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In presenting to the Public the second Volume 
of this History of Cumberland, I can refer with 
some degree of pleasure to the additional in- 
formation it contains, now first published, respect- 
ing the Ward of Allerdale above Derwent. At the 
same time, I cannot but express my regret that, 
from the circumstance of that Ward being in the 
diocese of Chester, there are few MSS. in the library 
of theDiiAN AND Chapter of Carlisle, which con- 
tain any thing illustrative of the civil or ecclesiasti- 
cal history of that portion of the county. In reply 
to my application to ascertain if there were any 
MSS. preserved at Chester, I was informed that 
there are none in the Chapter library there, 
which relate to this portion of the diocese. 

Allerdale Ward above Derwent being the only 
division of this county which is not in the diocese 
of Carlisle,* no such difficulty will occur in col- 
lecting materials for the future volumes. The 
library of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle 
is rich in MSS.f relating to the other portions of 
the county : and from them a mass of original 
and highly interesting information may be col- 

The account of this Ward in Nicolson and 
Burn's History of Cumberland and Westmorland 

• Excepting one or two parishes and chapelries in Derwent Ward, 
t See Catalogue of the MSS., Leath Ward, p. vi. 


is exceedingly meagre and brief, (even more so 
than that of the other parts of the county,) some 
of the parishes not occupying a page. The 
second volume containing Cumberland, is much 
inferior to the first (Westmorland), which is 
usually attributed to Dr. Burn, the learned chan- 
cellor of the diocese. 

In the year 1840, a new division of the county 
was made by the magistrates, which, after recon- 
sideration, and with a few unimportant changes, 
was enrolled and settled in June, 1841. — This 
History of Cumberland is, therefore, the only 
one based on the present division of the county 
into six Wards. 

To the churches and the ecclesiastical affairs 
I have paid more particular attention than any 
of my predecessors ; but I have not succeeded 
in obtaining any thing approaching to a perfect 
list of the Incumbents of each parish, although 
application was made to the register oflSce at 
Chester. Many of the Clergy have assisted me 
in this and in other respects ; but still the result 
is by no means satisfactory. The Messrs. 
LvsoNS give no list of the Incumbents of any of 
the parishes. Nicolson and Burn's History, 
while it contains lists for the other parishes, has 
none for those in AUerdale W^ard above Derwent : 
and that History of Cumberland which bears Mr. 
Hutchinson's name, contains very imperfect lists 
for some parishes ; and for others, none at all. 
To the politeness of the Clergy, I have been 
much indebted in these researches : and have 
now the pleasure of expressing my obligations 
to the Rev. Andrew Hudleston,D.I)., incumbent 
of the chapel of St. Nicholas, Whitehaven ; the 


Rev. Robert Pedder Buddicom, M.A., F.A.S., 
Principal of St. Bees College, and incumbent 
of the parish of St. Bees ; the Rev. Thojias 
Dalton, incumbent of the chapel of the Holy 
Trinity, Whitehaven ; the Rev. George ^Vil- 
KiNSON, B.D., incumbent of the parish of 
Arlecdon ; the Rev. Alexander Scott, JM.A., 
rector of Bootle ; the Rev. Henry Low- 
ther, M.A., rector of Distington ; the Rev. 
Joseph Gilbaxks, rector of Lamplugh ; the Rev. 
Francis Ford Pinder, ]\I.A., rector of Gosforth ; 
the Rev. Peter von Essen, B.A., rector of Har- 
rington ; the Rev. Fletcher Woodhouse, rector 
of Moresby ; the Rev. Willlam Henry Leech, 
rector of Egremont ; the Rev. Henry Pickthall, 
B.A., vicar of Millom ; the Rev. John Grice, in- 
cumbent of Drigg and Irton ; the Rev. Joseph 
Taylor, B.A., curate of Muncaster ; the Rev. 
John Bragg, curate of Whicham ; the Rev. 
Jeremiah Walker, incumbent of Ulpha ; &c. 

To the Right Hon. William, Earl of Lons- 
dale, K.G., F.S.A., I am deeply indebted for 
permission to dedicate tlie work to his lordship. 
I beg also to express my gratitude, for the loan 
of books, to the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, 
to the Society of Antiquaries of Newc astle-on- 
Tyne, to Henry Denton, Esq. of Lincolns Inn, and 
John Bell, Esq., of Gateshead. For much val- 
uable information respecting St. Bees, I am in- 
debted to the Rev. George C. Tomlinson, F.A.S., 
Chaplain to the Marquis of Huntley ; and for 
assistance in various parts of the volume, to tlie 
Rev. John Lingard, D.D., Bernard Gilpin, 
Esq., of Ulverston, Miles Ponsonby, Esq., of 
Hale Hall, Richard Taylor, Esq., Ravenglass, 


Mr. William Dickinson, North Mosses, Mr. 
John Gibson, Whitehaven, Mr. Isaac Clements, 
B.A., Drigg, Mr. Robert Abraham, of Liverpool, 
and many other Gentlemen, whose pohte atten- 
tion I have great pleasure in thus acknowledg- 

S. J. 

Carlislb, October, 1841. 


His Grace the Duke of Devonsliirc, K.G., large paper. 

The Right Hon the Earl of Carlisle, K.G , F.R.S., large paper. 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Lonsdale, K.G., F.S.A., Two large paper. 

The Right Hon. Baron Lowthor, F.R.S., F.S.A., large paper. 

The Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Durham, large paper. 

The Hon. and Right Reverend the Lord Bishop of Carlisle, /acye paper. 

The Honorable Charles W. G. Howard, M.P., large paper. 

Sir George Musgi'ave, Bart. Edcnhall, One large paper. Two small paper. 

The Dowager Lady Musgrave, Leamington, large paper. 

The Worshipful the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, large paper. 

The Venerable the Archdeacon of Carlisle. 

The Society of Antiquaries, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, largepaper. 

Thomas Ainsworth, Esq, Flosh, near Cleator. 
Mr. John Airey, Keswick. 
William Armstrong, M.D., M.R.C.S.L., &c. 
The Rev. Joseph Askew, M.A., Whitehaven. 

Mr. William Barclay, York. 

John Barwise, Esq., Granby Row, Whitehaven. 

J. A. Beck, Esq., Eslhwaite Lodge, Hawkshead. 

Mr. William R. Beck, London, large paper. 

James Bell, Esq., Whiteliavcn. 

Messrs. Joseph and .Fohn Bell, Whitehaven. 

Mr. Edward Bell, Whitehaven. 

Mr. Daniel Bell, Soulh-Castle-strect, Liverpool. 

Mr. Joseph Bcnn, Whitehaven. 

Robert Benson, Esq. Cockermouth. 

Mr. John Birley, Whitehaven. 

Mr. Tliomas Blain, London. 

Lancelot Bouch, Esq., Workington. 

Mr. Henry Bragg, Whitehaven. 

Joseph Brayton, Esq , Black -Cock, near Whitehaven. 

Robert Brisco, Esq., Low-Mill House. 

John 'I'rotter Brocket!, ICsq., Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Thomas Brocklebank, Esq., Liverpool, large paper. 

Mr. William Brough, Ilarringlon. 

Mr. Jeremiali Brown, llarraby Green, Carlisle. 

The Rev. John Brmit, Incumbent of Cleator. 

Mr. George Buckham, Whitehaven. 

The Rev. Robert P. lUiddicom, M.A., F.A.S., Principal of St. Bees 

College, and luciiinbitit of the parish of St. Bees. 
Isaac Burns, Esq , Whitehaven. 


The Rev. Thomas Caddy, Incumbent ol Whitbeck. 

"SVilliam Carrulliers, Esq. Solicitor, Carlisle, large paper. 

Mr. Emerson Charnley. Newcasllc-upon-Tyne. 

The Rev. Matthew Chester, incumbent of St. Helen's, .\uckland, 

Mr. Joseph Clarke, Warwick-Bridge. 
Mr. Isaac Clements, B.A., Drigg. 
Mr. Joseph Collins, Coleman-street, London. 
Bernard Gilpin Cooper, Esq., Hazel Grove, Stockport. 
Mr. William Cormick, Whitehaven. 
W. B. Curwen, Esq., Workington-hall, 
Richard Cust, Esq., Carlisle. 

The Rev. Anthony Dalzell, Close End, near Workington. 
Mr. Isaac Dalzell, Wliitehaven. 

The Rev. Thomas Dalton, Incumbent of Holy Trinity, Whitehaven, 
Henry Denton, Esq., 6, Lincolns Inn, London. 
The Rev. C. Jones Denton, East Walton Vicarage, Norfolk. 
John Dickinson, Esq., Red How, Lamplugh. 

Joseph Dickinson, Esq., M.D., F.L.S., Great George's Square, Liver- 
Mr. William Dickinson, Mosses, near Whitehaven. 
W. L. Dickinson, Esq., Workington. 
Mr. John Dixon, Whitehaven. 
Thomas Dixon, Esq., New York, large paper. 
Mr. W'illiam Dixon, W^orkiugton. 
Mr. Stephen Dodd, Whitehaven. 
Mr. James Doman, Whitehaven. 

Mr. George Edger, Carlisle. 

Mr- John Faulder, Unthank. 

Mr. Jonathan Fell, Workington. 

Mr. Daniel Fidler, Cockermouth. 

William Fisher, sen., Esq., Liverpool. 

William Fisher, jimr., Esq., Workington, large paper. 

Mr. Peter Fisher, Parton, near Whitehaven. 

Mr. James Fitzsimons, Whitehaven. 

Mrs. Forrester, Whitehaven. 

Mr. Ralph Forster, Corkicle, neai Whitehaven. 

Mr. John Gibson, Post Office, Whitehaven. 

Joseph Gillbanks, Esq., Whiteficld House. 

The Rev. Joseph Gilbanks, Rectory, Lamplugh. 

Bernard Gilpin, Esq. Ulverston. 

The Rev. Samuel J. Goodenough, M.A., Prebendary of Carlisle 

Thomas Henry Graham, Esq., Edmond Castle, largepaper. 

The Rev. John Grice, Incumbent of Drigg and Irton. 

Mr. John Guy, Green Hill Academy, Whitehaven. 

Mr. William Haige, Winscales, near Workington. 
The Rev. Amos Hall, M.A., Hensingham. 
E. II. Hare, Esq. Workington. 


Mr. Harris, Cockertnouth, 

Mr. Thomas Haixis, Carlisle. 

John Harrison, Esq., Whitehaven. 

George Harrison, Esq., Lincthwaite, near Whitehaven. 

Mr. David Harkness, Workington. 

Jolin Hartley, Esq., Moresby House, near Whitehaven. 

Thomas Hartley, Esq., Gillfoot, near Whitehaven. 

John Hobson, Esq., Lousdule-place, Whitehaven. 

Mrs. Hodgson, North-end, Burgh-upon-Sands. 

Mr. Isaac Hodgson, Millom Castle. 

Christopher Holliday, Esq., Scaton. 

Philip H. Howard, Esq., M.P. Corby Castle. 

Henry Howard, Esq., Greystoke Castle. 

Mr. Robert Howe, Whitehaven. 

Mr. John B. Howe, Carlisle. 

The Rev. Andrew Hudleston, D.D., Whitehaven. 

William Hughes, Esq., F.R.G.S., Professor of Geography in the 

College of Civil Engineers, London. 
Peter Htud, Esq., Workington. 

Samuel Irton, Esq. M.P., Irton Hall, largepaper. 
Thomas Irwin, Esq., Calder Abbey. 

Mr. Daniel Jackson, Whitehaven. 

The Rev. R. Jackson, B.A., Wreay. 

Joseph Jackson, Esq., Calva, Workington. 

The Rev. William Jackson, M.A., Incumbent of St. John's Chapel, 

Mr. Thomas Jackson, Seaton Mill. 
Mr. T. Elgar Jefl'erson, Ulverston, /ar^e paper. 
W. M. Johnston, Esq., Harrington. 

Mr. C. King, Cheapside, London. 

Mr. James Kirkcouel, Post Office, Workington. 

Thomas Langliom, Esq., Lairbeck, near Keswick, large paper. 

Richard Law, Esq., CaTlis\e, large paper. 

Mr. William Ledger, Whitehaven. 

The Rev. T. B. Levy, M.A., Kirkby-Thore, largepaper. 

The Rev. George Lewthwaite, B.D., Rector of Adel, near Leeds. 

Isaac Littledale, Esq , Whiteliavcn, large paper. 

The Rev. Henry Lowther, JNI.A., Rector of Distington. 

William Lumb, Esq., Fox-houses, Whitehaven, large paper. 

Mr. Duncan M'Alpin, Blackball. 

Mr. M' Farlane, Wliilehaven. 

Mr. E. R. -M' Gaa, Workington, 

Mr. Charli'S Magee. Whitehaven. 

Mrs. M' Kniplil, Whitehaven, large paper. 

M. Heron Maxwell, Esq., .St Bees. 

William Miller. Esq., Whitehaven. 

Joseph .Miller. I'Nq . Whitehaven. 

Mr. E. Mi.rdumit, Hrowtop, Workington. 

Mr. Isaac Mossop, Whitehaven. 

b 2 


Mr. William Newton, Woodside, Cheshire. 

Mr. Richard Nicholson, Liverpool. 

William !•'. Nicholson, Esq., Cartgate, near Whitehaven. 

Jlr. NiiTinio, Whitehaven. 

John Norman, Esq., Excise Office, London. 

WilUiim Palrickson, Esq., Crosby-on-Eden. 

John Peilc, Esq., Somerset House, Whitehaven. 

Mr. John J. Pcile, Whitehaven. 

Williamson Peile, Esq., Whitehaven, large paper. 

Captain Rowland Pennington, Whitehaven. 

Mr. William Perry, Royal Bank Buildings, Liverpool. 

AVilsou Perry, Esq., Whitehaven. 

The Rev Henry Pickthall, B.A., Vicar of Millom. 

The Rev. Francis Ford Pinder, M.A., Rectory, Gosforth. 

John Pousonby, Esq., Whitehaven. 

Miles Ponsunby, Esq , Hale Hall. 

W. J. Posllcthwaile, Esq., Whitehaven. 

J. B. I'ostlelhwaite, Esq., Solicitor, Whitehaven. 

Robert Postlethwaite, Esq., The Oaks, Millom. 

William Postlethwaite, Esq , Banker, Ulverston. 

Mr. .William Posllethw^aite, Whitehaven. 

Isaac Powc, Esq., Waterloo-terrace, Whitehaven. 

William Randleson, Esq., Croft Hill, near Whitehaven. 

Mr. John Roan, Whitehaven. 

Mr. John Robinson, Whitehaven. 

Mr. William Rodgcrson, St. James's street, Liverpool. 

Mr. Thomas Rome, Rocklifl'. 

Mr. Joseph Hooke, Chcctham, Manchestcr,/arpe paper. 

John Roper, Esq., Calder Cottage, Calder-Bridge. 

Mr. George Routlcdge, London. 

Mr. Henry RouUedge, Baldock, Herts. 

The Rev. Ed\v.ard Salkeld, M.A., Vicar of Aspatria. 

Henry Salkeld, Esq., Stainburu. 

Mr. Tl.omas Sanderson, Workington. 

Mr. Thomas Sanderson, 39, Paternoster-Row, London, large paper. 

Mr. John Sawer, Breckonhill. 

The Rev. Alexander Sco'.t, M.A., Rectory, Boolle. 

Mr. John Scott, Trinity College, Dublin. 

Captain Isaac Scotl, junr., Browtop, Workington. 

Sampson Senhouse, Esq., Parsonage, Ponsouby, large paper. 

Humphrey Senhouse, Esq., Fitz, Cockermouth. 

The Kev. John Shackley, St. John's, Micklegate, York, large paper. 

George Sibson, Esq., Solicitor, Carlisle. 

Captain Jonathan Sim, Whitehaven. 

William Slack, Esq., Anns Hill, Cockermouth, large paper, 

William Smith, Esq., Hensuigham. 

Mr. John Russell Smith, London. 

Mr. Edward Smith, Harbour-master, Workington. 

Mr. William Sowerby, Aldcrsgate-street, London. 

John Spencer, Esq., Whitehaven. 

Mr. Joseph Stamper, Solicitor, Cockermouth. 


Edward Stanley, Esti-, M.P., Ponsouby Hall, large paper. 

Major Steel, St. Helens, Cockermouth. 

John Steel, Esq., Solicitor, Cockerinoutli. 

Anthony Benn Steward, Esq., Whiteliavcii. 

Jlr. John Borrowdale Steward, Whitehaven. 

Mr George Stockdale, London. 

The Ucv. Joseph Taylor, B.A. Curate of Muncaster. 

Charles Thompson, Esq., Workington. 

Isaac Thompson, Esq., Workington. 

John Thompson, Esq. Kclswick House, near Whitehaven. 

M.ajor Tolson, F.S.A., United Service Club. 

The Rev. G. C. Tomlinson, F.S.A. &c., Staughton Rectory, Hunts. 

Mr. .John Tomlinson, Whitehaven. 

Mr. William Todd, Whitehaven. 

W. B. D. D. TurubuU, Esq, F.R.S.E., Secretary to the Camden 

Mr. Joseph Turner, Whitehaven. 
Mr. James Turner, Low House, near Whitehaven. 

Tlie Rev. John Vicars, Incumbent of Hale. 

Mr. John Waldio, Harraby Green, Carlisle. 

James Robertson Walker, Esq., Gilgarron, High-sheriff of the county. 

Mr. John Walker, Mark(.'t-place, Whitehaven. 

The Rev. William Walton, M.A., F.R.S., AUenheads. 

The Rev. John Watson, Incumbent of Cumrew. 

Mr George Watson, Whitehaven. 

Richard Watts, Esq., Clifton House, large paper. 

Mr. Wattleworth, Whitehaven. . 

William Whitehead, Esq., Ribton House, Whitehaven. 

The Rev. Robert Whitehead, M.A., Incumbent Minister cf St. John's 

chapel, Hensinghani. 
Robert Grose Whitehead, Esq., Hensingham. 
Richard Whiteside, Esq., Chapel House, Hensingham. 
Mr. Thomas Williamson, Whitehaven. 
Mr. William Wilson, Whiteh.avcn. 
Mr. Jonathan Wilson, Birk-bank, Cockennouth. 
The Rev. Fletcher Woodhouse, Rector of Moresby. 

Mr. William Yeates, Wlutehaven. 


J. H. Attwood, Esq. Troughton House, near Wliileliaven. 

Mr. William Bumyeat, Wkitehaven. 

The Rev. Robert CoulUiard, M.A. Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford. 

Mr. Dickinson, Kidbumgill, near Whitehaven. 
John Douglas, Esq. Crofts, near Whitehaven. 
William Dowson, Esq., Rock Ferry, Liverpool. 

Mr. John Wilson Fletcher, Greysouthen. 

The Rev. John Fox, D.D. Provost of Queen's College, Oxford, large 

Henry O. Huttnvaite, Esq., Solicitor, Maryport. 

W. B. Jones, Esq. Beech Cottage, Grasmere. 

Mr. Kiiinebrook, Artist, Whitehaven. 

Mr. Thomas Mandell, Distington. 

John Nicholson, Esq. Nether Stainton. 

Captain Henry Pcarce, Whitehaven. 

Charles Rawson, Esq., Wasdale Hall, large paper. 
Captain William Robinson, Liverpool. 

Mrs. Scott, William-street, Workington, large paper. 

Humphrey Senhousc, Esq., Netherhall, two copies, large paper. 

The Rev. William Singleton, Drigg Hall, near Irton. 

Colonel Speddiiig, Ingwell, near Whitehaven, two copies, large paper. 

Edward Tyson, Esq., Solicitor, Maryport. 

The Rev. J. Wilson, Crozier Lodge, Carlisle. 


Introduction .... 
Church Livings, and Population of each Parish 
Tlie Parish of Harrington 

Page 1 



The Parish of St. John, Beckermet 


The Parish of Egrcmont 
The Parish of Cleator 


The Parish of Halo 


The Parish of Moresby . 

The Parisli of Arlecdon . ' . 


The Parish of Distington 
The Parish of Lamplugh 
The Parish of Wahcrthwaile 


The Parish of Corney 
Tlie Parish of Whicham 



The Parisli of Drigg 

Tlic Parish of Whitbeck . 


The Parish of Bootle 


The Parish of Millom 


The Parish of Irton 


The Parisli of Muncaster 


The Parish of Workington 
The Parish of Ponsonby 
The Parish of Gosforth . 


The Parish of St. Bridget, Beckermet 

The Parish of St. Bees . 

Appendix .... 

Additions and Corrections 


Index of Monuments and Epitaphs . 

Index of Persons 

Index of Places and Subjects 


Whitehaven CasUe, a Seat of the Earl of Lonsdale, K.G. Frontispiece. 

Cross in Irion Church-yard . Page 207 

The Church of Muncastor • ■ . . 220 

Calder Abbey .... 

The Arms of Archbishop Grindal, on a bridge at St. Bees 

Cross in the Church-yard of St. Bees 

The Prior)' of St. Bees 

Lowther Street, Whitehaven 

Arms of the Right Hon. the Earl of Lonsdale, K.G. . 



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HE Ward of Allerdale 
above Derwent comprises 
the south-western portion 
of the county of Cumber- 
land, extending along the 
coast from Workington to 
Milloni. Its length from 
north to south is 35 miles, 
and its greatest breadth 
about 15 miles. It is 
bounded on tlie south, by the Duddon, which di- 
videsit fi"om Lancashire; on the west, by the Irish 
Sea ; on the north, ])y the Derwent, which divides 
it from Derwent Ward ; and on the east, by 
Derwent Ward and Lancashire. It forms part 
of the deanery of Copeland, in the archdeaconry 
of Richmond and diocese of Chester. 

This ward is watered by the Derwent, the 




Duddon, the Esk,* the Calder, the Bleng, the 
Ehen or Enn, the Irt, and the Mite. 

The Ward of Allerdale above Derwent, until 
lately, included the whole of the barony of Cope- 
land, now called Egi-emont, and the honor of 
Cockermouth, and was given to William de 
MeschineSjf Earl of Cambridge, by his elder 
brother,* Ranulph, Earl of Chester, who had 
received a gi"ant of the county from William the 
Conqueror. At this time, the barony was 
bounded by the Derwent, the Duddon, and the 
Irish Sea ; but " so much of the same as Heth 
between the rivers of Cocker and Derwent," 
William de Meschines re-granted to Waldieve, 
Lord of Allerdale, son of Gospatrick, Earl of 
Dunbar, with the honor of Cockermouth and the 
lordship of " the five towns above Cocker" — 
Brigham, Dean, Eaglesfield, Braithwaite, and 

William de Meschines built his baronial castle 
at Egrcmont, and changed the name of the barony 
from Copeland to Egremont. All lands which 
lie or his successors, lords of Copeland, granted 
within the barony, were to be holden of the 
castle of Egremont. William de Meschines gave 
Workington, Salter, Kelton, and Stockhow, to 
Ketel, son of Eldred, son of Ivo de Talebois, 
baron of Kendal; the manors of Beckermet, Fris- 
ington, Rotington, Weddicar, and Arlecdon, to 
.... Fleming ; Kirkby Begog (St. Bees) to the 

• There is another river of this name in the northern part of tlie 
county, wliich gives name to Eskdale Ward. 

t The rc-founder of the monastery of Kirkby Begog or St. Bees. 

• By some authorities, Ranulph de Meschines is said to have been the 
father of William. 


abbey of St. Mary, at York ; Mulcaster to an 
ancestor of the Penningtons ; Drigg and Carleton, 
to .... Stuteville ; Millom, to Godard Boyvill ; 
and Stainton, Bolton, Gosforth, and Hale, to 
Thomas Multon of Gilsland. Further particulars 
respecting this barony may be found under the 
account of the parish of Egremont, in a subse- 
quent part of this volume. 

By a recent division of the county, which oc- 
curred in IS 10, the Ward of Allerdale above 
Derwent has been deprived of the parishes of 
Brigham (including the borough of Cockermouth) 
and Dean, the parochial chapelries of Lorton 
and Loweswater, and the townships of Great and 
Little Clifton, in the parish of Workington ; all 
of which are now included in the newly-created 
Ward of Derwent. The parishes now retained 
in tlie Ward of Allerdale above, are enumerated 
in the following table : — 

A 2 





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e Bishop of Chester, 
e Earl of Lon.sdale 
R. G. Braddyll, Esq. 
e Earl of Lonsdale 
e Earl of Lonsdale 
muel Irton, Esq., M.P. 
neral Wyndhani 

H. h\ Scnhouse, K.C. 
e Earl of Lonsdale 
nry Curwcn, Esq. 
muel Irton, Esq., M.P. 
in Laniplugh L. Uaper 

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c Earl of Lonsdale 
rd Muncastcr 
ward Stanley, Esq., M. 
e Earl of Lonsdale 

Gaitskcll, Esq. 

GaitskcU, Esq. 
rd Muncastcr 
e Earl of Lonsdale 
c Earl of Lonsdale 
nry Curwcn, Esq. 


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srtc «)ari0f) of |l!arrington. 

HIS parish, formerly spell- 
ed Haveringham or Ha- 
reringfon, was the inheri- 
tance of, and gave name 
to, the ancient and baroni- 
al family of HaiTington : 
it extends about two miles 
and a half along the sea- 
coast, and is about one 
_____^ mile in breadth. It ad- 

joins the parishes of Workington and Distington. 
The commons, which formed the greater part ot 
this parish, were enclosed about the year 1770, 
and it still retains a bare appearance from its 
want of trees. 

The Manor. 

Soon after the Concpiest, this manor was grant- 
ed with AN'orkington, to the Talebois fomily, 
barons of Kendal in Westmorland, and was holden 
as a fee of Workington : but at an eariy period 
it ])assed to the family of Harrington, of whicli 
liouse there were several branches,— of Beaumont, 
in Cumbedand ; of Witherslack,in Westmoriand ; 
of Aldingham, in Furness, Lancashire ; of Hid- 
lington, CO. Kutland, Baronets; and the Barons 
Hm-rington of Exton. 

u /■ 



The eldest branch of this family were lords of 
Harrington ; one of whom married the heiress of 
Seaton, in the parish of Cammerton, below Der- 
went, and therefore confirmed Flemingby or 
Fliniby to the abbey of St. Mary, Holme Cultram ; 
but her gi'andfather, surviving her, gave the lord- 
ship to her uncle Patric de Culwen. 

Philip and Mary, by letters-patent, bearing 
date in the third and fourth of their reign, grant- 
ed to Henry Curwen, Esquire, all that demesne 
and manor of Haverington with the appurtenances 
in the county of Cumberland, late parcel of the 
possessions of Henry duke of Suffolk convicted 
and attainted of high treason ; and also all and 
every messuages, mills, houses, buildings, tofts, 
cottages, barns, stables, dove-cotes, gardens, 
orchards, pools, ponds, lands, tenements, meadows, 
pastures, feedings, commons, ways, wastes, furze, 
heath, moors, mosses, rents, reversions, and ser- 
vices reserved iipon any grants or leases ; and 
also fee farm rents, knights' fees, wardships, mar- 
riage, escheats, reliefs, heriots, fines, amercia- 
ments, courts leet, view of frankpledge, profits, 
waifs, estrays, bondmen, villeins with their fol- 
lowers ; and all rights, commodities, emoluments, 
and hereditaments whatsoever, with the appur- 
tenances, situate, lying, and being in Harrington 
in the said county of Cumberland and elsewhere 
to the said manor belonging ; and all woods and 
underwoods of, in, and upon the premises grow- 
ing and being, and the land, ground, and soil 
thereof. The same being of the yearly value of 
18/. 14.S. 8f/. (Except all advowsons of livings.) — 
To hold to the said Henry Curwen, his heirs and 
assigns, of the king and queen and the heirs and 


successors of the queen in capite, by the 40th 
part of one knight's fee, for all rents, services, 

and demands. , . , tt n • 

Henry Curwen, Esq., of Workington Hall is 
the present lord of the manor and patron ot the 
rectory of Harrington. The demesne is within 
the inclosure of Workington park. 

Harrington of Harrington.* 

^rms.—Sahh, a fret argent. 

de Harrington married the heiress of 

Seaton, in the parish of Cammerlon, below Dervvent ; she 
died "n the life-time of her grandfather, Thomas, son of 

Robert do Harrington, in the reign of Edward T-, married 
the hen-ess of Cancelield, Agnes sister and heir of ^ .Iham 

son of Kiehard de Canceheld, who ™%"i!,'i„^l"='=' ^'f ,^ '{'^^ 
heir ofSir Michael le Fleming, son of William, son of the 
first Sir Michael le Fleming, of Beckermet, kmght. He had 
a son and heir, 

John de Harrington, knight, first baron by ^rit who was 
summoned to parliament fmm 30'^ December 1324 (18th 
Edward U.) to 13th November, 1345, (2lst Edward HI.) 
in the early writs he is called " Johanni de Haverington . 
Sis eldest^son, Robert, married Elizabeth, one of the three 
sisters and coheiresses of John de Multon of Egremon , and 
died in the life-time of his father, leaving John, son and heir, 
his successor. 

John de Harrington was summoned to parliament in 1348 
and 1349, and di.-d in 1363, leaving issue, a son and iieir. 

Sir Robert de Harrington, knight son and heir of John 
received the honor of knighthood at the coronation ot 

. Of this family, H. Harringtun, M.U.. Alderman of the city of Bath, 
the editor of Suycc AntUju^, -h« died m 1^10, ^va. a deseendmu. 1 he 
.hort but significant motto, nodofirmo, and the fret, from them denonun- 
aled the Uarringlon knot, have scr>ed to grace the assumptive arms ol 
miuiy modem shields. 


Richard II., and was summoned to parliament from 1st 
Richard II., 1377, until his death in 1405. Pie married 
Isabel, daughter and coheiress of Sir Nigel Loring, knight 
of the most noble order of the garter, by whom he had issue. 

Sir John de Harrington, knight, son and heir, died with- 
out issue, hi 1418*. 

Sir William de Harrington, knight, brother and heir, was 
summoned to parliament from 1421 to 1439. He married 
Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert Nevil of Hornby, knight, 
by whom he had issue a daughter, Elizabeth, who married 
AVilliam, Lord Bonville ; by this marriage she carried into 
that family the accumulated estates of Harrington, Fleming, 
and Cancefield, a third part of the great estate of 
Multon, and a moiety of that of Loring. Sir William was 
summoned to parliament from 1421 to 1439, and died in 
1457, without male issue, leaving his grandson his next heir, 
who became Baron Harrington, J«re matris. 

William, Lord Bonville, and (jure matris) Baron Harring- 
ton, married Catherine, daughter of Richard Nevill, Earl 
of Salisbury, (see vol. i. Leath Ward, p. 70), who was slain 
at the battle of Wakefield, in 1460. The Yorkists, on whose 
side he fought, prevailing soon after, his estates were not 
confiscated. He left an only daughter, 

Cecily, who married, firstly, Thomas Grey, first Marquess 
of Dorset, K.G., by whom she had issue ; and, secondly, 
Henry Stafi'ord, Earl of Wiltshire, who died s. p. 

Thomas Grey, second Marquess of Dorset, K.G., son and 
heir of the above, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Robert 
Wotton, knight, and died in the 22nd Henry VIII., 1530, 
leaving issue, 

Henry Grey, third Marquess of Dorset, K.G. created 

• The name of i?o6er< do Harington occius regularly in the Sum- 
monses to parliament from 1st Richard 11. (1377,) (o 3rd September 
4th Henry V. (Ml 7 ;) but as Robert, the last barun died in 1405, and as 
John Baron Harington is stated in the Rolls of parliament to have been 
present on the 22nd December, 8th Henry IV. (140G,) it may be infer- 
red that all the Writs after the 7th Henry IV. were directed to this Baron, 
and that the Chiislion tame of Robert on the Rolls after that year was 
an error. — Nicolas. 


Duke of Suffolk, 1551 ; and Lord High Constable, 1547, 
He married Frances, daughter and coheiress of Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, by Mary queen-dowager of France, 
and sister of Henry VIII. ; by whom he had three daughters, 
Jane, Katherine, and Mary. The lady Jane Grey, his eldest 
daughter, was proclaimed queen of England, on the death of 
Edward VI., and was soon after beheaded. Her father also, 
for countenancing this honor, so unwillingly " thrust upon" 
her, was attainted and beheaded in 1554, when the demesne 
and manor of Harrington, with other of his estates, became 
forfeited to the crown. 

The Church 

Was given, with that of Workington, to the 
abbey of St. Mary, York, by Ketel, son of Eldred, 
son of Ivo de Talebois. 

After the dissolution of rehgious houses, Henry 
VIII. by letters-patent, bearing date, August 20, 
in the 3Gth year of his reign, (1544), granted to 
Robert Brokelsbye and John Dyer, tlie advowson 
and right of patronage of the churches of Hav- 
erington and ^\'orkington ; to hold of the king 
in free socage by fealty only, and not in capite. 
On the 27th January, 1545, they conveyed by 
fine those two I'ectories to Thomas Dalston, of 
the city of Carlisle, Esquire. 

On the 12th of October, in the Gth of Eliza- 
beth, (1564,) there was a licence of alienation to 
John Dalston, Esq., to convey the advowson and 
right of patronage of the churches of Ilaverington 
and Workington, parcel of the late monastery of 
St. Mary, York, to Henry Curwen, Esq., in 
whose posterity they have since remained. But 
in 1721, the lord of the manor being a Roman 
Catholic, the university of Cambridge presented 
the Rev. Charles Richardson to the rectorv. 



In the Ecclesiastical Survey, 26th Henry VIII. 
the rectory is thus valued : — 

Hav'ingham Eector' EccVie. 

Nich'us Cowcrson incumbens Rector' p'dca. 

valet in £ s. d. 
Mansione cum gleba per > 

annu. \ 

Decim' garbas. iiij/. feni 

ix*. pisciu. mariiios. ij*. 

Ian' et agnell' iij*. hid. 

minut' et privat' decim' 

cum oblac' ut in libro 

paschal' xlvs. x«?. In tot' 




















xiiij viijob'q' 

Repris' vis. in 
Sinod' xiijf?. procurac' ij«. iijc?. 

Et valet clare 
Xma. ps. inde 

In the King's Books the benefice is vakied at 
7/. 7.V. 2>\d. : and it was certified to the governors 
of Queen Anne's bounty at 37/. ; viz. glebe, SI. ; 
all tithes belonging to the rectory, 251. ; prescrip- 
tion for Mr. Curwen's demesne, 21. ; Easter dues 
and siu-plice fees, 21. 

List of Rectors. 

Nicholas Cowerson, occurs 1 535. 

.... Hudson, occurs c. 1642. 

1661 R. Chr. Mattinson. 

1662 Jeremiah Topping. 
1690 John Proctor.* 
1695 Thomas Orfeur. 
1721 Charles Richardson. 
1724 Charles Richardson. 

Presented by the Duke of Somerset. 


1734 Charles Noble. 

1753 Darcey Otley, M.A., ob. 1780. 

1780 John Bird. ' 

1785 Joseph Adderton. 

1795 Peter How, U.k* 

1817 Wilham Curwen. 

1823 John Curwen, ob. 1840. 

1840 Peter Von Essen, B.A. 

The church of Harrington, dedicated to St. 
. . . ., is picturesquely situated closely adjoining 
the rectory-house, on an eminence overlooking the 
green knolls by which the port is suiTOunded. 
It consists of a nave and chancel, with a square 
tower at its western end, and a vestry on the 
north side of the nave. The nave, wliich is low 
and narrow, is lighted by windows of modern in- 
sertion. The entrance is from the west, under 
the tower ; and the step is an ancient grave-stone 
on which is visible part of a cross-floree. The 
chancel is a modern addition, built in 1811, and 
is both loftier and of greater breadth than the 
nave : it has a large eastern window of three 
lights. The pulpit is here placed, having been 
removed from its former situation on the enlarge- 
ment of the church. The tower contains one 
bell with the date 1670. 

A plain slab on the floor of the nave bears the 
following inscription : — 

In Memory of 


Rector of Harrington, who died 

the 15tli of September 1780, 

aged 53 years. 

• Died rector of Workington, 1834. 
B 2 


On the south wall of the nave is a marble 
tablet, mscribed 

Sacred to the Memory of 


■who departed this life November the 23rd 1822, 

aged 77 years, 

and of ANN, his wife, 

who died January the 25th, 1829, 

aged 76 years. 

In fulfilment of whose last wishes, this Tablet 

is erected, by her Executors. 

Near the above are three plain black slabs on 
the wall with these inscriptions : — 

Mr. ROBERT BANNISTER died June 30th, 1734, aged 82 years. 

MARY ye Wife of Robert Bannister died October ye 27th 1752 aged 
82 y" 

MARY ye Daughter of Robert and Mary Bannister died the 9"' June 
1737 aged 31 years. 

On the north side of the church-yard, near the 
rectory-house, under an old thorn, (a spot selected 
by himself,) is a tomb-stone surrounded with iron 
rails, bearing this inscription : — 


to the Memory of 


Rector of Harrington for sixteen 

years, and also Rector of Plumbland ; 

youngest son of 

John Christian Curwen, Esq. 

of Workington Hall, 

M.P. for the county of Cumberland, 

who departed this life Feb. 24th, 1840, 

aged 40 years. 

Also of 


his infant son, 

who died March the 3rd, 1828, 

aged three months. 


In the church-yard near the west end, is a 
grave-stone bearing an inscription for AVilham 
Sanderson, who " was dark at Harrington church 
62 years." 

At the east end are several inscriptions to the 
memory of different members of the family of 
Crosthwaite ; and on the north side to the M' 

The Port of Harrington 

Is situated at the mouth of a rivulet called the 
Wyre, two miles and a half south of W^orkington, 
and five miles north of Whitehaven. The first 
quay here was built by Henry Curwen, Esq., 
grandfather to the present lord of the manor ; 
and his son, John Christian Curwen, Esq., M.P., 
improved the harbour at considerable expense. 
" In 17(J0 there was not one house here, nor one 
ship belonging to the port." About the year 1 794, 
there were nearly sixty vessels belonging to 
Harrington, averaging 100 tons burthen. In 
1828, the number of vessels was stated to be 
forty-three, of an agregate burthen equal to 
5,179 tons. The number in 1810 was 11, and 
their burthen about GOOO tons. 

The principal trade is in exporting lime to 
Scotland, and coals to Ireland : the former is 
brought from the adjoining parish of Distington ; 
and tlie latter are raised in this parish from the 
mines of Henry Curwen, Esq. 

Near the harbour are two yards for ship-build- 
ing, a ropery, and a manufactory of copperas and 

Iron-stone has been formerly got here, above 


the seams of coal ; and about 2000 tons were 
for many years annually exported to Scotland 
and Wales. 

The school-house at Harrington was built in 
18.. by John Christian Curwen, Esq. The 
school has no endowment. 

C1&C Uari0i& of ^t. :ilof)u. 

HE parish of St. John, 
Beckermet, or Becker- 
mont, is bounded by the 
parishes of St. Bridget, 
St. Bees, Hale, and Egre- 
mont. It extends rather 
more than three miles 
from east to west, and 
from the north to south 
about one mile and a half. 
Carleton-moor and Grange-brow, in this parish, 
were enclosed under an act of parliament passed 
in 1813. This parish contains the south-eastern 
suburbs of the town of Egremont, and a part of 
the village of Beckermet, as divided by the Kirk- 

Wotobank, near the village of Beckermet, is 
the seat of Mrs. Hartley. The name is derived 
by traditionary etymology from — Woe to this 
bank. The legend is as follows : — a lord of the 
manor, with his lady and servants, were one day 
hunting a wolf, and in the ardour of the chase the 
lady was lost. After a long search and heart-rending 
suspense, her body was found lying on the bank, 
slain by a wolf, who was then in the act of tear- 
ing her to ])icces. In the first transports of his 
grief, the distracted husband cried — " AVoe to 
this bank." This tragedy is the gi'ound-work of 


a long poem, by Mrs. Cowley, called " Edwina ;" 
which is contained in Hutchinson's Cumberland. 

The Manor of Little Beckermet, 

Thus designated to distinguish it from the manor 
of Great Beckermet in the adjoining parish of 
St. Bridget, has been for several centuries held 
by the Flemings, of Rydal hall, Westmorland, as 
demesne of the barony of Egi"emont. The 
possessors and land-tenants of Rotington, Frising- 
ton, Arlecdon, and Weddicar, held their lands as 
fees of Beckermet. Lady le Fleming, of Rydal 
hall, is the present possessor of this manor. 

The Church. 

The church of St. John was given by the 
Flemings to the abbey of St. Mary, at Calder ; 
and in the year 1262, on the petition of the abbot 
and convent, it was totally appropriated to that 
house. They represented in that petition to 
Godfrey de Ludham, archbishop of York, " that 
although they had the right of patronage in the 
churches of St. John Baptist of Beckermet, and 
of St. Michael in Arlekden, yet by reason of the 
importunity of great men, and provisions of the 
benefices, they had not free liberty to present unto 
the same ; and therein, where they obliged one 
great man they disobliged many more ; they 
therefore request, that the archbishop would take 
such order therein, as may be more beneficial to 
the said abbot and convent, and also to the arch- 
deacon of Richmond, to whom the sequestration 
of, and institution to vacant benefices doth belong. 


and the collation thereof for various causes may 
appertain : Therefore the said archbishop g^i'ants 
to the said abbot and convent, that the chinxh 
of St. John of Ik'ckerniet, ■which is nigh to the 
house of Calder, and contiguous to their parish 
of St. Bridget, shall, after the death or cession of 
^Villiam the then rector, be converted and per- 
petually remain to their own use, for the increase 
of their alms, and better sustentation of the con- 
vent : And that the archdeacon of Richmond may 
not be prejudiced thereby in his right to seques- 
trations, institutions, and collations, he gi'ants in 
reconipcnce thereof, that the church of Arlekden, 
after the death or cession of Alan the then incum- 
bent, sliall be perpetually annexed to the arch- 
deaconry, and converted to the use of the arch- 
deacon, so that he may have a house in Coupland 
unto which he may resort, when he or his officials 
go into those parts, through bogs, and floods, 
and various tempests, to discharge their ecclesi- 
astical function."* 

In this, as in many other cases, the church of 
St. John was served by the monks of that religious 
house to which its revenues had been appropriated. 
But on the dissolution of religious houses, the 
cupidity of Henry VIII. who had seized on their 
revenues, would not allow him to restore them to 
the churches, which were then left totally desti- 
tute, proving the truth of that expression of the 
single-minded and pious Roman Catholic bishop, 
John Fisher, (with reference to Henry VIII.) 
that "it is not so much the good, as the goods of 
the church, that is looked after." 

• Nicolson and Bum. 


By this act of injustice the churches of St. 
John and St. Bridget were so impoverished, that 
they have been until IS 11, suppHed by the same 
curate, who officiated in each akcrnately. In the 
time of Bishop Bridgman, who held the see of 
Chester from 1619 to 1657, these two parishes 
paid synodals and procurations jointly ; but since 
that time, in consequence of their poverty, they 
have paid nothing. 

In the year 1702, a curate was nominated to 
the two parishes, by Richard Patrickson, Esq. 
In 1767, Henry Todd, Esq. was the impropriator 
and patron; and in 1S2S, the curacy was in the 
impropriation and patronage of the Rev. Henry 
John Todd, F.S.A. rector of Settrington, co. 
York, and chaplain in ordinary to his majesty. 
The patronage was sold about the year 18. . to 
Henry Gaitskell, Esq. the present impropriator 
and patron. The living Avas certified to the 
governors of Queen Ann's bounty at 7/. per 
annum. The Rev. Anthony Dixon is the present 
incumbent, and the resident curate is the Rev. 
John Sheffield. 

The old church, which was taken down about 
thirty years ago, had a south porch ; it was not 
pewed, and was seated with forms. 

The present church dedicated to St. John 
Baptist, is a small, neat, ivy-covered edifice, re- 
built about ISIO. It is beautifully situated on 
the side of a hill near the Kirkbeck, and near the 
junction of the parishes of St. John, St. Bridget, 
and Hale. It consists of a nave and chancel, 
with a west porch, over which is a bell-tuiTet 
can-ying two bells, and a Aestry on the north 
side of the chancel. The porch is entered by a 


pointed arch, preserved from the old church, en- 
riched by a triangular canopy, ornamented with 
crockets, terminating in two heads, all much 
nuitilated, and the finial is lost. The church is 
hghted by sash windows ; the font is placed im- 
mediately in front of the reading-desk. On the 
east end of the chancel are the remains of a cross 
l^reserved from the old church. A grave-stone 
with a cross and sword, in good preservation, but 
with no inscription, is built into the north wall 
of the porch. 

On the east wall of the chancel is a marble 
monument with this inscription : — 

Sacred to tlie memory of 

JOHN RICHARDSON of Carleton Lodge, Esq. 

Who died the 10th day of May, 1811, aged 2G years. 

His remains were interred at 

St. Nicholas's Chapel, Whilehavcn. 

He beqncathed, by ■will, the interest of one hundred pounds, to be 

distributed annually on Easter Day, to such poor inhabitants of this 

parish as do not receive any benefit from the poor rates. 

His widow, Jane Richardson, (in grateful tribute to his memory) 
caused this monument to be erected. 

Near the above is another mural monument 
inscribed — 

To the memory 


daughters of the late Mr. Henry Todd, 

of St. Bees, gentleman ; 

who were impropriators of this parish, 

and whose remains are interred 

in the church of St. Bees. 

Eliz. died June 14, 1811, aged 83. 

Isab. died May C, 1808, 

aged 79. 

On the south wall of the nave is a marble 
c 2 


monument to the memory of the -widow of the 
above John Richardson, Esq., bearing this in- 
scription : — 


To the Memory of 


late of Carleton Lodge, 

who died on the Gth day of September, 

1833, aged forty-seven years. 

Her remains were interred at 

St. Nicholas's Chapel, Whitehaven. 

She bequeathed by her will, the interest of 

fifty pounds, to be distributed, annually, on 

Easter Day, to such poor inhabitants of this 

parish as do not receive any benefit 

from the poor rates. 


Mr. John Richardson, of Carleton, in this 
parish, who died in 1811, bequeathed the interest 
of 100/. to be distributed annually at Easter, 
among the poor of this parish who do not receive 
parochial relief. 

Mrs. Jane Birley, who had been left a widow 
by the above Mr. Richardson, left by will, in 
1833, the interest of 50/. to be distributed 
annually on Easter-day, to the poor of the parish 
who do not receive parochial relief. 

Wift I3art0i) of iSgrnnont 

S bounded by the parishes of 
St. Bees, Cleator, Hale, and St 
John Beckermet,and the chapel- 
ry of Ennerdale. The whole 
parish is included in one to\VTi- 
ship of its own name. It ex- 
tends about three miles from 
north to south, and two and a 
half from east to west. The 
Messrs. Lysons state that of the 
parishioners buried here from 1805 to IS 14, one 
in ten were aged from 80 to 89 inclusive, and 
about one in fifty-eight were aged from 90 to 99 
inclusive. The parish is traversed by the road 
from Whitehaven to Ulvcrston, and is watered 
by the Ehen and some other small streams. 

In this parish are two iron-stone mines worked 
by Anthony Hill, Esci- and the Messrs. Lindows. 
The ore is shipped at Whitehaven, and is chiefly 
sent to Cardiff and New[iort, in Wales. Lime- 
stone also is plentiful in the parish, and there are 
some quarries of red free-stone. 

The common called Cowfield, on which each 
of the burgesses had a right of pasturage for a 
cow, is now enclosed: it was sold by mutual 

It is stated in Hutchinson's Cumberland that 
there were then (1794) remaining near the town, 
several tumuli, particularly one of loose stones. 


forty paces in circumference : not far from it was a 
circle of large stones, ten in number, forming an 
area of sixty paces in circumference, without any 
elevation of gi'ound. 

On the north side of the town near a field 
called Gibbet-holme, on the Langhorn estate, 
several skeletons have been found at various 


Formerly a borough, is an ancient market-to\\Ti, 
situated on the west or right bank of the Ehen, 
over which there is a modern bridge of two arches. 
It is nearly six miles north-east of Whitehaven, 
and within three miles of the Irish Sea. It was 
anciently the principal town in the barony of 
Copeland or Egremont, and Ward of Allerdale 
above Derwent, and still retains marks of its an- 
tiquity and of its former importance as the baro- 
nial seat and residence of the lords of that great 
barony. This ancient borough presents a strange 
contrast to the neighbouring town of Whitehaven; 
— ^for while the latter, of a modern date, has arisen 
to opulence and commercial importance ; the 
former, if it have not retrograded, has remained 
nearly stationary. 

About the reign of King John, Richard de 
Lucy, lord of the barony, granted a charter of 
certain privileges, containing rules and orders 
for the burgesses of Egremont. All the other 
records respecting the privileges of the burgesses 
are supposed to be lost. By Richard de Lucy's 
burgage tenure the people of Egi-emont were 
obliged to find armed men for the defence of the 
castle, forty days at their own charge. The lord 


was entitled to forty days' credit for goods, and 
no more ; and his burgesses might refuse to 
supply him, till the debt which had exceeded tliat 
date was paid. They were bound to aids for the 
redemption of the lord and his heir from cap- 
tivity, for the knighthood of one of the lord's 
sons, and the marriage of one of his daughters. 
They were to find him twelve men for his mili- 
tary array. They were to hold watch and ward. 
They could not enter the forest with bow and 
arrow, Tiiey were restrained from cutting off 
their dogs' feet within the borough, as being a 
necessary and customary defence : on the bor- 
ders, the dogs appointed to be kept for defence 
were called sluu^li dogs : this restriction points 
out, that within the limits of forests, the inhabi- 
tants keeping dogs for defence were to lop off 
one foot or more, to prevent their chasing the 
game ; which did not spoil them for the defence 
of a dwelling. A singular privilege appears in 
the case of a burgess committing fornication with 
the daughter of a rustic, one who was not a 
burgess, that he should not be liable to the fine 
imposed in other cases for tliat offence, unless he 
had seduced by promise of marriage. The fine 
for seducing a woman l:)clonging to the borough 
was 3.V, to the lord. By the rule for inspecting 
the dyers, weavers, and fullers, it seems those 
were the only trades at that time within the 
borough under the character of craftsmen. Tlie 
burgesses who had ploughs were to till the lord's 
demesne one day in the year, and every burgess 
to find a reaper : their labour was from morning, 
ad nonam, which was three o'clock, as from si.x to 

• Hutchinson. 


The charter was as follows : — 

Sciant tam praesentes quam futuri, quod ego Rickardus de 
Lucy dedi, et hac prnesenti charta mea confirmavi, burgen- 
sibus nieis de Acriraonte et horedibus suis, has scilicit sub- 
scriptas leges, libertates, et consuetudines habendas de me 
et haeredibus meis ; scilicit, Quod iidem burgenses non 
dcbent ire extra portas burgi de Acrimonte per alicujus 
summonitionem nisi ad januam castelli cum domino vel 
ejus senescallo ad namium capiendum vel stricturam facien- 
dam intra Coupland. Et sciendam est, quod si werra 
advenerit, iidem burgenses mei invenient mihi et haeredibus 
meis 12 homines cum armis suis in castello meo defendendo 
de Acrimonte per 40 dies ad eorum proprias expensas ; in 
caeteris vero, pannos et cibos et aliud mercatorium mihi 
accredent per dies 40 : et si eis debitum suum intra termin- 
um non persolvero, non teneantur mihi alia mercatoria sua 
accredere, donee debitum suum reddidero. Item, debent 
mihi auxilium ad faciendum militem unum de filiis meis : 
et illud auxilium dabunt ad mai'itandum unam ex filiabus 
meis. Item, si necesse fuerit ad corpus meum vel haere- 
dum meorum redimendum, mihi auxilium dabunt. Item, 
aliud auxilium mihi facient, quando milites terrae meae mihi 
auxiliabuntur, et illud debet fieri per 12 burgensium. Et 
dabunt multuram ad molendinum meum, scilicet tertium 
decimum vas de proprio blado suo ; de blado sue vero 
empto, dabunt sextum decimum. Item, si quis emerit 
burgagium, dabit mihi 4 denarios de seisina sua. Item, si 
quis burgensis sumraonitus fuerit rationabiliter per leges 
suas veniendi ad placita burgi, et defecerit ; dabit 6 denarios. 
Item, burgenses mei quieti erunt de pannagio suo, intra 
divisas suas de porcis suis, scilicet, a Crokerbec usque ad 
rivulum de Culdertun (salvo maeremio). Et sciendum est, 
quod si porci sui exeunt praedictas divisas, dabunt mihi 
pannagium, sc. vicesimum porcum. Et si forte aliquis bur- 
gensium habeat unum viginti poreos, dabit mihi pro unoquo- 
quc porco denarium. Et si porci sui venient sine licentia 
mea in forestam meam Innerdale, dabunt eschapium. Item, 
vigiliip burgi dcbent incipere a burgensibus; et si quis 
defecerit in eisdem vigiliis dabit mihi G denarios. Item, si 
burgensis ceciderit in placito, pro defectu responsi ; dabit 4 
denarios domino de forisfacto, et recuperabitplaciturasuum. 
Item, si convicium apertum dixerit aliquis burgensis vicino 
suo, dabit domino tres solidos pro forisfacto, si ipse convic- 
tus fuerit iude. Et si quis percusserit vicinum suum sine 


sanguine tracto, dabit domino pro forisfacto tres solidos, si 
inde convictus fuerit. Et si quis traxerit sanguinem de 
vicino suo cum armis, dabet domino pro forisfacto 18 solidos, 
si convictus fuerit. Item, talis est consuetudo burgensiura, 
et viventinm omnium secundum legem vill», si latrocinium 
alicui praedictorum imponitur, purgabit se per 36 homines, 
semel, secundo, tertio, et postea ejectus erit a communione 
burgi, et omnia catalla sua et domus ejus et omnia quee 
possidet saisiabuntur in manu domini. Item, si quis ver- 
beraverit praepositum villa?, dabit domino pro forisfacto 
dimidiani marcam, si inde convictus fuerit ; et si traxerit 
sanguinem de eo, quoquo modo fuerit, dabit domino pro 
forisfacto iSsolidos, si inde convictus fuerit. Item, praeposi- 
tus debet fieri per electionum burgensium. Item, si aliquis 
burgensis vendiderit res suas alicui non burgensi, ct ille 
nolucrit reddere ; licet eidem burgensi capere namium suum 
intra burgum, sine alicujus liccntia. Item, si aliquis burgen- 
sis voluerit vendere terram suam, sc. burgagium suum, licet 
ci vendere et ire libere ubi voluerit. Item, si burgensis 
eraerit burgagium intra villam ct illc tenucrit per annum et 
diem absque calumpnia alicujus; terra illircmanebitquieta, 
nisi aliquis possit monstrare jus suum, et extra regnum 
fuerit in negotiatione vel pcrogrinatione. Item, si uxor 
burgensis dixerit aliquod convitium vicinx- sua*, et ilia inde 
convicta fuerit; dabit domino pro forisfacto 4 denarios. 
Item, omnes burgenscs et liberi eorum quieti erunt a thco- 
lonio in toto terra mca de propriis catallis burgensium. 
Item, licet burgensibus ire in foresta mea de Innerdale, ad 
mercatoriura suum faciendum, sine arcu et sagittis. Item, 
si aliquis extraneus venerit in burgum, et sit burgensis per 
annum et diem sine calumpnia alicujus ; liber deinceps re- 
manebit, nisi sit de dominico regis. Item, burgcnses non 
aniputabunt pedes canum suorum intra divisas suas: et si 
forte aliquis canis sequitur aliqucm burgensera extra divisas 
suas in via, excepta foresta mea de Innerdale, non calump- 
niabitur inde a quoquam. Item, burgcnses non placitabunt 
pro aliqua re ad me pertinente, extra placitum burgi; nisi 
de foresta mca, et de corona regis. Item, si aliquis (jui 
vixerit secundum legem villa- iornicatus fuerit cum (ilia 
alicujus rustici intra burgum ; non dabit mcrchct, nisi cam 
desponsaverit. Item, siquis burgensis non adificaverit bur- 
gum suum intra terminum sibi statulum, scilicet intra an- 
num; dabit domino pro forisfacto 12 denarios. Item, 
asscssus tinctorii, textorii, fullonici debent fieri per visum 
12 burgensium; ct si quis statutum eorum transgressus 



fuerit, dabit domino pro forisfacto 12 denarios, si inde con- 
victus fuerit. Iteoi, licet burgensibus emere quicquid 
voluerint intra burgum, et vendere, sine calumpnia alicujus. 
Item, burgenses qui carucas habent, arabunt mihi uno die, 
de mane usque ad nonam, annuatira, ad summonitionem 
prsepositi mei ; et unuraquodque burgagium inveniet unum 
horainem in autumno ad metendum, et habebunt prandium 
suum quando arabunt et metent. Et sciendum est, quod 
pro hoc servitio habebunt coramunem pasturam de Corker- 
bee usque ad praedictum rivulum de Culdertun, quando 
praedicta pastura vacua sit a blado et fceno domini. Item, 
burgenses capiant necessaria ad propria fedificia sua intra 
praedictas divisas, sine visu forestariorum (salvo niaeremio). 
Item, sciendum est, quod si forte animalia burgensium 
transeant ultra rivulum de Culdertun, dabunt in sestate pro 
decem animalibus unum denarium, et pro quinquies viginti 
ovibus unum denarium. Hiis testibus; D. abbate de Chal- 
dra, Eoberto priore de Sancta Bega, Henrico filio Arthur!, 
Alano filio Ketelli, Willielmo fratre ejus, Hugone filio 
Sywardi, Alano Benedicto, Gilberto filio Gilborti, Roberto 
de Haverington, Ado de Landplogh, Eicardo Anketill, 
Eoberto de Willona. 

Egremont was anciently a parliamentary 
borough : it was first summoned in the 23rd 
Edward I., but was disfranchised on the petition 
of the burgesses. 

In the year 1300, Thomas de Multon and 
Thomas de Lucy claimed to have assize of bread, 
&c. and the chattels of felons condemned and 
beheaded throughout the whole land of Copeland; 
a gallows at Egremont ; a market at that town 
on Wednesday, and a fair for two days at Lady- 
day, which market and fair had been gi-anted in 

The market, which is now held on Saturday, 
is a large corn-market, and well supplied with 
butchers' meat and other provisions. The fair is 
now held on the 18th of September for cattle, &c. 
There is another fair on the third Friday in May. 


There are also certain great markets or cattle- 
fairs held oil the market-days in the summer 

A com-t-baron for the recovery of debts under 
40.?. is held liere, by adjournment, every sixth 
Friday, under General ^^'yndham, the lord of 
the barony of Egremont. A court-leet and a 
customary court are held annually in the spring. 
The ancient court-room in the castle being de- 
cayed, they are holden by adjournment, at the 
King's Arms inn. Two bailiffs and two consta- 
bles are annually appointed at the court-leet. 

Tlie ancient office of borough-serjeant is still 
preserved ; but it is not now an annual appoint- 
ment : lie summons the juries for the court-baron, 
court-leet, and coroner's inquests. 

Gillfoot, a mansion about half a mile north of 
the town, is the residence of Thomas Hartley, 

There are in and near Egremont, a paper-mill, 
carried on by Messrs. Harrison, Barker, and Co. ; 
four tan-yards 1 and a thread-mill, worked by 
Messrs. Gibson and Co. 

The Church. 

The church of Egremont was given by AViUiam 
de Meschines, — who had a gi-ant of the barony 
from his brother Ranulph, who received it, with 
the whole county, from \N'illiam the Conqueror, — 
to the ))riory of Kirkby Begog, (St. Bees,) which 
was a cell to the mitred abbey of St. Mary, York. 
It still pays a pension to the church of St. Bees. 

Edward \T. in the 2nd year of his reign, 
granted to William Ward and Richard Venables 

D 2 



one messuage, one garden, and two acres of land 
in Brisco, in the county of Cumberland, which 
formerly had been assigned towards the support 
of a chantry priest in the church of Egremont. 

And the same king, in the 3rd year of his 
reign, granted to Henry Tanner and Thomas 
Bocker, messuages and tenements in the parish of 
Egremont, in the possession of 18 different per- 
sons, late belonging to a stipendiary in St. Mary's 
church of Egi'emont. 

The benefice is a rectory, in the patronage of 
General Wyndham. It was valued in the King's 
Books at 9/. lis.; and was certified to the 
governors of Queen Ann's bounty at 45/. 15s. lOel. 
The following ai'e the particulars given in the 
P^alor Ecclesiasticus, Hen. VIII. : — 

Egremdd Rectoria EccVie. 

Edmund' Metcalffe incumbens. Eectoria 

p'dca. valet in £ s. 


Mansione cum gleba per > 

annum \ ^ 


Decim' granos. & fcni cxs. \ 




Ian' &agneirx.\s. minut'/ 




& alijs privat' decim' cu. S viij xv 
oblac' ut in libro paschal' V 
xlvs. In tot' J 


Eopris' yis. in 
Annual' pens' priori See. 3 




Bege xxijs. sinod' ijs. j<^. > — xxviij vj 
pcurac' iiij«. \d. ) 

Et valet clare 
Xma. ps. inde 


xxviij vj 

s. d. 

xij — 
XV ij ob 

\\\ 142G, the abbot of St. Mary's presented to 
this church. Henry, the sixth Earl of Northum- 


berland, who died without issue, having given up 
his estates, manors, and advowsons, to Henry 
VIII., Queen Mary, in the 4th and 5th Phihp 
and Mary, returned Inter alia the advowson of 
the rectory of Egremont to his nephew and 
successor, Thomas the seventh Earl, But within 
a few years from this period (in 1569,) Queen 
Ehzabeth presented to this church. In the year 
1673, the Earl of Essex and William Pierpont, 
Esq. presented ; as did the Duke and Duchess of 
Somerset, in 16S5 ; and the advowson has since 
remained in the lords of the barony. 

List of Rectors. 

Edmund Metcalfe, occurs 1535. 

.... Antrobus, occurs, c. 1642. 

16 Halscll.* 

1673 Richard Tickell.f 

1685 Richard Tickell.+ 

1692 Henry Ogle. 

1700 Thomas Robinson. 

1737 Joseph Ritson. 

1758 Thomas Jameson, ob. 1776. 

1777 Thomas Jameson. 

1787 Nicholas Turner. 

1789 Robert C. Herbert. 

Alexander Scott, M. A. 

1835 WilMam Henry Leech. 

This church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a neat 
edifice, consisting of a nave and chancel, a square 

• Ejected, in 1CG2, for nonconformity. 

t Presented by tlic Earl of Essex and William Pierpont, Esq. 

X Presented by the Duke and Duclicss of Somerset. 


tower at the west end, containing two bells, and 
a vestry on its north side. The outer walls are 
plastered ; and the antiquity of the chiu'ch has 
been carefully disguised by extensive modern 
alterations. The north and south windows are 
square ; supplying the places of the narrow lan- 
cets with which the more correct taste of our 
ancestors had appropriately lighted the church. 
On the north wall of the nave is a row of 
corbels, supposed to mark its original height: 
the south wall is four feet in thickness. The 
nave, which is destitute of a middle aisle, has 
three galleries. Its eastern end is almost the 
only part of the church which is not disfigured 
by " the pseudo-restorations, the tasteless im- 
provements, the wanton and avaricious destruc- 
tions, and useless, jobbing, re-edifications of the 
pi'esent [age]." Here, however, are preserved 
four beautiful lancet Avindows, with slender shafts, 
and capitals richly ornamented with a profusion 
of sculptured foliage. On the outside the mould- 
ings of these windows are enriched with the tooth 
ornament. The chancel — a mere recess with a 
rounded east end — is an unsightly projection of 
a modern date. The tower was repaired and 
heightened in 1716: it contains two bells; the 
larger one bears the date 17S8, and the name of 
the founder ; the other is more ancient, and has 
a Latin inscription. There is a narrow circular 
stair-case in its south-west angle. The font is of 
stone, and of an octagonal figure : it bears marks 
of antiquity, but is painted. 

On the north side of the chancel is a mural 
monument of white marble, with this inscrip- 
tion : — 



to the memory of 


of GUlfoot, 

•who departed this life, Jan. IGth, 1831, 

aged 64 years. 

On the south side, a black marble slab is 
affixed to the wall, bearing this inscription, partly 
defaced : — 

Mr. JAMES POOLE, son of Rowland Poole, Esq., and Bridget his 
v.ife, and grandson to Sr James Poole, Bart, was Inten'd Nov. '28th, 

1725, in the 5th year of his age. Mary his sister an 


On the wall at the west end of the nave is a 
marble monument inscribed — 


to the memory of 


Late of Carleton Lodge, 

■who died on the 6th day of September, 18.33, 

aged 47 years. 

Her remains were interred at 

St. Nicholas's chapel, Whitehaven. 

She bequeathed by her wUl, the interest of 

Fifty pounds, to be distributed annually on 

Good Friday, to such poor inhabitanU of this 

Parish as do not receive any benefit 

from the Poor Rates. 

There is here also, a slab inscribed to the 
memory of several members of a family of the 

name of Benson. ,.,,-, , oq 

The rectory-house was rebuilt about Z6 years 
since by the Rev. Alexander Scott, M.A., the 
then' rector, who now holds the rectory of 

Bootle. , , - . 

At the east end of the church-yard is a sar- 


cophagus, enclosed with iron rails, on which is 
inscribed — 

H . S . E 


Quae . Tixit . annos . xlv 

Decessit . Kal . Mai . MDCCCXXXIV 

ConJTgi . optvmae 

Contra . votrm . posuit 

Alexander . Scott 

Hyi . Eccl . Min. 

The Castle. 

The ruins of this fortress, which was once the seat 
of the noble and potent lords of the great barony 
of Copeland or Egi-emont, occupy an eminence 
about 200 yards to the south-west of the town. 
Some pai'ts of its walls exhibit indubitable traces 
of great antiquity, from the occasional introduc- 
tion of that peculiar kind of masonry known as 
herringbone ; and, " from the similarity of its 
arrangement to the grains in an ear of com, 
sometimes more classically termed, * spicata tes- 

* " Herringbone work has been called by some a sign of earl}' work, 
but others regard it rather as a sign of late Norman. Gmldford castle 
is late Norman, and has a good deal of herringbone work in its walls. 
' Opus reticulatum' is occasionally found in late Norman work, as at the 
west end of Rochester cathedral. There is also another kind of masonry 
sometimes found in late Norman work, which appears to be used by way 
of ornament (as in fact is the ' opus reticulatum' J .... perhaps it may be 
called herringbone ashlar." — Glossary of Architecture. 

" This kind of angular masonry is rare in England, where it occurs 
only in a few courses alternating with horizontal masonry, as in Lincoln 
City walls, Ciistleton, Colchester, and Guildford Castles, tlie round tower 
of Bungay Church, and the walls of Cambridge Castle. Mr. Essex sayg 
* the age of this sort of masonry is not easily ascertained.' It has been 


This castle was built about the conclusion of 
the eleventh century, by Wilham de Meschines, 
on whom the barony of Copeland was bestowed 
by his brother, Ranulph, who had received a 
gi-ant of the whole county from Wilham the 

From the extreme paucity of any recorded 
facts connected with its history, we can gather 
nothing fomiing a connected narrative. Indeed, 
it appears to have formed a singular exception to 
the genera] fate of castles situated so near the 
troubled district of the borders : we have no 
account of any siege it has undergone ; nor are 
we informed when it was dismantled and ceased 
to be the residence of the descendants and suc- 
cessors of the noble families of Seymour, Percy, 
Multon, Lucy, and Meschines. The successive 
lordly possessors of this castle and barony are 
enumerated in subsequent pages. 

Egi-emont castle, — of which there are now few 
remains, but those indicative of gi'eat strength — 
occupies the summit of a mount apparently arti- 
ficial, supposed by Mr Hutchinson, in his Excur- 
sion to tlie Lakes, to have been of Danish origin. 
The principal remains are, a square tower,* 

attributed to that of the Komans and Saxons. Morant states, that ' the 
easternmost wall of Colchester Castle is built in the Roman, i. c. the 
herring-bone fashion.' Others call it Roman, for no better reason than 
because they sometimes find it forming part of edifices, which, from their 
containing Roman bricks, have been supposed to be of Roman origin. 
It is probable, however, that all sucli buildings were erected by the Sax- 
ons, with the old materials of the Roman stations to wliich many of their 
towns succeeded." — Gent. Mag., March, 1834, p. 270. 

• It is near the foundation where the herringbone work is to be seen : 
there arc about ten successive courses of it, and not allcmating with ho- 
rizontal masonry. 



entered from the south-west by a semi-circular 
archway with a groined roof; and a part of the 
wall which probably divided the inner and outer 
wards, where are two windows, and a gateway 
with grooves for a portcullis, of a more recent 
date, with pointed arches. The moat is still to 
be traced, nearly encircling the castle ; and a 
stream of water, by which it was formerly sup- 
plied, flows on the eastern side. The site of the 
ancient court-room, in which were held the courts 
of the lords of the barony, is yet distinguishable ; 
and near it is a cock-pit — the scene of barbarous 
sports for many years, but now happily abolish- 

This castle has suffered materially from wanton 
spohation by boys, until measures were taken for 
its prevention by the late Earl of Egremont. In 
1739, when Buck's view of the castle was taken, 
considerable remains of a round tower* graced 
the summit of a hill, on the north side of the 
ruins, "seventy-eight feet perpendicular height 
above the ditch :" this tower is mentioned by Mr. 
Hutchinson, in his Excursion to the Lakes (1776,) 
as having fallen down "some few years ago." 

• The round towers in Ireland and Scotland are always situated near 
a church, although detached, and they unquestionably date from a very 
early period. Of the ecclesiastical round towers in Suffolk and Norfolk, 
Mr. Gage observes (Archa;ologia, vol. xxiii.) that they exhibit "pure 
Norman architecture, or the Circular style, highly finished in some, and 
plainer in others, until it became more or less mixed with the English or 
Pointed ; and with surprise I found the early pointed style prevalent in 
a great many. There was but one tower which I conceived might rank 
higher in antiquity than the twelfth century, and that one not being 
earlier than the Norman time. None could properly be said to be 
doubtful in the date of their construction ; though some were so mutilated 
and altered that the original chaiacter was lost." 



Nicolson and Bum give no description of the 
ruins as seen when they wrote, about 1774 ; but, 
bv a strange anachronism, the Messrs. Lysons, m 
their Magna Britannia (IS 16,) represent con- 
siderable portions of the round tower as then 
standing. Mr. Hutchinson also states, as above, 
(and thTs is copied by the compiler of that Histo- 
ry of Cumberland to which that gentleman's name 
has been appended,) that "on the side next the 
town a i)ostern is standing." 

There may probably have been a Roman station 
or encampment here, as a Roman road Irom 
Element castle to Cockermouth "passed in a 
direct line through the Town-head and the 
Wood-end estates, in the parish of Egi-emont; 
through the Cleator-hall estate, and close by the 
villa^'e of Cleator ; through the estate of lod- 
holes, in which it is now (1815) digging up 
and part of the Warth estate, in the parish ot 
Cleator; through the parish of Arlochden and 
township of Frisington ; through the parish ot 
Lami)lugh, and close by Lamplugh Cross and 
Street-gate, and approaches Cockemouth in a 
straight line. The road is eighteen feet wde, 
and formed of cobbles and freestone, all seemingly 
gathered from the adjacent grounds."* 

The Barony of Egremont, 

Anciently called the barony of Copeland was 
included in the grant of Cumberland, by Wilham 
the Conciueror, to Ranulph de Meschmes who 
bestowed it on his brother, WiUiam de Meschmes, 

• Lysons. 
E 2 


Earl of Cambridge. We have already stated 
(pages 2, 3,) some particulars respecting this 
barony ; and its successive lords are given in the 
following pages. 

Lords of tue Barony of Egremont. 
De Meschines. 

Arms : — Or, a lion rampant, his tail erected, gules. 

William de Meschines received this barony by grant from^ 
his brother Ranulph, as before stated, pp. 2 and 35. He 
left, at his death, an only daughter, Alice, married to Robert 
de Romley, lord of the honor of Skipton in Craven. 

De Romley. 
Arms: — 

Robert de Romley, lord of the honor of Skipton in Craven, 
succeeded to the lordship of the barony of Egremont, in 
right of his wife, Alice, daughter of the above William de 
Meschines. He had issue a daughter, Alice, married to 
William Fitz-Duncan. 

Arms : — 

William Fitz-Duncan, Earl of Murray, nephew of David, 
king of Scots, being the son of his brother Duncan, by 
Ochthreda, his wife, sister and heiress of Waldieve, son of 
Alan, son of Waldieve, first lord of AUerdale, who was the 
son of Gospatrick, Earl of Dunbar, (see page 2.) William 
Fitz-Duncan had issue by the said Alice his wife, William, 
who died an infant, and three daughters coheiresses, 

1. Cicely, was married to William le Gros, Earl of Al- 
bemarle, and had issue only a daughter named Hawise, 
who was married to three husbands successively ; first, 
to William de Mandevill Earl of Esse.x, to whom she 
had no child; secondly, to William deFortibus; and 
thirdly, to Baldwin Beton, Earl of the Isle of Wight. 


To her second husband, William de Fortibus, who in 
her right assumed the title of Earl of Albemarle, she 
had a son, William de Fortibus, who had issue the 
third William de Fortibus ; whose daughter and heir, 
Aveline, (wife to Edmund Crouchback, brother of 
Edward I.) dying without issue, the third part of 
William Fitz-Duncan's lands (which was Skipton in 
Craven) came to the king's hands, and by king Edward 
II. was granted to Robert de Clifford, in exchange 
for the Clillbrd's lands in the county of Monmouth, 
in whose posterity it still remains. 

2. Amabil, the seconddaughter of William Fitz Duncan, 
had for her part of the inheritance this barony of 
Egremont ; and was married to Reginald Lucy, of 
whom hereafter, as lord of Egremont. 

3. Alice, third daughter and coheiress of William Fitz 
Duncan, was married to Gilbert Pippard, who was 
justice-itinerant in Wiltshire in the 23rd Hen. IT., 
and afterwards was married to Robert Courtney; but 
had no issue of her body : wherefore her part of 
her father's inheritance (which was the liberty of 
Cockerraouth, Aspatric, and the barony of Aller- 
dale below Derwent) was divided between the Earl 
of Albemarle her eldest sister's husband, and Richard 
de Lucy her other sister's son. And so it contiuued 
divided until the eldest sister's issue was extinguished 
by the death of Aveline aforesaid, daughter of the 
last William de Fortibus; after whose death, all the 
Romley's lands, both above and below Derwent, came 
wholly to the heirs of Reginald Lucy and Amabil 
Romley his wife, second daughter to the said William 
Fitz Duncan. 


.Arms: — Gules, three lucies, hauriant, argent. 

Reginald Lucy, whose parentage Dugdale declares his 
inability to discover, married, as stated above, Amabil Fitz- 
Duncan. During the rebellion of the Earl of Leicester, in the 
reign of Henry II., he was governor of Nottingham for the 
king; and he was present at the coronation of Richard I. By 
his wife, Amabil, he had issue, his successor, 

Richard Lucy, who granted the charter to the burgcs- 


ses of Egremont (see page 24). In the 1st of King John he 
paid a fine to the crown of three hundred marks for hvery of 
his lands, and licence to marry with whom he should think 
proper. In four years afterwards, he paid five marks and 
one palfrey to the king, that he might have jurors to inquire 
what customs and services his tenants had used to perform, 
and to do, him and his ancestors for their lands in Coupland. 
And the same year he obtained a grant from the king to 
himself and Ada, his wife, daughter and coheir of Hugh de 
Morvill, of the forestership of Cumberland. The next year 
he paid nine hiuidred marks, and five palfreys, to have livery 
of the property of the said Ada, and to enjoy the forestership 
of Cumberland as amply as Hugh de Morvill had it, without 
any partition whatsoever. 

He died on or before the 15th of King John, for then Ada, 
his widow, gave a fine of five hundred marks for livery of 
her inheritance ; as also for her dowry of his lands, and that 
she might not be compelled to marry again. She espoused 
without compulsion, however, and without the king's licence, 
Thomas de Multon, in consequence of which the castle of 
Egrement, and her other lands, were seized by the crown. 
But upon paying a compensation they were restored, and she 
had livery of them again. Her first husband, Richard de 
Lucy, left two daughters, his coheirs, who became wards to 
her second husband, on his payment of 1000 marks to the 
crown, and were married to his sons. 

Araabil espoused the eldest son, Lambert, and conveyed 
to him the lordship of Egremont ; Alice was married 
to the younger, Alan, and their son, Thomas de Mul- 
ton, assumed the surname of his maternal family, and 
was ancestor of the barons Lucy of Cockermouth. 


Arms: — Argent, three bars gules. 

Thomas de Multon, lord of Multon, co. Lincoln, before 
his marriage with Ada, widow of the above Richard Lucy, 
in the 17th King John, being in arms with the rebellious 
barons, was taken prisoner and confined in Corfe castle ; 
but on the accession of Henry III. he obtained his liberty 
and restitution of his lands. Three years after his marriage, 
he paid 100/. fine to the king, and one palfrey for the office 
of forester of Cumberland, it being the inheritance of Ada, 



his wife. In the 1 7th of Henry III., he was sheriff of Cum- 
berland, and remained in office for several succeeding years 
Moreover, he was one of the Justices of the kmg s Court ot 
the Common Pleas, from the 8th Henry TIL, and a justice 
itinerant for divers years, from the 9th of the same reign 

Matthew I'aris says of him, "In his youth he was a stout 
soldier, afterwards very wealthy, and learned m the laws ; 
but overmuch coveting to enlarge his possessions, which lay 
contiguous to those of the monks of Crowland, he did them 
great wrong in many respects." . . i „j 

By his fi?st wife he had issue as above stated ; and 

the issue of his second marriage were— 

Thomas, ancestor of the Multons of Gilsland; ana 
Julian, married to Robert le Vavasour. 

He died in 1240, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Lambert de Multon, who, as before stated, married Ama- 
bil eldest daughter and coheiress of Richard Lucy. In the 
vear 1216, he obtained an extraordinary privilege from the 
pope, that no one should have the power to excommunicate 
h°m but by a special mandate from his holiness. But he 
To had this liberty, says Matthew Pans, to sin vv.thout 
punishment, and to do injury to others, ridmg with rich 
Kpn^s very proudly, from a trial at law no sooner 
1 ightel from his horse, but (meritmg ^od's judgmcn was 
suddenly smitten with a grievous disease, of wluch falling to 
the ground, he died before his spurs could be taken off, 
bcini then at his house at Multon, in Lincolnshire. By his 
fi?st wife he had a son, Thomas, his successor. He espoused 

econd ly, Ida, widow of GeollVey de Oilli, but had no issue. 
His death occurred in 1247, when he was succeeded by his 


Thomas de Multon, designated " of Egremont; who in 
the 49th Henry HI., was in arms against his sovereign. In 
the 22nd Edward I., he had a grant of free warren in all his 

demesne lands at Egremont. I le nwricd and dying 

in 1294, was succeeded by his son, ihomas. 

Thomas de Multon, son and heir, was summoned to par- 
liament from 27th Edward I., 1299, to 14th Edward II., 
1320 after the 1st Edward II. with the addition of "de 
Tcrrpmund " He was previously summoned in tlie ioin 
E&d I. • but, says Nicolas, it is doubtful if that writ was 
a regular summons to parliament. He was much engaged 


in the Scottish wars. Lord Multon died in 1322, and was 
succeeded by 

John de Multon, son and heir, second baron, who was 
summoned to parliament from 6th Edward III., 1332, to 8th 
Edward III., 1334, as " Johanni de Multon." He married 
Annabel, daughter and heiress of Laurence de Holbeche ; 
but dying without issue, in 1 334, his estates, including the 
manors of Thurstaneston, in Suffolk, and Egrcmout and 
Cockermouth, in Cumberland, were divided amongst his 
three sisters, thus, viz. — 

Joane, wife of Robert, Baron Fitz-Walter, had for her 
share the castle of Egremont, with the third part of 
that manor, and the third part of other manors. 
Elizabeth, married to Robert, eldest son of Sir John 
de Harrington, of Harrington, knight,* ("oi. v.p.jhad 
certain lands at Gosforth, parcel of the manor of 
Egremont, and a proportion of other manors. 
Margaret, married Thomas, Lord Lucy, had certain 
lands in Cumberland, and parcel of the manor of Egre- 
mont, besides a proportion of other estates. 
Among their descendants and representatives, the barony 
of Multon, of Egremont, is now in abeyance. Thus, says 
Mr. John Denton, "this barony was broken into parts, which 
from the conquest had continued entire, except Lowes-water, 
and the lands between Cocker and Derwent, and the five 
towns granted to Waldeof, as aforesaid ; but now of late, it 
is re-united by the Earls of Northumberland, who are lords 
thereof, by gift and purchase but not by descent from any 
of the coheirs." 

Thomas, Lord Lucy, second baron, who married one of 
the sisters and coheiresses of the last male heir of the Mul- 
tons of Egremont, as stated above, had issue by her, 
Anthony, who succeeded as third baron. 
Maud, or Matilda, who was twice married ; firstly, to 
Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus; who died s.p. ; 
and secondly, to Henry Percy, first Earl of Northum- 
berland. Upon the marriage of this lady, then sole 
heiress of the Barons Lucy, with the Earl of Northum- 
berland, it was stipulated that the castle and honor of 
Cockermouth, part of her inheritance, should be 
settled upon the earl and herself, and the heirs male 

• Kicolas and Buike say, Walter de Beimichan. 


of tlieir two bodies; failing which, upon the heirs of 
ber bod)' ; and in case she should die without issue, 
then upon Henry, Lord Percy, the carl's son and heir 
by his first wife, and the heirs male of his body, upon 
condition that the said Henry and his heirs male 
should bear the arms of Percy quarterly with the 
arms of Lucy, viz. "gules, three lucios, ar.," in all 
shields, banners, ice. The said Maud died without 
Thomas, Lord Lucy, died in 1365, and was succeeded by 
his sou Anthony, 

Anthony, Lord Lucy, tliird and last baron, was never 
summoned to parliament. He was joined with Roger de 
Clill'ord in the guardianship of "the marches towards Cum- 
berland and Westmorland." He died in 1368, leavinj; by 
Joane, his wife, widow of William, Lord Greystoke, an infant 
daughter who died in the following year, when the above 
^laud. Countess of Angus, succeeded to the barony of Lucy 
and the honor of Cockermouth, with the other estates. 


Arms : — Quarterly, four grand quarters: first and fourth, 
or, a lion rampant, az. (being the ancient arms of the Duke 
q/' Brabant and Lovciin ;) second and third, gu. three lucies, 
or pikes, haurient, ar. for Lticy : second grand quarter, az. 
five fusils, in fesse, or, for Pcrci/ ; third, gu. on a saltier, 
ar. a rose of the field, barbed and seeded proper for ^M'tvYfc.- 
fourth, quarterly gu. and or, in the first quarter a mullet ar. 
for P''crc. 

Crest: — On a chapeau gules, a lion passant azure. 

Supitorters: — On the dc.\ter side, a lion azure; on the 
sinister, an unicorn argent, collared gobone, or and azure. 

Motto : — Esperance en Dieu. 

The illustrious family of Percy, says Burke,* is descended 
from one of the Norman chieftains (William de Percy) who 
accompanied William the Conqueror into England in 1066; 
and it derivi's its name from the village of Percy, near Ville- 
dieu. The family of Percy, of Normandy, deduced its pedi- 
gree from Geoffrey, (son of Maiufred, a Danish chicdain,) 

• Extinct Peerage. 


who assisted Rollo, in 912, in subjugating that principality, 
and aquiring considerable possessions there. 

Henry Percy, fourth Lord Percy of Alnwick, Earl Marshal, 
was advanced to the Earldom of Northumberland, on the 
day of the coronation of Richard II. in 1377 ; and was made 
K.G. in the 7th Richard II. He was appointed Lord High 
Constable for life, in 1399. By his first wife, Margaret, 
daughter of Ralph, Lord Nevill of Raby, he had issue, 

Sir Henry, K.G. the gallant and renowned Hotspur, 
who married Philippa, daughter of Edmund Mortimer, 
Earl of March. Ho fell at the battle of Shrewsbury, 
in 1403, during the life-time of his father, leaving 

Henry, who succeeded as second Earl. 
Elizabeth, married firstly, to John Lord Cliffoid ; 
and secondly to Ralph Nevill, second Earl of 
Sir Thomas, who married a daughter and coheiress of 

the Earl of Athol. 
Sir Ralph, who married the other daughter and co- 
The Earl married secondly, Maud, sister and heiress of 
Anthony, Lord Lucy, as stated above. Some years after- 
wards, however, being proclaimed a traitor, and his lands 
declared forfeited by King Richard, his lordship, in conjunc- 
tion with his son, Sir Henry Percy, surnamed Hotspur, and 
Henry, Duke of Lancaster, accomplished the dethronement 
of that monarch, and placed the crown upon the head of 
Henry Duke of Lancaster, under the title of Henry IV. 

The Earl of Northumberland fell (in 1407-8) in arms 
against that king in assisting to place whom on the throne he 
had been so eminently conspicuous ; when his honors became 
forfeited under an attainder, but wore restored in 1414, to 
his grandson, only son of the valiant Hotspur. 

Henry Percy, second Earl of Northumberland, married 
the lady Eleanor Nevill, widow of Richard, Lord Spencer, 
and daughter of Ralph Nevill, first Earl of Westmorland, 
K.G. His lordship was made Lord High Constable by 
Henry VI. ; he was present at the battle of Agincourt; and 
fell at St. Albans, 23rd May, 1455, fighting under the banner 
of that monarch. Of the issue of this Earl the following 
curious account is given in a MS. in the British Museum, 



stated to be extracted "Ex Registro Monastery de Whit- 
7„,e."_"OfthisAlianorhiswite,he begat IX sonncs and 
III daughters, ^vhose names be Johanne, that is buried at 
Whitbye; Thomas (created) Lord Egremont; Kathcyne 
Gray, of Euthyn, (wife of Edmund Lord Gray, afterwards 
Earl of Kent) ; Sir Kaffc Percy ; Wilham Percy, a byshopp* ; 
Richard Percy; John, that dyed without issue; another 
John (called hy Vince;it, in his MS. baronage m the herald's 
office', John PerV, senior', of Warkworth) ; George Percy 
clerk- Henry, that dyed without issue; besides the eldest 
sonne'and successor, Henry , third Erie of Northumberland." 
He was succeeded by his eldest survivmg son, 

Henry Percy, third Earl, who had married Eleanor, 
daughter and solo heiress of Richard Poynings, who died in 
the life-time of his father. Lord Poynings ; by which marriage, 
the baronies of Poynings,Fitzpayne, and Bryan, came in o 
the family of Percy ; and Sir Henry Percy was summoned to 
parliament, while his father, theEarlof Northumberland, yet 
ived, (■29th Henry VI.,) as Baron Poynmgs. His ordship 
fell leading the van of the Lancastrians, sword in hand at 
the' battle of Towton, on the 29th March, 1461, and his 
honors became subsequently forfeited, by an act of attainder, 
but were restored to his only son, 

Henrv Percy, fourth Earl, K.G. who was confined in the 
Tower from the death of his father until \\G9, when he was 
restored to his freedom and dignity. He married Maud, 
daughter of the Lord Herbert, and had issue iour sons and 
three daughters. He was slain in a not at his house at Cox- 
lodge, CO York, 28th April, 1489, having rendered himself 
unpopular by the discharge of his duties as ord lieutenant of 
the county in levying a tax for the king's service. His 
lordship was buried at Beverley, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, 

Henry-Algernon Percy, fifth earl, K.G , who married 
Catherine, daughter and coheiress of Sir Kobert Spencer, 
Kn tof Spencer-Combe, Devon, by Eleanor, his wife, 
daugl^tcr, and at length coheir, of Edmund Beaufort, Duke 
of Somerset, by whom he had issue, 

Ilcnrti, his successor. . „^ , tt 

Thomas (Sir) , executed for Ask's conspiracy, 29th Henry 
Vni., leaving two sons, 

• Bishop of Carlisle, 1452—1462. 
' F 2 


Thomas, ? successively Earls of Northumbcr- 
Henrij, \ land. 
Ingelram (Sir). 

Margaret, married to Heury Cliflford, first Earl of Cum- 
Maud, married to Lord Coniers. 
His lordship died ia 1527, and was succeeded by his eldest 

Henry-Algernon Percy, sixth earl, K.G. This nobleman 
married Mary, daughter of George Talbot, Earl of Shrews- 
bury ; but dying without issue, in 1537, and his brother, Sir 
Thomas Percy, having been previously attainted and executed, 
all the honors of the family became forfeited, and the Duke- 
dom of Northumberland was conferred by King Edward VI., 
upon John Dudley, Earl ol Warwick; but that nobleman 
having forfeited his life and honors, by treason against Queen 
Mary, in 1553, her majesty was pleased to advance, by letters 

Thomas Percy, seventh earl, K.G. son of the attainted 
Sir Thomas Percy (second son of the fifth Earl.) He was 
created by letters-patent, bearing date 30th April, 1557, 
Baron Percy, of Cockermouth and Petworth, Baron Poyn- 
ings, Lucy, Bryan, and Fitz-Payne; and on the following 
day Earl of Northumberland. His lordship married Anne, 
daughter of Henry Somerset, second Earl of AVorccster, by 
whom he had issue. He was made Lord Warden of the 
marches ; but being concerned in the rebellion with the Earl 
of Westmorland, he was attainted in 1571, and beheaded at 
York, in the following year. 

Henry Percy, eighth carl, brother and heir, succeeded, 
notwithstanding the attainder of his brother, in consequence 
of the special entail to him in the patent. He married 
Katherine, eldest daughter and coheiress of John Nevill, 
Baron Latimer, by whom he had a numerous family. He 
remained loyal during the defection of his brother, but falling 
under suspicion of favouring the cause of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, he was confined in the Tower, where he was found 
dead in his bed, having been shot through the heart, 21st 
June, 1585. 

Henry Percy, ninth earl, K.G., son and heir, married 
Dorothy, sister of the Earl of Essex, and widow of Sir 
Thomas Perrot, knight, by whom he had issue. Although 


he was a Protestant, yet having a kinsman, Henry Percy, 
concerned in the gunpowder plot, he fell under suspicions of 
treason, and, like his predecessor, was confined in the Tower, 
and sentenced to pay a fine of 30,000/. By a singular coin- 
cidence, his death occurred on the anniversary of the day 
which had cost him so much trouble, — 3th November, 1632. 

Algernon Percy, tenth earl, K.G., son and heir, succeeded 
his father, lie was twice married ; firstly, to Anne, daugh- 
ter of William Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, and secondly, to Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Theophilus Howard, Earl of Suffolk, the 
mother of his heir, and through whom he became possessed 
of Northumberland House, Charing Cross, built by Henry 
Howard, Earl of Northampton. His lordship died, 13th 
October, 1668, and was succeeded by his only son, 

Josceline Percy, eleventh earl, who married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, by 
wliom he had an only daughter, Elizabeth. The earl died, 
21st May, 1G70, aged 26. 

The Lady Elizabeth Percy, his solo daughter and heiress, 
married, 1682, Charles Seymour, sixth duke of Somerset, of 
whom hereafter. 


ArnU: — Quarterly, first and fourth, or, on a pile gules 
between six fleur-de-lis, az. three lions of England, (being 
the coat of augmentation, granted by Henry VUI., on his 
marriage with Jane Seymour,) second and third gu. two 
wings conjoined in lure, tips downwards, or. 

Charles Seymour, sixth Duke of Somerset, K.G., married 
the sole heiress of the last Earl of Northumberland, by 
whom he had issue, 

Algernon, who was summoned, on the death of his 
mother, as Baron Percy, and afterwards succeeded as 
Duke of Somerset. 

^^^V \ died unmarried. 
Charles, S 

Elizabeth, married to Henry O'Brien, Earl of Thomond, 

oh. s. p. 
Katherine, married to Sir William Wyndham, Bart., 

and had issue, 


Charles, second Earl of Egremont, of whom here- 

Percy O'Brien, created Earl of Thomond, who 
died unmarried. 
Frances, died unmarried. 

Anne, married Peregrine Osborn, Marquess of Carirar- 
then, and afterwards Duke of Leeds. 
The Duke married secondly, Charlotte, daughter of Daniel 
Finch, Earl of Winchelsea, and had two daughters, 

Frances, married to John Manners, the celebrated 
Marquess of Granby, and was mother of Charles, 
fourth Duke ol Rutland. 
Charlotte, married Heneage Finch, Earl of Aylesford. 
His Grace who was known as " the proud Duke," died in 
1748, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Algernon Seymour, seventh Duke, who married Frances 
Thynne, grand-daughter of Thomas, first Viscount Wey- 
mouth, by whom he had issue, 

Elizabeth, married to Sir Hugh Smithson, Bart., after- 
wards created Duke of Northumberland, K.G., 
grand-father of the present Duke, 
George, who died vita patris, unmarried. 
On the 2nd October, 1749, he was created Baron "VVark- 
worth and Earl of Northumberland, with remainder to his 
son-in-law. Sir Hugh Smithson, Bart, aforesaid; and the 
next day, he was created Baron Cockermouth and Earl of 
Egremont, with remainder to the sons (Charles and Percy, 
aforesaid) of his sister the Lady Katherine Wyndham. He 
died 7th February, 1750, when the Dukedom of Somerset 
descended to the heir-male, Edward, and the Earldoms of 
Egremont and Northumberland, according to their respective 


Arms. — Azure, a chevron, between three lions' heads, 
erased, or. 

Crest: — A lion's head, erased, within a fetterlock, or. 

SujfjJOrters : — On the dexter side, a lion rampant azure, 
winged invertedly or ; on the sinister side, agriphon, argent, 
gutte de sang. 

Motto : — Au Ion droit. 

The family of Wyndham, which is traced back to the time 


of the Conquest, is of Saxon origin. Ailwardus de Wymond- 
ham, being possessed of lands at Wymondham, now Wynd- 
ham, CO. Norfolk, soon after that period assumed that surname 
from his possessions. 

On the death of Algernon, seventh Duke of Somerset, 
who was created Earl of Egremont and Baron Cockermouth, 
which occurred 7th February, 1750, those titles devolved on 

Charles 'Wyndham, second earl, son of Sir William Wynd- 
ham, third Baronet, M.P. (Master of the Buck Hounds to 
Queen Anne, and Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1713,) by 
his wife, Katherine, daughter of Charles, sixth Duke of 
Somerset. Sir William died 17th July, 1740. Ilislordship 
was bom in 1710; was Secretary of State, 1761 ; and Lord 
Lieutenant of Cumberland and Sussex. He married l'2th 
March, 1751, Almeria, sister of George Carpenter, first Earl 
of Tyrconnel and by her (who remarried in 1767, Count 
Bruhl, of Saxony, and died \79iJ had issue, 
George O' Bricn, his successor. 
Elizabeth Alicia ^laria, married Henry Herbert, first 

Earl of Carnarvon. 
Frances, married Charles Marsham, first Earl of Romney. 
Percy Charles. 

Charles William, married, firstly, Anne Barbara Fran- 
ces, daughter of George Bussey Villiers, fourth Earl 
of Jersey, and widow of William Henry Lambton, 
William Frederick, married firstly, Frances Hartford, 
daughter of Frederick Calvert, Lord Baltimore ; 
and secondly, Julia de Smorsewski, Countess de Spy- 
terki : by the first marriage he had issue, 

George Francis, captain ll.N.married Jane, daugh- 
ter of the Rev. William Roberts, Vice-Provost 
of Eton College. 
Frances, married William Aliller, Esq. 
Laura, married the Rev. Charles Boultbee. 
This Earl, while a commoner, represented the borough of 
Cockermouth in one parliament, chosen 21st George II. 
On the 30th April, 1751, his lordship took the oaths before 
the king, at St. James', as Lord-Lieutenant and Custos- 
Rotulorum of the county of Cumberland. 

His lordship died 21st August, 1763, and was succeeded 
in his titles by his son, 

George O'Brien Wyndham, third Earl, F.R.S. and F.S.A. 


who was born, 18th December, 1751, and educated at Eton. 
His majesty George II. was sponsor at his baptism. 

On the death of Charles, Duke of Eichmond, his lordship 
was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Sussex, 6th November, 
1819. He executed that important office until, in 1835, his 
increasing infirmities compelled him to resign it. Duruig the 
two following years, his health rapidly declined, until his 
death, which occurred at the advanced age of 85, 11th No- 
vember, 1837, at Petworth. His lordship's remains were 
deposited on the 21st, in a vault built by himself at Petworth. 
The Earl of Egremont was distinguished no less for the 
princely style of magnificence in which his correct taste 
patronized the fine arts, than for the countless acts of charity 
and liberality which brought down upon him the blessings of 
the needy living in the neighbourhood of his palace — the 
" princely Petworth," described as " the temple of the noblest 
productions of genius, of whatever the scholar, the sculptor, 
and the painter could produce." Had he not been possessed 
of a splendid fortune, with a rental, of late years, of 81,000/. 
per annum, his liberal spirit could not have derived enjoy- 
ment from dispensing during the last sixty years of his life 
the immense sum of 1,200,000/. in acts of charity and libe- 

By a lady, now deceased, who bore the name of Mrs. 

Wyndham, (daughter of the Rev lliff, of Westminster 

school,) the Earl had issue, 

George, a Colonel in the army. 

Henry, a Major-Geueralinthearmy, of whom hereafter, 
as lord of Egremont. 

Charles, a Colonel in the army. 

Frances, married to Sir Charles Merrick Burrell, Bart., 
and has issue. 

Mary, married to George, Earl of Munster, eldest son 
of his late Majesty, William IV., and has issue. 

. . . . , married to John King, Esq. 
The Earl left by will, Petworth, and the adjoining estates, 
to Colonel George W^yndham, his lordship's eldest son ; the 
Cumberland estates, to Major-General Wyndham, the second 
son ; to Colonel Charles Wyndham, the youngest son, the 
whole of his funded property, amounting to about 220,000/. 
To each of his daughters he left 45,000/. 

An excellent portrait of the noble Earl, is engraved in 
mezzotinto, by Reynolds, from a painting by T. Phillips, 
Esq., R.A. ; a smaller copy of the same is in Fisher's " Na- 
tional Portrait Gallery." 


The present Earl, George Francis, his lordship's nephew, 
being the son of the Hon. Frederick William Wyndham, 
(see p. 47, born 30th August, 1785,) succeeded to the old 
family estate of Orchard-Wyndham, co. Somerset, and others 
in Cornwall and Devonshire.* 

Major-General Henry Wyndham, second son of George, 
third Earl of Egremont, succeeded, on the death of his 
father, in 1837, to the lordship of the barony of Egremont, 
and the honor of Cockennouth, with other his estates in 
Cumberland. General Wyndham is one of that annually- 
decreasing number of field-officers who were present at the 
brilliant achievements which have immortalized the field of 
Waterloo. His Cumberland residence is Cockermouth 
castle — a baronial fortress supposed to have been built 
soon after the Conquest, — the seat of the lords of Allerdale, 
and whose history is closely connected with that of Egre- 
mont, having been possessed by William de Meschines, 
Fitz-i)uncan, the Lucys, the Multons, the Percys, the 
Seymours, and the Wyndhams. 


The National School. — This school, which is 
chiefly supported by voluntary subscriptions, 
affords education to about 65 children. The 
present master is l\Ir. John Walker. It has an 
endowment of about 3/. per annum. 

The Rev. Thomas Benn's Chariti/, — The Rev. 
Thomas Benn, who died vicar of Milloni, in 17 13, 
becjueathed the interest of 251. to be given in 
bread to the poor, in the parish church of Egre- 
mont ; this charity, however, is now lost. 

Mm. Jane Birley's Chanty. — Mrs. Jane Birley, 
ofCarleton Lodge, who died in 1833, left by 

• For the above particulars respecting the late Earl of Egremont I am 
mainly indebted to the Gentleman's Magazine, Jan. 1838 ; tlic peerages 
of Collins, Sharpe, and Burke, have supplied great portions uf the pedi- 
grees of the former families. 



>vill the interest of 50/. to be distributed annually 
on Good Friday to the poor of the parish who 
are not receiving parochial relief. 

ri)e Warieft of (JTUator. 

HE parish of Cleator,— 
; anciently called Kekejl- 
terr, from the rivulet Ke- 
]^el], — extends about three 
miles from north to south, 
and one and a half from 

\m:^^Y.^/^jmMM. ^^'^^ ^^ ^'^^*" ^^ adjoins 
(^^Jf^^^^S^ the parishes of St. Bees, 
^^^^^^^^^m Egremont, and Arlecdon, 
^^^^^M^ and the chapelry of Enner- 
dale This parish claims (with Egremont) an 
extensive right of common on Dent Hill— an 
eminence on the opposite or left bank ol tlie 

A^Roman road, from Egremont castle to 
Cockermouth, passed through the Cleator hall 
estate, and close by the village, through the cs ate 
of Todholes, (in which it was dug up m IblJ,) 
and part of the ^Vath estate. The road was 
described as eighteen feet in width, and was 
formed of cobbles and freestone, all apparently 
crathered from the adjacent grounds, (see page 

35 ") 

iviajor-General Wyndham is lord of the manor 

of Cleator common. . ^ ,1 e 

The exhausted iron mme at Crowgarth was 
worked from 17^1 to about the Y^ar ISIU For 
a short time it yielded annually upwards of 20 ()0) 
tons of ore, which was chiefly shipped for Hull, 

G 2 


and the Carron foundry, in Scotland. It was 
raised from the depth of twelve fathoms ; the 
thickness of the band, which was a superior kid- 
ney ore, was about twenty-four feet. 

In this parish is a lake ; one of the islands 
with which its surface is studded, is remarkable 
for being the resort of a species of sea-gull, called 
the Blackcap, whose nests are so numerous, that 
it is a difficiilt matter to walk here in breeding 
time, without crushing the eggs. 

Near the village of Cleator is Flosh, a modern 
handsome mansion, in the ancient style, erected 
about 1832, the seat of T. H. Ainsworth, Esq. 

The Manor. 

Cleator is mentioned in an ancient chronicle 
as a manor belonging, in 1315, to the monastery 
of St. Bees ; at which time, James Douglas, with 
a party of Scots, burned the manor house.* The 
manor was enfranchised in or before the reign of 
Henry VIII.: in the 35th Henry VIII., on an 
inquisition of knights' fees in Cumberland, it was 
found that the free tenants of Cleator held jointly 
the manor of Cleator of the king in cap'ite as of 
his castle of Egi-emont, by the ninth part of one 
knight's fee, rendering homage and suit of court, 
and \2d. seawake. 

The Church 

Was wholly appropriated to the abbey of St. 
Mary at Calder. It does not occur in the Valor 

* Lysoos.— Sec Leland's Collectanea, i. 24. 


Ecclesiastkm of Henry VIII. ; and m licenses to 
the curates it was anciently called the chapel ot 
St. Leonard de Cleator. The original endow- 
ment was seven marks per annum. ^ It was 
certified to the governors of Queen Ann s bounty 
of the clear annual value of 6/. 13.. 4r/ viz. 4/. 
13s Ad. from the impropriator, and 21. pension 
from the crown, arising from the property ot the 
kni'-hts of St. John of Jerusalem. In 1 1 02 IVlr. 
John Robertson had the impropriation and pa- 
tronage. It subsequently passed to the Cxales, 
and is now in the impropriation and patronage 
of Thomas Richmond Gale Braddyll, bsq., ol 
Conishead priory, Lancashire. The registers 
commence in 1572. 

We have no more perfect hst of the incum- 
bents of this parish than the following :— 


1728 John Stamper. 

1730 Peter Richardson. 

1731 Joseph Dixon. 
1755 T. Brocklebank. 

1761 Jennings 

1762 John Lowther. 

1763 William Stockdale. 

1764 H. Nicholson. 

1765 Aarey. 

1769 Joseph Harrison. 

1769 Ralph Tuasdale. 

1770 John Fisher. 
1772 H. Mossop. 
1822 John Brunt. 

The church of Cleator is an ancient building. 


in a most damp and dilapidated condition. It 
consists merely of a nave and chancel, of equal 
height, with a bell-turret and a porch at its 
western end. The turret carries two bells. The 
windows are modem, excepting one on the south 
side of the chancel, which is square-headed, of two 
lights. The chancel arch is pointed. The top 
of a beautiful cross is built in the south wall, 
w^hich, until of late years, enriched the apex of 
the gable of a south porch,now destroyed. There 
was formerly another cross on the east end of the 
chancel. A new church is now (1841) about to 
to be erected. 

Ct)e {^art0l) of f^alc. 

|HE parish of Hale extends 
about four miles from 
east to west, and one mile 
and a half from north to 
south. It contains the 
joint townships of Hale 
with Wilton ; and is bound- 
ed by the parishes of Eg- 
remont, St. John's, St. 
Bridget's, and St. Bees. 
It includes a few of the houses in the village of 

This parish was enclosed under an act of par- 
liament passed in ISll, by which, lands were 
allotted to the Earl of Lonsdale, as impropriator 
of the tithes. 

The Manor. 

This manor was granted soon after the Con- 
quest, with Gosfortli, Bolton, and Stainton, to 
Thomas Multon of Gilsland. It was subsequently 
poss'essed by a family who took their name from 
the place : in tlic reign of Henry HI. it was 
held by Alexander de Hale; and in the 23rd Ed- 
ward I., Agnes and Constance, his daughters, 
held it of Thomas de Multon. In an inquisition 
post mortem of John de Multon in the reign of 
Edward II., the name of Christian appears as the 


Agnes, one of the coheiresses of the ahove 
Alexander de Hale, brought her moiety to the 
Ponsonbys ; and they eventually became possess- 
ed of the remainder. 

The Ponsonbys of Hale were originally of 
Ponsonby, where they are to be traced before the 
reign of Edward H. At an earUer period, the 
first of the family of whom we find any mention 
was called Ponson, and his son, Fitz-Ponson. 
Two younger brothers of the Ponsonbys of Hale, 
Sir John and Henry, went into Ireland in 1649, 
with Oliver Cromwell, who had been appointed 
to reduce that country. Sir John, the elder 
brothei', was ancestor of the noble famihes of 
Besborough and Ponsonby ; and Henry of the 
Ponsonbys of Crotto, in Ireland. The arms of 
Ponsonby are. Gules, a chevron between three 
combs argent. Miles Ponsonby, Esq. died lord 
of this manor in 1814 ; it is now the property of 
his grandson. Miles Ponsonby, Esq. who resides 
at Hale hall. 

Hale Hall. 

This Hall was formerly " a commodious and 
pleasant mansion," and has for many ages been 
the residence of the ancient family of Ponsonby : 
it is now the seat of Miles Ponsonby, Esq. lord 
of the manor. 

The Church. 

The church of Hale was appropriated, in 1345, 
by the archdeacon of Richmond, to the priory of 
Conishead, in Lancashire, reserving to himself 
a yearly pension of 61. 8s. The benefice is not 
included in the Valor Ecclesiastkus of Henry VIII. 


It was certified to the governors of Queen Ann's 
bounty, by the Lord Viscount Lonsdale, at 11. 
It is a perpetual cui'acy, in the patronage of the 
Earl of Lonsdale, who is impropriator of the 
tithes, to whom lands were allotted on the inclo- 
sure of the commons. It is charged 3s. 4r/. 
spiodals, and Qs. Sd. procurations, to be paid by 
the impropriator. The present incumbent is the 
Rev. John Vicars. 

The church is a plain building, chiefly remark- 
able for its beautiful and secluded situation, at 
some httle distance from the \illage. 


^fic 5Jari0ft of fM;orf06p 

OMPRISES two townships, 
Moresby and Parton, and 
contains about three square 
miles, extending a mile and 
a half in length and breadth. 
It is bounded on the south, 
W by the township of White- 

' haven ; on the west, by the 

sea ; on the north, by the parishes of Harrington 
and Distington ; and on the east, by Arlecdon. Ac- 
cording to INIr. John Denton, Moresby derives its 
name from one Maurice or Moris, a Welshman, 
" who first seated himself there ; the ruins of 
whose mansion-house, yet appearing, approves 
the same." One of his family gave lands in 
Moresby to the abbey of St. Mary, Holme- 
Cultram. The commons were enclosed about 
the year 1774 ; since which time the land in this 
parish has been greatly improved by careful cul- 

The village of Moresby, which was described 
about fifty years ago, as consisting of " a few in- 
different cottages," now contains some very good 
houses. It is pleasantly situated on the road 
from Whitehaven to Workington, about two 
miles N. by e. of the former place. 

The parish abounds with coal ; the colliery 
from which coals were foniierly shipped from 
Parton, was disused for many years following 



1770, but has been since worked; and there is 
also a quarry of excellent free-stone. 

Moresby-house, the seat of John Hartley, Esq. 
Is a modern mansion, pleasantly situated in the 
A-illage of Moresby. 

The Roman Station. 

Of this Station, Horslcy, in the essay on the 
Notitia, in his " most admirable work," Britannia 
Romaiia,says,"Arbeia ai^l^ears to me to have been 
the most northerly of the stations, which were 
next to those per 'I'lncam ral/i : for after mention 
of the stations garrisoned by horse, which were in 
the southern part of Yorkshire, the Notitm sets 
down those which were garrisoned by several 
mmeri ; and of these, Arbeia is the first. Cam- 
den, from affinity of names, took this ior Ireby in 
Cumberland ; but as there are no remains ot a 
station at Ireby, so I coidd never learn upon 
inquiry, that there were any other Roman anti- 
(luities ever found there : and the argument from 
affinity of names is of less force, because there 
is another place of the same name in Lancashire. 
Harl)y-brow, or narbi/-l>iir<>Ii, by the name might 
bid as fair at least, as Ireby, from whidi it is dis- 
tant about two or three miles ; but I found the 
same objections he against that. I met with the 
like disappointment at Workington, where some 
have said, that there must liave been a Roman 
station ; for 1 could discover no appearance ot it, 
nor hear of any Roman coins, inscrii)ti()ns, or 
other aiiticiuities found thereabout : Tlie borough 
walls where the station is supposed to have l)ccn, 
is about a mile from the town, and not much less 

H 2 


from the river, but on the opposite side : a good 
part of the walls are yet standing ; by which it 
appears to have been only one of those old towns, 
which we so frequently see in the north, and 
which sometimes bear the name of Burgh or 
Brugh : I saw no appearance of a ditch, no re- 
mains of other buildings about it, or near it ; and 
in short, nothing that looked like a Roman sta- 
tion or town : if it has ever been a Roman fort 
of any kind, I think it must only have been one 
of those small exploratory castella, which some 
observe to have been placed along the coast : it 
has a large prospect into the sea, but httle to- 
wards the land. At Moresby I met with evident 
proofs, though little remains, of a station. In a 
field which lies between that towii and Parton, 
called the Crofts, they continually plough up stones 
and cement, which have all the usual appearance 
of being Roman ; and besides the Roman inscrip- 
tions mentioned in Camden, I saw two other 
monuments of that nature myself ; yet it is not 
easy now to discern the limits of the station. 
The field in which the stones are now ploughed up 
looked to me rather like the place of the town, 
than the station. There appeared, as I thought, 
somewhat hke two sides of a fort near the church. 
Perhaps the station, or part of it, has been de- 
stroyed, or washed away by the sea, towards which 
there is a very large prospect. The order, in 
which Arbc'ia, is mentioned in the Notitia, suits 
very well with the supposition that this is the 
place ; for Moresby is nine or ten computed miles 
from Ellenborough, which station I take to be the 
last of those contained under the title ;;c;- Uneam 
vallL The remains indeed are not so large and 


conspicuous, as might be expected in a Not'itla 
station ; but those have different degrees as well 
as others. According to the NotUia, the Numer- 
us Barcariorum Tigritenslum were in garrison at 

Dr Lord Bishop of Cloync, remarks 

on the above account by Horsley : — " there is 
great reason to think Arhe'ta, another of these 
stations, mentioned in the Notitia, was at Mores- 
by, two miles north-east of ^Vlliteha^'en, though 
Camden Avas inclined to fix it at Ireby. That 
there was a station at JNIoresby is evident by its 
remains, and it is one of the few instances in 
which the accuracy of Horsley has failed him : 
for though he allowed the inscriptions found here 
to be Roman, he has too hastily observed that 
there are hardly any marks of the station itself; 
other antiquaries have been more fortunate in 
discovering it ; the site is in a field, on the side 
of the village, towards Parton, called the Crofts, 
and the church stands (as is often the case,) 
within its area. It is a square of 400 feet, on an 
elevation, overlooking several creeks still fre- 
quented by small craft, and shews that one reason 
of its being placed here was to protect the coast 
against the invasions of the northern and western 
pirates. The west Agger is perfectly plain, and 
the stones of the south wall still appear through 
the turf that covers them. A body of Africans 
formed its garrison ; Stukeley saw a Roman road 
pointing over the moors towards Papcastle ; but 
as if the spot was to be fatal to the characters of 
all our antiquaries, he has read Ilorsley's 75th 
Cumberland inscription, which was found here, 
in a manner almost as eiToneous, as his very hi- 


dicrous interpretation of the Greek line on the 
altar at Corbridge." 

Camden says,* " here the shore goes on a little 
retreating, and it appears from the ruins of walls, 
that wherever the landing was easy it was forti- 
fied by the Romans. For it was the extreme 
boundary of the Roman empire, and this coast 
was particularly exposed to the Scots when they 
spread themselves like a deluge over this island 
from Ireland. Here is Moresby, a little village, 
where, from these fortifications, we may conclude 
was a station for ships. Here are many traces 
of antiquity in the vaults and foundations, many 
caverns called Picts holes, many fragments of 
inscriptions are here dug up, one of which has 
NATVS; another COH. VH. I saw there this 
altar, lately dug vip, with a small horned statue 
of Silvanus : 



CVI PR^^S.. 



Deo Silvano 

Cohors 2da Lingonum 

Cui praeest 

G. Pompeius M. 



The following fragment was copied and 
transmitted to me by J. Fletcher, lord of the 
place : 

• Cough's ed. iii. p. 421. 



" But none has yet been found that determine 
it to have been Morbivm, where the Equites 
Cataphractarii were stationed, which the name 
in some sort insinuates." 

Mr. Horsley, who gives the above mmute 
account of the station as it appeared when he 
wrote, about the year 1730, says: — 

" There is an original inscription yet remam- 
in" at a style, in a field called Inclose, a Uttle 
east of Moresby Hall, but pretty much effaced 
and broken. 

D M 





" It is sepulchral, and has contained the name of 
the person deceased, with his age, and the years 
he had served in the army : for I take the last 
letters in the last line but two to have been stip. 
for Stipendiorum, and vicsit in the following line 
to stand for vixit. This soldier may have had 
three names, the letter for the procnomen seems 
to have been defaced ; the other two might be 


Smerhts Tomac'ms, for Smer'nis is a family name 
in Griiter. I think the fourth and tifth hnes 
must have been ^files Cohort'is Secundce Thror 
cum. I prefer Secundse before Primae, though 
only one letter appears, because there is room 
for another ; and this second Cohort of Thraci- 
ans, according to the Xotitia, kept garrison at 
Gabrosentum : and though I do not imagine that 
INIoresby was Gabrosentum, yet this may favour 
the opinion, that Gabrosentum was at the western 
end of the wall. The head of the deceased is in 
the pediment at the top, and I believe, the inscrip- 
tion has been continued further at the bottom. 
The Q in the last line, I believe, stands for Que : 
and though it be placed before the V for quinque, 
yet I beheve, it is designed to join it to the pre- 
ceding numerals. 

" There is another curious sculpture, though 
not executed with a fine taste. I know not 
whether it may have been sepulchral, for there 
is no inscription upon the stone. The dress and 
scroll in the hand look senatorial. The features 
of the face are become very obscure. I found 
this stone at a style near the other. 

" The originals of those inscriptions, what 
Camden has given us, I could not discover ; no 
doubt since his time they are lost or destroyed. 

" It is hard to know what to make of the last 
inscription, since the former part is wanting. It 
seems as if some edifice had been built or repaired, 
to which it has a reference ; and the seventh 
Cohort, mentioned before, which was probably 
of the 20th legion detached from Chester, might 
be employed in this work, and Severinus have 
the charge of it : but this is imcertain. 



" As for the altar inscribed to the god Silyanus 
by the Cohors secunda Liiigoinini, there is no 
difficulty in it, except in the fourth hne at the 
end, and the M there must either have been 
another name of the commander, or else there 
may have been an F after it, for MarciJUius." 

The Manor. 

Moresby is supposed to have taken its name 
from a possessor, Moris, in the time of William 
Rufus ; and " in process of time this place gave 
name to its owners, the INIoresbys" or Moricebys, 
of which family was Ucknard, who gave common 
here to the abbot of St. Mary's of Holme-Cultram. 
That family held the manor for many generations, 
until the male line tailed in Sir Christopher 
Moriceby, knight, which ocurred before the year 
1500. His daughter and heiress, Anne, married 
Sir James Pickering, of Killington, co. Westmor- 
land, knight, who had a daughter Anne, heiress 
both to the Moresby and Pickering estates. She 
was thrice married : her first husband was Sir 
Francis Westby ; she married secondly. Sir Henry 
Knevett; and thirdly, John Vaughan, Esq. In 
an inquisition of knights' fees in Cumberland, in 
the 35th Henry VHL, it was found that Henry 
Knevett and Anne his wife, in right of the said 
Anne, held the manor of Moresby, with the ap- 
purtenances, of the king, as of his castle of Egre- 
mont, by knight's service, and rendering for the 
same yearly 52.9. Id. cornage. 

In the 19th of Elizabeth, the lady Anne being 
yet living, this manor was sold by Thomas K iievett, 
Esci-, probably her son by the second husband, 



to William Fletcher, of Cockeitnouth, gentleman, 
descended from an elder branch of the Fletchers 
of Hutton. His son and heir, Henry Fletcher, 
of Moresby, Esq., had a son, WiUiam, Avho died 
unmarried, and was succeeded by his brother 
Henry : his son, William, had a son, Thomas, 
who became possessed of Hutton by the gift of 
Sir Henry Fletcher, Bart., a thstant relation, who 
retired to a monastery at Douai, in Flanders, and 
settled nearly all his property upon him. (See 
vol. i. Leath'Ward, p. 430.) 

After the death of the above Thomas Fletcher, 
the last of his family, jNIoresby was sold, under a 
decree in Chancery, in 1 720, to John Brougham, 
Esq. of Scales, by whom, in 1737, it was convey- 
ed to Sir James Lowther, of ^^'hitehaven, Bart, 
ancestor of the Earl of Lonsdale, the present 

Moresby Hall 

Is situated on the west side of the road leading 
from Workington to Whitehaven. It has a 
spacious front, of three stories, facing the south : 
the principal windows have alternate rounded 
and angular pediments ; and over the principal 
entrance is a shield, charged with the arms of 
Fletcher, formerly lords of the manor, by whom 
probably the hall was repaired. A copious spring 
of water rises from under the foundation of one 
of the walls in the small court-yard on the north 
side of the hall. The interior is so mucli mo- 
dernized, at least in the principal apartments, as 
scarcely to retain any marks of its antiquity : the 
ancient and spacious stair-case, however, is yet 



preserved. Some years since several skeletons 
were dug up in the entrance-hall : they were 
enclosed in slates, but had no coffins. The hall 
is now the residence of the Misses Tate. 

The Church. 

The benefice is a rectory, in the patronage 
of the Earl of Lonsdale, the lord of the manor. 
It is valued in the King's Books at 6/. 2s. 3^^/., 
and was certified to the governors of queen Ann's 
bounty at 23/. clear yearly value ; viz. tithe corn 
12/., glebe 2/., modus for hay tithe 2/. 10*., wool 
and lamb 1/., prescription for the tithes of the 
demesne lands of Moresby hall 4/., other small 
tithes and Easter offerings 1/., surphce fees 10s, 

The living is thus entered in the Valor Eccle- 
siasticus of Henry VIII. 

Moresby liector' EccVie. 

Karolus Martingdall incumbens 
p'dca. valet in „ 

Mansione cum gleba per au- ? _ 
num S 

Decim' granos. Ixxiijs. iiij<f.», 
Ian' &i agneir xiijs. iiijti. I 
fcni ixs. decim' pisciu. 
marinos. vj*". myl. minut' & ^ 
privat' decim' cu. oblac' 
ut ill libro paschal' xviiJ5. 
In tot' -J 

vj — — 

Eepris' vis. in 
Sinod'xiijtf.procurac' ijs.iiijt^. 

Et valet clare 
Xma. ps. inde 


s. d.^ 


V vj 




— — 








iij iiij 






y. . 




I 2 


List of Rectors. 

Charles Martindale, occurs 1535. 

1668 Ra. Calvert, 

1711 Francis Yates. 

1720 Peter Farrish. 

1728 Francis Yates. 

1735 Peter Richardson, ob. 1754. 

1754 W. Watts. 

1789 Henry Nicholson, ob. 1812. 

Richard Armitstead, M.A.* 

.... Thompson. 

Andrew Hudleston, INI. A. 

1837 Fletcher Woodhouse. 

The old church, taken down about 1822, con- 
sisted of a nave and chancel, with a south porch, 
and a bell-turret at its western end. The arch 
which formed the communication between the 
nave and the chancel, is left standing in the church- 
yard. It is obtusely pointed, with plain mould- 
ings springing fi'om circular piers. 

The present church, a modern structure erect- 
ed in 1822, dedicated to St. Bridget, stands 
detached from the village, and within the area of 
the Roman station. Many Roman coins were 
found in digging for the foundation. The church 
is a handsome edifice, with a square tower, en- 
gaged, and three galleries. Over the stair-case 
door leading into the gallery are the arms of the 
Earl of Lonsdale, the lord of the manor. 

The church contains the three following mon- 
umental inscriptions. — A tablet on the south 
wall is insciibed — 

• Died in 1831, incumbent of St. James's chapel, Whitehaven. 


In Memory of 
MARY HARTLEY, the Wife of 

Milliam Hartley, of Rose Hill, 

•who died Uio 19 December, 1833, 

Aged 5G years. 


of Rose Hill, 

■who died the 30 May, 1839, 

Aged 68 years. 

On another — 

To the Memory of the REV. PETER RICHARDSON", 

Late Rector of this Parish, who died March y<^ 13, 176-1, 

aged 48 years. 

MARGARET his Widow died April 18, 1773, aged 79 years. 

PHEBE their daughter died May 22, 1759, aged 24 years. 

MARGARET their daughter died August 7, 1785, 

aged 49 years. 

Near the entrance to the gallery — 

In memory of the 


late Rector of this Parish, who died 

March 17, 1»12, aged 5G years. 

JOHN Ihcir son died April 25, 1817, 

aged 22 years. 

WILSON their son died March 30, 1797, 

aped G weeks. 

The REV. HENRY NICHOLSON their son, who 

died October 22, 1824, aged 26 years. 


Parton is a considerable fishing village, on the 
sea shore, below the precipitous heights occupied 
by the Roman station, and half a mile south-west 
of Moresby. Attempts at constructing a harbour 
at Parton were made by the Fletcher and Lam- 
plugh family in 16S0 and 1G95 : the proceedings 


being stopped by an injunction from the court of 
exchequer. In 1695, Mr. Lamplugh was allowed 
to repair the small old pier. An act of parlia- 
ment for enlarging the pier and harbour of Parton 
passed in 1 705 ; another act for rebuilding the 
pier and harbour passed in 1721; and a third 
act, for enlarging the term of that last-mentioned, 
in ] 732. Several vessels were employed in the 
coal-trade here till the year 1795, when the pier 
was washed away by an unusually high tide, and 
has not since been rebuilt.* 

The Free School &i Parton was built in 1818, 
by the late Joseph Williamson, Esq., who en- 
dowed it with a freehold estate, which produces 
42/. per annum, and is situated in Arlecdon 
parish. The founder's nephew, Chilwell 'N^'illiam- 
son, Esq., of Luton, in Bedfordshire, has since 
bequeathed a house, in Parton, for the residence 
of the master, who, by the deed of settlement, is 
to teach 60 free scholars, under the superinten- 
dance of three resident trustees, and five other 
respectable gentlemen. The benefit of this charity 
is restricted to the poor children of Parton ; and 
the bishops of Carlisle and Chester are appointed 
governors and visitors. The trustees, &c., are to 
hold an anniversary meeting on the first Tuesday 
in July, to scrutinize the master's conduct, and 
the proficiency of his pupils.f 

• Lysons. t Paison and White. 

STiir ti)ari&]^ of ^rlrrDoir. 

HE parish of Arlecdon, 
Arlecdeii, or Arlochden,QX.- 
tends about four miles 
from north to south, and 
two and a half from east 
to west. It is bounded 
by the parishes of St. 
Bees, Distington, Mores- 
by, and Cleator, and the 
parish of Dean and the 
parochial chapelry of Loweswater, in Derwent 
VVard. It contains the manors of Arlecdon and 
Frisington, and the townships of Arlecdon, High 
and Low Frisington, and Whillimore. The 
principal part of the parish is customary tenure, 
holden under the Right Hon. the Earl of Lons- 
dale, and tlie Lady le Fleming of Rydal Hall, 
Westmorland. Coal, iron ore, and limestone are 
obtained in this parish. 

Neither the situation, nor the component parts 
of the word, i'avour the derivation given of the 
name of this place by Nicolson and Burn, who sup- 
pose it is derived from the Erse or Irish Ar-Jloch- 
deii, signifying " a place at the bottom of a deep 
valley." From the stone quarries in vai'ious 
parts of the jiarish, we should be more inclined 
to derive it from the British word Arlecli, signi- 
fying, upon a rock, and dun, elevated ground. 


The village of Arlecdon is situated about six 
miles east by north of Whitehaven : cattle-fairs 
are held here, April 24th, the first Friday in June, 
and September 17th. 

The Roman road leading from Egremont castle 
to Cockennouth passed through this parish and 
the township of Frisington. 

The Messrs. Lysons state, it appears from the 
register, that of the parishioners buried here, one 
in six were aged from 80 to 89 inclusive ;* and 
about one in forty, from 90 to 99 inclusive. 

In this parish are two Sunday schools in con- 
nection with the established church ; one of 
which has been licensed by the bishop for Divine 

The Manor of Arlecdon. 

This manor, which is a fee of Beckermet, was 
granted by William de Meschines, lord of Egre- 
mont, to Sir Michael le Fleming, knight, ancestor 
of the Lady le Fleming, of Rydal hall, the present 

The Manor of Frisington 

Is also a fee of Beckermet, and Avas anciently 
held by a family of the same name, whose last 
heir male in the reign of Henry IV. left three 
daughters and coheiresses : — Johanna, married to 
Richard Sackfield ; Agnes, married to John Law- 
son ; and Margaret, who married John Atkinson ; 
by whom it was sold to William Leigh, in whose 

• The general average proportion of those who attain the age of 80, is 
said to be one in thirty-two ; and in London, one in forty. — Lysons. 


family it remained mitil purchased of a descendant 
by Anthony Patrickson. From that family it 
passed to the Williamsons, who sold it (excepting 
the Parks) to Sir James Lowther, of Wliitehaven, 
Baronet, ancestor of the Right Hon. the Earl of 
Lonsdale, the present lord. 

A grandson of the above Anthony Patrickson 
sold the Parks, part of the demesne of this manor, 
to the Fletchers of Hutton, fi'om whom it passed 
by purchase to the Lamplughs. The lands in 
this manor were enclosed under an act of parlia- 
ment passed in 1805. 

The following boundary of the manor of Fris- 
ington, taken in the year 1410, is "from the re- 
cords of Avlecdon parish :" — 

Y' Ambulation and y' Bounder of y"^ Lordshipp of Fris- 
ington, made and viewed in the y^ presence of divers 
worshippful gentlemen, and by xii tenants, sworne and 
tryed, whose names hereafter follow, y^ 14"' daye of 
June, in y'' yeare and reigne of our Sovaraigne dread 
Kyng Henry* y*" iv Kyng of Englande y" xith. 
Y" Ambulation and Bounder of y* Lordshipp of Frizing- 
ton, made and viewed in y" presence of Sir William 
Martyndale, Knight, being Steward to the Earle of Northum- 
berland within y'^ HoiiorofCockermouth.JohndeLamplough, 
Christopher Curwen, knights, \\'illiam Osmotherlic, knight; 
Thomas Sandys, Thomas dc Louther, Esq'^ by the bodilye 
oatlies of John Robinson of Frizington, William Ilird, Robin 
Mylner, Richard Johnston, Richard Dickinson, William 
Gibson, Nicholas Woodo, Thomas Ilird, Richard Towerson, 
Nicholas Benn of Bowlhorno, John Rcison, Wra. Gill, Robin 
Thompson, Richard Richardson, sworne, tryed and examined, 
and upon y'' bodylie oaths sayes att y*" bcginnyngc. First att 
y^ footo of Millgillc going upp bye y'= Long-tayle and soe 
upp MiUbeck to Sawtor Pyke to Wynder Scotle, and soe upp 
y* chaunnel to y' Smyddie Syke, and soe lyen and lycn to 
y* Harper Stone to y'' Bercnt Keld falling into y'' Dubb 
Beck, and soe down y'' channcll to y'' Hollow Dyke where 

• Henry was c^o^vned Oct. 13, 1399. 


sometyme dwelled John Humson, and soedowney'' channell 
to Lynebank Cragg, and soe downe y*^ chaunnel falling into 
Keekle to y*^ foote of Gaytwray, and soe upp y"" chaunnel to 
y' foote of Uter Croft to y* Crooke of Wenar, and soe downe 
y^ channel bye Bowthorne to y"^ Sandyefforde of Norbeck, 
and soe upp y' channell bye Ingrehowe and y" about Thar- 
sagamell and soe through y'= Black Moss to y'= Borren of 
Stones, and soe from y"^ Borren of Stones lyen and lyen to 
y*^ Stones in y= Damage Dubb, and soe from Damage Dubb 
to y'^ great Stone in y'= breaste of Rattanrowe Dyke, and soe 
upp y' Dyke lyen and lyen to y^ Merc Syke, and soe downe 
y« Mere Syke to three Stones in y'^ Crooke of Rattanrowe 
Dyke, and soe upp y'^ Dyke to y" Wholebeck, and soe downe 
y^ chaunnel to Kinnysyde, and soe into Eyne, and soe upp 
Eyne to y'' foote of Millgille, with common of pasture for 
y<^ Lordshipp of Frizington with y'' Lord Harryngton and 
within y*" Lordshipp of Lamplough to a place called Kid- 

bornegille in Arlechden. Given y' daye and yeare above. 

A true copie of y'' Bounder of Frizington made in y'' 

xith yeare of Henry y" ifourth, transcribed by me, William 


The Church. 

The church of Arlecdon is dedicated to St. 
Michael ; the h\ing was a rectory until the thir- 
teenth century. In the 2Gth Henry III. (1241) 
it was given by John le Fleming to the abbey 
of St. Mary, Calder, and soon afterwards, (47th 
Henry III.) was appropriated and annexed to 
the archdeaconry of Richmond, by Godfrey de 
Ludhani, archbishop of York.* 

The benefice is now a peipetual ciu'acy : the 
Bishop of Chester is appropriator and patron. 
It was certified to the governors of Queen Anne's 
bounty at the clear annual value of 10/. ; and in 
or about tlie year 1764 was augmented ^\ith 600/. 

• See further particulars, under the account of the parish of St. John, 
page 16. 


by the Countess-dowager Gower in conjunction 
with the above bounty; and again in IS 10, with 
the sum of 200/., being part of the parliamentary 
grant of that year. The lessees of tlie tithes 
are the land-owners ; the lessor is the Bishop of 
Chester. This benefice does not occur in the 
Valor Ecdesiustkus of Henry VIII. 


c. 1725 Thomas Baxter,* ob. 1787. 
c. 1787 Jolm Baxter, ob. 1798. 
c 1798 Joseph Fullerton, ob. 1829. 
1829 George Wilkinson, B.D. 

The present Church, which was built about 
the year 1 S29, consists of a nave and chancel, with 
a bell turret. The only monument in the church 
is one erected 

In Memory of JOSEPH STEELE, Esq. 

of Acrewalls, 

Who departed this life, Sept. SOth, 1835, 

aged 87 years. 

• Incumbent cuxato for tho long spaco of 62 years ; ob. 1787, aged 87. 
It is not a little remarkable that this parish has had only foiuincumbenia 
for the space of 110 years. 

K 2 

Wf^c }^avi^f) of Si^tiitgton 

S of small extent, containing 
about three square miles, and is 
divided into two constablewicks. 
It is bounded by Moresbj% 
Harrington, Arlecdon, and Lam- 
■plugli, and Dean in Derwent 
[Ward, and contains coal-mines 
I and extensive limestone quarries 
I and kilns, the property of the 
Earl of Lonsdale and James 
Robertson Walker, Esq. now (1841) high-sherifF 
of the county. At Barngill is a quarry yielding 
millstones and gi'indstones. The lands are of 
fi-eehold tenure under the Earl of Lonsdale. 

The parish contains three mansions : — Gilgai"- 
ron, the seat of James Robertson Walker, Esq. 
the present (1841) high-sherifF of the county; 
Belle Vue, the residence of John Stanley, Esq. 
M.D. ; and Prospect Hill, the seat of Captain 

The parochial school, erected in 1754, has no 
endowment, excepting three acres of land taken 
out of the common when the school-house was 
built. The village giving name to the parish is 
on the high-road from Whitehaven to Working- 

In the year 1811 or 1812, a number of silver 
coins were found in a field belonging to Mr. Isaac 
Dixon, of Distington ; the gi-eatest part were 


struck in the reigns of Elizcabeth, James I. and 
Charles I, They were found beneath an oak 
tree, — supposed to have been planted as a guide 
to the concealed treasure. 

The Messrs. Lysons state that the register 
shews that of the parishioners buried here, from 
17S4 to 1814, about one in six had attained the 
ages of 80 to 89 inclusive ; and about one in 
thirty-one, from 90 to 99 inclusive. 

The Manor. 

The manor of Distington, in the reigns of 
Richard I. and King John, belonged to Gilbert 
de Dundraw, son of Sir Gilbert de Dundraw, 
knight, son of Odard de Logis, lord of the barony 
of Wigton. This Gilbert was lord of Distington, 
Crofton, and Dundraw, and he gave lands in the 
two former places to the abbey of St. JNIary, 
Holme-Cultram, and the priory of St. Mary, 
in Carlisle. He had issue a daughter, Isolda, 
married to Adam de Tinemouth. In the 42n(I 
Henry III, they gave the fourth part of Distington 
and the advowson of the rectory to Thomas, son 
of Lambert de Multon. Another daughter was 
married to Stephen de Crofton, and they gave, 
in the 6th Edward I., their part of Distington to 
Thomas de Moresby and Margaret his wife. 
This Margaret exchanged it with her brother 
Thomas Lucy for lands in Thackthwaite ; and 
he parted with it to the Moresbys, for Bracken- 
thwaite in Loweswater. 

It appears from the escheats in the reign of 
Richard III. that Distington became vested in 
the family of Dykes ; and in the 2nd year of that 


reign, 1484, William Dykes presented to the 
rectory. In the 35th Henry VIII. Thomas 
Dykes held the manor of the king, as of his castle 
of Egi'emont, by homage and fealty, and suit of 
com't, paying 10s. cornage, llr/. seawake, and 
puture of the Serjeants; and in the 4th Philip 
and INIary, Leonard Dykes presented a rector. 

This manor passed by marriage to the Fletchers, 
and after the death of the last of that family, it 
•was sold under a decree of chancery in 1720. 
John Brougham, Esq. of Scales, who was then 
the purchaser, in 1737, conveyed it to Sir James 
Lowther, Bart. It is now the property of the 
Earl of Lonsdale. 

Hayes Castle 

Is supposed to have been the ancient manor-house. 
Camden mentions it as "respectable for its an- 
tiquity, which the people told me once belonged to 
the noble families of Moresby and Distinton." 
This castle, of which there are now few remains, 
occupies a mount about half a mile south of the 
village. Mr. Hutchinson, in his Excursion to the 
Lakes, published in 177<3, described it as being 
then " a confused heap of broken walls, defended 
anciently by an outward wall, and a deep ditch 
of circular form." Its gray ruins are yet dis- 
tinguishable from the road. 

It has been severed from the manor, and is 
now the property of Thomas Hartley, Esq. of 
Gillfoot, near Egremont, whose ancestor purchas- 
ed it of Anthony Dickenson. 

parish of distington, 
The Church, 


The church of Distington is in the patronage 
of the Earl of Lonsdale. The living is a rectory ; 
valued in the King's Books at 11. Is. Q\d., and 
was certified to the governors of Queen Ann's 
bounty at 67/. 19s. 2d. : — "house, garden, church- 
yard, and glebe 251. ; tithe corn of Distington 16/. 
5s.; of Gilgarren and Stubskills 13/. ; of the out- 
side of Smitli's gill 5/. ; wool and lamb 3/. ; pre- 
scription for hay and hemp 4/. ; Easter dues and 
surplice fees 21. 10s. — Deductions: tenths and 
acquittance 14s. 5f/. ; synodals and acquittance 
Is. 5f/." 

The glebe belonging to the rectory consists of 
530 acres. 

In the Ecclesiastical Survey made in the year 
1535 this rectory is valued as follows : — 

Distington Rector' Eccl'ie. 

Will'm's Curwen incumbens. 

Rector p'dca. 

valet in „ 
Mansione cum gleba per an- > 



nutn S 

Decim' granos. et feni iiij/."" 

vjs. viijc^. decim' Ian' ic 




agnell xijs.pisciu. marines. 





iijs. lini & canabi ij*. ijt/. 




minut' & privat' decim' 

ut in libro paschal' xv«. 

In tof 


Hepris' viz. in 




Sinod' xiij(^. procurac' xxijc?. 







Et valet clare 



Xma. ps. ind( 





List of Rectors. 

William Curwen, occurs 1535. 

.... Fletcher, occui'S about 1642. 

1669 Richard Armstead. 

1685 Richard Tickell. 

1692 Lancelot Teasdale. 

1712 John Dalton. 

1729 W. Briscoe. 

1745 Thomas SeweU. 

1747 Thomas Spedchng. 

1753 AY. Lowther. 

1785 Thomas Wilson Morley. 

1813 Henry Lowther, M.A. 

The church is situated on an eminence, west 
of the village, commanding an extensive prospect 
of mountain scenery. It is an ancient building, 
and consists of a nave and chancel, a south porch, 
a bell-turret at the western end, carrying two 
bells, and a vestry on the north side. The porch 
is seated and has a pointed arch. The west 
window is of three round-headed lights, but is 
covered by a modern stair-case leading into the 
galleiy ; in the wall is a shield, apparently charged 
with the arms of Curwen, fretty and a chief. The 
north windows of the nave are modern ; but 
those on the south side have each two round 
headed lights under dripstones. There is a stone 
font, of a square form, under the organ, at the 
western end, which bears the date, 1662. The 
nave and chancel are connected by a pointed 
arch ; the latter is lighted by a modern east 
vnndow, and a square wndow on each side. 

On the north wall of the chancel is a plate 
inscribed — 



Under y stone, marked P. W. lyes the body of JANE the wife of 
Mr. Pelcr Walker of Parton, who departed this life, September y<; 5th 
Anno Dom. 1725, aged 66. She was syster to the Rev. Mr. Teasdale, 
late Rector of this Parish. 

On the south wall of the nave is a marble tab- 
let, beneath these arms,— a che\Ton, charged with 
five ermine spots, between three leopards' heads, 
and the motto, AuxUium meum ah alto. The 
tablet is inscribed — 

Sacred to the Memory 



(The last surriTing son of George Augustus 

Blakeney, Esq. and Mary his wife,) 

who died upon the 6th day of November, 1822, 

aged 64 years. 

He was an acting Magistrate, and a 

Deputy Lieutenant of this County. 

In the church-yard are two tomb-stones in 
memory of some other branches of this family. 

Near the church is a very neat Sunday School, 
" erected by the Parish, 1836." 

Cf)r |^ari0]^ of ILamplugl). 

HIS parish is bounded on 
the south, by the chapehy 
of Ennerdale ; on the west, 
by Arlecdon and Disting- 
ton parishes; on the north, 
by Dean, in the ^\'ard of 
Derwent ; and on the east, 
by the parochial chapelry 
of Loweswater, in the same 
ward, and Crummock-wa- 
ter. It extends about six miles from north to soutli, 
and its breadth is about three miles. This parish is 
divided into four townships — Lamplugh, Kelton, 
Murton, and AVinder. Its mineral products are 
lime and iron : the fonner is much wrought ; but 
the latter is dormant at present. 

Mr. John Denton supposes that " the place was 
originally named Glan-Floitgh, or Glaii-FiUoiigli, 
of the Irish inhabitants before the Conquest, 
which word signifies the Wet Dale, vaUisliimi'ida ; 
and thereof is formed the present word, Lamplugh, 
or Lanjfogli." 

The same writer also says, " Lamplugh in the 
fells, is that manor-house and seignory in the 
barony of Egremont, which gave name to the 
ancient family of Lamplughs ; a race of valourous 
gentlemen, successively for their worthyness 
knyghted in the field, all or most of them." 
On an eminence in the Stockhow Hall estate. 


in this parish, are the remains of a druidical circle, 
called Standing Stones. Only the northern seg- 
ment is now to be seen ; the remainder having 
been blasted and removed a few years ago to 
make fences with. The part remaining consists 
of six large stones, of the kind provincially called 
the smooth blue cobble, placed at irregular dis- 
tances, varying from eighteen paces to one ; and 
the circle, when perfect, may have been one 
hundred paces in diameter. The stones are 
mostly of an oblong figure, placed endwise in the 
circumference of the circle ; four of the largest 
are nearly four feet in height above gi'ound, and 
are supported in an upright position by other 
large stones around their bases undergi'ound. 
The neighbouring i-ock is of limestone. We can 
ascertain no tradition relating to the stones 
beyond the name, which is common to similar 
erections in other ))arts of the kingdom. 

There is a tradition of an oak-tree having 
grown in the forest, on the steep southern side 
of Blake Fell, where now is nothing but the naked 
and moving dcl)ris of the slate rock, and from 
which a table was made of a single plank, nearly 
four feet in width, and several yards in length, 
to grace the liall of the manorial residence of 
the Lamplughs. On the demolition of the an- 
cient residence, for materials wherewith to erect 
the modern house and farm buildings, the table 
was cut into two lengths, and the half of it now 
stretches entirely across the roomy farm kitchen — 
a nol)le, though nuicli diminished specimen of the 
growth of tlie oak in the days when the squirrel 
was chased from Lamplugh Fells to Moresby, 
without its alighting on the ground. So closely 

L 2 


was the country afforested for many miles, where 
now are only stmited hedgerows. 

The Roman road from Egi-emont to Cocker- 
mouth passed through this parish, "close by 
Lamplugh Cross and Street gate." 

A great part of this parish is very elevated, 
and commands an extensive prospect in Scotland, 
and on the Irish Sea, including the Isle of Man. 

Near Lamplugh Hall is a mineral spring, of a 
powerful astringent quality. An ancient cross, 
which until lately remained in the parish, has 
shared the fate of the old hall, and has been 
wantonly destroyed. 

The Manor. 

The manor of Lamplugh, at a very early period, 
belonged to William de Lancaster, baron of Ken- 
dal, who gave it with AVorkington, in exchange 
for Middleton, in Lonsdale, to Gospatric, son of 
Orme, lord of Seaton, in Derwent Ward. William 
de Lancaster was "a great commander under 
Henry II. in the wars against David of Scotland, 
and Earl Henry, his son, and helped to recover 
the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland 
from the Scots, which King Stephen had given 
them." Gospatric died seised of Lamplugh, and 
his son Thomas gave it to Robert Lamplugh and 
his heirs, " for paying yearly a pair of gilt spurs 
to the lord of Workington." 

Lamplugh of Lamplugh. 

Arms: — Or, a cross floree, sable. 

Crest: — A goat's head couped proper; according to Ly. 
sons, A goal's hqad argent, attire and beard or. 


Esq /sTriuii.mD«g<».t.tio..,m I660, » .. M- 
lows : — 

who svas succeeded by his son, 

Sir Adam de Lamplugh, Jn'S^^'^f J-fei,tat[o7of 


r hlXta iVeUenotSg He.V tho third." 

E.lphc d. L.mpl«f.''l' J,'i"'f,J„,»irrro;S 

:Ll\;i;TraSi'/on%SArro.. & .uitio„ .r 



Sir John de Lamplugh, knight, 9th Edward I. 

Raphe de Lamplugh, 13th Edward III.; married Ehza- 
beth, daughter of ....Preston. 

John de Lamplugh. 

Sir Thomas do Lamplugh, knight, had issue Jo/.n, Robert, 
Nicholas, Thomas, William, and Raphe. 



John de Lamplugh 20th Richard II. 

Hugh de Lamplugh, 12th Henry IV.; married Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas Pickering. 

Sir John de Lamplugh, knight, married Margaret, daughter 
of John Eglesfield. 

Thomas de Lamplugh, 7th Edward IV. ; married Eleanor, 
daughter of Henry Fenwick. 

John de Lamplugh, 19th Edward IV. 

John de Lamplugh, 1st Henry VII.; married Isabel, 
daughter of John Pennington. He had a daughter, Eleanor, 
married to Thomas Senhouse, Esq. 

Sir John Lamplugh, knight, 27th Henry ^^II. ; married 
Catharine, daughter and co-heiress of Guy Forster, of How- 
some, CO. York. 

John Lamplugh, Esq. married Isabel, daughter of Christo- 
pher Stapleton, of Wighill, co. York, Esq. 

John Lamplugh, Esq. married Isabel, daughter of Sir John 
Pennington, knight. 

Sir John Lamplugh, knight, married Isabel, daughter of 
Sir Christopher Curwen, knight, by whom he had issue, 
John, Anne, and Elizabeth. 

John Lamplugh, Esq. married, firstly, Jane, daughter of 
.... Blennerhasset, by whom he had issue, Edward; and 

secondly Isabel, daughter of Stapleton, and by her 

he had issue, Richard. 

Edward Lamplugh, Esq. eldest son and heir died without 
issue, and was succeeded by his brother, 

Richard Lamplugh, Esq. second son, married Alice, 
daughter of .... Ward, and had issue, John, George, 
Elizabeth, and Dorothy. 

John Lamplugh, Esq. son and heir, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir Edward IVIusgrave, knight, and had issue, 
John, Francis, Richard, Edward, Henry, George, and Anne. 
He died 12th Charles I. 

John Lamplugh, Esq. son and heir, was of the age of 46, 
when this pedigree was certified. He was colonel of foot in 


the service of Charles I. and was wounded and taken prisoner 
at the battle of Marston moor, in 1G44. lie was thrice 
married : his first wife was Jane, daughter of Roger Kirkby, 
of Kirkby, co. Lancaster, Esq. by whom he had no issue : he 
married, secondly, Frances, daughter of Christopher Lancas- 
ter, of Sockbridge, co. Westmorland, Esq. and widow of Sir 
Christopher Lowthcr of Whitehaven ; by whom also he had no 
issue : his third wife was Frances, daughter of Thomas 
Lamplugh, of Ribton, Esq. and by her he had issue Thomas, 
who was eight years old at the time of the said visitation, 
John, Edward, Elizabetii, and Phabe. Elizabeth was the 
second wife of Henry Brougham, of Scales, Esq. 

The Hall, 

Of the old hall, the residence of the ancient 
and knightly family of the Lamplughs, no vesti- 
ges now remain, excepting a gateway which bears 
the date of 1595. The Messrs Lysons supposed 
the hall (which was remaining when they visited 
this county) to have been of no earlier date than 
the sixteenth century. Until of late years part 
of a strong tower remained : this, however, from 
a want of taste, was taken down in 1821, with 
vast trouble, the mortar being harder than the 
stone itself; and the walls, being eight feet iu 
thickness, required the force of gunpowder to 
rend them asunder. The old hall has been re- 
placed by a substantial farm-house. 

The Church. 

The benefice is a rectory, and the patronage 
has always been annexed to the manor. In the 
King's Books it is valued at 10/. 4s. Id. In the 
Valor Eccles'iastictts, temp. Hemy VIII., it is 
entered as follows : — 


Lamplewgh Rector' Eccl'ie. 

Eob'tus Layburne incumbens. Rector' p' dca, 

valet in 

Mansione cum gleba per annum 

Decim' granos. et feni \xs. Ian' 

et agneir Ixxs. minut' et pri- 

vat' decim' cum oblac' ut in 

libro paschal' Ixxij*. 

Eepris' vis. in 
Sinod' iijs. '^d. pcurac' iiijs. \d. 

Et valet clare 
Xma. ps. inde 

List of Rectors. 

Robert Laybum, occurs, 1535. 

Braithwaite, occiu's, c. 1G42. 

£ s. 


— X 



s. d. 

£ ij 


xij — 


S. d. 


vij vj 
s. d. 


"ij vj 
XX V ob 

1700 Galfrid Wibergh. 

1701 Da^^d King. 
1730 Thomas Jefferson. 
1768 Richard Dickenson. 
1817 Joseph Gilbanks. 

A conjecture is entertained, founded upon 
some rather vague traditions, that the chancel of 
this church was fonnerly the family chapel of the 
Lamplugh family, serving them and their tenants 
in the townships of Lamplugh and JVIurton, for a 
chapel, as the parish church was in the hamlet of 
Kirkland, at a distance of three miles ; and that 
when the advowson became the property of the 
Lamplughs, it was removed, and a nave added to 
that part which now forms the chancel. 

This is in some measure confirmed by the 
following extract from an old MS. :* — " Sir 

• MaclieUMSS.,vol.6,^671. 


Robert de Lamplugli, knt [temp. Hen. II.] 

held Lamplugh of Gospatrick, fil. Onn. lord of 
Wirkinton, whose son and heire, Thomas, fil. 
Gospatrick, gave to the said Robert Laniplugh 
the patronage of the Rectories of Ketell's Towne, 
alias Kelton, and Arlochden : But Robert trans- 
lated the church and glebe to Lamjilugh from 
Kelton, and thenceforth it was named the parson- 
age of Lamplugh." 

The church is an ancient edifice, situated near 
the hall. It is dedicated to St. Michael, and 
consists of a nave and chancel. The former is 
very plain with wliitewashed walls, and square 
sash windows ; the chancel, however, is of a 
superior character, and retains marks of its 

In tlie church are memorials of Thomas Lam- 
plugh, Esq., no date, {ob. 1737); Frances, his 
wife ; aetat, 80, 1745 ; and Richard Briscoe, Esq. 

The Manor of Kelton. 

Kelton (i. e. villa Keteli) was parcel of the 
manor of Lamplugh, from which it was separated 
by Ketel, son of Eldrcd, son of Ivo de Talebois, 
baron of Kendal ; and it was holdon as a fee of 
Beckermet, as that was of Egremont. Kelton, 
being in the Harrington division of the Multon 
estate, came from them by an heiress to the Bon- 
vills, and from them to the Greys, Marquesses of 
Dorset, and by the attainder of Henry, the third 
Marquess, (see p. S,) Duke of Suffolk, it was for- 
feited to the crown. 

Philip and Mary, in the 3rd and Ith of their 


reigii, granted to Christopher Morys (or Moor- 
house) and EUzabeth his wife (laundress to queen 
Mary,) and their heirs, the manor of Kelton, and 
the appiurtenances thereto belonging. 

The manor was afterwards successively in the 
families of Leigh, Salkeld, and Patrickson, and 
ha\'ing been purchased of the latter by Sir John 
Lowther, Bart., is now the property of the Earl 
of Lonsdale. 

Salter Hall. 

This demesne is extra-parochial, and was given 
by Gospatric, son ofOrme, son of the above Ketel, 
to the abbey of St. Mary, York, and was subse- 
quently consigned to the priory of St. Bees. 
After the dissolution of religious houses, it was 
bought by Dr. Leigh ; Henry, grandson of 
William, the doctor's brother, sold Salter to the 
Salkelds of "Whitehall, from whom it passed to 
the families of Patrickson, Robertson, and Fryer. 
The coheiresses of the latter married Mr. John 
Dickinson and the Rev. John Baxter, incumbent 
of Arlecdon. 

The hall was built by Thomas Salkeld, in 1586, 
as appears by an inscription over the principal 


Murton, or Moortozcn, is parcel of the Lam- 
plugh estate and is held of the barony of Egre- 
mont. It gave name to a family who resided 
here for many generations ; and in the reign of 
Edward H. became the property of the Lamplughs. 


The present lord is John Lamplugh Lamphigh 
Raper, Esq. 


The School at Lamplugh was endowed in 1731 
or 1732, by Richai-d Briscoe, Esq. who married 
the daughter of Thomas Lamplugh, Esq, with a 
rent-charge of 61. 8s. payable out of an estate 
called Skeelsmoor, in Lamplugh; the sums of 
40,s. per annum for the purchase of books for 
the children, and 3/. 12s. for poor housekeepers, 
are charged on the same estate. 

u 2 

trtjr Uari0lD of JilatJerttUiaitf. 

1^^^^^^^3^^^%i thvvaite, otherwise Wai/- 

^ ^^^ l/li'l^S^^ fh-wahe, is less populous 
^^^^fc--^S3C:i^Mi, than any other parish in 
^™^" ]p' "^r "'" ' ''^^ Ward, containing at 

^ ^^^ I k$.'l [£SiJL=^ ^'^ ^^^^ census, in 1S31, 
^^^^^^^J^^^^ only 139 inhabitants. It 
^^^^^^^^^»^^K extends about two miles 
^^^^ ^=s=aJ^^^ ^ and a half in length and 
breadth ; and is bounded on the south and east 
by Corney ; on the west, by Bootle ; and on the 
north, by the river Esk, which divides it from 

An ancient poor-stock of 20/. belonged to this 

parish, to which the Rev Park, rector of 

Barton, co. Norfolk, added SO/., the interest 
thereof to be distributed annually. 

The Manor 

Belonged to an ancient family, who took their 
name from this the place of their residence, and 
whose posterity afterwards resided at St. Bees ; 
at Chfton,in Westmorland; and now of late years, 
at Isell. One of that family married a daughter 
or sister of Arthur Boy\all, third lord of Millom, 
son of Godard Dapifer, with whom the said Ar- 
thm- gave this manor in frank marriage. It came 


to the Penningtons, ancestors of Lord IMuncaster, 
the present proprietor, according to Nicolson and 
Burn, by sale ; but according to Lysons, by the 
marriage of a heiress. The customary tenants 
paid "^^arbitrary fines, rents, heriots, and boon 
services ;" but the manor has been enfranchised, 
and many of the farms are now occupied by their 
respective owners. 

The Church 

Is dedicated to St. John; and the benefice is a 
rectory, in the patronage of Lord Muncaster. In 
the years 1421 and 1425, Sir Richard de Kirkby 
presented ; and in 1580, the rector was instituted 
on the presentation of Henry Kirkby. At as 
early a period, at least, as 1608, the advowson was 
invested in the family of Pennington, with whom 
it has since remained. 

The rectory is valued in the King's Books at 
3/. 11 A'. 8f/., and was returned to the governors of 
Queen Ann's bounty, of the clear annual value of 
18/. \6s. 6(1. It has since been augmented by 
that bounty. In the Falor Ecclesiasticus of Henry 
VIII. it is thus entered: — 

Waykerwhate Rector' Eccl'k. 

Will'm's Walker incumbens. Rector' p'dca. 

valet in £ s. d. 

Mansione cum gleba per annum — viij viij ^ 

Decim' grauos. &. f'eni xlvjs. '\ w £ s. d 

viijc?. molend' vjs. viijtZ. Ian'/ \ Ixxiiij iii 

et agn' vjs. niinut' ii privat' S — Ixv vij / ■* ■" 

decim' ut in libro paschal' W % 

vj<. \\yl. In toto J J 


Eepris' vis. in £ 



Sinod' Kjd. procurac' xxd. — 






Et valet clare — 



Xma. ps. inde — 



List of Rectors. 

William Walker occurs, 1535. 

1677 William Granger. 

1698 Henry Holmes. 

1704 Robert Mansion. 

1708 John Steele. 

1737 John Steele. 

1776 Thomas Nicholson. 

1825 Joseph Stanley. 

HE parish of Corney,. 
otherwise Conihozc or 
Corno, extends about 
three miles in length, 
and two in breadth. It 
is bounded on the north, 
by the parish of Wa^ 
berthwaite ; on the south, 
by Bootle ; and on the 
east, by a range of lofty 
fells extending to the mountain of Black-comb. 
This parish consists of about forty scattered 
houses, and the hamlet of Middleton-Place. It 
is remarkable for the longevity of its inhabitants: 
in the year 17GS, Mark Noble died here, at the 
acre of 113 ; in 1772, John Noble died aged 114; 
in the year 1790, Wilham Troughton died aged 
102 ; and in the year 1S28, when the population 
amounted to only about 290, ten persons were 
living in this parish, whose ages averaged 86 

The Manor. 

This manor belonged at 
to "Michael the falconer," 
assumed the name of Corney. 

an early period, 
whose posterity 
In the reign of 

King John or Henry III. they were enfeoffed of 


the manor. This family is supposed to have be- 
come extinct in the reign of Henry III. when 
the heiress brought it, by marriage to the Pen- 
ningtons, ancestors of the present Lord Muncastei', 
in whose family it has since remained. 

The manor-house, which is gone to decay, was 
at Middleton-Place, where the manor-court is 
held. It was the residence of, and gave name 
to, the ancient family of Middletons. 

The Church 

Is dedicated to St. John Baptist ; and the bene- 
fice is a rectory, in the patronage of the Earl 
of Lonsdale, who purchased the advowson of 
John, first Baron Muncaster, in 1803. It for- 
merly belonged to the abbey of St. Mary, York, 
who presented to the living in 1536. It is 
valued in the King's Books at 9/. 175. Id. ; and 
was certified to the governors of Queen Ann's 
bounty at 22/. lis. lOd. It is thus entered in 
the Valor Ecclesiasticiis of Henry VIII. : — 

Comey Rectoria EccVie. 
Rob'tus Hutton incumbens. Rector' p' dca. 

valet in 




Mansiono cum gleba per am. 





Decim' granos. cxvjs. viij(Z. de-" 




*. d. 

cim' agneir xxs. minut' et de- 1 

r . 



— _ 

cim' privat' ut in libro paschal' \ 

> IX 


~ ■ j 


\n]s. '\W]d. In tot' 



Eepris' vis. in 


s. d. 

Sinod' xj«?. procurac' ij*. 


s. d. 

Et valet clarc 


xvij j 

Xma. ps. 



xix viij ob' 


List of Rectors. 

Robert Hutton, occurs 1535. 

1661 Francis Berkeley. 
1666 Robert Crompton. 
1677 William Benson. 
1738 John Fisher. 
1787 Peter How. 

Allison Steble. 

18. . Thomas Han-ison, M.A. 
1840 Wilham Benn, B.A. 

A grave-stone with across and sword, but 
without any inscription, is placed as a hntel over 
the door of an out-house at the rectory. 


The sum of 30/. has been left to the poor of 
the parish of Corney who do not receive parochial 
relief; the interest of which is distributed an- 
nually on Christmas-day. 

Cftf |?an0f) of tMtiftiam 

OiMPRISES only one town- 
ship, and has no village of 
its own name. It extends 
about three miles cast and 
west, and one mile along 
the coast, north and south. 
If It is bounded on the north, 

_ by Whitbeck ; on the south 

and east, by AfiUom ; and on the west, by the 
sea. This parish has been variously called 
Wliitt'iiigeJiam, Wli'itcham, and Wlclieliam. 

" At the west end of Donerdale, near the fells, 
foranenst Milium, stands Wliitchcnn, or WicheJunti, 
alias WhUt'ingeham, all which (or the most part 
thereof) was another fee holden of Milium. And 
(as I take it) y^ place tooke that name of one 
Wyche, the first feoffee of the same. He livd 
about the time of K*" H. 1. two of his sonns, 
Will.fil.A\'yche and Godfrey, were witnesses to a 
mortgage of Kirksanton in the time of K^' H. 2. 
But their issue generall brought the land unto 
other familyes about the time- of K^' H. 3. for 
then one Radulf de Bethom had the land ; and 
the 6° of Ed. 1. he granted estovers to John 
Parson of AMiitcham, in his woods there : and 
one Rob. fil. Radi. de Bethom warranted lands in 
Sellcroft and Satterton in Millom ix° Ed. 1. 
But the manners of Selcroft and Whitcham w^ere 
inanother family, nono Ed' Secundi; asappeareth 


by a fine thereof levyed betwene Will. Corbet 
and Alicia his wife, q. and John de Corney, 
def ' ."* 

The manor of Whichamshall or Whichall be- 
longed at an early period to the family of Bethom ; 
it was afterwards divided into severalties. Sir 
James Lowther, Bart, pm'chased this estate, a 
considerable portion of which had belonged to 
Mr. Henry Fearon : it is now the property of 
the Earl of Lonsdale. The manor of Whicham 
and Silcroi't l^clonged to the family of Latus of 
the Beck, in the parish of Millom, who for some 
time resided at ^Vhicham hall. It was also the 
property of the Mulcasters or Muncasters of 
Cockermonth. Part of the parish is annexed to 
the lordship of Millom. 

A tradition has been preserved that a battle 
was fought between the English and the S cotch 
in a field near AVhicham hall, which retains the 
name of Scots' croft. 

The Church. 

The church of Whicham is dedicated to St. 
Mary, and was given by " Reynard the Fewer" 
to the abbey of St. Mary at York. After the 
dissolution of religious houses, the patronage was 
held by Hugh Askew, Esq. who presented a rec- 
tor in 1511. In the year 1717, .... Pennington, 
Esq. was certified as patron : it remained in that 
family until sold, by Lord Muncaster, to the 
Earl of Lonsdale, the present patron. 

The benefice is a rectory, valued in the King's 

• From a MS. "penes Dr. Duiilon," in llie Macliell MSS. vol. -vi. 
p. 531. 

N 2 


Books at 8/. 15s. lOcL; and was certified to tlie 
governors of Queen Ann's bounty at 49/. 13s. 3d. 
The rector pays an annual pension of 10s. to St. 
Bees. In the Valor Ecclesiasticus of Henry VIII. 
it is entered as follows : — 

WTiittngham Rector' EecVie. 



3- I 

Joh'es Wodall incumbens. Rector' p'dca. 

valet in £ ^ ^^ 

Mansione cum gleba pomar' } ' ■ 

& orto S •^ 

Decim' feni et garbas. xb. • 

Ian' et agnell' iiij/. pisciu. 

marinos. x«. decim' mo- 
lend' iij«. iiij<?. minut' & ^•viij uj iiij 

privat' decim' cu. oblac' 1 

ut in libro paschal' xxx*. 

In tot' -^ 

Repris' vis. in 

Annual' pens' piori. See. Bege 1 

■S.S. siiiid' xxj£^. procurac' > — xv 
iijs. iiije?. 5 

Et valet clare 
Xma. ps. inde 



J — 




£ s. 
viij xiiij 
— XV ij 


List of Rectors. 

John Wodall, occurs, 1535. 

1630 Robert Crompton. 

.... Tubman, occurs, c. 1642. 

1720 John Lawi'ey. 

1745 WiUiam Smith. 

1794 Robert Scott. 

1804 James Satterthwaite. 

1814 AUison Steble. 

1832 Alexander Scott, M.A. 


The Grammar School of Whicham and 


It is not clearly ascertained, says Sir Nicholas 
Carlisle, who was the founder of this school, 
which was formerly called " the Gramer Schole 
of Whicham and ^lilham," being free for both 

In the chancery suit between the inhabitants 
of these two parishes, which continued from 
1CS7 to 1G91, — it was contended by the inhabi- 
tants of Millom, that the school had been endowed 
by one of the Kings of England, prior to the 
reign of (^uecn Klizabeth, — whereas it was insist- 
ed upon by tlie inhabitants of Whicham, that the 
school had been endowed by a })erson of the 
name of Hodgson, a native of tliis parisli. 

The probability is, that the inhabitants of 
Whicham were in the right, because as the parish 
of Millom both in extent and in jiopulation is six 
times greater than the parish of Whicham, it 
is not likely the scliool would have been called 
"Wliicham and Millom School," unless the 
founder had been born in the parish of Whic- 

However that may be, it appears from a decree, 
in the year 1510, that IG/. a year were then 
ordered to be paid annually out of the revenues 
of the crown in the county of Cumberland, re- 
maining with the auditor of the county. And it 
is a certain fact, that that sum has been regidarly 
paid by the auditor of the revenues of the county 
of Cumberland, from the year 1540 until the 
present time. 

There has been no subsequent endowment : 


and, until within the last fifty years, the master 
never received any quarter-pence, nor any other 
emolument for instructing the children born 
within either of these parishes, excepting a gra- 
tuitous offer, entirely at the option of the parents 
of the children, called a " Cock-Penny," at 

The necessaries of life having, however, con- 
siderably increased in value, and the 16/. per an- 
num remaining as it did in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, have brought about an amicable ar- 
rangement between the master and the inhabitants 
of the two parishes ; in consequence of which the 
master receives a payment with his scholars, 
augmenting the stipend to about 50/. per annum. 
Ten scholars, however, are taught free. The 
school-house was built at the expence of the 

The right of electing and of removing the 
master is vested in twelve ti-ustees or governors, 
six out of each parish, including the rector of 
Whicham, and the vicar of Millom, in pursuance 
of a decree in chancery, made in the 2nd James II. 
There are no exhibitions, nor any university ad- 
vantages, belonging to this school. 

The Rev. John Postlethwaite, head-master of 
St. Paul's school, who died in 1713,* received 
the rudiments of his education in this school ; he 
was a benefactor to the adjoining parish of Millora, 
in which he was born.f 

• He was buried, 13th September, 1713, in the church of St. Augus- 
tine, London. 

t The above particulars are mainly derived from Carlisle's Grammar 

parish of whicham. 103 


A poor-stock of 33/. belongs to the parish. Of 
this sum 3/. was given by Daniel Mason, the 
interest to be distributed to six poor widows. 
The Rev. Robert Crompton, rector of the parish 
(1630), gave 51. the intei'est to be distributed 
annually to the poor. The remainder was left 
by unkno\\ni benefactors, half of the interest 
thereof to be applied to the repairs of the church, 
and half to the poor. 

HIS parish extends about 
four miles along the coast, 
its greatest breadth being 
about two miles and a half. 
It is divided by the Irt into 
two parts, Drigg and 
Carleton, which form but 
one township ; and is 
bounded on the north, by 
the parish of Gosforth ; 
on the west, by the Irish Sea ; on the. south, by 
the river INIite, which divides it from IMuncaster ; 
and on the east, by the parish of Irton, and the 
chapelry of Wasdale. 

Nicolson and Burn say, " it is very observable, 
that the lands which lie on each side of the Irt 
are of such different soils, as hath hardly been 
known elsewhere ; those on the east side being 
altogether a deep clay, and those on the west 
and north nothing but beds of sand." 

Sir ^^'illiam Pennington, of IMuncaster, the 
first baronet, made a horse course on the sands 
at Drigg, in the reign of Charles II. where a plate 
of the value of 10/, was run for annually in the 
month of May. 

Drigg is remarkable for producing, in large 
quantities, the finest potatoes of any part of 
Cumberland. In the latter end of the last 
century they were supposed to produce in the 


market of Whitehaven the annual sum of 300/.* 
At about the same period, Lord Muncaster, the 
lord of the manor and the lay rector, took com- 
mon land in lieu of tithes, and enfranchised 
his customary tenants. 

Near the sea-shore is a chalybeate spring, ■which 
is held in esteem for its medicinal properties. 
It was once a place of high repute, and visited by 
invahds and others from many parts of the king- 
dom. It possesses every physical advantage for 
becoming one of the most fashionable resorts of 
the kind in the kingdom : tlie adjoining beach is 
a beautiful sheet of level sand ; tlie surrounding 
scenery is beautiful and romantic in the extreme, 
— perhaps one of the best views in the county 
being obtained from that point ; — and it is within 
an hour's drive of Wast-Water, Devock-Water, 
and many other minor sheets of water in that 

Some few years ago, three hollow tubes of a 
vitrified substance, were observed projecting from 
the surface of a sand-hill on the sea coast. One 
of them was traced downward to the depth of 
about 30 feet, without coming to a termination, 
though its diameter was contracted to half an 
inch. The substance of these tubes, which are 
longitudinally, corrugated, appears to be the 
melted sand of the coast, but is extremely difli- 
cult of fusion. The only agent which appears 
sufficient to account for this production, is the 
electric fluid ; and they were probably produced 
by the action of lightning on the drifted sand.f 

• Not 3000/. as stated in Hutcliinson. 
+ Sec an article in the Transactions of the Geological Society (vol. ii. 
1811), " On the Vitreous Tubes found near to Drigg in Cumberland." 



Mr. John Denton says, " Dregg, on the other 
side of Irt, had great sort of oakes in the elder 
times, and thereof the Scots and inhabitants (at, 
and before the conquest) called the manor, Dregg 
of Derigh, or Dergh, which is Oak in the Scottish 
or Irish language. And much old wood, beaten 
down with the wind from the sea, is yet digged 
up out of the mosses and wet grounds there, as 
in divers other places in the country ; and in 
Scotland there are several places which have got 
their names fi-om Derig Oaks, as Glendergh ; and 
some others in Cumberland, as Dundragh ; and 
in our English, Aikton, Aikhead, Aikskeugh." 

The Irt is frequented by salmon, and abounds 
with trout. Camden speaks of the shell-fish in 
this river producing pearls ; and Sir John Haw- 
kins obtained from government the right of fish- 
ing for pearls in the Irt. The pearls were ob- 
tained from muscles, by the inhabitants of the 
neighbourhood, who sought for them at low-water, 
and afterwards sold them to the jewellers. About 

In the " Archives of Discoveries in France, in 1813," are two papers on 
some remarkable tubular cavities ■which exist in St. Peter's hill, near 
Maestricht. They arc described under the title of geological organ-pipes 
from their peculiar figure. They are supposed to have been formed by 
the water, that formerly covered the strata in wliich they exist, displac- 
ing some soft or loose materials and filtering llirough the mass. Tubes 
of this description are not confined to the neighbourhood of Maestricht, 
and it is conceived that tlieir formation may be all referred to the same 

Among Dr. E. D. Clarke's Experiments with ignited hydrogen and 
oxygen gas highly compressed and passed tlirough Newman's Blew Pipe 
is the following: — Sand Tubes of Drigg, in Cumberland. — On exposure 
to the ignited gas the fusion was instantaneous; and similar to the fusion 
of hyalite ; leaving a bead of pttrc limpid glass, containing bubbles, 
like rock cr)'stal after fusion. 


the year 1695, a patent was gi'anted to some 
gentlemen, for pearl fishing in this river ; but 
how the undertaking prospered is uncertain. The 
pearl muscles do not appear to have been very 
plentiful here for many years ; Nicolson and 
Burn observe, that Mr. Thomas Patriclcson, of 
How-Hall in this county, is said to have obtained 
as many from divers poor people, whom he em- 
ployed to gather them, as he afterwards sold in 
London for 800/. 

The pearl-muscle is not known or spoken of 
under that name ; although we have no doubt 
but the hsh from which these gems were obtained, 
still exists in the stream, and is locally called a 
" horse-fish." It is a bivalve of the muscle species, 
but much larger than the muscle used as an 
article of food, sometimes measuring as far as six 
inches in length. They are found on muddy 
banks where the water is nearly stagnant, and 
are a great nuisance to ground-JisJters. 

The Rev. WiUiam Singleton, rector of I lanslope, 
Bucks, is a native of this parish : he is the 
author of a pamphlet " On the Duty of keeping 
holy the Sabbath Day and on the Sacraments," 
8vo. 1805 ; and he wrote several papers which 
appeared in the Monthly Magazine. 

The Manor 

Belonged in the reign of Hcmy H. to the Estote- 
vills, and descended by a daughter to Baldwin, 
Lord Wake, Baron of Liddell," of which Baldwin," 
says Mr. John Denton, " William, the son of 
Thomas de (iraystoke, and the Lady Adinghan, 
in Fourness, in the tenth year of Edward L held 

o -i 


a knight's fee between them in Dregg ; and in 
the 29th Edward I. the Abbot of Caldre, Patrick 
Culwen, and the Lady Margaret Multon, held 
Dregg of John de Graystock, and of John, the 
son of Robert Harrington, and they over of John 

Harrington's part subsequently passed with a 
heiress to the Curwens of Workington Hall ; 
and was sold, under the title of the manor and 
advowson of Drigg, in the reign of James I., by 
Sir Nicholas Curwen, knight, to Sir William 
Pennington, of Muncaster, ancestor of Lord 
Muncaster, the present possessor. Major-General 
Wyndham, of Cockermouth castle, is lord-para- 
mount of the whole ; and a considerable part of 
the parish is held immediately under his barony 
of Egreraont. 

The lord of the manor claims flotsam — wreck 
floating on the water, jetsam — goods cast from 
any vessel or thrown on the shore, and lagan — 
goods that are sunk. These rights were tried 
and adjudged on a trial, in the reign of Queen 
Ehzabetli, between Henry, Earl of Northumber- 
land, and Sir Nicholas Curwen, knight. A degree 
in chancery confirmed the said prescription, and 
secured those rights against the lord-paramount.* 
The sea, which forms the western boundary of 
the parish, has evidently made considerable en- 

• The rights or privileges of the lord of the manor with respect to 
Jlotsam, Ijc, do not appear to be very accurately defined or clearly 
understood ; some maintaining that all wreck whatever belongs exclusively 
to the crown ; others, exclusively to the lord of the manor : but the most 
correct opinion appears to be, that whatever is taken out of the sea whilst 
(\/loat belongs to the crown, and that whatever is left aground by the 
retreat of the tide is the property of the lord of the manor. 


croachments on the land, as at low-water exten- 
sive plots of vegetable soil or peat-moss are visible, 
from one of which, two or three years ago, an 
inhabitant of the parish, named Mandle, dug 
several cart-loads, which, as an article of fuel, 
was found to be far superior to the peat com- 
monly in use in the neighbourhood. 


Carleton is a constablewick, lying between the 
Irt and the Mite, containing the hamlet of Hall 
Carleton, and Carleton Hall, the seat of Joseph 
Burrow, Esq. It contains about twelve farms, 
formerly holden of the Penningtons of Muncaster, 
as of their manor of Drigg, but the tenants were 
enfranchised by the grandfather of the present 

The Church. 

The church of Drigg is dedicated to St. Peter, 
and was appropriated to the priory of Conishead, 
in Lancashire. The abbots of Calder had ))art 
of the manor ; and IJishop Gastrell notices that 
Anselm, son of Micliael de Furness, gave the 
chapel of Drog to the priory of Conishead, and 
supposes it may have been a mistake in the 
manuscript for Dreg or Drigg. In the Valor 
Ecclesiastlc/ts- of Henry YIW. in the list of the 
possessions of that priory, the church of Drigg is 
entered as follows : — 

Dccim' capclle de Digidrego viz. xmis. granos. '^ 

k feni iiij/. vjs. viijt/. Ian' &. agii' xxxs. vituV f £ s. d. 
porccir auc' k gallin' vs. oblac' tribs. dicbsAvij vij iiij 
prencipalibs vjs. viijrf. minut' & privat' decim' W 
ut in libro paschal' xxs. In tot'. } 


However, so totally was the church appropri- 
ated, that it became a perpetual curacy, and was 
certified to the governors of Queen Ann's bounty 
of the annual value of 51. Qs. i>(L 

On the dissolution of religious houses, this 
church was granted to the Curwens, and was 
sold, with the manor, by Sir Nicholas Curvven, 
as aforesaid, to the Penningtons of Muncaster, 
in whose family the tithes, demesne, and manor re- 
mained, until Lowther, Lord Muncaster, enfran- 
chised his customary tenants and took common 
land in lieu of tithes. The advowson was sold, 
by the late Lord Muncaster, to Samuel Irton, 
Esq., M.P. of Irton Hall, the present patron. The 
present incumbent is the Rev. John Grice, who 
has for his curate the Rev. Francis Shaw. 

The parish church of this place is very humble 
and unassuming in its appearance; being entirely 
destitute of all architectural ornament both in- 
ternal and external. It has a chancel, and a 
porch at the western end, which constitutes the 
principal entrance into the body of the building. 
It is dedicated to St. Peter. The nave may be 
considered the original erection, but at this re- 
mote period its precise date cannot be accurately 
ascertained. Two stone crosses until lately sur- 
mounted the apices of the eastern and western 
gables ; but on rebuilding the chancel a few years 
ago which was in a very decayed, dilapidated 
condition ; these Christian symbols were sacri- 
legiously knocked off' by the workman's hammer, 
and wrought as materiels into the new wall. 

We have no List of Incumbents previous to the 
year 1 676 : since that period they have been as 
follows : — 


1676 John Benson. 

1681 Joseph Benn, buried INIay 25th, 1730. 
1730 Edward Burroughs* buried February 
21st, 1776. 

1775 John Steble, buried April 17th, 1780. 
1780 Clement Watts. 
1797 John Grice. 

There are no inscriptions in the interior, ex- 
cepting a small tablet erected in memory of the 

Rev Steble, a former incumbent of the 


There is an old register belonging to the 
church, by which it ap])ears, that a Mr. Thomson 
who resided at Thornllat in tliis parish, (during 
the usurpation of Oliver Cromwell,) marriecl 
several couples, acting as magistrate under the 
usurper, when the ministration of the incumbent 
was superseded. 

There is a series of entries of marriages ex- 
tending over a space of two years, 1656 and 7 : 

• Father of the Rev. Stanley Burrough, M.A. rector of Cottesbach, 
CO. Leicester; 17G3 — 1768; rector of Sapcote, to which he was present- 
ed in 1778; and many years master of Rugby school ; ob. 1807. " He 
was a very worthy man, and an excellent parish priest." He was a native 
of Drigg, and was educated by his father, who kept a school, and was 
minister of that parish and Irton. At the usual age he was sent to Queen's 
college, Oxford, on tlie old foundation ; and was contemporiiry with Mr. 
Gilpin of Boldre, Dr. Harrington of Bath, &c. About the time of his 
taking his degree of M.A. hu w,is invited to Rugby by Ur. Rirhmond, 
a fellow of Queen's college, then lately elected upper master of that 
school, as his assistant. Upon the Doctor's resignation he became upper 
master, and continued to preside over that school, with considerable repu- 
tation, for 23 years, which he resigned in 1778, and removed to Sapcote, 
to which living he had been presented that year by his brother-in-law, 
the late Mr. Frcwen-Tumcr, of Cold Overton. — Gent. Mag. June 18U7. 


in the solemnization of which, the services of the 
clergy seem to have been entirely dispensed with, 
and their sacred functions usm-ped by a layman. 
The following may serve as examples of the en- 
tries : — 

Richard Gaytskell and Annow Hunter were irarried the 
xxixth of June before Willm. Thomson one of the Justices of 
the Peace for this County. 


Nicholas Powe and Margrat Layton were married the 
xviith day of September before Willm: Thomson one of the 
Justices of the Peace for this County. 


Drigg — unlike most country parishes — can 
boast of two endowed places of public instruction. 
The original school, which stands in the Carleton 
division of the parish, dates the period of its 
erection as far back as tlie year 1723, and in 
1727, was endowed by Joseph Walker in the 
amount of 260/. for the education of the children 
of such as had previously contributed to the 
erection of a school-house ; subject however to 
the payment of a small annual gratuity to the 
master at Shrovetide, locally denominated Cock- 
Penny. The endowment, however, through the 
indiscreet investment and imprudent management 
of the trustees, is now almost wholly alienated, 
the capital being reduced so low that the interest 
accruing from it is scarcely adequate to meet the 
contingent expenses of the building. 

There is a brass tablet inserted in the wall 
immediately over the fire-place bearing the fol- 
lowing inscription : — 


Joseph Wallcer de Salt Coats banc 

Scbolam fundavit Anno Dom. 1723. 

I add four pounds to year Building of tliis 

School as a cheerful! giver, 

That the poor of the Parish may bo 

free in it for ever. 

Idem Joseph Walker hoc dixit et fecit. 



Edw. Burrough 
John Thompson 
Moses Nicholson 
Wm. Beeby 
Wm. Thompson 

Wm. Postlethwaite 
Wm. Singleton 
John Cappage 
John Pool 

A school-house was erected in 1S28, by the 
Rev. William Thompson, M.A., a native of the 
parish curate of 1' arnwovth, near Prescot, Lan- 
cashire. This school is vested in seven trustees,— 
the Bisho]) of Chester, Lord Muncaster, the 
rector of Gosforth, the incumbents of Muncaster 
and I)ri"-g, the master of St. Bees school, and 
the founder's heir-at-law in perpetuity. The 
Bishop of Chester is appointed, " with the 
usual visitorial powers incident to the office of 
visitor of a charity." The master is to teach 
eight poor children, natives of the parish, for the 
payment of l.s. entrance, and Is. per quarter 
each ; but he is allowed to take other pupils, 
who pay a regular quarterage for the ditt'erent 
branches of learning in which they are instructed. 
The school-honse stands upon a new site 
adjoining the church ; the master is limited to 
53 scholars including the 8 charity children. 
The quarter pence for the remainder is left to 
the master's discretion. , . wv . .i. 

The site was conveyed by deed ot gilt to the 


founder by the late Lowther, Lord Muncaster. 
The endowment is 42/. per annum, arising from 
moneys invested for tlie piu'pose in the 3 per 
cent, consols: 40/. of the proceeds go directly to 
the master in half-yearly payments, and the re- 
maining 40s. are at the disposal of the trustees, 
to be employed in the repairs of the school 
and school-house. There is an elegant and 
commodious house adjoining the school, for the 
gratuitous reception of the master ; also built at 
the expence of the founder. The present master 
is Mr. Isaac Clements, A.B. 

etc IJaris!) of i!;2:ii)it6fcS, 

NCLUDED ill the lordship of 
Alillom, extends along tlie coast 
about three miles ; and, inland, 
, rather more than two miles. It 
' is bounded on the south, by 
■ Whicham ; on the east, by the 
'mountain Black-Comb;* on the 
north, by Bootle ; and on the 
I west, by the Irish Sea. The 
whole ])arish is comprised in one 
towii>hi[) ol' its own name. Its remarkable sa- 
lubrity appears from the number of persons \vho 
have attained to a great age : the Messrs. Lysons 
state that the register shows that of the inhabi- 
tants buried here (previous to 1816,) rather more 
than one in five were aged from SO to SO inclu- 
sive ; f and about one in eleven from 90 to 99 

The surface of the parish is uneven and irregu- 
lar, but there are few trees to give it a picturesque 
appearance. Some parts, however, command 
extensive views, including the shipping on the 
Irish Sea, the Isle of Man, and the ^Velsh and 
Scottish mountains. A vein of peatmoss, con- 
taining, in some places, near one-fifth of the 

• Sec an account of Black-Comb under the parish of Bootle. 
t The general average proportion of those who attain the age of 80, is 
said to bo one in thixty-two ; and in London, one in forty. 

P l 


breadth of the parish, runs longitudinally through 
the middle of the greatest part of the land, and 
divides it into two kinds of soil ; that part near 
the sea is sandy, inclining to a clay as it comes 
nearer the moss, and bears the name oiLoKfiehh; 
that part above the moss consists of heavy mould, 
with many stones ; this soil becomes more gra- 
velly as it approaches the base of the mountain, 
and is called the HighfieUh. 

The sea has encroached considerably on the 
land in some parts of this parish ; "old roads 
and hedges are visible a considerable way beyond 
[low] water mark." Near Gutterby-bay is a 
lai'ge rock, called Blacklegs, visible when the 
tide is out, on which many vessels have been 
wrecked. A medicinal spring near the shore was 
formerly much frequented, and was held to be 
"" a sovereign remedy for the scurvy and gravel." 

Large trunks of oak and fir-trees have been 
found in the peat-moss ; and about the latter end 
of the last century, a tree was dug up, with its 
roots and branches in a good state of preserva- 
tion ; the trunk was about seven yards in length, 
and two in diameter, and was sawn into planks. 
Nut and acorns have been frequently found at a 
great depth. 

One mile south of Bootle, on the Barfield 
estate, there is a small lake, provincially called a 
tarn, about 600 yards in circumference, which 
abovmds with perch and trout. Around here and 
on the neighbouring morasses, ignes fatui are 
frequently seen in the evenings. Another tarn, 
near Gutterby, produces a great quantity of 

It is stated, in a communication by the Rev. 


'\^'illiam Pearson, in Hutchinson's Cumberland, 
that " when the wind blows from the east over 
Black Comb, the inhabitants of the houses 
which stand close under its base, find it most 
violent ; -when the wind blows from the sea, the 
most temperate. In Whicham, behind the moun- 
tain, it is quite the reverse : so that when ever it 
is calm in one parish, it is stormy in the other, 
when it blows from the east or west." 

The same writer also mentions the following 
customs and superstitions as then (1794) observ- 
ed in this parish : — " Newly married peasants h- g 
com to sow their first crop with, and are called 
cornlaiicrs. People always keep wake with 1' e 
dead. . . . The labouring ox is said to kneel at 12 
o'clock at night, preceding the day of the nativity; 
the bees are heard to sing at the same hour. On 
the morn of Christmas-day, the people breakfast 
early on hack-piidding, a mess made of sheep's 
heart, chopped with suet and sweet fruits. To 
whatever quarter a bull faces in lying on All 
Hallozc-Even, from thence the wind will blow 
the greatest part of the winter." 

The Manor. 

This manor* Sir William Morthing gave by 
fine to the prior and convent of Conishead, to 
which monastery the church also was given by 
Gamel de Pennington. Mr. John Denton says, 
"These Morthings and Corbets were anciently 
seated in IVIillum ; I have seen of their names in 
writings and evidences, made in the time of 

• Mr. John Denton says, " the church or chapel." 


King Henry, or King Edward II,, and to have 
been men of good worth and quality there ; as, 
namely, one William de Morthing and John de 
Morthing, William Corbet and Radulph Corbet. 
Divers of the Corbets seated themselves in Scot- 
land, in those famous wars of King Edward I., 
where their posterity do remain to this day." 

The manor, with the rectory and advowson, 
were granted in 1687, to Mr. Lavei'ence Parke, 
in whose descendants they continued till the year 
1807, when they were sold by Charles Parke, 
Esq., to the Earl of Lonsdale, who is the present 
proprietor. The Parkes resided at an old mansion 
at Whitbeck, now occupied as a farm-house.* 

Monk-Force, a small manor within this parish, 
was given by William de Meschines to the abbey 
of St. Mary, in Furness ; and on the dissolution 
of that house was granted to the Hudlestons of 
Millom, who sold it. In 1777, it belonged to 
Edmund Gibson, Esq., of Whitehaven ; from 
that family it passed to the Lewthwaites, and is 
now the property of Miss Lewthwaite. 

Scoggerbar, another manor, was given by Sir 
William Hudleston to his second son Joseph, 
who, by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand, 
became possessed of the lordship of Millom, when 
the manor was reunited to the said lordship. 

The Church. 

The church of Whitbeck, having been given 
by Gamel de Pennington to the priory of 
Conishead, is now only a perpetual curacy. It 

• Lysons. 


is not entered in the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 
Henry YIII. It was certified to the governors 
of Queen Ann's bounty of the annual value of 
dl. 14*. Sd. The advowson and tithes, as stated 
above, were granted in 1GS7, to Mr. Lawrence 
Parke, with whose descendants they remained 
until 1807, when they were purchased of Charles 
Parke, Esq., by the Earl of Lonsdale, the present 
patron and lay-rector. His lordship is proprietor 
of half the tithes. The benefice was augmented 
in 1747 with 200/. by the governors of Queen 
Ann's bounty, and 250/. given by the patron and 
impropriator, being the produce of the sale of a 
portion of the tithes ; a further sum of 200/. was 
given by the governors about the year 17C0: 
with these benefactions an estate was bought 
near Dalton, in Furness. In 1785, the benefice 
received a further augmentation of 200/. in addi- 
tion to 200/. from Queen Ann's bounty, with 
which were purchased a house and land in Whit- 
beck, now the minister's residence.* 

In a list of the possessions of the priory of 
Conishead, the church of Whitbeck occurs as 
follows : — 

Decim' ecclie. de Whitbeke viz granos. ot ^ 

feni iiijA vjs. Ian' &c agn' liijs. iiijc/. vitul'/ £ s. d. 
pore' auc' ic gallin' xij«. oblac' tribz dicbus S viij xviij viij 
prcncipalibz vij*. iiijii. in libro paschaliL 
xxs. In tot'. J 

List of Incumbents. 

1624 John Davies. 
16. . Richard Huatson. 

• Lysoni. 

Q 2 


1673 William Robinson. 
1679 Lancelot Walker. 
1709 John Sawrey. 
1725 Daniel Noble. 
1731 John Romney. 
1734 John Jackson. 

1736 John Bradley. 

1737 Thomas Green. 
1773 Thomas Smith. 
1775 John Atkinson. 
1791 John Brocklebank. 
1825 Thomas Caddy. 

The church is dedicated to St. Mary. It is 
an ancient edifice, but much modernized by the 
insertion of sash windows. It consists of a nave 
and chancel of the same height and width, with 
a bell-gable at its western end, which carries two 
bells, surmounting the entrance. The font is 
of stone, and is placed near the door. The roof 
of the nave is open to the timber work. About 
sixty years since, many of the beams were cut 
down by Mr. Edmund Gibson, of Barfield, stew- 
ard for the lordship of Millom, by which the 
north wall sustained serious injury. In 1794, 
the chancel was left unroofed : this was probably 
occasioned by the alterations now mentioned. 
It has been " curtailed of its fair proportion ;" and 
a monumental effigy, said (we know not on what 
authority) to be " of one of the lords of Whit- 
beck," is now lying exposed to the weather, the 
east wall having been rebuilt some feet nearer 
the nave. There is a pointed arch between the 
nave and chancel, the piers of which have been 
removed. The Ten Commandments, the Lord's 


Prayer, and the Apostles' Creed, are placed on 
the north and south walls. 

The only monument in the church is one on 
the south wall of the nave — a marble tablet, 
bearing this inscription : 

To the Memory 

of those regretted Relatives 

of whom, within half a Century, 

Four successive generations departed. 

This record of mortality is inscribed 

by a frateful Survivor. 

JOHN PEARSON, was interred Feb. 7, 1772, aged 81. 

FRANCES, his wife, (a Postlethwaitc,)..Nov.23, 1772, 70. 

WILLIAM, their son Feb. 8, 1795, 62. 

HANNAII,hi3wife, (aPonsonby) June 15, 1800, 61. 

JOHN, the eldest son of William Oct. 31, 1816, . 51. 

f HANNAH Mar. 7, 1802, 8. 

HUChUdren) JOHN, Julyl9,1818, 17. 

C ELIZABETH, Nov. 2, 1818, 20. 

JOSEPH, May 9, 1829, 19. 

HANNAH, July30,1830, 20. 

Eheu .' fugaces labuntur anni. 

Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

At Hall-foss are the remains of a Druidical 
monument, called Standing Stones, which formed 
a circle twenty-five yards in diameter. In 1794, 
they were described as consisting of " eight mas- 
sy rude columns ; some of which have lately been 
broken and taken away." 

At Annaside, near the sea, is a similar monu- 
ment of antiquity, forming a circle twenty yards 
in diameter, consisting of twelve stones. On the 
north-west side are the ruins of a building through 
which an old road leads ; but nothing is known 
respecting its antiquity. 


In a field near Gutterby is another monument 
composed of thirty stones, and called Kirkstones. 
They form parts of two circles, an exterior and 
an inner one, — similar in position to those at 
Stonehenge in Wiltshire. The interior range 
has two sides. The stones are larger, and the 
circles have been more extensive, than those in 
this parish previously described. About 200 
yards to the south, is a large cairn of stones, 
about fifteen yards in diameter, having massy 
stones for its base. 


Mr. Henry Parke, of Kendal, mercer, (a native 
of this parish,) left 400/. the interest thereof to 
be distributed to six poor people, nominated by 
the churchwardens and four of the most substan- 
tial inhabitants, who are to be nominated and 
appointed by the Bishop of Chester. In 1722, 
it was certified that an hospital was built for the 
said poor people, and that the money left by Mr. 
Parke had been invested in lands which yielded 
24/. per annum. The hospital was built by the 

In 1722, there was a poor-stock of 30/. the 
interest of which was applied to the use of the 

The following benefactions to the parish are 
entered in the register : — In the year 1580, John 
Kitchin gave 20 marks, of which half the interest 
was to be applied to the use of tlie poor, and the 
other half to the church. In 1617, Lawrence 
Parke gave 10/. for the like purpose. In 1634, 
Arthur Myers gave 10/. for the use of the school- 
master. In 1674, Henry Robinson gave 51. for 


the like purpose. Henry Parke and John Hud- 
dleston gave each a donation for the use of the 
poor, on their going into the hospital. In 1735, 
Agnes Walker gave 10/. for the use of the poor. 
And in 1737, Hudleston Parke gave the interest 
of 61. for the hke purpose. 

^fic Dari0t) of l^ootlr. 

HE parish of Bootle, other- 
wise Biitle, Bothill, or Bo- 
tyU, forms part of the 
seigniory of IMillom, now 
belonging to the Earl of 
Lonsdale. It extends about 
six miles along the coast, 
and is about two miles in 
breadth. It is bounded on 
the south, by Whitbecki 
on the east, by Corney and the mountain Black- 
Comb ; on the north, by Waberthwaite ; and on 
the west, by the Irish Sea. 

This parish appears remarkable for the longevity 
of its inhabitants. Since the year 1778, but not 
previously, the ages of those buried here have 
been given in the register ; and like many other 
places in this county, the average age is very 
great. The Messrs. Lysons state that of the in- 
habitants buried here, before the year 1816, about 
one in six were aged from 80 to 89 inclusive ;* 
and one in forty-two were aged from 90 to ^% 
inclusive. In a population of nearly 800 inhabi- 
tants, there were, during the last year (1840), 
only four funerals ; the ages were as follow : — 
88 years, 92 years, 14 months, and the fourth (a 

• The general average proportion of those who attain the age of 80, \i 
l«id to be one in thiity-two \ and in London, one in fortjr. 


pauper, whose age was unknown) was supposed 
to be the oldest. 

In this parisli is a small bay called Selkers Bay, 
where it is said that in calm weather the sunken 
remains of small vessels or gallies can be seen, 
whicli are traditionally said to have been left 
there on an invasion by the Romans. 

Esk-Meols, wliich extends along the coast, is 
remarkable for containing a large rabbit-warren ; 
and on this estate there are the remains of an 
entrenchment, certainly Roman, as altars and 
coins have been found in it. " It was doubtless 
one of the smaller stations constructed for the 
defence of the coast in that remote corner." 

Mr. John Denton says, " Next unto Whitbeck, 
in the comon high street,* more towards the 
west, is Butle, where of old stood a mansion of 
the family of the Cowplands. They bear for 
arms, or, a bend sable, on a canton and 2 barrs 
gules. I have seen a register of their descent ; 
namely S' Richard C'owpland, k', Alane his son, 
father to Richard (who dyed seized hereof in the 
2Gth year K*' Ed. i.) and left his estate to John 
his son, father to anotlier Richard C'owpland. 
They continued in the issue maile till the tim3 
of Richard the second and king Henry the iiii. 
and now their lands arc transfer'd into other 

The family of Copeland of Rootle, where they 
had a mansion-house, became extinct about the 
time of Richard II. Their arms were — Or, two 
bars and a canton, gules, over all a bend, sable. 
The colieircsscs married Iludleston, Penington, 
and Senhouse. 

• The road leading from Boolle to Whilbcck. 


The name of this parish is supposed by some 
to be derived from the beacon* on the top of the 
hill above the town, which was fired upon the 
discovery of any ships upon the Irish seas which 
might threaten an invasion, by the watchmen 
who lay in booths by the beacon. And for the 
support of this service, the charge or payment 
of seawake was provided.f 

• " AU the ancient altars found in Ireland, and now distinguished by 
the name of Cromlechs, or sloping stones, were originally called Bothal, 
or the house of God; and they seem to be of the same species as those 
mentioned in the Book of Genesis, called by the Hebrews, Bethel, which 
has the same signification as the Irish, Bothal." — Beauford^ s Druidism 
Revived. The Greeks had their Betulia. Sanchoniatho mentions stones 
called Betulia, which possessed the power of motion, as if they were instinct 
with life. These were, in all probability, sacred rocking stones ; num- 
bers of which, erected by the Druids, are to be found in various parts of 
our own island. — Faber's Dissert, on the Cabiri, vol. 2, p. 389, note, toI. 
i. pp. 110— 112. Betullo, a city in Spain, mentioned by Pomponius 
Mela, lib. 2, cap. 6, is derived from Beth-El, the house of God. Ibid, 
vol. i. p. 212, note. Bethulia, Judith 4, 6, and elsewhere in that book. 
Bootle may possibly have the same derivation. 

f In the 7 Eliz. there was a decree in the Duchy court of Lancaster, 
for settling the customs of the queen's tenar.ts, late belonging to the 
abbey of Fumess : Inter alia — It is further ordered and decreed, by the 
said chancellor and council, by the full assent, consent, and agreement 
of the said customary tenants [in the parish of Hawkshead], that the said 
customary tenants, their heirs and assigns, being tenants of the premises, 
shall for ever, at their own proper costs and charges, prepare, furnish, 
and have in readiness, when they shall be thereunto required and com- 
manded by the queen's majesty her heirs and successors, or by any of 
her other oflirers suflicicntly authorized for the same, forty able men, 
horsed, harnessed, and weaponed according to their ability by statute of 
armory, and horse meet to serve in the war against the enemies of the 
queen's majesty her heirs and successors, for the defence of the haven 
and castle called the Peel. of Fodra, or otherwise upon that coast, with, 
out allowance of wages, coat, or conduct money : or eUewhere ; as need 



Many of the rude weapons and tools of the 
early inhabitants of Britain, formed of hard stone 
or fiint, and resembling those of the South Sea 
Islands, have been discovered in this neighbour- 
hood A heavy stone hammer, seven inches m 
length, and four and a half in width, was found 

at Bootle in 1813. ■ n ■, 

Black-Comb, a sohtary mountain of gloomy 
aspect, takes its name from the blackness of the 
heath with which its sides are clad. He who 
loves " to sit on rocks, to muse o'er sea and tell, 
will be amply repaid by climbing to the summit 
of Black-Comb. 

" Close by the Sea, lone sentinel, 

Black-Comb liis forward station keeps ; 
He breaks the sea's tumultuous swell, — 
And ponders o'er the level deeps. 

lie listens to the bugle horn. 
Where Eskdale's lovely valley bends; 

Eyes Walney's early liclds of corn ; 
Sea-birds to Holker's woods he sends." 

Althou^di the elevation of this mountain is 
greatly inferior to that of many of its neighbour 
ciants— being only two-thirds of that of bca-I' ell, 
Helveilyn, and Skiddaw,— yet on the authority 
of that experienced surveyor, the late Colonel 
Mud<'e it is said to command a more extensive 
view Uian any other point in Britain. "Ireland 
he saw from 'it more than once, but not when the 
sun was above the horizon." The summit ol this 
mountain was used during the late ordnance sur- 
vey, whence it is said that fourteen counties ot 

,haU require, and shall be thereunto commanded and appointed out of 
the realm, having allowance of coat and conduct money and wages as 
inland men have.— Mco'son and Burn. 

R 2 


England and Scotland can be seen. On a clear 
day Talk-on-the-Hill, in Staffordshire, can be 
distinguished at a distance of nearly 100 miles; 
and it is distinctly visible from the high lands 
above Everton, near Liverpool, and from Bid- 
stone, in Cheshire. Black-Comb is one of the 
first objects seen by the mariner on coming from 
Ireland. " The base of the mountain being on 
the sea-shore, the prospect from its summit 
abounds with gi'eat variety. The sublime ocean oc- 
cupies one half of the circumference : rising from 
its surface, on the south, are seen Peel Castle and 
the Isle of Walncy. The Isle of Man is a con- 
spicuous object in the west. A fine indented 
coast is the bulwark of Cumberland against the 
sea ; on which are seen Egremont, Bootle, Mun- 
caster, Ravenglass, Broughton, and the pecu- 
liarly beautiful shores of Duddon. Far in the 
east is an assemblage of mountains that we sup- 
posed to be those of Coniston and Ambleside : 
perhaps Ilardknot and Wrynose, Langdale Pikes, 
and Helvellyn." 

A cavity on this mountain is supposed to have 
been the crater of a volcano at some distant 
period : out of the lower corner flows a rivulet 
into Whicham, which springs from the centre of 
the crater : the depth and diameter of the cavity 
is several hundred yards ; the fragments on the 
margin are of vitrified matter, with some chrys- 
talizations. There is a similar crater or cavity, 
on the Old Man, at the head of Coniston Water 
in Lancashire, and another on Helvellyn ; but 
these differ so far, that they have each a lake at 
the mouth of their cavities.* 

• Rev. W. Pearson, in Hutcliinson. 

parish of bootle. 129 

The Town of Bootle. 

Bootle is an ancient market-town, " supposed 
to be the smallest in England." It is about six 
miles S.S.E. of Ravenglass, and about nine N.N.E. 
of Millom church. The market was granted to 
John de Hudlcston, in 1347, to be held on Wed- 
nesday, and a fair for four days at the feast of the 
Exaltation of the Holy Cross* (September 14.) 
A butcher-market is now held on Saturday ; but 
there has been no corn-market for many years. 
There are also fairs holden here, but the dates 
are often changed. 

The market-cross is surrounded by steps, and 
has four shields at the base of the shaft ; three of 
which, if not originally plain, are now defaced ; 
but that on the south side is charged with the 
arms of the lludlestons — formerly lords of Mil- 

The dissenting chapel was built in 17S0 by 
Mr. Joseph Whitridge, a native of the parish, and 
a member of Lady Huntington's connection, for 
the use of which it was erected and endowed 
Avith 1000/. vested in trustees, who have since 
placed it in the hands of the Independents.f 

Captain Shaw, R.N., the founder of the new 
school in this parish, has a residence near the town. 
Cross-house, a little to the north of the church, 
is the residence of Christopher Hobson, Esq. 

The Church. 

The benefice is a rectory, and the church is 
dedicated to St. Michael. It was given to the 

• Cart. 21 Edw. III. m. 17. t Parson and White. 


abbey of St. Mary, at York, by " Godard the 
Sewer," or Godard Dapifer, the second lord of 
Millom. In the year 1527 the abbot and convent 
presented a rector; in 1G60 Wilham Pennington, 
Esq. presented; and in 1664, a rector was in- 
stituted on the presentation of the king. In 1717 
Robert Pennington, Esq. was certified as the patron. 
Lord Muncaster, his descendant, sold it to .... 
Wakefield, Esq. of Kendal, from whom the ad- 
vowson was purchased by the Earl of Lonsdale, 
the present proprietor. The benefice is valued 
in the King's Books at 19/. 17s. S^d. and was 
certified to tlie governors of Queen Ann's bounty 
at 70/. 2s. 2d. It pays a pension of 4s. to St. Bees. 

The registers commence in 1655 : but, in se- 
veral places, they have been most neghgently 
kept, and have suffered very much from damp. 
The present vector, however, bestows more care 
on them : under his siirvcilhince, they will be 
preserved from future injury. There are no en- 
tries of marriages before justices of the peace 
during the Commonwealth. 

The rectory of Bootle is thus entered in the 

Valor Ecclesiasticus of Henry VIII. : — 

Botyll Hector" eccl'ie. 

Ricus. Brounc incumbens. Rector' p'dca. 

valet in „ 
Mansione cum gleba ette- ? ."■ 

nement' p. am. \ ' ^ 


feni .\iiJ5. iiijt/. dccini' 

lan'et agncir Ixiijs.iiijJ. 

decim' pisciu. marinos. 

vj«. viijt/. lini &. canabi ^xix xv 

iijs. iiij(^. columbar' ij.9. 

minul' ot privat' decim' 

cum oblac' lit in libro 

paschal' Ixxiij*. iiijc^. ^ 

In tolo 









Eepris' viz in 

Sinod' ijs. ^d. procurac' ) 


s. d. 

iiij«. v^. annual' pens' > — x 



X vj 

priori See. Boge iiijs. 3 


*. d. 

Et valet clare 


xvij ii 

Xma. ps. inde 


List of Rectors 


Richard Brown, occurs 1535. 

IGGO Richard Ilutton. 

1664 Richard Ilutton, S.T.B., oh. 1704.* 

1704 Henry Holmes. 

1729 Daniel Steele, oh. 1764. 

1764 Miles Wennington. 

1771 Henry Crookbaine. 

1776 Thomas Smith. 

1789 Thomas Smith, oh. 1807. 

1807 James Satterthwaitc, D. D.f 

1813 John Fleming, Senior, oh. 1S35. 

1835 Alexander Scott, M.A. 

Within the last three or four years the church 
has been enlarged at a very considerable expence. 
The parishioners came forward with their sub- 
scriptions in a style of liberality which reflects 
the highest credit upon them ; and they were 
assisted in the good work by a donation of 84/., 
from Tlie Society for building and enlarging 
Churches ; and " though last, not least" by the gift 
of 100/., from William, Karl of Lonsdale, the 
patron of the living. 

The church of St. Michael of Bootle is an an- 

• A benefactor to the school. 
t Afterwards rector of Lowthei. 


cient structure, but has undergone very extensive 
alterations. It was repaired in the latter end of 
the last century, and again, as already stated, in 
the year 1837, when north and south transepts 
were added to the simple original plan of a nave 
and chancel. The entrance, by a porch at the 
western end, is surmounted by a bell-turret, car- 
rying two bells. The alterations effected lately 
have been so extensive as to render it impossible for 
one previously unacquainted with the church to 
form any opinion of its former appearance. The 
changes, however, in this instance have happily 
been made in good taste. The windows are 
narrow lancets with dripstones. The interior is 
neatly pewed ; and the middle aisle is not en- 
cumbered by the pulpit and reading-desk. The 
chancel arch is circular. A gallery has been 
lately erected over the entrance at the western 

The font, placed in a pew at the west end, is 
octagonal,* with a capacious circular basin. It is 
quite plain, excepting a string-course round the 
centre. The top part, which is larger than the 
pedestal, bears eight shields, two on each side, 

• The octagon had a mystical meaning in the ancient Christian 
church, and has been designated as " the most appropriate form for the 
font, and the most beautiful as well as the most ecclesiastical." Some 
verses may be appropriately added here, which were written by St. 
Ambrose, upwards of fourteen centuries ago, and inscribed over the font 
of St. Tecla. 

" Octachorum sauctos templum surrexit in usus, 

Octagonus fons est, muncre dignus eo. 

Hoc numcro dccuit sacri baptismatis aulam 

Surgere, quo populis vera salus rediit 
Luce resurgentis Chrisli, qui claustra rcsolvit 
Mortis, et e lumulis, suscitet examines." 


with this inscription in text-hand : — Un nomtnr 
patrt ii filii &• spirit' eiirtia. There are also 
the initials, R. B. and on another shield, a bugle 
horn* and the initials, j ff. The former letters 
might be the initials of the lord of the seigniory 
of Millom, or the incumbent, or the abbot of St. 
Mary's, at York, to whom the church belonged.f 

• Erroneously stated in Hutchinson's Cumberland to be an " emble- 
matical anchor." The font is incorrectly described, and the inscription 
is given wrong, in that publication: see Gentleman's Magazine, Jan. 
1795, where the work is severely censured for its general inaccuracy. 

t "By an antient Ecclesiastical Constitution (A. D. 12.36,) a font of 
stone was required to be placed in every church, and it was to be cipaci- 
ous enough fur total immersion. At this early piTiod Fonts appear to 
have been regarded with peculiar reverence, and are frequently preserved, 
whatever changes the church may have undergone : for this reason 
Norman fonts are very numerous: they are frequently richly orna- 
mented and well worthy of preservation : their form is usually 
square, supported on five legs, or small pillars ; or circular, at first sup- 
ported also upon legs, but at a subsequent period assuming the form of a 
cup, supported on a single pillar or pedestal, and riclily ornamented, 
many examples of which occur during the later Norman period: some- 
times they are in the form of a tub, richly ornamented, or with four small 
pillars placed againSl it, giving it the appearance at first sight of being 
square : they are also sometimes octagonal. Early English Fonts are 
frequently octangular, but commonly circular, and sometimes square ; it 
is not always easy to distinguish them from the later examples of the 
preceding style, excepting where the ornaments peculiar to this style are 
found. Fonts of this style are less common tlian any of the others, ex- 
cepting perhaps the Decorated : these are usually octagonal, sometimes 
hexagonal ; and though the cup-like form is frequently continued, the 
pedestal is also octagonal or hexagonal. In thi; Pcrpendioilar style, the 
octagon form is almost invariably used ; but in other respects the variety 
is almost endless. Fonts of this style are frequently very splendid, and 
the workmanship is usually better than in any of the others ; they aro 
frequently richly panelled. At this period we often find wooden covers 
of a pyramidal fonn, corresponding in ornaments and workmanship with 
the font itself: a few of these may, possibly, remain of an earlier period. 



This font, which is of marble, has been (perhaps 
unnecessarily) painted. It is placed in a corner. 

This cover ;:, in some rare instances, fixed to the font, Tvith an opening 
at the side 'o enable the priest to make use of it. On the continent, 
fonts are ' : uently enclosed in a distinct building, either attached to the 
church, cr S' dosed within it, and called a Baptistery : the only example 
remainir lu E^-gland is believed to be that at Luton, Bedfordshire. 
Fonts are usually of stone or marble, but sometimes of lead ; and that of 
Canterbury ciliiedral, used for the baptism of infants of the royal family, 
■was of silver. They are usually placed at the west end, near the south 
entrance of the church. 

" From the time of the Reformation to the days of puritanic fury in the 
reign of Charles I., there was a strong propensity to remove or neglect 
the Fout, and use a basin instead. This was checked by the church as 
much as possible on all occasions ; and by the 81st Canon of 1603 it is 
directed that, ' According to a former constitution too much neglected in 
many places, there shall be a Font of stone in every church and chapel, 
where baptism is to be ministred : the same to be set in the antient usual 
place. In which onely Font the minister shall baptize publickly.' And 
among the enquiries directed to be made by the churchwardens, in 1597- 
1604, &c., one is, whether the Font has been removed from its accustomed 
place, and whether they use a basin or other vessel. That all these efforts 
■were ultimately in many cases of no avail, may be learned from the nu- 
merous examples we continually meet with, but we rarely have the tale 
so well told as in the following extracts from the parish account of St. 
Martin's church, Leicester. 

1645. 'For a bason to be used at baptism, 5s. 

' For a standard to bear the same, 15*. 

' For laying the same in marble colour, 5*. 
1651, May 7. ' Received of George Smith, for a stone belonging to the 

Font, 7s.' 
1G61, Feb. 4. *.\greed, that the Font of stone formerly belonging to the 

church shall be set up in the antient place, and that the other now 

standing near the desk be taken down.' 
' At a parish meeting the new Font, fashioned and placed agreeahle 

with the puritanic times, was ordered to be taken down, and the old 

stone one to be erected where it formerly stood.' 
1662, April 8. ' Paid widow Smith for the Font-stone, being the price 

her husband paid for it, 7».' 


SO that six of its sides are now concealed by the 
walls and pews. 

A brass plate on the south wall of the chancel 
bears the effigies of a knight in armour, with the 
following inscription* : — 

Jljrrc Itftf) Sir Ujugfir asUrto, fcnygfit, latf of Ific sfllcr to lijinge 
lIDtoarti tl)c bj. tofiirf) Sir |»ugftr teas maUr /ttiissrHorougti 
ftlUf. ill J1C 8rre of ourf Horfi, I'l 17, aiiD Sirti tf)c secoiiU Baj of fHarrJf, 
in tJ)c ptrr of our E01I) ©oil, 1 JO'2. 

On the north wall of the chancel is a tablet 
with this inscription : — 





of Esk Meals, 

interred in this church, July 19tli, 1764, 

aged 38 years. 

And also of 

BRIDGET his wife, 

and daughter of Daniel Steele, 

Heretofore rector of Bootle, 

Interred May 30th, 1761, 

Aged 24 years. 

On the south wall of the chancel is a hatch- 
ment, with these arms — Argent, on a fess sable 
three stags' heads cabossed, or, impahng . . , three 

" Unfortunately ' the fashion of the puritanic times' still prevails in too 
many instances, to the disgrace of the authorities, whose duty it is to see 
that the canons of the church arc otcyed. So lately as the year 1838 
the only Font in a parish church, Cambridge, was a pint basin standing 
upon a four-legged stool. If such examples are suffered to remain in like 
places, how ran we be surprised at the preyalcnce of so unseemly a cus- 
tom." — Glossary of Architecture. 

* See an account of this Sir Hugh Askew, under Seton. 

s 2 


greyhounds current in pale, sable; and bearing 
this inscription : — 


Ecclesise Botelensis Rector Doctissimus, 

Immortalitatem, quam Parochianis per Quadraginta 

Annos, tarn Moribus, quam Doctrina, sedulo prjcdicavit, 

Ipse tandem consecutus est, Calend. Jul. 


Cum Vixisset annos LXXI. 

A board on the front of the west gallery bears 
this inscription : — 

This church was enlarged in the year 1837, by which means 148 addi- 
tional sittings were obtained ; and in consequence of a grant from the 
incorporated society for promoting the enlargement, building, and repair- 
ing of churches and chapels, 84 of that number are hereby declared to 
be free and imappropriated for ever, in addition to 315 sittings formerly 
provided, 30 of which were free. 



■ Churchwardens, 

We the undersigned certify to the above : 


ISAAC SHAW, Esq. > i„i,,bitants. 

Signed, H. JONES UNDERWOOD, Surveyor. 
Bootlc, dated this eighth day of January, 1838. 

There are also inscriptions to the memory of 
the Rev. Daniel Steele, rector of the parish, ob. 
1764, aged 75 ; and the Rev. John Wennington, 
B.A., oh. 1761, aged 34. 

The rectory-house, a substantial stone building, 
closely adjoining the church, and surrounded by 
noble trees, was rebuilt about three years since. 

Seton Nunnery. 

Lands in Seton, or, as it was then called, Leke- 
ley, were granted to the abbey of St. Mary, 


Holme-Cultram, by Gunild, daughter of Henry 
de Boyvill fourth lord of Millom, in the following 
form : — 

Universis sancta; matris ecclesiae filiis, Gunilda filia Hen- 
rici filii Arturi, salutem in domino. Noverit univcrsitas 
vestra me mera; charitatis intuitu, in libera potestate et 
viduitate mea, dedisse, concessisse ct hac pra^senti carta mea 
coufirmasse, Deo et beatac Mari;e de Holmcoltram et mona- 
chis ibidem Deo servientibus, in liberam et pcrjietuam ele- 
emosynam, pro salute anima? moa^ et omnium antecessorum 
et succcssorum meorum, totam terram mcam quam llenricus 
pater mens dedit mihi in maritagium et carta sua confirmavit 
in Lekeley, cum omnibus pertinentiis et aisiamentis ad ean- 
dem terram pertinentibus, sine ullo retcnemento, in bosco, 
in piano, in agris, in culturis, in pratis, pascuis, et pastursi, 
in aquis et molendinis, et omnibus aliis locis ct rebus, libera, 
quiete, pacifice, integre, et honorifice, ab omni seculari ser- 
vitio, consuctudine, exactione (salvo forinseco servitio quan- 
tum pertinet ad tantam terram de feodo unius militis de tola 
terra quie est inter Esk et Doden). Pra'terea, dcdi et con- 
cessi ct hac pra'senti charta meaconfirraavi eisdemmonachis 
et hominlbus ipsorum, omnes libertatos mihi concessas per 
cartam Hcnrici lilii Arturi patris mei, scilicet ut habcant 
scalingas ubi utilius visum fuerit in Crochcrch, et communem 
pasturam cum horainibus pr;rdicti Ilenrici (ihi Arturi et 
ha?redum et succcssorum suoruni. Et ut animnlia eorum et 
hominum suorum tarn longc cant ad pasccndum in furestani 
praedicti Henrici et hwredum et succcssorum suorum ubi 
voluerint, ut noctibus possint redire domum. Et si forte 
contigerit animalia sua una nocte in forcsta mancre absque 
consuctudine, sine placito et calumpnia domum redire permit- 
tentur. Ilanc auteni prfedictam terram cum omnibus perti- 
nentiis, ego et hferedes et successores mei warrantizabinius 
prwfatis monacbis contra omnes homines in pcrpetuum. In 
cujus rei testimonium, &ic. 

John de Ilodeliston (Iludleston) for the licalth 
of his soul, and of the soids of all his ancestors 
and successors, confirmed to God and the monks 
of Holnie-Cultram serving God there, all the land 
of Lekeley, whicli they had by tlie gift of 
Gunild, the daughter of Henry Boyvill, fourth 


lord of Millom, son of Arthur. The witnesses 
were — " Miche. de Hartecla tunc vice-comitte 
Cumbr. . Thorn, de Culwenne , Robto. de 
haverington . Robto. de Feritate . Thorn, 
de Neuton . & Robto. de Whyterigg niihti- 
bus . Hugone de INIoriceby . Rico, de 
Cleterue . Johe. de Morthing & ahis."* 

Joan, widow of the above John de Hodehston, 
for the health of her own soul, of her late hus- 
band's, and of all her ancestors and successors, 
made a confirmation to the monks of Holme- 
Cultram, of all the lands in Lekeley which they 
had by the above charter of Gunild, daughter of 
Henry Boyvill. Witnesses — "Dno. Patric. de 
Wirkinton . Dno. Johe. de Langeluierth . 
Dno. Wydone de Boyuilla . Nicholao de Mo- 
risceby . Johe. de Cambtona . Hugone fre. 
dni. patricii de Wirkinton . Johe. de Thuay- 
thes . Willo. de Estonhing . Et aliis."f 

We cannot ascertain the precise date of the 
foundation of this nunnery : it appears to have 
taken place in or befoi-e the time of Henry Boy- 
vill, fourth lord of Millom, (see parish of iNIillom) 
who lived about the commencement of the thir- 
teenth century, as Mr. John Denton says, " the 
said Henry Fitz Arthur gave other lands in 
Leakley, now called Seaton, unto the nuns of 
Leakley, or Seaton, which of late were granted 
unto Sir Hugh Askew, Knight.J 

• From an ancient charter (published in Archoeologia jEliana,) the 

o.-iginal of which was, in 1830, " in the possession of William John Charl- 
ton, of Hesleyside, Esq. and came into his family, iu 1680, by the marriage 
of his great-great-grandfather with Mary, daughter of Francis Salkeld, of 
Whitehall, in the parish of All-Hallows, in Cumberland, Esq." 

t Ibid. 

+ The Askew family derive their descent from Thnislon de Bosco. 


" The deed of feofment, made by the said 
Henry Fitz Arthur to Goynhild his daughter, 
approves the same, for therein is excepted as 
follows — ' Excepta terra in Leakley quam ded'i 
Sanctis monidl/b//s servientibtis Deo ef Sanctce 
Mariie in LeehleijaJ " 

The nunnery was founded for Benedictine nuns, 
and was dedicated to St. Leonard. The cIuutIi 
of Irton appears to have been appropriated to the 
nunnery very soon after the foundation. The 
date of that appropriation, A.D. 1227, is given by 
Tanner on the authority of the register of Walter 
Grey, Archbishop of York. 

Henry, Duke of Lancaster (afterwards Henry 
IV.), by his charter, in 1357, setting forth that 
the priory of Seaton was so poor that it could 
not sufficiently maintain the prioress and nuns, 
grants to them in aid tlie hospital of St. Leonard 
at Lancaster, with power to appoint the chantry 
priest to officiate in the said hospital, in the fol- 
lowing form : — 

Henricus dux Lancastriae, comes Derbia?, Lincoliiiw, ic 
Leycestrioe, & Senescallus Aiiglitc, Omnibus ad quos proc- 
sentes literae porvenerint salutem. Sciatis pro co quod 
accepimus ex testimonio iidedigno, quod Prioratus de Setoii 
in comitatu Cumbria? ila exilis existit, quod ad sustenta- 
tionem Priorisste & monialium cjusdem Prioratus sufRcere 
non possit : Nos in honorc Dei 4c sancti Leonardi, & prae- 
textu liccntia; excellenlissimi principis domini nostri Regis 
Anglif-p Sc Franci.c illiistris, nobis, & pra?fatis Priorissa? & 
monialibus per literas Patcntcs ipsius Regis factw, dc Hos- 
pitali sancti Leonardi de Lancastria, quod jam vacat, k 
collation! nostr.c de jure spcctat, auxilium sustcntationis 

who lived, in the reign of John, at Aikskeugh, near Mllloni, and after- 
wards at Graymains, near Muncastf r. Anne Askew, whose name stands 
80 eminent in the pages of martyrology, was one of his descendant. — 
Beauties of England S^c. xv. 234. 


earundem Priorissae & monialium apponere volentes, dedi- 
mus, & concessimus pro nobis et haeredibus nostris, quantum 
in nobis est, praefatis Priorissae k monialibus dictum Hos- 
pitale, cum omnibus terris & possessionibus ad idem Hos- 
tale spectantibus. Habendum eisdem Priorissae et Monial- 
ibus, et successoribus suis, in puram & perpetuam elemosi- 
nam, tanquam dicto Prioratui annexum imperpetuum. 
Concessimus etiam eisdem Priorissae &c monialibus quod 
ilia cantaria, quae solebat esse in dicto Hospitali de uno 
capellano, divina singulis diebus celebrando, valeat in dicto 
Prioratu, per easdem Priorissam k moniales inveneri sine 
impedimento nostri, vel haeredum nostrorum. Ita semper 
quod Burgenses nostri de Lancaster, ad hoc concordare 
voluerint, S^ quod faciant elemosinas, &. alia onera eidem 
Hospitali, de jure et ab antiquo incumbencia. In cujus rei 
testimonium has Literas nostras fieri fecimus Patentes. Teste 

apud Prestone, primo die ducatus nostri 


De eodem Hospitali. 

Juratores dicunt super Sacramentum suum quod Johannes 
rex Angliae fundabat Hospitale sancti Leonardi apud Lan- 
castrian!, pro uno Majistro, & uno capellano ic novem pau- 
peribus, quorum tres erint leprosi, &; alii sani. Quilibet 
eorum capiet per diem unum panem qui ponderabit octavam 
partem unius petrae, ^' habebunt potagium tres dies in sep- 
timana; videlicit, die Dominica, die Luna' i.\' die Veneris, 
valet G.lib. 6.s. S.d.f 

Thomas York, abbot of Holme-Cultram, by 
indenture, dated ISth October, 1459, leased to 
Elizabeth Creft, prioress of Seton, all the lands 
between the rivers Esk and Duddon, for twelve 
years, at the yearly rent of 20.5. 

The following are the particulars of the entry 
of the nunnery in the Valor Ecclesiast'ictis of 
Henry VIII. 

Prioratus Monialiu' De Seton. 
Joh'a Seton priorissa ib'm. 
Com' Cumbr'. Tempalia. 

• Dugdalc's Monast. Aug. — " Ex autog. in officio annonim." 
t Ibid. — Inq. ad quod damnum. 



Valet in £ s. d. 

Situ prioratus pdict'. cum terr' dnicalibs. > ^^^^ 

eidm. annexat' per annu. S 

Redd' ^- firmis divs'. tent', in WTiitebyke 1 

vs. tent', in Furdes iijs. iiijci. un' tent'. > — xiiij liij 
in BoUe vjs. In toto. j 

Com' Lancastr'. Tempalia. 
Valet in 
Redd' A- firmis divs'. terr' Sf tent', in villa 
Lancastr' p. annu. 








Com' Cumbr'. Sp'ualia 
Valet in 

Gleba ecclie. de Hirton cu. 
terr' adjacen' p. am. 

Decim' granos xxij*. viij<?."^ 
agn' x». Ian' xvj«. gall' auc' 
pore' &: vitul' ij*. '\\\]d. ob- [ 
lac' tribz diebz prencipa- r 
libz xs. minut' &;. privat' 
decim' ut in libro paschali J 
xl*. In tot' 

£ s. d. 

xj viij 

— cj — 






£ s. 
xiij xvij 


Sma. omi'. tempaliu. & sp'ualiu. ) 
priorat' pdc'. S 

Pens' ^- Sinod' viz in 
Pens' anti'. solut' priori Sci. Bigge xijJ. ^ 
sinod" A- pcurac'. ecclie. de Hirton iiij*. > 
\\]d. ob' J 

Elemos' viz in 
Elemos' dat anti' die parasphise 
tam in pcio. duos, quarlcrios. siliginis 

£ s. d. 
— XXV — ob' 

£ *. d. 

Et valet Clare xij xij — 

Xma. ps. inde — xxv ij 



£ s. 








At the dissolution, the possessions of this 
nunnery were of the annual value of 12/. 125. 6d. 
according to Dugdale, or, by Speed's valuation, 
13/. 17*. 4f/. Tanner says "Henry Kirby was 
accounted patron about the time of the dissolu- 
tion." In the year 1542 (33rd Henry VIII.), 
the nunnery was granted to Sir Hugh Askew, 
knight, to hold of the king in caphe by the ser- 
vice of the twentieth part of one knight's fee, and 
the rent of 9s. 2d. to be paid yearly into the 
court of augmentations. Sir Hugh settled the 
same upon his wife (a daughter of Sir John 
Hudleston), and she, after his death, marrying 
into the family of the Penningtons of Muncaster, 
gave the same to her younger son, William 
Pennington. It is now the property of Edward 
Wakefield, Esq. of Kendal, by purchase of John, 
Lord Muncaster, a descendant of the Penning- 

In the 5th and Cth Philip and Mary, Thomas 
Reve and Nicholas Pynde, of London, gentlemen, 
purchased of the crown the above-named rent of 
9*. 2d. together with divers free rents in Seton 
late belonging to the nunnery. 

Of Seton and the above Sir Hugh Askew, we 
have the following account in Sandford's MS. 
Account of Cumberland : — " Ffour miles south- 
ward stands Seaton, an estate of j€500 per annum, 
sometimes a religious house, got by one Sir Hugo 
Askew, yeoman of the seller to Queen Catharine 
in Henry Eight's time, and born in this contry. 
And when that Queen was divorced from her 
husband, this yeoman was destitute. And he 
applied for help to [the] Lo. Chamberlain for 
some place or other in the king's service. 


The Lord Steward knew him well, because he 
had helpt to a cup [of] wine ther before, but 
told him he had no place for him but a Charcoal 
carrier. ' Well' quoth this monsir Askew, ' help 
me in with one foot, and let me gett in the other 
as I can.' And upon a great holiday, the king 
looking out at some sports. Askew got a courtier, 
a friend of his, to stand before the king ; and 
Askew gott on his velvet cassock and his gold 
chine, and baskett of chercole on his back, and 
marched in the king's sight with it. 'O,' saith 
tlie king, ' now I like yonder fellow well, that 
disdains not to doe his dirty office in his dainty 
clothes : what is he ?' Says his friende that stood 
by on ])urpose, 'It is M' Askew, that was yeoman 
of the seller to the late Queen's ma'"' and now 
glad of this poor place to keep him in y' ma"'' ser- 
vice, which he will not forsake for all the world.' 
The king says, ' I had the best wine when he was 
i'th celler. He is a gallant wine-taster : let him 
have his place againe ;' and aftei wards knighted 
him ; and he sold his place, and married the 
daughter of Sir John Hudleston; (and purchased* 
this religious place of Seaton, nye wher he was 
borne, of an ancient h'eehold family,) and settled 
this Seaton upon her, and she afterwards married 
monsir Penington, Lo : of iMontcaster, and had 
Rlr. Joseph and a yonger son with Penington, 
and gave him this Seaton." 

There are few remains of the conventual build- 
ings now left : some part of the priory-chapel is 
still standing, particularly a fine window with 

• Qu. Had ft grant of? 
T 2 


lancets, in the style of the thirteenth century. 

Seton-hall, formerly a part of the conventual 
buildings, and subsequently the residence of Sir 
Hugh Askew, is now occupied as a farm-house. 


The Old School. — This school is endowed with 
about 21/. per annum arising from several be- 
quests : — 200/. was given by Air. Singleton ; 50/. 
by the Rev. Richard Hutton, B.D. rector of 
Bootle, who died in 1704 ; and several other 
benefactors. The sum of 416/. lis. is vested in 
the harbour of Whitehaven. For the endowment 
the master educates gratuitously six children of 
this parish, and also the children from three estates 
in the parish of Corney — Middleton-place, White- 
stone, and Kinmont ; and from the estate of 
Annaside, in the parish of Whitbeck. 

The Neio School. — A very handsome and com- 
modious school-house was erected, in 1830, by 
Captain Shaw, R.N. who resides in this parish. 
Both boys and girls receive their education here. 
The salaries of the master and mistress are raised 
by subscription. 

Poor Stock. — There is an antient poor-stock of 
20/. belonging to the parish ; the interest of which 
was distributed annually to the poor, on St. 
Thomas's day. This has not been paid since the 
new poor-law came into operation. 

Ann Hodgson's Bequest. — Ann Hodgson, a 
native of Bootle, left 50/. the interest to be given 
annually to the poor who do not receive parochial 

tTftc Davm of fttillom 

ONTAINS the townships 
of Bh-ker and Awsthwaite, 
Millom Above, Millom Be- 
low, and Chapel Sucken,and 
the parochial chapclries of 
Ulpha and Thwaites. It 
has been otherwise spelt — 

. 3Iinian,Mil/iam,and Milium. 

This"parishinhe extreme southern part of the 
county; and is bounded on the east, by the 
Duddon, which divides it from Furness in Lan- 
cashire ; on the north, by the Esk, which divides 
it from the parish of Muncaster, and the chapelry 
of Eskdale; on the west, by the parishes ot 
Waberthwaite, Corney, Bootle, Whitbcck, and 
Whicham ; and on the south, by the moutii of 
the Duddon. The length of this parish, troni 
north to south, is about eighteen miles, and its 
average breadth from two to four. 

This jjarish appears isolated by the mountauis 
and the Duddon. The southern part is in general 
fertile : but a large portion in the north consists 
of wastes and pasture-grounds. The chapelry of 
Ulpha contains extensive woodlands and mountam 
tracts, with some good grazing ground; and 
Thwaites cliapelrv affords excellent pasture. Part 
of the parish is much exposed to the winds from 


the Irish Sea, and vegetation is frequently retarded 
by the beating rains or the driving sands. 

Mr. T. Denton, writing in 1688, speaks of iron 
forges in this parish, to supply which, oak to the 
value of 4,000/. had been cut down in the park. 
The forges were probably near the brook which 
yet retains the name of Furnace-beck. Iron ore 
has been sometimes got at Hodbarrow and in 
Millom park. There is abundance of hmestone 
in the parish, which is quarried in several places. 
Copper ore has been obtained at different times, 
but not in sufficient quantities to repay the 
working : Joshua King, Esq. of Queen's College, 
Cambridge, a few years since made an unsuccessful 
attempt. A vein has been recently discovered 
in the manor of Ulpha, which promises to be very 
productive, (see Ulpha.) No coal is found in the 
parish. There are slate beds in Millom park 
and in the chapelry of Thwaites, but they do not 
break sufficiently large to be valuable. Blue 
slate is plentiful in the chapelry of Ulpha. 

The Duddon produces salmon and fine sand- 
eels, and the bay in which it joins the ocean has 
long been well-known for its mussels and cockles. 
Mr. Sandford, who wrote about 1675, speaks of 
the Duddon as " a brave river, where the famous 
cockles of all England is gathered in the sands, 
scraped out with hooks like sickles, and brave 
salmons and flookes, the bravest in England, 
hung up and dried like bacon, and as good feeding 
as Ireland salt wi. . ."* 

There was formerly a market here on Wed- 
nesday, and a fair for three days at the festival of 

• MS. Deaii and Chapter Library, Carlisle. 


the Holy Trinity, which was granted to John 
Hudleston in 1250.* Nicolson and Burn, who 
wrote in 1777, say the market "hath been long 

Black-Comb, the mountain between Millom 
and Bootle, is described in another part of tliis 
volume, in our account of the latter parisli, (page 
127). On Birkcr moor, in the northern part of 
Millom, is a small lake called Devoke Water, 
well-known for its fine red trout ; it is frequented 
by a bird of the Larus kind, called Devoke Wa- 
ter Mew. In its bosom is a single rock which, 
owing to its neighbourhood to the sea, is — " The 
haunt of cormorants and sea-mew's clang." This 
lake is six miles east of Ravenglass, nearly half 
a mile in length, and has an outlet which runs 
into the Esk. Near it are the water-falls of Stan- 
ley Gill and Birker Force. The latter is one of 
the finest cascades in the county. " The height 
of the fall is comparatively inconsiderable ; but 
the characteristic features of the scene it presents, 
differ so remarkably from those of any other in 
this neighbourhood, that the tourist will be 
highly gratified with the spectacle. The rocks 
in whicli it is situated, assume a pointed and 
glacier-like appearance ; and tlic fir and larch 
trees which cluster round their bases, unite with 
them in i)roducing a truly alpine effect. Indeed, 
such another scene is not to be met with in the 
lake district, wherein the most admired features 
of the continental picturesque are blended with 
the rich and varied forms that compose an En- 
glish landscape." 

• Cart. Rot. 35 Hon. III. 


In the township of Millom Above, are several 
springs below Marsh-side, impregnated with salt, 
and of a purging nature ; there is also a similar 
one at HodbaiTow ; and all are called by the 
neighbours. Holy Wells. 

Burrow Crails, or Barwick Rails, on Duddon 
Sands, in the township of Millom Below, eight 
miles S.S.E. of Bootle, is a natural harbour or 
creek where slate, corn, &c. are shipped, and 
coals imported, in vessels of about 100 tons bur- 

Near Burrow Crails is Holborn Hill, said to 
have been so called from the following circum- 
stance : — " The tradition is, that a lady of Millom 
returning from her first visit to court, was so 
struck with its resemblance to the well knoAvn 
locality of that name, that she gave it to it, and 
it has borne the name ever since. The curious 
traveller, who has faith in tradition, may form 
fi-om this spot some idea what the present centre 
of the British metropolis was two centuries ago."* 

" It is supposed there was anciently a church 
at Kirksanton, in the township of Chapel Sucken, 
which it is presumed, was formerly an independent 
rectory, though the vicar of Millom now receives 
from it tithes of corn, and a modus in heu of 
hay."f Kirksanton, with its appurtenances, was 
gi'anted by the Boyvill family to the abbey of St. 
Mary, in Furness. 

At Lowscales, in this parish, several relics of 
antiquity have been found at various times : in 
1824, an ancient British battle-axe was dug up 
here, 13| inches in length. 

• Liverpool Journal. t Parson and White. 

parish of millom. 149 

The Seigniory of Millom. 

This great lordship is the largest within the 
baronv of Egrcmont ; it contains the parishes of 
Millom, Bootlc, ^Miicham, Whitbeck, Corney, 
and A\'aberthwaite. It is of a triangular form, 
about 18 miles in length, and its greatest breadth 
is about 8 miles. It is bounded on the east by 
the Duddon ; on the south, by the isle ot Wal- 
nev, and the Pile of Fouldra ; on the west by 
the Irish Sea ; and on the north, by the Lsk, 
and the mountains Ilardknot and A\'rynose. It 
contains several manors which are holden imme- 
diately of Millom, as Millom is ot Egi-emont, 
with some difference of service. 

This seigniory anciently enjoyed great priyi- 
lecres: it was a special jurisdiction mto vyhich the 
sheriffof the county could not enter ; its lords had 
the power of life or death, and enjoy edj«/-« regalia 
in the six parishes forming their seigniory. Mr 

on a hill near the castle, on which criminals had 
been executed within the memory ot persons then 
hvinf- To commemorate the power anciently 
possessed by the lords of this seigniory, a stone 
has been recently erected, with this niscription— 
"Here the Lords of M'lllom exercised Jura Regalia. 
Mr John Denton gives the following account 
of this seigniory : " This great nianor, in the time 
of Kintr Henry I. was given by ^\ ilham Alcsclnnes, 
Lord of Kgremont, to ***** de Boyvill, father 
toGodardde lioyvill, (named in ancient evidences 
GodardusDapifer) who,l)eing lord ol Milium, did 
cxive unto the abbot and monks of F urness a car- 
?ucate of land there, with the appurtenances, called 


yet to this day Monk Force, which Arthur, the 
son of Godard, confirmed unto the abbey, and 
after him, in hke sort, his son and heir, Henry, 
the son of Arthur, reserving only the harts and 
hinds, wild boars and their kinds, and all airies of 

" But whatsoever the Lord of Egremont, Wil- 
liam INIeschines, reserved upon the first grant of 
the Boyvills, whether demesne or forest liberties. 
Dame Cicely Romely, (one of the coheirs of Wil- 
liam Fitz Duncan) Countess of Albemarle, to 
whose posterity this Milium was allotted by par- 
tition, gave and fully confirmed the same to the 
said Arthur Fitz Godard, and to Henry his son, 
and their heirs, by her charter yet extant, under 
seal, bounding the same thus — " Dedi et concessi 
HeiiricoJiUo Arthuri et Hceredibus suisjus Hceredi- 
iarium, viz. totain terrain et totumfeodiim inter Esk et 
Doddon cum ptinentiis" ^'c. And Dame Hawise, 
her sole daughter and heir, then the wife of Wil- 
liam de Mandevill, advised her husband to confirm 

"And for a recognition of the grant made to the 
Boyvills, Arthur, and Henry his son, by Dame 
Cicely, the Countess, they paid to King Henry H. 
for a post fine, one hundred pounds, and five 
couples of hounds, the recoi'ds terming them, 
decent fiigatores. 

" And an old tradition* makes these Boyvills 
to have been very near of kin to the Lords 
of Egremont, and gives us an account of the 
occasion upon which Milium was transferred to 
the said Boyvills, which is said to be thus ; the 

• This tradition is also given in Sandfutd's MS. 


Baron of Egremont being taken prisoner beyond 
the seas by the infidels, could not be redeemed 
without a great ransom, and being far from Eng- 
land, entered his brother or kinsman for his surety, 
promising, with all possible speed, to send him 
money to set him free ; but upon his return home 
to Egremont, he changed his mind, and most 
unnaturally and unthankfully sufi'ered liis brother 
to lie in ])rison, in great distress and extremity, 
until his hair was grown to an unusual length, 
like to a woman's hair. The Pagans being out 
of hopes of the ransom, in great rage most cruelly 
hanged up their pledge, binding the long hair of 
his liead to a beam in the prison, and tied his 
hands so behind him, that he could not reach to 
the top where the knot was fastened to loose 
himself During his imprisonment, the Paynim's 
dauglitcr became enamoured of him, and sought 
all good means for his deliverance, but could not 
enlarge liim : she understanding of this last cruelty, 
by means made to his keeper, entered the prison, 
and taking her knife to cut the liair, being hastened, 
she cut the skin of his head, so as, with the weight 
of his body, he rent away the rest, and fell down 
to the earth half dead ; but she presently took 
liim up, causing surgeons to attend him secretly, 
till he reco\ered liis Ibrmer health, beauty, and 
strength, and so entreated her father for him, 
that he set liim at liberty. 

" Then, desirous to revenge his brother's ingra- 
titude, he got leave to depart to his country, and 
took home witli him the hattorell of liis hair, rent 
oil" as aforesaid, and a bugle-horn, which he com- 
monly used to carry about him, when he was in 
England, wiiere he shortly arrived, and coming 

V 2 


towards Egremont Castle about noontide of the 
day, where his brother was at dinner, he blew 
his bugle-horn, which (says the tradition) his 
brother the baron presently acknowledged, and 
thereby conjectured his brother's return ; and 
then sending his friends and servants to learn his 
brother's mind to him, and how he had escaped, 
they brought back report of all the miserable 
torment which he had endured for his unfaithful 
brother the baron, which so astonished the baron 
(half dead before with the shameful remembrance 
of his own disloyalty and breach of promise) that 
he abandoned all company, and would not look 
on his brother, till his just wrath was pacified by 
diligent entreaty of the friends. And to be sure 
of his brother's future kindness, he gave the lord- 
ship of Milium to him and his heirs for evei'. 
Whereupon the first Lords of Milium gave for 
their arms the horn and the hatterell. 

" But whatever the occasion of the grant was, 
the Boyvills were from the place called De Mil- 
ium, and have anciently held the same with great 
liberties, and had Jura Regalia there. John 
Hudleston did prescribe thereto in the 20th 
year of King Edward I. and was allowed before 
Hugh de Cressingham in iYie'^Xea^oi quo warranto, 
holden for the king." 

The Boyvills or Boisvilles took their surname 
from the place, and were styled de Millom ; they 
held the same in their issue male, from the reign 
of Henry I. to the reign of Henry HI. — a space 
of one hundred years, when their name and family 
ended in a daughter. 

Arms : — Argent, a bend between two mullets sable. 


Godard de Boyvill to whom AVilliani de Mcschincs granted 
the lordship of Millom.* He gave the manor of Kirksanton 
to his second son William, in whose posterity it remained 
until the reign of Edward II. 

Godard de Boyvill, second lord of Millom, f gave IMonk- 
force to the abbey of St. Mary, in Furness, as aforesaid, with 
the churches of Bootle and Whicham; and "all the parishes 
between Esk and Millnm, to the abbey of St. Mary's, York;" 
to which abbey Matilda, his wife, gave also Anderset or Ag- 
nes Seat. He is called in ancient evidences, Godardus 

Arthur Boyvill or de Millom, son of Godard, confirmed 
his father's grants to the abbeys of Furness and York. To 
the former abbey he granted the services of Kirksanton in 
Millom, which Robert de Boyvill, his cousin-german, then 
held of him; and soon after he mortgaged the same to the 
abbot of Furness, until his return from the Holy Land. 

Henry de Millom, son of the above, confirmed the grants 
of his ancestors, and onfoofl'ed Ranulph Corbcttand his heirs 
of the manor of Brattaby, in Millom, with the appurtenances. 
" He also gave Baisthwaitc, in Dunncrsdalc, to one Orrae, 
the son of Dolphin; and Leakley to Henry Fitz VV'illiam in 
frank marriage with his daughter, Goynhild Boyvill, with 
shields for her cattle, and common of pasture in 'Uroch-beege 
and the forest,' which (joynhild afterwards (being a widow) 
gave to the Abbey of Holm Cultram, and William do Milium 
(the son of Henry do Milium, the son of Arthur do Milium) 
brother of tiic said Goynhild, did after conlirm the same. 
And afterwards John Iluddleston, and Joan his wife, sole 
daughter of Adam de Milium, son and heir ot the said Henry, 
confirmed Leakley, and the liberties aforesaid (so granted by 
Goynhild) unto the Abbot and Convent of Holm Cultram 
and his successors. 

" The said Henry Fitz Arthur gave other lands in Leakley, 
now called Seaton, unto the nuns of Leakley, or Seaton, which 
of late were granted unto Sir Hugh Askew, Knight. 

" The deed of feofment, made by the said Henry Fitz 
Arthur to Goynhild his daughter, approves the same, for 

• See pages 2, 3. 

t In the 2Glli Henry II. the name of Walter dc Milium occurs as the 
abbot of St. Mary's, in Furness. 


therein is excepted as follows — ' Excepta terra in Leakley 
quam dedi Sanctis monialihus scrvientibus Deo et Sanctce 
MariiB in LeeMeya.' " 

William de Millom, son of the above. 

Adam de Millom, brother and heir of William. 

Joan de Millom, daughter and heiress of the above, married 
Sir JohnHudleston, Knight, and thus transferred the seigniory 
into that family, with whom it continued for a period of about 
500 years. 

Mr. John Denton says, " all the residue of the 
fees of Milium were thus gi-anted by the Boyvills, 
Lords of Milium, to their kinsmen or friends, or 
with their daughters or sisters in marriage ; and 
accordingly by the Hudlestons and their heirs, 
some as manors, and some as lesser freeholds, as 
namely, Ulf hay, Thwaites, Dale-garth, and Way- 
bergthwaite, and some in mortmain, as Leakley 
and Kirksanton, all which places gave sirname to 
the posterity of the feoffees, as Thwaite, of 
Thwaites, Wayberghthwaite, of Wayberghthwaite 
and the rest whereof, some do yet remain, and 
some names ai'e worn out ; but ancient records 
report and remember them." 

In Mr. Sandford's MS. we have the following 
account : — " Eastward from Seaton you goe into 
Millome lordship, 20 miles to the head of the 
foresaid Dudden great river : all the lands and 
freeholds of the Lord of Millome castle, great- 
gi-eat-grandchild of the said Sir John Hudleston, 
of grand estate ; but he gave much away with 
daughters ; and married Dalavaise of Sowtham 
besides Teuxberry, £500 per annum, in Glouces- 
tershire. And yet it is a lord-like living, £3000 
per annum, and X'500 per annum, at Hasley, 
some 10 miles beyond Oxford. And Ffardinando 


now lord thereof, and all the estate of Millome 
castle at it, and sonne of S' William Huddleston, 
and a daughter of Montcastre, and colonel of a 
regiment of horse and foote ; and seven brothers, 
captains under him, in the royal armies. And 
his grandfather, a great swash buckler in Queen 
Elizabeth's time, and great gamester ; lived at a 
rate beyond his income. A great countes, his 
friend, asking him how he lived so gallantly : 
quoth he, 'of my meat, and my drink!' quoth 
she, ' I even looked for such an answer.' " 

The lordship of Millom still retains its own 
coroner ; that office is now (1S41) held by Chris- 
topher Hobson, Esq., of Cross House, Bootle. 

HuDLESTOx, Lords of Millom.* 

Arms : — Gules, a fret argent. 

Crest: — Two arms, dexter and sinister, embowed, vested, 
argent, holding in their hands a scalp proper, the inside 

Motto : — Soli Deo honor et gloria. 

The pedigree of this very ancient familyf is traced back 
to five generations before the Conquest. The first, however, 
of the name who was lord of Millom, was 

Sir John Hudleston, knight, who was the son of Adam, 

• This pedigree differs in several particulars from that given by 
Nicolson and Burn. The corrections and additions in the former part 
were very kindly supplied to me by the Rev. Jolm Lingard, D.D.; the 
others are from Burke's Commoners, &c. 

t The Hudlestoiis of Ilutton-John were descended from a younger 
branch of the family at Millom ; as were the Hudlestons of Sawston, co. 
Cambridge, who settled there ( Henry VIH.) inconsequence of a 
marriage with one of the coheiresses of the Marquis Montague. A 
pedigree of the Button-John branch may be found in vol. i. Leath 


son of John, son of Richard, son of Reginald, son of Nigel, 
son of Richard, son of another Richard, son of John, son of 
Adam, son of Adam de Hodleston, in co. York. The five 
last named (according to the York MS.) were before the 

Sir John de Hoddleston, knight, in the year 1270, was 
witness to a deed in the abbey of St. Mary, in Furness. 

By his marriage with the Lady Joan, Sir John be- 
came lord of Anneys in Millom. In the 20th of Edward I. 
(1292) he proved before Hugh Cressingham, justice 
itinerant, that he possessed jVr« regalia within the lordship 
of Millom. In the 25th (1297) he was appointed by the 
king warden or governor of Galloway in Scotland. In the 
27th (1299) he was summoned as a baron of the realm to do 
military service. In the ne.xt year (1300) he was present 
at the siege of Carlaverock. He is thus mentioned in the 

Johan de Odelston ensement 
Ke bicn et adessement 
Va d'armes tontes les saisons 
Au Counte estoit. Si est raisons 
Ke nomes soit entre sa gent, 
Rouge portoit frctte d'argent. 

John of Hodelston also 

Who well and promptly 

Goes in arms at all times, [is right 

Was with the Earl.* Therefore it 

That he be named with his follow- 

Heboregulesfretty of silver, [crs. 

In the 29th (1301), though we have no proof that he was 
summoned, he attended the parliament at Lincoln, and sub- 
scribed as a baron the celebrated letter to the pope, by the 
title of lord of Anneys. He was still alive in the 4th of 
Edward IV. (1311). 

Sir John had three sons, John who died early, and 
Richard and Adam. 

Richard Hudleston, son and heir, succeeded his father. 
Both he and his brother Adam are noticed in the later writs 
of Edward I. They were both of the faction of the Earl of 
Lancaster, and obtained, in the 7th of Edward II. (1313) a 
pardon for their participation with him in the death of the 
king's favourite Gavasten. Adam was taken prisoner with 
the Earl in the battle of Boroughbridge, in 1322, when he 
bore for arms — gules fretted with silver, with a label of 
azure. Richard was not at that battle, and in the 19th of 
the king(132G) when Edward II. summoned the knights of 

• The Eail of Lincoln, afterwards of Lancaster. 


every county to theparliaraentat Westminster, was returned 
the first among the knights of Cumberland. — He married 
Alice, daughter of Richard Troughton, in the 13th Ed. II. 
and had issue, 

John Hudleston, son of the above-named Richard, succeed- 
ed his father in 1337, and married a daughter of Henry 
Fenwick, lord of Fenwick, co. Northumberland. 

Richard Hudleston, son of John. 

Sir Richard Hudleston, Knight, served as a banneret at 
the battle of .Vgincnurt, in 1415. He married Anne, sister 
of Sir \\'illiam Harrington, K.G. and served in the wars in 
France, iu the retinue of that knight. 

Sir John Hudleston, Knight, son of Sir Richard, was ap- 
pointed to treat with the Scottish commissioners on border 
matters, in the 4lh of Edward IV. (1 164.); was knight of the 
shire in the 7th (14G7); appointed one of the conservators 
of the peace on the borders in the 20th (1480); and again 
in the 2nd of Richard (1484); and died on the Cth of Mov. 
in the 9th of Henry VII. (1494.) 

He married Joan, one of the coheirs of Sir Miles Stapleton 
of Ingham in Yorkshire. He was made baililf and keeper 
of the king's woods and chaces in IJarnoldwick in the county 
of York, sheriff of the county of Cumberland by the duke of 
Gloucester for his life, steward of Penrith, and warden of the 
west marches. He had three sons, 

l.Sir Ricliard, K.U. ob. v. p. 1st Richard III. He 
married Margaret, natural daughter of Richard Nevill, 
Earl of Warwick, and had one son and two daughters, 

Richard, married Elizabeth, daughter of Lady Mabel 
Dacre, and died without issue, when the estates 
being entailed passed to the heir male, the des- 
cendant of his uncle John. 
Johan, married to Hugh Fleming, of Rydal, Esq. 
Margaret, married to Lancelot Salkeld, of Whitehall, 

2. Sir John. 

3. Sir William. 

Sir John Hudleston, second son of Sir John and Joan 
his wife, married Joan, daughter of Lord Fitz-IIugh, and 
dying in the 5th Henry VIII., was succeeded by his son, 



Sir John Hudleston, K.B., espoused, firstly, the lady Jane 
Clifford, youngest daughter of Henry, Earl of Cumberland, 
by whom he had no issue. He married secondly, Joan, 
sister of Sir John Seymour, knight, and aunt of Jane Sey- 
mour, queen-consort of Henry VIII., and by her he had 

Aniliony, his heir. 

Andrew, who married Mary, sister and co-heiress of 
Thomas Hutton, of Ilutton-John, Esq. from whom 
descended the branch at that mansion.* 
A daughter, who married Sir Hugh Askew, knight, 
yeoman of the cellar to Henry VIII. ,f and Ann, 
married to Ralph Latus, of the Beck, Esq. 
Sir John died 38th Henry VIII. 

Anthony Hudleston, Esq., son and heir, married Mary, 
daughter of Sir William Barrington, knight, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, 

William Hudleston, Esq., knight of the shire in the 43rd 
of Elizabeth, married Mary, daughter of .... Bridges, of 
.... CO. Gloucester. 

Ferdinando Hudleston, Esq.,j son and heir, was also 

• See pedigree of the Hudlestons of Hulton. John, in vol. i. p. 372 
&c., Leath Ward. 

t See an account of Sir Hugh Askew, under the parish of Bootle. 

X In West's Antiquities of Fumess we have the following account of 
a skirmish which took place near Lindale-cot, Ulverston, in which one 
of this family was engaged ; — "On Sunday the first of October, 164.3, a 
slight skirmish took place between a number of troops for the king 
under the command of Colonel Hudleston, of Milium Castle, and others 
for the Parliament, commanded by Colonel Rigby. Colonel Hudleston's 
company giving way at the commencement of the battle, Rigby's pur- 
sued them, killed three or four men, (perhaps unintentionally) and took 
Colonel Hudleston, and 300 of his men prisoners." 

The same work contains some extracts from a MS. written by Thomas 
Park, of Millwood, high constable of Fumess during the Great Rebellion. 
Mr. Park says : " September 28, 1643. Colonel Kigby continuing his 
siege at Thurland castle (which continued six weeks before agreement 
was made) was let know that Mr. Kirkby,* Mr. Rigby, and colonel 

• Richard Kirkby, of Kirkby Ireleth. 


kniMit of the shire, in the 21st James I. (see p. 155.) He 
mamed Jane, daughter of Sir llalph Grey of Chdl.nghara, 
knight, and had is^uo nine sons, UWun^, Jol'"' ^'-'^'-jfl^'^": 
Richard, Ralph, Ingleby, Edward, Robert and Joseph ;aU 
of whom were oflicers in the service of Charles I. John 
was colonel of dragoons. Ferdmando, a major of foot 
Richard, lieutenant-colonel of foot, was slain in the minster 
yard at York. Ralph, a captain of foot Ingleby, a captain 
of foot. Edward, a major of foot. Robert, acaptam of foot. 
And Joseph, a captain of horse. 

Hudleston,* were iu commotion in Furness, and that they had gotten 
together 1500 horse and foot, many of (hem out of Cumberland, young 
Mr. Penningtont being there with a company, and the rest of Furness : 
they were about 200 firemen, and the rest dubmen ; J and they kept 
their rendezvous at Dalton. 

" Whereupon Colonel Bigby, at the earnest desire of divers of Furness 
. ,»hofled thither, marched with seven or eight companies of foot, and 
three troops of horse, all firemen, except about 20, who had pikes; they 
were all complete, and very stout fellows. I being prisoner at Hornby 
castle at that time, and three weeks before, was appointed to go with the 
colonel; and the last of September they came to Ulverston, and rested 
there that night ; and early the 1 st ot October, 16«, being S,mday, they 
set forward and had prayers on Swartmoor; which being ended, they 
marched forward till they came to Lyndal; and there the foot halted ; 
but the horse went on to Lyndal cotte, and drew up in a valley facmg, 
and shouting at Mr. Hudleston's horse, who were drawn up on the top 
of Lindal Close, who did shout also in return; which lasted about an 
hour while the foot were receiving powder, shot, and match; which 
being ended, the foot marched up to the horse: then the king's horse 
fled- whereupon they raised a great shout, and did pursue them very 
hotly and took Colonel Hudleston prisoner, Mr. Stanley and Mr.Latus, 
Mr Earton with 300 common soldiers, or thereabouts : they took most 
part of their arms, six colours, two drums, and all the money and ap- 
parel the common soldiers had on, with a coup laden with maguzeen, 
drawn by six oxen. The common soldiers plundered Dalton and the 
parish, and returned that night to Cartmel. There were lliree or four 
of the king's men killed, and some hurt, but none of " 

• Sir William Hudleston, of MiUom castle. 

.|- William Pennington, Esq. 

t Sec Clarendon's Hist, of Ueb. v. 4, p. 665. 

X 2 


He was succeeded by his oldest son, 

Sir William Hudleston, a zealous and devoted royalist, 
who raised a regiment of horse for the service of his sovereign, 
as also a regiment of foot; the latter he maintained at his 
own expence during the whole of the war. For this good 
service and his great personal braver)' at the battle of Edge- 
hill, where he retook the royal standard, he was made a 
Knight-banneret by Charles I. on the field. He married 
Bridget, daughter of Joseph Pennington, of Muncaster, Esq. 
He had issue (besides his successor,) a daughter Isabel, who 
married Richard Kirkby of Kirkby, in Furness, Esq., and 
was succeeded by his son, 

Ferdinand Hudleston, Esq. who married Dorothy, daughter 
of Peter Hunley, of London, merchant, and left a sole 
daughter and heiress, Mary, who married Charles West, 
Lord Delawar, and died without issue. At his decease the 
representation of the family reverted to 

Eichard Hudleston, Esq. son of Colonel John Hudleston 
(second son of Ferdinando Iludlestonand Jane Grey his wife). 
This gentleman married Isabel, daughter of Thomas Hudles- 
ton, of Bainton, co. York, and was succeeded by his son, 

Ferdinando Hudleston, Esq., who married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Lyon F'alconer, Esq. of Rutlandshire, by whom 
he had issue, 

William Hudleston, Esq. This gentleman married Ger- 
trude, daughter of Sir William Meredith, Bart., by whom he 
had issue two daughters Elizabeth and Isabella. Elizabeth, 
the elder, married Sir Hedworth Williamson, Bart., who in 
1774, sold the estate for little more than 20,000/. to Sir James 
Lowther, Bart., by whom it was devised to his successor, the 
Earl of Lonsdale. 

The Castle. 

Millom Castle, of which there are considerable 
remains, is pleasantly situated in the townsliip of 
Millom IJelow, near the mouth of the Duddon, 
on a slight eminence fronting the south, and 


sheltered from the nortli winds by Black Comb 
and a range ol' hills. 

This castle was fortified and embattled, in 1335, 
by Sir John Hudlcston, in pursuance of the king's 
licence. It was anciently surrounded by a park, 
adorned with noble oaks, and well-stocked with 
deer ; and was for many centuries the seat of the 
lords of tlie great seigniory of Millom. 

The lords of Millom appear to have been 
happily placed at a suiticient distance from the 
troubled scenes of the border warfare, and to have 
enjoyed the blessings of peace, — ui'iiimcuiu (Hirni- 
tate, — when their countrymen in the northern 
and centre parts of the county were involved in 
skirmishes and forays. It would appear, however, 
from an incidental notice in Darnell's " Life and 
Correspondence of Isaac Basire, D.D.," that this 
quiet was disturbed during the Great Rebellion, 
although no particulars respecting the occurrence 
have been recorded. In that work it is stated 
(p. 34), that the Rev. Nathanael Ward, " \icar of 
Staindrop, remained on his living till Hill. He 
then entered into King Charles's army, and :iw.s- 
slain at Milium Caxllc, in Cumberland. . . . His 
nuncupative will, made as it should seem, after 
he had received his mortal wound, is in the 
Registrar's Office at Durham. It consists of a 
very few lines, and is attested by five cavaliers, 
Robert Cirey, John Ihidleston, John Tempest, 
Thomas Ilulton, Jo. Heath." 

The opinion that this castle was attacked 
during the Great Rebellion, is corroborated by 
the fact that the old vicarage-house, which was 
near the castle, was ]mlled down at that period, 
" lest the rebels should take refuge therein." 


Mr. Thomas Denton, writing in 16S8, says the 
castle was then much out of repair ; that the 
gallows where the lords of Milloni exercised their 
power of punishing criminals with death, stood 
on a hill near the castle ; and that felons had 
suffered there so recently as to be within the 
memory of persons then living. He describes 
the park as having within twenty years abounded 
with oak, which, to the value of 4000/. had been 
cut down and used for the iron forges, see p. 146. 

"Milium castle," says ]\Ir. John Denton, "the 
ancient seat and capital mansion of this mannor, 
is plac'd at the foote of the river Dudden, and 
through length of time threatneth mine. How- 
beit the lords thereof make it yet tlieir dwelling 
place and aboade, holding themselves content, 
that the old manner of strong building there, 
(with the goodly demeisncs and commodityes 
which both land and sea afford them, and the 
stately parke full of huge oakes and timber, 
woods and fallow deerc,) doe better witness their 
ancient and p'sent greatness and worth, than the 
painted vanityes of our time do grace our new 

Buck's view of the castle — ])ublished in 1739, 
and dedicated to the last lord of Millom, of the 
Hudleston family — represents the building as 
much in the same state as it appears at present. 
Its shattered walls were decorated with shrubs 
that had found crevices in which to take root ; 
but in front was a row of palisades, with a long 
parallel line of yew-trees, formally trinnned and 
cut in the style which once prevailed, shewing how 
much inferior in appearance were such artificial 
trees to the graceful and flowing outline of those 


left to the care of nature. Those trees are still 
remaining, but they have attained to a much 
larger size. 

So lately as 1774, when Nicolson and Burn 
wrote, the park was "well stored with deer." It 
was disparked by the present Earl of Lonsdale 
about the year 1802, when 207 deer were killed ; 
and the venison was sold, in Ulverston market 
and elsewhere, at fVoni 'Id. to Ad. per pound. 

Tiiis castle — no longer the residence of the 
lords of Millom — is now occupied as a farm- 
house : — Sic transit gloria intnidi. Tlie principal 
part now remaining is a large square tower, for- 
merly embattled, but at present a plain parapet 
wall surrounds the leads on the top, commanding 
a delightful view of the mouth of the Duddon. 
In a wall of the garden are the arms of Hudleston, 
as also in the wall of an outhouse, painted in 
proper colours, with the motto — Soli Deo honor 
et gloria. The latter is well executed : it was 
found in a heap of rubbish, and was placed in its 
present situation by thecareof Mr. Isaac Hodgson, 
a respectable farmer, who lives in the castle. The 
moat is visible on the south and west sides. The 
principal entrance appeal's to have been in the 
east front, by a lofty flight of steps : the walls in 
this part arc festooned with ivy, and their rent 
sides are partially concealed by trees, closely 
tenanted by rooks. Two other rookeries are 
seen at a short distance. Some old oak chairs — 
formerly part of the appropriate furniture of the 
castle while the residence of the lords of Millom 
— are now in the possession of Bernard (iilpin, 
Esq., of Ulverston, a lineal descendant from " the 
apostle of the north," whose name he bears. 

164 allerdale ward, above derwent. 
The Church. 

The church of ISIillom was rectorial until the 
year 1228, when it was given to the abbey of St. 
Mary in Furness. One moiety was appropriated 
by Walter de Grey, Archbishop of York, to that 
monastery, the abbot and convent to have the 
right of presentation ; the other moiety (which 
the Archbishop reserved for his own disposal,) he 
assigned, in 1230, for the maintenance of three 
chaplains, with clerks and other charges, for the 
support of his chantry ordained at the altar of 
St. Nicholas, in the cathedral church of York. 

In the Valor Ecclesiasiicus of Henry YIII. this 
vicarage is entered as follows : — 

Millome Vicar' Eccfie. 

Rector appropriat' monaster' de Furnesse. 

Edmund' Staneforth incumbens. 
Vicar' p'dca. valet in 

£ *. d. 
Mansione cum orto & po- ? .-^ 

> VJ VII) 

maria p. am. S 

Decim' garbas. &. feni nijli \ \ £ s. d. 

vjs. viijrf. Ian' et agnell'/ £ s. d. J>viij xv — 

xiijs. iiijJ. porcell' et V viij viij iiij r 
gall' vs. finibz. quadra- V 

gesimalibz. Lxiij$. iiijd. j -J 

Rcpris' viz in £ s. d. 

Sinod' iijs. procurac' vjs. viijrf. — ix viij 

£ *. d. 
Et valet clare viij v iiij 

Xma ps. inde — xvj vj ob' 

In a survey (now remaining in the First-Fniits 
Office) of the abbey of Furness, taken in pursu- 
ance of an act of parliament, 26th Henry VIII. 
there is this entry : — 



Tithes of the Rectory of Myllom. 
Tithes of Grain, 12/. of Lambs, 4/. 13s. id. 
In Wool, 41. In lent fines, 8/. In all, 

28/. 13s. y.* 

In "a survey of the lordship or manor of 
Furness," taken by a special commission, in the 
year 1619, this entry occurs :— " The rectory ot 
Milium (from the farmer whereof there is due 
the yearly rent of 36/. 13s. id.) is in Cumberland, 
and (as we are informed) in lease to Mr. Aylott, 
sometime secretary to the Lord Nuburgh, chan- 
cellor of the I)utchy."t , ,,. , -n 1 . 

The livinc; was valued m the Kmgs Books at 
8/. 5.S-. 8(/. and was certified to the governors of 
Queen Ann's bounty of the annual value of 

26/. Is. Sd. . ., 1 , 

The following particulars respectmg tlie glebe, 
&c belonging to the vicarage of Millom, are ex- 
tracted from the terrier :— " There is no house 
or outhouse or any other edifice belongmg to the 
vicarage; for in the time of Ohver Cromwell s 
rebelhon, the vicarage-house was pulled down, 
as it stood near unto the castle, by the tlien Lord 
of Millom. or order, as it is reported lest the rebels 
should take refuge therein. The whole of the 
glebe consists only of the church-yard, and a field 
adjoininii, commonly known by the name ot Vi- 
carage Field, containing together 3^ acres or 
thereabouts. This field (on which the vicarage- 
house formerly stood) is one half arable, the other 
meadow, chiefly earthen fenced, &c. 

" According to the best information and records 
that can be met with at present, somewhere about 

• West's Fumcss. 

t Ibid. 


the year 1721, the sum of 256/. was given to the 
vicarage, by the Rev. John Postlethwaite, master 
of St. Paul's School, London, and about the same 
time the governors of Queen Ann's bounty were 
pleased to add thereunto the sum of 200/. ; where- 
with an estate was purchased called Fawcett 
Bank, near Sedbergh, in Yorkshire, the yearly 
rent of which is paid to the vicar." This farm 
at Fawcett Bank is at present (1841) let for 40 
guineas per annum. 

The patronage of this church is vested in the 
duchy of Lancaster. The impropriated tithes 
which belonged to the Earl of Lonsdale, have 
(with very few exceptions) been redeemed by the 
different landed proprietors, since the passing of 
the act for the commutation of tithes. 

The present vicarage-house and the glebe at- 
tached to it were purchased about the year 1 7S 1 , for 
the sum of 240/. : 200/. of this money was obtained 
from Queen Ann's bounty, and the remainder 
was paid by the incumbent, the Rev. John Smith. 

List of Vicars. 

Edmund Staneforth, occurs, 1.535. 

1661 Roger Askew. 

1670 WiUiam Wells, ob. 1698. 

1699 Joseph Taylor. 

1713 Thomas Benn. 

1743 Matthew Postlethwaite. 

1778 Edward Nicholson. 

1781 John Smith, ob. 1796. 

1797 John Bohon, ob. 1820. 

1821 John Smith, ob. 1822. 

1822 Henry Dixon, B.D., ob. 1836. 
1836 Henry Pickthall, B.A. 


The church of Millom, dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity, is situated in the township of ISIillom 
Below, closely adjoining the castle. Indeed, so 
close is their proximity, that from some points of 
view they appear as one building ; very nearly 
resembling, in this respect, not in grandeur, the 
castle and church of Lancaster. The church 
consists of a nave and chancel, a south aisle, and 
a modern porch on the same side. Two bells are 
hung in a turret at the western end. In the 
church-yard arc the remains of a cross, the shaft 
of which bears four shields ; tliose on tlie east 
and west sides are charged with the arms of 
Hudleston, on the north and south with .... 
impaling Hudleston. 

This church is a venerable edifice ; but it is to 
be lamented that some of its wardens have been 
so deeply imbued with the love of iinprorements, 
that they have left few of the old windows 
— their places being supplied by very unecclesi- 
astical substitutes. 

The roof of the nave was open to the timber 
work, but it is now concealed by a modern ceil- 
ing. The north door has been walled up ; it is 
circular-he. ided, and has a niche over the arch. 
The pulpit and reading-desk are placed against 
the norlli wall; both are of oak, but painted of a 
mahogany colour ! The base appears to be of 
stone, and it was the opinion of that accomplished 
antiquary, Dr. A\'hitaker, that it is a portion of 
an ancient stone pulpit. A gallery at the west 
end contains an organ. Below this is an octagonal 
stone font, ornamented with quatrefoils and a 
shield charged with the arms of Hudleston and a 

Y 2 


The south aisle, or at least a portion of it, 
appears to have been a chapel belonging to the 
Hudlestons, lords of Millom. It opens from the 
nave by four pointed arches, springing from massy 
circular and octangular piers. The roof of this 
part of the church, until of late years, was open 
to the timber work, under which a ceiling is now 
placed. At the western end is an oval shaped 
Avindow, now walled up. A large decorated 
window of five lights nearly fills the east end ; 
this has been most barbarously walled up from 
the bottom to the spring of the arch, and two 
sash windows inserted. Near this window is a 
piscina, which sanctions the opinion that the 
whole or part of the south aisle has been a cha- 

This aisle was the burial-place of the Hudle- 
stons, who for a period of about five centuries 
were lords of the seigniory. Here is an altar- 
tomb, ornamented with Gothic tracery and 
figures bearing shields of arms, on which recline 
the effigies of a knight and his lady, in alabaster, 
very much mutilated : the knight is in plate 
armour, his head resting on a helmet, and having 
a collar of S.S. ; the lady is dressed in a long 
gown and mantle, with a veil. They appear to 
have originally been painted and gilt, but the 
greater part has been rubbed off. Near the altar- 
tomb are the very mutilated remains of an effigy 
of a knight, carved in wood, " apparently of the 
fourteenth century." A few years ago there was 
" a lion at his feet." 

The chancel is not ceiled ; it has a pointed east 
window of three lights, a small circular one, a 
narrow window with a rounded head, and another 


of two lights, with trefoiled heads, under a square 

Near the above monument is a mural marble 
tablet bearing this inscription : — 

Heic juxta jacet dcposituni Mortalc 


Filij Williclmi Huddlcston Equitis, 


Vna cum tota Familia causa Carol: pbimi, 

Begium Optimi, 

Vitam atq. Fortunas saipius exposuli. 

Matrem lialjuit D. Bridgettam Pennington 

JosEPin Pennington de Muncaster Armigeri 

Filiam Unicani. 

Uxorem duxit D. Bridgettam Hlddleston 

Andre.i; Huddleston de Huuon-John Armiger 


Ex hac Unicum melioris spei Filium suscepit, 

Qucm, proh Dolor ! 

Circiter decimum ^Etatis Animum amisit 


Dominia cujus et lura 

Sine Sobole Moriens 

Uxori Charissimoc donee ilia in vivis foret. 

Conjugum Amantissimus donavit 


Decimo Die Septembris 

Ano >E talis sexagcsimo tertio, et Christianorum 


In charissimam cujus Memoriam 

Hoc Amoria ct Officii Monunicntum erexit 

Domina Pientissima. 

CsBtcra loquantur Lcgata sua Nobiliora, 


Munificcntia centum Librarum 

Ad Liberam Scholam Grammaticakm fundan. 

Et bonas Litcras promovendum 


En paucis ! 


Vir erat Nobili, et Antique Familii 

Verus Ecclesise Anglicanse Filius, 

Modestii et Integritate siiigulari, 

Alien! Abstinens, nee sui profusus. 


Lector curiose, et fac similiter, 


Cum non minus sis Mortalis 

Omnem crede Diem Tibi diluxisse Supremum. 

Non procul hiuc jacent Reliquia; Bridgett.e Huddleston, 

JosEPHi HuDDLESTON Armlgeri supradicti Viduie, 

Quae superstes marito quatuordecim Anuis, 

* Sex raensibus septemq. diebus : 

Cum esurientes cibo saturissct, Nudos amicuissef, Afflictos Invisisset, 

Amicis Muniflcam, Inimicis benignam se pra!stitissit, 

Obijt Decimo septimo Die martij Ann. iEtat. 72. 

Ann. Dom. 1714. 

A marble tablet on the wall of the south aisle 
bears this inscription — 


to the Memory of 

The Rev. JOHN SMITH, Vicar of Millom, 

■who departed this life, 30th of Nov. 1796, 

aged 46 years. 

BETTY, his -nife, died 5th June, 1823, 

aged 73 years. 

WILLIAM GILLIAT, their son, died at sea, 

aged 24 years. 

JANE, their daughter, died 17th April, 1818, 

aged 32 years. 

A stone slab fixed to one of the piers of the 
south aisle bears the arms of Hudleston with a 
crescent, and is thus inscribed — 

DominusBarr; HUDLE 

STON obijt Decimo 

tertio Die Sep. Anno 

Dom. MDCCXX, .^tat. 



Verus fuit Ecclesiee AngUcanee 

Filius Principi suo subditus 

fidissimus El pcrtotum Vitee 

Cursum adeo Pietate, Justilia, & 

Amore, Patrice Claruit Ut 

Omnibus merito lugendus 


At the east end of the south aisle is a marble 
tablet with this inscription — 

Sacred to the Memory of 
JOHN MYERS, Esquire, of Pow House 

in this parish, Barrister-at-law, 

whose remains were iuterred near this place 

on 9ih day of January, 1821. 

And of RACHEL PHILLIPS his wife, 

daughter of Cyprian Bridge, Esquire, 

of Dover Court, in the county of Essex, 

who also was interred here 

on 8th day of February, I8I6. 

A brass plate on the wall of the south aisle 
bears the following inscription — 

Here lycth the body of JOHN 
LATVS of Beck, Esq. Justice of Peace 
of the covntie of Cvmberland and 
Lancashire, iii the rcigne of their 
Majesties King William and Queen 
Ann, who niarricd Catherine Dav- 
ghter of William Obfelr of Plum- 
bland, Esq. by whom he had iss>'e 
Fcrdinando, Julia, Bridget, and Ag- 
nes ; and after married Agnes 
daughter of Andrew Hcddlest- 
ON of Hutton-John, Esq. who depa- 
rted this life, y« IGth October, 1702. 

On one of the piers of the south aisle is a brass 
plate with the following inscription, and the arms 
of Askew impahng INIusgrave :— 


Under Uiis lies the body of 

DOROTHY late wife of WILLIAM 

ASKEW of Standing Stones, 


daughter and coheiress of 

William Musgeave of Crookdake 

in this county, Esq. 

She dyed ye 22 day of April, 


and in the 66 year of her age. 

She left one daughter who married John Archer 

of Osenholme, in Westmorland, Esq. 

On the east wall of the chancel is a stone 
tablet inscribed — 

Near this place lieth interred 

the Body of Mr. Wm. WELLS, 

late vicar of Millom. He 

died Jan. y^ 4"i- Anno Dom. 

ICyS. Etat's suffi 50. 

On the north side of the chancel is a mural 
tablet with this inscription — * 


by his TV-idow 

to the memory of the 


Vicar of this parish, 

who died on the 5th of November, 1820, 

in the 62nd year of his age. 


of their chUd, MARY BOLTON, 

who died on the 7th of September, 1822, 

at the age of 8 years. 

Latus of the Beck. 

Arms : — 

This family, of which the coheiresses married Hudleston 
and Blencowe, is supposed to have come from Gloucester- 


shire into the north, early in the reign of Henry VIII. They 
were for some period seated at Whicham-hall, which place 
was sold by William Blencowe, Esq. about the year 1740. 

In the year 1582, Richard and Henry Latus purchased the 
rectory of Kirkby-Ireleth, in Furness, Lancashire, of Sir 
■\Villiam Layland, of the Morleys, in the said county. 

Richard Latus of the Beck, Esq. was succeeded by 

Ralph Latus, Esq. who married Ann, youngest daughter 
of Sir John Iludlcston, of jMillom castle, Knight, (see page 
158,) by his second wife, Joan, sister of Sir John Seymour, 
Knight, and aunt of Jane Seymour, queen-consort of Henry 
VIII. In consideration of which marriage he obtained from 
his father-in-law, a freehold tenement called Oveibeck, and 
another called Ncihcrbeck, and Ilarrats, all in the lordship 
of Millom. By Ann his wife he had issue, 

Ralph Latus, Esq. son and heir. 

.Anthony Latus, Esq. married ^Margaret, daughter of 'Willi- 
am lludleston, Esq., probably grandson of the above Sir John 
Hudleston, and had issue, 

William Latus, Esq. son and heir,* married to Agnes, 
daughter of John Ambrose, Esq. of Lowick hall, co. Lancas- 
ter, and was succeeded by 

John Latus, Esq. son and heir, who wf.s t\\ ice married. 
Firstly, to Catherine, daughter of William Orfeur,of Plumb- 
land hall, Esq. ; and, secondly, to Agnes, daughter of Andrew 
Hudleston, of Ihitton-John, Esq. By his first wife he had 
issue, Ferdinando, his successor, Julia, Bridget, and Agnes, 
Mr. Latus was a justice of the peace for the counties of Cum- 
berland and Lancashire. He died, 16th October, 1702, and 
was buried in the church of Millom, where is a brass plate 
to his memory. The manor of Lowick was convoyed to him, 
in 1681, by his uncle John Ambrose, Esq. of Lowick-hall. 

Ferdinando Latus, Esq. son and heir, eounsellor-at-law, 
married Henrietta,! daughter of Sir John Tempest, of Tong, 
CO. York, Baronet, (so created by Charles II.) by his wife, 

• One of the family about this time appears to have been in arms for 
Charles I. see page 159, »io<c. 

t There is an engraved portrait of this lady, in -Ito. mczzolinlo, in 
Pepys's Col. class v. — Noble's Contm. to Granger, i. p. 357. 



Henrietta Catherine, daughter of Sir Henry Cholmondely, of 
Newton Grange, in the said county, Knight, by whom he 
had issue, 

T' j' J i died infants, 
ierdinando, ^ 

Henrietta, married .... Hudleston, of Millom castle, 

EUzaoeth, married, firstly, Thomas Fletcher, of Hutton- 
hall, Esq., who died without issue ; and secondly, W. 
Blencowe, Esq., (second son of Henry Blencowe,* of 
Blencow-hall, Esq.) who was in the commission of the 
peace, and died at Lowick-hall, co. Lancaster, 10th 
June, 1769, aged 55. By her second husband she 
had issue, 

George Blencowe, in holy orders, ob. s.j>. 
Henry Blencovve, ob. s.p. 
John Blencowe, ob. s.p. 26th Nov. 1777. 
William Ferdinando Blencowe, M.D. who succeed- 
ed to the estate. 
Elizabeth Blencowe, married to Joseph Blain, M.D. 
of Carlisle. 


Thwaites is a manor, township, and parochial 
chapelry, within this parish. It extends along 
the Duddon, south of Ulplia, from Duddon Grove 
to Millom Green. It contains the hamlets of 
Hall-Thwaites (near which the chapel is situated), 
Duddon Bridge, and Lady Hall. 

The nuDior of Thwaites was held under the 
lords of Millom by a family of that name, as 
early as the reign of Edward I., and here was 
their ancient manor-house, until they removed to 
Unerigg-hall. Their arms, according to Sir Daniel 
Fleming, of Rydal, Bart. " who was very curious in 
those matters," were — Argent, a cross sable, fi'etty 

• See a pedigree of the family of Blencowe of Blencow, in vol. i. 
Leath Ward. 


or ; but, according to Mr. T. Denton, they were — 
Vert, a cross argent, fretty gules. The Messrs. 
Lysons agi-ee with the former; but Nicolson and 
Burn blazon their arms — Or, a cross argent, fretty 

In the 35th Henry III. Eleanor, wife of John 
Boy vil and Michael de Cornee, passed this manor 
by fine levied ; and in the IGth Edward I., John 
Hudlcston impleaded A\'illiam, son of John 
Thwaites, for 200 acres of pasture there. The 
manor was conveyed by the Hudlestons in the 
seventeenth century to Sir John Lowther, Bart, 
and is now the property of the Earl of Lonsdale. 

Duddon Grove, the mansion-house of Miss 
Millers, is delightfully situated on the banks of 
the river from which it takes its name, about two 
miles from Broughton, and six from the castle 
and church of Millom. It is seated among 
luxuriant trees, and is surrounded by rocky and 
picturesque scenery. A httle higher up the river 
is Haws-bridge, or Wha-house-bridge, spanning 
the river with two arches, which spring from 
pei*pendicular rocks. 

At Duddon Bridge, in this chapelry, is a large 
iron furnace. 

The Chapel of Thwaites, dedicated to St. Anne, 
is situated near Hall-Thwaites, about three miles 
from the parish church. It was rebuilt in 1S07. 
The former edifice, was erected about the year 
1721, at the cxpencc of the inhabitants, by whom 
it was endowed with 200/. It has also received 
800/. from Queen Ann's bounty, a private dona- 
tion of 100/. and a parliamentary grant of 1000/. : 
the latter was received in 1825. In the year 1715, 
this cha])el was certified to the governors of 

z 2 


Queen Ann's bounty as having no endowment. 
The patronage is vested in the proprietors of the 
estates of Beck-Bank, Broadgate, Oaks, and 
Graystone House, and the Earl of Lonsdale, 
who, as lord of the manor and lay-rector, has a 
casting vote. It was returned to the commis- 
sioners for enquiring respecting Ecclesiastical 
Revenues, as of the average value of 99^. with a 
glebe-house fit for residence. The register is 
very imperfect. The present incumbent is the 
Rev. John Ormandy, who was appointed in 

A library of 48 volumes was founded here, in 
1757, by the associates of Dr. Bray : only two or 
three volumes are now left. 

A sum of money has been secured on two 
closes in the Bridge-End estate, purchased by 
the governors of Queen Ann's bounty, for the 
use of the incumbent : the interest of which is 
paid as follows: — one half (IGs.) to the school- 
master, and the other half {16s.) in bread to the 
poor of Thwaites ; which latter half appears by 
a tablet in the chapel to have been left by Ann 
Smithson of Bank-house, in the year 1778. 

List of Incumbents. 

17.. Daniel Steele. 
c. 1755 Daniel Stephenson, ob. 1778. 
1778 John Parke, ob. 1815. 
1815 Henry Borrowdale, ob. 1822. 
1822 John Ormandy. 

The druidical temple, at Swineside, is thus de- 
scribed by Mr. Gough, in his additions to Cam- 


den* : — " It is nearly a circle of very large stones, 
pretty entire, only a few fallen upon sloping 
ground in a swampy meadow. No situation 
could be more agreeable to the druids than this; 
mountains almost encircle it, not a tree is to be 
seen in the neighbourhood, nor a house, except a 
shepherd's cot at the foot of a mountain, sur- 
rounded by a few barren pastures. 

" At the entrance, there are four large stones, 
two placed on each side, at the distance of six 
feet. The largest on the left side, is five feet six 
inches in height, and ten feet in circumference. 
Through this you enter into a circular area, 29 
yards by 30. This entrance is nearly south-east. 
On the north or right hand side, is a huge stone, 
of a conical form, in height nearly nine feet. 
Opposite the entrance is another large stone, 
which has once been erect, but is now fallen 
mthin the area ; its length is eight feet. To 
the left hand or south-west is one, in height 
seven feet, in circumference eleven feet nine 
inches. The altar probably stood in the middle, 
as there are some stones still to be seen, sunk 
deep in the earth. The circle is nearly complete, 
except on the western, some stones are wanting. 
The largest stones are about 31 or 32 in number. 
The outward part of the circle, upon the sloping 
ground, is surrounded with a buttress, or rude 
pavement of smaller stones, raised about half a 
yard from the surface of the earth. 

" The situation and aspect of the druidical 
temple, near Keswick, is in every respect similar 
to this, except the rectangular recess, formed by 

• Vol. iii. p. 432. 


ten large stones, which is pecuhar to that at 
Keswick ; but upon the whole, I think a prefer- 
ence will be given to this at Swineshead, as the 
stones in general appear much larger, and the 
circle more entire. 

" This monument of antiquity, when viewed 
within the circle, strikes you with astonishment, 
how the massy stones could be placed in such 
regular order, either by human strength or 
mechanical power." 

The Rev. Jeremiah Gilpin, A.M. of Broughton 
in Furness, was so much interested in these vene- 
rable remains of a remote and, comparatively 
speaking, unknown period, that he was at the 
expense of having a view of them engi'aved, which 
appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine, for the 
year 1785. 

John Wennington gave 30/. for the use of the 
poor of this chapelry ; and Bernard Benson gave 
5/. for the like purpose : these sums are secui'ed 
upon two tenements in the neighbourhood. 


The township of Birker and Austhwaite is 
bounded on the north and west, by the Esk, 
which divides it from the parish of ftluncaster ; 
and on the east, by the chapelry of Ulpha. It 
contains the small lake called Devoke \\'ater (see 
p. 147), and the water-falls of Stanley Gill and 
Birker Force. I'he inhabitants have the privi- 
lege of marr)^ng, burying, (S:c. at the neighbour- 
ing chapel of I'^skdale (part of the parish of St. 
Bees), by reason of their distance from the parish 


church and the chapels in their own parish. " In 
the manor of Austhwaite some small veins of 
copper have been discovered, but no mines have 
been -wrought." 

Austhwaite was granted, in 1102, to the an- 
cestor of a family who assumed that name, by 
Arthur de Boyvill or de INIillom. That family 
became extinct in the reign of Edward HI., 
about the year 1315, when the heiress (Constance, 
daughter of Thomas Austhwaite) married Nicho- 
las Stanley, Esq., ancestor of the present lord, 
Edward Stanley, Esq. M.P., of Ponsonby-hall. 
The arms of Austhwaite were — Gules, two bars 
argent, in chief three mullets of six points pierced, 

Dalegarth-hall, the ancient manor-house of 
Austhwaite, was the residence of that family, and 
afterwards of the Stanleys, until the seventeenth 
century, when John Stanley, Esq, removed into 
the parish of Ponsonby, where they have since 
resided. Great part of the hall has been pulled 
dow^n ; it is now occupied as a farm-house. The 
curious car\ed oak bedstead, now at Ponsonby- 
hall, was removed from this iiouse. It was a 
very spacious building ; but some parts of it were 
pulled down about the middle of the last century. 
" The remains shew the mode of architecture 
used in those dis^ant ages, when that country 
abounded in timber trees, each beam is formed 
of the entire stem of an oak, and each step in 
the stair-case is a solid block of the same wood : 
this profusion it not to be wondered at, when we 
are informed that a scjuirrel could travel from 
Dalegarth to Hardknott mountain, by the tops 
of the trees, the forest was so closely wooded. 


The old dining room is twenty-four feet long, 
and twenty-one feet wide ; on the ceiling are the 
mitials, E.S.A.,* surrounded with figures of 
hounds, stags, &c. in the stucco, with the date, 
1599. In almost every window of the house, 
were the arms of the different branches of the 
family, blazoned in painted glass." 

Chapel Suckex. 

Chapel Sucken, a long narroAV township in the 
south part of the parish, comprehends the ham- 
lets of Kirksanton and Haverigg. It has been sup- 
posed, (we know not on what authority, excepting 
the very doubtful one of its name) that there 
was formerly a church or chapel in the former 
hamlet, and from which it took its name, (see 
page 14S). 

At Kirksanton is a small tumulus, on the sum- 
mit of which are two stones standing perpendicu- 
larly, about eight feet in height, and placed 
fifteen feet asunder. Near these, it is stated in 
Hutchinson's Cumberland, that " several other 
large stones stood lately, placed in a rude 


The chapelry of. Ulpha, Ulfhmj, or Oiiff'a, 
eleven miles in length and rather more than three 
in breadth, comprises about one-third of this ex- 
tensive parish. It lies to the north of the chapelry 
of Thwaites, extending along the Duddon, from 

• The initials of Edward Stanley, Esq. and of Ann his wife, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Biigp, Esq., of Caumiie, co. Westmorland. 


Duddon-Grove to the north of the mountains 
Hardknott and '^^'l•ynose, near the three shire 
stones, where meet the comities of Cumberhmd, 
Westmorland, and Lancashire. 

" Ulf hay was granted to one Ulf, the son of 
Evard, whose posterity enjoyed it till the time of 
King Henry III. Ulf had issue Ailsward and 
Ketell : Ailsward paid to King Henry HI. in the 
17th year of his reign, 20 marks for a fine as- 
sessed upon him for an attaint. Ketell had 
divers sons, Bennct, William, and Michael ; Ben- 
net lived in King John's time, and had a son 
named Allan. But now the land is reduced to 
demesne again, and ]\Ir. Hudlcston, the pre- 
sent lord of JNIillum, and divers of his ancestors, 
have made there a park, inclosed for deer, which 
yet to this day is called Ulf hay park."* 

Having reverted to the Hudlestons, lords of 
Millom, it was again made parcel of that manor. 
Sir Hc'dworth ^^"illiamson and his lady (heiress 
of the Hudlestons, see page 160) sold the Ulpha 
estate to Mr. Singleton of Drigg. The manor 
was subsecjuently the property of Lord Muncas- 
ter, having been sold by Miss Singleton to the 
first baron. It was afterwards purchased by 
.... Burrow, Esq. of Carleton Hall, and is now 
the property of George Harrison, Esq., of Line- 
thwaite, near ^^'hitchaven. 

A very valuable vein of copper has been lately 
discovered in this manor. Report for some time 
was abroad that the workmen engaged a few years 
ago then made the discovery, but from some 
selfish motives immediately abandoned the work- 

J. Dcnton'3 MS. 
2 A 


ing to try some other place, first taking care to 
cover up their treasure. In consequence of these 
reports, George Harrison, Esq. the present lord 
of the manor, lately set workmen to clear away 
the superincumbent earth, and after about four 
week's labour they succeeded in discovering, from 
all appearance, a rich and extensive vein of ore, 
the further pursuit of whicli, we are glad to hear, 
he has ordered the workmen to commence.* 

The southern part of this chapelry is good 
land and well wooded ; but the northern part is 
mountainous, and presents a variety of romantic 
scenery to those who ai-e not deterred visiting 
this secluded district by the badness of the roads. 
When Nicolson and Burn wrote, in 1774, the road 
from the chapel of Ulpha to the parish church was 
" in some places rugged and almost impassable ;" 
we may suppose it is now in a better state than 
it was at that period, although still very bad. 

There was formerly a deer-park in LHpha ; 
the deer are mentioned by INIr. Thomas Denton, 
as the largest and the fattest in the north of 

A very splendid view of Ulpha and the valleys 
of Seathwaite and Dunnerdale, in Furness, is 
obtained from the road over Stoneside from 
Muncaster to Duddon Grove. After climbing 
the rugged ascents over which the road leads, 
those delightful valleys burst on the sight. They 
are near the river Duddon ; embosomed amid 
barren mountains, they form pictures of surpass- 
ing beauty, on which the eye lOves to dwell. 
Dunnerdale, verdant and well-cultivated, looks 

• Whitehaven Herald. 


like a rich garden — an oasis in the desert. Beyond, 
the momitains stretch away far into the north, — 
Coniston Old Man, Wrynose, Hardknott,Langdale 
Pikes, Scafell, and Scafell Pikes. The summits 
of the latter were clad with snow, although 
the sun scorched us with heat. 

Tlie river Duddon which forms the eastern 
boundary of this chapelry and of the parish, is 
well-known throughout the kingdom by the Son- 
nets of the venerable poet, Wordsworth, who says 
that it may be compared, such and so various are 
its beauties, to any river, of equal length of course, 
in any country. 

" Child of the clouds ! remote from every taint 
Of sordid industry thy lot is cast; 
Thine are the honors of the lofty waste ; 
Not seldom, when with heat the valleys faint, 
Thy hand-maid Frost with spangled tissue quaint 
Thy cradle decks ; — to chaunt thy hirth, thou hast 
No meaner I'oet than the whistling Blast, 
And Desolation is thy Patron-saint ! 
She guards thee, ruthless Tower ! who would not spare 
Those mighty forests, once the bison's screen, 
AVhere stalk'd the huge deer to his shaggy lair* 
Through paths and alleys roofed with sombre green, 
Thousand of years before the silent air 
Was pierced by whizzing shaft of hunter keen!"t 

Wallow-Barrow Crag is a rock nearly opposite 
the Old Man on Coniston Fell. The bed of the 
Duddon is here strewn with large fragments of 
rocks fallen from aloft. Mr. Wordsworth says, 
" the c/iao/ic aspect of the place is well marked 
by the expression of a stranger, who strolled 

• The deer alluded to is the Leigh, a gigantic species long since 


+ Wordsworth. 

2 A 2 


while dinner was preparing, and, at his return, 
being asked by his host, which way he had been 
wandering, replied, ' as far as it isjiiiis/ied.' " 

On the summit of the first ascent of Hardknott, 
a mountain near the northern extremity of the 
parish, are the remains of a British or Roman 
fort, called Kardknott Castle.* Camden speaks 

* On the svunmit of Gogmagog hills, near Camhridge, " is a triple 
entrenchment with two ditches rudely circular. This is supposed by 
some writers to have been a British, and by others a Roman, camp; but 
it was probably occupied in succession by both parties." Similar re- 
mains are to be seen in Cornwall : those of Chun Castle " occupy the 
whole area of a hill, commanding an extensiTe tract of coimtry to the 
east, some low grotmds to the north and south, and the ocean to the 
west. It consists of two walls, or rather huge heaps of stones, one with- 
in the other, having a vallum, or kind of terrace, between them. This 
terrace is divided by four walls ; and towards the west-south-west is the 
only entrance to the castle, called the Iron Gateway. This turns to the 
left, and is flanked with a wall on each side, to secure the ingress and 
egress of the inhabitants. The outer wall measures about five feet in 
thickness ; but on the left of the entrance it is twelve feet ; whilst the 
inner wall may be estimated at about ten feet ; but, from the ruinous 
confusion of the stones, it is impossible to ascertain this decidedly. The 
area inclosed within the latter measures about 125 feet in diameter, and 
contains a choaked-up well, and the ruined foundations of several circu- 
lar tenements, or habitations. These are connected to the inner wall, 
and nm parallel all roimd it, leaving an open space in the centre. The 
present state of these ruins demonstrate that this castle was constructed 
before any rules of architecture were adopted in military buildings ; for 
there appear no specimens of mortar, nor door-posts, nor fire-places with 
chimnies ; and had any of these ever been used in this singular and nide 
fortress, it is exceedingly improbable but that some traces might be now 
discovered amidst its vast ruins. On the north side of the castle appears 
a passage, or road, partly excavated out of the soil, and guarded by higli 
stones on each side. This communicates with tlie fortified retreat, iind 
the ruined buildings of a village or lowii, which occupy the north face of 
a hill, and consist of numerous foundations of circular huts. These are 
from ten to twenty feet in diameter, with a narrow entrance between two 



of it as " Hardknott, a very steep mountain, on 
whose summit were lately discovered huge stones 

upright stones, without any chimney ; and the walls composed of various 
sized stones, rudely piled together without mortar. The knowledge of 
lime as a cement, says Mr- Whitakcr, was first introduced into this 
country by the liomnns."— Beauties of England and Wales. 

" As security was the primary object studied by the Britons hi con- 
structing a town, we may readily believe that the nations which occupied 
the more mountainous districts of the island, chose the site of their places 
of retreat on tlie summit of elevations, difficult of access, and command- 
ing extensive views, .\ccordingly, we fmd in several parts of Wales, 
and in Cornwall, in Lancashire, Shropshire, Cambridgeshire, Hereford- 
shire, and other counties of England, the remains of castramctations on 
tall precipitate hUl tops, which are conlidently believed to have been the 
fastnesses, or towns of retreat, constructed by the ancient inhabitants of 

the island. 

" These fastnesses enclose a considerable area, and are of an irregular 
form, the outlines complying with the natural shape of the hill on which 
they are constructed. Where the sides arc not defended by precipices, 
they are guarded by several ditches, and by ramparts, either of earth or 
of stones, worked without the use of mortar. They have sometimes only 
one, but more frequently have two entrances. One of the most impor- 
tant of these strong holds may desirably be adduced in this place, as a 
specimen of their prevailing character, since it is situated, according to 
the remark of Mr. King, 'on a spot that could not but be an object of 
the utmost attention to the original inhabitants of those territories, wluch 
afterwards were deemed distinctly England and Whales, from the very 
division here formed.' This is now termed the Herefordshire Beacon, 
and is reared on the summit of one of the highest of the Malvern ridge 
of hills. The area of the castrameUition comprises an irregular oblong, 
of 175 feet by UO feet, and is surrounded by a steep and lofty vallum of 
stones and earth, and by a deep ditch on the outside. Attached to the 
principal area, are two outworks, of considerable extent, situated lower 
on the sides of the hill. Each of these enclose a plain, probably intend- 
cd for the reception of cattle in times of exigency and retreat ; and both 
arc artificially connected by a narrow slip of land, secured by a bank and 
ditch The acclivity of the hill, in its approach towards the summit, is 
guarded by several rude, but formidable, banks and ditches."-B''. 
Introduction to Beauties of England and Wales. 


and foundations of a castle, to the astonishment 
of the beholders, it being so steep as hardly to 
be ascended." Bishop Gibson says, "these stones 
are possibly the ruins of some church, or chapel, 
which was built upon the mountain. For Wor- 
mius, in his Danish monuments, gives instances 
of the like in Denmark ; and it was thought an 
extraordinary piece of devotion, upon the planting 
of Christianity in these parts, to erect crosses, 
and build chapels in the most eminent places, as 
being both nearer heaven and more conspicuous: 
they were commonly dedicated to St. Michael." 
JNIr. Gough, also, in his additions to Camden, 
supposes the ruins may be those of "a chapel, or 
cross," erected on this mountain, as was the case 
on Cross-fell. 

In 1792, E. L. Irton, Esq. of Irton-hall, and 
Mr. H. Serjeant, of "\\'hitehaven, made a careful 
survey of this fort ; the latter gentleman took a 
ground-plan of these remains, and communi- 
cated the following account for Hutchinson's 
Cumberland.* He describes it as " being situat- 
ed on the west side of Hardknot-hill, about 120 
yards on the left of the I'oad leading towards 
Kendal ; and has evidently been intended as a 
fortress, for the defence of that pass over the 
mountain. It is, as will appear by the plan, as 
nearly square as the ground would admit ; the 
sides being 352, 34 S, 3 17, and 323 feet respectively. 
The irregularity of the position of the gates, or 
entrances, is in like manner, owing to the inequa- 
lity of the gi"ound. It is built of the common 

* Vol. i. page 569 : ■where it is erroneously placed imder the parish 
of Muncastei. 


fell-stone, except the corners, which, according 
to the report of the country people, among whom 
it is known by the name of Hardknot Castle, 
were of free-stone, but has been all taken away 
for buildings in the neighbourhood ; there being 
no free-stone nearer than Gosforth : but for that 
circumstance, it is probable, the fortress would 
have been standing at this day, in a state of ad- 
mirable perfection. In digging, to clear the 
foundation of the inner buildings, Mr. Serjeant 
says, they met with a great many fragments of 
brick, apparently Roman, which nmst necessarily 
have been brought from a considerable distance ; 
also several pieces of slate, and near the entrances 
some small arching stones, or pen stones, of free- 
stone, with remains of mortar on them ; shewing, 
that in all proI)ability, these entrances, or gate- 
ways were arched. The gateway to the east, 
leads to a piece of ground of about two acres, at 
the distance of 1.50 yards, which, by great labour, 
has been cleared of the stones that encumbered 
it, used perhaps for a parade, and military exer- 
cise. On the north side of that plot, is a forced, 
or artificial l)ank of stones, now slightly covered 
with turf, having a regular slope from the summit, 
near which, on the highest ground, are the remains 
of a round tower. From this, the road is continued 
along the edge of the hill to the pass, where it 
joins the highest part of the present road to 

Another correspondent, in the same work (the 
Rev. Aaron Marshall) says, " a road leading to 
Ambleside, is called the Iv///g.s Couch Road ; not 
many years ago, several pieces of a leaden pipe 
were found in a direction to the fort, leading 


from a well, called JVIaddock-how-well, about a 
mile and a half distant, which indisputably sup- 
plied the fort with water." 

Hardknott castle commands a magnificent view 
of Scafell and the Pikes — the loftiest of the moun- 
tains in the lake district : the former being ac- 
cording to the trigonometrical survey, 31G6 feet, 
and the latter Mr. Otley estimates at 3100. The 
Irish sea is also in sight, and a pleasing variety 
of mountains and lowlands, "It is in the recol- 
lection of several old people, now living, of pack- 
horses leaving the wool-pack-yard [Kendal] for 
^^'hitehaven, over Hardknot and Wrynose ; a 
road now only seldom visited except by the soli- 
tary shepherd and the lake tourist." 

Ulpha, like many other parts of Cumberland, 
is remarkable for tlie longevity and robust 
persons of its inhabitants ; one of whom, Mr. 
Joseph Stephenson, a yeoman of Panelholm, 
living in 1S29, was 6 feet 8| inches in height. 
At that time it was stated that " six brothers and 
sisters of the name of Jackson, are now living, 
though the youngest of them is S6 years of age, 
and their fixther died at the age of 103. Besides 
these, here are three widows and a wife, whose 
united ages amount to 333 years." 

" The Old Hall, now a farm-house, bears 
marks of great antiquity, and was probably the 
seat of the lords of llpha. Near to it is a well, 
called ' Lady's Dub,' where tradition says a lady 
was killed by one of the numerous wolves that 
formerly infested this wild region, the soil of 
which has been greatly improved by cultivation, 
especially in the low lands, where wheat was first 
1784. The higher lands are mostly 


sheep farms, but a large portion of the chapehy 
is covered with woods and coppices, the hitter 
of which yiekl a large and regular supply of ma- 
terials for making hoops, bobbins, &c. — Rains- 
barrow ^^'ood is famous for producing immense 
crops of fine hazel nuts, which in a favourable 
year, are worth about 200/, In the northern 
part of Ulpha is an excellent quarry of light blue 
slate, of which about 1400 tons are raised an- 
nually. Two copper mines were formerly 
wrought here, and zinc has been found in the 
chapehy. This part of the Duddon contains 
fine trout, and was the resort of salmon till 1S05, 
when Mr. To\vcrs built a wear across the river 
at Duddon (irove, but this obstruction has been 
lessened, pursuant to a legal decision, made by 
arbitration in 1S26, after a trial at Lancaster in 

The Chapel of Ulpha was certified to the gov- 
ernors of Queen Ann's bounty of the annual 
value of 5/. " whereof 3/. G,v. 'Sd. was the ancient 
chapel salary." It has been since augmented by 
Queen Ann's bounty, and was returned to the 
commissioners for enquiring respecting Ecclesi- 
astical llevenucs, of the average annual value of 
49/., with a glebe-house fit for residence. This 
"unwealthy mountain benefice" is a perpetual 
curacy, in the gift of the vicar of iNIillom. The 
present incumbent is the Rev. Jeremiah "\\'alker, 
who was appointed in 1S2S. The chapel, dedi- 
cated to St. John, is a humble edifice, situated in 
a " wave-washed church-yard," seven miles north 
of the mother-church. It is the theme of one of 

Parson and White. 

2 fi 


Wordsworth's beautiful sonnets, which shall en- 
rich our page. 

"The Kirk of Ulpha to the Pilgrim's eye 
Is welcome as a Star, that doth present 
Its shining forehead through the peaceful rent 
Of a black cloud diffused o'er half the sky ; 
Or as a fruitful palm-tree towering high 
O'er the parched waste beside an Arab's tent ; 
Or the Indian tree whose branches, downward bent, 
Take root again, a boundless canopy. 
How sweet were leisure ! could it yield no more 
Than mid that wave-washed Church-yard to recline, 
From pastoral graves extracting thoughts divine ; 
Or there to pace, and mark the summits hoar 
Of distant moon-lit mountains faintly shine, 
Sooth'd by the imseen River's gentle roar." 

At the time the chapel was consecrated, it was 
endowed with the small tithes of the district, or 
rather a modus in lieu of them, as it is a fixed 
annual payment from every tenement and land- 
holder in the chapelry. 

Mr. William Danson, of the parish of St. 
Clement Danes, Westminster, who died in 1 797, 
possessed of property in this chapelry, direct- 
ed by his will that the sum of 3/., chargeable on 
Folds estate, should be annually and for ever 
paid by his heirs to the churchwardens of Ulpha, 
to be by them distributed amongst the most 
needy of the poor in that parish, of which he was 
a native. This sum continued to be paid to the 
chiuchwardens, though not always distributed 
by them exactly as directed, until the year 1816, 
when the Commissioners appointed to inquire 
into Charities, although they ordered the bequest 
to be " paid and distributed as directed," at the 
same time expressed an opinion that, according 
to the statute of mortmain, its payment could 


not be enforced. This coming to the ears of 
the person who at that time farmed the estate, 
he took advantage of the circumstance, and dis- 
continued the payment. H. Danson, Esq., of 
London, however, who lately came to the Ulpha 
propeity, has directed his agent, INIr. William 
Poole, of River Bank, to deduct 3/. annually 
from the rents of his estates, to be distributed by 
himself and the Rev. E. Tyson, of Seathwaite, 
each Christmas day, according to the direction 
of his gi-andfather's will. This act of liberality 
on the part of Mr. Danson is highly creditable 
to him, and has been received with much grati- 
tude by the poor persons who have partaken of 
the bounty.* 

This chapelry had the advantage of a parochial 
library, established in 1761, by the associates of 
Dr. Bray : none of the volumes, however, are 
now remaining. 


The School at Millom-Below. — Joseph Hudles- 
ton, Esq. of Millom castle, (son of Sir William 
Hudleston, Knight,) who died in 1700, endowed 
this School with 100/. ; but that endowment has 
been irrecoverably lost by the insolvency of a 
person in whose hands it was deposited. It now 
enjoys, in common with the two schools atlNIillom- 
Above and at Thwaites, a share of a bequest of 
800/. bequeathed in 1 S 1 1 by Mr. A^■illiam Atkinson, 
of Bog-house, " who ordered it to be invested in 
government-stock, and the interest, (except 21. 
12s.) to be applied half-yearly for the education 

• Whitehaven Herald. 

2 B 2 


of poor boys and girls in these three townships, 
at the discretion of the trustees ; provided ' that 
not more than is. be given for teaching any poor 
scholar for a quarter of a year, nor even that if 
the scholars can be well and diligently taught for 
less.' " Fifty shillings of the interest is to be 
given annually to the customers at Upper Beck- 
stones-mill ; no family to have more than three 
shillings, nor less than one shilling. 

The Grammar School of JVhichain and M/llom. 
— The particulars relating to this school, founded 
for the benefit of the two parishes, have been 
already stated, at page 101. 

The School at Millom-Above. — This school has 
an equal share in the above-named legacy of Mr. 
William Atkinson. 

The School at Thwa'ites also enjoys one-third 
of the interest arising from Mr. W. Atkinson's 

Poor Stock. — In 1722, it was certified that 
there was a poor-stock of 30/. 2s. Or/, belonging 
to this parish ; " given by several persons not 

School at Ralhj-green. — On the 4th December, 
1809, this school was opened; being solely insti- 
tuted and supported by the Rev Myers, of 

Shipley-hall, rector of Edenham, co. Lincoln, for 
the instruction of twenty girls, in all the necessary 
and useful branches of female education, the 
children of sober and industrious labourers belong- 
ing to this parish. 

The particulars respecting some other charities 
are given under the accounts of the chapelries of 
Ulpha and Thwaites. 

Ctjc l?amf) of Irtoit. 

HIS parish contains the 
two townships of Irton 
and Santon with Mel- 
tliwaitc, and is of small 
extent, heing only two 
miles in length, and one 
and a half in breadtli. It 
is bounded on the south, 
by the Mite, which divides 
it from the parish of 
Muncaster ; on the west, by the parish of Drigg; 
on the north, by the parish of Gosforth ; and on 
the east, by the manor of Miterdale and the 
chapelry of Wasdale, in the parish of St. Bees. 
This parish was enclosed pursuant to an act of 
parliament, passed in 1809, under which an allot- 
ment of land was given to the impropriator in 
lieu of tithes, and two statute acres were allotted 
for the better support of the school.* 

The Irt, which gives name to the parish, flows 
through it in a south-westerly direction. Camden 
mentions this river as being famous on account 
of its shell-(ish producing pearls. They appear 
at a former period to have been very plentiful in 
this river.f 

• Lysoiis. 
t See further particulars, under tlie parish of Drigg, pp. 106, 107. 


The surface of this parish is rather hilly, but 
in no part is it mountainous. The soil varies, 
being in some parts gravelly, in others clayey, or 
formed of a mossy earth. Granite is plentiful 
near Irton Hall ; but neither coals, limestone, 
nor freestone, are found in the parish. 

There was formerly a corn-mill in this parish 
to which all who held under the lord of the manor 
were bound, but all vestiges of it have long since 
been swept away ; the farm, however, upon part 
of which it stood, still retains the name of Mill- 
Place. Another mill has been erected some dis- 
tance higher up the stream at San ton-Bridge, 
which also is the property of the lord of the manor, 
but without making any pretensions to the ex- 
clusiveness of soccage. 

Facing Irton Hall, on the opposite or Santon 
side of the river, are the extensive nursery-grounds 
of Mr. Gaitskell, — much and deservedly-admired 
for the neat and elegant manner in which they 
are laid out. His conservatory of rare and valu- 
able exotics attracts every summer great numbers 
of visitors. 

A little lower down is Greenlands, a beautiful 
villa, with extensive demesne attached, belonging 
to Thomas Brocklebank, Esq. the opulent mer- 
chant and ship-owner of Liverpool. 

The Manor of Irton, 

This manor has been held by the ancient 
family of that name from at least as early a period 
as soon after the Conquest, whose descendant, 
Samuel Irton, Esq., M.P. for the western division 
of the county of Cumberland, is the present lord. 


The demesne is large ; " the tenants pay cus- 
tomary rents, arbitrary fines, and heriots, with 
other boons and services." 

Irton of Irton.* 

Arms: — Argent, a fess sable, in chief three mullets gules. 

Crest : — A Saracen's head. 

Motto : — Semper constans etjidelis. 

Mr. Burke, in his " History of the Commoners of Great 
Britain and Ireland," says, the lirst of the family mentioned 
by Mr. Warburton, Somerset herald, is 

Bartram d'Yrton, who lived in the beginning of Henry 1. ; 
and Richard is mentioned soon after the Conquest, as appears 
by a deed of gift in the exchequer of lands given to the abbey 
at York, by Andrew de Morwick, to which Bartram was an 
evidence. He was succeeded by 

Adam d'Yrton, of Yrton, who was one of the knights of 
St. John of Jerusalem, and attending Godfrey of Boulogne, 
and the other christian princes to the Holy Land, was at the 
siege of Jerusalem. During the war he slew a Saracen 
general, and is said to have severed at one blow theinlidel's 
head from his body, lie married Joan Stutville, and was 
father of 

Hugh d'Yrton, who married Gertrude Tiliol, of an ancient 
and eminent family, which possessed Scaleby castle and a 
large estate on the borders, and was succeeded by his son, 

Edmund d'Yrton, who joined the crusade under Richard 
I. and participated in all that monarch's wars. He lost his 
life in the journey to Jerusalem, and left by his wife, the 
daughter of Edmund Dudley, of Yanwath, in Westmorland, 
a son and successor. 

Stephen d'Yrton, who married Jane Dacre, (who was 

rety to Henry HI. for her brother, Thomas Dacre, for his 

safe keeping of the castle of Bridgcnorth, in Salop, against 
the incursions of the Welsh), and had two sons, namely, 


• A great portion of this pedigree has been supplied by Burke's 


"Roger, his heir. 

Randolpl), who was bred a priest at Rouen, in Norman- 
d)'. On his return to England, he was made prior of 
Gisburn, in Yorkshire, and being a man of great 
learning and piety, was constituted in 1280, bishop of 
Carlisle. He was a firm defender of the rights of his 
church, and maintained a suit against Sir Michael de 
Harcla, by which, in 1281, he recovered the manor 
and church of Dalston. He was also a party in a suit 
for tithes of newly-cultured lands, within the forest of 
Inglewood, claimed to be granted to the church of 
Carlisle by Henry I., who enfeoffed the same jtvr 
quoddam conui elurneum. The right to the tithes, 
however, was adjudged to the king, (Edward I.,) who 
afterwards granted the same to the prior and convent. 
Bishop Irton was joined in commission with the 
Bishop of Caithness, to collect tenths within the 
kingdom of Scotland. He was one of the king's most 
confidential commissioners, for adjusting the claims 
to the crown of Scotland, in 1291. He was one of 
the plenipotentiaries empowered to contract Prince 
Edward in marriage with Queen Margaret of Scotland ; 
and was a person of great note in many other of the 
most important political transactions of his time. 

He died at Linstock, March 1st 1292. The Chro- 
nicle of Lanercost reports, that being fatigiied with a 
tedious journey in deep snow, in returning from 
parliamerit in London, after due refreshment he 
retired to rest; and a vein bursting in his sleep, he 
was found suffocated with blood. 
The elder sou, 

Roger d'Yrton, married, and had a son and successor, 

William d'Yrton, who married Grace Ilanmer, of Shrop- 
shire, a near relative of the Hanmers, of Hanmer, in Flint- 
shire, and was succeeded by his son, 

Roger d'Yrton, living in 1292, who married Susan, daugh- 
ter of Sir Ale.xander Basinthwaite, and sister of Sir Alexander 
Basinthwaite, who was slain at the battle of Dunbar, in 1296. 
By this lady, Roger d'Yrton acquired the manors of Basin- 
thwaite, Loweswater, Unthank, and divers others lands of 
considerable value, and had a son and heir, 

Adam d'Y'rton, who wedded Elizabeth, sole heiress of Sir 


John Copeland, and obtained with her the manors of Berker, 
Berkby, and Senton. He left two sons, of whom, the 
younger, Alexander, married a lady of the family of Oding- 
sels, and settled at Wolverly, in Warwickshire. The elder, 

Richard d'Yrton, married Margaret, daughter of John 
Broughton, of Broughton, in Stafl'ordshire, and was father of 

Christopher Irton, of Irton, who married Margaret, daugh- 
ter of Richard Redman, of lierwood castle, and was succeed- 
ed by his son, 

Nicholas Irton, of Irton, who occurs 12th Henry VI., in 
the list of the gentry of the county returned by the commis- 
sioners, (see Lealh Ward, p. 495). He married a daughter 
of William Dykes, of Wardell, in Cumberland, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, 

John Irton, Esq., of Irton, living temp. Edward IV., who 
married Anne, daughter ot Sir Thomas Lamplugh, Knt., by 
Eleanor, his wife, daughter of Sir Henry Fenwick, of Fen- 
wick, and had, with another son, Joseph, (who left two 
daughters, Elizabeth, married to William Armorer, Esq. ; 
and Mary, married to John Skelton, Esq., of Armathwaite 
castle), a son, 

William Irton, Esq., of Irton, who was appointed in 1493 
general to the Uuke of Gloucester, and (as appears by an old 
grant in the family) his deputy lieutenant. He married a 
daughter of the ancient house of Fleming of Rydal, and was 
succeeded by his son, 

Thomas Irton, Esq., of Irton, wlio received the honour of 
knighthood from the Earl of Surrey, at Floddenficld, and 
was slain in a skirmish at Kelso, with the Scotch. He died 
8. p. and was succeeded in 1503 by his brother, 

Richard Irton, Esq. of Irton, who was high-sheriff of the 
county of Cumberland, in the 22nd Henry VIII. He married 
Anne, daughter of Sir ^\'illiam Middlcton, knight, of Stokeld 
Park. In tlic 35th Henry VIII. it was found by inquisition 
that he held the manor and town of Irton, of the king, as of 
his castle of Egremont, by homage, and fealty, \d. rent, and 
suit at the court of Egremont. He also possessed Cleter, 
and a moiety of the manor of Bassenthwaite. 

Christopher Irton, Esq. son and heir, married in 1543, 
2 c 


Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Mallory, knight, of Stud- 
ley park, and was succeeded by his son, 

John Irton, Esq. who married in 1577, Dorothy, daughter 
of Roger Kirkby, Esq. of Kirkby in Furness. 

John Irton, Esq. son and heir, appears in the list of the 
gentry of the county who contributed to the support of the 
garrison of Carlisle, during the great rebellion. He married 
in 1638, Anne, sister of Sir Harry Ponsonby, ancestor of the 
Earls of Besborough, and left a son and successor, 

John Irton, Esq. who married in 1658, Elizabeth, daughter 
of ... . Musgrave of Jlealrig, younger brother of Sir William 
Musgrave, Knight, of Crookdake. See an anecdote of this 
Mr. Irton, under our account of Irton Hall, page 199. 

George Irton, Esq. son and heir, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Thomas Lamplugh, Esq, of Lamplugh, and was 
succeeded by his son, 

George Irton, Esq. who, in 1753, was high-sheriflF of the 
county of Cumberland. In 1695, he married Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter of David Poole, Esq. of Knottingley and Syke- 
house, CO. York, by whom he had two sons and five daughters. 
Mr. Irton died 7th December, 1 749, aged 82, and was buried 
in the same grave with his wife (who died in 1744) in the 
chancel of the parish-church of Irton, where is a monument 
to their memory. 

Samuel Irton, Esq. son and heir, married Frances, only 
daughter and heiress of Robert Tubman, Esq. of Cockermouth, 
by whom he had three sons and three daughters, all of whom 
survived him. Mr. Irton was high-sheriff of the county in 
the 5th George III., and died in London, 12th April, 1766, 
aged 50. His remains were brought to Irton, and interred 
in the chancel of the church there, where is a monument to 
his memory. His widow remarried to ... . Brathwaite, Esq. 
and dying in 1802, was buried in the church of flawkshead. 
Mr. Irton was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Edmund Lamplugh Irton, Esq., who married, firstly, 

.... daughter of Hodgson, Esq., of Hawkshead ; and, 

secondly, (2nd August, 1787), Harriet, daughter of John 
Hayne, Esq., of Ashbourn Green, co. Derby. By the latter 
he had issue, 

Samuel, his successor, the present lord. 


Richard, a major, in the rifle brigade, who married 

Sarah, daughter of Joseph Sabine, Esq. 
Anne, married to Joseph Gunson, Esq. of Ingwell. 
Mr. Irtoa died 2nd November, 1820, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, 

Samuel Irton, Esq, M.P. who was born 29th September, 
1796. Mr. Irton is in the commission of the peace for 
Cumberland, and has represented the western division of the 
county of Cumberland in several parliaments. In 1825, 
(July 25th) he married Eleanor, second daughter* of Joseph 
TifTm Senhouse, Esq., of Calder Abbey, an officer in the 
guards, by his second wife, Sarah, daughter of John Sunder- 
land, Esq. of Cartmel, co. Lancaster. 

Irton Hall. 

Irton Hallf has been for many centuries the 
manorial-house and seat of the ancient family of 
the Irtons. The present mansion, however, is 
of a more recent date, excepting the fortified 
tower, which is still retained. It is pleasantly 
seated amid noble trees on the summit of an ac- 
clivity sweeping up from the Irt, about a quarter 
of a mile cast from the parish-church. 

Mr. Sandford's IMS. contains the following 
notice of this mansion, and a pleasing anecdote 
of the loyalty of one of the ancestors of the pre- 
sent lord of the manor :— " A litle above nye the 
montanes towards Moncastre.a great tower-house 
of ancient family of Squire Iretons of Ireton, but 
not of that fatall Iretons, of Oliver's tribe ; for 
this now [circa 1675] lord of Ireton hall came to 
attend at the King's [Charles II.] returne to 

• Mar)-, the elder sister, married Thomas Invin, Esq., who now resides 
at Calder Abbey. 

t A view of Irton Hall is published in Neale's SeatB. 

2 c 2 


London ; and some gallants brought him to kiss 
the king's hand. ' And now/ quoth he, * I have 
blessed my eyes with a sight of [the] king : He 
even goe home, and end my days in Godd's peace, 
I hope.' " 

The most striking architectural feature of this 
building is a quadrangular tower, built in the 
castellated style, with embrasures, which — from 
its gi-eat antiquity, and from the circumstance of 
the other parts of the mansion being of various 
and more modern dates — we may reasonably 
presume to have constituted the principal part 
of the manorial hall. 

" Thou stand'st a monument of strength subhme, 
A giant, laughing at the threats of Time !" 

The site of this mansion has been most judi- 
ciously selected, as it is extremely picturesque, 
and commands an extensive view of the sublime 
scenery in its immediate vicinity, and of the Isle 
of Man and the southern part of Scotland. 

The present representative of the family is 
Samuel Irton, Esq., INI. P. for the western division 
of the county of Cumberland, who is lord of the 
manors of Irton and iNIelthwaite. 

In front of the hall stands an oak of gigantic 
dimensions, its circumference being so great that 
three men can scarcely encompass it with their 
extended arms. It was, at a former period, 
remarkable for its gi-eat spread of limb, covering 
an area of almost incredible extent, and was an 
object of universal admiration in the neighbour- 
hood. At present, however, it is sadly " shorn 
of its fair proportions," all its principal branches 
having dropped off by natural decay, and nothing 


remaining but the trunk and a few apparently 
thriveless shoots. It bears evident marks of very 
great antiquity ; and judging from its appearance, 
it would perhaps be " no extravagant arithmetic" 
to say, that this " brave old oak"— this venerable 
sylvan patriarch has 

" brav'd a thousand years 

The lightning and the breeze." 

The Manor of Santon. 

Santon, in the time of Henry HI. was held by 
Alan de Copeland, whose mansion-house was in 
the township of Bootle. " He held of Thomas 
de Multon of Gilsland, who held over of the lord 
of r>remont." He was succeeded by his sons, 
Alan^'and Richard, and they by John and Richard. 
In the 22nd Richard II., Alan son of Richard 
Copeland held lands here. In the year 1777, 
Santon was held by the families of Irton and 
Winder ; the moiety held by the latter having 

been purchased of Latus, who bought it 

from the Lancasters. It is now the property of 
Skeffington Lutwidge, Esq., of Holm-Rook Hall. 

The Church. 

The church of Irton, {Eccl. S. Michael de 
Yirrton, Archidiac. Richmond*) it appears from 
Tanner, was appropriated in the year 1227, to 
the nunnery of Setou or Lekely : on the dissolution 
of religious houses, it was granted to the Penning- 
tons, of Muncaster, ancestors of the present Lord 



Muncaster. The tithes and the right of advow- 
son remained in that family until the year 18. . 
when Lord Muncaster sold them to Samuel Irton, 
Esq. M.P. the present patron. The benefice does 
not occur in the Valor Ecclesiastic/is of Henry VHI. 
It was certified to the governors of Queen Ann's 
bounty at the annual value of 41. 13s. id. The 
dedication, according to Nicolson and Burn, is 
to St. Paul, although Tanner speaks of it as, 
ecclesia S. Michael de Yirrton. The present in- 
cumbent is the Rev. John Grice, who is also the 
perpetual curate of the parish of Drigg. On the 
enclosure of the parish, pursuant to an act of 
parliament passed in 1809, an allotment of land 
was given in lieu of tithes. 

The parish church of Irton, dedicated to St. 
Paul, is a very handsome modern structure, pre- 
senting an appearance of external elegance not 
frequently met with in remote naral districts ; 
nor are its internal appointments calculated to 
disappoint those favourable impressions which 
its prepossessing exterior cannot fail to inspire. 

It has a chancel, nave, and quadrangular 
tower of considerable elevation, in three stories ; 
the basement forming a commodious vestibule 
before entering the body of the building ; the 
second story being fitted up for the pui-poses of 
a vestry-room ; and the uppermost containing the 
bells. The whole is surmounted by four balls of 
proportionate dimensions. 

As the site of this church is on elevated 
ground, it forms a very conspicuous object in the 
surrounding scenery ; and throughout an area of 
several miles, on reaching the summit of any 
eminence, its white airy outUne is almost invari- 



ably the first thing that meets the eye of the 

An inscription on the front of the gallery ni- 
fomis us that the church was rebuilt in the year 
1 795. The registers of this parish do not contain 
any thing worth extracting ; the truth is, they 
have been very negligently kept, not extending 
farther back in any instance than 100 years. It 
is very probable that those of an older date have 
been lost or destroyed at the time of rebuilding 
the church. 

An oval tablet of white marble, on the north 
side of the nave, is thus inscribed — 





Mt. LXXII.) 

Nee non 

Conjugi Annte, 

(Ob. XII Cal. Ap. Eodemque Anno 

jEt LXXII). 

J. Mossor Cler. A.M. 



On the same side is the following inscription, 
in gilt letters on a framed board : — 

Thia erected to the memory of JOHN 
WINDER of Stangcnds, Gentlem" who departed 
this life the 24th November, 1750, aged 82 years. 
By his nephew 

John Freers. 

On the same side, at the head of the family 
pew of the Lutwidges, is a monument remarkably 
chaste and classical in its design, elegant and 


masterly in its execution, imposing by its height 
and the richness and dazzHng polish of the ma- 
terials, but above all, fascinating for the studied 
correctness and laboured finish of its minutest 
details ; in fact, one of those splendid specimens 
of art to which the eye of the connoisseur may 
revert again and again, and still find something 
new to admire and applaud. It bears the follow- 
ing inscription : — 

To the memory of 
SKEFFINGTON LUTWIDGE, of Holm Rook, Esquire, 

Admiral of the Red,* 

Who commanded in 1773, H. M. S. Carcass, on a voyage 

of Discovery towards the North Pole. 

He bore many high and important Commands 

With honor to himself and advantage to the public service. 

In private life 

• Of course, the rash and chivalrous adventure of Nelson and one of 
his juvenile associates iu pursuit of a bear on the ice is familiar to our 
readers, as it is as notorious and as much a matter of history as any of 
his most illustrious achievements in after-life ; but as it is not so generally 
kown that tie embryo hero of the Nile and of Trafalgar was serving at 
the time of the occurrenceof this incident tinder the gallant admiral whose 
obituary is recorded above, we hope the following extract, which estab- 
lishes this fact, will not be considered uninteresting. — " When the ex- 
pedition of discovery towards the North Pole, imderCommodore Phipps, 
sailed next year, (1773) Nelson had used all his interest to be permitted 
to go with Captain Lutwidge, in the Carcass, as his cockswain. In this 
object of his ambition he succeeded ; and during the voyage, displayed 
some of his characteristic traits. We can mention only the following. 
One night, when they were surromidcd by ice, the young cockswain and 
a ship-male, undaunted by their danger, stole from the vessel to hunt a 
bear. They were soon missed ; and the signal was made for their ret urn, 
which they were obliged to obey, and much to their mortification, 
without securing their prey. 'What reason could you have,' said 
Captain Lutwidge to Nelson, 'for hunting a bear?' 'Sir,' replied be, 
' I wished to get the skin for my father," " 


He waa distinguished by the sweetness of his manners ; 

A kind relation and warm friend. 

He died on the lolh of August, in the year 1814, 

In the 78 Year of his age. 

His remains were deposited near this Place, 

In the same grave with CATHERINE, his wife, 

Daughter of Ricbabd Hauvey of Londonderry, Esq. 

Who died on the 2Ist day of January 1810, aged 48 years. 

This monument is dedicated by their grateful nephew. 

Major S. Lutwidge. 

On the north side of the altar-table is a marble 
monument ^vith tliis inscription — 

Near this place 

Lies the body of SAM. IRTON, Esq. 

Who died in London, April the I'ilh, 17G6, in the 51 year of his age. 

He was a sincere and faithful friend. 

An affectionate and tender Husband, 

A careful and indulgent parent. 

He left issue three sons and three daughters 

By Frances, Daughter of Robt. Tubman 

Of Cockerraouth in this County, Gent. 

Who in Testimony of her sincere regard and 

Edtecm for his memory has caused this 

monument to be erected, 1767. 

On the south side of the altar-table on a marble 
monument is the following — 

Under this monument in one grave are deposited the remains of 
GEORGE IRTON Esq.of Irton Hall in this parish, and ELIZABETH 
his wife. She departed this life y"^ 19lh February, 17 14 aged 70 years, 
and he December y« 7lh, 1749, aged 82. They were the best of Parents 
to their children, and the sincercst of friends. After a long life spent 
with the greatest Industry they retrieved an Estate almost lost. She was 
Eldest Daughterof David I'oole of Knottiugly in the East Riding of York, 
Esq They left issue living 2 sons and five Daughters, Sam'- the youngest 
son who survived his father and mother, erected this monument out of a 
due filial and affectionate regard to the memory of both of them. 

2 D 


On the south side of the chancel there is an 
oblong marble slab surmounted by a sarcophagus ; 
the latter bears this inscription — 

In memory of 

Who after a residence 

of Thirty three years in India, 

In the service of 

The Honorable East India Company, 

Returned to England in Sept. 1811, 

And died 13th March, 1813, 

Aged 49 years. 

On the slab are the following verses : — 

Those who were taught from earliest youth to view, 
With pleasure, his return so long protracted ; 

Now saw with transport, every vision true. 
That hope had form'd or memory contracted. 

Saw every social virtue, sweetly blending. 
Where valour's self stood prompt at glory's call ; 

And fame and honor, on his steps attending, 
Yet generous, kind, affectionate to all. 

Against the south wall, over the pew of the 
Irton family, is another marble monument bearing 
the following inscription : — 

In memory of 


Who died July XIX, MDCCCII, aged LXX years, 

And was buried in Hawkshead Church. 

This monument was erected 

From a filial aifeclion for one of 

The best of Parents; 

By E. L. Ibton, of Irton Hall, 

And Samuel Irton, a major in the service 

oUhe East India Company at Madras, 

wo of her sons by her first husband 

Samuel Ikton of Irton, Esq. 
S/ie searched the scriptures daily. 

zuht^ hj Stun- &>u^h 

/~7y/V 7^?z Irion Church lard. 

S Je/fersen. Carlisle 


In the church-yard, is an ancient cross, nearly 
ten feet higli, the four sides of which are very 
richly carved, as represented in the engraving. 
They are sculptured with the most elegant scrolls, 
knots, and frets, very much in the style of the 
decorations of the celebrated MS. — Textus Sancti 
Cuthbert'i, preserved in the British Museum, 
which was written about the close of the seventh 

HoLME-RooK Hall. 

Holme-Rook Hall, on the north banks of the 
Irt, three miles north east from Kavenglass, is a 
neat edifice, in a picturesque locality, situated on 
the summit of an eminence overlooking the river, 
and commanding a very extensive prospect. 
The present occupant is Skeffington Lutwidge. 
Esq., a retired Major in the honorable E. I. C's. 
service, who is lord of the manors of Santon, in 
this parish, and of I'pper and Lower Bolton, in 
the adjoining parish of Gosforth. 

The School. 

This school was founded in the year 171S, and 
its management vested in the following trustees : 
— George Irton, Esq., Nicholas Nicholson, Wil- 
liam Caddy, John Nicholson, Henry Caddy, and 
Tliis information is obtained from a free- 
stone tablet, inserted into the wall of the porch, 
which is so defaced and mutilated as to require 
the greatest care and patience to decypher it. 

• Lysons. 

2 D 2 


Henry Caddy of Katch-Ground, the founder, 
endowed it with the sum of 100/., that it might 
be free to the parish on condition of certain pay- 
ments. There was also another grant of 10/. a 
year, arising out of the Gasketh estate, which, 
however, is lost, or at least has been withheld 
for several years. 

The master's direct income is at present about 
8 guineas per annum: 11. 6s. of which occurs as 
interest from ISO/, invested in the hands of 
Samuel Irton, Esq., M.P., and the remainder as 
the rental of an allotment of land which was 
awarded to the school at the time of the en- 
closure of Irton Moor, pursuant to an act of 
parhament passed in 1809. The 180/. is supposed 
to be the original grant with some trifling accu- 

Ctje Uaridt) of fWunca0tfr. 

HE parish of JNIuncastcr 
is bounded on the south, 
by that of Wabevthwaite; 
on the west, by the Irish 
Sea; on the north, by 
the parishes of Irton and 
Drigg; and on the east, 
by tlie chapeh-ies of Ulpha 
and Eskdalc. It consists 
r-<oy xai ty/r^- of two townships, Mun- 

caster and Birkby, which arc divided by theEsk. 
It extends about four miles, east and west ; and 
in breadth, from north to south, nearly three 
miles The Esk and Mite abound with trout, 
and some salmon are taken in those rivers : the 
fishery belongs to Lord IMuncaster and Major- 
General Wyndham, of Cockcrmouth castle. 1 he 
township of Muncaster lies between those rivers ; 
the township of Birkby is on the south side oi 
the Esk : the former contains the market-town 
and port of Kavenglass. 

The soil of this parish is loamy and rather 
fertile towards the sea; but farther eastward it 
is mossy, and gravelly near the mountanis A 
mountainous ridge extends along the middle of 
the parish. Neither coal, limestone, nor treestone 
are found here. 

There was formerly so great an abundance ot 


woodcocks in this parish, that, "by a special 
custom, the tenants were obhged to sell them to 
the lord for one penny each ; they were taken by 
springs, and traps ; but since the country was 
stripped of wood, they make a short stay here in 
their passage, and are, of late years, become very 

Mr. Sandford's MS. account of Cumberland 
gives the following particulars : — " Monkaster, 
the ancient seite of the Peningtons, but no K" of 
late, from whence come the aldermen Peningtons 
of London, and I think the quondam famous 
captain Penington : for I had an uncle of my 
own name, Edm : Sandford, prentis to his cousin 
Penington at London, which must needs be one 
of this house. Ther is a brave parke, and all 
belonging to this grand house of Montcastre, full 
of ffallow dear, down to Ravenglass, so called of 
a brood of ravens there, and I have seen a white 
raven .... and very tame for a marvaile, and 
.... like a hauke to kill partridge and other 

In ancient evidences Muncaster is called 
Meolcastre, Mealcaxfre, and JSIulcaster. Walls 
Castle, near Ravenglass, is the name given to the 
ruins of an old building which is said to have 
been the ancient place of residence of the Pen- 
ningtons, ancestors of the present lord Muncaster : 
but with much greater probability is supposed to 
be of early British origin. The walls are cement- 
ed with run lime. Roman and Saxon coins have 
been found around it, with stone axes and arrow- 
heads, " the undoubted arms of our Celtic an- 

" A small brass kettle, with two handles. 


standing on three legs, in form exactly resembling 
the iron ones still in use, was found, a few years 
since at the Roman station on Eskmeals, in this 
parish, and is now in the possession of E. L. Irton, 

" This vessel does not exhibit any thing the 
least like Roman workmanshij), but it has the 
appearance of great antiquity ; having undergone 
frequent repairs, apparently long after it was 
manufactured. Several small holes have been 
stopped, by bits of copper cut out and rivetted 
on : and one of the legs which has been broken 
is spliced in a very clumsy manner by a piece of 
metal soldered on. Another of the same form, 
has been found at the same place, and is also in 
the possession of Mr. Irton."* 

A very singular custom obtains here on the 
eve of the new year, when the children go from 
house to house, singing a ditty, and begging the 
bounty " they were wont to have in old king 
Edward's days." Nothing is known respecting 
the origin of this custom. Has not the name 
been altered from Henry to Edward? and may 
it not have an allusion to the time when tlie sixth 
Henry was entertained here in his flight from his 
enemies ? 

On Rirkby-Fell,near the foot of Devoke Water, 
are some remains of a fort or an encampment, 
called the Ruins of the c'lti/ of Bnriiscar, tradition- 
ally ascril)ed to tlie Danes, of which the Rev. 
Aaron Marshall communicated the following ac- 
count to that History of Cumberland wliich bears 
Mr. Hutchinson's name: — "This place is about 

• Lyaons. 


300 yards long, from east to west ; and 1 00 yards 
broad, from north to south ; now walled round, 
save at the east end, near three feet in height : 
there appears to have been a long street, with 
several cross ones ; the I'emains of house-steads, 
within the walls, are not very numerous, but on 
the outside of the walls they are innumerable, 
especially on the south side and west end : the 
circumference of the city and suburbs, is near 
three computed miles ; the figure an oblong 
square : there is an ancient road through the city, 
leading from Ulpha to Ravenglass. About the 
year 1730, a considerable quantity of silver coin 
W'as found in the ruins of one of the houses, con- 
cealed in a cavity, formed in a beam ; they were 
claimed by the lord of the manor." 

The Manor. 

Mr. John Denton says ; — " the next fee unto 
Milium, holden immediately of the barony of 
Egi'emont, is JNIulcaster, seated on the north side 
of the seigniory of jNlillum. The manor is bounded 
between the river Esk, and a little rill or beck, 
called Mite. It is in form, a long ridge or rising 
ground of hills from the foot of Esk, extended 
along, between those riveis unto the great and 
vast mountains belonging to Egremont, in Esk- 
dale, A\'astdale, and Mitredale. There are not 
many under fees belonging to this manor. 

" The place is now corruptly called ISIoncaster; 
liowbeit, the right name is Midcnstre, or Meol- 
castrc, of an old castle there towards the water- 
side, near unto Eskmeal, which was the ancient 
dwelling-house of the Penningtons, and is yet 



visible in the ruins, they call it the Old Walls ; 
for their present mansion-house is of later erection, 
made by some of them much better, and more 
conveniently set for slate, and for avoidance of 
the air, and sharp distempers of the sea. It was 
called Meol-caxtre, or Mnlecastre, from the meal 
on which it anciently stood ; and it is accordmgly 
written Mnlecastre, and Mealecastrc, in all their 
old evidences and records. Eskmeal (whereon 
the antient castle stood) is a plain, low, dry, 
ground, at the foot of Esk, between the moun- 
tains and the sea, which sort of grounds, lying 
under mountains and promontories into, or at 
the sea, are commonly called Mules or Meils, as 
it were the entrance or mouth, from the sea into 
a river, or such like place, as this Meil of Esk, 
Kirksanton Meil, Cartmeil, Mealholme, the Mule 
of Galloway, and Milium itself, and many other 

such like. . 

" The estate is now in the possession ol Joseph 
Pennington, Esq., whose ancestors have enjoyed 
the same ever since the conquest, sometimes col- 
laterallv, but for the most ]iart lineally descend- 
ing by their issue male to this time. They were, 
for the most part, knights successively, and men 
of great valour in the king's services, on the bor- 
ders and marches, and in other expeditions, 
where it pleased the king to command them. 
They took their name from Pennington in Lan- 
caslnre ; and tliuugh this manor (of xMulcaster) 
was alwavs theirs as aforesaid, yet some have 
greatly mistakLU the same to have been, first, the 
Mulcaster's patrimony, and to have come Irom 
them to the Penningtons, by marriage or pur- 
chase. All tlie Mulcasters are descended Irom 

2 E 


one David de Mulcaster, the son of Benedict 
Pennington, who hved in king John's time. He 
had two sons, John and Adam, called both de 
Mulcaster, and so their posterity take their sur- 
name of the place where their first ancestor, 
David, died." 

MuNCASTER Castle. 

Mmicaster castle* is a handsome and spacious 
modern structure, having been nearly rebuilt by 
John, first Baron Muncaster. The late Lord 
also added a quadrangular tower. The principal 
tower of the ancient fortified mansion has been 
preserved, but it has lost its original external 
appearance. The castle is delightfully situated 
on the side of an eminence, north of the Esk, 
rather more than one mile east of Ravenglass. 
It is surrounded by plantations, and commands 
an extensive view of the vale of the Esk, bound- 
ed by wild mountain scenery. Hardknott, 
AVrynose, and Scafell form the eastern boundary 
of Eskdale, which, viewed from the richly wood- 
ed hills about ISIuncaster Castle, at the opposite 
extremity, exhibits one of tlie finest views in 
Cumberland. The park was much improved by 
John, first Lord Muncaster, who planted many 
thousand ti"ees, and " introduced here the best 
breeds of cattle, from which he reared some of 1 00 
stones weight." Previous to this the park had 
a bare appearance on account of its want of trees. 
The memorable storm of January 7th, 1839, 
proved very destructive to the trees and plan- 

• Engraved in Fisher'B Northern Tourist. 


tations ; many of the former in the avenue 
approaching to the castle, were broken or torn 
up by the roots. The deer-park is situated a 
short distance from the castle : it contains about 
100 deer. 

The windows of the entrance-hall contain some 
very fine and valuable stained glass : the chimney- 
piece is of carved oak ; and that in the drawing- 
room is a very costly one of marble, exquisitely 
carved. King He/iri/'s bed-room contains a full 
length portrait of Henry VI. kneeling before an 
altar, with tlic luck of Miaicaster in his hand. 
The bed-stead is of carved oak ; it has the initials 
H. II. and bears a crown. The chairs, the doors, 
and the chimney-piece in this room, are of old 
carved oak. In the library are the arms of the 
families with whom the Penningtons have been 
allied by marriage. 

On the stair-case is a curious portrait of 
Thomas Skelton, " t/ie fool of Mii/iccisfcr, who is 
said to have lived here at the time of the civil 
wars, and of whose sayings there are many tradi- 
tional stories. He is dressed in a check gown, 
blue, yellow, and white ; under his arm is an 
earthen dish with ears ; in his right hand a white 
wand ; in his left, a white hat, bound with pink 
ribbands and with blue bows ; in front, a paper, 
on which is written Mrs. Dorothy Copeland, 
The following lines are inscribed on the picture : 

"Th« Skelton late Fool of Muncaster's last Will and Testament. 

" Be it known to ye, oh grave and wise men all, 
That I Thorn Fool am Sheriff of y« Hall, 
I mean the Hall of Haigh, where I command 
What neither I nor you do understand. 
My Under Sheriff is Ralph Waytc you know, 

2 E 2 


As wise as 1 am and as witty too. 
Of Egrcmond I have Burrow Serjeant beene, 
Of Wiggan Bailiff too, as may be seen 
By my wliite staff of office in my hand. 
Being carried streight as the badge of my command : 
A low high constable too was once my calling, 
Which 1 enjoyed under king Henry Rawling ; 
And when the Fates a new Sheriff send, 
I'm Under Sheriff prick'd World without end. 
He who doth question my authority 
May see the seal and patten here ly by. 
The dish with luggs which I do carry here 
Shews all my living is in good strong beer. 
If scurvy lads to me abuses do, 
I'll call 'em scurvy rogues and rascals too. 
Fair Dolly Copeland in my cap is placed ; 
Monstrous fair is she, and as good as all the rest. 
Honest Nich. Pennington, honest Ths. T\imer, both 
Will bury me when I this world go forth. 
But let me not be carry'd o'er the brigg, 
Lest falling I in Duggas River ligg; 
Nor let my body by old Chamock lye, 
But by Will. Caddy, for he'll lye quietly. 
And when I'm bury'd then my friends may drink, 
But each man pay for himself, that's best I think. 
This is my Will, and this I know will be 
Perform' d by them as they have promised me. 
" Sign'd, Sealed, Publish'd, and Declared Th« Skeltok, 

in the presence of X his Mark. 

Henry Rawling, 

Henry Tkoughton, 

Ths Turner." 

The Luck of Muncaster, yA\\c\i has been pre- 
served here for several centuries, is " an ancient 
glass vessel of the basin kind, about seven inches 
in diameter, ornamented with some white enam- 
elled mouldings." According to family tradition. 
Sir John Pennington, who hved in the reign of 


Henry VI. entertained that unhappy and thrice- 
deposed monarch, at his mansion, whither he 
had fled from his enemies ; and on his leaving 
Muncaster (A.D. IIGI) he presented his host 
with this vessel, " to the preservation of which a 
considerable degree of superstition has attach- 

The castle contains a large number of pictures 
and family portraits ; among which we noticed 
the following. 

In the Drawing Room. 

John, first Lord iluncaster, a full length, with other 
portraits in the same picture. 

In the Dining Room. 

Sir William Pennington, first baronet, oh. 1730. 

Sir Joseph Pennington, fourth baronet, father of the first 
Lord Muncaster, oh. 1773. 

Sir Joseph Pennington, second baronet, oh. 1744. 

John, first Lord Muncaster. 

The Hon. Margaret Lady Pennington, sister of Henry, 
Lord Viscount Lonsdale. 

On the Grand Stair-Case. 

A large painting representing " King Henry the Sixth 
giving to Sir John Pennington, on his leaving his castle, M61, 
Tlie Luck of Muncaster." 

Another, Caxton presenting the first book printed in 
England to Edward IV. 

In the Library. 

Sir John Pennington, Lord High Admiral. 
Sir William Pennington, first baronet, ob. 1730. 
Sir James Lowtiicr, Bart., son of Sir John Lowther, of 
Whitehaven, Hart., oh. 1755. 

John, first Lord Viscount Lonsdale, born 1655. 
Sir John Lowther, of Whitehaven, Bart, 
William Pennington, Esq., ob. 1652. 

• A similar relic is preserved at the scat of Sir George MusgraTc, 
Bart., well known as Me Luck of Edenhall, sec vol. i. Leatb Ward, pp. 


Sir Joseph Pennington, fourth Baronet. 
Richard, Viscount Lonsdale, ob. 1713. 
James, Earl of Balcarres. 
Thomas, Lord Coventry. 

In another Boom. 

Henry VL with tJie Luck of Muncaster in his hand ; date 

Dame Askew, wife of Sir William Pennington, knight, 
"A. Dm., 1571." 

Henry, Lord Viscount Lonsdale, oh. 1751. 

The Manor of Birkby. 

This manor is on the south side of the Esk : it 
has long been the property of the Stanley family, 
and is now held by Edward Stanley, Esq., M.P., 
of Ponsonby Hall. 

The rolls of the manor contain the following 
rigorous orders : — " Item, we do order and put in 
pain, that every the inhabitants, within the manor 
of Birkby, who shall hereafter take, or catch, kill, 
or come by any wild fowl whatsoever, shall not 
sell them to any foreigner or stranger, but shall 
bring them to the lord, or his bailiff, for the time 
being, at the prices and rates hereafter specified, 
viz. for every mallard, id. — Duck, 3d. — Every 
long mallard or widgeon, 2d.- — Woodcock or 
partridge. If/. — Feelfaws, throstles, ousles, each 
four for U/.— Every curlew, 3f/. — For two seals, 
\d. — Plover, \d. — Lapwings, one halfpenny; un- 
der pain and forfeiture of 3s. 4rf. for every fowl, 
otherwise sold, as formerly accustomed." 

The Church. 

The church of Muncaster was appropriated to 
the priory of Conishead, by Gamel de Penning- 


ton, in the reign of Henry II., which appropria- 
tion was confirmed by Edward II. On the 
dissolution of rehgious houses, it was granted 
back to that family, who have since retained 
possession of the advowson. The value of the 
benefice was " returned at 1 0/. ;" we suppose to 
the governors of Queen Ann's bounty ; from 
w'hich source it received in 1723, an augmenta- 
tion of 200/. by lot. Lord Aluncaster is the 
patron of the church ; the Rev. Joseph Stanley, 
rector of Wabcrth waite, is the present incumbent ; 
and the Rev. Joseph Taylor, 13. A., is his assistant- 
curate. The benefice was returned to the com- 
missioners for enquiring concerning Ecclesiastical 
Revenues, as of the average annual value of 97/. 
The living is not entered in the Valor Ecclesias- 
ticiis of Henry VHI., excepting an incidental 
notice in a list of the possessions of the priory 
of Conishead, where the church of JMuncaster 
occurs as follows : — 

Decim' ccclie. de Molcastrc viz. granos. x//«. ^ 

lini & feni iiij//. Ian' & agn' 1*-. vitul porccll'/ £ s. d, 
auc' et gallin' iijs'. i'l'iyl. oblac' tribz dicbzSviij viij viij 
prencipal' viijs. viijrf. in oblac' k alijs x/wjs. t 
ut in libro paschal' xxvjs. viijcZ. In tot' J 

The church of Muncaster is an ancient edifice, 
dedicated to St. Michael, standing near the centre 
of the parish. It is in tliepark, closely adjoining 
the castle; and being entirely surrounded by trees, 
it has a picturesque and peculiarly interesting 
appearance. Nor does this impression, produced 
at first sight, vanish on a closer inspection. The 
venerable windows and ivy-clad walls of the sacred 
edifice harmonize well with the solemn solitude of 


the place, and dispose the mind to reverential fear 
while treading the green sod where 

" The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep ;" — 

where the last solemn rites of the Christian church 
are performed alike over peer and peasant, the 
lordly possessor of the adjoining castle, or the 
humble and unknown inhabitant of a cottage ; 
and wliere they both repose in the silence of the 
grave. This church, "in the stillness of the 
country, is a visible centre of a community of the 
hving and the dead ; a point to which are habitu- 
ally referred the nearest concerns of both."* 
<i * # * « jj,gy ne'er 
That true succession fail of English Hearts, 
That can perceive, not less than heretofore 
Our Ancestors did feelingly perceive, 
"What in those holy Structures ye possess 
Of ornamental interest, and the charm 
Of pious sentiment difl'used afar, 
And human charity, and social love."f 

This church, although greatly superior in its 
external appearance to many others in the neigh- 
bourhood, presents in its plan the same simple 
details of a nave and chancel, with a bell-turret 
at its western end carrying two bells. The 
masonry is good and remains free from those 
coats of plaster and whitewash with which the 
indiscreet zeal of many churchwardens for "beau- 
tifying" our churches has spoiled so many of those 
edifices.^ A south porch has been converted 

• Wordsworth. f Ibid. 

X The Cimbridge Camden Society has recently published a small 
pamphlet entitled " A Few Words to Churchwardens on Churches and 
Church Ornaments," price 2d. ; which may be very advantageously con- 
sulted by autlioiitics superintending the repairs or alterations of churches. 



into the vestry ; its gable bears what appears to 
have been the pedestal of a cross. The south 
front and east end are covered with ivy. The 
stone used in the walls is unusually hard, and 
supposed to have been brought from a distance, 
as -we were informed there is no quarry in the 
neighbourhood whence it can have been procured. 
The principal entrance is from the west, be- 
neath a window of three lights with cinque-foiled 
heads under a circular arch. On the apex of the 
gable at the east end of the nave is a small tur- 
ret, which, if not originally intended as an orna- 
mental appendage to the roof, may have been 
built for the Sancte-bell or Mass-bell.* The 
]-a-apets of the nave and chancel are battlement- 
ed. The walls of the nave are hung with boards 
inscribed with texts of Scripture.f Over the 

• Variously termed Sancte-bell, Sacring-bell, Mass-bell, Saints'-bell, 
Sauncc, Sac-ringe ; it was rung " when the priest came to those words of 
the mass ' Sancte, Sanctc, Sancte, Deus Sabaotli,' that all persons who 
were absent might full on their knees iu reverence of the holy oflicc which 
was then going on in the church." 

"These small turrets frequently remain, and are generally very elegant 
and ornamental, but it is rare to find the bell still remaining in its origi- 
nal position ; this is however the case at Long Compton, Warwickshire, 
and in the same neighbourhood, at Halford, Whiekford, Sutton, and 
Brailes ; but in the two latter instances the bell-frame is a modern wooden 
erection, though in its original fosition : in all these cases the bell-rope 
hongs down just within the entrance of the chancel, and is fastened on 
one side of the chancel arch : the beU is still in use, though for a some- 
what different purpose, being used as the little hell to announce the arrival 
of the clergyman. The bell-frame very frequently remains in its original 
position on the apex of the eastern gable of the nave, which is usually 
somewhat higher than the chancel." 

t The introduction of such inscriptions is of great antiquity. Few, 
however, now remain that have not been placed in our churches since 
the practice was enjoined by the eighly-second canon. 

2 F 


western door is a gallery containing an organ. 
The nave is lighted by square-headed windows 
of two lights. The north door is walled up. 
The pulpit and reading-desk are placed under 
the chancel arch, on the south side, leaving the 
whole interior exposed to view. 

The walls of the chancel are nearly covered 
by monuments to the family of the Penningtons, 
ancestors of the present Lord Muncaster : many 
of which were placed here by John, first Lord 
Muncaster. The chancel is lighted by an east 
window, and three on the south side, of two round 
headed lights each, under square dripstones. 
The east window is the largest in the church : it 
is a perpendicular one, of three lights, with a 
battlemented transom, under a circular head, 
with a dripstone terminating in two shields, one 
of which is charged with the arms of the Penning- 
tons, the other, The north door is a 

lancet arch, under a very bold dripstone ; that 
on the south side is walled up. There is a small 
painting over the altar. Lord INIuncaster's pew 
is on the north side of the chancel. 

The following inscriptions (with four others 
illegible) to the memory of the ancestors of 
Lord INIuncaster, are in the church. 

A brass plate bears the following inscrip- 
tion — 

In mnnorj) of 

ffOill. Br IDciicton son of S'lr .flofin ie IDrnjiton 

Bon of sjjr ifiiUillm. f)E tortHrti tPIiiabtllj liausfitrr 

of Cfiog. fir /tlulton fir «?grrmont ; 

f)c toas firirrfi bn Ijis sonnr Sir aian fir prnston 

to?)o torfifirfi Hatljai hir fir prrston 



Another is thus inscribed — 

^Orai) fcr t&r souls of 

ggr jrailliam Vprninston luiigm antr 

jf ranrrs Ipagvaiic Ijto toifc ii83l)f= 

fctnnri) toomaii unto CTIjarlts tsnU of *uffoI6e 


On another — 

In memory of WILLIAM PENYNGTON Arm" 

.,hosc first wife «as Joan Wharton daughter of Thos. Lord Wharton 

His second wife was dame Bridget Askew 

Daughter of Sir John Huddlestone 

By whom he had 3 sons Joseph John and Will'" 

Will'" Pcnyngton and all his tried Horsemen were called out 

upon service of the Borders 1543. 

yuorum animabus propitietur Deus. 


A square freestone bears this inscription— 

l^ctc UctI) cntombca 

SYIS. 35©15'N ■^9in<ri!)"S'ffi?iffiift sont of Jolin I'Jtnimgtonc 

ana lasbcll Boghtct of jloh'n 13tougInon, ernnBdnlB of ijc 5ut Soljn 

toho vcsscbtti holiK Hinge l^irnic at {Woltastrc 

V>t tocMcU tiamc j'anc iO«Ic aicWotoc of ivx Robert &g.U 

t,t was a btaubc CTapitcn anD toill) tl)c TEiU Survic vclicbcB ilotbam CastcU 

XW. Bcrcs aftnt I)c sioutclic IjcaBctl I)i9 soulBltts at floOTcn ficltJ 

■DicD itnoxriiDi. 

I)is ((( sonts toctc :<'oI)n, ^lan, antJ ?BilUam. 
■5£rti) t'outi) upon tartl) as molB upon molt) 
TEnl) ijouil) upon TrattI) a? glnsuving in golB 
•as tljogi) ctil) to cttl) net tiun siiolB 
•anD Btt must ctti) to crti) sooner tijan Ijc molt). 

On another — 

To the memory of JOSEPH PENINGTON AnM» 

son of William and Katharine Pcnington. 

He married Margaret Fleetwood, 

leaTing one son William an Infant, 

died 1G58. 

2 F 2 


On a freestone slab — 

Here Ueth the remains of JOSEPH PENINGTON, Esq. 


He was a benefactor to this Parish leaving by will a sum 

of money to remane continue and be 

as a Stocke for releifc of the poore of the Parish 

to be bestowed and employed in maner and forme following, 

that is to say, my will and mind is that the same be bestowed 

in loaves of Bread to be weeklie dealt, 

twelve loaves every Sundaie throughout 

the whole yeare to the poore of the said parish. 

He bequeathed the like to the Parish of Drigg. 

To him King James granted the Church of Muncaster. died 1641. 

Vivit post funera virtus. 

On a freestone slab — 

To the memory of 


Eldest son of Joseph Pennington Esqr 

and Dame Isabell Savill 

He married Katharine Sherboume 

He left 4 sons 

Joseph Alan Richard and Willm 

■-ind 4 daughters Isabell Katharine Elizabeth and Bridget. 

died about 1652. 

On another — 

«9f iintirr Cljcrttirprrnc far tijr iSolnl al 

^nr 3o!)n ^r i^rniiiigtoii Saiiiir of gm- 'Jllnii tst \i3cmn\^tan tuljo 

l)aBiic to ittufc eiij.ibctij tiDlutrr of ;§'iir ^'iitl^alSlir lUOcIiffr 

jjc acftucntiuatcr a toomnii of noble fataBc yiS J-itr^ioljii 

rfSSclicli l)Dlir iliniigc ^ynrrnr tuljycljr tu.TiS tornvii nr ^g'iftl) at 

i^olraStic 1 KU iumgr?i!arrnr jjabr ^ir Siufjn a br.iiibr tuorhiiU 

•Sln^iSc (Cuppr, tuitlj I;iS HoJj brforr yat tuOnlliiS il)r 

famnlir s'ljollJ ftrrj) Ijit iiiifairrltni tljrisbofii girtrlnctljrif 

luljntljc Ciippc is liallrli i\)C luflir of ittalras'trr 

fit teas' a arctc Gaptaiii onli Ijctlrli tijr Ir(t luiiigc of tljr armir 

aaannr tl)c ^tattiCiS ; VuIjnUri Gilr of ilattljumbrrlantt btliflt 

tl)f maniir boBir. 



Another is thus inscribed — 

To tie memory of 


second son of WUliam PenjTigton Arm' 

One of the Gentlemen in ordinary of liis Majesty's 

privy chamber Governor and Captain of Sando\vn Castle 

in Kent and vice Admiral of his Majesty's fleet to maintain the 

sovereignty of the British seas 

Sir John Penington was a man of great courage openness 

and generosity and what heightened every one of hU 

virtues of uncommon piety he was appointed by the 

King 1642 Lord High Admiral 

The parliament strongly invited him to enter into their service 

but he never could be prevailed upon 

to serve against the king 

Ob Sepr 1616. 

A marble tablet is thus inscribed— 

Near this place 

lieth the body of 


younger son of 

S' William Pennington Baron 

of Muncaster 1731. 

On another — 

Here lies interred the body of the most worthy friend and patriot 


who died much lamented 1743 the 67 of hU age 

Member in Parliament 

For the County of Cumbcriand 

He married the Honourable Margaret Lowther 

Sister to the right Honourable 

The Lord Viscount Lonsdale. 

On another — 

Near this place 

are deposited the bodys of 


and DAME ISABELL his wife 

to whose memory this is inscribed 

by their dutiful eldest son I. P. )"31. 


On a freestone slab — 

Here lieth the body of ELIZABETH STAPLETON wife to John 
Stapletou of Wartor Esqr. Daughter to Sir Wilfrid Lawson of Isi-U 
wlio departed this life the fiftoeuth day of September, in the year of out 
Lord God 1677. 

On a marble slab — 

In memory of 


who succeeded his Father Syr Joseph Pennington Bart. 

as member for the County of Cumberland 1744 

He represented the said County in the 3 successive parliaments 

He was Lord Lieutenant and Gustos Rotulorum of 

the county of Westmoreland 

died 17G8. 

On another — 


Son of John Lord Muncaster and Penelope 

his wife 

Born 1st July 1780 

Departed this life 9 Feby. 1788. 
Yes thou art fled, and Saints a welcome sing 
Thine infant spirit soars on Angel wing 
Our dark aifection led to hope thy stay 
The voice of God has called his child away 
Like Samuel early in the temple found 
Sweet rose of Sharon plant of holy ground 
Aye, and as Samuel blest to thee tis given 
The God ho scrv'cd on earth to serve in Heaven. 

On a marble tablet — 

Near the Altar 


The dearly beloved daughter of John 

and his incomparable wife 

Penelope ' 

April 23, 1811 

A marble tablet bears this inscription to the 
memory of the lady of the first Lord Muncaster, 
who lost her life by an accidental fall : — 


Johannes Conjugi Incomparabili 

To the memory of 


One of the very best of Wives 

One of the very best of Mothers 

One of the very best of Women 

Who met her melancholy fate 

in the house of 

One of the very best of Friends 

at Copgrovc near Kuaresboro' Yorkshire 

Where she departed this life 

Upon the 15 of November 1806 

Aged 62 


Her fullest hope of a blessed Resurrection. 

On another — 

In memory of 


In whose Character were eminently distinguished 

The virtues of a Christian, 

Patriot, Husband, Father, Friend, 

He lived the life of the righteous 

and now that time hath led him to liis end 

Goodness and He fill up one monument 

He died Member for the County of Westmoreland 

on the 8th day of OcU 1813 aged 76. 

The following inscription, on a marble tablet, 
is the only one in the nave : — 

Memento mori 



Cropplchow in this Parish died 

July 31. 17G6 aged 73 yeara 

MARY POOLE his wife died June 9. 1760 aged 63 years. 

JOHN POOLE EsQR their son 

died on Sunday December 22—1805 

aged 67 years 

Sic transeunt 



On the south side of the church-yard, is an 
ancient cross,* four feet nine inches high, and 
ornamented with guilloches. Near it arc two 
venerable yew-trees which have survived the 
storms of several hundred winters. 

Pennington, Lord Muncaster. 

Arms : — Or, five fusils in fess azure. 

Crest : — On a wreath, a cat-a-mountaiu, passant guardant, 

Supporters : — On the dexter side, a lion guardant, proper, 
chaged on the breast with an oak branch, vert ; and on the 
sinister side, a horse reguardant, proper, bridled, or. 

Motto : — Amor eincit patricv. 

This ancient family took their name from Pennington, in 
Furness, Lancashire, where they resided until about the year 
1242, and where "there is still visible the foundation of a 
square building, called the Castle, near the centre of the 
vill. . . . Here the family of Pennington resided before the 
Conquest. "f 

" The first ancestor of this family, that occurs after the 
Conquest, is Gamel de Pennington, aperson ofgroat note and 
property.']: From him descended another Gamel, who had 
two sons, Meldred and Gamel. In the reign of King John, 
Jocelin de Pennington, of this family was abbot of Furness : 
he was eminent for learning, and obtained from the pope 
some special privileges for his abbey. "The next that 
occurs is Benedict^ de Pennington : he was father of another 
Gamel, and gave the church of Molcastre (jMuncasterj and 
the chapel of Aldeburg to the hospital of Conishead. The 
same Benedict|| and Meldred, his brother, with consent of 
their heirs, gave to the abbey of Furness, Skeldon Moor. 
Alan, son of Alan do Pennington, gave to the hospital of 
Conishead, after it was erected into a priory, an acre of land 
in Overton (Orton) in Westmorland ; and after that, Gamel 
de Pennington gave to the priory of Conishead, the church 
of Pennington, with appurtenances ; and confirmed the grant 

* Engraved in Lysons's Magna Britannia. 

t West's Furness. J Ibid. { Monast. Ang. 

II Dodsworth's MS. 


of the church of Muncnstcr from Benedict de Pennington; 
and also gave the church of AVhilbcck and Skeroveiton, 
(Orton) and Pulton to the said priory. These benefactors 
flourished between the beginning of the reign of king Henry 
III. and the first of king Edward 111. The hospital of Con- 
ishead was founded by the thiid AViiliam de Lancaster, 
eighth baron of Kendal, in the reign of king Henry HI. 
and the foundation was coiifirnicd by king Edward II. which 
sufficiently proves the time of their occurrence. 

" Alan* de Pennington, knt. is witness to the grant of five 
hides of land from Elizabeth, late wife of Sir Kichard le 
Fleming, to the abbey of Furncss, A. D. 1'254. 

"Alanf de Pennington, knt. had a dispute with the monks 
of Furness, about land which laid to the high road that leads 
from Pennington to Kirkby Ircloth, in the reign of king 
Henry 111. A. T). 1278, Sir Alan^: de Peiniingtnn is witness 
to a grant from Gilbert de Bardesoy to the Monks. 33 Hen. 
III. Agnes, daughter of Sir John de . . • ., late wife of T. de 
Pennington, came to an agreement with the abbot of Furness 
concerning some land in dispute. The same Agnes, § A. D. 
1254, released to the abbot of Furness the marriage of her 
children, by T. Pennington, son and heir of Alan de Pen- 
nington. Hence it appears, that T. de Pennington died before 
his father; and the Alan, who occurs in the reign of Edw. I. 
was the son of Thomas, and succeeded his grandfather Sir 

" Williamll de Pennington, A.D. 131 8, made an agreement 
with the abbut of Furncss for the suit and service of hia 
manor of Pennington." 

This pedigree, as given by West, differs from that in 
Nicolson and Hurn : they give it as follows: — 

Gamcl de Pennington, temp. Henry II. gave the churches 
of Mulcastcr, Penington, AVhiibcck, and of Orton in West- 
morland, to the priory of Conishoad; which grant was con- 
firmed by Edward 11. in the 12tliyearof his reign. Ilisson, 
Benedict, had several children. Alan, son of Alan, son of 
Benedict, granted lands at Orton aforesaid to his uncle 
Simon, son of the said Benedict: but according to'their 
family pedigree, (after the death of an elder son Robert,) 
he was succeeded by his son David, father of John, father of 
Alan, to whom Richard Lucy, as is hereafter mentioned, in 
the reign of King John, granted the fee ol Ravcnglass. 

• Dodswortli's MS. t Ibi'l- ♦ H^id- § ^^'^^- 11 ^'''<1- 
2 G 


Thomas, son of Alan ; Alan, son of Thomas; John, son of 
Alan, of whom mention is made in the 21st Edward I. 
William, son of John. Thus far Nicolson and Burn.* 

Of this family was Sir John Pennington, knight, soa of 
Sir Alan, who was steadily attached to the unfortunate 
monarch, Henry VI., whom he had the honor of entertaining 
at Muncaster castle, in his flight from the Yorkists. f In 
acknowledgement of the protection ho had received, the 
king presented his host with a curious glass cup (which is 
still preserved at the castle, see page 216) with a prayer that 
the family should ever prosper, and never want a male heir, 
so long as they preserved it unbroken : hence the cup was 
cdWeA '■'■ the luck of Muncaster." Sir John is said to have 
been a distinguished military character, and to have com- 
manded the left wing of the English army in an expedition 
against Scotland.]: 

• The pedigrees of this family do not agree in the earlier part ; noi do 
the monumental inscriptions in the church, many of which were erected 
by the first Lord Muncaster, correspond with any account of ihe family 
which I have met with. I have therefore preferred giving an incomplete 
rather than an inaccurate pedigree. The monumental inscriptions to this 
family are given in a preceding part of this volume, pages 222 to 227. 

t This event is supposed to have taken place in 1461 : and that date is 
assigned to it in a picture at Mimcaster castle, as also on the monument 
erected to the memory of Sir John Pennington, in the chancel of the 
church of Muncaster. That monument, however, has been recently 
erected. It is a well-kno'mi fact that after the battle of Towton, which 
was fought on Palm Sunday, 29th March, 1401, terminating in favor of 
the Yorkists, Henry VI. took flight into Scotland. We have no evidence 
that he was then received here, neither on his journey northward, nor on 
his return. It appears to be equally probable that Henry was hereafter 
the battle of Hexham, 14th May, 1 1G3, when his troops sustained another 
defeat, and " Henry owed his safety to Ihe swiftness of his steed." 
Hume says, " some of his friends took him under their protection, and 
conveyed him into Lancashire ; where he remained concealed during a 
twelvemonth." This unfortunate monarch was also concealed for some 
time at Bolton-hall, in Yorkshire, see Gent. Mag. May and June, 1841. 

J His grandson, Sir John Pennington, was in the battle of Flodden- 
field, (see p. 22.3 ;) another descendant of Ihe same name, was admiral 
to King Charles I., and much trusted by that monarch in naval affairs. 


John Pennington, Esq. his son, married Mary, daugh- 
ter of Sir John iludleston ; on which marruige in the 2^'^ 
Edward IV. the estate was solllcd upon the issue male. And 
he having only a daughter Isabel, married to Thomas Dykes, 
of WartlKilc, Esquire, the estate came to the second brother, 

William Pennington, Esq., who was succeeded by 

Joseph Pennington, Esq., son and heir. 

Sir William Pennington, knight, son and heir, mar- 
ried Isabel, daughter of John Fanington, of Warden, m 
Lancashire, Esq., «ilh whom he had tiie manor of Earnng- 
ton On an inquisition of knighls' fees in Cumberland, in 
the'Soth Ilcnrv VIII. , it is found that this Sir William held 
the manor of Muncaster of the king as of his castle of Egre- 
mont, by the service of the sixth part of one knight's fee, 
rendering to the king yearly for scawiike 12fi?., and the pu- 
ture of two sericauts; and that he held ihc hamlet of Eaven- 
glass in like manner, bv homage and fealty, and the service 
of the I7ih part of one knighfs fee, and puture of Serjeants 
as above. 

Jo-seph Pennington, Esq., married Margaret, daughter 
of John Fleetwood, ot Peuwoitbam, co. Lancaster, Esq. He 
was succeeded by hi.s sou and heir,* 

Sir William Pennington, first Baronet, so created 21st 
June 28ili Charles II., 1676. lie married Isabel, eldest 
daughter of John Stapleton, of Waiter, co. York, Esq., (son 
of Sir Philip Slaploton, knight,) with whom the manor of 
Warter came to the Peuninglcns. He had issue, 
Sir JosijJi, ini] baronet. 
Philip, died 1731, wiihout issue. 

Elizabeth, mai tied, firstly, John Archer, of Oxcnholme, 
CO. Weslmorliind, Esq.; and secondly, Thomas 
Strickland, ot Sizergh, m the same county, Esq. 
Margaret. ■, j , 

Sir William died 1st July, 1730, when he was succeeded by 
his son. 

Sir Joseph Pennington, second Baronet, who married the 

• Among the gculry of the county of Cumberland who were chosen 
by Charles II. to be invested with the projected Order of the Bojal Oak 
appears the uamc of VVilUam Pennington, lisq. 

2 G 2 


Hon. Margaret Lowther, daughter of John, Viscount Lons- 
dale. By her (who died 1738) he had issue, 
John, 3rd baronet. 
Joseph, 4th baronet. 

Katherine, married, 1731, Eobert Lowther, Esq., 

governor of Barbadoes, father of James, first Earl of 


Sir Joseph represented the county of Cumberland in two 

parliaments. He died in 1743, and was succeeded by his 

eldest son. 

Sir John Pennington, third Baronet, eldest son and heir, 
was lord-lieutenant and custos-rotuloruni of the county of 
Westmorland ; and knight of the shire for the county of 
Cumberland, in three parliaments. Sir John died unmarried, 
in 1768, when he was succeeded in the title and estates by 
his brother, 

Sir Joseph Pennington, fourth Baronet, married to Sarah, 
daughter and sole heiress of John Moore, Esq., by whom he 
had three sons and three daughters : — 

John, his successor. 


LoKlher, 2nd baron. 


Katherine, married Humphrey Brookes Osbaldiston,'of 
Hunmanby, co. York, Esq. 
He died in 1773, and was succeeded by his eldest son. 

Sir John Pennington, fifih Baronet, who was created a 
peer of Ireland, 21st October, 1783, as Baron Muncaster, 
with remainder to his brother, Lowther Pennington, Esq. 
His lordship was the author of " Historical Sketches of the 
Slave Trade, and its Efiects in Africa," 8vo. 1792 ; he nearly 
rebuilt Muncaster castle, greatly improved the park, and put 
up a series of memorials of his family in the chancel of the 
church of Muncaster, (see pages 222 to 227.) He repre- 
sented the county of Westmorland in several parliaments. 
His lordship married Penelope daughter and coheiress of 
James Compton, Esq., a lineal descendant of the Earls of 
Northampton, (who died in 1806*) by whom he had issue, 

* This lady died in consequence of a fall received while her noble 
hosband was contesting the county of WesUnotland. 



Gamel, ? died young. 

Ann Jane Penelope, S °„,, , „ t 

Maria-Frances-Margaret, married, 1811, theHon. James 
Lindsay, afterwards Earl of Balcarres. 
His lordship died at Muncaster castle, 8lh October, 1813, 
and was buried in the church of Muncaster. Leaving no 
male issue, the peerage devolved, according to the limita- 
tioD, upon his brother, 

Lowther, second Baron Muncaster and sixth Baronet, a 
general officer in the army, and colonel of one of the royal 
veteran battalions. Ilis lordship, while a commoner, married 
in 1802, Esther, second daughter of Thomas Barry, Esq., 
of Clapham, co. Surrey, and widow of James Morrison, Esq., 
by whom (who died in 1827) he left at his decease an only 
son, his successor. His lordship died in London, 29th July, 
1818, after a lingering illness, aged 73. 

Lowther-Augustus-John, third Baron Muncaster and 

seventh Baronet, succeeded, while a minor, to the title and 

estates on the death of his noble father, the late lord. His 

lordship was born 14th December, 1802; and married m 

1828, Frances-Catherine, youngest daughter of Sir John 

Ramsdon, of Byrom, co. York, Bart., by^honihe had issue, 

Fanny Caroline, baptized August 26, 1829. 

Gamcl Augustus, born December 3rd, 1831. 

Joslyn Francis dc Pennington, born December <43th, 

Alan Joseph, born April 5lh, 1837. 
Louisa Theodosia, baptized July 17th, 1838. 
His lordship died in 1838, aged 35, and was succeeded by 
his eldest son, 

Gamel Augustus, fourth Baron Muncaster, and eighth 
Baronet, was born 3rd December, 1831, and is consequently 
a minor. 


The Messrs. Lysons say this was a younger 
branch of the Penningtons of this parish. Soma 
of the family were sheriffs of Cumberland ni the 
reigns of Edward I. and 111. and members for 


Carlisle in the reign of Richard II. and in that 
of Queen Elizabeth ; one of this family married 
a coheiress of Tilliol. Richard Mulcaster, a 
native of Carlisle, was the first master of Merchant- 
Taylors' school, and afterwards upper master of 
St. Paul's. Arms : — Barry of six, arg. and gules, 
over all a bend, azure. 


Ravenglassis a small sea-port and market-town, 
about sixteen miles S.S.E. from AVhitehaven, situ- 
ated on a small creek, into which flow the rivers 
Mite, Esk, and Irt. 

Camden says, it was supposed to have been 
called anciently Acen glass, or the blue river, and 
that there were current in his time "many stories 
about King Eveling, who had a palace here." 
Nicolson and Burn derive the name from the 
Irish renigh fern, and glass green, meaning " a 
gi-een of ferns." 

Ravenglass appears from INIr. Sandford's MS. 
to have been of old a place of some importance 
as a fishing-town : that worthy gentleman appears 
in this case to have indulged in a little exaggera- 
tion. — He says, here were "some salmons and 
all sorts of fish in plenty : but the greatest plenty 
of herrings fresh [it] is a daintye fish of a foot 
long ; and so plenteous a fishing thereof and in 
the sea betwixt and the ile of man, as they lye in 
sholes together so thike in the sea at spawning, 
about August, as a sli'ip cannot pass thoroxo : and 
the fishers go from all the coast to catch them." 
Mr. John Denton's account of Ravenglass is as 
follows : — " Ravenglass, now a village, anciently 


a green of ferns (corruptly called of two Irish 
words, Rainigh Fernsald, Glass Green) was 
anciently another fee of Egremont. It stands at 
the foot of Esk, where, by King John's grant, 
made to Richard Lucy, then Lord of Egremont 
(dated the tenth year of that king's reign) was 
kept a market and a fair yearly, in right of the 
haven there, by the lords of Egremont, as lords 
paramount : and tlie same Ricliard Lucy, in the 
same year, confirmed by fine, levied to the mesne 
lords, and tcrr-tenants, all the land and fee of 
Ravenglass, namely to Alan Pennington, William 
Fitz Hugli, and Roger Fitz Edward, to hold the 
same of tlie said William and his heirs, and gave 
them, moreover, estovers, to make their fish- 
garths in the river Esk, which is continued to 
this day ; tlie Penningtons have long enjoyed 
the manor, and other lands there near ad- 

King John granted to Richard de I/Ucy, as lord 
paramount, a yearly fair* to be held here on St. 
James' day and a weekly market every Saturday. 
But the said Richard Lucy the same year, by fine 
levied to Alan Pennington, confirmed to him as 
mesne lord and his tenants all the land and fee 
of Ravenglass, to hold to him and his heirs, 
with estovers to make fish garths in the river 

Until of late years the fair was attended by 
some singular circumstances, which had been 
observed in all probability from the period when 

• Bot. Cart. 10 John, n. 27. — Lysons. Nicolson and Bum say Iho 
fair was granted for St. George's day (April 23,) and the market for 

t Nicolson and Burn. 


the fair was granted, Nicolson and Burn say — 
" at present, the earl of Egremont holds the fair 
of Ravenglass on the eve, day, and morrow of St. 
James. On the first of these days in the morn- 
ing, the lord's officer at proclaiming the fair, is 
attended by the Serjeants of the bow of Egre- 
mont, with the insignia, belonging thereto ; and 
all the tenants of the forest of Copeland owe a 
customary service to meet the lord's officer at 
Ravenglass to proclaim the fair, and abide with 
him during the continuance thereof; and for 
sustentation of their horses, they have two swaiths 
of grass in the common field of Ravenglass in a 
place set out for that purpose. On the third 
day at noon, the earl's officer discharges the fair 
by proclamation ; immediately whereupon the 
Penningtons and their tenants take possession of 
the town, and have races and other divertisements 
during the remainder of the day,"* 

Mr. Sandford speaks of it as " a grand fair of 
three dayes long at St. James' time, for all sortes 
of cattle especially, and all other commodities 
from Ireland, Isle of Man, and Scotland." Oysters 
are found along the coast, but they are not very 
numerous. Other shell-fish, such as mussels and 
cockles, are more plentiful, and many salmon and 
morts are caught in the season by a fisherman 
from Scotland, bearing the significant name of 
Walter Scot, who rents what is called the Har- 
bour-mouth fishery, from Major-General Wynd- 

The shipping trade of this port is very incon- 
siderable : it consists chiefly in exporting coast- 

• Nicolson and Bum. 


wise, spars, wooden hoops, corn, flour, oysters, 
oatmeal, and bacon. It is expected that iron 
ore from Eskdale and Corney 'will shortly be 
shipped here : the company have advej'tised for 
carting. I'he imports consist chiefly of coals for 
the ncighboinhood, a few cargoes of foreign gi'ain, 
and merchant goods. There is only one vessel 
belonging to the port — a small sloop, the Duchess 
of Leinster. On the bar at the mouth of the 
harbour or creek there are 22 feet of water in 
spring tides, and 12 feet at neap tides. 

John, Lord Muncaster, in 1796 procured a 
charter for two weekly markets at Ravenglass, on 
^^'cdncsday and Friday, and three fairs for one 
day each, 11th March, 14th April, and 12th 
October. These are at present unattended. 
Two ancient fairs for horses and horned cattle 
are still held ; one on the Sth of June, belonging 
to Edward Stanley, Esq. M.P. of Ponsonby-hall ; 
the other on the 5th of August (the festival of 
St. James, O.S.) to INIajor-Gcneral Wyndham. 
There is also a cattle-fair on the 6th of May. 
The market is held on Friday. The ancient 
custom of ridi/iff t lie fair is occasionally observed 
by the tenants of Major-General Wyndham, on 
the Sth of June. Some of the steps of the mar- 
ket-cross are yet remaining in the street. 


The School. — This school was founded by 
Richard Brookbank, who endowed it with the 
interest of 160/. It subsequently received an 
augmentation from Sir William Pennington. 
Both of these benefactions, however, have been 

2 H 


lost ; and the school has now no endowment. 
The present master is the Rev. Joseph Taylor, 
B.A., the assistant curate of the parish. 

There is a poor stock of 23/. belonging to this 
parish. Many benefactions were lost on the 
death of John, Lord Muncaster. Twelve penny 
loaves were distributed in the church, every Sun- 
day, to the poor of the parish, in pursuance of 
the will of one of his ancestors, Joseph Penning- 
ton, Esq. who died in 1641. This charity is now 
given in one loaf to one poor person, each Sun- 
day throughout the year : but the like bequest 
to the parish of Drigg has been discontinued. 

€t)f ??ari0l& of fJfflorfeinflton. 

HE parish of Workington 
contains the five townships 
of Workington, Winscales, 
Stainl)urn, Great Chfton, 
and Little Chfton. The 
two latter are not in the 
Ward of Allerdale above 
Dcrwent, but are included 
in the newly-formed Der- 
went Ward. This parish 
contains about nine square miles : it is bounded 
on the west by the Irish Sea; on the south, by 
Harrington ; on the east, by the Maron, which 
divides it from the parishes of Brigham and 
Dean, in Derwcnt Ward ; and on the north, by 
the Derwent, which divides it from the parish of 
Cammerton in the same Ward. The townships 
of Workington and Winscales have been enclo- 
sed in pursuance of an act of parliament passed in 
1809. Allotments of land were made to the 
rector, to John Christian Curwen, Esq., as lord 
of the manor, and to the latter and 'J'homas 
I larrison, Esq. for a certain portion of tithes in 
Winscales. In 1812, an act passed to enclose 
the township of Stainburn, and in 1814 another 
for enclosing tliose of (ireat and Little Clifton. 
Under both these acts allotments of land were 
given in lieu of tithes. 

2 11 2 


The Messrs Lysons state that of the inhabitants 
buried here, before the year 1816, about one in 
thirteen were aged from SO to S9 inclusive ; and 
about one in one hundred and sixteen were aged 
from 90 to 99 inclusive. This shews a remark- 
able contrast to the returns from other parishes 
in the county, as enumerated by them, {Magna 
Britannia, iv. p. xlvi.) ; although it presents a 
very favourable account of the salubrity of this 
parish when compared with the general average 
proportion of those who attain the age of 80, which 
is said to be only one in thirty-two ; and in Lon- 
don, one in forty. 

There is a considerable salmon-fishery in the 
Derwent, belonging the Earl of Lonsdale, which 
extends from Workington harbour to Bassen- 
thwaite lake. Henry Curwen, Esq., of Working- 
ton-hall, has the draught at the mouth of the 
harbour and to the Merchant's Quay. The cause 
between the Earl of Lonsdale and Mr. Curwen, 
respecting the right of fishing in the Derwent, 
was tried at Cadisle assizes, in the year 1807, 
and was finally determined in favour of his lord- 
ship. A correspondent in Hutchinson's Cum- 
berland gives the following curious account of 
salmon-hunling. " The salmon hunter is armed 
with a spear of three points, barbed, having a 
shaft fifteen feet in length. When the fish is 
left by the tide, intercepted by shallows, or sand 
banks, near the mouth of the river, or at any 
inlets on the shore, where the water remains 
from one foot to four feet in depth, or when their 
passage is obstructed by nets, they shew where 
they lie by the agitation of the pool : when my 
horse is going at a swift trot, or a moderate gal- 


lop, belly deep in the water, I make ready my 
spear with both hands, and at the same tune 
hold the bridle : when 1 overtake the salmon, I 
let go one hand, and with the other strike with 
the spear, and seldom miss my stroke, but kill 
mv fish ; then with a turn of my hand I raise 
the salmon to the surface of the water, turn my 
horse's head the readiest way to shore, and so 
run the salmon on to dry land without dismount- 
ing. In the fishery I am establishing at Work- 
ington, in the proper season, by different modes, 
I can kill, one day with another, one hundred 
salmon a day ; methods of my own invention I 
intend to put in practice, which never were 
practised before in any part of the world ; I have 
tried them, and they answer, and when known, 
they may become a public good. I can take the 
fish up at sea in ten fathom water. A man, in the 
ordinary way of salmon hunting, well mounted, 
may kill forty or fifty in a day ; ten salmon is not 
a despicable day's work for a man and a horse. 
My father was the first man, I ever heard of, who 
could kill salmon on horseback." 

Camden mentions Workington as being "famous 
for the salmon fishery"; and Mr. Thomas Denton, 
writing about 1688, says, "the famous salmon 
fishing here (mentioned in Camden) is worth 
300/. per annum ; three hundred of those great 
fishes having been frequently taken at a draught." 
The fish have not been so plentiful of late years; 
the fishery is now worth only about one-third of 
what it was formerly. . 

Good durable stone for building is quarried 
about a mile from the town, and limestone is 
plentiful at a distance of two miles. But tlie 


principal mineral is coal, on which the prosperity 
of the town has hitherto depended. The collieries 
on the estate of the Earl of Lonsdale have not 
been worked for half a century. About the year 
1792 there were nine pits in this parish belonging 
to John Christian Curwen, Esq. M.P., and five to 
Mr. Walker, as agent to the trustees of Anthony 
Bacon, Esq. INI. P. of London. The daily ship- 
ments averaged about 150 waggons each day; 
two-thirds of which were shipped by Mr. Curwen; 
each waggon containing three English tons, 
charged to the owner of the vessel ten shillings 
and sixpence. The pits were described as "from 
forty to ninety fathoms in depth, having generally 
two or three workable bands ; the first, three 
feet ; the second, four feet ; and the third from 
ten to eleven feet : the roofs of the two former 
vary ; that of the main coal is of the finest 
white free-stone, generally twenty yards in thick- 
ness." Mr. Curwen had then recently erected 
six steam-engines, which were employed in wind- 
ing up coals and pumping water ; and the number 
of persons employed was between 500 and GOO. 

For the five years ending with 1S13, the aver- 
age of the annual exports from the Workington 
collieries belonging to Mr. Curwen was about 
28,000 waggon-loads. About the year 1S16, 
Mr. Curwen had only four pits in working, in 
which about 400 persons were employed. Ten 
years later, 200,000 tons were annually shipped 
from the collieries of Mr. Curwen, Mr. John Flet- 
cher, and Mr. Thomas Westray. 

In the year 1S37, there were 15,734 waggon- 
loads (each containing 48 cwt.) shipped at 
Workington from the coal mines of Henry Cur- 


wen, Esq. In that year the workhigs in three 
of the mines were suspended in consequence of 
an irruption of the sea. Since that period new 
borings have been made. 

In the fields between ^^"orkington and Harring- 
ton, about a mile from tlie former town, is an 
. ancient roofless building, generally known as the 
Old Chapel, and called by mariners Hoxv Michael. 
Pennant mentions having noticed " on an emi- 
nence near the sea, a small tower, called Holme- 
Chapel, said to have been built as a watch-tower, 
to mark the motions of the Scots in their naval 
inroads :" but it is much more probable that it 
has been, as its name imports, the chantry chapel 
which was granted (with some land) by Queen 
Elizabeth, in the 17th year of her reign, to Per- 
cival Gunson and John Soukey, and described as 
" three acres of land called Chapel Flatt, in 
Workington, and also one chapel, togetiier with 
one acre of land there." There is a tradition that 
the sea formerly flowed round this building. The 
masonry is rude : the ground floor is arched ; and 
a narrow winding staircase, sufficient only for the 
passage of one person, leads to the upper floor. 
The windows are narrow loopholes, excepting 
two on the land side, which are of larger dimen- 
sion, but destitute of all ornament. 'J'he building 
is useful to mariners as a land-mark ; from its 
conspicuous situation on a high land near the 
shore it forms a prominent object along the coast. 

Workington Hall. 

Workington Hall, the seat of Henry Curwen, 
Esq., is situated on the summit of a wooded 


acclivity overlooking the Derwent and the Irish 
Sea. The old mansion, of which there are scarcely 
any traces, was castellated pursuant to the royal 
licence, granted by Richard II. in 1379, to Sir 
Gilbert de Culwen.* Camden speaks of Work- 
ington as "the seat of the antient knightly family 
of the Curwens, who derive their descent from 
Gospatric earl of Northumberland, and took their 
surname by agi'eement from Culwen, a family of 
Galloway, whose heir they married. They have 
a noble mansion like a castle, and from them, if 
I may be allowed to mention it without the im- 
putation of vanity, I derive my descent by the 
mother's side." Mr. Gough adds: — "the mansion- 
house is a large quadrangular building, which 
still bears marks of great antiquity, notwithstand- 
ing various alterations and improvements, which 
have been made during the last thirty years. 
The walls are so remarkably thick, that they 
•were able, a few years since, in making some im- 
provements, to excavate a passage sufficiently 
wide lengthways through one of the walls, leaving 
a proper thickness on each side of the passage, 
to answer every purpose of strength." 

Mary, Queen of Scots, landed at a short distance 
from the hall, on Sunday, May 16, 1568, and 
was hospitably entertained here by Sir Henry 
Curwen, until she took her departure for Cocker- 
mouth on her route to Carlisle. On the following 
day she wrote a letter (in French) to Queen 
Elizabeth, of which a translation is given in the 
subjoined note.f Mr. Gough, in his additions to 

• Pat. Rot. 3 Richard II.— Lysons. 


I BELiEVB you are not ignorant, how long certain of my subjeets, who 



Camden, says, " the chamber in which she slept 

from the least of my kingdom I have raised to be the first, have taken 
upon themselves to involve mc in trouble, and to do what it appears they 
had iu view from the first. You know how they purposed to seize me 
and the late King my husband, from which attempt it pleased God to 
protect us, aud to permit us to expel them from the country, where, at 
your request, I again, afterwards, received them ; though, on then: return, 
they committed another crime, that of holding me a prisoner, and kUhng 
in my presence a ser^-ant of mine, I being at the time iu a state of preg- 
nancy It again pleased God, that I shouldsave myself from Ihcit hands ; 
and. as above said, I not only pardoned them, but even received them 
into favour. They, however, not yet satUfied with so many acts of kind- 
ness, have, on the contrary, in spite of their promises, devised, favoured, 
subscribed to, and aided in a crime, for the purpose of charging it falsely 
upon me, as I hope fully to make you understand. They have under 
thU pretence arrayed themselves against me, accusing me of bemg ill 
advised, and pretending a desire to see me deUvcred from bad counsels, m 
order to point out to me the things that required reformation. I, fcelmg 
myself innoeent.anddesiroustoavoid.hcsheddingofblood,plaeed myself 

in their hands, wishing to reform what was ambs. They immediately 
seized and imprisoned me. When I upbraided them with a breach of 
their promise, and requested to be informed why I was thus treated, they 
all absented themselves. I demanded to be heard in Council, which was 
refused mc. In short, they have kept me without any servants, except 
two women, a cook, and a surgeon; and they have threatened to kUl me, 
if I did not sign an abdication to my Crown, which the fear of immediate 
death caused me to do. as I have since proved before the whole nobUity. 
of which I hoi.c to afford you evidence. 

After this they again laid hold of me; and they have accused, and 
proceeded orainot me in Parliament, without saying why. and without 
hearing me; forbidding at the same time, every advocate to plead for me; 
and compelling .he rest to acquiesce in theirunjust usurpation of my rights, 
tJiey have robbed me of every thing I had iu the world; never permiUmg 
me either to write, or to speak, in order that I might not contradict their 

false inventions. ■ 

At last it pleased God to deliver me, when they thought oputtmg me 
to death that they might make more sure of their power, though I re- 
peatedly oflered to answer any thing they had to say to me. and to join 
Lm in the punishment of those who should be gtiilty of any crmio. In 

Ji I 


at Workington-liall is still called the Queen's 
chamber." A detail of the movements of Queen 

short, it pleased God to deliver me, to the great content of all my suhjects. 
except Murray, Morton, the Humes, Glencarne, Mar, and Semple, to 
■whom, after that my whole nobility was come from all parts, I sent to say, 
that notwithstanding their ingratitude and unjust cruelty employed against 
me, I was willing to invite them to return to their duty, and to offer them 
security of their lives and estates, and to hold a Parliament for the pur- 
pose of reforming every thing. I sent twice. They seized and imprisoned 
my messengers, ar-d made proclamation declaring all those persons trai- 
tors who assisted me, and were guilty of this odious crime. I demanded 
that they should name one of them, and that I would give him up, and 
begged them at the same time to deliver to me such as should be named 
to them. They seized upon my officer, and my proclamation. I sent to 
demand a safe conduct for my Lord Boyd, in order to treat of an accom- 
modation, not wishing, as far as I might be concerned, for any effusion 
of blood. They refused, saying that those who had not been true to their 
Regent, and to my son, whom they denominate King, should leave me, 
and put themselves at their disposal : a thing at which the whole nobility 
was greatly offended. 

Seeing therefore that they were only a few individuals, and that my 
nobility were more attached to me than ever, I was in hope that, in the 
course of time, and under your favour, they would gi-adually be reduced; 
and seeing that they said they would cither retake me, or all die, I pro- 
ceeded toward Dumbarton, passing at the distance of two miles from tliem; 
my nobility accompanying me, marching in order of battle between them 
and me : which they seeing, sallied forth, and came to cut off my way 
and take me. My people seeing this, and moved by that extreme malice 
of my enemies, with a view to check their progress, encountered them 
without order, so that, though they were twice theii' number, their sud- 
den advance caused to them so great a disadvantage that God has per- 
mitted them to be discomfited, and several killed and taken ; some of 
them were cruelly killed, when taken on their retreat. The pursuit was 
immediately interrupted, in order to take me on the way to Dumbarton ; 
they stationed people in every direction, either to kill, or take me. But 
God, through his infinite goodness, has preserved me ; and I escaped to 
my Lord Herris's, who as well as other gentlemen have come with mc 
into your country, being assured that hearing of the cruelty of my enemies, 
and how they have treated me, you will, conformably to your kind dis- 


Mary in Cumberland is subjoined in the follow- 
ing note.* 

position and the confidence 1 have in you, not only receive me for the 
safety of my life, but also aid and assist me in my just quarrel ; and I 
shaU soUcit other Princes to do the same. I entreat you to send to fetch 
me as soon as you possibly can, for I am in a pitiable condition not only 
for a Queen, but for a gentlewoman ; for I have nothing in the world 
but what I had on my person when I made my escape, travelling sixty 
miles across the country the first day, and not havingsince ever ventured 
to proceed except in the night, as I hope to declare before you if it pleases 
you to have pity, as I trust you will, upon my extreme misfortune ; of 
which I wUl forbear complaining, in order not to importune you, and to 
pray God that he may give to you a happy state of health and long Ufe, 
and to me patience, and that consolation which I expect to receive from 
You, to whom I present my humble commendaUons. From Workington. 

the I a). Your most faithful and affectionate good 

sister and cousin, and escaped prisoner, 

Cotton. MS.^ElUs's Original Utters. 
• Afler the disastrous battle of Langside, in 15G3, Mary, Queen of 
Scots, attended by the Lord Herrics, and a small retinue of tried friends, 
Bed from the scene of battle. Lord Herries advised her Majesty to saU 
for France, where she had many relations on whose kindness she might 
rely. But' Mary was unwilling to submit to the humUiation of appearing 
as a fugitive where she had formerly shone in the splendour of majesty ; 
and she now indulged the hope that Elizabeth's animosity had given 
place to kinder feelings. She therefore resolved to enter England, and 
throw herself on the generosity of her rival. To this, Lord Herrics. 
and her other attendants, liad the strongest objections ; but, notwith- 
standing their remonstrances, she desired his lordship to write to the 
Lord Warden at Carlisle, making enquiry if she would be received into 
that city. Her impatience would not allow her to wait for a reply ; and 
soon after the letter was despatched to Carlisle, Mary, and her train of 
about twenty persons, embarked in a small fisUing-boat, on Sunday, 
May 16, and landed the sam.: day at Workington. She thence proceed- 
ed to Cockermouth, where she was received by Henry Fletcher, Esq. 
When her letter arrived at Carlisle, the Lord Warden was from home, 
having appointed as his deputy. Mr. (afterwards Sir Richard) Lowlher. 

2 I 2 


Mr. Sandford* gives the following account of 
the hall, written about the year 1676 : — "A fair 
parks of fallow dear there, adjoining to the de- 
mesne lands of Workington, a very fair large 
village, and fair haven, but not so much now 
frequented with ships, the coleyery being decay- 
ed thereabout ; and a very fair church and par- 
sonage of 220/. per annum, and one Mr. INIadison 
now ther pastor. And a very fair mansion-house 
and pallace-like ; a court of above 60 yards long, 
and 40 yards broad, built round about ; garreted 
turret-wise, and toores [to\vers] in the corner ; a 
gate-house, and most wainscot and gallery roomes; 
and the brave prospect of seas and ships almost 
to the house, the tides flowing up. Brave orchards, 
gardens, dove-coats, and woods and grounds in 
the bank about, and brave corn-fields and meadows 
below, as like as Chelsay fields. And now the 
habitation of a brave yong Sq. his father Monsir 
Edward Curwen, and his mother the grand-child 
of Sir Michael Wharton o'th' M'okls in Yorkshire. 

" Now let me tell you the family and pedegi'ee 
of this ancient great house [of] Chivilirs of Work- 
ington for five or six descents : my owne great- 
great-grandmother being either sister or daughter 
to Sir Tho: Curwen, Kt. in Henry the eight's 

time at and went up with his 

men to that King Henry S at the disso- 
lution of Abbeys. And the King said to him, 
"Curwen why doth thee begg none of thes Abbeys. 
I wold gratifie the some way," Quoth the other, 

Mary remained at Cockermouth until Mr. Lowtherhad assembled a body 
of the gentry to escort her to the castle of Carlisle, in a manner becoming 
her high birth. 

* MS, Dean and Chapter Library, Carlisle. 


"I thank you." He afterwards said, "he wold 
desire of him the Abbie of Ffurneis (nye unto hira) 
for 20 one years." Says the King, " Take it for 

" Quoth the other, " It is long enough, 

for you'le set them up againe in time." But they 
n^t likely to be set up againe. This Sir Tho : 
Curwen sent Mr. Preston, who had married his 
daughter, to renew the lease for him ; and he 

it in his own name. Which when his 

father-in-law questioned : quoth jNIr. Preston, 
" You shall have it as long as you live ; and I 
think I may as well have it with your daughter 
as an other." I think this Sir Ilarry Curwen's 
wife was Fairfax, York. 

" Then comes his sone and heir, old Sir Henry 
Curwen, Kt. and heir of his gallantry, and with 
Sir Symond Musgrave wear both knighted at the 
progress of an English army into Scotland, and 
brought away with him the iron-gate of a tower 
Carlaverick castle, the house of Lord INIaxwell, 
and [it] is now the gate of a tower dower at 

" Then comes his sone, Sir Nicolas Curwen, 
married Sir Symond Musgrave daughter, and 
Monsir Christopher ]N[usgrave marries his sister, 
the grandmother of the now noble Sir Philip Mus- 
grave, governor of the Carlisle castle, and citie 
and garrison there, and protects the contry from 

" Then comes Sir Henry Curwen, p'lament 
man for the county, and Patricius Curwen, his 
sone and heir, and colonell in the late Royal ar- 
mie and his brother. Cap. Eldred Curwen, father 
of the now Monsir Curwen, in minority. Lord of 


Mr. Denton, who wrote at about the same 
period, says, " I do not know any one seat in all 
Britain so commodiously situated for beauty, 
plenty, and pleasure, as this is. The demesne 
breeds the largest cattle and sheep in all the 
country. The famous salmon fishing here (men- 
tioned in Camden,) is worth 300/. per annum, 
three hundred of those gi-eat fishes having been 
frequently taken at a draught. They are like- 
wise plentifully stored here with very good sea 
fish and fowl, and here is a large rabbit-warren, 
worth 20/. a year, besides what serves the house, 
and a great dove-cote, stored with a huge flight 
of pigeons ; a salt pan and colliery, worth 20/. 
per annum, within the demesne." 

The hall was almost entirely rebuilt by John 
Christian Curwen, Esq. M.P. (father of the pre- 
sent lord of the manor, Henry Curwen, Esq.) 
from designs by Mr. Carr, of York, when the 
grounds were extended and improved by Mr. 
VVhite, of Retford. It stands near the edge of 
the park, and is approached through a gateway, 
on each pillar of which is a unicorn's head — the 
crest of the Curwens. The building (as already 
stated) is quadrangular, with battlemented para- 
pets ; the principal entrance is in the south-west 
front, where a gateway opens into a court-yard. 
Over the entrance-door is a shield bearing the 
arms of Curwen with quarterings: it has the date 
1665. The Q//ee>i's hed-cliamber (see page 245) 
retains no appearance of antiquity. 


CuRWEN OF Workington-Hall.* 

jirms: — Argent, fretty gules, a chief azure. 
Crest: — A unicorn's head erased argent, armed or. 
Motto : — Sije rCestoy. 

" The antient knightly family of the Curwens," says Cam- 
den, " derive their descent from Gospatric, Earl of 
Northumberland, and took their surname by agreement from 
Cuhven, a family of Galloway, whose heir they married. 
They have here a noble mansion like a castle, and from them, 
if I may be allowed to mention it without the imputation of 
vanity, I derive my descent by the mother's side." 

Ivo de Talebois, or Talboys, first lord of the barony of 
Kendal, brother of Fulk, carl of Anjou and king of Terusa- 
lera, espoused Elgiva, daughter of our Saxon uunarch 
Ethelred, and was lather of 

Eldred or Ethelred, second feudal lord of Kendal, who 
married Adgitha, aud was succeded by his son, 

Ketel, third Baron of Kendal. He married Christiana, 
as appears by his grant of the church of Morland to the 
abbey of St. Mary's in York, to which she was a witness. 
By her he had issue, 

Gilbert, who succeeded to the barony of Kendal, whose 

William, according to Dugdale, from being gover- 
nor of the castle of Lancaster, assumed the sur- 
name of Lancaster. From him descended 
John do Lancaster, summoned to parliament 
as a baron in 1299. 
Orme, bis successor. 
He received from William de Meschines agrant of Work- 
ington, Salter, Kelton, and Stockhow. He gave the parish- 
church of Workington, with two carucates of land and a mill 
there, to the Abbey of St. Mary, at York. 

Orme, second son, wedded Gunilda, sister of Waldieve, 
first lord of Allerdale, (see p. 2,) son of Gospatric, Earl of 

* This pedigree is chiefly compiled from Burke's Commoners and 
NicoUon and Bum. 


Dunbar, and acquiring by grant from the said Waldieve the 
manor of Seaton, took up his abode there. By the same 
conveyance he had also the towns of Camberton, Craiksothen, 
and Flemingby. Mr. John Denton says, the walls and ruins 
of the mansion-house at Seaton were visible in his time. 

Gospatric, son and heir of Orme, received from Alan, 
second Lord of Allerdale (his cousin-gerraan) High Ireby, 
which remained in a younger branch of the Curwens, until 
it terminated in heiresses. Gospatric received the manors 
of Workington and Lamphigh, from his cousin-german, 
William de Lancaster, in exchange for Middleton, co. West- 
morland ; in which exchange, the said William reserved to 
himself and his heirs a yearly rent of Ct^. at Carlisle fair, or a 
pair of gilt spurs, and bound Gospatric and his heirs to do 
homage, and to discharge his foreign service for the same, to 
the barony or castle of Egremont. He gave two parts of the 
fishing in Derwent to the abbey of Holme Cultram, with the 
appendices; except \\'aytcroft, which he gave to the prior of 
Carlisle. John, then prior of Carlisle, regranted Waytcroft to 
Thomas, son of Gospatric, and his heirs, to be holden of the 
priory freely, paying yearly 7s. rent at Pentecost and Martin- 

He had issue, Thomas, Gilbert, Adam, Orme, and Alex- 

Thomas, son and heir, succeeded his father in the inheri- 
tance. He received a grant of the great lordship of Culwen 
in Galloway; and granted Lamplugh to Robert dc Lamplugh 
and his heirs, to be holden by the yearly presentation of a pair 
of gilt spurs. He died 7th December, 1 152, and was buried 
in the abbey of Shap, co. Westmorland, to w Inch he had been 
a benefactor. His issue were 

Thomas, who married Joan, daiighter of Robert de 
Veteripont, but died in the life-time of his father, 
leaving an only daughter who married Harrington, of 
Patric, his successor. 

Alan, who acquired by gift of his brother Patric, lands 

of Camnierton, and thence deriving their surname, 

the Cammertons descend from him. 

To his second son, Patric, he had given, during the life of 

his eldest son, the lordship of Culwen, and the said Patric, 

assuming his surname therefrom, became, 

Patric de Culwen : his elder brother dying subsequently, 



without male issue, he succeeded to the entire estate, and 
was thenceforward designated " Patric de Culwea of Work- 
ington." He was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Thomas do CuUven, of Workington, who died 5. p. and 
was succeeded by his brother, 

Gilbert de Culwen, of Workington, who left by his wife 
Editha, a son and heir, 

Gilbert de Culwen, of Workington, who died in the 3rd 
Edward III., and was succeeded by his son, 

Sir Gilbert de CuUven, knight of the shire in the 47th, 
48th, and 50th, of Edward 111.* 

Sir Gilbert de Culwen. son and heir, was knight of the 
shire in the 5lh Richard II., and died about two years aftcr.f 

Sir Christorher de Culwen, son and heir of Sir Gilbert, 
represented the county in the 2nd Henry V and in the 2nd, 
3rd Cth, and 9lh Henry VI. He was sherifl of Cumberland 
in the 2nd, and Gth, and again in the 12lh Henry \I by the 
name of Culwen, and in the Cih of the said king by the name 
of Curwen, to which last name the family hath ever since 
adhered. Sir Christopher, (with Sir IhomasDacre ol biUes- 
land and Sir William F itz-hugh, knts.,) was commissioned 
bv licnrv VI. A-U- 1 l-^-' ^^ ^''^'^ ^'^'^ '"''''^ °^ ^ "" wardens 
of the west marches for the observance of the truce conclud- 
ed with the king of the Scots. 

Sir Thomas Curwen, son and heir, represented the county 
in the 13lh, 2nth, 27th, and 38th Henry VI., and died in the 
3rd Edward IV. 

Sir Christopher Curwen, son and heir, died in the 7th 
Henry VII. 

Sir Thomas Curwen, son and heir, died in the 34th Henry 
VIII • in which year, on an inquisition of knights fees m 
Cumberland, it is found, that Thomas Curwen, knight, held 

• In the 49lh Edward III. John de Culwen was presented to the 
rectory of Newbiggin, co. Westmorland, which he soon after exchanged 
fol the vicarage of Bromfield. 

t Nicolson and Burn. Burke, however, supposes they were the same 

person. 2 K 


the manor of Workington of the king by knights' service, 
as of his castle of Egremont; viz. by the service of one knight's 
fee, 45s. 3d. cornago, 4s. seawakc, and puture of two Serjeants. 
He held at the same time the manor of Thornthwaite, and 
one third of the manor of Bothill, and the manors of Seaton 
and Camerton, and divers tenements in Gilcrouse, Great 
Broughton, and Dereham. 

He appears in the list of the gentry of the county, who 
■were called out by Sir Thomas Wharton, in 1543, " on the 
service of the Border" when he was to furnish " horse at his 
pleasure." He had issue, 


Lucy, married to Sir John Lowthcr. 

A daughter, married to .... Preston. 

Sir Henry Curwen, son and heir, knight of the shire 6th 
Edward VI. and 1st Elizabeth, (see page 249.) He was twice 
married: firstly, to Mary, daughter of Sir Nicholas Fairfax, 
by whom he had issue, 

Nicholas, his successor ; 
and, secondly, to Jane Crosby, by whom he had 
George, ob. n.p. 
Thomas,* who left, with two younger sons, 

Darcy, who had (with four other sons, who died 
without issue) 
Eldred, who also succeeded to the estate. 

Sir Henry had the honor of receiving at his mansion-house 
Mary, Queen of Scots, May 16, 1568, when she landed at 
Workiugtouf on her way to Carlisle (see page 244). He died 

• This is probably lie who lies buried in the church of Ponsonby, where 
there is a monument to his memory. 

t The Earl of Northumberland procured from the council of York, an 
order to " the SherifTe, Justices of Peace, and gentlemen of our countyc 
of Cumberland, and to everie of them," to the following tenor : — 

" By the Queue. — Trustie and wel beloved, we grete you well. And 
for as muche as we be informed that our sister, the Scotishe Quenc, is 
arryved within our realme, at Wyrkington, in our county of Cumberland, 
within the lordship and segnory of our right trustie and right wel beloved 
cosyn, the Earl of Northumberland ; who hathe alreadie sent certen 
geutlemen honorablie to see to her enterteynment and safe keping in this 
our realm, uatill our pleasure shal be fiuther knowen. This is, therefore, 



in the 39th Elizabeth, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Sir Nicholas Curwen, M.P. for Cumberland, who married, 
firstly, Anno, daughter of Sir Simon Musgravo, of Edenhall, 
Bart, (by whom he had co issue); and, secondly, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Judge Carus. He died in the 2nd James I., 
and was succeeded by his son and heir. 

Sir Henry Curwen, knight of the shire in the 18th James 
I who died in lho21stof that reign. He married Catherme, 
daughter and co-heircss of Sir John Dalstou, by whom he 
had issue, 

Patrlchts, his heir. 

Thomas, who succeeded his elder brother. 
Sir Henry married, secondly, Margaret, daughter of .... 
Wharton, by whom he had issue, 

Eldrcd, who succeeded Thomas Curwen, Esq. 

Sir Patricius Curwen, Baronet, eldest son and heir of Sir 
Henry represented the county in parliament in several par- 
liaments in the reigns of Charles 1., and Charles II. He 

was created a baronet in 1626. He married , but 

dying without issue, in 1664, the title became extinct, while 
the estates devolved upon his brother, 

Thomas Curwen, Esq. who also died without issue, in the 
25th Charles II. when the estates passed to his half-brother, 

Eldrcd Curwen, Esq. who died in the 26th Charles II. 

Henry Curwen, Esq. son and heir, dying without issue, 
12th George I. the estate and representation reverted to his 

Henry Curwen, Esq., eldest surviving son of Darcy, son 
of Thomas, son of Sir Henry Curwen, by his second wile, 

to wil and commando you and cvcric of you, as you shaltc appoyntcd by 
our sayd cousin, the Earl of Northumb.-rhmd, toschcrandliir companyo 
well and honorably used, as to evcrie of them appcrtcyncthe; and also 
to SCO them in safctye, that they, nor any of them, cskapc from you, un- 
tai you shall have knowledge of our further pleasure therein. 

"Wherof «c pray you not to fayle, as we speriallye trustc you, and a a 
yo will answer to the conlrar>' at your periUcs. Given under our signet. 
at our citic of Yorke, the xixlh daye of Mayo, the tenthc ycaro of our 
reign."— Sir C. Sharpe'i Memorials of the Rebellion. 

2 K 2 


Jane Crosby. He died without issue in the 13th George I. 
and was succeeded by his brother, 

Eldred Curwen, Esq. M.P. for Cockermouth, in the 7th 
George II. and dying in the 18th of the same reign, was 
succeeded by his son, 

Henry Curwen, Esq. M.P. for the city of Carlisle in 1762; 
and for the county of Cumberland in 1768. He married 
Isabella, daughter of William Gale, Esq. of Whitehaven, by 
whom he had an only daughter, 

Isabella (born 1765), who married John Christian, Esq. 
of Unerigg Hall,* and conveying to him the family 
estates, he assumed, in 1790, their surname and arms, 
and thus became 

John Christian-Curwen, Esq., who had previously been 
married to Miss Taubman, of the Isle of Man, by whom he 
had issue, John Christian, Esq. of Unerigg Hall, one of the 
Dempsters of that island. By the heiress of the Curwens 
(his second wife) he had issue, 

Henry, of whom hereafter, 

William, in holy orders, rector of Harrington, 1817-1823. 

Edward, of Belle Grange, co. Lancaster. 

John, in holy orders, rector of Harrington, 1823 to 1840, 
in which year he died. 

Bridget, married to Charles Walker, Esq. of Ashford 
court, Salop. 

Christiana-Frances, of Uppington, Salop. 
Mr. Curwen served the office of high-sheriff for Cumber- 
land in 1784. In 1786, he was returned to parliament for 
Carlisle ; and he continued to represent that city in several 
parliaments. He was subsequently M.P. for the county, 
and so remained until his decease. " Mr. Curwen acquired 
distinction by his rural pursuits ; and as a practical farmer 
introduced numerous valuable improvements, under his own 
immediate superintendence, which gave a novel direction to 
the business of the agriculturist." Mr. Curwen was the 
author of " Observations on the state of Ireland, principally 
directed to its Agriculture and Rural Population, &c." 2 vols. 
Svo. 1818. 

He died on the 9th December, 1828, and was succeeded 

• A pedigree of the Chrislians of Unerigg-hall will be given in a eubse- 
qnent volume. 


in his own estates by his eldest son, John Christian, Esq. 
and in those of the Curwens, by his second son, 

Henry Curwen, Esq. who was born 5th December, 1783. 
On the Uth October, 1804, he married Jane, daughter of 
Edward Stanley, Esq. of Whitehaven, by whom he had issue, 

Edward Stanley, formerly of the 14th Dragoons, married 
22nd January, 1833, Frances, daughter of Edward 
Jesse, Esq. of Hampton Court, Middlesex, and has 
Henry, in holy orders, rector of Workington, married 
to Dora, daughter of Major General Goidie, and has 

William Blamire. 
Isabella, married to the Rev. John Wordsworth, M.A. 

rector of Plumbland, and vicar of Brigham. 
Mr. Curwen succeeded to the estates on the decease of his 
father, 9lh December, 18'28. He is in the commission of the 
peace for Cumberland, and filled the office of high-sheriff of 
the county in 1834. 

The Town of Workington. 

Workington is a considerable market-town and 
sea-port, at tlie mouth of the Derwent, 307 miles 
from London, 8 from Whitehaven, and about 34 
from Carlisle. Lcland says, its name is derived 
from the ^Vyrc, a rivulet that flows into the sea 
at Harrington : but this is not very probable, 
(although the ancient spelling, Wtjrek'mton, 
Wyrkenion, and JV//r/,i//<>/oii, may appear to 
sanction it) as the stream is upwards of two miles 
from the town. That author (who was chaplain 
to Henry VHI.) speaks of Workington, in his 
Itinerary, as a place " whereas shyppes cum to, 
wher ys a litle prety fyssher town, cawled Wyr- 
kenton, and ther is thechef howseof Sir Thomas 


Curwyn." It does not appear to have been a 
port of any consequence at this period, although, 
within a few years after, it was the place of dis- 
embarkation chosen by Mary Queen of Scots, 
(see page 244).* 

About the year 1770, according to Mr. Pennant, 
there were 97 vessels belonging to this port, some 
of which were of 250 tons burthen. About 1790, 
the number was 160, averaging about 130 tons. In 
April, 1810, 134 ships, tonnage, 18,911. In Jan- 
uary, 1822, 117 ships, tonnage, 18,094. In Jan- 
uary, 1828, 126 ships, tonnage, 19,930. The 
present number of vessels belonging to this port 
is 95, and the tonnage is estimated at 17,681. 

The river is navigable for vessels of 400 tons. 
The chief trade is in exporting coals to Ireland ; 
some of them trade to America and the Baltic. 
The imports are timber, bar iron, Szc. 

A considerable trade was formerly carried on 

• It appears from Hutchinson's Cumberland, vol. i. pp. 32, 33, that 
in 1566, there was only one vessel belonging to the county, of ten tons 
burthen ; and the mariners were tishermen, obtaining a hard subsistence 
from their hazardous emiiloyment. And that " at the latter end of the 
sixteenth century, even under the auspicious reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
■when the naval power of this empire was advancing into a rivalship with 
all Europe, when trade and commerce, as from their native land, began 
to flourish in Britain, superior to the rest of the European states ; when 
our interior strength and power displayed itself to the astonishment of 
the world, this county still languished under its inauspicious star ; dis- 
tant from the capital, unhappy in its vicinage, its improvements were 
much behind those of the southern counties. At this period, in or about 
the year 1582, the Earl of Lincoln, being Lord High Admiral, caused 
an account to be taken of the ships and mariners within this county, 
•when all the vessels amounted only to twelve, and not one carried eighty 
tons. Mariners and fishermen made up the number 198, of whom many 
had never navigated a vessel superior to on open boat." 


here in ship-building ; but this has suffered in 
the general depression felt by the town. Vessels 
of from 400 to 600 tons are built here for the 
merchants in Liverpool, &c. 

The manufactories are chiefly confined to 
those connected with the shipping, such as sail- 
cloth, cordage, &c., excepting a patent Leghorn 
hat manufactory, established by Messrs. Guy and 
Harrison, which affords employment to several 
hands. The town has been built without any 
reference to regularity of design ; it is a long, 
narrow, straggling place, extending about a mile 
in length. 

The markets (supposed to be of no ancient 
origin) are held on Wednesday and Saturday ; 
the former is the principal one, and is well sup- 
plied with corn, &c. The fiirs have fallen into 
disuse ; they were formerly holden on the Wed- 
nesday before Ascension Day, and on the 18th 
of October. 

The bridge over the Derwent, according to 
Mr. T. Denton, was rebuilt by the county in 
1G50. This was replaced in 17G3, by one of 
three arches ; but so exceedingly narrow and 
dangerous, that after having been the source of 
numerous accidents, it was resolved to build 
another, a few yards below the site of the former. 
The new bridge is a noble structure of three 
elliptic arches, now building by Mr. Thomas 
Nelson, of Carlisle ; the works were commenced 
during the last year, and are now in a state of 
gi-eat forwardness. 

In 1810, acts of parliament were obtained for 
lighting and improving the tovvn and harbour of 

260 allerdale ward, above derwent. 

The Church. 

The parish church of Workington is dedicated 
in honor of St. Michael. It was given by Ketel, 
(son of Eldred, son of Ivo,) third baron of 
Kendal, with two carucates of land and a mill 
there, to the abbey of St. Mary, at York. The 
latter appears to have been included in the grant 
made, by letters patent, by Queen Elizabeth, in 
the 5th year of her reign, to Percival Gunson, 
gentleman, of divers messuages, lands, tenements, 
and other hereditaments in Workington, and 
one messuage in Clifton, late belonging to that 
abbey. In 1534, the abbot of St. Mary's, York, 
presented to the rectory. In the following year it 
was thus entered in the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 
Henry VIII. 

WirTihjngton Rector' EccVie. 

Edmund' Whalley incumbens. Eector' 
p'dca. valet in £ s. d. 

Mansione cum gleba p. am. — Ix v 

Decim' granos. et feni xvj/. \ 

xs.lan'&agneU'xxvjs.viijd. # I £ ». d. 

pisciu. marinos. xls. minut'f ..... ^xxvj x 

et privat' decim' cum oh-/' "^ ^ 

lac' ut in libro paschal' V 

Ixxiijs. iu^d. In tot. J -^ 

Eepris' viz in 
Sinod'iijs.jf^.pcurac'.vjs.viijcZ. "i 

annual' pens' monaster'. > — Ixv j -_ 
See. Bege Ivs. iiijcC. ^ 

Et valet clare 
Xma. ps. inde 

After the dissolution of religious houses, Henry 
Vni. by letters-patent, bearing date, August 20, 









i ii'j 



in the 3Gth year of his vcign, (1544), granted to 
Robert Broc-kelsby and John Dyer, the advowson 
and riglit of i)atro'nage of the churches of Work- 
ington and Haverington ; to hold of the king in 
free socage by fealty only, and not in caju/e. On 
the 27th January, 1545, they conveyed by fine 
those two rectories to Thomas Dalston, ot the 
city of Carlisle, Esquire. In 1556, John Dalston, 
Esq. presented to the rectory of Workington. 

Henry Vlll. made a second grant of the ad- 
vowson of the church of Workington to John 
Bird, the first bishop of Chester, in exchange for 
divers tenqioralties ; and it was exchanged again, 
bv queen Mary, for Childwall and other places. 
But it having been granted before to Brockelsby 
and Dyer, it"\vas found that the bishop had no 


On the 1 2th of October, in the Gth of Eliza- 
beth, (1501) there was a licence of alienation to 
John Dalston, Esq., to convey the advowson and 
ri'dit of patronage of the churches of Workington 
and llaverinuton, parcel of the late monastery of 
St. Mary, York, to Henry Curwen, Esq.,m whose 
posterity thev have since remained. 

The living (which is the richest in the county) 
was valued in the King's Books at 23/. 5s. It 
continues to pav a pension of 21. 15s. 4rf. to St. 
Bees. The present curate is the Rev. Joseph 
Hetheriugton, M.A. 

Lisf of Rectors. 

Edmund Whalley, occurs 1535. 

Lowther, occurs c. 1642. 

1662 Christopher Mattenson. 
1679 John Bolton. 

2 L 


1724 Robert Loxam. 

1726 John Stanley.* 

1753 William Thomas Addison, oh. 1792.-^ 

1792 Edward Christian. 

1803 Peter How, M.A. ob. ISSl.f 

1831 Edward Stanley, M.A. ob. 1S34.+ 

1834 John Wordsworth, M.A.§ 

1837 Henry Curwen, B.A. 

The parish-church of Workington was rebuilt 
in 1770. It is a neat and handsome structure; 
but, unfortunately, and like too many others 
erected in this county during the last century, it 
is not in the Ecclesiastical or Pointed (miscalled 
Gothic) style of architecture. || It consists of a 
nave, with a low square tower which formed part 
of the old church ; and is lighted by two rows of 
windows with round heads. At the east end is 
a recess containing the altar-table, over which is 
a window of three liglits, the top filled with stain- 
ed glass. On the north side is a painting repre- 
senting the Descent from the Cross, and on the 
south another of the Ascension. There are two 
side galleries, and one at the west end containing 
an organ. 

• Son of John Stanley, Esq., of Ponsonby-hall. 

t See moniimenlal inscription. 

% Ob. 1831; Rector of I'lumbland, one of his Majesty's Justices of the 
Peace, and a deputy lieutenant for this county. See monumental in- 
scription, p. '2G1. 

§ Rector of Plumbland, and vicar of Brigham. 

II This remark applies to many of the modem erections in this county ; 
including St. Cuthberl's, Carlisle; St. John's, Workington ; the three 
chapels in NVhitehaven, and the parish churches of Penrith, Wigton, and 
Cockermoulh : ot which some are handsomely fitted up, but apparently 
built with the intention of giving them the appearance of mceting-housei 
or assembly-roomi. 


Under the tower is an altar-tomb on which 
rechne tlie effigies of a knight and his lady. 
He is in ])late arnionr ; his headrests on a cushion, 
placed against an animal, and there is another at 
his feet. An inscription runs round the top edge 
of the altar-tomb, but it has been defaced and 
rendered illegible by coats of paint. Previous to 
its last painting the date lllO was to be seen. 
On the front side are live recesses with cinque- 
foiled heads containing these shields : 1. Fretty 

and a cliief, Curxcen ; impaling Lozengy : 

2, Ciinccn, impaling Fretty of six, .... 3, Cur- 
wen, without impalement. 4, Curzcen, impaling 
Six annulets, three, two, one, .... 5, Ciirxcoi, 
impaling Five fusils in fess, with a label of five 

points, The head of the lady reclines on 

a cushion supported by angels. Near this tomb 
is part of an ancient octagonal stone font. 

The pew of the Curwen family has some fine 
old carved work, apparently preserved from the 
former church. Tiie arms of Curwen occur twice ; 
in one place impaling on a fess two lions' heads 
between three St. Andrew's crosses. 

The tower contains six bells ; one of which 
bears the date 1775. On each side of the western 
door is ))laced a board : one commemorates Mr, 
Robert Jackson's bequest of tSOO/. ; the other, 
the bequest of a like sum by Jane Scott, widow.* 

On the east wall, south of the altar-table, is an 
elaborate monument of wliite marble, by Dunbar, 
with two figures representing Justice and Faith, 
and bearing this inscription : — 

• Sec particulars of both, al a subsequent page, under " Charities." 

2 L 2 



to (he memory of the 


Hector of Workington 

and of Plumbland, 

one of his 

Majesty's Justices of the Peace, 

and a Deputy Lieutenant 

for this county. 

Bom 9th March, 1776, 

Died 5lh January 1831. 

He was a kind and benevolent Pastor, 

an upright, intelligent, and 

active magistrate, 

and a zealous promoter 

of every measure connected ■with 

the Tvelfaro of those 

amongst whom he resided. 

To mark the hig'i estimation 

in which he was held, 

and as a tribute 

of sincere respect to his memory, 

this memorial was erected 

by public subscription 

Near the south door is a mural monument of 
■white marble, with this inscription : — 

Sacred to the memory of 

THE REV. PETER HOW, A.M., and MARGARET hia wife. 

He was for more than 37 years 

The beloved and respected minister of this parish, 

first as curate, and afterwards as rector. 

He died at his son's house in the town of Shrewsbury, 

On the 18lh of July, 1^31, .iged 72. 

His dear Partner survived him but a few days, 

and died at the parsonage house in this town, 

on the 1st of August, 1831, aged 76. 

They are, it is humbly h.oped, reunited 

in a more blessed state of existence. 



At the west end of the chuixh is a plain mural 
monument inscribed — 

In Memory 


Workington Hall, who died the 23rd 

of Januar}', 1745, 

Aged 53. 

Under the tower are the following inscriptions 
on mural tablets : — 


This church 

Lie the Bodies of 



Bilhah Shcrwen 

was buried here April 14, 17G2, 

Aged 47 years. 

John Sherwcn 

January 19, 17C3, aged 55 years. 

To their 


this monument 

•was gratefully inscribed 

A. D. 1818. 

Honour thy Fallier and thy Mother 

that thy days may be long 

in tho laud 

Thy God givcth thcc. 


to the memory of 


of the Royal Navy, 

who departed this life, on the 21 October, 1815, 

Aged GO years. 



To the 




The wife of 


Comptroller of liis Majesty's Customs, 

Only daughter of Ihe late Rev. Bryan Allot, 

Rector of Buniliam in Norfolk, Neice to the 

Very Rev. Richard Allot, D.D., Dean of Raphoe in 

Ireland, and nearly related to David Kennedy, Esq. 

of Kirk-Michael House, in North Britain, 

and to the Earls of Cassilis and of Eglington. 

She died on the 23 February, 1812, 

After an illness of one hour only, without 

any previous indisposition. 

Aged 48 years. 

" Watch therefore for ye know not 

" W hat honv your Lord doth come." 

Her spotless life, -which was a real Ornament 

to her sex, was roplele with every virtue 

■which could adorn the character of 

a tiue Christian. 


To the memory of 


■who died the 22 day of December, 1S32, 

Aged 83 years. 

In Memory of 
who died on the 15 June, 1828, 

Aged 59 years. 

Sacred to the Memory of 
The Rev. WILLIAM TllO.MAS ADDISON, Rector of this Parish. 
His unicmitting attention during a space of 40 years 


To all the important duties of liis sacred function, 

His pious zeal and spirited exertions 

(made more conspicuous by surrounding obstacles) 

In laising from unseemly ruin this House of God, 

Conspire much more than this Imperfect Tablet 

To speak his worth and consecrate his memory. 

He died January 11, 1792, in the G5 year of his age, 

deservedly lamented. 

His first wife, daughter of Eldued Curwen, Esq. 

died December, 1755. 

His second wife, MARIANNA daughter of Adam Craik, Esq. of 

Arbigland, Dumfriesshire, died December, 1759, 

His third wife, DOROTHY, daughter of Riciiaud Cookb, Esq. 

of Cammerton Hall, died 23 September, 1831, 

Aged 97 years. 


in memory of 



who died June 3, 1799, 

.32 78. 

And also 

In memory of 

ELIZABETH, his wife, 

who died July 23, 1754, 


In the church-yard is a stone bearing this in- 
scription to the memory of the first minister of 
the Scotch church in this town : — 

In Memory of the 


with renewed diligence and great activity 

raised and formed a Society of 

Protestant Dissenters in Workington, 

collected funds, and built a Meeting 

«nd dwelling House, and exerted the cmiueut Talcnti 


He was cndo-ncd vii'.h to the Glory of GOD 

■with exemplary fidelity and Zeal, 

Forty years as tlieir Pastor. 

His modest wisdom, 

Extensive learning. 

Strict integrity, 

and Un.ifTcctcd Piety, 

rendered him the just object 

of Esteem and Love. 

lie died 24 March, 1782, 

Aged 73 years. 

Another has this inscription : — 

Sacred to the Memory of 


who was 46 years Minister of the 

Scotch Church, Workington, 

who departed this life, Jimc 11, 1829, 

In the 79lh year of his age. 

This Stone is erected by a few 

Friends who long enjoyed the 

benefit of his ministry, as a token 

of their afl'ccfion and grateful 

remembrance of his Unfeigned Piety, 

exemplary diligence, and unwearied 

exertions in the cause of GOD. 

Another stone, commemorating Joseph Glen- 
dinning, who was murdered in 1808, has these 
elegant lines — ■ 

Ye villains when this stone you see 
Remember th;it you murdered me. 
You bruised my head, you pierced my heart. 
Also my bowels did suffer part. 

St. John's Chapel. 

This chapel was erected in the year 1823, by 
the commissioners for building churches, and 


affords a lamentable proof of modern degeneracy 
in church-building. — Built at the almost incredi- 
ble cost of 10,000/. its miserable masonry and 
unecclesiastical style of architecture afford a sad 
contrast to those appropriate edifices which the 
more correct taste of our ancestors erected for 
Divine worship. It has a Doric portico, closely 
resembling that of the church of St. Paul, Co- 
vent-garden, London, the entablature supported 
by four massy pillars. The chapel is calculated 
to accommodate IGOO hearers. The seats on the 
ground-floor are free, and the minister is paid by 
tlie rents of those in the galleries. The living is 
a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the rector of the 
parish. In 1835, by an order in the Privy Coun- 
cil, the parish of ^^'orkington was ecclesiastically 
divided into two districts : one of which was as- 
signed to the mother-church, and the other to St. 

List of Incumbents. 

1823 John Curwen.* 
1828 Joseph Simpson, B.A. 
1831 Peter von Essen, B.A.f 
1840 William Jackson, M.A. 


There are in this town chapels belonging to 
the Independents, the Roman Catholics, the 
Church of Scotland, the Primitive Methodists^ 
and one for seamen. 

• Rector of Harrington and of Plumbland. 
f Rector of Uarrington. 

2 M 

270 allerdale ward, above derwent. 


The Gramynar School. — Sir Patricius Curwen, 
Bart, by ^vill, dated 13th December, 1664, be- 
queathed 10/. towards erecting a school house, 
and he thereby further gave and bequeathed the 
annual sum of 61. 6s. Sd. towards the maintenance 
of such master or masters as should be appointed 
by the ministers of Workington and Harrington, 
•with the consent of any two of the churchwardens 
of the former parish. The latter sum was a rent- 
charge upon his demesne of Workington.* A 
school-house was built upon the common, soon 
after the decease of Sir Patricius, by his widow 
and executrix. 

Thomas Curwen, Esq., his brother and succes- 
sor in the estates, by will, dated ISth December, 
1672, granted the three closes or enclosures known 
as Colker close, Dobby INIiller's close, and JNIoor 
close, for the use of the master. 

In 1S03, John Christian Curwen, Esq., M.P. 
having at that time discovered, by reference to 
his title deeds, that Thomas Curwen, the devisor, 
had no power to devise the closes above-mention- 
ed, having been only tenant for life of that pro- 
perty, determined to apply the rents and profits 
thereof to some other charitable purpose, which 
he thought more advisable. He appointed, 
however, the Rev. Anthony DalzcU to the office 
of schoolmaster, then vacant, and agreed to give 
him a salary of 10/. 10.s. per annum. I'he closes 
above-mentioned contain 70 acres of land, and 
are worth 140/. per annum. 

• The commissioners for enquiring concerning charities say that it does 
not appear that this rent-charge left by Sir Patricius was CTer paid. 


It appears that by deed of settlement, dated 
29th September 1G12, and a fine levied thereon, 
Sh- Henry Cm wen settled the manor and estate 
of ^\'o^kmgton npon himself for life, with remain- 
der to his first and other sons in tail under this 
settlement. Sir Patricius Curwen, the eldest 
son of Sir Henry, became tenant in tail, and died 
without issue, leaving a brother, Thomas Curwen, 
who succeeded him. Sir Pairicius, therefore, 
had no power to change the inheritance. 

By deed of settlement, dated 2Gth February 
1GG(), and a fine levied thereon, Thomas Curwen 
and l-:idred Curwen settled tlie said manor and 
estates on the said Thomas Curwen for life, with 
remainder to his first and other sons in tail ; and 
in default of issue, on the said Eldred Curwen, 
for life, with remainder to his first and other sons 
in tail. Thomas Curwen died without issue, and 
was succeeded by Eldred Curwen, who died, 
leaving a son, so that Thomas Curwen was only 
tenant for life, and had no power of devising the 
closes above mentioned. 

The site of the school-house, which was built 
upon the waste, appears never to have been con- 
veyed to any jierson, in trust, for the charity ; 
the soil, therefore, remained in the lord of the 
manor. In IS 13, the building was pulled down 
by ISIr. C^urwen, and a room in the town was 
appropriated by him for tlie purposes of a school. 
The waste has since l)een enclosed under an act 
of Parliament ; and the site of the school, with 
the adjoining land, has been set out and allotted 
by the commissioners.* 

* Report of the Commissionera. 

2 M 2 


Sir Patricius Ciirwen's Charities. — Sir Patricius 
Curwen, Bart, left also to the poor of the parish, 
5/. per annum,* charged upon his demesne at 
Workington : but this payment has not been 
made by his successors, for the reason assigned 
in the preceding account of the Grammar School. 

Scott's Charity. — Jane Scott, widow, by will 
dated 24th January, 1816, bequeathed 800/. stock, 
five per cents, to the Rev. Peter How, M.A. 
Benjamin Thompson, Robert Jackson, and Wil- 
liam Piele, on trust, to pay sixteen poor women 
405. each, annually on new-year's day : all of whom 
are to be residents in the township of Workington. 
The remainder of the dividends, after payment of 
all expences, to be retained by the trustees as a 
compensation for their trouble : their number is 
to be always four ; one of whom must be the 
rector or resident minister of Workington, if a 
suitable person. On the death of any of the 
annuitants, the trustees to appoint another to fill 
up the vacancy. 

Kai/s Legacies. — John Kay, by will dated 11 th 
of February, 1806, amongst other things,bequeath- 
ed to the rector of ^^'orkington, 50 guineas, to 
be by him laid out in a handsome brass gilt 
chandelier, to be hung up in the middle aisle in 
the parish church of Workington. He also gave 
to twenty poor widows annually, in the township 
of Workington, on Christmas-day in each year 
for years after his decease, a fore-quarter of 

mutton, and a shilling loaf each ; and in the 
margin of the said will, opposite to the last-men- 

• He left also sums of money to be distributed to the poor of tie parish 
of Harrington, and to the poor of Cammcrton and Seaton. 


tioned bequest, was written, " to be charged upon 
the lands." 

These legacies, however, have failed. — A decree 
in chancery, dated ISth February, 1 8 14, was made 
by several legatees and relations of the testator 
against his Majesty's attorney-general, the execu- 
trix of the testator, and otlier persons, when it 
was ordered, that it should be referred to the 
master. On the 1st November ISl 9, the master 
reported, that tlie personal estate of the testator 
had proved insufficient for the payment of the 
debts and legacies charged thereupon ; and that 
part of the testator's real estate had been sold, to 
supply the deficiency thereof. 

Jackson's Bequest. — Mr. Robert Jackson, who 
died 1th April, 182G, left by will 800/. the interest 
arising therefrom to be distributed by four trustees 
to sixteen poor women, in the sum of 40.v. each 
annually : the rector or resident-minister being 
one of the trustees. The original trustees, named 
in the will, are the Rev. Peter How, M.A., Joseph 
Pearson, ^Villiam Plaskett, and lulward Henry 
Hare. The funds of this charity have been di- 
minished ; — first, in 1830, by the conversion of 
the new 4 per cent, into the new 3^ per cent 
stock ; and secondly, by a decree in chancery, in 
a suit against the executors and trustees, which 
reduced the bequest to the sum of 430/. 3^. stock. 

The Lancaster'ian School. — This school was 
founded in 1808, by John Christian Curwen, Esq. 
M.P., and affords instruction to about 194 boys 
and 86 girls, each of whom pays \d. or \\d. per 
week, towards providing books. All necessary 
expenses arc paid by the family of the founder. 

A building, comprising rooms for an Infant 


School, a School of Industry, &c. was erected in 
1831, by Thomas Wilson, Esq. of this town. 
Over the entrance is the following inscription : — 

These Schools 

for the Education 

of the Children of the Poor 

in Religious and Useful Knowledge 

Avere erected 

from the bounty of a kind Providence 


Thomas Wilson, 1831. 

Mr. Wilson has regularly conveyed the build- 
ing in trust, for the above purposes, to the clergy 
of the town, with the churchwardens and over- 
seers for the time being. On the east wall of the 
Infant School is a tablet inscribed as follows : — 

As a testimony of my approval 

Of the Infimt School and School of Industry 

In Guard Street, 

dedicated to charitable uses. 

It is my intention to remit the grotmd rent 

For the premises during my life 

To the charity, 

On being called upon by the Governors 

Annually for my receipt; 

And I trust my successors 

will continue to do the same. 

The Hall, Woikington. Henry Cukwen. 

December 11, 1831. 

In addition to these foundations and endow- 
ments, there are many other charitable societies 
and institutions, and Sunday schools, supported 
by voluntary contributions. 


Stainburn is a hamlet and township one mile 
east of Workington. The nanje is supposed to 


be derived from stoney burn or beck. Waldieve, 
lord of AUerdale, son of Gospatric, Earl of Dun- 
bar, gave this whole vill, consisting of three 
carucates of land, to the abbey of St. Mary's at 
York, for the proper use of the cell of St. Bees. 
The prior of St. Bees built here a chapel or 
oratory. Afterwards Henry IV. presented one 
Robert Hunte to this as a free chapel in the gift 
of the crown. The abbot of St, Mary's, York, 
remonstrated, setting forth the above particulars : 
and the king, upon inquiry and trial, revoked this 


The Chapelry of Clifton includes the two 
townships and villages of Great Clifton and Little 
Clifton. These townships form a manor, and 
were given by William de jNIeschines to Waldieve, 
son of Gospatric, Eavl of Dunbar ; and by the 
heiress of that family came to the Lucys ; from 
them to Benedict Eglesfield, who had a son 
Richard Eglesfield, whose daughter and heiress 
carried the same by marriage to Adam de Berdsey. 
He had a son Nicholas de Berdsey, who had a 
son ^\'illiam de Berdsey, which AVilliam in the 
35 Henry VHL was found by inquisition to hold 
his messuage and vill of Clifton of the king as of 
the manor of Dean, by knight's service, rendering 
for the same 2s. \0d. cornage, and 17s. \(l free 
rent, and suit of court, homage, and witnesman in 
the five towns.f lie held Kirk Clifton, (or Great 
Clifton) by the service of 3s. 4f/. cornage, with 
suit of court, witnesman as aforesaid, and puture 

• Nicolson and Bum. t See page 2. 


of the Serjeants.* By a daughter and coheir of 
the said WilHam these villages came to the Salk- 
elds of Whitehall, who sold them to Sir James 
Lowther, Bart., from whom they came to the 
present possessor, the Earl of Lonsdale. 

Great Clifton, or Kirk Clifton, in Derwent 
Ward, is an ancient village, 2^ miles east from 
Workington, " where it is said a market was for- 
merly held," and in support of the truth of which 
tradition the remains of an ancient cross are 
pointed out. Clifton-house, the mansion of 
Richard Watts, Esq., is near the village, situated 
on rising grounds which command an extensive 
prospect, the beauty of which is much enhanced 
by the meanderings of the Derwent. It has at 
present an exposed appearance, but this will be 
remedied in a few years, when the plantations 
around it have attained a fuller growth. 

Little Clifton is a village in Derwent Ward, 
3| miles east of Workington, at the junction of 
the Maron with the Derwent. 

The Chapel was certified to the governors of 
Queen Ann's bounty at 3/. per annum. In the 
year 1717, "it was certified that there was then 
no maintenance for a curate, or any divine service 
performed ; that formerly every family in the two 
hamlets, being about 40 in number, paid Gd. each 
to one that read prayers, and taught the children 
to read, and the rector gave 21. a year, and oflS- 
ciated there every sixth Sunday ; but that these 
payments had then ceased for about 40 years 
last past." 

The chapel is very picturesquely situated on 

* Nicolson and Buin. 



the summit of a cliff overlooking the village. It 
is an ancient edifice, but has been much modern- 
ized by repairs and alterations. In the sixteenth 
and early part of the seventeenth century, marri- 
ages were solemnized in this chapel. The burial 
gi-ound was disused, and the walls were in a state 
of decay, from 1736 until 1S21, when Dr. Law, 
Bishop of Chester, consecrated an additional 
piece of ground. The living is a perpetual cura- 
cy, in the gift of the rector of Workington, and 
was returned to the commissioners for enquiring 
concerning ecclesiastical revenues as of the aver- 
age annual value of 89/. The present incumbent 
is the Rev. Anthony Dalzell, who was appointed 
in 1804. 

In 1814 an act of parliament passed for enclos- 
ing the townships of Great and Little Clifton, under 
which allotments of land were given in Ueu of 

2 N 

^f)c tfavi»fi of ii)on0onl)8 

S bounded on the south, by the 

parish of Gosforth ; and on the 

north and west, by the Calder, 

^ which divides it from the parish 

' of St. Bridget's Beckermet. With 

■ the single exception of Waber- 
; thwaite, this is the least populous 

■ parisli in the Ward. It extends 
: about four miles in length, from 

oast to west, and from north to 
south, one nule and a half " The air here is 
particularly pleasant and salubrious ; insomuch, 
that a neighbouring physician, eminent both for 
his practice and knowledge, calls this the INIont- 
pellier of Cumberland." 

Until the latter end of the last century this 
parish was not well wooded ; but it was greatly 
improved in this and in other respects by George 
Edward Stanley, Esq., who was high-sheriff of 
the county in 1774. The Rev. jNIatthew Hall, 
in his account of this parish, written for Hutchin- 
son's (?) Cumberland, says : — " This parish has 
been greatly improved within these twenty 
years, since Mr. Stanley took up his residence 
here, who is, himself, very skilful in agriculture ; 
and gives every encouragement to his farmers, to 
prosecute that plan of husbandry, whicli is most 
likely to turn out to their own profit and advan- 


tage ; by which means his rents are not only well 
and exactly paid, but he has the satisfaction of 
seeing his grounds in a high and improved state 
of cultivation, and his farmers in a happy and 
flourishing condition, several of whom, the last 
year, had from 500 to 1000 stooks of wheat 
each, on ground which, upon JNIr. Stanley's com- 
ing to the estate, was entirely covered with furze 
and broom." 

The tame gentleman, George Edward Stanley, 
Esq., father of the present lord of the manor, 
Edward Stanley, Esq., M.P., planted on his estate 
here " upwards of one hundred thousand of dif- 
ferent sorts of forest trees," — a noble legacy for his 
descendants, as in too many parts of the kingdom, 
" the axe is often heard, but the planter is seldom 

The parish abounds with free-stone ; but it 
produces neither coal nor limestone, which are 
so plentiful in some of the adjoining parishes. 
" The scil, in general, is a hascl mould, but near 
the sea, a strong clay, and produces crops of 
wheat and other gram, inferior to few in the 
county." Mr. Ilousman says that about the 
latter end of the last century, lands here were let 
for about 155. per acre, on an average. Since 
that time they have been much improved, and 
are now let for about 23.s'. an acre. 

The Calder, which forms the northern and 
western boundary of the parish, is the only river; 
it is well supplied with salmon and trout. Mr. 
Stanley has a fishery at the mouth. This river, 
which flows near the picturesque ruins of Calder 
abbey, is remarkable for the beauty of the 
scenery presented by its wooded banks, while the 
2 N 2 


stream itself is half hidden by the luxuriant foHage 
of the trees. 

The parish is divided into two quarters or con- 
stablewicks, Ponsonby and Calder. The tene- 
ments were "mostly either purchased or enfran- 
chised" by George Edward Stanley, Esq. Two 
or three tenements in the parish of Gosforth 
belong to the manor of Ponsonby. In 1792, 
there was only one pauper in the parish, — an 
aged woman, in her one hundredth year. 

On Infell, a hill in this parish, are vestiges 
of castrametation, supposed to have been a 
Roman camp : but as the ground has not been 
explored, no antiquities have been found to de- 
termine its origin. 

From the year 1723 to 1743, the number of 
baptisms in this parish was SO ; funerals, during 
the same time, 57 ; and 19 marriages. From 
1771 to 1791, the baptisms were 78; funerals, 
38; and marriages, 21. 

This parish was the seat of, and gave name to, 
the ancient family of Ponsonby, originally named 
Ponson, who, at a subsequent period, settled at 
Hale-hall, (see page 56, and a pedigree in the 

The Manor. 

The manor of Ponsonby belonged, at a very 
early period, to the family of Ponson, afterwards 
called Ponsonby. Nicholas Stanleigh, lord of 
Austhwaite, " bought the manor and demesne of 
Ponsonby of Adam de Eskdale, as appeareth by 
deed, anno 11th of king Richard II., 13S8," since 
which time the manor has belonged to his family. 


through whom it has descended to the present 
lord, Edward Stanley, Esq., M.P. 

Stanley of Dalegarth and Ponsonby.* 

Arms: — Argent, on abend azure, cottiscd, vert, throe 
stags' heads cabossed, or; quartering the arms oi Ausihrcaite , 
Gules, two bars argent, in chief three mullets of six points 
pierced, or. 

Crest: — A stag's head argent, attired or, collared vert. 

Motto : — Sans changer. 

The family of Stanley is one of the most ancient in the 
kingdom, and occupies an eminent and conspicuous place in 
its history. Camden mentions them as having been of im- 
portance for at least half a century before the Conquest. 
This illustrious family is represented by the Stanleys of lloo- 
ton, CO. Chester, liaronets. One branch has furnished thir- 
teen Earls of Derby, of whom many have been knights of the 
most noble Order of the CJarter: the Stanleys of Cumber- 
land, andtheStanleysof Alderley park, co. Chester, Baronets, 
are also branches from the same stem, (see page 282). 

The Stanleys of Cumberland have been " located in the 
north for several centuries, and the most ancient of their 
estates in this county have descended through an unbroken 
succession of father and son over a period of not less than 
five hundred years, to the present proprietor." 

Henry Stanleigh deStoneley " lived about forty years before 
the Conquest, and for some years after." 

Henry do Stanleigh, son of Henry, is mentioned by Cam- 
den, as having large possessions confirmed to him by Henry 

William do Stanleigh, son of the above Henry, was suc- 
ceeded by his son, 

William de Stanleigh, " who is stilcd milite" and had two 
sons, William and Adam. 

* A pedigree of this family, on parchmeut, with the armorial bearings 
of fanulics with whom they have intermarried, is preserved at Ponsonby 
Hall ; it bears the autographs of Sir William Dugdalo, and Edmund 
Knight, Norroy. 


Sir Adam de Stanloigh, the younger son, succeeded to his 
father's estates ; he was succeeded by his son, 

Sir Willinm de Stanleigh, \vbo was stiled, William deStan- 
leigh, in the county of Stafford, and of Stourton, in the county 
of Ciicster, ^wi furcsliire forcsta, or chief-ranger in the forest 
of Wirral, by grant dated 1 0th Edward II. 131C),and " there- 
upon assumed the armorial bearings since used by his de- 
scendants, — three stags' heads on a bend." He married Joan, 
eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir Philip Baumville, lord 
of Stourton ; and by her had a son John, who succeeded hira. 

John Stanleigh, lord of Stanleigh, and of Stourton, married 

Mabil, daughter of Sir James Hansket, kuight, and had issue, 

Sir William, lord of Stanleigh and Stourton, 26th 

Edward III., 1322. He married Alice, daughter of 

Hugh Wassey, of Timperley, co. Chester, and had 

issue three sons: — 

1. William, who succeeded his father in the lord- 
ships of Stanleigh and Stourton, ancestor of the 
Stanleys of Ilooton, Baronets, the representa- 
tives of the family. He married Margery, 
daughter and heiress of William Ilooton of 

2. Sir John, K.G., second son, married Isabel, 
daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas Lathom, 
Lord of Lathom. From him derives the noble 
family of the Earls of Derby. 

3. Henry. 

John, ancestor of the Cumberland branch of this family. 

John Stanleigh, second son, purchased lands at Gres- 
withen (Greysoulhen), co. Cumberland, "and represented 
the city of Carlisle in parliament, 29th King Edward III."* 
His son and heir, 

John Stanleigh, of Greswilhcn, Esq., was living in the 

33rd Edward III. He bought lands in Erableton and 

Brackenthwaite, co. Cumberland, as appears by a deed, 
dated A.D. 1335. 

Nicholas Stanleigh, of Greswithen, Esq., son and heir, 
married Constance, daughter and heiress of Thomas de 
Austhwaite, lord of Austhwaite, now Dalegarth, in the parish 

• There is some error here, as Thomaa Stanley occurs as a burgess 
for the city of Carlisle at that date. 


of Millom, by whom he became possessed of that manor, as 
appears by a deed, dated, A.D. 1345. He "bought the 
manor and demesne of Ponsonby of Adam de Eskdale, as 
appeareth by deed, anno 11th of King Richard II., 1388." 
lie was succeeded by his son, 

Thomas Stanleigh, lord of Austhwaite, called in records, 
Stanlaw, who represented the city of Carlisle in parliament, 
25th Henry VI. 

Nicholas Stanleigh, lord of Austhwaite, son and heir, 
appears among the list of the gentry of the county returned 
by the commissioners, r2th Henry YI., 1433.* He was 
living in 1437. 

Thomis Stanley, of Dalcgartli, Esq., son and heir, mar- 
ried Ann, daughter of Sir Richard Iludlcston, of Millom 
castle, knight, by whom ho acquired certain lands called 
Hyton, as appears by deed, dated 38th Henry VI., 1437. 

William Stanley, of Dalogarth, Esq., son and heir, married 
Alice, daughter of Sir Richard Ducket, knight, and was 
living in the 17th Henry VII. He was succeeded by his 

Thomas Stanley, of Dalegarth,Esq., whomarried Margaret, 
third daughter of John Fleming, of Rydal, Esq., and had 

John, his successor. 

Thomas, who was appointed master of the mint in 1570, 
and obtained from his father tlie ancient family estates 
of Grcswithcn, Emblcton, and Brackcnthwaite. He 
married Lady Mytf'ord, relict of Sir James Mytford, 
knight, by whom he Iiad an only daughter and heiress, 
Mary, who married tlie Hon. Sir Edward Herbert, 
second son of William, Earl of Pembroke, after- 
wards created Earl of I'owis. 

John Stanley, Esq., eldest son of the above Tiiomas, mar- 
ried Margaret, daughter of Thomas Senhousc, Esq., and was 
succeeded by his son, 

Thomas Stanley, Esq., who purchased the manor of Birkby, 
in the parish of Muncaster, from liis cousin-gcrman, the 

♦ In the same list ajipears " Tho Stanley, Abbatis de Wederliill," 


Countess of Powis. He married Isabel, daughter of John 
Leake, of Edmonton, Esq. 

To this period the pedigree was certified by Edmund 
Kniglit, norroy king-at-arms. 

Edward Stanley, Esq., only son and heir, bought (from 
Sir Thomas Challoner) the tithes of Eskdale, Wasdale, and 
Wasdale-head, — three chapclries in St. Bees, on the disso- 
lution of the priory which gave name to the parish. He 
married Ann, daughter and co-heiress of Thomas Briggs, of 
Cawmire, co. Westmorland, Esq. 

John Stanley, Esq., his successor, was an active and zeal- 
ous niyalist,* and as such was heavily fined by the parliament ; 
but the penalty is said to have been subsequently mitigated. 
The following certificates, which are still preserved by his 
family, at Ponsonby-hall, are strongly indicative of the 
troubled times on which he fell. — 

L. S. 
Whereas it appeareth by certificate, under the hand of Mr. 
Lceck, dated January the 29th, 1648, that John Stanley of 
Dalegarlh, in the county of Cumberland, Esquire, hath com- 
pounded and paide in, and secured his fine, at the committee 
at Gold Smith's hall : these arc therefore to require you, on 
sight hereof, to forbear to ofl'er any violence to his person, 
or to any of iiis family, at his house at Dalegarth, in the 
county of Cumberland, or to take away any of his horses, or 
other things, they doing nothing prejudicial to the parlia- 
ment or army. — Given under my hand and seal the 1st of 
February, 1648. 

To all Officers and Souldiers under 
tny commajtd. 

L. S. Si.K quarterings. 

Whereas John Stanley of Dalegarth, in the county of 
Cuniberhind, Esquire, hath subscribed to his composition, 
and (laid and secured his fine, according to the direction of 
parliament : these are therefore to require and command 
you, to permit and suifer him and his servants, quietly to 

« It will scarcely be necessary to remind the reader of a member of 
another branch of this family — James, seventh Earl of Derby, who was 
beheaded fur hU loyalty, at BoUoa, A.D. iC51. 


pass into Dalegarlh abovcsaid, with their horses and swords, 
and to forbear to molest or trouble him, or any of his 
familie there ; without seizing or taking away any of his 
horses or other goods, or estate whatsoever ; and to permit 
and suffer him or any of his family, at any tyme, to pass to 
any place, about his or tlieir occasions, without offering any 
injury or violence to him or any of his family, either at Dale- 
garth, or in his or their travells, as you will answer your 
contempt at your utmost pcrills — Given under my hand and 
seal, this second of February, 1648. 


To all Officers and Souldiers, and all others, 
whom these may concern. 

Mr. Stanley purchased the manor of Rirker, in the parish 
of Millom, still holdeii by his family, and obtained a grant 
from the crown of a fair and weekly market at Havcnglass. 
He married, lirstly, Mary, daughter of Thomas Stanley, of 
Lee, CO. Sussex, Esq. ; and secondly, Dorothy, daughter of 
Henry Felherstonhaugh, of Fetherstonhaugh, co. Northum- 
berland, Esq. 

Edward Stanley, Esq., son and heir, was one of the gentle- 
men chosen by Charles IL to be invested with the projected 
Order of the Royal Oak. Mr. Stanley was high-sheriff of 
the county and proclaimed William IIL He married 
Isabel, eldest daughter of Thomas Curwen, of Sella Park, 

John Stanley, Esq., son and heir, bought the advowson of 
the rectory of Ponsonby, with the tithes and church-lands 
thereunto belonging, and valuable estates in that parish. On 
his marriage (A.D. 1689) he built (the old) Ponsonby Hall, 
whither ho removed from Dalegarlh, the ancient residence 
of his family. Mr. Stanley married Dorothy, one of the co- 
heiresses of Edward Holt, Esq., of Wigau, co. Lancaster, 
by whom he had issue ihree sons, 
Edward, his successor. 

John, in holy orders, rector of Workington, who marri- 
ed Clara, daughter of John Philipson, Esq., of Cal- 
gartli, CO. A\'estmorland, and had a son, Edward (living 
1791), «ho married Julia,daughter of John Christian, 
Esq., of Unerigg, by whom he had several children. 
Holt, a lieutenant in Rrigadier-Gencral AVcntworth's 
rcgimont of loot, died unmarried, in the expedition 
against Porto Hello. 

2 o 


Mr. Stanley was succeeded by his eldest son, 

Edward Stanley, Esq., who was born in the year 1690. He 
married (1737) Mildred, youngest daughter of Sir George 
Fleming, Bart., Lord Bishop of Carlisle, who survived him, 
and was buried in the south aisle of the cathedral church of 
Carlisle, where there is a monument to her memory. By his 
said wife Mr. Stanley had issue, 

George-Edward, his successor. 

Dorothy, married to Lieutenant Joseph Dacre, eldest 
son of Joseph Dacre, Esq. of Kirklinton, who died 
without issue in the year of her marriage, and was 
also buried in the cathedral church of Carlisle. 
And four other daughters, who all died unmarried. 
Mr. Stanley died in the year 1751, and was succeeded by 
his only son. 

George-Edward Stanley, Esq., was born in March, 1748. 
He built the present mansion-house, was high-sheriff of the 
county in 1774, and married (in the same year) Dorothy, 
youngest daughter of Sir William Fleming, of Rydal-hall, 
Bart., (who died in 1786, and was buried in the church of 
Ponsonby, see monument) by whom he had issue, 


Mr. Stanley married, secondly, in 1789, Elizabeth, second 
daughter of Morris Evans, co. Middlese-x, Esq., by whom 
he had issue, 

Edward, his successor. 

George, born 1791. 

Jane, born 1792. 
Mr. Stanley died in 1806, and was succeeded by his eldest 
son, the present lord of the manor. 

Edward Stanley, Esq., M.P., was born in 1790, and suc- 
ceeded to the estates on the death of iiis father, 17th Novem- 
ber, 1806. In December, 1821, Mr. Stanley married Mary, 
daughter of William Douglas, Esq., one of the judges in the 
East Indies, and has had issue, 

Edward, born September, 1822, ob. 1825. 



Helen le Fleming. 

William, born 14ih September, 1829. 

George-Edward, born 21st November, 1831. 

Henry, died young. 



Douglas- Austhwaite. 
Mr. Stanlc)' is a magistrate and deputy-lieutenant of the 
county of Cumberland, and filled the office of high-sheriff in 
1823. lie has been returned knight of the shire for West 
Cumberland in several parliaments. Mr. Stanley is the 
twenty-fourth in lineal descent from Henry Stanleigh da 
Stoneley, " who lived forty years before the Conquest." 


Ponsonby Hall, the scat of Edward Stanley, 
Esq. M.P., was built about the year 17S0, by the 
father of the present proprietor. It is situated 
about half a mile from C'alder bridge ; the park 
is entered through a gateway, the pillars of which 
are surmounted by the crest of the family. The 
hall is seated on the summit of an eminence, and 
commands an extensive and varied prospect of 
sea and land, including the beautiful ruins of 
Calder abbey, the "Welsh mountains, and the 
Isle of Man. The entablature of the portico is 
supported by four columns, thirteen and a half 
feet in height, each cut from one solid block of 
stone. A very curious carved oak bed-stead is 
preserved here, which was brought from Dale- 
garth-liall (see page 179); the pillars are massy, 
and the carving is unusually rich. On the cor- 
nice are shields charged with the arms of Stanley 
quartered with Austhwaite ; it bears the date 
1345, rudely carved on the back, and may be 
considered as one of the most curious in the 

The ajiartments contain many valuable paint- 
ings, including six on copper, by Holbein, — 
Henry ^ HI., Ann Boleyn, his queen, Chaucer, 
Ben Jonson, Latimer,and Cranmer; JohnStanley, 
2 o 2 


Esq. the royalist, (see page 2S4) ; Sir George 
Fleming, Bart, Lord Bishop of Carlisle, by Van- 
derbank; the late George Edward Stanley, Esq., 
by Opie ; and his lady, by Romney ; Edward 
Stanley, Esq., M.P., by Lonsdale ; and Mrs. 
Stanley, by Mrs. Carpenter ; Henry, Lord Vis- 
count Lonsdale ; and Mrs. Dacre, aunt of Mr. 
Stanley (see page 286). 

The gardens are laid out with great taste, and 
are rich in choice flowers and shrubs. No pen, 
however, can do justice to the sceneiy on the 
banks of the Calder : overhung by luxuriant trees, 
beneath which winding paths lead to the stream 
dashing over its rocky bed, it presents remarkable 
combinations of beauty with grandeur, rendering 
it one of those delightful places which when once 
seen are never forgotten. The walks embrace 
both sides of the river, whose troubled yet trans- 
parent waters are crossed by a rustic bridge. 

The Church. 

The church of Ponsonby was given by John 
Fitz-Ponson to the priory ofConishead in Furness. 
In a list of the possessions of that house ( Valor 
Ecdesiusticiis, Henry VHL) this church is enter- 
ed as follows : — 

Decitn' ecclie. de Ponsonby viz. granos. etfeni "^ 

Ixxiij*. m]d. Ian' Sc agn' xls. vitul' procell'/ £ s. d. 
auc' & gallin' iiijs. oblac' vijs. viijc/. privai'S vij viij iiij 
& rainut' decim' ut in libro pascliali xxiijs.C 
iiijc/. In tot' } 

In the year 16S9, "a presentation from the 
crown was procured to this church as a vicarage. 


but afterwards revoked, and there was none be- 
fore that in the institution books." 

The hving was certified to the governors of 
Queen Ann's bounty at 91. 12s., viz: 6/. paid by 
tlie impropriator ; 3/. given by William Cleator, 
M. D., for monthly sermons ; and 2.v. surplice 


In 1717, it "was certified that the said Wil- 
liam Cleator, abovementioned, who was doctor of 
physic, gave by his will, 100/. to the minister for 
preaching twelve sermons every year, till the 
impropriation should be restored to the church, 
and then to go to a school in the parish. And 
the executors refusing to pay the money, the 
minister sued and recovered it in chancery, with 
20/. arrears of interest ; 9/. of this money was 
then lost, and 13/. thereof in the hands of the 
churchwardens not disposed of. The rest was 
laid out in lands."* 

In 1789, "the income was 22/. besides the 
surplice fees, viz. G/. paid by the impropriator ; 
12/. the rent of an estate called Nun-house, in 
the parish of Dent, Yorkshire, (now let for 15/. 
15s.) purchased with 200/. obtained by lot, from 
the governors of the bounty of Queen Anne, in 
the year 1711 ; and 1/. being the interest of an- 
other sum of 200/. obtained also by lot, in the 
year 1780, and those undisposed of in lands."f 

In the following year, " a benefaction of 200/. 
was procured by Mr. Stanley's interest; with 
which 200/. more was obtained from the gover- 
nors of the bounty of Queen Anne. In 1791, 
the further sum of 200/. fell to the said church 

• Nicolfon and Bum. t HulcUinson, 


by lot ; and on or before the 25th of March, 
1792, Mr. Stanley obtained by his interest, a 
further benefaction of 200/. which being placed 
in Queen Anne's funds, obtained from the gover- 
nors 200/. now making altogether, the sum of 
1200/. which was laid out in the year 1793, in 
the purchase of a freehold and tithe-free estate, 
called Green-moor-side, situate in the parish of 
St. Bridget (Beckermet). The premises are 
well built, contain between sixty and seventy 
acres of arable land, and are not more than one 
mile and a quarter from Ponsonby church."* 

The benefice is a perpetual curacy, in tlie im- 
propriation and patronage of Edward Stanley, 
Esq., M.P. The resident curate is the Rev. 
Clement Fox. " There is no register in this 
parish of an earlier date than 1723 !" 

List of Incumbents. 

George Cannell,f occurs 1723. 

1789 Matthew Hall. 
18.. John Gaitskell, B.A. 
1829 John Fleming.+ 

The Church of Ponsonby, dedicated in honor 
of , is situated in the park, about the cen- 
tre of the parish, and at a short distance from the 
hall. It is an ancient structure, but has been 

• Hutchinson, 
f Of Trinity college, Dublin. Mr. Cannell was "so expert a mathe- 
matician, that after he became blind he could have solved any problem in 
Euclid. He performed the duties of his church, and taught a school in 
tie parish, for many years after he lost his sight." 

X Vicar of Llangwym, co. Monmouth. 



much modernized in its appearance ; it consists 
of a nave and chancel of equal height, with a 
tower and spire at its western end, beneath which 
is the entrance. The chancel-arch is pointed, 
and the pulpit and reading-desk are placed beneath 
it one on each side. The east window contains 
some stained glass :— the arms of " Stanly e and 
Bri^^'e"* and of " Hutton and Brigge," and the 
armTand crest of the Stanley family. There are 
also some other fragments ; all of which appear 
to have been preserved from an older building ; 
probably some might be brought from Dalcgarth 
hall, which was the ancient seat of the Stanleys. 
The' old oak roof has been recently concealed by 
a new ceiling ; when the antique windows, of all 
sizes and styles, were replaced by modern inser- 
tions The tower and spire were erected m 1 S4U, 
by Edward Stanley, Esq. IVI.P., the impropriator 
and patron of the living. The church-yard being 
surrounded by a ha-ha-fence, the prospect across 
the park is unbroken by walls. On the south- 
side of the church are the remains of a cross ; 
little, however, is now left to indicate the pro- 
bable' period of its erection. 

A brass plate on the north wall ot the nave 
bears this inscription : — 

jBjtrc Iprtfi tf)e toSijr of fiances patrjifUson Daugfj^ 
trr to gir CfiamaB ff.MIjpct, bniglit, onr of tlir most 
hoiiorab'.r jiybc Comufll to Ugngf ficncrjiE tl)c bttt. 
Somr tiimc toyfc of Cfiomas ligftc of craUifr.& at tfit 
Uac of i)cv licati), toufc of asaniiam patrpcUoon, gentleman. 

. Edward Stanley. Esq. son of Thomas, married Ann, daughter and 
coheiress of Thomas Briggs, Esq. of Caumire. co. Westmorland, (see 


(Soi gabc tfiis tonfr a tsnntic to ]irasc, in gronrs anO yangs of itti, 
& to (rabrn rlrbating fianBs ants nus, sinnUnglBC to prill trctti ; 
anl) tjus at agr of Ibi. to giabc sfir tolic f)cr hiauf, 
©oil graiitc tfjat s5c & tor man mrtr, tn joyr at tfif last liape. 
Sfie liBeJl tfie ibt. of jJuUi, in ttjt gcie of our Horli, 1&78. 

On the south side of the chancel is a mural 
monument of white marble, bearing this inscrip- 
tion : — 

Here rest in peace 

the transient Remains of 


the Wife of 


of Ponsonby-hall, Esquire, 

the Daughter of 

Sir William Fleming 

of Rydal-hall, Baronet; 

She died 

July 10—1786, 

Aged 30. 

The remembrance of her virtues, 

like her person 

exquisitely amiable, 

is stamped upon the minds 

of her sorrowing connexions 

in a character 

bold and indelible. 

Near the above is another mural monument 
which is thus inscribed — 


this Church 

are deposited the remains of 


■with whose benevolence 

as a 


in all the social duties of 

Husband, Father, and Friend, 


■were happily blended 

the refined manners 

of the 


He departed this life, 

Nov. 17, 1806, 

Aged 59, 

transmitting to his son, 

■who with veneration erects this tablet 

to his memory, 

A name and property, 

honorably upheld through many 

a Generation. 

On the same wall, farther eastward, is a free- 
stone tablet, with arms, and two rude figures, to 
the memory of Thomas Curwen, Esq., oh. 1633, 
son of Sir llenrv Curwen, of Workington-hall, 
knight; the whole surrounded by a moulding 
enriched with the tooth ornament, of a much 
older date, and apparently removed for that pur- 

In the church-yard, on the south side of the 
church, is a gravestone, bearing the following 
remarkable inscription, which records an honor- 
able instance of self-denial, well deserving of being 
placed on record: — 

Within this Tomb is contained all that was mortal of JOHN FLET- 
CHKU of Struddabank, who willingly laid down His frail corruptible 
Body in the dust, because he firmly believ'd it would be restored to him 
again incorruptible and full of Glory. As to liis conversation the last 
Day will dUcover what manner of man he was. He marryed Anne 
daughter to William & Elizabeth Mawson, by y^hom he had one son ; 
Short were the joys of his marriage state, but many. Laborious and full 
of trouble the Days, of his widdowhood, But as the love of his son brought 
all these upon him, so he cheerfully underwent them to procure for him 
a most Liberal Education ; Nor was he disappointed in his wishes, for 
notwithstanding the narrowness of his Circumstances, he gave him Eleven 

2 p 


years University Education, and liv'd to see him Chaplain of Queen's 
College in Oxford. This stone was placed by order of his gratcfull and 
sorrowfull son, to perpetuate so rare an Instance of Paternal affection so 
far beyond the Father's abilities, and of so uncommon a Desire in a man 
of his Education to Promote Religion and Learning. He was Bom in 
Wasdale-Head, liv'd 73 years, and dyed on the 5th of August — Anno 
Dom: 1716. 

Thus man lieth down & riseth not till y Heavens be no more. 

B Cole, Oxon Feet.— 

Cijr iJaris!) of ©oefortt 

ONTAINS the four town- 
ships or constablewicks of 
Gosforth, Boonwood and 
Seascale, High Bolton, and 
Low Bolton. It extends 
about five miles in length, 
and two in breadth ; and is 
-»--=:— s^^- bounded on the west, by 
the Iri'stni^a ; on the south, by the parishes of 
Dri<^g and Irton ; on the east, by the parish ot 
Irton and the chapclry of Nethev-AVasdale ; and 
on the north, by the parish of Ponsonby. 

It appears from the register that m the year 
1599, upwards of one hundred deaths ocurred m 
this parish, which at that period contained only 
about GOO or 700 inhabitants. This great mor- 
tality was probably occasioned by the plague, as 
that terrible scourge visited several parts ot 
Cumberland at about the same period. 

The population of this parish, at Easter, lb40, 
was 1011, as taken by the Ilev. Francis Ford 
Pinder, M.A. the rector, who has in his possession 
a Pictish axe of stone, which was found here a lew 
years since in a moss. A copper battle-axe was 
also found at the depth of four feet in the moss 
at Bolton Wood. . 

This parish, although not mountainous, has 
rather a high situation ; it consists chiefly of a 
2 p 2 


light reel sandy soil, and abounds \\itli freestone. 
Neither coal nor limestone are found here. The 
lands were enclosed under an act of parliament 
passed in 1810, by which allotments were made 
to the rector in lieu of tithes. By that act also 
six acres of land were allotted for the purpose of 
holding the two annual fairs at Boonwood ; — on 
the 25th of April, for horned cattle ; and on the 
18th of October for foals and cattle. 

The poor-stock belonging to this parish was 
certified in 1717, of the value of 24/. the interest 
of which was distributed annually at Easter : 25s. 
per annum are now paid from this source. 

The village of Gosforth, which is irregularly 
built, is near the road from ^^llitehaven to Ul- 
verston, six miles S.S.E. of Egremont, and five 
miles north of Ravenglass. Near the village is a 
modern mansion — the seat of Sir Humphrey le 
Fleming Senhouse, K.C.H. and C.B., a younger 
brother of Sampson Senhouse, Esq. of the Par- 
sonage, Ponsonby. 

Near Seascale is the site of a Druid's temple, 
the stones of which were all removed and buried 
by a person who farmed the Seascale-hall estate, 
excepting one which was left standing. 

The Manor of Gosforth. 

Mr. John Denton says, " above Dregg lies the 
parish, manor, and town of Gosford, wliereof the 
Gosfords, an ancient family in tliose parts, took 
their sirname ; Robert Gosford, the last of their 
house, left his lands to be divided amongst five 
coheirs ; 1 st, Mariotte, the wife of Allan Caddy, 
eldest daughter and coheir of Robert Gosford. — 


2nd, Isabel, the wife of Henry Ilustock, his second 
daughter. — 3rd, Johan, the wife of John Garth, 
his third daughter. — 1th, Ellen, the wite of Wil- 
ham Kirby, his fourth daughter. — And 5th, John 
Multnn, the son of Agnes Eastholme, the fifth 
daughter and coheir of Robert Gosford. In the 
2nd year of King Edward III. Sarah, the widow 
of Ptobert Leybourn, held Caddy's part ; John 
Penyston, Kirkby's part ; and the said John Mul- 
ton the residue ; but now Pennington, Kirkby, 
and Senhouse of S°askall, hold it.'' 

Mr. Robert Copley — who was for seventeen 
years steward to Sir William Pennington of 
Muncaster, during his minority, and who held 
the office of chief-bailiff of Copeland forest under 
the Earl of Northumberland — purchased Kirkby's 
part, and is said to have " built a large handsome 
house, with orchards and gardens suitable," which, 
in 177G, were represented as "much in decay." 

Gosforth Hall, which formerly belonged to the 
Gosforths or Ciosfords, closely adjoins the church, 
and is now occupied as a farm-house. The pre- 
sent structure was probably built by the Copleys, 
about the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Over an 


old chimney-piece, in a knot, are the initials y> y 

(Richard and Jane Copley) and the date 1673. 

The family of Gosforth became extinct early 
in the fourteenth century : the coheiresses mar- 
ried Caddy, Ilustock, Garth, Kirkby, and Est- 
holme, as stated above. 

The Manor or Bolton. 

This manor in the reign of Edward I. belonged 


to the Waybergthwaites ; and in the 23rd year 
of that reign WiUiam de Waybergthwaiteheld 10/. 
lands there, of Thomas de INIulton of Gilsland, 
and his land in M'aybergthvvaite of the lord of 

In the 35th Henry 8. William Kirkby held the 
manor of Bolton of the king as of his castle of 
Egremont, by knight's service, paying yearly 10s. 
cornage, and seawake, homage, suit of court, and 
witnessman. At the same time he held lands 
and tenements in Gosforth and Cleator, by the 
like homage, fealty, and suit of court, and paying 
to the king a fee farm rent of 8s. for the lands in 
Gosforth, and 2*. for the lands in Cleator ; and 
2,v. sea'wake, and also puture of two Serjeants. 

It was afterwards the estate of Lancelot Sen- 
house, whose father was third brother of the house 
of Seascales, and he liad it by grant from the 
lord thereof, his brother.* 

Charles Lutwidge, Esq., (in 1777) and his 
younger brothers, Henry and Admiral SkefRngton, 
were successively proprietors of this manor. It 
was sold after the death of Henry, and purchased 
by the Admiral,f from whom it descended to his 
nephew. Major Skefhngton Lutwidge, the present 

The Manor of Seascale and Newton. 

Seascale was anciently the seat of the family 
of SenhouseJ who possessed it for many genera- 

• Nicolson and Bum. t See page 204. 

I A pedigree of this ancient family will be given in Dcrwent Ward, 
under the parish of Cross-Canonby, in which they have resided for about 
a century and a half. 



tions. In 168S it was the seat of John Senhouse, 
Esq., and was subsequently purchased by Mr. 
Bhiylock, a Whitehaven merchant, whose daugh- 
ter and heiress married Augustus Earl, Esq. from 
whom it passed to his two sisters, cohcu-esses, 
and eventually to the Lutwidge family. Atter 
the death of Charles Lutwidge, Esq. the manor 
of Newton and Seascale was purchased by Samp- 
son Senhouse, Esq., of London, (nephew ot the 
late Humphrey Senhouse, Esq., ot Netherhall) 
whose younger brother. Sir Humphrey le Fleming 
Senhouse, K.C.IL, C.B., is the present lord. The 
mansion, Seascale-hall, is now a farm-house. On 
the wall is an escutcheon, cut in stone, ot the 
arms of Senhouse quartered with Ponsonby with 
the initials T. S. and M. S. and the date 1G06. 
It is remarkable that the arms of Senhouse as 
put up here are— party per pale, argent and 
gules, on the tirst a parrot, and not (as now 
borne by the family) or, a parrot proper. 

The Church. 

The benetice is a rectory, rated in the King's 
Books at 17/. Us. I'l. and was certitied to the 
governors of Queen Ann's bounty at the clear 
yearly improved value of 35/. 

lu'the Sth Edward III., William Pennington, 
of Muncaster, Esq., died seized of the advowson 
of this church. Afterwards, the patronage ap- 
pears to have been in the crown ; and in the Otli 
Edward VI., the said king, by his letters patent, 
granted the advowson and right of patronage to 
Ferf'us Greyme, gentleman, his heirs and assigns. 
And" in the Gth Elizabeth, March 22, there was 


a licence to Fergus Greyme to alienate the same 
(holden of the queen in cap'ite) to Thomas Sen- 
house, gentleman, for the fine of 16s. lOr/. paid 
into the hanaper. 

The advowson and right of patronage of this 
rectory and church was acquired, 6th Elizabeth, 
by Thomas Senhouse, Esq., and the church is 
now in the patronage of Sir Humphrey le Flem- 
ing Senhouse, K.C.H. and C.B. (captain of H. 
M. S. Blenheim) as lord of the manor of Sea- 
scale. On the enclosure of the commons (under 
an act passed in 1810), lands were allotted to 
the rector in lieu of tithes. The living is entered 
as follows in the Valor Ecclesiastic us of Henry 
VHI :— 

Gosforthe Rectoria Eccl'ie. 

Edw'dus Kcllett incumbeiis Rector' p'dca. 
valet ia £ s d 

Mansione cum gleba per an- ^ ' •■ 

num S ' ' ^ 

Decim' granos. vij/. ijs. viijrf. 
Ian' et agnell' iiij/. xiiJA'. 

minut' et privat' decim''^ . 

oblac' lit in libr" ^ ' J J 

pascbal' iiij/. 
In tot' 




£ , 

>xviij - 


Eepris' viz in 
Sinod' ijs. jd. procurac' iiij*\ \d. 

Et valet clare 
Xma. ps. iudo 





— XXXV vob' 

List of Rectors. 

Edward Kellett, occurs, 1535. 

1662 John Benn. 
1676 Thomas Morland. 


1738 Peter Murthwaite. 

1774 Charles C. Church. 

1809 Henry Bragg, oh. 1827. 

1827 James Lowther Senhouse, M.A.* 

1835 Francis Ford Pindar, M.A.f 

The Church of Gosforth, a remarkably neat 
structure, dedicated in honor of St. Mary, under- 
went a very extensive repair, a considerable por- 
tion having been rebuilt, in 1789, by which nearly 
all its marks of antiquity were effaced. It consists 
of a nave and chancel, of equal height. The 
western end is surmounted by a bell-turret (carry- 
ing two modern bells), which formed part of the 
old building, and bears the date 1654. The 
chancel-arch also remains: it is pointed; the 
piers are Norman, with grotesque heads, and the 
architrave may be of the time of the second or 
thiid i:dward. The chancel extended several 
yards farther eastward, until the alterations were 
effected in 1789. The windows are all modern 
and barbarous in design. The bell-turret stood 
formerly at the east end of the nave, and was at 
that time removed to its present position. The 
church is crowded with three galleries ; that at 
the west end contains an organ. The font is 
uncanonical both in size and situation, — it is not 
sufficiently capacious, and it is placed near the 
altar, (sec pages 132—135). In an old chest on 
the staircase is a black letter copy of the Book of 
Homilies, folio, 1G33. The registers commence 
in 1571. 

• Of Trinity College, Camtridgc ; resigned in 1836 : now vicar of 
Sawlcy, CO. Derbysliire. 

t Of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

2 Q 


The only monument in the church is one on 
the north wall of the chancel, — a marble tablet, 
with this inscription : — 


youngest daughter of 

Robert Allan, of Eclinliurgh, Banker, and 

Wife of Charles Pahker, of Parknook, 

Died the 11th of February 1825, 

Aged thirty-nine. 

'■Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord." 

Rev. 14 c. 13 V. 

In the church-yard, on the south side of the 
church, is a cross of British or Danish origin.* 
It is fourteen feet in height ; and about fourteen 
inches mean diameter ; the lower part, which is 
fixed in a pedestal of three steps, is rounded, but 
the upper part, being rather more than half the 
length, is nearly square. The summit is perforated 
with four holes. " The four sides, are enriched 
with various guilloches, and other ornaments, 
besides several figures of men and animals in bas- 
relief ; it is remarkable that the figure of a man 
on horseback on the north side is repeated upside 
down, and another is represented in the same 
manner, on the west side." There was formerly 
" a fellow column, at about seven feet distance, 
with an horizontal stone between the two, on 
which was rudely cut the figure of a large and 
antique sword. This stone has been taken away 
within memory [in 1799]; and the cross which 
crowned the two columns, after that column was 
cruelly cut down and converted into a style for 
a sun-dial, was put into the parson's garden of 

• Engraved in Lysons's Magna Britannia, and in the Gentleman's 
Magazine, 1790. 


Gosforth and there remains."* On the column 
which was destroyed were two indistinct "figures 
of horses and men." The cross and the pillar 
were probably placed at each end of a grave, at 
some very remote period, like the two pillars in 
the church-yard of Penrith (see vol. i. Leath 
Ward, page 57). 

The present rector, the Rev. Francis Ford 
Pinder, M.A. has in his possession fragments of 
one or two other crosses, supposed to have been 
found in different parts of the church-yard. They 
appear by their workmanship to have been erected 
at least at as early a period as before the Con- 
quest ; and are probably portions of the cross 
which was destroyed. 

The church-yard is kept in good order : neither 
nettles nor rubbish-heaps are allowed to offend 
the eye within the consecrated enclosure. Two 
aged yew-trees stand to the east of the church. 
The church-yard affords an extensive prospect, 
terminating iu tlie east by a magnificent mountain 
range. The rectory-house is a pleasant residence, 
closely adjoining the church-yard. 

• Gentleman's Magazine, Oct. 1799. 

2 Q 2 

Ctie 13ari0t) of St. J»ritjgct, 

HE parish of St. Bridget, 
Beckermet, is of a long 
narrow shape, extending 
east and west nearly eight 
miles, hut its breadth in 
no pai't exceeding one mile 
and a half. It is bounded 
on the south-east by the 
'Calder, which divides it 
from the parish of Pon- 
sonby ; on the west, by the Irish sea ; on the 
north, by the parishes of Hale and St. John's, and 
on the east, by the mountains ofCopeland Forest. 
The parish is not divided into townships : it con- 
tains part of the villages of Beckermet and Cal- 
der-Bridge, and the hamlets of Yotton-Fews, 
Sella-Field, and Skalderskew. 

The soil of the western part of this parish is 
light and fertile ; but towards the east, nearer the 
fells, it is cold and barren. Neither lime nor coal 
are found here, but the parish contains some 
quarries of free-stone. At tlie latter end of the 
last century the rents of the land in this ])arish 
averaged only 15.^. per acre. There is a salmon- 
fishery at the mouth of the Calder. Sella-field 
tarn, in this parish, is a small lake, containing 
perch and other fish. Towards the eastern ex- 


tremity of the parish are Cald-fell (the source of 
the Calder) and AVasdale-fells, which afford pas- 
ture for hirge flocks of sheep. 

The following is Mr. Sandford's account of this 
parish : — " Two miles southward you have the 
little river of Cawdcr, a pretty stone bridge but 
of one arch, and a church upon the hill above it, 
and the said river, a little above the bridge, com- 
ing thoroogh the abbie of Cawder,who3e ruins shew 

their antiquity and and sometime after 

the fatal fall of Abbies, this came into the liands 
and possession of the late judge Ilutton of the 
Comon pleas [?] and he exchanged it with Monsr. 
Kighlcy of Yorkshire, for Goldsborow in York- 
shire, a little i'rom Wetherby : where the said 
judge Hutton's name and fame hves at this 

The Manor of Great Beckermet 

Is so called to distinguish it from the manor of 
Little Beckermet, in the adjoining parish of St. 
John. Tliis manor has constantly attended the 
demesne of the barony of Egremont ; it was 
the property of the late Earl of Egremont, by 
whom it was bequeathed, with his other Cum- 
berland estates, to his son, Major-Gencral Henry 
Wyndham, of Cockermouth castle, the present 

One estate, however, called Calder lordship, in 
which the church is situated, is held under the 
Earl of Lonsdale. 

• MS. Dean and Chapter Library, Carlisle. 

306 allerdale ward, above derwent. 
Sella Park. 

Sella Park is an ancient retired mansion-house, 
one mile and a half from the mouth of the Calder. 
This was formerly the property of the monks of 
the adjoining abbey of Calder, who had here a 
deer-park. On the dissolution of chantries. Sella 
Park was granted to Sir Henry Curwen, of Work- 
ington, knight, (knight of the shire 6th Edward VI. 
and 1st Elizabeth) whose gi'andson Darcy Curwen, 
Esq. built the present dwelling, now occupied as 
a farm-house. Having been purchased from that 
family by George Edward Stanley, Esq. of Pon- 
sonby-hall, it is now the property of his son, 
Edward Stanley, Esq. M.P. 

Mr. Sandford speaks of it as " a pretty house 
called Scella park hall ; But neither parke nor 
deer about it, but brave sport with riding and 
striking of fflounders and other fish, with fishers 
in the shallow river running brood upon the sand; 
which sport I myself have been at ; and have 
seen two men, one at either end of the nett, the 
tide coming upon the sands, wade into the sea 
with a nett of a great compass, till the waves have 
stroke above their sholders, so as you could see 
nothing but their heads, and bring forth some- 
times pretty store of salmon, codlins, killings, and 
other fishes, and sometimes nothing."* 

The Church. 

The church of St. Bridget was appropriated to 
the adjoining abbey of Calder, previous to the 

• MS. Dean and Chapter Library, Carlisle. 


year 1262. Until the dissolution of that abbey, 
this parish, and those of St. John's and Arlecdon, 
(see page 16,) were under the spiritual care of 
the monks of that house. On the dissolution of 
religious houses, the parish was left nearly desti- 
tute, as the revenues of tlie church were not 
restored, but granted to the Flemings of Rydal : 
so that from this time until about the year 1S38, 
tbe adjoining parishes of St. Bridget and St. John 
were under the spiritual care of one curate, who 
officiated in each church alternately. In the 
time of Bishop Bridgman, who held the see of 
Chester from 1619 to 1657, these two parishes 
paid synodals and procurations jointly ; but, since 
that time, they have been exempt, "by reason of 
their poverty." The church of St. Bridget was 
certified to the governors of Queen Ann's bounty 
of the clear annual value of 11. 

John Fleming, Esq. gave the church of St. 
Bridget to Sir Jordan Crossland, knight, on his 
marriage with his daughter; whose daughters 
and coheiresses sold it to Richard Patrickson, Esq. 
It afterwards passed to the families of Todd and 
Gaitskell; and in IS 10, was purchased by Thomas 
Irwin, Esq. of Calder abbey. 

The living is not entered in the I'alor EccJesi- 
asticus of Henry \TII. excepting as being appro- 
priated to Calder abbey. 

This church is detached from the village of 
Beckermet ; from which it is distant about half 
a mile south-west. It stands in a lonely situation, 
and although not on a low ground, yet scarcely a 
house can be seen from the church-yard. The 
church is an ancient edifice, but like many others 
in this county, its antiquity has been carefully 


concealed by modernizing improvements. It con- 
sists of a nave and chancel : at the west end, over 
the entrance, is a bell-turret, carrying two bells. 
The chancel-arch is pointed, with plain mould- 
ings ; beneath it are placed the pulpit and read- 
ing-desk. There are no monuments in the interior. 
The oak-roof was covered about the year 1S08, 
by a plaster ceiling, as dazzling as white-wash 
can make it. This is probably the concluding 
improvement. At the same the church was pewed. 
The south porch has been destroyed — probably 
under the idea that it was no longer necessary to 
have an appendage to the churcli which modern 
religious utilitarians consider as convenient only 
for scraping shoes in. There was formerly a 
narrow square-headed door on the south side of 
the chancel : this is blocked up ; as also two 
windows of two round-headed lights each, under 
square dripstones. 

On the south side of the church-yard are two 
stone pillars, in close juxtaposition, each fixed 
in a large flat stone ; the lower part of each is 
round, the upper part square : one of them, five 
feet eight inches high, is ornamented with the 
double guilloche, so common among the Roman 
architectural ornaments ; the other with an elegant 
double scroll, enriched with foliage on the east 
side : and on the west, are the remains of an inscrip- 
tion, apparently Saxon, but in too decayed a state 
to afford any satisfactory conjecture as to its 
import ; it is probably only a fragment, as the 
upper part of each of these pillars is broken off.* 

A new church is now being erected at Calder- 

• Lysons. 



Bridi^c, in this parish, at the sole expence of 
Thoinas Irwin, Esq. of Calder-abbey. The lo- 
cahty of the old church being very inconvenient 
for the parishioners, IMr. Irwin has been induced 
to erect another in a more central part of the 
parish. It is in the form of a cross, and has a 
tower with four pinnacles at the end. The wm- 
dows are narrow lancets. It is in a crowded site-, 
and has no room for a burial ground. 

Calder Abbey, 

Caldcr abbey was founded A.D. 1134, by 
Ranulph de Meschincs (the second of that name), 
for monks of the Cistercian oidcr,* and dedi- 
cated (as was usual with houses of that order) in 
honor of the blessed Virgin Mary. Leland 
speaks of it, as " Caldher abbey of whyte monks 
yn Copcland, not very far from St. Beges and 
nere to Egremont Castle." Mr. John Denton 
says, " howbcit, I think it was not perfected till 
Thomas de Multon linished the Avorks, and cstab- 
Ushed a greater convent of monks there." 

This was a filiation from the abbey of St. Mary, 
in Furness,t and West's "Antiquities of Furness" 
contains the following account of the proceedings 

• There nppcus to have been only one olhcr religious house of that 
erdcrinthc county -the abbey of Molmc.C.lUam, uhose very ruins 
have been most disgracefully pilfered away, leaving only a portion of tho 
nave, which is now fitted up as a parish-church. 

t The riih abbey of Furness had under her nine houses, four of which 
were filiations from that monastery :-l, Calder abbey ; 2. Swinshcad. 
or Swynsheved abbey, in Lincolnshire ; 3, tho abbey of Uussin, m Man ; 
4, Fennoi, in Ireland ; 5, Ynes; G, Holy Cross; 7, Wythuca; 8, Cork- 
onrouth; 9. Yncfclughcn; with Arkclo, and BeUo-Bccio. 

2 R 


of those who detached themselves from that 
monastery. — Ceroid, abbot of Calder, having 
been " detached from the abbey of Furness, anno 
35 Hen. I. with twelve monks, to found the ab- 
bey of Caldre, in Coupland, in the county of 
Cumberland, which, as has been observed, they 
had by the gift of William, nephew to David, 
king of Scots, and where they remained four 
years, when David, making an inroad into those 
parts. Ceroid with his brethren, returned for 
refuge to the mother monastery, in Furness. 
This happened about the third of king Stephen. 

" The abbot of Furness refused to receive 
Ceroid and his companions, reproaching them 
with cowardice for abandoning their monastery, 
and alleging that it was rather the love of that 
ease and plenty which they expected in Furness, 
than the devastation of the Scottish army, that 
forced them from Caldre. Some writers say, that 
the abbot of Furness insisted that Ceroid should 
divest himself of his authority, and absolve the 
monks from their obedience to him, as a condi- 
tion of their receiving any relief, or being again 
admitted into their old monastery. This, Ceroid 
and his companions refused to do, and turning 
their faces from Furness, they, with the remains 
of their broken fortune, whicli consisted of little 
more than some clothes and a few books, with 
one cart and eight oxen, taking providence for 
their guide, went in search of better hospitality. 

" The result of their next day's resolution was 
to address themselves to Thurstan, archbishop 
of York, and beg his advice and relief: the re- 
ception they met witli from him, answered their 
wishes ; the archbishop graciously received them. 


and charitably entertained them for some time, 
then recommended them to Gundrede de Auhii^- 
ny, ^vho sent them to Robert de Ahieto her 
brother, a hermit, at Ilode, where she supplied 
them with necessaries for some time. Ceroid 
afterwards went to Serlo, abbot of Savigni, who 
received his depcndance on that house, anno 
1142; but dying at York on his return, Roger, 
one of his companions from Caldre, succeeded 
him in his abbacy. 

" The abbot of Furness, understanding that 
Ceroid had obtained a settlement at Ilode, in 
the east riding of Yorkshire, sent another colony, 
with Hardred, a Furness monk, for tlieir abbot, 
to settle at Caldre. After Roger had quitted 
Hode, and obtained a seat at Byland, Hardred 
abbot of Caldre challenged a jurisdiction over his 
house at Byland, in right of filiation, as belong- 
ing to the abbey of Caldre, from whence they 
had departed ; but after some altercation. Hard- 
red renounced all right to Roger. 

" The al)l)ot of Furness still claiming a sub- 
jection from Roger and his monks, the question 
was at last submitted to a reference, of which 
Aldrcd, abbot of Reival, was umpire ; when in 
presence of several ab!)ots and monks, of different 
monasteries, judgment was given against the 
abbot of Furness." 

The possessions of the abbey at an early period 
will api)ear from the following confirmation of 
grants by Henry H. 

Iloiiricus rox, ^-c. salutcm. .Sclatis, nos intuitu Dei ct 
pro sahiUc aniiiiai noslroe ct aniniiiruni aiitcccssorum et 
hsDioiliim iKisUrmini, coiicossissp ct liac carta nostra CDnfir- 
massc alibati ct indnatliis <lc Kaldra, omncs terras ct tcne- 
meuta subscripla; viz. Ex doni) Kadulphi McscLiiii terrain 

2 R 2 


de Kaldra, cum pertinentiis suis, in qua abbatia de Kaldra, 
fuudata est; ct Bemertonc ct Ilolcgaie, cum omnibus perti- 
nentiis suis; ct unam mansurara in buigo do Egrcmount; 
et duas Salinas de Withane ; et piscaiiam dc Derweiit; et 
piscariam de Egrc ; et pascua ad omnia aniraalia eorum in 
foresta ipsius lladulphi, quantum cis opus fuerit; ct ca quae 
necessaria fuerint salinis ct ])iscariis suis, et wdiiiciis dorao- 
rum suarum, et poicis suis sine pasnagio, per totara terram 
prajdicti Radulplii, sicut suis propriis. — E.\: done Johannes 
filii Adse ct Matlliei fratris ejus, totam tenam de Stavencrge 
cum pertinentiis suis. — Ex dono Roberti Bonekill unam 
carucatam terras in Par\o Gillpcruz, quani Radulphus cleri- 
cus de Karl' tenuit, cum omnibus pertinentiis suis ; et 12 
acras et unam perticatam terras in Minori Giliccruz ; et 
unam acram prati quod est inter Minorem Gillecruz ct 
Majorem Gillecruz ; et pasturam ad 20 boves et 12 vaccas 
et 6 equos cum sequoia eorum unius anni. — Ex. dono Ro- 
geri fiiii Willielmi, totam terram quam habet in Ikelinton et 
Bracharapton, et totam partem quam habet in molendino de 
Brachampton. — Ex dono Richardi de Lucy, medietatem 
molendini de Ikelinton, cum tola sequela ad ipsam medieta- 
tem molendini pertinente. — Ex dono Beatricis de Molle, 
quinque bovatas terrae cum pertinentiis suis in Minori 
Gillecruch, et quartern partem molendini de Majori Gille- 
cruch. — Ex dono Thomce filii Gospatricii unum toftum sex 
perticarum & quartae partis unius perticatac in longitiidine et 
quatuor in latitudine in Wirkintone ; et 20 Salraoncs annua- 
tim ad festum Saucti Johannes Baptistae ; et unum rete in 
Derewent, inter pontem ct mare. — Ex dono Thomtc de 
Moleton medietatem villae de Dereham in Airedale, cum 
advocationc ccclesiae ejusdem villae, ct cum omnibus aliis 
pertinentiis suis. Quare volo, &c. quod praedicti abbas et 
monachi ct eorum successores habeant et teneaut omnes 
terras et tenementa preedicta, bone ct in pace, libere et in- 
tegre, cum omnibus libortatibus et liberis consuetudinibus 
ad praedictas terras et tenementa portinentibus, sicut cartae 
prcedictornm donatorum quas indc l:abent rationabiliter 
testantur. Iliis testibus; II. de Burgo, S. de Sedgrave, 
Philippe de Albini, Radulpho lilio Nicholai, Godefrido de 
Caucrumbc, G. Dispensatorc, M. de Capella, ct aliis. Datum 
apud Wcstmonastcrium 19 die Aprilis.* 

In the year 1262, the churches of St. John 

• Dugd. Mon., i. 774. 


Baptist, Beckermet, and St. Michael, Arlecdon, 
were appropriated to this abbey ; as stated in the 
following extracts from the register of Godfrey 
de Ludham, archbishop of York : — 

Concessio abbatis &. convcntus de Cnklra quod archiepisc. 
ordiiiet de ecclesiis de Bckeimct &. Arlokedcne. 

Reverendo in Christo patri Godefiido Eboracensi nrcbi- 
episcopo Aiiglisc primati dcvoti obediential filii Willielraus 
Dei palicntia abbas de Caldra, et cjusdem loci cnnveutus, 
salutem reverentiam, & honorcm. Licet in ecclesiis saticti 
Johannes Baptistoc de Bechcrmet, k sancti Micli;clis de 
Arlokedene in Cou[iland jus habeamus j)atronatus, cum 
cxinde nullus, vel rarus iVuetus provenit, cum propter preces 
magnatum, provisiones, & alia varia (juae obsistunt, nobis 
cum vacaverii't, libera facultas non suppotat presentandi. 
Immo dum quorundam prccibus annuimus, & inviti, aliorum 
frequenter multorum indignationcm incurrimus, Sc niagno- 
rum : idcoquo paternitati vcstroe reverendte, devote sup- 
plicamus, quatinus do prwdictis ecclesiis ordinationemfacere 
vclitis purpetuo duraturam, per quam commodum monas- 
terio nostro accrescat, & archidiaconatui Hichemundiac, ad 
quern institutiones sequestra ccclosiarum vacanlium pertinent 
&. collatio posset ex causis variis pertincre. Nos autem 
ordiuationem quam feceritis de predictis ecclesiis gratam 
habebimus, & acceptam, & impcr[)etuum observabinuis, & 
scripti nostri munimine conlirmabimus, Ji facicmus f'uturis 
tcmporibus inviolabitcr obscrvari. In cujusrei testimonium 
prx'senti scripto sigillum nostrum duximus apponendiim. 
Datum mense Novembris anno domini MCCIxij. 

Ordinatio archicpiscopi super ecclesiis predictis. 

Universis presentes literas inspecturisG. Dei gratia Ebor- 
accnsis archiepiscopus, Anglioo primas, salutem in domino 
sempiternam. Dilccti lilii abbas do Caldra, Jsc ejusdem loci 
conventus Cisterciensis ordinis, ccclcsias sancti Johannis 
Baptistaj de Bechirmet, & sancti Michaelis do Arlokedene 
in Coupland arcbidiaconatu Biclicmundiac, nostra dioccsi, 
comraiserunt nostra; ordinationi pcrpetuo duraturae, in 
quibus licet jus obtincant patronatus, rarus tamen, vel 
modicus eis exindc fructus pervcnit, cum eis non suppetat, 
praiscntandi libera facultas, propter preces potentum, pro- 
visiones, k alia varia quae obsistunt. Nos igitur corum votis 
anauentcs, de prsediutis ecclesiis taliterordmamus; videlicet 


quod ccclesia sancti Johannis de Bcchirmct, quee domui de 
Calilia iJidpinqiia & ]iaiofhia: sancia; Bridgitlse quani habent 
conticua, i|isis assigriaviinus ])ost dccessu:n vcl cessionem 
Willu'lnit lunu- rrclidis, in usiis jiroprios convertendam, & 
per|ictii() ictincndaiu, lit per hcc clcmosina domus aiigeatur, 
& CniivciiUis siistoiitatio am|'licliir. Et quia j er hoc in sc- 
qucslris, institulicmibiis, tf coilalionibus, qiice variis acciderc 
possciU, iioii dclrahalur jiiii arehidiacoiii KiclicmiindiaB : ia 
recompcnsationcai horum. rcelcsiam de Ailokedcne, post 
decessuiii, vel cessiimeni Alani, qui cam nunc tenet, ordina- 
mus archidiaconatui lore perpeiuo annexani, Sf in ususarchi- 
diacdui ciinvcrtendam, qui nullum in Cou|ilaiid habetrccep- 
tacukiin, cum i| sum oporleat Sf sues ofl'iciales ad partes 
illas, ]ier loca fabulosa, Sf a.juarum inundationes, Sf varias 
tcnipcstates accedere pii) causis discutiendis Sf excessibus 
cngn"sei'ndis,^-c.irrigiiidis, iuliabcnsi'cce])laculuraproprium 
libel ius ^- 1 lenius excerceal ca quae nil curani poitinent aiiima- 
runi, qi;u! in traiisiiu fieri cunumide nun valerent. Et ut 
liacc noslra ordinalio rata Sf stabilis im| erpeluum perseveret 
earn sigiUi imstri muniiiiine duximus ruburandam. Actum 
apud Oawode xiiij. kaiendas Januarii anno Domini MCClxij. 

Sir John le Fleming', of Bcckcrniet, knight, 
ancestor of tlie Flemings of Ilydal-hall, Westmor- 
land, gave lands in Great Beckermet to this 
abbey, in the 2(ith Henry III., 1212. He died 
duiing that long reign, and was buried in the 
abbey. It was either he or his father who gave 
the rectory and advowson of the church of St. 
John to this abbey. 

Cicely, Countess of Albemarle and lady of 
Co) eland (daughter of \\'illiam Fitz-Duncan, 
Earl ot INIuriay, son of Duncan, brother of David, 
King of Scotland), made a confirmation to the 
house of Chaldra (Calder) and the monks there, 
of Chaldra, Bemerton, and Holgate, a manse 
(mansuram) in the borough of Egrcmont, two 
salt-pans in ^^'ithoue, one fishery in the Derwent 
and another in the Kgre, with sufficient pasture 
in her forest, and all things necessary for their 


salt-pans, fisheries, houses, and swine, without 
pannage — all which possessions and privileges 
were granted to that house, by her great-grand- 
father, Ranulph de Meschines — and to whicii she 
added in this charter the gift ofStovenerge, with 
its appurtenances, in free alms for ever, and 
whatever had been granted to them in the charters 
and writings of former donors ; and all privileges 
they had enjoyed under her ancestors, particularly 
soc and sac, toll and them, and infangenthef. 

The witnesses to this charter are — " Rob. 
ostabulario . Ysaac d. scheftling . Symone 
d. scheftlig . Willo. d. chirtelig . Willo. d. 
scheftling . Thoma capellano comitisse."* 

William de Esseby and Ilectred his wife, for 
the health of their own souls, of the souls of their 
parents, and of tlieir lord, William, Earl of Albe- 
marle,f and of liis wife Cicely, and of Ingelram, 
the earl's brother. Sic. gave to Almighty God and 
the Blessed Virgin, and to the abbey of C-haldra, 
in free alms, Beckcremet and its aj)purtenances, 
as well in waters as pastures, with the mill and 
the fisliery in the Ehgena. The deed is signed 
by the following ecclesiastics, in the adjoining 
parishes: — "Ricardus prior de Sancta Bega; 
Robertus, presbyter de Puncuncsby ; Rogerus, 
presbyter de Egremund ; Jurdanus, persona de 
Goseford ; Ricardus, filius Osberti de Sancta 

• From an ancient charter (published in Archaologia jEliand) tho 
original of which was, in 1830, "in the possession of William John 
Charlton, of Hesleyside, Esq., and came into his family, in IGSO, by the 
marriage of his great-great-grandfather, with Mary, daughter of Francis 
Salkeld, of Whitehall, in the parish of All-Ilallows, in Cumberland, 

t Husband of the above-named Cicely, lady of Copcland. 


Brigida ; Ricardus, ejusdem ecclesie vicarius ; 
Ketel, filius Vlf."* 

Richard de Boisville, (whose name does not 
occur in any pedigree of the family we have 
seen) in hke manner gave to the abbot of Caldra 
and the monks serving God there, nine acres of 
land in his part of Caldretun, with common of 
pasture and other appurtenances. The witnesses, 
including many of the neighbouring ecclesiastics, 
are — "Robtus. decanus . Robt. psbr. de 'pun- 
chunebi. . Robt. psbr. d. Egremd. . Ricard. 
psbr. d. becchiremd . Wills, de boisuilla . Jobs, 
fili. ade . Alexand. fill, ade . Gilebtus. fr. 
ei. . Gilebt. de boisuile . Woldef de beckir- 
meth . Ada. fili. Kctelli . yuuain de Hale, 
et mlti. alij."f 

The three preceding charters bear no date. 
Another, preserved as above, states that John de 
Hudleston,J in the 15th Edward I., granted to 
the abbey of Caldra pasture for four horses, and 
for six cows and their calves of one year's old, and 
for forty sheep and their lambs until one year's 
old, in the common-pasture of Milnum, on condi- 
tion of not keeping a greater quantity of cows, 
horses, or sheep as appendages to their salt pans 
there, saving to the monks there the other pri- 
vileges granted to them in the charters of his 
ancestors ; and further granting to them that 
their place for carrying on their salt works, at 
Sandslof, should contain two acres, and that thev 
might turn the Ruttanpul on such manner that 
it should do no injury to their said works. Wit- 

• From an nncicnt charter, as slated in p. 315. f Ibid. 

X 'iliij must be Sir Julin Iludlc^ton, knight, sec pp. 155, 15G. 


nesses — "Dno. Robto. de hauerington . Willmo. 
de Betham . 'Willmo. de Thiiaytes . Jolie. 
Corbet . Johanne de Morthing. et aliis. Dat, 
apud Milnuni in mense aprilis Anno Rcgni Reg. 
Edvvardi filii Reg. Henr. quintodecimo." 

Another document, preserved as above, is very 
curious, being an assignment made in 1291, by 
John, son of John de Hudleston, of ^Villiam, son 
of Richard de Loftscales, formerly his native, with 
all his retinue and chattels, to the abbot and 
monks of Caldra. " It is, in fact, that species of 
grant of freedom to a slave, which is called ma- 
numission implied, in which the lord yields up all 
obligation to bondage, on condition of the native 
agreeing to an annual payment of money on a 
certain day. The clause, ' so that from this time 
they may be free, and exempt from all state ser- 
vitude and reproach of villainage from me and 
my heirs,' is very curious, especially to persons 
of our times, in which there has been so much 
said about the pomp of Eastern lords, and the 
reproachful slavery in which their dependents are 
still kept. Here the monks of Caldra redeemed 
a man his family and property from slavery, on 
condition of his paying them the small sum of 
two-pence a year. The Hudleston family were 
seated at JNIillum, in the time of Henry the Third, 
when they acquired that estate, by the marriage 
of John de Hudleston with the lady Joan, the 
heiress of the Boisville family. Slavery continued 
to thrive on the soil of Northumberland long af- 
ter the time of Edward the First: for in 1470, 
Sir Roger ^^'iddrington manumitted his native, 
William Atkinson, for the purpose of making him 

2 s 


his bailiff of Woodhorn."* The witnesses to this 
deed are — Willmo. Wailburthuait . Willmo. 
Thuaites . Johe. de inordling . Johe. Cor- 
bet . Johe. de Halle et ahis." 

The possessions of this abbey are thus entered 
in the Valor Ecclesiastictis, 26th Henry VHI. 

^hbathia de Cauder. 
Ric'us abbas ib'm. 

Com' Cumbr'. 

=fV^ £■ s. d.- 
s »c \ I , 

idm ^ 

Valet in 
Situ abbathie pdce. cum gar- 

dinis pomar' pvis. claus' 


abbathie p. annu. 
Dnijs. terr' & tent', villis k"^ 

villat' subscript' vis. dnii. i 

de Cauder xiijA villa de 

Ponsaby xiijs. 'm]d. Bra- 

shaw xviijs. Bekarraent | 

xxvjs. \'n]d. Pycheyng x,«. ^xlv xv — 

Egremund' iijs.vj(^.ButtylI 

et Mellom iiij/. villa de 

Drege l.xxiijs. iiijt?. villa de 

Deram viij?. iij*. vjrf. villa 


Yklyngton cs. In tot' 

Com' Combr'. 


Valet in 
Decim' capelle See. Brigide 
viz in aven' ordeo & silig' 
xls. Ian' xxvjs. \i\]d. agn' 
xiiijs. auc' &; gall' xs. ob- \. 
lac' tribz diebz principa- 
libz vj«. minut' 4c privat' 
decim' ut in libro pas- 
chali xlf. la toto 

• Archffiologia ^liana. 

£ s. d 
)>xlviij XV — 

vj xvj VllJ 



oci. joms VIZ 

ct siliginis ^ 

jgn' viij*. laii'V 

oblac' tribzv^ 




Decim' ecclie. Sci. Johis viz 
aven' ordij 
xxvj*. viijf?. agn' 
xiiijs. iiij(Z. 

diebz principal' va\ auc' et/ 
gallin' iij.f. viijc?. mimit' 
privat' decim' ut in libr 
paschal' xxx«. In toto 

Decim' ecclie. de Cleter' viz 
aven' ordei & siliginis 
xxxixs. Ian' xjs. viijc?. agn' i 
vjs. auc' k gallin' iijs. ixc^. 
oblac' tribz diebz prenci- 
palibz iiijs. minut' & pri-l 
vat' decim' ut in libro 
paschal' xxs. In tot' 

luj vij viij 





iiij luj V 

Sma. omi'. tempaliu. & sp'ualiu. 
abbathic pdce. 

Ixiiij iij ix 

se&c ^ 
c p. > . 

U}d. ^ 




Lib'a Firma viz. in 

Liba. firma. dno.Rs.ballo. de Gilcrowsse &c 
Deram vj.5. viijrf. abbat' de Holme 
liba. firma de Calder p. annu. vjs. vi 

Pens' & Sinod' viz in 

Pens' solut' vicar' dc Gylcrowsse per com- ^ £ *. d. 
poss' liij«. iiijrf. sinod' & pcurac' pro > — Ixiiij v ob' 
ecclis. predict' xj5. jd. ob' In tot' 3 

Feod' viz in 

Feod' Thome Lamplcw sen. terr' xxvj». 
viij</. Thome Dachaund sen. cur' xiij*. 
iii^d. Willi. Ponsonby balli. monaster' 
Ixvjs. viijii. Johis. Dawson balli. de 
Deram xxs. Johis. Adason. balli. de 
Gyelcrowse xxs. In tot' 



2 S 2 


Elemos' viz. in 
Elemos' dat' quatuorpaupibz. 
senio et infirmitate gra- 
vat' diatim existent' infra 
abbathiam ex fundac' fund 
singli. eos. capiet'. ad vict' 
et restitu. xxs. In tot' 
Consili. elemos' dat' &. dis-" 
tribut' paupibz. in festo 
Sci. Luce Evangiliste. p. 
aiabz. fundat' ex antiqua 
fundac' ut in precio uni' 
bovis xiijs. iiijtZ. et in Cena K 
Dni. paupibz. ut in pcio. 
panis 4c allic' rubeis &. 
albis ic in argent' pneris 
e.\ antiqua fund' fundat' 
xxxvjs. viijt^. 

Sma. repris' 

Et valet clare 

£ s. d. 



Xma. ps. inde 












iij ob' 
iij ob' 







The dissolution of Calder abbey, it is probable, 
occurred in 1536, when Henry VIII. dissolved 
about 3S0 of the lesser houses. The revenues of 
this abbey were valued by Dugdale, at 50l.9s.3d.; 
and by Speed, at 64/. 3s. dd. By letters patent, 
dated 26th July, in the 30th of his reign (1538), 
that king granted to Thomas Leigh, L.L.D.* and 
his heirs, " the demesne and site of the late abbey 
or manor of Calder, and the church, steeple, and 

• Probably this is he who was one of the commissioners for risiting 
the monasteries in the four northern counties. 


churchyard thereof, and all messuages, lands, te- 
nements, houses, buildings, barns, dovecotes, 
gardens, orchards, waters, ponds, mills, ground 
and soil, as well within as nigh unto the site and 
precinct of the said monastery ; as also all lands, 
tenements, granges, meadows, pastures, woods, 
common of pasture, with divers inclosures by 
name, containing in the whole 217 acres, at 
Calder aforesaid (with divers granges elsewhere) 
of the clear yearly value of 13/. 10s. id. To hold 
of the king in capile by the tenth part of one 
knight's fee, and the rent of 27/. \d. in the name 
of tenths, to be paid into the court of augmenta- 

Dr. Leigh's grandson, Ferdinando, sold this 
property to Sir Richard Fletcher, of Hutton, 
knight, who gave it in marriage with his eldest 
daughter, Bridget, to John, second son of Thomas 
Patrickson, of Caswell-How, Esq.* His son sold 
it to Mr. John Tiffin, of Cockermouth, by whom 
it was given to his grandson, John Senhouse, Esq. 
The estate passed to Thomas Irwin, Esq. the 
present possessor, on his marriage witli Mary, 
eldest daughter of Joseph Tiffin Senhouse, Esq. 
Mr. Irwin resides in a modern mansion closely 
adjoining the ruins of the abbey. 

Calder Abbeyf is seated on the north banks of 
the Calder, nearly a mile west of the road leading 
from Whitehaven to lUverston. Like other 
houses built by the Cistercians, it is seated in a 
secluded valley, beautifully sheltered by hanging 
woods, and watered by the river from which it 

• See a pedigree of (lie Patricksons under the chapelry of Enncrdaie, 
in a subsequent pari of this volume. 

t Engraved in Ruck's Views, and Fisher's Northern Tourist. 


takes its name. The ruins are approached from 
Calder-Bridge by a pleasant walk on the banks 
of the river, well shaded by majestic trees, and 
rendered more agi'eeable by the dashing of the 
transparent water over its rocky bed. 

At a short distance from the w-est end of the 
abbey stands the porter's lodge, which has a 
gateway terminating in two pointed arches. 
Of the west front little more than the Norman 
door-way now remains, — one of small dimensions, 
with three shafts on each side, supporting a 
circular arch with plain mouldings, excepting 
the exterior one, which is enriched with the 
elliptic arched ornament. The nave is late Nor- 
man ; the south side is entirely gone, not even 
the foundations are left, to determine whether 
it had a side aisle.* The north side remains : 
it is divided from the aisle by five pointed arches 
with flat mouldings, springing from circular piers 
beautifully festooned with ivy and honeysuckles. 
The conventual-church formed a cross, having 
north and south transepts, with a tower at the 
intersection. Great part of the tower remains, 
and the weather-mouldings of the roofs shew them 
to have been high pitched. It is supported by 
four lofty pointed arches. 

On the south side of the choir are four arched 
recesses :• — one of them forms a door-way to a 
side chapel ; the other three having been used 
as sedilia, where the officiating priests sat during 
the chanting of the Gloria in excelsis, and some 

• Two prints, published about forty years since, represent the nave as 
then having both north and south aisles.— But perhaps little dependence 
can be placed on these as authorities. 


other parts of the church service. The east end 
is entirely gone ; and if it extended no further 
than the walls now standing, the choir has been 
very small, with no side lights, and must have 
been lighted solely by the three lancet windows, 
which, in all probability, surmounted the high 

" There are the remains of cloisters on the 
south side, sufficient to show them to have been 
beautiful specimens of Early English." A little 
to the north-east of the ruins are the remains of 
a large oven. 

The situation of the abbey is well suited for a 
life of retirement from the bustle and business of 
the world : " soothed by the unseen river's gentle 
roar," the monks might here indulge in medita- 
tion and study, undisturbed by all, until Dr. Leigh 
cast his eye upon the pile, and obtained a grant 
of it from the eighth Harry. 

How often has this consecrated edifice resound- 
ed with the vocal chant and the pealing organ, and 
echoed the solemn strains of Te Deum, the ./«- 
h'llatc Deo, and other parts of the church service ; 
at other times the hush of midniglit has been 
made more impressive by funeral obsequies, when 
the De ProfuiuUs was chanted, and 

" through the glimmering aisle faint misereres died.'' 

" How much of all that men most value must have 
been sacrificed to raise this pile ! How much of 
thought, and science, and rare intellect concentred 
on every part ! How many generations have dwelt 
beneath the shadow of this temple, uplield its 
worship, added to its splendour, and so engraven 
upon the very stones their witness to the truth 


of that invisible world, of which they are, in every 
part, the symbol and the type." 

A modern mansion-house has been erected on 
the south side of the ruins, occupying the site of 
the conventual buildings : the dining-room is said 
to be on the site of the refectory. This is the 
residence of Thomas Irwin, Esq. who is building, 
at his sole expence, the new church at Calder- 
Bridge. It is much to be lamented that a little 
more taste had not been displayed in building 
this mansion in a style of architecture suited to 
itslocality. On approaching the abbey it forms the 
most conspicuous object, and great portions of 
the venerable and " time-honoured" pile are hid- 
den from sight. Mr. Irwin preserves the ruins 
in excellent order. 

A slab near the south transept has the follow- 
ing inscription in Lombardic capitals : — Hicjacet 
(/ompiiiis Rohertiis de Wiliighhij Abbas de Caldra, 
ci/Jiis (in'ume propicicfur Dens. 

Another slab has this fragment of an inscrip- 
tion, R'tcardus Gra de Kendale 

In the north transept are three effigies of 
knights, in mail armour and surcoats, veiy much 
mutilated ; two of them having shields : one 
charged with . . . lions rampant, and a label of 
five points ; the other is fretty. The latter is 
probably the effigy mentioned by Sir Daniel 
Fleming, who says that in his time (in the seven- 
teenth century) here was " a very ancient statue 
in free-stone of a man in armour, with a fi'ett (of 
six pieces) upon his shield, lying upon his back, 
with his sword by his side, his hands elevated in 
a posture of prayer, and his legs across ; being so 
placed probably from his taking upon him the 


cross, and being engaged in the holy war. Which 
statue was placed there most probably in memo- 
ry of this Sir John lo Fleming," (see page 314) 
who was a benefactor to the abbey. 

2 T 

HIS is the most extensive 
and populous parish in the 
county, includmg the large 
and opulent town of 
AMiitehaven ; the five 
chapelries of Hensingham, 
Ennerdale, Eskdale, Was- 
dale-Head, and Nether- 
Wasdale ; and the town- 
ships of St. Bees, Enner- 
dale, Ennerdale-High-End, Eskdale and ^^'asdale, 
Hensingham, Kinneyside, Lowside-Quarter, 
Nether-Wasdale, Preston-Quarter, Rottington, 
Sandwith, "N^'eddicar, and Whitehaven. 

It extends ten miles along the coast, and 
reaches far inland, so that some of its chapelries 
are ten and fourteen miles distant from the 

Tiie parish takes its name from Bega, an Irish 
saint, the founder of the monastery of St. Bees, 
and in whose honor the church was dedicated.* 

" When Rcga sought of yore the Cumbrian coast, 
Tempestuous winds her holy errand cross'd : 
She knell in prayer — the waves their wrath appease; 
And, from her vow well weighed in Heaven's decrees, 
Rose, where she touched the strand, the Chantry of St. Bees." 

• Sec further particulars respecting St. Bega under the account of 
the priory at a subsequent page. 


The rocky coast about St. Bees Head and the 
valley of St. Bees are well described in an expen- 
sive work, little known in this county,* from 
which we make the extracts in the subjoined 

• Daniel's Picturesque Voyage round Great Britain, 
t "On returning to the sea-shore we were pleased with the re-appearajice 
of a description of coast that we had been strangers to since ■we qmttcd 
North Wales, consisting of tremendous precipices of naked rock. About 
half a mile to the westward of the abbey rises the south of St. Bees Head. 
This promontory is formed by the western face of a huge hill, which rises 
to the height of about 500 feet above the level of the sea, sloping down 
with a steep declivity till it tenninates in a precipice, varying from one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred feet iii height, and projecting into the 
sea like a vast semicircular bastion. Its whole length extends rather 
more than two miles, and when seen from the sea it has a very magnifi- 
cent effect, awing the mind with its vastness, and the turns of its preci- 
pices, and the signs of violence and ruin impressed upon its shattered 
front by the battering of the waves. The rock of which it is composed 
is a red sand-stone, in horizontal strata of enormous thickness, and inter- 
sected at irregular intervals by thin layers of white sand-stone. In places 
the red face of the cliff is thickly marked with stripes of this white stone, 
and has a curious appearance, not unaptly compared by our guide to fat 
and lean on a joint of beef. The rock is seamed all over by vertical fis- 
sures, which, with the horizontal divisions of the strata, cut it into square 
blocks, loosely held together, and often thrown down in prodigious heaps 
as the sea undermines it at the base. 

" This promontory, together with a narrow hilly tract, ruiming from its 
north end as far as Whitehaven, was once an island, which is mentioned 
in some ancient records by the title of Preston Isle. It is now connect- 
ed with the mainland by a narrow valley, one extremity of which opens 
into the sea near St. Bees, and the other into the small bay of White- 
haven. This valley, though now verdant and fruitful, was without doubt, 
at no very remote period the bed of the sea. The surface of it in its whole 
length is uniformly flat and even, and the soil at a trifling depth com- 
posed entirely of sand and >hel s. A few years ago an anchor was dug 
up in it of a size which proves the channel was navigable for vessels 
of considerable burthen. It is not known at what time this revolution 

2 T 2 


The village of St. Bees is situated in a deep 
valley about foui- miles south from Whitehaven, 

took place, but it must have been prior to the foundation of St. Bees' 
abbey, which stands within the mouth of the valley. St. Bees' abbey is 
said to have been founded about G50. The retreat of the sea does net 
appear to have been aided by any assistance of art, which indeed would 
have been unprolitably employed in this instance, for the difficulties op- 
posed to navigation by the loss of this channel are by no means compen- 
sated for by the recovery of the land. With certain winds, vessels sailing 
either to or from Whitehaven are much hampered in rounding the head, 
and in rough weather are subject to delays which might be avoided were 
a passage open for them round the back of the promontory. It has been 
thought very practicable to cut a new channel for the sea through this 
valley, and though the expense of such a work would be great, it would 
be well bestowed in facilitating the trade of such a port as Whitehaven. 

" We made a trial of walking along the base of the Head, intending to 
■work our passage round it, but the fragments of rock that are strewed in 
rugged heaps along the shore rendered the task impracticable, at least 
on one pair of legs. Near the south end there has lately occurred a most 
awful fall of the rocks, a segment from the whole front of the cliff of 
many thousand tons having given way, and now forming a stupendous 
pile of ruins thrown together in the wildest disorder, and threatening 
another crash as you gaze upon them. The rocks lie in vast blocks, 
squared and placed with a regularity as if done by human art, and the 
whole mass might be supposed the ruins of a castle, of a magnitude it 
must be confessed, suitable only for a race of giants. 

" Ascending to the summit of the Head we walked (with perfect safely 
let me say to those who would follow us) along the edge of the precipice 
till we came to a singular ravine intersecting the clilffrom top to bottom, 
the sides almost perpendicular and meeting at their bases. Thesca flows 
into it for a few yards over a beach noted for the beauty of its pebbles. 
From the north side of this chasm we had a fine view of the precipice to 
the south, which exhibited a very grand front, sometimes broken by hol- 
lows and overhanging crags, and in places as smooth and perpendicular 
as a wall. 

"We proceeded, frequently peeping over the precipice, to tremble at 


and neai- the rocky promontories anciently called 
the cliff of Baruth, and now known as St. Bees 

its depth or note some change in the configuration or posture of the rocks, 
till our particular admiration was called forth by Cloven Barf (I iJiink 
that was the name), a rude and enormous column, separated from the 
summit of the cliff by a cleft about 12 feet wide and GO feet deep. The 
rock at its base is so much broken, that it appears to stand very inseciurely 
and ere long the huge mass must come thundering down. A crazy plank, 
not more than a foot wide, was tlirown across the chasm, a pass for the 
boys in their attacks upon the sea-mews' eggs. • • • 

" .\t the most northern point of the promontory the cliffs rise to a great 
height and from thence to its termination east are hollowed out into a 
series of deep recesses, with huge buttresses projecting between them, 
presenting an endless variety in the forms of the broken rocks, which 
roughen their multiplied precipices. Near the east are some large 
quarries, which have been worked to a great extent. The stone has the 
advantage of being very easily cut, but the quality of softness wliich re- 
commends it to the quarriers andmasons, rather unfits it for the purposes 
of building. It hardens on exposure to the air, but when first 
used is very susceptible of injury from rain. It is a practice in 
Whitehaven to rub over the houses built of this stone with oil, which 
entirely spoils the beauty of its colour, but is found materially to preserve 
its substance. 

" St. Bees' Head is far loftier than any of the neiglibouring hills, and 
jutting out at least a mile beyond the line of coast on each side of it, is 
rendered a very conspicuous object, easily distinguished and identified 
by seamen at a great distance. From its northern side a steep descent 
leads down to a lower slip, but still at a considerable elevation above 
the sea, the country continuing to the northward in a series of gentle 
wavy hills, beautifully smooth and rounded, their broad swellingsurfaces 
unvaried by trees or hedgerows, but covered witli corn. They are of 
extraordinary value, fruitful on the surface, and containing within them 
inexhaustible beds of coal. Some of them yield stone for building, and 
limestone of a very pure quality, which, and as a manure, gives fertility 
to the whole country round. They terminate along the shore in a range 
of low cliffs, composed principally of white sandstone, between the strata 
of which appear at intervals thin layers of a shattcry, slaly stone, with 
veins of coal. Those cliffs, from the inconipactncss of their structure. 


Head. The village is " a place distinguished, 
from very early times, for its religious and scho- 
lastic foundations :" having been the seat of a 
monastery from a very remote period, and in later 
times distinguished by its Clerical Institution and 
the Grammar School of Archbishop Grindal, — 
there is, perhaps, no other place in the north of 
England, of an otherwise unimportant character, 
the name of which is so well and so generally 

have suffered more than common injury from the violence of the sea, 
and along their whole lines have a most ruinous appearance. The chore 
is strewed with fragments tumbled together in vast heaps at their base, 
and here and there a detached mass shews itself above the sea, beyond 
low water mark. They rise to a considerable height immediately south 
of Whitehaven, where they are remarkable for the intermixture of rocks 
that appear on the surface. The main rock is white sand-stone, alterna- 
ting with strata of red sand-stone, and intersected by frequent layers of 
slate and coal. The face of the cliif at this point is singularly broken, 
being divided by seams and fissures of all inclinations, and composing a 
pile of fragments veiy insecurely held together, with masses projecting 
from it of various forms, and in various threatening postures. Portions 
of the rock arc continually falling, and the whole body is in so infirm a 
state, that a slight concussion is able to bring it in heaps to the groimd. 
Some guns standing on a fort above it are now never fired, the shock of 
the explosion having been found sufficient to dislodge these tottering 
rocks. Two poor women were dashed to pieces here about two years 
ago, by a falling fragment, which they had brought down by imprudently 
picking away some coal that lay under it." 

• In the library of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle is the following 
curious account of the discovery of a giant at St. Bees : — 

"A true report of Hugh Hodson, of Thorneway, in Cumberland, to 
St Rob. Cewell [qy. Sewell] of a Gyant fotmd at S. Bees, in Cumb'land, 
1601, before X\ mas. 

" The said Gyant was buried 4 yards deep in the groimd, W^h is now 
a com feild. 

" He was 4 yards and an half long, and was in complete armour ; his 
sword and battle-axe lying by him. 


A bridge over the rivulet Pow or Poe in tlie 
\'illage bears the date 15S5, and the arms of 
Archbishop Grindal. This rivulet, called in the 
language of the country. The Poe Beck,* which 
divides the Church, School, and College of St. 
Bees from the village, though small, is very sin- 
guhu\ It takes its rise nearly in the middle of 
tlie vale, and in its course is fed by two smaller 
streams, one called Myre's Beck, the other. Low- 
hall-gill Beck. After having received these sup- 
plies it forms itself into, or rather, is absorl^ed 
by, a large pool or basin, called Scale-gill pit,f 

" His sword was two spans broad and more than 2 yards long. 

" The head of his battle axe a yard long, and the shaft of it all of iron, 
as thick as a man's thigh, and more than 2 yards long. 

" His teeth were (! inches long, and 2 inches broad ; his forehead was 
more than 2 spans and a half broad. 

" His chine bone could containe 3 pecks of oatmeale. 

" His armour, sword, and battle axe, are at Mr. Sand's of Redington, 
[Rottington] and at Mr. Wyber's, at St. Bees." —Machel MS S . vol. vi. 

« Beck for rivulet is fanriliar, not only as a local word, in the north of 
Kngland, but is retained in tlie names of places in the south, as it is also, 
with little variation, in the Danish, High and Low Dutch, tongues.— 
Leodiensis Ducatus, 183. 

t On the first of March, 1792, " the ground in a meadow, pari of the 
farm or estate of Stanley, the property of the Right Hon. the Earl of 
Lonsdale, suddenly sunk to the depth of some feet, making a circular 
break on the surface. Immediately alter, a torrent of water was heard, 
which appeared to rush out from various parts of the broken soil, and 
falling, as it was conjectured, into a receptacle which could not at that 
time be perceived, occasioned a most tremendous noise, while the shrink- 
ing was evidently incrcising upon the surftice. In the morning, this 
extraordinary spot was visited by numbers of people. The aperture then 
exhibited the appearance of an immense funnel : it was yet enlarging, 
consequently no admeasurement could be made : but the computation 
generally agreed to was from GO to 70 yards in diameter, and .30 yards 
in depth to the vortex, the diameter of which appeared to be about G ur 
7 yards. 


Avhich serves to supply the steam-engines em- 
ployed in the collieries with water. From this 
basin, as from a centre, the little river issues in 
two directions. The one, taking its meandering 
course by the Church, &c., falls into the ocean 
at St. Bees ; the other, being towards White- 
haven, where, for about a mile from the harbour, 
it is arched over, passing under the market place, 
and then mingles with the ocean in the harbour. 

The Priory of St. Bees.* 

A small nunnery was founded here about the 
year 650 by Bega an Irish saint,f from whom 
the parish takes its name, and where a church 
was subsequently erected, dedicated in honor of 

" During this time, large heaps of earth were falling from the sides, 
and water gushing out in an amazing abundance ; the water also was 
sometimes forced a considerable height above the vortex, or gulph, as if 
from a. jet d' eau ; the whole presenting to the eye a scene of the most 
a\» ful and horrible grandeur, while the ear was filled with soimds the , 
most terrifying and alarming, often resembling distant thimder, as the 
deluge poured into the subterraneous workingsofScalegUlcolliery, which, 
it Ls said, is now rendered useless. It was a land sale colliery of small 
compass, and the coal nearly exhausted. Providentially, the people 
employed in it had quitted their work a short time before the sinking 
happened." — Gentleman's Magazine, 1792. 

• Preparing for publication. The Life and Miracles of Sancta Bega, 
the Patroness of the priory of St. Bees. Written by a monkish historian. 
To which are added. Explanatory Notes and a Preface : by the Rev. G. 
C. Tomlinson, F.S.A., &c. 

t From the calender of saints' days it appears that St. Bega or St. 
Bees is commemorated on the Cth of September ; and St. Bega, virgin, 
on the 22nd of November. Sancta Bega died the day before the calends 
of November. — Life of the Saint. Ingulphus mentions a litttle bell at 
Croyland, which is called Bega. 


the foundress. The priory and parish are vari- 
ously called in ancient evidences — K/rkehi/heluk, 
K'trklni Begock and Begoth, which latter name is 
British, and derived from Beg og, signifying little 

Sandford's iM.S..t gives the foUowmg tradition- 
ary account of the foundation of the nunnery : — 
"This Abbie, by tradition, built upon this occa- 
sion, (for the time I refer you to the chronicles) : — 
That there was a pious religious lady-abbess, and 
some of her sisters with her, driven in by stormy 
wether at Whitehaven, and [the] ship cast away 
ith harbour, and so destitute. And so she went 
to the lady of Egrcmont castle for reliefe. That 
lady, a godly woman, pittied her distress, and 
desn-cd her lord to give her some place to dwell 
in ; which he did, at the now St. Bees. And 
she and her sisters sewed and spinned, and 
wrought carpets and other work, and hved very 
godly lives, as gott them much love. She de- 
sired Lady Egrcmont to desire her lord to build 
them a house, and they would lead a religious 
life together ; and many wolde joine with them 
if they had but a house and land to live upon. 
Wherewith the Lady Egermond was very well 
pleased, and spoke to her lord he had land 
enough and [should] give them some to lye up 
tresure in heaven. And the Lord laughed at 
the Ladye, and said he would give them as much 
land as snow fell upon the next morning and m 
midsummer day. And on the morrow looked 
out at the castle window to the sea side, 2 miles 
from Egrcmont, all was white with snow for 

• Dean and Chapter Library, Carlisle. 

2 u 


three miles together. And thereupon builded 
this St. Bees Abbie, and give all those lands was 
snowen unto it, and the town and haven of 
Whitehaven ; and sometimes after, all the tithes 
therabout, and up the montains and Inerdalc for- 
rest, eastward, was appropriated to this abbey of 
St. Bees ; which was got by one Mr. Dacres, of 
kindred to the Lord Dacres ; gott a long lease 
of it at fall of Abbies, and married one Mrs. Latos 
of the beck hall, iNIillom ; who afterwards married 
Squire Wybridge [Wybergh] of Clifton in West- 
morland, who purchased the inheritance of this 
Abbie of the crowne, and sold it to old Sir John 
Lowther, who gave it to his yonger son. Sir 
Christopher Lowther, Kt. Bart, soon after." 

The accounts which are given of the first 
foundation of the nunnery of Saint Bees, are, as 
might be expected, contradictory in their charac- 
ter. The common version is that given in Mr. 
Sandford's MS., namely, that the extent of the 
territories of the nunnery were originally desig- 
nated by a preternatural fall of snow on the eve 
of St. John's day. Such is the tradition : 

" Old legends say, to prove her wond'rous right, 

Still on the eve of midsiin's sacred light, 

When the deep shades have mantled o'er the skies, 

The silent forms of shadowy shapes arise, 

And the mild Saint amid her pious train 

Retakes with printless steps her course again. 

And spreads her snow white mantle o'er the plain."* 

That snow is occasionally seen even now, on 
midsummer day, on the Cumberland mountains 
is certain. - A correspondent of the Carhsle 

• Unpublished MS. 


Journal, states that on midsummer day, 1 S3S, the 
snow was lying two feet thick upon Glencowen- 
dale fell. AN'hether, however, the parish is indehted 
to tlie legend, for its singular form, or whether 
the legend has been invented from the shape of 
the parish, cannot be decided. One thing is 
certain, that the name of Sancta Bega is insepar- 
ably connected with the miracle of snow. All 
accounts agree in this. The Life of Sancta Bega 
jjlaces the snow miracle many hundred years after 
the death of the mild saint, in the time of Ran- 
ulpli Meschines. The monkish historian relates 
that certain persons had instilled into the ears 
of that nobleman, that the monks had unduly 
extended their possessions. A dispute arose on 
this subject, for the settlement of which, by the 
prayers of the religious, the whole land became 
white with snow, except the territories of the 
church which stood forth dry. 

It does not appear that the nunnery of Sancta 
Bega was ever endowed, or that it continued for 
any length of time as a voluntary society. It is 
probable enough that it was ruined and dispersed 
in the Danish wars. Indeed the historian of her 
life, refers to the Danish ravages, as the cause 
which wrap])ed in oblivion the tomb of Bega for 
centuries. But although no succession of Ab- 
besses has been transmitted to us, and no histo- 
rian can give us any intelligence of the endow- 
ment of this nunnery, still it seems scarcely 
probable that it would have been of such brief 
duration as is generally supposed. If the bell at 
(Jroyland abbey were named Bega, in commemo- 
ration of the Cumbrian Saint, nearly three 
centuries after the foundation of Saint Bees 
2 t 2 


nunnery, it would seem as if there had been succes- 
sors in the nunnery who cherished the name of their 
first foundress, and transmitted it to posterity. 
Otherwise the name would scarcely have attracted 
the notice of Abbot Turketul. Moreover, the 
recorded fact, that the monastery was afterwards 
built on the site of the nunnery, is another reason 
which would induce us to assign a longer existence 
to the nunnery than is usually supposed. Nearly 
five centuries elapsed between the foundation 
of the nunnery and that of the priory, in which 
time the site would have been forgotten, had the 
nunnery perished upon the death of Bega. AMio 
shall now assert that the abbot of Croyland did 
not attempt to commemorate the name and virtues 
of the Cumbrian abbess, at a time when he be- 
held her nunnery visited with a recent but 
overwhelming desolation, and her name in danger, 
for the Jirst time, of perishing amidst the ruins 
of her own foundation ? 

In the reign of Henry I. William de Meschines, 
son of Ranulph,* and brother of Ranulph, first 
Earl of Cumberlandjf restored the religious house, 
making it a cell of a prior and six Benedictine 
monks to the mitred abbey of St. Mary of York.;]; 
By his charter he granted to God, St. Mary of 
York, and St. Bega, and the monks serving God 
there, all the woods within their boundaries and 

* Founder of the priory of Wctheral. f Founder of Calder abbey. 
X The priory of Ncddrum, in Ulster, was cell to the priory of St. Bees 
having been granted by Sir John dc Courcy, a descendant of William 
Meschines. Respecting this Irish dependency of Saint Bees, a small 
parchment roll considerably mutilated remains in the Cottonian Collection. 
n consists of nine documents very closely -nTitten, concluding -with a bull 
of pope Honorius III. dated 1216, confirming the endowment. 


every thing within the same, except hart and 
hind, boar and hawk ; and all liberties within 
their bounds which he himself had in Coupland, 
as well on land as on the water both salt and 

Ranulph de Meschines, son of the above Wil- 
liam, confirmed his father's grants to the priory 
of the church of St. Bees, and seven carucates 
of land there ; the chapel (capella) ofEgremont, 
and the tithes of his demesne in Copeland, and 
of his men there ; and the tithes of all his fish- 
eries, hogs, venison, pannage, and vaccaries 
throughout all Copeland ; and the manor of 
Anenderdalc ; the grant by Waltheof of the 
church (chapel) of Stainburn ; and Ketel's grant 
of the church of Preston ; and two bovates of 
land and one villein, in Rotington ; which Rei- 
ner gave unto them : and the churches of Whit- 
tington and Botele, which they had by the gift 
of Godard : and Swarthoft, given to them by 
William de Lancastre son of Gilbert. And he 
granted to them all the woods within their 
boundaries, from Cuningshaw to the sike between 
Preston and llensingham, which runs down to 
Whitehaven, and there falls into the sea; and 
whatever they can take in those woods, except 
hart, hind, boar, and hawk.* 

William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle, by 
his charter, (circa A.I). 1192,) confirmed to the 
priory the grants of his ancestors, — fourteen sal- 
mons which they had by the gift of Alan, son of 
Waltlieof; and by the same gift, half a carucate 
of land in Aspatric ; and six acres of land in the 

• 1 Dugd. Mon., 395. 


same vill, by the gift of the said Alan : and six 
sahiions, which they had by the gift of the lady 
Ahce de Romeley ; and half a mark of silver, by 
the same donation, out of the fulling mill at 
Cockermouth, and one messuage in the same 
vill. He also granted to them one mark of silver 
out of the said fulling mill yearly. " Hiis testi- 
bus. Domino Galfrido de Chandever. Domino 
Thoma Keret. Domino "NMUielmo de Ireby. 
^^'illielmo de DrifFeld tunc senescallo de Coker- 
mutha. Alano persona de Caldebec. Hugone 
de Moricebi. Ada de Haverington. Galfrido 
de Talentir. Johanne de Brigham, et multis 

By the voucher book of Furness abbey, it 
appears that the prior of Saint Bees was includ- 
ed in a commission from Pope Honorius, about 
the year 1 200. This commission was respecting 
the right of sepulture at Hawkshead, Dalton, the 
mother church, being twenty miles distant. 

In 1315, during the invasion of Robert le Brus, 
the priory of Saint Bees, togetlier with the manor 
houses of Stainburn and Cleator, and the 
western part of Cumberland, were visited by a 
party of Scots, under the command of James 
Douglas. The priory was pillaged, and the 
manor-houses were destroyed. In this occasion, 
although the religious house fared better than 
the neighbouring secular ones, still it seems not 
improbable that the holy prior, and his company 
of " six monks at the least," would experience 
that treatment from the liostile Scots, which Sir 
Walter Scott makes ^^'amba describe in Ivanhoe. 

• 1 Dugd. Mon., 396. 


" Prav for them, with all my heart," says he, "but 
in the town, not in the green wood, like the 
abbot (prior) of Saint Bees, whom they caused to 
say mass, with an old hollow oak tree tor his 

stall." , r c-^ V 

\bout the year 1523 the monks of St. bees 
appear to have been alarmed by a meditated 
invasion of this "angle of Cowplande." I he 
following lettert was written by the Prior, Alan- 
by, to the Lord William Dacre, lord-warden ot 
the West Marches, praying for help.— 

To the Lord Dacres. 
AIv right honorable and myst speciall good Lord, in my 
most lawley manor I recomende me unto your good Lordship, 
ever more bescking our Lordo God to reward your good 
Lordship for me at all tymes. And now as specially as 1 
can think, I besiche your good Lordship of your good con- 
tvnuance. Tor my good Lord, it is thus of surtie, that 
areat nombre of Shippis are sene upon this Cost both upon 
Fridaye and Saturdaye last past. And we have warnymg 
thattiieyareofthe Duke of Albany's company, and w oil 
land upon us here in Cowplando, and Uestroyo us utterly 
Wherefore my speciall good Lorde, I bes.che yo"'' good 
Lordship, to regard this pour cost and countrey whiche be- 
lon-eth unto your mcrchics and undre your protection, and 
is n°ot accustomed with sich weres, but only such certe.ii 
gentilmcn and their company, as your said I'Ordship have 
called upon heretofore at your time of nede, that )e vol be 
so goode Lorde now, as to assigne and conimande Mr. 
Christopher Curwcn of Wirkington and Mr John Lamplew 
leutenaunt of Cokermouth, and Mr Richard Skelton oi 
Branthwate, to gyve attcndaunce with the help and aide 
with the hole company of this litle Angle of Cowplande, o 
resist and defende the countrey with the grace ot God and 
prayer of his holy sainctcs, to whomc your Lordship now 
mayc bynde us ever more to prey for your good prcserva ion 
and good spcde. And els I cannot see, but this countrey 

I From a scarce book " Duo rerumAnglicarum scriptores veteres"- 
Oxon. 1732. 


shalbe utterly destroyed for ever, whiche God forbide, whom 
I hartely besiche to preserve and prosper your good Lord- 
ship, with all goodnes, after your deasire. Amen. Scriblyd 
in hast at Sainct Bees upon Sainct Luke day the evangelist. 

by your awne dayely bedeman 

Dan Robert Alanby, Prior of Sainct 
Bees aforesaid.* 

An inspeximus was dated at St. Bees, Septem- 
ber 1], 1473, by Henry Percy, fourth Earl of 
Northumberland, and lord of the honor of 
Cockermouth, of the charter of William de For- 
tibus, earl of Albermarle. 

" In the reign of Henry IV. a Richard Hunte 
was appointed to Saint Bees, as a free chapelry 
in the gift of the Crown, but the abbot of Saint 
JMary's remonstrated with the King, and the 
grant was revoked. Bishop Tanner mentions 
that under this cell there was a small nunnery 
situate at Rottington, about a mile from St. 
Bees. This is confirmed by the ancient names 
of places still retained there, but few other vesti- 
ges are now to be found." 

Whilst on the subject of the priors of St. Bees, 
their rank as barons of the Isle of Man cannot 
justly be overlooked. As the abbot of the 
superior house, St. Mary's, at Yoi'k, was entitled 
to a seat amongst the parliamentary barons of 
England, so the prior of St. Bees was Baron of 
the Isle of i\Ian. As such he was obliged to 
give his attendance upon the kings and lords of 
Klan, whensoever they required it, or at least, 
upon every new succession in the government. 
The neglect of this important privilege w'ould 

* This letter, according to Hoame, was written A.D. 1523, 15 Henry 



probably involve the loss of the tithes and lands 
in that island, which the devotion of the kings 
had conferred on the priory of St. Bees. An 
abbot from Ireland, and another from Scotland, 
were also constrained by the same religious 
hberality, to appear in INIan, as Barons, when 
called upon. 

In a list of the possessions of St. INIary's abbey 
at York, ( Falor Ecclesiasi/cics, Henry VIII.) the 
priory of St. Bees is valued as follows : — 

Com' Cu'br'. 
Cella Sancte Bcge in Com Cu/nbr'. 

Joh'es Poule Incumbens. 

Temp'al' valent in £ «■ d. 

Scit' cella pdict'. valet in terr' dnic'. cu. } ^^ __ _ 

claus' ibm. p. annu. S 

Libis. lirm' divs'. libos. tenenciu. indivs'."^ 

dnijs. &: villat' subscript' viz in villat' 

dc Homsjngham xxiiijj.-. Kybton cu. 

ptin'. p. annu. xxs. Ilarras p. annu. 

x\d. & p. divs'. terr' int' aquas de Eske 

& Dodyn Ixxijs. U}d. Et reddit' & 

firm divs'. dnios. terr' &tentos. tcnon- 

ciu. ad volut'. dni. p. annu. viz manc- 

riu. de Slanburnc cu. ptin'. p. annu. 

xj/. vijs. \d. Kyrkeby IJccok cu. mo- 

lendino & patis. xvl. ij«. iiij(^. Lowke- 

rige p. annu. vjs. vijJ. ob' Wodend p. 

annu. x*. Catgill p. annu. xviijcZ. Wray 

p. annu. ij.s. M allon cu. ptin'. p. annu. 

XXX*. Sandwatlb cu. ptin'. p. annu. vij/. 

xjs. iij'i. Hotyngton cu. ptin'. p. annu. 

vijs. h\yl. Preston IIowsc cu. ptin'. p. 

annu. xxiiij.v. Whilhancwod p. annu. 

xiijs. iiijd. Uescow Pke. p. annu. xs. 

Aralhnaytc cu. ptin'. p. ann' xxxiiijs. 

AVhilhaven cu. ptin'. p. annu. liiijs. 
Flatt cu. ptin'. p. annu. xxvjs. \u'}d. 
Blakenthvaytc p. annu. viijs. Corkgill 

2 X 





X ob' 


p. annu. iiij*. Hensyngham, cu. ptin'. 
xxxvjs. viijrf. Wynder & Rowray cu. 
ptin'. p. annu. Ixxvijs. viij(?. Clifton 
cu. ptin'. iijs. Wyrkyngton cu. ptin'. p. 
annu. xxjs. Cokerraouth xv*\ Talan- 
tyre cu. ptin'. ixs. Aspatry cu. ptin'. p. 
annu. viijs. viijcZ. Whynbanke cu. ptin'. 
p. annu. vjs. \}d. molcndin' bladal' xh. 
In toto p annu. 

JFestm'V. Temp'aV val' in 

£ s. 

Reddit' & firm' de una claus' in Kendalc p. ^ 


Cu'br'. Sp'ual' val' in 

Exit' &; pfic'. decim' garbas. & feni ac 
alias, decimabil' & oblac' ecclie. See. 
Bege & de capellis infa. pochia. ibra. 
viz de capellis de Lowswat. Evdale. 
Esshdale &, Wasdall coibz. annis 
Pquis'. cur' ibm. singlis. annis 

£ s. 
cxlix xix 


Sma. valoris huj. celle 

D' quibz 

Repris'. Feod' videl't 

Johi. Lamplough militisen- } ^^^ ^.jj- 

lo. terr' celle pdict'. S ' 

Crisofora Culwen militisen- ? 

lo. de Stanburne ), 

Rico. Orfer senlo. cur' cell' 

Johi. Nicholson ballio de 

Willmo. Poule rec' pecun' ^ 


Et tribz. ballivis de Coupe- 
land in feod' viz Johi. 
Ponsonby iijs. iuyl. An- 
tonio Patrikson iij«. iiijrf. 
&. Thome Tobson iijs. 
iii^d. p. annu. In toto 

— XX vj VIIJ 


vj ob' 
£ s. 
cxlix xix 


vj ob" 

xxvj VllJ 





Snia. repris' pz supa. • 

£ s. d. 
Et val' clare cxliij xvj ij ob' 

Xma. ps. inde xiiij vij vij ob' 

On the dissolution, the revenues of this priory, 
according to Dugdale, were 143/. lis. 2f/. ; or, 
by Speed's valuation, 1 19/. 19s. Gd. 

From these statements it appears that there 
were only two religious houses in the county 
more amply endowed than the priory of St. Bees.* 
How lamentable a fact that from the revenues of 
this house, equalling about 3000/. per annum of 
the modern value of money, the parish was 
sacrilegiously robbed not only of the endowments 
which had been appropriated for works of charity 
and education, but even of a suitable maintenance 
for its ministers, "to whom pertaineth the service 
of God," and to such an extent, that, in 1705, 
the church was certified of only the annual value 
of 12/. ! ^\ by was not a portion of its revenues 
appropriated to similar purposes as those founda- 
tions of later piety — the College and the Free 
Grammar School ? Reformation would have 
been accomplished, and more efficiently, without 
sacrilege, had the voices of Latimer, and Cranmer, 
and other churchmen prevailed.f 

• The priory of Ilolme-Cultram, aud tlie priory of St. Mary, Carlisle: 
ihe latter was constituted a cathedral-church at the Reformation. 

+ A modem publication, " A Sketch of the Reformation in England," 
by the Rev. I. J. Blunt, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, con- 
tains the following judicious remarks : — 

" Cranmer was i;ol (as may be well believed) an unconcerned specta- 
tor of this great revolution in the possessions of the church; but though 
he agreed with Cromwell in the desire of tlie dissolution, he differed from 
him with regard to the application of the proceeds. Indeed, tlic views 



Edward VI. in the seventh year of his reign 
(1553) granted to Sir Thomas Chaloner, knight, 

they respectively took of the nature of ecclesiastical property do not 
appear to liavc coincided. The one was rather acting in a political, the 
other in a religious spirit. Cromwell was concerned to right the 
monarchy, Cranmer to save a church. The former was for the suppres- 
sion of the religious houses, because the supremacy of the crown could 
not be otherwise secured ; the latter had this for his object too, but still 
more the annihilation of the abuses of purgatory, masses for the dead, 
saint-worship, and pilgrimage, of all which the abbeys were the incor- 
rigible patrons. So far, therefore, they went hand in hand. But in the 
disposal of the vast fund which accrued from the confiscation of the 
church estates, Cranmer did not, like Cromwell and (he parliament, 
regard it as a matter for the king to take his pastime with, according to 
. his own mere will and motion. Kor would he dissipate, nor did he 
think it lawful to divert from its original destination, and that the pro- 
motion of God's glory, so ample a revenue, and make it over at once, 
and for secular purposes only, to the crown. He, therefore, was for 
considering it as still a sacred treasure, to be applied to sacred ends ; and 
out of the old and corrupted monasteries ho was desirous to see arise new 
and better foundations : houses attached to all the cathedrals, to sen-e 
as nurseries for the clergy of the diocese in religion and learning ; an 
addition made to the incomes of the inferior class ; and the number of 
sees increased, with a corresponding diminution in their extent, that tlic 
bishop might be in deed as well as in name the overseer. To these wise 
and good propositions Latimer added another, no less commendable, 
that a few of the greater abbeys should be left for pious and charitable 
uses. For the priory of Malvern, above all, he intercedes with great 
earnestness ; not that it ' should stand in monkery, but so as to be con- 
verted to preaching, study, and prayer ;' and then he adds, ' Alas ! my 
good Lord' (it is to Cromwell that he makes his fruitless appeal), 'shall 
we not see two or three in every shire changed to such remedy ?' 

" As a further proof of the honest motives which had actuated many 
in their spoliation of the church, the very men who had been denoimced 
as unfit to live whilst they were monks, were now inducted into bene- 
fices and stalls by the parties to whom the spiritual welfare of the people, 
forsooth, had been so dear an object, in order that they might be thus 


the manor, rectory, and cell of St. Bees, with all 
its rights, members, and appurtenances, and all 

relieved from the payment of the pitiful pension with whicli their pro- 
perty was charged for their support. 

" Another defect imputed to the Re'ormation is the inadequate support 
it provided for the lower orders of the clergy. Four thousand livings, and 
upwards, of less than one hundred and fifty pounds a year each, nianv 
very far less, with no parsonage houses whatever, or with such as the 
most Sabine economist would pronounce unfit for a clergyman to oc- 
cupy ; — this is the forlorn condition, as to temporals, in which the church 
has stood for a long season ; a condition to which it could not liave been 
reduced, had even a portion of the vast revenues dispersed at the Re- 
formation been husbanded, and applied to the legitimate purpose of 
bettering the situation of the inferior clergy. 

" Church endowments in general, and tithes in particular, were goods 
set apart for the promotion of religion from time immemorial, the posses- 
sor of a manor erecting upon it a church, and charging it for ever with 
the maintenance of a man whose business it should be to teach the peo- 
ple upon it llic law of God, and thus acknowledging on his own part his 
tenure to be under God, ' the land His, and himself a stranger and so- 
journer with Him.' This was the origin of parishes ; the parish co-ex- 
tensivc (as it is still almost always found) with the manor, so that even 
where the latter chances to have a part distant and detached, the parish, 
however inconvenient it may be for pastoral superintendence and in- 
struction, usually claims it too. The fulfilment of the conditions annex- 
ed to these grants, it was only equitable that the donor and his lieirs 
should exact and regulate ; they were tlif natural guardians of the 
charities ; and when the lapse of years, the course of events, and public 
convenience, had caused this guardianship to devolve upon the state, the 
state, like any other guardian, had a right to superintend the trust so as 
to carry into cflect the designs of the donor, but no right whatever to 
alienate it, apply it to purposes of its own, and thereby frustrate those 
intentions. It had a right, for instance, to provide the best religious 
instruction which was to be had, even though it was such as the bene- 
factor had not contemplated ; and to exclude such as was found, on a 
more intimate knowledge of the subject, to be erroneous, even though 
it was such OS the benefactor had sanctioned; it being obvious that his 


the possessions belonging to the same in St. Bees 
and Ennerdale, and elsewhere in the county of 

intention was to guide, not to mislead, those for -whom he had show-n so 
lively an interest ; but it had no right to withhold all religious instruction 
whatever, dispose of the trust to the best bidder, and putting the produce 
in its pocket, say that it was corban. 

" Whoever might be the advisers of the measure, out of 
the spoils of the monasteries six new bishoprics were founded, — those of 
Westminster (since suppressed), Chester, Gloucester, Peterborough, 
Oxford, and Bristol, together with deaneries and prebends respectively 
annexed, all slenderly endowed, and upon the whole a sad falling oft' 
from the splendid expectations wh'ch the king had originally held forth 
of eighteen new sees, together with a proportional number of suifragans, 
— ex'pectations which the act of suppression had encouraged, and by 
which many were reconciled to the confiscation of church property, as 
hoping that it was only to be fused and cast into a better mould. Its 
authors, however, ' liked not that paying again ; it was double trouble.' 
Accordingly they compounded with the creditor, and the dividend (with 
the addition of funds for the endowment of some of the metropolitan 
hospitals, a few professorships in either university, and a college in Cam- 
bridge,) was what wo have seen. The cathedrals fared better than the 
monasteries; having been hitherto in the hands of the regulars, they 
were now put upon the same footing as the new institutions of the like 
kind, and their revenues appropriated to the maintenance of secular 

" The progress of the Reformation was attended (as all great national 
convulsions are) with many and sad excesses. The work of destruction, 
when long continued, is in itself a thing which hardens the heart; and 
the Reformation was full of it. Monk and nun iHmed out of house and 
home, pensioned indeed, but (except in the case of superiors, who were 
treated with more lenity) pensioned with a miserable equivalent ; their 
dwelling-places, beautiful as many of them were, laid low, that all hope 
of return might be cut off; their cells surrendered to the bats and owls ; 
their chapels made a portion for foxes, the mosaic pavements torn up, the 
painted windows dashed in pieces, the bells gambled for, or sold into 
Russia and other countries, though often before they reached their desti- 
nation buried in the ocean— all and utterly dismantled, save where, hap. 


Cumberland (not granted away by the crown 
before) ; to hold to the said Thomas Chaloner, 
his heirs and assigns, in fee farm for ever, of the 
king, his heirs and successors, as of his manor of 
Sheriff-IIutton in Yorkshire, in free and common 
socage, by fealty only, and not in cap'tte ; paying 
to the crown yearly the fee farm rent of 113/. 
16s. 2\d. 

In the 1th and 5th Pliilip and Mary (1557), 
the king and queen granted to C'uthbert Scot, 
Bishop of Chester, and his successors, tlie said 
yearly rent, subject to the payment of 43/. Ss. 4d. 
per annum to the crown. 

The AVybergh family succeeded Sir Thomas 
Chaloner in the possession of the estates, who 
having been sufferers for their loyalty during 

pening to be parish churches also, as was the case at [St. Bees,] St. .\I- 
ban's, Tewkesbury, Malrern, and elsewhere, they were rescued in whole, 
or in part, from Henry's harpies, by the petitions or the pecuniary con- 
tributions of the pious inhabitants ; libraries, of which most monasteries 
contained one, treated by their new possessors with barbaric contempt ; 
'some books reserved for their jakes, some to scour their candlesticks, 
some to rub their boots, some sold to the grocers and soap-boilers, and 
some sent over sea to bookbindci-s, not in small numbers, but at times 
whole shipsful, to the wondering of foreign nations ; a single merchant 
purchasing at forty shillings a piece two noble libraries to be used as 
grey paper, and such as having already sufliced for ten years were abun- 
dantly enough (says the oye-wituess whose words are here quoted) for 
many years more' ; these were some cf the coarser features of those 
times ; howbeit there were many besides these. For the churches 
were treated with gross irreverence ; horses and mules were led tlirough 
them ; they were profaned by dogs and liawks, by doves and owls, by 
stares and choughs ; they were plundered of their plate by church- 
wardens, or other powerful parishioners, who might argue, that if they 
spared, others would spoil ; or who might wish ill to the cause of the 
Reformation, and take such means to scandalise it." 


the Gi'eat Rebellion, mortgaged St. Bees to the 
Lowther family ; and on a suit instituted by Sir 
John Lowther of Whitehaven, the equity of re- 
demption was foreclosed, and the estate decreed 
in chancery to him and his heirs, in the year 
1663, in which family it has still remained, and 
now forms part of the possessions of the Earl of 

In 1622, Bishop Bridgman, who then held the 
see of Chester, ordered the inhabitants ot the 
five chapelries of Eskdale, Ennerdalc, ^^'asdale- 
Head, Nether-Wasdale, and Loweswater, to 
contribute to the repairs of this, the mother 

In 1705, the church of St. Bees was certified 
by James Lowther, Esq., of Whitehaven, the 
impropriator, at 12/. per annum. The benefice is 
a perpetual curacy, in the impropriation and pa- 
tronage of the Earl of Lonsdale. 

In 1723, a dispute arose between the then in- 
cumbent of St. Bees, the Rev. R. Jackson,* and 
the curates of the old and new chapels in 
Whitehaven. The subject of this dispute was 
the right to certain fees, in respect of these chapel- 
ries, claimed by Mr. Jackson, as the clergyman 
of the mother church. In consequence of this 
jurisdiction being disputed, application was made 
to the bishop, who confirmed the right of the 
incumbent of Saint Bees church, to certain fees, 
on the baptisms, churchings, &c., solemnized in 
the dependent chapelries. By a memorandum, 
dated May 26, 1 724, and now remaining at Saint 

• This gentleman was for the long period of fifty-two years, Master 
of the Grammar school, as appears by his tombstone in the church. 


Bees, Mr. Jackson assents to and notifies the 
bishop's regulation, " Salvo jure matris ecclesije, 
salva authoritate canorum ecclesiae, authoritate 
Reverendi in Xto. patris Episcopi Cestriensis, et 
durante beneplacito nostro, et successorum 

The conventual church is in the usual form of 
a cross, and consists of a nave with aisles, a choir, 
and transepts, with a low square tower at the 
intersection. The south side of the priory is 
sheltered with trees. The cemetery is on the 
north side. The house of the Principal of the 
college is near the west end. 

The tower has an embattled parapet, and a 
turret at the north-east angle, containing a very 
narrow staircase. The old bells were removed, 
and their places are supplied by three modern 
ones. The roof commands a fine view of the sea 
and the vale of St. Bees. 

The west front of the nave has three lancet 
windows, and a Norman doorway with chevron 
mouldings, in some places ornamented with the 
l)eak head. This is much defaced by the weather. 
On the south side of the nave there was formerly 
a wooden figure, in mail armour, supposed to 
have been the effigies of Anthony, the last Lord 
Lucy of Egremont, who died, A.D. 13G8. The 
nave has north and south aisles, with six pointed 
arches on each side, alternately octagonal and 
circular, excepting one which is clustered. Two 
of the arches are walled up for a west gallery ; 
near this is the font, the upper part containing 
the basin is hexagonal, and supported on a round 
pedestal. The windows on the north and south 

2 V 


sides are barbarous insertions, in the very worst 
taste. Those in the clerestory are of two round 
headed hghts. The nave is now used as the 
parish church. 

The south ti'ansept has been used for a cem- 
etery, and contains some monumental inscrip- 
tions, but none of an old date. 

The north transept contains the college library. 
Here is a portrait, by Lonsdale, of the late 
Principal, Dr. Ainger, in his academical dress as 
a doctor in divinity. 

The choir, which had been a roofless ruin for 
two centuries, was fitted up as a lecture-room 
for the college, in 1S17, at the expence of Wil- 
liam, Earl of Lonsdale. The south aisle is gone, 
and the arches, which are pointed, are walled up, 
with sash windows inserted. " I'he interior ar- 
rangement at the east end of the choir is singu- 
lar ; three beautiful lancets rise from a string, 
the centre one being higher and wider, as is 
usually the case, and between each are two tiers 
of niches, one above the other, having clustered 
shafts and oi'namental capitals, and a common 
dripstone runs round the whole. The north 
side of the choir is lighted by a series of lancets, 
having single shafts set on the sides, the interior 
sliiifts being plain, whilst the exterior are filleted." 

The communion-plate appears to have been 
presented by the benevolent archbishop, whose 
memory is so intimately connected with the place, 
as the founder of the Free Grammar School. 
It bears the date, 1571, and the arms of the 
archiepiscopal see of York, impaled with those 
of Grindal. 

Near the steps leading up to the college are 


two mutilated stone figures, to which common 
report has assigned the names of Lord and Lady- 
Lucy ; the sculpture appears to be of great 

• In tlicir original state, they were of gigantie size. The features and 
legs are now destroyed. The Lord is represented with liis sword sheath- 
ed, but whether indicative of being vanquished in battle, a paucity of 
information on this subject must leave undecided. There is a shield on 
his arm, which appears to have been quartered, but the bearings upon it 
are entirely defaced, so that even fancy, usually sufficiently creative, is 
in this case, unable to detect any semblance of the three pikes, or lueies, 
thereon, which might have been expected. On the breast of the 
Lady is an unshapely protuberance, which the incurious would totally 
disregard, and tlie enquiring be troubled to account for. This was origi- 
nally the roughly sculptured limb of a wolf, which even so lately as the 
year 1806, might be distinctly ascertained. These figures were formerly 
placed in an horizontal position, at the top of two raised altar tombs, 
placed at no great distance from their present locality. The tomb of the 
Lady was at tlie feet of her Lord, and a wolf was represented as standing 
over it. The protuberance above mentioned, on the breast of the Lady, 
was the paw of the wolf, and all that now remains of the animal. About 
a cenlm'y since, the figure of the wolf wanted but one leg, as many of 
the inhabitants, whose immediate ancestors remembered it nearly entire, 
can testify. The horizontal position of the figures, rendered them pecu- 
liarly liable to injuries, from the silent and irresistible ravages of time. 
Their present state is, however, principally to be attributed to the falling 
in of the outer walls of the priory, and more particularly to the fact of 
having been used, many years since, by the boys of the free grammar 
school, as a mark to fire at. It is supposed that the limb of the wolf has 
reference to a melancholy catastrophe which happened to one of the 
Ladies Liicy, (see page 15) who in walking through the neighbouring 
woods, was attacked by this animal and destroyed. Such is the tradition. 
It may not however be unworthy of remark, that the Lueies were con- 
nected, through the family of Meschincs, with Hugh de Abrincis, Earl of 
Chester, who in 1070 bore azure a wolf's head erased argent, and who 
had the surname of Lupus. 

"Be y' nolid that Wyllyam Myschcn son of Ranolf Lord of Egre- 
mond founded the monastery of Saint Beysse of blake monks. And 

2 Y 2 


On the north side of the church is part of 
an ancient cross. Its situation is remarkable, as 
tliose in tliis county are almost invariably placed 
on the south side. 

The registers commence in 153S, and are, 
perhaps, the most perfect in the county. 

In the church-yard, on the north side of the 
nave, is a tombstone inscribed to the memory 
of the late Rev. W. Ainger, D.D.— 

Here lieth the body of 


formerly Fellow of St. John's College 


Prebendary of the Cathedral-Church 

of Chester, 

first Principal 

of the Clerical College of St. Bees, 

and 24 years Perpetual Curate 

of this Parish. 

He died 20th October, 1840, 

aged 55 years. 

I wait for the Lord, my soul doth wait, 

and in tis word do I hope. 

A monument, with a bust by Lough, will 
shortly be erected in memory of the deceased 

lieyres to the said Meschyn y^ the Lords Fitzwal. the Lord Haryugton, 
and the Lord Lucy, and so restyth founders of the said monastery therlc 
of Sussex the Lord Marques Dorset, therle of Northumberland as heyres 
to the Lords aforesaid." — MS. Ilarl. Coll. 

The family of Meschines is said to be descended from that at Rome 
called by the name Maecenas, from which word the former one is corrupted. 
Certainly it has proved itself the Macenas of the priory of St. Bees, not 
merely in the foundation of that religious house, but also in the charters 
for a long course of years, which have been granted by persons of dif- 
ferent names, indeed, but descended from, or connected with, the same 
beneficent slock. 

parish of st. bees. 353 

The College. 

This Institution, for the instruction of candi- 
dates for lioly orders, was estabhshed in 1 SI 7 by 
the Right Reverend George Henry Law, D.D. 
Lord Bishop of Chester (now of Bath and Wells). 

The first Principal of the college was the Rev. 
William Ainger, B.D. (afterwards D.D.) who was 
also perpetual curate of St. Bees. Bishop Law 
gave 200/. to procure from Queen Ann's bounty 
the further sum of 300/. to build the Princi- 
pal's house. 

The choir of the priory-church, which had 
been roofless for upwards of two centuries, was 
repaired and fitted up for the purposes of the 
Institution, at the expence of the Right Honor- 
able William, Earl of Lonsdale. 

On the death of Dr. Ainger, which occurred 
20th October, 1840, the Rev. Robert Pcdder 
Buddicom, M.A., F.A.S., was appointed Principal 
by the present Lord Bishop of Chester, Dr. J. B. 
Sunnier. The theological-lecturer is the \{e\. 
D. Anderson, ISI.A. The present number of 
students is 49. 

One of the lecture-rooms is used as the library, 
and contains some valuable works. Here is a 
full-length portrait of the late Dr. Ainger, the first 
Principal of the college,paintedby Lonsdale, partly 
at the expence of the students. " The students, 
previous to admission, are expected to be well 
versed in the Classics, so that the course of study 
does not exceed two years. In this period the 
standard divinity works are diligently studied, 
and such principles inculcated as are likely to 
form faithful ministers of the Gospel, who, as far 


as their spheres for exertion will permit, may be 
able to preserve the chmxh in its original purity, 
free from those errors which indistinct notions 
are apt to engender." 

"Who with the ploughshare clove the barren moors, 
And to green meadows changed the swampy shores ? 
Thinned the rank woods ; and for the cheerful grange 
Made room where wolf and boar were used to range? 
Who taught, and showed by deeds, that gentler chains 
Should bind the vassal to his lord's domains? 
The thoughtful Monks, intent their God to please, 
For Clirist's dear sake, by human sympathies 
Poured from the bosom of thy Church, St. Bees! 

" But all availed not ; by a mandate given 

Through lawless will the Brotherhood was driven 

Forth from their cells; — their ancient House laid low 

In Reformation's sweeping overthrow. 

But now once more the local Heart revives. 

The inextinguishable Spirit strives. 

Oh may that Power who hushed the stormy seas, 

And cleared a way for the first Votaries, 

Prosper the new-born College of St. Bees!" — iVordswortk. 

The Free Grammar-School. 

In the year 15S3, Edmund Grindal, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, (a native of Hensingham, in this 
parish,) intending to found a school here, applied 
to Queen Elizabeth, who, by her letters patent, 
dated 24th April, 15S3, granted that there should 
be a grammar school in Kirkby Beacock or Saint 
Beghcs, to be called "The Free Grammar School 
of Edmund (irindal. Archbishop of Canterbury." 
It was provided that there should be seven gov- 
ernors,^ — the provost of Queen's College, Oxford, 
and the rector of Egremont for the time being, 
always to be two, John Lamplugh, of Lamplugh, 


Esq., Robert Sandes, of Rottington, Esq., AVil- 
liam Davies, of St. Bees, gentleman, Richard 
Skelton, of Walton, yeoman, and Robert Grin- 
dal, of Hensingham, yeoman, to be the first 
governors. In case of death it was provided 
that the vacancy should be filled up by the sur- 

During the life of the founder, he was to have 
the nomination of the master ; but after his death 
that power was to be vested in the provost of 
Queen's College, O.xford, if " a person of learn- 
ing," and a native of one of the counties of Cum- 
berland, AVestmorland, York, and Lancaster. 
If he should neglect for two months, then the 
master of Pembroke-Hall is to nominate. 

The statutes and ordinances drawn up by the 
archbishop for the governance of his grammar- 
school, bear date the 3rd of July, 1583 ; and the 
pious founder appointed certain lands, &c., to be 
purchased of the yearly value of 50/. for the 
maintenance of his school, to be employed as 
follows : — 

Imprimis, for the finding of one Fellow and 
two Scholars in Pembroke-hall, according 
to special statutes appointed for the same £20 
Item, to the Schoolmaster . . . 20 

Item, to the Usher 3 6 8 

Item, to the Eeceiver, for his fee . . 10 
Item, for the dinner at the annual meeting 

of the Governors . . . . . 13 4 


The residue, with all penalties and fines 
paid, to be appropriated in repairs and other 
necessary charges. 

The archbishop died 6th July, 1583, before 


the foundation was fully completed, leaving 500/. 
in the hands of his executors, for the purchase 
of lands of the annual value of 30/. for the fur- 
ther maintenance of the school. 

A second patent, reciting and confirming the 
former, was granted by Queen Elizabeth, 15th 
June, 1585. 

James I. by letters patent, dated 25th June, 
1604, in augmentation of the endowment of this 
school, granted sixteen messuages or tenements 
in Sandwith, late parcel of the possessions of the 
priory of St. Bees, with pasture for 300 sheep on 
Sandwith marsh ; forty-eight messuages in Kirk- 
by Begog, parcel of the manor of St. Bees, with 
divers quit-rents, foggage, and after-pastures in 
certain fields there ; a yearly rent of 16s. Sr/., 
called Walk-mill silver, payable in common 
among the tenants of the manor of St. Bees ; a 
rent of 24s. out of the manor of Hensingham ; 
and four messuages in Hensingham and ^^'ray ; — 
all of which were parcel of the lands and posses- 
sions of Sir Thomas Chaloner, knight, deceased, 
and of the yearly rent of 28/. 8.$. Q\d. ; to be 
holden as of the manor of Sheriff-Hutton, co. 
York, in free soccage. These grants were soon 
after confirmed by act of parliament. 

In the year 1629, AMlliam Lickbarrow, the 
master, addressed a petition to the Bishop of 
Chester, in which he complained of the state and 
misgovernment of the school, that the statutes 
were not observed, nor the arrears of rent paid, 
and that during sixteen years' labour, " both in 
schole and church," he had received nothing but 
calumny and abuse. 

Sir John Lowther, who died in 1705, gave 5/. 



per annum, and a valuable library to this school ; 
to wliich Sir Joseph Williamson, Secretary of 
state to Charles II., made considerable additions. 
Dr Lamplugh, Archbishop of York, also gave 
5/. per annum to the library, but this has been 
withdrawn. Bishop Barlow presented some 
valuable books. William, Earl of Lonsdale, has 
also been a benefactor to this institution. The 
site of the school and the master's house was 
given by Thomas Chaloner, Esq.* 

The increased revenues of the school arise 
chiefly from coal pits : the royalty of St. Bees 
belongs to the school. 

The school is in reality free only to the coun- 
ties of Cumberland and Westmorland, although 
no distinction is now made : every scholar pre- 
senting the head-master and the second-master 
with an annual offering (called a Cock-penny,) on 
Shrove Tuesday, varying according to the means 
and inclinations of the donors. The children ot 
the poor of the parish pay merely the fourpence 
reciuired by the statutes. 

The number of scholars has greatly varied,— it 
has exceeded 150, and is now reduced to 30. 

The present governors are, — The Right Hon- 
orable William, Earl of Lonsdale, K.G. ; the 
Rev John Fox, D.D., Provost of Queen's College, 
Oxford, ex officio ; the Rev. William Henry Leech, 
Rector of Egi-emont, ex officio ; Humphrey Sen- 

. By an indenture, made 28lli Elizabeth, Thomas Chaloner, of Gray's 
Inn Esq., gave the ground on which the school was built, and also 40 
loads of coals at his coal-pits in St. Bees, for the use of the school. In 
consideration of these gifts, two boys, to be called Chaloner's scholars. 
were to be placed in the school by the said Thomas Chaloner and his 
hciis for ever ; they do not, however, avail themselves of that privilege. 

2 z 


house, Esq., of Nether Hall ; Major Spedding, 
Summergrove, Whitehaven; Edward Stanley, 
Esq., RI.P., Ponsonby Hall ; and the Rev. Alex- 
ander Scott, M.A., Bootle. 

There are two exhibitions of 251. per annum 
each, at Queen's College, Oxford, (founded by 
Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Rochester,) for the sons 
of clergymen of the diocese, and educated at the 
grammar-schools of Carlisle and St, Bees. A St. 
Bees scholar has also the privilege of becoming 
a candidate for one of the five valuable exhibi- 
tions founded by the Lady Elizabeth Hastings. 

There are two scholarships and one fellowship 
at Queen's College, Oxford, for scholars of St. 
Bees. The nomination is in the College. 

Bishop Hall, Master of Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, was educated at this school, as was probably 
also Archbishop Sandys. 

The head-master has a comfortable dwelling- 
house, adjoining the school, upon which William, 
Earl of Lonsdale, expended 700/. His lordship 
made additions to the library in 1S03, and fitted 
it up with book-cases. The present head-master 
is the Rev. John Fox, INLA., and the usher or 
second-master is Mr. James Armstrong. 

In 1815, the revenue of the school was 
112/. 10s., exclusive of the house and garden for 
the master, and about five acres of land. The 
present revenue is about 75/. 

The school-house is a plain substantial build- 
ing, near the church. Over the door are the in- 
itials of the benevolent founder and the following 
inscription : — 

E 1587 G ' 



3 S 
¥ ^ 



List of Head Masters. 

158 . Nicholas Copelande, B. A. 
.... William Brisco, occurs 1610. 
.... William Lickbarrow, occm'S 1623. 
.... Rev. R. Jackson.* 
.... Rev. John Hutchinson, INI. A.f 
179 . Rev. John Barnes, M. A.J 
181 . Rev. Wilham Wilson, M. A.|| 
1817 Rev. Thomas Bradley, M. A. 
1830 Rev. John Fox, M. A.§ 

Whitehaven is a large and opulent sea-port 
and market-town, 307 miles N.W. from London, 
and 42 miles S.W. from Carlisle. It is seated 
on the Irish Sea, near a small creek which forms 
the harbour, bounded and overlooked on the 
other sides by green hills which rise abruptly 
from the outskirts of the town. 

In the sixteenth century Whitehaven was so 
inconsiderable a place as to be unnoticed by 
Camden. It owes its rise to its present rank as 
a sea-port to the exertions of the family of the 
Earl of Lonsdale, who have been lords of the 
manor for about two centuries. 

• Ob. 1738, aged 80, vicar of Barton, 33 years minister of the parish, 
and 52 years head master of the Grammar School. 

+ FcUow of Queen's College, Oxford ; oh. at Egrcmont, 1794. 

X Curate of Loweswaler, a native of Red-hall, near Wigton, ob. 1810. 

II Mr. Wilson published an expurgated edition of Juvenal, with Eng- 
jiah notes. Collectanea Thcologica, and Cliristiana; Pietatis Prima Insti- 
tutio. Now D.D. vicar of Holy-Rhood, Southampton. 

J Of Queen's College, Oxford ; a nephew of the Rev. John Fox, D.D., 
provost of that college. 

2 z 2 


The town is very regularly built, the streets 
intersecting each other at right angles, and con- 
tains, as do the suburbs, many good mansions. 

A market on Thursday, and a yearly fair on 
the 1st of August, were granted to Sir John 
Lowther, Bart., by Charles II. in 1660. There 
are now three weekly markets — Tuesday, Thurs- 
day, and Saturday. The fair of late years has 
been held on the 12th of August, but it is now 
nearly obselete.* 

"The Cumberland Pacquet," published at 
Whitehaven by Mr. Robert Gibson, is the oldest 
newspaper in the county, having been established 
in 1774. Two other newspapers have been 
published here — " ' Tlie Chronicle,' which lived 
only a short period, and the ' Gazette,' which 
was continued from 1819 to 1826, when it was 
purchased and annihilated by the proprietor of 
the ' Pacquet'." Another newspaper, " The 
Whitehaven Herald," was commenced in about 
1830 : and is now published by Mr. George Irwin. 

Whitehaven is called in ancient records, Qxvit- 
ofthaven, Whitofthaveu, and Whyttothaveyi (i. e. 
White-toft-haven), and is supposed by some to 
derive its name from the whiteness of the rocks 
near the harbour, when compared with the dark 
red sand-stone about St. Bees Head ; others er- 
roneously think the name arose from the circum- 
stance of the first fisherman who frequented the 
bay, being of the name of White, and that he 
built a small cottage here in the Old Town, over 
the door of which was carved the date 1592.f 

• In tlie year 1792 there was "a diligence once a week" from White- 
haven to Carlisle. 

t This house feU down in 1817. 


This latter supposition cannot be correct, as iu 
the Register of the priory of St. Bees the place 
is very frequently mentioned, at a much older 
period, as Witoftltavcn and Qxvitofthctven, — suffi- 
cient evidence to prove the fallacy of the latter 

" It was belonging to St. Begh's of antient time, 
for the Abbot of York, in Edward I's time, was 
impleaded for wreck, and his liberties tliere, by 
the king, which he claimed from the foundation, 
to be confirmed by Richard Lucy, in King John's 
time, to his predecessors." 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth (A. D. \5GQ), 
as appears from a survey of the shipping and 
trade of the county of Cumberland, taken by 
virtue of a commission under the great seal, 
Whitehaven was a small fishing village, contain- 
ing six houses. The only vessel belonging to 
the place was a pickard of eight or nine tons, 
employed in fishing. And in 1582, the Earl of 
Lincoln, Lord High-Admiral, having commanded 
a general muster of ships and mariners within 
the county, there were only twelve small ships, 
under SO tons, and 198 mariners and fishermen 
in the county. In the return of ships at the 
time of the Spanish invasion, the Bee of White- 
haven, 10 tons, appears as the largest belonging 
to the county. 

The lands here, which had formerly belonged 
to the Priory of St. Bees, were bought by Sir 
Christopher Lowther, (second son of Sir John 
Lowtlier, of Lowther,) who settled at this place 
during the life-time of his father. His mansion 
was at the west end of the town, at the foot of 


the rock.* Sir John, dying in 1644, was succeeded 
by his son and heir. Sir John Lowther, who built 
a new niansion-house, (on the site of the Castle,) 
described by Mr. T. Denton, in 16SS, as " a stately 
new pile of building, called the Flatt." 

At this period, as appears from an old print, 
" The South-east Prospect of Whitehaven in the 
year 1642," Whitehaven consisted of about forty 
houses ; " the little old chapel," mentioned by 
Nicolson and Burn, was an humble edifice, with 
a bell-turret, and a cross at the east end. A few 
pack-horses, probably just arrived fi-om Kendal, 
over Hardknot and Wrynose, (see page 188), 
are seen approaching the town along a road 
strewed with large stones, and partly overgrown 
with grass. 

This chapel was situated in Chapel-street : the 
burial-ground extended to the bank in Lowther- 
street. In May, 1S31, when excavating for the 
foundations of the bank, a number of skulls and 
bones were found here, and a tomb-stone, with 
this inscription : — 

Here lieth the 
body of Rodger 
Browne who died 
Ivly 25, 1654. 

In connection with this, the Rev. W. Ainger, 
D.D., principal of the college of St. Bees, copied 
the following entry from the parish register : — 
"Anno Dni., 1654, 27th day of July, Rodger 
Browne, a Welshman, buried." 

* There are yet remaining in this part of the town two ancient houses 
which bear marks of having "seen better days;" and have, in all 
probability, been the mansions of some of the principal families in the 



About the year 1666, Sir John Lowther, of 
Whitehaven, obtained from Cliarles II. a gi-ant 
of all the "derehct land at this place," which yet 
remained in the Crown; and in 167S, all the lands 
between high and low water marks, for two mdes 
northward, on payment of a yearly rent to the 
Crown The latter grant contamed about 150 
acres being in breadth 200 yards. " Sir John 
havin'^ thus laid the foundation of the future 
impoilance of Whitehaven, commenced his great 
work, and lived to see a small obscure village, 
which in 1G33 had consisted only of nine thatched 
cottages, grown up into a thriving and populous 
town; which in 1G93 contained 2,222 mhabit- 

Apier was erected by Sir John Lowther be- 
fore 1687. Mr. T. Denton describes the harbour 
as rendered so commodious by it, as to be cap- 
able of containing a fleet of 100 sail. 

From this period, Whitehaven rose to com- 
mercial importance in a steady yet rapid manner : 
in 1685, there were 46 vessels belonging to this 
port, exclusive of boats, of from 12 to 94 tons, 
equal to 1871 tons. The largest of these the 
Resolution, of 94 tons, was "commanded by 
Richard Kelsick, in which he crossed the Western 
Ocean oftener than once to the province of Vir- 
ginia, and there took in a cargo of tobacco, and 
discharged the same at Whitehaven." 

One of the most important historical tacts 
connected with the annals of Whitehaven, is the 
daring attempt of Paul Jones, the noted pirate, 
to fire the shipping in the harbour. On Thurs- 
day, 23d April, 1778, he landed here with about 
thirty armed men, from an American privateer. 


Ranger, mounting eighteen six-pounders and six 
swivels, which had been equipped at Nantes, 
expressly for this horrid attempt. Jones, who 
was a native of Galloway, had served his ap- 
prenticeship, as a seaman, on board a vessel 
belonging to Whitehaven, and his acquaintance 
with the port enabled him to undertake its de- 
struction. He and his men set fire to three ships, 
expecting the flames would spread through the 
two hundred then in the harbour ; but in con- 
sequence of the defection of one of the men 
(David Freeman), who alarmed the inhabitants, 
this was prevented by their timely defence.* 

" Before any force could be collected, Jones 
and his crew had re-embarked in two boats, and all 
the guns of the nearest battery were found spiked. 
Three of them were, however, soon cleared, and 
several shots were fired, a few of which were ob- 
served to fall between the two boats, but not to 
take effect. The boats were afterwards seen to 
reach the ship, which, about nine o'clock, stood 
audaciously towards the harbour, with the flow- 
ing tide, and with the appearance of bombarding 
it, but on a discharge from one of the fort-guns 
she sheered ofl', and, as it afterwards proved, the 
crew landed upon the opposite shore of Galloway, 
where they plundered the house of the Earl of 

After this daring attempt gi"eat exertions were 
made to put the harbour into a proper state of 
defence. A subscription for this purpose amount- 
ed in the space of four days to J2857 5s. 3d. 
" Grim visaged war having smoothed his wrinkled 

• Mr. David Williams, a Welshman, was one of the seamen taken 
from Whitehaven by Paul Jones ; he died in the town a few years ago. 


front," the batteries had been long neglected, and 
they required the chief part of that sura to 
render them efficient for defence : an additional 
number of guns was received from Woolwich. 

At the latter end of the last century the bat- 
teries were thus described : — " The whole number 
of cannon is now OS, amongst which are 12 
forty-two-pounders, and IS of thirty-six. — At 
one of the forts, (commonly called 0/d Fort) the 
military guard is kept ; and it is always the depot 
of the regiment. It is situated at the entrance 
to the New Quay, and commands the whole of 
the harbour, and the approach to it from the 
northward. — At about two hundred yards dis- 
tance, nearer St. Bees Head, is the Ilalf-Moon- 
Battery, so situated as to command the whole 
bay. — On the opposite side of the harbour is 
the open battery on a place called Jack-a-Dandy, 
in which are mounted four of the heaviest pieces, 
and some smaller guns. — The fourth battery is 
upon the height, (or brow, as it is generally called) 
in front of the bowling-green, almost directly 
above the Half-Moon-Battery, and capable of 
commanding not only the whole bay, but the 
coast towards Harrington and Workington, and 
a great part of the road from AVhitehaven to 
these places, by Bransty-Brow, &:c." 

About thirty years ago there were eighteen 
guns mounted on the different batteries : three 
42-pounders, eight 32-pounders, seven 18-pound- 
ers, besides eight 24-pounders unserviceable; and 
of dismounted guns, three 42-pounders and three 
18-pounders serviceable, and four 42-pounders 

3 A 


There is now only one battery : it is neglected, 
and not all prepared for defence. 

Acts of parliament for improving the town 
and harbour of Whitehaven were passed in 1708 
and 1711; other acts, for making the former 
more effectual, and for repairing the roads leading 
to the town, passed in 1740, 1816, and 1818.* 

The Manor. 

The manor of Whitehaven formed part of the 
possessions of the Priory of St. Bees, and was 
purchased by Sir Christopher Lowther, (second 
son of Sir John Lowther, of Lowther,) in the 

* "On the 31st of January, and 2nd of February 1791, the inhabitants 
were greatly alarmed by the falling in of some of the old coal works 
under the town near Duke-street and George-street, -where 18 houses, 
including the elegant mansion of H. Littledale, Esq. were injured, but 
fortunately the inmates had time to escape unhurt, and from 60 to 80 
families deserted that part of the town, till they were assured that no fur- 
ther danger was to be apprehended. This accident was caused by a 
great body of water bursting suddenly from the old workings into the 
new mines, where two men, a woman, and five horses perished in the 
overwhelming torrent." 

" The town and harbour sustained much damage on the 24th, 25lh, and 
26th of January, 1797, by the most tremendous storms of wind and rain, 
that were ever witnessed on this coast. The tide rose so high that the 
•water overflowed the market-place, was three feet deep on the Custom- 
house quay — washed up part of the pavement in llarlborough-street, and 
entered the king's cellars. The mole which extended from the Half-moon 
Battery, was entirely destroyed, together with most of the new quay, and 
part of the new Tongue. Ever}' part of the harbour and shipping re- 
ceived much injury ; and a fine vessel, belonging to New York, was 
forced from her moorings and wrecked near Harrington, but all the crew 
were providentially saved. The quays, on the coast northward as far as 
Solway Frith, were greatly injured, and several houses were washed 


life-time of his father. Sir Christopher built 
a manor-house here, (see page 3G2,) and his 
son. Sir John, also built one on the site of 
the Castle. Sir James, second son of the last 
named, and the fourth and last baronet of this 
branch, died without issue in 1755, and was suc- 
ceeded in his Whitehaven estates by Sir James 
Lowther, of Lowther, Bart., who in 17S4 was 
created Earl of Lonsdale. By a subsequent 
patent, in 1797, he was created Viscount Lowther 
of Whitehaven, with remainder to the heirs male 
of the late Rev. Sir \\'illiam Lowther, of Swil- 
lington, Bart. The Earl dying without issue in 
1802, was succeeded in the title of Viscount 
Lowther by Sir William Lowther, Bart, (eldest 
son of Sir ^^"illiam above-mentioned) to whom he 
bequeathed almost the whole of his princely 
fortune. "Whitehaven passed under the will of 
Sir James Lowther, who died in 1755.* William 
Viscount Lowther was in 1807 created Earl of 
Lonsdale ; and is the present lord of the manor 
of Whitehaven. 

The Castle. 

Whitehaven Castle, a seat of the Right Honor- 
able the Earl of Lonsdale, K.G., F.A.S., (a view 
of which forms the frontispiece to the present 
volume), is a large quadrangular building, near 
the south-eastern entrance to tlie town. It oc- 
cupies the site of the manor-house, built about 
the year IGH, by Sir John Lowther, described 
by Mr. T. Denton, in 1GS8, as "a stately new 
pile of building called the Flatt." The greater 

• Lysons. 

3 A 2 


part of the castle was erected by James, first Earl 
of Lonsdale. The principal front is towards the 
town, which is nearly concealed by trees sur- 
rounding the lawn. 

In the entrance-hall are two Roman altars : 
one of which " is the largest which has been 
discovered in Britain, being no less than five feet 
in height ; it is formed of a dark reddish grit 
stone, and was found before the year 1559, at 
Ellenborough." An engraving of it is given in 
the third edition of Camden's Britannia, from a 
drawing made by his friend Sir Robert Cotton ; 
as also in Cough's edition, and in Lysons's Mag- 
na Britannia. The inscription is as follows : — 


which may be read thus : — " Genlo loci Fortimcc 
reduc'i Romcc yEienict' et Fato bono Gams Cornelius 
Peregr'inus Trihitnus Co/iorf/s ex provincia Manri- 
taniw Ca'sariensis Domos et JEdem Decurionum, 

On the back of the altar, near the top, is in- 
scribed Volanii Vivas* 

The other altar was found at Moresby, by the 
Rev. George Wilkinson, B.D., now incumbent of 

• Not Folanlii, as in Camden. 


Arlecdon, by whom it was presented to the Earl 
of Lonsdale. It has this inscription : — 





The stair-case and apartments contain some 
fine paintings by eminent masters ; among which 
may be mentioned — the Marriage at Cana, by 
Tintoret ; Hero and Leander, by Guido ; and five 
large groups of animals, by Snyders. Among 
the family portraits are — an excellent likeness 
(in his younger days) of the present venerable 
^^'illiam, Earl of Lonsdale, K.G., in his robes, by 
lioppner ; Sir Christopher Lowther, first Baronet, 
of ^V'hitehaven ; Sir James Lowther, fourth 
Baronet, ob. 1755 ; James, first Earl of Lonsdale, 
in a masquerade dress, ob. 1802; Mrs. Hannah 
Lowther, of Marske, ob. 1757, aged 103; and 
some others, of which we did not learn the 

Lowther, Earl of Lonsdale. 

Arms : Quarterly of nine ; 1 , Or, six annulets, three, two, 
and one, sable, Lomlicr : 2, Ermine, a canton azure, charged 
with a cross upon three stairs, argent, Quale ; 3, Argent, a 
lion rampant sable, within a bordurc azure, Stapkton ; 4, 
Gules, three fishes hauriant or, iwcy .• 5, Sable, three es- 
callops within a bordure engrailed argent, Strickland; 6, 
Sable, three covered cups argent, IFarcop .■ 7, Sable, three 

martlets volant argent ; 8, Or, two bars gules, on 

a canton of the second, a mullet of the field, Laiicasler ; 9, 
Argent, three bugles 

Crest : On a wreath a dragon passant, argent. 

Supporters : — Two horses argent, each gorged with a 
chaplet of laurel, proper. 

Motto: — JMaffislralus indicat virum. 


Totvn Residence: — \1, Charles-street, Berkeley-square. 
Seats: — Lowther castle, CO. Westmorland; AVhitehaven 
castle ; Cottesmere park, Rutlandshire. 

Of this ancient knightly family, who are intimately con- 
nected with the history of this county, the first whose names 
are recovered are William do Lowthere and Thomas de 
Lowthere, appearing as witnesses to a grant in the reign of 
Henry II. : the names of Sir Thomas de Lowther, Sir Ger- 
vase de Lowther, knight, and Gervase de Lowther, arch- 
deacon of Carlisle, occur in the reign of Henry III. The 
regular pedigree commences in the reign of Edward I., with 

Sir Hugh de Lowther, knight, attorney-general in the 
20th Edward I. and knight of the shire in the 28th and 33rd 
Edward I. He was subsequently justice-itinerant, and cs- 
cheator on the north side of the Trent, and in the 5th Ed- 
ward III. was made one of the justices of the court of king's 
bench. He married .... daughter of Sir Peter de Tilliol, 
of Scaleby castle, knight, by wliom he had issue, 

1. Hugh, son and heir. 

2, Thomas, juror on the inquisition J9. wi. of Alexander, 
king of Scotland, 21st Edward I. 

Sir Hugh de Lowther, knight, son and heir, married 
firstly, a daughter of Lord Lucy of Cockermouth, and second- 
ly, Margaret, daughter and heiress of William de Quale. 
In the 18th Edward II. he was one of the commissioners to 
array all men at arms in Cumberland, to assist in the expected 
invasion from France. He served the office of Sheriff of 
Cumberland for three successive years, was thrice returned 
knight for the county of Westmorland, and twice for Cum- 



Sir Robert de Lowther, knight, probably son and he.r of 
Hu^h, had two brothers, John and ^Vllham. He often re- . 
prelented the county of Cumberland in parliament He died 
in the 9th Henry VI. (1430), and was survived by h.s widow. 
In the church of Lowther there is a brass plate bearing this 
inscription to his memory : — 

Moribus cxpertus, el miles lionore repcrtus, 
Lowther Robertus jaeet umbra mortis opertus. 
Aprilis mense decimante diem, necis cnse 
Transit ad immense celestis gaudia mense. 
Millc quadringcntis ter denis, mens moricntis, 
Anuis, viventis cscas capit omnipoteutis. 

He is said to have married " Margaret daughter and heir of 
William Strickland, Bishop of Carlisle ;" but this is probab y 
incorrect, as his being a churchman would compel him to 
celibacy. He had issue, 

2.' Anife,'"married to Sir Thomas Curwon, of Working- 

3. Mary!^married to Sir James Pickering, of Killington, 

4. Elizabeth, married to William Lancaster. 

Sir Hugh de Lowther, knight, son and heir, married 
\f arfraret dauchter of John de Dorwcntwater. He was at 
the battle' of Agincourt, " there being with 1^™ G^ffi-ey de 
Loulber and utchard de Loulhcr." He served the office of 
sheriff of Cumberland, 18th Henry \ I. 

Sir Hugh de Lowther, knight, son and heir of the above, 
married Mabel, daughter of Sir William Lancaster of Sock- 
Sc He was knight of the shire andshcriffof the county 
of Cumberland. He died 15th Edward IV . 

Sir Hueh de Lowther, knight, son and heir, married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Lancelot Threlkeld, by Margaret Bromllet, 
heiress of Vescy, and widow of John, Lord Cliflord. In the 
17th Henry VII. he was made knight of the Bath. He died 
circa 2nd Henry VIII. leaving issue Jo/«h, Lancelot, Robert, 
Joan (married John Fleming, Esq.), and Mabel (married 
John Leigh, Esq.) 

Sir John Lowther, knight, married Lucy, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Curwen, of Workington. He had issue a son 
Hugh and a daughter Mabel married to Christopher Dalston, 


of Uldale, Esq. Sir John was called out on the border 
service, A.D. 1543, with one hundred horse and forty foot, 
and was sheriff' of Cumberland for three years. He had 

Sir Hugh Lowther, knight, son and heir, married Dorothy, 
daughter of Henry, Lord Clifford, and by her had issue, 

1. Richard. 

2. Gerard, a bencher in Lincoln's Inn. 

3. Margaret, married John Richmond, of High-head 
castle, Esq. 

4. Anne, married Thomas Wybergh, of Clifton, Esq. 

5. Frances, married Sir Henry Goodyer, of Powels- 
worth, knight. 

6. Barbara, married Thomas Carleton, of Carleton, 

Sir Hugh died before his father ; his eldest son Richard 
succeeded his grandfather Sir John. 

Sir Richard Lowther, knight, grandson and heir, married 
Frances, daughter of John Middleton, of Middleton-hall, 
Esq. He succeeded Henry, Lord Scrope as lord-warden 
of the West Marches. In 1568, when deputy-warden, he 
conveyed Mary, Queen of Scots, from Cockermouth to the 
castle of Carlisle ; (see pages 244, 254) and on her way to 
Bolton, where she was subsequently confined, he entertained 
her majesty at Lowther-hall. In the church of Lowther 
there is a mural monument to his memory. By his wife he 
had issue, 

L John, ob. V. p. 

2. Christopher. 

3. John, ob. s. p. 

4. Gerard, Chief-Justice of the Common Pleas in Ire- 
db. s. p. 

5. Hugh, a captain in the army. 

6. Richard, ob. s.p. 

7. Lancelot, one of the Barons of the Exchequer in 

8. William, married Eleanor W^elberry, oflngleton, co. 
York, from whom are descended the Lowthers of 

1. Anne, married Alexander Fethcrstonhaugh of 
Northumberland, Esq. 

2. Florence. 

3. Frances, died young. 



4. Margaret, died unmarried. 

5. Dorothy, died young. 

6. Mabel, died young. . m v, 

7. Frances, married Thomas Clyburne of Clyburnc. 

Sir Christopher Lowther, knight, eldest surviving son 
and heir of Sir Richard, married Eleanor daughter of Sir 
William Musgrave of Hayton, co. Cumberland; and by her 
had issue, 

1. John. . , . i.., 1 ■ c 

2. Gerard, a captain, slain m the service of the king ot 


3. Richard, abarrister-at-law. 

4. Christopher, in holy orders, rector of Lowther. 

5. William, clerk of the warrants of the Common Pleas 

in Ireland. nur . • i 

G Lancelot, iu holy orders, rector of Marton, married 
Esther Pierce of Dublin, and by her had issue, 

Christopher Lowther, of Colby Laithes, who had 

a son, , „ 

Gerard Lowther, rector of Bowness, lather ot 

Henry Lowther, rector of Aikton, who had 

a son, 

William Lowther, B.A. rector of Low- 
7 Robert, alderman of the city of London, married 
■ firstly, Margaret, daughter of of Thomas Cutler, of 
Steinburgh, co. York: and secondly, .... Holcroft, 
by whom he had two sons, 
L Anthony, who had issue. 
Sir William Lowther, of Mask, Bart., who, by 
his first wife, Catherine, daughter and heir of 
Thomas Preston of Ilolker, Esq., had issue. 
Sir Thomas Lowther of Holker, Bart., who 
by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Wil- 
liam Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire, 

had issue „ ,^ „ , 

Sir 'SV illiam Lowther of Holker and 
Whitehaven, Bart., who died un- 
2. John, married the widow of George Preston, of 
Holker, Esq., and died in 1G97. 

1." ISor, married Richard Fallowfield, of Strickland- 
hall, Esq. 

3 B 


2. Anne. 

3. Frances, died young. 

4. Frances. 

Sir Christopher had also a natural son, Sir Gerard Low- 
ther, one of the judges in Ireland. 

Sir John Lowther, knight, eldest son of the above was 
knight of the shire for Westmorland in four parliaments. 
He married Eleanor, daughter of William Fleming of Rydal, 
Esq., by whom he had issue, 

1. John. 

2. Sir Christopher, created Baronet in 1642, for 
whom his father purchased the estates of St. Bees 
and Whitehaven. He died in 1644. Sir Christopher 
married Frances, one of the coheiresses of the Lan- 
casters of Sockbridge, and by her had issue. 

Sir John Lowther, second Baronet, of Sockbridge, 
afterwards the founder of Whitehaven, who 
married Jane, daughter of Webley Leigh, co. 
Surrey, Esq., and had issue, (with three daugh- 
ters, Elizabeth,. Catherine, and Jane,) 

Sir Christopher, third Baronet, died s. p. in 

Sir James, fourth Baronet, died unmarried in 
1755, worth nearly 2,000,000/. which de- 
volved to Sir James Lowther afterwards 
the first Earl. At his death the Baronetcy 
of 1642 expired. He was M.P. for the city 
of Carlisle, and vice-admiral of the county. 

3. Sir William, of Swillington, from whom descended 
the present Earl. 

L Agnes, married to Roger Kirkby of Furness, co. 

Lancaster, Esq. 
2. Frances, married to John Dodsworth of Thornton 
Watlass, CO. York, Esq. 
Sir John died Sep. 15, 1637, and was succeeded by iiis 
eldest son. 

Sir John Lowther, first Baronet of Nova Scotia ; so creat- 
ed in the year 1610. He was a great sufferer in the royal 
cause. During the usurpation he lived retired ; but was 
one of the knights of the shire for Westmorland in the par- 
liament at the restoration. He married, firstly, Mary, 
daughter of Sir Richard Fletcher, of Hutton, by whom he 
had issue, 


1. John, oh. V. p. lie nianied, firstly, Elizabeth, 
daughter and coheiress of Sir Henry Bellingham, of 
Lcvens, l?art., by whom he had issue, 

John, aged 9 at Sir W. Dugdale's visitation in 
1664; of whom hereafter as first Viscount 

Mary, married, firstly, George Preston, of Holker, 

gentleman; and secondly, John Lowlher, Esq., 

one of the commissioners of the revenue in 


By his second wife, Mary, daughter of William Withens, 

of Elthain, co. Kent, Esq., he had issue, 

William, M.P. for the City of Carlisle, died un- 

2. Eichard, who died yoimg. 

3. Kichard, of Mauds Meaburn, M.P. for Appleby, 
grandfather of Sir James Lowther, Bart., from whom 
descended James, first Earl. He married Barbara, 
daughter of iiobert Pricket, of Wresel Castle, co. 
York, Esq., and had issue, 

Robert, son and heir, was storekeeper of the 
Tower, captain-general and govcrnor-in-chief of 
Barbadoes. He married Catherine, only daughter 
of Sir Joseph Pennington, of Muncaster Castle, 
Bart., by Margaret, his wife, fourth daughter of 
John, Viscount Lonsdale. He died Sept. 1745, 
leaving issue, 

James, first Earl of Lonsdale, 
llobert, M.P. for Westmorland. 
Margaret, married to Henry, Earl of Darling- 
Catherine, married to Harry, Duke of Bolton. 
Christopher, who married Anne, daughter of Sir 
John Cowper, cousin-german to the Lord Chan- 
cellor Cowper. 
Richard, a captain. 
Eleanor, married to .... Barnard, M.D. of York. 

4. Christopher, a Turkey Merchant in London. 

5. Hugh, a merchant in London. 

1. Mary, died young. 

2. Eleanor, married Sir Christopher Wandesford, of 
Kirklinton, co. York, Bart. 

3. Barbara, married John Bielby, of Grange, co. York, 

3 B 2 


4. Anne. 

5. Mary, married Edward Trotter, of Skelton Castle, 
CO. York, Esq. 

6. Frances, married Sir Thomas Pennyman, of Ormesby, 
CO. York, Bart. 

By his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John 
Hare, of Stowe-Bardolfe, co. Norfolk, knight, and widow of 
Wooley Leigh, Esq., he had issue, 

1. Ralph, father of John Lowther, M.P. for Pontefract 
in 1722. 

2. William, counsellor-at-law. 

3. Robert. 

And four daughters, Mary, Anne, Elizabeth, and 
Margaret, the latter of whom married Sir John Au- 
brey, of Llantrithed, co. Glamorgan, Bart. 
Sir John died in the year 1675, and was succeeded by his 

Sir John Lowther, of Lowther, second Baronet, grandson 
and heir, was born 1655, at Hackthorp-hall, and educated 
at the Free Grammar School at Appleby and Queen's college, 
O.xford. He was a considerable benefactor to the above 
school, and was often returned M.P. for Westmorland. Sir 
John rebuilt the rectory-house and church of Lowther. He 
distinguished himself by influencing the counties of Cum- 
berland and Westmorland in favour of William HL, and 
secured the city of Carlisle. For these services, on the 
accession of king William, Sir John was constituted vice- 
chamberlain of his majesty's household, a member of his 
privy council, and lord-lieutenant of the county of West- 
morland in 1689. In the following year, he was appointed 
one of the lords of the treasury. 

On the 28th of May, 1696, Sir John was created Baron 
Lowther of Lowther, and Viscount Lonsdale. Lithe year 
1699, he was made lord privy-seal, and was twice appointed 
to the office of one of the lords justices for the government 
of the kingdom during the absence of the king. 

Viscount Lonsdale left in MS. " Alemoirs of the Reign of 
JamosH." which the present Earl of Lonsdale printed in 
4to. at York, in 1808, with the " Life and Character of 
John, first Viscount Lowther," prefixed to it. In this Life 
it is said that when ill health in 1699, " compelled him to 
decline his attendance upon Parliament for some time, he 
returned to his seat at Lowther, where he enjoyed that 
happy solitude which he called ' his dearest companion and 


entertainment.'" " He took great pleasure in adorning liis 
magnificent house, with paintings of the most eminent artists ; 
and indulged his taste for rural elegance in improvinc the 
aspect of the whole country, in embellishing and enriching 
its noble scenery, by those extensive plantations, which he 
formed and nurtured with the tendcrest care. Relieved 
from the toil and fatigues of public engagements, he experi- 
enced a never-failing source of gratification in the recreation 
of his garden." 

He died 10th July, 1700, aged 45, leaving issue, (by his 
wife, Catherine, daughter of Sir Henry Frederick Thynne,) 

1 . Richard. 

2. Henry. 

3. Anthony, one of the commissioners of the revenue 
in Ireland, M.P. for Cockermouth in 1714, and after- 
wards knight of the shire for Westmorland. He died 
unmarried, in 1741. 

1. Mary, married to Sir John Wentworth of North 
Elmsal, CO. York. Bart. 

2. Elizabeth, married to Sir William Eamsden, of By- 
rom, CO. York, Bart. 

3. Jane, who died unmarried, in 1752. 

4. Margaret, married to Sir Joseph Pennington, of 
Muncaster, co. Cumberland, Bart. 

5. Barbara, married to Thomas Howard, of Corby 
castle, CO. Cumberland, Esq. 

Richard Lowther, second Viscount Lonsdale, son and heir 
died at Lowther, unmarried, in the year 1713, aged 21. 
TickcU dedicated his "Oxford" to this nobleman. He was 
succeeded by his brother and heir, Henry. 

Henry Lowther, third Viscount Lonsdale, in 1715 was 
constituted custos rolulorum, and subsequently lord-lieuten- 
ant of the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland. In this 
year he assembled a body of upwards of 10,000 men to op- 
pose the Pretender, (see Leath Ward, page 24.) 

Lord Lonsdale was appointed one of the lords of the 
bedchamber, constable of the tower of London, lord-lieu- 
tenant of the Tower-hamlets, and lord privy-seal. He also 
died unmarried, " universally esteemed and lamented," r2th 
March, 17.30, when the peerage became extinct, but the 
baronetcy descended to James Lowther, Esq. grandson of 
Richard, third sou of Sir John, first baronet, who died in 


Sir James Lowther, of Lowther, Baronet, (son and heir of 
Robert Lowther of Mauds Meaburn, Esq.,) by the death of 
his father, and of Henry Viscount Lonsdale, and of Sir 
^\ illiam Lowther, baronet, became possessed of the three 
great inheritarces of Clauds Meaburn, Lowther, and 'White- 

Sir James was an alderman of the city of Carlisle, M.P. 
for the counties of Westmorland and Cumberland, and lord- 
lieutenant and custos roluloj'um for those counties. In 1755, 
he succeeded to the immense property of his kinsman Sir 
James of ^Vhitebaven, which was estimated at 2,000,000/. 
In 1761, he married Lady Margaret, daughter of John Stuart, 
Earl of Bute. In the year 1784, he was elevated to the 
peerage by the titles of Baron Lowther and Baron Kendal, 
CO. Westmorland, Baron Burgh, co. Cumberland, Viscount 
Lonsdale, Viscount Lowther, and Earl of Lonsdale; and in 
1797, his lordship obtained a new patent, creating him Baron 
and Viscount Lowther, of Whitehaven, with remainder to the 
heirs male of his third cousin the Kev. Sir William Lowther, 
of Swillington, Bart., in holy orders, prebendary of York. 
The Earl of Lonsdale died 2-lth May, 1802, without issue, 
when the titles of 1797* descended to his kinsman Sir 
AVilliam Lowther, Bart., son and heir of the above Rev. Sir 

William Lowther, second Earl of Lonsdale, K.G., F.S.A. 
The present Earl succeeded as Viscount Lowther, in 1802 ; 
in the year 1807, he was created Earl of Lonsdale, and soon 
after was installed a knight of the most noble Order of the 
Garter. His lordship was recorder of the city of Carlisle, 
is a lieutenant-colonel in the army, and lord-lieutenant of the 
counties of Westmorland and Cumberland. In 1781, his 
lordship married the Lady .Vugusta Fane, eldest daughter of 
John, ninth Earl of Westmorland. This excellent and 
benevolent lady died in 1838, and was interred in the church 
of Lowther. By this lady his lordship had issue, 

1. William, Viscount Lowther, M.P., F.R S., F.S.A. is 
a Commissioner of Greenwich Hospital ; born 30th 
July, 1787. 

2. IIenry-Cccil,born27th July, 1790, M.?.,alieutenant- 
colonel in the army ; married, 1817, Lucy-Eleanor, 
eldest daughter of Philip, fifth Earl of Harborough, 
by whom he has had issue, 

1. Henry, born 27th March, 1818. 

* Those of 1784 and the baronetcy of 1640, expired at his death. 


2. Arthur, born 12th July, 1820. 

3. William, born 14lh Dec. 1821. 

4. Eleanor-Cecily, born 20th Dec. 1822. 

5. Augusta-Mary, born 24th Doc. 1825. 

6. Constantia, born 4th July, 1831. 

7. A daughter, born 9th October, 1832. 

1. Elizabeth, born 1st Sept., 1784. 

2. Mary, born 28th October, 1785; married 1820 Lord 
Frederick Bentinck, son of William Henry Cavendish, 
third Duke of Portland, K.G., and has issue. 

3. Anne, born 11th Dec. 1788; married, 1817, the 
Right Hon. Sir John Docket, Bart. 

4. Caroline, born 17th Feb. 1792; married, 1815, Lord 
AVilliam John Frederick Pawlet, son of William 
Harry, Marquis of Cleveland. 

The Cii.vpel of St. Nicholas. 

Until tlic year 1G93 there was no place for 
Divine service in Whitehaven, e.xcepting "a little 
old chapel" (see page 362,) which was then taken 
clown. The present spacious edifice was erected 
by Sir John Lowther, IJart. and the inhabitants, 
at the expence of 10661. I6s. 2}jd. The conse- 
cration was performed 16th July, 1693. The 
inhabitants petitioned the House of Commons 
(as in the subjoined note) that this chapel might 
be made a jiarish-church ; but their rc({uest was 
not granted.* Although the building was com- 

• The Case of the Inhabitants of the Town and Port of Whitehaven, in 
the parish of Saint Bees, in the county of Cumberland, in Relation 
to their being made a separate pariah, IjC, humbly offered to the con- 
sideration qf the Honourable House (/Ccvmons — 

The said town and port of Whilohavcii is situated ou the sea shore, 
near four miles distant from the parish church, which said town about 
sixty years since, consisted but of nine or ten thatched cottages. 

That there arc now above four hundred and fifty families in the said 
town, producing in all two thousand two hundred and twenty-two inha- 
bitants, of whom, not above tiftcen have estates in the parish, and the 


menced in or before August, 1687, it was not 
completed until 1G93. 

The chapel was certified to the governors of 
Queen Ann's bounty at about 60/. per annum ; 
of which 40/. ai'ose from the seats, and the re- 
mainder from contributions. Since that period 
it has received a parliamentary gi-ant of 800/. 
The benefice is a perpetual curacy. On a vacancy 
occurring in the incumbency, the seat-holders 
chose two, one of whom the lord of the manor 
nominates to the Bishop. The living was re- 
turned to the commissioners for enquiring con- 
cerning ecclesiastical revenues as of the average 

rest of them, only such, riches as are in casualties, depending ou their 
trade at sea, and the security of their ships and harboiu', which are sub- 
ject to many dangers by lire, enemies, or otherwise. 

The said town is, of late years, very much improved in trade ; and, by 
great expence and charge of the Honourable Sir John Lowther, Baronet, 
and the inhabitants, it is made a convenient port and harbour for ships, 
to the great increase of his majesty's revenue, and the benefit of (lie ad- 
jacent country. 

The inhabitants of the said town and port (being sensible of the great 
inconveniences they, and the strangers resorting thither, did daily suffer, 
for want of a church sufficient to receive all persons frequenting divine 
service there) did readily and cheerfully contribute, with the said Sir 
John Lowther, Baronet, to the building of a convenient church, for the 
service and worship of God, which church was consecrated by his Lord- 
ship the Bishop of Chester the 16th of July, 1693. 

But, there being no regular provision made for the repairs and support 
of the said church, or for the preservation of the said harbour, so that 
both are in great danger of falling to decay and utter ruin, for want of an 
equal distribution of the charge such public works require, for the main- 
tenance thereof; the said inhabitants, therefore, are now humble peti- 
tioners, with the said Sir John Lowther, Baronet, That the said town 
may be made a distinct parish of itself, and they thereby enabled to finish 
and support their church, and preserve their harbour, on which their 
happiness and welfare do absolutely depend. 


annual value of ISS/. The ecclesiastical courts 
for the deanery of Copcland are holden in this 
cliapel ; and here the Bishop of Chester holds 
visitations and confirmations. Four houses (three 
of which are of small value) belong to this chapel. 
As a further augmentation of the endowment of 
this and the chapels of the Moly Trinity and of 
St. James, ^^■illiam, Earl of Lonsdale, gave the 
small tithes of St. Bees, the profits of wliich are 
to be equally divided between the ministers of 
the three chapels. The Rev. Joseph Askew, 
M.A., is the assistant-curate. 

List of Incumbents. 

1693 Yates. 

.... Francis Yates, L.L B.f 
1738 Curwen Hudleston, M.A.+ 
1771 Wilfrid Hudleston, B.A.|| 
1811 Andrew Hudleston, D.D. 
The Chapel of St. Nicholas is a plain building, 
with nothing ecclesiastical in its external appear- 
ance excepting the tower. Internally, however, 
it is handsomely fitted up. The organ (built by 
Snetzler) is placed over the altar ; beneath it is 
a painting of the Last Supper, by ^latthias Reed. 
The pew of the Earl of Lonsdale has some elab- 
orate carving. 

Near the altar-table is this mural inscription — 


To the Memory of 

JAMES RICHARDSON of Carleton Lodge, 

t Married Ann, daughter of Charles Orfcur, Esq., by whom lie had 
issue, Lowlher Yates, D.D., master of Catheriiio Hall, Cambridge, and 
prebendary of Norwich ; and John Orfeur of Skirwith abbey, Esq. 

♦ See monumental inscription. 

I Rector of Handsworth ; see monumental inscription, page 384. 

3 c 


Esq,, who died (he 10th diy of May, 1811, 

Aged 26 years. 

His widow, Jane Richardson, caused this monument 

to be erected in grateful tribute to his memory. 

JANE, his Widow, 

who died on the 6th day of September, 1833, 

Aged 47 years. 

Under the tower is a mural tablet with this 
inscription — 

Died the 12th of March, 1801, 

aged 66 years. 


his wife, 

Died the 13th of September, 1801, 

aged 63 years. 

On another: — 


wife of Thomas Hartley, of Gillfoot, Esq. 

Died the 5th of April, 1800, 

in the 51st year of her age. 


of Gillfoot, 

Died the 23rd of March, 1815, 

in the 71st year of his age. 

On another : — 


departed this life 

May the 9th, 1774, 

In the 81st year of his age. 

MARGARET his Wife 

Died the 25th of September, 1759, 

In the 70th year of her age. 

In whose memory this plain 

monument is erected by theii 

Son John Gale, 

And Daughter 

Isabella Curwen. 


On another : — 

Near this place lies interred 
■who died Glh March, 1756, 

Aged 39 years. 

He was a man remarkable 

for his honest industry 

and filial duty. 

On another : — 

Sacrum Memoria; 

ELIZABETHS Dilectissima; Conjugis 

CUBWENI HUDI.ESTON hujus Eccl. Ministri 

(Qua; farevi Vita; Spatio 

Filia; pioe, Uxoris amantissima: 

Parentis indulgentissiraa;, Socio; fidelissimee 

ChristianiE deraum Optima; 

OiEciis fajliciter fimcta 

Puerperio abrepta 

Objit 6, Decbris. 1738, Annos natu 24 ; 

Supcistitibus relictis, duabus Filiabus 

Isabelli & Jocosi : 

Hoc (qualecunqsit) pcrpetua; Charitatis Monumcntura 

Qua erga pra;stantissiniam Conjugcm tenetur 


C. H. 

Omecum reputa, qui hsec legis 

Quam brevis Suavissimas hujus Vitoe DeliciM 

Voluit Esse Deus Opt. Max, 

Et tondum Munitus ad eas aspirarc discas 

Qua; .lEterna; sunt futura;. 

A mural tablet near the tower bears this m- 
scription : — 


To the memory 


formerly Minister of this Chapel, 

■who died on the 24lh of March, 1771 ; 

Of WILLIAM SHAMMON, his Son-in-Law, 

3 C 2 


Lieutenant in the Koyal Navy, 

wlio died on tlie 29tli of November, 1795 ; 


who died on the 24th of April, 1803 ; 

And of JOYCE SHAMMON, his only Daughter, 

and Widow of said WUUam Shammon, 

who died on the 9th of April, 1824, 

and at whose desire this tablet is erected. 

Also of the 

Reverend WILFRID HUDLESTON, his Son, B.A., 

late Minister of this Chapel, 

who died on the 7th of April, 1829, 

and is interred in the Church yard of the 

Parish of Handsworth, near Sheffield, 

of which Parish he was Rector. 

On another : — 


to the memory of 


late an eminent Attorney 

and most valuable member of Society, 

who departed this life 

on the 24th day of April, 1779, 

aged 33 years. 

Having lived an ornament to the 

Profession and to human nature. 

He died universally respected. 

Henry Littledale married 

Mary, the eldest Daughter of 

Robert Watters, Esq., 

on the 1st day of February, 1776, 

by whom he had issue two Daughters, 

CATHARINE, the Younger, 

who died August the 7th, 1793, 

aged 1 5 years, and is interred here ; 

ANN, the Eldest, who died March 11th, 1794, 

aged 17 years, and is interred at 

Twickenham, in Middlesex, 

wheie a monument is erected. 


MARY, their Mother, who afterwards married 

Anthony Benn, Esq., of Hcnsingham, 

Died the 7 th of February, 1818, aged 65 years, 

and was interred here. 

" The patient abiding of the meek 

shall not perish forever." 

On the wall, outside of the church, is a tablet 
with the following inscription. The arms are 
three steel morions, impaling a lion statant guar- 
dant : — 

Near to this Momiment lyes the Body 

of the truly Tirtuous and pious HANNAH, 

Wife of THOS. LUTWIDGE, Mercht , 

obt. Jun. 6, 1721, .lEtat. 48, interred 

in the same grave with their Son, 

PALMER, bom Jun. 19, 1703, ob. Aprl. 10, 1704. 

Near this place lies CORDELIA, ye 

Daugh. of Mr. Thos. & Mrs. L. Lutwidge. 

And also LUCY, their Daugr., died 

Augt. ye 12lh. 173G, aged 15 mos. 

On another : — 

To the Memory of 

JOHN, ELIZ., and ANN BENN ; the fiist 

killed on the Coast of Africa, the 

two last interred near this place. This 

Monument is erected at the request 

of the sd. Ann, by hei Executors, 


The Chapel of the Holy Trinity. 

This chapel was erected in the year 1715, by 
James Lowther, Esq. and others of the inhabi- 
tants, on ground given by Mr. Lowther. It 
was certified at about GO/. ; of which 10/. arose 
from the seats, by agreement before the conse- 
cration ; and the remainder from contributions. 


The benefice is a perpetual curacy. The nomi- 
nation of the incumbent is alternately in the Earl 
of Lonsdale and the seat-holders. The living 
was returned, in 1831, to the commissioners for 
enquiring concerning ecclesiastical revenues as 
of the averaje annual value of 250/. ; and is now 
worth 2S0/. It has been augmented by William, 
Earl of Lonsdale (see page 381). There are 
two houses belonging to this chapel. The Earl 
of Lonsdale gave 200/., and the like sum was 
given by the late incumbent, the Rev. Thomas 
Harrison, INLA., with which 400/. was procured 
from Queen Ann's bounty. 

List of Incumbents. 

1715 John Dalton.* 

1 729 AVilliam Brisco.f 

1745 Thomas Sewell. 

1781 Charles Cobbe Church.J 

1808 Thomas Harrison, ISI.A., oh. 1840. 

1840 Thomas Dalton. 

The chapel of the Holy Trinity is built in a 
similar style to that of St. Nicholas. The altar- 
table is placed in a semicircular recess, and is 
surmounted by a painting of the Ascension, by 
Matthias Reed. The organ was built by Wren 
of Manchester. 

Near the tower is a marble monument to the 
memory of Sir James Lowther, the fourth and 
last baronet of his bi-anch of the family, who died 
without issue in 1 755, and was succeeded in his 

• Rector of Distington, 1712— 1729; see monumental inscription, p, 

t Rector of Distington. 
X See monumental inscription, p. 389. 


Whitehaven estates by Sir James Lowther, of 
Lowther, Bart., afterwards first Earl of Lons- 
dale. It bears the following inscription : — 

Sertc postcritati consecretur 

memorioD JACOBI LOWTHER Baronetti, 

viri perantiquS. majorum prosapii oriund. 

natunc & fortunn; dotibus locuplctati ; 

qui patris prtestaiitissinii vestigiU insistcns, 

non tarn sibi quaui iii publicos usus largas erogavit opes. 

Judi<:io gravi et subacto, iiigciiio prompto et acuto pra!ditus, 

summo efl'ccit consilio, ut oppidum lioc 

in quo, pauculis abliinc annis, nihil ante oculos obscrvabautur 

priEtcr magalia ct humiles piscatorum casulas, 

quasi in splendidam urbeni, 

ilorcntissimam commercii scdem exsurgeret, 

portu lulissimo, aidificiis amocuis, perpulchro platearum ordine 

& magni hominum frequcntii exornalum. 

In senatu se incorruptum & patriae ornatissimum adbibuit : 

ecclesisE Anglicans, libertatis legiim vindcx accerrimus ; 

nee privati civis munia minus fidclitcr administravit, 

omni sane laudatione dignus 

propter tcmperantiam ct prima;vam morum simplicitateni : 

pietatem erga Deum, & charilatem erga pauperes et egenos, 

non speciosam istam & commenlitiam 

qurc in propatulo gaudct famam inancm aucupavi, 

sed veram et genuinam, 

scjunctam scilicet et a publica luce semotum. 

Diem obiit supremum iv nonas Januarii 
Anno salutis MDCCLV ct a;tatis LXXXI. 


cui luculenta ejus et magna ha^rcdilus obvenil, 

mai'mor hoc poui curavit, 
giatissimi animi ct amoris iidissimi testimonium. 

In the church-yard is a gravestone inscribed 
in memory of nine persons of tlie name of liirk- 
head, whose ages average 72 years. The family 
was well-known in the town from their connec- 
tion with the post-ollice through a very long 


In the vestry is a mural tablet with this in- 
scription — 

Here lies the body of the Rev. JOHN DALTON, Rector of Dis- 
tington, and first minister of tliis chapel. A diligent, learned, and most 
persuasive preacher ; for his doctrine was enforced by the irresistible 
eloquence of an example conspicuous for unaffected piety and universal 
charity. He was in the most trying conjuncttu'es, an able and zealous 
advocate for the constitution in Church and State ; But treated those 
who had imbibed prejudice against them with much candour and meek- 
ness ; has convinced many of the Goodness of his Cause ; all of the 
uprightness of his intentions. Devoted to the duties of his holy profession, 
he was perhaps too regardless of temporal concerns, but the defect was 
supplied by the prudent care and economy of a faithful and affectionate 
wife, and the Blessing of that Gracious Providence in which he always 
trusted, and which has never forsaken his posterity. He had five children, 
Jane, John, Jonathan, Henry, and Richard. Jonathan died before 
Henry, a few years after his Father. Their mother died in London 
Anno Domini 1747. His surviving children visiting this place many 
years after his death, had the unspeakable pleasure of finding their 
father's Piety and virtue still revered by his parishioners, his example 
esteemed by a worthy clergy, and his memory dear to all. To perpetuate 
that, and for a testimony of their gratitude to such excellent Parents, 
Jane, John, and Richard Dalton, erected this monument Anno Domini 


Born Anno Dom. 167 i. 

Died 1729. 

On another : — 

To the memory of 


The wife of JAMES JACKSON, Merchant, 

who was 

Virtuous, Pious, Charitable, 

A sincere Friend, 

A tender and most loving Wife. 

This monument is erected 

as a testimony of his inviolable affection, 


Her sorrowful and much afflicted Husband. 

She was born at Kirklinton, being the 



Daugliter of Joseph Appelby, Esq., and by her 
mother descended from the antient and 

honorable family of the Dacres in 

Gilsland, and died universally esteemed 

and lamented, July the 19th, 1740, aged 

48 years. 

Mb. JAMES JACKSON died July 16th, 

1757, aged 72 years. 

SARAH JACKSON his wife, 

Died Augt. 10th, 1763, aged 61 years. 

A mural tablet on the north side of the church 
bears this inscription : — • 

To the memory of 


■who was 24 years minister 

of this chapel, and died March the 26th, 1808, 

iu the G4th year of his Age. 

A mural tablet on the north side of the church 
bears this inscription : — 


To the memory of 

MAEY ANN, the affectionate and beloved wife 

of JOHN MOORE, who soon after delivery of 

a still-born male child, died Feb. 14th, 1836, 

Aged 29 years. 

This monument is erected as a tribute of respect 

By her bereaved husband. 

A handsome mural monument of white marble 
on the south side of the church bears this in- 
scription : — 

In Memory of 


Collector of Customs of this port, 

■who departed this life, the 29th of OcU., 1834, 

aged 63 years. 

And of 

SARAH, his wife, who died the 12th of Jan., 1825, 

3 D 


aged 49 years. 

And of 

Six of their children who died in infancy. 

Another is thus inscribed : — 


Memory of 


of Armathwaite Hall, 

who died Sep. 26th 1781, aged 34 years : 

And of MARGARET, his wife, 

■who, for the happiness of their children, was spared till 

June the 7th 1797, when, at the age of 49 years, 

On her road from Bristol Hot Wells, 

She was taken from her sorrowing Family. 

Her remains are interred 

at Berkley, in 


On the east wall, north of the altar-table, is a 
marble monument, with a head of the deceased 
in a medallion, and bearing this inscription : — 

Sacred to the Memory 



who departed this life 22nd of August, 


In the sixty-eighth year of his age. 

This monument 

was caused to be erected 

by his affectionate widow, ELIZABETH, 

who died on the I2th of August, 


In the sevenly-sixth year of her age. 

On the south side of the altar-table is a mural 
tablet, with arms, and this inscription : — 


To the memory 




Who departed this life 

in the sixty-seventh year of his age, 

A. D: 181G. 

Under the tower is a mural monument of 
marble, with this inscription : — 

Mr. James Spedding 

Erected this Monument 

In memory of his virtuous parents, 

Mr. CARLISLE SPEDDING. ^ho died Aug 8th, 1755, JE. 59 years, 


Mrs. SARAH SPEDDING, who died July 10th, 1771, JE. 74 years. 

And also 

In memory of his amiable and affectionate Wife 


Second Daughter of the late Mr. Henry Todd, of St. Bees, 

who died March 11th, 1777, 

M. 56 years. 

On another : — 

Sacred to the Memory of 


Who died at Whitehaven Castle, on the 4 day of April, 1840, 

Aged 84 years. 
Seventy of which he spent as Gardener in the service of the 
First and Second Eabls of Lonsdale. 
In the exercise of an extensive Benevolence, Mr. Pennyfeather contri- 
buted liberally to the support of several charitable Institutions in this 
Town as well as to others in the County of Wostmorhmd ; and at h.s 
Deith bequeathed various sums of money for the like laudable purpose. 
The beneficence thus exemplified, and the munificent donation towards 
the erection of an Organ in this Chapel, will long cause the name of the 
deceased to be held in grateful remembrance. 

The Chapel of St. James. 

This Chapel was erected in 1752; and has 
also received a grant of 800/., and an augmenta- 
3 D 2 


tion by William, Earl of Lonsdale, (see page 381.) 
The benefice is a perpetual curacy, in the gift 
of his lordship. It was returned to the commis- 
sioners for enquiring concerning ecclesiastical 
revenues as of the average annual value of 200/. 

List of Incumbents. 

1752 Thomas Spedding, M.A. * 
1783 Richard Armitstead, M.A.f 
1821 William Jackson, B.D. % 
1833 John Jenkins. 

Under the tower is a marble mural monument, 
with this inscription : — 

In memory of the 

first Minister of this Chapel, 

who died April 24th, 1783, iE. 61 years. 

In him were most agreeably imited 

The tender husband. 

The affectionate parent. 

The faithful friend. 

The worthy Pastor, and 

(Reader, if thou requirest yet more) 

The honest man. 

He was sincerely respected through life, and 

In his death, universally lamented, 

But by none 

More than by his numerous 

Admiring Congregation. 

ISABELLA, the wife of the 

Revd. Thos. Spedding, A.M. 

Died May 29th, 1787, aged 62 years. 

• See moniunental inscription, page 392, 
t Rector of Moresby; ob. 1821. 
X Now D.D. Rector of Lowthcr. 


On another : — 

In memory of 

JOHN DIXON, Esq., who died on the 26tli May, 1801, aged 71 years. 

ISABELLA, his wife, 

who died on the 19th of July, 1781, aged 48 years. 

Six of their children 

who died in their infancy. 

HENRY DIXON, their son, 

who died on the 27th of June, 179G, aged 27 years. 

GEORGE DIXON, their son, 

who died in London, on the 29th of October, 1803, 

aged 29 years. 

JOSEPH DIXON, their son, 

Who died on the 26th Jan. 1815, aged 50 years. 

FRANCES, relict of Jno. Dixon, Esq. 

Who died on the 24th of July, 1837, aged 79 years. 

Another is thus inscribed : — 

In memory of 


Of Queen's College, Oxford, 

Who died the 24th of Februarj-, 1811, 

Aged 30 years. 

Near the tower is a mural monument in- 
scribed — 

In memory of 


Rector of Moresby, and upwards of 

XXX years Minister of this Chapel. 

He departed this Life 18th May, A.D. MDCCCXXI, 

Aged LVl years. 

A mural tablet bears this inscription : — 

Near this place lie the remains of 


Ob. 25th September, 1827, M. 67. 

With unwearied assiduity he taught Mathematics 

During 48 years. 
Possessed the affection and gratitude of his pupils. 


And was justly esteemed by the 
Inhabitants of Whitehaven and its Ticinity. 

Another is thus inscribed : — 


to the memory of 


of Kirkby Lonsdale, 

who died at Whitehayen, 

on the 18th of December, 1834, 

after a short illness, 

aged 44 years. 

He was not less distinguished in life for Ms yocal talents than 

for the many kindly virtues which graced humanity. 

This Memorial was erected by the voluntary subscriptions 

of bis Friends. 


On the south side of the altar-table is a mural 
tablet with this inscription : — 

In memory of 

ANNE, the Wife of 


Falmouth, Jamaica, who died 

May 11th, 1817, aged 35 years. 

WILLIAM, their Son, died 

April 29th, 1817, aged 13 days. 

On another : — 

Sacred to the memory ofj 

the Children of the 

Rev. Thos. Spedding, M.A., 

and Isabella, his wife : 

Carlisle, bom 1752, died 1755. 

IsabcUa, 1755, 1755. 

Carlisle, • 1757, 1784. 

Thomas, 1766. - — - 1789. 

Langton, 1761, 1789. 

Frances, 1748, 1803. 

Sarah, . 1750, 1818. 


Mary, ]759, 1819. 

Jane, 1768, 1828. 

Ann, 1765, 1839. 

On the north side of the altar-table is a mural 
marble monument bearing this inscription : — 

To the memory of 


Who died on the 13th day of July, 1812, 

Aged G8 years. 
Also BETTY HARRISON, his Wife, 
who died on the 26th day of Jany., 1787, 
Aged 46 years. 

On a mural tablet : — 

Sacred to the Memory of 

Mr. ISAAC rORSTER, late of this place. 

Who died on the 22nd day of May, 1822, 

In the 73rd year of his age. 


AGNES, his Sister, 

Who died on the 29th day of February, 1824, 

In the 77th year of her age. 

On another : — 

In memory 



He was bom 19th November, 1732, 

And died 7th February, 1803. 


Was bom September 26th, 1728, 

And died Feby. 6th, 1793. 

On another, in the north gallery : — 


To the memory of 


who died at Carlingford, in Ireland 

On the 17th day of November, 1810, 

aged 37 years. 


Also SARAH, his wife, 

■who died at the city of Carlisle, 

On the 27 th day of November, 1834, 

Aged 5G years. 

Also of HKNRY, their son, 

who died in his infancy. 

Dissenting Chapels. 

There are in AVhitebaven chapels belonging to 
the Church of Scotland, the Roman Catholics, 
the Wesleyan INIcthodists, the Independents, the 
United Secession, the Society of Friends, the 
Baptists, the Wesleyan Association, and the Pri- 
mitive Methodists.* 

The Harbour 

Is rather spacious and secure than easy of access. 
It has seven stone piers, some of which are on a 
magnificent scale. On these piers are three light- 
houses : the two principal ones have been recently 
built, and are highly ornamental to the port. 
"A tonnage duty has been established by two 
acts of parliament, passed in the 7th and 11th 
years of Queen Anne, for the purpose of improv- 
ing the harbour, to which many additional works 
have been added during the last fifty years. The 
New Quay was lengthened in 1 767 ; the North 
Wall was begun in 1770, and finished in 1784 ; 
the new' work formerly called the Bulwark, has 
been entirely rebuilt on a larger plan ; the Old 

• This was built as a chapel for the Church of England, by Mr. Hogarth, 
and was to have been consecrated in 1789, but a caveat having been en- 
tered against it by the impropriator of St. Bees, it did not receive conse- 


Quay was lengthened in 1792, and various other 
improvements were effected about the year 1809; 
so that several hundred large vessels may now 
lie with safety in the harbour." 

The new West Pier was commenced in 1824, 
and finished in 1839: it is a noble building of 
great strength, and was erected under the super- 
intendence of Sir John Rennie, at a cost of up- 
wards of 100,000/. The magnificent round head, 
on which the light-house is built, cost 30,000/. 
The new North Pier is also a noble structure, 
but is not yet completed. 

The port of Whitehaven includes within its 
jurisdiction the harbours of Workington, jNIary- 
port, Harrington, Ravenglass, and Millom, with 
all the intermediate coast, extending from mid- 
stream in the river Duddon, northward to Mary- 
port, a distance of nearly fifty miles. It also 
extends seaward to 10 fathoms water. Two acts 
of parliament, passed in the 7th and 11th of 
Queen Anne, incorporated " twenty-one trustees 
of the harbour and town of \Mntehaven," with 
power to levy duties for the purpose of building 
quays, piers, and otherwise improving the haven 
and town. Their power has since been extended 
by acts of parliament passed in 1739, 17C6, 1788, 
1792, and 1818. Twenty of the trustees are 
elected tricnnially ; the inhabitants who pay 
harbour dues choose 1 4 of them by ballot, and 
6 are appointed by the lord of the manor who is 
always to be one. 'I'hc jurisdiction of the harbour 
trustees extends northward from the Old Quay 
to Redness Point. Ry the act of 58 Geo. III. 
the lord of the manor and eleven or more of the 
other trustees, have power to reduce and vary 
3 E 


the harbour dues, which have consequently been 
reduced 25 per cent.f 

The spring-tides rise twenty feet, and the 
neap-tides twelve feet ; yet the old harbour is dry 
at low water. Inside of the New West Quay 
there is nine feet at low water. The depth of the 
haven below the adjoining banks is of peculiar 
advantage in loading the vessels with coals from 
the adjoining collieries, by means of staiths or 
hurries extended over the quay. 

In the year 1772 there were 197 vessels be- 
longing to this port; in 1790, 216 vessels; in 
1810, 188 vessels, tonnage, 29,312; in 1822, 181 
vessels, tonnage, 26,220; in 1828, 197 vessels, 
tonnage, 30,960; in 1840, 217 vessels, tonnage, 

The average annual quantity of coals exported 
from this port, from the year 1781 to 1792, was 
80,000 chaldrons ; for the five years ending De- 
cember, 1814, the average annual amount was 
about 100,000 waggon-loads, besides a very con- 
siderable inland consumption. In 1826 upwards 
of 135,602 chaldrons were exported ; and in 1827 
1 1 4,692 chaldrons. The average quantity of coals 
now exported amounts annually to about 
250,000 tons. 

A life-boat was stationed at this port in 1803. 
The custom-house was erected in 1811. Avery 
considerable part of the shipping is engaged in the 
coal-trade with Ireland. Several large vessels, 
however, are employed in the importation of West 
Indian, American, and Baltic produce. Large 
quantities of lime are shipped here for Scotland, 
and iron ore, from the parishes of Arlecdon and 
Cleator, for the furnaces in Wales. 

f Parson and White. 


"Ship-building is carried on here to a consid- 
erable extent, and on a system that has acquired 
for the artificers a high reputation. Sti'ength is 
the great desideratum in vessels employed in the 
coal-trade, and the shipwrights here have the art 
of giving them great sohdity and firmness without 
clumsiness, so that they are said not only to be 
more durable, but to sail faster than vessels of 
the same description from any other port in the 
kingdom. Ships of 500 tons are frequently built 
here, and some have been built of considerably 
gi-eater burthen." * 


The CoAL-PiTs.f 

The collieries of Whitehaven are supposed to 
have been first wrought for foreign consumption 
about the middle of the seventeenth century. J 
The first steam-engine in use at Whitehaven was 
erected by Sir James Lowther, early in the last 
century, at the Ginns, for raising water. The 
first steam-engine used for raising coals was put 
up in 17S7, at George-pit, in Whingill coUiery ; 
others were erected for the same purpose in 
1793, 1794, and 1795.§ 

• DanicU's Voyage. 

t Further particulars respecting the coal-pits — which the nature and 
limits of the present volume prevent our detailing — may be found in 
DanieU's " Picturesque Voyage round Great Britain," and in Dr. Dixon's 
Life of Dr. Brownrigg. 

X In the year 1306 " both houses of parliament complained of the use 
of coals as a nuisance, corrupting the air with its stink and smoke; and 
the use thereof in London was prohibited by royal proclamation." 

4 "Cumberland has tlic merit of the discovery of gas-lightj. and it 
belonged to Mr. Spedding of Whitehaven, the agent of Sir James 

3 E 2 


" The coal seams that lie in the bowels of the 
earth, and below the bed of the sea, have been 
wrought for many j'ears with such spirit and 
perseverance that a kind of subterraneous city 
is formed ; and Whitehaven, with the adjacent 
coast, may be said to rest upon continued ranges 
of columns composed of coal. Several bands or 
seams of coal shew themselves in various places 
on the sloping surface, on the west side of the 
vale, above and on the sea-shore near the town. 
On the first attempt to work the coal near 
Whitehaven, a level, or watercourse, was driven 
from the bottom of the valley, near the Pow- 
beck, till it intersected a seam of coal, known by 
the name of Bannock Band, and drained a con- 
siderable field of coal, which was drawn out of 
pits from 20 to 60 yards deep. After this 
another level was driven westward, from near 
the farm house called Thicket, across the seam 
called the Main Band. This level also effectually 
drained a large bed of coals, which were drawn 
out of the pits by men with jack-rowls, or wind- 
lasses, and then carried to the ships on the backs 
of galloways, in packs of 1 i stones each." 

" There are five workable coal seams in the 
Howgill colliery, viz. the Crow Coal, which is 
about 2 feet thick and 60 yards deep ; the Yard 
Band, 4 feet thick and 160 yards deep; the 
Bannock Band, 8 feet thick and 200 yards deep ; 

Lowther, who was killed by the fulminating damp, in 1755. Mr. Sped- 
ding offered to supply the trustees of the harbour with whatever gas they 
wanted to light the town, if they would be at the expence of conducting 
it through the streets. The gas was accordingly conducted by pipes 
from the pits to the open air, where [the flame was constantly seen 
burning." — Monthly Magazine, May, 1817. 


the Main Band, 1 1 feet thick and 240 yards 
deep ; and the bottom seam, which is o feet 
thick and 320 yards deep. To the southward 
of Howgill, these seams are thrown much nearer 
the surface by Dikes, or perpendicular rents of 
the sohd strata, varying from two feet to several 
fathoms in breadth, and filled with clay, stones, 
cVc. The largest of these dikes runs nearly in 
the direction of east and west. The coal seams 
always keep at equal distances from each other, 
and dip or descend sloping nearly due west, 
about one yard in ten. 

"Sir James Lowthcr, who died in 1755, was 
at considerable expense for the purpose of im- 
proving the manner of working his coal mines, 
and despatched one of his agents, Mr. Carlisle 
Spedding, to inspect some of the principal col- 
lieries in Northumberland, where he remained a 
considerable time in the capacity of a ' hewer/ 
under the assumed name of Dan. A\'hen Mr. 
Spedding returned, he introduced many improve- 
ments in the coal mines at AVhitehaven, and 
invented the steel wheel and flints, by which 
sparks of fire were produced to light the collier 
in those parts of the mines where a burning can- 
dle would have ignited the carburetted hydrogen 
gas, or fire damp,* by the explosion of which so 

• " In the coal minc3 at Wliitcliaven, the fire-damp and clioak-damp 
are found in great abundance. The former may be considered of the 
same nature as hydrogen gas; though its specific gravity is greater on 
account of a small quantity either of hepatic gas, or carbonic acid gas ; 
which forms a part of its composition. It is, however, considerably 
lighter than atmospheric air, and, in consequence, ascends to the upper 
part of the mine. To prevent its accumulation, it was formerly a prac- 
tice with the workmen to set fire to it by the flame of a candle ; using 


many lives ha^e been lost at different periods. 
On one of these melancholy occasions Mr. Sped- 
ding fell a victim to the burning fluid, about the 

the precaution of lying prostrate on the ground during its explosion ; but 
this dangerous expedient has been long relinquished. It is inflamed the 
moment -when a combination is formed between it and atmospheric air ; 
the difference, however, of their specific gi'avity renders some agitation 
of the latter necessary to produce the combination. The miners are 
often burnt, maimed, or killed by its sudden explosion, when in contact 
with an ignited body. Such accidents, have happily become less fre- 
quent, and fatal, in consequence of an ingenious invention of Mr. Carlisle 
Spedding. This is a steel wheel, moved by tooth and pinion, which is 
turned round with great veloeity, and strikes against a large piece of 
flint. The sparks which are emitted by this collision are a sufficient 
substitute for the light of a caudle, and expose the workmen to little or 
no danger. 

" The fire-damp appears to have first attracted the notice of philoso- 
phers in 1733. Bladders filled with it were presented to the Royal So- 
ciety by Sir James Lowther, who had procured it from the collieries at 
Whitehaven ; and so carefully had it been confined in the bladders, that 
on applyiug the flame of a candle, it was observed to retain its inflam- 
mability. An artificial fire-damp was obtained in 1736, by Jlr. John 
Maud, from iron dissolved in oil of vitriol. Being received into bladders, 
it was exhibited to the Royal Society, and on examination was dis- 
covered to possess the same qualities as the native fire-damp. 

'■ The choak.damp derives its name from its power of suffocation. It 
is distinguished by the properties of being equally injurious to combustion 
and respiration. It extinguishes the flame of a candle, deprives animals 
of life, and precipitates the lime of lime-water. Its specific gravity ex- 
ceeds that of atmospheric air, and it therefore occupies the bottom of tlie 
mine. It agrees, in a great measure, witli that subtile exhalation long 
known to Leonardo di Capoa, and other Italian philosophers, under the 
appellation of Moflette. It appears to be similar to the spiritus sylvestris 
of Paracelsus, the gas sylvestrc of Van Helmont, the spiritus sulphureus 
aereo-a;therio-elasticus of Hoffman, the acidum centrale perpetuum in- 
exhauribile of Becher ; the acidum vagum fodinarum of Boerhaave ; 
and the detached or elastic air of Dr. Hales. It has a near aflinity also 
to that permanently clastic fluid extracted by Dr. Black from magnesia, 


year 1755, since which several effective inven- 
tions have been produced for the purpose of pre- 
venting accidents in coal mines." 

A description of the coal mines, and of tlie 
operations carried on in those subterraneous 
regions, is given in the subjoined note,* from the 

limestone, chalk, and other substances, wliich was called by him fixed 
air, from its being supposed to exist in those bodies in a fixed state ; but 
long preserved the name of mcphitic air ; and is now, with peculiar pro- 
priety, termed, according to the French nomenclature, carbonic acid 
gas." — Literary Life of Dr. Brownrigg. 

• " We fixed ourselves in the basket, standing with our hands grasp- 
ing the chain, the word was given, and down wc glided with a smooth 
and scarcely perceptible motion through a duct about six feet in diameter, 
and wooded all round I kept my eyes fixed on the aperture above, 
which contracted as I fell, till at a vast depih I was obliged to look down 
as my head grew dizzy, and small pieces of coal and drops of water struck 
with unpleasant force against my face. As we descended lower all be- 
came darkness, noise over our heads grew gradually more indistinct, 
till it died away, and a dreary silence ensued, broken only occasion- 
ally by the grating of the basket against the walls. At length, after 
a descent of five hundred and seventy six feet, I heard the voices of men 
below me, and presently perceived two dim lights. These were at the 
High Eye, formerly at the bottom of the shaft, on a level with which is a 
great extent of workings. I asked no questions here — " steady the bas- 
ket," cried our guide, and in a moment we were again in utter darkness. 
In a quarter of a minute more I heard other voices below me — the basket 
stopped and we soon found ourselves on our feel at the bottom of six 
hundred and thirty feet from the light. 

" I could here distinguish nothing but a single candle, with the obscure 
form of a man by it — all around was pitch dark, not a ray of light reach- 
ing the bottom from the mouth of the shaft. Before wc proceeded to ex- 
plore the mine, we were recommended to remain quiet a little in order 
to collect ourselves, and while we were thus striving to be composed, my 
nerves were momentarily shocked by a combination and succession of 
strange noises, among which the loud clank of the chain as the empty 
basket dashed to the ground, was particularly offensive. I never saw 


pen of a gentleman who was an eye-witness of 
what he describes; the pit he visited was the 

the object, and had no notice of its approach, till its infernal crash alwaj's 
came to make me jump out of myself. 

" While we were conversing here on the possible accidents that might 
occur in ascending or descending in the basket, we were told of a poor 
woman who lately had an extraordinary escape. It was her business to 
attach the chain of the basket, and while she was doing this her hand 
became somehow entangled, and the man at the engine setting it in 
motion before the proper time, she was pulled from the ground before 
she could extricate herself, and dragged up as she hung by one arm, to 
the top of the pit, with no injury but a slight laceration of her hand. 

" I had not become quite reconciled to the clank when we were sum- 
moned to go on. From the foot of the shaft we proceeded through a 
very long passage cut through rock, with the roof arched, and the 
sides faced with bricks and whitewashed. All the rock passages through - 
out the mine are faced with bricks in a similar manner, an enormously 
expensire precaution, but absolutely, necessary to prevent the falling 
down of loose fragments of stone. I cannot describe scientifically, or 
■with any degree of clearness and certainly, all the methods of proceeding 
that have been adopted in laying out these vast subterranean works, and 
indeed such an account is scarcely called for, as the mine no doubt very 
much resembles in its general plan many others that have been often 
described. In its present state as far as I could ascertain as I groped 
my way through the darkness, it appeared in the meeting and crossing of 
its numerous passages, to resemble the streets of a city — and of a city of 
no mean extent, for we sometimes walked for nearly half a mile without 
turning, between walls of coal or rock. To the right and left of the 
long lanes are workings, hollow spaces, five yards wide and twenty deep, 
left for the support of the roof, so that only one third of a bed of coal 
is taken away. Mr. Pennant observed, that these columns appeared to 
him to be stores for future fuel, but they are left standing merely from 
necessity, and no material portion of them could be removed without 
danger to the great superstnicturc which they tend to uphold. 

"The coals are dragged from the workings in baskets, one at a time, 
by horses, and carried to a place of general rendezvous, where by means of 
a crane they are placed on to the trams, nine of which, bearing a burthen 
of nearly sis tons, are drawn by a single horse to the shaft. A tram is a 


William pit, " the last opened, and said to be the 
best planned work of its kind, and the most 

square board supported by four very low wheels, nnd a horse drags iiiiie 
ot'lhem with their full cargo along an iron railway without any apparent 

" The veotUation of the mine in its remotest comers is said to bo as per- 
fect as is necessary, though I confess tliat iu some places I felt no little 
dilliculty in lireathing. The air is rarefied by heat from a large fire kept 
constantly burning, and the current directed to the various workings 
through conduits formed by boarded partitions placed about a foot dis- 
tant from the walls. Doers are placed at intervals in the long passages 
which stop the air in its course and force it through the conduits in the 
workings to the right or left. • • * « 

" The sensations excited in me as I w'as descending down the pit did 
not readily subside, and I wandered about the mine with my mind 
very much upon the alert, and under an indistinct apprehension of some 
possible danger which gave intensity to my interest in every thing that I 
heard and saw. A dreariness pervaded the place which struck upon the 
heart — one felt as if beyond the bounds allotted to man or any living 
being, and transported to some hideous region unblest by every charm 
that cheers the habitable world. We traced our way through passage 
after passage in the blackest darkness, sometimes rendered more awful 
by a death-like silence, which was now and then broken by the banging 
of some distant door, or an explosion of gunpowder, that pealed with a 
loud and long report through the unseen recesses of the mine, and gave 
us some idea of its vast extent. Occasionally a light appeared in the 
distance before us, which did not dispel the darkness so as to discover 
by whom it was borne, but advanced like a meteor through the gloom, 
accompanied by a loud rumbling noise, the cause ol which was not ex- 
plained to the eye till we were called upon to make way for a horse, 
which passed by with its long line of baskets, and driven by a young 
girl covered with filth. • • • • 

" Our guide now led us to a passage where, in a small stream of water 
that flowed through it, we heard some air bubbling up, which he knew to 
be hydrogen : he applied a candle to it, when it instantly took fire, 
burning with a clear blueish light, in a flame not larger than that from 
a small lamp. It continued visible when we had receded to a consider. 

3 F 


complete in all its conveniences of any in the 

able distance from it, and had a very beautiful appearance, shining like 
a brilliant star in the daikness, and giving an effect of exceeding depth 
to the gloomy avenue before us. While we were gazing at it, with the 
profoundest stillness around us, we were startled by a report as loud as 
a clap of thunder, proceeding from an explosion of gunpowder. Ou 
going to the spot from whence it came, we found some men working a 
passage through abed of rocks, called in the language of miners, a. fault, 
a phenomenon too familiar in coal mines to require any comment from 
me. This part of the mine was very remote from the shaft, and so im- 
perfectly ventUated, that the heat and stench in it were scarcely sup - 

" Not far from this place our guide regarded me with a very big and 
signiiicant look, and produced all the effect he intended on my mind, 
when he informed me that I was walking under thesea, and had probably 
ships sailing over my head. Considering this as the most extraordinary 
situation that we had been in during our subterranean excursion, he pulled 
out a bottle of spirits from his pocket and drank our healths and a safe 
return to us, with all due solemnity. This rite fulfilled, we turned our 
steps towards the shaft, oppressed by the heat and fouhiess of the air, 
and anxious again to see the day. We had walked about four miles, in 
various directions, but had not explored half the mine, even in its lower 
part, and had a labyrinth of excavations over our heads as numerous 
and extensive as those through which we had been rambling, and sepa- 
rated from them by a roof only nine fathoms thick. I was astonished to 
hear that the whole of this immense work was the labour of scarcely ten 
years ; that the extensive space through which we had passed, and the 
whole mine that we had left unexplored, were within this short period a 
solid body of coal and rock. The labour going on before our eyes ap- 
peared quite insignificant, and imagination could scarcely conceive the 
formation by such means of this vast place, which struck one as some 
strange creation by the giant hands of nature. 

" We ascended to the higher works by a very steep path, which, at an 
elevation of about sixty feet from the lower level, opens into the shaft. 
The miners figuratively call the shaft the eye of the mine, and this inlet 
into the upper excavations is denominated the High Eye. It was here 


The new Wellington pit, which is no^y sinking 
on the western side of the harbour, will be work- 
ed deeper than any other in the kingdom : it is 
now sunk to a depth of seventy fathoms and 
thirty years may elapse before it is completed. 
The principal workings will extend under the sea 
to a distance of one mile and a half. 

that our guide bad given hU warning of ' steady Uae basket," lest it strike 
against the landing in its descent. AU the coals procured from under- 
.vorkings were formerly dragged up to the point by horses, but the task 
was found so difficult and tedious that it was thought expedient to smk 
the shaft to its present level. From the edge of the landing place at the 
High Eye, I had a peep .at the day through the opening which appeared 
at a dreadful height above my head, and contracted to a spot not bigger 

than the palm of my hand. 

"Aswcwerc not promised the sight of any novelty m the upper 
mine wc did not enter it, but returned to the lower one, from whence 
we proceeded to the shaft of the James mine, through a long up-cast 
passage, which, in consequence of a late accident, exhibits one of the 
most awful spectacles that can be conceived. An unusual quantity of 
coals were taken from it. and it was thought necessary, for the support 
of the roof, to plant two rows of posts under it, which were composed of 
the trunks of the largest oaks Uiat could be procuied. They had not 
been toed long when the roof began to sink, descending very slowly, 
but with irresistible force, and bending or breaking every tree that stood 
beneath it. It did not sink much more than a foot, and people now pass 
fearlessly under it. in Uie conviction that it has permanently settled. 
The passage, however, bears a very tremendous afpcarance, and 1 did 
not go through it without some agitaUon. The broken and splintered 
trees remain, and are such formidable mementos of the insecurity of the 
roof that I voluntarily quickened my pace as 1 looked at them, lest I 
should hear the coals again cracking over my head. This part of our 
expedition was rendered exceedingly dUagreeable by a sulphureous 
stream of water which flowed down the steep, casting forth an odour 
which touched even the nose of our guide. At the top of the passage 
are the stables belonging to the two mines, in which forty horses arc 
kept, which never see the \ishi."-DanielVs Voyage. 

3 F 2 


40s allerdale ward, above derwent. 

The Marine School was founded in 1S17, by 
Matthew Piper, Esq., of Whitehaven, a member 
of the Society of Friends, who munificently en- 
dowed it with 2000/. navy five per cent, annui- 
ties, vested in the hands of fifteen trustees, "for 
the 'education of sixty poor boys resident in the 
town of Whitehaven or the neighbourhood, in 
reading, writing, arithmetic, gauging, navigation, 
and book-keeping.' The present school-room 
was erected by William, Earl of Lonsdale, in 
1818, and opened in 1822. Previous to bein 
admitted to this seminary, every boy must be 
able to read the New Testament, and be upwards 
of eight years of age. None are allowed to re- 
main more than five years. Although this school 
is intended to convey such nautical instruction 
as shall qualify its pupils to act as mates and mas- 
ters of vessels, they are not placed under any 
obligation to go to sea, as the name of the insti- 
tution may be supposed to imply." 

On the wall is this inscription : — 


endowed by 



The same benevolent gentleman left 1 000/. for 
the use of the soup kitchen ; and in 1825, 
Joshua Dixon, Esq., RI.D., late of Whitehaven, 
left a legacy of 50/. for the like purpose. 

The following benefactions are distributed by 
the churchwardens to the poor, at the chapel of 
the Holy Trinity, annually at Christmas : — 
"11. 185., the interest of 200/., left about 50 


years ago, by the Rev. Thomas Sevvell, for twenty 
})oor widows ; 5/., the interest of 100/., vested in 
Maryport Harbour, and bequeathed by Joseph 
Glaister, Esq., in 1773; and il. 4s., being part 
of the interest of 400/., vested in government 
stock four per cents, and bequeathed, in 1S19, 
by ISIrs. Barbara Birkhead, who directed the re- 
mainder of the interest, (12/. 12,v.) to be paid to 
two individuals during their lives." 

There are in Whitehaven a number of religious 
and charitable institutions, unendowed ; — among 
Avhich may be named — the Dispensary, tlie House 
of Recovery, a Humane Society for the recovery 
of persons apparently drowned, the Ladies' Be- 
nevolent Society for visiting and relieving the 
sick poor, the Ladies' Charity for married women 
in childbed, the Blanket and Clothing Society, 
the Samaritan Society, cV'c, besides several Day 
and Sunday Schools, which are supported by 
voluntary contributions. 


Rottington is a hamlet and township near the 
sea-shore, thus noticed by Mr. Sandford : — 
" one mile from St. Bees you have Rotington 
Hall and Towne, the ancient seat of Mr. Sands, 

from whence Bishop Sands was derived 

Nye there* I have gott many fine Aggots and 
precious stones that wold cut glass like diamonds." 

Rottington belonged anciently to a family who 
took their name from the manor. It passed from 

* At Fleswick, on the sea-shoie, wliere many valuable pebbles are still 


them by marriage to the Sandes,* wlio were 
originally seated at Burgh-upon-Sands, " where 
they had their capital mansion-house, at a place 
called to this day Sandsfield, from which they 
took their sm-name." It passed from them by 
sale (for the sum of 700/.) to the Curwens of 
Workington-hall. Henry Curwen, Esq., devised 
it to Henry Pelham, Esq., from whom it was 
purchased, in 1762, by Sir James Lowther, Bart., 
afterwards Earl of Lonsdale. It is now the pro- 
perty of the present Earl. 

The iiianor of Weddicar, which formerly be- 
longed to the Ponsonby family, is now also the 
property of the Earl of Lonsdale. 

By an inquisition, j^ost mortem, of Thomas de 
Multon, of EgTemout, 15th Edward II., it ap- 
pears that John, son of Rayner le Fleming, held 
of the said Thomas, the hamlets of Rotington, 
Wedacre, Beckermet, Frisington, and Arlocden, 
by homage and fealty and suit of the court of 
Egremont, &c. 

• Sandes, or Sandys, of St. Bees. — This famUy -was originally of 
Burgh-on-Sands, teing called in ancient evidences De Sabulonibus. 
One of llie family was knight of the shire, temp. Ric. II. They had 
been settled at Rottingtou in St. Bees, for five descents, at the time of 
the visitation in 1015. The family has been long extinct in Cumberland; 
but some of the male descendants still remain ; from William Sandys, 
a younger son of this family, who went into Lancashire, descended 
Archbishop Sandys, common ancestor of the late Lord Sandys of Om- 
bei-slcy, the baronets of Cambridgesliire and Kent, all extinct. Sir Edwin 
Bayntun Sandys, Bart., now of Miserden Park, in Gloucestershire, and 
otlier branches. 

The arms are not described in St. George's Visitation, 1615; it is un- 
certain, therefore, what coat was borne by the Cumberland family. The 
several branches above-mentioned have borne three moors' heads, and 
three cross crosslets variously combined, with one or with two chevrons 
and of various colours.— iysons. 



Nether-Wasdale is a chapelry at the foot of 
Wast-Water, and contains the whole of that ro- 
mantic lake.* The lord of the manor is ^Nlajor- 

* The Rev. W. Ford, B.A., in his Guide to the Lakes, gives the fol- 
lowing account of Wast-Water, and the magnificent mountain scenery 
with which it is environed : — " Wast-Water is three miles and a half 
long, and three quarters of a mile broad, the depth is from forty to fifty 
fathoms, and it is probably owing to this, in proportion to the extent of 
its surface, that it has never been known to freeze. Trout in great 
quantities, and a few char, frequent its waters The chief feeders are 
Over Beck on the south of Yewbarrow, and Xethcr Beck on the north 
of Middle Fell, issuing from tarns near the Haycocks, and running 
through Bowderdale. The waters arc discharged by the Irt at Raven- 

"Being a border lake, its end lying in the low country, whilst its head 
is nestled in the mountains, it appears from the foot to the greatest ad- 
vantage, and is under that aspect most distinguished for sublimity. The 
mouutains are naked lo their base, their sides and summits are uniform, 
shooting up mto lofty points and ending in pyramidical forms. Looking 
upwards, Yewbarrow forms a fine apex ; Kirkfell pushes forward its front 
to the left; and at the head of the dale, the Gable appears conspicuous. 
On the right, Lingmell comes finely forward, over which the pikes of Sea- 
fell reign supremo. Up the side vale of Bowderdale, is the Haycock ; and 
the Pillar crowns the head of Mosedale. Middle Fell runs along the margin 
of the lake ; and on the opposite side are the Screes, which seem going 
to decay, their foundation in the water, and their surface and soil being 
gone, while immense debris and torrents of rocks and stones cover their 
sides. This range of fell prevents the circumambulation of the lake. 
Proceeding onwards, a retrospective view of Yewbarrow, the Gable, and 
the Pikes, seen over Over Beck Bridge, is a fine picture. From Nether 
Beck Bridge the road passes over a rising ground, and from a field in 
front of Crookhead, where a beautiful cottage has been built by Stans- 
field Rawson, Esq., of Halifax, is one of the finest views of Wastdale 
Head and Water." 

" On the top of the Screes, stoodforages, avcry large stone, called Wil- 


General Wyndham, of Cockermouth Castle, to 
whom it was bequeathed by his noble father, the 
late Earl of Egremont. 

Wasdale-hall,"* the beautiful seat of Stansfield 
Rawson, Esq., of Halifax, is situated at Crook- 
head, on some cultivated land, amid this barren 
district, and " derives an interest from the as- 
semblage of picturesque magnificence in its 

The Chapel. — The Chapel of Nether-Wasdale 
was certified to the governors of Queen Ann's 
bounty at 51. per annum, and was returned to 
the commissioners for enquiring concerning ec- 
clesiastical revenues as of the average annual 
value of 66/. The living is a perpetual curacy, 
in the gift of the incumbent of the mother-church 
of St. Bees. The impropriation belongs to 
Edward Stanley, Esq., jNI.P., of Ponsonby-hall ; 
the tithes having been purchased by his ancestor, 
Edward Stanley, Esq., from Sir Thomas Chaloner, 
to whom they had been granted on the dissolu- 
tion of the priory of St. Bees. The chapel is ten 
miles distant from the mother-church. The 
present incumbent is the Rev. J. Douglas, who 
was appointed in 1S27. 

The chapelry of Wasdale-Headf forms part of 

son's horse, but atout twenty years ago it fell down into the lake, when 
a cleft was made about 100 yards long, four feet wide, and of incredible 

• Engraved in Fisher's Northern Tourist. 

t The chapelries of Wasdale-Hcad, Nether-Wasdale, and Eskdale, 
adjoin each other, and form a large mountainous district of about forty 
square miles, very thinly iiopulated. 


the manor of Kskdale, of which Majov-General 
Wyndham, of Cockermouth castle, is lord. Mr. 
•John Denton speaks of Wasdale as a waste full 
of red deer,f " the inheritance of the earl of 
Northumberland ; and before, the Lucy's lands, 
being a parcel of their third part of the barony 
of Egremont, which Thomas Lucy got with his 
wife Margaret, one of the daughters and coheirs 
of .John Moulton, last of that name. Baron of 

This lonely district, surrounded by barren and 
lofty mountains, comprises a level area of about 
400 acres, "divided by stone walls into small 
irregular fields, which have been cleared with 
great industry and labour ; as appears from the 
enormous heaps of stones, piled up from the sur- 
plus after completing the enclosures." In Hut- 
chinson's Cumberland it is stated, that " one of 
the land-owners, whose name is Fletcher, derives 
the family possessions here, from a course of not 
less than 700 years." 

This small hamlet is supposed to have been 
formerly more populous: in 1792, it contained 
only 47 inhabitants. 

The Chapel— Was certified to the governors 
of Queen Ann's bounty, of the value of 3/. per 
annum. In 1719, it received an augmentation 
by lot of 200/. It is situated fourteen miles from 
the mother church. This " unwealthy mountain 
benefice" is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the 
incumbent of St. Bees ; and was returned to the 
commissioners for enquiring respecting ecclesias- 
tical revenues as of the average annual value of 

t Nicolson and Bum say, here " is a large forest of deer, which ex. 
tends as far as Styhead in Boredalc." 

3 G 


49/. The present incumbent is the Rev. Joseph 
Kitchen, who was appointed in 1819. The tithes 
belong to Edward Stanley, Esq., INI.P., of Pon- 
sonby-hall, having been purchased by his ancestor, 
Edward Stanley, Esq., from Sir Thomas Chaloner, 
to whom they had been granted on the dissolu- 
tion of the priory of St. Bees. In ] 792, the in- 
cumbent's certain income was only about 20/. per 
annum, arising from lands purchased entirely 
from Queen Ann's bounty: this, however, was 
increased by contributions from the inhabitants. 
The dispute between the Earl of Lonsdale and 
Mr. Banks, of Wasdale, respecting the right of 
pi'esentation to tliis living, was terminated in 
1S19 : the Bishop of Chester, to whose considera- 
tion the matter was referred, having expressed 
his opinion in favour of the latter, the noble Earl 
withdrew his claim.* 

The Chapel is a very small humble edifice,f 

* Carlisle Journal, Nov. 13, 1819. 
t Mr. Wordsworlh, in his " Description of the Scenery of the Lakes," 
makes the following beautiful remarks on the mountain churches and 
chapels :--" The architecture of these churches and chapels, where they 
have not been recently rebuilt or modernised, is of a style not less ap- 
propriate and admirable than that of the dwelling-houses and other 
stnicttires. How sacred the spirit by which our forefathers were directed ! 
The religio loci is no where violated by these unstinted, yet unpretend- 
ing, works of human hands. They exhibit generally a well-proportioned 
oblong, with a suitable porch, in some instances a steeple tower, and in 
others nothing more than a small belfry, in which one or two bells hang 
visibly. But these objects, though pleasing in their forms, must neces- 
sarily, more than others in rural scenery, derive their interest from the 
sentiments of piety and reverence for the modest virtues and simple 
manners of humble life with which they may be contemplated. A man 
must be very insensible who would not be touched with pleasure at the 
sight of the chapel of Buttcrmcre, so strikingly expressing, by its dimi- 


(near the half-dozen houses composmg the ham- 
let,) containing eight pews, and unprovided with 
a burial-ground: the dead are buried at the 
chapel of Nether-Wasdale. 


Ennerdale is a chapelry under St. Bees in- 
cluding the townships of Ennerdale, Ennerda e- 
Hi^^h-End, and Kinneyside. Although it has by 
some been considered as a separate parish or 
parochial chapelry, yet its dependency under bt. 
Bees was estabUshed by a verdict given at Carhsle, 
in 1G90, and it was returned as such under the 
population act. The interest of 2\l. is distributed 
yearly to the poor of the chapelry ; but the donor 
is unknown. , . 

Mr. John Denton says, the Irish named it 
Lou<rh Eanheth (lacus volucrum), from the lowls 
that bred there in the islands ; the river they cal- 
led Eanlieth ; and the dale, Eaner, or Ar-ean : the 
Saxons, retaining the Irish name, called the va ey 
Encrdah'. In the register of St. Bees it is called 

nutivc size, how smaU must be the congregation there assembled, as it 
were, like one famUy ; and proclaiming at the same time to the passenger, 
in connection with the surrounding mountains, the depth of that seclu- 
sion in whicli the people live, that has rendered necessary the buildmg 
of a separate place of worship for so few. A patriot, calling to mmd the 
images of the stately fabrics of Canterbury, York, or Westminster, will 
find a heart-felt satisfaction in presence of this lowly pile, as a monu- 
ment of the wise institutions of our country, and as evidence of the all- 
pervading and paternal care of that venerable Establishment, of which 
it is perhaps, the humblest daughter. The edifice is scarcely larger 
than many of the single stones or fragments of rock which are scattered 

3 G 2 


Enuerdale was formerly a forest ; Mr. Sand- 
ford, in his M.S., mentions more than once " the 
bow-bearer of Enerdale forrest," and speaks of 
" The montaines and fForest of Innerdale, wher 
ther is reed dear, and as great Hartts and Staggs 
as in any part of England. . . . The bowbearer is 
a brave gentleman. I have been at his honse in 
the lower end of Enerdale." The deer-park is 
now called the Side. 

" At Low-Mere beck, in the township of Kin- 
neyside, a lead mine was opened in the year 
1791. It was first discovered in the apertures 
of the shaken rocks, and at first working had a 
very promising appearance, the metal being good, 
and the situation convenient ; but by the negli- 
gence or unskilfulness of the workmen, the vein 
was lost, and the undertaking given up after a 
short trial." The lead mines are now leased by 
a company of the lord of the manor. 

The Manor. — Ranulph de iNIeschines, son of 
AMlliam, gave this manor, or rather a portion of 
it, to the priory of St. Bees. The remainder 
passed in the division of the barony of Egremont 
to the Harringtons, of Hamngton, (see page 7), 
and, having passed by successive heiresses to the 
Bonvilles and Greys, was forfeited to the crown, 
in 1554, by the attainder of Henry, tliird 
Marquess of Dorset, and Duke of Suffolk, K.G. 
The whole of the manor is now vested in the 
Earl of Lonsdale. 

Castle-How. — Castle-How, Caswell-How, or 
How Hall, an ancient mansion on the banks of 
Ennerdale-lake, was a seat of the Patricksons. 
" The representative of this ancient family, whose 
property in this county has been long since ali- 


enated, is William Patrickson, Esq., of Crosby- 
on-Eden, as descended from William, eldest son 
of Hugh Patrickson, Esq., of Stanwix, who died 
in 1711." 

A pedigree of this family, brought down to the 
present period, is not now to be recovered, in 
consequence of the accidental destruction of the 
register of the parish of Stanwix, where the 
family subsequently resided. We are enabled, 
however, to give several generations, copied from 
the visitation of the county of Cumberland, 
A. D. 1665, in the Herald's College, London. 

The manor, which includes the lake, was sold 
by the Patricksons in the seventeenth century ; 
in 1816, it was the property of Henry Birley, 
Esq., of Whitehaven ; it now belongs to John 
Dickinson, Esq., of Red-How. The mansion, 
now occupied as a farm-house, is seated near the 
foot of the lake. It was I'ebuilt by Joseph Sen- 
house, Esq., of Calder Abbey, who received it 
in marriage with the daughter and heiress of 
John Tiffm, Esq. Mr. Senhouse preserved many 
of the antiquities of the old mansion, including 
part of the private chapel. 

Patrickson of Caswell-How. 

Arms : — Or, a fess between three greyhounds current, 
sable, with a crescent for difi'ercnce. 

Crest: — On a mount vort, a stag current, proper, hoofed 
and attired, or. 

William Patrickson, of Caswcll-IIow, Esq., married 
Frances, daughter of Sir Thomas Wyet, knight, (one of the 
most honorable privy council to Henry VIII. who was 
attainted in Queen Mary's reign for the rebellion in Norfolk,) 
and widow of Thomas Lee, of Calder-Abbey, Esq. She 
lies buried in the church of Ponsonby, where there is an 
inscription to her memory, (see page 291). 


Henry Patrickson of Caswell-How, Esq., son and heir, 
married Bridget, daughter of .... Lee, and sister of Sir 
Henry Lee, of Calder Abbey, knight. 

Thomas Patrickson, of Caswell-How, Esq., son and heir, 
married Jane, daughter of Lancelot Fletcher, of Tallentire, 
and widow of Francis Richmund, of High-head castle, co. 
Cumberland, by whom he had issue, 

John, who married Bridget, eldest daughter of Sir 
Eichard Fletcher, of Hutton, knight, by his second 
wife, Barbara, daughter of Henry Crackenthorpe, of 
Newbiggin, co. Westmorland, Esq. Mr. Patrickson, 
on his marriage with Sir Richard's daughter, became 
possessed of Calder Abbey. He had issue, 

Barbara, who married John Aglionby, Esq. recorder 
of Carlisle, and had issue, 

John Aglionby, of Nunnery, Esq. 
Bridget, married to George Watson, Esq., of 
Goswick Castle, co. Durham. 
Bridget, wife of the loyal Sir Timothy Fetherstonhaugb, 
of the college, Kirkoswald, knight, who was taken 
prisoner with James Stanley, seventh Earl of Derby, 
and beheaded for his loyalty, at Chester, 1st October, 
1651, (see Leath Ward, pp. 291, 472.) 
Dorothy, wife of Lancelot Lowther, a younger brother 
of the Low thers of Ingleton, co. York. 
He died in or about the year 1614, and was succeeded by 
his eldest son, 

Joseph Patrickson, of Caswell-How, Esq , son and heir, 
was aged 56 years, in 1665, at the time of Dugdale's visita- 
tion of the county of Cumberland.* He married Catherine, 
daughter and coheiress of Thomas Salkeld, of Brayton, co. 
Cumberland, Esq. by whom he had issue, 

Thomas, " son and heir, aged 23 years, 3 April, 1665," 

at the time of the said visitation. 

Jane, married to Charles Hudson, of Bootherbeck, co. 

* In tie list of the contributors for the support of the garrison of Car- 
lisle, during the Great Rebellion, appears the name of " Mr. Patrickson 
of PaisTvellhow." See Tullie's " Narrative of the Siege of Carlisle, in 
1644 and 1645." 





Patrickson of Stockhow. 

.Arms: — Or, a fess between three greyhounds current, 

Crest : — On a mount vert, a stag current, proper, hoofed 
and attired, or. 

Anthony Patrickson, of Stockhow, co. Cumberland, gentle- 
man, was succeeded by his son and heir, 

Anthony Patrickson, of Stockhow, gentleman, who died 
in or about the year 1624. He married .... daughter of 
George Fletcher, of Tallantire, co. Cumberland, by whom 
he had issue, 

Henry, of Frisington and Loweswater. 

Amhony, \ gol'i«'"'ths in London. 

William Patrickson, of Stockhow, gentleman, son and 
heir, died in December, 1645. He married Frances, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Salkcld, of Rrayton, Fsq., by whom he had 


John, a captain, in the service of Charles I., who was 
slain at Scarborough, in 1644. 


Anthony, died unmarried. 


Clare, wife of John Potter, of Whitehaven. 

Barbara, wife of John Patrickson. 

Helen, wife of Robert Grendall. 

Isabel, wife of Nicholas Taylor. 

Thomas Patrickson, of Stockhow, gentleman, eldest son 
and heir, was a major in a regiment of foot, under the com- 
mand of Sir Patricius Curwen, Bart, " in his now majesty's 
service, a^ed 47 years, 3rd April, 1665." He married 
Frances, daughter of Thomas Benson, of Skategill, co. 
Cumberland, by whom he had issue. 


Thomas, " aged 17 years, 3rd April, 1665," at the time 

of Dugdale's visitation. 

The Chapel. — The chapel is distant about six 
miles from the parish-church of St. Bees. It was 
certified to the governors of Queen Ann's bounty 
at 41. 13s. 4(1. ; which was paid by the impropri- 
ator; and was returned, in 1831, to the commis- 
sioners for enquiring respecting ecclesiastical 
revenues, as of the average annual value of 84/. 
It is a small edifice, and was repewed in 1786 at 
the cost of 40/., which had been levied as a fine 
on the overseer for refusing to relieve a poor 
woman who died for want upon the fell, in con- 
sequence of his inhumanity. The thorn hedge, 
which enclosed the burial ground, was removed 
in 1825, and a stone wall built on its site.* 

The living is a perpetual curacy, in the patron- 
age of Henry Curwen, Esq., of Workington-hall. 
The Rev. John Campbell Shaw, is the present 


Eskdalef is a chapelry and joint-township 
with Wasdale-Head. The road from White- 
haven to Kendal leads through this part of the 
parish, up the romantic vale of the Esk. This 
is a very mountainous district. Scafell Pike is 

• Parson and VVIiite. 
t This is usually pronounced Eshdale ; it is a curious coincidence tliat 
in the Falor Eccle^astictis of Henry VIII. the place is spelled Esshdak. 


the highest eminence in England ;* until the 
last century several red-deer bounded along its 
rocky sides, one of which was chased into Wast- 
Water and drowned, " within the memory of 
persons now living" [1792]. In the year 1S13, 
there were thirteen births in this chapelry, and 
only one burial. 

The manors of Eskdale and ]Miterdale belong 
to Major-General A^^yndham, of Cockermouth 
castle, as parcel of his barony of Egremont. 
Austhwaite and Birker, which are in the parish 
of IMilloni, although generally included in the 
accounts of this chapelry, have been already 
described in a previous part of this volume (page 

" On a stone near Buck-Ci'ag, are the impres- 
sions of the foot of a man, a boy, and a dog, 
without any marks of tooling, or instrument; and 
much more wonderful than the heifer's foot in 
Borrowdale, shewn by the guides on the lake, to 
the amazed traveller. Doe-Crag and Earn-Crag 

• "The South Pike," says the Rev. W. Ford, "which is 3092 feet 
in height, is most aeccssiblc from Wastdale or Eskdale. This aspiring 
pinnaele presents a more sublime and not less elegantly-varied range of 
mountains, dales, and sea views, than either Helvelljn or Skiddaw ; a 
considerable part of the Lancashire, Cumberland, and Scotch coasts, 
■with the Isle of Slan and Snowdon in Wales being visible. The Pike 
which is 3160 feet in height on the north peak of the fell, commands a 
view of Windermere and Dement lakes ; and, upon the whole, presents 
a more complete panorama than the other point. These, though only 
1200 yards in a direct distance, are separated by a chasm called the 
Mickle Door, costing a distance of two miles' severe travelling to overcome. 
Very little or rather no vegetation is to be seen on this fell ; rocks, and 
large blocks of stone piled one upon another, are the principal features, 
and the geographicus lychnims appears in pecuhar beauty." 

3 H 


are remarkable precipices, whose fronts are po- 
lished as marble, the one 160 perpendicular yards 
in height, the other 120 yards." 

" The lands within Eskdale and INIiterdale 
manors, save only two tenements, have lately 
been enfranchised, and are now discharged of 
fines, heriots, and customary services, except the 
payments of door-toll, and greenhew, doing suit 
and service at the leet and court baron, and 
riding Ravenglass fair on St. James's day, the 5th 
of August, when the tenants of the manor are 
bound to join in the procession. The two cus- 
tomary tenants hold under arbitrary fines, set at 
the will of the lord, and payable on the death of 
lord and tenant, or upon alienation, they render 
a heriot, and pay a customary rent ; the special 
services, due by custom, we are not informed of." 

Edward Stanley, Esq., High-sheriff of the 
county, temp. William III., who gave 100/. to the 
chapel, gave also 10/. to the poor of this chapelry ; 
and there was then a poor-stock of 13/. In 1792 
the poor-stock amounted to 97/. 10s. " The 
interest of 137/. has been left by several donors, 
for the education of the poor of Eskdale ; as also 
has the interest of 400/. which is divided among 
the indigent inhabitants of the chapelry on the 
Sunday after Easter." 

A fair is holden here on the north side of the 
chapel-yard, on the 5th of December, O. S. being 
the feast of St. Catherine, virgin and martyr,* 
to whom the chapel is dedicated. 

The Chapel. — The chapel was certified in 

• There were no less than six of the name of Catherine, or Katherine, 
who obtained canonization ; the festival of St. Catherine, virgin and 
martyr, occurs Kovemher 25th. 


1717 at 9/. per annum, of which sum 51. arose 
from the interest of 100/. given by Edward 
Stanley, Esq., high sheriff of the coiv/.ty, temp. 
William III. There is a small crlebo belonjrinof 
to it, and the benefice has been augmented by 
Queen Ann's bounty. The living is a perpetual 
curacy, " to which the inhabitants anciently pre- 
sented," but the patronage, which has been some 
time in the Stanley family, is now held by 
Edward Stanley, Esq., ALP., of Ponsonby-hall. 
In 17JJ2, this benefice was worth about 30/. per 
annum. In 1831, it was certified to the com- 
missioners for enquiring concerning ecclesiastical 
revenues of the average annual value of 667., with 
a glebe-house fit for residence. The great tithes 
belong to I'Mward Stanley, Esq., M.P., of Pon- 
sonby-hall, whose ancestor purchased them, in 
1577, from Sir Thomas Chaloner, to whom they 
were granted on the dissolution of the priory of 
St. Bees. 

" There is a tradition that the chapel bell hung 
in an oak tree, on an eminence on the north side 
of the chapel ; and this notion is supported by 
the name of Bell-hill ; as there is no other evi- 
dence, we are rather inclined to believe that this 
hill w-as the place of the Bcl-tc'uig, from the many 
remnants of antiquity, which we have before 

List of Iiiciiiuhents. 

1716 Thomas Parker,* ob. 1769. 

• Educated at the college of Glasgow ; for twenty years before his 
death ho was totally blind, yet during that time ho preached, and per- 
formed every ministerial duty, except reading the lessons and psalms, 
which his son read for him. 

3 H 2 


1770 Aaron Marshall, ob. 1814. 
1814 Robert Povvley. 

The chapel of Eskdale is dedicated to St. 
Catherine, virgin and martyr,* and is fourteen 
miles distant from the mother-church. Some of 
the windows contain stained glass, among which 
is conspicuous the figure of the patron saint and 
her wheel. There are two bells ; the larger is 
said to have two dates, 12S7 and 1687. A well 
near the chapel still retains the name of St. 
Catherine's Well. 

Hensingham is a large village and chapelry, 
about one mile south-east from Whitehaven. It 
contains many good houses and detached man- 
sions, and being situated on the summit of a hill 
it commands a fine view of the town and har- 
bour of Whitehaven. Within the township are 
the following gentlemen's seats : — Hensingham 
Hall, the residence of Henry Jefferson, Esq. ; 
Linethwaite, a mansion undergoing a very ex- 
tensive repair, the residence of George Harrison, 
Escj. ; Ingwell, the seat of jNIrs. Gunson ; Sum- 
mergrove, the seat of Major Spedding ; Chapel 
House, the residence of John Steward, Esq. ; 
and the villas of Thomas Mill ward, Esq., William 
F. Nicholson, Esq., &c. 

At Overend are some extensive lime quarries, 
the property of the Earl of Lonsdale. In the 
village is a linen thread and check manufactory. 

• See page 422. 


The parochial school is chiefly supported by 

This village had the honor of being the birth- 
place (A.D. 1519) of Edmund Grindal, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, the founder of the Free 
Grammar School of St. Bees.* 

The jNIanor. — At the time of the Concpiest 
this manor was held by Gillesby, Gilby, or Gills- 
bueth, whose sons, Roger and William, granted 
to the abbot of St. jNIary's, at York, two bovates 
in Hensingham, and the land of Snarthever. 
" The tenants were also given to the said abbey." 
Alan, son of Ketel, at the instance of Cln'istian, 
his wife, gave millstones to the abbot of Ilolme- 
Cultram out of his lands at Hensingham. 

A moiety of this manor was held of Adam de 
Moresby, by the Branthwaite family, in the reign 
of Edward I. From them it descended to the 
Whitiigs, lords of Little Bampton, and passed 
from them to the iSkeltons of Branthwaite, by 
marriage of a colieiress of Thomas Whitrig. In 
tlie reign of Henry VI., " it was holden of the 
abbot of St. Maries, at York, per quarlam partem 
feodi miliiis, by the Skeltons." From the Skel- 
tons it passed, by sale, to the Salkelds of Brayton, 
"whose coheiresses sold it to Sir Wilfrid Lawson, 
before the year lG88."f- About the year 1748, 
the manor was purchased by Anthony Bcnn, Esq. 
There was a dispute concerning the manor be- 
tween the Lowther family and the Benns, which 
was determined by the purchase of Mr. Benn's 
part, by James, first Earl of Lonsdale. It is 
now the property of the present Earl. 

• See memoir of Arclibishop Grindal, page 427. 
t T. Denton. — Lysons. 


The Chapel. — This chapel, hcensed in the 
year 1791, was built at the expence of Anthony 
Benn, Esq., and others of the inhabitants. It was 
purchased of his executors, by William, Earl of 
Lonsdale. Whilst the chapel was in the posses- 
sion of INIr. Benn, it was only a licensed place of 
worship ; but after being purchased by the Earl 
of Lonsdale, it was consecrated, and endowed by 
his lordship with an estate, called Keekle Bank, 
valued at about 100/. per annum. The estate, 
however, has seldom produced that sum, but the 
noble Earl collects the rents, and pays to the 
incumbent the full 100/. annually. The benefice 
is a perpetual curacy, in the gift of the lord of the 
manor, the Earl of Lonsdale, and was returned to 
the commissioners for enquiring concerning 
ecclesiastical revenues as of the average annual 
value of 126/. with a glebe-house fit for residence. 
The chapel is dedicated to St. John. The 
resident-curate is the Rev. Amos Hall, M.A. 

Previous to the year 1811 there was no stated 
minister, and no registers were kept. The 
chapel contains 618 sittings, 182 of which num- 
ber are free. 

There is but one monumental inscription in 
the chapel, to the memory of the Rev. Charles 
Church, which bears this inscription : — 

To the memory of 


formerly minister of this chapel, 

and afterwards 

chaplain to the Hon. the East India Compy. 

on the Madras establishment; 

■who died on his passage home, 




List of Incumbents. 

1811 Charles Church, M.A. 
1817 George D. Whitehead, M.A. 
1832 Robert Whitehead, M.A. 

Memoir of Archbishop Grindal. 

This benevolent and pious prelate — whose name cannot 
be mentioned without veneration, and whose memory is 
intimately connected with this part of the county, as the 
founder of the Free Grammar School of St. Bees* — was born 
at Hensingham, A. D. 1519. 

"After a suitable foundationofschool-learning,he was sent 
to Magdalen College in Cambridge, but removed from thence 
to Christ's, and afterwards to Pembroke Hall ; where, hav- 
ing taken his first degree in Arts, he was chosen fellow in 1538, 
and commenced M.A. in 1511. In 1549, he became president 
of his college; and being now B.D. was unanimously chosen 
Lady Margaret's public preacher at Cambridge ; as he was 
also one of the four disputants in a theological e.vtraordinary 
act, performed that year for the entertainment of King Ed- 
ward's visitors. 

"Thus distinguished in the university, his merit was ob- 
served by Ridley, Bishop of London, who made him his 
chaplain in 1550 ; perhaps, by the recommendation of Bucer, 
the king's professor of divinity at Cambridge; who, soon 
after his removal to London, in a letter to that prelate, stiles 
our divine, "a person eminent for his learning and piety." 
And thus a door being opened to him into church prefer- 
ments, he rose by quick advances. His patron, the bishop, 
was so much pleased with him, that he designed for him the 
first preferments that should fall ; and in 1551, procured him 
to be made chaplain to the king. July 2nd, 1552, he obtained 
a stall in Westminster Abbey ; which however he resigned 
to Dr. Bonner, whom he afterwards succeeded in the bishop- 
rick of London. In the mean time, there being a design, 
on the death of Dr. Tunstall, to divide the rich see of Durham 
into two ; Grindall, as being a northern man, was nominated 
into one of them. " But a great topping courtier," says 
Strype, " put an end to this pious purpose of supplying those 

* See an account of tliis school, pp. 354 to 359. 


parts, where ignorance and superstition most prevailed, with 
two bishops, for, by his sway, he got the whole bishoprick 
dissolved, and settled as a temporal estate upon himself." 

" In 1553, he fled from the persecution under Queen Mary, 
and was one of the exiles for religion in Germany; where he 
diligently collected materials for a martyrology, and greatly 
assisted John Fox in compiling his laborious work. Settling 
at Strasburgh, he there made himself master of the German 
tongue, that he might preach in German churches. In the 
disputes at Frankfort, about a new model of government 
and form of worship, varying from the last liturgy of King 
Edward, he sided with Cox and others against Knox and his 
followers. Beturning to England, on the accession of Queen 
Elizabeth, he was employed, among others, in drawing up 
the be presented to the queen's first parliament; 
and was also one of the eight protestant divines, chosen 
about that time to hold a public dispute with the popish 
prelates. His talent for preaching was likewise very service- 
able : and he was generally appointed to that duty upon all 
public occasions. At the same time he was appointed one 
of the commissioners in the north, on the royal visitation for 
restoring the supremacy of the crown, and the- Protestant 
faith and worship. This visitation also extended to Cam- 
bridge, where, Dr. Young being removed for refusing the 
oath of supremacy, from the mastership of Pembroke Hall, 
Grindall was chosen by the fellows to succeed him, in 1559. 

" In the month of July, the same year, he was nominated to 
the bishoprick of London, vacant by the deposition of Bon- 
ner. The juncture was critical, and the fate of the church 
revenues seemed to depend on the event. An act of parlia- 
ment had lately passed, whereby her majesty was empower- 
ed to exchange the ancient episcopal manors and lordships 
for tithes and impropriations : a measure extremely regretted 
by these first bishops, who scrupled whether they should 
comply in a point so injurious to their respective sees ; and 
by which all hope would be cut off of restoring the tithes, so 
long imjustly detained from the respective churches, for the 
maintenance of the incumbents. In this important point, as 
well as about some scruples respecting certain habits and 
ceremonies, our bishop, who (tinctured, perhaps, a little with 
some of that puritanic spirit, " fished," as Bishop Hall ex- 
presses it, " out of tlie Lake of Geneva," with which most of 
the reformed in his day were more or less infected) seemed 
to think, that in order completely to free the church of 
Christ from the errors and corruptions of Rome, every usage 



and custom practised by tliat church should be abolished ; 
that all the ceremonies and circimistanccs of religious wor- 
ship should be entirely abrogated, and the service ol God 
rendered as simple as possible ; and thereon he consulted 
Peter Martyr; and would not accept of the bishoprick, till 
he had received his sanction and authority. In 15G0, he was 
made one of the ecclesiastical commissioners, in pursuance 
of an act of parliament, to inspect the manners of the clergy, 
and regulate the aOairs of the church ; and the same year, 
he joined with Cox, Bishop of Ely, and Parker, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, in a private letter to the queen, persuading 
her to marry. In 1561, he held his primary visitation. In 
1563, he assisted the Archbishop of Canterbury, together 
with some civilians, in preparing a book of statutes for Christ 
church, Oxford. He was also very serviceable, this year, 
in procuring the English merchants, who were ill used at 
Antwerp and other parts of the Spanish Netherlands, a new 
settlement at Embden in East Friesland. 

" \pril 15th, 1564, he took the degree of D.D., at Cam- 
bridge ; and the same year, executed the queen's express 
command, for exacting uniformity in the clergy ; but he 
proceeded so tenderly and slowly, that the archbishop 
thou<Tht fit to excite and quicken him : whence the Puritans 
tliought him inclined to their party. However, he brought 
several Nonconformists to comply ; to which end he pub- 
lished a letter of Henry Bullinger, minister oi ^urick in 
Switzerland, to prove the lawfulness thereof ; which had a 
very good cflect. The same year, October 3rd, on the 
celebration of the Emperor Ecrdinand's funeral, he preached 
a sermon at St. Paul's, which was afterwards printed. In 
1567, he executed the queen's orders, in proceeding agamst 
the unlicensed, prohibited preachers; but was by some so 
treated with rude language and reproaches, that it abated 
much of his favourable inclinations towards them. May the 
1st, 1570, he was translated to the sec of York. He owed 
this promotion to Secretary Cecil, and Archbishop Parker ; 
who liked his removal from London, as not being resolute 
enough for the government there. The same year, he wrote 
a letter to his patron, Cecil, that Cartwright, the famous 
Nonconformist, might be silenced ; and in 1571, at his me- 
tropolitical visitation, he showed an hearty zeal, by his in- 
junctions, for the discipline and good government of the 
church. In 1572, he petitioned the queen to renew the 
ecclesiastical commission. In 1574, he held one for the 
purpose of proceeding against papists, whose number daily 

o I 


diminished in his diocese, which he was particularly careful 
to furnish with learned preachers, as being, in his opinion, 
the best method to attain that end. On the death of Parker, 
he was translated to Canterbury; in which see he was con- 
firmed, Feb. 15th, 1575. May 6th, 1576, he began his 
metropolitical visitation, and took measures for the better 
regulation of his courts ; but, the same year, fell under her 
majesty's displeasure, by reason of the favour he shewed to 
what was called "the e.\ercisc of prophesying." 

" Grindal laboured to redress these irregularities by setting 
down rules and orders for the management of these e.xer- 
cises : however, the queen still disapproved of them, as 
seeing probably how very apt they were to be abused. She 
did not like, that the laity should neglect their secular affairs, 
by repairing to those meetings, which she thought might 
fill their heads with notions, and occasion dissensions and 
disputes, and perhaps seditions, in the state. And the arch- 
bishop being at court, she particularly declared herself offend- 
ed at the number of preachers, as well as the e.vercises, and 
ordered him to redress both ; urging, that it was good for the 
church to have few preachers, — that three or four might 
suffice for a county, and that the reading of the homilies to 
the people was sullicicnt. She therefore required him to 
abridge the number of preachers, and put down the religious 
exercises. This did not a little afflict him ; he thought the 
queen infringed upon his office ; to whom, no.\t to herself, 
the highest trust of the church of England was committed ; 
especially as this command was peremptory, and made with- 
out advising with him, and that m a matter so directly con- 
cerning religion. He therefore wrote a letter to her majesty, 
declaring that his conscience, for the reason therein men- 
tioned, would not sutler him to comply with her commands. 
"This refusal was dated Dec. 20th, 1576. The queen, 
therefore, having given him sufficient time to consider well 
his resolution, and he continuing unalterable therein, she 
sent letters ne.xt year to the bishops, to forbid all exercises 
and prophesyings, and to silence all teachers and preachers 
not lawfully called, of whom there was no small number. 
The case was a trying one ; that some disagreeable and mis- 
chievous consequences resulted from these prophesyings, 
has already been remarked ; and that, possibly, the arch- 
bishop was mild to an excess, and even blamably indulgent 
to these beginnings of those popular innovations, which soon 
after overturned all order in the church, and the church 
itself, is as much as the utmost rigour could possibly charge 


him with ; whilst it must be acknowledged, that he gave 
very strong, if not sud'icient reasons, for a continuance of 
the practice; and remonstrated to his sovereign, with be- 
coming deference and modesty, though at the same time 
with a firmness suitable to the high character with which ho 
was invested. The queen was inflexible, not to say in- 
tolerant; and so, our i)rclale still refusing to comply, was 
with an high hand, ordered to be confined to his house, and 
sequestered from his jurisdiction for six months. At the 
expiration of this term, the lord treasurer wrote to him 
about making his submission ; with which as he still refused 
to comply, the sequestration was continued ; and ere lono- 
there were thoughts of depriving him; which, however, did 
not take place. In 1579, his conlinement was either taken 
off, or else he had leave to retire to his house at Croydon; 
for we find him there consecrating the Bishop of Exeter that 
year, and the Bishops of Winchester, Lichfield, and Coven- 
try, the year following. This part of his commission was 
exercised by a particular commission from the queen ; who, 
in council, appointed two civilians to manage the other 
affairs of his see, the two of his nomination being set aside. 
Yet sometimes he had special commands from the queen 
and council to act in person, and issued out orders in his 
own name ; and in general was as active as he could be, and 
vigilant ill the care of his diocese, as occasion offered. The 
precise time of his being restored does not appear; but, it 
is in evidence, that the severity used towards him was far 
from bringing him over. The farthest advances he made 
were only such a submission as became a dutiful subject to 
his sovereign. In 1.582, several of his proceedings show 
that he was then in full possession of all his metropolitical 
power; and in that year he lost his eye-sight. lu 1583, 
finding himself under great infirmities by the loss of his 
sight, and also by the stone, strangury, and colic, he resign- 
ed his archbishojjric ; retiring, on a small but lionourable 
pension, to Croydon, where, two months after, viz. July 6th 
1583, he died, aged 63." 

In his will he ordered his body to be buried "in the 
choir of the parish church of Croydon, without any solemn 
herse or funeral pomp." The register of the church con- 
tains the following entry : — 

Edmunde Grindall, L. .\rchbishop of Canterburie, de- 
ceased the vj day of ,Iulye, and was buried the fyrsto day of 
Auguste, annodni 1583, and anno regiii Elizabeth;e, 25. 
A noble monument on the south side of the altar in the 

3 I 2 


above church commemorates the good archbishop. On a 
sarcophagus within an arched recess, the entablature of 
which is supported by Corinthian columns, lie the painted 
effigies of a churchman in his scarlet robes. Surmounting 
the entablature are three shields of arms, viz. centre shield, 
the arms of the see of Canterbury impaling quarterly or and 
az., a cross quartered erm. and or, between four pea-hens 
collared and countercharged ; dexter shield, the arms of 
the see of York; sinister shield, the arms of the see of 
Loudon, both impaling the same. Beneath his effigies are 
these verses : — 

Grindall' doctus, prudens, gravitate verendus, 

Justus, munificus, sub cruce fortis erat. 
Post crucis serumnas Christi gregis AngUa fecit 
Signiferum, Ckristus coclica regna dedit. 

In memoria aetema erit Justus. — Psal. cxii. 

At the top of the monument — 

Beati mortui qui in Dno moriuntur : 
Bequiescunt enim a laboribus suis, 
Et opera illorum scquuntur illos. 
Apoc. 14. 

Under the above are the two following verses in ju.\ta- 
position — 

Pr-Tsulis eximii ter postquam est auctus honore, 
Pervigiliq greges rexit moderamine sacros ; 
Confcctum senio durisq laboribus, ecce 
Transtulit in placidam Mors exoptata quietem. 

Mortua marmoreo conduntur membra sepulchre 
Sed mens sancta viget, Fama percnnis erit. 

Nam studia ct Musa;, quas magnis censibus auxit, 
Grindall nomen tempus in omne ferent. 

And immediately above the effigies is this inscription : — 
Edmund' Grindall' Cumbriensis, Theol' D', Eruditione, Prudentia, 
et Gravitate clarus ; Constantia, Justitia, et Pietate insignis, civibus et 
percgrinis cliarus ; ab exilio (quod Evangelii causa subiit) reversus ad 
summum dignitatis fastigium (quasi decursu bonorum) sub R. Eliza- 
betha evectus, Ecclesiam Losdincn. primum, deinde Eborac. demu. 


Cantuaricn. resit. Et cum jam bic nihil rcstaret quo altius ascenderet, 
e corporis vinculis liber ac beatus ad cccluin evolavit 6o Julii an. Dni 
1583. ^tatis suee 63. Hie prseter multa pietatis officia quoe vivus 
prffistitit, moribuudus maxima, bonorum suorum partem piis usibus 
consecravit. In Paraicia Div.T; Begha; (ubi natns est) Scholam Gram- 
matic. splendide cxtrui et opimo censu ditari curaTit. Magdalencnsi 
coetui Cantabr. (in quo puer primiun Academiae ubera suxit) discipulum 
adjecit, Collegio Christi (ubi adultus lids, incubuit) gratum Mnemosunon 
leliquit; Aula; PembrocUina! (cujus olim Socius, postea Praefectus, 
cxtitit) ^rarium & Bibliotbccam auiit, Graicoq. Prajlectori, imi Socio, 
ac duobus Discipulis, ampla stipendia assignavit. Collegium Regius 
Oxon. (in quod Curabrienses potissimum cooptantur) nummis, libris et 
magnis proventibus locupletavit. Ciyitati Cantuar. (c»i moriens prae- 
fuil)ctntu. libras, in hoc, ut pauperes honestis artificiis exercercntur, 
pcrpetuo serrandas, atq. impendendas dedit. Residuum bonoru. Pietatis 
operibus dicavit. Sic vivens moriensq. Ecclia;, Patria; et bonis Uteris 

" Archbishop Grindal lived and died unmarried. His only 
brother, whose name was Robert, with his wife and only- 
son, all three died in the space of three weeks, in 1567, 
leaving behind him four orphan daughters. Of these, Anne, 
contrary to the wish of her uncle, married " William Dacre, 
son of Richard Dacre, gent, who dwelt beside Carlisle :" 
this person is supposed to have been of the Gilsland family, 
and to have been nearly connected with Leonard Dacre, 
who was attainted for high treason, and banished for being 
concerned in the affair of Mary, Queen of Scots. The arch- 
bishop had likewise several nieces by his sister, Elizabeth 
Woodhall. He does not seem to have amassed much wealth; 
which is more admirable, considering the large revenues he 
possessed, and the length of time he enjoyed them in the 
three sees of London, York, and Canterbury, and all the time 
free from the incumbrance of a family. This, as Fuller ob- 
serves, may perhaps be erroneously imputed to his being an 
expensive man; but it is more truly to be ascribed to his 
indifference about worldly interests, and his being unwilling 
to die guilty of much wealth. The little he had was well 
got, and well disposed of, in benefactions to the two univer- 
sities, and in founding the school at St. Bees. 

"Strype, who wrote his life, in order to vindicate him from 
the calumnies to which the troubles in which he was involved 
exposed him, says, that he was much celebrated among his 


cotemporaries, who best knew him, for his great learning* 
and piety. From the effigy on his monument, in which his 
blindness is certainly described, Strype infers that his face 
was comely, and his beard long, black, and somewhat forked, 
and curling. f He was a man of great firmness and resolution, 
though of a mild, afi'able temper, and friendly disposition. 
His deportment was courteous and engaging; in his elation, 
not at all afl'ecting grandeur or state ; humane, indulgent, 
and liberal. He is said to have excelled as a preacher; and 
thence, perhaps, in some degree, his supposed predilection 
for preaching and preachers. That he was moderate and 
mild, and indulgent to the Puritans, more than, as it after- 
wards appeared, was either quite prudent, or they deserved, 
needs not be denied. Collier, who will hardly be suspected 
of partiality to innovators in religion, expressly vindicates 
him from the imputations of Latitudinarianism, and indifl'er- 
ence to the peculiar and proper interests of the church. In 
short, he appears, upon the whole, well to have deserved the 
glorious character, given of him by one of the first and 
greatest men of that, or any other age, Lord Bacon, viz. 
that he was the gravest and greatest prelate of the land." 

Grindal is the Algrind of Spencer, which is the anagram 
of his name. It is recorded of him that he first introduced 
into England the useful medicinal plant, the tamarisk.j 

• Holinshed says, lie was so studious, that his book was his bride, 
and his study his bride-chamber, in which he spent his eyesight, his 
strength, and his health. 

t There is a portrait of Dr. Grindal on wood, in the Combination-room 
of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge; and a copy from Vandyke, by old Stone, 
is in the library of Lambeth Palace. There are several engraved por- 
traits of the archbishop. 

X For the above memoir we arc mainly indebted to au account of the 
archbishop, written for Hutchinson's Cumberland, by the Ecv. Jonathan 
Boucher, M.A., F.A.S. vicat of Epsom ; and to Steinman's History of 



Arms: — Gules, a chevron between three combs argent. 
Crest : — On a ducal coronet three arrows, one in pale and two in 
saltire, the points downward, entwined by a serpent, proper. 
Motto: — Pro rege, lege, grege. 

The family of Ponsonby are descended from an ancient and noble 
family in Picardy in France ; and their ancestor accompanied William, 
Duke of Normandy, in his expedition to England. His posterity settled 
at Hale, in Cumberland, where they took the name of Ponsonby from 
the lordship of Ponsonby, and had the office of barber to the kings of 
England conferred upon them. 

Owing to a change of name from Ponsonby to De Hale, it is not easy 
to give their descent regularly. 

There was one Ponson in the reign of king Stephen and Henry I. 
His son, John Fitz-Pousun, lived in the reign of Henry II. This is 
probably he who gave the church of Ponsonby to the priory of Conis- 

Alexander, son of Richard Ponsonby, lived about the time of Edward 
II. William in the reign of Edward III. Robert, in Richard II. 's 

In the reign of Henry I H., Hale was the property of Alexander de 
Hale ; his daughters, Agnes and Constance, held it of Thomas de JIul- 
ton of Gilsland, in the reign of Edward I., at which time the Ponsonbys 
got Agnes' part, and in the time of Richard II. the Ponsonbys became 
possessed of the whole. 

John Ponsonby of Hale, Esq., married and had issue, 

Simon Ponsonby, Esq., married to Anne Eglcsfield, of Alneburgh 
Hall, Cumberland, who had issue, 

Henry Ponsonby, Esq., who married Dorothy Sandys, of Rottington, 
in the parish of St. Bees, and had issue, 

1. Henry, ancestor of the Crotto family, in Ireland. 
2 John, married Dorothy, daughter of John Brisco, of Crofton, in 
Cumberland, Esq., and had issue, 
John, of whom hereafter. 
These two brothers, Henry and Jolm, Avent into Ireland with 
Oliver Cromwell, in whose army they were colonels of horse, and 
were made knights. 
Sir John secondly married Elizabeth, daughter of Lord Folliot, 
widow of Richard, son and heir of Sir Edward Winglicld, and 


was mother of FoUiot, Viscount Powerscourt, from whom des- 
cend the Earl of Besborough and Lord Ponsonby of Imotrilly. 

3. Anne married .... Irton, of Irton, Esq. 

4. Jane. 

f>. Ellen, married ... Crosby, of Ireland, Esq. 

John Ponsonby, Esq. married Anne, daughter of Copley, of Gosforth, 
Esq., and had several children. 

John Ponsonby, Esq. married Isabella, daughter of Thomas Patrick- 
son, of Scalegill Hall, in the county of Cumberland, and had issue nine 

John Ponsonby, Esq., married Dorothy, daughter of Miles Wilson, 
of Ashness, in the county of Cumberland, Esq., and had issue, 

1. John, who died in Cumberland, a minor. 

2. Miles, of whom hereafter. 

3. Anthony. 

4. William. 

5. Mary. 

6. Isabella. 

7. Dorothy, manied . . . : Steel, Esq., of Cockermouth, and had 

Miles Ponsonby, Esq. married Catherine, daughter of Wilfrid Cle- 
raentson, of Cockermouth, Esq., and had issue, 

1. John, who died in thf East Indies. 

2. Richard, died in the East Indies. 

3. Miles, died in Cumberland. 

4. Anthony, died in the West Indies. 

5. William, died, a minor, iu Cumberland. 

6. Martha, died in Cumberland. 

7. Catherine, died in Cumberland. 

8. Dorothy, of whom hereafter. 

9. Mary, married E. C. Kuubley, Esq., of WhitehaTen, and has 

10. Catherine. 

Dorothy Ponsonby, married John Fisher, Esq., of Whiteliaven, wlio 
in right of his wife assumed the name and arms of Ponsonby, by the 
Ust will and testament of the late Miles Ponsonby, Esq., of Hale Hall, 
and has issue, 

1. Thomas, died in Cumberland, a minor. 

2. Miles, of whom hereafter. 

3. Mary. 

4. Catherine. 

5. Dorothy. 

6. John. 

Miles Ponsonby, Esq., of Hale Hall, married Barbara, daughter of 
Christopher Wilson, Esq., of Rigmaden Park, Westmorland, and has 

i. Catherine Cumpstone Florence. 

2. Dorothy J.ane. 

3. Miles Do Hale, bom 11th May, 1841. 



The following additions to the pedigree of the Lamphighs of Lam- 
plugh (see page 84) bring it down to the present time. They are taken 
from Burke's Commoners. 

John do Lamplugh, living 1st Henry VII., married Isabell, daughter 
of Sir John de Pennington, Knt., and had issue, 
John, his heir. 
Thomas, of Skellsmorc, in Cumberland, whose son, 

Adam, marrying Agnes, daughter of Robert Ben, of Cumber- 
land, had, witli two daughters, Jane and Mary, a sou, 

Thonnus of Little Itiston, in Yorkshire, anno 1581, who 
married Jane, daughter of Robert Fairfax, Esq. of Pock- 
thorpe, and had isssny, 

1. Christopher, of Riston, in 1612, who married 
Anne, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Roper, of 

2. Thomas, who purchased the manor of Ribton, in 
Cumberland, and died in 1670, aged 83, leaving by 
Agues his wife, (with another son Richard,* who 
married Frances, daughter of Sir Christopher Low- 
ther, Bart., of Whitehaven), 

Thomas, U.D. Archbishop of York,t who mar- 
ried Catherine, daughter of Edward Uavenant, 
D.U., nephew of John Davenant, Bishop of 
Salisbury, and had a son and successor, 
Thomas Lamplugh, U. D. aiehdeacon of 
Richmond, born in 1661, who married a lady 

• This Richard dc Lamplugh left a daughter, Jane, married first, to 
John Senhouse, Esq., of Netherhall; and secondly, to Charles Orfcur, 
Esq., of Plumbland, in Cumberland. 

t Dr. Lamplugh, sometime fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, was 
successively rector of Binfield, in Berkshire, of Charlton-on-Ottmore, in 
Oxfordshire, principal of St. Alban's Uall, 0.\ford, archdeacon of Lon- 
don, prebendary of Worcester, vicar of St. Martin's in the Fields, dean 
of Rochester, bishop of Exeter, and archbishop of York, in which see 
he was cnthronized by proxy, 19th December, 1688. He died at Bishop- 
thorpe, 5th May, 1091, aged 76, and was buried in York Minster, where 
his monument bears the following inscription : " Hie in spe resurgendi 
depositum jacet quod morlale fuit Reverendissimi in Christo Patris 
Thoma; Lamplugh, archiepiscopi Eboracensis, S. T. P. ex antiqui ct 
gcncrosd Latnplughorum dc Lamplugh, in agro Cumbriensi Familiik 
oriundi." There is no positive proof that his Grace was exactly descend- 
ed OS stated in the text, though the presumptive evidence of the fact is 

3 K 


named Margaret, and had, with other issue, 
a son and heir, 

Thomas Lamphigh, lector of Bolton Percy, 
and canon residentiaryof York, of whom 
hereafter, as inheritor of Lamplugh, upon 
tlie demise and under the devise of 
Thomas Lamplugh, Esq. 
John de Lamplugh was succeeded by his sou, 

Sir John de Lamplugh, knight, of Lamplugh, sheriff of Cumberland 
29th Henry VIII. who marriecl first, Isabella, daughter of Sir Christopher 
Curwen, of Workington, and had by her a son, 

John, his heir. 
He married secondly, Catherine, daughter and co-heir of Guy Foster, of 
Howsam, and had three daughters, viz. 

Mary, married to Thomas Skelton. 


Frances, married to David Fleming, third son of Hugh Fleming. 
Sir John was succeeded by his son, 

John Lamplugh, of I-amplugh, who married two wives : by the first, 
Jane Blennerhassct, he had one son, Edward, who died issueless, and by 
the second, Isabel, daughter of Christopher Siaplelon, of Wighill, another 
son, his successor, 

Richard Lamplugh, Esq., of Lamplugh, father, by Alice Warde his 
wife, of 

John Lamplugh, Esq., of Lamplugh, who married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir Edward Musgrave, knight, and dying in 1636, was succeeded by 
his son, 

John Lamplugh, Esq., of Lamplugh, born in 1019. This gentleman, 
devoted to the royal cause during the civil war, was colonel of a regiment 
of foot under Prince Rupert, and fought at Marston Moor, in 1644, 
where, commanding the Yellow Colours, he received several wounds, 
and was taken prisoner. He maiTied first, Jane, daughter of Hoger 
Kirby, Esq., of the county of Lancaster; secondly, Frances, LadyLow- 
ther, daughter of Christopher Lancaster, Esq., of Sockbridge, in W'cst- 
morlaud, and thirdly, Frances, daughter of Thomas Lamplugh, Esq. of 
Ribton. By the last only he had issue, viz. 
Thomas, his heir. 
Edward, died unmarried. 
John, died s. p. 

Elizabeth, second wife of Henry Brougham, Esq., of Scales, in 
Cumberland. Upon the demise of Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Lamplugh, in 177.3, the male line failing, this Elizabeth became 
heir general of the senior branch of the house of Lamplugh of 
Lamplugh, wliich is now represented by her eldest male descend- 
ant, Henry, Lord Brougham and Vaux. 
Phccbe, appears to have died unnuirricd. 
Colonel Lamplugh was succeeded at his decease by his eldest son, 

Thomas Lamplugh, Esq., of Lamplugh, born in 1657, who served the 
office of shcrifl' for Cumberland in the 13th William III. His son and 


Thomas Lamplugh, Esq., of Lamplugh, by Frances his wife, had an 
only daughter and lieiress, 

Elizahclli, married to George Irton, Esq., of Irton, but died s. p. 

devising by will, dated 6th November, 1773, her estate at Dovenby '. 

to the Uev. Thomas Lamplugh, of Copgrove, in the county o' 

York, for life, with remainder, in default of male issue, to Pete"^ 

Brougham, descended from Elizabeth Lamplugh of Lamplugh* 

He succeeded in 1783. and died in 1791 s p. when Dovenby 

passed to his niece and heiress, Mary Dvkes. 

Mr Lamplugh died in J737, and bequeathed, by will dated 1731, "the 

capital messuage of Lamplugh 11 all, and the demesne lands of Lamplugh, 

&c. to his, the testator's cousin," 

The Rev. Thomas Lamplugh, rector of Bolton Percy, and canon resi- 
dentiary of York Minster, grandson of the archbishop of York. This 
gentleman married 17ih April, 1721, Honor, daughter of William Cha- 
loner, Esq., of Guisborough, in the county of York, and had issue, 
Thonias. his heir. 

Honor, died unmarried 2nd January, 1795. 
Mary, died unmarried before 1783. 

Katherine, co-heir to her brother Thomas, married the Bev. Godfrey 
Wollcv, rector of Thurnscoc, and of Warmsworth, and, dying in 
1801, left issue, 

Edward Wolley, of FuKord Grange, and Nether Hall, in the 
county of York, who assumed the surname and arms of 
Copley in 1810. He died in 181.3. 
Thomas WoUuy, vice-admiral of the White, married, and has 

Godfrey Wolley, in holy orders, rector of Hutton Bushel, died 

in 1^22. 
Isaac Wolley, captain R.N. married and had issue. 
Honor Wolley, married to the Kcv. Anthony Fountayne Eyre. 
Cordelia Wolley, married to George Bower, Esq., of Sheliield. 
Katherine Wnliey, married to John IJaper, Esq., of Lotherton, 
and was mother of the present John Lamplugh Lamplugh 
Raper, Esq , of Lamplugh. 
Mary Wolley. 
Anne, co-heir to her brother, who married 8th October, 1750, John 
Raper, Esq., of Abberford, in the coimty of York, and dying in 
July, 1 783, left a son, 
John Raper of .\bberford and Lotherton, who succeeded his 
uncle, Thomas Lamplugh, at Lamplugh. 
Jane, mirriid to Samuel Pdwson, of York, merchant. 
Sarah, died young. 
The Uev. Thomas Lamplugh was succeeded by his only son, 

The Rev. Thomas Lamplugh, of Lamplugh, rector of Copgrove and 
Goldesborough, and prebendary of Wislow, who married Mary, daughter 
of James Collins, gent, of Ivnartsborough and I'olcyfote, but, dying 
without issue in 1783, was succeeded by (the son of his sister Anne) his 

John Raper, Esq., of Abberford and Lotherton, who then became also 
"of Lamplugh." He married at Tulfurd. Kith October, 1789, Katherine, 
third daughter of the Rev. Godfrey Wolley, by Katherine, his wife, 

3 K 2 


daughter of the Rev. Thomas Lamplugh, of Laniplugh, aud had two 
sons and one daughter, viz. 

John-Lmnpluyh liaptr , his heir. 

Henry Kajier, of Linrohi's Icn,harrisler-at-law, born 12lh February, 
1795, married IGth December, 1824, Gcorgiana third daughter 
of Jolin Moore, Esq. captain in the 5th regiment of Dragoon 
Ann Raper, married to James Brooksbank, merchant, of London, 
second son of Benjamin Brooksbank, Esq., of Healaugh Hall, 
in the West Riding of York. 
Mr. Raper died the 3rd of July, 1821, and was succeeded by his elder 

John Lamidugh Lamplugh-Raper, Esq., of Lamplugh, in the county 
of Cumberland, and of Lolherton, in Yorkshire, boni at Abberford 19th 
July, 1790; married 25th October, 1813, Jaue, second daughter of 
Benjamin Brooksbank, Esq,, of Healaugh Hall, in the West Riding of 
York. This gentleman, whose patronymic is Raper, assumed by sign 
manual, 10th March, 1825, the additional surname and arms of Lamplugh. 


Arms: — Ermine a cross florj' azure fretty or. 

Crest: — A garb or, bo\iiid by a serpent nowed proper, holding in the 
mouth a cross crosskt litcliee gules. 
Motto : — Tendons ad xthera virtus. 

Thomas Lewthwaite, of Whicham, married a daughter of ... . Newby, 
of Haverigg, and had a sou, 

Thomas Lewthwaite, bom 8th December, 1588, married a daughter 
of ... . Askew, of Greymains. This 'i'honias purchased Broad Gate, 
and settled there : he died in 1067, having had three cliildren, 

1 John, a captain in a regiment of foot raised by Sir William Hud- 
Icston. of Millom Castle, for the service of King Charles I. in 
which loyal cause he was slain at Edge Hill, in 1G42, s. p. 

2. James, who succeeded his father. 

3. Margaret, married William Beuson of Wabcrthwaite. 

James Lewthwaite, of Broad Gate, married Agnes, daughter of Wil- 
liam Dickson, Esq., of Beck bank, and had issue. 

1. Jo/i)i, who succeeded his father. 

2. Raliii, died in Loudon, 1697, «. p. 

3. William, born at Broad Gate, 7th December, 1G67, a merchant 
at Gateshead, co. Durham, married Catherine, daughter of Sir 
Gilfrid Lawson, of Brayton, Bart, aud had issue, 

1. Alfred, who died an infant. 

2. John, a merchant at \\hileliavcii, married Grace, daughter 
of Robert Jackson, Esq., of Bransty House, and had a son, 

Gilfrid, drowned whilst bathing behind the North I'ier, 
Whitehaven, and was buried at St. Nicholas's, in thf^t 
town, .\'jgust 3rd 1779, s. p. 

4. James, of Lady Hall, married a daughter of Mylcs Wennington, 
Esq., of Greystonc House, and had two sons, 

1. James, settled in Chester,_aud had issue. 

APPENDIX. '^^'■ 

2. John, married Elizabeth, daughter of James Lancaster, and 
had issue two sons, , , , • 

1. John, settled in London, and had issue. 

2. George, of Ulvcrston, died s. p. 
5. Anthonv, died at Lancaster, «. p. 

1. Elizabeth, i 

2. Agnes. > all died s. p. 

4' ElteTmmied William Robinson, of Waberlhwaite, and had 
a daugluer Elizabeth, married John Halied, and had issue one 
son, WUliam Halied. who died in Dublin m 1 /80, s. p. 

Tnbn Lewthwaitc of Broad Gate, married Eleanor, daughter of George 
\vSew!Es.r"f Woodland, in the parish of Kirby Ireleth, co. Lan- 

caster, and had issue, 

1. James, died young, «. p. 

I Sr: m^^^'.ol^e:^. of St. James- Street. London. 
""'LCharirLec Lewis, a celebrated comedian. raaiTied and 

L'EUzXth Lewis, married , . . . Dawkh.s '^■^^ died .^ p , , 

2. Elizabeth, married John Addison, gentleman, of Ka>englass, 

and had issue, . , . , j 

1 Henry Addison, died m London, s. p. 
'2 Tohn Addison, died in London. $.p. . , „ ct i 

r El izabeth.\ddison. married George Fenwick, Esq. of Lamb- 
ton. CO. Durham, and had issue, 
William Fenwick. 
2. Elizabeth, died unmarried. 

William Lewthwaitc, of Broad Gate, married Elizabeth, J^»'£l"cr of 
JoS^ To^rs, Esq., of ilocklcr Hall, in the county of Lancaster, and 

'l j'oltn, who succeeded his father. 
2 HWiam, of whom hereafter. 

man and had issue, . , . , 

1 Thomas Posllcihwaite, died in London unmarried. 
2. William, died in London immanied. 
1 I'lizabeth. died unmarried. 
2'. Agnes mirried John WUde, of Broughton, gentleman, and 

2 ElizSh, married William Hunter, of Cross House, in MiUom, 

3. Tg^lrm^a^i^'d-itm^'Bailey.of Broughton, in Furness, and 

4. Margaret, married Taylor, a solicitor in Liverpool, and 

died t. p 


John LcwAwaite, a merchant in Lancaster, died on his plantation, at 
Check Hall, iu the Island of Dominica, in June, 1781. Having mamed 
Mrs. Grice, of the Island of Antigua, and leaving no issue, he was suc- 
ceeded by his brother, 

William Lewtlnvaito, of Broad Gate and of Whitehaven, in the com- 
mission of the jjcace for the county of Cumberland, married JIary, 
daughter and coheir of Joseph Nicholson, of Millholm, in Boolle, gen- 
tleman, and had issue, 

1. William, succeeded his father at Broad Gate. 

2. John, married Margaret, eldest daughter of Roger Taylor, of 
Stott Park, in CO. Lancaster, and had issue, 

1. William. 

2. Gilfrid. 

1. Marianne. 

2. Franccs-Jane. 

3. George, formerly of Queen's College, Oxford, B.D., rector of 
Adel, in the county of York, a magistrate for the West Riding, 
married Martha, daughter of Thomas Birlcy, Esq., of Low Mill, 
CO. Cumbeiland, and of Kirkham, co. Lancaster, and have issue, 

1. William-Henry, of Trinity College, Cambridge, A.B. 

2. George, of University College, Oxford. 
1. Margaret. 

4. Joseph, a merchant in the West Indies, died at Dominica, in 
1818, unmarried. 

5. Myles, died an infant. 

6. Thomas, died young, unmarried. 

1. Agnes, manicd the Rev. Richard Armitstcad, A.M., Rector of 
Moresby, and minister of St James', Whitehaven, and had issue, 

1. Richard, a solicitor in Whitehaven. 

2. William, in holy orders, incumbent of Lorton. 

3. John, a solicitor in Sidney. 

4. Joseph, died in Jamaica, s, p. 
1. Wary. 

2 Agnes. 
3. Frances. 

2. Mary, married Milham Hartley, of Rose Hill, Esq., in the 
commission of the peace for the county of Cumberland, high 
sherilf for the said county in 1818, and has issue, 

1. John, of Moresby House. 

2. Milliam, died young. 

3. George. 

4. Gilti id- William, of Rose Hill. 

1. Mary Ann. 

2. Isabella, died young. 

3. Margaret, died young. 

3. Ann, married Peter Dixon, Esq., of Newington, Surrey, and 
died in ISOS, s p. 

4. Margaret, married Peter Taylor, of Bellfield, iu the county of 
Westmorland, Esq. 

5. Frances, died young. 

6. Elizabeth, of Hazel Mount. 

William Lewthwaitc, who succeeded his father in 1809, is in the 
commission of the peace for the county of Cumberland. He married 


Eleanor, daugLter of Thomas Cragg, of Lowescales, Esq., and has 

1. John, of Broad Gate, bom in 1792, married Anne, daughter of 
William Kirkbank, Esq., of Whicham, and has issue, 

1. WUIiam. 

2. Joseph. 

3. George. 
1- Mary. 

2. Elizabeth. 

3. Eleanor. 

4. Agnes. 

5. Ann. 

1. Mary, manied William Postlethwaile, merchant and banker in 

2. Agnes, married Robert Postlethwaite, of Broughton, Esq., and 
have issue, 

1. Robert, died young. 

2. John. 

3. AVilliam. 

1. Margaret, died young. 

3. Eleanor, died young unmarried. 

4. Elizabeth, died young unmarried. 


1512 John Bird. Translated from Bangor 13 xVpril, 1542 ; deprived by 

Queen Mary in 1553 ; ob. 1556. 
1554 George Cotes, Master of Haliol College, Oxford. Consecrated I 

April, 1354; ob. Dec. 1.555. 
1556 Cuthbert Scot, Prebendary of St. Paul's. Appointed 24 April, 

1556 ; deprived by Queen Elizabetli circa 1560. 
1561 William Downman. Prebendary of Westminster. Elected 1 

May, 1561 ; ob. 3 Dec. 1577. 
1579 William Chaderton, Prebendary of York and Westminster. Con- 
firmed 7 Ncv. 1579; translated to Lincoln in 1595. 
1595 Hugh Bellot. Translated from Bangor 25 June, 1595; ob. 1596, 
1597 Richard Vaughau. Translated from Bangor 23 April, 1597 ; 

translated to London in 1604. 
1604 George Lloyd. Translated from Sodor and Man, 1604 ; ob. 1 

Aug. 1615, a;t. 55. 
1616 Thomas Moreton, Dean of Winchester. Elected 22 May, 1616; 

translated to Lichfield and Coventry 1619. 

George Massic was nominated, but died before consecration. 
1619 John Bridgman, Prebendary of Lichfield. Elected 15 March, 

1G19 ; ob. 1657. 


1660 Brian Walton, Prebendary of St. Paul's. Consecrated 2 Dec. 

1660; ob. 29Nov. 166 1. 
1662 Henry Feme, Dean of Ely. Consecrated Feb. 1662; ob. 16 

March following, wt. 69. 

• Nicolas's Synopsis. 


1662 Georpe H,iU, Archdeacon of Canterbury. Consecrated 11 Mav, 

UiG-2 ; ob. 2Z Aug. 1GG8. 
1668 John Wilkins, Prebendary of York. Consecrated 15 Nov. 1668; 

ob. 19 Nov. 1672. 
1673 John Pearson, Prebendary of Salisbury and Ely. Consecrated 9 

I'eb. 1673; ob. July, 1GS6. 
1686 Thomas Cartwright, Piebendarv of Durham. Consecrated 17 

Oct 1G86 ; ob. 15 April, 1689.' 
1689 Nicholas Strafford, Dean of St. Asaph. Consecrated 15 Sept. 

1689 ; ob. 1708. 
1708 Sir William Dawes, Bart. Prebendary of Worcester. Consecrated 

8 Feb. 1708 ; translated to York 1714. 
1714 Francis Gastreil, Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. Consecrated 

4 April, 1714; ob. 1725. 
1725 Samuel Peploe, Warden of Manchester. Elected 1725; ob. 1752. 
1752 Edmund Keene. Elected 1752; translated to Ely 1771. 
1771 William Markham, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford. Elected 

1771 ; translated 10 York 1777. 
1777 Beilby Portcus. Elected 1777; translated to London 1787. 
1787 William Cleaver, Prebendary of Westminster. Elected 1787 ; 

translated to Bangor 1800. 
1800 Henry William Majcndie, Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's. 

Ele'cted 1800; translated to Bangor 18U9. 
1809 Bowyer Edward Sparke. Elected 1809; translated to Ely 1812. 
1812 George Henry Law. Elected 1812; translated to Bath and 

Wells 1824. 
1824 Charles James Blomfield. Elected 1824 ; translated to London 

1828 John Bird Sumner, Prebendary of Durham, formerly fellow of 

King's College, Cambridge. 


Earlier than the new Registers commencing with a. t>. 1813 [according 
to 52 Geo. HI. c. 146J remain at the following places : — 

Arlecilon P. C. -'Sosl. — IV. contain Baptisms, Burials, a. d. 1730 
—1812; JIariiages, 1730- 1791,1798 1812. 

St. liees P. C— Nos I. Il.b.ip. 1538-1553, 1.5.58-1614,1620—1686; 
bur. 1538-161G, 1620-1683; marr. 1,5.39- 16 1:5, IGiO- 168,3, interrup- 
ted by No lU. bur. 167S-1700-NosIV.— Vll.bap.bur. 1697—1812; 
marr. IG97— 175.3— Nos VIII. -XI. marr. 1754—1812. 

£oo//«K.— Nos I.— III. Registers, 1G55— 1812— No IV. marr. 17G6 

St. Bridget's P. C. — No. I. (loose paper, scarcely legible) bap. bur. 
marr. 1G75— 1733— No. II. bap. bur. 1734—1801 ; marr. 1734— 175.3— 
No. III. bap. bur. 1802-1812 No. IV. marr. 1751—1812. 

Ctealor P. C. — No. I. bap. bur. marr. 1572 — 1727 (imperfect) — No. 
II. (paichment) bap. bur. 1728—1808; marr. 1728— 17.53- No. III. 
bap. bur. 1809— 1812— Nos. IV. V. marr. 1754— 1812 Cfirst eight leaves 

Corny R.— No. I. General Register, 1754—1782— Nos. II. III. 
(parchnuiu) 17*3 — 1812. 

iJwdHf/ton H.— Nos. I.— III. bap. bur. 1653—1812; marr. 1653— 
1763— Nos. IV- V. marr. 1754—1812. 



Drigg V. C.-Nos. I.-III. bap. bur. 1631—1812; mart. 1631—1753 

^°Ell„Z7ii'J^iMiv. bur. marr. 1630-1706 (imperfect)-Xos. 
11 fv bap. bur 1707-1812; marr. 1707-1753-Nos. V. \ I. marr. 

1754— 1&I2. ,„ „ . , „,, ,3..-, 

Ennerdale C.-Nos. l.-IH. Registers, 1043-1312. 

Eskdale C.-No. I. Registers, 1626-17/0_. delcctive 16ol-16o4. 
1708-1712. 1726-1728-No. II. Register l"}'-!^!^' ,.,, .g,, 

Gosforth R.-Xo. I. bap. bur. marr. lo/ l-lo84, lo92-16I3, 1631— 
164^?1662-1G74, 1680-17U1. 17U3-1728 1730-1740-Nos. 11 III. 
bap bur 1741-1812; niarr. 1741-1753-No. IV.marr 1/.J4-1812. 

W„Tp C -No I Rerislcr (parchment) 1545-1710 (very imper- 
fe5-X^os il. Ili. (pa'chmeaf) 1711-1812-No. IV. (parchment) 

""^arrST^R.-No. I. bap. bur. marr. 10.^3-1719, (imrerfect)- 
Nof 11 Til. bap. bur. 1720-1812 ; marr. 1720-1753-No. 1\ . marr. 

^Heiimnoham C— bap. 1811—1812; bur. 1612. 

ftZTv. C.-No^. (loose sheds fcar^ely legible) bap bur^arr. 
I6SO-1734-NO. II. bap. bur. 1735-1812; marr. 1735-17o3-No. 

"^;,™rP.a-iNos.''f.-ni. (parchment) l^ap. 1697-1755 1757- 
1812; bur. 1697-1754, 1757-1812; marr. 1697-l/oO-No. n. 

■"T„S7r.-Nos. I. II. bap. bur. «arr 1581-1660. 1686-172^ 
Nos. III. IV. bap. bur. 1725-1812 ; marr. 1725-1/53-No. V. marr. 

^^i^i^ V'-No. I. General register, 1598-1657 (imperfect)-Nos. 
II. IIL1658-1788-NO. IV. 1789-1812-No. V. banusmarr. 1/54- 
Z:^^^^'Z^:^-^^- 1721-1812; marr. 1724- 

''"^e^W^^ul^^^^ Genera, registers 1711-^812. 

PonsonbuVA\—^o.l- (parchment) bap. bur. l/23-l( /6 rnaCT. 

KL^-^e U.-'no. I. bap. 1095-1770; bur. l^'S-nC^l; marr 
1695— 1752-No. II. bap. 1777— 1812; bur. 1//8-1812; mair. 17j4 

~H5«/.7Ye<,</C.-one book, bap. 1721-1812; marr 172^812- 

Whicham U.-No I. bap. bur. marr Ujb9-160G, 10j;^7^7:':'--^°^- 

II. III. bap. bur. 1746-1812; marr. 174G-1753-Nos. H . \ . marr. 

^'^Wl'ube^'v. C.-No. I. General Register (parchment) 1597-1778- 
No. II. bap. bur. 1779-1812-No. III. marr. 170*1-1812 

WMUhLn, St. James C.-Ko. I. e^ntams bap. bur. 17o3-1812, 
marr. for 1753-N03. II.-V. marr. l/a4- 812^ 171^1718 

Whilehaven, St. McAoto C.-Nos. l.--\ "'c^r^n?. ItIT-IiViO 
—1720 1724—1744, 17.53-1812; Bur. 1G94— 171o, 1/17— I'lJ, 
l-2l^i^r2; ma^T. '1694-1715, 17ia-1723, 1725-1753-No. IX. 

"^^l^iel^Hnolv Trinity C-^o. I. bap. 1715-1783; bux. 1716- 

3 L 


1783; ma-.T. 1715— 1753— No3.II. Ill.bap.bur. 17S4_1812_Nos.IV. 
V. mair. 1754—1812. 

WorH-injto:i R.— Sos I IV. bap, bur. 1663—1812; marr. 1663— 

1753— ;c3. v.— VII. marr. 1754—1812. 


The pr!i:cipal geological features of the ward of AUerdale above Der- 
went, are very easily described. It joins the south-western slope of the 
great group of mountains familiarly known as the " lake district," and 
presents in regular series, the different formations which commence in 
the order of nature with the plutonic rocks, and close with the new red 

At the back of the Ward we find mountains of red granite. Gable is 
the centre, at the head of the valleys of Wasdale, Ennerdale, and Borrow- 
dale, and the minor ones of Miterdale and Calder. In the depths of 
these valleys lie the lakes, cavities scooped out when the elevation of the 
mountains took place, and afterwards filled with water. Reposing on 
the granite are mountains of great elevation, of trap or primitive rocks. 
At the bases of these, climbing their sides, or occupying the valleys, we 
find the transition rocks, principally grauwacke and clay-slate. In the 
latter are found the minerals, namely calcareous and siliceous spars, and 
the ores of zinc, silver, lead, antimony, manganese, and other metals. 

Coming now to the secondary formations, we have first the blue or 
mountain limestone, full of marine remains, and rich in the hapatic iron 
ore. A broad belt of it extends from the Dcrwent to the Ehcn, namely 
from Cockermouth to Egremout. At the latter town it is lost, and is 
not seen again until we reach the other extremity of the Ward, the bor- 
ders of the Duddon, near Broughton in Fuvness. 

The next formation is the coal measures, which in various degrees of 
productiveness occupies the whole country from the limestone to the sea 
under which it dips, from the Dcrwent to Whitehaven. This formation 
contains the gray iron ore, plastic clay, and ferruginous shale. 

To the southwest of Whitehaven, at St. Bees head, we find the new 
red sandstone with gypsum and magnesian limestone, overlying the coal 
measures, which are thrown do^vn ninety fathoms and cut ofl' by dykes 
injected with trap or basalt from beneath. 

The explored coal measures cease two or three miles to the south of 
Whitehaven, but on the \xay to the Duddon, with the exception of 
Ravenglass, where the granite comes down to the edge of the sea, -ne find 
red sandstones of unknown geologicalposititn.somereferringthem to the 
coal measures, and others supposing them to be of older formation. 
Covered here and there by diluvium, they occupy the whole country 
between the mountains and the sea. 

• Communicated by Mr. Robert Abraham, of Liverpool. 


^ti!iitton$ ana (Torrrrtiono. 

Page 4. The pri'sent patron of the pci-pctual curacy of St. Bridget, 
Beckennet, is Thomas Irwin, Esq., of Caldcr Abbey. 

Page 30. One of the bells in the church of Egremont bears this 

inscription : 
And below 

rtrpganus j)of)ustan rt Jiiofinston ^prrslon. 

Ef parorfjtani ine fieri 

Page 51. There is abundant proof of the now totally denuded moun- 
tain Dent having been formerly a dense forest, nearly or quite to the 
summit. The foundations of numerous charcoal pits have been recently 
turned up by the plough, wherever that implement lias been put to work, 
in various parts of the mountain. The pits are about 150 or 200 yards 
apart from each other, evincing that the forest has been close and regular. 

A burial ground has formerly been established in a field, on the west 
side of the river Keckle, called Sepulchre Meadow. A few legible 
tombstones yet remain, and the mounds of some graves are discernible ; 
but the fence is removed, and the once-sacred place laid open to the 
adjijiiiing meadow. 

A small inclosure near Crossfield is said to have been a Quakers' 
burial place, but it has so long gone to disuse that the forms of graves 
are no longer vi.^iblc, and no monumental stones are to be seen. Per- 
haps it may liave belonged to some other denomination, as the Society 
of Friends are in general more careful of their connexions. 

Page 59. To the account of the Roman Station at Moresby add the 
following particulars, communicated by the Rev. George Wilkinson, 
B.D., incumbent of Arlccdon: — 

Here was one of the set'ondary or supporting stations which the 
Romans deemed it necessary to maintain as subsidiary to the great 
Northern Wall. The site, as Ur. Bennet correctly states, is in a lield 
on the side of the village towards Parton, called " the Crofts," and the 
church stands, as is often the case, within its area. " It is a square of 
400 feet, on an elevation, overlooking creeks, and shews that one 
reason of its being placed here was to protect the shore against the 
Northern and Western Pirates. Tl.e west agger is perfectly plain, and 
the stones of the south wall still appear through the grass around them." 
The northern boundary is no longer apparent above ground ; nor could 
any traces of it be discovered by a local antiquary who broke the ground 
for that purpose some years ago. By far the strongest pai't of the station, 
judging by the remains, appears to have occupied the eastern line, 
possibly' becau.-ie that side was least favoured by nature. While the 
ramparts to the west and south, on being cut through, present nothing 
more thau a slight admixture of stone with the turf, without any appear- 
ance of mortar, those on the east, on examination, disclose the foundations 
of a wall of great strength, grouted with hot lime and sand, and resisting 
the utmost efforts of the sexton's pick and mattock. — In the same 
direction have been considerable buildings, which also occupied the site 
of the present church-yard. In \fi2'2, wlien the foundations of the new 
church were <lug, a great quantity of .'■tones, flags, &c., was discovered, 
evidently the remains of a buiUliiiir, though not one stone had been left 
on anothei, had not been thro\vu down. Underneath these, imd 
deeply imbedded in one of the trenches, a large stone* or flag was dis- 

* This stone was presented to the Earl of Lonsdale, by the Rev 

3 L 2 


covered, with its face down-nards, containing an inscription in large and 
beautiful characters [see papc 3G8] in honour of the Emperor Hadrian ; 
and consequently testifying the existence of the station early in the 2nd 
century, with a garrison, not, as hastily assumed by the Bishop of Cloyne, 
of Africans, but of Roman veterans. Connecting this inscription ^^^th 
coins of Constantino and Constanliiis, previously found ^vithin its area, 
we may fairly infer that the station at Moresby, by whatever name it 
was called, was held by the Romans for at least 300 years. That the 
area of the station is rich in Roman antiquities, and would amply reward 
a search, the present writer, who has once or twice slightly explored it, 
entertains no doubt ; though the richness and depth of the soil almost 
forbid all hope of a future attempt. The vicus, or town for the camp 
followers, lay, as usual, to the south of the station ; the foundations of 
its walls were very conspicuous a few years ago, when the neighbouring 
field was drained. 

The garrison, as appears from centurial stones, and other vouchers, 
consisted, first, of a part of the XX. Legion, afterwards of auxiliaries, 
as Thracians, Lingones, &c. See the inscription. 

Page 68. The order of succession of the Rectors of Moresby, from 
and after Mr. Nicholson, down to the present time, is as follows; but 
we have not the dates of the respective presentations : — 
Mr. Lowther. 
Mr. Arniitstcad. 
Mr. Iludleston. 
Mr. Wordsworth. 
Mr. Leech. 
Mr. Thompson. 
Mr. Woodhouse. 
Page 72. There is an ancient cross at Crosslacon in Frisington, 
whose height may be about 3^ feet. The part cut out at the top is said 
to have been for holdiBg the book while the monk read to the bearers of 
the corpse, in resting on their way to the priory of St. Bees, for inter- 
ment. No inscription is visible, and the whole is of rude workmanship. 

Page 73. The parks estate in Frisington was sold by the late Sir 
F. F. Vane, of Armathwaite, to the late Joseph Steele, Esq., of Acre- 
walls, and by him left to his housekeeper. Miss Harrison. 

Page 77. The longevity of the inhabitants of the parish of Distington 
is remarkable. In 1831, there were two persons aged 92 years buried 
here. In 1832, one aged 88. In 1833, one aged 86. In 183-1, one 87. 
In 1836, one 98. In 1637, one 95. In 1839, one 86, and one 88. In 
1810, one 86, and one 100. 

Page 78. Hayes Castle is the property of the widow of the late 
Thomas Hartley, Esq., of Gillfoot. 

Page 79. During the time that the rectory of Distington w;is held 
by the Rev. Thomas Spcdding, the tithes were commuted for common 
land; and independent of 90 acres of ancient glebe, there are near 600 
acres of the above land which are under a lease for three lives. 

Page 99. The Earl of Lonsdale is the present lord of the manors of 
Whicham and Silcroft, having purchased the latter from Mr. J. Mmicas- 

Page 104. Since the account of the parish of Drigg was printed, the 

George Wilkinson, and is now preser\-ed in the castle at Whitehaven, 
though not nearly in so perfect a state as when found. See page 368. 


following communication lias been received from Mr. Isaac Clements, 

On trarersinff the soa-coast of this parish northwardly, an object pre- 
sents itself, which, on acconnt of its colossal proportions, cannot fail to 
arrest the attentive observation of even the most illiterate and inobser- 
vant ; which would form an intcicstinp study to the painter, and would 
be regarded as an ecstatic object of contemplation by the enthusiastic 
geologist. This is one of those detached masses of rock, known among 
naturalists by the name of Boulder Stones, which, by some unknown 
agency, and at some unasccrtainablc period, have been removed from 
their native beds, and deposited in situations where tlicy may be regard- 
ed as " strangers in a strange land." The one in question, w'hich is call- 
ed by the inhabit;uits Carl-Crag, measures I'i feet in length, 
9 in breadth, and 5j in height. These dimensions, it nuist be observed, 
apply only to that part which is visible ; for, as it is deeply imbedded in 
the sand, it is not improbable but as much of its altitude may be con- 
cealed/row as revealed to the view. It is a very tine-grained sienite 
divided into transverse parallel sections of about two feet each by a vein 
of shale of half an inch in breadth between two narrower stripes of quartz, 
which, to the eye at least, are as true in their parallelism, and as uniform 
in their distances, as if traced by the hand of man with the nicest care, 
and with the most correct mathematical instruments. Such are the 
dimensions and general features of this immense concretion of matter, 
but how it came to occupy its present site — there being no strata of rocks 
made up of the same component materials within many miles of the 
place — ^is a point upon which ( cannot form even a plausible conjec- 
ture, and forms a problem whose solution will, in all probability, baffle 
the miited ellbrts of the naturalist and pliilosopher to the latest period of 
time. As the vulgar are ever prone, when reason fails them, to have 
recourse to superhuman agency, so there are numerous legendary tradi- 
tions prevalent in the neighbourhood relative to this " gri'at unknown;" 
ofwhich the following seems to be the most popular — 11 is Satanic majesty, 
on a certain occasion took it into his head to unite the Isle of Man to the 
English main by means of a bridge, and selected this particular spot for 
the projected erection, as being the nearest point of junction between the 
two extremities, but, unfortunately, in conveying tliis huge mass, doubt- 
lessly intended as his fcmndation stone, to its destination, his apron 
strings broke, and not possessu.g suflicient skill to remedy this, apparently, 
trifling misfortune, he was compelled to abandon his engineering enter- 
prize, which he has never since thought proper to rcsiune ; and as a proof 
of the truth of this " very probable theory," they say the mark of his 
apron remains upon the stone to this day, which, we need scarcely inform 
the intelligent reader is one of the transverse parallel sections, above- 

Page 1 Id, line 32. For matcriels, read materials. 

Page 181. Hardknott castle is on an estate belonging to Edward 
Stanley, Esq., M.I'., of Ponsonby Hall, called Brotherelkeld — a sheep- 
farm containing about 14,000 acres, which was presented to the Stanleys 
on the dissolution of Fumess abbey. 

Page lO.'i. The whole of the parish of Irton, with the exception of 
about three farms, is now enfranchised, and consequently does not pay 
customary rents, fines, &c. There are some few original freeliolds, the 
proprietors of which are lords of their own manors. 

Page 202. The parish of Irtou still continues to pay tithes. The 
united livings of Irton and Urigg have been held from time immemorial 
by the same clergymen. 


Page 208. The present master of Irton school is the Rev. Isaac 

Page 293. In the cliurch of Ponsonby a mural marble tablet of singu- 
lar beauty has been recently erected, by Browne of London, in memory 
of two children of Edward Stanley, Esq., M.P. It bears the following 
inscription, remarkable for its conciseness and expressiTC beauty ; — 

Immensi Doloris Monumentum angustum 
Heu ! supremura Munus 
Edvardus et Maria Parentes deflent 
Ex Luce migravit 
Hie A. D. MDCCCXL. ^T. VI. 
Page 321. Calder abbey is on the east side of the road. 
Page .340, line 1 4. For St. Bees, read Stainbum. 
Page 360, line 20. Dels in. 

Page 362, line 1. For Sir John, read Sir Christopher. 
Page 367, line 25. For F A.S., read F.S.A. 

Page 376, line 40. For Viscount Lowther, read Viscount Lonsdale. 
Page 378. Lord Lowther has been recently appointed Post-Master- 
General, and has been called to the upper house, by the title of Baron 
Lowther, of Whitehaven. 

Page 412. List of the Incumbents of Nether-Wasdale : — 
1769 Thomas Poole. 
1779 John Scott. 
1782 Richard Poole 
1788 Allison Steble. 
1793 Gabriel Hill. 
1822 William Coward. 
1827 John Douglas. 
Page 414. The statement respecting the disputed presentation to the 
chapelry of Wasdale-Head, is not strictly correct. — When, in 1819, 
there was a dispute between the Earl of Lonsdale and the inhabitants, 
respecting the presentation, it did not terminate in favour of the latter ; 
but the noble Earl proposed to relinquish his claim, provided the in- 
habitants would allow the Rev. VV. Ainger, D.D., Principal of St. Bees 
College, to present, whom his lordship considered most suitable, as being 
the Incumbent of the mother-church of St. Bees; to this proposal they 
consented, and Dr. Ainger then appointed the present incumbent, the 
Rev. John Douglas. 

Page 423. The burial-place of the Stanley family, while they resided 
at Dalcgarth Hall, was for many ages in Eskdale chapel ; but was dis- 
continued in 1687, when they removed to Ponsonby. 


Addison, William, 266, Marianna 

and Dorothy, 267. 
Ainger, Williani, DD. 352. 
Armitstead, Richard, 393. 
Askew, Sir Hugh, 135, Dorothy, 


Bannister, Robert, 12, Mary, ib. 
Bateraan, John, 391. 
Beck, Catherina and Jolin, 266. 
Benn, John, Eliz. and Ann, 385. 
Benson, John and Bridget, 135. 
Birkhead, 387. 
Birley, Jane, 20 and 31. 
Blakeney, Robert, 81. 
Bolton, John and Mary, 172. 
Brathwaite, Frances, 206. 
Briscoe, Richard, 89. 
Brown, Anne and William, 391. 

Church, Charles, 426. 
Church, Charles Cobbe, 389, 
Crosthwaite family, 13. 
Curwen, John, 12; John Christian, 

ib 263; Eldred, 265; Thomas, 


Dalton, John, 388. 
Dixon, John, Isabella, Henry, 
George, Joseph, and Frances,393. 

Fleming, Sir John (?) 3'24. 

Fletcher, John, 293. 

Forster, Isaac and Agnes, 395. 

Gale, William and Margaret, 382. 
Glendinning, Joseph, 268. 
Grilfin, George, 383. 
Grindal, Archbishop, 432. 
Grundy, Samuel, 394. 

Harrison, Thomas and Betty, 395. 

Hartley, Thomas, 31 ; Mary, 69 ; 
Milham, t&. John, Elizabeth 
Elizabeth, Thomas, 382. 

Hodgson, John and Elizabeth, 267. 

How, Peter and Margaret, 264. 

Hudleston 168; Joseph and 

Bridget, 169; Barr, 170; Eliza- 
beth, 383 ; Curwen, 383 ; John 
and Wilfrid, 3'^4. 

Hutton, Richard, 136. 

Irton, Samuel, George, and Eliza- 
beth, 205; Samuel, 206. 

Jackson, Dorothy, 388 ; James and 
Sarah, 389. 

Key James, 12 ; Ann, ib. 

Lamplugh, Thomas and Frances, 
89 ; Archbishop, 437. 

Latus, John and Agnes, 171. 

Littledalc, Henry, Catherine, and 
Ann, 384; Mary, 385; Johnand 
Sarah, 389. 

Lowther, Sir Robert, 371 ; Sir 
James, 386. 

Lucy, Anthony Lord, 349. 

Lucy, Lord and Lady, 351 ; Lord, 

Lutwidge, Skcflington and Cather- 
ine, 204 ; Hannah, Palmer, 
Lucy, and Cordelia, .3*5. 

M'Gaa family, 13. 
Moore, Mary Ann, 389. 
Mossop, Thomas and Anne, 203. 
Mmicaster, John Lord, 227. 
Myers, John and Rachel, 171. 

Nicholson, Henry, John, and Wil- 
son, 69. 

Otley, Darcy, 11. 

Parker, Catherine, 302. 
PatricksoD, Frances, 291. 



Pearson, John, Frances, William, 
Hannah, John, Elizabeth, Joseph, 

Pennyfeather, John, 391. 

Poole, James, .?1 ; Thomas, Mary, 
and John, 227. 

Pennington, Will., 222; Sir Wil- 
liam, Frances, William, Sir John, 
Joseph, 223 , Joseph, William, 
Sir John, 224 ; Sir John, Philip, 
Sir Joseph, Sir William, and 
Isabel, 225; Sir John, Gamel, 
and Penelope, 22G ; Penelope, 

Flasket, William, 266. 

Pousonby, Milham, 265. 

Hichardson, John, 19 ; Peter, 
Margaret, and Phebe, 69 ; 
James, 381 ; Jane, 382 ; Wil- 
liam, 395; Sarah and Henry, 

Sanderson, William, 13. 

Sarjeant, John and Sarah, 395. 

Savill, Isabel, 224. 

Scott, Agnes, 32. 

Selkirk, John, 268. 

Sherwcn, John and Bilhah, 265. 

Shammon, William, 3S3; Joyce, 

Smith, John, Betty, William, and 
Jane, 170. 

Stanley, Edward, 264, George-Ed- 
ward and Dorothy, 292 ; Henry 
and Edward, 450. 

Stamper, William, 393. 

Stapleton, Elizabeth, 226. 

Steele, Joseph, 75 ; Daniel, 136. 

Spedding, John, Jlargaret, James, 
and Elizabeth, 390; Carlisle, 
Sarah, and Mary, 391 ; Thomas 
and Isabella, 392 ; Carlisle, 
Thomas, Langton, Frances, Sa- 
rah, Mary, Jane, and Ann, 394. 

Thompson, William, 267. 
Todd, Elizabeth and Isabel, 19. 

Walker, Jane, 81. 
Wells, William, 172. 
Wennington, John, 136. 
Wilughby, Robert, 324. 
Winder, John, 203. 
Wood, Joseph, 393. 


Addison, 262, 441. 

Aglionby, 418 bis. 

Ainger, 350, 352, 353 «er, 362. 

Ainsworth, 52. 

Alauby, 339. 

Albermarle, Earl of, 36, 337. 

Albermarle, Countess of, 150, 314. 

Ambrose, 173 bis. 

Anderson, 353. 

Appleby, 3»9. 

Archer, 231. 

Armitstead, 68, 392, 442, 447. 

Armorer, 197. 

Armstrong, ,358. 

Askew, 99, 138, 142 bis, 144, 168, 

166, 218, 381, 440. 
Atkinson, 72, 191, 192. 
Aubrey, 376. 
Austhwaitc, 179, 282. 

Bailey, 441. 

Balcarres, Earl of, 218, 232. 

Barker, 27. 

Barlow, 357. 

Barnard, 375. 

Barnes, 359. 

Barrington, 158. 

Barry, 233. 

Basinthwaite, 196. 

Baumville, 282. 

Baxter, 74, 90. 

Becket, 379. 

Beckermeth, 316. 

Bees, St., 326, .332, 334. 

Bega, St., 326, 332, 335, 336. 

Bellingham, 375. 

Ben, 437. 

Bonn, 49, 73, 97, 111, 166, 300, 

385, 425, 426. 
Benson, 419,440. 
Bentinck, 379. 
Benson, Bernard, 178. 
Berdsey, 275. 
Besborough, 436. 
Belhom, 98 bis, 99, 317. 
Bielby, 375. 



Birkhead, 387, 409. 

Birley, 20. 49, 417, 442. 

Blain, 174. 

Blaylock, 299. 

Blencowe, 173, 174. 

Blennerhasset, 86, 438, 

Bocker, 28. 

Bolton, Duke of, 375. 

BonviUe, 8 bis, 89, 416. 

Boullbec, 47. 

Bower, 439 

BoyvUI. 92, 137, 149, 150, 152, 175, 

316 <er. 
Boy\'ill, pedigree, 152. 

Braddyll, 53. 
Bradley, 359. 

Bragg, 301. 

Branthwaite, 425. 

Brathwaite, 198. 

Bridges, 158. 

Briggs, 284. 

Briscoe, 80, 91, 359, 38G, 430. 

Brocklcbank, 120, 194. 

Brockelsbye, 9, 261. 

Bromflet, 371. 

Brookhauk, 237. 

Brooksbauk, 439 bis. 

Brougham, 66, 78, 87, 438, 438 bis. 

Broughton, 197. 

Brunt, 53. 

Brus, 338. 

Buddicom, 353. 

Burrell, -18. 

Burrougli, 111 bis. 

Burrow, 109, 181. 

Caddy, 120, 207, 208, 290. 

Caldecot, 76. 

Camden, 244. 

Canceiield, 7. 

Carluton, 372. 

Camar\'on, Earl of, 47. 

Cams, 255. 

Chaloner, 284, 314, 356, .357 bui, 

Cholmondely, 174. 
Christian, 256 bis, 257, 262,285. 
Church, 301, 366, 426. 
Cleator, 289 bis. 
Clements, 114,449. 
Clcmcntson, 4.36. 
Cliflord, 37, 42, 44, 158, 371, 372 
Clyburne, .373. 
Colline, 439. 

Compton, 232. 

Copeland, 125, 197, 201 bis, 215, 

Copley, 297 bis, 436, 4-39. 

Corbet, 99, 117, 118,153,317,318. 

Coraey, 95, 175. 

Cowper, .375. 

Cragg, 443. 

Crofton, 77. 

Crompton, 103. 

Cromwell, 285. 

Crosby, 254, 436. 

Crosslaiid, 307. 

Culwen, 108, 138, 343. 

Curwen, pedigree of, 251. 

Curwen, 6 bis, 7, 9, 11 bis, 13 bis, 
14, 80, 86, 108 bis, 239, 240, 242, 
243, 244, 248, 249, 250, 261, 262, 
263, 269, 270, 272, 273, 274, 285, 
306, 339, 371 bis, 410, 419, 420, 

Cutler, 373. 

Dacre, 157, 195, 253, 286, 288, 

334, 339, 433. 
Dalston, 9 bis, 255, 261, 371. 
Dalton, 386 bis. 
DalzcU, 270, 277. 
Danson, 190, 191. 
Darlington, Earl of, 375. 
Davenant, 437. 
Davies, 355. 
Dawkins, 441. 
Derby, Earls of, 281. 
De I'ortibus, .37. 
De Hale, 435 bis. 
De Millom, 152. 
Derwentwatcr, 371. 
Dickenson, 78, 88. 
Dickinson, 73, 90, 417. 
Dickson, 440. 
Dixon, 18, 166, 408, 442. 
Dodsworth, 374. 
Douglas, 286, 338, 412. 
Ducket, 283. 
Dudley, 195. 
Dunbar, 263. 
Dyer, 9, 261. 
Dykes, 77, 78 ier, 197, 231, 439. 

Earl, 299." 
Eastholme, 297. 
Eglesacld, 86, 275, 435. 

3 M 



Egremont, Earl of, 31, 47, 49, 305, 

Eldred, '251. 
Eskdale, 280, 283. 
Esseby, 315. 
Essex, Earl of, 29. 
Estotevill, 107. 
Evans, 286. 
Eyre, 439. 

Fairfax, 249, 254, 284, 437. 

Falconer, 160. 

Fallowfield, 373. 

Fane, 378. 

Farrington, 231. 

Fearon, 99. 

Fcnwkk, 86, 157, 197, 441. 

Fetherstonhaugh, 285, 372, 418. 

Fisher, 436. 

Fitz-Duncan, 36. 

Fitz-Hugh, 157, 253. 

Fitz-Ponson, 56, 288, 435. 

Fleetwood, 231. 

Fleming, 2, 7, 16 bis, 71, 72, 74, 

131, 157, 197, 229, 283, 286 bis, 

288, 290, 307 bis, 314, 371, 374, 

410, 438. 
Fletcher, 66, 73, 78, 174, 321, 37 1, 

418 bis, 419. 
FoUiot, 435. 
Foster, 4.38. 

Fox, 200, 357, 358, 359. 
Fryer, 90. 

Gaitskell, 18, 290, 307. 
Gale, 53, 256. 
Garth, 297. 

Gibson, 27, 118, 120, 360. 
Gilbanks, 88. 
Gillesby, 125. 
Gilpin, 163, 178. 
Glaister, 409. 

Godardus Dapifer, 149, 153. 
■ Goldie, 257. 
Goodycr, 372. 
Gosford, 296, 297. 
Gosforth, 297. 
Gospatric, Earl of Northumberland, 

Gower, Countess, 75. 
Graystoke, 107. 
Grendall, 419. 

Grey, 8, 9, 89, 158, 164, 416. 
Greyme, 299, 300. 
Gricc, 110, 202, 442. 

Grindal, 330, 331, 350, 354, 355, 

425, 427. 
Gunson. 199, 243, 260, 424. 
Guy, 259. 

Hale, 55, 56. 

llalied, 441. 

Hall, 358, 426. 

Halle, 318, 

Hanmer, 196. 

Hansket, 282. 

Harborough 378. 

Harcla, 1.38, 196. 

Hare, 273, 376. 

Harrington, pedigree of, 7. 

Harrington, 5 bis, 26, 40, 1U8, 138, 
157,252, 317,338,410. 

Harrison, 27, 97, 181, 182, 239, 
259, 386. 424. 

Hartley, 15, 27, 59, 78, 442, 448. 

Hastings, 358. 

Hawkins, 100. 

Hayne, 198. 

Henry VI. 217 6is, 230. 

Herbert, 283. 

Hetherington, 261. 

Hill, 21,450. 

Hobson, 129, 155. 

Hodgson, 101, 144, 198. 

Hogarth, 396. 

Holcroft, 373. 

Holt, 285. 

Hooton, 282. 

How, 11,262,272,273. 

Howard, .377. 

Hudleston, pedigree of, 155. 

Hudleston, 68, 118 6is, 123, 129, 
137, 138. 147, 152, 153. 154 ter, 
155, 161 bis, 173 ler, 174, 175, 
181, 191,283,316,317, 381 ter, 

Hudson, 418. 

Hunter, 441. 

Hustock, 297. 

Hutchinson, 359. 

Button, 97, 131 bis, 144, 158, 305. 

Iliff, 48. 

Irton, pedigree of, 195. 

Irton, 110, 186, 194, 199, 200,201, 

202, 207, 208, 21 1 bis, 436, 439. 
Irwin, 199, 307, 309, 321, 324, 360, 




Jackson, 2G3, '2G9, 272, 273, 348, 

359, 392. 410. 
Jeflerson, 88, 424. 
Jenkins, 392. 
Jesse, 257. 
Johnston, 447. 
Jones, 363. 

Kay, 272. 

Ketel, 251, 2G0. 

King, 48, M6. 

Kirby, 142, 158,297,438. 

Kiikbank, 413. 

Kirkby, 87, 93 bia, 160, 198, 297, 

298, 374. 
Kitchen, 414. 
Knevett, 65. 
Knubley, 436. 

Larapluph, 69, 70, 73 bis. 82, 89 bis, 
91, 197. 198, 252, 339, 312, 355, 
357, 438 bis. 

Lamplugh, pedigree of, 84 and 437. 

Lancaster, 87, 251, 252, 371 bis, 
374, 438, 441 . 

Lancaster, Duke of, 139. 

I.andplogh, 26. 

Lalhora, 282. 

Latus, pedigree of, 172. 

Latus, 99, 158, 201, .334. 

Law, 277, 353 bis. 

Ldwson, 72, 425, 440. 

Layland, 173. 

Leake, 284. 

Lee, 417, 418. 

Leech, 29, 357, 448. 

Le Gros, 36. 

Leigh, 72, 90 bis, 320, 321, 371, 
374, 376. 

Lewis, 441. 

Lewthwaite, 118. 

Lcwthwaite, pedigree of, 440. 

Leyboum, 297. 

Lindow, 21. 

Littledalc, 3G6. 

Logis, 77. 

Lonsdale, Earl of, p<;digrce, 369. 

Lonsdale, Earl of, 55, 57, 66, 68, 
71, 73, 76, 78, 79,90,96,99 bis, 
118, 119, 124, 130, 131,160, Ki.-i, 
106, 175, 170, 2 10, 242, 276, .30.5, 
348 bis, 350, 353, 357 bis, 358, 
.359, 367, 308, 369 ter, 381, 386, 
.392, 4U8, 410 bis, 414, 416, 424, 
425, 426 ter, 147, 448, 450. 

Lonsdale, Viscount, 217 bis, 2l8bis, 

Loring, 8. 

Lowtlier, pedigree of, 369. 
Lowther, 53, 66, 73 bis, 78. 80 bis, 

90, 99, 160, 175, 217 bis,'23> bis, 

254, 261, 270, .334, 348 bis, 350, 
300, 301, 302, 303 ler, 300, 367, 
369, 379, 385, 386, 399, 401, 402, 
410, 418, 4.37, 4.38, 418, 450. 

Lucy, 22, 24, 26, 37 bis, 40, 41, 77, 

235 bis, 361, 370. 413. 
Ludham, 10. 
Lutwidge, 201, 203, 204 note, 207, 

298, 299. 

Mallory, 198. 

Maudevill, 150. 

Marlyiidale, 73. 

Mar>-, Queen of Scots, 244—247, 

251, 372. 
Mason, 103. 
Massey, 282. 
Meredith, 100. 
Meschincs, 2 ter, 27, 33, 35, 36, 

118, 1 19, 275, 309, 336, 3.37, 351 

bis, 352 bis, 416. 
Michael the Falconer, 95. 
Middleton, 197, 372. 
Miller, 47. 
Millers, 175. 
Milhvard, 424. 
Montiigue, Marquis, 155. 
-Moore, 232, 437. 
Mordling, 318. 
Moresby, 6.5, 77. 
Moriceby, 138 bis, 338. 
Morrison, 233. 

Morthing, 117, 118, 138,317. 
Morvill, 37. 

Morys or Moorhouse, 90. 
Mulcaster, 213. 214, 2,33. 
Mullon, 3, 7. 26, 38—41, 55 bis, 77, 

297, 298, 309, 435. 
Muncaster, Lord, pedigree of, 228. 
Muncaster, Lord, 96 bis, 99, 105, 

110 bis, 114, 1.30, 181, 202, 209, 

214, 217, 219,222,237,238,413. 
Muncaster, 99, 448. 
Munstcr, Earl of, 48. 
Murray, Earl of, 36. 
Musgrave, 80, 198, 217, 249 ter, 

255, 373, 438. 
Myers, 192. 
Mytfurd, 283. 

3 M 2 



Nelson, 259. 
Nevil, 8. 

Nevill, 8, 42 ter, 157. 
Newby, 410. 

Nicholson, 207, 424, 442. 
Noble, 95 lis. 

Northumberland, Earl of, 28, 29, 
108, see Percy. 

Orfeur, 10, 173, 437. 
Ormandy, 17G. 
Osbaldiston, 232. 

Park 92. 

Parke, 118 ter, 119, 122 bis, 123. 

Parson, 98. 

Patrickson, pedigree, 417. 

Patrickson, 18, 73 bis, 90 bis, 107, 

307, 321, 342, 416, 417, 436. 
Pawlet, 379. 
Pawson, 439. 
Pearson, 273. 
Pelham, 410. 

Pennington, pedigree of, 228. 
Pennington, 86 bis, 93 bis, 96, 99, 

104, 108, 110, 117, 118, 131 hs, 

142, 143, 159, 160, 201, 210, 21-3, 

21G, 217, 218 bis, 235 bis, 237, 

238, 299, 376, 377, 437. 
Pennyman, 376. 
Penj'ston, 297. 
Percy, pedigree of, 41. 
Percy, 40. 
Philipson, 285. 
Pickering, 65, 86, 371. 
Pickthall, 166. 
Piele, 272. 
Pierce, 373. 
Pitrpoint, 29. 
Pinder, 295, 301, 303. 
Piper, 408. 
Plaskett, 273. 
Poole, 198. 

Ponsonbv, pedigree, 435. 
Ponsonby, 56, 198, 279 bis, 299, 

319, .342, 410. 
Postletlnvaitc, 102, 166 bis, 441, 

443 bis. 
Potter, 419. 
Powersconrt, 436. 
Powis, Countess of, 284. 
Powley, 424. 
Poynings, 43. 
Preston, 249, 254, 373 bis, 375, 


Pricket, 375. 

Quale, 370. 

Ramsden, 233, 377. 
Raper, 85, 91, 437 ier. 
Rawson, 412. 
Redman, 197. 
Rcnnie, 397. 
Reynard the Fewer, 99. 
Richardson, 20. 
Richmond, 372, 418. 
Roberts, 47. 
Robertson, 53, 90. 
Robinson, 441. 
Homely, 150. 
Romley, 36. 
Romney, Earl of, 47. 
Roper, 437. 
Rottington, 409. 

Sabine, 199. 

Sackfield, 72. 

Salkeld, 90 ter, 157, 276, 418, 419, 

Sandys, 73, 331, 358, 409, 410, 435. 
Sandes, 365, 410. 
Satterthwaite, 131. 
Scott, 29, 31, 100, 131, 263, 358. 
Scrope, 372. 
Senhousc, 86, 199, 2S3, 296, 297, 

298 6is, 299 ter, 300 bis, 301, 

321, 367. 417, 437. 
Serjeant, 186. 
Seton, 141. 
Sewell, 386, 409. 
Seymour, 45, 158. 
Shaw, 110, 129, 144,420. 
Sheffield, 18. 
Simpson, 269. 

Singleton, 107, 144, 181 bis. 
Skclton, 197, 217, 339, 355, 425, 

Smith, 166, 449. 
Smithson, 46, 176. 
Somerset, Duke of, 29, 45, 46. 
Spedding, 80, 358, 392, -399, 400, 

401, .102 6is,424. 
Spencer, 43. 

Stanley, pedigree of, 281. 
Stanley, 76, 94, 179 fcis, 218, 219, 

237, 257, 262 bis, 278—293, 306, 

358, 412, 414, 422, 423 <ju., 449, 

450 bis. 
Stapleton, 86 bis, 157, 231, 438. 



Stebic, 97, 100, 111, 450. 
Steel, 436. 
Steele, 448. 
Steward, 424. 
Strickland, 231, 371. 
StuteviUe, 3. 
Stutville, 195. 
Stuart, 378. 
Sumner, 353. 
Sunderland, 199. 

Talebois, 2, 5, 9, 89, 251. 

Tanner, 28. 

Tate, 67. 

Taubman, 256. 

Taylor, 219, 2.38, 419, 441, 442 bis. 

Tempest, 173. 

Thomas, 358. 

Thomond, Earl of, 46. 

Thompson, 68, 113, 272. 

Threlkeld, 371. 

Thwaites, 1.54, 174. 175, Z17, 318. 

Thynue, 377. 

Tiflin, .321, 417. 

Tilliol, 195, 370. 

Todd, 18 bis, 307. 

Tomlinson, 332. 

Towers, 189, 441. 

Trotter, 376. 

Troughton, 157. 

Tubman, 198. 

Ulf, 181. 

Vane, 448. 
Vaughan, 65. 
Vcnablcs, 27. 
Vcteripont, 252. 
Vicars, 57. 
Von Essen, 11, 269. 

Wail berth waite, 318. 

Waybergthwaite, 92, 154, 298. 

Wake, Lord, 107. 

Wakefield, 130. 

Waldieve, 2, 36, 275 its. 

Walker, 76 bis, 112, 189, 256. 

Wandesford, 375. 

Ward, 27, 161. 

Warde, 4-38. 

Watson, 418. 

Watts, 276. 

Welberry, 372. 

Wennington, 178, 440. 

Wentworth, 377. 

Westby, 65. 

Westmorland, Earl of, .378. 

Wharton, 255. 

Whitehead, 427 bis. 

Whitridge, 129. 

Whitrig, 425. 

Wilde, 441. 

Wilkinson, 75, 368, 447 bis. 

Williamson, 70 bis, 73, 160, 181, 

Wilson, 274, 359, 4366ts. 
Winder, 201. 
Wingfield, 435, 441. 
Williens, 375. 
Wolley, 439 bis. 
Woodhouse, 68. 
Wordsworth, 183, 190, 220, 257, 

262, 414, 448. 
Wotton, 8. 

Wybergh, 88, -331, 334, 347, 372. 
Wyet, 417. 
Wyche, 98. 

Wyndliam, pedigree of, 46. 
W'vndham, 27, 28, 45, 51, 108, 

209, 236, 305, 411, 413, 421. 

Yates, 68 bis, 381 bis. 


Ainger, William, D.D.,liisportrait, 

.350, 353. 
Alanby, prior of St. Bees, his letter 

to Lord Dacre, 339. 
AUerdale Ward above Dement, 

boundaries, 1 ; rivers, ib, ; to 

whom granted, 2 ; rcdividcd, 3 ; 

table of parishes, church livings, 

and population, 4. 

Annasidc, 121. 
Arbeia, 59, 61. 
Architecture, church, see Churches 

Arlecdon parish, 71 ; the manor, 

72; manor of Frisington, ib.; 

the church, 74 ; additions, 448. 
Askew, Sir Hugh, auccdotcof, 142. 
Austhwaite, 178. 



Austhwaite family, 179. 

Barngill, 76. 

Barnscar, city of, 211. 

Barwick-rails, 148. 

Batteries at Whitehaven, 365. 

Beacons, 126. 

Seek, used for rivulet, 331 ttote. 

Beck-Baiik, 176. 

Beckermet village, 15. 

Beckermet, Little, manor of, 1 6. 

Beckermet, Great, manor of, 305. 

Beckermet, St. Bridget, parish, 
304; manor of Great Beckermet, 
305 ; Sella Park, .306 ; the old 
church, 306; the new church, 
308 : Calder abbey, 309. 

Beckermet, St. John'sparish, 15; 
manor of Little Beckermet, 16 ; 
the church, ib.; charities, 20. 

Bees, St. village, 328. 

Bees, St. Priory, 332 ; building 
described, 349. 

Bees, St. College, .353. 

Bees, St. Heads, 327. 

Bees, St. Free Grammar-School, 

Bees, St. parish, 326 ; village of, 
328 ; Priory, historical account 
of, 332 ; church described, 349 ; 
College, 353 ; Free Grammar- 
School, 354 ; Whitehaven, 359 ; 
manor of, 366; Whitehaven 
castle, 367 ; pedigree of the Earl 
of Lonsdale, 369 ; Chapel of St. 
Nicholas, .379; Chapel of the 
Holy Trinity, 385; Chapel of 
St. James, .391 ; Dissenting cha- 
pels, 396 ; the harbour, ib. ; the 
coal-pits, 399; charities, 408; 
Koltington, 409; Nether-Was- 
dale, 411; Wasdalc-Head, 412 ; 
Ennerdale, 415; pedigi-ee of 
Patricksonof Caswell-How, 417 ; 
pedigree of Patrickson of Stock- 
how, 419; Eskdale, 420; Hcn- 
singham, 424 ; memoir of Arch- 
bishop Grindal, 427. 

Bega, St., founds the nunnery of 
St. Bees, 326, 332. 

Belle-Vue, 76. 

Birkby, 209 ; manor, 218. 

Birkcr, 178. 

Birker-force, 147. 

Birker-moor, 147, 

Bishops of Chester, list of, 443 
Black Comb, 127. 
Black-legs, 116. 
Blake fell, S3. 
Bolton, High, 295. 
Bolton, Low, 295. 
Bolton, manor of, 297. 
Boonwood and Seascale township, 

BooTLE parish, 124; Black Comb, 

127; town of Bootle, 129; the 

church, ii. ; Setou nunnery, 136; 

charities, 144. 
Boulder-stones, 449. 
Boyvill family, 152. 
Biide, St., see Beckermet. 
British camps, 184. 
Broad Gate, 176. 
Buck-crag, 421. 
Burrow-craiLs, 148. 

Calder Abbey, historical accoimt 
of, 309 ; description of, 321. 

Calder lordship, 305. 

Calder river, 288. 

Calder, 280. 

Caldcr-Bridge, 304, 308. 

Cald-fell, 305. 

Carleton, 109. 

Carleton-moor, 15. 

Castle-How, 416. 

C.\STLES : Egremont, 32 , Hayes, 
78; Millom, 160; Muncaster, 
214; Whitehaven, 367. 

Caswell-How, 416. 

Chapel Sucken, 180. 

Chester, Bishops of. List of, 443. 

' Cl.oke-damp' in coalpits, 401 no<e. 

Chun Castle, Cornwall, 184 note. 

Churches described : Harrington, 
11; Si. Johu Beckermet, 18; 
Egremont, 29 ; Cleator, 53 ; 
Moresby, 68; Distington, 80; 
Lamplugh, 89; Drigg, 110; 
Whitbeck. 120; Bootle, 131; 
Millom, 167 ; Ulpha, 189; Irton, 
202; Mmicaster, 219; Working- 
ton, 262; St. John's chapel, 
Workington, 268 ; Ponsonby, 
290 ; Gosforlh. 301 ; St. Bridget, 
Beckermet, 307 ; Calder abbey, 
321 ; St Bees Priory, 349. 

Churches, hints for repairing, 220 

Church-livings, table of, 4. 



Church property and endowments 
misapplied at the Reformation, 
343—317 tiote. 

C hurchwardens, duties of, 220 note. 

Cleator parish, 51 ; manor, 52; 
church, i4. ; additions, 447. 

Clergy, robbed at the Reformation, 
343, 345. 

Clerical Institution of St. Bees, 353. 

Cliff of Baruth, 329. 

Clifton chapclry, 275 ; manor, ib. ; 
chapel, 276. 

Clifton Great, 276. 

Clifton Little, 276. 

Cliflon-housc, 276. 

Cloven Barf, 329. 

Coal-pits, at Workington, 242 ; at 
Whitehaven, 399 ; operations 
described, 403 note. 

Coals, their use iu London prohi- 
bited by royal proclamation, 399 

Coins found, 76. 

College, see St. Bees. 

Copeland family, 125. 

Copper-mines in Ulpha, 181. 

CoRNEY parish, 95; manor, «i. ; 
the church, 96; charities, 97. 

Cranmer not a party to the sacri- 
lege of Henry Vill. at the Re- 
formation, 313 note. 

Crook-head, 412. 

Crosses; Bootle, 129; MiUom, 
167 ; Irton, 207 ; Muncaster, 
228 ; Gosfortli, 3U2 ; St. Brid- 
get, Beckermet, 308 ; St. Bees, 

Cross-house, 129. 

Crowgarth, 51. 

Dalegarth Hall, 179. 

De llillom family, 152. 

Dent Hill, 51, 417. 

Devoke-water, 1 47. 

DisTiNGTON parish, 76 ; the ma- 
nor, 77 ; Hayes Castle, 78 ; the 
church, 79 , additions, 448. 

Doecrag, 421. 

Drigg parish, 104 ; the manor, 
107; Carleton, 109; the church, 
i*. ; Schools, 112; Additions, 

Duddon River, 146, 183. 

Duddon Bridge, 175. 

Duddon Grove, 175. 

Earn-Crag, 421. 

Egremont parish, 21 ; Town of, 
22 ; the Church, 27 ; the Castle, 
?2 ; the Barony of Egremont, 
35 ; Pedigrees of its lords, 36 ; 
Charities, 49; .-Vdditions, 447. 

Egremont, Barony of, .35; Lords, 

Enncrdale, 415 ; Manor, 416 ; Cas- 
tle-How, id.; Pedigree of Pa- 
trickson, 417 ; the Chapel, 420. 

Eskdale, 420; the Chapel, 422, 

Eskdale and Miterdale, Manor of, 
421, 422. 

Esk-meols, 125, 213. 

Fire-damp in coal-pits, 401. 
Fitz-Duncan family, 36. 
Flosh, 52 
Fonts, remarks on, 132, 133—135 

Fool of Muncaster, 215. 
Foreslership of Cumberland, 38. 
Frisington High and Low, 71 ; 

Manor, 72. 
Furnace-beck, 146. 

Gallows at Millom, 149, 162. 

Gas-lights, origin of, 399, note. 

Geology of Aljerdale Ward above 
Derwent, 446. 

Giant at St. Bee3,.'true report of,' 
330, note. 

Gilgarron, 76. 

GiUfoot, 27. 

GosFORTH parish, 295 ; manor of 
Gosforth, 296 ; manor of Bolton, 
297 ; manor of Seascalc and 
Newton, 298 ; the church, 299. 

Gosforth hall, 297. 

Gosforth or Gosford family, 296. 

Grange-brow, 15. 

Greenlands, 194. 

Greystone House, 176. 

Grindal, Archbishop, founds the 
Free Grammar School of St. 
Bees, 354 ; gives communion- 
plate to the church, 350 ; me- 
moir of, 427. 

Guttcrby, 116. 

Hale parish, 55; the manor, i4.; 
Ponsonby family, 56 ; Hale H all, 
ii. ; the church, ii. 



Hall-foss, 121. 

Hall-Thwaites 174. 

Hardknott Castle, 181, 449. 

Harrington parish, 5 ; manor, ib. 
family of Harrington, 7; the 
church, 9 ; the port, 13. 

Harrington family, 7. 

Haverigg, 180. 

Hayes Castle, 78, 448. 

Henry VI., his visit to Muncaster 
castle, 217 bis, 218, 224, 2.30. 

Hensingham, 424; manor, 42.5; 
the chapel. 420 ; memoirof Arch- 
bishop Grindal, 427. 

Her-singham-hall, 424. 

Herringbone masonry described, 
32, 33. 

Hodbarrow, 146, 148. 

Holborn-hill, 148. 

Holme-Rook hall, 207. 

Holy-wells, 148. 

How-hall, 416. 

How-Michael, 243. 

Hudleston family, 155. 

Infell, 280. 

Ingwell, 424. 

Irton of Irton, pedigi-ee, 195. 

Irton parish, 193; manor, 194; 
pedigree of Irton of Irton, 195; 
Irton-hall, 199; manor of San- 
ton, 201 ; the church, ib. ; Holme 
Rook hall, 207 : school , ib ; ad- 
ditions, 449, 450. 

Irton hall, 199. 

John, St., see Beckermet. 
Jones, Paul, his attempt to destroy 
the shipping of Whitehaven, .363. 

Kelton, 82 ; manor, 89. 
'King's coach-road,' 187. 
Kinneyside, 415. 
Kirkby Begock, 333. 
Kirksanton, 148, 180. 
Kirkstones, 122. 

Lady-Hall, 174. 

Lamplugh family, 84 and 437. 

Lamtlugh parish, 82; manor, 84 ; 
pedigree of Lamplugh, ib. and 
437 ; the hall, 87 ; the church, 
ib.; manor of Kelton, 89; Sal- 
ter hall, 90; Murlon, ib. ; 
charities, 91. 

Latimer, Bishop, his wish that 
some of the abbeys should be 
left for pious and charitable uses, 
34't note. 

Latus family, 172. 

Law, Bishop, establishes the col- 
lege of St. Bees, 353. 

Lewthwaite of Broadgate, pedigree 
of, 440. 

Linethwaite, 424. 

Longevity, instances of, 21, 72, 77, 
95, US, 124, 188, 240, .387. 

Lonsdale, Earl of fits up the col- 
lege of St. Bees, 350. 

Low-mere-beck lead mines, 416. 

Lowscalcs, 148. 

Lowside quarter, 326. 

' Luck of Muncaster,' 21 6, 224. 230. 

Lucy family, 37, 351. 

Lucy, Lord and Lady, their effigies 
at St. Bees, 351. 

Marriages by justices of the peace 
during the Commonwealth, 1 II, 

Mary, queen of Scots, her letter to 
Queen Elizabeth, from Working- 
ton, 244; her visit to Workington, 
244, 247 note, 254. 

Mass bell, 221. 

Moschines, family of, 352. 

Mcschines, Ranulph de, founds 
Calder abbey. 309. 

Mcschines, William de, founds the 
priory of St. Bees, .3,36. 

Middleton place, 95, 96. 

MiLLOM parish, 145; seigniory, 149; 
pedigree of Boyvill or de Millom, 
152; pedigree of Hudleston, 155; 
the castle, 160; the church, 164; 
pedigree of Latus of the Beck, 
172; Thwaites, 174; Birker and 
Austhwaite, 178 ; Dalegarth hall, 
179; Chapel Sucken.l 80 ;Ulpha, 
ib.; Hardknott castle, 184; Ulpha 
chapel, 189; charities, 176, 178, 
190, 191. 

Moresby family, 65. 

Moresby parish, 58; Roman sta- 
tion, 59, and 4 17 ; the manor, 
65; Moresby hall, 06; the church, 
07 ; Parton, 09 ; additions, 447, 

Mouutain chiuches and chapels. 



described by Mr. Wordsworth, 
414 note. 

Mulcaster, family of, 233. 

Multon family, 38. 

MuNCASTEB parish, 209; manor, 
213; castle, 214; manor of 
Birkby,218; church,!*.; pedigree 
of Penuington, Lord Muncastcr, 
228- Mulcaster of Muncaster, 
233; KaTenglass,234; charities, 

Murton, 90. 

Neddnimpriorj-, in UUter, a cell 
to the priory of St. Bees, iib, 

Nelson, Lord, anecdote of, 204, 

Nether- Wasdale, 411; chapel,412; 

additions, 450. 
Newspapers, 360. 

Oaks, 176. 
Old Castle, 213. 
Old Chapel, 243. 
Overcnd, 424. 

Parishes, origin of, 345, note; co- 
extensive with manors, i*. 

Parish registers in Allerdale Ward 
above Derwent, account of, 444. 

Parlon, 69. 

Patrickson of Caswell-How, pedi- 
gree of, 417. 
Patrickson of Stockhow, pedigree 

of. 419. 

Patrons of livings, 4. 

Pearl fishery in the Irt, lUb. 

Pearl muscle, 107. 

Pbdigbees :— Harrington,?; titz- 
Duncan, 36; Lucy, 37, 40; 
Multon, 38; Percy, 41 ; Wynd- 
ham, 46; Lamplugh 84 and 
437 • Boyvill or Ue MiUom, 15i ; 
Hudleston, !&&; Latus of (he 
Beck, 172; Irton of Irton, 19o ; 
Pennington, Lord Munraster, 
228; Curwen, 251; Stanley, 
281 ; Lowlhcr, Earl of Lonsdale, 
369- Patrickson of Caswellhow, 
417 I Patrickson of Stockhow, 
419'; Ponsonby, 435; Lcwth- 
wait'o, 110. 
Percy family, 41. 

Ponsonby, family of, 56; pedigree 
of, 435. 

Ponsonby hall, 287. 

PoNSos BY parish, 278 ; manor, 280 ; 
pedigree of Stanley, 281 ; Pon- 
sonby haU, 287 ; church, 289 ; 
additions, 450. 

Population table, 4. 

Poe-beck, 331. 

Preston Isle, 327 note. 

Preston-quarter, 326. 

Prospect Hill, 76. 

Rainsbarrow Wood, 189. 

Ravcnglass, 2.34. 

Reformation, its defects and abuses, 

Registers of parishes in the Ward, 

Religious houses, their suppression, 

Rivers in AUerdalc Ward above, 1. 
Roman road from Egremont to 

Cockermouth, 35. 
Rottington, 340, 409 ; manor, ib. 
Round towers described, 34, note. 

Salter hall, 90. 
Salmon-hunting, 240. 
Sanctc or Saints' bell, 221. 
Sandes or Sandys family, 410. 
Sandwith, 326. 
Santon manor, 201. 
Sea-fell pike, 420, 421 note. 
Scale-gill pit, 331. _ 
Screes, 411 note, bis. 

Scacale and Newton, manor of, 

Scdilia, their former use, 322. 

Selkcrs bay, 125. 

Sclla-field, 304. 

ScUa-field tarn, .304. 

StUa Park, 306. 

Seton-hall, 144. 

Seton Nunnery, 136. 

Seymour family, 45. 

Shippingof Cumberland, A.D.lSbb, 

2f)8, 361. 

Silcroft, 98. 

Skalderskew, 304. 

Slavery, curious instance of, 317. 
1 Slough-dogs, 23. 

Spedding, Mr. destroyed by aa cx- 
I plosion in a coal-pit, 402. 

3 N 



Slaiuburn, 274. 

Standing stones, 83, 121. 

Stanley, 331. 

Stanley-gill, U7. 

Stanley, family of, 281. 

Stock-how Hall, S2. 

Stoueside, 182. 

Storm on the west coast, 36G note. 

Summergrove, 424. 

Superstitions, 117. 

Swineside, 176. 

Thwaites, 174 ; manor, ib ; cha- 
pel, 175; Druidical temple, 176; 
charities, 178. 

Thwaites family, 174. 

Ulpha, 180; manor, 181; Hard- 
knott castle, 184; chapel, 189; 
charities, 190. 

Ulverston, skirmish near, 158, 159, 

Vitreous tubes found at Drigg, 105. 

Wadertiiwaite parish, 92; ma- 
nor, ib. ; the church, 93. 

Wallow Barrow Crag, 183. 

Walls castle, 210, 212. 

Wasdale hall, 412. 

Wasdale head, 412; chapel, 413; 
additions, 450. 

Wast-water, 411, note. 

Weddicar, manor of, 410. 

Whicham parish, 98 ; the manors, 
99 ; the church, ib. ; the gram- 
mar school of Whicham and 
Bootle, 101 ; charities, 103; ad- 
ditions, 448. 

Whicham hall, 99. 

W'hilliniore, 71. 

Whitbeck parish, 115; manor, 
117; the church, IIS; antiqui- 
ties, 121 ; charities, 122. 

Whitehaven, 359 ; the manor, 3G6; 
the castle, 367 ; pedigree of the 
Lowther family, 369 ; chapel of 
St. Nicholas, 379; chapel of the 
Holy Trinity, 385 ; chapel of St. 
James, 391 ; dissenting chapels, 
396 ; the harbour, ib. ; the coal- 
pits, 399 ; charities, 408. 

Wilton, 55. 

Winscales, 239. 

Workington parish, 239 ; tlie 
hall, 243 ; pedigree of Curwen, 
251 ; the town, 257 ; church, 
260; St. John's chapel, 268; 
dissenting chapels, 269 ; chari- 
ties, 270 ; Stainburn, 274 ; Clif- 
ton, 275. 

Workington, 257. 

Workuigton-hall, 243. 

Wotobank, 15 ; tradition respecting, 

Wyndham family, 46. 

Yotten-Fews, 304. 

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