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The Gift of Beatrix Farrand 

to the General Library 
University of California, Berkeley 

























THIS book is written to dispel a general but erroneous 
idea, that the plants of alpine regions cannot be grown 
in gardens. This idea is not confined to the general 
public ; it has been taught by botanists and horti- 
culturists whenever they have had to speak of alpine 
plants, while the alpine traveller has regretted that we 
could not enjoy in our gardens these most charming 
of flowers. The late Duke of Argyll, presiding some 
years ago at the dinner of the Gardeners' Benevolent 
Institution, told the company that, though they had 
overcome almost every difficulty of cultivation, they 
were beaten by one that of growing alpine plants. 

Any reader of this book may prove for himself that 
this idea is a baseless one ; and that, so far from its 
being true that these plants cannot be cultivated, there 
is no alpine flower that ever cheered the traveller's 
eye which cannot be grown in our island gardens. 
Instead of being very difficult, they will be found 
to be among the most easily cultivated of all plants, 
especially to those who begin modestly and avoid the 
ugly extravagance of artificial "rocks." 

What are alpine plants ? The word alpine is used 
to denote the plants that grow naturally on all 


high mountain-chains, whether they spring from 
hot tropical plains or from green northern 
pastures. Above the cultivated land these 
flowers begin to occur on the fringes of the stately 
woods ; they are seen in multitudes in the vast 
pastures which clothe many great mountain-chains, 
enamelling their soft verdure ; and also where 
neither grass nor loose herbage can exist ; or where 
feeble world-heat is quenched and mountains are 
crumbled into ghastly slopes of shattered rock by the 
contending forces of heat and cold, even there, amid 
the glaciers, they spring from Nature's ruined battle- 
ground, as if the mother of earth-life had sent up 
her loveliest children to plead with the spirits of 

Alpine plants fringe the vast fields of snow and 
ice of the high mountains, and at great elevations 
have often scarcely time to flower and ripen a 
few seeds before they are again imbedded in the 
snow ; while sometimes many of them may remain 
beneath the surface for more than a year. 
Enormous areas of the earth, inhabited by them, 
are every year covered by a deep bed of snow. 
Where the tall tree or shrub cannot exist in the 
intense cold, a deep soft mass of down-like snow 
settles upon these minute plants, a great cloud-borne 
quilt, under which they safely rest, unharmed by the 
alternations of frost and biting winds and moist and 
spring-like days. It is the absence in our island of 
this winter rest that is our chief difficulty, in leading 
to " false starts" in growth, and so injuring certain 


kinds. But, in spite of this, hundreds of kinds of 
alpine plants are now grown in the parts of Britain 
that are most subject to winter's rapid changes. 

A reason why alpine plants clothe the ground 
in these high regions is that no taller vegetation 
can exist there ; were such places inhabited by trees 
and shrubs, we should find few alpine plants among 
them ; on the other hand, if no stronger vegetation 
were found at a lower elevation, these plants would 
make their appearance there. Many plants found 
on the high Alps are also met with in rocky 
or bare places at much lower elevations. Gentiana 
verna often flowers late in summer when the snow 
thaws on a high mountain ; yet it is also found on low 
hills, and occurs in the British Isles. In the struggle 
for existence upon the plains and tree-clad hills, the 
more minute plants are often overrun by trees, trailers, 
bushes, and vigorous herbs, but where, as in northern 
and elevated regions, these fail from the earth, the 
choicer alpine plants prevail. 

Alpine plants include plants from many divisions of 
the plant world, embracing endless diversities of form 
and colour. Among them are tiny Orchids, as interest- 
ing as their tropical brethren, though so much smaller ; 
ferns that peep from crevices of high rocky places, 
clinging to the rocks and not daring to throw forth 
their fronds with airy grace, as they do on the ground ; 
bulbous plants with all their coarseness gone, and all 
their beauty retained ; evergreen shrubs, perfect in leaf 
and blossom, yet so small that an inverted glass could 
cover them ; creeping plants, rarely venturing much 


above mother earth, yet spreading freely over it, and, 
when they fall over the brows of rocks, draping them 
with lovely colour ; minute plants that scarcely exceed 
the mosses in size, and quite surpass them in the way 
in which they mantle the earth with fresh green carpets 
in the midst of winter; and "succulent" plants in 
endless variety, though smaller than the mosses of our 
bogs : in a word, alpine vegetation embraces nearly 
every type of the plant-life of northern and temperate 


As to the merits of " alpine" and like kinds of 
gardening, as compared with those more in vogue, 
there can be little doubt in the minds of all who 
give the subject any thought. Stupidity itself 
could hardly delight in anything uglier than the 
daubs of colour that, every summer, flare in the 
neighbourhood of most country-houses in western 
Europe. Visit many of our large country gardens, 
and probably the first thing we shall hear about will 
be the scores of thousands of plants "bedded out" 
every year, though no system ever devised has had 
such a bad effect on our gardens. 

Amateurs who cultivate numerous hot - house 
plants, and who generally have not a dozen of the 
equally beautiful flowers of northern and temperate 
regions in their gardens, might grow an abundance of 
them at a tithe of the expense required to fill a glass- 
house with costly Mexican or Indian Orchids. Our 
botanical and great public gardens, in which alpine 


plants are too often found in obscure corners, might each 
exhibit a beautiful rock-garden, at half the expense 
now bestowed on some tropical family displayed in 
a glass-shed, and there is not a garden, even in the 
suburbs of our great cities, in which the flowers of 
alpine lands might not be enjoyed. 

This book is written in the hope of showing 
various simple ways in which this may be done. As 
regards the instructions for cultivation given in it, 
it will be understood that they can only be applied 
in a general way, so much being dependent on the 
difference in conditions, even in our islands, of north, 
south, east and west ; of soil, rainfall, amount of sun- 
shine, and many other considerations not always 
noticed. The plant that in a garden on a north 
of England moor might be quite happy and take 
care of itself, will need care in the sands of 
Surrey, and plants that thrive with the more copious 
rainfall on the western coast of Ireland may want 
much looking after in Kent or Essex. In some 
cases these difficulties are not easily got over. 
Even soil is not by any means the simple thing 
it looks, as that no matter what trouble we take, in 
certain districts we cannot make soil nearly so 
good as that which occurs naturally in others. 
But from this and many other things, we may 
learn the best lesson of all, as regards rock plants, 
which is to grow the plants that our conditions 
allow us to do best. We have even seen the 
hardy Pansies perish in great heats on the south, 
when in the cool hill-country they were enduring and 


happy. Therefore in a dry district we should lean 
more to the southern plants, such as Rock Roses, and 
in heavy soils, which we cannot easily alter, take 
up easily-grown plants, like the Candytufts, Rockfoils, 
Stonecrops, and Houseleeks. 


If the conditions of plant life in our islands are so 
varied, how of those of the Alps ? In no part of the 
earth are they so wondrously varied, severe, and 
even terrible. Valleys that would tempt young 
goddesses to gather flowers, and valleys flanked with 
cliffs fit to guard the River of Death : beautiful 
forest shade for woodland flowers, and vast prairies 
without a tree, yet paved with Gentians ; sunburnt 
slopes and chilly gorges ; mountain copses with 
shade and shelter for the taller plants, and uplands 
with large areas of plants withered up, owing to 
the snow lying more than a year. Plants rooted deep 
in prime river-carried soil, and others living and thriving 
in little depressions in the earthless rock. Lakes and 
pools at every elevation, torrents, streams splashing 
from snowy peaks ; pools, bogs, and spring-fed rills 
at every altitude; long melting snow-fields, giving 
the plants imprisoned below them their freedom at 
different times, and so leading to a succession of 
alpine flower life. 

Most noticeable of all, for us, however, is the 
great winter rest under the snow which keeps the 
plants asleep. The absence of snow in our country 


is the cause of the greatest difficulty we have with 
alpine plants. Constant change of weather, and 
the occurrence of mild weather in winter when 
all the high mountain plants are at rest, should lead us 
to think more of southern plants and shrubs, which are 
not subject to this high alpine sleep. 

But there is one fact that should make all 
Britons rock-gardeners, namely, that the climate 
of our grey islands corresponds with that of an 
immense range of mountain ground in central 
Europe. The plains of France and of Lombardy 
are hot, and the alpine passes ice - cold, while 
the nightingales are singing in millions of acres 
of mountain pasture set with islets of Wild Rose, 
Hazel, and Aspen. And these conditions of 
cool mountain ground between hot valley-land and 
high frozen passes obtain over vast regions in central 
and eastern Europe. Even in the south, the same 
thing occurs. If asked to name two of the most 
enduring rock-flowers, I could not name any 
better than the blue Greek Anemone (A. blanda] 
and the purple Rock Cress (Aubrietia), which we see 
in quantity on the hills near Athens. I have never 
seen the mountains of northern Greece nor the 
mountainous regions near, but we should expect no 
less from their flora, as their hillside climate would be 
more like our own. If we go into Savoy to see its 
rich alpine flora, we are often struck with the likeness 
to the conditions of our own land. This is why 
such large numbers of rock - plants are so easily 
grown in Britain, we having the same cool summer 


as in the high mountain ground. And the plants 
that will enjoy these conditions are far more numerous 
than those that inhabit the flank of the moraine 
or the high mountain crest, with often a few weeks 
of summer only. Hence the summer that burns 
up the Roses on the plains of Italy or of Southern 
Germany or France, leaves us cool in the plains of 
Britain, not to speak of our mountain ground, so 
admirable for the growth of alpine plants and 
mountain shrubs. And we may be sure that it is only 
certain groups of plants inhabiting very high ground, 
like Androsace, that will offer us any difficulty. 

It is for these reasons I have brought a greater 
variety of plants into this edition ; hardy mountain 
shrubs mainly, and those accustomed by nature to a 
great variety of conditions, including plenty of sun and 
an "open" winter. It is not only for their own sake 
that the mountain shrubs are a gain ; it is for the 
gentle shelter and shade they give to plants that grow 
naturally in woods and copses. Some of these plants, 
like Lily-of-the- valley, thrive in the open with us ; 
but we lose plants of rare beauty, owing to exposure 
on the bare rock-garden of plants that in nature live 
among bushes and in copses and in open and moist 


has had a free sway in rock - garden formation, 
and has always ended in ugliness. Much harm is 
done by rock-makers, their extravagant plans lead- 
ing to great cost, of which some startling instances 


could be given. This is more especially the case in 
the artificial rock-garden, which is formed of bricks 
and like material, covered with cement. Even if we 
got such ugly things at little cost it would stop pro- 
gress. They are rarely artistic, and they are bad for 
the growth of plants. If we spend much in preliminary 
effects, such as these rock-gardens give, there may be 
little left for the main thing the plants and their care. 
People who have natural rocks in their own pro- 
perty, or near it, are not likely to make such 
mistakes, and the true way is to begin modestly with 
a few natural stones. A man who has seen the 
mountains, and has his heart in the matter, ought 
to do better with a few loads of natural stone than 
with five hundred tons of artificial rubbish. In many 
parts of the Alps the prettiest effects are obtained 
from plants clustered round a lichen-covered stone, 
with, it may be, a yard only of its point exposed. Such 
stones not only look well, but are best for the plants, 
the roots of which find all they require beneath and 
near the cool stone. In that way, in many districts, 
even where the natural stone has to be carried home, 
such a beginning need cost very little. Where the 
stone is on the ground, as often happens in the north 
and west, it might become a question of planting 
only ; but the idea is so much in peoples' heads that 
they must make some kind of " rock " work, that even 
in the Alps I have seen men making little artificial 
arrangements, reminding one of what used to be seen 
in villa gardens at home, instead of planting the rocky 
ground ready to their hands. 


If we are to make artificial rock, it should be as a 
last resort, and for effect only, as it never allows us to 
grow plants half as well as the natural stone or even 
the level soil. 

Much improvement, both in design and cultivation of 
rock-gardens and rock plants, has taken place within the 
past twenty years or so, and some effects on these rock- 
gardens are now seen that were impossible on the old 
form of "rock- work," with its dust-dry pockets and hope- 
less ugliness. At the Friar Park, Henley-on-Thames, 
South Lodge, Leonardslee, Warley Place, Batsford, 
and many other places, we may see not only the rarest 
Alpine plants admirably grown, but effects and colour not 
unworthy of the Alpine fields. Even the public gardens 
where the most grotesque arrangements were common 
have changed much for the better. I wish one could 
say there was the same improvement in the nurseries 
devoted to these plants. There are fuller collections, 
but the needlessly costly way of offering single plants at 
a high price tends to prevent any artistic grouping or 
massing of the plants such as a beginner might seek. 
Many alpine plants, like the Houseleeks, Stonecrops, 
and Rockfoils, are almost too facile in increase, and 
many others distinct from these are easily raised 
from seed, while the mountain perennials, like the 
Globe Flowers and Harebells, are easily increased by 
division. So that there should be no difficulty for 
any one with a piece of even poor ground in treating 
the public more liberally than in the usual way of 
offering single plants. It would be better both for 
gardens and the trade if the bolder way were followed 


of offering plants by the dozen or hundred and at 
reasonable rates. 

The plants in this book are not treated in any one 
or regular way, for the reason that they differ so much 
in value. In nature, all plants may be said to be of 
equal value, but in gardening the difference in their 
values is enormous, both in degree and in every other 
way. Therefore, in a purely garden book like this, the 
only helpful way is to treat plants in some relation to 
their value in the garden. A great many plants, also, 
are truly Alpine, but have little or no use or beauty in 
the garden, and these are not included in this book. 
Nor can we even in such a vast theme include all the 
claims to beauty, not to speak of the fact that many of 
the regions from which these plants come are not yet 
half explored, and many of the plants that are known 
are not yet introduced. 

Here I leave the Alpine garden to the young 
enthusiasts of the future ; they can never exhaust its 
variety, but can do much for it, by simple plans and 
good culture. Done in the worst way and most adverse 
conditions it is interesting, but, with care and thought 
in the best, the Alpine garden may be the fairest ever 
made by the hands of man. 


January 1903. 




IN treating of the culture of alpine plants, the first considera- 
tion is that much difference exists among them as regards con- 
stitution and vigour. We have, on the one hand, many plants 
that merely require to be sown or planted in the simplest way 
to flourish Arabis and Aubrietia for example; but, on the 
other, there are many kinds, like the Primulas of the high Alps, 
with many of their companions, which demand some thought 
and care. Nearly the whole of the misfortunes which these 
little plants have met with in our gardens are to be attributed 
to the usual conception of what a rock-garden ought to be, and 
of what the alpine plant requires. These plants live on high 
mountains ; therefore it is erroneously thought they will do best 
in our gardens if planted on such ugly heaps of stones and 
brick rubbish as we frequently see piled up and dignified by 
the name of "rockwork." Eocks are often "bare," and cliffs 
are devoid of soil ; but we must not conclude from this that the 



choice jewellery of plant life scattered over the ribs of the 
mountain, or growing out of the crag and crevice, lives upon 
little more than the mountain air and the melting snow. 
Where shall we find such a depth of well-ground stony soil, and 
withal such perfect drainage, as on the ridges of debris flanking 
some great glacier, stained all over with tufts of crimson 
Saxifrage? That narrow chink, from which peep tufts of 
the beautiful Androsace helvetica, has for ages gathered the 
crumbling grit and scanty soil, into which the roots enter far. 
If we find plants growing from mere cracks without soil, the 
roots simply search farther into the heart of the flaky rock, so 
that they are safer from any want of moisture than in the 
deepest soil. 

We find on the Alps plants not more than an inch high, and 
so firmly rooted in crevices of half-rotten slaty rock that any 
attempt to take them out would be futile. But, by knocking 
away the sides from some isolated bits of projecting rock, we 
may lay bare the roots and find them radiating in all directions 
against a flat rock, some of them a yard long. We think it 
rapacious of the Ash, a forest tree, to send its roots under the 
walls of our gardens and rob the soil therein ; but here is an 
instance of a plant one inch high, penetrating into the earth 
to a distance many times greater than its foliage ventures into 
the alpine air. And there need be no doubt whatever that even 
smaller plants descend quite as deep, though it is rare to find 

the texture and position of the rock 
such as will admit of tracing their 
roots. It is true, we occasionally 
find hollows in flat, hard rock, into 
which moss and leaves have 
gathered for ages, and where, in 
a sort of basin, without an outlet 
of any kind in the hard rock, 
plants grow freely; but in excep- 

Mountain flank in process of degradation. r 

tional droughts they are just as 

liable to suffer from want of water as they would be in our 
plains. On level or sloping spots of ground in the Alps, the 


earth is often of great depth, and if it be not all earth in the 
common sense of the word, it is more suitable to rock plants 
than what we commonly understand by that term. Stones of 
all sizes broken up with the soil, sand, and grit, greatly tend to 
prevent evaporation. The roots lap round them and follow 
them deeply down while in such positions, they never suffer 
from want of food and moisture, or weather. Stone is a 
great preventive of evaporation, and shattered stone forms the 
soil of the mountain flanks where the rarest alpine plants 
abound, while the degradation of gritty soil, so continually 
effected by melted snow water and heavy rains in summer, 
serves to earth up, so to speak, many alpine plants. I have 
torn up tufts of them, showing the remains of generations of 
the old plants buried and half buried in the soil beneath their 
descendants. This would be effected to some extent by the 
decaying of the plants themselves, but frequently grit and 
peat are washed down among them ; and, in cases where the 
washings-down do not come so thickly as to overwhelm the 
plants, they thrive with unusual vigour. 

Now, if we consider how dry even our English air often 
becomes in summer, and that no natural positions in our 
gardens afford such cool rooting-places as those described, the 
need of giving to alpine plants a soil quite different from what 
has hitherto been in vogue will be seen. The only good 
principle generally followed is that of raising the plants above 
the level of the ground. But this raising of the plants above 
the level should in all cases be accompanied by the more 
essential way of giving the plants means of rooting deeply into 
good and firm soil sandy, gritty, peaty, or mingled with broken 
stone, as the case may be. 

How not to do this is shown by persons who stuff a little 
soil into a chink between the stones in a rockery, and insert 
some small alpine plant in that. There is usually a vacuum 
between the stones and the soil beneath them, and the first 
dry week sees the death of the plant that not being usually 
attributed to the right cause. Precisely the same end would 
have come of it if the experiment had been tried on some alp 


bejewelled with Gentians. We should not pay so much 
attention to the stones or rocks as to the earth for the plants. 
There are certainly alpine plants that do not require a deep soil, 
or what is usually termed soil at all; but all require a firm 
medium for the roots. 

In numbers of gardens an attempt at " rockwork " of some 
sort has been made ; but in most cases the result is ridiculous ; 
not because it is puny when compared with Nature's work in 
this way, but because it is so arranged that rock-plants cannot 
exist upon it. In many places a sort of sloping stone or burr 
wall passes as " rockwork," a dust of soil being shaken in be- 
tween the stones. In others, made upon a better plan as regards 
the base, the " rocks " are all stuck up on their ends, and so close 
that soil, or room for a plant to root or spread, is out of the 
question. The best thing that usually happens to a structure 
of this sort is that its nakedness gets covered by some friendly 
climbing shrub, or some rampant weed, to the exclusion of 
true rock-plants. 

In moist districts, where frequent rains keep porous stone 
in a continually humid state, this too showy " rockwork " may 
manage to support a few plants; but in by far the larger 
portion of the British Isles it is useless, and always ugly. 
In the southern and eastern counties, where of late years 
the rainfall is often very low, the need is all the greater to see 
that alpine plants are so placed that they will not suffer from 
drought. It is not alone because the mountain air is pure and 
clear and moist that the Gentians and like plants prefer it, 
but because the elevation is unsuitable to the coarser-growing 
vegetation ; and the alpines have it all to themselves. Take a 
healthy patch of Silene acaulis, by which the summits of some 
of our highest mountains are mossed with rosy crimson, 
and plant it two thousand feet lower down in suitable soil, 
keeping it moist enough and free from weeds, and we may grow 
it well ; but leave it to Nature in the same neighbourhood, and 
the strong grasses and herbage will soon run through and cover 
it, excluding the light, and finally killing the diminutive Moss 



It is not only those who make their " rockwork " out of spoilt 
bricks, cement, and perhaps clinkers, that err in this respect, 
but the designers of vsome of the most expensive works of this 
kind. At Chats worth, for instance, and also to some extent at 
the Crystal Palace, we see rocks not offensive so far as distant 
effect in the landscape is concerned; but, when examined 
closely, it might well be imagined that rocks and rock-plants 
were never intended for each other's company, so bare are 
these of their best ornaments. They are, for the most part, 
pavements of small stones, huge masses of stone, or imitation 
rock, formed by laying cement over brickwork, and in none 
of these cases are they adapted for the cultivation of mountain 

It is possible to combine the most picturesque effects of 
which rocks are capable, with all the requirements for plant- 
growing ; and it is easy to use the large stones and make bold 
effects, and leave at the same time level intervening spaces 
of rocky ground in which rock-plants may thrive almost as 
well as on the many mountain pastures where we see them 
happy in the mountain turf. 

Part of the Rock Garden at Brookfield, Hathersage, Sheffield. 



The position selected for the rock-garden should not, as a 
rule, be near walls, or very near a house; never, if possible, 
within view of formal surroundings of any kind ; and generally 
be in an open situation; and no effort should be spared to 
make all the surroundings as graceful, quiet, and natural as 
they can be made. The part of the gardens around the rock- 
garden should be picturesque, and, in any case, display a 
careless grace, resulting from the naturalisation of beautiful, 
hardy herbaceous plants, and the absence of too formal walks 
and beds. The roots of forest trees would be almost sure to 
find their way into the masses of good soil provided for the 
choicer alpine plants, and thoroughly exhaust them. Besides, 
as alpine flowers are usually found on treeless and even bush- 
less wastes, it is certainly wrong to place them under trees or 
in shaded positions, as has generally hitherto been their fate. 
It need hardly be added that it is an unwise practice to plant 
pines on rockwork, as has been lately done in Hyde Park and 
many other places. It will, however, generally be in good 
taste to have some graceful young pines planted near, as this 
type of vegetation is usually to be seen on mountains, apart 
altogether from their great beauty and the aid which they so 
well afford in making the surroundings of the rock-garden what 
they ought to be. In small places, and in those where, from 
unavoidable circumstances, the rock-garden is made near a 
group of trees, the roots of which might rob it, it would be 
found a good plan to cut them off by a narrow drain, descend- 
ing as deep as, or somewhat deeper than, the roots of the trees ; 
this should be filled with rough concrete, and it will form an 
effectual barrier. 


As regards the kinds of stone to be used, if one could 
choose, sandstone or millstone grit would perhaps be the best ; 


but it is seldom that a choice can be made, and happily almost 
any kind of natural stone will do, from Kentish rag to lime- 
stone ; soft, slaty, and other kinds liable to crumble away 
should be avoided, as also should magnesian limestone. Stone 
of the district should be adopted for economy's sake, if for 
no other reason. Wherever the natural rock crops out, as it 
often does in many hilly parts of our islands, it is sheer waste 
to create artificial rockwork instead of embellishing that which 
naturally occurs. Something of the same kind might be said 
of many of our country seats. In many cases of this kind 
nothing would have to be done but to clear the ground, and 
add here and there a few loads of good soil, with broken stones, 
etc., to prevent evaporation ; the natural crevices being planted 
where possible. Cliffs or banks of chalk, as well as all kinds 
of rock, should be taken advantage of in this way; many 
plants, like the dwarf Campanulas and Eock Eoses, thrive 
in such places. 

No burrs, clinkers, vitrified matter, portions of old arches 
and pillars, broken-nosed statues, etc., should ever obtain a 
place in a garden devoted to alpine flowers. Stumps and pieces 
of old trees are quite as bad as any of the foregoing materials ; 
they are only fitted to form supports for rough climbers, and 
it is rarely worth while incurring any expense in arranging 
them. It is best to begin without attempting much. Let 
your earliest attempts at " the first great evidences of mountain 
beauty " be confined to a few square yards of earth, with no 
protuberance more than a yard or so high, and be satisfied 
that you succeed with that, before trying anything more 
ambitious. The stones should usually all have their bases 
buried in the ground, and the seams should not be visible ; 
whenever a vertical or oblique seam of any kind occurs, it 
should be crammed with earth, and the plants put in this will 
quickly hide the seams. Horizontal fissures should be avoided 
as much as possible ; they are only likely to occur in vertical 
faces of rock, and these should be avoided except where distant 
effect is sought. No vacuum should exist beneath the surface 
of the soil or surface-stones. Myriads of alpine plants have 



been lost from want of observing this precaution, the open 
crevices and loose texture of the soil permitting the dry air to 
destroy them in a very short time. 

Mound of earth, with exposed points of rock. 

In all cases where elevations of any kind are to be formed, 
the true way is to obtain them by means of a gentle mound of 
soil, suitable to the plants, putting a stone in here and there as 
the work proceeds ; frequently it would be desirable to make 
these mounds without any " strata." The wrong and the usual 
way is to get the desired elevation by piling up arid and ugly 
masses of " rockwork." 


While many go to great expense in forming masses of 
artificial rock, made of bricks and cement, and others are 

Unearthed Rocks in a Sussex Garden. 


satisfied with the old bricks themselves, accompanied by 
clinkers and other offensive rubbish, few trouble themselves 
about the rock treasures that often lie beneath the sod. 
Considering the large sums that are spent in sham rocks, 
and the greater value in every way of natural rock, masses of 
it are most valuable to those who care for the picturesque in 
garden scenery. The illustration on the opposite page gives a 
feeble notion of one of the rocks that a friend of mine has 
succeeded in unearthing. His place was somewhat liberally 
strewn with rock on the surface ; but the owner was anxious 
for more ; and by digging out the earth, he has formed a 
beautiful gorge between two flanks of rock; and by clearing 
away the earth from the flank of a nose of rock that just 
projects above a grassy knoll, he has discovered beautiful 
wrinkles, crevices, and other charms in it. Thus by a little 
persevering searching and digging, has been produced a scene 
as interesting as in an alpine country, and one which offers such 
a variety of aspects that one could desire for a rock-garden. 
Many kinds of rock plants may be grown on it in the best 
manner, and arranged on it with the happiest effect. 

Stone Pathway in Rock Garden at Warley Place, Essex. 

It would seem redundant to advise country folk to develop 
the beauty of natural rocks where they happen to have any 
but it is not so, as I have seen artificial rock being formed in 
places where there were acres of beautiful rocks hidden away 
in the underwood ! Even where no desire is felt for the 
cultivation of alpine plants, the effect of the rock on the 
landscape should be thought of, as it is often very precious. 


I have myself made visible throughout the country-side a 
quarter of a mile of rocks, which were once hidden in the 

Ascending Pathway in Rock Garden (Warley Place). 

As we see too clearly that the rock-gardens too commonly 
made by those who profess to make them, are not based upon 
observation of natural form, it is well to show all we can of the 
way rocks come out of the earth, and of their structure and 
often beauty of colour and form. 


No walk with regularly -trimmed edges of any kind should 
pass through, or even come near, the rock-garden. This need 
not prevent walks through or near it, as, by allowing the edges 
of the walk to be a little free and stony, and by permitting 
dwarf Stonecrops, Linaria alpina, and the lawn Eockfoils to crawl 
into the walk at will, a good effect will arise. In every case 
where walks pass through rock-gardens, a variety of little 
plants should be placed at the sides, and allowed to crawl into 
the walk in their own way. There is no surface whatever of 
this kind that may not be thus planted: Violets, Ferns, and 
Myosotis will answer for the moister and shadier parts, and the 
Stonecrops, Eockfoils, Sandworts, and many others, will thrive 
in more arid parts and in the full sun. The whole of the surface 




of the alpine garden should be covered with plants, except the 
projecting points of rocks ; arid even these should be covered, 
as far as possible, without concealing them. In moist districts r 
such plants as Erinus alpinus and Arenaria balearica will grow 
wherever there is a resting-place for a seed on the face of the 
rocks ; and even vertical faces of rock may be half covered 
with a variety of plants; so that there is no reason why any 
level surfaces of ground should be bare. 


A propos of simple ways of getting good effects, I may 
mention what took place in a garden in Sussex, where stone 
steps had been placed in the rock garden just as a pathway. 
The plants inserted between the rough stones Gentians and 
Stonecrops in a varied collection gave the prettiest effect, and 
si 10 wed the finest health of any plants in the place ; and with 
good reason, because they were protected from the heat much 
more effectually than the plants in the rock garden near, as 

Rocky Path at Lydhurst, Sussex. 


they could spread their roots under the great stones. The 
result was quite a picture, and got in the most simple way. 


In no case should regular or mason-built steps be permitted 
in or near the rock-garden. Steps may be made irregular, and 
even beautiful, with violets and other small plants jutting from 
every crevice. No cement should be used in connection with 
the steps. The woodcut on page 10 is from a photograph of 
the lower part of rude steps ascending from a deep and moist 
recess in a rock-garden. It shows imperfectly no engraving 
could show it otherwise the crowds of lovely plants that 
gather over it, except where worn bare by feet. In cases where 
the simplest type of rock-garden only is attempted, and where 
there are no rude walks in the rock-garden, the very fringes of 
the gravel walks may be graced by the dwarfer Stonecrops. 
The alpine Linaria is never more beautiful than when self-sown 
in a gravel walk. " Rockwork," which is so made that its 
miniature cliffs overhang, is useless for alpine vegetation ; and 
all but such wall -loving plants as Corydalis lutea, perish on it. 
The tendency to make it with overhanging brows is everywhere 
seen in cement rock-gardens. Into the alpine garden this kind 
of construction should never be admitted, except to get the 
effect of bold cliffs. When this system is admitted, the designer 
should be requested to obtain his picturesque effect otherwise 
than by making all his " cliffs " overhang. It is erroneous to 
suppose that heaps of stones or small rocks are necessary for 
the health of alpine plants. The great majority will thrive 
without their aid if the soil be suitable ; and though all are 
benefited by them, if properly used as elsewhere described, it is 
important that it should be generally known how needless is 
the common system of inserting mountain plants among loose 
stones. Half burying rocks or stones in the earth round a rare 
species, which it is intended to save from excessive evaporation, 
and which has a deep body of soil to root into, is, however, a 
different and a good practice. 



The great majority of alpine plants thrive best in deep, cool, 
and gritty soil. In it they can root deeply, and when once they 
are so rooted, they will not suffer from drought, from which they 
would quickly perish if planted in the usual way. Two feet 
deep is not too much for most species in dry districts, and it is 
in nearly all cases a good plan to have plenty of broken sand- 
stone or grit mixed with the soil. Any good free loam, with 
plenty of sand and grit, will be found to suit many alpine plants, 
from Pinks to Gromwells. But peat is required by some, as, 
for example, various small and brilliant rock-plants like 
Menziesia, Trillium, Cypripedium, Spigelia inarilandica, and 
other mountain and bog plants. Hence, though the general 
mass of a rock garden may be of an open loam nature, it will be 
desirable to have a few masses of sandy and leaf soil and peat 
here and there. This is better than forming all the ground of 
good loam, and then digging holes in it for the reception of 
small masses of peat. The soil of one or more portions might 
also be chalky or calcareous, for the sake of plants that are 
known to thrive best on these formations, as Polygala calcarea, 
the Bee orchis, and Ehododendron chamsecistus. Any other 
varieties of soil required by individual kinds can be given as 
they are planted. 

Much consideration has been given by botanists to the 
plants that grow on the different formations, but we have 
evidence in British gardens that the good soils common in them 
will sustain in health a great number of kinds well, that in 
Nature are found on soils of a special character. 

Mr Correvon, who has given much thought to the matter, 
writes as follows in The Garden: 

The flora of the Alps depends in a much greater degree than 
that of the plains on the chemical nature of the soil. We know 
that from the point of view of chemistry, the mountains are divided 
into two main classes, namely, the calcareous and the granitic, 
otherwise the sedimentary and the igneous. 

All the mountain ranges of the Alps are either of limestone or 


of granite. The vegetation that adorns them is directly subject to 
their influence, and hence becomes a flora either calcareous or 
silicious. Thus, also, there is among the alpine plants that we have 
in cultivation, some that desire or actually require lime, just as 
there are others that avoid it, and must have silica. It is important 
to know to which category the various plants belong, in order to 
combine them rightly. There are, notwithstanding, a great number 
indeed the larger number of mountain plants whose distribution 
is general, and which do equally well in either soil. ^ It is just these, 
of all the plants of the Alps, that submit most readily to cultivation, 
and that have long been established in gardens. 

But there are great numbers of other species which, though easy 
to grow at Geneva, where the soil, the water, and the stone contain 
lime, are by no means so accommodating in the west of France or in 
the parts of England that are granitic ; while there is a whole range 
of other species that are readily grown in these regions, and that 
we cannot persuade to feel at home in our lime-impregnated 

One of my friends, Dr A. Rosenstiehl, a chemist, who is also an 
excellent botanist, has gone deep into the subject, and, thanks to a 
system of watering with distilled water, has arrived at some excel- 
lent results. He set to work with all the necessary care and pre- 
caution, keeping his granite rock free from contact with lime, and 
the results he has obtained prove that those botanists are right who 
class some plants as lovers, and others as haters, of lime, and others 
again as inimical to granite. 

The juices of plants are acid ; these acids, when brought into 
contact with the carbonate of lime absorbed by the plant, become 
saturated and neutralised. There are formed therefore in the plant 
certain salts of lime, which, if they are soluble in water, can circulate 
in its organism ; but if they are insoluble, as is often the case, the 
channels of circulation become choked, and nutrition is impeded. 
Their presence, therefore, is a mechanical impediment to the well- 
being of the plant. Dr Rosenstiehl has verified the presence of 
such acids in the lime-hating plants he has examined, and it is 
certain that these plants, if grown in soil containing lime, will 
sooner or later become poisoned. He has shown me in his garden 
examples of Sphagnum and Vaccinium, plants essentially lime- 
hating and granite-loving, whose leaves were throwing out small 
calcareous crystals and were dying. All plants, however, require 
lime in a certain proportion for the building up of their tissues, and 
it is found in the ashes of even the most lime-hating of plants. 
Each species must have a certain amount, but cannot endure too 
strong a dose, and on these a little too much acts as poison. The 
careful cultivator must therefore learn exactly how much must be 
given to each species. 

Dr Rosenstiehl grows Asplenium germanicum in soil containing 




0.293 per cent, of carbonate of lime, while the earth in which 
Edelweiss is growing contains a great deal more. This plant is, 
as is well known, essentially lime-loving and its flower-bracts are 
just so much more white and woolly in proportion as the soil it 
grows in is rich in lime. 

Here is a list of the principal alpine plants that need one or 
other of the two soils containing respectively either lime or granite : 


Achillea atrata 

Aconitum Anthora 

Adenostylis alpina 

Androsace chamsejasme 




Anemone alpina 




Anthyllis montana 

Artemisia mutellina 

Braya alpina 

Campanula thyrsoidea 

Cephalaria alpina 

Cyclamen europseum 

Daphne alpina 

Dianthus alpinus 

Draba tomentosa 

Erica carnea 

Eryngium alpinum 

Erinus alpinus 

Gentiana alpina 

Geranium aconitifolium 


Gnaphalium Leontopodium 

Gypsophila repens 

Lychnis Flos-jo vis 

Moehringia muscosa 


Achillea moschata 
Aconitum septentrionale 
Adenostylis albifrons 
Androsace carnea 




Anemone sulphurea 



Arnica montana 
Artemisia glacialis 
Astrantia minor 
Azalea procumbens 
Braya pinnatifida 
Campanula spicata 


Daphne petrsea 

Dianthus glacialis 
Draba frigida 
Ephedra helvetica 
Eritrichium nanum 
Gentiana brachyphylla 




Geranium argenteum 
Gnaphalium supinum 
Linnaea borealis 
Lychnis alpina 
Meum athamanticum 
Oxytropis campestris 
Papaver rhseticum 




Oxytropis montana 
Papaver alpinum 
Primula Auricula 




Ranunculus alpestris 


Rhododendron hirsutum 
Ribes petrseum 
Saussurea discolor 
Saxifraga longif olia 







Senecio abrotanif olius 

Semperviyum dolomiticum 





Silene acaulis 



Valeriana saxatilis 
Viola cenisia 


Cystopteris alpina 


Aspidium Lonchitis 
Asplenium Selovi 

viride . 


Phyteuma hemisphaericum 
Phyteuma pauciflorum 
Primula hirsuta 




Ranunculus crenatus 


Rhododendron ferrugineum 
Ribes alpinum 
Saussurea alpina 
Saxifraga Cotyledon 



. moschata 





Senecio uniflorus 

Sempervivum arachnoideum 



Silene exscapa 



Vaccinium uliginosum 

Valeriana celtica 

Veronica fruticulosa 
Viola comollia 

Woodsia hyperborea 

Blechnum spicant 
Allosorus crispus 
Asplenium germanicum 



This list is necessarily incomplete, and comprises only the most 
characteristic examples of the plants special to the limestone and to 
the granite, and those which we have actually tried and proved, 
either at Geneva, at the alpine garden of the Linnsea at Bourg St 
Pierre, which is essentially granitic, or at the one at the Rochers de 
Naye, which is of limestone. The names of the plants are so placed 
in the two columns that related species are opposite one another, so 
that readers may see at a glance the part that is played by the 
presence or absence of lime. 

While in our garden on the Rochers de Naye above Montreux, 
which is essentially calcareous, we have never been able to establish 
species essentially granitic ; in that of Bourg St Pierre, which is 
granitic, we are unable to cultivate Primula Auricula, Campanula 
thyrsoides, Gentiana lutea, alpina, angustifolia, and Clusi, and other 
calcareous plants. 

It is always well, however, in considering alpine plants in 
relation to soil in their native homes, to remember that the 
nature of the rock is but one of the conditions that may lead 
to the presence or absence of plants in any given situation; 
rainfall, altitude, temperature, length of growing season, 
presence or absence of snow, and the absence of more vigorous 
plants, having all to be counted with, and other conditions not 
so clear to us. 

Need of poor soil for certain plants. The tendency of 
gardeners is to overrich earth in almost everything, and among 
alpine flowers we often see the effects of this iu too rank a 
growth, making some plants less able to endure our winter and 
early spring weather. Deep soil is not against us, but it would 
be better in many cases without any humus, but formed of grit, 
broken sandstone, or other stones, as the case may be. On such 
earth plants that fail in the ordinary borders or banks might 
often be grown in a firm and healthy state. 

I mean simply heaping up banks of rough sand or decayed 
stone, and so as to secure various aspects. In certain cases 
there should be no rich soil whatever, so as to get the dwarf, 
wiry growth that we often find on the more arid and stony 
parts of the Alps. 

Grit. A gritty soil, or pure grit, are often very useful in 
the rock-garden, and where there is a large collection of plants 


difficult to grow and keep, heaps and banks of grit will help 
much. The detritus of millstone grit and granite are among 
the best, and in some districts sharp river sand, but sea sand 
does not, as a rule, take the place of these grits, granite grit 
being for plants of granitic formations. These banks would 
be all the better having different aspects, some cool and moist. 

It is, however, a mistake to suppose that all rock-plants will 
not endure drought. Many, such as the Eock-roses (Cistus), 
Sun-roses (Hdianthemum), Stonecrops (Sedum), Sandworts 
(Arenaria), the rock Bindweeds, Heaths, and many other rock- 
plants, supporting drought and sunshine bravely. 


We will now enter into particulars as to the various ways in 
which alpine plants may be grown, beginning with the best type 
of rock-garden that in which, in addition to the low-lying, 
stony, and rocky banks and slopes, where numbers of hardy 
and vigorous species may be grown, there are miniature cliffs 
and ravines, with perhaps bog and water. The most usual of 
the faults in setting rocks is that of so placing the stones that 
they seem to have as little connection with the soil of the spot 
as if thrown out of a cart. Instead of allowing what may be 
termed the foundations of the rock-garden to barely show their 
upper ridges above the earth, and thereby suggesting much more 
endurable ideas of " rock " than those arising from the contempla- 
tion of the unnatural-looking masses usually seen, the stones 
are often placed on the ground much as a bricklayer places 

Half-buried Stone in Rock-Garden. 

The surface of every part of the rock-garden should be so 
arranged that all rain will be absorbed by it ; here, again, 
the objection to overhanging faces holds good. If the elevations 

Part of the Rock-Garden at Elmet Hall, Leeds. 



are obtained, as they should be, by gradually receding, irregular 
steps, rather than by abrupt " crags," walls, etc., all the plants 
on the surface will be refreshed by rains. The upper surfaces 
of crags and mounds should in all cases be of earth, broken 
stones, grit, etc., as indeed should every spot where projecting 
stones or rock are not required for the sake of effect. All 
the soil-surfaces of the rock-garden should be protected from 
excessive evaporation by finely broken stones, pebbles, or grit 
scattered on the surface, or by means of small pieces of broken 
sandstone or millstone half buried in the ground. 

If we merely want a certain surface of rock disposed in a 
picturesque way, such details as these may not be worthy 
of attention, but if we wish our rock-gardens to be faithful 

Well-formed Sloping Ledges. 

Artificial Rock on which Plants do not 

miniatures of those wild ones which are among the most 
exquisite of Nature's gardens, then they are of much importance. 

In dealing with the construction of the bolder masses of 
rockwork, we cannot have a better guide than the late Mr 
James Backhouse, of York, who wrote: 

"Comparatively few alpines prefer or succeed well in 
horizontal fissures. Those, however, which, like LycJmis 



Lychnis and smne in 

Viscaria and Silene acaulis, form long tap roots, thrive 

well in such fissures, provided the earth in the fissure is 

continuous, and leads 'backward to a sufficient 

lody of soil. Where the horizontal fissures 

are very narrow, owing to the main rocks 

being in contact in places, and leaving 

only irregular and interrupted fissures, such 

plants as Lychnis Lagascce, Lychnis pyrenaica, 

and others, bearing and preferring hot sunny 

exposures, do well. But many plants that 

would bear the heat and drought, if they 

could get their roots far enough back, 

would quickly die if placed in such fissures, from the want 

of soil and moisture near the front; therefore it is usually 

better, in building rockwork with these fissures, to keep 

the main rocks slightly apart by 

means of pieces of very hard stone 

(basalt, close-grained ' flag,' etc.), so 

as to leave room for a good inter- 

mediate layer of rich loam, stones, 

or grit, mingled with a little peat. The front view of such a 

structure would be as above the dark spaces being firmly 

filled with the appropriate mixture of soil lefore the upper 

course of large rocks is placed. 

" As a rule, oblique and vertical fissures are both preferable 
to horizontal ones ; but care should be taken with ' oblique 
fissures that the upper rock does not overhang. A plant placed 
at J will often die, when the same placed at H will live, because 

Horizontal Fissure. 



the rain falling on the sloping face of rock at I will drop of at J, 
and miss the fissure J altogether, while that falling on the slop- 


ing face of rock at K will all run into the fissure H. There are, 
however, some plants, like Nothochlcena Marantce and Androsace 
lanuginosa, which so much prefer positions dry in winter that a 
fissure like J would suit them better than one like H. Such, 
however, are rare exceptions. 

" The best and worst general forms of steep rockwork we have 
tried are those indicated in the following figures. By making 
each rock slightly recede from the one below it, the rain runs 
consecutively into every fissure. Where the main fissures 
reverse this order, almost everything dies or languishes. Care 
should be taken to have the top made of mixed earth and stones 
not of rock, unless use is intentionally sacrificed to scenic 

"Vertical fissures (which suit many rare alpines best of 
all) should always, so far as possible, be made narrower at the 

Right. Wrong. 

bottom than at the top. If otherwise, the intervening earth, 
etc., leaves the sides of the rock as it ' settles/ instead of becom- 
ing tighter. In figure A, as the total mass of soil sinks, it 
becomes compressed against the sides of the rock ; while in B, 
the soil leaves the sides of the fissures more and more as the mass 
sinks, and almost invariably forms distinct * cracks ' (separations 
between the soil and rock) sooner or later. The same principle 
applies to small stones and fissures. To prevent undue evapora- 
tion in the case of such fissures, stones, larger or smaller, may 
be laid on the top of the soil, care being taken not to cover top 
much of it, to the exclusion of rain. 

" Where a large fissure exists, the smaller pieces of stone in it 
are on this account best placed with the narrowest edge or 



point upwards (fig. c) not downwards. It will easily be seen 
that the tendency of the mixed soil, both as a whole and in each 

(A) Right. 

(B) Wrong. 

(C) A properly formed 
large vertical fissure. 

of its subdivided parts, is to become more and more compressed 
by its own weight and by the action of rain." 

In the construction and planting of every kind of rock- 
garden, it should be remembered that every surface may and 
should be embellished with beautiful plants. Not alone on 
rocks or slopes, or favourable ledges or chinks, or miniature 
valleys, should we see this kind of plant -life. Numbers of rare 
mountain species will thrive 
on the less trodden parts of 
footways ; others, like the 
two-flowered Violet, seem 
to thrive best of all in the 
fissures between rude steps 
of the rockwork; many dwarf 
succulents delight in gravel 
and the hardest soil, and 
various other plants will 
run free in among low shrubs 
near the rock-garden. 

As a rule, much more 
vegetation than rocks should 
be seen. Where vast regions 
are inhabited by alpine plants, acres of crags, with a stain 
of flowers here and there, are attractive parts of the picture ; 

Showing ascending rock with base buried. 



but in gardens, where our creations in this way can only 
be Lilliputian, a different method must be pursued, except 
in places where great cliffs are naturally exposed ; and even in 
this case much vegetation is best. Frequently masses of stone 
with an occasional tuft of vegetation, are met with under the 
name of " rockwork," every chink and joint between the stones 
being quite exposed. This should not be so ; every minute 
chink should have its little line of verdure. Where the ground 
is low, there is not the slightest need for placing stones all over 
the surface ; an occasional one cropping up here and there from 
the mass of vegetation will give the best effect. Alpine flowers 
are often seen in multitudes and in their loveliest aspect in some 
little elevated level spot, frequently without rocks being visible 
through it, and when they do occur, merely peeping up here and 
there. They are lovely, too, in the awful wastes of broken rock, 
where they cower down between the great stones in lonely tufts, 
but it is only when Gentians and silvery Cudweeds, and minute 
white Buttercups, and strange large Violets, and Harebells that 
waste all their strength in flowers, and fairy Daffodils that droop 
their heads as gracefully as Snowdrops, are seen, forming a dense 

turf of living enamel work, that 
they are seen in all their beauty. 
Fortunately, the flowery turf and 
gentle mound are much more 
possible to us than the moraine 
ruin or arid cliffs. 

In cultivating the rarest and 
smallest alpine plants, the stony, 
or partially stony, surface is to 
be preferred. In their case, we 
cannot allow the struggle for life 
to have its own relentless way, 
or we should often have to grieve 
at finding the Eritrichium from 
the high Alps of Europe overrun 
Ledge of Alpine Flowers (a Garden sketch). ; and exterminated by an alpine 
American Phlox. Full exposure is also necessary to com- 


plete success with very minute plants, and the stones pre- 
vent excessive evaporation from the roots. A great number 
of alpine plants may be grown on exposed level ground as 
readily as the common Chamomile ; but there are, on the other 
hand, not a few that require care to establish them, and there 
are usually new kinds to be added to the collection, which, even 
if vigorous ones, should be kept apart for a time. Therefore, in 
every place where the culture of alpine plants is entered into 
with zest, there ought to be a select spot on which to grow the 

Alpine Plants growing on the level ground. 

delicate, rare, and diminutive kinds. It should be fully exposed, 
and while sufficiently elevated to secure perfect drainage and all 
the effect desirable, should not be riven into miniature cliffs. 


Alpine plants will not perish from cold or heat or wet, if pro- 
perly planted, but many of them are so small that they hardly 
afford a full meal to a browsing slug, and often disappear during 
a moist night. Now, as our gardens abound with slugs that play 
havoc with many things colossal compared with our alpine 
friends, it is clear that one of the main points is to guard against 
slugs and snails, and, as far as possible, against worms. Mr 
Backhouse fenced off the choicest parts of his rock-garden from 
them by a very irregular little canal, so arranged that, while not 
an eyesore, it is water-tight, and no slug can cross it. It thus 
becomes an easier task to guard the plants from slugs than when 
they are allowed to crawl in from all points of the compass. 
But even with this precaution, it is necessary to search con- 
tinually for snails and slugs ; and in wet weather the choicest 
plants should be examined in the evening, or very early in the- 
inorning; with a lantern, if at night. Sir Charles Isham, an 
enthusiastic cultivator of rock-plants, says that he not only 
protects toads, but does not forget to lay stones, so as to form 


little retreats for them underneath. They prefer a stone just 
sufficiently raised to crawl under, and do a deal of good by 
destroying slugs. He also protects frogs and all carnivorous 
insects. Ceaseless hand-picking, however, is the best remedy for 
slugs, and where this is not done, there is little hope of succeed- 
ing with some plants, at least where slugs are as abundant as we 
usually find them in gardens. 


I have seen in the Berlin Botanic Gardens an interesting 
essay to grow alpine flowers as distributed over the various 
ranges of mountains in central Europe ; keeping the plants on 
such rocks, stones, and soil as they are found upon. While such 
& plan may be pursued with some reason in a botanic garden, it 
is doubtful, generally, for private places, and not an artistic 
plan to pursue in a botanic garden, as the more we find 
such ideas pursued, the less beauty we see, and beauty 
should be the first raison d'etre of a garden. The so-called 
"natural" arrangements of plants in botanic gardens were 
most wearisome, and still uglier were the " Linnasan " arrange- 
ments of living plants in botanic gardens. If the mind is fixed 
much on any book system of setting out plants in gardens, 
the precious gift of beauty is often lost. Therefore attempts to 
imitate the particular mountain ranges and their flora is not 
likely to lead to so good results as where we are free to get the 
best result our conditions will allow of. 

One exception, however, I would make in our country, and 
that would be a British Alpine and Moor Garden. We have our 
own mountains, and many of them Welsh, Irish, Scotch, and 
North English with many beautiful plants on them. It would, 
however, be an instance of hyper-refinement to grow separately 
the plants of each of our own islands ; the effort should be rather 
to show their unity and connection. So many people buried in 
cities do not know that we have beautiful alpine flowers, natives 
of our own land, that it might be well to let them see in a 
garden of British Alpine and Moor plants. 




Where water occurs near the rock-garden, bridges here are 
often seen ; but some such arrangement as that suggested would 
be better. It is, however, introduced here chiefly for the 

Stepping-Stone Bridge, with Water- Lilies and Water Plants. 

purpose of showing how well it enables one to enjoy various 
beautiful aquatic plants, from the fringed and crimson-tipped 
Bog-bean and graceful Carex 
pendula at the sides, to the 
golden Villarsia and Water 
Lilies sailing among the 
stones. Care is required to 
arrange it so that it may 
satisfy the eye, offer free pass- 
age to the water, and an easy 
means of crossing it at all times. 

Kock-gardens made on the margin of water are very often 
objectionable rigid, abrupt, unworn, and absurdly unnatural. 
In no position is an awkwardness more likely to be detected ; 
in none should more care be taken not to offend good taste. 
Good effects may be obtained on rocky mounds near water, by 
planting with moisture-loving rock plants ; but even the 
grace and beauty of the finest of these will not relieve the 

Plan of preceding figure. 



hideousness of the masses of brick-rubbish and stone that are 
frequently placed by the margins of water. 

Rock, near water, suited for bold vegetation. 

The next figure, showing the fringe of a little island in one 
of the lakes of Northern Italy, may serve to show how 
irregularly and prettily the waves carve the rocky shore. 

Margin of Island in Lake Maggiore. 

Frequently in such places diminutive islands from a few feet to 
a few yards across are seen, and, when tufted with Globe-flowers, 
Ivy, and Brambles, are very pretty. 

Rocky Water-margin (Oak Lodge). 



It is the fashion to make the hardy fernery in some obscure 
and sunless spot, in which it would be difficult to grow alpine 
plants, but there is no reason why it should not be made in 
more open positions, and as part of the rock-garden. No plants 
adhere more firmly to vertical rocks, or better sustain themselves 
in health without any soil, than some ferns. In a wild state 
we find the Maidenhair Fern and many other species rooted 
into little fissures in hard rocks. Some of our own small 
British Ferns are found on the face of dry brick walls, when 
they are not to be found growing on the ground, in the same 

The general idea is that Ferns want shade, humidity, and 
sandy vegetable earth ; but, though these suit a great number 
of Ferns, others thrive under conditions the very opposite. 
The late M. Naudin, of the Institute, told me that the pretty 
little sweet-scented Fern, Cheilanthes odora, is found, even in that 
warm and sunny region, on the south side of bare rocks and 
walls, where it is exposed to the full rays of the sun, and 
is sought for in vain on northern exposures. In the middle of 
winter it is in full vigour, by the end of spring the fronds begin 
to dry, and through the torrid summer, when the stones of the 
walls are burning hot, its roots, fixed between the hot stones, 
are the only parts with life. In humid valleys and recesses it 
is not found. Other Ferns show like tendencies. This, by 
way of proof that some of the choice Ferns may not only be 
grown well in sunny positions, but better on them than else- 

I was informed by Mr Atkins, of Painswick, who was the 
first to bring the little NotJiochlcena Marantce alive into this 
country, that he has had it in health on a sunny rock for many 
years, and without protection. It is reasonable to assume that 
many Ferns, which in a wild state are found in half -shady 
spots, would, in our colder clime, flourish best if permitted 
to enjoy the sun, while Ferns that inhabit rocks in countries 




not much warmer than our own, should always have the 
warmest positions we can give them. And in the case of the 
species that require shade, it is quite possible to grow them in 
recesses in the rock-garden, and in deep passages leading 
through it, even if a portion be not specially designed as a 
fernery. Some small species and varieties may be used in any 
aspect as a graceful setting to flowering plants. Among the 
select lists, that of the Ferns that thrive best in open exposed 
places may meet the wants of some, but where the fernery is 
specially designed as a part of the rock-garden, there is no 
necessity for any selection, as all hardy kinds may then be 

Even the rare Kil- 
larney Fern, usually 
kept in houses, may 
be grown successfully 
in a cave in the rock- 
garden. The illustra- 
tion shows the en- 
trance to Mr Back- 
house's cave for grow- 
ing this plant. It is 
in a deep recess, per- 
fectly sheltered and 
surrounded by high 
rocks and banks 
clothed with vegeta- 
tion. Here in the 
darkness grows the 

Entrance to Cave for Killarney Fern. Kilkmey Fern, tuftS 

of Hart's Tongue guarding the entrance. 


Picturesque effects may be effected in this way, and may be 
graced with shrubs and vigorous trailing plants, but itjis 
unsuitable for alpine plants. When properly constructed, 


care is taken to make the interior of the cemented masses of deep 
beds of earth, leaving holes here and there in the face of the 
structure, from which plants can peep forth, while the top is 
left open, and may be planted with shrubs or trees, but the 
stony mound, free in every pore, or constructed of separate 
pieces of stone, is infinitely the best for the flora of the rocks. 
The plants that thrive on walls, and send their roots far 
into their crevices, cannot get the slightest footing on these 
large masses coated with cement ; and little plants stuck 
in the "pockets," which the constructors leave here and 
there on the face of the edifice, rarely thrive or look happy. 
They should never be placed in such positions, and the rock- 
gardens of natural stone should be preferred at any sacrifice. 
Where, however, natural stone cannot be obtained, the cemented 
work may be used, and in positions where only the picturesque 
effect of rocks is sought. In places where it already exists, 
some improvement may be effected by banks of true alpine 
garden in open spots near, covering the artificial rock gracefully 
with low shrubs and hardy climbers, and coniferse like 
the Swiss Pine, and Mountain Pine, and the Junipers. 

Rocky Bank at Oak Lodge. 


One of the simplest ways of enjoying alpine plants is in 
small rocky beds, arranged on the turf of some parts of the 
garden, cut off by trees or shrubs from the ordinary flower- 


beds. One of these will give more satisfaction than many a 
pretentious " rockwork," and by the exercise of a very little 
judgment is readily constructed, so as not to offend the nicest 
taste. I once induced the owner of a garden in the northern 
suburbs of London to procure a small collection of alpines, and 
try them in this way, and the result was such, that a few words 
as to how it was attained may be useful. 

A little bed was dug out in the clay soil to the depth of 
two feet, and a drain run from it to an outlet near at hand ; the 
bed was filled with sandy peat and a little loam and leaf-mould, 
and, when nearly full, worn stones of different sizes were placed 
around the margin, so as to raise the bed one foot or so above 
the turf. More soil was then put in, and a few rough slabs, 
arranged so as to crop out from the soil in the centre, completed 
the preparation for Sedums and Sempervivums, such Saxifrages 
as S. ccesia and S. Rocheliana, such Dianthuses as D. alpinus 
and D. petrceus, Mountain Forget-me-nots, Gentians, little early 
bulbs, Hepatica. They were planted, the finer and rarer things 
getting the best positions, and, when finished, the bed looked 
a nest of small rocks and alpine flowers. 

In about eight weeks the plants had become established, 
and the bed looked quite gay from a dozen plants of Calandrinia 
umbellata, that had been planted on the little prominences, 
flowering profusely. Another was made in the same manner, 
with more loam, however, and planted with subjects as different 

Small Bed of Alpine Flowers. 

from those in the other bed as could be got ; confining them, 
however, to the choicest alpines, except on the outer side of the 
largest stones of the margin, where such plants as Campanula 
carpatica Ucolor were planted with the best results. 


The only attention these beds have required since planting 
has been to keep a free-growing species from overrunning plants, 
like Gentiana mrna, to water the beds well in hot weather, and 
to remove the smallest weeds. With the exception of the fine 
Gentiana bavarica, every alpine plant grew well, and the beds 
showed fresh interest every week from the dawn of spring till 
late in autumn. 

In such little-exposed beds some may fear the sun burning 
up their plants ; yet the sun that beats down on the Alps and 
Pyrenees is fiercer than that which shines on the British garden. 
But, while the Alpine sun cheers the flowers, it also melts the 
snows above, and water and frost grind down the rocks into earth ; 
and thus, enjoying both, the roots form healthy plants. Fully 
exposed plants do not perish from too much sun, but from want 
of moisture. Therefore, for the greater number of rock-plants, 
full exposure is one of the first conditions of culture 
abundance of free soil under the roots and such a disposition of 
the soil and rocks that the rain may permeate through all, 
being also indispensable. 

Alpine Plants growing in a level border. 

An open, slightly elevated, and, if possible, quite isolated 
spot should be chosen, and a small rock-garden so arranged as 
to appear as if naturally cropping out of the earth. With a few 
cart-loads of stones and earth, good effects may be produced in 
this simple way. 

Having determined on the position of the bed, the next 
thing to do is to excavate the ground to a depth of two feet, or 
thereabouts, and to run a drain from it if very wet. If not, it is 
better let alone, as with many kinds success depends upon the 
beds being continually moist ; and in dry soils, instead of drain- 



ing, it would be better to put in a subsoil of spongy peat, so as 
to retain moisture. As to soil, rock-plants are found in all sorts, 
but a turfy loam, with plenty of river sand added, will be found 
to suit a greater number of kinds than any other. If not 
naturally free and open, it should be so made by the addition of 
leaf-mould, cocoa-nut fibre, or, failing these, peat. 

With the soil should be mixed the smallest and least useful 
stones and debris among those collected for the work, so that the 
plants to adorn the spot may send down their roots through 
the mixture of earth and stone. When this is well and firmly 
done, the larger stones may be placed half in the earth as a 
. rule, and on their broadest side, so that the mass, when com- 
pleted, may be perfectly firm. Have nothing to do with tree- 
roots or stumps in work of this kind ; they crumble away, and 
are at best a nuisance and a disfigurement in a garden. The 
intervening spaces may then be filled up, half with the compost 
and half with the stony matter, and the smaller blocks placed 
in position the whole being made as diversified as may seem 
desirable, but without much show of " rock." When finished, it 
should look like a bit of rocky ground, and in no way resemble 
the " rockwork " of books and most gardens. Two or three feet 
will, as a rule, be high enough for the highest stones. In some 
of our public and private gardens want of means is given as an 
excuse for the presence of the hideous masses of rockwork that 
disfigure them. The plan here recommended is as much less 
expensive than these, as it is less offensive ! 


The most uninviting surfaces often afford a home to various 
forms of plant life : pavements, the stone roofs of old buildings, 
the stems and branches of trees, the faces of inaccessible rocks, 
and ruins, are all frequently adorned with ferns and wild 
flowers, and we are far from the end of simple ways of growing 
our Alpine favourites. The mixed-border system rightly done 
enables us to cultivate, with little trouble, many of the more 
vigorous alpine plants as edgings and carpets beneath the 
taller and more stately plants : dwarf Hairbells, Pinks, Phlox, 


Cinquefoils, dwarf silvery Yarrows, purple rock Cresses, Kock- 
foils, Stonecrops, and Gentianella, all helping well in this way. 
In many positions the best of all edgings are those of natural 
stone, such as that shown in the wood-cut on this page. The 
cool soil below and behind the stones is the very place for rock- 
plants that suffer in a hot season in dry soils, and many kinds 
may be grown in this way, as well and even better than in the 
most costly rock-garden. 

Rough stone-edging to border, with Rock-Plants set behind 
it. In this simple way many of the most beautiful 
kinds may be admirably grown. (Engraved from a 
Photo by George Champion, in my garden.) 

The common way of repeating the same plants at intervals 
is fatal to good effect here as elsewhere. The reverse of that is 
the true system for the best kind of mixed border. In a well- 
arranged one, no six feet of its length should resemble any other 
six feet of the same border. Certainly, it may be desirable to 
have several of a favourite plant ; but any approach to planting 
the same thing in numerous places along the same line should 
be avoided. I should not, for instance, place one of the neat 
Saxifrages along in front of the border at regular intervals, fine 
and well suited as it might be for that purpose ; but, on the 
contrary, attempt to produce in all parts totally distinct types 
of vegetation. 

It is a great mistake to dig among choice rock plants, and 
therefore no pains should be spared in the preparation of the 
ground at first. If thoroughly well made then, there will be no 
need of any digging of the soil for a long time. 

Many alpine plants, when grown in borders, are benefited 


by being surrounded by a few half-buried rugged stones or pieces 
of rock. These are useful in preventing excessive evapora- 
tion, in guarding the plant 
when small and young 
from being trampled upon 
or overrun by coarse 
weeds or plants, and 
in keeping the ground 

Alpine Plant on border surrounded by half-buried -, , 

stones. firmer and cooler. 

A few barrowfuls of stones the large flints of which 
edgings are often made will do well, if better cannot be 
obtained will suffice for many plants ; and this simple plan 
will be found to suit many who cannot afford the luxury of 
a rock-garden. Lists of alpine plants suitable for the mixed 
border will be found in the selections at the end of the book. 


Mr F. Lubbock has been most successful in the cultiva- 
tion of alpine flowers, in modest and simple ways, that so 
many may follow in any open spot of ground, and, acceding to 
my request, he writes of it as follows : 

" My experience is, that most alpine plants can be more 
easily and conveniently grown in the open ground, with little 
hillocks and ridges thrown up, so as to provide different aspects, 
and dryer or moister positions, than in the more imposing 
artificial ' rockery ' constructions the latter, if well made, do, 
no doubt, show off some plants to advantage, and are better 
suited to a few of the most difficult sorts; but they are 
expensive to build, and if, as usually happens, some spreading 
intruder establishes itself, it is far more troublesome to dislodge 
it. Then it is much more difficult to put in a plant properly in 
a rock crevice, and, with most alpines, it is of the greatest 
importance to plant them well and firmly at the outset. More- 
over, it frequently happens that a mistake is made in the 
position given to a plant, and it is far easier to move it from 
the open ground than to pull it out of a rock crevice. 




" I find it most convenient to grow the smaller and choicer 
plants in a separate part, where they can be more carefully 
tended. In another part I grow the stronger sorts which can 
hold their own, and this part I allow to be overrun by red and 
white wild Thyme, under which a number of small bulbs 
several species of Anemones, Campanulas, and many other 
sorts are quite happy. 

" A few large weathered stones, judiciously placed, look well, 
and are often of advantage in giving a plant the aspect that 
suits it. It is usually recommended that such stones should 
be half buried, and no doubt many plants like to spread their 
roots down the side of a stone. On the other hand, this is just 
where some aggressive weed will run underground, and it often 

Part of Rock-Garden on level ground at Emmets, Ide Hill, Sevenoaks, Kent. 


happens that the only way to eradicate it effectually is to pull 
up the stone, causing a considerable upheaval. To obviate this, 
I find it generally more convenient to sink the stones about an 
inch only, and they can then be lifted and put back with very 
little disturbance. 

" There are many disappointments in growing alpines, as in 
everything else, but they afford a constant and daily interest, 
and given a breezy open situation and a deep light soil, there 
should be many more successes than failures." 


Many plants that in gardens have carefully prepared soil 
grow naturally on the barest and most arid surfaces. Most of 
those who are blessed with gardens have usually a little wall 
surface at their disposal: and all such may know that some 
plants will grow thereon better than in the best soil. A mossy 
wall affords a home for some dwarf rock plants which no 
specially-prepared situation could rival ; and even on well-pre- 
served walls we can establish some little plants, which year 
after year will repay for the slight trouble of planting or sowing 
them. Now, numbers of alpine plants perish if planted in the 
ordinary soil of our gardens, and even do so where much pains 
is taken to attend to their wants. This often results from over- 
moisture at the root in winter, the plant being injured by our 
green winters inducing it to grow in the bitter winter and spring, 
when it ought to be at rest. By placing many of these rock 
plants where their roots enjoy a dry spot, they remain in perfect 
health. Many plants from mountains a little further south 
than our own, and from alpine regions, find on walls and ruins 
that stony firmness of " soil " and dryness in winter which make 
them at home in our climate. There are many alpine plants 
now cultivated with difficulty in frames, that any beginner 
may grow on walls. 

Nor must it be supposed that a moist district is necessary, 
for the illustrations on pages 39 and 42 are engraved from 




photographs of walls built and covered with plants in a southern 
county in one year. 

Sloping wall of local sandstone, supporting banks on each side of path, 
rock plants placed between each line of stones as wall was built. 
(Engraved from a photograph taken in my garden, by G. A. 



A good way to establish rock plants on walls is by seed. The 
Cheddar Pink, for example, grows on walls at Oxford much 
better than on the level ground, on which it often dies. A few 
seeds of this plant, sown in a mossy or earthy chink, or even 
covered with a little fine soil, would soon take root and grow, 
living, moreover, for years in a healthy state. So it is with 
most of the plants enumerated ; the seedling roots vigorously 
into the chinks, and gets a hold which it rarely relaxes. But of 
some plants seeds are not to be had, and therefore it will be 
often necessary to use plants. In all cases, young plants should 
be selected, and as they will have been used to growing in 
fertile ground, or good soil in pots, and have all their little 
feeding roots compactly gathered up near the surface, they 
must be placed in a chink with a little moist soil, which will 
enable them to exist until they have struck root into the 
interstices of the wall. In this way several interesting species 
of Ferns are established, and also the silvery Eockfoils, and the 
appearance of the starry rosettes of these little rock plants (the 
kinds with incrusted leaves, like S. longifolia and S. lingulata) 
growing flat against the wall is strikingly beautiful. 

While few have ruins and walls on which to grow alpine 
plants, all may succeed with many kinds by building a rough 
stone wall, and packing the intervals as firmly as possible with 
soil. A host of brilliant plants may be thus grown with little 
attention, the materials of the wall affording precisely the 
conditions required by the plants. To many species the wall 
would prove a more congenial home than any but the best 
constructed rock-garden. In very moist places, natives of wet 
rocks, and trailing plants like the Linnaea, might be interspersed 
here and there among the other alpines ; in dry ones it would 
be desirable to plant chiefly the Saxifrages, Sedums, small 
Campanulas, Linarias, and plants that, even in hotter countries 
than ours, find a home on the sunniest and barest crags. 
The chief care in the management of this wall of alpine 
flowers would be in preventing weeds or coarse plants 


from taking root and overrunning the usually dwarf rock plants. 
When these intruders are once observed, they can be easily pre- 
vented from making any further progress by continually cutting 
off their shoots as they appear ; it would never be necessary to 
disturb the wall even in the case of a thriving Convolvulus. 
The wall of alpine plants may be placed in any convenient 
position in or near the garden : there is no reason why a portion 
of the walls usually devoted to climbers should not be prepared 
as described. The boundary walls of multitudes of small 
gardens would look better if graced by alpine flowers, than bare 
as they usually are. 


In garden formation, especially in diversified ground, what 
is called a "dry" wall is often useful, and may answer the 
purpose of supporting a bank or dividing off a garden quite as 
well as an expensive brick or masonry wall. Where the stones 
can be got easily, men used to the work will often make gently 
" battered " walls which, while fulfilling their first use in sup- 
porting banks, will make homes for rock plants which would 
not live one winter on a level surface in the same place. 
Blocks of sandstone laid on their natural " bed," the front of 
the stones almost as rough as they come out, and chopped 
nearly level between, so that they lie firm and well, no mortar 
being used, do well. As each stone is laid, slender-rooted rock 
plants are placed along in lines between with a sprinkling of 
fine earth, enough to slightly cover the roots and help them in 
getting through the stones to the back, where, as the wall is 
raised, the space behind it is packed with earth. This the 
plants soon find out and root , firmly into. Even on old walls 
made with mortar, rock and small native Ferns often establish 
themselves, but the "dry" walls are more congenial to rock 
plants, and we may have any number of beautiful alpine plants 
in perfect health in them. 

One charm of this kind of wall garden is that little atten- 
tion is required afterwards. Even in the best-made rock- 
gardens things get overrun by others, and weeds come in; 


[PART I.. 

but in a well-planted dry wall against an earth bank, we may 
leave plants for years untouched, beyond pulling out any weed 
that may happen to get in. So little soil, however, is put with 
the plants, that there is little chance of weeds, while moles 
a nuisance in England worms, and slugs are not such a 
trouble as on the level. If the stones were separated with 
much earth, weeds would get in, and it is best to have the 
merest dusting of soil with the roots, so as not to separate the 
stones, but let each one rest firmly on the one beneath it. The 
roots soon run back to the good earth behind, and it is surpris- 
ing how soon good effects arise by this simple plan. It may be 
noticed that there is no pretension of "design" about these 
walls, made simply to do their work in supporting the bank. 

Dry wall of sandstone blocks, supporting earth banks ; plants placed as the wall is built ; 
wall trellised with Bamboos for Roses and other climbers. 


Arabis, Aubrietia, and Iberis are among the easiest plants 
to grow; but as such things can be grown without walls, it 


is hardly worth while to put them thereon. Between these 
stones is the very place for Mountain Pinks, which thrive 
better there than on level ground; the dwarf alpine Hair- 
bells, while the alpine Wallflowers and creeping rock plants, 
like the Toad Flax (Linaria), and the Spanish Erinus, are 
quite at home there. The Gentianella does very well on 
the cool sides of such walls, and we get a different result 
according to the aspect. All our little pretty wall Ferns, now 
becoming so rare where hawkers abound, thrive on such walls, 
and the alpine Phloxes may be used, though they are not 
so much in need of the comfort of a wall as the European 
alpine plants, the Eocky Mountains dwarf Phloxes being very 
hardy and enduring on level ground. The Eockfoils are charm- 
ing on a wall, particularly the silvery and mossy kinds, and 
the little stone-covering Sandwort (Arenaria balearica) will run 
everywhere over such walls. Stonecrops and Houseleeks do 
well, but are easily grown in any open spot of ground. In 
many cases the rare and somewhat delicate alpines, if care be 
taken, would do far better on such a wall than as they are 
usually cultivated. Plants like the Thymes are quite free in 
such conditions, also the alpine Violas, and any such rock 
trailers as the blue Bindweed of North Africa. I have 
hundreds of plants of Gentiana acaulis thriving on such walls, 
to the surprise of all who see them in bloom. 

We have spoken of 
"dry" walls, which are 
necessary, apart from 
their flower life, that 
is to say essential, for 
the support of banks 
by the side of "cut- 
tings," or where ter- 
races are cut out of 
steep ground; the sides 
of steps, ascending 
banks, and a variety of Rock plants established on an old wal1 - 

positions which will occur in diversified and in hilly districts. 



These are by far the best positions, as in nearly every 
case we place our stone against the bank, ensuring 
moisture and food behind. Often walls are made straight 
against terraces which would be quite as well made in this 
way, with a gentle " batter " or slope backwards, and built with 
earth between the stones; they would be as good for shelter 
and for supporting terrace banks, and even for climbers, when 
the shade of Tea Kose foliage and other plants would not pre- 
vent Ferns and many plants from growing well. In fact in 
the case of walls facing due south in dry seasons the shade 
of the creepers above would help the plants a little against the 
power of the sun. 

On level ground there is no need for any dry walls support- 


Tie & Shelter Stone 



Hollow wall for rock plants, forming dividing 
line round yard. (See page 46.) 

ing Jbanks, and where rock flowers on walls are desired, we may 
have to make a wall away from all support of earth banks, but 
which also will suit the cultivation of rock plants. Here a 


hollow wall and a variety of plants may give us a good result, 
the principal being to get our mass of soil in the centre of the 
wall, and make it very firm, but so that rain will refresh it. It 
is clear such a wall might take the place of the dividing lines 
we often have in gardens, separating different gardens or plots, 
and the following is a case in which such a wall was made, 
with good results. 

"We are told that Solomon knew all 'green things/ from 
the Cedar of Lebanon to the Hyssop which sprang from the 
wall, and there is no doubt that wall gardening began soon 
after walls themselves were made. The beautiful wall garden 
which Nature had made on the ruins of the Colosseum is now 
destroyed, but the Wallflowers and Catchfly yet linger on the 
sunny castle rock at Nottingham, and the ruins at Conway are 
a study every summer, so beautiful is the Centranthus, which 
sows itself among the stones. At Dinan the top of an old 
entrance doorway is draped with Ferns and weeds, with 
delicately poised Bellflowers and Yarrow-heads, white as the 
sea foam. Wherever old walls or ruins exist in gardens or 
pleasure-grounds, it is easy to beautify them by sowing seeds 
of the many beautiful flowers which luxuriate in such positions. 
Wallflowers, Snapdragons, Erinus, and some species of Dianthus 
grow perfectly well, naturalise themselves, in fact, on sunny 
walls, while on shady damp ones many Ferns grow equally 
well, often better on a wall than elsewhere. A good plan to 
get Ferns to grow on a damp, shady, old wall is to wash off the 
spores from Asplenium, Scolopendriums, Ceterach, and Wall 
Eue, into a pail of tepid water, which may then be dispersed 
over the wall by means of a syringe. It is something for us 
to know that a broken stone or the crumbling edge of a brick 
may nourish in sunshine flower beauty of the highest, or that 
in shade it may yield us feathery drapery of tenderest Fern 
fronds. A rough stone-topped wall may become a garden of 
Sedum, Saxifrage, Erinus, both purple and white, and of many 
other rock plants. There are some mountain plants that never 
grow better or look more beautiful than when grown on rough- 
topped walls or in the interstices of stony edgings. The Erinus 


is one of the best wall-plants, and sows itself every year. 
Kamoadia and Edelweiss both love to grow wedged tightly in 
among the stones. 


" Having that worst of all things in a garden viz. a rubbish 
and manure-yard somewhat exposed to a public road it became 
a necessity to erect a shelter wall, so as to secure more privacy 
and to conceal from the public gaze a sort of laboratory 
necessary in every garden. Having that old proverb about 
'two birds with one stone' in my mind's eye, I resolved to 
make the wall not only a shelter, but also an object pleasant to 
the eye as well. This has now been done fairly well, as I 
imagine, by the building of a hollow wall topped with tie or 
binding stones, and pocketed for the reception of soil and 
plants, as shown in the diagrams on page 44, made to a scale 
of half an inch to the foot. In such a plant- wall the principle 
is everything, and the proportions may be varied to suit any 
special conditions, circumstances, or surroundings. The wall is 
a little over 4 feet high and over 2 feet through, and 30 yards or 
40 yards in length. Having filled up the hollow centre of the 
wall with suitable soil, I planted the top with Iris of the I. 
germanica and the I. pumila sections, with Cloves, Carnations, 
Pinks, Linarias, Aubrietias, Stonecrops, Edelweiss, and Semper- 
vivums ; but 1 am especially anxious to see established on its 
face a group of the Californian Zauschneria, which does not 
always flower well with me on the ground level, -except during 
very hot, dry summers. 

" A wall of the above size may be made by any man handy 
at stonework, and at no great cost. The stones I was very 
fortunate in procuring almost free of charge, and every one of 
them is precious, as having originally formed a portion of the 
Trinity College Library, removed during alterations. They 
have come from the world of books into a world of flowers, and 
in a short time they will, I hope, be crowned with blossoms and 
green leaves. F. W. B." 




It might well be borne in mind that there is in Nature no 
hard-and-fast line, like the little divisions we make for our con- 
venience in books, and though the most alpine of plants are very 

Rhododendrons among natural rock at Howth, Co. Dublin. (Engraved from a 
Photograph sent by Mr Geo. E. Low.) 

tiny evergreen herbs on all hilly and mountain ground, there is 
yet muclv beauty of shrub life on the mountains, from that of the 


Heaths of our own land to the Rhododendrons of the European 
and other alpine regions. Therefore, it is right in all ways to 
associate shrubs with the rock-garden, and on its outer parts or 
in groups near it, seek beauty from such shrubs as are here named, 
and others to come, as the flora of northern regions becomes 
better known to us. Danger from the association of shrubs of 
a spreading nature with little rock plants may be avoided by 
grouping all shrubs on banks, or groups, apart from the place of 
the Gentians, Androsaces, and other fairies of the high rocks and 
alpine meadows. Even without any attempt at a rock-garden 
made in the ordinary garden-way, there are many places in 
various parts of our islands where lovely rock-gardens may 
be made by merely planting the natural rocks as they come 
out in their own beautiful way whether on the often bare 
hills of Wales, the many lovely rocky sites on the fringe of 
mountains around Ireland, Scotland, northern and southern 
England, and even on the sandstone rocks quite near London 
in Sussex and Kent. In such places, without set design or 
much care, we may enjoy the most enduring and the easiest to 
form of rock-gardens. Another reason for making bush rock- 
gardens about natural rocks cropping out of the ground is that the 
soil about is often the sort we seek for evergreen shrubs of the 
choicer kinds, being decayed rock, often of a peaty or sandy kind, 
and the best for Rhododendrons, Azaleas, dwarf Kalmias, Heaths, 
and many shrubs that in Nature inhabit the mountains, so that 
where the natural rock breaks out, the very conditions so very 
difficult to secure in the stoneless lowland country exist. As an 
example of good work on such ground, we quote this about 
planting rocky ground at Howth, near Dublin, by Mr Burbidge, 
in the Field : 

" Coming upon them rather suddenly, the flashes of colour amongst 
the, grey crags are startling in their intensity. A shower had just 
passed over the hillside, and a gleam of sunshine illumined the 
flowers, which shone out in all shades of crimson and purple, and 
of orange and vermilion, softening down in shady corners into the 
richest of old gold. Great rocks, like the moraine of some old glacier, 
are piled and scattered on a sloping surface, above which great 
masses of old Cambrian formation tower seemingly into the sky. 


A rocky path leads one up and down, now closed in overhead 
by Hawthorns embowered in Honeysuckle, Vine, and now open 
and clear, and as you pick your way over matted tree-roots or past 
slippery rocks, the acres of Azaleas and Rhododendrons flash out in 
the evening sunshine, each cluster glowing like jewelled lamps full of 
coloured light. They are mostly garden kinds or hybrids, but there 
are noble plants of the Himalayan R. Thomsonianum, R. Falconeri, 
and R. Edgworthii amongst them. The colours vary from white and 
soft lilac-purple through all shades of red and crimson, the complimen- 
tary shades of yellow, orange, and ivory-white being supplied by 
occasional groups of coloured Azaleas, with their sunrise and sunset 
shades and hues. There are, no doubt, far finer collections of 
Rhododendrons in Ireland, as also in Cornwall and Devon and 
elsewhere, but the great charm at Howth is that the picturesque 
position and the grouping of the Rhododendrons form such a 
succession of pictures, no two alike. An old traveller, whom we met 
here, told us : 'I have seen far finer Rhododendrons and far more 
noble rocks, but I must say I have never seen such glorious masses 
of colour and such picturesque rocks associated as they are here/ 
The rocky slopes and rocky scarps, on which the shrubs are now so 
beautiful, formed originally a sheltered little wood of Birch, Larch, 
Scots Fir, Oak, Mountain Ash, and Hawthorn, overrun with 
Woodbine, and in the more open spots by Gorse and Brambles. The 
floor of the little forest then, as now, was carpeted with Bluebells 
and Primroses, Stitchwort, Anemones, Wood Sorrel, and Ferns of a 
stature not often seen, even in Ireland. There was but scant root room 
in many places, and little or no soil, but men brought down and up 
peat, earth, and leaf-mould to chink and cleft, or rocky hollows and 
crevices, and to-day the result is seen and felt by all who, like the 
Japanese, come here on a June- day pilgrimage to see the flowers-" 

Though such natural situations are impossible to many, they 
are not at all essential for the cultivation or the good effect of 
mountain-shrubs, as we have proof in the garden at Warley 
Place, and other lowland gardens, where the rock shrubs 
are such a feature, garlanding the outer parts of the 
rock-gardens Wild Rose, Azalea, Furzes, Sun-Roses, Brooms, 
Daphnes, and many other shrubs clustering about the banks 
and often grouped on the turf. 

Whatever difficulty the cultivation of true alpine plants may 
present in certain conditions, there is little or none in connection 
with the mountain shrubs, and many of them are among the 
hardiest shrubs of the mountains of N. America and Asia. 




We often see trees, more or less suitable, planted about the 
alpine garden, and sometimes above the level of the plants. If 
possible, this should be avoided. Although alpine and rock- 
plants and shrubs may sometimes occur in woods, yet, as a 

general rule, the trees cease from the hills before we come to the 
true dwarf alpine plants. If any shelter or dividing mass 
of trees is desired near the alpine garden, the trees chosen 
should always be mountain kinds, such as the Swiss Pine 
(P. Cembra), Juniper, Savin (also a Juniper), dwarf rock Pine 
(P. Montana), interspersed, if desired, with a few summer-leafing 
northern trees, like the Beech, Birch, and Mountain Ash. The 
Spruces and Pines of the Eocky Mountains of N.W. America 
might also be used, " holding them together " in groups where 


There has been much talk of late years of these, of which 
numbers have been brought to this country and, still more, to 
America, some of the plants very unworthy of a place in a 
good garden, as they too often resemble the refuse of the 
nurseries. Among the best, however, there are some really 
interesting things, especially plants of the Cypress tribe, which 
occasionally retain their picturesque forms, although on such a 


small scale, and some graceful deciduous plants and shrubs 
like Wistaria, which are pretty grown in that way. Now, this 
curious and ancient way of growing plants, which seems so 
strange and new to many of us, is undoubtedly based on facts 
of Nature, and has its origin in the habits of plants on the high 
mountains often starved and dwarfed. We may see such 
dwarf and often distorted trees and shrubs on high rocks or 
mountains, or otherwise starved out of their natural vigour and 
habit by unnatural exposure, cold, or drought. We see it in 
the Alps occasionally, and even in the stately cedars of Lebanon 
and Atlas we see them in many different shapes, dwarf and 
stunted, and yet always beautiful in form. This being so, the 
true place for these quaint shrubs is the rock-garden, where 
they might be grouped together near a little streamlet on a 
modest bank of rocks. They are arranged in this way prettily 
at Warnham Court, and where rocks and shrubs are 
associated with the true alpine plants (as I think they should 
always be where there is room enough), there these quaint 
little trees come in very well. 

Mr Alfred Parsons writes : " The Japanese dwarf trees in 
their gardens, which are essentially rock-gardens, are planted 
among stones, which probably helps to stunt their growth, but 
besides this, they are most carefully trimmed to keep them to 
the desired size and shape sometimes this form is quite stiff 
and symmetrical, especially in the case of Azalea bushes ; more 
often it is a miniature of the characteristic shape of the tree 
in Nature under similar conditions, or a suggestion of some 
celebrated tree of the kind grown." 


In the great mountain regions, marshy ground and boggy 
places are frequent, and some of the fairest of the mountain's 
flowers adorn them, and may only be well grown in like condi- 
tions, happily easy to imitate. Therefore, while water as a 
separate element is not a necessity of even a noble rock-garden, 
some little place for marsh plants is needed, if we are to see the 
beauty in our gardens of many singularly pretty and some 
brilliant plants. 



The marsh-garden is a home for the numerous children of 
the wild that will not thrive on our harsh and dry garden 
borders, hut must be cushioned on moss or grown in* moist 
peat. Many beautiful plants, like the Wind Gentian and 
Creeping Harebell, grow on our own marshes, much as these are 
now encroached upon. But even those acquainted with the 
beauty of our bog-plants have but a feeble notion of the 
multitude of charming plants, natives of northern and 
temperate countries, whose home is the open marsh or boggy 
tract. In our own country, we have been so long encroaching 
upon the wastes that we come to regard them as exceptional 
tracts all over the world. But when one travels in northern 
climes, one soon learns what a vast extent of the world's surface 
was at one time covered with bog. In North America, day 
after day, even by the side of the railroads, we may see the 
vivid blooms of the Cardinal-flower springing from the wet 
peaty hollows. Far under the shady woods stretch the black 
bog-pools, the ground between being 'so shaky that we move a 
few steps with difficulty. One wonders how the trees exist 
with their roots in such a bath, and where the forest vegetation 
disappears the American Pitcher-plant (Sarracenia), Golden 
Club (Orontium), Water Arum (Calla Palustris), and a host of 
other handsome and interesting plants cover the ground for 
hundreds of acres, with perhaps an occasional slender bush of 
Laurel Magnolia (Magnolia glaucci) among them. In some 
parts of Canada, where the painfully long and straight roads 
are often made through woody swamps, and where the few 
scattered and poor habitations offer little to cheer the traveller, 
he will, if a lover of plants, find much beauty in the ditches 
and pools of black water beside the road, fringed with Eoyal 
and other stately Ferns, and with masses of water-side 

Southwards and seawards, the marsh-flowers become tropical 
in size and brilliancy, as in the splendid kinds of Hibiscus, 


while far north, and west, and south along the mountains, the 
beautiful Mocassin-flower (Cypripedium spectabile) grows the 
queen of the peat-bog and of hardy orchids. Then in 
California, all along the Sierras, a number of delicate little 
annual plants grow in small mountain bogs long after the 
plains are parched, and vegetation has disappeared from the 
dry ground. But who shall record the beauty and interest of 
the flowers of the wide-spreading marsh-lands of this globe of 
ours, from those of the vast wet woods of America, dark and 
brown, where the fair flowers only meet the eyes of water- 
snakes and frogs, to those of the breezy uplands of the high 
Alps, far above the woods, where the little mountain-marshes 
teem with Nature's most brilliant flowers, waving in the 
breeze ? Many mountain-swamp regions are as yet as little 
known to us as those of the Himalaya, with their giant 
Primroses and strange and lovely flowers. One thing, however, 
we may gather from our small experiences that many plants 
commonly termed "alpine," and found on high mountains, are 
true marsh- plants. This must be clear to any one who has 
seen our Bird's-eye Primrose in the wet mountain-side bogs of 
Westmoreland, or the Bavarian Gentian in the spongy soil by 
alpine rivulets. We enjoy at our doors the plants of hottest 
tropical isles, but many wrongly think the rare bog-plants, like 
the minute alpine plants, cannot be grown well in gardens. 
Like the rock-garden, the marsh-garden is seldom seen well 
made, and with its most suitable plants. 

In some places, naturally boggy spots may be found, which 
may be converted into a marsh-garden, but in most places 
-an artificial is the only possible one. It may be associated 
with a rock-garden with good ' effect, or it may be in a moist 
hollow, or may touch upon the margins of a pond or lake. By 
the margins of streamlets, too, little bogs may often be made. 
But the mania for draining springy and marshy spots has in 
most places left little chance of a natural site, such as might 
readily be turned into a marsh-garden. A tiny streamlet may 
be diverted from the main one to flow over the adjacent grass 
irrigation on a small scale. Another good kind could be made 


at the outlet of a small spring. It was in such little bogs 
around springs that I found the Californian Pitcher-plant in 
dry parts of California. In some of these positions the ground 
will often be so moist that little trouble beyond digging out a 
hollow to give a different soil to some favourite plant will be 
needed. Where the marsh -garden has to be made in ordinary 
ground, and with none of the above aids, a hollow must be dug 
to a depth of at least two feet, and filled in with any kind of 
peat or leaf soil that may be obtainable. If no peat is at hand, 
turfy loam with plenty of leaf-mould, etc., must do for the 
general body of the soil ; but, as there are some plants for 
which peat is indispensable, a small portion of the beds should 
be of that soil. The bed should be slightly below the surface 
of the ground, so that no rain or moisture may be lost to it. 
There should be no puddling of the bottom, and there must be 
a constant supply of water. This can be supplied by means of 
a pipe in most places a pipe allowed to flow forth over some 
firmly- tufted plant that would prevent the water from tearing 
up the soil. 

As to planting the marsh-garden, all that is needed is to 
put as many of the under-mentioned plants in it as can be 
obtained, and to avoid planting in it any rapid-running sedge or 
other plant, as in that case, all satisfaction with the garden is at 
an end. Numbers of Carexes and like plants grow so rapidly 
that they soon exterminate choice marsh flowers. If any roots- 
of sedges, etc., are brought in with the peat, every blade they 
send up should be cut off with the knife just below the surface ; 
that is, if the weed cannot be pulled up on account of being too 
near some precious plant one does not like to disturb. All who 
wish to grow the tall sedges and other coarse bog-plants should 
do so by the pond-side, or in moist or watery places set apart 
for the purpose. Given the necessary conditions as to soil 
and water, the success of the marsh-garden will depend on 
the continuous care bestowed in preventing rapidly growing 
or coarse plants from exterminating others, or from taking such 
a hold in the soil that it becomes impossible to grow any 
small plant in it. Couch and all weeds should be exterminated 
when very young and small. 


The following are the bog and marsh plants at present most 
worthy of culture ; but there are many not yet in cultivation, 
equally lovely. 


Anagailis tenella ; Calla palustris ; Caltha in var. ; Campanula 
hederacea ; Chrysobactron Hookeri ; Coptis trifolia ; Cornus 
canadensis ; Crinum capense ; Cypripedium spectabile ; Drosera ; 
Epipactis ; Galax ; Gentiana ; Helonias ; Iris Monnieri, 
ochroleuca, sibirica ; Leucojum sestivum, Hernandezii ; Linnsea ; 
Parnassia ; Lycopodium in var. ; Menyanthes trifoliata ; 
Myosotis dissitiflora, palustris; Nierembergia rivularis; Orchis 
latifolia and vars., laxiflora, maculata ; Orontium aquaticum ; 
Pinguicula in var. ; Primula rosea, sikkimensis, farinosa ; 
Pthexia virginica ; Sagittaria in var. ; Sarracenia purpurea ; 
Saxifraga Hirculus ; Spigelia marilandica ; Swertia perennis ; 
Tradescantia virginica ; Trillium ; Lastrea Thelypteris. 

The above are suitable for the select marsh bed kept for the 
most beautiful and rare plants ; and among these, as has been 
stated, should be planted nothing which cannot be readily kept 
within bounds. To them lovers of British plants might like to 
add such native plants as Malaxis paludosa ; but it is better, as 
a rule, to select the finest, no matter whence they come. Among 
the most interesting plants for the bog-garden are the Pitcher- 
plants of North America. Some may doubt if the American 
Pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea) would prove hardy in the 
open air in this country. It certainly is so,, as one might expect 
from its high northern range in America. It will thrive in the 
wettest part of the bog-garden and in its native country I 
usually observed the Pitchers half buried in the water and 
sphagnum, the roots being in water. 

As however no natural opportunities occur in many places, the 
plan followed by a very successful cultivator may be useful here. 


" Artificial Bogs How to make them and what to plant in them. 
All that is requisite to form a bog-garden is to form a hollow 
space which will contain water. The simplest way is to buy a large 


earthenware pan or a wooden tub, bury it 6 inches beneath the 
surface of the ground, fill it full of broken bricks and stones and 
water, and cover with good peat soil ; the margin may be surrounded 
with clinkers or tiles at discretion, so as to resemble a small bed. 
In this bed, with occasional watering, all strong-growing bog plants 
will flourish to perfection; such plants as Osmundas and other 
Ferns, the Carexes, Cyperuses, etc., will grow to a large size and make 
a fine display, while the cause of their vigour will not be apparent. 

" A more perfect bog-garden is made by forming a basin of brick- 
work and Portland cement, about 1 foot in depth; the bottom 
may be either concreted or paved with tiles or slates laid in cement, 
and the whole must be made water-tight ; an orifice should be made 
somewhere in the side, at the height of 6 inches, to carry off the 
surplus water, and another in the bottom at the lowest point, 
provided with a cork, or, better still, a brass plug valve to close it. 
Five or six inches of large stones, brick, etc., are first laid in, and 
the whole is filled to the top with good peat soil, the surface being 
raised into uneven banks and hillocks, with large pieces of clinker 
or stone imbedded in it, so as to afford drier and wetter spots ; the 
size and form of this garden or bed may be varied at discretion. 
An oval or circular bed, 5 or 6 feet in diameter, would look well on a 
lawn or in any wayside spot, or an irregularly formed corner may 
be rendered interesting in this way ; but it should be in an open 
and exposed situation ; the back may be raised with a rockwork of 
stones or clinkers, imbedded in peat, and the moisture ascending by 
capillary action will make the position a charming one for Ferns and 
numberless other peat-loving plants. During the summer the bed 
should always contain 6 inches of water, but in winter it may be 
allowed to escape by the bottom plug. It is in every way desirable 
that a small trickle of water should constantly flow through the bog ; 
ten or twelve gallons per diem will be quite sufficient, but where 
this cannot be arranged, it may be kept filled by hand. The sides 
of such a bog may be bordered by a very low wall of flints or 
clinkers, built with mortar diluted with half its bulk of road-sand 
and leaf-mould, and with a little earth on the top ; the moisture 
will soon cause this to be covered with Moss, and Ferns and wall 
plants of all kinds will thrive on it. 

" Where space will permit, a much larger area may be converted 
into bog and rock-work intermingled, the surface being raised or 
depressed at various parts, so as to afford stations for more or less 
moisture-loving plants. Large stones should be freely used on the 
surface, so as^to form mossy stepping-stones ; and many plants will 
thrive better in the chinks formed by two adjacent stones than on 
the surface of the peat. In covering such a large area, it is not 
necessary to render the whole area water-tight. A channel of water 
about 6 inches deep, with drain pipes and bricks at the bottom, 
may be led to and fro, or branched over the surface, the bends or 


branches being about 3 feet apart. The whole, when covered with 
peat, will form an admirable bog, the spaces between the channels 
forming drier portions, in which various plants will thrive vigorously. 

" Perhaps the best situation of all for a bog-garden is on the side 
of a hill or on sloping ground. In this case the water flows in at 
the top, and the surface, whatever its form or inclination, must be 
rendered water-tight with Portland cement or concrete. Contour or 
level lines should be then traced on the whole surface, at distances 
of about 3 feet, and a ridge of two bricks in height should be 
cemented on the surface along each of the horizontal lines. These 
ridges, which must be perfectly level, serve to hold the water, the 
surplus escaping over the top to the next lower level. Two-inch 
drain tiles, covered with coarse stones, should be laid along each 
ridge, to keep the channel open, and a foot of peat thrown over the 
whole. Before adding the peat, ridges or knolls of rock-work may 
be built on the surface, the stones being built together with peat in 
the interstices. These ridges need not follow the horizontal lines. 
The positions thus formed are adapted both to grow and to display 
Ferns and alpine plants to advantage. 

" There is another way in which a minute stream of water may 
be turned to advantage, and that is by causing it to irrigate the top 
of a low wall ; such a wall should be built 12 inches high, the top 
course being carefully laid in Portland cement. A course is then 
formed by bricks projecting over about 2 inches at each side, with a 
channel left between them along the centre of the wall, which must 
be carefully cemented. Small drain pipes are laid along this channel 
and fitted in with stones. Large blocks of burr or clinker are then 
built across the top of the wall, with intervals of 12 or 15 inches 
between them, and these are connected by narrow walls of clinker on 
each side, so as to form pockets, which are filled with a mixture of peat 
and sandy loam. The projecting masses of burr stand boldly above 
the general surface, and, occurring at regular intervals, give a 
castellated character to the wall, which may be about 2 feet high 
when finished. Hundreds of elegant wall plants find a choice 
situation in the pockets, which are kept constantly moist by the 
percolation of the water beneath them, while Sempervivums and 
Sedums clothe the projecting burrs. In fact, with Wallflowers, 
Snapdragon, Cistuses, and Sedums, such a wall forms a garden of 
blossom throughout the whole spring and summer. 

" In addition to true bog plants, almost all the choice alpines will 
luxuriate and thrive in the drier parts of the bog-garden better 
than in an ordinary border or in pots. Perhaps the most charming 
plants to commence with are our own native bog plants Pinguicula, 
Drosera, Parnassia, Menyanthes, Viola palustris, Anagallis tenella, 
Narthecium, Osmunda, Marsh Ferns, Sibthorpia, Linnsea, Primula, 
Campanula, Saxifraga Hirculus, aizoides, and stellaris ; Mimulus 
luteus, Cardamine, Leucojum, Fritillaria, Marsh Orchises, and a 




host of plants from our marshes, and from the summits of our 
higher mountains, will flourish as freely as in their native habitats, 
and may all be grown in a few square feet of bog ; while dwarf 
Rhododendrons, Kalmias, Gunnera scabra, the larger Grasses, 
Ferns, Carexes, etc., will serve for the bolder features. 

" I have not space to enumerate the many foreign bog plants of 
exquisite beauty which abound, and which may be obtained from 
our nurseries, although many of the best are not yet introduced into 
this country ; in fact, one of the great charms of the bog-garden is 
that everything thrives and multiplies in it, and nothing ever droops- 
or dies, the only difficulty being to prevent the stronger plants from 
overgrowing and eventually destroying the weaker ones." 

Ferns on an old wall. 


Mr. F. W. Meyer, an excellent and experienced worker in 
rock-gardening, writes well of the formation of bog-beds in the 
Garden : 

" Though the term may be suggestive of a formal bed, there 
should really be no hard-and-fast outline in the rock-garden,, 
and the bog-bed should be harmonised with its surroundings 
in such a way as to make it impossible to discern its extent. 
We might have several such beds in different positions regard- 
ing light, as some marsh plants thrive in the sun, while others 
delight in shady nooks, and the wants of the plants must there- 
fore be our first consideration. 

" Bog Beds without Cement are to be recommended when the 
water supply is unlimited : if in connection with a pond fed 
by a streamlet, so much the better. The overflow water of the 
pond can then be used for feeding the bog-bed, or if the water 
should only run occasionally, a short pipe fitted with a regu- 
lating tap may be let into the side of the pond and connected 
with the bog-bed, this arrangement having the advantage of 
enabling us to keep the water supply under control. The con- 
struction of such a bed is simplicity itself ; dig a pit of the 
desired size about 18 inches deep, spreading at the bottom a 
layer of porous stones, brickbats, and a little charcoal, and 
covering the same with pieces of peat. Peaty soil, mixed with 
a little leaf-mould, Sphagnum Moss, sand and broken stone, is 
then added till the pit is filled up. A few larger stones are then 
placed with some care, partly with a view to effect, and partly 
to give shade or shelter to the plants to be grown by their side. 
If the ground is heavy, the bottom of the pit must be drained 
to get rid of stagnant water; but if of a porous nature, the 
water will soak away naturally through the bottom of the bed 
thus prepared. 

" The Cemented Bog Bed. Though at first involving a little 
more expense, this will be found of great advantage in rock- 
gardens on a small scale, where the supply of water comes 
through a small pipe. It is an irregular underground pond, 
made of cement concrete, and filled with soil as well as with 
water, to a depth of 12 inches to 15 inches. Besides being 


fitted with a supply pipe and tap, so arranged as to be within 
easy reach (though hidden from view), it should have an over- 
flow and an outlet pipe fitted with another tap for completely 
emptying the whole at will. If the bed is large, it would be 
well to arrange for stepping-stones here and there to ensure 
easy access to the plants. When space is limited, I often use 
for this purpose thin flat stones raised a little and supported 
at each end by a miniature pillar of bricks and cement, thus 
forming a little bridge, as it were, and admitting of the space 
between the little pillars and beneath the stones being filled 
with the proper soil. That every trace of cement-work would 
be hidden by soil, stones, or plants, goes without saying. One 
advantage of this sort of bed is that the water supply and 
drainage can be regulated in the simplest manner by the mere 
turning of a tap. 

" The Partly Cemented Bog Bed. The advantage I claim for 
this lies in the facility it affords for graduating moisture, which 
makes it possible to grow plants requiring different degrees of 
humidity in the same bed. First of all, a bog bed is con- 
structed after the manner described above under the heading 
of ' Bog Beds without Cement,' but instead of having the sides 
more or less upright, they are kept gently sloping. A winding 
trench is then excavated through this bed and secured with 
cement concrete a water-tight trench not more than a foot wide 
and 6 inches or 8 inches deep. The cemented sides should 
be level, so that, when filled, the water would flow evenly over 
the sides and into the outer parts of the bed, so giving different 
degrees of moisture between the cemented centre and portions 
and the sloping sides, from which the water would drain away 
naturally. Before the water is admitted, the trench is filled 
with loose stones and brickbats, and is then bridged over with 
large pieces of peat, and covered with a few inches of suitable 
soil. It is then levelled, so as to show no visible difference from 
the rest of the bed. As soon as the trench is filled with water, 
however, the latter will rise by capillary attraction not only 
through the pieces of peat, but also the soil above it, showing 
even on the surface of the soil the course of the water-trench 


beneath. But if the soil is filled up to such an extent that the 
rising water cannot be seen on the surface, it would be well to- 
mark the course of this underground trench with a few sticks 
projecting through the soil, to guide us when planting, and 
enabling us to put all plants requiring an extra degree of 
moisture directly over the water-trench where the roots could 
help themselves to the water. 

" On a steep slope, where the forming of such beds would be 
difficult, an ordinary lead pipe, a few inches underground and 
perforated at intervals, will be found useful, and may be regu- 
lated so as to supply water trickling through the soil through- 
out the summer." 


The water-garden has no essential connection with alpine 
or rock-gardens for this reason (among others), that millions of 
acres of many countries are covered with beautiful rock plants 
with no water near. But as some water often occurs in con- 
nection with the rock-garden, it may as well be treated 
rightly. Many beautiful natural alpine gardens are far above 
all water, except what falls from the clouds as snow or rain. 
Many alpine plants live on sunny rocks and in high waterless 
plateaux, and my own wish in the formation of alpine gardens- 
would be to get as near as I could to the same conditions. I 
would seek exposure to all winds and weathers, and on as elevated 
and open airy spots as I could, keeping my stream, banks, 
and water-margins in the vale for other and stouter plants. 
Of late years a precious aid has come to us in the shape of 
many beautiful uncommon things for the water-garden, and 
above all, the hardy water-lilies, raised by M. Latour Marliac, 
which give us in a cold country such beauty as at one time was 
thought to be only possible in sub-tropical countries. We now 
have water-lilies so bright in colour, as hardy as a Dock, and 
it is impossible to resist such beauties, especially when we may 
grow them in a small pool, and in close relation to our rock- 
garden, if such we desire. A skilfully-formed lakelet will be 
prettier than a stiff tank, but in either it is quite easy to grow 


water-lilies, the essential thing being to plant in a good depth 
of mud or soil. There is nothing better than the mud which 
is washed down by little streams, but any good earth will do, 
and the result of planting in the soil will be much better than 
if we had put them in pots or tubs of any kind. The beauty 
and length of bloom of these water-lilies makes them a very 
precious aid in the garden, while for the margins of our lakelet 
we have many graceful plants in the way of Eeeds, Bushes, 
Arrowheads, and many water-plants, such as Day-lilies, tall 
Irises, Swamp Lilies, Loosestrife, Golden Eod, Cardinal flowers, 
and the nobler hardy Ferns, like the Eoyal and Feather Ferns. 
It is necessary to keep off the common water-rat, which cuts 
off the flowers and eats them on the bank-side, and also the 
-common water-hen, which picks at and destroys the flowers ; 
and, generally, it may be said that it is not possible to have 
water-fowl and living creatures if we would grow water-lilies 

The new kinds, which are now coming out, demand more 
careful treatment than the well-known ones, and should be kept 
apart in small tanks. The older and bolder kinds may be put 
out in the open water with the greatest confidence. I have 
grown some of them in open ponds fully exposed to storms, and 
with good results ; but always planting in the natural mud, and 
in a good depth of it if possible, and that is not difficult where 
mud is washed in freely by streamlets. 

For those who desire to go into the question of water- 
gardening more at length, there is a fuller account in the 
41 English Flower Garden," than we can find room for here. And 
there are often happy incidents where a natural stream would 
come near us to give its precious help, and there are various 
cases in which water either moving or still water may be 
happily associated with marsh and alpine gardens. 



Water and water-side plants are often intimately associated 
with rock-gardens, and much beauty may be added to the 
margins, and here and there to the surface, of water, by water- 
plants. Usually we see the same monotonous vegetation all 
round the margin if the soil be rich ; in some cases, where the 
bottom is of gravel, there is little or no vegetation, but an ugly 
line of washed earth between wind and water. In others. 

The White Water-Lily. 

water-plants accumulate till they are a nuisance and an eyesore 
I do not mean submerged plants like Anacharis, but such as 
the water-lilies, when they get matted. 

One of the prettiest effects I have seen was a sheet 
of Villarsia nymphceoides belting round the margin of a lake 
near a woody recess, and it is too seldom seen in garden 
waters, being a pretty little water-plant, with its Nymphaea-like 
leaves and many yellow flowers. 

Not rare growing, in fact, in nearly all districts of Britain 
is the Buckbean or Marsh Trefoil (Menyanthes trifoliata\ 
with flowers elegantly fringed on the inside with white fila- 
ments, and the round unopened buds blushing on the top with 
a rosy red like that of an apple-blossom. In early summer, 
when seen trailing in the soft ground near the margin of a 
stream, this plant has more charms for me than any other 
marsh-plant. It will grow in a bog or any moist place, or by 
the margin of any water, and though a common native plant, 
it is not half enough grown in garden waters. For grace, few 




plants surpass Equisetum Telmateia, which, in deep soil, in 
shady moist places near water, often grows several feet high, 
the long, close-set, slender branches depending from each whorl 
in a singularly graceful manner. 

For a bold and picturesque plant on the margin of water 
nothing surpasses the great Water 
Dock (Eumex Hydrolapathum), 
which is dispersed over the 
British Isles ; it has leaves fine 
in aspect and size, becoming of a 
lurid red in the autumn. The 
Typhas must not be omitted, 
but they should not be allowed 
to run everywhere. The narrow- 
leaved one (T. angustifolia) is 
more graceful than the common 
one (T. latifolia). Carex pendida 
is excellent for the margins of 
water, its elegant drooping spikes 
being quite distinct in their way. 
It is rather common in England, 
more so than Carex Pseudo-cyperus, 
which grows well in a foot or two 
of water or on the margin of a muddy pond. Carex paniculata 
forms a strong and thick stem, sometimes three or four feet 
high, somewhat like a tree-fern, and with luxuriant masses of 
drooping leaves, and on that account is transferred to moist 
places in gardens, and cultivated by some, though generally 
these large specimens are difficult to remove and soon perish. 
Scirpus lacustris (the Bulrush) is too distinct a plant to be 
omitted, as its stems, sometimes attaining a height of more 
than seven and even eight feet, look distinct; and Cyperus 
longus is also a good plant, reminding one of the Papyrus when 
in flower ; and it is found in some of the southern counties of 
England. Cladium Mariscus is also another distinct British 
water-side plant, which is worth a place. 

If one chose to enumerate the plants that grow in British 


The Great Water Dock. 


and European waters, a very long list might be made, but the 
recommendation of those which possess no distinct character 
or no beauty of flower is what I wish to avoid, believing that it 
is only by a selection of the best kinds that planting of this 
kind can give satisfaction ; therefore, omitting a host of incon- 
spicuous water-weeds, I will endeavour to indicate all others of 
real worth. 

Those who have seen the flowering Eush (Butomus umbel- 
latus) in flower are not likely to omit it from a collection of 
water-plants, as it is pretty and distinct. Plant it not far from 
the margin, as it likes rich muddy soil. The common Sagittaria, 
very frequent in England and Ireland, but not in Scotland, 
might be associated with this ; but there is a very much finer 
double exotic kind to be had here and there, which is really a 
handsome plant, its flowers being white, and resembling, but 
larger than, those of the old white double Eocket. Calla palus- 
tris is a beautiful bog-plant, and I know nothing that produces 
a prettier effect over rich mud ground. Calla cethiopica, the 
well-known and beautiful " Lily of the Nile," is hardy enough 
in some places if planted rather deep, and in nearly all it may 
be stood out for the summer ; but except in quiet waters, in the 
South of England and Ireland, will not thrive. The pine- 
like Water Soldier (Stratiotes aloides) is so distinct that it is 
worthy of a place ; there is a pond quite full of this plant at 
Tooting, and it is common in the fens. It is allied to the 
Frogbit (Hydrocharis Morsus-rance), which, like the species of 
Water Eanunculi and some other fast-growing and fast-dis- 
appearing families, I must not here particularise ; they cannot 
be " established " permanently in one spot like the other plants 
mentioned. The tufted Loosestrife (Lysimachia tkyrsiflora) 
flourishes on wet banks and ditches, and in a foot or two of 
water. It is curiously beautiful when in flower. Pontederia 
cordata is a stout and hardy water-herb, with distinct habit, 
and blue flowers. There is a small Sweet-flag (Acorus gramineus) 
which is worth a place, and has also a well- variegated variety, 
while the common Acorus, or Sweet-flag, will be associated with 
the Water Iris (/. Pseud-acorus), and the pretty Alisma ranun- 


culoides, if it can be procured; it is not nearly so common 
as the Water Plantain. The pretty Star Damasonium of the 
southern and eastern counties of England, an annual, is not to 
be recommended to any but those who desire to make a full 
collection, and who could and would provide a special spot for 
the more minute and delicate kinds. The Water Lobelia does 
not seem to thrive away from the shallow parts of the northern 
lakes, getting choked by the numerous water weeds. The Cape 
Pond flower (Aponogetori), a native of the Cape of Good Hope, is 
a singularly pretty plant, which is nearly hardy enough for our 
climate generally, and, from its sweetness and curious beauty, 
a good plant to cultivate in a warm spot in the open air. It is 
largely grown in one or two places in the south, and it nearly 
covers the surface of the only bit of water in the Edinburgh 
Botanic Garden with its long green leaves, among which the 
sweet flowers float abundantly. In the open air, plant it rather 
deep in a clean spot and in good soil, and see that the long and 
soft leaves are not injured either by water-fowl or any other 
cause. Orontium aquaticum is a handsome water-herb, and as 
beautiful as any is the Water Violet (Hottonia palustris). The 
best example of it that I have seen was on an expanse of soft 
mud near Lea Bridge, in Essex. It covered the muddy surface 
with a sheet of dark fresh green, and must have looked better 
so than when in water, though the place was occasionally 
flooded. The Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris), that " shines 
like fire in swamps and hollows grey," will burnish the margin 
with a glory of colour which no exotic flower could surpass. 
A suitable companion for this Caltha is the very large Water 
Buttercup (Ranunculus Lingua), a very handsome British 
water-side perennial. LytJirum roseum superbum, a variety of 
the common purple Loosestrife, and Epilobium hirsutum, are 
two large and fine plants for the water-side. 



Among the best cultivators of alpine flowers, and under 
conditions less favourable than what are usual in many parts of 
the country owing to heavy soil and heavy rainfall, is Mr 
Wolley-Dod ; and his advice is so good for amateurs in similar 
conditions that it is here given from a paper read before the 
Horticultural Society. Among alpine and rock plants, embrac- 
ing so much and such infinite variety, some variety of teaching 
is better than any one formula, however good. Many parts of 
the country about our coasts, and on the mountains of the cold 
north of England, are so favourable to alpine plants that little 
trouble gives us good results; but readers who live in quite 
different conditions, in the West Midlands and other districts, 
will like to know how difficulties are met in such conditions. 

" There are some favoured gardens where natural rock exists, 
or where the conditions of the soil with regard to quality or drain- 
age are such that choice and delicate mountain plants may be 
grown on the ground level in ordinary borders. Such gardens exist 
in several districts in England, and are common in Scotland and 
Wales ; few rules are necessary there, where plants have only 
to be planted and kept clear of weeds in order to thrive. But 
most of us who wish to grow choice alpine plants in our gardens 
have to make the best of conditions naturally unfavourable, and 
in doing this we can be helped by the experience of those who 
have made it their special study. We need not say much of 
climate and atmospheric conditions, because they are beyond 
our control. It may be remarked, however, that high elevation 
above the sea-level is a great advantage in the neighbourhood 
of towns, because the impurities in the air are more readily 
dispersed, and do not collect or settle as in lowland valleys. 
Good natural drainage is also a great advantage, because 
although we can drain the spot in which our alpines grow, and 
even our whole garden, still if the soil of the district is wet 
and retentive, the local damp seems to affect mountain plants 
unfavourably. Local differences of climate caused by soil and 


evaporation are no doubt important factors in the growth of 
plants, but it would be waste of time to dwell upon the endless 
particulars which make it impossible that the conditions which 
prevail on the Alps can be imitated in the valley of the Thames. 

" The first necessity for growing choice alpines is to secure 
perfect drainage for the soil in which they grow. This may 
seem strange to those who have seen them growing on the 
mountains, often apparently in perpetual wet; but there the 
soil is never water-logged, or charged with stagnant moisture, 
but the wet is always in rapid motion and changing. Suppos- 
ing that no part of a garden naturally gives the conditions in 
which alpines will thrive, we must make these conditions by 
artificial means. Those who wish to grow them on flat borders 
or retentive wet soils may do so on the ground-level by 
digging out the soil to a depth of 3 feet, and draining the 
bottom of the bed to the nearest outfall, and filling up to the 
surface with soil mixed with two-thirds of broken stone, either 
in small or large pieces. But in heavy soils, where large stones 
are easily obtained, still better beds for alpines may be made by 
enclosing the space with large blocks to a height of 2 feet or 3 
feet, and filling up as before directed. The sides of these stone 
blocks can be covered with many ornamental plants in addition 
to those which are grown on the raised surface. But the 
commonest way of cultivating alpines is upon what are called 
rockeries, or loose rough stones laid together in different forms 
and methods. 

" The forms in which the rockery, usually so called, can be 
constructed may be divided into three : (1) The barrow-shaped 
rockery, (2) the facing rockery, and (3) the sunk rockery. The 
first may be raised anywhere; the other two depend partly 
upon the configuration of the ground. No wood or tree roots 
should be used to supplement any of them ; they must be all 
stone. The kind of stone is seldom a matter of choice ; every- 
one will use what is most handy. The rougher and more 
unshapely the blocks the better. The size should vary from 40 
or 50 Ibs. to 3 or 4 cwts. No mortar or cement for fixing them 
together must ever be employed ; they must be firmly wedged 


and interlocked, and depend upon one another, and not upon the 
soil between them, to keep them in their places. This rule is of 
the utmost importance; if it is neglected, a long frost or an 
excessive rainfall may cause the whole structure to collapse. 

"Each successive part of the stone skeleton must be put 
together before the soil is added. 


" The most convenient size for the barrow-shaped rockery is 
about 4 feet high, and 6 feet or 7 feet through at the base. 
The length is immaterial. If the long sides face north-east and 
south-west, it will afford perhaps the best variety of aspect ; but 
the amount of sunshine each plant gets will depend on the 
arrangement of each stone as much as upon the main structure. 
There cannot be too many projections, and care must be taken 
to leave no channels between the stones by which the soil can 
be washed down to the base. Overhanging brows, beneath 
which plants can be inserted, are very useful ; large surfaces of 
stone may here and there be left exposed, and irregularity of 
form is far better than symmetry. A formal arrangement of 
flat pockets or nests offends the eye without helping the 
cultivator, as the tastes of alpines as regards slope of surface 
and moisture at their roots are very various. As for the degree 
of slope from the base to the summit of the barrow, it will not 
be uniform. In some places there will be an irregular square 
yard of level on the top, bounded by large cross keystones, for 
which the largest stones should be reserved. In other parts the 
sides will slope evenly to the ridge ; or the upper half may be 
perpendicular, leaving only wide crevices to suit the taste of 
certain plants. If the blocks are very irregular in form, and 
their points of contact as few as possible, providing only for 
secure interlocking, there will be plenty of room for soil to 
nourish the plants. Everchanging variety of stone surface, both 
above and below the soil, is the object to be aimed at, and any 
sort of symmetry must be avoided. The second form, or 



is dependent upon the natural shape of ground surface. 
Wherever there is a steep bank facing south or east, it may be 
utilised for the growth of alpines. The stones, as before advised, 
should be large and unshapely, and be buried to two-thirds of 
their bulk, and form a very uneven surface, all being interlocked 
from top to bottom as described. Eockeries of this form are 
less liable to suffer from drought; if the surface covered is 
large, access to all parts should be provided by convenient 
stepping-stones, because, although every stone in the structure 
ought to be capable of bearing the weight of a heavy man 
without danger of displacement, it is better not to have to 
tread upon the plants. 


"This is perhaps the best of all, but entails rather more 
labour in construction. Where subsoil drainage is perfect, a 
sunk walk may be made, not less than 10 feet or 12 feet wide, 
with sloping sides. The sides may be faced with stones, as 
described in the second form of rockery, and all or part of the 
excavated soil may be made into a raised mound, continuing the 
slopes of the excavated banks above the ground-level, and thus 
combining the facing rockery and the barrow-rockery. If the 
outer line of this portion above the ground be varied by small 
bays, every possible aspect and slope may be provided to suit 
the taste of every plant. However, unless drainage is perfect, a 
sunk walk, rising to the ground-level at each end, would not be 
feasible. But a broad walk, excavated into the side of a hill 
and sloping all one way, could be adapted to a structure nearly 
similar to that described, or the ground may be dug out in the 
form of an amphitheatre to suit the taste or circumstances. 
But whatever the form of rockery adopted, let the situation be 
away from the influence of trees, beyond suspicion of the reach 
of their roots below, or their drip, or even their shade, above. 


Trees which only shelter from high winds are so far serviceable, 
and so are walls and high banks. There are few alpines for 
which a storm-swept surface is good, but trees are objectionable 
where they lessen the light, which is an important element in 
the welfare of most mountain plants. The shade and shelter 
afforded by the stones and form of the structure itself are the 
best kind of shade and shelter. 

" SOIL. 

" We now come to the subject of soil, which is very important, 
though I attach less importance to it than others do who have 
written on the subject. I hold that where atmospheric and 
mechanical conditions are favourable, the chemical combination 
of the soil is of secondary consideration. It is true that in 
Nature we find that the flora of a limestone mountain differs in 
many particulars from that of a granite mountain, and on the 
same mountain some plants will thrive in heavy retentive soil, 
whilst others will be found exclusively in peat or sand. But for 
one who is beginning to cultivate alpines to have to divide them 
into lime-lovers and lime-haters, lovers of sand and lovers of 
stiff soil, is an unnecessary aggravation of difficulties. So large 
a proportion of ornamental plants is contented with the soil 
which most cultivators provide for all alike even though in 
Nature they seem to have predilections that where an amateur 
has only one rockery, it would be too perplexing to study the 
partiality of every plant, and to remember every spot where 
lime-lovers or their opposites had been growing. While saying 
this, I confess that I have some rockeries where both soil and 
rock are adapted exclusively for lime plants ; others from which 
lime is kept away, and where both soil and rock are granitic ; 
but the great majority of plants thrive equally well on both. I 
know few better collections of alpine plants than one which I 
recently saw at Guildford, growing on a bank of almost pure 
chalk. I cannot say that I noticed any inveterate lime-haters 
there ; but conditions of drainage and atmosphere were the 
chief cause of success. With regard to soil then, we must take 


care that it does not retain stagnant moisture, and yet it must 
not dry up too readily. Plants must be able to penetrate it 
easily with their roots, the lengths of some of which must be 
seen to be believed. Good loam, with a little humus in the 
form of leaf-mould or peat, and half or three quarters of the 
bulk composed of stone riddlings from the nearest stone quarry, 
and varying in size from that of rapeseed to that of horse beans, 
make up a soil with which most alpines are quite contented. 
The red alluvial clay of Cheshire, burnt hard in a kiln, and 
broken up or riddled to the above size, is an excellent material 
mixed with a little soil and a little hard stone. Where you are 
convinced that lime is useful, it may be added as pure lime, not 
planting in it till thoroughly slaked by mixture with the soil. 
Eough surface-dressing is a thing in which all alpines delight, as 
it keeps the top of the soil sweet and moist, and prevents their 
leaves being fouled. Use for this purpose the same riddled 
stone as described above, which is better than gravel, as round 
pebbles are easily washed off the slope by rain or in watering. 


" It is better not to be in a hurry to see the stones covered. 
It would be easy to cover them with growth in a single season, 
but it would be demoralising to the cultivator. We must not 
degrade choice alpines by putting them to keep company with 
Periwinkles, Woodruff, large St John's Wort, dead Nettles, 
Creeping Jenny, fast-running Sedums, and Saxifrages, which do 
duty for alpines on raised structures of roots or stones in the 
shady, neglected corners of many a garden. Indeed, there are 
some plants, of which Coronilla Varia is one, which, when once 
established amongst large stones, cannot be eradicated by any 
means short of pulling the whole structure to pieces. Any 
plant which runs under a large stone and reappears on the 
other side should be treated with caution. As a rule, nothing 
should be planted which cannot be easily and entirely era- 
dicated in a few minutes. If a rockery is large, there is no 
reason for limiting the area to be assigned to each plant, 


especially to such as are ornamental when in flower, and not 
unsightly at other seasons. If different rockeries or separate 
parts of the same can be assigned to rapid growers and to dwarf 
compact plants, it will be an advantage. There are many 
subjects which belong to the class of alpines which require to 
be displayed in a broad and high mass to do them full justice. 
Such things should make a train from the top of the rockery 
quite to the ground ; Aubrietias, for example, and Veronica 
prostrata should look like purple or blue cataracts ; others 
should be unlimited in breadth, like the dwarf mossy Phloxes 
and the brilliantly coloured Helianthemums. Such things do 
not like being cropped round to limit their growth, and if there 
is not enough room for them, they had better be omitted, though 
in stiff and cold soils they will not thrive in the mixed border. 
Whatever is grown, the small and delicate gems of the collec- 
tion must run no danger of being smothered by overwhelming 
neighbours, and this requires both careful arrangement and 
constant watching. When first I began to cultivate alpines, I 
planted somewhat indiscriminately together things which I 
thought would make an ornamental combination, but the 
weaker soon became overwhelmed in the fight with the 
stronger, and there was nothing to be done but to build a 
new rockery and plant it more carefully. In this way I have 
now constructed at least a dozen rockeries, trying each time 
to benefit by past experiences and to exclude weedy plants. 
The first and second made still continue, and are still flowery 
wildernesses in Spring, but everything choice and delicate upon 
them has either long ago perished or been transferred to new 
quarters. But visitors to my garden in Spring, who are not 
connoisseurs in alpines, think these wild rockeries far more 
ornamental than the half bare stone heaps where my choicest 
plants are grown, and which they think will look very nice in 
a year or two when they are as well covered as the others. I 
have mentioned this to show that those who can appreciate the 
beauty of the smaller and more delicate alpines, and grow 
them for their own sake, must be contented to see their 
favourites surrounded in many instances by bare stones; but 


the stones, especially if they contain cracks, may often be 

clothed with plants without any danger of overcrowding. I 
have said little about choice of 


though I have tried many kinds ; and of all I have tried, I pre- 
fer the carboniferous limestone, common in North Wales, 
Derbyshire, and the north of Lancashire. The loose blocks 
of this which lie about the land are full of cracks and are 
varied in shape. I carefully avoid the furrowed and smooth- 
channelled surface slates of this stone often sold in London for 
rockwork, but most unsuitable for growing plants ; I do not 
speak of these, but detached solid blocks, abounding in deep 
cracks and crevices. These crevices are the very place for 
some of the choicest alpines. Paronychia shows its true 
character in no other spot. Potentilla nitida flowers when 
fixed in them, and there only. They are excellent for Phyteuma 
comosum. The Spiderweb Houseleeks delight in them, and so 
do some of the smaller Saxifrages. These are only a few of a 
long list I might make, and things which grow in such tight 
quarters never encroach much. The little Arenaria balearica, 
which grows all over sandstone as close and in nearly as thin a 
coat as paint upon wood, does not grow well upon limestone ; 
but this plant does encroach, spreading over the surface of 
small neighbours and smothering them. There are many 
things, however some herbaceous, some shrubby and evergreen, 
which do well only on condition of resting upon stone with 
their leaves and branches. It is so with Pentstemon Scouleri, 
and with that most charming dwarf shrub, Genista pilosa, which 
rises hardly an inch off the stone, though it may cover several 
square feet. I have said before that in planting, aspect must 
be carefully considered. The best aspect for alpines is east, 
and west is the worst ; but there is not a spot on any rockery 
which may not be filled with a suitable tenant. Some of the 
most beautiful flowers abhor, in the atmosphere of my garden, 
even a glimpse of the sun. Eamondia pyrenaica is withered up 


by it in an hour ; so is Cyananthus lobatus ; and these must be 
shaded on every side but north. As a general rule, I find all 
Himalayan alpine plants impatient of sunshine ; they may 
endure it in their own home, where they live in an atmosphere 
always saturated with wet. However, it is only the deep 
recesses of the rockery towards the north which get no sun at 
all, and plenty of things are quite contented on the north side 
of the slope. For instance, I must grow Lithospermum pros- 
tratum on stones or not at all. The white Erica carnea and 
several such dwarfs are included in the same number. 

" As for bulbs, they may be ornamental enough at times, but 
I find they do as well or better elsewhere. Their leaves are 
untidy just at the time when the rockery ought to be most gay 
and neat ; and watering in summer, which other plants require, 
is bad for them, so I have not included them in my list. 
While speaking of watering, I may say that rockeries such as I 
have described could not dispense with it in dry weather ; it 
requires careful judgment ; and I often prefer to water the soil 
holding the can close to the ground at the highest point of the 
stones, and letting the water run down the slope to get to the 
roots, rather than wet the plants themselves. Wet foliage and 
flowers often get burnt up by sunshine. Weeding, carefully 
done, is a necessity on rockeries, for weeds will come; but 
plants which seed about freely are to be avoided, as they 
greatly multiply the labour of weeding, and some of them are 
hard to eradicate from among the stones. The Harebells, and 
alpine Poppies, pretty as they are, must be excluded on this 
account ; so must that weedy little plant, Saxif raga Cymbalaria, 
which can be grown on any wall. The fewer weeds there are, 
the more likely are seedlings of choice and rare plants to assert 
themselves. For instance, Geranium argenteum grows in 
crevices into which the seeds are shot when ripe, and where 
plants could not be inserted, and keeps up the supply of this 
elegant alpine. 



" A few words may be in place here about raising alpines 
from seed ; for constant succession is necessary, the duration of 
their life in cultivation being, for many obvious reasons which 
need not be discussed here, far shorter than in their native 
home. Eeproduction from seed, where seed can be obtained, 
ensures the healthiest and finest growth, and there is no better 
way of getting seed than in saving it yourself. In several cases 
the first hint I have had that a plant has ripened fertile seed 
has been the recognition of a seedling near the parent, and this 
experience has taught me always to look carefully for seed after 
the flowering of rare specimens. I need not say, therefore, that 
I disapprove of the practice of cutting off flower heads as soon 
as they wither ; in some cases the seed-head is nearly as 
ornamental as the flower, but I have before said that discretion 
must be used, even in this, as seedlings of some things are 
troublesome from their number. When ripe seed is gathered 
I recommend its being sown at once. It is then more likely to 
come up quickly, and as all such plants as we grow on rockeries 
are better sown in pans, there is seldom difficulty in keeping 
small seedlings through the winter. The greatest enemy we 
have in the process is the growth of Lichen, the worst being 
the Marchantia or Liverwort fungus, which completely chokes 
tender growth. A coating of finely sifted burnt earth on the 
surface, and a piece of flat glass laid over the pan, especially if 
no water is used for them unless it has been boiled, reduces 
this trouble to a minimum. But sowings of choice and rare 
seed should be carefully watched, and the fungus picked off at 
the first appearance. Many alpines seem never to form seed in 
cultivation, and must be reproduced by division or cuttings. 
The skill required to do this varies greatly with different 
subjects ; where a shoot can seldom be found more than half an 
inch long, as in the case of two or three hybrid alpine Pinks, 
the striking needs delicate manipulation. Other things grow 
very slowly, though not long-lived, and a constant succession 


from cuttings must be ensured. Some of the terrestrial Orchids, 
such as Bee, and Fly, and Spider, we must be contented to keep 
as long as they choose to live, as they seem never to increase in 
cultivation at all, though they may flower well year after year. 
But there are not a few plants which refuse to be tamed, and 
from the time they are planted in our gardens, seem always to 
go from bad to worse, and are never presentable in appearance 
for two seasons together. Of these I may instance Gentiana 
bavarica and Eritrichium nanum, which I believe no skill has 
ever yet kept in cultivation without constant renewal, and which 
perhaps are never likely to repay the trouble of trying to keep 
them alive. In all alpine gardening there will be, even where 
equal skill is exerted, different degrees of success, according to 
the surrounding conditions ; and it must not be expected that 
the same soil and treatment which keep a hundred rare alpines 
in perfect health at Edinburgh will be equally fortunate at 


"Where the area of rockery is considerable, a cold frame 
should be assigned for keeping up the supply of plants for it 
cuttings and seedlings in pots. I think all attempts to imitate 
natural conditions, such as snow and long rest, by unnatural 
means are mistakes. During warm winters mountain plants 
will grow, and must be allowed to grow, and to keep them 
unnaturally dark or dry when growing is fatal to their health. 
Even in severe frosts, air must be given abundantly in the day- 
time, and the frames must not be muffled up. Stagnant air, 
whether damp or dry, is their worst enemy ; but if the weather 
is warm enough to set them growing, they may easily die for 
want of moisture. I will not say more than this, for experience 
is the best guide, and every one thinks he can manage his frames 
better than his neighbour ; but of the use of frames for flowering 
alpines in pots I must add a few words. There are certain very 
early-flowering alpines upon which a mixture of admiration and 
lamentation is bestowed at the end of every winter. Their 


flowers are often beautiful in a treacherous fortnight at the 
beginning of February, and are suddenly destroyed by a return 
of winter in its severest form. I may mention, amongst others, 
Saxifraga Burseriana and sancta, and their near relatives and 
hybrids, Primula marginata and intermedia, Androsace carnea, 
Chamsejasme and Laggeri, several dwarf species of Alyssum and 
Iberis, and there are a good many more. Pots or pans contain- 
ing these may be grouped together in an open sunny spot, and 
plunged in sand or coal-ashes in a rough frame made for them, so 
that the lights may be not more than 3 inches or 4 inches above 
the pots. These lights should be removed in the daytime when 
the weather is fine, and air should be admitted, according to the 
temperature, at night. Such a sheet of elegant beauty, lasting, 
if well arranged, through February, March, and April, may be 
obtained in this way, that I often wonder why amateurs attempt 
to flower early alpines in any other fashion. With me April 
is the earliest month in which I can expect to have anything 
gay on the open rockery without disappointment. I am obliged 
to disfigure the slopes with sheets of glass and handlights to 
preserve through winter at all Omphalodes Lucilise, Onosma 
tauricum, Androsace sarmentosa, and others which cannot endure 
winter wet, and the real pleasure of the rockery begins when 
the frame alpines are waning." 


So long as the exaggerated ideas of the difficulties of grow- 
ing alpine flowers were prevalent, it was the custom, even 
in good gardens, to grow most of these plants in pots in 
frames, while at flower exhibitions we often see them now 
shown, and, bearing that in mind, it is important that they 
should be well grown in that way. Occasionally, too, we see 
them, as in the Alpine House at Kew, shown for their beauty 
in the Spring, in cool houses. Where there is the least 
difficulty as regards climate, such as the smoke of the town, 
having them slightly protected in pots will often gain a point 
or two, and in cold districts there is some reason why the early 


habit of flowering of so many beautiful kinds should not be 
taken advantage of, and by growing some of these early kinds 
in pots or pans, or shallow baskets, we might, when they were 
about to flower, transfer them to a very cool greenhouse, or to 
frames, to a pit with some path in it, or better still when in 
bloom to 'the cooler windows of the house, and so enjoy their 
beauty and save them from the vicissitudes of our often 
wretched Springs. In the case of the easily-grown kinds, such 
as our rosy native Eochfoil, Omphalodes, and Alpine Primrose, 
it would be easy to secure well-grown plants, of which pretty 
use might be made by many who do not exhibit alpine plants, 
while some such plan is essential for those who do. 

I do not advocate their culture in pots at all where there 
is an opportunity of making a rock-garden ; but there are cases 
in which they cannot be well grown in any other way. It is 
often well to keep rare kinds in pots till sufficiently plentiful. 

Prizes are frequently offered at our flower shows for these 
plants, but the exhibitors rarely deserve a prize, for their plants 
are often ill selected, badly grown, and such as ought 
never to appear on an exhibition stage. In almost every other 
class the first thing the exhibitor does is to select appropriate 
kinds distinct and beautiful and then he makes some pre- 
paration beforehand for exhibiting them; but in the case of 
hardy plants, anybody who happens to have a rough lot of 
miscellaneous rubbish exhibits them. Yet such plants as the 
tiny shrubs Cassiope, Menziesia, and G-aultheria, procumbens, the 
Alpine Phlox, and many others, might be found pretty enough 
to satisfy even the most fastidious growers of New Holland 

The very grass is not more easily grown than plants like 
Iberises and Aubrietias, yet to ensure their being worthy of a 
place, they ought to be at least a year in pots, so as to secure 
well-furnished plants. Such vigorous plants, to merit the 
character of being well-grown, should fall luxuriantly over the 
edge of the pots or baskets, the spreading habit of many of this 
class of plants making this a matter of no difficulty. In some 
cases it would be desirable to put a number of cuttings or young 


rooted plants into pots or pans, so as to form good plants 

To descend from the type that seems to present to the 
cultivator the greatest number of neat and attractive flowering 
plants, we have the dwarf race of hardy succulents, and the 
numerous minute alpine plants that associate with them in 
size a class rich in merit and strong in numbers. These 
should, as a rule, be grown and shown in pans : they are often 
so pretty and singular in aspect, as in the case of the silvery 
Kockfoils, that they are interesting when out of flower. All 
these little plants are of the readiest culture in pans, with good 
drainage and light soil. 

Some few alpine plants are somewhat delicate or difficult to 
grow ; and amongst the most beautiful and interesting of these 
are the Gentians, and certain of the alpine Primroses. In a 
general way, it would be better to avoid, at first, such difficult 
subjects. I believe that a more liberal culture than is gener- 
ally pursued is what is wanted for these more difficult kinds. 
The plants are often obtained in a delicate and small state ; 
then they are, perhaps, kept in some out-of-the-way frame, or 
put where they receive but chance attention ; or, perhaps, they 
die off from some vicissitude, or fall victims to slugs, or, if a 
little unhealthy about the roots, are injured by earth-worms, 
whose casts serve to clog up the drainage, and thus render the 
pot uninhabitable. With strong and healthy young plants to 
begin with, good and more liberal culture, and plunging in the 
open air in beds of coal-ashes through the greater part of the 
year, the majority of those supposed to be difficult would 
thrive. I have taken species of Primula, usually seen in a 
very weakly and poor state, divided them, keeping safe all the 
young roots, put one sucker in the centre, and five or six round 
the sides of a 32-sized pot, and in a year made good " specimens " 
of them, with a greater profusion of bloom than if I had 
depended on one plant only. Annual division is an excellent 
plan to pursue with many of these plants, which in a wild 
state run each year a little farther into the deposit of decaying 
herbage which surrounds them, or, it may be, into the sand and 



grit which are continually being carried down by natural 
agencies. In our long summer, some of the Primulas will 
make a tall growth and protrude rootlets on the stem a state 
for which dividing and replanting them firmly, nearly as deep 
down as the collar, is a remedy. 

There are many plants which demand to be permanently 
established, and with which an entirely different course must 
be pursued, Spigelia marilandica, Gentiana verna, G. bavarica, 
and Cypripedium spectabile y for example. The Gentians are 
rarely well grown, and yet I am convinced that few will fail 
to grow them if they procure in the first instance good plants ; 
pot them carefully and firmly in good sandy loam, well drained, 
using bits of grit or gravel in the soil; plunge the pots in 
sand or coal-ashes to the rim, in a position fully exposed to the 
sun ; and give them abundance of water during the spring and 
summer months, taking precautions against worms, slugs, and 
weeds. And such will be found to be the case with many 
other rare and fine alpine plants. The best position in which 
to grow the plants would be in some open spot, where they 
could be plunged in coal-ashes, and be under the cultivator's 
eye. And, as they should show the public what the beauty of 
hardy plants really is, so should they be grown entirely in the 
open air in spring and summer. To save the pots and pans 
from cracking with frost, it would in many cases be desirable 
to plunge them in shallow cold frames, or cradles, with a 
northern exposure in winter ; but, in the case of the kinds that 
die down in winter, a few inches of some light covering thrown 
over the pots, when the tops of the plants have perished, would 
form a sufficient protection. 


Alpine and herbaceous plants in pots, and kept in the open 
air all the winter, are best plunged in a porous material on a 
porous bottom, and on the north side of a hedge or wall, where 
they would be less exposed to changes of temperature, and less 
liable to be excited into growth at that season. 

The most suitable kind of pots for alpine flowers that I 


have yet seen were those used by Mr G. Maw, in his gardens 
at Benthall Hall. These pots are of a peculiar size 8 
inches broad by 4 inches deep. They seem peculiarly well 
suited to the wants of alpine plants, securing, as they do, a good 
body of soil, not so liable to rapid changes as that in a small 
vessel ; while in stature, being only 4 inches high, they are 
exactly what is wanted for these dwarf plants. The common 
garden pan suits some alpine plants well, but is not so well 
suited to the stature of alpine plants, or the wants of their roots, 
as a pot of this pattern. 

For growing the Androsaces and some rare Rockfoils, a 
modification of the common pot may be employed with a 
good result. This is effected by cutting a piece out of the side 

Pot for Androsaces, etc. Alpine Plant growing between 

stones in a pot. 

of the pot, 1J or 2 inches deep. The head of the plant 
potted in this way is placed outside of the pot, leaning over 
the edge of the oblong opening, its roots within in the ordinary 
way, among sand, grit, stones, etc. Thus water cannot lie 
about the necks of the plants to their destruction. This method, 
which I first saw in use in M. Boissier's garden, near Lausanne r 
is a good one for fragile plants. The pots used there were 
taller proportionately than th6se we commonly use, so that 
there was plenty of room for the roots after the rather deep 
cutting had been made in the side of the pot. 

An even better mode is that of raising the collar of the 
plant somewhat above the level of the earth in the ordinary 
pot by means of half-buried stones. 

In this way we not only raise the collar of the plant so that 
it is less liable to suffer from moisture, but, by preventing 



Bed of small Alpine Plants in pots plunged in sand. 

evaporation, preserve conditions congenial to alpine plants, and 
keep the roots firm in the ground; the small plants looking 
more at home springing from tiny rocks. It should, however, 
be understood that such attention is required only for the 
rarer of the higher alpine plants. 

No matter in what way these plants may be grown in 

gardens, it is often well 
to keep the duplicates 
and young stock in 
small pots plunged in 
sand or fine coal-ashes, 
so that they may be 
easily removed at any 
time. The best way 
of doing this is shown 
in the wood-cut, which 
represents a four-foot 
bed in which young 
alpine plants are plunged in sand, the bed being edged with half- 
buried bricks. In bottoms of beds of this kind there should be 
half a dozen inches of coal-ashes, so as to prevent worms getting 
into the pots. Sand, or grit, or fine gravel, from its cleanliness and 
the ease with which the plants may be plunged in it, is to be pre- 
ferred, but finely sifted coal-ashes will do if sand be not at hand. 
Such beds should always be in an open situation, near to a 
good supply of water, and, if several are made, should be 
separated by gravelled alleys of about 2 feet wide. The 
watering is important, and in a large collection it should be 
laid on. This certainly is the most convenient and economical 
way. Over some of the beds in Mr Backhouse's Nursery at 
York, may be seen an ingenious way of giving a constant supply 
of water to Primulas, Gentians, and 
other plants. Two perforated half -inch 
copper pipes are laid just above the 
plants in the beds, as shown in the cut. 
Bed kept saturated by perforated j^^ the perforations in every 2 

feet or so of the pipe, drops continually trickle down in summer, 


saturating the beds of sand, and the porous pots and their 
contents. In winter or very wet weather the water can be 
readily turned off. 


Although we do not connect annuals much with the alpine 
flora of Europe, yet in other mountainous countries, as in 
Mexico and California, annuals are less rare, and they need 
not be entirely omitted from our view even in the rock- 
garden, and some interesting rock plants are biennial or 
annual, like the little Sun Eose of the Channel Islands. 
Apart from the value of such plants, we have often to face 
bare spaces in the rock-garden, owing to clearances, deaths, 
or other causes, and it is not always easy to get perennial 
rock plants enough to cover them as they ought to be covered. 
The plan of dots of green on bare earth is one which it will 
take a long time to eradicate from the gardening mind, but 
those who care to fight against it may find annuals help us 
much in covering freely open spaces, until such times as we can 
afford to get plants of a more permanent character. 

A choice must be made of the most elegant and dwarf 
kinds, and these that, by their stature or other characteristics, 
are fitted for the rock-garden. 

Where there are plenty of means, these plants may be 
raised in the elaborate ways usually recommended in books, 
but those are not at all necessary. Eaising them in the ground 
work, where we want them, is so simple that a child could do it. 
Choosing the last week in April or first week in May in cool 
districts, we have only to provide ourselves with the seeds 
in packets, and to make level and rake over the different sur- 
faces which we want to cover, and sow the seed broadcast over 
all the surface destined for each group. Cover the soil lightly, 
putting a mere sprinkling over the fine seeds. It will be found 
that in that way the choicer annual flowers will come very well, 
and be a useful aid, until our stock of the perennial alpine 
plants are ready. 





We must be very careful in this case 
or very vigorous ones, however good ; 
colours of more popular than refined 
large genera being named below, as 
dwarfer annual kinds that are meant, 
as elsewhere, having its own sway. 































to avoid coarse plants, 
also, and particularly, 
quality. In cases of 
Campanula, it is the 
individual taste here, 
















The difficulty of getting plants in sufficient numbers to give 
us broad effects has to be faced, and there is no royal route 
to avoid it no one way of getting all we seek. We must 
get our plants where we can, and in various ways, not trusting 
wholly to Nurserymen, who rarely offer the plants liberally 
by the dozen or hundred, so as to allow of effective grouping. 
And it is not only this that often stops us, but the fact that 
even easily raised plants are often sent out in such a feeble 
state, that they are useless to clothe our miniature mountain. 
So it will often be wise to raise kinds from seed ; as in that 
way we get numbers to carpet our fairy fields; the greater 
vigour of the seedling plant, and the chances of novelty or 
variety that seedlings sometimes gives us. Moreover, there 


is some reason to believe that plants we often fail with in 
cultivation, as some of the beautiful wild Columbines, are not 
truly perennial, but in their native countries renewed from seed. 
And, apart from the seeds offered in seed-lists, travellers may 
often gather the seeds of alpine plants, and send them easily 
by post often where it would be difficult or impossible to 
send living plants. So that all who have rock-gardens to 
clothe with good plants, must not forget the seed-bed. 


Many alpine plants may be raised from seed, and in every 
place where there is a good collection, it is well to sow the 
seeds of as many rare or new kinds as are worth raising. A 
good deal will depend on the appliances of the garden as to 
the precise way in which they are to be raised ; but whether 
there be greenhouses on the premises or not even a glass hand- 
light, alpine plants and choice perennials may be raised there 
in abundance. Supposing we are supplied with a good selec- 
tion of seeds in early spring, and have room to spare in frames 
and pits, some time might be gained by sowing in pans or pots, 
and by placing them in those frames, or by making a very 
gentle hotbed in a frame or pit, covering it with 4 inches 
or so of very light earth, and sowing the seeds on that. If 
this mode be adopted, they may be sown in March ; and, thus 
treated, many will flower the first year. 

In gardens without any glass, they may be raised in the 
open air. The best time to sow is in April, choosing mild 
open weather, when the ground is more likely to be in the 
rather dry and friable condition so desirable for seed-sowing. 
But it should be borne in mind that they may be sown at 
any convenient time from April till August, as it is not till 
the year after they are sown that they display their full beauty, 
or perhaps flower at all; and, therefore, should a packet or 
more of choice seed come to hand during the summer months, 
it is always better to sow it at once than to keep it till the 


following spring, as thereby nearly a whole season is lost. 
Those who already possess a collection of good hardy flowers 
may find a choice perennial say, for instance, an evergreen 
Iberis, a Campanula or a Delphinium ripening a crop of seed 
in May, June, or July. Well, suppose we want to propagate 
and make the most of it, the true way is to sow it at once, 
instead of keeping it over the winter, as is usually done. By 
winter, the seedlings will be strong enough to take care of 
themselves, and be ready to plant out for flowering wherever it 
may be desired to place them. 

As to the immediate subject of raising them in spring, we 
will suppose the seeds provided, and the month of April to 
have arrived. If not already done, a border or bed should be 
prepared for them in an open but sheltered and warm position, 
and where the soil is light and fine. It would be as well to 
prepare and devote two or three, or more, little beds to this 
purpose of raising rock plants and hardy flowers. They would 
form a most useful nursery reserve ground, from which plants 
could be taken at any time to fill up vacancies, to exchange 
with those having collections, or to give away to friends ; for 
assuredly it is one of the pleasures of gardening, to be able to 
share with friends who admire one of our " good things " ; and 
by raising them from seed we can be more liberal. If the 
ground happen not to be naturally fine, light, and open, make it 
so by adding plenty of sand and leaf-mould, and then surface 
it with a few inches of fine soil from the compost-yard or 
potting-shed. The sifted refuse of the potting-bench will do 
well. Then level the beds, and form little shallow drills in 
them for the reception of the- seed. Let the beds be about 4 
feet wide, with a little footway or alley between each about 
15 inches wide, and let them run from the back to the 
front of the border, not along it. Make the little drills across 
the beds, and, instead of making these drills with a hoe or 
anything of the kind, simply take a rake handle, a measuring 
rod, or any rod perfectly straight that happens to be at hand, 
and, laying it across the little bed, press it gently down till 
it leaves a smooth impression about 1 inch deep. Do this 


at intervals of about 6 inches, and then the little nursery 
bed is ready for the seed. From these smooth and level drills 
the seeds will spring up evenly and regularly. 

Before opening the seed packets, it is necessary to have 
clearly written wooden labels at hand on which to write the 
name of each species, so that there may be no confusion when 
the plants come up. These labels should be about 8 or 9 
inches long, and an inch wide, and the name should be written 
as near the upper end as possible, so that it may not be soon 
obliterated by contact with the moist earth. Now, this label- 
ling process is usually done at the time of sowing the seeds, but 
a speedier and better way is to lay out all the seeds on a table 
some wet day, when out-of-door work cannot be done, and there 
and then arrange them in the order of sowing. Write a label 
for each kind, tie the packet of seeds up with a piece of bast, 
and then, when a fine day arrives for sowing them, it can be 
done in a very short time. In sowing, put in at the end of the 
first little drill the label of the kind to be sown first, then sow 
the seed, inserting the label for the following kind at the spot 
to which the seed of the first has reached, and so on. Thus 
there can be no doubt as to the name of a species when the 
same plan is pursued throughout. Near at hand, during the 
sowing, should be placed a barrow of finely-sifted earth ; with 
this the seeds should be covered according to size, and then 
watered from a very fine rose. Minute seed, like that of 
Campanula, will require but a mere dust of the sifted earth to 
cover it. 

Once sown, the rest may be left to Nature, save the keeping 
down of weeds, the seeds of which abound in the earth in all 
places, and will be sure to come up among the young plants. 
But these being in drills, we can easily tell the plant from the 
weed, and nothing is required but a persevering weeding. In 
these little beds the finest rock plants will come up beautifully, 
and may be left exactly where sown till the time arrives for 
transplanting them. This is a better way than sowing in pots, 
where they are liable to vicissitude, and from which they 
require to be " potted off." Of course, in the case of a very 


rare kind, the seedlings might be thinned a little, and the 
thinnings dibbled into a nursery bed, but, by sowing rather 
thinly, the plants will be quite at home where first sown till 
the time arrives for planting them out finally. 

I am convinced that in finely pulverised earth, with, if con- 
venient, an inch or so of cocoa-fibre and sand between the drills 
to prevent the ground getting hard and dry, much better results 
will be obtained than by sowing in pots. In the open air they 
come up much more vigorously, and never suffer from trans- 
plantation or change of temperature afterwards. 


Nevertheless, as few will venture the very finest and rarest 
kinds of seed in the open air, how to treat them in frames is 
of some importance, and the following notes on this matter are 
by the late Mr Niven, of the Hull Botanic Garden, in the 
Gardener's Chronicle. 

"Presuming that the selection of the seeds is made, and 
that the seeds themselves are in the hands of the purchaser, 
sowing should take place as early as may be in March. First 
of all, the requisite number of 5- or 6-inch pots should be 
obtained, so that each seed-packet can have a separate pot for 
itself. Some nice light soil, mixed with a fair amount of sand 
and leaf -mould, should be prepared, and passed through a coarse 
sieve, keeping a sharp eye after worms, and at once removing 
them ; the rough part which remains in the sieve should be 
placed above the drainage in the bottom of the pots to the 
extent of two-thirds of the depth, filling the remaining third 
with the fine soil ; the whole should then be well pressed 
down, so that the surface for the reception of the seeds may 
be half an inch below the brim of the pot, and tolerably even. 
Each packet of seed should then be sown, and covered with a 
sprinkling of fine soil, which should be pressed down by means 
of a flat piece of wood, or, what will be perhaps more readily 
available, by the bottom of a flower-pot. 

" The best guide as to the thickness of covering required is 


to arrange so that no seeds shall be seen on the surface after 
the operation. If the seeds are minute, a very small quantity 
will be required to attain this end ; if they are large, more will 
be requisite. This completed, and each pot duly labelled with 
the name of the plant and height of growth, the pots should 
then be placed in a cold frame tolerably near the glass, taking 
care that each pot is set level or as nearly so as practicable. 

" In preparing the frame for their reception, it is desir- 
able to have a good thickness of lime-rubbish in the bottom, 
say from 9 to 12 inches deep, as a protection against 

" Many seeds come up a long time after others ; in fact, 
seed-pots are often thrown away in the supposition that the 
seeds are dead, when they are perfectly sound ; and some will 
come up a year or so after being sown. All that is necessary 
with the seeds that do not come up during the spring is to 
give them occasional watering, and to guard against the growth 
of the Marchantia. This is frequently a great pest in damp 
localities, and is only to be kept in check by carefully removing 
it on its first appearance, for if allowed to make too much head- 
way, any attempt at removal carries away the surface soil, and 
with it the seeds. In the month of October each pot should 
be surfaced with a sprinkling of fine soil, well pressed down ; 
in fact, the process before described after sowing should be 
repeated. The pots may remain in the frame till the spring, 
nor should they be despaired of altogether till May or June, 
or in some instances later. 

" To those who may not have the advantage of a cold frame 
to carry out the foregoing instructions, I would still recommend 
the use of flower-pots rather than sowing in the open ground ; 
but under these circumstances I would say sow one month 
later ; place the pots in a warm sunny corner, and arrange some 
simple contrivance so that you can shade with mats during hot 
sunshine, and also cover up at night, in order to keep off heavy 
rains ; the same care in watering should be observed, and the 
same watchful eye after snails, wood-lice, and other depredators, 
should be maintained. 


" So much for the seeds in their seed-pots. Now a word or 
two as to the treatment of the plants afterwards. My practice 
is to pot off, as soon as they are sufficiently strong to handle, 
as many as are required, in 3- or 4-inch pots, say three 
in each pot. In these they will grow well during the summer, 
and become thoroughly rooted, ready for consigning to their 
final habitat, be it rock-garden or border, in the early part 
of spring, after the borders have been roughly raked over; 
thus giving them ample time to establish themselves before 
autumn arrives, and their enemy, the spade, is likely to come 
in their way. Failing a supply of pots sufficient for all, some 
of the stronger-growing ones may be planted in a sheltered bed 
of light soil, care being taken to shade them for a few days 
after being planted ; or a few old boxes, 5 or 6 inches deep, 
may be used with even greater advantage for the same purpose, 
as they may readily be moved from the shady side of a wall 
to a more sunny locality after they have sufficiently recovered 
the process of transplanting ; and, finally, they may receive the 
shelter of a cold frame as soon as winter sets in. This recom- 
mendation must not be considered as indicative of their inability 
to stand the cold weather, but as a preventive of the mechanical 
action of frost, which, in some soils especially, is apt to loosen 
their root-hold, and force the young plants, roots and all, to the 

" In the case of the smaller-growing alpines, such as the 
Drabas, Arabises, etc., I generally find that they stand the first 
winter best in pots of the smallest size, and in this form they 
may be the more readily inserted in interstices of rocks, where 
they will permanently establish themselves." 


The notion that alpine plants want shade arises from the 
fact that those placed in the shade do not perish so soon 
from drought as those in the sun. The reason that alpine plants 
perish so soon on bare flower-borders, the surface of which may 


be saturated with rain one day and be as dry as snuff the next, 
at least to the depths to which the roots of a small or young- 
alpine plant would penetrate, is therefore easily accounted for. 
Matted through a soft carpet of short grass in their native hills, 
or rooted deeply between stones, they can stand many degrees 
more heat than they ever endure in this country. As a rule, 
it is difficult to water them too freely if the drainage be good, 
which of course it will be in a well-formed rock-garden. To 
have the water laid on and applied thoroughly with a fine hose, 
is the best plan in districts not naturally moist. Some lay 
small copper pipes through the masses and to the highest points 
of the rock, allowing the water to gently trickle from these, 
but, except in special cases, the plan is not so good as the 
hose. Whatever way be adopted, the rule should be : Never 
water unless you saturate the soil, say with from 1J to 
2 inches deep of water over the whole surface. As a rule, 
pretentious, wall-like, erect masses of "rock- work" require 
half a dozen times as much water as those made with plenty 
of soil, so arranged that it is easily saturated by the rains. 
Indeed, nothing but ceaseless watering could preserve plants 
in a healthy state on the "rock-work" commonly made. As 
regards the time of watering, it is a matter of very little im- 
portance, though, for convenience' sake, it is better not done in 
the heat of the day. 


There is a mischievous way of planting almost every kind 
of small plant, which is particularly injurious in the case of 
the hardy orchids (whose roots are easily injured), and of all 
rare alpine plants. I refer to the practice of making a hole 
for the plant, and, after a little soil has been shaken over the roots, 
pressing heavily with the fingers over the roots and near the 
neck of the plant. What is meant will be understood from 
fig. 2, if the reader assumes that there is a little soil between 
the fingers and the roots. Where the roots are not all broken 
off in this way, many of them are mutilated, and often plants 


perish from this cause. The right way, after preparing the 
ground, is to make it firm and level, and then make a little 
cut or trench. The side of this trench should be firm and 

1. Right. 2. Wrong. 

smooth, and the plant placed against it, the roots spread out, 
and the neck of the plant set just at the proper level, as in 
fig. 1. Then the fine earth of the little trench is to be thrown 
against the roots, and as much side pressure applied as may be 
necessary to make the whole quite firm. In this way not a 
fibre of the most fragile plant need be injured. 


It is essential to keep clear of the UGLY, unhappily strewn 
too freely about the garden world. In man's attempt at rock- 
gardeniiig, many hideous things have been made even in public 
gardens, and illustrations of them printed for our guidance in 
books. Even now, in the public gardens of London, the most 
hideous and wasteful things are done in the shape of ignoble 
masses of spoiled brick, as in Waterlow and Dulwich Parks. 
It is brickyard waste, valueless for any purpose save a bottom 
for roads, and its use in public gardens is hardly to be explained, 
except as jobbery or gross ignorance. The mere cost of carting 
it to Dulwich Park, if rightly applied, might have given us a 
true rock-garden, formed of some of the natural sandstone, found 
south of London, that might have been a lesson in beauty. We 
have not only to avoid these brutalities in material because of 
their ugliness, or of their bad effect on our plants, but because 
every cobbler who rushes from his last to write a book on 
garden design will assume that the ugly way is the only way, 
and so do his little best against truth and beauty. 





In the selection of a few illustrations showing with what 
deplorable results rock work is generally made, my first inten- 
tion was to have had them all engraved from drawings taken 
in various gardens, public and private ; but as this course might 
have proved an invidious one, I have preferred to take most of 
them from our best books on Horticulture the works of 
authorities like Loudon, Macintosh, and others, and that, if 
such ridiculous objects occur in 
books of repute, they must be yet 
more absurd in many gardens. 

The first example is copied 
from the frontispiece of a small 
book on alpine plants, published 
not many years ago. Growing 
naturally on the high mountains, 
unveiled from the sun by wood or 
copse, alpine plants are grouped 
here beneath a weeping tree a 
position in which they could not 
attain anything like their native 
vigour, or do otherwise than lead 
a sickly existence. 

One form which " rockwork " is made to assume is that of 
a rustic arch ; and the following illustration, from Loudon, 
is less hideous than many that may be 
seen about London. Frequently they 
are formed of spoiled clinkers, but even 
if composed of good stone, they are 
useless for the growth of plants. How 
many rock Pinks or Primroses would 
find a home on such a structure, set 
in a part of the Alps favourable to 
vegetation? Probably not one, and what to Avoid, 

should a few establish themselves on Rustic Arch (after London). 

What to Avoid. 
Frontispiece of a book on Alpine Plants 



its lower flanks, they would in all probability perish from heat 
and drought if their roots had not a free course to the earth 
beneath. Even persons with some experience of plant life 
may be seen sticking plants over such objects as these, as if 
they were bits of metal, able to bear as many vicissitudes. The 
fact that plants push their roots far into old walls is no justifica- 
tion for the rustic arch as a home for alpine flowers. If the 
cement, burrs, and clinkers permitted them even to enter it, 
they have nothing of any kind into which to descend. There 
is rarely an excuse for constructing such arches ; where they 
occur, they should be clothed with Ivy or other vigorous 

The sketch, made at Hammersmith, shows something of the 
harsh, bare, and unnatural effect of structures of this sort. 

What to Avoid. 
Rockwork in Villa at Hammersmith. 

The next scene is one in which a miniature representation 
of various mountains is attempted. Efforts of this kind usually 
end in the ridiculous. Let us succeed 
with a few square yards of stony 
mountain turf and flowers before we 
attempt to build the mountains. 

The next illustration shows a rock- 
work and fountain in what we may 
call the true mixed style huge shells, 
" cascades," and " rockwork." How 
any such object can be conceived to 
be in any sense ornamental is not 

What to Avoid. 


easily explained, but it has been taken from a work of 

Mrs Loudon's design, while not so repulsive as some of the 

What to Avoid. 

What to Avoid. Rockwork (after Mrs Loudon). 

Fountain and Rockwork. 
(after Loudon). 

others, shows in its elevated nodding head the tendency to 
make such arrangements useless by raising them too high, 
and by so placing the stones that the rain cannot nourish 
the plants. Like the arches, such structures as this should 
in all cases be covered with Ivy, or some kindly veil of 
vegetation, or broken up to make the bottom of a road 
or path. It should be noted that when rocks or stones are 
properly placed in the rock-garden, they do not require any 
cementing, but are surrounded by and placed on moist stony 
earth or grit, inviting to every fibre of the root that descends. 
From this we may deduce the rule Eockwork consisting of 
stones cemented together is bad in all respects. 

A " rockery " is occasionally seen bordering drives, often 
with large stones arranged in porcupine-quill fashion, and 
showing a dentate ridge of rocks springing up close from each 
side of the drive for a considerable length near the entrance 
gate a style dangerous for coachmen on dark nights. Such a 
position is the last that should be chosen for the rock-garden. 
Without alluding to even half the varieties of the ridiculous 
rockwork tribe, I have the pleasure of here presenting a plan 
of some recently constructed on the margin of a stream in 
a great London park. It shows exactly what not to do with 
any rocks introduced near the margin of water. So far from 
these illustrating exaggerated or extreme instances, I should 





have no difficulty in finding many, even uglier and more unsuit- 
able, in a few hours' walk near London. That such blemishes 
are not confined to obscure places, where the light of modern 

What to Avoid. 
Ground-plan of " Rockworks " recently made in a London Park. 

progress in these matters has not yet shone, is evident, as one 
of the most absurd was sketched in one of our greatest parks, 
and another in one of the most popular of London public 

No public garden should show anything in the way of rock 
or alpine garden that is ugly or useless for its purpose. And 

,T~--v<~*-' V ?>l v ,_ r .-'-N-~v 
\nrfi~*- ^^5V** ' 

~: fc 4 - 1 ^ x " 

s v:' ; ^i 

-.,.. . i..). ^o\ 

What to Avoid. 
Sketched at Kew in 1872. 

this rule should particularly apply to botanic gardens. Better 
far content ourselves with the good effects which we can get 
from trees and shrubs, and flowers on the level ground, than add 
to the hideous piles of rubbish that go by the name of " rock- 
work " all over the country. And where these excrescences do 
occur in public gardens, the right thing to do is to convey the 
offensive pile to the rubbish-yard some time when the ground is 
hard in winter. 

Lastly, among the illustrations of how not to do it, is the 


rockwork figured on this page, which occurred in the Botanic 
Gardens, Eegent's Park. 

What to Avoid. 
Sketched in the Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park, ]872. 

What a check to progress in this direction are such " rock- 
works " as these ! And yet there is no way in which our public 
gardens would do more good than by growing well, in the open 
air, the numerous brilliant flowers of the mountains of our own 
and other cold and temperate regions. 


When rockwork has to be erected in a garden, it may be 
found that success will be attained in the proportion in which 
some broad principles, based on a study of Nature's own work, 
have been followed. 

Every lover of Nature must have envied her power of 
adorning rough stony nooks by means of a few of the commonest 
plants ; a fern or two and a little moss convert a few weather- 
beaten rocks into objects of beauty. And success is attainable 
in almost every case, if sufficient attention be only paid to the 
rules, which, it will be seen, are as sacred to the physical agents 
which model our scenery as they ought to be to every gardener. 
It is a trite observation to say that what pleases us in Nature is 
the perfect fitness of things which pervades all her belongings. 
The most rugged, abrupt, and even grotesque rock masses, when 
untouched by man, never repel us by a sense of incongruity ; 




they may be pleasing or awful, as the case may be, but they do 
not strike us as being out of place. Who, on the other hand, has 
not seen a lovely view marred by some unintelligent human 
hand, whether its work took the form of a quarry, a statue, or 
a vase ? A secret of the difference lies in the words weather- 
beaten : rain, the chief rock-sculptor, working uniformly, slowly 
and gently, leaves to each stone which it is fashioning its proper 
character, models it according to its peculiarities of composition 
and structure in short, uses it fitly ; while men, with the most 

Granite tor. 

artistic pretensions, and armed with ruthless tools, too often 
misuse their materials. 

The first great rule which it behoves constructors of rock- 
gardens to look to is one easily followed but constantly broken 
it is that the work should be characteristic of the part of the 
country in which it stands. That is to say, use chalk at 
Brighton and sandstone at Tunbridge, granite on Dartmoor, and 
trap near Edinburgh ; but the experience of every one must 
include cases in which this is ignored. Some artists have even 
carried their Philistinism in this respect so far, that the more 
they have succeeded in giving to their rockwork the appearance 
of a miscellaneous collection of mineralogical specimens from all 


parts of the world, the better they have been pleased. The 
familiar burnt brick of the South of England, and the slag and 
painted coke of the northern coal districts, are better than these. 

It is needless to point out in detail what rocks are suitable 
for alpine gardens in the different parts of Britain ; a walk in 
the country will show the rocks, and a glance at any geological 
map will tell their names. 

The second rule not to be departed from is one not so easy 
to adhere to, but quite as important as the last, viz.: The 
form of your rocks should be that which in Nature is assumed 
by the particular kind of rock of which it is composed. In 
order to appreciate the amount of observation which this rule 
renders necessary, we must consider what are the various 
agencies which together bring about on rocks the result 
which geologists know by the name of " weathering." Nature's 
mode of making her rocks weather-beaten requires such an 
amount of time, that we cannot attempt to imitate her in that 
respect ; but if we cannot use her means, we can copy her 
results. Now, the weathering of a rock depends, before all 
things, on the structure of that rock, on its composition, and on 
the manner in which it is exposed to sun, rain, frost, wind, and 
the atmosphere itself, which are the great weathering and rock- 
carving agents. On many rocks water acts mechanically only ; 
or, to be more accurate, its power of dissolving some rocks, such 
as quartz, is so limited, even when, as is almost always the case, 
it is charged with carbonic acid, that it is inappreciable, and 
may for practical purposes be left out of the reckoning. On a 
great mass of quartzite rock, for instance, the effect of rain 
would be of this kind. It could scarcely dissolve any of it 
away ; but it would insinuate itself into every crevice and 
fissure and crack with which such hard rocks abound near the 
surface, and thence, by the help of frost, it blasts to shivers, 
winter after winter, layer after layer of this tough rock, just in 
the same manner as it bursts the water-pipes of our houses. By 
observation it is found that every rock affects a more or less 
peculiar kind of fracture; so that in bursting splinters from 
them, as has just been shown, the lines of fissure are not 


arbitrary and accidental. They, like everything else in Nature, 
form part of a plan. Hence a particular class of form is the 
result for each rock of this purely mechanical action of the 
weathering agent. In the case of quartzite, for instance, the 
fracture is " conchoidal," or shell-shaped, concave and wavy; 
this, on a large scale, gives rise to peaks with somewhat hollow 
sides and ridged with sharp serrated edges. 

This may serve as an example of simple weathering on a 
homogeneous, hard, and practically insoluble rock. Let us see 
what takes place with more complex rocks, of which granite 
may serve as a representative. This rock is made up essentially 
of three minerals quartz, felspar, and mica in various propor- 
tions. Now here the water with its carbonic acid will act not 
only mechanically, as in the case of quartzite, but as a powerful 
solvent and disintegrator. The fissures in granite are large and 
continuous, taking the form of immense joints, which cross and 
recross each other, often, but not always, in a regular manner ; 
but besides these larger lines of weakness, which affect the 
whole rock, there are those minute lines which separate the 
constituent minerals from one another. Into all these the 
water trickles, decomposing the granite k along the joints and 
cracks, "widening them, and rounding off the angles of their 
intersections, and ultimately only the harder masses, or the 
hearts of the blocks defined by the joints, remain as solid 
crystalline granite ; some though little of the quartz is dis- 
solved away by the water ; the iron," which is usually present 
in small quantities in granite, " becomes oxidized and weakens 
the rock ; but it is chiefly the felspar that is decomposed by the 
action of carbonic acid, its alkalies are removed, and its residue 
is washed away in the form of fine china clay. . . . The quartz 
crystals remain as sand ; the mica remains, but is less observ- 
able, and is partially decomposed." (Professor Eupert Jones.) 
It is by processes such as that described, that the many fantastic 
shapes assumed by granite rocks have been arrived at, whether 
they be those of the curious balanced "Logging" stones of 
Cornwall or Brittany, the bare rounded tors of Devon, or the 
grey sterile mountain-tops of Aberdeenshire. All felspathic 




rocks of eruptive origin, such as porphyries, are moulded into 
the shapes which they now exhibit in the same way as granite, 
and such also is the case with those sedimentary rocks which 
consist to a considerable extent of felspar, such as many of our 
gritstones. In these, however, a great uniformity of weathering 
is caused by the regular lines of bedding which take the place 
of the horizontal joints of the former class of rocks. The 
vertical joints are similar in both. In igneous rocks, such as 


basalt and greenstone, the jointing and fissuring is often of such 
a kind as to give rise to very striking effects, very various in 
their appearance, though probably closely allied in their origin. 
Thus, from the simple dark brown, or black, trap, without 
apparent structure, forming shapeless masses of a rounded, 
somewhat unpicturesque, outline, there is but one step to the 
bold semi-columnar escarpments of trap, which are so con- 
spicuous in Northumberland and in many parts of Scotland ; 
from these to the wonderful assemblages of rigid geometrical 
pillars of Staffa and the Giant's Causeway, with all their 
suggestiveness to rock-builders, the transition is shorter still ; 
whilst in many parts of the three countries, we have examples 
of trap weathering into a mass of many-coated spheres of every 


size, decomposing layer by layer, with only a small core of the 
untouched rock in the centre of each ball. It is a noteworthy 
fact that basalt in this spheroidal condition weathers and 
decomposes much more rapidly than it does in the prismatic 
or columnar state. Eocks such as those we have been consider- 
ing (with the exception of the grits and quartzite) have all 
been thrown up in a molten or pasty condition, which precluded 
their being subject to many of the rules which water-deposited 
rocks are bound by. Their structure is in a great measure the 
result of cooling ; and although they frequently have a bedded 
appearance, they are not under the rigid sway of dip and strike,, 
which in other rocks is all-powerful in producing, or rather in 
preparing, the structure of a country. Indeed, in the great 
majority of cases, it is the advent of the eruptive rocks which 
has given the sedimentary deposits their present positions, or 
what is technically called their "lie." Few of the latter,, 
whether sandstones, limestones, shales, clays, or sands, are 
now lying in the horizontal positions in which they were formed, 
especially in much-disturbed and dislocated Britain. Great 
geological operations have taken place since then, and have 
squeezed, tilted up, and broken these beds of rock into every 
shape. And it will be obvious to all that had it not been for 
these great changes, the edges of these rocks could never have 
been brought under the influence of rivers and glaciers to carve 
them on the large scale into hill and dale, and of rain more 
delicately to "weather" and ornament them. It is therefore 
very necessary to observe the dip, or general mode of lying 
of the beds of any district which it is desired to make use of for 
rockwork purposes. The writer has seen a large rock-garden in 
the north of England which was laid out with great care and 
at vast expense, which is spoilt by one apparently small but 
fatal oversight the dip of the beautifully arranged rockery- 
blocks is westerly and strongly-marked, while the dip of the 
real " live " rock immediately beneath is due east. Now this 
seems a small thing to find fault with ; and it is true that an 
uneducated eye might be well pleased, in ignorance of the defect. 
But consider that this easterly dip in that part of the country is 




the raison d'etre of the shape of the hills and valleys which 
make its beauty ; without it the fine slope on which this garden 
stands would not be in existence the entire district would be 
altered, to say nothing of the fact that, were it not for this dip r 
and the vast industries which it fosters, the wealth which built 
the rock-garden would have been elsewhere. " Follow Nature 
in all things," is the only safe motto for the landscape gardener. 
It would be tedious and perhaps not very useful to enumerate 

Old Bed Sandstone. 

the different kinds of water-bedded rock which can in Britain 
be used for rock-gardens. A glance at the chief members will 

Of the grits we have already spoken, and their mode of 
weathering is that of the entire class of sandstones, coarse and 
fine-grained, massive and flaggy. With regard to the latter, it 


may be allowable to point out, for special reprobation, a mode 
of rock-building which seems to be gaining favour in many 
districts. It consists in placing a number of broken flagstones 
on end, and in every position relatively to one another ; the result 
is peculiarly hideous, and resembles no possible combination of 
Nature's art, since the flags, at whatever angle they may be 
dipping, must be always parallel among themselves, except in 
the case of the arrangement known as " false bedding," which is 
one not likely to be successfully imitated. Sandstones are, as 
a rule, peculiarly adapted for rock-gardens by the forms they 
assume on weathering, by their great frequency, and by the 
great variety of their colours. From dark brown to bright 
red, from red to yellow, from yellow to white, thence through 
every tint of grey to blue and purple, the choice of colouring 
is great indeed in these rocks. They are found everywhere 
as hard grits in the old Silurian and Cambrian districts, as great 
rugged crags throughout the Carboniferous regions, forming the 
well-known Old Ked and New Eed sandstones, more sparsely 
distributed among the Oolites, but forming occasional bands of 
striking character among the sands and clays of the Wealden 
(witness the "Greys" of the Lover's Seat and other marked 
natural rocks in the neighbourhood of Hastings and Tunbridge 
Wells), and in the much more recent tertiaries appearing 
occasionally, as in the sand of Brussels, as lines of grotesque 
fistulous masses running through incoherent sand, very much 
as flints lie in our Upper chalk. 

Many sandstones and grits pass gradually into more or less 
coarse conglomerates, that is to say, rocks formed of rolled 
pebbles and blocks of stones derived from other pre-existing 
formations. Of such conglomerates there are many examples in 
Britain, and they are often very suitable for rockwork, owing 
to the uneven weathered surface which is the result of the 
different sizes of the pebbles, and occasionally of their different 
hardness, and which causes them to be dislodged unequally. 
The Permian conglomerates, in many places of Central England, 
-are great additions to the natural beauty of the scenery, and 
should be taken advantage of for the formation of rock-gardens. 

Stybarrow Crag, Ullswater. 



Under the name of limestone must be included a very large 
number of rocks different in texture, hardness, and general 
aspect, but having this in common that they are chiefly com- 
posed of carbonate of lime. The result of this composition is 
that more than any other rocks they are liable to the solvent, 
as distinguished from the disintegrating, action of water charged, 
as rain- water always is to some extent, with carbonic acid. 
This action we see displayed on a large scale in the great 
stalactite-lined caverns in the Carboniferous limestone of the 
North of England, or in the sand-pipes running deep into the 
chalk of the South country. On a smaller scale, the effects of 
this dissolving power are marked on every exposed face of 
limestone of every age, and help to make them everywhere 
worthy of the attention of the rock-gardener. In some 
instances thin beds of hard limestone are weathered into a 
curious honeycombed state, the exposed parts being of a 
lighter colour than the inner stone ; in others the faces of the 
beds present the appearance of a clumsy balustrade of the 
Louis XIV. style, the interstices having been gradually eaten 
away by the water running down the original lines of upright 
joints. Sometimes the most peculiar forms are assumed in 
this manner by limestones, and each kind has its own special 
characteristic shape, to be known only by constant observation ; 
but perhaps no rock equals the great Magnesian limestone of 
Durham in the eccentricity or in the multiplicity of its dis- 
guises. This limestone is of a yellowish colour, and its struc- 
ture is wonderfully diversified, sometimes hard and compact, 
sometimes friable, often concretionary and botryoidal, occurring 
as a mass of radiated concentric spheres of all sizes, generally 
crystalline, often as a distinct breccia or agglomeration of 
angular fragments held together by a cement of similar 
material. A walk along the coast of Durham, from South 
Shields to Roker, will show to what vagaries of weathering and 
denudation this extraordinary variety of conformation has given 


rise. The high cliffs are in places worn into deep caves, in 
others slender pillars of rough rock have been separated from 
the main mass, and stand solitary on the beach, while larger 
islands of rock stand out at sea, through which arches of every 
size and shape have been excavated. No rock can be better 
suited for rock-gardens if used rightly, and it is moreover 
known that its chemical composition is such as to be very 
beneficial to rock-plants. These magnesian limestones are 
called Dolomites, and it is notable that their fantastic shapes 
are by no means confined to England, since no mountain range 
is so remarkable for abruptness and startling variety of con- 
figuration as that in the Italian Tyrol, known as the Great 
Dolomites. Besides the hard old stony limestones of which 
we have spoken, there are in England a number of other kinds, 
from the oolitic limestones to the chalk, which can occasionally 
serve the landscape gardener's purpose. Their appearance is 
too well known to need description here. In the newer 
geological series there are frequently beds of a light porous 
limestone, very similar in appearance to the sinter which is 
deposited by petrifying springs. In many places this is called 
" ragstone," and it is extremely well adapted for our purpose ; 
their distribution is, however, very local in Britain, so that, 
according to our theory as to aesthetics of rock-gardens, they 
cannot be very widely used. Abroad, in Tertiary districts, they 
are far more common, especially on the shores of the 
Mediterranean, both on the European and on the African 


These may, for the purposes of rock-building, be considered 
together; the former being simply the hardened and altered 
form of the latter. Their weathered appearance, where exposed, 
varies very much with the angle of their dip and with the 
degree of crystallisation to which they have attained. Some 
schists are quite as crystalline as granite, and they then weather 
in the same manner, with this proviso, that the lines of folia- 


tion, or lamination, direct the operation. Where such beds 
are highly inclined, as on the south-west coast or in Brittany, 
a curious appearance is often seen, which may be called the 
" Artichoke form," as it exactly resembles the mode of arrange- 
ment of the Artichoke leaves. At lower inclinations, schists 
and the harder shales do not form striking features ; but, by 
offering slight rocky elevations, above a more or less level 
ground, with distinct " craig and tail shapes," they can be made 
highly effective in rock-gardening where they occur naturally. 
This has been done with the greatest success in the Central 
Park, New York. The softer shales may be dismissed as 
rockery materials, except for the purpose of forming the lower 
of the two beds of rock essential to the construction of a good 
waterfall or of an overhanging crag. While on the subject of 
waterfalls, it may be as well to remind the landscape gardener 
that, with very few exceptions, the rocks forming waterfalls in 
Nature dip up-stream, and this holds good for great and small 
falls alike. The clays and sands need not detain us ; where 
these unrocky materials prevail, the rock-maker is clearly 
entitled to do the best he can to try and imitate the rock- 
masses of more favoured districts. But even then he should 
be bound by what we will call our third rule, which flows 
naturally from our other two, enounced above : " In no case 
should the rock-garden be constructed in a manner contrary to 
the broad geological laws to which all rocks are subject in their 
natural state." 

In this brief survey of a large and interesting subject, it has 
only been intended to suggest some points for the consideration 
of rock-builders, and to show that success in their art, as in 
every other, is to be attained only by careful observation and 
study of Nature's own models. G-. A. LEBOUR, F.G.S. 


" The best image which the world can give of Paradise is in the 
slope of the meadows, orchards, and corn-fields on the sides of a 
great Alp, with its purple rocks and eternal snows above ; this 
excellence not being in any wise a matter referable to feeling or 
individual preferences, but demonstrable by calm enumeration 
of the number of lovely colours on the rocks, the varied group- 
ing of the trees, and quantity of noble incidents in stream, crag, 
or cloud, presented to the eye at any given moment." MusJcin. 

As many lovers of alpine plants have no opportunity of 
seeing them in a wild state, I have thought it well to include 
a few notes of my first short excursion in an alpine country, 
which may serve to give some notion of such regions to those 
who have no better means of knowing anything of it. They 
relate no exciting accounts of attempts to mount any peaks, 
but only deal, in passing, with one of the many texts that may 
be read in the great book of the Alps. 

The first day's work was devoted to the ascent of the Grande 
Saleve, which, though not a great mountain, and with green 
meadows instead of snow at its top, is nearly 5000 feet high, 

and is a way of commencing training for more serious work. 




The limestone chain, to the highest point of which we have to 
walk, is situated a little to the south of Geneva, and has vast 
escarpments looking toward that town, with many alpine 

flowers, and a noble view of the mountains around, of Lake 
Leman, and valleys, hills, and far-off Alps, all aglow with the 
sun of a June morning. A few miles' drive through the 
fragrant, sparkling air brings us from the margin of the lake 
to the foot of the mountain before six o'clock, and then we 
begin the ascent, through the last patches of meadow land, for 
the most part very like English meadow land, but fuller of 
Pinks, Harebells, Sages, and Peaflowers, making the land gay 
with colour. Soon we pass the cultivated land, and enter on 
the hem of an immense belt of hazel and copse wood, with 
numerous little green and bushless carpets of grass here and 
there, which cuts off vine, and corn, and meadow, from the 
slopes of the mountains. Here, at six in the morning, the 
nightingale is singing, while white-headed eagles float aloft, 
now over the lake, and now over plain and hill, sometimes on 
motionless wing, and silently gliding along on the look-out for 
prey. From floating bird in glowing air fragrant with Lily-of- 
the- Valley, the white bells of which may be seen leaning out 


of its leaves at the base of the bushes, to the flower-clad heaps 
of stone, and in every peep which the eye obtains through the 
bush and wood to the villa-dotted margins of the lake, the scene 
is one of beauty and abounding life. 

Some gorges and precipices are reached, every crevice 
having some plant in it, and all the ledges being clothed 
with the greenest grass or bushes, but as yet few of such as 
are generally termed alpine plants are seen. Many of the most 
delicate and minute of these would grow well in such spots, 
but the long grass and low wood would soon overrun them. 
The copse-wood gets a home on the shattered flanks of the 
mountain. Among it we find numbers of beautiful flowers 
that may be termed sub-alpine, and occasionally plants that 
are found of diminutive size near the top of a mountain, are 
here met with larger in size. The plants that occur in such 
places should have an interest for all who love gardens, because 
they flourish under conditions like those of the greater part 
of our islands. Every copse, shrubbery, thin wood, or semi- 
wild spot in pleasure-grounds, throughout the length and 
breadth of the land, may grow scores of these copse-herbaceous 
plants, that now rarely find a home in our gardens. 

That fine rock-plant, Genista sagittalis, in bushy masses 
of yellow flowers, forms the very turf in some spots. Dwarf 
neat bushes of Cytisus sessilifolius become very common ; and 
soon I gather my first wild Cyclamen. The Lily-of-the-Valley 
forms a carpet all under the brushwood. The Martagon Lily 
shoots up here and there among the common Orchids and 
Grass, and Hawthorn Bush is in flower here later than on the 
plain. The Laburnum is mostly past ; but on high precipices 
we see it in flower. The great yellow Gentian begins to be 
plentiful, and Glolularia cordifolia is in dense dwarf sheets 
here and there, showing its latest flowers. Anthericum Liliago 
is very plentiful and pretty ; and we see all this by the side 
of well-beaten paths, from which many flowers have been 
gathered. Trifolium, Dianthus, Anthyllis, and Euphorbia 
struggle for the mastery wherever a little grass has a 
chance to spread out, and every chink in the rocks where 



a little decomposed mould has gathered, supports some 

After a walk of three hours we reach the top, having often 
stopped to admire the varied views. From the bottom the 
visitor might have expected a barren mountain-top, with 
stunted vegetation ; but it is an immense plateau, miles in 
length, and covered with the freshest verdure. The best 
meadows of Britain could not vie with it in these points, 
while the grass is gay with flowers to which they are 
strangers, and here and there young plants of the great 
yellow Gentian, with their large leaves, form the fine-leaved 
plants of the region. Trees there are none ; but occasionally 
the Hazel, Cotoneaster, and other shrubs form a little group 
of mountain shrubs, enclosing some spot, so that the cattle 
that are driven up here in the summer months cannot eat 
down the flowers so easily. The mountain is of limestone, 
but now and then we meet with a great block of solid granite, 
a remembrancer of the days when glaciers from the far-off 
Mont Blanc range stretched to this. In several places there 
is a large expanse of well-worn rock, a level well-denuded 
mass, with cracks in it, in which Ferns grow luxuriantly. The 
surface is indented with roundish hollows, as if great lizards 
had left their impress on it ; these have in the course of ages 
become filled with a few inches of mould from decomposed 
moss, etc., and in them grow Yacciniums, Eockfoils and Stone- 
crops and Ferns, quite as well as if the " most perfect drainage " 
were secured. 

I was very glad to meet with my first silvery Eockfoils in a 
wild state, having long held that these so often kept in pots, even 
in Botanic Gardens, require no such attention, and may be 
grown everywhere in the open air. The plants grew in many 
positions : at the bottom of small narrow chasms ; under the shade 
of the bushes ; in little thimble-holes on the surface of the rocks 
in a tiny and sometimes flaccid condition from the drought ; and 
here and there among short grass and fern, where the gathered 
soil was a little deeper. 

The vernal Gentian is known as the type of much that is 


charming in alpine vegetation : its vivid colour and peerless 
beauty stamp themselves on the mind of the traveller that 
crosses the Alps as deeply as the wastes of snow, the silvery 
waterfalls, or the dark plumy ridges of Pines, though it be but a 
diminutive plant. It is there a little gem of life in the midst 
of death, buried under the deep all-shrouding snow for six or even 
eight months out of the twelve, and blooming during the 
summer days near the margin of the wide glaciers, and within 
the sound of the little snow cataracts that tumble off the high 
Alps in summer. But it is not confined to such awful spots ; it 
descends to the crests of low mountains like this, where the 
sun's heat has power to drive away all the snow in spring, and 
where the snow is quickly replaced with boundless meadows of 
the richest grass, that form a setting for innumerable flowers. 
Among these the " blue Gentian " occurs, and blooms abundantly 
late in spring, while acres of the same kind lie deep and dormant, 
under the cold snow, on the slope of the high neighbouring alp 
for months afterwards. This brilliant Gentian is very plentiful 
in the pastures here, but it is already passed out of flower, and 
the seed vessels, full and strong, are seen among the taller 
herbage. Alpine travellers, botanists, and writers say that this 
lovely plant and its fellows cannot be cultivated, and Dean 
Close echoed this in describing in Good Words his passage 
over the Simplon an idea quite erroneous, as the plant is of 
easy culture, even on the level ground. 

On one side we have the Jura range, and the wide sunny 
valley, cultivated in every spot below the town of Geneva, and, 
between the Jura and our position, the lower part of the Lake of 
Geneva, scarcely fluttered by the breeze, the countless pleasant 
spots along its shores, and issuing from it the blue waters of 
the Ehone. Many green and well-pastured mountains lie 
beyond, with dark clouds of Pinewoods on their sides and 
summits. Others still higher, and with the verdure less visible, 
are behind, and, above all, a great, bony, steep-scarped, dark 
range, stretching all across the view. 

The variety and beauty of the country traversed on descend- 
ing the other side of the Saleve, and the margins of calm celestial- 


looking Lake Leman, with vast ranges of snowy mountains 
beyond its broad expanse, give the traveller a rose-coloured 
impression of the Alps, which forty-eight hours' journey from 
Geneva was quite sufficient to modify in my case. The country 
has every conceivable variety of attractive pastoral scenery, and, 
better still, the human beings in it seem to partake of the felicity 
which appears to be here the lot of all animated nature. Their 
cottages and houses, nestling in nooks in flowery fields, and 
carved out of the abundant wood of the region, snug gardens, 
vine-clad slopes, numerous flocks, and high ridges of mountain- 
lawn, with noble groups of Pines, in vast natural parks, form 
pictures of which the eye never wearies. 


Compared to the shores of the lake I had passed the day 
before, the Saas valley, with its deeply-worn river-bed and vast 
sides of gloomy rock, looked anything but a cheerful pass to the 
Monte Eosa district ; but, fortunately, I had other resources 
than those of the landscape or the sky, and as yet the weather 
permitted of enjoying them, for here were countless tufts of the 
Cobweb Houseleek. It was the first time I had ever met with it 
in a wild state, and cushioned in tufts, over the bare rocks, in the 
spaces between the stones that here and there had been built 
up to support the side of the pathway, and in almost every 
chink there were thousands of it. Although some of the House- 
leeks are among the most singular of dwarf plants, they are the 
succulent plants of the Alps : they are among the hardiest of 
all plants, enduring any weather, and living even in smoky 

Next, an old friend, the Hepatica, came in sight, peeping 
here and there under the brushwood, but rarely in such strong 
tufts as one sees it make in our gardens. In a wild state it has, 
like everything else, to fight for existence, and is none the worse 
for it. To meet this in its wild home would have rewarded 
one for a day's hard walking in these solitudes, and it had many 


interesting companions ; not the least welcome being the Swiss 
Club Moss, which mantled over the rocks in many places, 
pushing up little fruiting stems from its green branchlets. 

The scenery now began to get very bold and striking, and, 
after a walk of nearly two hours, we reached a village with a 
very poor inn, where we had some black bread and wine. By 
this time a slight misty rain had begun to fall, and bearing in 
mind the long valley we had to traverse before reaching a place 
where we could rest for the night, we resolved to move on 
as rapidly as possible, and shut our eyes to all the interesting 

An Alpine Village. 

objects around us. A soaking rain helped us to carry out this 
part of the plan. With rapid pace and eyes fixed on the stony 
footway, on we went, the valley becoming narrower as we pro- 
gressed, and in some parts dangerous from almost perpendicular 
walls of loose stone. Presently a little rough weather-beaten 
wooden cross was passed beside the footway. 

" Why a cross here?" 

" That great stone or rock you see killed, on its way down, 




a man returning with his marketings from the valley," the 
guide replies ! He must have formed but a small obstacle to 
that ponderous mass big as a small cottage which fell from 

its bed and leaped from point 
to point, at last right over the 
torrent-bed, resting on a little 
lawn of rich grass and bright 
flowers on the other side. 

Ten minutes afterwards we 
came to a group of three more 
rough wooden crosses, and 
loosely fixed in the stones at 
its sides. They marked the 
spot where two women arid a 
man had been buried by an 
avalanche. "And how," said 
I, "do you recover people's 
bodies who are thus over- 
whelmed?" "We wait till 
the snow melts in spring, 
and then find and bury them." 
In many places along this 
valley these wooden crosses, 
marking the scene of deaths 

An Alpine Waterfall. from } ike causeS) QCCUrred SO 

thickly as to remind one of a cemetery. 

In the wide valleys and level land about the lakes life 
is as easy as need be ; but where man creeps up to occupy the 
last tufts of verdure that are spread out where the Alps defy 
him with forts of rock and fields of ice and snow, it is very 
hard. Even the procuring of the necessaries of life makes him 
liable to dangers of which in our own country we have no 
experience ; almost every commodity used has to be dragged 
up these valleys on the backs of men or mules from the 
villages and towns in the Ehone valley ; while in their 
dwellings, made of stems of the Pine, and usually placed on 
spots likely to be free from danger from avalanches, they are 
sometimes buried alive. 


Soon the rain began to be mingled with flakes of snow, 
and soon it became a heavy fall; and, as we gradually 
ascended, every surface was covered with it, except that of the 
torrent beneath, which roared away with as much noise as if 
the waters of a world, and not those of one hollow in a great 
range, were being dashed down its picturesque bed sometimes 
cutting its way through walls of solid rock of great depth, at 
others dashing over wastes of worn and huge stones, carried 
down and ground by its action. Often we crossed it on small 
rough bridges of Pinewood, fragile-looking, and heavily laden 
with fresh-fallen snow. The hissing splash of many cascades 
accompanied the tumult of the river-bed many of these born 
of the melting snow and previous heavy rain, the main ones 
much swollen by it, the air full of large flakes of snow, the 
Pines on the white mountain side began to look quite sharp- 
coned from the pressure of its weight. 

We had by this time got into a region abounding with 
flowers, as every one of the caves was lined with the little 
yellow Viola Mflora. Every cranny was golden with its 
flowers. On entering one of these caves, I saw some crimson 
blooms peeping from under the snow about the roof or brow. 
They were those of the first Alpine Rhododendron I had ever 
seen wild. Occasionally, pressed by the snow, the handsome 
flowers of a crimson Pedicularis might be seen ; and in almost 
every place where a little soil was seated on the top of a rock or 
stone, so straight-sided that the snow only rested on the top, 
the beautiful, soft, crimson, white-eyed flowers of Primula viscosa 
were to be seen. It grows in all sorts of positions wherever, 
in fact, decomposed moss forms a little soil. In dry places it is 
smaller than in wet ones, and is usually particularly luxuriant 
on ledges where a gradual or annual addition of moss or soil 
takes place, so that the tendency of the stems to throw out 
rootlets is encouraged. 

Several hours in falling snow, feet saturated with deep 
snow-water, and beginning to chill, notwithstanding the hard 
walking, make Saas, and Saas only, the one object to attain 
To gain it, we pass through one or two small hamlets, the 


inhabitants of which were as much surprised as ourselves at 
the sudden fall of snow early in June, and we reached Saas just 
as night was falling. By this time nearly a foot of snow had 
fallen on the corn, already far advanced in the ear. 

As the country for miles around was covered with a dense 
bed of snow, my hopes of seeing the plants of the high Alps in 
this region were over ; and rather than return by the same long 
and dreary valley, I determined to cross the Alps and descend 
into the sunny valleys of Piedmont, where we should, at all 
events, probably see some traces of vegetable life. 

An Alpine Stream. 

Next day we set out for Mattmark, nearly 9 miles from 
Saas, more than 7,000 feet higher than the sea-level, and above 
the level of the Pine or any exalted vegetation. Only a few 
spots under ledges, etc., were bare, but we found many well- 
known plants, as well as the rare Ranunculus glacialis in full 
beauty, some of the flowers measuring nearly an inch and a half 
across. Near where we found this, a great sea-green arch 
shows the end of a large glacier, apparently a wide and deep 
river of ice beneath a field of snow, except where in places 
it is riven into glass-green crevasses. We have to skirt this 
field of ice to reach Mattmark, where there is a lake, the over- 
flow from which passes right under the glacier. 

Lloydia serotina we met with in great abundance in the 


region of the glacial Eanunculus, and also Androsaces and the 
alpine Forget-me-not. By scraping off the snow here and 
there, we could see the very pretty little Pyrethrum alpinum, 
reminding one of a Daisy with its petals down in bad weather. 
Several not common Eockfoils and a few Geum, Linaria alpina, 
very dwarf, but with the flowers much larger than usual ; 
Gentiana verna, abundant ; a pink Linum, Polygala Chamcebuxus, 
Loiseleuria procumbens, Senecio uniflorm, with deep orange 
flowers, and the most silvery of leaves an inch or so high ; and 
the beautiful JEritricMum nanum, from half an inch to an inch 
high, and with cushions of sky-blue flowers were among those 
not hidden from us by the snow. 

Next morning we were up early to cross the Pass of Monte 
Moro into Italy ; the snow was very deep, and we were the 
first strangers who had crossed during the year. The snow was 
18 inches thick even in the lower parts of our three hours' 
walk, so that it was impossible to gather any plants ; and this was 
unfortunate, as the neighbourhood of the little lake of Mattmark, 
between two glaciers, is said to be very rich in plants. How- 
ever, there was quite enough to do to ascend Monte Moro, with 
its deep coating of snow. Arrived at the cross which marks 
the top, a magnificent prospect bursts upon us the white 
clouds lie in three thin layers along the sides of Monte Eosa, 
but permit us to see its crest, while the great mountains whose 
snowy heads tower around it are here seen in all their beauty. 
On the Swiss side nothing but snow is seen on peak or in 
hollow ; on the Italian, a deep valley has wormed its way 
among the mountain peaks, crested with sun-lit snow and dark 
crags, and guarded by vast ice rivers and unscaleable heights. 
We can gaze into this valley as easily as one does from a high 
building into the street below ; and, crouched on the sunny 
side of a cliff, to gain a little shelter from the icy breeze that 
flowed over the pass, view its signs of life and green meadows, 
and, above their highest fringes, the vast funereal grove of Pines 
on every side, guarding, as it were, the green valley from the 
death-like wastes of snow above it. Its effect was much 
enhanced by the snow that had just fallen, and covered up 


thousands of acres of the higher ground. The contrast between 
the valley flushed with life and the great uplands of snow was 
very beautiful. 

We had several miles to descend through the snow before a 
trace of vegetation could be seen, when fairy specimens of the 
nearly universal Primula viscosa began to show their rosy 
flowers here and there on ledges, where they were pressed 
down by the snow ; and by clearing little spaces with the 
alpenstock, we found the ground nearly covered with them. 
Then the glacial Buttercup began to make its appearance in 
abundance. Another minute gem was here in quantity the 
silvery Androsace imbricata, growing on the hollowed flanks of 
rocks the tufts, not more than half an inch high, sending 
roots far into the narrow chinks. These having a downward 
direction, the water could reach the roots from above. One 
plant was gathered in the hollow recess of a cliff, with at least 
one hundred little rosettes and flowers, forming a tuft 3 
inches in diameter, all nourished by one little stem as thick 
as a small rush, and which was bare for a distance of 2 or 
3 inches from the margin of the chink from which it issued. 
The tuft, bloom, and minute silvery leaves suspended by this 
were, in all probability, as old as any of the great larches in the 
valley below. 

The Androsaces, with very few exceptions, have not 
until quite recently often been successfully cultivated. Their 
silvery rosettes are more delicately chiselled than the prettiest 
encrusted Saxifrage ; their flowers have the purity of the 
Snowdrop, and occasionally the blushes of the alpine Primroses. 
They are the smallest of beautiful flowering plants, and they 
grow on the very highest spots on the Alps where vegetation 
exists, carpeting the earth with loveliness wherever the sun 
has sufficient power to lay bare for a few weeks in summer a 
square yard of wet rock-dust. 

The icicle-fringed cliffs, on the concave sunny faces of which 
the only traces of vegetation seen about here were found, and 
the rocky precipices seen from the spot, make all this diminutive 
flower-life the more interesting. 


A very pretty dwarf Phyteuma, with blue heads, was found 
on the rocks here, and as we got down the mountain, Geum 
montanum, with its large yellow flowers, gilded the grass 
somewhat after the fashion of our Buttercups, and the fine 
Saxifraga Cotyledon was also coming on ; one plant found had a 
rosette of leaves 8 inches across. Pyrethrum alpinum here 
takes the place of the Daisy, and is full of flower. The Arnica 
is in great abundance, and very luxuriant, looking like a small 
single Sunflower. Silene acaulis is everywhere, and no descrip- 
tion can convey an idea of the dense way in which its flowers 
are produced. Starved between chinks, its cushions are as 

A Glacier. 

smooth as velvet, 1 inch high though perhaps a hundred years 
of age so firm that they resist the pressure of the finger, and 
so densely covered with bright rosy flowers that the green 
is totally eclipsed in many specimens. These flowers barely 
rise above the level of the diminutive leaves. 




Soon we reached the meadow-land towards the bottom of 
the warm valley, and found this Piedmontese meadow almost 
blue with Forget-me-nots and strange Harebells, enlivened 
by Orchids, and jewelled here and there with St Bruno's Lily. 
The flower is nearly 2 inches long, of as pure a white as the 
snows on the top of Monte Rosa, each petal having a small 
green tip, like the spring Snowflake, but purer, and golden 
stamens. The pleasure of finding so many beautiful plants, 
rare in cultivation, growing in the long grass under conditions 
very similar to those enjoyed in our meadows, was greater than 
that of meeting with the more diminutive forms on the high 
Alp, verifying, as they did, the conviction that no flowers grow 
in those mountain meadows that cannot be grown equally well 
in the rough grassy parts of many British pleasure-grounds 
and copses. 

Alpine Larch-wood. 

Coming over the pass of Monte Moro, Primula viscosa was 
in perfect condition and full bloom, and yet so small that a 
shilling would cover the entire plant, while in lower spots on 


the opposite side of the valley single leaves of it were nearly 
3 inches across and 5 inches long. This will help to show 
the fallacy of supposing that, because a plant is found in almost 
inaccessible places and hard chinks of cold alpine rock, we must 
attempt the nearly impossible task of imitating such condi- 
tions, or give up the culture of such an interesting class of plants. 
The cliffs here rise in some parts like a vast wall to a height 
of 8000 feet stupendous and beautiful towers of rock and sun- 
lit snow, perfectly lifeless, but reverberating now and then with 
tumbling avalanches of the recently fallen snow. Above the 
village of Macugnaga, as in many other parts of the Alps, some 
of the Larchwoods are beautiful from the evidences of the 
struggle for life. Once the breath of summer has passed over 
the earth, the dwarf herbage is all freshness and life the 
smallness and feebleness of the minute vegetation preventing us 
from seeing the stamp of the destroyer. The winter snow 
weighs down the little stems, and then when in spring their 
successors come up in crowds, the earth is covered with a 
carpet, as if winter would never come again. But not so with 
the trees. Many lay prostrate, dead, barked, and bleached 
nearly white among the flowers that crowded up around them. 
Others were in the same condition, but leaning half erect amidst 
their green companions : others were dashed bodily over the 
faces of cliffs : others had their heads and trunks swept over 
the cliffs by the fierce mountain storms, but holding on by their 
roots, and, in the most contorted shapes, endeavoured to lift their 
living tops above the rocky scarp from which in their pride of 
youth they had been cast. I never in any wood saw anything 
so wildly and grimly beautiful as this. 


We next resolved to descend into the plains of Lombardy, 
cross the lakes of North Italy, go as far as Lecco on the Lake of 
Como, ascend Monte Campione, and find Silene Elisabethce, a 
plant as rare as beautiful, and any good plants which that 
region might afford. The long and ever-varying Val Anzasca, 




which runs from the foot of Monte Eosa to the great road from 
the Simplon, is unsurpassed for the beauty and variety of its 
scenery. We started from the Hotel Monte Moro at half-past 
three in the morning, when several of the highest peaks were 
illumined by a ruddy light, and all the lower ones were in the 
dull grey of daybreak. The Orange Lily in the meadows was not 
growing higher than the grass, and in single plants, not tufts ; 
the effect was not what we are accustomed to see in Lilies. But 
by looking over a ledge now and then, those small alpine 
meadows, apparently stolen from the vast wilderness, were 
thinly studded with large fully-expanded Lily blooms, the 

Cascade in a high wood. 

flowers relieved by the fresh grass. Asplenium septentrionale 
was extremely abundant. Of flowers we saw but few, for the 
taller tree vegetation cuts off the view and runs up, and clothes 


the secondary mountains to the very summits, except where 
grass that is like velvet spreads out, as if to show the small 
silvery streams, which soon hide in the woods, and by-and-by 
are seen in the form of cascades falling over wide precipices, to 
be again lost in deep, wet, tortuous, stony beds, and presently 
forming larger cascades. Then lower down they break and 
shoot perhaps for 300 feet, till they join the main stream of 
the valley below, which has cut itself an ever-winding, diving 
and foaming bed between terraces, and cliffs, and gullies of rock, 
affording scenes of infinite beauty and variety. 

We walked 12 miles down the valley before breakfast, 
and every step revealed a new charm. Before us, a great 
succession of blue mountains; on each side, mountain slopes 
green to the line of blue sky ; behind, all the glory of the Monte 
Eosa group, in some places flat-topped and of the purest white, 
like vast unsculptured wedding-cakes in others, dark, scarred, 
and pointed to the sky, like some of the aged Pines on their 
lower slopes, standing firmly but with branch and bark seared 
off by the fierce alpine blast. Lower down, the valley begins to 
show signs of human life, with well-built and clean-looking 
houses ; the slopes of the hills are frequently terraced, to give 
the necessary level for pursuing a little cnltivation. Vines 
begin to appear, and for the most part are trained on a high 
loose trellis from 5 to 7 feet above the surface of the ground, so 
as to permit of the cultivation of a crop underneath. The 
trellises are frequently held up by flat thin pillars of rough stone, 
which support branches tied here and there with willows. It 
seems a good plan for countries with a superabundance of light 
and sun. 

From nearly every rock and cliff along the valley spring the 
pretty rosettes and foxbrush-like panicles of flowers of the 
great silvery Eockfoil. But the charm of the valley is its ever- 
varying and magnificent scenery a foreground of Italian valley 
vegetation the deep-cut river-bed below, the ascending well- 
clothed mountains to the right and left, and then up the valley 
the higher Pine-clad slopes, all again crowned by the majestic 
mountain of the rosy crest. The most passionate and unreason- 


ing love of country would be excusable in the inhabitants of 
these happy spots, enriched with the vine and other products of 
the south, sheltered by evergreen woods ,and walled in by arctic 

We will hasten by the streams that feed Lake Maggiore, and 
stop for a while near the islands on its fair expanse. Mountains 
with dense green woods creeping to their very tops are reflected 
in the transparent water, in which they seem to be rooted, so 
near do they rise from its margin, and only showing their stony 
ribs here and there, where a deep scar or scarp occurs, too 
precipitous for vegetation. 

The isles look pretty, but not beautiful, because of the 
rather extensive and decidedly ugly buildings and terraces 
upon them; but they are only specks in a great natural 
garden. Brockenden is quite right when he says of one of 
the islands : " It is worthy only of a rich man's misplaced 
extravagance, and of the taste of a confectioner." The Maiden- 
hair Fern is abundant on the islands. The vegetation here 
and on the margins of the lake is often of an interesting 
character, quite sub-tropical in some places ; but as our busi- 
ness is with alpine and rock plants only, we must pass all this 
by, and hasten on to the shores of Como. When approaching 
Isola Madre, the first thing that struck my attention was a 
plant like a greyish heath, covered with light rosy flowers, 
growing out of the top of a wall. It proved to be an old 
friend, the Cat Thyme, and in beautiful condition ; as grown 
in England, nobody would ever suspect it to be capable of 
yielding such a bright show of flowers. Trachelium cosruleum 
grows very commonly on the walls, and so does the Caper, a 
noble plant when seen springing from a wall, bearing numbers 
of its large blooms. 


Arrived at Lecco to hunt for the handsome Catchfly on the 
crest of this mountain, we start at three o'clock in the 
morning, as it is our aim to get up a little out of the warm 
valleys before the dew had fled. Soon we find ourselves on 


the spur of a mountain, on which Cyclamens peep forth here 
and there from among the shattered stones sometimes hand- 
some tufts, where the position has favoured them, and now 
and then springing in a miniature condition from some chink, 
where there was very little " soil." Lower down we met with 
the neat Tunica on the tops of walls, and it continued to 
appear for some distance higher up, rarely looking so pretty 
as when well cultivated. The Maiden-hair Fern does not 
ascend up the mountain sides, nor even find a home in the 
villages up the valley, though in the town of Lecco it adorns 
the mill-wheels and moist walls near watercourses, with abund- 
ance of small plants adhering closely to the wall, and dwarf 
from existing on moisture or very little more. As we ascend, 
the fine flowers of Geranium sanguineum are everywhere 
seen ; while Aconites, Lilies, are here and there. The 
Orange Lily is a great ornament hereabouts one on most 
inaccessible cliffs of the mountain, with its bold flowers like 
a ball of fire in the starved wiry grass. The Martagon Lily 
is also abundant. Dwarf Cytisuses are great ornaments to 
the rocks, and here and there the leaves of Hepatica are 
mingled with those of Cyclamen, suggesting bright pictures 
of spring. The Cyclamens are deliciously sweet, and the 
great spread of the alpine Forest Heath, seen in all parts, must 
afford a lovely show of colour in spring. 

We think we have taken leave of all the meadow-land, when 
the hills again begin to break into small pastures, where 
Orchises, Phyteumas, Arnica, Inula, Harebells, and a host 
of meadow plants, struggle for the mastery. Soon we come 
to great isolated masses of erect rock, whose surface is quite 
shattered and decayed in every part ; and, after half-an-hour 
among these, see, far up, rosettes of the blue flowers of Phyteuma 
comosum, projecting about two inches from the rock. The 
rosettes are as wide as the plant is high, and much larger 
than the leaves, which are of a light glaucous colour. We 
ascend far above these rocks, and find the mountain-side has 
broken into wide gentle slopes, park-like, with birch and other 
indigenous trees here and there, but, for the most part, a great 



spread of meadow-land, adorned in every part with a lovely 
carpet of flowers. Conspicuously beautiful was the St Bruno's 
Lily, growing just high enough to show its long and snow- 
white bells above the grass. It should be called the Lady 
of the Meadows, for assuredly no sweeter or more graceful 
flower embellishes them. In every part where a slight de- 
pression occurred, so as to expose a little slope or fall of 
earth on which the long grass could not well grow, or along 
by a pathway, Primula integrifolia was found in thousands, 
long passed out of flower. 

In wandering leisurely over the grass, an exquisite Gentian, 
of a brilliant deep and iridescent blue, came in sight. At 
first we thought it was the fine Cfentiana verna, but on taking 
up some plants, it proved to be an annual kind, quite as 
beautiful and brilliant as either G-. lavarica or G. verna. Where- 
ever a boulder or mass of rock showed itself, Primula Auricula 
was seen, often in the grass and always on the high rocks 
and cliffs. A showy Epilobium and Dentaria are also seen 
among the taller vegetation, while the compact little blue Globu- 
laria creeps from the surrounding earth over every rock. As we 
mount, the mist of the higher points begins to envelop us, and 
hide the lovely and ever- varying scenery below and on all sides, 
except now and then when the breeze clears the vapours away. 

As the upper lawns are reached, the extraordinary nature of 
the mountain begins to be seen through the increasing mist. 
Lower down, and indeed in all parts, erect, isolated masses 
of rock are met with ; but towards the great straight-sided 
mass that forms the central and higher peak, huge aiguilles 
are gathered together so thickly that, dimly seen through 
the mist, they seem like the ghosts of tall old castles and 
towers creeping one after the other up the mountain-side. 
Lower down, cliffs of the same nature and great height form 
one side of the mountain, their giant and weird appearance 
being much heightened by the mist which completely hid the 
valley and made them seem as if poised in the air. 

Hereabouts we came upon some little tufts of the most 
diminutive and pretty Saxifraga ccesia. In little indentations 


in rocks it sometimes looked a mere stain of silvery grey, like 
a Lichen ; on the ground, it spread into dwarf silvery cushions, 
from 1 to 3 or 4 inches wide. It seemed quite indifferent as 
to position, sometimes growing freely along, and even in, a 
channel, the sides and bed of which are a mass of shattered 
rocks, and which is in winter a stream and a torrent after 
heavy rains and thaws. Some plants were as large as a 
dessert plate, a mass of Liliputian silvery rosettes, each about 
the eighth of an inch across, and formed of from fifteen to 
twenty-five diminutive leaves, and hundreds of rosettes going 
to form a tuft about an inch high. 

This is one of the gems in the large Saxifrage family, which 
affords a greater number of distinct plants worthy of cultiva- 
tion in the rock-garden than any other. These plants grow 
upon the mountain tops, far above the abodes of our ordinary 
vegetation, not only because the cool, pure air and moisture 
are congenial to their tastes, but because taller and less hardy 
vegetation dares not venture there to overrun and finally 
extinguish them. But though they dwell so high in -alpine 
regions, they are the most tractable of all plants in British 
gardens, and grow as freely as our native lowland weeds in 
gardens where Gentian and alpine Primula and precious 
mountain Forget-me-not require all our care. They are ever- 
green, and more beautiful to look upon in winter than in 
summer, so far as the foliage is concerned, and their foliage is 
beautiful, while, unlike many other plants which have attrac- 
tive leafage, or a peculiar form and habit, they flower freely 
in the early summer. 

One would think that coming from habitats so far removed 
from all that is common to our monotonous skies, it would 
be impossible to keep these little stars of the earth in a living 
state ; but our climate suits them well, and they are the 
chief stay of the cultivator of alpine plants. In autumn, 
when most plants quail before the approach of darkness, 
winter, and frost, and casting off their soiled robes, the Rock- 
foils glisten with silver and emerald when the rotting leaves 
are hurrying by before the stiff, wet breeze. 


The Lion's-paw Cudweed is very abundant on Monte 
Campione. Daphne and Rhododendron in small quantities, 
and the pretty little Polygala Chamcebuxus, often crop out 

The limit of the Pines. 

less beautiful than when in cultivation. A blue Linum, 
probably L. alpinum, is very common ; the rare Allium 
Victoriale we found sparsely on high rocks ; and Dry as Octo- 
petala abundantly in flower, with Anemone alpina in a very 
dwarf state ; while pale flowers of the common Gfentiana 
acaulis looked up singly here and there. In the higher and 
barer parts of the meadows, Aster alpinus was charming, not 
in tufts or masses, but dotted singly over the turf. Having 
climbed so high for the chief object of our ascent, we failed 
to find it there after a long search, and, disappointed, were 
descending the mountain down a long and rocky chasm 
formed of a vast bed with banks of shattered rock, when, 
much to our pleasure, a little plant with a few leaves was 


discerned growing from a chink on a low mass of rock. By 
carefully breaking away portions of this, we succeeded in 
getting the plant, roots and all, out intact, and by very 
diligent searching, found a few more specimens of it. It 
was not yet in flower, but pushing up the stem preparatory 
to it. Then a long trudge down mountain, valley, and hilly 
road brought us home to our quarters at half -past nine, after 
a day of nearly twenty hours' walking. 

With a few words on the vegetation of some parts of the 
Simplon great range, these notes will end. The chief feature 
of the smaller vegetation alongside the great Simplon Eoad 
is the foxbrush-like flowering pyramids of the great Saxifraga 
Cotyledon, and on the highest parts of the road, wherever the 
ground near it softens into anything like turf, the fine blue 
of the vernal Gentian sparkles amongst yellow Potentillas 
and Eanunculi. It is pleasant to meet with it in flower weeks 
after one has left it in full flower in England in April, and 
seen it bear seed on mountains about 5000 feet high. About 
the end of June it was in fresh and perfect condition here, 
and likely to remain so for some time to come. Observe the 
capabilities of the plant, and the changes that it endures with- 
out losing health in any case. In perfect health in England, 
without a covering of snow through the winter, and flowering 
strongly in early spring, it flowers here in the month of June, 
and higher up in July. 

Let us ascend one of the highest mountains of the range a 
little way, climb upwards for two hours, passing the limits of 
the Pines, till we get at the base of the bed of an enormous 
glacier, a vast high field of snow apparently, which fills the 
upper portion of a wide gap between two mountains. The 
wide expanse of ground which we are traversing is simply a 
mighty bed of shattered rock, which at a remote day was 
carried down by this colossal, ever-levelling machine, and it 
is now covered with a scanty vegetation of alpine Ehododendron 
and high mountain plants. 

Everywhere, and very pretty, is the mountain form of the 
Wood Forget-me-not, but no trace of the true Myosotis alpestris. 


Everywhere the large white flowers of the mountain Avens are 
covering the surface ; but as we are in such rich ground, we 
had better confine ourselves to plants not British, and climb. 
That exertion is above all things necessary ; the vast slopes of 
shattered rock seem interminable an hour's hard work only 
brings us to a point that we thought we could reach in five 
minutes, and this point, instead of proving the resting-place 
and exploring-ground we had expected it to be, merely shows 
us that still the wide and mighty mass of shattered rock 
creeps higher and higher, far beyond our powers of approach, 
until at last the wall of ice, " durable as iron, sets death-like 
its white teeth against us." On a great ridge beneath it are 
some scattered fragments of vegetation rooting deeply among 
the stones, and gaining a scanty subsistence from the sandy 
grit which results from the decomposition of the fields of 
brittle rock. The Crimson Eockfoil is a mass of flower; we 
cannot see anything but flowers on its dense cushions, beautiful 
in this awful solitude. Here and there a large yellow flower 
is seen, which proves to be Cfeum reptans, a fine plant, from 
3 to 6 inches high. Presently, while admiring the great 
beauty of the crimson Saxifrage here, within a few feet of wide 
beds of snow, that lie on each side of the ridge on which we 
stand, what appears a giant plant comes in sight ; the flowers 
are much larger, so that instead of little cushions made up of a 
multitude of blooms, we see the individual cup-like blooms 
standing boldly up, of much deeper hue, and the leaves also 
grown large and distinct. It is the noble Saxifraga liflora. 
It is a pleasure to gather this plant here, and also Linaria 
alpina, more familiar to me, and so beautiful here. Some alpine 
plants are prettier in cultivation than in a wild state. Not 
so Linaria alpina, which grows and flowers well in sandy 
soils and moist places at home, and gets so strong that its 
glaucous leaves form quite a strong tuft, but which here shows 
its rich orange and purple flowers, gathered in dense tiny tufts 
here and there among the stones, without any leaves being 
seen, and it is more lovely here than in cultivation, though 
its beauty in either case is of a high order. The very dwarf 


and pretty little Campanula cenisia was abundant among the 
higher plants, its tufts of light green among the debris. 
One solitary tuft of Ranunculus alpestris was met with by 
the side of a little rivulet ; a plant about 6 inches in 
diameter, and quite pretty 
where " specimens " are rare, 
and where one thing 
struggles with another in 
the grass. 

Descending, the ground, 
becoming more level, begins The Home of the purple Sarifrage ' 

to form an undulating basin between two ranges, and here the 
short grass is jewelled with dwarf alpine plants and flowers. The 
silky-leaved and very dwarf Senecio incanus occurs in thousands ; 
the Cudweeds, too, are abundant, while a few inches above the 
dense silvery turf formed by such plants, the large and beautiful 
purple flowers of Viola calcarata form, not quite a sheet of 
colour for the flowers occur singly, and are separated one 
from the other by bits of green and silvery turf but some- 
times the eye is brought nearly level with the surface of a 
bank dotted with blossoms, and the effect is lovely. It is not 
the effect of " massing " flowers, but that of " shot " silk. The 
flowers of this Violet were generally very large I measured 
several an inch and a half across, while the plants from which 
they sprang were almost inconspicuous, and generally I had 
to use the flower stem as a guide to the minute rosette of leaves 
in the grass. A still more beautiful effect, and perhaps more 
so than I have seen either in garden or wild, was observed 
when tufts of Gentiana verna occurred pretty freely amongst 
this Violet, the vivid blue of the Gentian in patches amongst 
the groundwork of the Violet. In quite a valley of Gentians 
a little lawn at an elevation of about 7000 feet were some 
growing in a watery hollow, of a vivid and exquisite blue ; 
they were large tufts of Gentiana bavarica. The little Box-like 
leaves were in compact tufts, and the flowers were larger, of a 
deeper blue than G. verna, which is saying a great deal. 

There were spots near at hand where G. verna formed a 


turf of its own, and yet it was not so beautiful as G. bavarica, 
which was growing exactly in positions that would suit the 
Bog Bean and the Marsh Marigold. Attempts to cultivate 
G. bavarica in England have hitherto been a failure. It is very 
rarely seen with us even in Botanic Gardens, and, when it is 
seen, is usually in poor health. A few words, then, about the 
position in which I found it in such perfection, may prove 
useful. A little mountain streamlet diverges from its channel 
and spreads over the surface of the ground for 20 or 30 yards 
across, not destroying the grass, but simply showing itself in 
trickling patches here and there. On the little hillocks of 
grassy earth that stood a few inches above the water, I found 
the plant in very good condition, the roots certainly in the 
water, and the "collar" of each plant very little above it. 
Somewhat lower down, the waters gathered together again, 
leaving the sides of that marshy spot and the intermediate 
ground perfectly green, but very wet, and here and there dotted 
with clusters of blue stars, to which in brilliancy the choicest 
gems were but dull and earthy. In walking on this green 
spot the water hissed and bubbled up around. Here the plants 
were very fine, the pretty little close-growing tufts of light 
green leaves clearing spots for themselves in the longish grass. 
The slightest impression made here immediately became a small 
pool, and in no place did I find the plant but where the hand, 
if pressed into the grass, was at once surrounded by water. 
A few steps away, and Gentiana verna was everywhere in full 
beauty on dry banks ; but in no case did either species 
manifest a tendency to invade the ground of the other. In 
fact, proof was there that G. bavarica is a true bog-plant. And 
what a beautiful companion for the Wind Gentian, the Water 
Violet, the peat-loving Spigelia marilandica, Rhexia virginica, 
the little creeping Bell-flower, and like plants ! 

Scene in the Rocky Mountains. 


THE passage of the great American desert which is .crossed on 
the way from New York to San Francisco is, perhaps, the best 
preparation one could have for the startling verdure and giant 
tree-life of the Sierras. Dust, dreariness, alkali the earth 
looking as if sprinkled with salt; here and there a few tufts 
of brown grass in favoured places ; but generally nothing better 
than starved wormwood, that seems afraid to put forth more 
than a few small, grey leaves, represents the vegetable kingdom 
in the plains of the desert region. Where the arid hills 
showing horizontal lines worn by the waves of long-dried seas 
are visible, a few thin tufts of alders and poplars mark their 
hollows ; while willows fringe the streams of undrinkable water 
which course through the valleys. A better idea of the country 
can scarcely be had than by imagining an ash-pit several hun- 
dred miles across, in which a few light-grey weeds, scarcely dis- 
tinguishable from the parched earth, have sprung up. 

As the train ascends the Sierra, it passes through dark- 
ribbed tunnels of long covered sheds, which guard it from the 
snow in winter. Dawn broke upon us as we were passing 
through these ; and, looking out, dust, alkali, dreariness, harsh- 



ness of arid rock and hopelessness of barren soil, are seen no 
more, but near at hand a giant Pine rushes up like a huge 
mast, while all around and in the distance are great Pines 

grouped in stately armies, fill- 
ing the valleys and cresting 
all the wave -like hills, till 
these are lost in the distant 

To the western slopes of the 
great chain of the Sierras one 
must go to see the noblest trees 
isolated Rocks in Rocky Mountains. and the richest verdure. There 
every one of thousands of mountain gorges, and the pleasant 
and varied flanks of every vale, and every one of the innumer- 
able hills, are densely populated with noble Pines and glossy 
Evergreens, like an ocean of huge land- waves, over which the 
spirit of tree-life has passed. The autumn days I spent among 
these trees were among the -happiest one could desire every 
day glorious sunshine, and the breeze as gentle as if it feared to 
overthrow the dead trees standing here and there leafless, and 
often perhaps, barkless, but still pointing as proudly to the 
zenith as their living brothers. Wander away from the little 
rough dusty roads, crossing, perhaps, a few long and straight 
banks of grass and loose earth the stems of dead monarchs of 
the wood now given back to the dust from which they once 
gathered so much beauty and strength and fancy willingly 
reminds us of the mast-groves of the Brobdingnags. There is 
little animal life visible, with the exception of a variety of 
squirrels, ranging from the size of a mouse to that of a cat, the 
graceful Californian quail, and occasionally a hare or a skunk. 
Everywhere vegetation is supreme, and in some parts finer 
effects are seen than in the most carefully -planted park. This 
results not more from the stately Pines (not often crowded 
together as in the Eastern States, and often near the crest of a 
knoll, standing so that each tall tree comes out clear against the 
sky) than from the rich undergrowth of evergreens with larger 
leaves that form a smaller forest beneath the tall trees. Grand 


as are the Pines and Cedars (Libocedrus), one is glad they do not 
monopolise the wood ; the Evergreen Oaks are so glossy, and form 
such handsome trees. One with large shining leaves, yellowish 
beneath, and long acorns in thick cups, covered with a dense 
and brilliant fringe of fur, was the most beautiful Oak I ever 
saw ; but most of the Evergreen Oaks of California, whether of 
the plain or hills, are handsome trees. One day, in a deep 
valley, darkened by the shade of giant specimens of the Libo- 
cedrus, I was astonished to see an Arbutus, about 60 feet 
high, quite a forest tree. This is Menzies' Arbutus, commonly 
known by the old Mexican name of the " Madrona " ; and a 
handsome tree it is, with a cinnamon-red stem and branches. 
Here and there, too, the Californian Laurel (Oreodaphne) forms 
laurel-like bushes, and tends to give a glossy, evergreen 

Mountain Woods of California. 

character to the vegetation. Shrubs abound, the Manzanita 
(Arctostaphylos glauca) and the Ceanothuses being usually 
predominant ; while beneath these and all over the bare ground 
are the dried stems of the numerous handsome bulbs and 
brilliant annual flowers, that make the now dry earth a living 
carpet of stars and bells of brilliant hues in spring. 

On the very summit of the Sierra Nevada the vegetation is not 
luxuriant ; there, as elsewhere on high mountain chains, is the 


frost that burns and the wind that shears. A solitary Pine that 
has been bold enough to plant itself among the rocks of the 
high summits, it is usually so contorted that it looks as if in- 
habited by demons ; while here and there one has succumbed 
to the enemy, and a few blanched branches stick from a great, 
dead, barkless base, lapped over the earthless granite. But go 
a little lower down the mountain, and most probably you will 
find a noble group of Piceas, startling from the size and height 
of their trunks, though looking much tortured about the head 
by the winds that surge across these summits the mast-heads 
of the continent. 

Snow falls early and deep on the Sierras, and the stems 
of the higher trees are often covered with it to a depth of 
from 6 to 25 feet. Near the railway and near frequented 
places, thick stumps of Pines, 6 to 15 feet high, may be 
noticed ; these are the trees which have been cut down when 
the snow was high and thick and firm about the lower part of 
their stems. But if the nights are bitterly cold, the sun is 
strong in the blue sky far into the winter months, so that the 
snow is melted off the tree-tops, and the leaves of the Pines 
live in light, throughout the winter. All the Pines that grow 
near the summit must resist intense cold. 

The golden light of the sky and the blue of its depth, and 
the purity of the fresh mantle of snow, are not more lovely in 
their way than the robe of rich yellow Lichen with which the 
stems and branches of the Pines are clothed. Imagine a dense 
coat of golden fur, 3 inches deep, clothing the bole of a 
noble tree for a length of 100 feet, and then running 
out over all the branches, even to the small dead twigs, and 
smothering them in deep fringes of gold, and some idea may be 
formed of the glorious effect of this Lichen (Evernia). It is the 
ornament of the mountain trees only ; in the valleys and on the 
foot-hills it is not seen. 

It is a mistake to suppose the Sequoia (Wellingtonia) is 
such a giant among the trees here ; several others grow nearly 
or quite as high, and it is very likely that in such a climate 
many Pines would attain extraordinary dimensions. There was 


a small saw-mill near where I stopped for some days, and 
several yokes of oxen were constantly occupied in dragging 
Pine logs to it. The owner never thought of bringing anything 
smaller to this than a log 3 or 4 feet in diameter in its 
smallest part, and usually left 100 feet or so of the 
portion of the tree above this on the ground where it fell, as 
useless. What is it that causes the tree-growth to be so noble 
there ? Soil has very little to do with it. I often saw the trees 
luxuriating where there was not a particle of what we call soil, 
and, indeed, in places where 25 feet or so of the whole 
surface of the earth had been washed away by the gold-miners. 
A bright sun for nearly the whole year, and an abundance of 
moisture from the Pacific Ocean, explains the matter. This 
should draw our attention to the fact that, in planting, and 
especially in the planting of coniferous trees, we pay far too 
much attention to supplying them with rich soil, and far too 
little consideration to the climate in which we have to plant. 


There is a foot or two of snow in some places on November 
15, 1870 ; but the time for very deep snow has not yet come, 
and we are fortunately in time to see a patch of alpine plants 
here and there before they are tucked in under their wintry 
shroud. What are these brown tufts like withered moss among 
the rocks and boulders on exposed spots, some of them 
cushioned low and flat ; others looking as if moss had assumed 
a shrubby habit, and died full of years, at 3 inches high 
perhaps, on a gouty stem nearly as thick as the finger? 
These are little Phloxes, withered almost beyond hope by the 
heats of summer ; but pull up one, and the old roots are seen 
sending out a mass of fragile feeders in the snow-moistened 
earth, and in the very centre of each juniper-like truss of 
prickly leaves may be discerned a small speck of green. 
When the 20 feet of snow melts in spring, and the sun 
warms the saturated earth, these mites of Phloxes will be to 


the now arid solitudes as blossoms to the crabbed apple-tree. 
The dead moss will change to bright, shining green, and 
presently this will be obscured by as fair a host of flowers 
as ever fretted over the small herbs on Tyrolese Alp. The 
alpine Phloxes of the Eocky Mountains are as indispens- 
able to the choice collection of alpine plants as Gentians or 

Everywhere on bare places there are tufts of dwarf, bush- 
like Pentstemons, from 2 to 5 inches high, and bearing nearly 
the same relation to the tall Pentstemon of our gardens 
as the alpine Phloxes do to the border Phloxes. The 
Pentstemons are among the most beautiful of rock-plants, 
their colours being of a more refined and delicate character 
than those of the tall varieties, good as these are. Indeed, 
no flowers possess such iridescent blues and purples as these. 
Like the little Phloxes, many of these have woody stems, 
probably as old as some of the Pines near at hand, and 
have embellished these lonely heights for ages unadmired, 
unless the " grizzlies " or the woodpeckers delight in such 

It might perhaps be thought that, however well the alpine 
plants thrive among rocks and boulders, the giant Pines would 
require good soil, or, at all events, level ground of some kind, to 
start from. It is not so. A seedling Pine springs up in some 
shallow chink or narrow crack in a mass of great stones ; 
patiently it throws out long feeders on one side, which find 
their way down the steep faces of the rocks or run through 
any moist or narrow channels into the feeding ground beyond ; 
it soon gathers strength enough to build a great trunk above 
the narrow chink from which it sprang, lapping its base over 
the close-embracing rocks much as a fungus would. I have 
seen trunks measuring 18 feet in circumference springing 
from masses of raised rocks, where one would not think 
a wiry juniper bush could live. 

On looking at some compact brownish tufts of leaves, 
a few yellow Coronas are seen ; these are somewhat " ever- 
lasting" in character, and have only faded with the snow- 


water. They belong to quite a distinct plant of the Buck- 
wheat family Eriogonum. The family we know is nearly all 
composed of weeds, and the genus, which has many members 
in America, is seldom in the least attractive ; but this one is 
quite a gem of a rock-plant handsome umbels of primrose- 
yellow springing abundantly from dull brownish tufts of leaves 
2 inches high, making it as pretty as it is distinct. Far 
away, on a bare, gravelly hillside, vivid red tufts are seen ; 
these prove to be another equally beautiful kind of Eriogonum, 
the leaves of which assume a deep, shining blood colour. 

Here and there the withered stems of Lilies may be seen ; 
Washington's Lily a tall, noble, and fragrant kind and 
several other Lilies occur abundantly. The stems of some 
which I found in little ravines were quite 8 feet high. 
The Soap-plant a bulbous perennial is abundant on all the 
lower mountains and on the coast hills. Numerous bulbs of a 
high order of beauty occur on the mountains and plains of 
California, but they mostly bloom in spring and we only see 
their withered stems. 

Another very beautiful rock-shrub, quite distinct from 
anything we have in our European Alps, is the Bryanthus. 
After trudging for hours over snow and rock in quest of this, 
I had given it up, when a spray, with a withered truss of 
bloom, was seen, and soon I had dug a few score plants of 
it from beneath a couple of feet of snow. This Bryanthus 
may be roughly described as having the leaf of a heath, 
with handsome crimson flowers, like those of a small rhododen- 
dron, and forming bushes from 4 to 10 inches high. 
Another rock-shrub, quite distinct from all others, is a 
creeping Ceanothus, which runs along the ground as closely as 
Twitch. On the lower hills, where it grows more freely, the 
shoots march in parallel lines over the ground, covering 
it with a rigid carpet of dark green leaves. 

One of my objects in coming here was to see the Calif ornian 
Pitcher-plant (Darlingtonia) in a wild state. This plant re- 
sembles the Sarracenias of the eastern side of the continent, 
the chief difference being that it has a cleft appendage to the 


margin of the orifice of the pitcher, each lobe being from 1 to 
2 inches long. I came upon the Darlingtonia, greatly to my 
pleasure, on the north side of a hill, at an elevation of about 
4000 feet, growing among Ledum bushes, and here and there 
in sphagnum, and presenting at a little distance the appearance 
of a great number of Jargonelle pears, with their larger ends 
uppermost, at a distance of from 10 to 24 inches above the 
ground. This resulted from the pitchers being quite turned 
over at the top, so as to form a full rounded dome, and the 
uppermost part of the pitcher being of a ripe pear yellow. 
The plants grow in small bogs, from springs on the hillside ; 
the soil peat resting on a quartz gravel. The plant is quite a 
strong grower. I found one large colony growing so well 
among common rushes that Darlingtonia seemed to be quite 
beating them in the struggle. I was too late for seeds, but 
saw sundry stems 3 feet or more high, bearing empty seed 
vessels as large as large walnuts. All the pitchers have a 
spiral twist, which is much more marked towards the apex, 
and in the large specimens. But perhaps the most remarkable 
feature of the plant is its efficiency as a "fly-catcher." In the 
houses about here the pitchers are regularly used in summer 
for catching flies. Each of the developed pitchers that I cut 
off had from 3 to 5 inches of various forms of insect life, dead 
and closely packed in the lower part of its chamber. Pass a 
sharp knife through a lot of brown pitchers withering round 
an old plant, and the stumps resemble a number of tubes 
densely packed with the remains of insects. What attracts 
them is not so very clear, as the orifice is half hidden in the 
turned-over head, and by its two-lobed appendage. But, by 
raising the pitcher above the eye, and looking up into its dome, 
often 3 inches through in fair specimens, it seems a curvilinear 
roof of miniature panes set in a golden network. This is in 
consequence of the greater portion of the upper part of the 
pitcher being transparent in all the space between the veins, 
though no one transparent spot is more than a line or two 
across. Within the pitcher the surface is smooth for a little 
way down ; then isolated hairs appear ; and soon the chamber 


becomes densely lined with needle-like hairs, all pointing 
down, so decidedly indeed that they almost lie against the 
surface from which they spring. These hairs are very slender, 
transparent, and about a quarter of an inch long, but have a 
needle-like solidity, and are colourless. The poor flies, moths, 
and ladybirds travel down these conveniently arranged stubbles, 
but none seem to turn back. The pitcher, which may be a 
couple of inches wide at the top, narrows very gradually, and 
at its base is about a line in diameter. Here, and for some 
little distance above this point, the vegetable needles of course 
all converge, and the unhappy fly goes on till he finds his 
head against the firm thick bottom of the cell, and his retreat 
cut off by myriads of bayonets ; and in that position he dies. 
Very small creatures fill up the narrow base, and above them 
larger ones densely pack themselves to death. When held 
with the top upwards, sometimes a reddish juice, with an 
exceedingly offensive odour, drops from the pitchers. The 
plant throws out runners rather freely, by which means it 
increases. As to its culture, there can be no doubt about 
that a soil of peat, or peat and chopped sphagnum, kept wet 
not merely moist the pots or pans to be placed on a moist 
bottom. Frame or cool house treatment is best in winter; 
warm greenhouse or temperate stove in summer. It is hardy 
in the south of England and Ireland. 





AC1NA (Tufted ^ Bur}. Dwarf 
tufted and spreading plants of 
secondary value only for the garden, 
but often useful for dry banks or 
poor places in borders where we seek 
a little repose in the shape of a carpet 
of soft green or grey. They are of 
easy culture in the common soil, in- 
crease rapidly by division, and though 
mostly South American, the cultivated 
kinds are quite hardy. There are, 
perhaps, twenty kinds in cultivation 
in Europe, but a few only are worth 
having, where effect is sought. 

Acaena microphylla (Rosy-spined 
A.). A minute trailer from New Zealand, 
curious from its small round head of 
inconspicuous flowers furnished with long 
crimson spines. The plant spreads into 
dense tufts, and in summer and autumn 
is thickly bestrewn with the showy 
globes of spines. It is easily increased 
by division, is hardy, grows in ordinary 
soil, but thrives much the best in that 
of a fine sandy nature. Its home is on 
bare level parts of the rock-garden, usually 
beneath the eye, and it is also good as 
a border, or even an edging plant. Oc- 
casionally it may be used with a good 
effect as a carpet beneath larger plants 
not thickly placed. Syn., A. novce 

AcsBna Argentea is stronger growing, 
the leaves always larger and very glaucous. 
It is nearly related to 

A. pulchella, which, owing to its trail- 
ing habit and abundance of bronzy leaves, 
is more useful. The graceful branches of 
this, when hanging over large stones or 
old walls, have a pretty effect, and it is 
hardy and evergreen. 

A. Buchanan!. In this, the foliage is 
what may be called " Pea-green," although 
this fails to convey any idea of the pre- 
vailing hues of green which make up 
the colour of the finely divided foliage, 
thickly set with pretty red spikes of 
bloom. Although of free growth, it 
does not seem to have the encroaching 
habit of some of the New Zealand Burs, 
and it should on this account be more 
valued for the choicer parts of the rock- 

A. ovalifolia. This has bright green 
foliage, and being of vigorous growth, will 
be found very useful for draping large 
stones in the rock-garden. 

A. millefolia, A. myriophylla, and 
A. sanguisorbse are also useful trailers. 
The flowers, bright green foliage, and long 
graceful stems entitle them to a place. 

ACANTHOLIMON (PricUy Thrift). 
Dwarf mountain plants, extending 
from the east of Greece to Thibet. The 
flowers resemble those of Statice and 





Armeria, but the plants form branch- 
ing, cushion-like tufts; the leaves 
rigid and spiny. They are dwarf 
evergreen rock-garden plants, but, 
coming from eastern regions not now 
of easy access, are not easy to intro- 
duce, and for this and other reasons 
make slow progress in gardens. They 
are beautiful plants, flowering usually 
in July and August, when many of 
the early flowers are past. Slow in 
growth and difficult to increase as 
regards their general propagation, and 

Acantholimon venustum (Prickly Thrift). 

where large plants of the rare kinds 
exist, it is a good plan to work some 
cocoa-nut fibre and sand in equal 
parts into the tufts in early autumn. 
Before working in this material, some 
of the shoots should be gently torn, 
so as to half sever them at a heel 
or junction ; then gently work in 
more material around, and water to 
settle the soil. Many of the growths 
thus treated will root by spring. 
Cuttings made in the ordinary way 
are by no means certain, but when 

this method is adopted, August or 
September is the best time. All 
cuttings so-called should be torn off 
with a heel and inserted without 
further ado. 

Acantholimon glumaceum is the best 
known as the most vigorous grower, form- 
ing cushions of narrow dark green leaves, 
spiny at the point, and spikes of rose- 
coloured flowers from June to August. 
At Tooting, many years ago, this species 
formed an edging a foot or more wide, and 
about 150 feet long, and when in flower 
was a pretty sight. 

A. venustum. A delightful plant 
when seen in good condition. I lost the 
finest specimen I have ever seen during the 
great frost of 1895. The plant, unfortun- 
ately, had been left fully exposed with 
other alpines in pots. This lovely species 
in the summer of 1894 produced some 
forty spikes of its pink blossoms. The 
tufts are dark green, with a slightly 
greyish or glaucous tint overlying the 
same. This species is of much slower 
growth than A. glumaceum, and requires 
some good sandy loam, with leaf -soil and 
broken brick rubbish mixed freely with 
the soil. It bears its rose-pink flowers 
in July, on one-sided, slightly arching 
spikes, and is certainly one of the most 
charming of midsummer alpines. Firm 
planting, a rather sheltered spot, and a 
deep soil, well-drained, should be given. 

A. androsaceum. This species is 
distinguished by the more dense tufts 
which it forms when established, as 
also by the rosettes being less spiny. 
This is not so much due to the spines 
as to the pliant nature of the leaves. It 
is of easy culture, spreads somewhat freely 
over a ledge of rock, and bears pink 
blossoms on sprays 4 inches high. 

A. acerosum. The dense character of 
this species and the grey glaucous hue of 
the leaves at a short distance, remind one 
of Dianthus ccesius. A closer inspection, 
or even an unwary placing of the hand 
upon the spines, will quickly dispel any 
such idea, since the short, greyish glau- 
cous leaves are the most spiny of all. 




The flowers are pink, on stems nearly 6 
inches high. Asia Minor. 

These, I believe, are all the species 
at present in cultivation. The follow- 
ing information has been gathered 
from the dried specimens at Kew : 

Acantholimon kotschyi is about 4 
inches high, with distinctly broad leaves, 
being spiny and freely flowered, blossoms 

A. armenum has pink blossoms on 
sprays nearly 6 inches high. 

A. cephalotes has rosy pink flowers in 
globose heads, while the spiny leaves are 
less numerous in the rosettes than in most 
kinds. This conies from Kurdistan. 

A. laxiflorum is the tallest species, 
growing about 9 inches high, the leaves 
long and narrow. 

A. libanoticum is exceedingly woody 
and dense in growth. It is a Syrian 
species, with flowers of pink hue. 

A. pinardi also has pink blossoms, the 
f-pecimens varying in stature, possibly on 
account of age. 

So far as could be determined by dried 
specimens, many of these not now in 
cultivation are very beautiful, and, from 
the general scarcity of good midsummer 
alpine plants in the rock-garden, would be 
greatly prized. E. J. 

ACHILLE A (Yarrow). Herbaceous 
and alpine plants numerous through 
N. Asia, S. Europe, and Asia Minor, 
varying in height from 2 inches to 4 
feet ; their flowers pale lemon, yellow, 
and white, rarely pink or rose. Many 
of the cultivated kinds are too ramp- 
ant for grouping with alpine garden 
plants. The dwarfer kinds, on the 
other hand, come in for groups for 
the rock-garden or the margins of 
rock borders, and as edging plants, 
most of them growing freely and being 
easy of increase ; some of the higher 
alpine kinds are not very enduring 
in our open winters, and often in our 
gardens get " staggy " after a few years' 
growth, requiring division and re- 

Achillea Ageratifolia. A silvery- 
leaved plant from the sub-alpine districts 
of Northern Greece, 4 to 7 inches high, 
with white flowers resembling Daisies ; 
early in summer. The leaves are narrow, 
tongue-shaped, crimped, and covered with 
white down. This is a very neat and 
distinct plant, and easy of cultivation in 
light soil. 

A. aurea (Golden Yarrow). One of 
the showiest kinds, about 12 inches 
high ; leaves finely cut, flowers bright 
yellow ; freely on upright stalks. 

A. ^Egyptiaca (Egyptian Yarrow). A 
silvery plant in all its parts, with finely 
cut leaves, and handsome heads of vellow 
flowers, with something of the grace of 
a fern in its leaves. A native of Egypt 
and the East, it is not hardy in all soils 
and positions, but it survives on well- 
drained sunny spots, flowers in summer, 
and is easily multiplied by division. 

A. cla venae (White Alpine Yarrow). 
A dwarf kind, covered with a short, silky 
down, which makes the plant almost of 
a silvery white ; flowers in summer of a 
good white. It likes a light, free, loamy soil. 
Alps of Austria ; increased by division of 
the roots, and also by seed. 

A. Huteri (Enter's Yarrow), with bright 
green foliage, and pure white flowers. It 
likes a sunny part of the rock-garden, and 
grows well in common soil. Exempt 
from the struggle for life in the alpine 
turf, this, like so many spreading plants 
in our gardens, is best divided and re- 
planted every second year. 

A. Tomentosa (Downy Yarrow). One 
of the tufted plants that help to form the 
carpets of silver, whereon large Violets 
and Gentians display their charms on the 
Alps, itself sending up flat corymbs of 
bright yellow flowers. On such ground 
it is dwarf, but in rich soil in gardens 
it is taller, 12 inches high. It is a good 
plant for the margins of mixed borders, 
and also for the rock-garden. European 
Alps, thriving in ordinary soil. 

A. rupestris (Rock Yarrow). A pretty 
and early-flowering kind from Calabria, 
thriving in poor soil and on warm banks ; 
A. nana, moscliata, and umbellata, a Greek 




plant, have like value to the above-named 
for the rock-garden. 

ACIS. A small genus of bulbous 
plants, natives of South Europe, of 
which few species are in cultiva- 

Acis autumnalis (Autumnal A.}. A 
like slender-leaved little bulbous mountain 
plant, with stems 3 or 4 inches high, 
bearing flowers, resembling delicate pink 
snowdrops, drooping elegantly on short 
reddish footstalks, and blooming in 
autumn before the leaves appear. It 
is a true gem for the rock-garden, where 


Acis Autumnalis. 

it should be planted in a warm soil and 
sunny position, sheltered with a few 
stones, and on which it would look very 
well springing from a carpet of delicate, 
feeble - rooting Sedum or other dwarf 
plant. I have never seen it in nurseries 

except about Edinburgh. Where the soil 
is of a fine sandy nature, it will thrive 
as a border plant, but is as yet rare. 

The other kinds are Acis trichpphylla, 
rosea, and hyemalis, all of which will 
thrive where the soil is of a fine sandy 
nature, but are yet so rare as to be worthy 
of the best position and care. Mr Elwes 
doubts if any of these plants will thrive 
in the open air in England. Syn., 

ADONIS (Ox-Eye). Handsome 
plants of the Buttercup order ; dwarf 
in stature, with finely divided 
leaves, and red, yellow, or straw- 
coloured flowers. There are about 
fifteen or sixteen species, most of 
which are annuals, and, with the 
exception of two or three fine kinds, 
they are not suitable for the rock- 
garden, but the kinds named are 
excellent for it. 

Adonis vernalis (Ox-Eye). A hand- 
some alpine perennial, forming dense tufts, 
8 inches to 15 inches high of finely divided 
leaves in whorls along the stems. It 
flowers in spring, when the tufts are 
covered with large, yellow, Anemone-like 
flowers, 3 inches in diameter, a single 
flower at the end of each stem. 

Of A vernalis there are several varieties, 
the chief being A. v. sibirica, which differs 
in having larger flowers. A. apennina is 
a later blooming form. 

A. pyrenaica is a closely allied kind 
from the Eastern Pyrenees, with large 
yellow flowers like A. vernalis^ but with 
broader petals, flowering in April and 
May. It may be grown in free, sandy 
moist loam, and not often disturbed, 
robbed, or shaded by coarser plants. 

A. amurensis. Like the A. pyrenean 
in habit, this flowers with the snowdrops, 
and is of easy culture save that, until 
plentiful, it should be grown on the rock- 
garden, in moist, sandy loam, well drained. 

dSTHIONEMA (Silvery Cress). 
Elegant greyish rock plants, found on 
the sunny mountains near the Medi- 




terranean. The little plants grow 
freely in borders of well-drained sandy 
loam, but their home is the rock- 
garden. As the stems are prostrate, 
a good effect will come from planting 
them where the roots may descend 
into deep earth, and the shoots fall 
over the face of rocks at about the 
level of the eye. Easily raised from 
seed, and thrive in sandy loam. There 
are many species, but few are in 
gardens, owing to their inhabiting 
countries often under the rule of the 
Turk, and for that and other reasons 
not so easy to introduce as the plants 
of the Alps and Pyrenees. All the 
cultivated kinds are dwarf, and may 
be well grouped with rock plants on 
the warmer slopes of the rock-garden. 
Among the most charming of 
plants for gardens, let us hope the 
future will see many of the kinds 
introduced and grown. The following 
is an abstract of a paper on them in 
the Garden, by Mr W. B. Hemsley, 
of Kew. 

The geographical range of the genus 
is from the Pyrenees to the Western 
Himalaya. There are, perhaps, half- 
a-dozen in Europe, including the 
beautiful JE. c&pecefolium, better known 
as Hutcliinsia rotundifolia and cepece- 
folia. One only reaches India, where 
it is found at an elevation of from 
12,000 to 16,000 feet, and the re- 
mainder are natives of the countries 
indicated above. Nearly all the 
species are natives of alpine regions, 
and grow naturally in stony or rocky 
places, and many of them are reported 
from chalky districts. The perennial 
species will, therefore, require to be 
kept tolerably dry at the root ; a 
light soil in a well-drained border, 
or a place in the rock-garden, will 
best suit them. Old plants should 
be replaced by young ones as often 

as convenient. These may be raised 
from seed or cuttings, which is better 
done in a cool frame or pit. The 
annual species, excepting ^E. Bux- 
baum.ii, are not, so far as we know, 
in cultivation. In habit and foliage 
JEthionemas, especially the half shrubby 
species, have very much the aspect 
of some of the woody Candytufts, but 
the petals are all equal in size. The 
flower-spikes are usually very dense, 
and the seed-vessel relatively large, 
and very much crowded, so that in 
some species, as JE. Buxbaumii, they 
bear some resemblance to the catkins 
of the common Hop. The flowers are 
usually some tint of red or lilac, or 
combination of the two. A few species 
have yellow flowers, and there are 
white -flowered varieties of several 
species. About fifty species are 
known, all natives of the mountains 
of Europe, Asia Minor, Syria, and 

.ffithionema cepesefolium (Iberidella; 
Hutchinsia rotundifolia, Hort. Kew). A 
densely-tufted, more or less glaucous- 
green, glabrous barb, with a long perennial 
tap root, that burrows deeply amongst 
stones. Stems, 3 to 6 inches long, ascend- 
ing ; leaves, mostly opposite, small fleshy, 
one-third to three-quarters of an inch 
long, those from the root broadly obovate 
or almost orbicular, quite entire, or ob- 
scurely toothed, those on the stem sessile, 
obtuse, or auricled at the base ; flowers, 
half an inch in diameter, in cylindrical, 
crowded, erect racemes, pale lilac with 
a yellow eye ; pedicels, horizontal. A 
native of the Alps of Europe, where it 
is widely dispersed, and abundant in 
many parts of Switzerland. 

JB. trinervium. Leaves, hard, more 
or less distinctly three-nerved, oblong or 
narrowly lanceolate, the lower ones 
narrowed at the base, upper ones obtusely 
heart-shaped and stem-clasping. Flowers, 
rather large, white, seed-vessel oblong 
linear, rounded or truncate at the top, 
crowned with the equally long style. 




Mountains of Persia. There is a variety 
of this species, called ovalifolium, with 
broader ovate-oblong leaves. It is a 
native of Armenia. 

-ffithionema sagi tt at um. Leaves, 
rigid, many-nerved, oblong, or lanceolate, 
deeply hastate at the base, with acute lobes ; 
flowers, rather large, white ; seed-vessel, 
oblong, narrowed at the base. Persia. 

JE. tenue heterophyllum and ccespitosum 
are dwarf, densely-tufted alpine species, 
with small white or pink flowers. The 
only Indian species (JE. Andersoni) also 
belongs to this group. It is a diminutive 
plant, with white or pink flowers. 

-33. rubescens. Leaves, alternate, obo- 
vate ; flowers, large, rose : seed-vessel, 
elliptical, tapering at both ends. A native 
of the alpine summits of the Sicilian 
Taurus, etc., at an elevation of 11,800 
feet. This is a very showy species. 

JE. bourgsei. Leaves, opposite, obo- 
vate ; flowers, large, rose ; seed-vessel, 
oblong-elliptical, rounded at both ends. 
Found in stony places in the alpine 
region of Mount Akdagh, Syria. Differs 
chiefly from the last in its opposite leaves. 

.33. chlorsefolium (Iberis of Sibthorp 
and Smith). Leaves slightly papillose and 
scabrid at the margin ; flowers rather 
large ; petals, obovate, rose, much longer 
than the calyx. A native of Asia Minor. 

JE. rotundifolium. Very near JE. 
oppositifolium, differing chiefly in the 
shape of the seed-vessel, and the panicle 
being free instead of adnate to the seed. 
A native of stony places in the Western 
Caucasus. This is quite different from 
Iberidella rotundifolia. 

JE. thesiifolium. Stems, tall, slender, 
and twiggy ; leaves, long, narrow, lanceo- 
late, upper ones, acute ; flowers in an 
elongating raceme pink. A native of 
stony places in the mountains of Cappa- 
docia. It grows about 18 inches high, 
has long narrow leaves, and large flesh- 
coloured flowers, elegantly marked with 

JE. grandiflorum. Branches, long, 
slender, simple, about 1 foot high ; leaves, 
oblong-linear, rather obtuse ; flowers, 
purple, as large as those of Arabis alpina; 
petals, four times as long as the sepals. 

A native of Mount Elbrus in North 
Persia ; discovered by Hohenacker in 
1843, and subsequently collected by 
Haussknecht, in Kurdistan, at an eleva- 
tion of 4000 feet in 1857. 

^Ithionema pulchellum (JE. coridi* 
folium of Botanic Gardens, not of De 
Candolle). Similar to the last, of which it 
was formerly considered a variety ; but it 
is a more diffuse plant, having smaller 
flowers, the petals being about two and a 
half times as long as the sepals. Armenia, 
Persia, and Kurdistan. 

JE. membranaceum. Stems, erect, 
simple, about 6 inches high ; leaves, 
oblong-linear, smaller than those of the 
two preceding. The seed-vessel of these 
three species is very broadly winged, and 
the wings are entire, or very slightly 
toothed, at the margin. A native of 
Persia ; formerly figured in Sweet's 
"Flower Garden." 

JE. diastrophis (Diastrophis cristata). 
In habit, foliage, and flower, this comes 
very near to JE. pulchellum, but it differs 
from that and others of this sub-section 
in its very long fruiting racemes and 
small seed-vessel, with elegantly toothed 
wings. It is a native of Russian Armenia, 
and was in cultivation at Dorpat in 1841, 
and is now in cultivation at Exeter, Mr 

JE. armenum. This, judging from 
dried specimens, although smaller-flowered 
than its immediate allies, must be a very 
pretty species when growing. It is of 
dwarfer (3 or 4 inches high), more diffuse 
habit, with more leafy stems and dense 
spikes of small purplish rose-flowers ; 
seed-vessel, crenate. It inhabits the 
mountains of Armenia, and Cappadocia, 
growing in stony places. 

JE. coridifolium. Stems, numerous, 
thick, only a few inches high ; leaves, 
crowded, short, linear-oblong, or linear- 
obtuse, or somewhat acute ; flowers, large, 
but not equalling those of JE. grandi- 
florum; seed-vessel, boat-shaped. This 
handsome species is a native of the chalky 
summits of the Lebanon and Taurus. 

JE. capitatum. This species, of about 
the same stature as the last, but with 
longer stems and more scattered leaves, 




is remarkable for its short dense fruiting 
heads of boat-shaped seed-vessels with 
entire wings ; the flowers are small and 
inconspicuous. Alpine region of Cap- 

^Ithionema speciosum. A densely- 
tufted species with ovate-oblong leaves, 
and rather large rose-pink flowers ; seed- 
vessel elegantly toothed, and tinged with 
purple. It is described as one of the 
prettiest of the genus, growing in dense 
tufts 3 to 4 inches high, and producing 
a profusion of large flowers. JE. lignosum, 
sublulatum, stylosum, lacerum, and fim- 
briatum belong to the same group. They 
have rather small flowers, but in all of 
them the seed-vessel is very elegant. 

JE. cordiophyllum. Stems, few, 
rigid, densely leafy ; leaves, rigid, quite 
sessile, deltoid - cordate, the lobes em- 
bracing the stem, the lower ones oppo- 
site ; flowers, rose-pink, of medium size ; 
boat-shaped seed-vessel, toothed. This 
plant grows from 6 to 12 inches high. 

JE. cordatum. Stems, few, rigid, 
densely-leafy ; leaves, sessile, deltoid- 
cordate, acute ; flowers, rather large, 
sulphur-yellow. A native of dry, rocky 
places in the alpine region of Armenia 
and Syria. It is similar to the last, but 
differs in its larger yellow flowers, and 
less distinctly toothed seed-vessel. 

&. moricandianum. Stems, few, short, 
and leafy ; leaves all opposite, nearly 
sessile, ovate, obtuse, the upper ones some- 
times cordate at the base ; flowers, large, 
yellow. A native of Mount Caira, where 
it was discovered by Cinard in 1843. 
This species comes very near to JE. 
cordatum, differing in its obtuse leaves, 
which are all opposite and scarcely cer- 
date, and in its flowers, which are twice 
as large. 

IE. graecum. Stems, numerous, short ; 
leaves, crowded, very small, ovate-oblong ; 
flowers, rather large, similar to those of 
the European A$. saxatile, but twice as 
large. A native of the chalky mountains 
of Greece. 

AJUGA (Bugle). Dwarf sage-like 
perennials of easy culture and increase ; 

and though not of first value among 
rock-plants, useful, from their freedom 
and good colour. 

Ajuga genevensis (Geneva Bugle). 
This has violet-blue flowers, the stem being 
a cone of flowers for a length of 4 or 5 
inches or more. Suitable for rock-garden, 
it will hardly be well to give it a place 
there, except by the margins of walks. 
The true plant, widely distributed on the 
continent, is not found in Britain, but the 
variety with the floral leaves large and 
longer than the flowers, and having a dense 
leafy spike (A. pyramidalis), is found in 
Scotland, and is sometimes grown in 

The British Creeping Bugle (A. reptans) 
is grown in gardens under various names, 
for the sake of its dark browny-purple 
leaves, and a variegated variety of it is 
sometimes grown. 

ALLIUM. These plants are often 
given in large numbers in Dutch and 
other lists, and with slight reason, as 
their beauty is little, from the garden 
point of view. Beyond a few, they are 
hardly worth cultivation, and though 
some kinds are often seen among rock- 
plants, they are out of place with them, 
and the kinds worth growing are easily 
grown without the aid of the rock- 

Fern). A beautiful Fern, found in 
some mountainous districts, where it 
grows out of the crevices of the rocks ; 
the fronds grow in dense tufts. It re- 
quires light, and should only be shaded 
from the hot sun. On the rock-garden it 
thrives, planted between stones, with 
broken stones about its roots, and just 
its fronds peeping out of the crevices. 
Growing in this way, it seems to be quite 
at home. It is well suited for plant- 
ing in chinks on the rock-garden, and 
associates well with alpine plants. 
Careful division. 





ALYSSUM (Madworfy Rock and 
alpine plants, numerous in alpine 
countries, the species much resembling 
each other, so that only few of the 
best are worthy of culture for the 
rock-garden, and these are of the easiest 
culture in almost any soil, and of rapid 
increase by cuttings, seed, and some 
by division. They are usually more 
fitted for borders and banks than for 
the select alpine garden. 

Alyssum Alpestre (Alpine A.}. A 
pretty species, partaking of the brilliant 
colour and free-flowering properties of the 
well-knownRock Alyssum, and the neatness 
of habit and dwarfness of the Spiny or the 
Mountain, forming neat tufts of hoary leaves, 
the whole plant being covered with minute, 
shining, star-like hairs, and, not growing 
more than 3 inches high. A native of the 
Pyrenees and Alps, its home with us is in 
sunny spots on the rock-garden ; the soil to 
be of poor, rather than of a rich, nature. 
Flowers in early summer, and is readily 
increased by seecl or from cuttings. 

The silvery A. (A. argenteum\ a native 
of Corsica, is closely related to this species, 
but is taller and more robust, has small 
flowers, and is not so well worthy of culture. 

A. montanum (Mountain A.}. A 
distinct species, spreading into compact 
tufts of glaucous green, 3 inches high, the 
plants studded with yellow, alpine wall- 
flower-like blooms, fragrant, flowering in 
early summer. The beautiful stellate hairs 
are large enough on this kind to be seen 
by the naked eye. It is a native of many 
parts of Europe, on hills and low mountain 
ranges, chiefly on calcareous soils, and to 
succeed, it is best to place it on the rock- 
garden in sandy soil, and, well grown, it 
will prove a beautiful ornament, especially 
when it grows into large cushions, on one 
side perhaps falling over a stone. Readily 
increased by division, cuttings, or seeds, 
though it does not often seed freely with 


A. saxatile (Rock A.). A popular 
plant, and one of the best of the yellow 
flowers of spring. Hardy in all parts of 
these islands, the profusion of its masses 
of showy yellow bloom, with its freedom 

of growth in any soil, have made it one of 
the most grown of rock plants. It is best 
for borders and walls or banks, and also for 
association with the evergreen Candytufts, 
and Aubrietia, and on wet ground it is 
better to plant in raised beds and in poor 
soil : it perishes in winter in some heavy 
rich clays. Very easily raised from seed, 
or by cuttings. Comes from Podolia in 
Southern Kussia, and flowers with us in 
April or May. 

There is a somewhat dwarfer variety, 
distinguished by the name of A. saxatile 
compactum, but it differs very little from 
the old plant and forms, differing slightly 
in colour (citrinum), but these are not 
so effective as the old plant, 

Alyssum spinosum (Spiny A.). The 
flowers of this are small and not pretty, but 
the plant forms a silvery and pretty' little 

Alyssum montanum. 

bush on any kind of soil, that I think it has 
quite as good a right to be named here as 
many others valued for their flowers alone. 
Small plants quickly become Liliputian 
silvery bushes, 3 to 6 inches high ; when 
fully exposed, almost as compact as moss. 
The leaves are covered with small stellate 
hairs, and form interesting objects under 
the microscope. On established plants the 
old branches become transformed into 




spines : hence its name. It is distinct in 
appearance from anything else in cultiva- 
tion, and merits a place on some not over- 
valued spot on the rock-garden. It 
is readily increased from cuttings. S. 

Alyssum pyrenaicum is a neat rock- 
plant, with white fragrant flowers ; a good 
rock-garden plant. 

A. serpyllifolium is a grey-green leaved 
kind with yellow flowers. Small plants 
quickly become Liliputian bushes, 3 inches 
to 6 inches high ; and, fully exposed, are 
almost as compact as moss. 

A. maritimum (Sweet Alyssum}, is a 
small annual with white flowers, growing on 
the tops of walls in the west country, and in 
sandy places. In these situations it is 
perennial, but in gardens is grown as an 
annual, sowing itself freely, and is for 
covering bare spaces as well worth a place 
as any. 

The taller kinds of Alyssum are not 
well suited for the rock-garden. 

A. podolicum is a small alpine plant 
from S. Russia. It has in early summer 
many small white blossoms, and is suited for 
the rock-garden, or walls. 

ANAGALIS (Pimpernel). Pretty 

dwarf plants, chiefly half-hardy annuals, 
the best known of which is the Italian 
Pimpernel (A Monelli), with large 
blossoms of a deep blue, shaded with 
rose. There being several varieties of 
this, they are among the annual flowers 
I should recommend where bare spaces 
occur in rock-garden, pending the 
coming of good perennial rock-plants. 

Anagalis tenella is a native plant found 
in bogs, bearing slender stems with small 
round leaves, among which are tiny pink 
flowers. It may be grown easily in the 
bog- or rock-garden, or anywhere where 
the soil is moist and spongy, and the 
vegetation dwarf and fragile like itself. 

ANDROMEDA.-Various bushy 
plants usually called Andromeda in 
gardens, belong strictly to several other 
genera. There is only one true species 
of Andromeda known 

A. polifolia. It is a pretty little grey 

bush, grouped in peat beds or in the 
bog garden. 

For allied plants usually known as 
Andromeda, see Cassandra, Cassiope, 
Leucothoe, Lyonia, Piwis, and Zenobia* 

ANDROS ACE. Tiny plants of _ the 
higher alps, often growing at elevations 
where the snow falls early in autumn, 
they flower as soon as it melts, grow- 
ing on cliffs with a vertical face, or 
with portions of the face receding 
here and there into shallow recesses. 
Here they endure intense cold cold 
which would destroy all shrub or 
tree life exposed to it. They are 
almost sure to perish in a smoky 
atmosphere; their small evergreen 
leaves, often downy, retain more dust 
and soot than larger-leaved evergreen 
alpine plants do. The Androsaces 
enjoy in cultivation small fissures 
between rocks or stones, firmly packed 
with pure sandy or gritty loam, not 
less than 15 inches deep. They should 
be so placed that no wet can gather 
or lie about them, and they should 
be so planted in between stones that, 
once well rooted into the deep earth 
all the better if mingled with pieces 
of broken sandstone they could never 
suffer from drought. A few kinds 
will do on level borders, such as A. 
sarmentosa, they are usually the jewels 
for the most carefully made and tended 

Androsace alpina. This is a lovely 
little plant, but difficult to grow. It likes, 
rather a moist place, and shaded from the 
hot sun, although it loves moisture at its 
roots. The plant must not be kept damp 
overhead ; all the moisture must be 
directed to the roots, and so arranged as 
to allow of its free escape again. Syn., 

A. brigantica. A handsome little 
kind, with pure white flowers, the foliage 
deep green. It loves to grow on sandy 
slopes, shaded .from the melting sun. 




Androsace carnea (Rosy A.). One of 
the prettiest and most distinct coming from 
the summits of the Alps and Pyrenees, 
where it flowers in summer, when the 
snow melts. It is known from any of the 
other cultivated kinds by its small pointed 
leaves, not, as in them, gathered in tiny 
rosettes, but more regularly clothing a 
somewhat elongated stem, so as to remind 
one distantly of a small twig of Juniper, 
or of the Jumper Saxifrage. The flowers 
are pink or rose, with a yellow eye. It is 
not difficult to cultivate in a mixture of 
sandy loam and peat the spot to be ex- 
posed, and the soil at least a foot deep, so 
that its roots may descend, and be less liable 
to suffer from vicissitudes. Thorough 
watering should be given during the dry 
season, particularly when the plant is 
young, and before it has taken deep root. 
Treated thus, it will form healthy tufts, 
and prove one of the most beautiful plants 
in the rock-garden in spring. Like most 
of the kinds, it may be raised from seed, 
sown in pans of sandy peat as soon as 
gathered. A. Eximia is a large form. 

A. chamaejasme (Rock Jasmine}. This 
does not nestle into close moss-like 
cushions, like the Helvetian and other 
Androsaces, the foliage forming large 
rosettes of fringed leaves, the blooms 
borne on stout little stems, from 1 to 5 
inches high. They are white at first, 
with a yellow eye, changing to crimson, 
the outer part becoming a delicate rose. 
It is one of the prettiest alpine plants, 
and one of the easiest to grow on an open 
spot on the rock-garden in well-drained 
light loam, the surface nearly covered 
with pieces of broken stone, with abund- 
ance of water in summer, exposed to 
the full sun, and not overrun by weeds 
or grazed down by slugs. A native of 
the Tyrolese and Swiss Alps, where it 
flowers later than in our gardens. In 
Britain it blooms in April, May, and 
June, earlier or later according to the 
season, is propagated by division, and 
may be grown very well in pots along 
with the rarer Rockfoils, plunged in sand 
or coal-ashes. 

A. helvetica (Swiss A.). This forms 
dense cushions, about half an inch high, 
of diminutive ciliated leaves, in little 

rosettes, each resting on the summit of a 
little column of old and dead, but hidden 
half-dried leaves. A white flower, with 
a yellowish eye, rises from every tiny 
rosette, each flower being almost twice 
as large as the rosette of leaves from 
which it has arisen, and resting on the 
little mass of glaucous green. Looked 
at from the height of a man, the leaves 
are not distinctly seen, the flowers quite 
so ; and thus the effect is somewhat as 
if one were looking from a height down 
on some grey bush, with very large 
flowers and diminutive foliage. Requires 
some care in cultivation, full exposure to 
sun, and a well-drained spot, placed 
between and tightly pressed by stones 
about the size of the fist, which will 
guard it against danger from excessive 
moisture, and at the same time permit 
of the roots passing into the good soil in 
the crevices. 

Androsace imbricata (Silvery A.). 
This differs from the Pyrenean and Swiss 
Androsaces in having the rosettes of a 
beautiful silvery white colour. The pretty 
white flowers are without stalks, and rest 
so thickly on the rosettes as often to over- 
lap each other. It will grow freely in 
loamy soil in free well-drained spots. 
Pyrenees, Alps, and is propagated by 
seeds and division. Syn., A. argentea. 

A. lanuginosa (Himalayan A.). The 
European species of this diminutive family 
usually have their leaves in tufts as com- 
pact as the very Mosses and Lichens. This 
kind has spreading and, sometimes, long 
stems, branched, and bearing umbels of 
flowers of a delicate rose, with a small 
yellow eye ; the leaves nearly an inch 
long, and covered with silky hairs. 

A. 1. leichtlini is a variety ; flowers 
being larger and the colour deeper. It 
was grown for many years at the York 
Nurseries, under the name of A. I. 
oculata, which is the best name for it. 
Add a little limestone to the rock-garden 
light loam, and place the plant so that 
its shoots may fall over the edge of a 
low rock. Where the soil is free, and 
not wet in winter, it may be tried as 
a border plant. It is best propagated 
by cuttings, and flowers in summer and 
early autumn. Himalaya. In a district 




where, from too heavy soil or other 
reasons, it does not thrive on the level 

Androsace lanuginosa in the Rock-Garden 
at The Friars, Henley-on-Thames. 

ground, I find it grows between the stones 
in a " dry " well. 

Androsace obtusifolia (Blunt-leaved A.). 
This has rather large rosettes of leaves, 
somewhat spoon-shaped, with stems clothed 
with short down, from 1 to 4 inches high, 
bearing sometimes one, but generally from 
two to five white or rose-coloured flowers, 
with yellow eyes. It seems to grow taller 
and more vigorously than A. Chamcejasme, 
and in a native state is often gathered by 
handfuls, and placed in vases, with Gen- 
tians and other alpine flowers. Widely 
distributed over the European Alps, aiicl 
usually flowering in midsummer ; but in 
this country opening in spring. The 
culture for A. Chamcejasme will suit this 

A. pubescens (Downy A.). Allied to 
the Swiss and Pyrenean Androsaces in its 
rather large solitary white flowers, with 
pale yellow eyes, just rising above the 
densely packed, slightly hoary leaves, the 
surface of which is covered with stalked 
and star-like hairs. The unopened blooms 
look like small pearls set firmly in a tiny 
five- cleft cup, and are held on stems barely 

rising above the dwarf cushion formed by 
the plant. It may be distinguished from 
its fellows by a small swelling on the 
flower-stem close to the flower, and is an 
exquisite little plant, widely distributed 
over the Pyrenees, Alps, and other Euro- 
pean ranges, flowering in July and August 
in its native state, and in our gardens in 
spring or early summer. It grows without 
difficulty on sunny fissures in deep sandy 
and gritty peat. 

Androsace ciliata (Fringed A.}. IB by 
some considered a variety of the preceding, 
with the flower-stems twice as long as the 
leaves, which are glabrous on the surface 
and ciliated at the margin, the old leaves 
not forming a column beneath each rosette. 
It is, however, distinct. A. cylindrica is 
a variety with the stems rising to half an 
inch high, with persistent leaves, which 
form columns on the stems. It is by some 
considered a species, bears pure white 
flowers in spring, "and should be treated 
like A. pubescens. 

A. pyrenaica (Pyrenean A.). This 
forms a dwarf, compact, and cushioned 
mass of tiny grey rosettes, something like 
the Swiss Androsace, but the paper-white 
flowers with yellowish eyes are not quite 
so well formed, and the flower, instead of 
being seated in the rosettes of leaves, rises 
on a stem from a quarter to half an inch 
high. The leaves are downy, and have a 
keel at the back, and, like those of A. hel- 
vetica, the old leaves are persistent, and 
remain in little columns below the living 
rosette. This plant was grown to great per- 
fection by the late Mr James Backhouse, of 
York, in fissures between large rocks, with 
deep rifts of sandy peat and loam in them. 
It will also grow on a level exposed spot, 
but in that should be surrounded by half- 
buried stones. 

A. villosa (Shaggy A.). A very dwarf 
species, found on many parts of the Alps, 
with leaves, and thickly covered with soft 
white hair or down. The leaves are 
mostly covered with the silky hairs on 
the under side, united in a sub-globular 
rosette, and bear in umbels white or pale 
rosy flowers, with purplish or yellowish 
eyes, on stems from 2 to 4 inches high. 
It is more inclined to spread than any of 
the nearly allied sorts, as it throws out 




runners. It should be planted in fine 
sandy loam ; it may be grown on level 
spots on borders. 

Androsace villosa himalayica is a 
form of villosa, but much more vigorous, 
and flowers later in the spring. Pure white, 
with a very distinct red eye. In the early 
part of the season the foliage is not covered 
with the white silky hairs, but the foliage 
becomes pure white later in the season. 
It is also grown under the name of A. 

flower and foliage can be obtained. It 
also helps to keep the plant dry in 
Androsace sarmentosa Chumleyi 

differs in the stalks being shorter and 
stronger, and the flower much deeper in 
colour. It is a better plant, and is a gem 
for the rock-garden. This likes a sprink- 
ling of limestone on the soil. If kept well 
top-dressed, it will send out young runners 
like a Strawberry plant, and root very 
freely from the same. 

Androsace villosa. 

A. sarmentosa. This is a Himalayan 
species, growing at an elevation of over 
11,000 feet. The flowers, borne in trusses 
of ten to twenty, at first sight resemble 
those of a rosy white-eyed Verbena. Like 
many other woolly-leaved alpines, this 
is difficult to keep alive through our damp 
winters. A piece of glass in a slanting 
position about 6 inches above the plant 
preserves it. Care should also be taken 
to put sandstone, broken fine, immediately 
under the rosettes of leaves and over the 
surface of the soil, to keep every part of 
the plant, except the roots, from contact 
with the soil. A dry calcareous loam is 
best. Where limestone can be had to mix 
with the soil, a much better display of 

A. vitaliana ( Yellow A.). Barely grows 
above an inch high, and produces, scarcely 
above the leaves, flowers large for so small 
a plant, and of a good yellow. On the 
Alps it reminded me of a Liliputian 
furze-bush, looked at through the wrong 
end of a telescope. It is lovely for as- 
sociation with the freer-growing Andro- 
saces and dwarf Gentians, and it may even 
be grown on a border in a not too dry 
district where the soil is open and sandy. 
A dry soil or a heavy one it does not 
like, and when in suitable districts it is 
tried as a border plant on the level ground, 
it should be surrounded by stones, half 
plunged in the ground, to prevent evapora- 
tion, as well as to protect it. It is abund- 




ant on the Alps in various parts of 
Europe, and is increased by careful 
division or by seeds. Syn., Aretia 

Androsace laggeri. This is one of 
the most distinct of the family, and is 
easily recognised by its tiny rosettes of 
sharp-pointed leaves. The flowers are of 
a bright pink, with a lighter centre. 

A. foliosa is the handsomest species, 
the flowers borne in large bunches, rosy- 
red, and larger than in the others. This 
plant revels in good deep limestone soil. 
The stone should be broken into pieces 
about the size of a walnut, and add good 
heavy loam in full sun. Thus the plant 
will form bushes one foot across in one 

A. wulfeniana. This is a very distinct 
plant flowering later than A. ciliata, with 
much deeper blood-rose flowers, borne 
close to the foliage, the whole plant being 
very compact, and forms quite a cushion. 
It does much better when planted on the 
level, and makes a good companion for 
such as A. carnea, A. C. eximia , A. 
ciliata, A. vitaliana, A. laggeri, A. 
cliamcejasme. The above all love the 
sandstone, and should be well looked 
to in the autumn and spring, and be well 
top-dressed with sand and leaf-mould. 

ANEMONE (Windflower}. Beauti- 
ful alpine and meadow plants, to which 
is due much of the flower beauty of 
spring and early summer in northern and 
temperate countries. In early spring, 
or what is winter to us in Northern 
Europe, when the valleys of Southern 
Europe and all round the basin of the 
Mediterranean are beginning to glow 
with colour, we see the earliest Wind- 
flowers in all their loveliness. Those 
arid mountains that in the distance 
often look so barren, have on their 
sunny sides carpets of Windflowers in 
countless variety, often belonging to 
the old favourite in our gardens the 
Poppy Anemone. Later on the Star 
Anemone troops in thousands over the 
terraces, meadows, and fields of the 

same regions. Climbing the mountains 
in April, one finds A. Hepatica nest- 
ling in nooks all over the bushy parts 
of the hills. Farther east, while the 
common Anemones are aflame along 
the Riviera valleys and terraces, the 
blue Greek Anemone is open on the 
hills of Greece ; a little later the blue 
Apennine Anemone blossoms. Mean- 
while our Wood Anemone adorns the 
woods throughout the northern world, 
and here and there through the brown 
Grass on the chalk hills comes the 
purple of the Pasque-flower. The grass 
has grown tall before the graceful 
Alpine Windflower blooms in all the 
natural meadows of the Alps ; while 
later on bloom the high Alpine Wind- 
flowers, which are soon ready to sleep 
again for months in the snow. These 
are but a few examples of what is done 
for our northern world by these Wind- 
flowers, so precious for our gardens 

With many handsome kinds, every- 
one is not worth growing, and so we 
make a choice of the best for the rock- 
garden. Whatever the difficulties in 
the growth of other alpine flowers, 
there are none with the Windflowers ; 
free in most soils, and hardy. There 
are few groups of plants so precious for 
the garden, whether we look at the 
more strictly alpine kinds, the free- 
growing "florists'" kinds, such as the 
Poppy Anemone, or the autumn- 
blooming Japanese Anemones. 

In the rock-garden alpine kinds are 
essential, and, although some are slow, 
they are not difficult to grow. As in 
the case of so many mountain plants 
which grow in soil composed of decayed 
rock, open or warm soils are usually 
best for the alpine kinds in our country. 
The Poppy Anemone is so free in such 
soils that many people raise it as an 
annual, and flower it within the year 




It is somewhat too vigorous for the 
rock-garden, as are all the forms of the 
Japan Windflower. 

Anemone alpina (Alpine Windflower}. 
On nearly every great mountain range 
in northern and temperate climes, this 
is one of the most frequent plants. It 
may be seen in various stages on the 
same day, and on the lower terraces of 
the great mountains and on the green 
slopes of the valleys, it grows as tall as 
in our gardens. The interior of the 
flower is white, the outside tinted with 
pale purplish-blue. It flowers in its 
native country as the snow disappears, 

in open, rather bare, and unmown spots 
along the margins of wood walks, being 
more free in growth than the common 

Anemone apennina (Apennine Wind- 
flower}. This has erect flowers of a fine 
blue, starlike, larger in size than a half- 
crown piece, paler on the outside than 
within, and thickly scattered over a low 
cushion of soft green leaves. Although 
figured in most of our works on British 
plants, and naturalised in various places, 
it is not a true native ; but the hardiest 
of our native plants take not more kindly 
to our clime. It is one of the hardy 

Alpine Windflower. 

and in our gardens at the end of April 
or in the beginning of May. When plants 
are well established in good soil, they 
may be taken up and divided ; it may 
be raised from seed. Sometimes the 
flowers are yellow, in which state the 
plant is known as A. sulphurea. 

A. angulosa (Great Hepatica}. This 
is larger than the common Hepatica, with 
flowers of a fine sky-blue, as large as a 
crown piece, and with five-lobed leaves. 
It thrives in spaces between American 
plants and choice dwarf shrubs, as well as 
on the rock-garden. Where plentiful, it 
may be used as an edging to beds of 
spring-flowering shrubs, and for planting 

spring flowers, and, among the best plants 
that gem the Apennine hills, there is 
not one more worthy of being naturalised. 
It flowers in March and April, is readily 
increased by division, and grows from 
6 inches to 10 inches high. 

A. blanda (Greek Windflower}. A very 
lovely, dwarf, hardy plant, with flowers 
of a deep sapphire blue, opening in the 
dawn of spring, during mild open winters, 
and in warm districts showing as early 
as Christmas, flowering continuously too. 
From the harder and smoother texture 
of the leaves, it can stand exposure to 
cutting winds even better than the 
Apennine Anemone. It has every good 




quality of a hardy alpine plant ; should 
be grown in every rock-garden, planted 
on bare banks that catch the early sun ; 
when plentiful, may be naturalised on dry 
and bare banks. Increased by division 
and by seeds. Frequent on the hills 
of Greece. 

Anemone coronaria (Poppy Anemone). 
A showy handsome plant, grown in our 
gardens from the very earliest times, and 
of which there are a great number of 
varieties, both single and double. The 
single sorts may be readily grown from 
seed. These double varieties may be 
planted in autumn or in spring, or at 
intervals all through the year, to secure 
a succession of flowers ; but the best 
bloom is secured by September or October 
planting, where the winters are not severe. 
The Poppy Anemone does best in a rich 
deep loam, but is not very fastidious. It 
flowers in April and May, and often 
through the winter, but though vigorous 
on many soils, is not quite hardy on 
heavy soils in cool districts. For the 
rock-garden choose the best single uni- 
coloured forms. The ordinary mixed 
kinds are for borders. Seed or division. 

The Greek Anemone (A. blanda). 

A. fulgens (Scarlet Wind/tower). A 
brilliant, hardy, vigorous kind, the large 
scarlet flowers on stems about a foot 
high, springing from a dwarf mass of 
hard, deeply-lobed leaves. It does well 
as a border plant, thrives in the rock- 
garden, and I find it grows readily in 
Grass. The flowers, borne in April and 
May, are vivid scarlet. There are various 
forms of this. Division or by seeds. 

A. halleri (Hatter's Windflower).Tbis 
is one of the finest, as well as perhaps 
the rarest, of the alpine Pasque-flowers. 

The deep lilac flowers grow singly on 
longish slender stems, and are larger than 
those of any of the same group. It does 
best in well-drained soil, rich, and not 
too heavy. It was first found by the 
gentleman whose name it bears, in the 
Valley of St Nicholas, in the Upper 
Valais, and since then, though sparingly, 
in the Eastern Pyrenees. 

Anemone hepatica (Hepatica). A 
beautiful mountain plant, long known in 
our gardens. It is hardy everywhere, is not 
fastidious as to soil, though it loves a 
warm loam, and presents a diversity of 
colour single blue, double blue, single 
white, single red, double red, single pink 
(Garnea), single mauve-purple (Barlouri), 
crimson (splendens), and lilacina. Every 
variety of the Hepatica is worthy of care 
and culture, but I think the best of all 
is the wild plant with its lavender-blue 
flowers so free and so pretty, early in 
the year. The plant, a native of many 
hilly parts of Europe, is usually found 
in half shady positions, which will be 
found to suit it best in a cultivated state 
also. It is readily increased by division 
or by seed, the double kinds by division 

A. nemorosa (Wood Anemone). In 
spring this native plant adorns our woods, 
and also those of nearly all > Europe and 
Asia. In heavy soils in the open fields 
it does not vary, but in woods, where the 
soil is gritty and free, it often varies 
much ; so that we may now and then 
gather several varieties from the same 
place, and so large forms worthy of 
culture have been obtained. There is 
a large white form in cultivation, as well 
as the blue and purplish ones. 

A. palmata. Distinct, with leathery 
leaves and large handsome flowers in 
May and June, glossy, yellow, only open- 
ing to the sun. A native of N. Africa 
and other places on the shores of the 
Mediterranean, this fine plant should be 
grown in deep turfy peat, or light loam 
with leaf-mould, placed on level spots, 
where it can root deeply and grow into 
strong tufts. There is a double variety. 
Increased by division or seed. 

A. patens (Woolly Pasque-flower). This 
blooms early in March in England, and 




on this account it is worth growing. It 
somewhat resembles A. pulsatilla, but 
has larger flowers and leaves. Germany. 
Anemone pulsatilla {Pasque-flower). 
This fine plant is a true native one, and 
when it occurs on a bleak chalk down it is 
freely dotted over the turf. In the garden 
it forms handsome tufts, and flowers 
abundantly as a border or rock plant ; 
it should "be planted in various aspects 
to secure a longer season of bloom. There 
are several varieties, including red, lilac, 
and white kinds, but these are rare. It 
prefers well- drained and light but deep 
soil. Flowers in spring, purplish, on 
stems 5 inches to 12 inches high. Divi- 
sion or by seeds. 

A. pratensis (Meadow Pasque-flower] is 
a native of most of the northern parts of 
Europe, and in some places grows abund- 
antly in dry meadows, bearing small, 
drooping flowers of a deep purple colour, 
the leaves finely cut. Central Germany. 

A. ranunculoides (Yellow Wind/lower). 
Not unlike the common Wood Anemone 
in habit, this is distinct in its yellow 
flowers coming in March and April. It 
is S. European, and though usually less 
free on common soils than the Apennine 
Anemone, it is happy on light, open soil. 
On limestone soils it is best. It is charm- 
ing for association with tufts of the Apen- 
nine or the Greek Windflower. 

A. Robinsoniana (Azure Windflower). 
A lovely plant ; a large form of 
the Wood Anemone, or thought to be 
so. Whatever its origin, it is the most 
precious of all for its colour, hardiness, 
and use in all sorts of places. It is a 
vigorous plant, 6 inches to 10 inches 
high, with firm leaves, the flowers large 
and of a lilac-blue colour. The flower- 
bud is well formed and drooping, the 
flowers well opened out, always erect, and 
bearing in the centre a sheaf of yellow 
stamens. Nothing is more lovely than 
a patch of this in full bloom on a bright 
spring day, and it should form carpets 
on every rock-garden, on the sunny slopes, 
and also on the northern ones to prolong 
the bloom. 

A. stellata (Star Windflower). Wiih 
star-like flowers, ruby, rosy purple, rosy, 
or whitish, usually having a large white 

eye at the base, contrasting with the 
delicate colouring of the rest of the petals, 
and the brown-violet of the stamens and 
styles of the flower. It is not so vigorous 
as the Poppy Anemone, and in Britain 
requires a warm position and a light, 
sandy, well-drained soil. In the rock- 
garden, where we may give this a raised and 
warm place, we may succeed with it, but 
generally it is not a hardy plant in Britain. 
Division and seeds. Syn., A. liortensis. 

Anemone sylvestris (Snowdrop Wind- 
flower). Distinct, with white flowers in 
spring as large as a crown piece, and beauti- 
ful buds,form a vigorous tufted plant, 12 to 
15 inches high. A native of Central Europe, 
it is at home in Britain, but in some soils 
fails to flower. It is best in the lower part 
of the rock-garden or among the shrubs 
near it. Growing almost anywhere freely, 
it should not have the choicer places 
needed for the rarer alpine kinds. Division. 
A. vernalis (Shaggy Pasque-flower). 
One of the Pasque-flower division of the 
Anemones, but very dwarf, the flowers 
large and shaggy, and covered with 
brownish silky hairs. A native of 
Norway, and extreme northern countries, 
also of very elevated positions on the 
Alps and Pyrenees, and rarely seen in 
good condition in our gardens. It should 
be grown in some select spot on the 
rock-garden in well-drained and deep soil. 
The flowers, borne early in spring, are 
whitish inside. 

The above-named Windflowers are the 
most beautiful. Some kinds are omitted 
which, if distinct as species, are too 
vigorous for our purpose, such as A. 
rivularis, and A. narcissiflora, and for 
the rock -gardener the best way is to 
make good use of the proved kinds. It 
is only where the aim is a botanical 
collection that every kind that comes 
will be sought. 

ANTENNARIA (Caffs-Ear). Small 
moor or mountain plants, the cultivated 
kinds of which are all perennial. They 
are of quite secondary use in the rock- 
garden. The Mountain Cat's-ears, A. 
dioica and A. alpina, and varieties 
minima and tomentosa, are neat-grow- 
ing dwarf plants, with white downy 




foliage, hence useful as carpeting plants. 
All are of the simplest culture in any 
ordinary soil. These are good rock- 
garden plants, and the pretty little 
rosy heads of one form of the Mountain 

A. tomentosa (Hort.) is a plant of a 
similar character that has been much 
used as a dwarf silvery plant in the 
flower garden. It is hardy, and of easy 
increase and culture in bare spots. 

Anemone vernalis. (Engraved from a drawing by H. G. Moon.) 

Everlasting may be seen in the cottage 
gardens of Warwickshire. These last 
kinds only grow a few inches high, and 
are very easily increased by division. 

ANTHEMIS (Camomile). Of the 
kinds of these in cultivation there are 
few worth a place on the rock-garden. 
A. Aizoon is a dwarf silvery rock-plant 




from 2 inches to 4 inches high, 
having small white Daisy-like flowers. 
Its chief beauty is in the leaves, which 
are covered with a white downy sub- 
stance. It should be grown in the 
rock-garden in exposed places. Some 
handsome kinds are too vigorous for 
the rock-garden. 

Anthemis Macedonica. 

ANTHERICUM (St Bruno's Lily). 
Graceful Lily-like alpine pasture- 
plants, among the most beautiful of 
hardy flowers. Though rather taller 
than most rock-plants, their alpine 
associations as well as their beauty 
should give them a place among the 
more vigorous plants or among the 
rock-garden shrubs. 

Anthericum hookeri. A showy plant, 
1 foot to 20 inches high, flowering in early 
summer, bright yellow, nearly half an 
inch across, freely in racemes, 3 inches 
to 5 inches long. The leaves form dense 
tufts in ordinary soil, but the plant 
grows best in one that is moist and deep, 
or in peaty bog. New Zealand. 

A. liliago (the St Bernard's Lily). From 

1 foot to 2 feet high, with flower-spikes 
that bear numerous pure white flowers in 
early summer. An easily grown plant, not 
so pretty as the St Bruno Lily. 

A. ramosum has the flower-stems about 

2 feet high, much branched, and bearing 
small white flowers ; it has narrow Grass- 
like leaves, and the plant soon grows into 
large tufts. 

Anthericum liliastmm (St Bruno's 
Lily). A most graceful alpine meadow 
plant, in early summer throwing up spikes 
of white, Lily-like blossoms. The plants 
must be protected from slugs and cater- 
pillars, from attacks of which they are 
liable to suffer. It thrives as a good colony 
or group in an open space between dwarf 
shrubs. Where plentiful, it would be 
an interesting subject to naturalise in a 
grassy place in cool soil. Syns., Paradisea 
and Czackia. 

The major variety of the St Bruno's 
Lily has much larger flowers (2 inches 
across) than the wild plant, and has the 
peculiarity of sending up large single 
flowers from the root. These open before 
the flowers on the spike, and are larger, 
resembling the white blooms of a Pan- 
cratium. This habit of the plant points 
to it as distinct from the ordinary type of 
St Bruno's Lily. It grows 3 feet high in 
good soil, and is a fine plant, but though 
many think highly of it, the species is 
more elegant in form. 

ANTHYLLIS (Kidney Vetch). 
Dwarf mountain plants of the Pea 
family, of which there are some half 
a dozen species in cultivation. As far 
as now known, few are worth growing 
on the rock-garden. 

Anthyllis montanus, the Mountain 
Kidney Vetch, is a very hardy rock-plant ; 
dwarf, about 6 inches high, the leaves 
pinnate, and nearly white with down, 
the pinkish flowers in dense heads, rising 
little above the foliage, and forming with 
the hoary leaves pretty little tufts. I 
have never seen any alpine plant thrive 
better on the stiff clay of North London. 
Eesisting any cold or moisture, it is 
among dwarf plants of the first order of 
merit as a rock-plant. Alps of Europe ; 
division and seeds. 

A. erinacea is a singular-looking, much- 
branched, tufted, spiny, almost leafless 
shrub, about 1 foot high, with purplish 

A. Vulneraria (Woundwort). A 
native plant, is pretty, and well worth 
growing on d ry banks. There are varieties, 
white and red. 




ANTIRRHINUM (Snapdragon). 
Rock-plants and perennial herbs, 
mostly hardy and many of them from 
mountainous regions, but none so 
popular in gardens as the handsome 
Snapdragon (A. majus) which, like the 
Wallflowers, often grows on walls and 
stony places. Among the many 
species, some few are seen in cultiva- 
tion from time to time, but they do not 
take a large place in gardens, among 
the best being A. Asarina, A. rupestre, 
glutinosum, and sempervirens, throwing 
in poor soil and dry spots. It is pro- 
bable there are not a few of these plants 
of much beauty not yet in cultivation. 

AQUILEGIA (Columbine). Alpine 
or mountain copse perennials, often 
beautiful in habit, colour, and in form 
of flower, widely distributed over the 
northern and mountain regions of 
Europe, Asia, and America. Among 
them may be found great variety in 
colour white, rose, buff, blue, and 
purple, and intermediate shades even 
in the same flower, the American kinds 
having yellow, scarlet, and delicate 
shades of blue. Though often taller 
than most of the plants strictly termed 
alpine, they are true children of the 
hills, and the alpine kinds, living in 
the high bushy places in the Alps 
and Pyrenees, and North Asian moun- 
tain chains, are among the fairest of 
all flowers. Climbing the sunny hills 
of the sierras in California, we meet 
with a large scarlet Columbine, that 
has almost the vigour of a Lily, and 
in the mountains of Utah, and on 
many others in the Rocky Mountain 
region, there is the blue Columbine 
(A. ccerulea), with its long and slender 
spurs and lovely cool tints. Although 
many cottage gardens are alive with 
Columbines in early summer, there is 
some difficulty in cultivating the rarer 
alpine kinds. They require to be 

carefully planted in sandy or gritty 
though moist ground, and in well- 
drained ledges in the rock-garden, 
in half-shady positions or northern 
exposures. Most wild Columbines, 
however, fail to form enduring tufts 
in our gardens, and they must be 
raised from seed as frequently as good 
seed can be got. It is the alpine 
character of the home of many of the 
Columbines which makes the culture 
of some of the lovely kinds so difficult, 
and which causes them to thrive so 
well in the north of Scotland, while 
they fail in our ordinary dry garden 
borders. No plants are more cap- 
ricious ; take, for instance, the charm- 
ing A. glandulosa, grown like a weed 
at Forres, in Scotland, and so short- 
lived in most gardens. Nor is this 
an exception; it is characteristic of 
other alpine kinds. The best soil for 
them is deep, well-drained, moist loam. 

It is probable many of the species 
are biennial, and that it is well to 
raise them from seed frequently ; and 
to avoid the results of crossing, it is 
better to get the seed, if we can, from 
the home of the species. The seeds 
should be sown early in spring, and 
the young plants pricked out into 
pans, or into an old garden-frame, as 
soon as they are fit to handle, remov- 
ing them early in August to the 
borders ; select a cloudy day for the 
work, and give them a little shading 
for a few days. 

Mr Whittaker, of Mosely, near 
Derby, has been very successful with 
both A. glandulosa and the blue 
variety of A. leptoceras, and he grew 
them in a thoroughly drained, deep, 
rich, alluvial soil ; the same were the 
conditions of Mr Grigor's success. 

Mr Brockbank speaks hopefully of 
growing the finer kinds from seed. 
He says : "I attribute failures to 




plants sent by nurserymen in very 
small pots, and it will be found that 
you can never get up a good stock 
of Aquilegias by purchase. The 
proper way is to grow your own 
from seed. Sow in shallow wooden 
trays, or in pots, and grow the plants 
on carefully in a cold frame. When 
the seedlings are sufficiently large, 
prick them out into the places wherein 
you wish them to grow some in pots 
and some in the garden and plant 
them in various situations, here in 
the shade and there in the open, so 
as to have as many chances of success 
with them as possible. I always plant 
three plants in a triangle, 4 inches 
apart, so that any group can readily 
be taken up and potted if we wish 
it. Once planted, leave them alone 
ever afterwards, or, if you move them, 
take up a large ball of earth with 
them, so as not to loosen the soil 
about the roots more than can be 
helped. When the plants have 
flowered and the seed has ripened, 
my practice is to gather some for 
future sowing, and to scatter the rest 
around the plant, raking the soil 
lightly first, and shaking the seed 
out of the pods every three or four 
days. From the seed thus scattered 
young plants come up by hundreds, 
often as thick as a mat, and may be 
transplanted, when suitably grown, 
into proper situations. In this way, 
I have here abundance of Columbines, 
and amongst these plenty of A. glan- 
dulosa self-sown, and as strong and 
hardy as any." 

The late^ Mr J. C. Niven, of the 
Hull Botanic Gardens, one who knew 
alpine and hardy plants so well, sug- 
gests that all the Columbines, except 
the common one, should be looked 
upon as biennials rather than good 
perennials. The seeds should be 

sown early in spring, and the young 
plants pricked out into pans or into 
an old garden-frame as soon as they 
are fit to handle, removing them 
early in August to their permanent 
positions ; select a cloudy day for 
the work, and give them a little 
artificial shading for a few days. 
Carry out the same process year after 
year, the old plants being discarded 
after flowering. Any attempt at divid- 
ing the old roots usually fails. There 
are, however, instances, especially on 
light soils and hilly districts, where 
several of them remain good for years. 

Aquilegia alpina (Alpine Columbine). 
A pretty alpine plant, widely distri- 
buted over the higher parts of the Alps 
of Europe, the stems from 1 foot to 2 feet 
high, bearing showy blue flowers. There 
is a lovely variety with a white centre to 
the flower, which, from its colour, is 
certain to be preferred, and many will 
say they have not got the "true" plant 
if they possess only the variety with 
blue flowers. It does not require any 
very particular care in culture, but should 
have a place among the taller plants of 
the rock-garden, and be planted in a 
rather moist but not shady spot in deep 
loam, with leaf-soil. 

A. calif ornica (Californian Columbine). 
One of the stoutest of the American 
kinds ; the spurs are long, bright orange, 
attenuated. To appreciate the beauty of 
the flower, it must be turned up from its 
pendent position ; then the beautiful 
shell-like arrangement of the petals is 
seen, the bright yellow marginal line 
gradually shading off into deep orange. 
The seeds of this kind should be saved, 
as having once blossomed, the old plant 
is apt to perish. I have never been disap- 
pointed with the seedlings diverging from 
their parent type in character. This plant 
thrives best on a deep loam and moist. 
Syns., A. eximia, A. truncata. 

A. canadensis (Canadian Columbine). 
The flowers of this are smaller than those 
of the Californian kinds ; this, however, 
is compensated for by the brilliancy of 
the scarlet colour of the sepals and the 




bright yellow of the petals. It is a 
slender grower, about 1 foot in height, with 
sharply-notched leaves, and is easily raised 
from seed. There is a yellow form. 
Writing of this species, Mr W. Falconer 
says : " To see it at its best, you should 
see it among the rocks, where it grows 
in abundance in our woods, and always 
in high rocky places ; .there it springs 
from the narrowest chink, a little bush 
of leaves and flowers, or maybe in an 
earthy mat upon a rock you find a colony 
of Columbines, Virginian Saxifrages, and 
pale Corydalis ; they usually grow to- 

Aquilegia chrysantha (Golden Colum- 
bine). This plant was at first by persons 
who look at herbarium distinctions only, 
erroneously supposed to be a variety of the 
Blue Columbine, and named such by 
Torrey and Gray. After cultivating the 
plant, however, for several years, Dr 
Gray described it as a new species. The 
plant comes from a different geographical 
range, grows taller, flowers nearly a 
month later, and blooms for two months 
continuously. It has a very long and 
slender spur, often over 2 inches in 
length, is hardy, and thrives even on 
the stiff clay soils north of London, and 
enjoys wet, though it is none the less 
free in more happy situations. It comes 
true from seed, which is best raised under 
glass, the seedlings being pricked out 
carefully when young. Attaining a height 
of 4 feet under good culture, it is a fine 
plant for grouping among the shrubs of 
the rock-garden. It would be a pity if 
such a distinct, beautiful, hardy plant 
should degenerate in our gardens, by 
crossing with other kinds. 

A. cserulea (Blue Columbine}. Beauti- 
ful and distinct, the spurs of the flower 
almost as slender as a thread, a couple 
of inches long, twisted, and with green 
tips. It is in the blue and white erect 
flower that the beauty lies, the effect 
being even better than in the blue and 
white form of the alpine Columbine. It 
is a hardy plant, blooming rather early in 
summer, and continuing a long time in 
flower. It grows from 12 inches to 15 
inches high, and is worthy of the choicest 
position on the rock-garden. Unlike the 

Golden Columbine, it is not a true 
perennial on many soils, though a better 
report in this respect comes from the cool 
hill gardens. To get strong healthy plants 
that will flower freely, seeds of this kind 
should be sown annually, and treated 
after the manner of biennals, as it rarely 
does well after standing the second year, 
and in many cases dies out before that 
time. The flowers are, however, so lovely 
and so useful for cutting, that it is de- 
serving of care to have it in good 

This is one of the plants which deserve 
a home in the nursery in a choice little 
bed to itself, from which its flowers could 
be gathered for the house. The seed is 
best sown as soon as may be after it is 
ripe, in cool frames near the glass, or in 
rough boxes in cool frames. With abund- 
ance of fresh seed, there will be no 
difficulty in raising it in fine beds of 
soil in the open air, protecting the beds 
from birds or slugs. The seed is usually too 
precious to risk in the open air. 

What is supposed to be a white variety 
of this plant is sometimes called A. 
leptoceras, which was indeed the first name 
given to the plant. 

" M.," writing from Utah, says : " Some 
plants of this species seen in Utah seem 
to belong to a distinct variety ; their 
colour is not blue, or blue and white, 
but pure white or yellowish-white. They 
were flowering in great quantity 10,000 
feet above the sea, wherever any tiny 
stream trickled down the mountain slopes, 
and the flowers at a little distance re- 
minded one more of those of Eucharis 
amazonica than anything else. The plant 
grows in handsome tufts 2 feet or 3 feet 
high, the flowers large and broad, and 
the spurs very long (2 inches at least), 
with a rounded knob at the top." 

Aciuilegia fragrans (Fragrant Colum- 
bine). This is very distinct, growing about 
1 foot high, with downy, somewhat clammy 
leaves, and very free-flowering. The flowers 
are pale yellow or straw, with short hooked 
spurs. Himalayas. 

A. glandulosa (Altai Columbine). A 
beautiful species, with handsome blue 
and white flowers, and a tufted habit, 
flowering in early summer a fine blue, 




with the tips of the petals creamy -white, 
the spur curved backwards towards the 
stalk, the sepals dark blue, large, and 
nearly oval, with a long footstalk. A 
native of the Altai Mountains, and one 
of the best kinds for the rock-garden, 
in well-drained, deep, sandy soil. In- 
creased by seed and by very careful 
division of the fleshy roots, when the 
plant is in full leaf. Mr William 
Jennings informs me that, if divided 

sowing, and when full grown is impatient 
of removal, but if not transplanted when 
more than two years old, it continues to 
flower for at least five or six years, some- 
times for more. Those who can get true 
seed of this fine plant will do well to 
raise it with care and plant out when 
very young into well-prepared beds of 
moist, deep peaty or sandy soil, putting 
some of the plants in a northern or cool 
position. It would be well, also, to sow 

Flower of Blue Columbine. 
(Aquilegia ccerulea). 

when it is at rest, the roots are almost 
certain to perish at least, on cold soils. 
The Forres Nurseries, in Morayshire, 
have long been famed for the successful 
growth of this plant ; it has no special 
care there, and there is no secret about 
the culture, which is wholly in the open 
air. The soil is described as "a rich 
mellow earth, partaking a little of bog 
or peat earth, and rather cool and moist 
than otherwise." It flowers the year after 

some seeds where the plants are to remain, 
and in various other ways to try and 
overcome the difficulty which has hitherto 
generally attended the culture of this 
lovely plant. The seeds of other Colum- 
bines have a bright perisperm, while those 
of this species are unburnished, arising 
from little corrugated markings with 
which the microscope shows them to be 

Mr Brockbank writes : " I have referred 




to the original specimen of A. glandulosa, 
sent by Prof. Regel, of the St Petersburg 
Botanic Gardens, from the Altai Moun- 
tains. It is a different plant from the 
A. glandulosa jucunda, being more than 
twice as tall, and in every way more 
robust. The specimen at Kew is nearly 
one and a half times the height of the 
large folio paper in which it is preserved, 
and the flower measures 4|- inches in 
diameter. The plants in Kew Gardens 
are not this variety the true variety 
of A. glandulosa, and, as far as I know, 
it is not to be found with any of our 

Aquilegia glauca (Grey -leaved Colum- 
bine). A distinct and interesting plant, 
though not so showy as some of the other 
kinds. It grows from 18 inches to 2 feet 
high, with glaucous foliage, the spurs of 
the flowers being rather short and red, 
and shading into the pale yellow of the 
other parts of the flower. 

A. Skinneri (Skinner's Columbine). A 
distinct and beautiful kind, the flowers 
011 slender pedicels, the sepals being 
greenish, the petals small and yellow ; 
the spurs nearly 2 inches long, of a 
bright orange-red, and attenuated into 
a slightly-incurved club-shaped point, the 
leaves glaucous, their divisions sharply 
incised ; the flower-stems 18 inches to 
2 feet high. Though coming from so far 
south as Guatemala, owing to the fact 
that it is met with in the higher mountain 
districts, it is nearly, if not quite, hardy. 
Here, again, crossing steps in, and too 
frequently mars its beauty. While the 
name may be often seen, the plant is 
rare, nor are the conditions that insure 
its thriving well known, if they exist with 
us. It is a late bloomer. 

A. Stuarti (Stuart's Columbine). This, 
a cross between the true A. glandulosa 
and A. Witmanni, was raised by the 
late Dr Stuart, who tells us that it is, 
in his opinion, an improved form of A. 
glandulosa, refined in colouring, free 
flowering, very large and attractive. It 
is perfectly hardy, flowers three weeks 
before any other Columbine, and always 
comes true from seed. He recommends 
that a bed be trenched 2 feet deep, with 
plenty of manure in the bottom, sowing 

the seed in rows, and allowing the seed- 
lings to flower where they are to stand. 
The plants may be thinned out to 8 
inches apart, allowing 12 inches between, 
the rows. In time the foliage will cover 
the entire bed, and the plants will pro- 
duce an abundance of bloom. By top- 
dressing in the autumn the plants improve 
in vigour every season, a three-year-old 
bed being a mass of bloom. 

Aquilegia viridiflora (Green Colum- 
bine). A modest and pretty kind, with 
sage-green flowers. Out-of-doors in the 
border the plant may not be noticed, but if 
a flowering spray or two be cut and 
placed in a small glass, its beauty of form 
and colour too, may be seen. There is a 
variety of it, known as A. atropurpurea, 
of which the sepals are green, the petals- 
deep chocolate. The plant is a strong 
grower, a native of Siberia, and is the 
same as Fischer's A. dahurica. It has 
a delicate fragrance, too. It is a rare 
plant in gardens. Seed. 

A. vulgaris (Common Columbine). The 
only native Columbine, and as beautiful,, 
I think, as some of the rarer alpine kinds, 
and no one who has once seen it wild,, 
will readily forget its beauty. It would 
be most desirable also to select and fix 
varieties of the Common Columbine of 
good distinct colours. Being a native of 
mountain woods and copses, this may be 
grouped with good effect in the shrubby 
part of the rock -garden. The best white 
form of this plant is a beautiful and 
stately Columbine, which sows itself 
freely in various positions when once 
brought into the garden, and looks well 
wherever it comes. The hybrid forms- 
raised in gardens and much grown and 
talked of, are not so beautiful as this and 
other wild kinds. 

ARABIS (Rock Cress). Early and 
brave, these mountain plants have 
few of striking importance for the 
rock-garden, and these are of easy cul- 
ture, and increase so free, indeed, that 
they are grown as edgings, and often 
fall over cottage garden banks and 
rough walls, giving pretty effects. 
In this family, it may be that, as the 




mountain world becomes better known, 
gems for the rock-garden may appear, 
but, so far, as already tried in our 
gardens, few of the kinds are attractive 
in colour. 

Arabis albida (White Rock Cress). 
Through long years of neglect of all sorts 
of dwarf hardy plants, this, the " white 
Arabis " of our gardens, has held its own, 
and is now seen in almost every garden. 
A native of the mountains of Greece, and 
many parts in adjacent regions, it is as 
much at home in Britain as is the Daisy, 
and will grow in any soil or situation, in 
cities as well as in the open country, 
where its profuse sheets of snowy bloom 
may expand unblemished under the 
earliest suns of spring. By seed, or 
cuttings, it is easily increased, and a 
valuable ornament of the border and the 
spring garden. On the rock-garden it 
is well fitted for falling over the brows 
of rocks ; it may also be used as an edging. 
It is closely allied to the Alpine Rock 
Cress (A. alpina), so widely distributed 
on the Alps, and by some would be con- 
sidered a sub-species of that plant, but 
it is sufficiently distinct, and by far the 
best kind. 

A double form has recently been grown, 
and it is a good plant. There is a varie- 
gated variety in cultivation, known by 
the name of Arabis albida variegata, which 
is useful as an edging-plant, both in spring 
and summer flower-gardens. It is the 
dwarfest and whitest of the variegated 
Rock Cresses that are grown under the 
names of A. albida variegata. The yellower 
and stronger variety, frequently called 
A. albida variegata, and which is the best 
for general purposes, is a form of Arabis 
crispata, of which the ordinary green form 
is not worthy of cultivation. 

A. blepharophylla (Rosy Rock Cress). 
Like the white Arabis in its habit, size, 
and leaves, the flowers are of a rosy purple, 
and like a miniature Rocket, and thriving 
as freely as the old single plant, distinct 
from any flower of the same order in 
cultivation. It varies a good deal, and 
there is no difficulty in selecting a strain 
of the brightest rose, but it does not 
seem to take to our country, and is rare. 

It is best raised every year from seed, 
which it yields freely. In mild districts, 
and on light soils, plants should be tried 
out in winter. The brighter forms are 
effective a considerable distance off. A 
native of North America. 

Among other kinds of Arabis, A. pro- 
currens is a dwarf spreading kind, with 
shining leaves and small whitish flowers. 
There is a variegated form of it (A. p. varie- 
gata) which is worthy of a place among 
variegated hardy plants. The prettiest 
of the variegated Rock Cresses is A. lucida 
variegata. It forms very neat and effec- 
tive edgings in winter, spring, and summer 
flower gardens, thrives best and is easiest 
to increase by division in open, sandy, 
and yet moist soil. The best time to 
divide it is early in autumn, April, or 
very early in May. A. purpurea, an 
interesting species for botanical, large, or 
curious collections, and bearing pale bluish 
and lilac flowers, is not worthy of general 
cultivation while we possess such brilliant 
plants as the Aubrietias. A. arenosa, from 
the south of Europe, is a pretty annual 
kind that may prove useful in the spring 
garden, and which might be naturalised 
on dry banks. A. petrcea is a neat, sturdy 
little plant, with pure white flowers, a 
native of some of the higher Scotch 
mountains, and very rarely seen in 
cultivation, but when well developed in 
a moist yet well- exposed spot, is pretty. 
A. aubrietiodes is a pretty soft rosy kind, 
not yet much known. 

Trailing mountain shrubs, usually 
evergreen, of good habit and hardy, 
and useful among the dwarf shrubs 
of the rock-garden. The berries of 
some kinds are a favourite food of 

All are interesting little shrubs, 
thriving in peaty loam. Seeds offer 
the readiest means of increase, though 
all may be increased by layer. The 
two native kinds are excellent rock- 

Arctostaphylos alpina (Black Bear- 
berry). A plant very rarely seen in culti- 
vation, a native of high alpine or arctic 




regions, and of the northern Highlands 
of Scotland, distinguished by its thin, 
toothed leaves, which are not evergreen, 
but wither away at the end of the season, 
and by its bluish-black berries. 

Arctostaphylos alpina (The Black Bear- 
berry). The badge of the Clan Ross is rare 
as a native plant, being confined to dry, 
barren Scotch mountains from Perth and 
Forfar northwards, and ascending to eleva- 
tions of nearly 3000 feet above sea level. 
It forms compact, woody patches, with 
stout, leafy branches, and scaly bark. 
The deciduous leaves, wrinkled above, 
have ciliated margins, and are narrowed 
into a short stalk. They vary in length 
from ^ inch to 1| inches, and are coarsely 
toothed above the middle ; the white 
blossoms are produced in twos or threes, 
and appear with the young leaves. The 
berry is black, and measures | inch in 

A. uva-ursi (Bearberry). A small and 
prostrate creeping mountain shrub, with 
leathery leaves, and their under side 
netted with veins, and with the sepals 
at the base and not at the crown of the 
berry. The flowers are of a rose-colour 
in clusters at the apex of the branches ; 
the berries of a brilliant red. It is a 
native of dry heaths and barren places 
in hilly countries, and is easier to culti- 
vate than almost any other small 
mountain or bog shrub, thriving well 
in common garden soil. It is a useful 
plant in the rock-garden, when its shining 
evergreen masses of leaves fall over rocks, 
and also on the margins of beds of 

Another kind widely different from 
all the foregoing, is one cultivated in 
the Edinburgh Botanic Gardens under 
the name of A. calif ornica; this is -"a 
very vigorous, trailing, evergreen shrub, 
with spathulate, leathery, entire leaves. 
A. pungens is a much branched, erect- 
growing shrub, with leathery-pointed 
leaves, from 1 inch to 1^ inches long, 
downy when young and smooth, when 
old, the blossoms white, tinged with 

A. Manzanita. A native of Cali- 
fornia, where it gets to be a good- 
sized shrub, and bears abundantly large 

drupe-like fruits of a pleasant taste, 
which are much used as food by the 
Indians of that region, but it is not of 
proved hardiness in our islands. 

ARENARIA (Sandworfy Moun- 
tain and heath plants of great variety, 
of dwarf and sometimes mossy habit, 
and some bearing pretty flowers. They 
are easy to cultivate, quite hardy, 
and though not alpine plants of the 
highest importance, they are, never- 
theless, of value in the rock-garden, 
grow freely in almost any garden 
soil, and are of facile increase by 
division or seed. 

Arenaria balearica (Stone Sandwort). 
A tiny self -nourishing plant, coating the 
face of stones with a close, Thyme-like ver- 
dure as with Moss and then scattering 
over the green mantle countless little 
starry flowers. I write this sitting on 
a rock, to which it clings closer than 
Moss. It has crept over the edge of 
some rocks which slope to water, and 
dropped its little mantle of green down 
to within 18 inches of the water, but 
all the flowers look up from the shade 
to the lig;ht. Right and left there are 
boulders in various positions, on every 
face of which it may be seen, as every 
tiny joint roots against the earthless face 
of the stones. To establish it on stones, 
plant in any soil near on the cool side, 
and it will soon begin to clothe them. 
It flowers in spring, is readily increased 
by division, and quite easy to grow on 
most soils, and even on the face of walls 
(north side), and on stones and rocks in 
the sunnier districts on the cool sides. 
Easily naturalised in rocky places. 

A. Huteri (Huter's Sandwort), is a 
charming alpine form, growing freely 
in sandy loam in the level parts of the 
rock-garden. A top-dressing of sand and 
leaf -mould is very beneficial, enabling the 
young shoots to root freely. 

A. laricifolia (Larch-leaved Sandwort). 
The leaves of this are narrow, and 
arranged in clusters, bearing some slight 
resemblance to those of the Larch, the 
flowers white, in clusters of three to six 
on each stem. This is a native of Swit- 




zerlaiid, and should be placed on a rather 
high ledge. 

Arenaria montana (Mountain Sand- 
wort). A handsome plant, having the habit 
of a Cerastium, and large white flowers. 
It forms spreading tufts, on which the 
flowers come so thickly in early summer 
as to obscure the foliage. It is one of 
the prettiest early summer flowering 
plants, succeeding the white evergreen 
Candytufts and like flowers. S. Europe. 

A. grandiflora is a large-flowered form 
of A. montana. 

A. multicaulis. From the south of 
Spain, resembles A. balearica, but has 
more ovate leaves, its flowers higher 
above the foliage and larger. 

quence of the prostrate habit of both 
shoots and flowers, the plant is seen to 
much greater advantage when placed on 
some little bank above the eye. It is a 
native of the northern parts of Great 
Britain, and is readily increased by 

Of other Arenarias in cultivation, the 
best and most interesting are A. ciliata, 
a rare British plant ; A. triflora, a neat 
species in cultivation in some curious 
collections ; and A. graminifolia. These, 
however, and many others are scarcely 
worth growing, except in botanical col- 

Some of the species above-named will 
be found in some books under Alsine. 

Arenaria laricifolia. 

A. purpurascens (Purplish Sandwort). 
Distinguished from other kinds by 
its purplish flowers on a densely-tufted 
mass of smooth, pointed leaves. It is 
frequent over the Pyrenean Chain ; and 
it should be associated on the rock- 
garden with the smallest Kockfoils and 
plants which, though dwarf, are not slow 

A. tetraquetra (Square-stemmed A.). 
This forms compact and singular- 
looking tufts, in consequence of the 
leaves, each with a white cartilage along 
the margin, being in four rows. The 
sepals are also margined. It is worth a 
place where the other small Sandworts 
are grown. 

A. verna (Vernal Sandwort). Grows in 
prostrate tufts, covered in April and 
May with multitudes of starry white 
flowers with green centres. In conse- 

Syn., Alsine laricifolia. 

ful American hardy Orchid, which 
grows in wet meadows or bog-land, 
blossoming in May and June. Each 
plant bears a bright rose-purple flower, 
showy on its bed of Sphagnum, Cran- 
berry^ and Sedge. The little bulbs 
grow in a mossy mat formed by the 
roots and decaying herbage of plants 
and moss. In cultivation it requires 
the same soil in a shady moist spot, 
with a northern exposure, the soil a 
mixture of well-rotted manure and 
Sphagnum. During winter, protect 
the bed with some cover, for it is not 
so hardy in gardens as in its marshy 
home. Newfoundland to Ontario and 
southward to N. Carolina. 




ARMERIA (Thrift or Sea-Pink). 
Modest perennials, natives of the 
rocky shore and mountain ground ; 
of much beauty of colour. They are 
plants of easy culture and increase, 
and they may be used as carpets and 
edgings, one or two kinds being native. 

Armeria vulgaris (Thrift). This in- 
habitant of our sea-shores, and also of the 
tops of the Scotch mountains and the Alps 
of Europe, is very pretty, with its soft lilac 

15 inches to 20 inches high, each bearing 
a large, roundish, closely-packed head of 
handsome satiny rosy flowers. It comes 
from North Africa and S. Europe, and, 
though hardy on free and well-drained 
soils, occasionally perishes during a very 
severe winter, especially on cold soils ; 
it should therefore be placed in a warm 
position on the rock-garden, and in deep, 
sandy loam. It is known under various 
names A.formosa, A. latifolia, A. mauri- 
tanica, A. pseudo-armeria, Statice lusitanica. 

Thrift on the hills at Anglesey. (Engraved from a photograph by Miss A. 
Cummings, King's Buildings, Chester.) 

or white flowers springing from cushions 
of grass-like leaves ; but it is the deep 
rosy form of it, rarely seen wild, that 
deserves a place in rock-gardens. It is 
like the common Thrift in all respects 
but the colour of the flowers, which are 
of a showy rose. It is useful for the 
spring garden, for covering bare banks 
or borders in shrubberies, and for edg- 
ings. Occasional division (say every two 
or three years) and replanting are desirable. 
A. cephalotes (Great Thrift}. From a 
dense mass of crowded leaves, 4 inches 
to 6 inches long, spring numerous stems 

It is, fortunately, easily raised from seed ; 
and, as it is not easily increased by divi- 
sion, it is a good plan to sow a little of 
it every year. Varies a little when raised 
from seed ; but all the forms I have seen 
are worthy of cultivation. 

flower). Borage-worts, and among the 
handsomest of flowers, distinct and 

A. echioides is 1 foot to 18 inches 
high, the flowers primrose-yellow, with 




five black spots on the corolla, which 
gradually fade to a lighter shade, and 
finally disappear. It is hardy, succeeds 
either on the rock-garden or in a well- 
drained border, and prefers partial 
shade. It is a native of the Caucasus 
and Northern Persia, and is best in 
fine, deep loam. Young plants bloom 
long, which adds to their charms. 
Seeds are not freely produced, but it 
may be increased by cuttings. A. 
Griffithi is a tender annual, and though 
pretty, not so valuable as A. echioides. 

ARTEMISIA ( Wormwood). Half 
shrubby and perennial plants of the 
steppes, arid plains, and mountains ; 
of a bitter flavour and pungent odour, 
and which give a distinct greyish hue 
to many arid regions, but are often of 
secondary interest only for the rock- 
garden. Among a large number of 
species known, there are many of slight 
interest for the rock-garden, and a 
few are neat in habit and pretty in 
flower, such as the Silvery Wormwood, 
A. frigida, glacialis, nana, sericea, and 
Baumgarteni, all of easy culture and 

_ ASARUM (Wild Ginger). Curious 
little plants resembling Cyclamens in 
their leaves, but of little garden value. 
A. canadense is the Canadian Snake- 
root, which bears in spring curious 
brownish-purple flowers, the roots 
being strongly aromatic, like Ginger. 
A. virginicum is the Heart Snake- 
root, with leaves thick and leathery, 
with the upper surface mottled with 
white. A. caudatum is from Oregon, 
and much like the others in habit, 
but the divisions of the flower have 
long tail-like appendages. A. euro- 
pceum is the Asarabacca, the flowers 
being greenish, about J inch long, and 
appearing close to the ground. The 
plants are only valuable for the effect 
of the leaves in dry poor spots. 

ASPERULA ( Woodruff). Dwarf 
plants of the Bedstraw (Galium} order, 
so far as known of secondary use in 
the rock-garden. 

Asperula odorata ( Woodruff). A. little 
wood plant, abundant in some parts of 
Britain, is worthy of a place in the rock- 
garden, in localities where it does not occur 
wild. It is sometimes used as an edging to 
the beds in cottage gardens, and it mixes 
prettily with Ivy where that is allowed to 
clothe the ground. It belongs to a numer- 
ous genus of plants, few, however, of which 
are worth a place among the choicer 

A. azurea setosa is a pretty early spring 
flowering hardy blue annual, flowering 
in April and May. Sow the previous 
autumn. A. cynanchica is a rosy red 
perennial, a good rough rock plant. 

ASTER (Starwort).A beautiful 
family of northern plants, chiefly 
American, but also some, and among 
the handsomest, European. Although 
mostly tall and often too vigorous, 
there are some beautiful mountain 
kinds, and, to a great extent, the 
family are found on mountains ; but 
they are rarely suitable for the rock- 
garden. One of the handsomest 
plants in the alpine meadows of 
Europe and other countries is the 
alpine Starwort, but in cultivation 
and richer ground it is not so at- 
tractive as in the wild state. Never- 
theless, in large rock-gardens some of 
the dwarfer kinds may often be useful, 
all the more so to those who enjoy 
their gardens mostly in the autumn. 

Among the best of all, however, 
are the European Starworts, A. amellus 
and A. acris, of which last there are 
dwarf forms, precious for their fine 
colour and not too tall for the bolder 
parts of the rock-garden, and for 
growing among the shrubs near it, 
as advised elsewhere in this book. 

Some of the Indian Starworts are 
dwarfer and more refined in habit 




than the American, and in the vast 
and not yet explored regions, there 
may be gems for the rock-garden. 

The dwarf habit of these Hima- 
layan Daisies makes them valuable 
for the rock-garden. They are all 
found in the temperate regions of 
the Himalayas, a few at high eleva- 
tions, and are hardy. 

Aster stracheyi. A pretty plant, more 
or less hairy, and rarely more than 1 
inch to 3 inches or 4 inches in height. 
The flowers are about the size of those of 
the Michaelmas Daisy, the involucre 
bracts few, scarcely overlapping, all 
about one length, and usually narrow 
and pointed. Native of the Western 

Aster stracheyi. 

Alpine Himalayas, Kumaon, at 13,000 
feet elevation, flowering with us in early 
summer. It is hardy in the open air, 
and forms a charming rock-garden plant, 
thriving best in half -shady spots. 

A. alpinus (Alpine Starwort). This 
might be called the blue Daisy of the 
Alps, so diminutive is it when met with 
high up or even in rich green alpine 
meadows. In a wild state it does not 
form the sturdy tufts which it does in 
gardens, and, like the wild Orange Lily, 
is more beautiful when isolated in the 
grass. The flower is of a pale blue, with 
an orange-yellow eye, 2 inches across on 
plants cultivated in gardens, smaller in 

a wild state. It forms tufts 8 to 10 
inches high, slightly downy, and some- 
times velvety. There is a white variety. 
Easily multiplied by division, thrives, 
well in any sandy soil, and begins ta 
flower in early summer. 

Of the very large Aster family there 
are few dwarf enough for our purpose, 
one of the best being that known a& 
versicolor, which, as it is somewhat pros- 
trate, might be planted with good effect 
on the lower parts of the rock-garden. 
A. altaicus is also a dwarf species, with 
mauve-coloured flowers, and A. Keevesii 
is a dwarf kind. 

ASTRAGALUS (Milk-Vetch). PQ T - 
ennial and alpine plants of the Pea 
flower order, the species numerous, 
but, so far as is now known, not very 
important for the rock-garden. The 
Tragacanth plant (A. Tragaeanthd) 
forms a dwarf grey bush, and is 
hardy, and may be grown even in 
towns, but it is not attractive in 
flower. Some are natives of Britain. 

Astragalus hypoglottis (Purple Milk- 
Vetch). A dwarf, prostrate perennial, and 
large heads of bluish-purple flowers. In 
Britain it is found chiefly on the eastern 
side of the island from Essex and Herts 
to Aberdeen, and on dry, gravelly, and 
chalky pastures. It is pretty on level 
spots, and should always be" associated 
with very dwarf subjects; and though 
it is not particular as to soil, it will be 
found to thrive best in open, well-drained, 
sandy loam, or in chalky soil. A variety 
has paper-white heads of flowers sitting 
close upon the dwarf carpet formed by 
the leaves. It looks showy for such a 
dwarf white plant, and the flowers look 
singular from contrast with the short 
sooty or black hairs. It is so distinct 
from any other cultivated alpine plant 
in flower about the same period, that it 
would be wise to form a little carpet of 
five or six plants of it in some level spot, 
as it is not at all difficult to grow. 

A. MonspessulailUS (Montpellier Milk- 
Vetch). A vigorous kind, with leaves a 
span long, the leaflets smooth on the 
upper surface, and with short whitish; 




hairs thinly but almost quite regularly 
scattered over their under sides. The 
flowers are borne on stalks from 6 inches 
to a foot long, the racemes of bloom being 
from 2 to 5 inches long, according to the 
strength of the plant. The closely-set 
and unopened flowers at the head of the 
raceme are usually of a deep crimson, but 
as they open, they become of a pale rosy 
lilac, with bars of white on the upper 
petals. The shoots, though vigorous, are 
prostrate, which causes it to be seen to 
greater advantage when drooping over 
rocks, and it grows well in any soil. A 
native of the South of France, easily raised 
from seed. There are several varieties. 

Astragalus onoloTychis(Saintfoin Milk- 
Vetch). A fine hardy kind, in some varie- 
ties spreading, and in others growing about 
18 inches high, with pinnate leaves about 
4 inches long, the leaflets smooth, and 
handsome racemes of purplish-crimson 
flowers. As the individual flowers, when 
fully open, are a shade more than five- 
eighths of an inch long, and borne in 
clusters of from six to sixteen on each 
raceme, it is an attractive plant, and will 
thrive well in any good loam. There 
.are several varieties enumerated, three of 
which, alpinus, moldavicus, and micro- 
phyllus, are prostrate in habit, and would 
prove valuable. ^The plant is particu- 
larly suited for the rougher parts of the 
rock-garden, and for positions where a 
rich effect rather than minute beauty is 
sought. There are white forms of all 
the varieties. Europe and N. Asia. 

A. pannosus (Shaggy Milk-Vetch). 
A dwarf kind, with silvery, woolly pin- 
nate leaves, which, growing in compact 
tufts about a span high, give the plant 
somewhat the appearance of a silvery 
fern. Attracted by this appearance, when 
I saw the plant in cultivation in Switzer- 
land, I brought home some seeds, from 
which plants have been raised by Mr 
J. Backhouse and Mr W. Bull. I have 
not yet seen it in flower, but from the 
beauty of its leaves alone, it is likely to 
prove an excellent rock-garden plant. It 
is easily increased by seeds, and comes 
from Asia Minor. 


AUBRIETIA (Purple Hock- 
Cress). If there were but one 
family of rock-plants known to us. 
this which gladdens the rocks oi' 
Greece and all near countries with 
its soft colours in the dawn of spring, 
would be almost enough to justify 
the lovers of rock flowers for any ex- 
travagance in their behalf. In these 
plants all difficulties of culture, in- 
crease, soil, etc., fly away, and though 
from the hills above the cities of 
Greece or the sites ennobled in human 
story, they are as happy in our British 
land as the grasses of our fields. 

These rock plants will succeed on 
any soil, and never fail to flower, even 
should the cutting winds of spring 
shear all the verdure of the budding 
Willows. There is hardly a position 
selected for a rock plant that may 
not be graced by them. Rocks, ruins, 
stony places, sloping banks, and walls, 
suit them perfectly ; and no plant is so 
easily established in such places, nor 
will any other alpine plant so quickly 
clothe them with the desired kind 
of vegetation. Growing in common 
soil, in the open border, or on any ex- 
posed spot, they thrive as well as on 
the best -made rock-garden, forming 
round spreading tufts ; and on fine 
days in spring the flowers come out 
on these in such crowds as to com- 
pletely hide the leaves, making hillocks 
of colour. They are quite easy to 
naturalise in bare rocky places, and 
often sow themselves on walls. They 
are easily propagated by seeds, cuttings, 
or division. Grown together, their 
affinity is clearly seen, and few things 
may be more safely united under one 
species than the Aubrietia at present 
in cultivation. 

Among the several varieties, A. del- 
toidea grandiftora and A. Campbelli 
are the best. Dr Mules is the richest 




colour. A. grceca is simply a variety. 
Aubrietias vary a good deal from seed, 
but their little differences make them 
all the more valuable as garden-plants, 
and they all agree in carpeting the 
earth with dense cushions of compact 
rosettes of leaves, profusely clothed 
with beautiful purplish-blue flowers 
in spring, and, in the case of young 
plants, in moist and rich soils, almost 
throughout the year. There are one 
or two pretty variegated varieties. 

AZALEA (Swamp Honeysuckle). 
Thinking as I do, that the 
most satisfying and enduring kind 
of rock-garden cannot be made with- 
out the aid of mountain shrubs, or in 
which they take the main part, such 
lovely mountain bushes as the Azaleas 
cannot be left out of our view, as they 
are true mountaineers, and of splendid 
value for their flowers in summer and 
foliage in the autumn, and even in 
habit, if naturally grown. Their hardi- 
ness, fine colour, and ease of culture, 
should almost give them the first place 
with the happy people who have rocks 
of their own, as so often happens in the 
north, and in Scotland, Wales, and 
Ireland. There is scarcely a plant 
among the Azaleas that is not worth 
growing, but I am now thinking more 
of the wild kinds, chiefly American, 
which deserve to be grown, and grouped 
each kind by itself, these wild kinds 
being, I think, more beautiful, and 
more worthy of a place on the shrubby 
rock-garden than the hybrids, though 
all are good. More brilliant than any 
other shrubs, they are lovely in flower 
in early summer, in some cases continu- 
ing into midsummer, and hardy as the 
mountain, rocks. They are much 
varied, coming from European, Ameri- 
can, Chinese, and Japanese species, 
both in their wild forms and in the 
varieties raised. It is not only the 

often brilliant flowers they give us we 
have to think of, but the finest leaf 
hues in autumn, especially when massed 
in the sun. They are not so difficult 
to grow as the Rhododendron, owing 
partly to that being on their own roots 
they can be grown in a greater variety 
of soils. From an artistic point of 
view, their form in winter is better 
than that of rhododendrons, and they 
do not run into heavy dark masses 
like the commoner Rhododendrons. 

A great advantage is that they are 
tender to life below them, and, instead 
of devouring all other plants, like the 
Rhododendrons, they are very kind to 
all sorts of beautiful things, such as 
Blue Anemones, Trillium, Double Prim- 
roses, and a great variety of bulbs and 
choicer hardy flowers, growing beneath 
them, the effect of which below the 
bushes is far better than when by 
themselves, the inter-relations of 
colour being so much better than 
from solid masses of green. It is 
usual to regard them as only to be 
grown in peat soils ; but it is by no 
means necessary, and the absence of 
peat should never be a bar to their 
growth. Even if they do not on sands 
or loams grow as rapidly as on good 
peats, the beauty is none the less, 
especially on the rock-garden, where 
we seek beauty of form and colour, 
shown in no matter how small a scale, 
rather than the too vigorous vulgarity 
of shrubbery growth. My Azaleas are 
grown in soil and situation wholly 
different from what is usually and 
rightly supposed to favour Azalea 
growth, and the growth of my plants 
is certainly less vigorous than in good 
peat soil, but I enjoy the beauty of 
the plants just as much. 

Although from a botanical point of 
view there is no distinct line between 
Azalea and Rhododendron, and the 





two genera are merged into one by 
nearly all botanists, for purposes it 
may be convenient to treat Azalea 
as a separate genus. Loudon united 
it with Rhododendron upwards of 
forty years ago, and all writers of 
any weight have followed in his foot- 
steps. Still, as the plants treated of 
in this article or, at any rate, most 
of them are, almost without excep- 
tion, mentioned in Catalogues and 
spoken of by gardeners as Azaleas, 
it has been thought preferable to 
keep up the older name. 

The introduction of a number of 
kinds from Japan, China, India, and 
Borneo, destroyed the old lines of 
demarcation between the two genera, 
for the number of stamens in some 
of the so-called Azaleas is often ten, 
and in several the leaves are ever- 

No attempt is made to include here 
any of the so-called Indian Azaleas, 
the fact of these succeeding in the 
open air in some parts of the south- 
west of England and the Channel 
Islands not being ground enough to 
class them in a list of hardy shrubs, 
though it is likely that most of the 
beautiful garden plants, so deservedly 
popular under the name of Ghent 
Azaleas, are hybrids, derived from 
A. calendulacea, A. nudiflora, A. vis- 
cosa, and A. pontiea. Of late, how- 
ever, A. sinensis (better known as A. 
mollis), and the Western American, 
A. occidentalism have been used for 
crossing, and from the latter a beau- 
tiful race of late -flowering forms has 
sprung. Both double and single 
varieties, ranging from white through 
every shade of yellow, orange, and 
red to crimson, with many uncommon 
intermediate tints, are to be seen in 
many gardens, and the beautiful 
colours assumed by the decaying 

leaves in autumn make them worth 
growing, even apart from the flowers. 

All the hardy Azaleas thrive best 
in peat, and like best a moist situa- 
tion, but it is astonishing how well 
they will do without peat, provided 
they have an abundance of leaf-mould, 
and are well supplied with water 
during the summer months. They 
are readily raised from seeds, but if 
it is desired to increase any particular 
sort, layering is the best way. 

Azalea arborescens (Tree A.}. This is 
a native of the Alleghany Mountains, from 
Pennsylvania to North Carolina. Its 
leaves are margined with short hairs, are 
slightly leathery when mature, bright 
green and shining above and glaucescent 
beneath. The corolla is fully 2 inches 
long, white or tinged with rose, and the 
long red stamens and style add to the 
beauty of the plant and give it a fine 
character. It was introduced in 1818, 
but was probably lost to cultivation soon 
afterwards, and not re-introduced until 
a few years ago. The leaves in dying 
exhale an odour similar to that of the 
Sweet Vernal Grass ; they are well 
developed before the flowers appear in 

A. calendulacea (Flame A.). In this 
the corolla varies in a wild state from 
orange-yellow to flame-red ; the flowers, 
not fragrant, appear before or with the 
leaves in May. It is a native of woods 
in the mountains of Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, Kentucky, and varies in height 
from 3 feet to 10 feet. 

A. linearifplia (Slender A.). In all 
probability this is not so hardy as the 
other species here mentioned, but it has 
stood for several years without protection 
in the open air at Kew. It is a small 
shrub, with slender branches beset with 
rigid, red-brown hairs ; the long, narrow 
leaves, with wavy margins, crowded at 
the ends of the twigs. The flowers in 
clusters at the tips of the branches, with 
five recurved, red-purple petals. 

A. nudiflora (Pinxter Flower). This 
is the purple Azalea, of the United 
States, where it occurs in swamps from 




Massachusetts and New York to Illinois 
and southward. Flowering in April or 
May, either before or at the same time 
as the leaves. In a wild state the more 
or less fragrant flowers vary from flesh 
colour to pink and purple. Of this 
species there are numberless varieties and 
hybrids, no fewer than forty-three being 
enumerated in Loddiges' Catalogue in 1836. 

Azalea occidentalis (California A.). 
One of the most beautiful flowers when 
the glossy leaves are well developed, and 
after most other Azaleas are past. The 
species is a native of the western foot- 
hills of the Sierra Nevada throughout the 
length of California, and in the coast 
ranges along streams. This fine distinct 
kind is a free grower, even where there 
is no peat. 

A. Pontica (Pontic A.). An immense 
number of varieties and hybrids have been 
raised from this species both in British 
and Continental gardens. The wild plant 
has fragrant flowers of a bright yellow 
colour, blossoming in May and June. 
This comes from the same country as 
the Pontic Rhododendron the Caucasus 
and near regions and is supposed with 
good reason to be the source of the honey 
that led to the poisoning of Anophon's 
soldiers. It is a free and handsome shrub 
in almost any soil, and in rocky spots 
in woods or copses quite at home. 

A. rhombica. The near allies of this 
distinct-looking plant are Chinese or 
Japanese ; it has bright, rose-coloured, 
bell-shaped flowers, with a very short 
tube, l inches to 2 inches across, gener- 
ally in pairs at the tips of the branches. 
The dull green hairy leaves are in 
whorls of three, and of the ten stamens 
the five upper are much the shortest. 
In autumn the decaying leaves turn a 
bronzy-purple colour. This is one of the 
earliest to flower, and the spring frosts 
frequently disfigure the blossoms. Moun- 
tain woods of Japan. 

A. sinensis (Chinese A.). A native of 
alpine shrublands in Japan, but is largely 
cultivated both in that country and in 
China. The flowers vary much in colour ; 
ranging in a wild state from a dull, almost 
greenish-yellow to orange-yellow or orange- 
red, but many hues have arisen in nur- 

series from crossing. Loddiges was the 
first to publish a figure. Upwards of 
forty years afterwards Regel gave it the 
name of A. mollis, and subsequently the 
late Dr Gray described it under the name 
of A.japonica. Syn., A. mollis. 

Azalea vaseyi (Vasey's A.). A. pretty 
shrub from 3 feet to 10 feet high, with leaves 
3 inches to 6 inches long, a roseate corolla, 
the upper lobes spotted towards the base. 
As a rock shrub it is very precious, and 
its pink or purple flowers are distinct and 
beautiful. N. America. 

A. viscosa (Swamp Honeysuckle). Is a 
shrub from 4 feet to 10 feet high, with 
clammy, fragrant flowers, white or tinged 
with rose-colour in a wild state. In- 
numerable varieties of this have originated 
under cultivation, no less than 107 being 
given in Loddiges' Catalogue for 1836. 
Several wild forms have at various times 
received specific names ; of these glauca 
has paler leaves, generally white, glaucous 
beneath ; nitida is a dwarf variety, with 
oblanceolate leaves, green on both sur- 
faces ; hispida and scabra do not require 
detailed description. N.E. America. 

BELLIUM (Rock Daisy). These 
are nearly allied to the common 
Daisy. Three kinds are in cultiva- 
tion : B. bellidioides, crassifolium, and 
minutum, none of which are so beauti- 
ful as the common Daisy, nor so hardy, 
and therefore scarcely worthy of cul- 
tivation, except in large collections. 
Where grown without protection in 
winter, they should be planted in 
sandy warm soil, and in sunny spots, 
on which I should certainly not be 
anxious to give them a place, con- 
sidering the numbers of brilliant 
plants we have more fitted for the 
embellishment of the rock-garden. 

BERBERIS (Barberry). Of these 
handsome shrubs having much beauty 
of foliage and fruit, while the greater 
number would not be in stature 
suited for the rock-garden, certain 
kinds might be useful where the 
idea of the shrub rock-garden is 




carried out. The dwarf evergreen, 
Thunbergs' 'barberry, and B. steno- 
phylla, are suitable for giving a good 
effect among rocks. Nor does the 
absence of rocks debar us from group- 
ing them near the rock-garden, and 
enjoying in such positions their 
beautiful colour in autumn. 

Herberts empetrif o]ia,(Fuegian Berberis). 
A dwarf, shrubby, trailing species, from 
the Straits of Magellan, well adapted for 
rock cultivation, provided a good depth 
of peaty soil be given it for its under- 
ground shoots to ramble in. Its flowers 
are of a bright orange colour, singly along 
the whole length of the previous year's 
growth. It has a delicate fragrance. 

BERGENIA. A name used by 
some Continental botanists for the 
large-leaved Indian Rockfoils, known 
in our gardens by the names of Saxi- 
fraga and Megasea. 

BETULA (Birch}. Though we 
know the Birch as a forest tree, it may 
be as well to remember that there are 
little northern and antarctic Birches, 
and those from the high mountains, 
such as the Scrub Birch (B. glandu- 
losa), the dwarf Birch (B. nana), and 
the Bog Birch (B. pumila), which 
might be readily used near rock and 
marsh gardens of the bolder sort. 

and graceful hardy Orchid, with slender 
flower-stems 1 foot or more high, bear- 
ing about half a dozen showy flowers 
of a deep rosy-purple colour. It 
thrives in sheltered and half-shaded 
spots in peaty soil, with some leaf- 
mould added. In some localities it 
would be advisable to cover the roots 
with a handful of protective material 
during severe cold. It is also known 
as B. japonica. A very interesting 
plant for association with the peat- 
loving Cypripediums in the drier parts 
of the bog-garden. China. 

BORETTA. One of the recent 
botanical names for the Irish Heath, 
which will be found in this book under 

cording to a writer in the Garden, is 
a gem for the rock-garden, hardy and 
perennial, bearing little white Daisy- 
like heads on stems 2 inches or 3 
inches high, all the summer months, 
and having a distinct habit of growth. 
The plant spreads moderately by short 
stolons, and the foliage is arranged 
in tufts or rosettes, and is brownish 
or bronzy-green, and very downy. 
Those seeking for beautiful miniature 
plants should take note of this. I 
grow it in loam and leaf-mould, mixed 
with small stones, and in a position 
where it can have plenty of moisture 
and sunshine. 

The pretty little B. iberidifolia 
(Swan River Daisy), is one of the 
annual flowers which may be used 
with good effect to clothe any bare 
spaces that may occur in the rock- 
garden from winter losses or other 

FOLIA. A dwarf-plant, belonging to 
the Heath family. The flowers are 

Bruckenthalia spiculifolia. 




pale purple or lilac, on stems rarely 
more than 9 inches high. It is suited 
to dry, peaty positions, or in peat 
or leaf-soil will make itself at home in 
a half shady spot in the garden. 

BRYANTHUS (Rocky Mountain 
Heath). Alpine bushes of the Heath 
family, mostly natives of the mountains 
of North America, and little known 
in gardens. I brought one handsome 
species from the sierras of California, 
but it is lost. They are pretty little 
shrublets which well deserve introduc- 
tion, and growing as they do on some 
of the coldest mountains of the world, 
I have little doubt that they will prove 
as easy to cultivate as many other 
American bushes which thrive in our 
gardens. Mr Bulley, in the Gardener's 
Chronicle, describes Bryanthus glan- 
duliformis as a dwarf, peat-loving 
plant, not reaching a greater height 
than 3 inches, and notable for the 
large size and striking colour of its 
Pentstemon-like flowers. These, which 
are borne profusely, are l inches 
long, and of the most vivid magenta- 

Bryanthus erectus. A dwarf ever- 
green bush, from 8 inches to a foot high, 
bearing pretty pinkish flowers. It is said 
to be a hybrid. In very fine sandy soil or in 
that usually prepared for American plants, 
it grows well, and is worthy of a place 
in collections of very dwarf alpine shrubs, 
whether planted in the rock-garden or in 
peat beds. 

B. Breweri. A neat little plant has 
been introduced under this name, but is 
little known in cultivation. 

Meadow Saffron.) Grown in our 
gardens for generations, this very early 
bulb is one of the earliest of spring 
bulbs, sending up its large rosy-purple 
flower buds earlier than the Crocus. 
The flowers are tubular, nearly 4 
inches long, and usually best when 

in the bud state, the colour being 
a violet purple, the large buds ap- 
pearing before the concave leaves, 
which attain vigorous proportions after 
the flowers are past. Associated with 
very early flowering plants like the 
Snowflake and Snowdrop, it is welcome 
in the rock-garden, or in warm sunny 
borders. A native of the Alps of 
Europe, easily increased by dividing 
the bulbs, in July or August. B. 
Versicolor is a variety. 

BUXUS (Box). The dwarf forms of 
the common Box are very pretty little 
evergreens, and the Japanese Box has 
the merit of being extremely hardy, 
as it endures the winter in North 
Germany, where the common Box does 
not. In dealing with those limestone 
and other rocks which abound in many 
parts of the country, I think this and 
dwarf forms of our native Box might 
be very well used in giving ever- 
green effects. Many stony and rocky 
districts which are now uninhabited 
will some day be valued as among 
the most pleasant places to live in, and 
planting the naturally rocky surface 
will have to be faced, and I can think 
of no more beautiful way of adorning 
it than with such hardy mountain 
shrubs, among which this is one of 
the most pleasant of evergreens. 


minute plant, forming neat little tufts 
about 3 inches high, flowering in 
summer, tubular, lilac-purple, scented, 
very numerous and large for its size. 
May be grown on the rock-garden 
in sandy loam, and among the very 
dwarfest plants. Division. 


(Brilliant (7.). A native of Chili, 
with reddish, much branched, little 
stems, half-shrubby, and rarely grow- 




ing more than 3 or 4 inches high. 
For brilliancy of colour there is 
nothing to equal it in cultivation, 
the flowers being of a dazzling 
magenta crimson, yet soft and 
refined. In the evenings and in 
cloudy weather it shuts up, and 
nothing is then seen but the tips of 
the flowers. It does very well in 
any fine sandy, peaty, or other open 
earth, is a hardy perennial on dry 
soils. It is easy to raise from 
seed, either in the open air in 
fine soil, or in pots. As it does 
not like transplantation, except when 
done very carefully, the best way 
for those who wish to use it for 
very neat and bright beds in the 
summer flower-garden is to sow a 
few grains in each small pot in 
autumn, keep them in dry sunny 
pits or frames during the winter, 
and then turn the plants out without 
much disturbance into the beds in 
the end of April or beginning of May, 
and it may also be treated as an 
annual, sown in frames very early in 
spring, associated with diminutive 

A small trailing Arum, with pretty 
white spathes, hardy, and, though 
often grown in water, likes a moist 
bog better. In a marsh or muddy 
place, shaded or otherwise, it thrives, 
and in a bog carpeted with the dark 
green leaves of this plant the effect 
is good, as its white flowers crop up 
here and there along each running 
shoot, just raised above the leaves. 
Those having natural bogs would 
find it an interesting plant to intro- 
duce, while for moist spongy spots 
near the rock-garden, or by the side 
of a rill, it is worth a place. N. 
Europe, and also abundant in cold 
marshes in N. America, flowering in 

summer, and increasing rapidly by its 
running stems. 



prostrate half-shrubby plant of the pea 
flower order, with deep yellow flowers 
in racemes in summer, and small 
pinnate greyish leaves. A pretty rock 
shrub, easily grown and best from seed. 
Avoid grafted plants, and plant in full 

CALTHA (Marsh Marigold}. 
Showy dwarf perennials of essential 
use in the marsh-garden. The native 
kind is so frequent in a wild state that 
there is rarely need to give it a place, 
except on the margin of water. Its 
double varieties, however, are worth a 
place in a moist rich border, or, like the 
single form, by the water-side. There 
is a double variety of the smaller 
creeping C. radicans, about half the 
size of the common plant. In addi- 
tion to the common species, C. palus- 
tris, and the rarer variety, C. radicans, 
there are double-flowered forms, C. 
monstrosa, bearing golden rosettes, and 
C. minor fl.-pl., a small kind. There 
are also C. leptosepala, a Californian 
kind, and C. purpurascens, distinct 
and handsome, about 1 foot high, 
with purplish stems, and bright-orange 
flowers, the outside of the petals 
flushed with a purplish tinge. 

The various forms of the Marsh 
Marigold are handsome in colour, and 
in groups or bold masses are effective ; 
and they are easily grown, and increase 

CAMPANULA (HairbelT).K large 
family of northern pasture, mountain 
and alpine plants, many of these last 
among the best for the rock-garden, 
dwarf, graceful in form, lovely in 
colour, and for the most part easy 
to grow and increase. The tall per- 




ennials are too coarse for the rock- 
garden, and neither these nor the 
medium-sized kinds require its aid, 
growing, as they do, freely in any 
soil ; but the dwarf mountain kinds 
are essential to its beauty all the 
more so, as they rarely demand any 
special position, but may be grown 
in chinks or between steps on any 
aspect. Where there is no good 
rock-garden they may be grown well 
and with good effect behind and 
about stone or flint edgings. Among 
these plants garden-hybrids are not 
now uncommon, but it is better on 
the rock-garden to keep to the wild 
forms. Some hybrids, however, like 
G. F. Wilson, are pretty. Ordinary 
garden-soils suit well even the moun- 
tain kinds, with a little change in 
the case of the kinds inhabiting high 
moraines, and a rather peaty soil 
for the graceful G. pulla. In con- 
genial soils they bear seed freely, and 
often sow themselves. In a numerous 
group like this, where beauty of effect 
is sought, we arrive at it more surely 
by growing well and placing rightly 
the more beautiful kinds, than by 
collecting every kind we can. 

The following Hairbells are mostly 
of dwarf stature, natives of rocky or 
mountain ground, excluding the more 
vigorous herbaceous kinds as unfit for 
the rock-garden and delicate or doubt- 
ful species. They will fairly represent 
in the rock-garden and on walls the 
beauty of a fine family of northern and 
high mountain plants many of which 
are not in cultivation : 

Campanula Allioni (Allioni's Hairbell). 
A dwarf kind, the flowers very large for a 
plant growing seldom more than 3 inches 
or 4 inches in height, purplish-blue (rarely 
white), almost erect on a slender stalk. 

It is an excellent rock-plant, and though 
plenty of moisture, it should 
have a well-drained position, and is there- 


fore best grown in a narrow crevice filled 
with sandy loam with small stones and 
grit. Flowering summer. Piedmont. 
Syn., C. alpestris. 

Campanula alpina (Alpine Hairbell). 
This is covered with stiff down, which gives 
it a grey hue, with longish leaves and erect, 
not spreading, habit, like the Garganica 
group, and with flowers of a fine dark 
blue, scattered in a pyramidal manner 
along the stems. It is a native of the 
Carpathians, hardier than the dwarf 
Italian Campanulas, and valuable for the 
margins of borders as well as for the rock- 
garden. In cultivation it grows from 5 
inches to 10 inches high, and may be 
readily increased by division or seeds. 

C. barbata (Bearded Hairbell). One of 
the blue Hairbells that abound in the 
meadows of Alpine France, Switzerland, 
and N. Italy. It is readily known by 
the long beard at the mouth of its pretty 
pale sky-blue flowers, nearly 1J inches 
long, nodding from the stems, which 
usually bear two to five flowers, and 
rise from rough, shaggy leaves. In high 
ground in its native country, it grows no 
more than from 4 inches to 10 inches 
high, but nearly twice as high in the 
valleys in Piedmont. There is a white- 
flowered form, both thriving freely in 

C. csespitosa (Tufted Hairbell). One 
of the most beautiful plants in the alpine 
flora, abundant over the high ranges in 
the central parts of Europe, and thriving 
in all parts of the British Isles. It grows 
only a few inches high, and looks the 
same fresh, purely-tinted, ever-spreading 
and bravely-flowering little plant in a 
British garden as it is when seen 
mantling round the stones and crevices 
of rocks on the mountains. There is a 
white variety as pretty as the blue, 
and both are admirable for the rock- 
garden or mixed border. It is easily 
increased by division and also by seed, 
but as a few tufts may be divided into 
small pieces, and quickly form a stock 
large enough for any garden, it is scarcely 
worth while raising it from seed. As it 
occurs so freely by the roadsides along 
the roadways into Italy, it was one of 
the first alpine plants to be grown in 




Britain, and thriving so well in our 
climate, it is the one so often seen. Syn., 
G. pumila. 

Campanula Carpatica (Carpathian Hair- 
bell). This, while bearing cup -shaped 
flowers as large as those of the Peach-leaved 
Hairbell, has the dwarf neat habit of the 
alpine kinds. It is a native of the Car- 
pathian Mountains and other parts of the 
same region, and fortunately easy of 
culture, growing from 6 inches to over 
a foot in height, according to the 
depth, and richness of the soil. It begins 
to flower in early summer, and 
often continues in bloom for a long 
time, especially if the plants are young, 
and the seed-vessels be picked off. There 
is a white variety, G. c. alba ; a pale blue 
one, pallida; and a white and blue kind, 

five lobes. It should have a gritty, stony 
and moist soil. Alps of Central Europe. 

Campanula excisa. An interesting 
species, usually found at high altitudes ; 
the flowers pale blue and deeply cut. 
At the base between each two lobes this 
incision takes the shape of a round hole, 
and it is this which suggested the name. 
The whole plant is not more than 4 inches 
or 5 inches in height, and likes a position 
not fully exposed to the sun, but where 
the air would be cool and moist. 

C. fragilis (Brittle Hairbell). In hand- 
ling this the stems break off as if made of 
ice. It is a pretty Hairbell, the root- 
leaves on long stalks heart-shaped in 
outline, and bluntly lobed, those of the 
stem more lance-shaped, the rather large 
blue open flowers somewhat bell-shaped, 

Campanula Garganica. (Engraved from a photograph bi 
Mrs Stafford, Waldeck, JRidgeway, Bnfield.) 

bicolor names for the most noticeable 
variations raised from seed. 

C. Cenisia (Mont Genis Hairbell). An 
alpine growing at very high elevations. 
I have found it abundantly among the 
fine Saxifraga biflora, at the sides of 
glaciers on the high Alps, scarcely ever 
making much show above the ground, 
but, like the Gooseberry-bush in Australia, 
very vigorous below, sending a great 
number of runners under the soil. Here 
and there they send up a compact rosette 
of light green leaves. The flowers are 
solitary blue, somewhat funnel-shaped, 
but open, and cut nearly to the base into 

borne on half prostrate steins, the plant 
rarely reaching 6 inches in height, smooth 
and rather fleshy. A native of the South 
of Italy. Invaluable for the rock- 
garden in well-drained chinks into which 
it can root deeply without being too wet 
in winter ; on light soils not requiring 
this care. G. fragilis hirsuta is a form 
covered with stiff down. 

C. Garganica (Gargano Hairbell). -A. 
showy kind, with somewhat of the habit 
of the Carpathian Hairbell, but smaller ; 
the leaves that spring from the root are 
kidney-shaped, those from the stem heart- 
shaped, all toothed and downy. In 




summer the plant becomes a prostrate 
mass of bluish -purple starry flowers with 
white centres, from 3 inches to 6 inches 
high ; it is seen best in interstices on 
vertical parts of the rock-garden, in warm 
and well-drained spots. The better and 
deeper the soil the finer and more pro- 
longed the bloom will be. It is a native 
of Italy, flowers in summer, and is 
easily increased by cuttings, divisions, 
or seeds. 

Campanula hederacea (Ivy Hairbell). 
A fragile, creeping thing, with almost thread - 
like branches bearing small, delicate leaves, 
its flowers of a faint bluish-purple, less than 
half an inch long, and drooping in the bud. 
It is a native of Britain, creeping over bare 
spots by the sides of rills and on moist 
banks, and wherever there is a moist 
boggy spot near the rock-garden, or by 
the side of a streamlet, or in an artificial 
bog, it will be found worthy of a place. 
It occurs chiefly in Ireland and Western 
England ; less in the East. Division. 

C. isophylla (Ligurian Hairbell). A 
free flowering Italian species, the 
leaves roundish or heart-shaped, deeply 
toothed, and nearly all of about the same 
size, the flowers of a pale but very bright 
blue, with whitish centre, and protruding 
styles. It is a charming ornament for the 
rock-garden, and should be placed in 
sunny positions in well-drained, rather 
dry fissures in sandy loam, and then it will 
repay the cultivator by a brilliant bloom. 

C. macrorrhiza (Ligurian Hairbell). 
"This is one of the most beautiful of the 
southern plants, and one of the most free- 
flowering of the Campanulas. The root- 
stock is thick and woody ; it throws out 
a large number of drooping branches ; 
flowers very numerous, of a fine blue, 
two to eight in a spreading cluster. ' I 
can never forget the impression I received 
on first seeing it in flower in the walls of 
the small town La Turbie above Monaco. 
The little flowers were in myriads, 
brightening up the dismal streets of this 
decaying place, and giving it life and 
colour. It must have a vertical position 
in full sun, and in a fissure of wall or 
rock, calcareous if possible. It is increased 
by cuttings, divisions, or seed." H. 
Correvon (in Garden). 

Campanula mollis. Though the native 
home of this Bellflower is on the shores of the 
Mediterranean, it has nevertheless proved 
hardy in this country. The flowers are of 
a dark purplish-blue, borne freely during 
May and June, the plant from 6 inches to 
8 inches high ; forming a spreading carpet 
of glossy leaves even at midwinter. It is 
a very useful kind of free dwarf habit. S. 

C. muralis (Wall Hairbell). This, a 
native of Dalmatia, is a pretty and useful 
plant as a dense carpet, from 6 inches to 
8 inches high, with a bell-shaped corolla 
about ^ inch in length, flowering through- 
out the summer. The radical leaves are 
reniform, smooth, dark green, and more 
than 1 inch in diameter ; the cauline 
leaves smaller, and with coarsely serrated 
edges. There is also a more robust variety 
named G. m. major. Syn., C. Porten- 

C. pulla (Violet Hairbell). A. distinct 
plant, the stems only bearing one 
flower, of a deep bluish-violet, the 
habit very graceful. On the rock- 
garden it should be placed on a 
level spot, free from other Hairbells or 
rampant plants of any kind, and in sandy 
peat. It spreads underground, and sends 
up shoots in a scattered manner. A native 
of the Tyrol and of other mountains in 
Central and Southern Europe, it is in- 
creased by division or by seeds, but 
in heavy soil is apt to disappear. 

C. Raineri (Rainer's Hairbell). One of 
the most beautiful, quite dwarf in habit, 
the distinct stems not more than 3 inches 
long (though it is said to reach twice that 
height), and quite sturdy, branched, each 
little branch bearing a large somewhat 
funnel-shaped erect flower of a fine dark 
blue. A native of high mountains in the 
North of Italy, it should be grown in 
gritty or sandy loam, with a few pieces 
of broken stone half -sunk in the soil near 
the plant. 

C. rotundifolia (Common Hairbell). 
There is no fairer flower on the mountains 
than this, so often adorning roadside and 
hedge bank. It is well worthy of a place 
in the rougher part of the rock-garden. 
There is also a white form. G. r. Hosti 
is a variety distinguished by larger flowers 




of a deeper blue and by stronger wiry 
flower-stems, but, according to Mr Corre- 
von, writing in the Garden, it is a distinct 
species and a native of the Eastern Alps. 
C. r. soldanelkeflora is another distinct 
form with semi-double blue flowers split 
into many narrow divisions. 

Campanula turbinata ( Vase Hairbell). 
A neat sturdy showy kind, the leaves rigid, 
of a greyish-green, toothed and pointed, 
forming stiff tufts from 2 inches to 3 
inches high, and an inch or so above them 
rise the cup-shaped flowers, of a deep 

Campanula turbinata. 

purple, and each nearly 2 inches across. 
It comes from the mountains of Transyl- 
vania, is hardy in our islands, not 
fastidious as to soil, and is one of the 
best plants for the rock-garden, on which, 
in deep light soil, the flower steins some- 
times reach a height of 6 inches or 8 inches. 
C. Waldsteiniana (Waldsteiris Hair- 
bell). A pretty little kind, 4 inches to 
6 inches high, the flowers in racemes of 
from five to nine blossoms each, of a pale 
purplish-blue colour, with lobes spread 

out almost flat, so as to give the flowers 
quite a star-like appearance. Forms 
carpets for the rock-garden. Croatia. 

Campanula Zoysi. This plant grows 
scarcely more than 3 inches or 4 inches in 
height and bears pale blue flowers with 
a rather long tubular corolla. It is not 
common, perishing in our changeable 
winters. Alps of Austria. 

CARDAMINE (Ladies' Smock). 
For rock-gardens, there are not many 
of these attractive, but several deserve 
cultivation in the marsh garden. The 
double forms of our Wild Ladies' Smock 
are pretty in such places, and among 
other kinds worth growing are C. lati- 
folia, C. trifolia, and C. asarifolia, all of 
the simplest culture and easy increase 
by division. 

CASSIOPE (Arctic Heath). Beauti- 
ful dwarf alpine and Arctic shrub- 
lets ; of great interest, but not easy to 
grow in lowland gardens : they are 
best in moist sandy peat, and in cool 
but not shady spots among very dwarf 
plants. Syn., Andromeda. 

Cassiope fastigiata (Himalayan C.). A 
tiny shrub, with the leaves overlapped along 
the stems, so as to make them square like 
those of 0. tetragona, but distinguished 
from that plant by the leaves having a 
white, thin, chaffy margin, and a deep 
and broad keel. The flowers, of a waxy 
white, produced at the top of each little 
branchlet, are turned down bell-fashion ; 
the reddish-brown calyx spreads half-way 
down the waxy flowers. This, one of the 
most beautiful Himalayan plants, is, hap- 
pily, not so difficult to grow, though it re- 
quires care. It has been successfully grown 
by Dr Moore, in the Botanic Gardens at 
Dublin, and should have a sandy, moist 
peat soil. It thrives best in moist and 
elevated districts ; but, safely planted in 
deep, moist soil, and guarded against 
drought during the warm season, it may 
be grown in cool spots never shaded. 

C. hypnoides (Mossy C.). A minute 
spreading, moss-like shrub, 1 to 4 inches 
high, with wiry branches, densely clothed 




in all their parts with minute bright green 
leaves, and bearing small, waxy, white 
flowers, borne singly and drooping on 
slender reddish stems. It is one of the 
most beautiful of all alpine plants, and 
one of the most difficult to grow, being 
very rarely seen in a healthy state even 
in the choicest collections. Drought is 
fatal to it. It is a native both of Europe 
and America, either far north into the 
coldest regions of these countries, or on 
the summits of high mountains. It is 
such a delicate and fragile evergreen 
shrub, that any impurity in the air is 
sure to injure it. In elevated and moist 
parts of these islands, it will succeed in 
very sandy or gritty moist but well- 
drained peat, freely exposed to the sun 
and air, and placed quite apart from more 
vigorous plants on rockwork. The chief 
difficulty would seem to be the procuring 
of healthy plants to begin with ; once 
obtained, it would be desirable to care- 
fully peg down the slender main branches, 
and to place a few stones round the neck 
of the plant, so as to prevent evaporation. 
Cassiope tetragona (Square-stemmed (7.). 
One of the prettiest of the diminutive 
shrubs introduced to cultivation, seldom 
growing more than 8 inches high. When 
in health, the deep green branches grow 
so densely that they form compact 
tufts. The flowers are produced singly, 
but rather freely ; of a waxy white, five- 
cleft, contracted near the mouth, and 
drooping. It is not likely to be con- 
founded with any other plant except the 
much rarer C. fastigiata, from which it 
may be distinguished by the absence of 
the thin chaft'y margin of the leaf. It 
is a native of Northern Europe and 
America, quite hardy, requiring a moist 
peat or very fine sandy peat for its 
thriving. I have not elsewhere seen it 
so healthy as in the nurseries near 
Edinburgh ; loves abundance of moisture 
in summer, and is easily increased by 

CERASTIUM (Mouse-Ear Chick- 
weed). Tufted rock plants of the 
pink order, rather numerous, but so 
far as known in gardens, not among 
the best rock plants. 

Cerastium alpiimm (Shaggy C.). -A 
British plant, found on Scotch mountains, 
and also more sparsely on those of England 
and Wales. Dwarf, tufted, and prostrate, 
spreading freely, but seldom rising more 
than a couple of inches high, with leaves 
broader than those of the common weedy 
species, and densely clothed with a dewy- 
looking down, giving the plant a shaggy 
appearance, and with rather large white 
flowers in early summer. It is not, like the 
common kinds, a plant fitted for forming 
edgings. Messrs Backhouse say that it 
flourishes best under ledges that prevent 
the rain and snow falling on the foliage, 
but I have found it stand all sorts of 
weather, and winters in the open border 
in London. Division, by cuttings, or 

C. Biebersteinii (Bieberstein's Mouse- 
Ear C.). A silvery species, useful for the 
same purposes, and cultivated with the 
same facility, as C. tomentosum. It was 
once expected that it would surpass in 
utility the common kind, but this it has 
failed to do. A very good plant for 
borders or rough rock or root work. A 
native of the higher mountains of Tauria 
flowering with us in early summer. 

C. grandiflorum (Large flowered C.). 
This is readily known from either C. 
tomentosum or C. Biebersteinii by having 
narrower and more acute leaves, and being 
less hoary, and it usually grows somewhat 
larger than either of the two very silvery 
kinds, rapidly forming strong tufts, and 
bearing pure white flowers. A fine plant 
for the front margin of the mixed border, 
or for the rougher parts of the rock- 
garden, but only in association with many 
fast-growing plants, as it spreads so quickly 
that it would overrun delicate and tiny 
plants if placed near them. Like the 
other cultivated kinds, it is readily propa- 
gated by division or by cuttings inserted 
in the rudest way in the open ground, 
and is a native of Hungary and neighbour- 
ing countries, on dry hills and mountains, 
flowering with us in early summer. 

C. tomentosum (Common Mowe-Ear 
Chickweed). This was once used in almost 
every garden for forming silvery edgings 
to flower-beds, its hardiness, power of 
bearing clipping, and facility of increase, 




making it worthy of its work. It is also 
useful as a border-plant, and for rough 
rockwork South of Europe, flowering 
freely with us in early summer. 

The preceding include all the kinds 
that are worth growing, except in 
botanical collections. The other kinds 
enumerated in Catalogues are : G. m- 
canum, lanuginosum, ovalifolium, ovatum, 
tenuifolium, Wildenovii, and trigynum. 

CHEIRANTHUS ( Wallflower). 
Perennial and biennial plants of 
pleasant association with our subject, 
one being the best of wall-gardeners. 
They are mostly of easy culture and 

Cheiranthus cheiri (Wallflower). In a 
book advocating the culture of alpine plants 
on walls, we must not forget the old plant 
that has so long dwelt on walls and ruins, 
loving a wall better than a garden ; while 
it grows rank in garden soil, it forms a 
dwarf enduring bush on an old wall, and 
grows even on walls that are new, planted 
in mortar. There is no variety of the 
Wallflower yet seen that is not worthy 
of cultivation ; but the choice old double 
kinds the double yellow, double purple, 
double dark orange, are plants 
worthy of a place beside the finest rock- 
shrubs. These are the varieties most 
worthy of a place on dry stony banks 
near the rock-garden, and also on walls, 
on which the common kind is likely to 
find a home for itself. To scatter seeds 
on any wall we wish to adorn with this 
plant is enough, using seed of the common 
dark or yellow Wallflower, or that of the 
wild plant. 

Among other kinds are C. Marshall! 
(Marshals Wallflower). This, which is 
said to be a hybrid between Cheiranthus 
Ochroleucus and Erysimum Perqffskinum, 
is a half shrubby plant, 1 to l foot high, 
with erect angular branches. The flowers 
appear in spring or early summer, are 
nearly f of an inch across, of a deep clear 
orange at first, afterwards becoming some- 
what paler. The fine orange-colour of 
the flowers of this plant makes it a pretty 
one for the rock-garden, in well-drained 
soil. It is increased by cuttings, and a 

young stock should be kept up, as it is not 
perennial, and is apt to perish in winter. 

Cheiranthus mutabilis (Madeira Wall- 
flower). A low bushy plant, distinct, and of 
much value as a plant for dry walls. The 
flowers are a soft orange colour, the buds 
forming a central boss of a dark red. 
I find it hardy and of easy culture, but 
it may be delicate in the north. Easily 
increased by division. 

C. alpinus (Alpine Wallflower). This 
handsome plant forms neat, rich green 
tufts, 6 to 12 inches high ; in spring 
covered with sulphur-coloured flowers. 
The rock-garden is the best home for it ; 
it does very well on level ground, but 
is apt to get naked about the base, and 
may perish on heavy soils in severe 
winters ; it does best when often divided, 
and the conditions that best suit it on 
old walls, or even new walls made against 
banks, as shown in the first part of this 
book. Alps and Pyrenees, flowering in 
spring and early summer. There are 
several varieties. Syn., Erysimum Ochro- 


(Spotted Wintergreen). A dwarf 
wood plant of North America, having 
leathery, shining leaves, the upper 
surface of which is variegated with 
white, and bearing whitish flowers 
one to five on rather long stems. 
The plant attains a height of 
3 to 6 inches, and is a very pretty 
one for a half shady and mossy, but 
not wet, place in the rock-garden, 
associating well with such plants as 
the Pyrola, and succeeding best in 
very sandy decomposed leaf-soil. 

C. umbellata, with glossy unspotted 
leaves, and somewhat larger reddish 
flowers, is suited for like positions. 
Both are rare in cultivation, and very 
seldom seen well grown. They flower 
in summer, and are increased by care- 
ful division. 

ing Snowlen^y). A slender creeping 




evergreen plant, bearing small white 
flowers, followed by white globular 
berries. It is like a small cranberry, 
a native of cold boggy places and wet 
woods in Newfoundland and Canada 
to British Columbia and southward 
on the mountains. It is a plant for 
the bog bed or a moist corner, with 
such plants as the Linnwa. 

CISTUS (Rock Rose}. Small shrubs 
and bushes of distinct beauty ; mostly 
from the sun -burnt hills of Southern 
Europe, and for that reason none the 
less welcome to rock-gardeners. Many 
people complain that the great heat 
of recent years has affected the cul- 
ture of alpine plants, especially on dry 
soils in the south. These Rock Roses 
enjoy the hot sands, and rocks, and 
arid places, which are death to the 
true alpine of the icy fields of the 
north and of the alpine slopes. The 
only drawback to their successful cul- 
ture is our climate, in which certain 
kinds are tender, and may perish in 
hard winters ; but several are hardy, 
especially in such positions as we may 
give them in the rock-garden and on 
the tops of dry walls or on poor banks. 
In such soils as the poor sands of 
Surrey, they are at home. Among 
other rock plants we have to pick 
and choose, rejecting many from the 
rock-garden point of view ; but here 
all are pretty ; the larger kinds 
taking their place among shrubs, and 
the smaller on the rocks. Some are 
evergreen shrubs, and have a spicy 
fragrance of the warm south, grateful 
to the northerner. I feel sure that 
in certain districts one might have 
a pretty rock-garden of the Rock 
Roses and Sun Roses, and a few 
other sun-loving shrubs, like Rose- 
mary and the Heaths that love the 
sun. jui2$K^ 

Many of the species vary in colour, 

and not a few appear to hybridise 
freely. In spite of the fugacious 
character of the flowers (they do not 
last more than one day), their bright 
colours, and the profusion in which 
a succession is kept up for a consider- 
able time, place them amongst the 
most welcome of garden shrubs during 
the summer months. 

Cistus albidus ( White Rock Rose). The 
name of this is derived not from the colour 
of the flowers, for these are a fine rose, but 
to the whitish tomentum which clothes the 
leaves and young shoots. It forms a com- 
pact bush 2 to 4 feet high ; the old branches 
are covered with a brownish bark. The 
rose-coloured flowers are nearly 2 inches 
across, and the style is longer than the tuft 
of yellow stamens. Southern Europe. 

C. Bourgseanus is a native of the Pine 
woods of Southern Spain and Portugal, 
where it flowers in the month of April, 
grows a foot in height, and has somewhat 
prostrate branches, covered with Kose- 
mary-like dark-green leaves. The white 
flowers are about an inch across, and it 
is a charming plant for a sunny spot in 
the rock-garden. 

C. Clusii (Clusiutfs Rock Rose). In habit 
this is more erect than the last-named, 
but the flowers are the same colour and 
size, as are also the leaves. As a rock 
plant, or grown for cool house decoration, 
it is charming. It is met with under the 
name of C. rosmarinifolius. 

C. crispus. This forms a compact bush, 
1 to 2 feet high, with tortuous branches, 
the rose-coloured flowers nearly li inches 
across. There are some hybrids between 
this species and G. albidus which are 
nearer the seed-bearing parent than they 
are to 0. albidus. 

C. florentinus (Florence Rock Rose). A 
pretty bush, flowering freely and of easy 
culture. I find it hardy and enduring on 
soils where other kinds perish. It is 
evergreen and charming on the tops of 
high walls and banks ; and for the rock- 
garden one could not desire a prettier or 
more easily grown plant. It is about 1 
foot to 18 inches high, bearing myriads of 
white flowers. 




Cistus formosus (Beautiful Rock Ease). 
Much-branched, bushy shrub, with 
leaves greenish when old, but whitish when 
young, and large bright yellow flowers, 
with a deep purplish-brown blotch near 
the base of each petal. The plant thrives 
well in any rich, dry soil, but is apt to 
succumb in severe English winters. It is, 
however, such a beautiful plant, that it 
is well worth the trouble of putting in a 
pot of cuttings each autumn in a cold 
frame, planting these out in the open the 
following spring. If raised from 

young shoots and flower-stalks are hairy, 
as are the leaves on both surfaces ; the 
flowers whitish, smaller than those of G. 
glaucous, and the style is shorter than the 
stamens. South- Western Europe. 

Cistus ladaniferus (Gum Cistus}. This 
is one of the most beautiful of all the 
Cistuses; the leaves, smooth and glossy 
above, clothed with a dense white wool 
beneath. The very large flowers are 
white, in the more handsome forms with 
a large dark vinous-red blotch towards 
the base of each petal ; in others without 

A. uxua 

Cistus formosus. 

some variation in the colour results. I 
find it does well on the top of dry walls. 

C. glaucus. A much-branched bush, 1 
to 2 feet in height, with reddish-brown 
bark ; the upper surface of the leaves is 
dull green, glossy, and glabrous, the lower 
strongly veined and clothed with a hoary 
down. The flowers are large, white with 
a yellow blotch at the base of each petal, 
and the very short style is much exceeded 
by the stamens. Southern France. 

C. hirsutus (Hairy Rock Rose), is a 
shrub from 1 to 3 feet in height ; the 

blotch. It also varies in the size of the 
leaves, the extreme forms having narrow, 
almost linear leaves. 

C. laurifolius (Bush Rock Rose). This 
is the hardiest Kock Rose ; in some 
southern shrubberies large plants exist, 
which have withstood many winters. 
The flowers are less than those of 
C. ladaniferus, are white with a small 
citron-yellow blotch at the base of each 
petal. It requires no protection, and 
may be raised from seeds, which ripen 
in abundance, and also by cuttings, which, 




however, do not strike so freely as in 
some of the other kinds. This attains 
a height of about 6 feet ; it is a native of 
South- Western Europe. 

Cistus Monspeliensis (Montpelier Rock 
Rose). A species widely distributed 
throughout the Mediterranean region ; is 
very variable in size of its leaves and also in 
stature of plant ; in some spots it hardly 
grows more than 6 inches in height ; in 
others it attains a height of about 6 feet. 
The flowers are white, about an inch in 
diameter, each petal bearing a yellow 
blotch at the base. 

C. populifolius (Poplar-leaved Rock 
Rose) is a robust kind, with large rugose, 
stalked, Poplar-like leaves and medium- 
sized white flowers, tinged with yellow 
at the base of the petals. Varieties of 
G. salvifolius are often misnamed G. 
populifolius in Nurseries and gardens. 
Amongst the numerous garden forms of 
this species may be mentioned C. narbon- 
nensis, with shorter flower-stalks, smaller 
leaves altogether a smaller plant than 
the type and G. latifolius, another with 
broader leaves. Southern France, in 
Spain, and Portugal. It is an erect 
branched shrub, 3 or 4 feet high. 

C. salvifolius (Sage-leaved Rock Rose). 
This is a very variable kind, and of slender . 
habit, with Sage-like leaves and long- 
stalked, white, yellow-blotched flowers. 
In a wild state it is found all along the 
Mediterranean, and a number of slightly 
varying forms have received distinctive 
names, but do not appear to have been 
introduced to gardens. 

C. vaginatus is the largest of the red- 
flowered section ; robust, with large- 
stalked, hairy leaves, and large, deep 
rose-coloured yellow-centred flowers. The 
stamens are more numerous in this than 
in, perhaps, any other Cistus, and form 
a dense, brush-like tuft, overtopped by 
the long style. It is a native of the 
Canary Islands. For many years a fine 
plant flowered freely against the wall of 
the herbaceous ground at Kew, but the 
severe winters of several years ago proved 
too much for it. 

C. villosus, a widely-distributed Medi- 
terranean kind, is a very variable plant, 
an erect bush with firm-textured leaves. 

The flowers of all the forms are rose- 
coloured, with long styles. C. undulatus 
is a variety with wavy-margined leaves, 
G. incanus represents what may be re- 
garded as the common typical form. G. 
creticus is another with deeper rose-red 
flowers than those already mentioned. 

Beauty). A pretty American plant of 
the Purslane family, sending up in 
March and April simple stems bear- 
ing a loose raceme of rose-coloured 
flowers marked with deeper veins, 
which, unlike the flowers of most of 
the species of this family, remain 
open for more than one day. Suited 
for the rock-garden or borders, in 
loam and leaf-mould. C. sibirica 
and G. alsinoides, although only 
biennials, or perhaps little better 
than annuals, sow themselves freely 
in crevices, and so often find a 
place among alpine plants. 

CLEMATIS. Though the showy 
hybrids of these climbing shrubs are 
not .the best fitted for the rock- 
garden, I know nothing more graceful 
about rocks than the Alpine Clematis 
(C. alpina), and also the common C. 
Viticella, and any of the smaller 
kinds. The winter-flowering Cle- 
matises, which are so pretty along 
the mild coast districts in Britain 
in winter and early spring are excel- 
lent for scrambling over rocks or 
banks. These plants, which should 
always be raised from seed and layers, 
are more enduring than the hybrid 
kinds, which are usually grafted, and 
perish very quickly. 

COLCHICUM (Meadow Saffron). 
Hardy bulbs of the meadows and 
mountains of Europe and the East. 
They have not the fine colour of the 
Crocus, but some of the kinds intro- 
duced of recent years are very inter- 




esting for the rock-garden. Among 
these more than perhaps any other 
plants for our purpose, we should 
seek out the more beautiful among 
the many-named, and, once found, 
make effective use of them. The in- 
dividual flowers do not, as a rule, last 
long, but, as they are produced in 
succession, there is a long season of 
bloom. The flowers are often destroyed 
through being grown in bare beds, 
where the splashing of the blooms 
during heavy rainfalls impairs their 
beauty. A good way is to plant 
them in grass, where the soil is well 
drained and rich. In the rock-garden, 
too, among dwarf Sedums and similar 
subjects, Colchicums thrive, and make 
a pretty show in autumn, when rock- 
gardens are often flowerless. They 
look better in grassy places or in the 
wild garden than in any formal bed 
or border. Their naked flowers want 
the relief and grace of grass and 
foliage. The plants have a rather 
wide range, some species extending 
to the Himalayas; others are found 
in North Africa; but the majority 
are natives of Central and Southern 
Europe. Though there are so many 
names to be found in Catalogues, the 
distinct kinds are few, and there is 
such a striking similarity among these, 
that they may be conveniently classed 
in groups. The best known is 

Colchicumautumnale, commonly called 
the autumn Crocus. The flowers appear 
before the leaves, rosy-purple, in clusters 
of about six, 2 or 3 inches above the sur- 
face, flowering from September to Nov- 
ember. There are several varieties, the 
chief being the double purple, white and 
striped ; roseum, rose-lilac ; striatum, rose- 
lilac, striped with white ; pallidum, pale 
rose ; album, pure white ; and atropur- 
pureum, deep purple. Similar to G. 
autumnak are 0. arenarium, byzaMinum, 
montanum, crociflorum, Icetum, lusitanicum, 
neapolitanum, alpimim, hymetticum; all, 

like autumnale, are natives of Europe, 
and, from a garden standpoint, are very 
similar in effect. 

Colchicum Parkinson!. A distinct and 
beautiful plant, readily distinguished from 
any of the foregoing by the peculiar 
chequered markings of its violet-purple 
flowers. It produces its flowers in autumn, 
and its leaves in spring. Other allied 
kinds are Bivonce, variegatum, Agrippinum, 
chionense, tessellatum, all of which have 
the flowers chequered with dark purple 011 
a white ground. 

C. speciosum, from the Caucasus, is 
large and beautiful, and valuable for the 
garden in autumn, when its large rosy- 
purple flowers appear nearly 1 foot above 
the ground. Like the rest of the Meadow 
Saffrons, G. speciosum is as well suited 
for the rock-garden as the border, thriv- 
ing in any soil ; but to have it in per- 
fection, choose a situation exposed to the 
sun, with sandy soil. There are several 
varieties of it. 

C. Bornmulleri. According to M. S. 
Arnott, writing in the Garden, " this is one 
of the most handsome of all the Colchicums, 
which is admired by every one who sees 
it here. It is larger than speciosum, and 
comes pale-coloured when in bud, passing 
off purple, with a broad white zone in the 

C. variegatum (Chequered Meadow Saf- 
fron}. This is one of the prettiest kinds, 
and is often grown under the name of, 
and mixed with, the common meadow 
Saffron, but is distinguished by its 
rosy flowers being regularly mottled 
over with purple spots, and its leaves 
undulated. Like the common species, it 
flowers abundantly in autumn, grows well 
in ordinary soil, and may be associated 
with the autumn-flowering Crocuses on 
the rock-garden. 

C. Sibthorpii (Sibthorp's Meadow Saf- 
fron). Of rather recent introduction to 
gardens, this is thought by lovers of those 
plants to be the finest of all. It is an 
inhabitant of the mountains of Greece, 
ascending to a height of 5000 feet. Its 
flowers are distinctly tessellated, the 
segments of the perianth broad, and the 
leaves not undulated. It is a good 
grower in free sandy or gritty loam. 





A small Japanese plant, allied to 
Ramondia, having thick wrinkled 
leaves, in flat tufts, from which arise 
erect flower-stems some 6 inches high, 
bearing lilac-purple and white blos- 
soms. Though said to be hardy, it 
is better in a sheltered spot in the 
rock-garden. Plants placed between 
blocks of stone thrive if there is a 
good depth of soil in the chink, and 
the soil is moist. Japan. 

of -the- Valley). So long have we been 
accustomed to this in our gardens that 
we can scarcely think of it as an 
alpine plant. But, as the traveller 
ascends the flanks of many a great 
alp, he sees it blooming low among 
the Hazels and other mountain 
shrubs ; and it grows through Europe 
and Russian Asia, from the Mediter- 
ranean to the Arctic Circle. A few 
tufts of it taken from the matted 
and often exhausted beds in which 
it is usually grown in the kitchen- 
garden to half shady spots near wood 
walks, and among low shrubs on the 
fringes of the rock-garden or hardy 
fernery, would be quite at home. It 
might also be planted in tufts among 
shrubs, and in any of these positions 
its beauty _ will be more appreciated 
than when it is seen grown as prosaic- 
ally as kitchen Spearmint. There 
are several good forms, a variety 
with double flowers, one with single 
rose flowers, one with double rose 
flowers, one with the leaves mar- 
gined with a silvery white, and one 
richly striped with yellow. Although 
growing in almost any soil, it flowers 
best in a free sandy loam, and thrives 
in poor healthy places better than in 
rich heavy ground. 

CONVOLVULUS (Bindweed-). 

Graceful climbing and creeping plants, 
some of the more northern kinds of 
a refined and elegant habit, which 
makes them welcome on the rock- 
garden, and having distinct value for 
draping stones. It is well to keep 
out vigorous growing kinds which 
may even be too vigorous for a 
garden, let alone for the choicer 
morsel of our earth we call our rock- 
garden. The kinds of best use for 
our present purpose are the North 
African Blue Bindweed, a charming 
rock-garden plant, and I find it quite 
hardy even on cool soil. It grows 
abundantly in walls and rocky banks, 
and even if the plants perish in hard 
winters, is so easily raised from seed 
or cuttings. The silvery C. Soldanella 
of Southern Europe is also worthy of a 
place on the rocks, and also Althceoides 
and the Sea Bindweed. 

Convolvulus althseoides (Riviera Bind- 
weed) is one of the commonest plants around 
the basin of the Mediterranean. It is 
chiefly found on dry banks and among the 
Olive terraces, and flowers all through April 
and May. Although a very variable species, 
both in the leaves and flowers, the form 
which grows freely round Mentone seems 
to be the one in general cultivation. This 
species and its various forms stand our 
English climate very well. Being a non- 
climbing sort, it is at home on the rock- 
garden, where its large, purplish flowers 
are pretty. Seed or division of root. 

C. cantabricus. A pink-flowered 
species from Southern Europe, growing 
a foot or so high, and producing its 
blossoms in clusters of two or three. 
The shaggy or dwarf nature of the 
peduncles, and the distinctly narrow sepals, 
are distinguishing features of this kinu. 

C. Cneorum (Silvery Bindweed). A 
distinct sub-shrubby kind, having pink 
blossoms and silvery leaves, and forming 
a capitate cluster. It is a beautiful 
plant for a warm position against a 
rock. In the north it is probably 
tender, but not so in the southern 
counties. S. Europe. 





Convolvulus lineatus (Dwarf Silvery 
Bindweed}. This is quite a pigmy, the 
whole plant often showing nothing but a 
tuft of small silky, rather narrow, and 
pointed leaves above the ground. Among 
these appear in summer delicate flesh- 
coloured flowers more than an inch across, 
and in full perfection at less than 3 inches 
high, though in warmer soils and districts 
than those on which I have seen the 
plant, it sometimes grows an inch or two 
higher. Few plants are better for embel- 
lishing some arid part of the rock-garden 
near, and somewhat under the eye as its 
beauty is not of a showy order. Mediter- 
ranean region. Better increased by divid- 
ing the root. 

C. mauritanicus (Blue Rock Bindweed). 
A beautiful plant, without the ram- 
pant growth of many of its race, but 
withal throwing up graceful shoots, which 
bear numbers of clear, light-blue flowers. 
It is quite distinct from any other plant, 
and, happily, is hardy in sunny chinks. 
It is seen to the best advantage in a 
somewhat raised position, so that its free- 
flowering shoots may fall freely down, 
though it may also be used with good 
effect on the level ground in the flower- 
garden, or as a vase plant. Mountains 
of North Africa ; readily increased by 
cuttings and by seeds. 

C. scammonia (Scammony). A twining 
kind of slender growth, and bearing in 
summer creamy -white flowers. Although 
doing well in any position, it seems to 
want plenty of sun, and thrives best in 
a light deep sandy soil, as the large roots 
go a long way down. Syria. 

C. soldanella (Shore Bindweed). This 
is recognised by its leathery, roundish 
leaves, and by its stems being short, 
heavy, and without the twining habit 
so common in the family. The flowers 
are large, of a light pink colour ; thrives 
and flowers freely in ordinary soil far 
away from the seaside, and therefore the 
plant is worthy of a place among the 
trailers of the rock-garden. A native 
of maritime sands, in many parts of the 
world ; not uncommon on our own coasts, 
and flowering in summer. Where difficult 
to establish, plenty of coarse river sand 
might be mixed in the soil. 

Convolvulus tenuissimus. A pretty 
climbing species from the Mediterranean 
region, much in the way of C. althceoides, but 
in the present kind the foliage is much 
more divided. A marked feature is the 
way the leaf segments radiate around a 
common centre, the central leaf being 
of considerable length and of long linear 
lance-shaped outline. 

The plant known in gardens as Calys- 
tegia pubescens fl.-pl. is really a Bindweed, 
and a pretty kind, with double flowers 
of white and pale rose. In warm or 
light stony soil this plant grows apace, 
and in summer for a long time the 
twining stems are thickly studded with 
the flowers. 

Thread). A little evergreen bog-plant, 
3 inches or 4 inches high, with three- 
leafleted or trifoliate shining leaves. It 
derives its common name from its long 
bright yellow roots. It is occasionally 
grown in botanic gardens. A native 
of the northern parts of America, Asia, 
and Europe, flowering in summer ; 
white, and easily grown in moist peat 
or very moist sandy soil. Division. 

pelier (7.). A rather pretty dwarf, 
branching plant, about 6 inches high, 
usually biennial in our gardens. 
Thrives on dry and sunny spots of 
the rock-garden, in sandy soil, and 
among dwarf plants. Seed. South 
of France. 

CORNUS (Dogwood). Hardy and 
valuable shrubs with, so far as yet 
grown, few kinds dwarf and compact 
enough for our purpose. 

Cornus canadensis (Canadian Cornel). 
A very pretty but neglected miniature 
shrub, of which each little shoot is tipped 
with white bracts, pointed with a tint 
of rose. I know nothing prettier than 
this Cornus when well established, and 
it is not at all difficult to grow, but 
rarely conies in for a proper situation. 




It is lost among coarse herbaceous plants, 
and totally obscured by ordinary shrubs, 
and should therefore be planted in the 
bog-garden, or near the edge of a bed 
of dwarf Heaths or American plants. 
Wherever placed, rather damp sandy 
soil will be found to suit it best. N. 
America, in damp woods. 

Cornus suecica is a native of Northern 
and Arctic Europe, Asia, and America. In 
Britain it occurs on high moorlands from 
Yorkshire northwards, and is a charming 
little plant, flowering in summer, with 
conspicuous, rather large white bracts, 
followed by red fruit. It grows but a 
few inches high, and has unbranched 
stems from slender creeping rootstocks. 
It should be grown in light soil or in 
peat under the shade of bushes. 

CORONILLA (Grown Vetch). 
Pretty shrubs, herbaceous and alpine 
plants of the Pea-flower family, one or 
two shrubs interesting and hardy in 
the warmer districts, but the smaller 
kinds hardy and free everywhere, 
and in any soil. 

Coronilla iberica (Caucasian Grown 
Vetch). A plant with glaucous foliage and 
decumbent habit, not rising 4 inches from 
the ground, and producing freely umbels 
of yellow blossoms. Somewhat similar 
in appearance, but much larger than our 
own familiar Lotus corniculatus. It 
flourishes admirably with its woody 
roots well bedded in the rock-garden, 
and will cover completely 2 or 3 square 
feet of rock surface, when so placed. 
The Caucasus. 

C. minima (Dwarf Crown Vetch). A 
small evergreen herb, prostrate, glaucous 
green, with many rich yellow flowers, six 
to twelve in each crown, in April and May. 
It is a plant of easy culture, and well 
worthy of a warm spot on the rock- 
garden, where its tiny shoots may lap 
over the stones. Deep 'light soil in sunny 
fissures will suit it best, and in such places 
its diffuse little stems will be best seen. 
Division and seeds. S. Europe. 

C. varia (Rosy C.). A handsome and 
graceful plant, with many rose-coloured 
flowers, frequent on many of the railway 

banks in France and Northern Italy. It 
forms low dense tufts, sheeted with rosy 
pink, and the most graceful use that could 
be made of it would be to plant it on some 
tall bare rock, and allow its vigorous shoots 
and bright little coronets to flow over and 
form a curtain. It is also admirable for 
chalky banks, or for running about among 
low trailing shrubs. When in good soil, 
the shoots grow 5 feet long, and therefore 
it should not be placed near the smaller 
alpine plants, but rather among the shrubs 
on banks near. Seeds. 

Coronilla montana is from 1 5 to 1 8 inches 
high, and bearing many yellow flowers, 
is somewhat too large for association with 
small alpine plants, but, being a showy 
species, is excellent for the rougher parts 
of the rock-garden or among its shrubs. 

Sanide). Somewhat like the tender 
Primula mollis, with large seven- or 
nine-lobed leaves, the leaf- stalks and 
the leaves covered with colourless 
short hairs. A wiry thread of vas- 
cular matter runs through the stem 
leaves, and may be drawn through 
the blades as well as footstalk of the 
leaves, without breaking. The flowers, 
borne on stems about 15 inches high, 
are pendulous, and of a peculiarly 
rich and deep purplish crimson, with 
a white ring at the base of the cup, 
six to twelve being borne on a stem. 
It does well in the angle formed by 
two rocks, where its leaves cannot 
be torn by the wind. Flowers in 
early summer, and comes from the 
Alps. Increased by careful division 
of the root, or by seed sown soon 
after being gathered. 

CORYDALIS (Fumitory). All 
these plants are attractive in some 
way or other, and several kinds are 
valuable, and as such deserving a 
place according to their kind. The 
following are among the more im- 
portant : 




Corydalis bracteata, a distinct kind, 
with sulphur-yellow flowers produced in a 
nearly horizontal manner on the stems, 
that attain nearly 1 foot high. A distinct 
feature is the long spur, this frequently 
exceeding the length of the foot-stalk. 
More erect than some other kinds, the 
flowers cluster together at intervals, but 
by no means in a crowded manner. The 
leaf growth is not abundant, and the seg- 
ments of the leaves being cut, render the 
leafage only more thin-looking. The 
plant is of quite easy culture, and may 
be best used around the base of the rock- 
garden. It is a native of Siberia, and 
quite hardy. 

C. cava is one of the dwarfest of this 
race, flowering early in the year. The 
purplish blossoms, however, are not very 
attractive. A prettier kind is the variety 
albiflora, which is in every respect similar, 
save the colour of the flowers. 

C. Ledebouriana is distinct and pretty, 
the glaucous leaves being divided into 
several rather small segments, the main 
leaves keeping quite close to the soil. 
The blossoms are of a pinkish hue, and 
have a dark spot on the upper portion 
of the sepals. The plant rarely exceeds 
6 inches or 8 inches in height, and is best 
suited for sunny positions in the rock- 

C. lutea ( Yellow Fumitory). This plant 
is not so much grown as it deserves, for 
not only are its graceful masses of delicate 
pale-green leaves dotted over with yellow 
flowers, but it grows to perfection on walls. 
I have seen it in the most unlikely spots 
on walls in hot as well as in cold countries, 
and know nothing to equal it for ruins, 
walls, stony places, and poor bare banks, 
the tufts often looking as full of flower 
and vigorous when emerging from some 
old chink where a drop of rain, never 
falls upon them, as when planted in good 
soil. It also makes a handsome border- 
plant, and is well suited for the rougher 
kind of rock and root work. A natural- 
ised plant in England, and widely spread 
over Continental Europe. Readily in- 
creased by seeds ; in any stony position 
it spreads about with weed-like rapidity. 

C. nobilis (Noble Fumitory). A hand- 
some plant, the flower-stems stout and 

leafy to the top, and bearing a massive 
head of flowers, composed of many in- 
dividual blooms in various stages. The 
open flowers are of a rich yellow, with 
a small protuberance in the centre of 
each, of a reddish-chocolate colour ; and 
this, with the yellow and the green rosette 
when the bloom is young, makes the plant 
very ornamental. It is easy of culture in 
borders, but is rather slow of increase, 
and, where it does not thrive as a border 
plant, should be planted in light, rich soil 
on the lower flanks of the rock-garden. 
It is a native of Siberia. Increased by 
division, and flowers in early summer. 

Corydalis solida (Bulbous Fumitory). 
A dwarf tuberous-rooted kind, from 4 to 6 
or 7 inches in height, with dull purplish 
flowers. It has a solid bulbous root, is quite 
hardy, of easy culture in almost any soil, 
pretty, and is good for rougher portion of 
the rock-garden, or for naturalising in 
open spots in woods. It is naturalised in 
several parts of England, but is not a true 
native, its home being the warmer parts 
of Europe ; easily increased by division, 
flowers in April. Syn., Fumaria solida. 

C. Semenovii. A rather pretty kind 
from Turkestan. The flowers, which are 
rich yellow, cluster together in the upper 
part of the stem and assume a somewhat 
pendent position. The spur in this kind 
is very short. It flowers usually in early 

C. thalictrifolia. A new kind from 
China that promises to make a very 
charming addition to rock-garden plants. 
Barely 1 foot high, tufted, and spreading 
in habit of growth, it is distinct in various 
ways from the other species of the genus. 
The thin, wiry stems each carry two pairs 
of oppositely-placed leaves on pedicels an 
inch long, and a terminal leaflet, all beine 
distinctly and rather deeply notched and 
rounded at the top. The blossoms are 
yellow, each about an inch long, horizontal 
or slightly ascending, and produced some- 
what after the manner of C. lutea. The 
leaf character is a most distinct feature 
of this kind. The plant flowers profusely 
from May to October, and in autumn the 
foliage assumes a reddish tone. 

COTONEASTER (RocJcspray).Oi\e 




of the most interesting and brilliant of 
the shrubs which adorn the rocks, 
and every year seems to add to their 
variety and beauty. They are so 
hardy and so pretty in habit, in 
flower, and fruit, that we cannot 
associate any better shrubs than these 
with our larger rock-gardens. Some 
kinds are very small and earth-cling- 
ing in growth. They are mostly 
natives of India, and of the mountains 
of China, as well as Northern Europe, 
and one is a native of our own 
country. In gardens, generally, these 
plants are often neglected. Their best 
use is for banks near the rock-garden, 
and all the dwarf and bushy kinds are 
worth a place. 

Cotoneaster buxifolia (Box-leaved Rock- 
spray). A free-growing bush that at times 
attains the height of 6 feet, the branches 
clothed with deep-green box-like leaves ; 
the crimson berries, nestling in profusion 
among the leaves, are pretty in autumn. 

C. horizontalis (Plumed C.). In this 
the branches are frond-like and almost 
horizontal, while the small leaves are 
regularly disposed along the thick sturdy 
branches. The berries are bright ver- 
milion, and the flowers large and pretty. 
I find this one of the best of shrubs for 
rocky banks. China. 

C. microphylla (Wall Eockspray).An 
evergreen clothed with tiny deep-green 
leaves, in the spring crowded with whitish 
blossoms, the berries crimson, and remain- 
ing on the plants for a long time. There 
are some well-marked varieties of C. 
microphylla, one of which thymifolia 
is smaller in all its parts, while congesta is 
even more of a procumbent habit. C. 
microphylla is useful for stony banks, and 
its variety, congesta, is more at home when 
draping a large stone than in any other 
way. Himalayas. 

C. rotundifolia is like the preceding, 
but with thicker branches and rounder 
leaves, while the berries are of a brighter 

Navelwort). A native of Britain and 

Ireland and many parts of Western 
Europe, in some districts common on 
walls. Of little importance for cultiva- 
tion, except perhaps now and then as 
a hardy fernery or bog plant. 

CROCUS. Some ordinary kinds of 
Crocus are very easily grown, and are 
so free in the common soil of many 
gardens, that there is no occasion to 
make rock-garden plants of them. 
But some wild species are so refined 
and beautiful in colour, and in many 
cases so rare, that the rock-garden 
would be improved by them, and there 
we could easily give them the kind 
of soil that suits them best, usually 
open warm soil, and also get them 
out of harm's way a little. The 
autumn kinds, too, are among the 
most lovely of wild flowers, and in 
little groups on our rock-gardens they 
would be most at home, until we got 
them plentiful. The very late-flower- 
ing kinds of delicate colour are best 
in a sheltered part of the rock-garden. 
In the case of the pretty autumn 
Crocuses, their beauty is best seen 
when the flowers rise from a ground- 
work of some creeping rock plant. 
The midwinter blooming species, 
charming in their own country, will 
rarely bloom well in our winters. 
Only the kinds known to be pretty 
and free under rock-garden conditions 
are named here. 

Crocus biflorus (Cloth-of-Silver Crocus). 
A very dwarf early and free kind which 
varies much. In var. estriatus, from 
Florence, the flowers are a uniform pale 
lavender, orange towards the base. In 
var. Weldeni, from Trieste and Dalmatia, 
the outer segments are externally flecked 
with bright purple. In C. nubigenus, a 
small variety from Asia Minor, the outer 
segments are suffused with brown ; G. 
pestalozzce is an albino of this variety. In 
G. Adami, from the Caucasus, the segments 
are pale purple, either self-coloured or 
feathered with dark purple. 




Crocus chrysanthus. A vernal Crocus, 
flowering from January to March, accord- 
ing to elevation, which varies from a little 
above the sea-level to a height of 3000 or 
4000 feet. The flowers are usually of 
bright orange, but occasionally bronzed 
and feathered externally. A white variety 
is also found in Bithynia and on Mount 
Olympus above Broussa ; this species also 
varies with pale sulphur-coloured flowers, 
occasionally suffused with blue towards 
the ends of the segments, dying out to- 
wards the orange throat. There are 
several varieties of this Crocus. 

C. Imperati (Naples Crocus). This is 
very early flowering, and one of the very 
best kinds, even in this large family. Ex- 
cepting G. vernus and its varieties, it is 
one of the most variable species we have 
in the colour markings and size of its 
flowers. It is splendid for lawns, useful 
on the rock-garden as being an early and 
certain flower, while it will remain in 
condition without lifting, as long or longer 
than any other species. Majus is a large 
form of it. In addition to being one of 
the most free-flowering, it is one of the 
easiest to manage, and flourishes where 
many of the others would fail. It is 
admirable to grow among shrubs near 
the rock-garden, or in the grass around, 
flowering in the earliest days of spring. 

C. iridiflprus. Bears in September and 
October bright-purple flowers before the 
leaves. Remarkable for purple stigmata 
and the marked difference between the 
size of the inner and the outer segments 
of the perianth. 

C. aureus (Yellow C.). One of the 
commonest and most vigorous of all our 
garden Crocuses, a native of Eastern 
Europe, and, it need hardly be added, 
at home everywhere in Britain. "It is 
observable that all the wild specimens 
of this species seem to have grown with 
the bulbs 5 inches or more underground. 
Depth is very necessary to their preserva- 
tion, for mice, which I have found usually 
to meddle with no other species, will 
scratch very deep in quest of them. All 
the varieties of this species seem to prefer 
a very light soil upon a clay subsoil." 
(Herbert, in " Trans. Hort. Soc."). 

C. nudiflorus (Purple Autumn C.). A 

beautiful bright purple Crocus, flower- 
ing in autumn after the leaves of the 
year are withered, thriving freely in any 
light soil, and naturalised in meadows 
about Nottingham and Derby. Flower 
with the tube from 3 inches to' 10 inches, 
and the segments l inch to 2 inches 
long ; stigmas reddish-orange, cut into 
an elegant fringe. It is very beautiful 
in colour, and groups charmingly on the 

Crocus Orphanidis (Orphamdes 1 C.). 
Lovely soft lilac-blue flowers, having yellow 
throats, 2^ inches in diameter, and open- 
ing in autumn. The bulbs are large, 
nearly 2 inches long, "closely covered 
with a bright chestnut-brown tissue." 
The leaves appear with the flowers, ex- 
ceeding them in length, and getting much 
longer afterwards. A native of Greece, 
and, till plentiful, should be exclusively 
planted on warm slopes of the rock- 

C. pulchellus. An autumnal species, 
invaluable for the garden. The pale 
lavender flowers, with bright yellow 
throat, are freely produced from the 
middle of September to early in December. 

C. reticulatus (Cloth-of-Gold a). This 
is the little rich golden Crocus with the 
exterior of its flowers of a brownish black. 
It is the earliest of the commonly culti- 
vated spring Crocuses, and a native of 
South-Eastern Europe. There are several 
varieties, and among them a lilac and a 
white, but these I have never seen in 
cultivation. Suitable for association with 
the earliest and dwarfest flowers of the 
dawn of spring, thriving in ordinary soil. 
It is generally known as G. susianus. 

C. sativus (Saffron C.). This species 
was formerly cultivated in England for 
the production of saffron, which is made 
from the fringed and rich orange style. 
Its native country is not known with 
certainty, but it is probably from S. Europe. 
It blooms in autumn from the end of 
September to the beginning of November, 
according to position and soil. The 
flowers have a delicate odour. The bulbs 
of the Saffron Crocus should be planted 
from 4 to 6 inches under the surface, and 
it loves a sandy loam and a warm position. 




Where the natural soil is too cold for this 
plant, it will be best to give it a home on 
sunny parts of the rock-garden. 

Crocus Sieberi (Sieber's (7.). A small 
species, from the mountains of Greece. We 
have Crocuses that flower in Spring, and 
Crocuses that flower in autumn ; but this 
hardy mountaineer flowers in winter and 
earliest spring, anticipating all the others. 
Very dwarf, with pale violet flowers ; is 
not at all difficult to cultivate, and should 
be placed on some little sunny ledge or 
other spot where it may be safe from 
being overrun 

C. speciosus (Showy Autumn (7.). The 
finest of the autumn-flowering Crocuses, 
and coming into beautiful bloom when the 
wet gusts begin to play with the fallen 
leaves, at the end of September or begin- 
ning of October ; the flowers, bluish- violet, 
striped internally with deep purple lines, 
smooth at the throat, the divisions most 
deeply veined near their base ; the stigmas 
of a fine orange colour, cut so as to appear 
as if fringed ; the leaves appearing about 
the same time as the flowers, but not 
attaining their full development till the 
following spring. It seeds freely in this 
country, and may be readily increased in 
that way, and by division. Crimea and 
neighbouring regions. 

C. vernus (Spring Crocus). One of the 
earliest cultivated species. Alps, Pyrenees, 
Tyrol, Italy, and Dalmatia. Naturalised 
in several parts of England. Kemarkable 
for its range of colour, from pure white 
to deep purple, endless varieties being 
generally intermixed in its native habitats, 
and corresponding with the horticultural 
varieties of our gardens. Flowers early 
in March at low elevations, and as late as 
June and July in the higher Alps. The 
parent of nearly all the purple, whitef and 
striped Crocuses grown in Holland. 

C. versicolor (Striped 0.). This is a 
distinct spring-flowering kind, which has 
spread into a good many varieties, and is 
abundantly grown in Holland. The 
ground colour of the flower is white, but 
richly striped with purple, the throat 
sometimes white, sometimes yellow, the 
inside being smooth, by which it can be 
readily distinguished from Crocus vernus, 
which has the inside of the throat hairy. 

Dean Herbert says this "likes to have 
its conn deep in the ground. If its seed 
is sown in a three-inch pot plunged in a 
sand-bed, and left there, by the time the 
seedlings are two or three years old, the 
bulbs will be found crowded and flattened 
against the bottom of the pot ; and, if the 
hole in the pot is large enough to allow 
their escape, some of them will be found 
growing in the sand under the pot." It, 
however, thrives in any ordinary garden 

Crocus zonatus. Bright vinous-lilac 
flowers golden at the base, abundant about 
the middle of September ; highly orna- 
mental and free-flowering, and easy of 
culture. The flowers come before the 
leaves, which do not appear till spring. 

C.). A distinct Himalayan rock plant, 
about 4 inches high, flowering in late 
summer ; purplish blue with a whitish 
centre. It thrives in the rock-garden 
in sunny chinks in a mixture of sandy 
peat and leaf-mould, with plenty of 
moisture during the growing season. 
Increased freely by cuttings. The 
seed requires a dry, favourable season 
to ripen it ; in wet weather the large 
erect, persistent calyx becomes filled 
with water, which remains and rots 
the included seed vessel. 

Cyananthus incanus. This quite 
differs from G. lobatus, flowering more 
freely ; like that species, it should be 
planted in a dry, sunny, well-drained 
position, as, if the situation be too damp, 
the fleshy root-stock is liable to rot. It 
is a good plan to place something over 
the plant during the resting season. The 
flowers are not so large as those of lobatus, 
but they are more charming in colour, 
which is enhanced in effect by the white 
tuft of hairs in the throat of the corolla. 

CYCLAMEN (Sowbread). Except 
the Persian kind, these are as hardy 
as Primroses ; but they love the 
shelter and shade of low bushes or 
hill copses, where they may nestle and 
bloom in security. In the places they 




naturally inhabit there is usually the 
friendly shelter of Grasses or branch- 
lets about them, so that their large 
leaves are not torn to pieces by wind 
or hail. The Ivy-leaved Cyclamen is 
in full leaf through winter and early 
spring, and for the sake of the beauty 
of the leaves alone, it is best to place 
it so that it may be safe from injury. 
Good drainage is necessary to their open- 
air culture. They grow naturally among 
broken rocks and stones mixed with 
vegetable soil, grit, etc., where they are 
not surrounded by stagnant water. The 
late Mr Atkins, of Painswick, who 
paid much attention to their culture, 
and succeeded in a remarkable degree, 
thought that the tuber should be 
buried, and not exposed like the 
Persian Cyclamen in pots. His chief 
reason was that in some species the 
roots issue from the upper surface 
of the tuber only. They enjoy plenty 
of moisture at the root at all seasons, 
and thrive best in a friable, open soil, 
with plenty of leaf-mould in it. They 
are admirably suited for the rock- 
garden, and enjoy warm nooks, partial 
shade, and shelter from dry, cutting 
winds. They may be grown on any 
aspect if the conditions above men- 
tioned be secured, but an eastern or 
south-eastern one is best. 

Perfect drainage at the roots is in- 
dispensable for the successful culture 
of all Cyclamens, growing as they 
often do in their native habitats 
amongst stones, rock, and debris of 
the mountains, mixed with an ac- 
cumulation of vegetable soil the 
tubers being thereby often covered to 
a considerable depth, and not exposed 
to the action of the atmosphere, as 
is too often the case under culture 
if placed on the surface of the 
soil. This practice is in most in- 
stances injurious, drying up the 

incipient young leaf and flower buds 
when the tubers are apparently at 
rest : for I find in most species that, 
though leafless, the fibres and young 
buds for the ensuing year are still 
making slow but healthy progress 
under favourable circumstances. Col- 
lectors from abroad should be specially 
careful in this particular. We seldom 
find tubers of some of the species that 
have been much dried or exposed to 
the air vegetate freely or sometimes at 
all. I have now by me some roots 
imported nearly six years since (I 
believe from the Greek Isles), that 
were thus exposed, and though the 
tubers have remained sound and sent 
out tolerably healthy fibres, they have 
not until this season made healthy 
leaves. In C. hedercefolium and its 
varieties the greater portion of their 
fibres issue from the upper surface and 
sides of the tuber, indicating the 
necessity of their being beneath the 
soil. The habit in C. coum, C. vernum, 
and their allies, of the leaf and flower 
stalks, when in a vigorous state, run- 
ning beneath the soil, often to a con- 
siderable distance from the tuber, 
before rising to the surface, points in 
the same direction. 

Cyclamens generally like a rich soil, 
composed of friable loam, well-decayed 
vegetable matter, and cow manure, 
reduced to the state of mould, and 
rendered sweet by exposure to the 
atmosphere before use. They are all 
admirably adapted for the rock-garden ; 
they enjoy warm nooks, partial shade 
from mid- day sun, and shelter from 
the effects of drying, cutting winds. 
An eastern or south-eastern aspect is 
best, screened from cutting winds, but 
a northern one will do well, and they 
love an open yet sheltered spot. 

Cyclamens are best propagated by 
seed sown as soon as it is ripe, in well- 




drained pots of light soil. I generally 
cover the surface of the soil after sow- 
ing with a little moss, to ensure 
uniform dampness, and place them in 
a sheltered spot out of doors. As 
soon as the plants begin to appear, 
which may be in a month or six weeks, 
the moss should be gradually removed. 
As soon as the first leaf is half de- 
veloped, they should be transplanted 
about an inch apart in seed pans of 
rich light earth, and encouraged to 
grow as long as possible, being 
sheltered in a cold frame, with abund- 
ance of air at all times. When the 
leaves have perished the following 
summer, the tubers may be planted 
out or potted, according to their 

From the earliest times there ap- 
pears to have been great difficulty felt 
by our best botanists in clearly defin- 
ing the species of Cyclamen, from the 
great variation in shape and colouring 
of the leaves both above and below. 
Too much dependence on these 
characters has been the cause of much 
confusion and an undue multiplication 
of species. Some of the varieties of 
this genus become so fixed, and repro- 
duce themselves so truly from seed, 
as to be regarded as species by some 
cultivators. The following are some 
of the more important synonyms 
cestivum (europceum) ; anemonoides 
(europcsum) ; autumnale(Hiedercefolium); 
Clusii (europceum) ; hyemale (coum) ; 
littorale (europcewnj ; neapolitanum 
(hedenefolium) ; repandum (vernum) ; 
vernum of Sweet (coum, var. zonale). 
Anemonoides, Clusii, and littorale, are 
southern varieties of 0. europceum, quite 
distinct from the northern type. 

Cyclamen coum (Round-leaved C.). 
Tuber round, depressed, smooth, fibres issu- 
ing from one point on under side only. 
Leaves of a plain dark green, cordate, 
slightly indented ; these, with the flowers, 

generally spring from a short stem rising, 
from the centre of the tuber. Corolla 
short, constricted at the mouth ; reddish 
purple, darker at the mouth, where there 
is a white circle ; inside striped red* 
Flowers from December to March, and 
is a native of the Greek Archipelago. 
This, with the others of the same section 
viz. vernum of Sweet, ibericum, Atkinsii, 
and the numerous hybrids from it 
though hardy, and frequently in bloom 
in the open ground before the Snowdrop, 
yet, to preserve the flowers from the effects 
of unfavourable weather, will be the better 
for slight protection, or a pit or frame 
devoted to them, in which to plant them 

0. vernum of Sweet is considered by 
many as only a variety of coum, and for 
it I would suggest the name of G. coum> 
var. zonale (from its marked foliage). I 
was for a long time unwilling to give it 
up as a distinct species, but now doubt 
there being sufficient permanent specific 
distinction to warrant its being retained 
as such, especially after seeing the many 
forms and hues the leaves of other species 
of this genus assume. Though this, as 
well as G. coum, retains its peculiarities as 
to markings very correctly from seed, so 
do some undoubted varieties of other 
species of Cyclamen. 

Cyclamen Ibericum (Iberian (7.). This 
also belongs to the coum section. There is 
some obscurity respecting the authority 
for this species and its native country ; 
but there are specimens of it in the Kew 
and Oxford herbariums, marked "ex 
Iberia." Leaves very various. Flowers : 
corolla rather longer than in coum ; mouth 
constricted, not toothed ; colour various, 
from deep red-purple to rose, lilac, and 
white, with intensely dark mouth ; pro- 
duced more abundantly than by coum. 

C. europseum (European (7.). Tuber of 
medium size and very irregular form, 
sometimes roundish or depressed and 
knotted, at other times elongated. The 
rind is thin, smooth, yellowish, sometimes 
"scabby." The underground stem or 
rhizome is often of considerable length 
and size, sometimes even more than a foot 
in length. The leaves and flowers origi- 
nate from stalks or branches, which emerge 




from all parts of the tuber. The root 
fibrils spring from the lower surface of 
the tuber as freely as from the upper, and 
there are usually two or three stems 
springing from different parts, and grow- 
ing in different directions, from which the 
leaves and flowers arise. The leaves ap- 
pear before and with the flowers, and 
remain during the greater part of the 
year. Flowers from June to November, 
or, with slight protection, until the end 
of the year. The petals rather short, stiff, 
and of a reddish-purple colour. I have 
often seen them luxuriate in the debris 
of old walls, and on the mountain-side, 
with a very sparing quantity of vegetable 
earth to grow in. 

Cyclamen hedersefolium (Ivy-leaved (7.). 
A native of Switzerland, South Europe, 
Italy, Greece and its isles, and the north 
coast of Africa. Tuber not unfrequently 
a foot in diameter when full-grown ; its 
shape somewhat spheroidal, depressed on 
the upper surface, rounded beneath. It 
is covered with a brownish rough rind, 
which cracks irregularly, so as to form 
little scales. The root fibres emerge from 
the whole of the upper surface of the 
tuber, but principally from the rim ; few 
or none issue from the lower surface. The 
leaves and flowers generally spring direct 
from the tuber without the intervention 
of any stem (a small stem, however, is 
sometimes produced, especially if the tuber 
be planted deep) ; at first "they spread 
horizontally, but ultimately become erect. 
The leaves are variously marked, and the 
greater portion of them appear after the 
flowers, continuing in great beauty the 
whole winter and early spring, when they 
are one of the greatest ornaments of our 
borders and rockeries, if well grown. I 
have had them as much as 6 inches long, 
5i inches in diameter, and a hundred to 
a hundred and fifty leaves springing from 
one tuber. The flowers begin to appear 
at the end of August, continuing until 
October. Mouth or base of the corolla 
ten-toothed, pentagonal, purplish red, 
frequently with a stripe of lighter colour, 
or white, down each segment of the corolla. 
There is a pure white variety, and also a 
white one with pink base or mouth of 
corolla, which reproduce themselves toler- 

ably true from seeds. Strong tubers will 
produce from two hundred to three 
hundred flowers each. The varieties from 
Corfu and other Greek isles are very dis- 
tinct. They generally flower later, and 
continue longer in bloom. Their leaves 
rise with or before the majority of the 
flowers, both being stronger and larger 
than the ordinary type, with more decided 
difference of outline and markings on the 
upper surface of the leaves, the under 
surface being frequently of a beautiful 
purple. Some of them are delightfully 
fragrant. They are quite hardy, but are 
worthy of a little protection to preserve 
the late blooms, which often continue to 
spring up till the end of the year. 

This species is so hardy as to make it 
essential for the rock-garden. It will 
grow in almost any soil and situation, 
though best (and it well deserves it) in a 
well-drained place on the rock-garden. It 
does not like frequent removal. It has 
been naturalised successfully on the mossy 
floor of a thin wood, on a very sandy, poor 

G. grcecum is a very near ally, if more 
than a variety ; it requires the same treat- 
ment. The foliage is more after the 
southern var. of C. europmum type than 
most of the hedercefolium section ; the 
shape of corolla and toothing of the mouth 
the same. C. africanum much larger in 
all its parts than C, hedercefolium, other- 
wise very nearly allied, is hardy in warm 
sheltered situations. 

Cyclamen vernum (Spring C.). Tuber 
round, depressed, somewhat rougher russety 
on outer surface ; fibres issue from one point 
on the under side only ; under cultivation 
it has little or no stem, but leaves and 
flowers proceed direct from the upper 
centre of the tuber, bending under the 
surface of the soil horizontally before 
rising to the surface. Corolla long, seg- 
ments somewhat twisted, mouth round, 
not toothed ; colour from a delicate peach 
to deep red purple, very seldom white ; 
fragrant. Flowers from April to end of 
May. Native of South Italy, the Medi- 
terranean and Greek isles, and about 
Capouladoux, near Montpellier. Leaves 
rise before the flowers in the spring ; they 
are generally marked more or less with 




white on upper surface, and often of a 
purplish cast beneath ; fleshy ; semi-trans- 
parent whilst young. For many years I 
believed this species to vary in the out- 
line and colouring of the foliage less than 
any other, but I have now received im- 
ported tubers from Greece, with much 
variety in both particulars, some of the 
leaves quite plain and dark green, others 
dashed all over with spots of white, others 
with an irregular circle of white varying 
much in outline. 

This, though hardy, is seldom met with 
cultivated successfully in the open air. It is 
impatient of wet standing about the tubers, 
and likes a light soil, in a nook rather 
shady and well sheltered from winds, its 
tender fleshy leaves being soon injured. 
The tubers should also be planted deep, 
say not less than 2 inches to 2 inches be- 
neath the surface. I have grown them 
for many years in a border and on rocks 
without any other protection than a few 
larch-fir boughs lightly placed over them, 
to break the force of the wind and afford 
a slight shelter from the scorching sun. 
Some authorities give C. repandum as a 
distinct species, but I consider them 
identical, the only difference being in 
the shape and markings of the leaves, 
which are very variable. It is generally 
cultivated in England under the name 
of repandum, but most of the best conti- 
nental botanists adopt the name of 
vernum for it, and it is, no doubt, the 
original 0. vernum of L'Obel. 

CYPRIPEDIUM (Lady's Slipper) 
Beautiful Orchids, the northern species 
of which are prettier in colour than 
the tropical ones, and of the highest 
interest for the rock-garden. In-- it 
the variety of surface and aspect offer 
means of growing these charming hardy 
Orchids better than borders. As most 
of them come from the coldest countries, 
it is not our climate that is against 
them, but the soil, when not of the 
leafy, moist, and nearly always open 
soil of the moist woods in their native 

The best plants of C. acaule, C. 

Calceolus, and C. speddbile I have 
ever had were grown in the flanks 
of a piece of rootwork under a canopy 
of Beech. In preparing a station for 
them, the soil should be taken out to 
a depth of 20 inches, and if the upper 
spit consists of fairly good fibrous 
loam, it may be laid aside for mix- 
ing with the compost. Place a good 
layer of rough stones or broken brick 
in the bottom, and fill in with about 
equal parts of rough fibrous peat, leaf- 
mould, and loam, the leaf-mould to 
be only partly decayed. A little 
limestone grit, gravel, or similar 
material may be added with advan- 
tage, as some species delight in it, 
while it will do no harm to any. The 
roots should be planted from 4 inches 
to 6 inches deep as soon as received, 
and a soaking of water given to settle 
the soil. They may then have a light 
mulch of rough material, and usually 
no more water will be required until 
the leaves are pushing up. The time 
for lifting and potting varies a little 
in different species, but, as a rule, 
the best time is just as the growth 
has died off. One of the finest 
species is : 

Cypripedium macranthum, a large 
and handsome species, but it is rare. It 
thrives in sound fibrous loam of good texture 
broken into lumps, with some finely 
broken charcoal and crocks suiting it 
well, not disturbing the roots oftener 
than is necessary. The downy flower- 
spikes are about 1 foot high, and each 
bears a single large flower of a rosy pink, 
streaked with red and white. 

C. parviflorum is an old and useful 
American species that thrives well in a 
very moist, shady position, or it may be 
grown in pots in a frame. The sepals 
and petals are narrow, twisted, shining 
brown, lined with deep purple ; the lip 
large, drooping, lemon-yellow, spotted 
with red. It is one of the best. 

C. japonicum (Japanese Lady's Slipper}. 
A graceful plant about 1 foot high, its 




hairy stems, which are as thick as one's 
little finger, bearing two plicate fan- 
shaped leaves of bright green, rather 
jagged round the margins. The flowers 
are solitary, the sepals being of an apple - 
green tint ; the petals, too, are of the same 
colour, but are dotted with purplish- 
crimson at the base ; the lip large, and 
folded in front ; the colour of the lip is 
a soft creamy yellow, with bold purple 
dots and lines. Thrives in half-shady 
spots, with plenty of leaf-soil. 

Cypripedium spectabile (Noble Lady's 
Slipper). A noble hardy Orchid ; a native 
of meadows, peat bogs, and woods, in the 
Northern,andon mountains in the Southern, 
United States. When grown in the open 
air, I know of no hardy plant to surpass 
this in delicate purity of colour. The best 
plants I have ever seen were at Glasnevin, 
on the cool side of one of the ranges of 
plant-houses there, planted close against 
the wall in deep rich soil a mixture of 
free moist loam and peat. Wherever 
there is any kind of a rock- or marsh- 
garden, there should be no difficulty in 
succeeding with this fine plant. It should 
be placed on the lower flanks, and in 
different positions and aspects, mostly 
sheltered ones ; and if it does not in all 
cases attain the stature of the Glasnevin 
plants, it will command admiration as 
the finest of hardy Orchids. 

C. calceolus (English Lady's Slipper). 
The handsomest of our native Orchids, 
and therefore an object of much interest. 
When grown under tolerably favourable 
conditions, the stem rises to a height of 
from 16 to 20 inches, with large pointed 
leaves, and bearing large flowers ; the lip 
yellow, variegated with purple ; the long 
sepals and petals of a brownish-purple. 
Although reputed to be extinct in Britain, 
it is known to exist yet in a wild state 
with us, but in very few places, and let 
us hope the last remaining plants may 
long remain undisturbed ; it is abund- 
antly distributed over Continental Europe, 
and should not be difficult to obtain. I 
have never seen this fine plant nearly so 
well grown as by the late Mr James 
Backhouse, of York. He planted it on 
an eastern shaded aspect of his rock- 
garderi, in deep, fibrous loam, in narrow, 

well-drained fissures, between limestone 
rocks. The condition in which this and 
other Orchises are obtained, has a great 
influence on their well-being. The roots 
are often dried up, arid nearly or quite 
dead when obtained ; and in this con- 
dition they would have but a poor chance 
of surviving, even if planted in the wilds 
most favourable to their natural develop- 
ment. Given good sound roots, there will 
not be the least difficulty in establishing 
plants in deep loam, in any well- drained, 
half shady spot, with some shelter afforded 
by low bushes and plants to prevent the 
leafy growth of the plant from being de- 
stroyed or injured by wind. It is propa- 
gated by division of the root, but should 
not be disturbed for that purpose till the 
plants are well established, and have 
begun to spread about. 

Cypripedium acaule (Moccasin Flower). 
A handsome, fragrant, hardy dwarf 
Orchid, with a large purplish-rose flower, 
blooming in summer nearly 2 inches long, 
with a deep fissure in front. It is common 
in North America, usually growing in sandy 
or rocky woods under evergreens, and the 
best position for it in cultivation is in 
some sheltered and half shaded spots on 
the lower flanks of the rock-garden, or 
among shrubs planted near it in sandy 
loam, with plenty of leaf-mould. It also 
succeeds in sheltered and shaded spots. 
It is found with pale, and, more rarely, 
with white flowers. 

C. guttatum (Spotted Lady's Slipper). 
A beautiful Siberian plant, growing from 
6 to 9 inches high, flowering in June ; 
solitary, rather small snow-white flowers, 
blotched with deep rosy-purple. The 
flower-stem rises from a single pair of 
broadly-ovate downy leaves. It requires 
a shady position in leaf-mould, moss, and 
sand, and should be kept rather dry in 
winter. In heavy soil the roots soon 
perish, and it does not care for lime, but 
if planted shallow and kept moist, it will 
usually thrive in the leafy soil. 

C. hirsutum (Yellow Lady's Slipper) is 
a tall-growing, handsome Orchid. The 
flowers are large and handsome, the sepals 
and narrower petals pale yellow, streaked 
and spotted with brown ; the lip pale 
yellow. A far northern kind, Nova Scotia 




and Canada, in copses and woods, also 
ascending high on the mountains of the 
southern country. Syn., C. pubescens. 

Cypripedium arietinum is a beautiful 
little Orchid, difficult to grow, and liking 
much moisture. The upper sepal and 
petals are greenish-white, lined with red- 
brown, the lip white in the throat, suffused 
with rose in front and streaked with red. 
Canada and the colder parts of the United 
States in cool damp woods. 

CYSTOPTERIS (Bladder Fern) 
The cultivated kinds of this native 
group are small elegant Ferns of 
delicate fragile texture, growing on 
rocks and walls, chiefly in moun- 
tainous districts. The best known 
are : C. fragilis, which has finely-cut 
fronds about 6 inches high. It is of 
easy culture, succeeding in an ordinary 
border, though seen to best advantage 
on shady parts of the rock-garden 
in a well-drained soil. There are 
two or three varieties, Dickieana 
being the best. C. alpina is much 
smaller, and, when once established, 
not difficult to cultivate or increase, 
but more affected by excessive 
moisture than C. fragilis. A shel- 
tered situation in a well-drained part 
of the rock-garden suits it. C. mon- 
tana is another elegant plant requiring 
the same treatment as C. fragilis. 

CYTISUS (Broom). These graceful 
and brilliant shrubs, though mostly 
too large for our purpose in the select 
rock-garden, wherever we deal with 
the natural rocks are valuable shrubs, 
being so free and easily raised by 
merely shaking the seed on the 
ground. Even the most arid railway- 
bank may be adorned by shaking a few 
seeds over them ; and of course the 
natural rock would be the very place 
for them. The purple Broom is natur- 
ally a trailing shrub with purplish 
flowers, but is generally seen grafted 

mop fashion on Laburnum stems. 
It is really an alpine shrub, and its 
place is among rocks and boulders, 
where its wiry branches can fall over 
and make dense cushion-like tufts. 
C. Ardoini is a pretty alpine shrub 
a few inches high, and suitable for 
the rock-garden ; its tufted growth 
is covered in summer with yellow 

Cytisus albus is the graceful white 
Portuguese Broom, an aid where our rocks 
are bold. The Montpellier Broom is only 
hardy in mild sea-shore districts, and 
various other kinds are not hardy in our 
country. C. scoparius, the common Broom 
of Britain, is one of the most beautiful 
shrubs, and well worth naturalising where 
it is not common wild. C. andreanus is a 
fine broom variety of it. The Spanish 
Broom is a very fine plant like the above, 
but it is put under the name of Spartium 
Junceum. Some of these are so free 
and vigorous that one can sow the seed 
out of hand on poor and stony places and 
in a very short time see the plants arise 
(even without covering the seed) on such 
surfaces as railway banks, sandy slopes, 
and thin copsey places, rough hedge 
banks and road - sides. The common 
Broom comes freely in this way, and also 
the Spanish Broom, though not a native 
plant, is superb on railway-banks, coining 
later than our own Broom. I have raised 
many in this way by merely shaking the 
seed in passing, and in the spring of this 
year (1902) sowed over half a hundred- 
weight of seed of the common Broom in 
young woods, on rail-banks, and the most 
likely places for it in or near my own 
place. The seed is saved in quantity by 
all the great seed houses, so there should 
be no difficulty in obtaining it. I recom- 
mend the pastime to gentlemen who have 
had enough of more fashionable forms of 
amusement. It has even claims from the 
musical side, as one may hear the nightin- 
gale when sowing of an evening in May. 

leaved Dalilmrda). A low tufted plant, 
about 2 inches in height, with white 




blossoms shaded with the most deli- 
cate rose-colour. It loves a deep, 
peaty soil ; and, though hardy, by no 
means of rapid growth. Nova Scotia 
and N.E. America. 

DAPHNE (Garland Flower). M- 
pine and mountain shrubs, some dwarf 
as well as beautiful, fragrant, and of 

can scarcely hope to witness in our 
gardens under ordinary treatment. 
They have but few roots, and are 
best transplanted when young. The 
best soil is a mixture of free loam and 
decayed leaf-mould, with some old 
road sand added. None of the 
Daphnes require a rich soil, and some 
of them even prefer old road sand to 

Daphne Blagayana. 

the highest value for the rock-garden. 
Where the bushy rock-garden is made, 
the larger kinds will be useful ; the 
smaller may go with the choicer and 
more diminutive alpine plants. They 
are chiefly natives of Europe, and in 
cultivation do best when shaded in 
summer from the mid-day sun, and in 
winter screened from cold winds. If 
nurtured by the fallen leaves of trees, 
they will grow with a vigour that we 

any other ; this is especially the case 
with the Mezereon. 

Daphne alpina (Mountain Mezereon). 
A dwarf summer-leafing and distinct rock 
shrub, reaching 2 feet high, the flowers 
yellowish-white, silky outside, fragrant, 
in clusters of five from the sides of the 
branches. It is a low, branching shrub, 
flowering from April to June, and bearing 
red berries in September. Central and 
S. Europe. 

D. Blagayana (Tlie King's Garland 




Flower}. A dwarf alpine shrub, 3 inches 
to 8 inches high, of straggling growth, the 
leaves forming rosette-like tufts at the 
tips of the branches, encircling dense 
clusters of fragrant, creamy- white flowers. 
It blooms in spring for several weeks, 
and thrives in the rock-garden in well- 
drained spots surrounded by stones for its 
wiry roots to ramble among. It is hardy, 
and in open spots thrives in any good 
soil ; increased by layers pegged down in 
spring and separated from the plants as 
soon as roots are emitted. 

Daphne Cneorum (Garland Flower}. A 
little spreading shrub, growing from 6 
inches to 10 inches high, and bearing rosy- 
lilac flowers, the unopened buds crimson, 
and so sweet that, where much grown, the 
air often seems charged with their fra- 
grance. It is a native of most of the great 
mountain chains of Europe, and is one of 
the best of all plants for the rock-garden, 
thriving in peaty and very sandy soils, 
but in stiff soils often fails. Wherever 
the soil is favourable, it should be much 
used, and is usually increased by layers. 

D. Collina (Box-leaved Garland Flower). 
The leaves of this much resemble in shape 
and size those of the Balearic Box, the 
upper surface of a dark glossy green. 
The flowers are in close groups, and of a 
light lilac or pinkish colour, the tubes 
rather broad and densely coated externally 
with silky white hairs. It forms a low, 
dense, evergreen shrub, the branches of 
which always take an upright direction, 
and form a level head, covered with 
flowers from February to May. S. Europe. 
D. Neapolitana is a variety of it. 

D. Fioniana (Fioris Garland Flower). 
A compact shrub, not uncommon in 
gardens, the heads of bloom are in clusters, 
five fragrant flowers in each, of a pale 
lilac colour, the tubes densely covered 
externally with short silvery hairs. This 
shrub flowers from March to May, and is 
hardy about London. 

D. Genkwa (Lilac Garland Flower), is 
a summer-leafing shrub of from 2 feet to 
3 feet in height, with downy branches 
and fragrant violet-coloured flowers thickly 
set on the leafless branches in early spring, 
giving the plant the appearance of a small 
Persian Lilac. There appear to be several 

varieties of D. Genkwa, some with much 
larger flowers than others, and some of a 
darker shade of purple. It is not quite 
hardy in cold districts. Syn., D. Fortunei. 

Daphne Houtteiana (Van Houttes 
Mezereon). This singular kind forms a 
robust spreading bush, 3 feet or 4 feet high, 
with all the leaves collected on the young 
branches, while the old ones are naked. 
It is a distinct bush, hardy, flowering in 
the spring before the leaves appear, and 
is said to be a hybrid, which originated 
in one of the Belgian Nurseries, between 
the common D. Mezereumand Spurge Laurel. 
Its leaves are from 3 inches to 3^ inches 
long, and 1 inch broad, stained with 
purple on the upper side when fully 
developed, and when quite young and in 
the bud state, of a dark purple colour. 
The flowers are small, dark purple, quite 
smooth, and are borne along the shoots of 
the previous year, before the young leaves 

D. Mezereum (Mezereon). A wild 
plant in English woods, is a charming 
and fragrant bush, and the earliest to 
flower, often in February. Where the 
shrubby rock-garden is carried out, no- 
thing is more lovely for its adorning than 
a group of this. Though quite hardy, it 
is slow, and not so pretty on some cold 
soils ; but on such soils as we use on the 
rock-garden it will thrive. It is best to 
begin with little plants ; and it is easily 
raised from seed. 

D. odora (Sweet Daphne). A fragrant 
and beautiful kind, in mild and southern 
districts hardy on the rock-garden, usually 
best on western aspects. It is a green- 
house plant of exceptional merit when 
well grown. We know no fragrance more 

Sleasant than that emitted by the pinkish 
owers of this Daphne. There are 
varieties called alba, rubra, Mazeli, punc- 
tata. Mazeli is, according to Max Leicht- 
lin, hardier than the older kind. Syn., D. 
indica. China. 

D. rupestris (Bock Garland Flower) is a 
neat little shrub, with erect shoots form- 
ing dense, compact tufts, 2 inches high 
and 1 foot or more across, often covered 
with flowers of a soft-shaded pink, in 
clustered heads. It is essentially a rock 
plant, growing wild in fissures of lime- 



stone in peaty loam, but is of slow growth, 
and it takes some years to form a good 
tuft. It seems to thrive in very stony 
and peaty earth, with abundance of white 
sand, and should be planted in a well- 
drained but not a dry position. 

Daphne striata (Striated Garland 
Flower). A sweet-scented hardy trailing 
species. It forms dense, twiggy, spreading 
masses, 1 foot to 3 feet across, which, in June 
and July, are covered with rosy-purpled, 
scented flowers in clusters. The trailing 
and spreading habit of this plant recom- 
mends it for covering bare spots. France. 


(Calif ornian Pitcher -plant). A most 
singular plant, resembling the North 
American pitcher-plants, but distinct ; 
the leaves, which rise to a height of 
2 feet or more, are hollow, and form 
a curiously shaped hood, from which 
hang two ribbon-like appendages, the 
hood often a crimson-red, and the 
flowers are almost as curious. Found 
to grow in our climate, if care be taken 
with it, and it would be difficult to 
name a more interesting plant for a 
bog garden. It is less trouble out of 
doors than under glass; indeed, it 
only requires a moderately wet bog 
in a light spongy soil of fibrous 
peat and chopped Sphagnum Moss. 
Place by the side of a stream, in 
any moist place, the plants fully ex- 
posed to direct sunlight, but sheltered 
from the cold winds of early spring 
when they are throwing up their young 
leaves. They require frequent water- 
ing in dry seasons, unless they are in 
a naturally wet spot. When they 
become large they develop side shoots, 
which, taken off and potted, soon make 
good plants. The plant is also raised 
from seed, but this requires several 
years. I found it on the Californian 
Sierras about little springs on the hills 
thickly tufted among the common 

DENTARIA (Toothwort). Pretty 
and interesting perennials of the Stock 
family, of which there are some half a 
dozen species in cultivation, all worth 
growing in half-shaded positions in 
peat beds among rock shrubs. They 
grow best in a light sandy soil, well 
enriched by decayed leaf-mould, or in 
soil of a peaty nature. Their flowers 
are welcome in the early days of 
spring, and remain in beauty for some 
time. They are of easy propagation 
by the small tuber-like roots. Some, 
such as D. bulbifera, bear bulblets on 
the stem, and from these the plant 
may be increased. The species are 
D. bulbifera, 1 foot to 2 feet high. 
Flowers in spring; purple, sometimes 
nearly white, rather large, produced 
in a raceme at the top of the stem. 
D. digitata, a handsome dwarf kind, 
about 12 inches high, flowering in 
April ; rich purple, in flat racemes 
at the top of the stem. A native of 
Europe. D. diphylla is a pretty plant, 
growing from 6 inches to 12 inches 
high, and bearing but two leaves. 
The flowers are purple, sometimes 
white, and occasionally yellowish. 
Woods in North America. D. ennea- 
phylla is about 1 foot high; flowers 
creamy white, produced in clusters in 
April and June. A pretty plant for 
a shady border. Mountain woods in 
Central Europe. D. maxima is the 
largest of all the species, growing 2 
feet high. Flowers pale purple in 
many flower-heads. N. America. D. 
pinnata is a stout species, at once 
distinguished by its pinnate leaves; 
14 inches to 20 inches high; flower- 
ing from April to June ; large, pale 
purple, lilac, or white, in a terminal 
cluster. Switzerland, in mountain 
and sub-alpine woods. D. polyphylla, 
similar to D. enneaphylla, is about 
1 foot high, with flowers in clusters, 




cream coloured. A handsome plant; 
from woods in Hungary. 


brilliant flowering shrub in favoured 
gardens along the sea-coast, this 
beautiful ever-green shrub from Chili 
may be flowered out-of-doors. It is 
of moderate growth, having foliage 
like a Holly ; flowers are in the form 
of a tube, scarlet tipped with yellow. 
It usually flowers about the end of 
summer, and in some parts of Devon- 
shire it blooms freely, thriving in a 
light, loamy, or peaty soil. It 
may here and there thrive among 
rock-garden shrubs, and it is not a high 
temperature that seems to help it, 
but nearness to the sea, as one may 
see it thriving even in the north of 
Ireland within a few miles of the sea. 
A few miles inland, and it fails. 

D I A N T H U S (Pink). Usually 
dwarf evergreen herbs, alpine rock, 
shore, or heath dwellers, many beautiful, 
and among them two which have given 
us the many garden Pinks and Carna- 
tions we now have. The Pinks, es- 
pecially the alpine kinds, are moisture- 
loving plants, and during spring and 
summer water must be given in such 
a way as to interfere as little as 
possible with the tufted crowns, as 
moisture about the neck or stagnant 
soil is often fatal. This can best be 
done by half-buried stones around the 
plants. The wireworm is the deadliest 
enemy of this family, and when an 
affected tuft is found, lift it, wash 
off all the soil, and replant in a fresh 

The higher and rarer Pinks, such 
as the alpine and glacier Pinks, deserve 
the best places in the rock-garden, 
and in cool stony ground. More 
lowland kinds, like our common 
Pink, are much more free than the 

others, and may be used in bold 
ways for edges and groups, and the 
same may be said of certain hybrid 
kinds, which are often good in colour. 
Some mountain kinds, like the 
Cheddar Pink and also kinds like it 
in habit, are easily established on 
old walls and bare stony ground. 
Many Pinks are easily increased by 
division, but of the rarer kinds the 
seed should be saved, and sown where 
we desire the plants to grow on the 
rock-garden. In this very large family 
there are many annual kinds, such as 
the Chinese Pinks, and probably some 
brilliant species not yet introduced 
from the large area of distribution of 
the genus in Europe, Asia, and N. 
Africa. A cool but open soil of 
sandy loam and a little leaf -mould 
suits the alpine kinds best. The alpine 
kinds are apt in our warmer gardens 
to get a little drawn and leggy, and 
a good way is to top-dress the tufts 
with a fine leaf-mould with river sand 
or grit among it, gently working it 
among the shoots. The following is a 
selection from a large number of kinds 
of the best for the rock-garden. There 
as in other cases where the aim is not 
to have a botanical collection only, we 
can best enjoy the beauty of the 
plants by cultivating well and group- 
ing effectively the more distinct kinds. 
The various races of garden flowers 
derived from the wild Dianthus : Pinks, 
Carnations, Picotees, Cloves, variously 
coloured double forms of the Pink, 
so much grown in our gardens and 
as cut flowers for market; the many 
forms of the Chinese Pink, so much 
grown among annual flowers, and the 
mule Pinks, effective border flowers, 
do not rightly belong to the alpine 
garden, and are not included here. 

Dianthus alpinus (Alpine Pink). A 
distinct and lovely plant, with dense green 




and obtuse leaves, each stem bearing a 
solitary flower, deep rose spotted with 
crimson, and often so freely, as to hide the 
leaves. In poor, moist, and sandy loam it 
thrives and forms a dwarf carpet, the 
flower-stems little more than 1 inch in 
height. Wireworms, rather than unsuit- 
able soil, often cause its death. It should 
be in an exposed spot, and guarded against 
drought. It comes true from seed, and 
is not difficult to increase in that way, 
or by division. Alps of Austria, flower- 
ing in summer. 

Alpine Pink (Dianthus alpinus). 

Dianthus Atkinson!. This is one of 

the richest coloured of all the family, its 
flowers crimson and very striking in the 
early summer. Owing to its flowering so 
freely, shoots for cuttings are very few, 
and it is well to reserve some plants for 
stock, not allowing them to flower. 

D. arenarius (Sand Pink). A neat, 
compact rock plant, about 6 inches high, 
with very dense foliage, and white, fim- 
briated or fringed flowers. It blooms in 
May and June, and should have a dry 
sunny position. North Europe. 

Dianthus csesius (Cheddar Pink), One 
of the best of the dwarf Pinks with which 
rocky places are studded over so great an 
area of northern regions. The short 
leaves are very glaucous, and the fragrant 
rosy flowers borne on stems 6 inches in 
height in. summer. In winter it may 
perish in the ordinary border, but thrives 
and flowers abundantly on old walls, as 
at Oxford. It is a native plant, and grows 
on the rocks at Cheddar, in Somersetshire. 
To establish it, the best way is to sow 
the seeds on the wall in a little cushion 
of Moss or a little earth in a chink. 
It may also be grown in calcareous or 
gritty earth, and placed in a chink between 
stones. Increased by seeds. 

D. callizonus is one of the most dis- 
tinct of the alpine Pinks, a native of 
Transylvania, and has the habit of D. 
Plumarius, with the flowers of D. Alpinus, 
but larger. It strikes readily from cut- 
tings, and may be raised from seed, which, 
however, it ripens sparingly. The flowers 
are bright rose-purple. 

D. caryopiyllus (Carnation). The 
parent of all the races of Carnations, 
Picotees, and Clove Pinks, so variously 
coloured, so fragrant and profuse in 
flower, as to make them among the 
most valuable of our hardy border flowers. 
The plant occurs in a wild state on old 
castles or city walls in various parts of 
England, and more abundantly in similar 
places in the West of France, the flowers 
of the wild form being usually red or 
white. The wild plant is worth a place 
on the rock-garden or on walls. 

D. Caucasicus. Flowers bright rose, 
on stems 12 inches high ; foliage glaucous, 
very compact. 

D. cruentus. This European Pink 
has sparse foliage, but its crowded heads 
of deep crimson fragrant flowers are at- 
tractive. It is one of the easiest to grow 
in the border or rock-garden. Seeds 
freely, and by this means the plant may 
be grown to any extent in gritty loam. 
Height 15 inches. 

D. deltoides (Maiden Pink). This 
native of Britain forms close spreading 
tufts of smooth, pointless leaves, and 
bright pink-spotted or white flowers on 
stems from 6 inches to 12 inches long 



Although the flower is little more than 
J inch across, there is a bright look about 
it which makes it welcome. It will grow 
almost anywhere, not appearing to suffer 
from wireworm, as most other Pinks do, 
and often flowers several times during the 
summer. Seed or by division. 

Dianthus dentosus (Toothed Pink). A 
distinct and pretty Pink ; dwarf, with 
violet-lilac flowers, more than an inch 
across, the margins toothed at the edge, the 
base of each petal having a regular dark- 
violet spot, giving the effect of a dark eye, 
nearly ^ an inch across. It comes readily 
from seed, and should be raised periodi- 

Flowers in July and August ; native of 

Dianthus glacialis, a brilliant alpine 
Pink. It does best in crevices of the rock- 
garden, as high up as possible, in peaty or 
leafy soil, well mixed with granite chips. 
It forms compact tufts of narrow leaves 
which, during the summer, are thickly 
studded with rosy-tinted flowers. In the 

D. glacialis gelidus the habit is much 
the same, the flowers being rich rosy-purple 
spotted white in the throat. 

D. Knappi. Distinct by reason of the 
sulphur-yellow flowers in clustered heads 

The Cheddar Pink (D. ccesius) in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. 

cally, as the once-flowered plants often die. 
A native of southern Russia, flowering in 
May and June, and thriving in sandy 

D. Fischeri (Fischer's Pink). A beauti- 
ful, and as yet rare, species from Russia, 
3 inches to 4 inches high, blooms in 
summer ; of a light rose colour, with the 
petals not much cut, and solitary. De- 
serves a good position in the rock-garden, 
in moist, sandy, or gritty loam. 

D. Freynii. A dwarf alpine species, 
with linear glaucous leaves and purplish 
flowers about f of an inch in diameter. 

after the manner of D. Cruentus. The 
species attains 12 inches or 15 inches high, 
grows and flowers freely, and gives seeds 
in plenty also. By this latter means the 
plant may be grown in quantity. 

D. monspessulanus. Flowers some- 
what resemble those of D. superbus, but 
not quite so deeply cut. A useful rock 

D. neglectus (Glacier Pink). Forms, 
close to the ground, tufts like short, wiry 
Grass, of glaucous leaves, from inch 
to 1 inch long, the flowers on stems from 
1 inch to 3 inches high. The petals are 



level and firm looking, with the outer 
margins slightly notched, and the flower 
about an inch across of brilliant rose. 
In a wild state, plants of it may be seen 
in bloom at 1^ inches high, and even 
less ; but when cultivated in deep, sandy 
loams, it is larger, is surpassed by no 
alpine plant in vividness of colouring, and 
is easily grown. Alps and the Pyrenees. 
Division and seed. 

Dianthus superbus (Fringed Pink). A 
fragrant Pink, its petals cut into lines or 
strips for more than half their length, 
which gives the plant a singular effect. 
It inhabits many parts of Europe from 
the shores of Norway to the Pyrenees, and 
is a true perennial, though it perishes so 
often in our gardens, when very young, 
that many regard it as a biennial. It is 
more apt to perish in winter on rich and 

Dianthus neglectus. 

Dianthus petrous (Rock Pink). With 
short sharp-pointed leaves, forming hard 
tufts an inch or two high, and fine rose- 
coloured flowers in summer. It seemed to 
escape the attacks of wireworm when 
nearly every other species was destroyed. 
A dry and sunny position is most con- 
genial to this species. Hungary. 

D. plumarius (Pink). This plant, the 
parent from which the varieties of Pinks 
have sprung, has single purple flowers, 
rather deeply cut at the margin, and is 
naturalised on old walls in various parts 
of England, though not a true native. It 
is rather handsome when grown into 
healthy tufts, but on the level ground it 
is not long-lived. 

D. proliferus. Flowers of a beautiful 
reddish-purple, of easy culture, and very 

D. pungens. Flowers rosy -pink, plant 
forming nice tufts ; leaves glaucous. 

D. rupicola. Flowers deep red, late, 
and very useful. 

D. Seguieri. Flowers large, deeply cut, 
rosy-purple, with a deeper ring at base of 
each petal. Flowers late in summer. 

D. subacaulis. Of tufted growth, with 
glaucous leaves ; flowers small, pink, 

moist soil than on that which is somewhat 
light and well-drained, and it should be 
planted in fibrous loam, well mixed with 
sand or grit. Unlike some of the other 
kinds, it comes quite true from seed, 
generally grows more than a foot high, 
flowering in summer or early autumn. 

D. tymphresteus. A free and con- 
tinuous blooming species from Northern 
Greece, growing from 15 inches to 18 
inches high, with deep rosy flowers ; 
makes a good perennial and showy border 

D. vaginatus This belongs to the 
clustered-flowered section of this genus, 
the flowers carmine, on stems only 6 
inches high. It is a rare species, continu- 
ing in bloom for nearly two months. 

land D.) A sturdy and dwarf little 
evergreen alpine shrub, rarely seen 
even in botanic gardens, and con- 
sidered impossible to cultivate, but 
which may be grown well on fully 
exposed spots in deep sandy and stony 
peat, kept moist during the dry season. 
It grows in very dense rounded tufts, 
with narrow closely packed leaves, and 




solitary white flowers about J an inch 
across, with yellow stamens the whole 
plant being often under 2 inches high. 
A native of N. Europe and N. America, 
on high mountains or in arctic lati- 
tudes, flowering in summer, and most 
easily increased from seed. 

DICENTRA (Bleeding Heart). 
Graceful perennials of the Fumitory 
Order, including about half a dozen 
cultivated species, of which the follow- 
ing are the finest : 

Dicentra chrysantha. A handsome 
plant, forming a spreading tuft of 
glaucous foliage, from which arises a stiff 
leafy stem, 3 feet to 4 feet high, 
bearing long panicles of bright yellow 
blossoms, each about 1 inch long. It 
flowers in August and September ; the 
seedlings do not bloom till the second 
year. California. 

D. eximia combines the grace of a Fern 
with the flowering qualities of a good 
hardy perennial. It grows from 1 foot to 
1^ feet high, and bears its numerous 
reddish-purple blossoms in long drooping 
racemes. Thrives in a rich sandy soil, 
but it will grow anywhere. N. America. 

D. formosa is similar to the preceding, 
having also Fern-like foliage, but is 
dwarfer in growth, the racemes are 
shorter and more crowded, and the colour 
of the flowers is lighter. California. . 

D. spectabilis is a beautiful plant, too 
well known to need description, nearly 
every garden in the country being em- 
bellished with its singularly beautiful 
flowers, which open in early summer, 
gracefully suspended in strings of a dozen 
or more on slender stalks, and resemble 
rosy hearts. It succeeds best in warm, 
rich soils, in sheltered positions, as it is 
liable to be cut down by late spring frosts. 
Besides a position in the mixed border, 
it is of such remarkable beauty and grace 
that it may be used with the best effect 
near the lower flanks of the rock-garden, 
or on low parts where the stone or 
" rock " is suggested rather than exposed. 

There is a " white " variety, by no means 
so pretty as the common one. Propagated 
by division in autumn. 

Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's 
Breeches) and D. thalictrifolia are less 
important, belonging more to the curious 

teresting perennial of the Barberry 
family, about 1 foot high, having large 
umbrella-like leaves in pairs. Flowers 
white, in loose clusters in summer, 
and succeeded by bluish-black berries. 
N. America, on the borders of rivulets 
and on mountains, thriving in peat 
borders and fringes of beds of American 
plants, in the most moist spots. 
Hitherto only seen as single weak 
specimens, this plant, if more plenti- 
ful, might be made good use of in a 
rock-garden. Division. 

DODECATHEQN (American Cow- 
slip). Graceful and distinct per- 
ennials, quite hardy and charming 
for the rock-garden, where they 
usually grow well in soils of an open 
nature. They are plants of wide 
distribution in North, Western, and 
Eastern America, and also the Pacific 
coast, and they vary without end, 
according to the region. They are 
very often found towards the arctic 
circle, and also on the high moun- 
tains and even the islands of the 
Behring Straits. The American 
botanists consider these plants to be 
varieties of the same, but this, from 
the garden point of view, is of little 
moment, as there is considerable 
distinction among them when culti- 
vated. There are a number of cross- 
bred forms, which are pretty. 

The American Cowslips are per- 
ennial and hardy, requiring a cool 
situation and light, leafy, or open 
sandy soil. In cool spots on the 
rock-garden, where Primulas and Sol- 



danellas thrive, Dodecatheons will be 
found to grow well, and form lovely 
and attractive objects. All the 
species and varieties grow freely, and 
soon form large tufts, which require 
dividing every third or fourth year. 
The best time is the latter end of 
January or beginning of February, 
when the roots are becoming active, 
taking care not to divide them into 
too small pieces, as in that case there 
is danger of losing the plants. They 
may also be easily raised from seed, 
but this can only be obtained in 
very favoured situations. 

Dodecatheon Meadia (American Cow- 
slip). Bright, graceful, and perfectly 
hardy, is second to none of our old border- 
flowers, supported in umbels on straight 
slender stems from 10 to 16 inches high, 
each flower drooping elegantly, the purplish 
petals springing up vertically from the 
pointed centre of the flower, much as 
those of the greenhouse Cyclamen do. It 
inhabits rich woods in North America, from 
Maryland and Pennsylvania, in the North, 
to North Carolina and Tennessee, in the 
South, and far westward, loves a rich light 
loam, and is one of the most suitable plants 
for the rock-garden. In deep light loams, 
the plant flourishes without any prepara- 
tion, but where a place is prepared for it, 
as is often necessary, it is well to add 
plenty of leaf -mould. In a somewhat 
shaded position, it attains its greatest size, 
and beauty, though it thrives in exposed 
borders, and is best increased by division 
when the plants die down in autumn ; 
when seed is sown, it should be soon after 
being gathered. 

D. Integrifolium (Small American G.). 
A lovely and gaily-coloured flower, deep 
rosy crimson, the base of each petal white, 
springing from a yellow and dark orange 
cup, and appearing in May on stems from 
4 to 6 inches high. The leaves are much 
smaller than those of D. Meadia, oval, and 
quite entire. A native of the Rocky 
Mountains, a gem for the rock-garden, 
planted in sandy loam with leaf-mould, 
and increased by careful division of the 
root and by seed, which it ripens freely 

in this country. It is easily grown in 
pots, plunged, in the open air, in some 
sheltered and half-shady spot during 
summer, and kept in shallow cold frames 
during winter. 

Dodecatheon Jeffreyanum (Great 
American C.). A noble kind, which I 
have grown as high as 2 feet in favourable 
soil, and have known to grow much larger 
even in ( London gardens than the old 
American Cowslip. It has much larger 
and thicker leaves, of a darker green, and 
with very strong and conspicuous reddish 
midribs, the flower being like that of the 
old kind, except that it is somewhat 
larger and darker in colour. It is a 
hardy and first - class plant, flourishing 
freely in light deep loam, and thriving 
in a warm and sheltered spot, where 
its great leaves may not be broken by 
high winds. 

Masterwort). A most unusual form 
of the umbel - bearing plants, and 
amongst our earliest flowers. It 
grows only some 3 or 4 inches high, 
and though the blossoms individually 
are small, they are surrounded with 
a bright yellow involucre, retaining 
its fine colour for nearly two months 
of the spring. It is a strong-rooted 
plant, likes a good stiff loam, and is 
perfectly hardy. Carinthia and Car- 
niola. Syn., Hacquetia. 

DRABA (Whitlow Grass}. Minute 
alpine plants, most of them having 
bright yellow or white flowers, and 
leaves often in neat rosettes. They 
are too dwarf to take care of them- 
selves among plants much bigger 
than Mosses, and therefore should 
be grouped with the dwarfest plants. 

In addition to the golden colour of 
the flowers of one section, the plants 
are characterised by a dwarf compact 
habit, and by much neatness in the 
arrangement of the bristly ciliated 
hairs, which not unfrequently become 
bifurcate ; thus the attractive appear- 




ance in the matter of colour is en- 
hanced on a closer inspection by the 
beauty of form. In another section 
we find white to be the predominant 
colour, and though in many cases 
the flowers are small, still, in the 
mass, filling up a nook or crevice, 
and contrasted with the dark-green 
leaves, they become very effective. 
They should be placed in the sunniest 
aspects ; the more effectually the 
plants are matured by the autumn 
sun the more freely will they return 
these favours by an abundant bloom 
in early spring. The third section, 
which includes plants of a purple and 
violet colour, is chiefly, if not altogether, 
confined to the high mountain lands 
of South America. Of these we have 
but one in cultivation, Draba violacea, 
and of so recent introduction that it 
may be considered rash to pass any 
opinion on it beyond the fact that 
it is a remarkably beautiful plant, of 
doubtful hardiness. 

Draba aizoides (Seagreen Whitlow- 
Grass). This may be taken as typical of the 
Golden Draba ; it is indigenous to Britain, 
but only found in one locality in South 
Wales. In growth it does not exceed 3 
inches in height, and when planted on the 
slope of a sunny border, in sandy soil, 
which it loves, it forms a dense yellow 
carpet in the early part of March. It 
does not ripen seed freely, but increases 
readily by division. 

D. aizoon (Evergreen Whitlow-Grass). 
A native of the mountains of Carinthia, 
and a vigorous grower ; the leaves" of a 
dark green, and arranged so as to form 
a complete rosette, not unlike the Semper- 
vivums. From the centre of this rosette 
it sends up a stem 5 or 6 inches long, 
bearing numbers of bright-yellow flowers, 
and ripens its seeds freely. Draba bceotica 
I am disposed to consider a narrow-leaved 
form of the above. In the cultivation of 
both it must be borne in mind that, un- 
like D. aizoides, the old stems will never 
throw out roots, consequently they cannot 

be classed as spreading plants. They 
increase freely from seed, some of which 
it would be interesting to sow on old 

Draba alpina (Alpine Wliitkiv-Grass). 
An arctic plant, with dark green, smooth 
leaves, growing about 2 inches high, and 
bearing bright golden flowers. It is 
rather a delicate plant, and best adapted 
for pot culture, or well-drained chinks 
in the rock-garden. The true species is 
somewhat scarce in cultivation. It, like 
D. tridentata, is liable to suffer from slugs, 
and both should be carefully guarded 
against their attacks, especially during 
the winter months. Allied to this is 
Draba aurea, a Danish plant, with flowers 
produced in a dense corymb, on a leafy 
stem some 8 or 9 inches high ; the habit 
is not neat, otherwise it is a well-defined 

D. ciliata (Eye-lashed Whitlow-Grass). 
This is a good white Draba, not unlike 
a diminutive specimen of Arabis albida. 
The leaves are sparsely but distinctly 
ciliated, in loose rosettes. Flowers in 
early spring ; pure white, about eight on 
a stem, the whole plant when in bloom 
not being more than 2 inches high. 
Mountains of Croatia and Carniola. 

D. cinerea (Grey Wliitlow-Grass). This 
native of Siberia, frequently called D. 
borealis, is the most effective of the white- 
flowering Drabas. Of dwarf habit, bear- 
ing many clear white flowers in the 
earliest spring, well relieved by the dark 
green leaves, and of a free-growing habit, 
it should be in every collection. Seeds 
abundantly, and by that means, as well 
as by division, it may readily be in- 

D. CUSpidata (Pointed Whitlow-Grass) 
A native of the highest mountains in 
Spain, with the points of each of the 
ciliated leaves, of which the dense little 
rosettes are formed, somewhat incurved, 
and for close examination it is the gem 
of the yellow Drabas, forming a thick 
woody stem. It is only to be increased 
by seed. 

D. lapponica, a native, as the name 
indicates, of the arctic regions, though 
bearing the aspect of D. rupestris, is 
dwarfer in habit, and devoid of the 




ciliated hairs on the leaves ; it forms 
dense tufts, and flowers freely in early 
spring, producing an almost equally 
abundant bloom in the autumn ; it also 
seeds freely. 

D. rupestris, frigida, and Chamcejasme, 
are three very dwarf plants, closely allied, 
in fact so much so that they may be con- 
sidered as varieties. The flowers in each 
case are small, but are produced abund- 
antly. Considering the neat habit of the 
plants, every collection should possess at 
least one of them. 

D. nivalis, a native of the Swiss Alps, 
is the most diminutive of the genus. The 
leaves are of a whitish-green, owing to the 
presence of minute stellate hairs. The 
plant, when in flower, is not over 2 inches 
nigh, of nice compact habit, but rather a 
shy grower, and is rarely met with. 

Draba glacialis (Glacier Draba). A 
very dwarf kind, forming dense little 
cushions 1 to 2 inches high, which in April 
are covered with bright golden-yellow 
flowers. Leaves linear, smooth, ciliated, 
forming small rosettes closely packed in 
pincushion-like masses. The plant very 
much resembles a small specimen of D. 
aizoides, and is considered by Koch to be 
a variety of that, growing at a higher 
elevation ; but it differs from it by 
having a few-flowered stem, pedicels 
shorter than the pod, and a short style. 
It is found on the granitic Alps of 
Switzerland, and is suited for exposed 
spots in the rock-garden, in moist and 
very gritty soil, and associated with the 
dwarfest alpine plants. 


head). Plants of the Sage family, 
among which are a few choice per- 
ennials, suitable for the rock-garden, 
succeeding in light garden soil, and 
increased by division or seed. 

Draco cephalum Austriacum (Austrian 
D.). A showy species, with blue flowers 
more than an inch and a half long, in 
whorled spikes, the plant of rather a 
woody texture, spreading into masses about 
a foot high, the floral leaves velvety, and 
with long fine spines. A native of nearly 
all the great mountain chains of Europe, 

thriving in light soil, and increased by 
seed or division. Quite free to grow in 
most garden soils, but, like many other 
mountain plants, only attaining ripeness 
of texture on well-drained, warm, and 
sandy soils. 

Dracocephalum grandinonun (Betony- 
leaved D.). A plant rarely seen in our 
gardens ; it is distinct, not diffuse or pro- 
cumbent, in habit more like a dwarf 
Betony ; the flowers, handsome, blue, in 
whorled oblong spikes, 2 to 3 inches long ; 
the plant little more than half a foot high, 
though it varies from 2 inches to a foot 
high. Native of Siberia, and thriving in 
sandy and thoroughly -drained loam, it 
should be guarded against slugs, which 
may quickly destroy young and small 
plants. Flowers in early summer, and in- 
creased by division. 

D. Ruyschianum (Ruysch's D.). 
Flowers in rather close spikes at the 
summit of the stem ; the floral leaves 
also entire. A pretty perennial, flower- 
ing rather late in the summer, and 
thriving on slightly elevated spots, for 
which it is well fitted by its spreading, 
somewhat prostrate, habit, forming tufts 
about a foot high. Division or seed. 

Other kinds (omitting the taller, more 
herbaceous kinds) are : Botrioides, with 
purple flowers, Ruyschianum, japonicum, 
argumense, and Ruprechtii; but though 
likely to thrive, seldom effective in south- 
ern gardens. 

DROSERA (Sundew). Interesting 
little bog-plants, of which all the 
hardy species but one are natives of 
Britain and characterised by leaves, 
their surfaces covered with dense 
glandular hairs. When the native 
kinds are grown artificially, the condi- 
tion of their natural home should be 
adopted as far as possible. In a bog 
on a very small scale it is not easy to 
secure the humid atmosphere they have 
at home, but they will grow wherever 
Sphagnum grows. The native kinds 
are intermedia, longifolia, olovata, and 
rotundifolia. The North American 
Thread-leaved Sundew (D. filiformis) 




is a beautiful plant, with very long 
slender leaves covered with glandular 
hairs, the flowers purple-rose colour, 
half an inch wide, opening only in the 
sunshine. Quite hardy, but difficult 
to cultivate. 

Avens). Few have travelled in alpine 
districts without seeing how abund- 
antly the mountains are clothed with 
the creeping stems and large creamy- 
white flowers of this plant. An ever- 
green, good in habit as well as hand- 
some in bloom, it ought to be grown 
in every collection of rock-plants. 
Widely distributed through the moun- 
tain region of Europe, Asia, and North 
America, and very abundant in Scot- 
land. Easy of culture in moist peat 
soil, in which it grows so freely about 
Edinburgh, that it is used for edgings 
to beds in some nurseries. Seed, or 
by cuttings and division. The var. 
minor is dwarfer and dense in habit. 
D. tenella is a rare species from Labra- 
dor. D. Drummondi, very like it, but 
with yellow flowers, is also in cultiva- 


beautiful little Cactaceous plant, native 
of Colorado, high on the mountains, 
and hardy enough for our climate. It 
grows in a globular mass, 3 or 4 inches 
across, covered with white spines. 
Flowers early in March in this country, 
the blossoms large, pale purple, and 
very beautiful. The natural conditions 
should be imitated as far as may be. 
It enjoys a dry climate, and is, more or 
less, protected from the effects of frost 
by a covering of snow. In this country 
it has withstood 32 of frost without 
injury, and, therefore, if in a dry spot, 
it may escape and flourish. 

A small evergreen Heath-like bush, 

of the easiest culture. May be planted 
with the dwarfer and least select rock 
shrubs. It is a native plant, and the 
badge of the Scotch clan M'Lean. 

A little trailing evergreen bush, found 
in sandy or rocky soil, especially in 
the shade of pines, common in many 
parts of North America, with delicate- 
rose-coloured flowers in small clusters, 
exhaling a fine odour, and appearing 
in early spring. It is a plant very 
seldom met with in good health in 
this country, and, in planting it, it 
would be well to bear in mind that 
its natural habitat is under trees, and 
plant a few in the shade of pines or 
shrubs. In New England it is known 
as the May Flower. It is so common 
in the cold sandy woods of Eastern 
America in poor sandy soils, that it 
is not easy to see why it should not 
thrive with us. 

EPILOBIUM (Willow Herb). 
Some of these perennials are occasion- 
ally grown among alpine plants, but 
are usually too large for the rock- 
garden, with the exception of E. 
obcordatum. This, which is by far 
the dwarfest of the alpine Willow- 
herbs, forms handsome little tufts, 3 
or 4 inches high, and bearing late in 
summer large rosy-crimson blossoms. 
Coming from the summits of the Sierra 
Nevada, it is hardy, and one of the 
most attractive of rock plants, thriving 
in sandy loam. 

EPIMEDIUM (Barrenworf). Inter- 
esting and graceful perennials with 
finely formed leaves, evergreen in 
favourable conditions, and precious for 
the rock-gardener; all the more so, 
for those who think with me that the 
hard-and-fast idea of a rock-garden 
should give way to the more natural 




one of the association of the mountain 
shrub, and the best perennials with 
the smaller alpine plants. The Barren- 
worts thrive nowhere so well as among 
the peat-loving shrubs. We should use 
in such a case the partial shade of 
the shrubs as well as the soil suiting 
them. They also form beautiful 
carpets below the shrubs, covering 
the ground as it always should be. 

Epimediums are typical of many 
garden plants, which, though of great 
beauty when naturally grown, are 
rarely artistically used I mean by the 
word rightly used, both as regards 
culture and placing. It should never 
be forgotten that good culture and 
effect may often go together. Such 
plants as these are often dotted singly, 
and among other and coarser things, 
and they suffer and eventually may 
disappear under some coarse shrubs or 
plants. But if we plant them so that 
they form an effective group, we are 
not so likely to forget them, and it is 
then better worth our while to give 
them the shade and position they 
want. I have seen these plants grown 
in the open in botanic and other 
gardens without a bit of shade ; but 
place them in partial shade of what 
we call American shrubs, in peaty 
soil, and within good broad groups, 
and the effect will be one of the best 
we can see in the garden. It would 
be a case of cultivation and effect 
and simplicity of culture going well 
together, because, if we know that one 
place is given up to a certain group, 
we are not likely to make mistakes 
with it, as in the general muddle of 
the mixed border. 

E. pinnatum is a hardy perennial 
from Asia Minor, 8 inches to 2j feet 
high, with handsome leaves, and bear- 
ing long clusters of yellow flowers. 
The old leaves remain until the new 

ones appear in the ensuing spring. 
It is not well to remove them, as 
they shelter the buds of the new 
leaves during the winter, and the 
plants flower better when they are 
allowed to remain. Cool peaty soil 
and a slightly shaded position are 
most suitable. They thrive in half- 
shady spots in peat, or in moist sandy 
soil. None are so valuable for general 
culture as the first-mentioned. The 
other species are E. alpinum, Europe ; 
concinnum, Japan ; elatum, Himal. ; 
macranthum, Japan ; Musschianum, 
Japan ; Perralderianum, Algeria ; ptero- 
ceras, Caucas. ; pubescens, China ; pubi- 
gerum, Caucas. ; and rubrum, Japan. 

#). A pretty hardy Orchid, 1 to Ij 
feet high, flowering late in summer, 
with handsome purplish flowers. A 
native of moist grassy places in all 
parts of temperate and Southern 
Europe. A good plant for the bog- 
garden, or for moist spots near a 
rivulet, in moist peat. In wet dis- 
tricts, it thrives very well in ordinary 

Aconite). A small plant, with yellow 

Eranthis Hyemalis (Winter Aconite). 



flowers, surrounded by a whorl of 
shining-green divided leaves, with a 
short, blackish, underground stem re- 
sembling a tuber ; the flowers, an inch 
or more across, being thrown up on 
stems from 3 to 8 inches high. It is 
naturalised in woods and copses in 
various parts of the country, but has 
probably escaped from cultivation, and 
is not considered a native, its true 
home being shady and humid places 
on southern continental mountains. 
It is pretty well known, being fre- 
quently sold by our bulb merchants, 
and is too common a plant for the 
choice rock-garden. 

Eranthis cilicica is another kind of like 
use, but which may for a time deserve a 
better place on the rock-garden than the 
easily-grown winter Aconite, as free as a 
weed in any open and chalky soils. 

ERICA (Heath). "Wiry and usually 
rather dwarf hill and moor shrubs of 
much native charm. Some of the 
prettiest inhabit our own country, and 
these break into varieties of distinct 
value for the garden. If there were 
no other plants than these, we 
could make pretty rock or moor 
gardens of them, even in hot and 
poor soils, and these and a few other 
plants, such as Brooms, Sun Roses 
and Rock Roses, might adorn many 
a hot slope of poor ground, the smaller 
kinds the rock-garden, the larger com- 
ing into the shrubby parts near. Even 
some of the tender ones of Southern 
Europe are very happy in mild dis- 
tricts in our climate. Several of the 
taller and less hardy Heaths are here 
omitted the best kinds for the rock- 
garden given. 

Erica Australis (Southern Heath). A 
pretty bush Heath of the sandy hills and 
wastes of Spain and Portugal, 2 feet to 
3 feet high, flowering in spring in Britain. 
The flowers are rosy purple and fragrant. 

Erica carnea (Alpine Forest Heath}. A 
jewel among mountain Heaths, and hardy 
as the Rock Lichen. On many ranges of 
Central Europe at rest in the snow in 
winter, in our mild winters, it flowers early, 
and in all districts is in bloom- in the 
dawn of spring deep rosy flowers, the 
leaves and all good in colour. Syn., E. 

E. cinerea (Scotch Heath). A dwarf 
Heath, common in many parts of Britain, 
very easily grown, and with pretty 
varieties of white and various colours. 
Its flowers of reddish purple begin to ex- 
pand early in June. Among its varieties 
are alba, bicolor, coccinea, pallida, purpurea, 
and rosea. 

E. ciliaris (Dorset Heath). A lovely 
dwarf Heath, and as pretty as any Heath 
of Europe. A native of Western France 
and Spain in heaths and sandy woods, it 
also comes into Southern England. The 
flowers are of a purple-crimson, and fade 
away into a pretty brown, thriving also in 
loamy as well as in peaty soils, and flower- 
ing from June to October. 

E. hybrida (Hybrid Heath). A cross 
between E. carnea and E. mediterranea. 
It is a charming bush, and flowers freely 
in winter and far into the spring, thriving 
in loamy soil almost as well as in peat. 

E. hibernica (Irish Heath). Mr Bos- 
well Syme, whose knowledge of British 
plants was most profound, considered this 
Irish plant distinct from the Mediter- 
ranean Heath, " the flowering not taking 
place in the Irish plant till three or four 
months after the Mediterranean Heath ; " 
a fine shrub in Mayo and Galway, growing 
from 2 to 5 feet high. 

E. lusitanica (Portuguese Heath). This 
is for Britain the most precious of the 
taller Heaths, 2 to 4 feet high, and, hardier 
than the Tree Heath, it may be grown 
over a larger area. Even in a cool district 
I have had it in a loamy soil ten years, 
and almost every year it bears lovely 
wreaths of flowers in mid-winter, white 
flowers with a little touch of pink, in fine 
long Foxbrush-like shoots. In about one 
year in five, it is cut down by frost, but 
usually recovers, and is a shrub of rare 
beauty for sea coast and mild districts. 
Syn., E. codonodes. 




Erica mediterranea (Mediterranean 
Heath}. A bushy kind, 3 to 5 feet high, 
best in peat, and flowering prettily in 
spring. Although a native or Southern 
Europe, it is hardier in our country than 
the Tree Heaths of Southern Europe. Of 
this species there are several varieties. 

E. stricta (Gorsican Heath). A wiry- 
looking shrub, compact in habit, about 
4 feet high, and a handsome plant. A 
native of the mountains of Corsica, flower- 
ing in summer. 

E. tetralix (Marsh or Bell Heather). 
This beautiful Heath is frequent through- 
out the northern, as well as western, 
regions, thriving in boggy places, but also 
in ordinary soil in gardens. This Heath has 
several varieties, differing in colour mainly. 
E. Mackaiana is thought to be a variety of 
the Bell Heather. E. Watsoni is a hybrid 
between the bell heather and Dorset Heath. 

E. vagans (Cornish Heath) is a vigorous 
bush Heath, thriving in almost any soil, 
3 to 4 feet high. A native of Southern 
Britain and Ireland, and better fitted for 
bold groups in the pleasure ground or 
covert than the garden. There are several 
varieties, but they do not differ much from 
the wild plant. 

E. vulgaris (Heather: Ling). As pre- 
cious as any Heath is the common Heather 
and its many varieties, none of them 
prettier than the common form, but worth 
having, excluding only the very dwarf 
and monstrous ones, which are useless, 
except in the rock-garden, and not of 
much good there. Heathers are excellent 
to clothe a bare slope of shaly soil, not 
taking any notice of the hottest summer 
in such situations. Among the best 
varieties are alba, Alporti, coccinea, de- 
cumbens, Hammondi, pumila, rigida, 
Searlei, and tomentosa. Syn., Calluna. 

E. dabcecii (Dabcecs Heath). A beauti- 
ful shrub, 18 inches to 30 inches high, 
bearing crimson-purple blooms in droop- 
ing racemes. There is a white variety 
even more beautiful, and one with purple 
and white flowers, called bicolor. I have 
had the white form in flower throughout 
the summer and autumn on a slope fully 
exposed to the sun, and in very hot years, 
too. Syn., Menziesia polifolia, also Dabcecia 
and Boretta. West of Ireland. 

ERIGERON (Fleabane*). Michael- 
mas Daisy-like plants of dwarf growth, 
somewhat alike in general appearance, 
and having pink or purple flowers with 
yellow centres, and a few of the 
dwarfest suited for the rock-garden. 
Of these, E. alpinum grandiflorum is 
the finest. It is similar to the alpine 
Aster, having large heads of purplish 
flowers in late summer, and remaining 
in beauty a long time. E. Roylei, 
a Himalayan plant, is another good 
alpine, of very dwarf tufted growth, 
having large blossoms of a bluish- 
purple, with yellow eye. E. mucron- 
atus, known also as Vittadenia triloba, 
is a pretty Daisy-like flower, compact, 
and for several weeks in summer is a 
dense rounded mass of bloom about 9 
inches high. The flowers are pink 
when first expanded, and afterwards 
change to white. All are easily in- 
creased by division in autumn or 

pretty and distinct little plant, with 
many violet -purple flowers in short 
racemes, over very dwarf tufts of 
downy, toothed leaves. A native of 
the Alps of Switzerland, the Tyrol, and 
the Pyrenees, perishing in winter on 
the level ground in most gardens, but 
permanent on old walls or ruins. I 
have seen brick garden walls with 
every chink between the bricks filled 
with this plant, so as to look at a 
distance as if covered with moss in 
winter, and in summer becoming 
covered with masses of lovely colour. 
It is easily established on old walls, 
by scattering the seeds in mossy or 
earthy chinks, and is of course well 
suited for the rock-garden, growing 
thereon in any position, often flower- 
ing bravely on earthless mossy rocks 
and stones, naturalised on the Roman 
remains at Chesters, Northumberland 



On my own walls there is a pretty 
variety of colour, purple, white, and 
a pretty rose. Do not try to cover the 
" in. 

ERIOGONUM. North American 
plants which, as seen on the Rocky 
Mountains and alpine regions in, 
California, are of much beauty, but 
which I have never seen good in cultiva- 
tion, except, perhaps, E. umbellatum, 
which, from a dense spreading tuft of 
leaves, throws up numerous flower- 
stems, 6 inches to 8 inches high, with 
yellow blooms in umbels 4 inches or 
more across, forming a pretty tuft. 
It is worthy of a place on any rock- 
garden or border, in light, sandy soil, 
in which it has never failed to bloom 
profusely. Other species are E. com- 
positum, flavum, racemosum, ursinum. 

Forget-me-not^. An alpine gem, closely 
allied to the Forget-me-nots, which 
it far excels in the intensity of the 
azure-blue of its blossoms. Though 
reputed to be difficult to cultivate, 
a fair amount of success may be en- 
sured by planting it in broken lime- 
stone or sandstone, mixed with a small 
quantity of rich fibry loam and peat, 
in a spot in the rock-garden where it 
will be fully exposed, and where the 
roots will be near masses of half-buried 
rock, to the sides of which they de- 
light to cling. The chief enemy of 
this little plant, and indeed of ajl 
alpine plants with silky or cottony 
foliage, is moisture in winter, which 
soon causes it to damp off. In its 
native mountains it is covered with 
dry snow during that period. Some, 
therefore, recommend an overhanging 
ledge, but if such protection be not 
removed during summer, it causes too 
much shade and dryness. A better 
plan is to place two pieces of glass 

in a ridge over the plant, thus keeping 
it dry, and allowing a free access of 
air, but these should be removed early 
in spring. Alps of Europe, at high 

ERODIUM. Dwarf, greyish rock 
plants of the Geranium order, but less 
vigorous, and suited for warm and 
sunny spots on the rock-garden, also 
for dry walls where such are made. 

Erodium carvifolium (Caraway-leaved 
Heronsbill). A good perennial species, 6 
to 10 inches high, producing red flowers 
larger than those of E. romanum, the whole 
plant being more vigorous, and more 
decidedly perennial than that species. A 
native of Spain. 

E. macradenium (Spotted Heronsbill). 
Allied to the rock Heronsbill, but dis- 
tinguished from it by the two upper petals 
being marked with a large blackish spot, 
the lower petals being larger and of a 
delicate flesh-colour, veined with purplish 
rose, two to six flowers being borne on stalks 
from 2 to 6 inches high. The flowers 
are pretty, and the entire plant has an 
agreeably aromatic fragrance. It is easily 
grown in chinks and dry spots, in warm 
rather than rich soil, and is increased from 
seeds, and also by division. Pyrenees. 

E. manescavi (Noble Heronsbill). A. 
showy kind, with long, much divided 
leaves, from which spring many stout 
flower-stems, each bearing an umbel of 
from five to fifteen handsome purplish 
flowers, each more than an inch across. 
It is distinct, and deserves a place in 
every collection, flourishing on the level 
ground, and being a vigorous grower, it 
should be associated with the strongest 
rock plants only. A native of the 
Pyrenees, flowering in summer, and, when 
the plants are young and in fresh soil, 
for a long time in succession. Easily 
raised from seed, and in cultivation grows 
from 10 inches to 2j feet high. 

E. petraeum (Rock Heronsbill). A small 
kind, with much divided, somewhat 
velvety leaves, and rather large, lively 
rose, or white-and- veined, but not spotted 
flowers, from 3 to 6 inches high, and 
thriving in warm and dry chinks or 




nooks on the sunny sides of rock. It is 
a plant to try on old walls ; on the level 
ground the leaves grow fat at the 
expense of the flowers, and the softness 
of tissue resulting, causes them to perish 
in winter. There is a smooth variety, 
E. luridum, and one with more curled 
and downy leaves, E. crispum; all are 
natives of dry rocky places in the Pyrenees 
and Southern Europe, and are increased 
by seed or division. 

Erodium Reichardi (Reichard's Herons- 
bill}. A tufted stemless plant, a native 
of Majorca. The heart-shaped little leaves 
rest upon the ground, and the flower- 
stems attain a height of 2 or 3 inches, 
each bearing a solitary white flower, 
faintly veined with pink. It flowers 
freely, and usually from spring or early 
summer till autumn ; is quite easy of 
culture in moist sandy soil, on bare ex- 
posed spots or in chinks. 

E. Romanum (Roman Heronsbill). A 
pretty species, with gracefully cut leaves 
like those of the British Erodium cicu- 
tarium, to which it is allied ; but it differs 
in having larger flowers, in being stemless 
and a perennial ; the flowers purplish, in 
the end of March or beginning of April. 
It is easily grown, and comes up thickly 
from self-sown seeds, at least in light and 
chalky soils ; would thrive on old walls. 
S. France and Italy. 

Holland Violet). This mantles the 
ground with a mass of small leaves, 
has slender, creeping stems, and blue 
and white flowers of exquisite beauty, 
rising not more than a couple of inches 
from the ground. A Violet it is in- 
deed, but a Violet of the southern 
hemisphere, and without the vigour 
and depth of colour of our northern 
sweet Violet. It is good for planting 
out over the surface of a bed of very 
light earth, in which some handsome 
plants would be put out during the 
summer in a scattered manner, and 
the little Violet allowed to creep over 
the surface. Being small and delicate 
as well as pretty, it should not be used 

under or around coarse subjects. It 
must of course be treated like a half- 
hardy plant taken up in autumn, 
and put out in May or June. In 
every place where alpine plants are 
grown in pots, it should find a home ; 
and in mild parts of these islands, say 
the south and west coast, it would 
probably maintain its ground without 
perishing during winter. Syn., Viola. 

ERYNGIUM (Sea Holly). Though 
some of the plants of this are beautiful, 
and some inhabit alpine lands, they 
are almost, without exception, too large 
for the rock-garden, though they may 
be grown with good effect among 
shrubs near it. The same remarks, 
however, apply to many fine 

ERYSIMUM. This is a little genus 
of alpine plants, very much resembling 
alpine wall-flowers, but of much less 
value, though one or two are pretty 
for the alpine garden. 

Erysimum pumilum (Liliputian Wall- 
flower}. Resembling in the size and colour 
of its flowers the alpine Wallflower, but 
without the rich green foliage of that, but 
with flowers large for the size of the plant, 
often only an inch high, above a few 
narrow leaves barely rising above the 
ground. I have seen it in bloom with 
flowers nearly as large as those on the alpine 
Wallflower, and yet flowers and all could 
be almost covered by a thimble. In richer 
soil and less exposed spots it is larger. A 
native of high and bare places in the Alps, 
it should be grown in an exposed spot in 
very sandy loam, surrounded by a few 
small stones to guard it from drought and 
accident, and associated with the smallest 
alpine plants. 

E. Rhseticum (Rhcetian Wallflower). A 
pretty mountain flower which, though 
rare in cultivation, is a common alpine 
in Rhsetia and the neighbouring districts, 
where in early summer its broad dense- 
tufted masses are aglow with clear yellow 
blossoms. E. canescens, a South European 



species, with scentless yellow flowers, is 
also a good alpine plant, and so is E. 
rupestre easy to grow, and thriving in 
gritty soil and well-drained spot. 

ERYTHREA (Centaury).K small 
genus of rather pretty dwarf biennials, 
belonging to the Gentian family. The 
native species, E. littordlis, common 
in some shore districts, is worth 
cultivating. It is 4 to 6 inches high, 
and bears an abundance of rich pink 
flowers, which last a considerable time 
in beauty, and will withstand full 
exposure to the sun, though partial 
shade is beneficial. The very beauti- 
ful E. diffusa is a similar species. It 
is a rapid grower, with a profusion of 
pink blossoms in summer. 

Erythrsea Muhlenbergi is another 
beautiful plant. It is neat and about 
8 inches high, putting out many slender 
branches. It bears many flowers, and the 
blossoms are 3^ inches across. They are 
of a deep pink, with a greenish-white star 
in the centre. Seeds should be sown in 
autumn, and grown under liberal treat- 
ment till the spring ; the plants will then 
flower much earlier and produce finer 
flowers than spring-sown plants. They 
are excellent for the rock-garden and the 
margins of a loamy border, but the soil 
must be moist. On account of their dura- 
tion or other peculiarities, they are of 
more botanical than garden interest. 

ERYTHRONIUM (Dog's - Tooth 
Violet). Graceful and distinct bulbous 
plants, dwarf, hardy and well suited 
for our purpose. The European kind 
is a charming flower with handsome 
spotted leaves and drooping flowers, 
of which there are various coloured 
varieties. No need to speak here of 
its cultivation, as it is one of the 
easiest plants to naturalise in grass. 
The most interesting of the family 
are the American kinds recently come 
to us ; these have a graceful habit 
and beauty. Like so many other 

plants, they are best in warm light 

Erythronium dens-canis (Dog's-tooth 
Violet). One of the hardiest of the moun- 
tain plants, its handsome oval leaves 
pointed above, marked with patches of 
reddish brown, the flowers singly on steins 
4 to 6 inches high, drooping, and 
cut into six rosy purple or lilac divi- 
sions. There is a variety with white, 
one with rose-coloured, and one with 
flesh-coloured flowers. It is one of the 
best plants for the spring or rock-garden, 
and will grow in any ordinary soil. The 
bulbs are white and oblong ; hence its 
common name ; and it is increased by 
dividing them every two or three years,, 
replanting rather deeply. Alps. 

E. Americanum. The commonest kind 
in the Eastern United States of North 
America, narrow in foliage, with bright 
yellow pendent flowers. It is a good and 
free growing plant, but in our country 
fails to flower 011 some cold and heavy 
soils. To ensure its doing so, plant in 
warm open sandy soil. The main interest 
of these plants, however, is centred in the 
fine kinds from the North Pacific coast, 
including the Rocky Mountains and a 
vast region of tree-clad mountains, a 
thousand or more miles across, from which 
all of these plant treasures are not yet 
gathered. In some soils in our countries 
they do not thrive, requiring soils of a 
leafy and open nature, which accounts 
for their slow and uncertain growth in 
heavy soils, like some of those around 
London. The following by one who knows 
them well in their native homes, is invalu- 
able as a guide : 

Erytlironiums are woodland plants, and 
need some shade to develop the leaves- 
and stems. Partial shade by trees will 
answer. I give my beds a lath shade. 
I have for several years been experi- 
menting with soils for them. While 
often found in heavy soils, they make 
better growth in a soil of rocky debris 
mixed with leaf mould. Much of the 
charm of Dog's-Tooth Violets is in their 
large leaves and tall slender stems. 
Rocky debris has not been available, and 
I have tried several substitutes, but have 
discarded all for a soil of one-half to one- 



third half-rotten spent tan-bark with sandy 
loam. Our tan-bark here is the bark of 
the Tanbark Oak (Quercus densiflora), and 
is ground at the tannery. This gives a 
soil rich in mould and always loose and 
porous. It suits the needs of Erytliro- 
niums exactly, and answers well for many 
other bulbs. They should always be planted 
early, as, with few exceptions, the bulbs 
are not good keepers after the fall, and 
the sooner they are in the ground after 
the first of October the better. I plant 
them so that the top of the bulb is about 
2 inches from the surface. The drainage 
should be good. With these essentials, 
shade, drainage, and a loose soil, success 
is very probable. Although quite hardy, 
a heavy coat of leaves, such as Nature 
protects them with in their woodland 
home, would be a wise precaution in cold 
-climates. They do not seem to have any 
peculiar disease, and growing and flower- 
ing as early as they do, artificial watering 
is not necessary. In the region including 
the Kocky Mountains and the country 
westward to the Pacific, fifteen forms are 
now known, classed as species and 
varieties. A more charming group of 
bulbous plants does not exist. Their 
leaves show a variety of mottling, and in 
the flowers delicate shades of white, straw- 
colour, and deep yellow, deep rose, pink, 
light and deep purple are represented. To 
describe all of these forms, so 'that even 
a botanist could readily identify them by 
the descriptions, would be difficult, but in 
the garden each has some charm of leaf, 
of tint, or of form. In their native homes 
they grow throughout a wide range as to 
climate and altitude, and in cultivation 
they maintain their seasons, so that the 
display which is opened by E. Hartwegi 
with the Snowdrops and earliest Narcissi, 
is closed by E. montanum and E. purpur- 
ascens when the others have flowered 
and become dry. E. Hartwegi can be 
propagated freely by offsets ; all of the 
others come from seed. A bulb may have 
an offset occasionally, and sometimes a 
clump of four or five will form in some 
years, but the contrary is the rule. It is 
all important in handling the bulbs of 
Erythroniums that they should not be 
allowed to dry out. Many of the failures 

are owing to lack of care in this respect. 
If properly handled, they can be kept in 
good condition out of the ground until 
midwinter or even February, although 
early planting is always advisable. The 
bulbs should be kept in a cool place in 
barely moist earth or peat or Sphagnum, 
and in shipping carry best in Sphagnum 
barely moistened. In dry or hot air, they 
soon become hollow, and their vitality is 

Erythronium grandiflorum. The 
species is not to be confused with E. gigan- 
teum, which has straw-coloured flowers and 
richly mottled leaves. Nearly all of the 
bulbs grown heretofore as E. grandiflorum 
are really E. giganteum. The true E. 
grandiflorum has light green leaves, entirely 
destitute of mottling, the filaments slender 
and the style deeply three-cleft. There 
are four strong-coloured forms, each of 
which has a wide distribution. Mr 
Watson, in his revision, only mentions 
two of these, and is incorrect as to 
localities. They are 

(1) The type of the species, one to five- 
flqwered, stout, flowers a bright clear 
yellow. This is the species which Avas 
exhibited recently in London as E. 
Nuttallianum. Eastern Oregon. 

(2) Var. Nuttallianum. This only 
differs from the type in having red 

(3) On the high peaks of Washington, 
there is a form with white flowers with 
yellow centres. It is one to five-flowered, 
and from very low to 18 inches, according 
to soil and situation. Watson's var. parvi- 
florum is accredited to the same localities, 
but, acccording to him, is bright yellow. 

(4) Var. album, a form having pure 
white flowers with a yellow centre and a 
greenish cast, one to five-flowered. This 
handsome form grows in the Pine forests 
in a low rolling region of Eastern 
Washington. In cultivation I find some 
difficulty with E. grandiflorum, from its 
tendency to flower too quickly. The 
plants will often come through the 
ground with the flower half expanded. 
Inthe cooler climate of Northern Europe, 
which is more similar to that of its native 
home, it will do much better. Eocky 
Mountains, Colorado, and British America. 




Erythronium Hartwegi is not only the 
earliest but also the most easily grown of 
all, and unique in its habit. Its leaves are 
mottled in dark green and dark mahogany- 
brown. The two to six flowers are each 
borne on a separate slender scape, and 
form a sessile umbel. The general effect 
of a well-grown plant is of a loose bouquet 
with the two richly mottled leaves as a 
holder. The segments recurve to the 
stalk, and are light yellow with an orange 
centre. Well-grown flowers measure 2 
inches to 2^ inches across. Its bulbs are 
short and solid, producing small offsets, 
and, unlike most sorts, they retain their 
vitality until late in the season, and are 
in good condition in February, when bulbs 
planted earlier are in flower. Sierra 
Nevada of California. 

E. montanum. This is an alpine 
species from the high peaks of the Cas- 
cades, in Oregon and Washington. The 
leaves are without mottling, and alone 
among Erythroniums are abruptly con- 
tracted at base with a slender unmargined 
petiole. The flowers are pure white with 
an orange centre, resembling in shape those 
of E. giganteum. Its bulbs are peculiar 
in having the old rootstock persistent, and 
showing the annual scars of many years. 
Often it forms a spiral around the bulbs. 

E. purpurascens has uiimottled leaves, 
which in the earlier stages of growth are 
strongly tinged with purple and become 
dark green. The segments of the perianth 
are not reflexed, as in all the others, but 
spreading white to creamy, with orange 
centre, and turning purplish. The flowers 
are small and crowded in a raceme, style 
not divided. A very distinct species, grow- 
ing in the higher regions of the Sierra 
Nevada, in California. As a garden plant 
it is not to be compared to the others 
here described. Bulbs obtained from high 
altitudes flower very late with E. mon- 
tanum ; from lower altitudes they flower 
a little earlier than E. giganteum. 

E. revolution is a widely scattered 
species, extending along the coast from 
Sonoma County, California, to the central 
part of British America, usually in deep 
forests. It is a plant of low altitudes, the 
leaves always mottled ; filaments broad 
and awl-shaped, the style large and pro- 

minent and three- cleft ; the scape stout 
and usually one-flowered, but sometimes 
three to five-flowered. E. revolutum can 
always be identified by the broad filaments 
and prominent appendages. I have seen 
six well-marked variations. 

(1) The Species. This has broad leaves 
mottled with white or seldom with light 
brown, scapes stout, 6 inches to 15 inches 
high. The petals are narrow ; at first 
white to delicate pink, they soon become 
purple. This form was the first Ery- 
thronium collected, being found by 
Menzies in British Columbia over a 
hundred years ago, and described as E. 
revolutum. It was lost sight of until 
a year ago I found a form in the 
Redwood forest of Mendocino County, 
California, which is identical with the 
original. These two points are 1000 miles 
apart, but I have since found several 
intermediate habitats, and it stretches 
along the coast the entire distance in a 
long narrow band. 

(2) Var. Bolanderi. This seems to be 
a local low-growing form very similar to 
the last, but the flowers are white, only 
tardily becoming purplish. Eel River 
Valley, Mendocino County, California. 

(3) Var. Johnson! (E. Johnsoni, Bo- 
lander). This exquisitely beautiful kind 
has broad leaves mottled with white, and 
looking as if varnished. The flower is of 
a delicate reddish tint with orange centre. 
Well illustrated in a Garden plate, 20th 
February, 1897. North- Western Oregon. 

(4) Erythronium revolutum (Creamy 
Form). This, according to Mr Watson, is 
the type of the species, but as variety No. 1 
is proved to be the original, it becomes a 
variety. The leaf is more darkly mottled 
than in either of the others with brown or 
dark brown. The petals are broad and of 
much substance, and become reflexed more 
tardily than most Erythroniums, although 
at length closely reflexed. In colour it 
is from light to dark cream, with a 
greenish cast, and a yellow centre. It is 
one of the best in cultivation. Coast ranges, 
Oregon and British Columbia. 

(5) E. revolutum var. albiflorum. 
This beautiful variety is like the preced- 
ing, except that the ground colour is pure 
white, with a slight greenish cast. It was 



described in Europe as E. grandiftorum 
var. albiflorum in Gardeners' CJironicle, 1888, 
t. 77. It had also been described as E. 
giganteum var. albiflorum. It is one of the 
most beautiful of Erythroniums. 

Eiythronium giganteum has long been 
known and grown as E. grandiftorum. 
While its flowers are no larger than in the 
other kinds, it excels all in height and 
number of blossoms. I have often seen 
it with eight or ten flowers, and once 
with sixteen. The leaves are mottled 
with white and brown, or deep brown ; 
the flowers light yellow, with a deeper 
centre, and often banded with brown. 
The filaments are very slender, and the 
style three-cleft. It can be distinguished 
from E. grandiftorum by its mottled leaves, 
from E. revolutum by the slender filaments 
and small appendages. Its range is a 
broad belt in the coast ranges from 
San Francisco Bay north to Southern 

E. citrinum resembles E. giganteum, 
but has an undivided style. The leaves 
are mottled, the flower light yellow, with 
an orange base. Southern Oregon. 

E. Henderson! is another species also 
closely resembling E. giganteum, but easily 
distinguished by its undivided style and 
purple flowers with an almost black centre. 
Southern Oregon. 

E. Howelli. This alone of the western 
Erythroniums has no appendages at the 
base of the petals. By this character, 
with its undivided style, it can always 
be identified. The flowers are pale yellow 
with an orange base. Southern Oregon. 
CARL PDRDY, in Garden. 

FRAGARIA(^raw;&em/). Thewild 
strawberry is very pretty on banks, 
and occasionally most useful on 
old mossy garden walls, where it estab- 
lishes itself. One kind, F. monophylla, 
is a beautiful rock-garden plant, 
with large white flowers. The Indian 
strawberry, F. indica, is a pretty little 
trailer, bearing many red berries and 
flowering late. All are of the easiest 
culture in any not too wet soil, and 
of facile increase by division. 

A very small Evergreen, with 
crowded leaves like a Heath. Common 
in marshes by the sea in many parts 
of Europe and on the east coast of 
England. Best for the rock-garden, 
but mainly of botanical interest. 

FRITILLARIA (Snakeshead). 
These distinct and graceful bulbous 
flowers are so hardy and free in many 
soils, that there is no need of rock- 
garden luxuries for them. But in 
this large group of plants there are 
rare and beautiful kinds which the 
variety of surface and of aspect in a 
well-formed rock-garden may be very 
welcome to, and some American and 
European plants of this race are very 
striking and deserving of our best 
care. Their singular grace is charm- 
ing on a carpet of rock plants, which 
can be easily established on any 
aspect of the rock-garden. The lovely 
yellow kinds, although long in cultiva- 
tion I have seen them admirably 
drawn in Dutch pictures two hundred 
years old are slow to establish in 
gardens, and I found aurea tender 
in Sussex. This, no doubt, arises from 
the fact that in their own countries 
they lie under the snow until the winter 
is quite gone. 

Mr Carl Purdy, writing to the 
Garden from California, says that some 
American kinds, including those of 
most striking beauty, are woodland 
plants, and, therefore, in planting them, 
we ought never to omit plenty of leaf 
mould. The shrubby rock-garden I 
so heartily advocate will give us for 
these plants the little shelter and 
half shade which is desirable. 

The following are a few of the more 
select for the rock-garden, omitting 
our handsome native Snakeshead, 
which grows so freely in grass in any 
moist field. In so large a family, there 




are no doubt other alpine and choice 
kinds worth seeking by rock gardeners, 
and not a few yet to be introduced to 

Fritillaria alpina is a pretty species, 
of dwarf growth, and bearing drooping 
flowers, chocolate on the outside and 
yellow within, while its margin of brighter 
yellow gives the flower a pretty effect. 
It blooms quite early in spring, and is of 
easy culture. 

F. armena, from Asia Minor, is a dwarf 
form, with soft yellow bell-shaped blossoms 
on frail stems less than 6 inches high. 
This kind is best suited for sunny spots 
in the rock-garden or for planting freely 
in pots or pans for very early flowering. 
A soil of peat and loam suits this admir- 
ably. Next in order is 

F. aurea (Golden Snakeshead). A large 
and beautiful flower, though the plant is 
quite dwarf, and perhaps the gem of the 
family. I have often found it stricken 
with frost in my garden, owing, no doubt, 
to its coming from a country where the 
snow protects it long, and, therefore, I 
think it is safer to put it on the cool side 
of the rock-garden where it might flower 
later. A dwarf carpet of Sandwort or 
Rockfoil above looks well, and may be 
otherwise a gain. 

F. Burnati, a handsome hardy plant 
about 9 inches high, with solitary droop- 
ing blossoms, 2 inches long, which are of 
a plum-colour, chequered with yellowish 
green. Alps. Flowers with the Snow- 
drop, and is as easy to grow. 

F. Moggridgei is a beautiful kind, with 
handsome drooping blossoms of golden- 
yellow, prettily chequered with chestnut- 
brown on the inner surface. It is a dwarf 
kind, requiring treatment like F. atirea 
above noted. Maritime Alps. 

F. pudica, a lovely kind with blossoms 
of a clear yellow, about three-quarters of 
an inch across, of much substance, and 
lasting long. Not the least attractive part 
of the plant is the fragrance of its golden 
bells. It is quite hardy, and, grown in 
mixture of loam and leaf soil with plenty 
of sand and a little manure, gives a charm- 
ing effect. California. 

F. Whittalli, a recent introduction, is 

beautiful and quite distinct, the blossoms 
of a red-brown on a yellow ground, tes- 
sellated on both surfaces. 

GALANTHUS (Snowdrop). Of late 
a host of forms of the Snowdrops have 
come into gardens, many of them with 
Latin names, and some as beautiful 
in their way as the old Snowdrop. 
There is reason to believe that these 
are not species, but varieties from 
very different localities, but this can- 
not affect their garden value. They 
are, however, so easily grown in any 
open soil, that there is no occasion 
to devote the rock-garden space to 
them, fair as they are, springing here 
and there in groups through moss-like 
rock plants. Usually, however, the 
Snowdrops are best naturalised in 

Plant). A distinct Evergreen perennial 
from North America, forming a thick 
matted tuft of scaly creeping root- 
stocks, thickly set with fibrous red 
roots, from which it sends up a 
number of roundish, shining leaves 
(about 2 inches wide) on slender 
stalks. The flowers appear in June, 
and form a wand-like spike of small 
and minutely-bracted white flowers, 
on the summit of a slender stem, 1 to 
2 feet high. Useful for the rock-garden, 
in loam and leaf-mould. 


(Creeping Wintergreeri). This plant 
barely rises above the ground, on 
which it forms dense tufts of shining 
leaves, with small drooping white 
flowers in June, succeeded by a multi- 
tude of bright red berries about the 
size of peas. The neat little shrub is 
of itself pretty, and the berries give 
it a charm through the winter months. 
A native of North America, in sandy 
places and cool damp woods, often 




in the shade of Evergreens, from 
Canada to Virginia. London says it 
is difficult to keep alive, except in a 
peat soil kept moist; but I have 
never seen it prettier or so full of 
berries as on stiff loam. The plant 
was thoroughly exposed, and the only 
advantage it had corresponding to 
those usually mentioned as necessary 
was that the soil was moist. It 
thrives also in moist peat. There are 
few other plants of these important 
for the rock-garden, except G. num- 
mularicefolia, a dwarf creeping Ever- 
green. The large Partridge Berry of 
the Rocky Mountains (G. shallon) is 
too strong a grower for any but the 
roughest of stony banks in woods or 

GENISTA (Rock Broom). These 
shrubs are dwarf and very often tufted 
in growth, bearing yellow flowers of some 
beauty. They are easily grown and 
raised, and, being good in habit, should 
be worth a place in hot sandy soils 
where the true alpine flowers are 
despaired of. They would go well 
with the Rock Roses, Heaths, and 
Rosemary, which might be happy in 
such soils. From the following selec- 
tion, we omit those that are too large 
for the rock-garden, or that have been 
found to be tender in the neighbour- 
hood of London. 

Genista anglica (Heather Wliin) is a 
dwarf spiny shrub, not often growing to a 
height of 2 feet. It is widely distributed 
throughout Western Europe, and in 
Britain occurs on moist moors from Ross 
southwards. The short leafy racemes of 
yellow flowers appear in May and June. 

G. anxantica, found wild in the neigh- 
bourhood of Naples, is very nearly allied 
to our native Dyer's Greenweed (G. tinc- 
toria). It is very dwarf in habit, and its 
many racemes of golden-yellow flowers 
come in late summer. A beautiful rock- 
garden plant. 

Genista aspalathoides, a native of 
South-western Europe, makes a densely 
branched, compact, spiny bush from 1 foot 
to 2 feet in height. It flowers in July and 
August (the yellow blossoms are somewhat 
smaller than those of G. anglica), and is 
a good shrub for the rock-garden. 

G. ephedroides, a native of Sardinia, 
etc., is a much-branched shrub, 2 feet in 
height, bearing yellow flowers from June 
to August. 

G. germanica, a species widely distri- 
buted throughout Europe, makes a bright 
rock-garden shrub, not more than a couple 
of feet in height. It flowers very freely 
during the summer and autumn months, 
and the stems are inclined to arch when 
1 foot or more high. 

G. hispanica, a native of South-Western 
Europe, is a compact undershrub, ever- 
green from the colour of its shoots. It 
scarcely attains more than 1 foot or 18 
inches in height, and the crowded racemes 
of yellow flowers are borne at the tips of 
the spiny twigs from May onwards. 

G. pilosa, a widely distributed Euro- 
pean species, is a dense, prostrate bush and 
a rock-garden plant. In Britain it is rare 
and local, being confined to gravelly 
heaths in the south and south-west of 
England. It grows freely, flowering in 
May and June. Like the rest of the 
British species of the genus, it has bright 
yellow blossoms. 

G. prsecox is a garden name for Cytisus 
prcecox, a beautiful hybrid between the 
white Spanish Broom (Cytisus albus) and 
C. purgans, a golden-flowered species. 

G. radiata, a native of Central and 
Southern Europe, is 3 feet or 4 feet in 
height, evergreen from the colour of its 
much-branched spiny twigs. The heads 
of bright yellow flowers appear through- 
out the summer months. It is quite hardy 
at any rate in the south of England. 

G. ramosissima. A native of Southern 
Spain, and one of the best garden plants 
in the genus, grows about 3 feet high, and 
the slender twigs are laden in July with 
bright yellow flowers. This also passes 
under the name of G. cinerea. 

G. sagittalis (Winged Rock Broom). A. 
singular plant, its branchlets winged (by 
the stem expanding into two or three 




green membranes), and bearing rich 
yellow flowers in summer ; the shoots 
are usually prostrate, and the plant is 
rarely more than 6 inches high. It is 
met with in the grass in the mountain 
pastures of many parts of Europe. In 
cultivation, it is hardy and vigorous in 
the coldest soil, forming profusely flower- 
ing tufts when fully exposed. Seed. 

Genista tinctoria (Dyer's Greenweed}. 
A dwarf native shrub, with numerous 
slender branches, forming compact tufts 
from a foot to a foot and a half high, pretty 
yellow flowers in early summer. It is 
grown in many of our Nurseries, and merits 
a place among rock-shrubs. There is a 
double variety. Not unfrequent in many 
parts of England, but rare in Scotland 
and Ireland. 

G. tinctoria var. elatior is a tall-grow- 
ing form from the Caucasus, which under 
cultivation frequently grows from 4 feet 
to 5 feet high, and bears huge paniculate 

GENTIANA (Gentian). Alpine and 
mountain pasture plants of classic 
beauty and variety, some herbaceous, 
some evergreen herbs, some annual 
plants. Beautiful as the Gentians are 
on the mountains of Europe and it 
is not easy to describe their beauty 
at its best, as, say, of a plateau of 
acres of the vernal Gentian on the 
Austrian Alps, or of the Bavarian 
Gentian along the side of an alpine 
streamlet I think I was even more 
struck with the beauty of the American, 
fringed, and other Gentians which do 
not seem easy of cultivation in Britain. 
There is no serious difficulty as "to 
the culture of the best European 
kinds, save, perhaps, bavarica, but the 
American kinds are more liable to 
perish in some of our soils. Gentians 
are not all worthy of cultivation on 
the rock-garden. I never could see 
any beauty from that point of view, 
hi the tall Gentian of the Alps (G. 
luted), and some of the annual kinds 
are of no value for the rock-garden, 

but there are not a few kinds among 
the fairest of known rock plants. 

If any plants justify the formation 
of a good rock-garden, it is these ; 
and we should seek to get their 
best effect from an artistic point of 
view by, if possible, grouping them 
in a natural way. There will be no 
difficulty in this as regards some 
kinds, particularly Gentianella, which 
is very effective on some soils, and in 
its various forms might be grouped 
well when sufficiently increased. The 
Willow Gentian also lends itself to 
good effect among the bushes in the 
rock-garden, and is readily increased. 
One or two good kinds, well grown 
and grouped, will be better than a 
dozen dotty examples of ill-grown kinds, 
however rare or curious. 

It is curious in growing the vernal 
Gentian how little way is made, with 
perhaps the most brilliant of alpine 
plants that flower on the higher moun- 
tains in late summer. There we see 
acres of it in every sort of position ; 
in banks by streams, in open grassy 
places, in little green vales ; some- 
times in wide peaty flats, almost blue 
with its fine colour. In gardens it 
is too much coddled, wanting nothing 
really but moist, peaty, or fine loamy 
soil, not shallow, and the plants never 
cocked up on the ridiculous "rock- 
work" of the garden, but kept on 
low ledges or borders, and never 
placed near herbaceous or any other 
vigorous plants. 

Gentiana acaulis (Gentianella). 
Among the most beautiful of the Gentians, 
easily cultivated, except on dry soils. In 
some places edgings are made of it, and 
where the plant does well, it should be 
used in every garden to some extent in 
this way. It is at home on the rock- 
garden, where there is moist loam into 
which it can root. It is sometimes sold 
in Covent Garden in pots, when in flower 




in spring, and is readily propagated by 
division, and also by seeds ; but these are 
so small, and so slow in germinating, that 
its propagation in this way is never worth 
the trouble. It is abundant in many 
parts of the Alps and Pyrenees. I have 
grown this plant very well in " battered " 
walls, and it flowered freely thereon. My 
friend, M. Francisque Morel of Lyons, 
tells me that the form of this fine plant, 
which is cultivated in British Gardens, is 
unknown on the Savoy mountains and 
those near. He thinks it is an Italian form, 
but there are other handsome Gentians 
among its allies on those mountains and 
others near, which are well worth the 
attention of rock gardeners. As the old 
plant we have is so easily grown in 
Britain, there is no reason why these 
should not be equally so. I think they 
would all do grown on walls in the way 
described in the first part of this book 
that is to say, on " battered " walls against 
earth banks, with the stones so set that 
they will catch all the rainfall. 

According to M. Correvon, there are 
four or even five well-marked forms of 
G. acaulis, viz. : 

Gentiana angustifolia. A stolonifer- 
ous plant, emitting underground runners. 
Flowers large, handsome, of a fine 
deep sky-blue colour, and spotted on 
the throat with sprightly green. This is 
the handsomest species. It flowers in 
May and June, and is found on calcareous 
parts of the Alps at an altitude of 3000 
feet to 4000 feet. 

G. a. Clusii. The flowers of this are 
of a fine dark blue colour, and have no 
green spots on the throat. The plant 
blooms in May and June, and is found 
on calcareous rocks of the Alps and the 
Jura range at an altitude of 3000 feet to 
5000 feet. 

G. a. Kochiana. Flowers of a violet- 
blue colour, marked on the throat with 
five spots of a blackish-green colour in 
May and June. Common in pastures on 
the granitic Alps. 

G. a. alpina. Leaves small, of a 
sprightly green colour, glistening, curving 
inwards and imbricated, forming rosettes 
which incurve at about the middle part 
of their length. Blooms in May and June. 

Found on the granitic Alps at an alti- 
tude of 6000 feet to 9000 feet ; also on 
the Pyrenees and the Sierra Nevada. 
The two last-named species require a 
compost of one-third crushed granite, one- 
third heath soil, and one-third vegetable 
loam, and should be planted half exposed 
to the sun. 

Gentiana a. dinarica (Beck) This is a 
form of G. acaulis with broad, thick leaves 
and erect, slender, almost cylindrical 
flowers of a dark blue colour. Alps of 
Southern and Eastern Austria. 

G. Andrews!! (Blind Gentian). The 
kinds of Gentian which attract so much 
attention for their beauty on European 
mountains open their flowers wide when 
the sun shines. This does not do so, 
having closed tubes each about an inch 
long, in clusters, and of a deep dark blue. 
Then, instead of spreading low and mant- 
ling the ground with rosettes of leaves, 
the shoots grow erect, and a foot or more 
high. It is handsome, thrives in a sandy 
peat, but has been hitherto so little grown, 
that experiences of its likes and dislikes 
are not yet obtainable. The flowers are 
closely set in clusters near the tops of the 
shoots. A native of moist rich soil in 
North America, flowering in autumn, and 
increased by division and by seed. 

G. asclepiadea (Swallow-wort). A true 
herbaceous plant, i.e., dying down every 
year, thus keeping out of danger in winter 
time, and easily cultivated in almost any 
soil. It grows erect, with shoots almost 
willow-like, and from 15 inches to 2 feet 
high, according to the nature of the soil ; 
bearing numerous large purplish-blue 
flowers, arranged in handsome spikes. 
Little need be said of its culture, as it is 
not fastidious, but in a deep sandy loam 
or peat it will grow twice as large as in a 
stiff clay. In a wild state it inhabits 
pine woods. In consequence of its tall 
habit, this species is best adapted for the 
bushy parts of the rock-garden, or in the 
borders near at hand. It is a native of 
European mountain woods. Division. 

G. bavarica (Bavarian Gentian}. In 
size this resembles the vernal Gentian, but 
has smaller Box-like leaves of a yellowish 
green, all its tiny stems being thickly 
clothed with foliage, forming close, dense 




little tufts, from which spring flowers of 
the most lovely blue, which seems oc- 
casionally flushed with a slight tinge of 
purplish-crimson. The plant is a native 
of the high Alps of Europe. G. verna 
occurs abundantly in the same localities ; 
but, while it is found on ground not 
overflowed by water, G. Bavarica is in 
bloom in very boggy spots, where some 
diminutive rill has left its course and 
spread out over the Grass, not covering it, 
but saturating it so that, when walked 
upon, the water bubbles up around. The 
best thing to do with it is to plant it near 
the margin of a rill, taking care to let no 
Carices, Cough Grass, Cotton Grass, or 
other strong-growing subjects get near the 
spot, or they would soon cover and destroy 
the plant. It may also be grown in pots, 
plunged in sand during the summer ; 
sandy loam to be the soil used, the plants 
to have repeated and abundant waterings 
from early spring till the heavy autumnal 
rains set in, or be placed standing half- 
plunged in water, with free exposure to 

Gentiana ciliata. A rare and beautiful 
species, with flexuose, almost simple, stems, 
about 1 foot high, bearing large, solitary, 
azure-blue, deeply fringed flowers, each 
from 1 inch to 1^ inches long. It is a 
native of the Alpine regions of Central 
and Southern Europe, and the Caucasus in 
dry pastures, and requires to be planted 
in a mixture of rich fibrous loam and 
broken limestone, in sunny fissures of 
rock ; or it may be grown in well-drained 
pots, using the same compost. In all 
cases it should be kept rather dry in 
winter. Young plants flower freely when 
only 2 inches or 3 inches high. 

G. crinata (Fringed Gentian). A singu- 
larly beautiful plant, frequenting .-wet 
ground and river sides, about 1 foot in 
li eight, with the loveliest fringed deep 
indigo-blue flowers I ever saw. It is a 
biennial plant, very beautiful for the bog 
garden, if we could get it established in 
our country from seed. It grows in moist 
woods and pastures, and also near rivers 
and streams, and has a wide range in N. 
America and Canada. 

G. cruciata (Cross-wort). This species 
has somewhat erect, spreading leaves, ar- 

ranged at right angles or cross-like on 
simple ascending stems, which are from 
6 inches to 1 foot in height, the flowers 
blue, and in whorls. It is a native of 
dry pastures in Central and Southern 
Europe. In growing this plant, fibrous 
loam should be plentifully mixed with 
small pieces of broken limestone. 

Gentiana decumbens. Stem erect, 
12 inches to 16 inches high. Flowers 
numerous, of a fine blue colour, and borne 
in terminal spikes, from June to August. 
Native of Siberia, at an altitude of 2000 
feet to 3000 feet. Syn., G. adscendens. 
There is a good white variety of this. 

Gentiana decumbens alba. 

G. gelida. Forms dense tufts, or carpets, 
a foot high, with bent, ascending stems, 
and blunt leaves, closely set, the flowers 
very nearly 2 inches long, in large heads 
of a brilliant blue colour. A native of 
alpine districts in the Caucasus and 
Armenia, thriving in rich, moist loam. 
Division or seed. 

G. Kurroo. One of the most beautiful 



of the Himalayan Gentians, and one of 
the easiest to cultivate. In the south of 
Scotland it does well, but then alpine 
Indian plants find there a congenial home. 
Near London, on a north aspect, it has 
flowered well. The compost in which it 
grows is a rich peaty mixture, and it 
receives copious waterings during the 
summer months. It forms a tuft, or 
rosette, of smooth leaves about 3 inches 
long, from the base of which rises the 
flower-stalk, and from the upper joints 

short stalks bearing single flowers, each 
an inch broad, and of the brightest azure- 
blue, in July and August. Himalayas. 

Gentiana macrophylla. A taller kind, 
with lower leaves from 10 inches to 12 
inches long. Flowers blue, small, numer- 
ous, borne in closely set heads. It comes 
very near G. cruciata, from which it is dis- 
tinguished by the size and shape of its 
leaves, and, lastly, by the lobes of the 
corolla standing erect instead of spreading 

Gentiana, G. macrophylla. (Engraved from a photograph sent by Miss Willmott.) 




Gentiana pneumonanthe (Marsh Gen- 
tian). A British perennial, scarcely less 
beautiful than any alpine Gentian, with 
tabular flowers, an inch and a half or more 
long, of a beautiful blue within, with five 
greenish belts without, the lobes of the 
mouth short and spreading ; on stems 
6 inches to a foot high. A native of 
boggy heaths and moist pastures, and in 
cultivation requiring moist peat. It is 
not recorded from Scotland or Ireland, 
though not rare in some parts of England. 
Few plants are more worthy of a place 
on the rock-garden, and where the plant 
occurs wild, it might well be guarded 
against extermination. 

G. Punctata. A free, rather bold, dark 
yellow kind, growing plentifully in Alpine 
meadows, the flowers very distinct in 
colour and form too. 

G. pyrenaica (Pyrenean Gentian}. 
Somewhat like the vernal Gentian in size, 
but with narrow, sharp-pointed leaves, 
and dark violet almost stalkless flowers, 
the flat portion of the flower being formed 
of five oval lobes, with a triangular ap- 
pendage between each, nearly as long as 
the lobes. It requires much the same 
treatment as G. verna, flowering in early 
summer, and is well worthy of a place 
in the choice rock-garden, though not of 
such a vivid hue as G. verna. 

G. septemfida (Crested Gentian}. A. 
lovely plant, bearing on stem 6 inches to 
12 inches high flowers in clusters, widen- 
ing towards the mouth, of a beautiful 
blue and white inside, greenish-brown 
outside, having between each of the 
larger segments of the flowers one smaller 
.and finely cut. A native of the Caucasus, 
.and one of the best for cultivation on the 
rock-garden, thriving well in moist sandy 
peat. Division. 

G. verna (Vernal Gentian}. This covers 
the ground with rosettes of small leathery 
leaves, often spreading into tufts from 
3 inches to 5 inches in diameter, and pro- 
ducing in spring, flowers that even the 
botanist calls "beautiful bright blue," 
though botanical books are usually above 
taking any notice of colour at all. Some- 
times the blooms barely rise above the 
leaves, and at other times are borne on 
stems 2 inches or 3 inches high. A few 

things are essential to success in its cultiva- 
tion, and far from difficult to secure. 
They are good, deep, gritty loam on a 
level spot, perfect drainage, abundance of 
water during the dry months, and full 
exposure to the sun. Grit o broken 
limestone may be advantageously mingled 
with the soil, but if there be plenty of 
sand, they are not essential ; a few pieces 
half buried on the surface of the ground 
will help to prevent evaporation and guard 
the plant till it has taken root and begun 
to spread about. It is so dwarf that, if 
weeds be allowed to grow around, they 
soon injure it. In moist districts, where 
there is a good, deep, sandy loam, it may 
be grown on the front edge of a border 
carefully surrounded by half-plunged 
stones. It may also be grown in pots or 
boxes of loam, with plenty of rough sand, 
well drained and plunged in beds of sand, 
well exposed to the sun, and well watered 
from the first dry days of March onwards 
till the moist autumn days return. In. 
all cases, good, well-rooted specimens 
should be secured to begin with, as failure 
often occurs from half-dead plants that 
would have little chance of surviving, even 
if favoured with the air of their native 
wilds. In a wild state this plant is 
abundant over mountain pastures on the 
Alps of Southern and Central Europe, and 
those of like latitudes in Asia. 

GERANIUM (Cranesbill}. Showy 
hardy perennials, for the most part 
too rampant for the rock-garden, and 
in no need of its soils or other refine- 
ments. Therefore we should keep in 
this case to the dwarfer and more 
alpine kinds, such as the following : 

Geranium argenteum (Silvery Cranes- 
bill). A lovely alpine plant, with leaves of 
a silvery white, and large pale rose-coloured 
flowers, on stems seldom more than 2 inches 
high, and nearly prostrate. It comes from 
the Alps of Dauphiny and the Pyrenees, is 
hardy, flowering in early summer, and is 
a gem for association with the choicest 
plants. It loves a firm, sandy, and well- 
drained soil, and should, as a rule, be 
placed near and somewhat below the eye, 
as, though the plant is of a high, it is not 




of a conspicuous, order of beauty. In- 
creased freely by seed. 

Geranium cinereum (Grey Cranesbill). 
A beautiful dwarf plant, with five- or 
seven-parted leaves, clothed with a slightly 
glaucous pubescence, and bearing very 
large and handsome pale pinkish flowers, 
veined with red. A native of the 
Pyrenees, 2 to 5 or 6 inches high, grow- 
ing freely, and easily propagated by seeds. 
On the rock-garden it is at home, and 
fitted for association with the choicest 
kinds. It seeds abundantly, and may be 
easily raised from seed. 

G. sanguineum (Blood Cranesbill). A. 
native plant, forming spreading close 
tufts from 1 to 2 feet high ; the flowers 
are large, nearly or quite 1^ inches across, 
of a deep crimson purple. Its close habit 
instantly distinguishes this plant from 
any other Geranium, and the flowers being 
more beautiful than those of any other, 
it deserves to have a place in every rock- 
garden, among the larger and more easily 
grown plants. It grows on any soil, is 
readily propagated by division or seeds, 
and occurs in a wild state in some parts 
of Britain, though not a common plant. 

There are two forms or varieties of the 
Blood Geranium. One, the common or 
" true " species, with ascending stems 
matting into vigorous but compact tufts ; 
the other more hairy, less vigorous in its 
growth, and usually prostrate in habit. 
This last form usually occurs on sandy 
sea-shores. A form of this variety, with 
pale pink flowers veined with red, was 
found at Walney Island, in Lancashire, 
and has been distinguished as a species 
under the name of G. lancastriense, but it 
differs only in colour from the sea-shore 
variety. Both these forms, being smaller 
and less vigorous than the common one, 
are worth having for the rock-garden. 
There is also a white variety, a good 

G. Striatum (Striped Cranesbill). An 
old and charming plant, still to be seen 
in many cottage gardens. "This beauti- 
ful Cranes-bill," says Parkinson, writing 
nearly three hundred years ago, "hath 
many broad yellowish green leaves arising 
from the root, divided into five or six 
parts, but not unto the middle as the first 

kinds are : each of these leaves hath a 
blackish spot at the bottom corners of the 
divisions : from among these leaves spring 
up sundry stalks a foot high and better, 
joynted and knobbed here and there, 
bearing at the tops two or three small 
white flowers, consisting of five leaves 
apeece, so thickly and variably striped 
with fine small red veins that no green 
leaf e that is of that bigness can show so 
many veins in it, nor so thick running 
as every leaf of this flower doth." It is 
a native of Southern Europe, growing 
very freely in warm sandy soils, and is 
easily increased by seed or division. 

GEUM (Avens). Perennial her- 
baceous plants with red or yellow, 
rarely whitish, flowers, some of which 
are too vigorous in growth for the 

Geum montanum (Mountain Avens), 
which is found on turfy declivities and pas- 
tures on the Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines, 
Carpathian Mountains, the Sudetic Kange, 
and Mount Scardo, in Macedonia. The 
plant has a thick root-stock and large 
leaves of a cheerful bright green colour ; 
the flowers are of large size, on stalks 
from 4 inches to 10 inches high, and are 
succeeded by a cluster of feathery awns 
of a reddish-brown colour. It thrives well 
on any kind of rock-garden, and also on 

G. reptans. A handsome kind, found 
in clefts of rocks and in rocky debris on 
the Upper Alps at an altitude of 2000 
metres to 2500 metres, also on the 
Pyrenees, the Carpathian Mountains, and 
the high mountain ranges of Macedonia. 
It is the rock form of G. montanum, and 
requires to be grown in the full sun. 
The flowers are very large (sometimes 
nearly 2 inches across), and of a pale 
yellow colour. The leaves are more 
deeply incised than those of G. montanum, 
ana are of a greyish-green colour, velvety 
and not glistening. Moreover, the plant 
sends out long thread-like runners, bear- 
ing at their extremities small buds or 
shoots, which take root often at a 
distance of more than 10 inches from the 




A dense trailing shrub, forming a 
firm mass of thyme-like verdure, about 
half an inch high, and dotted over 
with compact heads of bluish-white 
flowers, with stamens of a deeper blue 
or mauve. The flower heads are not 
half an inch across, and barely rise 
above the foliage. It should be 
planted in sandy or gritty soil, and 
so that it may crawl some little way 
over the face of the surrounding stones, 
and in a very open sunny spot in such 
a position, it will not be so liable to 
be overrun by coarse plants. A native 
of the Pyrenees, and increased by 
division. There are several other 
Globularias in cultivation : G. nudi- 
caulis, trichosantha, and cordifolia, but 
these are scarcely worthy of a place 
except in large collections. 

snake Plantain) is a beautiful little 
Orchid, with leaves close to the ground, 
delicately veined with silver. It 
thrives in any shady spot, such as 
may be found in any good rock- 
garden, planted in moist peaty and 
leafy soil, with here and there a bit of 
soft sandstone for its roots to cling 
to and run among. It is quite hardy. 
Native of Eastern United States. G. 
repens and Menziesi are less desirable. 

GYPSOPHILA. Perennials and 
annuals of the Stitchwort family. The 
larger kinds are elegant, bearing tiny 
white blossoms in myriads on slender 
spreading panicles. These are mostly 
too vigorous for our purpose, but G. 
prostrata is a pretty species for the 
rock-garden. It grows in spreading 
masses, and has white or pink small 
flowers, borne on slender stems in 
loose graceful panicles from mid- 
summer to September. It is a very 
useful plant, and blooms for a long 

season. G. cerastioides grows about 
2 inches high, and has a spreading 
habit, bearing small clusters of 
blossoms, which are half an inch across, 
white with violet streaks. It is from 
Northern India, and unlike any of 
the group now in our gardens, being 
dwarfer, and having larger flowers. It 
is a rapid grower, and soon spreads 
into a broad tuft if in good soil, and 
in an open position on the rock- 
garden. Increased by seeds or cut- 
tings in spring. 

HABENARIA (Rein Orchis). Ter- 
restrial Orchids from N. America, some 
of which are pretty and interesting, 
and all grow from 1 foot to 2 feet high. 
To succeed in out-door culture, a spot 
should be prepared with about equal 
parts of leaf-mould, or peat, and sand, 
with partial shade ; the soil should be 
well mulched with leaves, grass, or 
other material to protect the roots 
from the heat of the sun, and to keep- 
it moist. H. blephariglottis flowers in 
July, in spikes, white and beautifully 
fringed. H. ciliaris is the handsomest, 
the flowers bright orange-yellow, with 
a conspicuous fringe upon them. H. 
fimbriata flowers in a long spike, lilac- 
purple, beautifully fringed. H. psy- 
codes, flowers purple, in spikes 4 inches 
to 10 inches long, very handsome and 
fragrant. They are charming plants 
for the bog-garden, or for a quiet nook 
with moist, peaty soil. 


This is a pretty little rock-plant, re- 
sembling a Gloxinia in miniature. It 
forms dense tufts of numerous small 
rosettes of leaves, which somewhat 
resemble those of the Pyrenean Ra- 
mondia (R. pyrenaica\ each rosette 
bearing in spring from one to five 
slender flower-stalks, with two to four 
blossoms each, nearly 1 inch long, of 




purplish-lilac colour, with a yellowish 
white. Messrs Frcebel, of Zurich, 
who grow it well, write to us : "We 
have treated this plant in the same 
manner as the Pyrenean Ramondia, i.e. 
we have planted it on the north side 
of the rock-garden ; therefore, the sun 
never directly reaches it. We grow it 
in fibrous peat, and fix the plants, if 
possible, into fissures, so that the 
rosettes which it forms hang in an 
oblique position, just as they do in 
their native country. It succeeds 
well in this way; but if no rock be 
.at hand it may be grown equally well 
on the north side of a Rhododendron 
bed. We have it thus situated quite 
close to a stone edging, a way in which 
we also grow the Mamondia, and the 
Haberlea flowers profusely every year 
in May and June. The plant is 
very hardy, having withstood several 
very hard winters, without any pro- 
tection, quite unharmed." It is a 
native of the Balkan Mountains, where 
it is found growing among moss and 
leaves on damp, shady, steep declivities 
at high elevations. 


brilliant bulbous plant of the Amaryllis 
family, hardy, at least in the southern 
and eastern parts of the country. It 
has stout and erect flower-stems, about 
1 foot in height, and flowers of brightest 
scarlet, feathered here and there at the 
base with yellow. The variety fulgens 
is the finest form of the plant. It 
grows freely in loam, improved in 
texture by the addition of a little 
leaf-mould and sand. Its propagation 
is too easy, for in many soils it breaks 
up into offsets, instead of growing to 
a flowering size. A choice plant for 
the rock-garden. Chili. 

ing-rooted H.). A handsome, creeping, 

vetch-like plant, with large purplish- 
violet flowers in long spikes, from 6 
to 12 inches high, and sometimes more 
in rich soil. Readily increased by 
division or seeds, grows freely in 
ordinary garden-soil on level ground, 
and is a valuable rock-plant. A 
native of the Alps of Dauphiny and 
the Tyrol. 

Mostly dwarf and wiry shrubs, in- 
habiting rocky, sandy, and heathy 
places ; of much beauty of colour, 
for the most part hardy, and easy to 
grow, and, therefore, very useful for 
the rock-garden, or for dry walls or 
banks. If we had only the varieties 
of our native Sunrose, they would be 
a precious aid ; but there are also 
other species of much beauty, and 
well deserving the care of the rock 
gardener. It is not a group in which 
we have to pick and choose, as every 
known kind is worth growing. 

Helianthemum canum (Tlie Hoary Sun- 
rose). A native of limestone rocks in 
Britain, but somewhat rare, is much 
dwarfer than the common kind, and pro- 
duces small pale yellow flowers. The whole 
plant does not grow more than 3 inches 
high, and forms a pretty rock-shrublet. 

H. guttatum (Annual Sunrose). The 
pretty annual spotted Sunrose, found in 
the Channel Islands, on the Holyhead 
Mountain, in Anglesea, and widely on 
the Continent, deserves a place in the 
curious collection, and indeed has beauty 
enough to recommend it. It is quite 
easily grown, but is best raised in pots 
in spring, and then planted out in May. 
Once established, it sows itself annually. 

H. ocymoides (Basil-like Sunrose). A 
native of dry rocky hills in Spain and 
Portugal, with bright yellow purple-eyed 
flowers nearly an inch and a half across, 
and hoary leaves an inch to an inch and 
a half long ; and very useful on the 
warmer and drier parts, among the stronger 
alpine shrubs. Increased by seed or cut- 
tings. Syn., Cistus algarvensis. 




Helianthemum Pilosella (Downy Sun- 
rose). A dwarf kind, with a woody pro- 
strate stem ; about 6 inches high, flowering 
in summer ; small, yellow, in clusters. 
Pyrenees. The rock-garden and margins 
of dry borders, in ordinary soil. Seed and 

H. polifolium is also a native of our 
country, though rare. It seems to me 
that there are many plants of this genus 
not yet in cultivation, worth introducing, 
especially for sandy and poor hot soils. 

H. rosmarinifolium (Rosemary-leaved 
H.). A neat, erect little bush, about 1 
foot high, flowering in summer ; white, 
on short stalks, bearing each from one to 
three flowers. North America. Pretty in 
the rock-garden, in sandy loam. Cuttings 
and seed. 

H. Tuberaria (Truffle Sunrose). A dis- 
tinct and beautiful rock-plant, bearing 
flowers like those of a single yellow rose, 
2 inches across, and with dark centres, 
drooping when in bud, and on stems about 
9 inches high. It is quite distinct from 
all the other cultivated Sunroses in not 
having woody stems, but sending up large 
hairy leaves, somewhat like plantain- 
leaves, from the root, and scarcely looking 
like a Sunrose. It flowers in summer, and 
continuously, if in good health and in good 
soil. It is said to grow abundantly where 
truffles abound, and is well worthy of a 
position in a well-drained spot, or dry 
fissure on the sunny side of the rock- 
garden. S. Europe. 

H. Vlllgare (Common Sunrose). A well- 
known British under-shrub, growing in 
dry pastures and heaths, with bright 
yellow flowers, on stems from a few 
inches to nearly a foot long. In a culti- 
vated state this plant varies a good deal 
in colour, and numerous plants passing 
under different names in our gardens are 
really forms of this species, and some well 
worthy of cultivation. While thriving in 
almost any soil, they attain ripest health, 
and flower most profusely, on chalky and 
warm ones, and on soils of this description 
they may be used with good effect on the 
margins of shrubberies, especially the 
copper-coloured and red varieties. They 
are only suited for the rougher parts of 
the rock-garden. The best way to obtain 

varieties of different colours is by seed, 
which is offered in most of the Catalogues ; 
but some of the named varieties are very 
bright, and should be secured, such a$ 
amabilis, sunbeam, venustum, and Ball of 


(Yellow Everlasting}. This is the 
beautiful little plant which affords- 
the " everlasting flowers " so much 
used for immortelles. The grey 
leaves are closely covered with long- 
down, and the flower-stems, ascending 
from 4 to 10 inches, are clothed all 
the way up with narrow hoary leaves,, 
having their edges turned backwards, 
and support a number of flowers of a 
bright, glistening yellow. To preserve 
the flowers, they should be gathered 
when fresh and newly-blown, as, if 
allowed to mature, they are apt to- 
fall away. A native of sandy and 
sunny places in Central and Southern 
Europe, and in this country on warm,, 
sandy, and drained soils. Division. 

HELLEBORUS (Christmas Rose). 
Though these plants are not usually 
included among alpine and rock-plants, 
they are true mountaineers : being 
often slow to grow in our gardens 
I think that the advantages of aspect 
and improved soil and good drainage, 
which a well-made rock-garden gives, 
might be well for these noble plants. 
In any case, where we work with 
mountain shrubs, these will come in 
well, and there can be nothing more- 
attractive in winter, in warm or chalky 
soils, than the winter kinds, or in 
spring, when the eastern kind blooms 
so early. 

Helleborus Niger (Christmas Rose). 
Although this familiar old plant may be 
thought too vigorous for association with 
the often minute gems to which this book 
is chiefly devoted, yet its fine evergreen 
foliage and handsome large flowers entitle 



it to a place. Although hardy enough to 
grow almost anywhere, yet, as it flowers at 
the dreariest season, when low ground is 
often saturated with cold rain, it always re- 
pays for being planted in slightly elevated 
spots, and where it may enjoy as often as 
possible the faint wintry sun, by giving 
clearer and larger flowers, and finer foliage. 
And as in the warmer and more sunny 
countries it misses the shade of the big 
rocks, it is often well to group any of its 
fine forms on the cool side of the rock- 

The following are some of the best- 
known varieties of this fine plant : 

H. n. altifolius is the most vigorous of 
the group. It is early in bloom, often 
commencing to expand its flowers in 
.autumn. The flower stems are mottled 
with red, and the backs of the petals 
faintly rosy. 

St Brigid's Christmas rose is a very 
beautiful flower, the blossoms pure white, 
and cupped in form. 

The Riverston variety is a very free- 
blooming one. Its flower-stems are apple- 
green, but the leaf -stalks are red-spotted, 
the leaves themselves being of a pale 

The Bath variety is the form perhaps 
most generally in use for providing blooms 
.at Christmastide. It is larger and taller 
than the type. 

H. n. Madame Fourpade is in habit of 
growth not unlike H. n. altifolius, but 
flowers a full month later, and the blooms 
are whiter and more cup-shaped. 

These fine plants deserve a better fate 
than they often meet with in gardens. 
The full exposure of the ordinary plain, 
.and perhaps cold and wet soil, does not 
always suit them. In the lowly moun- 
tain valleys they come from, there are 
" many mansions," so to say, and, although 
the heat is greater than ours in summer, 
the shades of the rocks often give them 
relief, and there is the open, gritty soil, 
and other advantages. In certain parts 
of our country, where the natural soil is 
warm and good, they do well, but in 
others they fail, and require a well-made 
soil that has plenty of sand or grit and 
some leaf-mould. We may also have to 
think of the aspect. I have known them 

succeed in the shade of walls when they 
failed in the open. 

It is all the better to group them so that 
as they flower in the middle of winter, 
the flowers may be easily protected with 
a few bell-glasses or hand-lights. 

Besides the true Christmas Rose, there 
are other species of Helleborus well worthy 
of cultivation ; and among the best is H. 
atrorubens, with flowers of a dark purple. 
The colour, though somewhat dull, by 
turning up the usually pendent flower 
is seen to greater advantage, being then 
contrasted with the yellow stamens. It 
has the quality of throwing its flowers 
well above ground to a height of 9 to 12 
inches, and is a free grower, but rather 
scarce, requiring, as all the Hellebores do, 
a considerable time to establish itself after 
being disturbed. H. olympicus, with large 
rose-coloured flowers, and good habit, is 
very similar. H. argutifolius is remark- 
able for its beautiful, whitish, trifoliate 
leaves, each secondary vein being termin- 
ated by a well-defined point. Its flowers 
are a lively green, and come about the 
month of March. 

Helleborus Hybrid (Lenten Lilies). 
By far the most important group after 
the true Christmas Rose, and its forms, 
are the fine varieties raised in gardens, 
the hardiest of them : from the bold and 
free H. Orientalis, a native of Greece and 
Asia Minor, and in some cases crossed 
with other species. The spotted and 
variously coloured forms raised in this 
way are excellent, and, while quite dis- 
tinct from the true Christmas Rose and 
its forms, are more vigorous in growth, 
and 'coming into flower at the end of 
winter or dawn of spring, they open well 
without protection in many parts of the 
country. They are not nearly so difficult 
about soil as H. Niger and its forms, 
growing in any free and good soil in 
many cases without any special making 
of the soil, liking it deep. They do best 
in partial shade in the southern countries. 
Almost too vigorous for the choice parts 
of the rock-garden, it is easy to place 
them near its approaches among the 
shrubs, or in a half-shaded wall approach- 
ing. A great many beautiful varieties 
have been raised in England, and also 




in France and Switzerland, and these 
varieties have been given fine names ; 
but, to some extent, they are repetitions 
of each other, and it is not worth while 
being very particular as to whether they 
are named or not, if we have kinds that 
please us in colour. 

Flower}. A distinct and handsome 
marsh perennial, growing 12 inches 
to 16 inches high, and having hand- 
some purplish-rose flowers arranged 
in an oval spike. It is suitable for 
the artificial bog, or for moist ground 
near a rivulet. In fine sandy and 
very moist soils it thrives well as a 
border plant. North America. Syn., 
H. latifolia. 

PHYLLA. A dwarf trailing plant of 
the Figwort family, bearing incon- 
spicuous flowers, succeeded by bright 
red berries about the size of small 
Peas, on slender creeping stems. It 
is rather tender, and requires a 
sheltered and well-drained spot in the 
rock-garden. Himalaya. 


HERNIARIA. Dwarf trailing per- 
ennial plants, forming a dense turfy 
mass that remains green throughout 
the year. There are two or three 
species, but the most important is 
H. glabra, useful on account of its 
dwarf compact growth, and is always 
of a deep green, even in a hot and 
dry season. They grow in any soil, 
but the flowers are inconspicuous. 


A pretty Californian rock plant, stem- 
less, dwarf in growth, with leaves 
borne on slender stalks, forming a 
tuft, the flower bell-shaped, half -inch 
across, white, varying to a purplish 

tinge. It grows in marshy ground, 
and in damp places in the Rocky 
Mountains and Northern Utah, and 
is apparently quite hardy, as it thrives 
in ordinary soil in well-drained parts 
of the rock-garden. H. californicus 
is a species of somewhat the same 

HIERACIUM (Hawkweed).Avery 
extensive genus of Composites, con- 
sisting chiefly of perennial herbs with 
yellow flowers. Some of the yellow 
alpine and other kinds are valuable 
in botanical collections, and many of 
them are beautiful, but the prevalence 
of yellow flowers of the same type 
makes them less important, and not 
a few are too large and coarse for the 

shoe Vetch). A small prostrate British 
plant, with pretty little deep-yellow 
flowers, in coronilla-like crowns, the 

Zper petal faintly veined with brown, 
3 pinnate leaves small, and leaflets 
smooth. It is a capital little plant 
for the upper ledges of rocks in dry 
positions, as in such places the shoots 
will fall down some 18 or 20 inches ; 
easily raised from seed; partial to 
chalky soils; rather common in the 
South of England, but not a native 
of Ireland or Scotland. 


Pyrenean plant, forming dense tufts 
of foliage and having purplish-blue 
flowers, in spikes about 9 inches high, 
which appear in July or August. It 
is hardy and of easy culture, but is 
not a plant of much character from 
a garden point of view. 

Violet). A beautiful British water- 
plant, which I include here in conse- 




quence of having seen it thrive better 
on soft mud banks than when sub- 
merged. The deeply-cut leaves formed 
quite a deep green and dwarf turf 
over the mud, and from these arose 
stems, bearing at intervals whorls of 
handsome pale-lilac or pink flowers, 
which might perhaps be more justly 
called the Water Primrose, as it 
is nearly allied to the Primulas, and 
it may be grown either in the water 
or on a bank of soft wet soil at its 
margin. It grows from 9 inches to 
2 feet high, flowers in early summer, 
and may be found in abundance near 
London on the banks of the Lea 
river, and in many other places, 
and is pretty freely distributed over 


A delicate North American mountain 
plant, with many pale sky-blue flowers, 
fading to white, and with yellowish 
eyes, crowding on thread-like stems 
to a height of 1 inch to 2j inches, 
from close low cushions of leaves 
shorter than many mosses, less than 
half an inch high when fully exposed. 
It is usually considered somewhat 
difficult to grow, but this arises chiefly 
from its minuteness ; in level exposed 
spots it does very well in moist peaty 
soil, the chief care required being to 
keep it quite clear of weeds or coarse- 
growing neighbours. It is suitable for 
association with the choicest mountain- 
plants. I have grown this plant well 
in the open air in London; it with- 
stood the evil influences of showers of 

Houstonia purpurea is another good 
kind ; both inhabit open grassy places 
and among wet rocks. 

H.}. A neat little rock-plant, from 

moist and elevated parts of nearly 
all the great mountain-chains of 
Central and Southern Europe, with 
shining leaves, and pure white 
flowers, in clusters on stems about 
1 inch high. It is quite free in sandy 
soil, and easily increased by division 
or by seeds. Planted in an open 
spot, it becomes a dense mass of white 

HYACINTHUS (Hyacinth}. Usu- 
ally the cultivated Hyacinths are not 
plants for the rock-garden, but a few 
species come in gracefully, particularly 
the Amethyst Hyacinth. 

Hyacinthus azureus (Azure Hyacinth}. 
A very dwarf and pretty plant, hardy 
and amenable to ordinary culture, and 
one of the earliest as well as the most 
charming of our early spring flowers. It 
is a jewel for the rock-garden, arising 
from close carpets of little plants, that 
save it from the splashings of the winter 

H. amethystinus (Amethyst Hyacinth\ 
though nearly related to H. azureus, is a 
charming hardy plant, flowering at a time 
when there is a dearth of flowers. The 
mistake with a bulb like this is to have 
two or three or even a dozen in a clump. 
Instead of by the dozen it should be groMTi 
by the hundred, and no prettier sight can 
well be imagined than a large sheet of this, 
with its racemes of amethyst flowers. I 
find it most precious in a group between 
rock-shrubs, or arising from carpets of 
Cinquefoil Sandwort, or any creeping rock- 
plant, and it is as hardy and enduring, 
good in form, and delicate in colour. 
3. Europe. 

Hyacinthus Orientalis. This is said 
to be the parent of all the garden Hyacinths 
in cultivation. The wild types of the 
garden and Eoman Hyacinths, or at 
least as near as possible to their original 
forms, are in cultivation at the present 
time, but so inferior to the varieties we 
now grow, that no one would care to 
have them. The varieties are albulus and 




(Frog-bit). A pretty native water- 
plant, having floating leaves and white 
flowers, and well worth introducing in 
pools. It may often be gathered from 
neighbouring ponds in spring, when 
the plants float again after being sub- 
merged in winter. 

HYDROCOTYLE (Pennywort) 
Small creeping plants, usually with 
round leaves and inconspicuous flowers. 
There are several kinds grown, their 
only use being as a surface growth 
to the artificial bog. The most desir- 
able are H. moschata and microphylla, 
two New Zealand species, and nitidula, 
though all of these are somewhat 
tender. The common H. vulgaris is 
rather too rank a grower. 

HYPERICUM (St John's Wort).- 
Handsome shrubs, some dwarf, and 
occasionally of much beauty for the 
rock-garden, where the best of the 
larger ones may be used among the 
shrubs. They are usually of easy 
culture in ordinary soils. Some of 
the perennials are good rock-plants, 
and the best of these is H. olympicum, 
one of the largest flowered kinds, 
though not more than 1 foot high. 
It is known by its very glaucous 
foliage, and erect single stems, with 
bright yellow flowers about 2 inches 
across. It may be propagated easily 
by cuttings, which should be put in 
when the shoots are fully ripened,- so 
that the young plants may become 
well established before winter. H. 
nummularium and humifusum, both 
dwarf trailers, are also desirable, and, 
owing to their dwarf compact growth, 
several of the shrubby species are well 
suited for the rock-garden. Of these, 
the best are H. cegyptiacum, balearicum, 
empetrifoliwn, Coris, patulum, uralum, 
and oUongifolium. The last three 

are larger than the others, but as they 
droop they have a good effect among 
the boulders of a large rock-garden, 
or on banks. H. Hookerianum, tri- 
florum, aureum, orientals are among 
the kinds having some beauty, but 
the species from warmer countries 
than ours are apt to disappear after 
hard winters. H. Moserianum is a 
handsome hybrid kind. 

Hypericum reptans is a beautiful 
dwarf, and graceful trailer, with small 
leaves, and wiry prostrate branches, each 
of which bears a single flower at its tip. 
In proportion to the size of the foliage the 
flower is very large, as it reaches If inches 
in diameter. This is, best seen when 
grown between stones, and allowed to 
carpet a sloping or perpendicular surface. 

Among other kinds worth a place are 
H. Budlleyi, and H. empetrifolium. 

Hypericum polophyllum. 


(Hound-leaved /.). A distinct plant, 
rarely more than a few inches high, 
with pretty, rosy-lilac, sweet-scented 
flowers in April, May, and June. The 
leaves are thick, smooth, leathery, and 
of a glaucous olive-green, and the 
flowers are produced in short racemes 
or corymbs, and usually attain a 
height of from 3 to 6 inches. Flower- 
ing with the vernal Gentian, the Bird's- 
Eye Primrose, the alpine Silene, and 



the little yellow Aretia, it is admir- 
able for association with such plants. 
It grows naturally very high on the 
Alps, but thrives in loamy soil, and 
is easily raised from seed. A native 
of the Alps of Switzerland, Savoy, and 
Austria. It is occasionally found with 
white flowers in a wild state. 

IBERIS (Candytuft}. For the rock- 
garden, these perennial, half-shrubby 
plants are essential, hardy, of great 
endurance, and good effect, and they 
can be grown anywhere, in any soil, 
and are easily increased. Although 
dwarf, they are so wiry and enduring, 
that they might well be used in bold 
groups between the rock-garden and 
its surroundings. 

Iberis corifolia (Coris-leaved Candytuft). 
A very dwarf kind, only 3 or 4 inches 
high when in flower, and covered with small 
white blooms in May. Few alpine plants 
are more worthy of general culture. It is 
probably a small variety of the Evergreen 
Candytuft, but for garden use it is distinct 
enough. Southern Europe ; easily pro- 
pagated by seeds, cuttings, or division, and 
thriving in any soil. 

I. correaefolia (Correa-kaved Candytuft). 
This plant is readily known from any 
other cultivated kind by its entire and 
rather large leaves, by its compact head 
of large white flowers, and by flowering 
later than the other white kinds. Both 
the flowers and the corymb are larger 
than in the other species, and the blooms 
stand forth more boldly from the smooth 
dark-green leaves. It is an invaluable 
hardy plant, and particularly useful in 
consequence of coming into full beauty 
about the end of May or beginning of 
June, when the other kinds are fading 
away. Of its native country we know 
nothing ; but once Mr Jennings, of the 
Wellington Nurseries, informed me that 
it was raised in, and first sent out from, 
the Botanic Garden at Bury St Edmunds, 
and it is probably a hybrid. Mr J. G. 
Baker considers it to come nearest to /. 
Pruitij of the Nebrode Mountains, in 

Sicily. Readily increased by cuttings, 
and also by seed. 

Iberis Gibraltarica (Gibraltar Candy- 
tuft). This is larger in all its parts than the 
other cultivated kinds, has oblong spoon- 
shaped leaves, nearly 2 inches long ; the 
large flowers, often reddish-lilac, being 
arranged in low close heads, and appear- 
ing in spring and early summer. I am 
doubtful of its hardiness, and should ad- 
vise its being wintered in pits or frames 
till sufficiently abundant to be tried in 
the open air. It should be planted 011 
sunny spots. A native of the South of 
Spain ; increased by seeds and cuttings. 

I. Tenoreana (Tenore's Candytuft). A 
dwarf species, with toothed leaves, which, 
with the stems, are hairy, and a profusion 
of white flowers changing to purple. As 
the commonly cultivated kinds are white, 
this one will be the more valuable from 
its purplish hue, added to its neat habit. 
It, however, has not the perfect hardiness 
and fine constitution of the white kinds, 
and is apt to perish on heavy soils in 
winter ; but on light sandy soils it is 
a good plant. A native of Naples, and 
easily raised from seed. 

I. sempervirens (Evergreen Candytuft). 
This is the common rock Candytuft of 
our gardens, as popular as the yellow 
Alyssum and the white Arabis. Half- 
shrubby, dwarf, evergreen, and perfectly 
hardy, it escaped destruction where many 
herbaceous plants were destroyed ; and 
as in April and May its neat tufts of 
dark-green are transformed into masses 
of snowy white, its presence has been 
tolerated longer than many other fine 
old plants. When in good soil, and fully 
exposed, it forms spreading tufts often 
more than a foot high, and they last for 
many years. Like all its relatives, it 
should be exposed to the full sun rather 
than shaded, if the best result is sought. 
A native of Greece, Asia Minor, Dalmatia, 
and S. Europe, and readily increased by 
seeds, cuttings, or division. 

I. Garrexiana is a variety of the Ever- 
green Iberis, not sufficiently distinct to be 
worthy of cultivation ; in fact, it and 
several other Iberises prove to be mere 
varieties, and very slight ones, of I. 
pervirens when grown side by side. 




Iberis jucunda. A beautiful and very 
dwarf Candytuft, with soft, rosy, lilac- 
flowers in corymbed clusters, on slender 
twisted stems, over small sea-green foli- 
age, the plant rarely more than 4 inches 
or 5 inches high. It is easily raised from 
seed, and should be cultivated in numbers, 
so as to form good -sized patches. 

INCARVILLEA Distinct and 
beautiful perennials of recent intro- 
duction, probably hardy, coming from 
the high mountains of China, where 
there are, no doubt, many other 
beautiful things in Nature's vast store- 
house. Though the habit is bold, 
they may very well find a home on 

from two to a dozen or more flowers, 2 
inches long and 2 inches wide, rich 
rose, with a few purple streaks, and a 
tinge of yellow in the throat. 

Mr C. M. Mayor, of Paigntpn, Devon, 
sending me a photo of a very fine plant, 
says : " It was planted in deep, light, 
ordinary garden-soil, in a sunny spot, the 
crown covered with sand to a depth of 
3 inches. I found that mulching with 
rotten manure or other moisture-holding 
material, if in contact with the bases of 
the frond-like leaves, causes them all to 
rot off a rot which quickly spreads to 
the tuberous root itself." 

Incaryillea grandiflora resembles I. 
Delavayi in general characters, differing in 
its shorter leaves, more rounded leaflets, 

Violet Cress (lonopsidium acaule). Engraved from a photograph by Miss Wolley Dod. 

the rock-garden until more plentiful 
and better known. They, so far as 
now known, flower in summer, are of 
easy culture in ordinary soil, and do 
not seem difficult of increase. 

Incarvillea Delavayi. We owe the in- 
troduction of this beautiful plant to the 
Abbe Delavay, who found it in Yunnan, 
Western China, at a height of 8,000 feet 
to 11,000 feet. It has a stout root-stock, 
with a very short subterranean stem, from 
which spring the bright green leaves, each 
a foot or more long. The flower-scape 
varies from a foot to 2 feet, and bears 

bearing only one or two large flowers, 
whilst the colour is a deep rose-red. 

I. Olgae is hardy in the southern 
counties, and has bright green pinnate 
leaves and, borne upon the upright ends 
of the branches, panicles of rose-pink 
tubular flowers, each an inch long and 
wide. Turkestan. 

There are other beautiful species of these 
not yet introduced or sufficiently tried. 

Cress). This, being an annual plant, 
is only introduced here in consequence 




of its peculiar beauty for adorning 
bare spots on the rock-garden devoted 
to very minute alpine plants. As it 
sows itself, the cultivator will have 
no more trouble with it than with a 
hardy perennial. It frequently flowers 
at 1 inch high, and rarely exceeds 2 
inches, the small flowers being of a 
pale violet tinge, and the leaves 
roundish and compactly arranged. 
It will flower a couple of months 
after being sown ; and, when sown 
in spring in the open ground, the 
self-sown seeds of the summer flowers 
soon start into growth, and the second 
crop flowers in autumn, and far into 
winter. A native of Portugal and 

IRIS (Flag}. Of these wonderfully 
varied and beautiful plants, the 
majority are too vigorous for the rock- 
garden ; but a certain number of the 
dwarf species might well find a home 
on it, such as the little American 
crested Iris. Also some of the new 
cushion Irises may there find condi- 
tions that suit them. The various 
forms of the Dwarf Flag (/. pumila), 
are often very pretty in colour, and 
are easily grown. 

Iris cristata (Crested /.). A dwarf and 
charming Flag, usually running about 
with its creeping and rooting stems ex- 
posed on the surface, not rising above the 
ground more than a few inches, having 
flowers, however, as large as many of the 
coarser species. It flowers in May ; blue 
with spots of a deeper hue on the outer 
petals, and a stripe of orange and yellow 
variegation down the centre of each. The 
plant is readily distinguished at any 
season from any other dwarf species by 
the creeping stems growing well above 
the ground. Even young tufts push so 
boldly out of the ground that a top- 
dressing of an inch of fine soil placed 
around them cannot fail to help the 
roots. It loves and flourishes luxuriantly 
on rich but free and light soil, in a warm 

position. I have never seen it do so well 
as in the Glasnevin Botanic Gardens, but 
have seen it thrive both to the north and 
south of London. On the rock-garden, 
it thrives best on level sandy spots. A 
native of mountainous regions in North 
America, with all the gem-like loveliness 
of the choicest Swiss alpine flowers ; was 
introduced by Mr Peter Colliiison, so long 
ago as 1756. 

Iris pumila (Dwarf Crimean I.}. Often 
flowering at 4 inches, the dwarf Iris, even 
in favourite soils, rarely exceeds 10 in 
height ; the stems usually bear one or 
two deep-violet flowers, large and beautiful 
in April and May. It thrives in ordinary 
garden soil, the lighter and deeper the 
better ; the finest specimens I have ever 
seen were in a deep sandy peat, and they 
were twice the ordinary size. There are 
several varieties : yellow, white, light blue, 
and deep dark violet, respectively. known 
under the names of /. pumila, lutea, alba, 
ccerulea, and atroceerulea. Each of the 
varieties is worthy of cultivation, and 
easily increased by division of the 

I. reticulata (Early Bulbous /.). Dis- 
tinct from other early Irises, and perhaps 
the most valuable of all, considering its 
early bloom, violet scent, and rich colour. 
The root is a tuber ; leaves four-angled 
and rather tall when fully developed ; and 
the flowers, borne on stems 3 to 6 inches 
high, are of the most brilliant purple, each 
of the lower segments marked with a 
deep orange stain. It blooms in early 
spring, long before any other Iris shows 
itself, and loves a deep sandy soil and a 
warm well-drained position. There is 
no more beautiful plant for a sunny bank 
on the lower slopes of the rock-garden. 
Southern Europe, Asia Minor. Increased 
by division. 

I. Stylosa (Algerian Flag). A. lovely 
winter-blooming Iris, quite hardy on all 
warm, dry soils, but its flowers are of 
delicate texture, and suffer from rough 
gales. There are several varieties having 
flowers of lighter or darker shades of soft 
lilac or lilac-purple, and there is a white 
form with golden-crested petals. All are 
beautifully and easily grown in the open 
air, but it only flowers well in warm 




.sandy soil, and therefore where such soil 
does not occur naturally, the best place 
for it is the rock-garden, in well-drained 

Iris stylosa (Algerian Flay). (Eugraved from 
photograph by Mr S. W. Fitzherbert.) 

and warm slopes, where its tufts of grassy 
leaves will look well throughout the year. 

Dwarf Bulbous Iris. Apart from the 
.above older plants of our gardens of recent 
years, a number of dwarf bulbous Iris 
have come into cultivation, for which the 
rock-garden will often afford a good place. 
Of these, some of the prettiest are : 

Iris Bakeriana. A charming little 
hardy Iris about 5 inches high ; standards 
pale blue, falls white with purple spots 
and a rich black purple lip ; flowering 
in February. It is sweet-scented. 

I. Boissieri, lilac dark blue, with yellow 
blotch, very charming species. 

I. Danfordiae, brilliant yellow, with 
small greenish spots, very dwarf, early 
spring flowering, quite hardv. 

I. Histrio, blue, streaked yellow and 
blotched deep purple. Not only one of 
the hardiest of the Irids, but one of the 
earliest, being earlier than /. reticulata. 

I. Histrioides. A beautiful dwarf Iris ; 
the early flowers are bright ultramarine, 
with markings on a white ground. 

I. orchoides, bright yellow, hardy and 
free on many soils. 

I. Persica (Persian Iris). Light blue, 
blotched with purple, and lined with 
orange, early, sweet-scented. 

I. Persica purpurea, a most beautiful 
variety, of a rosy purple colour. 

I. Rosenbachiana, short upright leaves, 
flowers deep violet, very long falls, which 
are marked blue and yellow. 

Iris Sophenensis, beautiful dwarf Iris, 
in the way of /. reticulata, bright blue 

I. Willmottiana. Lavender blue, white 
and dark blue spotted, a pretty new 
Turkestan Iris. 


(Meadow-rue /.). A graceful little 
plant allied to the meadow-rues, with 
pretty white flowers, valuable for its 
maidenhair-fern-like foliage. It is use- 
ful as an elegant ground-plant below 
rock shrubs as well as for its own 
sake, is hardy, and easy to grow on 
any soil. Comes from the Pyrenees 
and mountainous parts of Greece, 
Italy, and Carniola, is easily propa- 
gated by division or by seed. The 
leaves rarely rise more than a few 
inches high, the flower-stems from 10 
to 14 inches. 


is the prettiest of the Ramondia family, 
and is a native of the mountains of 
South Macedonia, growing in ravines 
and dells. Owing to failures in its 
cultivation, it has been considered a 
miffy plant, dying away in our gardens 
in spite of the most careful handling. 
It likes to be moderately moist at the 
roots and have shade and moisture in 
the air. The blooms are of a deep 
and bright blue, somewhat nodding, 
and shaped like those of a Soldanella. 
Their beauty is heightened by the 
silver-grey leaves. 

JASIONE (Sheep's Scabious). Dwarf 
perennials and annuals of the Bell- 
flower family, interesting, but not of 
highest importance for the rock-garden. 
J. humilis is a creeping tufted plant, 
about 6 inches high, bearing small 
heads of pretty blue flowers in July 
and August. Though a native of 
the high Pyrenees, it often succumbs 
to the damp and frosts of our climate, 




and it therefore requires a dry well- 
drained part of the rock-garden, and 
should have a little protection in 
winter during severe cold and wet. 
J. perennis is taller, often above 
1 foot high, with dense heads of bright 
blue flowers, from June to August ; 
it is a rock-garden plant, stronger 
than the preceding, thriving in good 
light loam, and a native of the 
mountains of Central and South 
Europe. These perennial kinds may 
be propagated best from seed, as they 
do not divide well. J. montana is a 
neat, hardy annual, with small, pretty 
bright blue flower-heads in summer. 
Seed in autumn or spring. A native 

JASMINUM (Jasmine). Beautiful 
shrubs, the hardy ones among the 
best introduced to our country, and 
of very wide and precious use. Where 
any bold rock-gardening is carried out, 
these should be used, and may be 
very gracefully used. They are so 
often the victims of crucifixion against 
walls, that it will be pleasant to see 
them showing their native grace of 

Jasminum humile (Indian Yellow 
Jasmine). A handsome kind, hardy, with 
evergreen foliage, which adds to its value. 
It flowers freely, and its yellow bloom 
amidst the deep green foliage is welcome 
in summer and autumn. Being an Indian 
plant, it should have a warm aspect and 
good warm soil. (Syns., J. revolution and 
J. wallichianum.) 

J. nudiflorum (Winter Jasmine}. A 
lovely Chinese bush, which is happy 
enough in our northern climate to flower 
very often in the depth of winter, cluster- 
ing round cottage walls and shelters, and 
often more lovely when not too tightly 
trained. In wet years it will be noticed 
increasing as freely as twitch at the points 
of the shoots. It should be planted in 
different aspects, so as to prolong the 

Jasminum officinale (White Jasmine). 
The old white Jasmine of our gardens, one 
of the most charming shrubs ever intro- 
duced for warm banks ; it is best on rocky 
or sandy soils. There are several varieties 
of it, the best being J. affine, with flowers 
larger than those of the ordinary kind. It 
is almost evergreen, except in exposed 

It is a native of Persia and the north- 
western mountains of India, naturalised 
here and there in Southern Europe. 

leaf). A plant very little grown, and 
usually regarded as a botanical 
curiosity ; but when planted in sandy 
peat associated with plants like the 
Epimedium, Bhexia, and Spigelia mari- 
landica, it becomes a pretty spring 
flower, as well as interesting from its 
curiously paired leaves. The flowers 
are white, with yellow stamens, about 
an inch across, and freely borne when 
the plant is in vigorous health. 
A good plant for peaty and somewhat 
shady spots on the rock-garden, 
planted in sandy peat. A native of 
rich woods in North America. Care- 
ful division in winter. 

JUNIPERUS (Savin). Often grace- 
ful bushes of the great Pine family, 
clothing the alpine rocks where the tree 
has no chance from poverty of the rocky 
soil and exposure. Few evergreen rock 
shrubs are more useful for a quiet 
and graceful effect than the common 
Savin and its forms, and particularly 
that known in Nurseries as the 
Tamarix-leaved Savin (/. tamarisci- 
folia), for carpeting stony ground, 
planting on dry banks where little 
else could grow. Some of the northern 
dwarf forms of Juniper are grown 
on rock-gardens under the name of 
/. nana. 

K A L M I A (Mountain Laurel). 
Among the loveliest of evergreen shrubs 




of the northern world. The smaller 
kinds are of the highest value, and 
the large one essential for the bold 
rock-garden, being not only a first- 
rate evergreen, but the flowers are 
of great beauty, coming too at a very 
good time, between the great crowd 
of spring flowers and the coming of 
the Roses. If one had only these 
and* half a dozen other groups of 
shrubs of the northern moors and 
mountains, a very enduring and grace- 
ful rock-garden might be made from 
them alone. And that almost with- 
out trouble in the many parts of our 
islands where rocks crop out, as in 
Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. Nor do 
we want rocks, as they grow like weeds 
on the peaty moors of England. 

Kalmia angustifplia (Sheep's Laurel), 
grows about 1^ feet high, and bears in early 
June dense clusters of rosy pink flowers. 
It is a graceful, hardy, and easily grown 
shrub, excellent for the rock or drier 
parts of bog-garden. Newfoundland, 
Hudson Bay, and southward. 

K. glauca (Swamp Laurel). A dwarf 
evergreen shrub with smooth leaves 
silvery on the lower surface, with purplish 
flowers. Excellent for the rock-garden 
among the mountain bushes, and quite 
free in peat or moor soil. Newfoundland, 
Hudson Bay, and Alaska. 

K. hirsuta (Hairy Laurel). A dwarf 
evergreen shrub, distinguished from the 
other kinds by its hairy leaves, and not 
quite so hardy, being a native of Virginia, 
and Florida in Pine Barrens. 

K. latifolia (Mountain Laurel). This is 
the finest as it is the commonest in gardens, 
and should be planted wherever the soil 
is suitable. Like the Ehododendron and 
Azalea, the Kalmia is best grown in 
a moist peaty soil, or one light or sandy. 
It will not thrive in stiff or chalky soils. 
Its lovely clusters of pink wax-like"flowers 
open about the end of June, when the 
bloom of the Rhododendron and Azalea 
is on the wane, and last for a fortnight 
or longer. There are varieties of K. lati- 
folia, having in some cases larger flowers, 

and in others, flowers of a deeper colour, 
the finest being Maxima, which is superior 
in size of flower. 

The Myrtle-leaved Kalmia (K. myrti- 
folia) seems to be only a variety of K. 
latifolia, with smaller foliage. The growth 
is dwarf and compact, and the flowers 
are almost as large as those of K. latifolia. 
Canada and southwards, in sand and 
rocky woods. 

little plant, very like the dwarf Scurvy 
Grass (Cochlearid). It forms a com- 
pact tuft of foliage, and in early 
summer is a dense mass of tiny white 
blooms. It grows in any soil in an 
open position in the rock-garden, where 
it is an attractive plant in spring, and 
may be freely propagated by seeds. 

ea). For 

the greater part, these perennial 
trailers are too large for our purpose, 
if we take the narrow view of the rock- 
work with small plants only; but in 
a bolder kind of rock-garden, with its 
mountain shrubs, the rarer and more 
beautiful kinds may come in very 
well. Moreover, the freedom of the 
shrubby rock-garden allows us to 
dispense with staking, which is a great 
gain, as I think these plants never 
look so well as in their own way of 
growth. The effect is much better when 
they fall over rocks or banks. Even 
the stoutest kind, with its white and 
prettily coloured forms, is handsomer 
falling down banks than in any other 
way. But when we have to deal with 
Everlasting Peas of such rarity and 
beauty as the Greek L. sibthorpii and 
the Californian L. splendens, we have 
plants by no means so free, and which 
may well grace the rock-garden. Some 
good plants once known by other 
names are now included in Lathyrus. 
Syn., Orobus. 




Lathyrus cyaneus (Blue Bitter Vetch). 
A dwarf vetch-like plant, with large, hand- 
some, bluish flowers among masses of 
light green leaves, with two or three 
pairs of leaflets, flowering in spring, the 
plant growing little more than 6 inches 
high. I have only observed this plant 
growing on very cold stiff ground scarcely 
acceptable to coarse weeds, and there it 
was quite hardy and flowered regularly, 

ascend in a zigzag manner to about 1 foot 
in height, bearing leaves with two or three 
pairs of leaflets, and rather closely arranged 
racemes of flowers supported on a foot- 
stalk a couple of inches long. The flowers, 
though small, are beautifully variegated, 
the upper petal being a fine rose-colour 
with a network of full purplish-crimson 
veins, the points of the wings being blue. 
It is a hardy, easily-grown plant, and 

Leiophyllum buxifolium. 

so that it is probable it would do much 
better on light good soils. It comes from 
the Caucasus, and is best for warm, 
sheltered, sunny spots. It is sometimes met 
with under the name of Platystylis cyaneus, 
under which name it was figured by 
Sweet. Syn., Orobus cyaneus. 

Lathyrus variegatus (Variegated 
Vetch). A compact plant, with two firm 
and opposite keels on its wiry stems, which 

may be increased by seeds or division. 
Southern Italy and Corsica. 

Lathyrus vernus (Spring Everlasting 
Pea). From black roots spring rich healthy 
tufts of leaves, with two or three pairs of 
shining leaflets, the flower buds showing 
soon after the leaves, and eventually 
almost covering the plants with purple 
and blue flowers with red veins, the 
keel of the flower tinted with green, and 




the whole changing to blue. It is no 
fastidious alpine plant that, when carried 
to our gardens in the cultivated plains, 
sickens and dies, but a vigorous native 
of Southern and Central Europe, well 
able to make the most of our warm deep 
sandy loams, growing in almost any soil, 
and hardy everywhere. It varies a good 
deal all the better, of course the most 
marked of the known varieties or sub- 
species being ruscifolius and flaccidus. 

LEDUM (Labrador Tea). The best 
of the few species of Ledum grown in 
gardens is L. latifolium, which repre- 
sents the genus well. Its usual height 
is under 2 feet, but sometimes it 
reaches 3 feet. It is dense and com- 
pact, and has small dull green leaves 
of a rusty brown beneath. During 
the latter part of May it bears clusters 
of small white flowers, which being 
abundant are showy. It is a very 
old garden plant, and was brought 
from North America more than a 
century ago. The Canadian form of 
it (Canadense) is found in some gardens, 
but does not differ materially from 
the type. A form called Globosum is 
finer, as the flower-clusters are larger 
and more globular. L. palustre is 
commoner than L. latifolium, smaller 
in every part, and much inferior. 
It is dwarf and spreading, and its 
flowers are white. A native of both 
North America and Northern Europe. 
They thrive best in a peaty soil or 
sandy loam, and are usually in- 
cluded in a collection of so-called 
American plants, and are charming 
grouped in the bog -garden, fully 

(Sand Myrtle). A neat and pretty 
tiny shrub, forming compact bushes 
from 4 to 6 inches high, and densely 
covered with pinkish-white flowers in 
May, the buds of a delicate pink hue. 

It is suited for grouping with diminu- 
tive shrubs, such as the Partridge 
Berry and smaller Daphne, thriving in 
sandy peat. A native of sandy " Pine 
Barrens " in New Jersey, and often 
to be had in our Nurseries under the 
name of Ledum thymifolium. 


(Edelweiss). A native of high pastures 
on many parts of the great continental 
mountain ranges. The flowers are 
small, yellowish, the leaves covered 
with white down, like those of many 
mountain composite plants, but it is 
distinguished by a beautiful whorl 
of oblong leaves, springing star-like 
from beneath the closely set and in- 
conspicuous flowers, and almost 
covered with white, dense, short down. 
It is a hardy perennial, growing from 
4 to 8 inches high, and thriving in 
firm, sandy, or gritty and well-drained 
soil, in well-exposed spots in the rock- 
garden. The soil should be poor, as 
in rich soil it loses its charm, and 
often perishes through overgrowth. It 
is best to raise it from seed. 


(Alpine Feverfew}. A very dwarf 
plant, with small fleshy leaves, deeply 
cut, and hoary, and not rising more 
than half an inch above the surface. 
It bears pure white flowers more than 
an inch across, and with yellow centres, 
borne on hoary little stems, from 1 to 
3 inches long. It is a rather quaint 
and pretty plant, and well deserves 
cultivation on the rock-garden, in bare 
level places, on poor, sandy, or gravelly 
soil. Syns., Chrysanthemum alpinum 
and Pyrethrum alpinum. Alps of 
Europe. Division or seed. 

LEUCOJUM (Snowflafce). Grace- 
ful bulbous plants, the taller of which 
are easily grown plants anywhere, 




even naturalised in riverside soils ; 
one or two of the smaller ones are 
very pretty, coming out of tufts of 
low plants in the spring, particularly 
the vernal Snowflake. 

Leucojum vernum (Spring Snowflake). 
A dwarf, stout, broad-leaved plant, like a 
Galanthus, but with larger and handsomer 
flowers, and appearing about a month later 
than the Snowdrop ; fragrant, the segments 

as a continental plant, and was valued 
and grown in our gardens, when hardy 
flowers were more esteemed than they 
are at present ; but its existence as a 
true native was not known with certainty 
till recent years ago, when it was found 
in abundance, on the " Greenstone heights, 
in the neighbourhood of Britford." It is 
not by any means a common plant, and 
those who have it would do well to place 
it in positions where it is likely to thrive 

Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum). (Engraved from a photograph by Mr G. S. Symons, 
Chaddlewood, Plympton.) 

white, an inch long, and each distinctly 
marked with a green or yellowish spot 
near the point, drooping and usually pro- 
duced singly on stems from 4 to 6 inches 
high. It is more worthy of cultivation 
than the Snowdrop, and that is as high 
praise as we can give to any dwarf spring- 
flowering plant. It has long been known 

in light, rich, well-drained soil, or in 
borders, and as, after the plant has 
flowered, the leaves attain the length 
of nearly a foot, and are nearly or quite 
three-quarters of an inch across, a sheltered 
position, where they may not be torn by 
winds, will be best. It is apt to dwindle 
on some cold soils. 




LEUCOTHOE. Beautiful evergreen 
shrubs of the Heath family, most of 
them very old garden plants, and 
common in collections of American 
plants. There is a striking family 
likeness between the common kinds, 
the best-known being L. acuminata, 
which grows from Ij to 2^ feet high, 
and has slender arching stems clothed 
with long pointed leaves. In early 
summer the stems are profusely 
wreathed with tiny white bell-shaped 
flowers, extremely pretty. L. axillaris 
is similar, and so are L. Catesbcei and 
L. racemosa, all of which are known 
in gardens under the generic name 
Andromeda. They are natives of 
North America, hardy, and thrive in 
any light soil, preferring peat or leaf- 
mould. A newer and very beautiful 
species is L. Davisitv, introduced a 
few years since from California, and 
therefore neither so common nor so 
hardy as the others. It makes a 
neat little evergreen bush 2 or 3 
feet high, and has small leaves on 
slender stems, which in May are 
terminated by dense clusters of small 
white flowers in short erect spikes. 
It is one of the choicest of evergreen 
hardy shrubs, is thoroughly deserving 
of general cultivation, and thrives 
with Rhododendrons and Azaleas in 
peat soil. 

A singular and pretty plant, allied 
to the Ice plants, and forming rosettes 
of leaves, 2 to 3 inches long, on a 
thick, woody stalk. After the leaves 
attain their full growth in spring or 
early summer, beautiful flowers issue 
from the rosettes, nearly hiding the 
plant, each blossom 3 to 4 inches 
across, and consists of eight or twelve 
shaded pink petals, the centre being 
nearly white and the tips rose-colour, 

the whole having a satiny lustre. The 
flowers open only during sunshine. 
Native of the west parts of North 
America, particularly in Washington 
Territory and Oregon. Should have 
a warm position in the rock-garden, 
in dryish soil, or between stones on 
an earth-mortared wall. 

LIBERTIA Beautiful plants of 
the Iris Order, of which some are 
hardy in peaty and leafy soils. L. 
formosa is beautiful at all seasons, 
even in the depth of winter, owing to 
the colour of its foliage, which is as- 
green as the Holly ; and it bears 
spikes of flowers of snowy whiteness 
like some delicate Orchid. It is dwarf 
and compact, and has flowers twice 
as large as the other kinds. They 
lie close together on the stem, and 
remind one of the old double white 
Rocket. L. ixioides, a New Zealand 
plant, is also a handsome evergreen 
species, with narrow grassy foliage and 
small white blossoms. L. magellanica 
is also pretty when in flower. All 
of these thrive in borders of peaty 
soil, and in the rougher parts of the 
rock-garden, but they grow slowly on 
certain loamy soils, living perhaps, 
but never showing freedom and grace. 
Increased by seed or by careful divi- 
sion in spring. 

LILIUM (Lily). Most of these 
handsome plants are too large for 
the rock-garden ; a few, however, of 
the smaller ones may well come into 
it. And the idea so much urged in 
this book, that we ought in every 
case almost to associate the mountain 
shrubs with the alpine flowers, when 
carried out, gives us a chance of grow- 
ing Lilies and other choice bulbs 
among the shrubs. The shelter and 
partial shade of the shrub helps the 
bulbs in various ways, and gives us a 



good opportunity of growing these 
beautiful plants in their fine variety 
of good form and colour. As the 
manner and descriptions of Lilies are 
to be found in so many books and 
lists, there is no need to name them 

LINARIA (Toad Flax}. Annual 
and perennial plants, rather fine and 
graceful in form, some, though not 
many, pretty. Some of the species 
have not beauty enough for our 
present purpose, and a close selection 
of the best only should be made where 
the aim is beauty. 

Linaria alpina (Alpine Toadflax}. A 
true alpine plant, from the Alps and 
Pyrenees, found on moraines and debris of 
the mountains ; allied to the Ivy-leaved 
Linaria, but quite different in aspect, 
forming dense, dwarf, smooth and silvery 
tufts, covered with bluish-violet flowers, 
with two bosses of intense orange in the 
centre of the lower division of each. Its 
habit is spreading, but neat and very 
dwarf, rarely rising more than a few 
inches high. On the Alps I have seen 
it flowering profusely at 1 inch high, 
the leaves which attain a length of three- 
quarters of an inch in our gardens being 
almost rudimentary and scarcely per- 
ceptible beneath the flowers, which quite 
obscure stem and leaves, being larger 
proportionately than on the cultivated 
plant. It is usually a biennial ; but in 
favourable spots, both in a wild and 
cultivated state, becomes perennial. Its 
duration, however, is not of so much 
consequence, as it sows itself freely, and 
is one of the most charming subjects that 
we can allow to "go wild" in sandy, 
gritty, and rather moist earth, or in 
chinks of rockwork. In moist districts 
it will sometimes even establish itself in 
the gravel walks. It is readily increased 
from seed, which should be sown in cold 
frames, in early spring, or out of doors. 

L. antirrhinifolia. An elegant little 
rock plant, forming a very neat spreading 
mass about 6 inches to 8 inches high. It 
has the advantage of not spreading so 

rapidly as some of its congeners, flowering 
incessantly throughout the summer. The 
flowers are of a bright purple colour. 
The plant is of the easiest possible culture, 
and can be highly recommended for the 

Linaria crassifolia (Thick-leaved Toad- 
flax). A small and pretty, though not 
showy species, 3 to 6 inches high, flowering 
in summer ; fine blue, with a yellow throat. 
A native of Southern Spain, near the 
town of Chiva. This plant resembles L. 
origanifolia, but the living plants present 
a marked difference. The rock-garden, 
walls, ruins, borders, light, sandy soil. 
Division and seed. 

L. Cymbalaria (Ivy Toadflax). This is 
the wild Ivy-leaved Linaria, that drapes 
over so many walls so gracefully. It has a 
white variety. The plant itself would be 
here, were it not that it usually takes 
possession of old walls, but it is always 
one of the most graceful of the plants 
that adorn them, and it should be en- 
couraged. It occurs on old walls and stony 
places in many parts of Europe, and is 
wild in Britain, but probably only natura- 
lized. Any soil suits it, or dry walls with- 
out soil. It usually establishes itself. 

L. hepaticsefolia (the Hepatica-leaved 
Toadflax), from Corsica, is also a good 
alpine plant, but not so attractive as 
alpina. It is nearly always in flower, in 
summer and autumn, and masses in a rock- 
garden are good in effect. 

LINN^A BOREALIS (Twinftower). 
A fragile trailing evergreen, bearing 
delicate, fragrant, and gracefully droop- 
ing pale pink flowers. This plant is 
named after Linnaeus, with whom it 
was a favourite. A native of moist 
mossy woods, in Northern Europe, 
Asia, and America, and sometimes 
of cold bogs or rocky high places 
in Britain, occurring in fir woods 
in a few places in Scotland and 
Northern England. It loves a sandy 
peat and moist soil, and may be 
grown as a trailer, the shoots being 
allowed to fall down over the faces 



of the rocks, or in mossy rocky ground 
among bushes, on the fringes of the 
bog garden, or in some half-shady 
position, in the hardy fernery. It 
usually enjoys a somewhat shady 
position, but, if in proper soil, will 
bear the sun. Readily increased by 

LINUM (Flax). Annual and bien- 
nial plants of much delicate beauty 
of colour. Some of the dwarfer 
perennial kinds are most charming 
flowers in their various shades of blue, 
and well deserve to be grown in groups. 
The habit of " dot " planting is 
against our seeing the best effect of 
the mountain flaxes. 

Linum alpiimm (Alpine Flax). A 
dwarf and quite smooth Flax, growing only 
from 3 to 8 inches high, and bearing large 
dark-blue flowers in summer. A charming 
rock plant, native of the Alps, Pyrenees, 
and many hilly parts of Europe, thriving 
well in warm well-drained spots on rock- 
work, in a mixture of sandy loam and 
peat. There are several varieties alpicola, 
collinum, and cnjstallinum; L. austriacum 
is intimately related to it. 

L. arboreum (Evergreen Flax}. This is 
the neat, glaucous, dwarf, spreading shrub, 
with many clear large yellow flowers, an 
inch and a half across, sometimes seen in 
our gardens under the name of L. ftavum. 
Although said to be tender in the colder 
and drier parts of the country, it thrives 
well in others in the open air, and in all 
is well worthy of a place. A native of 
hilly parts of South-Eastern Europe, Asia 
Minor, and North Africa ; usually propa- 
gated by cuttings. It is sometimes grown 
as a frame and greenhouse plant, but 
should be tried everywhere in warm 
spots on dry borders, banks, or rockworks. 
It begins to bloom in early summer, often 
flowering for months at a time. 

L. campanulatum (Yellow Herbaceous 
Flax). A herbaceous plant, with yellow 
flowers in corymbs on stems from 12 to 
18 inches high, distinct from anything 
els"e in cultivation, and well worthy of 
a place in a collection of alpine plants. A 

native of the South of Europe, flowering 
in summer and flourishing freely in dry 
soil on the warm sides of banks, and 
propagated by seeds. Linum flavum is 
said to be different from this by its 
shorter sepals, and several minor 
characteristics ; but Messrs Grenier and 
Godron found these very inconstant and 
differing very much in the French plant. 
Syn., L. flavum. 

Linum narbonnense. A beautiful and 
distinct sort, bearing during the summer 
months large, light sky-blue flowers, 
with violet-blue veins. A fine plant for 
the lower flanks of the rock-garden, on 
rich light soils, forming lovely masses of 
blue, from 15 to 20 inches high. A native 
of Southern Europe, thriving in any good 

L. perenne (Perennial Flax). A plant 
found in some parts of Britain, particu- 
larly in the Eastern countries, but rare,, 
usually growing in dense tufts from 12 to 
18 inches high, with bright cobalt-blue 
flowers more than an inch in diameter, 
the stamens in some being longer than 
the styles, in others shorter, the petals 
overlapping each other at the edges. 
Mr Syme considered it probable that 
L. alpinum and L. Leonii are forms that 
may be included under L. perenne. L. 
perenne album is also an ornamental plant, 
and there is also a variety with blue 
flowers variegated with white, known in 
gardens as L. Lewisii variegatum, but this 
marking is not very conspicuous or con- 
stant. L. sibiricum and L. provinciale are 
also included under perenne. They are 
all of very easy culture in common garden 

L. monogynum (New Zealand Flax). 
A beautiful kind, with large pure white 
blossoms, blooming in summer. It grows 
about lij feet high in good light soil, and 
its neat and slender habit renders it 
particularly pleasing for the borders of 
the rock-garden or for pot-culture. It 
may readily be increased by seed or divi- 
sion ; it is hardy in the more temperate 
parts of England, but in the colder dis- 
tricts is said to require some protection. 
L. candidissimum is a finer and hardier 
variety. Both are natives of New 



Linum salsoloides (Heath Flax). A 
hardy, dwarf, half -shrubby species, some- 
what like a dwarf Heath, with the stem 
twisted at the base, from 3 to 6 inches high, 
blooming in June and July ; white with 
a purple centre. A native of the South 
of Europe, this plant is well adapted for 
the rock-garden, in well-drained sandy 

L. viscosum (Viscid Flax). Half- 
shrubby, slightly branching downy stems ; 
about 1 foot high. Flowering in summer ; 
lilac, with deeper veins, nearly 1 inch 
across. The rock-garden, in moist sandy 
loam. Seed and division. Pyrenees. 

LIPPIA (Fog Fruit}. L. nodifiora 
is a dwarf perennial creeper of the 
Verbena order, bearing in summer 
heads of pretty pink blooms. It 
grows in any situation or soil, and is 
a good plant for quickly covering bare 
spaces in the rock-garden. Division. 
Southern United States, and California. 

Dwarf, half-shrubby, very beautiful 
plants of the Forget me-not order, but 
unhappily not hardy in our country, 
except in the best conditions of cul- 
ture. The warmest part of the rock- 
garden is the best for them. But 
they come from the burning rocks 
and sands of Spain and North Africa, 
and though they promise much, few 
survive our hard winters. 

Lithospermum Petrseum (Rock Grom- 
well). A neat dwarf shrub, in colour some- 
what like a small Lavender bush. Late in 
May or early in June all the little grey 
shoots of the dwarf bush begin to show 
small, oblong, purplish heads, and early in 
July the plant is in full blossom, the flowers 
of a fine violet blue, with protruded 
anthers of a deep orange red, the buds of 
a reddish-lilac. The flowers are barely 
more than a quarter of an inch long, and 
tubular, not at all open, but as every shoot 
is crested by a densely-packed head of 
flowers, the effect is pretty and distinct. 
The best position for this plant is some- 
where on a level with the eye, on a well- 

drained, deep, but rather dryish sandy soil 
on the sunny side. Dalmatia and Southern 
Europe ; cuttings, or seeds, if they can be 

Lithospermum Prostratum (Gentian- 
blue Gromwell). A charming little ever- 
green spreading plant, having lovely blue 
flowers, with faint reddish- violet stripes, 
about half an inch across, in profusion where 
it is well grown. A native of Spain and 
the South of France, easily propagated by 
cuttings, and valuable as a rock-plant 
from its prostrate habit and the fine 
colour of its flowers a blue scarcely sur- 
passed by that of the Gentians. It may 
be planted so as to let its prostrate shoots 
fall down the sunny face of a rocky nook, 
or allowed to spread into flat tufts on level 
spots. In cold or wet soil it should be 
raised on banks, and planted in sandy 

L. purpureo-cceruleum, a British plant, 
L. Gastoni and L. canescens are also worthy 
of culture in large collections, but the 
tender nature of most of the kinds limits 
their use in our country. 

bulbous Liliaceous plant, frequently 
seen as soon as the snow melts, in 
flower by the alpine pathways. It is 
most suitable for botanical collections. 


In a wild state on the Alps, or on 
mountain moors, this is a wiry trailing 
shrub, growing quite close to the 
ground, the plants occasionally form- 
ing a rather dense tuft, bearing small 
reddish flowers in spring, when the 
snow melts. It is very rarely seen 
in a thriving state under cultivation, 
and most of the plants transferred 
from the mountains to gardens usually 
perish. This is sometimes owing to 
the finest plants being selected instead 
of the younger ones. I never saw it 
in such perfect health in a garden as 
in that of the late Mr Borrer, in 
Sussex, where it flourished in cm- 




pact masses thrice its usual size, in 
deep sandy peat. Its true garden 
home is the rock-garden, and it will 
seem well worthy of a place to most 
lovers of rare British plants. On the 
high Alps tiny plants of it are charm- 
ing. Syn., Azalea procumbens. 

LONICERA (Honeysuckle). Given 
the idea of the shrubby rock-garden, 
we have here again a fine group 
of plants usually well-trained, grown 
and often over-pruned on walls : are 
themselves rock-shrubs, and will associ- 
ate and mingle very well with many 
shrubs that we may use in or near 
the rock-garden. There are various 
kinds worth growing, a description 
of which will be found in "The 
English Flower-Garden," and other 

One can hardly go wrong with the 
Honeysuckle as to kind; the Euro- 
pean Honeysuckle, with its beautiful 
forms, the Japanese, the Chinese (in- 
cluding the Winter Honeysuckle), the 
American, and the forms we call the 
Dutch, I can imagine nothing fairer 
than these grown in their natural 
forms on rocky banks or among shrubs 
near the rock-garden. 


small half-hardy evergreen from Chili. 
In the mildest localities, though even 
in these, it does not thrive so well as 
in a cool house. It is worthy of a 
trial in a cool bed of peat, on the 
north side of the rock-garden, among 
the larger alpine shrubs. 

LYCHNIS (Campion). Theseshowy 
perennials are usually too tall for the 
rock-garden, but a few of the moun- 
tain kinds are pretty, and quite fitting 
for the rock-garden. 

Lychnis Alpina (Alpine .). In a wild 
state, seldom rising more than a few inches 

high. " In Britain," says Mr Bentham, " it 
is only known on the summit of Little 
Kilraiinock, a mountain in Forfarshire," 
but in 1886, under the safe guidance of 
the late Mr James Backhouse, I had the 
pleasure of seeing it abundantly in Cum- 
berland in very lonely and high mountain 
gorges. We found it on the face of a dry 
crumbling crag, quite 500 feet long, and 
of great height, and generally in such 

ritions that extermination is impossible, 
some places where the rocks overhung, 
it was in full health, where a drop of rain 
could scarcely ever fall upon it ; but many 
plants which had sprung from seeds fallen 
from these cliffs were growing freely in 
moist shattered rock. In cultivation it is 
a pretty, if not a brilliant, plant, and may 
be grown without difficulty in rather moist 
sandy soil. 

Lychnis Lagascae (Rosy L.).A lovely 
dwarf alpine plant, with a profusion of 
bright, rose-coloured flowers, with white 
centres when young, each about three- 
quarters of an inch across, and quite obscur- 
ing the small and slightly glaucous leaves. 
In consequence of its exceeding brilliancy 
of colour, and slightly spreading, though 
firm, habit, it is well suited for fissures 
on the exposed faces of rocks, the colour 
telling a long way off, while it is also a 
gem for association with the smallest 
alpine flowers. It is a native of the sub- 
alpine region of the North- Western 
Pyrenees, and was introduced some years 
ago by the late Mr J. C. Niven, of the 
Hull Botanic Garden, in whose collection 
I first had the pleasure of seeing it grown. 
It is distinct from, and more beautiful 
than, any other alpine or dwarf Lychnis. 
It flowers in early summer, and is most 
readily increased by seeds. Syn., Petro- 
coptis LagasccK. 

L. Viscaria (German Catchfly).A. 
British plant, found chiefly in Wales and 
about Edinburgh, but widely distributed 
in Europe and Asia. It has long grass- 
like leaves, and very showy panicles of 
rosy-red flowers, on stems from 10 to 
nearly 18 inches high in June. The 
variety called splendens is the most worthy 
of garden cultivation, being of a brighter 
colour. L. v. alba is a white variety, also 
worthy of a place ; and L. v. flore pleno, 




the double Catchfly, is a fine variety, with 
more rocket-like blooms. They are excel- 
lent plants for the rougher parts of rock- 
work, and as border-plants on dry soils. 
Any of the kinds are worthy of being 

naturalised on dryish slopes, or open 
banks, on which they seem to form the 
largest, healthiest, and most enduring 
tufts. Easily propagated by seed or 




Lychnis Haayeana, with shaggy stems 
and bracts, and flowers of a splendid scarlet ; 
L. flos-Jovis, a downy plant, with rich 
purplish flowers ; L. Coronaria, the hand- 
some Rose Campion ; L. fulgens, with 
vermilion-coloured flowers, from Siberia ; 
and the double varieties of L. diurna and 
vespertina, although, for the most part, 
handsome plants, are too large for associa- 
tion with rock-plants. 


(G-round Pine). A club-moss, in habit 
like a Liliputian Pine-tree, and of all 
its family by far the most worthy of 
a place in the rock-garden. The little 
stems, ascending to a height of 6 to 
9 inches, from a creeping root, are 
much branched, and clothed with small 
bright, shining green leaves ; fruit- 
cones yellow, long, cylindrical, and, 
like the stems, erect. A native of 
moist woods in North America, and 
high mountains of the Southern 
United States. I have never seen 
this plant perfectly grown except in 
Mr Peek's garden, at Wimbledon, 
where it flourishes as freely as in its 
native woods, in a bed of deep sandy 
peat, fully exposed to the sun. Few 
plants are more worthy of being 
established in a deep bed of moist 
peat in some part of the rock-garden, 
where its distinct habit will prove 
attractive at all seasons. It is 
difficult to increase, and as yet ex- 
ceedingly rare in this country. In 
attempting its culture, the chief point 
is the selection of sound well-rooted 
plants to begin with ; small specimens 
may retain their verdure after the 
root has perished, and thus often de- 
ceive. Some of our native Club-Mosses 
are worthy of a place in the marsh- 


(Creeping Jenny}. Were this native 
a new plant, and not one found 

mantling over the ditch-side, we 
should probably think it worth having, 
with its long- drooping, flower- laden 
shoots, whether on points of moist 
rock or sloping banks. Creepers and 
trailers we have in abundance, but 
few which flower so profusely as this, 
growing in any soil. In moist and 
deep soil, the shoots will attain a 
length of nearly 3 feet, flowering the 
whole of their extent. Rarely or 
never seeds, but easily increased by 
division. Flowering in early summer, 
and often throughout the season, 
especially in the case of young plants. 
A native of England, but not of 
Ireland or Scotland. 

Lysimachia nemorum ( Yellow Pimper- 
nel) is also a slender creeping plant, useful 
in or near the rock-garden. It is a native 
of all our counties. The other kinds 
known in gardens are too large for the 


(Twin-leaved Lily of the Valley). A 
dwarf perennial, allied to the Lily of 
the Valley, and a native of our own 
country. Its habit and relationship 
make it interesting, and it is easily 
grown in shady or half-shady spots, 
and under or near Hollies or other 
bushes. Syn., Convallara bifolia. 

MALVASTRUM (Rock mallow). 
These are in flower like Mallows, but 
not quite hardy, being natives of the 
warmer parts of America. M. Mun- 
roanum is a dwarf plant with rather 
small orange-red flowers, and M. lateri- 
tium, a dwarf native of Buenos Ayres, 
has brick-red flowers. Sometimes in 
mild districts these plants thrive in 
the rock-garden or well-drained borders, 
in light warm soil. 

distinct little New Zealander, creeping 
underground, so as rapidly to form 




wide and dense tufts, yet rarely reach- 
ing more than an inch in height. The 
flowers are on very short steins, so 
as barely to show above the leaves, 
are pale violet, with white centres ; 
the leaves with a tendency to lie 
flat on the surface of the soil. It 
thrives in pots, cold frames, or in the 
open air, and is best placed in firm 
open, bare v spots, in free sandy soil 
in warm positions. It is not showy 
but is an interesting plant, easily in- 
creased by division, flowering in early 

MECONOPSIS (Satin Poppy}. 
These are perennials and biennials of 
the Poppy family, of exquisite beauty 
of colour and, usually, stately form. 
Well grown, they are almost taller 
than the plants that we usually as- 
sociate with the rock-garden ; but 
they are true mountaineers, and can 
hardly fail to give distinction to a 
cool ledge. They mostly come from 
the Himalayas, or Manchuria, or 
China, while a yellow one is a native 
of Britain, and a pretty plant too, 
often sowing itself in all sorts of 
places, and looking well everywhere, 
though it shows no trace of the 
startling dignity and fine charm of 
the Indian kinds, which are almost 
as distinct in leaf as in flower. They 
are all, we believe, quite hardy, but 
require attention on account of their 
biennial duration. As they have to 
be raised annually from seed, the 
young seedlings require great care in 
handling. They are also difficult to 
please as regards position, and strong- 
vigorous plants are almost impos- 
sible, unless in rich, deep, light soil 
and in the south of England a partially 
shady situation, where they can have 
abundance of moisture without its 
becoming stagnant. The better way 

in handling seedlings is to grow them 
in pots during the first winter, plant- 
ing out early in spring, when the 
stronger plants may be expected to 
show flower in July. The smaller 
ones will go on growing, forming 
large rosettes which will make robust 
specimens the following summer. 
Except under the most favourable 
conditions, a slight protection will 
be required in wet autumns and 
winters for the rarer kinds, this being* 
best effected by squares of glass raised 
a few inches above the crowns. All 
the species usually flower the second 
year, and the grower's aim should be 
to get as much vigour into them in 
that time as possible. 

Meconopsis aculeata is usually a small 
plant in gardens, but well grown, forming 
bold pyramids of purple flowers. It is a 
singularly beautiful plant. The leaves are 
cut up. It is a biennial also, and a native 
of the Himalayas. 

M. cambrica (Welsh Poppy}. Fpr the 
rock-garden, or for the flower bed, the 
Welsh Poppy is one of the most useful. 
On old crumbling walls wherever it can 
get hold, its ample Fern-like foliage 
and abundance of orange-yellow blossoms 
are attractive, and it will grow almost 
anywhere. Where it can be allowed space 
in out-of-the-way corners, stony ground, 
or even the edges of gravel paths, it flowers 
freely. Seed. 

M. Nepalensis (Nepal Satin Poppy). 
The commonest Indian species found in 
gardens, is smaller than M. Wallichi, and 
a pretty fine-foliaged plant. The soft 
yellow-green leaves form dense rosettes, 
which are said in a young state to close 
up or fold over as a protection to the 
tender crowns. The flower-stems vary 
from 3 feet to 5 feet high, bearing nodding 
blossoms 2 inches to 3 inches in diameter, 
and of a soft yellow. It is also biennial, 
requiring a rich deep soil and partial 
shade. Nepaul. 

M. Wallichi (Wallich's Satin Poppy) is 
the finest of the Poppy- worts in cultiva- 
tion, and a handsome biennial, remarkable 




inasmuch as it is one of the few, if not 
the only, truly blue-flowered Poppy in 
cultivation at the present time. It grows 
from 4 feet to 7 feet in height, forming 
a pyramid, extremely beautiful in full 
flower, the drooping Poppy blooms of a 
fine pale blue colour ana fine in form. 
The flowers first open at the top or ends 
of the branches, continuing until those 
nearest the main stem have opened. It 

Meconopsis aculeata. 

forms a rosette of lame leaves, 12 inches 
to 18 inches long, deeply cut, and so 
brittle that, although well able to stand 
our winters, they are apt to be damaged 
by snowfalls. The plants like a moist 
situation in a deep peaty soil, and partially 
shaded from the mid-day sun. It is 
biennial, and to keep up a stock, seed 
should be sown annually, and this as soon 
as gathered. The varieties fusco-purpurea 

and purpurea are not so good in colour as 
the fine blue of the old form. 

Meconopsis simplicifolia has a tuft 
of lance -shaped leaves, 3 to 5 inches 
long, slightly toothed, and covered with 
a short, dense, brownish pubescence. 
The unbranched flower - stalk is about 
1 foot high, and bears at its apex a single 
violet-purple blossom, 2 to 3 inches in 



(Balm M.). A distinct-looking plant 
of the Salvia order, with slightly hairy 
ovate leaves, about 2 inches long, 
clothing the stem to its apex, and 
from one to three flowers arranged in 
the axils of the opposite leaves. The 
flowers are usually nearly or quite an 
inch and a half long, and opening at 
the mouth to a little more than an 
inch deep. The . lower lip is the 
largest, and is usually stained with 
a deep purplish rose, except a narrow 
margin, which is a creamy white. The 
handsome lip reminds one of the 
flowers of some of our handsome 
exotic Orchids rather than those of 
a labiate plant. It varies a good 
deal in colour; sometimes the lip 
has not the handsome stain above 
alluded to, and sometimes the whole 
flower is of a reddish-purple hue. 
M. grandiflora of Smith is a variety 
differing in colour. The plant is dis- 
tinct, and worthy of a place. It 
naturally inhabits woods, and even 
when one finds it on the lower flanks 
of some great alp, it is seen nestling 
among the shrubs and low hazel-trees. 
Woody spots near the rock-garden 
would suit it, and it grows readily 
among shrubs. Found in a few 
localities in Southern England, and 
widely over Europe and Asia. Seed 
or division, flowering in May about 





(Buckbeam). A beautiful British 
aquatic herb, with trifoliate leaves, 
flowering in early summer; corolla 
white inside, tinged with red outside, 
beautifully bearded. Common in 
Europe and North America, and at 
home by margins of lakes, ponds, and 
streams, or in the bog garden. 

MENZIESIA. Dwarf shrubs and 
alpine, admirably suited for rock- 
gardens, or wherever there is a moist 
peat soil. They are all of compact 
growth, and pretty in flower. 

Menziesia caerulea is a tiny alpine 
shrub, native of Scotch mountains, and of 
northern European mountains. A pretty 
bush for the rock-garden or for choice 
beds of dwarf plants, 4 to 6 inches high, 
with pinkish-lilac flowers, flowering rather 
late in summer and in autumn. Europe. 

M. empetriformis. A tiny shrub, neat 
in habit and of much beauty, with rosy- 
purple bells in clusters on a dwarf heath- 
like bush, seldom more than 6 inches 
high. This plant is one of the best for 
the rock-garden, thriving in a rather 
moist sandy peat soil. It is cultivated 
with most success in Nurseries in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh. It flowers 
in summer, and is sometimes known as 
Phyllodoce empetriformis. America. 

See also Erica for the plant known in 
Nurseries as M. polifolia. 


A bulbous plant, very like Bulbo- 
codium vernum, but flowering in 
autumn. The flowers are large and 
handsome, and of a pale pinkish-lilac. 
Suitable for the rock-garden and bulb- 
garden, till plentiful enough to be 
used in borders. Increased by separa- 
tion of the new bulbs and by seed. 
S. Europe. 

MERTENSIA (Smooth Lungwort). 
Graceful plants of the Borage order, 
of much beauty of colour. One, vir- 

ginica, grown in leafy and peaty soil 
in a cool place, is one of the most 
graceful of hardy spring flowering 

Mertensia alpina is a pretty alpine 
kind, and should only be associated with 
the choicest plants. The leaves are bluish- 
green ; the stem from 6 inches to 10 inches 
high, and has from one to three terminal 
drooping clusters of light blue flowers in 
spring or early summer. 

M. dahurica, although of a very slender 
habit, and liable to be broken by high 
winds, is perfectly hardy. It grows from 
6 inches to 12 inches high, with erect 
branching stems, and flowers in June, 
bright azure-blue, in panicles. It is a 
very pretty plant for the rock-garden, 
where it should be planted in a sheltered 
nook in a mixture of peat and loam. It 
is easily propagated by division or seed. 
Syn., pulmonaria dahurica. 

M. maritima (Oyster Plant). A beauti- 
ful native plant, and though usually found 
growing in sea-sand, it is amenable to 
garden culture. Given a light sandy 
soil of good depth, and a sunny position 
where its long and branching succulent 
flower-stems may spread themselves out, 
carrying a long succession of turquoise- 
blue flowers, it is a plant that we may 
expect to see appearing with renewed 
vigour year after year. It is much loved 
of slugs, and is best on an open part of the 

M. oblongifolia is another diminutive 
species, with deep green, fleshy leaves. 
The stems are 6 inches to 9 inches high, 
and bear handsome clustered heads of 
brilliant blue flowers. 

M. sibirica. The peculiar value of this 
species is that it has the beauty of colour 
and grace of habit of the old M. 
virginica, and at the same time grows and 
flowers for a long period in ordinary 
garden soil. The flowers are small and 
bell-shaped, and in loose drooping clusters 
that terminate in graceful arching stems. 
The colour varies from a delicate pale 
purple-blue to .a rosy pink in the young 
flowers. It is a hardy perennial, and may 
be propagated by division. 

M. virginica (Virginia Cowslip). A 




lovely perennial, distinguished from its 
allies by the smoothness of all its parts, 
and by its large leaves, the lower ones 
being 4 to 6 inches long. The flowering 
stems are from 10 to 18 inches, suspending 
blooms of a beautiful purple blue, trumpet- 
shaped, and about an inch long, from the 
beginning of April to May or early June, 
and loves a soil cool and light, and a 
half -shady position. This fine plant often 
fails to thrive in stiff soils. It is a 
native of marshy meadows and by streams 
from Canada to New Jersey, and also 
southward and westward, so there can be 
no doubt of its hardiness, but the mis- 
take is often made of planting it in dry 
borders, though in parts of our islands, 
where the rainfall is copious, it may 
succeed in that way. In the drier parts 
of our islands, the bog-garden is the place 
for it. 

MIMULUS (Monkey Flower). Of 

this numerous genus few of the species 
after the common Musk have come 
into cultivation to stay. The yellow 
(M. luted) is naturalised, and a pretty 
plant for the marsh garden. There are 
one or two brilliant forms of the copper 
Mimulus which succeed well in like 
positions, but most of the introduced 
species are too coarse and short-lived 
in bloom for the rock-garden : the 
common Musk, M. moschatus, is pretty 
in moist corners. 

Mimulus radicans. A very pretty 
and interesting species from the shady 
ravines of New Zealand. It forms a dense 
creeping mass of dark green obovate obtuse 
slightly hairy foliage, stems creeping, with 
short leafy branches, and flowering freely 
about the end of May ; the flowers are 
white with a very conspicuous violet 
blotch, the upper lips small and divided, 
the lower much larger and three-lobed. 
It is of the easiest cultivation, growing in 
mud or on old pieces of wood, so long as 
it is kept damp. When it is protected by 
taller growing plants, which retain their 
foliage during winter, it is perfectly hardy, 
but when fully exposed to a severe winter 
it frequently goes off. 

Partridge Berry). One of the pretty 
woodland plants that accompany the 
May Flower (Epigcea), the tree Lyeo- 
podium, and the Rattlesnake Plantain 
(Goody era), in the Pine woods of 
North America. It is a trailing little 
evergreen, with roundish shining 
leaves, the flowers white, sometimes 
tinged with purple, followed by scarlet 
berries in autumn. I saw it in Long 
Island, running about in the Moss, 
beneath Pine trees, and it occurred to 
me at the time that it would be a 
pretty addition to shady parts of our 
rock-gardens, in which it would thrive 
under the same conditions as the 
Pyrolas, and the Linncea. 

anium-like M.). A hardy, tuberous- 
rooted, trailing Malvaceous plant, 4 
or 5 inches high, flowering late in 
summer; rich rosy-purple, marked 
with a dark line in the centre, soli- 
tary, 1 inch or more across, on long 
and slender flower - stalks. Easily 
grown in well - drained sandy soil. 

M.). A very dwarf evergreen herb, 
2 or 3 inches high, with prostrate, 
thread-like stems, clothed with very 
narrow leaves, like those of an 
Arenaria. Flowering in early summer, 
white, small, solitary. A native of 
Europe, on the margins of woods, in 
humid parts of mountains. The rock- 
garden and borders, in fine, very sandy 
loam. Division and seed. 

hardy alpine, and one of the most 
charming re-introductions of recent 
years. It was first flowered by Mrs 
Marryat in April, 1834, and is figured 
in Sweet's "British Flower Garden," 




second series, tab. 190. The flowers, 
as large as a shilling, and of a bright 
yellow, come singly on short stalks, 
rising very little above the tufted 
glossy foliage in April and May. It 
seems to do best in a light gritty soil, 
and is of easy culture on the rock- 
garden. It buries its seed-pods in the 
soil, like some of the Violas. 

MUHLENBECKIA. Graceful free- 
growing evergreen trailers, useful as 
coverings for rocks or stumps ; natives 
of New Zealand. The best known, 
M. complexa, is a rapid grower, with 
long wiry and entangled branches, 
small leaves, and white waxy flowers 
inconspicuous. M. adpressa is larger, 
and has heart-shaped leaves, and long 
racemes of whitish flowers. M. varia 
is a small kind, with fiddle-shaped 
leaves, and is very distinct from either 
of the above, it being suited for the 
rock-garden proper, whereas the larger 
kind should only be used among shrubs 
or to clothe bold rocks. 

MUSCARI (Grape Hyacinth). Very 
pretty bulbous flowers, distinct and 
good in colour and form. They come 
early in the spring, and are very 
welcome then. Most of the kinds 
are pretty, the more so, if in associa- 
tion with Narcissus and the flowers 
of different colours that come about 
the same time. They are plants 
mainly of the East, and, though not 
difficult about soil, are much happier, 
and increase more freely in open warm 
soils. Only the prettiest kinds are 
fitted for, and in need of the advan- 
tage of the rock-garden. Among the 
shrubs, and associated with the dwarf 
Narcissi, they come in well. 

Among these plants we have more 
names than real distinctions, but some 
few are very beautiful, such as M. 

contemn, which tells well in groups on 
the rock-garden. Still, they do not 
tempt us to grow numbers of them, 
as we get all the beauty of the 
family from a few kinds. 

MUTISIA. Remarkable and beau- 
tiful South American plants, some 
almost hardy in the milder parts of 
our islands. In winter the bush- 
clad rock-garden offers a good place 
for them. Some few cultivators have 
been successful with M. decurrens; 
once or twice M. ilicifolia has been 
grown and flowered very well. M. 
Clematis is the least delicate. 

Mutisia ilicifolia. A very distinct and 
beautiful plant, is a native of Chili, where 
it grows over bushes, with thin wiry steins. 
Every part is covered with a cobweb-like 
tomentum. The leaves are about 2 inches 
long, toothed, the. texture leathery, and the 
mid-rib growing beyond the blade, and 
forming a strong twining tendril. The 
flowers are 3 inches across, with from eight 
to twelve ray florets coloured pale pink, or 
sometimes white with pink tips ; the disc 
is lemon-yellow. 

M. decurrens. The most beautiful of 
the three garden Mutisias. Mr Colemaii 
has grown it well amongst Rhododendrons 
at Eastnor Castle ; Mr Gumbleton, Mr 
Hooke, Mr Ellacombe, and Kew have also 
had it in good condition. Most culti- 
vators kill this species by planting it in 
a hot, sunny place, where it gets baked, 
and soon sickens. It wants a moist, cool 
soil, a sunny, airy position, and a few 
slender Pea sticks to clamber upon. The 
flowers of this are over 4 inches across, 
a fine orange with a yellow disc. 

M. Clematis. The first coloured pic- 
ture of this species ever published in any 
English work was the plate in the Garden, 
27th July 1883. It is a tall herbaceous 
climber, 10 to 20 feet high, with leaves 
ending in branched tendrils. The plant 
grows freely, does not die off suddenly 
like the others, and when properly treated 
it flowers freely. It is probable that this 
species would thrive out-of-doors in Devon, 
South Wales, and South Ireland. It 




grows as fast as Cobcea scandens, and is 
said to be propagated in the same way, 
viz., by means of cuttings of the young 
growth. A native of Peru, and Ecuador, 
at elevations of from 6,000 to 11,000 feet. 

arctic Forget-me-not). A noble per- 
ennial, with very handsome flowers 
like a Forget-me-not. A native of 
the Chatham Islands in the Pacific, 
and frequenting there damp sandy 
shores, it is, for the most part, diffi- 
cult to grow in our country, but Mrs 
Rogers at Burncoose, and various 
others, have succeeded. The neigh- 
bourhood of the sea almost essential, 
though by the use of frames and care 
the plant can be grown elsewhere, but 
I have never seen it well done except 
in Cornwall. It has a thick root-stock, 
from which arise the large heart-shaped, 
shining green leaves. The flowers are 
borne on an erect stem 1 J feet high ; 
it is leafy all the way up, and is termi- 
nated by a loose corymb of flowers, in 
colour exactly like Forget-me-not, but 
the shade of blue varies. It has been 
grown in cool houses with some suc- 
cess, but the thing to do, if one can, 
is to establish it on a sandy moist 
part of the rock-garden, anywhere 
within the influence of the sea, using 
also, if one may, sand from the beach. 

Mrs Roger's plants were raised from 
seed, and grown in a south border, 
sea-sand piled up around them. 

MYOSOTIS (Forget-me-not). Per- 
ennial and biennial plants ; some true 
alpines among them, for the most part 
of easy culture, and precious for their 
associations as well as beauty. 

If the Forget-me-nots are in moist 
soil, not too heavy, they not only 
do not need shade, but are better in 
the open, the plants sturdier and more 
free flowering, but the wood and water 

Forget-me-nots will thrive in partial 

Myosotis Alpestris (Alpine Forget-me- 
not). A British alpine plant, found in one 
or two places in Scotland and Northern 
England, and of fine colour and beauty. 
It forms close tufts of dark-green hairy 
leaves, healthy plants rising to a height of 
only about 2 inches, and in April a few 
flowers of a beautiful blue, with a very 
small yellowish eye, begin to appear 
among " the leaves, and as the weather 
gets warmer, the little flower-stems gradu- 
ally rise, and soon the plants become 
masses of blue, remaining so all through 
the early summer. Fortunately, it is 
very easily raised, and comes quite true 
from seed. It loves to be pinched in 
between lumps of millstone grit, and is 
apt to perish in winter if made to grow 
too grossly. It is quite distinct from, and 
much finer than, the dwarf mountain 
form of the Wood Forget-me-not, often 
met with on the Alps, the leaves always 
being in very dense tufts close to the 
earth, while the smallest specimens of 
M. sylvatica seen on the mountains do 
not branch below the surface, but are 
rather slender and erect in habit. It is 
also a true perennial, while the Wood 
Forget-me-not usually perishes after 
blooming. The garden home of the 
Alpine Forget-me-not is on the most 
select spots in the rock-garden where 
it grows best, perhaps, on ledges with a 
northern aspect, though it thrives per- 
fectly in open sunny spots ; the soil to 
be moist throughout the warm season 
Syn., M. rupicola. 

M. Azorica (Azorean Forget-me-not). 
This has flowers of an indigo-blue, and 
rich purple when they first open. It was 
first brought home by Mr H. C. Watson, 
author of the "Cybele Britannica," who 
found it near cascades and on wet rocks, 
with a north-eastern aspect, in the Westerly 
Azores. It is a little tender, but so 
beautiful and distinct from our European 
blue and yellow-eyed Forget-me-nots that 
it is worthy of being annually raised, in 
case old plants should perish during 
winter, and it is easily increased by seed. 
It is best raised in autumn, and kept 
through the winter in dry frames, pits 




or a greenhouse, or in very early spring 
in a gentle heat, and planted out about 
the beginning of May in a somewhat 
shaded or sheltered position, in light but 
deep and moist soil, in which it will form 
spreading tufts. 

Myosotis Dissitiflora (Early Forget-me- 
not). This bears some resemblance to the 
Wood Forget-me-not ; but is much earlier 
in flower, blooming in January and Feb- 
ruary, and lasting till early summer. Early 
in the season, and in poor ground, it some- 
times opens with pink flowers ; but where 
the plants are healthy and the ground 
good, it soon expands into tufts of the 
loveliest sky-blue. In dry ground it is 
apt to go off with the droughts of spring 
or early summer ; but when placed in 
some moist cranny, it continues in flower 
for a long time, and accompanies the Wood 
Forget-me-not in its beauty, though it 
begins to show much earlier. For this 
treasure to our gardens we are indebted 
to the late Mr J. Atkins, of Painswick, 
who found it on the Alps near the Vogel- 
berg, and grew it for several years in his 
garden, before it was in cultivation else- 
where. From him I obtained it, and 
soon afterwards it passed into general 
cultivation, at first under the name of 
M. montana. It is quite easily grown 
in any cool moist soil, and very easy to 
increase, by pulling the tufts in pieces. 
M. Palustris (Water Forget-me-not). 
This may be grown easily anywhere by 
the side of a stream, or pond, or moist 
place, by merely pricking in bits of the 
shoots, and perhaps this is the best way 
in most places, particularly where the 
ordinary soil is dry. But in many district s 
the climate and soil are congenial, and in 
such it is often desirable to have a group 
or two of a plant so great a favourite with 
all. I have never seen the flowers so large 
as among Rhododendrons growing in beds 
of moist peat soil. It thrives, however, 
in ordinary soil in many gardens, and 
grows as far north as the Arctic Circle, 
and is a native of North America as well 
as of Europe and Asia. It is essential for 
the water-side, be it streamlet or pool. 

M. Sylvatica (Wood Forget-me-not). 
A native of woods, mountain pastures, 
in the north of Europe and Asia, and in 

the great central chain from the Pyrenees 
to the Caucasus, and also a British plant, 
though rare, limited to Scotland and the 
North of England. In a wild state it is 
said to be perennial, but in gardens usu- 
ally proves a biennial, and should be 
sown every year in early summer. It is 
a very frequent plant on alpine pastures, 
always in a more compact form than in 

Myosotis caespitpsa. A variety of this, 
called fiechsteineri, is a dense and minute 
creeper from the Lake of Geneva. Useful 
for moist ledges, where it makes matted 
tufts of pale green herbage, and in early 
summer bearing little racemes of turquoise- 
blue flowers, barely 2 inches from the 
ground. It is one of the best carpet plants 
for bulbous things in the rock-garden, and 
quite a thing to be proud of. As its roots 
get somewhat bare, top-dressings of loam 
and leaf-mould mixed with a little sand 
should be applied. 

MYRICA (Sweet Gale). 
shrubs worthy of a place where the 
marsh-garden is carried out, or where 
there are watery or marshy spots near 
our rocks. Our native Sweet Gale 
(M. Gale) should be wherever sweet- 
smelling plants are cared for. It is 
a wiry bush 2 or 3 feet high, having 
fragrant leaves. In a moist spot, 
such as a bog, it spreads by under- 
ground shoots and makes a large 
mass. The North American, M. 
cerifera (Wax Myrtle or Baybeny), 
M. Pe7insylvanica ) and M. Californica, 
are less common. The last is a good 
evergreen of dense growth, with fra- 
grant leaves, that keep green through 
the winter. It is a vigorous plant, 
especially in light soils, and is quite 
hardy. The Wax Myrtle is met with 
in old gardens, where it was planted 
for its spicy foliage. I find the Gales 
free and vigorous in stiff poor soils, 
where few things grow well. 

NARCISSUS (Daffodil). Although 
most of these handsome plants are 




independent of the rock-garden, and 
its advantages, and grow freely in 
the coldest soils, one of the most 
beautiful things we can do is to keep 
the dwarfest and choicest of them 
for growing through mossy dwarf 
plants on the rock-garden, and also 
in the grassy places near and among 
the groups of rock shrubs. I have 
never seen anything more beautiful 
in nature or in gardens than grassy 
banks planted with the smaller and 
rarer Narcissi in the gardens at "Warley 
Place. The effect is all the more 
precious, coming so early in the spring. 
Among the smaller Narcissi, the little 
N. minimus, with its flowers bent into 
the Moss or short turf, is charming 
for the rock-garden, as are all the 
smaller wild kinds, and any choice, 
new variety may also find a home 
there. For names and descriptions of 
the kinds, see the "English Flower 


(Bog Asphodel}. A small native plant, 
in growth somewhat like an Iris, with 
a spike of small yellow flowers. It is 
an interesting plant for the marsh- 
garden, and is of easy culture. 


Duckweed). The flowers of this 
diminutive plant are inconspicuous, 
but when in fruit it is best compared 
to a small Duckweed growing on firm 
earth, and bearing numbers of little 
oranges ! They not only occur on the 
surface of the tufts, but by pushing 
the fingers between the small dense 
leaves, the bright berries are found in 
profusion hidden among them. It is 
(juite distinct, deserves a place for the 
pretty fruit, and should be associated 
with the dwarfest plants in firm and 
moist soil. New Zealand and the 
Andes of S. America. Division. 


(Water N.).Of quite a different 
type to the other members of its family 
seen in our gardens, the stems and 
foliage of this trail along the ground, 
while from amongst them spring erect 
open, cup-like flowers of a creamy- 
white tint, just above the foliage. 
Sometimes the blossoms are faintly 
tinged with rose, are usually nearly 2 
inches across, with yellow centres, and 
continue blooming during the summer 
and autumn months. It is said to 
abound by the side of the Plate River, 
but only within high-tide mark, its 
flowers rising so high among the very 
dwarf grass that the plant is discerned 
from a great distance. Rooting much 
at the base, it is easily increased by 

NYMPH^EA (Water Lily).- 
Wherever water is associated with the 
rock-garden (I have shown before it 
is not often a natural condition), the 
lovely new Water Lilies may lend 
great interest, and not a few give fine 
colour. As they are described in so 
many books and catalogues, there is 
no need to enumerate them here. As 
to culture, however, a word may be 
said. They are usually starved in 
pots and baskets. The right way is 
to put them in the soil of ponds or 
streams, or, failing this, in the case of 
artificially made pools, use plenty of 
loamy soil in the bottom (not less 
than a foot), and protect from the 
attentions of water-rats and water-hens, 
if these are about. Otherwise, few 
flowers will be seen. 

(ENOTHERA (Evening Primrose). 
Perennial and biennial plants of showy 
beauty, some more fitted for borders 
than for rock-gardens, but the smaller 
and prostrate kinds of high value. 
From June onwards, they are at their 



best, some coming into bloom a second 
time in late summer. They have 
large bright yellow or white flowers, 
freely borne. Although known as 
Evening Primroses, many of them are 
open during the day, such as (E. 
tinearis, speciosa, taraxaeifolia. Most 
of them are natives of states west of 
Mississippi, California, Utah, Missouri, 
.and Texas. All will bloom the first 
year from seed sown early. 

(Enothera csespitosa. A dwarf plant, 
12 inches high, flowering in May, 4 inches 
to 5 inches across, white, gradually chang- 
ing to a delicate rose ; as evening ap- 
proaches, coming well above the jagged 
leaves, retaining their beauty all night, 
and emitting a Magnolia-like odour. It 
is a hardy perennial, and is increased by 
suckers from the roots, and by cuttings, 
which root readily. Syn., (E. marginata. 

CEnothera Csespitosa. 

CE. fruticosa (Sundrops). This and its 
varieties are among the finest of perennials, 

1 foot to 3 feet high, with showy yellow 
blossoms. There are about half a dozen 
distinct varieties, one of the best being 
Youngi, about 2 feet high, bearing many 
yellow blossoms. It is one of the best 
of yellow Evening Primroses for small 
beds, for edgings, or as a groundwork for 
other plants, and it goes on flowering even 
after the first frosts. 

CEnothera glauca is a handsome North- 
American species, allied to fruticosa. It is 
of sub-shrubby growth, becomes bushy, and 
bears yellow flowers. The variety Fraseri 
is a still finer plant, and where an at- 
tractive mass of yellow is desired through 
the summer, there are few hardy plants 
of easy cultivation so effective. In a 
large rock-garden a few plants here and 
there give good colour, and the plants 
bloom long. 

05. Missouriensis (Missouri Evening 
Primrose). A noble, hardy herbaceous 
perennial, with prostrate, rather downy 
stems, entire leaves, their margins and 
nerves covered with silky down, and 
with clear yellow flowers", 4 to nearly 
5 inches in diameter, borne so freely that 
the plant covers the ground with its 
flowers. As the seed is but rarely per- 
fected, it is increased by careful division, 
or by cuttings made in April. It does not 
make such a free growth in cold clayey 
soils as it does in warm light ones, and 
it is best on the lower flanks of the rock- 
garden. North America. The blooms open 
best in the evenings. Syn., (E. macrocarpa. 

(E. speciosa (Pale Evening Primrose). 
A handsome plant, with many large white 
flowers, which afterwards change to a 
delicate rose, in these respects somewhat 
resembling (E. taraxaeifolia^ but the plant 
is erect, with almost shrubby stems. It 
forms neat tufts, usually from 14 to 18 
inches high, is a true perennial, and valu- 
able for borders or the rougher parts of the 
rock-garden. A native of North America ; 
increased by division, cuttings, or seeds, 
but not seeding freely in this country, 
and thriving in well-drained loam. 

(E. taraxacifolia. One of the most 
beautiful of our dwarf hardy plants, with 
rather stout stems, that freely trail over 
the ground, bearing a profusion of large 
flowers. The leaves are deeply cut, some- 




what like those of the Dandelion, but of 
a greyish tone ; the flowers several inches 
across, white, changing to pale delicate 
rose as they become older. The plant is 
quite perennial, but on some cold soils 
perishes in winter. Where it does so, 
it should be raised annually from seed. 
It will thrive in almost any garden soil, 
best in one rich and deep, and may be 
used with the best result as a drooping 
plant in the rock-garden borders. Plants 
raised in early spring and pricked over 
bare surfaces of rose-beds, flower well the 
first year. A native of Chili, flowering 
all the summer and autumn, and seldom 
more than 6 inches above the ground. 


seldom seen and charming plant, with 
very glaucous smooth leaves, in hue 
resembling those of the Oyster-plant, 
and with flowers of a light sky-blue, 
with a faint stain of something akin 
to the palest lilac. A native of Mount 
Taurus, doing best in sunny parts of 
the rock-garden, in free gritty soil. 
Slugs often destroy it. 

Omphalodes verna (Creeping Forget-me- 
not). Like a Forget-me-not, with hand- 
some deep blue flowers with white throats, 
in early spring. A native of mountain 
woods on several of the great continental 
chains, and precious for the rock and every 
other kind of garden. Easily increased by 
division. Tufts of it taken up and gently 
forced in midwinter form beautiful 
objects in baskets. 

ONONIS ARVENSIS (Best-harrow). 
One of the prettiest of our wild 
plants, and well worthy of cultivation 
on banks. It is a variable plant, 
forming dense spreading tufts, clammy 
to the touch, and covered with pink 
flowers in summer. There is a white 
variety even more valuable. No 
plants can be more readily increased 
from seed or by division. This plant 
is distinct from the spiny Ononis cam- 
pestris, which forms stems nearly 2 feet 
high, sometimes even more. 

Ononis rotundifolia (Round-leaved Rest- 
harrow}. This species is easily known by 
its large and handsome rose-coloured 
flowers, with the upper petal or standard 
veined with crimson. It is a distinct 
and pretty plant, hardy, and easily culti- 
vated, flowering in May and June and 
through the summer. It attains a height 
of from 12 to 20 inches, according to soil 
and position, increasing in height as the 
season advances. It is suitable for the 
rougher parts of the rock-garden ; conies 
from the Pyrenees and Alps of Europe, 
and is easily propagated by seeds or 

0. Arragonensis is a distinct species 
from Spain, a recent introduction. 

Drop). A handsome evergreen per- 
ennial from 6 inches to 12 inches high, 
forming a dense tuft, and bearing in 
summer drooping clusters of clear 
yellow, almond-scented blossoms. 
The best place for growing it is the 
rock-garden, in which provision is 
made for a good depth of soil, so 
that the plants may root strongly 
between the blocks of stone. The 
soil should be a good sandy loam, 
mixed with broken grit, and the plant 
placed between large blocks of stone, 
near which the roots ramify and are 
kept cool and moist. The tops of 
dry walls also suit this very fine rock 

OPHRYS (Bee Orchis). These small 
terrestrial Orchids are singularly beauti- 
ful, and among the most curious of 
plants. There have been many in 
cultivation, but being chiefly from 
South Europe and not hardy, they 
must have protection, and then can 
be grown only with great attention. 
There are, however, a few native 
species that can be grown. Of these, 
one of the most singularly beautiful 
is the Bee Orchis (0. apifera). It 
varies from 6 inches to more than 




1 foot in height, with a few glaucous 
leaves near the ground ; the lip of 
the flower is of a rich velvety brown, 
with yellow markings, so that it bears 
a fanciful resemblance to a bee. It 
is usually considered very difficult to 
grow, but this is by no means the 
case, and it may be grown easily in 
rather warm and dry banks in the 
rock-garden, planted in a deep little 
bed of calcareous soil, if that be con- 
venient ; if not, loam mixed with 
broken limestone may be used. It 
will be found to thrive best if the 
surface of the soil in which it grows 
be carpeted with the Lawn Pearlwort, 
or some other very dwarf plant, and, 
failing these, with 1 inch or so of 
cocoa-fibre and sand, to keep the soil 
somewhat moist and compact about 
the plants. Flowers in early summer. 
Other interesting species to cultivate 
in a collection of hardy Orchids are 
Q. musctfera, arachnites, aranifera, and 

OPUNTIA (Prickly Pear). A large 
group of plants of the Cactus order, 
mostly American, but often growing 
far north into many cold as well as 
dry regions in California, Utah, and 
Nevada. Like most Cactuses, they 
might at first be thought too tender 
for our country, but some kinds have 
proved hardy, and the country they 
come from has severe winters. A most 
interesting series of species and 
varieties have been introduced by 
Mr Spath, of Berlin, who writes of 
them in the Garden, as follows : 

"The hardiness of these species, 
varieties, and natural hybrids, even 
in the often trying winters of Berlin, 
is proved beyond all doubt, having 
stood in the open for several years 
without protection. As to soil, they 
are not particular, but they are thank- 
ful for slight manuring, which develops 

sturdy and healthy specimens in a few 
years. These produce fine large flowers. 
When, during the month of July, the 
plants are covered with their con- 
spicuous flowers, varying through all 
shades, from light yellow to orange 
and salmon, from a tender rose to 
deep and brilliant carmine, they pre- 
sent a picture of unrivalled beauty. 

The collection of Colorado Opuntias, 
as far as they have flowered and been 
named here, is as follows : 

" 0. camanchica lutea, c. orbicvlaris, 
c. rubra, c. salmonea. These four 
varieties have large and thin joints 
of roundish shape. 0. fragilis, f. 
ccespitosa, /. tuberiformis. 0. Missouri- 
ensis, m. erythrostema, m. salmonea. 
0. pachyarfhra flava. 0. pacliyclada 
rosea, p. spoefhiana. 0. rhodantha, 
r. brevisptna, r. flavispina, r. pisci- 
formis, r. schumanniana. 0. Schwerini. 
0. xanthostema, x. elegans, x. fulgens, 
x. gracilis, x. orbicularis, x. rosea." 

Some of them have been grown with 
success in England. On dry slopes 
on and partly protected under project- 
ing ledges of rock, they are curious, 
and the flowers often beautiful in 
colour, but of tropical associations 
that hardly go well with alpine plants, 
and so would be better grouped apart, 
where they might get some winter 
protection where needed, and all the 
sun and warmth could be got for them 
in our climate. Their nomenclature 
is still far from clear, and it is probable 
those arid and cold regions have other 
hardy and handsome kinds worth 

ORCHIS (Orchid). Perennial 
ground Orchids often beautiful, hardy, 
being mostly European or natives of 
cold countries, not difficult to grow. 
These are essential for the bog-garden. 
Some of our native Orchis are de- 
serving of a place, but few sue- 




ceed well with them, because the 
plants are often transplanted at the 
wrong season. The usual plan is to 
do it just when the first or second 
flower has opened. At this period of 
growth, the plant is forming a new 
tuber for the following year, and if 
in any way injured, it shrinks 
and dies. If, instead of this, the 
plants are marked when in flower and 
allowed to remain until August or 
September, when the newly-formed 
tuber will be matured, the risk of 
transplanting it is considerably 

The following are among the kinds 
most worthy of culture : 

Orchis foliosa. One of the finest of the 
hardy Orchids, from 1 foot to 2 feet or 
more in height, with long dense spikes 
of rosy-purple blossoms, spotted with a 
darker hue. It begins to flower about 
the middle of May, and continues for a 
considerable time. It delights in moist 
sheltered nooks at the base of the rock- 
garden, or in some similar place, and it 
should be planted in deep, light soil. 

0. latifolia (Marsh Orchis). A native 
kind, 1 foot to 1^ feet high, flowering 
in early summer purple in long dense 
spikes. It is easily grown, forming fine 
tufts in damp, boggy soil in peat or leaf 
mould. There are several beautiful 
varieties of this Orchis, the best being pros- 
cox and sesquipedalis ; 0. sesquipedalis grows 
about 1| feet high, and the stem for fully 
a third of its length is furnished with 
densely-arranged flowers of large size and 
of a purplish- violet hue. 

0. laxiflora is a handsome species, 1 
foot to 18 inches high, flowering in May 
and June, rich purplish-red, in long loose 
spikes. Native of Jersey and Guernsey, 
and suited for the rock-garden in a moist 
spot, or the marsh-garden. Division. 

0. maculata (Spotted Orchis). This is 
usually pretty in the poorest soils, but is 
a very different plant in a rich one. If 
well grown in moist and rather stiff 
garden loam, it will surprise even those 
who know it well in a wild state. Obtain 

it at any season, and carefully plant twelve 
or twenty tubers in a patch in a half- 
shady and sheltered position in moist 
loam. It flowers in summer, and is an 
excellent plant for the bog-garden. The 
variety superba is a much finer plant. 

Orchis maculata superba. (Engraved from a 
photograph sent by Rev. C. Wolley-Dod.) 

Other beautiful kinds are 0. papilion- 
acea, purpurea, militaris, mascula, pyr- 
amidalis, spectabilis, tephrosanthos, and 
Robertiana, but all are difficult to estab- 
lish freely, as they grow in their natural 

ORIGANUM (Marjoram). The 
common 0. vulyare is scarcely a 
garden plant, but another, 0. Dic- 
tamnus (the Dittany of Crete), is a 
pretty little plant, though somewhat 
tender. During mild winters, how- 
ever, it survives unprotected. It has 
mottled foliage, and small, purplish 
flowers in heads, like the Hop ; hence 
it is sometimes called the Hop plant. 




0. Sipyleum is similar, and quite as 
pretty. If grown in the open, these 
plants must have a warm spot in the 
rock-garden in very light, open soil, 
and then mostly in the south or very 
mild districts. 

Club). A handsome water- side per- 
ennial of the Arum family, 12 inches 
to 18 inches high. The flowers, which 
are yellow, densely crowded all over 
the narrow spadix, and which emit a 
singular odour, are borne early in 
summer. The plant may be grown 
on the margins of ponds and fountain- 
basins, or in the wettest part of the 
bog-garden. North America, in rivu- 
lets and bogs. 

bary Ragwort). A plant of distinct 
character ; the leaves and shoots quite 
smooth and glaucous, and the habit 
spreading, forming silvery tufts from 
8 inches to a foot or so high. It 
flowers sparsely on heavy and cold 
soil, but on light soils it blooms 
freely in May, a rich yellow, and is 
useful for its distinct aspect ; propa- 
gated by cuttings. N. Africa. 

OXALIS (Wood Sorrel).- A large 
group of dwarf, often curious and 
often pretty, plants, which, so far as 
they are hardy, may well come into 
the warm parts of the rock-garden ; 
but, being mostly plants of the Cape 
and warm countries, few of those 
known to us are hardy, excepting 
always the few that are natives of 
our own country, among which the 
most graceful is the little native Wood 
Sorrel. The following are the kinds 
of proved hardiness in our gardens. 
In warmer lands than ours some are 
apt to become troublesome as 

Oxalis Acetosella (Stubwort, Wood 
Sorrel). The prettiest kind known so far 
for our gardens is our native Wood Sorrel, 
Avhich bore in old times the name of 
" Stub wort " a name which should be 
used always. This grows itself in such 
pretty ways in woody and shady places that 
in many gardens there will be no need to 
cultivate it. Where it must be cultivated 
it will be happy in shady spots in the rock- 

0. Bowieana. A robust grower, form- 
ing masses of leaves 6 inches to 9 inches 
high, the flowers rose, in umbels, borne 
continuously throughout the summer. 
It is best for warm soils, and in cold 
ones seldom or never flowers ; on well- 
drained and very sandy ones it does 
so abundantly. The soil that suits this 
fine plant being often found on the rock- 
garden, it would be well to have a seam 
or two of it there at the foot of a hot 
rock. Division. Cape of Good Hope. 

0. corniculata rubra is a form of a 
native kind, with brown purple leaves 
that might be encouraged where there are 
stony banks, for this handsome plant 
speedily covers the most unpromising 
surfaces. In gardens, however, it may 
become a weed. With me, this plant 
comes up everywhere among stone edg- 
ings and also in the joints between stone 
pavings, and is so far an interloper sowing 
itself very pretty. 

0. floribunda. A free-flowering kind, 
quite hardy in all soils, and producing, 
for months in succession, numbers of 
rose-coloured flowers with dark veins. 
There is a white-flowered variety as free- 
flowering and in every way as valuable 
as the rose-coloured form. Both are very 
useful for rockwork and for the margins 
of borders, and are easily increased by 
division. This appears to be the com- 
monest kind of Oxalis in cultivation. It 
is hardy enough to encourage one to 
attempt to naturalise it on any rocky 
place or about ruins. S. America. 

0. lasiandra is one of the most distinct, 
with large dark green leaves, and, in early 
summer, umbels of numerous flowers of 
a bright rose-colour. Best on warm parts 
of the rock-garden. Mexico. 




0.) : A dwarf stemless perennial, about 
6 inches high, flowering in summer, 
yellowish, tinged with purple, erect, 
in a dense spike. Leaves, with many 
pairs of leaflets, more numerous and 
much less silky than those of the 
Purple 0. Europe, America, and in 
Scotland. The rock-garden, in sandy 
loam. Seed and division. 

Oxytropis Pyrenaica (Pyrenean Oxy- 
trope). A very dwarf species, with pinnate 
leaves, clothed with a short silky down. 
These barely rise above the ground, as the 
short stems are nearly prostrate, and seldom 
exceed a few inches in height ; the flowers, 
borne in heads of from four to fifteen, 
are of a purplish-lilac. It is not a showy, 
but withal a useful kind for the parts of 
the rock-garden devoted to very dwarf 
plants. A native of the Pyrenees, in- 
creased by seed or division, and should 
be planted on well-exposed and bare spots, 
in firm, sandy, or gravelly soil. 

0. uralensis (Purple 0.). An elegant 
little perennial, resembling 0. campestris 
in habit, but more densely clothed with 
soft silky hairs in every part ; about 6 
inches high, flowering in summer, bright 
purple, in dense round heads. Scotland 
and various parts of Europe. The rock- 
garden, in moist sandy loam. Division 
and seed. 

FOLIUS. A neat little evergreen 
shrub from Tasmania, almost hardy 
in the south and coast districts, with 
small, Rosemary-like leaves, and about 
the end of summer bearing dense 
clusters of small white flowers. It 
thrives in any light soil, and should 
be planted in an open sunny spot 
or on a warm bank. 

PAP AVER (Poppij\ Showy peren- 
nial, biennial, or annual plants, for 
the most part too vigorous for the 
rock-garden, and in no need of its 
care ; a few kinds are useful, however. 
There is no difficulty about their 

culture, any open spot with sand or 
gritty soil suiting them. As in our 
country, the plants are apt to wear out 
too soon ; it is well to sow a little seed 
here and there on the rock-garden, and 
leave the plants to grow where sown. 

Papaver alpinum (Alpine Poppy). 
This dwarf and fragile plant has large white 
flowers, with yellow centres, its leaves cut 
into fine acute lobes. A native of the 
higher Alps of Europe, it may sometimes 
be seen in good condition in our gardens, 
but it is liable to perish as if not a true 
perennial. It varies much in colour, 
there being white, scarlet, and yellow 
forms in cultivation. The variety 
albiflorum of botanists has white flowers,, 
spotted at the base ; the variety flaviflorum 
has showy orange flowers, grows 3 or 4 
inches high, and is hairy. This last 
variety is also known as P. pyrenaicum. 

P. nudicaule (Iceland Poppy). A 
dwarf kind, with deeply cut leaves, and 
large yellow flowers on naked stems, from 
12 to 15 inches high. -A native of Siberia 
and the northern parts of America, and a 
handsome plant, easily raised from seed, 
and forming rich masses of cup-like 
flowers, but, like other dwarf Poppies, 
does not seem to be permanent, and 
should be raised from seed annually. 
There are several varieties. 


Bruno's Lily). When the traveller 
in early summer first crawls down 
from the snowy fields of an Alp into 
the grateful warmth and English 
meadow-like freshness of a Piedmontese 
valley, most likely the first flower he 
notices in the pleasant grass of the 
valley is a Lily-like blossom, standing 
about level with the tops of the 
blades of Grass and Orchises. The 
blooms, about 2 inches long, so delicately 
white that they might well pass for 
emblems of purity, have each division 
faintly tipped with pale green, and 
from two to five flowers occur on 
each stem. It does not grow in close 
tufts, as in our borders, but one or perhaps 



two stems spring up here and there 
all over the meadows, and if it were 
an English flower, it might be called 
the Lady of the Meadows. It is easy 
of culture on ordinary soils. Slight 
shelter would prove beneficial, and 
that may readily be afforded by 
planting it among dwarf shrubs near 
the rock-garden. It will be found to 
flourish in British as well as in Alpine 
grass, and is easily increased by 
division or by seeds. Syn., Czackia 

PARNASSIA (Grass of Parnassus). 
Mountain pasture and moor peren- 
nials, pretty for the bog-garden or for 
moist spots in the rock-garden, and 
not difficult to grow in moist peaty 

Parnassia palustris. 

Parnassia Caroliniana(C r aro^a Grassof 
Parnassus). A native of North America, 
chiefly in mountainous places, on wet 
banks, and in damp soil. This is much 
larger than our Parnassia, the stem reach- 
ing from 1 to nearly 2 feet high, the flowers 
from 1 inch to 1^ inches across, the leaves 
thick and leathery. It is a good plant, 
succeeding in deep moist soil, and flower- 
ing in autumn, P. asarifolia, a native 
of high mountains in Virginia and North 
Carolina, does not differ much from this, 
but has the leaves rounded and kidney- 
shaped, with larger flowers, and requires 
much the same treatment. Seed or divi- 

P. palustris (Grass of Parnassus). A 

well-known native mountain plant, with 
white flowers 1 inch or more in diameter, 
growing naturally in bogs, moist heaths, 
and high wet pastures. Thrives in moist 
spots in or near the rock-garden, and may 
also be grown in pots placed half-way in 
any fountain or other basin devoted to 
aquatic plants. Plants or seeds may be 
easily obtained ; seeds should be sown in 
moist spots as soon as gathered. 

PAROCHETUS (Shamrock Pea). 
P. communis is a beautiful little 
creeping perennial, Avith Clover-like 
leaves, 2 to 3 inches high, bearing in 
spring Pea-shaped blossoms of a fine 
blue. It is of easy culture in warm 
positions on the rock-garden, and 
where the climate is too cold to grow 
it in the open air it may be grown in 
a cold frame. Division or seed. 

PARONYCHIA Small - growing 
creeping plants of slight value. P. 
serpyllifolia, on account of its dense 
turfy growth, might be made use of 
for clothing any dry bank where little 
else would thrive, or for covering any 
bare space in the rock-garden. 

worf). An interesting dwarf Alpine 
plant, nearly allied to the Daphne. 
It grows to about 1 foot in height, and 
bears Mezerewn-likQ blossoms. It is 
found at high elevations on the 


IANUM. This is interesting as the 
only species that comes so far north as 
Asia Minor, is hardy and handsome, 
with rose-coloured flowers, boldly 
upheld on stems about 18 inches 
high, the two upper petals being 
very^ large. I first saw it in the 
Jardin des Plantes, at Paris, where it 
had remained several severe winters 




in the open air, thus hardy. A sunny 
nook would suit it well, sheltered 
from the north. Seed or division. 

PENTSTEMON (Beard Tongue). 
Beautiful perennial plants of the 
rocky mountains of North- West America 
and Mexico, little grown in pur gardens, 
though some are of the highest value 
as rock-plants. The tall kinds grown 
in our gardens require frequent moving 
and rich soil, and are useless for the rock- 
garden. What we should seek are 
the true rock and mountain kinds, 
dwarf in habit, and hardy. They are 
easily grown on warm open soils, and 
easily increased by cuttings or seeds, 
but in the northern and midland 
districts not many are hardy. 

The following are some of the best 
for the rock-garden. Many are 
excluded, however; some on account 
of their rarity, and others because 
they are not hardy. 

Pentstemon azureus is a pretty dwarf 
branching kind, with numerous branches, 
bearing many blossoms in whorls, clear 
violet-blue, towards the end of summer, 
and lasting a long time. California. 

P. crassifolius. Allied to P.^Scouleri, 
but the flowers are of a charming light 
lavender colour, and the plant admirably 
suited for a dry knoll of the rock-garden ; 
but this knoll must be well exposed to 
the sun and on a deep mass of bog soil 
or peat, so that while the situation of 
the plant is dry, the roots may find what 
they require. P. Menziesii resembles P. 
Scouleri, but has reddish purple flowers. 

P. Fendleri. This is a pretty and 
distinct species, glaucous, with a long, 
erect, one-sided raceme of flowers of a 
very pleasing light purple colour. In 
height it rarely exceeds 12 inches to 15 
inches. It is hardy in ordinary soils, and 
is one of the most distinct species in 
cultivation. P. Wrighti is a plant of a 
similar character with magenta-tinted 
blossoms, and the variety angustifolius is 
likewise a pretty plant. Both are worthy 
of culture. 

Pentstemon heterophyllus. A dwarf 
sub-shrubbery kind, its showy flowers, 
singly or in pairs in the axils of the 
upper leaves, of a pinky lilac ; plants 
from seed are very liable to vary. Though 
hardier than many species, it succumbs to 
severe winters. California. 

P. humilis. A distinct alpine species, 
rarely exceeding 8 inches in height, 
forming compact tufts, its large blossoms 
of a pleasing blue suffused with reddish- 
purple : it should be planted in the 
rock-garden in a fully exposed spot in 
gritty loam and leaf-mould, and during 
summer the plant should be copiously 
watered. It blooms in early June, and is 
a native of the Rocky Mountains. 

P. Jeffreyanus. A showy kind, and 
the best of the blue-flowered class, its 
glaucous foliage contrasting finely with 
its clear blue blossoms borne during the 
greater part of the summer. It is a 
handsome dwarf border plant, but not 
being a good perennial, the stock should 
be kept up by the aid of seedlings, which 
will bloom much more vigorously than 
old plants. North California. 

P. laetns is a close ally of P. azureus and 
P. heterophyllus^ and, like them, is of 
dwarf branching habit, with blue flowers 
in raceme-like panicles about 1^ feet high, 
blooming in July and August. It is a 
native of California, and is as hardy as 
most of the species from that region. 

P. ovatus, also known as P. glaucus, is 
a fine vigorous plant, 3 to 4 feet high, the 
flowers small, but in dense masses, in 
colour varying from intense ultramarine 
to deep rosy-purple ; their brilliant 
colour, and the handsome form of the 
plant, combine to give it a special value. 
It should be considered a biennial, as it 
usually flowers so vigorously in the 
second year as to exhaust itself. Moun- 
tains of Columbia. 

P. procerus is a beautiful little plant, 
and about the hardiest of all the species, 
as it takes care of itself in any soil. It is 
of a creeping habit, sending up from the 
tufted base numerous flowering stems 6 to 
12 inches high. The small flowers are in 
dense spikes, and being of a fine amethyst- 
blue, they make it charming for either 
the border or the rock-garden , It seeds 




abundantly. It is the earliest to blossom 
of all the Pentstemons. 

Pentstemon Scouleri is a small semi- 
shrubby plant of twiggy growth. Its large 
flowers are of a slaty bluish-purple, and 
are arranged in short terminal racemes ; 
they are not produced in great abundance, 
but", combined with the dwarf and compact 
growth of the plant, they have charms 
sufficiently distinct to render it worthy 
of cultivation. P. Scouleri may be readily 
increased in spring by cuttings of the 
young shoots, since such cuttings strike 
freely in a little bottom-heat similar to 
that used for ordinary bedding plants. 
Syn., Menziesii. 


Evergreen shrub of the Heath family. 
Though from South America, it is 
hardy enough for every English 
garden. Apart from the evergreen 
foliage, the berries which it bears 
in autumn are very showy. After 
an abundant crop of small white 
blossoms, the berries are the size of 
small Cherries, and there are varieties 
with white, rose, pink, crimson, 
purple-black, and every intermediate 
shade. There are few more charming 
dwarf shrubs than Pernettyas. They 
thrive where the soil is peaty, or 
sandy. Even a heavy soil may be 
made suitable by a large addition 
of leaf-mould and sand. For autumn 
and winter effects they are excellent, 
and they may often be used among 
shrubs on the rock-garden. 


(Beauty of the Hocks). A "rock 
beauty ! " as it seems, as one sees 
its fresh green tufts, not more 
than an inch high, and cushioned 
amidst the broken rocks. From these 
stains of light green spring in April 
innocent-looking flowers, reminding 
one of miniature "Ladies' Smocks," 
on stems that rise little more than 
half an inch over the leaves. When 

well grown, its faintly-veined pale- 
lilac flowers seem to form a little 
cushion, so delicate-looking, that 
people grow it for years without 
suspecting it to be fragrant; but 
it breathes a delicious, faint sweetness. 
Only suited for careful culture, being 
of a fragile nature, though hardy, 
it should be planted in sandy fibry 
loam, in rather level warm spots on the 
rock-garden, where it could root freely 
into the moist soil, and yet be near 
broken rocks and stones, down the 
buried sides of which it can send its 
roots, always in a sunny position. 
I have seen it grown as a border- 
plant in a moist part of Ireland, but in 
the hands of a very careful cultivator, 
who grew it in very fine soil on a select 
border, and took up, divided, and 
carefully replanted the tufts every 
autumn. It may also be grown in 
pots plunged in sand in the open 
air, and in frames in winter; but 
it becomes drawn and delicate under 
glass protection. Easily increased 
by careful division, and also raised 
from seed. Alps and Pyrenees. 


An exquisite dwarf shrub, with large 
carmine-red Lapageria-like blooms 
(2 inches long), nestling among the 
sombre evergreen foliage. It is 
a precious shrub for the rock-garden 
in the more favourable coast gardens. 
The best soil is fibrous peat, with 
a small portion of loam; the plant 
should have a sunny aspect, but be 
sheltered from the north. To increase, 
peg down each shoot to the ground, then 
cover over with peat and leaf-mould. 
It will root freely from the stems, 
and soon form a nice bush. South 

PHLOX. Mostly known in our 
gardens by the tall kinds ; the 




great majority of these are natives 
to the mountains of North America. 
The alpine kinds are brilliant in colour 
and as easily cultivated as any plants 
can be for the rock-garden ; for which 
no more precious plants have ever 
been introduced, and they are easily 
grown on " dry " walls and as edging 
plants. Coming from a cold northern 
country like ours, they rival the spring 
flowers of Europe in brilliancy and 
fine colour and abundance of their 
flowers, and help to add a fresh glory 
to the spring. All thoughts 
of special soils or fancies may be 

S'ven up in their case, as they grow 
ke native plants in ordinary soil, 
and are easily increased by pulling 
to pieces. Some, perhaps not a few, 
kinds are not yet introduced, and 
this is a pity, as nearly every moun- 
tain Phlox we know is beautiful and 
free under cultivation. 

The mountain Phloxes are so 
closely allied that general cultural 
remarks may suffice. Well-drained 
ordinary garden soil and sunny 
exposure are essential. Though 
hardy, the damp of mild winters is 
hurtful to some kinds in low-lying 
places, and as the plants do not seed 
freely, they must be increased by 
cuttings. A sharp knife and a careful 
hand will soon remove the two or three 
pairs of leaves with their included 
buds, without damaging either the 
slender stem or the joint. These should 
be taken off in July, when the branches 
are just commencing to harden, and 
inserted in sandy soil in a frame where 
they can be shaded from full sunshine, 
and given the benefit of the night 
dews by the removal of the lights. 
They will soon root and become good 
flowering plants the following season. 
With large patches, the readiest way 
is to sprinkle sandy soil over the entire 

plant, and to work the same gently 
amongst the branches with the hand. 
If this be done during the summer 
or the early autumn, the trailing 
branches will form roots the following 
season, and may be planted elsewhere. 
Most of them are easily increased by 
careful division of the tufts in autumn 
or early spring. 

There is a good account of the 
plants, from a botanical point of view, 
by James Britten, in the Garden of 
29th September 1877. 

Phlox amsena. A very hardy little 
Phlox, spreading with rosy flowers in early 
summer, a native of dry places in the 
southern states, but so hardy in Britain 
that I have seen it naturalised on poor 
clayey banks in a wood. A good rock 
and wall plant. 

P. Carolina is a handsome plant, about 
1 ft. high, with slender steins terminated 
by a cluster of large, showy rosy flowers. 
Syn., P. ovata. 

P. divaricata (Wild Blue Phlox). 
Larger than the Creeping Phlox or Moss 
Pink, attaining a height of about 1 foot, and 
bearing lilac-purple blossoms. The plant 
thrives in good garden soil, and flowers 
in summer. In moist copses and woods, 
Canada, and southwards. Syn., P. Cana- 

P. pilosa is a pretty plant, 10 or 12 
inches high ; with flat clusters of purple 
flowers ^ to f inch in diameter, from 
June to August. It is one of the rarest 
in gardens, another kind being sold for it. 
The true plant reminds one of P. 
Drummondi. Another rare species is 
the true P. bifida, an elegant plant, the 
flowers bluish-purple. Canada and south- 
wards and westwards. 

P. reptans (Creeping Pink). With the 
large flowers and richness of colour of 
the taller Phloxes, this mantles over 
borders and rockworks with a soft green 
about an inch or two high, and sends up 
stems from 4 to 6 inches high, each 
producing from five to eight deep purplish- 
rose flowers. It is by no means fastidious 
as to soil or situation, but will be found 
to thrive best in peat or light rich soils. 




As it creeps along the ground, and gives 
off numbers of little rootlets from the 
joints, it is propagated with the greatest 
ease and facility. A person with the 
slightest experience in propagation may 
convert a tuft of it into a thousand plants 
in a very short time. It is almost in- 
dispensable for the rock-garden, makes 
very pretty edgings round the margins 
of beds, and also capital tufts on the front 
edge of the mixed border. It may also be 
used in the spring garden and for vase 
decoration, and is a native of North 
America, inhabiting damp woods. It is 
perhaps better known in gardens as P. 
stolonifera and P. verna, than by the above 
name. Mountain woods of Middle States 
and Virginia. 
Phlox setacea is sometimes considered 

Phlox divaricata. 

the same as P. subulata, but its leaves 
are longer and farther apart on its trailing 
stems, the whole plant being less rigid. 
The flowers are of a charming soft rosy- 
pink, and have delicate markings at the 
mouth of the tube. P. s. violacea is a 
handsome Scotch variety, more lax in 
growth, and with deeper coloured flowers, 
almost crimson. Both are lovely plants 
for the rock-garden, where, with roots deep 
among the fissures, they thrive in sunshine. 

Phlox subulata (Moss Pink). A moss- 
like little Evergreen, with stems from 4 
inches to a foot long, but always prostrate, 
so that the dense matted tufts are seldom 
more than 6 inches high, except in very 
favourable rich and moist, but sandy and 
well-drained soil, where, when the plant 
is fully exposed, the tufts attain a diameter 
of several feet, and a height of 1 foot or 
more. The leaves are awl-shaped or 
pointed, and very numerous ; the flowers 
of pinkish-purple or rose colour, with a 
dark centre, so densely produced that 
the plants are completely hidden by them 
during the blooming season. It occurs 
in a wild state on rocky hills and sandy 
banks in North America, and there are 
few more valuable plants for the decoration 
of the spring garden borders or rocks, 
being at once hardy, dwarf, neat in 
habit, profuse in bloom, forming gay 
cushions on the level ground, or pendent 
sheets from the tops of crags or from 
chinks on rockwork. It is easily increased 
by division, forming roots freely at the 
base of the little stems, and usually thrives 
in ordinary garden soil, particularly in 
deep sandy loam. Excessive drought 
seems to injure it, but it is less likely 
to suffer when rooted beneath stones. 
There is a white variety (P. subu- 
lata alba), known in many gardens 
as P. Nelsoni, which is also a beautiful 
plant. Besides this, the late Mr Nelson 
of Aldborough raised a large number of 
seedlings, varied in hue, which are 
given names, and may be had in 

P. stellaria (Cliickweed Phlox). A. 
fragile-looking but hardy kind, very 
graceful in bloom in spring, the flowers 
a bluish-white. It is a pretty rock plant, 
and with me free on "dry" walls. A 




native of rocky hills in Kentucky and 

Phlox stellaria. 

PHYTEUMA (Rampion). Peren- 
nial plants of the Bellflower order, 
some of them good rock-plants. 

Phyteuma comosum (Rock P.}. A 
dwarf distinct alpine plant, with sea-green 
leaves and flattish heads of flowers very 
large for the size of the plant ; in summer, 
blue, on very short stalks, in large heads. 
A plant for the choice rock-garden, in 
dry sunny spots, in well-drained, very 
sandy or calcareous soil. I have seen this 
plant growing from small chinks in arid 
cliffs, where probably no other plant 
could exist. What Mr A. W. Clarke says 
of it is worth following : 

" In winter the plant should be fixed 
tightly between limestone. A layer of 
fine broken limestone and strong loam 
two parts limestone, one part loam 
without any sand, will be a suitable 
compost. After placing the bottom stone, 
put a portion of the compost on the stone ; 
then lay on the plant, leaving plenty of 
room for the root to go down (as it forms 
a tap root), then add a little more compost 
011 the plant before placing on the other 
stone. Make these as tight as possible 
without injury to the roots or crowns of 

the plant. It should be well looked after 
in the spring, so that the slugs do not eat 
all the crowns away. If the slugs get to 
the plant they will be sure to eat out the 
centre crowns, then only a few leaves will 
appear the following year. Top-dress in 
the autumn and spring with fine, broken 
limestone, letting it run well between the 
stones." Alps. Seed. 

Phyteuma Sieberi is a neat plant for 
the rock-garden, requiring a moist sunny 
situation, and a mixture of leaf-mould, 
peat, and sand. It forms cushion-like 
tufts, and in May and June has dark-blue 
flower heads, on stems 4 to 6 inches long. 

P. humile is a dwarf tufted plant for 
the rock-garden, where it can get a dry 
sheltered position in winter, and plenty of 
water in summer. The flowers are blue, 
and borne in June 011 stems 6 inches high. 

P. Charmeli and P. Scheuchzeri are 
much alike, P. Scheuchzeri being dwarf er 
It bears pretty blue flowers, on stems 
from 6 to 12 inches in height, and is 
evergreen. Seed in autumn. 

PIERIS. Usually rather dwarf, or 
compact, evergreen shrubs, of much 
distinction and beauty, natives of 
China, Japan, and North America, 
important for the rock-garden, if, as I 
always urge, we give to the hardy 
northern and mountain shrub its 
right place in such gardens. "Where, 
as so often happens in Scotland, 
Ireland, Wales, and in many districts 
in England, the natural rock breaks 
out, and peaty or sandy soil occurs in 
some places, these bushes are most 
important, and will be found free in 
such soils. 

The things to be observed are a 
cool, moist, and not necessarily a peaty 
soil, always free from lime, as heavy 
soils can be made to suit them by 
deep trenching and adding plenty of 
leaf-mould, with, towards the top, a 
little peat. The soil in which they 
grow suits many species of Lilium, 




which thrive well planted between the 

Pieris floribunda. A native of the 
United States, and forming a compact 
evergreen bush. The racemes form in 
October and do not open until the fol- 
lowing spring, and carry numerous white 
flowers. It is a shrub of easy culture. 

P. formosa. In seaside and west- 
country gardens this is a valuable shrub, 
the leaves when young of a reddish 
colour, changing with age to a deep 
green. The flowers, which are white, 
borne in a cluster of erect branching 
racemes, are pendent and almost globular. 

P. japonica. A most graceful evergreen 
bush, with long clusters of flowers, giving a 
lace-like effect in the case of well-grown 
bushes. It is hardy, but slow and poor 
on loamy soils, thriving on good peat, and 
should be associated with the choicest 
evergreens. A precious bush for the rock- 
garden on peaty or leafy soils. 

Other kinds of less importance for the 
rock-garden are : P. Mariana from North 
America ; P. nitida, P. ovalifolia. Syn., 

PINGUICULA (Bvtterwwt).-- Inter- 
esting dwarf perennials, natives of 
Alpine and Arctic bogs or wet rocky 

Pinguicula Grandiflora (Irish Butter- 
wort). Leaves in rosettes, light green, 
fleshy, and glistening flowers, handsome, 
two-lipped, spurred like the Horned Violet, 
more than an inch long, nearly or quite an 
inch across, of a fine blue. Mr Bentham 
unites this with the less beautiful P. vul- 
garis, but Mr Syme says : "I cannot con- 
ceive how any one who has seen the plants 
alive can consider them as the same 
species " ; and as P. grandiflora has flowers 
twice as large asvulgaris^nd is a handsomer 
plant, it is the kind best worthy of cultiva- 
tion. It inhabits bogs and wet heaths in 
the south-west of Ireland, and thrives in 
moist mossy spots on the northern and 
shady slopes of the rock-garden or in more 
open places in moist peat soil. Increased 
by small green bulbils, which are given off 
at the base of the rosettes. 

Pinguicula Alpina(^4^we Butterwort) 
differs from other kinds in having white 
flowers, marked more or less with lemon- 
yellow on the lip, but sometimes tinted with 
pale pink. It roots firmly, by means of 
strong woody fibres, and prefers peaty 
soil, mingled with shale or rough gravel, 
and shady humid positions, such as is 
afforded by a rock-garden with a north 
aspect. A Scottish plant. Ross and Skye. 

P. vallisnerisefolia, from the mountains 
of Spain, differs in its clustered habit of 
growth. Its leaves are pale yellowish- 
green, and sometimes almost transparent, 
occasionally even 7 inches towards the end 
of the season. The flowers are large, soft 
lilac colour, with conspicuous white or 
pale centres. Dripping fissures and ledges 
of calcareous rocks (frequently in tufa) suit 
the plant, but it requires free drainage, 
and continuous moisture. 

P. lusitanica, found on the west coast 
of Scotland, South England, and in Ireland, 
is small, and has pale lilac flowers. It 
grows in peaty bogs. 

P. yulgaris, a native plant, grows 
freely in any sunny position in rich moist 
peat or peaty loam. A small form, with 
leaves like those of P. Alpina, both in 
form and colour, is found in alpine bogs in 
the north of England. 

PLATYCODON. P. grandiflorum, 
sometimes called Campanula grandi- 
flora, is a handsome perennial, hardy 
in light dry soils, but impatient 
of damp and undrained situations, 
where its thick fleshy roots decay. 
The flowers are 2 to 3 inches across, 
deep blue with a slight slaty shade, 
and in clusters at the end of each 
branch, and handsome in all forms. 
Rich loamy soil, good drainage, and 
an open situation are best. Propagate 
by seeds, which can be readily pro- 
cured. The variety Mariesi is distinct 
and good. China and Japan. 

P.) A dwarf, herbaceous perennial, 
once cultivated in greenhouses, but 
now found to be hardy, and a first- 




rate plant for rocks or walls. In 
September nearly covered with flowers 
in close trusses at the end of the 
shoots, and of a fine blue, afterwards 
changing to violet the calyces being 
of a reddish violet. The bloom usually 
lasts till the frosts. I have seen this 
plant live in cold soils, but it is in 
all cases best to give it a warm, sandy 
or other light soil, and a sunny warm 
position, as under these conditions 
the "dry" bloom is finer. In con- 
sequence of the semi-prostrate habit, 
it is well suited for planting above the 
upper edges of vertical stones or tops 
of walls. A native of China ; increased 
by division of the root. 

POLEMONIUM (Greek Valerian}. 
Herbaceous perennials, some pretty 
dwarf mountain plants among them. 
The tall kinds are not fitted for the 

Polemonium confertum. A pretty 
plant, with slender deeply-cut leaves and 
dense clusters of deep blue flowers on 
stoutish stems, about 6 inches high. It 
requires a warm spot in the rock-garden 
and a well-drained, deep, loamy soil, 
rather stiff than otherwise. It should 
be undisturbed for years after planting. 
Rocky Mountains of North America. 

P. humile is a truly alpine plant, with 
pale-blue flowers on stems a few inches 
high. In a dry situation and a light 
sandy soil it is hardy, but on a damp 
sub-soil is sure to die in winter. North 

P. reptans is an American alpine plant, 
its stems creeping, and its slate-blue 
flowers forming a loose drooping panicle, 
6 or 8 inches high. Snails devour it, 
especially the scaly root-stocks during 
winter, and must be watched for. 

POLYGALA (Milkwort}. The hardy 
Milkworts are neat dwarf perennials, 
some true Alpine plants among them. 

Polygala Chamsebuxus (Box - leaved 
Milkwort) is a little creeping shrub from 
the Alps of Austria and Switzerland, where 

it often forms, but very small plants. In 
our gardens, however, on peaty soil and 
fine sandy loams, it spreads out into 
compact tufts covered with cream-coloured 
and yellow flowers. The variety purpurea 
is prettier ; the flowers are a bright 
magenta-purple, with a yellow centre. It 
succeeds in any sandy, well-drained soil, 
best in sandy peat. Even when out of 
flower it is interesting, owing to its dwarf 
compact habit, bright shining evergreen 
leaves, and olive-purplish stems. 

Polygala calcarea (Chalk Milkwort). 
A native plant found in the south of 
England, generally on chalky debris, and 
pretty, usually with blue, but sometimes 
with pink or whitish flowers, about a 
quarter of an inch long, in compact 
racemes ; Mr Syme says this has no 
connecting links with the common Milk- 
wort (P. vulgaris). It is known by the 
flowering shoots rising from rosettes of 
leaves, and by the leaves on those shoots 
becoming abruptly smaller and narrower 
than those below them. It is the 
handsomest and the. easiest to grow of the 
British species, and does very well in 
sunny chinks, planted in calcareous soil, 
forming tufts of violet-blue and white 
flowers, and blooming in early summer. 
It should be allowed to sow itself if 
possible, or the seed may be gathered from 
wild plants and sown in sandy soil. 

P. paucifolia (Fringed Milkwort) is 
a handsome North American perennial, 
3 to 4 inches high, with slender prostrate 
shoots and concealed flowers. From these 
shoots spring stems, bearing in summer one 
to three handsome flowers, about three- 
quarters of an inch long ; generally 
rosy - purple, but sometimes white. 
It is suited for the rock-garden, in 
leaf-mould and sand, and for association 
in half-shady places with Linncea borealis, 
Trientalis, Mitchella. 

In this enormous genus there are 
probably handsome hardy plants not yet 
in cultivation. 

POLYGONATUM (Solomon's Seal). 
Perennials of graceful form not in 
the ordinary "hard-and-fast rockery," 
but which come in well among the 
rock shrubs in the rock-garden in 




which themountain shrubs find a home. 
They thrive in almost any position in 
good sandy soil, in shady nooks, and 
under the shade of shrubs. They are 
increased by seeds or berries, which, 
sown as soon as gathered in autumn, 
germinate in early spring ; the creeping 
root-stocks may also be divided to any 

Polygonatum Mflonun, from the 
wooded hillsides of Canada, of graceful 
growth, the arching stems 1 foot to 3 feet 
in height, the small flower stems jointed 
near the base of the flowers, which are 
greenish white, two or three together in 
the axils of the leaves. 

P. japonicum. A distinct species, 
native of Japan, hardy in this country, 
flowering in early April, growing about 
2 feet in height, the leaves of a firm 
leathery texture, the flowers white, tinged 

P. latifolium (Broad-leaved Solomon's 
Seal). A robust plant, the stems 
being from 2 feet to 4 feet high, 
arching, the leaves bright green ; flowers 
large, two to five in a bunch in July. 
P. latifolium var. commutatum differs 
from the above in being glabrous through- 
out, with a flower-stem 2 feet to 7 feet 
in height ; large white flowers, three 
to ten in a bunch. North America. 

P. multiflorum (Solomon's Seal). A 
graceful perennial, from 2 feet to 4 feet 
high, glaucous green ; the flowers large, 
nearly white, one to five in a bunch. 
It is a free -growing species, of which 
there are several garden varieties, a 
double-flowered one, and one in which 
the leaves are variegated. P. Broteri is a 
variety with much larger flowers ; P. 
bracteatum, a form in which the bracts at 
the base of the flowers are well developed. 

P. oppositifolium. From the tem- 
perate regions of the Himalayas, and 
hardy. It will doubtless do best in a 
sheltered spot, but even in the open it 
has given me no trouble, and it is a good 
plant for shady spots on the rock-garden, 
the habit graceful, 2 feet to 3 feet in 
height, leaves glossy green ; the flowers, 
white, marked with reddish lines and 
dots, are borne in bunches of from six 

to ten in the axils on both sides in lat 
summer. The fruit is red when ripe. 

Polygonatum punctatum. A beauti- 
ful kind from the temperate Himalaya 
where it is found at altitudes of 7, 
feet to 11,000 feet, and hardy in < 
gardens ; about 2 feet in height, the 
angular, with hard leathery leaves, flowers 
white, with lilac dots, two or three in " 
bunch, in late summer. 

P. roseum (Rosy Solomon's Seal). 
handsome little plant, allied to P. 
erticillatum. It was first sent to 
by Bunge, and varies much in the lei 
and breadth of its leaves, also in the si/ 
of its flowers, 2 feet to 3 feet in height 
the leaves in whorls of three or more ; 
flowers in pairs in the axils of the leave 
clear rose-coloured, are pretty amo 
the narrow green foliage. North Asia. 

. A vei. 

large genus, mostly herbaceous, am 
some climbing perennials, but few ii 
their right place on the rock-gardei 
and those not of highest value. 

Polygonum affine, one of the Bis 
group, is a pretty alpine feature in th( 
Himalayas, where it grows on the wet 
river banks and meadows, and hangs in 
rosy clumps from moist precipices. In 
cultivation it is 6 to 8 inches high, 
with rosy-red flowers in dense spikes in 
September and October. 

P. Brunonis is similar, and as desirable ; 
the flowers, of a pale rose or flesh colour, 
borne in dense erect spikes nearly 18 inches 
high, and continuing more or less through 
the summer. 

P. sphoerostachyum. A beautiful 
dwarf Knotweed, bearing spikes of deep 
crimson flowers. A native of the 
mountains of India, and with more merit 
as a choice rock plant than any so far as 
known in gardens. 

P. vaccinifolium (Rock Knotweed}. 
Although it comes of rather a weedy 
race, this is a neat trailing plant, 
scrambling freely over stones, and 
producing many bright-rose spikes of 
flowers in summer and autumn. It comes 
from 11,000 to 13,000 feet on the 
Himalayas, which may perhaps have had 
much to do in refining its character and 




making it so unlike the Knotweeds that 
garnish the slime of our ditches. Easily 
increased by division or cuttings, and 
thrives in common garden soil. Suited 
for banks, and the less important parts 
of the alpine garden. 

Weed). A handsome hardy water 
plant, forming thick tufts of arrow- 
shaped, long-stalked leaves from Ij 
feet to more than 2 feet high, crowned 
with blue flower-spikes. P. angustifolia 
has narrower leaves ; both should be 
planted in shallow pools or by the 
margins of ponds. Multiplied by 
division of the tufts at any season. 
North America. 

POTENTILLA (Cinquefoil}. In 
these herbaceous or evergreen herbs, 
we have a family known in our gardens 
mainly by its large and freer kinds, 
chiefly hybrids. These are far too 
free for the rock-garden, and would 
soon overrun it. Among Cinque/oils, 
however, are some of the most beautiful 
and easily-grown rock plants, good in 
colour and valuable for their tufted 
and good habit for many situations. 
It is a very large genus, and what we 
have to guard against for the rock- 
garden is kinds too vigorous or without 
distinct beauty. 

Potentilla ambigua, from the Hima- 
layas, is a dwarf compact creeper, with, 
in summer, large clear yellow blossoms 
on a dense carpet of foliage ; perfectly 
hardy, requiring only a good deep well- 
drained soil in an open position in the 

P. alba (White Cinque/oil). A. pretty 
species, with the leaves in five stalkless 
leaflets, green and smooth above, and 
quite silvery, with dense silky down, on 
the lower sides. It is a very dwarf kind, 
and not rampant in habit, with white 
strawberry-like flowers, nearly an inch 
across, with a dark orange ring at the 
base. A native of the Alps and Pyrenees, 
of the easiest culture in ordinary soil, 

flowering in early summer, and easily 
increased by division. 

Potentilla argentea (Silvery Cinque- 
foil). As the name would imply, this 
plant is covered over with silvery down ; 
it is of a creeping habit, not exceeding 
6 inches in height ; and though scarcely 
definite enough in its argent character to 
give it a status in the gaudy ranks of 
the flower-garden, it is yet a very desir- 
able plant to place as a variety among 
dark -leaved plants in a rockery. 

P. aurea (Golden Cinquefoil). A dwarf 
kind, about 2 inches high, with palmate 
leaves, margined with silvery hairs. 
The flowers large, yellow, spotted with 
orange at the base, and borne in a loose 
panicle from May to July. Suitable 
either for rockwork or the open ground 
in the full sun. Increased by division 
or by seed. Mountains of Central and 
South Europe. 

P. nivea. Dwarf, with whitish leaves 
snow-white underneath. The flowers 
yellow on slender steins, about 2 inches 
high, in summer. Thriving in the 
rock-garden in open soil. Seed. Division. 
Arctic regions of Europe and Asia, and 
Alps of Europe. 

P. splendens. A species with a woody, 
branching root-stock and short stems, 
forming a turfy carpet about 2 inches 
high, composed of three (rarely four or 
five) leaflets, which are green and 
glistening on the upper surface, and 
covered with silvery down underneath. 
The flowers a good white, borne 
singly on long stems from May to July. 

P. alpestris (Alpine Cinquefoil). 
A native plant, closely allied to the 
spring Potentilla (P. verna), but with 
flower-stems more erect, forming tufts 
nearly a foot high when well grown, the 
leaves a shining green, the flowers of 
a bright yellow, about an inch across. 
Well worthy of a place on the rock-garden, 
it matters little how cold the spot, and 
will enjoy a moist deep soil. P. verna is 
also worthy of a place in the garden, and 
is of the easiest culture. It is not a very 
common plant, but is found in a good 
many parts of the country on rocks and 
dry banks. 





Potentilla calabra (Calabria* Cinque- 
foil). A silvery kind, particularly on the 
under sides of the leaves ; the shoots pro- 
strate, with lemon-yellow flowers about 
three-fourths of an inch across. It is 
chiefly valuable from the hue of its leaves ; 
it flowers in May and June, and flourishes 
freely in sandy soil. It is worthy of a 
place in the rock-garden, and wherever 
dwarf Potentillas are grown. S. Europe. 

Potentilla nitida. 

P. nitida (Shining Cinquefoil). A 
pretty little plant, about 2 inches high, 
with silky-silvery leaves ; the flowers of a 
delicate rose, the green sepals showing 
between the petals. This native of the 
Alps is well worthy of a place in the 
choice rock-garden, and is or the easiest 
culture and increase. There are several 
varieties pretty in colour. 

P. pyrenaica (Pyrenean Cinquefoil). 
A dwarf but vigorous kind, with large 
yellow flowers, the petals round, full and 
over-lapping. A native of high valleys 
in the Pyrenees, easily increased by 
division or seeds, and thriving without 
any particular attention. 

P. fmticosa (Shrubby Cinquefoil). A 
pretty neat bush, 2 to 4 feet high, bear- 
ing in summer clusters of showy yellow 
flowers. It is suited for dry banks among 
rock shrubs. 

plant for the rock-garden, creeping 

over the soil like the Fruiting Duck- 
weed ; the flowers white, and like a 
dwarf Lobelia, numerous in autumn, 
giving place to violet- coloured berries 
about the size of peas. It is hardy. 
New Zealand. Syn., Lobelia littoralis. 

PRIMULA (Primrose). Alpine, 
mountain, pasture, marsh, or water- 
side dwarf perennials, of the greatest 
interest and much beauty, inhabiting 
all the great northern continents and 
the mountains of India in numbers 
sometimes enough to impart their own 
lovely colour to the landscape in 
mountain ground. Coming as they 
do from an immense variety of situa- 
tions in mountain ground, their culture 
is of more complexity than that of most 
alpine plants, though not especially 
those of marshy ground. Among the 
best of them is our native Primrose, 
which in our northern woods is perhaps 
more beautiful than any one known 
kind. In nature many of these plants 
are deeply covered by snow for a long 
season, and thus enjoy a rest, which 
they cannot have in this country, 
where, in our open, green winters, the 
growth goes on, and the plants become 
more stalky than they do in nature. 
It is necessary, therefore, now and 
then to divide and top dress in the 
spring, in order to keep them in health. 
In the case of the high alpine kinds, 
in our dry summers, it is necessary to 
see that they are kept moist. In the 
southern parts of our country these 
kinds should be grown on the north 
and west sides of the rock-garden. 
Some of the fine Indian kinds thrive 
in ordinary soils, especially in the 
north and in moist districts, and 
some, like the Indian rosy Primrose (P. 
rosea), and the Japan Primroses, may 
be grown almost at the water's edge. 
The kinds we describe here are those 




of which we have some knowledge in 
cultivation, or have seen on the 
mountains of Europe. In the vast 
mountain ranges of India and Asia, 
probably the number of species is not 
even known yet. 

As to aspect on the rock-garden, 
Mr W. A. Clarke, in "Alpine Plants," 
says : 

"P. calycina should have a north-east 
aspect, well-drained position, rough loam 
and limestone, two parts each. P. Clusiana, 
south-west aspect ; peat, loam, and sand 
two parts loam, one peat, one sand. P. 
frondosa, south aspect ; good strong loam, 
with a little sand. P. glutinosa, shady 
place or north aspect ; peat, loam, and 
sand ; P. involucrata, north aspect. 

" P. minima will do in a sunny place if 
it can be well watered in summer. In a 
partially shaded place it grows well, but 
does not flower so prettily. 

" P. nivalis. A partially shaded place in 
deep, peaty loam suits this species well. 
P. sikkimensis. Plant on the north side 
of a bog in good loam and leaf-mould." 

To some extent, the question of 
aspect depends on where we are north, 
south, or west. The many forms of the 
Auricula are varieties of one alpine 
Primula, and have the same needs as 
to moisture and aspect. In some 
districts the natural conditions of open 
ground suit them admirably ; in other 
southern and dry districts we cannot 
grow them unless on cool shady borders, 
if at all. 

Frequently, in addition to their high 
and cool alpine home-conditions, the 
Primroses grow wedged in between 
rocks without apparent nourishment, 
but the roots deep in the chinks where 
such moisture as exists can alter them 
very little. I remember in the 
Maritime Alps an enormous tuft of 
Primula Allioni in the seams of a 
great bare cliff, hundreds of feet 
above our heads ; and, therefore, in 
our rock-gardens it is well to use 

pieces of grit or stone to protect the 
plants, and do a double good in keeping- 
the moisture in the ground and also 
other and coarser plants away from 
these often very small alpine Prim- 
roses. We may frequently wedge 
them in between lumps of grit or 
sandstone. The marsh-loving kinds 
will not want this attention. The 
many natural hybrids, tender, or 
doubtful species, are left out of the 
following selection of the Primroses- 
in cultivation, or observed in a wild 
state in Europe. 

Primula Allioni (Allionis Primrose). A 
bright richly coloured kind, blooming in 
March or April, the flowers about an inch 
in diameter, of a fine rosy purple colour, 
with white centre, and borne on very 
short stems. This charming Primrose is, 
unfortunately, not one of the easiest 
to cultivate as though loving moisture 
at the roots, it is susceptible to much 
moisture on the leaves, especially during 
the winter. For this reason, it succeeds 
best when planted sideways between 
stones, i.e. with its roots in an almost 
horizontal position, so that water can 
drain off from the leaves. A form 
of P. Allioni is found in the Tyrol, 
and is known to botanists as P. tirolensis, 
but the difference between the two forms 
is slight. 

P. calycina. From the Alps of 
Lombardy ; is a dwarf Primrose of easy 
culture in the rock-garden. It has 
umbels of from three to five rosy-purple 
flowers springing from a short stalk in 
May or June. It thrives in a heavy 
soil and shaded from the sun. 

P. amsena. Allied to our wild Primrose, 
but distinct purple flowers coming out 
before the snow has left. In leaf it is 
not unlike P. denticulata, and the fact 
that it possesses the vigour of that plant, 
and also has much larger flowers, makes 
it welcome. It is so much earlier than 
the common Primrose that, while that 
species is in flower, amozna has 
finished blooming, and sent up almost 
the same kind of strong tuft of leaves 
which the common Primrose does after 




its flowers are faded, A sheltered and 
slightly shaded position will tend to the 
health of the plant. It is readily 
propagated by division of the root, and is 
a native of the Caucasus. The umbel 
is many-flowered, the blooms larger than 
those of P. denticulate, borne about 6 or 
7 inches high ; the leaves woolly 
beneath and toothed. 

Primula auricula (Auricula). The 
parent of the Auricula of which Parkin- 
son, writing more than two hundred years 
ago, enumerates twenty-one varieties, and 
says there were many more ; and in 1792 
the Catalogue of Maddoek, the florist, 
named nearly five hundred sorts. In our 
own time these have come to be almost 
forgotten as florists' flowers. P. auricula 
lives in a wild state on the high mountain 
ranges of Central Europe and the Cau- 
casian Chain, and is one of the many 
Primulas which rival the Gentians, 
Pinks, and Forget-me-nots, in making 
the flora of Alpine fields so beautiful 
Possessing a vigorous constitution, and 
sporting into a goodly number of varieties 
when raised from seed, it attracted early 
attention from lovers of flowers ; its more 
striking variations were perpetuated and 
classified, and thus it became a "florists' 
flower." I do not desire to approach the 
subject from the florists' point of view, 
believing that to be a narrow and to some 
extent a base one ; so much so, indeed, 
that I cannot regret that their practices 
and laws about the flower have taken but 
weakly root. To lay down mechanical 
rules to guide our appreciation of flowers 
must for ever be the shallowest of vanities. 
But, without seeking to conform or select 
them according to mechanical rules, we 
may preserve and enjoy all their most 
attractive deviations from the wild forms 
of the species. 

The varieties of cultivated Auriculas 
may be roughly thrown into two classes : 
First, self -coloured varieties, with the outer 
and larger portion of the flower of one 
colour or shaded, the centre or eye being 
white or yellow, and the flowers and other 
parts usually smooth and not powdery ; 
second, those with flowers and stems thickly 
covered with a white powdery matter, or 
<* paste." The handsomest of the not- 

powdery kinds, known by the name of 
"alpines," to distinguish them from 
the florists' varieties, are the hardiest. 
The florists' favourites are always readily 
distinguished by the dense mealy matter 
with which the parts of the flower are 
covered. They are divided by florists 
into four sections : green-edged, grey- 
edged, white-edged, and selfs. In the 
green-edged varieties, the gorge or throat 
of the flower is usually yellow or 
yellowish ; then comes a ring varying 
in width of white powdery matter, 
surrounded by another of some dark 
colour, and beyond this a green edge, 
which is sometimes half an inch in width. 
The outer portion of the flower is really 
and palpably a monstrous development 
of the petal into a leaf-like substance, 
identical in texture with that of the leaves. 
The "grey-edged" have also the margin 
of a green leafy texture, but so thickly 
covered with powder that this is not 
distinctly seen. This, too, is the case 
with the "white-edged," the differences 
being in the thickness and hue of the 
" paste," or powdery matter. In fact, the 
terms green-edged, grey-edged, and white- 
edged, are simply used to express slight 
differences between flowers all having an 
abnormal development of the petals into 
leafy texture. It is a curious fact that 
between the white and the grey the line 
of demarcation is imaginary, and Wh 
these classes occasionally produce green- 
edged flowers. The "selfs" are really 
distinct, in having the outer and larger 
portion of the corolla of the ordinary 
texture, a ring of powdery matter sur- 
rounding the eye. 

The enumeration and classification of 
such slight differences merely tend to 
throw obstacles in the way of the flower 
being generally grown and enjoyed in 
gardens. By all means let the florists 
maintain them, but those who merely 
want to embellish their gardens with 
some of the prettier varieties, need not 
trouble themselves with named sorts at 
all. One fact concerning the florists' 
kinds should, however, be borne in mind, 
they are the most delicate and difficult 
to cultivate. The curious developments 
of powdery matter, green margins, etc., 




have a tendency to enfeeble the constitu- 
tion of the plant. They are, in fact, 
variations that, occurring in Nature, would 
have little or no chance of surviving in 
the struggle for life. The grower will 
do well to select the free sorts good 
varieties of the border kinds. 

Their culture is simple : light vegetable 
soil and plenty of moisture during the 
growing season being the essentials. In 
many districts the moisture of our climate 
suits the Auricula to perfection, and in 
such may be seen great tufts of it grown 
without attention. In others, it must be 
protected against excessive drought by 
putting stones round the plants, and 
cocoa-fibre and leaf-mould are also useful 
as a surfacing. In a plant so much 
degraded by florists from its natural 
form and colour as this Primrose, it is well 
to return to the natural colour and some 
very fine yellow-flowered kinds have been 
raised by Mr Moon and others, more 
beautif uf than the florists' kinds. 

Auriculas are easily propagated by 
division in spring or autumn best in 
early autumn. They are also easily 
raised from seed, which ripens in July, 
the common practice being to sow it in 
the following January in a gentle heat. 
It should be sown in pans thinly. The 
plants need not be disturbed till they are 
big enough to prick into a bed of fine rich 
and light soil, on a half -shady border in 
the open air. It is a most desirable 
practice to raise seedlings, as in this way 
we may obtain many beautiful varieties. 
When a good variety is noticed among the 
seedlings, it should be marked and placed 
under conditions best calculated to ensure 
its rapid increase, and propagated by 

Primula capitata. One of the finest 
of Primroses, in autumn bearing dense 
heads of flowers of the deepest purple, 
which as regards depth is variable, and is 
shown to advantage by the white mealy 
powder in. which the flowers are enveloped. 
It is not so vigorous as P. denticulata, 
though hardy, and it cannot be termed 
a good perennial, as it is apt to go off 
after flowering well. It is therefore 
advisable to raise seedlings. This is easy, 
as the plant seeds freely in most seasons, 

and the seedlings flower in the second 
year. An open position with a north 
aspect in good loamy soil well watered in 
dry weather suits it best. India. 

Primula carniolica is a native of 
Northern Italy and the Tyrol, the flowers, 
bluish- purple or lilac, with a white centre. 
The leaves are oblong, about 2^ inches 
long, very smooth, and arranged in a 
rosette. A variety, multiceps, has larger 
flowers. The position of P. carniolica 
should be a half-shady one, and it should 
be planted sideways on sloping or per* 
penaicular rocks. 

P. cprtusoides (Cortusa-like Primrose). 
This is entirely distinct in appearance 
from any of the species commonly grown, 
the leaves being large and soft, not nest- 
ling firmly on the ground like many 
of the European species, but on stalks 
2 to 4 inches in length ; the deep rosy 
clusters of flowers on stalks from 6 to 1O 
inches high. In consequence of its taller 
and freer habit, the plant is liable to be 
disfigured if placed in an exposed spot, 
therefore it should have shelter in a sunny 
nook, surrounded by low shrubs, or in any 
position where it will not be exposed to 
cutting winds. The soil should be light 
and rich, with a surfacing of cocoa-fibre or 
leaf-mould. It is one of the most beauti- 
ful and easily-raised Primroses, readily 
increased from seed. Siberia. 

P. denticulata (Denticulated Primrose)* 
A Himalayan Primrose, with neat dense 
umbels of many small lilac flowers, on 
stalks from 8 inches to a foot high r 
springing from leaves, hairy on both 
sides, and densely so beneath. It is 
often grown in pots, but is hardy in deep 
light loam with a dry bottom, selecting a 
spot sheltered on the coldest sides. Division 
or by seeds. Although hardy, the leaves- 
are injured by the first sharp frosts, so 
that it is well to keep it in well-drained 
warm positions. It is a variable plant, 
and some of its more distinct forms have 
received garden names, of which the 
principal are mentioned below. It is 
paler in. colour than any 6f its varieties, 
and its foliage and flower-stalks are not 
mealy. P. pulcherrima is a great improve- 
ment on the species. It grows from 10 
to 12 inches high, and has a more globular 




flower-truss, which is of a deep lilac colour. 
The stalks are olive-green, and, like the 
leaves, are slightly mealy. P. Henryi is a 
very strong-growing variety, but does not 
otherwise differ from P. pulcherrima. 
It is a handsome plant, often 2 feet across, 
And in Ireland it reaches even larger 
dimensions. P. cashmeriana is the finest 
variety. The flowers are of a lovely dark 
lilac, closely set together in almost a 
perfect globe on stalks over 1 foot high. 
They last from March till May. The 
foliage is beautiful, and, like the stalk, is 
of a bright pale green, thickly powdered 
with meal. They all prefer a cool 
situation, with a clear sky overhead, and 
delight in an abundance of moisture 
during warm summers. 

Primula erosa (Himalayan Primrose). 
Sometimes grown under the name of 
P. Fortunei, with shining leaves, quite 
smooth, and sometimes quite powdery, 
which, with its smoothness, distinguishes 
it at a glance from P. denticulata. The 
purplish blossoms with yellow eyes in 
flattish heads expand in early spring, and 
are borne on stems usually mealy. Drs 
Hooker and Thompson noticed it blooming 
at great elevations among the snow on 
the Himalayas, and, as might be expected 
from this, it is quite hardy in this 
country, and the way to enjoy its beauty 
is to place it in a sunny but sheltered 
nook on the rock-garden, in sandy loam, 
lightened with peat and leaf -mould, and 
with the drainage perfect. It should 
never be allowed to suffer from drought 
in summer. 

P. farinosa (Bird's-Eye Primrose). 
Slender powdery stems, from 3 to 12 
inches high, springing from rosettes of 
musk-scented leaves, with their under 
sides clothed with a silvery-looking meal, 
bear the graceful lilac-purple flowers of 
the Bird's-Eye Primula. No sweeter 
flower holds its head up to kiss the breeze 
that rustles over the bogs and mountain 
pastures of Northern England. To find 
it inlaid over moist parts of the great 
hill-sides on an early summer morning 
as one ascends the Helvellyn range for 
the first time, is, to a lover of our wild 
flowers, a pleasure long remembered. In 
the Alps of Dauphiny the valleys are 

coloured with its flowers, and where the 
bottom of the valley only is moist, a 
river, as it were, of this Primrose in bloom 
runs through it. I have mostly seen it 
in very moist spots where running water 
spreads out all over the surface, still, 
however, continuing to flow ; but it is 
also found under different conditions. 
A moist, deep, and well-drained crevice, 
filled with peaty soil or fibry sandy loam, 
will suit it to perfection. It is easv to 
cultivate in pots, the chief want, whether 
in pots or in the open, being abundance 
of water in summer, and where this does 
not fall naturally, it ought to be supplied 
artificially. When planted on the rock- 
garden in the drier districts, it would be 
well to cover the soil with cocoa-fibre or 
leaf-mould, which would protect the 
surface from evaporation ; broken bits of 
sandstone would also do. It varies a 
little in the colour of the flower, there 
being pink, rose, and deep crimson 

P. farinosa acaulis is a diminutive 
variety of the preceding. The flowers 
are not freely upheld on stems like those 
of the common wild form, but nestle down 
in the very hearts of the leaves, and both 
flowers and leaves being very small, when 
a number of plants are grown together 
on one sod, or in one pan, they form a 
little cushion of leaves and flowers not 
more than half an inch high. The same 
positions will suit as have been recom- 
mended for the Bird's-Eye Primula, but 
being so very dwarf, it ought to have 
more care. If any weeds or coarse 
plants were allowed to vegetate over or 
near it, it would of course suffer. 

Primula glutinosa (Glutinous Primrose). 
A distinct little Primrose, and growing 
abundantly in peaty soil at elevations 
of 7,000 or 8,000 feet on mountains near 
Gastein and Salzburg, in the Tyrol, and 
in Lower Austria. The leaves are nearly 
strap-shaped, but winding towards the 
top, where they are somewhat pointed 
and regularly toothed. The stem is as 
long again as the leaves, growing from 
3 to 5 inches high, bearing from 1 to 5 
blossoms, purplish-mauve, with the 
divisions rather deeply cleft. Grow in 
moist peaty soil. 




Primula integrifolia (Entire - Leaved 
Primrose). A most diminutive Primrose, 
recognized by its smooth, shining leaves, 
lying quite close to the ground, and in 
spring, when in bloom, by its handsome 
rose flowers, with the lobes deeply divided, 
one to three flowers being borne on a dwarf 
stem, but little above the leaves, and these 
flowers are often large enough to obscure 
the plant that bears them. It is common 
on the higher parts of the Pyrenees, and I 
met with it in abundance in North Italy. 
Scores of plants sometimes grew together 
in a sod, like daisies, wherever there was 
a little bank or slope not covered by 
grass ; and it was also plentiful in the 
grass, growing in a sandy loam. There 
should be no difficulty in growing this 
plant on flat exposed parts of rocks, the 
soil moist and free, but firm. The best 
way would be to try and form a wide 
tuft of it, by dotting from six to a dozen 
plants over one spot, and, if in a dry 
district, scattering a little cocoa-fibre 
mixed with sand between them. This, 
or stones, will help till the plants become 
established. It flowers in early summer, 
and is increased by division and by seeds. 
P. Candolleana is another name for this, 
and P. glaucescens is a variety of it. 

P. latifolia (Broad-leaved Primrose). 
A handsome and fragrant Primrose, with 
from two to twenty violet flowers in a 
head, borne on a stem about twice as 
long as the leaves. This is less viscid, 
larger, and more robust than the better 
known P. viscosa of the Alps, the leaves 
sometimes attaining a length of 4 inches 
and a breadth of nearly 2 inches. It grows 
to a height of from 4 to 8 inches, flowers 
in early summer, comes from the Pyrenees, 
the Alps of Dauphiny, and various 
mountain chains in Southern Europe, 
and in a pure air will thrive on sunny 
slopes in sandy peat, with plenty of 
moisture during the dry season, and 
perfect drainage in winter. It will bear 
frequent division ; and may also be well 
and easily grown in cold frames or pits. 

P. longiflora (Long-flowered Primrose}. 
Related to our Bird's-Eye Primrose, 
distinct from it, and larger than those of 
the best varieties of that species, the 
lilac tube of the flower being more than 

1 inch long. It is not difficult to 
cultivate, and the treatment for Primula 
farinosa will suit it. In colour it is 
deeper than the Bird's-Eye Primrose. 

Primula marginata (Margined Prim- 
rose). Distinguished by the silvery margin 
on its greyish, smooth leaves, caused by a 
dense bed of white dust which lies exactly 
on the edge of the leaf ; and by its sweet, 
soft, violet-rose flowers, in April and 
May. I have grown this plant well in 
the open air in London, and in parts of 
the country favourable to alpine plants 
it will prove almost as free as the common 
Auricula. Even when not in flower, the 
plant is pretty, from the hue of the 
margin and surfaces of the leaves. Our 
wet and green winters are doubtless the 
cause of this and other kinds becoming 
lanky in the stems after being more than 
a year or so in one spot. When the stems 
become long, and emit roots above the 
surface, it is a good plan to divide the 
plants, and insert each portion firmly 
down to the leaves. This will be all the 
more beneficial in dry districts, where the 
little roots that issue from the stems 
would be more likely to perish. It is a 
charming plant where it thrives freely. 
In the open ground a few bits of broken 
rock, placed around each plant, or among 
the plants, if they are planted in groups or 
tufts, will do good by preventing evapora- 
tion, and also acting as a protection to the 
plant, which rarely exceeds a few inches 
in height. A native of the Alps of 
Dauphiny, and various ranges in the 
south of Europe, but not of the Pyrenees. 

P. minima (Fairy Primrose). With 
very small leaves, prostrate, but the 
flowers make up for the diminutive 
leaves, being nearly an inch across, and 
quite covering the minute rosette from 
which they spring. It is a native of the 
Alps of Austria, and flowers in early 
summer, the stem rarely bearing more 
than one, but occasionally two flowers, 
rose-coloured, or sometimes white. Bare 
spots are the best places for it, the 
soil to be sandy peat and loam ; it 
is suited for association with the very 
dwarf est alpine plant. It may be 




propagated by division or by seed, and 
comes from the mountains of southern 

Primula Floerkiana is like the Fairy 
Primrose, probably only a variety of it, 
and in the flowers only differing by bearing 
two, three, or more, instead of a single 
bloom. There is also a difference in the 
leaves, which in P. minima are nearly 
square at the ends, but in P. Floerkiana 
are roundish there, and notched for a 
short distance down the sides. It is a 
native of Austria, and will be found to 
enjoy the same conditions as the preceding. 
Of both it is desirable to establish wide- 
spreading patches on firm bare spots, 
scattering ^ inch of silver sand between 
the plants to keep the ground cool. 

P. Munroi (Munro's Primrose). This 
has not the brilliancy or dwarfness of the 
Primulas of the high Alps, nor the vigour 
of our own wild kinds, but it is distinct, and 
is of the easiest culture in any moist soil. 
It grows at high elevations on the 
mountains of Northern India, near water, 
and bears creamy-white flowers, with a 
yellowish eye, more than an inch across on 
stems 5 to 7 inches high, springing from 
smooth green leaves a couple of inches long. 
The flowers are sweet, and it highly 
merits culture in the bog garden, and 
flowers from March to May. P. involucrata 
is an allied kind, from the same regions, 
somewhat smaller, thriving under the 
same conditions. 

P. nivea (Snowy Primrose). A dwarf 
species, freely bearing trusses of lovely 
white flowers, quite distinct in aspect 
from any other in cultivation, happily 
easy of culture, and may be grown in 
pots or in the open ground. If in pots, it 
should be frequently divided ; for it has a 
tendency, in common with other choice 
Primulas, to get somewhat naked about 
the base of the shoots, and, as these 
protrude rootlets, the whole plant is 
likely to go off if not taken up and 
divided into as many pieces as possible. 
Every shoot will form a plant, inasmuch 
as each is usually furnished with little 
rootlets, which take hold of fresh soil 
immediately. In a wild state the natural 
moisture and the accumulating debris of 
the mountain enable them to use those 

exposed rootlets, and thrive ; but in 
cultivation I have found it best to divide 
such fine Primulas as this, and plant 
them down to the leaves when their stems 
have grown much above the soil. The 
ground would also be the better of being 
covered with an inch or so of cocoa-fibre. 
In moist and cool districts there would be 
less trouble, but, in all, care should be 
taken to give the Snowy Primrose what it 
deserves a select place, a light free soil, 
and plenty of water during the summer. 
It flowers in April and May, is a native of 
the Alps, and is by some supposed to be 
a variety of P. viscosa. 

Primula officinalis (Cowslip). The 
Cowslip of our meadows is worthy of a 
place in gardens ; but the many handsome 
kinds that have sprung from it are more 
valuable from a garden point of view. 

Polyanthuses for rich colour surpass 
all other flowers of our gardens in spring. 
At one time the Polyanthus was highly 
esteemed as a florists' flower, but nearly 
all the choice old kinds are now lost, and 
florists who really pay the flower any 
attention are few. In consequence, how- 
ever, of the great facility with which 
varieties are raised from seed, nobody 
need be without handsome kinds, and 
raising them will prove interesting amuse- 

P. Parryi. A pretty rocky mountain 
Primrose, bearing about a dozen large, 
purple, yellow-eyed flowers, nearly 1 inch 
across in summer on stems about 1 foot 
high. Though an alpine plant, and 
growing on the margins of streams near 
the snow-line, where its roots are bathed 
in ice-cold water, it has succeeded in 
Britain in moist, loamy soil mingled with 
peat ; it is hardy, and requires shade from 
extreme heat rather than protection from 
cold. North- West America. 

P. suaveolens of Bertolini is a variety 
of the Cowslip, found in many parts of the 
Continent, and not sufficiently distinct or 
ornamental to merit cultivation. 

P. elatior is the true as distinguished 
from the common Oxlip. It is not an 
ornamental species, the flowers being of a 
pale buff-yellow, and it is readily dis- 
tinguished by its funnel, and not saucer- 
shaped corolla, which is also destitute of 




the bosses which are present in the 
Primrose and Cowslip. It is found in 
woods and meadows on clayey soils in the 
eastern counties of England, particularly 
in Essex, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire. 

Primula palinuri (Large-Leaved Prim- 
rose}. This is distinct from other culti- 
vated Primroses, inasmuch as it seems to 
grow all to leaf and stem, whereas many of 
the other kinds often hide their leaves 
with flowers. In April the yellow flowers 
appear in a bunch at the top of a powdery 
stem, emit a cowslip-like perfume, and are 
pretty, though they rarely fulfil the 
promise of the vigorous-looking plant. 
I have seen it flourish in rich light soil as 
a border-plant in various parts of these 
islands, and established plants are easily 
increased by division. Southern Italy. 

P. purpurea (Purple Primrose}. A 
handsome Primrose, from elevations of 
12,000 feet or more on the Himalayas, 
and allied to P. denticulata, though finer ; 
the flowers, of an exquisite purple, are 
larger, in heads about 3 inches across. 
Sheltered and warm positions, but not 
very shady, will best suit it, the soil being 
a light deep sandy loam and decomposed, 
leaf -mould. I have never seen it thrive 
so well as when planted in nooks at the 
base of rocks which sheltered it, where it 
enjoyed more heat than if exposed. 

P. Scotica (Scotch Birds-Eye Primrose}. 
This, one of the most lovely of its family, 
is a near ally of the Bird's- Eye Primrose. 
Its rich purple flowers, with large yellowish 
eye, open in the end of April, supported on 
stems from ^ an inch to 1 inch high, 
growing an inch or two taller as the season 
advances. It is said by some botanists 
to be simply a variety of the Bird's-Eye 
Primrose, but the seedlings show no 
tendency to approach the larger and 
looser P. farinosa, and Mr Boswell Syme, 
who has carefully observed the living 
plant both in a wild state and cultivated 
in his own garden, declares it to be 
"perfectly distinct." The leaves are 
powdery on the under side, broadest near 
the middle, shorter, and less indented than 
those of P. farinosa, which are broadest 
near the end ; and the whole plant is 
about large enough to associate with a 
dwarf moss or lichen. A native of the 

counties of Sutherland and Caithness, 
and of the Orkney Isles, growing in damp 
pastures. The best place for it is on some 
spot where it would have perfect drainage, 
and not be injured by strong - growing 
plants shading it. The soil should be a 
friable loam, mixed with sandy peat or a 
little cocoa-fibre, and made firm ; a few 
pieces of broken porous rock should be 
placed firmly in the ground around it, 
so as to show half their size above the 
surface, prevent evaporation, and also act 
as a guard to the little plant. If a coating 
of dwarf moss is spread over the earth 
after a time, I should not remove it, be- 
lieving the plant to enjoy such a carpet. 
Although so small, it is, when in health, 
vigorous, and seeds freely, the self-sown 
seedlings having often formed with me 
good plants on the mossy surface of the 
ground. I have grown it in the open air 
near London ; but, as a rule, it is best for 
all who do not try it in a pure atmosphere 
to grow it in well-drained pots or pans, 
using the same kind of soil, and protecting 
the plants in a cool shallow frame in 
winter, placing the pots out of doors in 
summer, plunged in coal-ashes or sand. 
In all cases the plant should be abundantly 
watered in dry weather. Easily pro- 
pagated by seeds, which should be sown 
soon after they are ripe in shallow pans of 
sandy peat or fibrous loam mixed with 
cocoa-fibre, and placed in an open pit or 
shallow cold frame. 

Primula sikkimensis (Sikkim Cowslip}. 
One of the most remarkable of Primroses; 
when well grown, it throws up strong 
flower-stems from 15 inches to 2 feet high, 
bearing many bell-shaped, pale -yellow 
flowers, without a spot of any other colour, 
the pedicel mealy, the blooms of an agree- 
able perfume. Some of the stems bear a 
head of more than five dozen buds and 
flowers, and each flower is nearly 1 inch 
long and more than inch across. It is 
hardy, and loves deep well- drained and 
moist ground ; near water, or in deep 
boggy places, suit it best ; begins to flower 
in May, and remains in flower for many 
weeks. It is said to be the pride of all 
the Primroses of the mountains of India, 
inhabiting wet boggy localities, at eleva- 
tions of from 12,000 to 17,000 feet, and 




covering acres of ground with its yellow 
flowers. Propagated by division, as it 
rarely or never matures its seeds in this 
country. It is well to raise it from good 
seed now and then, as it is apt to disappear 
in some soils. 

Primula Stuartii (Stuart's Primrose). 
A noble and vigorous yellow Primrose, 
a native of the mountains of Northern 
India, to some parts of which, according 
to Koyel, it gives a rich yellow glow. 
It grows about 16 inches high, has leaves 
nearly a foot long, mealy below, smooth 
above ; the umbels being many-flowered. 
Like P. denticulata and the purple 
Primrose, the place most suitable for 
this is some perfectly drained and 
sheltered spot ; if convenient, plant it 
against the base of rocks, which will 
shelter it from cutting winds, though, 
when sufficiently plentiful, this precaution 
may be dispensed with. A light deep 
soil, never allowed to get dry or arid in 
summer, will suit it well. 

P. viscosa (Viscid Primrose). This is 
the lovely little Primrose that travellers 
who visit the Alps in early summer see 
opening its clear rosy-purple flowers with 
white eyes at various altitudes : some- 
times, in crossing a high pass, it comes 
into view, plant, flower, and all, not bigger 
than a shilling, but still bravely flowering 
indeed, nearly all flower ; while on 
sunny slopes and in the valleys it may be 
seen nearly as large as the Auricula. It 
may be grown in any position in light, 
peaty, or spongy loam, with about one-half 
its bulk of fine sand, provided its roots 
are kept moist during the dry season. A 
native of the Alps and Pyrenees ; easily 
increased by division, and may also be 
raised from seed. Varieties are some- 
times found with white flowers, but 
rarely. The handsome purple Primroses 
known in gardens under the name of 
P. ciliata and P. ciliata purpurea are 
varieties of this, the last said to be a 
hybrid between it and an Auricula. Syn., 
P. villosa. 

P. vulgaris (Common Primrose). The 
Gentians and dwarf Primulas do not do 
more for the Alps than this for the hedge- 
banks, groves, open woods, and borders of 
fields and streams of the British Isles. 

The forms of the plant most precious 
for the garden are the beautiful old double 
kinds. No sweeter or prettier flowers 
ever warmed into beauty under a northern 
sun than their richly and delicately tinted 
little rosettes. The best known and 
most distinctly marked kinds are the 
double lilac, double purple, double 
sulphur, double white, double crimson, 
and double red. 

The double kinds, more delicate and 
slower - growing than the single ones, 
require more care, and in their case the 
development of healthy foliage after the 
flowering season should be the object of 
those who wish to succeed with them. 
Shelter and partial shade are the two con- 
ditions chiefly necessary to secure this. 
Open woods, copses, and half -shady places 
are the favourite haunts of the Primrose 
in a wild state. In them, in addition to 
the shade, it enjoys shelter not merely 
from tall objects around, but also from the 
long grass and other herbaceous plants 
growing in close proximity ; and we 
should also take into account the moisture 
consequent upon such companionship, and 
let these facts guide us in the culture of 
the double kinds. As will be readily seen, 
a plant exposed to the full sun on a naked 
border would be under a different con- 
dition to one in a thin wood ; the exces- 
sive evaporation and searing away of the 
leaves by the wind would be sufficient to 
account for the failure of the exposed 
plant. It is therefore desirable, in the 
case of the beautiful double Primroses, to 
plant them in shaded and sheltered 
positions, using light rich vegetable soil, 
and, if convenient, keeping the earth 
from being too rapidly dried up by 
spreading cocoa-fibre or leaf-mould on it 
in summer. 

They are increased by division of the 
roots, and to take them up in order to 
divide these is the only disturbance they 
should suffer. The double Primroses well 
grown, and the same kinds barely existing, 
are such very different objects, that nobody 
will begrudge giving them the trifling 
attention necessary to their perfect de- 
velopment. Occasionally they may be 
seen flourishing by some cottage or old 
country garden, where they find a home 




more congenial than the bare fashionable 
flower-garden of our own day, and they 
are well worthy of a place on the cooler 
sides of the rock-garden or among the 
mountain shrubs near it. 

Primula rosea (Rosy Indian Primrose). 
A brightly-hued Primrose, from 6 to 8 
inches high, the flowers in umbels of from 6 
to 9 blooms, on a rather stout stem, rosy 
carmine in colour, with a yellow throat. 
The leaves are very smooth, about 4 inches 
long, and serrated at the margin. It is 
a charming plant for a bog garden, and 
thrives in any damp, light soil. I have 
seen it flourish in a sunny bog-bed even 
better than in a shady one, but it will not 
endure a dry, sunny position. In Scotland 
it grows apace in ordinary garden borders, 
owing to greater rainfall. The plants are 
easily grown from seed or increased by 
division of the root-stock. 

P. rosea grandiflora. Of this variety 
the flowers are more robust, and borne on 
taller and stouter stems ; the colour a 
deeper carmine-crimson. 

P. frondosa. A member of the mealy 
section of Primula, this is the best, most 
vigorous, and the freest bloomer, growing 
with great vigour and freedom where 
P. farinosa is a failure. Growing 9 
inches high, the plant when seen in a 
colony is very pretty, and in quite open 
spots will come into flower earlier than 
many species of the genus. It is a 
fine plant and truly perennial. The 
best place is the rock-garden, and here 
on a level spot, rather low down, and 
afforded some protection by higher rocks 
from mid-day sun, the plant will form 
a pretty picture for a long time. When 
sown as soon as ripe, the plant may be 
largely increased by seeds, the seedlings 
to be grown in colonies, and the soil 
chiefly loam, with small broken rock inter- 
mingled, and a coating of small stones on 
the surface. 

P. Sieboldi (Siebold's Primrose). Though 
this handsome Primrose has been con- 
sidered a variety of P. cortusoides, it is dis- 
tinct for the size of its flowers, the breadth 
of its foliage, the creeping character of its 
root, its exclusively vernal habit, its 
pseudo-lobed or grooved seed-vessel, and 
the roundish flattened form of its seed. 

Since its introduction from Japan, numer- 
ous beautiful varieties have been raised, 
some of the most distinct being GlarkicR- 
flora, Lilacina marginata, Fimbriata oculata, 
Vincceflora, Coerulea alba, Mauve Beauty, 
Lavender Queen, laciniata, and maxima. 
These possess a fine diversity of colour, 
and some have the petals fringed. One 
of the chief merits of these Primulas is 
that they bloom early, flowering about the 
month of April when flowering plants 
are rare ; and another is, that they 
are free bloomers, throwing up successive 
flower-stems, and lasting a long time in 
perfection. The best soil for them is 
light and rich, consisting of fibry loam, 
leaf-mould, pulverised manure, and some 
grit to keep it open. They are impatient 
of excessive moisture, and when put in 
open ground should be planted in well- 
drained soil, or in raised positions in the 
rock-garden. The roots creep just below 
the surface, and form eyes from which 
any variety can be easily propagated. 
P. Sieboldi is a perennial, which loses its 
leaves in autumn and winter, when it goes to 
rest, and breaks up again early in spring. 

Primula japonica. One of the hand- 
somest of Primroses, a good perennial, and 
is not at all tender. It is a first-rate 
border plant, and in moist shady spots of 
deep rich loam it grows vigorously, 
throwing up flower-stems 2 feet or more 
high, and unfolding tier after tier of its 
crimson blossoms for several weeks in 
succession. It may be grown in the rock- 
garden as well as in the border, and is an 
excellent wild - garden plant, thriving 
almost anywhere, and sowing itself freely. 
It is said to be rabbit-proof. There is 
a white form, a pale pink, and a rose 
form, but the best is the original rich 
crimson. In raising P. japonica from 
seed, it should be borne in mind that 
the seed remains some time dormant, 
unless it is sown as soon as it is gathered, 
and that it must on no account be sown 
in heat. A cool frame is the proper place 
for the seed-pan, and till the seed has 
germinated, care must be taken to prevent 
or keep down the growth of Moss and 
Liverwort on the soil. This Primrose is 
grown finely at Enys, in Cornwall, along 
the margin of a pond. 




Primula prolifera. This, better known 
under the name of P. imperialis, is a tall 
Indian Primrose, allied to P. japonica, but 
with yellow flowers arranged in whorls. 
It is, perhaps, too tender for the north 
of England, but in sheltered places in 
Cornwall it grows to a height of about 
3 feet. Peaty soil seems to suit it best. 

P. Poissoni. A Chinese Primrose, 
found in the mountains of Yunan, and 
hardy. In Messrs Veitch's Nurseries, at 
Exeter, it withstood even the severe 
winter of 1894 without protection, and it 
is handsome and easy to cultivate, thriv- 
ing in a moist situation. The flowers are 
bright rose, with a slight flush of mauve, 
and have a yellow centre. They are fully 
the size of a shilling, and are arranged in 
verticillate tiers of eight or twelve 
blossoms, each after the style of P. 
japonica, but the tiers are a little further 
apart than in the last-named variety, 
showing often 2 inches or more of stem 
between the tiers. It grows about 12 
inches high. The leaves are pale glaucous 
green, about 5 inches or 6 inches long 
and 2 inches wide, smooth, the midrib 
widened towards the base of the leaf and 
of a pink colour. 

P. Wulfeniana. An excellent rock 
Primrose, preferring calcareous soil, the 
flowers large, deep purple, in umbels of 
about five flowers each, and is one of the 
easiest to grow, planted in a slanting 

P. luteola. One of the handsomest of 
the yellow Primroses, and a fine plant 
when well grown. The flower-stems are 
sometimes l to 2 feet high, though 
usually under 1 foot in height. They 
sometimes become fasciated, and thus 
carry a huge cluster of flowers 4 to 6 
inches across. These flowers are like 
those of a Polyanthus or an Auricula, but 
they are borne in more compact heads. It 
likes a moist situation in full exposure, and 
thrives in rich borders of rather moist soil, 
or on the lower banks of the rock-garden. 

P. spectabilis. A native of the Tyrol, 
growing about 6 inches high, and bearing 
umbels of about seven or eight rosy purple 
flowers. The leaves are smooth and have 
the margin entire and horny. It is a 
good rock-garden plant of easy culture. 

Primula clusiana. The variety is a 
native of the calcareous rocks of the 
Eastern Alps, the flowers large, rosy 
crimson with white centre, and borne in 
large umbels on a stem about 9 inches 
high. It thrives in chalk-soil. 

In addition to the above, there are 
known in cultivation : P. algida 
(Siberia), angustifolia (N. America), 
apennina (Piedmont), Arctotis (Europe), 
assimilis (Europe), auricula, (Europe), 
BalUsii (Europe), Bernincz (Switzer- 
land), Uflora (Switzerland), ciliata 
(Europe), columnae (Europe), com- 
mutata (Europe), coronata (Tyrol), 
cottia (Alps), decipiens (Alps), deorum 
(Bulgaria), digenea (Europe), dinyana 
(Switzerland), discolor (N. Italy), 
Dumoulinii (Alps), Facchinii (N. Italy), 
flagellicaulis (Europe), flc&rpkeana (Alps 
of S. Europe), florilunda (Himalaya), 
Forbesii (China), Forsteri (Tyrol), gam- 
beliana (Himalaya), Goebelii (Tyrol), 
grandis (Caucasus), Heerii (Switzerland), 
heterodonta (China), hirsuta (Europe), 
Huteri (Tyrol), imperalis (Java), 
juribella (S. Tyrol), Kaufmanniana 
(Turkestan), Kolbiana (N. Italy), 
minutissima (Himalaya), mistassinica 
(N. America), mollis (Himalaya), 
muretiana (Switzerland), obovata (Vene- 
tian Alps), Obristii (N. Italy), obtusi- 
folia (India), cenensis (S. Tyrol and 
Italian Alps), pedemontana (Piedmont), 
Peyritsdiii (Tyrol), prolifera (Hima- 
laya), pubescens (Europe), pumila 
(Tyrol), Reidii (Himalaya), rhcetica 
(Switzerland), Rusbyi (New Mexico), 
Salisii (Switzerland), Sendtneri (Tyrol), 
sibirica (Asia and Arctic America), 
similis (Tyrol), spectabilis (Tyrol), 
Steinii (Tyrol), Sturii (Styria), suffru- 
tescens (California), Tyrolensis (Tyrol), 
variabilis (Europe), venusta (Styria), 
verticillata (Arabia), vochinensis (Car- 

(Self-heal). A handsome and vigorous 




plant, distinguished by its large 
flowers from the common British Self- 
heal, which is unworthy of cultivation. 
There is a white as well as a purple 
variety, both handsome plants, that 
thrive in almost any ground, but 
prefer a moist and free soil and a 
position somewhat shaded. They are 
apt to go off in winter on the London 
clay, at least on the level ground. A 
native of continental Europe ; flower- 
ing in summer, but this and other 
kinds are only of secondary use in the 
rock-garden and among shrubs on 

PULMONARI A (Lungwort). 
These plants are more fitted for borders 
than for the rock-garden. The beauti- 
ful plant for many years known as P. 
virginica is now Mertensia. 


(Striped Squill). A fascinating little 
plant, and the most delicately beauti- 
ful among early mountain flowers. 
The flowers white, striped, and tinged 
with blue, the small prostrate leaves 
concave ; easily grown, it does not last 
long in flower, but few spring flowers 
do. The best position for this is on 
low banks, in the rock-garden, or in 
positions where its flowers may be 
seen somewhat beneath the eye, 
associated with dwarf Primulas and 
other diminutive spring flowers. A 
native of the Caucasus, flowering in 
spring, easily increased by division of 
the root, and flourishing best in very 
sandy light soil. 

PYROL A ( Wintergreen). Dwarf 
evergreen he r bs, inhabiting mountain 
woods or copses, moors, and wet 
places among sand dunes. They are 
not difficult to cultivate in moist peat 
or sand, associated with the right sort 
of plants as to stature and wants. 

Pyrola rotundifolia (Larger Winter- 
green). A native plant, inhabiting woods, 
bushy, and reedy places ; with leathery 
leaves, and handsome drooping racemes of 
white fragrant flowers, ^ inch across, ten 
to twenty flowers, on a stem from 6 
inches to a foot high. Pyrola rotundifolia, 
var. arenaria, is another very graceful 
plant, found on sea-shores, and differing 
in being dwarfer, deep green, and smooth. 
Both are beautiful plants for shady mossy 
flanks of rock in free vegetable soil, and 
flourish more readily in cultivation than 
any species of their family. In America 
there are varieties of this plant with 
flesh-coloured and reddish flowers, none 
of which are in cultivation with us, and 
several of the American kinds seem to me 
well worthy of being brought over. 

Pyrola uniftora, media, minor, and 
secunda, are also interesting plants, of 
which the first, a very rare one in our 
Flora, is the prettiest. P. elliptica, a 
native of North America, is also in our 
gardens, though rare. 


(Bearded P.). A curious and minute 
American plant, plentiful in sandy dry 
"pine barrens" from New Jersey to 
North Carolina. It is an evergreen 
shrub, yet smaller than many mosses ; 
the leaves narrow, awl-pointed, and 
densely crowded; the flowers are 
placed singly, and are stalkless, but 
very numerous, rose-coloured in bud, 
white when open. The effect of the 
rosy buds and five-cleft white flowers 
on the dense dwarf cushions is 
singularly pretty. Generally found in 
low, but not wet, places, and usually 
on little mounds, it is a gem for the 
rock-garden, on which it should be 
planted in pure sand and vegetable 
mould, fully exposed. Flowers in 
early summer ; increased by division. 

RAMONDIA (Rosette Mullien). 
Dwarf plants found on steep and some- 
what shady rocks, and, according 
to Ramond, exclusively in valleys 




leading from north to south ; having 
leaves in rosettes spreading very 
close to the ground, blistered, 
deeply wrinkled, and densely covered 
with short hairs quite shaggy beneath 
and on the leaf-stalk. The shady 
side of rocks or moist depressions, or 
the shade of evergreen bushes, suits 
them best in any free soil. I have 
seen them succeed well as edgings to 
beds of evergreen bushes in peat soil. 
They are increased by division only 

and the whole should be moist 
always. They may be increased 
from the leaves, breaking off the 
leaf close to the plant, and pegging 
the foot-stalk into sandy peat, keeping 
the soil meanwhile moist and the 
leaves fresh by covering with a bell- 

Kamondia pyrenaica form rosettes of 
leaves, deeply wrinkled, and covered with 
brown, shaggy hairs on the under surface 
and the lower parts of the leaf -stalk. The 

Ramondia pyrenaica. 

when the rosettes are clustered together, 
and then it must be done with care, 
owing to the closely-nestling character 
of the leaves and the few roots. To 
raise them from seed we should take 
care that the flowers are fertilised; 
with good seed growth is quick, and 
flowering plants may be had in two 
years. A mixture of peat and plenty 
of sand, with sandstone the size of 
Cobnuts, forms a capital compost, 

leaves spread out close upon the soil, and 
the flower-stalks emerge from beneath the 
leafage in the month of June or earlier. 
Usually there are three flowers to each 
stem, though on strong plants as many 
as five are found, each having a diameter 
of 1 inch or rather more, purplish- violet 
in colour, and having a rich orange eye or 
centre. There is a white variety, and 
there is more than one white-flowered 
kind, one a pure and spotless flower. 

R. Nataliae is a rare plant from Servia, 
having light purple flowers with orange 




stamens, and K serbica has large, hand- 
some foliage, and violet-purple flowers. 

RANUNCULUS (Buttercup). 
These are alpine, northern pasture, 
water and waterside plants, many of 
the perennial and mountain kinds, from 
their boldness, hardiness, and beauty, 
admirably suited for the rock-garden. 
Although as interesting as any of the 
great families of rock plants, they are 
not nearly so difficult to grow and 
keep, if care be taken to prevent them 
being overrun by coarser plants. 

early spring, as they often eat out the 
crowns before they are fairly above 
ground, and the flowers are lost for 
the season. A little rough grit will 
do much to prevent this occurring ; if 
placed over the crowns the fine must be 
taken out, only using the rough grit." 

Ranunculus amplexicaulis(La<fy 

Buttercup). A. beautiful plant, with large 
white flowers having yellow centres, one 
to five blooms being borne on a stem, 
which is clasped by smooth sea-green 
leaves, which set off its snowy bouquet of 
flowers. I know no more graceful plant 

Lady Buttercup (Ranunculus amplexicaulis). (Engraved from a photograph.) 

Mr W. A. Clark, in "Alpine 
Plants," rightly attaches importance 
to top-dressing some of the higher 
alpine species, and says "that great 
care must be taken to top-dress or 
replant just after flowering, as the 
plants work out of the ground, 
and this can be done before the hot 
weather begins. If left without top- 
dressing, they will no doubt shrivel 
up with the sun, as the roots will 
have been left all exposed. A sharp 
look-out for snails is essential in the 

for the rock-garden. A native of the 
Alps, Pyrenees, thriving in light, rich 
loam, usually growing 7 inches to 10 inches 
high, flowering in gardens in April or 
May, and increased by seed or division. 
It is worthy of the best positions, and is 
very pretty grouped in a free way. 

R. aconitifolius ( Fair Maids of France). 
This white-flowered Crowfoot, which 
grows from 8 inches to a yard high in 
moist parts of valleys and woods in the 
Alps and Pyrenees, is too large for 
cultivation in the rock-garden among the 
choicer and smaller things ; but its double 
variety is a beautiful old border flower. 




The flowers are not large, but are white 
and double, and resemble a miniature 
double white Camellia. A rich, moist 
soil will be found to suit it best on the 
shady side of the rock-garden, and among 
bog-loving shrubs. 

Ranunculus alpestris (Alpine Butter- 
cup). A diminutive species, from 1 inch to 
3 inches or 4 inches high, and forming neat 
tufts, each stem bearing from one to three 
white flowers in April. The leaves are of a 
dark glossy green, roundish-heart-shaped, 
and deeply divided. It is a native of most 
of the great mountain ranges of Europe, in 
moist, rocky places on the higher pastures, 
and one of the best plants for the rock- 
garden. It is not difficult to grow in 
moist, sandy, or gritty soil, in positions 
exposed to the sun and moist in summer. 

E. Traunfellneri seems to be a dimin- 
utive of the preceding, the whole plant, 
even as we have observed it in cultivation, 
being not more than 1 inch high. The 
same treatment will suit it ; but, being 
smaller, it will require a little more care 
in selecting some firm spot fully exposed 
to the sun and air, but kept moist with a 
surfacing of grit, sand, or small stones, 
till the plant grows into a little spreading 

E. bilobus is another form from S. 

E. anemonoides, a native of the Alps 
of Styria and the Southern Tyrol, is 
a handsome species, with bluish-green 
leaves ; flowers large, with numerous 
divisions, of a greenish-white on the in- 
side and pink on the outside, appearing 
before the leaves, and very early. It does 
best in the rock-garden in a cool place, 
and in moist, porous soil. 

E. bullatus (Marigold Buttercup). 
A dwarf stout perennial, easy to cultivate, 
with showy double flowers, the blossoms 
as large as those of the double Marsh 
Marigold. The plant thrives in heavy 
soil. Division of the roots. 

E. crenatus. A native of granitic 
mountains in Styria, with roundish 
leaves, the flowers large, white, two or 
three together at the extremity of stem, 
3 inches or 4 inches high in April or May. 
It does well in the rock-garden in gritty 
or open soil. 

Eanunculus glacialis (Arctic Butter- 
cup). A well-named plant, as it is an in- 
habitant of very high places on the Alps, 
and may often be seen in flower near the 
snow and in the Arctic regions. The 
flowers are large, white-tinted, of a dull 
purplish-rose on the outside ; the calyx 
with shaggy brownish hairs, the leaves 
smooth, deeply cut, and of a dark green. 
It will thrive in a cool spot in deep, 
gritty soil, moist during the warm months. 
I have seen it thriving with its roots 
below stones. On the Alps it blooms in 
early summer ; in our gardens somewhat 
earlier. It is easily raised from seed, and 
in its native habitat spreads about freely. 
This is the plant which Mr Ruskin met 
with high up among the icy rocks, near 
the margins of the snowy solitude of the 
Alps, and which pleased him so much 
there. It is often washed down by the 
rock streams, and found in the river flats. 

E. gramineus (Grassy Buttercup). A 
graceful plant, which may well represent 
on the rock-garden the beauty of some of 
the taller kinds that are too vigorous for 
it. Easily known by its Grass-like leaves, 
6 inches to 12 inches high. The flowers 
in May are yellow. There is a double 
variety, but it is seldom seen. Southern 
Europe. Division. An easily-grown plant. 

E. Lyallii (Rockwood Lily).Dr 
Hooker calls this plant the "most noble 
species of the genius " " the Water Lily 
of the shepherds." Indeed, even in the 
dried specimens, of which there are many 
in the Kew herbarium, the resemblance 
to our common white Water Lily is 
striking. The plant is said to grow in 
moist places in the Southern Alps, the 
Wurumui Mountains, in the glacier 
regions of the Forbes River, near Otago, 
and elsewhere in the Middle Island of 
New Zealand, at heights of from 1000 
feet to 5000 feet above the sea. In habit 
it seems almost identical with our Marsh 
Marigold, but it is twice or thrice larger. 
The leaves are circular, 12 inches to 15 
inches in diameter peltate, as in the 
Nelumbium, the flowers borne in panicles ; 
each flower of the purest waxy-white 
colour, 3 inches to 4 inches across. To 
raise a stock it has been recommended 
that the seed be sown in well-drained pans 




or boxes filled with peat and coarse grit in 
equal parts, stood in a cool place on the 
north side of a wall, watered well, and 
covered with a sheet of glass. 

To English growers, the most interesting 
experience is that of Mr Bartholomew, 
Park House, Reading, who has grown 
this plant well. His plant was on the 
north side of a summer-house, in 2 feet 
of soil, chiefly peat, which was liberally 
watered all through the summer. When 
it died down in the autumn, a little 
cocoa-nut fibre was placed over the crowns, 
and, with a view to saving the plant as far 
as possible from alternate freezing and 
thawing, a sheet of glass, raised on bricks, 
was placed over it. It flowered freely and 
ripened seed at Reading. It also bloomed 
for three years in succession in a Nursery 
at Aberdeen, the seedlings having been 
raised there. 

Ranunculus montanus (Mountain 
Buttercup). A dwarf compact plant, with 
tufts of deep green, glossy leaves, covered 
in spring with many yellow flowers, some- 
what larger than those of our common 
Buttercup. Although like the Buttercups 
in colour, it is unlike in its dwarf, close 
habit, usually flowering at 3 inches high, 
and, though growing freely enough, not 
spreading about with the coarse vigour of 
many of its fellows. It is a native of 
alpine pastures on the principal great 
mountain-chains of Europe, growing 
freely in moist, sandy soil, and should 
be planted so as to form spreading tufts, as 
it represents in a modest way the beauty 
of yellow kinds too vigorous for the rock- 
garden. Readily increased by seed or 

R. Parnassifolius (Parnassia-Leaved 
Buttercup). Distinct, with beautiful white 
flowers, from one to a dozen or more 
being borne on each stem, which grows 
from 3 inches to 8 inches high, and is 
somewhat velvety, and of a purplish hue. 
The leaves are of a dark brownish-green, 
sometimes woolly along the margins and 
nerves. It is rare in gardens, though 
abundant in many parts of the Alps on 
calcareous soils. No plant is more worthy 
of culture in the rock-garden in sandy, 
well-drained loam. There is a variety 
with narrow leaves. 

Ranunculus pyrenaeus (Pyrenean 
Buttercup). A slender - leaved plant, 6 
inches to 10 inches high, and from the Alps, 
as well as the Pyrenees, where it abounds. 
R. plantagineus from the Piedmont, and 
R. bupleurifolius, usually found in moist 
valleys in the Pyrenees at a much lower 
altitude, are varieties of the species. All 
have white flowers, and are of easy culture. 

R. rutaefolius, syn. callianthemum 
(Rue Buttercup). This, with deeply 
divided leaves, reminding one somewhat 
of those of a very dwarf Columbine, and 
white flowers with orange centres about 
an inch across, on stems from 3 inches 
to 6 inches high, bears from one to three 
flowers, sometimes rose-tinted on the 
outside. A native of high and cool parts 
of the granitic continental ranges ; 
increased by seed or division. 

R. Seguieri (Seguir's Buttercup). 
Like the Glacier Buttercup, about 6 inches 
high, with three-parted leaves, though 
distinct. Usually the flowers are 
solitary, and rarely as many as two or 
three on each stem. The flowers are 
white, with distinctly rounded petals. 
Native of the calcareous Alps of Provence, 
Dauphiny, and Carniola. 

R. Thora (Venom Buttercup). The 
roots of this, like small Dahlia tubers, 
and said to be poisonous, were formerly 
used by the Swiss hunters to poison their 
darts. It is yellow-flowered, with very 
smooth leaves. R. Thora, distributed 
through Switzerland, the Carpathian, 
and other mountain chains on rocks 
and in pastures near the snow-line, 
thrives in gritty loam. 


anese Hawthorn). A Japanese ever- 
green shrub, hardy in the southern 
counties at least, with thick dark 
evergreen leaves and large white and 
sweet-scented flowers, borne in 
clusters at the ends of the young 
branches. It is a low spreading bush, 
and should not be crowded with other 
shrubs. Some of the other species, 
such as R. indica and R. salicifolia, 
both from China, are not hardy enough 
for the open air. 



these shrubs there is one tiny thing 
which is of some value for the rock- 
garden, as it spreads its small shining 
leaves over the rocks, clasping them 
close; the flowers are the most 
unattractive imaginable, but we have 
so many ugly ill-placed stones in a rock- 
garden, that anything which throws a 
veil over them we may have a place for. 

R. Perieri is a dwarf form of the ever- 
green Rhamnus, useful for the rock-garden, 
where evergreen effects are sought. 

Beauty}. An American plant of the 
Melastoma order, hardy, forming little 
bushes, 6 to 12 inches high; the 
stems square, with wing-like angles ; 
the flowers rosy purple, in summer and 
early autumn. A native of North 
America, from a considerable distance 
north of New York to Virginia, and 
westward to Illinois and the Missis- 
sippi, usually in sandy swamps. It 
is very rare, indeed, to see it well 
grown in this country, though no plant 
is better for the bog-garden. The only 
place I noticed this plant invariably 
doing well was in Osborn's old Nursery, 
at Fulham, in beds of moist sandy 
peat. Deep, sandy, boggy soil, with 
moisture at all times, will suit it 
best. Careful division. There are 
other kinds, natives of Eastern North 
America, but probably tender, owing to 
their more southern habitats ; whereas 
this kind, proved to be hardy in our 
climate, grows as far north as Maine. 

RHODIOLA. Plants of the 
Crassula family, resembling some of 
the larger Stonecrops. They have 
fleshy leaves and heads of small 
flowers, which are not, however, very 

family of shrubs, which we see so often 

massed in not very pretty ways, has 
great claims on the rock gardener, 
for many of the species are true 
mountain plants, like those of the 
Alps of Europe, America, India, and 
China. In the first part of this book 
there is a striking instance of the use 
of the Rhododendron in natural rock 
ground, and the many parts of our 
country, where such ground occurs, 
afford beautiful opportunities for like 
effects, even when we are dealing with 
the ordinary stout-growing kinds. 
But on the mountains of Asia and 
China, as well as Europe, there are 
dwarfer and more alpine kinds, which 
may be used even in the smaller sort 
of rock-garden. The main precaution 
to take in all cultivation of Rhodo- 
dendrons in choice gardens is not to 
have anything to do with the usual 
grafting on ponticum, because, if we 
plant in any bold way, and do not 
continually watch the suckers, the 
shoots of R. ponticum will come up 
and kill the kinds we want. So 
always, in rock-gardens at least, 
insist on having plants from layers, 
and most kinds are easily increased 
in this way. 

Rhododendron fermgineum and hir- 
sutum, each bearing the name of " Alpine 
Rose," and which often terminate the 
woody vegetation on the great mountain 
of chains Europe, are easily had in our 
Nurseries, and well suited for the rock- 
garden in open peat soil. R. Wilsonianum, 
myrtifolium, amcenum, hybridum, dauri- 
cumatrovirens, Gowenianum, odoratum, and 
Torlonianum, are also dwarf kinds, which 
may be used in the bush rock-garden the 
last two very sweetly scented. In some 
soils the alpine kinds are not easily 
established, owing in part to our often 
very snowless winters. Place among flat 
stones in cool ground where possible. 

dian Khodora). An early flowering 
shrub, allied to the Rhododendron. 




Being a native of the swamps of Canada, 
it is very hardy, thriving in a moist 
light soil, though it prefers peat. 
In very early spring it bears clusters 
of rosy-purple flowers before the leaves 
unfold. It is a thin bush, 2 to 4 ft. 
high, and may find a place among the 
shrubs near the alpine garden. 

C 1ST US (Thyme-Leaved R.).A 
small Rhododendron-like plant, rising 
scarcely a span high, and thickly 
clothed with small fleshy leaves, 
ciliated at the edge, and with 
exquisite flowers, of purple, bearing 
three or four together in early summer. 
This plant is very rarely seen thriving 
in gardens, and for its successful 
cultivation requires to be planted 
in limestone fissures, in peat, loam, 
and sand in about equal proportions. 
A native of calcareous rocks in the 
Tyrol, and one of the most precious 
of dwarf rock-shrubs for association 
with tiny alpine bushes. 


handsome leaved plant of the Saxifrage 
family. The leaves measure 1 ft. or 
more across, on erect stalks from 2 ft. 
to 4 ft. high, and are cleft into five 
broad divisions. They are of a bronzy- 
green hue, distinct from any other 
hardy plant. The flowers, on tall 
branching spikes, are inconspicuous. 
It likes a peaty soil and a shady 
situation, and is easily propagated 
by cutting the stoloniferous root-stock, 
from one of which as many as twenty 
plants can be made in one year. It 
is a native of Japan, and hardy in 
our climate, and a striking plant among 
shrubs near the rock-garden. 


(Sitcha Water-leaf). A very dwarf 
alpine plant of the Rockfoil order, a few 

inches high; white flowers, May. Suit- 
able for select part of the rock-garden. 

Poppy). If, as I urge, we associate the 
choicer shrubs with the rock-garden, this 
lovely half-shrubby plant may come in 
a queen-flower, even among the fairest. 
It is hardy and enduring on good 
soils, and grows rapidly with me on 
rich loam. Where the winter is feared, 
the best protection for it is a mulch 
over the roots of some light and 
porous material. Pine-needles form 
the best covering, or rough cocoa-nut 
fibre. A point in starting is to get 
healthy plants in pots, planting in 
spring and not disturbing the roots 
much. It may be increased by 
cuttings and seed. 

ROSA (Rose). Given the shrubby 
rock-garden we have an opening for 
wild Roses (or the dwarfest of them) 
with the mountain shrubs. Not a 
few Roses are mountain and alpine 
plants, such as the Pyrenaean, Scotch 
and Gallica Roses, any of which might 
well grace the rock-garden. Among 
natural rocks or banks, any wild Rose 
might be grown with advantage. 


(Rosemary). A grey aromatic bush 
of the stony hill-sides of Southern 
Europe, often grown on cottage walls 
with us, but I never like it so well 
as a group on a hot and poor sandy 
or rocky bank in the southern 
countries, or in the milder sea-shore 

RUBUS (Brambles). These, which 
run everywhere in Britain and stop 
our progress in the woods, are not 
wholly without interest for the rock- 
garden, though many of them are 
too large for it. A few of the 
smaller kinds, such as R. arcticus 




(which grows a few inches high and 
bears numerous rosy-pink blossoms), 
the Cloud-berry, R. Chamcemorus (also 
dwarf and with white blossoms), the 
Dewberry (R. Ccesius), and R. saxa- 
tilis, are pretty for the rock-garden 
in moist soil. 

RUSCUS (Butch&r's Broom). Wiry 
half-shrubby plants, often neglected, 
but having some good qualities, even 
for the rock-garden or shady places 
near. The hardy kinds may be planted 
under the shade of trees. Propagate 
by division of the roots. The R. 
aculeatus (Common Butcher's Broom) 
is a native of copses and woods, 
bearing bright red berries where the 
two sexes are present. This dense, 
much-branched Evergreen rarely grows 
more than 2 ft. high, and its thick, 
white, twining roots strike deep into 
the ground. The Alexandrian Laurel 
(R. racemosus) is a graceful plant, with 
glossy dark green leaves, and is one of 
the best plants for partial shade, and 
thrives best on free leafy, or peaty soil. 
R. Hypophyllum, a very dwarf kind, 
and R. Hylpoglossum are also in 
cultivation, and of easy culture in 
ordinary soil. 

RUTA (Rue). R. albiflora is a 
graceful autumn-flowering plant, about 
2 ft. high, with leaves resembling 
those of the common Rue, but more 
glaucous and finely divided. The 
small white blossoms, borne in large 
drooping panicles, last until the 
frosts. In some localities it is hardy, 
but should have slight protection in 
severe weather. It is also known as 
Boenning-Tiausenia albiflora, and is a 
native of Nepaul. Another pretty 
plant is the Padua Rue (R. patavina), 
4 to 6 in. high, with small golden- 
yellow flowers of the same odour as 
the common Rue, which I saw used 

with pretty effect in the Belvedere 
Garden in Vienna. 

ivort\ A plant known from being 
much talked of a few years since as a 
substitute for lawn-grass, and though 
it has not answered the expectations 
formed of it in that way, it is a minute 
alpine plant, welcome for forming carpets 
as smooth as velvet, dotted with many 
small white flowers, the light, fresh 
green, moss-like carpet being starred 
with them in early summer. It is 
useful in forming carpets of the freshest 
and closest verdure beneath taller, but 
small and rare bulbs, or other plants, 
which it may be desired to place to the 
best advantage. It is multiplied by 
pulling the tufts into small pieces, and 
replanting them at a few inches apart ; 
they soon meet and form a carpet. 
Although it does not generally form a 
good turf, yet it is possible, by selecting 
a rather deep, sandy soil, and by keep- 
ing it clean and well rolled, to make a 
close turf of it ; but this is rarely worth 
attempting, except on a small scale, 
and when it begins to perish in flakes 
here and there, it should be taken up 
and replanted. 

S A L I X ( Willow}. Among ^ the 
Willows there are certain dwarf kinds 
which, though without the floral 
beauty characteristic of the Alpine 
flower, may yet be useful here and 
there in the rock-garden and in the 
marsh-garden, among them being the 
Netted Willow (S. reticulata), the 
Thyme-Leaved Willow, the woolley 
Willow (S. lanata), and S. herbacea, or 
any other dwarf mountain or Arctic 
Willow, all of the easiest culture and 


(Bloodroof). A distinct North Ameri- 




can plant with thick underground 
stems, from which spring large greyish 
leaves, cut into wavy or toothed 
lobes, and full of an orange-red and 
acrid juice. The stems from 4 to 
8 inches high, each bear a solitary 
and handsome white flower in March. 
It grows best in moist places and in 
rich soil, but, like many other plants, it 
has a dislike to certain soils, and is 
not always easy to establish ; the 
most likely places being peaty or leafy 

S.). A small silvery shrub, with 
numerous branches and narrow leaves, 
covered with dense white down, the 
flowers rather small, pale greenish- 
yellow, growing readily in ordinary 
soil, and may be useful on the rock- 
garden. It is considered a variety of 
the better-known S. Chamcecyparissus, 
the Lavender Cotton. This, and its 
other variety, squarrosa, are suitable 
for banks, but forming spreading 
silvery bushes, 2 feet high, in suitable 
soil, are not suited for intimate 
association with very dwarf alpine 

Other species of Santolina are suited 
for like purposes, S. pectinata and 8. 
viridis, forming bushes somewhat like 
the Lavender Cotton. Santolina alpina 
is of more alpine habit, forming dense 
mats quite close to the ground, from 
which spring yellow button-like flowers 
on long slender stems. It grows in 
any soil, and may be used on the less 
important parts of the rock-garden. 
Cuttings of the shrubby species strike 
readily, and S. alpina is easily in- 
creased by division. 

SAPONARIA (Soapworf).PeTQn- 
nial herbs and alpine plants or 
annuals belonging to the Pink 

Saponaria Boissieri is a dwarf plant 
of quick and free growth, somewhat tufted 
in character, and spreading out into good- 
sized plants. It bears freely bright pink 

S. csespitosa is a neat little alpine 
perennial from the higher regions of the 
Pyrenees, flowering in August, but in the 
lowlands its rose-coloured blossoms appear 
towards the end of June. It forms rosettes 
of leaves, the flowers, in a thick cluster, 
are on short, stout stems. This graceful 
little plant is valuable for the rock-garden. 
A sandy soil suits it best, and it endures 
our winters. 

S. lutea, from Savoy and Piedmont, 
has yellow flowers and a woolly calyx. 
The leaves are narrow, and not unlike 
those of the Alpine Catchfly. 

S. ocymoides. A beautiful trailing 
rock-plant, with prostrate stems and many 
rosy flowers. It is easily raised from seed 
or from cuttings, thrives in almost any 
soil, and is one of the best plants we have 
for clothing the arid spots, particularly 
where a drooping plant is desired. 
Although it grows freely in poor soil 
when it is planted with the view of 
allowing it to fall freely over the face of 
the rock, it will do much better by giving 
it a deep, loamy soil. 

SARRACENIA (Pitcher Plant). 
Growing naturally in turfy bogs in 
North America and Canada, these very- 
curious perennials, with hollow pitcher- 
shaped leaves, are hardy so far as 
temperature is concerned, and we have 
seen the Trumpet Leaf (8. flava), and 
the Huntsman's Cup (S. purpurea), 
growing on spongy peat and sphagnum 
in Great Britain and Ireland. One 
point very essential to their success in 
the open air in this country is good 
shelter. In North America these and 
many other beautiful bog-plants are 
sheltered all through the winter by 
deep snow, which alike preserves 
leaves and root from the sudden 
extremes so often fatal to their 
leafage here at home during winter 




and early spring. S. purpurea and S. 
ftava may be planted out in May or 
June on sods of peat or fibrous loam, 
either in a bog-bed or on the sunny 
margins of either pond or stream, and 
if these succeed, other kinds may with 
more confidence be tried. At Glas- 
nevin, S. purpurea has lived outside, 
in a spongy bog near the ornamental 
water there, for many years, and also 
at Newry and elsewhere. All through 
the summer full sunshine is an ad- 
vantage, and there should be plenty of 
moisture around the mossy sod on 
which it is planted. On the approach 
of winter a wire cylinder may be placed 
round the plants, and on the advent 
of frost a top covering of dry leaves or 
bracken fern may be placed lightly 
around the leaves, so as to protect 
them, to check evaporation, and to 
prevent harm from bright early 
morning sunshine after dry and frosty 
nights. With some simple attention 
and shelter of this kind from November 
to March, these plants may be grown 
in the open air with success, and prove 
of much interest. 

SAXIFRAGA (RockfoiT). Dwarf 
tufted perennial herbs of the Alps and 
higher mountains, frequent in northern 
and cold countries. Many of them 
are quite hardy and give with simple 
culture, beautiful effects, even in the 
neighbourhood of smoky towns. They 
fall into different sections or groups, 
offering a striking diversity of colour, 
even when out of flower, in their 
delicate foliage often freshest in 
autumn and winter. 

In the Arctic Circle, in the highest 
Alpine regions, on the arid mountains 
of Southern and Eastern Europe, 
and Northern Africa, and throughout 
Northern Asia, they are found in many 
interesting forms. For the purposes 

of cultivation some rough division is 
convenient, as Saxifrages are very 
different in aspect and uses. There is 
the Mossy or Hypnoides section, of 
which there are many kinds, and their 
Moss-like tufts of foliage, so freshly 
green, especially in autumn and winter, 
when most plants decay, and their 
countless white flowers in spring make 
them precious. They are admirable 
for the fresh green hue with which 
they clothe rocks and banks in winter. 
They are indeed the most valuable 
winter "greens," in the Alpine flora. 
^ Next to these we may place the 
silvery group. These have their 
greyish leathery leaves margined with 
dots of white, so as to give to the 
whole a silvery character. This group 
is represented by such kinds as IS. 
Aizoon and the great pyramidal-flower- 
ing S. Cotyledon of the Alps. Con- 
sidering the freedom with which they 
grow in all cool climates, even on level 
ground, and their beauty of flower and 
foliage, they are perhaps the most 
precious group of Alpine flowers we 
possess, and all can grow them. The 
London Pride section is another. The 
plants of this section thrive with 
ordinary care, in lowland gardens, and 
soon naturalise themselves in low- 
land copses. But the most brilliant, 
so far as flower is concerned, are 
found in the purple Saxifrage (S. 
oppositifolia) group and its near allies. 
Here we have tufts of splendid colour 
in spring with perfect hardiness. The 
large leathery-leaved group, of which 
the Siberian S. Crassifolia is best 
known, is important ; they thrive in 
ordinary soil and on the level ground. 
Such of the smaller and rarer alpine 
species as require any particular 
attention should be planted in moist, 
sandy loam, mingled with grit and 
broken stone, the soil made firm. 




Very dwarf and rather slow-growing 
kinds, like S. ccesia and S. aretioides, 
should be surrounded by half-buried 
pieces of stone, to prevent their being 
trampled on or overrun. Stone will 
also help to preserve the ground in a 
moist healthy condition in the dry 
season, when the plants are most 
likely to suffer. Very dry winds in 
spring sometimes have a bad effect 
when such precautions are not taken. 
The broad-leaved Indian Rockfoils 
(Megasea) are among the most easily 
grown, increased, and enduring of 
hardy plants. Where we seek for 
evergreen effects in winter, there is 
nothing to equal them, and their 
flowers have much beauty in spring. 

In this large family, as in others, 
a first consideration should be whether 
we look at the plants from the artistic 
or the collector's point of view. If 
we wish to get good effects, I say the 
artistic way is the right one. By 
treating the rock-garden as a book or 
herbarium, we cannot get the broad and 
simple effects that are necessary for a 
good result. We want the charm of the 
most distinct things, but for effect 
a few kinds from each group will 
give us a better result than a large 
number. The dotting of a great 
number of species is against good 
effect, but here, as in all cases, in- 
dividual taste should have its way, 
and it may be interesting to ^ study 
a section by fully representing it, and 
to make most of the kinds we prefer. 

The Rockfoils are a numerous 
family, with so many forms that it 
would take a book to describe them, 
as Mr Correvon of Geneva has described 
them fully in various articles written 
for the Garden in 1891. I once saw 
nearly seventy kinds of the mossy 
Saxifrages in the late Mr Borrer's 
garden at Henfield, in Sussex ; but 

as regards effect, half a dozen of these 
will give us all we require. 

The great Indian Rockfoils, syn. 
Megasea, have been in pur gardens 
for many years, but in not one 
place out of twenty do we ever see 
them made a right use of; they are 
thrown into borders without thought 
as to their habits, often as single 
plants, and are soon overshadowed 
by other things ; and in such ways 
we never get any expression of 
their beauty. Yet, if we took a 
little trouble, and grouped them in 
effective ways, they would go on for 
years, giving fine evergreen foliage at 
all times of the year, and, in the case 
of some, showy flowers on tall stems. 
Half the trouble that a gardener gives 
every year to some evanescent plant 
that will only show for a few weeks 
in summer, if given to the placing 
of these properly, would afford us a 
good result for years. In addition to 
the wild kinds, a number of fine 
forms have been raised in gardens of 
late years. Some thought should be 
given to the placing of these things, 
their mountain character telling us 
that they ought to be in open banks, 
borders, or bluffy places exposed to 
the sun, and not buried among heaps 
of tall herbaceous vegetation. They 
are easily grown and propagated, and 
a little thought in placing them in 
sufficiently visible masses is the only 
thing they call for; the fact that 
they will endure and thrive under 
almost any conditions should not 
prevent us from showing how good 
they are in effect when held together, 
either as carpets, bold edgings, or 
large picturesque groups on banks or 
rocks. The following is a selection 
of the best of the kinds in cultivation. 

Saxifraga aizoides (Yellow Mountain 
Eockfoil}. A native plant, abundant in 




Scotland, the north of England, and some 
parts of Ireland, in wet places, by the 
sides of mountain rills, and often descend- 
ing along their course, into the low 
country, bearing at the end of summer 
or autumn bright yellow flowers, half 
an inch across, and dotted with red 
towards the base. Although a moisture- 
loving mountain plant, it is quite easy to 
grow in lowland gardens, doing best in 
moist ground. Wherever a small stream- 
let is introduced to the rock-garden or its 
neighbourhood, it may be planted so as to 
form spreading masses, as it does on its 
native mountains. Division, or by seed. 
When the leaves are sparsely ciliated, it 
is, according to Mr Syme, the 8. 
autumnalis of Linnaeus. 

Saxifraga aizoon (Aizoon Rockfoil). 
Not a showy kind, having a greenish- 
white bloom, but it spangles over many 
a low mountain-crest and high alp-flank 
in Europe and America with its silvery 
rosettes, and in our gardens these form firm 
and roundish silvery tufts in any common 
soil. Plants of it established two or three 
years form grey-silvery tufts, a foot or 
more in diameter, and about 6 inches 
high. As to its culture, nothing can be 
easier ; it grows as freely as any native 
plant, and best when exposed to the full 
sun. Easily increased by division. There 
are several varieties. 

S. Andrews!! (Andrew's Rockfoil). 
This British plant is considered by some 
botanists to be a garden hybrid, and with 
pretty good reason, judging by the leaves 
and flowers ; but nothing more has been 
ascertained about its history. Mr 
Andrews found it first in Ireland, but 
it has not since been discovered. Among 
the green-leaved kinds there is no better. 
Its flowers are large, but I never could 
see any good seed on it. The leaves are 
long, firm in texture, and with a 
membranous margin ; the prettily spotted 
flowers being larger than those of S. 
umbrosa, and the petals dotted with red, 
which, with other slight characters, points 
to the probability 01 its being a hybrid 
between a London Pride and one of the 
Continental group of encrusted Saxifrages. 
It does quite freely on any soil, merely 
requiring to be replanted occasionally 

when it spreads into very large 

Saxifraga aretioides (Aretia Rockfoil). 
A gem of the encrusted section, forming 
cushions of little silvery rosettes, almost 
as small and dense as those of Androsace 
helvetica, and about half an inch high. It 
has rich yellow flowers in April, on stems 
a little more than an inch high. The 
stems and stem-leaves are densely clothed 
with short glandular hairs like those of a 
Drosera. It is not difficult to grow, but 
requires a moist and well-drained soil, 
and being so dwarf, must be guarded 
from overrunning by coarser neighbours. 
Pyrenees ; increased by seed and careful 

S. aspera (Rough Rockfoil). A small 
grey, tufted, prostrate plant, with ciliated 
leaves, with few flowers, rather large, of a 
dull white colour, on stems about 3 
inches high. S. bryoides is considered a 
variety of this, and forms a densely tufted 
diminutive plant, with pale yellow flowers, 
the rosettes of leaves being almost globular, 
and the plant not forming stolons or 
runners like the preceding. Both are 
natives of the Pyrenees ; & bryoides in the 
most elevated regions. Both are easy of 
cultivation, growing freely in the open 
air, even in London, but rarely flowering 

S. biflora (Two-flowered Rockfoil). A 
beautiful dwarf kind, allied to the British 
species, S. oppositifolia, but larger, and 
distinguished by producing two or three 
flowers together, and by having its leaves 
thinly scattered, and not packed on the 
stems like those of that species. It is also 
a much larger plant, and has larger flowers, 
rose-coloured at first, changing to violet. 
I found it in abundance on fields of grit and 
shattered rock, in the neighbourhood of 
glaciers on the high Alps, in company with 
Campanula cenisia ; and just without the 
margins of the vast fields of snow, under 
which, even in June, lay numberless plants 
waiting for an opportunity to open when 
the snow had thawed. It grew entirely in 
loose grit, so that, with a little care, masses 
of the branched imbedded stems and long 
fine roots could be taken up, entire. 

It grows freely in gritty or sandy soil, 
in well-drained positions in rich light 




loam, may be increased by division, 
cuttings, or seed. 

Saxifraga Burseriana (Early Rockfoil). 
This lovely early-flowering Rockfoil is 
a native of the snowy regions of Europe 
and of Central and Northern Asia. It is 
dwarf, and forms spreading tufts of 
glaucous or greyish-green foliage. The 
flowers are large, pure white, with yellow 
anthers, and borne singly or two together 
on a bright purplish rose-coloured stem 
in January and February. It soon forms 
good-sized tufts, preferring a dry, sunny 
situation and calcareous soil. There are 
two or three distinct forms of this species 
which differ chiefly in habit of growth, 
one being much more tufted than the 

S. csesia (Silvery Rockfoil). This re- 
sembles an Androsace in the dwarf ness 
of its tufts. I have met with it on the 
Alps, in minute tufts, staining the rocks 
and stones like a silvery moss, and on 
level ground, where it had some depth of 
soil, spreading into little cushions from 2 
to 6 inches across. It bears pretty white 
flowers, about the third of an inch in 
diameter, on thread-like smooth stems, 1 
to 3 inches high. A native of the high 
Alps and Pyrenees, it thrives in our 
gardens in firm sandy soil, fully exposed, 
and kept moist in summer. It may be 
also grown well in pots or pans in cold 
frames near the glass ; but, being very 
minute, no matter where it is placed, the 
first consideration should be to keep it 
distinct from all coarse neighbours, and 
even the smallest weeds will injure it if 
allowed to grow. Flowers in summer, 
and is increased by seeds or careful 

S. ceratophylla (Horn-leaved Rock- 
foil). A fine species of the mossy section, 
with dark highly-divided leaves, stiff and 
smooth, with horny points ; the flowers 
pure white, and borne in loose panicles in 
early summer, the calyces and stamens 
covered with clammy juice. It quickly 
forms strong tufts in any good garden soil, 
and is well adapted for covering rocky 
ground of any description, either as wide 
level tufts on the flat portions or pendent 
sheets from the brows of rocks. Seed or 

Saxifraga cordifolia. (Great Heart- 
Leaved Rockfoil). Entirely different in 
aspect to the ordinary dwarf section 
of Saxifrages, with very ample leaves, 
roundish-heart-shaped, on long and thick 
stalks, toothed ; flowers a clear rose, 
arranged in dense masses, half concealed 
among the great leaves in early spring. S. 
crassifolia is allied to this. They often 
thrive in any soil, and are hardy ; but it 
is well to encourage their early-flowering 
habit by placing them in sunny positions, 
where the fine flowers may be induced to 
open well. They are perhaps more worthy 
of association with the larger spring 
flowers and with herbaceous plants than 
with alpine plants. They may also be 
used with fine effect on rough rock, or 
on rocky margins to streams or water, 
their fine, evergreen, glossy foliage being 
quite distinct. They may, in fact, be 
called fine-leaved plants of the rocks. 
A native of Siberian mountains. S. ligulata 
(Megasea ciliata) is a somewhat tender 
species, and only succeeds out of doors 
in mild and warm parts of this country. 
Some good varieties of these great-leaved 
Rockfoils have been raised of recent years.' 

S. cotyledon (Pyramidal Rockfoil). 
This embellishes, with its great silvery 
rosettes and pyramids of white flowers, 
many parts of the mountain ranges of 
Europe, from the Pyrenees to Lapland, 
and is easily known by its rather broad 
leaves, margined with encrusted pores 
and its handsome bloom. The rosettes of 
the pyramidal Saxifrage differ a good deal 
in size, and, when grown in tufts, they 
are for the most part much smaller, from 
being crowded than from single rosettes. 
The flower-stem varies from 6 to 30 
inches high, and about London, in common 
soil, will often attain a height of 20 inches, 
and in cultivation usually attains a greater 
size than on its native rocks ; though in 
rich soil, at the base of rocky slopes in a 
Piedmontese valley, I have seen single 
rosettes as large as I have ever seen them in 
gardens. The plant is hardy, and second to 
none as an ornament of the rock-garden, 
thriving in common soil. Nothing can 
be easier to propagate by division, or 
cultivate without any particular attention. 
It is sometimes known as S. Pyramidalis y 





though some consider this at least a 
variety, having a more erect habit, 
narrower leaves, and somewhat larger 

Saxifraga cymbalaria (Golden Rockfoil). 
Quite distinct in aspect from any of the 
family, and one of the most useful of all, 
being a continuous bloomer. I have had 
little tufts of it, which, in early spring, 
formed masses of bright yellow flowers 
set on light green, glossy, small ivy- 
like leaves, the whole not more than 
3 inches high. These, instead of 
falling into the sere and yellow leaf, 
and fading away into seediness, kept 
still growing taller, still rising, and still 
keeping the same little rounded pyramid 
of golden flowers until autumn, when 

Saxifraga geum (Kidney-Leaved London 
Pride). Like the London Pride in habit 
and flowers, but with the leaves roundish, 
heart-shaped at the base, on long stalks, 
and with scattered hairs on the surfaces ; 
flowers about a quarter of an inch across, 
and usually with reddish spots. A native 
of various parts of Europe, useful for 
the same purposes and cultivated with 
the same ease as the London Pride ; 
will grow freely in woods or borders, 
particularly in moist districts. Saxifraga 
hirsuta comes near this, and is probably 
a variety. 

S. granulata (Meadow Rockfoil). A 
lowland plant, with several small scaly 
bulbs in a crown at the root, and common 
in meadows and banks in England, 

Saxifraga cordifolia (Broad-Leaved Rod-foil). 

they were about 12 inches high. 
It is an annual or biennial plant, which 
sows itself abundantly, is useful for 
moist spots, growing freely on the level 

S. diapensiodes. One of the best of 
the dwarf Rockfoils, and also one of 
the smallest. I have grown it very well 
in an open bed in London, and it would 
flourish equally well everywhere if kept 
free from weeds, and in a well-exposed 
spot; the soil should be very firm and 
well-drained, though kept moist in 
summer. The flowers are of a good 
white, three to five on a stem, rarely 
exceeding 2 inches high ; the leaves 
packed into such dense cylindrical 
rosettes that old plants feel quite hard 
to the hand. A native of the Alps of 
Switzerland, Dauphiny, and the Pyrenees. 

with numerous white flowers, f 
inch across. I should not name 
it here, were it not for its hand- 
some double form, S. granulata fl. pi., 
which is often grown in cottage gardens 
in Surrey. It is very useful in the spring 
garden as a border-plant, or on rougher 
parts of rockwood. Mr Bentham con- 
siders that the small bulb-bearing S. 
crenua of Ben Lawers may be a variety of 
the Meadow Saxifrage. As a garden- 
plant, S. crenua, however, is a mere 
curiosity, though it may be acceptable in 
botanical collections. 

S. hirculus ( Yellow Marsh Rockfoil). 
A remarkable species, with a bright 
yellow flower on each stem, or sometimes 
two or three, f inch across, and 
quite different in aspect from any 
other cultivated kind. A native of 



wet moors in various parts of England, 
not difficult to cultivate in moist soil, and 
thriving^best under conditions as near 
as possible to those of the places where 
it is found wild. It is best suited for a 
moist spot near a streamlet of the rock- 
gardeii, or for the bog-garden. 

Saxifraga hypnoides (Mossy Saxifrage). 
A very variable plant in its stems, leaves, 
and flowers, but usually forming mossy 
tufts of the freshest green, abundant 

the healthiest tufts in shade, and 
flowering in early summer. Nothing 
can be easier to grow or increase by 
division. Under this species may be 
grouped S. hirta, S. affinis, S. vncurvifoUa, 
S. platypetala, and 8. decipiens, all 
showing differences which some think 
sufficient to mark them as species. They 
all thrive with the same freedom as 
the Mossy Saxifrage, suffering only from 
drought or very drying winds. 

Saxifraga Juniperina (The Juniper-Leaved Saxifrage). 

on the mountains of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and common in gardens. In 
cultivation it attains greater vigour than 
in a wild state, and no plant is more 
useful for forming carpets of the most 
refreshing green in winter and almost 
in any soil. It thrives either on raised 
or level ground, in half-shady places 
or fully exposed to the sun, forming 

Saxifraga Juniperina (Juniper Rock- 
One of the most distinct kinds in 
cultivation, having spine-pointed leaves, 
densely set in cushioned masses, looking, 
if one may so speak, like Juniper-bushes 
compressed into the size of small round 
pin-cushions. The flowers are yellow, 
arranged in spikes on a leafy stem, and 
appear in summer. It thrives in moist 




sandy, firm soil, and is well worthy of 
a place in the rock-garden. A native 
of the Caucasus. Seed and careful 

Saxifraga longifolia (Queen Rockfoil). 
The single rosettes of this are often 
6, 7, and 8 inches in diameter. I 
have indeed measured one more than 
a foot in diameter. It may well be termed 
the Queen of the silvery section of 
Saxifrages, and is so beautifully marked 
that it is attractive at all seasons, while 
in early summer it pushes up foxbrush- 
like columns of flowers from a foot to 
2 feet long, the stem covered with 
short, stiff, gland-tipped hairs, and 
bearing many pure white flowers. 

It is a native of the higher parts of 
the Pyrenees : hardy in tliis country ; 
not difficult of culture, and may be grown 
in various ways. In some perpendicular 
chink in the face of a rock into which 
it can root deeply, it is very striking 
when the long outer leaves of the 
rosette spread away from the densely 
packed centre. It may also be grown 
on the face of an old wall, beginning 
with a very small plant, which should 
be carefully packed into a chink with 
a little soil. Here the stiff leaves will, 
when they roll out, adhere firmly to 
the wall, eventually forming a large 
silver star on its surface. It will thrive 
on a raised bed, surrounded by a few 
stones to prevent evaporation and to 
guard it from injury. It is propagated 
by seeds, which it produces freely. In 
gathering them it should be observed 
that they ripen gradually from the 
bottom of the stem upwards, so that 
the seed-vessels there should be cut off 
first, leaving the unripe capsules to 
mature, and visiting the plant every 
day or two to collect them as they ripen 

S. lingulata is by some authors united 
with the preceding, from which it chiefly 
differs by having smaller flowers, by 
the leaves and stems being smooth and 
not glandular, by its shorter stems, and 
by the leaves in the rosette being shorter 
and very much fewer in number than 
in the Long-Leaved Saxifrage. It is also a 
charming rock- plant, and will succeed with 

the same treatment and in the same 
positions as the preceding. S. crustata 
is considered a small variety of the long- 
leaved Saxifrage with the encrusted pores 
thickly set along the margins ; being 
several times smaller, it will require more 
care in planting, and to be associated with 
dwarfer plants. 

Saxifraga Lantoscana (Foxbrush Rock- 
foil). A beautiful species of the encrusted- 
leaved section, and a native of Val Lan- 
tosque in the Maritime Alps. It reminds 
one of S. cotyledon, but is smaller, the 
leaves narrower and more crowded in- 
the rosette, and the flower-spike, which is 
not borne erect, but slightly drooping, 
is more densely furnished with white 
flowers. It should be grown in a well 
exposed position, in a gritty soil well- 
drained. It remains long in flower, and 
is one of the best rock-garden plants. 

S. Maweana (Maw's Rockfoil) is a 
handsome species of the ccespitosa section, 
larger than any other as regards both 
foliage and flowers. The latter, about 
the size of a shilling, form dense white 
masses in early summer. After flowering, 
this species forms buds on the stems, 
which remain dormant till the following 
spring. Similar, but finer, is a new 
kind called S. Wallacei, which is far 
more robust, and far earlier, and freer 
as regards flowering, but which does 
not develop buds during summer. It 
is a good plant for the border or the 

S. mutata. A yellow-flowered species, 
bearing considerable likeness to S. lingulata 
and having the flower - panicle about 
18 ins. high. It is rare in cultivation, 
owing to the fact that it not infrequently 
exhausts all its vigour in producing blooms, 
and it rarely matures seeds in this 
country ; and, further, it does not 
produce offsets, like most of this section. 
It is a native of the Alps, but limited 
in its distribution. An allied species, 
S. florulenta, is a beautiful plant of the 
Maritime Alps, difficult of cultivation 
in this country. 

S. oppositifolia (Purple Rockfoil). A 
bright little mountaineer, distinct in 
colour and in habit. The moment 
the snow melts, its tiny herbage 




glows into solid sheets of purplish 
rose-colour ; the flowers solitary,' on 
short erect little stems, and often hiding 
the leaves, which are small, and densely 
crowded. In a wild state on the higher 
mountains of Britain and the Continent, 
in which it has to submit to the struggle 
for life, it usually forms rather straggling 
little tufts ; but on exposed parts of 
the rock-garden, in deep and moist loam, 
it forms rounded cushions fringing over 
the sides of rocks. Propagated by division, 
and flowering in early spring. Old plants 
should be divided. There are the follow- 
ing varieties in cultivation : 8. opp. major, 
rosy pink, large ; S. opp. pallida, pale 
pink, large ; S. opp. alba, white. 

Saxifraga peltata (Great Calif ornian 
Rockfoil). A remarkably distinct species, 
found on the banks of streams in 
California, well known and a Eockfoil of 
large size, the hairy flower-stems, which 
are of an almost purplish-red colour, 
sometimes attaining a height of more 
than 3 feet, and terminating in a large 
umbel of white flowers, with bright rose- 
coloured anthers. The leaves resemble an 
inverted parasol in shape, and are large 
and dark green. They do not appear until 
after the plant comes into flower. This 
kind should be grown in a rich, deep, 

rngy soil, also in a half-shaded position, 
Itered from cold, drying winds. It is 
multiplied by division of the rhizomes 
and also by seed, and is effective in the 
dark parts of the bog-garden. 

S. retusa (Purple-Leaved Rockfoil). A 
purplish species, closely allied to our own 
S. oppositifolia, but, in addition to the 
different character of the leaves, dis- 
tinguished by the flowers having distinct 
stalks, and being borne two or three 
together on their little branches. The 
small, opposite, leathery leaves are 
closely packed in four ranks on the 
stems, which form dense prostrate tufts. 
A native of the Alps and Pyrenees, 
flowering in early summer, may be cul- 
tivated in the same way as S. oppositifolia, 
and well merits a place in the rock-garden. 

S. Rocheliana (Rochel's Rockfoil). A 
compact and dwarf kind, forming dense 
silvery rosettes of tongue-shaped white- 
margined leaves, and with large white 

flowers on sturdy little stems in spring. 
I know no more exquisite plant for 
the rock-garden, or for small rocky or 
raised borders. Any free, good, moist, 
loamy soil will suit it, and I have seen 
it thriving very well on borders in 
London. It should be exposed to the 
full sun, and associated with the choicest 
alpine plants. A native of Austria ; 
increased by seeds or careful division. 

Saxifraga sancta. A native of Mount 
Athos, at an altitude of 6000 feet. A 
dwarf species, forming closely -set tufts 
of foliage, composed of numerous leafy 
branches of a dull green colour, the 
leaves pointed, flowers bright yellow, in 
panicles of two to five blooms. 

S. sarmentosa (Creeping Rockfoil). A 
well-known old plant, with roundish 
leaves, mottled above, red beneath, 
with numbers of creeping, long, and 
slender runners, producing young plants 
strawberry fashion. Striking in leaf, it 
is also pretty in bloom, and growing 
freely in the dry air of a sitting- 
room, may be seen suspended in 
cottage windows. It perhaps is most 
at home running free on banks or 
rocks, in the cool greenhouse or con- 
servatory ; however, it lives in the 
open air in mild parts of England, 
and, where this is the case, may be used 
in graceful association with Ferns and 
other creeping plants. A native of 
China, flowering in summer. Closely 
allied] to 8. sarmentosa is the delicate 
dodder-like Saxifrage, S. cuscutceformis, so 
called from having thread-like runners like 
the stems of a dodder, and distinguished 
by having much smaller leaves, and the 
petals more equal in size than those 
of sarmentosa, in which the two outer 
ones are much larger than the others. 
It will serve for the same purposes as 
the Creeping Saxifrage, but, being much 
more delicate and fragile in habit, 
will require a little more care. The 
plants grown in gardens as S. japonica 
and S. tricolor are considered varieties of 
the Creeping Saxifrage. 

S. tenella. A very handsome prostrate 
plant, forming tufts of delicate fine-leaved 
branches, 4 or 5 inches high, which root 
as they grow. The flowers, which appear 




in summer, are numerous, whitish-yellow, 
arranged in a loose panicle. Similar 
in growth are S. aspera, S. bryoides, 
S. sedoides, S. Seguieri, S. Stelleriana, 
and 8. tricuspidata, all of which are 
suitable for clothing the bare parts of the 
rock-garden and slopes, but require moist 
soil and cool positions. Division in spring 
or the end of summer. 

Saxifraga umbrosa (London Pride). 
This much cultivated plant grows abund- 
antly on the mountains round Killarney, 
though it was much grown in our gardens 
before it was recognised as a native of 
Ireland. It is needless to describe the 
appearance of such a familiar plant. It is 
useful in shady places, fringes of cascades, 
&c. There are several varieties, as, for 
example, S. punctata and Serratifolia, 
which are distinct enough when grown side 
by side, and submit to the same culture. 

It is believed that the preceding 
are among those best worth growing. 
The following is a list of the other 
species or reputed species believed 
to be in cultivation now in this 
country. Those most worthy of 
culture are marked by an asterisk. 

S. adscendens 


















S. globifera 













S. pedata S. spathulata 

pedatifida Sponhemica 

petraea *Stansfieldii 

planifolia stellaris 

pulchella stenophylla 

purpurascens *Sternbergii 

pygmsea *tenella 

*recta thysanodes 

recurva tricuspidata 

reniformis trifida 

Rhei trifurcata 

*rosularis trilobata 

rotundifolia villosa 

rupestris virginiensis 

Schraderi Webbiana 

SCABIOSA (Pincushion Flower). 
Annual, biennial, and perennial plants, 
some dwarf and pretty for the rock- 

Scabiosa caucasica (Caucasian Scabi- 
ous). A handsome plant, flowering from 
early summer to late autumn, a true 
perennial on warm soils, but often perish- 
ing on cool soils. It forms dense tufts, 
which yield many blue flower-heads, each 
usually from 3 to 4 inches in diameter, 
on long foot-stalks. There is a white 
variety. Caucasus. Division and seed. 

S. graminifolia (Grass-leaved S.). A 
graceful Scabious about a foot high, with 
pale blue flowers and silvery white 
leaves ; it is very useful for the rock- 
garden. Southern Europe. June to 
October. Division and seed. 

S. pterocephala (Wing-headed S.) is 
a very dwarf-tufted hardy perennial, 
rarely exceeding 4 inches or 6 inches in 
height, even when in flower ; flower-heads 
| pale purple in summer. Greece. Division. 
Syns., S. Parnassi and Pterocephalus 

S. Webbiana is another useful species 
for the rock-garden or border, forming 
neat little masses of hoary leaves. Its 
creamy yellow flowers, borne on long 
stalks, are pretty from July to August. 

All the rock Scabious are best in light 
and well-drained soils. 


This small hardy alpine of the Crucifer 




family is nearly allied to Alyssum. It 
has hoary foliage, and produces, in 
early summer, a profusion of small 
white blossoms. It is suited for the 
rock-garden or the margins of borders, 
and will grow well in any ordinary 
soil, but is not of the first merit. 
South Russia. 

LOIDES. The introduction of this 
pretty mountain plant is due to 
Captain Torrens, who, in 1891, found 
the plants growing beside sulphur 
springs in the mountains of Japan, 
and, after carrying them hundreds of 
miles, succeeded at last in bringing 
home three or four living plants. The 
flowers of the Schizocodon are like 
those of a large Soldanella, prettily 
fringed, deep rose in the centre, 
passing into blush or almost white 
towards the edges, and deserves a good 
place in the rock-garden, in moist 
gritty soil. 

SCILL A. Beautiful early flowering 
bulbous plants, charming in colour, and 
hardy, and so free that they do not 
need the comforts of the rock-garden, 
but the colour is so good and the 
habit so dwarf, that they may be often 
used with good effect to come through 
groups of dwarf rock plants, such as 
the mossy Rockfoils and the Sand- 
worts. Only the dwarfer kinds, how- 
ever, are fitted for this purpose, some 
kinds being too vigorous, and these 
are omitted here. 

Scilla amoena (Tyrolese Squill). A dis- 
tinct, early-spring flowering kind, opening 
soon after S. sibirica, and readily known 
from any of its relatives by the large 
yellowish ovary in the centre of the dark 
indigo-blue flowers. The leaves, usually 
about inch across, attain a height of 
about 1 foot, and are easily injured by 
cold or wind, so that a sheltered position 
is that best suited to its wants. Tyrol ; 

increased from seeds or by separation of 
the bulbs. 

Scilla bifolia (Early Squill). A precious 
kind, bearing in the dawn of spring, indeed 
often in winter, masses or dark blue 
flowers, four to six on a spike, and form- 
ing handsome tufts from 6 to 10 inches 
high, according to the soil and the 
warmth and shelter of the spot. It 
thrives well in almost any position, in 
ordinary garden soil, the lighter the 
better. Although it blooms earlier than 
8. sibirica, it does not withstand cold 
wintry and spring rains and storms 
nearly so well as that species, and 
therefore it would be well to place some 
tufts of it in warm sunny spots, either 
on the rock-garden or sheltered borders. 
Southern and Central Europe. This 
species varies very much, and, in con- 
sequence, has gone under many names ; 
the best form being taurica. The name 
S.prcecox, which occurs so often in gardens, 
and in Nurserymen's Catalogues, does not 
really belong to a distinct species, and, 
when best applied, refers to the variety 
of 8. bifolia, which usually flowers some- 
what earlier than the common form. 

S. Italica (Italian Squill). A native 
not only of Italy but of Southern France 
and Southern Europe generally. This 
Squill, with its pale blue flowers, intensely 
blue stamens, and fragrance, is one of the 
most distinct, from 5 to 10 inches high, 
the leaves somewhat shorter ; the flowers 
small, spreading in short racemes, in May. 
It is perfectly hardy, living in almost any 
soil, but thriving best in sandy and warm 
ones. Increased by division, which had 
better be performed only every three or 
four years, when the bulbs should be 
planted in fresh positions. It is worthy 
of a sheltered sunny spot, particularly as 
it does not seem to thrive so freely in this 
country as some of the other kinds. 

S. Sibirica (Siberian Squill). A brilliant 
early flower, perfectly hardy in this 
country, and, like most other bulbs, thrives 
best in a good sandy loam. It is needless 
to disturb the tufts except every two or 
three years for the sake of dividing them 
when they grow vigorously. It comes in 
flower in early spring a little later than 
S. bifolia, but withstands the storms better 




than that plant, and remains much longer 
in bloom. 

Of other cultivated Squills, the British 
ones, S. verna and S. autumnalis, are 
worthy of cultivation in collections ; the 
plant usually sold by the Dutch and by 
our seedsmen as S. hyacinthoides is gener- 
ally S. campanulata, and occasionally 
S. patula. The true S. hyacinthoides of 
Southern Europe is scarcely worthy of 
cultivation ; S. cernua is not sufficiently 
distinct from S. patula, and one or two 
southern species allied to S. peruviana 
have not been proved sufficiently hardy 
for general cultivation. 

SCIRPUS (Bulrush). Sedge-like 
plants, useful for fringing the margins 
of ponds, which too often present a bare 
hard line. There are native species 
that might be transplanted, and the 
best are S. triqueter, S. atro-virens, 
and S. lacustris. The true Bulrush 
is 3 to 8 feet high, and is effective on 
the margins of ponds or streams, 
associated with other tall aquatic 

SCUTELLARIA (Skull-cap). Per- 
ennials of the Sage order, some of 
interest for the rock-garden. All the 
kinds may be grown in open loam, the 
low-growing kinds submit readily to 
division of the root-stock, and, if need 
be, the plants are increased by cut- 
tings of the young shoots, by seeds. 

Scutellaria alpina (Alpine Scull-cap). 
A spreading plant, vigorous but neat in 
habit, and pretty in flower. The pube- 
scent stems are prostrate, but so abundantly 
produced that they rise into a full round 
tuft, a foot high or more in the centre, 
and falling low to the sides ; the flowers 
in terminal heads, purplish, or with the 
lower lip white or yellow. The form 
with the upper lip purplish, and lower 
pure white, is pretty. The variety lutea 
(S. lupulina) is an ornamental kind, with 
yellow flowers. Increased by division, 
and flowering freely in summer. Alps of 

S. macrantha. A native of Eastern 

Asia, has purplish-blue flowers, the blossoms 
1 J inch long. The plant attains to a foot 
or more high, and may figure in the rock- 
garden among the more free-growing 
plants. The plant possesses a firm, woody 
root-stock, and is hardy. 

Scutellaria indica is of dwarf growth, 
with creeping stems, the flowers blue or 
bluish lilac, and, though small when 
compared with those of macrantha, it is 
still worth growing among rock plants. 

Other kinds in cultivation are Orientalis, 
altaica, parvula, grandiflora, though, for 
the most part, these are not frequently 
seen beyond the limits of botanic gardens. 

Scutellaria indica. 

SEDUM (Stonecrop). Usually dwarf 
spreading rock perennials, with thick 
succulent leaves, which enable them to 
endure drought in the most arid 
places. They are often pretty in 
effect in Nature, but, owing to the 
dotting and labelling system in 
gardens, we lose more than half their 
beauty. In a great number of species 
are many similar in effect, and no 
need, therefore, to grow all, as they 
are not all equally valuable from a 
garden point of view. In the poorer 
parts of the rock-garden they are use- 
ful, and if we cannot find room for 
them in it, they do very well on the 
gravel paths near. They are, perhaps, 
of all plants, the easiest to cultivate 
and increase, the smaller species being 
protected from coarse-growing plants, 




and so placed that they will not be 

Sedum acre (Stonecrop). Growing on 
walls, thatched houses, rocks, and sandy 
places in almost all parts of Britain, this 
little plant, with its small, thick, bright 
green leaves and brilliant yellow flowers, is 
as well known as the common Houseleek. 
Sheets of it in bloom look gay, and it may 
well be used with dwarf alpine plants in 
forming carpets of living mosaic- work in 
gardens. The fact that it runs wild on 
comparatively new brick walls near 
London does away with the necessity of 
speaking of its cultivation or propagation. 
There is a variegated or yellow - tipped 
variety, S. acre variegatum ; the tips of the 
shoots of this become of a yellow hue in 
early spring, so that the tufts look showy 
at that season. 

S. album (White Stonecrop). A British 
plant, with crowded fleshy leaves of a 
brownish green, and in summer a pro- 
fusion of white or pinkish flowers in 
elegant corymbs. Like the common 
Stonecrop, this occurs on old roofs and 
rocky places in many parts of Europe, 
and may be cultivated with the same 
facility. It is worthy of a place on walls 
or ruins, in places where it does not occur 
naturally, and also on the margins of the 
pathways or the less important surfaces of 
the rock-garden. 

S. anacampseros (Evergreen Orpine). 
A species easily recognised by its very 
obtuse and entire glaucous leaves, closely 
arranged in pyramidal rosettes on the 
prostrate branches that do not flower. 
The rose-coloured flowers are in corymbs, 
not very ornamental, but the distinct 
aspect of the plant will secure it a place 
on the rock-garden, or among very dwarf 
border - plants. A native or the Alps, 
Pyrenees, and mountains of Dauphiny, 
flowering in summer, easily propagated by 
division, and thriving in any soil. 

S. brevifolium (Mealy Stonecrop). One 
of the most fragile of alpine plants, with 
pinkish, mealy leaves. A native of the 
Southern Pyrenees and Corsica, in dry 
places, it is somewhat too delicate for 
general planting in the open air ; but it 
may be grown on sunny rocks. S. farino- 

sum resembles this, but, so far as my 
experience goes, it is tender. 

Sedum dasyphyllum (Stonecrop). A 
pretty species, glaucous, or bluish ; its 
leaves smooth, very thick and fat, and 
very densely packed ; flowers of a dull 
white, tinged with rose, the neat habit of 
the plant, when not in flower, will always 
make it a favourite in collections of dwarf 
plants. It occurs abundantly on rocks, 
old walls, and humid stony places, in 
Southern and South- Western Europe, and 
is found in some places in the south of 
England. Although hardy on walls and 
rocks, it has not the vigour and constitu- 
tion of many of the other Stonecrops, and 
it is desirable to establish it on an old 
wall or dry stony part of the rock-garden, 
so as to secure a stock in case the plant 
perishes in winter on low ground. 

S. Ewersii (Ewers's Stonecrop). A dis- 
tinct, and diminutive species, with smooth, 
broad leaves, and purplish flowers in 
corymbs, the whole plant of a pleasing sil- 
very hue and rather delicate appearance, 
but hardy, easily increased by division, 
and flowering in summer. Altai Moun- 
tains ; of easy culture and increase by 
division, at any season. 

S. glaucum (Glaucous Stonecrop). A 
minute kind, greyish, forming dense 
spreading tufts, densely clothed with fat 
leaves and rather inconspicuous flowers. 
The neat habit of the plant has made it 
popular in gardens of late years as a 
minute surfacing plant. On the rock- 
garden it may be used in any spot that is 
to spare, either to form a turf under other 
plants or for its own sake. Various other 
Sedums are very nearly allied to this, and 
all are probably but forms of one kind. 

S. kamtschaticum (Orange Stonecrop). 
A broad-leaved kind, with dark orange- 
yellow flowers. It is a prostrate plant, 
hardy, succeeding in almost any soil, and 
flowering in summer. Highly suitable 
for the rougher parts of the rock-garden, 
where it will take care of itself. 

S. populifolium (Shrubby Stonecrop). 
Distinct from all its race, and forming a 
small, much-branched shrub, from 6 to 
10 inches high, with flat leaves, and 
whitish flowers with red anthers. Not 




an ornamental plant, but being so dif- 
ferent in habit to the other members of 
the family, it is worthy of a place in large 
and botanical collections. It grows in 
any soil, blooms rather late in summer, 
and comes from Siberia. 

Sedum pulchellum (American Stone- 
crop). A dwarf species, with purplish 
flowers arranged in several spreading 
branchlets, bird's - foot fashion. It is 
abundant in North America, and at 
present very rarely seen in our gardens, 
though far more worthy of cultivation 
than many commonly grown, flowering 
in summer, growing in ordinary soil, and 
easily increased by division. 

S. rupestre (Rock Stonecrop). A 
glaucous densely - tufted plant, with 
numerous spreading shoots, these shoots 
generally rooting at the base and erect at 
the apex. It has rather loose corymbs of 
yellow flowers, and is frequently grown 
in gardens. There are several varieties 
or sub-species, notably the British S. 
elegans and the green-leaved S. Forsteria- 
num. A native of Britain and various 
parts of Europe, and of the easiest 

S. Sieboldii (Siebold's Stonecrop). An 
elegant species, with roundish leaves, of a 
glaucous hue, in whorls of three on the 
numerous stems that in autumn bear the 
soft rosy flowers in small round bouquets. 
At first the ascending stems form neat 
tufts, but as they lengthen, they bend 
outwards with the weight of the flowers 
at the points, making the plant a graceful 
one for small baskets or vases. It is 
hardy, and merits a place on the rock- 
garden, especially where its graceful 
habit may be seen to advantage that is 
to say, where its branches may fall with- 
out touching the earth ; but except in 
favoured places, it does not make such a 
strong and satisfactory growth as most of 
the other Stonecrops. Easily propagated 
by division. In late autumn the leaves 
often assume a lovely rosy-coral hue. 
There is a variegated variety, not so good 
as the ordinary form. Japan. 

S. spectabile (Showy Stonecrop). This 
is one of the finest autumn - flowering 
plants introduced of late years distinct, 
hardy, fine when its delicate rose-coloured 

flowers, in very large heads, are in bloom, 
and pretty long before it flowers, from its 
dense bush of glaucous leaves. It begins 
to push up its fleshy glaucous shoots in 
the dawn of spring, keeps growing on all 
through the early summer, opens ita 
flowers in early autumn, and continues in 
full perfection till the end of that season. 
The plant is one of the easiest to pro- 
pagate and grow, and forms round, sturdy, 
bush-like tufts of vegetation, 18 inches or 
more high when well established. Japan. 

Sedum spurium (Purple Stonecrop). 
Several kinds of Sedum, with large, flat 
leaves, occur in our gardens, of which this 
is much the best, its rosy-purple corymbs 
of flowers being handsome compared to 
the dull whitish flowers of allied kinds. 
A native of the Caucasus ; well suited for 
forming edgings, the margin of a mixed 
border, or the rock-garden. It is of the 
easiest culture and propagation, and 
blooms late in summer, and often through 
the autumn. The variety atrosanguineum 
is more showy. 

The preceding are the most distinct 
kinds in cultivation. The pretty S. cceru- 
leum is an annual, and S. carneum variega- 
tum not hardy enough to stand our 
winters. Several Sedums with a monstrous 
development of stem, or what in botanical 
language is called fasciation, are in our 
gardens : S. monstrosum, cristatum, and 
reflexum monstrosum, to wit. The follow- 
ing is an enumeration of other species, or 
reputed species, now in cultivation in this 
country, the most desirable being marked 
with an asterisk. They are almost, with- 
out exception, of the easiest culture and 
rapid increase in ordinary soil. 

S. aizoides 

* corsicum 

* cruentum 


* cyaneum 

* elegans 

* f arinosum 

* hispanicum 




S. libanoticum 

S. reflexum 


* sexangulare 


* sexfidum 


spatliulif oli um 


* speciosum 














* Verloti 





pulchrum Wallichianum 

SELAGINELLA A few graceful 
mossy kinds of this large family of 
trailing plants are valuable for cloth- 
ing shady spots in the rock-garden. 
These kinds are S. denticulate/,, S. 
helvetica, and S. rupestris, plants of 
a delicate green, mossy growth. S. 
Kraussiana, generally known in plant- 
houses as S. denticulata, is also hardy 
in many places, and in Ireland grows 
and thrives better than any of the 
kinds mentioned. All these plants 
require a well-drained peaty soil and 
shaded and sheltered place. 

SEMPERVIVUM (Houseleek). 
Dwarf perennial succulent plants of 
striking form and variety, inhabiting, 
like the Stonecrops, hot sandy and 
rocky places. They are very useful 
for the rock-garden, and of the easiest 
culture and increase. Some are 
beautiful in flower, but perhaps their 
best quality for the rock-garden is to 
give us dwarf relief in pretty greens 
and greys at all times. The late Mi- 
Jordan in his very interesting garden 
at Lyons accumulated an immense 
number of forms of the various species 
from many localities, but from the 
point of view of the rock-garden a 
few types of this family will give us 
all the effect we can desire. Much 

the best way, however, is to increase 
the kinds that strike us as most pleas- 
ing in colour for our purpose. Of all 
plants they are perhaps the most easy 
to cultivate and increase, growing in 
any soil, the poorer the better perhaps 
and bearing division at any time. 
The little offsets will grow freely. 
Apart from all cultivation and increase, 
however, we should consider in this, 
as in so many other cases, the stature 
of the plants, and only associate them 
with dwarf plants, and give them full 
exposure in open sunny places. These 
are among the plants which grow on 
the surface of the stone itself, as we 
see the common kind grow on the 
roofs of sheds and houses. The others 
may also be established by putting a 
piece of stiff clay moistened and 
dabbed in the face of the stone 
pressing in the little offshoots of the 
Stonecrop, which will soon take hold 
and find their own living on the faces 
of stones. 

Sempervivrun arachnoideum (Cobweb 
Houseleek). One of the most singular of 
alpine plants, its tiny rosettes of fleshy 
leaves being covered at the top with a 
thick white down. Widely distributed 
over the Alps and Pyrenees, this plant is 
quite hardy in our gardens; thriving in 
sunny arid spots, forming sheets of 
whitish rosettes, which look as if fine- 
spinning spiders had been at work upon 
them, and sending up rose-coloured flowers 
in summer. About London it sometimes 
suffers from the sparrows plundering 
the "down." It is easily increased by 
division, and thrives in sandy loam. 

S. ciliatum (Fringed Houseleek). The 
margins of the leaves of this species are 
edged with transparent hair-like bodies, 
the leaves are barred lengthways with 
brown and deep-green stripes, flowers 
freely in summer, in close corymbs of 
many fine yellow flowers, each scarcely 
J inch across. It ought to be placed in 
some dry spot under a ledge of rock, and 
might be tried with advantage on the 




top of an old wall. A native of the 
Canary islands ; easily increased by 
division or cuttings. 

Sempervivum montanum (Mountain 
Houseleek). A dark-green kind, smaller 
than the common Houseleek, with an 
almost geometrical arrangement of leaves, 
forming neat rosettes, from which spring 
dull rosy flowers in summer ; grows in 
any soil, is easily propagated. When 
masses of it are in flower, they are 
visited by great numbers of bees. Alps. 

S. sobolifemm (Hen-and- Chicken House- 
leek). Growingin dense tufts, and throwing 
off little round offsets so freely that these 
are pushed clear above the tufts, and lie 
rootless, small, brownish-green balls on 
the surface. The full-grown rosettes are 
of a light-green, and of a chocolate-brown 
at the tips of the under side of the leaves, 
for nearly one-third of their length. The 
small leaves of the young rosettes all 
turning inward, they appear of a purplish- 
brown colour. The rosettes are usually 
not more than 14 inch in diameter, 
but I have seen them in France more 
than 3 inches ; however, whether they 
were the rosettes of a form larger naturally 
than the common one, or the result of a 
higher culture, I cannot say. The plant 
is well suited for forming wide tufts 
on banks beneath the eye. It grows 
freely in any soil. 

S. tectomm (Common Houseleek). A 
native of rocky places, in the mountain 
ranges of Europe and Asia, and which, 
having been cultivated for ages on house- 
tops and old walls, is well known. It is 
needless to describe the culture of a plant 
which thrives on bare stones, slates, and 
in the most arid places. It varies some- 
what, a glaucous form called rusticum 
being one of the most distinct. 

S. calcareum (Glaucous Houseleek}. 
The Sempervivum now common in cultiva- 
tion, under the garden name of S. 
californicum, is really only the French 
S. calcareum, and no finer Houseleek 
has been introduced. Planted singly, the 
rosettes attain a diameter of nearly 6 
inches, and as the leaves are of a 
glaucous tone, distinctly tipped at the 
points with chocolate, it is useful. It is 
admirable for the rock-garden, is easily 

increased by division, and thrives in any 

In addition to the preceding, which 
are among the most distinct Houseleeks, 
there are a great number of species, or so- 
called species, wild in Europe, which are 
cultivated in Botanic Gardens. In the 
following list the more ornamental kinds 
are marked with an asterisk. 


* anomalum 

* arenarium 

* Funckii 

* glaucum 

* globif erum 



* pilif erum 

* Requieni 

* sedif orme 

The under-mentioned kinds I first saw 
in cultivation in the Jardin des Plantes, 
at Paris. They are mostly sorts desirable 
for cultivation. 


* Pseudo-arachnoi- 


* Verloti 

* Boutignianum 

SENECIO (Ragwort). An immense 
family of groundsel-like plants, many 
of them far too large for our purpose ; 
but some dwarf, silvery, and pretty, as 
rock-garden plants. There are nearly 
a thousand kinds, a number of which 
are not introduced. Any of the dwarf 
grey kinds may be used with good 
effect on the rock-garden. 

Senecio argenteus (Silvery Groundsel). 
A sturdy, minute, hoary plant ; the 
leaves quite silvery. The plant is not 
more than 2 inches high ; it withstands 
any weather, and will live everywhere 
in sandy soil in well-drained borders. 

S. unifloms (One-flowered Groundsel). 
A silvery species, growing little more 
than an inch high, but scarcely equal to 




the preceding, and not so easily grown. 
The flowers are poor, and should be 
removed, as tending to weaken the plant. 
A native of Switzerland, and perfectly 
hardy. S. incanus is another pretty 
dwarf alpine kind, and there is also jS. 
alpinus and S. carniolicus of like use and 
culture. Increased by seed and division. 


hardy little New Zealand creeper, with 
small leaves, small slender stems, and 
tiny white flowers in summer. It is 
interesting for the rock-garden, _ and 
grows in any good well-drained soil. 

SHORTIA. S. galacifolia is an 
interesting and beautiful plant. First 
discovered over a hundred years ago 
by Michaux in the mountains of 
North Carolina, and rediscovered in 
1877, it was found growing with 
Galax apliylla, and forms runners like 
that plant, being propagated by this 
means. The plant is of tufted habit, 
the flowers reminding one of those of a 
Soldanetta, but large, with cut edges to 
the segments, like a frill, so to say, and 
pure white, passing to rose as they 
get older. There is much beauty, 
too, in the leaves, which are of rather 
oval shape, deep green tinged with 
brownish-crimson, changing in winter 
to quite a crimson, when it forms a 
bright bit of colour in the rock-garden. 
A correspondent writing in the Garden 
says : " The cultural directions given 
in Catalogues to keep the plant in a 
shady situation and grow it in sphag- 
num and peat, deprive us of its chief 
charm i.e. the handsome-coloured 
leaves during the winter and spring 
months. Instead of choosing a shady 
spot I selected a fully exposed one, 
and here two plants have been for 
over a year, one in peat and the other 
in sandy loam. Both are vigorous." 
It succeeds well in various soils as 
described, and is hardy. N. America. 

SIBTHORPIA (Cornish Moneywort). 
S. europcea is a little native creep- 
ing plant, with slender stems and 
small round leaves. In summer it 
forms a dense carpet on moist soil, 
and should always be grown in the 
bog-garden. The variegated form is 
more delicate than the wild plant, 
and rarely succeeds in the open air. 

SILENE (Catchfly). Tufted alpine 
herbs, or herbaceous plants, of the 
Pink order, often of much beauty, 
and not difficult to grow. 

Silene acaulis (Cushion Pink). Tufted 
into dwarf light-green masses like a wide- 
spreading moss, but quite firm, this plant 
defies the storms, snows, and Arctic cold 
of numerous mountain climes in northern 
regions of the globe, from the White 
Mountains of New Hampshire to the 
Pyrenees, covering the most dreary 
positions with glistening verdure. In 
summer it becomes a mass of pink-rose 
flowers barely peeping above the leaves, 
and making lovely carpets where all else 
is branded with desolation. Many places 
on the mountains of Scotland, Northern 
Ireland, North Wales, and the mountains 
in the Lake District of England, are 
sheeted with its firm flat tufts, often 
several feet in diameter. This plant is 
indispensable for our purpose, and those 
who can, would do well to transfer 
patches from the mountains to humid 
but sunny slopes on the rock-garden r 
in peaty or sandy soil. It is, however, 
not a slow grower, and is easily increased 
by division. There are several varieties : 
alba, the white one ; exscapa, with the 
flower-stems even less developed than in 
the usual form, and muscoides, dwarfer 
still ; but none of them are far removed 
from the wild plant. 

S. alpestris (Alpine Catchfly).Tl\is has 
beauty of bloom, perfect hardiness, dwarf 
and compact habit, growing only from 
4 to 6 inches high, and a constitution 
that enables it to nourish in any soil. 
It flowers in May, the flowers being of a 
polished whiteness, with the petals 
notched, and abundantly produced over 




the shining green masses of leaves. Like 
most high - mountain plants, it should 
have perfect exposure to the full sun ; 
it should never be elevated amongst burrs 
or stones in such a position that a dry 
wind may parch the life out of the tiny 
roots, so unwisely cut off from the moist 
arth. I once regretted to see a colony of 
.ants take up their abode under a tuft of 
this plant, and begin to raise the soil 
.amongst its tiny leaves ; but as the ants 
built their hill, the plant expanded its 
leaves, and finally grew to be a little 
mound of starry snow. Alps of Europe ; 
readily increased by seed or by division. 

Silene Elisabethse (Elizabeth's Catchfly). 
A remarkably distinct and rare alpine 
plant, the flowers looking more like those 
of some handsome but diminutive Clarkia 
than those of a Catchfly. They are large, 
of a bright rose colour, and with the base of 
the petals white, from one to seven being 
borne on stems 3 or 4 inches high. It is 
rare in a wild state, occurring in the 
Tyrol and Italy, where I had the pleasure 
of gathering it on Monte Campione, grow- 
ing amidst shattered fragments of rock, 
and in one case in a flaky rock without 
any soil. It grows freely enough in 
.sandy soil in a warm nook, as I observed 
in M. Boissier's garden, in Switzerland. 
Flowers in summer, rather late, by seeds. 

S. maritima (Sea Catchfly). A British 
plant, not uncommon on sand, shingle, or 
rocks by the sea, or on wet rocks on 
mountains, forming carpets of smooth 
glaucous leaves, from which spring gener- 
ally solitary flowers about an inch across, 
.and white, with purple inflated calyces. 
The handsome double variety of this 
plant, S. maritima fl. pi, is well worthy 
of culture, not only for its flowers but for 
the dense, sea-green spreading carpet of 
leaves which it forms, and which make it 
particularly suitable for the margins of 
raised borders, for hanging over the 
faces of stones. The flowers appear in 
June, and, in the case of the double 
variety, rarely rise more than a couple 
of inches above the leaves, which form a 
turf about 2 inches deep. 

S. Pennsylvanica (Wild Pink). The 
wild Pink of the Americans is a dwarf 
and handsome plant, with nearly smooth 

root-leaves, forming dense patches, and 
with clusters of six or eight purplish-rose 
flowers, about an inch across, notched, 
and borne on stems from 4 to 7 inches 
high, somewhat sticky, and hairy. A 
native of many parts of North America, 
in sandy, rocky, or gravelly places 
flowering from April to June, and very 
freely in deep sandy soil. 

Silene pumilio (Pigmy Catchfly}. An 
interesting kind from the Tyrol, resem- 
bling the Cushion Pink of our own moun- 
tains in its dwarf firm tufts of shining 
green leaves, which are, however, a little 
more succulent and obtuse, and bearing 
much larger and handsomer rose-coloured 
flowers, rising taller than those of Silene 
acaulis, and yet scarcely more than an 
inch above the flat mass of leaves, so that 
the whole plant seldom attains a height 
of more than between 2 and 3 inches. 
It should be planted in deep sandy loam, 
on a well-drained and exposed spot, 
sufficiently moist in summer, facing the 
south, a few stones being placed round 
the neck of the young plant to keep it 
firm and prevent evaporation. 

S. schafta (Late Catchfly}. A much 
branched plant, not compressed into hard 
cushions like the alpine, stemless, or 
dwarf Silenes, forming very neat tufts, 
from 4 to 6 inches high, and covered with 
large purplish-rose flowers from July to 
September, and even later. It comes 
from the Caucasus, is quite hardy, and 
a fine plant for almost any position. In 
planting it, it may be as well to bear in 
mind its late-flowering habit. Seed or 
division of established tufts. 

S. virginica (Fire Pink). A brilliant 
perennial, with flowers of the brightest 
scarlet, nearly 2 inches across, somewhat 
straggling in habit, hardy and perennial, 
and the colour as fine as that of the 
scarlet Lobelia. A native of America, 
increased by seeds and division, growing 
from 1 to 2 feet high, and therefore most 
suited for association with the Aquilegias 
and taller alpine plants. 

Having in cultivation such brilliant 
and distinct plants as the preceding 
Catchflies, we must consider Silene Zawad- 
skii, dwarf and with white flowers, the 
diminutive soft-tufted S. quadridentata 




(for which S. alpestris is often mistaken), 
the woody S. arborescens, a dwarf, 
shrubby, evergreen species, with rose- 
coloured flowers, and the dirty -white 
S. Saxifraga only worthy of a place 
in very large collections or in Botanic 
Gardens. S. rupestris, a sparkling- 
looking, dwarf, white species, little more 
than 3 inches high when in bloom, and 
reminding one or a dwarf S. alpestris, is 
better worthy of a place. 

SISYRINCHIUM (Satin Flower) - 
Iris-like plants, few species of which 
are worthy of culture on the rock- 
garden. 8. grandiflorum is a beautiful 
perennial, flowering in early spring, 
with grass-like foliage and flowers 
borne on slender stems 6 to 12 inches 
high, bell-shaped and drooping, a rich 
purple and a transparent white in 
the variety album. Both are grace- 
ful, thriving in sandy peat. Division. 
North- West America. 

SKIMMIA. Handsome dwarf ever- 
green shrubs, and among the best for 
the rock-garden worth cultivating are 
S. japonica, and S. Fortunei. 

The plant, known in gardens as 
S. japonica, is not Japanese at all, 
but a native of China. Mr Fortune 
met with it in 1848 in a garden at 
Shanghai, the Nurseryman from whom 
he obtained it informing him that the 
plant was brought from a high 
mountain in the interior, called Wang 
Shang. Of all the plants Fortune 
sent home only one reached England 
alive. The proper name of this species 
is Skimmia Fortunei. The true S. 
japoniea is a Japanese plant, and did 
not find its way into British gardens 
for some years after S. Fortunei. 

The Skimmias thrive under very 
varied conditions as regards soil, I 
have seen them thrive splendidly in 
strong clay, and also in poor sandy 
soil and peat. 

SMILAX (Green - Brier). These 
handsome, evergreen, and neglected 
trailing shrubs, should have a place 
in gardens. They are natives of South 
Europe, North Africa, and North 
America, some hardy enough for our 
country, but rarely planted, and yet, 
I think, very suitable for the more 
bushy parts of the rock-garden. For 
a description of the species see in 
the " English Flower Garden " an 
article by Mr Lynch, of the Cambridge 
Botanic Gardens, in the dry soil of 
which these plants are grown well. 

SOLDANELLA Modest and re- 
fined true alpine plants that live near 
the snow-line on many of the great 
mountain-chains of Europe not bril- 
liant, but withal beautiful, in pale- 
bluish bell-shaped flowers, cut into 
narrow, linear strips, and springing 
from a dwarf carpet of leathery, 
shining, roundish leaves. If sound 
young plants are placed out of doors 
in a little bed of deep and very sandy 
loam, they will succeed, especially in 
moist districts, and in dry ones it 
will be easy to prevent evaporation by 
covering the ground near the plants 
with some cocoa-fibre mixed with sand 
to give it weight. I have seen a 
carpet, several feet square, of these 
plants growing on a bed of fine moist 
sandy earth on a flat spot in a rock- 
garden, in this country, and none I 
saw in the Alps equalled it in luxuri- 
ance. The best place for the plants is 
a level spot on the rock-garden near 
the eye. 

They are readily increased by 
division, though, as they are starved 
too often from confinement in small 
worm-defiled pots, they are rarely 
strong enough to be pulled in pieces. 
The smaller kinds will thrive under 
the same conditions, but require more 



care in planting, and should be 
associated with the most minute alpine 
plants, in a mixture of peat and good 
loam, with plenty of sharp sand, and 
get abundance of water in summer, 
especially in dry districts. 

According to Mr H. Correvon, who 
knows these plants well, writing in the 
Garden, there are five wild and two 
hybrid kinds, natives of the mountain 
chains of Middle and South Europe, 
Jura, Pyrenees, Apennines, Tyrol, 
Transylvania, Carpathians. 

Soldanella Alpina known by its rent- 
form, entire leaves, very sparsely toothed, 
with two ear-like drooping lobes at the 
base, and by its flower-stem of a height of 
3 inches to 5| inches ; the pedicels are 
a little roughened by the presence of sessile 
glands ; the scales of the corolla (abortive 
stamens alternating with the lobes of the 
corolla) are attached to the filaments. 
Alps and Pyrenees. 

S. montana. In this species the leaves 
are rounded instead of being kidney- 
shaped, more or less crenate, the under- 
side often of a strong purple colour ; the 
flower- stem has a height of 12 inches to 
14 inches ; the scales of the corolla are 
free ; the leaves are indented, and with 
untoothed lobes ; the pedicel, calyx, and 
petiole bear with glandular hairs. 

S. pyrolaefolia. Leaves orbicular, thick, 
and bright green ; undersides strongly 
ribbed and regularly pitted above ; flower- 
stem very long, glandular at the base. 
Easter Alps. 

S. pusilla. Plant very small, leaves 
minute, very slightly crenate, and a little 
pitted towards their base ; flower-stalk 3 
inches to 6 inches high, set with small 
glands ; flower solitary, corolla narrow, 
long-shaped, reddish-violet, fringed for 
nearly one-third of the length. Alps 
and Carpathians on granite. Syn., S. 

S. minima. The smallest kind, lili- 
putian ; leaves very small, quite round, 
and never indented at the base ; flower- 
stems from 3J inches to 4 inches high, 
slightly downy, one-flowered ; lilac- white, 
with fringing barely a quarter of the 


length. Limestone Alps of Switzerland 
and Austria. 

Soldanella Gauderi is intermediate be- 
tween S. alpina and 8. minima, but rather 
nearer the former ; and 8. hybrida. Syn., 
Media, is half-way between S. alpina and 

Spanish Broom). A handsome flower- 
ing shrub, valuable on account of its 
blooming in July and August, when 
shrubs are usually flowerless. It is 
8 or 10 feet high, and its Rush-like 
shoots have so few leaves as to appear 
leafless. It bears erect clusters of 
fragrant bright yellow flowers, shaped 
like Pea-blossoms. It is hardy, and is 
useful for dry, poor soils, railway 
banks, or dry rocky places. I have 
naturalised it abundantly on very 
rocky and shaly railway banks, by 
merely throwing the seed down the 
bank. South Europe. 


(Wormgrass). A distinct and beauti- 
ful plant; the flowers Ij inch long, 
crimson outside and yellow within, 
from three to eight borne on a stem 
from 6 to 15 inches high, and as, 
when the plant is well grown, these 
stems come up very thickly and form 
close erect tufts, the effect, when in 
bloom, is brilliant. A native of rich 
woods in North America, from Penn- 
sylvania to Florida and Mississippi, 
flowering in summer, and increased 
by careful division of the root. I 
have not seen it grown to perfection 
except in deep and moist sandy 

SPIREA (Meadow Sweet). Some 
of the smaller of these handsome 
shrubs may well find a place in our 
bushy rock-garden, taking the dwarfest 
and neatest kinds, such as bumalda, 
Thurnbergi, Bella japonica, also S. 




pectinata, which Mr A. K. Bulley 
describes as follows : 

"At first sight this plant would be 
mistaken for a mossy Saxifrage. The 
tufts of bright green foliage are not 
more than 3 inches in height; the 
flowers, borne on numerous short 
spikes, are of a soft cream colour." 

STATICE (Sea Lavender). Plants 
of the Leadwort or Plumbago family, 
all dwarf perennials or annuals, chiefly 
natives of sea-shores and mountains. 
Most of them bear twiggy flower-stems, 
and bear myriads of small flowers, which 
are, for the most part, membraneous, 
and long retain their colour after 
being cut. The larger species require 
least care when in open places in 
sandy soil, while some of them are 
admirable for the rock-garden. The 
best of the larger kinds are S. 
Limonium, of which there are several 
varieties; S. latifolia, with wide- 
spreading flower-stems with many 
small purplish-blue flowers; and S. 
tartariea, a dwarfer species, with 
distinct red flowers. The smaller 
species, such as S. minuta, S. 
minutiflora, S. caspia, S. eximia, are 
good rock-plants. 

STERNBERGIA (Winter Daffodil). 
Bulbous plants of distinct beauty 
especially for the garden in autumn. 

The species, as described and 
arranged by Mr Baker, are as 
follows : 

Sternbergia colchiciflora, as possessing 
delicious fragrance, and perfuming the fields 
of the Crimea, and about the Bosphorus. 
The leaves are narrow, and appear with 
the fruit in spring. The flowers appear 
in autumn, and are nearly li inch long, 
pale or sulphur-yellow. It is found on dry 
exposed positions on the Caucasian 
Mountains, Crimea, and is hardy in this 
country, treated in the same way as S. 
lutea. S. dalmatica and S. pulchella are 

Sternbergia clusiana (Ker, not 
Boissier). Narcissus persicus (Clusius), 
Amaryllis citrina, A. colchiciflora^ S. 
cetnensis and S. Schuberti are synonyms. 

S. Fischeriana is nearly allied, and has 
the habit of S. lutea, from which it differs 
chiefly in flowering in spring instead of 
autumn. It is a native of the Caucasus, 
hardy in this country. 

S. lutea. This is the autumn or winter 
Daffodil (Narcissus autumnalis major) of 
Parkinson. A plant that flowers freely in 
autumn ; where not disturbed often effec- 
tive in its sheets of yellow bloom. S. lutea 
has five or six leaves, each about inch 
broad, about a foot long, and produced 
at the same time as the flowers in autumn 
and winter, and is supposed by some 
writers to be the Lily of Scripture, as it 
grows in Palestine. A colony of it on the 
warm side of a rock is worth having, and 
when the plant is at rest in the summer, 
the ground might be covered with stone- 

S. angustifolia. Appears to be merely 
a narrow-leaved form of S. lutea. It is 
very free-flowering, and grows rather more 
freely than S. lutea. 

S. graeca. From the mountains of 
Greece ; has very narrow leaves and broad 
perianth segments. 

S. sicula. Is a form with narrower 
leaves and segments than the type, while 
the Cretan variety has considerably larger 

S. macrantha. This, introduced by 
Mr Whittall from the mountains of 
Smyrna, is a handsome species. The 
leaves are blunt, and slightly glaucous, 
about an inch broad when fully developed 
about midsummer, flowers bright yellow, 
in autumn. A native of Palestine and 
Asia Minor. 

STYLOPHORUM (Celandine Poppy). 
S. diphyllum is a handsome Poppy- 
wort, resembling Celandine, but is .a 
finer plant. Its foliage is greyish, and 
it has large yellow flowers in early 
summer. A plant of easy culture, 1 to 
2 feet high. N. America. Syn., S. 




A curious perennial, with slender 
stems, 1 to 2 feet high, and erect 
spikes of flowers, greyish - purple 
spotted with black, in summer. It is 
interesting for the bog-garden, or for 
moist spots near the rock-garden. 
Seed or division. 

SYMPHYANDRA. Campanula- 
like plants, S. pendula being a showy 
perennial from the rocky parts of the 
Caucasus, with branched pendulous 
stems and large cream-coloured bell- 
like flowers, almost hidden in the 
leaves. It is hardy, and rarely more 
than 1 foot in height is best seen 
about the level of the eye in the rock- 
garden. The Austrian S. Wanneri 
rarely exceeds a foot in height, with 
deep mauve flowers borne freely on 
branching racemes, preferring a light, 
rich soil, and a half-shady place. Seed. 

ful alpine plant, T. isatidea, is a native 
of Asia Minor, hardy, and not 
particular as to soil, preferring to 
grow among rocks. From a tuft of 
oblong leaves, formed in the first year, 
appear the flowers in the second year ; 
the leaves dark green, with shining 
silky hairs, from amongst which rises 
the thick flower-stalk of Syringa-like 
bright rosy lilac flowers, fragrant like 
vanilla. The bunch is over a foot 
across, and is in great beauty through- 
out the month of May. 

I should no more have included this 
in the present selection than the Oak, 
previous to one afternoon in July 
1868. On a dry old wall in one of 
the islands on Lago Maggiore, I 
noticed a mass of lilac flowers, on a 
plant which, from the profusion of 
bloom, appeared to be a dwarf heath ; 

but was only our old friend the Cat 
Thyme, that, flowerless and neglected, 
used occasionally to be seen in old 
greenhouses. Here it had become 
a mass of flowers. This suggested to 
me that its true home was not in the 
greenhouse, but on some dry old sunny 
wall, or in a chalk pit or very dry spot 
on the southern face of a rock-garden. 
And, indeed, the wall would seem to 
be the only way of preserving it from 
cats, for they are desperately fond of 
it. A native of Spain; readily in- 
creased by cuttings. 

Teucrium polium (Poly Germander}, 
with silvery foliage, is also worth growing, 
and perhaps others, but they are southern 
rather than northern plants. 

THALICTRUM (Meadow Rue). 
Usually vigorous hardy perennials, a 
few of which are good in the rock- 
garden, not so much for their flowers as 
for the effect of their fern -like leaves. 

Thalictrum anemonoides (Rue Ane- 
mone). A delicate, diminutive species, with 
the habit and f rondescence of Isopyrum, the 
inflorescence of Anemone, and the fruit of 
Thalictrum. These qualities, in addition to 
its dwarf stature, usually only a few inches 
high, make it a plant for the rock-garden. 
The flowers are white, nearly an inch in 
diameter, open in April and May, the 
flower-stem bearing a few leaves near the 
summit, in the form of a whorl round the 
flowers. A native of many parts of IS. 
America, increased by seed or by the division 
of its tuberous roots. There is a pretty 
double variety, T. anemonoides fl. pi., with 
smaller flowers than those of the single 
one. Being small and fragile in its parts, 
it requires a little care, a light, peaty, and 
moist soil, and to be associated with 
other delicate growers. Syn., Anemone 

T. minus (Maidenhair Meadow Rue). 
A native of Britain, but also found on 
the Continent and in Russian Asia. By 
pinching off the inconspicuous blooms that 
appear in summer, the plant can be made 
to resemble, in outline, the Maidenhair 




Fern. And the finely-cut leaves are as 
good for mingling with cut flowers, and 
better in one respect, as they are of a 
pretty firm consistency, and do not fade 
quickly, like those of the Fern. It will 
thrive in any soil, and requires no trouble 
whatever after planting. 

Thalictrum adiantifolium Is pro- 
bably a variety of this plant, and of like 

T. alpinum (Alpine Meadow Rue}. A. 
species with few flowers and four purplish 
sepals. The plant is rarely more than 
8 inches or 10 inches high, and has the 
same use for the rock-garden. Native of 
Britain, and N. America. 

T. tuberosum (Tuberous Meadow Rue). 
This is about 9 inches high, and besides 
the usually graceful foliage which we find 
in all the dwarf forms of the genus, we 
have, in this instance, an additional beauty 
in the abundant mass of yellowish cream- 
coloured flowers which this plant pro- 
duces. It is quite hardy, and thrives in 
deep peat soil. Spain. 

Bastard Cress). A dwarf, strong- 
growing plant, with large indented 
root-leaves and corymbs of pretty 
white flowers, somewhat like those of 
Arabis albida, but a little larger, and 
of a paper-white ; early in March. It is 
worth growing with the earlier and 
more vigorous spring flowers, comes 
from the Caucasian mountains, and is 
easily increased by division. A few 
other kinds are worth a place T. 
rotundifolium and T. violascens, of easy 
culture in moist spots. 

THYMUS (Thyme). Dwarf, tufted 
perennials on mountains and open 
heaths, not showy in flower, but charm- 
ing from their close, turfy growth and 
pleasant odour, often neglected, I 
think, for more showy things. Their 
easy culture, and the pretty little 
carpets they form, make them much 
valued in the rock-garden. Our 
native Wild Thyme and its varieties 

are as pretty as any other. Division 
in autumn or early spring. 

Thymus lanuginosus (Downy Thyme). 
This is usually considered a woolly variety 
of T. Serpyllum, our common British 
Thyme, but given the same conditions, it 
is a better plant, forming cushions of grey 
leaves in any soil exposed to the sun. 
Few plants are more suited for such 
places, in which many other plants will 
not thrive, though it spreads so quickly 
into wide dense cushions that it ought 
not to be near very minute alpine plants. 
Various other kinds of Thyme are worthy 
of a place on the dry arid slopes of the 
large rock-garden and on walls, but space 
forbids any more than the enumeration 
of them here. There is a variegated 
form of the common garden Thyme (T. 
vulgaris\ which makes a pretty tufted 
bush, and many plants sold as alpine 
plants have not half the merits of the 
Lemon Thyme as rock-plants. Other 
species in cultivation are T. azoricus, 
azureus, bracteosus i Zygis^ thuriferus, 
carmosus, micaus, nummularius, rotundi- 
folius chamcedrys, and villosus, most of 
which are of easy culture and increase in 
poor soil. The white and highly coloured 
forms of our common Thyme are good 
rock or wall-plants. 

Flower). A dwarf perennial plant of 
some beauty, both of leaf and flower ; 
the little starry flowers creamy white, 
the buds tinged with pink, a mass of 
the white flowers seen a few yards off 
resembling a wreath of foam. The 
young leaves are of a tender green, 
spotted and veined deep red, while 
the older ones at the base of the plant 
are of a rich red-bronze. "Whether 
planted in rock-garden or border, it is 
beautiful, and needs only division 
every two years, the plants being at 
their best the second year. 

flower). A graceful perennial, living 
in woody and mossy places, with 
erect slender stems, rarely more than 




6 inches high, bearing a whorl of 
leaves, from the centre of which arise 
from one to four slender flower-stems, 
each supporting a star-shaped white 
or pink-tipped flower. A native of 
Northern and Arctic Asia, America 
and Europe, and found in the Scotch 
Highlands and North of England. 
With healthy well-rooted plants to 
begin with, it is not difficult to 
establish among bog shrubs in some 
half- shady part of the rock-garden, or 
in the shade of Rhododendrons, in 
peat soil. It is best for association 
with Linncea, the Pyrolas, and 
Pinguiculas, among mossy rocks. 
Flowers in early summer, and is 
increased by division of the creeping 

TRIFOLIUM t (Clover}. Notwith- 
standing the immense number of 
kinds, there are but few, excepting 
the alpine Trifolium, that are of 
consequence for the rock-garden ; and 
there are so many pretty plants from 
the same Pea-flower order that we are 
never short of a like kind of beauty. 
The alpine Clover is a rather showy 
plant of easy culture. 

TRILLIUM (Water Robin). 
Singularly formed North American 
perennial plants of value and interest 
for the moist parts of the rock-garden, 
and also for the marsh-garden, thriving 
best in rich and moist sandy soil or 
peat, or, if in loam, with added leaf 
soil. They are natives of moist woods 
and thickets, and, therefore, if we wish 
to see them at their best, partial shade 
is a help, but they should not be 
robbed by hungry shrubbery roots. 

Trillium grandiflorum (White Wood 
Lily). One of the mostsingularand beauti- 

lovely, white, three-petalled flower, fairer 
than the white Lily, and almost as large 
when the plant is strong. It thrives in 
a free deep soil, full of vegetable matter, 
and a shady position. If placed in a 
sunny or exposed position, the large soft 
green leaves will not develop. At 
Biddulph Grange I saw it forming bushes 
of the healthiest green, more than 2 feet 
high, and spreading out as freely as any 
border-plant. It was planted in a moist 
spot, shaded and sheltered by high banks 
and shrubs. In such positions it may be 
grown as well as in its native woods. 

Trillium erectum is a curious species, 
with broad leaves 2 to 6 inches wide, and 
brown-purple or white flowers. It is also 
found in East Siberia, and is nearly 
allied to the plant found in Japan, if not 
identical with it. It is figured in 
Salisbury's "Paradisus," t. 35, as T. 
fatidum. Flowers in May and June, and 
is found from Canada to North Carolina. 

T. erythrocarpum is a shy flowerer, and 
not easy to keep in health. It is called 
the Painted Lady, and surpasses all the 
others in the beauty of its flowers, which 
are white, with bright purple streaks. 
The flowers are, however, small, appearing 
in May and June. Georgia, on high 
mountains, or in cold damp woods. 

T. pusillum, recurvatum, stylosum, 
nivale, ovatum, petiolatum, and undu- 
latum are rare in gardens, and more 
worth growing. T. sessile, with brown 
flowers and mottled leaves, is best known 
through the variety Californicum, which 
has large rose-coloured or white flowers, 
and is a useful, easily grown plant. 

TROLLIUS (Globe Floiver).Stont 
and handsome perennials, inhabiting 
alpine and northern pastures. 

Although plants of the semi-marshy 
sub-alpine pastures and copses, they 
will thrive in exposure if kept moist at 
the roots, that is to say, planted in a 
deep, rich soil, as then the roots are less 
affected by drought. The best time to 
propagate the Globe-flower is in 
September, when the roots may be lifted 
and divided to almost any extent. If 




left, as is often the case, until the 
end of March, they are almost sure 
to suffer. They may also be propa- 
gated by seeds, which should be sown 
quickly, as if kept for any length of time 
the germination becomes uncertain. 
If liberally treated, the seedlings will 
flower the second year, attaining their 
full strength during the third and 
fourth years. 

They are too vigorous in growth to 
go with the dwarfer rock-plants, but 
if we grow the mountain shrubs in 
association with the rock-plants, then 
such handsome plants may be grown 
between them with good effect. 

Trollius acaulis. Anativeof thehigher 
Himalayas, and one of the most charming 
of dwarf bog-plants, rarely exceeding 4 to 
6 inches in height, bearing in early April 
its bright golden-yellow flowers, suffused 
with purple-brown on the outside. It is 
hardy, and will be found useful for the 
moist spots of the rock-garden, in moist 

T. Asiaticus, which also includes 
chinensis, Fortunei, and other forms, has 
deep, orange-yellow flowers, and bright, 
orange-red anthers. It has a wide 
distribution both in China and Japan, 
and is hardy even in exposed positions. 
It differs from the European Globe-flower 
chiefly in the flowers being orange, and 
less globular, and in the small and finely- 
divided foliage, and taller growth. This, 
and its varieties, form a valuable group, 
and when grown in moist places bear 
brilliant orange flowers. 

T. Europaeus is an extremely variable 
plant, and so widely spread that almost 
every locality has its particular form. 
Raised from seed, it also gives much 
variety, particularly in habit, and often 
in flowers and foliage. Many of the 
names in Catalogues are for slight forms 
of this. Some few of these, of course, are 
distinct varieties, such as T. e. aurantiacus. 
It is, like its parent, of strong constitution, 
flowers freely, and bears its flower-stems 
well above the handsome foliage. 

The known species of Trollius, ac- 
cording to the "Hortus Kewensis," are 

T. altaicus, americanus, asiaticus, caucasicus, 
dschungaricus, emarginatus, europceus, Lede- 
bouri (this has pale yellow flowers, and 
is a strong grower), and patulus, 
but whatever differences these may show 
botanically, a few species give us the best 
effects of the plants. 

TROP^OLUM (Indian Cress'). A 
few of these tuberous and fragile 
climbers of great beauty may well 
take a place among the shrubs near 
the rock-garden ; their fine colour and 
distinct form being most precious. 
Where any shelter or background of 
Holly or evergreen shrub is used, 
they are admirable, planted beneath 
the bushes in rather open leaf-soil, 
and let alone. 

Tropaeolum polyphyllum (Indian Rock- 
Cress). A distinct plant, whether in or out 
of flower ; the leaves glaucous, densely 
crowded on a stem a quarter of an inch 
thick, and when planted on a warm sunny 
part of the rock-garden, the stems creep 
about, snake-like, through the vegetation 
around, some to 3 or 4 feet in length 
bearing yellow flowers. It is tuberous- 
rooted, quite hardy in dry spots and on 
sunny banks, where it should not be often 
disturbed ; springs up early, and dies 
down at the end of summer. Cordilleras 
of Chili. 

T. speciosum (Flame Nasturtium). A 
splendid creeping plant, with long annual 
shoots, gracefully clothed with six-lobed 
leaves, and such brilliant vermilion 
flowers that a long shoot of the plant is 
startlingly effective. It is impossible to 
find anything more worthy of a position 
in which its shoots may fall over or climb 
up the face of some high bank in the rock- 
garden or among Hollies or other shrubs 
near. It thrives in deep, rich, and rather 
moist soil, best in cool places, or in those 
near the sea, and not so well in a dry 
atmosphere. When a position is selected 
for it, the soil should be made light, and 
deep, and free, by the addition of leaf- 
mould, peat, fibry loam, and sand, as the 
nature of the ground may require, and the 
surface should be mulched in summer 
with an inch or two of leaf-mould. It 




will also enjoy a bed of manure beneath 
the roots, and put below the soil in which 
the young plants are first placed, and is 
best planted in spring, the roots inserted 
6 or 8 inches in the soil, and the young 
plants well watered. It is best planted 
where the shoots may ramble among the 
spray of shrubs, or trailers ; and it is 
much better to let them have their own 
way, than to resort to any kind of staking 
or support, except that afforded by shrubs 
or low trees near. It ripens its pretty 
blue seed in early autumn, and the seeds 
come up the next spring, if sown in 
light sandy mould in pots, and placed in 
a greenhouse or pit. 

Tropseolum tuberosum. A handsome 
trailing plant, but tender on cold soils, 
and a shy bloomer in many places where 
it has been tried. It is a tall climber with 
succulent stems, leaves about 2 inches or 3 
inches across, and rather small red and 
orange flowers. The colour of the flowers 
is beautiful, the calyx, with the exception 
of the green tip of the spur, being a deep 
red ; and the entire petals, which scarcely 
exceed in length the lobes of the calyx, 
are of a rich golden-yellow, veined with 
black. Plant in warm loam on the sunny 
side of a rock. 

TULIPA (Tulip). Much, attention 
is now being called to these splendid 
plants ; not merely old garden kinds, 
but wild kinds from many countries, 
including countries not far away, 
as Savoy. Though they do not re- 
quire rock-garden cultivation as a rule, 
still, so long as kinds are new and rare, 
the variety of surface and aspect of 
the rock-garden will often give us a 
home for them until they become 

Tulipa celsiana (Dwarf Yellow Tulip). 
A species having slightly concave glaucous 
leaves, the largest nearly an inch across, 
and yellow flowers, smaller than those of 
the common Tulips, and, when in clumps 
and fully open, sometimes reminding one 
of a yellow Crocus ; the outside of the 
petals is tinted with reddish-brown and 
green. It begins to flower about the first 

of May, and usually attains a height 
of 6 to 8 and sometimes 12 inches. 
The bulbs emit stolons after flowering. 
Southern Europe. 

Tulipa Clusiana (Clusius's Tulip). 
Usually our Tulips are great, bold, showy 
flowers, but in this species we have one, 
humble in stature, and modestly pretty. 
The bulbs are small, the stem reaching 
from 6 to 9 inches high, seldom more, 
and sometimes flowering when little more 
than 3 inches high. The flower is small, 
with a purplish spot at the base of each 
petal ; the three outer divisions of the 
petals stained with rose, the three inner 
ones of a pure transparent white. A 
native of the South of Europe, a little 
more delicate than most of its family, 
and requiring to be planted in good, light, 
vegetable earth, in a warm, sheltered, and 
well-drained position, to succeed to per- 
fection. Although so small, it will be the 
better of being planted rather deeply, 
say at from 6 to 9 inches, and of being 
placed in some snug spot, where it need 
not be disturbed too often. 

Catchfly). A small plant of the Pink 
order, with narrow leaves and wiry 
stems, bearing elegant rosy flowers, 
small, but numerous, thriving without 
particular care on most soils, and 
forming tufts a few inches high. A 
native of stony places on the Pyrenees 
and Alps, often descending into the 
low country, where I have found it on 
the tops of walls. It will grow in like 
positions in this country, and is a neat, 
free-growing plant for the rock-garden. 
It is easily raised from seed, and 
thrives in poor soil. 

UVULARIA. Slender perennials 
allied to the Solomon's Seal, bearing 
yellow blossoms. There are four 
cultivated species, U. chinensis, grandi- 
flora, puberula, and sessilifolia. Of 
these, U. grandiflora is the finest 
plant; it attains a height of from 
1 foot to 2 feet, and the numerous 




slender steins form a dense tuft, the 
flowers long, yellow, gracefully droop- 
ing. It is a good peat border plant, 
and thrives best in a moist peaty soil, 
in a partially shaded place, and in the 
bog-garden. It is a native of N. 
America, as are all the others except 
U. chinensis. 

Whortleberry) is a dwarf British 
evergreen, with box-like foliage, but 
of a paler green, and with clusters 
of pale rose flowers, which appear in 
summer, followed by berries about the 
size of Red Currants, like those of the 
Cranberry, on wiry stems from 3 to 
9 inches high. It forms a neat little 
bush in peat soil. The Marsh Cran- 
berry ( V. Oxycoccos)^ a native of wet 
bogs in Britain, with very slender 
creeping shoots and drooping dark- 
rose flowers, requiring wetter soil 
than the preceding, is also worthy 
of a place where bog - plants are 
grown. The American Cranberry ( V. 
macrocarpum\ a much larger plant, 
distinguished from the preceding by 
its much larger fruit, is also worthy of 
a place in moist sandy peat, associated 
with bog shrubs. Some of the 
American kinds are too large for the 
rock-garden proper, though a few may 
come in well among the shrubs, among 
them V. pennsyllvanicum, if only for 
its fine colour in autumn. 

VERONICA (Speedwell). Herbace- 
ous perennials, evergreen, alpine, rock 
and half-shrubby plants. An enormous 
genus of plants, many of the herbaceous 
kinds of which are too large for the 
rock-garden, and among the northern 
kinds this leaves a limited choice. 
The more beautiful of the half-shrubby 
kinds come from the southern hemi- 
sphere, and, unfortunately, are not 
hardy everywhere, so that these are 

less precious for our rock-gardens than 
the northern kinds. 

Veronica chamaerdys (Germander Speed- 
well). A well-known and much-admired 
little native plant, with ovate, or heart- 
shaped, hairy leaves, and with hairs 
curiously arranged in two opposite lines 
down the stem, while the other portions 
are bare. The flowers are bright blue, pro- 
duced in great numbers. It is abundant in 
nearly all parts of Britain, and may be 
allowed to crawl about here and there in the 
less important parts of the rock-garden. 
Easily increased by seed or division. 

V. prostrata (Prostrate Speedwell). A 
dwarf spreading plant, forming dark- 
green tufts, under 6 inches high, the leaves 
lance-shaped or linear ; the stems covered 
with a short down, forming circular tufts, 
and nearly woody at the base ; flowers of 
a deep blue, but varying a good deal, 
there being several varieties with rose- 
coloured and white blooms, appearing in 
early summer, somewhat earlier than 
V. Teucrium. A hardy and pretty plant, 
flowering so freely that, when in full 
perfection, the leaves are often quite 
obscured by the flowers. A native of 
France, Central and Southern Europe, 
occurring on stony hills and in dry grassy 
places, and, in cultivation, succeeding in 
dry sandy soil, though by no means 
fastidious, and easily increased by seeds 
or division. 

V. repens. Clothes the soil with a 
soft carpet of bright green foliage, 
covered, in spring, with pale bluish 
flowers. It thrives well on moderately dry 
soil, but delights in moist corners of the 
rock-garden, and is an admirable little 

V. saxatilis (Rock Speedwell). A 
brilliant, dwarf, bush-like plant, a native 
of alpine rocks in various parts of Europe, 
and also in a few places in the Highlands of 
Scotland, forming close tufts, 6 or 8 inches 
high. The flowers are a little more than 
inch across, and of a blue, striped 
with violet, with a narrow but decided 
ring of crimson near the bottom of the 
cup, its base being pure white ; appearing 
in May and June, is increased by seed 
or cuttings, grows in ordinary soil, and 
should be in every rock-garden. 



Veronica Taurica (Taurian Speedwell). 
A dwarf, wiry, and almost woody species, 
forming neat dark-green tufts, under 
3 inches high ; the flowers a fine gentian- 
blue. Perhaps the neatest of all rock 
Veronicas for forming spreading tufts in 
level spots, or tufts drooping from chinks, 
hardy, growing in ordinary well-drained 
garden soil ; flowering in early summer, 
and suitable for association with the 
dwarf er alpine shrubs. Tauria ; increased 
by division or by cuttings. 

V. teucrium (Teucrium Speedwell). 
A continental plant, the stems forming 
spreading masses from 8 inches to a foot 
high, and covered with flowers of an 
intense blue in early summer. The 
flowers are at first in dense racemes, which 
afterwards become much longer, lower 
ones pointed. It is an excellent plant 
for the rock-garden, easily increased by 
seeds or division, and thriving in ordinary 
garden soil. 

V. Bidwillii, Guthriana Telephifolia, 
V. Nummularia, of the Pyrenees, V. 
aphylla, the neat little bushy V.fruticulosa, 
V. satureifolia, and V. Candida, with 
silvery-white leaves, are also worthy of a 
place ; though, generally, the bloom of 
the rock Speedwells is not prolonged 
enough to make them of the first import- 
ance in the rock-garden. 


The dwarfer kinds of these are scarcely 
so precious as the taller kinds. In 
our country away from the sea-shore, 
even in southern mild districts, they 
are not hardy, and although they 
give pretty evergreen effects in the 
winter, and are distinct and often 
good in habit, the flower rarely seems 
worthy of the plant. In fact, in our 
country they seem to be, with few 
exceptions, not nearly as well fitted 
for our rock-gardens as the plants of 
the Alps and the Rocky Mountains of 

Undoubtedly, around the coasts, a 
good many of the bushy New Zealand 
kinds can be grown, as this coast 

climate suits them well. But our 
rock-gardens should be made for plants 
that will stand any weather ; and 
in this case we should only try the 
hardier kinds, and those not much 
until we have proved them. From 
experiments made at the Royal 
Botanic Garden in Edinburgh, in 
1892, the following appeared to be 
hardy species ; but it should be noted 
that Edinburgh is under the sea 
influence, and that its soil is perhaps 
the most excellent in Britain for out- 
door plants. 

V. Hectori 

V. Godefroyana 


half-bushy perennial, with large yellow 
flowers, not unlike the alpine Wall- 
flower, but with bladder-like pods. It 
usually grows from 10 inches to a foot 
high, a vigorous plant, though it 
perishes in winter on cold soils. A 
native of mountains in France, Italy, 
and Southern Europe generally, usually 
on calcareous rocks, and most likely 
to flourish and endure on dry sunny 
spots or on walls. It is very easily 
increased from seed. 

V. grceca is a handsome plant, the 
flowers opening in succession. It is a 
hardy evergreen perennial, a native of 
Dalmatia and other places in South 
Europe. Increased by cuttings placed 
in soil under a hand-glass and also by 

VICIA (Vetch). Perennial and 
annual plants, several of which are 
natives, and, as I think, worthy of 
more care than they often get. V. 




Cracca, V. Orobus, V. sylvatica, V. 
Sepium, and V. argentea are among the 
best. Vicias grow freely in almost any 
soil, and are raised from seeds, and 
increased by careful division. 

Vicia argentea (Silvery Vetch) has silvery 
leaves, and of prostrate habit, but without 
tendrils, and rarely more than 8 inches 
high, spreading about freely in light and 
well-drained soil ; the rather large whitish 
flowers are veined with violet in the upper, 
and spotted with purple in the lower, part. 
It is not a brilliant plant in flower, but 
the elegant foliage makes it worthy of a 
place in the rock-garden. Pyrenees, rare 
in gardens ; easily increased by division 
or seed. 

V. onobrychus is a lovely Vetch, bearing 
long and handsome racemes of flowers in 
summer on the Alps of France and Italy, 
and giving an effect like that of some of 
the purple Australian Pea-flowers. It is 
best grouped or scattered in a colony or 
grassy bank in the rock-garden. 

VINCA (Periwinkle). Hardy, wiry, 
trailing perennials, easily grown, free 
almost too free but nevertheless 
useful for bare banks, and welcome for 
their bloom in spring. 

Vinca major is useful on masses of root- 
work, near cascades, etc., and also in rocky 
places or banks. There is a variety 
called elegantissima, finely blotched and 
variegated with creamy white, and several 
other variegated varieties. The lesser 
Periwinkle (V. minor), a much smaller 
plant, is also useful for like positions ; 
there are several varieties of it well worthy 
of cultivation, a white-flowered one (V. 
minor alba), one with reddish flowers, one 
or two double varieties, and also, as of the 
larger, several variegated forms. 

V. herbacea is a plant much less 
frequent than the common Periwinkles, 
and more worthy of culture on rocks, as 
it is not rampant in habit. A native 
of Hungary, flowering in spring and 
early summer, the stems dying down 
every year, it thrives best in an open 

VIOLA (Violet). Dwarf, growing 

perennials of the mountain, woodland, 
and pasture, many kinds of which 
are alpine flowers. 

Some Violas are among the most 
beautiful which bedeck the alpine 
turf; and even the common Violet 
may almost be claimed as an alpine 
plant, for it wanders along hedge- 
row and hillside, copses and thin 
woods, all the way to Sweden. From 
all kinds of Violas the world of wild 
flowers derives a precious treasure of 
beauty and delicate fragrance ; and no 
family has given to our gardens any- 
thing more precious than the numerous 
races of Pansies, and the various large, 
sweet-scented Violets. Far above the 
faint blue carpets of the scentless 
wild Violets in our woods and heaths, 
thickets and bogs, and the miniature 
Pansies that find their home among 
our lowland field-weeds ; far above the 
larger Pansy-like Violas (varieties of 
V. luted) which flower so richly in the 
mountain pastures of northern England, 
and even on the tops of stone walls ; 
and above the large free-growing 
Violets of the American heaths and 
thickets, we have true alpine Violets, 
such as the yellow two-flowered Violet 
( V. biflora), and the large blue Violets, 
such as the V. calcarata and V. cornuta. 
It would be difficult to exaggerate 
the beauty of these alpine Violas. 
They grow in a turf of high alpine 
plants not more than an inch or so 
in height. The leaves do not show 
above this densely-matted turf, but 
the flowers start up, waving every- 
where thousands of little banners. 
Violas are of the easiest culture ; even 
the highest alpine kinds thrive with 
little care, V. cornuta of the Pyrenees 
thriving even more freely than in its 
native uplands. Slow-growing compact 
kinds, like the American Bird's-Foot 
Violet, from their stature and their 




comparative slowness of growth, are 
entitled to a place in the rock- 

Tufted Pansy. 

Viola biflora (Two - Flowered Yellow 
Violet). This is a bright little Violet, 
widely distributed. From its delicate con- 
dition in gardens, few would suspect what 
a lovely little ornament it is on the Alps, 
in many parts of which every chink 
between the moist rocks is clothed with 
it. It even crawls far under the great 
boulders and rocks, and lines shallow 
caves with its fresh verdure and little 
yellow stars. In our gardens its home 
will be on the rock-garden, running about 
among such plants as the yellow annual 
Saxifrage, and Sandworts, in moist spots. 
If obtained in a weakly condition, it may 
seem difficult to establish, but this is not 
by any means the case ; and once fairly 
started in a moist and half-shady spot, it 
soon begins to creep about, and may then 
be readily increased by division. 

V. calcarata (Spurred Violet). This is 
a pretty plant on the Alps, usually in 
high situations, amidst dwarf flowers, 
sometimes so plentiful that its large 
purple flowers form sheets of colour, the 
leaves being scarcely seen amidst the other 
dwarf plants that form the turf. There 
is a yellow variety, flava (V. Zoysii). In 
some high pastures the flowers vary in 
colour every step one takes, and yet every 
variety in colour is delicate and lovely. 
Try it among a short turf of Sandworts or 
any dwarf plants. Alps. 

V. cornuta (Horned Pansy). A fine 
Pyrenean Violet, with pale-blue or mauve- 
coloured and sweet - scented flowers. 
Generally speaking, it does poorly on dry 

soils and in warm districts, and exceed- 
ingly well in wet places. I have rarely 
seen anything to equal its appearance in 
the cold wet climate of East Lancashire, 
while it looks poor indeed in many 
gardens in the South. It is easily pro- 
pagated by division, cuttings, or seeds. 

Viola CUCUllata (Large American Violet), 
bears some resemblance to the common 
Violet, though without its scent. It 
flowers more freely, and its foliage is bold 
and sometimes variegated. It belongs to 
a section which contains some good 
varieties, such as V. primulwfolia, semper- 
florens, blanda, obliqua, sagittata, delphini- 
folia, canadensis, pubescens, striata, and 
others. All these varieties are worthy of 
culture in a botanical collection. N. 

V. gracilis is a remarkably pretty 
dwarf species, never failing to produce in 
spring an abundance of deep purple 
blossoms in dense tufts. It is hardy in 
light soil. Mount Olympus. 

V. lutea (Mountain Violet). This is 
one of our native Violets classed by 
Bentham as a variety of V. tricolor, but 
considered distinct by other botanists, and 
is distinct for garden purposes. Being 
called lutea, one is surprised to find the 
flowers of nearly every wild plant of it a 
fine purple, with a yellow spot at the base 
of the lower petal. In cultivation the 
yellow form is a neat plant, rising from 
2 to 6 inches high, and flowering from 
April onwards, the flowers of a rich 
yellow, the three lower petals striped 
with thin lines of rich black. 

V. munbyana. One of the prettiest 
of Violets, abundant in flower, free and 
robust in growth, and quite hardy. 
Generally it begins to bloom about the 
end of February, but it attains its greatest 
beauty in May. The deep purple-blue 
flowers resemble those of V. cornuta ; and 
there is also a yellow variety. Algeria. 

V. Odorata (Sweet Violet). This well- 
known plant is, in a wild state, widely 
spread over Europe and Russian Asia, 
and common in various parts of Britain. 
Its odour distinguishes it immediately 
from the numerous other Violas. The 
Sweet Violet and most of its varieties may 
be used in many places where few things 




but weeds succeed ; it will form carpets 
for open groves or the fringes of woods, 
or in open parts of copses, or on hedge- 
banks, demanding in such positions no 
care, and rewarding the planter by filling 
the cold March air with sweetness ; and 
in the garden, instead of confining it to a 
solitary bed for cutting from, as is often 
the case, it should be used on the rock- 
garden, and it grows well on dry walls. 

The newer seedling forms, like La 
France, are so good that if used more 
as carpets in the rock-garden and near, all 
the better. It will grow in almost any 
soil, but succeeds best in free sandy loams, 
and should be put in such when there is 
any choice. 

The varieties of the Violet are 
numerous. We have the Single White 
and the Single Rose, the Double White, the 
Czar, the Queen of Violets, Admiral 
Avellan, La Grosse Bleue, La France, 
California, Princess of Wales, Luxonne, 
Belle de Chatenay, White Czar, Marie 
Victoria Regina, Wellsiana, and the 
perpetual blooming Violet wMl known 
in France as La Violette des Quatre 
Saisons. It differs slightly from the 
Sweet Violet, but is valuable for flower- 
ing long and continuously in autumn, 
winter, and spring. It is the variety used 
by the cultivators round Paris. The 
Neapolitan Violet comes from a different 
and more delicate species, and its varieties 
are not fitted for open-air culture, save in 
very favoured districts. 

Viola pedata (Bird-Foot Violet}. The 
most beautiful of the American Violets, 
with handsome flowers, an inch across, 
pale or deep lilac, purple or blue, the 
two upper petals sometimes deep violet, 
and velvety like a Pansy ; the leaves 
deeply divided, like the foot of a bird, and 
the plant dwarf. In a wild state it in- 
habits sandy or gravelly soil in the 
Northern States of America, flowering in 
summer, and increased by seeds or 
division. It is best adapted for the rock- 
garden, where the soil is sandy and moist. 

V. rothomagensis (Rouen Violet). 
A handsome plant belonging to the tri- 
color group, dwarf, and with low creep- 
ing stems which bear in spring numerous 
purple and white blossoms. It is a free 

grower, but, being a native of Sicily, is 
not so hardy as some Violets, and should 
be grown in a light soil and a warm spot. 
Viola tricolor (Heartsease). The com- 
mon Pansy is usually included under the 
head of V. tricolor, though it is more likely 
to have descended from V. altaica; in 
any case, from some kinds nearly allied 
to that species. But the kinds are so 
numerous, so varied, and, withal, so- 
distinct from any really wild species of 
Violet in cultivation, that little can be 
traced of their origin. Of one thing we 
may be certain : the parents of this 

Specious race were true mountaineers, 
nly alpines could give birth to such rich 
and' brilliant colour and noble amplitude 
of bloom, considering the size of the plant. 
Its season never ends, it blooms often 
cheerfully enough at Christmas, and is 
sheeted with delightful gold and purple 
when the Hawthorn is whitened with 
blossoms. Such a flower must not be 
forgotten on our rock-gardens, even though 
it thrive in almost any soil and position. 
It may be treated as an annual, biennial, 
or perennial, according to climate, position, 
and soil. Good varieties are quickly and 
easily raised from seed, while the plant 
may be raised freely from cuttings or by 
division. Only the most delicate colours 
are worthy of the rock-garden. 

In addition to the Violets here described, 
other species are worthy of cultivation in 
large collections, for example : V. striata, 
V. canadensis, V. obliqua, V. palmata, 
V. blanda, V. pennata, V. palmaensis; 
but most of these are all exceeded in size 
and beauty of flower by those described, 
and surpassed in odour by the Sweet 

Hybrids of Viola. The common Pansy 
of our gardens is a hybrid Viola. Of late 
years a beautiful race of plants has been 
raised by crossing this with other Violas, 
giving us the plants I call Tufted Pansies, 
which are of the highest value for the 
rock-garden or any other flower-garden 
use. The delicate colours, facility of 
increase, and almost perennial character 
make them more precious than the older 
race of Pansies, which are rather of a 
biennial character, and not easy to per- 
petuate. For a full account of these 




plants, see the "English Flower- 

Holland Daisy). A pretty Australian 
plant, bearing an abundance of flowers 
with yellowish disks and rosy-white 
rays, somewhat like those of a Daisy ; 
the plant has a spreading diffuse 
habit, and forms neat little bushes 
about a foot high. The plant may be 
raised as freely as any annual, sown 
in frames or on a gentle hot-bed, in 
March or early in April; when put 
out in April in free sandy soil in a 
sunny spot, it flowers abundantly from 
early summer to late autumn. I 
probably should not have mentioned 
it in this book, had I not met with it 
in North Italy adorning some rocks 
on which it had become naturalised. 
Although often treated as an annual, it 
is a perennial on soils and in positions 
where not destroyed by wet and frost. 

pretty alpine plants of the harebell 
family, but a little more alpine in 
nature, and perhaps a little more 
difficult of cultivation, as, to succeed 
well, they require some of the choicest 
spots on the rock-garden. Mr F. "W. 
Meyer, of Exeter, who has been very 
successful with this family, writes of 
them in the Garden : 

"According to my experience, none 
of them succeed if planted on flat 
ground, but if planted into an upright 
or sloping fissure, with the roots in a 
horizontal, instead of a vertical posi- 
tion, success is certain, if the plants 
receive an abundance of sunshine. 
There are fast-growing and slow-grow- 
ing varieties, but, with the exception 
of planting the dwarfest kinds closer 
together, I make no difference in the 

"The rock on which I grew them 

best, which is facing south-east, was 
composed of pieces of limestone so ar- 
ranged as to leave between them long, 
almost perpendicular, crevices 2 inches 
or 3 inches wide, and from 2 feet to 
2j feet in depth. These crevices were 
filled with plenty of broken stones for 
drainage, and before filling in the soil 
the lowest visible or outward part of 
a crevice was closed up by a small 
wedge-shaped stone, held in place by 
a kind of mortar made of clay and 
Sphagnum Moss, mixed with a very 
small quantity of soil. The small 
stones, acting as drainage, would be 
on a lower level and in the inside part 
of the crevice. By means of more 
'mortar' and more small stones, the 
outside part of the fissure is now built 
up to the height where it is desired 
the first plant should be, and simul- 
taneously the inside part of the crevice 
is filled to the same height with a 
mixture of loam, leaf-mould, small 
broken stones (limestone), and stony 
grit. The plant is then inserted with 
its roots in a horizontal position, and 
more of the stony soil is filled in and 
rammed around and between the roots 
with a small stick. On each side of 
the neck of the plant a small stone 
is next driven into the crevice in 
such a manner as not in any way to 
injure the roots, but to take the 
pressure of other small stones used 
for building up the front of the crevice 
above the first plant, say to the height 
of 10 inches or a foot in precisely the 
same way as was done below the first 
plant ; the second plant is then 
introduced, and in the same way a 
third or fourth plant may be added, 
according to the height of the fissure 
or the size of the plants, but care must 
be taken not to use the clay mixture 
as mortar above the last plant, as the 
more or less impervious clay would 



check the free access of water to the 
roots. I use soil and Moss only as a 
'mortar' for small stones above the 
last plant. If the tiny crevices be- 
tween the small stones are not filled 
up, they become a harbour for slugs 
and other pests." 

Wahlenbergia, or any other plants 

drainage are assured to the roots. 
The native home of most Wahlenbergia 
is in South-Eastern Europe and Asia 
Minor. Syn., Edraianthus. 

Wahlenbergia dalmaticus. One of the 

best, robust in growth, and the easiest to 
cultivate. In planting, the plants should 
be kept at least a foot apart. The large 

Wahlenbergia graminifolius and W. dalmaticus in the rock-garden at 
Abbotsbury, Newton Abbot. (Engraved from a photograph sent by 
Mr F. W. Meyer. 

requiring to be grown sideways (i.e. 
with their roots in a horizontal posi- 
tion), succeed remarkably well if 
planted in the manner just described, 
as water can never rest on the foliage 
of the plants to any dangerous extent, 
while free access of water and perfect 

flowers form clusters or heads, each con- 
sisting of from eight to twelve flowers, 
of a violet-blue, and white at the base in 
May and June. The height of the plant 
is seldom more than 4 inches or 5 inches, 
as the stout flower-stems do not stand up 
erect, but lie on the ground or stones, 




Wahlenbergia dinaricus. It is one of 

the smallest, and more compact than the 
robust W. dalmaticus. The flowers are 
nearly as large, of a more purplish shade 
of colour, more bell-shaped in form, singly, 
or two or three on a stem. The leaves are 
very small and narrow, covered with very 
minute hairs on the upper surface. May 
and June. 

W. pumilio. A very small kind, the 
flowers solitary and 1 inch in length, and 
about | of an inch in diameter, of a 
bright purplish blue. The upper surface 
of the leaves is covered with minute 
hairs to such an extent as to have quite 
a silvery appearance, which in all plants, 
as a general rule, is a sure indication of 
the requirement of a sunny position. 
But though the plant itself grows best 
when its foliage is moderately dry, its 
roots, though well drained, should never 
want for moisture. 

W. Kitaibeli is a robust kind. It is a 
native of Bosnia, and growing about 6 
inches high, the flowers large, purplish 

W. serpyllifolius. A gem for the rock- 
garden, and, planted sideways into an 
upright fissure, does remarkably well. 
The flowers are very much like those of 
W. pumilio, but of a deeper bluish shade. 

W. tenuifplius. A native of the moun- 
tainous districts bordering on the Adriatic 
from Trieste to Montenegro. 


(Strawberry Waldsteinia). A showy 
plant from North America, with creep- 
ing bright-red, hairy stems, growing 
about 6 inches high, bearing in summer 
bright-yellow blooms about J incb 
across, and thriving in ordinary soils. 
Waldsteinia trifolia (Three-Leaved W.}. 
A dwarf vigorous plant, spreading about 
with stout stubby strawberry-like runners. 
The trifoliate and rich yellow flowers in 
April, on dwarf stems, with a dense brush 
of golden stamens in the centre. A hardy 
plant, good for any kind of rock or wall 
gardening. Division. 

WULFENIA W. carinthiaca is a 
dwarf, almost stemless, evergreen herb, 

12 to 18 inches high, bearing in 
summer spikes of drooping purplish- 
blue flowers, and found only on one 
or two mountains in Carinthia. It is 
a plant for rock-gardens or borders, 
thriving in a light moist sandy loam. 
W. Amherstiana from the Himalayas 
is similar to the Carinthian species, 
but more showy and rare, and we have 
seen it only in Kew Gardens. It is 
hardy, grows freely in any position in 
the rock-garden, but prefers a shady 
spot and light rich soil. 

LOIDES (Turkey's - Beard). A 
tuberous-rooted plant with the aspect 
of an Asphodel, beautiful, forming a 
spreading tuft of grassy leaves, and 
bearing on a flower-stem, from 2 to 4 
feet high, a raceme of numerous white 
blossoms. It grows well in a moist 
sandy peaty border, or in the drier 
parts of the bog-garden. A common 
plant in the Pine barrens in North 

YUCCA (Adam's Needle). Ever- 
green plants of good and distinct form, 
which, although used much as lawn- 
plants, are best for the rock-garden or 
dry banks, coming as they do from 
arid and sandy regions in North 

Their varieties really hardy in our 
climate are Y. gloriosa,* recurva, ftla- 
mentosa, flaccida. In damp localities 
Yuccas are apt to form soft growths, 
easily pulped by severe frosts. Planted 
on dry mounds, or in sand and stones, 
and lime rubble, or among sheltered 
rocks by the sea, they are quite at 
home, and flower well. Starvation is 
the best treatment for them, especially 
in cold inland places. 

In the rock-garden the best way is 
to keep to the dwarfer free-flowering 
kinds, which have the merit also of 




flowering annually. Their effect, even 
in winter, on a knoll is good, and 
there is nothing one could plant on a 
dry poor bank that would be likely to 
do or look as well. A little fringe of 
some small-leaved Ivy surrounding 
them looks well. 


(Californian Fuchsia). A distinct and 
bright perennial, hardy in warm soils, 

ZENOBIA Z. speciosa is one of 
the most beautiful of rock shrubs of 
the Heath family, about a yard high, 
with small pale green leaves. In the 
variety pulverulenta, the leaves are 
covered with a mealy glaucescence. 
The flowers are white and wax-like, re- 
sembling those of Lily of the Valley, 
in summer, in loose drooping clusters. 
A well-flowered plant is most charming, 
and lasts for some weeks in beauty, 

A group of Yuccas. (Engraved from a photograph by Mrs Henderson, 
Sedgwick Park, Horsham.) 

12 to 18 inches high, 'with an 
abundance of bright vermilion flowers 
during summer and autumn. It 
thrives in sandy loam in the rock- 
garden, and grows well on an old wall, 
but on heavy and moist soils does not 
thrive. Where any difficulty is found 
in cultivating it, it will certainly 
succeed in a "dry" wall. 

doing best in a peaty soil or a sandy 
loam. It comes from the Southern 
United States, but is hardy in the 
southern countries. In Nurseries it is 
known as Andromeda speciosa, and 
A. pulverulenta. 

ZEPHYRANTHES (Zephyr Flower). 
Pretty bulbous plants requiring a 




warmer climate than Britain for their 
fullest beauty, and in our land requiring 
the warmest positions and light well- 
drained soils. The grassy leaves appear 
in spring with or before the Crocus- 
like flowers, which are white or rose- 
pink, and, for the most part, handsome. 
Zephyranthes require rest during 
winter, and at that season are best 
kept dry. In spring they should be 

summer. Dotted over a turf formed of 
some carpet-plant like the Lawn-Pearl wort, 
it is seen to great advantage when its 
great bell-like flower opens. Division of 
established tufts. 

Zephyranthes carinata. This lovely 
plant has narrow leaves, and its flower- 
stem, which is about 6 inches high, bears a 
rosy flower, 2 or 3 inches long. It thrives 
in the open border if kept dry in winter 
in light sandy loam. 

':'-,':.:'.'', -''' ' .. 

Zenob'a speciosa pulverulenta. 

planted out in the full sun in very 
sandy soil. 

Zephyranthes atamasco (Atamasco 
Lily). A beautiful, lily-like plant, bearing 
handsome white flowers tinged with purple, 
3^ inches across, on stems from 6 to 
12 inches high. Although growing 
abundantly in North America, this fine 
plant is too rare in our gardens, where it 
is well worthy of culture, thriving in light, 
rich, sandy soil, and flowering in early 

ZIETENIA. Z. lavandulcefolia is a 
dwarf, creeping, half-shrubby perennial 
of a grayish hue, 6 to 12 inches high, 
with purple flowers in summer, borne 
in whorls, forming a spike about 
6 inches long, with a slender 
downy stalk. Suitable for the rougher 
parts of the rock-garden. Division. 



Abbotsbury, Newton Abbot, Wahlenbergia 

on the rock-garden at, 333 
Acsena, 147 
Acantholimon, 147 

venustum, 148 

Achillea, 149 
Acis, 150 

autumnalis, 150 

Aconite, Winter, 218 

Adonis, 150 

^Ethionema, 150 

Ajuga, 153 

Allium, 153 

Allosorus, 153 

Alpine and Rock plants, watering, 92 

Flowers at home, facing title-page. 

a ledge of, 24 

for gardens, Part II. 147 

in borders and beds, rock and, 

34 ; in pans or baskets, 79 ; 
in pots, 82 ; the rocky moun- 
tains, 141 
small bed of, 32 

wall-gardens of rock and, 38 

gardening in adverse conditions, 

68 ; planting, 73 ; soil, 72 
gardens, trees and, 50 

- Larchwood, 124 

Marsh garden, the, 51 

plant gr oiving 'between stones in a pot, 83 

plant on border surrounded by half- 
buried stones, 36 

plants from seed in the open 

ground, 87 ; raising, 77, 87 
- frontispiece of a book on, 95 

grouting in a level border, 33 ; 

on the level ground, 25 

raised from seed in pots, 90 

View, an, 112 

- Village, an, 117 

Stream, an, 20 

- Waterfall, 118 
Alpines, frames for, 78 

Alps of Europe and the Kocky Mountains 
of N.W. America, some notes of ? 
journey in the, 111 

Alsine, 153, 172 

laricifolia, 172 

Alyssum, 154 

montanum, 154 

Anagalis, 155 
Andromeda, 155 
Androsace, 155 

lamiginosa in the Rock-Garden, The 

Friars, Henley-on-Thames, 157 

villosa, 158 

Androsaces,potfor, 83 
Anemone, 159, 239 

blanda, 161 

Greek, the, 161 

vernalis, 163 

Annuals for the Rock-Garden, 85 

some dwarf and more refined, 86 

Antennaria, 162 
Anthemis, 163 

macedonica, 164 

Anthericum, 164 
Anthyllis, 164 
Antirrhinum, 165 
Aquilegia, 165 

ccerulea, 168 

Arabia, 169 
Arch, Rustic, 95 
Arctostaphylos, 170 
Arenaria, 153, 171 

laricifolia, 172 

Arethusa, 172 
Armeria, 173 
Arnebia, 173 
Artemisia, 174 
Arum, Bog, 182 
Asarum, 174 
Asperula, 174 
Asphodel, Bog, 265 
Aster, 174 

Stracheyi, 175 

Astragalus, 175 
Atragene, 176 
Aubrietia, 176 
Auricula, 284 
Avens, 234 

Mountain, 217 

Azalea, 177 





JBarbary Ragwort, 270 
Barberry, 179 
Barrenwort, 217 

Baskets, Alpine flowers in pans or, 79 
Bearberry, 170 
Beard Tongue, 273 
Beauty of the flocks, 274 . 
Bed kept saturated by perforated pipes, 

of Alpine flowers, small, 32 

Bellium, 179 
Berberis 179 
Bergenia, 180 
Betula, 180 
Bindweed, 193 
Birch, 180 
Bitter Root, 251 
Bleeding Heart, 213 
Bletia, 180 
Bloodroot, 300 
Bluets, 240 

Bog bed, the cemented, 59 ; beds with- 
out cement, 59 

the partly cemented, 60 

Bogs, artificial, 55 

Border, Alpine plant growing in a level, 33 
on, surrounded by half- 
buried stones, 36 

rough stone-edging to, 35 

Borders and beds, rock and Alpine 

flowers in, 34 
Boretta, 180 
Box, 181 

Brachycome, 180 
Bramble, 299 
Bridge, stepping-stone, with water-lilies 

and water-plants, 27 ; plan of, 27 
Bridges and Cascades, 27 
Brookfield, Hathersage, Sheffield, part of 

Rock-Garden at, 5 
Broom, Rock, 228 

Spanish, 320 

Bruckenthalia, 180 

spiculifolia, 180 

Bryanthus, 181 
Buckbeam, 260 
Bugle, 153 
Bulbocodium, 181 
Bulrush, 312 
Butcher's Broom, 300 
Buttercup. 295 

Lady, 295 

Butterwort, 278 
Buxus, 181 

Calamintha, 181 
Calandrinia 181 
Calla, 182 
Calluna, 182 
Calophaca 182 

Caltha, 182 
Camomile, 163 
Campanula, 182 

garganica, 184 

turbinata, 186 

Campion, 255 
Candytuft, 242 
Cardamine, 186 
Cascade in a high wood, 126 
Cascades, Bridges and, 27 
Cassandra, 155 
Cassiope, 155, 186 
Catchfly, 255, 317 

Rock, 326 

Cat's-Ear, 162 

Cave for Killarney Fern, entrance to, 30 

Centaury, 223 

Cerastium, 187 

Cbickweed, Mouse-Ear, 187 

Chieranthus, 188 

Chimaphila, 188 

Chiogenes, 188 

Christmas Rose, 237 

Cinquefoil, 281 

Cistus, 189 

formosus, 190 

Clark, Mr Latimer, on forming the Rock- 

Garden, 55 
Claytonia, 191 
Clematis, 176, 191 
Clover, 324 
Colchicum, 191 
Columbine, 165 

floicer of blue, 168 

Conandron, 193 

Concrete, Rocks formed of, 30 

Convallaria, 193 

Convolvulus, 193 

Coptis, 194 

Coris, 194 

Cornus, 194 

Coronilla, 195 

Cortusa, 195 

Corydalis, 195 

Cotoneaster, 196 

Cotyledon, 197 

Cowslip, 288 

American, 213 

Cranesbill, 233 
Creeping Jenny, 257 
Cress, Indian, 325 
rock, 169 ; purple, 176 

showy bastard, 322 

silvery, 150 

violet, 243 

Crocus, 197 
Crowberry, 217 
Cyananthus, 199 
Cyclamen, 199 
Cypripedium, 203 
Cystopteris, 205 
Cytisus, 205 




Daffodil, 265 

Winter, 321 

Daisy, New Holland, 332 

Rock, 179 

Dalibarda, 205 
Daphne, 206 

Blagay&na, 206 

Darlingtonia, 208 
Dentaria, 208 
Desfontainea, 209 
Dianthus, 209 

alpinus, 210 

ccesius, 211 

neglecting, 212 

Diapensia, 212 
Dicentra, 213 
Diphylleia, 213 
Dodecatheon, 213 
Dogwood, 194 
Dondia, 214 
Draba, 214 
Dracocephalum, 216 
Dragon's Head, 216 
Drosera, 216 
Dryas, 217 

Dutchman's Breeches, 213 
Dyer's Greenweed, 229 

Echinocactus, 217 

Edelweiss, 249 

Edelweiss, 250 

Edging to border, rough stone, 35 

Edraianthus, 333 

Elmet Hall, Leeds, part of Rock-Garden 

at, 19 
Emmotts, Ide Hill, Sevenoaks, Kent, part 

of Rock-Garden at, 37 
Empetmm, 217 
Epigsea, 217 
Epilobium, 217 
Epimedium, 217 
Epipactis, 218 
Eranthis, 218 

hyemalis, 218 

Erica,' 180, 182, 219 
Erigeron, 220 
Erinus, 220 
Eriogonum, 221 
Eritrichium, 221 
Erodium, 221 
Erpetion, 222 
Eryngium, 222 
Erysimum, 222 
Erythrsea, 223 
Erythronium, 223 
Evening Primrose, 265 
Everlasting, Yellow, 237 

Fellorwort, 322 
Fern, Bladder, 205 

Killarney, entrance to Gave for, 30 

Parsley, '153 

Fernery, Rock-Garden, 29 

Ferns on an old ivall, 58 

Feverfew, Alpine, 249 

Fissure, horizontal, 2l 

Fissures, right and wrong, 21, 22, 23 

Flag, 244 

Algerian, 245 

Flax, 253 

Toad, 252 

Fleabane, 220 
Foam-flower, 323 
Fog-fruit, 254 
Forget-me-not, 263 

antarctic, 263 

creeping, 267 

Fairy, 221 

Fota, Co. Cork, Water-Garden at, 

Fountain and RoclcworJc, what to avoid, 


Fragaria, 226 
Frankenia, 226 
Fritillaria, 226 
Frog-bit, 241 
Fruiting Duckweed, 265 
Fuchsia, Calif or nian, 335 
Fumitory, 195 


Galanthus, 227 
Galax, 227 

Garland Flower, 206 

Gaultheria, 227 

Genista, 228 

Gentian, 229 

Gentiana, 229 

decumbens alba, 231 

macrophylla, 232 

Gentianella, 229 

Geographical arrangements of rock- 
plants, 26 

Geological aspects of Rockwork, on 
the, 99 

Geranium 233 

Geum, 234 

Ginger, Wild, 174 

Glacier, a, 123 

Globe Flower, 324 

Globularia, 235 

Gold Thread, 194 

Golden Club, 270 

Drop, 267 

Goodyera, 235 

Granite tor, 100 

Grape Hyacinth, 262 

Grass of Parnassus, 272 

Whitlow, 214 



Green Brier, 319 
Grit, 17 
Cromwell, 254 
Ground Pine, 257 
Gypsophila, 235 


Jasminum, 246 
Jeffersonia, 246 
Juniperus, 246 

Habenaria, 235 
Haberlea, 235 
Habranthus, 236 
Hairbell, 182 
Hawkweed, 239 
Hawthorn, Japanese, 297 
Heartsease, 331 
Heath, 219 

Arctic, 186 

Rocky Mountain, 181 

Sea, 226 

Heather, 220 

Whin, 228 

Hedysamm, 236 
Helianthemum, 236 
Helichrysum, 237 
Helleborus, 237 
Helonias, 239 
Hemiphragma. 239 
Hepatica, 160, 161, 239 
Herniaria, 239 
Heronsbill, 221 
Hesperochiron, 239 
Hieracium, 239 
Hippocrepis, 239 
Honeysuckle, 255 

Swamp, 177 

Horminum, 239 

Hottonia, 239 

Houseleek, 315 

Houstonia, 240 

Howth, Go. Dublin, Rhododendrons among 

natural rocks at, 47 
Hutchinsia, 151, 240 
Hyacinth, 240 
Hyacinthus, 240 
Hydrocharis, 241 
Hydrocotyle, 241 
Hypericum, 241 
polophyllum, 241 

Iberidella, 151, 241 
Iberis, 242 
Incarvillea, 243 
lonopsidium, 243 

acaule, 243 

Iris, 244 

stylosa, 245 

Isopyrum, 245 


Janksea, 245 
Jasione, 245 
Jasmine, 246 

Kalmia, 246 
Kernera, 247 
Knotweed, 280 

Lady's Slipper, 203 

Smock, 186 

Lake Maggiore, margin oj, Island in, 


Larch-wood, Alpine, 124 
Lathyrus, 247 
Laurel, Mountain, 247 
Lavender, Sea, 321 
Ledge, rocky, 110 
Ledges, well-formed, sloping. 20 
Ledum, 249 
Leiophyllum, 249 

buxifolium, 248 

Leontoppdium, 249 

alpinum, 250 

Leucanthemum, 249 

Leucojum, 150, 249 

Leucothoe, 155, 251 

Lewisia, 251 

Libertia, 251 

Lilies, Lenten, 238 

Water and water plants, stepping- 

ith, 27 plan of, 27" 
Liliuin, 251 
Lily, 251 

Atamasco, 336 

of the valley, 193 ;*' twin-leaved, 


St Bruno's, 164, 271 

water, 265 ; the white, 64 

- White Wood, 324 
Limestone, 103 
Limestones, 108 
Linaria, 252 
Ling, 220 
Linnsea, 252 
Linum, 253 
Lippia, 254 
Lithospermum, 254 
Lloydia, 254 
Loiseleuria, 254 
Lonicera, 255 
Lungwort, 293 

Smooth, 260 

Luzuriaga, 255 

Lychnis, 255 

Lychnis, 256 

Lycopodium, 257 

Lydhurst, Sussex, rocky path at, 11 

Lyonia, 155 

Lyshnachia, 257 





Mad wort, 154 

Maianthemum, 257 

Mallow Rock, 257 

Malyastrum, 257 

Marjoram 269 

Marsh garden, the Alpine, 51 ; the, 52 

Marigold, 182 

plants, a selection of, 55 

Masterwort, dwarf, 214 
Mayflower, 217 
Mazus, 257 
Meadow Beauty, 298 

Saffron, 191 ; Spring, 181 
Rue, 322 

Sweet, 320 
Meconopsis, 258 

aculeata, 259 

Megasea, 259 

Melittis, 259 

Menyanthes, 260 

Menziesia, 260 

Merendera, 260 

Mertensia, 260 

Mezereon, 207 

Milkwort, 279 

Mimulus, 261 

Mitchella, 261 

Mocassin flower, 204 

Modiola, 261 

Mcehringia, 261' 

Moneywort, Cornish, 317 

Monkey-flower, 261 

Monte Campione, 128 

Morisia, 261 

Mound of earth with exposed points of 

rock, 8 
Mountain, flank in process of degradation, 

vegetation in America, 137 

Woods of California, 139 
Mountains, miniature, 96 
Muhlenbeckia, 262 
Mullien, Rosette, 293 
Muscari, 262 

Mutisia, 262 
Myosotidium, 263 
Myosotis, 263 
Myrica, 264 


Narcissus, 264 
Narthecium, 265 
Nasturtium, flame, 325 
Nertera, 265 
Nierembergia, 265 
Nymphsea, 265 

Oak Lodge, Rocky bank at, 31 ; water 

margin at, 28 
<Enothera, 265 
ccespitosa, 266 

Omphalodes, 267 
Ononis, 267 
Onosma, 267 
Ophrys, 267 
Opuntia, 268 
Orchid, 268 
Orchis, 268 
- Bee, 267 

maculata superba, 

Rein, 235 

Origanum, 269 
Orontium, 270 
Othonna, 270 
Ox-eye, 150 
Oxalis, 270 
Oxlip, 288 
Oxytropis, 271 
Ozothamnus, 271 

Pans or baskets, Alpine plants in, 79 
Pansy, horned, 330 

tufted, 330 

Papaver, 271 
Paradisia, 271 
Parnassia, 272 

palustris, 272 

Parochetus, 272 

Paronychia, 272 

Parsley Fern, 153 

Partridge Berry, 261 

Pasque flower, 162 

Passerina, 272 

Path, rocky, at Lydhurst, Sussex, 11 

Pathway, ascending, in Rock-Garden, 

Warley Place, 10 
stone, in Rock-Garden, Warley 

Place, 9 
Pathways, 10 
Pea, Everlasting, 247 

Shamrock, 272 

Pear, prickly, 268 
Pearlwort, lawn, 300 
Pelargonium, 272 
Pennywort, 241 
Pentstemon, 273 
Pepino, 274 
Periwinkle, 329 
Pernettya, 274 
Petrocallis, 274 
Philesia, 274 
Phlox, 274 

divaricata, 276 

stellaria, 277 

Phyteuma, 277 
Pieris, 155, 277 
Pimpernel, 155 
Pincushion flower, 310 
Pines, limit of the, 132 
Pinguicula, 278 
Pink, 209 
Alpine, 210 




Pink Cheddar, 211 

Cushion, 317 

Sea, 173 

Pinxter-flower, 178 
Pitcher plant, 301 

Californian, 208 

Plantain Rattlesnake, 235 

Planting, (1) Right ; (2) Wrong, 94 

Plants for dry walls, 42 

Platycodon, 278 

Plumbago, 278 

Polemonium, 279 

Polygala, 279 

Polygonatum, 279 

Polygonum, 280 

Pontederia, 281 

Poppy, 271 

Bush, 299 

Celandine, 321 

Satin, 258 

Pot, Alpine plant growing between stones 

in a, 83 

for Androsaces, etc., 83 

Potentilla, 281 

nitida, 282 

Pots, Alpine flowers in, 82 

plunged in sand, bed of small Alpine 

plants in, 84 

raising Alpine plants from seed in, 90 

Pratia, 282 
Prickly Pear, 268 

Thrift, 147 

Primrose, 282 

Evening, 265 

Primula, 282 
Prophet-flower, 173 
Prunella, 292 
Pulmonaria, 293 
Puschkinia, 293 
Pyrola, 293 
Pyxidanthera, 293 


Ragwort, 316 

Ramondia, 293 

pyrenaica, 294 

Rampion, 277 

Ranunculus, 295 

amplexicaulis, 295 

Raphiolepis, 297 

Rest Harrow, 267 

Rhamnus, 298 

Rhexia, 298 

Rhodiola, 298 

Rhododendron, 298 

Rhododendrons among natural rocks at 
Howth, Go. Dublin, 47 

Rhodora, 298 

Rhodothamnus, 299 

Rock and Alpine flowers in borders and 
beds, 34; planting, 93; wall- 
gardens of, 38 

Rock cress, purple, 176 

Rockfoil, 302 

broad-leaved the, 306 

Rock-Garden, annuals for the, 85 ; some 
dwarf and more refined, 86 

at Elmet Hall, Leeds, part of, 19 

construction, 12 

cultural, 1 

Fernery, 29 

half-buried stone in, 18 

Japanese dwarfed trees for the, 50 

materials, 6 

Mountain Shrubs for the, 47 

Mr Latimer Clark on forming the,, 


07i level ground at Emmotts, Ide Hil^ 

Sevenoaks, Kent, 37 

part of, at Brookfield, Hathersaqe, 

Sheffield, 5 

position for the, 6 

small, the, 31 

soil, 13 

Warley Place, Essex, ascending path- 
way in, 10 ; stone pathway in, 9 

water plants in the, 61 

Gardens on level ground, 36 ; 

various, 18 

hidden natural, 8 

mound of earth, with exposed points 

of, 8 

near water, suitable for bold vegeta- 
tion, 28 

on which plants do not thrive, arti- 
ficial, 20 

plants, a wall made for, 46 

dry stone walls for, 46 

established on an old wall, 4 

geographical arrangements of> 


hollow wall for. Plan and 

Section of, 44 

on sloping wall of local sand- 
stone, 39 

Rose, 189 

with base buried, showing ascending ; 


Rockeries, stone for, 75 

Rockery, barrow-shaped, the, 70 

Facing, 71 

Sunk, the, 71 

Rocks formed of concrete, 30 

in a Sussex garden, unearthed, 8 

trees on, 50 

Rock-spray, 196 

Rockwork in Villa in Hammersmith, 9 

What to avoid, 97, 98, 99 

Rocky Mountains, Alpine flowers in the, 

of N.W. America, some notes 

of a journey in the Alps of 
Europe and the, 111 

Isolated rocks in the, 138 

Scene in the, 137 




Rodgersia, 299 
Romanzoffia, 299 
Romneya, 299 
Rosa, 299 
Rose, 299 
Rosemary, 299 
Rosmarinus, 299 
Rubus, 299 
Rue, 300 
Ruscus, 300 
Rush, 320 
Ruta, 300 


Saas Valley, the, 116 
Sagina, 300 
Salix, 300 

Sandstone, old red, 105 
Sandwort, 171 
Sanguinaria, 300 
Sanicle, Alpine, 195 
Santolina, 301 
Saponaria, 301 
Sarracenia, 301 
Satin-flower, 319 
Savin, 246 
Saxifraga, 259, 302 

cordifolia, 306 

Juniperina, 307 

Saxifrage, home of the purple. 135 
Scabiosa, 310 
Scabious, Sheep's, 245 
Schists and Shales, 109 
Schivereckia, 310 
Schizocodon, 311 
Scilla, 311 
Scirpus, 312 
Scutellaria, 312 

indica, 312 

Sea Holly, 222 

Sedum, 312 

Selaginella, 315 

Self-heal, 292 

Sempervivum, 315 

Senecio, 316 

Shales, Schists and, 109 

Sheffieldia, 317 

Shortia, 317 

Shrubs, Mountain, for the rock-garden, 


Sibthorpia, 317 
Silene, 317 
Sisyrinchium, 319 
Skimmia, 319 
Slugs, 25 
Smilax, 319 
Snakeshead, 226 
Snapdragon, 165 
Snowberry, creeping, 188 
Snowdrop, 227 
Snowflake, 249 
Soapwort, 301 
Soldanella, 319 

Soil for certain plants, need of poor, 

Solomon's Seal, 279 

Sowbread, 199 

Sparrow-wort, 272 

Spartium, 320 

Speedwell, 327 

Spigelia, 320 

Spiraea, 320 

Spring Beauty, 191 

Squill, striped, 293 

St John's Wort, 241 

Starflower, 323 

Star wort, 175 

Statice, 321 

Steps, rocky, 11 

Sternbergia, 321 

Stone for Rockeries, 75 

Stonecrop, 312 

Strawberry, 226 

Stream, an Alpine, 20 

Stubwort, 270 

Studflower, 239 

Stybarrow Crag, Ullswater, 107 

Stylophorum, 321 

Sundew, 216 

Sunrose, 237 

Sweet Gale, 264 

Swertia, 322 

Symphyandra, 322 

Tchihatchewia, 322 
Tea, Labrador, 249 
Teucrium, 322 
Thalictrum, 322 
Things to avoid, 94 
Thlaspi, 323 
Thrift, 173 

o?i the hills at Anglesey. 17 

Thyme, 323 

Cat, 322 

Thymus, 323 
Tiarella, 323 
Toothwort, 208 
Trees and Alpine gardens, 50 
Japanese dwarfed, for the Rock- 
Garden, 50 

072, Rocks, 50 

Trientalis, 323 
Trifolium, 324 
Trillium, 324 
Tropseolum, 325 
Tufted Bur, 147 
Tulip, 326 
Tulipa, 326 
Tunica, 326 
Turkey's-beard, 334 

Uvularia, 326 




Vaccinium, 327 

Valerian, Greek, 279 

Veronica, 327 

Veronicas, New Zealand, 328 

Vesicaria, 328 

Vetch, 328 

Bitter, 248 

Crown, 195 

Kidney, 164 

Milk, 175 

Vicia, 328 

Village, an Alpine, 117 

Vinca, 329 

Viola, 329 

hybrids of, 331 

Violet, 329 

Dog's tooth, 223 

New Holland, 222 

Sweet, 330 

Water, 232 

Vittadenia, 332 


Wahlenbergia, 332 

graminifolius and W. dalmaticus in 

the Rock-Garden at Abbotsbury, 

Newton Abbot, 333 
Waldstenia, 334 ' 
Wall for rock plants, hollow. Plan and 

Section of, 44 
gardens of rock and Alpine flowers, 


made for rock plants, a, 216 

of local sandstone, sloping, 39 ; 

sandstone blocks supporting earth 

banks, 42 

old, rock plants established on, 43 

plants from seed, 40 

Wallflower, 188 

Walls for rock plants, dry stone, 41 

plants for " dry," 42 

Wand plant, white, 227 

Warley Place, Essex, ascending pathway 
in Rock-Garden at, 10 ; stone pathway 
at, 9 

Water Dock, the great, 65 

garden at Fota, Go. Cork, 63 

Leaf, Sitcha, 299 

Lily, 265 

plants, hardy, 64 ; in the Rock- 
Garden, 61 

Robin, 324 

Waterfall, an Alpine, 118 

Watering Alpine and Rock plants, 92 

Weed, Pickerel, 281 

What to avoid, 95 

Willow, 300 

Willow-herb, 217 

Windflower, 159 

Alpine, 160 

Winter green, 293 ; creeping, 227 

spotted, 188 

Wood plants, 125 

Sorrell, 270 

Woodruff, 174 

Woods of California, Mountain, 139 

Wormgrass, 320 

Woundwort, 164 

Wulfenia, 334 


Xerophyllum, 334 

Yarrow, 149 
Yucca, 334 

group of, a, 335 

Zauschneria, 335 
Zenobia, 155, 335 

speciosa pulverulenta, 336 
Zephyr-flower, 335, 335 
Zietenia, 336 








5th Floor 





Return books early if they are not being used. 


FORM NO.DD13,74m,3/78 

BERKELEY, CA 94720-6000