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Full text of "Alphabets old and new, for the use of craftsmen"

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Cooper-Hewitt Museum Library 






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Smithsonian Institution Libraries 



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ALPHABETS 
OLDANDNEW 



WF0RTEB1T THE PETER TOLLY CO. PmLAIELPHfA 



COMPANION VOLUME TO THIS 

LETTERING 

IN 

ORNAMENT 

AN ENQUIRY INTO THE DE- 
CORATIVE USE OF LETTER- 
ING . PAST . PRESENT . AND 
POSSIBLE. 

OTHER WORKS 

BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 

NATURE AND ORNAMENT. 

I. Nature: The Raw Material of 

Design. 
II. Ornament: The Finished Product 
of Design. 
WINDOWS: A BOOK ABOUT STAINED 
AND PAINTED GLASS. 

Third Edition. 
ART IN NEEDLEWORK: A BOOK 
ABOUT EMBROIDERY. 

Third Edition. 
PATTERN DESIGN. 

PENMANSHIP OF THE XVIth, XVIIth. 
AND XVIIIth CENTURIES. 

ORNAMENT AND ITS APPLICATION. 

MOOT POINTS: FRIENDLY DISPUTES 
UPON ART AND INDUSTRY. 

In conjunction with Walter Crane. 



92 7 

ALPHABETS 
OLDand NEW 



FOR THE USE OF CRAFTSMEN, 
WITH AN INTRODUCTORY ESSAY 
ON 'ART IN THE ALPHABET' 



BY 









LEWIS Ff DAY 

author of 'pattern design,' 
' ornament and its application,' 
'nature and ornament,' etc. 



THIRD EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGE! 

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v 



LONDON : 
B. T. BATSFORD Ltd., 94 HIGH HOLBORN 






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\°[\0 

CHah 



TRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN AT 
THE DARIEN PRESS, EDINBURGH 



PREFACE TO THE THIRD 
EDITION. 

A book of alphabets like this, for the use of 
artists and others who have occasion either to 
work in the manner of some given period or to 
design lettering of their own, needs scarcely any 
introductory essay. 

I have attempted, however, in " Art in the 
Alphabet," to give, as simply as possible, that 
amount of information about the Alphabet and its 
evolution without which it is not safe for the 
designer to depart from too familiar forms. 

Fuller particulars of the various alphabets than 
it was possible to give in this connected and con- 
densed account of the alphabet will be found in the 
Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

My own ideas on lettering design, enunciated by 
the way, are the more frankly expressed because 
it must be understood that they are only personal 
opinions which the reader will take for what they 
are worth. 

In the alphabets themselves the spirit of the 
old lettering is faithfully kept, though I have not 
scrupled to supply missing letters. Scholars will 



vi Preface. 

of course object to this ; but the book is not for 
them ; it is for working artists, who will be glad, I 
know, to have twenty-six letters to the alphabet. 

A feature in the book is the quantity of illustra- 
tions showing the difference it makes in the 
character of the lettering, whether it is in wood or 
stone, in stuff or leather, in mosaic or stained glass ; 
whether, for example in metal, it is cut in, grounded 
out, beaten up, onlaid or engraved ; or whether 
the writing tool chances to be a chisel or a gouge, 
a needle or a brush, a stylus or a pen — and even 
what sort of pen it is. 

All this is much more fully illustrated than it 
was in earlier editions ; and, in particular, the 
penmanship of the 17th contury for which I have 
been able to draw upon a unique collection of the 
famous " Writing Books " in the possession of the 
publisher. 

" Alphabets Old and New " concerns itself only 
with letters and the corresponding numerals. The 
decorative use of Lettering in Ornament is the 
subject of a separate volume. 

LEWIS F. DAY. 

15, Taviton Street, 
March 1, 1910= 



NOTE. 

Thanhs are due to Mr. George Clulow for the use 
of his valuable collection of old Writing Books, etc. ; to 
Messrs. Matthew Bell & Co., W.J. Pearce,J. Walter West, 
C. Griffin &> Co., Ltd., J. Vinycomb, Herr von Larisch, 
Brindley & Weatherley, Frau Bassermann Nachfolger, 
Munich, Martin Gerlach, Ferd. Schenk, and others, who have 
kindly permitted the reproduction here of alphabets drawn or 
copyrighted by them ; and to the artists who have designed 
alphabets especially for this book. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page XI 

ART IN THE ALPHABET . . . ,, I 

OLD ALPHABETS ARRANGED IN ORDER 

of date ...... Fig. No. 54 

MODERN ALPHABETS — SHOWING THE 
CHARACTER WHICH COMES OF 
USING PEN, CHISEL, OR WHATEVER 
IT MAY BE ,, l60 

MODERN ALPHABETS IN WHICH THE 
INFLUENCE OF THE IMPLEMENT 
EMPLOYED IS NOT SO EVIDENT . ,, 207 

AMPERZANDS AND NUMERALS . . „ 225 

INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS, ARRANGED 
UNDER ARTISTS, COUNTRIES, 

MATERIALS AND PROCESSES, AND 

styles Page 253 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



i. greek alphabet— From a MS. — characteristic of the pen. 
(Compare the B with 54 and 55, and observe the likeness 
of the n to W.) gth century. 

2. Coptic ms.— 10th century or earlier. \ 

3. Coptic ms. — 12th century. V Compare with Greek. 

4. Coptic ms. — 14th century. J 

5. greek ms. — nth century. 

6. roman ms. — Penwork. A has no cross-stroke. Upstrokes 

thick and thin. (Compare 30.) 4th century. 

7. ms. — Penwork. Round D and M. Ghasatail. 7th century. 

8. roman uncials — Penwork. 8th century. 

9. "rustic" roman — Penwork. A has no cross-stroke. F and 

L, rise above line. E, I, T not easy to read. 5th century. 

10. roman capitals — Penwork. R has thin upstroke. 6th 

century. 

11. roman capitals — Penwork. (Compare square O with 17, 18, 

48.) Note " dilation " of strokes. 6th century. 

12. byzantine capitals — 7th century. 

13. English inscription — From a monument to the sister of 

William the Conqueror. 1085. 

14. franco-gallic capitals— Heading of a MS. Penwork, of 

which the curly quirks are indicative. 7th century. 

15. visigothic ms. — Moresque influence perceptible. Note long 

and short letters. 10th century. 



xii Descriptive List of Illustrations, 

16. saxon illumination (Caroline) — 9th century. 

17. anglo-saxon engraved forms. 

18. anglo-saxon pen-forms — 9th century. 

19. Lombard — From the Baptistery at Florence, incised in marble 

and inlaid with cement. 12th century. 

20. Italian ms. — Beginning of 13th century. (Compare with 

120.) 

21. Lombard writing of about 1250. Freely rendered. 

22. capitals — 15th century. 

23. German gothic minuscule or black letter — Rounded form. 

15th or 16th century. 

24. German gothic minuscule or black letter — Squarer form. 

15th or 16th century. 

25. black letter — Squarer form. 15th or 16th century. 

26. roman capitals cut in stone —Wetzlar. About 1700. 

27. minuscule italics — 16th century. 

28. roman capitals — From mosaics in the Louvre. The shape 

of the letter to some extent determined by the four or three- 
sided tesserae. 

29. greek letters cut in bronze — From the Museum at Naples. 

The engraver has begun by boring little holes at the ex- 
tremities to prevent his graver from overshooting the line. 
This was constantly done by the Greek die-sinkers, with the 
result that in the coins the letters have at their extremities 
little raised beads of silver. The fact that where, as in the 
A, the already engraved grooves, which form the sides of 
the letter, are sufficient to stop the cross-stroke they are 
allowed to do so, shows clearly enough the object of these 
terminal borings. 

30. roman letters cut in bronze — From tables of the law found 

at Rome in 1521, now in the Museum at Naples. The digs 
of the chisel are rather wedge-shaped. (Compare with the 
cuneiform inscriptions, and with 194.) 

31. gothic letters— From the cathedral at Cordova. Cut in 

stone. The face of the letters is fiat, the ground sunk. 
Note the angularity of the forms. 1409. (Compare 82.) 



Descriptive List of Illustrations. xiii 

32. black letter painted in cobalt upon glazed earthen ware- 

In the Victoria and Albert Museum. Chiefly Hispano- 
moresque dishes of the 15th and 16th centuries. There is a 
fantastic flourishing about the lines which tells of the brush. 
(Compare 33.) 

33. black letter painted in cobalt upon Italian Majolica drug 

pots — In the Victoria and Albert Museum. The flourishes 
and foliations tell of the brush. 16th century. (Compare 32.) 

34. lombardic inscription cut in brass — The background 

characteristically cross-hatched. Nordhausen. 1395. (Com- 
pare 77 and 78.) 

35. roman capitals painted on wood — From the drawer fronts 

in a chemist's shop, now in the Germanic Museum at 
Nuremberg. The use of the brush is partly responsible for 
the shape of the letters. 1727. (Compare 36, 38, 39.) 

36. roman capitals painted on Italian Majolica — In the 

Victoria and Albert Museum. Distinctly brushwork. 1518. 
(Compare 35, 38, 39.) 

37. gilt letters picked out with a point, perhaps the end of a 

brush — Spanish estofado. From a frame in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. The ground has been gilded, the gold 
leaf covered with a coat of black paint, out of which the 
letters have been scraped whilst the pigment was in 
condition. 

38. roman letters painted on wood — Italian. 15th century. 

39. roman letters painted on glazed earthenware — In the 

Victoria and Albert Museum. English. 18th century. 
(Compare with similar brushwork, 36.) 

40. lombardic letters, painted, and showing the influence of 

the brush. German. 

41. roman letters, executed in copper rivets on a leather 

belt. In the Museum at Salzburg. 

42. Gothic capitals, cut in brass. From the tomb of Mary 

of Burgundy, wife of the Emperor Maximilian. Notre 
Dame, Bruges, 1495-1502. 



xiv Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

43. inscription. The letters, cut out in silver and rivetted on 

to silver. Early Gothic. 

44. raised letters— Carved in stone, from Bishop West's 

Chapel in Ely Cathedral. Ca. 1534. (Compare 115.) 

45. lombardic letters— From a stained glass window. From 

a drawing by C. Winston. Early Gothic. 

46. lombardic letters, executed in cut leather. From an 

early Gothic book binding in the Hamburg Museum. 

47. capital letters, in stone, grounded out. St. Margaret's, 

King's Lynn, 1622. 

48. inscription, painted on glass. From a drawing by C. 

Winston. 

49. ALPHABET — From the inscription on a drinking cup, 

engraved on silver. Engraved lines shown in black. 

50. embroidered letters — Worked in gold over parchment 

upon velvet. From the leading strings of James I. 

51. greek inscription, incised in marble upon an antique 

bust of Aristophanes in the Uffizi at Florence. 

52. crowned lombardic letters — From a stained glass 

window in Winchester Cathedral. From a drawing by 
C. Winston. The fine lines are picked out of the solid 
paint with a pointed stick. 

53. letters cut out of glazed tiles and embedded in cement. 

From an inscription in the Cathedral at Cordova. 

54. GREEK — From an Athenian stele. Marble. Cut in with a 

chisel. Characteristically right-lined. Certain strokes 
fall short of the full length. The two sides of the stroke 
not always parallel, but inclining occasionally to wedge- 
shape. The top stroke of T is not stopped by cross-cut, 
but runs out. 394 B. c. 

55. greek initials — From a book printed at Basel. Wood 

engraving. The serif fully developed. 16th century. 

56. roman letters cut in marble — From inscriptions in the 

Forum at Rome. Characteristically chisel work. 



Descriptive List of Illustrations. xv 

57. roman — From fragments in the British Museum. Cut in 

stone. In E, F, L, P, R, T strokes run out. Note variety 
in rendering the same letter. 2nd and 3rd centuries. 

58. English, irish, or anglo-saxon — From illuminated MSS. 

Curves inclined to take a spiral direction. Considerable 
freedom of penmanship . Various forms of the same letter. 
Note long tails and unequal length of letters. 6th century. 

59. from a codex in Latin — Written between ruled marginal 

lines. Cqnsiderable variety in the form of the same letter. 
Note the square C and G, and the deep waist of the Band 
R, which compare with alphabet 1. 7th or 8th century. 

60. galician capitals —MSS. 8th century. (Compare B and 

R with alphabets i and 59.) 

61. irish — From the Book of Kells. Illuminated. Note square 

form of certain letters — the curious D-shaped O and the 
general thickening of the upright strokes at the starting 
point. Various forms of same letter. 8th century. 

62 and 63. anglo-saxon — Various MSS. Forms sometimes 
rigidly square, sometimes fantastically flowing. Strokes 
developing occasionally into spirals, or into interlacing, 
which ends perhaps in a grotesque head. 8th and 9th 
centuries. 

64. saxon and anglo-saxon mss. — The outline penned and filled 

in with various tints. The scribe has not made up his 
mind as to any logical use of thick and thin strokes. 
Note square C and S, and looser T and U. 7th, 8th, and 
9th centuries. 

65. ms. letters — More nearly resembling the orthodox Roman 

character, with exception of D, E, G, P, U, in which 
Gothic characteristics begin to appear, and perhaps a hint 
of future minuscule forms. 10th century. 

66. French ms. — Initials in colours. More Gothic than Roman, 

flourishing into tails of foliation. 12th century. 

67. French— From the doors of the Cathedral at Le Puy. 

Wood, simply grounded out. Several varieties of letter. 
The curved lines characteristically cusped. Probably 
12 century. (Compare with 19.) 



xvi Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

68. German ms. — Initials. Distinctly pen work. Departing again 

widely from the square Roman form. 12th century. 

69. Gothic uncials — From the Arundel and Lansdowne MSS. 

in the British Museum. Written with a rather frisky pen. 
English. End of 12th century. 

70. letters apparently scraped out of a coat of varnish colour 

upon gilt metal — From an altar at Lisbjerg in Denmark. 
1 2th century. 

71. Gothic uncials — From a Bible in the British Museum 

(i5"409). Characteristically penwork. 13th century. 
(Compare 69.) 

72. Gothic uncials — From the inscription upon a bronze bell 

at Hildesheim. 1270. 

73. Gothic uncials — From a Psalter from St. Albans, now in 

the British Museum (2. B. VI.). Penwork. 13th century. 
(Compare 71.) 

74. ms. letters — Typically Gothic capitals. "Closed" letters. 

Sportive finishing strokes. 14th century. 

75. Italian capitals — Drawn by J. Vinycomb. 14th century. 

76. incised gothic capitals — From Italy, Spain, and south of 

France. About 1350. 
77 and 78. gothic inscriptions — From Nordhausen. Cut in 
brass. 1395— J 397- 

79. English gothic inscriptions. Stone. From monument of 

Richard II. in Westminster Abbey, and others of same 
date. About 1400. 

80. English initials — From MS. in the British Museum. On 

a background of delicate ornament, penned in red. About 
1400. 

81. gothic minuscule — From the Church of S. Francesco at 

Prato. Simple forms incised in marble and filled in with 
cement. About 1410. 

82. gothic letters carved in stone — The ground sunk. Spanish. 

14th or 15th century. (Compare 31.) 

83. penwork — Severe and straight beginning of a type which 

eventually becomes excessively flowing and florid. 1420. 



Descriptive List of Illustrations, xvii 

84. german ms. — Gothic initials. 15th century. 

85. german — From an inscription on a monument to Georicus 

de Lewenstein in the cathedral at Bamberg. Cut in 
brass. Something of a compromise between majuscule 
and minuscule lettering. 1464. 

86. French — From an inscription on a picture-frame in the 

Louvre. The slight but characteristic curling and twisting 
of the points of serifs comes of the use of the brush. Note 
the recurrence of the square C, more characteristic of an 
earlier period. 1480. (Compare 103.) 

87. german ms. — Gothic initials. The thickening of the curved 

strokes is characteristic. The swelling is not gradual, but 
sudden. This occurs in other German MSS. of the same 
period. 1475. 

88. ms. initials — The terminations again rather frisky. But 

letters of this kind (compare also 74, etc.) being usually in 
colour, most often red, their tails, etc., do not cause the 
confusion in the ranks of writing which they would do if 
they were in black. About 1475. 

89. painted initials. MSS., German. Ca. 1480. 

90. gothic lettering incised in marble — German. 1482. 

91. late gothic letters — Wood-carving in relief. Note the 

foliation of otherwise simple forms. French. Probably 
15th century. 

92. initials cut in stone — From various monumental inscrip- 

tions (in black letter) at Bruges. End of the 14th 
century. 

93 and 94. gothic minuscule — From monumental brasses. 
Severe and simple forms. End of 15th century. 

95. alphabets made up from various monumental inscriptions. 

German. End of 15th century. 

96. gothic initials — Woodcut. Used with printed type. End 

of 16th century. 

97. from an inscription on a brass to Duke Albert of Saxony. 

Meissen. Something of a compromise between Roman 
and Gothic types. 1500. 

b 



xviii Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

98. roman letters — From the inscription on a bronze monu- 

ment by Peter Vischer. Nuremberg. 1495. 

99. roman alphabet, incised — From inscriptions at S. Croce, 

Florence. Early Renaissance. 

100. initials — Framed in delicate ornament, penned in red. 

16th century. 

101. Italian Gothic initials— From a chorale at Monte Casino. 

Framed in pen work in colour. 16th century. 

102. Gothic capitals — 16th century. 

103. painted flemish. Early 16th century. From a lengthy 

inscription round the obviously original gilt frame of a 
picture of the last Judgment in the Academy of Bruges, 
by Jean, Provost of Mons, who died in 1529. Painted 
Flemish. The missing letters are given in outline. 
(Compare 86.) 

104. gothic capitals — By A.lbrecht Durer. Penwork. Early 

16th century. (Compare with 105 and no.) 

105. German minuscule — Albrecht Durer. Early 16th century. 

(Compare with Italian, no.) 

106. Italian initials — Broad penwork of late Gothic character. 

Neither so rigid nor so florid as the typical German writing 
of the period. 15th and 16th centuries. 

107. Italian minuscule — By Vicentino. From the original 

Writing Book. The penmanship is florid, but not quite 
in the way of German flourish. 1523. (Compare with 
German, 105.) 

108. Italian minuscule — From the original Writing Book, by 

Ludovico Vicentino. A good specimen of the so-called 
"ribbon letter." When once the carver or engrave 
began to consider the broad strokes of his " black letter' 
as straps, and to suggest by ever so slight a cut that they 
were turned over at the ends (compare 80), it was in- 
evitable that he should arrive eventually at this kind of 
thing. Florid indeed, but fanciful. Any form of letter 
might be so treated, but the treatment is peculiarly suited 
to the black-letter form. 1523. 

109. Italian capitals — From the original Writing Book by Lud. 

Vicentino. The outline of the letters deviates into inter- 



Descriptive List of Illustrations. xix 

lacings. But the knotting occupies approximately the 
natural thickness of the letter ; and, though the outline 
is thus broken, the form of the letter is sufficiently pre- 
served. This splitting of the letter, as it were, into 
ribbons in its thickest parts was not uncommon in 16th- 
century initials. It is obvious that any form of letter 
might be elaborated after this fashion. 1523. 

no. Italian Gothic capitals — After Ludovico Curione. Pen- 
work. 16th century. (Compare with German, 105.) 

in. Spanish Gothic capitals — From the Writing Book by Juan 
Yciar. The forms of the K and Y are unusual. First 
half of the 16th century. 

112. roman letters cut in marble — Florentine. 15th century. 

113. roman alphabet — Engraved by Heinrich Aldegrever. 1530. 

114. Elizabethan letterings — From an inscription incised in 

wood at North Walsham, Norfolk. (Compare 115 — 133.) 

115. quasi-elizabethan alphabet — Freely drawn from wood- 

cut initials in various printed books of the period ; but 
there is practically no form for which there is not 
authority in the old engraved letters. (Compare 44.) 

116. Italian gothic minuscule — From the original Writing 

Book by Palatino. Straight-lined with elaborately 
nourishing extremities. It suggests the engraver. 1546 

117. Italian minuscule — From the original Writing Book by 

Vespasiano. These letters are exceedingly well shaped. 
Observe the second variety of the letter v. 1556. 

118. typically Italian renaissance — "Roman" capitals, by 

Serlio. 16th century. (Compare with Roman, 56.) 

119. German capitals — By Daniel Hopfer. Renaissance or 

" Roman " in character, but not without traces of linger- 
ing Gothic influence. 1549. 

120. Italian initials— From the original Writing Book by G. F. 

Cresci. This is a fanciful and rather elegant elaboration 
of forms common in Gothic writing. The familiar out- 
line is, as it were, ornamentally fretted. 1570. (Compare 
with 20.) 

b 2 



xx Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

121. Italian gothic capitals — From the original Writing Book 

by G. F. Cresci. Apparently to some extent influenced 
by the Roman character. 1570. 

122. Italian minuscule — From the original Writing Book by 

G. F. Cresci. Roman in character. 1570. 

123. Italian gothic capitals — After Cresci, etc. Penmanship 

i57o. 

124. black letter minuscule — From a rubbing of a memorial 

inscription. Flemish. 1579. 

125. flemish minuscule — From a memorial tablet at S. Jacques 

Bruges. Cut in stone. There is a suggestion of turning 
over and interlacing the strokes of the letters, which was 
very usual in engraving of the period, whether on brass 
or stone. 16th century. 

126. roman capitals — From the lace-book of Giovanni Ostaus, 

adapted to working on a square mesh. Characteristic of 
the method of execution, and not of any period. 1591 
(Compare 200.) 

127. German — From inscriptions at Bingen and other towns 

Cut in stone, showing some licence on the part of the 
mason. 1576, 1598, 1618. 

128. German minuscule Roman letters — From Bamberg, en- 

graved on brass, the background cut away. Observe 
the spur on the edge of the long strokes, designed to 
accentuate the parallelism of the line of lettering. 1613. 

129. German minuscule — From a monument at Wfirzburg 

Cathedral. Incised in slate. 1617. 

130 and 131. majuscule and minuscule alphabets, from a rare 
Writing Book of the 17th century. 

132. italics — The sloping form came, of course, from the use 
of the pen, but it was largely adopted by the masons of 
the 17th and 18th centuries, who copied even the most 
elaborate flourishes of the writing-master. 17th century. 
(Compare 134 et seq.) 



Descriptive List of Illustrations. xxi 

133. From inscriptions rather rudely carved upon a beam of elm 

now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The incised 
line on the face of the letters occurs only in parts. 
Letters G. J, K, Q, X, Z were missing. English, dated 
1638. (Compare 114 and 115.) 

134. pen-written capitals — From "The Pen's Transcendency," 

a Writing Book by E. Cocker, 1660. Cocker was so 
emphatically the English writing-master of his day as to 
have given rise to the phrase, "According to Cocker." 
(Compare this and the following with the stone cut 
letters, 142, 143, inspired by them.) 

135. pen-written minuscules — From "The Pen's Trans- 

cendency," by E. Cocker. 1660. 

136. pen-written minuscules — By Lesgret, a writing-master of 

Paris. 1736. 

137. alphabets and inscription — From * * Magnum in Parvo, " 

a Writing Book by E. Cocker. 

138. alphabets and inscription — From the " Guide to Pen- 

manship," by E. Cocker. 1673. 

139. pen-written capitals — From a "Guide to Penmanship," 

by E. Cocker. 1673. 

140. minuscules by Maingueneau. Paris. Early 18th century. 

141. pen-written capitals, by Lesgret. Paris. 1736. 

142. English italic writing — From inscriptions on monuments 

in Westminster Abbey. Stone-cutting in imitation of 
penwork, not characteristic of the chisel. 1665. 

143. English roman lettering — From engraved stone slabs at 

Chippenham and elsewhere. 1697. 

144. minuscules — From a Writing Book by Shelley. English. 

1705- 

145. minuscules — From a Writing Book by C. Snell. English 

I7I5- 

146. minuscules — From a Writing Book by M. S. Andrade. 

Portuguese. 1721. 



xxii Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

147. pen-written alphabets by M. S. Andrade. Portuguese. 

1721. 

148. German capitals — From the Germanisches Museum, 

Nuremberg. Painted on the wooden drug-drawers of 
an old apothecary's shop. Brushwork. Observe the 
bulging of the curved strokes. (Compare with 149 and 
19.) 

149. German capitals — By J. H. Tiemroth, of Arnstadt. Pen- 

work. From the titles of a series of water-colour paint- 
ings of botanical specimens. Observe the swelling of the 
curved strokes and compare with 148 and 19. Here and 
there a letter shows an inclination to fall into Italics. 
1738-48. 

150. German lettering — From inscriptions at Osnabriick. 

Halting between majuscule and minuscule forms. 
Incised in stone. 1742-56. 

151. French — A more reticent example of the period of Louis 

XV., by E. Guichard, in which it would, perhaps, be 
more accurate to say that the shape of the letter is broken 
up into ornament. 18th century. 

152. French— Of the period of Louis XV., by Laurent. This is 

a case in which Rococo scrollwork and flowers are com- 
pelled to take the form of lettering, more or less — in this 
case the form of current writing. 18th century. 

153. modern minuscule — From an inscription etched on litho- 

graphic stone by John Tischberger, who was a writing- 
master at Nuremberg, 1765-70. The touch is neither 
that of the pen, nor of the brush, nor of the chisel. 

154. German — From a monument at Wiirzburg. Incised in slate. 

Occasional capital letters are mixed up with the minus- 
cule. 1784. 

155. English — Roman capitals and numerals, by William 

Caslon. Printed type, " old face." 18th century. 

156. English — Roman lower case, and italic upper and lower 

case, by W. Caslon. Printed type, "old face," 18th 
century. 



Descriptive List of Illustrations, xxiii 

157. English courthand — From Andrew Wright's " Court- 

hand Restored," a book designed to assist the student 
in deciphering old deeds, etc. This book was published 
in 1815 ; but the character is at least as early as the 14th 
century, and may have been in use a century or more 
before that. 

158. HEBREW ALPHABET. 

159. Hebrew alphabet — Ornamental version. From Silvestre's 

' ' Paleographie." Almost identical with a 16th-century 
alphabet by Palatino. 

160. modern Gothic capitals, executed with a quill — The forms 

designed for execution with two strokes of the pen. 
Walter Crane. 

161. modern majuscule and minuscule, directly written with 

the simplest stroke of a quill pen. Walter Crane. 

162. modern German gothic capitals (Facturschrift) — Penwork. 

Otto Hupp. In the later German character penmanship 
ran wild. The lettering is often quite inextricable from the 
tangle of flourishes in which it is involved. Herr Hupp 
has avoided the utmost extravagance of the national style. 
To anyone acquainted with the German character, it is 
clear enough which of his sweeping strokes mean busi- 
ness, and which are merely subsidiary penmanship. The 
happy mean is, of course, to make ornament against 
which the letter tells plainly enough. That is attempted 
also in 221. 

163. MODERN GERMAN GOTHIC CAPITALS — OttO Hupp. From 

" Alphabete und Ornamente." 

164. MODERN PEN-DRAWN ALPHABET — By Otto Hupp, from 

Rudolf von Larisch's "Beispiele Kunstlerischer Schrif- 
ten." 

165. modern variation of minuscule gothic— Intentionally 

rather fantastic, but not intentionally departing so far 
from familiar forms as to be difficult to read. L. F. D. 

166. PEN-WRITTEN CAPITALS. L. F. D. 



xxiv Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

167. modern roman italics, majuscule and minuscule, in what 

printers call " revived old style." 

168. modern roman italic capitals, with something of a 

cursive character. L. F. D. 

169. modern majuscule and minuscule lettering and numerals, 

with more curvature in the strokes than in the typical 
Roman character. J. W. Weekes. 

170. modern pen alphabet — By Bailey Scott Murphy, architect. 

Described by him as " freehand without the use of geo- 
metrical instruments." 

171 and 172. written lettering — By R. Anning Bell. " The 
differing shapes of the same letters in the smaller alpha- 
bet depend of course on the letters on either side." Had 
they been for type the artist would have made them more 
exact ; but in drawn letters he thinks the evidence of the 
hand not unpleasant. 

173 and 174. modern architect's alphabets, majuscule and 
minuscule, with numerals and wording, to show the 
adjustment of each letter to letters adjoining. Designed 
to be characteristically penwork. Professor A. Beresford 
Pite, architect. 

175. modern pen letters — By B. Waldram. 

176. PEN-WRITTEN ALPHABETS AND NUMERALS. Percy J. Smith. 

177. modern pen-drawn roman capitals — By B. Waldram. 

178. modern French " roman " type founded upon Serlio. 

(Compare 118.) 

179. modern pen-written uncials — By B. Waldram. 

180. modern pen-written minuscule. L. F. D. 

181. MODERN ROMAN MAJUSCULE AND MINUSCULE. Penwork. 

Roland W. Paul, architect. 

182. modern rather gothic capitals— Penwork. R. K. Cowtan. 

183. modern majuscule and minuscule, approaching to running 

hand. R. K. Cowtan. 

184. modern majuscule and minuscule — R. K. Cowtan. 



Descriptive List of Illustrations. xxv 

185. modern italic capitals — By Walter West. Much of the 

delicacy of Mr. West's beautiful penmanship is unfor- 
tunately lost in the process reproduction. 

186. modern minuscule alphabet — By Selwyn Image. An 

example of his ordinary penmanship, given as an example 
of a modern handwriting which may fairly be described 
as caligraphy. 

187. modern capitals adapted for engraving. L. F. D. 

188. modern capitals adapted for execution with single strokes 

of the pen. L. F. D. 

189. modern French type — Designed by Grasset, and used in 

France for book-work. An English version is in use for 
advertisements, etc. 

190. MODERN VERSION OF EARLY GOTHIC CAPITALS — Adapted for 

engraving on metal. L. F. D. 

191. modern capitals — Twisted, blunt brushwork. Could easily 

be worked in "couched" cord. L. F. D. (Compare 
198.) 

192. modern variation upon roman capitals — Blunt brush- 

work. L. F. D. (Compare 201.) 

193. MODERN VERSION OF EARLY SPANISH LETTERS— Adapted for 

cutting with a single plough of the graver. L. F. D. 

194. modern capitals, shaped with deliberate view to direct and 

easy expression with the chisel, the cuneiform character 
of the Assyrian inscriptions being taken as a suggestion 
that a wedge-shaped incision was about the easiest thing 
to cut in stone. (See p. 28.) Alfred Carpenter and 
L. F. D. 

195. modern capitals, designed for wood-carving, the ornament 

typical of the Elizabethan, Jacobean, and Henri II. periods 
being taken as evidence of the ease with which strap-like 
forms may be cut with a gouge. L. F. D. 

196. modern alphabet — Designed for engraving on silver. The 

black stands for the surface of the plate. It is as if this 
were a rubbing from the engraving. L. F. D. 



xxvi Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

197. modern gothic ribband alphabet — Engraved on brass, 

the ground cross-hatched. Adapted from Otto Hupp. 

198. modern capitals drawn with a continuous line, such as a 

silk cord " couched " upon velvet would naturally take, 
and suitable, therefore, for that form of embroidery. The 
flowing line is here as much dictated by the conditions 
as the square and angular forms of the letters following 
the mesh of the canvas in 200. This alphabet might 
equally well be traced with a full brush, and so executed in 
paint or gesso. It was worked by Mary Kidd of S. Mary's 
Embroidery School, Wantage. 

199. modern capitals embossed on thin sheet-metal, the form 

and fashion of the letters suggested by the ease with 
which they could be beaten up. L. F. D. 

200. embroidered alphabet, founded upon some letters in an 

old English sampler — The peculiar angularity of the 
forms follows naturally from working on the lines given 
by the mesh of the canvas, and is characteristic of a 
certain class of very simple needlework. L. F. D. 
(Compare with 126 and 202, and with what is said in 
reference to 198.) 

201. modern capitals and lower cases — Scratched straight off 

in moist clay, afterwards baked. The form of the letters 
is such as could be most easily incised with a point or 
stylus, and is characteristic of the way of working out of 
which it comes. L. F. D. (Compare with 198, 191, 
192.) 

202. modern alphabet in right lines, suggested by the 

square form of Chinese writing. L. F. D. (See p. 29. 
Compare with 200.) 

203. modern alphabet, expressive of the brush, suggested by 

brush forms in Japanese writing. L. F. D. (See p. 29.) 

204. modern brushwork letters after Mucha. 

205. modern stencilled alphabet adapted from E. Grasset 

and M. P. Verneuil. 



Descriptive List of Illustrations, xxvii 

206. modern German minuscule — Fancifully treated. After 

Franz Stuck, compiled from various designs by him, in 
" Karten urid Vignetten," etc. 

207. MODERN ROMAN, MAJUSCULE AND MINUSCULE, Sans Serif 

These thin letters, all of one thickness, are sometimes 
described as " skeleton." 

208. MODERN ROMAN, MAJUSCULE AND MINUSCULE, of French 

type, elegantly shaped and spurred. Drawn by J. Viny. 
comb. 

209. modern roman capitals — A version of the French type 

(208). L. F. D. 

210. modern roman capitals, not quite of the usual character 

and proportion. (Compare 118.) L. F. D. 

211. MODERN ROMAN CAPITALS AND NUMERALS — Suggestive 

rather of the chisel than of the pen. J. Cromar Watt, 
architect. 

212. modern roman capitals and lower case — Rather further 

removed from orthodoxy than the last. J. W. Weekes. 

213. modern " block " capitals — Based chiefly on Roman. 

W. J. Pearce. From " Painting and Decorating." C. 
Griffin & Co., Ltd. 

214. modern roman " block," or sans serif, majuscule and 

minuscule, miscalled "Egyptian." J. W. Weekes. 

215. modern capitals — Inspired by Gothic. W. J. Pearce. 

216. modern German version of Roman capitals. Otto Hupp. 

From " Alphabete und Ornamente." Frau Bassermann 
Nachfolger, Munich. 

217. modern gothic capitals — Meant to be fanciful, but not to 

do any great violence to accepted form. An alphabet 
in which there is the least approach to design is always 
in danger of being considered illegible. Legibility is 
for the most part the paramount consideration ; but 
there are cases, however rare, in which it is permitted 
even to hide the meaning so long as it is there, for those 
whom it may concern. 



xxviii Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

218. MODERN CAPITALS AND NUMERALS — Patten Wilson. 

219. modern capitals derived from Gothic, yet playfully treated. 

L. F. D. 

220. modern capitals — More or less playful variations upon 

familiar forms of lettering. L. F. D. 

221. modern capitals — Rather Gothic than Roman, which 

break out (as was common in old work) into foliation 
which forms a sort of background to the letter. L. F. D. 
designed for Mr. Matthew Bell. 

222. modern capitals and minuscule drawn straight off with 

the pen. L. F. D. 

223. modern pen drawn letters — Rather fantastically treated 

German. 

224. roman capitals— By Franz Stuck. 



AMPERZANDS. 

225. amperzands from various MSS., dating from the 7th to the 

15th centuries. 

226. amperzands — Free renderings of instances dating from the 

16th century to the present day. In the top row may be 
traced the connection between the accepted & and the 
letters ET, of which it is a contraction. 

, Note. — Other examples of amperzands occur in illustrations 
134, 136, 137, 138, 141, 142, 155, 167, 171, 176, 178, 189, 208,212, 
218, 222. 

NUMERALS. 

227. german, cut in stone — The peculiar form of 4 is of the 

period; the 7's have, so to speak, fallen forward. 1477. 

228. various 15th-century dates — Flemish and German 

1491 is carved in wood and grounded out. 1439 is cut in 
stone, 1499 in brass. 

229. fifteenth century — German. Cut in stone. 



Descriptive List of Illustrations, xxix 

230. dates from 1520-1545 — Chiefly cut in brass or bronze 

The figures in relief and grounded out. 

231. fifteenth century Numerals, 1520-1531, etc. German. 

Cut in bronze or brass. 

232. Nuremberg — Bronze. About 1550. 

233. German — Bronze. 1560. 

234. Italian — Painted on faience. Brushwork. 

235. brushwork — 16th or 17th century. 

236. Italian — From a chorale. Penwork. (Compare no and 117.) 

16th century. 

237. gilt figures on a dark ground — Brushwork. 1548? 

238. incised in wood — 1588. 

239. brass, grounded out — 16th century. 

240. painted on glass — 16th century. 

241. brushwork — 16th or 17th century. 

242. rothenburg — Cut in stone. The 4 suggests the origin of 

the 15th-century shape. It is an ordinary 4 turned part 
way round. 1634. 

243. roman numerals — From a bronze dial. Swiss. Figures 

in relief, grounded out. 1647. 

244. cut in stone — 1692. 

245. various dates — 1633, wood in relief. 1625, wood incised. 

The rest on brass (grounded out) or cut in stone. The 1 
in 1679 resembles the letter A— a not uncommon occur- 
rence in 17th-century German inscriptions. 

246. various 18th-century numerals — The complete series 

from an English Writing Book (Curtis), 1732. The Dates 
incised in stone. 

247. dates from monuments — Stone and brass. 18th century, 

248. numbers from an old measure — Inlaid in brass wire on 

hard brown wood. 1740. 



xxx Descriptive List of Illustrations. 

249. various dates — 1573, Flemish, engraved on steel. 1747 

German, twisted brass wire inlaid in wood. 

250. FANCIFUL NUMERALS. L. F. D. 

251. MODERN. 

252. modern — L. F. D. (Compare with 191, 192, 198.) 

253. modern German — Alois Miiller. 

254. modern — L. F. D. (Compare with 217.) 

Note. — Other numerals occur in illustrations — 



142. 


A.D. 1665. 


143- 


A.D. 1697. 


155- 


MODERN. 


Caslon type. 


169. 






J. W. Weekes. 


170. 




, 


Bailey Scott Murphy 


71 and 172. 




, 


R. Anning Bell. 


173- 




, 


A. Beresford Pite. 


176. 




, 


Percy Smith. 


189. 






Type. 


211. 




, 


J. Cromar Watt 


218. 




, 


Patten Wilson 



ART IN THE ALPHABET. 



There are two conditions on which the artist may 
be permitted to tamper with the alphabet : what- 
ever he does ought, in the first place, to make 
reading run smoother, and, in the second, to make 
writing satisfactory to the eye. Neither of these 
desirable ends should, however, be sought at the 
expense of the other. 

The way to make reading easier is to mark 
whatever is characteristic in the letter ; to develop 
what is peculiar to it ; to curtail, or it may be to lop 
off, anything which tends to make us confound it 
with another ; to emphasize, in short, the individu- 
ality of each individual letter, and make it unmis- 
takable. At the same time, there is no reason 
why reading should not be made pleasant as well 
as easy. Beauty, that is to say, is worth bearing 
in mind. It must not, of course, interfere with use ; 
but there is not the least reason why it should. 
Beauty does not imply elaboration or ornament. 
On the contrary, simplicity and character, and the 
dignity which comes of them, are demanded in 
the interests alike of practicality and of art. 

B 



2 Art in the Alphabet. 

It is impossible judiciously to modify the letters 
of the alphabet as it is, or as at any given time it 
was, without thoroughly understanding how it came 
to be so. The form and feature of lettering are 
explained only by its descent. 

All writing is a sort of shorthand. It is inevitable 
that the signs used to represent sounds should be 
reduced to their simplest expression. They become 
in the end mere signs, as unlike the thing which 
may have suggested them in the first instance 
as a man's signature, which is yet honoured by 
his banker, is unlike his name : enough if writing 
convey what we are meant to understand : the 
business of a letter is to symbolize a definite sound. 

We arrive, then, by a process of what has been 
termed " degradation " of such natural forms as 
were first employed in picture-writing (call it rather 
adaptation), at an alphabet of seemingly arbitrary 
signs, the alphabet as we know it after a couple of 
thousand years and more. So well do we know it 
that we seldom think to ask ourselves what the 
letters mean, or how they came to be. 

The explanation of these forms lies in their 
evolution. 

Our alphabet is that of the Romans. We speak 
of it to this day as Roman, to distinguish it from 
Gothic or black letter. The Romans had it from 
the Greeks, or, if not immediately from them, 
from the same sources whence they drew theirs. 
Certainly the Greek, Etruscan, and old Roman 



Art in the Alphabet. 3 

alphabets were all very much alike. They resem- 
bled one another in the number of letters they 
contained, in the sound-value of those letters, and 
in the form they took. There were sixteen letters 
common to Greeks and Etruscans : ABrAEIKAM 
N0I1P2TT ; and this number sufficed always for 

'MfcBBrA££6G2Z. 
ItWlKtyMUMNO 

onfffTyy^fw 



I. GREEK MS. QTH CENTURY. 



the Etruscans, the race dying out before ever it 
had need of more. The Greeks had no longer 
(as the Egyptians had) any signs to represent 
syllables, that is to say combinations of vowels 
and consonants. They added to the alphabet, 
which they borrowed, with modifications, from the 
Phoenicians, extra letters to express words of 
their own. The Greek T^X^Xi do not occur in 




Art in the Alphabet. 

cpccrrrex^o* 

■V An 

anovpcpe 

xpcepoeic 

epoc/ 

2. COPTIC MS. 5TH TO IOTH CENTURY. 

the Phoenician alphabet. The Phoenicians had 
probably adopted from the Egyptians signs to 
express foreign sounds new to their own language, 
without knowing or caring anything about the 
pictorial origin of such signs. There was thus no 
reason why they should not modify what they 
regarded as arbitrary expressions of sound-values, 
and every reason why they should reduce them to 
the very simplest and most conveniently written 
shape: — which they did ; and so it comes about that 
we to-day are in all probability directly indebted to 
ancient Egypt for at least a portion of our alphabet, 
far removed as it may be from the hieroglyphics 
of the Pharaohs. That, however, is by the way, 



Art in the Alphabet. 5 

and, besides, a long way off. For present purposes 
we need not go further back than to ancient 
Greece. 

The Romans dropped all compound conso- 
nants, using at first the two consonants which 
most nearly expressed the sound equivalent to 
that of the Greek double letter ; for example, PH 
in place of 4>. But they proceeded also to devise 
single letters for sounds which until then had 
been expressed by two ; F, for example, instead 
of PH. 

A Greek alphabet of the year 394 B.C. is given 
in illustration 54, and a 16th-century version in 55 

KnrC".<|>MULf IT" M 

C.CUOVTC-.NNM 



3. COPTIC MS. I2TH CENTURY. 




II 



I 




^1 



MTBTUETUEH 








*4^ 



NWBSHno&y 



4. COPTIC MS. 14TH CENTURY. 



Art in the Alphabet. 7 

The more cursive form employed by the gth- 
century scribe is shown in the manuscript letters 
(1) on page 3, whilst the more careful and elaborate 
writing proper to gold letters is illustrated by a 
page of 11th-century work (5) from a MS. in the 
Laurentian Library at Florence. 

It is interesting to compare with these the 
Coptic writing (2, 3, 4), which is obviously only a 
variant upon the Greek ; for the Christianized 
Egyptians, when they accepted Christianity, 
adopted the Greek alphabet, just as the Turks took 
the Arabic character at the time they accepted 
the Koran ; and when, in the 6th century, the new 
faith was firmly established at Alexandria, Coptic 
writing supplanted the old Egyptian. So it 
happens that the Coptic alphabet is Greek, except 
for seven extra signs, taken from the ancient 
demotic alphabet, to express Egyptian sounds for 
which the Greeks had no equivalent. 

The early Roman or Latin alphabet differed 
very little from the Greek. The latest comers in 
it were G H K Q X Y Z. 

In its adaptation to the Latin language, Greek 
gamma or G becomes C. G is, in fact, almost 
equivalent to hard C. To the not too subtle ear 
the two sounds are like enough to pass one for the 
other, just as soft C may be made to do duty for S. 
When G came to be used as a separate letter, 
distinct from C, then C in its turn was used for K, 
though K did not go quite out of use. 



Art in the Alphabet. 



:X$rAGTOGHnr6N01AT6Yee6YA6l6lG 

.oiKDceriffiNwenenoie vw$ H 

tom4onay6icTwnw WNMf fe; 

efirACMN wroM»NMopl 
m(jbciw#AOTNMraNKxra). 

FH^ldAOinWNMefCJHeKMCei^ 



5. GREEK MS. IITH CENTURY. 



Art in the Alphabet. g 

The letter J did not exist either in the Greek or 
in the ancient Roman alphabet. It is equivalent 
to II. Place one I over the other and you get a 

long I Eventually the initial developed a tail, 

and became J. Towards the 15th century the 
initial I was pretty generally written J. 

The Greek T (upsilon) becomes the Roman Y. 
The letters U and V were long considered as 
interchangeable ; one or other of them might be 
used, or both at once in the same word in the same 
sense. It was not until the 10th century that the 
custom arose of using V before a vowel, and else- 
where using U. 

Though 12 (omega) stood for long O, the Latin 
letter, which was derived in form from it, bore the 
value of W. And, as may be seen in the 9th- 
century alphabet on page 3, omega was sometimes 
written precisely like a W. 

The alphabet, as we know it, owes something 
also to Scandinavia. The Runic writing, as the 
script of the Scandinavian and other Northern 
European priesthood was called, dates back to 
legendary days. It was the invention, they say, 
of Odin himself. If so, Odin, to judge by internal 
evidence, must have derived it from some earlier 
Greek or Roman source. What we know is, that 
it was in use from the time of the first intercourse 
between Scandinavians and Romans. The Chris- 
tian Church forbade its use, and with the triumph 



io Art in the Alphabet 

abcdeFchiIm 

nopqkstvjt 

6. ROMAN MS. 4TH CENTURY. 

of Christianity it passed out of currency ; but it 
lived long enough to affect in some degree our 
Anglo-Saxon writing. 

It will be well now to mark the more decided 
steps in the progress of the alphabet. The type 
we use takes, as every one knows, two forms — a 
larger and a smaller, a major and a minor, or, as 
printers put it, " capitals" and ''lower case," or 
the small letters which, being most continually in 
request, it is convenient to keep near at hand, in 
the lower part of the case, from which the com- 
positor, so to speak, feeds himself. Our written 
character takes the form of a " running " hand, 
and is known by that name, or by the more 
high-sounding title of " cursive." 

^Bc^efcjbA ^ 

NOpqRSTUtUXZ 

7 MS. 7TH CENTURY. 



Art in the Alphabet. n 



ABcdepc;biKLo} 

N Op qRSTUVy 

8. ROMAN UNCIALS. 8TH CENTURY. 

Now, the printer's "lower case," or " minuscule," 
as it is also called, is practically the book form of 
running hand, except that the letters are quite 
separate, not conjoined as they are in what pre- 
tends to be only the hand of the ready writer, and 
does not claim to be beautiful at all. 

The earlier form, whether of Greek or Roman 
letter, was the capital, the square shape, with 
relatively few curved lines, which could con- 
veniently be cut in stone or engraved on metal. 
This is, in fact, the monumental style — adapted to, 
and, what is more, inspired by, the chisel or the 

ABCDlfGHlUA 
NOPQJLSIVT 

9. ROMAN "RUSTIC" WRITING. 5TH CENTURY. 



12 Art in the Alphabet. 



abcdiFghiLm 

NOPQRSTVy 

IO. ROMAN MS. CAPITALS. 6TH CENTURY. 



graver. You have only to look at it (54, 56, 57) to 
see how precisely fit it is for its purpose. There is 
no mistake about it, it is incision. 

Manuscript writers adopted for book writing a 
different character, or rather they adapted the 
square capital letter to more ready execution with 
the pen, and so evolved a rounder kind of letter 
which is known by the name of uncial — not that it 
was invariably inch-long, as the term is supposed 
to imply. 

The uncial form of writing is intermediate, you 
will see (8), between the monumental writing and 
the " current " hand of the ready writer. It is, if 
not the step between the two, a compromise 
between them — no matter which ; what it concerns 
us to know is that calligraphy took that direction, 
which goes to explain many a later form of letter 
widely differing from the original square type. The 
relationship between these uncial letters and the 
cursive Greek (1) is obvious. 

The uncial character does not so much affect the 
modern printer ; but it is the form of letter from 




Art in the Alphabet. 13 

aaacdefiLm 



fPRSTV 



II. MS. CAPITALS. 6TH CENTURY. 

which the artist who prefers his own handiwork to 
that of the printing press has perhaps most to learn. 
A squarer form of capital employed by the 
Romans in manuscripts of the 5th and two follow- 
ing centuries, is known by the name of " rustic " ; 
not that there was anything rustic about these 
capitals in our sense of the word ; but the Latin 
word was used in the sense of free and easy, sans 
gene. The character of the writing is not so formal 
as was supposed to befit the town. It is a kind of 
country cousin ; it stands, let us say, for the Roman 
capital in a loose coat and a soft hat. The charac- 
teristic points about it (9) are that the vertical 
strokes are all very thin, and the cross-strokes 
broad. These cross-strokes take the form of a kind 
of tick, tapering at the ends ; and similar ticks are 
used to emphasize the finishing of the thin strokes. 
That all of this is pen-work is self-evident. But, 
as before said, the more usual form of penmanship 
at that time was the uncial letter. 



14 Art in the Alphabet. 

ABCDEFGHIK 
LNOPR5TYX 

12. BYZANTINE CAPITALS. 7TH CENTURY. 

Even when the Roman manuscript writers used, 
as they sometimes did, the square capital form, 
they did not confine themselves (n) to the 
severely simple shapes which came naturally to 
the lapidaries. The unequal strength of the lines, 
the thickening of the strokes at the ends, and the 
sparred or forked shapes they take, all speak of 
the pen ; not the steel pen, of course, nor yet the 
more supple quill, but the reed pen — rather blunter 
than a quill, but pliant enough, and not given to 
spluttering. Moreover, it did not tempt the writer 
to indulge in unduly thin upstrokes. 

Capitals, Greek and Roman alike, represent, 
roughly speaking, the first accepted shapes, en- 
graver's or carver's work. Uncials stand for MS. 
writing, scribe's work, growing by degrees rounder 
and more current. The smaller minuscule was 
evolved out of the running hand of the mercantile, 
as distinguished from the literary, scribe. It was 
not used by the ancient Romans, and it was not 
until towards the 8th century that running hand 
was thus reduced to order. The greater part of 
what is called cursive writing scarcely concerns 



Art in the Alphabet. 15 



/\BCD8F6MN 
OPCLRSTVX 

13. INSCRIPTION CUT IN STONE. A.D. I085. 



the calligrapher ; it might equally be called dis- 
cursive, so apt is it to run wild, in which case it 
tells less of the progress of writing than of the 
caprice or carelessness of the individual writer. 

That was not the case with the various cere- 
monial versions of running hand employed by the 
writers of Papal Bulls and Royal Charters. Such 
" diplomatic " hands, as they are styled (because 
diplomas were written in them), and the so-called 
"Chancery" hands, are highly elaborate, and in 
a sense ornamental, but they are so unlike our 
writing as to be, practically speaking, illegible. 
They are very suggestive for all that. A specimen 
of English Court hand is given in Alphabet 157. 

With the decline of the Roman empire came 
naturally the demoralization of the Roman 
character, capital or uncial ; and just in propor- 
tion as Rome ceased to be the one centre of the 
world, and other nations rose into importance, so 
their writing began to show signs of nationality. 
At the loss of some refinement, we get thenceforth 



i6 



Art in the Alphabet. 



variety of character. By the beginning of the 
8th century distinctly national styles of lettering 
were evolved. 

To subdivide these styles so minutely as the 
learned do, is rather to bewilder the poor student 
by their multitude. The important European races 
were the Latins, the Franks, the Teutons, and 
Anglo-Saxons, and the Visigoths; and from them 
we get respectively the Lombard, the Frankish, 

OTCJTITOIOT 



OF 



£€ « 




tf t 




14. FRANCO-GALLIC MSS. HEADLINES. 7TH CENTURY. 

the Teutonic and Anglo-Saxon, and the Visigothic 
types of writing, all of which eventually merge 
themselves in what we call Gothic, in which, 
nevertheless, we still find traits of nationality, 
English, French, Italian, German, Spanish, as the 
case may be. 

First as to the Lombardic character, which pre- 
vailed in Italy from the 8th to the nth century. 
It was not, as its name might be taken to imply, 
the invention of the Lombards. They were just 
long-bearded conquerors, and invented nothing. 
The character was not even confined to Northern 



Art in the Alphabet. 17 

Italy ; only it happened first to be developed there, 
and so all later Latin writing (after the Empire) 
came to be called " Lombardic." 

It has already been explained how uncial writing 
was transitional between square "caps" and 
rounder pen-forms. The Lombardic shows a 
further stage of transition. The penman had not 
quite made up his mind between straight lines 
and curved ; he hesitated between the square- 
lined M and N and the rounded forms (19, 20, 68). 
Eventually he decided in favour of the bulging 
shapes, which in their later development we dis- 
tinguish by the name of Lombardic capitals (74). 

There is a broken-backed version of the Lombard 
minuscule, "Lombard brisee" the French call it, 
which, though not intrinsically beautiful, is inte- 
resting as foreshadowing the later form of Gothic 
" lower case " which we call " black letter." 

Our own "lower case" we get more or less 
directly from Charlemagne. He found, perhaps 
his friend the Pope told him, that writing had 
degenerated by the time he came to the throne 
(a.d. 800) to a state unworthy of a mighty emperor. 
Accordingly he ordained its reformation. He went 
so far as to compel bishops and other important 
personages who could not write decently to employ 
scribes who could. In this way he revived the 
small Roman character, which we eventually 
adopted for our printed type. 

The scribes of Charlemagne (and for some time 

c 



1 8 Art in the Alphabet. 

after him) did not yet manage to fashion very 
satisfactory capitals. They still mixed up letters 
all of one thickness with others in which thick and 
thin strokes, or diminishing strokes, were used in a 
most illogical and awkward way (64) — indicative, of 
course, of a period of change. But they did arrive 
at a satisfactory and very characteristic rendering 

TT ^ 



HE Mi 



HEBTOKE 



bM. 



/ 



tremksIhqj/a 

GXPRIWTVrImsS 

15. VISIGOTHIC MS. IOTH CENTURY. 

of minuscule lettering. A conspicuous feature in 
it was the elongation of the longer limb of the 
1 p g q f d — tails y that is to say, came into fashion, 
and long ones, as much as four or five times the 
length of the body of the letter. The letter s took 
also the long form, f. The letter t, on the other 
hand, does not rise much above the line, sometimes 
not at all. 



Art in the Alphabet. 



19 




^ 



mw 





l6. SAXON ILLUMINATION (CAROLINE). gTH CENTURY. 

That elongation of up-and-down strokes is 
characteristic of Frankish and Visigothic lettering 
generally. It occurs even in the case of capitals, as 
in the headlines of the 10th-century MS. on p. 18. 
There the I, the H, and the L rise high above the 
heads of their fellows, whilst, on the other hand, 
the V-shaped U in the word OPVSCVLVM is 
reduced to more than modest proportions. 

There appears to be in Visigothic lettering, of 
which that is a good example, usually a trace 
of Moorish influence, betraying itself in the liberties 
taken with the proportion of the characters ; the 
Moors had by that time overrun Spain. 

hlLHrHUTIklNOS 
OPqRSXSTUUX 



17. ANGLO-SAXON. 



20 Art in the Alphabet. 

>v<>opq SJ5r-cU 

l8. ANGLO-SAXON MS. 9TH CENTURY. 

There is something very whimsical about the 
character of Anglo-Saxon capitals ; at times 
mechanically square in form, at others excep- 
tionally flowing and even frisky (16, 17, 62, 63). 
Anglo-Saxon lettering was affected by lingering 
traces of an obsolete alphabet derived perhaps at 
some remote period from the Gauls, which, to 
judge by internal evidence, must have been some- 
thing like the Greek. In the minuscule character 
(18) there is a curious twist in the long stroke of 
the b and 1. 

By the 13th century the Gothic style had formed 
itself. In the next hundred years or more it was 
perfected. At the end of the 15th century it was 

ACDCTLMNnOPa 



QRSTUV 



Xg. FLORENTINE, INCISED AND INLAID. I2TH CENTURY. 



Art in the Alphabet, 21 

still flourishing — flourishing was the word literally 
— in the 16th letters were sometimes nearly all 
flourish : it takes an expert to read them. 

The Gothic variations upon the Roman capital 
form are characteristic : the thick strokes are not 
even-sided, but expanded at the two ends or 
narrowed towards the centre ; the curved strokes 
do not swell so gradually as before, but bulge 

INNDOPRSy 

20. ITALIAN MS. EARLY I3TH CENTURY. 

more or less suddenly ; the tails of sundry letters 
break insubordinate from the ranks; and the ex- 
tremities are often foliated or otherwise orna- 
mented (66, 69, 71). Markedly characteristic of 
Gothic of the 13th and 14th centuries are also 
the " closed " letters, of which examples occur in 
Alphabets 76, jj, 78, 80, etc. 

What are called Lombardic capitals were used, 
not only as initials, but for inscriptions throughout. 
In fact, it was not until the 15th century that 



22 Art in the Alphabet 

inscriptions were commonly written in minuscule 
letters. In many cases these Lombard capitals 
were not written with a pen, but with a brush, from 
which results something of their character. The 
brush lines were fatter than pen strokes. 

Gothic characteristics, however, only gradually 

21. FREE RENDERING OF LOMBARD MSS. ABOUT 1250. 

asserted themselves, and individual scribes clung 
tenaciously to the older forms. The alphabet 
opposite, for example, though of the 15th century, 
only mildly represents the period to which by date 
it belongs. 

Gothic letters lend themselves to more variety 
in design than Roman, not being so perfect in 
themselves. To some, perhaps, they are more 



Art in the Alphabet. 23 

interesting on that very account : perfection palls 
upon us. Anyway, the Gothic forms are often 
very beautiful. The Roman letter is classic, and 
therefore fixed — or, should it rather be said, it is 
fixed, and therefore classic ? 

With regard to the Gothic minuscule character 
(23, 24, 25), the even perpendicularity of the broad, 
straight strokes gives at a glance the character 
distinguished as " black letter," because it is rela- 

ABCDeFQHHLM 
NOPQRSTVXZ 

22. CAPITALS. I5TH CENTURY. 

tively much heavier than the Roman minuscule. 
You have only to compare the two to see that 
the " black letter " is blacker. 

The Germans marked this form of lettering for 
their own, and persevered in its use long after the 
rest of the world, in pursuance of the fashion of 
classicism prevailing in the 16th century, had 
abandoned it for the Roman style of lettering. 

The mediaeval German version of black letter 
was stronger than that of other countries, the 
French more fanciful, the Italian more refined, 
more perfect, but perhaps never so Gothic. 

The old " black letter " varied, as will be seen, 



24 Art in the Alphabet. 

tt6cJ>cfgDt 
ftmnopqn 

23. GERMAN GOTHIC MINUSCULE. 

very much in character. The rounder form (23) 
is freer, easier to write, more cursive. The more 
regular and straight-backed letter (24, 25) went 
rather out of fashion for a while ; but it was 
revived by the printers, who saw in it what they 
could best imitate. 

The type we use nowadays has shaped itself in a 
more or less accidental way. In the first place, it 
was a copy of manuscript forms. That was in- 
evitable. Possibly printers were anxious to palm 
off their printed books as manuscripts. But, apart 
from any such intent on their part, their text was 
bound to follow the written page, or no one would 
have been able to read it. And as, at the time of 



Art in the Alphabet. 25 

2*tttntrg? 

24. GERMAN GOTHIC MINUSCULE. 

the introduction of printing, two styles of writing 
were in use for manuscripts, there arose naturally 
two styles of printed type — " Roman " and " black 
letter." In printing, as in manuscript, however, 
black letter gave way to the Roman character, 
but not all at once ; there was a period of tran- 
sition during which some very interesting and 
characteristic types were used. We in our day 
have arrived, by a process of copying the copies of 
copies of copies, from which all the virtue of vitality 
and freshness has died out, at a 20th century type 
(look at the newspapers), which compares most 
unfavourably with the early printing. The modern 
form of letter is in a measure fixed for us by 



26 Art in the Alphabet, 



abr&rfjiji 
fstufinifij 

25. GOTHIC MINUSCULE. 

circumstances ; we cannot conveniently depart far 
from it ; but something may be done. There is 
no need to revive mediaeval lettering, no occasion 
to invent new lettering all out of our own heads, if 
that were possible ; any new departure of ours 
must be very much on old lines ; but at least we 
might found ourselves upon the best that has been 
done, and go straight to that for inspiration. 

Type, as before said, was based on manuscript 
forms. These manuscript forms had been shaped 
with a view always to easy writing. What was 
difficult to pen dropped out of use, and lettering 
became what the scribe made it. The considera- 
tions, however, which guided the writer no longer 
concern the printer. It is time, perhaps, he took 
stock of the alphabet — looked over it with a view 



Art in the Alphabet. 27 

to its perfection, since one shape is about as easy 
to print as another. The changes which have 
taken place in our printed type during the last 
three hundred years or so may very likely have 
been on the whole in the direction of easy reading, 
but they have not been in the direction of beauty ; 
and it is quite likely that it may be worth while 
restoring some obsolete forms of letter now that we 
have not to write them. There is inconvenience 
in departing in any appreciable degree from the 
accepted form of letter ; but we have arrived to-day 
at a period when everyone is so familiar with the 
printed page that, prejudiced as we may be against 
any modification of it, there is no danger of our 
finding any real difficulty in reading an improved 
type. Lettering is none the more legible because 
it is ugly : beauty is compatible with the very 
sternest use. 

The earliest writing was most probably scratched 
with a point upon whatever came handiest to the 
scribe — skins, palm leaves, or the bark of trees, and 
especially upon clay, a material which had only to 
be burnt to become more lasting than stone. 

If, in scratching upon firm clay, the writer begins 
his stroke with a dig and then drags out the tool, 
it results in a wedge-shaped scratch. That seems 
to be the way the cuneiform character came about ; 
but the lettering upon the early Babylonian 
" bricks," as they are called, is so precisely defined 
that it must have been done with a sharp graver- 



28 Art in the Alphabet. 

like point. These ''wedge-shaped" or "arrow- 
headed " characters came to be copied, as we know, 
in stone, in which again they were about the sim- 
plest thing to cut. Three, or at most four, direct 
cuts give the Ninevite character, as we know it in 
the famous bas-reliefs. It is descended from clay 
forms, but its own mother was the stone out of which 
it was cut. The chisel was its father. Even in 
inscriptions as late as the 18th century or there- 
abouts, the stone-cutter lapses, as may be seen 
opposite, into more or less wedge-shaped incisions ; 
the chisel tempted him, and he yielded to its 
persuasion. 

From the cuneiform character to simple Greek 
(54) or Roman (56) capitals, as square as well 
could be, is not far ; and the clear-cut inscriptions 
on classic monuments are still typically chisel 
work. Very early Greek inscriptions are, however, 
not much more than scratched in the granite or 
whatever it may be. The small Greek character 
on the famed Rosetta stone is mere scratching. 

Writing done with a stylus on tablets of wax was 
naturally blunt. Penwork at first was also much 
blunter than modern writing — owing partly, no 
doubt, to the use of the reed pen, partly to the 
texture of papyrus, and partly to the consistency of 
the ink. The strokes of early lettering in Egyptian, 
Greek, and Latin manuscripts alike, are rather thick, 
and rounded at the angles, not sharply turned. 
It was a reed pen with which the Arabs wrote, 



Art in the Alphabet. 29 

holding it more or less horizontally so as to retain 
the ink, and sloping the paper or papyrus at a 
convenient angle; and it was in writing the Roman 
letters with a reed pen that the mediaeval scribes 
gave it its Gothic character. It was not until the 
quill (which held the ink better) came into use that 
the Italians developed their minuscule letter with 
its thick and thin strokes. 

A glance is Lometimes enough to tell whether an 
early Egyptian manuscript was written with a pen 

AdBCDEFGGMI 
KLMNOPPQQR 

26. FROM INSCRIPTIONS CUT IN STONE. ABOUT 170O. 

or with a brush. The Arab penmen, who took 
great pride in their art, wrote with a wonderfully 
elastic pen, and got out of the reed forms which 
remind one at times of brushwork ; but the neskhi 
character is as obviously the pen form of writing 
as the squarer cufic is the monumental. So also we 
find among the Chinese and Japanese one form of 
lettering which is characteristically brushwork, and 
another almost rectangular, which last is clearly 
the monumental manner. 



30 Art in the Alphabet. 

Even in late Gothic lettering we find a minus- 
cule which is of the pen (23), and another (24, 25) 
which is monumental, adapted, that is to say, to 
precise and characteristic rendering with the graver 
upon sheets of brass. It is curious that out of this 
severe form of writing the florid ribbon character 
(108) should have been evolved. But when once 
the engraver began to consider the broad strokes of 
his letters as bands or straps, which, by a cut of 
the graver, could be made to turn over at the ends, 
as indicated in Alphabet 125, it was inevitable 
that a taste for the florid should lead him to 
something of the kind. The wielder of the brush 
was in all times induced by his implement to make 
flourishes (32, 33), in which the carver had much 
less temptation to indulge. The sloping or " italic " 
letter (27) is, on the face of it, the product of the pen. 

We find, then, that the implement employed, 
stylus, reed-pen, brush, or whatever it may have 
been, goes far to account for the character of 
ancient lettering. So soon as the writer ceased 
to be satisfied with mere scratching or blunt 
indentation, and took to the use of the chisel, he 
felt the need of a square cross-cut to end the 
stroke of his letter. If that was broad, there was 
no occasion for the cut to go beyond the width of 
the stroke itself. If it was narrow, the easier 
thing to do was to anticipate the danger of over- 
shooting the mark, and frankly extend the end 
cut. This method of finishing off the broad line 



Art in the Alphabet. 31 

by a projecting cross-line is technically called 
truncation, though literally that only means 
cutting off. Slight but appreciable difference 
in character results from the angle at which the 
strokes are truncated or cut off. 

In working with a pen, this difficulty of ending 
the stroke occurs only in the case of very bold 
lettering. In small writing the strokes naturally 

ab c d c f of) 
i klmnop a 
rfs t uj yz 

.27. ROMAN ITALICS. 

take pen-shape. They start square and gradually 
diminish, or vice versa, or they thicken in the 
middle, according to the angle at which the pen 
is held, and to the pressure, which it is difficult to 
keep quite equal from end to end of the stroke. 

It should be observed that the pressure is not 
naturally in the middle of the stroke, but at one 
end ; the penman does not naturally get the 
symmetrical Roman O, but the Gothic (117). 



32 Art in the Alphabet. 

That is the pen-born shape. The even-sided O 
was, if not easier to cut in stone, at least as easy ; 
there was nothing to prevent symmetry, which 
was accordingly the rule in sculpture. It is rather 
futile to aim at that kind of thing with a pen ; 
much better let the pen have its way ; and its way 
is otherwise (176, 179). We get so much more out 
of our tools by going with them, that it is rather 
stupid to strive against them. 

In very bold writing, even with a pen, the 
necessity for truncating the thick strokes occurs. 
You cannot easily, with one stroke of the pen, 
make a thick line which begins and ends square. 
It wants trimming ; and the easiest way to trim 
it is by means of a fine cross-stroke extending 
beyond its width. This cross-stroke T helps to 
preserve and to accentuate the regularity of the 
line of lettering, for which a writer worth the name 
naturally has a care. The broad stroke being 
rather loaded with ink, the fine cross-stroke is 
inclined, in crossing it, to drag a little of the ink 
with it, rounding one angle of it. The obvious 
way of rectifying that is to round the opposite 
angle also — and so we have the familiar finish T, 
which is equivalent to the "spur" of the chiseller 
mentioned just now (208). 

The angle at which the cross-line joins the 
stroke may be softened until it disappears, and 
the stroke appears to be curved on either side — 
" dilates," to use another accepted term, at the 



Art in the Alphabet. 



3i 




28. ROMAN MOSAIC. LOUVRE, PARIS. 





29. ENGRAVED BRONZE TABLETS. NAPLES MUSEUM. 



CDEGMNO 



30. ENGRAVED BRONZE TABLETS. NAPLES MUSEUM. 




31. STONE. CORDOVA. 1409. 



\ I 




32. PAINTED ON HISPANO-MORESQUE POTTERY. 
15TH AND 16TH CENTURIES. 



mm 

mm 

33- PAINTED ON ITALIAN MAJOLICA. 16TH CENTURY. 



36 Art in the Alphabet. 

ends. Historically, we arrive at that in Lombardic 
and other writing as early as the 8th century (60). 

Anticipating this dilation, the penman eventually 
made strokes in which the elementary straight line 
altogether disappears (68). Further elaborating, 
he arrived at the rather sudden swelling of the 
curved back of the letter, familiar in work of the 
13th century and later (73, 8j). With the forking 
of the terminations, and the breaking of the out- 
line in various ways (20), we arrive at fantastic 
variation to which there is no conceivable end (34, 
84, 88, 91, 120). Few instances, therefore, of the 
elaborate ornamentation of the lettering are here 
given (109, 120, 151, 152). Enough to give 
alphabets in which the ornamental design is in 
the construction of the letters themselves. 

With the use of thick and thin strokes comes a 
difficulty. Which shall be thick, and which thin? 
The scribes were a long while making up their 
minds on that point, and they contrived some very 
awkward combinations (64). The solution we have 
at last come to is probably the best that could be 
found. We need scarcely bother ourselves about 
trying to improve upon modern practice in that 
respect ; it has been a case of the survival of the 
fittest. 

Out of the use of thick and thin strokes arises 
the necessity for graduated strokes, there being no 
other way of treating the curved lines intermediate 
between the two. Then, if the thick strokes are 



Art in the Alphabet. 37 





i i mmw i f « ■ n m m n j t i g 




34. ENQRAVED ON BRASS. 1395. 



STyGfiZ 
tfliUTiA 



35. PAINTED ON WOOD. 1727. 



<5N(sRCiY 

36. PAINTFD ON MAJOLICA. 1518. 



38 Art in the Alphabet. 

truncated, the thin lines appear to want corre- 
sponding accentuation at the ends ; and so the 
"serif" runs all through the alphabet (118, 119, etc.)- 
The further influence of the writing tool upon 
the form of the letter is shown on pages 32, 33, 37, 
etc., and in Alphabets to which reference is made 
in the descriptive list of illustrations. A number 
of these Alphabets have been deliberately designed 
with a view to execution in a specific material. 

With regard, now, to Numerals. Until the 15th 
century, the letters M, D, C, L, X, V, and I were 
in general use to express numbers. 

The Arabic numerals, as they are called, found 
their way into Europe some time during the 12th 
century, but did not come into general use before 
the 15th, nor indeed much before the introduction 
of printing, which diffused the knowledge of them. 
Their adoption in England was more tardy than 
on the continent, the beginning of the 17th century 
being given as the date of their universal acceptance 
here. The numerals, as we know them, or even 
as they were written in the 15th century, do not 
bear any marked resemblance to the genuine 
Arabic ; numbers 1 and 9, and the all-important 
cypher, o, are the only Eastern figures which seem 
to claim direct oriental ancestry. 

The figures of the 15th century are not always 
at first sight very easily legible ; the 7, for example 
(227), presents anything but a familiar appearance, 
but upon examination that inverted V proves to be 



Art in the Alphabet. 39 



Wffll 




37. GOLD LETTERS PICKED OUT OF BLACK PAINT. SPANISH. 

AEGRS? 

38. PAINTED ON WOOD. ITALIAN. 15TH CENTURY 

AEIOEQl 
R5TVY 

39. PAINTED ON GLAZED EARTHENWARE. ENGLISH. 18TH CENTURY. 



40 Art in the Alphabet. 

really an equal-limbed 7 placed (as it would 
naturally fall) so as to rest upon its two ends : it 
is not the figure that is changed, but its position. 
Much more puzzling is the early form of 4 (227, 
228, 229), a loop with crossed ends upon which it 
stands. The popular explanation of the figure as 
" half an eight," is anything but convincing; and it 
appears to have no Eastern prototype. There is a 
17th-century version of it, however, in the Francis- 
kaner Kirche, at Rothenburg (242), which, had it 
been of earlier date, might have been accepted as 
a satisfactory explanation. There the loop has a 
square end, and the figure rests, not upon its two 
loose ends, but partly on its point. Imagine this 
figure standing upright, one point facing the left, 
and it is seen to be a 4 of quite ordinary shape. This 
may not be the genesis of the form ; but, if not, it is 
ingeniously imagined by the 17th-century mason. 

Writers have from the first made use of contrac- 
tions, the ready writer in order to save time and 
trouble, the caligrapher, sculptor, and artist 
generally, in order to perfect the appearance of 
his handiwork, and, in many cases, to make it fit 
the space with which he has to deal. The ends of 
art are not satisfied by merely compressing the 
letters, or reducing them to a scale which will 
enable the writer to bring them all into a given 
line (208). We, in our disregard of all but what 
we call practicality, have abandoned the practice 
of contraction, except in the case of diphthongs, and 



Art in the Alphabet. 41 




40. PAINTED, GERMAN GOTHIC, INITIALS. 




41. COPPER RIVETS ON LEATHER. SALSBURG MUSEUM. 




42. ENGRAVED IN BRASS. BRUGES. 



42 Art in the Alphabet. 

in the exceptional instance of the word " et." The 
" amperzand," as the printer calls it (225, 226), still 
lingers in his founts of type, and is used even more 
habitually by the ordinary penman of to-day. 

To what does all this investigation of the 
alphabet lead ? It is of no use trying to evolve 
brand-new alphabets out of our inner conscious- 
ness. No one would understand us, and we want 
to be read. Originality is what we all desire ; but 
it is scarcely the thing to seek consciously, least of 
all in lettering ; it comes of its own accord if ever 
it comes. We are original or we are not. 

While the alphabet is alive there will be changes 
in it, but they must inevitably be gradual ; we can 
only creep on to new forms. Practically, what we 
have to do is to take an alphabet and modify it 
according to our wants or inclinations, without, as 
a rule, interfering much with its legibility. A man 
may, if he knows what he is about, make it more 
legible, as well as in other ways bettering it. But 
to do that intelligently, he should know something 
of the descent of the lettering on which he founds 
himself. That is why it has been thought worth 
while to discuss the subject at such length here. 

An important consideration in the design of an 
alphabet — if design be not too pretentious a word 
to use in speaking of what can scarcely be much 
more than a variation upon orthodox forms — is 
that the letters should be systematically treated. 



Art in the Alphabet. 



43 




43. APPLIED LETTERS. SILVER. 




* T3-Z'£ 



44. CARVED IN STONE. FROM BISHOP WEST S CHAPEL, ELY 
CATHEDRAL. C.A. 1534. 



44 Art in the Alphabet. 

They are more likely to be all of one family if we 
derive them from one source. But there is no 
reason why we should not cross the breed in 
lettering, if thereby we can improve the stock. 
An alphabet, however, should not look hybrid. 
The artist is free to do what he can ; but the test 
of success is that his creation should look as if it 
must be so, and could not have been otherwise. 

Why, it is asked, should any one trouble himself 
about hand-drawn lettering, when he has ready to 
his use type, which is so much truer and more 
perfect ? Truer, perhaps, it may be, in the sense 
of being more mathematically exact, but it is not 
necessarily so truly uniform in effect ; for the 
unyielding letters of the type-founder come 
together as best they may, and if they come 
awkwardly he can't help it. The writer can, and 
indeed he should. 

There is no denying that many an artist who 
ventures to introduce lettering into his design, 
does it ill, does it so carelessly, or is so easily 
satisfied with very indifferent penmanship, that 
of the two evils hard and fast letterpress would 
have been the lesser. None the less true is it that 
an artist who has been at the pains to learn to 
write, can, if he aim at what pen or brush will do, 
and refrain from entering into foolish and ineffectual 
rivalry with the printing press, do what that cannot 
do, and do better. 

Looking at an early printed book, you are 



Art in the Alphabet. 



45 




45. LEAD GLAZING. AFTER WINSTON. 




46. CUT LEATHER, FROM A BOOK BINDING. HAMBURG MUSEUM. 




47. CARVED IN STONE. ST MARGARET'S CHURCH, KING'S LYNN. 1622. 



46 Art in the Alphabet, 

astonished, each time afresh, at the beauty of the 
page. But if you go from that straight to a fine 
manuscript, you realize that, after all, printing, 
even such printing as was done by the great 
printers, is a makeshift. It is a makeshift we 
have to put up with, and we may as well make 
the best of it ; merely petulant complaint is 
childish ; but when occasion does occur, let us 
have the real thing, and don't let us be persuaded by 
readers so greedy of print as to have lost all 
appetite for beautiful writing, that there is no 
flavour or artistic savour in it. It is not good 
manuscript, but their spoilt palate, which is at fault. 
Having perfected machinery, we are doing our 
best to make ourselves into machines. Until that 
happens — which God forbid ! — man's hand is still 
the best, in art at all events ; and were it not the 
best, it would still have the charm of character, 
that individual quality for which a public brought 
up exclusively on printed type has no relish. 
Print, with its mechanical smoothness, and pre- 
cision, has gone far to distort the modern ideal of 
lettering, just as photography, with its literalness, 
has degraded the ideal of art. There are people 
who resent as a sort of impertinence anything in 
lettering which the printing press cannot do. They 
are ready to take offence at whatever is unfamiliar. 
Really the impertinence is in a makeshift thing 
like type usurping any kind of authority in a 
matter quite beyond its scope. 



Art in the Alphabet. 



47 



r OTIS 



OECIPI 

AGRSffirvlQETpiAS 






48. PAINTED ON GLASS. AFTER WINSTON. 











1 




'JJ J t ' ^lJ J» JIJJ^L 1 HTCC*5g* 




I, 




49. ENGRAVED ON SILVER. FROM A CUP. 




50. EMBROIDERED IN GOLD THREAD. JAMES 1ST. 



4§ 



Art in the Alphabet. 



API2TQ<pWi 

^iAinniAd 

L AEHNMQ. 



51. CUT IN MARBLE. ON AN ANTIQUE BUST OF ARISTOPHANES 
IN THE UFFIZI, FLORENCE. 





52. STAINED AND PAINTED GLASS. FROM WINCHESTER 
CATHEDRAL. AFTER WINSTON. 



Art in the Alphabet. 



49 



The great difference between old lettering and 
new is that in days before type-founding the scribe 
was free to play variations on the well-known 
alphabetical air, whereas our print is monotonous 
as.the tune of a barrel organ. 

aroaiw 
mm 

53. CUT OUT OF GLAZED TILES EMBEDDED IN CEMENT. 
CORDOVA. 

Pedants are never happy until everything is 
fixed. But nothing is fixed until it is dead. Life 
is in movement. Philosophy has long since given 
up the search for perpetual motion, but that is 
the secret of it — life ; and that is the evidence and 
sign of life — motion. English will be a dead 
language when there is no longer any possibility 
of change in the way it is written. 



OLD ALPHABETS 

ARRANGED IN ORDER OF 
THEIR DATE. MANY OF THEM 
DIRECTLY DUE TO THE USE 
OF CHISEL, PEN, BRUSH, &c. 



EZHG 
I KA/A 



54. GREEK. FROM A STELE AT ATHENS. B.C. 394. 



A 



u 



^ 





{<- 



4 IA — i JA 



V7 T7 



11 





21 






ID 



1A 










11 




55. GREEK INITIALS, PRINTED AT BASEL. iGTH CENTURY. 



^v 



r 35 ^ 




^f 



M^, 




^?r 



JL^ 





56. ROMAN. FROM THE FORUM. 





^ 





OPPPP 




57. ROMAN. 



FRCM SCULPTURES IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 
A.D. 150 TO 300. 







58. ANGLO-SAXON? 6TH CENTURY. 




IE 




m 



3 

17 



s 



F 



7~P 



m 




£LA 




59. FROM A CODEX. 7TH OR 8TH CENTURY. 










(S=4 










PTT7 




l\. 








60. GALICIAN MS. 8TH CENTURY. 



TIEEEtf 
UmDD 



6l. IRISH MS. FROM THE 



BBfibEtl 
FtTFTT 

UV1XX 



BOOK OF KELLS. 8TH CENTURY, 










blHLi 





: <1 -fl 




62. ANGLO-SAXON MSS. 8TH AND 9TH CENTURIES. 



a 




F 





A 



\7 .JL 








63. ANGLO-SAXON MSS. 8TH AND 9TH CENTURIES. 




|.. SAXON AND ANGLO-SAXON MSS. 
7TH, 8TH, AND 9TH CENTURIES. 



FQfolJK 

LMNOP 

QRSTO 
YWAYS 



65. MS. IOTH CENTURY. 




66. FRENCH MS. I2TH CENTURY. 








D); 




lyi'M'MKfl 







j— — ... ..™„ 





67. LE PUY. WOOD. ABOUT I2TH CENTURY, 





AABBC 

b6F(5k 

] 1KLL 

PPQAR 

5TSUV 

wxxyz 



I2TH CENTURY MS. GERMAN. 




IJRRJKL 

69. END OF I2TH CENTURY MSS. ENGLISH. 




mmi 




SI vx 



70. I2TH CENTURY. LISBJERG, DENMARK. GILT LETTERS ON 
TRANSPARENT BROWN. 




CX>E 



71, FROM A BIBLE. 13TH CENTURY, 



hHLO>M(DNnO 

^i^^ ' i.-.i-.j — t ' trrt — rtS S 

72. FROM A GERMAN BELL. 1270. 



mbq/dg: 




73. FROM A PSALTER, I3TH CENTURY, 








MZy 




74, MSS. 14TH CENTURY, 



ABCDE 

IJKLM 
MNPOP 
QRSTU 



VWXY 




75. ITALIAN. 14TH CENTURY, 





mm 

uni 



76. INCISED GOTHIC CAPITALS. ABOUT I350. 



XBODGEflft 



IM/MIOPG. 



mmvwx 



7J. FROM A BRASS. NORDHAUSEN. 1397. 







78. FROM A BRASS. NORDHAUSEN. I395. 




79- STONE. WESTMINSTER ABBEY. ABOUT 1400. 









^ 

^ 




80. FROM A MS. 











I 





ENGLISH. CA. 1400. 



&mxm 

8l. INCISED AND FILLED WITH CEMENT. PRATO. 1410. 




82. CARVED IN STONE. SPANISH. 




^xn 



83. 1420 MS 



hb at) 

X 










S~ 








84. GERMAN MSS. 15TH CENTURY, 




85. ENSRAVED ON BRASS. BAMBERG. 1 4 64- 



wsm 




86. FROM A PICTURE-FRAME IN THE LOUVRE. PAINTED. 1480. 




n&ao 




S&TUV 



87. GERMAN MSS. 1475. 




MS. ABOUT 1475. 











89. PAINTED INITIALS. CA. 1480. 




90. INCISED IN MARBLE. GERMAN. 1482. 




91. CARVED IN RELIEF. FRENCH. PROBABLY 15TH CENTURY. 




92. INITIALS CUT IN STONE. BRUGES. CA. 1500. 



aDfOrf 



i 



utntum 

nnnm 




93- FROM A BRASS. END OF 15TH CENTURY. 




mam. 

94. FROM A BRASS. EXD OF 15TH CENTURY. 



fiBCDEfi F 
GM IJK]M 
NOPR8T 

UVWxYZ 

abedefghi 
ktmaopqr 

stuvwxvz 

95. FROM MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS. END OF THE 15TH CENTURY. 
GERMAN. 








qyqg BBH gZfc 


















96. PRINTED INITIALS. END OF 15TH CENTURY. 



HBCL6EEF6 

GHWKLANn 
OPRSTVWZ 

97. FROM A BRASS. MEISSEN, 1500. 

ABCDEF 

GHILM 

NOPQR 

STVX 

98. FROM BRONZE BY PETER VISCHER. 1495. 



A.BCDE 
FCHIKL 

MNOP 

QRST 

VXYZ 

99. INCISED. ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. S. CROCE, FLORENCE. 






IOO. FROM A MANUSCRIPT 






THE 16TH CENTURY. 




<?_*_*,. !*£ 





Pnnnnn. nfP) 




(D (O) q) 



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P.^n^(o)....»..i) gL — r?3> Q 





U U UUUA1 J)UUU 



cy^^d) 



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IOI. ITALIAN. FROM A CHORALE AT 




^^^.rrr^r^ g^ro^^gpo™^ q 







(^HST 7 ™^) 




nj pjj q( r>) q p Q |i_Q^-> 




© (9— (OJ--^ 



p 

V ,n n o n 









MONTE CASINO. l6TH CENTURY. 




OCX 





REZCDn 




ST50LV 

mxyz 



I02. GOTHIC. 16TH CENTURY. 



KbC&E 
CFGHIL 




UMNO 
PQRST 




v 

A, 



^tfl 




103. PAINTED. FLEMISH. EARLY 16TH CENTURY, 




104. ALBRECHT DORER. EARLY l6TH CENTURY. 



m n o pa 

IB 1 1^ 

105. albrecHt dQrer. early i6th century. 



30&CjD 



ft f 6 Ik 



lh0p£l 





I06. ITALIAN MSS. 15TH AND 16TH CENTURIES. 




107. ITALIAN. VICENTINO. 1 523. 




Io8. ITALIAN. LUDOVICO 




VICENTINO. 1523. 




109. ITALIAN. LUDOVICO 




VICENTINO. 1523. 







IIO. AFTER LUDOVICO CURIONE. l6TH CENTURY. QY. 1530. 



Hoao 
aeon 

QOOQ 

III. SPANISH. JUAN YCIAR. FIRST HALF OF THE 16TH CENTURY. 

I 



ABCDEFGHIJ 

KLMNOPQRS 
TUVWXYZ 

112. INCISED. FLORENTINE. 15TH CENTURY. 




DDEF 



o 






TDH2>, 



ZJ> tLA 





Kr=\ 



M 




II3. ENGRAVED BY HEINRICH ALDEGREVER. CA. 1530. 




114- INCISED IN WOOD, NORTH WALSHAM. 




D 






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°W i > 



Js^ 



^4 





<M* 





Jj&^Jh 




rrrf 



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115. QUASI- 









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qMd 








ELIZABETHAN ALPHABET. 




Il6. ITALIAN. PALATINO. 1546. 



abcdt> 
efgbik 

Imnop 
qnfs 

tuxy? 



117. VESFASIANO. T556. 



ABC 
GHI 
NOP 
TVW 



Il8. ITALIAN. SERLIO. 



DEF 
KLM 




i6th century. 




<5\> <©Vb <5a9 Cs^^D&J 



HOPFER. 1549. 




120. ITALIAN. 




G. F. CRESCI. 1570. 



H8QO 

nopo, 

UXT5 



121. ITALIAN. G. F. CRESCI. 1570. 



Aabc 

defgh 




llmno 
pqrst 

uxyz 



122. ITALIAN. G. F. CRESCI. 1570. 







xg&% 




123. AFTER G. F. CRESCI. 1570. 



ftrmnoptir 
JsfuVwm 



124. INCISED. FLEMISH. 1579. 







125. INCISED. STONE. FLEMISH. 16TH CENTURY. 




126. FROM THE LACE-BCOK OF GIOVANNI OSTAVS. T590. 



ABODE 
FGHJKL 




127. STONE. BINGEN. 1576, 1598, i6l 




a f C hi 




128. BRASS. BAMBERG. 1613. 



abccdc 

f g"h i] i m 
imrmop 

pqrrfst 

sfuvx 



129. SLATE. WtfRZBURG. 1617. 



ABCD 
EFGH 

IKLM 
NOPQ 

RSTU 
WXYZ 



130. PENMANSHIP. 17TH CENTURY. 





aocae 

hikl 





mno 



tuxy 

13T. PENMANSHIP. 17TH CENTURY, 



rs 



ABQD 




KQ£Q 




wxrz 



132. ITALICS. 17TH CENTURY. 




[33. CARVED IN WOOD. 1638. 







TW2Cff?& 





134. PENMANSHIP. E. COCKER. 1660. 



crb lAlmjtop a 

135. PENMANSHIP, E. COCKER. 1660. 



136. PENMANSHIP. LESGRET. 1736. 




■M $>. e&£&g 




t_ 



9 



qa^crcpcyow OQ 





CP" 



ec every dan- produce jomc curioiu Sines ^> 

tat may commend tnu (jtiiiiu,<$cLn i/Jen, 

all trurrndertaJiingj andQjejignts 



dto Cjod}(nloru,andtheaood o. 



d of -nun. 



<zA a be defjfa L o LJl / Li mn oPJb 
q rjj^tttslviiwxjuZoScD 



137. PENMANSHIP. COCKER. 



dL@. C.CM<F.ff.& 




a ^cdefa kiJiLllm n 
op a rzjjtttvuwxjrz><$c 




138. PENMANSHIP. COCKER. 1673. 



^Wj^t 





139. PENMANSHIP. COCKER. 1673. 

cl i) c d d cj~ a h 1 
j ImnoyzarJ' 

140. PENMANSHIP. MAINGUENEAU. FRENCH. 





CCDStfsfr&P 









edoreL-^ 



a 



T4T. PENMANSHIP. PARIS. 1736. 



<M£(?M$Q$C 





J2C <%?. aficc/et 





i/KiTunoparsf-uw 



XU£> 



xy. 



J&2?m;66 S . 



142. STONE. WESTMINSTER ABBEY. l( 



ABCDEFG 
hfijKLMNM 

NOPQQRFL 
STVWXYZ 

abcaeighukfttm 

oparstvk>xy: 

f\moV<mj6c)j 

143. INCISED. CHIPPENHAM. 1 697. 




aoc 






144. PENMANSHIP. SHELLEY. 1705. 



aoa 





o/?^//?#ii 



u/vxyyz. 



[45. PENMANSHIP. C. SNELL. 1715. 




ulinnop 

a 




a be 



cf - 
ciaiuimnovorsLUXfZ 




o 




kzDiirllmnooEp 
rzftstluvdGxzi 



46. PENMANSHIP. ANDRADK. 1721. 



Jul $>;!€€ 

hJtCJj Life 




i.w*7 ll« 



abGbdc^gi>iJ5) 

Imiioppqnftim 

1^7. PENMANSHIP. ANDRADE. 1721. 




148. PAINTED. GERMAN. I727. 




A 



dJ qJ 




T 





% 






LHNOP0V, 




149. PENWORK. GERMAN. J. H. TIEMROTH. 1738-48. 



kunn 
srwvx 



150. STONE. OSNABRUCK. 1742-56. 




151. FRENXH. E. GUICHARD. PERIOD OF LOUIS XV. 




^2. FRENCH. LAURENT. 




PERIOD OF LOUIS XV. 



nkt>rfgfji 
ffmwnr 



CnffTitffffisT 




153. ETCHED ON LITHOGRAPHIC STONE. NUREMBERG. 
1765-70. 



QbCDe 
eFQ9hI 

junnop 

arrstf 

\JVVXl 



154. SLATE. WORZBURG. 1784. 



ABCDEFG 
HIJKLMN 
OPQRSTU 
VWXYZ 

67890 




155. PRINTED " CASLON " TYPE, 



abcdefghijkl 
mnopqrstuv 
wxyz A BCD 
EFGHIJKL 
M NOPALS 
TUVWXTZ 




mn 



opqrstuvwxyz 



156. PRINTED "CASLON" TYPE. 






x y . * 

157. ENGLISH COURTHAND. FROM A. WRIGHT'S " COURTHAND 
RESTORED." 1815. 



3 -I 3~ft 

B|^l . |cb«J Z.JJL. Pixy I 

pcuidt JBhW final- Phy I JSKf 




158. HEBREW ALPHABET. 



M 



• • 



• • • • 

v-t.V ♦ 

V V T* W 

■4 ; v * K 



# • 



159. HEBREW ALPHABET. FROM SILVESTRE'S PALEGRAPHIE. 



MODERN ALPHABETS 

SHOWING THE CHARACTER WHICH 

COMES OF USING PEN, CHISEL, OR 

WHATEVER IT MAY BE 



HBC 

ertii 

nop 

StIY 



160. PENWORK. 



D6F 
Kliffi 




XYZ 

WALTER CRANE. J 




KhMNQ 




OTXY2 



[6l. PENWORK. 



abed e 
PghijR 
Imnop 
arstuv 



WALTER CRANE. 















l62. PENWOKK. 















DTTO HUPP 


















mffoA 







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)il SIS 
m n© 



i HI 



163. PENWORK. OTTO, HUPP. 





KRfl ATI 

BCEDEE 




STSTZTT 

VSZXYZ 



164. PEN WORK. OTTO HUPP. 



abcDe 

fghm 
imthop 

qmtuv 



165. PEN WRITTEN. L.F.D. 



eFQRJJ 
K.LK01T1 

OPQRE> 
STSUVW 



166. PEN WRITTEN. L.F.D. 



ABCDEF 
GHIJKL 




R S TU V 
WXYZ& 

abcdefghij 
klmmopqr 

stuvwxvz 




167. "OLD STYLE" ITALICS. J. VINVCOMB. PEN. 




l68. ITALICS. L.F.D. 



ABCDEFG 
HOKLMMN 




STVWXYZ 

abcdefthijklmn 
opqrstuvwxyz,. 
12,34567390. 



169. J. W. WEEKES. 



ABCDEPG 

HIJKLMN 

OPQRSTV 

WXYZ 

12345 
075QO 

170. PENWORK. BAILEY SCOTT MURPHY, ARCHITECT. 



ABCDE 
FGHIKL 
MNOPQ 
RSTVW 

XYZZ, 
1905 



171. PENWORK. R. ANNING BELL. 



ABCD EFGH 








-H^IL 



UV ¥X Y 




EM ■ ED' 



172. PENWORK. R. ANNING BELL. 



cxbccdefjf 





m 








)23])e[igalelteD 
45 itfouioite. 
678QO 





173. PENWORK. PROF. A. B. PITE, ARCHITECT. 




174- PENWORK. PROF. A. B. PITE, ARCHITECT. 



aBeoe 

FGHIJK. 
JLTDt) O P 

Ycayzyz 

abcdepghijklmn 
opqrstuvujxyz 

175. PEN WRITTEN. B. WALDRAM. 



ABCDEFG 
H1JKLMN 
OPQRSTU 
VWXYZ& 

abcdefghtj k 
Imnopqrstu 




vwxqzcr 

1234567890 

176. PEN WRITTEN. PERCY J. SMITH. 



Abcdef 

GHIJKLM 
NOPQRST 
UVWXYZ 

177. PEN-DRAWN "ROMAN" CAPITALS. B. WALDRAM. 

ABCDEFG 
HIJKLMN 
OPQRSTU 
VWXYZ& 

178. PRINTED "ROMAN" TYPE. MODERN FRENCH. 



>BC66£F 
QblJkXQD 

ROppgST 

uvoipcyz 

179. PEN- WRITTEN UNCIALS. B. WALDRAM. 

abcdcPqJ)ij 



180. PEN WRITTEN. L.F.D. 



ABCDEFGH1 
JKLMNOPQR 

STUVWXYZ 

abcdefjgMjM 
mnopqr^Tuv 

wxyp. 



l8l. PENWORK. ROLAND W. PAUL, ARCHITECT. 



182. PENWORK. R. K. COWTAN. 



g<H<7)f3(hM 




m^^jx yz 



183. PEN WORK. R. K. COWTAN. 




Q) 







184. PEN WORK. R. K. COWTAN. 





XL WW 
OPQJ& 

sfvvw 







185. PEN WRITTEN. WALTER WEST. 



abcdefghljkLmn 
ojDgrstu^coDcyz 

OJ Count the first question is thai: oj matsri: 
af-j and care must be taken to choose or de: 
sign an alphabet 9 not only practicable in , 
Bur suitable to , the medium in which it is 
to be ixeeuted . One of the -commonest zrrors 
is thai* of takina a style of kttirino txcett: 
ent when written en parchment or paper* , with 
a audi pen 9 and caroiny if 9 {eh us say for 
example , on wood . Oj course the result is 
often 9 atthouyh by no means necessarily so, 
incongruous in the tseheme . Many lefftr - 
forms are 9 indeed , interchangeable in this 
way : but if it is desired to adapt the fctitr. 
in a of one class of object to the purposes of 

186. CURSIVE WRITING. SELWYN IMAGE. 



sxvvwxyz 

187. DESIGNED FOR ENGRAVING ON METAL ; BUT NOT 
UNSUITED TO PENWORK. L.F.D. 

(ABcbergnij 

KLD2I20PHR 

srcwwxyz 



l88. PEN WRITTEN. L.F.D, 



ABCDEFG 
HIJKLMN 

OPQRSTU 
VWXYZ & 

abcdefghijkl 

mnopqrstuv 

wxyz 

1234567890 

189. FRENCH PRINTED TYPE. DESIGNED BY GRASSET (?). 



KLmDOfQH 

190. ENGRAVING. ADAPTED FROM MEDIAEVAL GOLDSMITH'S 
WORK. L.F.D. 



©KI/KLMJi 
0^> OR ST5 



191. L.F.D. 



fl BCD Lrc 

HIJKJ-/AN 
0PQR5T 
0PI4-V<NZ 



192. L.F.n. 



SEBMII1 




[93. SCRATCHING. ADAPTED FROM OLD SPANISH. L.F. D. 













194. INCISED. ALFRED 



5*1 









^mm^smjmsm^^mk 



mm m mmm m^ 



ARPENTER AND L.F. D. 




195- wood- 




CARVING. L.F.D. 




196. ENGRAVING ON SILVER. L.F.D. 










x Qt~^ 




w^TK^iawiT 


rfjGftr^&fa&toH^R 




Wit?* 


tr"4 


7^§§' ,, "Ja^J 




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11PM 






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197. ENGRAVING ON BRASS. ADAPTED FROM OTTO HUPP 




I98. EMBROIDERED IN COUCHED CORD. L.F,D. 




199- BEATEN METAL. L.F.D. 




■ 



' « --•.»• • ■ « . * .,« . ■ » 



HI* 1 v., • 






"• 7 <-" : -111 





ISM 



200. NEEDLEWORK. ADAPTED. L.F.D. 



A 



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3\ 



y 



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J I 

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\ I 1 



DPQ 







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Km 






201. SGRAFFITTO. L.F.D. 







202. SQUARE-CUT. QUASI-CHINESE. L.F.D, 




203. BRUSHWORK. QUASI-JAPANESE. L.F.D. 



ABCDEFGH! 
LflinOTOR 



5TIMDXY 



Mconopqrrt 



204. BKUS1IWORK. MUCHA. 



ABCUE 
FGtMJK 

lmdgp 

VWKVZ 

^bcdepcibtjklmn 
opcjrstuvw,\ajz 

205. STENCILLING ADAPTED FROM E. GRASSET AND 
M. P. VERNEUIL. 




ut\t\ 







206. PENWORK. FRANZ STUCK. 



MODERN ALPHABETS 

IN WHICH THE INFLUENCE OF 

THE IMPLEMENT EMPLOYED IS 

NOT SO EVIDENT 



ABC DE 

FG HIJK 

LMNOP 

QRSTU 

VWXYZ 

a b c d e fg h i 

jklmnopqr 

stuvwxyz 

207. "SKELETON." J. VINYCOMB. 



ABCDEF 
GHIJKL 
MNOPQR 

STUVW 
XYZ&fr 

abcdefghij 
klmnopqr 

stuvwxyz 



208. "FRENCH." J. VINYCOMB. 



ABCDE 
FQ HJ K 
LMNOP 
QRSTU 
VWXYZ 



209. L.F. D. 



ABCDE 
FGHIK 

LMNOP 
QKSTU 

wxyz 



2IO. L.F.D. 








LA 



QJJ 






n 





L4 



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211. J. CROMAR WATT, ARCHITECT, 





Oil 






PD 




D 






P=\ 



^J 




rniKumim 



©pqrstmivwxyz. 



31^; J. W. WEEKES. 



ABCDEF 
GHIJKU- 

(DHOPQ 
RSTUV, 



21^. BLOCK CAPITALS. W. J. PEARCE. 



ABCDEF 
GHIJKL 
MMNOPQ 
RRSSTU 
VWXYYZ 

abcdefghi j k I m n 
o pqrstuvwxy/z^. 

214. "SANS SERIF." J, W. WEEKES, 







*^i6K 



2ic. COTHTC CAPITALS. W. J. PEARCE. 



A BCD 
EFGHI 

JKLM 
NOPQR 
STUV 

WXYZ* 

2l6. OTTQ HUPP, " ALPHABETE UND ORNAMENTE," 



mm 



217. 



mm 
wz 

L.F.D. ^^^^ 



flBCB 

fTIJKL 
OR 5T 

X y Z/.„ 

trenuKL 

UVWXVZ. J2 



218. 



ETG 

TTNOP 

uvw. 




TfTlOPQIOT 
34-561190 . 



PATTEN WILSON. 




219- 



(TO 

MYIN 
STUV 



OTj] 

OPQR 




L.F. D. 






If 



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Wi 






I 



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■& 




tSla&i 





L.F.D. 




ever 

(jHIJ kl 

MNOPQR 

5TOVW 




abcdeP^bijkilro 
oopqr^ttivw^^ 



222. L.F.D. 









JK 



MN 




D 






P~~ 7 * 








223. MODERN GERMAN. 



ABCDE 
FOHIJK 
LMNOP 
QRSTU 
VWXYZ 



224. FRANZ STUCK. 



AMPERZANDS AND 
NUMERALS 






/-* 



<x<k& 



8l& 

as 





225. AMPERZANDS. 7TH TO 15TH CENTURIES. 






&TT&-V 




22.6. Amperzands. i6th century, etc., freely rendered. 




227. CUT IN STONE. 1477 




ISA A 




228. STONE AND BRASS. 1439-1491. 



M 



V 




2.29. CUT-IN STONE. 1492. 



ify \m if if 



1579 ll<4\ 

230. CHIEFLY BRASSES.^1520-1545. 



1274/ 

jlHS 

j2M.r 



231. BRASSES 



67*90 

6>S90 
678?0 
6TS90 



1520-159 




232. BRONZE. ABOUT 1550. 



1Z..HS 

<>7$ 00 



233. BRONZE. ABOUT 1560. 



1Z345 

67 W 

234. BRUSHWORK. FAIENCE. 16TH CENTURY 

67890 

235. BRUSHWORK. 16TH OR 17TH CENTURY. 



678<)0 



236. ITALIAN MS. 16TH CENTURY. 



678 





237. BRUSHWORK. GILT, ON BLACK. 1548? 






238. INCISED IN WOOD. GERMAN. 



07S9O 



239. BRASS. 16TH CENTURY. 



67890 



240. BRUSHWORK 16TH CENTURY. 



( 234$ 




241. ABOUT 1700. 




K? 



i 



242. CUT IN STONE. 1634. 



UN WO 

irtfif 



Mi 



243. RELIEF IN BRASS OR BRONZE. 1647. 



<JA 








244. STONE. 1692. 



1/615/ Jtf& 




<7 







J 



r 




Q 



X<o2$ 






M79 

t(307 16S9 







245. BRASS AND WOOD. 1563-I707. 



J12334 




J7Z 048 









f 3 
246. i8th century. 




m6zw k7X9 

\72\ HIS 
SZ3SZX73B 

xcm86f765 

\77¥-<S9$ 3783 



247. BRASSES, ETC. 1716-1783. 



^3 4 $ ty S 

248. BRASS WIRE INLAY ON WOOD. 1740. 

U7J j 55 J 

1643 c/747 

249. ENGRAVED ON STEEL, OR INLAID IN WIRE ON WOOD. 



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250. L.F.D, 




251. MODERN. 




252. L.F.D. 



A2345G7 



$ 9 so ij i2 



253. ALOIS MOLLEK. 



Ji345 
$7M 



254. L.F.D. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

ARRANGED UNDER ARTISTS, 

COUNTRIES, MATERIALS & PROCESSES, 

AND STYLES 

Note. — The reference numerals are to the figure numbers of the 
illustrations, and in no case to pages. 

Aldegrever (Heinrich) .. 113 Carving .. 44, 47, 82, 91, 133, 
Andrade (M.S.) .. 146, 147 195, 228 

Anglo-Saxon .. 17, 18, 58, 62, Caslon (William) .. 155, 156 

63, 64 Clay 201 

Cocker (E.).. ..134, 135, 137, 

Bell (R. Anning) .. 171, 172 I 38, 139 

Black letter.. 23, 24, 25, 32, 8i, Coptic 2,3,4 

93, 94, 105, 124 COURTHAND 157 

Brass (14th century).. .. 34. Cowtan (R. K.) . . 182, 183, 184 

77, 78 Crane (Walter) . . 160, 161 

„ (15th ,, ).. 42,' 85, Cresci(G. F.) .. 120,121, 

93, 94 I22 ' I23 

/- l6th -v g7 CURIONE (LUDOVICO) . . .. IIO 

" (17th ',', )'.'. .'.' 128 CuRTIS 2 4 6 

„ (modern) 197 Cut (See " Engraving" and 

,, (numerals) . . 230, 231, "Incising "). 

239, 245, 247 Cdt in marble • • 19. 5i, 54, 

Bronze . . 29, 30, 72, 98, 230, 56, 8i, 90, 112 

231. 232, 233, 243 CuT in stone • • z 3< 26, 31- 57, 

Brushwork.. 40, 191, 192, 198. 92, 125, 127, 142, 143- 150, 

203, 204, 234, 235, 237, 241 22 7. 228, 229, 242, 244, 

Byzantine 12 2 45> 246 

Cut leather 46 

Caroline 16 

Carpenter (Alfred) . . 194 Danish 70 



254 



INDEX. 



Day (Lewis F.) . . 165, 166, 168, 

180, 187, 188, 190-196, 199- 

203, 209, 210, 219-222, 

252, 254 

durer (albrecht) . . io4, io5 

Embossing 199 

Embroidery . . 50, 126, 191, 

198, 200 

English (6th century) 



■ • 58 
■• 13 
.. 69 

■• 73 
79,8o 

) 44. 114. 
ii5 
) --I33, 
134. 135. 
137. 138. 
139. 142, 
143 
) 39. 144. 
145. 155, 156 
(modern).. 160 et seq. 

Engraving .. 17, 113, 187, 190, 

193 

„ (brass) . . 34, 42, 77, 

78, 85, 128, 197 

„ (bronze) . . 29, 30 

„ (silver) . . 49, 196 

„ (numerals) 230, 231, 

249 

Etching 153 



(nth 
(12th 
(13th 
(15th 
(1 6th 

(17th 



(18th 



French (18th century) . . 136, 

140, 141, 151, 152 

„ (modern) . . 178, 189, 

208, 209 

Galician 60 

German (12th century) . 68 

(13th ,, ) .. 72 

(14th ,, ) 77,78 

(15th „ ) .. 23, 

24, 40, 84, 

85, 87, 89, 

90, 95. 98 

„ (16th ,, ) . . 104, 

105, 113, 

119, 127 

(17th ,, ) 128, 129 

„ (18th „ ) .. 35, 

148, 149, 150, 

153. 154 

„ (modern) . . 162, 163, 

223 

„ (numerals) . . 227, 228, 

229, 231, 232, 233, 

242 

Gesso 198 

Gilt . . . . 5, 37, 70, 237 
Glass (See " Stained Glass "). 
Grasset (E.) . . . . 189, 205 
Greek .. 1, 5, 29, 51, 54, 55 
Grounding out .. 67, 239, 243, 

245 
Guichard (E.) 151 



Flemish . . 42, 92, 103, 124, 
125, 228, 249 

Franco-Gallic 14 

French (12th century) 66, 67 
„ (14th ,, ) ... 76 
„ (15th „ ) 86, 91 



Hebrew 158, 159 

Hispano-Moresque . . .. 32 

Hopfer (Daniel) .. ..119 

Hupp (Otto) . . 162, 163, 164, 

197, 216 



INDEX. 255 

Illumination .. 16,61,62, MSS. (14th century). . 4.74 

63, 64, 66, 80, 100, 101 ,, (15th „ ).. 80, 84., 

Image (Selwyn) 186 87,88,89 

Incised.. 76, 99, 114, 124, 125, ,, (amperzands) .. .. 225 

129, 154, 194, 238, 245 Metal (See "Brass," "Bronze," 

(See also "Cut") &c). 

Inlay 19,248,249 Mucha 204 

Irish 58,61 Muller (Alois) 253 

Italian (13th century) .. 20 Murphy (Bailey Scott) . . 170 
(14th „ ) 75. 76 
„ (15th „ ) 38, 112 

(16th „ ) 33,36, Painting.. 40, 89, 103, 191, 192, 

99, 101, 106-110, 116, J 9 8 . 203, 204 

117, 118, 120-123 " on earthenware ..32, 

„ (numerals) . . 234-236 33. 36, 39, 234 

Italics . . 27, 132, 142, 167, 168, •• on g lass ■ ■ 4», 240 

lgc; „ on wood 35, 38, 86, 

148 

Lace I26 Palatino 116 

Laurent J 5 2 Paul (Roland W.) .. ..181 

Leather 41.46 p EA rce(W. J.) .. ..213,215 

Lesgret J 3 6 - J 4T Penwqrk ( 4 th-7th century) 6, 

Lombardic . . 19, 21, 34, 40, 45, 7) Q) IO( II( I4> 5g 

52 ,, (8th-i 1 th century) 1, 

Maingueneau 140 2, 5, 8, 15, 18, 59, 

Marble . . 19 51, 54, 56, 81, 60, 61 

90,112 1. (12th century) ..3,68 

Mosaic 28 .. (13th » ) 20,21, 

MSS. (4th century) . . .. 6 71.73 

,, (5th „).... 9 „ (14th » ) -.4,74 

„ (6th „ ) 10,11,58 .. (15th „ ) 80, 83, 

„ ( 7 th „ ) . . 7, 14, io5 

59. 64 ,» (16th „ ) . . ioo, 

„ (8th „ ) ..8, 59, 60, 101, 104, 

61, 62, 64 106-111, 

„ (9th „ ) .. 1, 63, 64 116, 117, 

„ (10th „ ) . . 2, 15, 65 120-123 

„ (nth „ ) .. .. 5 „ (17th „ ) .. 130, 

„ (12th „ ) .. 3, 66, 131, 132, 

68, 69 134, 135, 

„ (13th „ ).. 20,71, 73 137, 138, 139 



256 INDEX. 

Penwork (18th century) .. 136, Stone (17th century) .. 47, 

140, 141, 144- 127, 142, 143 

147. 149. !52 „ (18th „ ) .. 26, 

,, (modern).. 160,161, 150 

162,164, 166, 170- „ (numerals) ..227,228, 

J 77i 179-186, 188, 229. 242, 244-247 

206, 223 Stuck (Franz) . . . . 206, 224 

,, (amperzands) .. 225 Swiss 243 

(numerals) . . 236, 246 

Picking out with a point . . 37, Tiemroth (J. H.) .. .. 149 

52,70 Tischberger (John) . . .. 153 

Pite (Prof. A. Beresford) 173, Type .. ..118,155,156,189 
174 

Portuguese . . . . 146, 147 Uncials 8, 69, 71, 72, 73, 179 
Pottery. . . . 32, 33, 36, 39, 53 

Printed .. . . 55, 96, 115, 15 5. T7 ,,, -,-,. 

ddi v > d> dd> verneuil (m. p.) . . . . 205 

„ , " Vespasiano 117 

Rivets on leather .... 41 TT , T x 

_ ,. „ o Vicentino (Ludovico) . . 107, 

Roman . . 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 28, 56, 

' ' y ' ' ' ' 3 ' 108, 109 

„ D ' VlNYCOMB (J.) .. .. 167,208 

Saxon 16, 64 „ v 

' n Visigothic 15 

Scratching .. .. 193,201 , r ._, . 

^ J ' „ Vischer (Peter) . . . . 98 

Serlio .. 118 v J 

Shelley 144 

Silver 43, 49, 196 Waldram (B.) . . . . 175, 177 

Slate 129,154 Watt (J. Cromar) .. ..211 

Smith (Percy J.) .. ..176 Weekes (J. W.). . 169, 212, 214 

Snell(C) 145 West (Walter) 185 

Spanish. .37, 53, 76, 82, in, 193 Wilson (Patten) . . . . 218 

Stained Glass . . 45, 48, 52 Wood (12th century). . . . 67 

Steel .... 249 n ( J 5th „ ).. 38,91 

Stencilling 205 » ( l6tn » )•■ •• IJ 4 

Stone (2nd and 3rd cen- » ( I 7 tn » )•• •• J 33 

turies) 57 » (18th „ ).. 35,148 

„ (nth century) ..13 » (modern).. .. ..195 

,. (14th „ ) . . 82, i) (numerals) . . 228, 238, 

92 2 45, 248, 249 

„ (15th „ ) .. 31, Wood engraving.. 55, 96, 115 

79,82 Wright (Andrew) 157 

„ (16th „ ) .. 44, 

125,127 Yciar (Juan) in