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Full text of "The Ambrosian liturgy : the ordinary and canon of the mass according to the rite of the Church of Milan"




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THE AMBROSIAN LITURGY 



Uniform with this Volume 



THE COPTIC LITURGY 

Translated by the Marquis of 
Bute, K.T. 

THE RUSSIAN LITURGY 

THE ARMENIAN LITURGY 

Translated into English by 
Two Armenian Priests 

THE MOZARABIC LITURGY 

Done into English with an 
Introduction by F. C. Eeles 

THE OLD CATHOLIC 
LITURGY 

Edited by the Right Rev. 
Arnold' H. Mathew 



Other Christian Liturgies in course of 
preparation. 



THE AMBROSIAN 
LITURGY 



THE ORDINARY AND CANON OF THE MASS 

ACCORDING TO THE RITE OF THE CHURCH 

OF MILAN 



'Done into English, uiih an introducdo 



E. G. CUTHBERT F. ATCHLEY 

L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. 






LONDON - ■ ^ \% 

COPE a'nd fenwick ^ 7 y 

1 6 CliiFord's Inn, E.C. ' ?' 

MCMIX •. ,.^* 



First Published in 1909 



PREFACE 

The translation which is here offered to the reader 
gives the whole of the Ordinary and Canon of the 
Mass, and the rubrical directions for High Mass. The 
variable portions are represented by the whole of the 
" proper " for the feast of the Epiphany, together with 
several proper prefaces, and all the variable portions 
of the Canon. Several friends having suggested that 
the addition of a Table of the mass-lessons would be of 
value, one is here given, containing all those of the 
Temporale, and a selection from the Sanctorale. I 
have to thank my brother, the Rev. H. N. Atchley, 
for taking the trouble of drawing it up, and verifying 
the pericopes. 

CUTHBERT ATCHLEY. 

23, St. John's Road, Clifton. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Ambrosian Liturgy, used in the city and diocese 
of Milan (though not exclusively), obtains also in a 
number of churches outside the diocese, though 
within the province. At one time the use of this 
liturgy extended as far westwards as the river Var^ : 
and it is still in use in certain churches in the Italian- 
speaking part of Switzerland. The Ambrosian 
belongs to the Galilean family of liturgies — a group of 
rites that is now represented only by itself and the 
Mozarabic, although fragments of Galilean cere- 
monial and even of ritual still persist in many of the 
local uses, and indeed are to be found within the pre- 
sent Roman mass-book. 

"Ambrose, bishop of Milan, also arranged 
the order both of the mass and of the other ser- 
vices, for his own church and for the rest of 
Liguria: the w^hich up to the present day is still 
kept by the church of Milan." 

'Pierre Le Brun, Explication de la Messe, Paris, 1777; t. iii., 
p. 181. It was used at one time in Capua, and in Augsburg, which 
was in the province of Milan. In the early part of the eleventh 
century Paul von Bernried and his nephew Gebhard of Ratisbon 
desired Martin, treasurer of St. Ambrose, to send them a copy of 
the sacramentary of St. Ambrose, with the Antiphoner; they say 
that they did not need a copy of Gesfa Sanctorvm which were read 
at mass, as they had plenty. 



Vlll INTRODUCTION 

So wrote Walafrid Strabo in the ninth century, 
recording the tradition of his times. But the x\mbro- 
sian rite of that time, while the ritual has undergone 
little alteration since, at any rate as regards its main 
features, had adopted at some previous date a number 
of Roman practices, including the Roman Canon of 
the mass. During a long period of years it would 
appear that the original Gallican rite used at Milan 
underwent a series of changes, assimilating it to the 
Roman rite : and consequently the present rite is not 
pure Gallican, but Gallican modified by an admix- 
ture of Roman customs. It has, however, this 
advantage over the only other living representative 
of the Gallican Liturgy, the Mozarabic, that it is much 
more widespread, and is in a flourishing condition. 
And although the Roman Canon has displaced the 
Gallican Anaphora, yet on certain days there have 
been preserved some fragments of the variable 
prayers that made up the great Eucharistic prayer in 
that rite. 

The entry of the celebrant and his assistants is 
accompanied, in the Ambrosian, as in most other 
liturgies, by a chant. This differs, however, from the 
type found in all other western rites : for, whereas in 
them this chant is a psalm sung with an anthem (the 
psalm is reduced commonly to but one verse, with 
Gloria Patri), in the Ambrosian Liturgy the chant 
consists only of an anthem. It is known as Ingressa, 
and corresponds with the Anthem at the Entry, or 
Introit, of the Roman rite: the Gaulish Antiphona ad 



INTRODUCTION IX 

praelegendum, and the Officium of the Spanish. About 
half of the Ingressae of the Temporale are taken from 
the Psalms, nearly the same number from other parts 
of Holy Scripture, whilst six are non-scriptural, or at 
least only founded upon scriptural texts. As an 
example of the non-scriptural Ingi^essae, that for 
Quinquagesima Sunday may be quoted. It appears 
to be Greek in origin. 

"Pleasant is this present life, and it passeth 
away: terrible is thy judgment, Christ, and it 
endureth. Let us, therefore, abandon a love not 
firmly established, and reflect upon the bound- 
less terror, crying aloud : O Christ, have mercy 
upon us." 
The Ingressa for the mass " said in all churches " 

on the Sixth Sunday in Advent may be given as an 

example of one founded on Scripture. 

" Dost thou not see Elisabeth discoursing with 
Mary the mother of God? Why hast thou come 
to me, mother of my Lord? For had I known, 
I should have come to meet thee. For thou 
bearest the Ruler, and I the Prophet: thou the 
Giver of the Law, and I the Receiver of the Law : 
thou the Word, and I the Voice crying out the 
Advent of the Saviour." 

After the opening chant, the deacon used to call 
for silence in the Galilean rite, as practised in Gaul 
and Spain : but there is no trace of it here in the 



X INTRODUCTION 

Ambrosian rite now.^ This is followed by the cele- 
brant's greeting of the people : The Lord he with you, 
to which in Gaul they added the word always : and the 
people make the usual response: And with thy spirit. 

Before the lessons, certain canticles or musical 
pieces were sung in the old Galilean rites. In Gaul 
these were the Trisagion, Kyrie eleison, and the Bene- 
dictus or hymn of Zacharias. It does not appear that 
the Trisagion was ever sung at this point of the ser- 
vice at Milan: but, as in the Mozarabic rite, we have 
the Glo7'ia in excelsis Deo, which, as regards its posi- 
tion and use here, is borrowed^ from the Roman rite. 
The Kyries have been retained as the second of the 
preliminary canticles in the Ambrosian rite, but lost 
in the Mozarabic. The Greek origin of this chant is 
shown by the retention of the Greek words: but in 
the East, and also at Rome at first, the Kyries were 
only the people's response to the clauses of a litany, 
whereas at Milan and in Gaul they stand alone. Also 
we may notice that the Ambrosian rite has kept to the 
original Kyrie eleison, without i\\QChristeeleison,wh\c\'\ 
St. Gregory the Great^ added, which is always used in 
the Roman rite. The custom of singing Kyrie eleison 
had come into vogue before the Council of Vaison, 
held in 529, since the third canon there enacted refers 

1 However, at a pontifical high mass two of the clergy, before the 

Gospel, call for silence, saying: Silenfiiim hahete! 
" L. Duchesne, Origines du culte chrUien, Paris, 1898; p. 183. 
3 S Gregorii Magni Epist. xii : Lib. IX -. Indict. II ; Opera omnia, 

Parisiis, 1705; t. ii, 941. 



INTRODUCTION XI 

to it as having been introduced into the Apostolic See, 
and into Italy, i.e., Milan. 

After the Kj^ries came the Benedictus or Pro- 
phecy ; but this has completely disappeared from the 
Ambrosian Liturgy, although, if we may judge by the 
Bobbio Sacramentary, it once figured there. It is 
still used once a year in the Mozarabic rite. 

During Advent and Lent, in the present use at 
Milan, Gloria in excelsis is omitted, except on Saints'- 
days occurring in Advent. But on the first five 
Sundays in Lent is said here a diaconal litany, of the 
same type as, and made up of similar petitions to, the 
Ectene of the eastern liturgies: like that also, it is 
recited by the deacon, and the people make the 
response. Two forms are still in use: one on the 
first, third, and fifth Sundays, the other on the second 
and fourth.^ These litanies terminate in a collect or 
prayer said by the bishop or celebrant: in practice, 
this is the ordinary Prayer over the People said at 
every mass, whether a diaconal litany preceds or 
not. This prayer corresponds with the Roman 
Collect of the day: but the actual prayers in the 
Ambrosian rite are not the same, although they 
belong to the same type, and sometimes are identical 
with Gelasian collects. They differ greatly in char- 
acter from the more diffuse prayers of the Gaulish or 

1 For the text of these, see pages 43 sq. After the Kyries that follow 
Gloria in excelsis the MSS of the ninth and tenth centuries have 
the rubric: Incipit missa canonica \ shewing that the preliminary 
chants were not originally part of the mass. 



Xii INTRODUCTION 

Mozarabic books, with their frequent scriptural 
quotations and allusions (often very far-fetched) : and 
are nearly as terse and severely restrained as the 
majority of the Gregorian collects. 

Next there follows the lessons and the psalmody. 
The normal Galilean liturgy has three lessons, a pro- 
phetic, an apostolic, and an evangelic; from the Old 
Testament, the Epistles, and the Gospels respectively. 
On certain days, in the Ambrosian rite, instead of a 
lesson from the Old Testament, the Acts of the 
Apostles are read instead, as on Sundays in Easter- 
tide^ : and on certain Saints' days the life of the saint 
is read.2 On St. Stephen's day the account of his 
passion^ is read from the Acts of the Apostles. On a 
number of days the prophetic lesson has been lost 
altogether'' : and in private masses the present practice 
is to read only one Scripture lesson before the gospel, 
generally omitting the prophetic lesson. But in con- 
ventual and parochial masses, even if said without 
note, the rule is that the prophetic lesson must not 

' In the Mozarabic rite the Apocalypse is read for the 

prophetic, and Acts as the apostolic lesson in Eastertide. The 

custom of Gaul was the same. 
- See § xi of the Evbricae generales. 
* St. Augustine, in a sermon preached on this day, says : "While 

we find with difficulty the Acts of other martyrs which we can read 

in their solemnities, the Passion of this one is in the Canonical 

Book" (Serm. 313). 
' In the masses of ferias in Lent, it is the Epistle that has dropped 

out; except on the Saturdays, when the Epistle is retained and not 

the prophetic lesson. 



INTRODUCTION XIII 

be omitted,^ thus ensuring that it be read at the prin- 
cipal mass of the day in every church. 

Between the first two lessons a piece of chant 
called Psalmellus is sung. It consists of an anthem 
with one or two verses, taken almost always from the 
Psalms.2 Between the epistle and the gospel, halle- 
luyah and a verse is sung; except in Lent, on Vigils, 
and on Litany-days, when a piece called Cantus is 
sung, corresponding with the tract of the Roman 
rite. The verse of the Halleluyah is generally taken 
from the Psalms : but on several days other parts of 
Scripture are drawn upon. 

In Gaul they used to sing the song of the Three 
Children, which they called the Benediction, between 
the epistle and the respond before the gospel: it is 
still used in the Mozarabic rite on certain days, e.g., 
the first Sunday in Lent, and was ordered by the 
fourth Council of Toledo to be sung at every solemn 
mass. In the Ambrosian rite part of Benedicite is 
still sung on Good Friday,^ between two lessons from 
Daniel, after the Cross-creeping: and again on Easter 

' Et tunc licet ab omnibus legi possit cum Epistola, tamen in 
missis Conventualibus et in missis Parochialibus, etiam sine cantu, 
praetermittenda non est ; ut decretum est in Synodis Dioecesanis 
(Ritbricae generales, § xi ). 

• On St. Stephen's Day the Psalmellus is taken from Acts : on 
Childermass from the Apocalypse : on the fifth Sunday in Lent 
from St. John : and on the 2nd Sunday in October and the 3rd 
Sunday after the Dedication, from Habaccuc. 

' Dan. iii, 51-54, 57, 59, 58, 61, 84-88, and the verse Benedicamus 
Pair em et F ilium, <kc. 



Xiv INTRODUCTION 

Even/ after the third of the lessons that follow the 
blessing of the Pascall. 

On Christmas Day, the Epiphany, and Easter 
Day, before the Gospel, an anthem is sung, called the 
"Anthem before the Gospel." It was not peculiar to 
the Ambrosian rite, and existed for a long time at the 
abbey of St. Denis, Paris. In Gaul, according to St. 
Germain, the Aius or Trisagion was sung at this 
moment. Durandus^ was aware of a similar custom. 
In describing the ceremonies that surround the read- 
ing of the liturgical gospel, he says: "Moreover, it 
is to be noted that in certain churches, on the prin- 
cipal feast days, the deacon, wishing to set out to 
read the gospel, begins the anthem which is sung at 
nocturns over Benedictus; and which he approaches 
the pulpit, it is sung and finished by the choir." 

Wagner has printed some verses written by 
Hartmann, a monk of St. Gallen, to be sung as the 
deacon went to read the Gospel.^ Martene states that 
there was an anthem sung before the gospel on 
Christinas Day, as at Milan, at Cosenza, Tours, Senlis, 
Langres, and Bayeux.^ 

' Dan. iii, 52-54, 57, 77, 85, and the verse Benedicamus Patrem, d'C. 
■ Durandus, Itationale diviiioruni officiorum, Lib. IIII : cap xxiiii : 

n.l. The anthems before the Gospel of the Ambrosian rite are not 

those given in the Ambrosian Breviary for the several feasts to be 

used with Benedictus. 
^ P. Wagner, Introduction to the Gregorian Melodies, Plainsong and 

Mediaeval Music Society, 2nd edition, — no date; pt. i, p. 250. 
' Martene, De antiquis ecclesiae ritihus, Lib. IV : cap. xii : n. 38. 



INTRODUCTION XV 

A peculiarity of the Ambrosian rite is that at the 
beginning of the liturgical gospels they always use 
the phrase Dominus Jesus, the Lord Jesus, instead of 
Jesus alone. This custom is not improbably derived 
from St. Ambrose himself : at any rate, he commonly 
uses it in citing the gospels. All the Scripture 
passages in the Ambrosian rite are taken from the 
old Italic version, and not from the Vulgate. After 
the gospel follows the sermon, if there is to be one. 
Then the priest again salutes the people with: The 
Lord he with you: and, after the usual response, Kyrie 
eleison is sung thrice. This threefold Kyrie is a 
remnant of the diaconal litany said at one time at this 
moment. As we have seen, the litany itself is still 
used on certain days, but at the beginning of the 
mass, before the " Praj^er over the People." 
tlonorius of Autun^ in the twelfth century mentions 
the custom : " Then the bishop preaches a sermon to 
the people. . . . After this the people sing Kyrie 
eleison, and the clergy / believe iu one God.'' Duran- 
dus,^ a century later, says that " in some places, after 
the singing of the creed, or while it is in singing, the 
people sing Kyrie eleison'' This shows that the same 
trace of the litany was preserved in other churches. 
The position of the creed shows that these places did 
not use the Ambrosian rite: and presumably the 

Gemma animae, cap. xix. 
'^ Rationale divinorum officiorum, Lib. IIII: cap. xxv : n. 14. 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

authors cited were writing of places in what is now 
known as France. 

The solemn inbringing of the oblations is accom- 
panied by a chant called the "Anthem after the 
Gospel." In the Galilean rite used in the sixth cen- 
tury at Paris, it was known as Sonus, and in the 
Mozarabic it is called Laudes. This chant corres- 
ponds with the CherouMkon of the Byzantine rite, 
then when the sacred elements have been set upon 
the altar the choir sing another chant, called at Paris 
Laudes or Alleluia, in the Mozarabic liturgy Sacri- 
ficium, in the Ambrosian rite formerly Offerenda, and 
now Offertorium. These two chants, once sung in 
close succession, are now separated by the offertory 
prayers, both at Milan and in the Mozarabic rite. 

The "Anthem after the Gospel" being over, and 
the sacred vessels being set at the altar's end, the 
deacon turns to the people, and says : Have ye yeace! 
to which they answer : To Thee Lord : a reply which 
has no particular meaning as it stands now. But 
formerly the "Kiss of Peace" was given here, the 
words of the deacon being the signal for the ceremony 
to commence. Then, afterwards, he said: Stand up 
for prayer, to which the people's answer came natur- 
ally: To Thee, Lord. This response is common in 
the Oriental liturgies. In the Galilean rite there was 
a prayer, called Collectio ad pacem, said before the 
giving of the Kiss of Peace ; but no trace now remains 
of it in the Ambrosian rite, and the ceremony itself is 
given before the Communion, as in the Roman rite. 



INTRODUCTION XVll 

In the fifth century, however, as Duchesne points 
out, it was customary in the north of Italy for the 
Kiss to be given before the Eucharistic prayer (ante 
confecta mysteria), to w^hich the well known letter of 
Pope Innocent to Decentius witnesses.^ 

After this the priest salutes the people, and then 
reads the "Prayer over the Sindon." It corresponds 
with the Missa and Alia oratio of the Mozarabic 
rite: in which the Missa is an address to the people 
inviting them to pray, and the Alia which follows 
a prayer. According to Duchesne, it also corresponds 
with the prayer super oUata or secret, of the Roman 
rite. But in the present Ambrosian rite the chalice 
is not made until after the " Prayer over the Sindon," 
instead of having been prepared at a much earlier 
point in the service, as was the Galilean custom: so 
that the analogy is concealed by the fact that the 
primitive order of things has been upset. 

In the cathedral church of Milan there is pre- 
served at this moment a relic of the ceremony of the 
people's offering. It is not Galilean in origin (at this 
part of the service, at any rate) but has been borrowed 
from Rome, where, however, it no longer obtains. A 
guild, called the School of St. Ambrose, composed of 
ten old men and ten old women, formally olTer hosts 
and cruets of wine. They take it in turns to perform 
the ceremony; two men, and two women, at a time, 
representing the men and women of the congregation. 

1 Deer. Gratiani, Be con seer., distinctio ii : cap. ix, Pacem igittir. 

B 



XVlil INTRODUCTION 

The two old men on duty wear a pointed hood over 
their cottas, and the two old women a long black 
piece of silk over their white veils, at the oft'ertory: 
and both men and women wear a large white linen 
cloth, which rather has the appearance of a linen 
chasuble, in which they hold the hosts and cruet. 
This cloth is called a fanon, and really is a long scarf 
about four feet broad by nine and a half long, with 
the long sides sewn together on one edge, leaving just 
a small space through which to pass the head.^ 

This guild was in existence in the eleventh cen- 
tury, when the elder Landulf^ describes it in his 
" History of Milan " ; it was then of long standing. 

The prayers at the offertory are not part of the 
ancient rite : originally they belonged rather to the 
priest's private devotions. The host and the chalice 
are offered separately, with different prayers, and not 
together, with only one prayer, as in the Roman rite. 

These prayers are followed Ijy' the " Creed of 
Constantinople." This is the Byzantine position for 
the Creed, between the "Kiss of Peace" and the 
Sursum corda. In Gaul it was sung after the gospel ; 
but in Spain, before the Lord's Prayer at the end of 

' Excellent illustrations of the costume of the members of the School 
of St. Ambrose may be seen in Dr. Wickham Legg's paper on 
Two umisual fon/is of Linen Vestments in Transactions nf St. Paul's 
Ecclesiological Society, vol. iv, after p. 144. 

- Landulphi senioris Historia mediolanensis, Lib. ii : cap. 35. 

'^ The creed is found just before the Sursi/m corda at Modena in the 
twelfth century (Muratori, Dissei-tatio de rebus hturgicis cap. vii, 
ap. Migne, Patr. lat., Ixxiv, 917), and elsewhere. 



INTRODUCTION XIX 

the Eucharistic prayer, in accordance with the order 
of the second Canon of the Council of Toledo in 589. 
The creed is said in the Ambrosian rite on all 
Sundays, all feasts of our Lord, and all Saints'-days; 
on the Saturday in traditione symholi, that is, before 
I^alni Sunday, and in the votive mass 2)ro gravi et 
paUica ecclesiae causa: on other days it is omitted. 

The " Prayer over the Offering " which follows is 
similar in character to the secret of the Roman rite, 
and almost always contains some reference to the 
oblations : but unlike the Roman prayer, it is said in 
a clear voice, just as the other collects of the rite are. 
In the sacramentary known as the Gelasian, which 
represents the Roman rite as used in Gaul in the 
seventh century, and in Rome before St. Gregory's 
reform, there is always a prayer after the collect of 
the day before the Secret: this seems to correspond 
with the Ambrosian "Prayer over the Sindon," just 
as the secret of the Gelasian corresponds in general 
type and matter with the Ambrosian " Prayer over 
the Offering." Moreover, a large number of the 
Ambrosian prayers are taken from, or at any rate to 
be found in, the Gelasian sacramentary. 

The Sursum corcla leads up to the Eucharistic 
prayer in all liturgies. The first section of this prayer 
is called the "Preface " in the Ambrosian as in the 
Roman rite : in Gaul it was known as Contestatio, or 
Immolatio; and in Spain as Illatio, a word the Latin 
equivalent of the Greek word anaphora. The Am- 
brosian rite provides a proper preface for every mass. 



XX INTRODUCTION 

They are shorter and less diffuse than the Mozarabic 
and Gaulish Illationes and Contestationes : and their 
general character mav be seen in the translations 
which are to be found in their proper place below. 
Many of them are Gelasian. 

The preface, as usual, leads into San&tus, which 
has Benedictus qui venit added on to it, as in the other 
Gallican rites, and in the present Roman. 

By the adoption of the Roman canon the vari- 
able prayers that follow in other Gallican rites have 
been done away, as well as the prayers at the " Kiss 
of Peace," and the reading of the Diptychs with the 
collect after it, which come before the Sursum corda. 
The text of the canon has no material difference from 
the Roman, with one important exception; but there 
are some verbal disagreements. 

On Easter Even, however, there has been pre- 
served a "Prayer after Sanctus'' of a Gallican type, 
w^hich originally connected Sanctus (with Benedictus) 
with Qui j^ridie, " Who on the day before he suffered." 
A translation of this is given below. At the present 
day the prayer is still used, but as a substitute for the 
second half of the opening section of the canon: and 
instead of being followed at once by Qui pridie has 
the rest of the intervening clauses of the canon. 

Before reciting Qui pridie, the priest washes his 
fingers, but does not say any psalm or prayer. 

After the recital of the words of institution there 
follows a passage founded on St. Paul's words in 1 
Cor. xi, 26 : " For as often as ye eat this bread and 



INTRODUCTION XXI 

drink this cup, ye do shew the Lord's death till he 
come." A shorter but similar passage is found not 
only in the Mozarabic, but also in the liturgies of the 
Apostolic Constitutions of St. James, of St. Basil, and 
in the Coptic liturgies of St. Cyril and of St. Basil. 
This agreement in such a striking point of detail is 
of the greatest interest and importance. 

The canon is continued after this with some 
verbal differences: the list of the saints in the 
NoUs quoque is not the same as in the Roman rite, and 
has varied in different editions of the Ambrosian 
books. And the list of names formerly used on 
Maundy Thursday in the C ommunicantes clause was 
different from that used at other times. 

Since the time of St. Charles Borromeo, owing to 
an idea that sprang up during the sixteenth century 
that St. Barnabas was the first l^ishop of Milan, that 
apostle's name has been included amongst the saints 
commemorated in the NoMs quoque. It does not 
appear that there is the least authority or evidence 
for the notion : and it cannot be shewn that there was 
any tradition of St. Barnabas coming to Milan or 
preaching there. 

On Maundy Thursday a Post pridie prayer is at 
the present time said after the Nobis quoque clause, 
which at an earlier period followed immediately after 
the Mandans quoque, "Commanding also," whi(5h 
adjoins the words of institution : taking the place of 
the five clauses which usually come there before Per 
quern, "By whom, Lord." 



XXll INTRODUCTION 

This Post pridie^ prayer joins on naturally to 
Mandans qiioqne : but in its present position the 
sequence of ideas is interrupted rather unfortunately. 

The fraction is accompanied by an anthem called 
Confractorium in the Milanese rite. St. Germain of 
Paris does not give any special name to it : in the 
Mozarabic it is simply the " Anthem at the Fraction/' 
but its place it usually taken by the creed which is 
sung at this moment by the order of the third Council 
of Toledo. As he breaks the host the priest says : Thy 
body is broken, Christ, the Chalice is blessed. 

In the present Roman rite the Lord's Prayer 
follows immediately after the Eucharistic Prayer : the 
order of the parts being: — 1, Lord's Prayer; 2, Frac- 
tion; 3, Commixture; 4, Agnus Dei; 5, Kiss of Peace. 
But in the Ambrosian rite the order is: — 1, Fraction; 
2, Commixture; 3, Lord's Prayer; 4, Kiss of 
Peace. In the Mozarabic it is: 1, Fraction; 
2, Lord's Prayer; 3, Commixture. It was St. Gregory 
the Great who placed the Lord's Prayer in its present 
position in the Roman rite. 

The Lord's Prayer is preceded by a preface or 
introduction, and followed by the embolism, or ex- 
pansion of the clause : Deliver us from evil. The pre- 
face in ordinary use is the same as that in the Roman 
rite: but on Easter Day a slightly different form is 

' The Post pridie is the prayer after the account of the institution 
in the Galhcan rite which varied in each mass. This account was 
fixed, and began with the words Qui pridie, Who on the day before 
(he suffered). 



INTRODUCTION XXlll 

used. On Maundy Thursday they use a lengthy 
form, quite different from either of these. 

The embolism terminates differently from that 
in the Koman rite, and includes St. Aml)rose amongst 
the Saints named in it : it is always sung or said aloud 
(alta voce) ; as in the Roman rite on Good Friday, but 
not on any other day. 

After this in the Gallican rites comes the bless- 
ing. The form still used in the Ambrosian rite differs 
slightly from that used by presbyters in the time of 
St. Germain at Paris. In Gaul and in Spain bishops 
used a longer form, composed of several clauses, at 
the end of each of which the people answered: Amen. 
It was proposed by the Council of Milan held in 1576 
to restore the ancient pontifical benedictions ; but the 
subsequent mass-books give no hint of their use. 

It is at this moment that the " Kiss of Peace " is 
given in the actual rite, agreeing with the Koman. 
The missals printed since the time of St. Charles 
Borromeo direct the priest to say first the prayer: 
Lord Jesus Christ, who saidst to Thine Apostles, and 
then, after kissing the altar to give the Peace to the 
deacon, saying: Peace be with thee. In earlier books 
the priest was ordered to say secretly : Peace in heaven, 
Peace on earth, Peace on all feople, Peace to the priests 
of the churches, the Peace of Christ and of the Church 
remain with us alway. Then in giving the Peace to 
the deacon, he said : Have the bond of peace and charity, 
and be ye fit for the most holy mysteries. But this has 
now disappeared. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION 

The anthem sung at the Communion is called 
Transitorium. It frequently is connected with or 
taken from the liturgical gospel : but a large number 
is not taken from Holy Scripture. Some appear to 
be derived from the Greek: as for instance that for 
Quinquagesima Sunday, which runs : 

" O come, turn ye even unto Me, saith the 
Lord. O come weeping, let us pour forth tears 
to God, for we have forsaken Him, and for our 
sakes the earth suffers: we have done iniquity, 
and for our sakes the foundations are moved. 
Let us hasten to turn aside the anger of our God, 
w^eeping and saying: Thou that takest away 
the world's sins, have mercy upon us." 
Agnus Dei is not sung at ordinary masses, accord- 
ing to the Ambrosian rite : at masses for the departed, 
however, a version, not quite the same as that of the 
Roman rite, is in use. 

After the Postcommunion collect there comes the 
salutation. The Lord he with you, with the usual re- 
sponse, followed by Kyries. Instead of Ite, missa est, 
as in the Roman rite, the Ambrosian has Procedamus 
cum face, "Let us go forth with peace," as in the Greek 
rites. The concluding blessing, with the prayers, 
and the In principio gospel,^ have been borrowed from 
the Roman rite, at a comparatively late date. 

The Ambrosian order of Sundays and holy days 

' This is first found in 1560. The Council of Milan held in 1576 
ordered that it be said at the end of every mass. 



INTRODUCTION XXV 

differs in several respects from the Roman. To begin 
with, there are six Sundays in Advent, as in the 
Mozarabic rite ; instead of four only, as in the rest of 
the western rites. The sixth week of Advent is called 
de exceptato, for the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednes- 
day in which a special mass is provided.^ The Litany 
of the Saints is said before the mass, and the only 
chants are the cantus, after the epistle, and the 
Sanctus, the two most ancient of all. No prophetic 
lesson is now used. The week takes its name from 
these three feriae de exceptato, which are said to have 
that name because they are exceptions from the 
general rules. 

On Christmas Day there are now three masses 
provided, as in the Roman rite.- the earliest mention 
of these three seems to be in 1374. In the twelfth 
century Beroldus, describing the rites and ceremonies 
of Milan, knows nothing of the second mass, which is 
the Roman mass of St. Anastasia.'^ The midnight 
mass was introduced into Rome during the fifth cen- 
tury, in imitation of the practice of the Church of 
Jerusalem, and was celebrated at the basilica of St. 
Mary Major : and it spread to other parts of the west 
from Rome. The Mozarabic and the Gaulish books 
provide for only one mass on Christmas Day, and the 
Bobbio MS, which not improbably represents an early 

1 When Christmas Day comes on one of the first three ferias after 
the sixth Sunday, these dies de exceptato are observed in the week 
before. 

* That is, in origin. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION 

stasfe of the Ambrosiar rite, agrees with them in this 
respect. 

The Milanese sfospel for St. Stephan's Day aiTords 
a cnrions interpretation of the incident in St. Matthew 
xvii, 27 : the " fish that first cometh up " at St. Peter's 
tishinof is evidently regarded as a type of the proto- 
martyr. 

The first of January was at one time disfigured 
by the excesses of a heathen festival, against which 
several councils and various Christian writers pro- 
tested^ and a special mass with regard to this is 
found in the Gelasian and other early sacramentaries. 
The Ambrosian mass for the feast of the Circumcision 
still retains marks of it, beginning with the ingressa, 
" Be not afraid in the sight of the Gentiles," etc. : the 
prayer super populum, which is in the Gelasian Sacra- 
mentary, runs: — 

"Almightv, everlasting God, who biddest 
them that are partakers of Thy table to abstain 
from the banquets of devils; grant, we beseech 
Thee, to Thy people, that, having put away the 
tasting of profanity that worketh death, they 
may approach with pure minds to the feasts of 
eternal salvation. Through, etc." 

' F.ff. Counc. Auxerre 578: can. 1. St. Austin of Hippo, Serm. 
215 de fempo)r. Durandns speaks of these practices as in the dis- 
tant past (Fnfiofiale, Lib. VI : cap. xv. : n. 17). Isidore of Seville, 
De ojficiis, Lib. T : cap. xli. Counc. Toledo, IV. ; can. 10. Counc. 
Tours, IT ; can. 16. 



INTRODUCTION XXVll 

The prophetic lesson (from Baruch vi) carries on 
the same theme: "Beware, therefore, that ye in no 
wise be like to strangers, neither fear ye their 
images," etc. And the verse of the psalmellus : "For, 
lo, thine enemies make a tumult: and they that hate 
thee have lifted up the head over the whole earth." 
The epistle bids us "beware of dogs, beware of evil 
workers, beware of the concision." And, again, the 
offertorivm runs: "Where now are their gods, in 
whom ye put your trust ; the fat of whose sacrifices ye 
did eat, and the wine of whose drink-offerings ye did 
drink? Let them rise up now and help you, and let 
them be your protectors." 

After the gospel on the feast of the Epiphany, the 
deacon announces the date on which Easter Day will 
fall.i 

Lent begins with the first Sunday, which is the 
caput ieiunii: there is no Ash- Wednesday, and no 
blessing of ashes. There is a mass for every day in 
Lent, except Fridays, which are completely dies 
aliturgici, on which mass may not be said. From 
18 February to 10 April no Saints' days appear in the 

» Durandus (Rafiofiale, Lib. VI : cap. xvi : n. 17) says that in Italy 
on this day the priest or another announces the date of Easter 
after the offertory. It appears in the Ordinary of Lucas of 
Cosenza : and is ordered by the 4th Council of Orleans, can. i. ; and 
the 2nd canon of the Council of Auxerre, 578. The second Council 
of Braga orders it to be done on Christmas Day (can. 9). The 
custom may probably be traced back to the Council of Nicaea, 325 : 
the object being to secure uniformity of date for the observance 
of Easter. 



XXVlll INTRODUCTION 

kalendar, with the single exception of the Annuncia- 
tion. ^ Saturday before Palm Sunday is still marked 
as in ti'aditione symholi, although there is no longer 
any giving of the creed to the catechumens, nor any 
catechumens. 

The Sunday next before Easter was the day for 
the ceremony called Ti^aditio symholi in the old Galil- 
ean rites, whether in Spain, in Gaul, or in Northern 
Italy: and on the following Thursday the Redditio 
symholi, or public recitation of it by the catechumens, 
took place. These ceremonies have, of course, long 
been disused. At Rome the Traditio took place 
during the third week of Lent, and the Redditio on 
Easter Even. 

The mass for the Saturday in traditione symholi, 
unlike the other masses for Lenten ferials, has kept 
the three mass-lessons. 

On Maundy Thursday, after terce, two lessons 
from the Old Testament, separated by a psalmellus, 
are sung, each by a deacon in a red dalmatic : then 
after a Cantus a third deacon, vested in the same way, 
reads a gospel from St. Matthew. This is followed 
by The Lord he with you, etc., a prayer. The Lord he with 
you, again ; three Kyries, a blessing and the dismissal. 
Sext and nones comes next, and then vespers sung 
solemnly. The respond at vespers being over, the 

' There appears to be some doubt as to what happens when Lady Day 
falls on a Friday : the canon forbids mass to be said on any Friday 
in Lent. 



INTRODUCTION XXIX 

first four chapters of Jonah are read, followed by a 
psalmellns, during which the celebrant goes up to the 
altar to begin mass. The prayer su2:)er jwjmlum is not 
sung, but read in a low voice, nevertheless so that it 
can be heard by the bystanders. The gospel is the 
Passion according to St. Matthew. There are special 
addition to the canon on this day, which are given 
below in their proper places. The Eucharist is 
reserved after this mass, " for the sick, and to repre- 
sent the burial of the Lord," until Easter Even. 

There is no mass of the Presanctified in the 
Ambrosian rite on Good Friday. After terce three 
deacons in red dalmatics severally chant from the 
ambo two lessons from Isaiah, and the Passion 
according to St. Matthew: a psalmellus and a collect 
are said after the first, and a respond after the second. 
Then, after a sermon on the Passion, a verse, collect, 
blessing and dismissal follow. 

After sext and nones have been said, the 
ceremony of Creeping to the Cross is performed, con- 
cluding with a collect: and then a reader reads a 
lesson from Daniel, which is followed by the Song of 
the Three Children, at the end of which the choir sing 
the verse Confitemini Domino} Another readers reads 
another lesson from Daniel, after which two verses of 
a psalm are sung : and then a deacon in red dalmatic 
reads a gospel from St. Matthew. Vespers follow 

' This verse is taken from Ps. cv, and is also sung after Benedicite in 
the Mozarabic rite. 



XXX INTRODUCTION 

next : at the close of which the solemn orisons, nine 
in number, are said. One deacon, standing at the 
gospel end of the altar, chants the Let us hend the knee, 
and the bidding to prayer: another deacon, at the 
epistle end of the altar, chants Arise ye, and the 
priest saj^s the collect. The music is different from 
that in the lioman rite. The service closes with a 
blessing and the dismissal as before. 

On Easter Even, after terce, a reader reads a 
lesson from Genesis, a psahnellus is sung, and a 
deacon in a red dalmatic reads a gospel from St. 
Matthew. Then follows a long ceremony, the bless- 
ing of new fire, and the blessing and preconisation of 
the Pascall. The Exsultet is quite different from the 
Roman use, in the second part: and the music 
thoughout is not the same. One may notice that the 
phrase, "May he himself reconcile thee to us, O 
Father almighty," occurs in the course of the pre- 
conisation: which is found twice in the "Liturgy of 
St. Clement," and has been there objected to by some 
commentators as being unscriptural (or at least un- 
Pauline).! Six lessons from the Old Testament, each 
followed by a chant and a collect (the third is followed 
by the Song of the Three Children, and the fourth by 
the Song of Miriam, the sixth by a cantvs, and the 
others by a jysalmelhis, are succeeded by the blessing 
of the font (where this is done), and last of all the 
mass, which has no prophetic lesson, and the ingressa 

' Contrast Eom. v, 10 : 2 Cor. v, 18, 19; Ephes. ii, 16. 



INTRODUCTION XXXI 

is replaced by the responds sung on the way back 
from the font. Before the mass the celebrant, stand- 
ing at the epistle end of the altar facing northwards 
announces the Kesurrection saying: Christ the Lord 
is risen. Thanks be to God. Again he announces it, 
from the midst of the altar; and a third time, from 
the gospel end of the same, facing southwards: and 
each time he raises his voice more than before. The 
l)salmellus at the mass that follows is appointed to be 
sung by the notaries of the church: and an ancient 
jjost-sanctus prayer is incorporated into the canon. 

Besides this mass, one entirely different is pro- 
vided to be said in the winter Church, " for the 
Baptized " : and a second mass for the same purpose 
is appointed for every day in Easter week until Low 
Sunday exclusive. 

Gloria Patri is not said after the psalms from 
vespers of Good Friday to lauds of Easter Even, both 
inclusive. 

The Rogation Days are kept in the week before 
Whitsunday in the Ambrosian rite, on the Monday, 
Tuesday, and Wednesday; and not, as in the rest of 
the West, on the three days before the Ascension. 

On Whitsun Eve, vespers having been sung as 
far as the respond inclusively, four lessons are read 
from the Old Testament, each of the first three being 
followed ])y a iisalriiellus and a collect, and the last by 
a cantiis inierorum only. Then follows the blessing of 
the font (where it is done); and this done, as the 
celebrant goes to the altar a losalmellus is sung. There 



XXXii INTRODUCTION 

is no prophetic lesson at the mass, and the only chant 
besides Sanctus is the Halleluyah and Verse. After 
mass vespers are continued and finished. 

On Whitsunday two masses are provided : one for 
the Baptized, in the Winter Church, and one for the 
solemnity ; the former has only two mass-lessons. 

The first Sunday after Pentecost is the feast of 
the Holy Trinity, as in the Roman rite. Corpus 
Christi has been kept since 1335 : All Souls' day is 
now kept on the 2nd November, but when it w^as first 
adopted, in the twelfth century, and for some cen- 
turies after, it was observed on Monday after the 
third Sunday in October. The mass has some differ- 
ences from the ordinary Ambrosian type: the 
ingressa is the Roman introit and psalm. The Kyries, 
and Have ye feace are omitted after the gospel. The 
" Kiss of Peace '' is omitted; Agnus Dei is said, as in 
the Roman rite, but with the addition at the third 
repetition : Grant them rest everlasting, and a ylace of 
indulgence with Thy Saints. For further differences 
see the translation of the liturgy below. 

The summer Sundays are reckoned differently 
from the Roman way. There are only fifteen 
"Sundays after Pentecost": and if the Beheading of 
St. John the Baptist falls before these fifteen have 
been used, the superfluous ones are omitted. Then 
come five "Sundays after the Beheading," the fifth 
being omitted when the Sunday Letter is A, B, or C. 
After these follow three "Sundays in October," the 



INTRODUCTION XXXlll 

third being the feast of the Dedication of the metro- 
politan church : and last of all come three " Sundays 
after the Dedication." There are different mass- 
lessons for each of these masses, and Trinity and the 
Dedication Sundays have special masses of their own : 
but with this exception, the variable parts of the 
masses for twenty-four Sundays are repeated twice or 
more times. 

There are nine different ingi^essae, three of which 
also serve for Sundays after Epiphany, and another 
is the same as that for Septuagesima : all are repeated 
twice, some thrice, and some four times. 

Thus :— 





2ndi 


ifter Pent. = 11th after Pent. = 5th after 

Beheading 




3rd 


„ =12th „ 




4th 


„ -13th „ 


3rd after Epiph. 


= 5th 


„ ^14th „ 




6th 


,, ,, =15th ,, ,, = 1st after 

Dedication 


5th & 6th ,, ,, 


= 7th 


,, ,, =lst after =2nd ,, ,, =:lst in October 
Beheading 


Septuagesima 


= 8th 


„ =2nd „ ., =3rd „ ., =2nd in October 


4th after Epiph. 


= 9th 


„ ==3rd „ 




10th 


„ =4th „ 



There are but six sets of prayers (super populum, 
etc.) which are repeated in regular sequence (leaving 
out the Dedication Sunday) : so that each comes four 
times. Of different psalmelli there are seven, of 
which five are said thrice : and two others, for the 
first and second Sundays in October, repeated again 
for the second and third after the Dedication. The 
verses with Halleluyah are but three, and are repeated 



XXXIV INTRODUCTION 

eight times altogether, but not quite in regular order. 
The eight "Anthems after the Gospel" all occur 
twice, some thrice, and three of them four times. 
Eight of the nine offertoria are repeated, three of them 
four times: five of the prefaces are repeated four 
times, one thrice ; that for the third Sunday after the 
Beheading occurs once only. The eight confractoria 
are repeated twice, thrice, or four times; four of the 
twelve transitoina come once only, and the rest are 
repeated twice, or thrice; that for the sixth Sunday 
occurring four times. 

The result is that although the same material is 
used over and over again, each individual mass is not 
repeated exactly. The same poverty or even more 
appears in Spain and Gaul as regards the masses for 
Sundays after Pentecost. 

Until the time of St. Charles Borromeo there was 
only one altar in the cathedral church of Milan, 
which retained this primitive custom much longer 
than any other church in the West. 

The number of altar-lights is sometimes six, 
sometimes four, and sometimes only two, at the sung 
mass. On days of the first or second class, six; on 
Sundays, octaves, and other solemn feasts of saints, 
four; and on ferials at least two, of convenient size. 

The Ambrosian colour-sequence is of the Galilean 
type. White is used from vespers of Christmas Day 
to the octave of the Epiphan}' (feasts of martyrs only 
excepted) : from the blessing of the pascall on Easter 
Even inclusive, to Low Sunday exclusively. From 



INTRODUCTION XXXV 

the vigil of the Ascension, to Whitsun Eve exclusive 
(feasts of saints excepted). On feasts of our Lady (ex- 
cept at the blessing of candles, and the Candlemas 
procession) : in votive mass of our Lady, and also at 
the mass of the Holy Trinity the colour conforms to 
the office of the day. On feasts of angels, the 
Nativity of St. John Baptist. All Hallows' Day ; on the 
sixth Sunday in Advent, St. John Ev. at Christmas- 
tide, the Chairs of St. Peter, Transfiguration 
confessors who were bishops, doctors, or 
priests; virgins not martyrs; and on the 
Dedication festivals. Red is used on the vigil of 
Pentecost at mass: Whitsunday and throughout the 
octave; on Sundays and ferias after Pentecost till 
vespers of the Saturday before the Dedication Sunday 
exclusively; Corpus Christi and during the octave 
(unless it occurs in the octave of St. John the Baptist) ; 
the Circumcision; from Saturday in traditione 
symholi till the uncovering of the altars on Good 
Friday (except that on Maundy Thursday, if the 
archbishop consecrates the holy oils, at the cathedral 
Church, Avhite is worn by the priests and ministers 
that assist and communicate); on feasts and votive 
masses of the Holy Cross; of the apostles (except St. 
John Ev. at Christmas, the Conversion of St. Paul, 
and both Chairs of St. Peter) ; Childermas ; on days of 
martyrs of both sexes ; at solemn votive masses of the 
Holy Spirit, and the aforementioned saints; and at 
provincial and diocesan Councils. 



XXXVl INTRODUCTION 

Green is used on Sundays and ferias, from the 
Octave of the Epiphany till Septuagesima exclu- 
sively; on Low Sundays, and until the vigil of the 
Ascension exclusively; on Sundays and ferias after 
the Dedication Sunday, until Advent exclusively ; on 
the feasts of St. Anthony and other abbots, and of 
confessors who were not priests. 

Violet is used on Sundays and ferias in Advent up 
to the Vigil of Christmas exclusively (except on the 
sixth Sunday); on Septuagesima Sunday till Satur- 
day in traditione symholi exclusively; on feasts 
of matrons; at the blessing of candles and 
the procession on Candlemas Day, and of 
palm on Palmsunday; and, generally speaking, 
in all processions except those of the Blessed 
Sacrament, that are not held immediately before 
high mass (for then the colour appropriate to 
the mass is to be used), and those made on solemn 
days ; on all vigils except those of Christmas, the Epi- 
phany, Easter, the Ascension, and Pentecost. 

Black ma}^ be used instead of violet on any day 
for which that colour is appointed. But it is specially 
suitable for Lenten ferias till Saturday in traditione 
symboli exclusively, at masses and services for the 
departed; and at masses on Litany and Rogation 
days. 



THE ORDINARY OF 
THE MASS 

Tlie priest being ready, with his ministers, the deacon, 
and the suhdeacon, they froceed to mass in the following 
order. First goes the censer-collet with a smoking censer in 
his right hand, and another, with the shif and incense in 
his left. Then follow two taferer-collets with lighted tapers; 
next the suhdeacon alone, '^ the deacon alone, and lastly 
the celebrant alone, with covered head; the other ministers 
going before him with uncovered heads. On arriving at 
the lowest ste]) before the altar, standing between the 
deacon on his right, and the subdeacon on his left, the 
priest signs himself luith the sign of the Cross, saying 
with a clear voice : 

In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
the Holy Ghost. 

' At the metropolitan church the censer and lights are not carried 
in by collets but by the subdeacon : who, going before the deacon, 
carries in his right hand a candlestick (which they call cantarium) 
with a lighted taper, and in his left a smoking censer. When they 
have come into the quire, after giving the censer to the censer- 
collet, he sets the caudle on the right-hand corner of the altar in 
front (that is, at the gospel end), and then descends to say the 
confession, etc. At the end of the "prayer over the people" he 
returns, in the same manner, with the deacon to the sacristy (Ruh. 
gen., § xxxvi, n. 2). 



38 LITURGY 

The ministers answer: 
Amen. 



Then, with his hands joined before his breast, he begins 
the anthem : 

I will oo unto the altar of God. 



The ministers answer: 

Even unto God who is the joy of my youth. 

Priest: 

give thanks unto the Lord, for he is gracious. 

Ministers : 

Because his mercy endureth for ever. 

The same priest then, irith hands joined and profoundly 
inelining, makes confession as follows: 

1 confess unto God Almighty, to blessed Mary 
ever a Virgin, to blessed Michael the archangel, to 
blessed John the Baptist, to the holy apostles Peter 
and Paul, to blessed Ambrose the confessor, to all 
saints, and to you, brethren: that I have sinned 
exceedingly in thought, word, and deed, (here he 
thrice heats his breast, sauinn )by my fault, by my fault, 
bv mv ofrievous fault. Therefore I beg blessed Marv 



LITURGY 39 

ever a Virgin, blessed Michael the archangel, blessed 
John the Baptist, the holy apostles Peter and Paul, 
blessed Ambrose the confessor, all saints, and you, 
brethren, to pray for me unto the Lord our God. 

The ministers answer: 

Thanks be to God. 

Almighty God have mercy upon thee: and, 
having forgiven thee all thy sins, lead thee to life 
eternal. 

The priest, raisinff himself, says: 
Amen. 

Then the ministers repeat the confession. But 
where the Priest said to you, brethren, and you, 
brethren, they say: to thee, father, and thee, father. 

.-If the end the priest says: 
Thanks be to God. 

After which, standing with hands joined, as above, he 
says : 

Almighty God have mercy upon you: and, 
having forgiven you all your sins, lead you to life 
eternal. 



40 LITURGY 

The ministers answer: 
Amen. 

Then he signs himself, standing as hejore, and says : 

The Almighty and merciful Lord grant us 
pardon, absolution, and remission of all our sins. 

The ministers answer: 
Amen. 

The priest again signs himself, standing in the same 
manner, and saying : 

Y- Our help standeth in the name of the Lord. 
157. Who hath made heaven and earth. 

Then, inclining, he says, with joined hands: 

Y- Blessed be the name of the Lord. 
if- From this time forth for evermore. 

Then, inclining as before, he says secretly : 

I beseech thee, most hisjh God of Hosts, Holy 
Father, that I may be able to intercede for my sins, 
and to win pardon of sins for those standing by, and 
to present the peace-offerings of each. 



LITURGY 41 

He approaches the altar, and, incUninfj, says: 

We pray Thee, O Lord, by the merits of Thy 

saints (he makes the sign of the Cross in the midst of the 
altar, and kisses it, saying) whose relics are here, and 
of all saints, vouchsafe to pardon all my sins. Amen. 

Tlten the celebrant puts incense into the censer, the 
deacon ministering to him with the ship, and the sub- 
deacon with the censer. The deacon, therefore, offers him 
the ship, saying : Bless, reverend father, this incense. 
Then he, having tier ice put incense into the censer, and 
replacing the spoon in the ship, makes the sign of the 
Cross over the incense in the censer, saying : Mayest thou 
be ])lessed by Him, in whose honour thou art about 
to be burnt. Then the deacon takes the censer from the 
subdeacon, and gives it to the priest, first kissing his right 
hand : and the p>riest censes the altar. 

After which, the deacon receives the censer again 
from the celebrant, and censes him alone. And then the 
celebrant goes to the epistle corner of the altar, where, 
after signing himself with the sign of the Cross, he begins 
the Ingressa. 

Meanwhile, at the entrance of the celebrant and his 
ministers, the Ingressa is sung by the choir. 

[Ingressa on the feast of the Epiphany.^ 

The city hath no need of the sun neither of the 
moon to shine on it : for the brightness of God doth 

■ Apoc. xxi, 23, 24. 



42 LITURGY 

lighten it. And the nations shall walk in the light 
of it : and the kings of the earth offer up their bright- 
ness in it.] 

Haviiuj read the Tngressa, the celehrant, extending 
raising, and joining his hands, says: 

Y' The Lord be with you. 
^. And with thy spirit. 

Afterwards, extending, and joining his hands, and 
inclining his head, he says (if it is to be said) : Glory to 
God in the highest. As he says: we worship thee, 
and we give thanks unto thee, and Christ Jesus, c(,nd 
receive our humble prayer, he hows his head toward the 
Cross. And at the end, as he says : with the holy Spirit, 
he signs himself with the sign of the Cross. 

The Priest: 

Glory to God in the highest. 

The choir or the cantors continue: 

And on earth be peace towards men of goodwill. 
We praise Thee, we bless Thee, we worship Thee. We 
glorify Thee, we give thanks unto Thee for Thy great 
glory. O Lord God, Heavenly King, God the Father 
almighty. Lord, the only-begotten Son, Christ 
Jesus. O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father. 
That takest away the world's sins, have mercy upon 
us. Thou that takest away the world's sins, receive 
our humble prayer. Thou that sittest at the Father's 



LITURGY 43 

right-hand, have mercy upon us. For Thou only art 
holy, Thou only art the Lord, Thou only art most 
high, Christ Jesus, with the holy Spirit, in the glory 
of God the Father. Amen. 

Have mercy, Lord. Have mercy, O Lord. 
Have mercy, O Lord. 

Glory to God in the highest is not said thj'oughout 
Lent. But after the above y. and I^'. the deacoii says 
the following Preces, the choir making answer with. 
Lord, have mercy^ ; and at the end moreover thrice ivith, 
Have mercy, Lord.^ 

ON THE 1st, 3rd, and 5th Sundays. 

Y' Entreating for the gift of divine peace, 
and of pardon, with all our heart and with all our 
mind, we beseech Thee. 

I^. Lord, have mercy. 

Y- For thy holy catholic Church, here and 
scattered throughout the whole world, we beseech 
Thee. 

I^. Lord, have mercy. 

Y' For our Pope,^ N, and our Pontiff, N, and 

' Domine miserere. 

- Kyrie eleison. This is, of course, the Greek for Lord, have mercy: 
and I have translated it in the order in the text merely to dis- 
tinguish between this and the response in Latin with exactly the 
same meaning. 

^ In the tenth century this clause ran: For our pope N, and all his 
clergy, intending by "our pope" the Archbishop of Milan. 



44 LITURGY 

all their clergy, and all priests and ministers, we 
beseech Thee. 

I^. Lord, have mercy. 

y. For Thy servants, A^, our Emperor, and 
N, the King, our Duke, and all their armies, we 
beseech Thee. 

I^. Lord, have mercy. 

y. For the peace of the churches, the calling 
of the gentiles, and the quiet of the people, we beseech 
Thee. 

I^. Lord, have mercy. 

y. For this city and its conversation, and for 
all that dwell therein, we beseech Thee. 

R:. Lord, have mercy. 

y. For seasonable weather, and for the fruits and 
increase of the earth, we beseech Thee. 

I^^ Lord, have mercy. 

y. For virgins, widows, orphans, captives and 
penitents, we beseech Thee. 

I^. Lord, have mercy. 

y. For all that travel by water or by land, for 
those in prisons, in bonds, condemned to the mines, 
or sent into exile, we beseech Thee. 

I^. Lord, have mercy. 



LITURGY 45 

Y' For these who are afflicted with clivers 
iniirmitievS, and who are vexed witli unclean spirits, 
we beseech Thee. 

J^. Lord, have mercy. 

Y' For these who in Thy holy Church distribute 
the fruits of mercy, we beseech Thee. 

^. Lord, have mercy. 

Y' Hear us, God, in all our prayers and 
supplications, we beseech Thee. 

If- Lord, have mercy. 

Y' Let us all say. 

^' Lord, have mercy. Have mercy, O Lord. 
Have mercy, Lord. Have mercv, O Lord. 



On the 2nd and 4th Sundays 
They are not said on Palmsunday 

Y' Let us all say. 

^. Have mercy, Lord. 

Y' Lord, almighty God of our fathers. 

I?. Have mercy, O Lord. 

Y' For Thy holy Catholic Church, that Thou 
mayest vouchsafe to preserve it. 

^- Have me^C5^ Lord. 



46 LITURGY 

y. For our Pope, A^, and our Pontiff, A^, and 
their priests. 

I^. Have mercy, O Lord. 

y. lor all bishops, the whole clergy, and the 
people. 

I^". Have mercy, Lord. 

y. For Thy servants, N. the Emperor, and 
N. the King, our Duke, and all their armies. 

I^-. Have mercy, O Lord. 

y. For this city, and all who dwell therein. 

R:. Have mercy, Lord. 

y. For seasonable weather, and for the increase 
of the earth. 

1^7. Have mercy, Lord. 

Y- Deliver us, Thou who didst deliver the 
children of Israel. 

Ifr, Have mercy, Lord. 

y. With a strong hand, and a mighty arm. 

1^'. Have mercy, O Lord. 

y. O Lord, arise, help us, and deliver us for 
thy Name's sake. 

R". Have mercy, Lord. Have mercy, O Lord. 
Have mercy, Lord. 



LITURGY 47 

Then the Priest says: 

Y' The Lord be with you. 

To which shall alivays he made answer: 
If. And with thy spirit. 

AJter this he says the Prayer (or prayers) over the 
people, according as the order of the service requires. 

[Prayer super populum on the jeast oj the Ejji'phany. 

O God, who hast hallowed this day of election by 
the first-fruits of the Gentiles, and by the star of thy 
light hast plainly showed Thyself unto us : grant, we 
beseech Thee, that the new and marvellous bright- 
ness of the heavens may ever arise in our hearts; 
who livest and reignest with God the Father in the 
unity of the holy Spirit, God, for ever and ever. 

if. Amen.] 

Towards the end of the '' yrayer over the 'people,'' a 
reader, vested in a surplice, takes the hook of the lessons 
in hoth hands, and cari'ying it hefore his breast goes to 
the amho (or to the midst hefore the altar), and there 
standing with his face toivards the altar, himself holding 
his hook, sings the title of the lesson: then, howing towards 
the celehrant, asks a blessing, saying in a subdued voice: 
Deign, sir, to bless, signing himself with the sign of the 



48 LITURGY 

Cross. The celebrant blesses him, saying (if the lesson 
be from the Old Testament) : May the prophetic lesson 
be to thee an instruction in salvation ; but if it be from 
the New Testament: May the apostolic lesson be to 
thee an instruction in salvation. And then the lesson 
is read, the celebrant and his ministers sitting. 

[The Prophetic Lesson for the feast of the Epiphany. 

Isaiah Ix, 1-6: Arise, shine, O Jerusalem; for 
thy light is come. . . . and they shall shew forth 
the praises of the Lord.] 

After the lesson is sung the Psalmellus, and while 
it is in singing the subdeacon goes to the cunbo, a minister 
hearing the book of epistles before him. 

[Psalmellus for the feast of the Epiphany."^ 

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel : who only doeth 
great w^onders for ever. 

y. Let the mountains bring peace unto thy 
people. 

I^. He shall abase the oppressor: and he shall 
endure with the sun, and before the moon, from one 
generation to another: and shall come down like the 
rain into a fleece of wool, and as the show'ers that 
drop upon the earth.] 

• Ps. Ixxi (72), vv. 18; 3-6. 



LITURGY 49 

On arriving at the avibo (or the epistle corner of the 
altar, below the steps) the suhdeacon, turning towards the 
altar, sings the title of the epistle. Then bowing pro- 
foundly towards the celebrant, he asks of him a blessing, 
saying silently: Deign, sir, to bless. The priest in like 
manner, standing up, and making the sign of the Cross 
with his right hand, answers : May the apostolic teach- 
ing fill thee with divine grace. After which the priest 
and deacon sit down, while the subdeacon reads the epistle. 

[The Epistle for the feast of the Epiphany.^ 

Titus ii, 11 — iii, 2: Dearly beloved, the grace of 
God our Saviour hath appeared to all men . . . 
showing meekness unto all men.] 

After the epistle is sung the Halleluyah and Verse, 
or the Cantus, according to the season. 

[Halleluyah and Verse for the feast of the Epiphany} 

Halleluyah, halleluyah. y. There came wise 
men from the East to Jerusalem, saying: Where is he 
that is born King of the Jews ? Halleluyah. 

' The choice of this passage for the epistle on the feast of the Epiphany 
is perhaps due to the opening words, Apparuit gratia. One of the 
old names for this day was Apparitio Domini. 

' St. Matth. ii, 1, 2. 



50 LITURGY 

Cantus jor the second Sunday in Lent.' 

If the Lord had not been on our side, now may 
Israel say : If the Lord had not been on our side. 

y, 1. Our soul is escaped out of the snare of the 
fowler: the snare is broken, and we are delivered. 

y . 2. Our help standeth in the Name of the Lord ; 
who hath made heaven and earth.] 

This done, the deacon takes the gospels' -book, goes up 
to the midst of the altar, and setting the book down there, 
kneels on the topmost step, and says: 

God almighty, who didst cleanse the lips of 
Isaiah the prophet with a live coal, ^ cleanse my heart 
and my lips: so vouchsafe to cleanse me, of thy 
favouring mercy, that I may be able worthily to pro- 
claim thy holy Gospel. Through Christ our Lord. 

Then taking up the book, he goes to the place where 
the gospel is to be sung, either the ambo, or else the gospel 
corner of the altar below the steps. There proceed thither 
two collets, one carrying a smoking censer, and the other 
the ship ; and two others each carrying a lighted candle ; 
and then the subdeacon alone, and last of all the deacon. 
On his arrival there the deacon says: 

y. The Lord be with you. 

• Ps. cxxiii (124), 1, 7, 8. 
■^ Isaiah vi, 6, 7. 



LITURGY 51 

P7. And with thy spirit. 

The Deacon: 

The lesson of the Holy Gospel according to St. N. 

Then, afte?^ making the sign of the Cross on the book, and 
on his forehead, mouth, and breast, he turns and bows 
toward the celebrant (who is standing by the midst of the 
altar turned towards the deacon) and says silently: 
Deign, sir, to bless. The celebrant, making the sign of 
the Cross clearly with his right hand, blesses him, saying 
silently: The Lord be in thy heart and on thy lips, 
that thou mayest worthily and duly proclaim his 
gospel: In the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Spirit. The deacon then taking the 
censer, censes the book thrice; and after giving it back to 
him from whom he took it, reads the gospel. 

On certain solemn feasts, before the y. The 
Lord be with you, there is sung an Anthem before the 
Gospel. 

[The Anthems before the Gospel are: 
On Christmas Day, at the third mass. 

Glory to God in the highest, and on the earth be 
peace. Halleluyah, Halleluyah, Halleluyah. 



52 LITURGY 

On the feast of the Epiphany. 

In Bethlehem of Judaea was the Saviour born. 
Herod was troubled : the whole world rejoiceth. John, 
bearing record by the river Jordan, saith: He that 
cometh after me is preferred before me. 

On Easter Day. 

Praise ye the Lord from the heavens : praise him 
in the heights, ye angels of His; for to-day hath the 
Lord arisen, and redeemed His people. Halleluyah, 
Halleluyah.] 

[The Holy Gospel on the feast of the Epiphany. 

St. Matt, ii, 1-12: Now when Jesus was born in 
Bethlehem . . . into their own country another 

way.] 

After the gospel the choir answer: 

Praise be to Thee, Christ. 

[On the feast of the Epiphany only, immediately 
after the gospel, the deacon announces the day and the 
month on which Easter is to fall that year, as follows : 

Your charity should know, dearly beloved 
brethren, that, with the assent of God, and by the 
mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, we shall keep the 



LITURGY 53 

Pascha of the Lord with joy on the day of the 

month of . 

I^. Thanks be to God.] 

// there is to be a sermon, it shall follow here, after 
the gospel: the deacon and subdeacon meanwhile sitting 
in the presbytery with the celebrant. 

A t the end of the gospel (or of the sermon if there be 
one ) the priest returns to the midst of the altar, and con- 
tinues the mass, saying: 

y. The Lord be with you. 

I^. And with thy spirit. Have mercy, O Lord; 
have mercy, O Lord; have mercy, O Lord. 

Then, with joined hands, he reads the Anthem after 
the Gospel, if it is to be read. 

Meanwhile the deacon and subdeacon, together with 
the collets, having made the usual reverence in the midst 
before the altar, proceed to the sacristy, or to some other 
place appointed for it. There the deacon, first taking 
the burse with the corporas j^laced within it, carries it, 
with his hands raised up to his face, to the altar: and, 
having made the usual reverence before it, goes up to it, 
and taking the corporas out of the burse, spreads it in 
the midst of the altar, setting the burse on the altar in a 



54 LITURGY 

suitable place : then, having made again the usual rever- 
ence, he goes to his place at the right-hand corner of the 
altar, so that he may say there, at the proper time: 

Have ye peace ! 

I^. To Thee, Lord. 

The subdeacon follows afterwards, carrying the 
chalice with the pateji, the host and the pall, covered with 
the ends of the Continentia, or veil hanging around his 
neck, and sets them on the altar towards the epistle end; 
at the same time a collet follows after the subdeacon with 
the bason, and cruets, one of water and the other of wine, 
covered with some decent veil ; which he also sets down on 
the altar at the same end. 

During this procession the choir sings the Anthem 
after the Gospel. 

[Anthem after the Gospel on the feast of the Epiphany} 

When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea; 
behold, there came wise men from the East to Jeru- 
salem, saying: Where is he that is born King of the 
Jews? For we have seen his star, and are come to 
worship Him.] 

Then the priest says again : 

The Lord be with you. 

' St. Matt, ii, 1, 2. 



LITURGY 55 

If. And with thy spirit. 

And immediately he says the Prayer over the 
sindon, 2vith extended hands. 

[Prayer over the Sindon on the feast of the 
Epiphany. 

Grant, we beseech thee, almighty God; that, as 
all nations come with gladness to worship Christ, 
born King and Lord ; so also this glorious light may 
ever dwell in us ; Through the same our Lord.] 

During the ofjerincj of the gifts the choir sing the 
offertory. 

[Offertory for the feast of the Epiphany."^ 

In his days shall righteousness flourish: and 
abundance of peace, so long as the moon be exalted. 

Y' He shall have dominion also from sea unto 
sea : and from the river unto the ends of the earth. 

And abundance of peace, so long as the moon be 
exalted.] 

The Prayer over the sindon said, the deacon, 
taking the chalice from the hand of the subdeacon, places 
it on the altar on the epistle side, uncovers it, and gives 

' Ps. Ixxi (72), 7, 8. 



56 LITURGY 

the paten with the host thereon to the celebrant: tcho offers 
it, saying: 

Receive, most merciful Father, this holy bread ; 
that it may become the Body of thine Only-begotten 
One, in the name of the Father, >i« and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Spirit. Amen. 

Meanwhile, the deacon, having received the cruet of 
wine from the hand of the svhdeacon, pours wine into the 
chalice, having previously wiped it out with the purifica- 
tory, saying: From the side of Christ there flowed 
forth blood. The suMeacon, meanwhile, carrying the cruet 
of water in his right hand, and holding it towards the cele- 
brant, says: Bless, reverend father. A7id he, making 
the sign of the Cross towards it, says: And water like- 
wise, in the name of the Father, ^ and of the Son, and 
of the Holy Spirit, Amen ; and then the subdeacon pours 
a little water into the chalice. Then the deacon hands 
the chalice to the celebrant, and holding it by the foot 
together with the celebrant, at the same time says : 

Receive, most merciful Father, this chalice, 
wine mingled with water; that it may become the 
Blood of thine only-begotten One, in the name of the 
Father, ^ and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit. 
Amen. 

Then the chalice being set down on the altar, he covers 
it with the pall; and then withdraws to the right corner 



LITURGY 57 

of the altar, the suhdeacon in like manner going to the 
other corner. 

In the metropolitan church of Milan, the celebrant 
having sung the Prayer over the sindon, goes down to 
the entrance to the presbytery or upper quire; the deacon 
being on one side of him, and the suhdeacon on the other, 
and two collets with tivo silver vessels going before him. 
There the deacon and subdeacon, standing on either side, 
hold open a sindon before him, as he receives the offerings 
of bread and ivine, ivhich tico old men of the School of St. 
Ambrose, accompanied by the rest of the old men of the 
same School, bring and offer. When the celebrant has 
arrived at the entrance of the quire, one of the two old 
men having made a reverence to the altar and to the cele- 
brant, approaches him, hearing in his right hand three 
hosts, and in his left a silver vessel full of ivhite wine. 
Then he says: Bless, reverend father; and the celebrant 
replies: The Lord bless thee, and this thy gift, in the 
name of the Father, ^ and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Spirit; and he answers: Amen. Then he makes the 
sign of the Cross over the gift, and offers the old man his 
maniple to kiss, and with his right hand takes the hosts 
from the old mans hand, and gives them to the subdeacon 
to be placed in the howl. Meanwhile, the deacon takes the 
vessel of ivine from the same old man's hand, and pours it 
into the other bowl. Then the offering of the other old 
man is received in the same manner. After this the cele- 
brant goes down to the entrance of the senatorium or lower 
quire, and there he receives the offerings of the ivomen, 



58 LITURGY 

presented by two old women of the same School. When he 
has received these offerings, the celebrant returns to the 
altar and continues the mass. 

The chalice being set on the corporas and covered with 
the pall, the celebrant, profoundly inclining, with his 
hands joined and placed on the altar, says : 

Almighty, everlasting God, may this offering be 
pleasing and acceptable unto thee, which I, unworthy 
though I be, offer to thy tenderness, for myself, a 
miserable sinner, and for my countless offences ; that 
thou ma3'est grant me pardon and remission of all 
my sins; and look not upon my iniquities, but let 
thy mercy alone be good to me, an unworthy man: 
through Christ our Lord. 

Then standing, with his hands extended, he continues: 

And receive, Holy Trinity, this offering whicn 
we offer to thee for the guiding and keeping and the 
unity of the Catholic Faith: and for the reverence 
also of blessed Mary who brought forth God,^ as well 
as of all thy saints : and for the health and safety of thy 
servants and handmaidens, and of all for whom we 
have undertaken to beg thy mercy, and whose alms 
we have received, and of all faithful Christians, both 
quick and dead; that, by thy compassion, they may 

' Dei genetrix. 



LITURGY 59 

receive remission of all sin. and oljtain the rewards 
of everlasting bliss, by continuing faithfully to praise 
thee, to the glory and honour of thy name, God, 
most merciful Creator of things: (here he joins his 
hands ) ihTOUgh Christ our Lord. 

Then on Sundays, and solemn feasts of the Lord, and 
their vigils, and when the mass is of the saints (unless it 
be a votive one, however solemn ), this prayer follows in 
like manner: 

Eeceive. holy Trinity, this offering which we 
offer to thee as a memorial of the Passion, Resurrec- 
tion, and Ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ, and in 
honour of all thy saints who have pleased thee since 
the world began : and of those whose festival is being 
kept this day. and of those whose names, and relics, 
are here ; that it may be to them for honour, but to us 
for salvation : that all those may deign to intercede for 
us in heaven, whose memorial we make on earth. 
(here he joins his hands I Through the same Christ Our 
Lord. 

Spreadina his hands out over the offerinas, he continues: 

And receive. holy Trinity, this offering for my 
cleansincr : that thou mayest make me clean and pure 
from ever}' spot of sin. so that I may worthily 
minister unto thee. God, and most merciful Lord. 



60 LITURGY 

He blesses the offerings, continuing : 

The blessing of God Almighty, the »i< Father, the 
»i< Son, and the holy ►!< Spirit, descend al)undantly on 
this our ofTering : and may this offering be acceptable 
unto thee, O holy Lord, Father almighty, everlasting 
God, most pitiful Creator of things. 

Then the celebrant puts incense in the censer, the 
deacon ministering to him with the ship and the subdeacon 
ivith the censer, saying : 

By the intercession of blessed Michael the arch- 
angel, standing on the right-hand of the altar of 
incense, and of all his chosen ones, may the Lord 
vouchsafe to bless this incense, and to receive it for a 
sweet savour. Through Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Then, taking the censer from the deacon, he censes the 
offerings, saying: 

May this incense, blessed by thee, ascend unto 
thee, O Lord ; and may thy mercy come down upon 
us. 

After this he censes the altar, saying: 

Let my prayer, O Lord, be set forth as incense in 
thy sight: and the lifting up of my hands as an even- 
ing sacrifice. Set a watch, O Lord, before my mouth, 



LITURGY 61 

and a door of surrounding before my lips; that my 
heart be not inclined to words of malice, to make 
excuses for the excuses in sins.^ 

When he has made an end o] censing the altar, he gives 
the censer hack to the deacon, saying : 

Behold, the smell of the saints of God : is as the 
smell of a fruitful field which God hath blessed.^ 

The deacon then censes the celebrant : and afterwards 
goes round, censing behind the altar, and coming to the 
gospel-corner makes the sign of the Cross over the corner 
of the altar in front with tlie censer, kisses the place, 
hands the censer to the subdeacon, and returns to his own 
2)lace. Meanwhile, the celebrant reads the Offertory, and 
then extending and again joining his hands, says: 

Y' The Lord be with you. 
I?r. And with thy spirit. 

The priest then intones the creed of Constantin- 
ople : I believe in one God (which is then sung through- 
out by the choir or by the cantors, but not alternated with 
organ interludes): extending, raising and joining his 
hands as he does so. A t the ivords : in one God : Jesus 
Christ: together is worshipped and glorified, he bows 

• Ps. cxl, 2-4. 
- Gen. xxvii, 27. 



62 LITURGY 

his head; and when he comes to: and was incarnate, 
he genuflects as far as : Also he was Giwcified, and at : 
the life of the w^orld to come, he signs himself with the 
sign of the Cross. 

I believe in one God, 

The Father almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, 
and of all things visible and invisible. And in one 
Lord, Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, 
begotten of his Father before all worlds: God of God, 
Light of Light, very God of very God. Begotten, not 
made; being of one substance with the Father, by 
whom were all things made. Who, for us men, and 
for our salvation, came down from heaven (here the 
Priest genuflects) and was incarnate by the Holy 
Spirit of the Virgin Mary, and was made man. (He 
rises, and continues.) Also he was crucified for us 
under Pontius Pilate, he suffered, and was buried. 
And the third day he rose again according to the 
Scriptures, and ascended into heaven ; he sitteth at 
the Father's right hand, and shall come again with 
glory to judge the quick and the dead: whose king- 
dom shall have no end. And (I believe) in the Holy 
Spirit, the Lord, and the Life-giver: who proceedeth 
from the Father, and the Son: w^ho with the Father 
and the Son together is worshipped and glorified: 
who spake by the prophets. And (I believe) one, 
holy, catholic, and apostolic Church: I acknowledge 
one baptism for the remission of sins. And I look for 



LITURGY 63 

the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world 
to come. Amen. 

y. The Lord be with you. 
I^. And with thy spirit. 

Then, with hands extended, lie reads the Prayer 
over the offerings. 

[Prayer over the Offerings on the feast of 
the Epiphany. 

We offer unto thee, Lord, the sacrifice of praise, 
for the manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ, and 
for the beginnings of our calling ; renewing the sacra- 
ment of thy tenderness on this day's festival; and 
we beseech thee favourably to accept it : through the 
same Christ Jesus thy Son, our Lord, who liveth and 
reigneth with thee in the unity of the Holy Spirit, 
God, for ever and ever. Amen.] 

After: And was made man, the deacon rises and 
goes doicn into the quire before the midst of the altar, and 
receives the censer from the hands of the thurifer ; and 
then turning towards the choir censes all standing there, 
beginning with the highest dignitary present: this done, 
he returns to the midst of the quire before the altar, and 
censes the subdeacon: after which he gives back the censer 
to the thurifer, and going to his own place is himself 



64 LITURGY 

censed by him there ; and then he censes the people outside 
the screen of the quire. 

At the end of the " prayer over the offerings,'' as he 
says: for ever and ever, the priest places his hands on 
the altar; then raises them a little towards his breast as 
he says : Lift up your hearts. Joining them he bows his 
head as he says: Let us give. Thence onward he sepa- 
rates them till the end of the preface, when he again joins 
them before his breast as he bows, saying: Holy, holy. 

y. The Lord be with you. 
I^. And with thy spirit. 

y. Lift up your hearts. 

If. We lift them up unto the Lord. 

y. Let us give thanks to the Lord our God. 

I}7. It is meet and right so to do. 

[Preface for the feast of the Epiphany} 

J' For it is truly meet and right, proper and 
healthful, that we should alway give thanks unto 
thee, here and everywhere, holy Lord, Father 
almighty, everlasting God : Who in a voice of thunder 
from the heavens didst manifest thyself to us over 
Jordan's bed, that thou mightest point out the 

' There is a proper preface for every mass in the Ambrosian rite. 



LITURGY 65 

heavenly Saviour, and show thyself to be the Father 
of the eternal Light; thou didst open the heavens, 
thou didst bless the air, thou didst cleanse the water; 
and by the Holy Spirit in the likeness of a dove thou 
didst proclaim thine only Son. To-day the waters 
receive thy blessing, and take away our curse : so 
as to exhibit to believers the cleansing of all sins, and 
to make them Sons of God by adoption unto life 
eternal. For they whom a carnal Inrth brought forth 
into life in this world, they whom Death had seized 
through their transgression; these eternal Life hath 
regained, and called back to the glory of the kingdom 
of heaven; through the same Christ our Lord, 
*throughwhom angels praise thy majesty, archangels 
do it reverence; Thrones, Dominions, Virtues, Prin- 
cipalities and Powers worship it. fWhom Cherubim 
and Seraphim with mutual exultation hymn together. 
With whom, we beseech thee, let our voices also be 
joined, in humble confession, saying: 

SGML FURTHER EXAMPLES GF PREFACES 

2nd Sunday m Advent. 

y. For it is truly meet and right, proper and 
healthful, that we should alway give thanks unto 
thee, here and everywhere, G holy Lord, Father 
almighty, everlasting God, through Christ our Lord, 
by whose Incarnation the world's salvation was 
accomplished, by whose Passion the redemption 



66 LITURGY 

of the children of men was procured. May he him- 
self, we beseech thee, conduct us to the eternal 
reward, who redeemed us from the darkness of hell : 
and may he justify us at his second coming, who 
redeemed us in his first: that his exaltation may 
defend us from all evil, whose humiliation hath raised 
us to life: ^through whom the angels praise thy 
Majesty, etc. 

Jfth Sunday in Lent. 

y. For it is truly meet and right, proper and 
healthful, that we should give thanks unto thee, 
Lord, that dwellest in the lofty citadel of the heavens, 
and should acknowledge thee with our whole mind. 
For by thee, when the world's blindness was taken 
away, the true Light shone out upon the weakly : 
since among the miracles of thy many powers, thou 
didst command a man, blind from birth, to see: in 
whom the human race, stained with original blind- 
ness of the mind, was typified, a figure of what was 
to be. For by that bathing-pool of Siloam, to which 
that blind man was sent, is signified none other than 
the sacred Font, where not merely bodily eyes but the 
whole man is made whole : through Christ our Lord, 
^through whom the angels praise thy Majesty, etc. 

5th Sunday in Lent. 

y. For it is truly meet and right, proper and 
healthful, that we should always give thanks unto 



LITURGY 67 

Thee, here and everywhere, O holy Lord, Father 
almighty, everlasting God, through Christ our Lord: 
who by the matchless glory of Majesty hath wrought 
so many miracles on earth : amongst which, he 
delivered Lazarus, by the power of deepest pity, 
though he had been dead four days, from the bond 
of the grave. For already lay he at rest, su))jected to 
most noisome foulness, buried in the black ab3^ss of 
earth, bound in grave clothes. Whose previous 
decease, through the repose of death-sleep, the Lord 
presently disclosed to his disciples in clear words: 
and with tender recjard reminding them of their 
friend, he hastened to the closed mouth of his cave: 
and then, while the Jewish multitude stood by, with 
tearful eyes he groaned and wept. what a won- 
drous demonstration! that the Maker of the heavens 
should deign to weep before his servant's tomb! 
how great and saving that mystery, w^hich, by the 
resurrection of Lazarus, as a token, is prefigured! He, 
destroyed^ by the corruption of his body, through the 
power of the heavenly King at once arose to life. We, 
moreover, buried by the first man's fall, have been set 
free from Hell, and, coming to life again, are brought 
back to joys eternal, by the divine grace of Christ; 
w^hom the angels praise, archangels reverence; 
Thrones, Dominions, Virtues, Principalities and 
Powers worship. fWhom Cherubim, etQ. 

' Or, whose dissolution had taken place. 



68 LITURGY 

On Easter Day. 

Y' For it is truly meet and right, proper and 
healthful, that we should give thanks to thee, O holy, 
almighty God, that we should render devout praises 
to thee, glorious Father, Author and Maker of all 
things. For though thy Son, Christ Jesus, was the 
Lord of Majesty, yet to deliver the human race he 
vouchsafed to submit to the Cross: w^hom erstwhile 
Abraham foreshadowed in his son, whom Moses' fol- 
lowers prefigured in the spotless Lamb, ior he it is 
whom the sacred trumpet of the prophets proclaimed: 
who bore the sins of all, and took away their iniqui- 
ties. This is that Passover, ennobled by the blood 
of Christ, in which his faithful people rejoice with 
special devotion. mystery full of grace! O 
ineffable sacrament of a gift divine ! festival, of all 
festivals worthy to be honoured 1 in which, to redeem 
his servants, he offered himself to be slain by mortal 
men. How blessed indeed that death, w^hich untied 
the knots of death ! Now at length the prince of Hell 
perceives that he is crushed : and we, having been led 
out of the stain of the Deep, give thanks for having 
mounted up to the heavenly kingdom. And there- 
fore with angels and archangels, with Thrones and 
Dominions, and with the w^hole complement of the 
heavenly army, we sing a h^^mn to thy glory, ever- 
more saying: 



LITURGY 69 

Whitsunday, at the mass for the ne^vly -baptized, 
in the winter-church. 

T- For it is truly meet and right, proper and 
healthful, that we should always give thanks unto 
thee, here and everywhere, O holy Lord, Father 
almighty, everlasting God: for to-day we celebrate 
the coming of tiie Holy Spirit, who imparted to the 
princes of the new-born Church both the knowledge 
of the Godhead, and speech, since all nations were to 
be initiated into: he, the wonderful worker of unity 
in a diversity of gifts, and distributer of varied 
graces, the same is both the cause of the one Faith, 
and himself the treasurer of the tongues of the 
preachers: wherefore with entrancing gladness the 
whole wide world rejoices; and the heavenly Virtues 
join with the angelic Powers in singing with one 
accord a hymn to thy glory, unceasingly, evermore 
saying: 

On the feast of St. Martin, 11 November. 

Y- For it is truly meet and right, proper and 
healthful, that we should honour thee, O Lord, in the 
praises of thy blessed bishop and confessor Martin, 
Who, filled with the gift of thy Holy Spirit, was so 
found perfect in the very beginning of his faith, that 
he clothed Christ in the poor man, and with the gar- 
ment which the needy one accepted, clad the Lord of 
the world. O happy bounty, which the Godhead 



70 LITURGY 

wrought! glorious partition of the cloak, which 
clothed the soldier, and the King! Worthily didst 
thou bestow on him the rewards of confessing thee : 
worthily was the fierceness of the xVrians made sub- 
ject to him : worthily had he no fear of the torments 
of the persecutor, tranquilly sustained by so great a 
love of martyrdom. How great, think we, will be the 
glcTification of his passion ; when did there exist a 
part of a cloak so precious ? And what shall he have 
received for the oblation of his whole body, who, for a 
petty piece of a garment, was vouchsafed to clothe 
God, and to see him? the kindness of his soul, so 
meet to be imitated! the power of his virtues, so 
meet to be reverenced ! So performed he the office of 
a bishop that he undertook, that by the example of a 
laudable life, he enforced the observance of discipline. 
So bestowed he healing by his apostolic power on 
them that looked for it, that he made some whole by 
his prayers, others by his glance. This, Lord, is 
thy power and glory, which the angels praise, arch- 
angels reverence : Thrones, Dominions, Virtues, Prin- 
cipalities, and Powers worship. tWhom Cherubim, 
etc. 

On the feast of SS. Faustinus and Jovita MM, 
4 January. 

Y' For it is truly meet and right, proper and 
healthful, that we should alway give thanks to thee, 
here and everywhere, holy Lord, Father almighty, 



LITURGY 71 

everlasting God; and that we should praise thee, O 
wondrous God, in thy saints : whom thou hast pre- 
pared for thine eternal glory before the foundation of 
the world; that by them, the tyrants having been 
subdued, thou mightest make known the light of thy 
truth to this world. And of their company are thy 
Martyrs, Faustinus, and Jovita : who flourished in 
the meadow of thy Church like roses and lilies. 
Whom in the battle of their confession the blood of 
thine only-begotten One besprinkled with a roseate 
hue : and for a reward of their passion clothed them 
in the snowy whiteness of the lilies. ^Through whom 
angels praise thy Majesty, etc. 

On the feast of SS. Protase and Gervase, 19 June. 

Y' For it is truly meet and right, proper and 
healthful, that we should alway give thanks to thee, 
here and everywhere, holy Lord, Father almighty, 
everlasting God : "Who hast bestowed upon thy 
soldiers, that contend for the love of thy Name, the 
virtue of faith. Amongst whom thou hast vouch- 
safed to number also the loyal brethren, Protase and 
Gervase : for whom their father before them led the 
way, when he obtained the palm of martyrdom. 
These are they, who marked by the heavenly ensign, 
took the victorious arms of the Apostle ; and being 
loosened from the bonds of the world, and overthrow- 
ing the army of vices drawn up against them by the 
Satanic enemv, free and unencumbered, have 



72 LITURGY 

followed Christ the Lord. how happy that brother- 
hood, which, cleaving to the sacred words, could by 
no unclean touch be corrupted ! how glorious that 
opportunity of a contest, in which both are crowned 
together, whom the womb of one mother brought 
forth! For whose triumphs also the Church, that 
most fruitful mother, rejoices, who through blessed 
Ambrose was allowed to find such sons, who bestow 
on themselves the marks of virtues, and glory; 
through the same Christ our Lord, "^through whom 
angels praise thy Majesty, etc.] 

The choir: 

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts. 
The heavens and the earth are full of thy glory. 
Hosanna in the highest. 

Blessed, is he that cometh, in the name of the 
Lord. Hosanna in the highest. 

THE CANON 

The p7'iest extending, and slightly raising his hands, 
then joins them, and raising his eyes heavenwards and 
immediately lowering them, bows profoundly before the 
altar, saying secretly: 

Therefore we humbly pray and beseech thee, O 
most merciful Father, through our Lord Jesus Christ, 

thy Son (he makes the sign of the Cross in the midst of 



LITURGY 73 

the altar and kisses it there) to accept and bless (he 
signs thrice over the offerings i these t^ gifts, these »{« 
oblations, these holy and spotless Hh sacrifices\ (ex- 
tending his hands he continues) which, in the first place 
we offer unto thee for thy holy catholic Church, that 
thou wouldst be pleased to keep it in peace, to guard, 
unite, and govern it, throughout the whole world, 
together with thy servant N., our Pope, and N., our 
bishop, and A ., our King, as well as all the orthodox, 
and them that hold the catholic and apostolic Faith. 

The Commemoration for the Living. 

Remember, O Lord, thy servants and hand- 
maidens, N. and N. (ivith joined hands he frays for a 
short time for those whom he intends : then extending his 
hands he continues) and all here present, whose faith 
is evident, and devotion known unto thee : for whom 

' On Easter Even the prayer continues as follows: 
Truly holy, truly blessed is our Lord Jesus Christ, thy Son ; Who, 
though he was the Lord of Majesty, came down from Heaven, and 
took upon him the form a servant who aforetime had perished, and 
deigned of his own free-will to suffer : that he might deliver him 
from death whom he himself had made. Wherefore we offer Thee 
this paschal sacrifice for these whom thou hast vouchsafed to regener- 
ate of water and the Holy Spirit : giving them remission of all their 
sins, that thou mightest find them in Christ Jesus our Lord. For 
whom, O Lord, we pour forth our humble prayers, that thou mayest 
cause their names, together with those of thy servant N. our pope, 
and X. our bishop, and y. our Emperor, and .V. the King our 
Duke, to be written in the Book of the Living. Through the same 
Christ our Lord. 
Then the priest goes on to the Commemoration for the Living. 



74 LITURGY 

we are offering, or who offer to thee, this sacrifice of 
praise, for themselves and all their friends, for the 
redemption of their souls, for the hope of their salva- 
tion and their safety, and direct their prayers unto 
thee, the everlasting God, living and true. 

PROPERS WITHIN THE CANON 

On Christmas Day, and throughout the Octave. 

Joining in communion with, and celebrating (at 
the first mass) the most holy night, (hut at the others) 
the most holy day, on which the undefiled maiden- 
hood of blessed Mary brought forth into this world 
the Saviour: and also venerating the memory, first, 
of the same glorious and ever- virgin Mary, who 
brought forth the same our God and Lord Jesus 
Christ; %nd also of thy blessed Apostles and 
Martyrs ; (as further on). 

On the Lord's Epiphany, and throughout the Octave. 

Joining in communion with, and celebrating the 
most holy day on which thine only begotten One, co- 
eternal with thee in thy glory, visiljly appeared in the 
bodily reality of our flesh ; and also venerating the 
memory, first, of the glorious and ever-virgin Mary, 
who brought forth the same our God and Lord Jesus 
Christ : %nd also of thy blessed apostles and martyrs ; 
(as further on). 



LITURGY 75 

On Maundy Thursday. 

Joining in communion with, and celebrating the 
most holy day on which our Lord Jesus Christ was 
betrayed. Thou, Lord, thou hast bidden us be 
partakers of thy Son, thou hast bidden us be sharers 
of thy kingdom, thou hast bidden us be inhabitants of 
Paradise, thou hast bidden us be companions of the 
angels ; if we but keep with unharmed and inviolate 
faith the sacraments of the heavenly service. And 
what can we not hope for from thy mercy, who have 
received a reward so great that we are let offer thee 
such a sacrifice, namely, the Body and Blood of our 
Lord Jesus Christ? Of him w^ho surrendered him- 
self for the world's redemption to that tender and 
worshipful Passion : who, ordaining a form of 
sacrifice of eternal salvation, first offered himself as 
the victim, and first taught that he was to be offered. 
And also venerating the memory, first, of the glorious 
and ever- virgin Mary, w^ho brought forth the same 
our God and Lord Jesus Christ; *and also of thy 
most blessed apostles and martyrs (as further on). 

On Easter Day and throughout the Octave. 

Joining in communion with, and celebrating the 
most holy day^ of the resurrection of our Lord Jesus 

» This proper is also used at the mass of Easter Even, but with the 
words: the most holy night, instead of: the mont holy day. Although 
said at the present time earlier in the day, it is really the midnight 
mass of Easter, the first mass of the festival. 



76 LITURGY 

Christ, according to the flesh; and also venerating the 
memory, first, of the glorious and ever-virgin Mary, 
who brought forth the same our God and Lord, Jesus 
Christ : *and also of thy blessed apostles and martyrs ; 
(as further on). 

On the day of the Lord's Ascension. 

Joining in communion with, and celebrating the 
most holy day on which thine only begotten Son, our 
Lord, established on the right hand of thy glory our 
frail nature united to himself : and also venerating the 
memory, first, of the glorious and ever- virgin Mary, 
who brought forth the same our God and Lord, Jesus 
Christ : *and also of thy blessed apostles and martyrs ; 
(as further on). 

On Whitsunday, and throughout the Octave. 

Joining in communion with, and celebrating the 
most holy day of Pentecost, on which the holy Spirit 
was manifested to the Apostles by countless tongues : 
and also venerating the memory, first, of the glorious 
and ever- virgin Mary, who brought forth the same 
our God and Lord Jesus Christ: *and also of thy 
blessed apostles and martyrs; f^^ further on). 



LITURGY 77 

THE COMMON WITHIN THE CANON 

Joining in communion with, and venerating the 
memory, first, of the glorious and ever- virgin Mary, 
who brought forth our God and Lord Jesus Christ;* 
and also of thy blessed apostles and martyrs, 



I^eter and 

Paul, 

Andrew, 

James, 

John, 

Thomas, 

James, 

Philip, 

Bartholomew, 

Matthew, 

Simon, and 

Jude, 

Xystus, 

Lawrence, 

Hippolytus, 

Vincent, 

Cornelius, 



Cyprian, 

Clement, 

Chrysogonus, 

John, and 

Paul, 

Cosmas, and 

Damian, 

Apollinaris, 

Vitalis, 

Nazarius, and 

Celsus, 

Protasius, and 

Gervasius, 

Victor, 

Nabor, 

Felix, and 

Calimerius, 



and of all thy saints: by whose merits and prayers 
do thou grant that in all things we may be de- 
fended by the help of thy protection: (he joins his 
hands) through the same Christ our Lord. Amen. 



78 LITURGY 

THE COMMON WITHIN THE ACTION 

Said with his hands stretched out over the Offering. 

Graciously accept, Lord, we beseech thee, this 
oblation of our service, as well as of the service of thy 
whole family;* and order our days in thy peace, and 
deliver us from everlasting damnation, and make us 
to be numbered in the flock of thy chosen ones; 
(he joins his hands) through Christ our Lord. 

PROPERS WITHIN THE ACTION 

On Maundy Thursday. 

Graciously look on this offering, we beseech thee, 
Lord, which we offer thee because of the day of the 
Lord's supper, on which our Lord Jesus Christ thy 
Son ordained a rite of sacrificing in the New Testa- 
ment, w^hen he transformed the bread and wine 
which Melchisedech had offered as a priest, fore- 
shadowing the mystery to come, into the celebration 
of the sacrament of his Body and Blood ; that through 
many circling years we being safely preserved, might 
offer thee, Lord, our gifts: %nd order, etc. (as 
above). 

Prober on Easter Day and Whitsunday, and throughout 

their Octaves. 

Graciously accept, Lord we beseech thee, this 



LITURGY 79 

oblation of our service, as well as of the service of thy 
whole family, which we offer unto thee for these also, 
whom thou hast vouchsafed to regenerate with water 
and the Holy Spirit, and to grant them remission of 
all their sins ; * and order (as above). 

And vouchsafe, we beseech thee, to make this 
oblation, which we offer to thy tender compassion, O 
thou God in all, (he signs thrice over the offerings) 
bles>J<sed, avail »i< able, val^id, reasonable, and 
acceptable, (he signs once over the host, and once over 
the chalice) that it may become to us thebo*i<dy and 
blo»i<od of thy dearly beloved Son, Jesus Christ our 
Lord. 

With joined hands he goes to the epistle corner of the 
altar, where he washes his fingers, saying nothing, and 
dries them: then he returns to the midst of the altar, and 
says : 

Who, on the day before he suffered for our salva- 
tion, and that of all men,^ (he takes the host, and raises 
his eyes) he took bread, and lifted up his eyes to 
heaven, to thee, God, his almighty Father; giving 
thanks to thee (he blesses the host) he bles^sed it, 
break it, and gave it to his disciples, saying to them : 

On Maundy Tlntrsday is here interpolated : "That is, upon this day, 
reclining in the midst of his disciples." 



80 LITURGY 

Take, and eat ye all of it (he says the words of consecra- 
tion distinctly, secretly, and carefully) 

For this is ray Body. 

He genuflects, rises, and elevates the host that it may 
he adored by the people: he replaces it on the corporas, 
and again genuflects. Then standing upright he uncovers 
the chalice, laying the pall upon the consecrated host, and 
continues : 

Likewise, after supper (he takes the chalice and 
raises his eyes) he took the cup. and lifted up his eyes 
to heaven, to Thee, God, his almighty Father: also 
giving thanks to thee (holding the chalice in his left 
hand, ivith the right he signs over it) he bles»J<sed it, and 
gave it to his disciples, saying to them: Take and 
drink ye all of it (holding the chalice in both hands, 
slightly raised, he pronounces the words of consecration) 

For this is the Chalice of my Blood, of the new 
and eternal Testament, a Mystery of faith : which 
shall be shed for you and for many for the 
remission of sins. 

He sets down the chalice, and immediately rubs the 
tips of his flngers over it. Then he genuflects, rises, and 
shows it to the people, saying: 

Commanding also, and saying to them : As often 
as ye do these things, ye shall do them for my 



LITURGY 81 

memorial: ye shall preach my Death, ye shall pro- 
claim my Resurrection, ye shall hope for my Advent, 
until I shall come again from the heavens to you. 

He replaces the chalice, covers it, and again adores : 
then stretching out his arms in the fashion of a cross, he 
says : 

Wherefore, O Lord, we, thy servants, and also 
thy holy people, being mindful of the Passion of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, as well as of his wondrous Resur- 
rection from hell, and also of his most glorious 
Ascension into the heavens (he joins his hands), offer 
unto thy excellent majesty of thine own presents and 
gifts (he signs thrice over the offerings together) a pure 
^ sacrifice, a holy ^ sacrifice, a spotless ^ sacrifice, 
(then once over the host alone, and once over the chalice 
alone) this holy ^ bread of eternal life, and the chalice 
^of everlasting salvation. 

Then extending his hands before his Ireast, he says : 

And vouchsafe to regard them with favourable 
and gracious countenance, and to accept them as 
thou didst deign to accept the gifts of thy righteous 
child Abel, and the sacrifice of our patriarch Abra- 
ham, and the holy sacrifice, the spotless offering, 
which Melchisedech thy high priest offered unto 
thee. 



82 LITURGY 

Then, joining his hands, and bowing profoundly, he 
says : 

We humbly beseech thee, almighty God, to com- 
mand these things to be borne by the hands of thy 
holy angel to thy heavenly altar in the sight of thy 
awful Majesty, (he makes the sign of the Cross in the 
midst of thr altar, and kisses it there), that SO many of 
us as, from this partaking of the altar, (he makes the 
sign of the Cross once over the host, and once over the 
Chalice) shall receive the most holy bo*i<dy and 
blo>J«od of our Lord Jesus Christ, may be fulfilled 
(he signs himself) with all heavenly benediction and 
grace : through the same Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Commemoration for the Departed. 

Remember, also, Lord, thy servants and hand- 
maidens who are gone before us with the sign of faith, 
and rest in the sleep of peace, N. and A'. 

He joins his hands, and prays for the Departed for 
whom he intends. Then, extending his hands, he says: 

To them, Lord, and to all that repovse in Christ, 
grant, we pray thee, a place of refreshment, light, and 
peace (he joins his hands and hows his head): through 
the same Christ our Lord. Amen. 

He strikes his breast, and raising his voice a little, says: 
To us sinners, also, the least (the rest secretly) of 



LITURGY 83 

thy servants, who trust in the multitude of thy 
mercies, vouchsafe to grant some part and fellowship 
with thy holy apostles and martyrs, 

John, and Perpetua, 

John, Anastasia, 

Stephen, Agatha, 

Andrew, Euphemia, 

Barnabas, Lucia, 

Peter, Justina, 

Marcellinus, Sabina, 



Agnes, Thecla, 

Caecilia, Pelagia, and 



Felicitas, Catharine, 

and with all thy saints; into whose company, we 
beseech Thee, to admit us, not weighing our merits, 
but pardoning our offences; (he joins his hands) 
through Christ our Lord.^ By whom, Lord, thou 
dost ever create all these good things, (he signs thrice 
over the host and chalice together, saying) dost hal»i<low, 
quick>i<en,bl»i< ess them, and plentifully bestow^ them 

• On Mdu/idi/ T/nirndai/ /x noir added here: '"These things we do, 
these things we celebrate, keeping, O Lord, thy Commandments : 
and by this, which is the Lord's Body which we take for an im- 
perishable communion, we proclaim the Lord's death. Thine, 
moreover, is it, Almighty Father, to send us now thine only- 
begotten Son, whom thou didst send of thine own freewill to us 
though we sought him not: who, whereas thou art thyself boundless 
and incalculable, didst beget of thyself God also boundless and in- 
calculable ; in order to give us now for salvation the Body of him 
by whose passion thou didst give redemption to the human race : 
through the same Christ our Lord. By whom, O Lord," etc. 



84 LITURGY 

upon us thy servants, for the increase of faith, and 
the remission of all our sins. 

He uncovers the chalice, and genuflects, saying : 

And there is to thee, God the Father almighty. 

Then standing wpinght he takes the host in his right 
hand, and holding the chalice in his left makes the sign 
of the Cross thrice over the chalice with the host, from lip 
to lip, saying : 

Of ^I-^him, and through ►l^him, and in ^him, all 
honour, power, praise, and glory, 

He holds the host in his left hand over the chalice, and 
taking the jyaten in his right heticeen the fore and middle 
fingers, he signs thrice over the host and chalice together, 
saying : 

Sove»J<reignty, ever ^ lastingness, and >i< might, 
in the unity of the Holy Spirit, 

Setting down the 2^citen upon the foot of the chalice 
towards himself, he raises the host slightly, saying (with 
note) : 

For infinite ages of ages. 
157. Amen. 



LITURGY 85 

Then he divides the host through the middle over the 
chalice, saying: 

Thy Body is broken, O Christ, thy chalice is 
blessed. 

He lays the apiece, which he holds in his right hand, 
on the paten : but he breaks a small fragment off the other 
piece, which he has in his left, saying : 

May thy Blood ever be to us for life, and the 
salvation of souls, O our God. 

Then he lays the piece, which is in his left hand, on 
the paten: and making the sign of the Cross with the 
small fragment in his right hand over the chalice, he 
drops it into the chalice, saying : 

May the mingling >Ji of the consecrated Body and 
Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ be of advantage to us 
who eat and partake thereof, for life, and everlasting 

joy- 

He covers the chalice, genuflects, rises and says the 
Confractorium, or anthem sung at the Fraction by the 
choir. 

[Confractorium for the feast of the Epiphany} 
This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of 

' St, John ii, 11. 



86 LITURGY 

Galilee: and manifested forth his glory to his dis- 
ciples.] 

Then having said in a low voice: Let us pray, he con- 
tinues in a high voice (i.e., with note) joining his hands 
and saying : 

Taught by thy saving precepts, and directed by 
the divine appointment, we are bold to say^ (then ex- 
tending his hands he says the Lord's Prayer, bowing his 
head at the first petition), Our Father, which art in 
heaven; hallowed be thy name, thy kingdom come, 
thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven. Give us 
this day our daily bread, and forgive us our tres- 
passes, as we forgive them that trespass against us. 
And lead us not into temptation. 

I^. But deliver us from evil. 

The priest says secretly : 
Amen. 



On Maundy Thursday is said instead of this: What we do, O Lord, 
is the command of Him in whose presence we now request thee ; 
give to the sacrifice its author that faith in the same may be satiated 
in the sublimity of the mystery ; so that as we maintain the truth of 
the heavenly sacrifice, we may partake of the truth of the Lord's 
Body and Blood, through the same Christ our Lord, saying, Our 
Father, etc. 

On Easter Day is said instead: Instructed by the divine teaching, 
and ordered by saving advice, we are bold to say, Our Father, etc. 



LITURGY 0/ 

Then, signing himself with the sign of the Cross, he 
continnes icith a raised voice (i.e., with note): 

Deliver us, we beseech thee, Lord, from all 
evils past, present, and to come: and at the interces- 
sion for us of blessed Mary who brought forth God 
and our Lord, Jesus Christ ; and of thy holy apostles 
Peter, and Paul, and Andrew; and of blessed Am- 
brose thy confessor, and bishop, together with all thy 
saints, favoural)ly give peace in our days, that, 
assisted by the help of thy mercy, we may ever be 
both delivered from sin, and safe from all turmoil. 
Fulfil this, by him, with whom thou livest blessed, 
and reignest God, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, for 
ever and ever. 

If. Amen. 

He signs himself, resting his left hand on the cor- 
poras, saying : 

The peace, and the fellowship of our Lord Jesus 
Christ be with you always. 

If. And with thy spirit. 
Then the deacon adds : 

Offer ye yourselves the peace. 
If. Thanks be to God. 



88 LITURGY 

[In masses for the departed: Offer ye yourselves the 
peace, and the prayer following : O Lord, Jesus Christ, 
who saidst to thine apostles, are omitted; and omitting 
also: Peace be with thee, the priest joins his hands and 
says in a loud voice in private masses, but in a subdued 
voice in solemn ones, bows and says : 

O Lamb of God, that takest away the world's sins, 
grant them rest. 

O Lamb of God, that takest away the world's 
sins, grant them rest. 

Lamb of God, that takest away the world's 
sins, grant them everlasting rest, and a place of par- 
don with thy saints in glory. 

A nd then he passes on to the last two prayer s?\ 

But in other masses, after: Offer ye yourselves the 
peace, the priest bows, and joining his hands, says the 
three prayers following in a subdued voice. 

Prayer. 

Lord Jesus Christ, who saidst to thine 
apostles: Peace I leave with you, my peace I give 
unto you; regard not my sins, but the faith of thy 
Church, and graciously vouchsafe to keep her in 
peace, to guard and rule her, according to thy will; 
who livest and reignest, God, for ever and ever. 
Amen. 



LITURGY 89 

Then, if the Peace is to he given, he first makes a cross 
in the midst of the altar, and kisses it there, and gives 
the Peace, saying : 

Peace be with thee. 
^. And with thy spirit. 

Prayer. 

holy Lord, Father almighty, everlasting God, 
grant me so to take the Body of Jesus Christ, thy Son, 
my Lord, that it may not be to me for judgment, but 
for the remission of all my sins. Who liveth and 
reigneth with thee, in the unity of the Holy Spirit, 
God for ever and ever. Amen. 

Prayer. 

Lord, Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, who, 
conformably to the Father's will, by the co-operation 
of the Holy Spirit, hast by thy death given life to the 
whole world; deliver me, I implore thee, by this thy 
most holy Body and Blood, from all iniquities and 
every ill; make me obedient to thy commandments, 
and let me not ever be separated from thee. Who, 
with the same God the Father and Holy Spirit, livest 
and reignest, God, for ever and ever. Amen. 



90 LITURGY 

Bowing and striking his breast he says thrice : 

O Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest 
enter under my roof; but speak the word only, and 
my soul shall be healed. 

He genuflects, rises, and takes the two pieces of the 
host in his right hand, and the paten in his left, saying : 

What reward shall I give unto the Lord for all 
the benefits that he hath done unto me? I will 
receive the bread of heaven, and call upon the name 
of the Lord. 

After which, signing himself with the host in his right 
hand, he says: 

The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ keep my soul 
unto everlasting life. Amen. 

He receives both pieces of the host. 

Then, joining his hands, he rests quietly a little while: 
after ivhich he uncovers the chalice, genuflects, wipes the 
paten dry over it, saying in the mean time : 

What reward shall I give unto the Lord for all the 
benefits that he hath done unto me? I w^ill receive 
the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the 



LITURGY 91 

Lord: with praises will I call upon the Lord, and so 
shall I be saved from mine enemies.^ 

He takes the chalice, and, making the sign of the Cross 
with it over himself , he says : 

Grant, I beo-, Lord, that the ])artakinor of the 
Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ may lead us 
on to everlasting life. 

He drinks the Blood with the fragment (of the host in 
it). This being done, he communicates any that present 
themselves for communion, before he '^ purifies " himself. 

During the communion the choir sing the Transitoriuni. 
[Transitorium for the feast of the Epiphany. 

To-day the Church is joined to her heavenly 
Bridegroom ; for in Jordan hath he washed away her 
iniquities. The wise men hasten with a gift to the 
royal marriage: and, wine being made of water, the 
guests are gladdened. The soldier baptizes the King, 
the servant his Lord, John the Saviour. The water 
of Jordan was astonied; the dove beareth witness; 
the Father's voice was heard: This is my Son, in 
whom I am well pleased ; hear ye him.] 

» Pss. cxv (116), 11, 12; xvii (18), 4. 



l)'> 



LITURGY 



Afterwards the priest sotfs: 

May \\c recoive with a pure mind. Lord, what 
wo have taken with the mouth: that of the Body and 
Hlood of our Lord Jesus Christ there may be made for 
us an everh\stini: healing. 

Then he hoi<h out the chaJiee to the deacon, who pours 
ifito it a /}.' " ' which he ''purifies'' hitiiself. 

Then he m.. .. .^ ....- ,. .... rj? in wine offered him by the 
deacon, and in water offered him hif the subdeacon : and 
as he dries them in tJie purificeitory he says: 

Make sure. Lord, what thou hast worked in us: 
and pvo thy Church a la,sting tranquillity and peace. 

Th<^n he ietkes the purification. Meanwhile a collet 
earries '■ .^v— • - - - -- rpisile end of the altar: 
tUM r^.r ^ :"' thr aJtar, where he 

drie^ rlicc, and puts on its the purificatory, 

.'f' pall: coftnuu it trith the reil : 

witl rf;7, to he carried back ta the credence or 

SxicrtSiy or to ^'. d for the 

. •• " ^■^ ^ ■" ■- ■ - ■'-:;• to his 

rransitorium at the 

episUe end of : ' ■: Prayer after the 

Communion. 



LITURGY 93 

[Prayer after the Communion on the Feast of the 

Epiphany. 

Prevent us, Lord, we beseech thee, at all times 
and in all places with heavenly light: that we may 
both discern with clear glance the mystery of which 
thou hast willed us to be partakers, and with meet 
affection take it to ourselves. Through our Lord 
Jesus Christ, etc.] 

When he has read the prayer he says : 

Y' The Lord be with you. 

I?. And with thy spirit. 

Have mercy, O Lord: have mercy, Lord: have 
mercy, O Lord. 

y. May God bless you, and hearken unto you. 
^- Amen. 

Then the deacon says: 

Let us <zo forth with peace. 
I?r. In the name of Christ. 

y. Let us bless the Lord. 
I?r. Thanks be to God. 



94 LITURGY 

[But ill masses for the Departed, after the y. The 
Lord be with you, and the I^. And with thy 
spirit (said without : Ra.Ye Tnevcy, etc.) the priest stand- 
ing in the midst of the altar makes the sign of the Cross 
with his right hand, saying: 

Y' Grant them, Lord, eternal rest. 

I^. And let perpetual light shine upon them. 

Y' May their souls and those of all the faithful 
departed, by the mercy of God, rest in peace. 

I^. Amen. 

And after: May the homage, etc., the blessing is not 
give7i.] 

Then boiving profoundly before the midst of the altar 
he says, with hands joined: 

May the homage of our service be pleasing unto 
thee, O God, and may the sacrifice, which I, though 
unworthy, have offered up in the sight of thy Divine 
Majesty, be acceptable unto thee: may it, by thy 
mercy, be propitiatory both for me and for all for 
whom I have offered it. Through Christ our Lord. 
Amen. 

He then makes a cross on the midst of the attar, kisseS it 
there, and rising, stands facing the altar ; and extending. 



LITURGY 95 

raising, and joininrj his hands, and bowing his head to 
the Cross, he says : 

May God almighty bless you. 

Then turning to the people by the right blesses them once, 
saying : 

The Father, 4* and the Son, and the Holy Spirit. 
I?^- Amen. 

Then at the gospel corner, having said with joined hands 
in a subdued voice: 

T' The Lord be with you. 

Deacon: And with thy spirit. 

He sigjis the book with his right thumb, and then they 
sign themselves on the forehead, mouth, and breast; and 
the priest says : 

The beginning of the holy Gospel according to 
John. 

Deacon: Glory be to thee, Lord. 

And he continues reading, with joined hands. 

In the beginning was the Word. . . . but of 
God. And the Word (here they genuflect) was made 



96 LITURGY 

flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld his glory, 
the glory of the only-begotten of the Father, full of 
grace and truth. 

I^. Thanks be to God. 

Then they go down to the level of the quire, before 
the midst of the altar; and all making the customary 
reverences together, they depart in the same order as they 
entered, the priest saying in a subdued voice with his 
ministers the appointed psalms and prayers. 



LECTIONARY 

ACCORDING TO THE AMBROSIAX RITE 



AMBROSIAN LECTIONARY AT MASS 



THE DAY. 


THE PROPHETIC 
lESSON. 


THE BPISTLE. 


THE GUSl'KL. 


Advent: First Sunday 


Isa. li, 4 8 ... 


2 Thess. ii, 1-13 


S. Matt, xxiv, 
1-42 


,, Second Sunday 


Bar. iv, 3G-v, 9 


Rom. XV, 1-1? 


S. Luke iii, 1-18 


,, Third Sunday 


Isa. XXXV, 1-10 


Rom. xi, 25-3G 


S. Matt, xi, 2-15 


,, Fourth Sunday 


Isa. xl, Ml ... 


Hebr. x, 35-39 


S. Matt. xxi,l-9 


,, Fifth Sunday 


Micah V, 2; 
Mai. iii, 1-7 


Gal. iv, 22 31 


S. John i, 15-28 


,, Sixtli Sunday 

fin the Winter Church) 


none 


1 Cor. i, 4-9 ... 


S. Luke i, 89-45 


„ (The mass at St Mary's, 
which is said in all 
the Churches) 


Isa. Ixii, 7 — Ixiii, 
4 


Phil, iv, 4-9 


S. Luke i, 2C-38 


,, Ou fcrias 


none 


1 Cor. i, 4-9 ... 


S. Mark i, 4-8 


Vigil of Christmas 

After the respond at I'espcrs ... 


(1) Gen. XV, 1- 
10; 

(2) Judges xiii. 
2-9 • 

(sf 1 Sam. i, 7- 

17 
(4) Isa. vii, 11- 

17; viii, 4 






At the mass 


none 


Hebr. x, 37-39 


S. Matt, i, 18- 
25 


Midnight mass of Christmas ... 


none 


Gal. iv, 1-7 ... 


S. John i, 9-14 


Dawn mass of Christmas 


none 


1 Cor. ix, 19-27 


S. Luke ii, 15- 
20 


Third mass of Christmas 


Isa. ix, 1-7 ... 


Hebr. i, 1-8 ... 


S. Luke ii, 1-14 



100 



LECTIONARY 



THE DAY. 



St. Stophan the Protomartyr ... 

St. John Ap. Ev 

Childermas 

St. Thomas Bp. JM 

Of the Octave of Christmas ... 

St. Silvester, Pope 

Circumcision, and Octave of 
Christmas ... 

Siindav after Christmas 



Vigil of (he Epiphany 

After the respond at Vespers ... 



At the mass 

Epiphany 

The Christophory ("/.r. The Re- 
turn from Egypt) 

Within the octave of the Epiph'y 
1st Sunday after the Epiphany 



THE rUOPHETIC 
lESSON. 



Acts vi, 8-10, 
vii, 54-59 

1 S. John i, 
1-10 

Jerem. xxxi, 
15-20 

Isa. lii, i-7 ... 



Isa. viii. 8-18 



Isa. viii, 8-18 

Baruch vi, 1,3; 
Jer. li, 47, 48, 
58 ; Bar. vi, 3-6 

Isa. viii, 8-18 



(1) Isa. xlix, 8- 
13; 

(2) 2 Kings ii, 1 
-12; 

(3) Numbers 
xxiv. 15-25; 

(4) 2 Kings vi, 
1-7 



Isa. Ix, 1-6 
Hos. xi, 1-12 
Isa. Ix, 16 



Isa. Ixi, 1-3; 
Ixii, 10 12 



THE EPISTLE. 



2 Tim. iii, 16 
iv, 8 

Rom. X, 8-15 

Rom. viii, 14-21 

2 Tim. iii, 10-15 

1 Cor. ix, 19-27 

Tit. iii, 4-7 ... 
Philipp. iii, 18 

Rom. viii, 3-11 



Tit. iii, 3-7 
Tit. ii, 11— iii, 2 
Hebr. xi, 13 16 
Tit. ii, 11— iii, 2 
Ephes. iv, 23-28 



THE GOSPEL. 



S. Matt, xvii, 
23-26 

S. John xxi, 19- 
24 

S. Matt, ii, 13- 
18 

S. John X, 11- 
16 

S. Luke ii, 15- 
20 

S. John i. 1-14 

S. Luke ii, 21 



S. Luke iv, 14- 



S. Matt, iii, 
13-17 

S. Matt, ii, 1- 
12 

S. Matt. ii. 13- 
23 

S. Matt, ii, 1- 
12 

S. Luke ii, 42- 
52 



LECTIONARY 



101 



THE DAY. 



2nd Sunday after the Epiphany 
(of the Holy Name) 

5th 



>> >> 



The Sunday next before Septua- 
gesima 

Septuagesiuia Sunday 

Sexagesima Sunday 

Quinquagesima Sunday 

1st Sunday in Lent 

Monday after Lent ... 
Tuesday after ,, ... 
Wednesday after ,, 
Thursday after ,, ... 
Saturday after ,, ... 



2nd Sunday in Lent, of the 
Samaritan Woman 
Monday after ,, 



Tuesday after ,, 

Wednesday after ,, 

Thursday after ,, 

Saturday after ,, 



THE PROPHETIC 
lESSUN. 



Acts iv, 812 .. 

Ezek. xxxvii 
21-26 

Jer. xxxiii, 14 
22 

Mai. iii, 7-12 
Mai. iii, 1318 
Joel ii. 12 21 



Ezek. xxxiii, 7 
11 

Zach. vii, 5 14 



Isa. Ivii, 21 

Iviii, 12 
Ezek. xxxiv, 10 

-16 
lea. Iv, 6-11 ... 

Exod. xxiv, 12- 

18 
Ezek. xviii, 1-9 



Ex. XX, 1-24 ... 

Dan. ix, 15-19 

1 Kings xvii, 8 

-16 
Esther xiii, 8-17 

Jer. xvii, 5-10 

none 



THE EPISTLE. 



THE (iOSPEL. 



1 Cor. i, 1-8 
Gal. V, 25— vi, C 
Col. i, 311 ... 
Rora. xiii, 8-10 
Col. ii. 1-7 ... 



1 Cor. ix 24— 
X, 4 

1 Cor. ix, 7-12 



2 Cor. vi, 14 
vii, 3 

2 Cor. vi, 1-10 

none 

none 

none 

none 

Rom. xiii, 10 
xiv, 9 

Ephes. i, 15-23 

none 

none 

none 

none 

Ephes. V, 1-9 



S. Matt, i, 18- 
21 

S. Jolin iv, 40- 
54 

S. John iii 16- 
21 

S. Luke ix, 10- 
17 

S. Matt, xvii, 
14-20 

S. Matt. XX, 1- 
16 

S. Matt, xiii, 3- 
23 

S. Matt, xiii, 
24-43 

S. Matt, iv, 1- 

11 
S. Matt. V, 1-12 

S. Matt. V, 13- 

16 
S. Matt. V 17- 

19 
S. Matt. V, 20- 

24 
S. Matt, xii, 1- 



S. John iv, 5- 

42 
S. Matt, v, 25- 

30 
S. Matt, v, 31- 

42 
S. Matt. V, 43- 

48 
S. Matt, vi, 1-6 

S. Mark vi. 1-5 



102 



LECTIONARY 



THE PAY. 


THE PROPHETIC 


THE EI'ISTLE. 


THE GOSPEI,. 




tESSON. 








3rd Sunday in Lent, of Abraham 


Exod. xxxiv, 1- 


1 Thess. 


ii, 20 


S. John viii, 31- 




10 


iii, 8 




59 


Monday after ,, ,, 


2 Kings V, 1-15 


none 




S. Matt, vi, 7- 
15 


Tuesday after ,, ,, 


2 Kings iv, 1-7 


none 




S. Matt, vi, 16- 
18 


Wednesday after ,, ,, 


Exod. XX, 12-24 


none 




S. Matt, vi, 19- 

21 
S. Matt, vi, 22- 


Thursday after ,, ,, 


Jer. vii, 1-7 ... 


none 


. 










26 


Saturday after ,, ,, 


none 


1 Thess. 
20 


ii, 13- 


S. Mark vi, 7-13 


4th Sunday in Lent, of the Blind 


Exod. xxxiv, 23 1 Thess. 


iv. Ml 


S. John ix, 1- 


Man 


-XXXV, 1 






38 


Monday after ,, ,, 


1 Kings iii, 16- 


none 




S. Matt, vi, 27- 




28 




33 


Tuesday after ,, ,, 


Exod. xxiii, 7- 
14 


none 




S. Matt, vi, 34- 
vii, 5 


Wednesday after ,. 


Ezek. xxxvi, 23 

-28 


none 




S. Matt, vii, 6- 
12 


Thursday after ,, ,, 


2 Kings iv, 25- 
38 


none 




S. Matt, vii, 13- 
21 


Saturday after ,, ,, 


none 


1 Thess 
23 


V, 12- 


S. Matt, xix, 13 
-15 


5th Sunday in Lent, of Lazarus 


Exod. xiv, 15- 


Ephes. > 


', 15-21 


S. John xi, 1- 




31 




1 45 


Monday after ,, ,, 


Jonah iii, 1-10 


none 


... S. Mark viii, 
27-33 


Tuesday after ,, ,, 


Dan. xiv, 28-42 


none 


...1 S. John vi, 64- 
72 


Wednesday after ,, ,, 


Lev. xix, 1-10 


none 


j S. Luke xviii. 










31-»4 


Thursday after ,, ,, 


Jer. xvii, 13-18 


none 




S. John vii, 43- 
53 


Saturday after ,, ,, 


Ezek. xxxvi, 22 


Ephes. vi, 10-19; S. Matt, xi, 25- 


the giving of the Creed 


-28 






30 


Palmsunday. 


Isa. liii, 1-12 


2 Thess. 
iii, 5 


ii, 14^ 


S. John xi, 55- 
xii. 11 


Monday in the authentic wk. 


Isa. 1, 5-10 ... 


none 




S. Luke xxi, 34- 

9R 


Tuesday „ „ „ 


Jer. xi. 18-20 


none 


.. S. John xi, 45- 
54 


Wednesday „ ,, ,, 


Isa. Ixii, 11- 


none 


... S. Matt. xxvi. 




Lxiii, 7 






1-5 



LECTIONARY 



103 



THE DAT. 


, THE PROPHETIC 


THE EPISTLE. 


THE GOSPEL. 




LESSON. 








Maundy Thursday after terce ... 


(1) Dan. xiii, 1- 
64; 

(2) Wisdom ii, 


















12-25 ; 










(3) S. Matt. 










xxvi. 14-16 








Sext and nones follo'x -. then after 


Jonah i, 1 — iv, 








the respond at solemn Vespers 


11 








Then at mass 


none 


1 Cor, 
34 


xi, 20- 


S. Matt, xxvi, 
17-75 


Good Friday 


(1) Isa. slix. 24- 

1, 11 
(2)Isa. liii, 1-12 
(3) S. Matt, 
xxvii, 1-56 








After the Cross-creeping 


(1) Dan. iii, 1-24 

(2) Dan. iii, 91- 
100 

(3) S. Matt, 
xxvii. 57-61 








Easter Even 


(1) Gen. vi. 9- 
22; vii. 6-24; 
viii, 1-21 

(2) S. Matt. 
xxvii. 62-66 








After the Pascal! 


(1) Gen. i. 1— ii, 
3 

(2) Gen. xxii 1- 


















19 










(3) Exod. xii 1- 










11 










(4) Exod. xiii, 










18-xiv. 8 










(5) Isa. liv, 17- 










Iv. 11 










(6) Isa. i. 16- 










19 








Then the blessing- of the Font ; 


none 


Ephes. 


iv, 1-6 


S. Matt, sxviii. 


after -which, at mass 








1-7 


Easter Even., in the Winter 


none 


Rom. i 


1-7 ... 


S. John iii, 1-13 


Church (for the newly baptised) 










Easter Day {for the baptised) ... 


none 


Rom. v 


6-11 ... 


S. John vii, 37- 
39 


,, ,, {for the solemnity) ... 


Acts i, 1-8 ... 


1 Cor. 


XV, 3-10 


S. John XX, Il- 
ls 



104 



LECTIONARY 



THE PAY. 



Monday (for the baptized) 
,, [in every church) 

Tuesday {for the ba(>ti3ed) 
,, {in every church) 

Wednesday {for the baptised) .. 

,, {in every church) 

Thursday {for the baptised) 
{in every church) 
Friday {for the baptised) 

,, \in every church) 

Saturday {for the baptised) 

,, {of the octave, in every 

church) 

Low Sunday 

Second Sunday after Easter ... 

Third 

Fourth „ „ „ 

Fifth 

Vigil of the Ascension 

Ascension Day 

Sunday after Ascension Day ... 

First day of the lesser Litanies 
(Rogation Days) 

Second day ,, ,, ,, 

Third day „ „ „ 



THE PROPHETIC 
lESSOX. 



none 

Acts viii, 26-40 

none 

2 Kings V, 1-15 



none 

2 Kings vi, 1-7 

none 

Acts iii, 12-19 

none 

Gen. xiv, 18 24 
none 



THE KPISTI.E. 



1 Cor. V, 7-8 .. 
Rom. vi, 8 4 .. 

1 Cor. i. 4-9 
1 Cor. viii, 8-13 



Gal. iii, 27-29 
1 Cor. X, 1-4 .. 
Philipp. ii, 5-11 
1 Cor. X, 16-17 
Ephes. iv. 29-32 
1 Cor. XV, 12 22 
.Ephes. iii. 13-21 



THE GOSPEL. 



Acts iii, 12-16 1 Tim. ii. 1-7 



Acts iv, 8-21 .. 

Acts ix. 19-28 
Acts V, 33-42 

Acts iv, 32 — V, 

11 
Acts ix, 32-42 



Acts ii, 41-47 none 



Coloss. ii. 8-ir) 

Phil. iii. 17— iv, 

1 
2 Cor. vii. 10-13 

Phil, ii, 12-18 

Hebr. xii, 1-7 



Acts i. 8-14 ... 
Acts i, 15-26 
Joel ii, 12-19 

Hosea xiv, 2-10 

Ecclus. xxxvi, 
1-10 



Ephes. iv. 7-12 
Rom. iii, 19-26 
none 

none 
none 



S. Matt. v. 1-12 
S. Luke xxiv, 1- 

12 
S. John v, 1-15 
S. Matt. XX viii, 

8-15 
S. Matt. V, 44- 

48 
S. Luke xxiv, 

13-35 
S. John vi, 51- 

59 
S. Matt, xxviii 

16-20 
S. John vi 35- 

39 
S. Mark xvi, 1- 

7 
S. John xiii, 4- 

15 
S. John xxi, 1- 

14 

S. John XX, 19- 
31 

S. John i. 29- 

34 

S. John xvi, 16- 
oo 

S. John xvi, 5- 

14 
S. John xvi, 23- 

30 

S. Mark xvi, 

14-20 
S. Luke xxiv, 

3G-53 
S. John xvii, 1- 

5 
S. Matt. V, 1-12 



S. Matt. XV. 29- 

31 
S. Matt. XV. 32- 

3S 



LECTIONARY 



105 



THE JJAY. 


THE PROPHETIC 


THE EPISTLE. 


THE COSPEL. 




lESSuN. 






Vigil of Pentecost 








After the respond at Vespers ... 


(1) Isa. xi, 19 

(2) Gen. xxviii, 
10-22; 

(3) 2 Kings ii, 
1-12; 

(4) 1 Kings iii, 
5-14 






At the mass 


none 


1 Cor. ii, 10 IC 


S. John XT, 26- 
xvi, 15 


WhiieQnd&y (for the baptised) ... 


Acte iii, 1-8 ... 


none 


S. John vii, 37- 
39 


,, (of the solemnity) ... 


Acts ii, 1-11 ... 


1 Cor. xii, Ml 


S. John xiv, 15- 
27 


First Sunday after Pentecost ; 


Gen. xviii, 1-10 


2 Cor. xiii, 11- 


S. John x-v, 26- 


of the Mo6t Holy Trinity 




13 


xvi, 4 


Corpus Christi 


1 Kings six. 3-8 


1 Cor. xi, 23-29 


S. John vi, 48- 
59 


Second Sunday after Pentecost. 


Isa. Ixvi, 5-14 


Gal. v. 16-24 


S. Matt, ix, 10- 


which is within the octave of 






14 


Corpus Christi 








Third Sunday after ,, 


Jer. xvii, 5-20 


Rom. xiv, 9-18 


S. Luke vi. 3C- 

42 
S. Luke xvi, 19- 


Fourth ,, 


Ezek. xviii, 1- 


Coloss. iii, 12- 




9 


16 


31 


Fifth 


Isa. hi, 1-7 ... 


Rom. vii, 14-25 


S. Luke xvii, 
11-19 


Sixth 


Ezek. xiv. 2 11 


Rom. xii, 1-3 


S. Luke xiv, 16- 
24 


Seventh ,, ,, ,, 


Jer. xxxi, 8-14 


Rom. xii, 5 16 


S. Matt XX, 29- 
34 


Eighth „ 


Isa. XXX. 15-18 


Gal. vi, 7-10 


S. Luke XV. 1 10 


Ninth ,, „ „ 


Jer. XT, 15-20 


Rom. vi, 19-23 


S. Luke V, Ml 


Tenth 


Ezek. xxxiv, 1 


Col. iii, 5-11 


S. Luke xii, 13- 




-16 




21 


Eleventh ,, ,, ,, 


Dan. iii, 34-45 


1 Cor. vi, 3-11 


S. Luke xviii, 
9-14 


Twelfth „ 


Isa. xlviii, 12-21 


Rom. xii, 16-21 


S. Matt V, 20- 
24 


Thirteenth ,, 


Jer. iii, 22-iv. 2 


Rom. v. 12-17 


S. Mark viii, 1- 

9 
S. Mark vii 31- 


Fourteenth ,, ,, 


Ezek. XXV, 2-7 


Hebr. xiii, 17- 






21 


37 


Fifteenth „ „ „ 


Dan. V. 1-1-19 


Hebr. xiii, 1-8 


S. Luke vii, 11- 
16 


1st Sunday after the Beheading 


Isa. Ixv, 13-19 


Ephes. V, 6-14 


S. Luke ix, 7-11 


of St. John the Baptist 









106 



LECTIONARY 



THE PAY. 


THE l-ROPHETIC 
lESSON. 


THE EPISTLE. 


THE GOSPEL. 


2nd Sunday after the Beheading 


Jer. vii, 1-7... 


2 Cor. viii, 16- 


S. Matt, vii, 15- 


uf St. John the Baptist 




21 


21 


3rd 


Isa. xxxiii, 2-10 


Ephes. vi, 1-9 


S. Luke X, 25- 
37 


'Itli „ ,, „ 


Jer. xxxi, 31-34 


Phil, i, 3-11 ... 


S. Matt, xxi, 
19-22 


^tli „ „ „ 


Isa. Ixiii, 15- 


Coloss. iii, 17 — 


S. Matt, xxi, 




Ixiv, 5 


iv, 6 


33-40 


First Sunday of October 


Baruch iv, 21-29 


Rom. vi, 12-18 


S. Luke xiii, 0- 


Second Sunday of October, 






17 


which is before the Dedication 


Baruch ii, 9 15 


Rom. vii, 1-6 


S. John viii, 1- 


of the Church 






11 


Third Sunday of October, the 


Bar. iii, 24-37 


2 Tim. ii, 19-22 


S. John X 22- 


Dedication of the Greater 






30 


Church 








First Sunday after the Dedication 


Ezek. xxxiii, 


1 Cor. xii, 13- 


S. Matt, xviii, 




7-16 


24 


23-35 


Second „ ,, „ 


Isa. Ixvi. 5-14 


Rom. xiii, 1-8 


S. Matt, xxii, 
15-21 


Third „ 


Isa. xxxi, 9 — 


Rom. iv. 13-25 


S. Matt, xxii. 




xxxii, 8 




1-14 



SOME OF THE MORE IMPORTANT DAYS IN 
THE SANCTORALE 



Chair of St. Peter at Rome (18th 
January) 

Conversion of St. Paul (25th 
January) 

Candlemas (2nd February) 

St. Matthias, Ap. (7th February) 

Lady Day in Lent (25th March) 
As on the Sixth Sunday in 

Advent, the mass said in every 

church 
St. Mark Ev. (25t.h April) 



Eeclus. xliv, 26, 
27; xlv 3, 4, 
6, 8, 9" 

Acts ix, 1-18 ... 



Eeclus. sxiv, 11 

-20 
Acts i, 15-26 



Eeclus. xliv, as 
on 18th Jan. 



1 Pet. i, 1-7 

1 Tim. i. 12-17 

Rom. viii, 3-11 
Ephes. i, 3-14 

2 Tim. iv, fe-18 



S. Matt, xvi, 
13-19 

S. Matt, xix, 
27-29 

S. Luke ii, 22- 

40 
S. .Alatt. xix, 

27-29 



S. Luke X, 1-11 



LECTIONARY 



107 



THE PAY. 


THE )-RuPHETIC 
LESSON. 


THE El'ISTI.E. 


THE GOSPEL. 


SS. Phillip and James (let May) 


Wisdom X, 17- 
20 


1 Cor. iv, 9-14 


S. John xiv, 1- 
14 


Holy Cross day (3rd May) 


Jcr. xi, 18-20 


Phil, ii, 5-11 ... 


S. Luke xi, 27- 

33 
S. Luke i, 57- 

68 


Nativity of St. John Baptist (24th 
June) 


Jor. i, 4-10 ... 


Gal. i, 11-19 


St. Thomas, Ap. (27th June) ... 

SS. Peter and Paul, App. (29th 
June) 


Ecclus. xliv, as 
on 18th Jan. 
Acts xii, 1-11 


Coloss. i, 23-29 

2 Cor. xi, 16- 
xii, 9 


S. John XX, 24- 

29 
S. John xxi, 15- 

19 


Visitation of B.M.V. (2nd July) 


Cant, ii, 8-14 


Rom. viii, 3-11 


S. Luke i, 39- 

47 
S. Luke vii, 36- 

45 
S. Matt. XX, 20- 

28 
S. Matt, xvii, 

1-9 
S. Luke X, 38- 

43 


St. Mary Magdalene (22nd July) 

St. James, Ap. (25th July) 

Transfiguration (6th August) ... 

Assumption of our Lady (15th 
August) ". 


Cant, iii, 2-5; 

viii, 6, 7 
Ecclus. xliv, as 

on 18th Jan. 
Isa. Ixi, 10-Ixii. 

3 
Ecclus. xxiv, 

11-20 


Rom. vii, 1-6 

Ephes. i, 3-14 

2 Pet. i, 16-19 

2 Cor. x, 17-xi, 
10 


St. Bartholomew, Ap. (24th 
August) 


Ecclus. xliv, as 
on 18th Jan. 


1 Cor. xii, 28-31 


S. Luke vi, 12- 
19 


Beheading of St. John Baptist 
(29th August) 


Itia. Ivii, 21- 
Iviii, 12 


Gal. iv. 13-18 


S. Mark vi, 17- 
29 


Nativity of our Lady (8th Sep- 
tember) " 

St. Matthew, Ap., Ev. (21st Sep- 
tember) 


Cant, vi, 8, 9; 

Ecclus. xxiv, 

24-28 
Ecclus. xliv, as 

on 18th. Jan. 


Rom. viii, 3-11 
Ephes. i, 3-14 


S. Matt, i, 1-16 

S. Matt, ix, 9- 
13 


Michaelmas Day (29th Septem- 
ber) 


Apoc. xi, 19-xii 
12 


1 Cor. iii, 9-15 


S. Luke xix, 1- 
10 


St. Luke. Ev. (18th October) ... 

SS. Simon and Jude, Ap. (28th 
October) 


Ecclus. xliv, as 
on 18th Jan. 

Ecclus. xliv, as 
on 18th Jan. 


2 Tim. iv. 8-18 
1 Cor. iv, 9-14 


S. Luke X, 1-11 

S. Matt, xix, 
27-29 


All Hallows (let November) 


Apoc. vii, 2-12 


Rom. viii, 28-39 


S. Matt, v, 1-12 


All Souls' Day (2nd November) 


2 Mace, xii, 43- 
40 


1 Cor. XV, 51-57 


S. John V, 25- 
29 



108 



LECTIONARY 



THE PAY. 



St. Andrew, Ap. (30th Novem 
ber) 

Conception of our Lady (8tih 
December) 



Mass for a departed bishop 

Mass for a departed priest 

Mass on the day of the death or 
the burial of a departed person 



THE PRUPHETIC 
LESSON. 



Ecclus. xliv, as 
on 18th Jan. 

Proverbs viii, 
22-35 



Job xix, 20 27 
Apoc. xiv, 13 
Job xiv, 13-16 



THE EPISTLE. THE GOSPEL 



Gal. i, 3-12 ... 
Rom. viii. 3-11 



2 Cor. V, 6-10 

2 Cor. V, 6-10 

1 Thes.s. iv, 12 
17 



S. Matt, iv, 18- 

25 

S. Matt, i, 1-16 



S. John V, 25-30 

S. John vi, 51- 

55 
S. John xi, 21- 

27 



The numbering of the verses is that of the Vulgate. Frequently the peri- 
copes both begin and end in the middle of a verse. 



From Messrs. COPE & FENWICK'S LIST 
MANUAL OF OCCASIONAL OFFICES 

For the Use of the Clergy. With Primitive Collects, Formulae, Tables, 
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BOOKS ON BAHAISM 

The Bahai movement claims to be the divine instrument for bring- 
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MYSTERIOUS FORCES OF CIVILISATION 

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London : COPE & FENWICK, 16, Clifford's Inn, E.C. 



From Messrs. COPE & FENWICK'S LIST 
THE JEW AND HUMAN SACRIFICE 

By HERMANN L. STRACK, D.D., Ph.D., Regius Professor of Theology at 
the University of Berlin. Royal 8vo, cloth gilt, 10s. net. Post free from 
the Publishers, 10s. 6d. 

SPECTATOR: It is much more than an examination of this particular 
fiction; it examines the whole subject of superstitions connected with 
the use of blood. 

OUTLOOK: A long, curious, and to a great extent ghastly series of 
researches on Dr. Stracks part has shown that superstition as to vari- 
ous therapeutic or magical properties of liuman blood is still widely 
held among all races, is a frequent cause of crime, and always has 
been so. 

SATURDAY KEVIEW : It will take its place among learned contribu- 
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the calumny is still widely believed; and in thus publicly refuting it he 
has stood up boldly for the cause of truth and righteousness. 

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ever been told. No fiction has ever ventured on anything like it. . . . 
If someone should ask, "Was all this necessary?" there can be but one 
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it for years to come the happy hunting-ground of the students of 
popular superstitions. . . . For the student of folk-lore this work 
will retain its value long after it has served its original purpose as a 
defence of the Jew. 

GLASGOW HERALD: Everything that Dr. Strack sets down is in- 
structive to a folk-lorist and so scientifically valuable. . . . With all 
his learnincr, which gives his book the solid value of a piece of original 
historical research. Professor Strack is far from being as dry as dust. 
He has a decided turn for polemics, and employs his gift upon his 
adversaries with tremendous gusto and with the unrestrained fury of 
the Teutonic controversialist. 

Jewish chronicle : The book deserves the fullest encouragement, 
and the enterprise should be rewarded by a large sale. . . Professor 
Strack may rest secure in the feeling that what he has done is a deed 
written on the eternal roll of fame. Not only Jews, but also 
Christians have cause for gratitude to him. He has vindicated the 
conscience of Europe. 



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TME5 

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interested in liturgiology. Its scope is, however, considerably wider 
than that of the other Liturgies already published, which conta-n the 
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This book is an attempt to show, by one specific example, the nature 
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