spec plaudit (chiefly in pi.), hand- 
clap, clap, hozanna, huzzas (pi.). 
Antonyms: see condemnation, censure. 

apple, n. pome (poetic). 

apple-shaped, a. pomiform (tech.). 

applicable, a. 1. See adaptable. 
2. suitable, usable, adaptable, devotable; 
spec appropriate, appropriable. 

application, n. 1. apposition, touching. 

2. constancy (contextual), assiduity, de- 
votion, appliance, sedulity (rare), sedu- 
lousness, intentness, diligence, industry, 

Antonyms: see change ableness, indo- 

3. resort, recourse, recurrence. 

4. See asking, appeal, appropriation. 

5. Spec, poultice, plaster, epithem, stupe, 
lotion, foment, wash, ointment, cerate. 

C^^ Cross references: see Note. 
apparel, n.: clothing. 
apparel, r. I.: clothe. 
apparency: evidency. 
appeasable: pacifiable, satisfi- 

appellation: naming, name. 

appellative: name. 

append: attach. 

appendant: accessory, result- 

apperceive: perceive. 

apperception: perception, in- 

appertain: belong, relate. 
appetency: desire, inclination. 
appetize: relish. 
appetizing: palatable. 
appliance: application, in- 
applicant: asker. 

IsS^ See Notes of Explanation. 


apply, V. t. 1. put {with "to," "on," or 
"upon"), use {with "to," "on," or 
"upon"), lay {with "to," "on," or "upon"), 
bestow {archaic); spec, misapply. 

2. direct, concentrate, give, devote, ad- 
dress, bend, buckle, put, keep, ply {rare or 
dial.); see addict. 


apply, V. i. 1. bear {vxith "on" or "upon"), 
hold, subsist. 

2. address {rare), turn, run, resort, go 
{contextual); see appeal. 

appoint, V. t. 1. ordain, prescribe, fix, or- 
der, frame, establish, determine, preap- 
point, decree, direct, set, destine, fore- 
ordain, dispose ; spec, redetermine. 

2. designate, assign, constitute, set, fix, 
limit, settle, cast; spec, commission, 
place, name, detail, depute, deputize 
{U. S.), delegate, prick, nominate, des- 
tine, attach, determine, predetermine, 
locate; see apportion, appropriate. 

Antonyms: see forbid. 

3. See equip. 

appointed, a. fixed, ordained, determined, 
set, etc. 

appointment, n. 1. ordinance, ordina- 
tion, ordainment, establishment, disposi- 
tion, determination, prescription, decree, 
direction, settlement, foreordination, pre- 

2. designation, constitution, settlement, 
limitation; spec, commission, deputation, 
indiction, destination, determination, 
etc.; see apportionment, appropria- 

3. engagement, assignation, tryst {liter- 
ary), meeting, date {colloq.). 

4. See equip. 

apportion, v. t. portion {less usual than "ap- 
portion"), assign, appoint, allow, allocate, 
allot, admeasure, measure {archaic or fig.), 
award, mete {rare), give {contextual), dis- 
tribute, deal (chiefly spec); spec, award, 
limit ([/. S. & Canada), dole, admeasure 
{rare) . 

apportionment, n. assignment, appoint- 
ment, allowance, allotment, etc. Cf. ap- 

appreciative, a. sensible, sensitive. 
Antonyms: see unappreciative. 

apprehension, n. fear {with "lest" or 
"that"), anxiety {with "lest"), solicitude 
{with "lest"), scruple {rare). 

apprehensive, a. fearful {with "of," "lest," 
or "that"), anxious {with "for fear that"), 
solicitous {with "lest"), afraid {with 
"that"). "Apprehensive" is used with 
"of," "lest," or "that." 
Antonyms: see hopeful. 

apprehensiveness, n. fearfulness, anxi- 
ety, solicitude, fear. 

approach, v. i. I. near, advance {context- 
ual), approximate, nigh {rare), advene 
{rare), accede {rare), appropinquate 
{rare); spec, borrow, verge, draw, board, 
converge, come. 
Antonyms: see depart. 

2. approximate {as in quality, form, etc.), 
near (rare); spec, resemble. 

3. come (contextual); — referring to what 
draws near in time. 

approach, v. t. near, approximate {ar- 
chaic), appropinquate {rare), anear {ar- 
chaic) . 
Antonyms: see avoid, leave. 
approach, n. 1. nearing, approximation, 
advance (contextual); spec, convergence. 
Antonyms: see avoidance, divergence. 

2. coming. 

3. In pi.: advances {pi.). 

4. access; spec, entrance. 
approaching, a. 1. nearing, advancing; 

spec, convergent, connivent {tech.), com- 

2. See COMING {in time). 
appropriate, v. 1. 1. take, spheterize {rare); 
spec, misappropriate, condemn, arrogate, 
convert, embezzle, foreclose, secrete, 
pocket, usurp; see convert, steal, con- 
Antonyms: see abandon, relinquish, 


2. assign, appoint, allot, apply, devote, 
dedicate {spec, or archaic), design; spec. 
reserve, misapply, misappropriate. 

3. See ascribe. 
appropriate, a. 1. See peculiar. 

2. becoming, suitable, fit, fitting, meet, 
condign {of punishinent) , felicitous {ac- 
tion, remark, etc.), convenient {archaic), 
convenable {obs.), feat {archaic), compe- 
tent {archaic), likely, proper, appropriate, 
apposite, pat {chiefly spec), apt, good, 
right, sortable {archaic), idoneous {rare), 
concinnous {rare), congruous ; spec, happy, 
decent, graceful, applicable; see timely. 
i Antonyms: see unsuitable, untimely. 

t^" Cross references: see Note. 
apposite: appropriate, relative. 
apposition: application, re- 
appraisal: valuation. 
appraise: value. 
appraisement: valuation. 
appreciable: perceptible. 
appreciate: value, feel, advance. 

appreciation: valuation, feel- 
ing, advance, understanding. 

appreciative: sensitive. 

apprehend: arrest, capture, 
perceive, understand, expect, 

apprehensible: understand- 
able, perceptible. 

apprehension: arrest, capture, 

intelligence, perception, expecta- 
tion, fear. {gent. 

apprehensive: afraid, intelli- 

apprise: notify, inform. 

approachable: accessible, af- 

approbate: approve, admire. 

approbation: approval, ad- 

tS" See Notes of Explanation. 



appropriately, adr. becomingly, suitably, 

(/(•.. apr01)0S. (.'/. Al'l'UOl'RIATE, «., 2. 

appropriateness, ri. bccomingncss, suit- 
ability, iitness, felicity, etc. 

appropriation, n. taking, application; 
spec, confiscation, 'arrogation, allotment, 
secretion, etc. Cf. appropriate, v. t. 

approval, n. approbation, support, sanc- 
tion, imprimatur (spec, or fig.), indorse- 
ment, countenance, acceptance; spec, fa- 
vor, fancy, auspices, vis> {French); see 


approve, v. t. approbate {rare; chiefly 
Eiig.), sanction, support, countenance, 
sustain, pass, indorse, second; spec, en- 
courage, preconize (rare), favor, vise; see 


Aiitotiyms: see condemn, reprove, cen- 

approximate, a. rough, round, close, near; 
— referring to approximations, numbers, etc. 

appurtenance, n. accessory, belonging, 
appurtenant; spec, paraphernalia {pi.), 
incident {law), requisite, property {thea- 
ters), props {pi.; theaters); see accessory, 


aquiline, a. Referring to the nose: hawk- 
nosed {rare or opprobrious), beaked, 
hooked, Roman. 
Antonyms: see pug-nosed, snub. 

arable, a. plowable, tillable. 

arable, ?i. infield {Brit.), earthland {rare), 

arbitrary, a. 1. See absolute, capri- 
cious, tyrannical, autocratic. 
2. High-handed, willful, high (colloq.). 

arbor, n. bower; spec, pergola, pandal 

arboreal, a. arboral, arboreous, arborous, 
dendral {rare). 

arcade, n. passage {contextual); spec, clois- 
ter, loggia {Italian). 

arch, n. cove {the ordinary hollow arch), 
fornix {Latin); spec, ogive, skewback, 
conch, concha, vault, invert, concamera- 
tion {rare), span. 

arch, V. t. 1. cove, vault {chiefly spec), em- 
bow {literary), concamerate {rare); spec. 
hog, hump, hunch. 
2. span, overvault {rare), overarch. 

archer, n. sagittary {rare), bowman, bow- 
yer {rare); spec. Sagittarius. 

architect, n. builder {contextual), maker 
{rare), constructor (contextual), master 
builder (tech.); spec, ecclesiologist. 

architecture, n. structure, building, con- 
struction; spec, ecclesiology. 

ardent, a. 1. See burning, hot, alcoholic. 
2. eager, impetuous, hot, warm, fiery, 
burning, fierce, fervent, glowing, feverish, 
fervid, perfervid {emphatic for ^'fervid"; 
rare), zealous, passionate, enthusiastic or 
enthusiastical (both archaic). 
Antonyms: see apathetic, indifferent. 

ardor, n. eagerness, impetuosity, ardency, 
fervor, fever, feverishness, heat, glow, 
warmth, fire, elan (French), fieriness, ve- 
hemence, zeal, flame, spirit, soul, verve 
(literary or bookish), ferventness, fervid- 
ity {rare), perfervor {rare), enthusiasm 
{archaic) . 
Antonyms: see apathy, indifference. 

area, n. 1. Referring to an extent of land: 
extent, space, expanse, tract, circuit, com- 
pass, field, sphere, range, scope, ground 
(contextual), size, stretch; spec, sheet, ter- 
rain, terrane; see piece. 
2. extent, expanse, space, room \jiow 
chiefly spec). 

arena, n. 1. Spec, circus, amphitheater, 
cirque, ring, Usts {pL), cockpit 
2. See sphere. 

argument, n. 1. reason {contextual); spec 
silencer, fallacy, sophism, sockdologer 
{slang, U. S.), settler {colloq.), dilemma; 
see reason. 
2. See discussion, dispute. 

aright, adv Spec, rightly, correctly, just- 
ly, properly. 

arise, v. i. 1. See rise. 
2. originate, spring, issue, rise, proceed, 
emerge, come, grow, flow, accrue, begin; 
see occur, result. 
Antonyms: see die. 

arising, n. 1. See rise 
2. origination, spring, rise, beginning, 
birth, etc. Cf. arise, v. i., 2. 

aristocracy, n. 1. Referring to a form or 
principle of government: optimacy {rare), 
patriciate (rare). 
Antonyms: see democracy. 

2. See nobility. 

3. As a collective: quality {chiefly archaic 
or dial.). 

JSP= Cross references: see Note. 
approximate: approach. 
approximately: about. 
approximation: approach. 
appulse: impact. 
appurtenance: property. 
appurtenant, a.: accessory. 
appurtenant, n.: accessory. 
apriori : deductive. 
apropos: timely, appropriately. 
apt: ready, appropriate, dis- 

aqueduct: channel. 
aqueous: watery. 
arbiter: judge, master. 
arbitrate: decide, judge. 
arbitration: decision, judoment. 
arbitrator: judge. 
arbor: axle. 
arborescent: branching. 
arc: curve, band. 
Arcadian: rural. 
arch, n : chief. 
archaic: old-fashioned. 

archetypal: original. 
archetype: original, pattern. 
archipelago: sea. 
ardency: ardor. 
arduous: difficult, laborious. 
argent: silvery. 
argillaceous: clayey. 
argosy: ship. 
argot: jargon, dialect. 
arguable : questionable. 
argue: discuss, dispute, mean. 
arid: dry, uninteresting. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 


aristocrat, n. patrician (learned), op- 

timate (learned); see noble. 
aristocratic, a. 1. See noble. 

2. patrician (rare). [common. 

Antonyms: see democratic, plebeian, 

arm, ?i. 1. wing (colloq. or humorous, exc. 

spec); spec, brachium, humerus, forearm. 

2. branch; spec, inlet, estuary, fiord or 
fjord; see bkanch. 

3. projection; spec, transept, jib, davit, 
fluke, crane ; see boom. 

4. See POWER, WEAPON, sleeve. 

arm, v. t. 1. equip; spec, panoply, heel, 
lead (I6d), forearm. 
2. See ARMOR. 

armed, a. equipped (rare); spec, pano- 
plied, forearmed. 
Antonyms: see unarmed. 

armhole, ?i. 1. See armpit. 
2. armseye (tech.), scye (rare). 

armor, n. Spec, panoply, mail, bard. 

armor, v. t. 1. Referring to man or horse: 
arm, mail; spec, panoply, helm (archaic 
or poetic). 

2. Referring to a vessel, aeroplane, etc.: 
protect (contextual) , plate, mail (rare). 

armored, a. mailed, mail-clad; spec, pano- 
plied, loricate, iron-clad. 

armpit, n. armhole, axilla (tech.). 

arms, n. 1. armament, armor (obs. or rare); 
see WEAPON. 

2. In heraldry: coat of arms or (for short) 
coat, bearings (pi.; often in sing.), blazon, 
ensign, blazonment, blazonry. 

army, n. 1. host (archaic or poetic), array 
(archaic), force, forces (pi.), troops (pi.), 
legion or (pi.) legions (orig. spec), men- 
of-war (pi.; 71010 rare or hist.), battalion 
(archaic); spec fyrd (/lisi.), division, corps. 
2. See multitude, organization. 

arrange, v. t. 1. dispose, distribute, allo- 
cate (learned), lay; spec, adjust, classify, 
range, rank, trim, organize, systematize, 
marshal, collocate, form, array, group, 
defilade, brigade, dress, pitch, echelon, 
space, size, compose, recompose, order, 
tidy (colloq.), drape, seriate (rare); see 
organize, pack, adjust. 
Antomjms: see disarrange, confuse. 

2. In music: spec, orchestrate, score, in- 

3. settle, accommodate, reconcile, com- 
pose, compound, compromise (obs. or ar- 
chaic); spec, adjust, arbitrate, mediate. 

4. See agree, stipulate, adapt, plan. 
arrangement, n. 1. disposure, disposition, 

allocation (learned), ordinance (now only 
in literature or art); spec, systematization, 
ordination, malarrangement, trim, group- 
age, organization, defilade, categorization, 
chronography, collocation, codification; 
see organization, adjustment. 
Antonyms: see disorder. 

2. Referring to the result: disposure, dis- 
position, form, shape, etc. (with most of the 
terms under 1., above), lay; spec, make-up, 
orderliness, array, schematism, cosmos. 

3. In music: spec, orchestration, instru- 
mentation, score. 

4. settlement, accommodation, reconcili- 
ation, composite; spec, exchange, stipu- 

5. Referring to the result: settlement; 
spec mise (Eng.; hist.), bundobust (An- 
glo-Indian); see agreement. 

6. See adaptation, plan, thing. 
arranger, n. Spec disposer, distributer, 

classifier, marshal, etc Cf. arrange. 

arrest, v. t. 1. See stop, restrain. 
2. seize, apprehend, bond (slang), nick 
(colloq. or slang), grab (colloq.), pinch 
(slang), collar (slang). 

arrest, n. 1. See stoppage, restraint, 

2. seizure, apprehension, arrestment 
(chiefly Scot.), arrestation (a Gallicism) . 

arrival, n. coming, access (rare), advent, 
subvention (rare; chiefly spec). 

arrive, v. i. come, attain (with "to"), 
accede (rare), subvene (rare; chiefly spec), 
reach (with "to"). "Arrive" takes "at" for 
its preposition. 

arrogance, n. presumption, assumption, 
pride, overweening, haughtiness, etc Cf. 

arrogant, a. presumptuous, overbearing, 
assuming, assumptive (rare), magisterial 
(bookish or learned), fastuous (rare), high- 
minded, high, overweening, uppish (col- 
loq.), topping; see self-important, im- 
pudent, HAUGHTY, ROUGH. 
Antonyms: see agreeable, affable, 


arrow, n. missile (contextual), shaft; spec 

bolt, flight, sumpit, vire (hist.), quarrel. 
arrow-headed, a. sagittate sagittated; — 

both tech. 
arsenal, n. armory. 
arsis, n. thesis (the original sense of "thesis" 

being the same as the present common 

sense of "arsis," and vice versa). 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
armada: fleet. 

armament: arms, equipment. 
armorial: heraldic. 
armory: arsenal. 
aroint, inter j.: away. 
aroma: smell. 

aromatic: odorous. 

around: about. 

arouse: wake, rouse, excite. 

arraign: accuse. 

arrant: outrageous. 

arras: tapestry. 

array, n.: arrangement, army, 

body, group, clothing. 
array, v. t.: arrange, clothe. 
arrear: debt. 
arrive, v- I.: reach. 
arrogate: appropriate, assume, 

arrowy: rapid. 

XW Sec Notes of Explanation. 


azt, ». 1. cnft, skSl ^orcftokc); spec trade. 
kaadkiafk, caeoteebtj (rare), discipiine, 



a. craf H cnliBeaB» w^bbsb, deeotful- 

BB9BL atUHlBBSy StlXteC^, wiiiiiunp ^ TwsirfT— 

I i n ii i f n (rare), fiofeaee, design, artifice, tct- 
BEiBky, PoBey, ^joess, sidydety cr subtle- 
■esB (in BM* rare), pawkiness i^cut. or 
dML), frmamB (daefy eaOoq.), faxoj 
(nvr),* xas TBHsassss; — — itfy miik spe~ 


AMimufms: spec ardesoesB^ fraoksess 


■ctfal, a. 1. S^e simrFO- isGSznooSk 

& cxaftr. siy. wiiv, decetf^i c^inrlng, 
I'JiiuUl .•J^."'- cautelous 'cr- "le 

(aaw rare . sub '^-^ •-^^-■■^a^, mv. 

(dU^tgaBac ::ng, pawky 

tbkxt; — HMti^ vitik tpedfie twapHeatiom. 
Anienfmg: tee ASZLKse, fkask. 

artiele, n. 1. piece: rpee, contribation, 
critiqaej review, essay, feaiUeton 
Freiick , apfaedadoB, Botie^ P^P^i 
^sjx. s^ody. ^Eldi, ^wlogy. 
X. tkiog (esafezAMf), eoDBOodity; ^pee. 
eqMXt,m|nct; aee goods. 
S. See cxArsE, rrEJt thes-g. 

SL denpe, tr:-'-- =\''--— '^-lae, siioSe, fi- 
TOBBBtf THgl'jr- maneuTer. prae- 

tiee, deaipi, : - - --r. fetch- tricfceTy 

(rare), stratpgv ■ rare ,. , stratLagg-m. feint ; 
^ec c umtta t p ktt; «« teics, peetsisse. 
axtsSecK, a. asftaDaa; gpee. srdzsji. ar- 
tist, Daedaios (%.). 

a. fac tttiuua , made, raise, made- 
vp, Hi*nufact**rwl (spec or fig. . painted 
i9fee.orfi§.y; «jeclabored,mmanxral, tiie- 
atrifai^ eoBstEaiQed, cnltiTated; ^e fhe- 


il irfdiaf w I • ^ee xatcsal, gestixe, jis- 


actakKT* ■• Qgdrwncp, fweiiiPTj {arduae); 
nee are&ery, fafoadad^ uat ter y, ofiageK 
^.\ trebprirpts ''pil); aee cajtso^ey. 

artrUery-majL, n. grmrtfr; «g CA>rsoNSKE. 

artist, n. artiste ( French j; apec dilettante, 
paBtdSst, nanrtiT, seo^ptor, ^da*, ear- 
faKMLit, eoteist, water-cafan^ landacap- 
Bt, ian»w*wiimt, eirfjast, fuhireir rapm 
(Frauk), laaniHt, mfimat, acBaztist, €fe. 
Tie term '^artaty" eze. as giinwm bg the 4xn- 

tcrt. nfen to one afcdZed m fKmth'wg. sculpt- 
ure, etc 

artistic, n. artful {arckcdc), daedal (Jt^g.); 
*p»fc. painterly. 
Antonyms: sef EVAKTISTIC. 

artless, a. L. 5cf O'CTLTfEED. 
3. simple, innocsit. inartificial, naive or 
yUis u^wioZ"' naif, natural, guiWess, ingen- 
uous, straigiitforward. plain, unsophisti- 
cated: ^p^c. rural, rude, homely, home- 
spun, homebred; see fra>"K. 
Antonyms: tee abtfxx, CALCULAnSG, 



artlessness. i. naivete 'French), srmplic- 

it3.-, un^C'phistication. ingenuousness, in- 
artr£iriality rtjre., sLmpleness, etc. Cf. 

as, adv. dt eonj. 1. like (generaHy considered 

riJc'ir or iLz-^enly). 

2. S'le BECAUSZ. 

ascend, r. i. L. See Riss. climb, elope. 
2. Referring to goiruj yzck in time: mount. 

ascend, r. t. climb, mount, rise; spec, re- 
ascend, damber, top. 
Antonyvn: tee descksd. 

ascendancy, n. ccmtrol, asc0idance (rare) , 

ascent, n. 1. Spec, rise (icAicA see), 

pifmhfng (cf, CLTVCB). 

2. slope, rise, gradient (tech,; Eng.); see 


ascetic, a. austere, abstemious, mortified 
(rare J ; see abstemiocs. 
Antonyms: see self-oeattftixg, glttt- 
Tosors, SESscors, conviviai- 
ascetic, n. Spec, fakir, styhte, yogi (Hin- 
du phUos.); see eesmit. 
AruoT!.yms: see box-vtvant, GLrrTox, 


ascetjcism, n. austerity, abstemiousness; 

spec, yosa or yogism.'-r,^^'^!-?; ^ee sele-geatificatiox. 
ascribe, v.t. 1. See ajtrtbtte, acceedit. 

2. attribTite, a;=yign, arrogate (Jiieraryj, 

ascription, n. L. *See A-TTBrBmox. 

2. s,::r.'' ution, arrogation (iiteran/j, ap- 


asexiiaL, a. neuter ^bid.), sexless. 
ash, a. dn^ary (literary or tech.), ashf^. 
asby, a. ashprn, cinereous (literary or tech.), 

cineraceoua 'rarej, dneritious (Uierary or 

tech.), favillous (rare). 
aside, n. bye; stpec. byplay, by-end, by- 
matter; see BT-WOEK. 

HaBmer, learn. 

iiarei 111 ill able: diaeoterahU. 
aAaaaeA: aimtked. 
wtiumz Oik, adky. 
■iifc«rt; (M^omMd. 
■aMe: ^ort. 

-See Hot«a of Explanation. 



ask, r. i. 1. With the person as the objed: 
request ; spec, beg, crave (literary or for- 
med.), pray (archaic, exc. in certain ptirai- 
es), entreat, beseech, petition, implore, 
supplicate, dun, imp>ortune, move, plead, 
adjure, conjure, obsecrate *rare), sue, so- 
licit, earwig, knee (rare), c^oax. 
Antonyms: see forbid, compel. 

2. Witli the thing ashed for as the otijeci: 
request; spec, beg, entreat, implore, sup- 
plicate, demand, petition, clamor, can- 
vass, require, seek (archaic), exact, solicit, 
call, invoke, cry. 

Antonyms: see reject. 

3. See SEiOiox, qcxstiox, demand, ix- 

ask, V. i. 1. Spec, beg, beseech, plead, ap- 
peal, postulate (rare), petition, sue, clam- 
or, importune, entreat (rare). 
2. See Qtxsnox. 

asker, n. Spec, requester, applicant, 
craver, supplicant, entreater, claimant, 
suppliant, orator (/au-\. etc. CJ. asx, r. t. 

askew, a. crooked {cordexiual^ distorted, 
awn-, atwist (rare), skew, skewed; spec. 

asking, a. 1. interrogative, interrogational, 
interrogatory, implorative, postulatorj- 

2. Spec, requesting, begging, etc., supjili- 
catorj, soUcitant (rare., supphcant. sup- 
pliant, precative, implorative, postulaton.- 
\jare), precatorj" {chiefly legal or tech.\ 
petitorj- {rare^. petionar>" ■xo''(^- O- ^^-SK. 

asking, n. 1. Spec, begging, question, re- 
quest, petition, impetration, imploration 
(rar€^, application, postulation {rare), 
prayer, canvass, soUdtation, importunity, 
dun, entreatment (arcAai.f\ entreaty, ob- 
secration, beseechment, obtestation QU- 
erary or learned), imploring, imploration, 
instancy (rare), sohcitation. suit (Ziterary), 
petition, supplianee, supphcation, roga- 
tion, compreeation; Sf^ APPEAL. 
2. Referring to what is ashed: see RZ- 

aspect, 7i. 1. See APPEAKAXCZ, SIDE, 

2. appearance, light, angle (chiefly eoi- 
Irxj.^. complexion, phase, face, view, look. 

aspirant, n. aspirer. seeker; spec candi- 
date, suitor, competitor. 

aspirate, n. spiritus. breathing, aspiration. 

aspirated, a. rou^ {eoniexlual), ^lirated, 

iiSpiraie 'rare). 

assail, r. t. 1, See attack. 
2. pelt, ply, storm, bestcMin (rare); spec 
din, hoot. 
Ardonymg: see defend, shelxek. 

assailable, a. pregnane. 

assassin, n. Spec, thug, sicajian {rare). 

assassinate, r. t. murder (cantexhtal), re- 
move: spec, morganize (L'. S.). 

assay, n. trial, test, examination: spec, an- 
alysis. cup>el, copdlation, dodmasy. 

assembly, n, 1. See gathkktxg, com- 


2. Referring to the moreformidbf organ i zed 
gatherings cf persons, spec.: synod, salrai, 
chapts*, i^Qiiim, court, moot, caa\ea- 
tion, ctmTocation, congregation, legidb- 
ture, oongres, senate, house, di^ cham- 
b^', camera (rare or hisL), ealxn^ ooon- 
eil, pazJianiQit, meeting, chapter, eamar- 
nlla (Spanish), oomitia (Rtman hisL), 
muster; see cojiTExriGX, oouxcrL, cox- 


assess, r. f. 1. charge, levy. 

2. S-c TAX, VALCE. 

assessable, a. leviable. 

assimilate, r. /. 1. See ooxporm, likeh. 
2. adapt, absorb; spec digesx -.—-all eflen 
used fig. iff ideas. 
Antonyms: seeiESCBETB. 

associate, n. eompaiiMMi, fellow, ocmsoo- 
ate (rare); spec aster, biotho-, exnjmiefc 
(rare), dhnm (coOoq.), familiar, eonnade, 
intimate, covey {sUatg or wulgar), etxnes 
(astron.), enmy, yKAsii^SkiWf hoTBomaie, 
go^ip, ^nmner (ScoL), ally, eonfedefate, 
aceomidice, diipmate, dansman, eondis- 
dj^B (Uierary), privy, eon^teer, oon&eie 
(cits, or rare), oonfrexe (Frendt), daaamate, 
mesmate, eonvictca; cohahitant, capito- 
laiy, nQ^ibra*, assodatiiHi, partner, oo- 
parrner, oonsOTt, spouse, mate, oomate 
coadjutor: sm? aixt, sisteb, omt 
i'i:>. rz. ATTrxD_o<"T. 

associate. 1.. .rite, link, conjoin, 

a::.. -. ;.bine. allv feJbefy 

i?-v:. ir:.: - ' - " ' .-' 'rVi- 

gade. re; - - >• 

2. Refe-. 
nect, joi:. 
ar2/\ ccc--;:" 

r liier- 

trF" Cr-5i ir;'cTfr.,ij: see Xa:e. 

askance: ohliiudy. 

aslant: s.'.ipir;? 

asleep: " : - -- 



asperse: ■.. 


asphyxiate: • ./ 



ass: .:. 
assent.. : 
assert: • 



Note^s ol Explanation. 


associate, v. i. 1. unite, combine, join, con- 
join, consociate (rare), mingle: spec, mis- 
sort {rare), mingle, mix, ueignbor, herd, 

2. companion (rare), consort {literary or 
formal), fellow {rare), assort {rare), fellow- 
ship, accompany {rare), train {slang), con- 
sociate {rare), sort {dial, or archaic), for- 
gather; spec, sororize {rare), fraternize, 
mingle, mix, neighbor, clique, crony 
{rare), herd, haunt {rare, exc. of ani- 
mals), missort {rare), hobnob; see con- 

association, n. 1. joining, union, connec- 
tion, conjunction {rare), linking, combi- 
nation, alliance {rare, exc. spec), mingling; 
see UNION. 

2. company, companionship, fellowship, 
consociation {rare), consort {literary), 
consortion {rare); spec, comradeship, 
comradery {rare), camaraderie {French), 
confraternization {rare), fraternization, 

3. body; spec, company, society, band, 
troop, crew, gang, clan, concern, conso- 
ciation, pool, trust, combine, hong {Chi- 
nese), hoey {Chinese), Burschenschaft 
{German), bond {Dutch), league, craft, 
trade, profession, brigade, union, mys- 
tery, college, Athenajum, guild, board, 
fellowship, academy, order, sodahty, 
brotherhood, sisterhood, institute, con- 
gregation, communion, connection, somaj 
{India), fratry {ohs. or hist.), choir, chan- 
try, ku-klux, chapter, camorra, organiza- 
tion, corps, hunt, clique, carbonarii {pi.; 
Italian); see convent, party, company, 


assume, v. t. 1. take {as a partner into asso- 
ciation); spec, reassume, arrogate. 

2. postulate, suppose, fiction {rare), feign, 
presume, presuppose, say {used in the im- 
perative), hypothesize, hypothetize {rare), 
posit, pose (rare), beg {chiefly in "to beg 
the question"). 

Antonyms: see deny. 

3. affect, take (a character), invest {one- 
self with), endue {literary), strike {an atti- 
tude); spec, reassume; see act. 

Antonyms: see doff. 

4. take {as in "to take the shape of"). 


assume, v. i. presume, venture. 

assumed, a. supposed, hypothetical, hy- 
pothetic, supposititious, suppositional, 
suppositive, fictional, fictionary {rare), 
presupposed, presumptive, paper {col- 
loq.); spec, given. 

assuming, a. presuming, nervy {slang), 
presumptuous, immodest {rare), assump- 
tive, hoity-toity {usually implying petu- 
lance or ill-temper), superior, forward, 
lofty ; see arrogant. 
Antonyms: see abject, modest, unpre- 


assumption, 71. 1. taking; spec, reassump- 

2. supposition, supposal {rare), suppo- 
sure {rare), postulation, presupposition, 
presupposal {rare), presumption, hy- 
pothesis {tech. or learned). 

Antonyms: see denial. 

3. Referring to the thing assumed: postu- 
late {logic, etc.), hypothesis {tech. or 
learned), suppose {rare), fiction; spec. 
make-believe, datum, premiss, condition, 
principle. The terms under sense 2 are 
also used concretely. 

4. affectation, investiture, enduement 
{literary), striking, etc. 

5. presumption, superiority, loftiness, 
nerve {slang), cheek {slang), forwardness; 
see arrogance. 

assumptive, a. 1. See assuming, akro- 


2. suppository, postulative, presupposi- 

assurance, 7i. 1. warrant, certification; 
spec, reassurance. 

2. confidence {contextual), self-assurance, 
sufficiency, self-confidence, self-reliance, 
self-possession, aplomb {French), self- 
trust, self-security {rare), self-sufficiency, 
plerophory {rare); spec, overconfidence, 
overtrust {rare), bumptiousness, cool- 
ness,, nerve {slang), cheek 
{slang); see boldness, presumption, im- 

Antonyms: see timidity, doubt, dis- 


assure, v. t. 1. warrant, tell {contextual), 
certify, resolve {a reflexive); spec, reassure; 
Antonyms: see disconcert, embarrass, 


2. See insure. 
assured, a. confident {contextual), self-as- 
sured, self-confident, self-reliant, immod- 
est {rare), self-assertive, self-possessed; 
spec, bumptious, cool, overconfident, 
flush {rare), Icarian {fig.), independent, 
crank {dial.), nervy {slang), cheeky (sZan^) , 
presumptuous ; see bold, impudent, self- 
assertive, DECIDED. 

Antonyms: see abject, doubtful, tim- 
id, distrustful, bashful, hesitating. 

I^^ Cross references: see Note. 
assort, B. t.: classify, class. 
assort, V. i.: associate. 

assorted: classified. 
assortment: classification, col- 
lection, variety. 

assuage: mitigate, appease, satisfy. 
assuasive: mitigatory. 
assuredly: truly. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



assuring, a. Spec, reassuring, comfort- 
able, encouraging, emboldening. 
Antonyms: see depressing, horrible. 

astern, adv. 1. aft, abaft (as in "the gale 
was abaft"). 


astir, a. active, moving; spec, agog; see 


astray, a. 1. lost, wandering. 

2. abroad, out, wide, off (colloq.). 
astringent, a. constrictive, styptic; spec. 

puckery, haemostatic, rough, binding (col- 
astrologer, n. Chaldean (fig.), astrologian 

(rare), cock (fig.; poetic). 
astronomy, n. Spec, astrology, astrom- 

ancy, meteoroscopy, uranology, uranog- 

raphy, astrophysics, astrochemistry, as- 

asylum, n. 1. See refuge. 

2. home (contextual), college (chiefly 

Eng.); spec, madhouse, sanitarium, beth- 

lehem (rare), bedlam (archaic). 
at, prep. 1. Referring to place: in, to 

(U. S. or dial. Eng.). 

2. Referring to time: in, to, by. 
atheistic, a. godless. 
athlete, n. Spec, boxer, fighter, pancra- 

tiast, acrobat. 
Antonyms: see weakling. 
athletic, a. 1. palsestral (rare); spec. 

agonistic, gymnastic, acrobatic. 

2. See STRONG. 
athletics, n. Spec, gymnastics, agonis- 

tics, acrobatism. 
atmospheric, a. airy, aerial, elemental 

(referring to atmospheric forces), meteoric 

atomize, v. t. comminute, spray, reduce 

(contextual); spec, nebulize. 
atomizer, n. sprayer; spec, odorator, 

atone, v. i. pay (xvith "for"). 
attach, V. t. 1. take, seize, nail (obs. or 

slang); spec, garnishee. 

2. join (contextual), add (contextual), 
unite (contcvtual) , connect, fasten, fix, af- 
fix, annex, tie (chiefly spec), wed (fig.), hind 
(chiefly spec), confix (rare); spec, append, 
chain, tag, tack, tie, tail, hook, hinge, screw, 
pin, engraft, subjoin, barnacle (rare). 

Antonyms: see separate, detach. 

3. See JOIN, ADD, associate, appoint, 

attachable, a. Spec, fastenable, annex- 
able, connectable, appendable, etc. Cf. 

attachment, n. 1. joining (contextual), 
union (contextual), connection, annexa- 
tion, affixture (rare); spec, confixation 
(rare), subj unction (rare), appending, 

2. Spec fixture, affix, annex, postfix, ap- 
pendicle, appendix, insertion, fixtures 
(pi.; chiefly U. S.); see appendage. 
3. See joining, addition, affection, 

attack, V. t. 1. assault, assail, engage, en- 
counter, attempt (archaic), aggress (rare; 
V. i. only), tackle (colloq.), storm (chiefly 
spec); spec charge, ply, beset (literary), 
strike, bait, torpedo, mob, grenade, rush, 
flank, surprise, fusillade, storm, raid. 

Antonyms: see depend, protect, shel- 

2. In a nonphysical sense: assail, impugn 
(literary); see dispute, oppose, accuse. 

Antonyms: see defend. 

3. See censure, affect, begin. 
attack, 71. 1. assault, assailment, aggres- 
sion, encounter, set, onset, offense, oppug- 
nation (rare); spec, charge, onslaught, 
stroke, musketade, battery, camisade or 
camisado (archaic or mil.), descent, bom- 
bardment, connonade, raid, sally, sur- 
prise, escalade, surprisal, shock, storm. 

Antonyms: see protection, defense. 

2. In a nonphysical sense: assault, im- 
pugent (ra?-e), crusade; see accusation. 

3. access (tech. or literary), onset, seizure; 
spec, epidemic; see fit. 


attempt, v. t. try, essay, assay (archaic), 
offer, make, undertake, endeavor (ar- 
chaic), enterprise (archaic); spec venture. 

attempt, n. trial, try (colloq.), endeavor, 
venture, slap (colloq. or slang), offer (rare), 
whack (slang), shy (slang), essay (archaic 
or literary), set. assay (archaic), under- 

attend, v. t. 1. tend (now rare, archaic, or 
U. S., exc. spec), serve, mind, nurse, 
keep; spec, guard, stroke, watch, feed, 
valet, midwife, wash. 
Antonyms: see disregard, ignore. 

2. In the sense of "to he jyresent at" : spec 
frequent, haunt. 


f^' Cross references: see Note. 
astonish: surprise. 
astound : surprise. 
astraddle: bestriding. 
astrict: constrict. 
astride: bestriding. 
astringe: constrict. 
astute: discerning, shrewd, 

asunder: apart. 
athwart: across. 
atmosphere: air. 
atomy: particle, pygmy. 
atomy : skeleton. 
atonic: weak, unaccented. 
atrabilious: acrimonious. 
atrocious: wicked, cruel, out- 

atrocity: wickedness, cruelty, 
outraqe, monstrosity. 

attach, V. i.: stick, belong, accrue. 

attain, v. t.: reach, get, accom- 

attain, v. i.: reach, arrive, come. 

attainment: accomplishment. 

attaint, v. t.: contaminate, sully. 

attaint, n.: contamination. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 



attend, v. i. 1. Sec listen, serve. 
2. wait, hang (icUh "upon"); spec, dangle. 
S. In the sense of ''to give attention": tend, 
look (iciih "after"); spec, minister {usu- 
ally icith "to"), care {chiefly mth "for"), 

attendance, H. 1. tendance, attention, 
minding, keeping. 

2. waiting {with "upon^'), hanging {with 
"upon"), tendance {rare); spec, service. 


attendant, a. 1. ministerial, attending; 
spec, serving. 


attendant, 7i. companion, associate; spec. 
shadow, satellite {chiefly derogatory), peo- 
ple {pi.), barnacle {fig.), famulus {Latin), 
chamberlain, escort, acolyte, page, but- 
tons {colloq.), peon {India), orderly, 
femme de chambre {French), courtier, 
courier, outrider, sergeant, henchman, 
giUie {Scot.), valet, minder, keeper, body- 
guard, caddie, cad {Eng.); see handmaid, 


attention, n. 1. consideration, observ- 
ance, regard, heed, respect, notice, ad- 
vertence, thought, intentness, concentra- 
tion, ear {as in "to give ear," "to have the 
ear of"), observancy {archaic); see appli- 
cation, CARE. 

Antonyms: see disregard, inatten- 

attentive, a. 1. considerate, observant, 
heedful, studious, advertent {rare), re- 
gardful, attent {archaic), awake {with 
"to"), watchful, intent {toith "on"), in- 
tentive {archaic), bent {rare, exc. in "bent 
on"), thoughtful, concentrated, mindful, 
careful, regardant {rare); spec, searching, 
resolved, studious {with "of"). 
Antonyms: see absent, inattentive, 
2. See POLITE. 

attentiveness, n. 1. consideration, regard, 
heed, intentness, etc. Cf. attentive. 
2. See politeness, civility. 

attenuate, v. t. 1. extenuate {rare), spin 
{with "out"); spec, draw, finedraw, rope. 
2. See THIN, weaken. 

attenuated, a. thin; spec, drawn-out, 
spun-out, finespun, subtle; see slender. 

attenuation, n. 1. extenuation {rare); 
spec, drawing, finedrawing. 
2. Spec, thinning {see thin, v.), thinness 
{see THIN, a.), subtlety; see slenderness, 
weakening, weakness. 

attic, n. garret, loft, cockloft {archaic; of- 
ten spec), soler {obs. or rare), sky parlor 
{humorous or colloq.). 

attitude, n. 1. Referring to the body or 
bodily appearance: see posture, air. 
2. Referring to the mind: posture, posi- 
tion, set; spec, feeling, twist, prejudice. 

attorney, n. 1. See agent. 
2. In the sense of "attorney at law": spec. 
solicitor, curator, procurator, proctor, 
barrister, counselor, advocate. 

attract, v. t. 1. See draw, catch. 
2. draw, magnetize {fig.), take, pull; spec. 
drag, allure, entice, seduce {esp. to evil), 
solicit, invite, tempt, attempt {archaic), 
lure, bait, trap, bonnet, decoy {often fig.), 
button {slang), charm. 
Antonyms: see repel, disgust. 

attraction, n. 1. Spec, affinity, gravita- 
tion, gravity; see drawing. 

2. Referring to the act or action or quality: 
draw {rare), magnetism {fig.), pull; spec. 
affinity, allurement, appeal, seduction 
{esp. to evil), charm, enticement, inveigle- 
ment, temptation, soUcitation, glamour. 

3. Referring to the thing that attracts: cyno- 
sure {chiefly literary or learned), bait, de- 
coy, magnet, lure, charm. Most of the 
terms under 2 are similarly used. 

attractive, a. 1. See drawing. 
2. drawing, alluring, seductive {esp. to 
evil), catchy {colloq.), seducing {esp. to 
evil), magnetic, aUective {rare); spec, en- 
ticing, decoying, prepossessing, tempting, 
taking, catchy, pleasing, psychagogic 
{rare), winning, winsome, temptatious 
(rare), charming, meretricious; see pleas- 

Antonyms: see repellent, abominable, 

attractiveness, n. 1. See attraction. 
2. charm, grace, winsomeness, pleasing- 

attributable, a. referable, referrible, as- 
cribable, imputable, due, chargeable, ow- 
ing; spec, traceable. 

attribute, v. t. 1. refer, ascribe, assign, im- 
pute, lay, attach, accredit, count, give, 
place, put; spec, mother, father. 
Antonyms: see refuse. 
2. See ascribe. 

attribution, n. reference, ascription, as- 
signment, etc. Cf. attribute, v. 

auction, a. sale {contextual); spec, subhas- 
tation, cant {chiefly Irish), survey {dial. 

audible, a. sensible {contextual), auricular 
{rare), bearable {rare). 

1^^ Cross references: see Note. 
attest: testify, authenticate, evi- 
Attic, a.: classic, refined. 

attire, v. t.: clothe. 
attire, n.: clothing. 
attitudinize: pose. 
attune: harmonize. 

atwist: askew. 
auburn: hrown. 
audacious: bold 
audibly: aloud. 

{^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


audience, n. 1. Referring to the act, fact, 
or action: hearing, ear; spec, durbar 
(East India), court. 

2. Referring to those that hear: auditory 
(rare); spec, congregation, theater, 
church, gallery gods (pi.; colloq.), gallery, 
orchestra, pit; see hearer. 

auditorium, n. auditory (rare); spec, pit, 
parterre, parquet, cockpit, orchestra. 

auricular, a. aural, heard (rare), auditory 
(referring to the function of the ear), otic 
(rare) . 

auspicious, a. 1. See ominous, prosper- 

2. favorable, propitious, promising 
promiseful, prosperous, white (literary), 
lucky, fortunate, bright, hopeful, rosy, 
flattering, Favonian (rare), felicitous 
(chiefly spec); spec, brilliant, fair. 
Antonyms: see inauspicious, ill- 

austere, a. strict (contextual), severe, rig- 
id, stern, hard, difficult (rare), rigorous, 
Catonian (rare), astringent (rare); spec. 
rugged; see ascetic, abstemious. 

Antonyms: see gentle, self-gratify- 

austerity, n. strictness, severity, rigidity, 
rigor, rigorism, etc. Cf. austere. 

authenticate, v. t. 1. Spec, canonize. 
2. attest, certify, seal (chiefly spec), 
avouch; spec, coattest, consign (rare), 
countersign, certificate, test, validate. 

author, n. 1. originator, creator, creatress 
or creatrix (fern.), breeder (chiefly spec, or 
fig.), doer, maker; spec constructor, de- 
viser, producer, inventor, begetter, father, 
mother; see creator. 

Antonyms: see creature. 
2. authoress (fern.), composer; spec 
writer, scribe, poet, literatist (rare), quill- 
driver (contemptuous), penner, penman, 
scribbler, inditer, contributor, coauthor, 
pastoralist, magazinist, magaziner, leg- 
endary, mythologist, penny-a-liner, libret- 
tist, Goliard (hist.), htterateur, pam- 
phleteer (chiefly derogatory) , paragraphist, 
paragrapher, compiler, essayist, encyclo- 
pedist, bluestocking (colloq.), penwoman, 
pot-boiler (colloq.), hack, prosaist, paro- 
dist, ecloguist, proser, romancer, lexi- 
cographer, textualist, critic, reviewer, 
editor. "Author" is now generally used 
instead of "authoress." 

authoritative, a. 1. potestative (rare), 
magisterial (rare), magistral (rare); spec. 

official, standard, valid, canonical, ortho- 
dox, cathedral. 

2. commanding, imperative, dictatorial, 
imperial (rare or allusive), jussive (rare), 
peremptory, lordly, imperious; spec, mas- 
terful; see domineering. 
Antonyms: see submissive, obedient. 
authority, n. 1. power, command, domin- 
ion, jurisdiction (chiefly spec), authoriza- 
tion, warrant (chiefly spec), competency, 
faculty (chiefly eccl.); spec, supremacy, 
canonicity, canonicalness, agency, pleni- 
potence, validity. 


3. precedent; spec, decision, dictum, tes- 

authorization, n. permission, license, 
sanction, warrant, etc. 

authorize, v. t. permit, license, sanction, 
warrant, empower, enable; spec, commis- 
sion, legalize, legitimate, fiat (rare), fac- 
ulty (chiefly eccl.). 
Antonyms: see forbid. 

authorship, n. composition (which see); 
spec pencraft (rare). 

autocracy, n. monarchy, despotism, abso- 
lutism, tyranny (chiefly with reference to 
ancient rulers); spec, czarism, tsarism, 
kaiserism, Caesarism. 

autocrat, n. monarch, despot (after an- 
cient Greek usage), tyrant (chiefly with ref- 
erence to ancient rulers), dictator (chiefly 
hist, and spec); spec, czar or tsar (hist.), 
czarina or tsarina (hist.). Kaiser (hist.), 
emperor, Caesar (hist.). 

autocratic, a. 1. arbitrary, despotic (after 
ancient Greek usage), absolute, tyrannous 
or tyrant (chiefly in reference to ancient 
Antonyms: see democratic, yielding. 
2. See arbitrary. 

autograph, n. Spec, holograph, sign- 
manual; see signature. 

autographic, a. 1. autograph, manual 
(signature) ; spec holographic, holograph. 
2. self-recording, ipsographic (rare). 

automatic, a. 1. self-acting, self-regulat- 
ing, self-moving; spec, mechanical, spon- 
taneous; see automobile, a. 
2. *See involuntary. 

automobile, a. automatic (contextual), 
self-moving, locomobile, locomotive 
(chiefly spec), automotive. 

automobile, n. locomobile, locomotive 
(chiefly spec), machine (colloq.), motor 
(colloq.); spec, autocar, motor-car, elec- 

ta' Cross references: see Note. 
auditory: auricular. 
auditory : audience, auditorium. 
aught: anything, cipher. 
augment: increase. 
augmentation : increase. 
augur, n.: diviner. 

augur, V. t.: predict, signify. 
augury: divination, sign. 
august: imperial, imposing. 
aura: emanation, exhalation, 

aureate: golden, gilded. 
aureola: crown, halo. 

auspicate: begin. 

auspice: divination, sign (in 

pL), patronage. 
authentic: reliable, genuine. 
authorized: accredited. 
automaton: mncliine. 
autonomous: self-governing. 

tW Sec Notes of Explanation. 



trie, steamer, runabout, limousine, tour- 
ing CUT, roadster, townear, coupe, coupe- 
let, sedan, convertible, truck, torpedo, 
tractor, motorcycle, motocyclc, cycle car. 

autumn, n. harvest {obs. or dial.), fall 
{chkjbj U. S.). 

auxiliary, 7i. secondary, subsidiary, suc- 
centuriate (rare), parergal (rare); see ac- 

available, a. Spec, ready, handy, con- 
venient, present, free, disposable, use- 
able; sec ACCESSIBLE. 

avalanche, n. sUde, lauwine (rare); spec. 
landslide (chiefly U. S.), landslip {chiefly 
Eng.), snowslide, snowsUp, glissade, 
eboulement (French). 

avenger, n. Spec, revenger. Ate, Eu- 
menides (pi.), Erinnyes (pL), Alecto, 
Megajra, Tisiphone. 

average, a. mean, medial (chiefly math.), 
normal; spec, standard; see ordinary, 


average, n. mean, normal, run, rule. 

average, v. i. run, go; spec, equate. 

aversion, n. dislike, repugnance, repul- 
sion, antipathy, dyspathy (rare); spec. 
nausea, horror (loith "of"), loathing, Rus- 
sophobia, negrophobia, anthrophobia, 
gynsecophobia, Anglophobia, Germano- 
phobia, etc.; see abhorrence, opposi- 
Antonyms: see liking, love, longing. 

avert, v. t. turn (chiefly with "from" or 
"aivay"), divert, forfend (archaic), pre- 
vent (rare); spec, parry. 
Antonyms: see incur. 

aviary, n. Spec, cage, birdhouse, dovecote. 

aviation, n. aeronautics, flying; spec, glid- 
ing, soaring, climbing, aeroplaning, hy- 
droplaning, planing (colloq.), volplaning. 

aviator, n. aeronaut, airman, flyer, air- 
woman, aviatress or aviatrix, birdman 
(colloq.), birdwoman (colloq.); spec, pilot, 
glider, observer, spotter (military card), 
bomber, scout. 

avoid, V. t. 1. shun, elude, evade, escape, 
balk, beware, miss (contextual), clear, flee, 
dodge, bUnk, run (contextual), help (loith 
a clause introduced by "but"), blench 
(rare), evite (rare), eschew (rare or obs., 
exc. spec); spec, boycott, double, slip. 
Antonyms: see face, meet, approach, 
incur, undertake, court. 


avoidance, 7i. elusion, evasion, cschewal, 
shunning, eschewment (rare), escape 
(rare or obs., exc. spec), evitation (rare). 

await, V. t. tarry, wait, expect (obs.), abide, 
bide; spec, watch. 

awake, a. 1. waking; spec, open-eyed. 
Antonyms: see unconscious. 
2. See CONSCIOUS, alert, attentive. 

awake, v. i. waken, awaken, rouse. 

award, 71. 1. See decision. 
2. assignment, adjudication, adjudge- 
ment (rare); see apportionment. 

aware, a. 1. cognizant, conscious, sensible, 
ware (archaic), intelligent (now rare). 
Antonyms: see unconscious. 
2. conversant (learned or formal; with 
"with"), informed (with "of"), acquainted 
(with "with"); spec, familiar (with "with"). 
"Aware" is used vnth "of." 

awareness, n. Spec, cognizance, acquaint- 
ance, consciousness, conversance, etc. 

away, a. & adv. 1. See apart, absent. 
2. off, hence. 

away, interj. begone, aroint (obs. or ar- 
chaic), hence, off (chiefly with "with"), 
avaunt (a word denoting aversion; now 
literary or affected), go; spec, scat, shoo, 

awe, n. abashment;, fear, reverence, dread. 
Antonyms: see contempt. 

awful, a. fearful, dread, awesome, dreadful. 

awkward, a. 1. ungainly, uncouth, clown- 
ish, gauche (French), wooden, rustic, 
grotesque, inept, inapt (rare), gawky (col- 
loq.), maladroit (literary or learned), un- 
graceful; spec, stiff, bungling, slouchy; see 
Antonyms: see graceful, skillful. 

2. tactless, clumsy, indelicate, uneasy 
(rare), boorish. 

Antomjms: see skillful, tactful, dip- 

3. See embarrassing, difficult. 
awkwardness, n. maladresse (French), 

gaucherie (French), rusticity, gawkiness 
(colloq.), ineptitude, ineptness, inaptness 
(rare), inaptitude (rare), ungainliness, un- 
couthness, clownishness ; see clumsiness. 

axial, a. pivotal. 

axiomatic, a. self-evident, apodeictic 
(learned), necessary; spec, gnomic, gnom- 

axis, n. Spec, spindle, shaft, arbor; see 

f^' Cross references: see Note. 

avail, n.: benefit. 

avail, v.: benefit, aid, serve. 

avails: proceeds. 

avaricio is: greedy. 

avaunt: away. 

ave, V. i.: hail. 

ave, n.: greeting. 

avenge: vindicate, retribute. 

avenging: retributive. 
avenue: way, road. 
aver: prove, state. 
averse: opposed, unwilling. 
avid: greedy. 

avocation: business, diversion. 
avouch: authenticate, state, con- 
avow: state, acknowledge. 

avowal: acknowledgement, state- 
awake, v. t.: wake, rouse, excite. 
awaken: wake, rouse, excite. 
award: apportion, adjudge. 
awash: floating, afloat. 
awesome: awful, fearful. 
awry: askew. \tion. 

axiom: rule, saying, proposi- 

f^' See Notes of Explanation. 



axle, n. axis (rare), shaft; spec, axletree, 
arbor, spindle; see pivot. 

ax-shaped, a. dolabriforra (tech.), securi- 
form (rare). 

azure, a. blue (contextual), cerulean (liter- 
ary), celestic (literary or tech.), cerule (po- 
etic), cerulescent (rare), skyey (colloq. or 
undignified; rare) . 

babble, v. i. 1. Referring to inarticulate or 
meaningless sounds, as of a baby, idiot, etc.; 
chatter, clatter, cackle, prate, blather or 
bhther (dial.), prattle, patter (colloq.), 
gabble (colloq.; chiefly derogatory), chip- 
per (rare), claver (Scot.), deblaterate 
(rare and humorous or contemptuous), 
clack (chiefly derogatory), twaddle (rare), 
gibber (chiefly spec), jargon, jargonize 
(rare); spec, drivel, rave. 
2. See CHATTER (referring to senseless or 
trivial talk), murmtjr (as brooks, leaves, 

etc.), TATTLE. 

babble, v. t. 1. chatter, clatter, prattle, 
prate, blather or blither (dial.), gabble 
(colloq.; chiefly derogatory) . 


babble, n. 1. chatter, clatter, prattle, prat- 
ing (rare), blatter or blether or blather 
(dial.), bibble-babble, babblement, blat- 
eration or deblateration (rare and hu- 
morous or contemptuous), patter, gabble 
(colloq.; chiefly derogatory), jargon, prat- 
tlement (rare), cackle, clack, claver 
(Scot.), clatter, clitter-clatter (rare), prit- 
tle-prattle; spec, drivel. 


babyish, a. infantine, infantile, childish, 

dolly or dollish. 
Bacchan<tl, n. 1. Bacchant (masc. or 

fern,.), Bacchante (Jem.), Bacchanalian, 

BacchiE (pi.; fern.); spec. Thyiad (Jem.), 

maenad (fern.). 

2. See REVELER. 

bacchic, a. 1. Bacchanalian, Dionysiac, 
Dionysian, Dionysic. 

2. See REVELING. • 

back, n. posterior, back side (now used only 
of the buttocks when used as one word), 
rear, arrear (archaic), backing, dorsum 
(tech.); spec, behind (vulgar), breech, butt, 
cascabel, gorge, rearward (of an army; ar- 
chaic); see BUTTOCKS, REVERSE. 
Antonyms: see front. 

backbone, n. 1. spine, spinal column, 
rachis (tech.), spina (Latin; tech.), chine 
(tech. or archaic), ridgebone (rare). 


background, n, rear, distance; spec. 
groundwork, setting, distemper. 
Antonyms: see foreground. 

backslide, v. i. slide (contextual; rare), 
lapse, fall, revert, weaken, tergiversate 
(rare); spec, ref all (rare); see apostatize, 

RELAPSE, desert. 

backward, adv. back, arear, hindward, 
rearward, astern (naut. or fig.), abaft (now 
mdynaut.), baft (archaic; now only naut.) . 
Antonyms: see forward. 
backward, a. 1. rearward, hindward, 
back, reverse. 
Antonyms: see forward, ahead. 

2. retrogressive, retrograde, regressive, 
recessive; see degenerative, rever- 


Antonyms: see progressive, precocious. 

3. retrospective. 

bad, a. 1. In the very general sense of "not 

good": poor, wretched, execrable (a hy- 

perbolism), sad (often jocular), miserable, 

horrid (colloq.; a weak hyperbole). 

Antonyms: see good, excellent, fair, 


2. See wicked, harmful, unpleasant, 

RIOR, INVALID (pron. Kn-va,rid), ailing, 


badge, n. mark (contextual), emblem, to- 
ken, symbol, sign, ensign (chiefly spec), 
insignia (pi.; chiefly spec); spec, marker, 
recognizance (archaic), colors (pi.), re- 
gaha (pi.), mon (Japanese), crest, favor, 
laticlave, decoration, cockade, chevron, 
brassard, weeper, angusticlave, rosette, 
cordon, ribbon, button, medal, collar, etc. 

bag, n. container (cant; contextual), pouch, 
case, poke (dial, or tech., exc in "pig in a 
poke"), receptacle (contextual), pocket 
(obs. or spec); spec, capsule, mail, packet, 
satchel, sabretache, sachet, sack, sac, 
sacklet, reticule, scrip (archaic), purse, 
ditty-bag, gunny, bunt, cod, knapsack, 
portmanteau, haversack, dilly-bag (orig. 
2. *See SAC. 

bag, v. t. pouch, sack. 

bag, V. i. pouch, pocket (rare), belly, bulge 
(contextual) , swell (contextual). 

baggage, n. 1. encumbrances (pi.), lug- 
gage (chiefly British), viaticals (pi.; rare; 
chiefly mil.), impedimenta (pi.; chiefly 
mil.), truck (colloq.), traps (pi.; colloq.), 
plunder (slang or cant), things (pi.; colloq.; 
contextual), trap (colloq.), dimnage (sailor's 
slang) . 
2. See WANTON, girl. 

ti^ Cross references: see Note. 

baa: bleat. 

bachelor: celibate. 
back, v.t.: support, mount, drive. 
backbite: censure, defame. 
backing: back, support. 

badger: /laros.s, tease. 
badinage: pleasantry. 
baffle: defeat. 
baggy: bag-shaped, flaccid. 

(^ Sue Notes of Explanation. 



bag- shaped, a. bapoiy, jiouchy; iccli. sac- 
cate, utricular, utriculatc, utriculosc. 

bailiff, tt. 1. Spec, bailie [Scot.), pursui- 
vant (Eiiij.), catchpi>ll (iiterari/; arcliiiic), 
beagle (Jiy-^> bunibailitT (conleinptuous), 
constable, granger (Eng.), hundreder 

bake, i'. /. cook {contextual; chiefly spec); 
spec, burn, roast, fire, kiln. 

bake, n. cook {contextual; chiefly spec); 
spec roast, burn. 

balance, n. 1. scales {pi.). 

2. poise, ecjuilibrium, libration {rare), 
equipoise, equilibrity {rare), equiponder- 
ance {learned), equiponderancy {rare); 
spec, isostasy, stability. Often used fig. of 
other than physical forces. 


4. Referring to character: poise, compos- 
ure, equipoise, evenness; see sanity. 

balance, lk t. 1. poise, equilibrate {tech. or 
learned), equilibrize {rare); spec, equate, 
trim {naut.). Often used fig. of things or 
forces other than physical ones. 
Antonyms: see overturn, upset. 


3. Of accounts: equate {rare), square. 
balance, v. i. poise, equilibrate {rare), 

librate {said of a bird). 
balanced, a. 1. equilibrious, poised; spec. 


2. Referring to accounts, total, etc: even, 

bald, a. 1. bare {contextual), hairless, 

peeled {obs. or rare), depilous {rare), pelon 

{as a dog; French); glabrous {tech.); spec 

beardless, whiskerless. 
Antonyms: see hairy, bearded. 

2. See BARE, mere, unadorned, EVI- 

balk, V. i. refuse {rare), jib; spec. shy. 

balky, a. restiff {obs. or rare), restive. 

ball, n. 1. globe, sphere, orb {chiefly liter- 
ary and spec), round {chiefly contextual); 
spec, globule, pellet, sphericle {rare), 
spherule, puck, gutty {slang), grub, bowl, 
clew, bullet, croquette, bottom {obs.), cop, 
marble, jinglet, pigskin {colloq.), earthkin, 
terella, mound, pompon; see drop. 
2. Spec, masquerade, fandango {now 
rare, exc as to foreign countries), masque, 

ball, V. t. globe {a reflexive), orb {a reflex- 
ive), conglobe, conghjbate, englobe, en- 
s])here; spec, clew; — all literary or rare, 
crc ''ball." 

ball, V. i. orb {rare). 

ballad, n. song, singsong {chiefly spec); 
spec, cantilena {Italian), derry {rare). 

band, n. 1. Chiefly in plural: bond; spec. 
shackle, chain, fetter, trammel, bilbo, 
manacle, gyve, handcuff, cuffs {colloq.; pi.), 
binding; — all implying restraint of per- 
sonal liberty. 

2. bond, tie, bind, shackle {rare or obs.), 
binder, binding, vinculum {tech.); spec 
bandage, couple, strap, chain, rope, bil- 
let, clasp, ligature, ligament, hoop, fillet, 
girdle, girth, tourniquet, belt, loop, bal- 
dric, bandsaw, bandoleer, thong, regula, 
sliver, reglet, tendon, commissure, breech- 
ing, holdback, collar, collet, ferrule, head- 
band, fanon, fascia, parrel or parral, 
becket, cincture, cuff, curb, garter, gar- 
land, noseband, cavesson, waistband; see 


3. stripe, strip, bar, belt, zone, arc, line; 
spec, fascia, vitta, frieze, orle; see streak. 

4. association, organization; spec, bri- 
gade {of workers), cohort, union, chorus 
{of singers), chouan {French). 

5. Spec, brass, woodwind, strings {pi.), 
orchestra, Kapelle {Ger.). 

band, v. t. streak, stripe, belt, line; see 

banded, a. striped, barred, hsted; spec. 
ring-streaked, fasciated, belted. 
Antonyms: see uniform. 

bandy, v. t. 1. See beat. 
2. toss {words, names, etc.), shuttlecock 
{rare), exchange {contextual). 

bank, n. 1. Spec, mound, dike, shelf, ridge, 
terrace, brae {Scot.), embankment, escarp- 
ment, terreplein, escarp, glacis, digue 
{French), remblai {French); see bar. 
2. brim {archaic); spec, riverside, levee 
{U. S.), rivage {poetic), ripe {rare); see 

bank, v. t. 1. Spec, embank, dike, terrace, 
escarp, mound, rampart. 
2. See carom. 

bankrupt, v. i. break, smash (slang), bust 
{slang, U. S.). 

banner, n. flag {contextual); spec penon, 
oriflamme, gonfalon, gonfanon. 

bantam, n. 1. See dwarf. 

(W Cross references: see Note. 
bail, n.; bar. 
bail, V. t.: dip. 
bairn: child. 
bait: worry, feed, attract. 
balderdasb: nonsense. 
bale, V. t.: dip. 
bale, n.: evil, harm, sorrow. 
baleful: harmful, sorrowful, 

balli: avoid, shirk, defeat. 

balm : mitigatory. 

balmy: fragrant, calmative, 

mitigatory, mild. 
baluster: post. 
balustrade: railing. 
ban, J). <.; curse, forbid. 
banal: commonplace. 
bandit: desperado. 
bandy-legged: bow-legged. 

bane: harm, pest, evil. 
baneful: harmful, deadly. 
bang, V. t.: strike, clap. 
bang, n.: blow, clap. 
banish: expel. 
banishment: expulsion. 
banister : railing. 
bank, v. i.: rely. 
bankrupt: insolvent. 
banquet: feast. 

K^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


2. Referring to a self-important fellow: 
cockalorum, whippersnapper, skipjack (ar- 
chaic), puppy (colloq.); spec, braggart, 
jackanapes, upstart. 

banter, v. t. & i. rally, badinage, joke, 
roast {colloq. or slang), persiflate {rare), 
josh {slang), jig {dial, or slang), chaff 
{colloq.), quiz, jolly {colloq.), kid {slang). 

baptize, v. t. christen; spec, dip {colloq.; 
contextual), immerse {contextual), sprinkle 
{colloq.; contextual), rebaptize. 

bar, n. 1. Spec, rod, stick, rail, bail, cross- 
bar, batten, boom, tongue, came, concelli 
(pi.), crow, fiferail, handspike, slicebar, 
slice, bull, rave, crosshead, hound, fid; 

see STAKE, ROD. 

2. ridge; spec, sandbar, overslaugh {local, 
U. S.), spit, swash. 


4. bank, barrier, ridge ; — {all three context- 
ual); spec, sandbar, shelf, barrage. 

5. prevention, hindrance, impediment, 
check, stop, conclusion {law); spec, fore- 
closure, estoppel. 

bar, V. t. 1. See stop, prevent. 
2. prevent, hinder, stop, check, preclude; 
spec, foreclose, exclude, oust, estop. 

barbarism, n. Referring to words or lan- 
guage: misuse {contextual), solecism, cata- 
chresis {tech.); spec, malapropism, Goth- 
icism, Gothism, vandalism. Gallicism, 
Latinism, Grecism, etc. 
Antonyms: see culture. 

barbarize, v. t. savage. 

barbarous, a. 1. Spec. Gothic, vandalic, 
heathenish, Hunnish. 
2. See cruel, uncivilized, heathenish, 

bare, a. 1. naked, nude, exposed, bald; spec. 
stripped, denudate, uncovered, depilated, 
unhaired, barked, skinned, peeled, nap- 
less, threadbare, blank, gaunt, desolate, 
callow, breechless, plain, rampick {archaic 
or dial.), galled; see bald, raw, naked. 
Antonyms: see covered, clothed, 
hairy, leafy. 

2. See MERE, unadorned, uncovered, 
narrow, meager. 

bare, v. 1. 1. denude, denudate, divest; spec. 
unsheathe, bark, skin, shave, disease {ar- 
chaic) , expose, disclose, uncover, strip, peel, 
Antonyms: see cover. 
2. See EXPOSE, disclose. 

barefoot, a. unshod, discalceate {chiefly 
said of nuns, friars, etc.), discalced {eccl.). 

bareheaded, a. Spec, uncovered, ton- 

bargain, v. i. 1. Spec, haggle, higgle, 
stickle, treat, negotiate, dicker {U. S.), 
chop {obs. or rare), chaffer, cheap {archaic); 

see BARTER. 


bark, n. rind {chiefly tech. or literary), skin, 
peel; spec, cortex, liber, cork, tan, dita, 
cambium, hat. 

barli, V. t. skin, peel, denude, debark {rare), 

bark, n. cry {contextual), yap {colloq.), yelp 
{colloq. or spec), latration {literary); spec. 
bay, quest. 

bark, v. i. speak, cry {contextual), latrate 
{very rare), yap {colloq.), yelp {colloq. or 
spec); spec, quest, bay. 

barking, a. latrant {literary). 

barracks, n. pi. lodgings {pi.), quarters 
{pi.); spec, bullpen {cant). 

barren, a. 1. sterile, fruitless {rare as refer- 
ring to animals), unproductive, unfruit- 
ful, infertile, dead {chiefly of soil or land), 
infecund (rare); spec, childless {context- 
ual), heartless, naked, neuter, acarpous, 
infructuose {rare), desert, unfructuous 
{rare), farrow. 

Antonyms: see fruitful, luxuriant. 
2. unproductive, dead, jejune {literary), 
otiose {literary), fruitless; see ineffect- 
Antonyms: see productive, effective, 


barricade, n. fence, obstruction, barrier, 
bar; — all four contextual. 

barrier, n. obstruction {contextual), fence 
{chiefly spec), bar {primarily spec); spec. 
hedge, chain, boom, rope, bank, entangle- 
ment, wall, stockade, fencing {collective), 
gate, barrage, barrage {French; mil.), 
traverse {rare); see barricade. 

barter, v. t. & i. bargain, exchange, trade, 
swap or swop {colloq., U. S.; or dial.), 
truck, chop {rare or obs.). 

base, a. 1. See low, lowly, illegitimate, 
INFERIOR {in quality), plebeian. 
2. Ignoble, infamous, vile, mean, low, 
cheap, miscreant {literary), turpitudinous 
{rare), ilUberal {literary), vulgar {rare or 
archaic), sordid; spec, abject, groveling, 
menial, villain (^rare), villein (/lisi.), slavish, 
beggarly, servile, soulless, baseborn; see 
Antonyms: see noble. 

base, n. 1. See bottom, support, founoa- 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 

banter: pleasantry. 

barbarian, a.: foreign, uncivil- 

barbarian, n.: foreigner, sav- 
age, boor. 

barbaric: foreign, uncivilized. 

barbarity: cruelty. 

bard: poet, singer. 

bard: armor. 

bargain: agreement, contract. 

bark: vessel, boat. 

barmy: yeasty, flighty. 
baroque: extravagant, irregular. 
barrage: bar, obstacle. 
barricade: obstruct. 
barroom: saloon. 
basal: foundational, fundamental. 

K^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



2. Iti the sense of "chief vigredient": 

ground, basis, basement (tech.; chiefly 


S. In botany, zoology, etc.: foot, fundus 

(tech.), bottom; spec, butt; see stalk. 

base, V. t. 1. rest (contextual), found, 
ground (orig. spec), put (contextual), bot- 
tom; spec build. 

2. In a secondary sense: found, ground, 
rest, predicate (U. S.). 

baseness, 7i. ignominy', meanness, infamy, 
turpitude, etc Cf. base, a., 2. 

bashful, a. shy, retiring, diffident, shrink- 
ing, timid, strange, shamefaced, shame- 
fast (archaic), coy, reserved, chary (rare), 
boggle (dial, or colloq.), modest; spec 
sheepish, blushful. "Coy" (which see) does 
not imply anything as to the disposition, 
but refers merely to the outward acts. 
Antonyms: see assured, bold, impudent, 


bashfulness, n. shyness, diffidence, coy- 
ness, reserve, timidity, etc 
Antonyms: see assurance, conceit. 

basis, 71. 1. See base, bottom, reason, 

2. foundation, ground, groundwork, funda- 
mental, principle, premise corner stone 
(fig.), keystone (fig.). 

basket, n. skep (local, Eng.); spec, scuttle, 
seedhp, tap, tapnet, crate, calanthus 
(archcEol.), frail, bass, bassinet, canister 
(a Latinism or Grecism), pannier, corbeil, 
buck, moll, creel, gabion, nacelle, flasket, 
flat, prickle, pad, corf, canaster, hanaper 
(historical), hamper. 

bass, a. low, deep, heavy, base (obsoles- 
cent), basso (Italian), grave (rare); spec 
Antonyms: see shrill. 

bass, n. base (obsolescent); spec, thorough- 
base, drone, barytone, bourdon. 

bastard, n. by-blow or bye-blow (archaic), 
love child, whoreson (law or archaic), il- 
legitimate (formal or legal), misfortune 
(Scot. & dial. Eng.), come-by-chance (col- 
loq.); spec nephew (euphemistic), niece 
(euphemistic) . 

bath, n. 1. immersion, dipping; spec, tub- 
bing, pedilavium, douche (French), dip 
(coUoq.); see wash. 

2. suffusion, circumfusion, embathing 

3. wash, lotion; spec. dip. 

4. lavatory, laver (literary or rhetorical); 
spec, tub, demibath, hammam or hum- 
mum (Turkish), sudatory, sudatorium 
(Latin), therm (archaic), thermjE (pi.; 
Latin), sitz bath, vaporarium (Latin), 
caldarium (Latin). 

bathe, v. t. 1. immerse, dip, bath (always 
literal), embathe (literary); spec tub, 
embrocate, foment; see wash. 

2. suffuse, circumfuse, embathe (literary). 

3. bask, beek (Scot.). 

battleship, n. Spec, predreadnought, 
dreadnought, superdreadnought, liner. 

bawd, n. pimp, procurer, whoremaster 
(law), pander, procuress, panderess (rare); 
spec, bawdstrot (obs.), broker (obs.), ca- 
det, maquereau (French), mackerel (ar- 
chaic) . 

bawdry, n. 1. pandering, pimping, pro- 
curation, panderism; spec, proxenetism. 


be, V. i. 1. exist, consist (archaic), stand, 
lie, subsist, remain, go (as in "as things 
go"); spec, coexist, postexist (rare), pre- 
exist (rare), occiu*, lurk, rank. 


beadle, n. constable, bluecoat or bluebot- 
tle (nickname); spec, bedell or poker 
(Univ. slang, Eng.). 

beali, 71. 1. Referring to a bird: bill, nib, 

2. Referring to an insect: snout, rostrum 
(tech.), nose; spec, proboscis. 

3. Referring to a vessel's prow: rostrum, 

4. projection (contextual); spec, nozzle, 
nose, horn, umbo (tech.). 

beam, n. I. timber, raft (archaic or spec), 
balk; spec, batten, scantling, truss, tie, 
trevis (Scot.), che\Ton (rare), girder, raft- 
er, joist; see pole. 


beanlike, a. fabaceous (tech.). 
bean-shaped, a. fabiform (tech.). 
bear, v. t. 1. See support, keep (in mind), 
entertain, endure, suffer, transport, 


2. produce, have (a child, young, etc.), 
throw (cant; only of animals), drop 

XdS^ Cross references: see Note. 
bashaw: magnate. 
basic: fundamental. 
bastard: illepitimate, false, ir- 
regular, unauthorized. 
bastinado: cudgel. 
batch: quantity. 
bate, V. i.: flap. 
bathos: anticlimax. 
bating: except. 
baton: staff. 

battalion: division. 
batten: thrive, fatten. 
batter, v. t: beat, bruise, indent. 
batter, n.: slope. 
batter, n.: paste. 
battle, V. i.: fight, contend. 
battle, n.: fight, contest. 
bauble: gewgaw, scepter. 
bawl, V. i.: cry, shout. 
bawl, V. t.: shout. 
bawl, n.: cry, shout, outcry. 

bay, n.: compartment, window. 

bay, V. i.: bark. 

bayonet, v. t.: stab. 

bayou: inlet. 

bays, pL: wreath, garland, 

bazaar: market, fair. 
beach: ground. 
beacon: signal, watchtower. 
beam, r. ?'..■ shine. 
beaming: shining. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



{chiefly of animals, esp. sheep), teem (ubs. 
or archaic), cast (esp. prematurely; chiefly 
of animals); spec, spawn {contemptuous), 
child {obs.), farrow, abort. 
bear, v. i. 1. travail {of women only), teem 
{archaic), labor {of women only; archaic), 
parturiate {rare); spec, litter, yean, ean 
{obs.), cub, pig, pup, farrow, calve, fawn, 
kitten, foal, whelp, twin, spawn {con- 


bear, n. 1. Bruin {used as a proper name); 
spec, grizzly, cub, whelp. 

2. As applied to a person: rudesby {ar- 
chaic), crab {rare), cur (contemptuous; 
contextual) . 


beard, n. 1. Spec, whiskers {pi.), Charley 
or Charlie {colloq. or slang), goatee, im- 
perial, Vandyke, Burnsides {pi.), Gallo- 
ways {pi). 
2. awn, arista {tech.). 

bearded, a. 1. hairy {contextual), whisk- 
ered, barbate {rare). 
Antonyms: see bald. 
2. Spec, awned, barbate, barbed, pogo- 
niate {tech.), glochidiate {tech.). 

beardless, a. smooth-iaced; spec, shaven, 
unfledged {fig.). 

bearing, n. 1. See endurance, position, 
relation, transportation, behavior, 

2. base, support, rest; spec, journal, 
plate, step, coak, cock, brass, babbit, 
tread, trunnion, seating, gudgeon, yoke, 
saddle, tassel or torse, templet, lintel, 
headstock, tailstock; see bushing. 

3. In heraldry: charge, devise; spec, well, 
rest, goutte {French), trestle, trivet, trav- 
erse, trefoil, tressure, weare, gore, wedge, 
ferrule, virule, woolpack, fiasque, fusil, 
yard; see arms. 

beast, n. 1. See animal. 
2. As a term of contemptuous opprobrium: 
spec, brute, dog, cur, hog, swine, hound. 

beastlike, a. theriomorphic {rare), bes- 
tial, beastly {rare), brutish, brutal {rare), 
theroid {rare), ferine {rare), feral {learned,). 

beastly, a. 1. See beastlike. 
2. coarse {contextual), abominable {con- 
textual), vile; spec, swinish, hoggish, pig- 
gish boarish, filthy, gluttonous, greedy; 
see indecent. 
Antonyms: see refined, gentlemanly, 


beat, V. t. 1. pound, clapperclaw {archaic or 
dial.), contund {humorou^s or affected), be- 
labor {intensive), thump {colloq.), thwack, 
whack, pommel or pummel, welt {colloq. 

or slang) , fan {slang) , lam {colloq. or vulgar); 
spec, mill, bepommel or bepummel {inten- 
sive), drub, tattoo, whale, hammer, bandy, 
mallet {archaic), maUeate {rare), scutch, 
flail, flog, lap, beetle, drum, full, batter; 
see RAM, thrash. 
Antonyms: see cherish, caress. 
2- Referring to making a foam or the like 
of: whip, mill, churn {fig. or spec), svidtch. 

3. Referring to games, contests, etc.: de- 
feat {esp. in a game); spec, gammon, 
whitewash {colloq.), skunk {vulgar slang), 
blank, goose-egg {slang), distance, lurch. 

4. See nonplus, surpass, defeat. 
beat, n. 1. See blow, pulsation, circuit, 


2. defeat; spec, whitewash {colloq.), 
skunk {vulgar slang), blank, etc. 

3. In newspaper cant: scoop. 
beatification, n. felicitation {rare), mac- 

arization {rare). 

beatified, a. blessed. 

beatify, v. t. heaven {rare), bless, felicitate 
{rare), imparadise {rare), macarize {rare); 
see please, gladden. 
Antonyms: see curse. 

beatitude, n. blessing; spec, macarism 
{rare) . 
Antonyms: see curse. 

beautiful, a. lovely, lovesome {archaic), 
beauteous {literary and chiefly poetic), 
bright, lustrous {fig.), splendent; spec. 
pretty, dainty, sweet. 
Antonyms: see ugly, abominable. 

beautify, v. t. become {contextual), adorn, 
grace; spec, prettify; see ornament. 
Antonyms: see deface. 

beauty, n. 1. loveliness, lovelihead {rare), 
formosity {archaic), pulchritude {rare), 
lustre; spec, glory, prettiness {beauty 
without dignity). 
Antonyms: see ugliness, deformity. 
2. belle, fair lady, fair one; spec, belhbone 
Antonyms: see hag. 

because, conj. since, inasmuch as, as, 
forwhy {archaic), long or along {archaic 
or dial), forasmuch as {archaic or formal). 

becloud, V. i. cloud, darken, obscure; spec. 

become, v. t. 1. befit, fit, suit, beseem. 
Antonyms: see misbecome. 
2. See grace, beautify. 

become, v. i. grow, turn, go, fall, drop, 
wax {archaic or literary), come, get; — 
mostly idiomates. 

becoming, a. 1. befitting, fitting, fit, suit- 
able, worthy, good, well-becoming, seem- 
ly, meet, gaimy {rare), graceful {chiefly 

t^= Cross references: see Note. 
bearish: rough. 
beatific: glad. 

beau: dandy, lover. 
beaver: visor. 
becalm: calm, detain. 

beck: brook. 
beck: how, gesture. 
beckon: gesture. 

t^* See Notes of Explanation. 



spec), bcsecmly (rare), decorous; sec ap- 
propriate, PROPER. 
Antonyms: sec unbecoming, unsuit- 
able, IMPROPER. 
2. beautifying, feat {archaic or dial.). 

becomingness, n. fitness, suitability, 
oomeline.^;.-^, grace (chicjhj spec); spec, ap- 
propriateness, proj^riety. 

bed, n. 1. couch, lair (rare, exc. of beasts), 
doss (slang or cant), berth (chiefly spec), 
bunk (colloq. or spec), roost (slang); spec. 
litter, crib, cot, cradle, trundle, truckle, 
mattress, pallet, hammock, shakedown. 


bed, V. t. 1. lodge, lair {rare, exc. of beasts), 
bunk (colloq. or spec); spec, cradle, litter. 

2. Sec REST. 

bedcover, n. Spec quilt, bedquilt, cov- 
erlet, coverlid (rare), counterpane, com- 
forter (colloq., U. S.), bedspread (tl. S.), 
spread (U. S.), comfortable (U. S.), pall 
(archaic), rezai (Anglo-Indian), palam- 
pore, duvet (French). 

bedding, n. »Spec. laedclothes, litter, lit- 
tering, lairage (rare), brancard. 

bedroom, n. bedchamber or chamber 
(formal or pretentious), bower (archaic), 
cubicle (esp. one of a series in an Eng. 
school dormitory) , cubiculum (jocose); spec. 
ruelle (French). 

bedstead, n. Spec, cot, charpoy (Anglo- 
Indian), bed (colloq. or cant). 

bedtick, n. tick, case, cover (contextual). 

beef, n. The animal: bovine, neat (rare); 
spec, bull, cow, freemartin, ox, steer, 
heifer, muley or mulley, bullock, bossy, 
roan, taurine (rare), buffalo, bison, au- 
rochs, carabao, gayal, gaur, zebu, za- 
mouse, yak, musk-ox, urus, anoa, sapiu- 
tan, Kerry, Durham, Jersey, etc. 

beebive, n. hive, apiary (tech.), alveary 
(obs., exc. as figuratively used of various 
old dictionaries), bike (Scot, or dial.); spec. 

beekeeping, n. apiculture. 

beetle, 7i. coleopter (tech.), clock (Eng.); 
spec, scarab, dung beetle, dorbeetle, June 
beetle, etc. 

befool, V. t. 1. See deceive. 
2. rig (slang or colloq. ), (slang or dial.) 

before, adv. 1. See forward. 
2. earlier, sooner, antecedently, previ- 
ously, already, beforehand, heretofore, 
hitherto, beforetime (archaic), erenow 
(literary or archaic). 
Antonyms: see afterwards, now. 

before, prep. 1. ere (now chiefly literary or 
dial.), or (archaic or dial.). 

Antonyms: see after. 
2. coram (Latin; for ''in presence of"). 

beg, V. t. 1. See ask. 
2. mendicate (rare); spec, quest (R. C. 
Ch.), cadge (dial, or slang). 
Antonyms: see give, reject. 

beg, V. i. 1. See ask. 
2. mendicate (rare), mump (cant; obs.), 
cadge, cant (literary), quest (R. C. Ch.). 

beget. V. t. parent (rare), raise (rare), gender 
(archaic), engender (archaic or learned), 
get (now only of animals), ingender (rare), 
father, procreate (rare). 
Antonyms: see kill. 

begetter, n. author (in "author of one's be- 
ing"), generator, procreator. 

begetting, n. progeniture, procreation, 
generation, getting (archaic), get (chiefly 
cant) . 

beggar, n. pauper (contextual), mendicant 
(learned or tech.; esp. of certain ecclesias- 
tics), mumper (slang), thigger (Scot.), 
clapperdudgeon(arc/!aic) , canter farc/iaic); 
spec, fakir, jockey (historical), bluegown 
(Scot.), gangrel (archaic), vagabond, gab- 
erlunzie (Scot.), schnorrer (Jewish), dy- 
vour (Scot.; obsolescent), dervish, dandy, 
roundsman, beadsman (Eng.). 
Antonyms: see rich person. 

begging, n. 1. beggary, mendicity (rare), 
mendicancy, mendication (rare). 
2. See ASKING. 

begging, a. 1. See asking. 
2. mendicant (learned or tech.), canting 
(rare), cadging. 

begin, v. t. commence, start, gin (archaic), 
originate, initiate, broach (chiefly spec), 
inchoate (learned); spec attack, institute, 
raise, introduce, reintroduce, recom- 
mence, open, inaugurate, auspicate, 
handsel (Eng.). 
Antonyms: see end, finish, complete. 

begin, v. i. commence, gin (archaic), pro- 
ceed, start, enter, open; spec, exordize 
(rare), recommence, renew. 
Antonyyns: see end. 

beginning, n. 1. commencement, start, 
outstart, outset, inauguration, opening, 
institution, inchoation (learned), inchoacy 
(rare), inception, incipience, incipiency, 
initiation, initiative, ingress (archaic), on- 
set; spec, gambit, origination, attack. 
Antonyms: see end, finish, catastro- 
phe, event. 

|S= Cross references: see Note. 

bedraggle: draggle. 

beforehand: before. 

bedeck: ornament. 

bedrivel: slobber. 

befoul: contaminate. 

bedew: wet. 

bedspread: bedcover. 

befuddle: confuse. 

bedim: darken. 

belaU: happen, belong, occur. 

begem: ornament. 

bedizen: ornameTit. 

befit: become. 

beggar, v. t.: impoverish, belittle. 

bedlam: asylum. 

befitting: becoming. 

beggarly: poor, base, mean. 

bedquilt: bedcover. 

befog: cloud, confuse. 

beggary: begging. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 



2. The place of beginning: spec, threshold, 
outset, tee, origin. 

4. Spec, rudiment, forefront, front, em- 
bryo, outstart, outset, prime, proem 
(learned), prelude, incunabula (pi.; liter- 
ary), morning {fig.), dawn {fig.), protasis 
{learned) . 

Antonyms: see completion, end, out- 

beginning, a. commencing, inauguratory, 
initiative, initiatory, inceptive, initial, in- 
cipient; spec, nascent. The word "begin- 
ning" is unusual as an adjective. 

beguile, v. t. 1. See deceive, cheat, di- 

2. In the sense of "to while away": 

behave, v. t. As a reflexive verb: conduct, 
demean(</iis is the correct use of "demean"), 
bear, comport, deport, carry, quit {ar- 
chaic), acquit {archaic); spec, misbehave, 
misconduct, misdemean. "Behave" is 
often used as implying good behavior. 

behavior, n. conduct, demeanor, bearing, 
comportment, deportment, carriage, ac- 
quittance, manners {pi.), action, sem- 
blance {rare), goings {pi.; colloq.), conver- 
sation {archaic), havior {archaic), quit- 
tance {archaic). Cf. air. 

behead, v. t. decapitate, head {archaic), 
neck {dial.), decollate {learned); spec. 
guillotine, caboche. 

behold, inter j. ecce {Latin), lo, la {dial.). 

being, a. existing, existent, extant, beent 
(metaphysics), subsistent, subsisting; 
spec, constituted. "Being" is rare as an 
Antonyms: see nonexistent. 

being, n. existence, entity, subsistence ; spec. 
life, essence, quid (learned), hypaxis (rare; 
tech.), existent (rare), ens, automaton. 
Antonyms: see nonexistence. 

belfry, n. tower (contextual), companile, 
clocher (rare). 

belie, v. t. Spec, defame, misrepresent, 

belief, n. 1. Referring to the mental action, 
condition, habit, etc.: credit, faith, accept- 
ance, credence, reception (chiefly Bib.), 
thinking (contextual), fay (archaic); spec. 
supposition, trust. 

Antonyms: see unbelief, doubt, skep- 

2. Referring to what is believed as a matter 
of faith: tenet, persuasion, creed ; spec. 
supposition, profession, superstition, 
mumpsimus (contemptuous or humorous), 
tradition, misbelief. 

3. See conviction, opinion, creed. 
believable, a. credible; spec, supposable. 

Antonyms: see unbelievable. 

believe, v. t. 1. trust, credit, swallow 

(chiefly colloq. or slang), accept, receive 

(chiefly Bib.), accredit (an erroneous use); 

spec, feel, suppose, fancy, misbelieve, guess. 

Antonyms: see disbelieve, doubt. 
2. See consider. 
believe, v. i. trust. 

Antomjms: see doubt. 
believer, n. truster, accepter, receiver; 
spec. Christian, faithful (a collective; used 
with "the"). 
Antonyms: see unbeliever, heretic. 
believing, a. credulous (chiefly spec), cred- 
itive (rare), credent (rare); spec, trustful, 
confiding, fond, easy (colloq.), supersti- 
Antonyms: see unbelieving, doubtful, 


believingness, n. credulousness (chiefly 
spec), credulity (chiefly spec), trustful- 
ness; spec fondness, easiness (colloq.), 

belittle, v. t. 1. overshadow (flg.), minish 
(rare), beggar, minimize; spec, dwarf. 
Antonyms: see exaggerate. 
2. See disparage. 

bell, n. 1. Spec, sanctus bell, grelot, gong, 
dingdong (literary or colloq.), jingle, pa- 
vilion, tintinnabulum (bookish or tech.), 
tinkler (slang), tocsin, chimes (pi.). 

2. sound (contextual), stroke; spec, toll, 
knell, jingle. 

3. See bubble, time, hour. 

bellow, n., v. t. & v. i. 1. cry (contextual), 

bell {esp. of deer), roar, low (of kine), blare 

(rare) . 

2. See shout. 
bellowing, a. mugient (rare), lowing (of 

kine), roaring. 
bell- shaped, a. campanulate, campanu-- 

lar, campapulous, campaniform; — all four 

tech. or literary. 

XW Cross references: see Note. 
begone: away. 
begrime: soil. 
begrudge: envy, grudge. 
beguilement: deception, cheat, 

behalf: side, benefit. 
behave, v. i.: act. 
behest : biading. 
behind: hind, remaining, late, 

behind: buttocks. 

behold, V. t.: see. 
beholden: indebted. 
beholder: spectator. 
behoof: benefit. 
behoove, behove, v. t.: benefit. 
behoveful: beneficial, advan- 
bejewel: ornament. 
belabor: beat, ply. 
belated: delayed. 
belay: fau'en. 
belch: erupt, eject. 

beldam, beldame: grand- 
mother, hag. 

beleaguer: surround. 

belike: probably, perhaps. 

bell, V. i.: flare. 

bell, V. & n.: bellow. 

belle: beauty. 

belles-lettres: literature. 

bellicose: pugnacious. 

belligerent: fighting, warlike, 

belly, V. i.: bag. 

%W See Notes of Explanation. 



belong, r. i. pertain, apportain {formal), 
behove {archaic), befall {archaic), attach. 

belonging, a. pertaining, pertinent, ap- 
pertaining {J'ormal), ajipertinent {formal), 
accessory or (less usual) accessary. 

beloved, n. dear, idol; see love. 

below, adv. ct prep. 1. In the sense of "loiver 
than": beneath, ncath or 'neath (poetic). 
Antonyms: see above. 
2. In the sense of "directly below": see 


belt, /(. band; spec, girdle, girth, bandoleer. 
bench, n. 1. seat (con^ex^wa/), settle; spec. 


8. See COURT, lodge. 
bend, v. t. 1. strain (archaic, exc. of the 

bow), draw, stretch (a bow). 

2. crook, flex {scientific), ply (rare), turn 
(chiefly with "over," "out," "in," etc.); 
spec, spring, strain, crank, deform, cir- 
cumflex, deflex, buckle, warp, bate, dou- 
ble, geniculate (rare), hook, knee, elbow; 
see CURVE, straighten. 

3. See SUBDUE, strain, turn, apply, 


bend, n. 1. flexure (tech.), flection or 
(British or spec.) flexion (chiefly referring 
to the act or action; tech.), turn (context- 
ual), crook, bent (rare); spec, warp, 
buckle, sag, crank, crankle, hook, knee, 
elbow, scarp. 
2. See TURN, stoop, droop. 

bending, ?i. flection, flexure, crooking; spec. 
circumflexion, genuflexion, reclination. 

benedict, n. benedick (alluding to Berie- 
dick in Shakespeare's "Much Ado about 
Nothing"), neogamist (rare), newlywed 
Antonyms: see celibate. 

benefaction, n. 1. benefit (rare), benefi- 
cence, kindness, favor. 

Antonyms: see injury. 
2. .See GIFT. 

benefactor, n. benefiter (rare); spec. 
patron, Maecenas (fig.; literary), giver. 
Antonyms: see sponger. 

benefice, n. Eccl.: hving; spec, parsonage, 
sinecure, vicarage, rectory, mensal, pre- 
bend, provostry, commandery, curacy. 

beneficent, a. 1. Referring to persons: 
benefic (rare), beneficial (obs.); see kind, 


Antonyms: see evil-doing. 

2. Referring to tilings: see beneficial. 
beneficial, a. advantageous, helj^ful, good, 
beneficent, behooveful or behoveful (ar- 
chaic), gainful (rare); spec, serviceable, 
bonitarian or bonitary; see curative, 


Antonyms: see injurious, harmful, 


beneficiary, n. Spec, usufructuary, pre- 
bendary, prebend (rare), chargeant (rare 
or Scot.), chargee (rare), donee, grantee, 
impropriator, impropriatrix, incumbent. 

benefit, n. 1. avail (only in "of avail" and 
"of no, little, etc., avail"), profit, vail (obs.), 
advantage, behalf (as in "in behalf of," 
"on behalf of"), behoof (now chiefly legal 
or literary), good. 

2. good, gain, profit, advantage, service, 
avail, boot (archaic, exc. in "to boot"), 
benefaction, commodity (archaic), better- 
ment (rare), behoof (now chiefly legal or 
literary); spec, bespeak (actor's cant), 
Antonyms: see injury, harm. 

benefit, v. t. advantage, profit, help, serve, 

avail, behoove, behove, good (obs.), boot 

(archaic or literary), skill (archaic; used 

only impersonally with "it" as the subject). 

Antonyms: see injure. 

benefit, v. i. profit, gain; — with the imper- 
sonal "it." 

benevolent, a. 1. charitable (referring esp. 
to almsgiving), caritative (rare); spec. 
philanthropic or phUanthropical. 
Antonyms: see malevolent. 


bent, a. 1. flexed (tech.), crooked, uneven 
(contextual); spec, inflexed, reflexed, in- 
fractous, geniculate; see curved. 
Antonyms: see straight. 
2. See determined. 

bequeath, v. t. 1. bequeathe (a variant), 
will, give (contextual), leave, devise (usu- 
ally of real estate). "Bequeath" usually 
refers to personalty. 


bequest, n. I. willing (rare), devise, devisal. 
2. devise, gift (contextual); spec, legacy, 
fideicommissum. The same distinction 
holds between "bequest" and "devise" as 
holds between "bequeath" and "devise." 

bereave, v. t. deprive; spec, orphan, widow 
(chiefly in p. p. or fig.). 

t^ Cross references: see Note. 
belonging: accessory, property. 
belted: banded. 
bemean: abase. 
bemire: muddy. 
bemist: confuse. 
bemuddle: confuse. 
beneath: below, under. 
benediction: blessing. 
beneficence: benefaction. 

benign : hind, kindly, gentle, mild. 

benignant: kindly. 

benison: blessing. 

bent: inclination, trend. 

benumb: numb, dull, stupefy, 

benumbed, a.: numb, insen- 
sible, dull. 

berate: scold. 

berm: ledge, edge. 

berth: anchorage, bed, position. 
beseech: ask. 
beseem, v. i.: seem. 
beseem, v. t.: become. 
beset: stud, surround, harass, 

attack, invest, besiege, obsess. 
beshrew: curse. 
beside, prep.: by. 
beside, a.: abreast. 
besides: also. 

t^^ See Notes o{ Explanation. 



besiege, v. t. 1. invest, encompass, set 
{chiejly with "out"; obs.), beset (rare), 
siege (rare), gird (literary); spec, block- 
2. see ASSAIL. 

best, n. choice, flower, cream, prime, 
pick; spec, elite {French). 

bestow, V. t. 1. See place, deal. 

2. confer {as attention, pains), show {with 
"to"), send {with "to"), pay, give (con- 
textual), spend. 

Antonyms: see take. 

3. confer; spec, lavish, heap, place (an 
order, etc.). Cf. give. 

bestriding, a. astraddle, astride, a-cock- 
horsc (rare or spec). 

betray, v. t. 1. blow (slang; rare), bewray 
(archaic), sell {^now usually understood as 
spec); spec, knife (slang or cant, U. S.). 
2. See disclose, tattle, seduce. 

betrayal, n. 1. betrayment (rare), prodi- 
tion (rare). 
2. See disclosure, seduction. 

betrayer, n. Simon (who betrayed the Tro- 
'ans; fig.), Judas (who betrayed Jesus; 
fig.); see traitor. 

betroth, v. t. contract (contextual), affiance 
(forinal), espouse (literary or archaic), affy 
(obs.), engage, bind (contextual), promise 
(contextual); spec, handfast (hist.). 

betrothal, n. contract (contextual), af- 
fiance (formal), espousal (literary or ar- 
chaic), engagement, promise (contextual); 
spec, handfast (hist.), subarrhation (hist.). 

betrothed, a. engaged, affianced (formal). 

betrothed, n. fianeoe (fern.; French), fi- 
ance (masc; French), affianced (rare or 
formal), intended. 

better, a. 1. superior, gooder (illiterate), 
preferable; spec, choicer, safer, wiser, etc. 

Antonyms: see worse. 
2. See improved. 

betterness, n. superiority, meliority (rare), 

betty, n. molly, peggy, moppet, cotquean 
(archaic), mollycot (dial. Eng.), henhussy. 

between, prep, atween (archaic), betwixt 
(archaic and chiefly poetic), atwixt (ar- 
chaic); spec, midway (rare, exc. as adv.). 
Antonyms: see about, adv. & prep. 

beverage, n. drink, potion (chiefly vied.), 
potation (rhetorical), drinkable (colloq.; 
chiefly in pi.). 

bewildered, a. confused, dazed (cf. con- 
fuse, daze). 

bewitch, v. t. 1. witch, charm, enchant, 
spellbind, spell, glamour (rare), trance 
(rare), ensorcell (rare); spec, voodoo, 
sirenize (rare), overlook. 
Antonyms: see disenchant. 


bewitched, a. charmed, enchanted, spell- 
bound, etc. Cf. BEWITCH. 

bewitchery, n. 1. In a sense implying a 
spell cast over one: witchery, bewitch- 
ment, enchantment, captivation (rare), 
spell, charm, glamour, fascination (obs. 
or hist.); spec, sorcery. 
2. See BEWITCHMENT (referring to the 
power or faculty), magic (referring to the 
art or practice), captivation. 

bewitching, a. 1. witching, enchanting, 
Sircean (fig.). 


bewitchment, n. 1. See bewitchery, 


2. Referring to the power or faculty: be- 
witchery (rare), witchery, enchantment, 
fascination (ohs. or hist.), charm, glamour. 

beyond, prep. Spec, yond {obs. or dial.), 
past, exceeding, farther, without, outside, 
above, after. 

biannual, a. semiannual, biyearly (rare). 

bid, V. t. 1. See offer, invite. 
2. tell, direct, instruct, enjoin, command, 
order, call (now chiefly spec), charge; 
spec adjure, conjure, enjoin. 
Antonyms: see forbid. 

bidding, n. direction, instruction, injunc- 
tion, enjoinment (rare), order, dictate, 
charge, command, commandment (rare 
of the act), behest (literary), mandate, 
biddance (rare), prescription, jussion 
(rare), imperation (rare), word (context- 
ual), ordinance (rare or spec), mandatum, 
mandment (laio), voice, hest (archaic); 
spec, imperative, decree, warrant, fiat, 
commission, countermand, precept, writ. 
Antonyms: see forbiddance. 

bier, n. feretory (rare), hearse or (now rare) 
herse (archaic or eccL); spec, catafalque. 

big, a. 1. bulky, voluminous, bumper (crop, 
etc.; colloq.), hulking or hulky (colloq.), 
whacking (colloq.), large, decuman (very 
large; literary), magnitudinous (rare), 
mighty (rhetorical), gross, mickle (ar- 

t^" Cross references: see Note. 
besmear: smear. 
besmut: blacken. [tify- 

besot: intoxicate, stupefy, stal- 
bespatter: spot. 
bespeak: engage, order, indi- 
cate, address. 
besprinkle: spot. [iial. 

bestial: animal, beastlike, sens- 
bestir: rouse, excite. 
bestraddle: straddle. 

bestride: mount, straddle, ride. 
bet: wager. 
betide: happen, befall. 
betimes: early, immediately. 
betoken: signify, indicate. 
better, v. t.: improve, surpass. 
bevy: flock, company. 
bewail: mourn. 
beware: avoid. 
bewilder: confuse, stupefy. 
bezel: edge. 

bias, n.: slayit, tenency, preju- 
dice, partiality, inclination. 
bias, V. t.: prejudice, incline 
biased: partial, prejudiced. 
bibulous: drinking, absorbent. 
bicker: quarrel, dispute, murmur. 
bid: offer, invitation. 
biddable: obedient. 
bidding, a.: commanding. 
bide: await, withstand, endure. 
bifurcate: forked. 

iW See Notes of Explanation. 



chaic), tall {slang, U. S.), great; spec. 
stout, thick; see massive, large, im- 
Antonyms: see small, slender. 


big thing (of any kind), bouncer {col- 
loq.), whopjier (colloq.), strapper (colloq.), 
swinger {colloq.). 
Antonyms: see particle. 

bill, r. t. Spec, invoice. 

billow, ;i. wave {contextual), undulation 
(learned or tech.; contextual), swell, surge. 

billow, v. i. wave {contextual), swell, undu- 
late {contextual). 

billowy, a. wavy {contextual), undulating 
{learned or tech.; contextual), rolling, 
surging, swelling. 

bin, n. box {contextual); spec, pocket, 
kench {U. S.), bunker, hold, crib, hutch. 

bind, V. t. 1. hold {contextual), truss, con- 
fine {contextual); spec, tie, vinculate 
{rare), wattle, bend, lash {chiefly naut.), 
hgature, ligate, enchain, fillet, ferrule, 
ferrel, pinion, truss, garter, fetter, enfet- 
ter {rare), frap, fasciate {rare), braid, 
band, chain, enchain {rare or literary), 
bond, cord, rope, wire, reeve, sheaf, 
thong, withe, hoop, gyve, pin, bandage, 
lace, enlace {rare), entangle, interlace 
{chiefly fig.), muzzle, swathe. 
Antonyms: see loose. 

2. stick, jam, jamb {rare); spec, squeeze. 

3. Spec, braid, tape. 

4. obhgate, hold, oblige {chiefly law), en- 
gage, restrict {chiefly law), astrict {rare); 
spec, bond, mortgage, pledge, sacrament, 
indenture, pin {with "to"), indebt {rare), 
swear, hypothecate. 

Antonyms: see free. 


bind, V. i. stick, jam, jamb {rare), hold 
{contextual); spec, squeeze. 

binding, a. 1. See astringent. 
2. obligatory, obligative {rare), obliging 
{rare), imperative, imperious {rare); spec. 
mandatory, incumbent. 
Antonyms: see invalid. 

binding, 7i. 1. h^olding, confining, confine- 
ment, tying, religation {rare), ligation 
{rare or learned); spec, bandaging, liga- 
ture, deligation {rare). 

2. See BAND. 

3. obligation, committal, obligement 
{rare), engagement. "Binding" is rare. 

4. See attachment, restraint. 

bird, n. fowl {rare, exc. spec, or as a col- 
lective); spec, fledgling or fledgeling, 
squeaker, chirper, dicky {colloq.), dicky- 
bird or dickey-bird {colloq.), cockyolly 
bird {nursery or pet name), cageling, 
nestling, nestler {rare). 

birdhouse, n. aviary; spec, columbarium, 
columbary, dovecote. - 

birdlike, a. volucrine {rare), avian {tech.); 
spec, ornithomorphic {rare), ornithoid 

birth, n. 1. nativity {literary or eccl.), nas- 
cency {rare or fig.), natality {rare); spec. 
cast, heterogenesis, litter. 

Antonyms: see death. 
2. See offspring, product, descent, 

birthmark, n. nsevus {chiefly spec; tech.); 
spec, strawberry, tumor, mole. 

biscuit, ?i. Spec, cracker {U. S.), hard- 
tack, ship biscuit, cracknel, rusk, pretzel 
{U. S.). 

bisect, V. t. halve, hemisect {rare), middle 

bishop, n. prelate, pontifex {rare), pontiff 
{historical or spec), primate, presul {rare); 
spec, metropolitan, patriarch, pope, ex- 
arch, diocesan, archbishop, chorepisco- 
pus {hist.), suffragan, episcopacy (a col- 
lective; loith "the"). 

bishopric, n. 1. *See diocese. 
2. bishophood, bishopry, lawn {fig.), 
primacy, prelateship, prelacy, prelature, 
episcopacy, episcopate; spec exarchate. 

bitch, n. dog {contextual), slut, lady 
{cant or euphemistic); spec, brach, 

bite, V. t. 1. fang {rare); spec, nibble, nip, 
gnaw, gnash, scrunch, champ, chop, sav- 
age, snap, tooth {rare), worry. Most of 
these synonyms are also used absolutely or 

2. See cut, vs^ound, corrode, pain, 
hold, sting, etc. 

bite, n. Spec nibble, crunch, scrunch, 
nip, champ, snap, gnash. 

biting, a. 1. mordant {rare), mordacious 
{learned) . 

2. See ACRID, stimulating, acrimoni- 

bitter, a. 1. Spec, gaily, bitterish. 
2. See ACRIMONIOUS, severe, painful, 

bitter, v. t. embitter {emphatic), sour. 
Antomjms: see sweeten. 

|SJ= Cross references: see Note. 
big-bellied: corpxdent. 
bight: bay, loop. 
bigot: fanatic. 
bigoted: narrow. 
bigotry: fanaticism. 
bigwig : per so nage . 

bilateral: two-sided. 

bilge: protuberance. 

bilk, V. t.: defeat, deceive, cheat. 

bilk, n.: trick. 

bill: caress. 

billet, n.: stick. 

billet, n.: letter, position. 

billet, V. t.: lodge. 
billon: alloy. 
binder: baiid. 
birthplace: source. 
birthright: hereditament. 
biserial: two-rowed. 
bit: morsel, particle. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 


black, a. 1. dark, jet, pitchy, jetty, piceous 
{rare), coaly, nigrous {rare), Cimmerian 
{fig.; literary), sooty, atramentous {rare), 
swart {chiefly spec), inky, sable, atra- 
mentaceous {literary). 
Antonyms: see white. 


blackball, ?i. pill {slang), pip {colloq. or 

slattg) . 
blacken, v. t. 1. black, nigrify {rare); spec. 
soot, ink, besoot {intensive), besmutch 
{intensive), besmut {intensive), cork, be- 
grime {intensive), charcoal, blackwash, 
Antonyms: see whiten. 


blackened, a. blacked; spec, inked, 

corked, smutty, etc. 
bladder, n. Spec, vesica, vesicle, cyst, 

sac, gall, sound. 
bladdery, a. bladderform {rare); also, {all 

tech. or learned), vesiculose, vesiculous, 

cystic, vesicular, vesiculiform. 
blade, n. 1. flat; spec, spoon, vane, wash, 

limb, web, languet, spear, brand {poetic 

or archaic), snare, colter or coulter. 

2. See cutter, feather. 

3. spark, bawcock {archaic), blood, dash- 
er {colloq.), galliard {archaic); spec. 
Johnny {colloq.), rake, jeunesse doree 
{French), buck, roysterer. 

blamable, a. culpable {with "of"), fault- 
ful {rare), blameworthy, delinquent, 
faulty, censurable; spec, vituperable 
{rare); see guilty, sinful, reprehen- 
Antonyms: see blameless, sinless, in- 

blame, n. 1. fault, culpability, blame- 
worthiness, censurableness ; see guilt, 
sinfulness, reprehensibility. 
2. censure, reflection, criticism, dispraise, 
mispraise (rare); see reproof, censure. 

blame, v. t. censure, criticize, inculpate 
{rare), dispraise {rare), mispraise {rare); 
see reprove, censure. 
Antonyms: see acquit, excuse. 

blameless, a. faultless, unblamable {rare), 
innocent, incensurable {rare), irreproach- 

able, irreprovable {rare), inculpable {rare), 
irreprehensible {rare), unimpeachable; 
see SINLESS, innocent, guiltless. 

Antonyms: see blamable, sinful, guil- 
ty, reprehensible. 

blaming, n. censure, criticism, inculpation; 
see reproof, censure, accusation. 

bland, a. 1. smooth, inirritant {rare), vel- 
vety, velvet. 
Antonyms: see acrid, corrosive, harsh, 


2. See SMOOTH, plausible. 
blank, a. 1. See absolute, empty, 

BARE, confused, UNADORNED. 

2. thoughtless, vacuous, vacant, inex- 
pressive, unexpressive, dull, expression- 

Antonyms: see expressive, thought- 
ful, pleased, etc. 

blanket, n. cover, wrap, whittle {obs. or 
dial.); spec, mackinaw, shroud. 

blaze, n. 1. See flame, flash, out- 

2. Referring to a marking on an animal: 
spec, spot {contextual), star, snip, cloud. 

blazon, v. t. 1. In heraldry: emblazon. 
2. See describe, depict, show. 

blazonry, n. 1. See arms, show, depic- 
tion, display. 
2. blazoning, emblazonry, blazonment. 

bleach, v. t. whiten {contextual), blanch, 
decolorize {chiefly tech.). 

blear, a. 1. Referring to the person: blear- 
eyed, bleared, bleary, dim-eyed, dim- 
sighted, sand-blind {archaic). 

Antonyms: see bright-eyed. 
2. Referring to the eyes: bleary, bleared, 
cloudy, blurred, dimmed, lackluster, dull. 

blear, v. t. & i. dull, blur, cloud, dim. 

bleat, V. i. & n. cry {contextual), baa, blat, 

bleed, v. t. 1. blood {archaic); spec, phle- 
botomize, venesect, cup, leech, deplete. 

bleed, v. i. Spec, shed, flow, ooze, drop. 

bleeding, n. bloodletting; spec, phlebot- 
omy, venesection. 

blend, v. t. mix {contextual), mingle {con- 
textual); spec, fuse, amalgamate, interfuse, 
intergrade, gradate; see adulterate. 
Aidonyms: see separate. 

X^^ Cross references: see Note. 

bivouac: camp. 

bizarre: fantastic, odd, un- 
familiar, extravagant. 

blab: UMle. 

blab, blabber: tattler. 

blackguard, n.: rascal. 

blackguard, v. t.: abuse. 

black-hearted: wicked, ma- 

blackleg: cheat. 

blackmail: e.ctortion. 

blameworthy: blamable. 

blanch: whiten, bleach, pale. 

blandish: cajole. 

blank, v. t.: defeat. 

blare: trumpet, sound. 

blaspheme: curse, abuse. 

blasphemous: impious, ir- 
reverent, abusive. 

blast, 71.: wind, charge, ex- 

blast, V. t.: blow, blight, ruin. 

blasted: accursed. 

blat, V. i.: bleat, chatter. 

blat, V. t.: blurt, tattle. 

blatant: boisterous, clamorous. 

blate: bleat, chatter. 

blaze, V. i.: flame, shine. 
blaze, V. t.: advertize. 
blazing: flaming, flashing. 
blazon: arms, description, de^ 

bleak: exposed, cold, gloomy. 
blear, n.: blur. 
bleary: blear. 
bleb: vesicle, bubble. 
blemish, v I.: damage, impair, 

blemish, n.: fault, impairment. 
blench: shirk. 
blend, v. i.: unite, harmonize. 

(S^ See Notes of Explanation. 



blending, o. confluent (learned). 

bless, V. t. 1. See consecrate, beatify, 


2. In the sense of "to invoke the divine good 
trill or protectiqii upon": sain {archaic). 

Antonjjms: see curse. 
blessed, a. 1. blest (a variant). 

AntoHifms: see accursed. 


blessing, n. 1. benediction, benison (ar- 
chaic or poetic), benedicite (Latin); spec. 
grace (at table). 
Antonyms: see cursing. 
2, See ciOOD. 

blight, I', t. blast, nip, strike; spec, blow, 
infect, wither, rust, mildew, sear, brand, 
burn, bunt, choke. 

Antonyms: see aid, cherish, strength- 

blighted, o. blasted, nipped, stricken; 
spec, rusty, blown, etc. 

blind, a. 1. sightless, visionless, dark, un- 
seeing, unperceiving, rayless; spec, eye- 
less (often Jig.), moon-eyed, moon-blind, 
blindfold, blindfolded, stockblind, stone- 

2. unperceiving, undiscerning, uncompre- 
hending, unseeing, blindfold (fig.), dark, 
senseless, insapient (rare), benighted (lit- 
erary); see disregardful. 

Antonyms: see discerning, prophetic. 

3. closed (at the end), cajcal (tech.) 

4. Referring to walls etc., that have no 
opening through: blank. 

5. See unintelligible, hidden, illegi- 
ble, CHANCE. 

blind, V. t. 1. blear, darken, purblind, 
quench (the eye; literary); spec, squint, 
blink, exoculate (rare), excecate (rare), 
gouge, seel, hoodwink; see dazzle. 
2. darken (the mind), benight, hoodwink 
(Jig.), deaden. 

blindly, adv. Spec, darkly, unseeingly, 
gropingly, unperceivingly, etc. 

blindness, n. Spec, sightlessness, dark- 
ness, senselessness, benightedness (liter- 
ary), etc. 
Antonyms: see sight, insight. 

blister, n. vesication (tech.), vesicle (tech. 
or learned); spec, blain (rare), bullation. 

bloat, V. t. inflate, swell, puff (chiefly with 
"up"), distend. 

Antonyms: see contract, deflate, 

block, n. 1, mass (contextual); spec, clog 
(chiefly Scot.), clump, scotch, brick, bri- 
quette, briquet, square, die, cube, pad, | 

loaf, mold, nub, set, stock (rare), dado; 
see PIECE. 

2. Referring to buildings: insula (Roman 
antiq.), island (rare); spec, square. 

quantity, DIVISION, STOP. 

block, V. t. 1. obstruct, jam (rare), jamb, 
choke, blockade (fig. or spec); spec, ram, 


blockhead, n. simpleton, dunce, stupid, 
ass (contemptuous), dolt, dullard, block, 
stick (colloq.), chump (colloq. or slang), 
numskull, stock (rare), dunderhead, 
blunderbuss, blunderhead, clod, clodpate, 
clodpoll, cod's-head (slang), buzzard 
(rare), chucklehead (chiefly dial.), coof 
(Scot.), pigsconce (contemptuous; rare), 
oxhead (colloq.), loggerhead, lunkhead 
(slang, U. S ), woodenhead (colloq.), 
hardhead (colloq.), booby (colloq.), doddy- 
poll (obs. or rare), cuddy (chiefly Scot.), 
idiot (slang or contemptuous), dummy 
(colloq.), driveler (contemptuous), idiot 
(contemptuous), imbecile (contemptuous), 
mome (archaic), foozle (colloq.), saphead 
(slang, contemptuous), jolthead (rare), 
dotterel (j^^.), wiseacre (ironical or sar- 
castic) . 
Antonyms: see scholar, wiseacre. 

blocking, n. obstruction, block, jamming, 
choking, choke, blockade (Jig. or spec). 

blond, blonde, a. fair, light; spec, albino. 
Antomjms: see brunet. 

blood, n. 1. claret (slang), drops (pi.; by el- 
lipsis); spec, gore, cruor, grume, ichor 
(Greek myth.). 

2. See SAP, family, relation, ill tem- 
per, BLADE. 

blood, V. t. 1. See bleed. 
2. bloody, engore (rare), bebleed (ar- 
chaic; intensive). 

bloodless, a. 1. anajmic (chiefly med.), ex- 
sanguine (rare), exsanguious (rare), ex- 
sanguinous (rare). 


bloodshed, n. bloodletting; spec, slaugh- 

bloodshot, a. red (contextual); spec, in- 

bloodthirsty, a. cannibal, bloody, tiger- 
ish, sanguinary (bookish), sanguineous 
(rare) . 
Antonyms: see gentle. 

bloody, a. 1. red (contextual), sanguinary 
(unusual in the literal sense), sanguineous 

XW Cross references: see Note. 
blindfold: blind. 
blink, T. i.: wink, flicker, shine. 
blink, V. t.: avoid, ignore, shirk. 
blink, n.: wink, moment, flash, 

bliss: gladness, good. 
blissful: glad. 
blithe: glad, cheerful, gay. 
blithesome: glad, cheerful, 

cheering, gay. 
blizzard: storm, wind. 

bloat, a.: inflated, swollen. 
bloat, n.: drunkard. 
blockade, v. t.: block, besiege. 
blockade, n.: siege. 
bloodletting: bleeding, bloodshed. 
bloodsucker: extortioner. 

iW See Notes of Explanation. 



(rare), haematic (tech.), sanguine (poetic 
or rhetorical), ensanguined (literary); 
spec, crimson (contextual), purple (con- 
textual), gory, sanguinolent (chiefly vied.), 

2. See HOMiciDAii. 
bloom, n. 1. See flower (referring to a 
single blossom), flush, efflorescence, 


2. Referring to the state: flower, blossom, 
anthesis (tech.), efflorescence (tech.), flo- 
rescence (tech. or learned), blowth (rare). 

3. Flowers collectively: efflorescence 
(tech.), bloomage (rare), blossom (rare). 

blotch, n. 1. spot, area (learned; context- 
ual), patch; spec, stigma. 
2. See vesicle. 

blouse, n. Spec, smock, smock frock, 
camorra (Italian), camise, garibaldi, 

blow, n. 1. stroke, impact, clip (colloq.), 
bufi"et (chiefly spec.) , coup (French), smite 
(chiefly rhetorical); spec, smite, bang, bat, 
beat, bounce, ding (dial.), thump (col- 
loq.), douse (rare), crack, clout (dial, or 
vulgar), clour (Scot, or dial. Eng.), douser 
(dial, or slang), punch, plug (slang), 
smash (colloq.), dad (chiefly dial. & Scot.), 
push (chiefly dial.), lick (slang or vulgar), 
welt (colloq. or slang), whack (colloq.), 
thwack, slam, crack, wipe (slang), drub, 
dump, dash, dab, dazzler (sZan.^),.double- 
thonger (colloq.), cut, clash, clap, bang, 
floorer (slang or cant), dunt (chiefly Scot^, 
stinger (colloq.), swipe (colloq.), counter, 
sidewinder (U. S.), kick, bastinado, 
punch, left-hander, right-hander, slash, 
rap, wallop (slang), plunk (slang), sock- 
dologer (slang, U. S.), slug (colloq.), whop 
(colloq.), whang (dial, or colloq.), tunk 
(colloq. or dial.), bump, stamp, facer 
(colloq.), smack (colloq.), thumper (rare), 
fisticuffs (pi.); see cuff, slap. 
Antonyms: see caress. 
2. See disaster. 

blow, V. i. 1. Spec, bluster, flaw, whiff, 
whiffle, fan, breeze (rare), storm, puff, 
fuff (rare or Scot.), blast (rare or obs.). 

2. See exhale, boast. 

3. pant, puff, fuff (rare or Scot.). 

4. Spec, toot, tootle. 

blow, v. t. 1. wind (pron. wind); spec. 
blast, puff, bugle, toot, tootle; see 
2. See inflate, blight. 

blow, n. 1. blowing, bluster; spec, perfla- 
tion (rare or tech.), whiff, puff. 

2. See WIND. 
blunder, v. i. 1. err, slip, bungle, boggle 

(colloq.), foozle (slang or often cant and 

spec); spec, solecize, muff. 

2. stumble, slip, flounder. 
blunder, n. 1. error (contextual), slip, 

bungle, boggle (colloq.); spec, muff, bull, 


2. stumble, slip, flounder. 
blunt, a. 1. dull; spec, pointless, round, 

turned, duUish. 
Anto7iyms: see sharp, pointed. 

2. See DULL (mentally), insensible. 

3. bluff, burly (archaic), abrupt, plump, 
direct, outspoken, plain-spoken, flat, 
brusque, round, crisp; see rough. 

Antonyms: see gentle, smooth, smooth- 

blunt, V. t. 1. dull; spec, unedge (rare), 
turn, round, rebate (rare). 
Antonyms: see sharpen. 
2. See DULL (mentally). 

blur, n. 1. See smear, stain, sullt. 
2. Referring to vision: blear (rare), cloud, 
dimness, indistinctness. 

blurt, V. t. utter (contextual), plump, blat 
(colloq.), bolt (rare). 

blush, V. i. redden, rouge (rare), ruddy 
(rare), flush. 
Antonyms: see f alb. 

blushing, a. rubescent (learned), erubes- 
cent (rare), flushed, ruddy, rosy. 
Antonyms: see pale. 

bluster, v. i. 1. See blow. 
2. bounce (rare), hector, roister, swagger, 
buHy, ruffle, gasconade (literary), vapor 
(literary), swell, bravado; see rage. 
Antonyms: see cringe, coax. 

bluster, rt. 1. See blow, wind. 
2. bravado, swagger; spec, jingo, jingo- 
ism, chauvinism (learned), vaporing or 
vapor (literary). 

blusterer, n. swaggerer, bully, bouncer (col- 
loq.), roister or {now more usual) roisterer, 
buster (slang), swasher, swash (rare), etc. 

board, v. t. 1. approach (o ship). 

2. enter (a train). 

3. entrain (put aboard a train). 

board, n. Spec, deal, plank, panel, slab, 

clapboard, gangboard. 
boarding house, pension (French; chiefly 

referring to a boarding house in continental 

Europe) . 

5^° Cross references: see Note. 
bloom: flower, thrive, flush. 
bloomy: flowery, thriving. 
blossom, n.: flower, bloom. 
blossom, V. i.: flower. 
blot, 71.: spot, stain, sully. 
blot, V. t.: spot, cancel, sully, 
stain, hide, dry. 

blotch: spot, stain. 

blowy: windy. 

blowzy: red, slovenly. 

blubber: cry. 

bluestocking, n.: pedant, pre- 

bluestocking, a.: precious, pe- 

blufl, V. t.: deceive. 
bluS, n.: pretense. 
blunder, v. t.: botch, misman- 
blur: smear, sully, blear. 
blurred: blear. 
board, n.: tack. 
boarisb: .iwinish, beastly, cruel. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


boast, V. i. brag, vaunt, vapor (lifcran/), 
bounce (rare), blow (dial, or colloq.), 
cackle {cant or slang), bluster, flourish, 
swaiih, gasconade [literary), crack (ar- 
chaic); spec, rodomontade (literary). 

boaster, n. bragger, brag, braggart, lex- 
iphancs (rare; literary), braggadocio, 
vaunter, vaporer (literary), bouncer, 
cracker, fanfaron (French), mouther (cori' 
temptuous), gasconader (rare), Gascon 
(literary), swashbuckler, hector, killcow 
(obs. or dial.), puff (archaic), puckfist 
(contemptuous), Rodomont (literary; fig.), 
Thraso (literary; fig.); spec. Scaramouch 
(literary; fig.), Tartarin (literary; fig.). 

boastful, a. bragging, braggart, vaunt- 
ing, lexiphanic (rare; literary), bouncing 
(rare), tongue-valiant (rare), rodomon- 
tade (rare). Thrasonical (literary; fig.), 
Thrasonic (literary; fig.), mouthy (col- 
loq.), flaunty (rare), self-glorious (rare), 
vaunty (Scot.), windy (colloq. or slang), 
vainglorious; see bombastic. 
Antonyms: see modest. 

boasting, n. bragging, braggery (rare), 
braggadocio, braggartism, cockahoop, 
(rare), vaunting, vaporing (literary) , vaunt- 
ery (rare), vaporosity (rare), jactitation 
(rare), vainglory, fanfaronade (literary), 
rodomontade (literary), gasconade (liter- 
ary), gloriation (rare), blow (colloq.); see 


boat, n. 1. vessel (contextual), bark (po- 
etic); spec, sandal, sampan, shallop, 
skimming dish (colloq.), skiff, randan, 
umiak or oomiak, sharpy, rocker (chiefly 
U. S.), rum-tum, punt, sculler, torpid 
(slang, Eng.), sink (U. S.), flat, flatboat, 
pontoon or ponton, tow, dinghy, praam, 
pinnace, cutter, drover, currach (Scot, or 
Irish), dahabeeyah, canoe, gondola, gig, 
pair-oar. cot (Irish), caique (French), 
barge, coracle, bateau (chiefly Canada and 
Louisiana), scout, Bucentaur, yawl. 
2. sauce boat, gravy boat. 

boatman, n. boatsman, boater; spec, row- 
er, sculler, barcarole (Italian), w^aterman, 
wherry man, dandi (Anglo-Indian) , keel- 
man (dial. Eng. & Scot.), lighterman, 
gondolier, hoveler (Eng.). 

boat-shaped, a. navicular (literary or 
tech.), naviform (rare), cymbiform (tech.), 
scaphoid (tech.). 

bodily, a. physical (contextual), somatic 
(tech.), corporeal, corporal, carnal, flesh- 
ly, earthly; spec, unspiritual, personal. 

Antonyjus: see ethereal, spiritual, 


bodily, adv. 1. corporally, carnally, cor- 

2. en masse (French), bodaciously (dial.. 
Southern U. S.). 

body, n. 1. corpus (now hiunoroxis or gro- 
tesque), form, case (rare), clod (fig.), bulk 
(disparaging) ,c0ivca,?,9, (contemptuous), hulk 
(contemptuous; chiefly spec). 
Antonyms: see mind, soul, ghost. 

2. carcass (noiv contemptuous when used 
of a human corpse), form (contextual), ca- 
daver (chiefly spec, and tech.), lich (ar- 
chaic), corpse (a human body), corse 
(chiefly poetic or archaic), carrion (obs. or 
archaic), remains (pi.; euphemistic); spec. 
kill, mummy, carnage (a collective with 

Antonyms: see soul, ghost. 

3. trunk, soma (tech.), corporation (/m- 
morous or slang), torse or torso (sculp- 
ture); spec, waist, bust. 

4. Spec, (in the sense of "the main part") 
nave, aisle, cell or cella, hull, centrum, 
enceinte (French), buck (dial., exc, U. S., 
in "buckboard"), purview, nacelle, limou- 
sine, sedan. 

Antonyms: see border, edge, branch, 
RIM, vestibule. 

5. mass, form, figure, consistence (rare); 
spec, bulk, hulk, corpuscle, corpuscule, 
aggregation, mobile (rare), atom, atomy, 
pygmy, mite, particle, piece, fragment, 

6. corps, force, troop (chiefly spec), ar- 
ray, army (fig. or spec); spec detach- 
ment, squad, committee, regiment, bat- 
talion, etc. 

7. See BULK, gathering, force, person, 


bogy, n. bogey, demon (contextual), spec- 
ter, hobgoblin, scarecrow (fig.), buga- 
boo, boggard or boggart (rare), goblin, 
boggle, bogle, bug (obs. or dial.); spec 
rawhead, bloodybones; see bugbear. 

boil, V. t. seethe (archaic or literary or 

a cookery term), scald; spec, wallop (dial. 

or tech.), cree (dial.), parboil, decoct 

(tech.), coddle, stew, poach, elixate (tech.). 

Antonyms: see freeze. 

boil, V. i. 1. bubble, seethe (archaic or liter- 
ary or a cookery term), ebulliate (rare). 
Antonyms: see freeze. 
2. See RAGE. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 

boat, T. i.: sail. 

bob, n.: plummet, jerk, bow, 

bob, V. t.: jerk, dock, refrain. 
bob, V. i.: bow. 

bobble: jiggle. 

bode: forebode, signify. 

boding, a.: significant. 

bodyguard: escort, retinue. 

bog: marsh. 

bogey: bogy. 

boggle, V. i.: shy, object, bungle. 

boggle, n.: shy. 

boggle, n.: bogy. 

boggy : marshy. 

bogle: bogy. 

bogus: pretended. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



boil, n. seethe {rare); spec, wallop (dial, or 

boiled, a. sodden {iiow rare). 

boiler, n. Spec, caldron, copper. 

boiling, n. agitation (contextual), bub- 
bling, ebullition (learned or tech.), ebul- 
lience (rare), coction (literary or affected), 
gurgitation (rare); spec, elixation (rare), 

boisterous, n. noisy (contextual), riotous, 
roaring, robustious (rare), rumbustious 
(colloq.), clamorous, wild (contextual), up- 
roarious, rampant, rampageous, tumult- 
uous, noisy, turbulent, vociferous, bla- 
tant; see ROUGH, CLAMOROUS. 

Antonyms: see calm, motionless, si- 
bold, a. 1. assured (formal or literary), 
stout, stout-hearted, daring, forward, au- 
dacious, fearless, dreadless (rare), intrep- 
id (formal), confident, undaunted, daunt- 
less, hardy, unapprehensive (rare), nervy 
(colloq. or slang), dour (Scot.), unfearful 
(rare), free, cool, impavid (rare); see 


Antonyms: see timid, afraid, fear- 
ful, ANXIOUS, cowardly, BASHFUL, 

boldness, n. stoutness, nerve (colloq.), 
hardihood, audacity, daring, intrepidity, 
assurance, face, etc. 

Antonyms: see timidity, fear, anxiety, 

bombast, n. boasting, extravagance, rant, 
stuff (contextual), turgescence (rare), tur- 
gidity or turgidness (formal or literary), 
tumidity (rare), rodomontade (literary), 
mouthing (contemptuous), tympany 
(rare), loftiness (contextual), magniloquy 
(rare), sonorousness (contextual), mag- 
niloquence (less common than "grandilo- 
quence''), grandiosity, grandiloquence, 
grandiloquism (rare), inflation, heroics 
(pi.; sarcastic), _ fustian (contemptuous), 
highfalutin or highfaluting (colloq.), flatu- 
lence (rare), swellingness (rare), swollen- 
ness (rare), bombastry, lexiphanticism 
(rare), pomposity, gas (slang), Johnson- 
ese (fig.); spec, spread-eagleism (U. S.), 
euphuism, rant. 

bombastic, a. boastful, sounding, stilted, 
tumid (literary or formal) , turgid (literary 
or formal), grandiloquent, grandiloquous 
(rare), turgent (rare), pompous, plethoric 

(literary), flatulent (rare), puffed, mag- 
niloquent (less usual than "grandilo- 
quent"), mouthing (contemptuous), oro- 
tund (contemptuous; learned), grandiose, 
grand (contextual), lofty, mouthy (con- 
temptuous), inflated, fustian (contemptu- 
ous), magnisonant (rare), lexiphanic 
(rare), hyperbolical, heroic, extravagant, 
high-flown (esp. of language), highfalutin 
or highfaluting (colloq.), high-sounding, 
magnific (chiefly derisive), tall (colloq^, 
toplofty (colloq., U. S.), Herodian (fig.; 
rare), Johnsonese or Johnsonian (fig.), 
Ossianic (fig.), sonorous (contextual), 
swollen, pyrotechnic (learned), sounding. 
Antonyms: see modest. 
bond, n. 1. union (contextual); spec, coup- 
ler, coupling, couple, link, bonder, tie; 
see band, shackle. 

2. nexus (learned or tech.), tie, link, 
cord, union, attachment, yoke, connec- 


bondage, n. serfdom, serfage or serfhood; 
spec, helotry or helotism (Greek hist.), 
peonage (Spanish American); see slav- 
Antonyms: see freedom. 

bondman, 7i. bondsman (masc), bond- 
maid (fern.), bondwoman (fern.), serf; 
spec, villein (hist.), carl (obs. or hist.), 
vassal, helot (Greek hist.), peon (Spanish 
American); see slave. 
Antonyms: see freeman. 

bonnet, n. cap; spec, tam-o'-shanter, 
toque, sunbonnet, poke bonnet, poke. 

bonus, n. gift; spec, premium, honorari- 
um; see TIP. 

bon vivant. bonne vivante (French; fern.), 
high liver; spec, epicure. 
Antonyms: see ascetic 

bony, a. osteoid (rare), ossean (rare), os- 
seous (tech.). 

book, n. 1. volume, tome (literary or tech.); 
spec, booklet, packet, incunable (rare), 
incunabulum (rare), chapbook, folio, 
quarto, octavo, duodecimo, sixteenmo, 
twelvemo, etc., legend (obs. or eccL), mis- 
cellany, brochure, livret (dim.; French), 
pamphlet, journal, blotter, ledger, codex, 
treatise, handbook compendium, canto. 

2. [Cap.] Bible; — used with "the". 

3. set (contextual), packet. 
bookworm, n. student (contextual), dig, 

sap, grind, bucker; — the last four slang or 

t^^ Cross references: see Note. 

bolster, n.: cushion, support. 

bolster, v. i.: cushion. 

bolt, n.: arrow, liyhtning, pin, roll. 

bolt, V. i.: rush, run. 

bolt, V. t.: swallow, desert. 

bolt, )). (.; sift. 
bomb: shell. 

bombard: cannonade, pell. 
bombardier: gunner. 
bonbon: .•iweetmeat. 
bond, a.: servile. 

bonfire: fire. 

bon mot: witticism. 

bonny: good-looking, cheerful. 

booby: blockhead. 

book, 1'. t.: list. 

bookish: learned, pedantic. 

fS^ See Notes o( Explanation. 



boom, n. arm, beam (anitcxtual) , spar; 
spec, jib, crane; see spar. 

boor, n. 1. See RUSTIC. 
2. vulfxarian {rare), lout, clown, clod- 
hopper (contcjnptuous; colloq.), lubber, 
churl, carl (archaic or Scot.), carter (fig.), 
loon, barbarian (lilerary), clout (archaic), 
lobby (chiefly dial.), chuff (obs. or rare); 
.•<pec. Grobian (Jig.; literary). 
Antonyms: stT gentleman. 

boorish, a. I. See rustic. 
2. vulgar, ill-mannered, clownish, loutish, 
clodhopping (co]ttemptuou.'i; colloq.), in- 
urban (rare), cloddish, uplandish (rare), 
churlish, ill-bred, low-bred, barbarian 
(literary), coarse, woolen (rare), illiberal 
(literary), carlish (literary), lubberly, rude, 
uncultured; spec, ungentlemanly ; . see 


Antonyms: see accomplished, refined, 


border, 7i. 1. bound, bordure (archaic), 
verge, threshold (spec, or ^^.), shirt, fringe, 
hem; spec. curb. 
Antonyms: see interior, body. 

2. edge; spec, hem, edging, forel, sel- 
vedge, dado, orphrey, orfray, purfle, 

3. frontier, coast (archaic), borderland, 
march (hist, in pi. and with "the"; or 
archaic), rand (obs., dial., or spec); spec. 
outskirt (rare), outskirts (pi.), wayside; 


Antonyms: see interior, inland. 
border, v. t. 1. skirt, verge (rare), rim, 

fringe, line (contextual), bound, neighbor. 

2. edge; spec, purl, cotise, purfle, bind, 

border, v. i. adjoin (contextiuil) , neighbor, 

bound, touch (contextual); see abut. 
bore, V. t. 1. pierce (contextual), eat (con- 
textual); spec, gimlet, drill. 

2. See "WEARY. 
bore, n. w-ave (contextual), eager (a less 

usual name). 
borrow, v. t. 1. get (contextvxil) . 
Antonyms: see lend. 

2. See ADOPT. 
bosh, interj. fudge, nonsense. 

bosom, n. breast, bust (esp. oj a woman). 

bosom, a. gremial {now only in "gremial 

botch, V. t. bungle, blunder, muddle, 
clamper (chiefly Scot.); spec, cobble, tin- 
ker, butcher (slang), murder (slang); see 


botchy, a. bungling. 

bottle, n. container (cant); spec, vinai- 
grette, vial or (more often tech.) phial, 
split, siphon, bolthead, demijohn, dead- 
man (slang or colloq.), matrass, marine 
(slang), magnum, Jeroboam (literary and 
humorous), carafe or caraff, carboy, cruet, 
cruse (archaic), costrel, goatsl-dn, tickler 
(colloq.), flagon, flask, flacon, gourd, cor- 
net, canteen. 

bottle-shaped, a. utriform (rare). 

bottom, n. 1. foot, base, basis (archaic), 
doup (Scot.), root, sole; spec, keel, culet, 
cullet, bilge, heel, sump. 
Antonyms: see top, peak. 

2. bed (of a body of water); spec, coulee 
(U. S.), channel, basin. 

3. intervale, interval, haugh (Scot, or 
dial.); spec, swale (dial.). 


bottomless, a. baseless, fathomless, 
plumbless (rare). 

boudoir, n. cabinet (arc)iaic), bower (liter- 

bought, a. boughten (cliiefly colloq., U. S., 
or poetic), purchased. 

bouncer, n. whaler, whacker, whopper, 
whapper, bumper, buster, smasher, sock- 
dologer (U. S.); — all slang or colloq. 
Antonyms: see dwarf. 

bound, a. 1. fastened, confined, tied. 

2. obliged, obligated; spec, committed, 
liege, indentured. 

3. See CERTAIN. 

bound, V. i. 1. See jump. 
2. bounce, rebound, dap (rare), resile 
(rare); spec, ricochet. 

bound, n. 1. See boundary, border. 
2. In the pi. (bounds): territory, area, 
place, compass, limit, range, reach, pale 
(chiefly spec), confine (chiefly in pi.; obs. 

t^° Cross references: see Note. 

boom, V. i.: hum, resound, 
progress, thrive, advance. 

boom, V. t.: advance. 

boom, 71.; hum, resonance, ad- 

boon, n.: good, gift. 

boon, a.: kind, companionable. 

boose, n.: carouse, liquor. 

boose, V. %.: drink, carotise. 

boost, n.: lift, push, advance. 

boost, V. t.: lift, push, raise, 

boot, V. t.: shoe. 

boot, n.: benefit, remedy. 

boot, V. t.: benefit. 

booth: stall. 
bootless: useless. 
booty: plunder, prize. 
booze, n.: carouse, liquor. 
booze, V. i.: drink, carouse. 
borderland: border. 
bordure: border. 
bore, V. t.: annoy, tire. 
bore, n.: hole, tube, caliber, 

boreal: northern. 
boredom: ennui. 
borough: town. 
borrel: ignorant. 
borrowed: imitated. 
I bosh: nonsense. 

bosk: thicket. 

bosky: bushy. 

bosom, V. t.: embrace. 

boss, n.: employer, controller, 

boss, V. t.: direct. 
boss, n.: stud. 
boss, V. t.: emboss, stud. 
bossy: studded. 
bossy: domineering. 
bother: trouble, tease. 
bothersome: troublesome. 
bough: branch. 
boulder: rock. 
boulevard: road, walk. 
bounce, v. i.: bound. 

%^W See Notes of Explanation. 



or rare); spec, perambulation, division, 
purlieu; see sphere, scope. 
bound, V. t. 1. limit, confine, demarcate 
(literary or tech.), circumscribe, delimit 
{chiefly literary), terminate; see confine. 

2. See BORDER. 

boundary, n. 1. bounder (archaic), bound- 
ure {ohs. or rare); spec, demarcation, 
monument, landmark, term, Hermes, 
Herma, herm, cairn, line. 
2. limit, bound {chiefly in pi.), outline, pre- 
cinct, confine, verge, buttal [ohs. or tech.), 
butt {ohs. or rare), bourne {literary), mete 
{chiefly in pi. and legal), mere {archaic), 
march {historical or archaic), mark {his- 
torical or archaic), rubicon {flg.), term 
{rare), periphery, circuit, circumference, 
compass, line {contextual), dool {Scot. & 
dial. Eng.) , bounder {archaic); see border. 

boundary, a. limitary, terminal {rare), 
limital {rare), bounding, border. 

boundless, a. 1. unlimited, infinite, term- 
less, limitless, incomprehensible (rare), 
immeasurable, unbounded, illimitable; 
spec, shoreless. 

Antonyms: see limited, narrow. 
2. See endless, inexhaustible. 

bouquet, ?z. 1. nosegay, boughpot {ar- 
chaic); spec, posy {archaic or colloq.), but- 
tonhole {colloq.; Eng.), boutonniere 
{French), buttonhole {colloq.). 
2. See SMELL. 

bow {pron. bo), n. 1. See curve. 
2. Fiddlestick {now familiar or contemptu- 

bow, V. i. 1. {pron. bou) See curve, stoop, 


2. {pron. bou) Spec, incline, curtsy, curt- 
sey, bob, beck {chiefly Scot.), nod, duck, 
scrape, caji, salaam, dip {colloq.), kotow, 
stoop, knee, genuflect {rare), conge 
{French), congee, lout {archaic or dial.); — 
referring to a gesture of courtesy, respect, or 

3. {pron. bo) bend, curve. 

bow {pron. bou), v. t. incline, bend; spec. 
prostrate, nod, stoop. 

bow {pron. bou), v. t. 1. See stoop, over- 
come, subdue. 

2. Spec, incline, bend, stoop, lout {ar- 
chaic or dial.; rare); — referring to a ges- 
ture of courtesy, respect, or deference. I 

bow, n. 1. (pron. bou) Spec, obeisance, 
curtsy, curtsey, bob, reverence, leg (ar- 
chaic or jocular), beck (chiefly Scot.), nod, 
nid-nod (colloq.), scrape, salaam, pros- 
tration, obedience (archaic or dial.), cong6 
(French), congee, duck, inclination, dip. 
2. (pron. bou) prow, stem, head, prore 
(poetic), entrance (tech.), forepart; spec. 
foreship (rare), beakhead (rare), fore- 
foot, forepeak, forehold, foresheets (pi.), 
hawse, luff, forecastle, gripe. 

bowl, n. 1. Spec, mazer (obs. or historical), 
crater {Greek antiq.), tazza, jorum, Jero- 
boam (humorous), bowie (Scot.), cogie 
(Scot.), cap (Scot.), porringer, brimmer. 
2. *See HOLLOW. 

bowl, V. i. 1. See roll. 
2. glide, tool, roll; — referring to a manner 
of progress, as of a carriage. 

bow-legged, a. bandy-legged. 

bowl-shaped, a. crateriform (tech.). 

bowstring, n. string, cord, nerve (poetic). 

box, V. i. fight (contextual), spar. 

box, n. 1. case, container (com.), recepta- 
cle; spec, canister, chest, cabinet, casket, 
cassette (French), cassolette, canteen, cof- 
fin, pyx, cofferdam, caisson, carton, car- 
touche, buist (obs. or Scot.), caddy, 
drawer, kist (Scot. & dial. Eng.), shrine 
{archaic), trunk, case. 

2. Referring to the theater box: compart- 
ment (contextual); spec, loge (French). 

3. See seat, shelter. 

brace, n. bracer (rare), support (co7itext- 
ual), strengthener (contextual); spec. 
clasp, buckle, band, clamp, stay, strut, 
bolt, rope, chain, bracket, truss, girder, 
tie, rod, rider, rib, crib, prop, shore, but- 
tress, reinforce, reinforcement. 

brace, v. t. 1. support, strengthen, stiffen; 
spec, gird, prop, strut, tie, truss, buttress, 
chain, bracket, rib, stay, reinforce, bone, 
shore, etc. 
2. See stimulate, strengthen. 

bracket, n. 1. brace (contextual); spec. 
corbel, console, shoulder, cheek, modil- 
lion, gusset, cantilever. 
2. See SHELF. 

braid, n. plait, pleat (obs.), brede (archaic), 
plaiting (a collective); spec, soutache 
(French), galloon, cue, leghorn (a collec- 
tive), Venetians (pi.), lace. 

tS?" Cross references: see Note. 

bound, a.: going. 

bounteous: generous, abun- 

bountiful: generous, abundant. 

bounty: generosity, gift, re- 
ivard, subsidy. 

bourn: goal. 

bourne: goal. 

bourse : exchange. 

bouse, 71.: caroiisr, liquor. 

bouse, V. i.: drink, carouse. 

bout: round, course, contest, 

bovine: beef. [sioti, interior. 

bowel: intestine; in pi.; compas- 
bower: bedroom, boudoir, arbor. 
bowery: shady. 
bowl, V. t.: roll, serve. 
bowlder: rock. 
box: slap. 
boxer: fighter. 
boy: child, youth, servant. 
boycott, V. t.: avoid. 

boycott, n.: conspiracy. 
boyish.: childish. 
bracing: stimulating. 
brackish: salt. 
brag, n.: boaster. 
bra<g, !'• '••■ boast. 
braggadocio: boasting, boaster. 
braggart, n.: boaster. 
braggart, a.: boastful. 
braee-er: boaster. 
bragging, a.: boastful. 
bragging, n.: boasting. 

{^ See Notes of Explanation, 



braid, v. t. 1. intortwinc {contexUial) , plat, 
plait, pleat (,obs.), brede {obs. or archaic). 
2. Ntr BIND. 

brain, n. 1. headpiece (fig.), encephalon 
(tech.); spec, cerebrum, cerebellum, hind- 
brain, little brain. 
2. In pi.: see mind. 

brake, n. check (rare), stop; spec, clog, 
convoy, block, chock, cow, drag, skid. 

brakeman, n. brakesman, guard (Eng.). 
" Brakenian' is the u.'iual form. 

branch, n. 1. shoot, oflfshoot, stick {con- 
itxtu(il), ramus (tech.), rame (rare); spec. 
hmb, bough, twig, spray, sprig, spire, 
start, caulome, bush, phylloclade (tech.), 
offset, sucker, ramulus, ramulet, fork, 
rootlet; see shoot. 
Antonyms: see trttnk. 

2. division (contextual), ramification, di- 
varication (learned) , embranchment 
(rare), fork., arm, offshoot, offset, throw- 
off (rare); spec, stem, loop, spur, bifurca- 
tion, billabong (Australia), anabranch 
(Australia) ; see arm. 

Antonyms: see body. 

3. Referring to a horn: fork; spec, snag, 
tine, prong, speller, tray, broach, start, 
bez-antler, pricker. 

4. member (co7itextual) ; spec, lodge, tent, 
court, filiation, chapter, post, corps, 

branch, a. rameous (rare), ramal (tech.). 

branch, v. t. & i. 1. divide, ramify, divari- 
cate (learned), offset, outbranch (poetic), 
digitate (rare); spec, dichotomize, bush. 

2. See DIVERGE. 

branching, a. arborescent, ramifying; 

spec, dichotomous, spraying; .see branchy. 
branchy, a. ramose (tech.), ramous (tech.), 

branching; spec, ramulose, ramellose, 

twiggy, sprayey, spriggy. 
brand, n. 1. See sword, blight. 

2. character (contextual) , stigma (learned), 
print, stamp; spec, crop, burn (context- 

3. mark, chop (in China), cachet 
(French); spec, label, stamp, tally. 

4. Referring to goods: quality, make, 
class, grade, chop (in China), stamp. 

brand, v. t. 1. stigmatize (learned or liter- 
ary), print, stamp, mark (contextual); 
spec, burn (the original sense of "brand"), 
pitch, tiver (dial. Eng.). 

2. //; commerce: mark; spec, label, tally. 
brave, a. 1. bold, courageous, stalwart, 
daring, game (slang or colloq.), gamy (col- 
loq. or slang), dauntless, spirited, lion- 
hearted (rhetorical), valiant, valorous, gal- 
lant, doughty (literary), dour (Scot.), 
stout, resolute, preux (French), galliard 
(archaic), prow (archaic), yeomanly (lit- 
erary); spec, manful, intrepid, manly, 
chivalrous, womanly. 
Antonyms: see cowardly, unchival- 



bravery, n. boldness, courage, daring, val- 
or, spirit, etc.; cf. brave. 
Antonyms: see cowardice. 
bravo, interj. excellent! good! fine! 
brawling, 7i. 1. See murmuring. 

2. disputation, quarreling; cf. quarrel. 
bray, n. & v. i. cry (contextual), hee-haw 

(onomatopoetic; colloq.). 
braze, v. t. 1. brass, brazen. 

2. See SOLDER. 
brazen, a. 1. brass; spec, brassy, brassish. 

2. <S'ee SHAMELESS, harsh, metallic. 
brazen, v. t. cheek (slang), face; — chiefly 

with "out." 
brazier, n. firepan; spec. brasero (Spanish), 

hearth, mangal (rare), scaldino (Italian). 
breach, 7i. 1. ;See break, surf, violation, 


2. opening, break, rent, rupture, disrup- 
tion, ruption (rare or spec); spec, chasm, 
fret, split, gap. 

3. Referring to personal relations: division, 
rupture, ruption, split, break, schism. 

breach, v. t. break, rupture, disrupt; spec. 

bread, n. tommy (slang, Eng.), bread- 
stuff; spec, biscuit, eulogia (hist.), pone 
(Southern U.S.), manchet (archaic), muf- 
fin, roll, rusk, pumpernickel, toast, simnel 
(chiefly historical), showbread, brewis 
(dial.), bun, crug (slang, Eng.), host, 

break, v. t. 1. Spec, disrupt (rare or fig.), 
rupture, snap, rive, burst, smash, rend, 
fragmentize (rare), stave, chip, bray, 
bra!^;e, craze, fritter, crash (rare), crumb, 
comminute, crack, crumple, fracture, 
fault, tear, cabbie, buck, rag, splinter, 
nick, demohsh; see shatter, scrape, 


t^" Cross references: see Note. 

brainpan: skull. 

brainsick: deranged. 

brainwork: thinking. 

brainy: intelligent. 

brake: fern, thicket, brushwood. 

bramble: brier. 

brambly: briery. 

brandish: swagger. 

brash, a.: hasty, impetuous, brittle. 

brash, n.: rubbish, wood. 

brass, a.: brazen. 

brassy: brazen. 

brat: child. 

bravado, n.: bluster, defiance. 

bravado, v. i.: bluster. 

brave, v. t.: defy, face, challenge, 

brave, n.: bully, desperado, war- 

bravo: desperado. 

brawl: fight, quarrel, murmur. 

brawn: flesh, strength. 

brawny: muscular, strong. 

bray, v. t.: grind. 

brayer: pestle. 

breachy : u nruly. 

breadth: width; also, cf. spa- 
cious, roomy, liberal, compre- 

{^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



Antonyms: see join, unite, cement, 






break, v. i. 1. part {contextual); spec, dis- 
rupt {rare or fig.), crash {rare), burst, 
crack, splinter, rend, outburst {rare); see 


2. Referring to a wave: comb, wash, 
crest, topple {colloq.). 

3. Referring to a fish: rise, leap, prime (rare). 

4. Referring to the voice: change, mature. 


break, n. 1. breach; spec, disruption {rare 
or fig.), break-up, rupture, crush, crash, 
smash, snap, burst, debacle, rent, abra- 
sion, chip ; see burst. 

2. in continuity {rare); spec, opening, gap, 
rent, nick, chasm, hiatus, blank, interval, 
lacuna, void, intermission, aperture, rift, 
fissure, drop, crack; see scrape. 

3. Referring to the waves: spec, wash, 
combing, breaking. 

4. See interruption, breach, start, 


breakable, a. frangible {learned or book- 
ish); see BRITTLE. 

breaker, n. 1. Spec, crusher, smasher, 
brayer, cracker, etc. 

2. wave {contextual), comber, white horse, 
surge {a collective) . 

breakfast, n. dejeuner {French), dejune 
{Scot.; archaic). 

breaking, n. 1. breakage; spec, disruption 
{rare or fig.), rupture {rare), ruption 
{rare), fracture {chiefiy spec), fraction, 
infraction {rare), fragmentation {rare), 
crumblement {rare), irruption {learned or 
bookish), inbreak {rare), incrash {rare), 
rending, inburst {rare). 

breakwater, n. Spec, mole, framework, 
groyne, jetty, pier {colloq., U. S.). 

breast, n. 1. mamma {of a female; tech.), 
mammilla {of a male; tech.), bubby {dial, 
or vulgar). 

2. See BOSOM, courage. 

3. brisket. 

breastbone, n. sternum {tech.). 

breastplate, n. pectoral {rare), poitrel 
{archaic), plastron {hist.); spec, cuirass. 

breast-shaped, a. mammillary, mammi- 
form ; spec, mastoid ; — all three tech. 

breath, n. 1. air {contextual). 
2. respiration, spiration {rare); spec. 
snore, pant, puff, yawn, wheeze; see in- 
halation, EXHALATION, SIGH. 


breathe, v. i. 1. respire; spec, pant, puff, 
pump, snore, wheeze; see inhale, ex- 
hale, SIGH. 
2. See STOP. 

breathe, v. t. 1. respire; see inhale, ex- 
2. See rest, exhale, utter. 

breathing, n. 1. respiration, spiration 
{rare); spec, eupnoea, dyspnoea, apncea; 
see inhalation, exhalation. 


breathless, a. 1. blown, pumped {slang or 
colloq.), exhausted {contextual), all in 
{slang, Jj S.). 


bred, a. reared, raised {now chiefly U. S., 
and considered improper or colloq. as ap- 
plied to persons); spec, educated. 

breeches, n. pi. 1, knickerbockers {U. S.), 
breeks {Scot.), small clothes, smalls {col- 
loq.), hose {obs. or hist.; chiefly spec); 
spec buckskins, gaDigaskins, corduroys; 
— all pi. 

breechless, a. trouserless, sansculottic 
{hist.), unbreeched, pantless {vulgar). 

breed, v. t. 1. Referring to the female: grow, 
create, produce, cherish, form, develop; 
spec, hatch. 

2. Spec, inbreed, cross, interbreed, inter- 
cross, crossbreed, fancy. 

3. produce, grow, engender, brew, gen- 
erate (rare); — as in "to breed trouble." 

Antonyms: see extinguish. 

4. raise {stock, etc.). 

5. See CAUSE, rear. 

breed, v. i. 1. In the sense of "to bear 
young": generate {rare), reproduce, 

2. In the sense of "to he horn": originate 
{rare) . 

breed, n. stock, brood {chiefly contemptu- 
ous as used of men); see family, race. 

breeding, n. 1. stirpiculture {rare). 
2. nurture, education {rare); spec, gen- 
tility, gentilesse {archaic); see polite- 

breeding place. 1. Spec loonery, hen- 
nery, hawkery, gullery, heronry, hatch- 
ery, beavery, hoggery, piggery, rookery. 
2, Fig.: hotbed. 

brevity, w. 1. See shortness. 
2. Referring to time: briefness, shortness, 
littleness, momentariness, swiftness, tran- 
siency, transience. 
Antonyms: see length. 

l^° Cross references: see Note. 



breeder: author. 

breakage: breaking. 


breeze: wind, disturbance. 

bveakdown: cMapse. 

breast, v. I 

: oppose. 

breezy: windy, lively. 

breakneck: dangerous. 


a.: living. 

breve: summary. 

(W See Notes of Explanation. 



8. Rcfarrittg to speech or uriting: short- 
ness, curtness, breviloquence {affected or 
humorous), brachylogy {rare), pauciloquy 
{rare): sfc conciseness. 
Antonijtns: see prouxity. 

bribe, v. t. corrupt {contextual) , hire {con- 
textual), buy, suborn {tech.); spec, oil 
{slang), anoint {rare; in "to anoint the 
hand' ), palm {slang), subsidize, tip, 
fircase {slang), square {colloq.). 

bribe, n. douceur {French), gratification 
[euphemistic); spec, sop, graft, grease, 
baksheesh, tip. 

bribery, n. corruption {contextual), subor- 
nation (tech.); spec, subsidizing. 

bric-a-brac, n. knicknacks {pi.); spec. 

brick, n. Spec, clinker, clink, grizzle, 
lump, cutcha {Anglo-Indian), quarl, 
header, binder, briquette or briquet. 

bricky, a. lateritious {referring esp. to color; 
chiefly tech.). 

bride, n. wife, Beatrice {fig.). 

bridegroom, 7i. husband, groom, bene- 
dict. Benedick. 

bridesman, n. best man, groomsman. 

bridge, n. 1. span; spec, drawbridge, via- 
duct, bateau, bridge, bascule bridge, 
Bifrost {mythol.). 


bridge, v. t. & i. span, overbridge {rare). 
bridgehead, n. tete-du-pont {French). 
bridle, n. 1. headgear; spec, snaffle, branks 
{used in punishing a scold; pL). 


bridle, v. i. bristle. 
brief, a. 1. See short. 

2. Referring to time: short {now obs. or 
archaic, exc. in certain phrases), transient, 
little, short-lived, swift, momentary; see 


Aniomjms: see long, endless, eternal, 


3. Referring to speech: breviloquent 
{rare), curt, curtal {archaic); see concise. 

Antonyms: see prolix. 

brier, n. briar {a variant), bramble; spec. 
blackberry, raspberry, loganberry. 

brier, n. briar (a variant), heath, brier- 

briery, a. briary (a variant), brarably. 

bright, a. 1. Spec, brilliant, effulgent, re- 
fulgent, glaring, lucid {rare), splendid, 
splendent, resplendent, radiant {rare), 
gay, vivid, splendorous, splendrous, gor- 
geous, strong {contextual), garish, bright- 

some, light, lightsome, transplendent 
{rare). Orient or Oriental {esp. of gems, 
etc.); see lustrous, luminous, shining, 


Antonyms: see dark, dim. 

2. Referring to colors: spec, flaming, 
flamboyant, fresh, lively, flashy, gay; see 
SHOWY. Alost of the terms given under 
se7ise 1 are also used as synonyms in refer- 
ence to colors. 

Antonyms: see dull. 

3. Referring to a career, course of conduct, 
etc.: spec, brilliant, dazzling, illustrious, 
meteoric, purple {literary), distinguished, 

Antonyms: see obscure. 


brighten, v. t. 1. illuminate, beshine {rare), 
illume {literary or fig.), enlighten {chiefly 
poetic or rhetorical), embrighten {rare), 
irradiate {literary) . 

2. Referring to colors: raise, liven (coHog.), 


bright-eyed, a. shining-eyed, clear-eyed. 
Antonyms: see blear, dim-eyed. 

brightness, n. 1. Spec, brilliance, efful- 
gence, refulgence, glare, lucidity {rare), 
splendor or splendour, splendidness, re- 
splendence, splendrousness {rare), gai- 
ety, strength {contcvtual) , splendence 
{rare), gorgeousness, glister {chiefly liter- 
ary), sparkle, transplendency {rare), Ori- 
ency (esp. of gems), glitter; see luster, 

luminosity, SHINE, DAZZLE. 

Antonyms: see darkness, dimness, ob- 

2. Referring to colors: spec, flamboyance, 
freshness, flashiness, gayness, gaiety, 
showiness. Most of the terms under sense 
1 are also used of colors. 

Antonyms: see dullness. 

3. Referring to a career, performance, etc.: 
spec, brilliance, illustriousness, eclat 
{French), distinction, fame. 

Antonyms: see obscurity. 

4. See intelligence, discernment. 
brindled, a. party-colored, brinded, briu- 

dle; spec, tabby. 
bring, v. t. 1. fetch, conduct {a Latinism), 
deduce {rare), have {archaic); spec, land, 
retrieve, draw, get, reduce {rare). 
Antonyms: see send, remove. 
2. Referring to price, amount, etc.: fetch, 
command, reahze, encash {rare); spec. net. 

1[W Cross references: see Note. 
brew: concoct, devise. 
brewing: concoction. 
briax: brier. 
bridal: marriage. 
oridle, v. t.: restrain. 

brief, n.: letter, writ, abstract, 

brief, v. t.: abridge. [tion. 

brigade, n.: division, organizor- 
brigade, v. t.: organize. 
brigand: desperado. 

brigbten: clear, improve. 
brim: edge. 
brimful: full. 
brimmer: bumper. 
brine: pickle. 
brink: edge. 

f^' See Notes of Explanation. 


3. reduce, throw, work; spec, reason {esp. 
with "into," "out of," etc.), conjure, pray, 
laugh, ridicule, lull, etc. 

4. reflect (as censure, doubt, etc.), throw, 


brisk, a. 1. See active, rapid, strong, 


2. smart, perky. 
brisket, n. breast. 
bristle, n. Spec, (tech.) seta, setula, set- 

ule, vibrissa. 
bristle, v. i. 1. Referring to hair or bristles: 

erect {learned or tech.), stand, stare 

(archaic) . 

2. See BRIDLE. 

bristling, a. horrid (chiefly poetic), shag- 
gy, rough, horrent (chiefly poetic). 

bristly, a. setaceous, strigose, strigate, 
setulose, hispid, setose, scrubby (rare or 
spec), horrent (chiefly poetic), hairy (con- 
textual); — all exc. "bristly," "scrubby," 
hairy, and "horrent," chiefly tech. 
Antonyms: see smooth. 

brittle, a. weak (contextual), breakable 
(contextual), fragile, frail (contextual), 
brickie (dial.), bruckle (dial.), brash 
(chiefly U. S. and spec); spec, delicate 
(contextual), short, crisp, shattery (rare), 
shivery, cold-short, hot-short ; seecRUMBLY. 
Antonyms: see strong, flexible, un- 

broad, a. 1. See wide, spacious, roomy, 
evident, comprehensive, unre- 
strained, general, liberal. 

2. full (daylight). 

3. pronounced (brogue, accent, etc.), Doric 
(spec, or fig.; of a dialect, etc.). 

broadside, adv. flatways, flatwise, side- 
wise, sideways. 
brogue, n. 1. shoe, brogan. 


broil, V. t. 1. cook (contextual), grill, car- 
bonado (obs. or literary); spec, frizzle, 
devil, spitchcock. 
2. See HEAT. 

broken, a. 1. Spec, disrupt (rare or fig.), 
burst, fractured, shattered, gapped, rup- 
tured, torn, rent. 
Antonyms: see intact, whole. 

2. Referring to one's health: shaken; spec. 

3. See intermittent, rough, violated. 
broker, a. 1. See pawnbroker, go-be- 

2. agent, middleman; spec, jobber. 
brokerage, n. brokage (obs., rare, or spec); 

spec pawnbrokerage, agency (contextual). 
brooch, n. clasp, ouch, fibula (antiq.). 
brood, n. 1. hatch; spec, clutch, covey, 

cletch or clatch (dial.), nide (chiefly Eng.). 

2. See offspring, race, breed. 
brook, n. stream, rivulet, rindle (rare or 

dial.), rill, beck (Eng.; literary or dial.), 

burn (dial, or Scot.), runnel, runlet, run, 

streamlet, burnie (Scot.), bourn or bourne 

(chiefly local Eng. or literary), burn (dial. 

and Scot.); spec, gill (dial., Eng.), rillet. 
broom, n. brush (contextual), besom (now 

chiefly dial, or literary); spec, wisp, pope's- 

head, brush, whisk, whisker, wing. 
broom- shaped, a. scopiform, fascicular; 

— both chiefly tech. 
broth, n. broo or bree (Scot.), liquor; spec. 

brewis (dial.), cuUis (now rare), kale; see 


brothel, n. bagnio (literary), bordel (obs. 
or archaic), bawdyhouse, house of ill re- 
pute (the usual legal term). 

brother, n. 1. Spec, cadet (younger 
brother) . 
2. See associate, friar. 

brotherly, a. 1. fraternal. 
2. See affectionate. 

brown, a. Spec, lurid, foxy, hazel, cheli- 
donian, bay, bayard (archaic), brownish, 
browny, brunneous (rare), ferruginous, 
auburn, adust (rare), bronze, mahogany, 
maroon, russet, snuff-colored, smoky, rus- 
setish, russety, tan, sorrel, puce, tawny, 
fallow, tabac, musteline, fawn. 

brown, n. Spec, bistre, mummy, feuille- 
morte (French), ecru (French). 

brown, v. t. embrown (emphatic); spec, tan, 
russet, scorch, toast. 

bruise, v. t. 1. injure (contextual), contuse 
(tech. or literary), batter, contund (rare), 
pound (rare); spec suggilate (obs. or rare). 
2. See indent, crush. 

bruise, n. 1. injury (contextvMl) , contusion 
(tech. or literary), batter (rare), pound 
(rare); spec, suggilation (rare or tech.), 
ecchymosis, mouse (slang). 
2. See indentation. 

bruising, a. contusive (bookish or tech.). 

brunet, a. dark, brunette (less usual than 
"brunet"; chiefly fern.); spec, (tech.) mel- 
anochroid, melanous, melanistic. 
Antonyms: see blond. 

brunet, n. brunette (Jem.); spec, (tech.) 
melanochroi (pL), mclanoi (pi.). 

^W Cross references: see Note. 
briny: salt. 
British: English. 
broach, n.: spit, horn. 
broach, v. t.: transfix, open, be- 
gin, spill, introduce, draw, ream. 
broadcast: scattered. 

broaden: widen, generalize, 
liberalize, enlarge. 

brokage: brokerage. 

brood, v.: incubate, consider. 

brook: endure. 

brotherhood: association, fra- 
ternity, fellojvship. 

browbeat: bully. 
brownie: fairy. 
browse, «.; fodder. 
browse, v. t.: graze. 
bruit: report. 
brummagem: gaudy. 
brunt: xhock. 

^[W See Notes of Explanation. 



brush, ti. 1. Spec, pon, pencil, rigger, sable, 
pope's-head, tit eh, card, air brush. 


brush, r. /. 1. Spec, whisk; see sweep. 

2. ^'tr c'.n.vzK. 
brushlike, a. scopiform (tech.), muscari- 

form (/(•(•/).), brushy (rare). 
brushwood, n. 1. scrub, brush, bush; spec. 

chaparral ([/. S.), frith {Eng.), brake, 

underbrush, rice {Eng.). 

2. brush; — referring to small branches cut 

brutalize, r. t. Chiefly fig. in sense: ani- 

malize (rare), imbrute {literary), brutify, 

bestialize; spec, dehumanize {rare), dis- 

humanize {rare), sensualize, harden. 

Antonyms: see refine, spiritualize. 
bubble, n. 1. globule {contextual), bell 

{chiefly Scot, en- tech.), blob {dial, or col- 

loq.), blobber {ohs. or dial.); spec. buUule, 

bead, bleb, bladder. 

2. Referring to the sound: gurgle. 

3. See SHOW, fallacy, trifle. 
bubble, V. i. 1. bell {dial., Scot., or tech.), 

eflfervesce {literary or tech.; often spec), 
intumesce {tech.; often spec), rise {con- 
textual), ebullate or ebulliate {rare); spec. 
bead, sparkle, gurgle, yaw; see boil. 
2. gurgle. 

bubbling, a. effervescent {literary or tech.; 
often spec), effervescive {literary or tech.; 
often spec), ebullient {tech.; often spec), 
intumescent {tech.; often spec), fretting 
{rare); spec sparkling; see boiling. 

bubbling, n. effervescence or {rare) effer- 
vescency {literary or tech.; often spec), in- 
tumescence {tech.; often spec), ebul- 
lience {rare), ebullition {literary or tech.), 
fret {rare). 

bubbly, a. bubblish; spec bladdery, bleb- 
by, beady. 

bucket, n. Spec tub, scoop, kibble, float, 
piston, pail, blackjack. 

buckle, n. 1. clasp, fibula {antiq.); spec. 

2. See BEND, TWIST. 

buckler, n. 1. shield, rondache {French); 
spec, rounder. 


bud, n. 1. sprout, shoot, gemma {tech.), 
burgeon {poetic), tendron {rare); spec. 
button, gemmule, gemina, knop (.archaic), 
eye, bulbil, bulbet, cabbage, chit. 

2. gemma {biol.); spec {zool.) medusa, 
medusoid, hydra. 

bud, IK i. 1. sprout germinate, burgeon 
{literary); spec, button. 

2. gemmate {biol.). 

3. disbud; spec chit. 

bull, n. orange, yellow; spec Isabella, 

buSer, n. bumper; spec, fender, dolly, 

buffer, V. t. cushion. 
buffet, n. 1. cupboard, sideboard. 


buffoon, n. clown {chiefly spec), merry- 
andrew, fool, Jack-pudding {archaic), 
pleasant {obs.), grotesque {rare), antic, 
pickle-herring {rare), merryman {rare), 
droU, harlequin, zany {orig. spec; rare or 
literary); spec, punch, punchinello. Scara- 
mouch, pantaloon, jester, jackpudding, 
pierrot, Harlequin, mimic, mummer, 
mime, mimer, archimime, Goliard {his- 
torical), gracioso {Spanish). 

buffoon, V. i. droll {literary or rare), harle- 
quinade {rare), merry-andrew or merry- 
andrewize {rare). 

buffoonery, n. farce, clowTiery {chiefly 
spec), foolery, harlequinade, drollery 
{literary or rare) , merry-andrewism {rare), 
buffoonism, zanyism {orig. spec; rare); 
spec, mimicry, mummery, Harlequinade. 
Antonyms: see dignity. 

buffoonish, a. clownish, buffoon, antic. 
Antonyms: see dignified. 

bugbear, n. bug {obs. or archaic), bugaboo, 
scarecrow {fig. or spec), boggard or bog- 
gart {rare); spec fetish, mumbo- jumbo; 
see bogy. 

buggy, a. Spec cimicine. 

build, V. t. 1. erect, raise, rear, edify {rare), 
fabricate {rare or spec), construct, big or 
bigg {Scot.); spec, mason, substruct, 
superstruct, reconstruct. 
Antonyms: see abate, destroy. 


build, 71. 1. See structure. 
2. Referring to a person: physique, set, 
set-up {colloq.). 

builder, n. architect {chiefiy spec), erect- 
or; spec, jerry-builder, carpenter, mason. 

building, n. 1. Referring to the operation: 
erection, fabric {now eccl.), edification 

f^^ Cross references: see Note. 

brush, n..- contest, fight. 

brusb, n.: brushwood, thicket. 

brushy: rough. 

brusque: blunt, rough. 

brutal: animal, cruel, rough, 
coarse, sensual. 

brute, a.: unreasoning, soulless, 
insensible, sensual, rough, un- 

brute, n.: animal, beast, fiend, 

brutish: animal, beastlike, un- 
reasoning, coarse, sensual, cruel, 

buccaneer: desperado, pirate. 

buck, n.: deer, dandy. 

buck, V. i.: jump. 

buck, v. t.: unhorse. 

bucket, V. t.: draw, drench, drive. 

bucket, V. i.: ride. 
budge. V. i.: more, yield. 
budge, a.: stiff, pedantic. 
buff: polish. 
buffet, ». <.; strike, fight. 
buffet, V. i.: fight. 
bug: insect. 
bugaboo: bttgbear. 
bugle: horn. 
build, V. i.: rely. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 


(rare), architecture, construction, fabri- 
cation (rare or spec). 
2. Referring to what is built: edifice (usii- 
allyspec.), erection (formal), fabric, struc- 
ture, construction; spec, substructure, 
superstructure, superstruction (rare), li- 
brary, hall, rotunda, palace, chamber, 
camera, store, mansion, coe (local; min- 
ing) pavihon, cottage, hovel, factory, 
garage, shelter, court, etc.; see house. 
^* Building" is commonly used only of an 
inclosed structure. 

built, a. built-up, framed; spec, fabricated. 

bulb, n. 1. bud (contextual); spec, bulbil, 
chive, clove. 
2. Spec, tuber, corm. 

bulb- shaped, a. bulbiform, bulbous, bulb- 

bulging- eyed, a. goggle-eyed. 

bulk, n. stall. 

bulk, 71. 1. See size, quantity, body. 
2. generality, body, mass, heft (colloq., 
U. S.), most (with "the"), staple, gross 
(obs. or archaic); spec, majority, many. 
Antonyms: see minority. 

bulk, V. i. 1. sweU, expand, loom; see 


2. See WEIGH. 
bull, n. bovine (contextual); spec, michy 

(slang, Australia), bullock. 
bullfighter, n. toreador (Spanish; esp. a 

mounted bullfighter); spec. banderilJero 

(Spanish), picador. 
bull's-eye, n. aim (contextual), center; 

spec, prick (obs.), blank, white, carton 

(cant) . 
bull- shaped, a. tauriform (tech. or 

bully, n. 1. intimidator, bounce (rare; 

colloq.), bouncer (rare; colloq.), hector, 

hectorer, brave (archaic), tiger (slang), 

bulldozer (colloq.). 
Antonyms: see fawner. 


bully, V. t. intimidate, overbear, bounce 
(rare; colloq.), hector, huff, browbeat, 
overbear, bulldoze, bullyrag; spec, bluff, 
outbully, haze (U. S.). 
Antonyms: see coax, cajole. 

bully, V. i. 1. intimidate, hector, bounce 
(colloq.), huff (colloq.), domineer (con- 
textual), bulldoze. 

Antonyms: see cringe, coax. 

2. See bluster. 
bulwark, n. I. wall (contextual); spec. 

rampart, parapet, breakwater. 

2. See shelter. 
bumper, n. I. brimmer; spec, cupful, 

glassful, bowlful. 

2. See buffer, bouncer. 
bunch, n. 1. See protuberance. 

2. cluster, bob (dial, or spec); spec, bun- 
dle, fascicle, fasciculus, hand (of bananas), 
wisp, whisk ; see tuft. 

3. See quantity, group. 

bunchy, a. 1. bundled, fasciculate (tech.), 
fasciculated (tech.), clustery. 
Antonyms: see scattered. 
2. See protuberant. 

buncombe, n. 1. makebelieve (contextual), 
claptrap (contemptuous), talk (colloq.). 

bundle, n. 1. package, pack, packet, par- 
cel, truss (rare or spec); spec, roll, fadge 
or fodge (tech. or dial.), fardel (archaic), 
brail, faggot, dossier (French), dufter 
(Anglo-Indian) , iascine, sheaf, swag (Aus- 
tralia), book, peter (thieves' cant), bolt, 
bavin (obs. or dial., Eng.), bottle (now 
local Eng.), hand, bung (Eng.); see bunch. 


bundle, v. t. 1. pack, packet, truss (ar- 
chaic or spec), parcel; spec, faggot, 
hamper (rare), crate, cask, sack, pug, bag, 

2. See HASTEN. 

bungle, V. t. & i. blunder (rare), boggle 
(colloq.), butcher (colloq.), tinker, foozle 
(slang or often cant and spec); spec, muff; 
see botch. 

bunt, n. Referring to part of a flag or sail: 
bag, belly, swell. 

buoy, n. float (contextual); spec, dan, 
dolphin, nun, buoy, nut buoy, can buoy, 
spar buoy, bell buoy, etc. 

buoyant, a. 1. floaty (colloq.). 
2. Referring to the mind: resilient, elastic, 
corky (colloq.); see hopeful. 
Antonyms: see hopeless, depressed. 

burden, n. 1. burthen (now chiefly ar- 
chaic), load, weight, incubus (literary; 
chiefly spec), cumber (literary), incum- 
brance or encumbrance, incumbency 
(rare; literary), tax (esp. excessive); spec 
surcharge; see load. 

l^W Cross references: see Note. 
bulge, V. i.: protuberate, bag. 
bulge, n.: protuberance. 
bulging: protuberant. 
bulkhead: partition, wall. 
bulky: big. 
bull, n.: blunder. 
bull, V. t.: raise. 
bulldoze: intimidate, bully. 
bullet: ball, missile. 
bulletin: statement, publication. 
bullyrag: bully, tease. 

bulwark: protect. 
bummer: loafer. 
bump, V. t.: knock. 
bump, n.: protuberance. 
bumper: big. 
bumpkin, n.: rustic. 
bumptious: self-assertive. 
bumpy : protuberant. 
bunch, V. t.: gather. 
bunch, V. i.: protuberate, gather. 
bunco, V. t.: cheat. 
bundle, v. i.: hasten. 

bung: stopper, vent. 
bungle, n.: blunder. 
bungling: botchy, awkward. 
bunk, n.: bed. 
bunk, V. i.: lodge. 
bunker: bin, hazard. 
bunko, V. t.: cheat. 
bunt, n.: blight. 
bunt, V. & n.: push, butt. 
buoy: float. 
bur: hull. 
burden, n.: refrain. 

ti^ See Notes of Explanation. 


2. In a legal sense: onus, obligation, 
chargo, weight, incumbency, cumbrance 
(rare); spec, responsibility, tax. 

3. Referritig to what is menially burden- 
some: incubus, \Yeight, load, cumber (lit- 
erary), cumbrance (rare). 

4. See CHAUUE, capacity. 

burden, v. t. 1. load, weight, cumber, en- 
cumber, charge {now chiefly fig. or Jiaut.), 
lade {archaic), tax {esp. to burden oppres- 
sively), saddle {orig. spec); see over- 
burden; — all used also fig. 

Antonytns: see lighten. 
2. See OPPRESS, ch.\rge. 

burdensome, a. 1. heavy, onerous {Jormal 
or learned), oppressive, weighty, cumber- 
some; — all used also fig. 
Antonyms: see light. 
2. See OPPRESSIVE, troublesome. 

bureau, n. 1. See office. 
2. chest {of drawers); spec, tallboy, low- 
boy; see secretary. 

burgher, n. citizen, freeman. 

burglar, n. housebreaker, cracksman 
{slang); spec, robber. 

burglarize, v. t. burgle {humorous or colloq. ) . 

burglary, n. housebreaking, effraction 
{rare); spec, robbery. 

burial, n. 1. interment, inhumation, en- 
tombment (orig. spec.), deposition (chiefly 
eccl.), sepulture (Jormal or literary), sepe- 
lition (rare), tumulation (rare); spec, vi- 
visepulture (rare). 
Antonyms: see disinterment. 
2. See funt:ral. 

burial, a. 1. mortuary, sepulchral, sepul- 
tural (rare), tombic (rare). 
2. See funeral. 

burlesque, a. Spec. Hudibrastic (fig.; liter- 
ary), burlesque-heroic, mock-heroic, buf- 
fo, macaronic, parodic (rare); see comic. 

burlesque, n. 1. Referring to a literary 
composition: parody, travesty; spec. 
caricature, paratragcedia, mock-heroic, 
extravaganza, burletta. 
Antonyms: see tragedy. 
2. See caricature. 

burlesque, v. t. parody, travesty; spec. 
caricature, buffoon, buffoonize. 

burn, V. t. 1. consume (hy fire), combust 
(obs. or jocular), oxidize (chem. or context- 
ual); spec, carbonize, char, scorch, sear, 
deflagrate, cremate, cinder (rare), incin- 
erate, kiln, incense, coal (rare), parch, 
brand, singe, conflagrate (rare), chark 
(rare), coke, broil, flame; see roast. 

2. To injure by heat: spec, blister, sear, 
scald, cauterize. 

3. bake. 

burn, V. i. 1. consume (contextual), oxidize 
(chem. or contextual); spec, flame, flash, 
glow, deflagrate, flicker, smoke, smother, 
rage (contextual), conflagrate (rare), flare, 
fizzle, smolder. 
2. See desire, shine. 

burning, a. I. ardent (literary), live, liv- 
ing; spec, glowing, aflame (predicative), 
flaming, conflagrant (literary or learned), 
flamed (rare), red, raging (contextual) r 
ustorious (rare). 
Antonyms: see lifeless. 

2. See ardent. 

3. consuming, comburent (rare); spec, 

burning, n. consumption (with "of"; con^ 
textual), combustion, fire; spec, flaming, 
flashing, ustion (rare), eremacausis (rare). 

burnt, a. Spec, charred, incinerated, tor- 
rid, parched, etc., samel or sammen. 

burr, 7!. ring (coM^ex^uaZ); spec, rove, washer. 

burrow, )'. i. dig, work; spec, earth, mole, 
gopher, mine. 

burrow, n. 1. cuniculus (tech.), excavation 
(contextual); spec, mine, earth, wormcast. 
2. See LAIR. 

burst, V. t. break, bust (dial, or vulgar), dis- 
rupt (bookish or literary; chiefly fig.), rend, 
rupture; spec, shatter; see explode. 

burst, V. i. 1. break, bust (dial, or vulgar), 
disrupt (bookish or literary; chiefly fig.), 
rend, rupture; spec, inburst; see explode. 
2. break, outburst, outbreak; spec, gush, 
outblaze (often fig.), effervesce, sally, flash, 
explode, outflame; see start. 

burst, n. 1. break, rupture, disruption 
(bookish or literary; chiefly fig.), bust (dial, 
or vulgar); spec, eruption; see explosion. 

2. breaking, outburst, outbreak; spec, ex- 
plosion, implosion, outblaze, gush, sally, 
flash, effervescence, spurt. 

3. See effort, run. 

bursting, a. disruptive, rending; spec. 
eruptive, erumpent (rare); see explosive. 

bury, v. t. 1. inter, inhume, inhumate, sep- 
ulcher (rare or spec), ensepulcher (rare), 
sepulture (Jormal or literary); spec, en- 
tomb, inearth (chiefly poetic), earth (po- 
etic or rhetorical), urn, inurn, tumulate 
(rare), tomb (rare), grave (archaic), mold 
(rare), immure, hearse. 
Antonyms: see disinter. 

2. Spec, cache. 

3. See cover, submerge, ignore, for- 
get, ABSORB. 

bury, n. Spec, camp (dial.), pie, pit, 

clamp, cache. 
bush, n. 1. shrub, scrog (chiefly Scot.), tod 

(archaic or dial.), cop (dial.); spec, bushlet. 

l^° Cross references: see Note. 
bureaucrat: officer. 
burgeon, n.: bud. 

burgeon, v. i.: germinate. 

burgh: town. 

burial place: grave, cemetery. 

burn, n.: brook. 
burnish: polish. 
burr: hull. 

tS" See Notes of Explanation. 




bushing, n. bearing {contextual), coak, 
bush, bouche, thimble. 

bushlike, a. dumose {rare), dumetose 

bushy, a. brushy, dumose {rare), dume- 
tose {rare), scroggy {chiefly Scot.), bosky, 
busky, thick {contextual); spec, shrubby, 
2. See ROUGH. 

business, n. 1. See task, work, relation, 


2. occupation, employment, vocation, 
avocation {common in good writers in this 
sense, but as so used avoided by many as 
unfortunately destroying the useful distinc- 
tion between "vocation" and "avocation"), 
pursuit, calling, profession {chiefly spec), 
mystery {archaic), trade {chiefly spec), 
faculty {archaic or hist.), shop {chiefly in 
"to talk shop"; colloq.), craft {chiefly spec.) 
Antonyms: see diversion. 

business, a. commercial, industrial. 

buskin, n. 1. shoe {contextual), half-boot 
{contextual), cothurnus. 

2. See TRAGEDY. 

bustle, v. i. 1. fluster, flutter, flurry, hustle 
{colloq.), rustle {colloq., U. S.), clutter, stir. 
Antonyms: see glide, sit, idle, dawdle. 
2. See rustle. 

bustle, n. action {contextual), fluster, 
flurry, flutter, stir, to-do, commotion, 
fuss, tumult, rustle {colloq., U. S.), hus- 
tle {colloq.). 
Antonyms: see leisure, deliberation, 

bustling, a. rushing, hurried, tumultuous, 
humming, rustling {colloq., U. S.). 
Antonyms: see leisurely, idle, de- 

busybody, n. meddler, quidnunc {literary; 
contemptuous), pry {rare), Paul Pry {flg.), 
numquid {rare), pragmatist {rare), prag- 
matic (rare); spec, snoop; see gossip. 

but, prep., adv., & conj. 1. See except. 
2. however, howbeit {archaic), yet, still, 
moreover, nevertheless, natheless or nath- 
less {archaic), howsomever {dial, or vul- 
gar), howsoever {archaic), notwithstand- 
ing (emphatic). 

butcher, v. t. 1. slaughter. 
2. See murder, spoil, bungle, mangle. 

butcherly, a. 1. carnificial {learned or af- 
fected) . 

2. See cruel. 
butt, n. 1. See stock, aim, object. 

2. laughing-stock, byword, make-game 
{rare), target, sport, mockery, mock, 
laughter {rare), joke. 

3. push, bunt, thrust, buck {colloq. or 

butterless, a. dry {toast). 

buttery, a. butterish {rare), butyraceous 
{tech.), butyrous {rare and tech.). . 

buttocks, n. rump {esp. of animals), pos- 
teriors {pi.), butt {colloq. and vulgar, exc. 
spec), behind {colloq. or vulgar), funda- 
ment {chiefly tech.), nates {pi.; tech.), 
breech, bottom {colloq.), seat, tail {dial, or 
vulgar), stern {colloq.), doup {Scot.), po- 
dex {tech.), back {contextual); spec. 
cushions {pi.). 

buttony, a. knoblike, bossy, buttonlike, 
umbonal {tech.), umbonate {tech.), um- 
bonic (rare). 

buttress, n. support {contextual), brace 
{contextual); spec, flying-buttress, arc- 
boutant {French), counterpart. 

buttress, v. t. support, prop, brace; — all 
three contextual. 

buy, V. t. purchase, chap {dial.), coff {ar- 
chaic, Scot.), take {contextual; chiefly 
spec); spec, preempt, ransom, repurchase, 
redeem, rebuy, discount; see bribe. 
Antonyms: see sell, hire, grant. 

buy, n. purchase, cheap {obs.), bargain 
{now spec). 

buying, n. purchase, emption {chiefly law); 
spec preemption, redemption, coemption. 
Antonyms: see sale. 

by, prep. & adv. 1. near, beside, besides 
{less usual than "beside"), to. 

2. along, over, through, per {Latin); spec. 

3. See AT, after. 

4. beside {in comparison). 

5. per {Latin), with, of, forby {archaic); 
spec, thereby, therewith, thereof, hereby, 
herewith, etc. 

by-bidder, n. straw bidder, Peter Funk 
{U. S.). 

bye, n. 1. See aside. 
2. In games: spec, run, goal, hole. 

bystander, n. Spec spectator, witness. 

byway, n. sideway {rare); spec bypath, 
byroad, sidepath, lane. 

byword, n. 1. See saying, talk, nick- 
2. proverb {word of reproach) . 

t}0^ Cross references: see Note. 

butlery: pantry. 

buzzard: hawk. 

buskined: tragic. 

butt: cask. 

bygone: past. 

busky: bushy. [dlesome. 

buttery: pantry. [danl. 

byname: name. 

busy, a.: active, occupied, med- 

buttons: servant, page, atten- 

bypath: byway. 

busy, )). t.: occupy. 

buyable: purchasable. 

byplay: aside. 

butcher, n.: slaughterer. 

buxom: plump. 

by-product: product. 

butchery: slaughter, slaughter- 

buzz, V. i.: hum, ring. 

byroad: byway. 


buzz, n.: hum, humming. 

by -talk: gossip. 

(S^ See Notes of Explanation. 


cabinet, n. 1. room; spec, boudoir. 
2. case, slip (obs.); spec. (5tagere (Frctich), 
varpucno (Spanish); see chest. 


cache, v. t. bury, hide, store. 
cackle, v. i. 1. Spec, clack, check, gabble, 
gaggle, keckle. 


cacophonous, a. ill-sounding; spec, harsh, 
raucous. "Cacophonous" is rare, learned, 
or pedantic. 

cad, 71. 1. see attendant. 
2. In the sense of "a vidgar felloiv" : cock- 
tail {slang, Eng.), snob {chiefly English). 

cadet, n. son {contextual), chevaher {hist.); 
spec, duniwassal {Scot.). 

caesura, n. In rhetoric: break, pause, 
lengthening; spec, comma. 

cage, n. aviary (contextual) ; spec. mew. 

cajole, V. t. flatter, palaver {rare; chiefly 
with "ercr"), wheedle, tweedle (rare), carny 
or Carney {dial, or colloq. Eng.), jolly {col- 
loq.), cog (obs. or archaic), inveigle, 
Antonyms: see bully, intimidate, 


cajole, V. i. flatter, palaver, carny or 

carney {dial, or colloq. Eng.). 
cajolery, n. flattery, cajolement {rare), 
wheedling, blandishment, palaver, jolly- 
ing {colloq.). 
Antonyms: see compulsion. 
cake, n. mass {contextual); spec, brick, 
block, floe {of ice). 
cake, V. i. bake, harden; spec, plaster, 

crust, encrust. 
calamitous, n. distressing, troublesome, 
miserable, unhappy, disastrous, catas- 
trophic, sad. 

calamity, n. 1. trouble, distress, mis- 
fortune, misery, unhappiness, affhction. 
Antonyms: see happiness, pleasure. 
2. Referring to an instance of what is 
calamitous: trouble, misfortune, misery, 
distress, disaster, catastrophe, blow, 
scourge, curse; spec, fatahty. 
Antonyms: see good. 
calculating, a. calculative, scheming, 
politic, designing. 
Antonyms: see artless. 

calculous, a. gritty, stony. 

calculus, 71. concretion; spec, cystolith, 

dacryolith, gravel, sand, gastrolith, 

crab's-oye, stone, bezoar. 
calendar, 7i. 1. almanac, rubric {rare), 

calends {pi.; rare); spec, clog {hist.), fasti 

{pi.), menology, kalcndar {eccl. var). 

2. list; spec, docket. 
calendar, v. t. press {contextual); spec. 

calf, n. Referring to part of the leg; — no 

syns. The adjective is sural {tech.). 
calf, n. 1. bovine {contextual), offspring 

{contextual); spec, maverick {U . S.), dogie 

(Western U. S.), slink. The adjective for 

calf is vittine {tech.). 

2. See clown. 
caliber, n. 1. diameter, bore. 

2. See ability, importance, quality. 
calibrate, v. t. measure, graduate; spec. 

call, V. t. 1. See name, utter, summon, 


2. In a legal sense: summon {as from a 
lower court), evoke {rare), evocate {rare). 

call, V. i. cry {contextual); spec, coo, hoot, 
shout, yell, toot, neigh, whisper, speak, 
cooee or cooey {Australia). 

call, n. 1. Spec, tally-ho, fanfare, ho, re- 
cheat {archaic), coo, coop, cooee or cooey 
{Australia), cluck, whistle, roll call, note, 
yell, shout, whisper, trumpet, taps, re- 
veille, etc.; see hail, cry. 

2. Spec, summons, convocation, appeal, 
demand, duty, need, invitation, visit. 

3. Spec, buzzer, bell, horn, annunciator. 
callous, a. 1. hard, hardened, indurated; 

— all three contextual. 


callous, V. t. harden, indurate. 

calm, a. 1. I7i a physical sense: undis- 
turbed, tranquil, reposeful, smooth, se- 
rene, imperturbed {rare), unperturbed 
{rare), halcyon {days, etc.; poetic or ele- 
vated), still, quiet, placid, peaceful, pa- 
cific {rare, exc. in "Pacific Ocean"), un- 
ruffled, calmy {archaic and poetic), un- 
Antonyms: see boisterous, rough, 


2. In a mental sense: undisturbed, un- 

tS^ Cross references: see Note. 
cabal, r. i.: intrigue. 
cabal, ii.: intrigue, set. 
cabala: mysticism. 
cabalist: mystic. 
cable: rope, conductor, message. 
cablegram: message. 
caboose: cookroom, car. 
cacbet: brand, seal. 
cacopbonous: harsh, discordant. 

cadaverous: pale. 

cadence: rhythm, fall, modulation. 

cadent: rhythmical. 

caduceus: staff. 

Caesar: autocrat. 

cafe: e/iting house, 

cage, V. t.: confine. 

cairn: heap. 

caisson: box. 

caitiff, a.: contemptible, mean. 

caitiS, n.: wretch. 

calasb: hood. 

calcify: petrify. 

calculate: compute, discover, 
think, expect, intend. 

calculate, v. i.: rely. 

caliginous: dark. 

caliper, v. t.: measure. 

calipers: compasses. 

calisthenics: gymnastics. 

called: named. 

calligraphy : handicriting. 

callow: feaiherless, inexperi- 
enced, immature. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



ruffled, quiet, tranquil, phlegmatic, sober, 
cool, philosophical, composed, reposeful, 
pacific (rare), placid, impassive, unpas- 
sionate, equanimous (rare), marble (fig.), 
marbly (^jg.), imperturbable, unperturbed, 
imperturbed, sedate, serene, recollected 
(rare), untroubled, douce (Scot.), repose- 
ful, canny (Scot.); see self-controlled, 


Antonyms: see uneasy, agitated, ex- 

calm, n. 1. In a physical sense: tranquillity, 
quiet, quietness, rest, smoothness, repose, 
serenity, serene (rare), serenitude (rare), 
calmness, stillness, placidity, peace, 
peacefulness; spec, doldrums (pi.). 
Antonyms: see activity, outcry, noise, 


2. In a mental sense: composure, repose, 
equanimity (formal), temper (chiefly in 
"to lose one's temper," "to keep one's 
temper," or the like), tranquillity, quiet, 
calmness, composure, serenity, serenitude 
(rare), serene (rare), impassiveness, so- 
briety, sedateness, soberness, placidity, 
reposedness (rare), poise, quietude (rare), 
quietism (rare), imperturbation (rare); 
spec, countenance, indisturbance (rare); 


Antonyms: see activity, agitation, 

calm, V. t. 1. See still. 
2. smooth, settle, still, soothe, sedate 
(rare), quiet, tranquilize, compose, pacify, 
(rare), hush, serene (rare), allay, ease 
(mentally), salve (the conscience); spec, dis- 
fever (rare), becalm, lull, lullaby; see cool. 
Antonyms: see rouse, annoy, agitate, 


calmative, a. calming, quieting, soothing, 

tranquilizing, etc., quietive (rare); spec. 

dulcet, balmy, lulling. "Calmative" is less 

usual and more formal than "calming." 

Antonyms: see annoying, agitating, 


calming, n. subsidence. 

camp, n. encampment, cantonment (mil.), 

leaguer (rare or hist.); spec, bivouac, 

roundabout (rare), douar or do war 

(Oriental), laager (So. Africa). 
camp, V. i. encamp; spec, bivouac, tent, 

laager (So. Africa), maroon (So. U. S.), 

outspan (So. Africa). 

Antonyms: see decamp. 

camp, a. castrensian (rare). 

campaign, v. i. Spec, crusade, electioneer. 

can, n. Spec, cup, tin (Eng.), glass. 

cancel, v. t. 1. deface (contextual), damask 
(ohs. or tech., Eng.); spec, obliterate, 
blot, cross, overscore (rare); see delete. 
2. See abolish, revoke, counteract. 

cancellate, a. reticular, reticulate, reticu- 
lated, cancellous; — all tech. or learned. 

candidacy, n. candidateship, candidature. 

candidate, n. Spec, (eccl.), confirmand, 
probationer, licentiate, competent. 

candidate, v. i. sit; spec. run. 

candle, n. Spec, taper (obsolesc), planet 
(cant), paschal, bougie (French), cierge 
(French), dip, pastil. 

candlestick, n. ceroferary (rare), candel- 
abrum (antiq. or eccl.), chandelier (chiefly 
spec); spec, sconce, tricerion, dicerion, 
paschal, torchere (French), standard, 

canine, a. doggy (rare; a weak term), 
canicular (rare or phrasal); spec, houndy, 
currish, houndish, doggish. 

canine, n. 1. See dog. 
2. tooth (contextual), cuspid, laniary (rare). 

cannibal, n. man-eater, anthropophagite 
(rare), anthropophagist (rare), anthro- 
pophagi (pi.); spec, ogre, ogress. 

cannibal, a. anthropophagous (learned), 
anthropophagic (rare), anthropophagian 
(rare; humorously stilted), hominivorous 
(rare); spec, ogreish, ogrish, Thyestean, 
(fig.), necrophagous. 

cannonade, v. t. cannon (rare); spec. 
bomb, bombard, shell. 

cannonading, n. cannonry; spec, bom- 
barding, drumfire. 

cannoneer, n. artilleryman, gunner; spec. 
mitrailleur (FrencJi). 

cannonry, 7i. 1. See cannonading. 
2. artillery, guns (pi.), cannon (a collec- 

canonize, v. t. saint, besaint (contemptu- 

canopy, n. cover (contextual); spec, tester, 
tilt, parasol, dome, heaven, hood, maj- 
esty (hist.), pavilion, cope, ciel (French), 
howdah, coverture (rare). 

cant, n. 1. pretense, hypocisy; spec, and 
contemptuous snivel, whine. 
2. See JARGON. 

cant, V. i. Spec, snivel, whine; — both con- 

IW Cross references: see Note. 
calumniate: defame. 
calumny: defamation. 
campaign, n.: movement. 
campanular: bell-shaped 
canal: channel. 
canard: report. 
candent: glowing. 

candid: frank. 
canker, v. t.: corrupt. 
cankerous: ulcerous, consum- 
cannon, v. i.: carom, cannonade. 
canny: shrewd, calm. 
canon: valley. 
canon: rule, standard. 

canonical: orthodox. 

cant, V. i.: snivel, whine. 

cant, n.: slope, bevel, inclina- 

cant, V. t.: incline. 

cant, V. i.: slope. 

cantankerous: ill-tempered, 

IW Sec Notes ot Explanation. 



canter, ;». tittup {chiefly dial, or It u mor- 
ons^: t^CC GAIT. 

oanter, v. i. fjo {contextual), drive {con- 
textual), tittup (ehiefli/ dial, or humorous). 

canvas, /;. 1. fabric {contextual), cloth {con- 
textual); spec, scrim, tarpaulin, poldavy, 


canvass, v. t. 1. See examine, discuss, 


2. solicit, campaign, electioneer. 

canvass, v. i. solicit. 

cap, /). 1. hat {contextual) ; spec, glengarry, 
fool's-cap, chaco, coif, busby, caul {hist.), 
coxcomb, biretta or beret or berret, big- 
gin {Scot.), calotte, calpac {Turkish), tam- 
o'-shanter, tuque, fez, pilaus {antiq.), 
tarboosh, kepi, mortarboard, zucchetto 
{Italian), Phrygian cap {the cap of liberty) . 
2. See TOP. 

capable, a. 1. See able. 
2, susceptible, admitting. 

capacity, n. 1. See ability, qualifica- 

2. Referring to capacity to bear or hold: 
content, burden {naut), retention {rare). 

caparison, v. t. trap, accouter {contextual). 

caparisoned, a. barbed or barded {said of 
a horse). 

cape, n. Spec, pelerine, bertha, Vandyke, 
talma, tippet, capa {Italian), fichu 

caper, n. 1. jump {contextual), leap {con- 
textual), prance, skip, gambol, capriceio 
{Italian), caracole, gambade or gambado, 
romp, frisk. 

2. play, jump, antic, jape, prank, dido 
{slang or colloq., U. S.), conceit, trick, 
escapade; see frolic. 

caper, v. i. 1. jump {contextual), leap {con- 
textual), gambol, frisk, prance {colloq.), 
gambado {literary), prank {rare), skip, 
skit {rare), caracol; see frolic. 
2. See prance. 

capital, a. 1. metropolitan. 

2. -See fatal, chief, important, pine. 

3. Referring to letters: great {chiefly spec); 
spec, initial. 

capital, n. 1. metropolis, seat. 
2. Spec, stock, principal. 

capitol, n. statehouse {U. S.). 

caprice, n. 1. whim, freak, notion, conceit, 
fantasy, phantasy, fancy, humor, quip, 
quirk, vagary, crotchet, fantasticality 
(rare), whimsicality (rare) .[whimsy, crank. 

turn, maggot {now rare), kink, frisk 
Antonyms: see opinion, conviction. 


capricious, a. whimsical, freakish, freaky, 
humorsome, fanciful, fantastical, fickle, 
crotchety, variable, arbitrary, changeable, 
erratic, fantastic, fan tasted {rare), whim- 
sy {rare), whimmy {colloq.), vagarious 
{rare), wayward, notional, puckish {fig. or 
spec), moony {colloq.). 
Antonyms: see constant. 

capriciousness, n. caprice, fantasticality, 
fantasy, phantasy, fantasticalness, whim- 
sicality, whimsicalness, humor, notion- 
Antonyms: see constancy. 

captain, n. 1. iSee chief, commander. 
2. In nautical usage: master, commander 
{often spec), skipper {chiefly spec); spec. 
nakhoda {East Indian), reis or rais {Ara- 
bic), ressaldar {India), rittmaster {rare), 
patron {rare), patroon {rare), serang 
{Anglo-Indian), coaster. 

captious, a. 1. catchy {colloq.), entan- 
gling, sophistic, fallacious. 
2. *See CAVILING, faultfinding. 

captivate, v. t. captive {archaic), enthrall, 
enslave, fascinate, catch {chiefly colloq.), 
charm, enchant, bewitch, fetch {now 
colloq.), infatuate; spec sirenize; see 
Antonyms: see repel. 

captivated, a. infatuated, fascinated, 
charmed, etc., captive. 

captivating, a. pleasant {contextual) , in- 
fatuating, enchanting, charming, be- 
witching, witching. 
Antonyms: see repellent. 

captivation,?i.l. captivity (rare or arc/iaic), 
enthrallment, enslavement, fascination, 
charm, glamour, enchantment, witchery, 
bewitchment, bewitching, servitude. 

2. See SLAVERY. 

capture, v. t. I. seize {contextual), take, 
get {chiefly colloq. or contextual), appre- 
hend {learned), captivate {archaic), cap- 
tive {archaic), catch; spec grab {colloq.), 
arrest, collar {colloq.), prize, reduce (a 
place), recapture, retake, incaptivate 
{rare), jump {checkers), castle {chess), bag 

Antomjms: see free. 
2. take {as a fort); spec, rush, force. 
Antonyms: see surrender. 

l^° Cross references: see Note. 
cantilever: bracket. 
can tie: piece, slice. 
canton, v. t.: divide. 
canton, 71.: district. 
cantonment, n . : camp, quarters. 
cantrip: frolic. 
canvasser: solicitor. 

cap, V. t.: cover, overlie, 

surpass, top. 
capacious: roomy. 
caparison: trapping. 
cape: headland. 
capillary : filamentous. 
capital, n.: top. 
capitalist: financier. 

capitulate: surrender. 

capitulation: surrender, sum- 

capsize, v.: overturn. 

captive, n.: prisoner. 

captivity: confinement, cap- 

captor: capturer. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



capture, n. 1. seizure, taking, catching, 
apprehension {learned); spec, arrest, re- 
duction, prize. 
Antonyms: see freeing. 
2. In a concrete sense: prize, bag. 

capturer, n. captor, taker, apprehender 
(learned), etc. 

car, n. 1. See vehicle. 

2. Referring to railroad cars: spec, car- 
riage, pullman, trolley, tram (Eng.), 
tramcar (Eng.), smoker (U. S.), empty, 
gondola, box, van (Eng.), sleeper, 
coach, flat, goods wagon (Eng.), caboose, 

3. Referring to a balloon: spec, nacelle, 
basket, gondola. 

4. In an elevator: spec. cage. 
caravan, n. 1. company (contextual), cafila 

or kafila (Oriental). 
2. See VAN. 

carbonaceous, a. Spec, coaly, charry, 

carbonize, v. t. burn (contextual); spec. 
char, coke. 

card, n. 1. Spec, ticket, carte-de-visite 
(French), carte, rose. 

2. Referring to playing cards: pasteboard 
(colloq. or cant). Devil's picture books 
(obs. or rare; pi.); spec, court card, dis- 
card, tarot (French). 

care, n. 1. cark (archaic), solicitude, con- 
cern, concernment, carefulness, reck (po- 
etic), distress; see trouble, anxiety. 

Antonyms: see carelessness, happi- 

2. charge, guardianship, ward (literary or 
formal), custody, keep, keeping, safe- 
keeping, protection, trust (rare), guard- 
ship (rare); spec, commendam; see over- 

3. heed, thought, heedfulness, vigilance, 
attention, caution, gingerliness, concern, 
consideration, precaution, guardedness, 
wariness, regard, reck (poetic), particu- 
larity, niceness, notice, pains (pi.), pains- 
taking; see PRUDENCE. 

Antonyms: see carelessness, negli- 

4. Referring to that which causes care: 
responsibility, anxiety, concern; see 


care, v. i. 1. In the sense of "to concern 
oneself": cark (archaic), reck (poetic). 
2. heed, notice, consider, think (con- 
textual); see ATTEND. 

careful, a. 1. carking (archaic), solicitoiLS, 
sohcitudinous (rare), concerned; spec. 

meticulous; see anxious, troubled. 
"Careful" is now archaic in this sense. 

2. heedful, attentive, considerate, con- 
scientious, regardful, mindful, respective 

(rare), thoughtful, close (chiefly spec), 
nice, diligent, painstaking, painful, curi- 
ous (archaic), near (chiefly spec), search- 
ing, particular, precise. 

Aittonyms: see neglectful, unobserv- 

3. cautious, precautious (rare), cautelous 
(archaic), prudent, circumspect, gingerly, 
leery (slang), vigilant, watchful, wary, 
chary (chiefly spec), guarded, safe, shy, 
guardful (rare), canny (Scot.; archaic), 
circumspective (rare); spec, noncommit- 

Antonyms: see careless, imprudent, 


careless, a. 1. unanxious, unconcerned, 
untroubled, unapprehensive, easy, free, 
blithe or blithesome (nearly equal to "hap- 
py" in sense; literary), easy (rare), secure 
(literary), cavalier, supine (chiefly spec), 
inconsiderate, incurious (archaic), worri- 
less (rare), poco-curante (Italian), in- 
souciant (French), nonchalant; see im- 
prudent, INDIFFERENT. 

Antonyms: see anxious. 
2. heedless, inattentive, inconsiderate, 
disregardful, harebrained, regardless, 
thoughtless, unthinking, unmindful, im- 
provident (chiefly spec), imprudent, neg- 
lectful, negligent, uncareful (rare), mind- 
less, incogitant (rare), unlieedful, un- 
wary, slovenly, unguarded, cursory, cas- 
ual, unheedy (rare), incurious (archaic), 
unobservant, inobservant, incautious, un- 
careful (rare), unattentive (rare); spec. 
offhand, rash, slack; see reckless. 

Antonyms: see watchful, careful, 


carelessness, n. unconcern, ease, security, 
nonchalance, etc. Cf. careless. 
Antonyms: see care, consideration. 

caress, v. t. fondle, cherish (archaic), daut 
(Scot.), coddle (chiefly with a suggestion of 
excess), coax (archaic), pet; spec, touch, 
stroke, lap, pat, kiss, bill, hug, dandle, 
dander (dial. Eng.), cuddle, overfondle; 
see KISS. 
Antonyms: see beat, abuse, ill-treat. 

caress, n. fondle (rare); spec, touch, 
stroke, pat, kiss, hug, dandle. 
Antonyms: see blow. 

caressing, n. fondling, dalliance (literary), 
cherishment (rare), cherishing (rare). 

f^^ Cross references: see Note. 
caracole: turn, caper. 
carcass: body. 
cardboard: pasteboard. 

cardiac: stimulating. 
cardinal, a.: chief. 
cardinal, n.: prince. 
careen: incline. 

career, n.: race, course. 
career, v. i.: rush. 
careworn: iveary. 
cargo: load. 

12^ Sec Notes of Explanation. 


caricature, /;. 1. "Scr burlesque. 
2. misrepresentation (contextual), mis- 
desorijition {chitjln spec), burlesque, trav- 
esty, parody; spec, cartoon. 

carniTal, /(. merrymaking, festival, revel- 
ry: spec. Mardipras. 

carnivorous, a. Hosh-eating, sarcophagous 
{rare"*, zoophagous (rare); spec, equivor- 
ous {rare), ichthyophagous, omophagous, 
necrophagous, predaceous, cannibal. 

carol, «. song, lay; spec. noel. 

carom, n. shot (cot^textual), cannon {chiefly 
Efig.), carambole {rare). 

carom, v. i. rebound, cannon {chiefly 
Eng.); spec, glance. 

carom, v. f. Spec. bank. 

carouse, ?!. carousal, orgy, debauch, rack- 
et (slarig), jamboree {slang, U. S.), spree 
{colloq.), bat {slang), bout, bust or buster 
(slang), rouse (archaic), fuddle (slang or 
colloq.), rantan (slang; rare), wassail (ar- 
chaic) , toot (slang, U.S.), bouse or boose or 
(colloq.) , booze, drunk (slang) , soak (slang) , 
tear (slang, U. S.), saturnalia (pi.; some- 
times used as a sing.), bacchanalia (pi.). 

carouse, v. i. rant (rare), debauch, bum 
(vulgar slang), drink (contextual), spree 
(colloq.), bouse (rare), or boose or (coUoq.) 

carriage, n. 1. See transportation, be- 
havior, VEHICLE. 

2. bearing, mien, air, poise, port, port- 
ance (archaic), behavior, conduct, de- 
meanor, presence, front, gest (archaic), 
personage; spec, gait, walk, run, step, 
tournure (French), elevation, lift. 

carriage house, remise (rare), hangar 
(French; chiefly spec), coach house. 

carrion, n. flesh (contextual); see offal. 

carry, v. t. 1. See transport, extend, pro- 

2. Referring to news, messages, informa- 
tion, etc.: communicate, transmit, bear, 
take, bring, convey. 

3. hold (as the head, oneself, etc.), bear 
(oneself); spec port (mil.). 

4. keep (as in stock), hold, have. 
carry, v. i. Referring to a gun, etc.: reach, 

carry, n. Spec, portage. 
cartilaginous, a. gristly, chondric (rare). 
carve, v. i. 1. See cut, chisel, engrave, 


2. R(fcrri>ig to carving at the table: cut; 
spec, (all obs. or rare) mince, lift, flush, 
display, disfigure, unjoint. 

case, )i. 1. Spec (in grammar) genitive, 
accusative, nominative, dative, ablative, 
objective, vocative. 

2. See example, state, patient, action, 

case, n. 1. receptacle (contextual), holder 
(contextual), container (contextual; cant), 
casing; spec box, chest, cabinet, drawer, 
bag, valise, sheath, scabbard, cartouche, 
canister, shell, cellaret, burse, chasse 
(French), shrine, pyx, etui (French), quiv- 
er, holster, housewife, hackle, hutch, cof- 
fer, crate, cartridge, portfolio; see cab- 
inet, casket. 

2. covering, cover; spec, sheath, skin, hull, 
cocoon, shell, carpet, etc. 

case, V. t. cover (contextual), incase; S'pec. 
bag, sheathe, crate; see box. 

cash, n. money; spec, coin, chink (slang), 
brass (slang), silver, gold, rowdy (slang), 
dust (slang), paper. 

cash, V. t. encash (rare); spec, realize. 

cask, n. receptacle (contextual), barrel, 
container (contextual; cant), stand (chiefly 
obs. and spec); spec, cade, caroteel, butt, 
keg, tierce, hogshead, firkin, castrel, 
puncheon, pipe, tun, kilderkin. 

casket, n. receptacle (contextual), box 
(contextual), case, pyx or pyxis (rare or 
spec); spec, reliquary, reliquaire (French), 

cast, V. t. 1. See throw, project, vomit, 
overturn, abort, reject, remove, 
shed, put, add, appoint, predict. 
2. run, found; spec recast. 

castellan, n. governor (contextual), keeper 
(contextual), chastelain. 

caster, n. 1. roller (contextual), trundle, 
truckle (rare), wheel (contextual). 

2. See BOTTLE. 

casting, n. founding, cast; spec, run, 

castrate, v. t. geld (chiefly tech. referring 
to the male); spec, cut, spay (the female), 
emasculate (chiefly fig.), evirate (referring 
to the male; rare), steer (a male calf; rare), 
unman (a man), capon or caponize (a 
cock), eunuchize (rare), twitch (a beast). 

castrated, a. gelt, gelded. 

casually, adv. happy-go-lucky, haphazard, 
hitty-missy (rare or dial.). 

X^ Cross references: see Note. 
caricature, v. t.: burlesque. 
carina: ridge. 
carious: decomposed. 
cark, n.: care. 
cark, V. t.: trouble. 
carnage: slaughter. 
carnal: bodily, worldly, sensual. 
carol, v.: sing. 

carousal: carouse, tournament. 

carp, V. i.: cavil. 

carping, a.: faultfinding. 

carte: card. 

carton: pasteboard, box, buU's- 

eye, shot. 
cartoon, n.: design, caricature. 
cartoon, v. t.: burlesque. 
cartouche: box, tablet, scroll. 

carving: engraving, sculpture. 
cascade: waterfall. 
casement: sash, window. 
cashier, v. t.: discharge. 
casing: cover, case, covering. 
cast, n.: exuvium. 
castaway: abandoned. 
castigate: punish, reprove. 
castigatory: punitive. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 



casualty, n. 1. See chance. 
2. In pi.; mil.: losses. 

cat, n. feline {tech. or learned), Baudrons 
{Scottish; a proper name, like "Reynard" 
for the fox), puss {chiefly a call name), 
pussy {chiefly a pet name), miauler {fanci- 
ful), grimalkin {chiefly spec), gib (famil- 
iar; chiefly spec); spec mouser, rumpy 
{colloq.), tortoiseshell, tomcat {male), 
tommy {male; colloq.), tabby, kit, kitten, 
bobcat, kitty (a pet name), kitling {dial.), 
catling, maltese. Angora. 

catalogue, n. list; spec didascaly, index, 
sanctilogy, beadroU. 

catalogue, v. t. Spec list, index. 

catastrophe, n. 1. cataclysm, convulsion; 
spec, debacle, debacle (i^renc/i), upheaval, 

2. ending, denoAment {French). 
Antonyms: see beginning. 


catastrophic, a. 1. convulsionary, catar 
clysmal, cataclysmic, paroxysmal {rare). 


catch, V. t. 1. take, seize, nab {slang or col- 
loq.); spec nick {slang), entoil {archaic), 
land, net, mesh, dredge, lime, gill, ginnle, 
hook, illaqueate {rare), grin {archaic), 
noose, guddle, entangle, enmesh, snap, 
snare or {emphatic) ensnare, trawl, trap 
or {emphatic) entrap, drag; see seize, 


Antonyms: see free, throw. 

2. attract {the attention, fancy, etc), en- 
gage, take, arrest, smite {rhetorical.), hit 
{colloq.); see captivate. 

3. Referring to a cold, disease, etc.: con- 
tract, take, get. 

4. Referring to chastisement, reproof, etc: 
receive, get. 

5. get {as a train), make, nick {slang, 

6. trip {in a fault), nick {sla7ig., Eng.). 

7. See OVERTAKE, discover, receive, 


catch, V. i. 1. seize, hold; spec hitch. 


catch, n. 1. seize, seizure, hold; spec grasp, 
grab, snatch, etc 
Antonyms: see miss. 

2. Spec, trigger, trap, detent, click, dog, 
latch, barb, buckle, snap, fence, pallet, 

3. Thing or amount caught: spec take, net, 
fare, trip, trap, draft, haul, shot, field, fly. 

4. See ROUND. 

catching, a. inoculable, contagious, com- 
municable, taking {chiefly U. S.), infec- 
tious; spec pestilential, pestiferous, 

cathartic, a. laxative, physic, purgative, 
purging, aperient, evacuatory, eccoproc- 
tic {mild; rare), eccritic {rare), deobstru- 
ent {tech.), alviducous {rare), deoppilent 
{rare or obs.), lapactic {rare). 
Antonyms: see constipating. 

cathartic, n. laxative, physic, purgative, 
purge, aperient, dejector {rare), eccoproc- 
tic {rare), evacuant. 

cathedra, n. seat, chair, throne, see {ar- 

cathedral, n. duomo {Italian); spec, sec- 

catholic, a. 1. See general, liberal. 
2. [cap.\ Short for "Roman Catholic": 
Roman, Romish {chiefly in derogation), 
Popish {used only in derogation) . 

Catholicize, v. t. Romanize. 

cattle, a. 1. In a general sense: see stock. 
2. Referring to bovines: beeves {pi.), neat 
{archaic; a collective); spec {pi.) red-polls, 
shorthorns, Lancashires, Jerseys, Hol- 
steins, etc 

cattle raising: boviculture {affected). 

causable, a. inducible, producible 

causal, a. 1. Spec, creational. 

causative, a. inductive, inducive {rare), 
productive, causal {rare), creative {chiefly 
spec), generative. 

cause, V. t. produce, effect, effectuate 
{rare), gar {Scot.), make, have, do {obs.), 
germinate {fig. or spec), keep {rare; equiv. 
to "keep up"), inchoate {rare), provoke, 
originate, let {archaic or phrasal), create, 
generate, occasion, breed, bring, raise, 
work; spec necessitate, bear, will, induce, 
superinduce; see excite, form. 
Antonyms: see prevent. 

cause, n. 1. principle {tech. or literary), 
origin, producer {rare), wherefore {col- 
loq.), inducement, occasion; see motive, 


Antonyms: see result. 


caustic, a. 1. burning, escharotic {tech.); 
spec, catheretic. 

2. In mathematics: spec catacaustic, dia- 


caustic, n. 1. escharotic {tech.), cauter, 
cautery; spec, catheretic, moxa. 
2. Spec catacaustic, diacaustic. 

f^W Cross references: see Note. 
casuistry: prevarication. 
cataclysm: catastrophe, up- 
cataplasm: poultice. 

cataract: waterfall, deluge. 
catchy: attractive, deceptive. 
catechize, v. t.: teach, question. 
categorical: dogmatic. 
cater: provide. 

causeless: grotmdless. 
caution, n.: viarning, care. 
caution, v. t.: warn. 
cautionary: warning. 
cautious: careful. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 



cavalry, n. soldiery (contexluol), horse; 
spi'c. uhlan; in the British Army: Yeo- 
manry, Life Guards, Horse Guards, 
Dragoon Guards, Dragoons, Hussars, 

cavalryman, n. soldier (contextual), horse- 
man, troop, plunger (mil. slang); spec. 
horse guard, heavy, roughrider, reiter 
(hist.), dragoon, silladar (Anglo-Indian), 
cuirassier, hussar, matross (hist., U. S.), 

cave, n. recess, cavern, den (chiefly spec); 
spec, grotto, grot (poetic), nymphseum, 
Lupercal (rare; antiq.). 

cave-dweller, /f. caveman, troglodyte 

cave- dwelling, a. cavernicolous (rare), 
troglodyte (tech.), speluncous (rare). 

cavil, n. criticism (contextual), carping; 
spec, wrangle. 

cavil, V. i. e.xcept (contextual), carp, nibble, 
haggle (chiefly spec), higgle (chiefly spec), 
stickle; spec quarrel, wrangle. 

caviling, a. critical (contextual) , captious, 
hairsplitting, carping, exceptive (rare), 
exceptious (rare); spec, hypercritical. 

cavity, n. hole, hollow; spec hold (of a 
ship), sinus (tech.), ventriculus, vacuole, 
bug, well, diverticulum (tech.), pocket, 
fossa or fosse, pit, depression, fossette, 
druse, lacuna (tech.), crypt, cistern, 
atrium, cup; see chamber. 

Antonyms: see projection, protuber- 

ceiling, n. ceil (rare and poetic), roof, 
plafond (French); spec cupola. 

celebrate, v. t. 1. See observe, praise. 
2. proclaim, extol, emblazon, emblaze 
(rare), commemorate, sing, sound, re- 

. sound, laud, trumpet, royalize (rare), re- 
nown (rare); spec, historicize, fame (rare), 
sonnet (rare), hymn, concelebrate (rare), 
tune, lionize, rime or rhyme, berime or 
berhyme (emphatic; often contemptuous). 
Antonyms: see depreciate. 

celebrate, v. i. jubilate, jubilize (rare); 
spec triumph. 

celebration, n. 1. See observance, 

PRAISE, communion. 

2. proclamation, emblazonment, com- 
memoration, laudation, etc. Cf. cele- 
brate, V. t. 

3. Spec, festivity, festival, triumph, ova- 
tion, Eucaemia (Oxford Univ.), anniver- 
sary, biennial, triennial, etc, birthday. 

celebrity, n. 1. See fame. 

2. notable, name, light, luminary, lion, 

celibacy, n. singleness, celibate (archaic); 
spec, virginity. 

celibate, a. single, unmarried; spec, virgin. 

celibate, n. Spec bachelor, maid or 
maiden (obs. or legal, exc as of women), 
spinster, old maid (fern.; colloq. or con- 

Antonyms: see benedict, husband, 

cell, n. 1. Spec utricle, vacuole, theca, 
spore, am(Kba, corpuscle, plastid, locule, 
loculus, loculament, locellus, eye, cellule, 
hffimatid, hsemad, macrocyte. 

2. room (contextual) ; spec serdab, vault, 
reclusory (rare), concameration (rare), 
box (slang). 

3. See compartment. 

celled, a. cellate, cellated, cellulate; — all 
these tech. 

cell-like, a. cytoid (tech.). 

cellular, a. Spec loculose (tech.), locula- 
mentose (tech.; rare), loculamentous 
(tech.; rare), favose (tech.), comby (rare), 
honey-combed, faveolate (tech.). 

cement, n. Spec glue, lute, lime, putty, 
tar, mortar, paste, solder. "Cement" is 
chiefly spec. 

cement, v. i. conglutinate (rare), glue 
(primarily spec), stick; spec solder, lime, 
paste, ferruminate (archaic), mortar, be- 
lute (rare), lute, putty, grout, plaster. 
Antonyms: see break. 

cemetery, n. burial place, graveyard, gol- 
gotha (literary), necropolis (rhetorical); 
spec polyandrium, catacomb, churchyard 
(archaic or hist.). 

censer, n. thurible, incensory; spec, casso- 
lette, incense boat, navicula, nef (French). 

censorious, a. critical (contextual), culpa- 
tory (rare), condemnatory, reprobative, 
disapprobatory (rare), reprehensive, rep- 
rehensing (rare), reprehensory (rare); 
spec, vitriolic, cynic; see faultfinding. 
Antonyms: see approving, praising. 

censure, n. 1. blame, condemnation, 
reproach (rare), reprehension, reprobation 
(rare), objurgation (rare), reproof, hit 
(colloq.), knock (slang), criticism, stric- 
ture, nip, animadversion (literary); spec 
attack, diatribe, backbite, dy.slogy (a 
nonce word); see blame, blaming, re- 
Antonyms: see applause, approval, 
praise, compliment. 

X^ Cross references: see Note. 
cavalier, n.: horseman, knight, 

gentleman, escort, lover. 
cavalier, a.: careless, proud. 
cavalierly: proud. 
cave -in: collapse. 

cavern: cave. 

cease: stop. 

ceaseless: constant, endless. 

cede, V. t.: relinquish, transfer. 

ceil: line. 

celebrated: famous. 

celerity: rapidity. 

celestial, a.: heavenly, divine, 

celestial, 7i.: angel. 

censurable: blamable, repre- 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 



2. Referring to direct criticism of a person: 


censure, v. t. 1. condemn, reproach, repre- 
hend, reprobate, reprove (rare), hit (col- 
loq.), knock (slang), tax (rare), fault 
(rare), scarify (fig.), perstringe (rare), 
criticize; spec, backbite, attack; see 


Antonyms: see applaud, approve, 

PRAISE, compliment. 

2. Referring to direct censure of a person: 


census, n. lustrum (Roman antiq.; rare). 
cent, n. copper (colloq.), penny (a loose 

usage) . 
centenary, a. secular; spec, centennial, 

center, n. 1. In a physical sense: middle, 

omphalos (rare; fig. or spec), hub (fig.), 

navel (fig.); spec, nucleus, pivot, radiant. 

metropolis, coom (Scot.) bull's-eye. 
Antonyms: see circumference, edge, 


2- In a nonphysical sense: focus, hub, 
heart, core, navel, pivot, hinge, kernel, 

center, v. t. 1. centralize, concenter (rare 
or spec); spec, focus. 
2. See UNITE. 

central, a. middle; spec focal, nuclear, 

century, n. 1. centennium (rare), cen- 
tenary (rare). 

2. See HUNDRED. 

ceramics, n. pottery. 

cereal, n. 1. Referring to the plant: grain, 
corn (chiefly spec, the particular sense 
varying with the locality); spec oat, pea, 
2. See GRAIN. 

cerebrate, v. %. mentalize (rare). 

cerebration, n. mentalism, mentation. 

ceremony, n. 1. Referring to the action or 
procedure: performance, observance, rite, 
function (chiefly spec), office, practise; 
spec sacrament, mummery (contemptu- 
ous), ordinance (eccL), tenebrse (pi.). 
2. Referring to the form: see form. 

certain, a. 1. See fixed, definite, un- 

2. In a sense implying unfailing correct- 
ness: sure, assured (rare), infallible. 
Antonyms: see uncertain, doubtful, 


3. With "to" and the infinitive: sure, 
bound, destined. 
certainty, n. 1. Spec fixity, definiteness, 
unquestionableness, etc 

2. In a sense implying unfailing correct- 
ness: sureness, assurance (rare), surety, 
certitude; spec infallibility. 

Antonyms: see uncertainty, doubt. 

3. Meaning a thing that is unquestionable 
or inevitable: surety, cinch (slang). "Sure 
thing" is chiefly slang. 

Ajitonyms: see chance. 

certificate, n. Spec, policy, scrip, deben- 

chafed, a. rubbed, galled, fretted, eaten, 
foxed (dial.), worn. 

chaffy, a. paleaceous, paleate; — both tech. 

chain, n. 1. catena (rare or tech.); spec. 
painter, fob. 


chair, n. Spec, tumbrel, rocker, round- 
about (U. S.), throne, Cromwell chair, 
curule chair, faldstool, exedra; see 


chairman, n. president, presider; spec 
toastmaster, moderator, speaker, proloc- 
utor, croupier. 

chalky, a. cretaceous (literary or tech.), 
cretous (rare). 

challenge, v. t. 1. dare, defy, stump 
(colloq., U. S.), deraign (hist, or obs.), 
brave (rare). 

challenge, n. 1. dare, defy (colloq.), de- 
fiance, stump (colloq., U. S.). 
2. See objection. 

chamber, n. 1. See room, bedroom, com- 
partment, ASSEMBLY. 

2. Referring to a room for official business 
or public assembly: camera (rare, tech., or 
spec); spec, bourse, exchange, curia, hall. 

3. cavity, camera (rare or tecli.); spec 
coffer, cofferdam, kistvaen, casemate, lock, 
vault, cist, cell; see grave. 

chambered, a. concamerated, camerate; 
spec, septate, locular; — all tech., exc 

chambermaid, n. femme de chambre 
(French) . 

champagne, n. simkin (Anglo-Indian) . 

champion, n. 1. protector, defender; spec 
knight, knight-errant, paladin (fig.). 
2. See SUPPORTER, victor. 

chance, n. 1. Referring to a way of happen- 
ing of events or to a fortuitous state of af- 

tJ^ Cross references: see Note. 


transfer, relinquish- 

challenge, v. i.: object. 

ceremonial, a,: formal. 


challenging: defiant. 

ceremonial, n,: form. 

chafe, V. 

t.: rub. 

champaign: plain, country. 

ceremonious: formal. 

chafe, V. 

i.: rub, fret. 

champion, v. t.: protect, sup- 

certify: assure, authenticate. 

chaff, n. 

pleasantry, refuse. 


certitude: confidence, certainty. 

chafi, V. 

.: banter. 

championship: protection. 

cerulean: azure. 

chain, v 

t.: bind, fanten. 


cessation: stop, intermission. 



chance, )). i.: happen. 

JS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



fairs: outcome, fortune, cast (obsolescent) , 
hazard (rare), ciisualty (obsolescent), per- 
adventuro (littrari/), venture (archaic); 
spec, toss-up (colloq.), gamble. 
Antonyms: sec certainty, necessity. 

2. Referring to a particular happening: 
occurrence, accident, casualty, contin- 
gency, contingence, fortuity, fortune, 
hap (rare), perad venture (literary); spec. 
draw, chance-medley; see misfortune. 

Antotiyms: see necessity. 

3. Referring to chance generically, a sense 
often personified: accident, hazard, hap- 
hazard, contingency (rare), contingence 
{rare), hap; spec, luck; see fortune. 

Antonyms: see necessity. 

4. See opportunity, contingency. 
cbance, a. accidental, contingent, casual, 

chanceable (archaic), chanceful (archaic), 
stray (fig.), blind, blindfold (fig.), hap- 
hazard, errabund (rare), harum-scarum 
(colloq.); see purposeless, aimless. 
Antonyms: see consequential, inten- 

chancel, ??. sanctuary, bema (eccl.; antiq.). 

chandelier, n. 1. candlestick. 
2. pendant (contextual); spec, gaselier, 
electrolier, corona, pendant (rare), crown. 

change, Ji. 1. See exchange, removal, 

2. variation, alteration, transition, mu- 
tation, variance, turning, turn (chiefly 
colloq.), transmutation, passage, passing, 
pass, movement (chiefly spec), shift 
(chiefly spec), go (colloq. or slang), revo- 
lution (rare), novation (rare); spec, start, 
bob, break, graduation, risk, vicissitude; 
see transformation, qualification, 


Antonyms: see constancy, continua- 

3. Referring to garments: shift (now U. S. 
or dial. Eng.). 

change, v. t. 1. exchange (often spec), 
commute; spec shift (one's garments); see 


2. alter, vary, qualify, variate (rare), 
modify, transform, mutate (chiefly spec), 
convert, turn; spec provect, transmute, 
moderate, diminish, increase, intensify, 
quahfy, transform, shade, convert. 

Antonyms: see fix. 
change, v. i. alter, vary, variate (rare), 
shift (chiefly spec), pass, resolve (literary 
or spec), go (colloq. or spec), mutate 
(chiefly spec), turn (chiefly spec); spec. 
shape (cs in "things are shaping his way;" 
colloq.), glide, sink, jump, break, range, 
graduate, grade. 

Antonyms: see continue. 

changeable, a. 1. movable, variable, mo- 
bile, versatile (rare or spec), mutable; 
see exchangeable, movable. 
Antonyms: see immovable, fixed. 

2. Alterable, varying, variant, variable, 
mutable, modifiable, inconstant, fickle 
(fig.); spec changeful, vicissitudinous, 
vicissitudinary, chatoyant, shot. 

Antonyms: see constant, fixed. 

3. fickle, inconstant, variable, light- 
headed or light, moody (obsolescent), hare- 
brained, flighty, mutable, shifty (chiefly 
spec), skittish (fig.), volatile (literary), 
feathery (fig.; rare), versatile (rare), mer- 
curial (literary), unstable, changeful. 

Antonyms: see constant, obstinate, 


changeableness, n. 1. movableness, vari- 
ableness, etc 

2. alterableness, variableness, incon- 
stance, etc 

Antonyms: see application. 
changeling, n. 1. Proteus (fig.); spec. 
waverer, turncoat; renegade. 
2- oof. 

3. See IDIOT. 

changing, a. 1, changeful, fluxile (rare), 
various (rare or archaic), mobile, dynamic 
or dynamical (tech.). 
2. alterative, modifying, modificatory. 

channel, n. 1. conduit, canal, course, duct, 
carrier (contextual); spec, trough (now 
U.S.), gutter, groove, furrow, cloaca, cal- 
oriduct (rare), sewer, main, rabbet, artery, 
aorta, vein, runway, airway, cesspipe, 
pipe, lateral, aqueduct, drain, flute, shoot, 
intake, leader, canaliculus, coulisse 
(French), cullis, flume, riffle, wadi, ditch, 
dike, downcomer, dale, lumen, meatus, 
launder, main, neck, katabothron (rare), 
marigot (French), lead, run, rurmel, 
runner, sulcation (rare), donga (So. 
Af.), gullet (local Eng.), gully, funnel, cul- 
vert, sluice, raceway or race (chiefly U. S.) 

2. Referring to the deep part of a water- 
way: thalweg (German; tech.), thread, 
runway (rare), ditch (contemptuous) ; spec. 
tideway, gut, sound, strait, swash, race- 
way or race (chiefly U. S.), neck, lead, 

3. Referring to a long depression: spec. 
furrow, groove, sulcation (rare), trough, 
fluting, dig, scratch, score, gouge, cut, 

Antonyms: see ridge. 
channel, v. t. Spec gutter, canal (rare), 

gully, ravine, chamfer, ditch, canalize, 

sweal (obs. or Scot.). 
channeled, a. Spec, guttered, guttery, 


lew Cross references: see Note. 

clisiiigef 111. changeable, changing, \ moving. 

t^^ See Notes of Esplanation. 


chant, n. Spec, hymn, song, canticle, 

requiem {chiefly poetic), intonation. 
chaos, n. 1. abyss, void; spec. Ginnunga- 


chapel, n. Spec, galilee, vestry, cubiculum, 

crypt, chantry, oratory, pool, Bethesda. 
chaperon, n. gouvernante (French); spec. 

chaperon, v. t. matronize (rare). 
chapter, ?i. 1. division (contextual); spec. 

sura (in the Koran) , capitular. 


char, V. t. burn, scorch, carbonize (tech.), 

char, n. burn, scorch, scar; spec, charcoal, 

character, n. 1. See figure, mark, na- 

2. symbol, emblem (fig. or contextual), 
figure (spec, or contextual); spec, letter, 
type, hieroglyph^ hieroglyphic, polyphone, 
ideograph, pictograph, descender, hook. 

3. personage, eccentric, crank (coUoq.), 
original, erratic (rare), vagarian (rare), 
case (colloq. or slang, U. S.), oddity 
(colloq.). "Character" is somewhat collo- 
quial in this sense. 

characteristic, n. feature, trait, peculi- 
arity, physiognomic (rare); spec, diagnos- 
tic (esp. nied.); see quality, distinction. 

charge, n. 1. See price, expense, tax, 
accusation, complaint, bidding, care, 
burden, attack. 

2. liability, burden, encumbrance, tax 
(orig. spec), expense; spec, assessment, 
rate; see mortgage. 

3. rate, tax (colloq. or slang, U. S.); spec. 
average, demurrage, tariff, terminals 
(pi.), dockage, storage, etc.; see price. 

4. debit (tech.), chalk (spec, or fig.), score 
(spec), due. 

5. Referring to firearms, a furnace, etc.: 
load; spec round, blast, feed (fig.). 

charge, v. t. 1. See fill, bid,, assess, ac- 
cuse, attack, prepare, load. 

2. burden, commission, intrust, tax, en- 
charge (rare). 

3. Referring to a person: tax (colloq., 

4. Referring to the amount: debit (tech.), 

score (rare); spec, peg, size (Eng. uni- 
versities) . 

5. Referring to what is charged with a 
liability: burden, incumber; see mort- 
charitable, .a. 1. See benevolent. 

2. eleemosynary (literary, tech., or euphe- 
mistic) . 

3. liberal, considerate; spec, fair-minded, 

charity, n. I. See love, kindness, benev- 
olence, ALMS. 

2. Spec, foundation, bequest, hospital, 
college (chiefiy Eng.). 

charm, n. 1. See bewitchery, bewitch- 

2. Spec talisman, fetish or fetich, medi- 
cine (anthropology), saphie (North Africa), 
obi or obeah (negro), greegree (Africa), 
Antonyms: see hoodoo. 

charmer, n. 1. See magician. 
2. Referring to a charming person, esp. a 
woman: witch (colloq.). 

chase, n. 1. In the generic sense: pursuit, 
hunting, course, hunt, cynegetics (rare); 
spec venery. 


chase, v. i. pursue; spec, run; — with 

chaste, a. I. pure, clean, white (fig.), in- 
nocent, honest (rare or archaic), virtuous. 
Antonyms: see unchaste, lewd, im- 

chastity, n. 1. purity, pureness, innocence, 
honor, virtue, virtuousness. 
2. See PURITY. 

chattel, n. chose (tech.), movable, things 
(pi.; chiefly spec); spec, distress (sing.); 
see GOODS. 

chatter, n. 1. babble (rare), jargon, jangle, 
patter (colloq.), gabble (co7itemptuous) , 
clatter (contemptuous), patter (colloq.), 
twaddle or twattle (now dial, or colloq.), 
claver (cojitemptuous, Scot.), clack (con- 
temptuous), mag (colloq.), cackle (con- 
temptuous or spec), gibber, gibberish, 
jabber, jibber (rare), prattle, prate (rare), 
prating, prittle-prattle (rare); spec. talk. 
2. See babble, rattle. 

X^W^ Cross references: see Note. 
chant, V. I.: sing, intone. 
chanticleer: cock. 
chaotic: formless, confused. 
chap: person. 
chap fallen : depressed. 
chaplet: crown. 
chapped: cracked. 
chaps: jaw, chops. 
charge, v. i.: rush. 

charge: diplomatic agent. 

chargeable: attributable. 

charger: platter, horse. 

charlatan: quack. 

charm, v. t.: bewitch, captivate, 

charming: captivating, pleas- 
ant, atlrarlive. 

charnel house: ossuary. 

chart, n.: table. 

chart, V. t.: tabulate. 
charter, n.: deed, privilege. 
charter, v. t.: hire. 
chary: careful, prudent. 
chase, v. t.: hunt, pursue. 
chasm: abyss, cleft, l>reak, void. 
chasten: purify, punish, restrain. 
chastise: punish. 
chat, V. i.: converse. 
chat, 71.; conversation. 

iW See Notes of Explanation. 



chatter, v. i. 1. babble, jargon, jargonize 
irarc), jabblc (rare), patter (colloq.), gab- 
ble (conteinptuous), prattle, jabber, prate, 
blat or blate {vulgar or contemptuous); 
spec. talk. 

2. .Sff RATTLE. 

chatter, r. t. 1. patter, prate, rattle (fig.). 

2. Ncr HATTLE. 

cheap, a. 1. inexpensive; spec, easy (col- 
loq.); see ECONOMICAL. 
Antonyms: see costly. 

2. See low-priced. 

3. vulgar, meretricious; spec, popular; 


cheat, v. i. sharp, shark (rare), swindle. 

cheat, V. t. 1. defraud, swindle, beguile, 
cozen (now literary), victimize (context- 
ual), bilk (colloq.), gouge (colloq.), fob or 
fub (rare), daddle (colloq.), bob (obs.; 
slang), bucket (slang), rogue (rare), 
shave, rook (colloq. or slang), gudgeon 
(colloq.), mump (colloq.; obs.), lurch (ar- 
chaic), ramp (slang), Jew (used opprobri- 
ously by non-Jews; vulgar), cozen (noiv lit- 
erary), cony-catch (obs.); spec, cog, fleece, 
thimblerig, bunco, chouse (colloq. or slang) . 
2. See deceive. 

cheat, n. 1. swindle, beguilement (esp. the 
action), do (slang), cross (cant or slang), 

2. defrauder, swindler, sharper, sharker 
(rare), cozener (noiv literary), trickster, 
sharp, Jew (used opprohriously by some 
non-Jeios; vulgar), blackleg (colloq.), 
crook (colloq.), cony-catcher (obs.), snide 
(slang), Greek (chiefly spec), hawk (fig.), 
bilk (rare; colloq. or slang), kite (rare), 
shaver (rare), rascal, lurch (rare), rogue, 
rook (fig.); spec, blackleg (colloq.), chouse 
(colloq. or slang). 


cheating, n. defrauding, swindlery (rare). 

check, V. t. 1. See stop, restrain, re- 
press, SUPPRESS, reject, BAR, STUNT, 

2. mark; spec, tick, prick, tally. 

3. repulse, squelch, rebuff; spec. snub. 

4. countercheck; spec, block, scotch, cog, 
snub, brake, drag, anchor, damp, rein. 

5. withhold, forbear, spare, refrain (rare); 
.spec, cease. 

check, n. 1. See STOP, STOPPAGE, repres- 

2. Referring to that which checks: counter- 
check; spec, drag, drogue, block, snub, 
chock, clog, stop, stopper, damp, damper, 
blanket, rein, bridle, inhibition, brake, 
let (esp. in "without let or hindrance"). 

3. repulse, rebuff, setback ([/. 5.), back- 
set, thwart (rare); spec. snub. 

4. mark; spec, tick, prick, tally, dash. 

5. Referring to that by which a thing is 
controlled, measured, etc.: spec, standard, 

checkered, a. cheeky, chequce or chequ6 

cheek, Ji. 1. jowl (rare or dial.); spec, gills 

(pi.; slang). 


cheer, v. t. 1. encourage, inspirit, cherish 
(rare), comfort, strengthen, solace, con- 
sole, hearten, enliven, brighten, encheer 
(rare), recreate (rare), rehearten (rare), 
liven (colloq.), warm; spec, chirrup. 
Antonyms: see abash, discourage, 


2. See APPLAUD. 

cheer, v. i. shout (contextual), jolly (Eng.); 
spec, hurrah, hurray, hurra, huzza. 

cheer, n. 1. encouragement, comfort, sol- 
ace, consolation, consolement (rare), en- 
livenment, recreation (rare). 
2. shout (contextual), jolly (Eng.); spec. 
tiger, huzza, hurrah, hurray, hurra. 

cheerful, a. 1. light, light-hearted, bright, 
chipper (slang or colloq., U. S.), chirrupy 
(colloq.), lively, merry, jocund (literary), 
debonair (literarTj), lightsome, chirpy (col- 
loq.), hilarious, jolly, gladsome, heartsome 
(chiefly Scot.), canty (dial.), sunny, sun- 
shiny (colloq.), buxom (archaic), lusty 
(archaic), riant (rare), cheery, genial, 
blithe, blithesome, bonny (obs. or rare), 
brisk (chiefly dial.); spec, smiling. 
Antonyms: see depressed, sullen, 


2. See cheering. 

cheerfulness, n. geniality, hilarity, sun- 
shine, gladsomeness, etc. 
Antonyms: see depression, discour- 

cheering, a. cheerful, genial, enlivening, 
inspiriting, strengthening, consolatory, 
gladsome, Igetificant (rare), heartsome 
(chiefly Scot.), chirping (rare), cheer\', 
blithesome, comfortable, cordial (rare), 
solaceful (rare). 
Antonyms: see depressing, gloomy. 

cheering, n. solacement, enlivenment, 
heartening, etc. 

cheerless, a. dull, dismal, gloomy, dreary, 
dark, joyless. 

cheerlessness, n. dullness, dismalness, 

cheesy, a. caseous (chiefly tech.). 

chemical, a. Spec, alchemical, analytical, 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
chatty: conversational, communicative. 

checker: plaid. 
checkmate: defeat. 

cheep: chirp. 

cheery: cheerful, cheering. 

XS' See Notes of Explanation. 



chemise, n. shift, smock, slip; spec. 

cherish, v. t. 1. protect, foster, nurse, cod- 
dle, bosom {rare), brood; spec, enshrine, 
cosset, pet; see foster. 
Antonyms: see abuse, beat, blight, 


2. See CARESS, love, preserve, enter- 

chest, 71. 1. case, box, coffer {chiefly spec), 
hutch {archaic or spec); spec, cist or cyst 
{antiq.), clothespress, cabinet, commode, 
chiffonier, cofSn, locker, tallboy, highboy, 
wangun {cant), bureau; see trunk. 
2. thorax {tech.); spec breast. 

chestnut, a. castaneous {tech.). 

chevron, n. 1. Spec, zigzag, dancette. 

2. See BADGE. 

chew, V. t. & i. 1. masticate {formal), chaw 
{now vulgar or implying vulgarity), man- 
ducate {rare); spec, crunch, crump, 
munch, mumble, champ, ruminate, gnaw. 
2. See REND. 

chewing, a. masticatory, manducatory 
{rare); — both formal. 

chicane, v. i. pettifog {in law). 

chicanery, n. deceit {contextual), trickery, 
sophistry, chicane; spec, prevarication, 
pettifogging, pettifoggery. 

chick, n. offspring {contextual), squab 
{chiefly spec); see chicken. 

chicken, n. fowl {contextual), poult {rare), 
biddy {colloq.); spec broiler, fry, peeper, 

chicken-breasted, a. gibbous {rare or 
tech.), pigeon-breasted. 

chief, a. 1. first, arch {chiefly literary or 
used in combination), principal, foremost, 
master, head, high {contextual), preemi- 
nent, top, supereminent {rare), premier. 

2. In importance, interest, etc.: main, 
principal, first, capital {literary or for- 
mal), premier, cardinal, pivotal, great 
{used with "the"), central, top, primary, 
supreme, prime, grand, leading, palmary 
{rare), palmarian {rare). 

Antonyms: see inferior, secondary, 


3. In proportion: prevailing, main. 
chief, n. 1. head; spec, chieftain, head- 
man, headsman {rare), primate {rare), 
cob {dial.), cock {colloq.), ruler, leader, 
dux {chiefly Scot, or spec), captain, capi- 
tano {Italian), cacique (West Indies), 
condottiere {Italian), clicker, cid, general 
{mil. or eccl.), foreman, elder, goodman 
{Scot, or archaic), protopope {eccl.), jarl, 
caboceer {Africa), hierarch {eccl.), pro- 

vincial {eccl.), ringleader, reis or rais 
{Arabia), sheik {Arabia), sagamore, 
sachem, raja or rajah, principal, prince, 
cardinal {R. C. Ch.), primate {eccl.), 
poligar, prytanis {fig.), president, pre- 
mier, phylarch, matriarch {chiefly jocu- 
lar), malik {Hindu), abuna {eccl.), metran 
{eccl.), lumberdar {India), judge {Bib.), 
kehaya {Turkish); see overseer, supe- 
rior, commander. 
Antonyms: see subordinate. 

2. principal, don {literary or cant). 

3. In heraldry: spec, soustenu {French). 
chiefly, adv. principally, mainly, most, 

mostly, capitally, cardinally, etc. 

chieftancy, n. chiefship, headship, su- 
premacy, masterdom. 

child, n. 1. See offspring. 
2. offspring {contextual), kid {slang or col- 
loq.), bairn {Scot.), cub {jocose or contempt- 
uous), whelp (contemptuous), papoose 
{Amer. Ind.), dandiprat {obs., juvenile, or 
archaic), dab {contemptuous), joey {Aus- 
tralia; colloq.), imp {chiefly spec), mop- 
pet {archaic; a term of endearment), bud 
{a term of endearment), brat {contemptu- 
ous), innocent {as being pure), cherub {pi. 
cherubs; spec or sarcastic), lambkin (a 
term of endearment); spec, boy, girl, 
changeling, nestling {fig.), elf, tot, elfin 
{literary; rare), chit {colloq.), trot {colloq.), 
urchin; see son, daughter. 
Antonyms: see parent, father, mother. 

childbirth, n. parturition {tech.), parturi- 
ence {tech.; rare), travail {archaic), labor, 
pains {pi.), puerpery {rare); spec, deliv- 
ery, eutocia, dystocia. 

childhood, n. infancy {chiefly legal, exc. 
spec), youth, puerility {rare); spec, minor- 
ity, pupilage, nonage. 
Antonyms: see age, maturity. 

childish, a. childlike, childly {rare), ju- 
venile, puerile {usually in a bad sense), 
youthful, brattish {contemptuous), kiddish 
{slang or colloq.) ; spec, boyish, boylike, girl- 
ish, girl-like, girly {colloq.); see babyish. 
These terms when applied to older persons 
are used as equivalent to: "foolish, weak, 
silly, trifling, trusting, unsuspecting," etc. 
"Childish" is seldom used except of older 
persons, and usually in a derogatory sense: 
"childlike" usually implies approval. 
Antonyms: see manly, womanly, wom- 
anish, OLD. 

children, n. pi. 1. offspring {contextual). 
2. childhood {rare); spec, infantry {jocu- 
lar), infancy; see youth. 

chilly, a. cold, cool, chill. 

tS' Cross references: see Note, 
cherished: dear. 
cherub: angel, child. 
cherup: chirp. 

chevalier: hurseman, knight, 

chide: scold, reprove. 
childlike: childixh. 

chill, n.: cold, depression. 
chill, a.: cold, chilly. 
chill, )i. i.: cool, restrain, freeze- 
chilline:: depressing, repellent. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 



cliime, ;'. /. iC* /. 1. ring {archaic or spec), 

play {coiitixtual). 

2. Sec a(.:ree, harmonize. 
chimney, /(. 1. Spec, flue, shoot, stack, 


2. ^'t^• CLEFT. 

chimney corner, fireside, iiiglenook {lit- 
er ary). 

chin, n. luentum {tech.); spec. jowl. 

china, n. earthenware {rare), chinaware, 
porcelaiue; spec, crackle, belleek, ma- 
jolica, etc. 

Chinese, a. Celestial {hu7norous), Sinic 
{rare), Sinaean or Sinaic {rare); spec. 
Serian or Seric. 

chip, n. Spec, flake, spall, turnings {pi.), 
cuttings {pi.), parings {pi.), flint; see 


chirp, n. A v. i. cry {contextual), twitter, 
cheep, cherup, chipper, peep, pipe, pip, 
chirk {dial, or U. S.), chirrup or chirup; 
spec. pule. 

chirping, a. cheepy. 

chisel, V. t. cut {contextual), carve {con- 
textual); spec, boast {inaso7iry), gouge. 

chisel-shaped, a. scalpriform {tech.). 

choice, n. 1. Referring to the act: prefer- 
ence, preferment {rare), selection, elec- 
tion {chiefly spec), option, choose {rare; 
humorous or illiterate), optation [rare), 
pick, delectus {rare, exc. spec); spec co- 
optation, cooption. 
Antonyms: see rejection. 

2. Referring to the thing chosen: prefer- 
ence, selection, option, pick, favorite; 
spec, cull {cant), delectus; see alterna- 
tive, BEST. 

3. Power of choosing: option, pick; spec. 

choice, a. 1. select, picked, recherche 
{French), exquisite. 


choke, V. t. & i. 1. suffocate {contextual), 
strangle, strangulate {chiefly med.), throt- 
tle; spec, bowstring, garrotte, grin {ar- 
chaic), gag. 


3. repress {contextual), check, swallow, 
gulp {used chiefly with "down"). "Choke" 
is used chiefly with "down." 

choose, V. t. select, elect, take, opt {rare),, 
pick, optatc {rare), list {only as a v. i.; 
archaic); spec, coopt {learned or tech.), 
cooptatc, cull, draw, prefer, prick, garble; 
see ADOPT. 
Antonyms: see reject. 

choosing, a. optative, selective; spec, ec- 
lectic, elective. 

chop, n. 1. See jaw. 
2. In pi. {chops): chaps {pi.; a variant), 
choke {dial.); spec flews {pi.). 

chop, V. t. & i. cut {contextual) , hew, hack; 
spec, mince, hackle, lop, haggle. 

chop, n. 1. cut {contextual), slice {con- 
textual), hew, hack; spec. lop. 
2. bobble, lop, overfall, rip; spec, tiderip, 

chopping, a. wavy {contextual), rough 
{contextual), hobbling, cockling, bobbly, 
loppy; spec, ripply. 

chosen, a. select, elect {chiefly spec), 
picked, predilective {rare); spec conscript, 
preferential, predestined, preferred. 

chosen, n. Spec, elect, elite {French) . 

Christ, n. Saver {rare). Savior or Saviour, 
Jesus, Redeemer, Messiah, Messias, Im- 
manuel, Mediator, Intercessor, Advocate, 
Judge, Word, Son, Son of Man, Son of 
God, Lamb, Lamb of God; — mostly used 
with "the" or "our." 

christen, v. t. 1. See baptize, name. 
2. In the sense of "to use for the first time": 
auspicate {learned or literary), handsel; 
spec wet {slang), blood. "Christen" is 

Christendom, n. The Church, Christian- 
ity, Zion {fig.). 

Christian, n. Nazarene {iised esp. by Jews 
and Mohammedans) , saint {Bib.), giaour 
{used by Turks), gentile {used in India); 
spec, professor {chiefly Scot. & U. S.), 
novice, probationer. Gnostic, Baptist, 
Methodist, etc. 
Antonyms: see heathen, heretic. 

Christmas, n. Yuletide {literary or local), 
Yule {literary or local). 

chronic, a. inveterate, confirmed, seated, 
settled, rooted, continuing {contextual); 
spec inborn, inbred. 

chronological, a. datal {rare), temporal 

X^^ Cross references: see Note. 
chime, n.: hell, melody, harmony, 

agreement, rhythm. 
chimera: fancy. 
chimerical: fanciful, visionary. 
chink: cleft, crack. 
chink, n.: jingle, coin. 
chink, V. i.: gasp. 
chipper: chirp. 
chirm: noise. 
chirography: handwriting. 
clurrup: chirp. 
chit: bud, offspring, child. 

chitchat: conversation. 
chivalrous: knightly, generous, 

choler: anger. 
chopf alien: depressed. 
choral: hymn. 
chord, n.: string. 
chord, V. i.: harmonize. 
chore: task. 
chorus: refrain. 
chose: chattel. 
Christianity: Christendom. 
chronicle, n.: account. 

chronicle, v. t.: record, yiarrate. 
chronicler: historian. 
chubby: plump. 
chuck, 7>. & v.: cluck. 
chuck, V. t.: throw, stroke. 
chuck, n.: throw, stroke, clutch, 
chuckle: laugh. 
chuckle: blockhead. 
chum, n.: roommate, intimate. 
chum, V. i.: cohabit. 
chummy: intimate. 
chump: blockhead. 
chunk: piece, lump. 

tS^ See Notes of Escplanation. 



church, n. 1. temple, house, house of CJod, 
Lord's house, fane {archaic or poetic), 
ecclesia {hist.}, kirk {Scot. & north of Eng.; 
chiefly spec); spec. Ebenezer, cathedral, 
chapel, Caaba, Kaaba, Bethel, meeting- 
house, basilica, synagogue, tabernacle, 
duomo {Italian), mosque, kiack, minster, 
mensal {hist.), martyry, conventicle, 
samaj {India), delubrum, dom {German). 


chute, n. shoot, hopper; spec, slide. 

cigar, n. weed {slang). 

cimeter-shaped, a. acinaciform {rare). 

cinder, n. Spec, coal, breeze; see slag. 

cinder, v. t. Spec, scorify. 

cindery, a. coaly; spec, slaggy. 

cipher, ?i. 1. nought, naught (a less usual 
form), 0, nothing, zero, aught {rare and 
a mistake for "naught"), ought {a mistake 
for "nought"). 

2. cryptogram, cryptology. 


cipher, v. t. 1. encipher {more formal than 


2. See COMPUTE. 
circle, n. 1. disk, radius, round, rondelle 

{rare or tech. and spec), rondure or roun- 

dure {rare), rondel {archaic), orb {rhet. and 

chiefly spec), roundel {chiefly spec.) ; spec. 

carton, discus, roundle {tech.), roundlet 

{dim.), circlet {dim.). 

2. ring, round, roundabout {rare), gyra- 
tion {tech.), gyre {chiefly poetic), orb {rare 
or obs.), roundel {chiefly dial.), O {fig.); 
spec, cycle, corona, halo, hoop, meridian, 
epicycle, ecliptic, cordon, equator, colure, 
horizon, circlet, roundle, roundlet, spiral; 
see RING. 

3. See CIRCUIT, set. 

circle, v. i. wheel, ring, gyrate; see re- 
volve, CIRCUIT. 

circuit, n. 1. See circumference, boun- 

2. course, round, circling, circle, turn, 
revolution {rare), ambit, compass, orbit, 
tour, circuition {rare), troll {archaic), cir- 
culation {rare), perambulation {literary 
and fig.), circumambience {nonce use); 
spec, lap, journey {contextual), trip, bout; 


3. Referring to the way: course, round, 
compass, ambit, circuition {rare); spec. 
eyre {obs. or hist.), tour, turn, giro 
{Italian), iter {tech.), beat, detour, round- 
about, lap, ring, cycle; see winding. 

circuit, V. t. round, circle, encircle, girdle 
{fig.), surround {rare); spec, circumam- 
bulate {rare), circumnavigate, perambu- 
late, tour. 

circuit, V. i. course, round, circulate, cir- 
cle; spec, tour, detour; see revolve, 


circular, a. I. round, rounded, orbicular 
{elevated or tech.), orbed {literary), orby 
(rare), rotund {rare or tech.), orbiculate 
{rare), encircular {rare); spec discoid, 
rotate {rare), disciform, discoidal {rare), 

2. round, ringy {rare), ringlike, orby 
{rare), compass (rare or tech.); spec, ro- 
tary, gyrant, gyrate, orbital, roundabout. 

3. Of a letter; esp. eccl.: cyclic, encyclical. 
circularly, adv. roundabout, roundwise, 

round, roundly {rare). 
circulate, v. i. 1. See circuit, revolve. 

2. Referring to money, goods, etc: pass, go, 
run, move. 

3. Referring to rumors, etc.: run, go; spec. 
evulgate {rare). 

circulate, v. i. 1. See diffuse, report. 
2. Referring to money, etc.: pass. 

circulating, a. current {referring to 
tnoney) . 

circulatory, a. circulative, diffusive. 

circumference, ?i. periphery {learned or 
tech.), circuit, compass, round, perimeter 
{geom.), perimetry {rare); spec girth, girt, 
perambulation {literary and fig.); see 
Antonyms: see center, middle. 

circumlocution, n. periphrasis {learned), 
periphrase {rare), roundabout {rare), in- 
direction, ambage {rare), circuition {rare), 
circumambages {pi.; rare), circumbendi- 
bus {jocular). 

circumlocutory, a. periphrastic, round- 
about, indirect, ambagious {rare), cir- 

circumscribe, v. t. 1, inclose, surround; 
spec bound. 
2. See bound, restrict, describe. 

circumstance, n. 1. See OCCURRENCE, 


2. fact, matter; see particular. 
circumstanced, a. conditioned, fixed {col- 

loq.), situated. 
circumstantial, a. minute, detailed, full, 

detaily {colloq.; rare); spec, fussy; see 

Antonyms: see general, indefinite. 

t^^ Cross references: see Note. 
churclmiail : ecclesiastic, minister. 
churlish: rustic, boorish, surly, 

rough, ill-tempered, stingy. 
cinch: girth, hold. 
circle, v. t.: circuit. 
circlet: circle, ring, crown. 
circling: circuit. 

circuitous: devious, indirect, 

circuitously: about. 
circularize: advertize. 
circumjacent: surrounding. 
circumfusion: poriring. 
circumnavigate: circuit. 
circumscriptive: restrictive. 

circumspect: prudent, careful. 

circumstantiate: evidence, 

circumvent: surround, over- 

circumvention: overreaching. 

circumvolution: rotation, rev- 
olution, roil, winding. 

\S^ See Notes of Explanation. 



circus, n. hippodrome {rhetorical; often 
uged OS (I name for a circus building). 

cistern, n. reservoir, tank; — both context- 

citify, r. t. metropolitanize (rare). "Citify" 
US' chiefly used in the p. p. "citified." 

citizen, ?!. cit (contemptuous) ; spec, bur- 
gess, burgher, comburgess, cleruch, eph- 
ebe, cosmopolite, commimer, freeman, 
civihan, denizen; see townsman. 
Antotty))>s: see foreigner. 

city, n. town, burg (colloq., U. S.); spec. 
metropolis, metropolitan. 

civilian, n. mohair (soldiers' slang); spec. 
gownsman, scorpion (slan^). 

civility, n. 1. See politeness. 
2. Referring to the act: attention, courtesy, 
devoir (literary or learned); spec, bow, 
greeting, attentiveness. 

civilization, n. civihty (archaic); spec. 
reclamation (the act only), enlighteimient, 
cultivation, kultur (Ger.); see refine- 

civilize, v. t. Spec, reclaim, debarbaize, 
enhghten, cultivate (chiefly in p. a. "cul- 
tivated"); see refine. 

civilized, a. civil (archaic); spec, enlight- 
Antonyms: see uncivilized. 

claim, V. t. 1. demand, challenge (obso- 
lescent), vindicate (rare); spec, coxmter- 
Antonyms: see disclaim. 
2. 5ee DEMAND, need. 

claim, n. demand, pretense, pretension; 
spec, plea, counterclaim, condiction (Ro- 
man law), location (U. S.), revendication, 

2. demand, lien; spec. hold. 
Antonyms: see disclaimer. 

3. See RIGHT. 

claimant, n. demandant (now rare); spec. 
pleader, pretender. 

clairvoyance, n. second sight, clear sight 

clairvoyant, a. clear-sighted (rare). 

clairvoyant, n. seer. 

clamorous, n. noisy (contextual), vocifer- 
ous, clamant (literary or learned), obstrep- 
erous, uproarious, blatant, vociferant, 
strepitous (rare); see boisterous. 
Antonyms: see calm, silent. 

clamp, n. clam, cramp, grip, vise (chiefly 

spec); spec, crampiron, horse, dog, yoke, 

clan, n. 1. Spec, tribe, sept, phratry (Greek 

aniiq. and North Am. Indian), phyle 

(Greek antiq.), race (a loose usage). 

2. See set. 
clang, V. i. clam; see ring. 
clang, n. 1. clangor, clam; see ring, reso- 

2. See timbre. 
clap, V. i. 1. strike, slap, bang, clack, slam, 

slat, click. 

2. See applaud, put, impose, set. 
clap, n. 1. stroke (contextual), blow, slap, 

slam, bang, clack, slat. 

2. noise (contextual); spec, slam, bang, 
clack, explosion, peal. 


clapper, n. 1. Spec, tongue, clack, bones 


2. See TONGUE. 

clapping, a. clackety, clickety, slapping, 
slamming, slatting, etc. 

clasp, V. t. 1. seize, embrace, enclasp (rare 
or emphatic), infold or enfold, clip; spec. 
twine, clutch, interlock, entwine, fold, in- 
arm, hug, hook, clutch, twine; see em- 
Antonyms: see free. 

2. fasten; spec, buckle, brace, hook, in- 
fibulate (rare). 

3. See HOLD. 

clasp, n. 1. seizure; spec, embrace, fold, 
hug, clutch; sec embrace. 

2. fastening, catch; spec, morse, ouch 
(archaic), fibula, buckle, fermail, hasp. 

3. See HOLD. 

class, n. 1. division (cmitextuxil) , category 
(tech. or learned), predicament (spec, or 
learned), denomination, division, sort, 
species, group, order, rank, range (rare); 
spec, estate, order, family, genus, species, 
breed, race (chiefly poetic), tribe (chiefly 
colloq. and derogatory), grade, rate, hier- 
archy, phylum (tech.), quality. 

2. See KIND, SET, RANK (in pl.), NOBILITY, 

3. Spec, form, division, seminar, Phila- 
thea, Baraca, classis. 

class, V. t. place (contextual), rank, rate, 
number, assort {rare), reckon; posthabit 
(rare) . 

classic, a. Attic (literary or learned). 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 

cist: chamber, tomb. 

citation: summons, quotation, 

cite: summons, quote, mention. 

civic: public. 

civil: public, polite. 

clabber: cmrd. 

clack: clatter, clap, noise, bab- 
ble, rattle. 

clam: clamp. 

dam: clang. 

clamant: clamorous, urgent. 

clamber: scramble. 

clammy: sticky. 

clamor, n.: outcry, noise. 

clamor, v. i.: cry, shout, din, 

clamor, v. t: shout. 
clamp: step. 
clangorous: resonant. 
clank: ring. 

clanni sh : exclusive. 

claptrap: trickery, nonsense, 

clarification: clearing. 

clarity : dear. 

clarisslmo: personage. 

clarity: clearness. 

clasb, V. i.: collide, conflict, dis- 
agree, dash. 

clash, n.: collision, noise, con- 
flict, disagreement. 

tS" See Notes ef Explanation. 



classical, a. Spec, humanistic, canonical 
or canonic, correct. 

classification, n. assortment. 

classified, a. assorted. 
Antonyms: see confused. 

classify, v. t. group, categorize (tech.), as- 
sort, sort (literary), order; spec, grade, 
distribute, arrange, tribe (rare), impost 
(U. S. customs), graduate, match, size, 
pigeonhole, range, brack (local), garble 
(rare, exc. of coins, nuts, etc.). 
Antonyms: see confuse, mix. 

clatter, n. &. v. i. 1. Spec, clack, clitter, 
clutter, hurtle; see rattle, babble. 

clause, n. 1. article, particle (rare); spec. 
paragraph, covenant, proviso, condition, 
stipulation, reddendo (Scots law), redden- 
2. See PART. 

claw, n. griff (rare), ungula (tech.), talon 
(chiefly spec), hook (slang); spec, single 
(archaic), clutch (chiefly in pi.), chela, 
pounce, pincers (pi.), manus, nipper; see 


claw, V. t. scratch, dig (colloq. or spec), 
clapperclaw (archaic or dial.). 

clay, n. argil (tech.), cloam (dial. Eng.); 
spec, clunch, kaolin, metal, cledge (local 
Eng.), wacke, slip, till, bole, gault (dial. 

clayey, a. argillaceous (tech.). 

clean, a. I. unsoiled, pure (literary or fig.), 
unsullied (literary); spec, immaculate, un- 
stained, incontaminate (rare), undefiled, 
unsmirched, dirtless, spotless, dustless, 
white, unblemished. 

Antonyms: see dirty, filthy, soiled, 
FOUL, smeary, etc. 

2. See PURE, skillful, shapely, clean- 
ly, chaste. 

clean, adv. 1. So as to be clean: cleanly. 
2. Spec, absolutely, completely, skillfully. 

clean, v. t. 1. cleanse, mundify (rare), 
clenge (Scot. & dial.), defecate (rare; 
chiefly spec), purge (chiefly spec); spec. 
purify, wash, deterge, scald, dust, mop, 
rinse, bream, careen, dress, comb, gill, 
dredge, pick, grave, scavenge, pure (cant), 
swingle, scour, blow, scrub, elutriate, 
wipe, defecate, willow, clarify, ripple; see 
dress, wash, fan. 
Antonyms: see dirty, soil, smear, foul. 
2. See clear. 

cleaning, a. cleansing, mundatory (rare), 
purgative; spec purificatory, wash, wash- 
ing, detersive, depurative, detergent, 
scouring, purging. 

cleaning, n. cleansing; spec purge, purga- 
tion, scouring. 

cleanly, a. clean, neat. 

clear, a. 1. transparent, limpid (chiefly 
spec), lucid, pellucid, liquid, pellucent 
(rare), crystal, crystalline; spec un- 
clouded, serene; see transparent. 
Antonyms: see turbid, dreggy. 

2. Referring to weather: fair, bright, fine, 
serene (rare or literary); spec, sunny, sun- 
shiny, perfect, unclouded, cloudless. 

Antonyms: see foul, cloudy, rainy, 


3. Referring to tones: liquid, pure; spec. 
mellifluous or mellifluent (rhetorical) , crys- 
tal, musical, singing, euphonious, fluty, 
silvery, ringing, sharp. 

Antonyms: see hoarse, dull. 

4. Referring to weights or amounts: net, 
neat (rare). 

5. Referring to the skin, etc.: spec, bright, 
fresh, healthy, transparent, peachy, fair, 

Antonyms: see sallow. 

6. Intelligible (contextual), plain, lucid, 
pellucid (literarij), luminous (rhetorical), 
luculent (rare), perspicuous, sharp-cut, 
unambiguous, naked (rare); spec vivid, 

Antonyms: see unintelligible, ob- 
scure, obtuse, hidden. 

7. See definite, evident, confident, 
smooth (in sound), absolute, unob- 
structed, FREE, pure. 

clear, v. t. 1. clarify, fine, refine; spec, set- 
tle, defecate, render. 
Antonyms: see muddy. 

2. See FREE, disentangle, acquit, ab- 
solve, avoid, purify, remove, jump. 

3. make, net, clean up (colloq.), profit, 
realize, get (contextual). 

Antonyms: see lose. 

4. free, rid, sweep, scour. 

5. free (from obstructions, rubbish, weeds, 
or what not), sweep (spec, or fig.), scour 
(spec or fig.), clean; spec open, room 
(rare), drive, serene (rare), deobstruct 
(rare), deoppilate (rare), blow, uncloud, 

Antonyms: see obstruct. 

6. Spec, (referring to land) deforest, stub, 
grub, denshire (Eng.), burnbeat (Eng.), 
assart (Eng.). 

7. See evacuate. 

clear, v. i. Referring to the face, the sky, 

etc.: uncloud (rare), brighten; spec 

Antonyms: see cloud. 
clearance, n. 1. freeing, riddance, clearing. 

2. See acquittal, absolution, license, 

clearing, n. 1. clear (chiefly in "in the 

clear"), open (chiefly in "in the open"), 

' Cross references: see Note. 

I cleanness: purity. 

I cleanse: clean, purify. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 



opening, clearance {literary); spec, assart. 


S. clearance; s/jec. clarification, riddance, 

evacuation, scouring, deforestation, etc. 
clearness, ;j. 1. Spec, clarity, limpidness, 


2. serene (rare), serenity (literary or rare); 

spec, cloudlessness. 
cleavable, a. fissile (chiefly tech.); spec. 

scissile, fiagg>-, laminable, flaky, i)laty. 
cleavage, n. 1. fissility, cleavableness; spec. 

laminableness, lamination, delamination. 


cleave, v. t. & i. divide, split, shear, dis- 
sever (rare); spec, plow, delaminatc, lam- 
inate, fissure, rift, flake, rive, furrow; see 


cleft, a. split; spec, riven, reft, rent, multi- 
fid, fissured, cracked, fractured, broken, 
cut, rimose. 

cleft, n. split, gap; spec, fissure, rift, reft 
(rare), scissure (rare), interstice, chasm, 
crack, crevice, chimney, chink, clof 
(Scot.), rent, flaw, sht, dike (local, Eng.), 
fault; see crevasse. 

clench, v. t. 1. See clinch, seize, grasp, 


2. grip; spec, close (the fist), clutch (the 
fist), set (the teeth). 

clenched, a. closed; spec, clubbed, set. 

clericalism, n. sacerdotalism, ministeri- 

clericality, n. clericate (rare), clergy (obs., 
exc. in ''benefit of clergy"), clergymanship, 
clerkhood (archaic); spec, priesthood, 
chaplainship, chaplaincy. 

clerk, n. 1. See minister, salesman. 
2. Spec, recorder, registrar, scribe, scriv- 
ener, protonotary, conicopoly (Anglo- 
Indian); see ACCOUNTANT, secretary. 

clever, a. 1. smart (now chiefly U. S.), cute 
(colloq.), good, pretty (archaic or colloq.), 
solert (obs.); see able, intelligent, 
ready, ingenious, skillful. 

Antonyms: see dull, stupid, unintel- 
ligent, UNSKILLFUL. 

click, n. noise, tick, tap; spec, clap, snap. 
click, V. i. & t. sound, tick, tap; spec, clap, 

clientele, n. 1. dependants (pi.), chentry 

(a collective). 

2. constituency (colloq.), following, clien- 

try (rare), clientelage (rare), clientage; — 
all collectives. 

cliff, n. precipice, crag, steep, heugh or 
heuch (Scot.), linn (chiefly Scot.), scaur 
(chiefly Scot.), scar (rare or Eng.); spec. 
palisade (usually in pi.), perpendicular, 
krantz or kranz (South Africa). 

climate, n. clime (literary and chiefly 
poetic) . 

climax, n. t. In rhetoric: graduation (con- 


climb, V. i. 1. ascend, scale, mount; spec. 
clamber, ramp (of vines, etc.; dial, or 
rare), swarm (colloq.), run (of plants; con- 
textual), scramble, scrabble. 
2. See ASCEND. 

climb, V. t. ascend, scale, mount; spec. 
clamber, swarm (colloq.), shin (colloq.), 
escalade, scramble. 

climb, 71. ascent, mount; spec, clamber. 

climbing, a. scansorial (tech.). 

clinch, V. t. 1. fasten (contextual), clench, 
turn (contextual), clink (dial. Eng. & 
Scot.); spec, rivet. 


clip, V. t. 1. cut (contextual), snip, shear, 

retrench (rare), curtail (rare); spec. 

prune, dock, pare, beshear (rare), shear, 
poll, nip; see TRIM. 


clip, n. 1. cut (contextual), snip, shear; 
spec, nip; see trim. 
2. See SHEARS, BLOW, gait. 

cloak, n. 1. robe (contextual), pall (ar- 
chaic); spec, mantle, manteau (hist.), 
mantua (hist.), surcoat (hist.), cope, mant- 
let (hist.), domino, mask, burnouse, car- 
dinal, capa (Spa7iish), capote, capuchin, 
chlamys, cardinal, prince, manto (Italian 
or Spanish), manta (Spanish), cowl, In- 
verness, Joseph (hist.), jelab (Moroccan), 
poncho (Spanish), pluvial (hist, or eccl.), 
pallium, paletot, palla (Roman antiq.), 
talma, scapular or scapulary, roquelaure 
(hist.), sagum, poncho. 

2. »See PRETEXT. 

cloak, V. t. 1. clothe (coniextiuil) , mantle. 

2. See HIDE. 
clog, n. 1. check, weight, drag, trammel; 

spec, log, block. 


cloggy, a. heavy, trammeling. 

I^' Cross references: see Note. 
clear-sighted: discerning. 
cleave, r. i.: stick. 
clement: merciful, mUd. 
clergry: ministry. 
clergyman: minister. 
clerical: ministerial. 
clew: ball, guide, comer. 
click: catch. 

client: dependent, principal. 
cliffy: precipitous. 

climacteric, a.: critical. 

climacteric, n.: crisis. 

clime: climate. 

clinch, t. i.: dose. 

clincher: settler. 

cling: stick, hold. 

clinging: sticky. 

clink: ring. 

clinker: slag. 

clip, V. i.: clasp, hold, surround. 

cUp, 72.: damp. 

cUpping: quotation. 
cUque: set. 
cUquish: exclusive. 
clock: timepiece, ornament, beetle. 
clockmaker: horologist. 
clockwork: machinery. 
clod: lump, earth, blockhead. 
cloddish: rustic, stupid. 
clodhopper: rustic, boor, shoe. 
clog, V. t.: check, shackle, ham- 
per, obstruct. 

KS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



close, a. 1. See closed, narrow, accu- 

2. oppressive, stale, heavy, stuffy, fusty, 
stifling; spec, musty, sultry, sweltry. 

Antonyms: see fresh. 

3. tight, snug. 

close, V. t. 1. shut, stop, estop {archaic), 
cork {spec, or fig.); spec, button, lock, oc- 
clude, seal, douse, lute, stopper, plug. 
Antonyms: see open, unfold. 
2. See inclose, shut, obstruct, end, 

close, V. i. 1. embrace, clinch, grapple, grip. 

2. See AGREE. 

close, n. inclosure; spec, precinct, curtilage, 
closed, a. close; spec, shut; see clenched, 


Antonyms: see open. 

closet, n. 1. room {contextual), cabinet, 

2. *Spec. recess, cupboard, cabinet, buffet, 
wardrobe, garderobe {hist.), cuddy, 

closure, n. 1. closing, shut {rare); spec. 
blockade, occlusion. 

2. Referring to debate: cloture, cloture 
{French), stoppage {rare). 

clot, n. mass, lump, clout, clump; spec. 
gout {now chiefly in allusion to Shake- 
speare's use), gob {710W vulgar), thrombus, 
crassamentum, grume, coagulum. 

cloth, n. 1. fabric {contextual) ; spec, mun- 
go, shoddy, dab {chiefly dial.), pall {ar- 
chaic), corporal, corporas. 

2. With "the": see ministry. 

3. In pi. "clothes": see clothing. 
clothe, V. t. 1. dress, apparel {rather formal 

or rhetorical), attire {dignified), tire {obs. 
or archaic), array {dignified), costume, 
robe (.chiefiy spec.) , accouter {obs. or spec), 
habilitate {rare), vest {chiefly fig.), garb 
{chiefly spec), beclothe {rare), invest 
{literary), deck, endue {literary), dizen or 
bedizen {now usually contemptuous; chiefly 
spec), vesture {rare), encase or incase 
{chiefly humorous), rig {colloq. or slatig), 
dight {archaic or dial.; used esp. in ro- 
mances), bedight {archaic and poetic), en- 
robe {literary), garment {rare), guise {ar- 
chaic), tog {chiefly with "out"; slang); 
spec jacket, deck, beclout {rare), breech, 
cassock, fur, gown, coat, scarf, shroud 
{fi^.), uniform, frock, tartan, enclothe, 
empurple {rare), crape, coif, swathe, re- 
clothe, reinvest {rare); see cloak. 
Antonyms: see strip, undress. 
2. See invest, disguise. 

clothed, a. clad {now chiefly literary), en- 
clad {rare), vested {heraldry or fig.). 
Antonyms: see naked, bare. 

clothier, n. costumer, outfitter {chiefly 
cant); spec, hosier, haberdasher, furnisher, 
hatter, etc. 

clothing, n. 1. Referring to the act: invest- 
ment {chiefly literary), investiture {literary 
or tech.). 

2. dress, clothes {pi.), garments {pi.), ap- 
parel {dignified), habiliment {chiefly in pi.; 
learned or literary), array {dignified), at- 
tire {rather formal; often spec), garb, rai- 
ment {rhetorical or poetic), costume, robes 
(pi.; formal or spec), vesture {literary or 
fig.), vestments {pi.; chiefiy tech.), claes 
{Scot.), investiture {literary), investment 
{literary), costumery {rare), garmenture 
{rare), rigging (colloq.), wear (colloq.), 
toggery (slang), togs (pi.; slang), duds 
(pi.; slang), gear {archaic or literary), 
things (pi.; colloq.), nulls (pi.; fig.); 
spec, robing, gala (obs., exc with "in"), 
rags {pi.), tatters (pi.), coating, livery, 
duck, buff {mil.), overwear (rare, U. S.), 
overclothes (pi.), underclothes (pi.), 
slops (pi.; colloq.), wardrobe, washing; 
see costume. 

cloud, n. 1. meteor (tech.), nebula {rare or 
spec), thickness (rare, exc. of the state of 
fact); spec, cirrus, cumulus, stratus, nim- 
bus, cirro-cumulus, rack, colt's-tail, film, 
messenger, woolpack, mist, fog, fogginess, 
scud, haze, haziness, mare's-tail, whiff, 
goat's-hair; see fog. 

2. thickening (contextual); spec, nebula, 
smoke, fog, nubecula, puff, scud, mist, 
fog, film, steam; see blur, haze. 

3. See multitude, imperfection, fault, 
spot, stain, scarf. 

cloud, V. t. 1. overcloud, overcast, over- 
shadow, becloud (an intensive), adum- 
brate (rare), obnubilate (rare), obnebu- 
late (rare); spec, shade, shadow, befog, 
fog, mist. 
Antonyms: see clear. 

2. Referring to the brow: darken, shade. 

3. See DULL, blear, sully, water. 
cloud, V. i. 1. thicken. 

Antonyms: see clear. 
2. See SULLY. 
cloud-bringing, a. nubiferous {rare). 
cloudburst, n. rainfall (contextual) , deluge. 
clouded, a. 1. See cloudy. 

2. cloudy; spec, moire (French), watered, 


clouding, n. 1. obnubilation {rare); spec. 
moire (French), water. 
2. See obscuration. 

I^' Cross references: see Note. 
cloister: convent, arcade. 

closing: closure. 

clot, V. t.: coagulate. 

clothe, V. I.; dress. 
clotiies: clothiny. 

tS^ Sec Notes of Esplanation. 



cloudy, a. I. nubilous {learned or tech.), 
clouded, nebulous {chiefly spec), thick; 
spec, overcast, fogg.v, misty, fogged, dull, 
black, filmy, hazy, blurred, overcast, 
murky, lowering or louerine, lowery or 
loury, lurid, subnuvolar {rare); see foggy. 

AutonyiHs: see clear. 
2. Spec, muddy, nebulous, smoky, foggy, 
misty, steamy; ste hazy, turbid. 
S. See CLOUDED, dark, hidden, dull, 


clown, n. 1. See rustic, boor, simpleton, 


2. Meaning a "clumsy fellow": spec. 
slouch {slang or colloq.), swab {riant. 
slang), hobnail {fig.), lubber {primarily 
naut.), chuckle {slang), duffer {slang), 
muff {slang), lout {colloq.), bumpkin, 
booby {colloq.), nincompoop {slang), 
gawky {colloq.), gawk {colloq.), calf {col- 
loq.), hawbuck {slang, Eng.). 

Antonyms: see expert. 
club, n. 1. stick {contextual), cudgel, 
truncheon {archaic, exc. spec), bat, 
bludgeon, bourdon {archaic); spec waddy, 
mace, mere or meri, nulla-nulla, leeangle, 
keerie, baton, batoon {archaic), knob- 
kerrie, lathee {Anglo-Indian), knobstick, 
billy, shillalah, staff, hickory, crab or 

2. In games: spec, hockey, hurley, driver, 
nibhck, brassy, cleek, midiron, loftie, 
mashie, putter, iron, shinny, hurl {rare). 

3. In cards: spec, basto. 

4. association {contextual); spec combina- 
tion, Turnverein {German), Sangerbund 
(German), tabagie {French), Rota {Eng. 
hist.), hetsery {ancient Greek hist.); see 
sorority, fraternity. 

club, V. t. strike (contextual), beat (con- 
textual), cudgel, truncheon (rare), blud- 
geon; spec, bastinado, paddle. 

clubfoot, n. 1. Referring to the foot: splay- 
foot, poltfoot (archaic). 
2. Referring to the deformity: tahpes 
(tech.), clubfootedness, splayfoot, polt- 
foot (archaic); spec, varus. 

club-shaped, a. clavate, claviform; — both 

cluck, n. & V. call (contextual), cry (con- 
textual); spec chuck. 

clump, n. 1. See lump. 
2. group, cluster, bunch; spec, thicket, 
grove, plump (archaic), tuft, etc. 

clumpy, a. 1. clustery. 

2. Sec LUMPY. 

clumsy, o. 1. Referring to a person: awk- 
ward, unliandy, ungraceful, heavy, lum- 
berly, lumbering, lumbersome, lumbrous 
(rare), graceless (rare), wooden, left- 
handed, lubberly (naut. or fig.), lubber- 
like (naut. or fig.), booby, boobyish, in- 
elegant; spec, elephantine, unskillful, 
draggy, inapt, lumpish, bungling. 
Antonyms: see skillful, graceful. 
2. Referring to a thing: spec unwieldy, 
cumbrous, heavy, unhandy, bungling, 
botched, rough, crude, lumberly, lumber- 
ing, lumbersome. 
Antonyms: see airy. 

clustered, a. Spec, conglomerate, glomer- 
ate (tech.). 

clutch, n. 1. nest; spec sitting. 
2. See BROOD. 

clutch, V. t. 1. hold (contextual), grip, 
grasp, engrasp (rare), clasp, clench, gripe 
(rare); see embrace, grapple, squeeze. 
2. See seize, clench, grasp. 

clutch, n. 1. Referring to the act: hold (con- 
textual), grip, grasp, clench, clasp; see 
embrace, grapple. 
Antonyms: see release. 

2. Referring to the thiiig that holds: hold 
(contextual), grip; spec grab, grabber, 
claw, clasper, grasper, grapple, clamp, 
crampon, grappler, comealong (cant), 
grapnel, lewis, lewisson, gland, fist 
(chiefly jocular), finger, nipper, nip, grip- 
per, gripe, dog, clip, pincers, forceps, chuck. 

Antonyms: see release. 

3. See seizure (in pi.), grasp, control. 
coach, n. 1. vehicle (contextual), rattler 

(slang); spec, rattletrap (slang), tally-ho, 

drag, four-in-hand. 

2. teacher (contextual), crammer (cant 

or slang), grinder (cant or slang), coacher 

(cant), tutor. "Coach" is cant. 
coach, V. t. teach (contextual), cram (cant 

or slang), tutor. "Coach" is cant. 
coagulate, v. i. & t. thicken (contextual), 

clot, run (dial.; used as a v. i. only), set, 

curdle, clod (obs. or rare), cruddle (chiefly 

dial.), clabber (U. S.); spec. soUdify, lop- 

per, caseate ; see jelly. 
Antonyms: see liquefy. 
coagulated, a. clotted, loppered, curdled. 
coagulum, n. mass, coagulation, curd 

(chiefly spec); see clot. 
coal, n. 1. Referring to the substance: spec, 

charcoal, cannel coal, anthracite, cinder^ 

fW Cross references: see Note. 
dough: ravine. 
clout, n.: rag, blow. 
clout, V. t.: repair, strike. 
clout, n.: lump, clot, rustic, 

clownish: rustic, awkward, 


cloy: surfeit. 
clump: gather. 
cluster: bunch, clump. 
cluster: gather. 
clustery: bunchy, clumpy. 
clutch, V. i.: grasp, hold. 
clutter, V. t.: collect, confuse. 
clutter, I', i.: collect, bustle. 

clutter, 7i.; collection, confu- 
sion, noise, bustle. 

coachman: driver. 

coadjutor: aider. 

coalesce: unite. 

coalition: union, combination, 

coaly: carbonaceous, black, dark. 

%^ See Notes of Explanation. 


slack, lignite, jet, cobbles {pl.;Eng.), duff, 
clross, culm, coke, carbocoal. 
2. Referring to a lump or piece of coal: gleed 
{archaic; chiefly spec); spec, ember, cinder. 
coarse, a. 1. large {contextual), crass 
{chiefly literary), gross {literary or tech.), 
heavy {chiefly spec), thick; spec rank, 
reedy, gruff {tech. or Scot.), homespun, 
Antonyms: see delicate, small, slen- 

2. low, vulgar, common, unrefined, crude, 
gross, unideal {rare), crass {literary), in- 
elegant, unpolished, rough, plebeian (spec 
or literary), woolen {rare), indelicate; spec. 
rude, ribald, earthy {rare), rustic, clown- 
ish, brutal, brutish, swinish, scurrilous; 
see BOORISH, beastly, lewd, indecent. 

Antonyms: see refined, spiritual, in- 
tellectual, CHASTE. 

3. See ROUGH. 

coarsen, v. t. 1. enlarge (contextual), thick- 
en {contextual). 
2. See roughen, sensualize. 

coat, n. 1. Spec, jacket, sack, jemmy 
{Eng.; rare), overcoat, greatcoat {chiefly 
Eng.), jacket, paletot {French), oiler 
{U. S.; colloq.), cutaway, cassock, secret 
{antiq.), frock, habergeon, buff, tunic. 

2. cover, coating; spec set, scumble, 
wash, intonaco {Italian), glaze, priming, 
fur, buff; see smear, crust. 

3. pelage {tech. or learned), pilage {rare), 
fell {rare or literary); spec fleece. 

4. See ARMS, skin. 
coat, V. t. 1. See clothe. 

2. cover, overlay; spec, lute, fur, gum, 
bark, prime, plaster, render, roughcast, 
wash, silver, glaze, film; see crust, smear. 

coax, V. t. & i. Spec persuade, entice, 
cajole, urge, honey {rare or obs.). There 
is no general synonym of ''coax." 
Antonjjms: see bluster, bully, compel, 

coaxing, a. Spec, bland, gentle, winning, 

coaxing, n. suasion {rare). 
Antonyms: see compulsion. 

cobbler, n. repairer {contextual); spec {re- 

ferring to shoes) clobberer {dial. Eng.), 
sutor {learned), clouter. 

cobweblike, a. arachnoid {tech.); spec 
cortinate {tech.). 

cock, n. 1. chanticleer {poetic and usually 
used as a proper name), rooster {chiefly 
U. S. arid dial. Eng.); spec, capon, cocka- 
lorum {dim.; colloq.), cockerel, singer, 

2. spout; spec, faucet, tap, valve, plug. 


cockade, n. device; spec, black cockade 
{Hanover), white cockade {Stuart), ro- 
sette, knot. 

cocoon, n. case {contextual), covering {con- 
textual); spec. pod. 

code, n. 1. codex {rare); spec system, for- 
mulary, law, rule, religion. 
2. iSee DIGEST. 

codify, V. t. systematize, digest, 

coexistent, a. contemporaneous, concomi- 

coextensive, a. equal, coequal; spec co- 
terminous; see CONTEMPORANEOUS. 

cofferdam, n. chamber {contextual), box, 
batardeau {French), coffer, caisson. 

coffin, n. box {contextual), casket {U. S.), 
hearse {archaic), cist {archoeol.), kist 
{Scot.); spec sarcophagus, shell. 

cogency, n. strength, power, force, weight, 

cogent, a. strong, powerful, good, forcible, 
forceful, constraining, robustious {rare), 
pregnant {archaic or literary), weighty, 
trenchant {literary or rhetorical); spec con- 
vincing, urgent. 
Antonyms: see unconvincing. 

cogwiieel, n. wheel, gearwheel, gear; spec 
lantern, wormwheel. 

cohabit, v. i. Spec, chum {colloq.). "Co- 
habit" is chiefly spec 

coheir, n. heir, coparcener, parcener. 

cohere, t;.H. stick, adhere, consist {archaic). 

2. *See AGREE. 

coherent, a. 1. sticking, adherent, con- 
sistent {rare). 

cohesion, n. sticking, adherence, adhesion, 
coherence, cohesiveness, consistence {rare). 

1^° Cross references: see Note. 
coast, 71.; shore. 
coast, T. i : sail, slide, glide. 
coast, V. t.: sail. 
coastal: littoral. 
coating: coat, crust. 
coat of arms: arms. 
cobble, n.: stone. 
cobble, V. t.: pate. 
cobble, r. t.: repair. 
cobweb: network, filament. 
cock, n.: turn, inclination. 
cock, V. t.: turn, incline. 
cockcrow: daybreak. 
cocker: indulge. 
cockerel: cor.k. 

cock-eye: cross-eye. 

cockscomb: crest, dandy. 

cocksure: confi/ient. 

cocky: self-important. 

coddle: parboil, caress, cherish, 

codex: code, manuscript, book. 

codger: felloio. 

coenobite: religious. 

coequal: equal, coordinate, co- 

coerce: compel. 

coercible: compellable. 

coercive: compulsory. 

coeval: contemporaneous. 

coffer: chest, cofferdam, treasury. 

cogitable: thinkable. 

cogitate, v. i.: think, consider. 

cogitate, v. t.: consider, devise. 

cogitative: thinking. 

cognate: related, analogous. 

cognition: knowing, knowl- 
edge, intelligence. 

cognizable: knowable, jurisdic- 

cognizance, n.: perception, 
awarerress, intelligence, notice, 
jurisdiction, badge. 

cognizant: aware, conscious. 

cognomen: name. 

cohesive: sticky. 

cohort: division, band. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



coil, 11 1. Meaning a "scries of rings": 1 
s^HC. iiuiuctorium, hank. 
2. wind, turn, ring, convolution, round, 
curl, fold, loop, circumvolution, volute 
{chiefly spec), volume {rare), twine, twist, 
lap; spec, bight, fake, bolster, baluster, 
roll; sec spiral. 

coil, J'. /. A i. wind, loop, upeoil {rare), 
twist, fo'd, lap, convolute {rare or learned), 
curl, twine, clue {used icith "up"; rare); 
spec, roll, spire, sjiiral {rare), wreath, en- 
roll {rare), belay, fake. 
Antonyms: see unwind. 

coin, n. 1. Referring to money: piece, 
chinker {slatig); spec, copper {colloq.), 
dump, doit, cart wheel {slang), coach 
wheel {slang, Eng.), mite, nickel {colloq., 
U. S.), dime, shilling, etc. 
2. Referring to coins collectively: money, 
specie; spec, silver, brass {dial, or colloq.), 
chink {slang), gold, tin {slang), change. 

coin, V. t. 1. mint, strike, stamp, money 
{rare); spec, contorniate, counterfeit. 
2. See INVENT. 

coincide, v. i. 1. concur. 

2. See AGREE. 

coincidence, n. 1. concurrence, concomi- 
tance, concourse {ohs. or rare), conjunc- 
tion, junctiu-e, conjuncture {rare), syn- 
drome {rare or obs.). 


coincident, a. concurrent, concomitant. 

coiner, n. minter, moneyer {hist.); spec. 

coin- shaped, a. nummular, nummulated, 
nummiform; — all tech. or learned. 

cold, a. 1. chill; spec, cool, coolish, crisp, 
heatless {rare), chilly, coldjsh, frigid, icy, 
frozen, glacial {rare), frosty, rimy, chilhng, 
freezing, frore {now poetic only), gelid {lit- 
erary), arctic, polar, bleak, nipping, 
sharp, raw, wintry. 
Antonyms: see hot, wakm, heated. 

2. Of a creature or person: spec, chilly, 
chill, chilled, frozen, frostbitten. 

3. unfeeling, frigid; spec, unemotional, 
unsympathetic, heartless, unresponsive, 
indifferent, unimpassioned, stony; see 
apathetic, repellent, cruel. 

Antonyms: see affectionate, compas- 
sionate, KINDLY, FOND. 
cold, n. 1. chill, coldness ; spec, cool, coolth 
{rare or dial.), frost, chilliness, gelidity 
(rare or literary), frigidity, iciness, cool- 
ness, gelidness {rare), frore {now only po- 
etic), sharpness. 

Antonyms: see heat, warmth. 

2. Referring to the sensation: chill, cold- 
ness, chiUiness. 

3. catarrh; spec, coryza, gravedo {rare), 

colic, n. bellyache {notv chiefly vulgar), 
gripes {pi.), muUigrubs {2)1.; jocular), tor- 
mina {tech.). 

collapse, n. 1. Spec, cave-in (colloq.), 
breakdown, downfall. 
2. See failure, fall, exhaustion. 

collar, 71. 1. neckband, neckpiece; spec. 
carcanet, bertha, brechain {Scot.), collar- 
ette, fall, rutT, gorget, tucker, Vandyke, 
dicky {New Eng.), torque or tore, f raise, 
piccadill (obs.). 
2. See, ring. 

collarbone, n. clavicle (tech.), jugulum 
{tech. and rare). 

collared, a. torquate, ringed. 

collation, n. 1. See comparison, meal. 
2. Spec, harmony, diatessaron. 

colleague, n. associate {contextual), con- 
frere {French); spec, duumvir, triumvir, 

collect, V. t. 1. See gather. 

2. gather, aggregate, concentrate, con- 
center {rare); spec, scramble {esp. with 
"up," "together," etc.), constellate {rare), 
congest, dredge, rake {esp. with "together," 
"up," etc.), muster, bundle, compile, skim, 
scrape (esp. with "up," "together," etc.), 
round {with "up"), collate, re-collect; see 

Antonyms: see separate, scatter, dis- 

3. See INFER, compose. 
collect, V. i. 1. See gather. 

2. gather, mass; spec, concentrate, con- 
glomerate, cluster, concenter, congest, 
clutter, bunch, bundle; see lump. 
collection, n. 1. See gathering, meet- 

2. Referring to the act or action: gathering; 
spec, massing, recollection, conglomera- 
tion, concentration, compilation, concre- 
tion, collation, philately, combination; 
see accumulation. 

Antonyms: see scattering, distribu- 

3. gathering, aggregation, aggregate, as- 
semblage; spec, clump, cluster, parcel, as- 
sortment, lot, budget, mass, congeries, 
colluvies {literary), heap, pack {deroga- 
tory), museum, number, conglomerate, 
conglomeration, conglutination (rare), 
combination {literary), codex (Latin), 
code, chapter, crowd, drove, huddle, 
jumble, bunch, concentration, body, cor- 

f^' Cross references: see Note. 
coiffure: head-dress. 
coign: corner. 
coil, n.: noise, confusion. 
coke, n.: coal. 

coke, V. t.: carbonize. 
collaborate: cooperate. 
collapse, V. i.: fail. fall. 
collateral, a.. •parallel, accessory, 
secondary, acciilentnl, sxihor- 

dinate, related, coordinate. 
collate: collect, compare, ex- 

amiiie. [accident. 

collateral, n.: pledge, security, 
collected: calm. 

tS^See Notes of Explanation. 



pus, round-up (U.S. & Australia), sylloge 
(rare), cumulation, harvest, file, list, con- 
fluency, chrestomathy, quest, compila- 
tion, clutter, concresence; see accumula- 

collective, a. I. aggregate, collected; spec. 
concentrative, congregative. 
Antonyms: see individual, separate, 


2. See COMMON. 

collector, n. Referring to a collector of 
taxes: tax-gatherer, toll-gatherer (rare or 
obs.), publican (chiefly Scriptural), toller 
(obs. or rare), exactor (archaic), tollman 
(rare); spec, scavenger (hist.), gabeller 
(hist.), exciseman, procurator, proctor. 

collide, V. i. 1. strike (usually with "to- 
gether"), meet (contextual), clash, hurtle, 
intershock (rare), interfere, knock, shock, 
smash, impinge; spec, cannon, crash. 

collision, 7t. 1. striking, impact (chiefly 
tech.), impingement, meeting (contextual) , 
clash, hurtle, concussion, shock, smash 
(colloq.); spec, smash-up (colloq.), crash, 
jostle, dash. 

colloquial, a. conversational; spec, in- 
Antonyms: see literary, pedantic, 


colloquial, n. conversationalism; spec, in- 
formality, familiarism. 

colonial, a. provincial (obs. or hist.). 

colonist, n. settler, planter (hist.), trans- 
migration (rare); spec, emigrant, immi- 
grant, pilgrim. 

colonization, n. settling, settlement, 
plantation (rare). 

colonize, v. t. 1. settle, found, people, 

2. Referring to the sending of people to 
colonize: transport (chiefly spec), settle; 
spec, exile, banish. 

colonnade, n. portico (chiefly spec); spec 
gallery, choultry (Anglo-Indian), peri- 
style, amphiprostyle, prostyle, octastyle, 
enneastyle, decastyle, dodecastyle, arojo- 
style, proaulion (archceol.). 

colony, n. settlement, plantation (rare). 

color, 71. 1. hue (poetic or rhetorical), tinc- 
ture (chiefly spec); spec, discoloration, 
lear, dye, undertone, yellow, blue, orange, 
green, violet, purple, indigo, lavender, 
pink, mauve, magenta, cerise, scarlet, 

crimson, taupe, azure, vermilion, olive, 
brown, gray, dun, etc.; see tint. 


color, V. t. 1. encolor (rare), hue (poetic or 
rhetorical), paint (spec or fig.), dye (chiefly 
spec), stain (chiefly spec), tone (chiefly 
spec); spec, discolor, tinge, tinct, tint, 
bloom, complexion (rare), sip, distemper, 
wash, crayon. 


coloration, n. colorature; spec pigmenta- 
tion, tonality, chromatism (tech.). 

color-blindness, n. daltonism. 

colored, a. 1. hued (poetic or rhetorical), 
painted (orig. spec), tinted, etc. 
2. Spec, black, red, brown, negro, mulatto. 

coloring, a. tingent (rare); spec, tinctorial, 
dyeing, painting, staining. 

colorless, a. achromatic (tech.), white, 
hueless (rare), tintless (chiefly spec); spec. 

colt, n. offspring (contextual), horse (con- 
textual), foal, youngster (cant), patro 
(Sp.); spec filly (female). 

column, n. pillar; spec, atlantes (pi.), at- 
las (sing.), cippus, telamon, caryatid; see 


comb, n. I. Spec, card, ripple, ebauchoir 

(French), heckle, hackle, hatchel, gill 


2. See CREST. 
combative, a. contentious, pugnacious, 

militant, beUigerent; see quarrelsome. 
Antonyms: see peaceful, pacific. 
combination, n. 1. See union, mixture, 

COOPERATION, conspiracy. 

2. In commerce, politics, etc, referring to 
the action: union; spec, syndication, pool- 
ing, coalition, fusion, merger. 

3. aggregate, union; spec (card games) 
tenace, pair, full house, run, flush, etc.; 
see composite, series, group. 

4. association (which see), ring, set, union, 
company, party; spec conjunction, com- 
bine (colloq., U. S.), syndicate, cartel or 
(German) Kartel, camarilla, Camorra, 
cabinet, trust, ring (chiefly U. S.), cabal, 
faction, clique, coalition, consolidation, 
fusion, merger, duumvirate, triumvirate, 
junto, junta (rare), cave (slang). 

combinatory, a. combinational, coaduna- 

tive (rare). 
combine, V. t. & i. 1. See UNITE, mix, 


t^' Cross references: see Note. 
coUectlTism: socialism. 
colleen: girl. 
collegiate: academic. 
coUimate: align. 
collocate: place. 
colloid: gelatinous. 

colloquy: conversation. 
collude: conspire. 
collusive: conspiraUyry. 
colossal: gigantic. 
colossus: giant. 
coma: stupor, sleep. 
comatose: stupefied. 

comb, V. i.: break. 
combat, n.: fight, contest, con- 
combat, v.: fight, co7itend. 
combatant, <i.: fighting. 
combatant, «.; fighter. 
comber: breaker. 

Ik^' See Notes of Explanation. 



2. In comtiicrcc, poUlics, etc.: unite; spec. 
syndicate, consolidtite, merge, pool, fuse. 
combustible, a. Spec, burnable, tindery, 
Antonyms: sec incombustible. 
come, r. i. 1. approach, hither (rare), at- 
tain (rare or archaic), advene {literary); 
spec, immigrate. 
Antonyms: see depart. 


3. fall ; — as a disease, calamity, etc. 
comfort, n. 1. See aid, cheer. 

2. comfortableness, ease, self -ease (rare), 
lu.\ury; spec, peace, satisfyingness (rare), 
restfulness, coziness, content, enjoyment; 


Antonyms: see discomfort, distress, 


3. Of things that give ease: easement 
(rare), luxury; spec, solace, rest, satisfac- 
tion, reUef, convenience. 

Antonyms: see trouble, annoyance. 
comfort, V. t. 1. See cheer. 
2. ease, recomfort (archaic); spec, rest, 
satisfy, quiet; see relieve. 
Antonyms: see harass, discomfort, 


comfortable, a. 1. cheering, pleasant, 

2. easy, easeful, well, luxurious; spec. 
cozy, satisfactory, satisfying, assuring, 
roomy, snug, convenient, restful. 

Antonyms: see uncomfortable, dis- 
tressing, ANNOYING. 

comforter, «. 1. spec, cheerer, solacer, aider, 
helper; spec. Holy Spirit. CJ. aid, cheer. 
2. See bedcover. 

comiic, a. comical; spec, burlesque, far- 
cical; see FUNNY, LAUGHABLE. 
Antonyms: see tragic. 

coming, a. 1. Cojuing in space: nearing; 


2. Coming in time: ensuing, nearing, ap- 
proaching, imminent, forthcoming; see 


coming, n. 1. See arrival. 

2. As to time: approach, appro pinquation 
(fig.; archaic), advent; spec, advance. 

3. As to space: accession {now rare); see 

Antonyms: see departure. 
command, n. 1. See bidding, authority, 


2. Referring to the faculty: control, au- 

commander, n. controller (rare), chief, 
leader, captain (chiefly spec); spec, com- 
mandant, chiliarch, centurion, tagus, 
horetoga, hctman, drungar, hipparch, 
killadar, lochage or lochagus, sirdar, pro- 
consul, decurion, enomotarch, commcn- 
dador, shogun, taxiarch, commodore. 

commander-in-chief, n. generalissimo 
(rare or spec), generalissima (fern.); spec 

commanding, a. bidding (rare), magis- 
terial (bookish or learned), imperative, 
mandative, mandatory, jussive (rare), 
peremptory, preceptive. 

commemorative, a. memorial, recorda- 
tive (rare), memorative (rare), celebrative 

commensal, n. Spec, companion, (context- 
ual), messmate, guest, inquiline (tech.; 
rare), trenchmate. "Coynmensal" is rare. 

comment, v. i. & t. remark, observe, com- 
mentate (rare), animadvert (literary; 
chiefly spec), descant (literary), opine 
(stilted or humorous); spec, discourse, 
touch, gloss (rare), interpose, interject. 

comment, n. remark, observation, reflec- 
tion, note, animadversion (rare or literary; 
chiefly .spec), commentary (chiefly spec), 
descant (literary),; spec, scholi- 
asm, whisper, nothing, interjection, gos- 
sip, exegesis, gloss; see annotation, 


commercial, a. mercantile, mercurial (lit- 
erary), mercatorial (rare); spec, shoppy. 

commercial traveler, drummer, bagman, 
traveler (contextual), rider (obs.). 

comminute, V. t. reduce, fritter (rare), 
fine (rare); spec, grind, grate, bray, tritu- 
rate, pulverize, crush, crumb, crumble, 
harrow, buck (mining), mince, hash. 
Antonyms: see unite. 

commission, 7i. 1. warrant, certificate 
(contextual); spec, brevet. 

2. See AGENCY. 

3. authorization (contextual); spec errand, 
mission, message, duty, charge; see order. 

4. allowance, pay, fee; spec dastoori or 
dustoori (East India), rake-off (slang). 

tS^ Cross references: see Note. 
combustion: burning. 
come-down: fall. 
comedy: drama. 
comely: good-looking. [er. 

come-outer: dissenter, reform- 
comfit: sweetmeat 
comfortless: disconsolate. 
comical: laughable. 
somity: politeness. 
commandant: commander. 

commandment: bidding. 

commemorate: celebrate. 

commence: begin. 

commencement: beginning. 

commend: praise, commit. 

commendable: praiseivorthy . 

commendation: praise, com- 
mitment, respect. 

commensurable: adequate. 

commensurate: adequate, pro- 

commensuration: proportion. 
commentary: com.ment. 
commerce, n.: traffic, intercourse. 
commerce, r. i.: traffic. 
comminate: threaten. 
commingle: mix. 
comminuted: fine. 
commiserate: compassionate. 
commiseration: compassion. 
commissary: agent. 
commissioner: representative. 

IS" See Notes of Explanation. 



S. In a had or evil sense: doing (often with 
"of"), perpetration, commitment (rare), 
committal (obs.). 
commit, v. t. 1. deliver, consign, intrust or 
entrust, trust, confide, commend, recom- 
mend, refer {rare); spec, resign, transfer, 
recommit, leave. 
Antonyms: see withdraw. 


3. consign {as to memory, writing, etc.), 

4. send, consign, remit {rare), remand; 
spec, condemn, relegate; see condemn, 


Ajitonyms: see free. 

5. In a bad or evil sense: do, perpetrate; 
spec, sin {a sin), cut {as in "to cut up 

commitment, n. 1. delivery, consign- 
ment, consignation, committal, intrust- 
ment, confiding, commendation; spec. 
resignation, transfer. 

2. See reference, delegation, bind- 
ing, SENDING, imprisonment. 

3. warrant {for imprisonment), mittimus, 
condemnation, relegation. 

4. Referring to the document: warrant, 

5. consignment {as to memory, writing, 
etc.), reduction, committal. 

commodity, 7i. thing {contextual); spec. 

ware, drug (as in "a druxj on the market"). 
common, a. 1. general, universal, mutual 

{properly only of two); spec, commutual, 

reciprocal, joint, collective. 

2. popular, exoteric {learned), vulgar {ob- 
solescent); see PUBLIC. 

Antonyms: see individual. 

3. usual, ordinary, standard, regular, pre- 
vailing, vulgar {obsolescent); spec, fre- 
quent, familiar; see habitual. 

Antonyyns: see unusual, extraordi- 

4. inferior, ordinary, trivial {rare or ar- 
chaic), vulgar; spec, popular, low, base, 
unrefined, commonplace, illiterate; see 


Antonyms: see aristocratic, exclu- 

5. In grammar: epicene (a loose and im- 
proper use). 

commonplace, n. 1. banality, triviality 
{noio rare), prosaism, twaddle, prosai- 
cism, prose, cabbage {fig. or slang); spec. 
platitude {rare or spec), fadaise {French), 
Antonyms: see oddity. 

2. topic; spec, quotation; see saying. 

commonplace, a. everyday, common, or- 
dinary, hackneyed, threadbare, stale, 
tame, trite, trivial (now rare), banal, ple- 
beian {literary), Philistine {literary), prose, 
prosy, prosaic; spec, e.xoteric, platitudi- 
nous, pedestrian, dull, monotonous, sober. 
Antonytns: see odd, unusual, original. 

commonplace, v. i. platitudinize {rare or 
learned), twaddle. 

common- sense, n. understanding {con- 
textual), mother wit, sense, horse sense 
{colloq.), gumption {colloq., U. S.), savey 
or savy {slang). 
Antonyms: see nonsense. 

commotion, n. 1. See agitation. 

2. disturbance {contextual), stir, breeze 
{colloq.), fuss, ferment, welter, turmoil, 
hurly-burly {now undignified), disorder, 
pother, ado, tempest {fig.); see bustle. 

Antonyms: see calm. 

3. Spec, sea {as in "there was a sea on"), 
rip, bobble, chop. 

communicable, a. 1. impartible, convey- 
able; spec, teachable, transferable; see 
2. See communicative. 

communicant, n. Eccl.: communicator, 
communionist, communer {esp. U. S.), 
partaker; spec, kneeler. 

communicate, v. t. 1. impart, convey, 
give, carry, confide; spec, deliver, tele- 
phone, tell, say, write, narrate, express, 
send, telegraph, cable, signal, wigwag, 
heliograph, sing, break, shout, transmit, 
etc.; see carry. 

2. In reference to disease, emotions, etc.: 
impart, convey, give, transmit. 

3. Eccl.: housel {hist.). 
communicate, v. i. 1. Eccl.: partake, com- 
mune {esp. U. S.), receive. 

2. Referring to persons: converse {now 
chiefly spec), intercommunicate, inter- 
commune {rare); spec, intermessage {rare), 
correspond, deal, cable, talk, write, etc.; 

3. Referring to places joined by passage- 
ways, etc.: connect, intercommunicate. 

communication, n. 1. impartation, im- 
partment {rare), conveyance, giving; spec. 
transmittal, transmission, sending, tell- 
ing, saying, writing, narration. 

2. intelligence {rare); spec, message, tele- 
gram, cable {colloq.), wire {colloq.), cable- 
gram, confidence, secret, news, informa- 
tion; see letter, message. 

3. See INTERCOURSE, passage. 

tS^ Cross references: see Note. 

committal: commitment, refer- 
ence, delegation, binding, com- 

committee: trustee, body. 

commix: mix. 

commodious: roomy, convenient. 

commodity: convenience, thing, 

commonalty: people. 

commonwealth: community, 

communalism: socialisjn. 
commune, n.: people. 
commune, v. i.: converse. 

%^ See Notes of Explanation. 



4. Referring lo the relation of placot joined 
by iMssagewai/a, ete.: coniioctiou, intor- 

5. Referring to diseases, ideas, etc.: im- 
partation, giving, conveyance, transmis- 
sion; spec, infection, contagion. 

communicative, o. communicatory, com- 
municable, transmittive (rare); spec. 
Antontjins: .^ee reticent. 

communion, /(. 1. See community, syji- 


2. Eccl.: liturgy, celebration, concelebra- 
tion, Eucharist, Sacrament, Lord's Sup- 
]ier, Eulogia (hist.), Mass. 

community, n. 1. communion, solidarity 
{literary); spec, sharing, partnership, 

2. group, body, society, commonwealth; 
spec, body pohtic (tech.), state, neighbor- 
hood, preceptory, phalanstery. 

compact, a. 1. See composed, concise. 

2. dense, consistent, solid, close, cra^s 
(obsolescent), massive (chiefly spec, and 
tech.), gross (literary and fig.); spec, heavy, 
saggy, woofy (rare), packed, snug, tight, 

Antonyms: see porous, scattered. 

3. Referring to things or their arrange- 
ment, as rooms, a house, etc.: close, tight, 
snug, neat; spec, packed. 

compactness, n. 1. density, body, con- 
sistence, consistency, denseness (rare), 
solidity, closeness, consolidation, thick- 
ness, compactedness, heaviness, conja- 
cency (rare), snugness, etc. 
2. neatness. 

companion, n. associate (contextual), 
shadow (fig. or spec), company; spec. 
match, compeer (rare), commensal, es- 
cort, chaperon, accomplice, symbiont, 
attendant, mate; see spouse, comrade. 

companionable, a. livable, boon (rare or 
archaic); spec, clubable; see sociable, 

companionship, n. association, fellow- 
ship, intercourse, company, mateship 
(rare), society; spec, symbiosis. 

companionway, n. stairs, passageway; — 
both contextual. 

company, n. 1. See companionship, 

COMPANION, association, GUEST, FIRM, 

2. assembly, association, party (colloq. or 
spec), crowd (colloq., U. S. and British 
colonies), boodle (contemptuous), sack (col- 
loq.), lot (contemptuous), consort (obs. or 
archaic), fellowship (archaic or rare, exc 

spec), number (contextual), rout (now 
chiefly poetic); spec, bevy, flock, covey, 
kennel, gang, set, mob, herd, brood, crew, 
horde, trooj), troupe, platoon, squad, co- 
hort, gaggle (derisive), circle, suite, con- 
course, vexillum, turma, team, Hanse, 
watch, table, caravan, faction, taxis, vex- 
illation (rare), mess, cavalcade, claque, 
command, posse. 

comparative, a. relative (contextual) , col- 
lativo (tech.); spec, contrastive. 

compare, v. t. 1. collate, parallel, balance, 
parallelize (rare), counterpoise, paragon 
(archaic or poetic), measure, confront, 
confer (obs., exc. as imperative, and usu- 
ally in abbr. "cf."); spec, equal (rare), 
equate (rare); see contrast, liken. 
2. hi grammar: inflect. 

compare, y. i. match; spec. vie. 

comparison, n. 1. See likening. 

2. collation, confrontation, parallelism, 
dissimile (rare), simile, contrast, equating, 
balance, compare (mth "past" or "be- 

3. parable (archaic), similitude, parabole 
(rare), balance, simile, paralleUzation 
(rare); spec, dissimile. 

compartment, ?i. division, chamber, par- 
tition; spec, pane, pigeonhole, cell, coupe 
(French), locker, coffer, bay, severy, em- 
bayment (rare), well; see panel. 

compass, n. 1. See boundary, circum- 

2. sweep, scope ; see reach. 

3. extent, range ; in music: range, scope, 
sweep, gamut, register (of the voice), 

4. N^aut.: needle (fig.), pyxis (rare), box 
(fig.; colloq.); spec. dial. 

compassion, n. 1. sympathy, kindness, 
bowels (pi.; obsolescent or literary), com- 
miseration, pity, rue (archaic), ruth (liter- 
ary or archaic), heart, tenderness, pite- 
ousness (archaic), pitifulness, mercy, 
Antonyms: see cruelty, malevolence, 



compassionate, a. sympathetic, kind, 

tender, pitiful, commiserative, ruthful 

(archaic), piteous (archaic), compassive 

(rare) . 

Antonyms: see unfeeling, uncompas- 


compassionate, v. t. pity, commiserate, 
bepity (intensive). 
Antonyms: see congratulate. 

I^W Cross references: see Note. 
conununisin: socialism. 
commutable: exchangeable. 
commute: exchange. 

commutual: common. 
compact, n.: agreement, con- 
federacy. \pose. abridge. 
compact, V. t.: consolidate, com- 

companionless: alone. 
compass: curred. 
compatible: consistent. 
compatriot: countryman. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



compel, V. t. 1. force, oblige, necessitate, 
coerce, make {with the infin. without "to"), 
coact (rare), coarct (rare), drive, enforce 
(archaic or literary), constrain, impel, 
move, gar (Scot.), distress (rare), com- 
pulse (obsolescent); spec, conjure, concuss 
(chiefly Scot.), drum, distrain, hunger 
(rare), reduce. 
Antonyms: see coax, cajole, ask. 

2. See DEMAND. 

compellable, a. enforceable, coercible, 
Antonyms: see unyielding. 

compelled, a. forced, obliged, constrained, 
beholden (archaic), vain (now literary). 

compensate, v. t. 1. offset, counterbal- 
ance, balance, redress (rare), counter- 
poise, countervail; spec, recoup, redeem. 
2. pay (contextual), requite, repay, rec- 
ompense, guerdon (poetic or rhetorical), 
reward, remunerate; spec, restitute (rare), 
indemnify, recoup; see retribute. 

compensation, n. 1. offset, set-off, bal- 
ance, counterbalance, countervailing, 
counterpoise; spec, recoupment, redemp- 
Antonyms: see loss. 
2. pay (contextual), payment (contextual), 
recompense, repayment, requital; spec. 
amends, indemnity, indemnification, sat- 
isfaction, reward, reparation, justice, 
solatium, honorarium, recoupment, res- 
titution; see RETRIBUTION. 

compensatory, a. paying (contextual), 
compensative, reparative, amendatory, 
indemnificatory, etc. 

compete, v. i. contend, strive; spec. race. 

competition, n. contest, contention, ri- 
valship, rivalry, rivalism (rare), rivality 
(rare), concurrence (now used as French); 
spec, trial, handicap; see race, emula- 
Antonyms: see cooperation. 

competitor, n. contestant, rival, antag- 
onist, concurrent (now chiefly used as 
French); spec, field (competitors collec- 
tively; fig. or spec); spec, entrant; see 

compilation, n. composition (contextual), 
recueil (French); spec, customary or cus- 
tumal, anthology. 

compile, v. t. compose, quilt (rare; fi^.). 

complain, v. i. murmur, grunt, grumble, 
gruntle (rare), grutch (archaic), lament, 
repine (chiefly spec), plain (archaic); 
spec moan, groan, growl, grouse (colloq.), 
scold, mutter, whine. 
Antonyms: see rejoice. 

complaining, n. faultfinding, complain- 
tive (rare), murmuring; spec grumbling, 
growling, grousing (colloq.). 

complaining, a. 1. See ailing. 
2. grumbly (colloq.), querimonious (liter- 
ary); spec querulous, peevish. 

complaint, 7i. 1. See ailment. 

2. murmuring, grumbling, etc, murmur, 
lament, lamentation, plaint (literary), 
querimony (rare), plain (archaic), repining 
(chiefly spec); spec growl, grunt, whine. 

3. accusation, charge, plaint (literary or 
law); spec, information, grievance. 

complaisant, a. complacent (obsolesc), 
agreeable (contextual), pliant, soft, 
smooth, yielding, supple, facile (literary), 
subservient, buxom (archaic), easy, weak, 
doughfaced (colloq.), courtly, yielding; 
spec gracious, condescending, exorable, 
submissive; see obliging, obedient. 
Antonyms: see perverse, obstinate, 
disputatious, unyielding, unaccommo- 
dating, disobedient, controversial. 

complement, n. 1. *See completion, crown, 
2. total, tale; spec cadre (French; mil.). 

complete, a. 1. full, entire, perfect, inte- 
grate (rare), integral (rare), round 
(chiefly spec); spec intact, self-contained, 
dead, orbed (rare), orbicular; see whole, 
absolute, thorough. 
Antonyms: see incomplete, partial, 
initial, conditional, imperfect. 
2. See finished, accomplished. 

complete, v. t. 1. consummate, totalize, 
complement (rare), round (used chiefly 
with "out"), integrate; spec, mature, 
crown, cap, perfect, perfectionate (rare). 
Antonyms: see begin. 
2. See finish, accomplish. 

completed, a. perfected, consummate; 
spec, mature, ripe. 

completely, adv. 1. fully, entirely, right 
(archaic or dial.), quite; spec, integrally, 
perfectly, consummately, roundly, cap-a- 
pie (French), out, altogether. 


completion, n. 1. consummation, perfec- 
tion, complement (rare), integration; 
spec, maturement (rare). 
Antonyms: see beginning. 

2. Referring to the state: consummation, 
etc. (as in sense 1, above), full, integrity; 
spec infinity, maturity. 

3. Referring to the completing thing: com- 
plement, completory (rare); spec, cope- 
stone, coronation (rare or literary), crown, 
finish, correlate. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
compeer, n.: equal. 
compendious: concise. 
compendium: abridgement. 

compete: contend. 
competence: fortune. 
competency: ability, qualifi- 

competent: adequate, qualified, 

complacent: self-satisfied. 
complement, v. t.: complete. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


Antonyms: sro beginning. 


completive, a. completory (rare), perfec- 
tive, consummative, complementary. 

complex, o. 1. See composite. 
2. complicated, complicate, intricate, 
pcrjilexed, involute (rare), involved; spec. 
entangled, knotty, mazy, inextricable, de- 
complex, dajdal, Daedalian, Gordian, 
Anlonyms: see simple. 

complex, 71. 1. See composite. 
2. complexus (rare), complication, com- 
pagcs {rare), complexity, complexus; spec. 
network, web, tangle, snarl, intangle- 
mcnt, node, maze, labyrinth. 

complexion, n. 1. Of the skin: hue (now 
almost eqiiiv. to "color"), color, blee 
2. See appearance, aspect. 

complexioned, a. complected (dial, or col- 
Inq., U. S.), hued. 

complexity, n. 1. complexness (rare), per- 
plexity, complicatedness, compUcation, 
complicacy, complicity (rare), involution, 
intricateness, intricacy, involvedness ; spec. 
confusion, inextricability, intricableness, 
2. See complex. 

compliant, a. conformable, compilable 
(now rare), spec, resigned; see complai- 
sant, obedient. 
Antonyms: see disobedient. 

complicate, v. t. perplex, intricate (rare), 
involve, complex, compound; spec, em- 
barrass, entangle, intertangle (rare), inter- 
lace, decompound. 
Antonyms: see simplify. 

complicity, n. association, privity, guilt. 
Antonyms: see innocence, 

compliment, n. 1. praise (contextual), 
honor (contextual); spec, encomium, eu- 
logy, tribute, panegyric, flattery, com- 
mendation, ovation. 
Antonyms: see disparagement, cen- 
sure, REPROOF, condemnation. 

2. In pi.: see respect. 

compliment, v. t. 1. praise (contextual), 
honor (contextual); spec, commend, con- 
gratulate, eulogize, flatter, favor. 

Antonyms: see disparage, censure, 
reprove, condemn. 
2. See present, bestow. 

comply, V. t. conform (used with "to"), 
yield; see obey. 

component, a. constituent, constitutive, 
compositional (rare), ingredient, integral 
(chiefly spec), integrant (chiefly spec); 
spec partial, elemental. 

component, n. part, constituent, ingre- 
dient, principle, element, material; spec. 

compose, v. t. 1. make (contextual), consti- 
tute, form, compound, compact, build 
(chiefly spec); spec, synthesize, construct, 
weave, fabricate, mix. 
Antomjms: see analyze, disintegrate. 

2. produce, make, do, indite (learned), 
frame, build, gignate (rare and jocular), 
prepare; spec, write, draw, redact, twist, 
address, compile, recompose, collate, con- 
flate (rare), sonnetize (rare), dash (used 
with "off"), scribble, hexametrize, score, 
precompose, fable; see compile, extem- 

3. In printing: set. 

4. See arrange. 

5. calm (contextual), collect, recover, rec- 
ollect (pron. rek-o-lekt'), recall. 

compose, v. i. Spec, ■write, sonnetize, son- 
net, sonneteer, pamphletize, elegize, epi- 
taph, epigrammatize, epilogize or epilo- 
guize (rare), prose, poetize. 

composed, a. 1. constituted, formed, com- 
pact or compacted (archaic), compagi- 
nated (rare). 

2. calm (contextual), collected, self-pos- 
sessed, cool; see peaceful. 
Antonyms: see excited, uneasy. 

composer, n. 1. maker, doer, poet (rare or 
archaic), constructor, constructer (rare), 
framer, former, builder. 

2. author (which see); spec melodist, 
melodramatist, symphonist, hymnist, 
hymnodist, harmonist. 

3. In music: author. 

composite, a. compound, complex (ar- 
chaic), concrete (literary or spec), decom- 
posite (tech.), complicate (archaic); spec 
decompound, colonial, polyzoic, polyge- 
nous, conflate (literary criticism). 
Antonyms: see simple. 

composite, n. compound, composition, 
complexus (tech.), compo (cant or colloq.; 
chiefly Eng.), complex (archaic), confec- 
tion (rare or spec), combination, compost 
(literary); spec, breccia, conglomerate, 
compositum, motley, conserve. 

composition, n. 1. preparation (context- 
vxil), constitution, make-up, making, 
formation, confection (rare), compaction 
(rare), synthesis (learned), framing, com- 
pounding, building; spec dispensation; 
see structure, mixture. 
Antonyms: see analysis. 

2. Referring to the distinctive character: 
constitution, make, make-up. 

3. See composite, compromise. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
complex, V. t.: complicate. 
complexus: complex, composite. 

compUcation: complexity. 
complimentary: laudatory. 
complot, n.: conspiracy. 

oomplot, V. i.: conspire. 
comport, V. t: behave. 
comport, V. i.: agree. 

(S^ See Notes of Explanation. 



4. production, authorship, writing, indit- 
ing or inditement {learned); spec, in- 
vention, imagination, conflation; see 


6. In rrnisic: spec, instrumentation, hym- 
nology, hymnody, songcraft. 

6. Referring to literary productions: pro- 
duction, preparation, piece, opus; spec. 
work, opuscule, screed, brochure, paper, 
discourse, disquisition, effusion, disserta- 
tion, tract, disputation, essay, thesis, 
theme, treatise, tractate, study, fiction, 
poem, novel, sequence, prose, exercise, 
elucubration (rare), lucubration {often hu- 
morous), conflation {archaic), pastoral, 
scribble, thing {contemptuous), morceau 
{French), Balaam, extravaganza, niminy- 
piminy, dithyramb, descant, diatribe. 

7. Referring to musical productions: pro- 
duction, opus; spec, compilation, drama, 
oratorio, concertino, concerto, aria, fugue, 
study, sonata, sonatina, nocturne, inter- 
mezzo, madrigal, duet, quartet, sextet, 
morceau {French), melologue {rare), med- 
ley, melopceia. 

8. In art: spec, relief, rehevo, alto-re- 
hevo, basso-relievo, statue, painting, 
etching, etc. 

9. typesetting, typography. 
compositive, a. constitutive, synthetical; 

spec, retextive {logic; rare). 
Antonym.s: see analytical. 

compositor, n. composer, typesetter; spec. 
typothetse (pZ.). 

composure, n. calm {contextual), collec- 
tion, recollection, self-possession; see 


compotation, n. drinking {contextual), 
symposium; spec, carouse. 

comprehensive, a. 1. See inclusive, un- 

2. large, wide, extensive, broad, general, 
sweeping, expansive; spec, all-embracing. 
Antonyms: see narrow. 

compromise, n. 1. arrangement {context- 
ual), composition. 
2. See arrangement, concession. 

compromise, v. t. 1. arrange {contextual), 


3. prejudice, commit. 
comptroller, n. controller; spec, steward, 

compulsion, n. forcing, obligation, neces- 

sitation, coercion, coaction {rare), coarc- 
tation {rare), constraint, impulsion {rare), 
force {chiefly spec), reduction, enforce- 
ment; spec, necessity, concession {chiefly 
Scot.), distraint. 
Antonyms: see coaxing, cajolery. 

compulsory, a. 1. compellent {rare), ob- 
ligatory, necessitative, coercive, impera- 
tive, coercionary {rare), coactive {rare), 
constraining, impelling, moving, imperi- 
ous; spec, violent. 
2. forced, enforced, obligatory. 
Antonyms: see optional. 

computable, a. calculable, countable, 
numerable, reckonable, etc. 

computation, n. 1. calculation, reckon- 
ing, account {noio 07ily in a few phrases, as 
"money of account"), computus {hist.); 
spec, estimation, counting, recount, tell- 
ing {archaic), numbering, numeration, 
enumeration, denumeration {rare), divi- 
sion, multiplication, subtraction, calcu- 
lus, indigitation {rare), supputation 
{rare), ciphering, rhabdology, day tale or 
daytal or datal (,local Eng.), expansion, 
capitation, logistics; see addition. 
2. Referring to the result arrived at: result, 
account, calculation, reckoning; spec. 
score, sum, quotient, multiple, estimate. 

computative, a. calculative; spec, enu- 
merative, numerative. 

compute, V. t. & i. calculate, reckon; spec. 
count, recount, figure, tell {archaic), nu- 
merate, enumerate, cast, number, con- 
numerate {rare), divide, multiply, sub- 
tract, cipher {colloq., U. S.), estimate, 
tally; see add. 

comrade, n. associate, companion, fellow, 
frater {Latin); spec, contubernal, mess- 
mate, roommate, crony {intimate), coach- 
fellow, playmate, playfellow, chum {col- 
loq.); see intimate. 

concede, v. t. 1. See ACKNOVtXEDGE, grant, 


2. allow, grant, yield. 
conceit, n. 1. conception. 

2. judgnaent, opinion. 

3. conceitedness, self-esteem, self-com- 
placency, self-conceit, self-exaltation, in- 
flation, self -pleasing {rare), self-glorifi- 
cation, self-sufficiency, sufficiency, self- 
satisfaction, self - admiration, megalo- 
mania, egotism, vanity, egoism {rare), 
overweening, overweeningness, outrecui- 

|^° Cross references: see Note. 
compost: fertilizer. 
compote: preserve. 

compound, n.: 
compound, a.: 
compound, n.: 


composite, de- 

t.: compose. 

complicate, arrange, pay. 

comprehend: understand, in- 
cliide, imply. [able. 

comprehensible: understand- 

comprehension: understand- 
ing, intelligence, inclusion. 

compress, v. t.: squeeze, con- 
dense, crowd, consolidate, con- 
strict, abridge. 

comprise: include. 

compunction: regret. 
compunctious: regretful. 
concatenate: connect. 
concatenation: connection, 

concave: hollow, hole. 
conceal: hide. 
concealed: hidden, secret. 
concealment: hiding, secrecy. 

fW See Notes ot Explanation. 



dance {Fre?ich; rare), priggory, priggish- 
ness, assurance, puppyism. 
Antonyms: sec basufulness, modesty, 



5. notion, caprice, quip, quirk, fancy, de- 
vice (archaic), crochet, maggot, crank, 
trick; .stf caprice. 

conceited, a. self-complacent, self-satis- 
fied, self-jileased, self-conceited, egotis- 
tical {rare), egotistic, vain, overweening, 
priggish, self-opinionated, self-opinioned, 
self-sufficient, inflated, blown {literary), 
conceity {coUoq., chiefly Scot.). 
Antonyms: see bashful, modest, 

conceive, v. t. 1. form {in the womb). 

2. form {iti the vmid), frame, ideate {rare), 
brain {rare). 


concentrate, v. t. 1. concenter {rare), 
strengthen; spec, reconcentrate; see dis- 

Antonyms: see separate, scatter, dis- 
perse, DIFFUSE. 

2. Referring to the mind, attention, ideas, 
etc.: focus (fig.), consolidate (fig.), recol- 
lect; spec, rally, localize; see apply. 

concentrated, a. Spec, condensed, intent 
{of a person ) , fLxed, intensified, etc. 
Antonyms: see diffuse. 

conception, n. 1. conceiving; spec, super- 
fetation or superfcetation. 

2. Spec, embryo, fetus or fcetus. 


conceptual, a. conceptive, concipient 

concert, n. 1. See cooperation, conspir- 

2. entertainment, consort {obs. or hist.); 
spec, aubade {French), madrigal, serenade, 

concession, n. 1. See accession, 



2. allowance, granting, grant, yielding; 
spec, compromise. 
conciliate, v. t. 1. win {favor, a person, etc.), 
square (a person; colloq.); spec, curry 

2. reconcile (as theories, differences). 

3. See PACIFY. 

concise, a. brief (contextual), terse, con- 
densed, short (contextual), pithy, com- 
pact, sententious, compressed, succinct, 
summary; spec, laconic, holophrastic, 
curt, epigrammatic, compendious. 
Antonyms: see prolix, wordy, ver- 

conciseness, a. bre\-ity, shortness (con- 
textual), concision (rare), syntomy (rare), 
shortness (contextual), terseness, comma- 
tism (learned), succinctness, compactness; 
spec, laconism, etc. 

conclude, v. t. 1. See end, infer, decide, 
2. etTect, make, drive, close; spec, com- 
Antonyms: see abolish, prevent. 

conclusion, n. 1. See end, event, infer- 
ence, decision. 
2. effectmg, making, closing, effectuation. 

concoct, V. t. devise (contextual), prepare, 
invent, brew, plan; see plan. 

concoction, n. 1. devising, preparation 
(contextual), planning, invention, brewing. 
2. device, preparation, invention; spec. 
lie, mixture, dose, scheme, plot. 

concomitant, a. accompanying, concur- 
rent ; spec, simultaneous, coincident, coex- 
istent, accessory; see contemporaneous. 

concourse, n. 1. As to persons or animals: 
confluence, conflux, concurrence, con- 
gress (rare); see gathering, 
2. See confluence, junction. 

concrete, a. 1. See composite, actual, 


2. In reference to numbers: material (theol. 
and philos.), denominate (rare). 

concrete, n. I. composite, compound, con- 

2. Spec, conglomerate, beton, tabby, 
ferroconcrete, asphalt. 

concretion, n. 1. See solidification, 

2. The thing formed: collection (context- 
ual), concrement (rare), concrescence 
(rare), concrete (obsolesc); spec, calculus, 
knot, congelation, accretion, crystalliza- 
tion, geode, dacryolite, dacryohth. 
concubinage, n. cohabitation; spec. 
hetserism, hetairism. 

J^= Cross references: see Note, 

conceitedness: conceit. 

conceivable: thinkable, im- 

concent: harmony. 

concentri : parallel. 

concept: idea. 

concern, n.: affair, thing, in- 
terest, importance, care, rela- 
tion, firm. 

concern, r. t.: affect. 

concerned: affected, careful, 

concernment: interest, im- 
portance, care. 

concerning: about. 

concert, v. t.: plan. [operate. 

concert, v. i.: conspire, co- 

conclude: end, finish, eventuate. 

conclusive: final, decisive, con- 

concord, n.: agreement, peace, 

concord, v. i.: agree. 

concordant: agreeable, harmo- 

concordat: agreement. 

concrete: solidify. 

concupiscent: desirous, lasciv- 
i(jus. [erate. 

concur: coincide, agree, coOp- 

concurrence: coincidence, con- 
course, confluence, agreement, 
cooperation, correspondence, 

concurrent: coincident, con- 
fluent, concomitant, codpera- 
tii-e, joint, correspondent. 

concuss: shock, shake. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 



condemn, v. t. 1. disapprove (contextual), 
discommend (rare), reprobate, disallow 
(archaic), disfavor, reprehend, discounte- 
nance, denounce, deprecate; spec, anath- 
ematize, damn (archaic; very strong, or 
vulgar), hoot, hiss; see censure. 
Antonyms: see condemn, applaud, ap- 
prove, PRAISE, compliment. 

2. sentence, doom, judge (obs.), adjudge; 
spec, damn (archaic), lag (cant). 

3. consign, commit (contextual), devote, 

4. See CONVICT, confiscate, appro- 

condemnable, a. 1. disapprovable, dis- 
allowable, damnable (archaic, very strong, 
or vulgar); see blamable, reprehensible. 

2. convictable, adjudgeable. 

3. consignable, committable, devotable. 
condemnation, n. 1. disapprobation, dis- 
commendation (rare), reprehension, dis- 
approval, frown, reprobation, deprecia- 
tion, damnation (very strong or vulgar); 


Antonyms: see justification, applause, 
approval, praise, admiration, com- 

2. conviction, convictment (rare), sen- 
tence, doom, judgment (rare). 

3. consignment, commitment (context- 
ual), committal, doom (rare). 

condemnatory, a. 1. disapprobatory, 
damnatory, reprobative, reprehensive, 
deprecatory; see censorious. 
Antonyms: see approving, laudatory, 


2. convictive. 

3. consignatory, devotive, doomful. 
condensation, n. 1. thickening, concen- 
tration, coercion (tech., and chiefly spec); 
spec, liquefaction (of a gas), distillation, 
inspissation, solidification. 

2. abridgment, abbreviation, compres- 
sion, concentration. 

Antonyms: see development, enlarge- 
condense, v. t. & i. 1. thicken, concentrate, 
densify (rare), coarct (rare); spec, in- 
spissate, liquefy; see distill, solidify. 

Antonyms: see dilute, evaporate, 


2. abridge (contextual), abbreviate, com- 
press, concentrate; spec, epitomize. 

Antonyms: see develop, enlarge. 

condescend, v. i. stoop, deign, descend, 

condescending, a. gracious (of very ex- 
alted persons). 
Antonyms: see arrogant. 

condescension, n. 1. Referring to an 
action or to an act: stoop. 
2. condescendence, graciousness, grace; 
spec, complaisance. 

condition, ?i. 1. provision, proviso, pre- 
requisite, postulate, precondition; spec. 
assumption, contingency, terms (pi.), de- 
feasance, stipulation. 



conditional, a. subject, conditioned, pro- 
visional, provisory, provisionary, pre- 
requisite; spec, contingent, dependent. 
Antonyms: see absolute, complete. 

conduct, V. t. 1. See guide, escort, man- 
age, HOLD, behave, transport, TRANS- 

2. In the sense of "to carry on as an enter- 
prise": run, operate, carry (often with 
"along," "on," etc.); spec, push, drive, 

conductor, n. 1. See leader, guide, es- 
cort, MANAGER. 

2. guard (o7i a train; Eng.); spec, tripper. 

3. transmitter, conveyor; spec, cable, 
lead, bus, buster. 

cone-shaped, a. conical, conic, coniform 
(rare) . 

confection, v. t. prepare, form, mix. 

confederacy, n. 1. association, league, al- 
liance, compact (the agreement only), 
union,- coalition, confederation, federa- 
tion; spec. Bund (German), pentapolis, 
Dreibund (German), Zollverein (German). 
2. conspiracy. 

confederate, a. leagued, allied, confeder- 
ated, federated, federal. 

confer, v. i. 1. See converse, CONSULT. 
2. talk, parley, palaver, povrwow (fig. or 

conference, n. 1. See conversation, 


2. talk, parley, palaver, powwow (fig. or 
confess, v. t. 1. See acknowledge. 
2. disclose (contextual), tell, reveal, un- 
bosom, disbosom (rare); spec, unburden. 

tW Cross references : see Note. 
condescendence: condescen- 
condign: appropriate. 
condiment: flavoring. 
condition, v. t.: stipulate, limit. 
conditioned: circumstanced. 
condole: sympathize. 
condolence: sympathy. 
condonation: excuse. 

condone: exctise. 

conduce: tend, contribute. 

conducement: contribution. 

conducive: contributory. 

conduct, n.: management, di- 
rection, procedure, behavior, 
pursuit, doing. 

conduction: transmission. 

conduit: channel. 

confab: conversation. 

confabulate: converse. 

confabulation: conversation. 

confect: preserve. 

confection: preparation, com- 
position, sweetmeat, preservation. 

confectionery: factory, sweet- 

confederate: ally, conspirator. 

confederation: confederacy. 

confer: bestow. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



Antonyms: sec uide, deny. 

S. shrive, shrift {rare). 
ccnfession, n. 1. See acknowledgment. 

3. shrift (chiefly spec.). 

8. Referring to a body of believers in one 

faith: communion. 
confessional, n. stall. 
confidant, n. confidante (Jem.), confidente 

(French; Jan.), confident (French; ynasc), 

intimate, privado (obs.). 
confidence, n. 1. See assurance. 

2. assurance, certitude, self-confidence, 
positiveness, clearness, cocksureness, 
surety (rare); spec, insistency, certainty. 

3. communication, privacy, secret. 
confident, a. 1. See assured, bold. 

2. assured, sure, certain, positive, clear, 
cocksure, secure (literary); spec, insistent. 
Antonyms: see anxious, timid. 
confidential, a. 1. private, secret, fiducial, 
fiduciary, trust. 


confinable, a. restrainable, imprisonable. 

confine, v. t. 1. imprison, prison (poetic 
or rhet.), mew (literary), incarcer- 
ate (learned), carcerate (rare), restrain, 
immure; spec, mure (orig. spec), pew 
(Jig. or spec), circumscribe (rare), kennel 
(fig. or spec), embound (rare), restrict, 
pen (fig. or spec), restringe (rare), close, 
inclose (obs., exc spec), jail, pinch, 
shop (cant), bail, cauldron (rare), box, 
house, closet, chamber (archaic), cabin 
(rare), crib (rare), pound, impound, cub 
(chiefly dial.), pin, embar (rare), impark 
(rare), shackle, dam, dungeon, jug (slang), 
lock (used chiefly with ^^up," "into," etc), 
endungeon (rare), bastille or bastile, 
cloister, coop, penfold, gate (Eng. univ.), 
yard, impale (rare), enchain, incave, en- 
cage, embank, intern, constrain, enjail 
(rare), labyrinth, cage; see detain. 
Antonyms: see free. 

2. fasten (contextual), hold, secure, de- 
tain, restrain; spec, tie, jess, braid, brail, 
bind, button, chain, constrict, enchain, 
rope, etc.; see bind. 

Antonyms: see loose. 

3. bound, limit, restrict, circumscribe, 
astrict (rare), restringe (rare), pinch 
(rare), narrow, cram; see restrict. 
Many of the words given under sense 1 may 
be used figuratively in this sense. 

confined, a. 1. incarcerate (archaic), re- 
strained, pent, imprisoned, mewed, etc.; 
see BOUND. 
Antonyms: see free. 
2. restricted, hmited, narrow, close, 
cramp; see narrow. 

A ntony)ns: see unlimited, uninclosed, 


3. bedrid, bedridden. 
confinement, n. 1. imprisonment, incar- 
ceration (learned), carceration (rare), im- 
murement (orig. spec), prisonment (rare), 
restraint, constraint, durance (chiefly liter- 
ary and in the phrase "in durance vile"), 
ward (obsolescent); spec, duress, claustra^ 
tion, captivity, chains, inclosure, limbo, 
prison, detainment (rare), custody. 
Antonyms: see freedom. 

2. fastening (contextual), holding (con- 
textual), securing (contextual), detention; 
spec, chains, restraint. 

3. limitation, hmiting, restriction, cir- 
cumscription, narrowness (as of oppor- 
tunity), Hunt, crampedness, crampnesa 
(rare); see restriction. 

4. childbed. 

confining, a. limitative, hmiting, restric- 
tive, circumscriptive, binding, limitary. 

confirm, v. t. 1. establish, fix, strengthen; 
spec bishop; see strengthen. 
Antonyms: see abolish, weaken. 

2. ratify, sanction, validate, roborate 
(rare), corroborate (now rare), avouch, 
vouch (rare or tech.), approbate or ap- 
prove (chiefly Scots law); spec, homolo- 
gate (chiefly Scots law), coimtersign, in- 
dorse, seal, reconfirm (rare). 

Antonyms: see invalidate, dispute. 

3. estabhsh, verify, corroborate, accredit, 
support, substantiate, sustain, clinch 
(colloq.); see prove. 

Antonyms: see disprove, discredit, 

confirmable, a. verifiable; see provable, 

confirmation, n. seal, support, sanction, 

confirmatory, a. 1. ratificatory, sanction- 
ative, corroborant (rare), roborative 
(rare), corroborative (obsolescent); spec. 
signatory, obsignatory (rare). 
2. corroboratory, corroborative, corrobo- 
rant, supportive. 

confiscate, v. t. take (contextual), seize, 
appropriate, forfeit (rare or hist.); spec. 
condemn, sequestrate, sequester. 

conflagrant, a. See burning. 

conflict, n. 1. See contention, fight. 
2. confliction (rare), encounter, ren- 
counter (rare), collision, clash; see in- 
terference, disagreement. 
Antonyms: see agreement. 

conflict, V. i. 1. See fight. 
2. clash, encounter, rencounter (rare), 
collide; spec interfere; see disagree. 
Antonyms: see agree, conform. 

t^^ Cross references: see Note. 
confide, v. t.: commit, tell. 
confide, v. i.: trust. 

confiding, n.: commitment. 
confiding, a.: trustful, believ- 

conflguration : form, co-nstructvm. 
confine, n.: boundary. 
conflagration: fire. 

(W See Notes of E^lanation. 



conflictory, a. conflicting, conflictive 
(rare), collisive (rare), clashing; spec. 
discordant, interfering, disagreeing. 
Antonyms: see agreeing. 

confluence, n. 1. Meaning "a flowing to- 
gether": junction, conflux, concourse, 

Antonyms: see divergence. 

confluent, a. joining, meeting, commin- 
gling, concurrent. 
Antonyms: see divergent. 

conform, v. t. adjust, accommodate, 
shape, assimilate, liken (rare); spec. 
serve; see adapt, harmonize. 

conform, v. i. 1. agree (contextual; used 
udth "with"), harmonize, shape; spec, as- 
similate (used with "to"). 
Antonyms: see conflict. 
2. See COMPLY, correspond. 

conformable, a. Spec, agreeable, adapt- 
able, consistent, correspondent, compliant. 

confront, v. t. See face, oppose, compare. 
2. contrapose (rare), counterpose (rare). 

confuse, v. t. 1. See abash. 

2. perplex (contextual), confound, dis- 
tract, disconcert, flurry, addle, flutter, 
fluster, flustrate, bewilder, flabbergast 
(colloq.), wilder (rare), muddle, bemud- 
dle (intensive), fuddle, befuddle (inten- 
sive), mist (fijg.), bemist (intensive), mess 
(colloq.), clutter (dial.), muss (colloq., 
U. S.), fuss (colloq., U. S.), dizzy, mix 
(colloq.), bumbase (rare), maze (rare), en- 
tangle, bemaze (rare), bemuse (rare), 
blank (archaic or rare), dazzle, muddify 
(rare), muddy (f^.), gravel, bedevil (rare), 
befog, fog (rare), demorahze (colloq. or 
spec); spec, rattle, dumfound, dum- 
founder; see stupefy, disconcert, dis- 

3. disorder (contextual), mix, jumble, rav- 
el (rare), embroil, embrangle (rare), en- 
tangle, mingle, muddle, commingle; spec. 
blend, confound, mess, derange; see dis- 

Antonyms: see arrange, classify, dis- 
tinguish, elucidate. 
confused, a. 1. abashed; see abash. 
2. flabbergasted (colloq.), bemazed (in- 
tensive), puzzleheaded, faggy, misty, 
flustery (rare), flustered, turbid, mixed 
(colloq.), distracted, distract (archaic), 
muddy (fig.), addle (literary), muddle- 
headed; spec, blank, dim, capernoitit 
(Scot.), thunderstruck, thunderstricken ; 
see stupefied. 

Antomjms: see calm, methodical, self- 

3. mixed, jumbled, jumbly, topsy-turvy, 
higgledy-piggledy (contemptuous), promis- 
cuous, messy (colloq.), macaronic (liter- 
ary); spec, chaotic, troublous, indiscrim- 
inate, mussy (U. S.). 
Antonyms: see orderly, classified. 

confusedly, adv. helter-skelter, higgledy- 
piggledy, jumbly, hurry-scurry. 

confusing, a. perplexing, distracting, 
flustering, etc. 

confusion, n. 1. See ABASHMENT, dis- 
comfiture, stupefaction. 

2. Referring to the state of Jiiind: perplexity 
(contextual), distraction, disconcerted- 
ness, flurry, blankness, flutter, fluttera- 
tion, muss (U. S.), fluster, flustration, 
bewilderment, wilderment (rare), puzzle, 
muddle, fuddle (chiefly spec), disconcer- 
tion (rare), disconcertment (rare), fluster, 
flusterment (rare), dazzle (rare), dazzle- 
ment (rare), puzzlement (rare), mist, 
muddiness (fig.), muddlement (rare); 
spec dumfounderment, entanglement, 
dumfoundedness, demorahzation ; see 
stupefaction, disarrangement. 

Antonyms: see calm, self-control. 

3. Referring to the physical condition: dis- 
order (contextual), ravelment (rare), jum- 
ble, chaos, muss (U. S.), higgledy-pig- 
gledy (contemptuous), jumblement (rare), 
babel (rare; fig.), coil (archaic), imbroil- 
ment, imbroglio (chiefly spec), hugger- 
mugger (colloq.), moil (archaic), muddle, 
fuddle, chitter (dial, or colloq.); spec, tan- 
gle, tanglement, entanglement, promis- 
cuity; see disarrangement. 

Antonyms: see arrangement, method, 
system, order. 

confute, V. t. confound (archaic), convince 
(archaic), convict (archaic), redargue 
(Scot.), overthrow, overturn, overcome, 
refute; spec, disprove, silence. 
Antonyms: see confirm, prove. 

congeal, v. t. & i. solidify (contextual), fix, 
set, freeze (chiefly spec); spec, pectize 
(rare), gelatinize, jeUy, coagulate, ice 
(rare); see crystallize. 
Antonyms: see soften, liquify. 

congealed, a. solidified, set, frozen (chiefly 
spec); spec, pectous. 

congenital, a. connate (chiefly spec), con- 
nascent (rare), innate (chiefly spec), con- 

congratulate, v. t. felicitate, gratulate 
(archaic), macarize (rare), hug (oneself). 

f^ Cross references: see Note. 
conflux: confluence, concourse. 
conform, a.: consistent, corre- 
confrere: colleague. 

congener: aUy. 
congeneric: allied. 
congenial: agreeable. 
congeries: collection, accumulation. 
congest: accumulate, collect, congest. 

conglomerate, n.: mass, ac- 
cumulation, collection. 

conglomerate, v.: collect. 

conglomeration: accumula- 
tion, collection. 

XS' See Notes of Explanation. 



plume (tmesclf), pride (oneself), flatter 
(ojieselj): see compliment. 
Aiitonyvts: see compassionate. 

congratulatory, a. gratulatory (rare). 

congregate, a. met (r<)?!/fj7!/a/), assembled. 

congregate, V. i. assemble, gather, collect; 
spee. throng, flock, swarm, crowd, herd 
(Jig. of victi), shoal; sec meet, crowd. 
Antonyms: see separ.\te, scatter. 

congregation, 71. 1. assemblage, assembly, 
gathering, collection; see meeting. 
2. church; spec, parish (U. S.), propa- 
ganda (R:C.Ch.). 

conical, conic, a. cone-shaped, coniform 

conjectural, a. suppositional, suppositi- 
tious (learned), hypothetical (learned), 
theoretical (chiefly tech.): see supposed. 
Antanyms: see unquestionable. 

conjure, v. i. 1. juggle (rare), charm (rare), 
incant (obs. or rare). 
2. See JUGGLE. 

connect, v. t. Spec, concatenate, link, in- 
terlink, interconnect, associate, relate, 
hyphen, hyphenate, hyphenize; see join, 
unite, attach, associate, relate. 
Antony7ns: see detach, disconnect. 

connect, v. i. Spec, lock, interlock, inter- 
digitate (rare), interosculate; see com- 

connection, n. 1. Spec, attachment, junc- 
tion, union, concatenation, interoscula- 
tion, linking; see association, relation, 
intercourse, communication. 
Antonyms: see detachment. 
2. See relation, bond, denomination. 

connivance, n. winking; cf. collusion, co- 
operation, consent. 

connive, v. i. wink; nearly related are: 
collude, cooperate, consent. 

connivent, a. Nearly related are: collusive, 
cooperative; see accessory. 

connoisseur, n. expert, virtuoso (masc; 
Italian), virtuosa (fern.; Italian); spec. 
critic, judge, epicure, lapidary. 

conquer, v. i. prevail, overcome, over- 
throw, win; spec, triumph. 

conquerable, a. vincible (rare), vanquish- 
able, overcomable (rare). 

Antonyms: see unconquerable. 

conquering, a. victorious. 

conqueror, n. dcfcater, conqucress (Jem.), 
victor, victress (fern.), victrix (fern.; 
Latin), winner, subjugator, subduer, dis- 
comfiter, master; spec, humbler, reducer, 

conquest, n. 1. See ACQUISITION, over- 

2. victory, win (colloq.), winning, mas- 
tery ; spec, triumph ; see defeat. 

conscientious, a. upright, religious, faith- 
ful, strict, scrupulous, exact, particular; 
spec.careful, honorable, incorruptible, just. 
Antonyms: see abandoned, deceitful, 
dishonest, careless, unprincipled. 

conscious, a. 1. sensible, cognizant, per- 
cipient (tech. or learned), awake (fig.), sen- 
tient; see AWARE. 
Antonyms: see unconscious. 

2. self-conscious; spec, guilty. 
Antonyms: see innocent. 

3. See intentional. 
consciousness, n. sensibility, sense, mind, 

sentience (rare or literary), perception, 
sensation, etc. 

conscribe, v. t. enlist (contextual), draft, 

conscription, n. enlistment (contextual), 
drafting, impressment. 

consecrate, v. t. 1. To pronounce words of 
consecration over: bless (archaic), seal 
(rare), sacrament (rare); spec, dedicate, 
taboo, sanctify, devote. 
Antonyms: see curse. 
2. To make consecrate (in fact): hallow, 
sanctify, sacrament (rare; fig.), bless 
(archaic) . 
Antonyms: see desecrate. 

consecration, n. 1. blessing (archaic), 
sacring; spec, sanctification, dedication, 
2. hallowing, sanctification, devotion. 

consecrative, a. hallowing, consecratory, 

consequence, n. 1. See result, infer- 
ence, importance, self-importance. 
2. succession (contextual), sequence, con- 
secution, sequent. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 

congress: meeting, intercourse. 

congruence: agreement, con- 

congruent: agreeing, consist- 

congTuity: agreement, consist- 

congruous: agreeing, consi.-it- 

conjoin: join, unite. 

conjoint: joint, united. 

conjugal: matrimonial. 

conjugate, a.: joined, united, 
married, related. 

conjugate, v. t.: inflect. 

conjugate, r. i.: unite. 

conjunct: joined, united. 

conjunctive, a.: joining, unit- 
ing, joint. 

conjuration: magic, invoca- 

conjure, v. i.: ask, invoke, 
bring, effect. 

conjurer: magician, juggler. 

conjury: magic, jugglery. 

connate: congenital, related, 

connected: joined, united, ad- 
junct, constant, related. 

connotation: meaning. 

connote: mean. 

connubial: matrimonial. 

conquer, r. t.: defeat, overcome. 

consanguineous: related. 

consanguinity: relation. 

conscript: drafted. 

consecrated: holy. 

consecution: succession, con- 

consecutive: successive. 

consensual: agreeing. 

consensus: agreement. 

consentaneous: agreeing, con- 
sistent, unanimous. 

consentience: agreement. 

consentient: agreeing, unani- 

tS^ See Notes of Explanation. 


consequential, a. 1. necessary, conse- 
quent, sequential; see inferable. 
Antonyms: see accidental, chance. 

2. In reference to results: indirect, second- 
ary; spec, eventual (rare). 


conservative, a. 1. preservative. Cf. pre- 

2. unprogressive {a derogatory term); spec. 
misoneistic (rare), Tory {Eng.}, blue {Eng. 

conservative, n. In politics: mossback 
{slang; chiefly U. S.), hunker (local, U. S.), 
Tory (Eng.). 

consider, v. t. 1. deliberate, cogitate, pon- 
der, ponderate (rare), brood, contemplate, 
meditate, ruminate, chew (colloq. or fig.), 
study, speculate (obs. or rare), turn, re- 
volve, roll (rare), forethink (rare), per- 
pend (archaic), treat; spec, weigh, muse, 
design (rare), digest, envisage (literary), 
precontrive (rare), premeditate (rare), 
preconsider (rare); see reconsider, en- 

2. regard, heed, mark, notice, mind, scan ; 
spec, entertain, review, consult, esteem. 

Antonyms: see disregard, ignore. 

3. think, opine (rare), opinionate (rare), 
regard, believe, view, trow (archaic), 
judge, hold, deem, count, account, reckon, 
take, call, esteem, make; spec, rate, es- 
timate, value, repute, gauge, misesteem; 
see INFER. 

4. respect, regard. 
Antonyms: see insult, ignore. 

consider, v. i. 1. think, reflect, deliberate, 
meditate, brood, mull (colloq., U. S.), 
study (colloq.), ponder, pore, cogitate 
(learned), muse (chiefly spec), ruminate, 
2. See care. 

considerable, a. large, sizable (chiefly 
spec), substantial, substantive, good, 
round, important, goodish, goodly, gey 
(Scot.), tolerable, pretty, fair, respectable; 
spec, material, noteworthy, corofortable, 
decent (chiefly colloq.), handsome, tidy 
Antonyms: see small. 

consideration, n. 1. thinking, thought, 
forethought, deliberation, cogitation 
(learned), pondering, ponderation (rare), 
think (dial, or colloq.), speculation (rare), 
contemplation, meditation, study, pon- 
derment (rare), reflection, rumination; 

spec premeditation, preconsideration 
(rare), precogitation (rare), predelibera- 
tion (rare), muse, musing, counsel, view, 
introversion, envisagement (literary); see 
Antonyms: see thoughtlessness. 

2. care, regard, heed, mindfulness, re- 
spect (rare); spec afterthought, review, 
retrospect, retrospection. 

Antonyms: see carelessness, disre- 
gard, impudence. 

3. importance, respect, esteem. 

4. account, opinion, judgment, esteem, 
estimation, reckoning, regard, view; spec. 
misestimation, misestimate. 

5. See REASON, compensation, atten- 
tiveness, attention. 

consign, v. t. 1. See deliver, commit. 
2. send, remit, remand, resign; spec, con- 
demn, devote; see abandon. 

consignation, n. 1. See delivery, com- 

2. sending, consignment, remission (rare) , 
remand, resignation; spec condemnation, 
devotion, abandonment. 

consigner, n. consignor, deliverer; spec. 
vendor, shipper, freighter, bailor, prin- 

consignment, n. 1. See delivery, com- 
mitment, consignation. 
2. goods (contextual) , shipment. 

consist, V. i. 1. subsist, lie. 
2. See inhere, agree. 

consistency, n. agreement (contextual), 
congruence, congruency, congruity, co- 
herency, coherence, conformability, con- 
formity, correspondence, compatibility, 
harmony, accordancy, consonance, con- 
sonancy; spec self-consistency, conse- 
quence (logic), reconcilability. 

consistent, a. 1. See compact, firm. 
2. agreeable (contextual), accordant, co- 
herent, consentaneous (rare), congruous, 
congruent, conformable, conform (ar- 
chaic), correspondent, compatible, con- 
sonant, harmonious; spec, self-consistent, 
consequent (logic), symmetrical, recon- 
cilable, cosmic (flg.), concordial (rare). 
Antonyms: see inconsistent, absurd. 

consolidate, v. t. 1. compact, firm, com- 
press, settle, knit, solidify; see con- 
2. See join, unite, combine, unify. 

consonant, n. articulation; spec letter, 
sound, explosive, explodent, sonant, surd. 

IC^ Cross references: see Note. 

consequent: resulting, infer- 
able, consequential. 

consequentialness: self -im- 

consequently: therefore. 

conservancy: preservation. 

conservation: preservation. 

conservator: custodian, guar- 

conserve, v. t.: preserve. 

conserve, n.: sweetmeat. 

considerate: careful, obliging, 
charitable, attentive, kindly. 

considerative: thoughtful. 

considared: deliberate. 

consistence: firmness, compactness. 
consistory: court. 
consolation: cheer. 
consolatory: cheering. 
console, v. t.: cheer. 
console, n.: bracket. 
consonant: agreeable, agreeing, 
consistent, harmonious. 

K^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



whisper, breath, subvocal, subtonic, con- 
tinuant, stop, check, mute, liquid, semi- 
liquid, cerebral, fricative, trill, sibilant, 
glottal, lingual, labial, dental, labioden- 
tal, interdental, nasal, guttural, palatal, 
velar, alveolar. 

conspicuous, a. notable (contextual), 
prominent, great (contextual), signal, 
striking, noticeable, marked, staring, 
eminent, glaring (esp. of what is bad); 
spec, notorious, gaudy, rampageous, 
brilliant, celebrated, distinguished, re- 
Antonyms: see obscure, unnoticeable. 

conspiracy, n. confederacy, concert, com- 
bination, plot (contextual), plan (context- 
ual), cooperation (contextual), complot 
(literary), conspiration (rare), covin (ob- 
solescent; laio), synomosy (literally, a 
sworn conspiracy; rare), practice (archaic), 
machination (literary; contextual); spec. 
intrigue (contextual), boycott, collusion, 
Antonyms: see disagreement, co>fTEN- 


conspirator, n. conspiratress (Jem.), con- 
federate, complotter (rare); spec, colluder, 
Cataline (fig.), caballer, coconspirator, 
intrigant (masc; French), intrigante 
(Jem.; French). 

conspiratory, a. collusive, covinous (chiej- 
ly legal). 

conspire, v. i. combine (contextvxd) , con- 
federate (rare), concert, plot (contextual), 
complot (literary), machinate (literary; 
contextual), consult (archaic), practice 
(archaic), coUogue (dial.); spec, cabal, in- 
trigue, coUude, plan (contextual), trinket 
(obs. or rare), cooperate (contextual). 
Antonyms: see disagree, contend. 

constancy, n. Spec, faith, faithfulness, 
endurance, truth, devotion, honor, per- 
petuity, continuousness, trustiness, con- 
tinuity, uniformity, stability, persistence, 
permanence, eternity, etc. Cf. constant. 
Antonyms: see change, apostacy, vac- 

constant, a. 1. steadfast, fast, firm, un- 
wavering, continued, stanch, imalterable, 
unswerving, abiding, enduring, fixed, set- 
tled, unmoved, tenacious, diligent, assid- 
uous, sedulous, unshaken, steady, staid 
(rare), stable, rocky (rare); spec, persever- 
ing, persistent, pertinacious, Sisyphean 
(fig.); see determined. 
Antonyms: see changeable, capricious. 
2. true, loyal, leal (literary or Scot.), faith- 
ful, feal (archaic), -tried, devoted, trusty, 
trustworthy; see reliable. 
Antonyms: see treacherous, incon- 

stant, treasonable, unfaithful, un- 

3. In a sense implying absence of change or 
variation: invariable, invariant (rare, exc. 
math.), unchanging, fixed, uniform, 
steady, stable, invaried (rare), unvaried, 
unwavering, undeviating, regular, per- 

Antonyms: see changeable, vacillat- 
ing, capricious, unstable. 

4. In a sense implying continuation in 
time: continual, continued, persistent, 
sustained, enduring; spec, permanent, 
abiding, perpetual, eternal, unremitting, 
everlasting, regular, endless, momentary 
(rare), momently (rare), hourly. 

Antonyms: see transient. 

5. In a sense implying unbroken continu- 
ance: continuous, continual, unbroken, 
regular, even, uniform, uninterrupted, 
steady, sustained, unremitting, unre- 
mitted, unintermitted, incessant, inces- 
sable (rare), ceaseless, unceasing, con- 
nected, perennial, pauseless, running, 

Antonyms: see intermittent. 
constantly, adv. steadfastly, firmly, un- 
changingly, imiformly, continually, per- 
petually, always, regularly, evenly, etc. 


constipate, v. t. bind (colloq.), confine 
(rare), astrict (rare), astringe (rare). 
Antonyms: see physic 

constipated, o. bound (colloq.), costive 
Antonyms: see loose. 

constipating, a. binding (colloq.), COStive 
Antonyms: see cathartic 

constituency, n. principal; spec, elec- 

constituent, a. 1. See component. 
2. Spec, elective, appointive, electoral. 

constituent, n. 1. See component. 
2. principal; spec, elector, voter. 

constitute, v. i. form, be, make, spell; 
spec, aggregate (colloq.) , total; — with a 
cognate object, as in "fifty-two cards coiv- 
stitute a pack." 

constitution, n. 1. See appointment, es- 
tablishment, structure, texture, 

2. nature (contextual), make-up, make; 
spec, temperament, physique; see dispo- 

3. decree (contextual), law, edict; spec. 
fundr^mental law, organic law. 

constitutional, a. 1. natural, organic, 
hectic (obs.); spec, temperamental, dia- 

l^° Cross references: see Note. 
consort, n.; spouse, mate, ship. 
consort, v. i.: associate, aqree. 

consortshlp: association. 
conspectus: outline. 
consternation: fear. 

constitute, v. t.: appoint, es- 
tablish, Creole, compose, make. 
constituted: being. 

1S^ See Notes of Explanation. 



S. In law: organic, politic {rare); see law- 
constraint, n. 1. See COMPULSION, con- 

2. Referring to a compelling force: pres- 
sure, press, force, stress, duress (chiefly 
spec), distress, pinch, cramp (rare). 

3. restraint, repression, reserve; see em- 
barrassment, STIFFNESS, self-control. 

Antonyms: see ease, familiarity. 
constrict, v. t. squeeze {contextual), com- 
press {contextixal) , bind, contract, cramp, 
astrict {rare), astringe {rare), constringe, 
constrain {literary); spec, strangulate, 
choke; see confine, narrow. 

Antonyms: see free, enlarge, distend, 
constriction, n. 1. compression, squeez- 
ing, contraction, constraint {literary), 
narrowing, astriction {rare), contingency 
{rare) . 

Antonyms: see inflation. 
2. contraction, stricture; spec, intake, 
neck, choke; spec, narrowing. 
construct, v. t. I. In reference to physical 
things: make, build, form, frame, confect 
{rare), configurate {rare), configure {rare), 
compose, join, fabricate; spec, erect, 
draw, forge, contour. 

Antonyms: see destroy, abate, de- 

2. In reference to ideas, plans, etc.: create 
{contextual), build, fabricate, contrive, 
weave, frame. 

Antonyms: see destroy, abolish. 
construction, n. 1. The act: making, 
building, formation, fabrication, com- 
position; spec, malconstruction, manu- 

2. The thing: form, building, structure, 
fabrication, figure {chiefly spec), contriv- 
ance, conformation {chiefly spec), con- 
figuration {chiefly spec), frame; spec 
formation, drawing, erection. 

3. As to immaterial things or qualities: 
composition, contexture, structure, con- 
formation, configuration; spec frame-up. 

4. See explanation, meaning. 
constructive, a. tectonic {literarT/), con- 

consult, V. i. talk {contextual), advise, con- 
fer, counsel, commune {obs. or rare), pow- 
wow {chiefly U. S.), colloque {colloq.), 
confabulate {rare). 

consult, V. I. 1. advise with, confer with; — 

no single-word synomjms. 
2. See consider. 

consultant, n. conferrer, counselor, ad- 
viser, consulter. 

consultation, n. talk {contextiuil) , con- 
ference, counsel, advice {obs.), colloquy, 
parley {chiefly spec), pourparler {French), 
powwow {spec or chiefly U. S.), palaver 
{chiefly spec); spec, indaba, interview. 

consultative, a. advisory, consultory 
(rare) . 

consume, v. t. 1. destroy, eat, canker {fig.); 
see waste, burn, decompose, corrode. 
Antonyms: see renew. 
2. Meaning "to use up" : devour, swallow 
{fig.; chiefly with "up"); spec, absorb, take, 
eat, drink, use (contextual), v/ear, kill, out- 
wear (rare), dissolve; see expend, erode. 
Antonyms: see renew. 

consumer, n. 1. destroyer. 
2. user (contextual), devourer, cormorant 
(fig.), eater, barathrum (fig.). 

consuming, a. destroying, cankerous 
(fig.); spec depascent (rare), erodent. 

consumption, n. 1. destruction; see burn- 
ing, decay, corrosion. 
2. Meaning "a using up": use (context- 
ual), devourment; spec absorption, dis- 
solution, eating, drinking; see expendi- 
ture, wear. 

consumptive, n. lunger (slang or colloq.), 
hectic (rare or tech.), pulmonic (rare). 

contact, n. 1. touch (contextual), touching, 
tangency (tech.), contingence (rare), tac- 
tion (rare). 

2. In elec: meaning "a touching piece": 
spec contactor, brush, terminal. 

container, n. Spec, wrapper, package, 
bottle, box, bag, case, cask, empty, bar- 
rel, cash, etc.; see receptacle. 

contaminate, v. t. 1. corrupt (contextual), 
infect, taint, attaint (rare), pollute, soil, 
inquinate (rare), defile, sully, foul, befoul 
(intensive), file (dial, or obs.), vitiate, 
poison, empoison (intensive; literary), en- 
venom (intensive; literary); spec, debauch, 
degrade, deprave, stain, dirty. 
Antonyms: see purify, elevate. 
2. See foul, vitiate. 

contaminated, a. corrupt, corrupted, pol- 
luted, pollute (rare), maculate or macu- 
lated (rare), cankered (literarrj), etc. 

contamination, n. 1. The act: corruption, 
attaint (rare), tainture (rare), infection, 

13^ Cross references: see Note. 
constltutlTe: component, crea- 
tive, [strict. 
constrain: compel, confine, re- 
constralned: stiff, forced. 
constraining: compulsory. 
constringe: constrict. 
construe, v. t.: explain, trans- 

late, understand, interpret. 

construe, n.: translation. 

consuetude: custom, habit. 

consul: magistrate, diplomatic 

consummate, a.: absolute, per- 
fect, accomplished, completed, 

consummate, v. t: complete, 

perfect, accomplish. 

consummation: completion, 
perfection, end, accomplish- 
ment, death, height. 

contagious: catching, infectious. 

contain: include, hold, restrain 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 


maouktion (rare), defilement, taintine;, 
stain, soil (rare), filing (dial, or obs?), 
sullying, pollution, inquination (rare), 
vitiation, fouling; spec, debauchment, 
degradation, depravation, stain. 

2. That which corrupts: corruption, taint, 
stain, infection, pollution, poison, foul- 
ness, impurity; spec, depravity, filth, ob- 
scurity, filthiness, immorality, abomina- 

3. Spec, fouling, vitiation, infection. 
contaminatlve, a. corruptive, tainting, 

infectious (rare), poisonous, depraving, 
defiling, polluting, infective, etc. 

Antonyms: see elevating. 
contemn, v. t. 1. Referring to the mental at- 
titude: see DESPISE, ABHOR. 

2. scorn, flout; see ridicule. This sense 
refers to the act, which may not agree vnih 
the inward or mental attitude. 
Antonyms: see honor. 

contemporaneous, a. coexistent (con- 
textual), contemporary, monochronous 
(rare); spec, coetaneous (rare), coeval, 
concomitant, coinstantaneous, coinci- 
dent, simultaneous, coterminous, syn- 
chronous, collateral, synchronical (rare), 
synchronal; see coexistent. 

contemporaneousness, n. coexistence 
(contextual), contemporariness, etc. 

contempt, n. 1. disdain, scorn, despisal, 
contumely (literary), despite (archaic), 
disesteem (rare), misprison (literary), mis- 
prise (rare), misprisal (rare); spec, pity 
(Jig.), superciliousness, despite (literary). 
Antonyms: see respect, a^ve, polite- 
2. See discredit. 

contemptible, a. despicable, mean, un- 
venerable (rare), base, vile, low, abject, 
pitiful, pitiable, sorry, vi^retched, igno- 
minious, caitiff (literary), scald (archaic), 
scurvy, dirty (vulgar or very contemptu- 
ous); see PALTRY. 
Antonyms: see admirable, estimable, 


contemptuous, a. disdainful, ludibrious 
(rare), scornful, contumelious (literary), 
despiteful (archaic), pitying (Ji_g.), super- 
cilious, insolent, sneering, cynic, cavalier 
(learned), cavalierly (rare). 
Antonyms: see respectful, polite. 

contend, v. i. 1. cpntest (rare), engage, 

fight (fig.), battle (fig. or spec), struggle, 
strive, conflict (rare); spec, fight, buffet, 
tussle, combat, vie, rival, cope, wrestle 
(cant), war, spar, scramble, jostle (fig.), 
tilt; see fight, quarrel, dispute. 

Antonyms: see agree, conspire, co- 

2. compete, contest (rare), rival (archaic), 
strive, vie, struggle, rivalize (rare). 

contention, n. 1. Referring to the action: 
contest, fight (fig. or spec), colluctation 
(rare), conflict; spec, combat, strife, strug- 
gle, wrestling (cant), scramble; see fight, 
dispute, quarrel, litigation. 
Antonyms: see agreement, conspiracy, 
2. See competition. 

contentious, a. strifeful (rare), gladia- 
torial (fig.), litigious (rare, exc. spec); 
spec, stormy; see quarrelsome, dispu- 
tatious, combative. 

contents, n. pi. content (obs.), lining (^^gr.); 
spec furniture (rare), filling, subject- 

contest, n. 1. contention, struggle, en- 
gagement, encounter, strife, combat (fig. 
or spec), fight (fig. or spec), battle (fig. or 
spec), concurrence (a Gallicism), ren- 
counter (literarrj); spec bout, scrap (col- 
loq. or slang), tussle (colloq.), tilt (often 
fig.), set-to (slang), brush, skirmish, 
scrimmage (colloq.), scrummage (rare; 
colloq.), bully, tenson (French), duel, 
pool, grapple, match, pentathlon, dec- 
athlon, draw, rubber, passage, rough- 
and-tumble (colloq.), scuffle, tournament, 
handicap, wrestle; see fight. 
Antonyms: see cooperation. 
2. See contention, competition. 

contestant, n. contender; spec, rival, 
tilter, juster; see fighter, disputant. 

contingency, n. 1. possibility, chance. 
2. See condition. 

contingent, a. 1. possible. 
2. See conditional. 

continuance, n. 1. continuation, dura- 
tion, abidance (rare), currency, course, 
lasting, persistence, endurance, perdura- 
tion (rare), last (rare), run, stay, during 
(rare); spec pendency, standing. 
Antonyms: see stop, stoppage. 
2. persistence, persistency, perseverance, 
continuation (rare). 

XS° Cross references: see Note. 

contemplate, v. t.: consider, 
intend, respect, see. 

contemplation: considera- 
tion, intention, sight. 

contemplative: thoughtful, 
meditatiTe. [neous. 

contemporary: contempora- 

contender: contestant, fighter, 

content, n.: contents, meaning, 
capacity, substance. 

content, a.: satisfied, happy. 

content, n.: satisfaction, hap- 

content, v. i.: satisfy, gladden, 
pact f J. 

contentment: satisfaction, 

contest, V. i.: contend. 

context: text. 

contexture: texture. 

contiguity: adjacency, expan- 

contiguous: adjacent. 

continence: self-control. 

continent, a.: self -controlled. 

continent, n.: receptacle, main- 

continual: constant. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 




continuation, n. 1. continuance, mainte- 
nance, sustenance, support; spec, pur- 
suance, perpetuation; see renewal, ex- 
Antonyms: see change, stoppage. 

2. Spec, supplement, sequel. 

3. See continuance. 
continue, v. i. 1. See extend. 

2. be {contextual), last, endure, persist, 
remain, subsist, abide, stand, run, rest, 
perdure {rare), dure {archaic), stay; spec. 
hold, drag {esp. with "on," "along," etc.), 
linger (esp. with "on"), stick {colloq.), 
dwell, keep, live, perennate {rare). 

Antonyms: see change, stop. 

3. persevere, persist, proceed, pursue, 
insist {archaic), carry on {chiefly Eng.), 
keep {chiefly spec); spec, flow, plug 
{colloq. or slang) . 

Antonyms: see stop, hesitate, desist, 


continue, v. t. 1. See extend, prolong, 
keep, maintain, sustain. 

2. Spec, perpetuate, spin, perennate 
{rare); see renew. 

Antonyms: see alter. 

3. pursue, carry, run. 

Antonyms: see abandon, intermit, stop. 

continued, a. 1. sustained, protracted, 
continuous, prolonged; spec, sostenuto 
{Italian) . 
2. See constant. 

continuing, a. enduring, durable, during 
{rare), lasting, persevering, persistent; 
spec, chronic. 

continuity, 1. See constancy. 
2. Spec, continuum, contiguity, imbro- 

continuous, a. 1. See constant. 
2. unbroken. 

contort, V. t. twist, writhe, wreathe; see 

contraband, a. forbidden. 
Antonyms: see innocent. 

contract, v. i. 1. agree {contextual), bar- 
gain, covenant {spec, or rhetorical), stip- 
ulate, engage. 

2. shrink, shrivel {spec, or fig.); spec. 
pucker, pinch; see narrow. 

Antonyms: see swell, dilate. 


contract, v. t. 1. stipulate, bargain, prom- 
ise, covenant {spec, or rhetorical); spec. 
undertake, indenture; see betroth. 


3. reduce, diminish, shorten; spec, syn- 
copate, shrink, pucker, pinch; see con- 

Antonyms: see stretch, bloat, en- 
contract, n. agreement {contextual), prom- 
ise {contextual), bargain, pact {chiefly 
spec), cheap {archaic), covenant, stipula- 
tion {chiefly spec), convention {chiefly 
international law), obligement {civil law); 
spec, undertaking, condition, suretyship, 
lease, bond, barter, exchange, coup or 
cowp {Scot.), option, debenture, inden- 
ture, cowle {Anglo'lndian) , trade {U. S.); 


contracted, a. shrunken, diminished; 
spec, shriveled, puckered, pinched, con- 
stricted, corky, clung, cramp. 

contraction, n. 1. agreement, stipulation 
{chiefly spec), bargaining, covenanting; 
spec, undertaking. 

2. shrink, shrinking, shrinkage, shrivel- 
ing {spec or fig.), reduction, diminution, 
abbreviation, abridgment; spec, pucker, 
cramp, pinching, syncope, syncopation, 
systole, narrowing; see constriction. 

Antonyms: see dilation. 

3. See SHRINK, abridgment. 
contractor, n. undertaker {chiefly spec), 

bargainer or bargainor, covenanter or 
covenantor {spec or rhet.), stipulation 
{chiefly spec); spec, sweater, padrone 
{Italian), lumper. 

contradict, v. t. 1. gainsay {literary or 
formal), contravene {rare), deny, belie, 
counter, controvert, dispute, negative, 
traverse {chiefly law), denegate {rare), 
disallow {rare); spec counterargue {rare), 
contrapose {logic). 
Antonyms: see acknowledge. 
2. See oppose. 

contradiction, n. 1. gainsay {rare), coun- 
tering, gainsaying {literary or formal), de- 
nial, controversion, dispute, negation, 
traverse {law), denegation {rare), disal- 
lowance {rare); spec, contraposition, 
2. See opposition, inconsistency. 

contradictory, a. contradictive, negatory, 
Antonyms: see agreeable. 

contrast, v. t. compare, oppose, antithe- 
size {rare). 

contrast, n. comparison {contextual), dif- 
ference, opposition, antithesis; spec, foil; 
Antonyms: see analogue, analogy. 

f^^ Cross references: see Note. 
continuous: continued, constant. 
continuum: continuity. 
contortionist: gymnast. 

contour: outline. 
contrapose, v. t.: confront. 
contrarious: perverse, opposing. 
contrary, a.: opposite, oppos- 

ing, contradictor;/, perverse, in- 

consistent, unfavorable. 
contrary, 7! . ; reverse. 
contrast, v. t.: compare. 

See Notes of Explanation. 



contrasting, a. didcrcnt, contrastivc, ;in- 
tithptio, coutnisty (colhq.), contrastful. 
Anloni/ms: see analogous. 
contravene, v. t. oppose, thwart, counter; 


contribute, v. t. I. give (coniextual); spec. 

2. help, aid, assist, subserve (rare), ad- 
minister {literary), minister (literary), 
conduce, go {an idiojttatic use). 

contribute, v. i. tend, conduce, serve, re- 
dound, go; spec, minister. 

contributing, a. Spec, contributory, ac- 

contribution, 77. 1. gift {contextual); spec. 
subscription; see subsidy. 

2. conducement {rare), help, subservience 
{rare), administration {literary), minis- 
tration {literary). 

Antonyms: see hindrance, preven- 

3. help, aid, assistance; spec, instru- 

Antonyms: see hin"dr.\nce. 

4. tax, tribute, scot, gavel {obs. or hist.); 
spec, quarterage. 

5. See ARTICLE. 

contributor, n. 1. giver {contextual); spec. 

2. author {contextual); spec, correspond- 
ent, editor. 

3. conducer, helper, aider, ministrant 

contributory, a. contributing, helpful, 
conducive, contributary (rare), contribu- 
tive, subservient, serviceable, instru- 
mental, dispositive (literary), ministrant 
(literary); see accessory. 
Antonyms: see hindering, preventive. 

contrivance, n. See devising, invention, 
artifice, plan, formation, construc- 
2. thing (contextual), device, contraption 
(colloq.), fangle (rare), fanglement (rare), 
fake (slang), fakement (slang), jiggumbob 
(colloq.; humorovis); spec, invention, con- 
struction, machine, gimcrack (colloq.), 
whigmaleerie (Scot.). 

contrive, v. t. 1. See DEVISE, construct, 

IN\TENT, plan. 

2. effect, manage, do (contextual); see 

contrive, v. i. plan, plot, shift; spec, con- 

control, V. t. command, dominate, sway, 
govern, rule, regulate, order, rein (Jig.), 

predominate (rare); spec, ride, direct, 
carry, hold, grip, gripe, obsess, caucus 
(Eng.), ollicer, prevail, master, prepon- 
derate; see RESTRAIN, RULE, DIRECT, 

control, V. i. prevail, reign. 

control, n. 1. controlment (archaic), com- 
mand, mastery, mastership, domination, 
power, dominion, paramountcy (literary 
or spec), regulation, regiment (rare), dis- 
position, disposal, reign (fig.), governance 
(archaic), government (chiefly spec), reins 
(pi.; fig.), sovereignty, prepotence or pre- 
potency (rare), predomination (rare), 
curb, restraint, predominance (rare), 
prevalence (rare), prepollence or pre- 
poUency (rare), preponderance, prepon- 
derancy, preponderation (rare); spec. 
empire, clutches (pi.; fig.), hand, jussion 
(rare), grip, gripe; see rule, ascendancy, 

COMMAND (the facultlj), SELF-CONTROL. 

Anto7iyms: see uncontrol. 
2. »S'ee domain. 

controller, n. 1. control (rare), dominator, 
rector (rare), swayer, governor, ruler, 
manager, regulator; spec commander, 
arbitrator, master, mistress, disposer, di- 
rector, boss (chiefly spec; cant or slang), 
regent (rare); see ruler. 
2. See accountant, comptroller. 

controlling, a. commanding, governing, 
predominant, uppermost, sovereign, mas- 
ter, prepollent (rare), prepotent (learned), 
paramount, dominant, dominative, as- 
cendant, preeminent, preponderant, reg- 
nant (spec, or fig.), regent (rare), gu- 
bernative (rare or learned), regulative, 
governmental; spec hegemonic (rare), 
prevalent; see ruling. 

controversial, a. 1. disputatious, eristic 
(literary), polemic or polemical (learned 
or tech.); see forensic. 
2. See questionable, complaisant. 

controversialist, 7i. disputant, disputer, 
polemic (learned or tech.), arguer, eristic 
(literary; rare), polemist (rare), polemicist 
(rare) . 

convalesce, v. i. recover (contextual), re- 
cuperate (contextual). 

convene, v. i. gather, assemble, collect, 
congregate (rare), muster (chiefly spec); 
spec, reconvene; see meet. 
Antonyms: see separate, scatter, 

convene, v. t. gather, assemble, collect, 

J^" Cross references: see Note. 
contretemps: misfortune. 
contrite: regretful. 
contrition: regret. 
controversy, n.: dispute, quar- 
controvert: dispute, contradict. 

controvertible: questionable. 
contumacious: disobedient, 


contumacy: disobedience, ob- 

contumelious: abusive, im- 
pudent, contemptuous. 

contumely: abuse, impudence, 

contuse: bruise. 
contusion: bruise. 
conundrum: riddle, question. 
convalesce: recover. 
convection: transfer. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 


muster {chiefly spec); spec, reconvene; 
Antonyms: see separate, scatter, dis- 

convenience, n. 1. Spec, adaptability, 
accessibility, handiness, availability, ser- 
viceableness; see instrument. 
2. advantage, commodity {archaic), ac- 
commodation ; spec, easement, ease, com- 
modiousness {archaic), comfort. 
Antonyms: see inconvenience. 

convenient, a. 1. See adaptable, acces- 
sible, available, serviceable. 
2. advantageous, commodious {archaic), 
comfortable, easy. 
Antonyms: see inconvenient. 

convent, n. association {contextual), clois- 
ter {chiefly literary or tech.), monastery 
{chiefly spec), convent {chiefly spec), 
cenoby {rare); spec, abbey, priory, nun- 
nery, fratry {obs. or hist.), math {Hindu), 
friary, friars {pi.), commandery. 

convention, ?i. 1. assembly, gathering, 
congregation, congress {chiefly spec); see 

MEETING, assembly. 

Antonyms: see scattering. 

2. See CONVOCATION, gathering, agree- 
ment, contract, custom, convention- 
ality, RULE. 

3. custom, usage, formality, convention- 
alism, conventionality {chiefly spec), con- 
venance {French); see formality; — used 
with "a" or in the pi. 

conventional, a. customary, agreed, stip- 
ulated, accepted, cut-and-dried {colloq.), 
artificial, right, orthodox {chiefly spec), 
correct, positive, approved; spec stiff, 
contractual, academic; see formal. 
Antonyms: see unconventional, home- 

conventionality, n. 1. conventionalism, 
convention, rightness, correctness, ortho- 
doxy {chiefly spec), positiveness; spec. 
stiffness; see formality. 
2. See convention, custom. 

converge,?;.^. &i. Spec center {contextual). 
Antonyms: see scatter. 

conversation, n. discourse {literary or 
dial.), confabulation {literary or stilted), 
talk, converse {learned), speech, confab 
{colloq.), colloquy {esp. spec), tell {dial.), 
coUocution {rare), interlocution {rare); 
spec, palaver, chat, chatter, chit-chat, 
gossiping, gossipry, indignation {rare), 
parley, conference, interlocutory, coze 
{rare), word {with "a"), episode; see 

conversational, a. confabulatory {literary 
or stilted), confabular {rare), colloquial 
{chiefly spec), interlocutory (rare); spec. 
chatty, dialogic, cosy {Eng.). 

conversationalist, n. conversationist {less 
common than ^'conversationalist") , talker, 
converser, confabulator {rare); spec. 

converse, v. i. 1. deal {rare or archaic, exc. 
spec), commerce {obsolescent), commune 
{archaic or spec), common {obs.), inter- 
course {rare), traffic; spec, associate. 
"Converse" is now chiefly spec; but is 
broader than "commune." 
2. speak, discourse {literary or dial.), con- 
fabulate {literary or stilted), talk, confab 
{colloq.), collogue {colloq. or humorous), 
colloque {rare); spec, chat, gossip, confer, 
coze {literary; rare), dialogue, dialogize 
{rare), parley. 

converser, n. 1. confabulator {rare); spec. 
interlocutor, dialogist, interlocutress 
{fern.), interlocutrix {Jem.). 
2. See conversationalist. 

conversion, n. 1. change {contextual), re- 
duction, resolution; see transformation. 

2. regeneration; spec, proselytization, 
proselyting, Protestantization. 

3. appropriation {contextual); spec, em- 
bezzlement; see theft. 

4. See exchange. ^ 
convert, v. t. 1. change, turn, regenerate; 

spec disciple {rare or archaic), proselyte, 
proselytize. Protestantize 

2. change, resolve, reduce, turn; see 

Antonyms: see fix. 

3. appropriate {contextual); see steal, 


convert, n. neophyte {chiefly spec), con- 
vertite {archaic; often spec); spec, vert 
{colloq.), catechumen, marrano {hist.), 
proselyte, proselytess (fem.; rare). 

convertible, a. conversible {rare), ex- 
changeable; spec interchangeable, liq- 
uid, equivalent. 
Antonyms: see fixed. 

convex, a. protuberant, swelling; spec 
embowed (literary), gibbous or gibbose, 
Antonyms: see hollow. 

convict, a. condemned; — not a good syn- 

convict, V. t. 1. condemn {not a good syn- 
onym), convince {archaic). 
Antonyms: see absolve, acquit. 
2. convince {of sin, etc.; rare). 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
convenience: oblige. 
conventicle: meeting, church. 
conventual: ecclesiastic, monk, 

conversable: sociable. 
conversant: aware. 
converse, n.: intercourse, con- 
converse, a. & n.: opposite. 

convey: transport, transfer, 
transmit, co7nmunicate, carry. 

conveyance: transportation, 
transfer, transmission, commu- 
nication, vehicle. 

i^ Sec Notes of Explanation. 



convict, n. criminal (contextual); spec. 
felon, expiree, emancipist. {Australia), 
bushranger, Dorwenter {Australia), lag- 
ger {cant), termer {cant), trusty {cant), 
Ufer {cant). 

conviction, n. I. condemnation; — 7wt a 
good synonym. 
Antonyms: see acquittal. 

2. Referring to the act of convincing: con- 
vincement, convictment {rare), satisfac- 
tion {rare). 

3. Referring to tlie stale or belief: belief 
{contextual), convincement (rare), con- 
victment {rare), satisfaction {rare), per- 
suasion; spec, possession, obsession. 

Antonyms: see changeableness, ca- 

convince, v. t. assure {contextual), sat^ 
isfy, persuade; spec, possess, obsess. 

convincing, a. satisfactory, satisfying, 
conclusive, persuasive (now archaic or 
rare); see cogent. 
Antonyms: see unconvincing. 

convivial, a. sociable {contextual), com- 
panionable {contextual), festive, gay, 
jolly, jovial, good {contextual). 
Antonyms: see apathetic, ascetic. 

convocation, n. I. gathering, assembhng, 
convention, call (contextual), calling (used 
esp. with "together"), summons. 


convoke, v. I. convene, assemble, summon, 
call (esp. with "together"), convocate (ar- 
chaic); spec, resummon, reconvene. 
Antonyms: see dissolve. 

convolution, n. twist, volume or volute 
(literary or technical); see coil, curl. 

cook, V. t. 1. prepare (contextual), do 
(chiefly in the p. p.); spec, overdo, boil, fry, 
bake, roast, braise, barbecue, buccan, grid- 
dle, pan, jug, coddle, devil, frizzle, steam; 


cook, 71. 1. cooky (colloq.), doctor (chiefly 

naut.; slang or cant); spec, magirologist 

(rare), magirist (rare). 

2. Spec, boil, fry, fricassee, broil, etc. 
cookery, n. cuisine (tech. or learned); spec. 

magirology (rare), magiric (rare), gas- 

cooking, n. preparation (contextual), coc- 

tion (literary or affected). 
cookroom, n. Spec, (naut.) cab, galley, 

caboose; see kitchen. 

cookshop, n. trattoria (Italian). 

cool, r. /. 1. chill, colden (rare), refrigerate 
(chiefly spec.), frigorify (rare), iufrigidate 
(rare); spec, ice, freeze, quench, defer- 
Antonyms: see heat, warm. 

2. calm; spec, freeze, quench, ice (fig.); 
spec, disfever (rare). "Cool" is cfdefly 
used with "off" or "down." 

3. See depress. 

cool, ;'. i. 1. refrigerate, colden (rare); spec. 
shiver, freeze, defervesce (rare). 

cooling, a. refrigerative, refrigerating, re- 
frigeratory, refrigerant, frigorific (cfdefly 
tech.); spec, freezing, defervescent (rare). 
Antonyms: see heating. 

cooperate, v. i. combine, concur, concert, 
cowork (rare), coact (rare); spec, collab- 
orate, colleague (rare), conspire, concur; 
see connive. 
Antonyms: see contend. 

cooperation, n. combination, concurrence 
(contextual), concert, concourse (rare), co- 
working (rare), coaction (rare), synergy 
(rare); spec, collaboration, conspiracy; see 
connivance, aid. 

Antonyjus: see competition, conten- 
tion, contest. 

cooperative, a. cooperant (rare), coactive 
{rare), concurrent; spec, coefficient, syna- 
delphic (rare), conspiratory ; see helpful, 

coordinate, a. equal, coequal, collateral 
(rare or spec). 

coordinative, a. 1. Spec, equalizing, para- 
tactic, organizing. 

copper, a. cupreous (rare), cuprous (chiefly 
tech.); spec, cupric. 

copper- colored, a. cupreous (tech. or 

coppice, a. underwood, copse, hay (dial. 

copulate, V. i. unite (contextual), couple 
(chiefly spec). "Copulate" is chiefly used 
in zoology. 

copy, n. 1. reproduction, representation; 
spec transcript, counterscript, duplicate, 
counterpart, facsimile, transfer, offprint, 
rewriting, electrotype, ectype, replica, 
Antonyms: see original. 


3. matter; spec flimsy (slang), manu- 
script, typescript or typescript. 

E^ Cross references: see Note. 
convlnceineiit: conviction. 
convocate: convoke. 
convolute: curled. 
convoy, r. t.: accompany. 
convoy, 71.; accompaniment, escort. 
convulse: agitate, shake. 
convulsion, n.: agitation, 
spasm, fit, catastrophe. 

convulsive: spasmodic. 

coo, V. i.: cry, woo. 

coo, n.: cry. 

cool, a.: cold, chilly, calm, delib- 
erate, composed, indifferent, un- 
emotional, bold, impudent, un- 
exapgerated, self-controlled. 

coolish: cold. 

coolness: cold, assurance, self- 

control, boldness, deliberation. 
coop: pen. 
coordinate: equalize, adapt, 

copartner: associate, partner. 
cope, V. i.: contend. 
cope, n.: vault. 
copious: adequate, abundant, 

diffuse, prolix. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 


copy, V. t. 1. reproduce; spec, transcribe, 
take, duplicate, electrotype, rewrite, 
transfer, trace, pounce, offprint, etch, 
engross, rewrite; see manifold. 
Antonyms: see originate. 
2. adopt, borrow, follow; spec, echo (fig.); 


copyist, n. 1. reproducer (rare); spec. 
transcriber, writer, scrivener, duplicator, 
typist (chiefly cant), typewriter (now 
being replaced by "typist"). 


cord, n. Spec, braid, funicle, cordon, gimp 
or guimp, twist; see string, rope, band, 


cordage, 7i. cording; spec, roping, rope- 
work, tackle, service, sennit, sinnet. 
cordial, a. 1. See stimulating. 

2. sincere, hearty, heartfelt, heartwhole, 
heartful (rare), warmth, ardent, vigorous, 

Antonyms: see distant. 


cordiality, n. good will, sincerity, heart- 
iness, heartfulness (rare), empressment 
(French), warmth, ardency, vigor, depth, 
Antonyms: see distance. 

cordlike, a. restiform (tech. or learned). 

core, n. 1. carpel (tech.). 

2. center, interior, inside; spec, draw- 
back, mandrel, mandril. 

3. See pith, substance. 

corky, a. suberic, subereous (rare), su- 
berose; — all three tech. or learned. 

corner, n. 1. Spec, angle, predicament. 
2. angle, coign (chiefly in "coign of 
vantage"), coin (obs. or archaic), quoin 
(chiefly spec), cantle (chiefly spec), nook 
(chiefly spec); spec, horn, crook, dog's- 
ear, shot, clew. 

corner stone, coin or (usually) quoin 
(both obsolescent), headstone (archaic). 

cornerwise, adv. diagonally, cater (dial.); 
spec bendwise. 

coronet, n. 1. crown; spec, tiara. 

2. See WREATH. 

3. cushion (of a horse' s foot) . 
corporal, n. pall (archaic), mortcloth 

corporation, n. 1. association, company. 

incorporation, society; spec, city, bor- 

2. Referring to the abdomen: potbelly 
(vulgar); see abdomen. 

corpselike, a. cadaverous (lit. or tech.), 
deathlike; spec, ghastly. 

corpulent, a. fat, big-bellied (now chiefly 
vulgar), bellied (vidgar). 

correct, a. 1. right, rightful (rare), regular, 
true, perfect, strict; spec faultless, 
straight (fig.), pure, grammatical; see 

ACT, conventional. 
Antonyms: see incorrect, illogical, 
inaccurate, improper, untrue, in- 

2. Referring to artistic style, taste, etc.: 
pure, Attic; spec, classical, academical, 
faultless, neat. 

correct, v. t. 1. rectify, right, repair, rem- 
edy, righten (rare), amend, mend, emend 
(rare); spec, emendate, castigate (a text), 
reform; see redress. 

Antonyms: see falsify. 
2. See PUNISH, reprove, counteract. 

correction, n. rectification, repair, rem- 
edy, amend, reparation, etc. 

corrective, a. 1. correctory (rare), correc- 
tional, amendatory (rare), rectificatory ; 
spec emendatory, reformative. 


3. counteractive, neutralizing. 
correctness, n. 1. rightness, right, truth, 

strictness, trueness, perfection, rectitude; 
spec, accuracy, propriety, logicality, ex- 
actness, conventionality, faultlessness, 

2. As to artistic taste, style, etc.: purity, 
pureness, purism (rare, exc as concrete); 
spec faultlessness, sumpsimus (literary). 

correlate, n. correlative; spec, reciprocal, 
complement, counterpart, correspondent. 

correspond, V. i. 1. agree, concur (used 
with "with"), conform (used esp. with 
"to"), answer (used with "to"), suit (used 
ivith "with"), square (used with "to"), 
quadrate (rare), tally (used with "with"), 
respond (rare), match (used with "with"); 
spec harmonize, homologize (chiefly 
tech.), correlate; see reciprocate. 
Antonyms: see disagree. 

t^^ Cross references: see Note. 

coquet, n.: flirt. 

coquetry: flirtation. 

coquette: flirt. 

coquettish: flirtation.',. 

cord, V. t.: siring. 

cordial, n.: .•stimulant, liqueur. 

cordon: line, guard. 

cork, n.: hark, float, stopper. 

cork, V. t.: stopple, blacken. 

corker: settler. 

corn, n.: grain. 

corn, V. t.: granulate, feed. 

corneous: horny. 
corner, v. t.: perplex, monopo- 
cornered : angular. 
corollary: inference, result. 
corona: circle, crown, chandelier. 
coronal: crown. 
coronary: crown. 
coronate: crown. 
coronet, v. t.: crown. 
corporal: bodily. 
corporate: united, material. 
corporeal: bodily, material. 

corps: body. 
corpse: body. 
corpus: body. 
corpuscle: particle, cell. 
correctional: corrective. 
corpuscule: particle. 
correlate, v. t.: relate. 
correlate, i). i.: correspond, 

correlation: relation, analogy, 

correlative: related, reciprocal, 


f^' Sea Notes of Explanation. 



2. communicate {contextual), write {col- 

correspondence, «. 1. agreement, con- 
formity, conformableness, accord, re- 
spondence {rare), rcspondency (rare), 
tally, concurrence; spec, correlation, pro- 
portion, equivalence, parallelism, homol- 
og:\' {chiejly tech.), uniformity; see con- 
sistency, RECIPROCITY. 

2. communication {contexuat) , intercouTse 
(contextual), communion {rare), rapport 

3. Collectively: letters {pi.), UTiting, writ- 
ings {pi). 

correspondent, a. agreeable, responsive 
(rare), conformable, conform {obsolesccyit), 
concurrent, corresponsivc {rare), corre- 
sponding; spec, uniform, proportional, rat- 
able, correlative, complemental, relative, 
equivalent, homologous {chiefly tech.); see 


Antonyms: see incongruous, absurd, 


correspondent, n. 1. Spec, correlate, 
homologue {chiefly tech.). 

2. communicator {contextual; rare), 


corrigible, a. amendable, rectifiable; spec. 

corrode, v. t. consume, gnaw, bite, canker 
{rare), rust, cancer. 
{fig.), eat {esp. loith "away"); spec, etch 

corrosion, n. consumption, gnawing; spec. 
etching, rust. 

corrosive, a. 1. corroding, consuming, 
gnawing, eating, mordant; spec, caustic, 
cankerous, burning. 
Antonyms: see bland. 
2. See acrid, acrimonious. 

corrugate, v. t. furrow, wrinkle; spec. 
Antonyms: smooth. 

corrugated, a. wrinkled, furrowed. 

corrupt, a. 1. See decomposed, adul- 

2. corrupted, wicked, demorahzed, im- 
moral, impure, dissolute, depraved, vi- 
cious, rotten {vulgar or strongly denuncia- 
tive), putrid (a very strong term), rantipole 
{rare), Neronian {fig.); see graceless, de- 
bauched, contaminated, ABANDONED, LI- 

Antonyms: see uncorrupted. inno- 
cent, PURE, sinless. CHASTE. 

corrupt, V. t. demoralize, vitiate, deprave, 
defile, canker, degrade, debase, debauch; 


Antonyms: see purify, reform. 
corruption, n. 1. The act: demoralization, 
vitiation, depravation, debauchery, deg- 

2. The state or quality: wickedness, con- 
tamination, perversion, defilement, poison 
{fig.), immorality, impurity, corruptness, 
rust {fig.), demoralization, vice, vitiation, 
depravity, depravation {rare), depraved- 
ness {rare), depravement {rare), vicious- 
ness, filth, vitiosity, rottenness, putridity, 
putrefaction {rare), debauchery, degrada- 

Ayitonyms: see purity. 

corruptive, a. demoralizing, depravatory, 
vitiatory {rare), perversive, debauching, 
degrading; spec, contaminative. 
Antonyms: see purificatory, reforma- 

corset, n. bodice {ohs.), stays {pi.). 

cortical, a. corticate, corticose; — all tech. 

corybant, n. devotee {contextual), priest 
{contextual), orgiast. 

cosmetic, n. Spec, powder, paint, paste, 
rouge, cream, make-up (a collective; theat- 
rical cant), whitewash. 

cosmic, a. 1. universal; spec, pancosmic 
{rare), extraterrestrial {rare). 

2. »See VAST, GRAND. 

cost, n. 1. charge {obsolescent), price. 
2. See EXPENSE, expenditure, loss. 

cost, V. t. require; — only approximate; there 
are no close synonyms. 

costly, a. 1. expensive, high-priced, high, 
chargeful {obs.), dear, precious {very 
costly); spec, valuable. Orient, Oriental, 
noble, golden {fig.), overcostly, overdear, 
dispendious {rare). 
Antonyms: see cheap. 

2. Pyrrhic {fig.; esp. in "Pyrrhic victory"). 

3. Spec, rich, sumptuous, gorgeous. 
costume, n. clotliing, clothes Xpl-)y dress, 

garb, outfit {colloq.), guise, rig {colloq.), 

rigout {colloq.); spec, bloomers {pi.; fig.), 

costumer, n. clothier, outfitter {chiefly 

cant); spec, haberdasher. 
cot, n. 1. See cottage, shed. 

t^° Cross references: see Note. 

corresponding: correspondent, 
analogous, reciprocal. ' 

corridor: gallery, hall. 

corroborate: confirm. 

corrupt, V. i. • decompose. 

corrupted: corrupt, contami- 

corruptness; corruption. 

corsage: waist. 

corsair: pirate. 
corse: body. 
cortege: retinue. 
coruscate: flash. 
corvine: crcwlike. 
corybantic: orgiastic. 
corjrphee: dancer. 
cosmogony: creation. 
cosmopolitan: world-wide. 
cosset: cherish, foster, indulge. 

costate: ribbed. 

costive: constipated. 

costless: free. 

costume, v. t.: clothe. 

cosy: sheltering, comfortable, 

sheltered; — o variant of cozy. 
cot: bed. 
cote: shed. 
coterie: set. 
cothurnus: huskin. 

^[W See Notes of Explanation. 


2. cover, sheath, stall; spec, fingerstall, 

cottage, 71. house, room {poetic or archaic); 
spec, bower, chalet, casino, lodge, cot 
{poetic or literary). 

cottager, n. cotter, cottar, cottier. 

couch, n. 1. See bed, litter. 
2. Spec, lounge, dormouse, settee, divan, 
pulvina {French), chaise-longue {French), 
pouf {French), vis-^-vis {French), daven- 
port; see SOFA. 

couch, V. t. 1. lower {as a spear; contextual); 
spec, level. 


cough, V. i. & t. Spec, expectorate 
{tech. or learned), hem, hack. 

cough, n. tussis {med.); spec, hem, hack, 
expectoration {learned or tech.). 

cough, a. Tech.: bechic, tussal, tussicular, 
tussive. "Cotigh" is the noun u^ed at- 

council, n. assembly {contextual); spec. 
congregation, senate, synod, junta {Span- 
ish and Italian), divan {Oriental), cabinet, 
duma, ministry, diet, convocation, bust- 
ing {hist.), decurion {Roman or Italian 
hist.), rada, soviet. 

councilor, to. Spec, senator, minister, 
decurion {Roman and Italian hist.), elder, 
Nestor {Jig.). 

count, 71. nobleman ; spec, earl {Eng.), land- 
grave,graf {Ger.), palatine. palgrave(/iisi.). 

count, V. t. 1. compute {contextual), enu- 
merate, tell {chiefly spec), score {fig. or 
spec), notch {spec, or fig.). 


count, V. i. 1. compute, number; spec. 


counter, n. 1. computer. 
2. Spec, chip, dib, fish, dump, lot. 

counter, 71. table {rare or contextual), 
board {rare); spec. bar. 

counteract, v. t. destroy {contextuxil) , op- 
pose; spec nullify, cancel, neutralize, cor- 
rect, frustrate, hinder, impede; see coun- 

counterbalance, v. t. compensate (coTi- 
textual), balance, equate. 

countercharge, v. i. & t. answer, recrimi- 

counterclaim, n. set-off; spec recoup- 

counterfeit, a. false, sham, flash {cant); 
spec, forged, make-beheve; see pre- 
tended, ARTIFICIAL. 

counterfeit, v. t. 1. imitate, forge; spec. 
personate, copy, fake; see preteio), act. 


counterfeit, n. imitation, forgery {chiefly 
spec), sham; spec, duffer {slang), doublet, 
Brummagem, pinchbeck, dummy. 

counterfeiter, to. imitator {contextual); 
spec forger, coiner, pretender, dissembler, 

countermine, v. t. & i. counterwork. 

counterpart, to. 1. copy, duplicate, double. 

2. likeness, similitude; spec, picture, 
image, like, match, parallel, pendant, 

3. Spec opposite, obverse, correlate, 
twin, tally, reciprocal, complement, sup- 
plement, parallel; see reverse. 

counterpoise, to. 1. balance, counterbal- 
ance, counterweight, equipoise; spec. 
makeweight, offset. 


counterpoise, v. t. 1. counteract, balance, 
counterbalance, equiponderate {literary 
and fig.), equilibrate {chiefly flg.), equili- 
brize {rare), equipoise {rare), counteract 
{chiefly in reference to immaterial things); 
spec, offset. 


countersign, v. t. sign {contextual); spec. 
indorse, attest. 

countersign, to. signal, sign; spec, pass- 
word, shibboleth {hist, or fig.), watch- 

counting, n. computation {contextual), 

countless, a. innumerable, innumerous 
{rare), myriad {chiefly poetic), infinite 
{archaic or rare), numberless, uncount- 
able, uncounted, unnumbered; cf. in- 

countrify, v. t. rurahze, rusticate. 

country, to. 1. land, region. 


3. Spec, countryside, champaign {liter- 
ary), field {archaic), plain, waste, wild, 
heath, fields {pi.), forest, meadows {pi.), 
valley, mountain, uplands {pi-), lowlands 
{pi), etc. 

country house, garden house {Eng.); 

spec, countryseat, seat, villa. 
countryman, to. 1. compatriot {learned or 

literary), landsman {rare). 

tS^ Cross references: see Note. 
cotter: key. 

cotter, cottar: cottager, peasant. 
cottier: cottager, peasant. 
couch, V. «'.; lie, lurk. 
counsel, n.: consultation, con- 
sideration, advice, lawyer. 
counsel, v. i.: consult. 

counsel, v. t.: advise. 
counselor: adviser, lawyer. 
countable: computable. 
countenance, n.: face, ap- 
countenance, v. t.: approve. 
counter, a.: opposing, opposed. 
counter, n.: stem. 

counter, r.t.; oppose, contradict. 
counter, n.: parry. 
countermand, v. I.: revoke. 
counterpane: bedcover. 
countervail: compensate. 
counterwork: countermine. 
countrified: rustic. 
country, a.: rustic, rural. 

tW See Notes ot Explanation. 




county, /(. shire {not an exact synonym, 
though the district is usually cnniernnnous; 
Brit.); spec, hmdgraviate (Ger.), palati- 

coup-de-grace, n. death-blow, finisher 
[colloq.). "Coup-ih'-grdce" is French. 

couple, I', t. 1. join, tie, link, yoke (chiefly 
spec, or fig.), shackle {fig. or spec); spec. 
double; see leasii. 
Antonyms: see uncouple. 


coupling, n. tie, link, couple, shackle 
{chiefly fig. or spec); spec, turnbuckle, 

courage, n. boldness, bravery, valor, 
spirit, breast {literary), pluck, pluckiness, 
sand {slang, U. S.), grit {slang, U. S.), 
heart, fortitude, mettle, nerve, spunk 
(colloq.), stout-heartedness, high-hearted- 
ness {literary), stoutness, prowess, cour- 
ageousness, daring, derring-do (pseudo- 
archaic), hardihood; spec heroism, 
dauntlessness, firmness, resolution, man- 
hood, pot-valiance, Dutch courage. 
Antonyms: see cowardice. 

courageous, a. bold, brave, valorous, val- 
iant, nervy (slang), game (colloq.), high- 
hearted (literary), fortitudinous (rare), un- 
f earful, undismayed, heart-whole (rare), 
stout, stanch or staunch, stalwart, mettle- 
some, plucky, spunky (colloq.), hardy 
(literary), lion-hearted (fig.),_ gingerous 
or gingery (rare); spec heroic, resolute 
chivalrous,' firm ; see brave. 
Antonyms: see cowardly. 

courier, n. runner, messenger, express, 
post rider or post (chiefly hist, and spec), 
poster (rare); spec, postman (hist.), esta- 
fette (French), kavass (Turkey). 

course, n. 1. motion (contextual), currency 
(rare), passage, career (literary); see 

2. way, track, route, line, tack (fig. or 
spec), path, road; spec, thread, lane, or- 
bit, meander, circuit, circle, ambit, ran- 
dom (rare), traverse, march, stadium, 
diaulos, walk, trajectory, traject (rare), 
itinerary, racecourse. 

3. progress, happening, sequence, cur- 
rent, run, tenor; spec, drift, trend, con- 
duct, process, lapse; see routine. 

4. See action, series, continuance, 
chann:el, chase. 

5. Referring to action, work, etc.: round, 
bout, turn, run, spell; spec, heat, pull. 

6. curriculum (chiefly spec), cursus (tech.), 
college (rare or local) . 

7. set (of dishes at table), service (archaic); 
spec dessert. 

court, n. 1. inclosure; spec curtilage 
(chiefly legal and tech.), peristyle, court- 
yard, quadrangle, cortile (Italian), par- 
vis, patio (Italian). 

2. tribunal, bench (chiefly tech.), judica- 
tory (chiefly Scot.), bar (flg.), curia 
(chiefly spec), judicature (rare), jurisdic- 
tion (fig.); spec dicastery, shiremote or 
shiremoot (hist.), hasting (Eng.), ex- 
chequer (Eng.), hallmote (hist.), rota, 
divan (Turkish), court-martial, leet, 
Marshalsea (Eng.), sanhedrin, mallum 
(hist.), consistory, brotherhood (Eng.), 
Inquisition, conservancy, presbytery. 

3. attention, addresses (pi.); spec homage. 

4. See house, retinue, assembly. 
court, a. curial, aulic (rare or spec). 

"Court" is the noun used attributively. 
court, V. t. 1. cultivate, haunt. 

2. woo, spark (colloq.), sue, gallant (rare), 
gallantize (rare). 

3. invite, solicit; see seek. 
Antonyms: see avoid. 

court, V. i. woo, spark (colloq.), philander 
(chiefly spec), spoon (slang), bill (chiefly 
in "bill and coo"), sue. 

courtly, a. 1. aulic (rare). 
2. See polite, dignified, refined. 

courtship, n. amour, wooing, courting, 
love-making, suit, love (chiefly in "make 
love"), service (rare or archaic). 

cousin, n. relative (contextual), coz (for 
"cousin"; chiefly used in fond or familiar 
address), cousiness (fern.; rare); spec. 
catercousin, cousin (German). 
cover, V. t. 1. encover (rare), overcover 
(rare); spec, overwhelm, drown (fig.), pro- 
tect, invest, clothe, cloak, overspread, veil, 
envelop, sheathe, roof, deck, skim, jacket, 
shadow, bury, mantle, leather, keckle, 
hoodwink (fig.; rare), case, cap, over- 
build, overlay, pave, bury, cope, crumb, 
cushion, copper, coif, clapboard (U. S.), 
canopy, carpet, drape, tent, lay, mulch, 
shoe, jacket, overcanopy (rare), shingle, 
lag, infilm (rare), flake, face, front, lori- 
cate (rare), net, muffle, dome, house or 
housel, mat, fledge, gravel, crape, drift, 
cowl, helmet, curtain, armor, lead, lath; 


Antonyms: see bare, uncover, strip. 

2. See HIDE, DISGUISE, incubate, shel- 
ter, INCLUDE. 

3. Tech. or cant: serve, line; spec, top, tup, 

cover, n. 1. covering; covert (rare or liter 

X^W Cross references: see Note. 
coup: master-stroke. 
couple, n.: leash, pair, two. 
couple, V. i.: unite. 

couple, V. t.: associate. 
course, v. t.: pursue, drive, 
courteous: polite. 
courtesan: harlot. 

cove, n.: recess, inlet, retreat. 
cove, 21. t.: arch. [tract. 

covenant, n.; agreement, con- 
covenant, v. i.: contract. 

(W See Notes of Explanation. 


ury); fig. or spec, coverlet (fig.), coverlid 
(fig.), drape, casing, case, coat, vesture, 
curtain, cot, lid, cap, helmet, ferrule, fer- 
rel, jacket, face, facing, blanket, table- 
cloth, board, bhnd, boot, tick, bedtick, 
tilt, canopy, shoe, down (rare), dome, 
capping, skin, screen, envelope, house or 
housing, frontal, lorication (rare), robe, 
vesture, tarpaulin, volva, baldachin, 
baldaquin, husk, screen, muffle, mulch, 
panoply, pall, mantle, cloak, film, leather- 
ing, overcast, coating, overlay, veil, 
sheathing, mantling, blanket, shed, shel- 
ter, cot. The word "covering" is generic or 
less individual than "cover" and often ap- 
plies to an inseparable layer or envelope to 
which cover would seldom apply. 

2. Referring to a book: binding, case, lid 
(chiefly U. S. and dial. Eng.). 

3. blind, cloak; see pretext, disguise. 
covered, a. covert [now rare); spec, cased, 

blanketed, cuculate, hooded, crusted, 
crustate, crustaceous, obtected, etc. 
Antonyms: see bare. 

covering, 7i. cover, coverture {literanj); 
fig. or spec, casing, casement {rare), 
weather-boarding, clapboarding, coat- 
ing, sheathing, tegument, headgear, en- 
velope, crust, panoply; see cot, skin. 
Many words under "cover" are used also 
in a generic sense (in which they do not 
take the article "a" or "an") as specific 
synonyms of "covering." 

cow, n. bovine (contextual); spec, heifer, 
humlie or humblie (Scot.), dairy (a collec- 
tive; chiefly Eng.). 

coward, n. recreant (rare), caitiff (liter- 
ary), nithing or niddering (archaic or 
hist.), wheyface (colloq. or contemptuous), 
Scaramouch (fig.), milksop (colloq. or 
contemptuous), hare (fig.), chicken (fig.); 
spec, dastard, craven, poltroon, cur (con- 

cowardice, n. recreancy (rare), faint-heart- 
edness; spec, dastardliness, dastardice, 
(obs.), poltroonery. 
Antonyjus: see boldness, bravery, 


cowardly, a. recreant (rare), faint-hearted, 
niddering (archaic); spec, dastardly, pusil- 
lanimous, craven, dastard, poltroonish 

(rare), white-livered, unmanly, unwoman- 
ly. Cf. TIMID. 

cowherd, n. herder, neatherd (archaic); 
spec, oxherd, cowboy. 

cowhouse, n. byre (Eng. or literary), cow- 
shed, shippon or shippen (Scot. & dial. 

coy, a. bashful (contextual), reserved, 
chary; see distant. 

crabbed, a. 1. See ill-tempered, irasci- 
ble, difficult, complex. 
2. irregular, cramped, cramp. 
Antonyms: see smooth. 

crab-shaped, a. cancriform (tech.). 

crack, v. i. 1. snap; spec, pistol (rare), pop, 
explode; see crackle. 
2. break (contextual), fracture (contextual); 
spec, chap, flaw, split, chink, craze, fissure. 

crack, n. 1. break (contextual), fracture 
(contextual); spec, crevice, crackle, craze, 
chink, flaw, star, cleft, spring, brack, 
split, chop, fissure, cranny, rift, rent, chap. 

2. See BLOW, SHOT, moment, expert. 

3. snap; spec, pop, explosion; see 


cracked, a. broken, fractured; spec. 
crazed, crazy, crackled, crannied, starred, 
chapped, split, chappy. 

cracker, 7i. 1. snapper; spec, popper, fire- 
cracker, cosaque (French). 

2. See BOASTER, biscuit. 

3. poor white, tacky (Southern U. S.). 
crackle, v. i. break (contextvxil) , crack 

(contextual), crepitate (literary or tech.), 

decrepitate (literary or tech.). 
crackle, n. break (contextual), crack (ccm- 

textual), crepitation (literary or tech.), 

crackUng, decrepitation (literary or tech.). 
crackling, a. crepitant (tech. or literary). 
crackling, n. 1. See crackle. 

2. Chiefiy in pi.: greaves or graves (pi.; 

Eng.), scraps (pi.). 
cradle, n. 1. bed (contextual), cunabula 

(pi.; rare). 

2. See source. 
crane, n. 1. derrick; spec, jenny, davit. 

2. See boom. 
cranelike, n. gruiform (tech.). 
cranium, n. 1. See skull. 

2. brainpan, pericranium (affected or hu- 

(W Cross references: see Note. 

covert, a.: covered, secret, shel- 
tered, hidden, secluded. 

covert, 71.: thicket, shelter, pro- 
tection, feather. 

covertness: secrecy. 

coverture: covering, hiding, 

covet: desire. 

covetous: desirous, greedy. 

covetousness: desire, greed. 

covey: brood, flock, company. 

covin: deception. 

covinous: deceitful. 

cow, V. t.: intimidate. 

cow, V. i.: shrink. 

cowboy: cowherd. 

cower: stoop, cringe. 

cowhide: leather, whip. 

cowl: hood, tub. 

cowork: cooperate. 

coxcomb: cap, dandy, jacka- 

coxswain: steersman. 

cozen: deceive, cheat. 

cozy: sheltering, comforting, 

craft: art, skill, trade, vessel. 

craftiness: art. 

craftsman: artificer. 

crafty: artful. 

crag: cliff. 

craggy: precipitous. 

cram, v. t.: crowd, stuff, press, 

surfeit, teach, study. 
cram, v. i.: gormandize. 
cramp, 71.; clamp, restraiJi, spasm. 
cramp, a.: narrow, crabbed. 
cramp, v. t.: constrict, restrain, 


cramped: stiff, crabbed. 
crane, v. t.: stretch. 

XW Sec Notes of Explanation. 



crank, /!. 1. See handle, conceit, ca- 

2, erratic (rare), vagarian (colloq. or rare); 
spec, monomaniac. "Crank" is more or 
kss coUoquiul. 

crape, n. crepe (French); spec, mourning 
{which iCf), weeds {slang). 

crash, v. i. 1. break, shatter, smash, shiver. 

2. Sec COLLIDE. 

crash, n. 1, See noise, failxtre. 

2. collision, shock, smash. 
crayon, n. pencil, pastel, chalk. 
creak, v. i. spec, squeak, grind, scroop, 

grate, rasp, screak, crank {rare), screech, 

creak, n. spec, squeak, grind, grinding, 

scroop, stridor, creaking, rasp, grating, 

grate (rare), scream, screak, screech. 
creaking, a. creaky; spec, squeaking, 

strident, stridulous, scrooping, grinding, 

screaky, squeaky, raspy, rasping. 
cream, n. 1. head (as risen on milk; Brit.), 

cr&me (French), scum (rare); spec, froth. 

2. Spec, emulsion, creme (French), cos- 
metic, cordial. 

3. See BEST. 

creamy, a. creamlike; spec, luscious, soft. 

create, v. t. 1, make, form, fashion, origi- 
nate, constitute, produce, raise, rear; spec. 
concreate (rare), co-create (rare), erect, 
procreate; see design, inv'ent, imagine, 
cause, recreate. 
Antonyms: see annihilate, nullify, 


creation, n. 1. formation, production, 
origination, constitution, doing (rare), 
facture (rare); spec, erection, cosmogony, 
procreation, concreation; see invention, 

DESIGN, imagination, CAUSATION. 

2. Referring to the thing created: creature 
(now literary), formation, facture (rare), 
production, origination; spec, cosmos; 


Antonyms: see creator. 


creative, a. 1. creant (rare), formative, 
originative, productive, constituent, con- 
stitutive, poetic (rare); spec, plastic, pro- 
creative, generative, demiurgic; see caus- 

Antonyms: see annihilative, nulli- 



creator, n. author (contextual), maker, 
fashioner, poet (rare), originator, pro- 
ducer; spec. Demiurge (philos.), Brahma, 
inventor, designer, imaginer. 
Antonyms: see creature, creation. 

creature, n. 1. creation, being, thing (con- 
textual); spec, breather (literary), animal, 
creation (collective); see person. 
Antonyms: see creator, author. 
2. minion; spec, dependent, tool. 

credential, n. Spec, testimonial, introduc- 
tion, passport, certificate, exequatur. 
"Credential" is used chiefly in the pi. 

credible, a. believable, hkely, swallowable 
(rare; colloq.), trustworthy ; spec, probable. 
Antonyms: see incredible. 

credit, n. 1. Spec, credibility; see belief, 
reputation, honor. 

2. trust, tick (colloq.), score (archaic or 
dial.); spec, chalk. 

Antonyms: see cash. 

3. Spec, paj-ment, set-off. 
credit, v. t. 1. See believe, honor. 

2. accredit. 

3. trust. 

creditable, a. honorable; see reputable. 
creed, n. belief, symbol (theol.); spec. 

tenet, doctrine, persuasion, credo (chiefly 

tech.), views (pL). 
creep, v. i. 1. crawl; spec, forficulate 

(nonce word), formicate (rare or med.), 

worm, swarm, grovel. 

2. Referring to plants: run, trail, advance 

3. Meaning "to go stealthily": steal. 

4. Referring to the sensation: crawl; spec. 
formicate (rare), forficulate (nonce word), 

creeper, n. 1. crawler; spec, reptile. 

2. *S'7:>ec. runner, flagellum (tech.). 

3. crampon, crampet. 

creeping, a. 1. crawling, reptant (rare), re- 
pent (rare), reptile (chiefly spec); spec. 
formicant (med.), serpent (rare). 
2. Referring to a plant: running. 

creepy, a. crawly. 

crenate, a. scalloped, notched, indented; 
spec, knurled. 

(^^ Cross references: see Note. 
crank, r. t.: beTid, turn. 
crank, a.: rickety, unstable, 

crankle: bend. 
cranky: irascible, odd, rickety, 

winding, zigzag. 
crannied: cracked. 
cranny: crack. 
crape, v. t.: pucker. 
crapulence: excess. 
crapulent: dissipated. 
crapulous: dissipated. 
crass: coarse, crude, dense, stupid. 

crate, n.: basket, case. 
crater: bowl, mouth. 
craunch: crunch. 
cravat: neckcloth. 
crave: ask, desire, need. 
craven, a.: cowardly. 
craven, n.: coward, quitter. 
craving : desire. 
craw: crop, stomach. 
crawl, V. i.: creep, cringe, 

crawling: creeping. 
crawly: creepy. 
craze, v. t.: derange. 

craze,^..' derangement, fad, crack, 
crazy: cracked, rickety, de- 
ranged, frantic, unwise. 
crease, n.: wrinkle, pucker. 
credence: belief. 
credent : believing. 
credulity: believinffness. 
credulous: believing. 
cremate: burn. 
crenel: embattle. 
crepitant: crackling. 
crepitate: crackle. 
crepuscle: twilight. 
crepuscular: twilight. 

t^ See Notes of Explanation. 



crescent, n. 1. meniscus (math.), lunule 
(tech.), lune (chiefly tech.), half-moon (a 
loose usage), semilune (a loose usage), 
demilune (chiefly spec), lunette, lunula, 
2. Islam (fig.). 

crescent - shaped, a. convexo-concave 
(contextual; tech.), crescent, crescentic, 
crescentiform (/orwmZ), semilunar (/orvmO, 
semilunary (a loose usage), meniscal 
(rare or tech.), sigmoid (tech.), horned, 
lunulate, moony (rare), lunular, lunar, 
lunary, lunate. 

crest, n. 1. crown; spec, tuft, comb, cop- 
plecrown (obs. or dial.), topknot, horn, 
plumicorn (rare), cockscomb. 


3. The top of a wave: spec, comb, curl. 
crested, a. Spec, muffed, tufted, copple- 

crowned (obs. or dial.). 

crevasse, n. cleft (contextual); spec. 
schrund (Ger.), chimney. 

crib, n. See manger, bedstead, frame. 
2. Spec, translation, key, cab, horse, pony, 
trot; — all hut "translation" and "key" 

crier, n. Spec, croaker, crower, bellman, 
muezzin, herald, proclaimer. 

crime, 7i. offense (contextual), felony, 
arson, robbery, murder, rape, burglary, 
theft, manslaughter, perjury, treason, 
embezzlement; see wrong, transgres- 
sion, SIN. 

criminal, a. 1. unlawful, criminous (rare); 
spec, felonious, burglarious, murderous, 
Antonyms: see lawful. 

2. guilty (contextual), criminous (chiefly 
spec), crimeful (rare). 

Antonyms: see innocent. 

3. wicked (contextual), wrong, crimeful 
(rare), villainous. 

criminal, n. offender (contextual), male- 
factor (literary); spec felon, burglar, 
murderer, thief, robber, perjurer, incendi- 
ary, traitor, embezzler, defaulter, gaUow- 

crimson, n. red (contextual), cramoisy (ar- 
chaic); spec, magenta. 

cringe, v. i. cower, stoop, crouch (fig. or 
spec), spaniel (fig.; rare), crinkle (obs. or 

dial.), fawn, truckle; spec, crawl, grovel, 

sneak; see shrink. 

Antonyms: see bluster, bully, swagger. 
cringe, n. crouch, stoop; see shrink. 

Antonyms: see swagger. 
cringing, a. abject, servile, spaniel (fig.), 

fawning; see obsequious. 
cripple, n. lameter or lamiter (Scot.); spec 

cripple, V. t. disable (contextual), lame; 

spec, paralyze, maim. 
crippled, a. lame, lamish (rare); spec. 

paralyzed, maimed. 
crisis, n. 1. turn, turning-point, hinge 

(fig.), cUmacteric (learned), rub (fi^.), 

pinch (fig.). 

2. See juncture. 
crisscross, v. t. cross, gridiron, 
critic, n. judge; spec connoisseur, dia- 

tribist (rare), reviewer, verbalist, verba- 

rian (rare), censurer, zoiUst (fig.). 
critical, a. 1. critic (rare); spec, dissective, 

exacting, hypercritical, supercritical; see 


2. Spec, judicious, accurate. 

3. decisive; spec, chmacteric, cUmacter- 
ical, exigent, dangerous, etc 

criticism, n. 1. judgment (contextual), 
critique; spec dissection, comment, epi- 
crisis (tech.), appreciation, review, re- 
viewal (rare), animadversion, hyper- 
criticism, nip, zoilism (fig.), diatribe; 
see censure, cavil, reproof. 
2. critique; spec dialectic, dialectics. 

criticize, v. t. judge, do (contextual); spec. 
dissect, review, flay, hypercriticize; see 
censure, blame, reprove. 

croak, v. i. & t. 1. cry (contextual), quark 
(rare) . 

2. forbode (contextual). 
GF= "Croak" is not a synonym of "com- 
plain" ; "croak" refers to the future; "com- 
plain" to the past or to what is fixed upon. 

croaking, n. 1. crying (contextual), coaxa- 
tion (rare). 
2. foreboding (contextual). 

crock, n. Spec, dish, jar, pot, pitcher, pig 
(Scot.), plate, etc 

crocket, n. ornament, crotchet. 

crocodilian, n. reptile (contextual); spec. 
gavial, alligator, crocodile, cayman. 

Croesus, n. Dives (fig.); spec, nabob, mill- 

its^ Cross references: see Note. 
crescent, a.: wa.ting, crescent- 
crest, V. t.: crown top. 
crest, V. i.: break. 
crestfallen: depressed. 
cretaceous: chalky. 
crevice: clefl. 

crew: force, company, gang. 
crib: steal, plagiarize. 
crick: spasm. 
cricket: stool. 

criminate: accuse, involve. 

crimp, V. t.: gash, impress, 

crimp, n.: flute, wrinkle. 

crimpy: wrinkly, curly. 

crinkle, v. i.: wrinkle, ripple. 

crinkle, v. t.: wrinkle, curl. 

crinkle, n.: twist, wrinkle, rip- 

crinkly: ripply, wrinkly. 

crisp, a.: curly, brittle, blunt, 
sharp, definite, lively, cold, stiff. 

crisp, V. t.: curl, ripple, harden, 

crisscross, n.: cross. 
crisscross, v. t.: cross. 
crisscross, adv.: crosswise. 
crisscross, a.: cross. 
criterion: standard. 
critique: criticism. 
crock, n.; soot, smut. 
crockery: earthenware. 
crone: woman. 
crony: comrade. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 


ionaire, billionaire; — applied to a very rich 

man {what conslitutes great riches varying 

u'iih the titnc and place)., 'Croesus" is fig. 

crook, n. 1. See curve, bend, sinuosity. 

2. hook, cammock (Scot.; chiefly spec.); 
spec, staff; see crosier. 

3. evildoer (contextual); spec, malefactor, 
cheat, swindler. 

crooked, a. 1. cranky (rare), crank (Scot.); 


Antonyms: see straight. 


crop, n. 1. craw, ingluvies (tech.); spec, geb- 
bie (Scot.), gorge. 


cropper, n. fall (coyitextual) , plumper. 

crosier, n. crozier, crook, pastoral. 

cross, n. 1. gibbet, crucifix (an erroneous 
use), crux (tech.); spec, christcross or 
crisscross (archaic), crosslet, rood (ar- 
chaic), tau. 

2. mark (contextual), signature (context- 
mil), christcross (rare), crisscross. 


cross, V. t. & i. 1. Meaning "to make the 
sign of the cross on or over": sign (archaic), 
sain (archaic), bless (archaic). 

2. intersect, decussate (literary or tech.), 
intercross (rare), cut (,fig.; contextual), 
transit (rare); spec, crisscross, gridiron. 

3. traverse, thwart (rare), cut (chiefly 
spec, and used loith "over"); spec, be- 
stride, overstride, overstep, stride. 

Antonyms: see adjoin, parallel. 

4. traverse, overpass (rare), pass, trans- 
verse (rare), transpass (rare), thwart (ar- 
chaic), overthwart (rare); spec, swim, 
overswim (rare), raft, overstep, repass, 
recross, leap, jump, etc. 

5. interbreed, mix, crossbreed, inter- 
cross (rare), hybridize; spec, cross-fertil- 
ize. "Interbreed" and "cross" or "cross- 
breed" are often distinguished. 

6. See CANCEL, oppose. 

cross, a. 1. transverse, thwart (archaic or 
rare), traverse (rare), overthwart (rare). 
2. See opposing, ill-tempered, recip- 

crossbreeding, n. cross, crossing, inter- 
breeding, hybridization; see cross-fer- 

crossed, a. 1. crutched (ecd.). 
2. .See irvBRiD. 

cross-eye, n. strabismus (tech.), cock-eye. 

cross -fertilization, n. crossbreeding, al- 
logamy (tech.). 

crossing, n. 1. cross, overpassing, travers- 
ing, traverse (archaic). 

2. intersection, decussation (literary or 
tech.); spec, lease (weaving). 

3. See opposition, crossway. 

4. Spec, miscegenation; see crossbreed- 

crossroad, n. crossway, cross (rare), con- 
course (a collective; literary). 

cross- shaped, a. decussate (chiefly bot.), 
crucial (chiefly anat.), cruciform, cruciate, 
cruciferous (bot.). 

crosstie, n. tie, sleeper (chiefly British). 

crossway, 7i. cross; spec, crossing, cross- 
walk; see crossroad. 

crosswires, n. pi. reticule, reticle; — both 
tech . 

crosswise, adv. across, traverse (rare), 
thwart wise (rare or archaic), transversely, 
transverse (rare); spec, crisscross, thwart- 
ship, askew, awry, sidewise, sideways. 
Antonyms: see lengthwise. 

crouch, V. i. bend (contextual), squat, 
drop; spec, cower, stoop; see cringe. 

crouch, n. bend (contextual), squat, 
droop; see cringe, stoop. 

crow, n. 1. crake (dial. Eng.); spec, black- 
neb (Scot.), scaldcrow (local), chough 
(Cornish), jay (Cornish), hoodie or hoody 
(Scot.), corbie (Scot.), grayback, gor- 
crow, daw, jackdaw. 

2. cry (contextual), song (contextual; liter- 
ary or tech.), cock-a-doodle-doo (colloq.). 

crow, V. i. 1. cry (contextual), sing (^context- 
ual; literary or tech.), chanticleer (rare). 
2. See EXULT. 

crow, a. corvine (literary or tech.). 

crowbar, ?i. gravelock (obs. or dial. Eng.), 
crow; spec, pinch, pinchbar, jemmy, 

crowd, n. 1. gathering, concourse (liter- 
ary), horde, press, drove (disparaging), 
mass, mob (chiefly disparaging), host, 
herd (disparaging), swarm, ruck (dis- 
paraging), rout, pack, cram, jam, crush, 
huddle, throng. 


crowd, V. t. 1. See hasten, push. 

2. Referring to persons brought uncomfort- 
ably close together: gather, huddle, over- 
crowd, crush", press, scrouge (colloq.), 
cram, wedge, shoulder (chiefly spec.), 
serry (rare), hustle, pack. 

3. Referring to things put together very or 
too closely: spec, pack, jam, swarm, hud- 

EP" Cross references: see Note. 
crcKtk, v.t.& i. : bend, curve, zigzag. 
crop, r. t.: top. 
crossbar: whippletree. 
crossbred: hybrid. 
crossbreed: cross. 

cross-examination: question. 
cross-fertilize: cross. 
cross-grained: perverse. 
Crosshatch: engrave. 
crossness: ill-temper. 
cross-question: question. 

crossruS: seesaw. 
crotoh: fork, angle. 
crotched: forked. 
crotchet: hook, note, caprice, fad. 
crotchety: capricious, fanciful. 
croup: rump. 

IS^ See Notes of Explanation. 


die, cram, overcrowd, tuck, ram, com- 
press; wedge. 

4. Referring to the place in which things or 
persons are brought or placed too close to- 
gether: spec, pack, jam, cram, wedge, oveJ- 
crowd, overcharge, throng, gorge, congest. 

crowd, V. i. 1. See hasten. 
2. gather, collect, congregate, huddle; 
spec, throng, mob, press, crush, herd, 
serry {literary), swarm, cram, wedge, 
huddle, nestle, jug, shoal; see snuggle. 
Antonyms: see scatter, straggle. 

crowded, a. 1. full, packed, jammed, etc. 
2. thick, serried {literary), thronged, etc. 
Anto7iyins: see thin. 

crowding, n. 1. press, throng; spec, hud- 

crowlike, a. corvine, corvoid {chiefly spec.)', 
— both tech. 

crown, n. 1. chaplet, coronal, corona 
{Latin), ring {contextual), crownal {obs. or 
archaic), circlet, diadem {now chiefly po- 
litical or rhetorical); spec, crownlet, coro- 
net, aureola, aureole, bays {pi. used with 
"the"), festoon, laurel, wreath. 

2. head-dress; spec, pschent {Egyptian) . 

3. top, crest; spec, copplecrown, top- 
knot, cockscomb. 

4. top, climax, complement. 

5. top {contextual), sinciput, poll, vertex. 

6. See sovereignty, sovereign, height, 


crown, a. coronary, "Crown" is the noun 

used attributively. 
crown, V. t. 1. coronate {rare), diadem 

{rare, exc. in p. p. diademed); spec, coro- 
net, laurel; see wreathe. 

2. top; spec, culminate {rare), cap, head, 

pinnacle {rare), crest. 
crowned, a. in coronate {rare), diademed; 

spec, garlanded, wreathed, laureled, 

crowning, n. coronation {the formal word 

for the ceremony). 

crownlike, a. Spec, garlandish, garlandy. 
crucifixion, n. 1. Spec. Calvary. 


crucify, v. t. 1. execute {contextual), hang 
2. See REPRESS. 

crude, a. 1. raw, unfinished, unprepared; 
spec, rough, unwrought, unmanufactured, 
half-baked, unbaked, green, undiluted, 
unfuUed, unburnt, unrefined, undressed, 
unmalted, undigested, untamed, rawish, 
uncut, etc. 

2. raw, unfinished, crass, imperfect; spec. 
plain, rude, tasteless, rough, gross, artless, 
incondite {rare), harsh, inartistic, half- 
baked, immature, ineloquent, sketchy, 
rough, bold, bare, etc.; see clumsy. 

Antonyms:, see accomplished, nice, 



cruel, a. 1. cold-blooded, cold, unfeeling, 
hard-hearted, hard, harsh, unkind (a 
euphemism), heartless, fell {rhetorical or 
poetic), severe, felon {poetic); spec, dev- 
ilish, atrocious, savage, barbarous, Dra- 
conian, swinish, boarish, brutal, butch- 
erly, brute, inhuman, brutish, sanguinary, 
tigerish, wolfish, fiendish, iron, merciless, 
ruthless, pitiless, ferocious, truculent, in- 
Antonyms: see gentle, compassionate, 


2. Figuratively: spec, severe, sharp, hard, 
unfavorable, etc. 

cruelty, n. cold-bloodedness, coldness, 
harshness, unkindness {euphemistic), fell- 
ness {poetic or rhetorical); spec, deviltry, 
devilry, atrocity, truculence, barbarity, 
savagery, etc. 

Antonyms: see compassion, gentle- 
ness, MERCY. 

cruise, v. i. range; see voyage, sail. 

cruise, v. t. navigate, range. 

cruiser, n. man-of-war; spec, corvette, 
battle cruiser. 

crumbly, a. breakable {contextual), friable, 
crump {Scot. & dial. Eng.), soft {context- 
ual), crummable {rare); spec, rotten, 
short, brittle, pulverizable {contextual), 
slack, moldery {rare), brashy. 
Antonyms: see strong. 

crunch, v. t. chew {contextual), cranch or 
craunch {obsolescent), grind, crush, press, 

crupper, n. 1. Referring to part of a harness 
or saddle: loop {contextual), dock. 
2. See rump. 

crush, V. t. 1. bruise {rare), press {context- 
ual), pash {archaic); spec, mash, smash, 
squash, grind, jam, cranch or craunch 
{obsolescent), crunch, scrunch. 
2. See PRESS, overcome, oppress, 

CROWD, destroy. 

crush, n. 1. pressure {contextual), pash {ar- 
chaic); spec, mash, grind, crunch, squash. 
2. See pressure. 

crust, n. 1. coat {contextual), skin {co7i- 
textual), incrustation, cake, coating 
{chiefly spec), crustation {rare), rind 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
crucial: decisive. 
crucifix: cross. 
CTUcif orm : cross-shaped. 
cruet: bottle. 

cruise: sail, voyage. 
crumb, v. t.: comminute. 
crumble: disintegrate. 
crump: chew. 
crumple: wrinkle. 

crunching: pressure. 
crusade, n.: war, movement. 
crusade, v. i.: war, campaign. 
cruse: bottle, jiio, jar. 
crusiling: pressure. 

tS^ Sec Notes of Explanation. 


{chkfly spec), cncrustmcnt; spec, shell, 
efflorescence, druse, pie crust, case, scurf 
{rare), sinter, scale. 
8. See SCAB. 

OTust, I', i. cake; spec, effloresce, over- 

crust, V. t. incrust or encrust, cake, in- 
crustatc {rare); spec, bark, enamel. 

cry, V. i. 1. Referring to persons: spec. 
shout, exclaim, clamor, call, blare, bray 
(spec, or humorous), chuckle, cluck, coo, 
croak, crool, croon, croup, crow, chirp, 
chirrup, holla, hollo, holloa, hoop, hoot, 
howl, lulUloo, peep, pule, screak, screech, 
shrill, squall, squeak, squeal, whimper, 
yang {rare), whoop, yell, yoop (rare); see 


Antonyms: see laugh, smile. 

2. Referring to animals: spec, call, note, 
baa, bay, bell, howl, sing, blare, blat, 
bleat, boo, bow-wow, bray, cackle, cauk 
{dial.), caterwaul, caw, cawk, cheep, 
chirm, chirp, chirr, clutter, cluck, clock 
{rare), coo, crake, croak, cronk {dial.), 
cuckoo, drum, gabble, gaggle, hee-haw 
{colloq.), honk (17. S. & Can^, hoot, juck, 
juke, jug, keckle, low, mew, miaow, 
mewl, miaul, moo, neigh, open, peep, 
pew, potrack {rare), purr, quack, scape, 
screak, scream, screech, shriek, shrill, 
squeak, squawk, trumpet, twitter, weet, 
wepe (a nonce word), whimper, yelp, yowl; 


3. lament, weep; spec, squall, wail, whim- 
per, sob, bawl, snivel, blubber. 

Antonyms: see rejoice, laugh. 


cry, V. t. 1. utter {contextual) ; spec, shout, 
exclaim, proclaim. 
2. See hawk. 

cry, n. 1. Referring to persons: utterance 
{contextual); spec, shout, exclamation, 
scream, clamor, call, blare, boo, boohoo, 
bray {obs. or humorous), cackle, chirm, 
chirk, chirrup, chuckle, check, coo, 
croak, crool, croup, crow, gabble, hollo, 
holloa, hoot, hosanna, howl, luUiloo, lure, 
peep, quaver, roar, screak, screech, 
shriek, shrilling, snivel, sob, squall, 
squawk, squeal, wail, whimper, whoop, 
yang {rare), yoop {rare), yell; see bellow, 


2. Referring to animals: spec, note, call, 
baa, bark, bay, bell, blare, blat, bleat, 
boation (rare), boo, boom, bow-wow, bray, 
buller {Scot.), bumble {cant, dial.), cackle, 
caterwaul, caw, cawk, cheep, chirm. 

chirp, chirr, clock {rare), chuckle, cluck, 
coo, crake, croak, cronk {dial.), gabble, 
gaggle, gobble, gobblement {rare), growl, 
hee-haw {colloql), honk {U. S. & Can.), 
hoot, howl, juck or juke, jug, keckle, low, 
mew, mewl, miaow, maul, moo, neigh, 
pheal {rare), purr, quack, scape, screak, 
scream, screech, shriek, shrill, song, 
squall, squawk, squeak, squeal, trumpet, 
twitter, wail, weet, weke, whimper, 
whoop, yelp, yowl; see chirp, bellow, 



4. weep {rare); spec, boohoo, wail, whim- 
per, squall, sob, bawl. 

Antonyms: see laugh. 

crystal, a. 1. crystalline (esp. as opposed 
to "amorphous"), crystalloid {tech. and 
esp. as opposed to "colloid"), crystalli- 
form (tech.); spec, drusiform, glacial. 
2. See CLEAR. 

crystal, v. i. crystallize. 

crystal-gaze, i'. i. scry. "Crystal-gaze" is 
rare, exc. in the form "crystal-gazing." 

crystal-gazer, n. seer {contextual), scryer. 

crystallize, v. i. solidify {contextual), con- 
geal (contextual), crystal (rare and liter- 
ary); spec, candy, shoot. 

cub, n. offspring (contextual), whelp. 

cube, n. 1. solid (contextual), die (chiefly 
architectural), hexahedron (geom.). 
2. product (contextual), power {contextual) . 

cuckold, n. cornute (archaic), cornuto (ar- 
chaic); spec, wittol. 

cuckold, V. t. horn (obs.), cornute (ar- 
chaic) . 

cuckolded, a. horned, cornuted (archaic), 
forked (obs. or archaic). 

cudgel, n. & v. club; spec, bastinado, 
crab, bludgeon, baton, batoon (archaic). 

cue, 71. 1. queue, pigtail or (for short) tail 
(colloq. or humorous); spec, braid, plait, 
roll, etc. 
2. See FILE. 

cuflf, n. blow (contextual). 

cuff, V. t. strike (contextual), slap, box, buf- 
fet, handicuff (colloq.). 

cul-de-sac, n. pocket, impasse (French), 
no-thoroughfare. "Cxd-de-sac" is French. 

culminate, v. i. top (colloq.). 

cult, n. I. cultus; spec, worship. 
2. See DEVOTION, rite, homage. 

cultivate, v. t. 1. farm, till (now chiefly 
spec), work, culture (rare), labor (rare); 
spec, garden, hoe, rake. 
2. Referring to working on plants: grow, 
husband (rare); spec, hoe, earth. 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
crutch: staff, fork. 
cpypt: vault 
cryptic: hidden. 
cuddle, V. t.: embrace. 

cuddle, v. i.: snuggle. 
cuddy: donkey, closet. 
cue: suggestion, part, humor. 
cuisine: kitchen, cookery. 
culet: facet. 

cull, 71. t.: choose. 
cully: dupe. 
culm: stalk. 
culmination: top, height. 
culprit: transgressor. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 



3. See CIVILIZE, eefine, pursue, court, 


cultivation, n. 1. farming, tillage {now 
chiefly spec.), husbandry, culture, tilth 
(rare or literary) . 

2. Referring to work on -plants: growth, 

3. See CIVILIZATION, refinement, pur- 

culture, n. 1, See cultivation. . 
2. Spec, education, development, en- 
lightenment, civilization, humanism, hu- 
manity {archaic), hterature {rare); see 
Antonyms: see barbarism. 

cuneiform, n. writing (contextual), print 
(contextual); spec, sphenogram. 

cunning, a. 1. See skillful, artful, 
2. interesting (contextual), cute (colloq.). 

cup, n. I. Spec, chahce (poetic, elevated, 
or eccl.), mazer (obs. or hist.), goblet (ar- 
chaic, exc. spec), noggin, mug, pannikin, 
porringer, jorum (coUoq.), stein (German), 
cannikin, cyathus, tazza (Italian), cyUx, 
calix, can, bumper, chark (Russian), 
beaker, rhyton, standard, taster, bucket, 
gourd, goddard (obs. or dial.). 
2. See SHARE. 

cupbearer, n. Ganymede (hist, or fig.), 
Hebe (hist, or fig.). 

cupboard, n. closet; spec, buffet, locker, 

cupid, n. love, Eros (Greek). "Cupid" is 
the Latin god. 

oup- shaped, a. calciform (rare), poculi- 
form (tech.), cupped, cuppy (rare); spec. 
cupular, cupulate, cotyliform, cotyloid, 
calathiform, cyathiform. 

curable, a healable, remediable, mendable 
(obs. or dial.), recoverable, medicable. 
Antonyms: see incurable. 

curate, n. minister (contextual), rector, 

curative, a. beneficial, restorative, cura- 
tory, healing, remedial, medical (rare), 
consolidant (rare), salutary, sanative 
(rare), sanatative, sanatory; spec, medic- 
able (rare), medicinal, incarnative (rare), 
recuperative, recuperatory, vulnerary. 

curb, n. 1. See control, restraint, 
2. inclosure; spec, collar, puteal. 

curd, n. coagulum; spec, clabber, bonny- 

curdle, v. t. & i. coagulate. 

cure, n. 1. See ministry, remedy, rb^ 

2. preservation (rare or affected); spec, en- 
silage, corning, smoking, jerking, etc. 

cure, V. t. 1. heal, remedy (rare), recover, 
sanitate (rare), sanitize (rare), restore, 
mend (archaic), leech (archaic); spec. 
cicatrize, incarn (rare). 
Antonyms: see disease. 
2. preserve; spec, ripen, ensilate, ensile 
or ensilage, kipper, season, jerk, dry, 
smoke, pickle. 

curiosity, n. 1. curiousness, inquiringness, 
inquisitiveness (chiefly used in a bad 
sense); spec, pryingness, prying, question- 
ing, interrogation. 
Antonyms: see indifference. 
2. article (contextual), curio, bric-^-brac 
(a collective). 

curious, a. 1. See nice, odd, elaborate. 
2. inquiring, inquisitive (chiefly used in a 
bad sense); spec, seeking, inquisitorial, in- 
quisitional, zetetic, interrogative, prying, 
questioning, scrutinizing, mousing, per- 
contatorial (rare), supercurious. 
Antonyms: see indifferent. 

curl, n. 1. roll (contextual), convolution 
(tech. or learned), volute (tech. or learned); 
see twist, coil, spiral. 
2. Referring to the hair: buckle (archaic), 
ringlet, feak (rare); spec, cannon, curlicue, 
frizz, frounce, frizzle, kink, lovelock, kin- 
kle, favorite, toupee. 

curl, V. t. 1. roll (contextuxd) ; see twist, 
COIL, spiral. 

2. Referring to the hair: spec, kink, frizz, 
frounce, frizzle, crinkle, crimp, crisp, 
Phrygianize (nonce word). 

3. Referring to the state: buckle; spec. 
cri spat ion (rare), crispature (rare). 

4. See CREST. 

curl, V. i. roU (contextual); see wave, ripple. 
curled, a. rolled (contextual), convolute 

(learned or tech.), volute (learned or tech.); 

spec, coiled, cyclical, involute; see curly. 
curly, a. Spec, curled, kinky, frizzly, 

frizzy, crimpy, kinkled, spiry (rare), 

fuzzy, crisp, wreathy. 
curly- haired, a. Referring to a dog: spec. 


lE^ Cross references: see Note. 
cultivated: artificial, refined. 
cultured: refined. 
cultus: cidt. 
culvert : drain. 
cumber, v. t.: hamper, burden. 
cumber, 71.: burden. 
cumbersome: hindering, bur- 
densome, unwieldy. 
cumbrous: unwieldy, clumsy. 
cumulate: accumulate. 

cumulus: heap, cloud. 
cuneiform: wedge-shaped. 
cunning, n.: skill, art. 
cupidity: greed. 
cupidous: greedy. 
cupped: c^ip-shapcd. 
cuppy: cup-shaped, pitted. 
cupreous: copper, copper-col- 
cur: dog, coward, wretch. 
curacy: ministry. 

curator: custodian. 
curatory: curative. 
curb, V. t.: restrain, subdue. 
curd: coagulum. 
curdle: coagulate. 
cur6, n.: m,inister. 
curfew: ringing. 
curio : curio.iity. 
curiousness: curiosity. 
curlicue: curl. 
curmudgeon: niggard. 

TW Sec Notes of Explanation. 



current, a. 1. Sec PREVALENT, passing, 


2. Rffarring to money, etc.: circulative 

(rart), circulating. 

8. accepted, received, abroad, afloat; 

spec general, rife. 

4. Referring to expense, etc.: occurrent 

{rare), incidental. 

current, ri. 1. <Sce COURSE. 
2. stream; spec, tide, race, rip, draught, 
underset, undertow, roost {local; British). 

curry, r. t. 1. comb {contextual), curry- 
comb, groom. 

2. Figuratircbj: spec, tickle, scrape, beat, 
blight, plague; see thr.\sh. 

curse, V. t. 1. maledict {rare), devote, exe- 
crate {learned), anathematize {learned and, 
properly, formal), bless {euphemistic or 
ironical), damn {now chiefly used vulgarly), 
ban {archaic), blank {euphemistic), cuss 
{vidgar or colloq., and euphemistic; U. S.), 
shrew or beshrew {archaic), pest {rare); 
spec, hoodoo. 
Antonyms: see bless, beatify, conse- 


curse, V. i. blaspheme, profane {rare), pest 
{rare), anathematize {learned and, prop- 
erly, formal), execrate {learned), fulminate 
{fig. or tech.). 

curse, n. 1. malediction, execration {learn- 
ed), imprecation, anathema {properly, for- 
mal), ban {archaic), blessing {euphemistic 
or ironical), mali.son {archaic); spec, ma- 
ranatha, excommunciation, hoodoo, damn 
or damme {obs. or archaic; orig. a vulgar 
ejaculation). "Curse" is the vernacular 

Antonyms: see blessing, beatitude. 
2. Spec, trouble, calamity, pest. 

cursed, a. 1. damnable {now chiefly vulgar 
and profane), execrable {now weakened in 
force), infernal {colloq. and euphemistic), 
confounded {now euphemistic); see ac- 


2. See HATEFUL. 

cursing, n. malediction, execration. 
Antonyms: see blessing, prayer. 

cursing, a. execratory, execrative. 

cursory, a. passing, transient, running; 
spec, hasty, hurried; see careless, super- 
ficial, DISCURSIVE. 

curt, a. 1. See short, brief. 
2. brief (contextual), short, snappish, 
snappy; spec, tart, brusque. 
Antonyms: see gracious. 

curtain, n. screen, ridel or riddel {archaic). 

veil {chiefly fig.); spec, drop, purdah {FUctst 
Iiulia), portiere {French), arras, lambre- 
quin {U . S.), valance, shade. 

curtain, v. t. screen {contextual), veil 
{chiefly fig.); spec, shade. 

curtsy, curtsey, n. civility (contextual), 
bow; ,sTC leg. 

curvature, /;. 1. Referring to the action or 
act: bend, curve, bending, curving, curva- 
tion; spec, camber {chiefly tech.), round- 
ing, procurvation, incurvation, recurva- 
tion, recurvature, convexity, convexness 
{rare), concavity, winding, concaveness 
{rare), retroflexion, sheer. 
2. Sec curve. 

curve, n. 1. Referring to the state or the 
form produced: bend, curvature, inflection 
{literary), compass {tech.), bent {rare); 
spec, bow, crook, round {archaic), round- 
about, arc, flex, arch, bight, sinus, de- 
curvation, recurvation, retroflex, recurva- 
ture, sweep, epicycloid, conchoid, cate- 
nary, curl, sheer, ellipse, evolute, cycloid, 
extrados {architecture), logistic, polhode, 
ogee, epitrochoid, her polhode, gadroon, 
twist, incurvation, wind, circle, wave, con- 
vexity, convex {rare), concavity, concave 
(rare), geanticlinal, geosynclinal, oxbow, 
coil, sinuosity, turn, spiral. 

2. See curvature. 

3. Referring to a curved thing: spec, bend, 
bow, cambrel {obs. or dial., crook. 

curve, V. t. & i. bend, turn, inflect, round, 
crook ; spec, bow, embow, twist, arch, arc, 
decurve, camber, incurve, incurvate, re- 
curve, recurvate, reflect, wind, hook, 
spire, coil. 
Antonyms: see straighten. 

curved, a. bent {primarily spec), bowed, 
curvate {rare), crooked, curvilinear; spec. 
roundish, rounded, spherical, arched, in- 
bent, reflex, incurved, campylotropous, 
embowed {literary), retorted '{rare), con- 
cave, convex, bulging, sweepy, arcuate, 
crumpled, camerated, compass, circinate, 
circinal, crescent, falcate, falcated, rotun- 
date, elliptic, circular, oval, tortile (rare), 
recurved, recurvate; see sinuous, wind- 
Antonyms: see angular, straight. 

curvet, n. jump (contextual), leap (context- 
ual), courbette (French), vault. 

cushion, n. 1. pillow; spec, pad, woolsack, 
bolster, panel, mat, wad, compress, buck- 
ram, pillion, bass, hassock, quilt. 
2. See buffer. 

cushion, v. t. 1. Spec, pad, protect, bol- 
ster, cover, seat, wad, quilt. 

t^= Cross references: see Note. 
curriculam: course. 
carrish: canine, irascible, 


currycomb: curry. 
cursive: running. 
curtail: shorten, abate, dimin- 
ish, clip, deprive. 

curtate: short, shortened. 
curtilage: court. 
curtsy, curtsey, v. i.: bow. 
curvilinear: curved. 

^(W See Notes of Explanation. 



2. rest, pillow. 

cushioned, a. Spec, padded, gamboised, 

cushion- shaped, a. pulvinate {tech.). 

cusk, n. torsk. 

cusp, 11. point {contextual), apex, peak, 
cuspis {tech.); spec. horn. 

custodian, n. guardian, guardianess {fern.; 
rare) , keeper, custodier {Scots law) , custos 
{Latin); spec, conservator, curator, cura- 
trLx {Jem.), warden, concierge {French), 
janitor, janitress, tutor, sacrist, sacristan. 

custom, n. 1. practice, use {now rare), 
praxis {rare), usage {properly spec), con- 
suetude, wont {now chiefly literary), fash- 
ion {chiefly spec), dustoor {East India); 
spec rite, localism, way, manner, proce- 
dure, prescription, institution; see con- 
vention, HABIT. 


3. patronage, support. 

customary, a. accustomed, wonted, usual, 
consuetudinary {rare), ordinary {context- 
ual), regular; spec, everyday, natural; 
traditional, traditionary, nomic, pre- 

Antonyms : see unaccustomed, un- 
conventional, OBSOLETE, occasional, 

customer, n. 1. buyer, purchaser, patron. 
2. See FELLOW. 

customhouse, n. douane {French), do- 
gana {Italian). 

cut, V. t. & i. 1. incise {learned, except in 
p. a. "incised"), incide {rare), separate 
{contextual); spec, carve, cleave, truncate, 
lance, scarify, bite, dissect, shear, poll, 
shave, skive, scissor, snip, saw, bite, 

• scythe, slice, slit, slash, knife, mince, 
chop, barb, poU, chisel, sculpture, chip, 
mow, reap, gouge, hack, hash, nick, hew, 
facet, saber or sabre, score, scotch, flitch, 
gash, crimp, crease, hog, shred, lop, dock, 
carbonado, roach, clip, crop, trim, cas- 
trate, whittle, pare. 

PART {v. i.). 

3. Referring to the sensibilities: hurt, bite, 
sting, pain, wound. 

4. ignore, rump {rare; slang); see slight. 
cut, n. 1. Referring to an act: cutting 

(rare), incision {learned), incisure {rare); 
spec gash, nick, discission {rare), bite, 
crop, scotch, shave, shear, clip, snip, 
carve, slit. 

2. Referring to the place or form made by 
cutting: spec, cutting, gash, slash, nick, in- 
cision {learned), scotch, notch, channel, 
furrow, passage, groove, jad, facet. 

3. Referring to a piece or part cut off or out: 
spec cutting, cUpping, shaving, peel, 
scrap, mowing, crop, fall, snip, paring, 

4. Referring to a piece of meat or food cut 
off: spec, joint, sparerib, flitch, clod, col- 
lop, chop, slice, steak, crop, round, shoul- 
der, neck, brisket, rump, etc 


cut, a. Spec gashy, shorn, tonsured, 
slashed, carved, carven {rhetorical), 
hacked, cleft, etc 

cuttable, a. sectile {learned or tech.), sec- 
able {rare); spec, cleavable. 

cutter, n. Spec cleaver, diamond, ecra- 
seur {French), colter or coulter, cropper, 
carver, clipper, chopper, microtome, 
mower, hewer, hook, blade, shear, sickle, 
scythe, knife, etc. 

cutting, a. 1. sharp, incisive {learned), in- 
cisory {rare), sectorial {learned); spec. 

2. Referring to language, etc: sharp, bit- 
ing, stinging, wounding; see acri.monious, 


cutting, n. 1. Referring to the action: cut 
{rare), incision (learned), section {chiefly 
tech.), scission {rare); spec, tonsure, exci- 
sion, concision, shaving, clipping, etc. 
2. See CUT. 

cycle, n. 1. See circle, round. 

2. period; spec saros, age. 

3. wheel {colloq.), machine {colloq.), bike 
{slang); spec, bicycle, tricycle, quad- 
ricycle, tandem, pneumatic, quartet, 
quintet, quintuplet, hydrocycle, motor- 

cyclic, a. 1. circular; — chiefly of poems, 

periods of time, etc 

2. See recurrent. 
cylinder, n. Spec nmdle, cannon, drum, 

cage, barrel, fly, roll; see roller. 
cylindrical, a. cylindraceous {rare), cylin- 

dric {rare), cylindriform {rare), round 

{contextual; spec), cylindroid. 
cynic, n. 1. See philosopher. 

2. misanthrope, pessimist {contextual). 
cynical, a. 1. See SURLY. 

2. Spec Biogenic. 

3. misanthropic; spec, sneering, satirical, 

IW Cross references: see Note. 
cuspid: canine. 
cuspidate, cuspidated: point- 
ed, ornamented. 
cuspidor: spittoon. 
custody: care, imprisonment. 
customable: taxable. 

cut-and-dried: prearranged, 

cutaneous: skin. 
cute: cunning, shrewd, clever. 
cuticle: skin. 
cutlass: sword. 
cutty: short. 

cycloid : circular. 
Cyclopean: gigantic, massive. 
cyclorama: show. 
cynosure: attraction. 
cyst: chest, sac. 
cystic: vesicular. 
czar: monarch. 

XdS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



dab, V. t. 1. strike (contextual), tap; spec. 

pock, slap, pat. 

2. See SPOT. 
dab, n. 1. stroke (contextual), tap; spec. 

peck, slap, pat. 


dabble, v. t. wet (contextual) , spatter. 

dabble, v. i. 1. puddle, mudale, potter, 
mess; spec, splash, paddle, patter, ploutcr 
(chiefly Sect.). 
2. potter, trifle, smatter; see potter. 

dabbler, n. 1. mudlark (collcq.). 
2. dabster, potterer, smatterer; spec. 
sciolist (learned). Cf. bungle. 
Antojitjms: see expert. 

dagger, n. 1. weapon (contextual), point 
(now rare), tickler (slang), skene (archaic 
or hist.), parazoniimi (Greek antiq.), 
prog (rare); spec, poniard (literary), bod- 
kin (archaic), ataghan, creese, crease, 
kris, kuttar, misericord, dirk, stiletto, 
stylet, poignado or poinado (archaic), 
left-hander, khanjar, dudgeon (archaic). 
2. In printing: obelisk ; spec, diesis (double 

daily, a. diurnal, quotidian (rare). 
Antonyms: see nocturnal. 

dainty, a. 1. See palatable, particular, 


2. beautiful, pretty, elegant, delicate, neat, 
trim, tricksy (rare), exquisite (very dainty) . 

Antonyms: see ugly, clumsy, coarse. 

3. nice; spec, squeamish, fastidious, ex- 

dais, n. tribune (contextual), platform (con- 
textual), hautpas (French); spec, estrade 
(rare), half -pace, footpace. 

dam, n. obstruction (contextual), barrier 
(contextual), weir; spec, barrage. 

dam, V. t. obstruct (contextual), bay; spec. 
pond (Eng.). 

dance, n. 1. measure (poetic), saltation 
(esp. characterized by leaping steps; rare); 
spec, valse, courante, courant, country- 
dance, waltz, strathspey (Scot.), sun 
dance, seguidilla (Spanish), tango, 
turkey-trot, bunny-hug, onestep, two- 
step, boston, german, saraband, saltarello 
(Italian), schottische, shuffle, roundelay, 
round, tarantella, rigadoon, Romaika, roly- 
poly, ridotto (Italian), juba (U. S.), tam- 

bourin, pas, passepied, grandfather, mor- 
ris, minuet, hay, pavan (hist.), danse Mac- 
abre (French), dance of death, gavotte, 
hobble, hoedown (U. S.), break-down, 
hornpipe, gallaird (hist.), gallopade, galop, 
bolero, contre-dance, cotillion or cotillon, 
corroboree, Cracovienne (French), brawl, 
cachucha, canary, cancan, caper, carma- 
gnole, polka, reel, kantikoy, quadrille, 
fling, j ig, lavolta (/iisi. ), farandole (Frenc/i) , 
fandango (Spanish), chemise (ca7il). 
2. party (contextual), assembly (context- 
ual); spec, ball, hop (slang or colloq.), 
promenade, nautch (India). 

dance,;;, i. & t. foot (chiefly with "it"; 
rare); spec, step, trip (it), tread (con- 
textual), waltz, tripudiate (rare), rigadon, 
minuet, jig, pirouette, polonaise, pous- 
sette, polk, reel, quadrille, leap. 
2. play, bob, jiggle, jig, jigger, bobble; 
spec, caper, jump, dandle. 

dancer, n. Terpsichore (fig.), figurant 
(masc; French), figurante (Jem.; French), 
danseuse (fem.; French); spec, flinger, 
kicker, coryphee, matachin. 

dancing, n. footing (contextual), orchestics 
(the art; rare), Terpsichore (as an art; fig.). 

dancing, a. 1. saltatorial, saltatory; — both 
2. See JIGGLY. 

dancing girl. Spec, bayadere (India), 
geisha (Japanese). 

dandy, n. I. fop, coxcomb or (less usual) 
cockscomb, e.xquisite, fopling, popinjay 
(archaic), petit-maitre (French), beau, 
beau-gargon (French), jackanapes (ar- 
chaic), man milliner (contemptuous; ar- 
chaic), jack-a-dandy (archaic), prick-me- 
dainty (archaic), buck (archaic), mus- 
cadin (French), bawcock (obs.), toff 
(slang, Eng.), skipjack (archaic), dudine 
(female dude; colloq.), swell (colloq.), dude 
(one excessively dandified); spec, majo 
(Spanish), incroyable (French), hautton 
(French), fashionables (pi.). 
Antonyms: see sloven, ragamtjefin. 
2. See fine one. 

dandy, a. foppish, smart (archaic or 

obs.), exquisite, dudish (implying excess), 

coxcombical, jackanapish (rare), buckish 

(archaic), dandified, lardy-dardy (slang). 

Antonyms: see shabby, slovenly. 

dandyism, n. foppery, foppishness, ex- 

fes^ Cross refereiices: see Note. 

dabster: dabbler, expert. 
dado: border. 
daft: foolish, deranged. 
daggle: draggle, soil, wet. 
dainty: delicacy, sweetmeat. 
dale: valley. 

dalliance: trifling, idling, caress- 

dally: trifle, idle, toy. 

damage, n.: detriment, loss, 
harm, injury, impairment. 

damage, v. t.: harm, injure, 

damaged: spoiled. 

damaging: harmful, injurious. 

damn: condemn, curse, ruin. 

damnable: condemnable, abom- 
inable, cursed. 

damnation: ruin, condemnation. 

damnatory: ruinous, condem- 

damp, n.: moisture. 

damp, a.: moist. 

damp, V. t.: moisten, restrain, 

dampen: moisten, restrain. 

dampening: depressing. 

damsel: girl. 

dandle: jiggle, caress. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 


quisitism {implying excess), exquisiteness 
(implying excess), macaronism (rare), dud- 
ism (implying excess), coxcombery, jacka- 
napery (rare), jack-a-dandyism (archaic), 
peacockery (disparaging or contemptuous) . 
danger, n. hazard, risk, peril, jeopardy; 
spec, venture, rock (something dangerous; 


Antonyms: see safety. 

dangerous, a. bad (contextual), risky, haz- 
ardous, perilous, jeopardous (rare or obs.), 
chancy (colloq.), dangersome (rare), riskful 
(rare), parlous (archaic); spec, critical, 
ticklish (colloq.), nice, kittle (Scot, or 
literary), delicate, serious, ugly, nasty, 
adventurous, breakneck, thorny. 
Antonyms: see safe. 

dangle, v. t. hang, pendulate (rare); 
spec, swing, jiggle. 

dapple, a. spotted, variegated; spec. 

dapple, V. t. spot, variegate. 

dare, v. t. 1. See challenge, face, defy. 
2. undertake, venture; — not close syn- 

dare-devil, n. devil (colloq.), madcap. 

dark, a. 1. Spec, obscure, tenebrous (lit- 
erary), gloomy, rayless, dingy, dim, dim- 
mish, murk (archaic or poetic), murky, 
blind, caliginous (literary), obfuscous 
(rare), Cimmerian (alluding to the Cim- 
merians, fabled to live in perpetual dark- 
ness), dun, dunny, dunnish, cloudy (often 
fig.), umbrageous (literary), fuliginous, 
sooty, grimy, somber, atramentous (liter- 
ary), swarthy, swart, tavi^ny, drumly 
(chiefly Scot, or literary), gloomy, muddy, 
murksome (rare), nightly, crepuscular 
(often fig.), nonluminescent (formal), non- 
luminous (formal), dead, crepusculine 
(rare), dirty, torchless, shadowy, unsunned 
(rare), sunless, rayless, cloudy, darkful, 
darkish, darksome (vaguer and weaker 
than "dark"; chiefly poetic), deadly, 
grimed, umbery (rare), fuscous (chiefly 
nat. hist.), dusky, opaque, swarthy, fus- 
cescent (rare), black, coaly, carbonaceous 
(rare), dull, ebony, pitchy, inky, inkish 
(rare), lightless, nigrescent (rare) , funereal, 
unillumined; see dim, shady, black, dull. 
Antonyms: see bright, moonlight, 
luminescent, shining, fair. 

2. Referring to the understanding: see 
mysterious, abstruse. 

3. Referring to the complexion: swarthy, 
tawny, dusky, swart (stronger than tawny); 
spec, grimy, ebony. 

Antonyms: see fair, pale. 

4. See gloomy, depressing, wicked, 
ignorant, hidden, secret, reticent, 

dark, n. darkness; spec, obscurity, tene- 
brousness (literary), tenebrosity (literary), 
dinginess, dimness, murkiness, murk 
(chiefly literary), caliginosity (literary), 
dun, umbrageousness (literary), ebony, 
swarthiness, swartness, tawniness, gloom, 
shadow, pitchiness, inkiness. 
Antonyms: see light, moonlight. 

darken, v. t. 1. dark (archaic or poetic), 
denigrate (rare); spec, darkle, dim, 
black, blacken, shade, muddy, eclipse, 
dun, dull, disluster (rare), ebonize, dusken 
(rare), cloud, fog, disilluminate, encloud 
(intensive; rare), gloom, obumbrate (liter- 
ary), obtenebrate (rare), overshadow, 
shade, murk (rare), obfuscate (rare), ob- 
nubilate (rare), overgloom (rare), over- 
shade (rare), overcloud, overcast, offuscate 
(rare), blur, becloud (intensive), bedim 
(intensive), bedarken (intensive), bescreen 
(intensive), begloom (intensive), sable 
(chiefly poetic), umber (rare), somber. 
Antonyms: see light, brighten. 

2. Spec, dim (the eyes or sight, or the sight 
of), blur, purblind, blear, blind, obscure, 
obfuscate (rare), mist. 

3. Referring to the understanding: spec. 
dull, benight, obscure, mystify. 

Antonyms: see enlighten. 

4. See depress, sully. 

darken, v. i. 1. dark (archaic or poetic); 
spec, darkle (literary), cloud, dusk (liter- 
ary), dim, dull, dusken (rare), gloom, 
umber (flg.). 

2. In the sense of "to grow angry looking": 
darkle, cloud. 

darkened, a. Spec, obscured, obfuscate, 
clouded, cloudy, ustulate (rare), infus- 
cate (rare). 

darkening, n. obscuration (contextual); 
spec, blackening, clouding, etc. 

darkness, n. 1. dark; spec, obscurity, 
dimness, dinginess, dusk, duskness, 
duskiness, tawniness, gloom, gloominess, 
swartness, swarthiness, griminess, calig- 
inousness (literary), murkiness, somber- 
ness, dullness, shadow, shadowiness, 
shadiness, duskishness, caliginosity (ar- 
chaic), tenebrosity (literary), smokiness, 
umbrageousness (literary), fuliginosity 
(literary), sootiness, muddiness, dimmit 
(dial. Eng.), lightlessness, murk (chiefly 
Scot.), night, opacity, eclipse, dunness 
(rare), shades (pi.), etc.; see shading. 
Antonyms: see brightness. 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
dangerless: safe. 
dangle, v. i.: hang, attend. 

dangling: hanging. 
dank: moist. 

dapper: dandy, small, smart. 
dapple: spotted, variegated. 

dare: challenge, defiance. 
dare-devil, a.: reckless. 
daring: bold, brave, defiant. 

V^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


2. Spec, obscurity, mystery, abstrusc- 
noss, gloom, depression, wickedness, ig- 
norance, blindness, secrecy. 

darling, (I. beloved, favorite, pet (u'/jzc/i see). 
Antonynis: see disliked. 

dart, 7J. 1. spear {chkfly spec), weapon, 
lance, javelin, {spec), gavelock {obs. or 
hist.), banderilla, jerid or jereed, whisk. 
2. Referring to the motion: s,iec. jump, 
bolt, flit, shoot, leap, spring, whisk, 
pounce, flirt. 

dart, V. t. 1. throw, hurl, dartle; spec 
shoot, flirt, launch, jaculate (rare). 
2. direct (o look, etc.). 

dart, V. i. shoot, scoot (colloq.); spec, leap, 
jump, pounce, spring, rush, dartle, rocket, 
bolt, flit, flirt, whip, whisk, scoot, rush, 

dash, V. t. 1. propel {contextual), strike, 
beat, knock, pash {now chiefly dial. Eng.), 
slam; spec smash {colloq.), swash, ding, 
slap, crash; see splash, knock. 


dash, V. i. rush, dart; spec, clash, smash, 
lash; see splash, rush. 
Antonyms: see l.\g. 
dash, n. 1. See propulsion, shock, line, 

BLOW, rush, energy, SHOW^ 

2. admixture {contextual), little {context- 
ual); spec touch, intimation {colloq.), 
tinge, spice, sensation {colloq. or slang), 
lace {of spirits), flavor, relish; see trace. 

date, n. 1. time; spec epoch, day, age, 
era, aeon, moment, canon, misdate. 
2. See duration, appointment. 

date, V. t. time, place {chronologically); 
spec, misdate. 

dateless, a. undated. 

datum, n. Spec, element, premiss, con- 
dition, material ia collective). 

daughter, n. child {contextual); spec, ca- 
dette, daughterkin, daughterUng, daugh- 
ter-in-law, stepdaughter, infanta, dau- 
Antonyms: see parent, father, mother. 

dauntless, n. brave {contextual), bold, un- 
affeared {archaic), unaff righted, unap- 

dawdle, v. i. 1. trifle, potter, idle, diddle. 
Antonyms: see bustle. 
2. See delay. 

dawn, n. daybreak, break of day. 

dawn, V. i. 1. daw {Scot.), morrow {rare), 
break {chiefly un,th "day" as the subject). 
2. See arise. 

dawning, n. daybreak. 

day, n. 1. daytime; spec, sunshine. 
Antonyms: see night. 

2. ..4 day of a certain kind: spec lay-day 
{cammercial), dripper {colloq.), roaster 
(colloq.), scorcher {colloq.), doomsday. 

3. See date. 

daybreak, n. dawn, dawning, break 
{chiefly in "break of day"), dawing {Scot.), 
daylight, morn {poetic), cockcrow {fig.), 
greking {obs. or Scot.), daypeep {poetic), 
aurora {fig.). 
Antonyms: see night. 

daydream, n. dream {contextual), rev- 
erie, conceit, fancy, castle in the air, air 
castle, chateau en Espagne {French) , pipe 
dream {colloq.). 
Antonyms: see actuality. 

daylight, n. light {contextual); spec, sun- 
shine, sunlight, daybreak. 

daze, V. t. confuse, confound {archaic), 
stupefy, bewilder, stun; spec, dazzle, blind. 

daze, n. confusion, stupor, bewilderment; 
spec, dazzle, dazzlement. 

dazzle, v. t. confuse, daze, blind, bedazzle 
{intensive), overpower {contextual); spec. 

dazzle, n. 1. dazzlement, daze, confusion; 
— referring to the state. 

2. brilliancy, brightness; — referring to the 
effect of light or display. 

3. See show. 

dazzling, a. bright {contextual), bUnding, 
overpowering {contextual); — referring to 
light or display. 

dead, a. 1. »See lifeless, absolute, un- 
questionable, direct. 

2. Referring to a person that has died: 
deceased, perished {by privation), defunct 
{rare), late (a euphemism, conventional in 
certain connections), exanimate {rare). 

Antonyms: see living. 

3. mat. 

Antonyms: see lustrous, polished. 

4. Referring to living matter that has died: 
spec, mortified, gangrenous, sphacelate, 

5. Referring to things that have ceased to 
function, act, etc: defunct; spec, obsolete, 
extinct, extinguished, sleeping, inert, 
still, stagnant, lusterless, out {referring to 
fire), flat, useless. 

dead, n. 1. decedent (17. S.; chiefly law), 
deceased {euphemistic; usually with "the"), 
defunct {formal; usually with "the"), 
croaker {slang). "Dead" is chiefly used 
collectively with "the." 
2. See silence. 

I^' Cross references: see Note. 

darling, n.: dear, pet. 

darn : repair. 

dashing: lively, showy, energetic. 

dastard: coward, cowardly. 

daub, V. t.: smear. 
daub, n.: smear, plaster. 
daunt: intimidate, dismay. 
davit: crane. 
dawn: daybreak. 

daylight: sunlight. 
daystar: morning star, sun. 
daze, V. t.: stupefy. 
daze, n.: stupor. 
deacon, v. t.: fake. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 



deaden, v. t. 1. Spec, dull, benumb, numb, 

2. Referring to sounds or sounding things: 
muffle, damp, bemuffle {intensive), dumb 
{rare), mute; spec. pug. 

3. Referring to velocity, activity, etc.; 
check; spec, smother (a fire), damp (a 
fire), stagnate, repress, choke. 

Antonyms: see agitate. 
deadhouse, n. mortuary; spec, morgue. 
deadlock, n. standstill. 
deadly, a. 1. mortal, fatal, deathly {rare), 
fell {poetic). 

2. implacable, lethal {literary), fatal, kill- 
ing {referring to gait, pace, habits, etc.), 
mortiferous {rare), mortific {rare), death- 
ful {rare), mortifying {rare), funest {rare), 
lethiferous {rare); spec, murderous, bane- 
ful, poisonous, pestilent, pestilential, 
pestiferous, noxious, etc. 


deaf, a. earless {fig.), surd (archaic). 

deafen, v. t. I. deave {obs. or Scot, and 
dial.), stun {with noise). 
2. See DROWN. 

deal, n. 1. See share, amount, quantity. 
2. lot, heap ; — all three colloq. 

deal, V. t. 1. See apportion. 
2. Referring to a blow, etc.: give, bestow, 
deliver, fetch, lay {used with "on"), plant, 
place, administer, strike. 

deal, V. i. traffic, converse, practice (rare); 
spec, contend {used with "with"). 

dealer, n. monger {chiefly in combination), 
merchant {Scot, or U. S. in sense of re- 
tailer), trader, chapman {archaic); spec. 
copeman {archaic), coper {archaic), cadg- 
er, hawker, badger, huckster, tallyman, 
stallman, jobber, drover {cattle dealer). 

dealing, n. I. intercourse. 

2. traffic; spec, negotiation, conduct. 

3. giving, bestowal, dehvery. placing, 
planting ; — referring to a blow, etc. 

dear, a. 1. loved, beloved; spec, cherished, 
precious, favorite, bosom. 


dear, n. darling, deary {amatory, conjugal, 
or familiar), beloved, mavourneen {Irish), 
lovey {in affectionate address), honey 
{chiefly Irish, dial. Eng., or negro U. S.), 
pigsney {archaic); spec, pet, favorite, 
moppet (contemptuous as used of a man). 

death, n. 1. decease (legal, slightly euphe- 
mistic, or rhetorical), demise (elevated), 

quietus (rare), dying, departure (euphe- 
mistic), expiration (rare), expiry (literary), 
finish (vulgar or colloq.), finis (figurative; 
rare), exit (literary or affected), parting 
(euphemistic), ending (noio colloq.), end, 
dissolution (literary or rhetorical), mor- 
tality, consummation (a figurative literary 
use), passing (euphemistic), pass (rare), 
def unction (rare); spec, predecease, eutha- 
nasia or euthanasy. 
Antonyms: see birth. 

2. Referring to the dying of tissues, etc.: 
spec, mortification, gangrene, necrosis. 

3. Referring to the cause of death: spec. 
quietus, coup de grace (French), finish 
(vulgar or colloq.). 

4. Referring to the state: dormition (fig.), 
sleep (fig.), darkness (fig.), grave (fig.), 
tomb (fig.). 

Antonyms: see life. 

5. See EXTINCTION, destruction. 
death bell, passing bell, knell. 
deathlike, a. deathly, deadly, deathy, 

deathful (rare). 

debit, n. entry (contextual), charge. 

debit, v. t. enter (contextual), charge. 

debris, n. "Debris" is French. 1. See rub- 
2. In geol.: spec, detritus, eluvium. 

debt, n. Spec, due (chiefly in pi.), aiTcar 
(chiefly in pi.). 

debut, n. appearance, coming-out. "De- 
but" is French. 

debutant, 7i. masc, debuntante, n. fern. 
come-outer (slang); spec, rose (slang; U. 
S.). "Debutant" and "debutante" arcFrench. 

decade, 7i. decennary. 

decamp, v. i. 1. rise. 
Antonyms: see camp. 

2. See DEPART. 

decay, v. i. 1. See decline, decompose. 

2. Referring to things falling into ruin: 
spec, dilapidate, disintegrate, ruin, ruin- 
ate, perish. 

Antonyms: see renew. 

3. Referring to fruits, etc.: rot; spec, rust, 
blight, blet. 

decay, n. 1. See decline, decomposition. 
2. Referring to becoming or being ruined: 
spec, dilapidation, disintegration, waste, 
ruin, ruination, disrepair, decayedness, 
decrepitude, irrepair (rare), unrepair, 
eboulement (French). 
Antonyms: see renewal. 

t^= Cross references: see Note. 

debark: decorticate. 

debauched: dissipated. 

dealing: intercourse, traffic. 

debase: abase, degrade, adul- 

debauchery: corruption, dis- 

dean: senior. 

terate, corrupt. 


dearth: deficiency. 

debase: decline. 

debenture: certificate, security. 

deathless: immortal. 

debate, v.: dispute, discuss. 

debilitate: weaken, enervate. 

deathly: deathlike. 

debate, n.: dispute, discussion. 

debit: charge. 

debacle: rush, catastrophe, up- 

debauch, v. t.: corrupt. 

debouch: Issue. 


debauch, v. i.: dissipate, ca- 

decadence: decline. 

debar: exclude, refuse, prevent. 


decadent: declining. 

debark: disembark. 

debauch, n.: carouse. 

decapitate: behead. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 


3. Rtjcrring tofruils, etc.: rot; spec, blight, 
rust, spur, blet. 
decayed, a. 1. dilapidated; spec, decrepit, 

disjasked [Scot.), forworn (archaic), 
tumbledown, ruinous, ruined. 


S. Referring to fruit, vegetables, etc.: un- 
sound, rotten; spec, druxy, doted or 
doated, spurred, ergotized, bletted, dod- 
dered, etc. 

deceitful, a. deceptive (which does not wi- 
phj intent to deceive, nor necessarily any 
evil purpose, while the others do), cunning, 
covinous (archaic), two-faced, indirect, 
underhand, underhanded, deceivable (ar- 
chaic), insincere, circumventive, false; 
spec, crooked, double-tongued, double- 
hearted, dodgy (colloq.), evasive, hypo- 
critical, fraudulent, fraudful (rare), guile- 
ful, juggling, Jesuitical (opprobriously used 
by non-Catholics), histrionic (learned or 
rare), theatrical, dissembhng, intriguing, 
insidious, tricky, trickish, tricksy, snaky, 
Antonyms: see conscientious, frank. 

deceitfulness, n. cunning, covin (archaic); 
spec, guile, fraud, etc. 

deceivable, a. Spec, delusible, gullible, il- 
lusionable (rare), credulous. 

deceive, v. t. mislead; spec, delude, fool, 
befool (intensive), bejape (obs.), begunk 
(Scot.), bamboozle, beguile, gull, flatter, 
hoax, humbug, hoodwink, bubble (7-are), 
circumvent, outwit, trick, bucket (slang), 
cozen, best, cajole, bilk, do (slang), 
cheat, mock, chisel (slang), chouse 
(slang), jilt, overreach, defraud, doodle 
(slang), hallucinate, illude (implying false 
hopes), cog, blear, bluflf, misinform, mock, 
tantalize, jilt (one's expectations), hocus- 
pocus (rare), juggle, dupe, fob, flimflam 
(cant), flam (cant), kid (slang), diddle 
(colloq. or slang) . 
Antonyms: see undeceive. 

deceiver, n. misleader; spec, deluder, bam- 
boozler,' beguiler, hoaxer, humbug, hum- 
bugger, hoodwinker, circumventor or 
circumventer, outwitter, tricker, cozener, 
cheater, cheat, swindler, swindle, de- 
frauder, double-dealer, pretender, Sinon 
(fig.), trickster, charlatan, impostor, im- 
postress, sharper, cogger (obs. or archaic), 
hallucinator, hypocrite, illuder (rare), 
juggler, dodger (often slang), faitour (ar- 
cliaic), duper, rogue, knave, duffer, diddler 
(colloq. or slang) . 

deception, n. 1. Referring to the action, 

fact, habit, practice, etc.: deceit; spec. 
cheat, dole (rare), misleading, delusion, 

fooling, bamboozle (generic), bamboozle- 
mont, bambosh (slang), beguilement, 
hoax, humbugging, humbug, hiunbuggery, 
humbugism, hoodwinking, circumven- 
tion, outwitting, outwittal, tricking, 
trick, hocus-pocus, flimflam (cant), flum- 
mery (empty talk, etc.), illusion, fancy, 
cozenage (archaic) _ flam (cant or colloq.), 
gullery (archaic), duplicity, guile, finesse, 
stratagem, pretense, sham, covin (archaic), 
hallucination, disguise, disguisement, de- 
fraudation (rare), defraudment (rare), 
hypocrisy, hypocrisis (rare), do (slang or 
colloq.), indirectness, insidiousness, trick- 
iness, trickishness, hanky-panky (slang), 
chicanery, pettifogging, quibbling, soph- 
istry, subterfuge, dodgery (rare), dupery, 
subreption (rare), guile, double-dealing, 

2. Referring to the thing that deceives: 
spec, artifice, cheat, fraud, humbug, 
mockery, flam (cant), trick, sham, sell, 
cantel (archaic), dodge, hoax, gag (slang), 
imposture, cog, bosh (slang), juggle, ruse, 
wile, stratagem. Many of the words in 
sense 1 are synonyms also in this sense. 

deceptive, a. misleading, deceitful (which 
see); spec, delusive, delusory, catchy (col- 
loq.), tricksy, hallucinative, hallucinatory, 
fairy (as if done by a fairy), illusory, 
fallacious, false, subjective, disingenuous. 

decide, v. i. 1. determine, settle, fix, con- 
clude, resolve (rare), decree (archaic); 
spec, misdecide. 

2. adjudge (tech.), adjudicate, dijudicate 
(rare), decern (Scot.); spec, arbitrate, um- 
pire, pass (upon a question). 

decide, v. t. 1. determine, settle, resolve, 
conclude; spec, predetermine, decern 
(Scots law), adjudge (rare), adjudicate 
(tech.), judge; arbitrate, award, decree, 
deraign (law, hist., or obs.), dijudicate 
(rare), rule, hold. 

2. To bring a person to a decision: deter- 
mine, resolve (rare). 

decided, a. positive, strong, pronounced; 
spec, marked; see assured. 
Antonyms: see doubtful, hesitating. 

decipher, v. t. 1. translate, interpret. 
2. Referring to mental character: read, 
trace, make out. 

decision, n. 1. Referring to the act of the 
mind: determination, settlement, con- 
clusion; spec, resolution, discretion, judg- 
ment, finding. 

2. Referring to the delivery of a decision or 
to the thing decided upon: adjudgment, ad- 
judication, judgment, decerniture (Scots 
law); spec, arbitration, award, decree, de- 

t^= Cross references: see Note. 
decease, n.: death. 
decease, v. i.: die. 

decedent: dead. 

deceit: deception. 

decent: appropriate, modest. 

proper, shapely, considerable, 
decern: decide. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 



creement, arret {French hist.), {pro- 
nouncement, sentence, edict, definition, 
decreet (Scots law; colloq.), halacha or 
halakah, decretal; see verdict. 

decisive, a. 1. determinative, resolutive or 
resolutory (in law spec), conclusive, ad- 
judicative, decretive, decretory. 
Antonyms: see indecisive. 
2. determinative, definitive, conclusive, 
final, peremptory, determinant; spec. 
critical, crucial, fateful. 

deck, n. Spec, orlop, texas (Western U.S.), 
hurricane deck, splinter deck, poop deck, 
main deck, quarterdeck. 

declaim, v. i. speak, harangue (chiefl]/ 
spec), rant (chiefly spec), spout (con- 
temptuous), mouth (contemptuous); spec. 
perorate (literary). 

declamatory, a. Spec, rhetorical, bom- 

declaratory, n. declarative, predicative, 

declare, v. t. 1. Spec, proclaim, acclaim, 
find (law), denounce (as being bad). 


declination, n. 1. See deviation, descent. 
2. refusal, declension, nonacceptance, re- 
jection; spec, declinature (Scots law), re- 
pudiation, repulse, detrectation (rare). 
Antonyms: see acceptance. 

declinatory, a. In an active sense: deteri- 
orative, degeneratory, degenerative, deg- 
radational, depreciatory, depreciative. 

decline, v. i. 1. See deviate, descend. 

2. deteriorate, decay, impair, worsen 
(rare), fail; spec, ebb, fall (often ivith 
"away"), set, weaken, wane, derogate, 
degenerate, degrade, debase, depreciate, 
fade, flag, retrograde, wither, recede, 
retrogress (rare), rot, lapse, dwindle, 
diminish; see languish. 

Antonyms: see improve, progress. 

3. See REFUSE. 

decline, v. t. 1. bend, bow, depress. 

2. refuse, reject; spec, repudiate, repel, 
repulse, renegue (rare). 

Antonyms: see accept, receive. 

3. See inflect. 
decline, n. 1. See descent. 

2. deterioration, decay, impair (archaic), 
impairment, declination (obs.), deca- 
dence, decadency, degeneration, degra- 
dation, debasement, depreciation, dero- 
gation, failure, ebb, depravation, lan- 
guishment, retrograde, retrogression, 
retrogradation, wane, diminution, etc. 

Antonyms: see progress, recovery. 

3. See disease, ailment. 

declining, a. In an active sense: decadent, 
deteriorating, degenerating. 

declivitous, a. sloping, steep. "Decliui- 
tous" is icsed esp. in reference to downward 

declivous, a. sloping. "Declivous" usu- 
ally means descending. 

decomposable, a. perishable, resoluble, 
corruptible (archaic), resolvable; spec. 
putrescible, putrefiable (rare). 

decompose, v. t. & i. i. decompound 
(rare), dissolve, resolve, disintegrate 
(chiefly spec), analyze (esp. spec); spec. 
electrolyze, thermolyze, hydrolyze. 
Antonyms: see synthesize. 
2. Referring to natural decomposition, de- 
stroying physical integrity and soundness: 
consume, decay, rot (often spec), corrupt 
(archaic or rare), faint" spec, (of loathsome 
and stinking rottenness) putresce, putrefy. 

decomposed, a. 1. decompounded, dis- 
solved, disintegrated, etc 
2. decayed, corrupt (archaic or rare), rot- 
ten; spec putrid, putrescent, carious 
(chiefly tech.), green; see tainted. 
Antonyms: see sweet. 

decomposing, a. 1. decompounding (rare), 
disintegrative, disintegratory, analytic ; 
spec thermolytic, electrolytic, proteolyt- 
ic, hydrolytic. 

2. decaying, rotting, corruptive (archaic 
or rare); spec, putrefactive, putrefacient. 

decomposition, n. 1. decompounding, 
dissolution, resolution, disintegration 
(chiefly spec), analysis (esp. for study), 
break-up; spec, thermolysis, hydrolysis, 
electrolysis, proteolysis, electrolyzation. 

Antonyms: see synthesis. 
2. Referring to natural decomposition: de- 
cay, corruption (archaic or rare), rot; spec. 
dry rot, putrefaction, putridity, putres- 
cence, caries, cariosity. 

decoration, n. 1. See ornamentation, 

2. Spec, medal, badge, crest, cockade, 
crown, epaulette, etc 

decorticate, v. t. excorticate (rare); spec. 
debark, disbark, skin, peel, busk, pill 
(archaic), rind, rend (a tree). 

decorum, n. propriety; spec, modesty. 
Antonyms: see misbehavior. 

decoy, n. 1. trap. 
2. enticement, lure; spec stool, flare. 

decoy, v. t. attract, entice, lure. 

decree, v. t. decide, command, order, or- 
dain, appoint, rule (chiefly spec); spec. 
adjudge, adjudicate, enact, decern (now 
chiefly Scot, and tech.). 

decree, n. decision, command, edict, order, 
ordinance (now chiefly spec), ordination, 
enactment, law (chiefly spec), dispensa- 
tion (theoL), ordainment (rare), enaction 

C^ Cross references: see Note. 
deck, V. t.: ornament, cover, clothe. 

decorate: ornament, honor. 
decorative: ornamental. 

decorous: becoming, proper. 
decoram, ti. t.: propriety. 

KW See Notes of Explanation. 



(rore), rule {chiefly sjycc); spec, tirnuui, 
sjinction [hist.), decretal, novel, rescript, 
constitution, assize, pragmatic, psephism, 
recess {Inst.), hatti, uiterdict, iradc. 

decreeing, a. decisional, enact ive, dccre- 
tial [rare), decretive {rare), decretory. 

decretive, a. 1. decisive, decreeing, ordina- 

dedicate, r. t. 1. appropriate {contextual), 
give {contextual), devote, consecrate, vow, 
hallow {archaic); spec, promise, sur- 
2. Spec, inscribe {as a book); see conse- 


dedication, n. Spec, appropriation, de- 
votion, consecration, etc. 

dedicatory, o. dedicative, consecrative, 
consecratory, votary, votive. 

deduct, V. t. abstract, remove, defalcate 
{rare), subtract {esp. of numbers); spec, re- 
bate, recoup {laiv). 
Antonyyns: see add. 

deduction, 7i. 1. See iijference. 

2. abstraction, removal, subtraction {esp. 
of numbers); spec, recoupment {law). 

Antonyms: see addition. 

3. Referring to the thing deducted: defal- 
cation {rare); spec, discount, drawback, 
draft, tare, reprise, rebatement, rebate, 
off-reckoning, offtake. 

deductive, a. inferential, a priori {Latin; 

deed, n. 1. action, act, exploit, feat, gest 
{archaic or poetic), do {colloq.), jest {ar- 
chaic or poetic), fact {obs., archaic, or 
idiomatic), effort; spec, accomplishment, 
derring-do {pseudo-archaic), prowess 
{chiefly in pi.; literary). 

2. instrument {contextual); spec, release, 
quitclaim, land-boc {obs.), charter, in- 
denture, infeudation, remise. 

3. See action. 

deed, v. t. convey {contextual) ; spec, quit- 
claim, release, remise. 

deep, a. 1. profound {very deep); spec. 
depthless, bottomless, abysmal. 
Antonyms: see shallow, surface. 

2. See ABSTRUSE, discerning, subtle. 

3. Referring to evils in which one may be 
involved: serious, grave, profound, ex- 
treme, great. 

4. Referring to emotions deeply felt: deep- 
felt, deep-seated, profound, intimate, 
heartfelt, cordial {chiefly spec); spec. 
heavy, sound, dead, hearty, thorough, 
inveterate, ingrained. 

Antonyms: see superficial. 
6. Referring to sleep: profound, heavy, 
fast . 

Antonyms: see light. 

6. Referring to colors: strong, intense, rich. 

7. See LOW, bass, absorbed. 

8. involved; — referring to a person in- 
volved in vice, disgrace, etc. 

deep, n. 1. abyss, profound {poetic), gulf 
{poetic); spec, ocean. 
Antonyms: see shallow. 

2. See depth. 

3. Spec, mystery, incomprehensible {used 
with "the"), riddle. 

deepen, v. i. There are no synonyms. 
Antonyms: see shoal. 

deepen, v. t. strengthen, intensify. 

deeply, adv. Spec, profoundly, abstrusely, 
soundly, mortally, intimately. 

deepset, a. sunken. 

deer, n. 1. doe {female), buck {male), fawii 
{young); spec, stag, hart, havier, hind 
(female), spire, spay {male), hearst (o hunt- 
ing term), roe, roebuck {masc), fallow 
deer, elk, reindeer, caribou, russ, moose, 
maral, wapiti, venada. 
2. Referring to deer flesh: venison. 

deer, a. cervine. 

deface, v. t. mar, disfigure, disfeature 
{rare), defeature {archaic), dedecorate 
{rare), disvisage {rare), disfashion {rare); 
spec, deform, distort, mutilate, maim 
(fig.), mangle, garble, bemangle {in- 
tensive), skew, twist, wrench, blur, 
blotch, haggle, hack, ughfy, cancel, foul 
{make ugly), dog's-ear, scar, soil, tarnish, 
Antonyms: see beautify, ornament. 

defacement, v. i. disfigurement, deforma- 
tion, deformity, etc. 

defamation, n. traduction, vilification, as- 
persion, calumny; spec, slander, libel. 

defamatory, a. traductory, calumniatory, 
abusive; spec, hbellous, scandalous. 

defame, v. i. traduce, vilify, slur, asperse, 
belie, calumniate, vilipend {literary; spec.), 
slander, scandal {archaic), scandalize, 
backbite, hbel. 
Antonyms: see praise, ennoble. 

default, n. 1. See fault. 
2. omission, failure; spec, neglect. 

defeat, v. t. 1. frustrate, checkmate, balk, 
block, spoil, foil, baffle, thwart, cross, 
circumvent, outwit, contravene, blank, 
stump {colloq.), stale, dish {colloq.), dis- 
appoint; spec, nullify, euchre {colloq.), 
neutralize, double, puzzle, halt, etc. 

t^" Cross references: see Note. 
decreement: decision. 
decrepit: weak, weakened. 
decrepitate: roast. 
decrepitate: crackle. 

decrepitude: weakness. 
decrescence: diminution. 
decretal: decree. 
decussate: cross. 
deduce: infer, derive. 

defalcate: embezzle. 

default, n.: deficiency, failure, 

default, V. i.: fail. 
defaulter: insolvent. 

t^#~ See Notes of Explanation. 


Antonyms: see aid. 
2. overcome, overpower, overthrow, con- 
quer, discomfit, have, beat, tlii-ash {col- 
loq.), Hck (colloq.), whip (colloq.), drub 
{colloq.), master, vanquish, cast {tech., 
law,orobs.), fail, repulse, checkmate, con- 
found {archaic), euchre {spec, or fig.), 
lurch {spec, in games, or fig.), throw, 
floor {in argument, etc.; colloq,), over- 
match {rare), bilk {cribbage or fig.); spec. 
counterwork, countermine, counterplot, 
rout, derout {emphatic), outargue, out- 
play, outvote, sack {slang), trim {colloq.). 
Antonyms: see aid. 

defeat, n. 1. frustration, checkmate, balk, 
fail, bafflement, thwarting, circumven- 
tion, outwittal {by strategy), contra ven- 
Antonyms: see aid. 

2. overthrow, conquest, discomfiture, 
best, thrashing {colloq.), drubbing {col- 
loq.), whipping {colloq.), licking {colloq.), 
mastery, vanquishment, overcoming, cast 
{law or obs.), checkmate, confusion 
{rare); spec, rout, derout {emphatic), 
lurch, reverse. 
Antonyms: see victory, success. 

defecate, v. i. cack {obs. or dial. Eng.), 
evacuate, foul {rare), dung {now of ani- 
mals only), stool. 

defective, a. 1. See deficient. 
2. Spec, deranged, feeble-minded, im- 

defend, v. t. 1. See protect. 

2. maintain, uphold, vindicate {as being 
true or correct), sustain, support, champion 
{the truth, a cause, etc.), espouse (a cause); 
spec, justify, plead, advocate. 

Antonyms: see assail, attack. 

3. oppose (a claim, lawsuit, etc.). 
defense, n. 1. See protection. 

2. maintenance, upholding, vindication 
{as true or correct), support, espousal {of 
the truth, a cause, etc.); spec, justification 
{of action) , advocacy. 

Antonyms: see attack. 

3. Spec, justification, excuse, plea, vin- 
dication, denial, answer. 

defensible, a. 1. fencible {of a fort, etc.), 

2. maintainable, supportable, vindicable 
{as right or trv£), tenable; spec, excusable, 
Antonyms: see indefensible. 

defer, v. t. delay, postpone, procrastinate, 
adjourn {properly, spec), suspend, wait; 
spec, table, stay, perendinate {rare), res- 
pite {rare), reserve, shelve. 

deference, n. Spec, submissiveness, obei- 
sance, regardful ness, complaisance. 

deferential, a. Spec, submissive, obeisant, 
regardful; see complaisant. 

deferment, n. deferral {rare.), delay, post- 
ponement, procrastination, adjournment 
or {rare) adjournal {properly, spec), sus- 
pension, suspense {in law spec), wait, 
pause, frist {archaic); spec respite, re- 
prieve, mora, cunctation {literary), breath- 
ing, moratory, moratorium. 

defiance, n. 1. defial, dare {colloq.), daring, 
daringness {the quality), challenge, bra- 
vado, bravery {obs. or rare), defy {colloq.), 
disregard, despite {literary); spec diffida- 
tion {chiefly feudalism), opposition, re- 
sistance, rebellion, disobedience. 
2. Referring to the quality: spec, contempt, 
stubbornness, despite {literary), recal- 
citrance, rebelliousness, disobedience, 

defiant, a. daring {now chiefly colloq.), dis- 
regardful, challenging; spec, contuma- 
cious, resistant, disobedient, despiteful, re- 
clcitrant, rebellious, insolent, stubborn. 

Antonyms: see submissive, resigned, 

deficiency, n. 1. defect {chiefly spec), 
want, lack, deficit, defalcation, shortage, 
wantage {rare), deficience {rare), ab- 
sence, default {archaic or spec); — refer- 
ring to that which is either not present or 
not available. 
Antonyms: see excess, extra. 

2. insufficiency, inadequacy, failure, 
dearth, scarcity, famine, want, lack, 
penury, poverty, shortness, default {ar- 
chaic or rare), meagerness; — referring to 
the fact of being deficient. 

Antonyms: see abundance, excess. 

3. Se^ imperfection. 

deficient, a. poor, defective, insufficient, 
inadequate, incomplete, imperfect, short, 
scarce, scant, wanting {used with "in"), 
Antonyms: see abundant, abounding, 
excessive, spare. 

define, v. t. 1. delimit, determine, bound, 
demarcate, limit, delimitate {rare), de- 
mark {rare); — referring to land or used fig. 

2. Referring to loords, ideas, etc.: deter- 
mine, formalize, precise {rare); spec, in- 
dividuate, individualize. 

3. See describe. 

definite, a. determinate, distinct, certain, 
limited, fixed; spec clear-cut, sharp-cut, 
clear, downright, sharp, crisp {tones, etc.), 
explicit, express, formal, vivid, specific. 

t-W Cross references: see Note. 
defecate: clear, purify, excrete. 
defect: deficiency, imperfecticn, 

defile, V. & n.: march. 
defile «.; pass, ravine, march. 
defile, V. t.: dirty, foul, con- 
taminate, corrupt, sully, violate. 

defilement: dirtying, fouling, 
contamination, corruption, soil- 
ing, sullying, violation. 

t-ff" See Notes of Explanation. 


unequivocal, flat, particular, precise, 
Anlonyms: sec ambiguous, indefinite, 


definition, ri. 1. delimitation, demarcation. 
2. Referring to words, ideas, etc.: determi- 
nation, formalization; spec, individuation. 


deflate, v. t. exliaust (contextual), empty 
(contextual; rare); spec, flatten. 
Antomjms: see infl.vte, bloat. 

deflower, v. t. 1. disflower (strip of flowers). 
2. violate, devirginate (rare). 

deform, v. t. I. inisshape, spoil, disform 
(rare), disfigure; spec, spring, distort, 
strain (tech.), bemonster (rare). "De- 
form" as used in physics does not imply 
anything more than change of shape or 
2. See deface. 

deformed, a. deform (archaic), misfash- 
ioned, malformed, misshapen, inform 
Antonyms: see shapely, well-shaped. 

deformity, n. 1. informity (rare), mis- 
shapenness, malformation, monstrosity 
(great deformity), misshape (rare), mis- 
figure (rare), disfigurement; spec, crooked- 
ness, varus, misproportion. 
Antonyms: see beauty. 
2. See defacement. 

defraud, v. t. cheat, bilk (fig.), rook (rare), 
gudgeon (rare), swindle; spec, bunco, 
chouse (colloq.) 

defray, v. t. pay, liquidate, settle, meet, 
satisfy, answer, bear, discharge, disburse 
(rare) . 

defrayal, n. payment, liquidation, bearing, 
discharge, etc. 

defy, V. t. dare, challenge; spec, beard, dis- 
regard, brave, face, disobey, mock, out- 
dare, scorn. 
Antonyms: see obey. 

degeneracy, n. deterioration, debasement, 
degeneration, degenerateness, degrada- 
tion, retrogradation; spec, depravity. 

degenerate, a. degraded, debased, retro- 
graded; spec, decadent. 
Antonyms: see exalted. 

degenerate, v. i. decline, deteriorate, sink, 
degrade, retrograde. 

degenerate, n. retrograde. 

degeneration, n. decUne, deterioration, 
retrogradation, retrogression, debase- 
ment; spec, caducity (rare), caseation, 
involution, decadence, perversion. 
Anlonyms: see regeneration. 

degenerative, a. retrogressive, declina- 
tory (rare), backward. 

degradation, n. 1. dishonor, abasement, 
debasement, disgrace; — referring to the 

2. abasement, debasement, disgrace, de- 
position; spec, disbarment, disranking; — 
referring to the act. 

Antonyms: see elevation. 

3. degeneracy, degeneration. 

4. debasement, lowering, prostitution 
(fig.); spec, perversion, corruption, con- 
tamination, vitiation. 

Antonyms: see elevation. 
degrade, v. t. 1. dislionor, reduce, debase, 
disgrade, abase, lower, sink, disrate, 
break, disrank, disgrace, depose; spec. 
unchurch, disennoble, disbar, disbench, 
disestablish, disorb, unmiter, dethrone, 
disenthrone, unpriest, uncowl, imcrown, 
outcast, unking. 

Antonyms: see elevate, dignify, en- 
noble, ORDAIN. 

2. abase, debase, lower, demean (one- 
self; not in good ixsage), prostitute (fig.); 
spec, pervert, alloy, adulterate, vitiate, 

Anlonyms: see elevate. 
degraded, a. abased, debased, abject, de- 
praved, low; spec, vile, perverted, corrupt. 

Antonyms: see elevated, exalted. 
degree, n. 1. See row, shelf, gradua- 

2. step, stage, grade, point (which one or 
something has reached or arrived at); spec. 
remove (in the line of descent), interval, 
space (music), line (music). 

3. intensity, pitch, plane, point, measure, 
intension (literary), grade, gradation, 
height, potence (rare); spec, shade. 

dehisce, v. i. gape, open. 

dehorn, v. t. poll; spec, hummel or humble 

dehort, v. t. dissuade (obsolesc), disadvise. 

deify, v. t. 1. apotheosize, consecrate (Ro- 
man antiq.), divinify (rare), divinize (rare), 
god (rare), goddize (rare), shrine (rare); 
spec, co-deify. 
2. worship. 

deity, n. 1. god (esp. male), spirit, goddess 
(fern.), godlet (dim.), godhead (rare), 
godkin (dim.), godling (dim.), divinity, 
numen (esp. local or minor; rare), power, 
Providence (fig.); spec, heaven (a collec- 
tive), all-father, manu, monad, monas 
(rare), faun, patron, patroness, oversoul, 
kami, demiurge, lar, fury, Trimurti, 
Triton, Woden, Pan, panice, Dagon, 
Apollo, Mars, Vulcan, Neptune, Mer- 
cury, Venus, Juno, Minerva, Hercules, 
Ares, Hephaestus, Poseidon, Hermes, 

f^' Cross rejerences; see Note. 
definitiye: decisive. 
deflagrate: burn, explcde. 

deflect: turn. 
deft: skillful. 
defunct: dead. 

degrade: decline, degenerate. 
deign: condescend. 
deforest: disafforest. 

XW See Notes of E^Ianatlon. 



Aphrodite, Hera, Athena; see demon, 


Antonyms: see human. 
2. Referring to the state or quality: see 


delay, v. i. hnger, loiter (chiefly spec.), 
tarry, stay, dawdle; spec, idle, hang (col- 
loq.), poke (colloq.), dilly-dally, daily, lag, 
drag, stop, dwell, filibuster. 
Antonyms: see hasten, hurry. 

delay, n. 1. See deferment, retarda- 

2. lingering, loitering, tarrying, tarry 
(rare), stay, linger (rare), moration (rare), 
tarriance (literary), lagging; spec, stop, 
demurrage, respite, reprieve, truce. 
Antonyms: see speed. 

delayed, a. belated, lated (poetic). 

delegate, n. agent (contextual), representa- 
tive, deputy, commissioner, secondary 
(rare) . 

delegate, v. t. 1. transfer (contextual), com- 
mit, intrust. 

2. depute, commission, appoint, depu- 
tize (U. S.). 

delegation, n. 1. Referring to the thing 
delegated: commitment, intrustment, com- 

2. Referring to the person to whom dele- 
gation is made: deputation, commission- 
ing, appointment, deputization (U. S.). 

3. representative. "Delegation" is chiefly 
used as a collective. 

delete, v. t. cancel, erase, dele, elide, re- 
trench (from a book); spec, obliterate, 

deliberate, a. 1. intentional, prepense (lit- 
erary or legal; usually postpositive), pre- 
meditated, advised, considered, set, re- 
solved, studied; spec, aforethought, ma- 
ture, cool, careful, thoughtful. 

Antonyms: see impetuous, abrupt, im- 
pulsive, THOtjGHTLESS. 
2. unhasty (rare), measured, slow; spec. 
Antonyms: see bustling, hasty. 

deliberation, n. I. See consideration. 
2. slowness, coolness, deliberateness. 

Antonyms: see impetuosity, bustle, 

delicacy, n. 1. luxury, dainty, tidbit, 
bonne-bouche (French), titbit, regale 
(rare) . 

2. frailty, tenderness, softness, slightness. 

3. Spec, nicety, fineness, tenderness, 
weakness, dangerousness, accuracy, sensi- 
tiveness, discrimination, refinement, sub- 
tlety, exactness, fastidiousness, considera- 
tion, difficulty. 

delicate, a. 1. See palatable, weak, 
brittle, slight, ethereal, sensitive, 


2. Spec, nice, fine, tender, frail, weak, 
dangerous, accurate, sensitive, refined, 
subtle, exact, exquisite, fastidious, con- 
siderate, minikin {now contemptuous), 
difficult, discriminating. 
Antonyms: see gross, coarse, rough, 


delight, V. i. Spec, luxuriate, feast, riot, 
roll, revel. 

delineate, v. t. 1. trace, draw, line, mark, 
figure, describe, inscribe (chiefly spec), 
pencil (often spec), touch (lines); spec 
sketch, plan, foreshorten, map, blazon, 
emblaze, lineate (rare), trick, retrace. 

2. See OUTLINE, sketch, DEPICT, DE- 

delineation, n. 1. tracing, drawing, lining, 
marking, figuring, inscription (chiefly 
spec), penciling (often spec), touching; 
spec, trace, sketching, planning, fore- 
shortening, blazoning. 

2. Referring to the flgure so made: tracing, 
drawing, inscription (chiefly spec), figure; 
spec, sketch, plan, map, blazonry, dia- 
gram, elevation, perspective. 


delinquency, n. Spec, fault, misdeed, of- 
fense, transgression. 

delinquent, n. offender, culprit, malefac- 
tor, transgressor. 

delirious, a. 1. deranged, raving, light- 
headed, wandering; spec, frenzied. 
2. excited, frenzied. 

delirium, n. 1. derangement, raving, de- 
lira tion (rare), wandering, light-headed- 
ness; spec, frenzy; see delirium tre- 
2. excitement, frenzy. 

delirium tremens, jimjams (slang), blue 
devils (fig.; colloq.), blues (pL; colloq.), 
mania a potu (Latin), horrors (pi.; used 
with "the"). 

deliver, v. t. 1. free; spec, rescue, ransom, 
release; see save. 
Antonyms: see enslave, imprison. 

2. transfer, give, pass (esp. with "over"), 
render; spec, consign, commit, surrender, 
hand, intrust, relinquish, resign, extra- 
dite, impart. 

3. free, disburden, rid; spec, accouch. 

4. See emit, deal (a blow, etc), eject, 

PROJECT, discharge, SERVE, THROW, UT- 
TER, IMPART, communicate. 

deliverance, n. 1. freeing, delivery (rare); 
spec rescue, ransom, release. 

iW Cross references: see Note. 
deject: depress. 
delaminate: cleave. 

delate: accuse, narrate, report. 
dele: delete. 
delectation: pleasure. 

deliberate: consider. 
delinquent: blamable. 
deliquesce: melt, diminish. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 



deliverer, n. 1. freer {rare); spec, rescuer, 
ransomer. releasor. 

2. transferer, deliverer {(cch.), transferor, 
civer, renderer; spec, committer, surren- 
derer, etc. 
8. freer (rare), ridder. 

delivery, ri. 1. freeing, deliverance. 
2. transfer, transference {emphasizing 
the actum), transferal {rare), pas.sing {esp. 
icith "over"), rendering, rendition, tradi- 
tion {tech.), giving; spec, consignation, 
commitment, intrusting, irnpartment, 
impartation, handing, resignation, extra- 


dell, n. valley {context uar),VSile {contextual), 

Delphic, a. Delphian, Pythian, Pythic. 

delusion, n. 1. derangement, deception. 
An "illusion" or "hallucination" is a "de- 
lusion" only if the mind is deceived into a 
false belief. 
2. misbeUef. 

demagogue, n. leader {contextual). 

demand, v. t. 1. ask {contextual), require, 
requisition {formal); spec, exact. 
Antonyms: see give, offer, tender. 
2. See CLAIM (as due, etc.), nteed. 

demand, n. 1. requisition, requirement, 
require {rare); spec, draft, exaction, 
strike, run. 
Antonyms: see gift, offer, tender. 

2. call, request; spec, market, sale, exi- 

3. See CLAIM, inquiry. 

demandable, a. requirable, exigible. 

demerit, n. merit {rare; contextual), in- 
desert {rare), undesert, fault, desert 
{chiefly in pi.), ill desert. 

demerit, v. t. underserve {rare). 

demigod, n. semideity {rare), semigod 
{rar^; spec, hero {Greek antiq.), heroine 
{fern.), Prometheus, Epimetheus, Her- 
cules, Perseus, etc. 

demobilize, v. t. disorganize, scatter, dis- 

democracy, n. 1. Spec, democratism, 
Jacobinism, Jeffersonianism. 

Antonyms: see aristocracy, monarch- 
2. See government, state. 

democrat, n. Spec. Jeffersonian {U. S.), 
hardshell (U. S.), Bourbon {U. S.), Jac- 
obin, ultrademocrat. 

democratic, a. Spec. Jeffersonian, Jac- 
obinic, Jacobinical, ultrademocratic. 

Antonyms: see monarchical, aristo- 
cratic, autocratic. 

democratize, v. t. Spec. Jacobinize, popu- 

demolish, v. t. 1. destroy {contextttal) ; 
spec, abate {law), raze, rase (rare), over- 
throw, level, pulverize, unbuild (rare), ruin. 
Antonrjms: see construct. 

2. Sec RUIN, SPOIL. 

demon, n. 1. In the general sense, of Greek 
mythology, of a supernatural being be- 
tween god and man: deity {contextual), 
spirit {contextual), numen {rare), daimon 
{tech. or literary), intelligence {literary); 
spec, angel, ghost {obs.), genius, lar, 
sylph, manito, devil, specter, fiend, dia- 
blotin {French), imp, dev, genie, jinn 
{prop, pi.), jinnee {sing.), hag {archaic), 
harpy, demogorgon, Triton, satyr, manes 
{pi.), lares {pi.), penates {pi.), em- 
pusa, incubus, lemur, barghest, ghoul. 
Lamia, ogre, ogress, deuce, pooka or 
phooka, vampire, scarecrow, bug, bogy, 
bogey, colt-pixie, fairy, fay {literary), Erl- 
king, familiar, kelpie or kelpy {Scot.), 
jotun, hobgoblin, sprite or {archaic vari- 
ant) spright, kobold, Brownie, bogle, 
gnome, goblin, troll, nixie, nix, poker 
{U. S.; colloq.), pixy or pixie, puck, red- 
cap, Poltergeist {German), Robin Good- 
fellow. In ordinary English usage "de- 
mon" is an evil spirit. 
2. See DEVIL. 

demonic, a. Spec. Mephistophelean, 
Mephistophelian, Mephistophelic, ghoul- 
ish, gnomish, ehish, elfin, infernal, elfish. 

demonize, v. t. diabolify, diabolize, devil- 
ize; — all three rare or learned. 

demonology, n. diabology, diabolology, 
devilry, deviltry, diablerie {French); spec. 

demonstrative, a. 1. proving, probative. 
2. expressive; spec, cordial, emotional, 
unreserved; see effusivt:. 
Antomjms: see impassixt;, unemotional. 

demonstrativeness, n. expressiveness; 
spec, cordiality, empressment {French), 
unreservedness, emotionality, emotional- 

demoralize, v. t. 1. corrupt. 
2. disconcert, embarrass, agitate, dis- 
comfit, disorganize, confuse. 

denaturalize, v. t. denature. 

dendriform, a. dendroid, arborescent, 
arboriform, dendritic; — all tech. or learned. 

X^ Cross references: see Note. 

deluge: flood. 

demarcate:, distinguish, 
diride. separate. 

detaarcAtion: definition, boun- 
dary, distinction, division. 

demean: degrade, abase, behave. 
demeanor: behavior. 
demented: deranged. 
demesne: estate. 
demise: tram-fer, death. 
demise: transfer, die. 

demit: dismiss, abdicate, reliTiquish. 
demonstrate: prove, show. 
demount: descend. 
demur, v.: object. 
demur, n.: objection. 
demure: sober, proper, modest. 

f^" See Notes of Explanation. 


deniable, a. contradictable, traversable. 

denial, n. 1. See refusal, contradic- 
tion, TRIAL. 

2. negation, disaffirmation, negative, dis- 
affirmance; spec, forswearing, sublation 
(logic), disallowance, disclaimer {chiefly 
law), disclamation (rare). 

Antonyms: see acknowledgment, as- 

denomination, n. 1. See namiN^G, name. 
2. class (which see), kind; spec, (in relig- 
ion) body, connection (chiefly spec), per- 
suasion, sect. 

denominational, a. sectarian, sectarial. 

denote, v. t. 1. See signify, indicate, 

EXPRESS, mean. 

2. mark, stamp, stigmatize (esp. as evil), 
brand (esp. as evil), betoken. 

denounce, v. t. 1. See accuse. 
2. condemn, fulminate (violently), vitu- 
perate (abusively). 
Antonyms: see approve. 

denouncer, n. fulminator, inveigher, vi- 

dense, a. 1. See compact (referring to con- 
stituent particles or parts) , thick (referring 
to visibly separate parts or objects), stupid. 
2. Referring to ignorance, etc.: intense, 
crass (literary), gross, profound; spec. 
impenetrable, utter, absolute. 

density, n. 1. See compactness (referring 
to the constituent particles or parts), 
THICKNESS (referring to visibly separate 
parts or objects), stupidity. 
2. Referring to ignorance, etc.: intensity, 
crassness (literary), profoundness; spec. 
impenetrability, absoluteness. 

dentate, a. toothed, serrate; spec, jagged, 
denticulate, notched. "Dentate" is tech. 

denude, v. t. bare; spec, abrade, erode; 
see BARK, strip. 

denunciation, n. condemnation (context- 
rial), fulmination (violent), vituperation 
(abusive), diatribe (bitter and violent); 
spec, fiyting, invective, philippic. 

deny, v. t. 1. See refuse, contradict, 

ABJURE, disclaim. 

2. negate, disaffirm, negative; spec, for- 
swear (on oath), sublate (a term of logic), 
disallow, disclaim. 

Antonyms: see acknowledge, assume, 

deodorizer, n. deodorant; spec, pastil, 
pastille, fumigator. 

depart, v. i. I. go (often with "away"), 
leave, remove (formal or affected), move 
(colloq.), withdraw, part (archaic), recede 
(rare); spec, flee, congee (archaic), fly, flit. 
2. Referring to sudden or secret departure: 

abscond, decamp, skip (slang), flit (colloq.), 
slide, cut (slang or colloq.), mosey (slang, 
U. S.), mizzle (slang), vamose (slang); 
spec, elope. 
Antonyms: see stay, approach, come. 

3. See die. 

4. differ, deviate, vary. 
departing, a. going, leaving, parting. 

Antonyms: see coming. 
department, n. 1. division, subdivision, 
part, province, branch, sphere; — referring 
to a subject or to a complex ivhole. 

2. district; — referring to a territorial part. 

3. office, bureau. 

departure, n. 1. going, leaving, removal 
(formal or affected), withdrawal (formal), 
parting, decession (rare); spec, flight, exit, 
exition (rare), flit (rare), hegira (spec, or 
fig.), conge (French; a formed departure) . 
Antonyms: see coming. 

2. absconding, decampment. 

3. See death, deviation, variation, di- 
gression, difference. 

depend, v. i. 1. See hang, rely. 
2. hinge, turn, hang, rest; — referring to 
the depending of an undecided matter upon 
something else. 

dependable, a. reliable, trustworthy. 

dependence, n. 1. hanging, suspension. 

2. hinging, turning, hanging, resting. 

3. See reliance, support. 
dependency, n. 1. dependence; — esp. in 

sense of state or fact of depending. 
2. dependent; spec, subject, colony, prov- 
Antonyms: cf. sovereignty. 

dependent, a. 1. hanging. 
2. See conditional, relative, subor- 
dinate, accessory. 

dependent, n. 1. See dependency. 
2. Spec, client, creature. 

depict, V. t. 1. delineate (esp. in lines), do 
(contextual; chiefly colloq.), portray, ren- 
der (esp. in reference to technique), repro- 
duce, figure, depicture (rare), picture, 
represent; spec, draw, table (rare), fine 
(chiefly in "line in," "line out," "line off," 
ete.), linearize (rare), lineate (rare), paint, 
blazon, sketch, emblaze, emblazon, cray- 
on, pencil, symbolize, chalk, limn (literary). 


depiction, n. 1. delineation (esp. in lines), 
portrayal, rendition, reproduction, repre- 
sentation, depicture (rare), portraiture, 
blazonry, blazon. 


depilate, v. t. unhair, grain (skins) . 
deplete, V. t. 1. empty; spec, drain, evacu- 
ate, reduce. 

t^^ Cross references: see Note. 
denominate: name. 
denotation: meaning. 

denouement: explanation, ca- 
dent, n.: indentation. 

dent, V. t.: indent. 
dent, n.: notch, tooth. 
dependable; reliable. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 


Antonyms: see fill. 

2. ^t'C EXHAUST. 

depopulate, v. t. unpeople, depcople (ar- 
chaic'^; spec, disman {rare), desolate. 
Antonyms: sec people. 
deport, r. /. 1. behave {oneself). 

2. remove, banish. 
depose, c. t. 1. degrade; spec, dethrone, dis- 
ontlirone, disthrone (rare), discrown, un- 
throne {rare), disestablish (o church). 
Antonyms: sec enthrone. 

2. 5a' TESTIFY. 

deposit, r. t. 1. In the sense of "to put for 
safe keeping, to commit to another": lodge, 
put, place, depose (arc/iaic); spec, intrust, 
bail, store, leave. 

2. In the sense of "to lay or put down, to 
place at rest'': place, lodge, put, lay, de- 
pose {archaic); spec, dump {chiefly U. 
S.), plant, ground, repose, plank {with 
"down" or "out"; slang), land, couch, 

Aiitonyms: see dislodge. 

3. precipitate (as from a solution). 
deposit, 71. deposition; spec, precipitate, 

precipitation, settling {chiefly in pi.), silt, 
sublimate, diluvium {geol.), loess, tartar, 
sinter, sediment, grounds (pi.), see pre- 

depositary, n. 1, Spec, bailee, trustee, 
bank, banker. 
2. See depository. 

depositing, ?i. placing, putting, lodging, 
lodgment; spec, consignation, intrusting, 

deposition, n. 1. degradation; spec, de- 
thronement, discrownment. 

2. testimony {contextual) ; spec, affidavit. 

3. placing, putting, lodgment, reposition 
{rare); spec, discharge, precipitation, 

4. See deposit. 
depository, n. 1. bailee. 

2. depositary, storehouse; spec, ware- 
house, entrepot {French). 
depraved, a. Spec, corrupt, contami- 
nated, abandoned, degraded, low, per- 
verted, degenerate. 
Antonyms: see elevated. 
depravity, n. Spec, corruption, contami- 
nation, degradation, perversion, lowness, 
degeneracy,, vice. 
Antonyms: see elevation. 
depreciate, v. t. 1. depress {in value, price, 
etc.), lower. 
Antonyms: see advance. 


depreciate, v. i. decline, fall, drop; spec. 
slump (slang or cant), tumble. 
Antonyms: see advance. 

depreciation, n. decline, fall, drop; spec. 
slump {dang or cant), tumble. 
Antonyms: see advance. 

deprecator, 7i. plunderer; spec, thief, rob- 
ber, pirate, brigand, marauder. 

depress, v. t. 1. See lower (as to position 
in space), depreciate. 

2. dull {in activity, as trade), deaden. 

3. dispirit, deject, prostrate, discourage, 
dishearten, sadden, contrist {archaic), 
dash, damp, dampen, dismalize {rare), 
vaporize {rare), vapor {rare), oppress, 
bow, cool {chiefly with "off" or "down"), 
quail, sink, desolate, frigidize {rare), hip 
{colloq.; rare), disanimate {rare), down- 
weigh (rare), darken; — mostly specific. 

Antonyms: see elate, cheer, gladden, 


depressed, a. 1. lowered {in space). 

2. dulled {as trade), deadened. 

3. dispirited, dejected, downcast, dis- 
couraged, disheartened, despondent, de- 
spairing, desperate {archaic), prostrate, 
crestfallen, saturnine (literary), discon- 
solate, cheerless, sad, gloomy, melancholy, 
rueful, lugubrious {literary), doleful, dol- 
orous {now lita-ary), dismal, sorrowful, 
downhearted, dull, chopfallen, chap- 
fallen, dolent {archaic), mopish, low, va- 
pored {rare), damp (archaic), somber, 
melancholic, melancholious {rare), heart- 
sick, sick, drooping, darksome {rare), 
glum, heaxy, heavy-hearted, half-hearted, 
droopy {rare), hypped, hyppish, oi hippish 
{colloq.), forlorn, hopeless, woeful, low- 
spirited, hypochondriac, dumpish, dumpy 
{colloq.), desolate, wretched, lonely, lone- 
some, dyspeptic {fig.); — mostly specific. 

Antonyms: see cheerful, elated, glad, 


depressing, a. dispiriting, dejecting {rare), 
discouraging, disheartening, cheerless, 
sad, saddening, gloomy, melancholy, 
atrabilious {literary), doleful, rueful, 
lugubrious, woeful or woful, dreary {ar- 
chaic), somber, dismal, dampening, damp- 
ing, dark, grievous, oppressive, discon- 
solate, dolorous, melancholy, black, 
cloudy, Cimmerian (fig.), chilling, frigid 
(rare), heavy, gray, leaden, dusky, dark, 
dull, dolorific {rare), painful. Most of 
these synonyms are more or less specific. 
Antonyms: see cheering, assuring. 

depression, n. 1. lowering {in space). 

2. S-'C cavity, hollow. 

3. dispiritedness, dejection, dejectedness, 
discouragement, despondency, damp, 
hopelessness, desperation {archaic), cheer- 
lessness, sadness, gloom, gloominess, mel- 
ancholy, melancholia, atrabihousness {lit- 

X^ Cross references: see Note. 
deplorable: lamentable. 

deplore: mourn. 
deploy: extend. 

depone: swear, testify. 
deport: behave, remove, banish. 

IW See Notes of Ezplanatiozz. 



erary), dole (archaic), dolefulness, dolor 
{literary; chiefly poetic), sorrow, grief, dis- 
tress, drearinessi (archaic) , dismalness, woe, 
woefulness, blue devils (pL; colloq.), dis- 
piritment (rare), disheartenment, desola- 
tion, disconsolation, dullness, despair, 
brokenness, despaii'ingness (rare), down- 
heartedness, lowness, dumps (pi.; now col- 
loq. and usually humorous), dumpishness, 
hypochondria, hypos (pi.; colloq.), hyp 
(colloq.), hyps (pi.; colloq.), mopishness, 
ruefulness, doldrums (pi.), dismality, hip 
(colloq.), dreariment (archaic), drearihood 
or drearihead (archaic), chill, heaviness, 
mulligrubs (colloq.), megrims (pL), spleen, 
qualm, black dog (colloq.), chill, darkness, 
lugubriosity or lugubriousness (literary) . 
Most of these synonyms are more or less 
Antonyms: see cheer, elation. 

deprivation, n. deprival (rare), privation 
(rare), dispossession; spec, divestiture, di- 
vestment, bereavement, robbery, deforce- 
ment (archaic; esp. of lands), stripping, 
denudation, abridgment, curtailment, 
docking, dockage, despoilment, despolia- 
tion, spoliation, plunder, pillage, rifling. 
Antonyms: see restoration. 

deprive, v. t. dispossess; spec, divest, be- 
reave, rob, deforce (archaic; esp. of land), 
strip, shear, denude, drain, abridge, cur- 
tail, dock, despoil, spoil, plunder, reave 
(now chiefly in p. p. "reft"), pillage, rifle, 
relieve (euphemistic and colloq. or slang), 
oust (law), shorten (rare), mulct, lose, 
Antonyms: see invest, present. 

depth, n. 1. deepness, bathos (rare), pro- 
fundity, profoundness, drop; — referring to 
depth in space. 
Antonyms: see shallowness, height. 

2. Referring to that which is deep in space: 

Antonyms: see height. 

3. Spec, abstruseness; see discernment, 


4. deep (of winter, etc.), dead (of night, 
winter, etc.). 

5. In reference to emotions or experiences: 
profoundness, profundity, intimacy, in- 
tensity, heaviness, soundness (of sleep), 
cordiality, heartiness, thoroughness, in- 
veteracy, inveterateness; spec, nadir 


Antonyms: see height. 

6. Referring to colors: strength, intensity, 

7. lowness, heaviness; spec, bassness; — 
referring to sound. 

deputy, n. agent (contextual), delegate, 
representative, secondary (rare), locum- 
tenens (Latin), substitute, vice (rare); 

spec, vicegerent, vicar, viceroy, kaimakam, 
lieutenant, undersheriff, tipstaff (Eng.). 
derange, V. t. 1. See disarrange, dis- 
turb, confuse, disorganize. 

2. Referring to functions, mental processes, 
etc.: upset, disorder, distemper (rare, exc. 
in p. p. "distempered"), unbalance, un- 
settle, disturb, perturb. 

3. Referring to the mind: craze, shatter, 
unsettle, perturbate (rare), unhinge, in- 
sanify (rare), distract (now rare), dement, 
dementate (rare), crack (chiefly colloq.), 
bemad (rare), madden (now esp. with an- 
ger), frenzy (now usually vnth some pas- 
sion or suffering), mad (rare), loco (colloq., 
U. S.). 

deranged, a. insane, crazy, demented, de- 
ment (rare), unsound (chiefly said of the 
mind), daft, nonsane (rare or nonce), dis- 
tempered (literary), lunatic, unbalanced, 
unsettled, mad (imphjing frenzy or violent 
delusion), brainsick, disordered; spec. 
maniac, maniacal, morbid, raving, dis- 
traught (literary), distracted, distract (ar- 
chaic), moonstruck, witless (now rare), 
idiotic, flighty, foolish, imbecile, cretinous, 
frantic (now rare), feeble-minded, weak- 
minded, doting or dotard, doughbaked 
(dial, or colloq.), possessed, locoed (colloq., 
U. S.), dotty (colloq. or slang), dotish or 
doatish, fatuous (now rare), mattoid; see 
Antonyms: see sane, rational. 

deranged person. Spec, lunatic, imbe- 
cile, idiot, changeling (archaic), dotard, 
madman, madwoman (rare), madUng 
(rare), maniac, monomaniac. 

derangement, n. 1. Spec, disarrange- 
ment, disturbance, confusion, disorgani- 
zation, disorder. 

2. Referring to functions, mental processes, 
etc.: upsetting, disordering (the act), dis- 
order (the resulting condition), distemper 
(rare, exc. med.), unbalancing, disturb- 
ance, perturbation (rare). 

3. Referring to the mind: alienation 
(tech.), craziness, insanity, katatonia (a 
form of insanity; tech.), insaneness, aber- 
ration, craze (as, "in a a'aze"), mania, 
madness, dementia, dementedness, dis- 
temperature (rare); spec, rage (poetic), 
distraction, delirium, deliration (now liter- 
ary), demonomania, idiocy, idiotism, 
cretinism, idiotcy (not a good word), im- 
becility, fatuity, frenzy, furiosity (chiefly 
Scots law), delusion, kleptomania, ly- 
canthropy, lypomania or lypothymia, 
paranoia, paraphrosyne or paraphrenitis, 
paraphrenia (rare), perturbancy (rare), 
perturbation (rare), unbalance (rare), 
vesania (rare), crack. 

Antonyms: see sanity. 

(S^ See Notes of Explanation. 


derelict, n. An abitndomd thing, as a irs- 
,<(■/. trad of land, etc.: spec, outcast, dere- 

derivation, n. 1. iSfC INFERENCE, DERIVA- 


2. getting, obtaining, drawing, taking, ex- 
traction (as of comfort from some fact or 

3. origination, origin; spec, etymology. 
derivative, n. dcrivate, derivation; spec. 

compound, paronym (rare). 

derive, r. t. 1. ^co INFER, TRACE. 
2. get, obtain, draw, take, extract 
{chiefly spec, or fig.), deduce. 

derive, v. i. arise, come, originate, spring; 
spec, descend. 

descend, v. i. 1. fall, drop, sink, subside 
(chiefly bookish), settle; spec, gravitate, 
plunge, precipitate, tumble, stoop, swoop, 
pounce, souse, alight, demount, dis- 
mount, decline, droop, dip, set (as the 

SU7l) . 

Antonyms: see rise. 

2. slope, dip, drop, pitch, decline (rare). 

3. See CONDESCEND, DERI\'E, V. i. 

4. Of duties, rights, etc.: devolve, pass, 
come, go, fall, succeed {rare). 

5. Of family descent: spring, issue {now 
only law), come, arise. 

6. To make an incursion: fall. 
descendant, n. descendent, offspring, 

progeny, child, issue {chiefly legal), pos- 
terity '{chiefly collective pi.), scion {rare), 
offset {rare), offshoot {rare), posteriors 
Ipl.), son {male), daughter {female), etc.; 
spec, epigone {rare). "Descendant" and 
"posterity" or "posteriors" are the only 
words commonly used of those not imme- 
diately descended. 
Antonyms: see ancestor. 

descendental, a. empirical, positive, nat- 
uralistic; — opposed to "transcendental." 

descending, a. descendant or descendent 
{both rare), do'mi {tech. or colloq.), cadent 
(rare), declivous, falling, settling, etc,; 
spec, catadromous, do'miright. 
Antonyms: see rising. 

descent, n. 1. descension {rare), fall, drop, 
sinking, subsidence, settlement {chiefly 
spec), down {chiefly in "ups and downs"), 
downfall, do-\\Ticome, droop {poetic); spec. 
gravitation, plunge, precipitation {liter- 
ary), tumble, lapse, stoop, swoop, souse, 
aUghting, dismount, declination, dip, 
downrush, pounce. 
Antonyms: see rise. 

2. slope, declivity, decline, dip, pitch, 

S. devolution, passing, succession {rare), 


4. ancestry, lineage, pedigred, progeni- 

ture, progenitorship {rare), origin, original 

{rare), extraction, engendrure {archaic); 

spec, paternity, parentage, birth, filiation. 

describable, a. portrayable, paintable, 
drawable, definable, figurable, represent- 
ablo, charactcrizabie; — with specific im- 
Antonyms: see indescribable. 

describe, v. t. 1. To tell in ivords: picture, 
depict, portray, paint, depaint (emphatic), 
limn {literary), delineate, draw, figure, 
represent; spec, outline, define, character- 
ize, qualify, sketch, adumbrate {rare), 
blazon, image, empicture (rare), epithet, 
epitomize, gazetteer, detail, miniature, 
misdescribe, portraiture {rare), phrase. 


description, n. 1. Describing in words: 
picturing, depiction, depicture {rare), por- 
trayal, portrayment {rare), painting, Um- 
ning {literary), delineation, representa- 
tion; spec, drawing, sketching, sketch, 
outlining, outline, definition, figuring, 
imaging, characterization, adumbration 
{rare), blazonry or blazonment, blazon, 
cacotype, collation, signalment {rare), 
portraiture, portrait, periegesis {rare), 
presentment, prospectus, hypotyposis 
{rare), image {rare), iconography. 
2. See KIND. 

descriptive, a. depictive, delineative, de- 
lineatory, definitive, figurative, represent- 
ative; spec, adumbrative, graphic, life- 
like, graphical {rare), vivid. 

desecrate, v. t. contaminate, profane, de- 
file, unhallow (rare), pollute, violate. 
Antonyms: see consecrate. 

desecration, n. contamination, defile- 
ment, profanation, sacrilege (rare), viola- 
tion, pollution. 

desert, a. 1. abandoned, unfrequented, 


desert, n. solitude, wilderness, waste; spec. 
Sahara {fig.), karoo. 
desert, v. t. fail; spec, disappoint, jilt, bolt; 


desert, v. i. leave, quit; spec, apostatize, 
renegade, skirt {of a dog deserting from 
the hunting-pack), backslide. 

deserter, n. runaway, runagate {literary or 
archaic), transfuge {rare), transfugitive 
(rare), rat or ratter (slang); spec, recreant, 
Damas (fig.), renegade, turncoat, apos- 
tate, traitor. 

IW Cross references: see Note. 
deride: ridicule. 
derision: ridicule. 
derival: inference. 

derogate: decline, detract. 
derogatory: discreditable, dis- 

descrial: discovery. 

descry: discover, perceive, see. 
desert: due, demerit. 
deserted: abandoned, unfre- 
quented, alone. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 



desertion, n. apostasy, recreancy. 

deserve, v. t. merit; spec, earn, demerit. 

deserved, a. condign {archaic, exc. of pun- 
ishment), just, rightful, merited, due. 

deserving, a. worthy, meritorious, good 
(contextual) . 

design, v. t. 1. See intend, plan, devise. 
2. devise, create, plan, project; spec, out- 
line, delineate, invent, sketch, cartoon, 

design, v. i. I. devise, create, invent, plan; 
— referring to artistic work. 

2. See INTEND. 

design, n. 1. See plan, intention, adap- 
tation, ARTIFICE, ART. 

2. device, contrivance, creation; spec, fig- 
ure, model, cartoon, diaper, print, weave, 
pattern, blazonry, bearing, blazon, colo- 

designated, a. Spec, specified, mentioned, 
named, given, stipulated. 

desirable, a. pleasing, optable (rare), fair; 
spec, covetable, preferable. 

desire, v. i. wish, want, long, yearn (chiefli/ 
elevated or poetic), crave, aspire, lust (rare 
or spec), pleasure (rare), burn, gasp, 
pant, raven (rare), list (literary), thirst, 
itch, reck (rare), rage (intensive) , .hsLuker 
(chiefly colloq.); — mostly specific (cf. de- 
sire, n.). 

desire, v. t. wish, want, desiderate, greed 
(rare), hope, crave, covet, ambition (rare). 

desire, n. 1. conation (tech.), wish, want, 
appetite (spec, or fig.); spec, longing, 
yearning, appetency, craving, crave (rare), 
avidity, covetousness, covetise (archaic), 
avarice, cupidity (archaic), concupiscence 
(chiefly spec), lust (usually for what is 
wrong), aspiration, ambition, eagerness, 
burning, panting, greed, greediness, ra- 
pacity, rapaciousness, ravenousness, de- 
sideration, desiderium (literary), opta- 
tion (rare), itching, itch (usually contempt- 
vx)us), fever, calenture (literary), device 
(obs. or rare, exc in "left to one's own de- 
vices"), letch (rare), hunger, hungriness, 
hanker, gluttony (fig.), breathing (used 
with "after"), list (rare or archaic); licker- 
ishness or liquorishness, lechery, orexis, 
Antomjms: see aversion. 
2. desideratum; spec hope, passion, god- 

desirous, a. wishful; spec, wistful, avid, 
avidious (rare), covetous, avaricious, cu- 

pidous (rare), concupiscent, concupisci- 
ble, lustful, aspiring, ambitious, eager, 
greedy, grasping, rapacious, thirsty, 
thirstful, lickerish or liquorish, hungry, 
edacious (literary), voracious, gluttonous, 
desiderative (often tech.). 

desist, V. t. stop, cease, stay; spec pause, 
Antonyms: see continue. 

desk, n. Spec, table, faldstool, escritoire, 

desolate, a. 1. See alone, lonely, un- 
frequented, uninhabited, depressed, 


2. waste; spec, ruinous, ravaged, desert, 
barren, wild, bleak, inhospitable. 

desolate, v. t. 1. See depopulate, de- 
press, DEVASTATE. 

2. waste, ravage, destitute (rare), devas- 
tate, havoc (rare); spec, ruin, sack, pillage, 

desolation, Ji. 1. Spec, loneliness, unfre- 
quentedness, uninhabitedness, deserted- 
ness, depression, cheerlessness. 
2. wasteness (rare); spec devastation, 
ruin, ruinousness, desertion, barrenness, 
ravage, wildness, bleakness, dreariness. 

desperado, n. desperate (obs.); spec, black- 
guard, brave, bravo, apache (French), 
freebooter, ruffian, brigand, bandit, buc- 
caneer, filibuster, pirate, marauder, rob- 
ber, plunderer, raider, despoiler, looter, 
assassin, mohock, plug-ugly (slang or 
cant; U. S.), rowdy, highbinder, warrior 
(Amer. Indian), bully, rapparee (hist.), 
berserk, berserker, moonlighter, moss- 
trooper, thug. 

despisal, n. contempt, abhorrence. 

despise, v. t. abhor, disesteem, contemn 
(literary), scorn, disdain, despite (ar- 
chaic), misprize (rare); spec, spurn, scout, 
ridicule, ignore. 
Antonyms: see honor, esteem. 

despond, v. i. despair (implying utter loss 
of hope) . 
Antonyms: see hope. 

destination, n. 1. appointment, ordain- 
ment, predetermination, ordination 
(chiefly spec), foreordainment. 

2. See purpose. 

3. goal, bourne (chiefly poetic), terminus 
(chiefly tech.); spec, haven, harbor, port, 

destine, v. t. 1. appoint, predestine, pre- 
destinate, ordain, fate, predetermine. 

C^ Cross references: see Note. 

deshabille: undress. 

desiccate: dry. 

designate: indicate, appoint, 

designation: indication, ap- 
pointment, name. 

designing: scheming. 

despair, n.: depression, hope- 

despair, v. i.: despond. 

despairing: depressed, hopeless. 

despatch: nar. o/ dispatch. 

desperate: depressed, hopeless, 
extreme, frantic, heroic, reck- 
less, great. 

desperation: depression, hope- 
lessness, recklessness. 

despondency: depression. 

despondent: depressed. 

despot: autocrat, tyrant. 

despotic: autocratic, tyranni- 

desquamate: scale. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 


foreordain, order, shape, weird (rare); 
spec, foredoom, doom. 


destiny, 7i. 1. lot, doom, fate, ordinance 
[archaic), kismet {literary), star {rare), 

2. See FATE. 

destitute, a. I. See devoid. 

2. poor {contextual), penniless, moneyless. 
destroy, v. t. 1. See demolish, kill, an- 

NIHIL.\TE, extinguish, ABOLISH, COUN- 

2. demolish, ruin, ruinate, unform {rare), 
perish {archaic), subvert, fordo {archaic); 
spec, blot {used udth "out"), break, shat- 
ter, shipwreck, devastate, dismantle, con- 
sume, raze, spoil; efface, crush {used with 
"out"), erode, dissolve, desolate, abate, 
kill; — referring to material, or fig. to im- 
material, things. 

Antonyms: see build, establish, con- 
struct, PROTECT. 

3. ruin, sjioil, demolish, nullify, rend, 
kill, explode, sap {fig.), shatter, murder, 
dissolve, root {with "up" or "out"), fordo 
(archaic); — referring to immaterial things. 

Antonyms: see construct. 

destroyer, n. destructor (rare), ruin, de- 
molisher, razer, etc.; spec, biblioclast, 
iconoclast, vandal, etc. 

destructible, a. destroyable, perishable, 
eradi cable. 
Antonyms: see rNDESTRUCTiBLE. 

destruction, Ji. Spec. demoUtion, ruin, 
ruination, death, killing, spohation, 
•RTeck, devastation, annihilation, ship- 
WTeck, vandalism, dissolution, holocaust, 
erosion, etc. Cf. destroy. 

destructive, a. demolitionary, ruinous, 
subversionary, annihilative, extermina- 
tive, extinctive, extirpatory, eradi cat ory, 
consumptive; spec, pestiferous, interne- 
cine, interdestructive, fatal, pernicious. 
Antonyms: see CREATrvT^:. 

detach, v. t. 1. separate, disconnect {chiefly 
spec), unfLx, loose, disunite, disjoin, dis- 
sever; spec, disengage, draft, disjoint, dis- 
Antonyms: see attach, connect, join. 

2. See DETAIL. 

detachment, n. 1. separation, disconnec- 
tion {chiefly spec), unfixing, loosening, 
disuniting, disjoining, disjunction, dis- 
severance; spec, disengagement. 
Antonyms: see connection, joining. 

2. Spec, aloneness, separation. 

3. See detail. 

detail, n. 1. item, particular, minutia 
{chiefly in pi. "miriutice"), circumstance. 

2. Spec, circumstantiality, account. 

3. In mil. use: body, party, detachment; 
spec, picket, patrol, party. 

detail, v. t. 1. describe, report, mention, 
cxi)licate {rare). 
2. In mil. use: appoint, detach. 

detailed, a. full, circumstantial, particu- 
lar, minute, itemized {chiefly spec). 

detain, r. t. 1. See withhold. 
2. hold, stay, keep, delay, retain; spec. 
confine, check, buttonhole, buttonhold, 
becalm, embay {literanj). 
Antonyms: see hasten. 

detective, 7i. Spec spotter {slang), mouser 
{slang), Pinkerton. 

detention, n. 1. withholding. 
2. holding, stay, keeping, delay, detain- 
ment {rare), detainer {Iciw), retention; 
spec, confinement, check, demurrage. 

deteriorate, v. i. decline, worsen, pejorate 
{rare), disimprove {rare), impair; spec, de- 
generate, rust, wear. 
Antonyms: see improve. 

determinate, a. 1. See definite. 
2. definitive, conclusive. 

determination, n. resolution, constancy, 
backbone, sturdiness, grit {colloq.), firm- 
ness, stamina, pluck {colloq.). 

determined, a. resolute, resolved, bent 
(with "on"), stalwart, possessed {colloq. or 
spec; with "to"), set. 

detract, v. i. subtract, derogate; — esp. so 
as to impair or injure, as reputation, hap- 
piness, etc 

detriment, n. loss, disadvantage, preju- 
dice, harm, damage, ruins {pL; archaic or 
obs.), cost, injury; spec, mischief, hurt. 

detruncate, v. t. To cut off: crop. 

deuce, n. 1. See two. 
2. tie; — lawn tennis. 

devastate, v. t. desolate, destroy, ravage, 
waste, harry, havoc {rare), scour; spec 
plunder, sack, strip. 

devastation, n. desolation, destruction, 
ravaging, ravage, waste, havoc, ruin, 
vastation {rare); spec, plunder, sack, 

develop, v. t. 1. See disclose, unfold. 
2. unfold, evolve, expand, disenvelope 
{rare); spec, ripen, unravel, elaborate, ex- 
plicate {rare or logic), breed, mature, 

XW Cross references: see Note. 
destitute: devoid, poor. 
destitution: absence, poverty. 
desuetude: disuse. 
detect: discover, perceive. 
detection: discovery, percep- 
deter; restrain, prevent. 

deterge: clean, remove. 

determination: definition, dis- 
covery, direction, constancy, de- 
cision, end. 

determinative: decisive, end- 

determine, v. t.: define, decide, 
discover, end, direct. 

determine, v, i.: decide, end. 
deterrence: restraint. 
deterrent: restraint, preventive. 
detest: abhor. 

detestable: abominable, hateful. 
dethrone: depose. 
detonate: explode. 
detour, detour: circuit. 

iS^ See Notes of Explanation. 


force, gestate; — referring to the completion, 
perfection, or the like, of something by 
bringing out its possibilities. 
Antonyms: see condense. 

3. deduce, educe, unfold; — referring to the 
bringing out of something latent. 

4. prociuce, form, grow, breed, engender. 
develop, v. i. 1. evolve, unfold, expand, 

grow; spec, boom, flower, segment, pro- 
gress, ripen, mature ; see ripen. 


development, n. 1. disclosure, unfolding, 

2. unfolding, unfoldment (rare), evolve- 
ment, evolution {often spec), expansion; 
spec, unraveling, elaboration, explication 
(rare or logic), maturing, maturation, ma- 
turement (rare), forcing, gestation, cult- 
ure, upgrowth, uprise (colloq.), boom, 
histogenesis, descent, progress. 

Antonyms: see condensation. 

3. deduction, educement, eduction, un- 

4. See PRODUCT, formation, growth. 
deviate, v. i. turn, depart, incline, decline, 

vary, sheer (chiefly spec), swerve, divert 
(archaic), digress (rare in the literal sense), 
exorbitate (archaic), excurse (rare), veer 
(chiefly naut.), slue, slew, wander (chiefly 
fig. or spec), stray (chiefly spec), deflect 
(rare), diverge; — used literally andflg. 

deviation, n. turn, turning, departure, va- 
riation, wandering, straying, veer (chiefly 
spec), deflection, declination, divergence, 
sheer (chiefly spec), swerve, sweep, in- 
clination, diversion, digression (rare in the 
literal sense), exorbitation (rare); spec, dis- 
orientation, excursion, drift. 

device, n. 1. In an immalerial sense: 
contrivance, arrangement, design, plan, 
scheme, invention, project, expedient, con- 
coction, conceit, brew (fig.). 

2. Referring to a material thing: contriv- 
ance, arrangement, design, invention, con- 
traption (colloq.), fangle (obs.), fanglement 
(rare); spec crochet, curwhibble (rare), 
tool, instrument, shift. 

3. emblem; spec, cockade, pageant (hist.), 
cipher (of letters), monogram, legend, 

4. See idea, contrivance, trick, ex- 

devil, n. 1. [cap., "the Devil"] Demon (con- 
textual), Satan, Deuce (in expletive use), 
Dragon, Old Serpent, Satanas (archaic). 
Old Harry (etiphemism) , Lucifer (rare), 
Deil (Scot.), Auld Hornie (Scot.; colloq.). 
Old Nick (euphemism), Davy Jones (.sail- 
ors' slang). Tempter, Archfiend, Arch- 
enemy, Prince of Darkness, Foul Fiend, 

Enemy, Adversary, ApoUyon, Mephis- 
topheles, Mephisto, Lubberfiend, Evil 
One. Also popularly: Old Nick, Old Lim- 
mie, Old Clootie, Old Teaser, Old One, 
etc, Robin Goodfellow. 
Antonyms: see god. 
2. See demon, wretch. 

devilish, a. 1. [cap.] Satanic, Satanical, 
Lucifer ian (rare). 

2. demonic, demoniac, diabolical, fiend- 
ish, Satanic, serpentine (rare), satanical, 
infernal, hellish, inhuman. 
Antonyms: see heavenly, human. 

devilry, n. mischief (contextual), devilment, 
deviltry, diablery, diablerie (French). 

devious, a. 1. Departing from the direct 
course: roundabout, circuitous, crooked, 
indirect (chiefly flg.). 
Antonyms: see straight. 
2. Following an irregular course: devi- 
ating, deviatory, wandering, straying. 

devise, v. t. 1. To think up: contrive, invent, 
conceive, concoct, plan, design, imagine 
(obsolesc), brew (fig.), shape, cook (usually 
with "up"), cogitate (formal or literary), 
excogitate (rare), cast (obsolesc), plot, 
scheme, project, formulate, fudge (often 
with "up"), fabricate, manufacture, frame, 
elaborate; spec, machinate, hatch, spin, 
forge (evil), forecast (obsolesc). 
2. See bequeath. 

devising, n. devisement (rare), contriv- 
ance, contrival (rare), premeditation, 
devisal (rare), imagination (obsolesc), con- 
coction, projection, framing, machination. 

devoid, o. destitute, void, forlorn (literary); 
spec bare, free, empty ; — all used with "of." 

devotee, n. devotionalist, devotionist 
(rare), votary, enthusiast, zealot; spec, ob- 
late, corybant, bacchanal, bacchant, bac- 
chante (fem.); — used of religious devotees 
and fig. 

devotion, n. 1. See consecration, dedi- 
cation, appropriation, application, 
addiction, constancy. 

2. zeal, cult, prayerfulness, e.xer citation. 

3. worship; spec, meditations (pi.), vigils 
(pi.). The word "devotion" is often used in 
the plural, collectively. 

devour, v. t. 1. eat, raven, wolf (slang), 
gorge, glut, gulp (esp. with "down"), 
scoff (slang). 
2. See consume. 

devourer, n. eater, cormorant (fig.), locust 
(fig-); spec, epicure, gormandizer. 

devourment, n. 1. eating, hgurition 
(rare) . 
2. See consumption. 

devout, a. 1. pious, religious, holy, prayer- 
ful, heavenly-minded. 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
devolve, v. i.: pass, descend. 

devolve, v. I.: transfer. 
devote: consecrate, dedicate, ap- 

propriate, apply, addict, condemn. 
devoted: accursed, addicted, constant. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



Antonyms: see nuiELiaions. 

8. See SINCERE. 

devoutness, n. piety. 

dew, u. moisture, precipitation; — both con- 

dew, I', t. wet {contextual), moisten {con- 
textual), bedew {intensive). 

dewy, a. moist (contextual), roral {rare), 
rosoid [rare). 

diagonal, a. cornerwise, bias. 

diagonally, odr. cornerwise, bias. 

diagram, n. delineation, plan, scheme 
{rare), plat [chiejly spec), outline; spec. 
plot, sketch, section, graph {tech.). 

diagram, v. t. delineate, plan, outline, plot, 
plat {U. S.); spec, graph {colloq.). 

dialect, 7i. language {contextual), lingo 
{contemptuous); spec, patter, patois 
(French), argot, cant, jargon, idiom, ver- 

dialogue, n. conversation {contextual); 
spec, snip-snap, flyte, collogue. 

diameter, n. width {contextual); spec. 
thickness, bore, cahber, module. 

diametric, a. utter {used before "oppo- 
site"), absolute, exact, precise, etc. 

diarrhea, n. laxity, looseness, lask {obs. or 
vet.), skit {dial.), flux; spec, cholera, chol- 
erine, dysentery, hentery, scour, purge. 

dictate, v. t. 1. See speak. 
2. bid, prescribe, order, direct, enjoin; 
spec, impose. 

dictation, n. 1. See speaking. 
2. bidding, injunction, order, prescrip- 
tion, etc. 

dictatorial, a. commanding, authorita- 
tive, injunctive, magisterial {bookish or 
learned), directory, dogmatic. 
Antonyms: see obedient. 

diction, n. expression, style {contextual), 
wording, phraseology; spec, form, idiom. 

dictionary, n. wordbook, lexicon {chiefly 
spec), vocabulary; spec, thesaurus, gradus 
{short for "Gradus ad Parnassum"), glos- 
sary, gloss {rare), gazetteer. 

dictum, n. saying, dictate, say-so {dial, or 
U. S.), say {poetic or obs.). 

die, V. i. 1. expire, perish, decease {literary 
or formal), demise {elevated or rhetorical), 
depart {euphemistic), croak {slang), drop 
{chiefly colloq.), end {now rare), pass (ar- 
chaic, or u^ed urith "on" by Christian Sci- 
entists), succumb {rhetorical); spec, fall, 
drown, hang, suffocate, suicide. 
Antonyms: see live, grow, generate, 




die, n. 1. dice {rare), bones (pi.; colloq.), 
devil's bones {pi.; colloq. or in obloquy), 
ivories {pL; slang); spec, demy, dispatcher 

{slang), dispatch (slang), fulham, doctor 
(old slang), goads (pL; cant). 

2. stamp; spec, punch, swage, matrix, 

3. See FATE. 

diet, n. 1. See food. 
2. regimen. 

differ, v. i. 1. disagree (u^ed with "with"), 
vary (used with "from"), diverge (used 
with "from"), deviate (used with "from"), 
depart (used with "from"), discept (rare), 
disaccord (used loith "with"), discrepate 
(rare) . 
Antonyms: see agree. 

2. dissent, disagree, disaccord. 
Antonyms: see agree. 

3. See DISPUTE, quarrel. 
difference, n. 1. disagreement, variance, 

variation, dissemblance (archaic), diver- 
gence, deviation, departure, heterogene- 
ity, odds, disaccord, distinction, distinct- 
ness, discongruity, dissimilarity, distinc- 
tion, dissimilitude (rare) , separateness, in- 
conformity, unlikeness, contrast, interval, 
diversity, disparity, dispart, inconsist- 
ence, inconsistency, contradiction, con- 
tradictoriness, repugnance, antagonism, 
inimicality (rare), hostility, hostileness, 
adverseness, irreconcilability, irreconcil- 
ableness, incongruity, incongruousness, 
incompatibility, incompatibleness, dis- 
cordance, discordancy, dissonance, dis- 
sonancy, inharmoniousness, contrariety, 
contrariness, discrepation (rare), con- 
verseness, opposition, oppositeness, an- 
tithesis, antitheticalness, disparity, dif- 
ferentia, nuance (French). Most of these 
words are more or less specific in their im- 

Antonyms: see agreement, resem- 
blance, SAMENESS. 

2. dissension, disaccord, disagreement; 
spec, controversy, dispute, altercation, 
discord, quarrel, bicker, contention, 
strife, brabble, feud, fray, jar, jangle, 
WTangle, embroilment, variance. 

Antonyms: see agreement. 
different, a. 1. disagreeing, variant, di- 
vergent, deviative, distinct, dissimilar, un- 
like, diverse, divers (archaic), contrastive, 
contrastful (rare), inconsistent, contra- 
dictory, repugnant, antagonistic, antag- 
onistical, inimical, hostile, adverse, ir- 
reconcilable, heterogeneous, incongruous, 
incompatible, discordant, dissonant, in- 
harmonious, contrary, converse, incon- 
formable, disparate, contradistinct, dis- 
crepant, discriminate (archaic), other- 
guess fcoZZo^.), otherwise (used only predi- 
catively); — referring to things which differ 
from each other in some quality or attribute. 

1^" Cross references: see Note. 

1 diet: food, regimen. 

diet: assembly, session. 

(W See Notes of Explanation. 



Most of these words have specific implica- 
tions. "Different" is the most general term. 

Antonyms: see alike, same. 
2. distinct, separate, other {than), non- 
identical, unidentical; spec, various; — not 
implying any difference in kind or char- 
acter, hut merely non-identity. 
Antonyms: see same. 

differentiate, v. t. difference, specialize, 
discriminate, sever; spec, disequalize, de- 
synonymize, despecificate. 

difficult, a. 1. difficile {archaic), hard, 
troublesome, uneath {archaic), nice, 
tough {colloq.), uneasy {rare), stiff; spec. 
arduous, Herculean, skillful {rare), tick- 
lish, uphill, crabbed, cramp, nice, awk- 
ward, wicked {colloq.), knotty, spiny, 
thorny, laborious, painful, delicate, ob- 
scure, abstruse, mysterious, exacting, stiff, 
Antonyms: see easy. 
2. See embakrassing, austere, unman- 

difficulty, n. 1. hardness; spec, arduous- 
ness, laboriousness, niceness, delicacy, 
obscurity, abstruseness, crabbedness. 
Antonyms: see ease. 

2. Spec, crux, exigency, knot, nodus, per- 
plexity, trouble, obstacle, dilemma, pre- 

3. See objection. 

4. embarrassment; spec, complication, 
disagreement, imbroglio. 

difiuse, a. 1. wide-spread, scattered, per- 
fuse {rare), dispersed, dissipated, dis- 
seminated, dispelled, distributed, dis- 

. gregate {rare); spec, interdiffuse, effuse, 
Antonyms: see concentrated. 
2. See PROLIX. 

difiuse, V. t. spread, scatter, strew, dis- 
perse, dissipate, disseminate, dispel, dis- 
tribute, disgregate {rare); spec, suffuse, 
interdiffuse, effuse, circulate. 
Antonyms: see concentrate. 

difiuse, V. t. & i. spread, scatter, strew, 
disperse, dissipate, disseminate, dispel, 
distribute, dispense, dispensate {rare); 
spec, circulate, radiate, disject, dispread 
{archaic), dot, dissolve, shed, evaporate, 
propagate, disgregate {rare). 
Antonyms: see concentrate. 

diffusion, n. spreading, spread, strewing, 
dispersion, dissipation, dissemination, 
dispelling, distribution, dispensation, dis- 
pensing; spec, circulation, osmose, os- 
mosis, effluve {rare), dissolution, cosmo- 
politanism, propagation, diffluence {rare), 
diaspora {Jewish hist.), centrifugence. 

diffusive, a. spreading, scattering, strew- 
ing, dispersive, dissipative, disseminative, 
dispelling, distributive, distributory, dis- 

pensative, dispensatory; spec, circulatory, 
circulative, effluent, centrifugal, diffu- 
gient {rare), catalytic, osmotic. 

dig, V. t. 1. delve {archaic or literary, exc. 
fig.), grave {rare and archaic), excavate; 
spec, costean, grub, dike, ditch, mine, 
spade, root, rootle, spud, rout {chiefiy 
dial.), hoe, shovel, mattock, channel, 

2. To dig up: exhume {formal) , dishumate 
{literary arid chiefly fig.), dishume {rare), 
disinhume {rare), unbury {rare), un- 
earth, delve {archaic or literary), grub; 
spec, disentomb, disinter (formal), mine. 

die, V. i. 1. grub. 
2. work {contextual), drudge; spec, study. 
"Dig" is colloq. 

digest, n. abridgment {contextual); spec. 
code, pandect. 

digestible, a. light. 

digestion, n. decoction; spec, bradypepsia 
{now rare), eupepsy {rare), indigestion. 

digestive, a. peptic {rare); spec, brady- 
peptic {rare), eupeptic {rare). 

digging, a. Referring to animals: fossorial, 
fodient {rare), burrowing, effodient {rare). 

digging, n. 1. dig, delving or delve {archaic 
or literary), excavation. 
2. excavation {rare), exhumation {for- 
mal), unearthing; spec, unburial {rare), 

digit, TO. Spec, finger, thumb, toe, dew- 

dignified, a. stately, grave, noble, courtly, 
majestic, august, imposing, portly, grand, 
lofty, buskined {fig.; literary). 
Antonyms: see undignified, buffoon- 


dignify, v. t. honor {contextual), elevate, 

lift, exalt; spec, dub, glorify, idealize, 

transform {contextual), canonize, crown, 


Antonyms: see abase, degrade. 
dignifying, a. honorific {formal or literary; 

contextual), exalting, dignificatory, ele- 

vatory {rare); spec, glorifying, doxological, 

dignitary, to. dignity; spec, canon, bishop, 

prelate, governor, etc.; — implying high 

rank in office. 
dignity, n. 1. worth, majesty, nobleness, 

highness, nobility; spec, greatness, glory, 

Antonyms: see insignificance. 

2. stateliness, augustness, gravity, deco- 
rum; spec, portliness. 

Antonyms: see buffoonery. 

3. rank, elevation, station, place, stand- 
ing, eminence, honor; spec, preferment, 
prelacy, papacy, governorship, etc. 

4. See dignitary. 

digress, v. i. 1. See deviate. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



t. Effaring to discourfte, thought, etc.: de- 
viate, excurse (rare), divagate [rare), eva- 
gate {rare). 

digression, n. 1. See deviation. 
2. licfcrring to discourse, deviation, de- 
)mrturo, divagation, excursion, excursus, 
liiscui'sion, eobasis {rare), evagation (rare); 
spec, ecbole (rare), episode. 

dike, n. 1. See channel, ditch. 
2. bank; spec, estacade, levee. 
Antonyms: sec trench. 

dilapidated, a. decayed, decadent, ruined, 

dilapidation, n. decay, unrepair, ruin, dis- 
Lntegrity (rare). 
Antonijtns: see integrity, repair. 

dilapidative, a. disintegrative, disintegra- 
tory, ruinous. 

dilatable, a. swellable (rare), extensible, 

dilatation, 7i. expansion, swelling, swell, 
enlargement, dilation; spec, distention, 
ectasia, aneurism, diastole, varix. 
Antonyms: see contraction. 

dilate, v. i. cfc t. 1. enlarge, expand, am- 
plify, swell; spec, distend, dome, in- 
Antonyms: see contract. 
2. enlarge (in discourse). 

diligent, a. 1. See industrious, con- 

2. assiduous, sedulous, studious; — refer- 
ring to actions. 

dUuent, a. diluting, thinning; spec. solvent. 

dilute, a. diluted, wishy-washy (colloq.). 

dilute, V. t. thin, weaken, attenuate, re- 
duce; spec, adulterate. 
Antonyms: see contjense, thicken. 

dim, a. 1. dark, dusky, faint, dull; spec. 
misty, pale, hazy, foggy, dreamy. 
Antonyms: see bright. 
2. See bxtlIj (mentally) . 

dimension, n. measure, extent, propor- 
tion (chiefly in pi.), girt. 

diminisli, v. t. & i. lessen, belittle, de- 
crease, minify (rare), minish (rare), re- 
bate (rare), reduce, abate (archaic), 
retrench; spec, melt, minimize, narrow, 
contract, shrink, shri /el, dwandle, lower, 
taper, shorten, cut, abbreviate, abridge, 
curtail, attenuate, dwarf, deliquesce, 
reef, decline, remit (rare), ease. 
Antonyms: see increase, enlarge, 


diminishing, a. diminutive (ohs. and rare, 
in this sense), decrescent (literarrj), reduc- 
tive; spec, contractive, deliquescent, les- 
sening, decreasing, etc., decrescendo. 

diminution, n. diminishment, lessening) 
decreasing, decrement (literary), retrench- 
ment, decrescence (literary), reduction, 
abatement; spec, shrinkage, abbreviation, 
abridgment, curtailment, attenuation, del- 
iquescence, taper, relaxation, remission, 
defalcation (archaic), rebatement (rare), 
drawback, decline, decrescendo, etc. 
Anto7iyms: see increase, enlargement. 

dimness, n. dark, darkness, obscurity, etc. 
Cf. DIM, a. 
Antonyms: see brightness. 

din, n. noise, bruit (archaic), racket, ru- 
mor (archaic); spec, clamor, turmoil, hub- 
bub, tumult, uproar, clang, clash, crash, 
clatter, hullabaloo (colloq.), rumble. 
Antonyms: see silence. 

din, V. t. ring; spec, clamor, clang, clash, 

dining, n. aristology (art of dining), deip- 
nosophism (rare). 

dining room. Spec, ordinary (Eng.), tri- 
clinium (Roman antiq.). 

dinner, a. prandial (affected or jocose). 

dinner, n. Spec, dinnerette. 

diocese, n. bishopric, bishoprj', episcopate; 
spec, exarchate, eparchy, metropolitan, 

dip, V. t. 1. immerse, plimge (suddenly), dive 
(rare), immerge (rare), douse (into water), 
implunge (rare); spec, bathe, souse, duck, 
ingulf or engulf (rare), pickle, baptize. 

2. See w^T. 

3. To remove by dipping: lade, bale, bail, 
scoop, ladle; spec, bucket. 

4. bob (as a flag) . 

dip, V. i. 1. immerse, plunge, dive; spec. 
bathe, duck. 
Antonyms: see emerge. 

2. See descend. 

3. go (into a subject, book, etc.). 

dip, n. 1. plunge, immersion, dive, im- 
mergence; spec, douse, bath, intinction, 
Antonyms: See emergence. 

2. See descent. 

3. bob (as of a flag). 

diplomacy, n. 1. diplomatics (rare); spec. 
kingcraft, intrigue. 
2. See tact. 

diplomatic, a. Spec, temporizing, artful, 
politic; see tactful, scheming. 
Antonyms: see avtkward. 

diplomatic agent, diplomatist, diplomat; 
spec, proxenus, charge (French), ambas- 
sador, envoy, legate, internuncio, inter- 
nuncius, consul, plenipotentiary, minister, 
nuncio, resident. 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
di^esslve: discursive. 
dike, V. t.: ditch, drain, bank. 
dilatory: slow. 
dilemma: predicament. 

dilettante: amatenr. 
diligence: application. 
diluvium: deposit, drift. 
dim -eyed: hlear. 
ding: dash. 

dingle: valley. 
dingle, r. ifc n.: ring. 
dint: indent. 
dire: threatening. 

J^° See Notes of Explanation. 


direct, a. 1. See straight, immediate. 

2. straightforward, dunstable {obs. or lit- 
erary), downright, upright, flat, plump; 
spec, pomted, frank, honest, sincere, ex- 
press, unequivocal, dead. 

Antotiyms: see ambiguous, indirect, 


3. Referring to descent: lineal. 

direct, v. t. 1. address (a letter, .remarks, 
etc.), destine {contextual). 

2. aim, point, head, address, turn, bend, 
determine; spec, guide, con (naut.), in- 
cline, dispose, level, shape, present, mo- 
tion, intend (a Latinism), dart, guide, 
lead, steer, run, push, etc. 

3. See BID, manage, control, refer {one 
to a person, to a place in a book, etc.). 

directable, a. aimable, turnable, determin- 
able; spec, guidable, leadable, steerable, 

direction, n. 1. addressing, address. 

2. aim, aiming, pointing, addressing, 
turning, turn, determination; spec, bent, 
leading, guidance, steering, bearing, in- 
cUnation, intention {rare). 


in "reference to a person, book," etc.). 

4. conduct, control, disposal, disposition; 
spec, command. 

5. way, road {chiefly spec), course, run, 
bearing, point; spec, quarter, side, sense, 
lead, east, west, north, south, etc., trend. 

directly, adv. 1. Spec, straight, exactly, 
lineally, immediately, soon. 
2. straightforwardly, downrightly, etc., 
plump, plumply, flatly, etc. 

dirge, n. monody {Greek literature), coron- 
ach {Scot. & Irish), threnody, requiem 
{chiefly poetic), elegy; spec. mjTiologue 
(rare) , office {for the dead) . 

dirigible, a. dQrectable, navigable. 

dirt, n. 1, Spec, filth, grime, clart {dial.), 
mire, muck, fouhng, mud, sludge, dust, 
impurity, etc. 

2. See EARTH. 

3. Spec, meanness, sordidness, obscenity, 

dirt eating, geophagy. 

dirtied, a. defiled, polluted, pollute, fouled. 

dirtiness, n. Spec, filthiness, filth, foul- 
ness, etc. 
Antonyms: see purity. 

dirty, a. 1. Spec, grimy, filthy, foul, clart 
or clarty {dial.), unclean, uncleanly, im- 
pure {rare), miry, muddy, mucky, nasty, 
vile, soily, cindery, grubby; see filthy, 


Antonyms: see clean, spotless. 


dirty, v. t. defile, foul, soil, sully (chiefly 
fig.), filthify {rare); spec, grime, pollute, 
dust, muddy, mire, colly {archaic or dial.), 
begrime, slobber {chiefly dial.), tar, be- 
Antonyms: see clean, purify. 

dirtying, Ji. defilement, fouling, soiling, etc. 

dis-. The prefix "dis-" has usually a 
stronger force than the prefixes "un-" and 
"in-"; as in "unrelated," " disr elated" ; "un- 
satisfied," "dissatisfied"; "inability," "dis- 
ability," etc. 

disability, n. 1. Referring to the condition: 
inability, incapacity, disablement; spec. 
disqualification, incompetence, superan- 
nuation, unfitness. 
Antonyms: see ability. 
2. Referring to a defect: incapacity, crip- 
plehood {rare), crippJeness {rare), cripple- 
dom {rare), lameness {chiefly spec); spec 
palsy, paralysis, impotence, handicap, su- 
Antonyms: see ability. 

disable, v. t. 1. incapacitate, discapacitate 
{rare), disenable; spec, disquahfy, unfit. 
Antonyms: see enable. 
2. incapacitate, cripple, becripple {inten- 
sive), lame {chiefly spec); spec, palsy, 
paralyze, dishabilitate {Scots law), dis- 
empower {rare), gravel, silence, founder, 
dry-founder, hamstring, disarm, hock, 

disabled, a. incapacitated, crippled, 
lamed, lame, halt {literary or dignified), 
halting ; spec palsied, superannuate, hoof- 
bound, foundered, groggy (colloq), hors 
de combat {French), game. 

disadvantage, n. 1. inconvenience, dis- 
commodity, disinterest {rare); spec hin- 
drance, drawback, check, disservice, 
Antonyms: see advantage, good. 
2. See LOSS. 

disadvantageous, a. inconvenient, awk- 
ward, discommodious; spec, unfavorable, 
Antonyms: see advantageous. 

disafforest, v. t. deforest {law or forestry), 
disforest, diswood {rare) , deafforest {rare) . 

disagree, v. i. differ {contextual), dissent, 
clash, conflict; spec, quarrel, dispute. 
Antonyms: see agree, conspire, corre- 

disagreeable, a. unpleasant; spec nasty 
{colloq. in U. S.), cantankerous, hateful, 
Antonyms: see agreeable, affectionate. 

disagreeing, a. 1. different, conflictory, in- 
congruent, incongruous, inaccordant, dis- 
cordant, jarring, clashing, contradictory, 

tS^ Cross references: see Note. 
disadvlse: discourage. 

disaflect: alienate, displease. 
disafflrm: deny. 

disafiOrmance: denial. 
disagreeable: unpleasant. 

t^l^ See Notes of Explanation. 



contrary, repugnant, iliviiK'd {as persons), 
tactions, inconsonant, discrepant. 


^^' The word "disagreeing" is seldom useil 
disagreement, n. 1. dilTorcnce, disunity, 
discord, disunion, clashing. 

Antonyms: sec secession. 
S. conflict, division, incongruence, incon- 
gruousness, inaccordancc, inaccordancy 
(rare), contrariety, discord, discordance, 
discordancy, opposition, variance, divi- 
sion, clash, difficulty; see dissension. 

Antonyms: see agreement, conspiracy. 


disappear, v. i. 1. vanish, evanish {em- 
phatic; literary), die {used with "away," 
"out," or "down"), evanesce, sink, go; 
spec, melt, dry, dive, dissolve {often with 
"into"), fly {with "away"). 
Antonyms: see appear. 
2. See decay, end. 

disappearance, )i. 1. vanishment (rare), 
vanishing, evanescence, evanishment 
{rare), dissolution, evanition {rare). 
Antonyms: see appearance. 


disappearing, a. vanishing, evanescent, 
etc.; see obsole.scent. 

disarm, v. t. unarm, disweapon {rare); spec. 
diswhip (rare) , dismail (arcAaic), dishelm, 
unsting {rare). 
Antonyms: see arm. 

disarrange, v. t. 1. disorder, disturb, de- 
range, disarray {chiefly mil.) , dislocate, dis- 
compose {obs.); spec, confuse, topsy-turvy 
(rare), topsy - turvyfy {rare; humorous), 
muss ([/. S.; often usedvnth "up"), jumble, 
ruffle, dishevel, rumple, rummage {often 
used with "over"), break, unsettle, tumble. 
Antonyms: see arrange, adjust, tidy. 
2. See disconcert. 

disarranged, a. topsy-turvy, hugger- 
mugger, discomposed, etc. 

disbelief, n. discredit, unbelief; spec, in- 
fidelity, agnosticism, heresy. 

disbelieve, v. t. discredit, miscredit {rare); 
spec, doubt, reject. 

discerning, a. bright, discriminating, di.s- 
criminative, nice, discriminant {rare), 
clear-headed, subtle, acute, vsharp, long- 
headed, percipient {rare), clear-sighted, 
long-sighted, perspicacious, deep, saga- 
cious, keen, astute, piercing, judicious 
(often spec), eagle-eyed, Argus-eyed (fig.); 
spec, discreet, searching. 

Antonyms: see blind. 
discernment, /(. 1. Sec DISTINCTION. DIR- 


2. iliscrimination, sagacity, shrewdness, 
acumen, sharpness, brightness, depth, 
perspicacity, insight, perspicaciousness 
(rare), astuteness, keenness, longheaded- 
ness, sharpness, judiciousness (often 
sjH'c); spec, discretion, tact, judgment. 
Antonyms: see stupidity. 
discharge, v. t. 1. See unload. 

2. shoot, fire; spec, volley, empty, play; — 
in refei-ence to a bow, gun, hose, etc. 

Antonyms: see load. 

3. project, expel, shoot, fire, throw; spec. 
deliver, play ; — in reference to 7nissiles. 

4. dismiss, cashier, discard, remove, sack 
(slang), bounce (slang, U. S.), dispost 
(rare), kick (used with "out" ; colloq.), de- 
pose (chiefly spec); spec, disemploy (rare), 
retire, demit (archaic), degrade, displace, 
expel, break (colloq.). 

Antonyms: see hire, appoint. 

5. See free (as from obligation, confine- 
ment, etc.), ACQUIT, perform, pay, sat- 

6. diselectrify (rare). 
discharge, v. i. 1. See unload. 

2. Referring to a stream: disembogue, 
empty, fall. 

3. Referring to a sore, etc.: run, flow; spec. 

discharge, n. 1. unloading. 

2. shooting, firing, fire; spec play; — in 
reference to a how, gun, etc. 

3. projection, expulsion, firing, shooting; 
spec play, delivery, round, rafale 
(French), burst, salvo, salute, fusillade, 
volley ; — in reference to missiles. 

4. dismissal, remove (rare), cashierment 
(rare), discardment (rare), bounce (slang, 
U. S.), sack (slang), removal, deposition 
(chiefly spec); spec disemployment (rare), 
demission (archaic), degradation, dis- 
placement, expulsion, conge {Fre7ich) , des- 
titution (archaic). 

SION, EXCRETION, FREEING (as from obli- 
gation, confinement, etc). 

6. outflow, run-off, disemboguement, emp- 
tying; — referring to floumig waters, etc. 

7. Referring to a sore, etc.: flow, flux, issue; 
spec profluvium, defluxion, rheum, lochia, 
ichor, gleet. 

C#° Cross references: see Note. 
disallow: deny, reject, refuse. 
disannul: invalidate. 
disappoint: desert, defeat. 
disapprove: condemn, reject. 
disarray: disarrange, undress. 
disaster: misfortune. 

disastrous: unfortunate. 
disavow: disclaim. 
disband: smtter. 
disbandment: dispersal. 
disbar: degrade. 
disbark: decorticate. 
disbelief: unbelief. 

disbeliever: infidel. 
disbench: abase, degrade. 
disburden: free, unload. 
disburse: expend. 
discard: reject, abandon, disujie. 
discern: distinguish, discover, 
perceive, see. 

(W Sec Notes of Explanation. 


disciform, a. circular, discoidal, discoid, 

disciple, ti. adherent {contextual), co- 
follower, sectary {rare), sectator {rare), 
progeny {collective pi.; fig.); spec, chela 
{Hinduism), evangelist, apostle. 

disciplinarian, n. martinet. 

disciplinary, a. Spec, penitentiary. 

discipline, n. 1. See training, akt, or- 

2. control {not a good synonijm), govern- 
discipline, v. t. 1. tutor. 


disclaim, v. t. deny, renounce, repudiate, 
disown, disavow, disacknowledge {rare); 
spec, abjure. 
Antonyms: see claim, avow. 

disclaimer, n. denial, abjuration, re- 
nunciation, repudiation, disowning, dis- 
avowal, disclamation {rare), disownment, 
disacknowledgment {rare); spec, abjura- 
Antonyms: see claim. 

disclose, v. t. 1. See uncover. 
2. show, reveal, divulge, exhibit, expose, 
uncover, discover {archaic), bare, unveil, 
display, parade, flaunt, manifest, evince 
{hy some sign or token), betray, bewray 
{archaic), publish, tell, blab, whisper, de- 
clare, meld {cards), spill, demonstrate, 
uncloak, unburden, unbundle {rare), 
speak, confess, unshroud, unfold, uncur- 
tain, develop, uncase, divulgate {literary), 
unearth, open, discloud, blow {noio 
slang), evulgate {rare), communicate; — 
all having more or less specific senses. 
Antonyms: see hide. 

disclosing, a. exhibitory, manifestive, ex- 
positive, revelative, revelatory, evincive. 

disclosure, n. 1. Spec, uncovering. 
2. show, showing, revelation, reveal 
{rare), revealment, uncovering, discovery 
{archaic), unveiling, baring, unfolding, 
development, exhibition, exposure, ex- 
posal, expose {French), display, parade, 
flaunt, flaunting, manifestation, monstra- 
tion, evincement, divulgement, divulga- 
tion {literary), divulgence, betrayal, be- 
wrayal {archaic), apocalypse {rare), pub- 
lication, telling, blabbing, whispering, 
whisper, declaration, etc.; — all more or 
less specific in meaning. 
Antonyms: see hiding. 

discomfit, V. t. 1. See defeat. 
2. embarrass, disconcert, confound, con- 
fuse, abash, demoralize; spec, squelch 
{colloq. or slang). 

discomfiture, n. 1. See defeat. 
2. embarrassment, confusion, abash- 

ment, demoralization, disconcertion, dis- 

discomfort, v. t. distress; spec, annoy, 
embarrass, pain, grieve. 
Antonyms: see comfort. 

discomfort, n. uneasiness, distress; spec. 
malaise {French), disease {obs.); see an- 
noyance, embarrassment, pain, grief. 
Antonyms: see comfort, well-being. 

disconcert, v. t. 1. Referring to plans, etc.: 
disarrange, upset, disturb. 
2. Referring to persons: disturb, upset, 
demoralize, unbalance, faze {colloq.); see 
abash, confuse, embarrass, discomfit. 
Antonyms: see assure. 

disconcertedness, n. disarrangement, up- 
set {colloq.), demoralization, disconcer- 
tion; spec, abashment, confusion, embar- 
rassment, discomfiture. 
Antonyms: see assurance. 

disconnect, v. t. detach, separate, dis- 
unite, disjoin, disjoint, dissociate, un- 
combine {rare); spec, sever, uncouple, dis- 
engage, dishnk. 
Antonyms: see connect, join. 

disconsolate, a. 1. Spec, inconsolable, 
comfortless; see hopeless, sad. 
2. ASee depressing. 

discontent, n. 1. discontentedness, dis- 
contentment, miscontent {rare), miscon- 
tentment {rare), malcontentment {rare), 
malcontent {rare), dissatisfaction, dissat- 
isfiedness, heartburn {fig); see longing. 
Antonyms: see satisfaction. 
2. discontentee {obs.), malcontent {the 
usual word in this sense). 

discontented, a. discontent, uncontented, 
discontentful {archaic), miscontent {ar- 
chaic), malcontent, dissatisfied; spec. 
Antonyms: see satisfied. 

discontinuous, a. incontinuous {rare), 
broken, discrete, disjunct {rare), discon- 
nected, interrupted; see intermittent, 
recurrent, inconsequent. 
Antonyms: see continuous. 

discontinuousness, n. discontinuity, 
brokenness, discreteness, discretion {rare), 
disjunction {rare), disconnectedness, etc. 

discord, n. 1. See disagreement, dis- 
pute, QUARREL, dissension, UPROAR. 

2. Referring to sound: discordance, dis- 
cordancy, dissonance, disharmony, jar 
{rare), cacophony {chiefly music or pedan- 
tic), jangle; spec. wolf. 
Antonyms: see harmony. 
discordance, n. 1. See disagreement, 
difference, discord. 
2. harshness, cacophony {chiefly music or 
pedantic), dissonance, discordancy. 

IW Cross references: see Note. 
discolor, V. t.: color, stain. 

discommode: inconvenience. 
discompose: agitate. 

discontent, v. t.: displease. 
discontent, a.: discontented. 


(37" Sec Notes of Ezplanaiion. 



Antonijws: src harmony, mklody. 
discordant, a. I. ^'tr uisAtiUKEiNii, dif- 


2. harsh, dissonant, inharmonious, in- 
consonant, unswoct (rare), disliarnionic 
{rare), cacophonous {chiefly iiiiityic ar 
■pedantic), untunable {rare), rough, jar- 
ring, jangUng, jangly (rare), rude, clash- 
ing, ragged. 
Antonyms: see agreeing, harmonious, 


discourage, v. t. 1. depress, dishearten, 
dismay; spec, umuan (a man). 
Antonyms: see cheer, encourage, em- 


3. discountenance, disfavor; spec, disad- 
\nse, dissuade (rare), dehort {rare); — in 
reference to a proposed action. 

Antonyms: see favor. 
fliscouragement, n. 1. depression, dis- 
heartening, disheartenment, dismay. 
Antonyms: see cheer. 

2. Referring to that which discourages: 
damper, deterrent, wet blanket (colloq.). 

3. discountenance, disfavor; spec, disad- 
visement, dissuasion (rare), dishortation 
(rare) . 

discouraging, a. 1. See depressing. 
2, discountenancing, disfavoring; spec. 
dissuasive (rare), dehortative (rare), de- 
hort at ory (rare). 

discourse, n. 1. See conversation, 


2. composition, exercitation, dissertation, 
disquisition, preachment, peroration 
(rare), descant (literary), rhesis (rare), 
lucubration (often derogatory) ; spec, the- 
sis, treatise, homily, eulogy, colloquy, ex- 
hortation, address, soliloquy, recital, 

discourse, v. i. dissertate (formal), dissert 
(rare), lucubrate (often derogatory) ; spec. 
speak, WTite, treat, yarn (colloq.), sermon- 
ize; see discuss. 

discover, v. t. 1. ascertain, spot (slang), in- 
vent (rare), detect, discern, find, get; 
spec, distinguish, calculate, descry, espy, 
spy, sight, hear, feel, sense, learn, strike, 
determine, unearth, smell, catch, evaluate, 
canvass, sift. 
2. See UNCOVER. 

discoverable, a. ascertainable, determin- 
able, detectable, discernible, distinguish- 

able, calculatable, repcrible (rare), find- 
ablo, sensible, etc. 

discovery, //. 1. ascertainment, invention 
(archaic), detection, discernment; spec. 
distinction, distiiiguishmeiit, determina- 
tion, finding, calculation, descrial, espial, 
spying, sighting, hearing, feeling, sensing, 
learning, strike, striking, hitting, un- 
earthing, mare's nest (humorous), find 
2. Spec, uncovering. 

discredit, n. 1. disrepute, disparagement, 
disesteem, disrespect, misesteem, dis- 
honor, disgrace, shame, scandal, igno- 
miny, disfavor, infamy, obloquy, con- 
tumely, contempt, attaint, opprobrium, 
reproach, odium. Most of these synonyms 
have specific implications. 
Antonyms: see honor. 

2. Refernng to that which brings dises- 
teem, etc.: disgrace, dishonor, blot, 
smirch, stain, reproach, etc. 

Antonyms: sec honor. 


discredit, v. t. 1. disparage, dishonor, dis- 
grace, shame, scandalize, stigmatize, at- 
taint, stain, defame (archaic), impeach, 
derogate (rare or obs.), depreciate, com- 
promise, infamize (rare), blot, infame 
(archaic), dispraise (rare), disfame (rare), 
endamage (rare), degrade, smirch. Most 
of these synonyms have specific implica- 

Antonyms: see confirm, honor, flat- 
2. See disbelieve. 

discreditable, a. disreputable, disrespect- 
able, dishonorable, unworthy, derogatory, 
derogative, disgraceful, degrading, shame- 
ful, inglorious, scandalous, ignoble, dis- 
honest (archaic), ignominious, infamous, 
contumelious, opprobrious, foul, re- 
proachful, odious, un worshipful (rare), 
indign (rare), dirty. Most of these syno- 
nyms have specific implications. 
Antonyms: see honorable. 

discursive, a. 1. See wandering. 
2. digressive, rambling, wandering, desul- 
tory, touch-and-go (colloq.), cursory, un- 
connected, vague, loose, excursive (rare). 
Antonyms: see concise. 

discuss, V. t. & i. debate (to discuss for- 
mally), (v. i.; contextual), talk 
(colloq.), canvass, treat, conjabble (illiter- 
ate or colloq.); spec, reason, dialogize (mth 

(^° Cross references: see Note. 

discount, I. t.: buy. 

discount, n.: deduction, interest. 

discountenance: abash, con- 
demn, discmirage. 

discourse, v. t.: narrate, dis- 
cuss, speak. 

discourteous: impolite. 

discourtesy: impoliteness. 

discreet: judicious, prudent. 

discrepant: disagreeing, dif- 

discrete: discontinuous, sep- 
arate, distinct. 

discretion: decision, choice, 
will, prudence. 

discriminate: differentiate, 

discriminating: discerning, 

delicate, nice. 
discrimination: distinction, 

discernment, delicacy, nicety. 
discriminative: nice, distinc' 

live, discerning. 

t^" See Notes ot Explanation. 


another), argue, sift, ventilate {so as to 
make public), criticize, critique, review, 
dispute, agitate, moot. 

discussion, n. debate {formal discussion), 
canvass, treatment, parlance {archaic), 
parle {archaic), parley {archaic), d6mele 
{Freyich); spec, agitation, argument, ven- 
tilation, pilpul, dialogism, excursus, dis- 
putation, review. 

disease, n. 1. ailment, malady, - disorder, 
sickness, distemperature {rare), ill {liter- 
ary), complaint, distemper, misaffection 
{rare), evil {obs. or archaic, exc. in 
phrases); spec, pest, infection, contagion, 
dyscrasia, intemperies {rare), idiopathy, 
pestilence, plague, cacoethes, deuterop- 
athy, decline, epizootic, epizooty, en- 
Antonyms: see remedy. 


disease, v. t. disorder, indispose {chiefly in 
p. p., "indisposed"), distemper, affect; 
spec, infect. 
Antonyms: see cure, disinfect. 

diseased, a. ailing {contextual), ill, sick, 
distempered, sickly, unsound, unwell, 
dyscrasic {rare) , affected ; spec, sickish. 

disembark, v. t. & i. land, debark. 

disembarrass, v. t. relieve, debarrass 
{rare) . 
Antonyms: see embarrass. 

disembodied, a. incorporeal, unbodied 
{rare), disincarnate {rare). 
Antonyms: see material. 

disembowel, v. t. eviscerate, embowel 
{literary), disbowel {rare), bowel {rare), 
gut {tech. or vulgar), viscerate {rare), de- 
viscerate {rare), exenterate {rare, exc. fig.); 
spec, paunch, gib, draw, gill {rare), 

disenchant, v. t. disen charm {rare), disil- 
lusion, unwitch {rare), disentrance. 
Antonyms: see bewitch. 

disentangle, v. t. disengage, untangle, 
ravel, unravel, disen trammel {rare), un- 
twine, elaqueate {rare), clear, disinvolve 
{rare); spec, comb, tease. 
Antonyms: see entangle. 

disfavor, n. 1. Spec, dislike, condemna- 
tion, discredit, displeasure, discourage- 


disguise, v. t. hide, conceal, cover, cloak, 
clothe, mask, veil, dissemble {usually im- 
plying evil intent), dissimulate {usually 
implying evil intent), veneer {fig.), color, 
shroud, muffle; — implying a hiding or ob- 

scuring by a false or counterfeit appear- 
ance, the words mostly having specific im- 
plications suggested by their literal senses. 

disguise, n. concealment, cover, cloak, 
mask {spec, or fig.), veil, dissemblance, 
dissimulation, veneer, color, shroud, muf- 
fler, masquerade {spec, or fig.); — mostly 
having specific implications. 

disguised, a. feigned, cloaked, masked, 
veiled, hidden, incognita {Jem.), incognito 

disgust, n. 1. distaste {contextual), nausea, 

Antonyms: see pleasure. 
2. dislike {contextual), aversion {context- 
ual), abhorrence, repugnance, abomina- 
tion, loathing, displeasure {rare). 
Antonyms: see appetite. 

disgust, V. t. 1. displease {contextual), sick- 
en, nauseate, revolt {a contextual sense). 
Antonyms: see please, entice. 
2. See repel. 

disgusting, a. 1. displeasing {contextual), 
distasteful {contextual), nauseating, nau- 
seous, loathly {literary), loathful {now 
rare), loathsome, sickening, foul, revolt- 
ing, repulsive. 
Antonyms: see pleasant. 
2. abominable, revolting, foul, repulsive, 
shocking, hateful, repugnant, abhorrent, 
Antonyms: see attractive. 

dish, n. vessel {contextual); spec, crock, 
plate, platter, bowl, cup, saucer, tureen, 
pitcher, tray, doubler {large; obs. or dial.), 
plat {French), epergne, bonbonniere 
{French), skillet, saucepan, spider, cas- 
serole, pan, gravy boat, tumbler, goblet, 
caraffe, etc. 

dishevel, v. t. disorder, touse, tumble, 
tousle, ruffle, muss. 

disheveled, a. disordered, tously, tousled, 
unkempt, tumbled, mussy. 
Antonyms: see dishevel. 

dishonest, a. untrustworthy {contextual), 
crooked, faithless, false; spec, corrupt, 
sinister, knavish, fraudulent, deceitful, 
disingenuous, slippery, perfidious, treach- 
Antonyms: see honest, conscientious, 


dishonesty, n. untrustworthiness {context- 
ual), crookedness, faithlessness, falsity, 
improbity {rare), falsehood; spec, knav- 
ery, knavishness, fraud, fraudulence, per- 
fidiousness, perfidy, treachery, corruption. 
Antonyms: see honesty, virtue. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
disdain, n.: conlempt. 
disdain, v. t.: despise. 
disenthrall: free. 
disen throne: depose. 

disfavor, v. t.: dislike, con- 
demn, dinrotirage. 

disfigure: deface, deform. 

disfurnish: strip, dismantle. 

disgorge: vomit, eject, relin- 

disgrace: discredit, abase, d 

disgraceful: discreditable. 
disgruntle: displease. 
dish, ». t.: serve, ruin, hollow. 
dishabille: undress. 

X^ See Notes of Explanation. 


disinclination, ;?. iiulisposition, iiulis- 
poseelnoss; .s/xr. unwillingness, rolucUince, 
rcliu'tanfy, grudgingnoss, aversion, dis- 
like, distaste, disalTeetion. 
Antflnijmt>: sec inclination. 

disinfect, c. /. sanitize, sanitate, sterilize; 
aiKC. fumigate, listerize, asepticize, steam, 
Antonyms: sec disease, poison. 

disingenuous, a. artful, deceitful. 

disinherit, r. /. disown, exheredate (rare). 

disinheritance, n. disowning, exhereda- 
tion {rare), disherison (kcli. or literary), 
disinherison (rare), disownment. 

disintegrate, v. t. cfc i. decompose, resolve 
(rare): spec, dissolve, analyze, crumble, 
crumb, decay, weather, disgregate, dif- 
Antonyms: see compose. 

disintegration, n. decomposition, reso- 
lution (rare), analysis, etc. 

disinter, v. t. dig (contextual), dishume, an- 
bury, exhume, unearth, disinhume; spec. 
disentomb, uncharnel (rare). 
Antonyms: see bury. 

disinterment, n. digging {contextual), ex- 
humation; spec, disentombment. 
Antonyms: see burial. 

disjoint, v. t. 1. joint; spec, break. 


disk, n. circle; spec, saucer, button, squail, 
paten, roimdel, roundlet, sabot, flan, 
discus, quoit {class antiq.), umbrella 

disk- shaped, a. placentoid {tech.; rare). 

dislike, n. 1. Spec, disfavor, antipathy, 
aversion, distaste, disrelish, disgust, re- 
pugnance, repulsion, displeasure, objec- 
tion, disinclination, dyspathy, misliking, 
detestation, abhorrence, abomination, un- 
friendJiness, ill-will, disaffection, dislove 
{nonce word), hostihty, enmity, dispeace 
{rare), animosity, hate, hatred, malevo- 
lence, malice, spite {obs. or dial.). The 
words from "dislike" to "abomination" re- 
fer especially to an emotion or feeling 
prompting avoidance and aroused by con- 
tact with, or experience of, the object in 
question; the words from "unfriendliness" 
to "malevolence" refer especially to the emo- 
tion, feeling, or attitude aroused by some 
more intimate relation involving self-inter- 
est. "Dislike" is the broadest term, apply- 
ing to any degree of emotion. 
Antonyms: see affection, enjotment, 


2. See unwillingness, opposition. 
dislike, v. t. Spec, distaste, disrelish, dis- 

favor, loathe, detest, abhor, abominate, 
hate, mislike {literary), resent, lump 
(slang or vulgar). See dislike, n., above. 
Antonyms: see like, enjoy. 

disliked, a. Spec, detested, hated, loathed, 
abhorred, despised, contemned. 
Antonyms: sec beloved. 

dislocate, /'. t. 1. displace, disjoint; spec, 
(referring to bones) luxate, slip, disarticu- 
late, exarticulate (rare), splay. 


dislocated, a. shotten. 

dislodge, v. t. 1. displace, dispel, unlodge 

(rare); spec, unrest (rare), dismount, un- 

Antonyms: see deposit, fix. 

2. remove, e.xpel; spec, uncamp (rare), 

dismantle, v. t. 1. See strip. 

2. unfurnish, strip, disfurnish; spec, un- 
rig, dismast. 

Antonyms: see equip. 

3. destroy (contextual); spec, raze, disem- 

dismay, v. t. 1. discourage (contextual), 
appall, daunt. 
Antonyms: see assure. 


dismay, n. discouragement, consterna- 

dismember, v. t 1. disjoint, dislimb (rare), 
limb (rare), piecemeal (rare); spec, joint. 


dismiss, v. t. 1. To send away: spec, dis- 
solve, disperse. 
Antonyms: see recall. 


3. To put away, as out of consideration: 
spec, scout. 

dismount, v. i. alight, descend. 

dismount, v. t. 1. See displace, dislodge. 
2. Spec, unhorse, dishorse. 

disobedience, n. nonobedience, disobeyal, 
mutiny (chiefly spec), noncompliance 
noncompliancy, disregard; spec, insubor- 
dination, recalcitrance, contumacy, re- 
cusancy, recusance, undutifulness, re- 
beUion, indiscipline, defiance, unruMness, 
waywardness, frowardness (archaic). 
Antonyms: see obedience. 

disobedient, n. nonobedient, mutinous 
(chiefly spec), noncomphant, disregard- 
ful; spec, insubordinate, contumacious, 
recalcitrant, recusant, undutiful, rebel- 
lious, unsubmissive (rare), rebel, froward 
(archaic), unruly, wayward, defiant. 
Antonyms: see obedient, complaisant, 


r^= Cross references: see Note. 
disincline: indispose. 
disinclined: opposed, unwill- 

disjoin: disunite, disconnect. 
disjoint: disunite, disconnect, 

dislodgment: displacement, re- 

moval, expulsion. 
disloyal: unfaithful. 
dismal: depressing, 


fW See Notes of Explanation. 



disobey, v. t. 1. Spec, ignore, defy; — in 
reference to persons. 

2. transgress, disregard, ignore; — in refer- 
ence to commands. 
Antonyms: see obey. 

disorder, n. 1. disarrangement, misar- 
rangement, deray (archaic), misorder 
(rare), disarray; spec, confusion, topsy- 
turvy, irregularity, litter, jumble, mud- 
dle, mess, deordi nation (rare), entangle- 
ment, tangle, dishevelment, muss (U. S.). 
Antonyms: see arrangement. 


disorderly, a. 1. Spec, irregular, im- 
methodical, messy (colloq.), untidy, order- 
less, unsystematic, hugger-mugger, cha- 
Antonyms: see orderly. 
2. irregular, lawless; spec, riotous, rough, 
anarchic, turbulent, tumultuous, rowdy, 
rowdyish, topsy-turvy, rough-and-tum- 
ble, mobbish, tumultuous. 
Antonyms: see law-abiding. 

disorganization, n. disarrangement, dis- 
ruption, disorder, derangement; spec, de- 
moralization, dislocation. 
Antonyms: see organization. 

disorganize, v. t. disarrange, disorder, de- 
range, upset, disrupt; spec, demoralize, 
dislocate, demobilize. 
Ajitonijms: see organize. 

disparage, v. t. 1. See discredit. 
2. depreciate, asperse, decry, defame, 
traduce, belie (archaic or rare), calumni- 
ate, scandalize (rare), blackmouth (rare), 
denigrate (literary), blacken, detract 
(rare), mince (rare), diminish (archaic), 
lessen (archaic), disconsider (rare), dis- 
prize (obs. or archaic), derogate (archaic 
or obs.), dehonestate (rare); spec, bedaub, 
belittle, minimize, vilify, underpraise, 
backbite, slur, slander, libel. 

Antonyms: see compliment, praise, 

disparagement, n. 1. See discredit. 
2. depreciation, decrial, defamation, as- 
persion, reflection, traduction, scandali- 
zation, calumny, calumniation, denigra- 
tion (literary), blackening, detraction, 
diminution (rare), disconsideration (rare), 
derogation; spec, dehonestation (rare), 
dispraise, blasphemy, vilification, slur- 
ring, backbiting, slander, libel. ' 

Antonyms: see compliment, praise. 

disparaging, a. depreciatory, deprecia- 
tive, calumnious, calumniatory, detrac- 
tive, slighting, derogatory, hght, vilifi- 
catory, pejorative (rare or spec); spec. 
slanderous, libelous. 
Antonyms: see laudatory. 

dispel, V. t. 1. See scatter, dislodge. 
2. dissipate, banish, resolve, scatter, ex- 
pel, remove, disperse; — in reference to 
doubts, fears, etc. 

disperse, v. i. scatter; spec, diffuse, dis- 
solve, disband. 
Antonyms: see convene, gather. 

displace, v. t. 1. move (contextual), re- 
move, translocate (rare), unplace (rare); 
spec, remove, disjoint, spring, start, shift, 
slip, dislodge, unseat, disseat (chiefly fig.), 
misplace, disroot, dismount, dislocate, 
disturb, fault, unship, disorb (rare), dis- 
nest, disniche. 
Antonyms: see fix, replace. 
2. See REPLACE, discharge. 

displacement, n. 1. moving, removal, 
translocation (rare), unplacement (rare); 
spec, dis jointure (rare), start, shift, slip, 
dislodgment, unseating, dislocation, dis- 
turbance, leap, fault, unshipment, dis- 
mounting, heterotopy (tech.), parallax. 
Antonyms: see fixation, replacement. 

2. See replacement, discharge. 

3. conduct, administration, direction. 

4. transfer; spec, bestowal, gift, sale. 
displease, v. t. disgruntle (colloq.), dissat- 
isfy, disaffect, discontent, misUke; spec. 
disgust, offend, anger, annoy. 

Anto7iyms: see please. 

displeasure, n. dissatisfaction, disaffec- 
tion; spec, annoyance, anger, offense, dis- 
Antonyms: see pleasure. 

disport, V. i. play, sport, merrymake (chiefly 
in p. pr.), shrove (rare); spec, rant, frolic. 

dispose, V. t. 1. See arrange, adjust, in- 
2. appoint, direct. 

disposed, a. inclined, prone, minded, pre- 
pense (rare), affectioned (archaic), inclin- 
ing, ready, tending; spec, apt, addicted. 
"Disposed," "apt," "inclined," and "tend- 
ing' ' are also used of physical objects. 
Antonyms: see unwilling, opposed, 


disposition, n. 1. See arrangement, ad- 

t^° Cross references: see Note. 

disorder, v. I.: disarrange, con- 
fuse, derange, disorganize, dis- 

disown: disclaim, disinherit. 

disparate: unequal, different. 

disparity: inequality, differ- 
ence, disproportion. 

dispassionate: impartial, un- 


dispatch, v. t.: send, kill, ex- 
pedite, accomplish. 

dispatch, v. i.: hasten. 

dispatch, n.: sending, killing, 
expedition, haste, message. 

dispensable: unnecessary. 

dispensate: distribute, admin- 

dispensation: distributioti, dif- 
fusion, [excuse. 

dispense: distribute administer, 

disperse, v. I.: scatter, diffuse, 
distribute, dispel. 

dispirit: depress. 

display, v. t.: unfold, show, dis- 
close, [disclosure. 

display, n.: unfolding, show. 

Ii:^^See Notes of Explanation. 



affairs, etc.). 

2. constitution, temperament, temper, 

humor, spirit, nature, birth, mood, turn, 

vein, frame, stomaoli {fig.), conditions 

(archaic: pi.), cue, grain. 

S. inchnation, incHning, tendency, dis- 

posedness {rare), aflection (rare), prone- 

ness, propensity, aptitude, ineUning, bent; 

spec, fancy, notion. 

4. Spec, transfer, bestowal, gift, sale. 

dispossess, r. i. remove, forjudge (archaic 
or law), expropriate (chicjly spec); spec. 
disseize; see eject. 

disproof, II. refutation, confutation, con- 
futement (rare), disprovement (rare), re- 
butter, rebuttal, rebutment {rare), redar- 
gution (chiefly Scot, or law). 
Antonyms: see proof. 

disproportion, n. misproportion, dispar- 
ity, incommensurability, incommensu- 
rableness, incommensurateness; spec. 
Antonyms: see proportiox. 

disproportionate, /(. unproportionate, 
disparate, incommensurable, incommens- 
Antonyms: see proportionate. 

disprove, v. t. refute, confute, rebut, nega- 
tive, redargue {chiefly Scot, or law), con- 
vict (archaic). 
Antonyms: see proa^e, confirm, verify. 

disputable, a. controvertible, question- 
able, debatable, discussible, disputant; 
spec. litigable. 
Antonyms: see unquestionable. 

disputant, n. disputer, contestant (con- 
textual), contender (contextual), contro- 
versialist, controverter, controvertist ; 
spec, debater, jangler, dialogist, dialectic, 
pilpulist, polemic. 

disputatious, a. 1. Spec, controversial, cap- 
tious, disputative, contradictious, polemic. 
2. contentious, discordant, disputative, 
bickering, strifeful, jarring, quarrelsome, 
Antonyms: see agreeing, complaisant. 

dispute, V. f. contradict, controvert, dif- 
fer, disagree; spec, argue, attack, debate, 
impugn, discept (rare), challenge, ques- 
tion, Utigate, deraign (hist.; law). 
Antonyms: see confirm. 

dispute, V. i. 1. controversialize (rare), dif- 
fer, disagree; spec, debate, argue. 
2. contend, differ, disagree, altercate; 
spec, quarrel, bicker, brabble (archaic), 
brawl, jangle, wrangle, jar, flite or flyte 
(archaic or dial.), strive, spat (colloq.), tiff. 

dispute, n. 1. controversy, contradiction, 

discept ation {rare); spec, debate, argu- 

2. contention, contest, difference, dis- 
agreement, discord; spec, quarrel, jangle, 
dissension, jar, strife, snarl (colloq.), 
wrangle, squabble, bicker, brawl, brabble 
(archaic), spat (colloq.), tiff, bickerment 
(rare), impugnation (rare), impugnment 
(rare), polemic. 
S. Spec, issue. 

disqualification, n. disablement, disabil- 
ity; spec, superannuation, minority, sex, 
insanity, etc. 
Antonyms: see qualification. 

disqualify, v. t. disable; spec, superannu- 
ate, unfit. 
Antonyms: see qualify. 

disregard, v. t. ignore, neglect, overlook 
(rare or spec.), pretermit (rare); spec, dis- 
semble, disobey, slight, defy. 
Antonyms: see observe, attend, con- 

disregard, n. ignoration (rare), inatten- 
tion, neglect, dissembling, preterition 
(rare), pretermission (rare) ; spec, oblivion, 
disobedience, slight, defiance, heedless- 
ness, unheeding. 

Antonyms: see observance, atten- 
tion, EMPHASIS, consideration. 

disregardful, a. neglectful, inattentive, 
disregardant; spec, deaf, blind, careless, 
heedless, oblivious, disobedient, slighting, 
Antonyms: see attenti\'E. 

disrepair, n. decay, impairment, unrepair, 
irrepair (rare). 
Antonyms: see repair. 

disrespect, w. 1. See discredit, incivility. 
2. disesteem, misesteem; spec, irrever- 
ence, contempt, disdain, etc.; — referring to 
the attitude of mind. 
Antonyms: see esteem. 

disrespect, v. t. disesteem; spec, despise, 
loathe, abhor, abominate. 
Antonyms: see esteem. 

disrespectful, a. irrespectful (rare); spec. 
irreverent, contemptuous, impolite, 
Antonyms: see respectful. 

dissect, V. t. 1. To cut up: spec, anatomize, 
vivisect, transect (rare). 
2. See analyze, criticize. 

dissemble, v. i. pretend, feign, po.ssum 
(colloq.; rare), dissimulate, act (chiefly 
spec, or flq.). 

dissembler, n. deceiver, pretender, feign- 
er, dissimulator, actor, disguiser (rare); 
spec, hvpocrite, counterfeiter. 

dissembling, a. deceitful, dissimulat- 
ing; spec, hypocritical, canting, ironical. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
disqualified: unqualified. 

disrobe: undress. 

disrupt, V. t.: break, burst, 
breach, disorganize. 

XS^ See Notes of Explanation. 


Antonyms: see frank. 
dissembling, n. 1. deceit, dissimulation, 
dissemblance, pretense, disguising; spec. 
hypocrisy, irony. 


dissension, n. disagreement, discord, 
strife, friction; spec, faction, party. 
Antonyms: see peace. 

dissent, v. i. differ, disagree. 

dissent, n. difference, disagreement; spec. 
nonconformity, recusancy. 

dissenter, n. differer {contextual), dis- 
sentient, dissident, come-outer {coUuq., 
U. S.) ; spec, recusant, nonconformist, 
Raskolnik, sectary, heretic, infidel. 

dissentient, a. disagreeing (contextual), 
dissenting, dissentious, inacquiescent; 
spec, recusant, factious, dissident, non- 
Antonyms: see agreeing. 

dissentious, a. inacquiescent {rare), 
recusant {chiefly eccl.); spec, inflamma- 
tory, incendiary, strifeful. 

dissipate, v. i. 1. See scatter, diffuse. 
2. debauch, riot {rare); spec. Corinthian- 
ize, rake. 

dissipated, a. 1. See scattered, diffuse. 
2. corrupt (contextual), debauched, dis- 
solute, rakehell (archaic), fast, aban- 
doned; spec. Corinthian, wild, raking, 
rakish, unsteady, licentious, crapulent, 
crapulous, lecherous, profligate. 

dissipater, n. 1. Spec, scatterer, difTuser. 
2. cGssipator (a variant spelling), de- 
bauchee; spec, rake, ranter (rare), lecher 
(archaic), palliard (archaic), rioter (rare or 
archaic), profligate, rakehell (archaic), 
rakeshame (archaic), rip (colloq. or dial.), 
roue (French), rounder (colloq.), Corin- 

dissipation, n. 1. Spec, scattering, dif- 

2. corruption (contextual), debauchery, 
debauch, debauchment, dissoluteness, 
fastness; spec, prodigalism, raking, rakery 
(rare), riot (rare), riotousness, crapulence, 

3. Referring to an act or occasion: de- 
bauch; spec, spree (colloq.), bout, bum 
(slang), orgy, drunk (slang). 

dissolve, v. t. 1. See decompose, disin- 

2. Referring to happiness, troubles, doubts, 
etc.: destroy, annihilate (rare), consume, 
diffuse; spec, abrogate, annul, explain. 

3. Referring to a legislature, parliament, 
etc.: dismiss, end (rare); spec, prorogue. 

Antonyms: see convene, convoke. 
4. To cause to become a solution: spec, cut, 
lixiviate, leach. 
dissolve, V. i. 1. decompose, disintegrate, 
resolve (rare). 
2. See disappear, scatter. 
dissuade, v. t. 1. turn, divert. 
Antonyms: see induce. 
2. See dfhort. 
dissuasion, n. turning, diversion. 
distance, n. 1. remoteness, separation, 
farness ; — referring to state, fact, or degree. 
Antonyms: see nearness. 

2. space, remove {rare as referring to 
space), interval, way (iised with "long," 
"short," etc.), interspace, length (spec, or 
idiomatic); spec, difference, westing, east- 
ing, elongation, longitude, drift, pitch, 
drop ; — referring to interval in space, time, 
degree, etc. 

3. Referring to a distant place: spec, offing; 
see background. 

4. aloofness, offishness, stiffness, repel- 
lency; spec, reserve, coldness, superiority, 

Antonyms: see cordiality. 

distant, a. 1. remote, separate, apart 
(postpositive), far-away, far-off, away 
(postpositive) ; spec, different, ulterior. 
Antonyms: see near, adjacent, imme- 

2. offish, aloof (predicative), repellent, 
farouche (French), strange; spec, bashful, 
reserved, cold, frigid, unneighborly, su- 
perior, condescending. 
Antonyms: see cordial. 

distend, v. t. dilate, swell; spoc. plump, 
bloat, fill, inflate. 
Antonyms: see constrict, contract. 

distill, distil, v. t. & i. 1. See drop, ex- 

2. evaporate, concentrate, condense ; spec. 
cohobate (old chem.). 

distillate, n. See extract. 

distillation, n. 1. evaporation, distillment 
(rare); spec, cohobation, descent. 
2. See distillate, extract. 

distinct, a. 1. different (contextual), re- 
mote, several, discrete, discriminate, dis- 
Aiitonyms: see same, alike. 
2. See definite, clear (in meaning), evi- 
dent, separate. 

distinction, n. 1. separation, demarca- 
tion, differentiation, discretion, discern- 
ment, discrimination, distinguishment 
(rare), contradistinction. 

V^' Cross references: see Note. 
disseminate: scatter, diffuse. 
dissent: disagree. 
disserve: injure. 
dissident: dissentient. 

dissimilar: different. 

dissimulate: disguise, dis- 

dissimulation: disguise, dis- 

dissipate: scatter, dispel, dif- 
fuse, waste. 

dissociate: separate. 

distasteful: disgusting, un- 
paliitable, offensive. 

^iW See Notes of Explanation. 


3. diffcrenco, remoteness, discreteuess, 
seveninco, discrimination. 

S. Spfc. separatonoss, distinctiveness. 

4. repute, eminence, rank, note {ckicjlij 
used with "of"), mark (cltkjly used with 
"of"), eclat (French), superiority, eximi- 
ousness (rare), notability; spec, fame 
(rare), signality, greatness. 

distinctive, a. distinguishing, differentia- 
tive, discriminative; spec, diagnostic, dia- 
critic or diacritical. 

distinguish, v. t. 1. To mark as different: 
ditYerentiate, separate, difference, demar- 
cate, mark (often used loith "off"), diiler 
(rare); spec, accentuate. 
Antonyms: see confuse. 

2. To perceive or treat as distinct: separate, 
demarcate, differentiate, difference, dis- 
criminate, discern, tell, secern (rare), sin- 
gle, differ (rare), decern (rare), sever, sev- 
eralize (rare); spec, classify, discover, con- 

Antonyms: see confuse. 

3. signalize, signal (rare), mark, singu- 

distinguished, a. superior, eminent, con- 
spicuous, noted, marked, e.ximious (rare); 
spec, shining, famous, extraordinary, 
Antonyms: see obscure. 

distort, V. t. 1. deform; spec, screw, wring, 
wrench, torment (rare), twist, contort, 
writhe, wrest, warp, deface, knot, gnarl. 
2. See pervert; — referring to meaniiig. 

distorted, a. deformed, Gordian {fig), 
knotted, gnarled, contorted, etc. 

distortion, n. 1. deformation; spec, twist, 
contortion, screw, warp, defacement, con- 
tortuosity (nonce word), knot, buckle. 
2. See perversion; — referring to mean- 

distress, n. discomfort (contextual), dolor 
(poetic), unease (archaic), misease (ar- 
chaic); spec, trouble, calamity, torment, 
press, affliction, pain, tribulation, care, 
hurt, misery, gnawing, trial, hardship, 
harassment, confusion, privation, need, 
want, pressure, grief, sorrow, exigency, 
anxiety, etc.; hell, slang or very strong. 

Antonyms: see comfort, enjoyment, 

distress, v. t. discomfort, trouble; spec. 
press, harrow, straiten, harry, worry, 
bother, rack, harass, gripe (rare), lacer- 
ate, tear, hurt, torment, pain, grieve, sad- 
den, pinch, jar (now usually considered 
slang or inelegant) . 
Antonyms: see comfort, relieve. 

distressing, a. distressful, uneasy; spec. 
tormentful (rare), dolorific {liter ary), 

carking {archaic), heavy, calamitous, 
grievous, bitter, harrowing, severe, sorry, 
gnawing, pinching, miserable, trouble- 
some, sad, jKiinful, griping, heartrending. 
Antonyms: see comforting, comfort- 

distribute, v. t. 1. dispense, dispensate, 
divide, part (archaic), dispart (rare), dis- 
perse; spec, prorate {chiefly U. S.), spread, 
partition, scatter, parcel, morsel (rare), 
dole, send, apportion, share, mete, allot, 
diffuse, circulate; see spread. 

Antonyms: see collect. 
2. See classify, administer (as justice), 

distribution, H. 1. dispensation, division, 
j)artition; spec, dispersion, prorating 
(chiefly U. S.), scattering, parceling, par- 
celment, dole, apportionment, sharing, 
allotment, diffusion; spec, spreading. 
Antonyms: see collection. 
2. Spec, classification, administration {as 
of justice), spreading. 

district, 7i. place, region, quarter (chief- 
ly spec); spec, division, subdivision, sec- 
tion, riding, regency, wardenry, ward, 
neighborhood, province, presidency, pre- 
cinct, prefecture, department, canton 
(rare, exc. of Switzerland), lathe (Kent, 

distrust, V. t. doubt, mistrust, misdoubt, 
suspect; spec, jealouse {obs., Scot., or 

distrust, n. doubt, mistrust, suspicion, 
misdoubt, misgiving; spec, jealousy, 

Antonyrns: see trust, assurance, re- 

distrustful, a. doubtful, mistrustful, dif- 
fident (archaic), strange, dubious, sus- 
picious; spec, shy, jealous. 

Antonyms: see assured, reliant, un- 

disturb, v. t. 1. Referring to the mind: 
trouble, agitate; spec, annoy, distract, 
fuss (colloq.), muss (colloq.; with "up"), 
distress, vex, worry, disconcert, discom- 
Antonyms: see calm, pacify. 

2. Referring to things: see agitate. 

3. Spec, move, disarrange, derange, dis- 
order, confuse, unsettle, shake, molest, 
interrupt, remove, convulse. 

disturbance, n. 1. Referring to the mind: 
agitation, inquietude (rare); spec, tur- 
moil annoyance, vexation, distress, dis- 
traction, worry, disconcertion, discom- 
posure, distemperature, muss, perturba- 
Antonyms: see calm. 
2. Referring to things: see agitation. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
distract: divert, derange, dis- 

turb, confuse, frenzy. 
distracted: deranged, confused. 

distraction: diversion, derange- 
ment, disturbance, confusion, frenzy , 

XS^ Sec Notes of Explanation. 


8. Spec, moving, removal, disarrange- 
ment, derangement, disorder, confusion, 
unsettlement, molestation, interference, 

4. Referring to disturbance among -people: 
disorder, disquiet, distemperature {rare), 
breeze (colloq.), inquietation (rare), in- 
quietude (rare), curfuffle (Scot.); spec. 
commotion, tmnult, sedition, insurrec- 
tion, kick-up (colloq.), row (colloq^), to-do 
(colloq.), dust (slang or colloq.), shindy 
(slang), esclandre (French), scene, pother 
(colloq. or archaic), fracas, uproar, muss 
(colloq., U. S.), convulsion, bother, fuss 
(colloq.), botheration (colloq.), bobery 
(slang), bluster, conflict, fight, hoity- 
toity (rare), rumpus (colloq.), grithbreach 
(hist.), row-de-dow (rare), cmeute 
(French), outbreak, ruption (rare), rout, 
riot, ruffle (rare), dispute, ruction (col- 
loq.), bustle, clutter, stir, anarchy, brawl, 
hubbub, combustion (now literary and 
rare), scrimmage, turn-up (colloq.; rare). 

disturbing, a. disquieting, disturbant 
(rare); spec, agitative, troublous, uncom- 
fortable, perturbative (rare), perturba- 
tory (rare), etc. 
Antonyms: see calmative. 

disunion, n. 1. division, separation, sever- 
ance, disjoining, disseverance, dissocia- 
tion, disjointure, disjunction; spec, dis- 
connection, detachment. 
Antonyms: see union. 

2. separation; spec, schism. 


disunite, v. t. & i. 1. separate, disjoint; 
spec, dissever, rend, dissociate, disconnect, 
detach, disjoint. 

Antonyms: see unite. 
2. alienate, estrange, divide. 

disuse, V. t. abandon, obsolete (rare), dis- 
card; spec, discontinue, neglect, disaccus- 
tom (archaic). 
Antonyms: see use, exercise. 

disuse, n. 1. abandonment, nonuse, non- 
employment, disusage, discarding; spec. 
discontinuance, neglect, nonobservance. 

Antonyms: see use. 
2. desuetude (formal or literary), disu- 
sage, nonuse, inusitation (rare); spec, neg- 
lect, nonobservance. 

ditch, ;;. t. trench, channel, dike (nowrare); 
spec, moat, drain, vallate (rare). 

ditch, n. fosse (tech. or literary), trench; 
spec, canal, graff (hist.), grip (dial, or hunt- 
ing), drain, coupure, moat. 

dive, V. i. 1. plunge; spec, sound. 


dive, n. 1. plunge; spec, header (colloq.). 
2. See RESORT. 

diverge, v. i. Spec, radiate, branch, divari- 
cate, fork. 

divergent, a. Spec, radiant, radial, radia- 
tive (rare), branching, forking, divaricat- 
Antonyms: see parallel, confluent. 

diversified, a. 1. diverse, manifold', multi- 
fold, varied, mixed, multivarious (rare), 
variate (rare), multifarious, heterogene- 
ous, diversiform, variform (formal or 
learned), various. 
Antonyms: see uniform. 


diversify, v. t. 1. variate, vary, varify 


diversion, n. 1. turning; spec, deviation, 
derivation, dissuasion. 

2. amusement, pastime, dispart (ar- 
chaic), entertainment, beguilement, play, 
recreation, derivation (archaic or tech.), 
sport, relaxation; spec, trifling, fun, sol- 
acement or solace. 

Antonyms: see business, work. 

3. Referring to that which amuses; used 
with the article "a" and having a plural: 
amusement, recreation, play, game, en- 
tertainment, sport, divertissement 
(French), solacement or solace, derivation 
(archaic), distraction (rare); spec, entre- 
mets (French), avocation (rare). 

diversity, n. 1. See difference. 
2. variety, manifoldness, multifarious- 
ness, multiformity, variation; spec, hete- 
rogeneity, heteromorphism (chiefly 
tech.), multiformity. 
Antonyms: see uniformity. 

divert, v. t. 1. turn, disorientate (fig. or 
spec), deviate. 

2. turn (from a purpose, etc.), draw; spec. 

3. distract (contextual), amuse, derive (ar- 
chaic), solace, entertain, recreate, be- 
guile, disport; spec, tickle. 

Antonyms: see work, tire, weary. 

diverting, a. amusing, entertaining, recre- 
ative, divert: ve, etc. 

divide, v. t. 1. sever (spec, or fig.), disunite, 
separate, carve (spec, or fig.), cleave (spec, 
or fig.), cut (spec, or fig ); spec, scind 
(rare), section, sectionize (rare), part, par- 
cel, bisect, dispart, dissever, subdivide, 
dismember, junk (rare), split, rend, seg- 
ment, halve, quarter, third, disconnect, 
disjoint, class. 
Antonyms: see join, unite. 
2. To mark or partition off (a continuous 
thing) into parts, or to consider as so 
marked off or partitioned: separate, demar- 
cate (rare), partition (spec, or fig.); spec. 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 

diurnal: daily. 

I divaricate: branch. 

Kd^ Sec Notes of Explanation. 



graduate, lot, compart, subdivido, parcel, 
district, canton, chapter. 

3. ^'(r Dl!>THlUlTi:, AIM'OUTION, DISUNITK, 

divide, r. i. 1. separate, part, sever, cleave 
(ifpec. or Jig.), cut (spec, or Jig.); spec, bi- 
sect, dispart, subdivide, dismember, split, 
halve, quarter. 
Antonyms: sec unite. 


divide, n. watershed, water parting, shed; 
spec, coteau [Canada and U. S.). 

divided, a. j^arted; spec, biparted (rare), 
bipartite, digitate, lobulate, lobulated, 
lobulose, lobate, multipartite, disulcate. 
Antonyms: see united. 

divination, n. 1. prediction, divining, 
soothsaying, auspice (chiejly spec), hario- 
lation (rare), riddling (rare), augury; 
spec, spatulamancy, rhabdomancy, theo- 
mancy, haruspicy or haruspication, or- 
nithomancy, mantology (rare), mantic 
(rare), hieromancy, hieroscopy, gyro- 
mancy, hydromancy, graptomancy, geo- 
mancy, bibliomancy, lithomancy, hariola- 
tion (rare), spodomancy, halomancy, 
2. See GUESS. 

divine, v. i. 1. predict, vaticinate, soothsay, 
hariolate (rare), prophesy; spec, dowse. 
2. See GUESS. 

divine, a. 1. superhuman, godlike, deific, 
deiform, godly, spiritual, heavenly, celes- 
tial, ambrosial (spec, or Jig.). 
Antonyms: see earthly, human. 


3. fine, superior, excellent, ambrosial (Jig.). 
diviner, n. 1. predictor, Chaldean (Jig.), 

augur, soothsayer; spec, geomancer, dow- 

2. See GUESSER. 
divinity, n. 1. deity, godhead, godhood, 
godship, deityship (rare). 

2. godlikeness, deiformity (rare). 


divisible, a. separable, partible, severable, 
dividual (rare), dividuous (rare), etc.; 
spec, commensurable. 
Antonyms: see inseparable. 

division, n. 1. Act of dividing or state or 
fact of being divided: severance, parting, 
separation, cutting (spec, or Jig.), dispart- 
ing; spec, disuniting, section, splitting, 
split, scissure, partitionment, parcelment, 
disseverance (rare), subdivision, rending, 
partition, partage (rare), schism, segmen- 
tation, lobation, fracture, breaking, de- 
duplication, dismemberment, dearticula- 
tion, disconnection, diaeresis, digitation, 
bisection, bipartition, trisection. i 

Antonyms: sec joining, union. 

2. .1 part formed by (physical) division: 
part; spec, subdivision, section, parcel, 
fragment, cut, lobe, lobule, cloot (Scot, 
ami dial. Eng.), etc. 

3. A marking off or treating as marked off: 
separation, demarcation; spec, partition- 
ment, graduation, parcelment, district- 

4. A part marked off or taken as being 
separated: part, section ; spec, subdivision, 
segment, member, movement, column, 
passus, canto, verse, decade, chapter, 
book, compartment, cell, court, category, 
kind, sort, branch, department, canton, 
ordinary, lot, parcel, faction, party, sect, 
district, block, etc. 

5. Mil. and naval: spec, battery, company, 
brigade, battalion, organization, army, 
classis, cohort, decury, maniple, tercio, 
tertia, class, squadron, fleet, command, 
troop, squad. 

6. Of territory: spec, province, territory, 
state, government, presidency, consulate, 
dominion, county, department, ward, dis- 
trict, circar (India), canton, cantonment, 
commune, commot, residency, mahal 
(India), eparchy, eyalet (Turkish), vilayet 

7. See classification, class, computa- 
tion, distribution, disunion, disagree- 
ment, sharing, share, branch. 

8. Thing that divides: partition ; spec, line, 
wall, fence, etc. 

divorce, n. divorcement; spec, repudiation, 
separation, diffarreation. 
Antonyms: see marriage. 

divorce, v. t. unmarry (rare); spec, repudi- 
ate, separate. 
Antonyms: see marry. 

dizziness, n. giddiness, vertigo (tech.), 

dizzy, a. 1. giddy, giddyish (rare), vertigi- 
nous, vertiginate (rare). 
2. dizzying, giddy. 

dizzy, V. i. swim. 

do, V. t. Every kind of action may be viewed 
as a particidar form of doing, and the 
senses which the verb "do" may represent 
are as numerous as the forms of activity 
represented by the words which the verb may 
govern. It is impossible, therefore, to give 
a complete list of the various verbs which 
may be replaced by "do." The most im- 
portant ones, hoivever, are here listed. Spec. 
inflict, administer, render, perform, 
achieve, commit, practice, cook, cele- 
brate, cause, compose, transact, conduct, 
conjure, contrive, deceive, settle, con- 
clude, depict, give, misdo, misexecute, 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 

divulge: disclose, tattle. 

I do, n.: act, deed. 

%W See Notes of Explanation. 


make, manage, prepare, pickle, proceed, 
render, show, give, serve, solve, use, exert, 
produce, translate, review, dig, act, ruin, 
swindle, visit, finish, slur, slight, spoil, etc. 
See the above words in the vocabulary (upper 
or lower). 

do, V. i. 1. See act, fare. 
2. answer, suffice. 

dock, V. t. 1. cut, clip, curtail (rare), bob- 
tail (a horse), truncate. 


docked, a. curtail (rare), curtailed (rare), 
bobtail; spec, cock-tailed. 

doctor, n. physician, medical (colloq.), 
doser (contemptuous), leech (archaic), 
healer (often spec), curer; spec, homoeo- 
path, homoeopath! st, allopath, allopath- 
ist, osteopath, hydropath, hydropathist, 
surgeon, dentist, chiropodist, ahenist, 
oculist, aurist, veterinarian, doctress 
(now rare) . 

doctor, V. t. 1. treat, leech (archaic); spec. 


doctor, V. i. leech (archaic), practice. 

doctrine, n. tenet, dogma, dogmatism 
(chiefly derogatory); spec, creed, theory, 
opinion, teaching. 

document, n. Spec, writing, handwriting 
(archaic), instrument, monument (rare or 
spec), muniment (law), diploma (histor- 
ical or spec), record, charter, charta, 
parchment, paper, patent, manuscript, 
Round Robin, brevet, certificate, pass- 
port, commission, power, pleading, etc 

document, v. t. evidence, prove. 

dodge, V. i. 1. jink (chiefly Scot.); spec 
duck, flinch, jump, jerk. 
2. evade, shuffle, palter, shift; spec, hedge, 
trim, prevaricate, quibble. 

dodge, n. 1. Spec, duck, jump, jerk, 

2. evasion, deceit, artifice. 

3. device, expedient. 

doer, n. facient (rare); spec performer, act- 
or, author, committer, perpetrator, mak- 
er, etc. Cf. DO. 

dofl, V. t. To lay or put off: cast, douse (col- 
loq.)', see REMOVE. "Doff" is literary and 
has a flavor of archaism. 
Antonyms: see don. 

dog, n. 1. canine (chiefly tech.), cur (con- 
temptuous or derogatory), whelp (chiefly 
contemptuous); spec pup, puppy, toy, 
tike, terrier trundletail, turnspit, spaniel, 
springer, setter, dachshund (Ger.), skirter, 
shock, rache or ratch (archaic), reporter 

(U. S.), pug, pye-dog or pie-dog (Ayiglo- 
Indian), pariah dog, pointer, poodle, 
mastiff, lurcher, hound (spec, exc archaic 
or poetic), harrier, hunter, gazehound, 
griffon, guara, finder, deerhound, stag- 
hound, dingo, dhole (India), courser, col- 
lie, colly, bulldog, beagle. Saint Bernard, 
basset, brindle, buckhound, bandog, tie- 
dog (obs. or rare), bitch, brach, brachet, 
slut, lady (euphemistic); — all those from 
' 'bitch" on being feminine. ' ' Dog" is often 
used speciflcally of a male dog. 


dog days, canicular days (learned), cani- 
cule (rare). 

dogma, n. doctrine, tenet. 

dogmatic, a. 1. See didactic, doctrinal. 
2. positive, categorical, pragmatic, prag- 
matical, magisterial (bookish or learned), 
thelical (rare); spec, opinionated, per- 
emptory, dictatorial. 
Antonyms: see doubtful, hesitating. 

doing, a. In the sense of "going on": up, 
on; — in predicative use. 

doing, n. 1. feasance (tech.), facture (book- 
ish), transaction; spec, conduct; see crea- 
tion, making. 

2. See action, commission, accomplish- 
ment, performance. 

doings, n. pi. gear (sing.; archaic or dial), 
ongoings (pi.); see action. 

doll, a. plaything (contextual), toy (con- 
textual), dolly; spec, puppet (archaic), 
baby, betty (girl doll), benedict (boy doll). 

dollar, n. sinker (slang, U. S), simoleon 
(slang), plunk (slang, U. S), wheel 
(slang); spec, rixdollar (hist), duro (Span- 
ish), peso (Mexican), cob (obs). 

domain, n. 1. See estate, lordship, 
bound, control, sphere. 
2. realm, reign (rare), dominion, bourn or 
bourne (rare or poetic), territory, posses- 
sion; spec kingdom, province, empire, 
empery (poetic or rhetorical), obedience, 
sultanate, khanate, daimiate, lordship, 
signory, dukedom, county, palatinate. 

dome, n. vault; spec, cupola, tholus, can- 
opy, beehive. 

domestic, a. 1. home, homely (rare), 
household, domal (rare), familiar, family; 
spec, menial (servant; now contemptuoxis) . 

2. domesticated; — fond of domestic life. 

3. internal, interior, intestine, inland, na- 
tive, home; spec, home-bred. 

Antonyms: see foreign. 

4. See TAME. 

domestic, n. servant, familiar (rare); spec. 

15^ Cross references: see Note. 
docile: teachable, manageable. 
doggerel, n.: ver.fe. — doggerel, 
n.: trivial. [sion. 

doldrums: dullness, depres- 

dole, n.: share, distribution, gift, 

dole, t'. t.: distribute, apportion, 

dole,n.; depression, sorroxp , grief . 

doleful: depressed, lamentable, 
sorrowful, depressing, gloomy. 

dolor: depression, sorrow, dis- 

dome, V. (.; vault, cover. 

IW See Notes of Esplanation. 



maid, pirl (coUoq.), cook, chamlu'iinaid, 
in:\n, boy {colonial /in/t'.s/i), familiar, hiit- 
k'r, sfuUion (archaic). 

domesticate, r. t. domesticizo; spec, civil- 
ize, naturalize; set' tame. 

domineer, v. i. tyrannize, lord. 
.■\iitoni/rns: sec F.wvN. 

domineering, a. tyrannical, masterful, 
tyrannic (rare); spec, authoritative, bossy 
(colloq.), bullying, higli-handed. 
Antonyms: sec ob8i:qdious, servile. 

domineering, 7i. tyranny. 

don, r. t. assume {spec, or affected) , 
Antonyms: sec doff. 

done, a. Spec, performed, executed, fin- 
ished, etc. CJ. DO, V. i. 

donkey, n. 1. ass, jack (rnale), jackass 
(male), onager (wild), jenny (female), 
burro {Southwestern U. S.), cuddy {chiefly 
Scot.), dicky or dickey {jyToperly he-ass; 
slang or colloq.), moke (slang), neddy. 
"Ass" is the common word when used of the 
wild forms. 


door, 71. 1. barrier; spec, trap, trapdoor, 
hatch, heck (chiefly Scot.). 
2. See DOORWAY, passage. 

doorkeeper, n. porter, portress (jeyn.), 
janitor, janitress (Jem.), janitrix (fern.), 
doorward (archaic), ostiary (chiefly eccl.), 
tiler (Freemasonry), usher (archaic or 
spec), concierge (itt France, etc.). 

doorpost, n. durn (yiow dial.). 

doorway, n. passage (contextual), door, 
portal (a dignified term); spec, postern, 
entrance, exit, hatchway, durns (pi.; now 

dose, n. portion; spec, potion, powder, pill. 

dot, n. spot (contextual), speck; spec. 
point, tittle (rare), peck, speckle, prick, 

dot, V. t. 1. spot (contextual), speck; spec. 
point, speckle, punctuate, sprinkle, stip- 
ple, island. 


dotted, a. spotted; spec, punctate, punc- 
tated, consperse (rare), sprinkled, irro- 
rate, speckled, bipunctate. 

dotting, n. spotting; spec, punctuation, 

dot-shaped, a. punctiform. 

double, a. 1. twofold, duplicate, duple 
(rare or math.), duplex (tech. or rare), dual; 
spec, dualistic, geminous (rare), geminate, 
paired, binary, binate, binal (rare), bi- 
form, biformed, bifront. 
2. See AMBIGUOUS, insincere, folded. 

double, V. t. 1. multiply, redouble, dupli- 
cate, geminate (rare); spec, repeat, fac- 
2. See fold, defeat, avoid, couple. 

doubled, a. duplicated, reduplicate, con- 
duplicate (rare or tech.). 

double-entendre, n. equivocation; spec. 
pun, dittology. "Double-entendre" is 

doubling, n. duplicature (chiefly math.), 
gemination (rare), duplication, condupli- 
cation (literary), duplation (rare). 

doubly, adv. twice, twofold. 

doubt, n. 1. uncertainty, question, dubi- 
ety (literary), dubiousness, doubtfulness, 
incertitude, undecidedness ; spec, mis- 
doubt, skepticism, incredulity, suspicion, 
disbelief, distrust, perplexity, hesitation, 
indecision, suspense; — referring to the 
state of mind. 
Antonyms: see assurance, trust, be- 
lief, certainty. 

2. See uncertainty; — referring to facts, 
events, etc. 

doubt, V. i. question, dubitate (literary or 
affected); spec, misdoubt, hesitate. 
Ardonyms: see believe, trust. 

doubt, V. t. question, query (rare), dubi- 
tate (literary or affected), misdoubt; spec. 
suspect, distrust, disbelieve. 
Antomjms: see believe, trust. 

doubtful, a. 1. undecided, questioning, 
doubting, undetermined, dubious, dubi- 
tant (rare); spec, skeptical, hesitant, per- 
plexed, distrustful, incredulous; see be- 
lieving ; — referring to the state of mind. 

Antonyms: see assured, decided, dog- 
matic, trustful, certain. 
2. See uncertain; — referring to facts, 
events, etc. 

dovecot, dovecote, n. birdhouse (context- 
ual) . columbarium, dovehouse, columbary. 

dovetail, v. t. 1. mortise (contextual), tail, 
cog, cock. 
2. See JOIN. 

dower, n. 1. portion {of a widow), thirds (a 
loose usage), dowry (rare), share (con- 
2. See dowry, endowment. 

dower, v. t. dot (rare), tocher (Scot.), por- 
tion, endow; — referring to hestowmenit on 

down, adv. downward, downwards, 
groundward, earthward, netherwards 
(rare), downwardly; spec, downstairs, be- 
low (on shipboard), hellward, floorward. 
Antonyms: see upward, heavenward. 

t^^ Cross references: see Note. 
domicile, n.: abode. 
domicile, v. i.: dwell. 
domicile, v. t.: establish, settle. 
dominion: control, government, 
empire, domain, authority, rule. 

donate: give. 

donation: gift. [demnation. 
doom,n..' judgment, destiny, con- 
doom, V. I.: condemn, destine. 
dormant: sleeping, inactive. 
dose, V. t.: drug, adulterate. 

doting: fond. 

double, n.; counterpart, fold, 
turn, evasion, trick. [dable. 

douglity: brave, strong, formi- 
douse: lower, doff, extinguish. 
douse: dip, drench. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



down, a. downward, descending; spec. 
sloping, downmost. 

down, n. 1. See plumage. 
2. pubescence, lanugo (tech.), wool, fluff. 

downcast, a. 1. See depressed. 
2. lowered (eyes, glance), dejected (eyes; 
Antonyms: see upturned. 

downs, n. pi. upland, wold (Eng.), fell 
(Eng.), moor. 

downy, a. 1. feathery (contextual), pubes- 
cent, fluffy, lanuginous (tech.), lanugi- 
nose {tech.) ; spec, silky, sericeous (tech.), 
thrummy (rare), cottony, pappose (rare), 
2. See SOFT. 

dowry, n. 1. Referring to that of a bride: 
dower, dote (rare), dot, tocher (Scot.), 
share (contextual). 
2. See DOWER (of a widow), endowment. 

dowser, n. diviner (contextual), hydro- 
scopist, rhabdomancer (rare), rhabdo- 

drab, a. & n. dun, brownish, yellow, yel- 
lowish gray. 

drabble, v. i. & t. draggle. 

draconian, a. draconic, dracontine (rare) , 
harsh, cruel. 

draconic, a. dragonlike, dracontine, dra- 
contian, dragon. 

drafl, n. dregs; spec, swill. 

draft, n. 1. See drawing, load, drink- 
ing, DRINK, inhalation, CURRENT, OUT- 
LINE, deduction. 

2. demand; spec, order, check or (chiefly 
British) cheque, bill (of exchange) . 

3. depth (enough to float a vessel) . 

4. Mil.: conscription. 

5. In forms "drafts" construed as sing.: 
checkers (U. S.). 

draft, V. t. 1. See outline. 
2. Mil.: spec, impress, press, conscribe 
(rare), conscript, commandeer (South 

drafted, a. Spec, conscript, impressed, 

draggle, v. t. & i. 1. drabble, trail, betrail 
(intensive), bedraggle (intensive). 
2. See straggle. 

dragnet, n. dredge, drag, trammel. 

dragon, n. monster (contextual), drake (ar- 
chaic); spec, serpent, saurian, dragonet. 

drain, v. t. 1. empty (contextual); spec. 
emulge (rare), tap, milk (fig.), dike, 
trench, sluice, sewer, ditch. 
Antonyms: see fill. 

2. See exhaust, deprive, drink. 

3. drip, percolate. 

drain, n. 1. See drainage. 
2. channel (contextual); spec, ditch, cul- 
vert, leader, fox, sewer, cesspool. 

drainage, n. 1. drain, draining; spec. 

2. Spec, sewage, seepage; — referring to 
matter drained off. 

dram, n. drink (contextual); spec, thimble- 
ful, sip. 

drama, n. 1. composition, play, piece; spec, 
comedy, comedietta, tragedy, farce, bur- 
lesque, travesty, sketch, interlude, mono- 
drama, monologue, melodrama, mclo- 
tragedy, pastoral, masque, operetta, 
opera, pantomime, tragicomedy, trilogy, 
proverb, mystery, miracle play or (rare) 

2. dramaturge (literary) , dramatics. 

3. the stage, the theater. 

dramatic, a. theatrical, theatric (rare), 
dramaturgic (literary), Thespian (liter- 
ary), scenic, scenical; spec, melodramatic, 
melodramatical, tragic, farcical, Atellan, 
comic, burlesque. 

dramatist, n. playwright, dramaturge 
(rare); dramaturgist; spec, tragedian. 

dramatize, v. t. Spec, melodramatize, 
operatize (rare), burlesque, farcify (rare). 

drape, v. t. 1. cover (contextual); spec. 
hang, tapestry, pall. 
2. See ARRANGE, hang. 

drape, n. 1. See cover, drapery. 
2. adjustment, hang, cast. "Drape" is 

drapery, n. furniture, hangings (pi.); spec. 

draw, v. t. & i. 1. drag, haul (chiefly nauti- 
cal), pull, tug, hale (now superseded in 
ordinary usage by "haul"); spec, tow, lug, 
attract, trail, snake (colloq. or slang, U. 
S.), train (rare), entrain (rare), tear, rush, 
trawl, bunt, bouse or bowse, brail, drag- 
gle, hook, unsheathe, tighten, poker, strict 
(archaic) . 
Antonyms: see push, thrust, drive. 

2. See ATTRACT, inhale, utter, extract, 

ROUSE, choose, elicit, DERIVE, INFER, 
remove, divert, BRING, EMPTY, SEARCH, 

3. Of water, liquor, etc.: skink (to draiv 
liquor; archaic); spec, tap, broach, bucket, 
rack, siphon, exhaust (air from a vessel). 

4. unshot (a gun, etc.; rare). 

5. trace (a line), run; spec, protract, re- 

6. write, compose, formulate, draft. 

t-W Cross references: see Note. 
downcast: throw. 
downcome: descent, fall. 
downright: vertical, absolute, 

evident, frank, definite. 
downward: down. 
drabble: drat/gle. 
drag, V. I.: draw, attract, drtdi/e. 

search, drawl, introduce. 
drag, V. i.: draw, delay, cor^- 

liniie, drawl. 
drag, n.: coach, brake. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



drawing, n. dragging, draft, traction, pull- 
ing, etc. 

drawingknife. ilnuvkuifc; spec, draw- 
shavo, :?havo, jiggiT. 

drawing-room, n. salon {French), saloon 
U'. ^'.). 

drawl, r. t. it i. drag; — refernng to speech. 
dream, 7i. 1. vision; spec, nightmare, day- 
niare {rare). 
Antonyms: see actuality. 


dream, (7. somnial {rare), somniative 


dreamland, n. Spec, cloudland, fairyland, 

dreamlike, a. unreal; spec, illusive, 

dredge, r. t. drag. 

dreggy, a. impure, feculent, dreggish; 
spec, turbid, foul, polluted. 
Antonyms: see clear. 

dregs, n. pi. refuse (contextual); spec, sedi- 
ment, lees (pi-), grounds (pi.), fseces (pL), 
faecula or fecula, outcasts (pi.), offal, 
scum, offscourings (pi-), sordes (tech.), 
sordor (rare), foots (pL), bottoms (pi-), 
tilts (pi.), taplash (obs. or dial.). 

drench, n. 1. dose, potion; — referring to 
physic given to an animal. 
2. wetting (contextual) ; spec, souse, 
douche, soaking. 

drench, v. t. 1. dose (contextual), physic; — 
referring to an animal. 
2. wet (contextual) ; spec, douche (chiefly 
tech.), douse, souse, soak, bucket. 
Antonyms: see dry. 

dress, v. t. 1. arrange (contextual); spec. 
Mne (used with "up"), preen. 

2. prepare (contextual); spec, clean, rough- 
dress, scapple or scabble, finish, taw, pick, 
drove, baste, machine, burl, scutch, 
hackle, shamoy, hatchel, barber, side, 
curry, bard, liquor, comb, manicure, jig, 

3. equip, furnish; spec, dub, deck, orna- 


dress, v. i. 1. ahgn (mil.). 
2. prepare (contextual); spec, vest (chiefly 
eccl.), clothe, busk (archaic or Scot.). 
Antonyms: see undress, strip. 

dress, n. 1. See clothing, costume. 

2. Of a woman's or girl's outer clothing: 
gown (chiefly spec); spec, frock, suit, hab- 
it, bloomer, jam (rare). 

3. Of the mode in which one is dressed, or 
the dress and equipment as a whole: attire, 
tire (archaic; rare) , toilet, array (literary 

or formal), trim, garo (chiefly literary), 
gear (chiefly orchaic), ve.sture (literary), 
make-up, l)edizonment, dizenment (rare), 
bravery, trap])ings, disguise or disguise- 
mont, cloth, motley, dishabille. 

dress, a. habilimental (rare), habilimentary 
(nirc), habilatory (rare), vestiary (rare). 

dressing gown, peignoir (French), robe de 
chambre (French). 

dressing room, tiring-room. 

dressmaker, ?;. modiste (French). 

dressy, a. 1. fond of dress; — no single-word 
2. showy, ornamental, elaborate. 

dried, a. desiccated (tech. or cant), baked, 
baken (archaic). 

drift, ?i. 1. See propulsion, course, 

MEANING, tendency. 

2. movement (contextual), driftage. 

3. deviation (distance away due to drift), 
driftway; spec, leeway. 

4. In geology: deposit, diluvium; spec. 
till, detritus. 

B. In mining, etc.: excavation, passage, 
drive; spec, gallery, tunnel, level. 
drink, v. t. 1. consume (contextual), imbibe 
(rare or spec), discuss (humorous), de- 
molish (slang), quaff (chiefly literary); 
spec, dispatch, bibble, swizzle (colloq.), 
sip, sipple, lap, drain, swill (vulgar or 
denoting vulgar excess), swig (colloq. or 
slang), guzzle, suck (vulgar or spec), tope 
(colloq.), crush (literary), tipple, buzz 
(slang or cant), crack. 

2. To cause to drink: drench (rare), lush 

3. salute, toast, wassail (orc/iaic). "Drink 
to" is the usual term, "drink" alone being 
rare or colloq. in this sense. 


drink, v. i. imbibe, quaff (literary); spec. 
sip, sipple, lap, guzzle (colloq. or slang), 
bib (archaic), bibulate (pedantic), bibble, 
soak (colloq.), refresh, hobnob, swill (vul- 
gar or implying vidgar excess), swizzle 
(colloq.), pull (used with "at," "on," etc.; 
colloq.), tea, fuddle, boose or (slang) 
booze, bouse (rare), tipple, carouse, lush 
(slang), nobble (rare), nip, sot, liquor 
(slang), grog, dram, bum (slang, U. S.), 
pot (archaic). 

drink, n. 1. Liquid to be drunk; — distin- 
guished from meat (solid food). There are 
no synonyms in this sense. 


3. The act: drinking, draft, quaff (literary 
or humorous); spec, pull (colloq.), suck 
(colloq.), sip, swig (colloq.), lap. 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
drawing, a.: attractive. 
dread: fear, awe. 
dreadful: fearful, alarming. 

dreary: cheerless, gloomy, de- 
pressing, lonely, sad, monot- 
onous, uninteresting, dull. 

dredge: sprinkle. 

dribble: drip, .slobber. 
drill, V. t.: sow. 
drill, n.: exercise, training. 
drill, V. t.: pierce, exercise, train. 

%W See Notes of Explanation. 


4. A portion to drink: draft or draught, 
potation {literary or humorous), potion 
{chiefly vied, or spec); spec, dram, nip, 
toothful {colloq.), suck {colloq.), split, pot 
{archaic or obs.), grace, cup, hbation 
{humorous), peg {Anglo-Indian; slang), 
nightcap, sip, tickler {colloq.), tiff {obs. 
or chiefly dial.), caulker {slang), drop, 
bumper, rouse {archaic), chasse {French), 
brimmer {colloq.), bracer {colloq.), 

drinkable, a. potable, potatory {rare). 

drinker, n. imbiber {formal or affected), 
quaffer {literary); spec, drunkard, soaker 
{colloq.), lapper, tippler, bibber, sipper, 
bouser, boozer, toper, guzzler, tosspot {ar- 
chaic), hobnobber, compotator, whetter. 

drinking, a. potatory {rare); spec, ebrious 
{rare and affected), bibulous, groggy. 
Antonyms: see abstemious. 

drinking, n. consumption, draft, potation 
{learned or rhetorical), sorbition {rare), 
imbibition {rare or affected), bibation 
{rare), bibition {rare), bibulation {rare); 
spec, tippling, compotation, drink, pot 
iflg.), cups {pi.; fig.), cupping, rummer. 

drip, V. t. & i. 1. drop, weep {fig.); spec. 
dribble, trickle. 
2. To be wet: drop. 

drip, n. 1. dripping, drop; spec, dribble, 

2. In architecture: larmier, corona; spec. 
label, dripstone. 

3. drippings {pi.), droppings {pi.); — that 
which drips. 

drive, v. t. 1. move {contextual), propel, im- 
pel, force, push, thrust, ram; spec, throw, 
actuate, turn, revolve, drift, puff, tide, 
run, hammer, dint, ding {archaic or dial.), 
press, strike, blow, expel, shoot, beat, 
roll, slide, etc.; — in this sense implying 
that the resulting motion of the driven body 
is, as a whole, the direct result of applied 
Antonyms: see draw. 

2. Of any force, impulse, or actuating 
cause, producing action by stimulating or 
bringing into activity some other force: spec. 
compel, impel, incite, chase, run, herd, 
huddle, hustle, smoke, ferret {used with 
"out"), shame, rush, pelt, dog, hound, 
hunt, kick, hurry, hoot, hunger {rare), 
beat, constrain, urge, frighten, worry, dis- 
pel, dissipate, reverberate {rare), reper- 
cuse, retund {rare), culbut, etc. 

Antonyms: see restrain. 

3. direct, tool {chiefly spec; cant); spec. 
spank, call {Scot.), trot, back, hoy, gallop, 
canter, amble, bucket {colloq. or cant), 

walk, run, etc. In this sense the word 
"drive" suggests a greater or less degree of 
participation in the management of direc- 
tion; the word "ride" emphasizes the idea of 
being carried in a vehicle or on an animal, 
and does not necessarily imply any par- 
ticipation in the management or direction. 
So one "drives" one's own carriage, or 
"drives" in another's as his guest: but 
a passenger generally "rides" in a public 
conveyance, though he may take the driver's 
place, and then he would drive. "Ride" 
07dy is used of traveling on the back of an 


5. excavate {horizontally), hole, drift; — 
distinguished from "sink." 

drive, v. i. 1. advance; spec, rush, dash, 
float, drift, rack, scud. 

2. vehiculate {rare), tool (chiefly spec; 
cant); spec, rattle, bowl {used with 
"along"), coach, spank {colloq.), chari- 
oteer, bucket. 


drive, 7i. 1. driving; spec, drift, battue. 

2. journey {contextual), excursion (con- 
textual), ride. 

3. excavation, drift. 


driver, n. 1. propeller, impeller; spec, car- 
rier, sail. 

2. reinsman (rare; U. S.; spec), Jehu 
(humorous), charioteer, wagoner, wag- 
goner, curricleer (rare or notice), coach- 
man, cabman, cabby (colloq.), hackman, 
mahout, carnac (French), driveress (nonce 
word), vetturino (It.), jarvey (slang, 
Eng.), dragsman, tripper, teamster, mule- 
teer, drover, cameleer, motorman, chauf- 
feur, chauffeuse (fern.). 

driveway, n. drive; spec, sweep. 

drizzle, n. rain (contextual), spray (con- 
textual) ,. dro-w (Scot.). 

droop, V. i. 1. hang, incline; spec, bend, 
dangle, loll, lop, nod, nutate (rare), sink, 
flag, weep, sag, slouch, drop, fall. 


droop, v. t. hang (as the head), incline; spec 
dangle, bend, loll, nod, sink, slouch, drop. 
Antonyms: see erect. 

droop, n. hang (rare), inclination; spec. 
slouch, sag, pendency, bend. 

drooping, a. 1. hanging; spec nutant 
(rare), nodding, cernuous (chiefly hot.), 
weeping, pendent, sagging. 
2. Spec, declining, languishing, descend- 
ing, depressed. 

1^" Cross refereyices: see Note. 
drivel, V. t: slobber, utter. 
drivel, V, i.: slobber, babble. 
drivel, n.: slobber, nonsense. 

drizzle: rain. — drizzly: rainy. 

droll, n.; buffoon, wit. 
droll, a.: laughable. 
droll, V. i.: jest. 

drone, n.: idler, sluggard. 
drone, v. i.: idle. 
drone, n.; hum. 
drone, v.: hum, monotone. 

fS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



Anton ipn s : sec errct. 
drop, /(. 1. bill! (contt'xtuol), globule, gutta 
{.tech.), tear (chicjli/ .s/xc), poarl {clnejly 
spec); .tjHC. biiib, jiout ((ircluiic), bead, 
droplet, dewdrop, raindrop. 


drop, J', i. 1. Spec, drip, pearl, bead, dis- 
till, bleed (Jig.), plump. 


drop, V. t. 1. Spec, drip, distill, shed. 

2. To let, or cause to, fall: spec, fell, i)lump, 
dump {chiefly U. S.), lower, drooj). 


drop-shaped, a. guttata (tech.), guttiform 
(tech.), pearly, beady. 

dropsical, a. hydropic, hydroptic (rare); 
spec, oedematous. 

dropsy, n. hydrops {lech, or obs.), hydropsy 
{now rare); spec, hydrothora.x, hydrar- 
throsis, oedema. 

dross, 71. 1. refuse {contextual), recrement 
{tech.), slag {usually dross in a fused 
glassy combination of basic drossy sub- 
sta7ices), scoria {usually cindery or porous 
dross, as cellular lava); spec, scum, cinder, 
clink, sullage. 
2. See REFUSE. 

drossy, a. slaggy, scoriaceous; spec, scum- 
my, cindery. 

drove, n. I. herd; spec, string. 
2. See CROWD, collection. 

drown, v. t. 1. See suffocate. 
2. overwhelm, overpower; spec, {of sound) 
deafen, deaden, outcry, outroar. 

drudge, v. i. work (contextual), fag {often 
spec, in Eng. school cant), grind, slave, 
plod, dig, plow, grub, hack, scrub. 

drudge, n. worker (contextual); spec, grub, 
hack, grubstreeter (literary), packhorse 
(fig.), devil or deviller (colloq.), scrub, 
plodder, slave, fag (in an Eng. school), 
grind, penny-a-liner. 

drudgery, n. work (contextual); spec, fag 
(rare),_ grind, hackwork (chiefly deprecia- 
tory), journeywork, slavery. 

drug, n. I. medicine, physic (chiefly spec), 
medicinal, dope (chiefly spec; slang); 
spec, elixir. 
2. See commodity. 

drug, V. t. medicate, dose, physic (chiefly 
spec), dope (chiefly spec; slang); spec. 

druggist, n. apothecary (obsolescent in 
England, and less common than "drug- 
gist" in U. S.), pharmaceutist or pharma- 
cist (tech.), pharmacopolist (rare). 

drugstore, 7). druggery (rare). 

drum, //. 1. tabor (rare or spec), tambour 

(chiijly .^j)cc); spec tambourine, tomtom, 

kettledrum, gumby, tabret. 

2. cylinder; sjh-c. die, tympanum (rare), 
tambour, vase. 


4. beat, drub, thrum. 

drum, t>. t. 1. See gather, expel, compel. 
2. drub, thrum. 

drumbeat, n. rub-a-dub, tan-tan (nonce), 
dub, tuck (chiefly Scot.); spec, tattoo, rap- 
pcl (French), roll, taps (pi.). 

drunkard, n. drinker, inebriate, lushing- 
ton (slang); spec, bloat (colloq.), dipso- 
maniac, sot, bum (slang, U. S.). 

drunken, a. inebrious, bousy or boozy; 
spec sottish, soaked (colloq.), corny 
(slang) . 
Antonyms: see sober, 

dry, a. 1. waterless, unwet (rare), un- 
moistened, arid (chiefly spec), siccaneous 
(rare), moistless (rare), droughty or 
drouthy (rare, exc spec), dryish; spec. 
dried, desiccated, corky, dry-shod, dry- 
footed, husky, perched, juiceless, drink- 
less, sapless, exsuccous (rare; also fig.), 
Antonyms: see wet, moist, soaked, 
2. See SOUR (tvine), prohibition. 

dry, V. t. exsiccate (tech.; rare), desiccate 
(tech.), parch, dehydrate (tech.), evaporate 
(rare); spec, buccan, drain, blot, passulate 
(rare), sear, kiln, stove, sammy. 
Antonyms: see wtet, moisten, drench, 
soak, water. 

dry, V. i. desiccate, dehydrate, exsiccate 
(rare); spec, sear (rare). 
Antonjjms: see soak. 

dryer, n. desiccative, desiccant, siccative, 
exsiccator (rare), dehydrator (tech.), ex- 
siccant (rare). 

drying, a. siccative, exsiccant (rare), exsic- 
cative (rare), desiccant (tech.), desicca- 
tive; spec, torref active (rare). 

dryness, n. dryth (obs. or dial. Eng.), arid- 
ity (chiefly spec), drought or drouth (rare, 
exc spec). 
Antonyms: see moisture. 

d-shaped, a. Spec deltoid (like Greek A). 

dub, V. t. 1. See knight, honor, name. 
2. Spec dress, trim, grease. 

duck, 71. 1. dilly (colloq. or dial.), quack 
(humorous); spec, duckling, flapper, 
drake, pintail, sprigtail, calloo, callow, 
dundiver, garrot, gadwall. Harlequin, 
hardhead (U. S.), golden-eye, granny, 
waterwitch, merganser, mallard, teal, old- 
wife, old-squaw, shoveler, scaup, eider, 
eider duck, dungbird. 

I^' Cross references: see Note. 
drowse: sleep. 

drowsy: sleepy, sluggish. 
drub: beat. 

dry, 7i.; prohibitionist. 
dual: double. 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 


duck, V. i. & t. 1. See dip. 
2. lower {contextual), bob {jerkily), bend, 
(lodge, bow. 

duct, n. channel {contextual); spec, pipe, 
lube, chimney, funnel, flue. 

ductile, a. 1. malleable, tensile; spec, ex- 
tensible, tractile {rare), tough. 
Antonyms: see refractory, unyield- 
ing, RIGID. 

due, a. 1. owed, owing, mature, dueful 
{archaic), rightful; spec, payable; see 




due, n. 1. droit {law), right; spec, charge, 
fee, toll, tribute, duty, ta.x; see debt. 
2. desert, merit {chiefly in pi.). 

duel, n. fight {contextual), rencounter {lit- 
erary), monomachy {rare); spec, holmgang 
{rare) . 

duet, 71. composition {contextual), duo 
{Italian), duetto {rare). 

dull, a. 1. See stupid, cheerless, de- 
pressing, BLUNT, DARK. 

2. Referring to capacity of feeling: dim, 
insensitive, unfeeling, inapprehensive, 
gross, Boeotian {fig.), fat, saturnine {liter- 
ary), obtuse, muzzy {colloq.), blunt, 
sluggish, inert; spec, numb, languid, 
besotted, cloudy. 

Antonyms: see sensitive. 

3. Referring to mental capacity or condi- 
tion as to interest: spiritless, heavy, dump- 
ish, unanimated, listless, torpid, dead, in- 
animated, lifeless, indifferent; spec, apa- 
thetic, phlegmatic, inapprehensive {rare), 
sleepy, numb, depressed, dark, lumpish, 
Boeotian {fig.). 

Antonyms: see sharp, shrewd, preco- 
cious, WITTY. 

4. Referring to sensations, as pain: obtuse 
{rare), heavy. 

5. Referring to what affects the mind or at- 
tention: vapid, uninteresting, tedious, in- 
sipid, tame, dry, jejune {literary); spec. 
tiresome, insulse {rare), drear {chiefly po- 
etic), drearisome {rare), dreary, humdrum, 
monotonous, routine, commonplace, pro- 
saic, prosy, ponderous, irksome, frigid, fiat. 

Antonyms: see amusing, clever, witty. 

6. Referring to colors: sober, obscure, sad, 
plain, colorless, somber, grave, sordid; 
spec, dirty, muddy, gray. 

Antonyms: see vivid, bright, glowing. 

7. Referring to a surface: lusterless, lack- 
luster, opaque, matt, dead, rayless {rare), 

Antonyms: see bright, iridescent. 

8. Referring to sounds: flat, dead, muffled, 
shut {rare). 

Antonyms: see clear, shrill. 

9. Referring to a market: flat, inactive, 
slack; spec, unresponsive. 

dull, V. t. 1. See stupefy, depress, dark- 
en, BLUNT. 

2. Referring to mental activity: deaden, ob- 
tund {chiefly med.), hebetate {rare), numb, 
benumb, bedull {intensive), blunt, jade 
{by wearying), retund {rare), dulUfy {col- 
loq.), damp or dampen {as the appetite, 
desire, ardor, etc.), blur, besot {with dissi- 
pation), torpify {rare); spec, cloud. 

Antonyms: see stimulate. 

3. Referring to a surface: unpolish {rare), 
deaden; spec, tarnish. 

4. Referring to colors: deaden, somber 
{rare), sober. 

dullness, n. 1. Spec, cheerlessness, dark- 
ness, bluntness, stupidity, depression, 
flatness, deadness. 

2. insensitiveness, unfeelingness; spec. 
meropia, numbness, languidness. 

3. spiritlessness, dumpishness, lifeless- 
ness, heaviness, doldrums {pi.; fig.), en- 
nui; spec, apathy, lethargy, sleepiness, 

4. uninterestingness, tediousness, tedium, 
insipidity, frigidity, monotony, etc. 

5. Referring to colors: sobriety, obscurity, 
plainness, etc. 

Antonyms: see brightness. 

6. Referring to a surface: lusterlessness, 
mattness, opacity, etc. 

duly, adv. rightly, right, deservedly, prop- 
dumb, a. 1. voiceless, mute, inarticulate, 


2. See silent, noiseless. 
dumb, V. t. gag {fig. or in transferred 

senses), disvoice {rare). 
dump, n. 1. See counter. 

2. dumpling {person of rounded outline) . 
dump, n. Spec, tip, tipple {local, U. S.). 
dung- eating, a. coprophagous. 
dungeon, n. 1. donjon, keep. 

2. Spec, oubliette {French); see vault, 

dupe, n. victim {contextual), dotterel {fig.), 

pigeon {cant), gull, cully, fool {archaic), 

stale {archaic). 
dupe, V. t. deceive, fool, victimize {colloq.), 

pigeon {cant), gull; spec, cheat. 
duplicate, n. double; spec, copy, replica, 

duration, n. Spec, continuance, quantity. 

C^ Cross references: see Note. 
dummy, a.: pretend. 
dummy, n.: mute, blockhead, 
agent, counterfeit, model. 

dumpish: depressed, dull, 

dun, a.: drab. 
dun, V. I.: ask. 

duplicate, v. t.: double, copy, 

durance: duration, imprison- 
ment, confinement. 


)^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


datp, term, tenor, longitude (rare), tinio, 
tlurance (archaic). 

during, a. pending, within, in, through, 
over (a pcriml of lime). 

dust, n. dirt {contcrtual), powder, pother 
(rare); spec, siuotlier, coom or coomb 
(Scot, or local Eiig.), breeze, cully, slack, 
culm, ashes, pouce, pounce, smoke. 

duty, n. 1. obligation, ought (rare), devoir 

2. obligation, part, charge, business (spec, 
or fig.); spec, office, function, task, bur- 
den, trust, commission. 
Antonyms: see privilege. 
S. See TAX. 

dwarf, n. diminutive, pygmy or pigmy 
(often spec), droich (Scot.), hop-o'-my- 
thumb (literary); spec, bantam, midge, 
midget, runt (^contemptuous, exc. of ani- 
mals), Lilliputian (spec, or fig.), fingerling 
(rare), dandiprat (archaic), micromorph 
(tech. and rare), manikin, Negrito, Ne- 
Antonyms: see giant. 

dwarf, a. dwarfish or pygmy, pigmy, 
dwarfly (rare), undershapen (rare), un- 
dersized, runtish (contemptuous, exc. of 
animals), undergrowTi, runty (U. S.); 
spec, scrubby. 
Antonyms: see gigantic. 

dwarf, V. t. 1. stunt, bedwarf (intensive). 


dwell, V. i. 1. See delay, continue. 

2. abide, reside (formal), domicile (chiefly 
legal), live, harbor (archaic), wont (rare), 
inhabit (rare), stay (colloq.), tenant (rare), 
lodge, home (rare), inhabit (rare), keep 
(rare); spec, house, cabin, kennel, den, 
tabernacle, tent, room, sojourn, tarry. 

3. harp (in "to harp on"). 

dweller, n. inhabitant, abider, liver 
(chiefly U. S.), habitant (rare), residenti- 
ary, resident (chiefly formal or tech.); spec. 
denizen. "Inhabitant" and "resident" are 
the two common terms. 

dwelling, n. abode (chiefly literary), tene- 
ment (chiefly tech.), inhabitation, lodging, 
lodge (chiefly spec); spec, house, cottage, 
establishment, tent, tepee, shanty, shack, 
dugout, manse, mansion, castle, hutch 
(contemptuous), hut, gunyah (Australia), 
hermitage, igloo (Eskimo), familistery, 
bourock (SrM.), cot, barrack, bothy, 
chalet, cell, den, bungalow, court, dog- 
hole, embassy, cabin, bower, drosty, 
booth (archaic), tabernacle. 

dye, n. 1. See color. 

2. i^igment (contextual); spec, grain, dye- 

dye, t'. t. color (contextual), strain, grain 

(spec, or poetic), imbue (literary); spec. 

(inge, shade, double-dye, ingrain. 
dying, a. moribund (literary or learned), 

fey (archaic), mortal; spec, commorient. 
dyspeptic, a. 1. indigestive. 


eager, a. 1. See spirited, strenuous. 
2. desirous, keen, fervent, fervid, hot- 
headed, hot (colloq.), zealous, ardent, 
agog (predicative); spec vehement, ear- 
A ntonyms: see apathetic. 

eagle, n. erne (now chiefl yspec); spec. 
ringtail, sore-eagle, griffin, harpy, eaglet. 

ear, 7i. head (of various composite fruits, 
as cereals); spec, spike. 

ear, n. 1. listener (slang); — referring to the 
external ear: lug (chiefly Scot), shell 
(chiefly poet.), concha (tech.), conch 
{rare); spec, prick-ear, crop-ear. 

2. projection (contextual), lug; spec loop, 
canon, cannon. 

3. See HEARING, attention, audience. 
earache, n. otalgia (tech.). 

eardrum, n. drum (contextual), tympanum 

eared, a. spiked (like corn). 

earlier, a. old (contextual), former, previ- 
ous, elder. 
Antonyms: see later. 

early, adv. betimes, soon; spec, timely. 

early, a. rathe (poetic); spec, timely, au- 
roral, matutinal or matinal, rareripe, 
ratheripe or rathripe (poetic), precocious. 
Antonyms: see late. 

earmark, v. t. Spec crop, dog's-ear, dog- 

earnest, n. 1. payment (contextual), in- 
stallment (contextual), handsel ; spec. Crod's 
penny (now dial.), earnest-money. 
2. Referring to an indication of what is to 
come: pledge, promise, handsel, foretaste. 

earnest, a. 1. intent, serious, intense; spec. 
eager, impassioned, animated, cordial. 
Antonyms: see insincere, trifling, 


earnestness, n. earnest (only in "in ear- 
nest," "in real earnest,^' etc.), impress- 
ment (rare), seriousness, intentness. 
Antonyms: see play. 

tS^ Cross references: see Note. 
duress: imprisonment, con- 
dusky: dim. 
dust, V. t.: dirty, powder, clean. 

dwindle: decline, diminish. 

eagle-eyed: sharp-sighted, dis 

earlier: before. 
earliest, a.: first, original. 
earn: gain. 
earmark, v. t.: mark. 
earnest-money: earnest. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



earnings, n. pi. 1. pay (sing.; context- 
ual), gettings (pi.; archaic), wages (pi. or 
sing.; chiefly spec), salary (sing.; chiefly 
2. See PROFITS. 

earth, n. 1. planet (contextual), ball (fig.), 
globe, terrene (rare), terra (tech.), Tellus 
(fig.; literary), world (chiefly spec); spec. 
counterearth, Midgard (mythol.). 

2. world (as the home of man and other 
creatures), mold or mould (poetic or obs.). 

3. Referring to the solid substance of the 
earth: ground, clod (literary), glebe (po- 
etic or rhetorical), land, mold or mould 
(poetic or obs.); spec rock, sand, mud, 
muck, dirt (colloq.; often derogatory or 
contemptuous), clay, loam, hard pan 
(chiefly U. S.), dust, etc. 

4. Referring to that part of the ground in 
which plants grow: soil, mold or mould 
(poetic or spec); spec loam, humus, dirt 
(colloq.), muck. 

5. Referring to worldly things or state: 
world (used with "the"). 


earth-born, a. 1. terrigenous (rare). 


earthen, a. earth; spec stone, dirt, clay, 
mud, etc; — the nouns used attributively. 

earthenware, n. crockery; spec, cloam, 
doom (obs. or dial. Eng.), china, delf or 
delft, pottery, stoneware, crouchware, 
porcelain, Wedgewood ware, pebble or 
pebbleware, majolica, terra-cotta, Bel- 
leek, etc 

earthly, a. 1. terrestrial, earthy (rare). 

2. unspiritual, nonspiritual ; spec ma- 
terial, worldly, sensual, bodily, temporal. 

Antonyms: see divine, spiritual, ethe- 

3. conceivable, possible, 
earthquake, n. quake, shock, seism (rare); 

spec microseism. 

earthworm, n. angleworm, dew-worm; 
spec lobworm. 

earthy, n. 1. earthlike, cloddy (deprecia- 
tory), terrene (rare), glebous (rare); spec 
muddy, clayey, dusty. 

2. terrestrial. 

3. See material, gross, coarse. 
earwax, n. cerumen (tech.). 
ease, n. 1. comfort. 

2. easiness; spec carelessness, freedom, 
relief, facility, leisure, convenience, rest, 
repose, content, unconstraint, uncon- 

Antonyms: see constraint, difficulty. 
ease, v. t. 1. See comfort, mitigate, re- 
lieve, diminish. 
2. facilitate, smooth, favor. 

easily, adv. easy (colloq. or vulgar); spec 
conveniently, carelessly, smoothly, glib, 
readily, gently, etc. 

east, n. 1. dawn (poetic), orient (poetic or 
archaic), rise (fig.). 
Antonyms: see west. 
2. east country, eastland (now poetic); 
spec Orient. 

eastern, a. eastwardly, eastward, east 
(more colloq. and usual than "eastern"), 
eoan (rare), auroral or aurorean (literary), 
orient or oriental (rare, exc as capitalized 
and spec, of the Levant), easterly. 
Antonyms: see western. 

easterner, n. oriental (rare, exc. as capital- 
ized and spec), ^easterling (archaic, exc 

easy, a. 1. comfortable. 

2. Spec free, unembarrassed, uncon- 
strained, effortless, tractable, careless, 
smooth, ready, facile, natural, graceful, 
airy, soft, gentle, moderate, indolent, un- 
concerned, easy-going, restful, compliant, 
complaisant, credulous, loose, wealthy. 

Antonyms: see severe. 

3. facile, light; spec convenient. 
Antonyms: see difficult. 

easy-going, a. easy, jog-trot, happy-go- 

eat, p. t. 1. consume (contextual), devour, 
discuss (humorous), demolish (slang), 
mandicate (rare); spec, engorge (rare), 
touch, gormandize, gluttonize, dispatch 
(colloq.), table (rare), gorge. 
2. See consume, corrode, erode, wear. 

eat, V. i. feed (noio chiefly of animals) , vic- 
tual (rare); spec gorge, pick or peck (fig., 
colloq., or slang, exc of birds), raven, gor- 
mandize, mess, lunch, board, common 
(chiefly in school and college use), dine, 
dinner (rare), sup, supper (rare or colloq.), 
collation (obs.), breakfast, grub (slang). 

eatable, a. edible, esculent (tech. or liter- 
ary), ciborious (rare). 
Antonyms: see uneatable. 

eatable, n. edible, esculent (literary or 
tech.), comestible (learned and usually hu- 
morous or a^ected), gustable (rare). 

eater, n. consumer, devourer ; spec, epicure, 
gorger, glutton, diner, luncher, gourmet 

eating, a. 1. eadacious (chiefly humorous). 
2. Spec corrosive, erosive, gnawing. 

eating, n. 1. consumption, devourment, 
manducation (rare), eat (obs., slang, or 
cant), repast (rare). 

2. gastrology. 

3. Spec consumption, corrosion, erosion, 
fretting, etc. 

eating house, restaurant; spec, cafe. 

lt^= Cross references: see Note. 
earshot: hearing. 

easeful: comfortable. 
easel: support. 

east, a.: eastern. 
easterly, a.: eastern. 

JW See Notes of Explanation. 



rhophouse, cofToo house, caffotcria, cat 
(cant or slang). 

eaves, n. pi. overhang. 

ebony, n. 1. Referring to the icooil: ebon 
(;)(>»' poetic). 
2. See DAUK. 

eccentric, a. 1. Spec, docentcred. 
2. Spec, elhptic, parabohc, hyperbolic. 
8. pecuhar, queer, odd, oddisli, strange, 
bizarre, singular, erratic, cranky, outre 
(French), quaint, outlandish; spec, fantas- 
tic, abnormal, whimsical, etc. 

eccentric, n. erocheteer {rare), hobbyist, 
monomaniac, crank (colloq.), curiosity, 
quiz (rare), original; spec. guy. 

eccentricity, n. peculiarity, queerness, 
oddity, oddness, strangeness, bizarrerie 
{French), singularity, erraticness, cranki- 
ness, quaintness, outlandishness; spec. 
fantasticalness, abnormality, whimsical- 
ity, etc. 

ecclesiastic, ecclesiastical, a. church 
(the attributive use of the noun), churchly; 
spec, religious. 

ecclesiastic, n. Spec, churchman, con- 
ventual, prior; see monk, nun, minister. 

echo, n. 1. reverberation (learned or tech.), 
reply, return, repercussion (rare), reflec- 
tion (rare or tech.); spec, re-echo. 


echo, V. t. 1. reverberate, return; spec, re- 


echo, V. i. reverberate, resound, reply, ring, 
redound {rare); spec, re-echo. 

economical, a. economizing, saving, spar- 
ing, thrifty, provident, parsimonious 
(rare), frugal; spec, cheap. 
Antonyms: see extravagant, waste- 

economics, n. political economy, chrema- 
tistics (often spec), plutonomy (rare), 
plutology (rare). 

economist, n. political economist, chrem- 
atist (chiefly spec; rare); spec, physiocrat. 

economize, v. t. save, husband, stint, scant, 
spare, scrimp (colloq.), skimp (colloq.). 
Antonyms: see waste. 

economize, v. i. save, stint, scant, spare, 
retrench, scrimp (colloq.), skimp (colloq.). 

economy, n. economizing, economization 
(rare), saving, thrift, thriftiness, saving- 
ness, providence, parsimony (rare), spar- 
ing, husbandry, husbanding, skimping 
(colloq.), scanting (colloq.); spec, retrench- 
Antonyms: see waste, extravagance. ' 

ecstasy, /?. gladness (contextual), rapture, 
transport, rapt (rare), rajjtus (rare), 
paroxysm, intoxication, entluisiasm, rav- 
ishment (rare); spec trance, frenzy, 
agony, madness, nympholepsy. 
Antotiynis: see apathy, calm. 

ecstatic, a. glad (contextual), transj^orted, 
ecstasied, rapt, enrapt, enrai)tured, rap- 
turous, rhapsodical, raptured; spec en- 
thusiastic (rare). 
Antonyms: see apathetic, calm. 

eddy, ?i. count ercurrent (contextual; rare), 
swirl; spec, whirlpool. 

eddy, v. i. swirl, gurge (rare). 

edge, n. 1. Referring to a projecting part 
tvhere two swfaees meet at an angle: spec 
featheredge, face, beard, bit, burr, hip, 
groin, arris, bezel, waney, gunwale or 
gunnel, crest, hem, verge. 

2. Referring to the place where a surface 
terminates: verge, margin, limit (chieflij 
in pi.), bound, brim (chiefly spec), side, 
coast (archaic), bordure (chiefly her.), lip, 
rim, brink, border; spec, skirt (chiefly in 
pi.), hem, outskirt (chiefly in pL), limb, 
exergue, list, selvage or selvedge, footing, 
fringe, listing, edging, leech, deckle edge, 
berm, curb, bezel, bank. 

Antonyms: see body, center. 

3. intensity; spec, sharpness, zest, keen- 
ness, bitterness, sting. 

edge, V. t. 1. See sharpen. 
2. border, rim, margin, skirt, marginate 
(rare); spec fringe, befringe (rare), purl, 

edged, a. 1. See sharp. 
2. marginate (tech.), listed, margined, 
bordered, etc. 

edging, n. edge (^contextual); spec, skirt 
(rare), welt, welting, frill. 

edict, n. 1. decree (contextual); spec, bull, 
capitulary, constitution. 
2. See decision. 

edit, V. t. 1. redact (tech. or literary); spec. 
revise, arrange, digest. 
2. conduct (for publication, as a period- 

editing, n. redaction; spec, revision, recen- 

edition, n. redaction; spec, {referring to the 
number printed at one printing) issue, im- 
pression, impress, printing. 

editor, n. I. redactor (tech. or literary), re- 
dacteur (French), reviser. 
2. conductor (as of a periodical). 

editorial, n. leader (chiefly British): spec. 
leaderette (chiefly British). 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
ebb, n.; outgo, decline. 
ebb, r. i.: outflow, decline. 
ebullition: boiling, bubbling, 

eclat: distinction. 
eclectic: choosing. 
eclipse, n.: obscuration, dark- 
ness, [outshine. 
eclipse, v. t.: obscure, darken. 

eclogue: idyl. 
ecliptic: circle. 
edible: eatable. 
edifice: building. 
edify: improve. 

K^^ See Notes of Explanation, 


educated, a. lettered, literate (learned), 
Antonyms: see uneducated. 
education, n. 1. breeding {bringing ■up). 


3. training, culture. 

efface, v. t. remove (contexiual), obliterate, 
erase (properly spec), expunge, excise 
(properly spec), delete or dele (tech.), out- 
blot (poetic), strike (esp. with "out," etc.); 
spec dislimn (rare), rase (rare), snuff, 
Antonyms: see interpolate. 

effect, n. 1. consequence, fruit (fig.); 
spec superconsequence, impress, out- 

2. Referring to mental effect on a person: 
impression, impressure (rare), ensemble 
(French), impress. 


4. In pi.: goods. 

effect, V. t. cause, produce, effectuate, 
have; spec operate, work, force, accom- 
plish, drive, contrive, negotiate, compass, 
conclude, make, contract, execute, per- 
form, conjure, weep, smile, etc 

effective, a. 1. causative, active, operative, 
dynamic, dynamical. 

2. As implying power or potency in pro- 
ducing results: efficacious, effectual, effi- 
cient, good (of persons), perficient (rare), 
prevalent (rare), deedful (rare). 

Antonyms: see barren, ineffectual, 


3. In reference to affecting a person's 
opinion, feeling, or the like: impressive, 
forceful, efficacious, telling, fetching, 
(colloq.), pointed; spec cogent, stinging, 
cutting, striking, convincing. 

effectiveness, w. causativeness, effectual- 
ity, efficaciousness, efficiency, point, 
forcefulness, cogency, virtue, duty. 

effeminacy, n. womanishness, invirility 
(rare), woman (rare, exc as equiv. to 
womanlinesi), femininity, feminity (rare); 
spec, tenderness, weakness, delicacy. 

effeminate, a. womanish, ladylike (prop- 
erly spec), soft, silken (fig.; used of men), 
unmanly (used of 7nen), tender, weak, 
Antonyms: see manliness. 

effeminate, n. Sardanapalus (fig.), milk- 
sop, mollycoddle, tenderling (rare); spec 
betty, molly. 

effeminate, i>. t. soften, emolliate (rare), 

emasculate (a man). 
Antonyms: see toughen. 
effete, a. exhausted. 
effloresce, v. i. Referring to a formation on 

minerals, salt solutians, etc.: bloom; spec 

efflorescence, n. bloom, florescence, pul- 

verulence, powder; spec crust. 
effort, n. 1. exertion, endeavor, strife, 

stretch, strain, stress, push (fig.; colloq.), 

spurt or spirt, trouble, attempt, try; spec. 

breath, burst, struggle. 

2. See DEED. 
effulsion, n. 1. See outflow, utterance, 

EXPRESSION, composition. 

2. demonstration (of feeling), gush, slop- 
ping over (contemptuous; colloq.). 

effusive, a. 1. See luxuriant. 
2. demonstrative (which see), gushing, 
Antonyms: see impassive, unemotional. 

egg-shaped, a. oviform, oval, ovate, ovoid, 
ovoidal (rare), ovicular (rare), ellipsoidal 
(a loose usage); spec obovate. 

egoism, n. 1. individualism, self-feeling; 
spec, suicism (rare), selfishness, self-seek- 
ing, self-opinionatedness, weism (rare), 
solipsism (philos.); see selfishness. 
2. See egotism. 

egoistic, a. 1. individualistic, self-regard- 
ing, self-centered; see selfish. 
2. See egotistic. 

egotism, n. conceit, egoism, suicism 
(rare) . 

egotistic, a. egotistical, conceited (con- 
te.ttual), egotistic, self-obtruding. 

eight, n. Refeiring to a group of eight 
things: octave (chiefly spec), ogdoad 
(learned), octonary (chiefly spec), octad, 
octet or octette (rare) . 

eight-angled, a. octangular (tech.). 

eightfold, a. octuple (learned or tech.). 

eighth, n. octave (mus.); spec suboctave 
(rare) . 

eight-sided, a. octahedral (tech.), oc- 
tahedric (tech.), eight-square (chiefly 

ejaculate, v. t. 1. See eject. 
2. To utter: blurt, bolt; spec exclaim. 

eject, V. t. 1. emit, expel, ejaculate (chiefly 
physiol.), cast (used with "out"; rare); 
spec, fire, belch, spew, eructate, eruct, 
erupt, eliminate (obs. or humorous), spit. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
educate: train, teach. 
educational: instructive. 
eduction : drawing. 
eerie: fearful, weird. 
eBectual: effective. 
effectuate: accomplish. 
effervesce: bubble. 
effervescent: bubbling, lively. 

effete: exhausted. 
efficacious: effective. 
efficacy: effectiveness. 
efficiency: effectiveness, ability. 
efficient: effective. 
effigy: figure. 

effiuence: outflow, emanation. 
effrontery: impudence. 
effulgent: bright, luminous. 

effuse, a.: diffuse, spreading. 
effuse, V. t.: emit: emanate. 
eftsoon, eftsoons: afterwards, 

again, immediately. 
egesta: excrement. 
egg, V. t.: incite, urge. 
egregious: outrageous. 
egress: exit, outlet. 
egotistical: egclistic. 

tlW Sec Notes of Explanation. 


spoilt, squirt, deliver, void, evacuate, ilis- 
gorge, regorge; sec vomit. 

Aiititiujms: tfcc inject. 
2. To drii'c J'rom o place or position: re- 
move, oust, expel, dispossess, bounce 
(slang); spec, disseize, evict, unnest, un- 
keiuiel, unhouse. 
ejection, n. 1. emission, e.xpulsion, ejacu- 
lation (cltiijh/ spec.); spec, delivery, firing, 
belching, belch, spewing, eructation, 
eruption, spouting, squirt, squirting, cle- 
livery, voidance, out-throw {rare), dis- 
gorgement . 
Antonyms: see ixjkction. 

2. ouster, expulsion, dispossession, dis- 
seizing, eviction, removal. 

3. ejecta (pL), ejectamenta (pi); spec. 
spew, vomit. 

elaborate, a. labored, operose (rare); spec. 
studied, perfected, complicated, detailed, 
ciu-ious, dressy. 
Antonyms: see simple, elementaky. 

elaborate, v. t. work out, develop, labor, 

elaborateness, n. elaboration, detail, 
nicety, comiilication, etc. 

elaboration, /(. 1. development, painstak- 
ing, perfection, devising. 
2. See elaborateness. 

elastic, a. 1. resilient (chiefly tech.), 
springy; spec, expansive. 
Antonyms: see plastic, inelastic. 
2. See BUOYANT (in mind). 

elate, v. t. excite, enliven, exhilarate, exalt, 
elevate (now rare), Rush, animate; spec. 
please, gladden, pufT, inflate. 
Antonyms: see depress, annoy. 

elated, a. elate (archaic or poetic), exalted, 
swollen, flushed, exhilarated, animated; 
spec, joj-ful, glad, inflated, puffed-up. 
Antonyms: see depressed. 

elation, n. excitement, enUvenment, ex- 
altation, flush, elevation (noiv rare), ani- 
mation; spec, joy, pride. 
Antonyms: see depression. 

elbow, n. ancon (tech.), joint (contextual). 

elbow, V. t. push, nudge (gently); spec. 

elbowlike, a. anconal, anconoid; — both 

elect, V. t. choose; spec, return, predesti- 

elect, a. chosen; spec, predestinated. 

elect, n. Spec, predestinate. 

election, n. choice; spec, by-election, pre- 

elective, a. 1. choosing; spec, constituent. 

2. optional, optative, selective, electoral 

(chiefly spec). 

elector, n. chooser; spec, constituent, 

electorate, n. constituency. 

electric, a. 1. Spec, voltaic, faradaic, 
thermoelectric, piezoelectric, etc. 
2. See thrilling, exciting, stimulat- 

electrified, a. live (rail, etc.). 

electrify, v. t. 1. electrize; spec, galvanize, 

2. See thrill, excite, stimulate, 

elegance, n. Spec, grace, refinement, 
courtliness, daintiness, featness (archaic), 
nicety, finish, cultism, Gongorism, pu- 
rism, finery. 

elegant, a. "Elegant" implies good taste 
and more or less ornateness, grace, dis- 
crimination, or the like, such as is asso- 
ciated with the cultured classes. Hence, 
with this implication: spec, sesthetic 
(learned or literary), graceful, refined, 
courtly, Chesterfieldian, Ciceronian, 
dainty, shapely, trim, feat (archaic), nice, 
genteel (now chiefly used somewhat dis- 
paragingly), silken or silky, chaste, cul- 
tured, neat, polished, finished. 
Antonyms: see crude. 

elegist, n. threnodist, monodist. 

element, n. 1. See component, part. 

2. Formerly: spec, earth, air, fire, water. 

3. Now cJiem., see the list in the diction- 

4. Spec, datum, condition, moment or 
momentum (tech. or literary), factor, 
principle, germ, rudiment, fundamental, 
principium (rare), primary. 

5. In the Christian religion: spec, host, 
bread, wine, eulogia (hist.), Eucharist. 

elementary, a. 1. component (rare). See 
simple, uncompounded. 
2. initial, rudimentary, inchoate, incipi- 
ent, primary, fundamental, basal or basic, 
Antonyms: see elaborate. 

elephant, n. Spec, foal, tusker, mam- 
moth, mastodon. 

elevate, v. t. 1. See RAISE (physically), 

2. To raise in rank, etc.: raise, advance, 
exalt, aggrandize; spec, dignify, promote, 

Antonyms: see abase, degrade. 

3. To raise the mental or moral character 
of: raise, lift, exalt; spec, refine. 

t^^ Cross references: see Note. 
ejeetive: expulsive. 
eke: also. 
elan: ardor, spirit. 
elapse: passing. 

eld: aye, antiquity. 

elder, a.: earlier, old, superior. 

elder, n.: senior. 

elderly: old. 

eldest: oldest. 

eldritch: rveird. 
elect: chosen. 
electioneer: campaign. 
elegiac: mournful. 
elegy: dirge. 

X^' See Notes of Explanation. 



Antonyms: see contaminate, degrade. 
elevated, a. 1. See high, upturned. 
2. Referring to mental or moral character: 
high, lofty, grand, sublime, soaring, 
empyreal (fig.), grandiose, high-flown, 
buskined {literary), noble, magnificent. 
Antonyms: see vile, degraded, de- 
elevating, a. ennobling, inspiring, exalt- 
Antonyms: see contaminative. 
elevation, n. 1. See raising, delinea- 

2. raising, advancement, exaltation, ag- 
grandization ; spec, dignification, promo- 
tion, ennoblement. 

Antonyms: see degradation. 

3. raising {morally or intellectually), lift- 
ing, exaltation; spec, refinement. 

Antonyms: see degradation. 

4. Referring to state or position or elevated 
rank, as in character: spec, height, dignity, 
eminence, eminency. 

Antonyms: see degradation, depraa'- 


5. Referring to an elevated object or place: 
height, eminence {chiefly literary); spec. 
hill, swell {of land), mountain. 

Antonyms: see hollow. 

elevator, n. lift {chiefly Eng. or tech.), 
hoist {chiefly spec); spec, whim, dumb- 

eleventh, a. undecennary {tech. or learned). 

elf, n. demon {contextual), sprite, fairy, imp 
{chiefly spec), elfin, pygmy, puck, pixy; 
spec urchin. 

elfish, a. demonic {contextual), impish 
{chiefly spec), fairy, elfin, elvish; spec. 
mischievous, weird. 

elicit, V. t. draw {used with "forth" or 
"out"), extract, call {tised ivith "out"), 
evoke, fetch {now becoming colloq. or rare) , 
educe, expiscate {humorous or Scot.); spec 
wrest or wring, extort, pump. 

elite, n. chosen {pi.), flower {collective 
sing.); see chosen, best. 

elocution, n. utterance; spec, delivery, 
oratory, eloquence. 

elocutionist, n. Spec reader, speaker. 

eloquence, n. facundity {rare); spec, ora- 

eloquent, a. facund {rare); spec Cicero- 
nian, oratorical. 

else, a. other, different, besides or beside 
{predicatively used), more. 
Antonyms: see alike. 

else, adv. differently, otherwise. 
elucidate, v. t. clarify, illucidate (rare), 
illuminate, illustrate; spec explain, in- 
terpret, demonstrate. 
Antonyms: see confuse. 
elucidative, a. illustrative, demonstrative, 
clarifying, illucidative, illuminative, il- 
luminatory; spec, explanatory, interpre- 
Antonyms: see confusing. 

elusive, a. 1, eva.sive; — seeking to evade, as 
the grasp. 

2. elusory, lubricous {literary), slippery 
{fig.), subtle, shifty, baffling, shy; spec 
deceptive, equivocatory, illlusory. 

emaciate, v. t. thin, waste, extenuate 
{rare), disflesh {rare). 

emaciation, n. leanness, tabescence {rare). 

emanate, v. t. emit, effuse; spec exhale, 
evaporate, radiate. 

emanate, v. i. flow, proceed, issue, come; 
spec exhale, evaporate, radiate. 

emanation, n. 1. emission, effluence, ef- 
fluvium {thing emanated), efflux; sj)ec. 
aura, exhalation, mephitis {noxious). 
2. Referring to impalpable things: evapora- 
tion, radiation. 

emasculate, v. t. 1. See castrate. 
2. weaken, unman; spec, effeminate, ef- 

embankment, n. 1. embanking. 
2. mound {rare); spec dike, remblai 
{French), mole, bulwark, bund {Anglo- 

embarrass, v. t. 1. discomfort, demoralize, 
disconcert, discomfit; spec nonplus, in- 
volve, bother, abash, encumber, trouble, 
harass, annoy, shame, mortify, hamper, 
Antonyyns: see disembarrass. 
2. See complicate. 

embarrassing, a. demoralizing, awkward, 
difficult, disconcerting, bothersome, etc 
Antonyms: see assure. 

embarrassment, n. discomfort, discon- 
certion, disconcertedness {the state), dis- 
comfiture; spec, cumber, confusion, shame, 
difficulty, mortification, constraint, abash- 
ment, involvement, pressure, trouble, 
vexation, perplexity, etc. 
Antonyms: see assurance. 

embassy, n. 1. commission, embassadc 
{archaic), embassage {archaic). 

2. legation, embassage {archaic), embas- 
sade {archaic). 

3. residence (contextual), legation. 

fW Cross references: see Note. 
elide: delete. 
eligible: qualified. 
eliminate, v. t.: expel, excrete, 
omit, ignore, suppress, abstract. 
elixir: dr^i.y. 

ellipsis: omifmion. 
eloign: remove. 
elongate, v.: lengthen. 
elongate, a.: lengthened, oblong. 
elope: depart. 
elude: evade, avoid. 

elusion: evasion, avoidance. 
emaciated: thin. 
emancipate: free. 
embalm: preserve. 
embark, v. t.: ship, invest. 
embark, v. i.: engage. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 



embattle, v. (. crenel {rorv), crenellate 
embed, v. t. bed, impaste (rare), cnlay 

(Chicjltj .s'/HT.). 

enibeliish, r. t. enrich; spec, vary, em- 
hhi/Ain. nnblaze. 

embezzle, c. t. misappropriate, misapply, 
convert, peculate (chicjiy spec). "Em- 
bezzling" is accomplished by fraud or 
breach of trust in relation to property al- 
ready legally in one's possession; "stealing" 
by urongfiiily getting possession of property 
leith intention to appropriate it. 

embezzle, v. i. misappropriate, defalcate, 
peculate {chiefly spec). 

embitter, v. t. 1. Referring to the taste: see 


2. Referring to the mind: envenom, em- 
poison {literary), rankle {rare), sour, ex- 
acerbate {make more bitter; literary). 

Antonyms: see soften. 

3. Referring to persons: exasperate, poi- 
son, envenom; spec, exacerbate {literary). 

Antonyms: see soften. 

embodiment, ??. bodiment, insubstantia- 
tion {rare), image, incorporation; spec. 
incarnation, personification, personation 
{rare), impanation, avatar {theosophy), 

embody, v. t. incorporate, corporate {rare), 
body, insubstantiate {rare); spec, incar- 
nate, impersonate, enflesh {rare), encar- 
naUze {rare), personify, impanate, pillar. 
Antonyms: see spiritualize. 

embolden, v. t. hearten, encourage, em- 
brave {rare), nerve, inspirit; spec, reas- 
Antonyms: see discourage. 

emboss, v. t. 1. Referring to a surface: or- 
nament {contextual), boss; spec, knot, 
pounce {hist.). 
Antonyms: see indent. 
2. Referring to projecting parts: raise, 
boss; spec. knot. 

embrace, v. t. 1. clasp {contextual), clutch 
{contextual), clip {archaic or dial.), fathom 
(rare), halse {Scot.), hold {contextual), 
bosom {fig.), fold, infold or enfold {inten- 
sive), entwine {intensive), grapple, em- 
bosom {intensive), hug; spec, cuddle, lock, 
enlock {intensive; rare), nurse. 
2. See include, adopt, accept, receive. 

embrace, n. 1. clasp {contextital) , clip {ar- 
chaic), embracement {rare), hold {context- 
ual), fold, hug. 

2. See embrace, adoption, acceptance, 
reception, espousal. 

embrasure, n. 1. Spec splay. 
2. oiJiMiinf; {contextual), vent {rare); spec. 
porthole {mil.). 

embroider, V. t. ornament {contextual), 
work; sjne. branch, lace, tambour, couch. 

embroidered, a. ornamented {contextual), 
worked; spec, orphreyed or orf rayed. 

embroidery, n. ornamentation {context- 
ual), work; spec, orphrey or orfray, sam- 
l)ler, si)atterwork, needlework, insertion, 
orris, })hulkari {East Indian). 

embroil, V. t. Set by the ears; — no single- 
word synonyms. 

embryo, n. 1. Spec, fetus or foetus, concep- 
tion {fig.), corcle or corcule {bat.), mole or 
2. See beginning. 

emerge, v. i. 1. issue; spec, peep, outcrop 
{also fig.), appear. 
Antonyms: see sink, dip. 
2. See arise. 

emergence, n. 1. issuance, emergency; 
spec, outcrop, peeping, appearance, emer- 
sion {chiefly astron.). 
Antonijms: see dip. 
2. See arising. 

emetic, a. vomitory, vomitive {rare), ec- 
critic {rare). 

emetic, n. puke {not now in polite u^age), 
vomitory {tech. or rare), vomitive {rare), 
vomit {rare), eccritic {rare); spec, castor 
oil, rhubarb, etc. 

emigrant, n. migrant; spec, colonist, re- 
demptioner {U. S.). 
Antonyms: see immigrant. 

emigrate, v. i. depart {contextual), mi- 
Antonyms: see immigrate. 

emigration, n. departure {contextual), mi- 
gration; spec exodus. 

emission, n. 1. emitting, discharge; spec. 
projection, radiation, exudation, emana- 
tion, expression, exhalation, dehvery. 
Antonyms: see absorption. 
2. See issuance. 

emit, V. t. 1. discharge, deliver, emanate 
{rare or spec); spec shoot, spirt, dart, 
dartle, squirt {undignified), jet, evolve, ra- 
diate, breathe, exhale, effuse, bleed {fig.), 
express, shed, gush, vent, puff, thiow, 
hurl, foam, outpour. 
Antonyms: see swallow, absorb. 
2. See issue, utter. 

emotional, a. 1. emotive. 
2. sentimental {to excess or affectedly), 
pathematic {rare), feeling, pathetic {rare), 
affective ; spec maudlin, mawkish, demon- 

t^ Cross references: see Note. 
emblaze: illuminate. 
emblazon: delineate, depict, 

I mhfilish, celebrate. 
emblem: symbol, badge. 

emblematic, emblematical, 

a.: symbolic. 

emblematize: symbolize. 

emboucbure: mouth, mouth- 

embroilment: quarrel. 
emendable: corrigible. 
emendate: correct. 
eminent: elevated, distin- 

guished, conspicuous. 

\(W See Notes of Explanation. 



strative, sickly (colloq.), sicklied, intense, 
languorous, languishing, unctions (rare), 
unctuous, mushy. 
Antonyms: see apathetic. 

emotionalize, v. i. sentimentalize; spec. 
gush, languish. 

emperor, n. monarch {contextual), czar 
{chiefly spec. & hist.), caesar {chiefly spec. 
& hist.), kaiser {chiefly spec. & hist.); spec. 
kaiserling {chiefly dim.), imperator {hist.), 
Mikado {lit., Son of Heaven). 

emphasis, 7i. 1. See accent, force. 
2. significance, weight, accentuation, ac- 
cent, stress. 
Antonyms: see disregard. 

emphasize, v. t. accentuate, stress, mark, 
punctuate; spec, underline, underscore, 
Antonyms: see disregard. 

emphatic, a. forcible, forceful, impres- 
sive, decided, strong, significant; spec, in- 
tensive, expressive, positive, energetic, un- 
equivocal, distinct. 
Antonyms: see apathetic. 

empire, n. 1. domain {contextual), domin- 
ion {contextual), imperium {formal or 
2. See DOMAIN. 

employee, n. employe, agent {rare or tech.), 
help {a collective); spec, man, hand, ser- 
vant, clerk. "Employee^' is chiefly U.S. 
Antonyms: see employer. 

employer, n. governor {slang), boss {ca7it 
or slang), master {chiefly legal). 
Antonyms: see employee. 

emptiness, n. 1. hollowness, voidness, 
vacuity {literary), inanition {chiefly spec), 
vacuousness {rare), inanity {rare), va- 
cancy, vacantness; spec, exhaustion, de- 
pletion, etc. 
Antonyms: see fullness. 

2. See HOLLOViTsrEss {of a sound), hunger. 

3. Referring to an empty space: inane {lit- 
erary), void {the usual word), vacuity {lit- 
erary or tech.), hollow; spec, vacuum {tech.). 

4. unsubstantiality, vanity, hollowness, 
uselessness; spec, frivolity, vanity, unsat- 
isfying, unsatisfactoriness, meaningless- 
ness, triviality, unfeelingness, fruitless- 
ness, senselessness, insincerity, inanity, 
stupidity, etc. 

empty, a. 1. hollow, vacant, vacuous 
{rare), inane {rare); spec, blank, clear, un- 

loaded, unfilled, emptied, exhausted, de- 
pleted, distitute, free. 
Antonyms: see full. 

2. See HOLLOW {of a sound), hungry, de- 

3. unsubstantial, vain, useless; spec, void, 
foolish, trivial, unsatisfying, meaningless, 
frivolous, unfeehng, fruitless, senseless, 
insincere, inane, stupid, etc. 

Antonyms: see significant, pithy. 

empty, v. t. 1. void {literary or tech.), de- 
plenish {rare), deplete; spec, buzz {Eng.), 
disglut {rare), drink, clear, draw, exhaust, 
gut {fig.), evacuate, bottom {rare), drain. 
Antonyms: see fill, stuff. 
2. See discharge. 

emulate, v. t. rival. 

emulation, n. rivalry, vying, competition 
{for some specific object), strife. 

emulous, a. Meaning: desirous of equahng 
or exceUing; strifeful; — no exact synonyms. 

enable, v. t. empower. 
Antonyms: see disable. 

enact, v. t. 1. decree, make, pass. 
Antonyms: abolish, revoke. 
2. See act. 

enamel, n. ornamentation {contextual), 
glaze; spec, cloisonne {French). 

enamor or enamour, v. t. captivate, smite 
{chiefly in p. p., "smitten"). "Enamor" 
takes "of ; "captivate" usually "with." 

enchase, v. t. 1. See set, variegate. 
2. ornament {contextual); spec, chase, en- 
grave, inlay, emboss. 

encircle, v. t. 1. surround, embrace, en- 
compass, environ; spec, span, twine, ring, 
enring {intensive), rim, infold or enfold, 
orb {elevated), loop, inorb {rare), inarch, 
2. See CIRCUIT. 

encore, v. t. recall, call {chiefly in "call 
before the curtain"). 

encourage, v. t. 1. animate, strengthen, 
hearten, enhearten {intensive), heart {ar- 
chaic), fortify, chirrup {chiefly spec), in- 
spirit; spec, reanimate, cheer, abet, em- 
bolden, incite, urge, stimulate, assure, re- 
assure, comfort. 

Antonyms: see abash, discourage, op- 
press, FRIGHTEN. 

encroach, v. i. advance, accroach {rare), 
trench {esp. of immaterial things), in- 

C^ Cross references: see Note. 
emotionless: \unfeeling. 
emphasizing: intensive. 
empiric: quack. 
emplacement: platform. 
employ, n.: use, occupation, 

employ, v. t.: occupy. 
employment: use, occ.up'iiion, 

business, service. [embitter. 

empoison: poison, contaminate, 

emporium: market, warehouse, 

empower: enable, authorize. 
empress: monarch. 
empressment: cordiality, de- 

empyreal: heavenly, fiery. 
empyrean: heaven. 
emulge: drain. 
enable: empower. 
encamp: camp. 

encase: incase. 
enceinte: pregnant. 
enchain: bind, confine. 
enchant: bewitch, captivate, 
jilcdKc. [livation. 

enchantment: bewitchery, cap- 
encomiast: praiser. 
encomiastic: laudatory. 
encomium: eulopy. 
encompass: surruutid, encircle. 
encore: aaain. 

XSF" Sec Notes of Explanation. 



fringe; spec, usurp (rare), invade, tres- 
pass, intrude. 

encroachment, n. advancement, infringe- 
ment, infraction, trcncliinL;, inroad, in- 
\asion; spec, trespass, intrusion, purpres- 

encumber, r. t. 1. Imphjing a hindering by 
something that burdens, drags upon, clogs, 
or the like: ciunber, embarrass; spec, bur- 
den, hamper, obstruct, hinder. 

2. hunher, burden; — to weigh down xoith 
what w M.s'< /t'6>'. 

Antonyms: see unload. 

3. burden, charge; spec, mortgage. 
encumbrance, n. 1. cumber (rare), cum- 

brance, cumberment (rare), embarrass- 
ment, clog; spec, burden, hindrance, ob- 
struction, hamper, baggage. 
2. burden, charge; spec, mortgage, debt. 

encyclopedia, encyclopaedia, /;. cyclo- 
licdia or cyclopaedia {the less usual term), 
tliesaurus {now rare). 

encysted, a. bagged, capsuled, saccate 

end, 71. 1. limit, extremity ; — in, reference to 
space, and now only in "ends of the earth." 

2. Referring to the terminating part of any- 
thing: tip, extremity {the very end), ter- 
mination (learned), terminal (chiefly tech. 
or spec), extreme (literary or formal), 
terminus (literary or formal), desinence 
{chiefly spec; rare); spec, fag-end, butt or 
butt-end, stub, remnant, tail, thrum, 
chump, crop (tech.), tag, ravel, fall, foot, 
horn, head. 

Antonyms: see beginning. 

3. Referring to the end or termination of a 
course, series, etc.: conclusion, termina- 
tion, determination (formal), close, clos- 
ure (rare, exc spec), stoppage; spec. 
finish, finis (Latin), end-all, period (ar- 
chaic), consummation, destruction, an- 
nihilation, dissolution, finale, (Italian; 
mxutic), final (music), ending. 

Antonyms: see beginning. 

4. Referring to a terminating event, act, 
etc.: denoument (French), catastrophe, 
wind-up (colloq.), finish-up (rare), finish, 
finale (Italian), ending. 

Antonyins: see beginning. 

5. Spec, (in reference to discourse) exodium, 
catastrophe, finale, (Italian), ending, pero- 
ration, epilogue, appendix. 

Ardonyms: see beginning. 

6. In reference to lapse of time: period (ar- 
chaic), ending, lapse, expiration, expiry, 

Antonyms: see beginning. 

7. Referring to the last part of life: evening, 
close, extremity (archaic). 

Antonyms: see infancy. 


end, ('. t. 1. t^^rminate (a more formal word 
than "end"), conclude (Jormal); spec, fin- 
ish, stop, close, cease, discontinue, dis- 
solve, abolish, destroy, annihilate. 

2. To form an end to: terminate, deter- 
mine (formal); spec, head, tail, fetch up. 

Antonyms: see begin. 

3. See KILL. 

end, ('. i. 1. terminate (more formal than 
"enil"), conclude (formal); spec, finish, 
cease, stop, expire, lapse, discontinue, dis- 
solve, determine (formal). 
Antonyms: see begin. 

2. To cease to exist: spec go, die, vanish, 
disappear, fall. 

Antonyms: see begin. 

3. To finish a discourse: close, conclude; 
spec, perorate. 

Antonyms: see begin. 

4. See die, eventuate. 

endanger, v. t. imperil, jeopard (rare), ad- 
venture (rare), jeopardize, peril (rare), 
risk, hazard, jeopardy (rare); spec com- 

endear, v. t. No synonyms. 

endeavor, v. i. try (the common word), 
seek, attempt, offer, struggle, strive, es- 
say (learned or archaic), labor; spec, study. 

endeavor, n. trial, try, attempt, effort, 
struggle, striving, essay (archaic or liter- 
ary), exertion, offer. 

ending, n. 1. See end, death. 
2. In reference to words: suffix, postfix, 
termination, terminant (rare). 

ending, a. terminating, terminative (rare), 
concluding, conclusive (obsolesc), con- 
elusory, determinating, determinative, 
etc.; spec, finishing, etc. 

endless, a. 1. Referring to either time or 
space: never-ending (chiefly of time), in- 
terminable, termless (chiefly of time), 
boundless, indefinite, indeterminable, 
dateless, interminate, illimitable, unlim- 
ited, immeasurable, infinite (oftener of 
space than time), unending (chiefly of 
time) . 
Antonyms: see short, brief, termina- 

2. Referring to time only: eternal, ever- 
lasting, ceaseless, pe'-petual; spec, undy- 

Antonyms: see brief. 

3. See IMMORTAL, constant, purpose- 

endless, adv. Spec, interminably, bound- 
lessly, indefinitely, infinitely, evermore, 
constantly, etc. 

endow, v. t. 1. See dowt^r (a bride). 

fW Cross references: see Note. 
encrust: incrusl. 

end: final. 
endlong: lengthwise. 

endmost: farthest. 
endorse : indorse. 

lE^P^ See Notes ot Explanation. 



2. enrich, dow, estate {rare); spec, bene- 
fice, portion, reinvest. 

3. enrich (used with "ivith"), furnish, gift 
(chieflij in p. p., as an adjective). 

endowment, n. I. Act of endowing: dota- 
tion (learned). 

2. Referring to property given by way of 
endowing: fund, property, foundation 
{U. S.); spec, studentship, fellowship, 
scholarship, professorship, chair {fig.), 
living, etc. 

3. gift, power, dower, dowry; spec, abil- 
ity; — referring to natural gifts or powers of 
mind or body. 

endue, v. t. indue, clothe, invest; spec, re- 
invest, grace; — in reference to permanent 
gifts or powers of mind or body. 

endurable, a. bearable, tolerable, sup- 
portable, abidable, sustainable, suffer- 
able; spec, withstandable, weatherable, 
livable, stomachable. 
Antonyms: see trNBKARABLE. 

endurance, n. 1. See continuance, con- 
stancy, PATIENCE. 

2. The act of enduring or lasting: bearing, 
abiding, support, sustenance {bookish or 
tech.), tolerance {chiefly tech.), standing, 
withstanding, durance {archaic), suffer- 

3. Staying power: backbone, bottom, 
sand {colloq.); spec, fortitude, constancy, 

4. The act of enduring or suffering to be: 
tolerance, toleration, abidance, stomach- 
ing, enduringness {rare); spec, permission, 
forbearance, vitality. 

endurant, a. tolerant, patient {of evil) . 

endure, v. i. 1. See continue. 
2. abide, bear, suffer; spec, wear, last. 

endure, v. t. 1. Referring to the capacity or 
power to suffer unharmed or unimpaired: 
bear, abide {literary), support, sustain, 
suffer, tolerate, coendure {spec), stand, 
withstand, bide {archaic), undergo, stay; 
spec, weather. 

2. Referring to the will to put up un,th: 
tolerate, abide, stand, brook, digest {ar- 
chaic); spec, stomach, swallow, pocket, 
permit, receive. 

endways, endwise, adv. 1. See upright, 
2. distad {tech.); — towards the end. 

enema, n. injection {contextual), clyster. 

enemy, n. opponent, adversary, antago- 
nist ("opponent," "adversary," and "an- 
tagonist" not implying the ill-will or ma- 
levolence implied by "enemy"), unfriend 
(rare), Philistine f^;;.), foe (archaic or 
rhetorical, exc. in mil. use; often a collective 
in mil. use), foornan (archaic or poetic), 

hostile (^chiefly U. S. and of an American 
Indian); spec, archenemy. Devil. 
Antonyms: see friend, ally. 
energetic, a. active, vigorous, mettlesome, 
mighty; spec, hearty, hard, strenuous, 
trenchant, forceful, forcible, strong, pow- 
erful, dashing, emphatic, enterprising, 
live, robust; spec, see enterprising. 
Antonyms: see apathetic. 
energize, v. t. potentialize (rare), activate 
(tech.; chiefly chem. and biol.), dynamize 
(chiefly med.); spec, animate. 
Antonyms: see weaken, enervate. 
energy, n. 1. action; — not a good synonym. 

2. activity, go (colloq.), vigor, mettle, 
spirit, force, might, intensity, dash, life, 
animation. Most of these words have 
specific implications or associations sug- 
gested by their general senses. 

Antonyms: see weakness, weariness. 

3. power, force, potency, strength; spec. 
impetus, impulse, momentum, vis viva 
(tech. Latin), magnetism, electricity. 

Antonyms: see inertia. 

4. Only in reference to persons, ideas, etc.: 
spirit, vigor, backbone (colloq.), life, ani- 
mation, pith, verve, drive, vim (colloq.), ^zz 
(colloq.), go (colloq.), go-ahead (colloq.); 
spec, see enterprise. 

Antonyms: see weakness. 

enervate, v. t. weaken, devitalize, un- 
nerve, paralyze, soften; spec, debilitate, 
Antonyms: see strengthen, energize. 

enfeoff, v. t. infeft (Scots law); spec, subfeu 

enfeoffment, n. infeudation, infeftment 
(Scots law); spec, subinfeudation. 

enforce, v. t. 1. See compel, emphasize, 

2. /?i reference to laws, duty, etc.: execute, 

3. effranchize (rare); spec, naturalize, en- 
denizen (literary). 

engage, v. t. 1. See pledge. 

2. bind, obligate; spec, betroth. 

3. Spec, bespeak, hire, enlist, book, re- 
tain, brief, fee. 

4. To win over: gain. 

5. To seize and hold, fasten upon: oc- 
cupy, interest; spec, bite, arrest, catch, 

Antomjms: see slide. 

6. attack, encounter; spec, rcencounter 
(rare) . 

engage, v. i. 1. See contend, fight, 
promise, enter, agree, contract. 

2. embark (used unlh "in"); spec, enlist. 

3. interlock, interact; spec, gear, pitch, 

K^" Cross references: see Note. 
enervate: weakened. 

enfeeble: weaken. 
enfilade: rake. 

enflesb: embody. 

enfold: envelope, clasp, fold. 

i^/^ See Notes of Explanation. 


engine, ti. 1. Sec iNSTRnMEN'T, MKANS. 
2. Of nnichiiu;< for coitrcrtirig a force into 
tnechanical power (this now beintj the usual 
sense of "engine"): spec, steam engiiu', 
cli'ctrioal eiifiino, tie, turbine, jinny, eor- 
liss, motor, iliesel. 

S. Df inilitonj engines: spec, niatafimcl, 
arbalest, ballista, mangonel, loinbard, 

engineer, /(. maoliinist {context ual); spec. 
tlriver, hydraulician, mechanician, pi- 
English, a. Spec. Anglican {mostly refer- 
ring to the Church of England), British {re- 
ferring to ivhat is or belongs to Great Britain; 
now esp. u.sed in referring to political or 
imperial affairs). 
Englishman, n. Englander, Enghsher 
{chiefly Scot.), John Bull (o nickname), 
gringo {Spanish Amcr.; contemptuous); 
spec. Harry, Tommy {slang), milord. 
engrave, v. t. 1. grave {archaic or poetic), 
cut, carve, sculpture, chisel, incise; spec. 
intaglio {rare), etch, enchase, hatch, 
Crosshatch, mezzotint; — in reference to 
forming figures on, a surface. 
2. See PRINT. 
engraved, a. graven, sculptured, incised, 

cut ; spec, intagliated. 
engraver, n. graver {rare, exc. of a tool); 
spec, die cutter, lapicide, etcher, bui"in 
(a tool). 
engraving, a. carving, glyptic {chiefly 
spec.), sculptural. 
engraving, 7i. graving, carving, sculpture 
{rare), chiseling; spec, intaglio, glyptog- 
raphy, fretwork, chalcography, cerog- 
raphy, gypsography, stylography, petro- 
glyph, heliogravure, photogravure, heliog- 
raphy; — in reference to the art or qwocess. 
2. graving, carving, sculpture {rare), glyp- 
tic {chiefly spec); spec, intaglio, fretwork, 
chalcograph, cut {esp. a woodcut), plate 
{o7ie on metal), triptych, diptych, litho- 
glyph, taille-douce {French), mezzotint, 
cerograph, heliograph, photogravure, heli- 
ogravure; — referring to the figure produced. 
enjoy, v. t. 1. like, relish, joy {archaic). 
Antonyms: see dislike. 
2. experience, have {some experience). 
enjoyment, n. 1. relish, gusto, gust, zest, 
fruition {literary or dignified). 
Antonyms: see dislike, distress. 
2. pleasure, gratification, luxury. 

enlarge, v. t. 1. increase, extend, widen, 
aggrandize {learned), greaten {archaic), 
amplify, largen {rare), magnify {rare); 
spec, augment, broaden, ream, dilate, dis- 
tend, drift, thicken, di-ill, bore {chiefly 
with "out"). 

.■\ntonynis: see diminish, abridge, con- 
2. See MAGNIFY. 

enlarge, v. i. 1. increase, expand, widen; 
spec, augment, broaden, dilate, distend, 


enlargement, n. 1. increase, extension, 
widening; spec, broadening, aggrandize- 
ment {learned), amplification, augmenta- 
tion, distension, dilatation, expansion. 
Antonyms: see abridgement, abstract, 


2. Only of a thing formed by an enlarge- 
ment: spec, bulb, knot, ganglion. 

enlarging, a. Spec, expatiatory, cres- 
cent, expansive. 

enlighten, v. t. 1. See brighten. 
2. lighten {archaic), illume {rare or liter- 
ary), illuminate {formal), illumine {rare); 
spec, educate, civilize, instruct, inform. 
Antonyms: see dakken, nonplus, per- 

enlightenment, n. illumination, light, 
lightening; spec, culture, civilization, edu- 
cation, learning. 
Antonyms: see ignorance. 

enlist, V. t. Of soldiers, etc.: list, enroll, 
levy, recruit. 

enliven, v. t. 1. See animate, cheer. 
2. animate, exhilarate, actuate {learned), 
spirit, inspirit, quicken, quick {archaic), 
fire, brisk {chiefly with "up"); spec, spice, 
brighten, elate, reanimate. 
Antonyms: see calm, depress. 

enmity, n. dislike {contextual), ill-will, 
animosity; spec, pique; see aialevolence, 
Antonyms: see love. 

ennoble, V. t. dignify, exalt, raise; spec. 
greaten {rare), elevate, glorify, nobilitate 
{rare), baronize. 

Antonyms: see degrade, depreciate, 
abuse, defame. 

ennui, n. tedium, boredom, boreism 
{rare); see weariness. 
Antonyms: see vivacity, gayety. 

enormous, a. large {contextual), titanic. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 

engender: develop. 

engineer, v. t.: manage. 

enginery: apparatus, machin- 

engorge: surfeit, satiate, ob- 

engraft: graft. 

engross: copy, absorb, monop- 

engulf: swallow, absorb. 

enhance, v. i.: advance, in- 

enhance, v. t.: intensify, exag- 
gerate, advance. 

enhearten: encourage. 

enigma: question, riddle, mys- 

enigmatic: mysterious. 

enjoin: bid, dictate, forbid. 

enjoyable: pleasant. 
enormous: immense. 
enough: adequate. 
enounce: announce, state, pro- 
claim, pronounce. 
enquire: question. 
enrage: anger. 
enrapt, enraptured: ecstatic. 
enrapture: transport, please. 
enravish: transport. 

(^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


tremendous, htige, immense, colossal, gi- 
gantic, elephant iiu>, vast, prodigious {lit- 
erary or contempt Linus). 
Antonyms: see small. 

enrich, v. t. 1. richen {rare); spec, million- 
ize, endow. 
Antonyms: see impoverish, plunder. 
2. See embellish, fertilize. 

enriching, a. locupletive {rare). 

enshrine, v. t. 1. inshrine {a variant), con- 
tain {contextual); spec, entemple {rare), 
tabernacle, enchase {rare). 
2. See preserve, cherish. 

ensign, n. 1. flag {contextual); spec, gon- 
fanon, gonfalon, hatchment, eagle, pen- 

2. See BADGE. 

enslave, v. t. 1. enthrall {chiefly fig.), slave 
{rare), thrall {archaic), yoke {figurative), 
beslave {emphatic), vassal {rare); spec. 
Antonyms: see free, deliver. 


enslaved, a. bond. 

enslavement, n. 1. enthrallment; spec. 
vassalage, serfage, serfdom. 
Antonyms: see freeing. 


entail, n. tail, tailye or tailzie {Scot.). 

entangle, v. t, 1. In a physical sense: tan- 
gle, ravel, perplex {rare), involve, em- 
brangle {literary); spec, mesh, enlace, in- 
mesh, entrap, mat. 

Antonyms: see disentangle, unravel. 
2. See confuse. 

entangled, a. complex, foul {chiefly naut.), 
afoul {predicative) . 

entanglement, n. 1. tangle, maze, em- 
branglement {literary), ravelment {rare), 
involvement, intertanglement {rare), per- 
plexity, cobweb {implying fineness); spec. 
node, knot. 
2. See confusion. 

enter, v. i. 1. To go or come in: spec, pierce, 
Antonyms: see issue. 

2. To go {into) a subject-matter, book, etc.: 
dip, dive. 

3. To become busied, occupied, etc.: en- 
gage; spec, start, go (used with "into"). 

enter, v. t. 1. In a physical sense: spec. 
penetrate, pierce, trespass, invade, board 
{a ship or, U. S., a railroad train), force. 
2. See begin, join, list, record. 

entering, a. entrant, incoming, ingoing. 

enterprise, n. 1. project, emprise {ar- 

chaic); spec, scheme, adventure, at- 

2. energy, push {colloq.), go-ahead {col- 
Antonyms: see laziness. 

enterprising, a. energetic, go-ahead {col- 
loq.), pushing {colloq^, pushful {colloq.). 
Antonyms: see lazy. 

entertain, v. t. 1. receive, hospitize {rare); 
spec, harbor, guest {rare), shelter. 

2. Referring to opinions, etc.: hold, cher- 
ish, bear, have ; spec, nurse. 

Antonyms: see reject. 

3. See divert, feel. 

4. treat {colloq.), regale {literary); spec. 
fete, breakfast, dine, dinner, tea, wine, 
supper {rare). 

entertainer, n. Spec, hospitator {rare), 
harborer {archaic), host, hostess. 
Antonyms: see sponger. 

entertainment, n. 1. reception; spec, hos- 
pitation {rare), harboring. 

2. See diversion. 

3. treat {colloq.), regalement; spec, fete, 
Friday, gaudy {Eng.), refection, lunch, 
tea, dinner, spread {colloq.), banquet, sup- 
per, breakfast, beanfeast {Eng.). 

enthrone, v. t. regalize {spec, or fig.), 
throne, seat {contextual). 
Antomjms: see depose. 

enthuse, v. i. rave {colloq.), kindle; spec. 
poetize, warm, fanaticize. "Enthuse" is 
either humorous or vulgar. 

entice, v. t. attract, tempt, train {rare), al- 
lure, lure; spec, wile, decoy, inveigle. 

Antonyms: see repel, disgust, fright- 

enticement, n. attraction, allurement, 
temptation, lure; spec, decoy. 

enticing, a. attractive, inviting, alluring, 
tempting, soliciting; spec, decoying. "En- 
tice" itnplies success in allurement; "entic- 
ing" does not. 
Antonyms: see repellent. 

entirety, n. entireness, wholeness, in- 
tegrality, integrity. 

entitle, v. t. 1. intitule {chiefly tech.), be- 
title {derogatory) . 

2. See qualify, name. 

entrails, n. pi. 1. viscera {now rare), insides 
{colloq. or dial.), guts {now vulgar, or col- 
loq. as fig.), intestines, puddings {chiefly 
dial, and Scot.). The singular form, "en- 
trail," is rare. 

3. See viscera. 
entrain, v. t. board. 

X^iT" Cross references: see Note. 
enring: encircle. 
enrobe: clothe. 
enroll: list, enlist. 
ensanguine: bloody. [lish. 

ensconce: shelter, conceal, estab- 
ensemble: rohole, effect. 

ensnare: snare, catch. 

ensphere: surround. 

ensue: follow. 

ensure: insure. 

ensuing: coming. 

entail: settle, impose, necessitate. 

enthrall: enslave, captivate. 

enthusiasm: ecstasy, frenzy, 
ardor, fanaticism. 

enthusiastic: ardent, enthusi- 
astic. \intacl. 

entire: complete, absolute, whole, 

entity: being, thing. 

entomb: bury. 

It^^ See Notes of Explanation. 


entrance, ii. 1. Ucf erring to the aetiot}: en- 
try, ingress (literanj), ingrossion (rare), 
cutrec [French), incoming, ingoing, income 
{rare); spec, illapse {rare), trespass, d^but 
{in society: French). 
Antonyms: see issue. 

2. Referring to (he privilege or right: ad- 
mission, access, entree (French). 

3. Re/en'ing to the place or means of enter- 
ing: entry, aperture, ingress; spec, door, 
mouth, inlet, doorway, adit, vestibule, 
hallway, lobby, jiropylon, propylaeum, 
porte-cochere (French), postern, gorge 
{forlifieation), gate, forcgatc, stile. 

Antonyms: see exit. 

entry, n. 1. See entrance. 
2. listing; spec, registry, registration, 
jiost, posting, credit. 

envelope, n. covering, inclosure (literary 
or elevated); spec, incasement, casement 
(rare), casing (close), mantle, involucre, 
pack, capsule, film, skin, integument, fac- 
ing, manthng, shroud, vesture (rare), 
perianth, mist, veil, konseal, ^\Tap, 

envelope, v. t. cover, wrap (chiefly spec); 
spec, invest, ovcrroU, pack, jacket, en- 
shroud, infold or enfold, web, shroud, 
mantle, involve, encompass. 

envious, a. jealous, grudging. 

envy, v. t. grudge, begrudge. 

envy, n. grudgingness, grudging, jealousy, 

ephemeral, a. short-lived; spec, fugitive, 
occasional, mushroom, fungous. 

Antonyms: see eternal, lasting, long- 

epic, a. epopoean (rare); spec. Homeric. 

epic, n. epopee (rare), epopoeia (archaic), 
epos; spec. Homeric, Iliad, rhapsody, 

epicure, n. epicurean, palatist (rare), op- 
sophagist (rare), deipnosophist (learned), 
aristologist (learned), bon vivant (masc; 
French), bonne vivante (fern.; French), 
gourmet (French), gourmand. 

episcopacy, n. 1. pontificahty (rare), prel- 
acy (hostile term) , prelatism (hostile term) . 
2. See bishopric. 

episcopal, a. jiontifical or pontific (chiefly 
hist, or spec.), prclatical or prelatic (chiefly 
a hostile term). 

episcopalian, n. prelatist (a hostile term). 

epizootic, n' Spec, murrain. "Ejnzootic" 
is used of ayiimal diseases mdy, and corre- 
sponds to "epidemic" as applied to man. 

equal, a. 1. alike (postpositive), like; .spec, 
coordinate, level, coequal (rare), com- 
mensurate, coextensive, parallel, corre- 
sponding, ecjuipollent (learned), equiv- 
alent, equiponderant (rare), quits (used 
ivith "with"), even, isopsephic (rare; tech.), 
isonomic (rare), coeval, coetaneous, co- 
eternal, identical, tantamount, equipo- 
tential, isotropic, isotypic. 
Antonyms: see unequal. 
2. See adequate, i.mpartial. 

equal, n. fellow, match, peer, compeer (lit- 
erary); spec, coordinate, parallel, counter- 
vail, equivalent. 

equal, v. t. 1. See equalize. 
2. match, even (rare), fellow (used with 
"with"; literary); spec, peer, tie, corn- 
measure, countervail (archaic), rival, par- 
allel, number. 

equality, n. parity, equalization, equation 
(tech. or spec.), egality (obs. or French), par 
(chiefly in "on a par"), level; spec, match, 
equivalence, peerdom (rare), equipol- 
lence, equipoise, tie, coevahty (rare), co- 
equality, owelty (law), identity, isopohty, 
isonomy, equilibrium, isotopy, paral- 
Antonyms: see inequality. 

equalization, n. 1. equahng, equation. 
2. .See equality. 

equalize, v. t. equal, equate (chiefly math.), 
even; spec, par (rare), coordinate. 

equally, adv. alike, evenly, indifferently 
(chiefly spec). 

equal- sided, a. Spec, isosceles. 

equanimity, n. 1. evenness (of temper). 
2. See calmness. 

equestrian, a. mounted. 

equine, a. caballine (rare; literary), hippie 
(rare), solidungulate (tech.). 

equine, n. horse, solidungulate (tech.), 
soliped (tech.). 

t^0^ Cross references: see Note. 

entranced: transported. 

entrancing: transporting, 

entrant: entering. 

entrap : trap. 

entreat: ask. 

entreaty: asking, appeal. 

entree: entrance. 

entrepot: depository. 

entrust: commit. 

enumerate: compute, mention. 

enunciate: announce, pro- 

envenom: poison, embitter, 

environ: encircle, surround. 

environment: surroundings. 

environs: surroundings, neigh- 

envisage: visualize. [script. 

envoy: dip!r-^atic agent, post- 

enwrap : wr. ibsorb. 

eon: period. 

epact : period. 

epicurean: luxurious, pala- 
table, sensual. 

epigram : saying, poem. 

epigrammatic: concise. 

epigraph: inscription. 

episode: digression, occurrence. 

epistle: letter. 

epitaph: inscription. 
epithet: name. 
epitome: abridgment. 
epitomization: abridgment. 
epitomize: abridge. 
epoch: date, period. 
epode: lyric. 

equable: eren, even-tempered. 
equanimity: calm, peace. 
equanimoas: even-tempered, 

equate: equalize. 
equestrienne: rider. [poi^e. 
equilibrate: balance, counter- 
equilibrist: acrobat. 
equilibrium: balance, equality. 

fS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



equip, V. t. furnish, outfit, provide; upcc. 
harness {archaic), accouter, appoint, 
dress, accommodate, arm, gird, spar, rig. 
Antonyms: see dismantle. 

equipage, n. turnout {colloq.). 

equipment, n. 1. Referring to the action: 
furnishing, accoutering, accouterment, 
equipage, provision, appointment. 
2. Referring to thing: furniture, furnish- 
ings, tackle {chiefly spec), gear {chiefly 
spec), harness {esp. mil.); spec, apparatus, 
plant, accouterment {often in pi.), dress, 
fitting {chiefly in pi.), appointment, out- 
fit, rigging, rig, armament {chiefly mil.). 

erect, a. upright, unrecumbent {rare), 
straight, vertical, perpendicular. 
Antonyms: see drooping, stooping. 

erect, v. t. 1. raise, rear; spec pitch, prick, 
ruffle, perfect, pedestal. 

Antonyms: see droop. 
2. See build, construct, create, es- 

erect, v. i. rise; see bristle. 

erection, n. 1. raising, rearing, etc 
2. See building, construction, crea- 
tion, establishment. 

erode, v. t. destroy {contextual), eat, vi^ear, 
consume, fret {away); spec, rub {used 
with "off"), denude, wash {often used with 

erosion, n. destruction {contextual), eating, 
consumption (^rare); spec, denudation, fret 
{rare), eolation {geol.), washout, watergall 
(only of the place eroded) . 

err, v. i. mistake, nod, slip {often used with 
"up"), trip; spec, fall, wander, stray, 
stumble, blunder, hallucinate, misbe- 
lieve, sin, bull {with "it" as object). 

errand, n. business {contextual), commis- 
sion, message, mission, trip. 

erroneous, a. false, untrue, mistaken 

{used only of persons), erring {used only of 

persons), errant {rare); spec fallacious, 

devious, misguided (.used only of persons). 

Antonyms: see true. 

error, n. Spec, erroneousness, obliquity, 
mistake, solecism, bevue {French), ab- 
surdity, blunder, wrong, parepochism 
{rare), parachronism, corrigendum, fault, 
erratum, errancy, trip, stumble, slip, fal- 

lacy, flaw, misbelief, metachronism, mis- 
print, untruth, misstep. 
Antonyms: see truth. 

erupt, V. t. eject, belch; spec, {of volcanoes) 
vesuviate {rare). 
Antonyins: see swallow. 

eruption, n. 1. See ejection, outbreak. 
2. Spec efflorescence, rash, erythema, 
brash, blain, exanthema, tetter, vesicle, 
blotch, malanders or mallenders, eczema, 
hives, heat. 

escape, v. i. 1. scape {archaic), evade {now 
rare); spec, fly, slip, run, decamp, double. 
2. See issue, leak. 

escape, n. 1. scape {archaic), escapement 
(rare), scapement {rare); spec avoidance, 
bolt, evasion {from confinement; rare). 
2. See ISSUE, outlet, outflow, leak, 

escort, 71. 1. See accompaniment. 
2. attendant, companion, conductor 
spec cavalier, burkundaz {Anglo-Indian) , 
psychopomp, safe-conduct, convoy, en- 
voy, gallant, squire, esquire, bodyguard. 

escort, V. t. accompany {contextual); spec. 
gallant, squire, conduct; spec, marshal, 
convoy, guard, walk, support, hand. 

escutcheon, n. achievement, scutcheon; 
spec, shield, hatchment, inescutcheon. 

especial, a. special, particular; see special, 
Antonyms: see common. 

esplanade, n. maidan {Anglo-Indian) ; 
spec, marina {Italian and Spanish), bund 
{in the far East). 

esquire, n. I. armiger, squire. 
2. See gentleman, owner, squire, es- 

essence, n. 1. See being, substance, ex- 

2. quiddity {learned), isness {rare), hypos- 
tasis {tech.), principle, hyparxis {tech.; 
rare), form, inwardness. 

3. With various special implications sug- 
gested by the original senses: sense, gist, 
core, kernel, marrow, pith, elixir, quintes- 
sence, flower, soul, spirit, life, heart, sub- 

essential, a. Spec, substantial, indispen- 
sable, constituting, constitutional, inward, 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 

equipoise: balance, equality. 

equipollent: equal. 

equiponderant: equal. 

equitable: just. 

equity: justice. 

equivalent, a.: equal, analo- 
gous, correspondent, convertible, 

equivalent, n..- equal, analogue. 

equivocal: ambiguous, uncer- 
tain, questionable. 

equivocate: prevaricate. 

equivocation: ambiguity, pre- 

era: dnlc, period. 
eradieable: destructible. 
eradicate: abolish. 
erase: efface. 
erodent: consuming. 
erosive: eating. 
erotic: amatory. 
errantry : knighthood. 
erratic: wandering, abnormal, 

errcntrir, odd, capricious. 
erratum: error. 
erstwhile: formerly. 
eruct: eject. 
eructate: eject, vomit. 
erudite: learned. 

erudition: learning. 

escapade: caper. 

escape, v. t.: avoid. 

escarpment: bank. 

escheat: revert. 

eschew: avoid. 

esculent: eatable. 

espial: discovery. 

espousal: betrothal, adoption, 

espouse: betroth, adopt, de- 

espy: discover. 

esquire: escort. 

essay: attempt. 

M^ See Notes of Explanation. 


fimdamontal, olomontary, vital; sec nkc- 


essential, n. substantial, secret, life, vi- 
tals (/»/.). 
Antonyms: sec accessory, accident. 

establish, r. t. 1. coniirin, fix, settle, sta- 
bilify {rare), slabilitate (rare), stablish 
(arehaic), stable (rare), secure, set, firm; 
spec, sustain, instate, di)micile or donu- 
ciliate {chiejly legal), home, install, pitch, 
root, rear, land {slang or colloq.), ensconce, 
ground, foot {rare), make. 
Antonyms: see weaken, abolish. 

2. found, institute, constitute, create, 
erect {chiefly spec), make {as an order, 
ride, etc.), raise, plant; spec, ordain {ar- 
chaic) , orgnnhe, build, appiont, ground. 

Antonytns: see abolish. 

3. See confirm. 

establishment, n. 1. confirmation, fix, 
settlement, fixation, stablishment {rare), 
securement, firming. 

2. creation, constitution, plantation 
{:rare), institution, erection, foundation, 
stabiliment {rare); spec, instatement 
{rare), organization, installment, installa- 
tion, upbuilding, ordainment. 

3. creation, institution, concern; spec, or- 
ganization, works (pi.), dwelling, church, 
school, college, plant. 

estate, n. 1. See state, rank, property. 
2. Spec, demesne, lordship, reversion, 
domain, feu, feud, curtesy, mesnalty, 
jointure, lay fee, leasehold, dower, plan- 
tation, hacienda {Spanish), term, free- 

esteem, f. i. 1. See consider. 
2. respect, prize, regard, favor, admire, 
appreciate; spec, revere, reverence, ven- 
erate, worship. 
Antonyms: see despise, disrespect. 

esteem, n. 1. See consideration. 
2. respect, regard, favor, admiration, es- 
timation; spec, reverence, worship. 
Antonyms: see contempt, disrespect, 

ILL will. 

estimable, a. admirable, precious, valu- 
able, creditable; spec, adorable, worship- 
ful, respectable. 

Antonyms: see abominable, contempt- 

estrange, v. t. 1. See TRANSFER. 
2. alienate, disunite. 
Antonyms: see win. 

estuary, n. arm {contextual), frith, firth, 
lough {Anglo-Irish). 

etching, n. 1. See corrosion. 

2. engraving {contextual); spec, zinco 
{Eng.), aquatint. 
eternal, a. 1. pcr[)etual, timeless, endless, 
sempiternous {rare), sempiternal, ever- 
lasting, eviternal {chiefly spec; rare), 
eterne {archaic or poetic); spec, coeternal. 
Antonyms: see ephemeral, brief, tem- 


eternalize, v. t. perpetuate, immortalize, 
eternize; spec, monument, monumental- 

eternally, adv. perpetually, evermore {ar- 
chaic), forever, everlastingly, ever {liter- 
ary or archaic) . 

eternity, n. 1. perpetuity, eternalness, 
evcrlastingness, timelessness, endlessness, 
scmijitcrnity; spec, coeternity. 

Autonyms: see moment. 
2. See constancy, endlessness. 

ethereal, a. 1. See airy, heavenly. 
2. delicate {contextual); spec, light, tenu- 
ous, fragile, flimsy, fairy. 
Antonyms: see earthly, bodily. 

ethics, n. sing. & pi. morals {pi.), morahty; 
spec, hedonics, eudemonism. 

etymology, n. derivation, pedigree {fig.). 

eucharist, n. 1. Communion, Mass, 
Housel {hist.), Oblation; spec, liturgy, 
2. Mass, Element. 

euhoe, inter j. evoe {Latin; less correct than 
"euhoe"); spec, eureka, hurra or hurrah, 
bravo. "Euhoe" is Latin; there is no single- 
word English equivalent. 
Antonyms: see alas. 

eulogist, n. praiser {which see), encomiast, 
panegyrist; spec, laureate. 

eulogize, v. t. approve {contextual), praise, 
compliment, panegyrize. 

eulogy, n. eulogium, eulogism {rare), ap- 
proval, praise, panegyric, encomium; 
spec, monody {rare). 
Antonyms: see abuse. 

euphemistic, a. soft {contextual), euphe- 
mous {rare); spec, extenuatory. 

evacuate, v. t. 1. empty, clear; spec, {re- 
ferring to the bowels) purge, scour, empty. 
Antonyms: see fill, occupy. 

2. See LEAVE. 

3. eject {contextual); spec. {esp. referring 
to excrement) discharge, defecate, void. 

evacuate, v. i. defecate. 

evacuation, n. 1. clearing, discharge; spec. 

{referring to the bowels) passage, motion, 

purgation, catharsis. 

2. See LEAVING {ef. leave). 

53?^ Cross references: see Note. 

estimate, v. t.: consider, value, 

estimation: consideration, val- 
uation, computation. 

estrange: alienate. 
estrangement: alienation. 
estray: stray. 
etch: corrode. 
etiquette: manners. 

euchre: defeat. 
eulogism: eulogy. 
euphonious: smooth, melo- 
euphuism: pretense. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 



evade, v. t. avoid, elude; spec, dodge, bilk, 
bluff, funk (slang). 

evaporate, v. i. & t. emanate, vaporize, 
volatilize; s-pec. distill. 
Antonyms: see condense, solidify. 

evasion, n. 1. avoidance, elusion; spec. 
shuffling, double, doubling, dodge, bluff- 
ing, funking (slang). 

2. deceit, subterfuge, shuffle, put-o£f (col- 
loq.), shift; spec, dodge, prevarication, 

evasive, a. deceitful (contextual), slippery; 
spec, dodgy (colloq.), tergiversant (rare), 
prevaricative, shifty. 

even, a. 1. Referring to adjoining sur- 
faces: level, equal (archaic), smooth, flat, 
regular; spec, flush. 
Antonyms: see uneven, irregular. 

2. Referring to the temper, motion, action, 
etc.: uniform, regular, equal, level, smooth; 
spec, equable, easy (colloq.) ; see even- 

3. See equal, abreast, impartial. 
even, v. t. level, smooth; spec, scabble or 

scapple, grade, float. 

even, adv. just (often used with "now"), 

evening, n. eve (poetic or rhetorical), even 
(poetic, dial., or colloq.). 
Antonyms: see morning. 

evening, o. vesperal (rare), vespertine (lit- 
erary), vespertinal (rare). 

evening star. Vesper, Hesper (poetic), 
Hesperus (literary or learned). 
Antonyms: see morning star. 

event, n. 1. See occurrence. 
2. result, conclusion, issue, end, sequel, 
outcome, hap (esp. archaic); spec, turn-up 
(colloq.), futurity. 
Antonyms: see beginning. 

even-tempered, a. even (chiefly literary), 
equable, equanimous, equal. 
Antonyms: see irritable. 

eventful, a. 1. chanceful (rare), full (con- 
textual) . 
Antonyms: see uneventful. 
2. See important. 

eventuate, v. i. end, conclude, issue; spec. 

eversion, n. extroversion (tech.), exstrophy 
(tech.; rare). 

every, a. each. 

everyday, a. customary (contextual), ac- 
customed (contextual), workaday; spec. 
commonplace, homely. 

everywhere, adv. throughout, passim 

Antonyms: see nowhere. 

evidence, n. attestation, token, stamp, 
testimony (properly spec), witness (spec, 
or fig.); spec, demonstration, record, muni- 
ments (pi.), voucher, deposition, proof, 

evidence, v. i. attest, support, tell; spec. 
circumstantiate, certificate, show, prove, 
confess (poetic), document, vouch, testify. 

evidency, n. apparency, evidence (rare), 
indubitableness, obviousness, palpable- 
ness, seemingness, plainness. 

evident, a. 1. apparent, plain, obvious, 
broad, unmistakable, palpable (spec, or 
fig.), patent, open, naked, conspicuous 
(rare), manifest, distinct, clear, bald, un- 
hidden (rare), downright, overt. 
Antonyms: see abstruse. 
2. See VISIBLE, apparent. 

evil, n. 1. See wickedness. 
2. With "a" or "an": harm, ill, curse, 
blast, bale (now chiefly poetic), cancer 
(fig.), canker (Jig.), bane, disease, male- 
fice (archaic). 
Antonyms: see good. 

evildoer, n. malfeasant (learned or tech.), 
malefactor (esp. criminally), malef actress 

evildoing, a. malfeasant (learned or tech.), 
malefactory, maleficent. 
Antonyms: see beneficent. 

evocate, v. t. evoke, elicit; spec, exorcize 
(rare), invoke. 

evoke, v. t. evocate, call; see elicit. 

evolution, n. 1. development (contextual); 
spec, phylogeny, ontogeny, ontogenesis, 
physiogeny, phylogenesis. 
2. See movement, figure (dancing). 

evolutionism, n. Spec. Darwinism, Heck- 
eUsm, Lamarkism. 

ewe, n. sheep (contextual) ; spec, crocodile 
(dial.), crock (chiefly Scot.). 

exact, a. 1. See strict, accurate, defi- 

2. precise, diametric (opposite), absolute, 
direct; spec, express (chiefly with allusion 
to Heb. i. 3, as in, "the express image"). 

3. deUcate, accurate, precise, nice, fine; 
spec, sensitive, true. 

exact, V. t. 1. See ask, extort. 

2. take (vengeance, etc.), have. 
exacting, a. 1. See critical, difficult. 

2. extortionary, extortive, exactive. 

1^= Cross references: see Note. 
evade: escape. 
evanesce: disappear. 
evanescence: disappearance, 

evanescent: transient. 
evangel: gospel. 
evanish: disappear. 

evaporative: volatile. 
eventual: final. 
eventuality: occurrence. 
ever: always, once, eternally. 
everlasting: endless, eternal, 

evermore: constantly, endlessly. 
everything: all. 

evict: eject. 
eviction: ejection. 
evil, a.: wicked, harmful, in- 
jurious, malevolent. 
evil-Iooliing: ugly. 
evince: disclose, show. 
eviscerate: disembowel. 
evolve: develop, emit. 


IW See Notes of Explanation. 


exaction, n. !• jSi'p DEM.^Nn. 
2. extortion, squeeze (coUoq.), requisi- 
tion; spec, mulct, contribution. 

exactly, (7(//'. just, even {chicflt/ archaic 
or liiblical), precisely, full, fully, quite, 
plumb or plum; spec, flat, faithfully, 

exactness, n. 1. See strictness, accu- 


2. delicacy, nicety, precision, accuracy; 
spec, sensitiveness, trueness. 

exaggerate, v. t. magnify, enhance, stretch 
(colloq.); spec, overspeak (rare), overpic- 
ture (rare), overdraw, overtell (rare), 
overdo, overstate, overcolor, overcharge, 
romance, hyperbolize {rhetoric). 
Autonyms: see belittle. 

exaggerated, a. hyperbolical (rhetoric), 
outre {French), tall (colloq., U. S.), over- 
done, excessive. 

exaggeration, 7i. excess, enhancement; 
spec, hyperbole (rhetoric), overstatement. 

exalted, a. Spec, elevated, elated, high, 
lofty, highflown (chiefly disparaging), 
magnificent, magnific, sublime, magnifi- 
cal, proud, lordly; spec, buskined. 
Antonyms: see low, degraded, degen- 

examination, n. 1. inspection, scrutiny, 
investigation, search, research (esp. spec), 
exploration, scrutation (rare), scan (rare), 
perusal (archaic), survey, examen (rare or 
tech.); spec, review, test, disquisition 
(rare), probation (U. S. or obs.), collation, 
overhaul (rare), consideration (archaic), 
reconnaissance or reconnoissance, perscru- 
tation (rare), assay, post-mortem, prying. 
2. inquiry, interrogation, inquisition; 
spec, catechism, collections (pi.; Eng. 
schools), school (Oxf. University), tripos, 
responsions (pi.), exercise, Uttle go (Eng.), 
great go or greats (Eng). 

examine, v. t. & i. 1. investigate, inspect, 
scrutinize, peruse (archaic), dissect, ex- 
aminate (literary), consider (archaic), 
overlook, search, scan, introspect (pri- 
marily spec; rare), overhaul, survey; spec. 
collate, rummage, explore, reconnoiter, 
ransack, probe (as a wound), canvass, re- 
view, bottom, feel, bolt, sift, sniff, try, 
test, candle, anatomize. 
2. question, interrogate, cross-examine 
(implying repeated and close questioning), 
quiz (U. S.), catechize; spec, pry (v. i. 
only), sound (in order to get the views of, 
etc.), probe. 

example, n. 1. One thai serves to illustrate: 

sample, specimen, piece, instance, case, 
representative, illustration, exemplar, es- 
say, exemphfication (formal); spec dem- 
onstrate, monument. 

2. One that serves as a model or pattern: 
pattern, sample, type, standard, model, 
foregoer (archaic); spec sampler, lead 
(pron. led). 

3. See WARNING. 

example, v. t. represent, illustrate, ex- 
emplify; spec sample. 

excavate, v. t. 1. See hollow. 
2. form (contextual); spec dig, burrow, 
delve (archaic), hole, drive, drift, groove. 

excavation, 7i. cavity (contextual), hole 
(contextual); spec, burrow, cutting, delve 
(literary), pit, den, digging, beard, mine, 
shaft, stope, quarry, drift, drive, counter- 

exceed, v. t. 1. transcend, overstep, pass, 
overgo (rare), overpass (rare); spec. 

2. surpass, transcend, excel, overpeer 
(rare), outpeer (rare), cap, ding (archaic 
or dial.); spec, outdo, pass (rare), outgo, 
outreach (rare or naut.), break, out- 
Herod, outstrip, outplay. 

exceed, v. i. Spec, surpass, excel, over- 

excellence, n. worth, virtue, perfection, ex- 
cellency, fineness, goodness (rare), grace, 
superiority; spec, preeminence, greatness, 
Antonyms: see fault. 

excellent, a. admirable, worthy, splendid 
(colloq.), tiptop (colloq.), superexcellent, 
brave, choice, first-rate, transcendent, ex- 
quisite, prime, sterling, superordinary, 
unexceptionable, divine (fig.), heavenly 
(fig.), crack (slang or colloq.), grand (col- 
loq.), great (chiefly U. S. and colloq.), ad- 
mirable, golden, ioWy (colloq.), rum (cant), 
surpassing, extreme. 
Antonyms: see faulty, bad, imperfect, 


except, V. i. exclude, omit; spec, reserve, 
forprize (rare). 
Antonyms: see include. 

except, prep, unless, saving, save, but, ex- 
cepting, batting (obsolescent or literary). 

exception, n. 1. exclusion, omission; spec 
reservation, limitation, reserve, forprize 
(rare), salvo. 
2. See objection. 

excess, 7i. 1. excessiveness, immoderation, 
immoderacy (rare), immoderateness, su- 
perabundance, exuberance, exuberancy. 

f^' Cross references: see Note. 
exalt: praise, elevate, advance, 

exanimate: dead. 
exasperate: anger, irritate. 
exasperated: angry. 

exasperation: anger. 
exceeding: above. 
excel, V. t.: exceed, surpass. 
excel, V. i.: exceed. 
except: object. 
exceptionable: objectionable. 

exceptional: abnormal, un^ 

usual, special. 
esceptious: caviling. 
exceptive: caviling. 
excerpt, v. t.: extract, quote. 
excerpt, n.: extract, quotation. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



superfluity, inordinacy (rare), inordinate- 
ness, extremism (rare), extremeness, tran- 
scendence, transcendency; spec. Caligu- 
lism (fig.), extravagance, extravagancy, 
extremity, extreme, exorbitance, exorbi- 
tancy, fulsomeness, unrestraint, nimiety, 
redundance, exundance {rare), overabun- 
dance, overmuchness {rare), superfluence 
(rare), violence, unreasonableness. 
Antonyms: see constraint. 

2. Referring to the thing that is in excess, 
or to the degree of excess: superabundance, 
redundancy, plethora, overmuch {rare), 
superfluity, superflux {rare), surfeit, sur- 
plus, surplusage, overplus; spec, oversup- 
ply, overflow, flood, overstock, glut, 
over, extra, plurality, epact {astron.), 
overweight, majority. 

Antonyms: see deficiency. 

3. Referring to excess in indulgence: im- 
moderation, intemperance {chiefly spec); 
spec, crapulence {learned). 

excessive, a. immoderate, inordinate, ex- 
travagant; spec, extreme, exorbitant, 
nimious (chiefly Scots law), exuberant, 
superabundant, exundant (rare), over- 
great, overlarge, redundant, overmuch, 
fulsome, deadly {colloq.), undue, tran- 
scendent, unreasonable, outrageous, su- 
pernumerary, woundy {colloq.; archaic), 
overdone, overflowing, superfluous, sur- 
plus, spare, dithyrambic (literary), devil- 
ish, fiendish, cruel, etc. 
Antonyms: see deficient. 

excessively, adv. superabundantly, ex- 
travagantly, etc., overly (Scot, and colloq., 
U. S.), ultra- (in, compounds, as in "ultra- 
conservative''), consumedly (literary and 
affected), over, too, etc. 

exchange, n. 1. change (contextual); spec. 
interchange, conversion, commutation, 
reciprocation, transposal, transposition, 
substitution, barter, cambism, shuffle. 

2. premium, agio, batta (Anglo-Indian). 

3. Referring to the business place: spec. 
change (the form '"change," as in on 
'change," is due to an erroneous supposi- 
tion), bourse, market, rialto (rare), bazaar, 

exchange, v. t. change (contextual); spec. 
interchange, reciprocate, commute, sub- 
stitute, transpose, transhift (rare), coun- 
terchange, barter, bandy. 

exchangeable, a. changeable (contextual), 
commutable, interchangeable. 

excise, v. t. To cut off: remove (context- 
ual), excide (rare), exscind (chiefly literary 
or fig.), exsect (rare); spec, resect, efface. 

excision, n. cutting, exscision (chiefly liter- 
ary or fig.), exsection (rare); spec, resec- 
tion, effacement. 

excitable, a. nervous, irritable, hot- 

brained, hot-headed, inflammable, in- 
flammatory (rare). 
Antonyms: see tjnexcitable. 

excitation, n. 1. The act or action: causing, 
arousing, rousing, provocation (esp. spec^, 
excitement (rare); spec, electrification 
(often fig.), incendiarism. 
2. See excitement. 

excitative, a. excitive, excitory, inflamma- 
tory (usually spec); spec, incendiary (fig.), 
irritative (chiefly biol.). 

excite, v. t. actuate (learned), move, cause 
call (used with "up," "into activity," etc.), 
raise, rouse, arouse, waken, awake, 
awaken, stimulate, incite, inflame, sum- 
mon {used with "into activity," etc.), in- 
spire, quicken, inebriate (fig.), stir, be- 
stir, kittle (Scot.), disturb, kindle, im- 
passion, en chafe (archaic), fire, electrify 
(often fig.), ferment (fig.), whet, irritate 
(chiefly biol.), impel, prompt, provoke, 
anger, agitate, heat, elate, enfrenzy (rare); 
— mostly idiomatic or specific. 
Antonyms: see calm. 

excited, a. nervous, ebullient (rare), 
heated; spec incensed, intoxicated, fren- 
zied, fevered, feverish, restless, hot, tense, 
delirious, frantic, wild. 

Antonyms: see apathetic, calm, self- 
controlled, UNIMPASSIONED. 

excitement, n. The state or feeling: excita- 
tion, disturbance, tension, activity, bustle 
(colloq.), ferment, fermentation (fig.), 
heydey (literary), incensement (rare); 
spec, intoxication, inebriation (rare), heat, 
ebullience (learned), ebuUition (learned), 
inflammation, overwork, irritation (chief- 
ly biol.), stir, breeze, flurry, flutter, ruffle, 
agitation, elation, erethism, delirium, hus- 
tle, franticness, electrification (often fig.). 
Antonyms: see apathy, calm, self- 

exciting, a. disturbing, electric (fig.), stir- 
ring, incentive, provocative, excitant 
(rare), etc 
Antonyms: see calmative, sedative. 

exclaim, v. t. & i. shout, cry, ejaculate, 
vociferate, reclaim (rare), conclamate 
(rare) ; spec, wail, howl (chiefly contemptu- 
ous), ululate (rare), exululate (rare), hoot 
(often fig. in contempt), hoop, hollo, hol- 
low, holla, shrill, outshrill (poetic), whew. 

exclamation, n. 1. shout, cry, interjection, 
vociferation; spec howl (chiefly in con- 
tempt), ululation, ecphonesis (rhetorical; 
rare), bounce. 

2. A word exclaimed: spec, interjection. 
There are numberless exclamations; a few 
common ones are: highty-tighty, hoity- 
toity (somewhat contemptuous or disapprov- 
ing), hilloa, hillo, bounce, boo, bo, boh, ha, 
hollo, hollow, holloa, halloo, hoicks, huzza, 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



hurrah, hiirmy, hurra, hurroo, hush, hush- 
aby, hello, gosh {slang), chut, bully (.slang), 
bravo, marry (archaic), he, ho, hie, hey. 
hev-ho, hi, heyday, whoop-la, why, zounds 
(archaic), yoieks, haw, huh, hoo, evviva 
{Italian), evoe (learned), hosanna, alas, 
graraercy, hist, whist, eureka, ugh, twang, 
tush, tut, whew. 

exclamatory, a. interjectionaJ, interjec- 
tionary [rare), interjectory. 

exclude, r. t. 1. debar, bar; spec, prohibit, 
lock (often used with "out"), out, prevent, 
blackball, ostracize. 
Antonyms: see include, imply. 
2. See EXPEL. 

exclusion, n. 1. debarring, debarrance 
(rare), debarration (rare), barring, debar- 
ment; spec, prohibition, preclusion, pre- 
vention, lock-out, ostracism, disfellow- 
ship (rare). 

exclusive, a. 1. excluding, sole, exclusory; 
spec, prohibitive, preclusive, preventive. 
Antony rtis: see inclusive, 
2. Spec, clannish, cliquish. 
Antonyms: see common. 

excommunicate, v. t. expel, curse, un- 

excrement, n. dirt (obsolescent), ordure 
(learned), dung (now cant or inelegant), 
feces or faeces (chiefly tech.), dejection 
(rare), dejecture (rare), rejectamenta (pi.; 
rare), egesta (pi.; tech.), soil (esp. in 
"night soil"), egestion (rare); spec, but- 
tons (pi.), fumet, stool, frass, cast, crottels 
(pi.), fiants (pi.). "Excrement" is learned 
or tech. 

excrescence, n. outgrowth; spec, append- 
age, burr, knot, wolf, gall, horn, fungus, 
nail, condyloma, wart, caruncle, lump, 

excrescent, a. outgrowing; spec, super- 

excrete, v. t. expel, discharge, pass, egest 
(rare); spec, evacuate, eliminate, defecate. 
Antonyms: see assimilate. 

excretion, n. expulsion, discharge, eges- 
tion (rare); spec, elimination, evacuation, 
dejection, diruesis, perspiration, metasyn- 
crisis (med.), saUva, bile, etc. 
Antonyms: see secretion. 

excretitious, a. expulsory, excrementi- 
tious, excrementitionary; spec, evacuant, 
dejectory, depurative, emunctory. 

excursion, n. 1. The act or action: expedi- 
tion; spec, sally, trip. 
2o journey, trip; spec, outing, ride, voy- 

age, sail, pilgrimage, tramp, ramble, 

jaunt, tour, walk. 

8. Sec deviation, digression. 

excursionist, n. Spec, tripper (colloq.), 
tourist, voyager, rambler, walker, driver, 
rider, etc. 

excusable, a. allowable, dispensable (ar- 
chaic), defensible, pardonable, venial. 
Antonyms: see unpardonable, inex- 
cusable, flagrant. 

excusatory, a. dispensative, dispensatory, 
excusativc, apologetic. 

excuse, n. 1. defense, excusal (rare), par- 
don, remission, remittal (rare); spec, apol- 
ogy, condonation, extenuation, justifica- 
tion, indulgence, forgiveness, dispensa- 
tion, essoin (law), amnesty. 
2. The thing offered by way of excuse: plea, 
defense; spec, justification, reason, 
ground, apology, color. 
Antonyms: see punishment. 

excuse, v. t. 1. pardon, remit, overlook; 
spec, condone, forgive, extenuate, essoin, 
dispense, justify, furlough. 
Antonyms: see punish. 
2- See free. 

execute, v. t. 1. To carry out, as a plan, 
purpose, command:, effectuate, 
effect; spec, enforce, fulfill, wreck (ven- 
geance) ; see accomplish, fill. 

2. To go through actions, operations, move- 
ments, etc., constituting: do (as a dance, a 
somersault), perform; spec, perpetrate (as 
a joke; colloq.), play (as a trick), turn (a 
handspring); see finish. 

3. make (a deed, conveyance, vnll). 

4. See make. 

5. kill (contextual); spec, garrote, impale, 
behead, draw, decimate, crucify, guillo- 
tine, hang, gibbet, shoot, strangle, c&own, 
electrocute (a word often condemned as 
barbarous but which appears to have estab- 
lished itself). 

execution, n. 1. doing, effecting, effectuat- 
ing, performance; spec, enforcement, fill- 
ing; see accomplishment. 

2. doing, performance; spec, perpetration 
(colloq.), playing. 

3. The manner of executing: spec, pianism 
(cant), mechanism, technique, touch, 

4. killing (contextual); spec, auto-da-fe 
(Portuguese), noyade (French), decima- 
tion, guillotinade, euthanasia, crucifixion, 
hanging, strangling, electrocution (see 
"electrocute," under execute). 

executioner, n. killer (contextual), deaths- 

XW Cross references: see Note. 
excogitate: devise. 
excoriate: skm. 
excoriated: raw. 
ezcrementlttous: fecal. 

excruciate: torture. 
exculpate: acquit. 
excursive: discursive. 
excursus: discussion, digres- 

execrable: abominable, bad. 
execrate: curse. 
execrated: accursed. 
execration: cursing. 
executed: done. 

{W See Notes of Explanation. 



man {rare or literary); spec, headsman, 
hangman, carnifix, Hctor (Roman antiq.), 
Jack Ketch {hist.), tormentor (a Latin- 
ism), slaughterman {rare). 

executor, n. doer, accomphsher, perform- 
ex, executive {chiefly spec.). 

exegesis, n. exposition. 

exercise, n. 1. The act or action: exertion 
{esp. with conscious effort or force), exerci- 
tation {learned), use, practice {often spec), 
working, operation; spec, play, plying, 
wielding, breather, breath. 

2. The course of exercise: training, prac- 
tice, drill, drilling, disciphne; spec, goose- 
step, school; see training. 

3. The act of showing or of putting into prac- 
tice: use, practice, having, exhibition. 


5. trial, test; spec, composition, examina- 
tion, quodlibet {Latin; hist.), theme {ob- 
solescent), study, 6tude {French). 

exercise, v. t. 1. exert, practice, use, oper- 
ate, work; spec, play, wield, ply, breathe, 
walk, run, trot, course, prosecute. 
Antonyms: see disuse. 

2. train, drill, school, discipline, practice; 
spec, enter {cant), teach, tutor; see train. 

3. use, have, do, practice, show, exhibit, 

4. See AGITATE. 

exhalation, n. 1. aura {learned or tech.), ef- 
flation {rare), emission, breath {rare), ex- 
halement {rare), emanation, halitus {rare); 
spec, reek, blast, transpiration, fume, 
miasma, steam, smoke, evaporation. 
Some of these words are used only con- 
cretely, of the thing exhaled. 
2. breath {contextual), expiration; spec. 
exsufflation, puff. 
Antonyms: see inhalation. 

exhale, v. t. 1. breathe, emanate, emit; 
spec, transpire, respire, reek, outbreathe, 
fume, furnace, vapor, gasp, steam, smoke, 
evaporate, blow. 

2. breathe {contextual), expire, vent 
{rare); puff; spec, blow, spout. 

exhale, v. i. breathe {contextual), expire; 
spec. exsufBate, spout, blow, puff. 
Antonyms: see inhale. 

exhaust, v. t. 1. See drain, empty, draw, 


2. weaken, deplete, overcome, spend, 
overspend {rare), overtire, pump, extener- 
ate {rare; fig.), prostrate, outwear, out- 

weary {rare); spec, impoverish, overcrop, 
Antonyms: see strengthen, refresh, 
rest, restore. 

exhaust, n. exhaustion, education {obso- 

exhausted, a. forspent {archaic), fordone 
{archaic), effete (learned), dead, forworn 
{archaic), outspent {rare), outworn; spec. 
breathless, forfoughten {obs. or Scot.). 
Antonyms: see strong, fresh. 

exhaustion, n. 1. Spec, draining, empty- 
ing, emptiness. 

2. weakening, prostration, exhaustedness, 
depletion; spec, inanition, exinanition 
{rare), collapse, impoverishment. 

exhaustive, a. 1. emptying. 
2. Referring to a discussion: complete, 
full, thorough. 

exhort, v. t. advise, urge. 

exhortation, n. advice, urging, protreptic 
{rare), hortation {learned), prone {rare; 
eccl.), parsenesis {rare), hortative {rare). 

exhortative, a. exhortatory, cohortative 
{esp. gram.), hortative, hortatory, urgent. 

exigency, n. demand, need, necessity, dis- 
tress, difficulty, extremity, urgency, 
strait, juncture, pressure, pinch; spec. 

exigent, a. demanding, exacting, urgent, 
necessary, distressful, pressing; spec. 

exile, n. 1. outcast. 

exit, n. 1. departure; spec, death. 
2. A way out: outlet, egress, escape; spec. 
doorway, gate, window, skylight, etc. 
Antonyms: see entrance. 

exorbitant, a. excessive, SibyUine {fig.); 
spec, greedy. 
Antonyms: see moderate. 

exorcise, v. t. lay, down {colloq.); spec, ex- 

exorcism, n. laying, downing {colloq.); 
spec, exsufflation {rare). 

exordium, n. beginning, proem {literary or 
learned), introduction; spec, preface. 

exoteric, a. 1. Referring to disciples: un- 
initiated, outer. 

2. Referring to opinions: public. 

3. Referring to an author, etc.: common- 

expand, v. t. & i. 1. See open, develop. 
2. spread, widen, bulk, outspread; spec. 

f^ Cross references: see Note. 
exemplify: example, typify. 
exempt: free. 

exemption: freeing, freedom. 
exert: exercise. 
exertive: active. 
exfoliate:, scale, shed. 
exhibit, n.: show. 
exhibition: show. 

exhlbitory: diif closing. 
exhilarate: elale, enliven. 
exhort, v. t.: advise, urge. 
exhort, v. i.: preach. 
exigible: demandable. 
exiguous: slender. 
exile, V. t.: expel. 
eximious: distinguished. 
exist: be. 

existence: being. 
existent: being. 
exodus: emigration. 
exonerate: acquit. 
exorable: complaisant. 
exorbitance, exorbitancy: 

exorbitant: excessive. 
expanded: wide. 

t^" See Notes of Explanation. 


stretch, outspread; s/wr. outstrotcli, 
mushroom, unfurl, display, dilate, dis- 
tend, open. 

Antoni/m^: see shrink, press. 
S. develop. 

expanse, n. expansion (less usual than 
"exixuisc"), area, stretch, spread; spec. 
contiguity, continuity, sheet, field, sea 
(Jig.), outspread {rare). 

expansion, n. 1. spread, widening; spec. 
stretch, dilation, diastole. 
2. aSic expanse, development. 

expansive, a. wide; spec, comprehensive, 
elastic, dilatable, extensible. 
Antonyms: see confined. 

expatiate, v. i. enlarge, descant, dilate, 

expect, V. t. contemplate, anticipate, think, 
trust, await, hope, look, calculate {used 
icith an infinitive clause or tvith "that"; 
chiefly locnl, U. S.), apprehend. 

expectancy, n. I. anticipation, hopeful- 
ness, apprehension. 
2. prospect, abeyance (law). 

expectant, a. anticipator, anticipant, 

expectation, n. anticipation, contempla- 
tion, thought, trust, hope. 

expectorate, v. i. 1. raise; spec, cough. 
2. See SPIT. 

expediency, n. advantage, advisability, 
policy; spec, opportunism. 

expedient, a. wise (contextual), politic; 
spec, timeserving, opportunist; see wise, 

expedient, n. device, shift; spec, kink, 
trick, stopgap, dodge (cnlloq.), ruffle, re- 
sort, resource, makeshift, subterfuge. 

expedite, v. t. 1. dispatch, hasten, hurry, 
quicken; spec, facilitate. 
Antonyms: see hinder. 

expedition, n. 1. haste, dispatch, hasten- 
ing, hurrying. 

2. journey, campaign, quest (medieval 
romance); spec, crusade, commando 
(South Africa). 

expel, V. t. t. eject, extrude; spec, shoot, 
oust, discharge, evaporate, excrete, dis- 
lodge, dispel, egest, eliminate, belch. 
Antonyms: see admit, inject. 

2. In reference to putting a person out of 
some place: remove, exclude; spec, evict, 
estampede (rare), exsibilate (rare), de- 
force (rare), fire (slang, U. S.), bounce 
(slang or cant, U. S.), disseize, bolt, oust. 

Antonyms: .see admit. 

3. Referring to putting out of some organi- 
zation or body: exclude, fire (slang, U. S.); 

spec, outcast (rare), excommunicate, dis- 
parish, unchurch, drum (used ivith "out"; 
csp. mil.), disfcUowship (U. S.), disown 
(in the Society of P'riends). 
4. banish, exile, exclude, drive (used with 
"out"); spec, deport, expatriate, epatriate 
(rare), depatriate (i-are or obs.), transport, 
relegate, ostracize, denationalize, exos- 
tracize (rare), ride (chiefly with "from"). 

expend, v. t. consume (contextual) , outlay, 
disburse, spend, use, employ. 

expenditure, n. consumption (contextual), 
outlay, outgo, disbursement, expense (ar- 
chaic); spec, profusion, cost. 
Antonyms: see income. 

expense, 7i. 1. expenditure, outlay; spec. 
cost, charge. 

2. See CHARGE. 

experience, v. t. have, know, see, meet, 
encounter, undergo; spec, suffer, enjoy, 
share, try, realize, taste, lead, receive, 
prove (archaic). 

experience, n. knowledge, acquaintance, 
encounter; spec, sufferance, enjoyment, 
trial, taste, adventure, time. 
Antonyms: see inexperience. 

experienced, a. Spec, old, practiced, wise, 
salted (slang or colloq.), veteran, expert. 
Antonyms: see inexperienced. 

experimental, a. trial. 

expert, a. adroit; spec, proficient, scientific. 

expert, n. crack (colloq. or slang), adept, 
dabster (colloq.), dab (colloq.; chiefly 
spec), proficient, master, sharp (slang), 
sharper (slang), shark (slang); spec. 
specialist, technician, technicist (rare), 
technologist, virtuoso (masc), virtuosa 
(fem.), connoisseur. 
Antonyms: see clown, dabbler; also cf. 


expiate, v. t. To atone for: redeem, assoil 
(archaic), purge (chiefly law); spec, mend, 
Antonyms: see aggravate. 

expiation, n. atonement, redemption, pia- 
tion (rare); spec, cross (of Christ), satis- 
faction, satispassion (theol.), ransom. 

expiatory, a. piacular (rare), redemptive; 
spec, lustrative, lustral. 

expired, a. run (as time; often with "out"), 
over (colloq.). 

explain, v. t. expound, solve, elucidate, re- 
solve, explicate (rare), unfold, dissolve 
(rare); spec, demonstrate, construe, clear, 
interpret, enucleate (learned), innuendo 
(law), untie (fig.), undo (rare), unriddle, 
unravel, untangle, glossate, gloss, define, 
describe, develop, detail. 
Antonyms: see obscure. 

fc^" Cross references: see Note. 
expatriate: expel. 
expense: sumptuary. 

expensive: costly. 
expert, a.: skillful. 
ezpertness: skill. 

expiration: exhalation, end, death. 
expire: exhale, die, end. 
expiry: death, end. 

\W See Notes of Explanation. 



explainable, a. accountable, interpret- 
able, explicable. 

explainer, n. expounder; spec, hierophant, 

explanation, n. 1. account, interpretation, 
elucidation, exposition, explication, 
cclaircissement {French), construction; 
spec, definition, description, denotlment 

2. Referring to what explains: explication, 
key; spec, comment, commentary, exege- 
sis, secret, innuendo, catastrophe. 

explanatory, a. interpretative, elucidative, 
elucidatory, explanative {rare), expository, 
expositive, expositional, exegetical. 

explicit, a. 1. See definite. 
2. express; spec, written, outspoken, posi- 
tive, plain. 
Antonyms: see implied. 

explode, v. t. 1. See destroy. 
2. burst, detonate; spec, fire, pop, spring, 
deflagrate, crack. 

exploit, V. t. utilize {contextual); spec, milk 
{colloq.), work {colloq.). 

exploration, n. search, prospecting, pros- 
pect, probe; spec, inquisition. 

explore, v. t. search, plumb {fig.), fathom, 
outsearch {rare); spec, prospect. 

explosion, "n. 1. Spec, destruction. 

2. bursting, burst; spec, fulmination, de- 
tonation, fulguration, blast, clap, crack, 
shot, report, pop. 


explosive, n. Spec, lyddite, cordite, ful- 
minant {rare), dynamogen, rackarock, 
fulminate, dynamite, roburite, gelignite, 
guncotton, herculite, gunpowder, trinito- 
toluol, TNT {ahhr.). 

expose, V. t. 1. disclose, unearth {fig.), flay 
{fig.), decorticate; spec, unmask, bare. 
Antonyms: see hide, seclude. 
2. subject {used with "to"); spec, venture, 
risk, post, weather, pitch, gibbet {fig.), 
bare, abandon. 
Antonyms: see protect, shelter. 

exposed, a. 1. bleak, raw, airy, bare, open, 
shelterless, windy. 
Antonyms: see sheltered, unexposed. 

2. With "to": liable, subject. 

3. See BARE. 
expostulate, v. t. remonstrate. 
exposure, n. I. disclosure; spec, show-up 

(colloq.), unmasking. 

2. Usually ivith "to": subjection; spec. 

Antonyms: see protection, shelter. 

3. liability, subjection (used with "to"), 
liableness (rare). 

express, n. 1. See dispatch. 
2. agency (contextual), dispatch. 
express, v. t. 1. squeeze (esp. with "ovi"). 

2. See extort, send, hasten. 

3. represent, symbolize, present, show, 
denote, testify (archaic), betoken; spec. 

4. Referring to the conveying of an idea by 
words, actions, etc.: spec, state, emit, mani- 
fest, tell, frame, present, have (used with 
"it"), enunciate, language (rare), broach, 
breathe, dictate (obs. or archaic), ex- 
pound, dehver, couch, dash, vent, air, 
word, utter, voice, clothe, cough, hoot, 
communicate, blush, nod, signify, smile, 
sound, speak, hymn, figure, write, wave, 
pantomime (rare), look, glance, glare, 

Antonyms: see imply. 

5. See SEND. 

expression, n. 1. squeezing (used esp. with 

2. representation, symbolization, presen- 
tation, presentment, show, denotation; 
spec, delineation, token. 

3. Spec, statement, utterance, emission, 
wording, breath, communication, vent, 
signification, etc. 

4. diction; spec, eloquence, idiom, brev- 
ity, etc. 

5. Referring to the thing expressed: spec. 
effusion, phraseology, locution, phrase, 
term, word, look; see saying. 

expressionless, a. unmeaning, null (rare), 
wooden (fig.), vacant, blank; spec, soul- 
less, fishy (fig.), dull. 

Antonyms: see expressive. 
expressive, a. demonstrative, eloquent, 
significant, significatory, significative, 
meaning (rare); spec, forceful, wise, em- 
phatic, epigrammatic. 
Antonyms: see meaning, blank, ex- 
expulsion, n. 1. ejection, ejectment (chief- 
ly law); spec, explosion, defenestration, 
ehmination, dislodgment, discharge. 
Antonyms: see admission, injection. 

2. banishment, exile, exilement, deporta- 
tion, relegation (chiefly Roman law), 
transportation (chiefly spec), expatria- 
tion, ostracism, petalism (ancient hist.), 

Antonyms: see admission. 

3. ejectment, exclusion, eviction, ousting. 

4. excommunication (eccl.) , exclusion, ex- 
cision (rare). 

5. excretion, discharge, catharsis (tech.); 
spec, diuresis, evacuation. 

XW Cross references: see Note. 
expletive: oath. 
explicable: explainable. 
explicate: explain. 

exploded: obsolete. 
exploit: deed. 
export: ship. 
exposal: disclosure. 

exposition: explanation, exe- 
gesis, show, statement. [atory. 
expositive: disolosing, explan- 
expound: state, express, explain. 

%3r' See Notes of Explanation. 



expulsive, a. Spec, expiilson' (rare), cjcct- 
ivo, oliminant, olimiiiative {physiol. and 
chem.), explosive, ccbolic {med.; rare), cx- 
communicative, cxcommunicatory. 

expurgate, v. i. cmiisculatc, cxpurge (rare), 
castrate; .s-pcr. bowdlerize. 

extemporaneous, a. I. extemporized, un- 
premeditated, spontaneous, extempore, 
improvised, improvisatory, improvisator- 
ical (rare), offhand, impromptu. 

extempore, adv. impromptu, extempo- 

extemporize, v. compose (contextiml) , im- 

extemporizer, n. improvisator, impro- 
viser, improvisatore or (the Italian spell- 
ing) improwisatore, improvisatrice or {the 
Italian spelling) improvvisatrice (fern.). 

extend, !', t. 1. Spec, continue, lengthen, 
elongate, widen, drag, enlarge, pass 
(chiefly with "to"), run, stretch, produce 
(chiefly with "to"), draw, distend, protend 
(rare), prolong, protract, coextend, string, 
deployt(miZ.), diffuse, carry, wiredraw. 
Antonyms: see abridge. 

2. Spec, reach, protrude, thrust, out- 
stretch (chiefly poetic), shoot, portend 
(rare), porrect (rare). 

3. See enlarge. 

extend, v. i. reach, go, come, continue, 
range, run, proceed; spec, (physically) 
ride, project, protrude, ramify, cross, out- 
lie (rare), lie, outreach (poetic), outspan 
(rare), grow, stream, stretch. 
Antonyms: see shorten, withdraw. 

extensible, a. produceable, productile 
(rare), extendible, extensile, protractile; 
spec, ductile, malleable, plastic, pliable, 

extension, n. 1. Spec, continuation, con- 
tinuance, lengthening, widening, enlarge- 
ment, stretching, production, protraction, 
prolongation, distention, coextension, de- 
ployment, diffusion, deploy. 

Antonyms: see abridgement, retire- 
ment, ABSTRACT. 

2. Spec, protrusion, projection, porrec- 
tion (rare), pro tension (rare), ramifica- 
tion, wing. 


extensive, a. Spec, wide, widespread, far- 
reaching, nationwide, statewide. 

extent, re. 1. See valuation. 
2. extension, measure; spec, reach, con- 
tinuance, amplitude, size, expanse, di- 
mension, measurement, proportions, de- 

gree, compass, stretch, content (tech.), 
gauge, length (also fi^.), field, latitude, 
range, scope, breadth, width, height, dis- 
tance, area. 

extenuative, a. excusatory, palliatory; 
sjxr. euphemistic. 

extenuative, re. palliative; spec, euphem- 

exterior, o. 1. outer, external, outward, 
outside, extern (rare); spec, outmost, out- 
ermost, superficial, outlying. 
Antonyms: see interior. 
2. See foreign. 

exterior, re. outside; see surface. 

externalize, v. t. objectify, objectize (rare), 
entify (rare); see visualize. 

externally, a. outwardly, outside, out- 
ward, outwards. 

extinction, re. destruction (contexttml) ; 
spec, annihilation, death, suffocation. 

extinguish, v. t. destroy (contextual); spec. 
annihilate, quench, choke (often with 
"out" or "off"), quell, subdue, douse 
(slang or cant), dout (now dial.), remove, 
suppress, slake (rare), stifle, smother, suf- 
focate ; see snuff. 

Antonyms: see kindle, create, breed, 
foster, preserve. 

extinguished, a. destroyed (contextual); 
spec, dead, out. 

extirpate, v. t. destroy, abolish, deracinate 
(rare), weed (chiefly used with "out"), up- 
root; spec, annihilate. 
AntonyTns: see plant. 

extort, V. t. elicit, extract, exact, draw, 
wring, wrest, pinch, screw, shave (colloq. 
or slang), force, squeeze. 

extortion, re. elicitation, exaction; spec. 
tribute, expression, blackmail, chantage 
(French), garnish (hist.). 

extortionate, a. unreasonable (contextual), 
exacting, vampire (fi^.), vampiric (fig.), 
blood-sucking (fig.). 
Antonyms: see moderate. 

extortioner, re. exacter, extortionist, 
wringer, wrester, caterpillar (fig.), blood- 
sucker (fig.), vulture (fig.), flayer (fig.), 
fleecer, griper (rare), vampire (fig.), harpy 
(fig.); spec, striker, shaver (colloq. or 
slang) . 

extra, a. additional, accessory, spare. 

extra, re. Spec, accessory, et ceteras (pi.; 
Latin), sundries (pi.), additions (pi.), 
paraphernalia (pL), odd. 
Antonyms: see deficiency. 

extract, v. t. 1. derive, elicit, draw, remove; 
spec, distil, squeeze, extort. 

t^° Cross references: see Note. 

exquisite, a.: accurate, fastidi- 
ous, choice, accomplished, in- 
tense, excellent. 

exquisite, n.: dandy. 

exsiccant: drying. 
exsiccate: dry. 
exsiccous: dry. 
extant: being. 
extenuate: mitigate. 

exterminate: abolish. 
external: exterior, accidental, 

extol: praise, celebrate. 
extolment: praise. 

(W See Notes of Explanation. 



Antonyms: see inject. 


extract, 7i. 1. Spec, essence, decoction, 
magistery (rare), distillate, distillation. 


extraction, ?i. 1. elicitation, derivation; 
spec, distillation, squeezing, etc. 

2. See DESCENT. 

extraordinary, a. unusual, singular, un- 
common, remarkable, exemplary (ar- 
chaic), portentous (humorous), phenom- 
enal, prodigious (humorous, exc. spec); 
spec, transcendent, parlous (colloq. or hu- 
morous), inconceivable, distinguished, 
amazing, monstrous, marvelous, abnor- 
mal, enormous. 
Antonyms: see common. 

extravagance, n. 1. excess, profusion, pro- 
fuseness, prodigality, lavishness, exuber- 
ance; spec, superabundance, enormity, 
monstrosity, wildness, furor, etc. 

Antonyms: see economy. 
2. hyperbolism (rhet.); spec, bombast, 
fantasticality, fantasticalness, grotesque- 
ness, grotesquerie, etc. 

extravagant, a. 1. profuse, profusive 
(rare), prodigal, lavish; spec, wasteful, 
profligate, rampant, wild, rank. 

Antonyms: see economical, stingy. 
2. Spec, bombastic, fantastic, fantastical, 
wild, furious, eccentric, bizarre, grotesque, 
odd, baroque, rococo. 

Antonyms: see matter-of-fact, mod- 

extravasation, n. stigma. 

extreme, a. 1. remotest, utmost (becoming 
rare, exc. spec), farthest, uttermost (ar- 
chaic or formal), last, ultra (chiefly tech.), 
Antonyms: see nearest. 

2. See FINAL. 

3. greatest, utmost, uttermost (archaic or 
formal), supreme, outside (colloq.); spec. 
precious (colloq.), horrible (colloq.). 

4. excessive, deep (chiefly spec); spec. 
bad, drastic, intense, desperate (colloq.), 
egregious, impossible, outrageous, im- 
moderate, deadly (colloq.), eternal (now 
vulgar), heroic, high, radical, unspeakable 
(colloq.), monstrous (colloq.), etc. 

extreme, n. 1. See end. 

2. utmost, hmit, extremity; spec, excess, 

pink, height. 
extremely, adv. very, so (chiefly colloq.). 
exudation, n. emission, discharge, sweat 

(chiefly spec), weep (colloq. or cant), ooze 

(only of what exudes), percolation. 

exude, v. i. & t. emit, transude, discharge, 
sweat (chiefly spec), ooze; spec weep, per- 
colate, infiltrate, filter, strain, lixiviate. 
Antonyms: see absorb. 

exult, V. i. rejoice, vaunt, insult (archaic), 
crow (colloq.), jubilate, maffick (colloq.); 
spec, gloat, triumph, glory. 
Antonyms: see mourn. 

exultant, a. rejoicing, jubilant. 

exultation, n. gladness, rejoicing, insulta- 
tion (archaic); spec, gloat, gloating, tri- 
umph, jubilation. 
Antonyms: see mourning. 

exuvium, n. skin, cast, slough. "Exuvium" 
is tech. or learned. 

eye, n. 1. oculus (tech. or spec), orb (poetic 
or rhetorical), optic (chiefly in plural, and 
colloq. or slang), glim (slang), peeper 
(slang), lamps (pi.; slang; formerly po- 
etic), piercer (slang), goggler (slang), or- 
bit (an erroneous use); spec, eyelet, oculus, 
cock-eye, wall-eye, stemma, facet. 

2. See vision, look. 

3. eyehole; spec collar, eyelet, peephole. 
eye, v. t. Spec, watch, ogle. 

eyeball, n. apple (of the eye). 

eyebrow, n. brow, superciUum (tech.). 

eyeglass, n. Spec, monocle, pince-nez 
(French), nippers (pi.; slang), lorgnette, 
lorgnon (French). 

eyelashes, n. pi. cilia (technical), eye- 

eyeless, a. exoculated (learned), blind. 

eyelid, n. fid, palpebra (anat.); spec. haw. 

eyesore, n. dissight or desight (rare). 

eyewash, n. coUyrium, eyewater. 

fable, n. 1. apologue. 

2. See untruth, story. 
fable, V. t. feign, invent; — referring to what 

is told in words. 
fabric, n. 1. building. 

2. cloth, texture (archaic), contexture, 
stuff (chiefly spec), tissue (chiefly spec), 
toile (French), web (chiefly spec), woof 
(rare), material, medley; spec textile 
(chiefly tech.), network, homespun, twill, 
drill, diagonal, duvetyn, webbing, etc. 

3. See texture. 

fabricate, v. t. 1. See construct. 
2. Referring to a made-up tale, story, etc.: 
devise, compose ; spec spin, coin, forge. 

fabulous, a. fictitious; spec romantic, 
legendary, feigned. 
Antonyms: see actual. 

l^" Cross references: see Note. 
extradite: deliver. 
extraneous: foreign. 
extricate: free. [lernal. 

extrinsic: foreign, accidental, ex- 

extrude: expel. 

exuberance: abundance, excess. 

exuberant: abundant, excessive, 

exuberate: sound. 

eyeshot: sight. 
eyesight: sight. 

fable: narrative. 

\^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



face, n. 1. countenance (lilerory or learned), 
features (pl.), visage, favor (archaic), 
front {slang or fig.), physiognomy, maz- 
ard (archaic and jocular), phiz (colloq. and 
jocular), mug (slang), brow (rare or obs.); 
spec, grimace. 


S. front, forefront (chiefly spec); spec, es- 
carpment, breast, disk, pedion, obverse, 
lace, !'. /. 1. To have the face towards: front, 
confront, envisage (rare); spec, respect, 

2. oppose, front, breast, confront, buck 
(slang, U. S.), brave, cope (rare); spec. 
outbrazen, nose, beard, buffet, defy, dare. 

Antonyms: see avoid. 

3. To show to the face of (a person): con- 
front; — often with "with." 

4. cover; spec, veneer, revet, line, camp- 
shed (local, Eng.). 

5. See BRAZEN. 

face, V. i. front, head (chiefly spec), give 

(a Gallicism) ; spec, look (often fig.). 
facet, n. face (contextual) ; spec, templet, 

lozenge, table (in gems), cut, culet. 
facetious, a. humorous. 
face-to-face, a. Spec, tete-a-tete (French), 

vis-a-vis (French), respectant (her.). 
facing, n. 1. cover (contextual); spec lining, 

envelope, shoe, veneer, skin. 

2. frontage, outlook ; spec, exposure. 

3. confrontation, confrontment (rare). 
faction, n. 1. combination, division, side; 

spec, clique, sect; see party. 

factory, n. workshop, shop, manufactory 
(formal), oflficina (Spanish), works (chiefly 
spec), mint (often spec); spec, battery, 
pottery, bloomery, bakery, confectionery, 
brickyard, etc 

faculty, n. 1. See ability, art. 

2. Of the mind's faculties: power, sense, 
wits (pi.; chiefly spec); spec, instinct, in- 
tellectuals (pi.; archaic), reason. 

3. department, school (hist.); spec semi- 
narists (pi.). 

fad, n. castom, craze, rage, hobby, mania, 
monomania, frenzy, delirament (rare), 
whim-wham (archaic or rare), furor; spec. 
fashion, pursuit, tulipomania, vinomania, 
crotchet, dipsomania, etc. 

fade, V. i. 1. See decline, wither. 
2. vanish (often used with "away"), faint; 

spec die (used with "out"), dim, pale, dis- 
solve, disperse. 

Antonyms: see intensify. 
fail, V. i. 1. lack, collapse, miss, miscarry, 
abort, fizzle (chiefly U. S.); spec err, 
flunk (school slang, U . S.), default. 

Antonyms: see succeed. 

2. break, bankrupt, default, defalcate 
(rare), smash (.dang), swamp (colloq.). 

Antonyms: see succeed. 

3. See decline, sink, sicken. 
failure, ?;.. 1. fail (obs., exc in "without 


2. See decline. 

3. deficiency, default, omission, nonact 
(rare), nonexecution; spec abortion, col- 
lapse, fizzle (colloq.), miscarriage, flunk 
(If. S.; school slang), lapse, muff, fiasco, 
breakdown, slip, negligence, frost (.slang), 
dereliction, delinquency, nonsuccess. 

Antonyms: see success. 

4. bankruptcy (in U. S. spec), insolv- 
ency (in U. S. spec), break, default, de- 
falcation (rare); spec, smash (colloq.), 

5. might-have-been (colloq.). 
faint, a. 1. See timid. 

2. weak, languid, listless, dolche-farni- 
ente (Italian), sickly, gone (colloq.). 

Antonyms: see powerful. 

3. See indistinct, dim. 

4. Referring to sounds: soft, small, gentle, 

faint, n. swoon, deliquium (archaic); spec. 

faint, V. i. 1. decline, fade. 

2. swoon, go (contextual), swelter (rare). 
Antonyms: see revive. 
faintness, n. Spec, swoon, lassitude. 
fair, a. 1. good-looking, dexter (rare); spec. 

beautiful, shapely, clean, clear, glossy, 

smooth, sweet. 

2. See desirable, impartial, favor- 
able, auspicious, just, unobstructed, 

3. medium, passable, fairish (rare), so-so 
(colloq.), moderate, indifferent, tolerable, 
respectable, reasonable, decent, ordinary; 
spec, average. 

Antonyms: see excellent, bad. 

4. blond, blonde, clear, white (colloq., 
U. S.); spec, lily, lihed. 

Antonyms: see dark. 
fair, n. Spec, bazaar, exchange, kermis, 

XW Cross references: see Note. 
facetiae: ■pleasantry. 
facetious: funny. 
facetiousness: pleasantry. 
facile: easy, complaisant, ready, 
fluent, skillful. 
facilitate: aid, ease. 
facsimile: copy, duplicate. 

fact: occurrence, actuality, truth. 
factious: disagreeing, dissentient. 
factitious: artificial, false. 
factor: agent, element. 
factorage: agency. 
factual: actual. 
ta.ct\iT6Z creation, making, doing. 
facultative: optional. 

faecal: fecal. 

faeces: excrement. 

fag: drudge, tire. 

fag-end: end. 

fagot: bundle. 

fail. r. t.: desert. 

falling: fault. 

ia.lTi.t-iiea.Tt^: cowardly, timid. 

XS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



fairly, adv. fair, well, middling {usually 
qualifying an adjective, as "good"). 

fairy, n. demon {often spec.), spirit {con- 
textual), fay, sprite or {archaic) spright; 
spec. Titania, browny, elf, nix, fairyhood 
(a collective). 

fairyland, n. faerie or faery {archaic), 
fairydom; spec, dreamland. 

fake, V. t. falsify {contextual), sophisticate, 
counterfeit {contextual); spec, deacon 
{cant or colloq.), doctor {colloq.), duff 
{slang or colloq.), nobble {slang), fudge, 
cook {slang), edit {euphemistic), pack. 

fake, n. contrivance, fakement; spec, adul- 
teration, fraud, cheat. 

fakir, n. ascetic {contextual), dervish. 

falcon, n. hawk {contextual); spec, tercel- 
gentle {male), merlin, lanner (esp. /cm.), 
lanneret (masc), tartaret {obs.), sakeret 
{masc; archaic), saker {csp. fern.), shahin 
or shaheen, sore-falcon. 

fall, V. i. 1. descend {formal), drop, sink, 
lapse {literary and rare); spec, drop, calve 
{dial, or tech.), cave {used with "in' ), pitch, 
drip, slump {dial.), plop, rain, plump, 
squab, cataract, topple, drizzle, droop, 
tumble, slant, distill, lodge, collapse, shed. 
Antonyms: see rise, stand. 

2. See DESCEND {come to a loiver level), 

to the countenance), surrender, abate, 


3. Referring to prices, etc.: decline, drop, 
sink; spec, slump {ca7it or colloq.), tumble. 

Antonyms: see advance. 
fall, n. 1. descent, downfall, downcome, 
comedown {colloq.), labefaction {rare), 
drop {often spec); spec, shower, downrush, 
downpour, deluge {hyperbolical), cropper 
{colloq.; chiefly in "to come a cropper"), 
discharge, cave-in {chiefly colloq.) , dripple, 
flap {colloq.), flop, plop, tumble, spill {col- 
loq.), plump {colloq.), squash, dogfall, 
eavesdrip, eavesdrop, eboulement {French) , 
crowner, collapse. 

Antonyms: see rise. 

2. See descent, ruin, surrender, 
tackle, waterfall. 

3. Referring to prices, etc.: decline, drop; 
spec, slump {colloq. or cant), tumble. 

Antonyms: see advance. 
fallacy, n. 1. error, deception; spec, soph- 
ism, absurdity, sorites, bubble, idol, 
idolum or idolism. paralogism. 

Antonyms: see truth. 
2. deceptiveness (rf. deceptive). 

fallible, a. errable {rare), deceivable {rare). 

Antonyms: see infallible. 
falling, a. descending, cadent {archaic); 
spec, precipitant, deciduous, incident, 
dripping, etc. 
Antonyms: see rising. 
falling, 71. descent; spec, dripping, distilla- 
tion, drip-drop, incidence, ptosis {rare), 
fallow, a. uncultivated, unplowed, un- 
tilled, lea, ley or lay {Eng.). 
Antonyms: cidtivated {see cultivate). 
false, a. I. See untruthful, unfaithful, 


2. pseudo {chiefly learned or in combina- 
tion), spurious, bastard {chiefly in con- 
tempt), counterfeit, supposititious, hol- 
low, bogus, fictitious, Active {rare); spec. 
pretended, forged, made-up, impostrous 
{rare), artificial, factitious. 
Antonyms: see true, native. 

falsify, V. t. alter, sophisticate; spec, fake, 
cook {slang), interpolate {by adding), doc- 
tor; see adulterate, fake. 

falsity, n. 1. falsehood; spec, absurdity, 
deceptiveness, etc.; see dishonesty. 
2. spuriousness, supposititiousness, hol- 
lowness, fictitiousness, fictiveness (rare); 
spec, pretension, artificiality. 

falter, v. i. 1. stumble, stagger, dodder, 
hobble, totter, hesitate, waver. 

2. Referring to speech: hesitate, halt; spec. 
stammer, stutter, stumble, quaver, waver, 
lisp, hem. 

3. See hesitate. 

falter, 7i. 1. stumble, stagger, dodder, tot- 
ter, hesitation, waver. 

2. balbuties {tech.), halt, hesitation {con- 
textual); spec, stammer, stutter, stumble, 
quaver, waver, lisp. 

3. See hesitation. 
fame, n. 1. See reputation. 

2. honor {contextual), repute or reputa- 
tion {contextual), renown, illustriousness, 
luster, illustration {rare), distinction, ku- 
dos {peda7itic or hiwiorous; Greek), celeb- 
rity, lionism, lionhood or lionship {fig.), 
note, consideration ; spec, glory, eminence, 
greatness, conspicuousness, tongue {fig.). 
Anto7iyms: see obscurity. 

fame, v. t. 1. See report. 
2. eternize {rare), immortalize. The verb 
"fame" is rare. 

familiar, a. 1. See domestic, aware. 
2. intimate, homely {archaic), common 
{contextual); spec, hobnobby {rare), hail- 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
fair -seeming: plau.iible. 
faith: belief, constancy, trust. 
faithful: constant, accurate, 

trustworthy, conscientious. 
faithless: unfaithful, untruth- 

ful, dishonest, treacherous. 
falcade: front. 
falcate: curved. 
falchion: sword. 
falderal: trifle, gewgaw. 
fall, V. t.: drop. 

fallacious: absurd, erroneous, 

falsetto: voice. 
famed: famous. 
familiar: associate, domestic, 

demon, friend. 

%S^ See Notes of Explanation. 



fellow (rare), frof, overfamiliar, uncon- 
Anttuit/ins: see unfamiliar, formal. 

S. ^V«' COMMON. 

familiarity, ii. 1. intimacy, homeliness 
(archaic); spec, freedom, conversation 


family, n. 1. household, brood (contemptu- 
ous), cletch or clutch (contemptuous), 
people (used with "my," "his," etc.), 
stock, house; spec, mine, his. theirs, etc. 
(all these uses being chiefly colloquial). 

2. lineage (formal), house, race, kin, 
strain, blood (fig.), breed (chiefly con- 
temptuous); spec, dynasty. 


fam.ily, a. Spec, patronymic; see domes- 

famish, v. t. & i. starve, pinch, clam (dial). 
Antonyms: see nourish, feast, feed. 

famishment, n. starvation, pinch. 
Antonyms: see nutrition. 

famous, a. distinguished, celebrated, re- 
nowned, noted, notable, great (confext- 
iial), illustrious, bright, brilliant, lustrous, 
famed, Roscian (fig.); spec, fabled, his- 
toried, storied, heroic, glorious, historical, 
immortal (forever). 
Antonyms: see obscure. 

fan, n. Spec, punkah or punka (East In- 
dies), flabellum, fanner (chiefly tech.), 
winnower, blower, colmar (hist.), van, 
thermaatidote (rare or local). 

fan, V. t. 1. clean (contextual), blow, win- 
now (chiefly spec). 
2. See stimulate, increase. 

fanatic, n. enthusiast, bigot, zealot, vi- 
sionary; spec, sectarian. 

fanaticism, n. enthusiasm, bigotry, zeal- 

fanciful, a. 1. capricious, fantasied, con- 
ceited (dial, or archaic), maggoty (now con- 
temptuous), chimerical, fantastic, fan- 
tasque (rare), curious, crotchety. 
Antonyms: see unimaginative, m.\tter- 


2. See odd. 
fancy, n. 1. See TRAGI'S ATIOV! (the faculty). 
2. The thing imagined: imagination, fan- 
tasy, phantasy, notion, idea, thought; 
spec, antic, phantasm, hallucination, de- 
lusion, megrim, reverie, vapor, specter, 
vision, belief, chimera or chimsera, day- 

8, See conceit, caprice, approval, lik- 
ing, TASTE. 

fan-shaped, a. flabellate (tech.), flabelli- 
forin (tech.). 

fantastic, a. 1. See imaginary, capri- 

2. fanciful, romantic; spec, grotesque, bi- 
zarre; see ODD. 
Antonyms: see plain. 

fantasy, n. 1. See imagination, fancy, 
2. fantasia (music). 

far, adv. widely, wide, remotely, distantly, 
long, etc. 
Antonyms: see near. 

fare, v. i. 1. See go, occur, live. 
2. do, come on (colloq.). "Fare" is more 
formal than "do." 

fare, n. 1. See fortune. 
2. food, table, board (becoming archaic). 

farewell, n. goodby, conge (formal; 
French), adieu, leave taking, leave (short 
for "leave taking"), parting, valediction 
(properly the words said), valedictory (the 
words) . 
Antonyms: see greeting. 

farm, n. grange; spec, plantation, bar- 
ton (Eng.), estansia (Sp.), location (Aus- 
tralia), fazenda (Sp.), farmstead, haci- 
enda (Sp. Amer.), ranch (western U. S. dfc 
Canada), stud, dairy, mains (Scot.). 

far-sighted, a. I. hypermetropic (tech.), 
long-sighted, hyperopia (tech.) ; spec, pres- 
Antonyms: see near-sighted. 
2. provident; see sagacious. 

farther, a. further (chiefly in secondary or 
fig. senses); spec, beyond, past. 

farthest, a. furthest (chiefly in secondary 
or fig. senses), uttermost, final, extreme, 
endmost, last. 
Antonyms: see nearest. 

fascinate, v. t. 1. bewitch, charm, spell- 
bind (chiefly cant); spec, dare (only in "to 
dare larks"). 
Antonyms: see repel. 
2. See captive. 

fast, a. 1. See firm, constant, unfading, 
rapid, dissipated, deep. 
2. ahead (referring to time). 

fasten, v. t. 1. fix, secure (formal), confine; 
spec, catch, tie, lock gird, infix, marl, bolt, 
chain, belay, pin, lace, strap, cobble, 
cleat, bond, clasp, infibulate (rare), but- 
ton, batten, tether, paste, cement, stick, 

IW Cross references: see Note. 
fancy, v. t.: imagine, believe, like. 
fane: church, temple. 
fanfare: call. 
fantastic: oddity. 
fantom: phantom. 
far-away: distant. 
farce, v. t.: season. 

farcical: comic. 
farm, v. t.: cultivate, lease. 
farmer: agriculturist. 
farming: agriculture. 
farmish: rustic. 
far-o9: distant. 
farrier: veterinarian. 
farrow, a.: barren. 

farrow, v. t.: bear. 
farther: also. 
farthest: extreme. 
fasciated: banded. 
fascicle: bunch. [ety, fad. 

fashion, n.; custom, style, soci- 
fasbion, v. t.: make, create. 
fashionable: stylish. 

(W See Notes of Explanation. 


peg, screw, seal, seize, spike, surcingle, 
skewer, toggle, wedge, tack, lash, latch, 
rivet, rope, mortise, knot, key, fish, dowel, 
forelock, hasp, hoop, collar, crank, cotter, 
cramp, cable, clinker, buckle, stanchion, 
halter, gum, bind, dog. 
' Antonyms: see loose, unfasten. 


fastening, n. confinement; spec, clinch, 
clip, breeching, lace, lacing, tie, tether, 
clasp, tacking, latch, lashing, lock, fast, 
headfast, holdfast. 

fastidious, a. particular, nice, dainty, deli- 
cate, exquisite, fine, precise; spec, finical, 
finicking, chary, picksome (Eng.), prig- 
gish, pernickety (contemptuous), overnice, 
starch, niminy-piminy, squeamish, cock- 
ney (Eng.), missish, proper (a euphem- 
ism), precieuse (French); see precious. 
Antonyms: see negligent, gross. 

fat, a. 1. greasy, pinguedinous (rare), fatty, 
unctuous or unguinous (chiefly spec), se- 
baceous (physiol.; often spec), pinguid 
(rare); spec, lardy, oily, tallowy. 

2. corpulent, gross, stocky (contextual), 
polysarcous (rare; tech.), fleshy, ventricose 
(rare), obese (a formal or book word); spec. 
puffy, paunchy (inelegant), pot-bellied 
(vulgar), pursy, portly, pudgy, fubby, 
squab, plump, plumpy. 

Antonyms: see thin, lanky. 

3. See DULL, PRODUCTIVE, profitable. 
fat, n. Spec grease, sebum (tech.), blub- 
ber, tallow, seam (obs. or rare), sperma- 
cetti, suet, oil, yolk, lumber (esp. in 
horses) . 

fate, n. 1. necessity, destiny, die (fig.). 

2. destiny, dispensation, cup (fig.; chiefly 
Scriptural), experience, portion (one's 
share; usually spec), doom (spec or fig.). 

3. fortune. 

4. weird (archaic), Moerse (Greek; pi.), 
Parcae (Latin; pi.); spec. Clotho, Lathesis, 
Atropos, Norn. 

fateful, a. fatal, inevitable, necessary, pre- 
destined, predestinate (archaic), doornful, 
karmic (spec, or fig.; rare); spec, tragic. 

father, n. 1. parent (contextual), sire (chief- 
ly poetic, exc of beasts, esp. horses), getter 
(obs., exc. of horses), genitor (rare), father- 
ling (nonce word), governor (slang), dad 
(childish or familiar and undignified), 
daddy (pet form of "dad"), papa (now 
chiefly childish or affected), pater (Latin or 
slang), dada (child's word); spec, (in a 
loose use of "father") stepfather, father- 
in-law, foster-father, pater-familias. These 
words except "parent," "sire," "getter," 

"genitor" and, occasionally, "father" arc 
used only of the human parent. 
Antonyms: see child, mother. 


father, v. t. 1. beget, sire. 


3. attribute, impose; see affiliate. 
fatherhood, n. paternity, progenitorship 

(rare) . 

fatherless, a. orphan (contextual), un- 
fathered, sireless, dadless (nonce). 

fatherly, a. parental (contextual), paternal, 
fatherlike, gubernatorial (slang). 

fathomless, a. 1. immeasurable, measure- 
less, deep, abyssal, abysmal. 
Antonyms: see shallow. 


fatness, n. fleshiness, obesity, obeseness, 
corpulence, corpulency, polysarcia (tech.), 
grossness (rare), pinguitude (rare), pin- 
guidity (rare), plumpness; spec embon- 
point (French). 

fatten, v. i. & t. fat (esp. used with "up"), 
pinquefy (rare); spec, saginate (rare), 
brawn (dial.), batten, plump. 
Antonyms: see waste. 

faucet, n. cock, tap; spec spigot, spile, 

fault, n. 1. Spec, failing, default, obli- 
quity, blemish, peccadillo, defalcation, de- 
linquency, vice, cloud (fig.), spot, flaw, 
shortcoming, defect, imperfection, de- 
merit, infirmity, offense. 
Antonyms: see excellence, worth. 
2. See blame, negligence, cleft. 

faultfinding, a. censorious, captious, cyn- 
ical or cynic (now chiefly spec), critical, 

faultless, a. 1. See correct, blameless. 
2. perfect, irreproachable, immaculate, 

faulty, a. vicious, bad; spec, ill, blame- 
worthy, transgressive, blamable, imper- 
Antonyms: see good, excellent. 

favor, n. 1. Spec, esteem, benignity, popu- 
larity ; see approval. 



3. Spec, benefaction, grace, boon, bene- 
fit, obligement, kindness, dispensation, 

favor, V. t. 1. See approve, oblige. 

2. countenance, patronize; spec, see aid. 
Antonyms: sec discourage. 

3. See SAVE, support, indulge, re- 
semble, EASE. 

favorable, a. 1. See auspicious. 

t^ Cross references: see Note. 
fatal: deadly, fateful. 
fate, V. t.: destine. 
fatherhood: paternity. 

fathom: sound, understand, ex- 
fatigue, n.: weariness. 
fatigue, V. t.: tire. 

fatiguing: tiresome. 
fatty: fat. 

fatuous: foolish, stupid, de- 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 



2. advantag;pous; spec, fair, helpful, good, 
golden, salutory. 

Antonijwf:: see unfavorable. 
S. well-inolincd, well-minded, benign, 
friendly, favoring, gracious, propitious. 
Antimijms: sec opposed. 

favorite, n. 1. dear, minion (now con- 
temptuous); see DARLING, PET. 
8. See CHOICE. 

favoritism, n. partiality; spec, nepotism. 

fawn, ;•. i. cringe, crawl, toady, truckle. 
Antonytfis: sec domineer. 

fawner, /?. cringer, toady, sycophant, 
truckler, toadeatcr, bootlicker (colloq. or 
slang); spec, flunky. 
Antonyms: see bully. 

fawning, a. cringing, abject, servile, syco- 
phantic, toadying, truckling, toadyish; 
Antonyms: see domineering. 

fawning, n. cringing, sycophantism, toady- 

fear, n. alarm, dread, phobia (tech. or rare 
and humorous); spec, consternation, panic, 
funk (slang), misdoubt, misgiving, affright 
(rare), terror, terrification, trepidation, 
scare, fright, fray (archaic), horror, eeri- 
ness, awe, apprehension, pantophobia, 
mysophobia, agoraphobia, hydrophobia, 
superstition, reverence. 
Antonyms: see boldness, hope. 

fear, v. t. apprehend, dread, redoubt (obs. 
or rare); spec, misdoubt, revere. 

fear, v. i. Spec, misgive. 

feared, a. dread, redoubted (rhetorical). 

fearful, a. 1. See afraid. 

2. dreadful, fearsome (rare), terrible, 
ghastful (archaic), ghastly (obs.), redoubt- 
able (rhetorical); spec, dire, awful, grim, 
grisly, awesome, gruesome or grewsome, 
frightful, horrible, appalling, horrendous 
(rare), eerie or eery, apprehensive (rare), 
tremendous (noiv rare). 

Antonyms: see bold. 

3. See TIMID, great. 

feast, n. 1. See festival, meal. 
2. Spec, banquet, regale (rare), junket 
(often spec; U. S.). gaudy (Eng.), fete 
(French), tuck-out (slang), barbecue, 
brideale or bridale, Gregory (Anglo-Irish), 
wine, potlatch, give-ale (hist.), infare (lo- 
cal Eng.), hockey or hookey (dial. Eng.), 

feast, a. epulary (rare). 

feast, V. i. feed (inelegant; contextual), epi- 

curize (rare); spec, fete (rare), cosher (Ire- 
land), luxuriate. 
Antonyms: see famish. 

feast, V. t. feed (contextual); spec, banquet, 
regale, fete, wine. 
Antonyms: see famish. 

feastday, n. fiesta (Italian). 

feasting, n. epulation (rare); spec, ban- 
queting, regalement (rare). 

feat, n. 1. See accomplishment, deed. 
2. stunt (colloq.); spec, split (gymnastics), 
giant swing, cartwheel. 

feather, n. 1. plume (poetic or rhetorical, 
cxc. spec.), pen (obs.); spec, plumule, cov- 
ert, scapular, down (a collective), eider- 
down (a collective), beam, quill, filoplume, 
interscapular, remex, primary, principal, 
pinion, streamer, flag. 


3. In mechanics: spec, spline, rib, flange, 
key, web, fin, tongue, vane. 

4. Referring to part of an oar: blade, fiat, 

feather, v. i. Spec, fledge. 

feather, v. t. 1. implume (rare or rhetorical) , 

plume (rare or rhetorical, exc. spec.); spec. 

(of an arroiv) flight, fledge, wing, fletch. 

2. To remove the feathers from: deplume, 

deplumate; spec, pinion. 
feathered, a. plumed (chiefly spec), plum- 

ous (rare); spec, winged, penniferous (rare), 

pennigerous (rare), plumate; see feathery. 
feather- footed, a. Referring to a dog: 

rough-footed, rough-legged. 
featherless, a. impennate (chiefly spec); 

spec, unfledged, callow. 
featherlike, a. penniform, pennate (rare), 

pinnate, plumiform; — all four learned or 

feathery, a. 1. feathered, plumose (chiefly 

spec), plumy (chiefly spec); spec plum- 
ate, fledgy (rare), downy. 

2. Referring to a dog: curly-haired. 
feature, n. I. lineament, point. 

2. (See FACE, characteristic. 
febrifuge, a. antifebrile, antipjTetic. 
fecal, fsecal, a. dungy (chiefly spec), ster- 

coraceous (literary or tech.), excrementi- 

tious (literary or tech.)'. 
fee, n. 1. benefice, fief, feud, feudatory. 

2. *See ESTATE, PAY, TIP. 

3. payment (contextual), allowance (eon- 
textual); spec, portage, entrance, tuition, 
toll, towage, ferriage, honorarium, costs 
(pi.), premium, procuration, retainer. 

t^ Cross references: see Note. 
favorite, a.: darling, pet. 
faTorltism: partiality. 
favose: cellular. 
fawn, n.: deer. 
fawn, V. t.: bear. 
fawn, a,: brown. 
fawning, a.: obsequious. 

ia.y: fairy. 

faze: disconcert,intimidate, tcorry. 

feal: constant. 

fearless: bold. 

feasance: doing. 

feasible: possible. 

feat: elegant, skillful. 

febrile: feverish. 

feces: execrement. 

feckless: spiritless, weak. 

fecund: fruitful. 

fecundate: frutify. 

federal: confederate, united. 

federate: unit£. 

feeble: weak, indistinct. [live. 

feeble-minded: irresolute, defec- 

IW See Notes of Explanation. 


feed, V. t. 1. aliment {rare); spec, gorge, 
nurture, meal (rare), grub (slang), mess, 
fodder, forage, suckle, diet, breakfast, 
dine, dinner (rare), lunch (colloq.), sup- 
per (colloq.), graze, hay (rare), soil, corn 
(rare), bait, water, pap. 

' Antonyms: see famish. 
2. Spec, fuel (a stove or fire), fire (an en- 
gine), supply, gratify, nourish. 

feed, V. i. 1. Referring to the action as tak- 
ing place: eat. 

2. Referring to an action as contemplated 
or habitual: eat, fare, live {contextual); 
spec, subsist, board, meal, diet, gorge, 
dine, breakfast, lunch, etc. "Feed" in this 
sense is rare or slang. 
Antonyms: see famish. 

feeding, n. feed, cibation {obs. or rare), 
eat (slang). 

feel, V. t. 1. See perceive. 

2. examine, test, touch; spec, handle, fum- 
ble, palpate, sound, probe, thumb, finger. 

3. experience, entertain, make, taste, 
find, bear; spec, believe, discover. 

feel, V. i. 1. See perceive, seem. 

2. Spec, grope, fumble. 
feeler, n. tactor (tech.); spec, palp, palpus, 

whisker, vibrissa, tentacle, antlia, barbel, 

feeling, n. 1. sentience; spec, touch. 

2. experience; spec, sensation, perception, 
consciousness, affection. 

3. The faculty or capacity: sensibility, 
emotionality, soul, feelingness, blood (fig.; 
human feelings) ; spec, heart strings (pi.), 
demonstrativeness, unction, sympathy, 
antipathy, csenesthesis. 

Antonyins: see insensibility. 

4. emotion, sentiment, affection; spec, fire 
(fig.), hate, hatred, hope, despair, sym- 
pathy, pathos, love, gladness, anger, pang, 
pain, sorrow, joy, etc. 

Antonyms: see insensibility. 

5. See attitude. 

feint, n. pretense; spec, artifice, stratagem, 
expedient, trick. 

felicity, n. 1. See gladness, appropriate- 

2. Referring to a speech, action, etc.: in- 
spiration, hit, stroke, bull's-eye (colloq.). 

feline, a. cattish, catty (colloq.), feliform 
(rare) . 

fell, V. t. drop (especially with a blow or 
shot), down, floor, ground; spec, prostrate, 
throw, grass (chiefly slang), sandbag, cut 
(unth "down"), hew (with "down"), saw 
(tvith "down"), etc. 

Antonyms: see raise. 
fellow, n. 1. See associate, equal, per- 

2. dog (playful, humorous, or contemptu- 
ous), customer (colloq.; usually with 
"queer," "ugly," etc.), cove (slang and vul- 
gar in U. S.), Jack (contemptuous), Gill 
(slang), cull or cully (slang and contemptu- 
ous), gaffer (rural Eng.), joker (slang), 
Johnny or Johnnie (contemptuous or famil- 
iar), cuss (in reproach, contempt, or humor- 
ously; slang and colloq., U. S.), cuffin 
(thieves' cant), codger (disrespectful and 
chiefly vulgar), devil (colloq. or slang), 
wight (noiv chiefly jocose), varlet (a laio 
fellow; archaic), coistrel (in contempt; ar- 
chaic), knave (a low fellow; archaic), chal 
(Gipsy), wallah (Anglo-Indian), shaver 

3. don (Eng. universities), dean (in Ox- 
ford and Cambridge; British) . 

fellowship, n. Spec, brotherhood, com- 
radeship, membership. 

female, n. she (rare, exc. as attributive), 
petticoat (colloq. or humorous); spec. 
woman, girl, cow, hen, bitch, queen, 
Antonyms: see male. 

female, a. she (chiefly in combination), 
feminine (usually spec); spec, pistillate. 
Antonyms: see male, manly. 

feme- sole, n. Spec, widow, spinster; — re- 
ferring to a woman at the time unmarried. 

femininity, n. femineity (rare), feminal- 
ity (jare), femality (rare and humorous), 
muliebriety (rare), feminacy (rare), fem- 
inineness, feminility (rare), feminity 
(rare), womanliness (the ivord in ordinary 
use and chiefly spec; "femininity" being the 
more formal word and also usually spec), 
womanishness (usually derogatory). 
Antonyms: see manliness. 

fence, n. 1. See protection. 

2. In fencing: guard; spec parry. 

3. inclosure, hay (archaic); spec barri- 
cade, stockade, paling, palisade, hoarding, 
counter, pale (archaic), barrier, palisado 
(rare), hedge, ha-ha, weir. 

4. As to stolen goods: receiver, lock (cant). 
fence, v. i. guard (against); spec, parry, 


fence, v. t. inclosure; spec wire, pale (rare), 
palisade, palisado (rare), hedge (often 
with "in" or "about"), impale (chiefly lit- 
erary), picket. 

fender, n. duffer; spec, pudding, pad, hurt- 
er, Scotchman, shield. 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
feel, n.: touch. [emotional. 

feeling, a.: sentient, affecting, 
feign: imagine, ■pretend, assume. 
felicitate: congratulate. 
felicitous: glad, appropriate. 

felicity: gladness, appropriateness. 
feline, n.: cat. 

fell, a.: fierce, cruel, harmful, pain- 
ful, deadly, destructive. 
fell, n.: skin, down. 
felly: rim. 

felon, a.: wicked, cruel. 

felon, /(.; convict. 

felony: crime. 

feminine: female, womanish. 

fen: marsh. 

fond: repel, protect. 

%S^ See Notes of Explanation. 



ferment, n. 1. zyme (tech. or rare); spec. 
enzyme, diiistaso, pepsin, yeast, leaven 
(now chic fly Bib.), barm. 


ferment, v. i. 1. work. 
2. Spec, fret, simmer. 

fermentation, /;. 1. ferment, working; 
.s/xr zymosis {rare). 


fern, 71. Spec, brake, osmund, bracken, 
hart's-tongue, maidenhair. 

fern-shaped, a. filiciform (tech.), filicoid 
(tech.), fernlike. 

ferny, a. bracky, brackeny. 

ferocity, n. I. See violence, ardor, im- 

2. unkindness, ferociousness, truculence, 
savageness, savagery, dourness (Scot.), 
grimness (literary) ; spec, vandalism, stern- 
ness, angriness, malignancy, pitilessness, 
murderousness, brutality. 
Anto)iyms: see kindness, gentleness. 

ferrule, n. band (contextual), ring, shoe, 
collet, virole (rare); spec, thimble, cap. 

ferrule, v. t. bind, shoe, cap, ring. 

ferry, n. bac (French); spec, ghaut or ghat 
(Anglo-Indian) , pont (So. African). 

ferry, v. t. transport (contextual); spec, row, 
sail, steam, pull. 

ferryman, n. waterman (contextual); spec. 

fertilize, v. t. 1. See fructify. 
2. enrich, fat (rare or literary), fatten; 
spec, manure, compost, bone, warp 
(Eng.), guano, salt, phosphate, nitrify. 

fertilizer, n. dressing; spec, compost, 
marl, manure, dung, phosphate, bone- 
dust, lime, guano. 

ferule, n. palmer (obs. or rare); spec, rod, 

fester, n. sore (contextual), ulcer, pustule. 

fester, v. i. ulcerate, rankle (literary), sup- 
purate (tech.). 

festival, n. 1. carnival (properly spec), feast 
(chiefly spec), fiesta (Italian); spec fete 
(French; on a large scale), fete champetre 
(French), hightide (archaic or rare), Visi- 
tation, holiday (now usually called a "holy 
day"), Vinalia, Candlemas, Christmas, 
Xmas, Corpus Christi, purim (Hebrew), 
Bairam (Mohammedan), pardon (Roman 
Catholic Church or obs.), Easter, epiphany. 

gaudy day (Eng.), gala day, jubilee, fes- 
tivity, harvest home, kirn (Scot.), hoolee 
or hooli (East Indian), dusserah (Hiiulu), 
hypajiante, encaenia, panegyris or pane- 
gyry, Panathensea (pi.), Lupercalia (pi.). 
Saturnalia (pL), Vulcanalia (pi.), Bac- 
chanalia (pi.), Dionysia (pi.). 


festive, a. 1. convivial, festal, festivous 
(rare), feastful (archaic); spec jolly, up- 
roarious, carnival. 
Antonyms: see mournful. 
2. As being fond of merriment; see gay. 

festivity, n. 1. festiveness, conviviality, 

2. festival, merrymaking; spec, celebra- 
tion, rejoicing, revel. 

fetid, a. malodorous, foul, olid (rare), rank, 
nidorous (rare), stinking, graveolent (liter- 
ary; rhetorical, affected, or euphemistic); 
spec, gamy, rancid. 
Antonyms: see fragrant. 

fetish, n. fetich (a variant), charm; spec. 
juju, medicine. 

feudatory, n. vassal, beneficiary; spec. 
prince, palatine. 

fever, n. 1. heat, fire (fig.), pyrexia (rare); 
spec, feveret, febricula, ague, typhus, ty- 
phoid, dengue, hectic, remittent, calen- 
ture, intermittent, quintan, tertian, quo- 
tidian, quartan. 

2. Referring to a feverish state: febricity 
(rare), feverishness, febrility (rare), fieri- 

3. See DESIRE, ardor. 

fevered, a. excited; spec, angry. 

feverish, a. 1. febrile, feverous (rare), fe- 
vered, pyretic (rare), pyrectic (rare), py- 
rexial (rare), pyrexic (rare), pyrexical 
(rare), febricitant (rare), febricose (rare); 
spec, febriculose (rare), inflamed, fiery. 


few, a. sparse, small (with "number"). 
Antonyms: see all, many, number- 

few, n. handful ; — a collective. 

fewness, n. paucity (learned or formal), 
scarcity, sparsity, sparseness. 

fiber, n. I. filament; spec staple, fibrile or 
fibrilla, strand, bast, sunn, oakum, istle, 
henequen, hemp, jute, cotton, pina, rafia, 
ramie, pita, manila, coir. 

2. See TEXTURE. 

l^' Cross references: see Note. 
fenny: marshy. 
feodary: rasBcU 
f«ral: wild. 
ferine: wild. 
ferocious: fierce. 
ferret: drive, 
tertile: fruitful. 
fervent: hot, arderit. 
fervid: hot, ardent. 
fervor: heat, ardor. 

festal: festive, holiday. 
festoon, n.: wreath. 
festoon, V. t.: vcreathe. 
fetch, V. t.: bring, captivate, 

draw, heave, deal, elicit. 
fetch: artifice. 
fetch: apparition. 
fetching: effective. 
fete, n.: entertainment, festival. 
fete, V. t.: entertain, feast. 
fetich: fetish. 

fetter, n.: shackle. 

fetter, v. t.: shackle, hamper. 

fettle, V. t.: groom. 

fettle, n.; condition. 

feud: fee. 

feud: quarrel. 

fevered: feverish, excited. 

fiance, fiancee: bethrothed. 

fiasco: failure. 

flat: bidding. 

fib: lie. 

tS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



flberlike, a. fibrous, fibriform {rare), fi- 
brine [rare), fibry; s-pec. fibrilliform 

fiction, n. 1. <Scc imagination {the action). 
2. The thing imagined: imagination, in- 
vention, forgery, figment, fantasy, con- 
coction, fabrication, story, fable, novel, 
allegory, epic, assumption. 
Antonyms: see actuality. 

fictitious, a. Spec, mythical, dummy, in- 
vented, imaginary, assumed, fabled, fabu- 
lous, artificial; spec, paper. 
Antonyms: see actual. 

fiddle, V. i. 1. play; spec. bow. Curiously, 
though fiddle as a verb has no equivalent ex- 
cept the general term "play," the verb "fid- 
dle," as well as the noun, is now rather con- 
temptuous or familiar. 
2. See POTTER, fidget. 

fidget, V i. fidge; spec, fiddle, twiddle. 

field, n. 1, Spec, clearing, glebe {poetic or 
eccl.), paddock {chiefly dial. Eng.; in Aus- 
tralia not spec), croft {British), meadow, 


3. battlefield; spec, plain {chiefly poetic), 
Armageddon {flg.). 

fiend, n. 1. See demon, monster. 
2. demon {of cruelty), shaitan {colloq.), 
brute, hellhound, cat {esp. of a woman), 
wolf, tiger; see monster. 

fierce, a. 1. See violent, ardent, impetu- 

2. unkind {contextual), ferocious; spec. 
glaring, dragonish, truculent, catawam- 
pous {slang, chiefly U. S.), fell {chiefly po- 
etic), savage, Vandalic {hist.), breme {obs. 
or poetic), dour {Scot.), grim, cruel, stern, 
angry, malignant, pitiless, merciless, mur- 
derous, inhuman, tigerish, wolfish. 
Antonyms: see kind, gentle. 

fiery, a. 1. hot, igneous {literary or tech.), 
red {fig.), empyreal or empyrean {fig.); 
spec, flaming, lurid. 
2. See ardent, impetuous, feverish, 


fight, n. 1. contention {contextual), con- 
test {contextual), encounter, rencounter 
{rare), conflict {formal), combat {prima- 
rily spec), affair {contextual); spec, cuff 
{rare), bicker {now chiefly Scot.), bustle 
{archaic), brawl, battle, affray, fray, 
m^lee {French), mellay {archaic), ruffle, 
engagement, action, quarrel, sciamachy, 
digladiation {rare), duomachy {rare), pell- 
mell {rare), duel, brush, theomachy, tour- 

ney, just or joust, tilt, spar, scrap {colloq.), 
scrimmage, naumachia, skirmish. 


3. pugnacity, pluck, game {rare). 
fight, V. i. 1. contend, conflict {rare), com- 
bat, battle, warfare {rare); spec ruffle 
{archaic), camp {obs. or dial.), war, battle, 
scuffle, box, spar, strike, tilt, just or joust, 
bicker, brawl, duel, militate, crab, claw, 
scratch, buffet, skirmish, strive, fistify 
{nonce word). 

2. See CONTEND. 

fight, V. t. 1. encounter, combat {now chief- 
ly fid-), engage; spec, buffet {chiefly fig.), 
war {rare), worry. 

2. Cause to fight: pit, match. 

3. See oppose. 

fighter, n. combatant, contestant, cham- 
pion {archaic, rare, or spec), contender 
{contextual), combater {rare); spec, bat- 
tler, warrior, militant {rare), duelist, du- 
eler {rare), slasher, tilter, juster, jouster, 
gueriUa, gladiator, skirmisher, pugilist, 
boxer, sparrer, cuffer, pancratiast. 
Antonyms: see pacifist. 

fighting, a. Spec combatant, militant, 
belligerent, pugilistic, skirmishing, box- 
ing, etc. 

fighting, n. contention {contextual); spec. 
combating, warring, duel {with "the"), 
duello {Italian), fisticuffs {pi.). 

figlike, a. ficoid {tech.), caricous {rare), 
ficiform {tech.). 

figural, a. Spec graphic, diagrammatic. 

figurative, n. 1. descriptive; spec sym- 

2. Rhet.: metaphorical, figured {rare or 
spec); spec allegorical, fabular. 

3. See FLORID {of speech), ornate {in 

figure, n. 1. character {contextual), num- 
ber, digit; spt-c. cipher, one, two, etc 


3. Referring to the thing having a particu- 
lar form: shape; spec, image, effigy, de- 
sign, diagram, sculpture, cylinder, square, 
ball, triangle, ellipse, ovoid, oval, parab- 
ola, diamond, parallelogram, rhombus, 
ghost, sector {geom.), carving, casting, 
molding, etc 

4. In dancing: evolution; spec entrechat 
{French), quadrille. 

5. In rhetoric: image, trope, ecbasis {rare); 
spec, metaphor, similitude, simile, me- 
tonymy, irony, litotes, diasyrm, aporia, 
diaporesis, hendiadys, etc 

C^ Cross references: see Note. 
fictile: plastic. 
fiddle, n.: violin. 
fiddle-faddle, n.: trifle, trifling. 
fiddler: violinist. [accuracy. 

fidelity: constancy, truthfulness, 
fidgety: uneasy. 

fiducial: trustful, confidential. 
fiduciary: confidential. 
net: fee. 

fiendish: devilish, cruel. 
fleriness: ardor, heat, fever, iras- 
fig: trifle. 

figment: fiction. 

figure, V. t.: depict, delineate, de- 
scribe, ornament, compute, sym- 

figure, V. i.: appear, compute. 

figured: ornamented. 

figurehead: dummy. 


t^ See Notes of Explanation. 



filament, /?. fihor (contcrtunl); spec. 
throiul, film, straml, cirrus, barbel, gossa- 
mor, hair, throadlet, cobweb, harl, wire. 

filamentous, n. filamentary; spec, thread- 
like, tibrous, stringy, filar, thready, hair- 
like, filiform (tech.), capillary, fibrillose, 
filose. cirrous {tech.). 

file, V. t. Spec, record, lodge, pigeonhole, 
thread, string. 

filibuster, >i. obstructionist. 

filigree, n. wirework. 

filing, n. abrasion (contextual); spec, lima- 
tioii (Jig.; rare). 

filings, n. pi. limail (tech.). 

fill, /'. t. 1. Spec, inject (chiefly used ivith 
"with"), stuff, cram, pack, line, congest, 
crowd, crown, overflow, fulfil (archaic), 
infill (rare), brimful, brim, bumper, re- 
plenish, chink (colloq., U. S.), saturate, 
sufTuse, plug, stop, charge. 
Antonyms: see deplete, drain, empty, 



3. trim (a sail). 

4. Referring to orders, commissions, etc.: 
execute, discharge, do, perform. 

fillet, n. 1. band (contextual); spec, {for tlte 
hair) bandeau, vitta {literary), snood, 
sphenodome, infula (Roman antiq.). 
2. In architecture: spec, orlo, tsenia, plat- 
band, stria. 

filling, n. Spec, packing, replenishment, 
repletion, fill, charge, stuffing. 

film, n. skin (contextual); spec, membrane, 
nebula, scale, veil, pellicle, scum, lamina, 
gauze, cloud. 

filmy, a. Spec, clouded, flimsy, cloudy, 
fine-spun, gauzy, peUicular. 

filter, V. t. & i. 1. strain, filtrate, percolate 
(usually spec). 
2. See EXUDE. 

filth, n. 1. dirt, sordes {tech.), sordor {rare), 
\dleness, foulness, obscenity (literary), 
filthiness, ordure {archaic), nastiness. 


filthy, a. 1. dirty, foul, nasty, sordid (liter- 
ary), obscene {literary), vile; spec, impure, 
mucky, dungy, hoggish. 


fin, 71. 1. flipper, pinna {zool.); spec. sail. 
2. See FEATHER (in mechanics). 

final, a. end {the noun used attributively), 
last, terminal, latest, ultimate, extreme; 
spec, eventual, conclusive, decisive, un- 

finality, n. terminality, ultimateness, ex- 

tremity; spec, decisiveness, eventuality, 

finances, n. pi. circumstances {contextual), 
atTairs (contextual). 

financial, a. fiscal {chiefly U. S. & spec); 
spec. Iiursal. 

financier, n. Spec investor, lender, cam- 
bist, capitalist. 

fine, n. punishment {contextual), penalty, 
mulct, amercement, assessment, forfeit 
(often spec); spec, geld, wite, bloodwite, 

fine, V. t. penalize {contextual), amerce, 
mulct, sconce {Oxford University) ; spec. log. 

fine, a. 1. refined, clear, pure. See pure. 

2. admirable, brave (literary), choice, su- 
perior, handsome; spec, glorious, grand, 
imposing, delicate, nice, subtle, nifty 
{slang; U. S.), divine, heavenly, superfine 
(an intensive), fancy, splendiferous {col- 
loq.), bully (slang; U. S., and Eng. col- 
leges), dandy (slang or colloq.), nobby 
(colloq., slang, or cant), finical, surpass- 
ing, magnificent, superb, transcendent, 
spanking (colloq.), rum (cant), crack 
(slang or colloq.), recherche (French). As 
slang or colloq. intensives: adorable, tear- 
ing, ripping, splendid, rattling, stunning, 
elegant, great, boss, smashing, tearing, 
bouncing, etc 

Antonyms: see bad, inferior. 

3. See SMALL, slender, sensitive, nice, 

fastidious, exact, CLEAR. 

fine, inter j. bravo ! Many of the words under 
"fine" and "excellent" are more or less used 
as interjections in corresponding senses. 

fineness, a. excellent, delicacy, superiority, 
subtlety, subtility {now rare), etc. Cf. fine. 

fine one. crack {colloq.), rattler {slang), 
screamer (slang), clipper {slang), bouncer 
(colloq.), dandy (colloq.). 
fS" An almost innumerable number of 
words meaning primarily something noisy, 
big, or the like, are used as slang or collo- 
quial terms to express the idea of something 

finery, n. ornament; spec, frippery, gaud- 
ery (rare), gewgawry (rare), gimcrackery. 

finger, n. 1. digit (chiefly tech.), mudhooks 
{pi.; slang); spec, minimus, index, pointer, 

2. technique; — in music 

3. See pointer. 

finial, n. In architecture: ornament {con- 
textual), terminal; spec. crop. 
finish, V. t. 1. See end, dress, kill. 

t^=" Cross references: see Note. 
filch: steal. 
filcher: thief. 
file, n.: list, line. 
file, n. & v.: march. 
filibuster, v. i.: delay. 
filiform: filamentous. 

fiUy: colt. 
filtrate: filter. 
fine, V. t.: purify. 
finedraw: sew, attenuate. 
fine-gained: smooth. 
fine-spun: attenuated, slender, 
subtle, filmy. 

finesse: art, artifice. 
finger, v. t.: handle, steal. 
finger, r. i.: play, toy. 
finical: fastidious. 
finicking: fastidious. 
finis: end, death. 
finish, V. i.: end. 

XS' See Notes of Explaaation. 



2. accomplish, crown, complete, con- 
summate, fulfill, do, execute, round (esp. 
with "out"). 
Antonyms: see begin. 
finish, V. i. 1. conclude, end; — in the sense 
of "to have done." 

2. See END, DIE. 

finish, n. 1- See end, death, perfection, 


2. surface {contextual); spec, dress. 

finished, a. 1. done, accomplished, over (in 
predicative use; colloq.), complete, round- 
ed, round. 
Antonyms: see incomplete, unfinished. 
2. perfect; spec, fine, elegant. 
Antonyms: see unfinished. 

finishing, n. Spec, end, conclusion, ter- 
mination, completion, etc. 

finite, a. definable, limited, terminable. 
Antonyms: see infinite. 

finiteness, n. limitedness, limitation, fini- 
tude, finity (rare). 

fin-shaped, a. pinniform (tech.), finny. 

fire, n. 1. Spec, flame, coal, blaze, con- 
flagration, beacon, bale (archaic), bale- 
fire, ingle, bonfire, smudge, needfire, 
spark, smother. 
2. See BURNING, fever, ardor. 

fire, V. t. 1. See ignite, heat, eject, 
expel, excite, enliven. 
2. discharge, explode; spec. play. 

firearm, n. piece, gun (colloq., exc. as 
spec), popgun (contemptuous) ; spec, pis- 
tol, revolver, rifle, mitrailleuse (French), 
Martini, musket, jezail, bulldog, es- 
copette (U. S.), fusil (obs. or hist.), fusee 
(obs. or hist.), galloper, harquebus, gin- 
gall, jingall, ciuverin, hackbut, hagbut, 
chassepot (French), carbine, carabine, 
cannon, gun, petronel, saket, falconet. 

fireman, n. Spec, stoker. 

fireplace, n. hearth, fireside, grate (fig.); 
spec, range, hob, cupola, cockle, tisar. 

firework, n. 1. pyrotechnic;— 6o</i usually 
in pi. 

2. Spec, squib, girandola, rocket, pin- 
wheel, petard, bomb, serpent, saucisson 
(French), jack-in-the-box, maroon, flower- 
pot, fizgig, wheel, jet, gerbe. 

firm, a. 1. See fixed, constant, courage- 

2. stable, solid, coherent, consistent, con- 
sistency, steady, stout, stanch, strong, 
stiff, tight, secure, fast; spec, hard, 
braced, tied, inflexible, nailed, bolted, etc. 
Antonyms: see shaky, tottering, weak, 


firm, V. t. 1. steady, stabilize, stabilify 
(rare), solidate (rare); spec, consolidate. 

brace, jack (U. S.), nail, bolt, screw, 

Antonyms: see weaken. 

2. See establish. 
firm, 71. association, concern, house; spec. 

partnership, corporation, company. 
firmness, n. 1. Spec, fixedness, courage. 

2. constancy, unyieldingness, backbone 

3. stability, solidity, steadiness, stout- 
ness, stanchness, strength, stiffness, 
tightness, consistency, security, fastness, 
solidness; spec, coherence. 

Antonyms: see instability. 
first, a. 1. Referring to time or order: earli- 
est, premier (rare), erst (obs.); spec, pri- 
mary, primal, prime, pristine, eldest, 
aboriginal, maiden, original. 

Antonyms: see last, final. 

2. foremost, front, head. 

3. See chief. 

first, adv. firstly (avoided by some), im- 
primis (Latin), erst (archaic and literary); 
spec, formerly. 

first-class, a. excellent, prime, scrump- 
tious (U. S.; colloq.), palmary (rare), pal- 
marian (rare). 
Antonyms: see inferior. 

fish, n. fin (fig.); spec, fishlet, fishing, fry 
(collective pi.). 

fish, a. piscine (learned or tech.), ichthyic 
(rare) . 

fish, V. i. 1. Spec, angle, bob, dap, dib, 
dibble, torch, flyfish, troH, gig, guddle 
(Scot.), grig, drive, shrimp, spoon, whiff, 
2. See SEEK. 

fisher, n. fisherman, piscator (learned, often 
pedantic), piscatorian (rare), piscatorial- 
ist (rare); spec, angler, peterman (local 
Eng.), wormer (colloq.), jacker, dibber, 
drifter, trawler, trapper. 

fishery, a. 1. piscary (tech.). 
2. See pishing. 

fishhook, n. angle (literary or rare); spec. 
sockdolger (slang, U. S.), hmerick, car- 
lisle, sproat, kirby, etc. 

fishing, n. piscatory (learned), piscatorial 
(learned), halieutic (rare). 

fishing, n. fishery, piscation (rare), halieu- 
tics (the art; rare). 

fishlike, a. fishy, ichthyomorphic (learned 
or tech.), ichthyoid (learned or tech.), pisci- 
form (learned or tech.). 

fishline, n. line (contextual); spec, drail, 
boulter, bultow, greatline, gimiJ, spiller, 

fishpond, n. piscina (rare). 

fishway, n. zigzag. 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
finisher: settler. 
firmament: heaven. 

first-rate, a.: fine. 
fiscal: financial. 
fissile: cleavable. 

fissility: cleavane. 
fissure, n.: crack, cleft. 
fissure, V. t.: cleave, split. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 



flst, n. 1. hand (conlixtiKjl), nieve or nicf 
(archaic), duke (slang), dadillo (dial.). 

2. ^NVc clutch, HANDWRlTlNHi. 

fit, H. 1. sit, set (by »tantj condemned as not 
in good usage); spec, hang, drape. 


fit, r. t. 1. Sec BECOME, prepare, qualify. 
2. adapt; spec, adjust, justify, dovetail, 
fay {U. S. or shipbuilditig), joint, concin- 
nate [rare). 

fit, c. i. 1. sit, set (by many condemned as 
not in good usage); spec. hang. 
2. See SUIT. 

fit, n. 1. Referring to a disorder: access 
(tech. or literary), attack, qualm, luncs 
(pi.; archaic), paroxysm; spec, touch, out- 

2. Refeiring to a nervous upset: spec, pet, 
heat, tantrums (pi.), freaks (pL), fury, 
fume, passion, huff, gale ([/. S.), spell, 
con\'ulsion, spasm, turn. 

five, n. Of five things grouped; with "a" or 
"an": spec, quinary (rare), quintuple 
(rare), quintuplet, quintet, quintette, 
pentad, quincunx, cinque. 

five-angled, a. pentangular, pentagonal; 
— both learned or tech. 

fivefold, V. t. quintuple, quintuplicate 

fix, V. t. 1. fasten, immobilize (rare), plant, 
firm; spec, lock, root, bind, stay, cement, 
ship, nail, screw, congeal, freeze, clinch 
("clench" is now rare in this sense), tie, 
bind, etc. 
Antonyms: see dislodge, displace. 

2. See establish, place, adjust. 

3. decide, seal, nettle; spec, appoint, de- 
fine, harden. 

Antonyms: see change, convert, alter. 

4. Spec, (in figurative or transferred uses) 
set, corroborate, enchain, rivet, nail, con- 
firm, implant, fossilize, grave or engrave, 
impress, imprint, number, concentrate, 
absorb, settle, harden. 

fix, V. i. set (which see) ; spec, harden. 

fixation, n. Spec, congelation, implanta- 
tion, fixture (rare), immobiUzation, es- 
Antonyms: see displacement. 

fixed, a. 1. firm, set, secure, fast, immov- 
able (rare), immobile; spec, certain (as in 
"a day certain"), sessile, irremovable, sta- 
tionary, inerratic, etc. Cf. fix, v. t. 
Antonyms: see changeable, portable, 

2. constant; spr(^. intransformable, in- 
eradicable, concentrated, luichangeablc, 
settled, unchanging, definite, certani, un- 
shakable, upset, steadfast. 

Antonyms: see changeable, convert- 

fixture, n. attachment, fittings (pL), 

flaccid, a. limp, baggy, soft (contextual). 

flag, n. layer (contextual), flagstone, flag- 
ging (collective sing.), slab. 

flag, n. 1. bunting (collective sing.); spec. 
streamer, pennon, pendant, pennant, col- 
ors (pi.), bluepeter, banderole, bandrol, 
burgee, brattach (Gaelic), raven, jack, 
union, fanion, guidon, Dannebrog, tri- 
color (French). 
2. See tail. 

flagon, n. stoup, gim (slang, Eng.). 

flagrancy, n. grossness, outrageousness, 
etc.; spec, notoriety. 

flagrant, a. 1. See flaming. 
2. gross, glaring, grievous (archaic), mon- 
strous, outrageous; .spec, violent, shame- 
ful, notorious, wicked, scandalous. 

Antonyms: see excusable, unimpor- 

flame, n. 1. blaze, light, flare, low (chiefly 
Scot.); spec, flake, flamelet. 
2. See ARDOR, sweetheart. 

flame, v. i. 1. burn (contextual), blaze. 
2. »SVe BURN {with zeal) , shine. 

flaming, a. 1. blazing; spec, flaring. 
2. bright (contextual), flaring, lambent, 

flange, n. flanch (rare), rib, rim; spec. 
feather, collet. 

flank, v. t. 1. border; spec. wing. 
2. See attack. 

flap, n. 1. Spec, lap, lappet, leaf, lug, lapel, 
fly, tab, tuck, apron. 
2. beat (contextual), stroke (contextual), 
flaff (chiefly Scot.); spec, flutter, slat, flop. 

flap, V. t. & i. beat (contextual), strike (con- 
textual), flaff (chiefly Scot.); spec, flutter, 
slat, flop, bate, winnow. 

flapper, n. Spec, flytrap, chowry (India), 
whisk, swingle. 

flare, v. t. 1. See display. 
2. spread; spec. bell. 

flaring, a. 1. See flaming. 
2. spreading; spec, funnel-shaped, in- 
fundibuliform, bell-mouthed. 

flash, V. i. blaze (contextual), burst (as 
"out," "into flame," etc.), fulgurate (liter- 

XW Cross references: see Note. 

fit, n.: appropriate, becoming, 
qualified, prepared. 

fitful: intermittent. 

fitting, a.: appropriate, becom- 

fitting, n.: equipment. 

fizz, V. i.: hiss. 

fizz, n.; hiss, energy. 

fizzle, V. i.: hiss, burn, fail. 
fizzle, n.: hiss, failure. 
fjord: arm. 
flabbergast: confuse. 
flagellate, a.: whip-shaped. 
flagellate, v. t.: whip. 
flaggy: cleavable. 
flagitious: wicked. 
flail, V. t.: beat. 

flake, n.: rack. 

flake, n.: hurdle, scale, lamina, 

flake, !). !.; scale. 
flaky: cleavable, laminate. 
flam: deceive. 
flambeau: torch. 
flamboyant: wavy, bright. 
flank, n.: side. 

t^° See Notes of Explanation. 



ary; rare, exc. fig.): spec, gleam, blink, 
fulminate, flicker, bicker, glimpse (ar- 
chaic), glimmer, shimmer, glisten, glance, 
scintillate, sparkle, corruscate, glint, 

flash, n. blaze {contextual) ; spec, flicker, 
flaught (cJdefly Scot.), burst, fulguration 
{literary; rare, exc. fig.), gleam, blink, ful- 
mination, bicker, glimpse, glimmer, 
shimmer, glisten, glance, spark, scintilla- 
tion, corruscation, sparkle, glint, flip 
(rare), twinkle. 

flashing, ?i. bright (contextual), blazing 
(contextual), fulguration (rare or fig.), 
glistening, glittering, etc. 

flashy, a. showy, brilliant, Bowery (fig.), 

flask-shaped, a. lageniform (tech. or rare). 

flat, a. 1. plane (tnore technical), plain (an 
unusual spelling), level; spec, flattish, 
complanate, homaloid. 
Antonyms: see uneven, hilly. 


flat, adv. 1. See absolutely, exactly. 
2. flatly (rare), flatling (literary); spec. 
horizontally, lengthwise, flatways, flat- 
wise, broadside, etc. 

flat-footed, a. In tool.: plantigrade (tech.). 

flatten, v. t. flat (rare or spec); spec. 
smooth, level, lower, fell, depress, abate 
(of wind), squash, squelch, strike. 

flattened, a. Spec, deplanate (tech.), com- 
pressed, flatted, oblate. 

flatter, v. t. 1, Spec adulate (learned), 
compliment, gloze (rare), butter (fig.), 
beflatter (intensive), blarney, beslobber 
(intensive), blandish, smooth, soft-soap 
(colloq.; fig.), slaver (fig.), oil (fig.); see 


Antonyms: see insult, abuse, discredit. 
2. Reflectively: congratulate. 

flatterer, 7i. adulator (learned), pickthank 
(archaic) proneur (French), flattercap 
(rare or dial.), Damocles (fig.). 

flattering, a. 1. adulating (learned), but- 
tery (colloq.; fig.), silken (fig.), silky (fig.), 
sweet, candied (fig.), fair, pickthank 
(archaic) . 

Antonyms: see abusive. 
2. See promising, auspicious. 

flattery, n. Spec, adulation (learned), lip- 
salve (fig.), gloze, blandiloquence (rare), 
flamm (cant), daub (dial.), flummery 
(fig.), slaver (fig.), taffy (slang, U. S.), 
sugar plum (fig.; an instance of flatterTj), 

sugar (fig.), soap (slang; fig.), soft soap 
(slang; fig.), honey (fig.), soft sawder 
(fig.; slang, U . S.), blarney; see cajolery. 
Antonyms: see insult, abuse. 

flat-topped, a. tabular (formal or learned) . 

flatulent, a. windy, gassy, ventose 

flavor, n. I. See smell, taste. 
2. admixture (contextual); spec dash, lac- 
ing, lace, seasoning. 

flavor, V. t. taste (rare); spec spice, be- 
spice (intensive), curry, lace, pepper, salt, 
saffron (rare), lemon, ginger, onion, sea- 
son, dash. 

flavoring, n. Spec, seasoning, relish, zest, 
spice, salt, condiment, pepper, etc. 

flaw, n. 1. crack; spec brack, feather, wind 
shake, honeycomb. 
2. See fault. 

flea, a. pulicine (learned). 

fleay, a. pulicous, pulicose; — both tech. or 

flee, V. i. depart (contextual); spec, run, 
slope (slang), skedaddle (colloq.; orig. 
U. S.), fly (now the more common term; 
"fiee" being rhetorical or archaic). 
Antonyms: see stay. 

flee, V. t. avoid (contextual), run (rare), fly. 

fleece, n. I. toison (rare or literary). 
2. See WOOL. 

fleece, v. t. cheat, pluck (colloq. or fig.), 
shave (colloq.), plunder, sweat (slang or 
cant); spec bleed (colloq.; fig.), skin (col- 
loq.; fig.), strip, Qsiy (fig.). 

fleet, n. Spec, division (contextual), ar- 
mada, caravan, convoy, flotilla, marine, 
navy (poetic or rhet., exc. spec). 

flesh, n. 1. muscle, beef (spec or colloq.); 
spec brawn, carrion, game. 
Antonyms: see skin. 

2. Referring to fruit: pulp, meat; spec. 

3. See MEAT, kindred. 

flesh, a. creatic (tech.; rare); spec, fleshy, 

flesh- eating, a. carnivorous. 
flesh- eating, n. Spec, hippophagy, hip- 

pophagism; — both formal or tech. 
fleshlike, a. Spec, sarcoid (tech.). 
fleshy, a. 1. *S'ce fat, bodily. 

2. sarcous (tech.), carnose (rare), car- 
nous (rare), carneous (rare), meaty (rare 
or spec). 

3. Referring to roots: carnose (rare), pulp- 
ous (rare), pulpy. 

flexibility, n. flexility (rare), pliability. 

i'W Cross references: see Note. 

flashy: showy. 

flaunt: disclose, wave. 

flaunty: showy, boastful. 

flaw, V. t. : crack. 

flaw, n.: wind. 

flay, V. t.: skin, criticize. 

fleabitten: spotted. 
fleck, V. t.: spot, streak, speckle, 
freckle, dot. 
fledge: feather. 
fleecy: fluffy. 
fleeing: fugitive. 
fleer: smile, jeer. 

fleet, V. i.: glide, hasten, speed, 

fleet, a.: rapid, transitory. 
fleeting: transitory. 
fletch, V. t.: feather. 
flews: chop. 
flex, V. t.: bend. 

tS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



f)liantncss, pliancy; spec, supplonoss, 
itlu'uoss. limbornoss, withiness, willowi- 
ness, lissomonoss. 
flexible, a. 1. Hexilo {chiefly tech.), bcMid- 
able, pliable, ]>liant; spec, supple, lithe, 
limber, withy, willowy, lissom (poetic), 
buxom (archaic and poetic), limp. 
Antonyms: see stiff, brittle, rigid. 

2. See AD.\PT.\BLE. 

flicker, r. i. 1. See flutter, move. 
2. flame (contextual), flutter, waver, 
glimmer (less suggestive of dying out than 
the other words), blink. 

flicker, n. 1. See flutter, motion. 
2. flame (contextual), flutter, waver, wav- 
ering, glimmer, blink. 

flickering, a. flaming (contextual), inter- 
mittent (contextual), fluttering, wavery 
(rare), wavy, glimmering. 

flight, n. departure (contextual), fleeing; 
spec, sauve qui pent (French), stampede, 
rout, scurry, helter-skelter, scamper, de- 
bacle, hegira or hejira, regifuge (rare). 

flight, n. 1. flying, volation (rare), fly, vo- 
lition (rare), wing, volatility (the power of 
flight; rare); spec, soaring, soar, mounting, 
flit, flutter, hover, glide. 


3. Referring to utterance of wit, venting of 
tears, etc.: spec, sally, burst, strain, 

4. Referring to motion of missiles, falling 
leaves, etc.: spec, rain, shower, storm, 

5. Referring to steps: pair, gradatory (rare); 
spec, ghaut or ghat (Anglo-Indian). 

flLighty, a. 1. volatile, barmy (rare or liter- 
ary), giggish (rare), shuttle-witted (ar- 
chaic; fig^, bird-witted (fig.). 


flimsy, a. unsubstantial, slight, thin (con- 
textual), frail; spec, filmy, sleazy, sleezy, 
paper, papery, gossamer, gossamery, 
Antonyms: see firm, strong. 

flipper, n. limb (contextual), pinna (tech.), 
flapper (rare); spec. wing. 

flirt, V. i. 1. See moat:, dart. 
2. Spec, coquet, gallant, philander (used 
of the male; with "with"), dally, plaj-, 

flirt, n. 1. See throw, jerk, movement, 

2. Spec, coquet (male or female), co- 
quette (female), wanton; spec, philander- 
er (male). 

flirtation, n. Spec, coquetry, flirting, dal- 
liance, wantonness, philandering. 

flirtatious, a. flirtish (rare), flirty (rare); 
spec, coquettish, coquet. 

flit, V. i. 1. hasten, dart. 

2. See depart. 

3. fly, flutter, flicker, twinkle, skit. 
float, ('. i. 1. buoy (rare, exc. spec); spec. 

live, swim, ride, waft, drift (contextual), 
drive, tide. 

2. Referring to objects poised in the air, in 
ivater, etc.: buoy, hang; spec, swim, trail, 
stream, watch (of a buoy), fluff", waft, fly. 

Antonyms: see sink. 

3. See glide. 

float, V. t. 1. support (contextual), buoy; 
spec, swim, launch, flash, flush, waft. 

Antonyms: see sink. 
2. See overflow. 

float, n. 1. floatage, floater; spec, raft, 
catamaran, swimmer, camel, buoy, out- 

2. In fishing: dobber (local, U. S.); spec. 
cork, quill, darby. 

3. Of a wagon with its display, in a proces- 
sion: pageant (archaic or hist.). 

floating, a. 1. afloat, natant (tech. or rare), 
superfluitant (rare), supernatant (rare), 

2. See wandering. 

3. unfunded; spec, variable; — referring to 
a debt, etc. 

flocculent, a. gossypine (rare), cottony 
(chiefly spec), flocky (rare), floccose, 
woolly (jyrimarily spec.) . 

flock, n. 1. See company, multitude, 

2. Referring to a group of gregarious ani- 
mals: plump (archaic or dial. Eng.); spec. 
troop, herd, pack, drove, swarm, shoal or 
school, bevy, covey, team, wing, flight, 
fling (Brit.), game, kit (cant), gaggle, loft. 
All the terms are secondarily applied to hu- 
man beings, with implications of respect, 
fear, contempt, etc, implied by the literal 
senses, as "bevy" to maidens and ladies, 
"herd" to a rabble of persons, etc. 

flock, V. i. congregate; spec, school, herd, 
swarm, shoal. 

flock, n. clump (contextual); spec, lock, 
flake, tuft, dag, floccule, flocculus. 

flock, V. i. gather (contextual) ; spec. tuft. 

floe, n. Spec field, sheet, pan, cake, flake. 

flogging, a. plagose (humorous). 

flood, n. 1. Spec, deluge. Niagara (fig.), 
wave, rage, flush, inundation, confluence, 

t^^ Cross references: see Note. 
flezioii, n.: bend. 
flexuous: sinuous, wavy. 
flexure, n.: bend. 
flick, r. t.: whip. snap. 
flick, V. i.: flutter. 
flick, n.: stroke, snap. 

flightless: wingless. 
flimflam, n.: deception. 
flimflam, r. i.: deceive. 
flinch: shrink. 
flinder: splinter. 
fling, V. i: flounce. 
flip: throw, snap. 

flippant: frivolous. 
flirt, r. t.: throw dart. 
flite, V. i. & n.: dispute. 
flite, 1'. t.: abuse. 
floaty: buoyant. 
flog, V. t.: beat. lash. 
flood, r. t.: overflow. 

(W See Notes of Explanation. 



cataclysm, tide, debacle, torrent, freshet 
or (less usual) fresh, overflow, waterfall, 
cloudburst, countertide, spate {chiefly 
Scot.), downpour, water (contextual), 
bore, eagre. 


flood, a. diluvial or diluvian (chiefly spec); 

spec, cataclysmic or cataclysmal (tech. or 

learned) . 
floodgate, n. Spec, stanch, weir, penstock. 
floor, n. 1. bottom (contextual), flooring; 

spec, pavement, parquet, stage, deck, 

contignation (rare or obs.). 

2. See STORY. 
floor, V. t. 1. cover (contextual), lay; spec. 

deck, plank, pave. 

2. See FELL. 
floorcloth, n. covering (contextual); spec. 

carpet, linoleum, oilcloth, rug, etc. 
florid, a. 1. flowery, ornate, embellished; 

spec, rococo, figurative, figured, luxuriant. 
Antonyms: see prosaic. 


flotation, n. floatage; spec, supernatation. 

flounce, V. i. & n. 1. Spec, flounder, fling, 
throw, whop, flop, struggle, tumble, 
fling, toss, plunge, blunder, slosh, twitch, 
plouter (chiefly Scot.). 

2. See RUSH, JERK. 

flounce, n. & v. t. furbelow. 

flour, n. powder (contextual), meal (now 

chiefly spec); spec sujee or suji (East 

India), tapioca, farina, cones (cant). 
flourish, V. t. swing (contextual), upsway 

(rare); spec brandish, wave, whisk, sweep, 

flaunt, shake. 
flourish, n. 1. See show. 

2. swing (contextual); spec shake, bran- 
dish, brandishment, wave, whisk, sweep, 

3. Referring to writing, etc.: stroke, quirk; 
spec, paraph. 

4. In music: floriation (rare); spec ca- 
denza, fanfare or fanfarade, tantara, tar- 
antara, blast, tantivy. 

flow, V. i. I. run; spec, stream, spew, spring, 
gutter, dribble, pour, purl, gurgle, drain, 
draw, flush, trickle, gush, rush, ripple, 
flood, tide, regorge (rare), reflow (rare), 
outflow, effuse, extravasate, well (used 
with "out" or "up"), inflow (rare), in- 
flood, interflow, bleed, discharge, roll, 
glide, geyser. 
2. See PASS, GO, glide, issue, emanate, 


8. abound, run; — as with gold, milk and 
honey, etc. 

flow, n. 1. run (rare or spec); spec, tide, 
stream, dribble, pour, drain, trickle, gush, 
geyser, rush, flowage, determination, cur- 
rent, flash, flood, fluxion (rare, exc med.), 
flux (rare, exc med. or fig.), flush, drib- 
bling, streaming, bore, wave, guggle, dis- 
charge, tide, ripple, defluence (rare), de- 
fluxion, catarrh. 

2. Spec passage, glide, issue, emanation, 
blow, abundance, rise. 

flower, n. I. blossom, bloom, blowth 
(rare), blow (rare); spec floweret, flos- 
cule, flowerage (collective), floret, inflores- 
cence (collective; tech.), drop. 

2. In pi.: bloom (a collective). 

3. Referring to the state: see bloom. 


flower, V. i. I. blossom, bloom, effloresce 
(rare); spec, emblossom, tassel (chiefly 
U. S.). 
2. See DEVELOP. 

flowery, a. 1. bloomy, blossomy, flowerful 
(rare), florulent (chiefly in decorative art); 
spec floscular (rare), flosculous (rare, 
florigerous (rare). 
2. See FLORID. 

flowing, a. 1. running, current (now rare), 
fluent (rare and fig., exc. spec); spec. 
quick (rare), dribbling, gushing, flux- 
ional, living (Biblical usage), decursive 
(rare), confluent, decurrent (rare), de- 
fluent (rare), refluent, interfluent (rare), 
influent, pro fluent (rare), excurrent (chief- 
ly tech.), scaturient (rare), circumfluent 
or circumfluous. 
Antonyms: see stagnant, motionless, 


2. See abundant. 

flue, n. duct (contextual); spec, chimney, 

fluent, a. 1. See flowing. 
2. Referring to speech, expression, etc.: 
ready, facile, flowing, easy, voluble; spec. 
Antonyms: see dumb. 

fluff, n. down, fuzz, floss; spec, flue, lint. 

fluffy, a. downy, fuzzy; spec, fleecy, cot- 
tony, linty, woolly. 

fluid, a. 1. running, fluent (rare), fluxible 
(archaic); spec, gaseous, liquid. 
Antonyms: see solid. 


fluid, n. Spec, liquid, gas, aura, humor 

fluidify, V. t. Spec gasify, liquefy. 
flurry, n. 1. excitement, agitation, bustle, 

fluster, confusion. 

fW Cross references: see Note. 
flooded: afloat. 
flossy: silky, downy. 
fiourishing: prosperous, luxuri- 
flow, V. t. <& n.: throw. 

flown: gone. 

fluctuate: vary, waver, swing. 

flue: fluff. 

fluke: arm. lobe. 

flume: channel. 

flummery: nonsense, porridge. 

flunk, i'. i.: fail. 
flunk, n.: failure. 
flunkey: manservant, footman. 
fluorescent: luminescent. 
flurry, v. t.: bustle. 

tP^ See Notes of Explanation. 




flurry, r. t. oxcito, agitato, confuse. 
flush, ('. ;". 1. Ntf FLOW. 

2. redden {contextual), mantle (of the 

check); spec, blush, tiuster. 
flush, r. t. 1. flood; s{kc. wash. 

2. redden {contextual), inflame. 

3. N(t' ELATE. 

flush, n. 1. See flow, flood, thrill, 


2. {contextual), color (contextual), 
rubicundity {rare; rhetorical or stilted), 
glow; spec, blush, bloom, hectic (rare). 
Antonyms: see pallor. 

flush, V. t. start {iised esp. wUh "up"), rise; 
spec, retrieve. 

flushed, a. 1. red (contextual), flush, rubi- 
cund {rare; rhetorical or stilted), ruddy, 
glowing; spec, hectic, blushing, blushful 
(rare), blowsed or blowsy, blooming. 
Antonyms: see pale. 

2. See ELATED. ■ 

flute, n. 1. pipe (chiefly spec, or colloq.), 
flauto (Italian); spec, diaulos (Greek 
antiq.), fife, tibia, flautine (Italian), 
poog>'e (Hindu nose flute), piccolo. 
2. channel (contextual), groove; spec, gof- 
fer, gauffer, crimp. 

flute, V. i. play (contextual), pipe (co7i- 
tcxtual); spec, tibicinate (rare), fife. 

flutist, n. player (contextual), fluter (rare), 
piper (contextual), flautist; spec, fifer, 

flutter, n. 1. See flap. 
2. agitation, twitter (colloq. or dial.), flut- 
teration (colloq. or slang), twatteration 
(slang); spec, play, tremble, confusion. 

flutter, V. i. play, wave. 

fly, V. i. 1. Spec, wing, flit, clip (archaic), 
flitter, sail, flutter, soar, kite, glide, flick- 
er, hov'er, rode, outfly (poetic), rocket, 
sweep, flush, hang. 


fly, V. t. 1. In hunting with a hawk: chase. 
2. See FLEE. 

fly, n. 1. Spec, tsetse, bot, bott, dun, gran- 
nom, dunfly, dipter (tech.), drake, gnat, 
midge, bluebottle, ichneumon, breeze. 
2. Referring to artificial flies: spec. 
hackle, harl, palmer, butcher, governor, 
grackle, grannom, Dobson (U. S.), dun, 
dunfly, dropper, heckle, goldfinch, hornet. 

flyer, n. 1. volator (rare); spec, bird, bat, 
squirrel, sauropter, saurian. 

2. See AVIATOR. 

flying, /;. 1. volation (rare), volitation 
(rare), flight. 

flying, a. volant (rare), volitant (rare); 
spec, circumvolant. 

foam, 71. froth (less dignified than "foam,"); 
spec, scum, cream, mantle, head, spume, 
lather, suds (colloq.; pi.). 

foam, V. i. froth; spec, scum, cream, man- 
tle, spume, head. 

foam, i>. t. befoam (an intensive), froth; 
spec, scum, mantle, spume (rare). 

foamy, a. frothy; spec, creamy, spumous, 
spumy, spumescent, lathery, 

focus, V. t. center, concenter, converge, 
concentrate, focalize; — all but "focalize," 
Antonyms: see scatter. 

fodder, n. feed, pro vend (archaic); spec. 
provender, chaff, browse, wintering, ensi- 
lage, silage, ramoon (East India), hay, 
oats, beans, etc. 

fog, n. 1- cloud (contextual), mist (context- 
ual), brume (rare), nebula (rare); spec. 
haze, smother. 
2. See haze. 

'oggy, a. 1. cloudy (contextual), thick, 
misty (contextual), hazy, brumous (liter- 
ary), nebulous (rare). 
Antonyms: see clear. 
2. See hazy, dim, confused. 

fogy, n. fogram, fogrum, fossil, foozle; — 
all colloq. or slang, and used esp. with 

foil, n. 1. See sheet. 

2. foliation; spec, trefoil, quatrefoil, 
cinquefoil, sexfoil. 

3. In art, etc.: contrast, set-off; spec. 

foist, V. t. 1. See introduce. 
2. palm. 

fold, n. 1. folding, double, doubling, turn, 
plication (tech.), plicature (tech.); spec. 
lap, coil, induplication (rare), foldure 
(rare), ply, plait or pleat, tuck, wimple 
(archaic or Scot.), plica, ruga, folio, anti- 
cline, isocline, syncline, wrap, bosom, 
nook (Scot.), wrinkle. 
2. See CLASP, embrace. 

fold, V. t. 1. double, turn, plicate (tech.); 
spec, lap, coil, plait or pleat, tuck, ruckle 
(rare), interfold, wrap, infold. 
Antonyms: see unfold. 


t^^ Cross references: see Note. 

flush, V. i.: rise. 

flush, a.: abounding, abundarit, 

flushed, even. 
fluster, n.: confusion. 
fluster, V. i.: flurry, hustle. 
fluster, V. t.: flush, confuse. 
flustery: confused. 

flustrate: cnnfu.^e. 

fluted: channeled. 

flutter, r. t.: agUnle, confuse. 

fly, n.: flight, length, loft. 

flyte, V. i. & n.: dispute. 

flyte, V. t.: ahicse. 

foal, V. t.: bear. 

fob, n.: pocket, chain. 

fob, V. t.: deceive. 

foe: enemy. 

fcetus: embryo. 

fog: aftermath. 

tog, i\ t.: cloud, perplex. 

foil: defeat. 

foison: abundance, strength. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 



folded, a. plicate (tech.); spec, lapped, in- 
duplicate, double, etc. 

follow, V. t. 1. accompany {contextual), at- 
tend {contextual); spec, heel, dodge, tag 
{colloq.), dog, hound, hunt, bedog {inten- 
sive), trail. 
Antonyms: see lead, precede, preface. 

2. trace, run; spec, retrace. 

3. See PURSUE, succeed, adopt, ob- 
serve, COPY. 

follow, V. i. 1. Spec, heel, tag, attend, hunt. 
2. come {contextual), attend, succeed, en- 
sue, emanate {rare); spec, result. 

follower, n. 1. sectary or sectator {rare); 
spec, successor, pursuer, heeler. 
Antomjms: see forerunner, predeces- 
2. See adherent. 

following, a. sequent {chiefly spec), sub- 
sequent {chiefly spec), sequacious {rare), 
sequential {rare), succeeding, successive, 
attendant, ensuing, consecutive. 
Antonyms: see preceding, prefatory. 

following, n. 1. followers {pi.); spec. 
clientele, clientelage, clientage, clientry, 

2. Of the act: spec, succession, consecu- 
tion, pursuing. 
Antonyms: see precedence. 

foment, v. t. 1. bathe; spec, embrocate. 
2. See foster, incite. 

fond, a. 1. See foolish, pet. 

2. affectionate; spec, {as implying excess 
or had judgment) overfond, doting. 

Antonyms: see cold. 

3. partial {used with "to"; colloq.); spec. 
greedy {used with "of"). 

fondness, n. 1. affection. 
2. desire {contextual), appetite, partiality 
{used with "to" or "for"), taste, gout 
{French), relish. 

font, n. Of type: fount, letter {tech.). 

font, n. 1. Eccl.: laver, delubrum {rare). 
2. See fountain, spring. 

food, n. nourishment, nutriment, nutri- 
tion, nurture {literary or learned), aliment 
{chiefly tech.), nouriture {rare), foodstuff 
{chiefly spec, and commercial), ingesta 
(pi.; tech.), meat {archaic, exc. in "meat 
and drink"), victuals {pi.; now chiefly 
tech. or somewhat inelegant), viands {pL), 
tackle {.slang), scran {slang), scraps {pi.), 
creature {literary or dial.), provisions (pi.), 
provant {rare), provand {rare), proviance 
{literary or rare) , pro vend {archai'), prov- 
ender {now humorous or referring to food 
for animals), pabulum {referring to food for 

animals or plants, exc as humorous) , prog 
{slang), peck {slang), grub {slang, dial., or 
cant), cram {dial. Eng.), belly timber {ar- 
chaic or dial.), bellycheer {archaic), tuck 
{slang), crug {slang, Eng.), tack {chiefly 
in "hardtack"); spec, ration, board, fare, 
cates or acates {pi.; archaic), bit {chiefly 
dial.), livery {hist.), diet, dish, dietary, 
slops {pL; slang or cant), bait, delica- 
tessen {pL), mash, manna, flummery, 
scrapple {U. S.), browse, bite, bread, 
flesh, greens, etc. Cf. feed. 

food, a. cibarious {rare), cibarian {rare). 

fooling, n. 1. foolery, tomfoolery; spec. 
nonsense, buffoonery. 
2. See deception. 

foolish, a. 1. See unwise. 

2. senseless, silly, empty-headed, fatuous, 
fond {archaic), inane, goosish {rare; col- 
loq.), goosy {rare; colloq.), desipient {rare), 
brainless, weak, light-minded, empty, 
daft, harebrained; spec, lunatic, soft, 
buffoonish, crazy, idiotic, imbecile, vain, 

Antonyms: see wise. 

3. deranged {contextual), sawney (colloq.); 


foolishness, n. 1. See unwisdom. 
2. foolery {chiefly concrete), folly, fond- 
ness {archaic), desipience {rare), silli- 
ness, jackassery {contemptuous), fatuity, 
fatuousness {chiefly the quality); spec. 
lunacy, inanity, vanity, dotage, idiocy 
{colloq.), infatuation, ineptness, madness, 
Antonyms: see wisdom. 

foot, n. 1. extremity {affected or humorous), 
pedal {humorous or affected), dewbeater 
{slang; chiefly in pi.), paw {esp. spec); 
spec, pad, heel {fig., or the hind foot), hoof, 
barefoot, splayfoot, clubfoot. 

2. See bottom, base, end, infantry, 


3. In prosody: unit; spec dactyle, tri- 
brach, trochee, iambus, diabrach, pyr- 
rhic, dochmiac, dichoree, diiamb, etc 

foot, a. pedal {affected or humorous, exc as 

foot, V. i. Spec, walk, hoof (slang); — used 

unth "it." 
football, n. 1. pigskin (colloq.), leather 


2. Of the game: spec rugger (slang), rugby, 

soccer (slang), association. 
footlights, n. pi. floats (cant). 
footman, n. servant (contextual), Jeames 


fW Cross references: see Note. 

loliaceous: leafy. 

foliage: leafane. 

foliation: foil, leafage, leafing. 

folio: word, leaf. 

folk: kindred, people, nation, 
folly: foolishness. 
fondle: caress. 
fondling: pet. 
foodstufl: food. 

fool, n.: simpleton, buffoon, im- 
fool, V. t.: deceive. 
foolhardy: venturesome. 
foot, V. t.: add. 

^^W See Notes of Explanation. 



footpath, n. footway; spec, sidewalk, berin. 

footprint, t>. stop or footstop, vestige (///- 
irary): spec, prick, track, trace, pug 
{Anglo-Indian), seal, pad, ichnite, ich- 
nol>te. ornithichnite. 

foot-shaped, a. podiform (tech.). 

footsoldier, infantryman, footman (rare), 
peon (India), grabby (slang atui opprobri- 
oits), infantry (a collective); spec, peltast. 

footstep, n. 1. footfall, tread (chiefly 
spec): spec, clamp, tramp, pad. 


footstool, n. Spec, ottoman, buffet, has- 
for, prep, after. 
forbearance, n. abstention, desistance; 


forbearing, a. Spec, patient, sparing, 
mild: see toler.^vnt. 

forbid, V. t. 1. prohibit, enjoin; spec, inter- 
dict, ban, taboo, proscribe, debar, inhibit, 
disallow, veto, embargo. 
Antonyms: see bid, ask, appoint, permit. 
2, See prevent. 

forbiddance, n. prohibition (formal), for- 
biddal; spec, veto, interdiction, ban, in- 
hibition, debarment, proscription, taboo, 
disallowance, embargo. 

Antonyms: see bidding, APPOiNTiMENT, 

forbidden, a. prohibited (Jormal); spec. 
interdicted, taboo, prescribed, contra- 
band, unlawful. 

forbidding, a. 1. prohibitory (formal); 
spec, interdictory, interdictive (rare), in- 
hibitory or inhibitive. 
2. See repellent. 

force, n. 1. energy, power; spec, principle, 
dyname, vehemence, strain, head, might, 
birr (chiefly Scot.), cram, dint (in "by 
dint of"), vim (colloq.), vis (Latin), rap- 
ture (rare), wTench, twist, stress, tension, 
compression, shear, brunt; see energy. 

2. Of language, ideas, etc.: energy; spec. 
emphasis, pith, nervousness, sway, effi- 
cacy, cogency, snap (colloq.), pithiness. 

3. See violence, compulsion, con- 

4. body, corps, array (rhetorical); spec. 
crew, posse, posse comitatus (Latin), 
army, command, tercio, impi (Kaffir), de- 
tachment, patrol, regiment, squadron, 
battalion, fleet, convoy, etc. 

force, V. t. 1. effect (rare); spec, squeeze. 

press, elbow, pinch, drive, burst, bear, 

inch, rush, hustle, repel, inject. 

2. Sec violate, compel, enter, extort, 


forced, a. artificial, unspontaneous (rare); 
spec, harsh, strained, constrained, com- 

forceful, a. 1. energetic, mighty; spec, ac- 
tive, dynamic, vigorous, virile, etc. 
2. See efficacious, expressive, co- 
gent, emphatic, violent. 

forcible, a. 1. energetic; spec, vehement, 
heady; see energetic. 
Antonyms: see weak. 

2. See violent. 

3. efficacious, forceful; spec, (of language, 
ideas, etc.) sinewy, nervous, pithy, ro- 
bustious (rare), important; see cogent, 


ford, 71. crossing (contextual), shallow (con- 
textual), fordage, wade (colloq.); spec. 
ghaut or ghat. 

ford, V. t. cross (contextual), wade. 

fore, a. anterior, forward; spec, first, front, 
Antonyms: see hind. 

forebode, v. t. 1. anticipate (contextual); 
spec, threaten, croak, misbode, presage, 
surmise, mistrust. "Forebode," "forebod- 
ing," etc., are often used as implying ex- 
pected evil. 
2. See PREDICT, signify. 

foreboding, a. anticipative (contextual), 
forebodeful, presageful, presentient (rare); 
spec, croaking, croaky, etc. Cf. forebode. 

foreboding, n. anticipation (contextual), 
presage, presentiment (dignified), boding, 
premonition, presension (rare), bode (ar- 
chaic), bodement (rare); spec, preappre- 
hension (rare), croaking, etc. Cf. fore- 

foreground, n. front, fore (rare); spec. 
Antonyms: see background. 

forehead, n. metopon (tech.), brow, front 
(poetic or rhetorical) . 

forehead, a. metopic (tech.), frontal. 

foreign, a. 1. exterior, outside, external, 
peregrine (rare), strange (archaic, exc. 
spec), outlandish (chiefly spec), outland 
(archaic), alien (chiefly spec); spec, exotic, 
extraneous, extrinsic, barbaric, barbar- 
ian, oversea, tramontane (rare), unnative 
(rare), metic. 

t^" Cross references: see Note. 

forbear, v. t.: check. 

foreclose, v. t.: appropriate, bar 

foozle: bungle. 

forbear, v. i.: abstain. 

foredoom: destine. 

fop: dandy. 

forcing: compulsion. 

forefather: ancestor. 

foppish: dandy. 

fore, 71..' front. 

forefoot, n.: bow. 

forage, n.: food. 

forebear, n.: ancestor. 

forefront, n.: front, beginning. 

forage, v. t.: search, feed. 

forecast, n.: foresight. 


forego: precede. 

forage, t. i.: plunder, search. 


foregone: previous. 

foramen: opening. 

forecast, v. t.: foresee. 


foreground: front. 

forasmuch: because. 


forehand: advantage. 

foray, r. t. & i.: plunder. 

forecastle: how. 

forehold, n.: how. 

t^ See Notes of Explanation. 



Antonyms: see native, domestic, in- 

2. see unnatural, apart, irrelevant, 

foreigner, n. alien {chiefly spec), stranger 
(Qhiefly Bib.), outsider (contextual), out- 
lander (archaic or poetic), extern (rare); 
spec, exotic (rare), ultramontane, bar- 
barian, tramontane (rare). 
Antonyms: see native, citizen. 

foreignism, n. alienism (chiefly spec); 
spec exoticism, Gallicism, Briticism, 
Irishism, etc 

foreknow, v. t. foresee, precognize (rare). 

foreknowledge, n. prognostication (liter- 
ary), prescience (chiefly spec), presension 
(rare), presensation (rare), precognition 
(learned or literary), prenotion (rare); 
spec, preacquaintance (rare). 
Antonyms: see ignorance. 

forensic, a. controversial, argumentative, 

forerun, v. t. precede, precourse (rare), 
precurse (rare); spec, anticipate, fore- 
shadow, introduce, prelude. 

forerunner, n. 1. predecessor, precursor; 
spec apparitor (tech. or hist.), pioneer, 
prelude (only fig.), harbinger (chiefly lit- 
erary), outrunner, avant courier (French), 
prodromus (rare), herald. 
Antonyms: see follower, 
2. See ancestor. 

forerunning, a. precursory, precurrent 
(rare), prodromal (rare). 

foresee, v. t. anticipate, previse (rare), 
forelook (rare), preview (rare), prevision 
(rare); spec prognosticate, forecast. 

foreseeing, a. prescient (chiefly spec), pre- 
cognizant (rare), previsive (rare). 

foreshadow, v. t. signify, indicate, shadow, 
prefigure, foreshow, adumbrate (learned); 
spec presage. 

foreshadow, n. antitype. 

foresight, n. anticipation, prescience 
(chiefly spec), preview (rare), prevision 
(rare), onsight (rare), prospection (rare), 
forelook, prospect (learned or literary); 
spec providence, forecast. 

forest, n. woodland, wildwood (poetic or 
rare) . 
Antonyms: see prairie. 

forester, n. woodman; spec, woodward, 

forestry, n. woodcraft, silviculture; spec 

foretaste, n. earnest, pregustation (rare). 

antepast (literary), handsel (chiefly Eng.); 

spec prelibation (chiefly fig.). 
foretaste, v. t. pregust (rare), anticipate. 
forethought, n. forecase (rare); spec. 

providence, anticipation, premeditation. 
Antonyms: see afterthought. 
forfeit, n. fine (contextual), forfeiture; spec. 

forfeit, V. t. lose; spec, escheat. 

Aritonyms: see gain. 
forfeitable, a. In law: spec lapsable, 

escheatable, caducary. 
forge, ?i. furnace, smithy (now chiefly liter- 
ary), smithery (rare), stithy (rare); spec. 

bloomery, hearth. 
forge, V. t. 1. smith (rare), stithy (rare); 

spec, tilt, extund (rare). 

2. See devise, construct, fabricate, 

invent, counterfeit. 
forger, n. 1. worker (contextual), smith; 

spec, blacksmith, whitesmith, goldsmith 

(archaic), silversmith (archaic), filter, 

Cyclops, Vulcan, Hephaestus, Hephaistos. 

2. See counterfeiter. 
forgery, n. 1. smithing (rare), smithery 

(rare) . 

2. See fiction, counterfeit. 
forget, V. t. 1. disremember (chiefly dial.), 

bury (fig. or colloq.), oblivionize (rare), 

unknow (rare); spec unlearn. 
Antonyms: see remember, recall. 

2. See omit. 
forgetful, a. 1. forgetting (rare, exc spec), 

leaky (contemptuous or undignified), 

short (referring to the memory), oblivious, 

Antonyms: see retentive. 

2. See neglectful. 

3. Lethean ; — causing forgetting. 
forgetfulness, n. forgetting, oblivion, 

Lethe (fig.), forgetness (rare), oblivious- 
ness, obliviscence (rare), forget (rare); 
spec, amnesty, limbo. 

forgiveness, n. remission (rare), pardon 
(spec or fig.); spec, absolution, amnesty. 

forgiving, a. excusing, remissive (rare), 
Antonyms: see unforgiving. 

forgo, V. t. abandon, forbear (by the exer- 
cise of self-restraint); spec, remit. 
Antonyms: see keep. 

forgoing, n. abandonment, forbearance; 
spec remittal, remission. 

forgotten, a. unremembered, gone, disre- 
membered (chvflij dial.), lost. 
Antonyms: see retribution. 

t-W Cross references: see Note. 
foremost, a,: first, chief. 
foreordain: appoint, destine. 
forepart: front. 
toresliow: foreshadow, signify. 
forestall: anticipate, prevent. 
foretaste: anticipate. 

foretell: predict. 
forethink: consider. 
foretoken, n.: sign. 
foretoken, v. t.: signify. 
forever: eternally, always. Also 

cf. constant. 
forewarn: warn. 

foreword: preface. 
forgather: gather, meet, asso- 
forge, V. I.: invent, devise. 
forge, V. I.: overreach. 
forgive: excuse, absolve. 
forgiveness: excuse, absolution. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 



fork, n. 1. divarication (literary), crotcli (a 
honuly iron/, now cliivjly I'. S. and (//<//. 
Eng.; cliicjly tech. ar spec), crutch {rare): 
spec, tormentor. 

2. See BRANCH. 

fork, J', i. branch (contextual), furcate (lit- 
eniry or tech.), divaricate {literary or tech.); 
.s/xr. bifurcate, trifurcatc. 

forked, a. forky {rare or spec), crotched 
(Me fokk), furcate (literary), divaricate 
(literary); spec bifid, biforked, bifurcate, 
trifurcatc, Htuate. 

forking, o. branching; spec, dichotomous. 

forking, n. branching, furcation (literary), 
divarication (literary or tech.); spec 
dichotomy, trichotomy, bifurcation. 

form, ii. 1. shape {more concrete and a less 
derated term than "form"), figure, mold 
{orig. spec); spec, galbe (French), model, 
impression, cast, tournure (French, chiefly 
cant), conformation, fashion (a word that 
is becoming archaic in this sense), figura- 
tion, configuration, outline, build, format 
(French; tech.), get-up (colloq.), cut, con- 
tour, confection, crystal, etc. 

2. ceremony, rite (chiefly spec), cere- 
monial, observance, formality; spec, con- 
ventionality, office, mystery (chiefly in 
pi.), ordinance, performance (often con- 
temptuous), liturgy, sacrament, sacra- 
mental, use, augury, baptism, etiquette, 
cult, hierurgy, punctilio. 


form, V. t. make, produce, efform (rare), 
shape, fashion (dignified) , inform, consti- 
tute; spec, coin (often depreciatory), de- 
velop, organize, conceive, create, fabri- 
cate, found, emboss, describe, block, 
model, mold, mingle, mix, arrange, con- 
struct, reconstruct, generate, compose, 
build, turn, cause, contract. 

form, V. i. Spec, develop, make, come, 

formal, a. 1. ceremonial, ritual, ceremoni- 
ous; spec, official, conventional, func- 
tional, perfunctory, perfunctionary (rare), 
set, modal, outward, solemn, academic, 
liturgical, Pharisaic or Pharisaical, exter- 
nal, sacramental. 
Antonyms: see informal. 


8. Referring to manners, actions, lan- 
guage, etc.: rigid, ceremonious, stiff, un- 
bending, precise ; spec, prim, starch, punc- 
tiUous, buckram (fig.), stilted, rigid, af- 
fected, bombastic, etc. 

Antonyms: see uncerkmoniou.s, collo- 

formality, /;. 1. convention^ conventional- 
ity, formulism, custom, circumstance, red 
tape (chiefly spec), wiggery (fig.; rare), 
punctuality (archaic), punctualness (ar- 
chaic), red-tapism (chiefly spec); spec 
punctilio, jjerfunctoriness. 
2. See FORM. 

formalize, v. t. 1. See define. 
2. Spec conventionalize, ceremonialize. 

formation, n. formature (rare); spec in- 
vention, coinage, malformation, produc- 
tion, contrivance, development, composi- 
tion, creation, growth, coagulation (fig.), 
conformation, generation, genesis, con- 
struction, potence, echelon, terrane. 

formative, a. fashioning, informative 
(rare); spec creative, morphotic, plastic, 
shaping, modeling, cosmoplastic. 

former, a. earlier, prior, previous, ci- 
devant (French), sometime (indefinite), 
whilom (archaic or literary), past, bygone, 
heretofore (rare), quondam (indefinite; 
literary) ; spec preceding, late. 
Antonyms: see subsequent. 

formerly, a. heretofore, quondam (rare), 
erst (archaic or poetic), erstwhile (archaic), 
once (colloq.). 

formidable, a. fearful, redoubtable (often 
humorously ironical); spec, doughty (ar- 
chaic or rhetorical), difficult, dangerous, 
impassable, etc. 

formless, a. inform, chaotic, shapeless, 
amorphous (tech. or learned). 

formula, n. 1. form, formulary, rule; spec, 
(eccl.) credo, belief, confession. 
2. recipe {used chiefly in medicine or 
cookery), receipt (used chiefly in cookery), 
prescription (med.). 

formtilate, v. t. state, formularize, formu- 
lize, frame, devise; spec, schematize, draw, 

formulation, n. statement, devising, for- 
mularization, formulization. 

fortification, n. defense, stronghold, fast- 
ness, bulwark (literary), fort (chiefly 
spec); spec, fieldwork, citadel, fortlet, 
hold (archaic), capitol, fortalice, fortress, 
rampart, rampire (archaic), redoubt, 
breastwork, redan, earthwork, tower, 
martello-tower, bastile, sconce, keep, don- 
jon, curtain, surtout, lodgment, lunette, 
tenaUle, gabionade, traverse, tambour, 
contravallation, flanker, castle, star, cir- 
cumvallation, tetragon, rath (Irish hist.), 
mount or mound (hist.), presidio (Span- 
ish), burg (German), Kremlin (Russian), 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
forlorn: abandoned, depressed, 

hopeless, lamentable, devoid. 
formalist: precisian. 

forsake: abandon. 
forsooth: truly. 
forswear: abjure, 


forswearing: denial; cf. abjure. 
fort&: ahead, out. 
forthcoming: coming. 
forthwith: immediately. 

(^" See Notes of Explanation. 



zareba (in the Sudan), gurry (Anglo- 
Indian), pillbox (slang), post. 

fortify, V. t. 1. strengthen; spec, brace 
(oneself or one's spirits), encourage, 

2. fence (literary or a rchaic), fort (rare), 
fortress; spec, rampart, rampire (archaic), 
fraise, stockade, wall, mound, battle (obs. 
or poetic), embattle, mure, entrench, 
counterscrap, countermure. 

fortunate, a. 1. See auspicious. 
2. prosperous, chancy (Scot.), happy, 
lucky, blessed; spec, successful, timely, 

Antonyms: see unsuccessful, unfor- 
tunate, UNLUCKY. 

fortunately, adv. happily, well, etc. 

fortune, n. 1. accident, chance, luck, hap 
(archaic); spec, goodhap (archaic); see 

2. luck, cast (obs. or dial.), lines (pi.; after 
Ps. xvi. 6), fare; spec, prosperity, success, 
felicity, misfortune. 

Antonyms: see misfortune. 


4. competence, sufficiency, pile (colloq.); 
spec, independence, plum (obsolescent 
slang, Eng.). 

forward, a. 1. onward, advancing, pro- 
gressive, progressing. 
Antonyms: see backward, 
2. See FORE, ready, bold. 

forward, adv. onward or onwards (esp. in 
space), on, along, forth, forthward (ar- 
chaic); spec, before, ahead, frontward, 
frontwards, forthright (archaic), ad- 
vanced, advancing. 
Antonyms: see backward. 

foster, V. t. aid (contextual), promote, 
cherish, nurture (rare, exc. spec), nurse 
(Jig. or spec); spec, foment, cosset, nuz- 
zle (Jig.; rare), mother (Jig.), cultivate, 
patronize, cradle, nourish, harbor, en- 
Antonyms: see extinguish. 

fosterage, n. aid (contextual), promotion, 
nurture, nourish, nourishment; spec, fo- 
mentation, cultivation, patronage, en- 

foul, a. 1. dirty (contextual), impure, 
filthy, immund (rare), sordid (ivith Jilth or 
offensive dirt; a rather literary word), 
tetrous (rare), obscene (archaic or rare); 
spec, rank, festering, squalid, loathful 
(rare), noisome, feculent, loathsome, 
loathly (literary), loathy (rare), dreggy, 
polluted, disgusting, fetid, muddy. 

Antonyms: see clean. 

2. See dirty, abominable, entangled, 
unfair, discreditable. 

3. Of weather; spec, unfavorable (context- 
ual), black, dirty, nasty, rough, wet. 

Antonyms: see clear. 

foul, V. t. 1. dirty, defile, contaminate; 
spec, bemire, pollute, sully. 
Antonyms: see clean. 
2. See contaminate. 

fouling, n. dirtying, defilement, etc. 

foulness, n. 1. dirtiness, impurity, filth; 
spec feculence, squalor, squalidity (rare), 
squalidness, loathsomeness, loathfulness, 
pollution, bilge, putridity, etc. 
2. See contamination. 

foundation, n. 1. base, basis, support, 
groundwork, bottom, substruction (rare), 
substructure (rare), tablement (rare); 
spec, ground, rest, bed, bedding, ground- 
sel, stereobate, socle, pierre-perdu 
(French), sill, grillage, riprap (U. S.), 
fond (French). 


3. Spec college, fellowship, monastery, 
church, etc. 

foundational, o. fundamental, basic, 

founder, n. establisher, author, projector, 
father, patriarch, organizer, foundress 
(fem.), builder; spec oecist (rare), heresi- 

four, n. 1. quatre (French), tetrad; — re- 
ferring to the number. 
2. Referring to a group: quartet, quar- 
tette, quartetto (Italian; chiefly in music) , 
tetrad, quaternion, quarternity (rare); 
spec, quatre (rare), tiddy, quatuor (music; 
rare) . 

four-angled, a. quadrangular (learned). 

fourfold, a. quadruple, quaduplicate ; — 
both learned. 

four-footed, a. quadruped, quadrupedal 
(rare), four-foot (poetic or obs.). 

four-handed, a. quadrumanous, quad- 
rumane, quadrumanal; — all three tech. 
or learned. 

fourpence, n. groat, flag (colloq. or cant, 

four -sided, a. quadrilateral, tetrahedral; 
— both tech. or learned. 

fourth, n. quarter, quartern (obs. or rare). 

f ourway, a. quadrivial (of roads; learned 
or rare) . 

fowl, n. 1. See bird. 
2. gallinacean (tech.), chicken (primarily 
spec), poultry (a collective); spec, hen. 

i-j^ Cross references: see Note. 
fortitude: courage. 
fortnightly: biweekly. 
fortress: fortification . 
fortuitous: accidental. 
fortuity: chance. 

forum: court. 

forward, a.: fore, precocious, as- 

.'iumini/, impudent. 
forward, v. I.: advance, send. 
fossil: remains, fogy. 
fossilize: petrify. 

fossorial: digging. 
fouled: dirtied. 
found, V. t.: cast. 
found, V. t.: base, establish, colo- 
found, V. i.: rely. 

t:W See Notes of Explanation. 



biddy (note cfiictb/ colloq. or litiniorous), 
I'ook, canon, chirk, pullet, broiler, roaster. 

fox, H. Charley or Charlie [used as a prop, 
name), rcynard (quasi proper name), low- 
rie (quasi proper name; Scot.); spec, vixen, 
whelp, cub. 

iox hunter, pink (conl). 

foxy, a. I. alopecoid (tech.), vulpine 
(learned or tech.), vulpecular (rare). 

2. ^JfC AHTFUL. 

fragment, n. 1. part (contextual), division 
(contextual), fraction (rare); spec, crumb, 
flinders (pi.), fritters (pL; rare), smithers 
(pL; cx)lloq.), smithereens (pL; colloq.), 
orts (pL), frustum (rare), calf, sliver, 
shiver, splinter, morsel, chip, shard, 
shred, brickbat, potsherd, crock, siijpet. 
2. Sec PAKT. 

fragrant, a. sweet; spec, aromatic, spicy 
(a stronger term than aromatic), balmy, 
ambrosial or ambrosian, perfumy (rare). 
Antonyms: see fetid, ill-smelling, 


frame, n. 1. See structuhe. 

2. framework; spec, case, curb, yoke, 
griff, gate (rare), tenter, sash, easel, rack, 
cadge or cage, casement, chase, brake, cof- 
fin, hurst, crib. 


frame, v. t. 1. See adapt, INCLINE. 

2. construct, enframe (rare), form; spec. 
set, build, erect. 

3. devise, form; see invent, compose, 


4. See EXPRESS. 

frank, a. free, ingenuous, plain, plain- 
spoken, outspoken, free-spoken, direct, 
point-blank, unequivocal, outright, Dun- 
stable (fig.; literary), candid, downright, 
unreserved, open-hearted, naive, sincere, 
liberal, open, undisguised, guileless, art- 
less, genuine, unartful, free-hearted. 
Antonyms: see hypocritical, affected, 


frank, i'. t. send, transport; — both context- 

frankincense, n. incense (contextual), 
olibanum; spec, thus (not a real frankin- 
cense) . 

frantic, a. excited (contextual), frenzied, 
phrenetic (rare), desperate, transported, 
crazy (spec, or colloq.), distraught (liter- 
ary), distract or (more usually) distracted; 
spec, passionate, ecstasied or ecstatic, 
mad, horn-mad, infuriate, delirious, mad- 
ding (poetic), moenadic, must, daft, giddy. 

furibund (literary), raging, furious, mani- 
ac, ilcranged, zealous, rabid (literary). 

franticness, n. excitement, desperateness, . 
desperation, distractedness, frenzy, furor, 
fury, mania, etc. 

fraternity, ;(. brotherhood; spec, friary, 
soci(>ty (contextual), club (contextual), 
synomasy (rare). 

fray, v. t. rub, wear, frazzle (U . S. and dial. 
Eiig.); spec, fret, shred, tatter, ravel. 
"Fray" is often used with "out." 

freak, 7i. 1. See caprice. 
2. lusus naturjE (Latin), abnormality, 
monstrosity (chiefly spec); spec, sport, 
mutation, comicality, Judy (fig.), abor- 

freaky, a. 1. See capricious. 
2. abnormal, sportive, monstrous (chiefly 
spec); spec, abortive. 

freckle, 7i. spot (contextual), blemish (a 
contextual sense), fleck, lentigo (tech.), 
fernticle (obs. or dial.). 

freckle, i>. t. spot (contextual), discolor 
(contextual), fleck. 

free, a. I. independent, frank; spec, eman- 
cipated (rare), emancipate (rare), manu- 
mitted, liberated, unenslaved, libertine 
(obs. or hist.), frank (obs.), ransomed, sui 
juris (Roman law), free-born. 

2. self-governing, autonomous (learned or 
tech.), independent. 

3. Referring to physical freedom: loose, 
unconfined, unrestricted, bondless, un- 
trammeled, unrestrained, quit, uncon- 
trolled, inadherent, unimpeded, unat- 
tached, uncombined, solute, clear (as a 
rope), unentangled. 

Antonyms: see confined. 

4. costless, expenseless. gratuitous, gratis 
(o less dignified term than "gratuitous"), 

5. exempt; spec, immune, privileged. 


free, v. t. 1. liberate, release, deliver, res- 
cue, loose (chiefly spec); spec, redeem, 
ransom, manumit, emancipate, disen- 
slave (rare), disenthrall (literary), enfran- 
chise (tech. or literary), forisfamiliate (Ro- 
man law), unvassal (rare), enlarge (rare or 
law), discharge, parole (fig.), slip, disen- 
twine, disimprison, disincarcerate (rare), 
disimmure (rare), disbody (rare), disem- 
body (rare), relax (Scots law), unbind, 
clear, extricate, unleash, uncloister (rare), 

t^= Cross references: see Note. 
foyer: lobby. 
fracas: disturbance. 
fractional: partial. 
fracture, n.: breaking, crack. 
fracture, v. t.: break, crack. 

fragile: hnttte, weak. 
fragmentary: dividual. 
fragrance: .smell. 
fragrant: odorous. 
frail: brittle, weak, slight, deli- 

franchise: pririlege. 
frangible: breakable. 
fraternal: brotherly. 
fraternize: associate. 
fraudulent: deceitful, dishone 
tray: fight. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 



unchain, unpen, unfetter, uncage, dis- 
embed, disyoke, eliminate, evolve, disem- 
barrass, disencumber. 
Antonyms: see pledge, pawn, fasten, 


2. Referring to freeing from what holds 
fast: disengage, liberate, clear; spec, dis- 

3. Referring to freeing from evil, oppres- 
sion, etc.: deliver, relieve {rare, exc. spec), 
rid (emphatic) ; spec, disburden, unburden, 
debarrass {rare), disencumber, dispossess, 
emancipate, discharge, clear, disengage, 

Antonyms: see bind, commit, enslave. 

4. exempt; spec, privilege, excuse, im- 
munize, frank {rare). 

freebooter, n. desperado {contextual); 
spec, pirate, berserk, berserker, viking, 

free-born, a. ingenuous {chiefly Roman 

freedman, n. libertine {Roman hist.); 
spec, deditician {Roman hist.). 
Antonyms: see bondsman. 

freedom, n. 1. independence, liberty; spec. 
emancipation, manumission, release, de- 
livery, ransom, rescue, etc. 
Antonyms: see bondage, slavery. 

2. liberty, unrestraint, play, disengage- 
ment, enlargement, discharge, disimpris- 
onment, disembodiment, etc. 

Antonyms: see confinement. 

3. self-government, independence, auton- 
omy {learned or tech.). 

4. liberty, license, swing {often colloq.), 
latitude, breadth; spec, ease, discretion. 

5. exemption, impunity; spec, immunity 

6. See ease, familiarity, readiness, 

freeholder, n. franklin {obs. or hist.), 
charterer {hist.); spec, yeoman. 

freeing, n. 1. liberation, emancipation, 
manumission, deliverance, enfranchise- 
ment, release, ransom, disenthrallment, 
Antonyms: see enslavement. 

2. Spec, discharge, disembarrassment, 
exemption, clearing, quittance, disen- 
cumberment, disengagement, delivery, 
releasement {rare), riddance, loosing, 
dispensation, relief, deliverance, enlarge- 
ment, elimination, disembodiment, dis- 
incarceration, disimprisonment, disen- 
gage, immunization, redemption, etc. 

3. exemption ; spec, privileging. 
freely, adv. Spec, gratis. Cf. free, a. 

freeman, n. Spec, noble, ceorl {Eng. 
hist.), burgess, burgher, liveryman, citi- 

free-thinker, n. libertine {disparaging), 
antinomian {learned); spec, skeptic, un- 

free-will-ist, n. libertarian {disparaging), 

freeze, v. t. 1. congeal {contextual), chill 
{contextual) , befreeze {intensive). 
Antonyms: see boil. 
2. See stick. 

freeze, v. i. 1. cool; spec, regelate. 
Antonyms: see boil. 
2. See stick. 

freeze, n. congelation, cooling; spec, frost. 

freightage, n. Spec, cartage, wagonage, 
ferriage, etc. 

freighter, n. Spec, loader, forwarder, 
shipper, vessel. 

French, a. Gaulish {poetic or humorous), 
Gallic {somewhat humorous), Gallican 
{learned or hist.). Parleyvoo {humorous); 
spec. Romance, Creole, Frenchy, Frenchi- 

Frenchify, v. i. & t. Gallicize. 

Frenchman, n. Parleyvoo {humorous), 
Froggy {slang); spec. Creole. 

frenzy, n. excitement {contextual), passion, 
transport, ecstasy {chiefly spec); spec 
rapture, fury, delirament {rare), heat, 
rage, furiosity {rare), furor, orgasm 
{rare), furiousness, burn {fig.), chafe 
{archaic), rave {rare), oestrus or oestrum, 
must, distraction, delirium, derangement, 
enthusiasm, fanaticism, fad; see also 

frenzy, v. t. excite, transport, ecstasy 
{chiefly spec), rap {chiefly spec); spec 
ravish, rapture, distract, enrapture, im- 
passion, furify (rare), madden, enrage. 

frequency, n. 1. oftenness {rare), oftness 
{archaic), thickness {in space or time), 
quotiety {rare), howmanyness {rare); 
spec repetition, habitualness. 
Antonyms: see infrequency. 
2. commonness {cf. common). 

frequent, a. 1. often {archaic or rare), 
thick {in space or time); spec, many, daily, 
hourly, rapid, minutely, momentary. 

Antonyms: see infrequent. 
2. See common. 

frequent, v. t. haunt {often spec); spec 
infest, affect, visit, use {rare), attend, 
ghost {rare), overrun. 

frequentation, n. haunting, infestation, 
visitation, use {rare, exc. spec), attend- 

frequenter, n. haunter, resorter, habitu6 
{French), etc. 

E^ Cross references: see Note. 
free-handed: generous. 

free-hearted: frank. 
free lance: adventurer. 

freight: load. 
frenzied: frantic. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 



fresh, a. 1. new, reccut; spec, green, wanu, 
Antonyms: see ancient. 

2. Referring to meal, vegetables, etc.: caller 
{Scot.); spec, green, uncured, unsuioked, 
undried, crisp. 

Antonyms: sec withered. 

3. unsalted, sweet; — referring to water, 
foixi, etc. 

4. Of the air, etc.: spec, pure, sweet, re- 

Antonyms: see close. 

5. Spec, unexhausted, energetic, bloom- 
ing, clear, strong, vivid, brilliant, addi- 
tional, green, dewy, unobliterated, brisk. 

Antony?ns: see exhausted, tired, wea- 

freshen, v. t. refresh, revive, liven; spec. 
renew, brighten, quicken, brisk or 

freshman, n. novice; spec, plebe (17. S.; 
colloq.), puny (Eng.), bejan (Scot., but obs. 
at Edinburgh). 

freshness, Ji. 1. newness, recency; spec. 

2. Spec, brilliance, bloom, dewiness, ver- 
dure, vigor, flush, glow, energy, strength, 
Antonyms: see weariness. 

fret, V. t. I. erode, gall, chafe; see fray. 
2. See agitate, annoy, irritate. 

fret, V. i. 1. erode, chafe; spec. fray. 

2. chafe, fume, stew (colloq.); spec, worry, 
repine, ferment, boil (colloq. or slang). 

3. roughen, ripple, babble; — referring to 
water, etc. 

fret, n. 1. erosion, chafe; spec, breach. 
2. agitation, chafe, stew (colloq.), fume; 
spec, ferment, fermentation, worry. 

friar, n. 1. ecclesiastic (contextual), frate 
(Italian), shaveling (opprobrious), broth- 
er; spec, mendicant, brevigcr (hist.), car- 
mehte, Franciscan (Gray Friar), Domin- 
ican (Black Friar), Augustinian, Mini- 
mite (rare). Minim, Minor, tertiary, dis- 
calceate, limiter (hist.), cordelier (Fran- 
ciscan), calender (Mohammedan; a loose 
2. See MONK. 

friary, n. association \contextual) , friars 
(pi.), convent. 

friend, n. 1. intimate (contextual), Da- 
mon (fig.), famihar. 
Antonyms: see enemy. 
2. approver (cf. approve) . 

friendliness, n. amicability, amity, cor- 

diality; spec, brotherliness, neighborli- 
ness, kindness, etc. 

Antonyms: see opposition. 
friendly, a. 1. amicable, cordial; spec. 
brotherly, kindly, neighborly, lovcsome 
(archaic), friendlike. 

Antonyms: see unfriendly. 


frighten, v. t. fright (rare or poetic), fear 
(archaic), affray (rare), affright (chiefly 
literary), alarm, scare, fray (archaic), 
funk (slang); spec, appall, shoo, terrify, 
terrorize, dismay, gaily (dial, or whaling), 
horrify, freeze, cow, daunt, startle, con- 
sternate, intimidate, stampede, drive. 
Antonyms: see encourage, entice. 

frill, n. 1. edging; spec, jabot, purl, ruch- 
ing, ruche (French). 
2. See affectation. 

fringe, n. border, edge, fimbriation (tech.), 
fimbrilla (dim.; tech.); spec, phylactery 
(erroneous), bullion, macrame, bang, fim- 

fringe, v. t. border, edge, fimbriate (tech.). 

fringed, a. bordered, edged, fimbriate 
(tech.), fringy, jubate (tech.; rare); spec. 
ciliate or ciliated, cirrated. 

frisky, a. lively (contextual), antic; see 

frivolity, n. frivolousness, lightness, emp- 
tiness, foolishness, fribble, levity, flip- 
pancy, trifling, flimsiness, silliness, vola- 
tility, fhghtiness, giddiness, frippery, 

frivolous, a. light, empty, foolish, light- 
minded, light-headed, friblDle, contemptu- 
ous, trifling, frippery (contemptuous), 
giddy, flimsy, silly, volatile, flighty, frivol 
(colloq. or slang), fribblish (rare), butter- 
fly (fig.), unideaed (rare), jiggish (rare), 
trumpery; spec, overlight, flippant, hoity- 

frock, n. Spec, gown, dress, overaU, coat, 

frog, n. 1. amphibian (contextual; tech.), 
paddock (Scot.); spec, frogling, tadpole. 
2. Referring to part of a horse's foot: 
cushion, frush. 

froglike, a. batrachoid, raniform; — both 

frolic, n. play, caper, sport, lark, sky- 
lark (colloq.), prank, trick (colloq.); spec. 
romp, rollick, escapade, racket (slang), 
spree (colloq.), hoity-toity (rare), gambol, 
curvet, frisk, merrymaking, cantrip 
(chiefly Scot.). 

CF° Cross references: see Note. 

freshet: flood. 

fresWy: again. 

fret: ornament, variegate. 

trettvil: irascible, agitated, gusty. 

friable: crumbly. 

friction: rubbing, dissension. 

fright: /ear. 
frightened: afraid. 
frightful: alarming. 
frigid: cold, dull, distant. 
frigorific: cooling, 
trippery: finery, show. 
frisk: caper, frolic. 


fritter, n.: fragment. 

fritter, v. I.: break, waste, trifle. 

frivol. !'. i.: trifle. 

friz, frizz: curl. 

frizzle: curl, cook. 

frizzly: curly. 

't^' Sue Notes of Explanation. 



frolic, V. i. play, prank (rare), sport; spec. 
rollick, caper, romp, lark, skylark (colloq.), 
freak, frisk, gambol, curvet, wanton, 
spree (colloq.). 

frolicsome, a. playful, frolic, sportful, 
sportive, prankful (rare), prankish (rare); 
spec, frisky, frisk, larkish (colloq.), larky 
(colloq.), larking (colloq.), rompish, rump- 
ing, rompy, wild, skittish, hoity-toity, 

from, prep, fro (Scot, and dial.); spec, with, 
off, of. 
Antonyms: see toward. 

front, n. 1. Spec, forehead, face, look. 

2. fore (chiefly tech. or a quasi noun), 
forepart, forefront (emphatic), foreside 
(obs. or tech.); spec, van, head, beginning, 
foreground, proscenium (tech., exc. 
learned as fig. or transferred), heading, 
breast, frontage, belly; see foreground. 

Antonyms: see back. 

3. Referring to a building: face, fagade, 
frontal, frontispiece (rare). 

Antonyms: see back. 

4. Referring to an army, etc.: van; spec. 


front, V. t. 1. See face, oppose, meet, 


2. lead (go in front), head (by having the 
front place), face. 

frontier, n. border, coast (archaic). 

frontlet, n. band, frontal; spec, cham- 
frain, forestall. 

frost, n. 1. See freeze. 
2. Referring to white frost: hoarfrost, rime 
(literary or tech.), cranreuch (Scot.), hoar 
(rare) . 

frosted, a. hoary. 

frown, V. i. scowl, lower or lour, gloom, 
glout (rare), glower, cloud (contextual). 
Antonyms: see smile. 

frown, n. scowl, lower or lour, gloom 
(chiefly Scot.), flout (rare), glower, cloud 
(contextual) . 

frowning, a. scowling, lowering or lour- 
ing, lowry or loury, glooming, glowering, 
clouded (contextual), cloudy (contextual). 

fructification, n. fecundation, fertiliza- 
tion, impregnation; spec, masculation, or- 
thogamy, heterogamy, autogamy, self- 

fructify, v. t. fecundate, fertilize (chiefly 

spec), impregnate (cause to become preg- 
nant; chiefly spec); spec, fruit. 

fructifying, a. fructificative (rare), fecun- 
datory (rare or tech.), fertihzing, fructifer- 
ous (rare). 

frugal, a. 1. sparing, chary; spec, abstemi- 
ous, economical. 
2. *S'ee scanty. 

fruit, n. 1. Spec fruitlet, fruitling (rare), 
fruitage (a collective), follicle, drupel, 
drupelet, key, samara, legume, mericarp, 

2. produce (a collective sing.), vegetable 
(with no deflnite distinction from "fruit" in 
popular use) . 

3. See product, effect, outcome, good, 


fruit, V. i. fructify; spec. bear. 

fruit- bearing, a. frugiferous (rare), fruc- 
tuous (chiefly spec). 

fruit -eating, a. frugivorous, f ructivorous ; 
— both tech. 

fruitful, a. 1. productive, fertile, fecund 
(archaic or rare), prolific, feracious (rare), 
fructuous (chiefly spec); spec, teeming, 
polyphorous (rare), teemful, uberous 
(rare), plenteous (chiefly poetic), good, 
broody or breedy (dial, or colloq.), exuber- 
ant, eugenesic (rare), fat or fatty, rich, 
gleby (rare), proliferous; — 7nany of these 
terms being used, figuratively or by trans- 
fer, of the mind, imagination, etc. 
Antonyms: see barren, unproductive. 
2. See productive. 

fruit grower, horticulturist (contextual); 
spec, orchardist, orchardman. 

fruit growing, horticulture (contextual); 
spec pomiculture (rare), pomology. 

fruiting, n. fruitage. 

fry, V. t. cook (contextual); spec saut6 
frizzle, fricassee. 

fry, n. Spec fricandeau, frizzle, fricassee. 

fuel, n. firing (Eng. or archaic); spec 
kindling, breeze. 

fugitive, a. 1. fleeing; spec, runaway, hide- 
away (rare). 
2. See transitory, ephemeral. 

fugitive, n. fleer (rare); spec, runaway, 
vagabond, wanderer, refugee, runagate 

fulcrum, n. support. 
Antonyms: see lever. 

full, V. t. thicken (contextual); spec. mill. 

t^= Cross references: see Note. 

frontage: front. 

frontal: frontlet, front. 

frosty: cold, gray. 

froth, n.: foam, nonsense. 

froth, V. i.: foam. 

frothy: foamy. 

frounce: curl. 

froward: perverse. [moldy. 

frowzy: slovenly, red, red-faced, 

frozen: congealed, cold. 

fructify: fruit. 

fruitage: fruiting. 

fruition: enjoyment. 

fruitless: barren, ineffectual. 

frustrate: defeat. 

fubby :/(!«. 

fuddle, V. t.: confuse. 

fuddle. V. i.: drink. 

fuddle, n : confusion, carouse. 

fudge, V. t.: fake. 

fudge, «..■ nonsense. 

fudge, inter}'.: bosh. 

fugacious: transient. 

fulcrum, n.: support. 

fulfill: accomplish, satisfy, obey, 

fulfillment: accomplishment, 
satisfaction, obedience, perform- 

fulgent: luminous. 

fulgurate: flash. 

fuliginous: dark, smoky. 


fS" See Notes of Explanation. 



full, a. 1. replete {a stronger ami inore 
formal term than "full"), plenitiuiinary 
(rare), pleuitudinous (rare); spec, brim- 
ful, flush, swollen, ciiock-full or choke- 
full (somewhat colloq.), crammed, crowded, 
packed, stuffed, overflowing, puffy. 

Antonifms: see empty. 
2. satisfied, sated or satiated; spec. 
gorged [implying gross gormandizing), 
crammed (colloq.), stuffed. 

5. loose, flowing; spec, baggy, foldy 
(rare), pouched, pouchy. 

4. Referring to the voice: rounded, oro- 
tund (literary), rotund (formal or tech.). 


lull, n. completion, utmost. 
full-blooded, a. 1. plethoric, sanguine, 

sanguineous, haematose (rare); — all four 

in formal, learned, or literary use. 

2. Referring to breed, etc.: pure, true. 
Antonyms: see hybrid. 
fuller, n. hammer (contextual), hardy 

(hlackstnilhing) . 
fullness, n. 1. repletion, repleteness (less 

iisual), impletion (rare), plenitude 

(learned or literary), plenum (rare); spec. 

circumstantiality, puffiness, satiety. 
Antonyms: see emptiness, vacancy. 

2. Spec, completeness, absoluteness, 

plumpness, rotundity, abundance, etc. 
fulvous, a. yellow, fulvic (rare); spec. 

tawny, tan. 
fumigate, v. t. 1. reek, suffumigate (rare), 

fume; spec, smoke, match, disinfect. 

2. See perfume. 
fun, n. 1. Spec, humor, wit, drollery, 

waggishness, waggery (rare). 


function, n. 1. activity, duty, office, prov- 
ince, service. 
2. See ACTION, ceremony. 

5. In math.: spec, sine, cosine, secant, cose- 
cant, logarithm, intermediate, faculty, etc. 

function, v. i. act (contextual), function- 
ate (rare), serve. 

fund, n. accumulation, stock, supply; spec. 
box, reserve, pool , bank , capital , endowment. 

fundamental, a. basic, basal, underlying, 
ground, bottom, basilar (rare); spec, car- 
dinal ; see elementary, essential. 

Antonyms: see accidental. 
funeral, a. 1. burial (contextual), funeral, 
feral (rare), exequial (rare), epicedial 
(rare), funebrial (rare), sepulchral; spec. 
funerary, elegiac. 


fungus, n. Spec, mushroom, toadstool, 
bunt, fuzzball, bullfist, puffball, mold, 
rust, smut, agaric, mildew, tuckahoe, 
champignon, truffle, morel, etc. 

funnel, n. channel, tunnel (rare); spec, in- 

funnel-shaped, a. choanoid (tech.), in- 
fundibuliform (tech.). 

funny, a. Spec, humorous, facetious, gro- 
tesque; see comic, laughable, odd. 

fur, n. skin (contextual), coat (contextual); 
spec, flix (rare), flick (dial.), calaber, er- 
mine, ermines, erminites, erminois, budge, 
miniver, pean, pashm, sable, kolinsky, 
w^oom (cant), vair, beaver, seal, etc. 

furl, V. t. Naut.: stow, hand. 

furled, a. in (used predicatively) . 

furnace, n. Spec, cupola, forge, calcar, 
kiln, chauffer, reverberatory, revolver, re- 
tort, roaster. 

furnish, v. t. 1. provide, supply, dight (ar- 
chaic or dial.); spec, equip, accommodate, 
endow, store. 

2. supply, produce, give, yield, find, pro- 
vide, afford (a rather bookish term); spec. 
advance, lend, sell, rent, etc. 

furnished, a. equipped, found, beseen (ar- 
chaic), etc. 

furnishing, n. I, Referring to the action: 
provision, supplial, suppliance (rare), fur- 
nishment (rare); spec, purveyance, equip- 
ment, accommodation, endowment. 

2. Often in pi.: equipment. 

3. provision, supply, yield; spec, product, 
find, advance, loan, etc. 

furniture, n. furnishing (often in pi.), 
equipment; spec, drapery, coverlet, hang- 
ings, bedding. 

furrow, n. depression (contextual); spec. 
trench, channel, track, seam, groove, rut, 
cut, wrinkle, line, drill, scratch. 

furrow, V. t. Spec, channel, seam, plow, 
wrinkle, intrench (rare), trench, ditch, 
rut, corrugate, cleave, cut. 

f urrowy, a. Spec, guttery, rutty, wrinkly, 

further, adv. besides, beside, else; see also. 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 

fulminate, v. t.; explode, flash, 
cur.'se. [nounce. 

falminate, r. t.: explode, de- 

fulsome: excessive. 

fulsomeness: excess. 

fumble: feel, mismanage. 

fume, V. i.: smoke, exhale, fret. 

fume, V. t.: smoke, exhale, fumi- 

fume, n.: smoke, exhalation, 
smell, fret, fit. 

fumy: smoky, vaporous. 
functionary: officer. 
fundament: buttocks. 
fundamental, n.: basis, ele- 

fundus: base. 
funicle: cord, stalk. 
funk, n.: fear. 
funk, V. t.: evade. 
funk, V. i.: shrink. 
furbish: polish, renovate, renew. 
furcate, a.: forked. 

furfuraceous: scurfy. 

furiosity: anger, frenzy, vio- 

furious: angry, violent, frantic, 

furor: frenzy, fad. 

further, a.: farther, additional. 

further, v. t.: aid, advance. 

furtherance: aid. 

furthermore: besides. 

furtive: thievish, secret, sneak- 
ing, stealthy. 

tS^ See Notes of Explanation. 



lury, n. 1. See frenzy, anger, fit, vio- 

2. Dirse {Latin; pi.), Erinnyes {Greek; 
pi.), Eumenides {Greek, euphemistic; pi.); 
spec. Tisiphone, Megsera, Alecto. 


furze, n. gorze, whin. 

fusible, a. meltable {rare), fluxible {ar- 
chaic), fusile {rare). 
Antonyms: see refractory. 

fuss, n. disturbance, ado {chiefly literary), 
to-do {colloq.), pucker {colloq.), fidge {col- 
loq.); spec, commotion, tumult, stir, 
pother, boggle, fizz {colloq.), bustle, flus- 
ter, fiddle-faddle, fidfad {rare), fret, worry. 

fuss, V. i. pucker {colloq.; rare), fike {Scot.), 
fidge {colloq.); spec, potter, boggle, fizz 
{colloq.), bustle, fret, worry. 

future, a. coming, forward {commercial) ; 
spec, prospective. 
Antonyms: see past. 

future, n. futurity {dignified), futuri- 
tion {philos.), by-and-by {chiefly poetic in 
suggestion), to-come (rare), yet {used with 
"the"; rare), to-be {rare); spec, tomorrow 
{often fig.), ulterior, hereafter. 
Antonyms: see past, present. 

gadfly, n. fly {contextual), breeze, gadbee 
{dial, or literary), clog {Scot. & dial. Eng.). 

gaflf, V. t. Spec, spear, hook, gambeer. 

gain, n. 1. See acquisition, benefit, 

2. addition {contextual), accretion {con- 
textual); spec, advantage, graft, plunder, 
booty, clean-up {U. SS), winning, emolu- 
ment, gettings {pi.; archaic), superlu- 
cration (rare). 
Antonyms: see loss. 

gain, V. t. 1. get, acquire, reap (fig.), ob- 
tain; spec, procure, earn, gather, superlu- 
crate {rare), net, clear, profit. 
Antonyms: see forfeit. 
2. See INCUR, win, reach. 

gait, n. 1. step; spec, slouch, swing, clip 
{colloq.), amble, hobble, canter, dog trot, 
gallop, jog, jog trot, rack, pace, single- 
foot {U. S.), lope, trot, run, walk, sham- 

ble, saunter, stalk, stride, hobble, swing, 

roll, volley, piaffer. 

2. See carriage. 
gaiter, n. legging {contextual), contina- 

tions {pi.; slang); spec, squatterdash, 

spats {pi.), gambado. 
gallant, n. Spec, blade, escort, cicisbeo (a 

gallant of a married woman), 
gallery, n. 1. Spec, corridor, loft, balcony, 

veranda, portico, cantarina, traverse, 

triforium, loggia, dedans {French), drift. 

2. Referring to part of an audience: spec. 

gods {pi.; cant or slang). 
gallop, V. t. & i. Spec, canter, run. 
gallop, n. gait {contextual); spec, tantivy, 

gallows, n. bough (archaic), tree (archaic), 

gibbet (obs.). 

gallows, a. patibulary (rare). 
gallowsbird, n. criminal (contextual), 

hempstring, hempseed (nonce; Shake- 
speare). "Gallowsbird" is colloq. 
gamble, v. i. 1. play (contextual), game, 

gaff (Eng. slang or colonial); spec, dice, 

throw, punt, plunge. 

2. See WAGER. 
gamble, v. t. risk {contextual), wager. 
gamble, n. chance; spec, wager, risk, 

plunge, pyramid. 
gambler, n. 1. player (contextuxil) , sport 

(cant); spec, gamester, gamestress (fern.), 

dicer, hazarder, plunger, punter. 

2. wagerer (cf. wager). 
game, n. quarry. 
game, 7i. 1. See sport. 

2. diversion (contextual); spec, contest, 
agonistics, bowls, ball, quoits, backgam- 
mon, cards, checkers, dominoes, check- 
stones, chess, cricket, croquet, dibs, fan- 
tan, faro, football, hazard, the graces, 
hockey, hopscotch, jackstraws, jack- 
stones, John Bull, kino (U. S.), Krieg- 
spiel, lacrosse, lansquenet, lanterloo (obs.), 
leapfrog, letters, loggats, lotto, mall, ping- 
pong, racing, reversi, tiddly-winks, etc. 

3. See ridicule, plan. 

4. Referring to a single contest: spec, pan- 
cratium, Olympic, Marathon. 

5. hunt, chase, gibier (French). 
Antonyms: see hunter. 

tS^ Cross references: see Note. 
fuse, V. t.: liquefy, smelt, unite. 
fusiform: spindle-shaped. 
fusillade: discharge. 
fusion: liquefaction, union. 
fuss, V. t.: disturb, confuse. 
fustian, n.: bombast. 
fustian, a.: bombastic. 
fusty: moldy, close, old-fash- 
futile: ineffectual, trivial, 
tutuiity: future, event. 
fuzz: fluff. 
fuzzy: curly, fluffy. 
fylfot: swastika. 

gab: talk. 

gabble: babble, chatter, cackle. 
gad: wander. 
gag, V. t.: choke. 
gag, V. i.: retch. 

gag, n.: deception, interpolation. 
gage: pledge, surety. \vance. 

gain, V. i.: benefit, graft, ad- 
gainful: advantageous, profit- 
able, beneficial. 
gainsay: contradict. 
gait, V. t.: adjust. 
galaxy: assembly. 
gale: wind, fit. 

gall, n.: annoyance, impudence. 
gall, V. t.: fret, vex. 
gallant, a.: showy, brave, polite. 
gallant, v. t : court, escort. 
gallant, v. i.: flirt. 
gallantness: bravery, amour. 
gallantry: bravery, show, polite- 
galled: vexed. 
gaily: bitter. 
galore: abundantly. 
gambado: caper. 
game, a.: disabled. 
game, v. i.: gamble. 
game, a.: brave, constant. 

XW See Notes of Explanation. 



gamekeeper, n. ranger (archaic); spec. 

vonerer {rare). 
gang, 11. 1. company, crew. 


gangrene, n. death {cotitextual), necrobio- 
sis (tech.), mortification, necrosis (tech.). 

gangrene, v. i. die, mortify, necrose 

gangrenous, a. dead, mortified, necrose 
(tech.), cankerous (rare). 

gap, H. 1. See breach. 
2. opening (contextual), break, vacancy, 
gape (rare), space; spec, lacuna, jump, 
hiatus, chasm, pass, ravine, rictus, yawn. 

gape, i\ i. open (contextual), hiate (rare), 
gaup or gawp (dial.), inhiate (rare); spec. 
yawn, dehisce. 

gaping, a. agape, hiant (chiefly hist.); 
spec, yawning, ringent, patulous, patulent 
(rare), dehiscent, loculicidal. 

garden, n. Spec, potagerie (French), her- 
bary, nursery, Lyceum. 

gardener, n. mallee (Anglo-Indian); spec. 
horiculturist, florist. 

gardening, a. hortulan (rare), hortensial 
(rare), hortensian (rare); spec, topiary. 

gardening, n. horticulture; spec, floricul- 
ture, olericulture, viniculture. 

gargle, v. t. rinse (contextual), wash, gar- 
garize (rare). 

gargle, n. wash (contextvxil) , gargarism 
(med.; rare), collutory (tech.). 

garment, n. I. confection (a Gallicism), 
rag (derogatory), cloth (obs.), vestment 
(rhetorical or spec), wearable (colloq.); 
spec, shroud (poetic or archaic), abolla, 
slops (pi.), blouse, cape, cardigan, coat, 
coat-hardy (obs.; hist.), corselet, cowl, cy- 
mar (poetic or fictional), dalmatic, doub- 
let, ephod, flannels (pi.), frock, fur, gar- 
berdine, gambeson (obs.; hist.), grego, 
gown, haqueton, jersey, jerkin, jumper, 
jupe (Scot.), kaross, kimono, kirtle, kilt, 
knickerbockers (pi.), hnens (pi.), linge- 
rie (collective sing.), mackintosh, mandil- 
ion, maniple, manta, mantelet, mantlet, 
mantua, mohair, nightingale, overall, 
peUsse, shirt, singlet, slip, trousers (pi.), 
vest, waist, waistcoat, weed, teddy bear 
(cant or slang) , envelope, combination, etc. 
2. In pi.: see clothing. 

garret, n. attic, soler (obs. or rare), sky 
parlor (colloq. or humorous). 

garrison, n. post (U. S.). 

gas, n. 1. fluid (contextual); spec, choke 

damp, flatus, mafette, argon, o.xj'gen, 
hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, etc. 

2. See BOMBAST. 

gaseous, a. fluid (contextual), gassy, gasi- 
form, airy (now rare or spec); spec, aeri- 

gash, V. t. & n. cut (contextual), crimp (chief- 
ly spec), scratch, score, slash, scotch. 

gasoline, n. petrol (British), gas (cant or 

gasp, V. i. breathe (contextual), catch; spec. 
chink, pant, labor, choke (contextual). 

gastronomic, a. esurient (an incorrect use; 
properly ^'pertaining to love of eating or 

gate, n. 1. opening (contextual) , passageway 
(contextual), portal (elevated term), gate- 
way, port (now chiefly Scot.), pylon 
(archceol.), arch, toran, porte-cochere 
(French), floodgate, sluice, turnpike, 
wicket, lich-gate. 

2. door (contextual), shuttle, portcullis, 
wicket, lattice, hatch. 

gatekeeper, n. porter (the more formal 

gather, v. t. 1. assemble, collect, group; 
spec lump, mass, huddle, herd, rake (vrith 
"up"), crowd, congregate, rally, aggre- 
gate, flocculate (rare), forgather, ingather, 
cluster, drum, whip, cull, glean, shock, 
clump, stack, bunch, convene, mobihze. 
Antonyms: see scatter, separate, dis- 

2. In serving, etc.: spec, shirr, pucker, full. 

3. See accumulate, win, infer, gain. 
gather, v. i. 1. assemble, collect, group, 

congregate, forgather, aggregate; spec. 
bunch, convene, huddle. 
Antonyms: see disperse, scatter, 
2. See INCREASE, suppurate. 

gather, n. gathering; spec, shirr, pucker. 

gathering, n. 1. The act or action: assem- 
bly, assemblage, collection, forgathering, 
grouping; spec, congregation, convention, 
aggregation, mobihzation, clustering, etc. 

2. Those gathered, considered collectively: 
assemblage, body, collection, group; spec. 
crowd, throng, bunch, drum, convention, 
congregation, aggregation, rally, herd, 
flock, cluster; see assembly, convention. 

3. See accumulation. 

gaudy, a. showy; spec, tawdry, tinsel, gar- 
ish, flashy, gimcrack, brummagem, cheap. 
Antonyms: see simple, modest. 

(^ Cross references: see Note. 
gamesome: frolicsome, merry. 
gamester: gambler. 
gamut: scale, compass. 
gamy: brave, constant, ill-smell- 
gang: set, association. 
gaol: prison; — var. of jail. 
gap: breach. 

garb, u..' costnme, clothing. 
garb, V. t.: clothe. 
garble: deface, pervert. 
garish: showy, bright. 
garland: wreath. 
garment: clothe. 
garner, n.: granary. 
garner, v. t.: accumulate, store. 
garnisb, n.: ornament. 

garnishment: ornamentation. 
garret: attic. 
garrison, v. t.: man. 
garrote: strangle. 
garrulous: talkative. 
gascon, a.: boasting. 
gascon, n.: boaster. 
gauche, a.: awkward. 
gaud: gewgaw. 

fW See Notes of Explanation. 



gauge, V. t. t. measure, 
2. adjust. 

gauge, n. 1. See measure, extent. 
2. Spec, templet, fence, manometer. 

gawk, n. simpleton (contextual), clown, 
gawky, booby, jay {colloq. or slang); spec. 
calf {colloq.), sight {colloq.). 

gay, a. 1. lively, vivacious, airy, gaysome 
{rare), merry, jolly, jovial {more bookish 
than "jolly"), mirthful, galliard {archaic); 
spec, wild, riotous, festive, mad, hilarious, 
gleeful, jaunty, sportive, sprightly, con- 
vivial, frolicsome, gamesome, merry- 
making, frivolous, jubilant. 
Antonyms: see sad, sullen. 

2. See BRIGHT. 

gayety, n. 1. Uveliness, vivacity, vivacious- 
ness, airiness, joyance, merriness, merri- 
ment, mirth, mirthfulness, galliardise (ar- 
chaic); spec, hilarity, hilariousness, jaun- 
tiness, sportiveness, merrymaking, frivol- 
ity, jubilance. 
Antonyms: see ennui. 


gaze, V. i. look (contextual); spec, muse, 
(literary), pore, stare, ogle, gape, glower, 
gloat, glare, leer. 

gelatinous, a. colloid (tech.), tremeUose 
(tech.); spec, gelatiniform. 

gelding, n. neuter (rare); spec, ridgeling, 

gem, n. jewel, stone; spec, solitaire, scarab, 
hyacinth, diamond, ruby, 3ardine, sap- 
phire, tiger's-eye, moonstone, bloodstone, 
opal, amethyst, topaz, turquoise, pearl, 
emerald, garnet, carbuncle, etc. 

gemlike, a. gemmy, gemmeous (rare). 

genealogy, n. history (contextual), genera- 
tion (rare); spec, pedigree, tree. 

general, a. I. universal (more emphatic 

than "general"), catholic (chiefly eccl.); 

spec, cosmic, oecumenical, heavenwide, 

nationwide, statewide. 

Antonyms: see particular, minute, 

NARROW, individual, LOCAL. 

2. In a less inclusive sense: widespread, 
wide, broad (less emphatic than "wide"); 
spec, generic, main, impersonal, popular, 
current, indefinite, bird's-eye. 
Antonyms: see circumstantial, par- 

generalize, V. t. broaden, universalize, 

generate, v. t. 1. beget (chiefly spec), 
breed (chiefly spec), create (contextual), 
reproduce (biol.), produce (young), pro- 
create, conceive (in the womb), engender. 

propagate; spec, spawn (contemptuous), 
bear, pullulate, inbreed. 
Antonyms: see kill. 
2. See cause. 

generate, v. i. breed, reproduce, grow, pro- 
duce, conceive, propagate (chiefly tech.); 
spec, hatch, segment, increase, proliferate, 
teem, multiply, inbreed. 
Antonyms: see die. 

generation, n. 1. begetting, breeding, pro- 
duction, genesis (rare), reproduction, pro- 
creation, propagation (^chiefly tech.); spec. 
increase, prohferation, isogamy, theogony, 
ontogeny, histogenesis, heterogenesis. 
2. Referring to those living during a ceC' 
tain period: age, descent. 

generative, a. 1. reproductive, progenitive, 
creative, genial (rare), genital (chiefly 
spec); spec proligerous (rare), proliferous, 
conceptive, germinative, gametal. 
2. See productive, causative. 

generosity, n. 1. greatness, large-heart- 

edness, magnanimity (formal), nobiUty, 

magnanimousness ; spec, loftiness, courage. 

Antonyms: meanness (see mean); see 


2. generousness, free-heartedness, liberal- 
ity, handsomeness (rare), bounty, frank- 
ness (obsolesc), freedom (rare); spec. 
benevolence, royalty, munificence, prodi- 
gality, lavishness. 

Antonyms: stinginess (see stingy). 

3. See abundance. 

generous, a. 1. great (contextual), mag- 
nanimous (formal), ingenuous, large- 
hearted, great-hearted, noble; spec, lofty, 
courageous, chivalrous, beneficent. 
Antonyms: see mean. 

2. Referring to the opposite of "stingy": 
free-hearted, open-hearted, open-handed, 
open (colloq.), free, Hberal, free-handed, 
frank (obsolescent), handsome, large (ar- 
chaic) , bounteous, bountiful ; spec munifi- 
cent, lavish, prodigal, benevolent, stintless. 

Antonyms: see stingy, greedy, paltry, 


genius, n. l.'demon (contextual), spirit (con- 
textual); spec python (New Testament), 
jinni, jinn (pi.; improperly used as sing.). 

2. angel (chiefly with "good" or "bad"), 
spirit (chiefly with "a good" or "a bad"). 

3. See capacity, spirit. 
gentile, n. 1. See heathen. 

2. non-Jew, uncircumscision (with "the"). 
gentle, a. 1. well-born, generous (archaic), 

t^^ Cross references: see Note. 
gauge,,v. t.: measure, adjust. 
gaunt: thin, repellent. 
gauzy: filmy. 
gawky: awkward. 
gazingstock: spectacle. 

gear, n.: dress, clothing, equip- 
ment, apparatus, cogwheel, 


gelid: cold. 
geminate: double. 
generic: general. 

genie: demon. 

genre: style. 

genteel: polite, noble, elegant, 

gentile, a.: heathen, racial. 
gentle, v. t.: handle. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 


2. 5«T TAME. 

S. mild {a weaker word than "gentle"), 
light, soft, moderate ; sper. benign, silken, 
soothing, kind, lenient, low, complaisant, 
amiable, etc. 
Antonyms: sfc rough, severe, sharp, 


4. Referring to a slope, climb, etc.: mod- 
crate, gradual, slight, easy. 

Antonyms: see precipitous. 
gentleman, n. 1. gent {ridgar), aristocrat, 
caballero (Spanish), duniwassal (chiefly 
spec.; Scot.); spec, esquire (Eng.), hidalgo 
(SiKinish), cavalier. 

Antonyms: see boor. 
2. See MAN. 
gentleness, n. 1. mildness, lightness, soft- 
ness, moderateness, moderation; spec. 
easiness, benignity, faintness, soothing- 
ness, kindness, lenience, complaisance, 
amenity, douceur (French), mil kin ess 

Antonyms: see violence, sharpness, 


2. Referring to a slope, climb, etc.: moder- 
ateness, gradualness, slightness, easiness. 
genuine, a. 1. true, right, real, veritable, 
proper (rare), indeed (predicative); spec. 
Simon Pure, honest, true-blue; see au- 
Antonyms: see artificial. 


germ, TO. 1. germen (now only fig.), embryo, 
seed (now chiefly spec), seminium (rare), 
seminary (rare). 

2. See ELEMENT. 

3. microorganism, seed (spec, or fig.); 
spec, microbe, bacterium. 

germicide, a. Spec, antiseptic, bacteri- 

germinate, v. i. grow (contextual), germ 
(now fig.), burgeon, germin (archaic), ger- 
minate (rare), generate; spec, sprout, 
shoot, pullulate (rare), blade, bud, vege- 
tate, catch, set. 
Antonyms: see die. 

germinate, v. t. cause (contextual), germ 
(rare); spec, sprout. 

gestural, a. gesticulative, gesticular, ges- 
ticulatory, pantomimic (chiefly spec), 
pantomimical (rare). 

gesture, n. 1. motion (contextual), gest 
(archaic); spec, gesticulation, beck, sign, 
fig. wave, puff, signal. 
2. In a generic sense: gesticulation, chir- 

onomy (rare), dumb show, pantomime 
(chiefly spec). 

gesture, v. %. motion, gesticulate,panto- 
miine (rare), sign; spec, wave, ramp, 
beckon, signal. 

gesturing, a. gcsticulant (rare). 

get, V. t. 1. obtain, procure, raise, gain, se- 
cure, have, acquire; spec achieve, take, 
win, glean, borrow, sponge, impetrate, 
find, draw, elicit, wheedle, coax, derive, 
learn, attain, forage, mine, snatch, hire, 
catch, capture, etc 

Antonyms: see miss. 
2. See NONPLUS, induce, take (one- 
self), BEGET. 

gettable, a. obtainable, come-at-able {colr 
loq.), havable (rare). 
Antonyms: see inaccessible. 

getting, n. obtainment, obtainal (rare), 
obtcntion (rare), procurement, secure- 
ment (rare), procuration; spec, impetra- 
tion, acquirement, elicitation, derivation, 
etc.; see acquisition. 

gewgaw, n. trifle, trinket, toy (obs., exc. 
spec); spec, kickshaw, knickknack, gim- 
crack, fizgig, gaud (literary), bauble, 
falderal or folderol, fallal, flapdoodle (con- 
temptuous; colloq.), flamfew {rare). 

ghastly, a. 1. See fearful. 
2. pale, deathly, corpselike, ghast (ar- 
chaic or poetic); spec, cadaverous, lurid. 

ghost, n. 1. See soul, demon, appearance. 
2. apparition, larva (obs. or hist.), larve 
(hist.), spirit, specter, phantom, phantasm 
(poetic or rhetorical), phantasme (rare), 
revenant (rather learned or cant), shadow 
(rare), shade (chiefly spec), sprite or (ar- 
chaic) spright (rare), spook (colloq.). 
Antonyms: see body. 

ghostly, a. 1. See spiritual. 
2. ghostlike, spectral, spookish (colloq.), 
phantasmal, phantom, shadowy, ghosty 
(jocular), spooky (colloq.). 
Antbnyms: see bodily. 

giant, 71. 1. Referring to giants of litera- 
ture: spec. Goliath, Colossus, Brobding- 
nagian or (incorrectly) Brobdignagian, 
Hercules, ogre, Antaeus, Briaeus, Briareus, 
Polyphemus, Cyclops, Titan, Titaness, 
Norn, jinni. 

Antonyms: see dw^\rf. 
2. Referring to any very large person: spec. 
giantess, colossus, jumbo (colloq.), Goliath 
(fig.), polyheme (rar»^. 
Antonyms: see dwarf. 

gibbet, ti. gallows, patible (rare); spec. 
cross, rood (archaic). 

IW Cross references: see Note. 
gentoo: heathen, Hindu. 
genuine: authentic. 
geetate: develop. 
gestation: pregnancy. 
gesticulate: gesture. 

get, V. i.: become. 

get, n.: offspring, begetting. 

get-up: form. 

geyser: spring. 

ghoul: demon. 

gib: disembowel. 

gibber: chatter. 

gibbose: convex. 

gibbous: convex, humpbacked, 

gibe: jeer. 
giddy: dizzy, frivolous. 

\CW See Notes of Explanation. 



gift, n. 1. See giving. 

2. present, liberality {rare), donation 
{chiefly spec.); spec, bonus, premium, 
prize, dole, contribution, mite, favor, tes- 
timonial, gratification, offering, boon, ob- 
lation, gratuity, bounty, propine {ar- 
chaic or Scot.), largess, fairing, benevo- 
lence, cadeau (French), donary (rare), 
grant, douceur (French), tip, benefaction, 
cumshaw (Chinese ports), baksheesh, con- 
cession, honorarium, merced (Spanish), 
dash or dashee (African coast), pittance, 
alms, charity, pilon (southwestern U. S.), 
pilonce (Texas), pilon villo (Texas), lag- 
niappe (New Orleans), donative, legacy, 
bequest, devise, benefit, enam (India), 
batta (Anglo-Indian), bribe, handsel, fa- 
vor, mortuary, khilat or khelat (East 
India), feu, ormolu, congiary (Roman 
hist.), nuzzer (Anglo-Indian) . 

Antonyms: see demand. 


gig, n. chaise; spec, whisky, tilbury. 

gigantic, a. 1. immense, colossal, elephan- 
tine. Titanic (spec, or fig.), Herculean 
(spec, or fig.), Cyclopean (spec, or fig.), 
Brobdingnagian or (incorrectly) Brobdig- 
nagian (spec, or fix), and ironical). 
Antonyms: see dwarf. 

gild, V. t. adorn, deaurate (rare), engild 
(literary; often fig.); spec, begild, overgild. 

gilded, a. aureate (learned or literary), 
inaurate (rare). 

gin, n. liquor (contextual), ribbon (slang; 
cant), satin (slang), eyewater (slang), 
deadly (slang), juniper (slang), jacky or 
jackey (slang); spec, schiedam, Hollands, 

gird, V. t. I. encircle (contextual); spec, girt, 
bind, belt, surcingle. 


girdle, n. band (contextual), girth, cin- 
gle (literary; chiefiy spec); spec, brail, 
cincture (bookish), belt, cingulum (tech.), 
truss, sash, cummerbund (Anglo-Indian), 
scarf, cestus (Roman antiq.), zone (liter- 
ary or Greek antiq.), zoster (Greek antiq.). 

girdle, v. t. bind (contextual), encircle 
(contextual), girth, engird (literary), en- 
girdle (literary), circuit (contextual). 
2. Referring to a tree: ring, ringbark. 

girdled, a. precinct (rare); spec, succinct. 

girl, n. 1. child (contextual), maid (archaic 
or playful), lass (chiefly dial.), lassie (chief- 
ly Scot.), maiden (elevated), damsel. 

damoiselle (French), colleen (Anglo- 
Irish), wench (archaic or derogatory), 
girly (colloq.), tot (obs. or rare); spec. 
girleen (Anglo-Irish), giglet, dell (archaic 
cant), flapper (slang), lassock (Scot.), 
missy, min.x, hussy, baggage, cummer 
(Scot.), gill (rare, exc. in "Jack and Gill"), 
whelp (contemptuous), cub. 

girlhood, 7i. lassiehood (chiefly Scot.), 
maidenhood, girlishness (rare), maidhood 
(rare) . 

girlish, a. childish, maidenish, girly (colloq.), 
maidenly (commendatory). 

girth, n. 1. band (contextual), girdle, belly- 
band (sometimes spec); spec, roller, cinch, 


gist, n. 1. reason, ground, basis; — referring 
to a legal action. 
2. See ESSENCE. 

givable, a. dative (law), grantable, con- 
ferable, bestowable, etc. 

give, V. t. I. present, confer, bequeath (ar- 
chaic or spec), grant; spec, donate (chiefly 
U. S.), contribute, dole, lend, heap (with 
"upon"), distribute, begrudge, club, of- 
fer, produce, emit, utter, entail, devise, 
entrust, etc. 
Antonyms: see beg, demand, 
2. In various secondary senses: see af- 
ford, COMMUNICATE, REQUITE (give in re- 

give-and-take, n. giff-gaff (Scot, and dial. 

giver, n. presenter, donor (tech., spec, or 
formal), donator (rare), conferrer, grant- 
er; spec contributor. 

giving, n. 1. gift (chiefly of a single act), 
presentation, conferment, present (rare), 
conferral, largition (rare), bestowal, be- 
stowment, grant (chiefly spec, or formal), 
donation (chiefly spec); spec, disposal, 
disposition, dation, conveyance, dealing, 
colportage, collation. 


glad, a. happy, content, joyful; spec, blithe, 
festal, blessed, blithesome, beatific, bliss- 
ful; see ECSTATIC. 

gladden, v. t. please (contextual), happify 
(noti) rare), happy (obs.), content, con- 
tented, rejoice; spec, gratify, beatify, 
blithen, exhilarate, transport; see cheer. 
Antonyms: see sadden, grieve, depress. 

i^r Cross references: see Note. 

gifted: able. 

giggle: laugh. 

gilding: gold. 

gilt: gold. 

gimcrack: gewgaw. 

gin: trap. 

ginger: spirit. 

gingerly: careful. 

girt, v.: gird. 

girt, n.: circumference, dimen- 

given: addicted, assumed. 
gizzard: stomach. 
glabrous: smooth. 
glace: smooth, iced. 
glacial: crystal. 
glacis: bank, slope. 

fS" See Notes of Explanation. 



glade, /). opoiiiiig, hiiiiui (archaic), lawn 

gladiator, a. Spec, rctiarius, swordsman, 
aiuhihato, socutor. 

gladness, /;. pleasure {contextual), felicity, 
happiness, content, rejoicement (rare), re- 
joicing; spec, joy, joyance (literary), bliss, 
blitheness, transport, etc.; see ecstasy. 

glance, r. i. 1. strike (contextual), slant, 
plint (chiefly Eng.); spec, skip, ricochet, 
glide, skim. 

2. Sec FLASH. 

3. look (contextual); spec, flash, run, 
glimpse, bhnk, peep, peek. 

glance, n. 1. stroke (contextual), glint 
(chiefly Eng.); spec, glide, skip, skim, 
ricochet, graze. 


3. look (contextual); spec, flash, blink, 
glimpse, cast, blush (only in "at first 
blush"), ray, beam, coup-d'oeil (French), 
peep, ogle, peek. 

gland, 71. kernel (rare or dial.); spec, glan- 
dule, prostrate, sweetbread, thymus, pan- 
creas, liver, parotid. 

glass, n. I. Spec, glazing (collective), ob- 
sidian, crystal, Pele's hair, chark (Rus- 
sian), haematinon, smalt, etc. 
2. Referring to a thing made of glass: spec. 
bumper, tumbler, goblet, lens, mirror, 
sUde, goggles (pi.), blinkers (pi.; colloq.), 
telescope, microscope, eyeglass, specta- 
cles (pi.), binocle, binocular, hourglass, 
chromatic, etc. 

glasshouse, n. Spec, hothouse, green- 
house, coolhouse, conservatory, serre 
(French), stove. 

glassy, a. vitreous (more tech. than 
"glassy"), \atric (chiefly as opposed to 
"ceramic"), hyaline (chiefly tech. and 
spec), hyaloid (rare, exc. anat.); spec. 
hyalescent, subvitreous. 

glaze, n. 1. coat (contextual), coating (con- 
textual); spec, glost, varnish, enamel. 
"Glaze" is often in the U. S. specifically 
iised of thin ice or the surface of ice. 
2. See LUSTER. 

glide, V. i. Spec, lapse (chiefly fig.), glis- 
sade, fleet, illapse (rare), sUde, shp, sail, 
fly, float, flow, coast, skate, swim, skim. 
Antonyms: see bustle, jerk. 

gliding, a. Spec, lapsing, slipping, slid- 
ing, preterlabent, flowing, etc. 

globular, a. globose, globate; spec, pilular, 

globule, n. sphere, spherule, globelet 
(rare); spec, drop, bulb, bead, pill, pellet, 
button, bullet. 

gloom, n. 1. gloominess, shade, shadow, 
obscurity; see dark, darkness. 


gloomy, a. 1. dreary, drear (chiefly liter- 
ary), cheerless, doleful; spec, bleak, fune- 
real, desolate, morbid. 
Antonyms: see cheerful, cheering, 



glory, n. 1. See faaie, dignity, honor, 


2. Spec, gloriole (rare), aureole, halo, 
nimbus, vesica. 

gloss, n. 1. See luster. 
2. Spec, (in figurative or transferred 
senses) veneer, whitewash (colloq.), color, 
varnish, veil, smooth. 

glove, 71. Spec, gauntlet, muffler or muflBe, 
mousquetaire, mitt, mitten. 

glow, V. i. 1. radiate (contextual), incan- 
desce (tech.); spec. burn. 

2. Referring to colors: spec, blaze, fire, 
bloom, blush, flush. 

3. Referring to bodily feeling: spec, burn, 
swelter, sizzle (colloq.) , toast, roast (colloq. ) , 
cook (colloq.), bake (colloq.), boil (colloq.). 

4. Referring to the emotions: spec, burn, 
fire, inflame (rare), consume. 

glow, n. I. luminosity, incandescence 
(tech.); spec, burning. 

2. Referring to colors: warmth, flush; spec. 
blaze, brilliance, bloom, redness, flush. 

3. See ARDOR. 

4. Referring to bodily feeling: warmth; 
spec, heat, swelter, toast (colloq.), roast 
(colloq.), sizzle (colloq.). 

glowing, a. 1. bright (contextual), lumi- 
nous, candent (tech. or learned), excan- 
descent (rare), incandescent; spec, burn- 

2. Referring to colors: bright (contextual), 
warm; spec, blazing, rutilant (rare), 
blushing, blooming, red. 

t^" Cross references: see Note. 

glair, n.: white, shine. 

glair, a.: smooth. 

glamour: magic, attraction, he- 
witchery bewitchment, captiva- 

glare, v. i.: shine, gaze. 

glare, n.; brightnes/t, show. 

glaring, a.: fierce, bright, showy, 

glaucous: greenish. 

glaze, t. t.: polish. 

gleam, n.: light, flash, appear- 

gleam, v. i.: shine, flash. 

glean: harvest, get. 

glebe: earth, field. 

gleeful: pleased, gay. 

glen: valley. 

glib: fluent, smooth. 

glimmer: flash, flicker. 

glimpse, n.: flash, appearance, 

vieu\ glance, sight. 
glimpse, V. i.: flash, glance. 
glimpse, r. t.: see. 
glint, 71.: flash, luster, glance. 
glint, V. i.: flash, glance. 
glisten, n.: flash. 

glisten,, V. i.: flash, shine. 

glitter: flash. 

glittering: lustrous, shining 

gloat: exult, rejoice, gaze. 
globe: ball, earth. 
gloom, r. i.: frown, darken. 
glorious: /amous, fine. 
glory: exult. 
gloss, 71.: annotation. 
gloss, V. t.: annotate. 
gloss, I', t.: polish, gloze. 
glossary: dictionary. 
glossy: lustrous, smooth. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



Antonyms: see dull. 

3. See ARDENT. 

gloze, V. t. 1. See annotate. 
2. In figurative or transferred senses: spec. 
gloss, veneer, varnish, veil, color, smooth, 
whitewash (colloq.). 

glutton, n. sensualist (contextual), gor- 
mandizer {more emphatic than "glutton"), 
gourmand {obs.), hog {scornfully con- 
temptuous), gorger {rare), pig {contempt- 
uous; often playful), surfeiter, gorger, 
cormorant (fig.), belly god {archaic), gas- 
trophile {rare), crammer {colloq.), stuffer 
(colloq.), gastrophilist (rare), gastrophiUte 
(rare), ravener (literary), guttler (rare), 
helluo (literary), poke-pudding (Scot.; 
Antonyms: see ascetic. 

gluttonous, a. 1. gourmand, greedy, rav- 
enous (intensive), piggish (contemptu- 
ous; often playful), hoggish (scornfully 
contemptuous), gormandizing. 
Antonyms: see abstemious, ascetic. 

gluttony, n. I. gormandizing (of the act), 
gulosity (rare), bellycheer (archaic), hog- 
gishness (contemptuous), piggishness (con- 
temptuous); spec, gastrophilism (rare). 
2. See DESIRE. 

gnawing, a. 1. rodent (rare, exc. tech.) 
2. See CORROSIVE, distressing. 

go, V. i. 1. move (contextual), gang (chiefly 
literary; Scot.); spec, repair, proceed, pass 
(chiefly used with "on." "along," "down," 
"through," etc.), draw (with "on," "along," 
"through," "back," etc.), rampage, hie 
(archaic or poetic), stalk, take (used with 
"to"), labor, jaunt, run, rip (colloq.), fore- 
reach (chiefly naut.), range, carry, round, 
idle, jog, egress (rare), extra vagate (rare), 
lollop (colloq.), mill, bolt, pat, fare (ar- 
chaic or poetic), determine, gallivant, 
step, happen, hap (rare or archaic), 
strike, march, bundle (chiefly iised with 
"off"), clump, force, advance, retreat, re- 
sort, depart, flow, speed, return, revert, 
exceed, transgress, dip, boat, ride, falter, 
glide, crawl, ferry, ply, travel, glance, 
walk (see gait, n.), amble, canter, pace, 
gallop, lope, rack, trot, hasten, hop, leap, 
sail, steam, float, fly, swarm (in a multi- 
tude), tiptoe, tumble, etc. 
2. In flgurative or transferred senses: see 



goal, n. 1. Spec, mark, bye, post, port, 
home, bourne (chiefly literary), bourn, 
hail (Scot.), meta (Roman antiq.). 


go-as-you-please, n. 1. laisser-aller 
2. See RACE. 

goat, n. Spec, buck, billy-goat (colloq.), 
nanny (colloq.), nanny-goat (colloq.), kid, 
goatling, angora, jaal-goat, ibex, pasan, 
pasang, markhor. 

goatlike, a. caprine (tech. or literary), goat- 
ish, goatly (nonce word), hircine (chiefly 
spec), hircinous (rare), goaty (chiefly 
spec); spec, capriform. 

go-between, n. agent (contextual); spec. 
broker. Mercury (fig.), dealer, middle- 
man, pander. 
Antonyms: see principal. 

goblin, n. demon (contextual), sprite or 
(archaic) spright (contextual), bogy, bogle, 
boggle, bogey; spec, kobold, nix, brownie, 

god, n. 1. See deity. 
2. [cap.] Rpferring to the Christian god: 
Deity (with "the"), King-of-Kings (with 
Antonyms: see devil. 

godparent, n. sponsor, gossip (obs.); spec. 
godfather, godmother. 

goer, n. Spec, proceeder, farer, traveler, 
speeder (colloq.), exodist (rare), walker, 
runner, etc. 

goggle-eyed, a. bulging-eyed. 

goglet, n. guglet, serai (India), surahee 
(India), chatty (India), olla (Spanish 
America), monkey pot. 

going, a. 1. Spec, traveling, proceeding, 
bound, outward-bound. 

2. See AFLOAT. 

going, n. 1. See departure. 

2. Spec, proceeding, traveling, travel, 
troop, tour, exit, troll, progress, march, 
walk, run, etc. 

3. Referring to the condition of the ground, 
etc., for going: spec, wheeling (colloq.), rac- 
ing, walking, running, rowing, skating, etc. 

gold, n. 1. aurum (tech.; chem.); spec, dust, 
gilding, gilt, or (her.). 

2. See WEALTH. 

golden, a. I. aureate (literary), Pactolian 
(fig.); spec, auriferous, prime (number; 
archaic) . 

X^ Cross references: see Note. 
gloze, n.: annotation. 
glum: sullen, depressed. 
glut: surfeit, satiate, oversupply, 

glutinous: sticky. 
gnarl: protuberance. 
gnarled: distorted. 
gnash: bile. 

gnaw: bile. 

gnome: demon. 

gnomon: pointer. 

go, !). (..- afford, wager. 

go, n.: energy, turn, success, fad. 

goad, V. t.: prick, incite, urge. 

go-ahead, a.: enterprising. 

go-ahead, n.: energy. 

gobbett: piece. 

gobble, V. t.: swallow. 
gobble, n. & v. i.: cry. 
goddess: deity. 
godhead: divinity. 
godless: atheistic, irreligious. 
godlike: divine. 

godly: divine, religious, right- 
goggle, V. i.: turn. 

t^^ See Notes of Explanation. 



S. yellow, inaurato {rare; cfiiefly zobl.). 

8. ^>rc EXCKLLKNT. 

goldness, n. aureity {literary). 
gone, a. 1. departed; spec. flowTi. 


good, a. buckra {southern U. S.; negro 
dialect); spec, goodly, goodish, satisfac- 
tory, excellent, favorable, admirable, ade- 
quate, beneficial, advantageous, agree- 
able, appropriate, considerable, compe- 
tent, healthy, sound, real, honorable, 
responsible, righteous, becoming, kind, 
hone^st, frank, convivial, religious, well-be- 
haved, etc. "Good" is used as a synonym 
of almost any adjective denoting a quality 
that is approved. 
Antonyms: see bad, faulty. 

good, inter j. bravo. 

good, n. 1. Spec, boon, godsend; spec. 
kalon {Greek), fruit, benefit, advantage, 
blessing, benison {archaic or poetic), bhss, 
beatitude, felicity. 
Antonyms: see evil, disadvantage, ca- 
lamity, PEST. 
2. In pi. : see goods. 

goodby, interj. adieu {archaic, affected, or 

used in pleasantry) , iavewell (now archaic 

or rhetorical; chiefly spec), vale (rare; 

Latin), bye-bye {colloq.), so-long {slang). 

Antonyms: see greeting. 

good-for-nothing, n. ne'er-do-well, scala- 

good-looking, a. Spec, comely, fair {chief- 
ly literary or rhetorical), beautiful, hand- 
some, pretty, prettyish, minion {rare), 
dainty, goodly, seemly {rare or archaic), 
sightly, personable {chiefly literary), bon- 
ny {Scot., exc. as used in Eng. for local or 
lyrical effect), well-favored {archaic), spe- 
cious {archaic), likely {rare), proper {ar- 
chaic), shapely, canny {dial.; not Scot.), 
fine, graceful, elegant, delicate, etc. 
Antonyms: see homely. 

good-lookingness, n. Spec, comeliness, 
handsomeness, beauty, fairness, bonni- 
ness, prettiness, daintiness, goodliness, 
seemliness {archaic), sightliness, person- 
ableness, shapeliness. "Good-lookingness" 
is rare. 

good nature, kindness {contextual); spec. 
amiability, cleverness {U. S., colloq.), 
bonhomie {French), good humor, good 
temper, grace, complaisance, accommo- 

Antonyms: see ill-temper. 

good-natured, a. kind {contextual); spec. 
clever, amiable, good-humored, good- 
tempered, complaisant, accommodating, 
Antonyms: see ill-tempered, acrimo- 
nious, SULLEN. 

goodness, 7i. Spec, satisfactoriness, excel- 
lence, favorableness, admirableness, ade- 
quacy, beneficence, advantageousness, 
agreeableness, appropriateness, sound- 
ness, reality, honorableness, responsibil- 
ity, righteousness, etc. 

goods, n. pi. chattels, commodity {a single 
article), gear (a collective), effects, things, 
movables {law); spec, traps {colloq.), con- 
traband, invoice, consignment; — the last 
three collectives. 

goose, n. 1. honker {U. S. & Can.; colloq. or 
slang); spec, gander, cagmag, goslet 
{U. S.), gosling, wavey, solan, graylag, 
gannet, barnacle, whitehead, brant. 
2. See simpleton. 

gore, V. t. pierce {contextual); spec, tusk, 
horn, stab, hook. 

Gorgon, 7i. Spec. Stheno, Euryale, Me- 

gormandize, v. i. stuff, cram, gorge. 

gospel, 71. news {co7itextual) , evangel, evan- 
gely {archaic); spec. Protevangel, Pro- 

gospel, a. evangelic, evangelical; spec. 

gossip, 71. 1. See godparent. 

2. busybody, gossiper, tattler, talebearer, 
tittle-tattler, quidnunc {literary); spec. 
granny {contemptuous). 

3. conversation, tittle-tattle, small talk, 
talk, by-talk, gup {Anglo-Indian), gossipry 
(rare or archaic), gossipred (rare), gossip- 
ing, tales (pi.); spec, chit-chat, claver, 
report or (rare) reportage. 

gossip, V. i. converse, talk, tattle, tittle- 
tattle, chatter, prattle, clatter; spec, com- 

gourd, 71. cucurbit (tech.), calabash {chief- 
ly spec); spec, pumpkin, squash, cusha, 
crookneck, Hubbard, luffa, melon. 

gouty, a. arthritic (tech.), podagral {prop- 
erly spec). 

governess, n. teacher (contextual), tutor- 
ess, gouvernante (French); spec, duenna. 

government, n. 1. control (contextual), 
gubernation (rare), regency (rare, exc. 
spec), dominion, ordinance (archaic), rul- 

tW Cross references: see Note. 
good, interj.: bravo. 
goodby, n.: farewell. 
goodfellowship: camaraderie. 
good-humored: good-natured. 
goodish: good, considerable. 
goodly: considerable. 
good will: cordiality. 

goody, a.: righteous. 

goody, n.: sweetmeat. 

gore: blood, triangle. 

gorge, n.: throat, stomach, ravine. 

gorge,!', t.: surfeit, devour,crowd. 

gorge, V. i.: gormandize. 

gorged: full. 

gorgeous: bright, shoivy. 

gorger: glutton. 
gorget: collar. 
gormandizer: glutton. 
gory: bloody. 
gorze: furze. 
got-up, a.: affected. 
gourmand: epicure. 
gourmet: epicure. 

JSW^ See Notes of Explanation. 


ership (rare); spec, discipline, self-govern- 
ment, autonomy. 
Antonyms: see anarchy. 

2. Referring to some particular mode or 
system, of organization and governing: spec. 
archology (the science; rare), politics, pol- 
ity (learned or tech.), regimen, economy, 
duarchy or (a bad spelling) dyarchy, diar- 
chy, triarchy, tetrarchy, pentarchy, hept- 
archy, hecatontarchy, timocracy, dynasty, 
gerontocracy, gynsecocracy, gynarchy, gy- 
nocracy (rare), kingship, regency, protec- 
torate, democracy, hierocracy, hierarchy, 
hagiocracy, theonomy, hetaerocracy, stra- 
tocracy (rare), logocracy, mesocracy, 
hamarchy, communalism, dulocracy, im- 
perialism, Csesarism, kingdom, fooloc- 
racy (rare), episcopacy, congregational- 
ism, methodism. 

3. Referring to the governing body: signory 
(chiefly spec); spec, administration, du- 
umvirate, triumvirate. 

4. See STATE. 

5. In grammar: regimen (tech.), rection 
(rare) . 

governmental, a. 1. controlling. 
2. political; spec, dynastic. 

governor, n. 1. See controller. 
2. ruler; spec, regent, viceregent, prefect 
(Roman hist.), president (chiefly hist.), pro- 
veditor (Venetian), reis or rais, satrap, bey, 
dey, emir, killadar, kehaya, monarch, 
mudir, politarch, sirdar, proconsul, podesta 
(Italian), resident, eparch, beglerbeg, bur- 
grave, harmost, toparch, castellan. 

governorship, n. Spec, regency, vicege- 
rency, prefecture, etc. 

gown, n. garment (contextual); spec, dress, 
robe, smock frock, cassock, gaberdine, 
frock, slip, sack (obs.), peignoir, negligee, 
neglige (French), mantua, caftan, night- 
gown, nightdress. 

grace, n. 1. See favor, mercy, virtue, at- 

2. Spec, embellishment, elegance, easi- 
ness, honor. 

3. Referring to saying grace at table: spec. 
petition, blessing, thanks. 

grace, v. t. become, beautify, endow, 

graceful, a. 1. easy, elegant; spec, (of physi- 
cal action.^) gainly (rare), sylphlike, sylph- 
ine, sylphish, lightsome (rare). 

Antonyms: see awkward, clumsy. 
2. See appropriate, happy. 

gracile, a. slender. The use of "slender" as 
implying gracefulness is erroneous; it is not 
connected with the word "grace." 

gracious, a. 1. See acceptable. 

2. kindly (contextual); 6pec. affable, good- 
natured, complaisant, condescending. 

Antonyms: see curt, surly. 

3. Referring to God, Christ, or the Virgin 
Mary: mild (archaic or poetic), benignant, 

gradual, a. 1. gradational, gradatory 

(rare) . 
Antonyms: see abrupt, sudden. 

2. See slow, gentle. 
graduate, n. alumnus (masc), alumna 

(Jem.); spec, postgraduate. 
graduate, v. t. 1. laureate (hist.). 

2. See pass, classify, calibrate. 
graft, n. 1. In horticulture: scion (tech.), 

slip, graff (archaic). 

2. See GAIN. 
graft, V. t. 1. engraft, ingraft, inoculate, 

graff (archaic), imp (archaic); spec, in- 
arch, bud. 

2. get (contextual). 
grail, n. platter, sangrail. 
grain, n. 1. fruit (contextual), coryopsis 

(bot.; tech.), berry (chiefly spec.), seed (a 

popular usage; the "seed" botanically being 

the part inside of the husk or hull); spec. 


2. As a collective sing.: corn (British), ce- 
real (tech.); spec, grist, sharps (pi.), hards 
(pi.), middlings (pi.), cracklins (pi), 
groats (pi.). 

3. As the name of a kind of fruit or the 
plant bearing it: cereal (the more tech. 
term), corn (British); spec, wheat, corn 
(U. S.), maize (learned, tech., or 
British), rye, oats (pi.), spelt, millet, 
dhurra, tsamba, cuscus, lentil, ragi, rag- 
gee. "Grain" and "cereal" in the ordinary 
narrow use refer only to grasses or their 
fruits; in an extended sense they include 
others besides grasses, as "peas," "beans," 

4. particle (contextual), kernel (chiefly 
spec), kern (rare). 

5. See MEASURE, texture, disposition. 

6. Referring to a dye: spec, kermes, cochi- 

7. Referring to a small hard particle: spec. 
granule, granulation, sand, granula (rare), 

grain, v. t. 1. See granulate, dye, 

2. roughen (contextual), granulate; spec. 

grammarian, n. grammatist (chiefly dis- 
paraging), grammaticaster (contemptu- 
ous); spec, chorizontes (pi.; Greek antiq.). 

IC^ Cross references: see Note. 
gown, V. t.: clothe. 
gownsman: civilian. 
grab, V. t.: seize, capture. 
grab, n.: seizure, clutch. 

grace, v. t.: beautify, honor. 
gradate: blend, shade. 
gradation: series, degree, rank. 
grade, n.; degree, class, slope, 
brand, rank, intensity. 

grade, v. t.: graduate, even. 
grade, v. i.: change, shade. 
gradient: slope. 
graf: count. 
grainy: granular. 

t'-ir" See Notes of Explanation. 


granary, H. storehouse {contextual), garner, 
grange (archaic). 

grand, a. chief, tine; spec, grandiose, noble, 
eminent, majestic, cosmic, magniticent, 
magnitic, elevated, dignified, impressive, 
courtly, Miltonic, stately, Michelangel- 
esque, grandisonant [rare), splendid, 
splendent, large, bombastic, imperial, pa- 
latial, superb. 
Anton !/ms: see small, mean, insignifi- 


grandchild, n. oy or oe (Scot.); spec. 
granddaughter, grandson. 

grandeur, n. Spec, dignity, impressiveness, 
glory, magnificence, splendor, majesty, 
noblhty, grandiosity, greatness, pomp. 

grandfather, n. grandparent, belsire (ar- 
chaic), goodsire {Scot, or obs.), grandsire 
{archaic or dial., exc. of animals), grand- 
dad or grandad {childish or in familiar af- 
fection), grandpa or grandpapa {familiar). 

grandmother, n. grandparent, beldam or 
beldame {archaic or literary), grannam 
{obs. or dial.), grandmamma {colloq.), 
granny {familiar, endearing, or contettiptu- 
ous), grandam or grandame {archaic). 

grandness, n. fineness; spec, eminence, 
elevation, dignity, impressiveness, courtli- 
ness, grandeur. 

grant, v. t. 1. Referring to a request, desire, 
etc.: give {contextual) ; spec, allow, indulge, 
gratify, satisfy, fulfill, concede, hear, humor. 
2. See CONCEDE, give, transfer, ac- 

grant, n. 1, Spec, indulgence, gratifica- 
tion, fulfillment, satisfaction, concession. 
2. See CONCESSION, gift, giving, trans- 

grantee, n. recipient {contextual); spec. 
licensee, lessee, releasee, beneficiary, de- 
visee, legatee, concessionnaire {French). 

grantor, n. giver {contextual); spec, ceder 
{rare), lessor, releasor, devisor, legator. 

granular, a. grainy, graniform; spec, gran- 
ose {rare), granulose, saccharoid, saccha- 
Antonyms: see massive. 

granulate, v. t. 1. comminute {learned or 
tech.), corn {chiefly tech.), grain; spec. 
pearl, grate. 
2. See GRAIN. 

granulated, a. Spec, grumous {bot.). 

grape, n. fruit {contextual), berry; spec. 
cutthroat {local, U. S.), raisin {bot.), 
concord, delaware, niagara, etc. 
grapelike, a. botryoid (tech.), grapy. 

graphic, a. 1. delineative (a bookish word); 
spec, drawing, pointing, descriptive, pic- 
torial, etching, picturesque, figural, dia- 


graphite, n. plumbago {tech.), lead (popu- 

grapple, v. t. & i. & n. close (chiefly v. i.), 

clutch; spec, tackle (U . S.), clinch or 
clench (U. S.), lock, embrace. 
Antonyms: see free. 

grasp, V. i. reach (contextual); spec, clutch; 
— all used chiefly with "at" or "after." 

grass, n. Spec, cereal, bent, eddish, hay, 
couch, florin, fog, drawk, drauk, timothy, 
redtop, etc. 

grassland, n. green (rare, exc. spec), sward 
(more literary than "grassland' ); spec. 
grass-spot, lawn, greensward, pasture, 
meadow, mead (chiefly poetic or dial.). 

grassy, a. grasslike, herby; spec, gramine- 
ous, graminaceous, gramineal, gramini- 
form, swardy, benty, conchy, foggy. 

grate, v. t. 1. See abrade. 
2. emit (contextual), utter (contextuM); 
spec, grind (used with "out"), rasp. 

grate, v. i. 1. See rub. 
2. Referring to the noise: spec, jar, grind, 
creak, scroop, rasp, screak, scrunch, 
squeak, crank (rare), stridulate, groan. 

grate, n. frame (contextual); spec, grating, 
screen, basket. 

grating, a. 1. rubbing (cf. rub, v. i.). 
2. scrapy; spec, grinding, rusty, screaky, 
creaky, scrooping, squeaky, raspy. 

grating, n. 1. rubbing (cf. rub, v. i.). 
2. Spec, grind, scroop, screak, creak, 
squeak, scratch, rasp, stridulation. 

grating, n. 1. frame (contextual), grate 
(now unusual), grid (chiefly spec); spec. 
grille or grill, crotch (local Eng.), hurdle, 
portcullis, heck (chiefly Scot.), grizzly. 
2. In optics: gitter. 

grave, n. burial place, hearse (archaic), 
cell (chiefly poetic), chamber (contextual), 
tomb (often spec), sepulcher (more pre- 
tentious than "grave"), sepulture (archaic); 
spec, charnel-house, Davy Jones's locker 
(naut. cant), mausoleum, mastaba (Egypt- 
ology). "Grave" as strictly used applies 
only to an excavated cavity in the ground. 

gravel, n. 1. stone (contextual; a collective), 
stones (contextual; pi.), chesil (Eng.), grit 
(now rare), grail (archaic or poetic); spec. 
shingle (chiefly Eng.), beach (Eng.), al- 
luvium, ballast. 

t^' Cross references: see Note. 
grandee: magnate. 
grandiloquence: bombaxt. 
granny: gossip, grandmother. 
graph: diagram. 
grasp, V. t.: take, hold, under- 

grasping: _ 

grateful: thankful, acceptable. 

gratify: please, gladden, grant. 

gratifying: acceptable, pleasant. 

gratis, adv.: freely. 

gratis, a.: free. 

gratuitous: free, groundless. 

gratuity: gift. 
gratulate: congratulate. 
grave, a.: important, serious, 

dignified, low (in sound), dull 

(in color). 
gravel, v. t.: stone, disable, dull 


f^' See Notes of Explanation. 



gravestone, n. stone, monument, tomb- 
stone; spec, ledger, headstone, footstone, 
shaft, cross, etc. 

gray, a. 1. grey {var. spelling, by some used 
with different implications from "gray" ; 
"gray" is chiefly U. S., "grey" chiefly 
British); spec, grayish, grizzly or grisly, 
grizzled, hoar, hoary, griseous (learned), 
blae (obs. or Scot, and dial. Eng.), ashen, 
ash-colored, pearly, leaden, lead-colored, 
cloudy, clouded, misty, foggy, perse {ar- 
chaic), pearled, leady, frosty, canescent, 
gray-haired, drab. 


gray, v. t. Spec, cloud, pearl, grizzle. 

gray- haired, a. gray, hoar (literary), hoar- 
headed (literary); spec, silver-haired, 
grizzly, grizzled. 

graze, v. t. & i. 1. rub (contextual); spec. 
shave, brush, raze (rare), scrape, scratch, 

2. See ABRADE. 

graze, n. 1. rub (contextual); spec, shave, 

brush, scrape, scratch, glance. 

graze, v. i. 1. feed (contextual); spec, pas- 
ture, browse, depasture (tech.). 

2. See TEND. 
grazing, n. 1. Referring to the act: spec. 

pasture (rare), pasturage, depasturation 

(tech.), depasture (tech.). 

2. Referring to what is fed on: pasture, 

pasturage, range (U. S.). 
grease, a. fat; spec, lard, axung, tallow, 

butter, slush, suet, oil, drippings (pi.), 

grease, v. 1. 1. lubricate (literary, exc. spec); 

spec, butter, oil, dub, lard, anoint, gar- 

2. See BRIBE. 
greasy, a. 1. fat, unctuous; spec, oily, 

lardy, yolky (of wool). 

2. See SMOOTH, slippery. 
great, a. 1. See big. 


3. Referring to degree, intensity, etc.: spec. 
passing (archaic), pronounced, decided, 
mighty (rhetorical or chiefly colloq.), vast, 
fearful (colloq.), dense, desperate (colloq.), 
deuced (slang or colloq.), plaguey (slang), 
devilish (slang), thundering (slang or col- 
loq.), mortal (colloq.), magnificent (obs., 
exc. a^ a title or slang), terrible (colloq.), 
terrific (colloq.), dreadful (colloq.), divine 
(colloq.), rousing. 

Antonyms: see small, unimportant, 


greater, a. more, major (not used with 

"than"); spec, better. 
greatest, a. 1. most, best (in "best part"), 

maximum, maximal. 

2. See EXTREME. 

greatly, a. well, vastly (colloq.), highly, 
hugely, immanely (rare). 

greatness, n. 1. See size. 
2. Spec, dignity, distinction, fame, much- 
ness, grandeur, generosity, importance, etc. 

greed, n. desire, greediness, cupidity, avid- 
ity; spec, omnivorousness, avarice, covet- 
ousness, graspingness, rapacity, rapa- 
ciousness, insatiableness, pleonexia (rare), 
hunger (often fig.), thirst (often fig.), ex- 
orbitancy, gluttony. 

greedy, a. desirous, cupidous (rare), covet- 
ous; spec, avid, avaricious, omnivorous, 
insatiable, pleonectic (rare), ravenous, 
rapacious, grasping, gripple (archaic), 
hungry, thirsty, exorbitant, gluttonous, 
piggish (colloq.), hoggish (vulgar or inten- 
sive) . 
Antonyms: see generous. 

Greek, a. Grecian (chiefly spec), Hellenic 
(chiefly spec), Hellenian (rare), Helladian 
(rare), Helladic (rare); spec Greekish, 
Dorian, Doric, Ionian, Ionic, Spartan, 
Boeotian, Thracian, Romaic, Itahc. 

Greek, n. Grecian (rare), Hellene, Hellenic 
(the language) , Greekling (contemptuous). 

green, a. 1. Verdant (cfiiefly spec); spec. 
glaucous, porraceous (rare), citrine or cit- 
trinous, caesious, chlorine or chlorochrous, 
olivaceous, olive, smaragdine. 
2. See fresh, immature, inexperi- 
enced, IGNORANT. 

green, n. 1. vert (her.); spec, viridian, ver- 
diter, reseda, celadon, mignonette, pis- 
tachio, bice, corbeau (French). 
2. *See verdure. 

greenish, a. green, glaucous, virescent (lit- 
erary), viridescent (rare). 

greet, v. t. 1. address (contextual), receive; 
spec, accost, salute, hail, welcome. 
2. See receive. 

greeting, n. 1. address (contextual), re- 
ception; spec, accost, salutation, salute, 
hail, ave, welcome, colors (pL); see re- 
spect, n. 
Antonyms: see farewell, goodby. 
2. See reception. 

greyhound, n. grew or grewhound (Scot.); 
spec, sapling, tumbler. 

griddlecake, n. slapjack (U. S.); spec. 
scone, crumpet. 

C^ Cross references: see Note. 
graven: engraved. 
gravid: pregnant. 
gravitate: descend, tend. 
gravitation: descent, tendency. 

gravity: seriousnes.'i, sobriety, 
dignity, importance, attraction. 
gravy: dressing, juice. 
greaten: enlarge. 
Grecian: Greek. 

greenery: verdure. 
greenliorn: novice. 
greenhouse: glasshouse. 
gregarious: social. 
grewsome: fearful. 

tW See Notes of Explanation. 



gridiron, n. prill, brander (Scot.), brand- 
iron {dial.}, brandreth (obs.). 

grief, n. discomfort (contextual), dole 

grieve, v. t. discomfort (contextual), dis- 
tress (contextual), pain (chiefly spec), hurt 
(chiefly spec), sadden, sorrow (rare); 
spec, agonize, torture, torment, aggrieve, 
trouble, oppress, afflict. 
Antonyms: see please, gladden. 

grimace, n. face, mow (noio rare), mop 
[now rare); spec, mouth, mug (theatrical 

grimace, v. i. mow (now rare), mop {now 
rare); spec, mouth {rare), mug (theatrical 
slang) . 

grind, v. t. 1. comminute (contextual; 
learned), crush; spec whet, triturate, mas- 
ticate, crunch, bray, mull (dial. Eng.), 
pestle (rare), roll, mill. 


grind, v. i. 1. comminute (contextual; 
learned), crush; spec, triturate, roll, mill, 


grit, n. dirt (contextual) ; spec, sand, gravel, 

grits, n. pi. grain (contextual; a collective), 

groats (pi.); spec, oatmeal (a collective; 

sing.), hominy (a collective; sing.). 
gritty, a. dirty (contextual), calculous (rare); 

spec, muddy, sandy, stony, gravelly. 
groan, i'. i. 1. moan. 


groan, n. moan. 

groin, n. angle (contextual), edge, rib. 

groom, n. 1. hostler or ostler (orig. spec), 
coistrel (archaic); spec palfrenier (ar- 
chaic), nagsman (cant), tiger (in livery), 


groom, V. t. 1. tend (contextual), fettle 
(dial); spec, brush, rub, comb, curry, 
2. See TIDY. 

groove, n. 1. channel (contextual); spec. 
furrow, rut, flute, cannelure, channelure, 
canaHculation, sulcus, gutter, charnfer 
(obs. or rare), chase, rebate, rabbet, rifle, 
croze, mortise, vallecula, cut, score, gain, 
glyph, coulisse (French). 
2. See ROUTINE. 

groove, V. t. channel (contextual); spec, fur- 
row, gouge, chase, croze, rebate, throat, 
quirk, rifle, dado, ditch (rare), e.xcavate, 
mill, score. 

grooved, a. channeled (contextual); spec 
sulcate, guttered, fossulate, canaliculate, 
contorniate, valleculate. 

groove-shaped, a. sulciform (tech.). 

grope, t'. i. feel, search, grabble (chiefly 
spec), puzzle (only fig.). 

gropingly, a. blindly. 

gross, a. crass (chiefly spec); spec, big, 

bulky, coarse, dense, fat, flagrant, dull, 

stupid, brutal, unrefined, whole, vulgar, 

obscene, sensual, earthy. 

Antonyms: see nice, delicate, refined, 


grossness, n. crassness; spec, size, bulki- 
ness, coarseness, fatness, flagrancy, dull- 
ness, stupidity, brutality, vulgarity, ob- 
scenity, sensuality. 

ground, n. 1. See earth, land, base, 


GIST, (in pi.), DREG, (in pi.), deposit, 


2. As in "on that ground," etc.: basis, 
reason ; spec, antecedent. 
ground, v. t. 1. See base, establish, fell, 


2. In a nautical sense: strand (orig. spec; 
more dignified than "ground"); spec. 
beach, sand, shore (rare). 

groundless, a. causeless (as having no 
valid cause), uncalled-for, baseless, un- 
founded, ungrounded, reasonless, unsolid 
(rare), gratuitous (chiefly spec); spec 
misgrounded, idle, unprovoked, unasked, 
unsought, unsolicited, unjustifiable, wan- 
ton (willful as well as unjustifiable) . 
Antonyms: see reasonable. 

group, n. Spec assembly, assemblage, 
combination, block, bunch, family, nest, 
knot, body, cluster, flock, flight, plexus, 
division, clump, round, roundlet, bundle, 
claque, flush, shock, shook, stack, sheaf, 
gens, clan, sept, tribe, race, party, clique, 
system, species, genus, variety, horde, or- 
der, class, phylum, kingdom, force, army, 
array, corps, battaUon, regiment, com- 
pany, squadron, battery, fleet, command, 
glomerule, school, class, etc "Group" in 
its original sense was a term of the fine arts, 

t^= Cross references: see Note. 

grief: sorrow. 

^ievance: complaint. 

grieve: sorrow. 

grieved: sorrowful. 

grievous: depressing, sad, in- 
tense, flagrant, sorrowful, trou- 

grill: broU. 

grill, grille: grating. 

grim: fierce, stem, fearful. 

grime, n.: dirt. 

grimy: dirty. 

grin: snarl, smile. 

grip, n.: hold, clutch, control, 
handle, handbag, handclasp. 

grip, V. t.: seize, clutch, impress, 

grip, V. i.: hold, close. 

gripe, V. t.: seize, hold, pain, con- 
trol, affect. 

gripe, n.: hold, control (in pi.), 
pain, colic. 

gripsack: handbag. 

grisly: gray, fearful. 

grist: grain. 

gristly: cartilaginous. 
grizzle, V. t. & i.: whiten. 
g^rizzly, a.: gray. 
groggy: intoxicated, weak. 
groomsman: bridesman. 
gropingly: blindly. 
gross: bulk. 
grotesque: funny. 
grotto: cave. 
grounded: aground. 
groundward: down. 
groundwork: /oundaJt'on, basis, 

{S" See Notes of Explanation. 


and referred to an assemblage of two or more 
persons or objects forming a complete design 
or a unit in a design; hence, its use as refer- 
ring to any assemblage considered as a unit. 

group, a. gentile (as the gentile name), gen- 
tilitial (rare), gentilitious (rare); spec. 

group, V. t. & i. assemble; spec, arrange, 
classify, cluster, clump, tuft. 

grove, n. wood {contextual), tope {Anglo- 
Indian), tuft {literary or rare); spec, 
pinery, pinetum. 

grow, V. i. 1. live, wax {archaic or literary), 
form; spec, luxuriate, fungus, f ungate, 
spindle, shoot, vegetate, develop. 
Antonyms: see die. 


grow, V. t. produce, raise {referring to 

plants or, U. S., animals), rear {chiefly 

spec); spec, cultivate. 
growl, V. i. 1. gnarl {rare), gnar {literary), 

girn {Scot.); spec, grumble, snarl. 

growl, n. 1. gnarl {rare), gnar {literary), 

girn {Scot.); spec, grumble, snarl. 


grown, a. adult, mature {chiefly spec), 

full-grown; spec. ripe. 

Antonyms: see immature. 
growth, n. 1. development, thrift 

{healthy); spec, germination, increase. Cf. 


2. production, rearing {chiefly spec); 
spec cultivation, culture, etc. Cf. grow. 

3. Something that has grown: formation, 
product; spec, sprout, spire, shoot, flush, 
accretion, excrescence, vegetation, sucker, 
fleece {in fig. sense of feathery part of 
grasses, etc), stand {relative number on a 
given area). Cf. grow. 

4. See increase. 

5. adulthood. 

grudge, V. t. 1. give, begrudge, grutch {rare 
or archaic) . 
2. See envy. 

grudge, n. ill will. "Grudge" is now rarely 
used of the general feeling of "ill will," but 
rather of a particular instance, with syno- 
nyms as follows: grutch {rare), down {col- 
loq.); spec, spite. 

guarantee, v. t. undertake, insure or en- 
sure, assure, guaranty {rare), warrant; 
spec, secure, vouch. 

guarantee, v. i. undertake, vouch; spec. 
agree, contract. 

guarantee, n. 1. guarantor; spec, surety, 
voucher, warrantor, insurer, bailor, bail, 
2. guaranty; — referring to the act or thing. 

guaranty, n. 1. Of the act: guarantee, un- 
dertaking, warranty; spec security, in- 
surance, assurance, vouch {archaic), 

2. Of the thing: guarantee, warrant; spec. 
security, voucher, agreement, contract. 

guard, V. t. 1. protect, keep {now chiefly 
spec), ward {archiac); spec, watch, over- 
watch, safeguard, escort, attend, tile 
{Freemasonry), patrol, picket. 
2. watch, check. 

guard, V. i. watch, ward {archaic); spec 
beware, patrol, sentry {rare). 

guard, n. 1. Of the act or fact: protection, 
watch, ward {archaic), keep {chiefly 
spec); spec, custody, escort. 

2. Referring to persons: protector, watch, 
keeper {chiefly spec), safeguarder, guar- 
dian {more formal than "guard"), warden 
{literary or archaic, exc spec), warder 
{literary or archaic, exc. spec); spec, picket 
(of one or more), death watch, escort, pa- 
trol {chiefly collective sing.), watchman, 
safeguarder, safeguard, sentinel, sentry 
{the usual military term), vanguard {col- 
lective sing.), wardsman {rare), cordon 
{collective pi.), rearguard {collective pi.). 

3. Referring to things: spec, protection, 
protector, shooter, pad, ward, tsuba 
{Japanese), button, cowcatcher, pilot 

4. See conductor. 

guarded, a. Spec, protected, close, cau- 
tious, careful. 

guardian, n. 1. protector, guard; spec. 

2. In law: spec, curator, conservator, 

guardianship, n. 1. care, protection; spec 

2. In law: spec, curatorship, tutorship, 
tutelage, tutorage, tutory {rare), ward, 
wardship, matronage. 

guess, V. t. & i. 1. conjecture, surmise, sus- 
pect {chiefly spec), jalouse {Scot.), suspi- 
cion {colloq. for "suspect"); spec, mistrust, 
divine, predict, theorize, imagine, foresee. 
Antonyms: see know. 
2. See believe. 

|l^= Cross references: see Note. 
grovel: creep, cringe. 
groveling; abject. 
grub, V. t.; dig, drudge, eat. 
grub, V. t.: dig, clear, uproot. 
grub, n.: larva, food. 
grubby: dirty. 
grubstake: support. 

grudging, n.: envy. 
gruel, n.: porridge. 
gruesome, a.: fearful. 
gruff, a.: rough, surly. 
grum, a.: ill-tempered, sullen. 
grumble, v. i.: complain, mut- 
ter, growl, rumble. 
grume, n.: blood, clot. 

grumpy, o.; ill-tempered, dis- 
grunt, V. i.: complain. 
guardhouse: shelter, ftrison. 
guddle: catch. 
gudgeon: pivot. 
guerdon: reward, 
guerilla: fighter. 

t2^ See Notes of Explanation. 


guess, n. conjocturo, surmise, shot {col- 
loq.), surinisal (rare); spec, mistrust, sus- 
picion, cast, divination, prediction, the- 
ory, imagination, foresight. 

guesser, n. conjocturer, surmiser; spec. 
CEiiipus [Jig.), mistruster, diviner, etc. 

guest, n. visitor; s/xt. convival {at a feast, • 
obs.), umbra {Roinan hist.), shadow (a 
Latitiism), diner, company (a collective), 

guidance, n. 1. direction, conduction, con- 
duct, pilotage {chiefly spec); spec, steering, 
leading, lead, marshaling, manuduction 
{rare), steerage {naut. or rare), escort. 


guide, I', t. 1. direct, conduct, pilot {chiefly 
spec), show; spec, manuduct {rare), 
cicerone, lead, run, marshal, steer {naut. 
or fig.), escort, motion, misdirect, mis- 
guide, rein. 


guide, n. 1. director, directer, conductor. 

Mercury {fig.), pilot {chiefly spec); spec. 
marshaler, leader, cicerone, sightsman 
(rare), steersman, steerer. 

2. Referring to things: spec, landmark, 
lodestar, cynosure {literary), key, clew, 
clue, thread, directory, index, fence, 
screed, trail, trace, guidebook, bridle. 


guidebook, n. Spec. Baedeker, itinerary, 

roadbook, ruttier {archaic). 
guidepost, n. waypost; spec, fingerpost. 
guiltless, a. innocent, blameless; see in- 
Antonyms: see blamable. 
guilty, a. blamable, nocent {rare); spec. 

criminal, self-accusing, conscious. 
Antonyms: see blameless, in^nocent. 
guitar, n. Spec, vina, sancho, samisen 

{Japanese), sitar {Anglo-Indian) . 
gullet, n. 1. oesophagus {tech.). 

2. See neck, throat. 
guUy, n. valley {contextual); spec, arroyo 

{local, U. S.). 
gummy, a. gumlike, gummous (rare), 

gummose {rare); spec, mucilaginous. 
gun, n. 1. cannon; spec, pompom, big 

Bertha {colloq.). 

2. firearm, shooter {colloq.), peltcr {hu- 
morous); spec, musket, rifle, pistol, re- 
volver, matchlock. Catling. 

gunboat, n. Spec, tinclad {colloq.). 

gunner, /(. 1. shooter (contextual); spec. 
musketeer, carbineer. 

2. artilleryman, artillerist, cannoneer, 
gun {colloq. or cant); spec, bombardier, 

3. hunter. 

gurgle, V. i. tfc n. 1. guggle; see flow, bub- 
2. See LAUGH. 

gusty, a. unsteady, fretful, puffy. 

gutter, 71. channel {contextual); spec, can- 
ncl or kennel {British). 

guttural, a. 1. throat {the noun v^ed at- 
2. Of sounds: throat, thick, throaty. 

guzzle, V. t. consume, drink, bum {slang, 
U. S.), ingurgitate {rare). 

gybe, V. i. & n. shift. 

gymnasium, n. calisthenium (rare), 
gymkhana {Anglo-Indian or transferred), 
palaestra or palestra {chiefly Greek antiq.). 

gymnast, n. athlete {contextual); spec. 
contortionist, equiUbrist, ropewalker, 

gymnastic, a. athletic {contextual), gym- 
nic {i^are) ; spec calisthenic. 

gymnastics, n. athletics {contextual); spec. 

gypsy, a. Egyptian, Romanian (rare), Bo- 
hemian, Romany (cant); spec. Tzigany. 

gypsy, 71. 1. Egyptian, Bohemian, caird 
(Scot.), rom (7nale; cant), Romany, faw 
(dial. Eng.); spec. Tzigany. 
2. Referring to the language: Roman. 


habit, n. 1. See dr