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SHELF No. ./...-^J 


















THE assurance that the following production of the 
immortal and beloved reformer, Luther, would be 
acceptable and beneficial to every lover of divine 
and experimental truth, was the motive that led the 
Translator to present it, in an English version, to the 
British church of Christ. 

No commendatory remarks are needed : the work 
H selfwill at once speak its own worth. The trans- 
~uld only observe, that in the following 
3MMENTARY on the Book of Psalms, Luther 
lias most divinely, experimentally, and beautifully 
peued up the vanity and delusion of all forms 
(even a gospel " form " ) of godliness, without the 
known and possessed "power" thereof; the op 
position and malicious persecution which the real 
disciples of Christ ever meet with from the wicked, 
and, above all, from hypocrites in religion ; the true 
and only grounds of a Christian man s hope, peace, 
and salvation ; which are, a trust and rest alone in 
the grace, righteousness, and atonement of our Lord 
Jesus Christ ; the blessedness of a nation where the 
pure word and worship of God guide, and are upheld 
by, its throne and government; and the sure destruc 
tion of a kingdom when its magistrates act against 


that word and worship ; and finally, the glory of 
all the creatures of God, the abounding goodness of 
God in them, and the infinite blessedness of their 
lawful use. 

Luther takes occasion also, from numberless pas 
sages in the Psalms, to describe, point out, and dis 
tinguish the true church of God in the midst of the 
earth, and the signs by which she may be known 
from all other churches ; that she is that company 
of poor and afflicted people, who are burdened with 
sins, filled with fears, covered with infirmities, and 
despised by the world, and considered both by the 
wicked, and by formal professors of religion, to be 
the last people likely to be the church of God. 
He repeatedly shews, however, that such, not 
withstanding their rejection by all, are the true 
people and church of God ; and that it is unto such, 
and such only, that all the promises of grace and 
mercy in Christ, and of help, provision, and defence 
in this world, are made ; For (saith Luther) if you 
will look through the whole Bible, you will find, 
that God is not the God of the rich, the proud, the 
secure, &c. but of the poor, the fearful, the afflicted, 
and the helpless ; who cannot do without his daily 
mercy and help, either in the things of this world, 
or of that which is to come/ 

That the great and heavenly things thus opened 
by the admired Luther may be understood and en 
joyed by every reader of the following manual, is the 
desire and prayer of, 


Highbury Place, Islington, 
June 8, 1837. 

Other invaluable productions of Luther, which have never 
before been translated into ENGLISH, are in hand, and will duly 
appear: which, added to the four vols. of" Select Works," the 
" Bondage of the Will," and the work " on Popery," just pub 
lished by Messrs. Nisbet, will put the ENGLISH Church of Christ 
in possession of all the holy Reformer s works which are the most 
calculated to be of divine benefit to her. 


I AM unwilling to acknowledge that you are right 
in being so industrious to publish abroad my poor 
productions: I fear you are actuated too much by 
favour towards me. As to myself, I am wholly dis 
satisfied with my works on the Psalms : not so much 
on account of the sense which I have given, which I 
believe to be true and genuine, as on account of the 
verbosity, confusion, and undigested chaos of my 
commentaries altogether. The Book of Psalms is 
a book, my Commentaries on which, from want of 
time and leisure, I am obliged to conceive, digest, 
arrange, and prepare all at once. For I am over 
whelmed with occupation. I have two sermons to 
preach in a day : I have to meditate on the Psalms : 
I have to consider over the letters which I receive 
by the posts (as they are called) and to reply to my 
enemies : I have to attack the Pope s Bulls in both 
languages : and I have to defend myself. (To say 
nothing about the letters of my friends which I have 
to answer, and various domestic and casual engage 
ments to which I am obliged to attend !) 

You do well, therefore, to pray for me ; for I ana 
oppressed with many afflictions, and much hindered 
from the performance of my sacred duties ; my 


whole life is a cross to me ! I have now in hand the 
xxii. Psalm, " My God, my God, &c. ; " and I had 
hopes of completing a Commentary on the whole 
Book of Psalms, if Christ should give us a sufficient 
interval of peace, so that I could devote my whole 
time and attention to it : but now, I cannot devote 
a fourth part of my time to such a purpose : nay, 
the time that I do devote to it, is but a few stolen 

You do right in admonishing me of my want of mo 
deration : I feel my deficiency myself; but I find that 
I have not command over my own mind : I am carried 
away from myself, as it were, by a certain vehement 
zeal of spirit, while I am conscious that I wish evil 
to no one, though all my adversaries press in upon 
me with such maddened fury : so that, in fact, I have 
not time to consider who my enemies are, nor what 
various treatment they require. Pray, therefore, the 
Lord for me, that I may have wisdom to speak and 
write that which shall please him and become me, 
and not what may appear becoming to them. And 
now, farewell in Christ. 

Wittemlerg, A. D. 1521. 


MANY of the old and godly fathers have highly ex 
tolled the Book of Psalms, above all the other books 
of the Scripture, and have testified their exceeding- 
fondness and partiality for them. And indeed this 
book, though small, deserves to be recommended 
above all others, (if a difference may be made) : 
though the Psalms of David do not want the aid of 
borrowed encomiums, for they carry with them an 
abundance of self-recommendation ; and in them is 
the old proverb verified, which says The work proves 
the workman. Therefore, I have not put my hand 
to this book for the purpose of parading before the 
world an encomium upon it, since it so amply com 
mends itself; but that I might, according to the best 
of my ability, present those that fear God with my 
judgment upon its all-excelling contents. 

In the years that are past we have seen an infinity 
of books handed about in the world, but all most 
insipid and worthless ; which, behind an apparently 
honest and plausible title, (for they were prefaced 
with the sentiments and examples of the saints) con 
tained the most nugatory fables, and the most bare 
faced lies. The world, therefore, was everywhere 
so filled with writings of this kind, the most foolish^ 
B 2 


and at the same time the most impious, that the 
Psalms themselves were disregarded and thrust 
into darkness, and we had not one Psalm rightly in 
terpreted or understood. And yet, as this sweet 
book of David continued to be sung in all our 
churches, and to be chanted over so many thousand 
times in these incessant rounds and forms of prayer, 
even by this frigid use of the Psalms, bad as it 
was, some small savor of life was diffused abroad 
among many that were of an honest and good heart ; 
and from these words themselves only, though not 
understood, those that feared God drank in some 
little sweetness of the breath of life, and some small 
taste of consolation, like the faint fragrance which is 
found in the air that is not far from a bed of roses. 
Their experience was like also unto a simple man 
passing through a flowery and sweet-smelling mea 
dow, who, though he knew not the peculiar nature 
and properties of the flowers and herbs, yet found 
his senses regaled with the general fragrance. 

I would say what I think of the Psalms in a few 
words thus : I believe, for my part, that there is no 
book under heaven, either of histories or examples, 
to be compared to the Book of Psalms. Wherefore, 
if it were right to ask of God, and, if such were our 
soul s desire, that all the greatest excellences and 
most choice experiences of all the true saints 
should be gathered and collected from the whole 
church since it has existed, and should be most 
briefly and appropriately condensed into the focus 
of one book ; if God, I say, should permit any most 
spiritual and most gifted man to form and concen 
trate such a book from all the excellences of the 
saints, and from the flower of the facts recorded in 
the whole scripture (which might be done); such a 


book would be what the Book of Psalms is, or like 
unto it. For in the Book of Psalms we have not the 
life of one of the saints only, but we have the expe 
rience of Christ himself, the head of all the saints, 
for he is set forth in those Psalms: we have, more 
over, the feelings and experiences of all the faithful, 
both under their sorrows and under their joys, both 
in their adversity and their prosperity : how they 
conducted themselves towards God, towards their 
friends, and towards their enemies : how they acted 
in various perils and afflictions, in the midst of temp 
tations, and under the greatest necessities. 

And moreover, in addition to the great and blessed 
doctrines and instructions in godliness which it em 
braces, the Book of Psalms ought to be most dearly 
and highly prized by us on this account; because it 
contains such clear prophecies concerning the death 
and resurrection of Christ, and holds forth such great 
and gracious promises concerning the kingdom of 
Christ, the spread of the Gospel, and the state of the 
whole church. So that you may truly call the Book 
of Psalms, a little Bible ; for in it all things that are 
contained in the whole Bible are given to us in the 
most wonderfully brief and sweet manner, and con 
densed into a most beautiful manual. 

If God should himself hand down a book out of 
heaven and commend it to us with a divine voice, 
how highly would you prize and value it, how 
greedily would you seize it? Be assured then that 
the Holy Spirit himself has written and handed down 
to us this Book of Psalms, as a form of prayer, in the 
same way as a father would give a book to his chil 
dren. He himself has drawn up this manual for his 
disciples ; having collected together, as it were, the 
lives, groans, and experiences of many thousands, 


whose hearts he alone sees and knows. If, therefore, 
thou canst not read the whole Bible, behold ! thou 
mayest, by reading the Book of Psalms only, have 
not only a summary of all godliness, but all godly 
excellences, and the most spiritual experiences. 

And again, another great excellency of the Book 
of Psalms is this. In other scriptures and histories, 
for the most part the works and bodily exercises only 
of the saints are described : you have very few histo 
ries which give you the words, expressions, and 
sighs of the saints, which are the indexes of the state 
of their minds. But it is in these things that the Book 
of Psalms may be a feast of delight for the medita 
tions of the godly. In these respects, therefore, the 
reading of a Psalm is peculiarly sweet; because you 
havetherein, notonly the works and acts of the saints, 
but their very words and expressions, nay, their sighs 
and groans to God, and the utterance in which they 
conversed with him during their temptations ; and all 
these are recorded in such a lively and descriptive 
manner, that those saints, though now dead, seem 
still to live and speak in the Psalms. 

Thus all other histories and lives of the saints, 
which describe their acts and works only, when com 
pared to the Book of Psalms, set forth to us nothing 
more than dumb saints; and every thing that is re 
corded of them is dull and lifeless. But in the 
Psalms, where the very expressions of those that 
prayed in faith are recorded, all things live, all things 
breathe, and living characters are set before us in the 
most lively colours : the saints are represented to us 
as standing supported by their faith, even in the 
midst of afflictions and tribulations. A dumb man, 
indeed, is rather a lifeless post than a man ; for man 
is distinguished from the brute creation by nothing 


more than by the power of speech. A stone even, 
under the hand of the artificer, may represent the 
figure of a man. And, as to eating and drinking, 
all dumb animals can do those things as well as he: 
they can use the organs of sense as well as he : and 
indeed, as to strength of body, they have greatly the 
advantage of him. Hence, it is the power of speech 
that so distinguishes man from, and raises him above, 
the brute creation : and that speech is the index of, 
and the mirror that reflects, the mind. 

As, therefore, the Psalms describe the words and ex 
pressions of the saints, they give us an exact picture of 
their minds. For the Psalms record not those common 
and every where-heard expressions of the saints, but 
those ardent and pathetic utterances, by which, in real 
earnest, and under the very pressure of temptations, 
and in the very wrestlings of their souls, they poured 
out their hearts like Jacob, not before man, but before 
God ! The Psalms give us, therefore, not only the 
works and words of the saints, but the very hidden 
treasure of their hearts feelings the very inmost 
sensations and motions of their soul. 

Wouldst thou see, then, the face and countenance 
of David, which he carried under all those perils and 
sorrows with which the Lord exercised him? then 
read the Psalms ; and they will give thee not only the 
outward David, but, more expressively still, the 
inner David; and that more descriptively than he 
could do it himself, if he were to talk with you face 
to face. What then are all other histories, which 
band about the singular works, and I know not what 
miracles of the saints ? I can see all the works and 
the miracles of the saints in these everywhere-to- 
be-had records, but I can see nothing of the feelings 
and sensations of their hearts. 


As, therefore, I had much rather hear David or any 
such eminent saint speak, than merely see the works 
or exercises of his body ; so, much rather would I 
know the inmost thoughts of David s heart, and the 
inward conflicts and struggles of his faith. With 
this knowledge the Psalms furnish us most satisfac 
torily ; so that from them we can know what he felt 
and what all the saints felt, under their temptations, 
from the ardent expressions and effusions which are 
uttered. For the human heart is like a ship in the 
midst of the sea, which is exposed to the perils 
of the winds and the waves on every side, and 
made as it were their sport. For as the ship is sud 
denly assaulted, so trouble, and the fear of future 
evil, like a sudden tempest, assaults and disarms our 
minds : and then flow in cowardice of spirit, and sor 
row of heart, which, like the waves, run over us and 
threaten to overwhelm us every moment. By and by, 
again, the confidence inspired by prosperity carries 
us up to heaven in full sail; and then, security under 
our present prospects dashes unexpectedly our ship 
against a rock. These, I say, and the numberless 
other evils and perils of this life, tend to arouse and 
stir up the saints, and teach and bring them to sigh 
and groan from the recesses within, to pour out their 
whole hearts, and to cry with their whole souls unto 
heaven. The complaints of those who thus grieve 
and groan in truth, are far more ardent than theirs 
who only feign sorrows and straits of mind : just 
as the man, who feels joyful and glad in reality, dis 
covers a far greater gladness, hilarity, and exultation 
in his countenance, expressions, and whole appear 
ance, than he who only smoothes his brows with a 
feigned rejoicing. 

The expressions contained in the Psalms, then, as 


I have said, are uttered under the true and real feel 
ings of the heart; and the greater part of them con 
tain the pathetic and ardent utterances of the heart 
under every kind of affliction and temptation. But 
wherever the feelings of joy are described, you will 
never find the sensations of a heart, filled with glad 
ness and exultation, more significantly and expres 
sively described, than in the Psalms of thanksgiving, 
or the Psalms of praise. There you may look into 
the hearts of the saints, as into paradise, or into the 
opened heaven; and may see, in the greatest variety, 
all the beautiful and flourishing flowers, or the most 
brilliant stars, as it were, of their upspringing affec 
tions towards God for his benefits and blessings. 

On the other hand, you will never find the straits, 
the sorrows, and the pains of a distressed mind any 
where described in a more expressive manner than 
in the Psalms of temptations, or of complaints ; as in 
Psalm vi. and the like ; where you see all dark and 
gloomy, all full of anguish and distress, under a 
sight and sense of divine wrath, and the working 
of despair. 

And so again, where the Psalms are speaking of 
hope or fear, they so describe those feelings in their 
true and native colours, that no Demosthenes or Ci 
cero could ever equal them in liveliness, or descrip- 
tiveness of expression. For, as I have before ob 
served, the Psalms have this peculiarity of excel 
lence above all other books of description, that the 
saints, whose feelings and sensations are therein set 
forth, did not speak to the wind, under those their 
exercises and conflicts, nor to an earthly friend, but 
unto, and before, God himself, and in the sight of God. 
And it is this that above all things gives a seriousness, 
and reality to the feelings, it is this that affects, 


as it were, the very bones and the marrow, when a 
creature feels itself speaking in the very sight and 
presence of its God ! But when we are speaking 
otherwise, and complaining to a friend, or to a man 
only, our necessities are not so keenly and really felt ; 
our feelings are not so ardent, real, and poignant. 

The Book of Psalms, therefore, as it contains these 
real feelings of the saints, is a book so universally 
adapted and useful to all Christians, that whatever 
one that truly fears God may be suffering, or under 
what temptation soever he may be, he may find, in 
the Psalms, feelings and expressions exactly suited 
to his case; just as much so as if the Psalms had 
been indited and composed from his own personal 

It ought, therefore, godly soul, to be a great con 
solation to thee when the Psalms truly suit and 
delight thee. There is a saying of Quinctilian left on 
record, who says, He that is truly delighted with 
Cicero may be assured that he has made a good 
progress : which I may not unappropriately turn 
thus, He that is really delighted with, and re 
ceives consolation from, the Psalms of David, may 
be assured that he has arrived at some know 
ledge and experience in divine things. For when 
thou findest thyself under the same feelings that 
David was ; when the chords and strings of his harp 
are really re-echoed by the feelings and sensations 
of thy heart ; thou mayest assure thyself that thou 
art in the congregation of the elect of God ; seeing 
that thou art afflicted in the same manner as they 
were afflicted, and that thou prayest with the same 
faith, sensations, and affections as they prayed. 
Whereas, to a cold and frigid reader, destitute of 
faith, all these Psalms are insipid and unengaging. 


Again, the Psalms are those parts of the lives of 
the saints, which you may most safely copy and 
imitate. Other lives and histories, which do not set 
forth the words and expressions, but certain works of 
the saints, contain many things of the saints which 
we cannot imitate, such as certain signs and won 
ders, and demonstrations of divine power. And 
indeed some of the recorded works of those who are 
considered to have been saints, are such that you 
cannot imitate them without eminent peril ; being 
such works as cause sects and heresies, and draw us 
away frpm the unity of the Spirit ; of which we have 
abundant proof in monkery. But the Psalms call us 
away from all sects and divisions, to the unity of the 
Spirit. They teach us to maintain fear in prosperity, 
and not to cast away our hope in adversity ; and 
thus to be of the same mind, to have the same de 
sires, and to have the same feelings and sensations 
with all the saints. 

In a word, if you desire to see the Christian church 
painted forth, as it were, in a most beautiful picture, 
and in the most lively and descriptive colours, then 
take the Psalms into thy hands ; this will be as an 
all-clear mirror, which will represent to thee the 
whole church in its true features ; and if thou be 
one that fears God it will present to thee a true 
picture of thyself : so that, according to the maxim 
of the philosopher of old, yvwBi ffeavrov, thou wilt, by 
this book, come to a true knowledge of thyself, nay, 
and also of God and all creatures. 

Let us therefore watch over our hearts, and see 
that we be thankful in this our day for this revelation 
of the word, for this unspeakable gift of God. Let 
us use these precious gifts to the glory of God, and 
the good of our neighbour, lest we be made to suffer 


the deserved punishment of our ingratitude. For 
not many years ago, during that barbarous blindness 
and ignorance, what a treasure should we have had, 
if we had possessed one Psalm only, really and truly 
understood and set forth ; but we had not so much 
as one ! And now we are blessed with such an 
abundance of revelation " Blessed therefore are the 
eyes which see the things that we see, and the ears 
which hear the things that we hear." But how do 
I fear lest, like the Israelites in the desert, we should 
at length nauseate this manna and say, " Our souls 
loathe this light food." But however, the despisers 
of the word shall bear their judgment, whoever they 
are, even as the Israelites bore the awful judgments 
wherewith God punished them. But may the Father 
of all mercies and the God of all consolation, keep 
and increase in us the knowledge of his word, for 
Jesus Christ our Lord s sake : to whom, for this 
Book of Psalms, and for all the excellent gifts which 
he has richly bestowed upon us, be praise and glory, 
for ever and ever ! Amen ! 


CONTENTS of the Psalms, I would desire the reader 
to bear in mind that the Psalms contained in this 
Book of David are of five different kinds. 

1. Some Psalms are Prophecies concerning Christ, 
the church, the different states of the church, and 
the various afflictions of the saints, &c. To tins 
class belong all those Psalms which contain promises 
and threatenings, promises concerning the deliver 
ances and salvation of the godly ; and threatenings 
concerning the destruction of the wicked. 

2. There are some Psalms which teach us what 
we ought to do, and what we ought not to do, ac 
cording to the law of God. To this kind belong all 
those Psalms which condemn human doctrines, and 
extol the majesty and authority of the word of God. 

3. There are Psalms of consolation ; which com 
fort and lift up the hearts of those who are distressed, 
tempted, and afflicted by Satan and the world : and 
which, on the other hand, rebuke and terrify tyrants. 
To this class belong all those Psalms which minister 
consolation to the godly, and threaten the oppressors 
with the judgments of God. 


4. There are supplicatory Psalms, wherein the 
prophet and others in their afflictions call upon God 
in prayer and implore his help. To this class belong 
all those Psalms which complain of persecutions 
from the wicked. 

5. There are also Psalms of thanksgiving ; wherein 
thanks are rendered to God for all his mercies and 
benefits, and for his deliverance in various times of 
need. To this class belong all those Psalms which 
celebrate the praises of God and laud him for his 
works. These are the principal Psalms in the whole 
Book; and these peculiarly come under the denomi 
nation of Psalms : for the whole Book was expressly 
written to praise God and to worship him according 
to the First Commandment. Hence, in the Hebrew, 
the Book is called SEPHER IL CHILLIM : that is, the 
Book of Praises and Thanksgivings. 

The reader, however, is to bear in mind also, that 
the Psalms are not to be understood in a supersti 
tious manner. He is not to suppose that every 
Psalm must be divided into these five particulars in 
certain verses ; for some Psalms contain two of 
these particulars, some three, and some all five of 
them : for, very often, the same Psalm contains 
prophecy, doctrine, consolation, supplication and 
thanksgiving. But I have just made these remarks, 
that the reader may know that the Psalms contain 
these five particulars ; for knowing that, is of great 
help, not only to the understanding of them, but to 
the perceiving of their order, to the bearing of them 
in memory, and to the perfect knowledge of them. 



The happiness of the godly. The unhappiness of the ungodly. 

BLESSED is the man that walketh not in the 
counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way 
of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful. 

But his delight is in the law of the LORD ; and in 
his law doth he meditate day and night. 

And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of 
water, that bringeth forth his fruit in his season : 
his leaf also shall not wither; and whatsoever he 
doeth shall prosper. 

The ungodly are not so : but are like the chaff 
which the wind driveth away. 

Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in the judg 
ment, nor sinners in the congregation of the 

For the LORD knoweth the way of the righteous: 
but the way of the ungodly shall perish. 

THIS first is a Psalm of consolation ; by which the 
hearts of the godly are encouraged and stirred up to 
magnify above all things the word of God, in which 

16 PSALM I. 

the whole of true life and salvation stands ; and to 
hear, read, weigh, and meditate on it with a willing 
ness of mind. For this Psalm shows, that those only 
are truly blessed, prosperous in all things, and enjoy 
a firm, sure, and eternal consolation both in prospe 
rity and adversity, who are enabled to learn and know, 
from his word, the will and the works of God. 

Thus, as a tall palm-tree by the water-side conti 
nually grows upwards higher and higher against all 
the violence of storms, retains its strength against all 
the weights that man can put upon it, and, by a 
secret growth, becomes daily more and more flourish 
ing, and brings forth its fruits in its season ; so, saith 
this Psalm, do the saints increase and grow continu 
ally by the Spirit and word ; so are they rendered 
more and more firm and constant, and invincible 
against every evil ; so do they daily become more 
fortified against all the calamities of life. 

This Psalm denies, on the other hand, that any 
knowledge of God or any true consolation can be 
derived from human doctrines, how fair a show so 
ever they may make. The wicked, (saith it,) and 
hypocrites, are like the chaff that is scattered by the 
wind : that is, the wicked are utterly destroyed by 
afflictions, at least in death ; they endure not in 
temptation, but by and by separate themselves from 
the assembly of the righteous, and at length come to 

God looks upon those alone who worship him by 
hearing, learning, and declaring his word ; and these 
are they whom this Psalm pronounces " blessed." 
He disregards all the rest, who are hypocrites and 
pharaisaical worshippers ; he despises all their good 
works and worshippings, and leaves them to perish 
in their blindness. 


This Psalm flows from the Third Commandment, 
and has respect unto that which is there written : 
" Remember that thou keep holy the sabbath day ;" 
that is, that thou hear, read, meditate on, and ponder 
the word of God. And the sum of this Psalm is 
comprehended in the Lord s Prayer, in the second 
and third petitions, where we pray, that the kingdom 
of God may increase and be edified by his word, and 
at length be revealed in its perfection, and that his 
will may be done : and both of these petitions are 
answered, when the word of God, which abideth for 
ever, is purely taught and learnt, and seriously and 
diligently used and pondered. 


The kingdom of Christ. Kings are exhorted to accept it. 

WHY do the heathen rage, and the people ima 
gine a vain thing? 
The kings of the earth set themselves, and the 

rulers take counsel together, against the LORD, 

and against his Anointed, saying, 
Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away 

their cords from us. 
He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh : the 

LORD shall have them in derision. 
Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and 

vex them in his sore displeasure. 
Yet have I set my King upon my holy hill of Zion. 
I will declare the decree : the LORD hath said unto 

me, Thou art my Son ; this day have I begotten 


Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for 


thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the 
earth for thy possession. 

Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron ; thou 
shalt dash them in pieces like a potter s vessel. 

Be wise now, therefore, O ye kings ; be instruct 
ed, ye judges of the earth. 

Serve the LORD with fear, and rejoice with trem 

Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perisli 
from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a 
little. Blessed are all they that put their trust 
in him. 

THIS Psalm is a remarkable prophecy concerning 
Christ : it is cited by the apostles in the Acts, chap 
ter iv. : it predicted that Christ should suffer, be 
crucified, and glorified, and that he should be King 
and Lord of all creatures; that to him should be 
given all power both in heaven and in earth, and 
that his name should be above every name that is 
named, not only in this world, but in that which is 
to come. 

This Psalm contains also a description of the 
kingdom of Christ and the terrible threatenings of 
God against the kings, the princes, the wise, and the 
powerful of the world ; that they shall all perish, 
who, being carried away with the pride of human 
reason and carnal wisdom, do not acknowledge this 
King, Christ, nor obey his gospel ; but who oppose 
his kingdom, and endeavour to blot out his name. 

On the other hand, this Psalm contains most con 
soling promises, namely, that he that sitteth in the 
heavens, (in comparison of whom all the kings of the 
earth are mere worms,) holds in derision, and in a 
moment defeats, all their counsels and all their crafty 


devices against his word and this kingdom of Christ; 
and that he ever powerfully and miraculously saves, 
preserves, delivers, and prospers believers, and the 
whole church throughout the world, in the midst of 
the kingdom of the devil, and against all the powers 
and the gates of hell. 

This Psalm flows from the First Commandment ; 
where God declares that he alone will be our God, 
to save us and deliver us from all afflictions. Thus, 
it was he alone that delivered us, through Christ, 
from sin, from death, from the power of the devil, 
and from hell, and gave unto us eternal life. This 
pertains to the second petition of the Lord s Prayer, 
" Thy kingdom come/ 


The security of God s protection. 
A Psalm of David, when he fled from Absalom his son. 

LORD, how are they increased that trouble me? 

many are they that rise up against me. 
Many there be which say of my soul, There is no 

help for him in God. Selah. 
But thou O LORD, art a shield for me ; my glory, 

and the lifter up of mine head. 
I cried unto the LORD with my voice, and he heard 

me out of his holy hill. Selah. 
I laid me down and slept ; I awaked : for the 

LORD sustained me. 
I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people, 

that have set themselves against me round about. 
Arise, O LORD ; save me, O my God : for thou hast 

smitten all mine enemies upon the cheek-bone ; 

thou hast broken the teeth of the ungodly, 
c 2 


Salvation lelongeth unto the LORD : thy blessing 
is upon thy people. Selah. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer of David in the time of his 
greatest affliction, and under the severest trial he 
ever experienced. And here we have set before us 
a signal example of this greatest and most spirit 
ual of men David ; how he, in the time of Absa 
lom, when all Israel revolted from him and went 
over to Absalom ; how this eminent saint, I say, 
who was now an exile, forsaken by all, betrayed by 
those of his own household, and in the midst of the 
most appalling peril of his own life and salvation ; 
how, when sinking under this heavy calamity, and 
struggling in this agony, he prayed unto God in 
faith ; and what a fervency of heart there was in 
these his cries unto him. 

In a word, in this Psalm, David, with a wonderful 
feeling of mind, and a signal experience of faith, 
extols, in the highest strains, the greatness of the 
long-suffering and goodness of God, when he says, 
"Salvation is of the Lord! As if he had said, 
The Lord is he alone who has all salvation in his 
hand, and all the issues of life and death. He sets 
up and changes kingdoms in a moment, just as he 
wills. No peril is so great, no death so instant, from 
which he cannot deliver his own, if they but call 
upon him in true faith, and flee unto him alone. 

This Psalm has reference to the First Command 
ment, wherein it is said, " I am the Lord thy God ;" 
and it is comprehended in the seventh petition of the 
Lord s Prayer, where we pray, " Deliver us from 



David prayeth for audience. He reproveth and exhorteth his enemies. 
Man s happiness is in God s favour. 

To the chief Musician on Neginoth. A Psalm of David. 

HEAR me when I call, O God of my righteous 
ness : thou hast enlarged me when I was in 
distress ; have mercy upon me, and hear my 

ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory 
into shame ? how long will ye love vanity, and 
seek after leasing? Selah. 

But know that the LORD hath set apart him that 

is godly for himself: the Lord will hear when I 

call unto him. 
Stand in awe, and sin not : commune with 

your own heart upon your bed, and be still. 

Offer the sacrifices of righteousness, and put your 

trust in the LORD. 
There be many that say, Who will shew us any 

good ? LORD, lift thou up the light of thy 

countenance upon us. 
Thou hast put gladness in my heart, more than in 

the time that their corn and their wine increased. 

1 will both lay me down in peace, and sleep : for 
thou, LORD, only makest me dwell in safety. 

THIS is a Psalm of consolation : yet it at the same time 
teaches us to bear afflictions patiently, to expect the 
help of God, and to trust in him in all adversities. 
For that greatest of all wisdom, true and real Chris 
tian wisdom, is unknown to the world : which wis- 


dora is, to learn and to know, by daily temptations 
and by various trials of faith, that God exercises his 
people in all these afflictions, to the end that they 
may understand his will ; and that his design in 
exposing them to the all-bitter hatred of the world 
and the devil, is, that he might save, deliver, com 
fort, strengthen, and glorify them in a wonderful 
manner, in the midst of perils, and even in death 
itself; and that he might make known his conflict 
ing church as being invincible, through faith and 
the word, in the midst of the kingdom of the devil, 
against all the storms of the world, and under all 
the clouds, darkness, and tempests of temptations of 
every kind. 

This Psalrn also most severely strikes at all hypo 
crites and wicked men of every description, who, 
before the eyes of the world, would have us believe 
that they are the only true saints and the people of 
God ; who even say that they worship God, while 
they know nothing of him ; for in the time of afflic 
tion, they tremble with cowardly fear, and impatiently 
mutter in their hearts against God and his holy will ; 
they soon forget his words and his works, and, wick 
edly forsaking him who alone is able to comfort 
them, cease from expecting his aid, hate the cross, 
and seek for human consolation : whereas, there is 
no sure consolation to be obtained either from friends 
or from all the resources of human help ; for in God 
alone is sure consolation ; and that is all-sure, and 
eternal ; which no creature can take away, either in 
this world or in that which is to come. 

This peace and consolation of God, however, is 
not like the peace of the world. For, "Know ye, 
(saith David) that the Lord dealeth wonderfully with 
his saints : " he casts them down, that he may raise 


them up ; he afflicts them that he may minister con 
solation unto them ; he humbles them that he may 
exalt them ; he makes them sorrowful that he may 
make them glad : in a word, he kills them that he 
may make them alive. 

The agonizing struggles of the godly, therefore, in 
this life against sin, and the devil who unceasingly 
assaults them, and desires to sift them as wheat, are 
their exercises of faith and patience : from which 
exercises those that fear God learn more satisfac 
torily to know his presence ; that he is ever present 
with them ; and that he will never leave nor forsake 
those that believe in him, but will ever marvellously 
deliver, save and rescue them from all their deaths 
and destructions. 

But the wicked and hypocrites, how much soever 
they may talk about God with their lips, yet hate 
God, and hate this his will in the afflictions of his 
saints ; as it is written in the first commandment 
" Unto them that hate me." And again, as Paul 
saith " Whose God is their belly." These characters 
wish first, and above all things, that all theirs, 
their fortunes, their property, their friends, should 
be safe ; and they trust in their riches and posses 
sions. AH such, therefore, deride this doctrine of 
faith : and if any one should preach to such this 
patience, and this word of the cross, they would 
laugh at it, and would boast of their holiness and 
religion in opposition to those who truly fear God. 
They would say, What ! are we to be taught what 
is right by such a fool as you ? Are you to teach us 
what is good, and what the true worship of God is ? 

This Psalm also pertains to the First Command- 
mont. It teaches us to trust in God both in pros 
perity and adversity, and patiently to wait for his 

24 PSALM V. 

help, calling upon him with earnestness and con 
stancy. The subject matter of this Psalm is con 
tained in the third and seventh petition of the Lord s 
Prayer " Thy will be done," and " Deliver us from 
evil : " and also in the fourth, where we pray, "that 
there may be given us our daily bread :" that is, 
peace, and all those things that are required unto 
the sustaining of this life, against all the various 
evils of poverty, hunger, and want ; with which 
things the devil, in an especial manner, exercises 
the church of God in this world. 


David pray eth, and prof esseth his study in prayer. God favoureth not 
the wicked. David, professing his faith, prayeth unto God to guide 
him and to preserve the godly. 

To the chief Musician upon Nehiloth. A Psalm of David. 

GIVE ear to my words, O LORD ; consider my 

Hearken unto the voice of my cry, my King, and 

my God : for unto thee will I pray. 
My voice shalt thou hear in the morning, O LORD ; 

in the morning will I direct my prayer unto thee, 

and will look up. 

For thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wick 
edness ; neither shall evil dwell with thee. 
The foolish shall not stand in thy sight : thou 

hatest all workers of iniquity. 
Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing : the 

LORD will abhor the bloody and deceitful man. 
But as for me, I will come into thy house in the 

multitude of thy mercy ; and in thy fear will I 

worship toward thy holy temple. 

PSALM V. 25 

Lead me, O LORD, in thy righteousness, because 
of mine enemies ; make thy way straight before 
my face. 

For there is no faithfulness in their mouth ; their 
inward part is very wickedness ; their throat 
is an open sepulchre ; they flatter with their 

Destroy thou them, O God ; let them fall by their 
own counsels : cast them out in the multitude 
of their transgressions ; for they have rebelled 
against thee. 

But let all those that put their trust in thee re 
joice : let them ever shout for joy, because thou 
defendest them : let them also that love thy 
name be joyful in thee. 

For thou, LORD, wilt bless the righteous ; with 
favour wilt thou compass him as with a shield. 

THIS Psalm is an earnest prayer against that most 
destructive pestilence in the church false teachers: 
and all ages, from Cain, the first man that was 
born, the first hypocrite after the creation of Adam, 
and the first " man of blood," have had their Cain- 
ish saints, their false prophets, their false apostles, 
and their fanatic spirits ; who have taught their 
own human dreams, and their own traditions for the 
word of God, and resolutely contended for their own 
Cainish holiness, ever burning with an insatiable 
thirst to drink the blood of the Abels, the true 
saints : and these Christ has called, in his gospel, 
" vipers." 

It is at the blasphemies of these against God, and 
their cruelty towards men, that this Psalm strikes; 
and openly exposes the persons themselves as most 
virulent hypocrites, in whose doctrine and works there 

26 PSALM V. 

is nothing but outside daubing, nothing but doubting 
and disquietude, and a whole slaughter-house of con 
sciences. These characters suppress the true word, 
the doctrine of faith, and the true worship of God ; 
namely, the worship required by the First Command 
ment : and there is no end to their rage against those 
that fear God : they cause horrid devastations in the 
church, and load her with an infinity of injuries. 

Against the destructive influence of these, therefore, 
David prays in this Psalm; that it would please God 
to prevent the persecuting and Cain-like counsels of 
such hypocrites, and all crafty and blood-thirsty 
characters of. the kind, and, amid all this bitter and 
furious hatred of the world and the devil, and such 
an infinity of cruelty in all their adversaries, to 
defend, comfort, prop up, and protect the godly ; to 
confound the hypocrisy of the wicked, to root out all 
false worship ; to cause the true word and the true 
worship of God to spread and flourish, and to glorify 
the true church in the face of the false one, under all 
the outward daubing and show of the latter. 

In the last verse, David appends a most glorious 
promise ; that, although those who truly fear God 
are cruelly treated by those hypocrites, it shall yet 
come to pass that the godly shall at length rejoice 
that their prayers are heard, and shall see the judg 
ments of God openly fall upon the hypocrites and 
fanatics, and the true church defended and pre 

This Psalm has reference to the Second and Third 
Commandments of the Decalogue, and to the first and 
second petitions of the Lord s Prayer ; where we pray 
" that the name of the Lord may be sanctified and 
glorified/ against the pride and gloryings of such 



David s complaint in his sickness. By faith he triumpheth over his 


To the chief Musician, on Neginoth upon Sheminith. A Psalm of 

LORD, rebuke me not in thine anger, neither 
chasten me in thy hot displeasure. 

Have mercy upon me, O LORD ; for I am weak : 

LORD, heal me ; for my bones are vexed. 

My soul is also sore vexed : but thou, O LORD, 

how long ? 
Return, O LORD, deliver my soul : oh save me for 

thy mercies sake. 
For in death there is no remembrance of thee : in 

the grave who shall give thee thanks ? 

1 am weary with my groaning ; all the night make 

1 my bed to swim ; I water my couch with my 

Mine eye is consumed because of grief ; it waxeth 

old because of all mine enemies. 
Depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity ; for 

the LORD hath heard the voice of my weeping. 
The LORD hath heard my supplication ; the LORD 

will receive my prayer. 
Let all mine enemies be ashamed and sore vexed : 

let them return and be ashamed suddenly. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer full of those mental exercises 
that are felt under the deepest and most secret temp 
tations which can only be known by experience, be 
cause no words can describe them ; for they are 
those feelings under which the saints agonize in 


those bitter and unutterable conflicts which are 
wholly unknown to the world : they are those feel 
ings, I say, under which they agonize when strug 
gling with sin, the law, and the wrath and judgment 
of God : all which are experienced in the hours of 
darkness, while the devil is horribly tempting and 
pressing in upon them. 

These internal fears and terrors, under which all 
the godly agonize and sweat, will, of necessity, one 
day wholly swallow up the hypocrites who are des 
titute of the word. Here it is, that in the godly, there 
is an unspeakable conflict of justice with sin ; the law, 
and wrath of God, with a confidence in his mercy ; 
and faith and hope, with desperation and despair; 
though the godly are at length delivered and saved. 
These terrors the scripture calls in other places, and 
especially in the Psalms, " the pains of hell/ 7 and, 
" the snares of death." 

But this Psalm expressly shews in the end, that 
the sighs and groans of the godly under these ago 
nizing conflicts, these pains, and these straits of 
soul, shall surely be heard. This Psalm, therefore, 
and others like it, open to us a view of the heart of 
David, and afford the greatest consolation to the 
godly. For they shew, that, although the saints 
thus deeply agonize under these straits, and under 
these terrible and open views of the wrath of God, 
yet, that these temptations which appear to be infi 
nite and endless, shall surely have an end, and that 
God will never forsake those who fear him, in their 
terrors and conflicts with death and hell. 

On the other hand, the prophet, in this Psalm, 
with a wonderful zeal of spirit, and with the most 
cutting sharpness and severity, strikes at all the 
wicked of the world : and, above all, he condemns 


all secure hypocrites and pharisaical ministers; call 
ing them, notwithstanding their outward appearance 
of being saints, " workers of iniquity ; " who per 
secute all afflicted and true Christians with the 
bitterness of Cain, and cease not to hate them with 
all the virulence of Satan ; adding grief to their 
grief, and affliction to their affliction. 

Away with ye/ saith he, ye hypocrites. I 
have learnt that I have a God to go to ; but ye are 
ignorant both of God and of his works. Ye know 
not what an awful weight the wrath of God is, and 
how great and soul-refreshing a thing the remission 
of sins, the knowledge of eternal life, and the expe 
rience of grace, are. Ye worship God with your 
mouths and with your lips; ye trust in your own 
righteousnesses and works, not knowing what God 
and what sin are ; and therefore ye are most cruel 
and most bitter enemies to the word and true worship 
of God; in which worship, the greatest and most 
acceptable sacrifice is a spirit thus pressed into 
straits and afflicted/ 

This Psalm has reference to the First and Second 
Commandment ; it contains the agonizing conflict of 
faith, and calls upon God against the force of sin 
and death. And it refers also to the first petition of 
the Lord s Prayer; as do also the other supplicatory 
Psalms. For, to supplicate and pray, is to sanctify 
and call upon the name of the Lord. 


David prayet h against the malice of his enemies, professing his innocency. 

By faith he seeth his defence, and the destruction of his enemies. 

Shiggaion of David, which he sang unto the LORD, concerning the 

words of Cush the Benjamite. 


O LORD my God, in thee do I put my trust : save me 
me from all them that persecute me, and deliver 

Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in 
pieces, while there is none to deliver. 

O LORD my God, if I have done this ; if there be 
iniquity in my hands ; 

If I have rewarded evil unto him that was at peace 
with me ; (yea, I have delivered him that without 
cause is mine enemy ;) 

Let the enemy persecute my soul, and take it ; 
yea, let him tread down my life upon the earth, 
and lay mine honour in the dust. Selah. 

Arise, O LORD, in thine anger ; lift up thyself, 
because of the rage of mine enemies ; and awake 
for me to the judgment that thou hast com 

So shall the congregation of the people compass 
thee about: for their sakes, therefore, return 
thou on high. 

The LORD shall judge the people: judge me, O 
LORD, according to my righteousness, and ac 
cording to mine integrity that is in me. 

Oh let the w ickedness of the wicked come to an 
end; but establish the just: for the righteous 
God trieth the hearts and reins. 

My defence is of God, which saveth the upright 
in heart. 

God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with 
the wicked every day. 

If he turn not, he will whet his sword ; he hath 
bent his bow and made it ready. 

He hath also prepared for him the instruments of 
death ; he ordaineth his arrows against the per 


Behold, he travaileth with iniquity, and hath con 
ceived mischief, and brought forth falsehood. 

He made a pit, and digged it, and is fallen into 
the ditch which he made. 

His mischief shall return upon his own head, and 
his violent dealing shall come down upon his 
own pate. 

I will praise the LORD according to his righteous 
ness : and will sing praise to the name of the 
LORD Most High. 

THIS is a prayer against that common and usual 
blasphemy with which the world accuses the pro 
phets, apostles, and all others who fear God, as being 
seditious persons, who destroy the peace and general 
tranquility of the state : as Shimei bitterly upbraid 
ed David, when under that heavy affliction in the 
time of Absalom, calling him a bloody man, and 
saying that he had invaded the kingdom of Saul, &,c. 
In the same way the Jews accused Christ before 
Pilate. And in the same way also now do certain 
hypocrites, bishops and other enemies, against all 
conscience, brand the professors of the gospel with 
the appellation of * seditious persons. 

Against all trials of this kind, which are indeed 
most bitter to bear, the prophet fights by prayer unto 
God, calling upon God to bear witness to his inno- 
cency. And then, to encourage and comfort all that 
fear God, he shews, that all who thus pray are heard ; 
and he sets forth himself as an example. 

Lastly, he threatens a horrid, sudden, and momen 
tary judgment to those hypocrites and tyrants, who 
thus rage against the godly with the most bitter 
hatred : and he signifies that all such shall in the 
end perish like Absalom, who was cut off and died 


in a new, sudden, and dreadful way, in the midst of 
his furious career, before he could accomplish that 
which he had planned. 

This Psalm refers to the second precept in the 
Decalogue, and to the first petition of the Lord s 


God s glory is magnified by his works, and by his love to man. 
To the chief Musician upon Gittith. A Psalm of David. 

O LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in 

all the earth ! who hast set thy glory above the 

Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings hast 

thou ordained strength, because of thine ene 
mies ; that thou mightest still the enemy and 

the avenger. 
When I consider thy heavens, the work of thy 

fingers ; the rubon and the stars, which thou hast 

ordained ; 
What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and 

the son of man that thou visitest him ? 
For thou hast made him a little lower than the 

angels, and hast crowned him with glory and 

Thou madesthim to have dominion over the works 

of thy hands : thou hast put all things under his 

All sheep and oxen, yea, and the beasts of the 

The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and 

whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas. 


O LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all 
the earth ! 

THIS is a prophecy concerning Christ, concerning 
his passion, his resurrection, and his dominion over 
all creatures ; and it is thus that the apostle cites it, 
Ephes. i. with reference to the kingdom of Christ : 
where he foretels, that the power and might of his 
kingdom will be invincible against all enemies, how 
violent soever they may be in their determination to 
wreak their vengeance : that is, that he will be vic 
toriously mighty against all the wise and the power 
ful of the world, and against all hypocrites and pha- 
risaical saints: that he will be invincible and vic 
torious, I say, not by arms, nor by mighty forces 
of horse and foot, but by the word of his gospel ; 
which shall be preached by " babes and sucklings/ 
(that is, by humble men, men who are weak and con 
temptible in the sight of the world,) and believed in 
by his church of poor, afflicted, crying, and complain 
ing creatures: that this word of the gospel, I repeat, 
preached and believed in by such poor creatures, shall 
nevertheless confound all the wisdom of the world, 
and break and crush under it all the strength of the 
world, and that no creature power whatever shall 
impede it in its work and course, but that it shall 
stand firmer than the heaven, or the sun, or the 
moon, and shall endure for evermore ! 

This Psalm pertains to the First Commandment, 
where God declares that he will be our God : and 
also to the second petition of the Lord s Prayer, as I 
have before observed under Psalm II. 



David praiseth God for executing of judgment, He inciteth others to 
praise him. He prayeth that he may have cause to praise him. 

To the chief Musician upon Muthlabben. A Psalm of David. 

I WILL praise thee, O LORD, with my whole heart ; 
I will shew forth all thy marvellous works. 

I will be glad and rejoice in thee : I will sing 
praise to thy name, O thou Most High. 

When mine enemies are turned back, they shall 
fall and perish at thy presence. 

For thou hast maintained my right and my cause; 
thou satest in the throne judging right. 

Thou hast rebuked the heathen, thou hast destroyed 
the wicked, thou hast put out their name for ever 
and ever. 

O thou enemy ! destructions are come to a per 
petual end ; and thou hast destroyed cities ; their 
memorial is perished with them. 

But the LORD shall endure for ever : he hath pre 
pared his throne for judgment; 

And he shall judge the world in righteousness, he 
shall minister judgment to the people in up 

The LORD also will be a refuge for the oppressed, a 
refuge in times of trouble. 

And they that know thy name will put their trust 
in thee : for thou, LORD, hast not forsaken them 
that seek thee. 

Sing praises to the LORD, which dwelleth in Zion : 
declare among the people his doings. 

When he maketh inquisition for blood, he re- 


membereth them : he forgetteth not the cry of 

the humble. 
Have mercy upon me, O LORD ; consider my 

trouble which I suffer of them that hate me, thou 

that liftest me up from the gates of death : 
That I may shew forth all thy praise in the gates 

of the daughter of Zion : I will rejoice in thy 

The heathen are sunk down in the pit that they 

made : in the net which they hid is their own 

foot taken. 
The LORD is known by the judgment which he 

executeth : the wicked is snared in the work of 

his own hands. Higgaion. Selah. 
The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the 

nations that forget God. 
For the needy shall not alway be forgotten : the 

expectation of the poor shall not perish for ever. 
Arise, O LORD ; let not man prevail ; let the hea 
then be judged in thy sight. 
Put them in fear, O LORD ; that the nations may 

know themselves to be but men. Selah. 

THIS Psalm is a prophecy : its title is " concerning 
the beautiful youth:" that is, concerning the chil 
dren that are born anew in Christ, the people of God 
and the church of God. For the people and sons of 
God, and his new-born children by faith in Christ, 
must be conformed to the image of God s dear Son, 
Jesus Christ. 

Christians and the true sons of God are variously 
afflicted in the world; and the blood of the innocents 
is daily shed by the fury and cruelty of Satan, raging 
against the word and the works of God. These are 
the flourishing and undefiled youth, the sons and 
D 2 


children of God, of whom the title of the Psalm 
speaks ; who are blameless, without rebuke, and 
babes in the midst of wolves, and among a perverse 

This Psalm has its striking descriptions of per 
sons : and the prophecy which it contains is written 
in the manner of a thanksgiving: and therefore it 
may be numbered among the consolatory Psalms. 
For, (as is generally the case with these spiritual 
canticles and songs,) the Prophet here speaks in 
his own person, and in that of all the saints also who 
are afflicted for the word of God s sake : all of whom 
give thanks with wonderful sensations of heart, that 
God does not forsake his own. But God requires, 
at times, the tears and the blood of the saints : 
though he preserves and saves his Church, and ren 
ders her invincible against sword or fire, and against 
all the power of enemies temporal or spiritual, nay, 
in the midst of blood and death ; and he raises her 
up, as it were, from the blood, slaughter, and ashes of 
the saints, and makes her flourish again and increase 
the more, in a wonderful manner, in this and that 
part of the world : so that many, even of the most 
bitter enemies, have been converted to the faith, and 
even a Saul has been made a Paul ; and some 
times also the judgments of God have fallen on the 
wicked, and they have perished before the eyes of 
the godly. 

This Psalm has reference to the First Command 
ment of the Decalogue, and to the second petition of 
the Lord s Prayer, as we have observed concerning 
the preceding Psalm. 



David complaineth to God oftfie outrage of the wicked. He prayeth for 
remedy. He professeth his confidence. 

WHY standest thou afar off, O LORD ? Why hidest 

tbou thyself in times of trouble ? 
The wicked in his pride doth persecute the poor: 

let them be taken in the devices that they have 

For the wicked boasteth of his heart s desire, and 

blesseth the covetous, whom the Lord abhorreth. 
The wicked, through the pride of his countenance, 

will not seek after God: God is not in all his 

His ways are always grievous ; thy judgments are 

far above out of his sight : a* for all his enemies, 

he puffeth at them. 
He hath said in his heart, I shall not be, moved : 

for / shall never be in adversity. 
His mouth is full of cursing, and deceit, and 

fraud : under his tongue is mischief and vanity. 
He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages : in 

the secret places doth he murder the innocent : 

his eyes are privily laid against the poor. 
He lieth in wait secretly as a lion in his den : he 

lieth in wait to catch the poor : he doth catch 

the poor, when he draweth him into his net. 
He croucheth, and humbleth himself, that the poor 

may fall by his strong ones. 
He hath said in his heart, God hath forgotten :. he 

hideth his face ; he will never see it. 

38 PSALM X. 

Arise, O LORD ; O God, lift up thine hand : forget 

not the humble. 
Wherefore doth the wicked contemn God? he hath 

said in his heart, Thou wilt not require it. 
Thou hast seen it; for thou beholdest mischief 

and spite, to requite it with thy hand : the poor 

committeth himself unto thee ; thou art the 

helper of the fatherless. 
Break thou the arm of the wicked and the evil 

man: seek out his wickedness till thou find 

The LORD is King for ever and ever: the heathen 

are perished out of his land. 
LORD, thou hast heard the desire of the humble : 

thou wilt prepare their heart, thou wilt cause 

thine ear to hear : 
To judge the fatherless and the oppressed, that the 

man of the earth may no more oppress. 

THIS Psalm is a fervent prayer, and contains com 
plaints of the deepest concern against Antichrist, 
that most atrocious enemy of God and the gospel, 
who will ever assail and lay waste the church, not 
by force and tyranny only, but with all the iravsgyia 
of Satan, all his frauds and impostures, and 
with an infinite variety of outside deception and 

This " Man of Sin " is descriptively pourtrayed in 
the present Psalm ; that he really rages against the 
body with the sword, ruins and destroys souls by 
his all-crafty and infinite hypocrisy, and with 
his sweet poison of false doctrines, and imposing 
forms of worship ; but that he has no concern 
whatever about teaching any one kindly and with 
gentleness, nor instructing them seriously unto god- 


liness or true comfort, but has his mouth ever full of 
cursing and deceit. 

This we have manifested in the kingdom of the 
Pope, and in the tyranny of the Romish-church. All 
those fulminating and thundering excommunications 
are mere execrations and cursing, by which he has 
wished to make himself, and has succeeded in 
making himself, formidable even to kings, under the 
false pretence of the apostolic name, and divine au 
thority. And his * craft and lies are all that infinite 
and inexplicable variety of hypocrisy and traditions 
of men ; together with all that outward whitewash 
of holiness, and those deceptive forms of worship, 
by means of which, and his delusions of masses at 
one time, and of indulgences at another, this Anti 
christ ceases not to turn to wicked lucre all things 
human and divine, under the blasphemous cover and 
pretext of the name of God. 

In the end of the Psalm we have a consolation ; 
which declares that such an abomination shall, in the 
end of the world, be revealed, and, having been made 
openly manifest by the sudden judgment of God, 
shall be rooted out. 

This Psalm has reference to the Second Com 
mandment, and to the second petition of the Lord s 
Prayer; as have all the Psalms of supplication. 


David encourageth himself in God against his enemies. The providence 
and justice of God. 

To the chief Musician, a Psalm of David. 

IN the LORD put I my trust: how say ye to my 
soul, flee as a bird to your mountain ? 


For, lo, the wicked bend their bow, they make 

ready their arrow upon the string, that they may 

privily shoot at the upright in heart. 
If the foundations be destroyed, what can the 

righteous do ? 
The LORD is in his holy temple, the LORD S throne 

is in heaven : his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the 

children of men. 
The LORD trieth the righteous: but the wicked 

and him that loveth violence his soul hateth. 
Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire and 

brimstone, and an horrible tempest : this shall be 

the portion of their cup. 
For the righteous LORD loveth righteousness ; his 

countenance doth behold the upright. 

THIS Psalm is a complaint against erroneous and 
fanatical spirits : of which kind are all those who 
in the present day draw men astray from the pure 
and true doctrine of faith, and from the true worship 
of God, (which stands in true faith and the fear of 
God in the heart,) to hypocrisy, which has always an 
outward show of something great and wonderful : 
these, I say, are the erroneous and fanatics, who thus 
draw away men like so many birds, and make them 
fly over to their mountains : that is, make them turn 
easily over to hypocrisy, and white-wash holiness, 
which, in outward show, appears to be something 
great and wonderful, and a firm rock, whereas it is 
all a thing of nought. 

David ascribes to these characters that which is 
the peculiar characteristic of hypocrites, that they 
arrogantly, proudly, and with high looks, despise and 
deride the truly godly. What, say they, can that 
righteous one, that fine fellow of a Christian, that 
poor miserable creature, do ? 


In the end we have a consolation that God will 
certainly hear, and regard the afflicted ; that he will 
be present with them, and show them by manifest 
tokens of his hand that he will not forsake them, and 
that he will, by horrible judgment, take vengeance on 
scoffers of this kind ; on these pharisees and other 
enemies of David. 

This Psalm has reference to the Second precept of 
the Decalogue, and to the first petition of the Lord s 


David, destitute of human comfort, craveth help of God. He comforteth 
himself with God s judgments on the wicked, and confidence in God s 
tried promises . 

To the chief Musician upon Sheminith, a Psalm of David. 

HELP, LORD; for the godly man ceaseth ; for the 

faithful fail from among the children of men. 
They speak vanity every one with his neighbour : 

with flattering lips and with a double heart do 

they speak. 
The LORD shall cut off" all flattering lips, and the 

tongue that speaketh proud things ; 
Who have said, with our tongue will we prevail ; 

our lips are our own : who is lord over us? 
For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of 

the needy, now will I arise, saith the LORD ; I 

will set him in safety from him that puffeth at 

The words of the LORD are pure words : as silver 

tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times. 
Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve 

them from this generation for ever. 


The wicked walk on every side, when the vilest 
men are exalted. 

THIS is a prayer containing a heavy complaint 
against them, who, introduce human doctrines in 
stead of the word of God, and who, afterwards, by 
various new traditions and forms of worship disturb 
the church, and fill all things with a white-wash 
show of religion, and with the outward daubing of 
Pharisaism and hypocrisy, so that wicked men and 
hypocrites reign on every side, as the last verse 
complains. For when human doctrines have once 
invaded the church, they go on to rage far and wide, 
and spread in all directions like a cancer ; there is 
no end to their corruption and destructive influence ; 
they take possession of all things and wonderfully 
vex and torment consciences: so that the number of 
the true saints and of those that truly fear God is 
few and small indeed : of this the infinite variety of 
papistical hypocrisy affords a manifest example. 

But we are consoled and comforted under all these 
afflictions by the consideration that God always raises 
up in his church, sometimes in this place and some 
times in that, his salvation ; that is, his word and 
gospel ; which, while the prophets, apostles, and 
other ministers throughout the world, boldly and 
plainly teach against all heresy, they detect and 
bring to light false doctrines, and overturn all false 
worship; for where the salvation of God is, (that is, 
the saving word of Christ and his gospel) it burns 
up and consumes, like a suddenly-kindled fire, all 
the chaff and straw of human traditions, and delivers 
oppressed consciences. 

This, however, never takes place without afflic 
tions, and the cross in various forms. But as gold 


and silver are proved by the fire, so the true know 
ledge and purity of the word is not preserved in the 
church but by means of the truly spiritual and godly, 
who for the word s sake are exercised without and 
within by Satan, with various temptations : for these, 
like gold, are proved in the fire, and thus grow daily 
and flourish in the knowledge of the gospel, and the 
great things of God. 

This Psalm refers to the second and third precept 
of the Decalogue, and to the first and second petition 
of the Lord s Prayer. 


David complaineth of delay in help. He prayeth for preventing grace. 
He boasteth of divine mercy. 

To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. 

How long wilt thou forget me, O LORD ? for ever ? 

how long wilt thou hide thy face from me ? 
How long shall I take counsel in my soul, having 

sorrow in my heart daily? how long shall mine 

enemy be exalted over me? 
Consider and hear me, O LORD my God ; lighten 

mine eyes lest I sleep the sleep of death ; 
Lest mine enemy say, I have prevailed against 

him ; and those that trouble me rejoice when I 

am moved. 
But I have trusted in thy mercy ; my heart shall 

rejoice in thy salvation. 
I will sing unto the LORD, because he hath dealt 

bountifully with me. 

THIS is a prayer full of the sighings and groanings 
of an afflicted heart in the hour of darkness, and 


almost overwhelmed, under that darkness, with the 
extreme of grief and sorrow, and driven to the 
greatest strait of mind. Of which sorrow the spirit 
of sadness himself, the devil, is the author, who casts 
the unwary into these temptations and perturbations 
in a moment, when he finds them unarmed with the 
sword of the Spirit, the word of God ; which unarm 
ed state he himself causes by turning away our eyes 
from the promises and the word of God, to look at the 
incredible ingratitude and iniquity of the world, at 
the perplexed variety of offences, and at the great 
ness of the perils which must be undergone for the 
sake of God s word and of his holy name. For it 
cannot be but that even a man of a sound mind 
must be thrown into tribulation when he considers 
with what infernal arts, with what stratagems of de 
ceit, and with what bitter and Cainish hatred, Satan 
and wicked men oppose themselves to the word of 
God ; and then, what fallings away and what mon 
strous instances of ingratitude there are among those 
who pretend to be with us ; all which offences Satan 
raises up through the instrumentality of those who are 
unwilling to appear not to be followers of godliness. 

But the prayer of the church has great power; it 
breaks through and victoriously overcomes all hatred, 
all perils, and all snares, how craftily soever they 
may be laid ; and faith is more powerful than any 
violence or storm of temptation. " This (saith John) 
is the victory that overcometh the world, even our 
faith. " And this Psalm gives us an example of that 
faith which enables us to stand fast in the midst of 
death, and not to doubt that God is able, and will 
deliver us from our terrible straits, and comfort us 
after all our fears ; and which teaches to believe that 
we shall struggle through all our distress victoriously, 


though it may appear to be endless, if we do but turn 
ourselves away from all dark and dismal appearances 
of things, lay hold of that which is true and real, 
and lift ourselves up against the weight that lays 
upon us, by resting in the consolation of the word of 
the Lord : as James saith, " Is any afflicted, let him 

This Psalm also refers to the second precept, and 
to the first and last petition of the Lord s Prayer; 
where we pray " Hallowed be thy name/ and " De 
liver us from evil/ 


David describeth the corruption of a natural man. He convinceth the 
wicked by the light of their conscience. He glorieth in the salvation of 

To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. 

THE fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. 

They are corrupt; they have done abominable 

works ; there is none that doeth good. 
The LORD looked down from heaven upon the 

children of men, to see if there were any that 

did understand, and seek God. 
They are all gone aside, they are all together be 
come filthy : there is none that doeth good, no, 

not one. 
Have all the workers of iniquity no knowledge ? 

who eat up my people as they eat bread, and 

call not upon the LORD. 
There were they in great fear : for God is in the 

generation of the righteous. 
Ye have shamed the counsel of the poor, because 

the LORD is his refuge. 


Oh that the salvation of Israel were come out of 
Zion ! when the LORD bringeth back the cap 
tivity of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, and 
Israel shall be glad. 

THIS Psalm is a prophecy ; and it also teaches us, 
that all human doctrines and works without faith are 
an abomination in the sight of God ; and that the 
God of all such hypocrites (of which kind are the 
pope and his papists) is their belly ; for they serve 
their belly, not God or Christ, and devour widow s 

But such hypocrites, although they have always in 
their mouth the name of God, and boast of the law 
and the works of the law, know not what the true 
worship of God is, but always hate and persecute 
the name and word of God, but the true doctrine, 
concerning faith and the fear of God, they will not 

Against such characters as these we must fight by 
prayer; which prayer will certainly be heard, as is 
intimated in the last verse of this Psalm, which pro 
mises the kingdom and dominion of Christ. For 
this Psalm especially strikes at those seemingly holy 
pharisees, those teachers of the law, who, before the 
coming of Christ, by enforcing works and the right 
eousness of the law, were cruel torturers, and tor 
mented men s consciences. And this Psalm promises 
that wished-for day of Christ, and the redemption 
that should be wrought by his coming. For the 
gospel was revealed from Zion, and the Spirit was 
poured out upon the apostles at Jerusalem. 

This Psalm has reference to the First and Second 
Commandment : for it gloriously exalts the word of 
God and promises the day of salvation, that is, of 


Christ: but it rebukes hypocrites who despise the 
true worship of God, and his faith and fear, and who 
serve not God but their own belly. And it refers 
also to the first and second petition of the Lord s 
Prayer : where we pray, " Hallowed be thy name ; 
Thy kingdom come." 


David describeth a citizen of Zion. 
A Psalm of David. 

LORD, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? who 
shall dwell in thy holy hill ? 

He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteous 
ness, and speaketh the truth in his heart. 

He that backbiteth not with his tongue, nor doeth 
evil to his neighbour, nor taketh up a reproach 
against his neighbour. 

In whose eyes a vile person is contemned ; but he 
honoureth them that fear the LORD. He that 
sweareth to his own hurt, and changeth not. 

He that putteth not out his money to usury, nor 
taketh reward against the innocent. He that 
doeth these things shall never be moved. 

THIS Psalm strikes at the hypocrites who say that 
holiness stands in the pretended works of the Jaw of 
God, or in the vain and foolish works of human 
invention and tradition ; and it teaches us how to 
understand the law of God rightly, and to live godly 
and righteously. It shows us that we are to walk in 
the spirit and to mortify the desires of the flesh. For 
the sum of all godliness is this ; to love and wor 
ship God with a pure heart by faith , and then, to 


direct our lives for the good of our neighbour ; and 
to avoid all those things which militate against these 
two ; that is, to shun all hypocrisy and pretended 
holiness, which militates against both faith and love: 
for such an one is ignorant of the true worship of 
God, and neglects all truly good works, which should 
be done for the benefit of his neighbour. 

It has reference to the Third Commandment of 
the Decalogue, concerning keeping holy the sabbath 
day, which is done when we hear and learn the 
word. And it refers also to the third petition of the 
Lord s Prayer. 


David, in distrust of merits, and hatred of idolatry, fleeth to God for 
preservation. He sheweth the hope of his calling, of the resurrection, 
and life everlasting. 

Michtam of David. 

PRESERVE me, O God : for in thee do I put my 

my soul, thou hast said unto the LORD, Thou art 
my Lord : my goodness extendetli not to thee ; 

But to the saints that are in the earth, and to the 
excellent, in whom is all my delight. 

Their sorrows shall be multiplied that hasten after 
another god ; their drink-offerings of blood will I 
not offer, nor take up their names into my lips. 

The LORD is the portion of mine inheritance and 
of my cup : thou maintainest my lot. 

The lines are fallen unto me in pleasant places ; 
yea, I have a goodly heritage. 

1 will bless the LORD, who hath given me counsel : 
my reins also instruct me in the night-seasons. 


I have set the LORD always before me : because 
he is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. 

Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth : 
my flesh also shall rest in hope. 

For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither 
wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see cotruption. 

Thou wilt shew me the path of life: in thy pre 
sence is fulness of joy; at thy right hand there 
are pleasures for evermore. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning the passion and resur 
rection of Christ ; and the apostles quote it, Acts ii. 
and xiii. as having a striking reference to Christ. 

This is a glorious Psalm and a precious jewel 
among all the Psalms on this account, because it 
shows forth in clear words that all that splendid and 
magnificent worship of the law of Moses, its sacri 
fices, its sabbath worship, its circumcision, in all 
which the Jews so unceasingly boasted, is done away 
with by the gospel ; for in the fourth verse, David 
plainly says, that those who follow works and the 
righteousness of the law, follow strange gods and 
idols : and he shows that the Jews, although a sacred 
people, should be rejected, and another people chosen, 
even a people who should believe in Christ, who were 
the true elect, inheritance, and peculiar people of 

This Psalm also has reference to the First, Second, 
and Third Commandments ; for it foretels a new 
glory of God, a new work and word, and that new 
kind of worship which was to be revealed to the 
world : and it refers also to the first and second 
petitions of the Lord s Prayer. 



David, in confidence of his integrity, craveth defence of God against his 
enemies. He sheweth their pride, craft, and eagerness. He prayeth 
against them in confidence of his hope. 

A Prayer of David. 

HEAR the right, O LORD, attend unto my cry, give 

ear unto my prayer, that goeth not out of feigned 

Let my sentence come forth from thy presence ; let 

thine eyes behold the things that are equal. 
Thou hast proved mine heart ; thou hast visited 

me in the night ; thou hast tried me, and shalt 

find nothing ; I am purposed that my mouth 

shall not transgress. 
Concerning the works of men, by the word of thy 

lips 1 have kept me from the paths of the de 
Hold up my goings in thy paths, that my footsteps 

slip not. 
I have called upon thee, for thou wilt hear me, O 

God : incline thine ear unto me, and hear my 

Shew thy marvellous loving-kindness, O thou that 

savest by thy right band them which put their 

trust in thee, from those that rise up against 

Keep me as the apple of the eye, hide me tinder 

the shadow of thy wings. 
From the wicked that oppress me, from my deadly 

enemies, who compass me about. 
They are inclosed in their own fat: with their 

mouth they speak proudly. 


They have now compassed us in our steps : they 

have set their eyes bowing down to the earth ; 
Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey, and as it 

were a young lion lurking in secret places. 
Arise, O LORD, disappoint him, cast him down ; 

deliver my soul from the wicked, which is thy 

From men which are thy hand, O LORD, from men 

of the world, which have their portion in this life, 

and whose belly thou fillest with thy hid treasure 

they are full of children, and leave the rest of 

their substance to their babes. 
As for me, I will behold thy face in righteousness : 

I shall be satisfied when I awake, with thy 


THIS Psalm is a prayer against false teachers, and 
those very delicate saints, that is, hypocrites, who by 
their human doctrines, call men off from the word of 
God, and hate and persecute the truly godly teachers. 
These are the characters whom Paul also calls 
" enemies of the cross of Christ : " for they are not 
willing to suffer anything for God s sake, but shun 
the cross ; but make a pretext of the name and wor 
ship of God, and under all the artifices of their hypo 
crisy, seek nothing else than earthly advantages, 
honors, wealth, the favour of men, and the pleasures 
and gratifications of the world. Hence David calls 
them, in the last verse but one, * men of this world, 
and men of this life/ Of this kind also are all 
those animals of the belly in monasteries, those cum- 
berers of the earth, the monks, and lazy priests. 

This Psalm also has reference to the Second and 
Third Commandments, and to the first petition of the 
Lord s Prayer, where we pray "Hallowed be thy name." 




David praiseth God for his manifold and marvellous blessings. 

To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David, the servant of the LORD, 
who spake unto the LORD the words of this song in the day that 
the LORD delivered him from the hand of all his enemies, and from 
the hand of Saul : And he said, 

I WILL love thee, O LORD, my strength. 

The LORD is my rock, and my fortess, and my de 
liverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will 
trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, 
and my high tower. 

I will call upon the LORD, who is worthy to be 
praised : so shall I be saved from mine enemies. 

The sorrows of death compassed me, and the floods 
of ungodly men made me afraid. 

The sorrows of hell compassed me about : the 
snares of death prevented me. 

In my distress I called upon the LORD, and cried 
unto my God : he heard my voice out of his 
temple, and my cry came before him, even into 
his ears. 

Then the earth shook and trembled ; the founda 
tions also of the hills moved and were shaken, 
because he was wroth. 

There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and fire 
out of his mouth devoured : coals were kindled 
by it. 

He bowed the heavens also, and came down : and 
darkness was under his feet. 

And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly : yea, he 
did fly upon the wings of the wind. 

He made darkness his secret place ; his pavilion 


round about him were dark waters and thick 
clouds of the skies. 

At the brightness that was before him his thick 
clouds passed, hail stones and coals of fire. 

The LORD also thundered in the heavens, and the 
Highest gave his voice ; hail stones and coals of 

Yea, he sent out his arrows, and scattered them ; 
and he shot out lightnings and discomfited them. 

Then the channels of waters were seen, and the 
foundations of the world were discovered at thy 
rebuke, O LORD, at the blast of the breath of thy 

He sent from above, he took me, he drew me out 
of many waters. 

He delivered me from my strong enemy, and from 
them which hated me : for they were too strong 
for me. 

They prevented me in the day of my calamity : but 
the LORD was my stay. 

He brought me forth also into a large place; he 
delivered me, because he delighted in me. 

The LORD rewarded me according to my righteous 
ness; according to the cleanness of my hands 
hath he recompensed me. 

For I have kept the ways of the LORD, and have 
not wickedly departed from my God. 

For all his judgments were before me, and I did 
not put away his statutes from me. 

I was also upright before him, and I kept myself 
from mine iniquity. 

Therefore hath the LORD recompensed me accord 
ing to my righteousness, according to the clean 
ness of my hands in his eyesight. 

With the merciful thou wilt shew thyself merciful; 


with an upright man thou wilt shew thyself 

With the pure thou wilt shew thyself pure ; and 

with the fro ward thou wilt shew thyself froward. 
For thou wilt save the afflicted people ; but wilt 

bring down high looks. 
For thou wilt light my candle : the LORD my God 

will enlighten uiy darkness. 
For by thee I have run through a troop ; and by 

rny God have I leaped over a wall. 
As for God, his way is perfect: the word of the 

LORD is tried : he is a buckler to all those that 

trust in him. 
For who is God save the LORD ? or who is a rock 

save our God ? 
It is God that girdeth me with strength, and 

maketh my way perfect. 
He maketh my feet like hinds feet and setteth me 

upon my high places. 
He teacheth my hands to war, so that a bow of 

steel is broken by mine arms. 

Thou hast also given me the shield of thy salva 
tion : and thy right hand hath holden me up, 

and thy gentleness hath made me great. 
Thou hast enlarged my steps under me, that my 

feet did not slip. 

I have pursued mine enemies, and overtaken them ; 

neither did I turn again till they were consumed. 

I have wounded them that they were not able to 

rise : they are fallen under my feet. 
For thou hast girded me with strength unto the 
battle : thou hast subdued under me those that 
rose up against me. 

Thou hast also given me the necks of mine ene 
mies ; that I might destroy them that hate me. 


They cried, but there was none to save them : even 

unto the LORD, but he answered them not. 
Then did I beat them small as the dust before the 

wind : I did cast them out as the dirt in the 

Thou hast delivered me from the strivings of the 

people ; and thou hast made me the head of the 

heathen : a people whom I have not known shall 

serve me. 
As soon as they hear of me, they shall obey me : 

the strangers shall submit themselves unto me. 
The strangers shall fade away, and be afraid out 

of their close places. 
The LORD liveth ; and blessed be my rock; and 

let the God of my salvation be exalted. 
It is God that avengeth me, and subdueth the 

people unto me. 
He delivereth me from mine enemies : yea, thou 

liftest me up above those that rise up against 

me : thou hast delivered me from the violent 

Therefore will I give thanks unto thee, O LORD, 

among the heathen, and sing praises unto thy 

Great deliverance giveth he to his king ; and 

sheweth mercy to his anointed, to David, and to 

his seed for evermore. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving, in which David 
gives thanks to God (as the title of the Psalm shows) 
because of his deliverance from all his enemies. And 
this Psalm I should divide into four parts, for David 
had combatted with four kinds of enemies King 
Saul, the neighbouring nations, his son Absalom, 
and his seditious subjects. 


At the beginning of the Psalm, in the first six 
verses, David describes the greatness of his perils, his 
distresses and his straits in the midst of so many and 
great afflictions, out of which the Lord delivered 
him, " The sorrows of hell (saith he) compassed me 
about, &c." 

Then in the seventh verse, after the manner of 
the prophets, he alludes in his song of praise to the 
deliverance out of Egypt, and to those mighty works 
at Mount Sinai and in the Red Sea ; intimating, 
that as God then powerfully delivered his people 
from the midst of death, so, he also more than once 
had been delivered by the powerful arm and the high 
hand of God, again, as it were from the hand of 
Pharaoh, and from the midst of surrounding death. 

And then again, when he says verses 16, and 17, 
" He delivered me from my strong enemies and from 
them that were mightier than I," he alludes to King 
Saul, who had persecuted him with hostile hatred 
and bitterness for the word of God s sake, because 
he was chosen from on high to be King and to be his 

At verse 28, he celebrates the goodness of God 
who stands by the humble and those who are des 
pised by the world and defends them against the 
proud and the mighty : as he did in giving David 
the victory over Goliah, the Philistines, the Ama- 
lekites, and other nations. 

At verse 34, he intimates something respecting his 
third and domestic adversary his son Absalom, who, 
on that account, was by far the more dreadful and 
atrocious enemy. 

Then at verse 42, he gives thanks to God who so 
wonderfully stood by him against the crafty counsels 
and snares of the seditious, of which kind was Siba 


and, in the time of Absalom almost the whole of 
Israel. For this most excellent and most godly 
king had many national and domestic enemies, and 
seditious citizens ; so much so, that, as he himself 
here says, many gentile nations were far more kind 
and obedient to him than his own people. 

Therefore any afflicted one, especially if in magis 
terial office, may use this Psalm in giving thanks 
to God for his deliverance out of various perils 
and distresses which fall upon those who govern 
the state, or who are set over the Church. 

And if any one wishes to understand the Psalm 
allegorically, David signifies here Christ ; Saul sig 
nifies the Jews ; the nations that persecuted David, 
the tyrants of the world who set themselves against 
the Gospel ; Absalom, heretics who proceed out from 
us but are not of us ; the seditious subjects, outside- 
show-Christians who sound forth Christ with their 
mouth, but in their heart are far from him : from all 
which this afflicted David, that is, Christ and those 
who are Christians, are at length delivered. 

This Psalm belongs to the second precept of the 
Decalogue, and to the first petition of the Lord s 


The creatures show God s glory. The word his grace. David prayetk 
for grace. 

To the chief Musician, a Psalm of David. 

THE heavens declare the glory of God : and the fir 

mament sheweth his handy-work. 
Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto 

night sheweth knowledge. 


There is no speech nor language where their voice 

is not heard. 
Their line is gone out through all the earth, and 

their words to the end of the world. In them 

hath he set a tabernacle for the sun : 
Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his cham 
ber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race. 
His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and 

his circuit unto the ends of it : and there is 

nothing hid from the heat thereof. 
The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the 

soul : the testimony of the LORD is sure, making 

wise the simple : 
The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the 

heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, 

enlightening the eyes : 
The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever : 

the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous 

More to be desired are they than gold ; yea, than 

much fine gold ; sweeter also than honey and the 

Moreover, by them is thy servant warned : and in 

keeping of them there is great reward. 
Who can understand his errors ! cleanse thou me 

from secret faults. 
Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous 

sins: let them not have dominion over me : then 

shall I be upright, and I shall be innocent from 

the great transgression. 
Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of 

my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O LORD, 

my strength and my redeemer. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning the preaching of the 


Gospel to every creature under the whole heaven 
wherever the wide earth extends. " Day unto day, 
(saith David) uttereth the word ; " that is, * from 
day to day ; or, * day and night shall the Gospel be 
propagated by the voice of the apostles and the min 
isters of the word, farther and farther ; and that, not 
only in Judea but every where in all the earth, and 
in all languages throughout the world. And says 
David, as by the life-giving lightof the Sun, all things 
in nature are illuminated, recreated, and cherished : 
so this new light, this voice of the Gospel shall 
illumine the world, and, by communicating the 
Spirit, shall revive and purify the hearts of men, and 
shall lift up and comfort distressed consciences. 

Here also David intimates, that the old law which 
was the ministration of death was to be done away 
with ; and that the Gospel was to succeed, which 
should be the ministration of life and of the Spirit ; 
and which should be a word sweet and lovely, 
illumining the eyes and purifying the heart. 

This Psalm belongs to the Third Commandment ; 
for it shews us what is the true Sabbath, namely, 
the day or time, in which the Gospel should be 
preached throughout the whole world and received 
by those who should believe it. 


The Church blesseth the King in his exploits.~Her confidence in God s 

To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. 

THE LORD hear thee in the day of trouble ; the 
name of the God of Jacob defend thee. 


Send thee help from the sanctuary, and strengthen 

thee out of Zion. 
Remember all thy offerings, and accept thy burnt 

sacrifice. Selah. 
Grant thee according to thine own heart, and fulfil 

all thy counsel. 
We will rejoice in thy salvation, and in the name 

of our God we will set up our banners: the 

LORD fulfil all thy petitions. 
Now know I that the LORD saveth his anointed : 

he will hear him from his holy heaven with the 

saving strength of his right hand. 
Some trust in chariots, and some in horses : but 

we will remember the name of the LORD our 

They are brought down and fallen ; but we are 

risen and stand upright. 
Save, LORD : let the king hear us when we call. 

THIS is a prayer for kings, rulers, magistrates, 
and all who sustain that most heavy burthen of 
governing the state : that God, in such momentous 
concerns, to which all human diligence and wisdom 
are unequal (as even heathen rulers have confessed 
from their own experience), would stand by magis 
trates when exposed to the hatred of all, to their 
secret councils and plans of deceit; and would keep 
all subjects in their duty, and give his blessing in 
the preservation of a good and happy constitution, 
and public peace ; especially when Satan with horri 
ble hatred against God and the works of God, is 
endeavouring to destroy the constitutions of king 
doms, and to confound all things with slaughter and 

Those great and eminently spiritual men who pro- 


duced this and the like Psalms, plainly saw that such 
great and important matters could not be managed 
and governed by any human wisdom or human 
counsels ; and therefore they wished to pen forms of 
prayer of this kind for the safety of magistrates and 
transmit them to posterity. For such prayers as these 
were especially necessary for the people of God 
at that time, when David and other godly rulers after 
him, were continually exercised with new enemies 
and new afflictions, and those the most severely dis 
tressing. Therefore all Kings and Rulers are fools 
who do not seek for, and expect, the happy govern 
ment and the success of their affairs from heaven. 

This Psalm belongs to the second commandment, 
as do all the other supplicatory Psalms; for it con 
tains a calling upon the name of the Lord. And it 
belongs also to the third petition of the Lord s Prayer, 
where we pray that the will of God, not of the devil, 
may be done. 


A thanksgiving for victory .Confidence of further success. 
To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. 

THE king shall joy in thy strength, O Lord : and 
in thy salvation how greatly shall he rejoice! 

Thou hast given him his heart s desire, and hast 
not withholden the request of his lips. Selah. 

For thou preventest him with the blessings of good 
ness : thou settest a crown of pure gold on his 

He asked life of thee, and thou gavest it him, even 
length of days for ever and ever. 


His glory is great in thy salvation : honour and 

majesty hast thou laid upon him. 
For thou hast made him most blessed for ever: 

thou hast made him exceeding glad with thy 

For the king trusteth in the LORD ; and, through 

the mercy of the Most High, he shall not be 

Thine hand shall find out all thine enemies ; thy 

right hand shall find out those that hate thee. 
Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time 

of thine anger : the LORD shall swallow them up 

in his wrath, and the fire shall devour them. 
Their fruit shalt thou destroy from the earth, and 

their seed from among the children of men. 
For they intended evil against thee ; they imagined 

a mischievous device, which they are notable to 

perform : 
Therefore shalt thou make them turn their back, 

when thou shalt make ready thine arrows upon 

thy strings against the face of them. 
Be thou exalted, LORD, in thine own strength : 

so will we sing and praise thy power. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning the kingdom of Christ ; 
that his kingdom shall be temporal and eternal. 
The beginning of the Psalm gloriously predicts that it 
shall come to pass that this king and this people 
shall rejoice in this kingdom, and that the glory of 
it shall be great. But you must understand that all 
this will be, not before the world or according to the 
flesh, but in God. For Christ entered into glory 
through the flesh and by the cross. 

This Psalm foretels also that this kingdom, that is, 
the Church of Christ, although afflicted before the 


world, shall be enriched with spiritual blessings and 
glorified ; and that this word of grace and the re 
mission of sins, this joyful and all-sweet Gospel 
shall be diffused abroad among all nations, and that 
the godly and those that believe, shall rejoice and be 
glad, and exult in it with a full and perfect joy, 
which no creature shall be able to destroy or to take 

On the other hand, David shews that the Jews 
who opposed this counsel of God, and the whole of 
their kingdom should be destroyed by the awful 
judgment of God, " Thou shalt make them (says he) 
to turn their back ; " that is, because that people 
opposed themselves to the Gospel, and crucified 
Christ, thou shalt afflict them with heavy calamities ; 
and, having rejected the people destroyed their 
kingdom, and having done away with, and abrogated 
the whole of their law and worship for which they so 
furiously fight, thou shalt reduce them to a miserable 
slavery, so that they shall be oppressed under a 
foreign yoke and laws, and shall thus suffer the 
punishment due to their sins. 

This Psalm belongs to the first commandment, and 
to the second petition of the Lord s Prayer: for it 
foretells of a people that should not be under the 
law of Moses, but in a kingdom of rejoicing and 
thanksgiving, and it speaks of a new manner of 


David complaineth in great discouragement. He prayeth in great dis 
tress. He praiseth God. 
To the chief Musician upon Aijeleth Shahar, A Psalm of David. 

MY God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? 


why art thou so far from helping me, and from 
the words of my roaring? 

my God, I cry in the day-time, but thou hearest 
not ; and in the night-season, and am not silent. 

But thou art holy, O thou that inhabitest the 

praises of Israel. 
Our fathers trusted in thee : they trusted, and 

thou didst deliver them. 
They cried unto thee, and were delivered ; they 

trusted in thee, and were not confounded. 
But I am a worm, and no man ; a reproach of men, 

and despised of the people. 
All they that see me laugh me to scorn ; they shoot 

out the lip, they shake the head, saying, 
He trusted on the LORD that he would deliver him ; 

let him deliver him, seeing he delighted in him. 
But thou art he that took me out of the womb : 

thou didst make me hope when I was upon my 

mother s breasts. 

1 was cast upon thee from the womb ; thou art my 
God from my mother s belly. 

Be not far from me, for trouble is near ; for there 

is none to help. 
Many bulls have compassed me: strong lulls of 

Bashan have beset me round. 

They gaped upon me with their mouths, as a raven 
ing and a roaring lion. 
I am poured out like water, and all my bones are 

out of joint : my heart is like wax ; it is melted 

in the midst of my bowels. 
My strength is dried up like a potsherd ; and my 

tongue cleaveth to my jaws; and thou hast 

brought me into the dust of death. 
For dogs have compassed me ; the assembly of the 

wicked have inclosed me: they pierced my hands 

and my feet. 


I may tell all my bones: they look and stare upon 

They part my garments among them, and cast lots 

upon my vesture. 
But be .not thou far from me, O LORD ; O my 

strength, haste thee to help me. 
Deliver my soul from the sword ; my darling from 

the power of the dog. 
Save me from the lion s mouth : for thou hast 

heard me from the horns of the unicorns. 
1 will declare thy name unto my brethren : in the 

midst of the congregation will I praise thee. 
Ye that fear the LORD, praise him: all ye the seed 

of Jacob, glorify him; and fear him, all ye the 

seed of Israel. 
For he hath not despised nor abhorred the affliction 

of the afflicted, neither hath he hid his face 

from him ; but when he cried unto him, he heard. 
My praise shall be of thee in the great congrega 
tion : I will pay my vows before them that fear 

The meek shall eat and be satisfied; they shall 

praise the LORD that seek him : your heart shall 

live for ever. 
All the ends of the world shall remember, and turn 

unto the LORD; and all the kindreds of the 

nations shall worship before thee. 
For the kingdom is the LORD S ; and he is the 

governor among the nations. 
All they that be fat upon earth shall eat and worship : 

all they that go down to the dust shall bow 

before him and none can keep alive his own soul. 
A seed shall serve him ; it shall be accounted to 

the LORD for a generation. 

They shall come, and shall declare his righteous- 


ness unto a people that shall be born, that he 
halli done this. 

THIS Psalm is a kind of gem among the Psalms that 
contain prophecies concerning Christ and his king 
dom, and it is peculiarly excellent and remarkable. 
For here, if anywhere, it may be said that David 
does not seem to be delivering a prophecy of the 
future, but a history of the past ; a history of cir 
cumstances that took place within his own sight and 
knowledge ; for his expressions concerning Christ are 
not at all more obscure than those of Peter or Paul, 
or any other of the Apostles : and he speaks of 
Christ being nailed to the tree, and of the piercing 
of his hands and his feet, as if the whole had taken 
place before his own natural sight. 

This Psalm contains those deep, sublime, and heavy 
sufferings of Christ, when agonizing in the midst of 
the terrors and pangs of divine wrath and death, 
which surpass all human thought and comprehen 
sion. And I know not whether any Psalm through 
out the whole Book contains matter more weighty, 
or from which the hearts of the godly can so truly 
perceive those sighs and groans, inexpressible by 
man, which their Lord and head Jesus Christ uttered 
when conflicting for us in the midst of death, and in 
the midst of the pains and terrors of hell. Where 
fore this Psalm ought to be most highly prized by all 
who have any acquaintance with these temptations of 
faith, and these spiritual conflicts. 

Let Epicureans despise these things : examples of 
this kind will be more precious to the truly godly 
and spiritual, whether they be found in Christ him 
self, or (as St. Peter saith,) in our brethren that 
are in the world, than all the treasures and riches of 
which the world can boast. 


David as I said, describes most clearly and ex 
pressively the sufferings of Christ, so much so, that 
you seem to see the circumstances to take place 
before your eyes. And as he so clearly pourtrays the 
forerunning sufferings of Christ, so does he with 
equal plainness set forth the glories which followed 
them ; for in the end of the Psalm he shows that 
Christ should be delivered from the mouth of the lion 
and of the dog, and from the midst of death and suffer 
ings, and should, through his resurrection wrought by 
divine power, be glorified ; that his Gospel should 
be preached, not only among that people and in that 
kingdom, such narrow limits, but throughout all the 
nations and kingdoms of the world ; that the fat 
ones of the earth, that is the rich and powerful of 
this world, and the poor also, should be converted 
unto Christ ; that his Church should be eternal, and 
his posterity infinite ; and that as King he should be 
adored throughout the whole world, that his name 
should be praised and celebrated throughout all ages, 
and his kingdom endure for ever, and remain invin 
cible against all the kingdoms of the world, and 
against all creatures. 

The Psalm belongs to the first commandment of 
the Decalogue, for it foretels a new worship of God ; 
and it has reference to the first petition of the Lord s 


David s confidence in God s grace. 
A Psalm of David. 

THE LORD is my shepherd ; I shall not want. 

F 2 


He maketh me to lie down in green pastures : he 

leadeth me beside the still waters. 
He restoreth my soul : he leadeth me in the paths 

of righteousness for his name s sake. 
Yea, though I walk through the valley of the 

shadow of death, I will fear no evil : for thou art 

with me ; thy rod and thy staff they comfort me. 
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence 

of mine enemies : thou anointest my head with 

oil ; my cup runneth over. 
Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the 

days of my life ; and I will dwell in the house 

of the LORD for ever. 

THIS Psalm is a remarkable offering of thanks to God 
for the gift and reception of the word : and it contains 
the description of a godly heart acknowledging how 
incomparable and unspeakable a blessing and gift of 
God the knowledge of his word is. It also gloriously 
declares and extols the greatness of the goodness 
and mercy of God in leading us in the right way, 
and in lifting us up and consoling us under every 
temptation, while hypocrites are left to walk in their 
own crooked ways. 

Under a beautiful similitude he compares himself 
to a sheep, in seeking, (if perchance it has strayed) 
saving, defending and feeding which, the faithful 
shepherd spares no labour nor anxiety. And as, 
under a good and watchful shepherd, the sheep have 
fattening pastures, and wholesome brooks and foun 
tains ; so do the godly find all these same pastures 
for their hearts in the word which God has provided 
for them. 

David alludes in this Psalm to the table and shew 
bread, and to the balsam and the oil of gladness. 


For God will feed and comfort the Ministers of the 
word, and the hearers, and will gladden them with 
his cup though they are made sorrowful by the world. 

He calls the word of God a shepherd s staff, re 
freshing waters, green pastures, that by all such 
similitudes he may show that true salvation, settled 
peace, and sure and eternal consolation are esta 
blished in men s consciences by the word of God 

This Psalm belongs to the Third Commandment, 
and to the second petition of the Lord s Prayer. 


God s lordship in the world. The citizens of his spiritual kingdom. 
An exhortation to receive him. 

A Psalm of David. 

THE earth is the LORD S, and the fulness thereof; 

the world, and they that dwell therein. 
For he hath founded it upon the seas, and esta 
blished it upon the floods. 
Who shall ascend into the hill of the LORD ? or 

who shall stand in his holy place ? 
He that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; who 

hath not lift up his soul unto vanity, nor sworn 

He shall receive the blessing from the LORD, and 

righteousness from the God of his salvation. 
This is the generation of them that seek him, that 

seek thy face, O Jacob. Selah. 
Lift up your heads, O ye gates ; and be ye lift up, 

ye everlasting doors ; and the King of glory 

shall come in. 


Who is this King of glory ? The LORD strong and 

mighty, the LORD mighty in battle. 
Lift up your heads, O ye gates ; even lift them up, 

ye everlasting doors : and the King of glory 

shall come in. 
Who is this King of glory? The LORD of hosts, 

he is the King of glory. Selah. 

THIS Psalm is a prophecy concerning the kingdom of 
Christ to be spread and extended throughout the 
whole world by the Gospel. 

By a striking apostrophe David turns himself to the 
kings, princes, and wise ones of the earth, and the 
men of power and authority, whom he calls after the 
genius of the Hebrew language, the gates of the 
world. Remember, (saith he to such,) that the earth is 
the Lord s, he is Lord of all. It was he that gave 
you your kingdoms. He has set up his Christ as 
King over all, whom if ye adore and acknowledge 
not, ye shall perish together with your kingdoms, 
and shall be dashed in pieces like a potter s vessel. 

He exhorts such to acknowledge themselves sin 
ners : for these powerful ones, these pharisees and 
these wise ones of the world, being blinded with a 
conceited opinion of human wisdom and righteous 
ness, are above all others enfuriated against the 
Gospel : for when the kingdom of grace and of the 
remission of sins is preached ; when this Christ is 
declared and proclaimed by the Gospel to be the only 
King of eternal peace, the only victorious King over 
sin, death, and the devil ; then these tyrants and 
powerful ones of the world immediately burst out 
with their cry of pride " Who is this King of Glory? 
Who ?" As if they should say, what! Shall those 
poor abject fishermen, those dross of the earth teach 


us ? Shall they, instead of the law of Moses, and 
instead of the religion which we received from our 
forefathers, force upon us this new worship of God, 
and this King of theirs who was hanged upon the 
cross? Shall they persuade us to believe such 
dreams as these ? 

This Psalm, therefore, at the same time intimates 
that this kingdom of Christ should not be corporeal 
or earthly, nor of such a kind as should destroy 
political governments : but a kingdom in which the 
preachers of it should bring into subjection unto 
Christ the world and the kingdoms of the world by 
the word and the Gospel. 

To this kingdom (says David) kings and rulers 
shall oppose themselves and shall crucify the King 
and Lord of Glory, and shall persecute the Apostles 
and Ministers of the word : but he nevertheless 
shall break through all kingdoms, and in defiance of 
every opposer shall enter into the world and reign by 
the Gospel in the midst of his enemies : he shall 
give to his Apostles a mouth and wisdom which none 
of their adversaries shall be able to gainsay or resist : 
and while the mightiest kingdoms of the earth, as 
Daniel saith, shall be moved and destroyed, this 
eternal king shall endure for ever and be truly mani 
fested to be the Lord of victory and of glory. 

It has reference to the First Commandment of the 
Decalogue, and to the first, second, and third peti 
tions of the Lord s Prayer. 


David s confidence in prayer, He prayeth for remission nf sins, and 
for help in affliction. 

A Psalm of David. 


UNTO thee, O LORD, do I lift up my sonl. 

O my God, I trust in thee : let me not be ashamed ; 

let not mine enemies triumph over me. 
Yea, let none that wait on thee be ashamed : let 

them be ashamed which transgress without 


Shew me thy ways, O LORD ; teach me thy paths. 
Lead me in thy truth, and teach me: for thou art 

the God of my salvation ; on thee do I wait all 

the day. 
Remember, O LORD, thy tender mercies, and thy 

loving-kindnesses ; for they have been ever of old. 
Remember not the sins of my youth, nor my trans 
gressions : according to thy mercy remember 

thou me, for thy goodness sake, O LORD. 
Good and upright is the LORD ; therefore will he 

teach sinners in the way. 
The meek will he guide in judgment, and the 

meek will he teach his way. 
All the paths of the LORD are mercy and truth unto 

such as keep his covenant and his testimonies. 
For thy name s sake, O LORD, pardon mine ini 
quity ; for it is great. 
What man is he that feareth the LORD ? Him shall 

he teach in the way that he shall choose ; 
His soul shall dwell at ease ; and his seed shall 

inherit the earth. 
The secret of the LORD is with them that fear 

him ; and he will show them his covenant. 
Mine eyes are ever toward the LORD ; for he shall 

pluck my feet out of the net. 
Turn thee unto me, and have mercy upon me, for 

I am desolate and afflicted. 
The troubles of my heart are enlarged : O bring 

thou me out of my distresses. 


Look upon mine affliction, and my pain : and for 
give all my sins. 

Consider mine enemies ; for they are many ; and 
they hate me with cruel hatred. 

O keep my soul, and deliver me : let me not be 
ashamed ; for I put my trust in thee. 

Let integrity and uprightness preserve me ; for I 
wait on thee. 

Redeem Israel, O God, out of all his troubles. 

THIS is a prayer in which the prophet prays, with 
wonderful fervency of heart, to be strengthened in the 
faith and in the love of the Word, although he should 
have on this account great and bitter enemies in the 
world : that is, that he may not be broken down in 
mind by the afflictions, nor by the greatness and mul 
tiplicity of his own encompassing infirmities when he 
saw that Epicurean hypocrites despised the true re 
ligion and the true word with so much confidence and 
secure presumption, as if they were things in which 
it was a disgrace for men of a sound mind and a 
liberal education to be in the least engaged. 

Ah Lord (saith David) preserve and glorify thy 
name and thy word. Let us (saith he) who are thus 
derided, spit upon, and, for thy sake, well nigh 
overwhelmed in the midst of so many afflictions and 
so many offences, not be confounded, but let us ex 
pect thy consolations. Let those haughty hypo 
crites and despisers be confounded both before God 
and men, who, on account of their carnal wisdom 
and powers, and riches, and other things of this 
world which they admire and value, so despise thy 
word and thy worship, that they deem it a disgrace 
to have such things in their thoughts. Our eyes 
(saith he) are unto thee O Lord ? Do thou, if there 


be any infirmity in us, pardon it. Keep us in the 
knowledge of thy holy word and of that mystery of 
thine which is hidden from the world, and stand by 
us in our great straits and perils. 

This Psalm belongs to the Second Commandment, 
and to the second petition of the Lord s Prayer. 


David resortetk unto God in confidence of his integrity. 
A Psalm of David. 

JUDGE me, O LORD ; for I have walked in mine 
integrity : I have trusted also in the LORD ; 
therefore I shall not slide. 

Examine me, O LORD, and prove me ; try my reins 
and my heart. 

For thy loving-kindness is before mine eyes ; and 
I have walked in thy truth. 

I have not sat with vain persons, neither will I 
go in with dissemblers. 

I have hated the congregation of evil-doers ; and 
will not sit with the wicked. 

I will wash mine hands in innocency ; so will I 
compass thine altar, O LORD ? 

That I may publish with the voice of thanks 
giving, and tell of all thy wondrous works. 

LORD, I have loved the habitation of thy house, 
and the place where thine honour dwelleth. 

Gather not my soul with sinners, nor my life with 
bloody men ; 

In whose hands is mischief, and their right hand 
is full of bribes. 

But as for me, I .will walk in mine integrity : re 
deem me, and be merciful unto me. 


My foot standeth in an even place: in the congre 
gations will I bless the LORD. 

THIS is a prayer unto God, containing a complaint 
against hypocrites who want to be justified by the 
works of the law, and who always persecute the true 
doctrine of faith and condemn its supporters for 
heretics. David calls these characters dissemblers, 
heretics, bloody men, wicked persons. For although 
they boast of great sanctity, yet their hearts are full 
of hatred and bitterness against God, and craft and 
iniquity against their neighbour: as Christ says of 
all such pharisees when he rebukes them by Luke, 
" Ye are they who justify yourselves before men, but 
God knoweth your hearts. " For such worship God 
with their lips, but their heart is far from him : they 
worship him not in truth, but do all for gain. 

In a word they serve not God but Mammon and 
their own belly : as Paul saith to the Philippians. 
And this Psalm saith, " And their right hand is full 
of bribes." Yet their hypocrisy has a wonderful 
outside appearance. And indeed the false church 
who has power and dominion on her side, has always 
a more wonderful and showy appearance than the 
true, which lies hidden under the various forms of 
the cross. 

Therefore we have need to pray in no slothful 
manner that God would preserve us in his true 
Church, and would not suffer us to be mingled and 
carried away with these characters,, lest we have our 
portion with such hypocrites, whose end, though 
they may for a time make a show before the world, 
shall be destruction, and whose glory shall be turned 
into confusion : as we have seen it exemplified in 
the Pope and his kingdom. 


This Psalm belongs to the Third Commandment, 
and to the first and second petitions of the Lord s 
Prayer: for it speaks of the true worship and king 
dom of God. 


David sustaineth his faith by the power of God, by his love to the 

service of God, by prayer. 

A Psalm of David. 

THE LORD is my light and my salvation ; whom 
shall I fear ? The LORD is the strength of my 
life ; of whom shall I be afraid? 

When the wicked, even mine enemies and my foes, 
came upon me to eat up my flesh, they stumbled 
and fell. 

Though an host should encamp against me, my 
heart shall not fear ; though war should rise 
against me, in this will I be confident. 

One thing have I desired of the LORD, that will I 
seek after ; that I may dwell in the house of the 
LORD all the days of my life, to behold the 
beauty of the LORD, and to inquire in his temple. 

For in the time of trouble he shall hide me in his 
pavilion : in the secret of his tabernacle shall 
he hide me : he shall set me upon a rock. 

And now shall mine head be lifted up above mine 
enemies round about me : therefore will I offer 
in this tabernacle sacrifices of joy : I will sing, 
yea, I will sing praises unto the LORD. 

Hear, O LORD, when I cry with my voice : have 
mercy also upon me, and answer me. 

When thou saidst, seek ye my face ; my heart said 
unto thee, Thy face, Lord, will I seek. 


Hide not thy face/r from me ; put not thy servant 
away in anger: thou hast been my help : leave 
me not, neither forsake me, O God of my sal 

When my father and my mother forsake me, then 
the LORD will take me up. 

Teach me thy way, O LORD, and lead me in a 
plain path, because of mine enemies. 

Deliver me not over unto the will of mine enemies : 
for false witnesses are risen up against me, and 
such as breathe out cruelty. 

/ had fainted, unless I had believed to see the 
goodness of the LORD in the land of the living. 

Wait on the LORD ; be of good courage, and he 
shall strengthen thine heart: wait, I say, on the 

THIS Psalm is a thanksgiving, containing also a 
prayer and consolation against false teachers. 

David having been taught and exercised by such 
great afflictions, by so many perils and sorrows, and 
by such fiery conflicts, for the word s sake, and 
having been supported therein against the devil, and 
the world, now finds a greater truth and reliance on 
God, and is more encouraged and fortified against 
all his enemies. 

The Lord (saith he) is my light and my salvation ; 
whom shall I fear? That is, the Lord hath so often 
and so wonderfully comforted me under, and so 
powerfully delivered me from, various darknesses 
and storms of temptations, that he will not leave nor 
forsake me in time to come. If God, then, be for me, 
who can be against me? If God uphold me, what 
power or violence of the enemy can cast me down, 
or who can destroy me ? 


I will not fear thousands of enemies (says he) 
though they should raise up war against me. All 
that I am anxious about is this one thing; that I 
may remain and dwell in the house of the Lord ; 
that is, in the true church, and among those where 
the word of God is purely and sincerely taught and 
learned. If I can hold fast this jewel I am rich. 
For if I hold fast the word of God, no terrors, how 
great soever they may be, nor even death itself, can 
destroy my light and my life ; that is, my sure and 
eternal consolation. But if I love not the word, no 
human consolations, how great soever they may be, 
will be able to afford me that light and life. 

David directs the whole of this Psalm against 
hypocrites and false teachers, who are so soon carried 
away from the word, and who teach human things 
and seduce men s consciences. Here he calls these 
characters false witnesses ; that is, such as nothing can 
shame, and who know not how to blush. The auda 
city of these inexperienced characters is prodigious, 
who, without any calling, and without the word, 
boastingly make use of the name of God and seduce 
men, and do infinite damage both to the state and to 
the church. For we generally find it to be the case, 
that the more inexperienced such characters are, and 
the more devoid of spiritual things, the more easily 
they rush forth to teach : and such as these are those 
fanatical spirits who afterwards raise up divisions 
and sects against the truly godly. 

This Psalm belongs to the First and Second Com 
mandments, and to the first and second petitions of 
the Lord s Prayer. 



David prayeth earnestly against his enemies. He blesseth God. He 
praycthfor the people. 

A Psalm of David. 

UNTO thee will I cry, O LORD my rock ; be not 

silent to me : lest, if thou be silent to me, I 

become like them that go down into the pit. 
Hear the voice of my supplications, when I cry 

unto thee, when I lift up my hands toward thy 

holy oracle. 
Draw me not away with the wicked, and with the 

workers of iniquity, which speak peace to their 

neighbours, but mischief is in their hearts. 
Give them according to their deeds, and according 

to the wickedness of their endeavours ; give 

them after the work of their hands ; render to 

them their desert. 
Because they regard not the works of the LORD, 

nor the operation of his hands, he shall destroy 

them, and not build them up. 
Blessed be the LORD, because he hath heard the 

voice of my supplications. 
The LORD is my strength and my shield ; my heart 

trusted in him, and I am helped : therefore my 

heart greatly rejoiceth ; and with my song will 

I praise him. 
The LORD t* their strength, and he is the saving 

strength of his anointed. 
Save thy people, and bless thine inheritance : feed 

them also, and lift them up for ever. 

THIS is a prayer of David, which in his time he used 


against Saul, and others like him ; but especially 
against all those Cainish hypocrites who in word 
pretended to desire peace, but burned with secret 
hatred in their hearts. Such a viper as this was 
Absalom, his son, against him ; and such an one also 
was Joab against Amasa and Abner, 2 Kings iii. 
David, therefore, fearing lest the same things should 
be laid to his charge, prays, " Draw me not away 
with the wicked, nor with the workers of iniquity." 

We may use the Psalm against tyrants and fana 
tical spirits ; for in this way are tyrants and perse 
cutors of the word wont to pretend peace in word, 
and yet secretly plan counsels of slaughter and 
murder all the while. And so also fanatical spi 
rits and all false prophets boast with big swell 
ing words 7 of the word of God, and tumultuously 
cry out that they seek the glory and the worship of 
God, and promise nothing but divine and heavenly 
things, and yet seek all the while their own advan 
tage and their own glory, destroying souls, and walk 
ing about in sheep s clothing, while they are inwardly 
nothing but ravening wolves. 

This Psalm belongs to the second and third pre 
cept, and to the first and second petition of the 
Lord s Prayer. 


David exhorteth princes to give glory to God, by reason of his power, and 
protection of his people, 

A Psalm of David. 

GIVE unto the LORD, O ye mighty, give unto the 
LORD glory and strength. 


Give unto the LORD the glory due unto his name; 

worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness. 
The voice of the LORD is upon the waters: the 

God of glory thundereth : the LORD is upon 

many waters. 
The voice of the LORD is powerful ; the voice of 

the LORD is full of majesty. 
The voice of the LORD breaketh the cedars ; yea, 

the LORD breaketh the cedars of Lebanon. 
He maketh them also to skip like a calf; Leba 
non and Sirion like a young unicorn. 
The voice of the LORD divideth the flames of fire. 
The voice of the LORD shaketh the wilderness ; the 

LORD shaketh the wilderness of Kadesh. 
The voice of the LORD maketh the hinds to calve, 

and discovered the forests : and in his temple 

doth every one speak of his glory. 
The LORD sitteth upon the flood : yea, the LORD 

sitteth King for ever. 
The LORD will give strength unto his people ; the 

LORD will bless his people with peace. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning the spread of the 
gospel throughout the whole world, and concerning 
the preaching of the name of Christ before kings and 
nations, and the children of Israel. 

"Give unto the Lord, ye mighty;" that is, ye 
kings, ye rulers, and ye wise and rich ones of the 
world, ye Pharisees and rabbi, acknowledge your 
wisdom, righteousness, and all your excellent po 
litical virtues, your works of the law, and all that 
is high and excellent before men, to be abomination 
in the sight of God ; repent ye and believe the gospel ? 
that ye may quit yourselves under that one King and 
Lord, Christ, and his church and kingdom, and, by 


faith and the wisdom of God, acknowledge Christ, 
this son of God, to be God ; for God, by a manifest 
work of his power, in the beginning sent a flood 
upon the whole world, and destroyed all flesh ; and 
the same God, by his gospel and by baptism, will 
drown and mortify the flesh, that is, the old fleshly 
Adam, by a new and spiritual baptism : that as 
many as are baptized into Christ, being crucified 
according to the old Adam, may be raised up together 
with the second Adarn, and become new men and 
new creatures. 

He calls, by a figure, the kingdoms, nations, and 
powerful cities of this world, forests ; the wilderness 
of Kadesh, confused places of many waters, places 
for hinds to calve, &cc. These confused places the 
Lord has revealed and discovered, and brought to 
the light of the gospel. 

This Psalm refers to the third precept, and to the 
second petition of the Lord s Prayer. 


David praiseth God for his deliverance. He exhorteth others to praise 
him by example of God s dealing with him. 

A Psalm and Song at the dedication of the House of David. 

I WILL extol thee, O LORD ; for thou hast lifted me 

up, and hast not made my foes to rejoice over me. 
O LORD my God, I cried unto thee, and thou hast 

healed me. 
O LORD, thou hast brought up my soul from the 

grave : thou hast kept me alive, that I should 

not go down to the pit. 
Sing unto the LORD, O ye saints of his, and give 

thanks at the remembrance of his holiness. 


For his anger endureth but a moment ; in his favour 

is life : weeping may endure for a night, but joy 

cometh in the morning. 
And in my prosperity I said, I shall never be 

LORD, by thy favour thou hast made my mountain 

to stand strong : thou didst hide thy face, and I 

was troubled. 
I cried to thee, O LORD ; and unto the LORD I 

made supplication. 
What profit is there in my blood, when I go down 

to the pit? Shall the dust praise thee ? shall it 

declare thy truth ? 
Hear, O LORD, and have mercy upon me : LORD, 

be thou my helper. 
Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing : 

thou hast put off my sackcloth, and girded me 

with gladness : 
To the end that my glory may sing praise to thee, 

and not be silent. O LORD my God, I will give 

thanks unto thee for ever. 

THIS is a remarkable Psalm, and truly Davidical. 
Here, with a wonderful fervency of heart, he gives 
thanks unto God for having delivered him from 
spiritual temptations and unspeakable conflicts with 
Satan, and for having refreshed and comforted his 
heart when brought down to such a state of weak 
ness, when broken with such views of misery, terror, 
and wrath, and when almost overwhelmed with the 
greatness of his temptations. " Thou hast (saith he) 
brought my soul up from hell : " that is, thou hast 
enabled me to overcome the violence and fury of 
Satan, which never could be overcome by any human 

G 2 


This Psalm contains, as you see, those sublime 
and heavenly feelings of one rejoicing in the Holy 
Ghost, because God has turned such deep distress, 
such overwhelming terrors and fears, so many tears 
and sighs from the very belly of hell, into a joy that 
has refreshed and healed the soul that was just 
before burning with the fiery darts of the devil, and 
with the very flames of hell. 

The Psalm contains also a most sweet consolation : 
" His anger (says David) endureth but fora moment : 
in his favour is life ; " that is, God, although he 
exercises the godly in these deep temptations, and 
these intense agonizings of soul, yet he does not so 
try them with the intent to slay them ; nor does he 
afflict, in order to destroy his people ; nor is he the 
God of misery, of terror, and of death, but the God 
of peace and of life, the God of joy and of conso 

This Psalm belongs to the third precept and to the 
first petition of the Lord s Prayer. 


David, shewing his confidence in God, craveth his help, Herejoiceth in his 
mercy. He prayeth in his calamity. He praiseth God for his 

To the chief Musician, a Psalm of David. 

IN thee, O LORD, do I put my trust ; let me never 

be ashamed : deliver me in thy righteousness. 
Bow down thine ear to me ; deliver me speedily : 

be thou my strong rock, for an house of defence 

to save me. 
For thou art my rock and my fortress : therefore, 

for thy name s sake, lead me and guide me. 


Pull me out of the net that they have laid privily 
for me ; for thou art my strength. 

Into thine hand I commit my spirit : thou hast 
redeemed me, O LORD God of truth. 

I have hated them that regard lying vanities : but I 
trust in the LORD. 

I will be glad and rejoice in thy mercy : for thou 
hast considered my trouble ; thou hast known 
my soul in adversities ; 

And hast not shut me up into the hand of the 
enemy : thou hast set my foot in a large room. 

Have mercy upon me, O LORD, for I am in 
trouble ; mine eye is consumed with grief, yea, 
my soul and my belly. 

For my life is spent with grief, and my years with 
sighing : my strength faileth because of mine 
iniquity, and my bones are consumed. 

I was a reproach among all mine enemies, but es 
pecially among my neighbours, and a fear to 
mine acquaintance : they that did see me with 
out fled from me. 

I am forgotten as a dead man out of mind ; I am 
like a broken vessel. 

For I have heard the slander of many: fear ivas 
on every side : while they took counsel together 
against me, they devised to take away my 

But I trusted in thee, O LORD : I said, Thou art 
my God. 

My times are in thy hand : deliver me from the 
hand of mine enemies, and from them that per 
secute me. 

Make thy face to shine upon thy servant : save me 

for thy mercies sake. 
Let me not be ashamed, O LORD ; for I have 


called upon thee : let the wicked be ashamed, 

and let them be silent in the grave. 
Let the lying lips be put to silence ; which speak 

grievous things proudly and contemptuously 

against the righteous. 
Oh how great is thy goodness, which thou hast laid 

up for them that fear thee ; which thou hast 

wrought for them that trust in thee before the 

sons of men ! 
Thou shalt hide them in the secret of thy presence 

from the pride of man ; thou shalt keep them 

secretly in a pavilion from the strife of tongues. 
Blessed be the Lord ; for he hath shewed me his 

marvellous kindness in a strong city. 
For I said in my haste, I am cut oft from before 

thine eyes : nevertheless thou heardest the voice 

of my supplications, when I cried unto thee. 
O love the LORD, all ye his saints : for the LORD 

preserveth the faithful, and plentifully rewardeth 

the proud doer. 
Be of good courage, and he shall strengthen your 

heart, all ye that hope in the LORD. 

THIS Psalm is a thanksgiving, and contains also 
prayers and consolations. And the way to arrive at a 
right understanding of the deep feelings and cir 
cumstances contained in this Psalm, is to know that 
this Psalm is the general and continual cry of Christ 
and his members, groaning and sighing under the 
cross and various afflictions. For the Church is a 
congregation of afflicted, poor, and tried persons. 
The wicked men of the world, the rich, the despisers 
of all religion, and the atheistical Epicureans have, 
as Christ saith, their consolation; while the godly, 
the spiritual, and those that believe, being exposed 


to the horrible hatred and envy of the devil, are exer 
cised and distressed through all their life, inwardly 
with fears and terrors in their hearts, and outwardly 
by persecutions, blasphemies, and contempt for the 
word of God s sake ; and yet, from all these they 
are delivered: for, as St. Paul saith, "Where 
afflictions abound, there consolations abound also." 

This Psalm belongs to the second and third pre 
cept, and to the first and third petition of the Lord s 


And here I will cease to show, like a schoolmaster, 
to which precept of the Decalogue, and to which 
member of the Lord s Prayer each Psalm belongs ; 
for from what I have already said upon these points, 
my seriously-disposed readers will be enabled to 
observe and judge for themselves. All the supplica 
tory Psalms belong to the second precept and to the 
first petition of the Lord s Prayer, for they honour 
and sanctify the name of the Lord. And the Psalms 
which teach, console, and give thanks for deliver 
ance, belong to the second and third precepts of 
the Decalogue, and also to the first and third peti 
tions of the Lord s Prayer : for they teach us how, in 
truth, to keep holy the Sabbath day, how to worship 
God with the true and highest worship, and how to 
offer the most acceptable sacrifice; namely, the 
sacrifice of praise. And most of the Psalms refer to 
all those three precepts of the Decalogue, and to all 
those petitions of the Lord s Prayer. 

My reason for giving these hints respecting the 
commandments, and petitions of the Lord s Prayer, 


to which the different Psalms belong, in this my 
brief summary of the contents of the Psalms, is this : 
to show that the whole Scripture flows from the 
Decalogue as from a fountain ; and that in the Ten 
Commandments and in the Lord s Prayer are con 
tained the sum and substance of all theology or 
divinity ; and that nothing can be taught in the 
Church more sublime or more excellent than these 
two parts of Divine revelation. For we see how the 
greatest prophets and Moses himself, drew their 
great and divine discourses from the first, the second, 
and the third Commandments ; and, in a word, from 
the whole, of the Decalogue; how diligently they 
weighed every thing and made it harmonize with 
this; and how they continually delivered new things, 
yet all with reference to this great general Decalogue. 
Hence indeed it was that Moses, that most eminent 
man of God, gave this precept, " These words (says 
he,) thou shalt meditate, when thou standest up and 
when thou liest down ; and thou shalt teach them 
diligently to thy children/ &c. 

In all their discourses and writings, therefore, the 
prophets and apostles allude and refer to the Deca 
logue or Ten Commandments. From these Ten 
Commandments flow all the doctrines, and all the 
godly living of the saints : for there is no holiness or 
godliness of life or true religion, apart from the Ten 
Commandments: because they are the never-failing 
inexhaustible fountain of all wisdom, righteousness, 
and of all perfection in the saints. Nor is there any 
of the complaints uttered by the Prophets or Apostles, 
nor will you find any other in all their discourses, 
but that against false prophets, hypocrites and false 
teachers, who, disregarding, nay, totally despising 
and spitting upon, the true and highest worship of 


God, (which is that of the first Commandment, that 
requires faith and the fear of God,) teach their own 
human dreams, which have nothing whatever to do 
with the Decalogue, and do not at all belong to it. 

Against these characters it is, (as we see in Moses 
himself, in Isaiah, in Jeremiah, and in the epistles of 
Paul and Peter,) that the Prophets and Apostles 
complain bitterly, and that with tears ; against these 
it is that they cry aloud and wage war with all their 
powers ; that they might preserve this true and 
highest worship of God, and might destroy from 
among men, hypocrisy and all human doctrines and 
fanatical dreams. 


Blessedness consisteth in remission of sins. Confession of sinsgiveth ease 
to the conscience. God s promises bring joy. 

A Psalm of David, Maschil. 

BLESSED is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose 
sin is covered. 

Blessed is the man unto whom the LORD imputeth 
not iniquity, and in whose spirit there is no 

When I kept silence, my bones waxed old through 
my roaring all the day long. 

For day and night thy hand was heavy upon me : 
my moisture is turned into the drought of sum 
mer. Selah. 

I acknowledged my sin unto thee, and mine ini 
quity have I not hid. I said, I will confess my 
transgressions unto the LORD ; and thou for- 
gavest the iniquity of my sin. Selah. 

For this shall every one that is godly pray unto 


thee in a time when Ihou mayest be found: 

surely in the floods of great waters they shall 

not come nigh unto him. 
Thou art my hiding-place ; thou shalt preserve me 

from trouble ; thou shalt compass me about with 

songs of deliverance. Selah. 
I will instruct thee and teach thee in the way which 

thou shalt go : I will guide thee with mine eye. 
Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, which have 

no understanding : whose mouth must be held in 

with bit and bridle, lest they come near unto 

Many sorrows shall be to the wicked : but he that 

trusteth in the LORD, mercy shall compass him 

Be glad in the LORD, and rejoice, ye righteous : 

and shout for joy, all ye that are upright in heart. 

THIS Psalm is a very remarkable and valuable one. 
St. Paul quotes it in that profound discussion of his, 
Rom. iv. where he teaches us what sin is, and how 
we obtain the remission of sins, and, in a word, how 
we are justified before God : for it is in this matter 
that all hypocrites so deeply err : because human 
reason cannot imagine that sin is accompanied with 
such great and such infinite guilt before God, and 
with a guilt that no human powers nor works can 
wash away. In a word, it knows not what sin is, 
and thinks that it can be washed off, and taken away 
by works. 

Whereas David here plainly says, " For this shall 
every one that is godly pray :" and he says also, 
that no one can be justified or sanctified before God, 
unless he acknowledge himself to be a sinner, and 
know that he is to obtain the remission of sins with- 


out any works and merits, by the mere mercy of God, 
and by a free and gratuitous imputation. In a word, 
our righteousness is not placed in us, or in our 
works ; but is such, that the remission of our sins is 
truly and rightly called the free REMISSION of our 
sins : and also that our sins are truly said not to be 
imputed, but to be covered. Blessed (sa^s David) 
are they (that is, such are accepted before God, and 
are truly righteous and reconciled to God) whose 
transgressions are forgiven and whose sins are 

Here David says, in plain words, that all the saints 
are, and still remain, sinners ; and that they are jus 
tified and sanctified in no other way than this ; God 
of his free mercy, for Christ s sake, is pleased not to 
impute their sins unto them, nor to judge them, but, 
in mercy, to forgive them, and cover over their sins, 
and forget them. And although in many other re 
spects there is a great difference between the saints 
and the wicked, yet, in this point there is no differ 
ence, they are all equally sinners, and all equally 
sin every day. But the sins of the saints are not 
imputed unto them : they are covered and forgiven 
on account of their faith in the promise of free grace. 
Whereas the sins of the wicked are imputed unto 
them, and they are exposed to the eye and to the 
awful judgment of God. The wounds of the latter 
are not bound up : but the wounds of the former are 
bound up, and are cured with healing plasters and 
oil: and yet they are both truly wounded and truly 
sinners ! But of this, more in its place.; and I have 
said much upon it in others of my writings. 



God is to be praised for his goodness, for his power, and for his providence. 
Confidence is to be placed in God. 

REJOICE in the LORD, O ye righteous: for praise 

is comely for the upright. 
Praise the LORD with harp : sing unto him with 

the psaltery, and an instrument of ten strings. 
Sing unto him a new song ; play skilfully with a 

loud noise. 
For the word of the LORD is right : and all his 

works are done in truth. 
He loveth righteousness and judgment: the earth 

is full of the goodness of the LORD. 
By the word of the LORD were the heavens made ; 

and all the host of them by the breath of his 

He gathereth the waters of the sea together as an 

heap: he layeth up the depth in storehouses. 
Let all the earth fear the LORD : let all the inha 
bitants of the world stand in awe of him. 
For he spake, and it was done; he commanded, 

and it stood fast. 
The LORD bringeth the counsel of the heathen to 

nought: he maketh the devices of the people of 

none effect. 
The counsel of the LORD standeth for ever, the 

thoughts of his heart to all generations. 
Blessed is the nation whose God is the LORD ; and 

the people whom he hath chosen for his own 

The LORD looketh from heaven ; he beholdeth all 

the sons of men. 


From the place of his habitation he looketh upon 

all the inhabitants of the earth. 
He fashioneth their hearts alike ; he considereth 

all their works. 
There is no king saved by the multitude of an host : 

a mighty man is not delivered by much strength. 
An horse is a vain thing for safety : neither shall 

he deliver any by his great strength. 
Behold, the eye of the LORD is upon them that fear 

him, upon them that hope in his mercy : 
To deliver their soul from death, and to keep them 

alive in famine. 
Our soul waiteth for the LORD : he is our help and 

our shield. 
For our heart shall rejoice in him, because we 

have trusted in his holy name. 
Let thy mercy, O LORD, be upon us, according as 

we hope in thee. 

THIS Psalm is a remarkable thanksgiving, where 
the prophet calls upon all the saints, and those that 
fear God, to rejoice and give thanks unto God for his 
preserving the church so wonderfully in the midst of 
the world, in the midst of the kingdom of the devil, 
and exposed to so many evils and perils on every 
side, to give thanks unto God, I say, who never 
forsakes the godly, and those that fear him, when 
tossed to and fro on such waves of temptation, nor 
suffers them to be overwhelmed, nor to perish, though 
conflicting in so perilous a manner. 

God, says David, created the heaven and this 
whole universe of things by his word. "He spake, 
and they were made:" therefore he is omnipo 
tent, and nothing is difficult to him : and hence he 
can deliver his own from the midst of death, and 


from the midst of hell. And then, again, his good 
ness and his truth are exceedingly great and infinite. 
He regardeth and heareth the afflicted, he is ever 
present with them in the hour of temptation : and, as 
David says in another Psalm, " The Lord is nigh 
unto them that are of a broken heart." 

Therefore God is not only willing to help and suc 
cour the godly, but to succour them even as a father 
would his children ; even as that gracious promise 
which is comprehended in the First Commandment, 
declares " I am the Lord thy God : " that is, I 
will be the Lord thy God: I will be thy life, 
thy salvation, thy shield, thy defence, thy eternal 
strength, thy eternal salvation, and consolation ; thy 
eternal and infinite good, against all the evils that 
can come upon thee : For this is to be God ! 

In the first place, therefore, David proclaims with 
great fulness of expression this unequalled wisdom 
and power of God, that God has in his hand all the 
hearts and thoughts of all men, kings, rulers and 
potentates throughout the whole world; that he turns 
them and orders them just as he will ; that he 
governs and overrules all their deliberations and 
counsels, and directs them all according to his own 
mind and pleasure. " The Lord (saith David) bringeth 
the counsel of the heathen to nought:" that is, he 
wonderfully breaks off and disappoints the counsels 
of the wise, of the kings, of the potentates of this 
world : and suddenly defeats all the attacks of the 
enemies against his people and his church, how sure 
soever of success they may appear, and he turns 
all their destruction upon the heads of the enemies 
themselves, so that ..they cannot perform their enter 
prises nor accomplish the devices which they plot 
against the righteous, but they fall themselves into 


the pits which they have digged, and there perish 
and rot. 

This is no small consolation to those that fear God, 
amidst all that bitterness and Satanic cruelty which 
the tyrants of this world execute against the godly, 
when they fearfully threaten that they will fill all 
things with blood if they do not deny Christ and his 
gospel. These make no end of their threats, because 
they are as if they would terrify God himself, and 
hurl Christ down from the throne of his majesty. 
Whereas God, all the while, holds in his power the 
thoughts and imaginations of every one of them, 
and also their life and the breath that is in their 
nostrils: and therefore such are subverted and des 
troyed in a moment before they have accomplished 
their designs. Only meditate upon all the examples 
of this since the beginning of the world. What 
became of all the counsels of the people of Sodom 
against Lot ? Where is that great monarch and 
terror of the world, Sennacherib ? What (to come to 
our own times) has become of Pope Leo X. and all 
the other bitter enemies of the word ? 


David praiseth God, and exhorteth others thereto by his experience. 
They are blessed that trust in God. He exhorteth to the fear of God. 
The privileges of the righteous. 

A Psalm of David, when he changed his behaviour before Abimelech ; 
who drove him away, and he departed. 

I WILL bless the LORD at all times : his praise 

shall continually be in my mouth. 
My soul shall make her boast in the LORD : the 

humble shall hear thereof, and be glad. 


magnify the LORD with me, and let us exalt his 
name together. 

1 sought the LORD, and he heard me, and delivered 
me from all my fears. 

They looked unto him, and were lightened ; and 

their faces were not ashamed. 
This poor man cried, and the LORD heard him, and 

saved him out of all his troubles. 
The angel of the LORD encampeth round about 

them that fear him, and delivereth them. 
O taste and see that the LORD is good : blessed is 

the man that trusteth in him. 
O fear. the LORD, ye his saints : for there is no 

want to them that fear him. 
The young lions do lack and suffer hunger: but 

they that seek the LORD shall not want any good 

Come, ye children, hearken unto me, I will teach 

you the fear of the LORD. 
What man is he that desireth life, and loveth 

many days, that he may see good ? 
Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy lips from 

speaking guile. 
Depart from evil, and do good, seek peace, and 

pursue it. 
The eyes of the LORD are upon the righteous, and 

his ears are open unto their cry. 
The face of the LORD is against them that do evil, 

to cut oft the remembrance of them from the 


The righteous cry, and the LORD heareth, and de 
livereth them out of all their troubles. 
The LORD is nigh unto them that are of a broken 

heart ; and saveth such as be of a contrite 



Many are the afflictions of the righteous : but the 

LORD delivereth him out of them all. 
He keepeth all his bones: not one of them is 

Evil shall slay the wicked ; and they that hate the 

righteous shall be desolate. 
The LORD redeemeth the soul of his servants ; and 

none of them that trust in him shall be desolate. 

THIS Psalm is a remarkable thanksgiving, and is 
nearly of the same import with the preceding, as 
the title of the Psalm, ami the sixth verse show : 
for David here sets forth himself as an example and 
proof before all the godly, to show, that God always 
hears the prayers and supplications of the godly, 
and them that believe, and does not despise the 
sighings of the afflicted. 

David here, after a majestic opening of the Psalm, 
promises that he will set forth the sum of all godli 
ness. " What man is he (saith the Psalmist) that 
desireth life, and loveth many days. Keep thy 
tongue from evil, &c." Here, he requires before all 
things, the fear of the Lord, arid the worship of the 
First Commandment : that, cleaving closely to the 
word, we might avoid hypocrisy and lying doctrines, 
and that we might truly trust in God, endure his 
will, and not rebel or murmur against him. And 
then, that we should live in peace with our neigh 
bour, not rendering evil for evil, but blessing even 
our adversaries and our enemies, and, as much as 
in us lies, living in peace with all men, whether they 
be good or evil. 

For thus does the counsel of God stand, which 
cannot be changed or altered, that the saints should 
live in affliction in this life. Wherefore, if thou 


wilt be a godly man, if thou wilt cleave unto God, 
prepare thy soul (as David here saith) to tempta 
tions, to the cross, and to afflictions : for thus it is 
immutably decreed of God, (as he says again after 
wards) " Many are the afflictions of the righteous." 
And again, this firm and eternal counsel of God 
stands also immutably fixed, that it is God s will 
to deliver the saints from all these evils, and so 
wholly and faithfully so, that not even the least bone 
of them shall perish : nay, in the resurrection, and 
in glorification, every bone shall return to the body 
with greater perfection than ever ; as Christ says in 
his Gospel, " Even the very hairs of your head are 
all numbered." 

What then is this light and momentary tribulation, 
in comparison with that eternal weight of glory, 
which shall be revealed in us ? For although the 
bones and members of the saints are, above all others, 
cruelly scattered and broken, burnt in the fire, and 
left to rot in graves ; yet, even though they be 
thus sown in ignominy, they shall be raised in glory : 
they shall be quickened again with all their limbs 
and bodies ; and all their bones shall be restored ; 
and the just shall shine like the sun in the kingdom 
of their father. For that maddened and insatiable 
fury of the devil, shall not be able to mangle the 
bones of the saints, or so to extinguish the church as 
that it shall be annihilated altogether. The death, 
and the cruel bruising of the bones of the saints, 
shall be temporary only : but their glorification in 
God, shall be for ever and ever. 

And observe, how remarkably this Psalm speaks 
of the resurrection, and also concerning angels. 
For this is the first Psalm which we have yet treated 
on, that speaks of angels. This Psalm shows that 


they are ministers and helpers to the saints, being 
sent forth to minister unto them who shall be heirs 
of salvation. David shows that they are not only 
present with us, but that they most diligently and 
unceasingly watch over us, and stand up for our 
defence; that they encamp round about us, and fight 
for us perpetually, as if in open battle, that they 
may defend us against the horrible violence, and 
infinite snares of Satan and his members. All 
which things are the greatest consolation to the 
godly, and them that believe. 

This is all confirmed by the example of the pro 
phet Elisha, 2 Kings vi. 16. when he said concern 
ing the ministration of angels, " Fear not, for they 
that be with us, are more than they that be with 
them/ The prophet makes an allusion here, after 
the manner of the prophets, who drew all their 
matter from Moses, as it were from a fountain. 
Moses says of Jacob, Gen. xxxii. when he feared 
the cruelty and rage of his brother Esau, " And the 
angels of God met him. And when Jacob saw them, 
he said, this is God s host." So it is said, that 
angels came to Elisha, and encamped round about 
him ; as we have it in the present Psalm. 


David pTayeth for his own safety, and his enemies confusion. He coin- 
plaineth of their wrongful dealing .Thereby he inciteth God against 

A Psalm of David. 

PLEAD my cause, O LORD, with them that strive 
with me : fight against them that fight against 

H 2 


Take hold of shield and buckler, and stand up for 

mine help. 
Draw out also the spear, and stop the way against 

them that persecute me : say unto my soul, I am 

thy salvation. 
Let them be confounded and put to shame that 

seek after my soul : let them be turned back and 

brought to confusion that devise my hurt. 
Let them be as chaff before the wind : and let the 

angel of the Lord chase them. 
Let their way be dark and slippery : and let the 

angel of the LORD persecute them. 
For without cause have they hid for me their net 

in a pit, which without cause they have digged 

for my soul. 
Let destruction come upon him at unawares , and 

let his net that he hath hid catch himself: into 

that very destruction, let him fall. 
And my soul shall be joyful in the LORD: it shall 

rejoice in his salvation. 
All my bones shall say, LORD, who is like unto 

thee, which deliverest the poor from him that is 

too strong for him, yea, the poor and the needy 

from him that spoileth him? 
False witnesses did rise up ; they laid to my 

charge things that I knew not. 
They rewarded me evil for good to the spoiling of 

my soul. 

But as for me, when they were sick, my clothing 
was sackcloth : I humbled my soul with fasting ; 

and my prayer returned into mine own bosom. 
I behaved myself as though he had been my friend 

or brother : I bowed down heavily, as one that 

mournethybr his mother. 
But in mine adversity they rejoiced, and gathered 


themselves together: yea, the abjects gathered 
themselves together against me, and I knew it 
not ; they did tear me, and ceased not : 

With hypocritical mockers in feasts, they gnashed 
upon me with their teeth. 

LORD, how long wilt thou look on ? rescue my soul 
from their destructions, my darling from the 

I will give thee thanks in the great congregation : 
I will praise thee among much people. 

Let not them that are mine enemies wrongfully 
rejoice over me : neither let them wink with the 
eye that hate me without a cause. 

For they speak not peace : but they devise deceit 
ful matters against them that are quiet in the 

Yea, they opened their mouth wide against me, 
and said, Aha, aha, our eye hath seen it. 

This thou hast seen, O LORD : keep not silence : 
O LORD, be not far from me. 

Stir up thyself, and awake to my judgment, even 
unto my cause, my God and my Lord. 

Judge me, O LORD my God, according to thy right 
eousness ; and let them not rejoice over me. 

Let them not say in their hearts, Ah, so would we 
have it : let them not say, We have swallowe^ 
him up. 

Let them be ashamed and brought to confusion 
together that rejoice at mine hurt : let them be 
clothed with shame and dishonour that magnify 
themselves against me. 

Let them shout for joy, and be glad, that favour 
my righteous cause : yea, let them say continu 
ally, Let the LORD be magnified, which hath 
pleasure in the prosperity of his servant. 


And my tongue shall speak of thy righteousness 
and of thy praise all the day long. 

THIS is a prayer wherein David complains bitterly 
against those worst of all men who are found about 
palaces, and who flatter kings and rulers, and, for 
their own gain and advantage, tickle their ears with 
adulation in order to please them ; and at the same 
time, speak evil of the innocent, enflame the power 
ful against the preachers and professors of the word 
of God, endeavour to suppress the truth, and cause 
awful injuries both to churches and to states. Thus 
such characters as these traduced David before king 
Saul, though they were men to whom David had 
rendered the greatest services, for whom he had 
often most fervently prayed, and in endeavouring to 
save and protect whom he had brought upon him 
self much misery and distress. 

The matter of this Psalm may be a great consola 
tion to us when we see the doctrines of truth and the 
gospel of God to be hated and traduced before kings 
and rulers, with the most impudent lies, and the 
most virulent speeches of the enemies of true piety, 
nay of every thing that is honest and becoming man. 
Thus, a certain man, remarkable for the fear of God, 
once told me that, at the tenth year of the August 
Assembly, by the impudent and malicious report of 
some present, nothing was talked about in the pope s 
palace concerning Luther, but, that he denied the 
Lord Christ, that he despised the Virgin Mary, and 
contemptuously set aside baptism, the sacraments, 
and all religion; and that he winked at theft, adul 
tery, and other open sins, and permitted them to 
pass by with impunity. These forgers, however, of 
this manifest lie were put to shame openly when 


Charles V. himself was present and heard me when 
I made a confession of my doctrine ; and then also, 
the devil, the father and fountain of lies, was himself 
confuted. Thus are these wretches wont to traduce 
the godly in this malicious manner, and to defame 
them, while they themselves in the mean time enjoy 
all the secular benefits of the gospel. Of this stamp 
there are thousands before us in our day. 

Hypocritical (or halting) mockers (saith David), 
who halt between two desires, who want to serve 
both God and men, conspire together against me. 
For these when they have been raised at the expense 
and loss of the godly, and have golden riches and 
honours, trample those very godly ones under their 
feet. Such ungrateful wretches as these are all 
hypocrites and fanatical spirits, who serve not the 
Lord or Christ but their own belly. And just such 
now are all those who enjoy and squander all our 
property, and persecute us into the bargain. 

In a word, as it happened to Christ our head, so it 
is now with the church and all who fear God. He 
that eateth my bread, saith Christ, trampleth me 
under foot, and that for the hire of thirty pieces of 
silver. These are those hypocrites who consider 
their own belly above every thing else, whose un 
bounded and insatiable cruelty is ever raging against 
those that fear God ; as David here complains. 


The grievous estate oftfie wicked. The excellency of God s mercy. 
David prayeth for favour to God s children. 

To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David the servant of the Lord. 

THE transgression of the wicked saith within my 
heart, that there is no fear of God before his eyes. 


For he flattereth himself in his own eyes, until his 

iniquity be found to be hateful. 
The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit : 

he hath left off to be wise, and to do good. 
He deviseth mischief upon his bed ; he setteth 

himself in a way that is not good ; he abhorreth 

not evil. 
Thy mercy, O LORD, is in the heavens ; and thy 

faithfulness reacheth unto the clouds. 
Thy righteousness is like the great mountains ; 

thy judgments are a great deep: O LORD, thou 

preservest man and beast. 
How excellent is thy loving-kindness, O God ! 

therefore the children of men put their trust 

under the shadow of thy wings. 
They shall be abundantly satisfied with the fatness 

of thy house; and thou shalt make them drink 

of the river of thy pleasures. 
For with thee is the fountain of life : in thy light 

shall we see light. 
O continue thy loving-kindness unto them that 

know thee; and thy righteousness to the upright 

in heart. 
Let not the foot of pride come against me, and let 

not the hand of the wicked remove me. 
There are the workers of iniquity fallen : they are 

cast down, and shall not be able to rise. 

THIS is a Psalm containing a very necessary doc 
trine, and marks whereby heretics, false-teachers, 
and fanatical spirits may be discovered. And in the 
end he begs of God with a wonderful fervency that 
he may be guarded against all these pestilences. 
And after he had at the beginning of the Psalrn ex 
actly described these characters in their own colours, 


he takes courage, in the middle, himself, and comforts 
all those that fear God; and tells them, that, although 
Satan by his instruments roars and rages against the 
church, yet, that the word of God shall remain and 
the kingdom of God stand unmoved, against all the 
violence of Satan, and against the power of all the 
kingdoms of the world. 

" Thy righteousness (says David) is like the great 
mountains: and thy judgments are a great deep;" 
that is, as t the rocks and mountains which God has 
fixed, no power can overthrow ; and as the great 
deeps of the sea are inexhaustible, so, thy word O 
Lord stands firm, and no human power can overthrow 
or subvert the truth : and although all the gates of 
hell and all the attempts of men and devils should 
set themselves against thy word and will, yet with 
thee is the fountain of life ; that is, in thy house, 
where thou dwellest by the word in the midst of ene 
mies: that fountain and river of life will still remain; 
thatis,this wordof thine, whereby afflicted consciences 
will be raised up and revived. 

And here, if any where, the prophet expressively 
describes those false teachers. SLe first of all breaks 
out against such, with the most fervent zeal at the 
beginning of the Psalm. Certainly, (saith he) if 
there be any set of men, evil men, these are of all 
the worst : for they are men of an abandoned impu 
dence, virulent, and destitute of the fear of God, 
and of faith in him ; they are secure despisers of 
God and religion ; they are proud, arrogant, pre 
cipitate, audacious, and prepared for every thing 
that is bad/ 

In the next place, they approve and commend no 
one but themselves. They hate all others most bit 
terly, and traduce and defame them ; they excel in 


this one thing only, in adorning and setting off 
themselves, in using boasted self-praising words, in 
contemptuously despising others, and in arro 
gating to themselves only the spirit and worship of 
God, and the appellation of the true church. 

In the third place, their doctrines are most per 
nicious, and filled with lies : for they fight against the 
doctrine of faith and of grace, and deceive men by 
their outside daubing, and their hypocrisy. 

In the fourth place, they are rashly precipitate, 
and will endure no monitor ; for they are harder 
than any iron or any adamant: and if you do not 
applaud all they say and all they do, they immedi 
ately rage and make a tumult with all the fury of 

In the fifth place, they go out and diffuse their 
doctrines as widely as possible ; and their speech, 
as Paul saith, eateth like a canker. For, for the 
most part, such men have an audacity above all 
sincere and good men, and a determinate spirit to 
accomplish all their own purposes ; and they are 
restless, vehement, hot-headed, and so furiously and 
wickedly aim at the accomplishment of their own 
purposes, that you would think they would overturn 
everything else. 

And lastly, they hostilely persecute all those who 
do not subscribe to their creed. And all these enor 
mities they perpetrate with a wonderfully uncon 
cerned and insensible security ; as if they were all 
the time pleasing God and doing him service. 



David persuadeth to patience and confidence in God, by the different 
estate of the godly and the wicked. 

A Psalm of David. 

FRET not thyself because of evil-doers, neither be 

thou envious against the workers of iniquity. 
For they shall soon be cut down like the grass, and 

wither as the green herb. 
Trust in the LORD, and do good : so shalt thou 

dwell in the land, and verily thou shalt be fed. 
Delight thyself also in the LORD ; and he shall 

give thee the desires of thine heart. 
Commit thy way unto the LORD ; trust also in him, 

and he shall bring it to pass. 
And he shall bring forth thy righteousness as the 

light, and thy judgment as the noon day. 
Rest in the LORD, and wait patiently for him : fret 

not thyself because of him who prospereth in his 

way, because of the man who bringeth wicked 

devices to pass. 
Cease from anger, and forsake wrath ; fret not 

thyself in any wise to do evil. 
For evil-doers shall be cut off: but those that wait 

upon the LORD, they shall inherit the earth. 
For yet a little while, and the wicked shall not be ; 

yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and 

it shall not be. 
But the meek shall inherit the earth ; and shall 

delight themselves in the abundance of peace. 
The wicked plotteth against the just, and gnasheth 

upon him with his teeth. 


The LORD shall laugh at him ; for he seeth that his 

day is coming. 
The wicked have drawn out the sword, and have 

bent their bow, to cast down the poor and 

needy, and to slay such as be of upright conver 
Their sword shall enter into their own heart, and 

their bows shall be broken. 
A little that a righteous man hath is better than the 

riches of many wicked. 
For the arms of the wicked shall be broken : but 

the LORD upholdeth the righteous. 
The LO-RD knoweth the days of the upright ; and 

their inheritance shall be for ever. 
They shall not be ashamed in the evil time ; and 

in the days of famine they shall be satisfied. 
But the wicked shall perish, and the enemies of 

the LORD shall be as the fat of Lambs: they shall 

consume, into smoke shall they consume away. 
The wicked borroweth, and payeth not again : but 

the righteous sheweth mercy, and giveth. 
For such as be blessed of him shall inherit the 

earth ; and they that be cursed of him shall be 

cut off. 
The steps of a good man are ordered by the LORD ; 

and he delighteth in his way. 
Though he fall, he shall not be utterly cast down : 

for the LORD upholdeth him with his hand. 
I have been young, and now am old ; yet have I 

not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed 

begging bread. 
He is ever merciful, and lendeth ; and his seed is 

Depart from evil, and do good ; and dwell for 



For the LORD loveth judgment, and forsaketh not 

his saints; they are preserved for ever: but the 

seed of the wicked shall be cut off. 
The righteous shall inherit the land and dwell 

therein for ever. 
The mouth of the righteous speaketh wisdom, and 

his tongue talketh of judgment. 
The law of his God is in his heart ; none of his 

steps shall slide. 
The wicked watcheth the righteous, and seeketh to 

slay him. 

The LORD will not leave him in his hand, nor con 
demn him when he is judged. 
Wait on the LORD, and keep his way, and he shall 

exalt thee to inherit the land : when the wicked 

are cut off, thou shalt see it. 

have seen the wicked in great power, and spread 
ing himself like a green bay-tree. 
Yet he passed away, and, lo, he was not : yea, I 

sought him, but he could not be found. 
Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright : for 

the end of that man is peace. 
But the transgressors shall be destroyed together : 

the end of the wicked shall be cut off. 
But the salvation of the righteous is of the LORD ; 

he is their strength in the time of trouble. 
And the LORD shall help them, and deliver them ; 

he shall deliver them from the wicked, and save 

them, because they trust in him. 

THIS is a Psalm of consolation, which exhorts us to 
patience in the world ; and shews us that we should 
not be angry with, nor mutter against God, when we 
see it to be well with evil men, and evilly with the 
good. This indeed is often a cutting offence, and 


exceedingly galls the weak ones ; concerning which 
also Habakkuk complains, chap. i. For when the 
saints think that all things turn out prosperously and 
successfully to the wicked, and all things adversely 
and unsuccessfully to those that fear God, they 
appear, as to human judgment, to be dealt hardly 
with indeed. 

We see an infinity of malice and ingratitude in the 
world, and an extreme contempt of religion ; a con 
tempt of all good learning, and of all virtue and 
honesty. Of this we have examples sufficiently 
manifest, in our time, among the powerful and noble 
of this world, and also among citizens and peasants, 
who all wish to have the liberty of doing what suits 
their pleasure. To these impious despisers of the 
word of God all things turn out prosperously : they 
abound in riches, and they are raised to honours : 
while those that fear God are afflicted with hunger 
and nakedness, and are despised, derided, and con 
temned. And moreover, they endure the most bitter 
hatred of the devil and the world for the word s sake ; 
they can scarcely breathe under their afflictions, and 
they are often bound with fetters and imprisoned. 
Here, not to give way to anger and indignation ; here, 
not to turn epicureans and deny God, is a wisdom 
beyond all that is human : is a wisdom that is alto 
gether spiritual and divine. 

The sum therefore of this Psalm is, suffer ; that 
is, learn patience. Every evil must be overcome by 
bearing it with patience. Cast thy cares upon the 
Lord. Do not murmur ; be not angry ; wish no ill to 
the wicked. Leave the management and government 
of all to God : he is a righteous judge. This is the 
all-necessary doctrine that is delivered to us in this 
Psalm : a doctrine wholly unknown to the wise of 


this world. And here the Holy Spirit comforts the 
godly in a various, and at the same time, most 
fatherly and affectionate way ; and that with the 
most great and gracious promises. And then, as an 
example, I)avid himself says, " I have been young, 
and now am old, yet saw I never the righteous for 
saken/ And then he concludes with threatenings 
against the wicked. But to show forth this patience 
in the midst of so much malice and perverseness of 
the world, is the power and operation of the Holy 
Spirit only, and is found only in spiritual men : for 
all human reason, and all the wise ones of the world, 
cannot judge otherwise, than that it is unworthy of 
God, and unjust, that it should be well with the evil, 
and ill with the good. 


David moveth God to take compassion of his pitiful case. 
A Psalm of David to bring to remembrance. 

LORD, rebuke me not in thy wrath : neither 
chasten me in thy hot displeasure. 

For thine arrows stick fast in me, and thy hand 

presseth me sore. 
There is no soundness in my flesh because of thine 

anger ; neither is there any rest in my bones 

because of my sin. 
For mine iniquities are gone over mine head : as 

an heavy burden they are too heavy for me. 
My wounds stink and are corrupt because of my 


1 am troubled ; I am bowed down greatly ; I go 
mourning all the day long. 


For my loins are filled with a loathsome disease: 
and there is no soundness in my flesh. 

I am feeble and sore broken : I have roared by 
reason of the disquietness of my heart. 

LORD, all my desire w before thee ; and my groan 
ing is not hid from thee. 

My heart panteth, my strength faileth me: as for 
the light of mine eyes, it also is gone from me. 

My lovers and my friends stand aloof from my 
sore ; and my kinsmen stand afar oft". 

They also that seek after my life lay snares for 
me ; and they that seek my hurt speak mischie 
vous things, and imagine deceits all the day 

But I, as a deaf man, heard not ; and / was as a 
dumb man that openeth not his mouth. 

Thus I was as a man that heareth not, and in 
whose mouth are no reproofs. 

For in thee, O LORD, do I hope : thou wilt hear, 
O LORD my God. 

For I said, Hear me ; lest otherwise they should 
rejoice over me : when my foot slippeth, they 
magnify themselves against me. 

For I am ready to halt, and my sorrow is continu 
ally before me. 

For I will declare mine iniquity ; I will be sorry 
for my sin. 

But mine enemies are lively, and they are strong : 
and they that hate me wrongfully are multiplied. 

They also that render evil for good are mine adver 
saries ; because I follow the thing that good is. 

Forsake me not, O LORD : O my God, be not far 
from me. 

Make haste to help me, O LORD my salvation. 


THIS is a fervent prayer to God, in which David 
complains with wonderful groanings, that he is 
stricken and bruised with the sense of his sin ; that 
he is distressed and straitened in spirit under the 
deepest sorrow ; and that he can see nothing and 
feel nothing but wrath from heaven, and the terrible 
lightnings, arrows, and threatenings of God ; and in 
a word, death, and hell itself; and that this great 
distress exhausts not only all the moisture, all the 
strength, all the blood, and all the marrow of his 
frame, but fills him with an unspeakable alarm and 
perturbation, and makes him pant and sweat with 
agony ; so that the intenseness of his feelings, 
destroys the natural colour and appearance of his 
face, and affects his whole body. For to feel in 
reality the burthen of the conscience under a sense 
of sin, is a distress and terror exceeding all other 
distresses and terrors. And these deep temptations 
of the godly are greatly increased by those wicked 
ones without, who cease not to call them heretics, 
seditious persons, and murderers. For these hypo 
crites, while they boast in the teeth of the godly that 
they are the true saints, and the true church, and 
the real people of God, (and God in the meantime, 
which is often the case, not bringing in help and 
consolation) the godly are deeply grieved and af 
flicted, as if God was their enemy because of their 

But this Psalm teaches us constantly to hope for, 
and expect the help and consolation of God, and 
still to fight against all such hypocrites by prayer. 
And the prophet, in the midst of the agonizing con 
flict of this temptation, sustains and lifts up himself 
by taking courage from the divine promise. And 
here he maintains his cause, (which is not the cause 


of men but of God,) as a strong fortress against 
Satan and his cause, and here again flows in the 
consolation of faith, Sec. And so also we ought to 
pray always, and in no temptation yield to sorrow 
of mind, even though we are sinners, and though 
Satan shakes us with the horrible terrors of sin : for 
grace is stronger than sin ! 


David s care of his thoughts. The consideration of the brevity and 
vanity of life, the reverence of God s judgments, and prayer, are his 
bridles of impatience. 

To the chief Musician, even to Jeduthun. A Psalm of David. 

I SAID, I will take heed to my ways, that I sin not 
with my tongue ; I will keep my mouth with a 
bridle, while the wicked is before me. 

I was dumb with silence : I held my peace, even 
from good ; and my sorrow was stirred. 

My heart was hot within me ; while I was musing 
the fire burned : then spake I with my tongue, 

LORD, make me to know mine end, and the measure 
of my days, what it is ; that I may know how 
frail I am. 

Behold, thou hast made my days as an hand- 
breadth, and mine age is as nothing before thee : 
verily every man at his best state is altogether 
vanity. Selah. 

Surely every man walketh in a vain shew ; surely 
they are disquieted in vain ; he heapeth up 
riches, and knoweth not who shall gather them. 

And now, LORD, what wait I for ? my hope is in 


Deliver me from all my transgressions ; make me 

not the reproach of the foolish. 
I was dumb, I opened not my mouth ; because 

thou didst it. 
Remove thy stroke away from me : I am consumed 

by the blow of thine hand. 
When thou with rebukes dost correct man for 

iniquity, thou makest his beauty to consume 

away like a moth : surely every man is vanity. 

Hear my prayer, O LORD, and give ear unto my 

cry ; hold not thy peace at my tears : for I am a 

stranger with thee, and a sojourner, as all my 

fathers were. 
O spare me, that I may recover strength, before I 

go hence, and be no more. 

THIS is a consolatory Psalm, containing also a prayer 
of the prophet, in which he prays that his mouth 
may be bridled, that he might not break out into 
blasphemy and murmuring when he sees the wicked 
to prosper in the world, and most proudly to despise 
God and his word, and to think of nothing but amas 
sing riches, &c. ; and when he sees, on the contrary, 
that the godly are afflicted with various temptations 
without and within, and conflicting both with the 
world and with the devil. 

Rather (says he) teach me, O Lord, to know mine 
end ; that is, that there will be an end to my life at 
length ; that is, teach me to magnify the future, 
which does not yet appear. Guard me from that 
perilous security of the wicked in which they give 
themselves up wholly to this world, and devote them 
selves to coveting the things thereof, and to pride 
and ambition, as if they should live here for ever. 


For it is often a great vexation to the godly, and 
indeed the prophets themselves complain of it, that 
the wicked and the evil abound in every kind of 
luxury, wallow in all the pleasures of wine and 
feasting, and live their whole lives in security, 
strangers to trouble and affliction, while the godly 
are afflicted, and tempted, and distressed both from 
without and from within. 

But the end shows that the godly are happy ; 
and the wicked, with all their perishable happi 
ness, truly miserable. Hence the prophet saith, 
"And now, Lord, what is my expectation, (or what 
wait I for?)" As if he had said, shall I be always 
thus afflicted ! Shall I be utterly overwhelmed ? 
Will these temptations continue to return upon us 
for ever ? No ! (says he) the Lord is my expecta 
tion : that is, I shall find in the end, after all these 
temptations and death, an eternal life, a reconciled 
God, the pardon of all my sins, and even in this 
world, I shall not be forsaken. But the wicked, 
after their short life, will find nothing but death, 
death eternal ! 


The benefit of confidence in God. Obedience is the best sacrifice. The 
sense of David s evils infiameth his prayer. 

To the chief Musician, a Psalm of David. 

I WAITED patiently for the LORD ; and he inclined 

unto me, and heard my cry. 
He brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out 

of the miry clay, and set my feet upon a rock, 

and established my goings. 
And he hath put a new song in my mouth, even 

PSALM XL. 117 

praise unto our God: many shall see it, and 
fear, and shall trust in the LORD. 

Blessed is that man that maketh the LORD his 
trust, and respecteth not the proud, nor such as 
turn aside to lies. 

Many, O LORD my God, are thy wonderful works 
which thou hast done, and thy thoughts which are 
to us-ward : they cannot be reckoned up in 
order unto thee : if I would declare and speak 
of them, they are more than can be numbered. 

Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire ; mine 
ears hast thou opened : burnt offering and sin 
offering hast thou not required. 

Then said I, Lo, I come : in the volume of the 
book it is written of me ; 

I delight to do thy will, O my God : yea, thy law 
is within my heart. 

I have preached righteousness in the great congre 
gation : lo, I have not refrained my lips, O LORD, 
thou knowest. 

I have not hid thy righteousness within my heart; 
I have declared thy faithfulness and thy salva 
tion : I have not concealed thy loving-kindness 
and thy truth from the great congregation. 

Withhold not thou thy tender mercies from me, 
O LORD : let thy loving-kindness and thy truth 
continually preserve me. 

For innumerable evils have compassed me about ; 
mine iniquities have taken hold upon me, so 
that I am not able to look up : they are more 
than the hairs of mine head : therefore my heart 
faileth me. 

Be pleased, O LORD, to deliver me: O LORD, 
make haste to help me. 

Let them be ashamed and confounded together 

118 PSALM XL. 

that seek after my soul to destroy it ; let them be 
driven backward, and put to shame, that wish 
me evil. 

Let them be desolate for a reward of their shame, 
that say unto me, Aha, aha ! 

Let all those that seek thee rejoice and be glad in 
thee: let such as love thy salvation say con 
tinually, the Lord be magnified. 

But I am poor and needy : yet the LORD thinketh 
upon me: thou art my help and my deliverer; 
make no tarrying, O my God. 

THIS Psalm is a prophecy, and the voice of Christ 
himself; where Christ himself says, that he was 
heard in the midst of his sufferings, when crying and 
groaning in the midst of the agony of death. And 
it is also a beautiful example and consolation for 
the whole church, and for all the members of Christ, 
that God will never forsake any of those that 
believe in him, when agonizing in the same manner, 
if they cry unto him, and call upon him in the midst 
of the horrible pit and terrors of death. 

The great prophet David, and others like him, 
published forth Psalms of this kind, concerning the 
greatest and most important things of Christ s king 
dom and people : for the expectation of the Messiah 
and of Christ, was a very important matter among 
the people of God, and therefore David makes the 
person of Christ himself speaking. 

Christ here plainly says, that he is the one and 
only person who fulfils the law, and does the will of 
God. Here he excludes all others and their works. 
" In the volume of the book (says he) it is written 
of me." That is, the promise of blessing and grace, 
that the seed of the woman should bruise the ser- 


pent s head, and that in the seed of Abraham 
all the nations of the earth should be blessed, were 
concerning me, &c." Thus he rejects and abrogates 
the whole law, with all works, sacrifices, and forms 
of worship ; because, by them, the will of God is 
not fulfilled. 

All our works and sacrifices, therefore, are re 
jected. Christ here saith, that he is the sole and 
only one who pleases God, and fulfils his will. By 
these words, therefore, he promises the New Testa 
ment ; where there is no righteousness of the law, 
but the righteousness of faith, preached in the great 
congregation: that is, in the whole world, in all 
nations. There is no preaching of the righteousness 
of the law, which only makes men proud pharisees 
and hypocrites, who have not their hope fixed in 
God, or in the promise of grace, but in their own 
righteousness, false holiness, and legal hypocrisy. 


God s care of the poor. David complaineth of his enemies treachery. 
Hefieeth to God for succour. 

To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. 

BLESSED is he that considereth the poor: the 
LORD will deliver him in time of trouble. 

The LORD will preserve him, and keep him alive ; 
and he shall be blessed upon the earth : and 
thou wilt not deliver him unto the will of his 

The LORD will strengthen him upon the bed of 
languishing : thou wilt make all his bed in 
bis sickness. 


I said, LORD, be merciful unto me: heal my 
soul ; for I have sinned against thee. 

Mine enemies speak evil of me ; when shall he 
die, and his name perish ? 

And if he come to see me, he speaketh vanity : his 
heart gathereth iniquity to itself; whenhe goeth 
abroad, he telleth it. 

All that hate me whisper together against me : 
against me do they devise my hurt. 

An evil disease, say they, cleaveth fast unto him : 
and MOW that he lieth, he shall rise up no more. 

Yea, mine own familiar friend in whom I trusted, 
which did eat of my bread, hath lift up his heel 
against me. 

But thou, O LORD, be merciful unto me, and raise 
me up, that I may requite them. 

By this I know that thou favourest me, because 
mine enemy doth not triumph over me. 

And as for me, thou upholdest me in mine in 
tegrity, and settest me before thy face for ever. 

Blessed be the LORD God of Israel, from everlast 
ing, and to everlasting. Amen, and Amen. 

THIS Psalm is a prophecy; where, after the manner of 
the Psalms, Christ himself speaks, and with a won 
derful feeling, complains of his domestic traitor Judas, 
and of those cruel dogs which vented their fury on the 
poor; by which dogs, he means those that crucified 
him. He prays that God would judge his cause, and 
set him before his face : that is, that God his father 
would comfort him in his suffering, and raise him 
from the dead; that, being exalted, through the cross 
and death, to the right hand of God, he might be 
glorified with eternal life and victory. 

This is a great and unspeakable consolation to all 
the godly; where, in the fourth verse, the Son saith, 


" heal my soul, for I have sinned against thee." He 
confesses himself to be a sinner before God his 
Father, whereas he was without sin, and no guile 
was found in his mouth. Here, therefore, he stands 
as our priest, as a victim and sacrifice for sin, bearing 
and suffering for our sins, as if they were his ; and 
he bore the guilt of them. 

In the beginning of the Psalm he comprehends 
the sum of the whole matter, in a very powerful 
expression. " Blessed (saith he) are they who con 
sider the poor and needy : " that is, blessed, yea, 
eternally blessed are they, who are not offended at 
the once weak, crucified, and condemned Christ, but 
who believe the Gospel. For the preaching of the 
cross is to the Gentiles foolishness, and to the Jews 
a stumbling-block. And it is the greatest of all 
offences to the world to preach, teach, or confess, 
that the once poor, crucified, and condemned Christ, 
now sits at the right hand of the divine Majesty, and 
that he is on high, the Lord of all, both in this 
world, and that which is to come. For with this 
Christ, that people of the Jews were so offended, and 
they so ran upon and stumbled on this rock of 
offence, that, to this day, they remain cast out and 
scattered, and wander about over all the face of the 
earth, without a priesthood, and without a kingdom ! 


David s zeal to serve God in the temple. He encowageth his soul to 

trust in God. 

To the chief Musician, Maschil, for the sons of Koran. 

As the hart panteth after the water-brooks, so 
panteth my soul after thee, O God. 


My soul thirsteth for God, for the living God : when 
shall I come and appear before God ? 

My tears have been my meat day and night, while 
they continually say unto me, Where i* thy 

When I remember these tilings, I pour out my soul 
in me : for I had gone with the multitude, I went 
with them to the house of God, with the voice 
of joy and praise, with a multitude that kept 

Why art thou cast down, O my soul ? And why 
art thou disquieted in me ? Hope thou in God : 
for I shall yet praise him for the help of his 

my God, my soul is cast down within me : 
therefore will I remember thee from the land of 
Jordan, and of the Hermonites, from the hill 

Deep calleth unto deep at the noise of thy water 
spouts ; all thy waves and thy billows are gone 
over me. 

Yet the LORD will command his loving-kindness 
in the day-time, and in the night his song shall 
be with me, and my prayer unto the God of my 

1 will say unto God my rock, why hast thou for 
gotten me ? Why go I mourning because of the 
oppression of the enemy ? 

As with a sword in my bones, mine enemies re 
proach me ; while they say daily unto me, where 
is thy God ? 

W T hy art thou cast down, O my soul, and why art 
thou disquieted within me ; hope thou in God : 
for I shall yet praise him, who is the health of 
my countenance and my God. 

PSALM XL 1 1. 123 

THIS is an ardent prayer to God ; evincing an ex 
ceeding greatness of spiritual feeling, and an un 
utterable groaning of the Spirit. Under this simi 
litude of a hart, at the beginning of the Psalm, the 
Psalmist describes his feelings in the hour of tempt 
ation, when he was wholly immersed in the extreme 
of distress, and absorbed in tears. For in that hour 
of darkness, the God of life, and peace, and light, 
and consolation, is not seen ; but the sun of all com 
fort is hidden as it were behind a cloud. Then the 
hearts of the thus tempted feel nothing but an angry 
God, and a cruel avenger ; and Satan increases these 
dismal views of misery to a wonderful extent. To 
these things, moreover, are often added the blas 
phemies of those who make derision of the afflicted, 
and assail them with the taunt, " Where is now thy 
God ! " For the world and the ungodly cannot 
contain themselves, when they see the saints in 
calamities ; they cannot refrain from taunting and 
deriding them ; from aggravating the distresses of 
these godly ones, and from exclaiming, in their 
bitterly-cutting triumph, They hoped in God that he 
would deliver them. Where is now their delivering 
God ? Where is now their Christ they talk so much 
about ? This is just how such heretics ought to be 
served/ For these wicked creatures judge according 
to the flesh and blind reason ; and imagine, that 
affliction is a certain sign of divine anger against 
the saints. On the other hand, they boast of their 
own afflictions, or any slight adversities which they 
may meet with, as sufferings for the Lord s name 
sake, and as martyrdoms and sorrows endured for 
their apostolic innocence. For those perverse and 
virulent wretches, those blind leaders of the blind, 
though they know, yet will not know, that God thus 


chastens his saints, that he may afterwards comfort 
them ; but not that he may forsake, destroy, or con 
demn them. 

The Psalmist desires, with the greatest fervency 
of heart, to come unto the house of the Lord, and 
into the congregation of those that sing and rejoice ; 
to keep holy the sabbath, to celebrate the name of 
the Lord, and to see the face of the Lord ; that is, 
he has an ardent desire to hear the word of the 
Lord, that he might thereby be lifted up and re 
freshed ; being well nigh consumed in such a fiery 
heat of temptation and distress. The house of the 
Lord is where the word of God, and the promise of 
grace are preached. And by u the face of God/ he 
means the presence of God ; where God, by his 
word, reveals himself, and his will, and grace, and 
gives the knowledge of them unto men. This he 
calls in another place God s turning, (not his back 
but) his face towards us. 


David praying to be restored to the temple, promiseth to serve God 
joyfully. He encourageth his soul to trust in God. 

JUDGE me, O God, and plead my cause against an 

ungodly nation : O deliver me from the deceitful 

and unjust man. 
For thou art the God of my strength : why dost 

thou cast me off? why go I mourning because of 

the oppression of the enemy ? 
O send out thy light and thy truth : let them lead 

me ; let them bring me unto thy holy hill, and 

to thy tabernacles. 


Then will I go unto the altar of God, unto God 
my exceeding joy : yea, upon the harp will I 
praise thee, O God, my God. 

Why art thou cast down, O my soul? and why art 
thou disquieted within me? hope in God : for I 
shall yet praise him, who is the health of my 
countenance, and my God. 

THIS Psalm is of the same purport as the preceding; 
and David uses almost the same expressions. He 
desires to go into the house of God in the light and 
truth of God : that is, he desires to be comforted, 
under his distress and temptation, by the word of 


The church, in memory of former favours, complaineth of their present 
evils. Professing her integrity, she fervently prayeth for succour. 

To the chief Musician for the sons of Korah, Maschil. 

WE have heard with our ears, O God, our fathers 
have told us, what work thou didst in their days, 
in the times of old. 

How thou didst drive out the heathen with thy 
hand, and plantedst them ; how thou didst afflict 
the people, and cast them out. 

For they got not the land in possession by their 
own sword, neither did their own arm save them: 
but thy right hand, and thine arm, and the light 
of thy countenance, because thou hadst a favour 
unto them. 

Thou art my King, O God: command deliverances 
for Jacob. 

Through thee will we push down our enemies : 


through thy name will we tread them under that 

rise up against us. 
For I will not trust in my bow, neither shall my 

sword save me. 
But thou hast saved us from our enemies, and hast 

put them to shame that hated us. 
In God we boast all the day long, and praise thy 

name for ever. Selah. 
But thou hast cast off, and put us to shame ; and 

goest not forth with our armies. 
Thou makest us to turn back from the enemy ; and 

they which hate us spoil for themselves. 
Thou hast given us like sheep appointed for meat ; 

and hast scattered us among the heathen. 
Thou sellest thy people for nought, and dost not 

increase thy wealth by their price. 
Thou makest us a reproach to our neighbours, a 

scorn and a derision to them that are round 

about us. 
Thou makest us a byword among the heathen, a 

shaking of the head among the people. 
My confusion is continually before me, and the 

shame of my face hath covered me, 
For the voice of him that reproacheth and blas- 

phemeth ; by reason of the enemy and avenger. 
All this is come upon us ; yet have we not forgot 
ten thee, neither have we dealt falsely in thy 

Our heart is not turned back, neither have our 

steps declined from thy way ; 
Though thou hast sore broken us in the place of 

dragons, and covered us with the shadow of 

If we have forgotten the name of our God, or 

stretched out our hands, to a strange God ; 


Shall not God search this out ? for he knoweth the 

secrets of the heart. 
Yea, for thy sake are we killed all the day long ; 

we are counted as sheep for the slaughter. 
Awake, why sleepest thou, O LORD ? arise, cast us 

not off for ever. 
Wherefore hidest thou thy face, and forgettest our 

affliction and our oppression? 
For our soul is bowed down to the dust: our belly 

cleaveth unto the earth. 
Arise for our help, and redeem us for thy mercies 


THIS is a prayer of the whole people of God ; and it 
is offered up in the person of all the saints ; especially 
of those under the New Testament, whom you here 
find to be complaining that they are cruelly slaugh 
tered and slain by the wicked nations, by the ungodly 
men, and by tyrants. For God delivers his saints 
into the hands of men, as if he had rejected them, or 
utterly forgotten them. Whereas, he glorified the 
patriarchs of old, and all those his people from the 
beginning, by mighty works and miracles in the sight 
of the nations that opposed them. And indeed all 
the saints maintain, not their own cause, but God s ; 
and seek, not their own glory, but his : and yet for 
this very just and holy cause, and for no other reason, 
nor any other crime, they are thus torn and slaugh 
tered by exile, by the spoiling of their goods, and, in 
a word, by death ; and are as cruelly treated in the 
world, as if they were the most wicked of all men, 
and a mere set of vagabonds and murderers. 

In a word, this Psalm is a sighing and groaning of 
spirit against the weakness of the flesh ; which flesh, 
even in the saints, murmurs against God, because he 


governs the world with such an appearance of injus 
tice ; and is in appearance, an unjust judge, permit 
ting the saints to be afflicted whom he ought to sup 
port and comfort, and promoting and exalting the 
wicked whom he ought to overthrow. 


The majesty and grace of Christ s kingdom. The duty of the church, and 
the benefits thereof. 

To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, 
Maschil. A Song of Loves. 

MY heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the 

things which I have made touching the king : 

my tongue is the pen of a ready writer. 
Thou artffairer than the children of men : grace is 

poured into thy lips : therefore God hath blessed 

thee for ever. 
Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty, 

with thy glory and thy majesty. 
And in thy majesty ride prosperously because of 

truth and meekness and righteousness ; and thy 

right hand shall teach thee terrible things. 
Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the king s 

enemies ; whereby the people fall under thee. 
Thy throne, O God, is for and ever and ever: the 

sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre. 
Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: 

therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with 

the oil of gladness above thy fellows. 
All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and 

cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they 

have made thee glad. 
Kings daughters were among thy honourable 


women : upon thy right hand did stand the 

queen in gold of Ophir. 
Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline 

thine ear ; forget also thine own people, and thy 

father s house ; 
So sliall the king greatly desire thy beauty : for he 

is thy Lord; and worship thou him. 
And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift ; 

even the rich among the people shall intreat thy 

The king s daughter is all glorious within: her 

clothing is of wrought gold. 
She shall be brought unto the king in raiment of 

needlework : the virgins her companions that 

follow her shall be brought unto thee. 
With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought: 

they shall enter into the king s palace. 
Instead of thy fathers shall be thy children, whom 

thou mayest make princes in all the earth. 
I will make thy name to be remembered in all 

generations : therefore shall the people praise 

thee for ever and ever. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning the gospel and king 
dom of Christ; and it describes, in many rich and 
sweet figures and expressions, the spouse of Christ, 
the church. It describes also Christ, going forth in 
all his regal pomp; having all royal gifts, a manly 
and regal form, suavity and grace of speech, a war 
rior s armour, the splendour of regal dress, and suc 
cess in war against his enemies, &c. ; and also as 
possessing all kingly virtues, righteousness, cle 
mency, &c. 

And moreover that he may set the kingdom of 
Christ before our eyes in its sweetest appearance, 


the Psalmist describes him as having palaces and 
houses of ivory ; a queen, and her attendant virgins ; 
and sons and daughters. All these things are to be 
understood of the spiritual kingdom of Christ and 
the church, where Christ is a King, powerful, wise, 
just, gracious, and victorious; and moreover, a con 
queror triumphant; and also rejoicing, preserving, 
comforting and enriching his own, against sin, the 
law, and death, &c. 

And David here clearly foretels that the law of the 
Old Testament should be abrogated. " Hearken 
(says he) O daughter, and incline thine ear, forget 
also thy father s house: (here he seems to glance at 
the synagogue): so shall the King have pleasure in 
thy beauty, and thou shalt worship him;" showing, 
that there is no true God out of Christ ; and ascribing 
unto Christ truly divine honour; namely, that of the 
first and great precept, that is, adoration. And in 
the sixth and seventh verses, he plainly calls him 
God : thus making him an eternal king, the founda 
tion of whose throne is in righteousness : who justi 
fies all that believe in him, and takes away sin, and 
destroys death and hell. And no one can be an 
eternal king that dies not, but he that is truly and 
naturally God ! of which we have spoken at large 
elsewhere, in our more full commentary on the 45th 


The confidence which the church hath in God. An exhortation to 
behold it. 

To the chief Musician for the sons of Korah. A song upon Alamoth. 

GOD is our refuge and strength, a very present 

help in trouble. 
Therefore will not we fear, though the earth be 


removed, and though the mountains be carried 
into the midst of the sea ; 

Though the waters thereof roar, and be troubled, 
though the mountains shake with the swelling 
thereof. Selah. 

There is a river, the streams whereof shall make 
glad the city of God, the holy place of the taber 
nacle of the most high. 

God is in the midst of her; she shall not be moved : 
God shall help her, and that right early. 

The heathen raged, the kingdoms were moved : he 
uttered his voice, the earth melted. 

The LORD of hosts is with us ; the God of Jacob is 
our refuge. Selah. 

Come, behold the works of the LORD, what desola 
tions he hath made in the earth. 

He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth ; 
he breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in 
sunder; he burneth the chariot in the fire. 

Be still, and know that I am God : I will be exalt 
ed among the heathen, I will be exalted in the 

The LORD of hosts is with us ; the God of Jacob is 
our refuge. Selah. 

THIS is a thanksgiving which the people of Israel 
sang, at that time, for their divine blessings, and 
miraculous deliverances, because God had power 
fully defended Jerusalem, situated in the midst of 
hostile nations and enemies, and guarded it against 
all opposing kings, and against all the snares and 
hostile attempts of the surrounding nations ; and had 
preserved it in peace against all the furious counsels 
of war and bloodshed. Hence, after the manner of 
the scriptures, David calls all that present flourishing 

K 2 


state of his kingdom s affairs, the river of God, whose 
streams should never be dry ; which was but a small 
rivulet, in comparison of the great streams and tor 
rents of the sea by which he was surrounded, (that 
is, by those immense kingdoms and islands of the 
nations, and Gentile kings,) which although they 
were great, would yet, one day, dry up and disappear, 
while the river of God should endure for ever. 

We sing this Psalm to the praise of God, because 
God is with us, and powerfully and miraculously 
preserves and defends his church and his word, 
against all fanatical spirits, against the gates of 
hell, against the implacable hatred of the devil, and 
against all the assaults of the world, the flesh, and 
sin. So that our little river remains a living foun 
tain ; whilst so many heresies, so many tyrants and 
their doctrines, as so many stinking sewers and 
sinks, are dispersed, like broken cisterns, and dis 
appear, and are lost for ever. 


The nations are exhorted cheerfully to entertain the kingdom of Christ, 
To the chief Musician. A Psalm for the sons of Korah. 

O CLAP your hands all ye people; shout unto God 
with the voice of triumph. 

For the LORD most high is terrible ; he is a great 
King over all the earth. 

He shall subdue the people under us, and the 
nations under our feet. 

He shall choose our inheritance for us, the excel 
lency of Jacob, whom he loved. Selah. 

God is gone up with a shout, the LORD with the 
sound of a trumpet. 


Sing praises to God, sing praises ; sing praises unto 

our King, sing praises. 
For God it the King of all the earth : sing ye 

praises with understanding. 
God reigneth over the heathen : God sitteth upon 

the throne of his holiness. 
The princes of the people are gathered together, 

even the people of the God of Abraham : for the 

shields of the earth belong unto God : he is 

greatly exalted. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning Christ; describing the 
manner of his ascension on high, and showing that 
he should be King over all. " Sing praises, sing 
praises unto our King/ (saith he) ; thereby shewing, 
that this kingdom of Christ should not be one of that 
kind that stands in the power of arms, but in the 
word of praise, and in the singing of thanksgivings. 
As if he had said, This king, by the word of the 
gospel only, which is the word of praise and thanks 
giving, shall destroy all the power of the adversaries, 
the world, and Satan ; as the walls of Jericho fell 
down by the sound of trumpets only, without sword 
or arms ! 


The ornaments and privileges of the church. 
A Song and Psalm for the sons of Korah . 

GREAT is the LORD and greatly to be praised, in the 
city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness. 

Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, 
is mount Zion ; on the sides of the north the city 
of the great king. 


God is known in her palaces for a refuge. 

For, lo, the kings were assembled, they passed by 

They saw it, and so they marvelled ; they were 

troubled, and hasted away. 
Fear took hold upon them there, and pain, as of a 

woman in travail. 
Thou breakest the ships of Tarshish with an east 

As we have heard, so have we seen in the city of 

the LORD of hosts, in the city of our God : God 

will establish it for ever. Seiah. 
We have thought of thy loving-kindness, O God, 

in the midst of thy temple. 
According to thy name, O God, so is thy praise 

unto the ends of the earth: thy right hand is full 

of righteousness. 
Let mount Zion rejoice, let the daughters of Judah 

be glad, because of thy judgments. 
Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the 

towers thereof. 
Mark ye well her bulwarks, consider her palaces > 

that ye may tell it to the generation following. 
For this God is our God for ever and ever; he will 

be our guide even unto death. 

THIS is a thanksgiving almost like Psalm xlvi. For 
the Psalmist praises God, and magnifies and extols 
his works, because he had so marvc lously defended 
the city of Jerusalem against the .neighbouring na 
tions, and against kings and tyrants; and because 
he had often delivered it when besieged by the most 
bitter and the most powerful enemies; while those 
enemies themselves were driven back in a wonderful 
manner, and put to open shame; and because he had 


saved it from infinite perils and destructions, in defi 
ance of the very gates of hell ; and had preserved the 
city, the temple, the word, and the worship of God. 

But, more especially, David is here celebrating 
the truth of God ; that God faithfully fulfils his 
promise ; According to thy name, (saith he) so is 
thy glory, and so are thy works unto the ends of the 
earth : that is, according as thou hast promised us, 
"I will be your God," and accordingly as we have 
believed that word, so hast thou given us to experi 
ence the fulfilment of it ; thou hast been with us, 
and delivered and defended us ; our city and our 
temple stand in the midst of enemies, as if in the 
midst of flames, preserved and unhurt. 

We sing this Psalm, because God is pleased to 
preserve his church and gospel against the roaring 
and hatred of kings and princes ; who cease not from 
attacking them by violence and craft with all their 
might: and yet, they shall perish and be confounded, 
and covered with shame, while the gospel shall re 
main as it was before, unhurt and unhindered. 


An earnest persuasion to build the faith of resurrectiort, not on worldly 
power, but on God. Worldly prosperity is not to be admired. 

To the chief Musician. A Psalm for the sons of Korah. 

HEAR this, all ye people ; give ear, all ye inhabit 
ants of the world. 

Both low and high, rich and poor together. 

My mouth shall speak of wisdom ; and the medi 
tation of my heart shall be of understanding. 

I will incline mine ear to a parable; I will open 
my dark saying upon the harp. 


Wherefore should I fear in the days of evil, 
when the iniquity of my heels shall compass 
me about? 

They that trust in their wealth, and boast them 
selves in the multitude of their riches. 

None of them can by any means redeem his brother, 
nor give to God a ranson for him. 

(For the redemption of their soul is precious, and 
it ceaseth for ever.) 

That he should still live for ever, and not see cor 

For he seeth that wise men die, likewise the fool 
and the brutish person perish, and leave their 
wealth to others. 

Their inward thought is, that their houses shall con 
tinue for ever, and their dwelling-places to all 
generations : they call their lands after their own 

Nevertheless, man being in honour, abidetli not : 
he is like the beasts that perish. 

This their way is their folly : yet their posterity 
approve their sayings. Selah. 

Like sheep they are laid in the grave ; death shall 
feed on them ; and the upright shall have domi 
nion over them in the morning : and their beauty 
shall consume in the grave from their dwelling. 

But God will redeem my soul from the power of 
the grave ; for he shall receive me. Selah. 

Be not thou afraid when one is made rich, when 
the glory of his house is increased. 

For, when he dieth, he shall carry nothing away ; 
his glory shall not descend after him. 

Though, while he lived, he blessed his soul : (and 
men will praise thee when thou doest well to 


He shall go to the generation of his fathers ; they 

shall never see light. 
Man that is in honour, and understandeth not, is 

like the beasts that perish. 

THIS is a Psalm that instructs us unto faith, and 
teaches us to trust in God against that great god of 
this world, who is called Mammon. David here 
gives a long and striking introduction to the Psalm, 
that he may excite and wholly arrest our attention. 
He here sharply rebukes all who trust in the riches 
and wealth of this world ; concerning whom Christ 
also severely says, " Woe unto you that are rich, for 
ye have received your consolation." Luke vi. 24. 

" The love of money, (saith Paul,) is the root of all 
evil;" and yet the whole world leave the true God 
and worship this idol ; and are actuated more and 
more with the furious desire of getting wealth. All 
men, from the least to the greatest, except those that 
fear God, are in pursuit of money. Hence it is, 
that all the prophets exclaim, " For from the least 
of them, even unto the greatest of them, every one is 
given to coveteousness," Jeremiah vi. 13, And hence 
also have arisen all those proverbs and trite sayings 
of the poets among the Greeks and Latins. All 
things give way to money, money is the first thing 
to be sought after ; virtue is a secondary consider 

But all such admirers of, and slaves to riches are 
pointed at and exposed in this Psalm ; as are also 
all those who trust in their wealth, nothing of which 
they can take with them when they die. And here 
also true faith is highly extolled ; by which we trust 
in God, who can deliver us from death, and give us 
eternal life and salvation. And death is the time 

138 PSALM L. 

when not only gold, but all creatures put together, 
cannot save and deliver a man ! 


The majesty of God in the church. His order to gather saints. The 
pleasure of God is not in ceremonies, but in sincerity of obedience. 

A Psalm of Asaph. 

THE mighty God, even the LORD, hath spoken, and 

called the earth from the rising of the sun unto 

the going down thereof. 
Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath 

Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence : 

a fire shall devour before him, and it shall be 

very tempestuous round about him. 
He shall call to the heavens from above, and to the 

earth, that he may judge his people. 
Gather my saints together unto me; those that have 

made a covenant with me by sacrifice. 
And the heavens shall declare his righteousness : 

for God is judge himself. Selah. 
Hear, O my people, and I will speak ; O Israel, 

and I will testify against thee : I am God, even 

thy God. 
I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices or thy 

burnt offerings, to have been continually before 


I will take no bullock out of thy house, nor he- 
goats out of thy folds. 
For every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle 

upon a thousand hills. 
I know all the fowls of the mountains : and the 

wild beasts of the field are mine. 

PSALM L. 139 

If I were hungry I would not tell thee : for the 

world i.v mine, and the fulness thereof. 
Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of 

goats ? 
Offer unto God thanksgiving; and pay thy vows 

unto the most high. 
And call upon me in the day of trouble : I will 

deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me. 
But unto the wicked God saith, What hast thou to 

do to declare my statutes, or that thou shouldest 

take my covenant in thy mouth ? 
Seeing thou hatest instruction, and easiest my 

words behind thee. 
When thou sawest a thief, then thou consentedst 

with him, and hast been partaker with adul 
Thou givest thy mouth to evil, and thy tongue 

frameth deceit. 
Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother : 

thou slanderest thine own mother s son. 
These things hast thou done, and 1 kept silence ; 

thou thoughtest that I was altogether such an one 

as thyself: but I will reprove thee, and set them 

in order before thine eyes. 
Now consider this, ye that forget God, lest I tear 

you in pieces, and there be none to deliver. 
Whoso offereth praise glorifieth me : and to him 

that ordereth his conversation aright will I shew 

the salvation of God. 

THIS Psalm teaches us, in the teeth of all hypocrites 
and all the worship of hypocrites, what is true 
worship, and which are acceptable sacrifices in the 
sight of God. For hypocrites consider their works, 
and merits, and sacrifices as of such high value, that 

140 PSALM LI. 

they think GOD ought to acknowledge the benefit of 
their services ; and they imagine that he has need of 
them. Whereas, on the contrary, the Holy Spirit 
declares with a loud voice by the prophets, what the 
true worship of God is ; namely, that of the First 
Commandment: which is, to worship God, and adore 
him ; and to acknowledge that we receive all things 
from his hand, and that all glory is due to him ! 

Observe, therefore, there is here clearly expressed, 
in the plainest words, what is the highest worship of 
God ; and what sacrifice is the most acceptable to 
him. And we are here briefly told, that the true 
way and road to God is, to call upon him in the day 
of trouble, and give him thanks for the infinite bene 
fits twhich we receive from him ; (as the last verse 
here sings ;) for this is truly to " pay our vows unto 
God, and to offer unto him thanksgiving/ (as the 
14th verse saith.) These are not those foolish 
monastic vows, and the like ; but that highest of all 
vows, which the Decalogue and the First Command 
ment require; where it saith, "To-day have ye 
vowed unto the Lord your God : he will be your 
God : " that is, ye are made the people of God, that 
ye may have him for your God ; and that ye may 
truly believe in him, call upon him, and cleave 
unto him alone. Of this those foolish hypocrites and 
self-imagined saints know nothing whatever. 


David prayeth for remission of sins, whereof he maketh a deep con 
fession. He prayeth for sanctification. God deliyhteth not in sacri 
fice but in sincerity . He prayeth for the church. 

To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David, when Nathan the prophet 
came unto him, after he had gone in to Bath-sheba. 

PSALM LI. 141 

HAVE mercy upon rae, O God, according 1 to thy 
loving-kindness: according unto the multitude 
of thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions. 

Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity, and 
cleanse me from my sin. 

For I acknowledge my transgressions : and my sin 
is ever before me. 

Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, and done 
Mi* evil in thy sight: that thou mightest be 
justified when thou speakest, and be clear when 
thou judgest. 

Behold, I was shapen in iniquity ; and in sin did 
my mother conceive me. 

Behold, thou desirest truth in the inward parts : 
and in the hidden part thou shalt make me to 
know wisdom. 

Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean : wash 
me, and I shall be whiter than snow. 

Make me to hear joy and gladness ; that the bones 
which thou hast broken may rejoice. 

Hide thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine 

Create in me a clean heart, O God ; and renew a 
right spirit within me. 

Cast me riot away from thy presence ; and take 
not thy holy spirit from me. 

Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and up 
hold me with thy free spirit. 

Then will I teach transgressors thy ways ; and sin 
ners shall be converted unto thee. 

Deliver me from blood-guiltiness, O God, thou 
God of my salvation : and my tongue shall sing- 
aloud of thy righteousness. 

O LORD, open thou my lips ; and my mouth shall 
shew forth thy praise. 

142 PSALM LI. 

For thou desirest not sacrifice ; else would I give 

it: thou delightest not in burnt offering. 
The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a broken 

and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not 

Do good in thy good pleasure nnto Zion : build 

thou the walls of Jerusalem. 
Then shalt thou be pleased with the sacrifices of 

righteousness, with burnt offering and whole 

burnt offering: then shall they offer bullocks 

upon thine altar. 

THIS, among all the Psalms, is a signal and golden 
one. It contains experiences and feelings truly 
Davidical ; and teaches us what sin is, what the 
origin of sin is, and how great and awful an 
evil the fall of Adam was. And also, (which is an 
excellent part of it indeed,) it shows us how we ob 
tain the remission of sins. For in this Psalm, we 
have it clearly expressed, that sin is a great and 
innate evil, and an awful depravation and corruption 
of nature, in all the powers both of soul and body. 
Unless, therefore, we are born again by faith in 
Christ, and are renewed in spirit and made new 
creatures of God, the sense of the loss of God and of 
eternal life and salvation is so heavy a burthen, and 
the power of sin and the sting of death so great, 
that the conscience is shaken with unspeakable dis 
tress and terror ; and the anguish that lakes hold on 
it drinks up the very marrow, and bruises and breaks 
the very inmost bones, until the word of grace and 
of the Spirit again raises us up and refreshes us ; as 
David here says, " That the bones which thou hast 
broken may rejoice. 

But in hearts that are purified and renewed by the 

PSALM LI. 143 

Spirit, there is a new light shining; there are new 
motions and spiritual affections; a sure rest and 
peace of conscience; a true and full assurance of 
salvation ; a fervent and lively joy of spirit ; a re 
joicing in God and a peace with him ; a heart full of 
thanksgiving, and a patience under afflictions. Hence 
those that fear God, those that are born again, if 
they are at a point concerning the good will of God 
towards them, are those who can rightly teach and 
instruct others unto godliness. " Then (says David) 
will I teach transgressors thy ways;" then will I 
teach them to call upon and praise the name of the 
Lord, and to give thanks unto him ; and in a word, 
to worship and adore God truly and aright, to bear 
patiently the cross and afflictions, and to offer great 
and glorious sacrifices ; (for that is the way in which 
he here expresses himself, calling "a broken and 
a contrite heart " the favourite sacrifice of God;) 
for that is the highest and most excellent worship of 
God : and he rejects, in plain words, all sacrifices 
which are offered by hypocrites without that sacri 
fice ; which sacrifices of theirs they consider to be 
the highest acts of worship. 

In concluding the Psalm, David begs of God that 
he would be pleased to build and preserve the city of 
Jerusalem; that is, the place of the word and the 
true worship of God. In the same manner, we ought 
also to pray. " Do good unto Zion, O Lord : " that 
is, O Lord, thou seest the virulent hatred of hypo 
crites : Do thou, O Lord, preserve the true church, 
and the true worship of God in it ; that is, the wor 
ship of the First Commandment. Confound all those 
who boast of their good works and sacrifices, and 
who neglect faith towards God, and trample under 
foot the First Commandment. But preserve and 


comfort those who adore thee in truth, serve thee, 
and sacrifice unto thee in the spirit. 


David, condemning the. spitefulness of Doeg, prophesieth his destruction. 

The righteous shall rejoice at it. David, upon his confidence in God s 

mercy, giveth thanks. 
To the chief Musician, Maschil, A Psalm of David, when Doeg the 

Edomite came and told Saul, and said unto him, David is come to 

the house of Ahimelech. 

WHY boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty 
man? the goodness of God endureth continually. 

Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs, like a sharp razor, 
working deceitfully. 

Thou lovest evil more than good, and lying rather 
than to speak righteousness. Selah. 

Thou lovest all devouring words, O thou deceitful 

God shall likewise destroy thee for ever : he shall 
take thee away, and pluck thee out of thy dwel 
ling-place, and root thee out of the land of the 
living. Selah. 

The righteous also shall see, and fear and shall 
laugh at him : 

Lo, this is the man that made not God his strength ; 
but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and 
strengthened himself in his wickedness. 

But I am like a green olive-tree in the house of 
God : I trust in the mercy of God for ever and 

I will praise thee for ever, because thou hast done 
it : and I will wait on thy name ; for it is good 
before thy saints. 


THIS is a Psalm of consolation ; and the title of it 
shows plainly what are its contents. David is here 
complaining of Doeg who betrayed him, and who 
was the cause of much hurt and bloodshed. 1 Sam. 

This Doeg furnishes a type of all those betrayers 
and blood-shedding hypocrites who are in the halls 
of kings and princes ; and who lyingly, and with 
hatred, traduce the word of God and the doctrine of 
truth : of which stamp there are now numbers rising 
up on every side, who irritate and urge on kings 
and princes to slay the sincere ministers of the 
word : such as those in our time, who kill many 
good men on account of the sacraments and mar 
riage, and make no end of shedding the blood of 
God s Abels. 

Against the furious cruelty of these men, there 
fore, this Psalm comforts the godly ; and promises 
them, that such shall not go unpunished, but shall 
fall under those awful curses mentioned in Deut. 
xxviii : that they shall be rooted out of the earth ; 
that their houses shall be destroyed ; and that they 
shall lose both their bodies and their estates ; but, 
that those who fear God shall be preserved ; that 
they shall remain in the house of the Lord ; and that 
they shall persevere in teaching and hearing the word 
of God, in defiance of the devil and all the wicked. 


David describeth the corruption of a natural man.Heconvinceth the 
wicked by the light of their own conscience. He ylorieth in the salva 
tion of God. 

To the chief Musician upon Mahalath, Maschil. A Psalm of 




THE fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. 
Corrupt are they, and have done abominable 
iniquity : there is none that doeth good. 

God looked down from heaven upon the children 
of men, to see if there were any that did under 
stand, that did seek God. 

Every one of them is gone back ; they are alto 
gether become filthy : there is none that doeth 
good, no, not one. 

Have the workers of iniquity no knowledge ? who 
eat up my people as they eat bread : they have 
not called upon God. 

There were they in great fear where no fear was ; 
for God hath scattered the bones of him that 
encampeth against thee : thou hast put them to 
shame, because God hath despised them. 

Oh that the salvation of Israel were come out of 
Zion ! When God bringeth back the captivity 
of his people, Jacob shall rejoice, and Israel 
shall be glad. 

THIS Psalm is a prophecy like that of Psalm xiv ; 
and it is a Psalm of instruction. The two Psalms 
are of the same purport, and contain almost the 
same words and expressions. In a word, they both 
cut at hypocrites and self-justifiers, who persecute 
the sound doctrine and its preachers ; and at the 
close they give a prophetic declaration concerning 
the gospel, and the kingdom of Christ which should 
proceed out of Zion. 



David, complaining of the Ziphims, prayeth for salvation. Upon hit 
confidence in God s help he promiseth sacrifice. 

To the chief Musician on Neginoth, Maschil, A Psalm of David, when 
the Ziphims came and said to Saul, Both not David hide himself 
with us. 

SAVE me, O God, by thy name, and judge me by 

thy strength. 
Hear my prayer, O God ; give ear to the words of 

my mouth. 

For strangers are risen up against me, and op 
pressors seek after my soul : they have not set 

God before them. Selah. 
Behold, God is mine helper : the LORD is with 

them that uphold my soul. 
He shall reward evil unto mine enemies : cut them 

off in thy truth. 
I will freely sacrifice unto thee ; I will praise thy 

name, O LORD, for it is good. 
For he hath delivered me out of all trouble ; and 

mine eye hath seen Ms desire upon mine enemies. 

THIS is a fervent prayer against the persecutors of 
the word, who lay plots against the lives of the good, 
and those that fear God, for the word of God s sake ; 
just like king Saul and the people of Ziph, who lay 
in wait for the life of David, on account of the name 
and word of God, by which Saul was to be dethroned 
and David made king in his stead. David, there 
fore, prays, that the vengeance of God might over 
take such cruelty and malice. 

L 2 



Davivd in his prayer complaineth of his fearful case. He prayeth 
against his enemies, of whose wickedness and treachery he complaineth. 
He comforteth himself in God s preservation of him, and confusion 
of his enemies. 

To the chief Musician on Neginoth, Maschil. A Psalm of David. 

GIVE ear to ray prayer, O God ; and hide not thy 
self from my supplication. 
Attend unto me, and hear me : I mourn in my 

complaint, and make a noise ; 
Because of the voice of the enemy, because of the 

oppression of the wicked : for they cast iniquity 

upon me, and in wrath they hate me. 
My heart is sore pained within me ; and the terrors 

of death are fallen upon me. 
Fearfulness and trembling are come upon me, and 

horror hath overwhelmed me. 
And I said, Oh that I had wings like a dove ! for 

then would I fly away and be at rest. 
Lo then would I wander far off, and remain in the 

wilderness. Selah. 
I would hasten my escape from the windy storm 

and tempest. 
Destroy, O LORD, and divide their tongues : for I 

have seen violence and strife in the city. 
Day and night they go about it upon the walls 

thereof; mischief also and sorrow are in the 

midst of it. 
Wickedness is in the midst thereof; deceit and 

guile depart not from her streets. 
For it was not an enemy that reproached me : then 

I could have borne it: neither was it he that 

PSALM LV. 149 

hated me that did magnify himself against me ; 
then I would have hid myself from him ; 

But it was thou, a man mine equal, my guide, and 
mine acquaintance. 

We took sweet counsel together, and walked unto 
the house of God in company. 

Let death seize upon them, and let them go down 
quick into hell : for wickedness is in their dwel 
lings, and among them. 

As for me, I will call upon God ; and the LORD 
shall save me. 

Evening, and morning, and at noon, will I pray, 
and cry aloud ; and he shall hear my voice. 

He hath delivered my soul in peace from the battle 
that was against me : for there were many with 

God shall hear and afflict them, even he that 
abideth of old. Selah. Because they have no 
changes, therefore they fear not God. 

He hath put forth his hands against such as be at 
peace with him ; he hath broken his covenant. 

The words of his mouth were smoother than butter, 
but war was in his heart : his words were softer 
than oil, yet were they drawn swords. 

Cast thy burden upon the LORD, and he shall sus 
tain thee : he shall never suffer the righteous to 
be moved. 

But thou, O God, shalt bring them down into the 
pit of destruction : bloody and deceitful men 
shall not live out half their days ; but I will 
trust in thee. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer : and although it may in the 
10th and llth verses, be understood of Christ him 
self, praying against his betrayer Judas, when he 

150 PSALM LV. 

says, " If it had been mine enemy that reproached 
me/ &c. yet, it is manifest to me, that it is a general 
prayer of the godly against all the craft of insidious 
and deceitful men, and against the artful Italian 
flattery of some persons, who are friends as far as 
their tongue goes, but who have one thing on their 
tongue and another in their heart, and consider craft 
and dissimulation in all tilings to be the highest 
wisdom ; as if they could deceive God also ! 

They know how to promise, and do promise all 
things to your face : so that David justly describes 
them thus, " Their words are smoother than oil : " 
but when you have turned your back, they blacken 
your character ; and their mouth is more destructive 
than arrows and coals of fire ; and their tongue is a 
sharp sword, and a drawn dagger. And this is what 
David complains of in verse 12 ; that they deceive 
effectually with their countenance, their look, and 
their eyes, and cover, under these fox-like arts, 
Satanic bitterness and virulence. They eat and 
drink with you, and pretend to be your friends and 
intimates, (as Judas did with Christ ;) they keep 
holy days and go to the house of God with you. 

This is the reason, therefore, that David so utterly 
execrates them, and says, " Let them be taken out 
of the way suddenly, and let them descend into hell 
alive/ For virulent, outside-show hypocrites, like 
these, distress the hearts of those that fear God in a 
manner that is beyond description. 

This very judgment which David threatens in this 
Psalm we see executed, in our day, upon many 
tyrants and originators of sects ; who are taken off in 
a moment. For this execration is prophetic ; fore 
telling the end of all hypocrites, who will not listen 
to those that admonish them in a godly manner, nor 

PSALM LV1. 151 

regard their advice ; as it is expressed in verse 19, 
"But they (says David) will not regard ; they are 
not changed ; nor will they fear God ; they go on 
in their course, till they are taken out of the way 


David, praying to God in confidence of his word, complaineth of his 
enemies. He professeth his confidence in God a word, and promiseth to 
praise Aim- 
To the chief Musician upon Jonathelem-rechokim, Michtam of David, 
when the Philistines took him in Gath. 

BE merciful unto me, O God ; for man would 

swallow me up : he fighting daily oppresseth 

Mine enemies would daily swallow me up : for 

they be many that fight against me, O thou Most 


What time I am afraid, I will trust in thee. 
In God I will praise his word ; in God I have .put 

my trust : I will not fear what flesh can do unto 

Every day they wrest my words : all their thoughts 

are against me for evil. 

They gather themselves together, they hide them 
selves, they mark my steps, when they wait for 

my soul. 
Shall they escape by iniquity ? in thine anger cast 

down the people, O God. 
Thou tellest my wanderings : put thou my tears 

into thy bottle : are they not in thy book ? 
When I cry unto thee, then shall mine enemies 

turn back : this I know ; for God is for me. 


In God I will praise his word ; in the LORD will I 

praise his word. 
In God have I put my trust: I will not be afraid 

what man can do unto me. 
Thy vows are upon me, O God : I will render 

praises unto thee. 
For thou hast delivered my soul from death ; wilt 

not thou deliver my feet from falling 1 , that I may 

walk before God in the light of the living? 

THIS is a fervent prayer ; in which David complains 
of Saul and the men of his party, because he was 
obliged to flee out of the land to the Philistines. 
So bitterly and hostilely did Saul and the men of 
his conspiracy persecute David, and plot against his 
life, that he could be in safety no where. He en 
courages and supports himself, however, with a con 
stant and undaunted faith. I will glory (says he) 
in the word of God : for I have a command, a decla 
ration, and a promise of God in my favour: he has 
declared that Saul shall be dethroned, and that I 
shall be king. I will not be afraid what man can 
do unto me. Let them gainsay : let Saul and the 
Saulites oppose and fight against me. Let them 
say, and say again, that I shall not be king. If God 
be for me what can man do against me ? 

We ought also to pray, after the manner of this 
Psalm, against tyrants ; who unceasingly persecute 
the word of God and us, and will never suffer us to 
be at rest. We, however, have that strong and David- 
ical consolation, that the word of God is for us, 
though they unceasingly attack that in us, and cor 
rupt, pervert, and reproach it ; crying out that we 
are heretics ; and arrogating to themselves only, the 
appellation of the church, 




David in prayer fleeing unto God, complaineth of his dangerous case. 
He encourageth himself to praise God. 

To the chief Musician, Al-taschith, Michtam of David, when he fled 
from Saul in the cave. 

Be merciful unto me, O God, be merciful unto 
me : for my soul trusted in thee : yea, in the 
shadow of thy wings will I make my refuge, 
until these calamities be overpast. 

I will cry unto God most high ; unto God that 
performeth all things for me. 

He shall send from heaven, and save me from the 
reproach of him that would swallow me up. 
Selah. God shall send forth his mercy and his 

My soul is among lions : and I lie even among 
them that are set on fire, even the sons of men, 
whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their 
tongue a sharp sword. 

Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens ; let 
thy glory be above all the earth. 

They have prepared a net for my steps ; my soul 
is bowed down : they have digged a pit before 
me, into the midst whereof they are fallen them 
selves. Selah. 

My heart is fixed, O God, my heart is fixed ; I 
will sing and give praise. 

Awake up, my glory ; awake psaltery and harp ; 
I myself will awake early. 

I will praise thee, O LORD, among the people ; I 
will sing unto thee among the nations : 


For thy mercy is great unto the heavens, and thy 

truth unto the clouds. 
Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens, let 

thy glory be above all the earth. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer ; in which David again com 
plains concerning Saul, and those around him ; on 
account of whose plots and snares, he was compelled 
to flee into a cave. It is nearly of the same purport 
as the Psalm preceding. 

We ought to make use of this Psalm also against 
tyrants, and against sycophants, and certain powerful 
ones, about the palaces of kings and princes ; who 
persecute us on account of the word and name of 
God, and persecute our doctrine also ; interpreting 
every thing that we do in the worst sense ; and 
traducing and hating all that fear God. 

And David here paints forth the cruelty of these 
characters ; " Their teeth (says he) are spears and 
arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword." Thanks 
be to God therefore, that he does not forsake his 
people, but makes their enemies fall into the pit 
which they themselves have made ; so that they are 
utterly subverted and taken in their own craftiness ! 


David reproveth wicked judges, describeth the nature of the wicked, 
devoteth them to God s judgments, whereat the righteous shall rejoice. 

To the chief Musician, Al-taschith, Michtam of David. 

Do ye indeed speak righteousness, O congrega 
tion ? Do ye judge uprightly, O ye sons of men ? 

Yea, in heart ye work wickedness ; ye weigh 
the violence of your hands in the earth. 


The wicked are estranged from the womb ; they 

go astray as soon as they be born, speaking lies. 
Their poison is like the poison of a serpent ; they 

are like the deaf adder that stoppeth her ear ; 
Which will not hearken to the voice of charmers, 

charming never so wisely. 
Break their teeth, O God, in their mouth ; break 

out the great teeth of the young lions, O LORD. 
Let them melt away as waters which run con 
tinually : when he bendeth his bow to shoot his 

arrows, let them be as cut in pieces. 
As a snail which melteth, let every one of them 

pass away : like the untimely birth of a woman, 

that they may not see the sun. 
Before your pots can feel the thorns, he shall 

take them away as with a whirlwind, both living 

and in his wrath. 
The righteous shall rejoice - when he seeth the 

vengeance : he shall wash his feet in the blood 

of the wicked. 
So that a man shall say, verily there is a reward 

for the righteous : verily he is a God that 

judgeth in the earth/ 

THIS is a Psalm of consolation against those hardened 
heretics, and enthusiastic spirits, who pertinaciously 
defend their own errors, and stop their ears ; and 
who are so blinded and taken captive, that they can 
hear no one ; but pursue, with headlong precipita 
tion, their own designs, and rush on to the accom 
plishment of them, like a horse at full speed. And 
these, as if they would devour the godly, cease not 
to threaten them in the most terrifying manner. 
David, however, here makes use of five beautiful 
similitudes : under which, he represents their vain 


attempts, and shows, that those very plots which 
they lay for others, fall upon their own heads. 

1. The sudden inundation with which they make 
their attack, rushes with such violence and roaring, 
that it seems as if it would tear up and carry away 
every thing before it : and yet it flows by, and 
suddenly disappears ! 

2. Their arrow, fixed on the bow, threatens certain 
destruction : but, in a moment, the bow and arrows 
are broken together, and the deadly weapon accom 
plishes nothing ! 

3. The snail puts forth his horns from his shell, 
as if he were just going to do some deadly and 
mighty injury: but those horns prove to be soft and 
ineffectual ; they do nothing: nor have the power of 
doing any hurt whatever. 

4. An imperfect conception, disengaged by abor 
tion, makes the womb of the mother to extend, as if 
there were a perfect conception, and as if something 
great would at length come forth : but before it is 
brought forth, it perishes, and never sees the sun. 

5. You may see a branch of buck-thorn, (which 
is the most prickly kind of thorn,) filled with 
young sharp points and prickles, and seeming as if 
it would one day tear many in pieces at once, and 
maim persons on every side of it ; but, before the 
prickles are fully ripe and strong, the whole bush is, 
perhaps, cut down by the woodman, and he burns it 
in the fire, and reduces it to ashes ! 

So, just according to these similitudes, those ene 
mies of God and truth, plan, plot, and breathe out 
dreadful things ; but like a mighty flame, where 
there is no more fuel left to feed it, their fury ends 
in nothing ! 



David prayeth to be delivered from his enemies. He complaineth of their 
cruelty. He trusteth in God. He prayeth against them. He praiseth 

To the chief Musician, Al-taschith, Michtam of David ; when Saul 
sent, and they watched the house to kill him. 

DELIVER me from mine enemies, O my God : de 
fend me from them that rise up against me. 

Deliver me from the workers of iniquity, and 
save me from bloody men. 

For, lo, they lie in wait for my soul ; the mighty 
are gathered against me ; not for my trans 
gression, nor/or my sin, O LORD. 

They run and prepare themselves without my 
fault : awake to help me, and behold. 

Thou, therefore, O LORD God of hosts, the God 
of Israel, awake to visit all the heathen : be not 
merciful to any wicked transgressors. Selah. 

They return at evening : they make a noise like a 
dog, and go round about the city. 

Behold, they belch out with their mouth ; swords 
are in their lips ; for who, say they, doth hear ? 

But thou, O LORD, shalt laugh at them: thou 
shalt have all the heathen in derision. 

Because of his strength will I wait upon thee : for 
God is my defence. 

The God of my mercy shall prevent me ; God 
shall let me see my desire upon my enemies. 

Slay them not, lest my people forget: scatter 
them by thy power ; and bring them down, O 
LORD our shield. 

For the sin of their mouth, and the words of their 


lips, let them even be taken in their pride ; and 

for cursing and lying which they speak. 
Consume them in wrath, consume them, that they 

may not be ; and let them know that God ruleth 

in Jacob unto the ends of the earth. Selah. 
And at evening let them return, and let them 

make a noise like a dog, and go round about 

the city. 
Let them wander up and down for meat, and 

grudge, if they be not satisfied. 
But I will sing of thy power ; yea, I will sing 

aloud of thy mercy in the morning : for thou 

hast been my defence and refuge in the day of 

my trouble. 
Unto thee, O my strength, I will sing: for God is 

my defence, and the God of my mercy. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer ; and may be very properly 
understood as offered up in the person of Christ, 
complaining of, and prophecying concerning the 
Jews ; on whom, on account of their denial of 
Christ, and their rejection of the gospel, the awful 
judgments of God should fall ; but yet, not so as to 
destroy the whole nation entirely ; but, in such a 
manner, as to make of them an example to all future 
nations ; that they should be scattered abroad as 
exiles, and left vagabonds among all nations ; and 
should be punished by being given up to blindness, 
and maddened fury ; so as not to be able to teach 
anything, or say anything, but blasphemies against 
Christ. And this we see fulfilled in them in reality : 
for all their books and commentaries are replete with 
the most bitter reproaches and blasphemies against 
Christ and his gospel. And, for this their wicked 
ness, they suffer dreadful and unceasing punish- 


merits : for they go about the city like hungry 
dogs/ seeking food, and finding it not. 

The meaning of this prophecy is, therefore, that at 
the end, after the times of the apostles, the Jews 
should be left as exiles, should be banished from 
their own land, should wander about as outcasts, 
should be oppressed under foreign jurisdictions, 
should be driven out from one country to another, 
and should be cast out without any certain dwelling- 
place ; and that they should seek out any corner of 
the world, where they might collect together again 
the wrecks and remains of their kingdom, and en 
deavour to find out another one to lead them, but 
should be frustrated in every attempt. And their 
exile and dispersion shall remain unfinished until 
the end appointed : till then, they shall remain and 
waste away like famished dogs, and run and smell 
about round the cities, and gape like dogs, but shall 
not be filled: and they shall perish without a king, 
and without a kingdom. 

But with respect to the history of this Psalm, it 
may rightly be understood as referring to David, 
praying against the heirs of Saul and the Saulites ; 
who, being at length stripped of their kingdom, 
wandered about like yawning and hungry dogs, 
ejected from their kingdom, and forsaken and held 
in contempt, until they all utterly perished. For 
God declared that the house of Saul should not be 
raised up ; though the posterity of Saul greatly de 
sired his kingdom. 



David, complaining to God of former judgment, now, upon better hope, 
prayeth for deliverance. Comforting himself in God s promises, he 
craveth that help whereon he trusteth. 

To the chief Musician upon Shushan-eduth, Michtam of David, to 
teach; when he strove with Aram-naharaim and with Aram-zobah, 
when Joab returned, and smote of Edom in the valley of salt twelve 

O GOD, thou hast cast us off, thou hast scattered 

us, thou hast been displeased; O turn thyself to 

us again. 
Thou hast made the earth to tremble; thou hast 

broken it: heal the breaches thereof; for it 

Thou hast shewed thy people hard things: thou 

hast made us to drink the wine of astonishment. 
Thou hast given a banner to them that feared thee, 

that it may be displayed because of the truth. 

That thy beloved may be delivered ; save with thy 

right hand and hear me. 
God hath spoken in his holiness; I will rejoice, I 

will divide Shechem, and mete out the valley of 

Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine ; Ephraim 

also is the strength of mine head ; Judah is my 

lawgiver ; 
Moab is my washpot ; over Edom will I cast out 

my shoe: Philistia, triumph thou because of me. 
Who will bring me into the strong city ? who will 

lead me into Edom? 
Wilt not thou, O God, which hadst cast us off? 

PSALM LX. 161 

and thou, O God, which didst not go out with our 

armies ? 
Give us help from trouble : for vain is the help of 

Through God we shall do valiantly : for he it is 

that shall tread down our enemies. 

THIS is a signal thanksgiving. David gives thanks 
for the happy state of his kingdom, in which religion 
and political government flourished and prospered ; 
for, in these two things, well-ordered, consist all 
things divine and human. Before the time of David, 
in the days of Saul, all things were in disorder, and 
the kingdom was in a declining state ; as the former 
verses of the Psalm show. The Philistines had 
greatly afflicted the Israelites : so much so that even 
the ark of the Lord was despised and profaned. 

Again, in the reign of Saul, all things were carried 
on with injury, oppression, and wickedness: which 
is always the case, when God forsakes magistrates, 
and suffers them to go on in their own ways. And 
the example of David, who was obliged to have re 
course to such various, wise, and cautious means for 
safety, shows that the palace of Saul was full of 
Ahithophels, and of all such pests of religion and 
good government. 

But, says David, " Thou, O Lord, hast given a 
sign to them that feared thee, that they may display 
it, and may believe and be assured, that thou art 
present with them." For God had given to his own 
a sign, and had left it to them; by which, all those 
that believed in the grace of God, might be comfort 
ed ; namely, the ark of the covenant and the mercy- 
seat ; which God had delivered, by signal miracles, 
out of the hand of the Philistines. For God had 

162 PSALM LX. 

promised and declared, that he would hear all those 
that called upon him before this ark, and this mercy- 
seat ; and that he would there vouchsafe his presence. 

At the end of the Psalm, he enumerates all his 
countries and his people ; and, in*a very striking and 
eminent way, extols the true worship of God, the 
true religion. " God (saith he) speaks in his holi 
ness (or sanctuary) ; I will rejoice : " that is, God is 
present in my kingdom by his word, which is there 
preached : in this I will rejoice. 

He enumerates, in order, these countries: Succoth, 
Shechem, Gilead, Manasseh, Ephraini, Judah, Moab, 
Philistia, And, at the end, he confesses, that, to de 
fend and protect all these, by a good government, 
and to ensure them victory against all their enemies, 
against Edom and Philistia, (that is to carry on 
war and to extend dominions, successfully,) is not in 
the power of human wisdom or human strength ; 
" For vain (saith he) is the help of man. All suc 
cessful valour and victory are from God/ Why he 
does not mention by name more countries than these 
nine, it belongs to a full commentary to explain; the 
narrow limits, therefore, of our present summary, will 
not allow us to enter upon that explanation. 

We may sing this Psalm to the honour of God 
also, because in the church of Christ, God is conti 
nually making new orchards and gardens ; and daily 
increasing the number of its churches and parishes ; 
in which the word of God is preached ; in which the 
sacraments are administered in a godly manner; and 
in which there are various gifts of the Holy Spirit. 



David fleeth to God upon his former experience He voweth perpetual 
service unto him, because of his promises, 

To the chief Musician upon Neginah. A Psalm of David. 

HEAR my cry, O God ; attend unto my prayer. 
From the end of the earth will I cry unto thee, 

when my heart is overwhelmed ; lead me to the 

rock that is higher than I. 
For thou hast been a shelter for me, and a strong 

tower from the enemy. 
I will abide in thy tabernacle for ever ; I will trust 

in the covert of thy wings. Selah. 
For thou, O God, hast heard my vows : thou hast 

given me the heritage of those that fear thy 

Thou wilt prolong the king s life ; and his years 

as many generations. 
He shall abide before God for ever : O prepare 

mercy and truth, which may preserve him. 
So will I sing praise unto thy name for ever, that 

I may daily perform my vows. 

THIS is a prayer against the enemies of the people 
of God, and especially also for magistrates, and for 
the king that God would increase faith in him, and 
further him in the knowledge of his holy name and 
word; that he may walk in faith and in the fear of 
God ; that his government may be happy and en 
dure; and that religion and good government may 
not be injured and distracted by seditions and wars. 
For Solomon, in his Proverbs, says, " That for the 
sins of the people, God changes kings and king- 
M 2 


doms." But where there are many kings, there, 
(according to the manner of all human vicissitudes,) 
what one builds up, another casts down : as the 
proverb goes, " A new king, a new law," all changes 
in a state are dangerous: happy is that kingdom, 
therefore, which, being once well constituted, is 
long preserved in the same state. 


David professing his confidence in God discourageth his enemies. In the 
same confidence he encourageth the godly. No trust is to be put in 
worldly things. Power and mercy belong to God. 

To the chief Musician, to Jeduthun. A Psalm of David. 

TRULY my soul waiteth upon God : from him cometh 
my salvation. 

He only is my rock and my salvation ; he is my 
defence ; I shall not be greatly moved. 

How long will ye imagine mischief against a man ? 
ye shall be slain all of you : as a bowing wall 
shall ye be, and as a tottering fence. 

They only consult to cast him down from his ex 
cellency : they delight in lies: they bless with 
their mouth, but they curse inwardly. Selah. 

My soul, wait thou only upon God ; for my ex 
pectation is from him. 

He only is my rock and my salvation: he is my 
defence ; I shall not be moved. 

In God is my salvation and my glory : the rock of 
my strength, and my refuge, is in God. 

Trust in him at all times; ye people, pour out your 
heart before him : God is a refuge for us. Selah. 

Surely men of low degree are vanity, and men of 


high degree are a lie : to be laid in the balance, 

they are altogether lighter than vanity. 
Trust not in oppression, and become not vain in 

robbery: if riches increase, set not your heart 

upon them. 
God hath spoken once; twice have I heard this ; 

that power belongeth unto God. 
Also unto thee, O LORD, belongeth mercy : for thou 

renderest to every man according to his work. 

THIS Psalm contains most excellent doctrine : it 
greatly exalts the dignity of faith, showing how firm 
a safeguard faith in God is, and what a strong de 
fence it is against all the evils of life. On the other 
hand, the Psalmist shows the vanity of all confidence 
in men ; that nothing is more vain, or more falla 
cious than to trust in man. God (says he) is my 
rock, my strength, and my defence: God is my hope, 
my salvation, my strength, my glory, my life, and my 
trust. God is my safe protection. God is my faith 
ful helper; who never deceives me. Therefore, 
vain are the sons of men. The sons of men are all 
liars: that is, all human things are deceiving, un 
certain, and cannot be held fast. 

Many are to be found, who trust in the favour of 
kings and princes ; and on that account, they are 
puffed up with pride and insolence, and oppress 
others with the more confidence ; and especially if 
they see their wall bowing down and giving way ; 
that is, if they see a man declining in his affairs, 
who was once in prosperity ; or if they see him not 
protected by wealth and influence against injury: 
such an one as this, they endeavour to overthrow 
wholly ; and to that end, ingratiate themselves with 
the powerful, and wind themselves into their affec- 


tions, on whose favour they depend ; as on a pro 
pitious deity. 

But such see not how fallacious the favour of men 
is, and how variable and uncertain their wills are; 
in a word, they see not that " vain is the help of 
man ! " Nor will they believe it to be vain, until 
they find it out by experience, and are brought to 
lament their error ; as Cicero and many other wise 
men have done. Cicero exclaims with respect to 
Octavius, O how vain was all my reputation for 
being a wise man, &c. ! O how far was I from being 
wise indeed ; though I sometimes evinced that wis 
dom which was esteemed to be such ; but in vain ! 
Thus writes he in his epistle to Octavius. There 
fore the sum of all religion is * Trust in God and 
injure not thy neighbour! So shalt thou rightly 
conduct thyself before both God and men ! 


David s thirst for God. His manner of blessing God. His confidence of 
his enemies destruction, and his own safety. 

A Psalm of David, when he was in the wilderness of Judah. 

O GOD, thou art my God; early will I seek thee : 
my soul thirsteth for thee, my flesh longeth for 
thee in a dry and thirsty land, where no water is ; 

To see thy power and thy glory, so as I have seen 
thee in the sanctuary. 

Because thy loving-kindness is better than life, 
my lips shall praise thee. 

Thus will I bless thee while I live : I will lift up 
my hands in thy name. 

My soul shall be satisfied as with marrow and fat- 


ness; and my mouth shall praise thee with joy 
ful lips : 

When I remember thee upon my bed, and meditate 
on thee in the night watches. 

Because thou hast been my help, therefore in the 
shadow of thy wings will I rejoice. 

My soul followeth hard after thee: thy right hand 
upholdeth me. 

But those tkat seek my soul, to destroy it, shall go 
into the lower parts of the earth. 

They shall fall by the sword : they shall be a por 
tion for foxes. 

But the king shall rejoice in God ; every one that 
sweareth by him shall glory : but the mouth of 
them that speak lies shall be stopped. 

THIS is a prayer containing the deep feelings of an 
afflicted heart, thirsting after the word of God, which 
is the word of consolation ! David called thus 
upon God, when he fled from the face of Saul, and 
lay hid in the wilderness of Judah. " My soul 
thirsteth for thee ; my flesh longeth for thee, that I 
may see thee in thy sanctuary/ O how fervently 
does he desire to be present in the tabernacle, 
and before the mercy-seat in the sanctuary ! And 
to hear the word of God, in the assembly of those 
who there truly worshipped him ? He complains, 
also, bitterly against the Saulites ; who so hostilely 
lay in wait for his life, that he could be in safety 
no where ; and was compelled to be away from the 
place of the worship of God ; even away from the 
sanctuary. Notwithstanding all this, however, he 
raises himself up with a holy firmness, and magna 
nimity, and glories in being king, depending on 
the choice and promise of God ; by which he com- 


forts and sustains himself during the time of that 
most miserable flight and calamity. 

This Psalm may be used by those who are under 
the oppression of tyrants, who feel a hungering and 
thirsting after the word of God, and who can, under 
their calamity, glory in being the sons and heirs of 
God, because they have the knowledge of Christ, 
and love the word ; and who can persevere in this 
confidence, until the impious Saul be destroyed, and 
David exalted ; that is, until God raise up and 
comfort those that fear him. 


David prayeth for deliverance, complaining of his enemies. He pro- 
miseth himself to see such an evident destruction of his enemies, as the 
righteous shall rejoice at it. 

To the chief Musician, a Psalm of David. 

HEAR my voice, O God, in my prayer : preserve my 

life from fear of the enemy. 
Hide me from the secret counsel of the wicked ; 

from the insurrection of the workers of iniquity. 
Who whet their tongue like a sword, and bend 

their bows to shoot their arrows, even bitter words ; 
That they may shoot in secret at the perfect : 

suddenly do they shoot at him, and fear not. 
They encourage themselves in an evil matter ; they 

commune of laying snares privily; they say, 

Who shall see them ? 
They search out iniquities; they accomplish a 

diligent search : both the inward thought of every 

one of them, and the heart, is deep. 
But God shall shoot at them with an arrow ; sud 
denly shall they be wounded. 


So they shall make their own tongue to fall upon 

themselves ; all that see them shall flee away. 
And all men shall fear, and shall declare the work 

of God: for they , shall wisely consider of his 

The righteous shall be glad in the LORD, and shall 

trust in him ; and all the upright in heart shall 


THIS is a most ardent prayer, full of the feelings of a 
heart under great straits, by reason of the unceasing 
and infinite malice of the devil, the perfidy of men, 
and the ingratitude of the world. 

David here cries unto God, on account of having 
experienced so much treachery, even from those of his 
own household, (as always is the case, in the cause 
of religion). He cries to the Lord against his be 
trayers and his most virulent slanderers, those 
vipers, who, by wicked speeches, and all the arts of 
perfidy and malice, did not cease to plot against him. 
Of this base gang were his own son Absalom, Ahitho- 
phel, and others like them ; and especially many in 
the court of Saul; Doeg, &c. 

He continues, however, perseveringly to comfort 
and console himself; that, by the just judgment of 
God, these same enemies shall bring evil upon their 
own heads ; and that those very base and viperous 
tongues, which now cannot rest nor cease to slander, 
shall only wound themselves ; as, in the end, it hap 
pened unto Absalom, Ahithophel, and Doeg. 

In the same way also, we ought to pray against all 
those vipers, our enemies, in the halls of kings, 
bishops, and princes: who attack us with satanic 
craft and hatred, and with all the arts of wickedness. 
But they shall fall themselves into the snares which 


they have laid, (as we have seen it exemplified in 
numberless instances ;) and they shall only plan 
mischief which shall fall upon their own heads; 
that men may openly behold and see the works of 
God, and acknowledge that God himself has visited 


David praiseth God for his grace. The blessedness of God s chosen by 

reason of benefits. 
To the chief Musician. A Psalm and Song of David. 

PRAISE waiteth for thee, O God, in Zion : and 
unto thee shall the vow be performed. 

O thou that hearest prayer, unto thee shall all 
flesh come. 

Iniquities prevail against me: as for our trans 
gressions, thou shalt purge them away. 

Blessed is the man whom thou choosest, and causest 
to approach unto thee, that he may dwell in thy 
courts: we shall be satisfied with the goodness 
of thy house, even of thy holy temple. 

Ify terrible things in righteousness wilt thou answer 
us, O God of our salvation ; who art the confi 
dence of all the ends of the earth, and of them 
that are afar off upon the sea : 

Which by his strength setteth fast the mountains ; 
being girded with power : 

Which stilleth the noise of the seas, the noise of 
their waves, and the tumult of the people. 

They also that dwell in the uttermost parts are 
afraid of thy tokens : thou makest the outgoings 
of the morning and evening to rejoice. 

Thou visitest the earth, and waterest it : thou 


greatly enrichest it with the river of God, which 

is full of water : thou preparest them corn, when 

thou hast so provided for it. 
Thou waterest the ridges thereof abundantly; thou 

settlest the furrows thereof ; thou makest it 

soft with showers ; thou blessest the springing 

Thou crownest the year with thy goodness ; and 

thy paths drop fatness. 
They drop upon the pastures of the wilderness ; 

and the little hills rejoice on every side. 
The pastures are clothed with flocks ; the valleys 

also are covered over with corn : they shout for 

joy, they also sing. 

THIS is a remarkable Psalm of thanksgiving ; (and all 
productions of this kind were formed by the prophet 
out of the First Commandment,) wherein thanks are 
rendered unto God, because he preserves among his 
people (to whom he has given his word against Satan, 
heretics, and all adversaries) the true religion, and 
the true worship of God; and because he preserves 
also political peace, and guards the state from all 
seditions, wars and tumults; and dispels all the 
storms of the counsels of war, slaughter and blood 
shed. For war is nothing less than a horrible storm 
and tempest, which hurls into confusion all things 
divine and human ; and throws them into a pertur 
bation, like as when the waves of the sea rage with 

The Psalmist gives thanks to God that he pre 
serves peace ; (in which one thing are contained 
all the treasures of good;) that he gives rain from 
heaven and fruitful seasons; and that he crowns the 
year with his goodness : that is, that during the 


revolution of the year, he accomplishes and per 
forms, as it were, a certain round of divine blessing 
and goodness. For, in the spring, there first appear 
the blossoms; and then, shortly after, the straw 
berries and cherries; and then, ere long, plums, 
apples, and berries of various juice and virtue ; (to 
say nothing about the perpetual verdure of the herbs 
which flourishes all the while, and is continually 
revived with fresh supplies of dew). To these we 
are to add, the infinite variety of herbs and odours. 
And then, at the time of harvest, our barns are filled 
with wheat, rye, barley, and corn, and grain of every 
kind. In the autumn, our presses overflow with 
wine of an infinite variety of taste and fragrance, 
and our vats are filled to the brim. Thus the Lord 
fills the whole revolution of the year, and every part 
of it, with his overflowing and infinite goodness : and 
indeed every single fruit is, as it were, a fund, and a 
world of the goodness of God. 

But how few are there, in general, who think about 
these numberless and valuable blessings, and render 
thanks unto God for them? Alas! we have innu 
merable examples of the impious manner in which 
the noble, the powerful, and the rich, have abused 
the saving doctrine of faith and Christian liberty, 
and also that peace which God has hitherto miracu 
lously preserved to us : we have numberless exam 
ples, I say, of the manner in which they have abused 
these great blessings, to their own lusts, as Sodom 
and Gomorrah did : but they shall be visited with 
Sodom and Gomorrah s judgment. 

You see, therefore, that those in the kingdom of 
David, and among the people of Israel who com 
posed these Psalms, were excellent and great men. 
For these are spiritual and truly divine poems. No 


poems ever equalled these. No poets, not even 
Homer himself, ever equalled these poets, who thus 
speak of God, his works, and his creatures. These 
Psalms contain the greatest and most weighty things, 
in a marvellous brevity of expression ! 


David exhorteth to praise God, to observe his great works, to bless him 
for his gracious benefits. He voweth for himself religious service to 
God. He declareth God s special goodness to himself. 

To the chief Musician, a Song or Psalm. 

MAKE a joyful noise unto God, all ye lands : 
Sing forth the honour of his name ; make his 

praise glorious. 
Say unto God, How terrible art thou in thy works ! 

through the greatness of thy power shall thine 

enemies submit themselves unto thee. 
All the earth shall worship thee, and shall sing 

unto thee ; they shall sing to thy name. Selah. 
Come and see the works of God he is terrible in his 

doing toward the children of men. 
He turned the sea into dry land : they went through 

the flood on foot : there did we rejoice in him. 
He ruleth by his power for ever ; his eyes behold 

the nations : let not the rebellious exalt them 
selves. Selah. 
O bless our God, ye people, and make the voice 

of his praise to be heard ; 
Which holdeth our soul in life, and suffereth not 

our feet to be moved. 
For thou, O God, hast proved us : thou hast tried 

us, as silver is tried. 


Thou broughtest us into the net; thou laidst afflic 
tion upon our loins. 

Thou hast caused m,en to ride over our heads : we 
went through fire and through water ; but thou 
broughtest us out into a wealthy place. 

I will go into thy house with burnt-offerings ; I 
will pay thee my vows, 

Which my lips have uttered, and my mouth hath 
spoken, when I was in trouble. 

I will offer unto thee burnt-sacrifices of fallings, 
with the incense of rams : I will offer bullocks 
with goats. Selah. 

Come and hear, all ye that fear God, and I will 
declare what he hath done for my soul. 

I cried unto him with my mouth, and he was ex 
tolled with my tongue. 

If I regard iniquity in my heart, the LORD will not 
hear me : 

But verily God hath heard me ; he hath attended 
to the voice of my prayer. 

Blessed be God, which hath not turned away my 
prayer, nor his mercy from me. 

THIS is a general thanksgiving, for God s having 
rescued and delivered his people so often out of the 
hands of their enemies, and out of the very jaws of 
death itself; as he did at the Red Sea. The Books 
of Judges and Kings are full of these deliverances. 

These deliverances are no less great and won 
derful, at this day, in the church, when God delivers 
those that fear him out of temptations, both internal 
and external. For Satan, of whom that earthly 
Pharaoh was so especial a type, being inflamed with 
so horrible a desire of distressing and destroying, 
daily persecutes the church : and he would, if he 


could, so harm every single one of the godly, and 
so beset them on every side, that they should see 
nothing but death, and an angry God : out of all 
these things, however, God delivers his own. 


A prayer for the enlargement of God s kingdom, to the joy of the people, 

and the increase of God s blessings. 
To the chief Musician on Neginoth, a Psalm or Song. 

GOD be merciful unto us, and bless us ; and cause 

his face to shine upon us. Selah. 
That thy way may be known upon earth, thy saving 

health among all nations. 
Let the people praise thee, O God ; let all the 

people praise thee. 
O let the nations be glad, and sing for joy ; for 

thou shalt judge the people righteously, and 

govern the nations upon earth. Selah. 
Let the people praise thee, O God ; let all the 

people praise thee. 
Then shall the earth yield her increase ; and God, 

even our God, shall bless us. 
God shall bless us ; and all the ends of the earth 

shall fear him. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning the kingdom of Christ ; 
foretelling, that it should be a spiritual kingdom, 
in which grace and the remission of sins should be 
proclaimed, not only in Judea, but throughout all 
nations. " Let the people praise thee, O God, yea 
let all the people praise thee; for thou judgest the 
people righteously, &c." That is, thou reignest, by 


the Gospel, throughout all nations : thou judgest all : 
(that is, all sinners in the hypocrisy of nature,) 
that they may be brought to give thanks unto thee 
for thy mercy, and may rejoice, and praise the bless 
ings of the gospel. 

This sacrifice of praise, this offering of thanks, is 
the highest worship of God, and is a sacrifice truly 
acceptable unto him, (as we have continually ob 
served ;) for David does not here say, * The nations 
shall become proselytes, and shall be circumcised, 
and shall flock to Jerusalem : but u The nations 
shall remain uncircumcised, and shall, nevertheless, 
sing praises unto God, and shall laud and magnify 
him : " that is, the gospel shall be preached among 
all nations, and the kingdom of Christ shall arise, 
the kingdom of grace and of the mercy of God. 


A prayer at the rcmming of the ark. An exhortation to praise God for 

his mercies, for his care of the church, for his great works. 

To the chief Musician, A Psalm or Song of David. 

LET God arise, let his enemies be scattered : let 

them also that hate him flee before him. 
As smoke is driven away, so drive them away : as 

wax melteth before the fire, so let the wicked 

perish in the presence of God. 
But let the righteous be glad : let them rejoice 

before God ; yea, let them exceedingly rejoice. 
Sing unto God, sing praises to his name : extol 

him that rideth upon the heavens by his name 

JAH, and rejoice before him. 
A father of the fatherless, and a judge of the 

widows, is God in his holy habitation. 


God setteth the solitary in families : he bringetb 

out those which are bound with chains ; but the 

rebellious dwell in a dry land. 
O God, when thou wentest forth before thy people, 

when thou didst march through the wilderness ; 

Selah : 
The earth shook, the heavens also dropped at the 

presence of God : even Sinai itself was moved at 

the presence of God, the God of Israel. 
Thou, O God, didst send a plentiful rain, whereby 

thou didst confirm thine inheritance, when it 

was weary. 
Thy congregation hath dwelt therein : thou, O 

God, hast prepared of thy goodness for the poor. 
The LORD gave the word : great was the company 

of those that published it. 
Kings of armies did flee apace ; and she that 

tarried at home divided the spoil. 
Though ye have lien among the pots, yet shall ye 

be as the wings of a dove covered with silver, 

and her feathers with yellow gold. 
When the Almighty scattered kings in it, it was 

white as snow in Salmon. 
The hill of God is as the hill of Bashan ; an high 

hill, as the hill of Bashan. 
Why leap ye, ye high hills? this is the hill which 

God desireth to dwell in ; yea, the LORD will 

dwell in it for ever. 
The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even 

thousands of angels ; the Lord is among them as 

in Sinai, in the holy place. 

Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led cap 
tivity captive : thou hast received gifts for men ; 

yea, for the rebellious also, that the LORD God 

might dwell among them. 



Blessed be the LORD, who daily loadeth us with 
benefits, even the God of our salvation. Selah. 

He that is our God is the God of salvation ; and 
unto God the LORD belong the issues from death. 

But God shall wound the head of his enemies, and 
the hairy scalp of such a one as goeth on still in 
his trespasses. 

The LORD said, I will bring again from Bashan ; 
I will bring my people again from the depths of 
the sea : 

That thy foot may be dipped in the blood of thine 
enemies, and the tongue of thy dogs in the same. 

They have seen thy goings, O GOD ; even the 
goings of my God, my King, in the sanctuary. 

The singers went before, the players on instru 
ments followed after ; among them were the dam 
sels playing with timbrels. 

Bless ye God in the congregations, even the LORD 
from the fountain of Israel. 

There is little Benjamin with their ruler, the 
princes of Judah and their council, the princes 
of Zebulun, and the princes of Naphtali. 

Thy God hath commanded thy strength : strengthen, 
O God, that which thou hast wrought for us. 

Because of thy temple at Jerusalem shall kings 
bring presents unto thee. 

Rebuke the company of spearmen, the multitude 
of the bulls, with the calves of the people, till 
every one submit himself with pieces of silver : 
scatter thou the people that delight in war. 

Princes shall come out of Egypt ; Ethiopia shall 
soon stretch out her hands unto God. 

Sing unto God, ye kingdoms of the earth ; O sing 
praises unto the LORD ; Selah : 

To him that rideth upon the heaven of heavens 


which were of old : Jo, be doth send out his 

voice, and that a mighty voice. 
Ascribe ye strength unto God : his excellency is 

over Israel, and his strength is in the clouds. 
O God, thou art terrible out of thy holy places : 

the God of Israel is he that giveth strength and 

power unto his people. Blessed be God. 

THIS Psalm is, in the Latin, most obscurely trans 
lated ; so much so, that this one Psalm may well 
put us in remembrance of what we are indebted unto 
God, for the great light which he has given us in 
this our day ; in having blessed us with the study 
of languages, and with good books and instructors. 
Yet, in return for this universal, great, and un 
speakable gift, through the unceasing revilings of 
Satan, God hears nothing but, O this Lutheran 
poison ! O this Lutheran heresy ! The world shall 
suffer heavy punishment for the contempt of the 
blessing of this great and merciful light ! 

In the former Latin translation of this Psalm there 
were the most monstrous renderings ; such as Rex 
vir tutum dilecti dilecti. Speciei domus dividere spolia. 
Si dormiatis inter mcdios cleros. Nives dealbabuntur 
in Salmon. Mons Dei, mans pinguis, mons cocequatus. 
Arundinis increpa feras. Congregatio taurorum in 
vaccis populorum, fyc. 

And how much of the same obscurity was there in 
Hosea, and the like difficult books? What, then, 
have they profited the church, who, by a sort of mad 
ness, and from a hatred of, and longing desire to, 
suppress the light of the gospel, have all along con 
demned not only all pious studies, but all useful 
learning and godliness ! But how easy is it to sit 
down and condemn all things, and, as it were, to 

N 2 


spit at the sun that enlightens all things ! The truly 
learned and godly know, however, how arduous it 
is to imitate the laborious endeavours of those who 
engage in the work of translations. But let us 
proceed to speak upon the Psalm. 

This Psalm is a signal prophecy concerning Christ ; 
a prophecy more animated and exalted, than usual, 
in fervency of spirit; and, as it were, exulting in 
the Holy Ghost ; setting before us a view of the 
church, and those things which are to take place 
under the New Testament ; and all this is done 
with a representation so clear and expressive, and 
with every thing depicted in that exact order, that 
it seems to be, not a prediction of things to come, 
but a description of things passing before our eyes. 
The Holy Ghost foretels the resurrection and ascen 
sion of Christ, the revelation of the Holy Spirit from 
heaven, and the mission of the Apostles : he describes, 
I say, the whole of this spiritual kingdom : this king 
dom of grace and remission of sins, in which Christ 
should be preached as the true God, and as the 
Saviour and deliverer from death. 

He shows also, that the kingdom and priesthood 
of the Jews was to be abolished, and that a new and 
spiritual kingdom was to be erected ; which should 
stand, not in human strength, nor in many thousands 
of horse and foot, but in the ministry and power of 
the word ! that it should be a kingdom, in which 
the Lord should give the word unto those who should 
preach it, in much power; by which the grace of 
Christ, and the remission of sins by Christ, should 
be preached, and not the law of Moses. 

He calls the apostles, " kings and heads of armies ;" 
because, by the gospel and the ministry of the word, 
they continually attack the kingdom of the devil and 


the gates of hell. For what are all the sermons and 
exhortations of the apostles, but the most terrible 
battles and conflicts against sin, death, the devil, 
hell, and all the righteousness and wisdom of the 
world ? 

He also calls them " high hills, rich hills, and the 
inheritance of God ; " and " chariots of the Lord of 
many thousands ;" and also, " the multitude of them 
that preach good tidings, and sing, and play upon 
instruments;" because, the apostles and ministers of 
the word, by preaching the joyful gospel and the 
word of grace, continually praise, sing of, and cele 
brate the immense benefits of Christ, and the mercy 
of God. Thus, throughout the whole Psalm, the 
fervent prophet exulting in the Holy Ghost, describes, 
in a most sweet song, the whole kingdom of Christ ! 

In the end, he prays that God would be pleased to 
render the church more flourishing, and to give his 
blessing and a happy success to this kingdom. And 
indeed, the prophet felt his heart moved, and was 
peculiarly uplifted and fervent in spirit, when he 
composed this divine and heavenly psalm concerning 
the kingdom of Christ. 


David complaineth of his affliction. He prayeth for deliverance. Be 
devoteth his enemies to destruction. He praiseth God with thanks 

To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, A Psalm of David. 

SAVE me, O God ; for the waters are come in unto 

my soul. 
I sink in deep mire, where there is no standing : I 

am come into deep waters, where the floods 

overflow me. 


I am weary of my crying : my throat is dried : 
mine eyes fail while I wait for my God. 

They that hate me without a cause are more than 
the hairs of mine head : they that would destroy 
me, being mine enemies wrongfully, are mighty : 
then I restored that which I took not away. 

God, thou knowest my foolishness ; and my sins 
are not hid from thee. 

Let not them that wait on thee, O Lord GOD of 
hosts, be ashamed for my sake : let not those 
that seek thee be confounded for my sake, O 
God of Israel. 

Because for thy sake I have borne reproach ; 
shame hath covered my face. 

1 am become a stranger unto my brethren, and an 
alien unto my mother s children. 

For the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up ; and 
the reproaches of them that reproached thee are 
fallen upon me. 

When I wept, and chastened my soul with fasting, 
that was to my reproach. 

I made sackcloth also my garment ; and I became 
a proverb to them. 

They that sit in the gate speak against me; and I 
was the song of the drunkards. 

But as for me, my prayer is unto thee, O LORD, 
in an acceptable time : O God, in the multitude 
of thy mercy hear me: in the truth of thy sal 

Deliver me out of the mire, and let me not sink : 
let me be delivered from them that hate me, and 
out of the deep waters. 

Let not the water-flood overflow me, neither let the 
deep swallow me up, and let not the pit shut her 
mouth upon me. 


Hear me, O LORD ; for thy loving-kindness is 

good : turn unto me according to the multitude 

of thy tender mercies. 
And hide not thy face from thy servant; for I am 

in trouble ; hear me speedily. 
Draw nigh unto my soul, and redeem it : deliver 

me, because of mine enemies. 
Thou hast known my reproach, and my shame, and 

my dishonour : mine adversaries are all before 

Reproach hath broken my heart, and I am full of 

heaviness : and I looked for some to take pity, 

but there was none ; and for comforters, but I 

found none. 
They gave me also gall for my meat; and in my 

thirst they gave me vinegar to drink. 
Let their table become a snare before them : and 

that which should have been for their welfare, let 

it become a trap. 
Let their eyes be darkened, that they see not ; and 

make their loins continually to shake. 
Pour out thine indignation upon them, and let thy 

wrathful anger take hold of them. 
Let their habitation be desolate ; and let none 

dwell in their tents. 
For they persecute him whom thou hast smitten ; 

and they talk to the grief of those whom thoa 

hast wounded. 
Add iniquity unto their iniquity ; and let them 

not come into thy righteousness. 
Let them be blotted out of the book of the living, 

and not be written with the righteous. 
But I am poor and sorrowful : let thy salvation, O 
God, set me up on high. 


I will praise the name of God with a song, and 

will magnify him with thanksgiving. 
This also shall please the LORD better than an ox 

or bullock that hath horns and hoofs. 
The humble shall see this, and be glad : and your 

heart shall live that seek God. 
For the LORD heareth the poor, and despiseth not 

his prisoners. 
Let the heaven and earth praise him, the seas, and 

every thing that moveth therein : 
For God will save Sion, and will build the cities 

of Judah ; that they may dwell there, and have 

it in possession. 
The seed also of his servants shall inherit it ; and 

they that love his name shall dwell therein. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer full of those most deep and spi 
ritual feelings that were experienced in the person of 
Christ our Lord. In the beginning of the Psalm, in 
the first three verses, with what a fervency and weight 
of words does the Psalmist describe those great ter 
rors of death and hell which Christ undertook and 
endured, for our sins. " Save me now, O Lord," 
saith he, " for the waters overflow me, I sink into 
the depth of the mire : I have now no where to stand, 
nothing whereon to set my foot, I sink into the abyss 
of the sea, and the floods overflow me/ By all 
which figures and expressions he shadows forth, 
with all his powers, that unspeakable agony of Christ, 
which he endured for our sins, when groaning under 
the infinite weight of the wrath of God. 

In the 7th verse Christ confesses himself as bear 
ing our sins, and complains of the Jews, who crucify 
him. " They gave me," saith he, ** gall for my meat, 
and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink : " so 


expressively and circumstantially does the prophet 
foretel the sufferings of Christ ! And then he speaks, 
with the same clearness, concerning the Jews who 
should be blinded, and their kingdom and priesthood 
which should be destroyed, as also it was fulfilled ; 
so that now we see the accomplishment of these 
things, and experience has set them plainly before 
our eyes. 

In the end of the Psalm the prophet shows that 
the law should be abolished, and that a new worship 
should be instituted without the law and circumci 
sion : " I will praise the name of the Lord," saith he, 
"with a song, and will magnify him with thanks 
giving. This also shall please the Lord better than 
an ox or a bullock that hath horns and hoofs." By 
these words he shews that the law should be abrogated 
with the whole of that splendidly ceremonious wor 
ship, the boasted pride of circumcision, the sabbaths, 
and the sacrifices ; and that the worship of the New 
Testament should be established in its stead ; namely, 
the sacrifice of praise and the preaching of the gos 
pel ; for it is by faith \n Christ, and obedience to 
the gospel that we attain unto the true knowledge of 
God, and it is by truly keeping the first command 
ment that God is truly worshipped; which, as it is 
written, (Mark xii. 33.) is "more than all whole 
burnt offerings and sacrifices." 


David soliciteth God to the speedy destruction of the wicked, and preser 
vation of the godly. 
To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David, to bring to remembrance. 

MAKE haste, O God, to deliver me ; make haste to 
help me, O LORD. 


Let them be ashamed and confounded that seek 

after my soul : let them be turned backward, 

and put to confusion, that desire my hurt. 
Let them be turned back for a reward of their 

shame that say, Aha, aha. 
Let all those that seek thee rejoice and be glad in 

thee : and let such as love thy salvation say 

continually, Let God be magnified. 
But I am poor and needy : make haste unto me, O 

God : thou art my help and my deliverer ; O 

LORD, make no tarrying. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer against the persecutors and 
enemies of the church and of the godly : for such in 
struments of the devil cease not to plot against the 
good, and those that fear God, with all possible 
machinations of craft, and with all the bitterness of 
Cain; and, like Satan himself, they burn with an 
insatiable desire and determination to destroy the 
church ; nay, more than this, they insult the miseries 
and calamities of the saints. 


David, in confidence of faith, and experience of God s favour, prayeth 
both for himself, and against the enemies of his soul. He promiseth 
constancy. He prayeth for perseverance. He praiseth God, and pro 
miseth to do it cheerfully. 

IN thee, O LORD, do I put my trust : let me never 

be put to confusion. 
Deliver me in thy righteousness, and cause me to 

escape : incline thine ear unto me, and save 

Be thou my strong habitation, whereunto I may 

continually resort : thou hast given command- 


ment to save me ; for thou art my rock and my 

Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the 

wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous and 

cruel man. 
For thou art my hope, O Lord GOD : thou art my 

trust from ray youth. 
By thee have I been holden up from the womb : 

thou art he that took me out of my mother s 

bowels: my praise shall be continually of thee. 
I am as a wonder unto many: but thou art my 

strong refuge. 
Let my mouth be filled with thy praise and with 

thy honour all the day. 
Cast me not off in the time of old age ; forsake me 

not when my strength faileth. 
For mine enemies speak against me ; and they 

that lay wait for my soul take counsel together, 
Saying, God hath forsaken him : persecute and 

take him ; for there is none to deliver him. 

God, be not far from me; O my God, make 
haste for my help. 

Let them be confounded and consumed that are 
adversaries to my soul ; let them be covered 
with reproach and dishonour that seek my hurt. 

But I will hope continually, and yet will praise 
thee more and more. 

My mouth shall shew forth thy righteousness and 
thy salvation all the day ; for I know not the 
numbers thereof. 

1 will go in the strength of the Lord GOD ; I will 
make mention of thy righteousness, even of thine 

O God, thou hast taught me from my youth : and 
hitherto have I declared thy wondrous works. 


Now also when I am old and greyheaded, O God, 
forsake me not ; until I have shewed thy strength 
unto this generation, and thy power to every one 
that is to come. 

Thy righteousness also, O God, is very high, who 
hast done great things : O God, who is like unto 
thee ! 

Thou, which hast shewed me great and sore trou 
bles, shalt quicken me again, and shalt bring me 
up again from the depths of the earth. 

Thou shalt increase my greatness, and comfort me 
on every side. 

I will also praise thee with the psaltery, even thy 
truth, O my God : unto thee will I sing with the 
harp, O thou Holy One of Israel. 

My lips shall greatly rejoice when I sing unto 
thee ; and my soul, which thou hast redeemed. 

My tongue also shall talk of thy righteousness all 
the day long: for they are confounded, for they 
are brought unto shame, that seek my hurt. 

THIS Psalm is a general prayer; which, I think, may 
be very properly used in the person of the whole 
church against all her enemies and persecutors who 
are now or ever shall be, unto the end. "Forsake 
me not," saith he, " in the time of mine old age/ &c. 
and although this may more especially apply to the 
prophet himself, as praying for divine protection 
under his infinite temptations; yet the words may 
be appropriately applied to the last times, and to the 
close of the church militant before the last day. For 
the church has her old age also : and Christ himself 
and his apostles have foretold, " That in the latter 
days perilous times shall come : " as Daniel also 
prophesied, that the truth should be persecuted and 


iniquity should abound : and this we have expe 
rienced under Mahomet, and the Pope, to our infi 
nite peril and sorrow. 

Hence, in verses 15 17, the prophet foretells the 
justice and righteousness of God. " My mouth 
(saith he) shall show forth thy righteousness. O 
God thou hast taught me from my youth, and hitherto 
have I declared thy wondrous works. Now also, 
when I am old and grey-headed, &c." This pro 
phecy may be of singular use to us, and apply to us 
very appropriately : because God has, as it were, 
brought us back out of hell, and from the depths of 
the earth, and has made the light of his word to 
shine again, by which our consciences have a firm 
and eternal consolation. These our times are like 
the times of Elias and Enoch : for they commonly 
say of us, These men will subvert antichrist, and 


David, praying for Solomon, sheweth the goodness and glory of his, in 
type, and in truth, of Christ s kingdom. He blesseth God. 

A Psalm for Solomon. 

GIVE the king thy judgments, O God, and thy 

righteousness unto the king s son. 
He shall judge thy people with righteousness, and 

thy poor with judgment. 
The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and 

the little hills, by righteousness. 
He shall judge the poor of the people, he shall 

save the children of the needy, and shall break 

in pieces the oppressor. 


They shall fear thee as long as the sun and moon 

endure, throughout all generations. 
He shall come down like rain upon the mown 

grass : as showers that water the earth. 
In his days shall the righteous flourish : and 

abundance of peace so long as the moon en- 

He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and 

from the river unto the ends of the earth. 
They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before 

him ; and his enemies shall lick the dust. 
The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring 

presents : the kings of Sheba and Seba shall 

offer gifts. 
Yea, all kings shall fall down before him : all 

nations shall serve him. 
For he shall deliver the needy when he crieth ; the 

poor also, and him that hath no helper. 
He shall spare the poor and needy, and shall save 

the souls of the needy. 

He shall redeem their soul from deceit and vio 
lence : and precious shall their blood be in his 

And he shall live, and to him shall be given of the 

gold of Sheba : prayer also shall be made for 

him continually : and daily shall he be praised. 
There shall be an handful of corn in the earth upon 

the top of the mountains ; the fruit thereof shall 

shake like Lebanon : and they of the city shall 

flourish like grass of the earth. 
His name shall endure for ever : his name shall be 

continued as long as the sun : and men shall be 

blessed in him : all nations shall call him blessed. 
Blessed be the LORD God, the God of Israel, who 

only doeth wondrous things. 


And blessed be his glorious name for ever : and let 
the whole earth be filled with his glory ; Amen, 
and Amen. 

The prayers of David the son of Jesse arc ended. 

THIS is a most remarkable prophecy concerning 
Christ and his kingdom, to be spread throughout the 
whole world, over all kingdoms, and the isles of the 
sea : which should not be a kingdom of death, sin, 
and judgment, but a kingdom of grace, righteousness, 
peace, and joy. But the life, the victory, the peace, 
and the glory of the church shall be hidden ; they 
shall be hidden in God ; and the saints in this 
world shall endure the most bitter hatred of the 
world, and its persecutions; they shall shed their 
blood for Christ ; nevertheless, that blood shall be 
precious in the sight of the Lord, and he shall 
require it. 

This Psalm also, verse 15, declares that the old 
worship of the law of Moses should be abrogated, 
and a new worship set up, which should consist in 
prayer and the giving of thanks. " Prayer shall be 
made unto him (saith he) continually, and daily 
shall he be praised." For the sacrifice of praise and 
the preaching of the gospel, is the daily sacrifice, 
and the highest worship of the New Testament. 
Here you hear nothing of circumcision, or the law 
of Moses, as that which the nations should receive. 
It saith that the kings of nations and nations them 
selves shall endure and shall praise this king. 
Therefore, this king , Christ, is truly and properly 
God. For prayer is the worship of the first and 
greatest commandment, and is due to God alone ; 
for he alone can deliver from death and every afflic 



Theprophet, prevailing in a temptation, shfweth the occasion thereof, the 
prosperity of the wicked. The wound given thereby, diffidence. The 
victory over it, knowledge of God s purpose, in destroying ofthewiched, 
and sustaining the righteous. 

A Psalm of Asaph. 

TRULY God is good to Israel, even to such as are of 

a clean heart. 
But as for me, my feet were almost gone ; my steps 

had well nigh slipped. 
For I was envious at the foolish, when I saw the 

prosperity of the wicked. 
For there are no bands in their death ; but their 

strength is firm. 
They are not in trouble as other men ; neither are 

they plagued like other men. 
Therefore pride compasseth them about as a chain ; 

violence covereth them as a garment. 
Their eyes stand out with fatness : they have more 

than heart could wish. 
They are corrupt, and speak wickedly concerning 

oppression : they speak loftily. 
They set their mouth against the heavens ; and 

their tongue walketh through the earth. 
Therefore his people return hither; and waters of 

a full cup are wrung out to them : 
And they say, How doth God know? and is there 

knowledge in the Most High ? 
Behold, these are the ungodly who prosper in the 

world ; they increase in riches. 
Verily I have cleansed my heart in vain, and 

washed my hands in innocency. 


For all the day long have I been plagued, and 
chastened every morning. 

If I say, I will speak thus ; behold, I should offend 
against the generation of thy children. 

When I thought to know this, it was too painful 
for me, 

Until I went into the sanctuary of God ; then un 
derstood I their end. 

Surely thou didst set them in slippery places : thou 
castedst them down into destruction. 

How are they brought into desolation, as in a mo 
ment? they are utterly consumed with terrors. 

As a dream when one awaketh ; so, O LORD, when 
thou awakest, thou shalt despise their image. 

Thus my heart was grieved, and I was pricked in 
my reins. 

So foolish was I and ignorant ; I was as a beast 
before thee. 

Nevertheless, I am continually with thee ; thou 
hast holden me by my right hand. 

Thou shalt guide me with thy counsel, and after 
ward receive me to glory. 

Whom have I heaven but thee? and there is none 
upon earth that I desire beside thee. 

My flesh and my heart faileth : but God is the 
strength of my heart, and my portion for ever. 

For, lo, they that are far from thee shall perish ; 
thou hast destroyed all them that go a whoring 
from thee. 

But it is good for me to draw near to God : I have 
put my trust in the Lord GOD, that I may declare 
all thy works. 

THIS is a Psalm that instructs us against that great 
offence and stumbling-block concerning which all 


the prophets have complained ; namely, that the 
wicked flourish in the world, enjoy prosperity, and 
increase in abundance, while the godly suffer cold 
and hunger, and are afflicted, and spit upon, and de 
spised, and condemned ; and that God seems to be 
against and to neglect the latter, and to regard, sup 
port and give success to the former. And this outside 
appearance of the false church has, moreover, a great 
influence with, and excites the admiration of, the 
world around. Whatever these hypocrites door say, 
they boast with great confidence, is pious, holy and 
divine : on the other hand, they consider the lives of 
the godly to be ungodly, and their doctrine erroneous. 
This offence has existed, and has exercised and 
vexed the godly from the very beginning of the 

"So foolish was I," saith Asaph, (v. 22.) that 
is, I was accounted ungodly, a heretic, and a de- 
spiser of God. But these temptations, saith be, 
remain until I cast away all my own cogitations 
about this offence, and go into the sanctuary : that 
is, until I hear or read the word, and find what God 
saith concerning the ungodly ; and until I look into 
the histories and behold the judgments of God, which 
have been since the foundation of the world. There 
I find what God threatens in his First Command 
ment : and how he has fulfilled this judgment and 
executed it, even from Cain ; by which all the un 
godly are overthrown and overwhelmed on a sudden : 
for they build upon slippery places and upon the 
sand, but the godly build upon a rock. 




The prophet complaineth of the desolation of the sanctuary. He moveth 
God to kelp in consideration of his power, of his reproachful enemies, 
of his children, and of his covenant. 

Maschil of Asaph. 

O GOD, why hast thou cast us off for ever? why 
doth thine anger smoke against the sheep of thy 
pasture ? 

Remember thy congregation, which thou hast pur 
chased of old ; the rod of thine inheritance, which 
thou hast redeemed ; this mount Zion, wherein 
thou hast dwelt. 

Lift up thy feet unto the perpetual desolations ; 
even all that the enemy hath done wickedly in 
the sanctuary. 

Thine enemies roar in the midst of thy congrega 
tions ; they set up their ensigns/or signs. 

A man was famous according as he had lifted up 
axes upon the thick trees. 

But now they break down the carved work thereof 
at once with axes and hammers. 

They have cast fire into thy sanctuary, they have 
defiled by casting down the dwelling place of thy 
name to the ground. 

They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them 
together : they have burned up all the syna 
gogues of God in the land. 

We .see not our signs : there is no more any pro 
phet : neither is there among us any that knoweth 
how long. 

O God, how long shall the adversary reproach ? 
shall the enemy blaspheme thy name for ever ? 
o 2 


Why wilhdrawest thou thy hand, even thy right 

hand? pluck it out of thy bosom. 
For God is my King of old, working salvation in 

the midst of the earth. 
Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength : thou 

brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters. 
Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and 

gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting 

the wilderness. 
Thou didst cleave the fountain and the flood : thou 

driedst up mighty rivers. 
The day is. thine, the night also is thine ; thou hast 

prepared the light and the sun. 
Thou bast set all the borders of the earth : thou 

hast made summer and winter. 
Remember this, that the enemy hath reproached, 

O LORD, and that the foolish people have blas 
phemed thy name. 
O deliver not the soul of thy turtledove unto the 

multitude of the wicked: forget not the congre 
gation of thy poor for ever. 
Have respect unto the covenant : for the dark 

places of the earth are full of the habitations 

of cruelty. 
O let not the oppressed return ashamed : let the 

poor and needy praise thy name. 
Arise, O God, plead thine own cause. : remember 

how the foolish man reproacheth thee daily. 
Forget not the voice of thine enemies : the tumult 

of those that rise up against thee increaseth 


THIS is a prayer against the enemies who were then 
laying waste Jerusalem, the sanctuary, all the holy 
places of assembly and of the worship of God in the 


land, and even the national cities themselves ; utter 
ing at the same time blasphemies against God, as if 
he were not able to succour and defend his people. 

It seems also to be a prophecy of the future, and 
a prayer against that future devastation which was 
wrought by those cruel enemies, the Chaldeans, and 
by Antiochus Epiphanes ; for it was on these two 
occasions only that the temple and the city of Jeru 
salem were destroyed, with such cruelty as is here 

We also use this Psalm against the Turk and 
Mahomet ; and also against our Antiochus, the pope ; 
who destroys daily the true church and the preaching 
of the word of God, daily despoils and scatters all 
sacred and divine things, and every where stirs up 
and diffuses abroad the poison of the devil and every 


The prophet praiseth God. He promiseth to judge uprightly. He re- 
buketh the proud by consideration of God s providence. He praiseth 
God, and promiseth to execute justice, 

To the chief Musician, Al-taschith, a Psalm or Song of Asaph. 

UNTO thee, O God, do we give thanks, unto thee 
do we give thanks ; for that thy name is near thy 
wondrous works declare. 

When I shall receive the congregation I will 
judge uprightly. 

The earth and all the inhabitants thereof are dis 
solved : I bear up the pillars of it. Selah. 

I said unto the fools, Deal not foolishly : and to 
the wicked, Lift not up the horn : 


Lift not up your horn on high : speak not with a stiff 

For promotion cometh neither from the east, nor 

from the west, nor from the south. 
But God is the judge : he putteth down one, and 

setteth up another. 
For in the hand of the LORD there is a cup, and the 

wine is red : it is full of mixture ; and he pour- 

eth out of the same : but the dregs thereof, all 

the wicked of the earth shall wring them out, 

and drink them. 
But I will declare for ever ; I will sing praises to 

the God of Jacob. 
All the horns of the wicked also will I cut off; but 

the horns of the righteous shall be exalted. 

THIS is a Psalm of consolation against all turbulent 
and hardened hypocrites, who boast of their church 
and their name, and despise alike all threatenings, 
and all exhortations ; ever speaking like those arro 
gant hypocrites in Psalm xii : " Who shall teach 
us?" " Who is Lord over us ? " As if they should 
say, the power is ours, and the authority is ours, 
and he that does not listen to, and obey us, let him 
be accursed. 

In like manner also now, our bishops are secure ; 
and, from the Council of Worms to this day, are 
deaf to all entreaties, and insensible to all tears. And 
equally deaf also are most kings and princes and 
fanatical spirits ; who are so confident in themselves 
and in their own imaginations, that they seem to 
think that God himself could not overthrow them or 
cast them down. 

This Psalm admonishes us, the people of God, 
to know and acknowledge, that there is a God 


who will surely judge all iniquity, if we do but 
wait his time. For he is the Lord who maketh the 
mountains to tremble, and who appeared on Mount 
Sinai with such terrible majesty. He, according- to 
the word of his First Commandment, visits the 
wicked in his own appointed time, and yet preserves 
the pillars of the earth ; that is, the godly and the 
righteous ; who bear up and sustain this world upon 
their shoulders as it were : in the same way as the 
Apostle Paul calls the church the " pillar and 
ground of the truth." Thus, God preserved the 
righteous and innocent Lot when he overthrew 
Sodom : and thus he preserved also the believing 
Jews and the Apostles when he destroyed Jerusalem, 
and overthrew the whole nation and kingdom : for he 
knows, when he destroys any nation, how to preserve 
his own. 


A declaration of God s majesty in the church. An exhortation to serve 
him reverently. 

To the chief Musician on Neginoth. A Psalm or Song of Asaph. 

IN Judah is God known ; his name is gfeat in 

In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling 

place in Zion. 
There brake he the arrows of the bow, the shield, 

and the sword, and the battle. Selah. 
Thou art more glorious and excellent than the 

mountains of prey. 
The stouthearted are spoiled, they have slept their 

sleep: and none of the men of might have found 

their hands. 


At thy rebuke, O God of Jacob, both the chariot 
and horse are cast into a dead sleep. 

Thou, even thou, art to be feared : and who may 
stand in thy sight when once thou art angry? 

Thou didst cause judgment to be heard from hea 
ven ; the earth feared, and was still, 

When God arose to judgment, to save all the meek 
of the earth. Selah. 

Surely the wrath of man shall praise thee : the 
remainder of wrath shalt thou restrain. 

Vow, and pay unto the LORD your God : let all 
that be round about him bring presents unto 
him that ought to be feared. 

He shall cut off the spirit of princes : he is terrible 
to the kings of the earth. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving, and of the same 
subject-matter as Psalm xlvi. It gives thanks unto 
God for preserving his word and worship in Jeru 
salem ; and shows that it is he who, by marvellous 
deeds and wonders, protects and defends his people 
against all kings and tyrants ; such as Sennacherib. 
For the Lord, the Divine Majesty, is a wonderful 
"Man of war"; who has the hearts and spirits of 
kings in his hand, and who can fill the enemies with 
fear, and break their minds and spirits, whenever 
he pleases, with a single nod of his will. 

In this manner does God fight for his church 
against tyrants and erroneous enemies. In the very 
midst of the course of their fury and their hostile 
roaring, he brings down and breaks their spirits with 
fear: and it is a terrible thing to kick and fight 
against him, who can, in a moment, take away that 
which is the chief thing in battle the spirit of a 
man ! Satan himself, who makes war against the 


righteous with such unceasing rage, with such hor 
rible desire to destroy, and with such confidence 
in his might, is cast down in his spirit, in a mo 
ment, by a repulse of the shield of faith, and falls 
back and is undone : how much more then shall a 
mortal man ! 

This verse, therefore, wherein the Psalmist says, 
" He shall cutoff the spirit of princes/ ought greatly 
to comfort us ; for thereby we may know, that we 
cannot be conquered or oppressed, but as God wills ; 
seeing we have that Warrior for our Captain, 
who holds in his hand the hearts and spirits of our 
enemies ; and who, without any arms or weapons of 
men, can lay our adversaries prostrate in a moment, 
by striking their spirits with fear ! 


The psalmist sheu<eth what fierce combat he had with diffidence. The 
victory which he had by consideration of God s yreat and gracious 

To the chief Musician to Jeduthun. A Psalm of Asaph. 

I CRIED unto God with my voice, even unto God 
with my voice ; and he gave ear unto me. 

In the day of my trouble I sought the LORD : my 
sore ran in the night, and ceased not: my soul 
refused to be comforted. 

I remembered God, and was troubled : I com 
plained, and my spirit was overwhelmed. Selah. 

Thou holdest mine eyes waking : I am so troubled 
that I cannot speak. 

I have considered the days of old, the years of 
ancient times. 

I call to remembrance my song in the night: I 


commune with mine own heart: and my spirit 

made diligent search. 
Will the LORD cast off for ever? and will he be 

favourable no more ? 
Is his mercy clean gone for ever? doth his promise 

fail for evermore ? 
Hath God forgotten to be gracious? hath he in 

anger shut up his tender mercies ? Selah. 
And I said, This is my infirmity : but I will re 
member the years of the right hand of the Most 

I will remember the works of the LORD: surely I 

will remember thy wonders of old. 
I will meditate also of all thy work, and talk of 

thy doings. 
Thy way, O God, is in the sanctuary: who is so 

great a God as our God ! 
Thou art the God that doest wonders: thou hast 

declared thy strength among the people. 
Thou hast with thine arm redeemed thy people, 

the sons of Jacob and Joseph. Selah. 
The waters saw thee, O God, the waters saw thee : 

they were afraid : the depths also were troubled. 
The clouds poured cutwater: the skies sent out 

a sound : thine arrows also went abroad. 
The voice of thy thunder was in the heaven: the 

lightnings lightened the world: the earth trem 
bled and shook. 
Thy way is in the sea, and thy path in the great 

waters, and thy footsteps are not known. 
Thou leddest thy people like a tlock, by the hand 

of Moses and Aaron. 

THIS Psalm contains a blessed doctrine : the Psalmist 
puts forth himself as an example : and the whole is 


for the consolation of the godly : for the Psalmist 
describes the unspeakable anguish and sorrow of a 
heart alarmed at the wrath of God and sin : and he 
says, verse 4, that he was so overwhelmed with these 
terrors and sorrows, that he could neither sleep nor 
speak. And in verses 7 10, he, as it were, repeats 
all these his feelings of sorrow and dread, saying, 
" Will God forget to be merciful ? Doth his promise 
fail for evermore " ? 

But here, as the Psalm saith, lies the greatest and 
best of all consolations, you will at once find com 
fort and deliverance if, casting away from your 
mind (if you can by any means do it,) all these ap 
prehensions of evils and sorrows, (by which indeed 
you are distressed in vain,) you turn to the word 
and works of God, and to the histories of God s doings 
and dealings from the beginning of the world : for 
you will there find that the works and doings of God 
from the beginning have been these, to be merciful 
to and to save and help the sorrowful, the distressed, 
the destitute, and the afflicted ; and to visit, in ven 
geance, the secure, the proud, the despisers, and 
the wicked, in the same way as he delivered the 
Israelites, and destroyed the Egyptians. Hence 
it is that David says, " Thy way, O God, is in the 
deep," and " in the sea : " for God saves in the 
midst of death and of destruction, when despair 
is on every side. 

Learn this, my Christian brother! This Psalm 
thus sets forth to us God and the ways of God : 
that is, how he works, and what he does, in his 
church and in the saints : and all this is thus written, 
that we should not despair in perils and afflictions, 
when we are beyond the reach of all human help : 
but that rather, casting away all our own appre- 


hensions and distressing thoughts, we should, at, 
and from that time, begin to trust in God, and to 
trust in him more and more, waiting for his help. 


An exhortation both to learn and to preach the law of God. The story 
of God s wrath against the incredulous and disobedient. The Israelites 
being rejected, God chose Judah, Zion, and David. 
Maschil of Asaph. 

GIVE ear, O my people, to my law : incline your 
ears to the words of my mouth. 

I will open my mouth in a parable ; I will utter 
dark sayings of old ; 

Which we have heard and known, and our fathers 
have told us. 

We will not hide them from their children, shewing 
to the generation to come the praises of the 
LORD, and his strength, and his wonderful works 
that he hath done. 

For he established a testimony in Jacob, and ap 
pointed a law in Israel, which he commanded 
our fathers, that they should make them known 
to their children ; 

That the generation to come might know them, 
even the children which should be born, who 
should arise and declare them to their children : 

That they might set their hope in God, and not 
forget the works of God ; but keep his com 
mandments : 

And might not be as their fathers, a stubborn and 
rebellious generation ; a generation that set not 
their heart aright, and whose spirit was not sted- 
fast with God. 


The children of Ephraim, being armed, and carrying 

bows, turned back in the day of battle. 
They kept not the covenant of God, and refused to 

walk in his law; 
And forgat his works, and his wonders that he 

had shewed them. 
Marvellous things did he in the sight of their 

fathers, in the land of Egypt, in the field of Zoan. 
He divided the sea, and caused them to pass 

through ; and he made the waters to stand as 

an heap. 
In the day-time also he led them with a cloud, and 

all the night with a light of fire. 
He clave the rocks in the wilderness, and gave 

them drink as out of the great depths. 
He brought streams also out of the rock, and 

caused waters to run down like rivers. 
And they sinned yet more against him, by pro 
voking the Most High in the wilderness. 
And they tempted God in their heart, by asking 

meat for their lust. 
Yea, they spake against God : they said, Can 

God furnish a table in the wilderness ? 
Behold, he smote the rock, that the waters gushed 

out, and the streams overflowed ; can he give 

bread also ? can he provide flesh for his people ? 
Therefore the LORD heard this, and was wroth : so 

a fire was kindled against Jacob, and anger also 

came up against Israel. 
Because they believed not in God, and trusted not 

in his salvation ; 
Though he had commanded the clouds from above, 

and opened the doors of heaven, 
And had rained down manna upon them to eat, 

and had given them of the corn of heaven. 


Man did eat angels food : he sent them meat to 

the full. 
He caused an east wind to blow in the heaven ; 

and by his power he brought in the south wind. 
He rained flesh also upon them as dust, and 

feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea; 
And he let it fall in the midst of their camp, round 

about their habitations. 
So they did eat and were well filled : for he gave 

them their own desire ; 
They were not estranged from their lust : but while 

their meat was yet in their mouths, 
The wrath of God came upon them, and slew the 

fattest of them, and smote down the chosen men 

of Israel. 
For all this they sinned still, and believed not for 

his wondrous works. 
Therefore their days did he consume in vanity, and 

their years in trouble. 
When he slew them, then they sought him ; and 

they returned and inquired early after God : 
And they remembered that God was their Rock, 

and the high God their Redeemer. 
Nevertheless they did flatter him with their mouth, 

and they lied unto him with their tongues : 
For their heart was not right with him, neither 

were they stedfast in his covenant. 
But he, being full of compassion, forgave their 

iniquity, and destroyed them not : yea, many 

a time turned he his anger away, and did not 

stir up all his wrath : 
For he remembered that they were but flesh ; a 

wind that passeth away, and cometh not again. 
How oft did they provoke him in the wilderness, 

and grieve him in the desert ! 


Yea, they turned back, and tempted God, and 

limited the Holy One of Israel. 
They remembered not his hand, nor the day when 

he delivered them from the enemy : 
How he had wrought his signs in Egypt, and his 

wonders in the field of Zoan : 
And had turned their rivers into blood ; and their 

floods, that they could not drink. 
He sent divers sorts of flies among them, which 

devoured them; and frogs, which destroyed 

He gave also their increase unto the caterpillar, 

and their labour unto the locust. 
He destroyed their vines with hail, and their syca 
more-trees with frost. 
He gave up their cattle also to the hail, and their 

flocks to hot thunderbolts. 
He cast upon them the fierceness of his anger, 

wrath, and indignation, and trouble, by sending 

evil angels among them. 
He made a way to his anger ; he spared not their 

soul from death, but gave their life over to the 

pestilence ; 
And smote all the first-born in Egypt ; the chief of 

their strength in the tabernacles of Ham : 
But made his own people to go forth like sheep, 

and guided them in the wilderness like a flock. 
And he led them on safely, so that they feared not : 

but the sea overwhelmed their enemies. 
And he brought them to the border of his sanc 
tuary, even to this mountain, which his right hand 

had purchased. 
He cast out the heathen also before them, and 

divided them an inheritance by line, and made 

the tribes of Israel to dwell in their tents. 


Yet they tempted arid provoked the most high 

God, and kept not his testimonies : 
But turned back, and dealt unfaithfully like their 

fathers : they were turned aside like a deceitful 

For they provoked him to anger with their high 

places, and moved him to jealousy with their 

graven images. 
When God heard this, he was wroth, and greatly 

abhorred Israel : 
So that he forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh, the 

tent which he placed among men ; 
And delivered his strength into captivity, and his 

glory into the enemy s hand. 
He gave his people over also unto the sword; and 

was wroth with his inheritance. 
The fire consumed their young men ; and their 

maidens were not given to marriage. 
Their priests fell by the sword ; and their widows 

made no lamentation. 
Then the LORD awaked as one out of sleep, and 

like a mighty man that shouteth by reason of wine. 
And he smote his enemies in the hinder part: he 

put them to a perpetual reproach. 
Moreover he refused the tabernacle of Joseph, and 

chose not the tribe of Ephraim : 
But chose the tribe of Judah, the mount Zion 

which he loved. 
And he built his sanctuary like high palaces, like 

the earth which he hath established for ever. 
He chose David also his servant, and took him 

from the sheepfolds: 
From following the ewes great with young he 

brought him, to feed Jacob his people, and Israel 

his inheritance. 


So he fed them according to the integrity of his 
heart; and guided them by the skilfulness of 
his hands. 

THIS Psalm, by a glorious instruction, in a long re 
cital of the acts of the children of Israel as examples, 
from the departure out of Egypt down to David, 
teaches us to believe and trust in God : showing us, 
how "very present" God always was to those who 
believed in him, in all their perils, and even in the 
midst of death. And, on the other hand, it shows 
us. how surely and terribly God always visited those 
who despised his word and departed from him. 

For, according to the words of the first command 
ment, God has, from the beginning, wrought, not 
only in his own people, but in the Gentiles also ; 
and so he will work down to the world s end ; show 
ing mercy to those that love him, and visiting in 
judgment those that hate him. 

And although the world despises, more unconcern 
edly than all things else, the threatenings of God and 
his promises also ; yet, nevertheless, God still goes on 
working, according to the words of his first com 
mandment ; and that commandment still prevails 
over all the kingdoms of the earth ; laying prostrate 
kings, overturning kingdoms, uprooting families, 
and blotting out mighty names. And, on the other 
hand, the same commandment still and ever goes on, 
preserving those in the church of God who love him ; 
lifting up them that are down ; succouring the op 
pressed ; feeding the poor, the captives, and the 
exiles ; loosing those that are in prison ; raising the 
dead ; and bringing salvation. 

The hardened and unbelieving world do not be 
lieve God : nevertheless, this first commandment 


goes on thus according to the word which it contains, 
to accomplish God s will, in things private, and in 
things public, in this present age, and throughout 
all the ages to come. 


The psalmist complaineth of the desolation of Jerusalem. He prayeih 
for deliverance, and promiseth thankfulness. 

A Psalm of Asaph. 

O GOD, the heathen are come into thine inherit 
ance ; thy holy temple have they defiled ; they 

have laid Jerusalem on heaps. 
The dead bodies of thy servants have they given 

to be meat unto the fowls of the heaven, the 

flesh of thy saints unto the beasts of the earth. 
Their blood have they shed like water round about 

Jerusalem ; and there was none to bury them. 
We are become a reproach to our neighbours, a 

scorn and derision to them that are round 

about us. 
How long, LORD ? wilt thou be angry for ever ? 

shall thy jealousy burn like fire? 
Pour out thy wrath upon the heathen that have 

not known thee, and upon the kingdoms that 

have not called upon thy name. 
For they have devoured Jacob, and laid waste his 

O remember not against us former iniquities : let 

thy tender mercies speedily prevent us ; for we 

are brought very low. 

Help us, O God of our salvation, for the glory of 
thy name ; and deliver us, and purge away our 

sins, for thy name s sake. 


Wherefore should the heathen say, Where is their 
God ? let him be known among the heathen in 
our sight, by the revenging of the blood of thy 
servants which is shed. 

Let the sighing of the prisoner come before thee ; 
according to the greatness of thy power preserve 
thou those that are appointed to die : 

And render unto our neighbours seven-fold into 
their bosom their reproach, wherewith they have 
reproached thee, O LORD. 

So we thy people, and sheep of thy pasture, will 
give thee thanks for ever ; we will shew forth 
thy praise to all generations. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer to God against that future 
national destruction, which was wrought by the 
Chaldeans and Antiochus Epiphanes ; it is of the 
same subject-matter as Psalm Ixxiv, and therefore it 
may be set forth by the explication there given. 
Isaiah has the same prayer against future devas 
tations, chap. 63. 


The psalmist in his prayer complaineth of the miseries of the church. 
God? s former favours are turned into judgments. He pray eth for de 

To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim-Eduth, A Psalm of Asaph. 

GIVE ear, O Shepherd of Israel, thou that leadest 
Joseph like a flock; thou that dwellest between 
the cherubims. shine forth. 

Before Ephraim, and Benjamin, and Manasseh, 
stir up thy strength, and come and save us. 
p 2 


Turn us again, O God, and cause thy face to 

shine ; and we shall be saved. 
O LORD God of hosts, how long wilt thou be angry 

against the prayer of thy people ? 
Thou feedest them with the bread of tears ; and 

givest them tears to drink in great measure. 
Thou makest us a strife unto our neighbours ; and 

our enemies laugh among themselves. 
Turn us again, O God of hosts, and cause thy face 

to shine ; and we shall be saved. 
Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt ; thou hast 

cast out the heathen, and planted it. 
Thou preparedst room before it, and didst cause it 

to take deep root, and it filled the land. 
The hills were covered with the shadow of it, and 

the boughs thereof were like the goodly cedars. 
She sent out her boughs unto the sea, and her 

branches unto the river. 
Why hast thou then broken down her hedges, so that 

all they which pass by the way do pluck her? 
The boar out of the wood doth waste it, and the 

wild beast of the field doth devour it. 
Return, we beseech thee, O God of hosts, look 

down from heaven, and behold, and visit this 

vine ; 
And the vineyard which thy right hand hath 

planted, and the branch that thou madest strong 

for thyself. 
It is burned with fire ; it is cut down : they perish 

at the rebuke of thy countenance. 
Let thy hand be upon the man of thy right hand, 

upon the son of man whom thou madest strong 

for thyself. 
So will not we go back from thee : quicken us, and 

we will call upon thy name. 



Turn us again, O LORD God of hosts ; cause thy 
face to shine, and we shall be saved. 

THIS is a prayer against those most bitter and daily 
enemies, the neighbouring Philistines, Syrians, Moab- 
ites, Edomites, &c.: for Jerusalem was situated in 
the midst of these nations, all enemies, on every 

This Psalm is appropriate for us against bishops, 
and monks, and priests, who hate us more bitterly 
than any Edomite or any Cain. The fathers used 
this Psalm (such was the state of the church then) 
against her error-broaching enemies. 


An exhortation to a solemn praising of God. God challengeth that duty 
by reason of his benefits, God exhorting to obedience; complaineth of 
their disobedience, which proveth their own hurt. 

To the chief Musician upon Gittith, a Psalm of Asaph. 

SING aloud unto God our strength : make a joyful 

noise unto the God of Jacob. 
Take a psalm, and bring hither the timbrel, the 

pleasant harp with the psaltery. 
Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time 

appointed, on our solemn feast day. 
For this was a statute for Israel, and a law of the 

God of Jacob. 
This he ordained in Joseph for a testimony, when 

he went out through the land of Egypt: where 

I heard a language that I understood not. 
I removed his shoulder from the burden : his 

hands were delivered from the pots. 


Thou calledst in trouble, and I delivered thee ; I 
answered thee in the secret place of thunder: I 
proved thee at the waters of Meribah. Selah. 

Hear, O my people, and I will testify unto thee: 

Israel, if thou wilt hearken unto me ; 

There shall no strange god be in thee; neither 

shalt thou worship any strange god. 
I am the Lord thy God, which brought thee out of 

the land of Egypt: open thy mouth wide, and I 

will fill it. 
But my people would not hearken to my voice; 

and Israel would none of me. 
So I gave them up unto their own hearts lust : 

and they walked in their own counsels. 
Oh that my people had hearkened unto me, and 

Israel had walked in my ways ! 
I should soon have subdued their enemies, and 

turned my hand against their adversaries. 
The haters of the Lord should have submitted 

themselves unto him : but their time should have 

endured for ever. 
He should have fed them also with the finest of the 

wheat: and with honey out of the rock should 

1 have satisfied thee. 

THIS is the form of a prayer and a solemn song 
for the people of the Jews, which was sung yearly at 
the feast of tabernacles, to admonish that people, 
and to keep them in the true worship of God ; namely, 
that of the first commandment. This Psalm, there 
fore, like the prophets, in all their great instructions, 
holds forth and enforces the very words of the first 
commandment, " I am the Lord thy God : thou shalt 
have none other gods but me : " that is, thou shalt 
hold me as thy God, thou shalt cleave unto me, thou 


shalt trust alone in me; thou shalt not worship, 
thou shalt not call upon, any other God. 

But here the whole world lieth in wickedness, the 
whole is unclean, the whole is the kingdom of the 
devil. Not only were the people of the Jews in this 
state of transgression against the first commandment, 
but all nations, and all religions, and all worshippers, 
from the beginning of the world ; and they will be the 
same down to the end of the world. The Israelites 
were indeed the people of God ; they had the pro 
phets, and the godly priests and Levites, continually 
enforcing on them this great and highest worship of 
the first commandment in all their preachings : and 
yet they fell away from this worship. Their mouth 
ought to have been full of God and the praise of 
God, but it was full of idolatry, and of idolatrous 
doctrines and abominations. 

Here is the perverseness of the world : they will 
admire, they will take up with, they will profess, all 
other kinds of worship, all other forms and kinds of 
religions and hypocrisies, and they will multiply and 
adorn them : but they will trample that very glorious 
worship of the first commandment under foot: that 
worship the devil cannot bear ; that worship he 
works to extinguish by all the ways and means in his 

And in the church of God, under the New Testa 
ment, this Psalm teaches us the righteousness of 
faith and of Christ; that we ought to set Christ and 
his righteousness before and above all works : for 
our mouth ought to be full of Christ. But we, like 
the Jews, turn aside to other gods, embracing some 
times these and sometimes those sayings and tradi 
tions, each one following the idol imaginations and 
thoughts of his own heart. 



The psalmist having exhorted the judges, and reproved their negligence, 
prayeth. God to judge. 

A Psalm of Asaph. 

GOD standeth in the congregation of the mighty: 
he judgeth among the gods. 

How long will ye judge unjustly, and accept the 
persons of the wicked ? Selah. 

Defend the poor and fatherless: do justice to the 
afflicted and needy. 

Deliver the poor and needy : rid them out of the 
hand of the wicked. 

They know not, neither will they understand ; they 
walk on in darkness : all the foundations of the 
earth are out of course. 

I have said, Ye are gods; and all of you are chil 
dren of the Most High. 

But ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the 

Arise, O God, judge the earth: for thou shalt in 
herit all nations. 

THIS is a Psalm of consolation against tyrants, and 
wicked kings and magistrates, who oppressed the 
destitute, the fatherless, and the widows. I have 
given a full commentary on this Psalm, which is now 
in public ; therefore I need not say more upon it 



A complaint to God of the enemies conspiracies. A prayer against them 
that oppress the church. 

A Song or Psalm of Asaph. 

KEEP not thou silence, O God : hold not thy peace, 

and be not still, O God. 
For, lo, thine enemies make a tumult; and they 

that hate thee have lifted up the head. 
They have taken crafty counsel against thy people, 

and consulted against thy hidden ones. 
They have said, Come, and let us cut them off 

from being a nation; that the name of Israel may 

be no more in remembrance. 
For they have consulted together with one consent ; 

they are confederate against thee : 
The tabernacles of Edom, and the Ishmaelites ; of 

Moab and the Hagarenes ; 
Gebal, and Aminon, and Amalek ; the Philistines, 

with the inhabitants of Tyre; 
Assur also is joined with them: they have holpen 

the children of Lot. Selah. 
Do unto them as unto the Midianites ; as to Sisera, 

as to Jabin, at the brook of Kison ; 
Which perished at En-dor: they became as dung 

for the earth. 
Make their nobles like Oreb and likeZeeb; yea, 

all their princes as Zebah and as Zalmunna: 
Who said, Let us take to ourselves the houses of 

God in possession. 
O my God, make them like a wheel ; as the stubble 

before the wind. 


As fire burneth a wood, and as the flame setteth 

the mountains on fire, 
So persecute them with thy tempest, and make 

them afraid with thy storm. 
Fill their faces with shame ; that they may seek 

thy name, O LORD. 
Let them be confounded and troubled for ever; 

yea, let them be put to shame, and perish : 
That men may know that thou, whose name alone 

t* JEHOVAH, art the Most High over all the 


THIS Psalm is a prayer of the same nature as 
Psalm Ixxx. as the same mentioned names of the 
same nation show, who were bitter enemies unto 
Israel. The same explanation, therefore, will 


The prophet longing for the communion of the sanctuary, sheweth how 
blessed they are that dwell therein. He prayeth to be restored unto it. 

To the chief Musician upon Gittith, a Psalm for the sons of Korah. 

How amiable are thy tabernacles, O LORD of 

My soul longeth, yea, even fainteth, for the courts 

of the LORD ; my heart and my flesh crieth out 

for the living God. 
Yea, the sparrow hath found an house, and the 

swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her 

young, even thine altars, O LORD of hosts, my 

King, and my God. 


Blessed are they that dwell in thy house : they will 

be still praising thee. Selah. 
Blessed is the man whose strength is in thee ; in 

whose heart are the ways of them : 
Who passing through the valley of Baca, make it 

a well : the rain also filleth the pools. 
They go from strength to strength ; every one of 

them in Zion appeareth before God. 
O LORD God of hosts, hear my prayer : give ear, 

God of Jacob. Selah. 

Behold, O God, our shield, and look upon the face 

of thine anointed. 
For a day in thy courts is better than a thousand. 

1 had rather be a door-keeper in the house 
of my God, than to dwell in the tents of wick 

For the LORD God is a sun and shield : the LORD 
will give grace and glory : no good thing will he 
withhold from them that walk uprightly. 

O LORD of hosts, blessed is the man that trusteth in 

THIS is a Psalm of consolation, which breaks forth into 
the most sweet and powerful expressions, in praise 
and love of the ministry of the word. " Blessed are 
they (says David) that dwell in thy house:" that 
is, they alone are truly blessed, and rest on a sure 
and eternal consolation, who dwell in thy house and 
in thy tabernacle : that is, in the place where thy 
word is taught and heard. For such, as the Apostle 
saith, (1 Cor. i.) " are increased in all good, and 
enriched in all wisdom and all knowledge, and with 
every good gift, so that they can want nothing." They 
have all riches. 

Wherefore let the world have their rich ones, their 


powerful ones, and their wise ones, and their conso 
lations in this world ; let them trust and glory in 
their wisdom, their might, their wealth, and their 
possessions, my heart triumphs in the living God ; 
that is, I rejoice, and triumph, and glory, with all my 
heart, that I know God in his word, and that I am 
of his true church. And I would rather cleave and 
hold to this poor despised flock of God s people, to 
his church of poor afflicted ones, who call upon God 
in truth ; I would rather cleave to them, and hover 
over them, as a bird over her young in the nest, than 
live in the moM splendid palace of all earthly kings. 
I had rather sit at the door of the house of the Lord ; 
that is, occupy the lowest place among the people of 
God, despised and disregarded by the world, than 
be loaded with all the dainties and riches of the 
universe, and not belong to the assembly of them 
that hear, and love, and know the word of God. 

This Psalm, therefore, exhorts us rather to suffer 
ourselves to be torn away from all the riches, honours, 
consolations and pleasures of the world, than from 
the house of God. For no riches, nor even king 
doms, can deliver us from sin or death, or from the 
kingdom of the devil ; nor can they overcome, in our 
hearts, the terrors of hell or of the judgment of God. 
But God gives, by his word, grace and victory over 
all these. " He is a sun and a shield " that is, in all 
darkness and in all afflictions, of every kind, the 
word of God is a joyful light, a sure consolation, a 
firm bulwark, and an invincible armour against the 
violent assault of the devil and of sin: neither of 
which can the riches or the wisdom of this world 
vanquish. He, therefore, that hath the word of God 
hath every thing : he that hath not the word of God 
hath nothing. O blessed, eternally blessed are they, 


who thus love and value the word of God ! but 
where are they ! how few such are there to be found ! 
for the world is full of mockers and despisers ! 


The Psalmist, out of the experience of former mercies, prayethfor the 
continuance thereof. He promiseth to wait thereon, out of confidence 
of God s goodness. 

To the chief Musician, A Psalm to the sons of Korah. 

LORD, thou hast been favourable unto thy land : 
thou hast brought back the captivity of Jacob. 

Thou hast forgiven the iniquity of thy people ; thou 
hast covered all their sin. Selah. 

Thou hast taken away all thy wrath : thou hast 
turned thyself from the fierceness of thine anger. 

Turn us, O God of our salvation, and cause thine 
anger towards us to cease. 

Wilt thou be angry with us for ever ? wilt thou 
draw out thine anger to all generations? 

Wilt thou not revive us again, that thy people 
may rejoice inthee? 

Shew us thy mercy, O LORD, and grant us thy sal 

I will hear what God the LORD will speak : for he 
will speak peace unto his people, and to his 
saints : but let them not turn again to folly. 

Surely his salvation is nigh them that fear him ; 
that glory may dwell in our land. 

Mercy and truth are met together ; righteousness 
and peace have kissed each other. 

Truth shall spring out of the earth ; and righteous 
ness shall look down from heaven. 


Yea, the LORD shall give that which is good : and 

our land shall yield her increase. 
Righteousness shall go before him, and shall set us 

in the way of his steps. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer containing the feelings of a 
heart that fears God ; and it persuades, in the most 
impressive words, such an one, not to dread God s 
anger. For those who fear God, are not like the 
despisers and Epicureans, who are secure and care 
for nothing that happens ; but when calamities fall 
upon godly men, their first and main concern is to 
turn to God that smites them, and to make anew their 
peace with him. 

The anger wherewith God chastised his people, at 
this time, was this : he had taken away from them, 
for a time, the word ; he had diminished the number 
of those that preached it in truth, and had made few 
the true prophets, priests and Levites. In addition 
to which, the peace of the nation was broken by sedi 
tions ; and many evils prevailed in the state and 
among the rulers thereof. And this was not all : 
there came on also the dread and expectation of war, 
and the want of the necessary provisions of life: for 
these calamities generally follow, one after the other, 
when God, according to the first commandment, 
visits the iniquities of a people. 

The Psalmist, therefore, prays that God would be 
pleased again to preserve the church, and also the 
nation ; again to restore the real ministers of the 
word, who preached it in truth, and by whom alone 
God truly speaks unto men. 

The Psalmist, therefore, breaks forth with a won 
derful burden of heart, as if he had said, " O that I 
might again hear the Lord truly speaking ! O that 


the word of God were again truly preached, lest even 
the godly should be " turned to folly " ( or ignorance ; 
that is, lest they should be so broken down and 
utterly worn out, by the greatness of their afflictions, 
as not to know what to do.) O that both the wor 
ship of God, and the prosperity of our nation, may 
be restored, and that peace, and concord, and truth, 
and justice, may flourish among us ! that the fruits 
of the earth, and the produce of the fields and of the 
vineyards may be blessed ; that we may lead a godly 
life in this our day, and, as St. Paul saith, may 
" look for the glorious appearing of the great 
God ! " 


David strengthened his prayer by the conscience of his religion, by the 
goodness and power of God. He desireth the continuance of former 
grace. Complaining of the proud he craveth some token of God s 

A Prayer of David. 

Bow down thine ear, O LORD, hear me ; for I am 

poor and needy. 
Preserve my soul, for I am holy : O thou my God, 

save thy servant that trusteth in thee. 
Be merciful unto me, O LORD : for I cry unto thee 

Rejoice the soul of thy servant : for unto thee, O 

LORD, do I lift up my soul. 
For thou, LORD, art good, and ready to forgive ; 

and plenteous in mercy unto all them that call 

upon thee. 
Give ear, O LORD, unto my prayer ; and attend to 

the voice of my supplications. 


In the day of my trouble I will call upon thee : for 

thou wilt answer me. 
Among the gods there is none like unto thee, O 

LORD ; neither are there any works like unto thy 

All nations whom thou hast made shall come and 

worship before thee, O LORD ; and shall glorify 

thy name. 
For thou art great, and doest wondrous things, 

thou art God alone. 
Teach me thy way, O LORD ; I will walk in thy 

truth : unite my heart to fear thy name. 
I will praise thee, O LORD my God, with all my 

heart ; and T will glorify thy name for evermore. 
For great is thy mercy toward me ; and thou hast 

delivered my soul from the lowest hell. 
O God, the proud are risen against me, and the 

assemblies of violent men have sought after my 

soul, and have not set thee before them. 
But thou, O LORD, art a God full of compassion, 

and gracious ; long-suffering, and plenteous in 

mercy and truth. 
O turn unto me, and have mercy upon me : give 

thy strength unto thy servant, and save the son 

of thine handmaid. 
Shew me a token for good ; that they which hate 

me may see it, and be ashamed ; because thou, 

LORD, hast holpen me, and comforted me. 

THIS Psalm is a supplication, and, as the title shows, 
a prayer of David : and here you may see that prayer 
is the highest exercise of faith, and the highest wor 
ship of God. Every one knows with what destroying 
calamities that great man David, that " man after 
God s own heart," was surrounded ; and yet you 


may see, in the book of Kings, that, in his deepest 
straits and most calamitous afflictions, he calls upon 
God with all the ardour of his heart against his ene 
mies, Saul, his son Absalom, &c. those "instruments 
of the devil, who so heavily afflicted him. 

Behold what an example of prayer for us to follow, 
this great, this most spiritual man, gives us in the 
6th, 9th, 10th and llth verses. See how fixedly he 
has before his eyes the first commandment. " O 
God," saith he, " who is like unto thee among the 
gods ? " who doeth works like unto thy works ? " Thou 
art great and doest wonderful works ; thou art God 
alone. Thou, O Lord, art a God full of compassion 
and gracious, long-suffering and plenteous in mercy 
and in truth, unto all that call upon thee." 

Behold here how he calls up and sharpens, as it 
were, his faith, at a view of the mercy of God ! so 
that, apprehending that mercy and the promise, he 
goes forth on the assurance, that God is not only 
powerful and great, and invincible against all the 
assaults of the devil and of the world, and against 
all creatures; but that he is also ever present unto 
the godly, and ever merciful to those that call upon 
him, and believe in him. And thus, we also ought 
to apprehend the word of the divine promise of mercy, 
and cast out of our hearts all doubt, that we may be 
enabled to call upon him without misgiving . 

At the end David prays, " Show me a token for 
good." God sometimes permits the wicked to glory 
for a while, as if they certainly should soon devour 
the saints, and those that fear him. But God never 
finally forsakes his people : for here, in the church 
below, he often delivers the godly, who fear him, out 
of the greatest perils ; yea, out of the very jaws of 
death ; and plainly proves that he is ever present and 


near his own : for their deliverances plainly show 
the hand of God. It is for such a token, or sign, as 
this, that David here prays. 


The nature and (/lory of the church. The increase, honour, and comfort 
of the members thereof. 

A Psalm or Song for the sons of Korah. 

His foundation is in the holy mountains. 

The LORD loveth the gates of Zion more than all 
the dwellings of Jacob. 

Glorious things are spoken of thee, O city of God. 

I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to 
them that know me : behold Philistia, and Tyre, 
with Ethiopia; this man was born there. 

And of Zion it shall be said, This and that man was 
born in her: and the highest himself shall esta 
blish her. 

The LORD shall count, when he writeth up the 
people, that this man was born there. Selah. 

As well the singers as the players on instruments 
shall be there: all my springs are in thee. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning the kingdom of Christ 
and the church, in times to come. The Psalmist, 
after the manner of the prophets, sets before us the 
future Jerusalem and the future Zion, as if repre 
sented in a painting before our eyes : the houndaries 
of which should be those of the world itself, reaching 
from east to west, and from north to south ; and in 
which church there should be born men of every 


nation, kingdom, tribe, and tongue, Ethiopians, 
Egyptians, Babylonians, Tyrians, Philistines, &c. 
and that these should be born in this church, not by 
a natural birth, but by the word of the gospel. 

" Great, excellent, and glorious things shall be 
spoken and preached in thee, O city of God ! " For 
the gospel is a great and glorious doctrine, the highest 
of all doctrines, even the word of salvation ; hence, 
as Paul saith, (Phil. i. 10.) the gospel contains, in 
comparison with the law, " the things that are ex 
cellent." For by the gospel is given to us the know 
ledge of the counsel and will of God ; in what 
manner God is pacified ; how we are delivered from 
sin, from the power of the devil, and from eternal 
death ; which things neither the law, nor any human 
philosophy, could teach. 

In the last verse also, the Psalm most beautifully 
sets forth what the highest worship, under the New 
Testament, should be. " There shall be in thee, 
(saith the Psalmist,) as the harmonious concert of 
those playing on instruments ; " that is, it is not 
Moses, or the law, that shall be taught in that city ; 
but the sweet and joyful message of the gospel shall 
be preached by the ministry of the word, even grace 
and the remission of sins by Jesus Christ. 


A prayer containing a grievous complaint. 

A Song or Psalm for the sons of Korah, to the chief Musician upon 
Mahalath Leannoth, Maschil of Heman the Ezrahite. 

O LORD God of my salvation, I have cried day and 
night before thee. 

Q 2 


Let ray prayer come before thee : incline thine ear 

unto my cry ; 
For my soul is full of troubles, and my life draweth 

nigh unto the grave. 
I am counted with them that go down into the pit : 

I am as a man that hatk no strength : 
Free among the dead, like the slain that lie in the 

grave, whom thou rememberest no more : and 

they are cut off from thy hand. 
Thou hast laid me in the lowest pit, in darkness, 

in the deeps. 

Thy wrath lieth hard upon me, and thou hast af 
flicted me with all thy waves. Selah. 
Thou hast put away mine acquaintance far from 

me; thou hast made me an abomination unto 

them : I am shut up, and I cannot come forth. 
Mine eye mourneth by reason of affliction : LORD, 

I have called daily upon thee ; I have stretched 

out my hands unto thee. 
Wilt thou shew wonders to the dead ? shall the 

dead arise and praise thee? Selah. 
Shall thy loving-kindness be declared in the grave? 

or thy faithfulness in destruction? 
Shall thy wonders be known in the dark? and thy 

righteousness in the land of forgetfulness? 
But unto thee have I cried, O LORD ; and in the 

morning shall my prayer prevent thee. 
LORD, why castest thou off my soul I why hidest 

thou thy face from me ? 
I am afflicted and ready to die from my youth up : 

while I suffer thy terrors I am distracted. 
Thy fierce wrath goeth over me ; thy terrors have 

cut me off. 
They came round about me daily like water, they 

compassed me about together. 


Lover and friend hast thou put far from me, and 
mine acquaintance into darkness. 

THIS is a prayer, as in the person of Christ and of 
all the saints. It contains those mighty feelings 
and conflicts of heart, which no mortals but those 
who experience them, can either describe or con 
ceive ; I mean those pangs and pains, and that heavy 
sorrow of spirit, (above all natural distress of body 
or of mind, and above all natural fear and dread,) 
when the heart is filled with a sense of the majesty 
and anger of God, and is alarmed at the nature and 
end of sin ; while God also, as yet, holds off all con 
solation ; and the soul is shaken in the midst of 
darkness and terror, and, as Christ saith himself, 
" sifted by the devil like wheat in a sieve ; " while the 
malicious Satan craftily augments the soul s views of 
the anger of God, and drives out of sight all hope of 
mercy and grace. 

David here calls these unspeakable terrors of soul, 
" hell," " darkness," " the shadow of death." " Thou 
hast cast me (saith he) into the lowest pit, into dark 
ness and the deeps. Thy wrath lieth hard upon me ; 
and thou hast afflicted me with all thy waves." 
And rightly does David describe these pains and 
terrors by the terms, " death," " hell," &c. because 
this anguish of soul is of the very nature, and power, 
and poison, and sting of hell and death ; for no 
sooner is the darkness dispersed, by some shining in 
of divine consolation, than death is no longer death, 
but we die gladly. And indeed, where such fears 
and terrors of mind abound and continue, they 
extend to the body, bring on a paleness and ema 
ciation, and affect the whole man. Paul calls them 
the " buffetting of Satan/ and " thorns in the 


flesh ; " which has reference to a custom in certain 
nations of punishing criminals by transfixing their 
bodies with a certain sharp pointed conical instru 
ment, in the shape of a thorn ; and mocking and 
deriding them in their suffering. And just thus it is 
that the nations of the world contemptuously call 
Christ that crucified fellow/ and the Jews, That 
fellow that was hanged. For the world, in their 
malice, not only persecute Christ, but also deride 
and mock his sufferings, and the sufferings of his 
members. And hence it is David complains thus in 
this Psalm, " Lover and friend hast thou put far 
from me, and mine acquaintance into darkness." 


The psalmist praiseth God for his covenant, for his wonderful power, for 
the care of his church, for his favour to the kinydom of David. Then 
complaining of contrary events, he expostulateth, prayeth, and blesseth 

Maschil of Ethan the Ezrahite. 

I WILL sing of the mercies of the LORD for ever : 
with my mouth will I make known thy faithful 
ness to all generations. 

For I have said, Mercy shall be built up for ever : 
thy faithfulness shalt thou establish in the very 

I have made a covenant with my chosen, I have 
sworn unto David my servant, 

Thy seed will t establish for ever, and build up 
thy throne to all generations. Selah. 

Arid the heavens shall praise thy wonders, O 
LORD : thy faithfulness also in the congregation 
of the saints. 


For who in the heaven can be compared unto the 

LORD? who among the sons of the mighty can 

be likened unto the LORD? 
God is greatly to be feared in the assembly of the 

saints, and to be had in reverence of all them that 

are about him. 
O LORD God of hosts, who is a strong LORD like 

unto thee? or to thy faithfulness round about 

Thou rulestthe raging of the sea: when the waves 

thereof arise, thou stillest them. 
Thou hast broken Rahab in pieces, as one that is 

slain ; thou hast scattered thine enemies with 

thy strong arm. 
The heavens are thine, the earth also is thine : as 

for the world and the fulness thereof, thou hast 

founded them. 
The north and the south thou hast created them : 

Tabor and Herinon shall rejoice in thy name. 
Thou hast a mighty arm: strong is thy hand, and 

high is thy right hand. 
Justice and judgment are the habitation of thy 

throne: mercy and truth shall go before thy 

Blessed is the people that know the joyful sound : 

they shall walk, O LORD, in the light of thy 

In thy name shall they rejoice all the day : and in 

thy righteousness shall they be exalted. 
For thou art the glory of their strength : and in thy 

favour our horn shall be exalted. 
For the LORD is our defence ; and the Holy One 

of Israel is our king. 

Then thou spakest in vision to thy holy one, 
and saidst, I have laid help upon one that is 


mighty ; I have exalted one chosen out of the 

I have found David my servant ; with my holy oil 

have I anointed him : 
With whom my hand shall be established ; mine 

arm also shall strengthen him. 
The enemy shall not exact upon him ; nor the son 

of wickedness afflict him. 
And I will beat down his foes before his face, and 

plague them that hate him. 
But my faithfulness and my mercy shall be with 

him; and in my name shall his horn be exalted. 
I will set his hand also in the sea, and his right 

hand in the rivers. 
He shall cry unto me, Thou art my Father, my 

God, and the Rock of my salvation. 
Also I will make him my first-born, higher than 

the kings of the earth. 
My mercy will I keep for him for evermore, and 

my covenant shall stand fast with him. 
His seed also will I make to endure for ever, and 

his throne as the days of heaven. 
If his children forsake my law, and walk not in 

my judgments ; 

If they break my statutes, and keep not my com 
mandments ; 
Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, 

and their iniquity with stripes. 
Nevertheless my loving-kindness will I not ut 
terly take from him, nor suffer my faithfulness 

to fail. 
My covenant will I not break, nor alter the thing 

that is gone out of my lips. 
Once have I sworn by my holiness, that I will not 

lie unto David. 


His seed shall endure for ever, and his throne as 

the sun before me. 
It shall he established for ever as the moon, and 

a* a faithful witness in heaven. Selah. 
But thou hast cast off and abhorred, thou hast been 

wroth with thine anointed. 
Thou hast made void the covenant of thy servant ; 

thou hast profaned his crown, by casting it to the 

Thou hast broken down all his hedges ; thou hast 

brought his strong holds to ruin. 
All that pass by the way spoil him: he is a re 
proach to his neighbours. 

Thou hast set up the right hand of his adver 
saries ; thou hast made all his enemies to 

Thou hast also turned the edge of his sword, and 

hast not made him to stand in the battle. 
Thou hast made his glory to cease, and cast his 

throne down to the ground. 
The days of his youth hast thou shortened : thou 

hast covered him with shame. Selah. 
How long, LORD? wilt thou hide thyself for ever ? 

shall thy wrath burn like fire? 
Remember how short my time is : wherefore hast 

thou made all men in vain ! 
What man is he that liveth, and shall not see death ? 

shall he deliver his soul from the hand of the 

grave? Selah. 
LORD, where are thy former loving-kindnesses, 

which thou swarest unto David in thy truth? 
Remember, LORD, the reproach of thy servants ; 

how I do bear in my bosom the reproach of all the 

mighty people ; 
Wherewith thine enemies have reproached, O 


LORD ; wherewith they have reproached the 
footsteps of thine anointed. 

Blessed be the LORD for evermore. Amen, and 

THIS is a remarkable prophecy concerning Christ 
and his kingdom ; he speaks of the church or king 
dom of Christ, as a " kingdom in the heavens ; " in 
the same manner as Christ himself calls it " the 
kingdom of heaven/ And though this spiritual 
kingdom of Christ is here upon earth, yet the 
Psalmist gloriously describes it as being " in the 

The Psalmist, indeed, here apprehends the promise 
made to David concerning Christ ; and, opening that 
promise in a wonderful manner, he describes the 
riches of this spiritual kingdom. He enforces the 
everlasting firmness and sureness of that promise; 
and, taking a stand of heavenly meditation therein, 
he dwells upon the effectual power of that promise 
against all the violence of sin, and the malice and 
accusation of the devil; and here the Psalmist takes 
up his divine abode ; here he fixes his standing ; as 
the apostle hath it, " by faith ye stand:" and he 
says that this truth of God, this his promise was 
prepared from everlasting, built up in the fulfilment 
of God s purpose of mercy, and firm, and " established 
in the heavens." 

" Thy faithfulness and truth/ (says the Psalmist,) 
"are established in the heavens;" that is, a hea 
venly righteousness is preached by the gospel, which 
is not placed in us, or in any worthiness or merit of 
ours ; but is out of us, and is the righteousness of 
Christ, and is imputed, for Christ s sake, unto all 
that believe in him : and hence, the promised riches 


of this kingdom are the gift of the Spirit, and the 
remission of sins, with ajl other spiritual blessings : 
all which are not offered unto us on any condition 
of the law, or of our works or our merit, but are given 
unto us freely of God. Salvation, therefore, is not a 
matter conditional on our works, but freely given 
unto us for Christ s sake; that thus all doubting 
and uncertainty may be taken from our souls ; and 
that we may safely rest, entirely and only on the 
immutable and immoveable certainty of this truth 
and promise of God. 

The temporal kingdom of the Jews was promised 
to that people, on condition of a law given to them ; 
that, if they kept that law, nationally, as a people, 
if they were therein good and obedient, they should 
be preserved and blessed. And, in the same way 
also, all the kingdoms of the world are given to their 
people under a like condition of a law, and, as long 
as they are good and obedient, God preserves them. 
But the immense and glorious riches of this spiritual 
kingdom, the forgiveness of sins, the gift of the 
Spirit, victory over death and the devil, &c. are 
promised and held forth without any condition of 
a law ; and, in a word, the remission of sins is 
promised, freely, not only to those who have done 
nothing to deserve it, but to those who have done 
everything to forfeit it. This is a throne, therefore, 
not of angry and destroying majesty, but of grace 
alone ; and being founded, not on the basis of our 
good works and merits, but on the rock of the sure 
and everlasting truth of God, it affords a great and 
marvellous consolation to the afflicted consciences 
of sinners. 

After, however, the prophetic Psalmist has de 
scribed the flower and glory of this kingdom and 


church of Christ, he deplores, on the other hand, 
from verse 39, in the most powerful expressions, the 
desolations and destructions of it : saying, that it 
shall come to pass that this kingdom, like as the 
apostle has also foretold, shall be so disturbed 
and torn to pieces by antichrist, that it shall seem 
as if God had wholly forgotten his promise unto 
it; nay, as if, contrary to the word of his promise, 
he did nothing but show his wrath against this 

All these things, however, are written for a con 
solation unto the godly ; and especially unto us who, 
in these last times, have witnessed such abomi 
nations of papacy ; these things, I say, are written 
for our comfort and consolation; that we should not 
be broken-spirited, or terrified, at the multitude 
and diversity of offences ; nor be driven to despair, 
though wickedness should have the dominion for a 
time, and though Satan should, as it were, so subvert 
all things human and divine, that there should seem 
to be no church of Christ at all, no remains of the 
kingdom of Christ upon earth. For if you look 
at the abomination of the Pope, and of Mahomet, 
which have spread themselves over the whole 
world, no other appearance is presented than that 
there is not a vestige of the true church remaining: 
and yet, it is not wholly blotted or rooted out from 
the earth ; for, under the reign of each abomination 
and tyranny, there has ever existed a true church 
of Christ, although greatly despised and greatly 

PSALM XC. 237 


Moses, setting forth God s providence, complaineth of human fragility, 
divine chastisements, and brevity of life. He prayethfor the know 
ledge and sensible experience of God s good providence. 

A prayer of Moses, the Man of God. 

LORD, thou hast been our dwelling-place in all 

Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever 
thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even 
from everlasting to everlasting thou art God. 

Thou turnest man to destruction ; and sayest, Re 
turn, ye children of men. 

For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yes 
terday when it is past, and as a watch in the 

Thou carriest them away as with a flood ; they 
are as a sleep : in the morning they are like 
grass which groweth up. 

In the morning it flourisheth, and groweth up; in 
the evening it is cut down, and withereth. 

For we are consumed by thine anger, and by thy 
wrath are we troubled. 

Thou hast set our iniquities before thee, our secret 
sins in the light of thy countenance. 

For all our days are passed away in thy wrath : 
we spend our years as a tale that is told. 

The days of our years are threescore years and 
ten ; and if by reason of strength they be four 
score years, yet is their strength labour and sor 
row ; for it is soon cut off, and we fly away. 

Who knoweth the power of thine anger? even ac 
cording to thy fear, so is thy wrath. 

238 PSALM XC. 

So teach us to number our days, that we may apply 

our hearts unto wisdom. 
Return, O LORD, how long? arid let it repent thee 

concerning thy servants. 
O satisfy us early with thy mercy ; that we may 

rejoice and be glad all our days. 
Make us glad according to the days wherein thou 

hast afflicted us, and the years wherein we have 

seen evil. 
Let thy work appear unto thy servants, and thy 

glory unto their children. 
And let the beauty of the LORD our God be upon 

us : and establish thou the work of our hands 

upon us : yea, the work of our hands establish 

thou it. 

THIS Psalm contains a very great and important 
doctrine ; in which Moses teaches what is the origin 
and cause of that death to which the whole human 
race is subject, and the reason why so horrible a 
punishment was inflicted on the whole race of mor 
tals : the Psalmist saith, it was on account of sin : 
and the guilt and desert of sin are greater than can 
be conceived by the human mind, unless God touch 
the heart with a knowledge of it ; arid yet, in this 
sin and guilt, and under this wrath, all the sons of 
Adam are born. 

Moses here opens widely this punishment of sin, 
and this horrible misery ; setting forth the proof of it 
in the shortness and uncertainty of human life ; 
which life, in addition to this its shortness and un 
certainty, is subject also to all kinds of calamity: 
and, in verse 11, Moses saith that this very un 
speakable misery death, and all other human ca 
lamities, as parts of that death, tend, or should lead 

PSALM XC. 239 

us, to seek the grace and mercy of God, who alone 
can deliver us from all these evils, sin, the slavery 
of the devil, and death. Hence all the calamities 
and afflictions of life, and even death itself, the 
punishment of sin, work together for good unto the 
elect, and unto those that fear God ; that they may, 
by all things, be humbled, broken down, and cruci 
fied, and so, thirst after grace. 

" So teach us that we must die/ says Moses, " that 
we may become wise:" that is, that we may learn 
to know God and his will aright; for this is what 
Moses calls "becoming wise." The wicked, and 
fools, who are not exercised with afflictions, who 
number not their days, nor think of death, nor medi 
tate on the misery of life, but remain unexperienced 
and ignorant of all spiritual things, and are wrapped 
up in their own hypocrisy, never rightly know God, 
nor truly seek his help and mercy. 

Moses then closes his Psalm with a divinely con 
cluding prayer, " Let thy work appear unto thy 
servants," or " Show us thy work, O Lord." Here, 
by the work of God, he means deliverance from sin 
and death ; and, in a word, all that deliverance that 
our fathers expected from that blessed seed, which 
we have revealed to us in Christ. And again, saith 
Moses, " O satisfy us early with thy mercy : " and 
he twice repeats, " Prosper thou the works of our 
hands : " that is, for the time that we live, direct and 
prosper thou our whole life : preserve thy true reli 
gion and the good government of our nation : guard 
us from heresies, errors, wars, seditions, and all such 
evils. This Psalm, therefore, is a short but a most 
spiritual prayer. 



The state of the godly. Their safety .Their habitation. Their ser 
vants. Their friends ; with the effects, of them all. 

HE that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most 

High, shall abide under the shadow of the Al 
I will say of the LORD, He is my refuge, and my 

fortress : my God ; in him will I trust. 
Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of the 

fowler, and from the noisome pestilence. 
He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under 

his wings shalt thou trust ; his truth shall be thy 

shield and buckler. 
Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night, 

nor for the arrow that flieth by day, 
Nor for the pestilence that walketh in darkness, 

nor for the destruction that wasteth at noon-day. 
A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand 

at thy right hand ; but it shall not come nigh 

Only with thine eyes shalt thou behold, and see 

the reward of the wicked. 
Because thou hast made the LORD, which is my 

refuge, even the Most High, thy habitation. 
There shall no evil befall thee, neither shall any 

plague come nigh thy dwelling. 
For he shall give his angels charge over thee, to 

keep thee in all thy ways. 
They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou 

dash thy foot against a stone. 
Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder; the 


young lion and the dragon shall thou trample 

under feet. 
Because he hath set his love upon me, therefore 

will I deliver him : I will set him on high, be 
cause he hath known my name. 
He shall call upon me, and I will answer him : I 

will be with him in trouble ; I will deliver him, 

and honour him. 
With long life will I satisfy him, and shew him 

my salvation. 

THIS is a most distinguished jewel among all the 
Psalms of consolation. The Psalmist highly exalts 
faith in God, and shews that it is an invincible 
strength against all evils, and against all the gates 
of hell. 

At the very outset, the Psalmist says, " He that 
dwelleth in the secret place of the Most High, 
abideth under the shadow of the Almighty ; " and 
such an one shall say unto the Lord, " Thou art my 
confidence, my protection, my fortress and my God/ 
that is, he that believeth and trusteth in God, and 
rests in his protection, he shall find, though shaken 
on every side, by the devil, by sin, by the world, and 
by various and endless temptations, that the godly 
are proof and invincible against all these evils ; that 
God is most high over all ; that he is Omnipotent ; 
and, in a word, that " greater is he that is in us than 
he that is in the world." 

Towards the conclusion, this Psalm contains, accu 
mulated together, eight or nine promises of grace, 
which the Psalmist drew out of the first command 
ment, as out of a fountain. This Psalm, therefore, 
ought to be set before afflicted souls. 1. The Psalm 
ist says " Because he hath hoped in me, therefore 


will I deliver him." 2. " I will set him on high." 
3. "Because he hath called upon me, I will hear 
him." 4. "I will be with him in trouble." 5. "I 
will deliver him." 6. " I will set him on high, or 
glorify him." 7. * With long life will I satisfy him." 
8. " I will show him my salvation:" that is, that I 
am " mighty to save ! " 

And this also is the second Psalm wherein angels 
are proclaimed as our watchful guardians and pro- 
tectors : which is a truth very greatly consoling to 
the really godly, who know with what fury Satan 
unceasingly assaults the church, and all the saints. 
This Psalm enumerates four kinds of evils and afflic 
tions, which are to be endured by the saints and 
those that fear God : 

1. " Mighty fear,"" terror by night." The scrip 
ture frequently represents temptations and afflictions 
under the figures of darkness and night; and conso 
lations under the figurative descriptions of light and 
day. The Psalmist, therefore, here sets forth all 
those horrible instances of hatred, that Cain-like 
purpose to destroy, (which is ever secretly bound up 
in the hearts of pharisaic religionists) all those mali 
cious threats, those hostile traps and snares, those 
created perils, those injuries, and all those other ter 
rible oppositions which Satan ever raises up against 
the word of God, by nightly fear, or " terror by 

2. "The arrow that flielh by day." By which are 
meant to be described all those open clamours, re 
proaches, execrations, and blasphemies, by which 
tyrants and hypocrites openly attack and condemn 
the word of God, and the doctrine of Christ. Of this 
kind are the pope s bulls, (and truly they are bulls I) 
and also, the edicts of kings and princes, the viru- 

PSALM XCI. -243 

lent and blasphemous books of erroneous disputers, 
and the writings of erroneous and visionary men, 
such as the anabaptists, and the like. 

3. " The pestilence that creepeth (or walketh) in 
darkness/ These are the deceits, the crafts, and 
the artifices of the papists ; and the leagues, the 
covert conspiracies, the secret counsels, by which 
those enemies consult and plan among themselves 
in their private conclaves: which clandestine machi 
nations they think they can keep hidden, even from 
the eyes of God himself; and by all which diabolical 
means, they plot to destroy and root out the godly 
and all doctrine that is truly good and saving. 

4. " The disease (or contagion, or destruction) 
that wasteth at noon day/ This is the work of open 
persecution ; whereby these holy Cains, in their 
unheard-of cruelty and tyranny, shed the blood of 
the Abels, drive into exile the godly, plunder their 
substance, and slaughter them by every cruelty of 
torture ; thereby attempting to lay the true church 
utterly waste, and to leave not a vestige of the true 
word remaining. 

This is my view of the Psalm. I know that St. 
Bernard gives other interpretations. Let others, 
therefore, if they can, put forth a better explication 
than I have done: that my view is simple, and 
agreeable to the mind and spirit of the prophets, is 
self-manifest, and proved by experience: for we see 
and experience daily, that the saints of God are 
attacked and exercised by these four afflictions for the 
word s sake, by means of the devil and by the world. 
The Holy Spirit, therefore, by this Psalm, revives 
and strengthens our faith ; and by the cluster of 
promises at the end of the Psalm, the same Holy 
Spirit quickens and refreshes our hearts with con- 
R 2 


solation : this Psalm therefore ought to be most ac 
ceptable to all the saints. 


The prophet cxhorteth to praise God, for his great works, for his judg 
ments on the wicked, and for his goodness to the godly. 

A Psalm or Song for the Sabbath-day. 

IT is a good thing to give thanks unto the LORD, 

and to sing praises unto thy name, O Most 

To shew forth thy loving-kindness in the morning, 

and thy faithfulness every night, 
Upon an instrument of ten strings, and upon the 

psaltry ; upon the harp with a solemn sound. 
For thou, LORD, hast made me glad through thy 

work ; I will triumph in the works of thy hands. 
O LORD, how great are thy works ! and thy thoughts 

are very deep, 
A brutish man knoweth not ; neither doth a fool 

understand this. 
When the wicked spring as the grass, and when 

all the workers of iniquity do flourish ; it is that 

they shall be destroyed for ever : 
But thou, LORD, art most high for evermore. 
For, lo, thine enemies, O LORD, for, lo, thine 

enemies shall perish ; all the workers of ini 
quity shall be scattered ; 
But my horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of an 

unicorn : I shall be anointed with fresh oil. 
Mine eye also shall see my desire on mine enemies ; 

and mine ears shall hear my desire of the wicked 

that rise up against me. 


The righteous shall flourish like the palm-tree ; he 

shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon. 
Those that be planted in the house of the LORD 

shall flourish in the courts of our God. 
They shall still bring forth fruit in old age; they 

shall be fat and flourishing ; 
To shew that the LORD is upright ; he is my rock, 

and there is no unrighteousness in him. 

THIS is a consolatory Psalm. The first six verses are 
full of the most sweet experiences of a heart rejoicing 
and triumphing in that incomparable treasure a 
knowledge of the true and sure word of God, and of the 
promises of grace in Christ. It is the same rejoicing 
of heart as that of the apostle, when he, exulting in 
the Spirit, saith, " Thanks be unto God for his un 
speakable gift." 

At the very opening of the Psalm, the Psalmist 
saith, " O how excellent, how sweet a thing is it to 
give thanks unto the Lord, and to sing praises unto 
thy name, O Most High ! " that is, O what is sweeter 
than to know God aright by his word, and by true 
faith; to acknowledge his infinite mercies; to give 
thanks unto him joyfully and adoringly, with every 
cord and string of our hearts; to proclaim and 
praise him unceasingly with a full heart and a full 
mouth ; to triumph in his goodness ; and to offer him 
the full sacrifice of thanksgiving ! in a word, to 
worship him with that all high and all-true worship 
of the first commandment, which requires for its high 
worship, above all things, true faith, and such joyful 
exercises of faith as these ; as if the Psalmist had 
said, How precious is that worship of God ! How 
acceptable unto God, how grateful in his sight, and 
in the sight of angels too, are all such sabbaths, such 


sacrifices as these ! Though we saints, all the while, 
are said, by the world, to know nothing about wor 
shipping God ! 

All these glorious things are pointed by the Psalm 
ist against false saints and hypocrites ; who honour 
God (as they think) with cold hearts and Jips, and 
tread all the while that high worship of the first 
commandment under foot ; and yet make a great 
show of the name of church among them, and flourish 
in the sight of the w r orld, and display much wealth 
and much power and greatness. But though they 
greatly flourish and prosper thus for a time ; yet they 
at length perish and go to destruction : and, accord 
ing to the word of Paul, " Their folly is made mani 
fest unto all." 

But the godly and the saints, though thus exer 
cised and broken with afflictions, flourish, never 
theless, like palm-trees, in the house of the Lord, 
and will flourish for evermore! Neither time, nor 
age, nor sorrow of mind, nor any afflictions, nor 
death itself, can root them out, or hurt them ! But, 
both living and dying, and even in death itself, they 
live and bring forth fruit through the word of God, 
as Paul saith, " No creature can separate them!" 
But fools, that is, the wicked and epicureans of this 
world, regard not these things, they will not hear 
or endure them ; and of this sort we may see thou 
sands of atheistical men in our day. 


The majesty, power, and holiness of Christ s kingdom. 

THE LORD reigneth ; he is clothed with majesty : 
the LORD is clothed with strength, wherewith he 


hath girded himself: the world also is estab 
lished, that it cannot be moved. 
Thy throne is established of old: thoti art from 

The floods have lifted up, O LORD, the floods have 

lifted up their voice; the floods lift up their 

The LORD on high is mightier than the noise of 

many waters, yea, than the mighty waves of 

the sea. 
Thy testimonies are very sure : holiness becometh 

thine house, O LORD, for ever. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning the spread of the 
kingdom of Christ, as far and wide as the earth is 
extended, and its establishment for ever. But against 
this kingdom, as the Psalmist saith, the " waves " 
and "mighty waters" will swell and lift up them 
selves ; that is, the kingdoms and peoples of the 
world will roar against the Lord and against his 
Anointed; and will rage against the godly with 
sword and fire; but they shall not prevail: for, as 
Daniel saith, " this kingdom shall break in pieces all 
other kingdoms beneath it, and shall stand for ever." 
Daniel ii. 44. 

But thy kingdom shall be established in no other 
way than by the word of the gospel. It shall not 
stand by the force of arms, nor by external pomp, or 
glory, before the world ; but it shall be husbanded, 
and shall be increased and adorned, by the ministry 
of the word of the gospel. This is the " holiness," 
(namely the ministry of the word) that shall " be 
come," or " adorn," the house of the Lord. For this 
true and high worship of God which is in the king 
dom of Christ, takes the place of all sacrifices and 


of all oblations, candlesticks, and the like ; and the 
preaching of the word, and the giving of thanks, are 
instead of all external representations of mercy : 
hence Paul saith, that the Old Testament is done 
away by this New Testament worship. 


The prophet, calling for justice, complaineth of tyranny and impiety. 
Heteacheth God s providence. He sheweth the blessedness of affliction. 
God is the defender of the afflicted. 

O LORD God, to whom vengeance belongeth ; O 
God, to whom vengeance belongeth, shew 

Lift up thyself, thou Judge of the earth : render a 
reward to the proud. 

LORD, how long shall the wicked, how long shall 
the wicked triumph? 

How long shall they utter and speak hard things? 
and all the workers of iniquity boast them 
selves ? 

They break in pieces thy people, O LORD, and af 
flict thine heritage : 

They slay the widow and the stranger, and murder 
the fatherless. 

Yet they say, The LORD shall not see, neither shall 
the God of Jacob regard it. 

Understand, ye brutish among the people ; and, 

ye fools, when will ye be wise? 
, He that planted the ear, shall he not hear ? he that 
formed the eye, shall he not see ? 

He that chastiseth the heathen, shall not he cor 
rect? he that teacheth man knowledge, shall not 
lie know ? 


The LORD knoweth the thoughts of man, that they 

are vanity. 
Blessed is the man whom thou chastenest, O LORD, 

and teachest him out of thy law ; 
That thou mayest give him rest from the days 

of adversity, until the pit be digged for the 

For the LORD will not cast oft his people, neither 

will he forsake his inheritance : 
But judgment shall return unto righteousness; 

and all the upright in heart shall follow it. 
Who will rise up for me against the evil-doers? 

or who will stand up for me against the workers 

of iniquity ? 
Unless the LORD had been my help, my soul had 

almost dwelt in silence. 
When I said, My footslippeth ; thy mercy, O LORD, 

held me up. 
In the multitude of my thoughts within me, thy 

comforts delight my soul. 
Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with 

thee, which frameth mischief by a law? 
They gather themselves together against the soul 

of the righteous, and condemn the innocent 

But the LORD is my defence ; and my God i* the 

rock of my refuge. 

And he shall bring upon them their own ini 
quity, and shall cut them off in their own 

wickedness; yea, the LORD our God shall cut 

them off. 

THIS is a general but a most fervent prayer, filled 
with the feelings of an afflicted and sorrowful heart, 
grieving that the blood of the Abels should be shed 


and drank up, with such iniquity and cruelty, by 
Cainish hypocrites. 

The Psalmist complains, (as I consider it,) not of 
hostile nations, but of those domestic hypocrites and 
enemies, who will have it to appear that they, yea, 
that they alone, are the people of God ; that is, the 
Psalmist complains of the wicked kings, and princes, 
and priests, and prophets, among the people of Is 
rael. It is to these the Psalmist turns, in this apo 
strophe, " Understand, ye brutish among the people ; 
and, ye fools, when will ye be wise?" He calls 
these characters " fools;" that is, ignorant and im 
pious despisers of God ; because they taught and 
ruled the people without knowledge, and wickedly. 

In a word, the Psalmist here directs his word 
against all who persecuted the true prophets, and 
their disciples and followers, and slew them with 
Cainish hatred, and nevertheless boasted all the 
while in God, and the name of God ; who (they said) 
had given them power, and made, and defended, and 
protected them, as magistrates and priests ; but who 
did not regard heretics, who seditiously resisted 
them that were the princes and magistrates of the 
people of God. And many such things they continued 
to say. 

Now, against all such the prophet burns with zeal ; 
and (with a certain zealous mimicry, as it were,) 
imitates their own words and expressions ; saying, 
(that is, meaning that they say,) " The Lord shall not 
see, neither shall the God of Jacob regard it." And 
it is thus that the papists say, in their security, * Do 
you think God regards these heretics ! No ! he re 
gards us : he has respect unto us, the catholic 
church, whom we certainly represent in the world. 
Against such as these, the prophet burns with the 


rage of zeal ; and against such he prays, and begs of 
God, that there may be enough to stand forward for 
the truth. 

But, in the 16th verse, the Psalmist, on the other 
hand, strikes at the perfidious deceitfulness of the 
world : " Who (saith he) is on my side? Who will 
rise up for me against the evil doers ? " As if he 
had said, I know the world careth nothing about 
this: the blood of God s Abels is shed, and no one 
regardeth it. But (continues the holy Psalmist) this 
is my sure and eternal consolation, that the cause 
which I love and espouse is the right cause ; nay, 
the cause of God, and not my cause : and I know in 
whom I have believed/ I am assured, saith the 
Psalmist, (verse 20.) that the "seat of the scornful," 
and the "counsel of the ungodly," cleave not, and 
belong not, unto thee: that is, I am sure that thou, 
O God, approvest not any impious or blasphemous 
doctrine. I am sure that thou requirest and de- 
mandest the blood, (and every drop of that blood,) 
and the tears, of the Abels, at the hands of their 
persecutors ; and that thou wilt keep, and fulfil, and 
glorify thy word, even in the midst of the death of 
thy saints; and that thou wilt revenge all blasphemy 
and wickedness against thee and them. 


An exhortation to praise Cod for his greatness, and for his goodness, 
and not to tempt him. 

O COME, let us sing unto the LORD ; let us make a 

joyful noise to the rock of our salvation. 
Let us come before his presence with thanks- 


giving, and make a joyful noise unto him with 

For the LORD is a great God, and a great King 

above all gods. 
In his hand are the deep places of the earth ; the 

strength of the hills is his also. 
The sea is his, and he made it; and his hands 

formed the dry land. 
O come, let us worship and bow down: let us 

kneel before the LORD our Maker. 
For he is our God; and we are the people of his 

pasture, and the sheep of his hand. To-day, if 

ye will hear his voice, 
Harden not your heart, as in the provocation, and 

as in the day of temptation in the wilderness: 
When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and 

saw my work. 

Forty years long was I grieved with this genera 
tion, and said, It is a people that do err in their 

heart, and they have not known my ways : 
Unto whom I sware in my wrath, that they should 

not enter into my rest. 

THIS Psalm is a prophecy concerning Christ, and its 
contents are fully and learnedly explained in the 
Apostle s epistle to the Hebrews. It prophecies 
concerning the time of the New Testament, and sets 
forth the lovely and sweet voice of the gospel. In a 
word, the Psalmist instructs us in, and allures us to, 
the knowledge of the riches of the grace of God ; 
which riches were known to our fathers as well as 
unto us, in the promised seed Christ. 

* Come (saith the Psalmist) and let us rejoice in 
the Lord. Come ye that are afar off and ye that are 
near, and let us exult in the Lord ; let us trium h in 


the God of such salvation : that is, Come and let 
us rejoice with the whole triumph of our hearts, in 
that infinite benefit and mercy the granted grace of 
Christ! Since we have such promises, let us not 
neglect such great salvation. For to believe in the 
promise of grace, contrary to all the objections of 
conscience, the temptations of Satan, and the fears 
of the heart, is the true worship of God ! 

In a word, the Psalmist warns against unbelief. 
" Harden not your hearts (says he) as ye did at 
Massah and Meribah in the desert: your fathers, on 
account of their unbelief, entered not into the holy 
land of promise. " 

The whole of this Psalm is to be referred to Christ: 
for he is that blessed God in whom we ought to re 
joice, and whom the Psalmist would have to be 
known. He is our Shepherd, and we are the sheep 
of his pasture. He is that God, whom our fathers 
tempted in the desert, as Paul saith, (1 Cor. x.) It 
was he who took out of the way the law, and abo 
lished all the ceremonial worship of the Old Testa 
ment. He will no longer have the worship esta 
blished by Moses ; but he will have faith in the 
gospel, the preaching of the remission of sins, and 
that one true offering praise, instead of the whole 
Levitical worship. 


An exhortation to praise God, for his greatness, for his kingdom, for 
his general judgment. 

O SING unto the LORD a new song : sing unto the 
LORD, all the earth. 


Sing unto the LORD, bless his name ; shew forth 

his salvation from day to day. 
Declare his glory among the heathen, his wonders 

among all people. 
For the LORD is great, and greatly to be praised : 

he is to be feared above all gods. 
For all the gods of the nations are idols: but the 

LORD made the heavens. 
Honour and majesty are before him : strength and 

beauty are in his sanctuary. 
Give unto the LORD, O ye kindreds of the people, 

give unto the LORD glory and strength. 
Give unto the LORD the glory due unto his name : 

bring an offering, and come into his courts. 
O worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness : fear 

before him, all the earth. 
Say among the heathen that the LORD reigneth : 

the world also shall be established that it shall not 

be moved ; he shall judge the people righteously. 
Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad ; 

let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof. 
Let the field be joyful, and all that is therein : then 

shall all the trees of the wood rejoice 
Before the LORD : for he cometlt, for he cometh to 

judge the earth : he shall judge the world with 

righteousness, and the people with his truth. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning the kingdom of Christ, 
and the spreading of the gospel over the whole world 
and before every creature ; which gospel will be a 
word of joy and thanksgiving, of peace, of rejoicing, 
and of a continued sacrifice of praise: as the clear 
text of the Psalm of itself plainly shows. 

Here, commandment is given to all nations, king 
doms, peoples, woods, rivers, fountains, trees, &c. 


that they should praise and magnify the Lord, and 
celebrate his name with rejoicing, because he judg- 
eth the world in righteousness and in truth : that is, 
because, through Christ, the promised seed, he de 
livers, and will deliver the people from sin, from the 
power of the devil, from the wrath of God, and from 
eternal death : and because, instead of the kingdom 
of death and of darkness, he sets up the kingdom of 
light, of the remission of sins, and of eternal life, 
before all men. 

This is that most joyful shout of victory, that pecu 
liar song, that most sweet note of the New Testa 
ment, concerning the kingdom and grace of Christ; 
in which kingdom there are born new men and new 
creatures ; not by the law or by the works of Moses, 
but by faith, by the Spirit of God through Christ, so 
that each believer is a new creature and a marvel 
lous work of God ; and all believers daily do mar 
vellous works and are marvellous monuments, in 
that they continue in spiritual life, and are finally 
conquerors over the mighty powers of sin and the 
devil; hence it is that David says, verse 1. " Declare 
his wonders among all people." 


The majesty of Cod s kingdom. The church rejoiceth at God s judgments 
vpon idolaters. An exhortation to godliness and gladness. 

THE LORD reigneth ; let the earth rejoice ; let the 
multitude of isles be glad thereof. 

Clouds and darkness are round about him : right 
eousness and judgment are the habitation of his 


A fire goeth before him, and burneth up his ene 
mies round about. 
His lightnings enlightened the world : the earth 

saw and trembled. 
The hills melted like wax at the presence of the 

LORD, at the presence of the LORD of the whole 

The heavens declare his righteousness, and all the 

people see his glory. 
Confounded be all they that serve graven images, 

that boast themselves of idols : worship him, all 

ye gods. 
Zion heard, and was glad; and the daughters of 

Judah rejoiced, because of thy judgments, O 

For thou, LORD, art high above all the earth : thou 

art exalted far above all gods. 
Ye that love the LORD, hate evil : he preserveth 

the souls of his saints ; he delivereth them out 

of the hand of the wicked. 
Light is sown for the righteous, and gladness for 

the upright in heart. 
Rejoice in the LORD, ye righteous ; and give thanks 

at the remembrance of his holiness. 

THIS also, like the preceding, is a prophecy concern 
ing Christ and his kingdom ; and the sum of it is to 
proclaim, that Christ establishes and strengthens his 
spiritual kingdom by the gospel ; wherein he preaches 
repentance, and whereby his lightnings and thunders 
terrify the whole world, and cause the mountains to 
melt like wax before the fire of his face : that is, by 
the gospel he condemns, casts down, and humbles 
all human righteousness, human wisdom, and human 
patience, throughout the world, and brings down 



every thing that is high and lifted up ; as Isaiah 
saith, chapter 3, " And the Lord alone shall be ex 
alted in that day/ For Christ alone is our " righteous 
ness, our sanctification, and our redemption," and 
that by the counsel of God, as it is written, " There 
is no other name given under heaven whereby we 
must be saved, but Jesus Christ and him crucified." 
Together also with these enemies of the gospel and 
these mountains of the world, the ceremonial king 
dom of the Jews perisheth, and all the outward 
worship of the law, and, indeed, every thing that is 
not in Christ. For he (as the apostle Paul saith, 
Col. i.) "in all things hath the pre-eminence." And 
again, " For there is one Mediator between God and 
man, the Man Christ Jesus." And so also, in Daniel, 
The stone cut out of the mountain filled the world, 
and broke in pieces all other kingdoms. 


The Psalmist exhorteth the Jews, the Gentiles, and all the creatures to 
praise God. 

A Psalin. 

O SING unto the LORD a new song ; for he hath 
done marvellous things : his right hand, and his 
holy arm, hath gotten him the victory. 

The LORD hath made known his salvation : his 
righteousness hath he openly shewed in the sight 
of the heathen. 

He hath remembered his mercy and his truth to 
ward the house of Israel : all the ends of the 
earth have seen the salvation of our God. 


Make a joyful noise unto the LORD, all the earth : 

make a loud noise, and rejoice, and sing praise. 
Sing unto the LORD with the harp ; with the harp, 

and the voice of a psalm. 
With trumpets and sound of cornet make a joyful 

noise before the LORD, the King. 
Let the sea roar, and the fulness thereof; the 

world, and they that dwell therein. 
Let the floods clap their hands ; let the hills be 

joyful together 
Before the LORD ; for he cometh to judge the 

earth : with righteousness shall he judge the 

world, and the people with equity. 

THIS again is a prophecy concerning the preaching 
of Christ and the spread of his kingdom, and it is of 
the same subject as the two preceding Psalms ; it 
calls upon us to rejoice in God, to triumph, to give 
thanks, and to praise God for that great salvation : 
that is, to preach the remission of sins, and those 
riches of grace which are by Christ Jesus. 

In this Psalm you again have set before you what 
is the highest worship of God, namely, that of the 
New Testament; which standeth not in the offering 
of thanks in Jerusalem, but in knowing Christ, 
that King who ruleth the people in righteousness ; 
who is himself righteous, and who maketh the people 
righteous throughout the world ; and who alone de- 
livereth them from sin, from death, and from the 
power of the devil ; and doeth it all without any 
merit of theirs. 



The prophet, setting forth the kingdom of God in Zion,fxhorteth ail, 
by the example of forefathers, to worship God at Ms holy hill. 

THE LORD reigneth ; let the people tremble : he 

sitteth between the cherubims ; let the earth be 

The LORD is great in Zion ; and he is high above 

all the people. 
Let them praise thy great and terrible name ; for 

it is holy. 
The king s strength also loveth judgment; thou 

dost establish equity, thou executest judgment 

and righteousness in Jacob. 
Exalt ye the LORD our God, and worship at his 

footstool ; for he is holy. 
Moses and Aaron among his priests, and Samuel 

among them that call upon his name ; they called 

upon the LORD, and he answered them. 
He spake unto them in the cloudy pillar : they 

kept his testimonies, and the ordinance that he 

gave them. 
Thou answeredst them, O LORD our God : thou 

wast a God that forgavest them, though thou 

tookest vengeance of their inventions. 
Exalt the LORD our God, and worship at his holy 

hill ; for the LORD our God is holy. 

THIS Psalm is a Psalm of blessed doctrine. It ex 
horts the people of God to preserve sacredly that 
true worship of the first commandment, the praising 
of God alone, and the continuing in the faith of him, 
although the nations on all sides and the whole 

S 2 


world should roar against that people who glory in 
being the people of God, and who know that God is 
to be found no where but in this and that corner of 
the earth, in that tabernacle, in that sanctuary, 
and at that mercy-seat, where the word and the pro 
mise of God are preached. And the Psalm shows 
that this true people of God are exposed to the most 
bitter hatred of the world and of the devil, and to 
afflictions of every kind. 

The Psalmist mentions, by name, Moses, and 
Aaron, and Samuel ; those best of men among the 
people of God, who endured great afflictions, both 
inward and outward, for the sake of the name and 
the word of God. The Psalmist shows, however, (as 
is set forth verses 4 and 5.) and teaches this people 
of God, that the highest worship of God is not placed 
in ceremonial sacrifices : therefore he says, " Let 
them praise thy great and terrible name, for it is holy." 
k In this kingdom of God, (says the Psalmist,) jus 
tice and judgment are loved." "Thou justifiest," 
says he, " thy people ; " that is, thou deliverest from 
sin and death, and extendest unto them the remis 
sion of their sins. 

And unto us, who are in and of the church of God, 
the present Psalm is a glorious prophecy of Christ, 
who governs and rules this church, the true Zion, in 
the Spirit, throughout the whole world, wheresoever 
she is. The holy Psalmist shews us, that Christ, 
sitting at the right hand of the Majesty in the hea 
vens, is there continually as our Sacrificer and our 
Sacrifice. And he testifies that the whole world rages 
and roars against this people and church of God, and 
kills the saints, and loads them with all manner of 
afflictions, on account of their profession and worship 
of Christ. 



An exhortation to praise God cheerfully, for his greatness awl for his 

A Psalm of Praise. 

MAKE a joyful noise unto the LORD, all ye lands. 
Serve the LORD with gladness; come before his 

presence with singing. 
Know ye that the LORD he is God : it is he that 

hath made us, and not we ourselves: we are his 

people, and the sheep of his pasture. 
Enter into his gates with thanksgiving, and into his 

courts with praise: be thankful unto him, and 

bless his name. 
For the LORD is good, his mercy is everlasting ; 

and his truth endureth to all generations. 

THIS Psalm again is a prophecy concerning Christ. 
It calls upon all to rejoice, to triumph, and to give 
thanks ; to enter his gates with thanksgiving, and 
his courts and sanctuary with praise : because, by 
the gospel and the preaching of the remission of sins, 
that kingdom of Christ is established and strength 
ened, which shall remain and stand for ever: and 
for the setting-up of which kingdom thanks are for 
ever to be given. 


David maketh a vow andprofession of godliness. 
A Psalm of David. 

262 PSALM CI. 

I WILL sing of mercy and judgment: unto thee, O 

LORD, will I sing. 
I will behave myself wisely in a perfect way. O ! 

when wilt thou come unto me? I will walk 

within my house with a perfect heart. 
I will set no wicked thing before mine eyes : I hate 

the work of them that turn aside, it shall not 

cleave to me. 
A froward heart shall depart from me ; I will not 

know a wicked person. 
Whoso privily slandereth his neighbour, him will 

I cut off: him that hath an high look and a 

proud heart will not I suffer. 
Mine eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land, 

that they may dwell with me : he that walketh 

in a perfect way, he shall serve me. 
He that worketh deceit shall not dwell within 

my house ; he that telleth lies shall not tarry in 

my sight. 
I will early destroy all the wicked of the land, 

that I may cut off all wicked doers from the city 

of the LORD. 

THIS Psalm contains a most solemn and necessary 
doctrine : and David puts forth himself, so great a 
king, as an example. He teaches that impious mem 
bers and courtiers ought not to be borne with by any 
godly magistrate or prince. He recounts also the 
iniquities, by which those who are in the courts of 
kings and princes, more especially harm the state 
and the church. He shews that they do the greatest 
evil when they are given to sin or to false doctrine ; 
and when they injure the causes of good men by their 
hatred of them. 
In the opening of the Psalm David says, " I will 


sing of mercy and of judgment:" that is as if he 
had said, I will sing that God most certainly, ac 
cording to the word of the first commandment, visits 
the godly with mercy, and the ungodly with judg 
ment, at all times. Of this visiting mercy David was 
himself an example, seeing that he had been so 
many times delivered from the very claws and jaws 
of the devil. And of the divine visitations of judg 
ment, Absalom, Ahithophel, Joab, and others, were 
examples. And every king and magistrate, who sets 
himself to defend the true religion, and to do good 
to his nation, is at once exposed to the hatred of all 
men, even of his own family and court : which is 
plainly seen in the case of Absalom, Ahithophel, and 
other persecutors of David. 

Hence it is that David, having so often experi 
enced God s fulfilment of the word of his first com 
mandment, sings in all places and at all times, that 
God is God over all, exercising mercy and judg 
ment/ And it is with God alone that a kingdom 
and commonwealth can be rightly governed : for 
where God is not, there all things are scattered and 
in confusion, and neither families are subject to their 
heads, nor citizens to their rulers. 


The prophet in his prayer maketh a grievous complaint . He taketh com 
fort in the eternity and mercy of God. The mercies of God are to be 
recorded. He sustaineth his weakness by the unchangeableness of God. 

A Prayer of the afflicted, when he is overwhelmed, and poureth out 
his complaint before the LORD. 

HEAR my prayer, O LORD, and let my cry come 
unto thee, 


Hide not thy face from me in tbe day when I am 

in trouble; incline thine ear unto me : in the day 

when I call, answer me speedily. 
For my days are consumed like smoke, and my 

bones are burned as an hearth. 
My heart is smitten, and withered like grass; so 

that I forget to eat my bread. 
By reason of the voice of my groaning, my bones 

cleave to my skin. 
I am like a pelican of the wilderness ; I am like 

an owl of the desert. 
I watch, and am as a sparrow alone upon the 

Mine enemies reproach me all the day ; and they 

that are mad against me are sworn against me. 
For I have eaten ashes like bread, and mingled my 

drink with weeping ; 
Because of thine indignation and thy wrath : for 

thou hast lifted me up, and cast me down. 
My days are like a shadow that declineth ; and I 

am withered like grass. 
But thou, O LORD, shalt endure for ever, and thy 

remembrance unto all generations. 
Thou shalt arise, and have mercy upon Zion : 

for the time to favour her, yea, the set time, is 

For thy servants take pleasure in her stones, and 

favour the dust thereof. 
So the heathen shall fear the name of the LORD, 

and all the kings of the earth thy glory. 
When the LORD shall build up Zion, he shall ap 
pear in his glory. 
He will regard the prayer of the destitute, and not 

despise their prayer. 
This shall be written for the generation to come ; 



and the people which shall be created shall 

praise the LORD. 
For he hath looked down from the height of his 

sanctuary ; from heaven did the LORD behold 

the earth ; 
To hear the groaning of the prisoner, to loose those 

that are appointed to death ; 
To declare the name of the LORD in Zion, and his 

praise in Jerusalem ; 
When the people are gathered together, and the 

kingdoms, to serve the LORD. 

He weakened my strength in the way ; he short 
ened my days. 
I said, O my God, take me not away in the midst 

of my days; thy years are throughout all gener 
Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth ; 

and the heavens are the work of thy hands. 
They shall perish, but thou shalt endure ; yea, all 

of them shall wax old like a garment ; as a 

vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall 

be changed : 
But thou art the same, and thy years shall have no 

The children of thy servants shall continue, and 

their seed shall be established before thee. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer of an afflicted and tempted 
heart, miserably sighing and praying for deliverance 
and the coming of the kingdom of God. And indeed 
the whole sum and substance of this Psalm is, " Thy 
kingdom come." 

This Psalm may be used as a general prayer. It 
was used especially by the fathers under the law : 
who being most spiritual men, and knowing the in- 


finite weight of sin, and the kingdom of death, longed 
for the coming and revelation of Christ, the kingdom 
of grace, and the blessing promised. 

" Have mercy upon Zion (saith the Psalmist) for 
the time to have mercy upon her is come." For thy 
servants (saith he) long for her to be built up again, 
and for the stones and cement to be made ready : 
that is, they long for that grace and that blessing to 
be revealed unto all nations, and to be preached in 
all kingdoms; that those who are captives and in 
chains under the power of the devil and of sin, and 
who are the sons of wrath and death, may be deli 
vered ; and that there may flow together into the true 
Zion, the church of God, those out of all nations and 
kingdoms, who may magnify the name of the Lord, 
and may preach and hear the gospel, and that all 
the rigid demands and ceremonies of the law, and 
the whole of the Old Testament dispensation, may 
cease. For out of and without Christ there is no 
thing but the kingdom of sin and death : that is, a 
continual misery and distress in this life, by various 
and hard temptations of the devil and the world : 
and also a shortness of life itself, and that life change 
able and uncertain, full of sorrow and full of death ; 
which life the godly consider it a ** gain " to have 
shortened and finished : as the apostle saith, " to me 
to live is Christ, and to die is gain." 

But amidst all this misery, in Christ is consolation 
and eternal life ; for he is before every creature ; he 
created the heaven and the earth, and by him all 
things consist ; and he also, in the regeneration, will 
renew the heavens and the earth. Hence he is inde 
pendent of and above all time and years, and of his 
years there is no end. He now dies no more, death 
hath no more dominion over him. For this kingdom 


of life and of salvation (saith the Psalmist) we pray 
and long. May this kingdom come. Amen. 


An exhortation to bless God for his mercy, and for the constancy thereof. 
A Psalm of David. 

BLESS the LORD, O my soul; and all that is within 

me, bless his holy name. 
Bless the LORD, O my soul, and forget not all his 

benefits : 
Who forgiveth all thine iniquities; who healeth 

all thy diseases ; 
Who redeemeth thy life from destruction ; who 

crowneth thee with loving kindness and tender 

mercies ; 
W ho satisfieth thy mouth with good things ; so that 

thy youth is renewed like the eagle s. 
The LORD executeth righteousness and judgment 

for all that are oppressed. 
He made known his ways unto Moses, his acts 

unto the children of Israel. 
The LORD is merciful and gracious, slow to anger, 

and plenteous in mercy. 
He will not alway chide ; neither will he keep Ms 

anger for ever. 

He hath not dealt with us after our sins, nor re 
warded us according to our iniquities. 
For as the heaven is high above the earth, so great 

is his mercy toward them that fear him. 
As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he 

removed our transgressions from us. 

268 PSALM cm. 

Like as a father pitieth his children, so the LORD 

pitieth them that fear him. 
For he knovveth our frame ; he remembereth that 

we are dust. 
As for man, his days are as grass; as a flower of 

the field, so he flourisheth : 
For the wind passeth over it, and it is gone ; and 

the place thereof shall know it no more. 
But the mercy of the LORD is from everlasting to 

everlasting upon them that fear him, and his 

righteousness unto children s children ; 
To such as keep his covenant, and to those that 

remember his commandments to do them. 
The LORD hath prepared his throne in the hea 
vens ; and his kingdom ruleth over all. 
Bless the LORD, ye his angels, that excel in strength, 

that do his commandments, hearkening unto the 

voice of his word. 
Bless ye the LORD, all ye his hosts ; ye ministers 

of his that do his pleasure. 
Bless the LORD, all his works, in all places of his 

dominion : bless the LORD, O my soul. 

THIS is a glorious Psalm, and full of the most ardent 
feelings and exercises of faith, and of a believing 
heart, a heart acknowledging the infinite mercies of 
God, both temporal and spiritual. "Bless the Lord 
(saith the Psalmist), O my soul," &c. The Psalmist 
embraces, in the first three verses, six kinds of divine 
mercies and benefits, for which he exhorts all the 
godly to give praise unto God with their whole heart, 
and to celebrate his great and holy name. 

The first kind of mercy enumerated is the remis 
sion of all our sins in Christ, and for Christ s sake, 
our only Mediator and High-priest : who by himself 



sustained the just and infinite wrath of God, which 
burned against our sins : who offered himself a sacri 
fice to God for them ; by which offering he reconciled 
unto us the Eternal Father, and now pleads for us 
with an unceasing and prevailing intercession. 

The second kind of mercy is the healing of those 
manifold, and by no means light infirmities, which 
shall remain in the flesh of the saints, as long as they 
live in this world : all which remnant of sins God, 
for Christ s sake, imputeth not unto them that be 
lieve : nor does he only cover those sins by not im 
puting them, but he moreover purges them away, by 
the gift of his Holy Spirit. 

The third kind of mercy is a continual and daily 
protection and defence against all the dangers of 
death, into numbers of which we continually fall ; 
and into more and greater of which we should fall- 
by fire, by water, by sword, by pestilence, and other 
means of destruction, and be destroyed by them on 
account of the deserts of our sins, if God did not 
in his mercy prevent and save and preserve our lives. 

The fourth kind of mercy is a manifold dispen 
sation of the grace of God, wherewith he covers and 
defends us with a shield, and crowns us, giving us 
the Holy Spirit, and strengthening our minds with 
the true doctrine against all doubts, and with true 
consolation in all perils and evils; and bestowing on 
the godly many and various gifts. 

The fifth kind of mercy is that boldness wherewith 
by the aid and urgency of the Holy Spirit, we fear 
lessly preach before the world these great mercies 
of God toward us : whereby many others also may 
learn to acknowledge and lay hold of the goodness 
of God in Christ, and, embracing it themselves in the 
true faith, may, with us, magnify and call upon God. 

270 PSALM cm. 

The sixth kind of mercy is the restoration of our 
depraved nature by Christ into the image of God ; 
into which image we being renewed by the Holy 
Ghost, begin with full purpose of heart to obey God ; 
and so continue, until, being made perfect in the life 
to come, we may be able to render a full obedience 
with our whole unimpeded powers. 

The Psalmist, therefore, first renders thanks to 
God for his spiritual benefits ; and then he from his 
heart thanks God for bestowing blessings of every 
kind, peace, good magistrates, good laws, good 
wives, good children, the fruits of the earth, and all 
needful provision. The Psalmist sets forth God as a 
most kind Father towards us (who are nothing but a 
loathsome sore, full of sin) and as not dealing with us 
according to our sins, but treating and protecting us, 
according to his infinite grace and mercy, as dear 
children : yet so that he will have us to keep his 
covenant and his counsel : that is, to believe in him, 
to fear him, and to have him for our God. For if we 
trust in our own works or righteousnesses, we thereby 
immediately break his covenant, and walk not in his 
counsel, and follow strange gods, and thus sin against 
the First Commandment. 

Now this fulfilling of the law, and keeping the 
covenant of God, is in and through Christ alone, who 
was then promised to the fathers, but now in these 
last days has been given unto us ; and manifested ; 
whose kingdom shall rule over all. 

At the end of the Psalm, when the Psalmist calls 
upon the angels and the hosts of God, the powers 
and the dominions, to praise and magnify him, he 
means Christ and the church and the apostles who 
cause his word to be heard. For all our salvation 
is in Christ, and there is no grace out of Christ; 


who is preached by the angels ; that is, by the 


A meditation upon the miyhty power, and wonderful providence of God. 
.God s glory is eternal. The prophet voweth perpetually to praise 

BLESS the LORD, O my soul. O LORD my God, 

thou art very great ; thou art clothed with 

honour and majesty : 
Who coverest thyself with light as with a garment ; 

who stretchest out the heavens like a curtain ; 
Who layeth the beams of his chambers in the 

waters ; who maketh the clouds his chariot ; 

who walketh upon the wings of the wind ; 
Who maketh his angels spirits ; his ministers 

a flaming fire ; 
Who laid the foundations of the earth, that it 

should not be removed for ever. 
Thou coveredst it with the deep as with a garment ; 

the waters stood above the mountains. 
At thy rebuke they fled : at the voice of thy thun 
der they hasted away. 
They go up by the mountains ; they go down by 

the valleys, unto the place which thou^ hast 

founded for them. 
Thou hast set a bound that they may not pass 

over, that they turn not again to cover the 

He sendeth the springs into the valleys, which run 

among the hills. 
They give drink to every beast of the field: the 

wild asses quench their thirst. 


By them shall the fowls of the heaven have their 

habitation, which sing among the branches. 
He watereth the hills from his chambers : the 

earth is satisfied with the fruit of thy works. 
He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and 

herb for the service of man, that he may bring 

forth food out of the earth ; 
And wine that maketh glad the heart of man, and 

oil to make his face to shine, and bread which 

strengthened man s heart. 
The trees of the LORD are full of sap : the cedars 

of Lebanon, which he hath planted ; 
Where the birds make their nests : as for the stork, 

the fir-trees are her house. 
The high hills are a refuge for the wild goats, and 

the rocks for the conies. 
He appointed the moon for seasons : the sun 

knoweth his going down. 
Thou makest darkness, and it is night, wherein all 

the beasts of the forest do creep forth. 
The young lions roar after their prey, and seek 

their meat from God. 
The sun ariseth, they gather themselves together, 

and lay them down in their dens. 
Man goeth forth unto his work, and to his labour, 

until the evening. 
O LORD, how manifold are thy works ! in wisdom 

ha^st thou made them all : the earth is full of thy 

riches ; 
So is this great and wide sea, wherein are things 

creeping innumerable, both small and great 

There go the ships ; there is that leviathan, whom 

thou hast made to play therein. 


These wait all upon thee, that them mayest give 

them their meat in due season. 
That thou givest them, they gather ; thou openest 

thine hand, they are filled with good. 
Thou hidest thy face, they are troubled : thou 

takest away their breath, they die, and return to 

their dust. 
Thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are created ; 

and thou renewest the face of the earth. 
The glory of the LORD shall endure for ever : the 

LORD shall rejoice in his works. 
He looketh on the earth, and it trembleth ; he 

toucheth the hills, and they smoke. 
I will sing unto the LORD as long as I live ; I will 

sing praise to my God while I have my being. 
My meditation of him shall be sweet; I will be 

glad in the LORD. 
Let the sinners be consumed out of the earth, and 

let the wicked be no more. Bless thou the LORD, 

O my soul. Praise ye the LORD. 

THIS is a most spiritual song and a Psalm of glory to 
God. It is drawn out of the First Commandment : 
and with a grand enumeration of all the creatures of 
God, it sets forth and exalts the whole work of crea 
tion. By this recounting of the works of creation 
the Psalmist s design is to show, that all the crea 
tures, whether those in the heavens, those in the 
earth, or those in the sea, are monuments of the 
goodness of God. And what orator or what poet ever 
has existed, or ever will exist, with an eloquence 
adequate to describe the infinite use and benefits 
of even one creature of God. If any one of those 
creatures were gifted with speech, so as to declare its 
own nature and value, it would praise God with a 



thousand tongues. Not only, therefore, the whole 
of God s works together, as one glorious universe, 
but each one creature, if you would explain its na 
ture and use, exceeds all the eloquence of men and 

What philosopher or sage could even open or utter 
the extent of the use and blessings of common light, 
in which we live? What one of them could ever 
explain what that is which we call light, in which 
we all breathe, all are nourished, and all live; by 
which the night and darkness are dispelled in one 
short moment ; by which the whole creation is ren 
dered visible, and as it were, recreated; and by which 
all creatures, from out of one same obscure dark 
ness, receive each their proper hues and colours? 

Who, again, can recount the benefit and blessings 
of that one creature the sun ? and then those of the 
moon ? Who can enumerate the blessings of fire, of 
water, of fountains and springs? If one creature 
were deprived for one short hour of the blessings of 
fire or of water, you would in a moment see the 
wide and infinite benefit of one of those creatures 
of God. 

But alas ! who can even touch one of these crea 
tures with anything like a due comment or reflection ! 
And yet, when heathen men have contemplated the 
whole universe of creatures so diligently, (as we 
see it done in Cicero s second book * Be Natura 
Deorum; ) and have thence gathered and con 
cluded that there exists some eternal Deity who 
created and who governs all these things ; it would 
be a shame in one professing the fear and worship 
of that God, to be cold and not affected with these 
same things, and not to meditate and reflect upon 


This Psalm, therefore, is a Psalm of thanksgiving 
for all the creatures which God has created, whether 
in the heavens, in the earth, or in the sea ; and a 
rendering of thanks unto God also, that he hath 
made a covenant with the day and the night, and 
hath given laws to the heaven and the earth ; laws 
so certain that they cannot be moved, but continue 
in their appointed order. The moon, saith the 
Psalmist, distinguished the seasons ; the sun know- 
eth his going down ; the day cometh, and also the 
night; the summer returns at its appointed time, and 
the winter also in its season. Thou fillest, saith 
he, " that immense space of the heaven with light : 
thou stretchest out the heaven itself like a curtain, 
which resteth not on any beams or columns : and 
thou suspendest the mighty range of clouds, at thy 
word, like a glorious canopy. The winds rise, and 
blow over and blow through all things, having nei 
ther wings nor feathers. And the angels whom 
thou sendest forth, saith he, fulfil their commands 
like the winds, and like a " flame of fire." 

Hence the prophet, as you see, has all these things 
depicted in his mind, and his faith is kindled by a 
meditation on this wonderful and ineffable work of 
creation. But, alas ! how few, how very few, are 
there who thus look into, meditate on, and admire 
these created things? Here, therefore, with a view 
to reprove both the indolence and the wickedness of 
certain characters, I cannot help transcribing the 
words of Cicero, a heathen, who cites another hea 
then, Aristotle : Aristotle, says Cicero, * has most 
greatly and beautifully spoken thus. * If there could 
be men, who had lived under the earth in grand and 
noble habitations ; habitations adorned with paint 
ings and works of art, and with all those embellish- 
T 2 


ments which ornament the houses of those who are 
now accounted wealthy and happy ; and if it could 
so be that such subterranean inhabitants had never 
been above ground, but had heard by fame and re 
port that there was a certain Deity, and a certain 
Almighty power of that Deity; arid then if it could 
so be, that, at a certain time, the doors of the earth s 
surface should be thrown open, and they should 
come forth from their subterranean abysses into 
these above-ground regions which we inhabit: when 
such men beheld, on a sudden, the earth, the sea, 
and the heavens ; when they saw the expanded gran 
deur of the clouds, and felt the mighty power of the 
winds ; when they looked up to the sun and beheld 
his glorious magnitude and his beauty, and knew 
something of his influence and efficacy in all crea 
tion, that it is he, who, by diffusing his light through 
the whole heaven, makes the day ; and when such 
mortals, newly admitted on earth, should see by the 
departure of the sun the whole creation veiled in 
the darkness of night, while the whole heaven was 
studded and bespangled with stars ; and when they 
saw and understood the various degrees of the light 
of the moon, and the increasings and decreasings 
of that heavenly body; and the various risings and 
settings of all the celestial luminaries ; and, finally, 
when such astonished and contemplating strangers 
on the earth s surface should know the appointed and 
never-erring and never-varying courses and revolu 
tions of all these glorious creatures, they would, 
with one voice, confess that there was a God, and 
that all these creatures were the works of that God ! 
But our minds, by daily use, become insensible to 
these things ; and as we daily see all these creatures 
we inquire not their nature, nor wonder at their 

PSALM CV. 277 

glory : as if the novelty of such things, and not their 
greatness and glory, is that which should lead us to 
meditate on their natures, and the ends of their crea 
tion/ Thus far Cicero, the heathen ! I shall perhaps 
be deemed by some a silly man for bringing forth 
these things out of the books of a heathen ! Let those 
that would fear God, then, remember what is required 
of them ! 


An exhortation to praise God, and to seek out his works. The story of 
God s providence over Abraham, over Joseph, over Jacob, in Eyypt, 
over Moses delivering the Israelites, over the Israelites brouyht ou t 
of Egypt, fed in the wilderness, and planted in Canaan. 

O GIVE thanks unto the LORD ; call upon his 

name : make known his deeds among the people. 
Sing unto him, sing psalms unto him: talk ye of 

all his wondrous works. 
Glory ye in his holy name : let the heart of them 

rejoice that seek the LORD. 
Seek the LORD, and his strength : seek his face 

Remember his marvellous works that he hath done ; 

his wonders, and the judgments of his mouth ; 
O ye seed of Abraham his servant, ye children of 

Jacob his chosen. 
He is the LORD our God : his judgments are in all 

the earth. 
He hath remembered his covenant for ever, the 

word which he commanded to a thousand gene 
Which covenant he made with Abraham, and his 

oath unto Isaac ; 

278 PSALM CV. 

And confirmed the same unto Jacob for a law, and 

to Israel/or an everlasting covenant : 
Saying, Unto thee will I give the land of Canaan, 

the lot of your inheritance : 
When there were but a few men in number: yea, 

very few, and strangers in it. 
When they went from one nation to another, from 

one kingdom to another people ; 
He suffered no man to do them wrong : yea, he re 
proved kings for their sakes ; 

Saying, Touch not mine anointed, and do my pro 
phets no harm. 
Moreover, he called for a famine upon the land : 

he brake the whole staff of bread. 
He sent a man before them, even Joseph, who was 

sold for a servant : 

Whose feetthey hurt with fetters : he was laid in iron : 
Until the time that his word came : the word of 

the LORD tried him. 
The king sent and loosed him : even the ruler of 

the people, and let him go free. 
He made him lord of his house, and ruler of all 

his substance : 
To bind his princes at his pleasure ; and teach 

his senators wisdom. 
Israel also came into Egypt; and Jacob sojourned 

in the land of Ham. 
And he increased his people greatly ; and made 

them stronger than their enemies. 
He turned their heart to hate his people, to deal 

subtilly with his servants. 
He sent Moses his servant ; and Aaron whom he 

had chosen. 
They shewed his signs among them, and wonders 

in the land of Ham. 

PSALM CV. 279 

He sent darkness, and made it dark ; and they 

rebelled not against his word. 
He turned their waters into blood, and slew their 

Their land brought forth frogs in abundance, in 

the chambers of their kings. 
He spake, and there came divers sorts of flies, and 

lice in all their coasts. 
He gave them hail for rain, and flaming fire in 

their land. 
He smote their vines also and their fig-trees ; and 

brake the trees of their coasts. 
He spake, and the locusts came, and caterpillars, 

and that without number, 

And did eat up all the herbs in their land, and de 
voured the fruit of their ground. 
He smote also all the first-born in their land, the 

chief of all their strength. 
He brought them forth also with silver and gold : 

and there was not one feeble person among their 

Egypt was glad when they departed : for the fear 

of them fell upon them. 
He spread a cloud for a covering ; and fire to give 

light in the night. 

The people asked, and he brought quails, and satis 
fied them with the bread of heaven. 
He opened the rock, and the waters gushed out ; 

they ran in the dry places like a river. 
For he remembered his holy promise, and Abraham 

his servant. 
And he brought forth his people with joy, and his 

chosen with gladness : 
And gave them the lands of the heathen ; and they 

inherited the labour of the people ; 


That they might observe his statutes, and keep his 
laws. Praise ye the LORD. 

THIS is a Psalm of particular thanksgiving ; and a 
song especially adapted to the people of the Jews ; 
that in the use of this Psalm they might render 
thanks unto God for all those, his wonderful works, 
which he wrought from Abraham down to the time 
when they were led into the promised land of Canaan. 
And the Psalmist, having recounted all these glo 
rious works in their order, concludes with that word 
of Moses, (Deut. ix.) " That God did not do all these 
mighty works on account of any righteousness or 
merit of theirs, but because of the covenant and the 
promise which he had made with their fathers, 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob : " for how righteous they 
were and what they deserved at the hand of God, is 
sung in the Psalm following. 


The Psalmist exhorteth to praise God. lie prayethfor pardon of sin, 
as God did with the fathers. The story of the people s rebellion, and 
God s mercy. He concludeth with prayer and praise. 

PRAISE ye the LORD. O give thanks unto the 

LORD ; for he is good : for his mercy endureth 

for ever. 
Who can utter the mighty acts of the LORD ? tvho 

can shew forth all his praise ? 
Blessed are they that keep judgment, and he that 

doeth righteousness at all times. 
Remember me, O LORD, with the favour that thou 

bearest unto thy people : O visit me with thy 

salvation ; 


That I may see the good of thy chosen, that I may 

rejoice in the gladness of thy nation, that I may 

glory with thine inheritance. 

We have sinned with our fathers, we have com 
mitted iniquity, we have done wickedly. 
Our fathers understood not thy wonders in Egypt ; 

they remembered not the multitude of thy mer 
cies ; but provoked him at the sea, even at the 

Red Sea. 
Nevertheless he saved them for his name s sake, 

that he might make his mighty power to be 

He rebuked the Red Sea also, and it was dried up : 

so he led them through the depths, as through 

the wilderness. 
And he saved them from the hand of him that 

hated them, and redeemed them from the hand 

of the enemy. 
And the waters covered their enemies : there was 

not one of them left. 

Then believed they his words; they sang his praise. 
They soon forgat his works ; they waited not for 

his counsel : 
But lusted exceedingly in the wilderness, and 

tempted God in the desert. 
And he gave them their request ; but sent leanness 

into their soul. 
They envied Moses also in the camp, and Aaron 

the saint of the LORD. 
The earth opened and swallowed up Dathan, and 

covered the company of Abiram. 
And a fire was kindled in their company ; the 

flame burned up the wicked. 
They made a calf in Horeb, and worshipped the 

molten image. 


Thus they changed their glory into the similitude 

of an ox that eatetli grass. 
They forgat God their Saviour, which had done 

great things in Egypt ; 
Wondrous works in the land of Ham, and terrible 

things by the Red Sea. 
Therefore he said that he would destroy them* 

had not Moses his chosen stood before him in 

the breach, to turn away his wrath, lest he should 

destroy them. 

Yea, they despised the pleasant land ; they be 
lieved not his word ; 
But murmured in their tents, and hearkened not 

unto the voice of the LORD : 
Therefore he lifted up his hand against them, to 

overthrow them in the wilderness : 
To overthrow their seed also among the nations, 

and to scatter them in the lands. 
They joined themselves also unto Baal-peor, and 

ate the sacrifices of the dead. 

Thus they provoked Mm to anger with their inven 
tions ; and the plague brake in upon them. 
Then stood up Phinehas, and executed judgment : 

and so the plague was stayed. 
And that was counted unto him for righteousness, 

unto all generations for evermore. 
They angered him also at the waters of strife, so 

that it went ill with Moses for their sakes : 
Because they provoked his spirit, so that he spake 

unadvisedly with his lips. 
They did not destroy the nations, concerning whom 

the LORD commanded them : 
But were mingled among the heathen, and learned 

their works. 
And they served their idols ; which were a snare 

unto them. 


Yea, they sacrificed their sons and their daughters 
unto devils, 

And shed innocent blood, even the blood of their 
sons, and of their daughters, whom they sacri 
ficed unto the idols of Canaan: and the land 
was polluted with blood. 

Thus were they defiled with their own works, and 
went a whoring with their own inventions. 

Therefore was the wrath of the LORD kindled 
against his people, insomuch that he abhorred 
his own inheritance. 

And he gave them into the hand of the heathen ; 
and they that hated them ruled over them. 

Their enemies also oppressed them, and they were 
brought into subjection under their hand. 

Many times did he deliver them: but they pro 
voked him with their counsel, and were brought 
low for their iniquity. 

Nevertheless, he regarded their affliction, when he 
heard their cry : 

And he remembered for them his covenant, and 
repented according to the multitude of his mer 

He made them also to be pitied of all those that 
carried them captives. 

Save us, O LORD our God, and gather us from 
among the heathen, to give thanks unto thy holy 
name, and to triumph in thy praise. 

Blessed be the LORD God of Israel from everlasting 
to everlasting : and let all the people say, Amen. 
Praise ye the LORD. 

THIS is a Psalm of acknowledgment, of confession, 
and of thanksgiving. The Psalmist confesses all 
those sins of murmuring and unbelief, and those 


other numerous transgressions against the first com 
mandment, by which the people of Israel provoked 
God, and rendered themselves utterly unworthy of 
all his mercies. 

At the conclusion of the Psalm, therefore, the 
Psalmist proclaims the exceeding greatness of the 
divine mercy of God; whereby he continued mind 
ful of his counsel and his covenant, and did not pour 
forth all his wrath, but was merciful to them for his 
own name s sake. As Moses saith also, (Deut. ix.) 
" Know ye, that not for your righteousness doth the 
Lord God give unto you this good land : for ye are 
a stiff-necked people/ Therefore as the Israelites, 
the whole of that people of God, could glory in 
nothing, but that they were saved by the mercy 
and grace of God ; so also we cannot glory in any 
work or merit of our own, but in the mercy of God 
only ! 


The psalmist exhorteth the redeemed, in praising God, to observe, his mani 
fold providence, over travellers, over captives, over sick men, over sea 
men, and in divers varieties of life. 

O GIVE thanks unto the LORD, for he is good : for 

his mercy endureth for ever. 
Let the redeemed of the LORD say so, whom he 

hath redeemed from the hand of the enemy ; 
And gathered them out of the lands, from the east, 

and from the west, from the north, and from the 

They wandered in the wilderness in a solitary 

way ; they found no city to dwell in. 
Hungry and thirsty, their soul fainted in them. 


Then they cried unto the LORD in their trou 
ble, and he delivered them out of their dis 

And he led them forth by the right way, that they 
might go to a city of habitation. 

Oh that men would praise the LORD for his good 
ness, and/or his wonderful works to the children 
of men ! 

For he satisfieth the longing soul, and filleth the 
hungry soul with goodness. 

Such as sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, 
being bound in affliction and iron ; 

Because they rebelled against the words of God, 
and contemned the counsel of the Most High : 

Therefore he brought down their heart with la 
bour:, they fell down, and there was none to 

Then they cried unto the LORD in their trouble, 
awdhe saved them out of their distresses. 

He brought them out of darkness and the shadow 
of death, and brake their bands in sunder. 

Oh that men would praise the LoRDybr his good 
ness, and fat his wonderful works to the children 
of men ! 

For he Lath broken the gates of brass, and cut the 
bars of iron in sunder. 

Fools, because of their transgression, and because 
of their iniquities, are afflicted : 

Their soul abhorreth all manner of meat ; and they 
draw near unto the gates of death. 

Then they cry unto the LORD in their trouble ; and 
he saveth them out of their distresses. 

He sent his word and healed them, and delivered 
them from their destructions. 

Oh that men would praise the LORD for his good- 


ness, and/or his wonderful works to the children 

of men ! 

And let them sacrifice the sacrifices of thanks 
giving, and declare his works with rejoicing. 
They that go down to the sea in ships, that do 

business in great waters ; 
These see the works of the LORD, and his wonders 

in the deep. 
For he commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind, 

which lifteth up the waves thereof. 
They mount up to the heaven, they go down again 

to the depths ; their soul is melted because of 

They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken 

man, and are at their wit s end. 
Then they cry unto the LORD in their trouble, and 

he bringeth them out of their distresses. 
He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves 

thereof are still. 
Then are they glad because they be quiet; so he 

bringeth them unto their desired haven. 
Oh that men would praise the LORD for his good 
ness, and for his wonderful works to the children 

of men ! 
Let them exalt him also in the congregation of the 

people, and praise him in the assembly of the 


He turneth rivers into a wilderness, and the water- 
springs into dry ground ; 
A fruitful land into barrenness, for the wickedness 

of them that dwell therein. 
He turneth the wilderness into a standing water, 

and dry ground into water-springs. 
And there he maketh the hungry to dwell, that 

they may prepare a city for habitation ; 


And sow the fields, and plant vineyards, which 

may yield fruits of increase. 
He blesseth them also, so that they are multiplied 

greatly, and suffereth not their cattle to de 
Again, they are minished, and brought low, through 

oppression, affliction, and sorrow. 
He poureth contempt upon princes, and causeth 

them to wander in the wilderness, where there is 

no way. 
Yet selteth he the poor on high from affliction, and 

maketh him families like a flock. 
The righteous shall see it, and rejoice ; and all 

iniquity shall stop her mouth. 
Whoso is wise, and will observe these things, even 

they shall understand the loving-kindness of the 


THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving, in general ; render 
ing praise for that infinite and incomparable mercy 
and goodness of God, wherewith he daily helps and 
succours all men, both the righteous and the wicked, 
under the various calamities of life, and defends 
them against the Devil: preserving also the public 
peace, giving healthfulness of air and climate, and 
blessing the earth to the springing of its productions ; 
as Paul saith, 2 Tim. ii. " Who is the Saviour of all 
men, especially of them that believe." 

In the fourth verse, where the Psalmist says, 
" They wandered in the wilderness in a solitary 
way/ he refers to all kinds of calamities ; and es 
pecially to the afflictions of those who are oppressed 
with poverty, who are exiles, and deserted, and 
wandering without any certain dwelling-place. 

In the ninth verse by those " sitting in darkness," &c. 


he means those throughout the whole world, who on 
account of their own crimes, or for other causes, are 
held in bonds and in prisons, and who are some 
times delivered by the interposition and help of God 

Then again, verse 6, he refers to those who live 
wickedly and fear not God ; on whom God sends 
diseases and distresses to punish them ; of whom 
some, although they call not upon God, are delivered 
by his pure mercy alone. 

In verse 22, he speaks of those who are in perils 
on the seas, and there enduring storms and ship 
wrecks ; under which calamities God often delivers 
wicked sailors, and preserves them from shipwreck 
and death, and from the power of the Devil, by his 
mere goodness and mercy. 

Verse 32 has reference to those fields and vine 
yards that are visited with barrenness or any other 
calamity ; unto whom God gives rain and fruitful- 
ness, not according to their merits, but of his abound 
ing mercy, whereby he sendeth rain upon the just 
and upon the unjust. 

Verse 38 applies to those who are oppressed by 
the Turk or any other tyrants, or by wars and se 
ditions, and whose all in this world is in peril ; unto 
whom God often, on a sudden, gives peace and quiet 
ness, as he calmeth the waves of the sea. 

This Psalm, therefore, shows that all salvation is 
to be sought and expected from God alone ; who will 
never forsake his people, or his church, or those that 
trust in him ; and that he oflen bestows these benefits 
on the Turks, and on the openly impious and pro 
fane ; even when they are seeking all these great 
blessings from their idols of wood and stone. And 
we who profess the name of Christ also, not at all 


unlike the Turks, leave God our true and only Sa 
viour and implore the help of saints. Hence St. 
Leonard is worshipped as the liberator of the im 
prisoned ; St. Sebastian is invoked by those who are 
in dread of pestilence ; St. George is the protecting 
saint of military troops of horse and foot; St. Eras 
mus is said to bless with riches those that call upon 
him ; St. Christopher is openly worshipped as the 
god of land and sea ; and his image is affixed to all 
doors of temples, and to all prows of ships, and adored 
by all sailors. And thus we have divided the glory 
of God and of his saving mercies, which is due to 
him alone, unto saints set up by idolatrous men ; just 
in the same way as the heathens gave to their gods 
the attributes and functions which belong to God 
only. This Psalm, however, rightly ascribes all the 
glory to God alone. 


David encourageth himself to praise God. He prayeth for God s as 
sistance according to his promise. His confidence in God s help. 

A Song or Psalm of David. 

GOD, my heart is fixed; I will sing and give 
praise, even with my glory. 

Awake, psaltery and harp ; I myself will awake 

1 will praise thee, O LORD, among the people ; 
and I will sing praises unto thee among the 

For thy mercy is great above the heavens, and thy 

truth reacheth unto the clouds. 
Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens; and 

thy glory above all the earth : 


That thy beloved may be delivered, save with thy 

right hand, and answer me. 
God hath spoken in his holiness, I will rejoice ; I 

will divide Shechem, and mete out the valley of 

Gilead is mine ; Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also 

is the strength of mine head ; Judah is my law 
giver ; 
Moab is my washpot; over Edom will I cast out 

my shoe; over Philistia will I triumph. 
Who will bring me into the strong city ? who will 

lead me into Edom ? 
Wilt not thou, O God, who hast cast us off? and 

wilt not thou, O God, go forth with our hosts? 
Give us help from trouble : for vain is the help 

of man. 
Through God we shall do valiantly : for he it is 

that shall tread down our enemies. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving of the same sub 
stance, and almost in the same words as Psalm lx.; 
wherein the Psalmist gives thanks for the happy state 
of his kingdom, for the establishment of the true 
religion and good government, and for the increase 
of his dominions. 

The first verses of the Psalm, however, refer to the 
kingdom of Christ. David prays that God would be 
pleased to set up this kingdom of Christ in all na 
tions ; that thus the kingdom and dominion of David 
may be extended far and wide throughout all na 
tions, according to the promise. For this temporal 
kingdom of David was confined within very narrow 
limits in comparison with the whole world, and was 
a kingdom not likely to be extended over all the na 
tions and people of the earth ; and yet this kingdom 


God promised to enlarge and extend, as in Isaiah, 
" And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, 
which shall stand for an ensign of the people," Isa. 
xi. 10. And again, chapter ix. 7, "Upon the throne 
of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it and to 
establish it for ever." 


David, complaining of his slanderous enemies, under the person of Judas 
devoteth them. He sheweth their sin. Complaining of his own misery, 
heprayethfor help. He promiseth thankfulness. 

To the chief Musician, A Psalm of David. 

HOLD not thy peace, O God of my praise ; 

For the mouth of the wicked and the mouth of the 

deceitful are opened against me : they have 

spoken against me with a lying tongue. 
They compassed me about also with words of 

hatred ; and fought against me without a cause. 
For my love they are my adversaries : but I give 

myself unto prayer. 
And they have rewarded me evil for good, and 

hatred for my love. 
Set thou a wicked man over him : and let Satan 

stand at his right hand. 
When he shall be judged, let him be condemned : 

and let his prayer become sin. 
Let his days be few ; and let another take his 

Let his children be fatherless, and his wife a 

Let his children be continually vagabonds, and 

beg : let them seek their bread also out of their 

desolate places. 

u 2 


Let the extortioner catch all that he hath : and let 

the strangers spoil his labour. 
Let there be none to extend mercy unto him : 

neither let there be any to favour his fatherless 

Let his posterity be cut off; and in the generation 

following let their name be blotted out. 
Let the iniquity of his fathers be remembered with 

the LORD ; and let not the sin of his mother be 

blotted out. 
Let them be before the LORD continually, that 

he may cut off the memory of them from the 

Because that he remembered not to shew mercy, 

but persecuted the poor and needy man, that he 

might even slay the broken in heart. 
As he loved cursing, so let it come unto him : as 

he delighted not in blessing, so let it be far from 

As he clothed himself with cursing like as with 

his garment, so let it come into his bowels like 

water, and like oil into his bones. 
Let it be unto him as the garment which covereth 

him, and for a girdle wherewith he is girded 

Let this be the reward of mine adversaries from the 

LORD, and of them that speak evil against my 

But do thou for me, O GOD the Lord, for thy 

name s sake : because thy mercy is good, deliver 

thou me. 
For I am poor and needy, and my heart is wounded 

within me. 
I am gone like the shadow when it declineth : I 

am tossed up and down as the locust. 


My knees are weak through fasting ; and my flesh 
faileth of fatness. 

I became also a reproach unto them : when they 
looked upon me they shaked their heads. 

Help me, O LORD my God : O save me according 
to thy mercy : 

That they may know that this is thy hand ; that 
thou, LORD, hast done it. 

Let them curse, but bless thou : when they arise, 
let them be ashamed ; but let thy servant re 

Let mine adversaries be clothed with shame, and 
let them cover themselves with their own con 
fusion, as with a mantle. 

I will greatly praise the LORD with my mouth ; 
yea, I will praise him among the multitude. 

For he shall stand at the right hand of the poor, to 
save him from those that condemn his soul. 

CERTAIN hypocrites of monks are accustomed to use 
this Psalm, (generally known by the name of The 
God of praise/) as a sort of incantation : and they 
say that, to a certainty, against what person soever 
they babble and sing out the terrible words of this 
Psalm ; that man is at once death-struck, and never 
lives a year afterwards. 

This Psalm, however, is most certainly full of the 
complaints, tears, and groans of the godly against 
these very hypocrites themselves. It may be very 
properly considered as used in the person of Christ, 
deeply complaining against his betrayers the Jews, and 
against the cruelty of the Jews, which was not satis 
fied, even after the shedding of his innocent blood. 

Like unto Judas Iscariot, and unto all the Jews, 
are pharisaical saints and hypocrites, of all nations 


and ages ; of whom Christ doth not say in vain, that 
they are guilty of all the blood that has been shed 
from Abel downwards. For so great and bitter is 
the terribleness and fury of their virulent and Sa 
tanic hatred, that they cannot rest satisfied with the 
shedding of the blood of Abel and all the saints 
from the beginning of the world, but must hang 
Christ himself on the cross; and that is not all, 
they must (as the Psalmist saith, ver. 22.) wag their 
heads at him, and insult and mock his sufferings ; 
" If he be the King of Israel, let him now come down 
from the cross/ 

Concerning these wretches, David says, (ver. 2.) 
"They have opened their blaspheming mouth against 
me:" for the raving fury of such hypocrites is in 
credible. And again he sa} r s, " For my love they 
are my adversaries, but I give myself unto prayer. 
And they have rewarded me evil for good, and hatred 
for my love." And again, u They fight against me 
without a cause." 

These are the true and real colours of these hypo 
crites who pretend to be in the truth. We have here 
pourtrayed not only the Cainish countenances of these 
Iscariots, but their pharisaic and virulent hearts 
themselves ; which are now become organs and instru 
ments of the devil. And we have also here depicted 
their thoughts, their furious purposes of injuring and 
harming, by which the minds of such are incessantly 
actuated. For these embittered wretches knowingly 
and purposely, and against the light of their own con 
sciences, fight against and deny the known truth ; and, 
as Stephen says, cease not to resist the Holy Ghost. 
And although they are convinced by natural reason, 
by the Scriptures, and by their natural understanding, 
they still reject and fight against God and Christ, 


and harden themselves in the denial of the truth. 
And finally, "They delight not in blessing;" but 
refuse and cast from them God and his Christ. 

In addition to all this, they " render evil for good." 
The ingratitude of these hypocrites and of the world 
surely is enough, in not returning any thing for all 
that good which is offered to them by God himself, 
and by the saints in his name : but they rest not here ; 
they render, for all this good, hatred and cursing, 
and a purpose to injure and to destroy: which is 
manifestly not human, but Satanic cruelty. 

But we, the people of God, are hereby admonish 
ed throughout all times and ages of the church 
that, whenever God is pleased to reveal his word, 
and Christ is preached, so surely will the church have 
her Judases: that is, so surely will she have her 
enemies and her hypocrites; who, though they boast 
of the name of being the church of God, will prove 
themselves " vipers." 

To set forth, therefore, the terrible judgments that 
shall fall on those, who thus, with cruelty and with 
out mercy, rage against the people of God, the 
Psalmist shows (ver. 16.) that God will, to recom 
pense their iniquity, direct his fury also against 
them, who thus mercilessly oppress " his poor," and 
will pour out all his wrath upon them : and that, as 
these hypocrites so confidently despised God and his 
saints ; and as, though covered with the shed blood, 
and bathed with the tears of so many saints, they still 
laughed at their calamities, as if they really sought 
cursing and not blessing ; so, that cursing shall flow 
in upon them like a river. 

And again (saith David) they have cast away the 
word of God from them, and have rejected and de 
spised the offered salvation, therefore all consolation 

296 PSALM CX. 

and salvation shall depart from them, and no more 
be brought near unto them, neither now nor to all 
eternity. On the other hand, as they loved cursing, 
they shall be clothed with it as with a girdle ; it shall 
enter like water into their bowels, and like oil into 
their bones: and they shall bear about with them, 
like Cain, everlasting fears and terrors, and shall be 
tormented unceasingly with the stings of their wick 
edness and sin ; and they shall moreover be exiles, 
deserted outcasts, vagabonds, and held in contempt 
of all, as the Jews now are, exhibiting an awful ful 
filment of the judgments herein denounced. 


The kingdom, the priesthood, the conquest, and the passion of Christ. 
A Psalm of David. 

THE LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my 
right hand, until I make thine enemies thy foot 

The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of 
Zion : rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. 

Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy 
power, in the beauties of holiness from the 
womb of the morning : thou hast the dew of thy 

The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou 
art a priest for ever after the order of Melchi- 

The LORD at thy right hand shall strike through 
kings in the day of his wrath. 

He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the 

PSALM CX. 297 

places with the dead bodies ; he shall wound the 
heads over many countries. 

He shall drink of the brook in the way : therefore 
shall he lift up the head. 

THIS is a peculiar and glorious prophecy concerning 
the kingdom of Christ. This Psalm is cited by 
Christ himself, Matt. xxii. and he applies it to his 
own kingdom and priesthood. It speaks gloriously 
of Christ sitting at the right hand of the Majesty in the 
heaven, and as being the son and the seed of David, 
according to the flesh, and also David s Lord and 
God, the Creator and the Maker of all things, all 
power being given unto him in heaven and in earth : 
as the apostle also saith, "Who was born of the seed 
of David according to the flesh, and declared to be 
the Son of God with power, according to the spirit of 
holiness." Rom. i. 3. 

Christ cites this Psalm, (which, as we have said, 
is a very glorious one) to confound the Pharisees. 
Indeed there is not a Psalm like it in the whole 
scripture ; and it ought to be very dear unto the 
church ; seeing that it confirms that great article of 
faith Christ s sitting at the right hand of God the 
Father Almighty. For Christ is here declared to be 
a King and Priest; sitting at God s right hand, not 
only as truly man, but also as properly God; the 
Propitiator and Mediator between God and men ; 
the Omnipotent and the Eternal ! 

Christ is no where, throughout all the books of the 
prophets, and of the whole scripture, so plainly and 
clearly declared to be " a Priest," and so " a Priest 
for ever," who alone did, and alone could abrogate 
the Aaronic and Levitical priesthood ; and who is, 
and ever will be an eternal propitiation and reconci- 


liation for us ; as is most beautifully, most fully, 
and with a wonderful power of the Holy Spirit, 
opened by the author of the epistle to the Hebrews. 

Hence, this heavenly and golden Psalm has a 
blessed author (David) and a glorious interpreter 
(Christ.) And all the apostles, all godly consciences, 
and all who are not utterly unacquainted with the 
temptations of sin, and of Satan, know how great and 
firm a consolation it is against all the violent attacks 
of the devil, to be able to see Christ as our High 
Priest. Hence it is that Paul breaks forth into those 
great words, " If God be for us, who can be against 
us! Who is he that condemneth ? It is Christ that 
died ; yea, rather that is risen again ; who is even at 
the right hand of God ; who also maketh interces 
sion for us." Rom. viii. 31 34. 

It is, therefore, of infinite benefit to the universal 
church of Christ, that the glorious things of this 
Psalm, the remission of sins, and the reconciliation 
of God toward us, which are brought in unto us by 
the priesthood of Christ, and which are infinite and 
eternal, are most carefully and most fully explained 
to us in the epistle to the Hebrews ; and that such 
glorious doctrines of the truth concerning the priest 
hood of Christ are always present, and ready to our 


The Psalmist by his example inciteth others to praise Cod for his glorious 
and gracious works* ITiefear of God breedeth true wisdom. 

PRAISE ye the LORD. I will praise the LORD with 
my whole heart, in the assembly of the upright, 
and in the congregation. 


The works of the LORD are great, sought out of all 
them that have pleasure therein. 

His work is honourable and glorious ; and his 
righteousness endureth for ever. 

He hath made his wonderful works to be remem 
bered : the LORD is gracious and full of com 

He hath given meat unto them that fear him : he 
will ever be mindful of his covenant. 

He hath shewed his people the power of his works, 
that he may give them the heritage of the hea 

The works of his hands are verity and judgment ; 
all his commandments are sure. 

They stand fast for ever and ever, and are done in 
truth and uprightness. 

He sent redemption unto his people : he hath com 
manded his covenant for ever : holy and reverend 
is his name. 

The fear of the LORD is the beginning of wisdom : 
a good understanding have all they that do his 
commandments: his praise endureth for ever. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving, and a song for the 
people of Israel, to be sung at the feast of the pass- 
over, or at the eating of the paschal Larnb. For by 
this short song the people were instructed to give 
thanks, and to magnify and praise God for those 
great and glorious works of his, the leading them 
out of Egypt at the first; and also, for giving them 
a good and divine government, for the priesthood he 
established, for the law he gave them, and for ap 
pointing the preaching of his word; for their feasts 
and for their Sabbaths, for public peace and a good 
administration of the laws, and, in a word, for all his 

300 PSALM CX1I. 

infinite mercies : all which I have more fully opened 
in my more extended commentary on this Psalm. 


Godliness hath the promises of this life, and of the life to come. The 
prosperity of the godly shall be an eyesore to the wicked. 

PRAISE ye the LORD. Blessed is the man that 
feareth the LORD, that delighteth greatly in his 

His seed shall be mighty upon earth : the genera 
tion of the upright shall be blessed. 

Wealth and riches shall be in his house : and his 
righteousness endureth for ever. 

Unto the upright there ariseth light in the dark 
ness : he is gracious, and full of compassion, 
and righteous. 

A good man sheweth favour, and lendeth : he will 
guide his affairs with discretion. 

Surely he shall not be moved for ever : the right 
eous shall be in everlasting remembrance. 

He shall not be afraid of evil tidings : his heart is 
fixed, trusting in the LORD. 

His heart is established, he shall not be afraid, 
until he see his desire upon his enemies. 

He hath dispersed, he hath given to the poor; his 
righteousness endureth forever; his horn shall 
be exalted with honour. 

The wicked shall see it, and be grieved ; he shall 
gnash with his teeth, and melt away: the de 
sire of the wicked shall perish. 

THIS is a Psalm of consolation for those that fear God : 


in which those that truly fear him are encouraged and 
praised in their Christian conversation : " Blessed is 
the man that feareth the Lord," saith the Psalmist. 
As if he had said, The people of God appear to them 
to be of all men the most miserable ; and both their life 
and their doctrine are condemned by the world, and 
by those tongues which the devil raises up and uses 
for the work. All things in the saints make them 
appear to the world, as if they were left and forsaken, 
and deserted of God, and as if they, and their pos 
terity, and all like them, must surely perish. And 
then again, their lives and conversations, (though 
they render most essential services, both to their 
nation and to the church, and though they conduct 
themselves blamelessly before God and man,) are, by 
the malice of the devil, represented as most abomin 
able, and they themselves are looked upon as the 
contempt and off-scouring of the earth. 

On the other hand, all hypocrites in the world are 
lauded as the saints of God. " But/ as the wise 
man saith, " better is the little in the house of the 
righteous, than the great revenues of the wicked." 
In the midst of all this false representation, however, 
the righteous, standing fast in all these their afflic 
tions, and steadily trusting in God, are delivered and 
saved, and gain blessed consolation, while the wicked 
perish on every side. " To the upright," saith the 
Psalmist, k< there ariseth light in darkness." Here, 
according to the general language of the scriptures, 
he calleth consolation, light ; and temptation, dark 

And, then, in the end of the Psalm, that noble and 
unsubdued steadiness of faith is greatly praised : 
which, in such mighty struggles, and in such agoniz 
ing conflicts, is yet unwearied and unyielding, rest- 


ing in the promise of God ; and which, though con 
tending with such mighty waves, is yet enabled to 
sing with Paul, " Thanks be unto God who always 
causeth us to triumph in Christ." " He shall not be 
afraid of evil tidings," saith the Psalmist, "his heart 
is fixed, trusting in the Lord : his heart is esta 
blished, he shall not be afraid until he see his desire 
upon his enemies." verse 7, 8. For unless there 
were in us divine strength communicated by Christ, 
it would be impossible that we could stand against 
such numerous and mighty assaults of temptation. 


An exhortation to praise God for his excellency, for his mercy. 

PRAISE ye the Lord. Praise, O ye servants of the 

LORD, praise the name of the LORD. 
Blessed be the name of the LORD from this time 

forth and for evermore. 
From the rising of the sun unto the going down 

of the same the LORD S name is to be praised. 
The LORD is high above all nations, and his glory 

above the heavens. 
Who is like unto the LORD our God, who dwelleth 

on high, 
Who humbleth himself io behold the things that are 

in heaven, and in the earth ! 
He raiseth up the poor out of the dust, and lifteth 

the needy out of the dunghill ; 
That he may set him with princes, even with the 

princes of his people. 
He maketh the barren woman to keep house, and 

to be a joyful mother of children. Praise ye the 



THIS is a most conspicuous and most blessed pro 
phecy of the kingdom of Christ, and of its extension 
from the rising unto the setting of the sun through 
out all the kingdoms of the earth : it calls upon all 
nations to laud and magnify God, and to proclaim 
the riches of his grace ; that is, the remission of 
sins for Christ s sake. For Christ is the God of the 
humble, the God of the afflicted, and the God of 
those that call upon him and that cry unto him ; he 
is an altogether loving and lovely Saviour and God, 
who sitteth at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 
and loves and has respect unto the humble, the af 
flicted, the oppressed, and the trembling and con 
trite in heart. 

The peculiar and express office of Christ, and the 
work of the kingdom of Christ is to bring down the 
proud, to put to shame the wise, and to condemn 
hypocrites and false saints : and, on the other side, 
to raise up and exalt the humble, to enlighten and 
instruct fools, to sanctify unclean sinners, to make 
fruitful the barren, to comfort the fatherless ; that is, 
those who are in any way afflicted or distressed. 


An exhortation, by the example of the dumb creatures, to fear God i his 

WHEN Israel went out of Egypt, the house of 
Jacob from a people of strange language, 

Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his do 

The sea saw it, and fled ; Jordan was driven 


The mountains skipped like rams, and the little 

hills like lambs, 
What ailed thee, O thou sea, that thou fleddest? 

thou Jordan, that thou wast driven back? 
Ye mountains, that ye skipped like rams ; and ye 

little hills like lambs ? 
Tremble, thou earth, at the presence of the LORD, 

at the presence of the God of Jacob ; 
Which turned the rock into a standing water, the 

flint into a fountain of waters. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving, and a song for the 
people of Israel, to praise God while celebrating the 
feast of the passover; to magnify him for bringing 
them with a high hand out of Egypt, through the Red 
Sea, through the desert, over mountains, and through 
Jordan, into the land of promise. We use this 
Psalm to give thanks unto Christ, who delivered us 
from the kingdom of darkness, and translated us 
into the kingdom of light, even into his own king 
dom, the kingdom of God s dear Son, and led us 
forth into eternal life. 


Because God is truly glorious, and idols are vanity, lie exhorteth to confi 
dence in God. God is to be blessed for his blessings. 

NOT unto us, O LORD, not unto us, but unto thy 
name give glory, for thy mercy, and for thy 
truth s sake. 

Wherefore should the heathen say, Where is now 
their God? 


Bat our God is in the heavens ; he hath done what 
soever he hath pleased. 
Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men s 

They have mouths, but they speak not ; eyes have 

they, but they see not; 
They have ears, but they hear not; noses have they, 

but they smell not ; 
They have hands, but they handle not ; feet have 

they, but they walk not ; neither speak they 

through their throat. 
They that make them are like unto them; so is 

every one that trusteth in them. 
O Israel, trust thou in the LORD ; he is their help 

and their shield. 
O house of Aaron, trust in the LORD ; he is their 

help and their shield. 
Ye that fear the LORD, trust in the LORD ; he is 

their help and their shield. 
The LORD hath been mindful of us; he will bless 

us: he will bless the house of Israel, he will 

bless the house of Aaron. 
He will bless them that fear the LORD, both small 

and great, 
The LORD shall increase you more and more, you 

and your children. 
Ye are blessed of the LORD which made heaven 

and earth. 
The heaven, even the heavens, are the LORD S : but 

the earth hath he given to the children of men. 
The dead praise not the LORD, neither any that go 

down into silence. 
But we will bless the LORD from this time forth 

and for evermore. Praise the LORD. 


THIS is a glorious Psalm of thanksgiving, wherein 
the God of Israel is praised, as being the one, only, 
true, living God, the Saviour of all men, and espe 
cially of them that believe ; and wherein also, all 
the other gods of the nations, who can save neither 
themselves nor others, are confessed, in the true faith, 
to be dumb idols. 

Wherefore the Psalmist, in the first verse, saith 
" Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy 
name give the glory." As if he had said, Look not 
upon us, O Lord, to see how good or how righteous 
we are, for if thou do this, thou wilt never help us, 
thou wilt never save us; we shall remain a people 
without salvation, and without God, like all the na 
tions around us ; or we shall ever be at an uncer 
tainty whether we shall be saved or not. But look, 
O our God, at thy holy word, and at the glory of 
thine own name, that thou callest thyself our God ; 
and that thou art the true and the living God, with 
whom is mercy, and with whom is plenteous redemp 
tion. According, O Lord, to thy promises of grace, 
according to thy counsel and thy covenant, in the 
which thou hast said, " I am the Lord your God;" 
according to this thy glorious name deal thou with 
us, O Lord; but not according to any name of ours, 
whereby we may be called sacrificers, or good-workers, 
or singers, or fathers, or the like : for all these names 
the nations that know not thee may assume, and yet 
remain still nations without God. 


The psalmist professeth his love and duty to God for his deliverance. 
He studieth to be thankful. 


I LOVE the LORD, because he hath heard my voice 
and my supplications. 

Because he hath inclined his ear unto me, there 
fore will I call upon him as long as I live. 

The sorrows of death compassed me, and the pains 
of hell gat hold upon me : I found trouble and 

Then called I upon the name of the LORD : O LORD, 
I beseech thee, deliver my soul. 

Gracious is the LORD, and righteous; yea, our God 
is merciful. 

The LORD preserveth the simple : I was brought 
low, and he helped me. 

Return unto thy rest, O my soul ; for the LORD 
hath dealt bountifully with tbee. 

For thou hast delivered my soul from death, mine 
eyes from tears, and my feet from falling. 

I will walk before the LORD in the land of the 

I believed, therefore have I spoken : I was greatly 

I said in my haste, All men are liars. 

What shall I render unto the LORD for all his ben 
efits towards me? 

I will take the cup of salvation, and call upon the 
name of the LORD. 

I will pay my vows unto the LORD now in the pre 
sence of all his people. 

Precious in the sight of the LORD is the death of 
his saints. 

LORD, truly I am thy servant ; I am thy servant, 
and the son of thine handmaid : thou hast loosed 
my bonds. 

1 will offer to thee the sacrifice of thanksgiving, 
and will call upon the name of LORD. 

x 2 


I will pay my vows unto the LORD now in the pre 
sence of all his people, 

In the courts of the LORD S house, in the midst of 
thee, O Jerusalem. Praise ye the LORD. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving, in which the 
Psalmist renders thanks, after coming out of a most 
heavy trial, and again rejoices in God ; praising 
God for having delivered him from the terrors of 
death, and from the pains of hell; for by such terms 
does he express those deep and heavy spiritual temp 
tations, concerning which he had spoken before, 
Psalm vi., which are not known unto all. And the 
Psalmist complains also that he suffered all these 
things, and was thus overwhelmed and almost de 
stroyed by these heavy trials, because of his confes 
sion of his faith and the truth of God before the 
world. " I believed (saith he) and therefore have I 
spoken:" but I am heavily afflicted for the word s 
sake. For all the saints confess and teach the right 
eousness of faith ; and, on the other hand, they ex 
pose and condemn all the righteousness, wisdom, 
and holiness of the world, and also all hypocrisy, 
and the outside form of godliness. And this the 
world will by no means whatever endure : they ever 
rage and roar against it : and they load the godly 
with every kind of affliction, because of their unso 
cial confession: and hence arise all those terrors 
without and those fears within, by which the church 
of Christ and the saints have ever been afflicted from 
the kingdom of the devil, in the midst of which their 
confession is made. 

But amid all these great, and hard, and numerous 
afflictions of Satan and the world, the Psalmist has 
this firm consolation, that his work and cause are 



right before God ; therefore he comforts and encour 
ages himself by relying on the word of God, and stirs 
up and strengthens himself unto all confidence. " I 
will take (saith he) the cup of salvation, and call 
upon the name of the Lord." As if he had said, If 
they drink my destruction from the cup of their fury, 
and hate and persecute me unto death ; what then. 
" I will take the cup of God s salvation and helping 
grace : " that is (as if he had said), Supporting and 
strengthening my faith with the glad word of thy 
promise, as with strong and generous wine, I shall 
be filled with the Spirit, by drinking of that cup; 
and, by my continuing to preach and spread the 
word, I shall hold out the cup, to others also, who 
confess with me the same truth, and preach the same 
word; that they also may draw the same consolation 
with me, out of the same most blessed word of the 
grace of God. 

This (saith the Psalmist) is our case, and this is 
the way in which we drink of it and use it. We 
drink of it ourselves, and then we hold it out to others, 
and invite them to drink also ; and this is the true 
worship of God ; and by this we laud and magnify 
his name. By this service we truly pay our vows 
unto God, namely, the vow of the first command 
ment, paid unto God by his people ; for the greatest 
and highest vow of the first commandment is this 
God, the true, the living God, alone shall be our 
God : we will cleave unto him alone: him only will 
we adore; him only will we worship ; him only will 
we seek ; on him only will we call ! 

As, therefore, in many other Psalms, so also in this, 
you may see what is the true sacrifice of praise (of 
that praise which is wrought in the heart and in the 
spirit by the Holy Ghost, and is not lip-service only.) 


And in this Psalm you may also see that the true 
preaching of the word, and the true confession of the 
word, before the world, form the highest and most 
precious worship of God. 


An exhortation to praise God for his mercy and truth. 

O PRAISE the LORD, all ye nations: praise him, all 

ye people. 
For his merciful kindness is great toward us : and 

the truth of the LORD endureth for ever. Praise 

ye the LORD. 

THIS is a prophecy concerning Christ ; that all peoples 
out of all kingdoms and islands, shall know Christ 
in his kingdom; that is, in his church ; in that king 
dom where mercy and grace, and the remission of 
sins, and eternal life, and everlasting consolation, 
shall be preached against sin, death, the power of 
the devil, and all evil. This Psalm has been before 
explained in my more full commentary thereon. 


An exhortation to praise God for his mercy. The psalmist by his ex 
perience sheweth how (jooditis trust in God. Under the type of the 
psalmist, the coming of Christ in his kingdom is expressed. 

O GIVE thanks unto the LORD ; for he is good ; be 
cause his mercy endureth for ever. 

Let Israel now say, that his mercy endureth for 


Let the house of Aaron now say, that his mercy 
endureth for ever. 

Let them now that fear the LORD say, that his 
mercy endureth for ever. 

I called upon the LORD in distress : the LORD an 
swered me, and set me in a large place. 

The LORD is on my side; I will not fear: what 
can man do unto me? 

The LORD taketh my part with them that help me : 
therefore shall I see my desire upon them that 
hate me. 

It is better to trust in the LORD, than to put confi 
dence in man : 

It is better to trust in the LORD, than to put confi 
dence in princes. 

All nations compassed me about : but in the name 
of the LORD will I destroy them. 

They compassed me about; yea, they compassed 
me about : but in the name of the LORD I will 
destroy them. 

They compassed me about like bees ; they are 
quenched as the fire of thorns : for in the name 
of the LORD I will destroy them. 

Thou hast thrust sore at me, that I might fall : but 
the LORD helped me. 

The LORD is my strength and song, and is be 
come my salvation. 

The voice of rejoicing and salvation is in the taber 
nacles of the righteous : the right hand of the 
LORD doeth valiantly. 

The right hand of the LORD is exalted ; the right 

hand of the LORD doeth valiantly. 
I shall not die, but live, and declare the works of 
the LORD. 


The LORD hath chastened me sore : but he hath 

not given me over unto death. 
Open to me the gates of righteousness : I will go 

in to them, and I will praise the Lord ; 
This gate of the LORD, into which the righteous 

shall enter. 
I will praise thee ; for thou hast heard me, and art 

become my salvation. 
The stone which the builders refused is become the 

head stone of the corner. 
This is the LORD S doing ; it is marvellous in our 

This is the day which the LORD hath made; we will 

rejoice and be glad in it. 
Save now, I beseech thee, O LORD : O LORD, I 

beseech thee, send now prosperity. 
Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the 

LORD : we have blessed you out of the house of 

the LORD. 
God i* the LORD, which hath shewed us light: bind 

the sacrifice with cords, even unto the horns of 

the altar. 
Thou art my God, and I will praise thee ; thou art 

my God, I will exalt thee. 
O give thanks unto the LORD ; for he is good : for 

his mercy endureth for ever. 

THIS is also a Psalm of thanksgiving. This Psalm, 
" O give thanks unto the Lord," which I so much 
love and admire, is the one which I, in particular, 
call the golden Psalm ; and is the Psalm which has 
often revived and comforted me in my temptations. 

The Psalmist gives thanks, and at the same time 
utters forth a prophecy concerning Christ, who by 
his suffering entered into glory; who is that stone 



rejected of the builders, which became the head 
of the corner ; as Christ himself also saith, Matt. 
xxi. citing this Psalm. The Psalmist also describes 
with blessed feelings of heart the joyful day of 
the gospel, the day of salvation and peace, the day 
of joy and consolation, and the true and glorious 

Among other things the Psalmist speaks of the 
church and the children of God, who are to be con 
formed to the image of his Son ; shewing, that they 
must be surrounded with afflictions on every side, 
and by the cross and through death enter into glory. 

A brief summary, however, like this, cannot set 
forth the great and glorious contents of this Psalm : 
but my particular and more full Commentary on it 
will supply, in some measure, what is here wanting. 


This psalm containeth sundry prayers, praises, and professions of 


BLESSED are the undefined in the way, who walk in 

the law of the LORD. 
Blessed are they that keep his testimonies, and that 

seek him with the whole heart. 
They also do no iniquity : they walk in his ways. 
Thou hast commanded us to keep thy precepts 

O that my ways were directed to keep thy 

Then shall I not be ashamed, when I have respect 

unto all thy commandments. 


I will praise thee with uprightness of heart, 
when I shall have learned thy righteous judg 

I will keep thy statutes : O forsake me not 

^ BETH. 

Wherewithal shall a young man cleanse his way ? 

by taking heed thereto according to thy word. 
With my whole heart have I sought thee : O let 

me not wander from thy commandments. 
Thy word have I hid in mine heart, that I might 

not sin against thee. 

Blessed art thou, O LORD : teach me thy statutes. 
With my lips have I declared all the judgments of 

thy mouth. 
I have rejoiced in the way of thy testimonies, as 

much as in all riches. 
I will meditate in thy precepts, and have respect 

unto thy ways. 
I will delight myself in thy statutes : I will not 

forget thy word. 


Deal bountifully with thy servant, that I may live, 
and keep thy word. 

Open thou mine eyes, that T may behold wondrous 
things out of thy law. 

I am a stranger in the earth : hide not thy com 
mandments from me. 

My soul breaketh for the longing that it hath unto 
thy judgments at all times. 

Thou hast rebuked the proud that are cursed, 
which do err from thy commandments. 

Remove from me reproach and contempt; for I 
have kept thy testimonies. 



Princes also did sit and speak against me: but thy 
servant did meditate in thy statutes. 

Thy testimonies also are my delight and my coun 


My soul cleaveth unto the dust: quicken thou me 

according to thy word. 
I have declared my ways, and thou heardest me : 

teach me thy statutes. 
Make me to understand the way of thy precepts : 

so shall I talk of thy wondrous works. 
My soul melteth for heaviness: strengthen thou 

me according unto thy word. 
Remove from me the way of lying: and grant me 

thy law graciously. 
I have chosen the way of truth : thy judgments 

have I laid before me. 
I have stuck unto thy testimonies : O LORD, put 

me not to shame. 
I will run the way of thy commandments, when 

thou shalt enlarge my heart. 

n HE. 

Teach me, O LORD, the way of thy statutes : and I 

shall keep it unto the end. 
Give me understanding, and I shall keep thy 

law ; yea, I shall observe it with my whole 

Make me to go in the path of thy commandments ; 

for therein do I delight. 
Incline my heart unto thy testimonies, and not to 

Turn away mine eyes from beholding vanity ; and 

quicken thou me in thy way. 


Stablish thy word unto thy servant, who is devoted 

to thy fear. 
Turn away my reproach which I fear: for thy 

judgments are good. 
Behold I have longed after thy precepts : quicken 

me in thy righteousness. 

1 VAU. 

Let thy mercies come also unto me, O LORD, even 
thy salvation, according to thy word. 

So shall I have wherewith to answer him that re- 
proacheth me : for I trust in thy word. 

And take not the word of truth utterly out of my 
mouth ; for I have hoped in thy judgments. 

So shall I keep thy law continually for ever and 

And I will walk at liberty: for I seek thy pre 

I will speak of thy testimonies also before kings, 
and will not be ashamed. 

And I will delight myself in thy commandments, 
which I have loved. 

My hands also will I lift up unto thy command 
ments which I have loved ; and I will meditate 
in thy statutes. 

t ZAIN. 

Remember the word unto thy servant, upon which 

thou hast caused me to hope. 
This is my comfort in my affliction : for thy word 

hath quickened me. 
The proud have had me greatly in derision: yet 

have I not declined from thy law. 
I remembered thy judgments of old, O LORD ; and 

have comforted myself. 


Horror hath taken hold upon me because of the 

wicked that forsake thy law. 
Thy statutes have been my songs in the house of 

my pilgrimage. 
I have remembered thy name, O LORD, in the night, 

and have kept thy law. 
This I had, because I kept thy precepts. 

fl CHETH. 

Thou art my portion, O LORD : I have said that I 

would keep thy words. 
I entreated thy favour with my whole heart : be 

merciful unto me according to thy word. 
I thought on my ways, and turned my feet unto thy 


I made haste, and delayed not to keep thy com 
The bands of the wicked have robbed me, but I 

have not forgotten thy law. 
At midnight I will rise to give thanks unto thee, 

because of thy righteous judgments. 
I am a companion of all them that fear thee, and of 

them that keep thy precepts. 
The earth, O LORD, is full of thy mercy: teach me 

thy statutes. 

ft TETH. 

Thou hast dealt well with thy servant, O LORD, 
according unto thy word. 

Teach me good judgment and knowledge: for I 
have believed thy commandments. 

Before I was afflicted I went astray ; but now have 
I kept thy word. 

Thou art good, and doest good : teach me thy sta 


The proud have forged a lie against me : but I will 
keep thy precepts with my whole heart. 

Their heart is as fat as grease : but I delight in thy 

It is good for me that I have been afflicted ; that I 
might learn thy statutes. 

The law of thy mouth is better unto me than thou 
sands of gold and silver. 

> JOD. 

Thy hands have made me and fashioned me : give 
me understanding, that I may learn thy com 

They that fear thee will be glad when they see me: 
because I have hoped in thy word. 

I know, O LORD, that thy judgments are right, 
and that thou in faithfulness hast afflicted me. 

Let, I pray thee, thy merciful kindness be for my 
comfort, according to thy word unto thy ser 

Let thy tender mercies come unto me, that I may 
live : for thy law is my delight. 

Let the proud be ashamed: for they dealt per 
versely with me without a cause : but I will me 
ditate in thy precepts. 

Let those that fear thee turn unto me, and those 
that have known thy testimonies. 

Let my heart be sound in thy statutes, that I be 
not ashamed. 

3 CAPH. 

My soul fainteth for thy salvation ; but I hope in 

thy word. 
Mine eyes fail for thy word, saying, When wilt 

thou comfort me ? 


For I am become like a bottle in the smoke ; yet 

do I not forget thy statutes. 
How many are the days of thy servant? when wilt 

thou execute judgment on them that persecute 

The proud have digged pits for me, which are not 

after thy law. 

All thy commandments are faithful : they perse 
cute me wrongfully; help thou me. 
They had almost consumed me upon earth: but I 

forsook not thy precepts. 
Quicken me after thy loving-kindness ; so shall I 

keep the testimony of thy mouth. 


For ever, O LORD, thy word is settled in heaven. 

Thy faithfulness is unto all generations : thou hast 
established the earth, and it abideth. 

They continue this day according to thine ordi 
nances : for all are thy servants. 

Unless thy law had been my delights, I should then 
have perished in mine affliction. 

I will never forget thy precepts : for with them 
thou hast quickened me. 

I am thine, save me ; for I have sought thy precepts. 

The wicked have waited for me to destroy me : but 
I will consider thy testimonies. 

I have seen an end of all perfection : but thy com 
mandment is exceeding broad. 

ft MEM. 
O how love I thy law ! it is my meditation all the 

Thou through thy commandments hast made me 

wiser than mine enemies : for they are ever with 



I have more understanding than all my teachers : 
for thy testimonies are my meditation. 

T understand more than the ancients, because I 
keep thy precepts. 

I have refrained my feet from every evil way, that 
I might keep thy word. 

I have not departed from thy judgments ; for thou 
hast taught me. 

How sweet are thy words unto my taste ! yea, 
sweeter than honey to my mouth ! 

Through thy precepts I get understanding: there 
fore I hate every false way. 

1 NUN. 

Thy word is a lamp unto my feet, and a light unto 

my path. 
I have sworn, and I will perform it, that I will 

keep thy righteous judgments. 
I am afflicted very much : quicken me, O LORD, 

according unto thy word. 
Accept, I beseech thee, the free-will offerings of 

my mouth, O LORD, and teach me thy judg 
My soul is continually in my hand : yet do I not 

forget thy law. 
The wicked have laid a snare for me : yet I erred 

not from thy precepts. 
Thy testimonies have I taken as an heritage for 

ever ; for they are the rejoicing of my heart. 
I have inclined mine heart to perform thy statutes 

alway, even unto the end. 


I hate vain thoughts : but thy law do I love. 
Thou art my hiding place and my shield : I hope 
in thy word. 


Depart from me, ye evildoers : for I will keep the 

commandments of my God. 
Uphold me according unto thy word, that I may 

live : and let me not be ashamed of my hope. 
Hold thou me up, and I shall be safe : and I will 

have respect unto thy statutes continually. 
Thou hast trodden down all them that err from thy 

statutes : for their deceit is falsehood. 
Thou puttest away all the wicked of the earth like 

dross : therefore I love thy testimonies. 
My flesh trernbleth for fear of thee ; and I am 

afraid of thy judgments. 

y AIN. 

I have done judgment and justice: leave me not 

to mine oppressors. 
Be surety for thy servant for good : let not the 

proud oppress me. 
Mine eyes fail for thy salvation, and for the word 

of thy righteousness. 
Deal with thy servant according unto thy mercy, 

and teach me thy statutes, 
lam thy servant; give me understanding, that I 

may know thy testimonies. 
It is time for thee, LORD, to work : for they have 

made void thy law. 
Therefore I love thy commandments above gold ; 

yea, above fine gold. 
Therefore I esteem all thy precepts concerning all 

things to be right ; and I hate every false way. 

a PE. 

Thy testimonies are wonderful : therefore doth my 

soul keep them. 
The entrance of thy words giveth light; it giveth 

understanding unto the simple. 


I opened my mouth, and panted : for I longed for 
thy commandments. 

Look thou upon me, and be merciful unto me, as 
thou usest to do unto those that love thy name. 

Order my steps in thy word : and let not any in 
iquity have dominion over me. 

Deliver me from the oppression of man : so will I 
keep thy precepts. 

Make thy face to shine upon thy servant ; and 
teach me thy statutes. 

Rivers of waters run down mine eyes, because they 
keep not thy law. 


Righteous art thou, O LORD, and upright are thy 

Thy testimonies that thou hast commanded are 

righteous and very faithful. 
My zeal hath consumed me: because mine enemies 

have forgotten thy words. 
Thy word is very pure : therefore thy servant 

loveth it. 
I am small and despised ; yet do not I forget thy 

Thy righteousness is an everlasting righteousness, 

and thy law is the truth. 
Trouble and anguish have taken hold on me; yet 

thy commandments are my delights. 
The righteousness of thy testimonies is everlasting : 

give me understanding, and I shall live. 

p KOPH. 
I cried with my whole heart ; hear me, O LORD : 

I will keep thy statutes. 
I cried unto thee ; save me, and I shall keep thy 



F prevented the dawning of the morning, and 
cried : I hoped in thy word. 

Mine eyes prevent the m^Af-watches, that I might 
meditate in thy word. 

Hear my voice, according unto thy loving-kind 
ness : O LORD, quicken me according to thy 

They draw nigh that follow after mischief: they 
are far from thy law. 

Thou art near, O LORD ; and all thy command 
ments are truth. 

Concerning thy testimonies, I have known of old 
that thou hast founded them for ever. 

-) RESH. 

Consider mine affliction, and deliver me ; for I do 
not forget thy law. 

Plead my cause, and deliver me : quicken me ac 
cording to thy word. 

Salvation is far from the wicked: for they seek 
not thy statutes. 

Great are thy tender mercies, O LORD ; quicken 
me according to thy judgments. 

Many are my persecutors and mine enemies ; yet 
do I not decline from thy testimonies. 

I beheld the transgressors, and was grieved ; be 
cause they kept not thy word. 

Consider how I love thy precepts : quicken me, O 
LORD, according to thy loving-kindness. 

Thy word is true from the beginning : and every 
one of thy righteous judgments endureth for 


Princes have persecuted me without a cause: but 
my heart standeth in awe of thy word. 
Y 2 


I rejoice at thy word, as one that findeth great 


I hate and abhor lying: but thy law do I love. 
Seven times a-day do I praise thee, because of thy 

righteous judgments. 
Great peace have they which love thy law: and 

nothing shall offend them. 
LORD, I have hoped for thy salvation, and done 

thy commandments. 
My soul hath kept thy testimonies; and I love 

them exceedingly. 
I have kept thy precepts and thy testimonies : for 

all my ways are before thee. 

n TAU. 

Let my cry come near before thee, O LORD ; give 

me understanding according to thy word. 
Let my supplication come before thee ; deliver me 

according to thy word. 
My lips shall utter praise, when thou hast taught 

me thy statutes. 
My tongue shall speak of thy word : for all thy 

commandments are righteousness. 
Let thine hand help me : for I have chosen thy 

I have longed for thy salvation, O LORD ; and thy 

law is my delight. 
Let my soul live, and it shall praise thee ; and let 

thy judgments help me. 
I have gone astray like a lost sheep : seek thy 

servant; for I do not forget thy commandments. 

THIS Psalm is the most extended in the whole 
Psalter. It contains prayers, consolations, doctrines, 
thanksgivings, and repeats all these with a varied 
fulness. It is however given forth with a deep and 


blessed intent: namely, that by this repetition and 
fulness, it may invite and exhort us to hear and dili 
gently to treasure up the word of God. For through 
out the whole Psalm the Psalmist exalts unto the 
heavens, with the highest praises, the pure doctrine 
of God s holy word. He sets it forth as to be pre 
ferred before all gold and precious stones, and before 
all the riches of the world ; as Solomon also beau 
tifully speaks of it in his Proverbs. 

On the other hand, the Psalmist earnestly warns 
against all false doctrine and against all security and 
contempt of the word. For no pestilence is more 
destroying than false doctrine, or human doctrines 
without or contrary to the word of God. And know 
ing that Satan without cessation assaults the church 
of God with all kinds of heresies and false doctrine ; 
the Psalmist takes up a great part of this Psalm in 

The principal, and indeed whole foundation and 
truth of godliness lies in the pure teaching and 
hearing of the word of God. For where that word is 
purely taught and heard, there, to a certainty, will 
be begotten pure and prevailing prayer, calling upon 
God, diligence in reading, teaching, and exhortation, 
consolation for the weak that are afflicted and tried, 
strengthening of heart and spirit, joy, peace of con 
science, thanksgivings, prophecyings, an abundant 
understanding of the scriptures ; and, in a word, true 
religion, and the true worship of God ; and also, con 
fidence in God under the cross and afflictions, and 
perseverance unto the end ; and, finally, all the 
blessed operations and gifts of the Holy Spirit, and 
all those things which please God and displease the 

On the contrary, where the pure word is not taught, 


or where there is a weariness and loathing of 
the word, there the true religion becomes extin 
guished, and all true worship of God perishes. For 
where the true word of God is not taught, there 
is not any truth of God ; there is found a great 
noise of external holiness, and the form of godliness, 
and hypocrisy ; there, indeed, is psalm-singing, 
prayer, doctrines, consolation, thanksgiving, and all 
the varieties of the worship of God, with all inter 
pretations of the scriptures. I will add, also, that 
there you may find sufferings and martyrdoms. But 
all is outside show ; all is the form of godliness only ; 
all is false ; all is feigned, and nothing but lies ; all 
is full of the poison of the devil. Nor without true 
faith in the heart, nor without the divine word, nor 
without the worship of the First Commandment, is 
there, or can there be, any true and real worship 
of God. 

How many thousands of priests and monks have 
sung this Psalm at their first, third, sixth, and ninth 
hours, in their temples. 

But what did they do during all their singings? 
They did nothing else but call down God s judgment 
and indignation on their own heads ! For the design 
of this Psalm, in every word of it, is to glorify the 
word of God, and to confound, put to shame, destroy, 
and blot out all hypocrisy upon the face of the 

i Luther is here deeply opening up the extent to which the " form 
of godliness " may be carried, yet without the truth and " power 
of it. 



David prayeth against Doeg, reproveth his tongue, complaincth of his 
necessary conversation with the wicked. 

A Song of degrees. 

IN my distress I cried unto the LORD, and he 

heard me. 
Deliver my soul, O LORD, from lying lips, and 

from a deceitful tongue. 
What shall be given unto thee, or what shall be 

done unto thee, thou false tongue? 
Sharp arrows of the mighty, with coals of juniper. 
Woe is me that I sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell 

in the tents of Kedar ! 
My soul hath long dwelt with him that hateth 

I am for peace : but, when I speak, they are for war. 

THIS Psalm is an earnest prayer ; and it complains, 
with deep feelings of sorrow, of those horrible evils 
which Satan causes in the church by a false and 
crafty tongue : that is, by that virulent and truly 
serpentine tongue which boasts of God and the wor 
ship of God, and never instructs any one in the truth, 
nor leads them to God. 

For false teachers cause infinite and terrible evils 
in the church ; and like giants with immense wea 
pons in their hands, they never strike without in 
flicting some mighty wound : or, like fire-brands 
cast into a grove of juniper trees, they consume in 
all directions, with a sudden and devouring flame. 
And just so, the common people often burst out into 
one general flame, even by the throwing in among 
them of one single spark of false and wicked doc- 


trine ; and not only do they blaze forth with a sudden 
flame of their minds and spirits, but even greatly 
admire the error and the hypocrisy. For all doctrines 
of this kind, as being more congenial to human 
reason than the truth of God, quickly please men ; 
as Paul saith, 2 Tim. iv. " They will heap to them 
selves teachers, having itching ears." 

Mesech are the nations nigh unto Jerusalem itself, 
towards the north ; where the Tartars now are. And 
Kedar are the Arabs, to the east of Jerusalem. These 
nations are types of all enemies and heretics who 
oppose themselves as adversaries to the true church. 
The Mesech of Christians, at this time are the 
Turks, who derive their origin from the Tartars. 
And the Kedar are Mahomet and the Saracens ; for 
they are from Arabia. These with their Alcoran 
have oppressed and laid waste the Gospel in many 
places : and that fire of wicked doctrine, broke out 
into a mighty blaze, just like a brand cast into a 
thicket of juniper trees. 


The great safety of the godly, who put their trust in God * protection, 
A Song of degrees. 

I WILL lift up mine eyes unto the hills, from 
whence cometh my help. 

My help cometh from the LORD, which made heaven 
and earth. 

He will not suffer thy foot to be moved: he that 
keepeth thee will not slumber. 

Behold, he that keepeth Israel shall neither slum 
ber nor sleep. 


The LORD is thy keeper; the LORD it shade 

upon thy right hand. 
The sun shall not smite thee by day, nor the moon 

by night. 
The LORD shall preserve thee from all evil : he 

shall preserve thy soul. 
The LORD shall preserve thy going out, and thy 

coming in, from this time forth, and even for 


THIS is a Psalm of consolation, wherein the Psalmist, 
from his own experience, exhorts the godly to a 
constancy of faith, and to an expectation of help 
and defence from God. For although in the hour of 
temptation God puts off his help, and all things ap 
pear as if he were asleep, or had forgotten us alto 
gether, and had left us to be scorched by the heat 
of the sun by day, and by the beams of the moon by 
night ; that is, as though he had given us up to be 
afflicted and destroyed by all manner of temptations, 
by Satan, by the world, and by sin, day and night : 
yet it is not so; he has not given us up, as we, ac 
cording to the weakness of our flesh, imagine and 
feel. He sees and regards us, and watches over us ; 
nor does he suffer us to be so burnt as to be de 
stroyed, nor so tempted or distressed, as to be swal 
lowed up of over-much sorrow : and this all blessedly 
experience, who call upon him for his help and 
patiently wait for it. 


David professeth his joy for the church, and prayeth for the peace 

A Song of degrees of David. 


I WAS glad when they said unto me, Let us go into 

the house of the LORD. 

Our feet shall stand within thy gates, O Jerusalem. 
Jerusalem is builded as a city that is compact 

together : 
Whither the tribes go up, the tribes of the LORD, 

unto the testimony of Israel, to give thanks unto 

the name of the LORD. 
For there are set thrones of judgment, the thrones 

of the house of David. 
Pray for the peace of Jerusalem : they shall prosper 

that love thee. 
Peace be within thy walls, and prosperity within 

thy palaces. 
For my brethren and companions sakes, I will 

now say, Peace be within thee. 
Because of the house of the LORD our God I will 

seek thy good. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving, it contains the 
feelings of a glad, a rejoicing, and a thankful heart, 
for that unspeakable gift of God, the ministry of 
his word. This Psalm in the person of the Jews, 
rejoices that God had appointed a certain place, 
namely Jerusalem, in the midst of that people, 
where the name and the word of God had a certain 
dwelling-place and could there be found : and where 
it was administered by certain persons, the Levites 
and the priests, to certain disciples ; namely, to the 
tribes of Israel. 

For what calamity or misery can be greater than 
to seek the word of God anxiously, and not be able 
to find it? This calamity and misery the children of 
Israel experienced in the times of God s anger, 
when, being forsaken by him, and left to their own 


inventions, they sought and worshipped idols. And 
in these our times of monkery also, the masses and 
the travellings about to so many Marys have given 
abundant proofs of what it is to seek the word of 
God and not to find it. 

Our Jerusalem, our certain place, is the church, 
and our temple is Christ. Wheresoever Christ is 
preached and the sacraments are duly administered, 
there we are sure God dwells ; and there is our 
temple, our tabernacle, our cherubim, and our 
mercy-seat ; for there God is present with us by 
his word. 


The godly profess their confidence in God, and pray to be delivered from 

A Song of degrees. 

UNTO thee lift I up mine eyes, O thou that dwellest 

in the heavens. 
Behold, as the eyes of servants look unto the hand 

of their masters, and as the eyes of a maiden 

unto the hand of her mistress ; so our eyes wait 

upon the LORD our God, until that he have 

mercy upon us. 
Have mercy upon us, O LORD, have mercy upon 

us : for we are exceedingly filled with contempt. 
Our soul is exceedingly filled with the scorning of 

those that are at ease, and with the contempt of 

the proud. 

THIS Psalm is a fervent prayer against all those 
secure and proud despisers of the word of God 
and its true ministers, And the Gentile nations 


were not the only despisers who contemned the 
whole religion of the Israelites and the true worship 
of God, and condemned it as sedition altogether : 
but the idolaters and false teachers which were in 
the midst of that very people themselves proudly 
despised and derided the godly, that little flock 
of God, and the true prophets ; as Psalms xii. and 
xiv. complain. And in the same way also our papists 
and fanatics now, who seem in their own eyes to be 
more holy than the gospel itself, more proudly and 
contemptuously than any others despise, trample un 
derfoot, and spit upon all true and good ministers of 
the word of God. Not to say anything- now about 
that security and pride wherein, at this day, even 
our bishops and priests themselves, who are more 
profane than all heathen nations put together, de 
spise the true word of God. So that we, as the 
Psalmist saith in its conclusion, are indeed filled 
with the derision of the rich and the contempt of the 
proud. But may God, (and he will!) regard us, and 
glorify his word. Auien. 


The church blesseth God for a miraculous deliverance. 
A Song of degrees of David. 

IF it had not been the LORD who was on our side, 

now may Israel say ; 
If it had not been the LORD who was on our side 

when men rose up against us ; 
Then they had swallowed us up quick, when 

their wrath was kindled against us : 
Then the waters had overwhelmed us, the stream 

had gone over our soul : 


Then the proud waters had gone over our soul. 
Blessed be the LORD, who hath not given us a* a 

prey to their teeth. 
Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of 

the fowlers : the snare is broken, and we are 

Our help is in the name of the LORD, who made 

heaven and earth. 

THE Psalmist, in this Psalm, gives thanks unto God 
for defending his little helpless flock, here in the 
midst of the kingdom of the devil, struggling against 
all temptations, against tyrants, and against blood- 
thirsting hypocrites; and for delivering them from 
the snares of virulent calumniators; the number of 
whom is so great, that compared with the little flock 
of God, they are like a sweeping torrent, or a mighty 
deluge, to one solitary rivulet. 

Though, however, their teeth were of iron ; that is, 
though their power were infinitely greater than it is, 
and though their snares (that is, their cunning de 
vices,) were infinitely more crafty than they are ; yet 
" Greater is he that is in us, than he that is in the 
world ;" he breaks and destroys their teeth, he de- 
feateth their snares, and wonderfully delivers his 
people, as we have seen it in our own times, on 
many and great occasions. 


The safety of such as trust in God. A prayer for the godly, and against 
the wicked. 

A Song of degrees. 

THEY that trust in the LORD shall be as mount 


Zion, which cannot be removed, but abideth for 

As the mountains are round about Jerusalem, so 
the LORD is round about his people from hence 
forth, even for ever. 

For the rod of the wicked shall not rest upon the 
lot of the righteous ; lest the righteous put forth 
their hands unto iniquity. 

Do good, O LORD, unto those that be good, and to 
them that are upright in their hearts. 

As for such as turn aside unto their crooked ways, 
the LORD shall lead them forth with the workers 
of iniquity : but peace shall be upon Israel. 

THIS also is a Psalm of thanksgiving containing the 
feelings of an exercised faith : thanking God, that, 
although he sometimes permits false prophets and 
fanatical spirits to prevail, as if they would possess 
all things (which thing God often does so permit to 
be, as a punishment for the ingratitude of his people, 
who value not the blessing of the word ;) yet he visits 
such with the more terrible judgment, and suffers 
them not to prevail in all things against the right 
eous, lest the righteous, being entirely broken by 
too great afflictions and sorrows, should, through 
discouragement and despair, fall away from the 
word unto ungodliness and sin. 

For the final end of all false teachers and blas 
phemers ever is, confusion, terrible judgment, and 
destruction ; " And their glory," as the apostle saith, 
"is turned into shame." But the end of the poor 
flock of God, even though the church be proved and 
tried by a thousand fires and deaths, though it appear 
a thousand times over to be oppressed, destroyed 
and extirpated is ; eternal life, eternal consolation,, 


eternal glory ! This is what the Psalmist means, 
when he says, " The Lord doth good to them that be 
good, and to them that are upright in their hearts : 
but as for them that turn aside unto their crooked 
ways, the Lord shall lead them forth with the evil 
doers, but peace shall be upon Israel." 


The church, celebrating her incredible return out of captivity, prayeth 
for, and prophesieth the good success thereof. 

A Song of degrees. 

WHEN the LORD turned again the captivity of 

Zion, we were like them that dream. 
Then was our mouth tilled with laughter, and our 

tongue with singing: then said they among the 

heathen, The LORD hath done great things for 

The LORD hath done great things for us ; whereof 

we are glad. 
Turn again our captivity, O LORD, as the streams 

in the south. 

They that sow in tears shall reap in joy. 
He that goeth forth and weepeth, bearing precious 

seed, shall doubtless come again with rejoicing, 

bringing his sheaves with him. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving for deliverance from 
the Babylonish captivity ; whether it was written 
after the captivity, or before it, as a prophecy to com 
fort the Jews with the certain hope of deliverance, 
and that they should not despair, is uncertain : but 
at what particular time it was written, it matters not. 


This Psalm ends with a remarkable and glo 
rious conclusion ; which embraces, in a few words, 
the whole counsel and the immutable decree of God 
concerning his church ; namely, that it behoved 
Christ first to suffer, and then to be raised up, and 
exalted of God and glorified. And so also Christians 
must first fill up a certain measure of afflictions be 
fore they enter into their joy; while, on the contrary, 
the men of the world fill up a certain measure of their 
joy before they are eternally punished and damned. 

The church, therefore, is that poor little helpless 
flock, in the midst of a wicked nation. They are that 
little company who pray, cry, are tempted, and are af 
flicted by the world ; who sow in tears, but reap in joy. 
" But," says the Psalmist, "they went, and wept as 
they went, sowing precious seed ; but they shall 
come again with joy, bringing their sheaves with 

These afflictions, and these deaths of the saints are 
very precious ; hence it is that the Psalmist calls 
them " precious seed ; " because they are followed by 
the most fruitful crops, and by the most abundant 
harvests. But we infants in grace, we poor little 
child:en, under our tears and our sighs, understand 
not the voice, or the mind, or the will of our hea 
venly Father in these afflictions: nor can we see or 
understand how precious this seed is in the sight of 
God; who calls even "death," (which is the worst 
and lowest of all these seeds " precious ; " saying, in 
another place, " Precious in the sight of the Lord is 
the death of his saints ; " and God sets this precious 
seed thus sown by his children, before all the trea 
sures of the world. 



The virtue of God s blessing. Good children are his gift. 
A song of degrees for Solomon. 

EXCEPT the LORD build the house, they labour in 

vain that build it: except the LORD keep the 

city, the watchman waketh but in vain. 
It is vain for you to rise up early, to sit up late, to 

eat the bread of sorrows : for so he giveth his 

beloved sleep. 
Lo, children are an heritage of the LORD ; and the 

fruit of the womb is his reward. 
As arrows are in the hand of a mighty man ; so are 

children of the youth. 
Happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them ; 

they shall not be ashamed, but they shall speak 

with the enemies in the gate. 

THIS Psalm contains a most blessed and important 
doctrine. It is of the same subject-matter as that 
contained in the book of Solomon, called Eccle- 
siastes. The Psalmist teaches, that all governments 
and commonwealths rightly constituted are the good 
and free gifts of God : and that none of them can be 
either rightly constituted, at the first, nor preserved 
afterwards, by any human wisdom or might: but 
that all these things are in the hand of God : that, 
where he giveth not peace, where he giveth not men 
desirous of the arts of peace, and wise therein, where 
he holdeth not the helm of the state, that there, all 
human wisdom, however great, all laws, all ordi 
nances, all might, all arms, all preparations are vain, 


In the next place, the Psalmist saith, that where 
God blesseth not a domestic household, where he 
giveth not concord between husband and wife, suc 
cess and happiness in the bringing up of children, dili 
gence and faithfulness to men-servants and maid 
servants ; there, all labour and industry and toil are 
vain: concerning all which I have spoken more 
largely in my more full commentary on this psalm. 


The sundry blessings which follow them that fear God. 
A Song of degrees. 

BLESSED is every one that feareth the LORD ; that 

walketh in his ways. 
For thou shalt eat the labour of thine hands : happy 

shah thou be, and it shall be well with thee. 
Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine by the sides of 

thine house : thy children like olive-plants round 

about thy table. 
Behold, that thus shall the man be blessed that 

feareth the LORD. 
The LORD shall bless thee out of Zion : and thou 

shalt see the good of Jerusalem all the days of 

thy life. 
Yea, thou shalt see thy children s children, and 

peace upon Israel. 

THIS is a Psalm of consolation, wherein the Psalmist 
extols, with the highest praises, marriage, as a holy 
and godly kind of life, instituted of God himself. 
The Holy Spirit here comforts and encourages all 
husbands and wives with a divine consolation ; and 


confirms and fortifies them against all those wrong co 
gitations and thoughts of human reason ; which reason 
does not look at what good there is in marriage, but 
only beholds and exaggerates what of evil there may 
be in it; and thus blasphemes the glorious work of 
God in the two sexes. Hence, here arises all those 
blasphemous sayings among the heathen : There 
are three great evils in life ; fire, water, and woman. 
But Solomon saith, " He that findeth a wife findeth 
a good thing." 

This Psalm reminds husbands and wives that they 
should not look at the labours, the troubles, the cares, 
or the various temptations and trials which are to be 
endured in marriage; but that they should rather keep 
their eyes fixed on the word and will of God ; from 
which they ought to hold themselves assured that 
marriage was not a human invention, nor a matter 
casually contrived of men ; but that the whole human 
race were, from the beginning, created and formed 
of God, man and woman, and that neither of the sexes, 
nor their design can or ought to be altered or 
changed by men, by the devil, or any other creature, 
any more than the sun and moon and their offices 
can or ought to be altered or changed. 

God, saith the scripture, created them male and 
female, and blessed them. Marriage, therefore, is 
that kind of life, which, as being the creation and 
institution of God, greatly pleases him. If, there 
fore, thou shalt obey God herein, and shall keep the 
eyes of thy faith fixed on the good, and on the bles 
sings of marriage ; if thou shalt obey the command 
ment and the call of God in taking to thyself a wife, 
the sexes created of God will not be vile, but pre 
cious in thy sight: and all the little troubles and 
trials of marriage shall be drowned and lost in 
z 2 


that divine blessedness, the knowing that God 
favours husbands and wives, and is present with 
them ; that the joining of marriage is one of his own 
works ; and that he provides for, and defends those 
who are joined together. 

To fortify thyself, therefore, against all that blas 
phemy of human reason and of the devil, by which they 
condemn marriage, hold thou fixed in thine heart that 
heavenly word, " And the Lord made them male and 
female, and said, Be fruitful and multiply." And if 
thou fear the Lord thou shalt be happy, and it shall 
be well with thee in marriage, even though the viru 
lent and blaspheming mouth of the devil, and the 
whole world together with him, should say it shall 
be evil with thee ! 


A ?i exhortation to praise God for saving Israel in their great afflictions. 
The haters of the church are cursed. 

A Song of degrees. 

MANY a time have they afflicted me from my youth, 

may Israel now say : 
Many a time have they afflicted me from my youth : 

yet they have not prevailed against me. 
The plowers plowed upon my back : they made 

long their furrows. 
The LORD is righteous: he hath cut asunder the 

cords of the wicked. 
Let them all be confounded and turned back that 

hate Zion : 
Let them be as the grass upon the house-tops, which 

withereth afore it grovveth up : 


Wherewith the mower filleth not his hand, nor he 

that bindeth sheaves, his bosom. 
Neither do they which go by say, The blessing of 

the LORD be upon you ; we bless you in the name 

of the LORD. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving, wherein the people of 
Israel give thanks unto the God of Israel for his deli 
verances and consolations of every kind : seeing that 
from the beginning he had often mightily and marvel 
lously delivered them from the hand of their enemies, 
as we have it recorded in the books of Judges and 
Kings ; where we find that the Israelites were often op 
pressed by the cruel power and tyranny of their Gentile 
enemies, who afflicted them for a long time, and, as it 
were, ploughed upon their backs (as the Psalmist 
saith) and made long their furrows, and held them 
most cruelly under their yokes ; until God sent them 
a Saviour, and delivered them both from the plough- 
ers and the ploughs, and their yokes also. 

At the conclusion, the Psalmist prays against them ; 
or rather, prophesies that they shall perish, and shall 
be burnt up like grass upon the house-tops; as it 
also came to pass : for all the enemies and the na 
tions that were adversaries unto Israel perished ; but 
Israel remained, and was afterwards lifted up with 
new consolations. 

In the same way also all the wicked and the ene 
mies of God and of his word, are like grass upon the 
house-tops ; which flourishes, indeed, like a thriving 
garden, as if it would remain ; but before it is grown 
up, it withers, is burnt up, and becomes of no use 
whatever. So also the enemies of the word, and all 
erroneous teachers, when they are shining in pride 
and magnifying themselves in their boastings against 


God, wither on a sudden like the falling grass ; 
while Christians and the church of God flourish for 


The Psalmist professeth his hope in prayer, and his patience in hope. 
He ea horteth Israel to hope in God. 

A Song of degrees. 

OUT of the depths have I cried unto thee, O LORD : 
Lord, hear my voice : let thine ears be attentive to 

the voice of my supplications. 
If thou, LORD, shouldest mark iniquities, O Lord, 

who shall stand? 
But there is forgiveness with thee, that thou mayest 

be feared. 
T wait for the LORD ; my soul doth wait, and in his 

word do I hope. 
My soul waiteth for the Lord more than they that 

watch for the morning : I say, more than they 

that watch for the morning. 
Let Israel hope in the LORD : for with the LORD 

there is mercy, and with him is plenteous redemp 
And he shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities. 

THIS is a very blessed Psalm and a prayer unto God, 
proceeding from a spirit and feeling of heart truly 
Davidical : for this Psalm confesses that none is 
righteous before God on account of his own works 
and merits, but only through grace and by faith in 
the promise of God, freely giving the remission of 
sins and peace by Jesus Christ : on this promise of 


God the Psalmist relies; and with this word of pro 
mise he supports and comforts himself when strug 
gling in the depths of sin and hell. 

And he exhorts all Israel with a loud voice, to 
learn and to do the same. " For (says the Psalmist) 
with thee only is mercy, and with thee is plenteous 
redemption, that thou mayest be feared : " that is, that 
thou mayest be worshipped with the worship of the 
first and greatest commandment, with the sacrifice 
of praise and thanksgiving. " And he (continues the 
Psalmist) shall redeem Israel from all his iniqui 
ties ;" that is, neither Israel, nor any man, shall be 
delivered from sin, from the power of the devil, and 
from death, in any other way than by the grace and 
the free remission of sins : but he shall, without these, 
remain in the deep; that is, in the kingdom of sin, 
death, and the devil, and under the wrath of God. 

Behold in how few words this Psalm expresses 
the most glorious things ! The Psalmist is a truly 
great teacher of divine truths, and of the whole sum 
of godliness. He has a clear and thorough view of 
those glorious promises. ** I will put enmity between 
thee and the serpent, and between thy seed and his 
seed : thou shalt bruise his head : " and, " In thy 
seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." 
The Psalmist wraps up both these promises in that 
one verse, " And he shall redeem Israel from all his 


David professing his humility, exhorteth Israel to hope in God. 
A Song of Degrees of David. 


LORD, my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes lofty : 

neither do I exercise myself in great matters, or 

in things too high for me. 
Surely I have behaved and quieted myself, as a 

child that is weaned of his mother: my soul is 

even as a weaned child. 
Let Israel hope in the LORD, from henceforth and 

for ever. 

THIS is also a blessed Psalm, containing, in a few 
brief words, the same most important doctrine which 
was taught also in the preceding Psalm, that we 
are not to trust in our own righteousness or works : 
and it attacks all proud and arrogant hypocrites, 
who, by human strength, attempt works beyond all 
human powers, namely to pacify God ; and under 
stand not the power of grace nor the remission of 
sins; but endeavour to pacify God by their own 

" My heart is not lifted up," (saith the Psalmist) ; 
as if he had said, Those proud saints (as they ima 
gine themselves) being ignorant of all trials and 
temptations, and spiritual things, trust greatly in 
their own works, and know not what sin is, nor what 
the anger and judgment of God are. But I, being 
broken down and humbled by these things, know 
what they are. For whenever I leave off to trust 
closely and wholly to the promise of grace ; as often 
as I cease to suck the breast of mercy and promised 
pardon, my rest is gone, and I begin to weep and 
howl with distresses and straits of conscience ; just 
as a little newly-weaned infant cries unceasingly, 
night and day, for the breast of its mother which it 
has lost. 

The sum therefore of all true religion and godliness 


is this, " Let Israel hope in the Lord:" that is, 
there is no other salvation, there is no other conso 
lation, there is no other sure peace of conscience for 
any mortal, than the apprehending and embracing 
the promise of grace. Take care, therefore, that thou 
neglect not this true mother s breast for thy soul; 
take heed that thou lose it not out of thy mouth ; 
for this breast alone is that which can relieve, refresh, 
and quiet thirsting and sinking consciences, in any 
of their agonies on account of sin. Christ alone is 
eternal life, peace, and consolation ! 


David in his prayer commendeth unto God fhe religious care he had for 
the ark. His prayer at the removing of the ark, with a repetition of 
God s promises. 

A Song of Degrees. 

LORD, remember David, and all his afflictions ; 
How he sware unto the LORD, and vowed unto the 

mighty God of Jacob ; 
Surely I will not come into the tabernacle of my 

house, nor go up into my bed ; 
I will not give sleep to mine eyes, or slumber to 

mine eyelids, 
Until I find out a place for the LORD, an habitation 

for the mighty God of Jacob. 
Lo, we heard of it at Ephratah ; we found it in the 

fields of the wood. 
We will go into his tabernacles ; we will worship 

at his footstool. 
Arise, O LORD, into thy rest ; thou and the ark of 

thy strength. 


Let thy priests be clothed with righteousness ; and 

let thy saints shout for joy. 
For thy servant David s sake turn not away the 

face of thine anointed. 
The LORD hath sworn in truth unto David, he will 

not turn from it ; Of the fruit of thy body will I 

set upon thy throne. 
If thy children will keep my covenant, and my 

testimony that I shall teach them, their children 

shall also sit upon thy throne for evermore. 
For the LORD hath chosen Zion : he hath desired 

it for his habitation. 
This is my rest for ever : here will I dwell; for I 

have desired it. 
I will abundantly bless her provision : I will satisfy 

her poor with bread. 
I will also clothe her priests with salvation ; and 

her saints shall shout aloud for joy. 
There will I make the horn of David to bud : I 

have ordained a lamp for mine anointed. 
His enemies will I clothe with shame : but upon 

himself shall his crown flourish. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer, in which Solomon and the 
people of Israel beg of God to preserve the priest 
hood and the kingdom : that is, that he would main 
tain the true religion, the true worship of God, and 
a prosperous and happy state of the kingdom among 
that people. In a word, it is a prayer to God that 
he would be pleased to preserve the ministry of the 
word above all things ; and then also the laws, the 
magistrates, and the public peace : for where these 
two things, the word and the laws, are rightly con 
stituted and preserved, there all things go well with 
a kingdom. 


In the eleventh verse, the Psalmist, turning his 
eye, as it were, to the promise, feels the fullest assur 
ance that he is heard. For God had promised by 
oath that he would dwell in that place, namely, in 
Jerusalem or Zion ; and would bless both the priest 
hood and the kingdom, if they would keep the com 
mandments of their God, and obey him. 

Why the Psalmist calls, in the sixth verse, this 
habitation of God, Jerusalem, " Ephratah," and "the 
fields of the wood," is explained in my more full 
commentary elsewhere, on these " Psalms of De 


The benefit nf the communion of saints. 
A song of degrees. 

BEHOLD, how good and how pleasant it is for bre 
thren to dwell together in unity ! 

It is like the precious ointment upon the head, 
that ran down upon the beard ; even Aaron s 
beard ; that went down to the skirts of his gar 
ments ; 

As the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that de 
scended upon the mountains of Zion : for there 
the LORD commanded the blessing, even life for 

THIS Psalm contains an important doctrine, and an 
exhortation unto concord in the church, and also in 
the state ; and especially an exhortation unto unity 
in the Spirit ; concerning which Paul speaks, Phil, 
ii.; and also, it exhorts unto agreement in doctrine, 
and unto peace in general. Let the wise, the strong, 


and the holy, (the Psalmist would say,) bear with 
and support the simple, the weak-minded, and the 
infirm ; which is indicated and implied by the two 
similitudes of" ointment" and "dew." 

The Psalmist alludes to the priesthood and the 
kingdom. For divine harmony and agreement in the 
priesthood, or in the doctrine of the truth, is a great 
and lovely gift of God, and diffuseth a fragrance 
like precious ointment ; and this fragance descendeth 
or runneth down ; that is, unity in the doctrine of 
truth, runs down from the high priest Aaron, down 
his beard, and even unto the skirts of his clothing ; 
that is, down to all other teachers of the truth. 

And this "dew of Hermon" signifies literally that 
dew which revives the flower of Lebanon ; and, spi 
ritually, the concord of Lebanon ; that is, of Jerusa 
lem. For, as the natural dew fructifies Lebanon, and 
all the places near unto Lebanon, so concord in divine 
and spiritual things causes a kingdom to flourish and 

Wherever, therefore, concord in a state and in its 
church flourishes, there God dwells with all his 
grace and blessing ; but where there are dissensions, 
divisions, and discord, there is the dwelling of Satan. 


An exhortation to Ness God. 
A song of degrees. 

BEHOLD, bless ye the LORD, all ye servants of the 
LORD, which by night stand in the house of 
the LORD. 

Lift up your hands in the sanctuary, and bless the 


The LORD, that made heaven and earth, bless thee 
out of Zion. 

THIS again is a very short and brief Psalm, but it 
contains a most blessed doctrine. It teaches and 
exhorts priests and Levites, to perform the duties of 
their office diligently, and to be constant and careful 
in the worship of God ; that they be instant day and 
night in teaching and exhorting by the word ; as 
Paul exhorteth Timothy to the continual preaching 
of the word ; saying, " be instant in season and out of 
season." As if he had said, Be thou ever at the duty 
of thy office ; teach, exhort, rebuke ; exercise both 
thyself and others unto godliness by a constant 
preaching of the word ; and continue therein, even 
though some be turned unto fables, and others despise 

For where the pure word of God is not sought and 
learnt, there, most certainly, is no worship of God ; 
there, of necessity, perishes all true religion ; and 
there as surely perishes also, the good and prosperity 
of the nation ; which is certainly either deserted of 
God, or involved in darkness, errors, and the power 
of the Devil. But where the word of God continues 
in truth, and the scriptures are rightly set forth, there 
God gives his blessing. And although Satan will 
there greatly oppose himself to, and will afflict both 
the church and the state ; yet God, who made the hea 
vens and the earth, and who is therefore greater 
than all creatures and the Devil also, preserves that 
state and that church ; and, on account of their hold 
ing fast his name and his word, he saves them, even 
though they be ungrateful and unworthy of his sal 

Let all ministers, and preachers, and bishops 


therefore, know, that this Psalm, beginning " Behold, 
bless ye the Lord^all ye servants of the Lord," &c. 
pertains unto them ; teaching them to know that the 
highest worship of God is the preaching of the word; 
because, thereby are praised and celebrated the name 
and the benefits of Christ. 


An exhortation to praise God for his mercy, fur his power, for his judg 
ments. . The vanity of idols. An exhortation to bless God. 

PRAISE ye the LORD. Praise ye the name of the 

LORD ; praise him, O ye servants of the LORD. 
Ye that stand in the house of the LORD, in the 

courts of the house of our God, 
Praise the LORD ; for the LORD is good : sing 

praises unto his name ; for it is pleasant. 
For the LORD hath chosen Jacob unto himself, 

and Israel for his peculiar treasure. 
For I know that the LORD is great, and that our 

LORD is above all gods. 
Whatsoever the LORD pleased, that did he in 

heaven, and in earth, in the seas, and all deep 

He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends 

of the earth ; he maketb lightnings for the rain : 

he bringeth the wind out of his treasuries. 
Who smote the first-born of Egypt, both of man 

and beast. 
Who sent tokens and wonders into the midst of 

thee, O Egypt, upon Pharaoh, and upon all his 

Who smote great nations, and slew mighty kings ; 


Sihon king of the Amorites, and Og king of Ba- 

shan, and all the kingdoms of Canaan : 
And gave their land for an heritage, an heritage 

unto Israel his people. 
Thy name, O LORD, endureth for ever; and thy 

memorial, OLORD, throughout all generations. 
For the LORD will judge his people, and he will 

repent himself concerning his servants. 
The idols of the heathen are silver and gold, the 

work of men s hands. 
They have mouths, but they speak not ; eyes have 

they, but they see not; 
They have ears, but they hear not : neither is there 

any breath in their mouths. 
They that make them are like unto them: so is 

every one that trusteth in them. 
Bless the LORD, O house of Israel : bless the 

LORD, O house of Aaron : 
Bless the LORD, O house of Levi; ye that fear the 

LORD, bless the LORD. 
Blessed be the LORD out of Zion, which dwelteth 

at Jerusalem. Praise ye the LORD. 

THIS Psalm is a Psalm of thanksgiving; exhorting 
all priests and ministers of the word to preach and 
to praise God in his great and marvellous works, 
done in Egypt and in the land of Canaan, that the 
people might not forget God and his wonderful 
works, and be turned unto idols, and false kinds of 
worship ; which very soon takes place through se 
curity or contempt; where the word of God is not 
taught diligently and with a great willingness and 
fervor of heart ; as we have already seen in the 
preceding Psnlm. 

But where God judges a people; as the Psalmist 


sets it forth, verse 14 ; that is, when God by the mouth 
of his ministers, judges and condemns our sin ; 
there he manifests his grace unto us; there is a 
ground of firm consolation for afflicted consciences ; 
there God is found and known, (for he is found in 
no other places and doctrines than these! ) there, to 
a certainty, he will be propitious and merciful to his 
servant. But, where the word of God is not ; there 
God is silent; for where he doth not preach, he doth 
not judge ; and there, to a certainty, is the wrath of 
God and blindness. " Therefore," (as saith the 
Psalmist) " Praise ye the name of the Lord; praise 
him, all ye servants of the Lord : " that is, preach the 
word and explain it, with all diligence ; and pro 
claim the works of the Lord. 


An exhortation to give thanks to God for particular mercies. 

O GIVE thanks unto the LORD ; for he is good : for 

his mercy endureth for ever. 
O give thanks unto the God of gods : for his mercy 

endureth for ever. 
O give thanks to the LORD of lords : for his mercy 

endureth for ever. 
To him who alone doeth great wonders : for his 

mercy endureth for ever. 
To him that by w r isdom made the heavens : for his 

mercy endureth for ever. 
To him that stretched out the earth above the 

waters : for his mercy endureth for ever. 
To him that made great lights : for his mercy 

endureth for ever. 


The sun to rule by day : for his mercy endureth for 

The moon and stars to rule by night: for his 
mercy endureth for ever. 

To him that smote Egypt in their first-born : for 
his mercy endureth for ever. 

And brought out Israel from amongst them : for 
his mercy endureth for ever : 

With a strong hand, and with a stretched-out arm : 
for his mercy endureth for ever. 

To him which divided the Red Sea into parts : for 
his mercy endureth for ever: 

And made Israel to pass through the midst of it : 
for his mercy endureth for ever. 

But overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red 
Sea : for his mercy endureth for ever. 

To him which led his people through the wilder 
ness : for his mercy endureth for ever. 

To him which smote great kings: for his mercy 
endureth for ever : 

And slew famous kings: for his mercy endureth 
for ever. 

Sihon king of the Amorites : for his mercy en 
dureth for ever : 

And Og the king of Bashan : for his mercy en 
dureth for ever : 

And gave their land for an heritage : for his mercy 
endureth for ever : 

Even an heritage unto Israel his servant: for his 
mercy endureth for ever. 

Who remembered us in our low estate : for his 
mercy endureth for ever : 

And hath redeemed us from our enemies: for his 
mercy endureth for ever. 
2 A 


Who giveth food to all flesh : for his mercy en- 

dureth for ever. 
O give thanks unto the God of heaven : for his 

mercy endureth for ever. 

THIS Psalm is a blessed and general thanksgiving 
for the infinite, unspeakable, and never-failing mer 
cies of God, both with respect to the body and the 
soul. In this golden and glorious Psalm, the 
Psalmist s design is to embrace and set forth a sum- , 
mary, as it were, to all priests and ministers of the 
word; as a pattern for the subject matter of all 
sermons, exhortations, and Psalms to be delivered 
to the people : that all false and wicked doctrine 
might be avoided, and also all false worship of God ; 
and that God might be worshipped truly with that 
worship required by the first commandment of the 

For this ought to be the sum and substance of all 
true worship, "Let us praise the Lord, for he is 
good, for his mercy endureth for ever : " that is, 
praise, laud, and proclaim, without ceasing, the in 
finite largeness of his grace. Learn ye, from his 
word, that as he hath promised, so he is ever present 
with us, and continually bestows his blessings upon 
us; and that the riches of his goodness are bound 
less and inexhaustible. 

To fortify our hearts, therefore, against the devil, 
(whose whole aim and employment is to destroy in 
our hearts faith in God, and the knowledge of his 
goodness and mercy, and to cast us under doubting 
and sorrow,) the Psalmist repeats this holy sentence 
at the end of every verse " For his mercy endureth 
for ever : " by which words, so often repeated, 
the holy man wishes to impress and fix on our 


hearts the doctrine of grace and the worship of the 
first commandment : as if he had said, it is the 
infinite goodness of God, and not any human works 
or merits of your own, that has done all these won 
derful things for you. It is the pure and unspeakable 
greatness of God s goodness and grace, that pours 
forth all these things upon you, and therefore they 
are poured forth upon you freely and without any 
merit or deserving of yours, and even while you are 
wholly undeserving of such mercies. 

In this repeated expression also the Psalmist 
refers, after the manner of the prophets, to the 
promise of Christ to come ; for it was from no works 
of men, nor from any merit of theirs, that the promise 
of Christ was given unto Abraham, which said, ** In 
thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." 

Learn, thou, therefore, to rehearse and impress 
upon thine own heart, and on the hearts of others 
also, this repeated conclusion of each verse ; that it 
may be a bulwark for thee against the devil, wfro is 
ever maliciously jeering our temptations, and saying, 
that it is not the mercy of God, but his judgment, 
that " endureth for ever." Hypocrites and enthu 
siasts sing not, nor can sing, this blessed conclusion 
of the verses, " For his mercy endureth for ever/ 
They can only sing, For our goodness endureth for 
ever/ But do thou, Christian brother, hold fast this 
doctrine of a Davidical heart; the truly divine and 
heavenly doctrine of the remission of sins ; a re 
mission " enduring for ever," and which sin can 
never destroy ; which alone overcomes the devil and 
all errors, and which alone can give the conscience 
rest under all temptations, and the agonizing con 
flicts of death. 

2 A 2 



The constancy of the Jews in captivity. The prophet curseth Edom and 

BY the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down, yea, 
we wept, when we remembered Zion. 

We hanged our harps upon the willows in the 
midst thereof. 

For there they that carried us away captive re 
quired of ns a song ; and they that wasted us 
required of us mirth, saying, Sing us one of the 
songs of Zion. 

How shall we sing the LORD S song in a strange 

If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand 
forget her cunning. 

Tf I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave 
to the roof of my mouth ; if I prefer not Jeru 
salem above my chief joy. 

Remember, O LORD, the children of Edom in the 
day of Jerusalem ; who said, Rase it, rase it, even 
to the foundation thereof. 

O daughter of Babylon, who art to be destroyed ; 
happy shall he be, that rewardeth thee as thou 
hast served us. 

Happy shall he be, that taketh and dasheth thy 
little ones against the stones. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer in the persons of the captives 
of Babylon ; whether we understand it as having 
been written after the captivity, or before it in the 
way of prophecy. The captives here pray for the 


city of Jerusalem ; that is, for the place of the word 
and the worship of God ; for all these things had 
been destroyed by the Babylonians. 

This Psalm shows us that the first concern of all 
that fear and know God should be the preservation 
of a place for the ministration of the word, and for 
the true religion and true worship of God. For, as 
here, when Jerusalem is destroyed, Babylon and 
Edom, and all other wicked nations rejoice, and 
triumph over the grief and the tears of the people of 
God, which adds great bitterness to their afflictions. 
But such enemies shall never enjoy their triumph 
unpunished of God. They themselves shall be laid 
waste in their appointed time, and shall be utterly 
overthrown and laid in ruins and in ashes ; their 
flourishing youth shall be destroyed by the sword, 
their children shall be dashed against the stones, 
and neither age nor sex shall find mercy. But Israel 
and the people of God shall remain for evermore. 
In this manner fell Babylon, that queen of nations: 
and in the same manner also shall fall all the Baby 
lonians and Edomites in our day, who rejoice, like 
their forefathers, in the afflictions and calamities of 
the true church of God. 


David praiseth God for the truth of his word. He prophesieth that the 
kings of the earth shall praise God. He profeasath his confidence in 

A Psalm of David. 

I WILL praise thee with my whole heart: before 

the gods will I sing praise unto thee. 
I will worship toward thy holy temple, and praise 


thy name for thy Jovingkindness and for thy 

truth : for thou hast magnified thy word above 

all thy name. 
In the day when I cried thou answeredst me, and 

strengthenedst me with strength in my soul. 
All the kings of the earth shall praise thee, O 

LORD, when they hear the words of thy mouth. 
Yea, they shall sing in the ways of the LORD: for 

great is the glory of the LORD. 
Though the LORD be high, yet hath he respect 

unto the lowly : hut the proud he knowelh afar 

Though I walk in the midst of trouble, thou wilt 

revive me : thou shalt stretch forth thine hand 

against the wrath of mine enemies, and thy right 

hand shall save me. 
The LORD will perfect that which concern eth me : 

thy mercy, O LORD, endureth for ever : forsake 

not the work of thine own hands. 

THIS is a Psalm of general thanksgiving unto God 
for all his help against enemies : and it prays that 
the kingdom of Christ may come ; and it prophesies 
also that even kings and nations shall hear the gospel, 
shall render thanks unto God for the same, and shall 
know and worship him in truth ; and shall acknow 
ledge the eternal kingdom of Christ, namely, his 
exaltation over all things, and over every name that 
is named; and that he succours, helps, and saves 
humble, tempted, and afflicted sinners. 

In the conclusion of the Psalm, the Psalmist prays, 
" Forsake not the work of thine own hands ; " that is, 
Raise up, establish, and preserve this promised king 
dom of Christ, for the sake of which thou hast chosen 
this people. 



David praiseth God for his allseeing providence, and for his infinite 
mercies. He defieth the wicked. He prayethfor sincerity. 

To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. 

O LORD, thou hast searched me, and known me. 
Thou knovvest my downsitting and mine uprising, 

thou understandest my thought afar off. 
Thou compassest my path and my lying down, and 

art acquainted with all my ways. 
For there is not a word in my tongue, but, lo, O 

LORD, thou knowest it altogether. 
Thou hast beset me behind and before, and laid 

thine hand upon me. 
Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high, 

I cannot attain unto it. 
Whither shall 1 go from thy spirit? or whither 

shall I flee from thy presence? 
If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there : if I 

make my bed in hell, behold, thou art there. 
If I take the wings of the morning, and dwell in 

the uttermost parts of the sea ; 
Even there shall thy hand lead me, and thy right 

hand shall hold me. 
If I say, Surely the darkness shall cover me ; even 

the night shall be light above me. 
Yea, the darkness hideth not from thee ; but the 

night shineth as the day : the darkness and the 

light are both alike to thee. 

For thou hast possessed my reins : thou hast co 
vered me in my mother s womb. 
I will praise thee ; for I am fearfully and wonder- 


fully made : marvellous are thy works ; and that 

my soul knoweth right well. 
My substance was not hid from thee, when I was 

made in secret, and curiously wrought in the 

lowest parts of the earth. 
Thine eyes did see my substance, yet being un- 

perfect; and in thy book all my members were 

written, which in continuance were fashioned, 

when as yet there was none of them. 
How precious also are thy thoughts unto me, O 

God ! how great is the sum of them ! 
If I should count them, they are more in number 

than the sand: when I awake, I am still with 

Surely thou wilt slay the wicked, O God : depart 

from me, therefore, ye bloody men. 
For they speak against thee wickedly, and thine 

enemies take thy name in vain. 
Do not T hate them, O LORD, that hate thee ? and 

am not I grieved with those that rise up against 

thee ? 
I hate them with perfect hatred : I count them 

mine enemies. 
Search me, O God, and know my heart : try me, 

and know my thoughts : 
And see if there be any wicked way, and lead me 

in the way everlasting. 

THIS is a high and glorious Psalm of thanksgiving, 
wherein the Psalmist, with a marvellous fervour of 
spirit, touches on that all-high matter, God s pre 
destination of all things ; and proclaims that incom- 
prehensibleness of the divine wisdom and goodness, 
whereby, in a wonderful manner, he himself and all 
men, with all their affairs, all their works and all 


their thoughts, both the greatest and the least, were 
predestinated of God from everlasting. This mani 
fold wisdom of God is incomprehensible to flesh and 
blood ! 

" Thou, O Lord (saith the Psalmist) hast searched 
me out and known me ; thou knowest me altogether ; 
thou understandest my thoughts long before they 
are conceived by me. Wherever I move, whither 
soever I go, thou surroundest me on every side ; and 
being ever present with me, thou beholdest all my 
undertakings, and my works, and my ways, and all 
that I think of doing or undertaking. There is no 
speech, not even the least word, upon my tongue, but 
thou, O God, knowest it, before I utter it. Thine 
eyes beheld me, when yet imperfect in my mother s 
womb; and thou didst wonderfully form and fashion 
me there." And (ver. 6) the Psalmist exclaims, 
" Such knowledge is too high and wonderful ; no 
mortal thought can attain unto it." 

Here, it is as if the Psalmist had said, it is not in 
the capacity or powers of any mortal to think or de 
termine how he will lead his life, what he will un 
dertake, what he will do, what he will speak, what 
he will think, where he will go, or to, or from, or in 
what place he will turn ; but all our acts, motions, 
and thoughts, are nothing less than the works of God 
ever present with us, doing and ruling all things as 
he will. And hence (ver. 19.) he utters his indigna 
tion against the wicked ; saying, " Surely thou wilt 
slay the wicked, O God." Here he burns with zeal 
against hypocrites, who, being ignorant of all the 
works and words of God, and utterly blind and mad, 
ascribe all their doings to their own works and 

These mortals are perpetually putting forth and 


boasting of their own ability and works, and are ever 
relying on their own doings and merits, and ascrib 
ing unto themselves that glory which belongs to God 
alone ; whereas they have not one of their words in 
their own power, as of, or from, themselves ; but all 
their words and thoughts are in the hand of God. 
This glory, I say, they arrogate to themselves, when 
they are all the while so far from the wisdom of God 
and his divine works, that they neither know them 
selves nor any one part of themselves ; nor understand 
how they were formed or fashioned in the womb of 
their mother; nor what their own body is, nor what 
are its properties and organs; nor what their eyes 
are, nor what their brain is ; nor what the origin and 
nature of that motion is, by which their body is 
moved ; and, in a word, when they know not what the 
soul and this natural life are ; nor whence arise all 
those various motions and affections of the mind with 
in, nor how they are uttered outwards by the tongue. 

When, therefore, this whole that we are, and this 
all that we do, are not our own wisdom or doing, but 
God s ; and since we cannot comprehend these earthly 
things ; since, I say, we neither can know nor do 
any one of these earthly and corporal things, as of 
ourselves; how awful a sin is that enormous arro 
gance, whereby we profess that we have so much 
power in ourselves and in our free-will, that we can 
understand God, and do his divine and spiritual 
works, and deliver ourselves from sin, and death, 
and hell. 

Wherefore (ver. 20.) the Psalmist utters his holy 
indignation against such hypocrites and teachers of 
human works and doings ; saying, " Thine enemies 
speak blasphemously against thee, O Lord, and they 
are proud and lifted up against thee without cause. 


Guard thou me, and prove and try me, that I may 
continue in the right way ; the way that is true and 
eternal ; that is, in the way of the knowledge of the 
word of thy grace. 


David prayeth to be delivered from Saul and Doey. He prayeth against 
them. He comforteth himself by confidence in God. 

To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. 

DELIVER me, O LORD, from the evil man : preserve 
me from the violent man ; 

Which imagine mischiefs in their heart: continu 
ally are they gathered together/or war. 

They have sharpened their tongues like a serpent ; 
adders poison ? * under their lips. Selab. 

Keep me, O LORD, from the hands of the wicked ; 
preserve me from the violent man, who have pur 
posed to overthrow my goings. 

The proud have hid a snare for me, and cords : 
they have spread a net by the way-side : they 
have set gins for me. Selah. 

I said unto the LORD, Thou art my God : hear the 
voice of my supplications, O LORD. 

O GOD the LORD, the strength of my salvation; 
thou hast covered my head in the day of battle. 

Grant not, O LORD, the desires of the wicked; 
further not his wicked device, lest they exalt 
themselves. Selah. 

vis for the head of those that compass me about, 
let the mischief of their own lips cover them. 

Let burning coals fall upon them : let them be cast 


into the fire ; into deep pits, that they rise not 
up again. 

Let not an evil speaker be established in the 
earth: evil shall hunt the violent man to over 
throw him. 

I know that the LORD will maintain the cause of 
the afflicted, and the right of the poor. 

Surely the righteous shall give thanks unto thy 
name; the upright shall dwell in thy presence. 

THIS Psalm is an ardent prayer against those hypo 
crites, who not only cause many offences, and lay 
many nets and snares for them that go on the right 
way, but proceed with terrible threats and unceasing 
cruelty against all who will not approve and follow 
their errors and wicked ways. 

The Psalmist therefore here prays that God would 
be pleased to disappoint their counsels and purposes, 
and all the wicked plots which they form, and de 
vise, and to turn them on themselves and on their 
own heads ; that all these enemies of the people of 
God may perish with that horrible judgment with 
which Pharaoh perished in the Red Sea, who, being 
at the same time struck with lightning from heaven, 
and overwhelmed with the waves of the sea, was ut 
terly destroyed. 

This Psalm affords an abundant consolation to the 
godly; as the Psalmist sa : th in its conclusion, "The 
wicked shall fall into their own nets, whilst that I at 
all times escape." 



David prayeth that his suit may be acceptable, his conscience sincere, and 
his life safe from snares. 

A Psalm of David. 

LORD, I cry unto thee : make haste unto me; give 

ear unto my voice, when I cry unto thee. 
Let my prayer be set forth before thee a* incense ; 

and the lifting up of my hands as the evening 

Set a watch, O LORD, before my mouth ; keep the 

door of my lips. 
Incline not my heart to any evil thing, to practise 

wicked works with men that work iniquity : and 

let me not eat of their dainties. 
Let the righteous smite me ; it shall be a kindness : 

and let him reprove me ; it shall be an excellent 

oil, which shall not break my head : for yet my 

prayer also shall be in their calamities. 
When their judges are overthrown in stony places, 

they shall hear my words ; for they are sweet. 
Our bones are scattered at the grave s mouth, as 

when one cutteth and cleaveth wood upon the 

But mine eyes are unto thee, O GOD the Lord : in 

thee is my trust ; leave not my soul destitute. 
Keep me from the snares which they have laid for 

me, and the gins of the workers of iniquity. 
Let the wicked fall into their own nets, whilst that 

I withal escape. 

THIS Psalm also is a fervent prayer, wherein the 


Psalmist prays to be delivered from wicked teachers, 
who pretend to speak of peace, and craftily use soft 
and flattering words, after they have found that they 
can prevail nothing by terrors and threats. " Let the 
righteous," saith he, " smite me : " that is, I had 
rather that true and faithful teachers should rebuke 
and condemn me, and reprove my ways, than that 
hypocrites should flatter me and applaud me as a 

And farther, (saith the Psalmist) although I suffer 
affliction for the sake of that true and sound doctrine 
to which I cleave, and though, by afflictions returning 
again and again, my bones be broken in pieces and 
scattered like clods of earth before the penetrating 
and dividing plough ; yet I had rather be reproved 
and smitten by godly and true teachers, and so ac 
knowledge my sin, and rest upon the promise of God, 
than hear all the flattering words of those hypocrites 
who deceive themselves and others ; and who pretend 
to have peace with God, when there is no such peace 
unto them. For all such teachers and their hypo 
crisies shall be hurled, as it were, from a mighty 
precipice, and they shall suddenly be dashed to 
pieces and shall perish together ; their glory shall be 
hurried into confusion, and their end shall be utter 
destruction ; and then it shall appear how bitter 
their pleasing doctrine is. 


David sheweth that in his trouble all his comfort was in prayer unto God. 
Maschil of David ; a Prayer when he was in the cave. 

I CRIED unto the LORD with my voice : with my 
voice unto the LORD did I make my supplication. 


I poured out my complaint before him : I shewed 

before him my trouble. 
When my spirit was overwhelmed within me, then 

thou knewest my path ; in the way wherein I 

walked have they privily laid a snare for me. 
I looked on my right hand, and beheld, but there 

was no man that would know me ; refuge failed 

me; no man cared for my soul. 
I cried unto thee, O LORD : I said, Thou art my 

refuge, and my portion in the land of the living. 
Attend unto my cry ; for I am brought very low : 

deliver me from my persecutors : for they are 

stronger than I. 
Bring my soul out of prison, that I may praise thy 

name : the righteous shall compass me about ; 

for thou shall deal bountifully with me. 

THIS Psalm is a prayer ; wherein the Psalmist, being 
now surrounded with peril on every side, cries unto 
God out of prison, as it were, by reason of the great 
cruelty and malice of false teachers, who persecuted 
him on account of the word. 

As the people of Israel were a stiff-necked people, 
their Cainish malice and bitterness had so hardened 
them, that they stoned, rejected, and killed the true 
prophets, on account of their preaching of the word, 
and maintaining the true worship of God ; and had 
given themselves up to hypocrisy and idolatry ; and 
all this, their histories of them testify ; as does Christ 
also, (Matt, xxiii.) and Stephen. (Acts vii.) 

Hence, as these things were fully known, so we 
find most of the Psalms grievously complaining of 
the cruel malice of false prophets and hypocrites. 
And just in the same way, from the very beginning, 
hypocrites and false teachers have afflicted the true 


church of God ; and the true saints in all ages found 
it necessary to cry unto God continually, against all 
such hypocrites and Cainish pretenders to saintship. 
All this is abundantly testified by the histories of 
the times of Elijah and king Ahab and Jezebel ; when 
all the true prophets of the Lord were compelled to 
flee and to hide themselves, to escape the furious 
cruelty of these adversaries ; all which histories might 
have been adduced as examples in this Psalm. And 
the recent times of the Arian heresy afford also a 
plain example of the same persecution and malice, 
when all the catholic bishops were compelled to 
flee ; for Satan neither can nor will endure the pure 
word of God ! 


David prayeth for favour in judgment He complaineth of hisyriefs. 
He strenytheneth his faith by meditation and prayer. He prayeth for 
grace, for deliverance, for sanct ification, for destruction of his enemies, 

A Psalm of David. 

HEAR my prayer, O LORD; give ear to my sup 
plications : in thy faithfulness answer me, and 
in thy righteousness. 

And enter not into judgment with thy servant : for 
in thy sight shall no man living be justified. 

For the enemy hath persecuted my soul ; he hath 
smitten my life down to the ground : he hath 
made me to dwell in darkness, as those that hath 
been long dead. 

Therefore is my spirit overwhelmed within me : 
my heart within me is desolate. 

I remember the days of old ; I meditate on all thy 
works : I muse on the work of thy hands. 


I stretch forth my hands unto thee : my soul 
thirsteth after thee, as a thirsty land. Selah. 

Hear me speedily, O LORD ; my spirit faileth : 
hide not thy face from me, lest I be like unto 
them that go down into the pit. 

Cause me to hear thy loving-kindness in the morn 
ing ; for in thee do I trust : cause me to know 
the way wherein I should walk ; for I lift up my 
soul unto thee.. 

Deliver me, O LORD, from mine enemies : I flee 
unto thee to hide me. 

Teach me to do thy will ; for thou art my God : 
thy Spirit is good ; lead me into the land of up 

Quicken me, O LORD, for thy name s sake : for thy 
righteousness sake bring my soul out of trouble. 

And of thy mercy cut off mine enemies, and destroy 
all them that afflict my soul : for I am thy ser 

THIS is a prayer, expressing the deep feelings of an 
afflicted and agonizing conscience. The Psalmist, 
being in the midst of the sense and peril of sin, and 
terrified at the judgment of God, begs of God not to 
enter into judgment with him, and firmly cleaves to 
the promise of mercy, and of the remission of sins. 
He complains, on the other hand, of hypocrites and 
teachers of the law and of works ; by means of whom, 
as his instruments, the devil terribly harasses the 
godly, and loads them with various trials and straits 
of mind and conscience, and endeavours to draw 
them away from the certainty of the divine promise 
unto doubt ; in which state, consciences are horribly 
shaken with fear and darkness, and the dread of the 
wrath of an unappeased God. 
2 B 


" The enemy," saith David, " hath persecuted my 
soul ; he hath made me to dwell in darkness, as those 
that have been long dead ; therefore my spirit is over 
whelmed within me." Here David refers to those 
straits into which consciences are cast by those who 
lay upon them burdens too heavy to be borne, (as 
Christ saith concerning the Pharisees, Matt, xxiii.) 
And yet will not so much as touch them with one of 
their fingers. And hence this Psalm blessedly shows 
that there is no sure or solid consolation for con 
sciences, save for those who depend on the promise 
of the free remission of sins, and on the word of God s 
grace: "Enter not," saith David, " into judgment 
with thy servant, O Lord, for in thy sight shall no 
man living be justified. 

That afflicted hearts and consciences can find rest 
in no other way than this, all the scriptural histories 
bear witness. All the holy patriarchs, from the be 
ginning of the world, were justified before God by 
the free, unmerited imputation of righteousness, 
and not by their own works ; as Peter also testifies 
(Acts xv.) concerning the law, " Why tempt ye God ; 
to lay upon us a yoke which neither we nor our 
fathers were able to bear. But we believe that by 
the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, we shall be Scived, 
as they." 

" I remember," says David again, " the days of old, 
I meditate on the works of thy hands ; " as if he had 
added, By these, thy works from the beginning, I 
comfort and support myself in all my temptations : 
for all the great saints from the beginning were 
saved, not by any merit of their own righteousness, 
but by grace alone : they were delivered from sin 
and from the wrath of God, by faith in Christ the 
promised seed : as Abraham also w r as, by the same 


grace of God in Christ, called out of idolatry/ Joshua 
xxiv. 2, 3. 

Therefore God leaves here no ground for any mor 
tal s boasting in his own works and merits : and yet, 
by this doctrine of works Satan hath never ceased to 
distress and tornrent consciences, contrary to the 
manifest words and works of God. 


David blesseth God for his mercy both to Mm and to man. He prayeth 
that God would powerfully deliver him from his enenfes. Hepromiseth 
to praise God. He prayeth for the happy state of the kingdom. 

A Psalm of David. 

BLESSED be the LORD my strength, which teacheth 

my hands to war, and my fingers to fight : 
My goodness, and my fortress; my high tower, 

and my deliverer ;< my shield, and he in whom I 

trust ; who subdueth my people under me. 
LORD, what is man, that thou takest knowledge 

of him ! or the son of man, that thou makest 

account of him ! 
Man is like to vanity : his days are as a shadow 

that passeth away. 
Bow thy heavens, O LORD, and come down : touch 

the mountains, and they shall smoke. 
Cast forth lightning, and scatter them : shoot out 

thine arrows and destroy them. 
Send thine hand from above ; rid me, and deliver 

me out of great waters, from the hand of strange 

children ; 
Whose mouth speaketh vanity, and their right 

hand is a right hand of falsehood. 

2 B 2 


I will sing a new song unto thee, O God : upon a 
psaltry and an instrument of ten strings will I 
sing praises unto thee. 

It is he that giveth salvation unto kings : who de- 
livereth David his servant from the hurtful 

Rid me, and deliver me from the hand of strange 
children, whose mouth speaketh vanity, and 
their right hand is a right hand of falsehood : 

That our sons may be as plants grown up in their 
youth ; that our daughters may be as corner 
stones,. polished after the similitude of a palace : 

That our garners may be full, affording all manner 
of store : that our sheep may bring forth thou 
sands and ten thousands in our streets : 

That our oxen may be strong to labour ; that there 
be no breaking in, nor going out; that there be 
no complaining in our streets. 

Happy is that people that is in such a case : yea f 
happy is that people whose God is the LORD. 

THIS is a blessed Psalm of thanksgiving for kings, 
princes, and all magistrates. David here, as a king 
and a magistrate himself, who had to govern the 
state and carry on wars, confesses that all prosperous 
and happy government, all success at home and 
abroad, all the arts of peace, and all victory in war, 
are the good gifts of God ; and that a man can no 
more effect these things by human wisdom or 
strength, or by any ability of his own, than he can 
hold the millions of minds of nations bound unto 
himself, and make their multitudes obey him alone : 
for what could any mortal man do towards preserv 
ing whole kingdoms, and cities, and provinces in 
quiet from sedition and commotions amid all the 


infinite malice of the devil and the world? Every 
mortal man would fail, like a vanishing shadow, 
before the thought of such an undertaking. 

But the God of all majesty, as Isaiah saith, is the 
Lord of all the kingdoms and kings of the earth. 
He, as Daniel saith, removes and establishes king 
doms. That monarch of heaven and earth also 
taketh down one king and sitteth up another. And 
he it is, who, in the time of peace, curbs the wills 
and holds the minds of the multitude, and stills all 
civil commotions like the waves of the sea, against 
all the raised winds of the devil. And it is the same 
God also, who, in the time of war, terrifieth the 
enemies of a nation, and maketh their hearts to 
tremble, when he thunders in the heavens, when he 
touches the mountains and great hills of nations 
and of peoples : he is terrible ; and who can stand 
before him? When he strikes the hearts of the enemy 
with fear, it is easy for us to conquer. But what 
human wisdom or power can strike this terror, or do 
or ordain such mighty things ? 

David then prays against the deeds of his own 
people, and rebukes their ungodliness. The Israelites, 
because they had that especial honour and glory of 
being the people of God, were above all people of a 
stiff-neck ; proud, seditious, avaricious, envious, un 
believing, and disobedient ; and all these things they 
manifested in their conduct to Moses, to David him 
self, and to other godly kings. And although they 
saw David, in the same manner as Moses before 
him, with the manifest presence of God, and with 
great and divine miracles, governing the state, and 
conducting wars successfully, in the midst of the as 
saults of enemies on every side ; yet falling into 
pride and security, from a confidence in their high 


title, as the people of God ; they showed themselves to 
be no better than those of their forefathers, of whom 
Moses saith, "Ye have always been a rebellious 
and stiff-necked people before the Lord, from the 
day that I first knew you." For the people of David 
were carnally affected and ungodly; and were as if 
they had said, Command, and command again, if 
thou wilt ; expect, and expect still ; and why dost 
thou preach unto us faith, whereas we all the while 
continue in affliction ? Those whom God favors, 
and to whom he shows mercy, he blesses : to them 
he gives wives, children, riches, houses, lands, and 
all things, and happiness in all things ; and happy are 
the people that are in such a case/ Nor were false 
prophets wanting, to dwell upon temporal promises in 
their preaching, and to withstand the true prophets; 
denying that those were the favorites of God who 
were not blessed with temporal prosperities; and 
saying that all the saints of God were so blessed. 

Against these, therefore, David now most fer 
vently prays, and encourages himself in heart and 
in faith by his past experiences of God s mercies 
and deliverances. " If, (saith David,) thou hast 
aforetime delivered me from the sword of Goliath, 
and hast given me the victory, as thou hast done also 
unto other kings ; so now defend me from this un 
godly, hardened, and unbelieving people; who neither 
regard God nor his civil ministers; who care not 
with what evils a good king is surrounded in his 
government, nor what perils of war prevail, nor 
what blessings of peace are enjoyed ; but are an 
ignosant and unfeeling herd; the very dregs and 
sink of men : yea, very swine, who regard nothing 
but their bell} ; whom it is more difficult to rule, 
than to conduct the most fierce and perilous wars, 


Exactly like unto these are some of our nobles and 
citizens and countrymen now ; who, for the sake of 
their belly, trample and spit upon all true religion 
and good learning ; and indeed on all things human 
and divine. 

David here attacks these ungodly ones with a 
most severe rebuke ; calling them " strange child 
ren ; " hereby cutting up that glorying of theirs, 
wherein they boasted of being the children of Abra 
ham, and the peculiar people of God : and yet were 
all the while worse than any heathen nation, and 
were false children and strangers ; for they honoured 
God with their mouth and with their lips, while their 
heart was far from him. 


David praiseth God for his fame, for his goodness, for his kingdom, for 
his providence, for his saving mercy. 

David s Psalm of praise. 

I WILL extol thee, my God, O king ; and I will 

bless thy name for ever and ever. 
Every day will I bless thee; and I will praise thy 

name for ever and ever. 
Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised ; and 

his greatness is unsearchable. 
One generation shall praise thy works to another, 

and shall declare thy mighty acts. 
I will speak of the glorious honour of thy majesty, 

and of thy wondrous works. 
And men shall speak of the might of thy terrible 

acts : and I will declare thy greatness. 
They shall abundantly utter the memory of thy 


great goodness, and shall sing of thy righteous 
The LORD is gracious and full of compassion ; 

slow to anger, and of great mercy. 
The LORD is good to all and his tender mercies 

are over all his works. 
All thy works shall praise thee, O LORD ; and thy 

saints shall bless thee. 
They shall speak of the glory of thy kingdom, and 

talk of thy power ; 
To make known to the sons of men his mighty 

acts, and the glorious majesty of his kingdom. 
Thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and thy 

dominion endureth throughout all generations. 
The LORD upholdeth all that fall, and raiseth up 

all those that be bowed down. 
The eyes of all wait upon thee ; and thou givest 

them their meat in due season. 
Thou openest thine hand, and satisfiest the desire 

of every living thing. 
The LORD is righteous in all his ways, and holy in 

all his works. 
The LORD t* nigh unto all them that call upon 

him, to all that call upon him in truth. 
He will fulfil the desire of them that fear him : he 

also will hear their cry, and will save them. 
The LORD preserveth all them that love him : but 

all the wicked will he destroy. 
My mouth jshall speak the praise of the LORD : 

and let all flesh bless his holy name for ever 

and ever. 

THIS is a very blessed Psalm of thanksgiving for the 
kingdom and dominion of Christ, which God was about 
to raise up among the people of Israel : for it was 


on account of Christ, that this whole people was from 
the beginning chosen out of all other nations; and on 
account of Christ also that the law was given unto 
them, and the whole Mosaic worship established. 

This Psalm also most especially urges forward that 
highest and most excellent of all works, the peculiar 
and most glorious worship of God, which the first 
table of the decalogue demands ; that is, the sacri 
fice of praise. The Psalmist in the most exalted 
expressions proclaims the power of God, and his 
infinite mercy ; which is above all his works. 

The whole Psalm presents to us a wonderful dis 
play of the eloquence of the Holy Spirit; setting 
forth, by a great depth of feeling, and by a luxuriant 
abundance of words and expressions, the glorious 
height of the worship of God embraced in these 
words of the first commandment of the decalogue, 
"I AM THE LORD THY GOD!" And the Psalm 
prays that men may acknowledge the kingdom of 
Christ, " That thy power/ says David, " may be 
known unto men, and the glorious majesty of thy 
kingdom : " that is, that it may be known by the 
gospel, that there is no other deliverance from the 
power of the devil, and from sin and eternal death, 
than by faith in the word of thy mercy and grace, 
given unto us in Jesus Christ. 

The power and kingdom of Christ lies hidden 
under the outward appearance of the cross and of 
weakness ; and the word of the gospel is a con 
temptible doctrine with the wise and powerful of 
the world ; for " the gospel," as Paul saith, "is the 
wisdom of God hidden in a mystery." And again, 
saith he, " Christ crucified, is, unto the Jews, a 
stumbling-block, and unto the Greeks foolishness." 
But when this kingdom is, by the preaching of the 


word, and by the teaching and the confession of the 
saints, made known before the world, it is proved 
to be the kingdom of God and the power of God. 

That which the Psalmist saith, (verse 14) pertains 
especially unto the kingdom of Christ, which is a 
kingdom that "upholdeth all that fall, and lifteth 
up all them that are down ; " for Christ is the king 
of the afflicted, of the poor, of the fallen ,- and the 
king who justifies sinners and raises the dead: by 
whom God is reconciled unto us, and hears us as a 
father; fulfilling the desire of them that fear him, 
and feeding and clothing us whom the world hateth, 
and guarding and defending us against the gates 
of hell. 

From a worshipping admiration therefore, of the 
largeness of the grace of God, the Psalmist breaks 
out into this fervent wish and prayer, " and let all 
flesh bless his holy name ; " as if he had said, the 
blessings and riches of the kingdom of Christ are 
immense and unsearchable ; as Paul also saith, 
" Thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gift." 


The Psalmist votveth perpetual praises to God. He exhorteth not to 
trust in man, God, for his power, justice, mercy, and eingdom, is only 
worthy to be trusted. 

PRAISE ye the LORD. Praise the LORD, O my 

While I live will I praise the LORD: T will sing 

praises unto my God while I have any being. 
Put not your trust in princes, nor in the son of 

man, in whom there is no help. 


His breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth ; 

in that very day his thoughts perish. 
Happy is he that hath the God of Jacob for his 

help, whose hope is in the LORD his God : 
Which made heaven, and earth, the sea, and all 

that therein is; which keepeth truth for ever : 
Which executeth judgment for the oppressed : 

which giveth food to the hungry. The LORD 

looseth the prisoners : 
The LORD openeth the eyes of the blind : the LORD 

raiseth them that are bowed down : the LORD 

loveth the righteous : 
The LORD preserveth the strangers; he relieveth 

the fatherless and widow : but the way of the 

wicked he turneth upside down. 
The LORD shall reign for ever, even thy God, Q 

Zion, unto all generations. Praise ye the LORD. 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving ; and it contains a 
blessed doctrine ; namely, that we ought to trust in 
God, who alone can defend ; and who does defend 
faithfully all those that trust in him, and all those 
whom the world hates and casts out. And the Psalm 
shows, that we ought not to trust in any man, not 
even in kings or princes, nor in the mighty, nor 
in the rich, as the world do. For (as the Psalmist 
saith) " it is God alone that can mightily and glo 
riously deliver out of affliction , " and all trust in 
man is deceitful and vain ; for (to say nothing 
about the vanity of such trust in all other par 
ticulars) no man knowetfi any thing certain respect 
ing his own life ! 



The Prophet exhorteth to praise God for his care of the church, his 
power, and his mercy : to praise him for his providence :to praise 
him for his blessings upon the kingdom, for his power over the meteors, 
and for his ordinances in the church. 

PRAISE ye the LORD : for it is good to sing praises 

unto our God ; for it is pleasant, and praise is 

The LORD doth build up Jerusalem: he gathereth 

together the outcasts of Israel. 
He healeth the broken in heart, and bindeth up 

their wounds. 
He telleth the number of the stars ; he calleth 

them all by their names. 

Great is our LORD, and of great power : his under 
standing is infinite. 
The LORD lifteth up the meek : he casteth the 

wicked down to the ground. 
Sing unto the Lord with thanksgiving : sing praise 

upon the harp unto our God : 
Who covereth the heaven with clouds, who pre- 

pareth rain for the earth, who maketh grass to 

grow upon the mountains. 
He giveth to the beast his food, and to the young 

ravens which cry. 
He delighteth not in the strength of the horse : he 

taketh not pleasure in the legs of a man. 
The LORD taketh pleasure in them that fear him, 

in those that hope in his mercy. 
Praise the LORD, O Jerusalem ; praise thy God, 

O Zion. 


For he hath strengthened the bars of thy gates ; 

he hath blessed thy children within thee. 
He maketh peace in thy borders, and filleth thee 

with the finest of the wheat. 
He sendeth forth his commandment upon earth : 

his word runneth very swiftly. 
He giveth snow like wool: he scattereth the hoar 
frost like ashes. - 
He casteth forth his ice like morsels : who can 

stand before his cold? 
He sendetli out his word, and melteth them : he 

causeth his wind to blow, and the waters flow. 
He sheweth his word unto Jacob, his statutes and 

his judgments unto Israel. 
He hath not dealt so with any nation : and as for 

his judgments, they have not known them. 

Praise ye the LORD. 

THIS is a very blessed Psalm of thanksgiving for 
the various unequalled and infinite mercies and 
gifts of God. 

In the first place, it thanks him for that especial 
mercy his regarding in, and miraculously delivering 
out of, afflictions, the nations of Israel, his peculiar 
people, and the city of Jerusalem, though placed in 
the midst of Gentile enemies. 

In the next place, it blesses God for that great 
and unspeakable mercy, his giving throughout all 
the earth, to the godly and to the ungodly, to the 
grateful and to the ungrateful, all necessary food 
and gladness of heart, as Paul saith, Acts xiv. 17, 
" Filling the hearts of men with food and glad 

And more especially the Psalmist renders thanks 
unto God for his refreshing, reviving, and comforting 


with his consolations, the hearts of the godly when 
distressed and weakened by the devil, and burnt 
up, as it were, by the greatness of the temptations ; 
and for helping them in all times of their tempta 
tion, affliction, and labour. 

Again, it thanks him for giving rain from heaven 
and fruitful seasons, both unto the evil and unto the 
good ; and for giving food unto man and unto all 
the beasts of the earth ; even so, that he suffereth 
not even the ravens to hunger. 

And above all, the Psalmist gives thanks unto 
God, because he hears and regards the godly, who 
call upon him ; and that, especially in Jerusalem ; 
which is the place of his name and of his word ; 
and because he giveth Jerusalem, his city, civil 
peace, and a happy state of government. 

Further, the Psalmist praises God for health of 
body and his blessing therein, and for the good 
bringing up of children, and domestic order and 
prosperity. And also for defence against all out 
ward enemies, and for the preservation of the 
boundaries of their land, and for national peace 
and happiness. And, finally, he blesses God for 
the richness and fertility of the land of Judah, and 
for the abundance of its fruits. 

The chosen people of God, and the elect places 
of his Zion have the privilege, above all other na 
tions, of being blessed with the word and the worship 
of God. Wherefore they, above all others, show 
forth the works of God and his wonders among the 
people. And all the creatures of God, and his daily 
wonders, and blessings of rain, snow, dew, frost, 
&c. are more clearly known where his word and 
worship are, than among idolatrous nations, who 
have neither the prophets, nor the Spirit, nor the 


word, nor see his worlcs, though they daily enjoy 
his creatures and all his heavenly gifts and mercies ; 
on all which abundant gifts and mercies they feed 
like swine ; for as they are ignorant of the word, 
they are altogether ignorant of God. 


The Psalmist exhorteth the celestial, the terrestrial, and the rational 
creatures to praise God. 

PRAISE ye the LORD. Praise ye the LORD from the 

heavens : praise him in the heights. 
Praise ye him, all his angels : praise ye him, all his 

Praise ye him, sun and moon : praise him, all ye 

stars of light. 
Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters 

that be above the heavens. 
Let them praise the name of the LORD : for he 

commanded, and they were created. 
He hath also stablished them for ever and ever : 

he hath made a decree which shall not pass. 
Praise the LORD from the earth, ye dragons, and 

all deeps : 
Fire and hail ; snow and vapour ; stormy wind 

fulfilling his word: 
Mountains, and all hills; fruitful trees, and all 

cedars : 
Beasts, and all cattle ; creeping things, and flying 

fowl : 
Kings of the earth, and all people; princes, and 

all judges of the earth : 


Both young men and maidens ; old men and chil 

Let them praise the name of the LORD : for his 
name alone is excellent ; his glory is above the 
earth and heaven. 

He also exalteth the horn of his people, the 
praise of all his saints ; even of the children of 
Israel, a people near unto him. Praise ye the 

THIS is a Psalm of thanksgiving; wherein the Psalm 
ist calls upon, and exhorts all creatures, both in 
heaven and in earth, to praise God ; calling more 
especially on his saints, the children of Israel, among 
whom is the word and the worship of God. 

In this Psalm you may remark this blessed doc 
trine, that all orders of men, all kinds of life, which 
are created of God, are good, that is, kings, magis 
trates, judges, young men, old men, &c. For if to 
hold the office of a magistrate and to hear and judge 
causes were of itself wicked, then such magistrates 
could not call upon and praise God, nor would the 
Holy Spirit exhort them in this Psalm to that praise 
of God. And where there are magistrates and laws, 
kings and princes, there also there are subjects, town- 
sergeants and constables. And there also there must 
be artificers in the cities, and men-servants and maid 
servants, and countrymen, and soldiers, &c. And, 
again, where there are young men and old men, there 
are also wives and children, and so whole families 
and households. 

All these things are good and holy gifts of God, 
and by no means to be condemned or refused, as 
the pope blasphemously saith they are. All these 
things, moreover, show that their all-high and AI- 

PSALM CXLVni. 385 

mighty Creator is good ; and that all these his good 
creatures ought to speak his praise, to sound it forth 
with thousands of tongues, and to celebrate this 
infinite goodness and the countless and unspeakable 
mercies of God ! 

If, therefore, thou desirest, contrary to the blas 
phemous doctrine of the pope, and all like him, to 
know how supremely good all the creatures of God 
are, from the least of them even to the greatest of 
them ; then, suppose to thyself that one of these crea 
tures, out of the universal whole, were deficient or 
wanting, for one short moment; suppose there were 
no fire or no sun for a moment s space even ; suppose 
there were no women, no infantine offspring ; sup 
pose, I say, any deficiency of this kind: by this 
thought thou wilt immediately feel that no one can 
sufficiently praise God, even for one of his creatures ? 
And how many creatures has he formed ! What 
worlds of goodness has he created ! 


The prophet exhorteth to praise God for his love to the church, and for 
that power which he hath given to the church. 

PRAISE ye the LORD. Sing unto the LORD a new 

song, and his praise in the congregation of 

Let Israel rejoice in him that made him : let the 

children of Zion be joyful in their King. 
Let them praise his name in the dance : let 

them sing praises unto him with the timbrel and 

For the LORD taketh pleasure in his people : he 

will beautify the meek with salvation. 



Let the saints be joyful in glory : let them sing 
aloud upon their beds. 

Let the high praises of God be in their mouth, and 
a two-edged sword in their hand ; 

To execute vengeance upon the heathen, and pun 
ishments upon the people ; 

To bind their kings with chains, and their nobles 
with fetters of iron ; 

To execute upon them the judgment written : 
this honour have all his saints. Praise ye the 

THIS Psalm is also a Psalm of thanksgiving for that 
infinite goodness of God, his being merciful to his 
people ; and for assuring them, by his word, and by 
his promises of his good will towards them ; and that 
he will hear them, regard them, and have mercy 
upon them. To which immense goodness of God, 
no thanks of his people can be equal. And that 
treasure of mercy, which is greater than the whole 
world unto afflicted consciences, that God freely 
promises to his people his blessing, in the seed of 
Abraham, and the remission of sins; and does not 
regard their unworthiness in the gift; that trea 
sure of mercy, I say, is greater than the mind of man 
is capable of conceiving. 

This Psalm, therefore, (if we may so speak) is pro 
perly a Psalm of the New Testament. Hence the 
Psalmist saith, " Sing unto the Lord a new song: " 
showing that all praise is to be sung unto the king 
of Israel and of Zion ; whom all ought to laud with 
rejoicing, " upon their beds : " that is, in the churches 
and temples where they meet for worship ; as the 
prophet Isaiah also mentions their temples, their 
altars, their beds, and their couches, where Israel 

PSALM CL. 387 

committed fornication ; that is, worshipped their 

And that also pertains to the New Testament where 
the Psalmist saith, And a two-edged sword in their 
hand, to execute vengeance on the heathen, and to 
bind their kings with chains." This is not to be un 
derstood simply of the Jews or of the Mahometans, 
with respect to any earthly tyranny ; but this is the 
vengeance promised in the scriptures ; which the 
seed of Abraham, that is, the Israelites and the apos 
tles, should execute by the sword of the Spirit, by 
which they should destroy idolatry in so many na 
tions, and should put to shame the wisdom of the 
whole world, as the apostle Paul saith. 2 Cor. x. 


An exhortation to praise God with all kinds of instruments. 

PRAISE ye the LORD. Praise God in his sanc 
tuary : praise him in the firmament of his 

Praise him for his mighty acts: praise him ac 
cording to his excellent greatness. 

Praise him with the sound of the trumpet: praise 
him with the psaltery and harp. 

Praise him with the timbrel and dance : praise 
him with stringed instruments and organs. 

Praise him upon the loud cymbals: praise him 
upon the high sounding cymbals. 

Let every thing that hath breath praise the LORD. 
Praise ye the LORD. 

THIS is a Psalm of praise, written for the people of 
2 c 2 

388 PSALM CL. 

Israel, (to praise God in his holiness, or in his sanc 
tuary) : that is, to praise him for that infinite and 
unequalled mercy, of erecting his sanctuary, his 
tabernacle, his ark, his mercy-seat among the Israel 
ites; and thereby making Jerusalem the place of his 
dwelling. For God dwelt in that place, the city of 
Jerusalem, as in the heaven of his habitation. Hence 
other prophets call that people " the heavens," and 
the place of the habitation, of the name, and of the 
word of God. Because the presence, the power, and 
the majesty of God are there, where he manifests 
himself forth by his acts and his wonderful works. 

The Psalmist then mentions many musical instru 
ments, which were used by the people of Israel in 
their worship, according to the appointed ceremonies 
of the Levitical worship and priesthood. But among 
Christians and the people of the New Testament, the 
trumpet, psaltery, the harp, the timbrels, are the gospel 
itself in the ministration of the word. 



I WOULD, in conclusion, have all godly souls (whom 
Satan, without ceasing, harasses with temptations,) 
to bear in mind that all the laudatory Psalms, or 
Psalms of thanksgiving, are also promises of God, 
designed to lift up, to sustain, and to refresh af 
flicted consciences, and to furnish them with argu 
ments against the devil ; assuring them that God is 
the God of peace, of life, of consolation, and not the 
God of misery, cruelty, and damnation. For when 
David and other saints thus joyfully, and with all 
possible abundance of expression, praise God, they 
thereby show forth unto all the afflicted, that God 
never forsakes his own in their temptations, but 
pities all such ; and that he gives them breathing- 
times in their conflicts, succours them in their dis 
tresses, beholds their contrite hearts, gives them in 
due time an end of their afflictions, delivers them 
from all evils, and oft-times most sweetly and mar 
vellously comforts them. 

Wherefore, every thanksgiving in the Psalms, is 
at the same time, a promise of grace, and a sweet 
doctrine to the tempted and the afflicted : because 
thereby is sho\qi, by the example of David and of 
others, that God regardeth the afflicted, heareth all 
that call upon him, and giveth peace unto them in 
all the various afflictions under which they labour. 

Learn thou well then how to gather, throughout 
the book of Psalms, the blessed argument against 


the devil, contained in the words, " PRAISE YE THE 
LORD!" It was this that comforted David himself 
while praising God : for they are not the dead that 
praise the Lord, nor they that are swallowed up of 
sorrow, nor they that go down into hell ! 

As therefore God ceaseth not, during this short 
and momentous life, to try and prove his church, by 
causing her to undergo these many and great offences, 
temptations, and afflictions, and these most bitter 
hatreds of Satan and of the word; so he will, as 
surely, most marvellously and excellently comfort 
her from heaven, and deliver her, and save her! 

All, therefore, that believe, how many soever they 
be, and how many or great soever their afflictions, 
are ever lifted up by the consolations of God. And 
hence God will comfort us also, and all saints ; and 
he will open our mouths to praise him ; that Satan 
may be confounded in all his devices and in all his 
works, and that Jesus Christ, the Lord our God, 
may be glorified ! who, with the Father and the 
Holy Spirit, liveth and reigneth, One God, blessed 
for evermore. Amen. 




BEHOLD, we here present unto thee, good Reader, 
the summary Commentary of Doctor Martin Luther, 
collected from his mouth by those that heard him, 
with all possible care and diligence. We could 
scarcely obtain leave from the holy author to edit 
this commentary in his name: because he felt that 
many things were wanting in this extemporaneous 
explication, which a diligent writing down might 
have rendered more perfect and more clear. But as 
he was satisfied that the sense and substance of each 
Psalm were every where faithfully given, and that 
a very important part of the true religion was here 
copiously handled ; he was, under these assurances, 
the more willing to overlook any thing that might be 
wanting in the way of greater correctness, and loftier 
language and expression. 

We hope, therefore, that this our labour will not 
be unacceptable to the lovers of the Holy Scriptures 
and divine things. For they will here see how bless 
edly this great man opened and taught the word of 
God, and what his only aim and object were 
therein. And they will also be the better enabled to 
judge of the writings of others. For while others 
devote all their labours, pains, and aims, to thrust 
their books upon the world ; they never, in those 
books, touch in the least upon those things which 
form the substance of the true religion ! Reader, 
farewell ! May thy soul be blessed by our labour!