Alumni Association Life Membership
Life Memberships in the Akimni Association of the State Teachers
College of Indiana, Pennsylvania, are now available as follows: For those
graduating between the years
1940 and 1950 — $40.00
1930 and 1939 — 35.00
1920 and 1929 — 30.00
1910 and 1919 — 25.00
1909 or before — 20.00
Life ^Members shall receive all alumni publications without cost. Alumni
units shall honor Life Memberships but each unit may decide on local unit
dues for Life Members. Life Membership fees shall become a part of the
General Alumni Fund. The Association plans an alumni bulletin, the first
issue in December, 1949; the second in May, 1950, and at least two bulletins
each year thereafter until funds permit an alumni quarterly.
I hereby apply for a Life Membership in the Alumni Association of the
State Teachers College of Indiana, Pennsylvania, and enclose my check for
$ , the membership assessment. Write check to Alumni Asso-
ciation, State Teachers College, Indiana, Pennsylvania.
i\Iy Name _
Pei'manent ^Mailing Address
Graduated If now married, name at graduation.
Mary L. Esch, Executive Secretary
General Alumni Association
State Teachers College
Siaie Jmc^ers Cofkge
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Volume I. May \950 Number 2
A HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
Prepared under the direction of
Ralph E. Heiges
State Teachers College
Issued semi-annually in December and May by the General
Alumni Association of the State Teachers College
at Indiana, Pennsylvania
A FRIEND OF STUDENTS AND ALUMNI
For more than three decades every student who has attend-
ed the State Teachers College at Indiana has been served by
the Office of the Registrar, directed by Mary L. Esch as Regis-
trar. She is one of the key figures in Alumni organization
matters, as Treasurer and Executive Secretary of the General
Alumni Association. To many people, a word from Indiana
State Teachers College means a a word from Mary L. Esch,
In this year of 1950 it is well for us to pause long
enough to recount past events and bring to mind de-
voted individuals. The greatness, the stability and ser-
vice of an institution are the reflections of persons
which have served it and the loyalties of those who
have been touched by it. The Indiana State Teachers
College illustrates the truth of this.
The Seventy-fifth Anniversary Committee under
the direction of Mrs. Carrie Belle Norton urged that a
history be prepared and the Alumni Association under
the presidency of Mrs. Flossie Wagner Sanford gen-
ei^ously arose to sponsor the project. Undoubtedly
there are many ways in which the material could have
been organized, and surely the story might have been
extended. Time and other limitations necessitated a
distillation and it is hoped that the essence will be a
breath from your younger days.
It should be the duty of each alumnus to deposit
with the Library of the College any historical data,
publications and memorabilia to enhance the value of
some future Indiana Story. I must express my thanks
to all those who contributed as shown on the following
pages. To Dr. M. J. Walsh, who through previous study
and additional research assisted me greatly, goes a
particular word. The omissions, the shortcomings be-
long to the editor.
Ralph E. Heiges
OUTLINE OF THE HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
Foreword — Ralph E. Heiges 3
Origin and Early Days — M. J. Walsh 5
The Board of Trustees— Willis E. Pratt 14
The Administrative Organization — Ralph E. Heiges 18
Growth of the Physical Plant — William Schuster 22
Changes in Curricula — M. J. Walsh 24
Departments and Teaching Personnel
Art— Orval Kipp 26
Business— G. G. Hill 28
Education — Ralph B. Beard 30
English— Rhodes R. Stabley 32
Foreign Languages — Edward W. Bieghler 35
Geography — L. C. Davis 37
Health and Physical Education — George P. Miller 39
Home Economics — Opal T. Rhodes 41
Library — Robert T. Grazier 43
Mathematics — Joy E. Mahachek 46
Music— Clel T. Silvey 48
Science — Dwight Sollberger 51
Social Studies — Walter M. Whitmyre 53
Model School, Training School, Keith School — John E. Davis 56
Athletics — George P. Miller 59
Publications — Arthur F. Nicholson 63
The Alumni and the Alumni Association — Mary L. Esch 67
The Future— Willis E. Pratt 74
Tables — Enrollments and Graduates — 1875-1950 — Mary L. Esch 77
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
ORIGIN AND EARLY DAYS
M. J. Walsh, Dean of Instruction (1927-1942)
The preparation of teachers for the Commonwealth of Penn-
sylvania has been a long and laborious development. Before the
passage of the Public School Act of 1834 there were no require-
ments for teachers except as each institution, church, or local group
set them up for its own teachers. Under the Act of 1834 School
Inspectors, appointed for each district by the Court of Quarter Ses-
sions, examined prospective teachers and issued certificates to those
whom they considered qualified. Later, this control of certification
was given to the County Superintendents.
In the meantime, various eflforts had been made to give pros-
pective teachers some preparation for their work. The University
of Pennsylvania, begun as an Academy in 1749, was designed par-
tially as a school for teachers. In 1799 The Westtown Boarding
School, established by the Quakers, had the preparation of teachers
as one of its objects. This school prepared x^ung people of both
sexes for teaching and probably was the first school in the State to
Several other colleges were making some attempts to prepare
teachers when, in 1831 the state made the first appropriation for
the purpose to Washington College on condition "that the trustees
shall cause that there be instructed, annually, gratis, twenty stu-
dents in the elementary branches of education, in a manner best
calculated to qualify them to teach common English schools,"
Other schools were granted appropriations for this purpose but
some undertook to prepare teachers without aid from the State.
The most elaborate of these attempts was that of Lafayette College.
In 1834, the President, Dr. George Junkin, wrote a letter to Senator
Samuel Breck urging the plan "of establishing in the existing col-
leges of our state, model schools and a teachers' course." Breck
was too busy on his own bill for the creation of a common school
system to more than approve the plans of President Junkin, which
were far in advance of anything previously suggested for teacher
education. Lafayette tried this advanced program including a
Model School "to be kept full of school children from the neighbor-
hood, in every respect such as is desirable to see established in
every district of the State. . .which school be a model in its building,
its fixtures, desks, books, apparatus, rules and regulations and mode
of management." (') Other provisions of the plan were equally
progressive. The prospective teacher was to be on the same footing
(1) Wickcrsham, History of Education in Pennsylvania, P. 609
as other students, attend the same' classes and in addition "spend
a part of every day in the common school, as a spectator and oc-
casionally as an assistant." (-) In 1838 a Model School was built
and at the dedication Dr. Junkin delivered an address "in commem-
oration of the founding of the first Model School for the training
of Primary School Teachers in Pennsylvania." (^) This progressive
movement, however, was not a success. There was not enough de-
mand for prepared teachers, so the project was given up; but many
of its progressive features were revived in later teacher- preparation
Every State Superintendent, from Burrowes, in 1836, to Curtin,
in 1857, advocated some plan for educating prospective teachers.
In 1838 Burrowes changed from advocating the preparation of
teachers in existing Colleges to urging the establishment of
separate free State institutions for that purpose. He thought two
such schools, one in the eastern and one in the western part of tHe
State would be sufficient for the time and others could be added
The demands for such schools were continued but it was not
until 1853 that a bill was prepared for the establishment of schools
for teachers. This bill was not acted on but in 1854 the bill was
again presented but the parts providing for the creation of two
schools for the training of teachers were dropped from the bill.
During this period there was much discussion in regard to teacher
education centering particularly around the problem of control of
schools for this purpose. On one side were the advocates of state-
owned and controlled schools and on the other those who desired pri-
vately-owned and controlled schools. (^) The latter seemed to be
winning out as Burrowes, who had written the provisions in the
bill of 1853 and 1854 for two State-owned schools, announced in 1856
that he had reached the conclusion that "Normal Schools, like other
professional institutions, ought not to be established by and at the ex-
pense of the State, and should be no further controlled by the State
than is necessary to give value and authority to their diplomas."
State Superintendent Curtin who had urged distinctive State Nor-
mal Schools in 1855, also changed his ideas and in 1856 advocated
"a combination of the best elements of the State and the private
school." In accordance with these views a bill was prepared by Bur-
rowes. He was doubtless influenced by a letter sent by Benjamin
Bannan, a prominent citizen of Pottsville, to Governor Pollock, sug-
gesting the division of the State into twelve to fifteen districts and
(4) For a more complete discussion of this background, see Walsh, History and
Organization of Education in Pennsylvania, pp. 313-322.
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
establishing a Normal School in each, partly at State and partly at
private expense. This letter and the changes in attitude of Bur-
rowes and State Superintendent Curtin led to the preparation of a
bill in 1857 quite different from those presented earHer. Dr.
Thomas H. Burrowes wrote the bill and it is interesting to note that
it was presented to the Senate by Titian J. Coffey, Senator from
Indiana and Chairman of the Committee on Education. It finally
passed both houses and was signed by the Governor. For an inter-
esting account of the passage of the bill by Dr. Nathan Schaffer, see
Walsh, "History and Organization of Education in Pennsylvania".
The leading provisions of the bill were:
1. The division of the State into 12 districts for Normal Schools.
2. A Normal School to be established in each district by private individuals ^
3- The principal requisites for a Normal School were: at least ten acres of
ground; buildings large enough to accomodate three hundred students; a
hall with a capacity of a thousand persons; rooms for libraries; at least
six professors of liberal education; a model school with accommodation
for one hundred pupils.
4. The course of study and requirements for admission to be fixed by the
several principals, the course of study to include the theory and practice
5. One student to be admitted, annually, from each common school district
:• within the Normal School district, at a cost for tuition of twenty dollars
6. Practical teachers to be admitted for a month or longer at a cost of two
dollars per month.
7. Examinations for graduation to be conducted by a board of principals and
the certificates granted to be permanent licenses to teach.
8. The State Superintendent to approve the regulations for the government
of the schools and the course of study adopted.
9. No inducement in money from the State at any time was held out. The
prestige of being connected with the State and the authority to grant
teaching certificates to graduates were considered sufficient.
During the discussion of the measure the Pennsylvania School
Journal in its issue of May 1857, gave a careful analysis of the bill
and the reasons for its passage. The desirable features were that
it would be self -adapting, efficient, expansive, benefically stimulative,
equalizing in its operation and Pennsylvanian. In answer to the
charge that the State had been backward in its preparation of
teachers this writer said.
If the bill becomes a law and goes into full operation, this will be another
of those instances in which the cautious and prudent policy of our State will
have obtained an advantage over her more rapid and impulsive sisters.
Hers will be the honor of originating it, and of simplifying a department of
common school operations which has always been one of difficulty in the
commencement and of complication in operation. She will thus, merely
by a prudent and well-timed arrangement of the voluntary agents at her
disposal, have avoided a great expense, solved an embarrassing educational
problem, and effected an object of the highest importance. — If the plan
succeed, ten years will place her at the head of the Normal School States.
This optimistic prophecy was not fulfilled but the article em-
phasizes the fact that the schools were not to be State institutions.
In accordance with this Act, Normal Schools were established
in this order: Millersville, 1859; Edinboro, 1861; Mansfield, 1862;
Kutztown, 1866; Bloomsburg, 1869; West Chester, 1871. The citi-
zens of Cumberland County had been trying for several years to
secure a Normal School for the seventh Normal School district.
Finally a charter was obtained and the corner stone laid at Ship-
pensburg in 1871 and two years later the school was approved by
the State. In the meantime the Legislature had made a special ap-
propriation of fifteen thousand dollars to aid the school. This was
the first actual appropriation of money for aid in establishing a
Normal School. About the same time those interested in establish-
ing the "South Western Normal School" at California were having
difficulty in raising money unless there was assurance that the
school would be accepted by the State so in 1869 application was
made to the Legislature for assistance and that same year an act
was passed appropriating five thousand dollars to the South West-
ern Normal School when it should receive the approval of the State
Superintendent as meeting the requirements of a State Normal
School and a like amount each succeeding year by meeting certain
requirements. This approval was secured and California became
the eighth State Normal School in 1874. This act marked an import-
ant change in the policy of the State and later schools were built
under the stimulus of laws guaranteeing both State recognition and
State financial support.
Indiana State Normal School. Interest in a State Normal
School at Indiana began with discussions at teacher meetings
and among citizens as early as 1869. In 1870 a meeting was
held in the office of County Superintendent J. T. Gibson. Present
were John Sutton, A. W. Wilson, Silas M. Clark, Harry White, John
H. Lichteberger, Prof. McCreery, principal of the Indiana Schools,
and Superintendent J. T. Gibson. They organized the Normal
School Association and elected John Sutton president, Silas Clark,
vice-president, and J. T. Gibson, secretary. Caldwell's "History of
Indiana County" says that many meetings were held during the win-
ter of 1870-1871 and about $40,000.00 was pledged, but Wickers-
ham says that the first money, about eighteen or twenty thousand
dollars, was raised in 1869 but that the matter was dropped there.
At any rate the real beginning came with an Act of the Legislature
in 1871, largely through the eff'orts of Harry White, Senator from
this district, granting aid to the proposed Normal School when it
should be approved by the State. On the strength of this assurance
additional pledges were secured, land was purchased west of town
and in the spring of 1873 the architect's plans, drawn up by Mr. J.
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
W. Drum of Pittsburgh, were approved and a contract for a build-
ing was let for $180,000.
Official Acceptance By The Commonwealth. The prelimi-
nary steps having been worked out, presumably in harmony with
the State Superintendent, a formal application was made early in
May, 1875, to State Superintendent J. P. Wickersham, who prompt-
ly appointed a committee with instruction to meet at Indiana on
]\Iay 21 for the formal examination and inspection of all matters
pertaining to the approval or rejection of the application. This
committee, with the exception of Ex-Governor A. G. Curtin, met,
and at the dedicatory exercises on the afternoon of May 21 formal-
ly approxed the application. This was the first big day of the new
institution. A distinguished audience of a thousand citizens of
Indiana and neighboring counties assembled to view the beautiful
structure and hear the report of the committee appointed to de-
termine its fitness for acceptance by the State.
An interesting account of this historic occasion appeared in the
"Pittsburgh Commercial" of May 22, 1875. A considerable part of
this account was reprinted in the July, 1875, issue of the "Penn-
sylvania School Journal," which also contains the proclamation of
State Superintendent Wichersham and the application of the trus-
tees for approval by the State.
The high spots in this gala day were the report of the com-
mittee unanimously recommending the acceptance of the institution
as the State Normal School of the Ninth Normal School District
of Pennsylvania and the speech of State Superintendent Wicker-
sham in which he repeated a statement he had previously made to
the state legislature to the eflfect that the building at Indiana was
the finest normal school building in the United States. The report
of Mr. John Sutton, President of the Board of Trustees, showed an
indebtedness of $55,000, but this probably took into account
pledges made but not yet paid, as another report spoke of $62,000
having been subscribed and $25,000 received from the State against
an expenditure of nearly $200,000 for grounds, buildings, and equip-
ment, which would leave a deficit of about twice the amount indi-
Membership and activities of the Board of Trustees are given
in more detail in the next section of this publication.
The Early Catalogues. The first catalogue probably ap-
peared in the summer of 1875. It was carefully prepared and
served as a model for many years. The fly leaf contained a picture
of the building, a truly magnificient school structure for that per-
iod. The plans of the first and second floors occupied two pages,
and these form an interesting starting point for anyone who may
wish to trace the uses to which various parts of this historic build-
ing have been put during the seventy-five years since its construc-
tion. The names of the members of the board of trustees, the fac-
ulty, and the students appear. It is interesting to note that the
names of the men and women students are listed separately in each
group, the names of the "gentlemen" appearing first, followed by
those of the "ladies," while the totals are designated as "males"
An outline was given of each of the three courses, The Ele-
mentary, The Scientific, and The Classical, provided by the Normal
School Law. A description of the Model School Course was followed
by several pages of general information covering such items as
"Objects of the Institution"; "Location, Building, etc."; "Terms of
Admission"; "Government"; "Association of the Sexes"; "Religious
Services"; "Furniture of Rooms"; "Expenses"; "Examinations";
"Diplomas"; and "General Regulations."
As practically the same heading appeared in the catalogues
for several years, a few of the more interesting points will be men-
tioned briefly. Under "Objects of the Institution," the opening
"The purpose for which this School is founded is pre-eminently the
education and training of Teachers. To this end it will be our aim to im-
part instruction in all the various branches of study, in such a way as to
illustrate by example the best methods of teaching; feeling assured that
there is no more effectual means of making all our pupils skilful] teachers,
than by keeping constantly before them examples of such skill."
There followed a brief discussion of the Model School and the
fact that members of the advanced classes would have the oppor-
tunity of teaching in this school under expert supervision. Then
followed this paragraph:
"But believing that the best methods of instruction for teachers, are also
the best methods to be adopted in giving to all pupils clear conceptions and
thorough knowledge of whatever branches of study they may wish to pursue,
the Institution is open to all of proper age, whether they have teaching in
view or not. We feel confident that there are no better opportunities to ob-
tain a general business, and scientific, and liberal education, or to pursue
studies preparatory to those that are strictly professional, than will be afford-
ed at this Institution."
Thus were clearly stated the twofold purpose of the school, to
prepare teachers and to give a general education. As a matter of
fact, another function was soon added, and the school fulfilled three
purposes, namely, preparing teachers, furnishing a college prepara-
tory course, and providing a "finishing school" education for those
who did not desire either of the other types. These three functions
were continued for nearly fifty years, in fact, until after the insti-
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
tution was taken over by the State in 1920 and its whole energy
gradually turned to the preparation of teachers.
In the discussion of "Location, Buildings, etc," every catalogue
for years carried in striking captions "Warmed by Steam and
Lighted by Gas, throughout," along with Superintendent Wicker-
sham's statement that it was "The best building of the kind in the
United States." Before we smile at such seeming boasting, we need
only to compare it with other educational institutions of that period
to realize that the courage, enthusiasm, and farsighted zeal of the
founders of Indiana had given it a tremendous staii: by providing,
before a student was enrolled, a magnificent structure that was at
once a triumph of architectural beauty and a challenge to those
placed in charge of its instructional life to produce an educational
program worthy of the setting. It has ever been, and still can be,
the proud boast of those who have labored at Indiana that through
all the changing years, with their days of plenty and of poverty,
the moral, social, and intellectual standards of the school have been
maintained at the high level set by the founders in the first build-
ing dedicated to the cause of education on this campus.
Under "TeiTns of Admission," the first requisite was "good
moral character." Those entering the Normal Department must be
fourteen years of age, and if from another "Institution," they must
bring a certificate of honorable dismissal. In the discussion under
"Government," one sentence gives the keynote of the idea of the
early leaders: "But we assume, in the outset, that all who come to
this Institution, come with good and honest intent: and all are
treated as worthy of confidence, aff"ection, and respect, until they
prove themselves otherwise." This attitude has always been main-
The discussion under "Association of the Sexes" will bring
smiles to the student of today. But we must remember that the
idea of coeducation was then by no means universally accepted.
One has but to read the current literature of that period to know
that there was bitter opix)sition to the idea of girls seeking equal
educational opportunity with men, and more emphatically against
the idea of the two sexes being educated together. Even the high
schools which existed in the larger cities were usually for either
boys or girls, not for both. It is not strange, then, that the first
catalogue of this new venture in coeducation should contain the fol-
"Our purpose is to make the Indiana State Normal School, in all re-
spects, a well-regulated home for all who attend it; in which they may be-
come familiar with the usages of the best society. But while there are very
great advantages that arise from the proper coeducation of the sexes, special
precautions are necessary to guard against all possible evil or scandal. Hence
the following regulations which will commend themselves to all as necessary
"Students shall not correspond, walk, or ride with those of the opposite
sex; or meet in the reception room, parlor or elsewhere, except by special
permission from the PRINCIPAL and PRECEPTRESS. Ladies and gentle-
men are also expressly forbidden entering the halls appropriated to each
other's respective departments without permission. They are on no condition
allowed to visit each other's private rooms, except in case of severe sick-
ness, and then only in company with the Principal or Preceptress."
This heading-, followed by almost the same statements in vary-
ing forms, remained until the catalogue of 1884-1885, when the
caption was changed to "Association of Ladies and Gentlemen," but
the content remained the same. This heading and discussion of the
sexes appeared for the last time in the catalog-ue of 1888-1889.
Religion has always been a matter of first concern at Indiana.
It is sig-nicant that the first and every succeeding catalogne has con-
tained a discussion of the relig^ious influences at this school.
Diplomas. A student graduating from any of the courses,
Elementary, Scientific, or Classical, received a diploma and had con-
ferred on him the degree of Bachelor of the Elements, Bachelor of
the Sciences, or Bachelor of the Classics, according to the course in
which he graduated. The next paragraph gave the requirements
for an advanced degree:
"A regular graduate, who has continued his studies for two years, and
has practiced his profession during two full annual terms in the common
Schools of the State, may receive, upon presenting to the Faculty and Board
of Examiners a certificate of good moral character and skill in the Art of
Teaching, from the Board or Boards of Directors by whom he was employed,
countersigned by the proper County Superintendent, a second diploma,
constituting him a Master in the course in which he graduated, and confer-
ring one of the following corresponding degrees; MASTER OF THE ELE-
MENTS, MASTER OF THE SCIENCES, MASTER OF THE CLASSICS."
In 1878 the Classical Course was dropped as a separate course,
and students in the Scientific Course could substitute Greek, Latin,
French, or German for the mathematics previously required in the
If we are inclined to scoff at these degrees and the require-
ments for them, we must remember that many of the high schools
existing at that time granted bachelor degrees, and that for many
years thereafter the Philadelphia High School granted the same de-
grees as did the University of Pennsylvania. Many small colleges
were also granting degrees on standards lower than the Normal
General Regulations. In a list of twenty "regulations" found
in the third and many subsequent catalogues the following may be
of interest to present-day readers. The numbers of the original
paragraphs are retained:
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
"1. All students, except such as reside in town, are required to board in
the Institution buildings, except by special permission from the Principal to
"2. All wrestling, running, scuffling, or other rude and boisterous noises,
are expressly forbidden at any time, in any part of the Institution buildings."
"3. Students are required to sweep their own rooms daily, previous to
the sweeping of the hails in the morning; and are not allowed to sweep the
dust into the halls at any other time."
"4. No student shall throw water, dirt or anything offensive or danger-
ous from the doors or windows of the building at any time."
"5. No student is allowed to keep carbon oil, cam.phine, or burning fluid
of any kind in the building; and all lights are required to be extinguished
at ten o'clock in the evening, except in the case of sickness."
"11. Students are required to be in their own rooms during study hours,
unless occupied in recitation, or leave of absence is granted by the teacher
in charge. And all loud talking, singing, playing on musical instruments,
or other noises that interfere with study, are forbidden."
"12. The use of tobacco, in any form, is strictly prohibited in the build-
ings, or upon the grounds of the Institution."
"15. No student rooming in the building, will, under any circumstances,
be allowed to be out of the building after ten o'clock at night, unless previ-
ous permission has been obtained from the Principal, in which case a night
key will be furnished by the Steward."
"16. Students are allowed to walk for exercise in the vicinity of the
school during recreation hours, but no one will otherwise absent himself
without permission from the Principal."
"18. Students are not allowed to receive or entertain visitors on the
"19. Students are earnestly requested to wear slippers in the building."
The catalogue of 1881-1882, in a series of suggestions to stu-
dents, offers the following advice:
"BOXES OF CAKE AND OTHER FANCY EATABLES.
"These can only work injury, and students are earnestly advised to make
no arrangement for having them sent.
"Successful brain work demands a vigorous and healthly digestion. Such
a digestion demands plain food, eaten at proper times, and at no other time.
Improper food, or food eaten at improper times, is the source of a very large
proportion of all the headaches, and of those slight ailments which subtract
so seriously from the success of many students.
"Here we would sound a note of alarm, not only in the ears of students,
but in those of parents as well, and we entreat you, as you value the health
and true success of those that you entrust to our care, that you discountenance
what is so fraught with evil."
These statements were repeated in several succeeding cata-
logues, and there were few outstanding changes in the catalogues
for the first twenty-five years. The points discussed above were
carried from year to year, as well as many others not of particular
interest now, such as the yearly calendar. li.sts of text books, com-
mittees of the Board of Trustees, lists of faculty members, courses
of instruction, and other routine announcements.
THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES
Willis E. Pratt, President
The First Trustees. At the time of the founding of the
Indiana Nomial School in 1875 the Board of Trustees was compris-
ed of eighteen members, twelve of whom were elected by the stock-
holders and six of whom were appointed by the Superintendent of
Public Instruction. No doubt those elected by the stockholders had
helped to raise the funds which were used as part payment for the
twelve acres of land which was the original campus and for the first
building. Those elected by the stockholders, all residents of Indiana,
were: George S. Christy, Silas M. Clark, James R. Daugherty, Wil-
liam B. Hildebrand, George R. Lewis, Irwin McFarland, William B.
Marshall, Daniel S. Porter, Joseph R. Smith, Alex M. Stewart, John
Sutton, and Andrew W. Wilson.
Trustees appointed by the Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion were: James C. Clark, Greensburg; Thomas F. Gallaher, New
Alexandria; E. S. Golden, Kittanning; S. M. Jackson, Apollo; Daniel
S. Morrill, Johnstown; and John K. Thompson, Brady, Indiana
Beginning in 1877 trustees were elected for three year terms.
Each year terms of four of the trustees representing the stockhold-
ers and three representing the State expired. This established a
continuing board although trustees often were reappointed and
many served until death. The death of board members frequently
was noted in the early catalogs, and among others we find the fol-
John Sutton, Esquire, President of the Board of Trustees of the Indiana
Normal School of Pennsylvania, from the time of its first organization, died
on Saturday, the 9th day of June 1877.
Mr. Sutton devoted himself actively to the establishment of this insti-
tution, contributing to it liberally of his private estate, and largely of his
As long as the Indiana Normal School of Pennsylvania exists, John Sut-
ton will be remembered as one of its founders — as one of its first and best
Officers of the Early Boards. The officers of the first Board
of Trustees included the President, John Sutton; a Secretary,
Silas M. Clark; and a Treasurer, Peter Sutton. On the death of
John Sutton in 1877, Silas M. Clark was named President of the
Board of Trustees; William Hildebrand, Secretary; and John W.
Sutton, Treasurer. Thomas Sutton became Treasurer in 1878, and
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
the next year James M. Watt was named Treasurer, serving until
1906, at which time Harry White, Jr. was appointed. Thomas Sut-
ton became Vice President in 1882 and served in this capacity with
President Silas M. Clark and A. W. Wilson. On the death of A. W.
Wilson in 1897, Thomas Sutton became President of the Board of
Trustees and sei-ved until 1936. J. Wood Clark, who had been ap-
pointed to the Board of Trustees in 1892, became Secretary and
served until 1935.
It is interesting to note that the first building was named John
Sutton Hall in honor of the first President of the Board of Trustees;
that Clark Hall was so named honoring the second President; Wil-
son Hall, for the third President ; and Thomas Sutton Hall, for the
fourth President. John S. Fisher, for whom the auditorium was
recently named, served as a member of the Board of Trustees for
a period of twenty-four years including nine years as Vice Presi-
Change in Policy. In 1908 State representation on the
Board of Trustees was increased from six to nine members, a num-
ber equal to that representing the stockholders. Each of these
trustees served for a three year term. This plan was continued un-
til 1920 when ownership and control of the Normal School was as-
sumed by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. In that year Mrs.
Edith Smith Feit and Mrs. Mabel Waller Mack, daughter of former
Principal, Dr. David Jewett Waller, were appointed to the Board
and the following seven members from the existing Board were
reappointed: William S. Daugherty, John S. Fisher, Sumners M.
Jack, Judge J. N. Langham, A. Ralph Moorhead, John A. Scott, and
Thomas Sutton. This was the first time that women were to serve
as members of the Board of Trustees, but since that time they have
always had representation. Other women who have served as mem-
bers of the Board of Trustees include : Mrs. Isabel Eastment Sutton,
Mrs. Cora Myers Fee, Mrs. Jennie St. Clair Reed, and Mrs. Edna
Duties. The specific duties of the early Board of Trustees
for the Indiana Normal School probably were not clearly defined.
It was their responsibility to select the first principal and to fill this
position when a vacancy occurred. Board meetings were held at
regular intervals and special meetings were called whenever a build-
ing program or other business made a meeting necessary. The Ad-
ministrative Code for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania which
became eff"ective June 1, 1929, during the administration of Gk)v-
emor John S. Fisher, states that the Boards of Trustees of the
several State Teachers Colleges shall have general direction and
control of the property and management of their respective insti-
tutions. A Board of Trustees shall have the power, and its duties
(a) Subject to the approval of the Governor, to elect a president, principal,
or superintendent, of the institution, who shall, subject to the authority
of the Board, administer the institution, and, if deemed advisable, a busi-
(b) On nomination by the president, principal, or superintendent, from time
to time, to appoint such officers and employes as may be necessary;
(c) To hx the salaries of its employes in conformity with the standards
established by the Executive Board;
(d) Subject to the approval of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, to
make such by-laws, rules, and regulations for the management of the
institution as it may deem advisable.
Personnel. During the seventy-five years of the existence
of the college only about one hundred different persons served as
members of the Board of Trustees. On several occasions a son was
appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the death of his father.
Thomas Sutton, son of the first President, John Sutton, had the
longest term of service — a period of fifty-six years. Other trustees
with ten or more years of service may be grouped as follows:
Over 40 Years. J. Wood Clark, William Daugherty, S. M.
Jack, John W. Sutton, Harry White.
30 To 40 Years. John P. Elkin, Alexander T. Moorhead, Jr.,
20 To 30 Years. Griffith Ellis, John S. Fisher, T. E. Hilde-
brand, A. W. Kimmel, W. H. Mitchell, A. Ralph Moorhead, John A.
Scott, Andrew W. Wilson, H. W. Wilson, James M. Watt, Treasur-
er, Harry White, Jr., Treasurer.
10 To 20 Years. Harry F. Carson, Silas M. Clark, James R.
Daugherty, Cyrus W. Davis, A. C. Ehrenfeld, Mrs. Edith Smith
Feit, J. M. Guthrie, J. N. Langham, W. R. Loughry, Mrs. Mabel
Waller Mack, John W. Neff , William S. Owens, William M. Ruddock,
Joseph R. Smith, S. J. Telford, J. C. Wallace, J. Dick Wilson, John
St. Clair, Treasurer.
The interest of the community in the Normal School and the
College can to some extent be measured by the prominent families
who served as members of the Board of Trustees. The achieve-
ments of only a few are mentioned here. General Harry White,
who w^as a member of the Pennsylvania Senate in 1863 and again
from 1866 to 1874, helped write the charter creating the State
Normal School at Indiana and exerted his influence in having it
passed into law. It was also through his influence that the first
State appropriation of $20,000 was secured. He represented his
district two terms in Congress and served as Judge of Indiana
County Courts. Silas M. Clark was a Supreme Court Justice ; John
P. Elkin, an Associate Supreme Court Justice; J. N. Langham,
Congressman and Judge of Indiana County Courts; S. J. Telford,
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
Judg-e of Indiana County Courts; J. Wood Clark, Clerk, District
Court of Western Pennsylvania; S. M. Jack, Congressman; and
John S. Fisher, State Banking Commissioner, member of State
Committee on Constitutional Amendments & Revision, Governor
of Pennsylvania. Others who served on the Board were attorneys,
bankers, merchants, newspapermen, physicians, postmasters, and
Present Board. The personnel of the present Board of
Trustees with the date each began his ser-vice is as follows: (In
parentheses is the year of graduation of each member who is an
Harry F. Carson, President, Saltsburg, May 1939
Mrs. Mabel Waller Mack, (1896), Vice President, Indiana, July
1944, Trustee October 1920 to March 1936
Cyrus W. Davis, Secretary, Conemaugh, May 1939
County Commissioner Cambria County
Steele Clark, Cherry Tree, February 1943
County Commissioner Indiana County
John W. Neff, Indiana, May 1939
Field Representative, Mutual Benefit Insurance Company
of Newark, New Jersey. Head of Music Department, Indi-
ana State Teachers College 1925 to 1936
Dr. A. R. Pechan, Ford City, August 1947
Dentist, State Senator
Mrs. Edna Bell Pierce, (1913), Indiana, December 1943
Lieutenant Colonel William M. Ruddock, (1919), Indiana, May
Joseph Sheriff, (1912), Windber, December 1949
Administrative Official, Berwyn White Coal Company
John St. Clair, Treasurer of Board, Indiana, May 1939
Secretary-Treasurer, Farmers Bank and Trust Company
Treasurer of Board February 1935 to May 1936
THE ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION
Ralph E. Heiges, Dean of Instruction
The task of indicating all those who exercised positions of
trust and authority appeared to be almost limitless as this study-
progressed. An attempt has been made to include those offices
which have more particularly given direction to the development of
the policies of the Normal School and then the College. The office
of steward, dietician, treasurer, bursar, business manager and reg-
istrar might have been included. But this section has been con-
fined to five positions. Principals and Presidents, Directors of the
Model School and its successors. Deans of Women, Deans of Men
and Deans of Instruction.
The Board of Trustees from 1875 to the present has had the
task of selecting the head of the institution. Edmund B. Fairfield,
the first Principal remained only one year. He was succeeded by
David M. Sensenig, who had joined the original faculty as Profes-
sor of Mathematics. He w^as followed in 1878 by John H. French,
who remained until 1881. The next Principal was Leonard H.
Durling who held the position until 1888, when he was succeeded
by Dr. Charles W. Deane.
Principals and Presidents. In 1893 Reverend David Jewett
Waller became Principal and continued in that position until
1907, the longest period that the college has been under the direc-
tion of one man.
Dr. Waller had been Superintendent of Public Instruction for
three years immediately preceding his service at Indiana. He was
a scholarly, conservative and deeply religious man, so naturally the
educational and social life of the school were kept at a high stand-
ard. The years of his leadership also saw the most cordial relations
developed between the school and the people of the community.
In contrast to the quiet, scholarly, leadership of Dr. Waller, his
successor. Doctor James E. Ament, was an enthusiast who loved the
spectacular. This difference probably was nowhere more evident
than in the changed type of catalog. Instead of a factual exposition
of seventy-five pages, it now blossomed into a full-length, colorfully
bound, fully-illustrated bulletin. In general, he was interested in
making the school attractive, especially as a finishing school.
Doctor Ament also sponsored the addition of several annexes to
John Sutton Hall. Students of those days report him as being aloof
but highly respected.
The arrival of Dr. John A. H. Keith as principal in 1918 pro-
vided another startling change. First and foremost, he was inter-
ested in bringing the Normal School to a strictly collegiate basis,
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
with four years of college work beyond high school. The Normal
School Certificate at that time was granted on graduation and the
Normal Diploma after two years of teaching. Doctor Keith was
interested only in the professional preparation of teachers and con-
sequently, classes in the Secondary Field were soon eliminated.
Emphasis was placed in developing teachers for Art, Commerce,
Home Economics, and Music. Well equipped faculty members were
secured and it was no accident that Indiana was given the privilege
of preparing teachers in these fields when full collegiate status was
attained in 1927. Recognition of his contributions to the develop-
ment of the Noi-mal Schools into Colleges was made when he was
invited to become State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
Indiana benefited in curricula, faculty members, and equipment
from Doctor Keith's administration.
In 1927. Doctor Charles R. Foster assumed the presidency of
Indiana. Fortunately, he had a keen appreciation of administrative
organization. He immediately organized the Administrative Council
which held regular monthly meetings and through this group he
controlled and influenced the work of the college. This tended to
produce a unified college, eliminating unessential departmental diff-
erences. Probably there had not been for many years previous as
congenial and cooperative atmosphere as existed during this period.
Dr. Samuel Fausold (1936-39) came to Indiana directly from the
State Department of Public Instruction where he served as Deputy
Superintendent. Previously he had been superintendent of schools
in several western Pennsylvania communities. Dr. Fausold was
particularly interested in the internal organization of the college,
but ill health prevented him from remaining active. He lived in re-
tirement until his death in September 1948.
Dr. Leroy A. King (1939-42) was called from the Department
of Education at the University of Pennsylvania to assume leader-
ship in 1939. Energy, enthusiasm and great plans for Indiana
marked his administration. Overwork, climaxed with a series of
high school commencement speeches, caused his sudden death on
June 5, 1942.
World War II had already begun and the board chose Dr.
Joseph M. Uhler to guide the college through the troubled times
ahead. Enrolment fell to the depths; teachers resigned; and yet
Dr. Uhler continued a calm, unhurried and steady course. He had
an unflagging interest in maintaining the standards of the college
patricularly in the selection of adequately trained staflf.
Upon his sudden death in August 1947, Dr. Ralph E. Heiges,
Dean of Instruction, became Acting President and continued in that
capacity until July 1, 1948.
Dr. Willis E. Pratt, after a wide experience as county superin-
tendent, teacher, college president and head of the Department of
Education at the Pennsylvania State College, became president in
1948. His administration has been characterized by a genuine in-
terest in student welfare and extensive improvements in the physi-
cal facilities of the college.
Directors of the Model School To Kdth School.
The position as head of the campus tmining school and director of
student teaching has had various titles, Superintendent of the
Model School, Principal of the Model School, Supervisor of Trainiiig
School, Head of Training Department, Director of the Laboratory
School and Student Teaching, and probably others.
The first person to hold this position was Mr. A. Henry Berlin,
M.S., who was known as the Superintendent of the Model School.
He was also professor of rhetoric. He was also a member of the
Normal School faculty and taught vocal music. From 1894 to 1904
Mrs. Horace G. Carmalt (Alice M. Clarke) was teacher of methods
and Principal of the Model School. Leaving Indiana, she went to
Pittsburgh, where she taught in the University of Pittsburgh. She
became a member of the Pittsburgh Board of Education and served
in that capacity until her death.
Miss Jennie M. Ackerman assumed the position in 1904, after
serving here as a critic teacher for two years. Miss Ackerman
brought to the position wide experience, a keen judgment of stu-
dent capacity, and the unusual ability of developing student person-
ality and skill. She did much to develop and maintain high stand-
ards in student teaching requirements when they were treated very
lightly in many teacher education institutions.
u 1^ ?u ^^^ • A^kerman's resignation in 1938, Dr. Richard Madden
held the position for one year. Although his tenure was short, con-
sideraJDle planning for the new laboratory school was in his charge
and his eight years as a teacher of psychology at the college ex-
pressed itself m his ability to handle people and he was well liked
by his associates.
fnv r!j'r^^^i^'^^-Sl ^^^^' ^^' Joseph M. Uhler was appointed Direc-
tor of Teacher Education and Placement and Mr. John E. Davis as
Director of the Laboratory and Demonstration School. Upon the
death of Dr. LeRoy A. King, President of the college, in 1942 Dr.
Uhler became President and his placement and teacher training
tunctions were combined with those already held by Mr. John E.
SfJ/" J^l- ^ brought to the position a wide knowledge of the
needs of the public schools in western Pennsylvania.
ized ^nTJ^^r^r' ™^V^^ first faculty group was organ-
Sf I ^7'^7^^^^^' ^^^ss '^^^^ E. Leonard was named Preceptress
She held this position until 1920, the longest continuVus sewfce
rendered by any individual. No other person has had so gr^Yan
influence on the development of Indiana and the moral, SaS
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
intellectual standards of the school. "Her boys" and "her girls"
attest to this day to her influence on them.
On the retirement of Miss Leonard in 1920, she was succeeded
by Miss Hope Stewart, who had come to the Normal School as critic
teacher in 1899. The title was changed to Dean of Women. Miss
Stewart had been closely associated with Miss Leonard for many
years, and she maintained the high standards that had continued
from the opening of the school, even through the post war social
revolutions of the early twenties. On her resignation in 1938, Miss
Stewart was succeeded by Miss Florence Kimball, who for two
years had been Assistant Dean of Women. Miss Kimball encour-
aged students to assume the responsibility of meeting the problems
of college life. In 1942, Dr. Dorcas Hall was added to the staff as
the Assistant Dean of Women.
Deans of Men. The Position of Preceptor was created in
1907 when Mr. William J. Jack received that title. In 1917 he was
succeeded by Mr. Walter M. Whitmyre, who has filled that position
ever since. The title was changed from Preceptor to Dean of Men
in 1920. The great increase in male enrolment has added consider-
ably to the burdens of this office.
Deans of Instruction. For the first half century at Indiana
the Principal or President assumed the responsibility for in-
struction along with his other duties. Then in 1926 the position of
Dean of Instruction was created to handle some of these details.
Mr. Warren Nevin Drum, former principal of the State Normal
School at Lock Haven, first held the position. On his death about
a year later. Dr. M. J. Walsh, head of the Department of Education,
became Dean. Many of the policies which still guide the scholastic
life of the college were introduced by Dean Walsh. The advisory
system was established in an effort to make the student feel that he
had at least one faculty member to whom he could go for help. The
Dean's office was always open to every student in college and a
sympathetic ear was always given. Dr. Walsh's keen interest in
sports has continued even after his retirement in 1942. He will
also be remembered as the one who established and made effective
the quality point system. Dr. Walsh served as Acting President in
1936 and again in 1939 when Mr. Joseph M. Uhler became Acting
Dean. Dr. W. Ray Smith served as Dean of Instruction for the col-
lege year 1938-39 and Dr. Walsh returned for the remaining three
years before his retirement.
Dr. Ralph E. Heiges, who had been a member of the Depart-
ment of Social Studies and Head of the Secondary Education Divi-
sion, succeeded as Dean of Instruction in 1942. The introduction of
a system of Junior Standing, long contemplated, occurred in 1943
as an aid to teacher selection. Following the death of Dr. Uhler,
he served as Acting President for the college year 1947-48. Mr.
Ralph B. Beard served as Acting Dean during this year.
GROWTH OF THE PHYSICAL PLANT
William Schuster, Business Manager
The physical plant of the Indiana Normal School and later the
Indiana State Teachers College, through seventy-five years of serv-
ice to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, has grown from one
building in 1875 — Sutton Hall — to a large physical plant in 1950,
consisting of twelve major buildings and eighteen houses. There
is the promise of continued growth thi'ough proposed new build-
ings under the present General State Authority.
In January, 1875, the first building, John Sutton Hall (named
after the first President of the Board of Trustees, Mr. John Sut-
ton) , located on approximately twelve acres of land, was completed.
This building, though modernized in many ways, is still in constant
use serving in about the same ways as it did in 1875, except for the
elimination of classrooms. The second building did not appear un-
til about 1893 and was named Clark Hall in honor of Justice Silas
M. Clark, second President of the Board of Trustees. Clark Hall is
still in use today as a dormitorj^ for one hundred women. In the same
year of 1893, the Model School — Wilson Hall — named after the
third President of the Board of Trustees, was erected for use as a
training school until 1940. At that time the entire training school
was moved to the new John A. H. Keith School Building, erected
under the 1936 General State Authorit^^ Wilson Hall was then com-
pletely remodeled in 1940-41 and has since been used as the college
The pressing need for inore space dictated the erection of a
classroom building in 1903 named after Miss Jane E. Leonard,
teacher and Preceptress who had been a member of the staff since
the opening of the Normal School in 1875. Leonard Hall is about
the same today except that all fire hazards have been removed and
some alterations as to office space for instructional staff have been
incorporated. In this same year a dining room, known as Thomas
Sutton Hall, was added to John Sutton Hall to increase and mod-
ernize the dining facilities of the school.
In 1906 the school experienced its only serious fire — Clark Hail
— but it was immediately rebuilt on the same site and has been in
constant use, serving first as a men's dormitory and in 1924
changed to its present use as a women's doiTnitory.
Two annexes were added to John Sutton Hall, one to the dining
room on the south side in 1910, the other as a woman's dormitory
on the north side for the increased enrolment in 1915. Land was
purchased in 1910 for the erection of a power house to provide a
central heating plant and electricity for all the buildings. This orig-
inal building is still housing the generators and electrical equip-
ment which provides current to all of the college buildings.
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
From 1915 to 1927 there was a lull in the building program,
but in 1927 ground was broken for the Gymnasium, now known as
Waller Gymnasium. This building was dedicated in 1928 as a cen-
ter for the Health and Physical Education Department with class-
rooms, offices, two gymnasiums, locker rooms and swimming pool.
An addition to the Power House together with new mechanical
equipment provided sufficient steam and heat for the additional
buildings. In 1932 a large generator was installed to care for the
The need for additional facilities for the Art, Business Educa-
tion and Home Economics Departments prompted the erection in
1931 of the building now known as McElhaney Hall. Located be-
tween John Sutton Hall and Leonard Hall, this building houses
these three special departments.
To eliminate hazards in the basement of John Sutton Hall a
Shop Building was erected in 1937, thus enabling the college to
move all shops. The new Shop Building has a carpenter shop, paint
shop, and storage space for the numerous maintenance items re-
quired in the operation of the plant.
Under the 1936-39 General State Authority Program of the
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the Auditorium — known as John
S. Fisher Auditorium — with a seating capacity of 1600, the John
A. H. Keith School, and another annex to the dining room were
built. These buildings increased the facilities of the college greatly
by releasing the gymnasium from use for assemblies and cultural
life programs. The John A. H. Keith School provides modern school
conditions for some four hundred grade school students and an ideal
student teaching program.
In 1947 the Federal Works Agency made available a Biological
Science Building which was erected on Grant Street and serves
this field of teacher education. Also in this year the Commonwealth
of Pennsylvania purchased the six-acre tract of the Elkin Proper-
ty including the mansion. This past year the mansion was com-
pletely renovated providing living accommodations for forty men.
The Elkin Annex, a small building on this property, houses a cafe-
teria to feed about seventy five people, thus providing training for
Home Economics students in lunchroom, operation.
Under the new 1949 General State Authority, a men's dormi-
tory will provide housing facilities for over two hundred men. This
new dormitory is to be erected on the Elkin land adjoining the
campus. Plans have been prepared for the renovation of the col-
lege kitchen and the refrigeration plant in Thomas Sutton Hall.
Two additional projects which have been approved are the rewiring
of dining rooms, laundry and music conservatory, and installation
of a sprinkler system in the attic of John Sutton Hall. Other pro-
jects have been submitted for approval, such as a Music and Arts
Building, and other important repair projects.
CHANGES IN CURRICULA
M. J. Walsh, Former Dean of Instruction
In the first section of this publication the earliest courses and
degrees were discussed. After the Classical Course was dropped in
1878, the degrees, Bachelor of the Elements and Bachelor of the
Sciences, were continued with the corresponding Master's degree
on the completion of two years' teaching and presentation of a cer-
tificate of good moral character. The catalogue of 1892-1893 stated
that the graduate would receive a diploma certifying him to teach
in the public schools and the degree of Bachelor of the Elements.
The following year the catalogue said the graduate would be issued
a certificate and degree, Bachelor of Elementarj^ Didactics, and af-
ter two terms of teaching he could secure the State Normal School
Diploma and the degree. Master of Elementary Didactics. These
degrees remained until 1907, when the degrees of Bachelor of
Pedagogics and Master of Pedagogics were conferred on those who
had taken certain additional work. The certificate and diploma
remained the same.
The arrival of Doctor Keith brought a change in the graduation
awards. He did not believe in the granting of degrees except on a
strictly collegiate basis of four years' college work beyond grad-
uation from an approved four-year high school. Consequently only
the Normal Certificate was granted on graduation and the Normal
Diploma after two years of teaching.
In the meantime, important changes in curricula had been tak-
ing place which space prevents describing. Briefly, the broadening
curricula in the public schools were calling for more carefully pre-
pared teachers, especially in the special fields of art, commerce,
home economics, health education, and music. There was also a de-
mand for teachers with a well-rounded combination of academic and
professional material. Doctor Keith was a leader in developing pro-
grams in both fields. He expanded the work in the special fields, so
that when the Normal Schools were assigned certain fields of
specialization, Indiana secured four: art, commerce, home economics,
and music. In some circles the college was accused of receiving
more than its share of these, but the fact was that most of the
Normal Schools were not prepared to provide education in these
special fields and could not, or would not, provide the equipment and
faculty to give such education. Indiana took them because it was
ready and willing to assume the added burden.
The State had taken over the ownership of the school in 1920
and measures were being taken to develop curricula and provide
equipment and faculty that would justify a collegiate ranking. This
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
action was taken jnst as Doctor Keith left Indiana to become State
Superintendent. The first degree was granted May 31, 1927, to Miss
Alice Clements, a graduate of the Home Economics Curriculum.
The Normal Certificate, granted on the completion of two
years' woi-k and certifying a person to teach in the elementary field,
was continued until 1932. Those who entered after that date did
not graduate but might receive a State Standard Limited Certificate
on completion of two year's work. In 1936 this was changed to three
years. No student who entered after January 1. 1939, could secure
any kind of certification except on the completion of the require-
ments for a degree. Thus the college fully emerged.
The emphasis in the first two years of the four-year curricula
was placed on general education. English, Social Studies, Appreci-
ation of Music, Appreciation of Art and similar courses became an
integral part of the studies of all students. On the other hand, the
later years of the degree curricula brought the student into contact
with his pi'ofessional courses. A shifting enrollment between cur-
ricula is shown through the tables at the end of the publication.
Today the college has students in six curricula: Art. Business, Ele-
mentary, Home Economics, Music and Secondary, the last one in-
cluding the various academic subjects usually taught in the high
MM-i^I ML ^ » M -r ■- ' ««' » ' » " »> " 1
Home Economics students learn by doing as well as from books.
DEPARTMENTS AND TEACHING
THE ART DEPARTMENT
Orval Kipp, Director
The Art Department was organized in 1906 under the direction
of Miss Jean R. McElhaney, a graduate of Indiana and first direc-
tor of the department. Previous to this time, drawing, bookkeep-
ing, penmanship, and manual training were closely associated. The
best thinking of the day influenced the work since Bartholomew's
"Freehand Drawing", "Allison on Taste", and Walter Smith's text-
book on drawing were used during the first ten years of the school's
Professor Wicks stated in 1889, "Writing is drawing a picture
of words in which there are ideas ; drawing is making lines behind
which are ideas." In 1893 Miss Lottie E. Dayton wrote, "We
recognize that drawing is an invaluable element in general educa-
tion and are prepared to give it the attention its importance de-
serves." The course at that time covered freehand and instru-
mental perspective, mechanical drawing, elementary design, draw-
ing from natural forms and casts, sketching, clay modeling, and
The curriculum was expanded under Miss Jean R. McElhaney's
direction to include in 1922 a two-term elementary and a three-
term supervisors' course "to prepare teachers for better positions
in city schools." Further development occurred in 1929 when the
four-year art curriculum leading to the Bachelor of Science in Art
Education degree was initiated under the leadership of Miss Mary
Edna Flegal. A vision of the possibilities of art teaching in 1936
included finer choices in the art of living and better use of in-
creased leisure time. Miss Flegal wrote, "An Art Structure (de-
sign) method rather than a drawing method of teaching art is
used", and later, "Where thoughtful activity and feeling end, the
procedure ceases to be art training." The current philosophy
agrees with this and adds that other things being equal, the better
artist a teacher is, the better art teacher he will be. Members of
the faculty and graduates of the Art Department exhibit their
works of art in local, regional, and national art exhibitions. Art
service to the college and community as well as the artist-teacher
as a contributing citizen are ideals of the department,
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
The Art Club. The Art Club, org-anized by Miss Marion
Graff am Miller in 1925, provides a social and professional art pro-
gram for interested students and faculty. In 1933 the Jean R. Mc-
Elhaney Award for excellence in fine arts was created by the club
in honor of Miss McElhaney. The Kate Lacey Award for outstand-
ing- art service, initiated in 1944 likewise honors Miss Lacey. The
Annual Cooperative Art Exhibition, org-anized in 1945 by Dr. Orval
Kipp brings hundreds of contemporary works of art to the college
for a month long exhibition and has assembled a valuable Art Me-
morial Collection of twenty-four paintings and one sculpture for the
permanent en.io\Tnent of Indiana and her friends. Judges of the
exhibitions hn^e included C. Valentine Kirby, Harry Gottlieb, Sam
Rosenberg, Walter Reed Hovey and Duncan Phillips. Other Art
Department activities include membership in the Eastern Arts
Association, the American Federation of Arts and the Museum of
Modem Art. The Alpha Lambda Chapter of Delta Phi Delta, or-
ganized under the sponsorship of Mrs. Alma Munson Gasslander
on March 30, 1946, initiated Sam Rosenberg" as an honorary mem-
ber in 1948.
The Staff. Miss Jean R. McElhaney, who formed the de-
partment in 1906 and acted as director from 1922 to 1928 when she
retired, is remembered for her gentleness and her belief in the up-
lifting power of art. Her will in 1944 established a loan fund for
needv art students. Miss Mary Edna Flegal who succeeded Miss
McElhaney entered the service of the college in 1926 and served
as director of the department from 1928 to her retirement in 1941.
The third director of the department is Dr. Orv^al Kipp who came
to Indiana in 1936 and has been director of the department since
Space does not permit naming all who have contributed to the
development of Indiana's Art Department. Those who have sensed
periods of from five to nine vears include Miss Lottie E. Dayton,
1893 to 1900: Anson J. Dill, 1883 to 1888; Albert L. GraflTam, 1901
to 1908; and Ralph W. Reynolds, 1941 to the present time. Mr.
Reynolds is conducting courses in commercial art, watercolor paint-
ing-, drawing and appreciation of art. Miss Kate Lacey, crafts in-
structor in the department from 1928 to her death in 1941, was
characterized by her interest in the individual student and his de-
velopment. Her ideal of service is remembered in the Kate Lacey
Award. During her long sendve, Miss Lacey also conducted extra-
curricular crafts activities for the benefit of the school and com-
munity. Miss Grace Huston, teacher of art history and painting
from 1926 to 1940, withdrew to become Mrs. Francisco Biamonte.
Twenty-two years of service was rendered by Miss Anna J. Thomp-
son, Cooperative Supervisor of Art in the Indiana Boro schools from
1923 to 1945. Miss Dorothy Murdock has taug"ht art education,
ceramics, modehng and art history since 1928. The record for the
longest service has been achieved by Mrs. Alma Munson Gassland-
er who came to Indiana in 1922 and is still serving as an instructor
of drawing, painting, costume design and theatre arts.
The members of the art staff have continually studied to
achieve better educational and professional training during their
teaching careers at Indiana. This has been reflected in the work
of our graduates, many of whom have gone on for advanced de-
THE BUSINESS EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
G. G. Hill, Director
Up until the fall of 1919 nearly every Normal School in the
state offered a course called Commercial. Indiana was one of the
schools offering such a course as early as 1878. However, no ser-
ious attempt was made to organize this course as a teacher educa-
tion program. With the actual needs of the rapidlj^ growing com-
mercial departments in the high schools of the state, the necessity
of a more highly specialized commercial course became evident.
Mr. G. Gardner Hill came to Indiana in 1919 to organize the
new department and became its first and only director. The other
teacher in the department at that time was Mrs. Florence C. Arntz.
She continued to serve satisfactorily until her retirement some
twenty years later. The department centered around the rooms in
the north-west section of Leonard Hall. The department grew
rapidly on account of the great demand for teachers in this field.
The two-year curriculum, organized in 1919, was extended to
a three-year curriculum in 1920. The student teaching was done
by bringing students from the local high school to the campus for
classes. There were 28 two-year graduates in 1921 and 3 three-
year graduates in 1923. The number of graduates increased year-
ly and in 1927 the department attained a full collegiate status with
the granting of degrees in Bachelor of Science in Education.
New Quarters. In January 1932 the Business Education
Department moved to quarters more in keeping with its status in
the Commonwealth. The ground floor of the Arts Building be-
came the center for Business Education. Much new equipment
was added, making it one of the finest departments in the country.
By September 1939, the department faculty numbered eleven and
students enrolled reached 400. At the same time student teaching
was greatly expanded. Centers off the campus were established
HISTORY' OF THE COLLEGE
and the cooperation of the high schools meant an improved teacher
Throughout the World War II the department made a great
contribution to the war effort in preparing not only teachers, but
also governmental workers in great numbers. Since the war, the
veterans' program has made it possible to accept great numbers
of service men and women on the accelerated plan.
One of the outstanding features of this department has been
the correlation of methods courses with the actual teaching situa-
tion. The methods and testing courses are tied up with the work
of the teaching centers in such a manner that when students are
assigned to their student teaching, they take with them individual-
ly-prepared unit and daily plans, diagnostic tests, remedial mater-
ials, etc., ready for use in the student teaching situation. The main
emphasis on the testing program is to make it a teaching device,
rather than a post-mortem examination after it is too late to do any
The large number of leading business educators, graduates of
the Business Education Course, and now in responsible positions,
will continue to speak for the thoroughness and efficiency of the de-
partment. The program is now back to noraial with a limited en-
rolment. Standards as high as any in the country in this type of
work are retained on the pre-war basis. Our reputation is secure,
barring interference that may weaken our program or our organ-
Besides the director of the department, several other persons
have served for a considerable length of time. This is best repre-
sented by the list of staff members below with date of beginning
of service and the teaching specialty.
Albert Drumheller (1938) — Accounting
Ethel L. Farrell (1923) — Shorthand and Business Correspond-
Clinton M. File (1927) — Clerical Practice and Business Organ-
Elsie G. Carlo w (1946) — Shorthand and Typewriting
James K. Stoner (1946) — Accounting
Harold Thomas (1946)— Retail Selling
Robert F. Webb (1922)— Shorthand and Typewriting
THE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
Ralph B. Beard, Head
During the past seventy-five years there has been a gradual
growth and development in the education of teachers for the pub-
lic schools of the Commonwealth. To those familiar with the his-
tory of the education of teachers in the Commonwealth of Penn-
sylvania the reason for the change may be apparent; to others it
is necessary to keep in mind that the State Normal Schools, the
forerunner of the State Teachers Colleges, offered work on the
secondary school level until 1922. After that time, graduation
from high school was a prerequisite for admission to Indiana.
In 1875 the Principal of the Normal School was also professor
of Mental, Moral and Political Science, and of Theory and Practice
Teaching. In 1880 an instructor in Mental Philosophy, the fore-
runner of Psychology was added. Courses in the history and phil-
osophy of education were indicated in the curriculum in 1885. In
1889 the Principal of the Normal School was the professor of
Psychology and Pedagogics. The superintendent of the Model
School was also a professor of Methods. The subjects of Pedagogy,
School Management, and Methods of Teaching were listed as a
separate subject and Ethics was added to the curriculum. At this
time, separate methods courses in history, geography, art and
grammar were introduced.
The Department Established. In 1915 the position of Head of
the Education Department was established and Miss Clarrissa B.
Robinson was probably the first to be designated. She continued to
serve in the department until 1927, although she relinquished the
headship to Dr. M. J. Walsh in 1920.
When the State took over the certification of teachers in 1921,
there was a change in the curriculum which led to the inauguration
of courses in Introduction to Teaching, Psychology and Child Study,
Kindergarten and Primary Theory, Educational Measurements,
School Efficiency, Primary Reading and Primary Methods. It was
at this time that Dr. M. J. Walsh came to Indiana as head of the De-
partment of Education and Mrs. Louise G. Walsh was appointed
as a member of the department. The following year Miss Margaret
Lemmon and Miss Lillian McLean joined the staff. Miss Lemmon
retired in May 1938 and Miss McLean withdrew in May 1944. In
1922 Miss Jane McGrath came to Indiana as a member of the Eng-
lish Department. Two years later she was transferred to the Edu-
cation Department. In 1940 Miss McGrath was appointed the first
director of the Division of Elementary Education which position
she held until she retired in September 1941.
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
During the decade of 1920-1930 Mr. Ellsworth Lowry, Miss
Gertrude Burns, Dr. Walter A. Zaugg, Mr. Tobias Chew, Mr. Joseph
M. Uhler, Dr. Guy Pratt Davis and Dr. W. B. Percival became mem-
bers of the staff. Doctor Zaugg and Mr. Lowry served as directors
of the extension education which was carried on quite extensively
within the college service area during the 20's as a result of the
State taking over the certification of teachers. Much of this work
was of a professional nature to which the staff of the Education
Department contributed widely. Several members of the staff de-
voted full time to extension work for a few years. Doctor Percival
resigned in 1930 to accept a position as Director of Protestant Edu-
cation for the Province of Quebec, Canada, a position which he
holds at this writing. Doctor Uhler became head of the department
in 1935 and President of the College in 1942. In the intervening
years he also held positions of Director of Student Teaching and
Placement and Director of the Division of Elementary Education.
The rapid increase in the staff of the department was due in
part to the large enrollment in the two year Elementary Curricu-
lum. In this curriculum there was a marked emphasis on profes-
sional courses. Mr. Ralph B. Beard and Dr. Harold Camp joined
the staff in 1930 and Dr. Richard Madden in 1931. Dr. Madden
later became Director of the Laboratory School which position he
resigned in 1939 to accept a position in San Diego State College,
San Diego, California, and later became Director of the Graduate
The Psycho- Educational Bureau. The bureau was organized
during the year 1935-1936 with Dr. Guy Pratt Davis as
director and Dr. Richard Madden as associate director. It was the
sixth psychological clinic to be approved by the state. Its major
purposes are to aid those college students who are in need of aca-
demic or personal-social guidance, and to v/ork with the staff of
the Laboratory School and the schools in the service area in diag-
nosis of school children.
The activities of the staff of the Bureau involve: (1) the ad-
ministration and interpretation of intelligence, aptitude, interest
and personalty tests; (2) the measurement of education achieve-
ment of the public and private school program; (3) the diagnosis
of individual cases involving personal counseling; (4) instruction
in reading improvement. In view of the increasing number of re-
quests for aid in reading improvement, in personalty diagnosis, in
curricular and related areas, it is hoped the program of the Bureau
will be augmented in these areas in the years to come. The present
members of the staff of the Bureau are Doctor Guy Pratt Davis and
Mr. S. Trevor Hadley.
When the Elementary Curriculum was increased from two to
three years in 1935 and from three to four years in 1937, there
was a decrease in the enrollment in this curriculum. This plus pro-
portionate decreases in the professional courses of a four-year cur-
riculum, led to a reduction in the staff of the department. World
War II, which brought about a decrease in the enrollment of men,
called for further reductions. This was adjusted through retire-
ment and transfer of staff members to administrative positions.
Mr. Paul Risheberger joined the staff in 1936 and Miss LaVerne
Strong in January 1946. Doctor Strong was also Director of the
Division of Elementary Education. She was largely responsible for
organizing and sponsoring one of the most active ACE Chapters
in Pennsylvania. She resigned in May 1949 to accept a position as
Curriculum Consultant in the Connecticut State Department of
Education. Miss Irene Ptussell succeeded Doctor Strong in Septem-
ber 1949. Miss Russell has a rich background of experience. Her
previous position was that of supervisor of special education m
Center and Clinton Counties. The present members of the staff
are Mr. Ralph B. Beard, who has been head of the department since
1942; Dr. Harold L. Camp; Mr. Tobias 0. Chew; Dr. Guy Pratt
Davis; Mr. Wilbur Emmert, who was transferred from the science
department in 1949; Mr. S. Trevor Hadley; Dr. Paul Risheberger;
and Miss Irene Russell.
THE ENGLISH AND SPEECH DEPARTMENT
Rhodes R. Stabley, Head
History, said Carlyle, is the essence of innumerable biogra-
phies. That is markedly true of the seventy-five-year history of the
English and speech area at Indiana Normal School and State Teach-
ers College. Heading the list of those who rendered long and dis-
tinguished service to the institution are two women well known to
thousands of Indiana students, Jane Leonard and Edna Lee
Miss Leonard began her work in the English and speech area
in 1876, her second year at the school, as a teacher of rhetoric, a
teaching connection destined to last 44 years until her retirement
in 1920. An inspiring instructor with wide cultural interests, she
had the distinction of having the Leonard Literary Society, founded
in 1927, named in her honor.
Miss Sprowls served the institution from 1915 until her re-
tirement in 1943. Specially notable was her contribution in dra-
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
matics through her successful coaching of many memorable plays,
as well as through her teaching of courses in play production and
Many are the excellent teachers who have come and gone dur-
ing the past three decades. Space, unfortunately, permits the men-
tion of only a few, together with their dates of service at Indiana.
iStella B. Finney: 1921-1925
Verna Newsome: 1924-1927
Louise Anderson Macdonald: 1925-1948
lAnna Bernice Omdorf : 1925-1939
Ruth M. Knowles: 1926-1944
Helen F. Egleston: 1927-1942
The present staff, together with dates of beginning service and
teaching specialties, is constituted as follows:
^Came Belle Parks Norton: 1926: Recent Trends in the Teach-
ing of English
Reba N. Perkins: 1927: Shakespeare
^Carleton C. Jones: 1938: Philology
"^Rhodes R. Stabley: 1941: Advanced Composition; Modem
Abigail C. Boardman: 1945: Speech
^Joseph H. Meconnahey: 1945: Modem Drama
Robert W. Ensley: 1946: Speech and Drama
J. Stanley Cook: 1946: Contemporary Poetry
Edna Hays: 1947: Nineteenth Century British Literature
Arthur F. Nicholson: 1948: Journalism
^Charles F. Diehl: 1949: Speech
The record of the English and speech area at Indiana is mark-
ed by many important accomplishments. Here are some of the most
1876: formation of two literarv^ societies, the Erodelphian and the
Huygenian, both destined to play important roles in the cult-
ural life of the institution for over 50 years
1889: in connection with the departmentalization of the college,
the formation of the English Department and of the Elocu-
1910: organization of the Lincoln Debating Club under English
and speech auspices
1920: some changes in English and speech offerings in connection
1. Acting head of English Department, 1938-1941
2. Acting head of English Department, 1938-1941
3. Acting head of English Department, 1945-46, Deceased March 10, 1950
4. Head of English Department 1941-1945, 1946-
5. Deceased March 25, 1950.
6. Head of the Speech Wing of the Department, 1949-
with the taking over of the institution by the state of Penn-
1927: institution of an entirely new curriculum in English as a
result of becoming a state teachers college. For the first time
electives were offered to students wishing to gain certifi-
cation for teaching in the field of English
1927: formation of the Leonard Literary Society, named in honor
of Jane Leonard. Replacing the two organizations formed
in 1876, the Society during its sixteen-year existence, not
only fostered and helped produce a vast variety of student
dramatic and literary activities, but also brought to the
campus and the town many outstanding singers, actors,
dancers, poets, and lecturers
1928: formation of the Edwin Arlington Robinson Poetry Club,
destined to serve the college for over a decade
1934: organization of the Ger Rune of the American College Quill
1935: publication of the Indiana Scroll by the Ger Rune of the
American College Quill Club. It was the first of nine succes-
sive publications by local members of the club
1938 : first broadcasting by the college. The outlet used was WHJB
1940: in connection with new regulations affecting admission to
student teaching, the attainment by all students of a C aver-
age in all required English courses and the satisfactory pas-
sing of a standard test in English form and usage
1942: granting of exemptions to specially able students from re-
quired courses in composition and literature
1943 : setting up of Junior Standing regulations involving a C aver-
age for all students in required English courses or satis-
factory performance on a standard test in Engli-sh mechanics
1945: first work offered in clinical speech at Indiana
1946: formation of the English and Speech Club for professional
and social purposes
1947: first students certified in speech
1947: publication of student writing. The Indiana G I Writes,
financed by the Student Cooperative Association. Subse-
quent publications, illustrated bj^ students in the art depart-
ment, have been called The Indiana Student Writes
1948: beginning of experimentation with required work in com-
munications for freshmen and sophomores
1948: formation of The Masquers, college dramatic organization
1949: beginning of experimentation with required work in world
literature for sophomores
1950: beginning of requirement of world literature for sophomores
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
THE FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT
Edward W. Bieghler, Head
The records of the early days of Indiana State Normal School
do not always distinguish clearly between what is approved by the
state and what is actually taught in the field of Languages. The first
teacher, Joseph H. Young, who served between the years 1875 and
1881, is variously described as professor of Latin and German: Lat-
in, Greek, and German; and, simply, of Languages.
In this early period "students of the Normal Schools are rec-
ommended to studv Latin, French and English languages as far as
practicable," and those in the Flementary Course are advised to
take "one year's drill" in Latin (from 1877 this year of Latin is re-
quired, and later raised to two years.) Students of the Scientific
Course studied Latin for three vears, German for one, and there
was some provision for French. Those in the Classical Course went
more deeplv into the classical languages, for a portion of which
they had the privilege of substituting German or French. An in-
teresting provision that first appears in 1877 is that "lady pupils"
may substitute an equivalent amount of Latin, French, or German
for higher mathematics. Very soon this provision was generalized
and remained in force for twenty years. It would seem that
throughout these early years, Latin, Greek, and German were ac-
From 1881 for a period of fifteen years there is a rapid suc-
cession of teachers of languages. Some continuity is found in Stella
M. King and Martha J. Cameron, who divided their time between
English and German. The language teacher of longest service in
the historv of the School was Rosina B. Weaver, who came in 1892
as assistant in Latin and Arithmetic, and remained until her death
in March 1912. Throughout most of this period she taught ele-
mentary Latin and acted as secretary to the Principal. One grad-
uate remembers her as the most patient teacher he ever knew.
In 1896 the School had four teachers of Latin and Greek. Two
years of Latin were then required in the Elementary Course, and
an additional year in both the Normal and Scientific Courses; Ger-
man and French might be substituted for advanced Latin or higher
mathematics. For the first time we find a Modern Language De-
partment in charge of Elizabeth Gertrude Peabody, who oflfered two
years of German and one of French. In 1900 Miss Peabody's place
was taken by Vilda Sauvage, fresh from Vassar, who carried the
banner until 1907.
Requirements in 1900. In 1900 the Normal School Prin-
cipals established a three-year sequence in Latin for the Regular
Course. In addition, in the second year Greek, German, or French
could be elected in lieu of Chemistry and Solid Geometry. In the
third year English, History, Ethics and Logic could be substituted
for Latin; and Greek, German, or French for Trigonometry and
Surveying. These provisions evidently resulted in considerable drop
in enrollment in Latin, for during the succeeding six years there
are in effect two teachers only of the Classics, and one of German
and French. The names include Miss Weaver, Mr. Owens, Mr. Will
Grant Chambers, Miss Sauvage, Miss Dora Helen Moody, and Miss
Eda Belle Nichol.
A new figure in 1907 was William J. Jack of Indiana, professor
of Latin and Greek. Estella V. L. Sherrill replaced Miss Sauvage
in German and French. In the Music Department of this period
German was generally required in the Middle Year, and either
French or Italian the Senior Year. From 1907 to 1912 there was
little change. Some new names appeared on the roster: Sadie P.
Rothermel, German and French, and L. 0. Kirberger, German and
In 1914 we find our first European, Alice Lili Loewenstein,
native of Berlin, student at Lausanne, doctor from the University
of Berlin, with experience in Russia and Rumania. In 1916 the
language faculty includes Miss Baumbach, Jane Beardwood, M.
Louise Chaffee, and J. Theodore Arntz.
Mr. Arntz, a native of Belgium, had been a teacher of French
and German in the German colony at Concepcion, Chile, and in
schools in Kingston and Philadelphia. He came to Indiana as pro-
fessor of Spanish and assistant in Latin. He remained here, pri-
marily as teacher of Spanish, until his death in 1920. Mrs. Arntz,
also an excellent linquist, remained active on the staflF of the De-
partment of Business Education until her retirement many years
The first five years of the 1920's showed the progressive death
of Foreign Languages at Indiana. In 1921 only one teacher remain-
ed of a once flourshing department. Then in 1940, the Foreign
Language Department was reactivated and put in the charge of Dr.
Edward W. Bieghler. Since then, French and Spanish have been
taught in the college and student teaching in these subjects has
been offered in the Keith School.
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
THE GEOGRAPHY DEPARTMENT
L. C. Davis, Head
Geography as a subject-matter field has had a long and honor-
able history at Indiana. The First Catalogue dated 1875 lists "Miss
Jane E. Leonard, Preceptress" as "Teacher of History and Geogra-
phy". If one may judge by the high esteem in which "Aunt Jane"
was held by the alumm of her day, geography from its very begin-
ning at Indiana must have been brihiantly and skillfully taught.
In 1875 as provided by the Normal School Law three distinct
courses of study were offered — Elementary, Scientific and Classical.
In the Elementary Course, Geography was otiered in the Prepara-
tory Session, and Physical Geography in the junior year.
In the Scientific and Classical courses Geography was present-
ed in the Preparatory Session and Physical Geography in the fresh-
man year. Geology, offered for the senior class, was probably as-
sociated with the Geography and Physical Geography courses offer-
ed in the earlier years of the Classical and Scientific Courses.
Monteith's "Independent Geographies" and Guyot's "Physical
Geographies" were the standard texts.
Miss Leonard continued as geography teacher until 1887. In
that j^ear two instructors were added to the staff: Mr. Albert E.
Maltby, A. M., C. E., instructor in Physical Geography, and Miss
Elvira Marquis, M. E., instructor in Geography.
A Depai-tment Organized. In 1891 a Geographical and His-
torical Department was organized with Miss Marquis as geogra-
pher. Four courses in geography were presented. They were:
"Elementary Study of the Entire Subject"
"Detailed Study of North America, United States, Europe,
"Detailed Study of Asia, Africa and Oceania"
"Modem Physical Geography."
When the twenty-fifth anniversary catalogue was pubUshed in
1898, geography was listed as a required field of study in all the
four courses of study then offered at the Indiana Normal. These
courses were: Elementary, Regular Normal, Scientific, and Ad-
By 1918, geography had been freed from its alliance with his-
tory and had become a part of the Department of Natural Science,
with Mr. MacConnell, Miss Sykes and Miss Eyre as instructors. De-
partmental offerings had been enriched by the addition of courses
in Physiography and Political Geography.
The fiftieth Annual Catalog issued in 1925 hsts two geogra-
phers as assistant professors, Miss Zoe E. Thralls and Miss Florence
M, Shattuck. Further enrichment of curriculum offerings appears
in the inclusion of courses in The Teaching of Geography, Economic
Geography of the United States, and World Problems in Geography.
Commercial Geography I and II now appear as required courses in
the Commercial Teacher Training Curriculum.
In 1928, when the Normal School had become a State Teachers
College, the first Geography Department in the history of the insti-
tution was organized. Geography was required in the Primary, In-
termediate, Rural, Two Year, Four Year and Commercial Curricula.
In the secondary curriculum, in addition to required courses, a large
number of new courses were made available and it became possible
to acquire an undergraduate major in geography. New courses in-
cluded: Economic Geography, Geography of European Countries,
Geographic Influences in American History, Geography of Latin
America and Geography of the United States and Canada. Geogra-
phy majors at Indiana could, in the new four-year curriculum, secure
thirty or more hours of work in geography, suflScient to validate
entrance into graduate schools of geography. Many majors have
since taken graduate work in geography, and Indiana-trained
geographers have acquired positions of major importance in the
schools of Pennsylvania, in colleges throughout the nation, and in
Alpha Omega Geographers. Miss Erna Grassmuck, who org-
anized the Geography Department in 1928, in the same year
organized Alpha Omega Geographers, an honorary geographic
fraternity requiring a "B" average in twelve hours of geography
work and the presentation of an acceptable project for admission.
Projects by Alpha Omega geographers have enriched the resources
of the geography department. An Alpha Omega project, prepared
for publication by an Alpha Omega Committee, under the sponsor-
ship of Dr. Zink, recently appeared as an article in the Journal of
Miss Grassmuck retired in 1936 and was succeeded by Mr. L.
C. Davis, the present department head. Dr. Norah Zink joined the
Geography Department in the same year.
The history of the Geography Department since 1936 has been
one of expansion in terms of course offerings and opportunities.
Twenty-two three-hour courses in geography are listed in the cur-
rent catalog. Beginning in 1937 Reconnaissance Courses in Field
Geography for three or six hours credit have been offered as part
of the regular summer school work in geography. These geographic
field trips, which have aroused national interest, have given Indiana
students and students from other colleges opportunity to study at
first hand the geography of the United States, Canada, Mexico,
Colombia, Equador, Peru and Chile.
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL EDUCATION
George P. Miller, Head
In the early days of Indiana Normal School, the work in Physi-
cal Culture appears as a part of the Department of Elocution. The
methods used and the subject matter taught was patterned chiefly
after the general formal work of an early period. The following in-
teresting description of the gymnasium and playing fields appeared
in one of the first catalogs:
"A gymnasium thoroughly equipped with the modern appli-
ances, is in charge of a competent instructor in physical culture,
and will be open at different parts of the day to each of the sexes.
Parts of our large campus are given up to field sports. A bi-
cycle track, croquet grounds, six excellent tennis courts, a football
field, and a baseball diamond afford excellent inducement to exer-
cise out of doors.
Daily drills, exercises especially adapted to the cultivation of
the voice are given, embracing breathing exercises, vocal gymnas-
tics and physical culture."
Miss ISIable G. Sawyer was the first teacher of physical culture
and elocution. In 1897 Mr. Harry Phythyon became the first direc-
tor of physical education. The gymnasium in those days was lo-
cated on the ground floor of John Sutton Hall.
In 1901 Miss Evelyn A. Eraser was made head of the Elocu-
tionary Department and she was assisted by Miss Marian M, Ed-
mondson, a member of the Mathematics Department. These two
women taught the physical culture classes until 1904 when Miss
Harriet Rumball superseded them. It was in 1906 that Miss
Edna H. Peale replaced Harriet Rumball. Mr. Frank Haller was
elected to the position of Physical Director in 1903.
In 1908 Miss Edith G. Estes became director of Physical Train-
ing for women. She was followed by Miss Elizabeth Knight Eyre.
Miss Eyre remained at Indiana for several years and turned out
some championship basketball teams. Miss Adelaide Rose was ap-
pointed to assist Miss Eyre with the physical training classes.
Health Courses at the Century. The following array of health
courses were offered at this time: Personal Hygiene, School Hy-
giene, Social Hygiene, Sex Hygiene, and Eugenics and a Health
Education course. The college infirmary was mentioned in 1907 as
a place for indisposed girls.
In the early 1920's, shortly after the Normal School became the
property of the Commonwealth, greater emphasis was given to the
teaching of health in preparing teachers for the public schools. Mr.
Everett M. Sanders became director of health education in 1923 and
had four persons assisting; Miss Anne Osborne, Miss Dorothy
Reiss, Miss Mable T. Apple, and Miss Eloise Blakesly. Within a
few years Miss Lena Ellenberger and Mr. George P. Miller were
added to the staff, both continuing to the present time. Mr. Miller
became head of the department after Mr. Sanders resigned in 1938.
Mr. Earl E. Prugh, with a versatile knowledge of sports and a gen-
uine interest in young men, assisted for many years in football,
boxing and tennis, until his retirement in 1944. Miss Malinda
Hamblen came to the department in 1927. She organized the girls'
Varsity I Club and has been an enthusiast in Folk Dancing. In-
creased enrollment in the late 1930's brought Mr. Robert Timmons
and Mr. Lewis Shaffer to the college. "Bob" Timmons, with his slow
speech, knowing smile and alert direction, brought an increased en-
thusiasm for football and basketball to Indiana. His war service
with the Navy interrupted his work and then he decided to cast his
lot with the University of Pittsburgh. "Lou" Shaffer brought
wrestling to the status of a varsity sport.
Mr. Regis McKnight replaced Mr. Timmons as teacher and
coach. "Peck" starred in three sports at Indiana and captained
these teams before launching his successful coaching career at vari-
ous high schools. Besides his teaching, he coaches basketball and
assists in other sports.
Miss Margaret Gisolo is the latest woman teacher to join the
staff. She came to Indiana after a sojourn in the U. S. Navy dur-
ing the war and a successful teaching experience. She specializes
in Modern Dance, helps with the girls' athletic program and super-
vises the physical education program for the girls in the Keith Jun-
ior High School. Miss Gisolo was the only girl to play on an Ameri-
can Legion playoff baseball team. She received national recognition
for the part she played in these play-off games.
Mr. Samuel Smith is the latest addition to the Health Depart-
ment and coaching staff.' He is a graduate of Waynesburg College
and Springfield where he starred in football and baseball. He coach-
ed winning teams for several years at Dormont High School before
entering the U.S. Navy. Coaching football and baseball vdll be his
job on the campus besides his regular teaching assignments.
Mrs. Maude McDevitt was head school nurse for many years at
Indiana. She was ably assisted by Mrs. Lena Weatherly and Miss
Irene J. Anderson. Miss Hazel Ober, the present head nurse, came
to Indiana after spending several years at Edinboro State Teachers
College. Miss Jane Blue is assistant school nurse dividing much of
the time between Keith Laboratory School and the College Infirm-
ary, now located on South 11th Street. Dr. William Simpson was
the college physician for many years and in 1940 Dr. Charles E.
Rink, the present college physician, was elected to perform these
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
THE HOME ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT
Opal T. Rhodes, Director
Domestic Science was the name applied in 1915 to the first
work ottered in nome iiiconomics. i:'ourteen students enroned the
first year, it was not long beiore the department, m keepmg with
the liome Economics movement, became Known as Home Jt^conom-
ics, "a study oi the basic human interests — loods, clothing, shelter,
and personal reiationsiiips — wJiicn heip people to achieve happy
homes and communities".
In the fall of 1922 the two-year curriculum was lengthened a
year, enrollment continuing to be twenty a year or less, nowever,
there seemea to be iittie opportunity for teaching positions lor
three-year graduates, 'ilien tne btate uouncil of Ji.ducation approv-
ed a four-year curriculum in iiome h,conomics for Indiana. This
was the first department of the coiiege to have the privilege of
granting a degree, the iirst bachelor of Science degree being given
to Miss Alice b. v^lements, in May 1927.
For many years the home of the department was on the ground
floor of John Sutton nali, facing soutii. While in this area the en-
rollment reached 100. In 193i, the department moved to the top
floor of the Arts Building, renamed McJi,ihaney Hah in 1949. Here
the department grew to house over three hundred in 1941. Addi-
tional space was then made available in Leonard Hall.
Student Teaching. Previous to 1929, all student teaching
was done on the campus with the Traimng School children. The
classes met in the college riome ii,conomics department. Graduahy
teaching centers were established in Johnstown and Indiana High
Schools and elsewhere. An eiiort was made to provide each student
with a varied experience, btudent teachers lived at the teaching
centers and participated in all activities like regularly employed
teachers. In 1948 this experience was further enriched by a semes-
ter of observation and participation in the Keith School.
During the growth and development of the department, many
features have been added which help the students become more effi-
cient teachers. The early classes in home economics included only
cooking, sewing, house decoration, and household science with em-
phasis on prerequisites in science and art. In time, "clothing" re-
placed sewing, including chemistry of textiles, costume design,
clothing selection, and millinery. The courses in foods, nutrition
and school lunch have grown as the science of chemistry and bi-
ology have changed. Courses in family relationships, child develop-
ment, nursery school, home care of the sick, family economics and
home management were added later.
A "practice house" was opened in 1922, the name being
changed to Home Management House in 1928. This emphasized
the training in management of time, labor and money. Beginning
in 1935, each year a three-months old child becomes part of the
Home Management House family. An additional house has been
used from time to time to supplement this part of the curriculum.
An itinerant teacher was employed in 1936 to visit the gradu-
ates of Indiana and orier constructive help. Indiana was one of
the first colleges to assist beginning teachers in this way. As part
of the war enort, the department pioneered in First Aid and Red
Cross Canteen courses for students. Instruction was also given
throughout the county with the aid of students. Department radio
programs assisted in instructing housewives in the operation of
The Home Economics Club. The Home Economics Club was
organized in 1924 and has been an integral and effective part
of the department in educating teachers. It is affiliated with the
State and National Associations and contributes to the support of
foreign students studying Home Economics in American colleges
and universities. It has also made substantial gifts to the depart-
ment. Social activities of the Home Economics Club help to de-
velop leadership, social graces and civic responsibilities. The fresh-
men receive a great welcome in the Fall at the Lodge. The Merry-
Go, established in 1924, is a highlight in the hfe of every "Home
Ec" in the Spring.
Tau Chapter of Kappa Omicron Phi, Honorary Professional
Home Economics Fraternity, was installed June 5, 1940 with Mrs.
Thelma Lappen Downing as sponsor. In August 1948, this group
was hostess to the organization's National Conclave on the Indi-
Indiana has the distinction of having graduated three men
from its Home Economics Department; Fred J. Stokes and John
Balog in 1947 and William Curley in 1948. Fred was an outstand-
ing athlete and captained the football team his senior year. John
was a Bombardier-Navigator on a B-24 and Bill was considered a
regular fellow. These three men continue in teaching or graduate
work in this field.
Department Heads. From 1915 to 1921 there was a suc-
cession of department heads. Miss Helen Randall served as de-
partment head from 1921 to 1924, also acting as dietitian. She was
succeeded by Miss Isabel Collins, who remained until 1938. It was
through the able direction of Miss Collins that the Home Econom-
ics Department in McElhaney Hall was planned and equipped.
An all-purpose laboratory was promoted by Dr. A. Pauline
Sanders, director from 1938 to 1944. A school cafeteria and home
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
kitchen were added. When Dr. Sanders became Chief of Home
Economics Education in the Department of Pubhc Instruction, Miss
Ethyl V. Oxley assumed leadership until the present director Dr.
Opal T. Rhodes arrived in 1944.
The department aims to prepare home economics students to
help every boy and girl, man and woman, to live better lives, and
the program for teacher education was reorganized to this end.
Home economics students observe and work with people of all ages
from the four-month old home management house baby to adults
with years of experience. They observe home living needs of peo-
ple and study ways of meeting the needs. College courses have
been opened to or organized for non-majors. Student appreciation
has been expressed through class enrolment. Six years ago, few
not majoring in home economics received any preparation for home-
making and parenthood. At date of writing 221 women and 127
men are preparing for that all important responsibility. The de-
partment is reaching almost half of the women and approximate-
ly a fifth of the men in college.
Each staff member is a specialist in one or more areas of home
living as well as a master teacher. Miss Ethyl V. Oxley in goods
and equipment; Miss Helen C. Merriman in clothing and costume
design ; Miss Rachel Dale Moss in family relations and teacher edu-
cation ; and Miss Leola T. Hayes in foods and nutrition have served
the department longest. In cooperation with an equal number of
more recent colleagues, they keep in touch with the best and the
newest through continued graduate study, regional and national
meetings, and individual study. Only the best is adequate for the
fourth of Pennsylvania's Home Economics Teachers who are gradu-
ated from Indiana.
Robert T. Grazier, Librarian
The beginning of the college library was the donation by the
original Board of Trustees of a "fine Reference Library" which was
housed in John Sutton Hall. Several years later the reference
library was supplemented by 1000 volumes of literature, history
and biography and an added reading room housed a collection of
magazines, educational journals and newspapers.
The first statement of annual acquisitions appeared in the
college catalog for 1893-1894, which stated that "over 300 volumes"
were added to the library. Annual acquisitions varied from 300 to
800 titles and by 1926, the library had 12,000 "usable" volumes.
As the library grew, special collections supplemented the more
conventional sources or were used to call attention to material of
particular interest to students and faculty. As early as 1906 a pic-
ture collection was begun, which, supplemented by pamphlet ma-
terial, is still an integral part of the library. In 1915 a "red star"
collection was set up. The "red star" books were selected as the
outstanding titles of fiction and non-fiction and were kept on separ-
ate shelves. Such collections were the idea of Theodore Koch noted,
librarian at the University of Michigan, and they became popular
in many labraries, serving as early examples of the browsing room
collections of a later era. In the meantime, the library's growing
pains were alleviated by moving into the first floor of the new annex
of John Sutton Hall. In 1938, separate quarters were set up for a
reserve book room and the following year marked the beginning of
the text-book collection which provided the core of the current Cur-
riculum Materials Room, which now includes text-books, courses
of study, testing materials and other teaching aids.
The additional space needed for the expansion of the Library's
collection put a severe strain upon its physical quarters. The new
textbook collection was in a small room near the entrance to the
main reading room, but the reserve books had to be squeezed into
a basement room. The situation was relieved considerably when, in
1941, the Training School building was remodelled to house the
library and became the present Wilson Hall Library. The "new"
building off'ered shelf space for 50,000 volumes and a seating capac-
ity of 255 students. Four reading rooms on the second floor en-
abled the newer books in all subjects to be put on open shelves. On
the first floor was the circulation desk, a combined reference and
reserve book room, a curriculum materials room, a periodical room
and separate quarters for the Indiana Historical Society's Collection
plus the hbrary's material in Pennsylvania history. Two stock
rooms in the basement provided added book storage.
Library Instruction. In addition to its collections of books
and journals, the library has long carried on a program of
library instruction designed to acquaint the prospective teachers
with basic library resources. As early as 1912, the annual catalog
announced that the library offered "a brief course to each student
in the use of the library." By 1930, this course had expanded into
a ten-hour, one semester course, outlined by the State Committee
on Curriculum Revision. Library instruction is now off'ered as part
of the course work in English I and English II. In English I, it
consists of lectures, demonstrations and problems in general library
usage, and in English II, of more detailed bibliographical instruc-
tion in connection with a research paper.
The compilation of reading lists for the students and the dis-
tribution of notices of new library materials represented long and
continuing efforts on the part of the library to keep the faculty
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
and student body aware of library resources. A separate Library
Bulletin was issued in 1936 and its current prototype, the Library
Letter, a monthly news sheet, made its appearance in March, 1949.
Lists of current magazines and new books are distributed at regu-
lar intervals to both students and faculty.
Librarians. Hard times and more prosperous ones have
had their effect upon the size of the book budget and upon other
physical attributes of the library. Important as books, shelf space
and seating capacity are however, a library needs librarians to give
it meaning. In its earliest years, the library was either remark-
able for its self-service or it remained at the mercies of student as-
sistants. For fifteen years, no librarian graced the faculty roster
until Mr. George Feit was listed as librarian in the annual catalog
of 1890-1891. The next forward step was the appointment of Miss
Araminta McLane, former public librarian at East Liverpool, Ohio,
as librarian in 1907. By this time the librarian had recruited sev-
eral full-time assistants usually from the graduating class of the
Normal School, but the teaching profession or matrimony evidently
effected severe casualties upon the staff, for rarely did the same
names appear upon the staff roster for more than two consecu-
Students of the 'twenties may have forgotten many of the
books they used in the library, but few will have forgotten the col-
orful Mrs. Katherine Jackson Brew, the hbrarian, and her parrot;
both of whom fitted nicely into the informal atmosphere of the li-
brary, then on the first floor of the west wing of John Sutton Hall.
The decade which featured developments in the college also
marked the beginning of a continuity of trained library personnel
which has enhanced the services and collections of the library.
Miss Estella Slaven came to Indiana as head librarian in 1927 and
remained in her position until 1941. Miss Slaven brought with her
a background of public school experience, which, combined with
an excellent knowledge of children's literature boded well for a
teachers college library. Within several years of Miss Slaven's ap-
jointment, two members of the present staff. Miss Florence Riden-
our and Miss Lucille Littlefield came to the library and their pro-
fessional training, plus years of experience, have given them an
enviable knowledge of the library's collection, a knowledge of in-
estimable benefit to all users of the college library.
THE MATHEMATICS DEPARTMENT
Joy E. Mahachek, Head
1875-1900. When the Indiana Normal School opened in May
of 1875 students could be enrolled in the Elementary Course, the
Scientific Course, or the Classical Course. The first of these re-
quired Mental and Written and Higher Arithmetic, Algebra, Geom-
etry and Chemistry as mathematics. The other two courses re-
quired, in addition. Geometry and Conic Sections, Trigonometry
and Surveying, Analytical Geometry, Calculus, and Astronomy.
The following suggestions concerning these subjects are noted:
Geography shall include both physical and mathematical geog-
raphy ; in the Scientific Course students may take equivalent Latin.
Greek, French or German instead of portions of higher mathema-
tics; Integral Calculus shall be taken in the Scientific Course; each
recitation shall be marked from 10 to 0; an average less than 7 is
The original mathematics faculty was composed of David W.
Sensenig later principal of the Normal School, and Andrew J.
Bolar, professor of mathematics and English, After 1875 there
were three or four faculty members each year. Few teachers gave
more than five years of service. However, Mr. R. Willis Fair con-
tinued his work from 1878 to 1888.
Mr. M. C. Gordon began his long teaching career at Indiana in
1892 and continued until retirement in 1927. He was often famil-
iarly known as Mac. He is well remembered for his sometimes
caustic wit and for his insistence upon perfection in arithmetic
recitations. He prided himself on being not only on time but a little
ahead of time and required the same punctuality of his students.
Nevertheless they regarded him with affection and respect.
Mr. Will Grant Chambers (1894 to 1900) was known for his
superior scholarship and his able teaching. He continued his
teaching career in Psychology and Education at the State Normal
School at Moorhead, Minnesota (1901-1904) and the State Teach-
ers College at Greeley, Colorado (1904-1909). He returned to the
University of Pittsburgh (1909-1021) serving as the dean of the
School of Education. In 1921 he transferred to Pennsylvania State
College and became dean of the School of Education in 1923. He
was president of the P. S. E. A. in 1920, active in the N. E. A. and
many honorary societies.
1900-1925. At the tuni of the century mathematics was re-
quired through geometry in the Elementary Course, through trig-
onogmetry in the Regular Normal Course and through the calculus
in the Scientific Course. The catalogs describe only the courses
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
throug-h trig-onometry but suggest that "Mathematics aims not
only at training in methods of operation, but also at the develop-
ment of reasoning powers." They further suggest that field work
be emphasized, a procedure we like to think of as modem. By 1920
the four curricula offered were Kindergarten-Primary, Intermed-
iate, Junior High School and Rural. The only mathemiatics re-
quired was a course in the Teaching of Arithmetic at the given level
or Commercial Arithmetic in the Commercial Teachers Course. If
six or more students desired it, courses in higher mathematics were
given. Students in the three year Junior-High School Curriculum
in 1922 could specialize in mathematics bv taking courses through
Integral Calculus. Mathematics was no longer considered a subject
to train the mind, but rather an area to be studied by those who
needed it for their vocations.
During this period there were from four to six faculty mem-
bers in the department some of whom taught the arithmetic in the
Commercial Department. Only four of these teachers attained serv-
ice of more than five years.
Miss Edith Cheserbrough (1907 to 1912) was exacting in her
requirements and held her students to high standards of work. Mr.
James C. Smith (1907 to 1919), who taught the advanced mathe-
matics courses, was also interested in photography and many of
the pictures in the yearbook of this period are his work.
Mr. James Patterson Wiley (1910 to 1917) is very aflfection-
ately remembered. He was graduated from the Indiana Normal
School in 1888 and after acting as teacher and administrator in
public schools of Pennsylvania, returned to Indiana in 1911 as an
instructor in mathematics. He taught because he loved teaching.
He was much admired by his students in whom he took a strong
personal interest. He spent many hours spreading the influence
of the school and working with his flowers. Miss Edna S. Winters
(1910 to 1917) was often known as Spring Winters. Her students
recall her stimulating personality and strong sense of humor.
1925-1950. In 1925 mathematics as previously listed was re-
quired, but 12 hours of Mathematical Analysis including the sub-
ject matter of Integral Calculus could be elected by students wish-
ing to prepare to teach mathematics in the Junior High School Cur-
riculum. When the institution attained collegiate rank the four-
year courses for Elementary and Junior High School Curricula
were begun. Then, in addition to Mathematical Analysis, students
specializing in mathematics took courses in Teaching of Junior
High School Mathematics and Teaching of Algebra and Geometry.
During the latter part of this period Mathematical Analysis
was divided into separate courses. A major in mathematics now
takes College Algebra, College Trigonometry, Analytical Geometry,
Differential Calculus, Integral Calculus^ Mathematical Statistics
and two more courses from the following: College Algebra II,
History of Mathematics, Synthetic Geometry, Applied Mathema-
tics, Teaching of Secondary School Mathematics and Spherical Trig-
onometry. A student minoring in mathematics may take only the
first six courses listed. For students in the Elementary Division,
Curriculum in Arithmetic and Teaching of Arithmetic are offered.
Miss Olive S. Tilton (1924-1936) was the first head of the
Mathematics Department as organized in the Indiana State Teach-
ers College. She continued in that position until she resigned for
reasons of health. She is especially rem.embered for her sincere
interest in her students. While she demanded their best work, she
taught more than mathmetics in every class and was a willing
counselor to every student with a personal problem. Under her
direction the department expanded, developing students of high
abilities into strong teachers of mathematics.
Miss Joy E. Mahachek was added to the staff in 1927 when
Mr. M. C. Gordon resigned. In 1936 she became acting Head and
later Head of the Mathematics Department which position she now
Mr. Earl E. Prugh became a part-time teacher in the depart-
ment in 1929 continuing so until his retirement in 1944. He is well
remembered for his thoroughness and sportsmanship. In 1936
Mr. Leroy Schnell entered the department and was on leave as a
lieutenant in the United States Navy from 1943 to 1945 during
World War II. Upon his return he became Veterans' Counselor
and does only part-time teaching in mathematics. Dr. I. L.
Stright was added to the mathematics faculty in 1947.
At the end of 75 years the Mathematics Department looks back
to note the changes in its curriculum; the well-remembered teach-
ers on its faculty; and its many students now teaching mathema-
tics in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
THE MUSIC DEPARTMENT
Clel T. Silvey, Director
There is no one wholly unresponsive to the elevating appeal
of music. If only the right contacts and experiences are provided,
every life can find in music some answer to its fundamental needs
for aesthetic and emotional outlet. Education's cultural objectives
fail unless it brings to every child the consciousness that his own
spirit may find satisfying expresson through the arts.
The responsibility of offering every child a rich and varied ex-
perience in music rests upon the music teacher. It becomes his
duty to see that music contributes its signicant part in leading
mankind to a higher plane of existence.
The State Teachers College at Indiana has provided a major
curriculum in music education for almost a half century. A history
of this department's notable achievements may serve as a fair bar-
ometer or cross section of the grovi^th in teacher education ideals
throughout the nation.
With the opening of the State Normal at Indiana, Pennsylva-
nia, in 1875, a two year diploma was offered. Private lessons were
given in voice. Two years later private lessons were added in
piano and organ. From the records of 1878-1881, special courses
were provided in vocal and instrumental music. And, up to 1905
either vocal or instrumental courses were to be elected.
The Conservatory. The college bulletin of 1906 announced
a complete conservatory of music courses, "As offered in
music conservatories in other colleges of the United States". This
conservatory of music was located on the second and third floors of
Thomas Sutton Hall (the present location of the department of
music education). The first director of the department, Hamlin
G. Cogswell, was a leader and pioneer in music education for west-
ern Pennsylvania for the first quarter of the century. His wife
who was on the music staff composed our Alma Mater. By 1918
the music program was expanded to a three year course with
majors offered in singing, violin, piano, organ, and supervision.
Student music groups included the Conservatory Orchestra, Choral
Society, Madrigal Club of Women, and a Mandolin Club. The
name was changed from Conservatory to Department of Music in
1922 and the offerings in music appeared under two general divi-
sions; (1) training courses of two and three years in public school
music, and (2) a curriculum designated as "Collegiate Music".
With a decade of leadership under John W. Neff, which began
in 1925, many significant achievements were made: The first full
four-year course in music for public school teachers and super-
visors of music was established in 1926. Twelve semester hours
of student teaching and observation were required, a part of which
was to be in public schools off the campus. In general, the entire
trend of the music department courses was away from the conser-
vatory and tutorial idea to the modern needs of education.
Trends in Music Education. The new trends in music edu-
cation and curricular enrichments continued under a decade of
leadership by Irving Cheyette (1938-48) and his able staff. In-
strumental and vocal music was broadened to introduce class teach-
ing. Also, many significant American Composer Festivals were
The present administration of the department of music edu-
cation has added a few new features onto the solid foundations of
the past. The present curriculum aspires to train a well balanced,
versatile, public school music teacher with as much specialization
in instrumental music as vocal. There is an emphasis upon per-
formance and at the same time a relaxation of requirements (basic
minimums plus electives). Annual events offered as professional
aids to the music teachers and supervisors of western Pennsylva-
nia are; Pennsylvania Symposium in Music Education (demonstra-
tion lessons and forums in the teaching of elementary school
music), Hig-h School Band Day, High School Orchestra Day, and
High School Choir Day. A complete celebration of National Music
Week presents one or two concerts each day of the week.
The present staff together with their teaching specialties, and
the year each began service follows.
Lola A. Beelar (1925) Supervisor of student teaching in the
public schools of Indiana.
Aagot M. K. Borge (1929) Supervisor of student teaching in
vocal music in the College Laboratory Schools.
Robert W. Burggraf (1945) Supervisor of student teaching in
instrumental music in the College Laboratory Schools.
Agnus M. Bothne (1946) Voice, Women's Glee Club.
Catherine C. Carl (1945) Organ, Piano, Theory.
Charles A. Davis (1942) Theory, Orchestration, Male Chorus.
Gladys Dunkelberger (1945) Voice, Vocal Ensembles.
Thomas J. Hughes (1936) Piano.
C. David McNaughton (1948) Brass instruments, Theory, Col-
Mary H. Muldowney (1935) Theory, College Choir.
Pearl R. Reed (1922) Violin, String Ensembles.
Laura M. Remsberg (1926) Voice.
Clel T. Silvey (1948) Musicology, Music Education, Director of
Lawrence C. Stitt (1931) Woodwind Instruments, Conducting,
Arvilla Terrell (1946) Music Education courses for the class
room teacher (Elementary majors).
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
THE SCIENCE DEPARTMENT
Dwight Sollberger, Head
Science has always occupied a prominent place in the educa-
tional program at Indiana. A surprising variety of courses was
listed in the old catalogs. Students in the Scientific and Classical
Courses were required to take Chemistry, Physics, Botany, Zoology,
Mathematics, Astronomy and Geology. Four courses were on the
required list for those taking the Elementary program.
Science was also much in evidence in the Model School. Here
the graduating class of the Normal School was afforded the "op-
portunity to put into practice the most correct theories and meth-
ods of instruction. The course of instruction comprises the usual
branches taught in commomn schools together with the elements
of Rhetoric, Natural Philosophy, Physiology, Chemistry, Botany,
and Natural History."
First Instructors. In 1885 Albert E. Maltby came to Indi-
ana to teach the Natural Sciences. He stayed until 1888 when
his place was taken by Samuel C. Schmucker. Proof of Professor
Maltby's ability was evidenced by the fact that he latter became
Principal of the Normal School at Slippery Rock. A modern li-
brary erected in 1936 at Slippery Rock was named in his honor.
No account of the history of the science department would be
complete without a tribute to Samuel C. Schmucker who was pro-
fessor of Natural Science from 1888 to 1899. At this time the
Nature Study Movement was well under way, and Dr. Schmuck-
er's great interest in science for young people later resulted in a
book dealing with the teaching of Nature Study. His book was
considered an outstanding one, and many of the ideas expressed
therein are still regarded as modern for those who would teach
science at the elementary level.
An examination of the course requirements in 1918, two years
before Indiana came under the control of the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania shows that Botany, Zoology, Chemistry, Physiology,
Agriculture, Nature Study and Physics were required for the Regu-
lar Teachers Course. At this time the science staff consisted of
four teachers in addition to those persons teaching science in the
Domestic Science Department. The changes in the courses dur-
ing the early years of the century were principally in the direction
of less formalized training of the mind to a more functional ap-
When Indiana became a degree-granting institution, further
changes in the science program were made. The increased demand
for specialization had created new departments whose specialties
required little scientific DacKground. Science requirements were
thus not neai'ly so ail-inciusive as they had been tomierly.
Science specialization first became possible in 1926 with the
degree curricula. Six hours ot science were required of all students
planning to teach in Junior and Senior High Schools. Increased
emphasis on science in the public scliools brought increased educa-
tion required tor the teachers. By 1942 tw^enty-four hours of class-
work were required for specialization in Biology, Chemistry and
Physics. A total of thirty hours of credit were required for spec-
ilization to teach General Science. These are the present re-
Growth of the Physical Plant. Facilities for the courses in
science during the early years were usually adequate for that
period. Laboratories were provided for the various courses,
and the catalogs of that time emphasized the necessity of students
having individual experiences with the materials of the course.
The laboratories were located, of course, in the original building.
These were moved to Leonard Hall in 1903, where they have re-
mained until the present time.
In 1930 a Chemistry laboratory was added in Leonard Hall in
addition to the one already there. In 1940 a large portion of the
Biology and Physics was moved to the basement of Leonard Hall,
but due to the war emergency, it was impossible to equip these
rooms with the facilities present in the above mentioned labora-
In 1947 with the influx of students it became necessary to
build a temporary frame building on Grant Street to take care of
the growing needs of the Biology program. This building is now
being used and consists of three laboratories, storage rooms, and
three offices for faculty members. These facilities are providing
for the science education needs of approximately nine hundred
st.udp.nts each semester taking a total of twenty science courses.
The Science Staff. As the science progi-am at Indiana ex-
panded, increases in the staff were also necessary. Dr. Thomas
Smyth was the first head of the Science Department, after Indiana
became a college, and much of the growth of the science program
between 1928 and 1947 was due to his persistent efforts to build a
department commensurate with the traditions of the college for
high scholarship. In the years immediately preceding the forma-
tion of the Science Department, Mr. Wilbur Emmert taught many
of the science courses given at that time.
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
By 1947 the department consisted of eight staff members, five
of these holding doctors' degrees in their respective specialties.
The program today has changed greatly from the formal discipline
program of the late 19th century. Courses are now specialized to
equip students not majoring in the sciences to adequately under-
stand the scientific method in its relation to society as well as to
understand the materials and phenomena of their environment; to
provide prospective teachers of science both at the elementary and
secondary level with the requisite knowledge, skills, and attitudes
to teach science to young people of the public schools of Pennsyl-
THE SOCIAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT
Walter M. Whitmyre, Head
There is verv little available material dealing with the Social
Studies field at Indiana Normal School before the twentieth cen-
tury. The catalogs of the school from its founding to 1900 give
Jane E. Leonard seemed to be the first teacher of history. She
was listed as Preceptress, and also as professor of Geography and
Historv. Other teachers of history whose names appear in the
catalogs of this time are George S. Fisher, Elvira Marquis, Eliza-
beth Peabody, W. G. Robertson, Aubrey M. Hammers.
The curricula offered during this neriod consisted of the Ele-
mentary, the Scientific, and finallv the so-called Regular Normal
Course. The history subjects of these curricula always consisted of
general or world history which emnhasi7ed ancient, medieval. Eng-
lish and modern or recent times. The other field was that of United
States History (Barnes) and Civil Government.
About 1890 the catalog announces the use of the German Sem-
inar Method at Indiana. This method had been functioning suc-
cessfully at Johns Hopkins University for several years.
The Turn of the Century. Erom the opening of the 20th
century to World War I, under the leadership of Dr. Waller
and Dr. Ament, there is much more emphasis on the field of Social
Studies. The two outstanding personalities of this period were Dr.
Albert K. Heckel and Mr. William Jack. Dr. Heckel came to Indi-
ana in 1907. His students always refer to him as a brilliant schol-
ar and a remarkable teacher. After lea\ang Indiana in 1913, he was
Dean of Lafayette College. Later he became Dean of the Liberal
Arts College of the University of Missouri.
Mr. William Jack was well known throughout western Penn-
sylvania. He had been an outstanding- athlete at Yale and at Indi-
ana he became Preceptor and teacher of Greek. When this subject
was dropped from the curriculum, he entered the Social Studies
field and succeeded Dr. Heckel in 1913.
Other teachers of history listed from 1900 to 1918 were the
following: Harriet Crichton, Elizabeth Walsh, Elizabeth Craw-
ford, Beulah Mulliner, Ella Agard and Edith K. Greenlee.
General world history consisting of ancient, medieval, modem
and English, and the history of the United States seemed to have
the greatest emphasis during this time. The latter was divided
into two periods with the War of 1812 the dividing point. Civics
was taught as a separate subject and a course in Methods in His-
tory and Geography were added.
During the fifteen years following World War I great changes
were inaugurated at Indiana. Dr. Keith followed Dr. Ament in
1917 and was in turn succeeded by Dr. Foster in 1927. An entire-
ly new curriculum was adopted for the normal schools in 1921, and
soon afterward only high school graduates were admitted.
The 1921 curriculum gave much more emphasis to Social Stud-
ies than did the previous one. New subjects such as Educational
Sociology and Social and Industrial History of the United States
were introduced. Provision was also made for the training of
Social Studies teachers at the secondary level. Majors were re-
quired to complete 32 hours and minors 24 hours.
Mr. W. M. Whitmyre took over the position held by Mr. Wm.
Jack upon his resignation in 1918 and has continued to the present
time as Dean of Men and Head of the Social Studies Department.
Miss Ethel Belden came to Indiana in 1926 and in 1930 Mr. C. M.
Johnson became a member of the Department. Both of these peo-
ple are members of the present staff, which has now increased its
number to seven.
Dr. Ralph Heiges came to Indiana in 1936 and taught in the
department until 1942 when he became Dean of Instruction. He
continues to teach a course occasionally. Dr. Heiges also served
for a year as acting President of the College. Miss Florence Wal-
lace joined the faculty in 1938 and in 1940 became a full time Social
Studies instructor. Dr. Dorcas Hall became assistant Dean of
Women and a part time teacher in 1942. Dr. Ralph Cordier is the
newest member of the department and rounds out the staff.
The curriculum of 1935 imposed upon the department two
major functions. First it made the department a service agency
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
in the field of social studies for the other divisions of the college.
Certain subjects are required from practically all students such
as United States History before 1865, History of Civilization, and
American Government. The second function is the training- of
Social Studies teachers for the public schools of the state of Penn-
sylvania. To help turn out well qualified teachers many new elec-
tive courses were added.
Professional Organizations. During recent years the de-
partment has sponsored a number of professional organiza-
tions. Included here are (1) the Inter-Collegiate Conference on
Government which studies state and national problems and dis-
cusses these at a state meeting at Harrisburg and (2) the Inter-
national Relations Club which provides an opportunity for under-
standing and discussing world affairs. This club is sponsored by
the Carnegie Foundation for Universal Peace and each year sends
delegates to the Middle States Regional Conference. These organ-
izations exemplify the purpose and ideals of the whole department
which are to help develop social competence and intelligent and re-
Annual Swingouts in May are always impressive at Indiana
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
(Model School, Training School, Laboratory School)
John E. Davis, Director
The John A. H. Keith Laboratory School of 1950 has its roots
in the beginning of the Indiana Normal School of 1875. Edmund
B. Fairfield in his report of September 15, 1875 to J. P. Wickersham,
the State Superintendent of Public Instruction wrote:
"The attendance during a first preliminary term of ten weeks was 148 in the
Normal School, and 80 in the Model School: and very commendable interest
was manifested by all classes and obvious improvement by nearly every
Like the Normal School the growth of the Model School was
slow but steadv and the school continued to exert an increasing in-
fluence in the borou<Th of Indiana and in the more distant regions
to which its well trairied teachers carried the hiqrh standards main-
tained in the Model School f\r\d advertised the Normal School as an
institution whe>'e teacher t>*Jiininp" was equal or superior to the
best that could be found in Pennsylvania.
The persons servinpi- as head of the camr>us training school
moulded the school to fit the times. The contributions of these
heads are more fully indicated under the section Administrative
Growth of the Physical Plant. When the Model School
was opened in 1875, it was housed in John Sutton Hall, the
main and oldest building on the nresent campus. In 1893 the Board
of Trustees erected to the north of the main building, the Model
Sr-hooT nnd named it in honor of their third nresident. the A. W
Wilson TTall. When the Junior High School Department was start-
ed in 1921 it was honsed in Leonard HaH. However, with the com-
pletion of a laT-cre Laboratory School buildinq- located east of Wilson
and Leonard Halls, the new building was able in its nhvsical nlant
to correlate the best teaching trends with the plant that housed it.
Curriculum Changes. Bv necessity and through vision, the
curriculum has changed in conformity to the needs of the times.
With its purposes — "to afford the members of the senior class
an orcDortunitv to put into nractice the T)rinciples of education which
had been emphasized, "^ the Training School of eight grades and 225
students, sunennsed by four critic teachers in 1907. was teaching
Reading and Literature, Language, Nature Study, Geography, His-
tory, Arithmetic, and Spelling.
1. Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, for the year ending June l.
1875. B. F. Meyers, State Printer, Harrisburg, 1875, p. 275.
2. 33rd Annual Catalog, Indiana Normal School, Vol. 1, June 1907, No. 1
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
With the establishment of the Junior High School Department
in 1921, the scope of student activities was enlarged. A Student
Council was started in 1924 and four clubs were organized.'^ These
included Science, History, Citizenship, Choral and World Wide
Science Clubs. In the same year the first edition of The Arrow,
the training school yearbook, was published. A constitution for
the Student Council was completed in 1928'' and remained in force
until the revision of 1948.
The emphasis in the Keith Laboratory School today is on the
promotion of individual responsibility. For this reason, the students
through such committees as the Student Government, Athletic,
Publicity, Dance and Game Hour, Assembly, Bulletin Board, and
others are developed in leadership powers and civic attitudes.
The Academic and Commercial Courses are taught with close
cooperation existing with the college departments. Considerable
instruction in languages, ai-t, music, etc., is still done by members
of the college departments.
The Junior High School Department has a band, orchestra,
and choral groups. Intramural sports are engaged in for the physi-
cal benefit of all. Inter-scholastically the school has its own bask-
etball team which has an enviable record — reaching the finals in
the County Tournament of 1948 against high school competition.
Instead of the four clubs listed in 1924, the Junior High School
Department today has 10 including Hi-Y and Tri-Hi-Y Clubs, and
the first state recognized Junior History Club in Indiana County;
chartered in 1948. In the following year a Junior Red Cross Coun-
cil was organized.
Departments and Teaching Personnel. At various years since
1875 the number of students in the campus school has been:
1875 _ 80 1907 227
1878 Il2 1920 225
1879 99 1949 386
Included in the total for 1949 are the 162 Junior High School stud-
ents in grades 7-10.
The students have attended a school of varied names. From
1875 to 1907. it was called the Model School. From 1907 to 1943,
it was the Training Schoool, and for six years it was called the
Laboratory School, but on April 7, 1949 when the new buildings on
the campus were named, it received the present title — ^The John
A. H. Keith School.
3. The Arrow, Indiana Training School. Vol. 1, No. 1, May 1924, p. 7
4. Ibid., Vol. IV, No. 2, April 1928, P. 2
When the Model School was established, there were two de-
pailments — Grammar and Primaiy and $5.00 a term was the tui-
tion charge. In 1879 a third primary was added, and in the fol-
lowing year, the classes were divided ABODE. Seven grades
were in the school in 1882 and in 1893 the eighth grade was added.
This organization lasted until 1907 when a ninth grade rounded out
the grades. It was not until the fall of 1941, under Mr. John E.
Davis, that a tenth grade was added.
However, in 1920, the ninth year was set aside and the Junior
High School Department — so called — came into being. Miss
Amy Gray, who came to the Training School in 1912, became head
of the department and served in this capacity until her retirement
in 1945. At present Dr. John R. Sahli is in charge. In addition to
Dr. Sahli who also supervises citizenship and World History, the
supervising teachers are Miss Lois Blair, English ; Miss Ethel
Couglin, Enghsh and History; Mr. Earl S. Hoenstine, Geography
and Sciences; and Miss Kathryn O'Toole, Latin and Mathematics.
The teachers in the Kindergarten and elementary division are
Miss Helen McLean, kindergarten; Miss Alice St. Cair, Grade 1;
Miss Irene Kough, Grade 2; Mrs. Elfa Porter, Grade 3; Miss Martha
Zimmerman, Grade 4; Mrs. Mary Swarts, Grade 5; Mr. P. D. Lott,
Keith Schot)l youngsters learn and entertain
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
George P. Miller, Director
Records for the first quarter-century of Indiana athletics are
very hmited. We do know, however, that before the turn of the
century, Indiana Normal boasted some fine football and basketball
teams. Indiana's chief rivals included Kiski, Jeannette, Latrobe,
Johnstown and other high schools in the district. Impetus was
given to Indiana's sports as her athletes became well known at de-
gree-granting schools. The yearbook of 1897 recognized "that
many of the best players on the Big Elevens in this part of the
State received their first training on the Normal gridiron," Mr.
Harry Phythyon appears to be the only Physical Education Direc-
tor devoting most of his time to sports.
First All- American Coach. In the second quarter-century, the
renown of Indiana Normal was extended through its fine teams.
Also several well known coaches worked with athletics at Indiana.
One of these early athletic coaches was Edwin K. Wood, D.D.S. He
had been an All-American end at Penn State and had starred in
baseball. Later he played with the Latrobe Professional Football
Mr. L. 0. Kirberger, graduate of Washington and Jefferson,
was named coach in 1910 and won the Interscholastic Baseball
Championsliip of Westein rennsyivania. Indiana aiso boasted of
having the cnampion one-mne reiay team that same year.
Malcolm bmitJi was captam of the 1911 footbail team and Don
Martin piayed thiid base aaa suarrea as captain ox the I91i mne.
Mr. Vviiiiam Foreman and inr. \vniiam t. bnutii were the coaches
of the 1911 team. Vv'iliiam F. Smith, a graduate of Indiana, served
in several capacities on the Indiana campus, iie was manager of
athletics from 1910 to 19io, bookstore manager for several years,
and later became coach of footOail turning out several champion-
In 1912 Mr. Frank Mt. Pleasant became the second All-Amer-
ican to coach at Indiana. He had also been a member of the Olym-
pic track team in 1908. Frank S. White was captain of his football
team while William Brickley was the pitcher and captain of one of
his baseball teams. A local boy, John Trainer starred at shortstop
on this same baseball team.
Mr. William J. Jack, Preceptor and Coach of track, establish-
ed a commendable record during his several years of coaching. The
ti-ack teams under his tutelage won several championships. R. A.
Carroll established a world's record for 60 yard dash in 6-1/5 sec-
onds at Duquesne Gardens. The following track records were
made up to the year 1915:
100 yard dash
9 4-5 sec.
220 yard dash
21 2-5 sec.
440 yard dash
880 yard dash
2 Mile run
120 Yard Hurdle
15 3-5 sec.
220 Yard Hurdle
25 4-5 sec.
The years 1916 and 1917 appear to have produced champion-
ship seasons m football. The 1917 scores were one-sided under the
captaincy of Frank Jahovics.
Clearfield High Sch.
Carlisle Indian Res.
Pitt Freshmen 7
West Virginia Res.
Amity A. A.
Mr. Ralph L. Talbot coached the 1915 basketball team and Bill
Smith's 1915 football team was acknowledged champion of Nor-
The college catalog in 1914 boasted of the athletic prowess of
the teams, at the same time pointing out the lack of financial as-
sistance in these words: "this institution pays nothing to the men
on its teams directly or indirectly, and all such men must be bona
fide students. Our men play for the love of the sport and the glory
In 1918 Mr. Walter Whitmyre took Mr. Jacks' place as Pre-
ceptor. He coached football after Bill Smith joined the armed
forces. Charles Gold was captain of the 1918 team. Coach Whit-
myre's 1918 baseball team had a very successful season, winning
11 and losing only 1 game.
The track team won the mile relay at the Penn Relays, win-
ning over such teams as Franklin Marshall, Bucknell, Carlisle, Get-
WiSTORY OF THE COLLEGE
tysburg, Washing-ton and Jefferson and Stevens Point Normal
School. Bush ran his quarter in record time of 49 3-5 seconds.
The 1918-19 basketball team had such illustrious stars as
Captain Glassford, Bellack, Ruddock (present member of the Board
of Trustees), ''Dutch" Campbell, "Butch" Bath and Haley. Their
record for the season was 12 wins and 4 losses. Miss Sara Bevan,
now Mrs. Ward Johnson, captained the 1919-20 girls' basketball
team and this team won 8 and lost only 2 g-ames.
Mr. Charles Ruffner was made head coach in 1923. Coach
Ruffner was g-raduated from Indiana Normal in 1917 and from
Grove City in 1921. His 1924 football team scored 289 points to
their opponents 6 points ag-ainst such teams as Conemaugh, Wind-
ber High School, Altoona Apprentice and others. Coach Everett
Sanders' one mile rela.y team won the Normal School Championship
at the Penn Relays in 1925. John Alexick, Norman King, Pat Pat-
terson and Clair Borland were the members of this successful
team. This completed the second 25 year period of proud achieve-
ment in sports at Indiana Normal.
The Third Quarter-Century. The last twenty-five years
find the Indiana Normal School chang-ing to the rank of a
college. High schools are no longer on her schedule. Teachers
colleges and other nearby colleg-es appear as opponents. The shift
in emphasis in Health and Physical Education from formal class-
es to activities and games caused an increase in the number of
sporting events. Boxing, wrestling, swimming, golf and soccer be-
came a part of the program.
In the decade from 1925 to 1935 Indiana State Teachers Col-
lege boasted of many winning teams in football, basketball, base-
ball, track and tennis. Mr. George P. Miller came to Indiana in
1926 as head coach and continued as such until he relinquished
some of these duties in the early 1940's. The 1934 football team
went through the season undefeated and became the mythical
champions of Pennsylvania. The following 1935 basketball season
was equally as impressive with the 11 wins out of 15 games and
winning the State Championship. Among the stars that played
that year were Woodring, Fulton, Sutila, McDowell, Dick, Grosk-
los, Errigo, Becosky, and Greene.
Again in 1940 Indiana boasted another undefeated champion-
ship football team. This team was coached by Miller, Ewing, Prugh
and Timmons. Football and other varsity sports were discontinued
during the war.
Mr. Lewis Shaffer was added to the coaching staff to assist
with football and coach wrestling and track. Wrestling clinics
were instituted by Coach Shaffer and in the last one, the clinic
was high-lighted by a match between the University of Pittsburgh
and Indiana. Indiana won this match by a score of 16 to 12. After
Coach Timmons resigned to join the football coaching staff at the
University of Pittsburgh, Mr. Regis McKnight came to his Alma
Mater as head coach of basketball.
Mr. Samuel Smith arrived on the campus during the fall of
1949 and won half of the football games played during his first
season as coach. He coaches baseball and also supervises the intra-
mural basketball league. Mr. Trevor Hadley and Dr. Rhodes Stab-
ley have assisted recently in coaching tennis and golf respectively.
The Memorial Athletic Field during the past year has under-
gone some decided changes. Mr. Nick Kovalchick erected a fence
around the field, and an electric scoreboard was built along with
some permanent bleachers. The local American Legion Post
donated a flag pole and many other donors among the alumni and
Varsity "I" Club have conti'ibuted funds to beautify the grounds
with shrubbery and trees. A track and baseball diamond have
been laid out and it is hoped that Indiana will soon boast some all-
weather tennis courts.
The Oak Ciru*. i 'it, present, and future — always beautiful
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
Arthur F. Nicholson, Coordinator
Publications at Indiana have mirrored and interpreted local
educational history fi'om the earliest days of the Normal School
to the present College era. In the 75th year, Indiana's list of
publications now includes the annual catalog, the summer sessions
bulletin, and two special bulletins as prescribed by the Board of
Presidents of Pennsylvania State Teachers Colleges. Other publi-
cations are the Penn, weekly new^spaper; the Oak, annual year-
book; the Cooperative Art Exhibition Catalog; the Indiana Student
Writes, original writing of students ; Faculty News, a weekly pub-
lication for the College instructional and administrative staff; and
the Daily Bulletin, daily notices of college events. In addition there
are occasional special leaflets, booklets, and the traditional com-
mencement season programs.
The Annual Catalog. The oldest of all college publications
is the annual catalog, the first of which, printed by W. F.
Geddes' Sons of Philadelphia, appeared in the summer of 1875.
The early catalogs provide delightful browsing in Indiana tradition,
revealing both interesting atmosphere and entertaining details.
While many of the rules and regulations outlined in the early pub-
lications provide amusement in the light of mid-twentieth century
folkways, these informative sketches reveal Indiana as a College
thoroughly devoted to the high purpose of providing an excellent
Few outstanding changes in catalogs occurred in the first quar-
ter century. Lists, calendars, committees, faculty, courses, and
routine announcements were carried from year to year. A picture
of the original John Sutton Hall was carried in every catalog except
that of 1883-4. The fifteenth annual catalog, 1889-90, was the
first to carry pictures in addition to those of the original building.
In the 20th annual catalog, 1894-95, there appeared a panoramic
view of John Sutton Hall, the Boys' Dormitory and the Model
School. The 1895-96 volume contained the first picture of an ath-
letic team — ten baseball players in uniform. In subsequent cata-
logs pictures became more and more frequent; the 24th catalog
contained eighteen pictures. By the turn of the century catalogs
used a variety of photographic work and an enlarged format.
Bulletin Program Expanded in Ament Administration. Be-
ginning with the 1907-08 catalog, Indiana publications were greatly
expanded. While the general information was of much the same
variety as before, 156 pages were given to a detailed description of
courses. The artistic appearance of the book was greatly improved
and the edition carried 140 illustrations including 9 full page pic-
tures and 17 color pictures.
It is probable that Indiana catalogs have never surpassed the
beauty they attained during the years following 1907 and extend-
ing through to 1917. Dr. James Ament was much in favor of artis-
tic work and permitted a school magazine committee wide lati-
tude in art effort and financial expenditure. While the committee
responsible for the publication varied slightly as to personnel from
1907-1917, three persons — John James, professor of physics; Jane
Leonard, professor of English and preceptress; and Jean R. McEl-
haney, art instructor — were members during the entire period.
The Normal Herald. With the 37th volume, the annual
catalog (1911-12) became the one of the four quarterlies is-
sued annually by the school as the Normal Herald. The 43rd cata-
log in 1918-19 stated that in addition to the annual catalog, the
Indiana State Normal School published the Indiana Book of Infor-
mation, a students' handbook, an Alumni Directory, and the Nor-
mal Herald issued four times a year — one issue to be the annual
catalog; another a music department catalog; and two Alumni is-
The Herald which had originated in 1895 was continued then
as a quarterly until June, 1927, when present State Teachers Col-
lege Bulletin practices were developed. With the 54th catalog in
1929-30 the format became the familiar pattern now used.
Summer School Bulletins have been published annually as
such since about 1923, the date on the first volume available in the
College Library. All of these have followed the familiar format.
In 1928 the summer school bulletin became one of the Teachers
College Bulletins issued on a quarterly basis. In 1936, summer
bulletins began to lighten up and contain more pictures. Since
then, with the exceptions of 1940 and 1941, these bulletins have
emphasized photographs of campus buildings on the covers and
have acquired much more eye appeal in general make-up.
Under the new Teachers College Bulletin regulations, Indiana
has twice yearly as part of the quarterly program issued bulletins
on special phases of teacher education at Indiana. The special bul-
letins reflect changing attitudes on education over the past two
decades. Most notable of the special bulletins was the Alumni
Directory (Vol. 46, No. 3) August, 1940, which on more than 400
pages contained an alumni registry of about 10,000 names and a
25 page history of the College by Dr. M. J. Walsh, then Dean of
Recent special bulletins have emphasized eye-appeal in format
and the last four are entitled Summer Workship Theater (August,
1948), Education For Home Living (November, 1948), Creative Art
(August, 1949), and And Gladly Teach (Elementary Education in
the Keith School, November, 1949).
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
Penn, The Student Newspaper. Through 21 years of develop-
ment beginning- in September, 1928, The Indiana Penn, a four-
page student newsweekly, has acquired a prestige seldom ac-
corded a college publication. In the last seven years the Penn has
become one of the freest uncensored college newspapers in the
country. Student editors elected by the student council assume full
responsibility for publication. While the Penn has long been award-
ed good ratings in competitive judging in collegiate press circles,
in the last two judging periods of the Columbia Scholastic Press
Association, the paper has been awarded top medalist honors, and in
similar competition All-American Rating by the Associated Colleg-
The Penn is an important factor in college life at Indiana and
although strictly a student publication has on several occasions de-
voted special issues to Alumni News. Since the abandonment of the
Herald, Alumni interests have no continuous news medium. Several
excellent new^s enterprises were carried through by Alumni groups
in the years between 1928 and 1949, but none of them remained as
As befitting a 75th Anniversary Year, the General Alumni As-
sociation has authorized the start of a continuous Alumni news bul-
letin. The first issue was published in December, 1949, and the sec-
ond is the current volume. It is anticipated that two Alumni news
volumes will be published each year hereafter until such time as a
quarterly may be feasible.
The Annual. During all the years of Indiana's existence,
there have been annuals of various tj^pes. "The Clionian," "The Em-
panda," and the "Instano," were examples of senior yearbooks. In
recent years these various types have become standardized and
"The Oak" as an annual yearbook represents the entire school.
A copy of Volume I of the Clionian published in 1888 by the
Scientific Class of the State Normal School and autographed by Jane
E. Leonard is available in the College Library. R. M. Wilson is listed
as managing editor and W. H. Sproull and Harry Nesbit as assistant
editors. The Empanda of 1897 with Ralph Clinton McComish as edi-
tor-in-chief is labeled as having been published by the first class to
attempt anything so original. The earliest Instano was printed in
1912 with Arthur M. Stull as editor-in-chief and Charles J. Margi-
otti as business manager. Instano in its 14th volume was issued in
1925 as a 50th Anniversary edition.
The Oak, successor to the Instano in the latter part of the
1920's. wall be issued in 1950 as a special 75th Anniversary edition.
The Oak has through the years been an outstanding event in Indi-
ana State Teachers College life.
Creative Writing and Art Bulletins. The Scroll of 1929,
published by the Peiin and Scroll Club, is described as the
first publication of creative writing at I.S.T.C. Volume II was pub-
lished in 1931 by the American College Quill Club and seven subse-
quent volumes appeared under its direction. After 1943 Quill was
abandoned. However, a creative writing project was resumed under
the sponsorship of the English Department with the publication of
"The Indiana G.I. Writes," in September, 1947. Subsequent editions
entitled "The Indiana Student Writes," in December, 1948, and Dec-
ember, 1949, have been published.
Since the beginning of the First Annual Cooperative Art Exhi-
bition April 15 to May 29, 1944. the Art Department has annually
issued a catalog publicizing the event. The first three editions were
a small modest, leaflet type. Volumes IV to the 75th Anniversary
edition Volume VII have been increasingly attractive bulletin for-
Records indicate that there had been student handbooks at In-
diana from time to time. However, no copies are on file here dated
earlier than 1928. Volume 1, 1928-29, was published by the Y.W. and
Y.M.C.A. Since 1938-39, Volumes 11 to 22 have been published by
the Student Council. This publication containing general informa-
tion of interest to students of the college was known as the student
handbook until Volume 20, 1947-48, when it adopted the name "The
Cue." Volume 22, 1949-50, is the 75th Anniversary Edition.
For the most part, printed publications at Indiana have per-
formed the duty for which they were intended, that of keeping the
various publics of the College informed. With the passing of years,
they ha^e provided an invaluable record of the personnel, the set-
ting, and the educational directions of the College over a 75-year-
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
THE ALUMNI AND THE ALUMNI
Mary L. Esch, Executive Secretary
The first reference to the "Alumni" of the Normal School ap-
peared in the annual catalogue for 1878-1879. This catalogue carried
the names of persons graduated in the classes of 1875 to 1879. Sim-
ilar lists of graduates appeared until the catalogue for 1886-1887,
when addresses were published in addition to the class lists. The
list of graduates for the first time took on the form of a directory in
the catalogue for 1907-1908. It included an alphabetitcal list of ail
graduates with their graduation year, followed by the class lists
with the address and occupation of each graduate. The policy of
publishing lists of graduates by classes and also the alphabetical
list with the alumni officers was continued until 1918.
The Alumni Association. The minutes for a meeting held
July 14, 1880 is the first record of an alumni meeting. Refer-
ence, however, is made to an earlier meeting and to a previous elect-
ion of oflficers. In the minutes for the July 1883 meeting the appoint-
ment of a new committee on Constitution is noted. This committee,
Elma Ruff, (1883), A. J. Dill, (1879), and Samuel M. Davis, (1879),
drew up a Constitution which was presented to the Association and
adopted in July 1884,
The Constitution stated that the name of the organization shall
be "Alumni Association of the Indiana State Normal School at Indi-
ana, Pennsylvania"; the motto — "opus finis probat" (the end proves
the work) ; it provided for a president, a vice president, a secretary,
and a treasurer to be elected by ballot at the annual business meet-
ing, each to serve a one year term and not eligible for reelection. All
graduates were elected to membership and the dues were twenty-five
cents per year to be paid into the treasury by members present at
the annual meeting. The Constitution also provided for the follow-
ing committees, each with three members and specified their duties :
1, Executive Committee — to make arrangements for annual
meeting and inform members of the Association of time and
2, Program Committee — to make out the program for the next
3, Banquet Committee — to make all necessary arrangements for
the annual banquet of the Association
The annual business meeting of the Alumni Association was held
each year during the commencement season and until the 1920's
was followed by a gala alumni banquet in the evening.
Alumni Bulletins and Directories. For many years the Normal
Herald was published quarterly by the Trustees of the State Normal
School and mailed to all graduates. It was a newsy publication in
pamphlet form, usually about 32 pages, and carried reports of class
reunions, achievements of graduates, marriages, births, deaths, and
so forth. Some time after the State assum^ed ownership and con-
trol of the Normal School, probably about 1928, this publication was
discontinued on the ground that payment for such a bulletin could
not be considered a legitimate State expenditure.
There was a need for an alumni directory after 1918 and to meet
this need a directory of 228 pages was published in 1922. The work
of securing the data was done by the following staff members ; Jane
M. Ackerman, Director of the Training School; M. C. Gordon, As-
sistant Professor of Mathematics; Jane E. Leonard, Preceptress;
Mrs. Malvina Riddle, Training Teacher; Edna B. Smith, Associate
Professor of English; Hope Stewart, Dean of Women; and J. P.
Wiley, Assistant in Mathematics . A second directory, a volume of
over 400 pages, was published in 1940 under the chairmanship of
Dr. M. J. Walsh with the help of the following persons who formed
the editorial board: Dr. Leroy A. King, Ex officio. Dean Florence
B. Kimball, Dean W. M. Whitmyre, Inez Buchanan, Mary L. Esch,
Vera Simpson, and R. F. Webb. Both the 1922 and 1940 directories
carried class lists of alumni with the occupation or position and
address of each graduate so far as it was possible to secure this in-
formation, ard alphabetical list of graduates with the year of grad-
uation, and other valuable information. A Historical Review written
by Dr. Walsh was also included in the 1940 directory.
Gifts. The first gift to the Normal School from the Alumni
Association was the portrait of Jane E. Leonard which was
purchased for $669.63 and was presented at the twenty-fifth anni-
versary celebration in 1900. The portrait now hangs in the main
corridor of John Sutton Hall. For many years reunion classes con-
tributed money for class gifts to the college when they returned
for graduation anniversaries, and later graduating classes arranged
for their gifts before leaving Indiana. Among these gifts were
the flag pole and drinking fountain in front of Leonard Hall, the
stage curtains in John Sutton Auditorium, the sun dial, the bronze
name plaques on the buildings, the gates and lights at the Eleventh
Street entrance to the campus, the lights at other campus entrances
and at north steps of John Sutton Hall. The College Library has
received books and money to purchase now books from Alumni
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
Units, from individuals, and by bequests. These books have some-
times been designated as memorial gifts honoring a deceased friend,
classmate, or a member of an Alumni unit.
The Loan Fund. The idea of establishing a loan fund seems
to ha\e developed in a conversation between Preceptress Jane
E. Leonai'd and David Ira Johnston, (1899), at that time a young
lawyer with promise of success. It appears that Mr. Johnston asked
Miss Leonard to tell him the desire nearest her heart. Miss Leonard
replied, "I want some way to help the fine young people who want
an education but who cannot afford to come to school." "Very
well", said Mr. Johnston "let us start a Loan Fund. Here is the
first contribution." Principal John A. H. Keith at the Alumni meet-
ing on June 24, 1919, then urged the establishment of a loan fund
for the purpose of aiding worthy students. The Alumni Committee
appointed to work with the administrative officers of the college on
the details of the plan consisted of Mr. Johnston, Dr. Leonard
Smith, M. C. Gordon, ard Miss Leonard. This committee solicited
all graduates for contributions to the Alumni Loan Fund and re-
union classes contributed toward the fund from time to time when
they returned on graduation anniversaries.
At a meeting of the Alumni Association in May 1931, the name
"Alumni Loan Fund" was changed to "Jane E. Leonard Memorial
Student Loan Fund." The amount in the fund at that time was
about $9,000. M. C. Gordon, who had served as Treasurer of the
Loan Fund from 1919, resigned and Mary L. Esch was elected
Treasurer by the Alumni Association. The Dean of Men, the Dean
of Women, and the Dean of Instruction were named as the com-
mittee to handle all applications for loans and in general to act as
a governing board. In May 1939, the Alumni Association recom-
mended the appointment of an alumni representative to the board.
The recommendation was approved and Florence Wallace was elect-
ed as the alumni member of the Leonard Loan Committee. After
the reorganization of the Alumni Association in May 1933, a definite
drive was made to increase the loan fund and this was the project
of the Association until 1940. The Leonard Loan Fund now
amounts to $23,000 and it has been used by several hundred stu-
dents. However, during the war years, when it was necessary to
use student help at the college, many students preferred to work
rather than to borrow money which had to be repaid. With full-time
employees available, many more students are again using the loan
Reorganization. In 1933 it was suggested that the Alumni
reorganize on a unit plan. The suggestion met with the ap-
proval of President C. R. Foster and a committee made up of Dr.
M. J. Walsh, Dean of Instruction; Dr. J. M. Uhler, Teacher of Edu-
cation; Inez Buchanan and Vera Simpson, teachers in the labora-
tory school, both Indiana graduates and actively interested in the
Alumni Association, worked out a plan and presented it with a new
Constitution for the General Alumni Association at the annual
Alumni meeting- in May 1933. The plan together with the Consti-
tution was approved and with some revisions is still in use.
The aim and purpose of the association as stated in the consti-
tution is to promote the general interest and welfare of the State
Teachers College at Indiana, Pennsylvania; to advance the profes-
sional interest of its members; to maintain and promote higher
educational standards; to foster a closer relationship among its
members ; and to perpetuate and increase the Jane E. Leonard Mem-
orial Loan Fund.
The Constitution provides for a president, a vice president, and
a secretary, each serving a two-year term, to be elected at the an-
nual business meeting of the Association, and for a treasurer to be
appointed by the president. Later the president was given authori-
ty to appoint a parliamentarian if he wishes to do so.
It also provided for local units or branches to be formed
wherever a sufficient number of alumni are located to make such
a unit possible, and for an executive council; the executive council
to be made up of the officers of the association, the president of the
college, the Dean of Women, the Dean of Instruction, and repre-
sentatives of the local units on the basis of one delegate for each
forty members or fraction thereof; and annual dues of twenty-five
cents per member. The basis for unit representation was later
changed to include the president of each local branch and one dele-
gate for each twenty-five members; the Dean of Men was made a
member of the Executive Council; and dues were raised to fifty
cents per year. The executive council now meets twice each year —
on Homecoming Day in October and during the Commencement
season in May, prior to the meeting of the General Alumni Associ-
ation which is held on Alumni Day.
All persons graduated from any of the curricula prescribed by
law for the State Normal School or State Teachers College are reg-
ular members of the Association and it is the duty of each member
to pay annual dues of fifty cents into the central treasury.
Annual Alumni Bulletins were pubhshed in 1934, 1935, 1937,
1938, and 1939. Alumni dues at that time were only twenty-five
cents per year and the cost of bulletins made it impossible to con-
tinue even one issue per year. The Indiana Penn has carried alumni
news at Homecoming in October and the Commencement issue has
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
for several years carried an alumni news section. It is hoped, with
Life Memberships available that the Association can finance one
or two Alumni News Bulletins a year until funds peiTnit an alumni
The Organ Project. In 1940 the Alumni Association sought
a new central project. The officers and the projects commit-
tee, after discussing the needs of the College with President LeRoy
A. King, recommended to the executive council that the Alumni
Association "have as an objective the purchasing of a pipe organ
to be installed in the auditorium". The executive council approved
the organ pi'oject in October 1940 and in December of the same
year plans were under way for raising a fund of $15,000 for this
purpose. Alumni Units arranged benefits for the Organ Fund and
two All-State Alumni Parties were held. Mrs. Anna Barr Pinker-
ton was general ChaiiTnan and Mrs. Rose Brennan McManus was
co-chairman of the All-State Party held at the Hotel Schenley,
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on May 3. 1941. Mrs. Jean Macllroy
Whitmyre was chairman of the second All-State Party which was
held at the college on May 23, 1942 as a part of the Alumni Day
program. Vera Simpson served as the first chairman of the Pro-
jects Committee and she appointed the following persons to assist
her: Mrs. Agnes Douds Bulford, Mrs. Adelaide Ramsay Clarke, Mrs.
Florence Brewer Slep, Robert Carson, Mrs. Betty McMeans Kunkle,
and Mrs. Ruelba Lewis Steele. Samuel K. Cunningham, Mrs. Anna
ShaflFer Maurer, Mrs. Eula Shuster Menoher, and Mrs. Sally Bevan
Johnson were later added to the committee and presidents of the
association became members of the projects committee by virtue
of their office. Mrs. Rose McManus accepted the chairmanship of
the Projects Committee in 1944 when Miss Simpson took a position
in California and she served in this capacity until the organ pro-
ject was completed. World War II interfered with the purchase
of the organ, in the interim the Alumni Association contributed
about $3,200 tow^ard refurnishing and redecorating East Parlor as
a memorial in honor of those who served in World War II. Early
in 1948 critical mateiials were released by the government and this
made possible the purchase of the organ. After careful study of
costs, specifications, and conferences with Dr. Marshall Bidwell,
outstanding organist of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who served as
a consultant on the organ project, the committee awarded the con-
tract to Moller Incorporated of Hagerstown, Maryland. Prices had
increased since the original estimate on cost had been given and
it was neecessary to raise additional funds, but the basic organ
was finally installed in Fisher Auditorium, paid for, presented to
the College, and dedicated in May 1949, at a cost to the Alumni
Association of $25,371.07. This was in addition to the material and
the many hours of labor furnished by the college.
The organ, as it stands today, is a fine basic organ containing
23 stops and space is provided for the 19 additional stops. These
stops will be added, as soon as the funds are available.
Life Memberships. A Life Membership Plan was approved
by the General Alumni Association at the May 1949 meeting.
Briefly the Life Membership Plan and the privileges of life mem-
bers are as follows:
Assessment for those graduating between the years
1940 and 1950 — $40.00
1930 and 1939 — 35.00
1920 and 1929 — 30.00
1910 and 1919 — 25.00
1909 or before — 20.00
Life members shall receive all Alumni publications without cost.
Alumni units shall honor Life Memberships but each unit may de-
cide on local unit dues for life members. Life Membership fees
shall become a part of the General Alumni Fund.
Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Fund. The current Alumni pro-
ject is the establishment of a seventy-fifth anniversary fund; the
chairman, Mrs. Sally Bevan Johnson. The fund will be used to fin-
ance two issues of an alumni bulletin this year, to equip an alumni
office and to provide one or more suitable anniversary gifts for the
college. The first Alumni bulletin was published in December 1949
and this — The History of the College — is the second.
Officers of Association. It is perhaps interesting to note the
names of the persons who have served in official capacity since the
reorganization of the Alumni Association in 1933.
Vera Simpson Mrs. Betty McMeans Kunkle
Mrs. Agnes Douds Bulford Angie Marshall
Mrs. Adelaide Ramsay Clarke Mrs. Sally Bevan Johnson
Mrs. Florence Brewer Slep Mrs. Flossie Wagner Sanford
Mrs. Rose Brennan McManus
Judge Charles E. Whitten Mrs. Mary Johnston Lintner
Mrs. Rhea Keinman Steinburg Angie Marshall
Mrs. Alice Finley Lindsay Mrs. Ruth Hamilton McCartney
Mrs. Jean Macllroy Whitmjn^e Rev. Percy Miller
Mrs. Louise Langham Maloney Dr. Arthur Stull
HISTORY OP THE COLLEGE
Ethel Waddell Mrs. Betty McMeans Kunkle
Clarice Grumbling Mrs. Angeline Dublino Cestello
Mrs. Elizabeth Benney Rodgers Mae Brown
Helen Brennan Nelle Maxwell
Mrs. Lenore Garver Gates George West
Mrs. Agnes Douds Bulford Bernard McCormick
Mrs. Angeline Dublino Cestello
Mary L. Esch has served as treasurer of the association since the
reorganization and also as executive secretary since 1939.
Positions and Occupations of Graduates.
Indiana's graduates have entered the field of education in practically
all types of positions including school superintendents, supervisors,
principals, and high school counselors, in addition to teachers in
both public and private schools and in colleges. Other graduates
have entered the professions including dentistry, law, medicine, the
ministry, and pharmacy, while still others have entered the busi-
ness world as office and government workers, accountants, airplane
hostesses, architects, bankers, brokers, chemists, contractors,
dairymen, dietitians, engineers, farmers, journalists, librarians,
morticians, musicians, nurses, printers, salesmen, insurance and
real estate agents, and public transportation workers and officials.
The wide range of positions and occupations of Indiana's grad-
uates is interesting and indicates to some extent the well-rounded
educational program available at the college. More graduates have
engaged in teaching than in any other type of work and many have
used this as a stepping stone to broader education and larger ser-
Oldest Living Graduates. The oldest living graduates are two
mem.bers of the Class of 1879, Samuel M. Davis of Santa Ana, Cali-
fornia, and Mrs. Margaret Woods Heath of Baldwin Park, Cali-
THE FUTURE OF INDIANA
WiUis E. Pratt, President
Purpose. From its beg-inning the Indiana Normal School
and later the College has had as its prime function the preparation
of teachers for the public schools of the Commonwealth of Penn-
sylvania. From time to time it has been suggested that the char-
acter of this and similar institutions be changed to that of com-
munity colleges for the youth of surrounding areas. While Indiana
has served such a function, its primary purpose has been and should
be primarily that of a professional teacher education institution.
Curriculum. There is a growing trend for teacher educa-
tion institutions to re-study their curricula toward a re-emphasis
of a broad general background for all the students enrolled. The
emphasis placed upon methodoiogy during the past several decades
is shifting now to one which attaches more importance to general
education for all students in the natural sciences, the social sciences,
and the humanities. The college of the future will probably assume
increasing responsibility not only for the intellectual development
of its students but for their personal, social and physical growth
and development as well. While achievement in intellectual pur-
suits is not to be minimized, this will not be the sole responsibility
of the college.
Such a philosophy will exert a profound influence on the kind
of instruction which takes place in the classroom. Instructors must
not only be well prepared in the narrow fields of their specialization
but must be able to guide youth in all of their manifold problems.
Instruction becomes more than merely imparting information but
instead helps students learn not only the heritage of the past but
ways to the solution of problems of the present and the future. In-
structional materials will encompass far more than a classroom
textbook and library reference books. In addition it will provide
for audio-visual aids of every type and description, for the travel
of students to primary sources of information, and for experimen-
tation on a much broader scale. The teaching load of instructors
will need to be lightened if they are to have the time for personal
guidance which such a program, contemplates. Less emphasis will
need to be placed upon learning as the accumulation of facts and
information, as measured by artificial grades, and more upon the
whole development of the student both as an individual and as a
future teacher for American youth. Indiana is moving in this direc-
tion and there is every reason to believe that the high scholastic
standing which she has always had, can be maintained even while
the horizons of new responsibilities are materially broadened. While
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
library staff and equipment are fairly adequate, increased support
needs to be obtained for the purchase of books and periodicals.
With the increasing trend toward five years of preparation for
teaching-, a program for the granting of the master's degree in edu-
cation should materialize within the next few years.
Administration. Few institutions of higher learning enjoy
today the academic freedom which is evidenced at Indiana. This
attitude comes from a long tradition at Indiana that this is an insti-
tution of higher learning which must be free to educate effectively
for American democracy.
The administration of the college itself moves steadily forward
toward a more democratic type of organization. While powers are
delegated to the president of the college by the Board of Trustees,
students and faculty find increasingly a place in the administration
of their own affairs. Most of the committees of the college have
representation of both faculty and students. A student council is
gaining strength in the determinatibn of rules and regulations of
student life. Student representatives participate in the adminis-
tration of regulations affecting the social life of the student body.
More faculty representation in the affairs of the college should be
provided in the future.
Student Welfare. At one time, little importance was at-
tached to the non-class activities of college students. While train-
ing in the amenities was considered, the social life of students was
largely secondary in importance. The college of the future will con-
sider this aspect of student development as important as all other
phases of his preparation for adult life. Student publications are
becoming increasingly a media for expression of student opinion
and student preparation for democratic living. The number of
fraternities, which have played a part in the lives of relatively few
students, is being increased. Heretofore the number has been so
limited that they became in fact an exclusive group. Since their
abolition would be difficult if not inadvisable, it appears better that
their number be increased in order that all students who wish may
As a state institution little has been done in the past to help
worthy students through scholarships and through student aid.
The beginning of such a program was made by the Alumni Associ-
ation through the establishment of the Jane E. Leonard Loan Fund.
This fund, which now has on deposit approximately $23,000, has
assisted many students in completing their college work. The re-
cently acquired scholarship fund of more than $100,000 established
by the late Mrs. Corinne M. Wahr, will provide scholarships for as
many as forty students annually when it is in full operation. The
establishment of an office of Student Aid should assist many stu-
dents in the future to help pay their own expenses in obtaining a
Increased emphasis is anticipated in the area of guidance and
student personnel. While the college at present has a rather com-
prehensive program of student testing, guidance and advisory ser-
vices, the coordination of these services is planned as a future de-
While varsity athletics will continue to play their part in the
life of Indiana students, increased emphasis will continue to be
placed in the future on the participation of all students in some
type of physical activity. The scope of the physical activity pro-
gram is being enlarged to include swimming, track, tennis, golf,
archery, soccer and other sports and intra-mural programs are en-
listing more and more students.
College Plant. A more comprehensive program of the col-
lege requires not only changes in organization and in emphases
but in the college plant as well. Fortunately, the recently-enacted
building program under the General State Authority by the Com-
monwealth provides an opportunity to supply some of these needs.
A future campus plan provides for the eventual construction of two
men's dormitories, an administration building, a building to house
the departments of Music and Art, a Science building, a new class-
room building and library. At the present this program provides
for the renovation of the college kitchens and other needed repairs
in John Sutton Hall as well as a new men's dormitory to house 218
men, a building whose cost will be $750,000. Not only does this
building provide housing for men students but for recreational
rooms for all men students as well as facilities for co-educational
recreational programs. There is a growing trend for Indiana to
become an institution where men students will equal the number
of women students. With the trend toward the entrance of more
men into the teaching profession, the need for more facilities for
men students is not likely to be reversed in the future.
Indiana has always been an institution of high standards and
these we expect to have maintained. In doing so, we trust that it
will be possible to witness the growth of our program and our facili-
ties which will provide increasingly for the maintenance of these
standards as well as for an effective program for the development
of Indiana students, personally, socially, physically, and emotionally
HISTORY OF THE COLLEGE
ENROLLMENT OF FULL TIME STUDENTS
1875 TO 1950
Mary L. Esch, Registrar
(Nuinbci of different studc•nt^ cnrolltd from September to June)
849 ! 1924-25
1 00 1 00
HISTORY' OF THE COLLEGE
NUMBER OF GRADUATES BY CLASSES
. Esch, Registrar
HENRY HALL.' INC.. INDIANA. PA.
1 1st O X/V ]N[ i\
Alumni News Bulletin
STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, INDIANA, PENNSYLVANIA