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A Universal Reference Library 









Scientific American Compiling Department 


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Copyright igti 

,y Google 


OCT -9 1113 






Professor of Philosophy, Cornell University 



President of Carnegie Institution 



Adrain Professor of Mathematics, Columbia 




Commissioner of Education, State of New York 



President of Leland Stanford Jr. University 



Professor of English Literature, Columbia 



Professor of English, Columbia University 



Author of " The Man Without a Country " 



Chancellor of Vanderbilt University 



Author of "Dictionary of Architecture" 



Dean of Hamilton Theological Seminary, 

Colgate University 



Editor " Medical Newa." 



Hartford, Conn. 



New York 



New York 


Consulting Electricd Engineer, New York 



Consulting Civil and Mechanical Engineer 

New York 



Professor of Metallurgy, Harvard University 



Professor of Semitic Languages, New York 




Editor of "American Historical Review" 



Professor of History, University of Toronto 


Professor of History, McGill University 


Director of the School of Economics and Polit- 
ical Science in the University of London 



Professor of Psychology, Harvard University 



M.P. for Salford (Eng.) ; Author of "Danton," 

" Robespierre," " Paris," etc. 


J. S. KENNARD, Utt.D., D.Cl., L.H.D. 
Author of " Italian Romance Writers," " Studi- 
Danteschi," " Romanzi e Romanzieri Italiani," 
" Les Femme dans le Roman Italien," "Th« 
Fallen God," etc 



Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Yale Uni- 
versity; Lecturer on Philosophy, Western 
Reserve University; Lecturer on Education 
in the universities of Japan. 


Premier of South Australia igoi-s; Agwit- 

Gcneral ia Londm for South Australia 

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far, father 
fate, hate 

ng mingle, singing 

nk bank, ink 


ado, sofa 


no, open 


all, fan 


■ 6 

not, on 


choose, chuick 


atom, symbol 


eel we 


book, look 


! bed, end 


oil. soil; also Ger. Ml, as ID bnltl 


btr, over : alto Fr. «, J 
as in neuf; and OfH, 
coeur; Ger. 5 (or 




■ 00 

fool, rule 
' allow, bowsprit 


befall, elope 


satisfy, sauce 


agent, trident 


show, sure 


off, troi^ 


thick, thin . 


gas, get 


father, thither 


angnifih, guaTft 


mute, uM 


l»t, hot 

U M 


bvt. U8 

A on 

a Ger. eh, as in ntckt, waekt 


puU, ptrt 




iMtween u and e, at in Fr, s%r, Gc 

gem, genius 
quaint, quite 

(consonanul) yss, young 

pleasant, rose 
azure, pleasure 

' (prime), ' (secondary) accents, to indicate 
tyllalMC nrew 

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Seward, su'ard. Anna, Enelish poet: b. 
Eyam, Der&yshire, 1747 ; d. Lichfield, 25 
March iSogi Some of her earlier poeti- 
cal efforts were an 'Elegy on the Death 
of Mr. GarTick> and an 'Ode on Ig- 
norance'. Her literary aspirations were 
fostered by her fellow-townsman, Dr. Eras- 
mus Darwin, of whom she later wrote a 
'Memoir' (1804). Her greater success was 
achieved with a 'Monody on the Death of the 
Unfortunate Major Andre' (1781 ) • and an 
elegiac poem on 'Captain Cook' (1807). 

of her as "all tmklinK and tinsel- _. 

Dr. Darwih m petticoats.* Her poems were 
published in 1810 with a memoir by Sir Walter 

Seward, Frederick William. American 
lawyer, son of W. H. Seward (q.v.) : b. Auburn, 
N. y., 8 July 1830. He was graduated from 
Union College in 1849, admitted to the bar in 
1851, and for 10 years was one of the editors 
and owners of tne Albany Evening Journal. 
In 1861 he was sent to apprize Lincoln of the 
plot to assassinate him in Baltimore, served as 
assistant secretary of state in 186179 and in 
1.S77-81, and narrowly escaped death in defend- 
ing his father from the assault of 14 April 1865. 
He went with Admiral Porter on the special 
mission to negotiate the treaties with the West 
Indies in 1807, assisted in the purchase of 
Alaska, and in the negotiations for Pago-Pago 
Harbor, Samoa. He was a member of ike New 

and in 1900 became president of Uie Sagaponack 
Realty Company. He Has published: 'Life and 
Letters of William H. Seward' (1891); <A 
West Indian Cruise' C1894). 

Seward, George Frederick, American di- 

Slomat, nephew of W. H. Seward (q.v.) : b. 
lorida. N. Y., 8 Nov. 1840. He was educated 
at Union College, and in 1861 was appointed 
United States consul to Shanghai, C^ina, where 
he remained until 1876, serving as consul-gen- 
eral from 1863. In 1876-80 he was minister to 
China, but was recalled in the last named year 
in consequence of refusing to undertake the ne- 
gotiation of a treaty lo restrict Chinese immi- 
gration. During his residence in China he was 
active in suppressing riots and in reducing pi- 
racy. He has been vice-president of the Nortli 
China branch of the Royal Asiatic Society since 
1887, and since 1893 has been president of the 
New York Fidelity and Casualty Company. He 
has published: 'Chinese Immigration in Its So- 
cial and Economic Aspects' (1881) ; 'Digest of 
System of Taxation of New York* (1902) ; etc. 
Seward, William Henry, American states- 
man: b, Florida, Orange County, N. V., 16 May 
1801; d. Auburn, Cayuga County, N, Y,, 10 
Oct 1872. He was graduated from Union Col- 
lege (1820), and having studied for the law, 
beM.n practising at Auburn in 1823, but soon 
indicated a decided bejit for politics, which grad- 
VeL. 19 — 1 

nally drew him away from the legal profession. 
In 1830 he was elected as an anti-Masonic can- 
didate lo a seal in the New York senate, and, 
from that date he was, witTi few intervals, in' 
one form or another, an effective and prominent 
leader in the councils that framed tlie policy 
both in his own State and of the Nation. In 
1838 he was elected first Whig governor of New 
York by a majority of 10,431. Though his ad- 
ministration was rendered peculiarly difEcuIt bjr 
the internal dissensions of his party, it was 
marked by wise measures of reform, which defi- 
nitely added to Whig strength in the State. 

State museum of natural history was estab- 
lished, and a bill was passed securing for fugi- 
tive slaves a trial by jury with counsel furnished 
by the State. He was re-eleeterf in 184a From 
1843 to J&49 he was occupied largely with pro- 
fessional practice, though he delivered several 
addresses on political and other topics, among 
tiem one on the life and character of O'Con- 
nell, which is accounted one of his happiest ora- 
torical efforts. He was elected in 1849 to the 
Senate, and there attained great influence as 
both a party leader and an adviser of President 
Taylor, In a speech of 11 March 1850 in favor 
of the admission of California, he spoke of the 
exclusion of slavery from all new States as de- 
manded by 'the h.igher law,* a phrase which 
greatly offended Southern Democrats, and was 
made one of the battle-cries of Abolition. Upon 
Fillmore's accession, Seward stronglv opposed 
that President's pro-slavery attitude, thougn this 
was accepted by many Whigs in Congress. Hav- 
ing been re-elected senator in 1855, be took a 
leading part in the discussions imrrKdiatcly ante- 
cedent to the Rebellion. In an address at Roches- 
ter, N. Y., in October 185^ he made reference 
to the "irrepressible conflict" whose oulcomje 
mqst make the United States a nation either aij 
of free labor or all of slave. In 1856 and again 
in i860 he was the most prominent Republican 
candidate for the Presidential nomination, re- 
ceiving on the first ballot at the Chicago con- 
vention in i860 I73>^ votes as against 102 for 
Lincoln, who was eventually chosen. Seward, 
however, spoke for Lincoln in West and East, 
and was made secretary of state. This ^ost he 
filled with notable efficiency, particularly in con- 
nection with the foreign relations of the govern- 
ment. He reorganized the diplomatic service, 
and by his able despatches and the instructions 
furnished to representatives abroad retained the 
confidence of Earope. which had been ready tO 
grant recognition and support to the Confeder- 
acy. A famous incident of his secretaryship was 
the correspondence with Great Britain ipropos 
of the "Trent affair.* When the Confederate 
agents, Slidell and Mason, were removed from 
the British ship Trent, their restoration was 
peremptorily called for, and war seemed cer- 
tain. The answer, formulated by Seward and 

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slightly amended by Lincoln, by its skill, closed 
the matter. Great Britain, it said, now recos- 

fliied the principle of exemption from search, _ ___ ~ ™ ,. 
contended for in the War of i8ia by the United ' Scwwagt See S^nijary ENcmEBuua 
States, which now therefore willingly released Sewing Machines On 17 July i79oThomai 
tbe prisoner*. Seward insisted on redress for 5^ ,„ Englishman, secured a patent on a 
Americao citweos for depredations by the Ala- B^chine to be used for "quilting, stitching, aj 
bama (see Ai.Abama Claims). At tlie time ,ewing, making shoes and other articles." The 
Of the assassination of Lincoln, an unsu«essful patent was for some sort of a machine con- 
attempt was made on the life of Seward, thra ^^^^^ ^,i, boot-making, and the specificktion* 
ill at Washingtoa Seward was retained br and drawings of the patent comprised, among 
Johnson, but retired in March 1869. He pub- ^ther things, a crude. stitching device for form- 
lishcd a 'L>fe> of J. Q. Adams (ia*9)- An edi- i^ ^ chain-stitch. This patent was discovered 
tun of his <Wocka» appeared m 1853, inelud- ^ few years ago by a searcher among the an- 
tng speechea, addresses, and essays. Consult cient archives of the British Patent Office, 
the autobiography and memoir published in where it had lain unnoticed for welt-nigh a 
1877; Lothrop, <WilhBin Henry Seward> century, no attempt, so far as is known, hav- 
(1896). ■ mg ever been made to introduce into practical 
Seward, Neb., city, county-scat of Seward use the mechanisms described in ■ the patent. 
County; on the Big Blue River, and on the Chi- Between 1790 and 184! several parties obtained 
cago, B. & Q. and flie Fremont, E. ft M. V. patents for stitching devices, making the tam- 
ll.R. s ; about 26 miles west by north of LincoltL hour and chain -sthchcs, none of which was 
"the capital of the State. It is in an agricultural commercially successful, one of the fqtal defects 
and stock-raising region, in which wheat and in each being the fact that the cloth had to be 
corn are the chief farm products. The city fed by hand. When, in 1841, Newtrai and 
has fiour mills, grain elevators, stock yards, and Arehbold patented in England a needle with 
creameries. There is a large trade in grain and an eye near the point, and which ia essentially 
live stock. The four banks have a combined the same needle now in use by all sewing-nu- 
capital of ¥3ia,ooa Pop. (iSgo) 3,io8; (1900). chine manufacturers, one of the greatest diffi- 
1,970; {1910) 2,t0& ctiltios that had theretofore stood •" *••- ~"" 

of making the s 

i8[8 a sewing machine 

Seward PeoiiiBula. See Alaska. 

SewelL su'el, EUxabeth Inlssing, English which made a back-stitch was invented by the 

novelist: b. Newport, Isle of Wight, 19 Feb. Rev. John Adams Etodge, of Monkton, Vt„ but 

i8iS- She wrote extensively, her works cover- was neither patented nor manufactured for sale. 

ing travels, religious topics, poetry, and various The first sowing^ machine ptrt info operation 

histories for young people, beside the novels was patented in France, in 1830, by Barthl*roy 

upon which her reputation rests. They are of Thimonnier, and was used principally in the 

tiie High-Church school of fictbn, were once manufacture of clothing for the French army, 

widely popular in England and the United but it was later destroyed by a mob. In 184S 

States, and include: 'Amy Herbert' (1844); he put another machine on the market and on 

<Lauton Parsonage' {1846) ; 'Margaret Perci- 3 Sept. 1850 took out a patent In the United 

vai> (1847); 'Ursula' (1858); e '^— " 

man: b. Castlebar, Ireland, 6 Dec. 1835; 

J^H« iTV « 'ni; T^ M-T;™^^'*!,; arm 'was invented and manufactured in 1832-4: 

i^^^k^; h^,S^-J^^ « t ^L^L%.^t i" New York, by a machinist named Walter 

United States m 1846 served as a sailor for a ^ ^j^, '^/^-hine was a lock-stitch and 

time, and later engaged in business. He served ■ , cnntinuous threads In i&ia a t 

i^ m=T,., K.f.i.r n* >)._ ri,,n u/=, .n,t ,t ta M^.. ".*9'' ™" eominuous inreaos. in 1042 a i 

in many battles of the Civil War. and at its close ^^?„"^ '^^"^ ^wilTg leather and va^X oAer 
was brevetted brigadier-general and major-gen- ^^^^^ ni.iterials was invented by J. J. Green- 
mi. He was interested in ra^road affairs after j,- ^ ^j^ jjj ^^^ ,^^„^^ generally used. 
the war; was elected to the New Jersey senate i^" ^g^ ^ ^a^hine somewhat similar to the 
in 187a, and was president of that body m 1876, GreenSfigh machine was invented by George H. 
1879, and iffio. He was United S^es Senator Co^liss. This had an automatic feed, and ths 

from New Jersey in 1881-7 and 1895-^901- In ^edles, of which there were l«», »c,,: .u,. 

1899 he became major-general of the New Jer- jjoHrontally through the goods to be sewed. 

sey National Guard. Numerous other inventions were made between 

Sewellel, a terrestrial rodent {Hapiodon the years 1849 to 1851, the most important of 

fitfut) which is formed into a family by it- these being the machine for the manufacture of 

self, and regarded as a connecting link between clothing made by Lerow and Blodgett. This 

(>eavers and squirrels. It is represented by a had a curved shuttle, adjustable feed, and au- 

single species (H. ru/iu), restricted to 'a small tomatie tension, and the baster-plate consisted 

area on the west coast of North America, in of a circular hoop studded with pins. The 

Washington, Oregon, and California." The next invention patented that covers a frnida- 

aborigines called it 'Showt'P or 'Sewellel,* die mental and important feature was that of John 

trappers the •Boomer* or "Mountain Beaver.^ Bachelder, patented 8 May 1849. Bachelder's 

The animal is plump, with broad head, short machine was the first to embody the horiiontal 

limbs, and hardly any tail; measures about a table with a continuous feeding device that 

fool in length ; and has a brownish color. It »''»''.'' «« ?"y ^^nSth of seam. His mventipn 

lives socially in colonies, burrows underground, "Consisted of an endless leather belt wt wii^ 

and lives on vegetable matter. As a connecting fn^^'l steel points piojectmg up through the 

link Hapiodon is of much interest to naturalists' ho"^--"*-' table an^ penetrating the material 

,., -..hv.C_700glC 


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to be 5ew«d, carrying it iloag intermitientlj' at needle, and the shuttle was driven in its race 
a proper time to meet the action of the needle, below the feed table by a mechanism deriving 
Ehas Howe, Jr., began his experiments in its motion from the shaft by means of gearii^, 
1843. and secured his first patents 10 Sept. 1846. The feed consisted of an iron wheel with a 
Howe's principal improvements were the shut- corrugated surface, the top of which was 
tie, producing the lock-stitch, and the feed mo- slightly elevated above the level surface of the 
tion. Later, Howe made other improvements, taWe. By an intermittent motion tKe feed 
but the machine bearing his name was not carried the cloth forward between stitches witb- 
patented nntil 1857. Howe's invention con- out injury to the fabric. This device permine<I 
sisted of the combination of the eye-pointed the cloth to be turned in any direction by the 
needle with a shuttle for forming a stitch, and operator while sewing, which was impossible 
an intermittent feed for holding and carrying with the styles of feed which perforated the 
[he material forward as each stitch is farmed, goods. The material was held 1:1 place by a 
The mechanical device for the feed was called presser foot alongside the needle. This presser 
the "baste r-pl ate," and the length of the seam foot embraced an important feature possessed 
sewed at One operation was determined by the by no other sewing machine .up to that time — 
length of this plate. The material to be sewed the yielding spring, which would permit of 
was bung by pins to the 'baster- plate* in an passage over seams, and adjust itself automati-' 
upright position, and if the seam to be sewed cally to any thickness of cloth. It was claimed 
was of greater length than the plate it was that this was an improvement over Mr. Wit- 
necessary to rehang it on the plate, which was son's first feed, in that there was no backward 
moved back to position in tJie same manner as motion while in contact with the cloth. It had, 
a log is carried T)ack and forth in a saw-mill.- however, the disadvantage of touching the cloth 
-■In 1847, Allen B. Wilsort, then working asa only on a small portion of its periphery — 
journeyman cabinet-maker in Adrian. Mich., theoretically at only a point, and practically 
conceived the idea of a sewing machine, al- only a little more. It was claimed by Messrs. 
though he had never heard of one. He did not Wheeler & Wilson to be realfy an infringement 
complete full drawings of hts machine until the of Wilson's patent, the principle of which was 
latter part of 1848. Early in 1849, lie deter- the holding of the cloth between a roughened 
mined to build a model, and began, on 3 Feb. or toothed surface on the under side and a 
i&ig, the construction of his first machine, smooth surface touching it with an intermittent 
which he completed in about 60 days. Having motion, permitting the turning of the cloth in 
been compelled, by lack of means, to construct either direction while the machine was in mo- 
every part of the machine himself, the iron tion; and this claim was sustained by the 
and steel as well as the wood, although he was court 

not a practical machinist and lacked suitable On 19 Dec 1854, a patent was issued for 
tools for the metal work, the machine was Mr, Wilson's celebrated "four-motion feed,* so 
consequently of imperfect construction, and called from the peculiarity of the device by 
could not illustrate in the best manner the which the flat-toothed surface of the feed, being 
principles of his invention. It worked, how- in contact with the cloth, is moved forward, 
ever, and with it were made dress waists and carrying the cloth with it; then drops out of 
other articles that severely tested its capacity, contact with the cloth, is moved backward and 
This machine made the lock-stitch, the lower then rises up against the cloth and is again 
thread being carried by a double-ended shuttle, ready for the first motion. This device solved 
The machine contained the first automatic feed the problem of a thoroughly practical and" 
movement ever produced, and was the first that effective feed, and was soon senerally adopted 
could sew curved seams or turn a sharp angle, and has become the feed motion of the world. 
Without such a device, the machine vronld have This feed motion, although it was not patented 
been a practical failure, as Howe's really was, until this late date, had been long previottsly 
and as vere all others until Mr. Wilson's in- invented by Mr. Wilson, and was described itf 
ventions. His first device was what is known his application for a patent in 1851, but thfr 
. as the "two-motion feed." to distinguish it from claim was not pursued for the reason that he 
his 'fcur-motion feed,» a still more eflfective believed at the time that he had been ^ntici- 
fievice afterward invented by him. The ■two- pated by W. 0. Grover, of the firm of Grover 
motion feed* consisted of a horizontally recip- & Baker. It was ascertained afterward, how- 
rocatinff tooth surface (the pitch of the teeth ever, that Mr. Wilson was really prior in the 
being forward) engaging the material at all invention, and, without contest on the part of 
times, and while the needle was in the material Mr. Grover, the patent was granted to Mr. 
moving back to take a new stroke. A patent Wilson. This machine was invented by Grover 
on this machine was granted Mr. Wilson on 4 Baker on 11 Feb. 1851, and had a double-kmp 
12 Nov. 1850. Wilson had, while in New York, stitdi made by a combination of a circular re- 
constructed a model of a machine containing a ciprocating under needle and a curved upper 
rotary hook and rediirocating bobbin, ^ave all needle wifli an eye ne»r the point. This elimi- 
his energies to perfecting the new machine, and nated both shuttle and bobbin and rendered it 
obtained a patent for it 12 Auk. 1851. possible for the upper and under threads to 
It is a remarkable coincidence that on the be taken from commercial spools. These ma- 
same day a patent was granted to Isaac M. chines, though once popular, are not now manu- 
Singer for his first machine. TTie main feat- factured. 

ures of the Singer machine were its straight In 1855 litigation arose involving the three 

needle, working at the extremity of a station- principal sewing-machine companies then in 

ary overhanging arm, and its feed, consisting of exi.stenc«, each claiming that the others were 

a roughened wheel. A straight shaft in the infringing upon certain of their patent rights, 

overhanging arm imparted the motion to (he and numerous suits wer« instituted, more par- 




tictilarly by Howe, whose patents were so skill- 
luBy drawn that he claimed all others were 

In 1856 the three principal sewing-machine 
companies — Wheeler & Wilson, Singer and the 
Grover 4 Baker — formed a oombination. It 
was contracted by the three companies and Mr. 
Howe that they would stop their Ktigatioo, 
and, with a fair payment to each other and to 
Mr. Howe for special rights, would carry on 
the business with only honorable competition. 
They finally agreed to license any responsible 
person who should propose to enga^ in the 
manufacture' of a good machine on the pay- 
ment of a ro][alty, which for several years was 
I3 on a machine. 

The next machine to be put on the market 
was the Willcox & Gibbs. This machine, which 
had a rotating hook for using a single thread 
to make the twisted loop-stitch, was first pat- 
ented in June 1857, by James E. H, Gibbs. of 
Millppint. Va. Later James Willcox. of Phila- 
delphia, added some further improvements, and 
the machine then became known as the Willcox 
A Gibbs, Several years afterward an auto- 
matic tension was placed on this machine by 
Charles H. Willcox. 

While the manufacture of machines for the 
home lias been developing and progressing, 
those for mannfacttiring purposes have in no 
leu a degree been brought to a. state bordering 
on {lerfection. There are now machines for 
making — or which have special attachments for 
making — every conceivable article of clothing, 
upholstery, embroidery, leather goods, etc. We 
have the button-hole, the but ton -sewer, the 
French-knot, the faggoting, feather-stitching, 
hemstitch, side and box-pUiters, corset ma- 
chines ; the cylinder for seam work on sleeves 
trousers, bootlegs, leather buckets, etc. ; ma- 
chines for embroidery, smocking, carpet, awn- 
ing, etc ; the single and double-needle ma- 
chines and these with four, six, and eight 
needles for glove work, special machines tor 
overalls, sail-making, flag-making, and a host 
of Others too numerous to mention. Many of 
the machines may be used for several different 

Other parts of the mechanism 
tifllly the same. There have been several thou- 
sand patents granted on sewing machine appli- 

The production of sewing machines has be- 
come a wonderful industry in the United States, 
which leads the world in thteir manu&cture. 
In igoo there were 58 concerns engaged in the 
indostry, capitalized at $18,739459; employing 
614 salaried clerks and officials, with salaries 
aggregating ^42,468, and 10,635 wage-earners, 
with wages of $6,213,938; their miscellaneous 
mpenses were $864,451; cost of material used, 
$7,809,796; and the value of their production 
was $18,314,419. Besides these there were 7 
establishments making sewing-machine cases, 
producing goods annually to the value of 
^315,143. ''he product in igoo included 747,587 
machines for domestic use and 55.227 machines 
for manufacturing purposes. In the same year 
the exports amounted to $4,541,774, 

Sexagesiina (sfks-a-j<!s1-ma) Sunday, the 
second Sunday before Lent. See QuiNflUA- 

Sextant, a portable instrunMnt for meuur- 
ing the altitudes of the heavenly bodies above 
the horizon, or their angular distance as seen in 
the sky. It was invented independently by 
Thomas Godfrey, of Philadelphia, and Captain 
Hadley of the British Navy, about 17301 The 
principles on whidi it works will be seen I9 a 
study of Fig; i. C is a plain flat mirror, of 

Fio. I. 

which the polished side is turned downward 
and toward the left H is a flat plate of pol- 
ished glass through which an eye placed at E 
may view a distant object in the direction K by 
light coming through it in the direction of the 
dotted lines. Light emanating from another 
object O or P and falling on the mirror C will. 

the T 

.. . IB the line CH and, in striking the 
plate H, a certain portion of it will be 
reflected in the direction HE, so that the ob- 
server with his eye at E will see both the 
objects K and or P in coincidence. If the 
mirror C is set parallel to H as in the figure, 
the rays KE and 00 will be parallel, and may 
therefore he considered as emanating from the 
same object at an infinite distance. 

Thus the eye will see two images in the 
mirror as if together. But if the mirror C 
be moved into a different direction, that shown 
by the dotted line AB tor example, the direction 
of the ray, the direction of the line PC, the 
rays along which are reflected to H, will deviate 
from OC by double the an^e through which 
the mirror has turned. This doubling is 
caused by the fact that the angles of incidence 
and reflection are both changed by the motion 
of C It follows that if the observer can mea- 
sure the angle between the mirror C and H, 
doubling this angle will give him the difference 
of direction between the rays coming from K 
and from P. 

The sextant is used to measure diis angles 
The essential parts of it are shown in Kg. 3. 
The part ABC consists of the arc AB round 
C as a centre and firmly fastened by the radii 
CB and CA which are again firmly connected 
by a framework not shown in the figure. To 
this framework is attached the fixed plate of 
glass H, of which the lower half is silver while 
the upper half ts transparent T is a telescope, 
also hrmly fixed to the frame, through which 
the eye looking in at E may see a distant object 
through the transparent portion of the mirror, 
aiKl at the same time see any odier object by 
the light reflected from the silvetgo part. 



TIic arc AB is gnida«t«d to degrcM and 
fractions as shown by the figures. Owing 
to the donbling ot the an^e, the 
on the arc BA arc also double. That 

Sorton, a church officer whose duties con- 
sist in taking- care of the church generally, to 
which used to be added the duty of digging 
and filling up graves in the churchyard, when 
the church had a cemetery attached to it. In the 
United States the sexton is also very often an 
undertaker, and thus continues in a form differ- 
ent from the old-time sexton, to attend to 6k 
interment of church members. 

Sex'tna (sumamed Eupibicus, from his 

Fio. 1. 

this arc is only 60 degrees in length, but is 
divided into 130 d^rees, so as to show the 
actual altitudL of the object observed. 

RM is a movable arm carrying a mirror C 
called the index glass, fixed to it perpendicularly 
at its upper end. The arm revolves around C 
u a centre. At its lower end there is an index 
mark and vernier by which the position of the 
arm with respect to the graduations on the arc 
may be determined. 

The altitude of a heavenly body at C is then 
measured by the observer taking the instrument 
in his hand and holding it In a vertical position, 
with the telescope ET horizontal, so that the sea 
horizon may be seen through the transparent 
^rt of the horizon glass H. The observer facing 
tn the vertical plane of the sun or other ob)ect 
then turns the arm RM around the centre C 
until he brings the sun into sight, through its 
rays being reflected first from C and then from 
H. When the limb of the sun is thus made to 
coincide with the horizon, the angle through 
which the arm RM has moved from parallelism 
is shown by the position of the index on the 
graduated arc BA, which is then determined by 
the vernier. 

In ordinary use the navigator never has to 
measure angles exceeding 90 degrees. In this 
case the are BA need only to be 45 degrees in 
actual length. The instrument is then called a 

Joadrant. This was tba original form used by 
F(H* very accurate use the arc is extended 
down so Bs to form a complete circle. A Spe- 
cial device is employed to bring about the 
proper reflection of the li^t; but the reflecting 
circle, as the instrument is called, is too com- 
plicated to admit of common use by the 
""^■s"""- S. Newcomb. 

Sextet (from Lat. texitu, shrth). In music, 
a composition for six voices or instruments, or 
for voices with instrumental accompaniment 
Instrumental sextets are generally compositions 
in sonata form. 

I a skeptic who flourished in the first half 
of the 3d century. He was a Greek by birth, 
and lived at Alexandria and Rome. Skepticism 
appears in his writings in the most perfect state 
which it reached in ancient times. (See Scep- 
TiasM.) We have two works by him, written 
in the Greek language, and they are the source 
of our knowledge of the Greek skeptical phi- 
losophy.^ One of them entitled 'Outlines o£ 
Pyrrhonism,' in three books, explains the 
method of Pyrrho ; the other, entitled 'Against 
the Mathematicisna,' is an attempt to ap^ly 
that method to all the prevailing philosophic^ 
systems and other branches of knowledge. 

Sexual Selection, a term invented by Dar- 
win to denote a special phase of natural selec- 
tion, depending on a competition between rival 
males, in which a premiom is set on those quali- 
ties which favor their possessors in securing 
mates. This competition takes two forms : Oo 
the one hand, rival mates, far instance stags or 
gamecocks, fight with one another, and the 
coni^ueroTs have naturally the preference in 
matmg; on the other hand, rival males some- 
times seem to vie with one another in displaying 
their attractive qualities before their desired 
mates, who, according to Darwin, dioose thost 
that please them best. Darwin gives the follow- 
ing summary of his theory : 

It tuabcco ihown that the I»rge»t oumbu of vigor- 

islied fcmRles, which are the £nt iZ bt«d iiithe'ipriiiji. 
If Buch fnnslcs seleci the uiort attracilvc and, at t£e 
Mtiie time, vigorom main, Ihcy wiU rear a laratr nam- 
bcr of oitBprins than tlic ictarded feaalca, which molt 

It will be if the more vigorous males select the more at- 
tractive and, al the une time, halthy and vigoroua 
females; and this will eapecially hold good if tbc mal* 
defends the female, aad aids in providins food for the 
Toung-. The advantage thus gained by lEe more viaot- 
onr pain in raanng a laiger nnmber of olfspting B»> 
appareallr luSced Co lender aeiual MJECdon eSclcot 

In regard to the second aspect of sexual 
selection, in which the females are believed to 
exercise some choice, giving the preference to 
those suitors which have brighter coters, 
more graceful forms, sweeter voices, or greater 
charms of some kind, there is no little difference 
of opinitm. Darwin indeed believed strongly in 
the female's choice, and referred to this process 
of selection many of the qualities which dis- 
tinguish male animals. The females *have by 
a long selection of the more attractive males 
added to their beauty or other attractive (juali- 
ties.> On the other hand, Alfred Russel WaU 
lace maintains a very different position. "There 
ta.^ he says, *a total absence of any evidence 
that the females admire or even notice the dis- 
play of the males. Among butterflies there ii 

i3„rz.,i ..Google 


literallj not one particle of eridence that the to rationilize the vanations which Darwin 
feinale is influenced by color or even that she sintply postulated, is by no means inconsistent 
has any power of choice, while there is much with a reci^itton of sexual selection as an 
direct evidence to the contrary.' Against this, accelerant directive process in the evolution of 
G. W. and E. G. Peckham, in their careful essay male brightness, or of natural selection as a 
on sexual selection in spiders, state that they retardative directive process eliminating disad- 
have in the AUida '^conclusive evidence that the vantageously conspicuous females, 
females pay close attention to the love dances Wallace in his later works advanced toward 
of the males, and also that they have not only a rational interpretation of the variations which 
the power, but the will, to exercise a choice he was previously content to postulate as facts, 
among the suitors for their favor." Some ob- For he says that 'ornament is the natural out- 
servers of birds are also confident that the come and direct product of superabundant health 
females choose the more musical or otherwise and vigor," and is *due to the general laws of 
attractive males. But again Wallace maintabs growth and development," It seems to some 
that the fact that every male bird finds a mate that this mode of mterpreting characters is of 
"would almost or quite neutralize any effect of far-reaching importance, and that it affects not 
sexual selection of color or ornament ; since the only the theory of sexual selection hut that of 
less highly colored birds would be at no ^ dis- natural selection as well, 
advantage as regards leaving healthy offspring.* To sum up, the problems involved in sexual 

The theory of sexual selection is of consid- selection are (i> what physiological conditions 

crable importance in a general theory of cvolu- explain the secondary sexual characters which 

tion. This may be illustrated in _ reference to so often distinguish males and females; (a) to 

the bright plumage of many birds. If we what extent and in what degree of refinement 

postulate successive crops of variations (which does preferential mating occur; and (3) to what 

cannot at present be completely rationaliwd), extent has sexual selection guided the diileren- 

if we acknowledge that there is really ■prefer- tiation of the sexes alike in distinctive qualities 

ential mating" among birds (which is not readily and in aesthetic sensitiveness? Before these 

proved or disproved), if we believe that the problems can be adequately solved many more 

females are sensitive to the slight excellences facts must be accumulated. 

which distinguish one suitor from another Consult: Darwin, "Origin of Species,* *De- 

and that their choice of mates is determined by scent of Man'; Wallace, 'Natural Selection,* 

these excellences (which Wallace emphatically 'Darwinism'; L. Morgan, 'Habit and Instinct,* 

denies), then we may say that the greater bright- and other books. 

ness of male birds may have been evolved by „ ^ n . i_-.i t ■ 1 j ■ 

sexual selection. This was Darwin's opinion. ^ ^t^^**^^ s5-shel, a group of islands m 

The brighter males succeeded better than their t^e Indian Ocean, belonging to England. Their 

rivals in the art of courtship; the variations formation is peculiar, as they are the only 

which gave them success were transmitted to the tropical islands of grariite structure. The archi- 

Offspringi gradually the qualities were estab- pelago comprises 80 islands, nsingprecipitously 

lished and enhanced as secondary sexual charac- fr<™ the water to a height of 2,998 feet m the 

ters of the species. But Wallace interpreted the l"8;est of the group, Mahe, which has an ar«i 

facts quite otherwise. The relatively plain plum- of SS!4 square mdes. Mahi is central and, wiA 

age of the female birds was due to natural » *«" "^ *« others, is 'nlMbited. The white 

selection, eliminating those whose conspicuous- ""^y loaches are enclosed by coral reefs. The 

ness during incubation was fatal, fostering those ^"'^ is fertile, the climate temperate. There arc 

whose coloring was protective. Just as l)aines ^=7 ^1°°^^ '^^ streams. The islands are cot- 

Barrington, a naturalist, still remembered as the "«■» with verdure (enormous ferns senlitive 

correspondent of Giibert White, suggested pl^nW, and palms grow) and valuable woods, 

(1773) that singing birds were small and hen adapted to cabinet work or ship -building. Va- 

birds mute for safety's sake, so Wallace main- ?'"?. ^"^^ cocoa, spices, tobacco, corn, tropical 

tained that female birds had forfeited brightness fruits, and vegetables are grown. The expoitB 

u a ransom for life. *« *'"' fit*"*' ""ts, and oil of the cocoanut 

The doiAts and difficulties arouse skepticism palm ; vanilU soap, tobacco, tor oise-shell, and 

as to the thoroughness of the explanations of ^acoa ba^. The imports are cotton, coal, wine 

secondary sexual characters suggested either by ?*'«««• f?'^ f°^^°° fP°^% Coco-de-mer (q.v.) 

Darwin or by Wallace. It is not surprising, « Pe^^'jar to Praslin^ Enormous tortoises of 

therefore, to find Mivart-s explanation of the the edible sort are common. The adjacent sew 

beauty of males as the direct expression of an coniain numerous hsh, some of gorgeous colore. 

internal force, or Mantegazza's hints as to physi- Tjie mhabitants confmct their hornes of a species 

ological explanation of 3.e sexual divergence, or P* <^°"1 which glistens hke marble and 1? hewn 

BrSik's reference to "something within the ani- '"fo "«"'*« "'^/^J'l .The dbef harbor is Port 

mal which determines that the male should lead ^'."^V*'^ ^^^ f»^=""*' ^^"^ '* "H^ ?'^ 

and the female follow in the evolution of new •'''*^*'iL^' 1?"' ""* '/ ^^ ""/ k'' ^?'*'^'if"- 

breeds." Geddes advanced further, endeavoring The Seychelles were discovered by the Portu- 

to interpret the secondary sexual characters as «""?■ ""1*^^* colonized^ the French (1743). 

outcrops of the relative preponderance of ana- of whom the present inhabitants aredescendants. 

holism and katabolism ch a ^Tct eristic of female* ^Jie British captured the islands in 1794, and 

and males respectively. Gay cotering - some- ?J ^he Peace of 1814 they were ceded to them. 

times at least due to pigmented waste products ^°9- about 33,000. 

— is regarded as a characteristic expression of Sejrcbellea Cocoanut, a palm (Lodoicea 

the predominantly katabolic or male sex, and ttchellarum) , peculiar to the Seychelles Islands, 

quiet plainness is equally natural to the more sometimes coo feet high, crowned by immense 

apabolic females. But this theory, which seeks palmate leaves, which niake good material for 

Uig tizcd by 




lut plaitins and tasketryp and when mature are eral Theolt^ical Seminary in 1854. and ordained 

naed foi nouse partitions and for thatching, in the prieathood in 1855. He held various 

The fniita are gigantic in size, somMimea weigh- charges in New York State, founded Saint 

ing as much as 50 pounds, and were anciently Stephen's College at Annandale, N. Y., in 1855, 

supposed to gro* on sub-marine palms, since and was its warden until i86t. In l86s-7C ne 

they were found only when washed ashore on was professor of ecclesiastical history at the 

Asiatic coasts. This circumstance caused many General Theolt^ical Seminary, of which he wa> 

superstitions to arise, especially that they were also dean in 1875-9, and in 1878 he was cons©, 

a powerful cure for snake poison, and they crated first bishop of Sprinjifield. He published: 

therefore commanded high prices in the East, 'What is Modern Romanism' (1885); 'Mar- 

and were called coco-de-mer, sea, double, or riage and Divorce' (iSg.i') : 'The Church Idea 

Maldive cocoanuts. There are from one to of the Family' (1890); 'Sacraments and Prin- 

four stony nuts in a husk, each being deeply ciples of the Church' (i vol. 1903); etc 
lobed at each end. This floating apparenUy Seymour, Horatio, American statesman: b. 

double nut may havegiven rise to the types of pomp^y Hiil, Onondaga County, N. Y., 31 May 

*t.""i ^"'i'- uu .""^'P^ ^'"" " ^^'?'? '"*' *' 'Siof d. Utica, N. Y., 13 Feb. 1886, He was 

hard blade shell of the nuts is carved into oma- educated at Geneva Academy (now Hobart Col- 

ments and fakers drmkmg cups. See Palms. i^ge) and at a military school at Middletown. 

Seymoor, Be'mflr, a noble English family Conn. ; studied law at Utica and was admitted 

o* Norman origin. Their name is corrupted to the bar in 183a. In 1833 he became military 

from Saint Maur, their scat in Normandy. They secretary to Governor Marcy and held the posi- 

acquired lands in Monmouthahire in the begin- tion six years. He was elected to the State 

oing of the 13th century, and early in the 15th assembly by the Democrats of Oneida County 

century added to these estates others in Somer- in 1841 ; was mayor of Utica in 1842; re-entered 

aeishire. The first member to become con- the assembly in 1843 where, as chairman of the 

■ uous was Sir John Seymour, the father of committee on canals, he outlined the policy sub- 

third wife of Henry VHI. and of Edward seqnently followed by the State. He was chosen 

Seymour, protector of the realm of England dur- speaker in i843. and nominated for governor in 

ing the minority of Elward VI., whose uncle 1850, was defeated by Washington Hunt, but 

he was. He commanded in a maritime cxpedi- m 1852 was elected by a lante majority, Dur- 

tion against the Scots in 1544, when he landed ing his term a prohibition law was passed by 

a body of troops at Leith, and set fire to the the legislature and was vetoed by him as uncon- 

city of Edinburgh, By the will of Henry he atitutional. The strong ternperance sentiment 

was nominated one of the council of regency prevalent at the time made his act very unpopu- 

during the minority of Edward VI. ; but, not lar. During the term of his successor the vetoed 

content with his share of power, he procured law was again passed by the legislature, but was 

himself to be appointed governor of the king declared unconstitutional by the Court of Ap- 

and protector of the kingdom (January 1547). P«als, He was again elected governor in 1862 

In the month following he ohtainul the post and made an unequivocal declaration in favor of 

of lord- treasurer, was created first Duke of the supremacy of the Constitution and the resto- 

Somcrset, and made earl-marshai. The same ration of the Union, thou^ he denied that the 

year he headed an army, with which he invaded War was the unavoidable result of slavery, or 

Scotland, and after having gained the victory that slavery should be abolished in order to 

of Musselburgh returned in triumph to England, reatorc the Union. In July 1863 serious riott 

His success excited the jealousy of the Earl broke out in New York, involvmg loss of 

of Warwick and others, who procured his con- life and dettmction of properttf. These were 

finement in the Tower. Six months after he caused by the draft-law which discriminated 

obtained a full pardon from the king, and was against New York city, in the allotment of 

ostensibly reconciled to his adversary, Lord Quotas. The Governor's complaint to d>e Presi- 

Warwick. The reconciliation was probably in- dent secured an investigation Miich residted in 

sincere, as Warwick caused Somerset to be procuring a correction ef the erron of the 

again arrested, in October 1551, on the charge of enrolment In 1868 he was nominated for the 

treasonable designs. He was tried, found guilty, Presidenq-, but was dented by Ulysses S: 

attainted, and beheaded on Tower Hill in Jan- Grant Consult: Croly, 'Seymour and Blair: 

uary 1554 His eldest son by his second wife their Lives and Services* (1868) ; Hartley, 'Ho- 

was created by Elizabeth Earl of Hertford. The ratio Seymour' (18S6). 

Earl of Hertford under Charles H. having dis- Seymour, Lady Jane, queen of England: 

tm^ished himself in support of the royal cause b. England about 1509; d. Hampton 24 Oct 1537. 

dunng the parliamentary war, obtained m his She was the third wife of Henry VIII. (q.v.) 

favor the revival of the title of Duke of Somer- and the mother of Edward VI. (q.v,)- She waa 

set, and took his seat m the House of Lords the first maid of honor to Anne Boleyn, whom 
as second duke in 1660. On the extinction of she supplanted in 1536, and favored the Prot- 
his line the descendants of the first Duke of estant Reformation. 

Somerset by his first wife claimed the title, a..™,™, -rt.^™— «._* a .v,„ 1 != 

and on the advice of the attorney-genera! that , . »^»«^' ,^**™* 5^i American lems- 

claim was pronounced good by ibl Housed ^f°i ^"*' '^'P'°'"^'iJ'- Hartford, Conn. ifeS; 

Lords, in which body lT.e descendants of that '^J]''" 3 Sept. i868 , He was educated at a 

claimant still hold a place. military academy at Middletown, Conn., became 

^^ a lawyer at Hartford, and was editor of 'The 

Sejnaoar, George FnuilcHn, American Jeffersonian Democrat* in 1837- He was a 

Protestant Episcopal bishop; b. New York 5 Jan. member of Congress in 1843-5, served througb 

1829; d. Spnngfieid, III., 8 Dec, 1906. He was the Mexican War, rising to the rank of colonel, 

graduated from Columbia in 1850, from the Gen- and in 1850-3 was governor of Connecticut *' 



yras United States minister to Russia in 1853-7, There are 11 churcbes, the Shields high school, 

and during the Civil War acted as leader of the Saint Ambrose Academy, public and parish 

Connecticut Peace Democrats, in which con- elementary schools. The two national banks 

nection he lost much of his popularity. have a combined capital of ^saojooo. P(q». 

Seymour, Tninun, American soldier: b. t'9io) 6.305. 

BurJington, Vt., 25 Sept 1824; d. Florence, Sfax, s^ks, Tunis, a town on the east 

Italy, 30 Oct i8gi. He was graduated from coast, on the Gulf of Cabes, opposite Kerkenna 

West Point in 1846, fought in the Mexican War Island. It is strongly fortified and surrounded 

and was brevetted captain. In 1850-3 he was by gardens and villas. The European, Arab, and 

assistant instructor at West Point, served in French portions are the three distinct divisions 

(the Seminole war of 1856-8, and under Major of the town. The first modern, the second — 

Anderson at the defense of Fort Sumter in 1861, in the central portion — walled and entered by 

receiving the brevet of major in recognition of two gates; the tiiird, a camp. Sfax is an im- 

his services. He became chief of artillei7 in portant seaport, with a considerahle trade in 

McCall's division of the Army of the Potomac dates, olive-oil, wool, fruits, sponges, grasses, 

in 1862 and was commissioned brigadier-general etc. ; cotton, woolen, and silk goods are manu- 

of volunteers. He was engaged in the Virginia factured. A safe harbor and a railway connect- 

and Maryland campaigns, was in command of ing with the interior are modem features. Sfax 

a division at Malvern Hill, Manassas, South was occupied in the 12th century by the SiciKans, 

Mountain, and Antietam, receiving rank of and in the i6th century for a brief period, by 

brevet colonel. As chief of Bta6F to the com- the Spaniards. One of tile principal events of 

manding general of the Department of the the conquest of Tunis by the French was the 

South in 1863 he led a division on Folly Island, bombardment of the town in 1881, Pop. 15,000. 

look part in the attack on Morris Island, and -t— . ^ix »> - - ....i.v....>j Tt..!;.,.. hn.i.. 

commSnM tit ur.uccosM „s.dt of Fort i??'?"- ^'''' ""• " "'l''"'''. ''i! ?.J, ,t,< 

*i.S?/„ ."5 t^i^s-^rTi^'tr^il 'i"\ \t?™r.oSi'''=o?d3ri°'."f*iiS' 

""L:i'""r°'""* ■ K „ dT,t.1hlrnd±r™d?orw.rfU™iS",: 

Seymour, Conn., town m New, Haveii He served in the wars in the Papa! States, in 

Cpnntyjnear the junction of Bladen Little, and Tuscany, and in Naples, and died as Grand: 

Naugatuck rivers, and on the New York, New constable of Naples. His son Francesco: b. 

Haven & Hartford railroad ; nine miles north- jg juiy i^i . j. Milan 8 March 1466, received 

WMt of New Haven. Seymour is one of the ,he command of the Milanese forces in the war 

oWest towns of Connecticut The manufactur- ^^^^^^ Venice. In 144? he laid claim to the 

ing of woolen goods was begun here the last states of Milan in virtue of his wife, although 

of the 18th century. In 1803 General David j^e was only the natural daughter of the last 

Humphreys Cwho_ was the first to bring merino ^^^^^ ^^^ (q enforce his claim concluded a treaty 

iheep mto lie United States) bought the woolen ^,f^ Venice, and advanced against MiUn. He 

mill and enlarged it to what was then called a hid siege to the city in 1449, and on 3 March 

large factory. In 1836 the place was mcorpor- i^j^, jj ^^^ forced by famine to surrender. His 

Med under the name of Humph reysville. and in ^„^ Galeazzo Maria: b. 24 Jan. 1444; d. z6 

"50 tt was mcojTporated as a town under its Dec, 1476, a barbarian and a voluptuary, was 

present name. The chief manufactures are murdered by conspirators. The son of Galeazw^ 

woolen goods, mechanics tools agricultural im- Giovanni Galeazzo: b. 1468; d. 1494, never 

plements, nails, pins, paper, and rubber. There actually ruled. Til] 1480 he was subject to the 

are five churches, a high school, public graded guardianship of his mother and her minister 

schools, private schools, and a public library, checco Simonetta. The latter was then beheaded 

Pop. ( 1910) 4.786. by his uncle Lodovico, surnamed the Moor, in 

S^monr, Ind., city in Jackson County; on 1541; b. 1510. Lodovico then assumed the gov- 

the Pittsbui^. C, C. & St. L.. the Baltimore & O. emment himself, and kept his nephew virtually 

S. W., the Southern Indiana, and the Evansville a prisoner in the castle of Pavia. At a subse- 

& T. H. R.R.'s ; about 55 miles south of Indian- quent period he joined the league against France, 

apolis and 50 miles north of Louisville, Ky, It ia and was on that account deposed by Louis XII, 

in an agricultural and stock-raising region, and (1500). He was taken to France where he died. 

has considerable manufacturing interests. The Hia son Massimiliano : b. 1491; d. iS30( once 

- chief industrial establishments are woolen mills, more drove the French from, his territories by 

foundry, rolling and planing mills, cradle fac- the aid of the Swigs, but in consequence of the 

lories, hamesa works, carriage works, and fumi- battle of Marignano was obliged to cede his 

ture factory. A number of men are employed dominions to Francis I. (1515) in consideration 

in the machine shops of the Ohio and Mississippi of a pension. The remainder of his life was. 

division of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern spent in France. Francis was afterward driven 

railroad. There is considerable trade in the man- from Italy by the Emperor Charles V., who 

ufactures. live-stock, farm, and dairy products, invested Francesco: b. 1493; d, 34 Oct 1533, 



brother of Maxtmiliui, with the Ducfa; of Milia nwrce and trkde were interrupted bj thit nwv*^ 

in 1522. On the death of Francesco in 1535 ment and Shabbatbai Zebi was brought before 

Qisrles V. conferred the duchy on his son the Sultan Mohammed IV., and at the prospect 

Philip II., king of Spain. Consult: Corio^ of imminent death renounced his pretensions, 

'Historic di Milane' (1565); Veiri, ^Storia di embraced Islamism, and received an office under 

Milane' (1851); HalUm, 'View of the State the SulUn. Consult: Mllman, <Histonr of the 

of Kun^ during the Middle Ages' (1618). Jews'; Da CoaU, 'Israel and the Gentiles'; 

Sgraffito (sgrif-fe'to) Decoration, that Schmnaker 'History of the Modem Jews.' 

Whicfi is produced by means of scoring or ^, ^^^?"'*' ". J'=:SJ'\*""' •^"T" ^'"'^ "3 

icratching on a comparatively soft surface. It the Festiva) of the Weeks; the most joyous of 

is Uke eSgraving in alt respects except in the ?», ?>>« ancient Hebrew holidays It was or.g- 

relative hardness of the material and the delicacy i'""j' <^"«1 *"•« ^^^*^ °* »••« Barley. 

of the work. There is only one peculiarity in Shackelton, shSkl-ton. Robert, American 

it which is different m nature from the effect writer : b. Wisconsin 26 Dec 186a He studied 

produced by engraving, and that is the producing law in Michigan, was admitted to the bar in 

of color effects by scratching through an outer Ohio, followed journalism in New York for 

surface so as to show an inner surface of a five years, and in Philadelphia as associate editor 

different hue or tint. Even in this respect it of 'The Saturday Evening Post.' for two. He 

is like a very delicate art of incision, namely, is the author of 'Toomey and Others' (1900) ; 

the Japanese method of cutting through different 'Many Waters* (igo2); 'The Great Adven- 

layers of colored lacquer so as to produce deco- turer' (1904). 

rative patterns. It ia also in this respect like Shad, an anadromous fish of the family 

the art of cameo-cutting when apphed to onyx Ciuttida or herrings (qv.). This genus ia 

in layers of black and white, or a similar straU- closely allied to the alewives (Pomotofrtw), front 

bed material. which it is distinguished by the very deep head, 

Sgraffito decoration, in the usual sense, is of particuiariy the cheeks, and by having the upper 
two kinds: first, that which is applied to plaster jaw compressed and grooved to receire the tip 
surfaces, as of the outer faces of walls ; and of the lower. Four species of true shads have 
secondly, to clay surfaces, as where an earthen been described, two indigenous to the Atlantic 
pot is scored with a hard point before it is coast of Europe, one to the Atlantic coast of the 
fired. In both of these departments sgraffito United States, and the fourtii, recently discov- 
decoration is one of the earliest methods ap- ered to be distinct, to the Gulf States. The 
plied: and in pottery we have in our museums American Atlantic shad (A. sapiduiima) is the 
pieces of pre-historic and primitive work of largest of the herrings found in this country, 
great interest, while also the art seems one the female exceeding the male and generally 
never wholly abandoned when pottery is made weighing at the spawning Bg« three to six 
cheaply and quickly by people who care for pounds, though larger ones are taken. On the 
decorative effect The sgraffito decoration of Pacific coast, where the shad has been introdwced 
plaster walls is, however, limited in application and established, it reaches a greater weight. The 
to a few qrachs of European history. It has body is deep and co ni pre -^swi, especially on the 
never been out of use in Italy since the Middle belly, where the scales and their supporting 
Ages, and occasionally a new building, even bones form a series of serrations; the scales 
of some pretensions, is adorned in this way, are large and very easily detached; the mouth 
or a monument of the past is carefully restored, toothless and the gill-rakers long and numerous, 
with its sgraffito decoration repaired and com- The nmnerous slender, pin-like bones, which 
plcled. In the northern lands of Europe the are such an annoyance at the table, are chiefly 
severity of the weather is a partial check on several series of intermuscular bones which 
the employment of the art; but the main reason support the muscle segments above the ribs, 
for its neglect is the modem desire for smooth- There is a narrow lateral strip of dark muscle. 
ness, finish, and completeness of all sorts, with The northern limit of the shad's mnge is 
which the sgraffito process may be thought to be the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, south of which it 
inconsistent. It is clear that a house faced enters all of the rivers of the Atlantic se^>oard 
with brown plaster which is deeply scored to unless prevented by some obstTnciion. Intro- 
show lines of black and white plastet- from be- ditced into the Sacramento River by the Calt- 
low, will not meet the requiremcnta of a com- fomia and United States Fish Conunissions in 
munity respecting nothing which has not the 1871-80, it has now become abundant on the 
look of expense and deliberation. The effects. Pacific coast from Monterey Bay to Alaska, 
however, are very spirited and artistic, and it Concerning the habits of the shad dnring the 
is a pity that the process is not used for inex- greater part of its existence in the sea, very 
pensive building. RtJSSEU. Sturgis ''^'^ ^^ definitely known. Apparently, from the 
fact that ther are taken frequently with mackerel 

Shabbatiial Zebl, sha bath'a-e titii, Jewish and other fishes near the coasts, they do not 

impostor: b. Smyrna July 1641; d. 10 Sept depart very far from the shores. Their stnic- 

1676; was a convert to the fantasies of Isaac ture indicates thnt they swim near the surface, 

Luria, a Cabbalist, who declared that he held strain through their gill-rakers the water taken 

interconrse with the prophet Elijah, and that he in by the mouth, and retain the minute life which 

was the Messiah, the son of David, the true it contains. This food appears, from what few 

Redeemer. Though he was converted to Mo- stomach examinations have been made, to eoit- 

hammedanism (1667) the sect survived, and still sist chiefly of minute crustaceans. Their mov«- 

acknowledges him as the Messiah. He eon- ments are controlled largely by the temperature 

verted many thousands to a belief in him- and of the water and. although the annual migration 

bis design to restore them to Jerusalem. Com- from the sea to the rivers is solely for the pur' 



pOM of reproduction, it takes place when the few days after hatcbins, in lonle caaea the 

temperature of the water lies between 56° and special cars devised for carrjing jounKfish being 

66°, and is hastened or retarded accordingly by employed for their transportation. They may, 

warm or cold seasons. The movement of th« however, be readily reared in ponds, and many 

schools begins in November and ends in March have been thus kept for months or even » year 

ta the Saint John's River and pTog^esse3 regu- before being liberated. The shad-hatching work 

larly from south northward as the season ad- has now reached enormous proportions. In 

vances, the chief runs in the Polomac occurring igoo, for eicample, the United States Fish Com- 

in April, in the Delaware in April and May, mission hatched and distributed 241^56,000 fry. 
and in the Kennebec in May and June. During The great estimation in which the shad is 

the earlier weeks of the migration males pre- held as a food-fish has led to the development 

dominate, during the later females. The eggs of this fishery so that it is now exceeded in 

may be deposited anywhere above brackish water, value only by that of the cod and salmon. In 

at the mouths of creeks jr high up the rivers. i8g6 13, '45,395 shad were taken on the Atlantic 

No nest is formed or other care §iven the eggs ; coast. These weighed 50,847,967 pounds and 

the spawn and milt are simply ejected in inter- were sold by the fishermen for $1,656,580, which 

mingling streams as the male and female fish is about the usual annual product. On the 

swim side by side about the time of sunset. Pacific coast the shad fishery is rapidly growing. 

The fertilised eggs are about H inch in diameter having tripled i" value between 189S and 1897. 

with a water space beneath the egg membrane In the latter year it yielded 1,254,801 pounds, 

and, being heavy, sink to the bottom. From valued at $15,898. With the exception of a tew 

30,000 to 100,000 eggs are taken artificially from pickled and salted the entire catch of shad is 

each female, but the natural yield is much consumed fresh. In the sounds, bays, and estu- 

greater. After spawning, the fish which are lean aries many are taken in pound nets and weirs, 

and starved begin to feed and move sea-ward, but in the rivers above their mouihs gill nets 

The young shad remain in the rivers much and seines are the chief means of capture. Some 

longer and do not finally enter the bays and of (he great seines in use on the Potomac and 

coastal waters until the temperature of the Delaware rivers are more than a mile in length 

river water approaches 40° when, in November, and are hauled by means of donkey engines. 
they are about three inches long. TTiey remain Two species of shad are found in Europe, 

in the sea for three or fonr years imtil mature, the common or allis shad {Atosa mtlgaris) and 

though a few immature ones often enter the the twaite shad {A. fiH(o). The common shad 

rivers in the spring with herrings or shad, and inhabits the sea near the mouths of large rivers, 

they have been found on several occasions in and in the spring ascends them for the purpose 

shallow bays along the coast. Besides man, the of depositing its spawn in the shallow water 

shad has many enemies, and the destruction of about their sources. The young fry remain for a 

the eggs and young by predaceous fishes, and season in the waters which gave them birth, but 

especially by eels, is enormous. Because of this on the approach of cold weather descend the 

fact and the added one that shad can be caught rivers and take refuge in the ocean. The old 

only before and during the spawning season, ones likewise return, and at this time are ema- 

and for various other reasons, the shad fisheries ciated and unfit for food. Its color is a dark 

had greatly declined and in some places had blue above, with brown and greenish lustres, the 

even been abandoned durii^ the '70s. under parts being white. The twaite shad is 

To remedy this the United States Fish Com- about a half less than the common species, and 

mission took up the problem of the artificial weifdis on an average about two pounds. 
propagation of shad and succeeded so weil that Consult: Goode, 'The Fisheries Industrie* 

the fisheries have not only been saved, but of the United States' (Washington 1884-7) i 

greatly extended and at the present time ar« Stevenson, 'The Shad Fisheries of the Atlantic 

dependent on this means of maintaining the Coast,' Report United States Fiah Commission 

abundance of this fish. The chief advantage of (Washington 1899) ; Brice, "A Manual of Fish 

artificial over natural propagatiMi lies in the Culture' (Washington 1897) ; Cunningham, 

much larger percentage of eggs fertilized and 'Marketable Marine Fishes' (New York i8g6) ; 

hatched. In its perfect state the method is very and the Annual Reports of the United States 

simple but exact. The spawn-takers enter the Bureau of Fisheries. See Clvpsxhx; Hukiho; 

boats as the nets are drawn and select and strip Povwo-itet Fishing. 
with great precision the ripe males and females, Sbad-buih. See AMrLANcinm. 

quantity of water is added and the whole gently Shad-waiter. See Whitefish. 
agitated. The surplus milt is then washed away Shad'dock, a small tree {Citrus decMmaiia} 
and eggs carefully washed and cleaned. As the of the order Rutacca. It is a native of 
egss are heavier than the water they are now the Malay Archipelago whence it has been in- 
hatched in a closed McDonald or siphon jar, to troduced into India, the West Indies, Florida, 
which a stream of fresh water is admitted California, and other warm climates for its 
through a glass tube running to the bottom, and fruits. It is a small tree about 25 feet tall 
the overflow drawn off at the top, thus cor- with large ovate leaves, large white flowers, and 
Stantly moving the eggs. They begin to hatch in light yellow or pink fruits, with sweet or add 
about a week, though the time varies with the pale yellow or reddish pulp, arranged in sections 
temperature, and as the young fry and nearly like those of the orange. In some horticultural 
fiatched eggs rise to the surface they are dravm varieties the fruits are more than six inches 
off automatically at the outlet into larger vessels, in diameter and weigh more than 10 pounds. 
With careful attention to details the fry are The true shaddocks are pear-shaped and are 
distributed to the various creeks and rivers a seldom ftMmd in the northern markets, since the 

,y Google 


nnmd fruited Ic^iuli or *pantelo£> are m Amerin of Dutte Trandated m English Vine> (1892) ; 

considered more valuable for shippiog. The etc 

came "grape-fruit' is often applied to the shad- Staadwell, Thomas, English dramatist; b. 

dock because it is produced in dusters some- Stanton Hall, Norfolk, about 1640; d, Loudon 

what resembling grapes. Other popular names ig Nov. 1692, He was educated at Cambridge, 

are forbidden fruit, fruit of paradise, pumelo, and subsequently studied law. His comedy, 

pompelos, and variations of spelling. The tree is cphe Sullen Lovers' (1666), was successful and ■ 

somewhat larger thau its relative, the orange, he thereafter devoted himself to literature. He 

and is planted about 30 feet apart It b found to nrrote 17 plays, the most of them modeled on 

be most satisfactory when budded upon its own the style of Ben Jonson, which caricatured with 

stock or that of the sour or sweet orange, the genuine humor, though somewhat coarsely, va- 

first being preferred by many growers. It is rious eccentricities in the manners of the day. 

considered more tender than the orange and in After the Revolution he became in 1693 poet- 

the United States is grown only in the lower laureate and royal historiographer, succeeding 

part of the Florida peninsula and^ warmer Call- Dtyden and thereby incurring the enmity of that 

fomia. The cultivation, fertilization, and man- poet, who made him Uie hero of his clever satire 

agement are practically the same with the above <MacFlecknoe.' His death was supposed to be 

exceptions, to those of the orange and lemon due to an overdose of opium. His poetry was 

(qq.v.). of little merit, but his dramatic pieces, though 

Shadoof, an ancient Egyptian contrivance of only temporary reputation were much 

for raising water. It is extensively in use in lauded m their day. They include: 'The Virtu- 

the East for drawing water for irrigation pur- oso' (1676) ; "Lancashire Witches' (1682) ; 

poses, and its prototype is found in use in the 'Volunteers, or the Stock-jobbers > (1693) ; etc. 

South in the United Sutes, where it is employed His collected 'Works' were pubhshed m four 

to draw water from the open "surface* wells, volumes (1720)- 

The machine consists of a cross-bar on two up- ShaS'ner, Taliaferro Preatoo, American 
lights; suspended on this horizontal bar is a inventor: h. Smithfield, Va., i8j8; d. Troy, 
long rod or branch of a tree, so fixed as to work N, Y., 11 Dec 1881. He studied law and was 
as on a fulcrum, the long end or lever pointing admitted to the bar, but practised little^ his at- 
upward and over the water, usually a river or tention being largely absorbed by inventions. In 
stream, and the short end behind the bar and the early d^s of the telegraph he was an asso- 
nearest the ground. On the short end is affixed ciate of Samuel F. B. Morse He built the line 
a weight of rock or dried mud, to act aa a from Louisville, Ky., to New Orleans and that 
counterpoise to the long end. From the end of from Saint Louis to Jefferson City in 1851. He 
the long portion a bucket is suspertded. When projected a North Atlantic cable that should 
not in use the shadoof naturally rests with the touch Labrador, Greenland, and Iceland, and 
short weighted end next to the ground and the secured a number of patents for the use of high 
long end, with dependent bucket, in the air. explosives in blasting. During the Dano-Prus- 
Whcn it is desired to draw water the bticket is sian war of 1S61 he was in the service of Den- 
pulled down (bj a rope attached to the long mark. He published the 'Telegraph Compan- 
Md) and is dipped under the water; on account ion: devoted to the Science and Art of the 

of the weight at the other end it is now easy Morse American Telegraph' (1855) ; 'The Tele- 

to tip the shadoof, again bringing the bucket graph Manual' (1859); 'The Secession War in 

into the air where it can be poured into any America' {1862); 'History of America* 

object on the bank desired,— often a hole, from (1863) ; 'Odd Fellowship' (1875). 

which a runnel conveys the water to irrigation _. ,, l.i'. ■ ur:ii:._ t>„c... i„..:„.. 

ditches. Shadoofs are often made two or more, .,?*^*!^*'" V"V^^f^ ^ A Tfi r^ 

-■J. u ..-J . ,Z— -.,« «r ti..™ .,i,«.n. .t,. military officer: b. Galesburg, Mich., 16 Oct 

aide by side, or a succession of thetn along he y. Ti„k.„fi,M. Cat. la Nov. 1006. 

aiae oy siae, or a succession 01 mem aiong me "o.- ^ ^~._ ti..i,..>r.i.4 i~^i ,-, >j„^ Tmi( 

b.,k .0 b. u„d « difl.„„. ...g.. ot ,h, w.,„. «3S;^i Sr^r o.'",t' Sil "v,Ti,"S: 

Shadow, the darkness caused by the mter- ^^^ f^e 7th MichiRan Infantry. He partici- 

position of an opaque substance between a pated in the battles of Fair Oaks, Savage Station, 

luminous point or body and the place upon which Glendale, and Malvern Hill ; was appointed 

the shadow IS thrown. When the substance that ^ajor 5 Sept 1862; was taken prisoner at 

casts the shadow is in open space, the form of Thompson's Station, Tenn.. m March 1863, and 

the shadow is that of a section of the subsUnce exchanged in May of the same year ; was made 

nwdc at right angles to Ae direction of the ray ii«utenant-colonel S June 1863. and became col- 

pf light. When the body castmg the shadow on^i ^i the 17th United States colored troops 19. 

u larger than that which emits the Ii^ht the April 1864; brevet brigadier-general of volun- 

shadow goes on constantly increasing in diameter i^^^ f^r gallant and meritorious services during 

the further it goes; when it is of the same size the War; and was mustered out of the volunteer 

with the latter, the shadow is unlimited m gervice a Nov. 1865. He entered the regular 

length, but always remains of the same diameter ; ^rmy and became lieutenantH»lonel of the 41st 

and when it is smaller the shadow gradually infantry 36 Jan 1867; assigned to the a4th 

diminishes to a point, where it terminates. Infantry 14 April 1869; colonel of ist Infantry 

Shad'wcll, Charles Lancelot, English law- 4 March 1879; and brigadier-general 3 May 1897. 
yer and author: b. London, England, 16 Dec On the breaking out of the Spanish- American 
1840. He was educated at Christ Church, Ox- war he was ^iven command of the army mob- 
ford, was called to the bar of Lincoln's Inn in iliied for the invasion of Cuba ; his first decisive 
1873, and has published : 'The La udian Statutes' move was the landing of 16,000 men in Cuba in 
(18BS); 'History of Oriel College' (1891); about 13 hours without an accident He con- 
'The Earthly Paradise' (1899) ; 'Registrum ducted the military operations resulting in the 
Orickue' (a vols. iSga-igoa) ; 'The Purgatory surrender of Santiago de Cuba. After the war 

Uig tizcd by 



he comnutided the department of Cali(orni& and CfariBtie <i87i} and TraHl (1B86) ; also M4C«tt> 

Columbia in i^jp-igoi, and was retired 3 June lay's •History* (1S48-55). 

I90I- Shaftesbmy, Antiio&y Ashley Cooper, 3d 

Sbafteaborv, shafts^ii-rf. Anthony Aahley ^?-,?''.,^?''i'',?°?' ^}*}^V^>?^^'' '"■ if"'^ 

Cooper, lat £l»L or, English statesman: b. ^ ^'^ ^^°V' ^ Naple, 15 Feb. J? 13- He was 

WiXme Saint Giles, borJtshire. 22 July 1&.1; 8""^^ ^* the preeedmr AfWr travel in 

d. Amsterdam 21 Jan! 1683. He entered Exeter Germany. FiMce. and Ilah, he became (1695) 

Cellege. Oxford, whence he removed to Lin- «J« representative in Par'^"?*^* °^/'*2'-?' i" 

■ ■ -■ - the study of law but Dorsetshire, and distinguished himself while in 

' for Tewkesbury in Parliament by his support of measures favorable 

lent of the civil war *" public liberty. In 1698 he gave up his seat, 

nc «ucu W.UX u« ^ii.«- party, thoug* he ap- ^>}^ ^siting Holland in the assumed character 

peared to deem mutual concession necessary, ol a student of physic he prosecuted his studies. 

Finding himself in consequence of this opinion ?"<! hecame Ultimately acquainted with Bayle, 

distrusted by the court he went over to the K.^u'S" ^"^ °">" '"^'^p' m™- I" '^IP^,.^-* 

ParUament, from which he received the com- published an 'Eway on the Freedom of Wit 

mand of the parliamentary forces in Dorsetshire, ^nd Humor,' anjlnquiry Concerning Virtue or 

When Cromwell turned out the Loi« Parlia- ^^"^' . ^»^^ I^h^ Moralist, a Philosophical 

ment, Sir Anthony was one of the members of Rhapsody,' being an eloquent defense of the 

the convenUon which succeeded. He was, never- doctnne of a D«ty and P^vidcnce. His <Sen- 

theless, a subscriber to the protestation which *"" Communis ' and his 'Soliloquy, or Advice 

charged the Protector with arbitrary govern- t<J «« Author.' followed m 171a At the time 

ment, though this fact did not prevent him of "« dea^ he was engaged m a work on the 

from becoming one of his privy -council. After ^"s of Design.' His works were colfected 

the deposition of Richard Cromwell he was priv- ""a published together under the title of <Chaf- 

ately engaged in a plan for the restoration of actenstics of Men, Manners, Opinions and 

Charles U., which he subsequently aided with Times* (1711; rev. ed. 1714). A new edition 

all his influence. He was one of the 12 memben by Hatch began to appear in 1870, but was 

of the convention of 1660 who carried the invi- »ever finished. As a writer he is remarkable for 

tation to the king, and was soon after made the elegance but also for the excessive arti- 

a privy-councillor, and a commissioner for the liciality of his style. In all his works Lord 

trial of the regicides. In 1661 he was raised to Shaftesbury appears a zealous advocate for iib- 

the peerage by the title of Baron Ashley, and V*^' .'"** " """ believer in the fundamental 

appointed chancellor of the exchequer and a lord doefnnes of natural religion ; but, although he 

of the treasury. Yet he gave his strenuous oppo- professed a respect for Christianity, he was 

silion to two of the leading measures favored by doubtless skeptical in regard to revelation. Con- 

the crown, the Corporation art in i66r, and the «"" "*' wotki by Spicker (1872), von Gwycki 

act of Uniformity in 1662, Afterward his con- ('876); Fowler, 'Shaftesbury and Hutcheson" 

duct changed, and he was one of the members of Ji^^J^^'so «?"4' 'Unpublished Utters and 

the obnoxious Cabal (q.v.). He supported the Philosophtea! Pegimen of the 3d Earl of 

Dutch war, and issued illegal writs for the elec- Shaftesbury' (T900). 

tion of members of Parliament during a recess, Shaftcabuiy, Anthony Ashley Coop«l, 7th 
and in 1673 supported the Test act In 1672 he Eari, of, English philanthropist: b. London sS 
was created Earl of Shaftesbury and lord high- April 180I; d. Folkestone, Kent, i Oct. 1885. 
chancellor. His condun on the bench was able He was educated at Harrow and Oxford, and 
and impartuU. He bad not, however, boon a sat in the House of Commons during most of 
whole year in oBice when the seals were taken the period from 1826 to 1851, as member suc- 
from him, probably through the influence of the cessively for Woodstock, Dorchester, Dorset- 
Duke of York; and from that moment he be- shire, and Bath, but in the latter year succeeded 
came one of the most powerful leaders of the to the peerage. He supported the admini^ra- 
opposition. He made use of the Popish plot to tions of Liverpool and Canning, and in 1828 he 
force out the Earl of Dantqr's administration was appointed a commissioner of the board of 
{1678), and produce the formation of a new one, control. Six years later he became a lord of the 
in which he was himself made president of the admiralty under Sir Robert Peel. From 1828, 
council April 1679. Amid many violent party when he was appoimed a member of a commit- 
proceedii^s which followed, the Habeas Corpus tee of inquiry into the treatment of lunatics, 
act was passed. He remained in the administra- he constantly strove to improve the lunacy laws 
tion only until October In his hostility to the and administration; and it is largely due to hts 
Duke of York Shaftesbury is now supposed to efforts that most of the worst abuses have been 
have entered into connection with the Duke of removed. But his name must ever be chiefly 
Monmouth, with the view of supporting his associated with his noble and successful efforts 
claims to the crown, a circumstance which gave to improve the condition of factory workers. 
rise to Dryden's satire of 'Absalom and Achii- About 1833 he first proposed the limitation of 
tophel.' In consequence of this suspected design their working-day to ten hours, and in spite 
Shaftesbury was once more committed to Sie of opposition his proposal became law in 1847. 
Tower, and tried for high treason; but the In 1842 an act was passed under his direction 
grand jury before whom the bill of indictment for the improvement of the condition of colliery 
was laid ignored it Not long after this acquittal workers. 

the earl withdrew to Holland, where he died. Though a Cbnservafive, he supported the 

He was widely accomplished, and easily the repeal of the corn-laws. For 39 years he acted 

{[reatest politician and governor of parties in his as chairman of the Ragged Sdiool Union, and 

time in England. Consult the hiographiei by be was also identified with varii 

i)„r7.,i.. Google 


tor securing better house acoommodatioa iar tion of the horse did more or lesa hmiUn2 
the working classes. He WEts presideat of the Agriculture was not engaged it>, and the villages 
BiMe Sodety, of the Pastoral Aid Society, of were of a temporary character owing to the 
the Protestant Alliance, and of Other religious necessity of frequently shifting residence in 
organizations. He was an ardent evangelical in search of food. . With the exception of the 
oatbreak of the Nez Perces under Chief Joseph 
in 18;^, due to the failure of the govertunent 
to fulfil its treaty obligations with the Indians, 

., ,_ ,. , ._ . . , the Shahaptian tribes have been generally peace- 

(i886>. fuL The principal tribes or bands of the stock, 

Shas a cormorant (qv) *''''' their present location, are; Yakima, zjii 

ei!l!^_' _ f ,1 -t ™:«.^ t^^iU^. «r . under Yakima agency, Washington, and perhaps 

nd ,ol,d .atetu^n «!rf for fomnfiB ^ j Ne, P«rc4 ^ncy, Id.ho, a 

Wcolo,, Ii,,prep"rri »lh.Eul tejB ^^ .bout i6s unda Vakim kgo.o,, 

at .tau of wild ....^ horMj, md om^. w„bi„^. pj„4 „„t„„„„ „„„ba „d« 

Th. most oonmon color ii M.-gt^n (g,«i. „„, J^^^ . x,So, 70 otidtr W.m Sprbg, 

by ii»ar5 of copiK,r-«l,.«, md . «lol,oi, of ^q^. Tyigh, .bout 430 undtr «4 

lal-ratDoruK) ; but blu^ rtd^tajk, .nd othjr « J' Umatil ^ ilj under iJSitm. .gmcy, 

color, arc aUo givcu .t Shagrm ,, .to rruidc ^^ Wall™« u.dcr same a|mcy 

ol tilt sk.n. of the K.-ottcr, seal, etc. Tuktpu;h or Job.. Day iiidaos, about 60 uuder 

Shah, the title given by western writers to Warm Springs agency. 

U.» . sovereign of Persia ; ra his own countj, Sh4ijdj„p„r, shi-jt-hin'poor, India, chief 

he IS known by the compound title Mi.hah ,„,r; headjuartir. of a dis- 

JJi. !" ° ? ■ ■■ ■? ■ " • trict, too niiles northwest of Luckmw Some 

.onthern A.», and ..gnibe. a sove^^i Pnnce ^Voacr." and the ruins of .n ancient csOe. 

or lung. jjg j(g xaost interesting architectural features. 

Shah Alum (Alam. Alem) II, emperor of its chief industry is agriculture and the export 

Delhi : d. 1B06. He was the last of the Mogul trade consists of sugar, pulses and cereals. The 

emperors to exercise even a nominal independ- town was founded in 1647 by the Mogul em- 

encc and ascended the throne in 1759. For la p«ror, whASe name it bears. In the mutiny of 

years he was exiled and he finally, in the en- 1837-8. it was one of the active seats of the 

deavor to strengthen his authority over his rebellion 

empire, sought British friendship and granted to gnarrp, sharp, John Campbell. Scottish 

them Bengal, Bahar. and Oressa in exchange ^^ anf misceftaneous writer: b. Houston, 

for the city and district of Allahabad. He put ^STest Lothian. 30 July .Big ; d. Ormsary, Arsyll- 

himself under the power of the Mahrattas in ^{,1 ,g g j jgg Hc was educated at Glas- 

1?71, but in 1788 Delhi was seized by the Mo- g^^ University and Balliol College, Oxford, 

haramedan rebel, Ghulam Kadir, who put out ^„i after a term as assistant-master at Rugby 

the emperors eyes From 1803-6. under the ^^^ appointed assistant professor of Latin at 

orotection of Lord Lake, who had defeated the ggint Andrews in i8s7 and professor in i86i. Ix. 

Mahrattas. Shah Alum enjoyed a period of com- jggg ^^^ „^^ ^^^ principaf and thereafter wa:* 

parative affluence thus peacefully endmg his generally known as <PrincipaI» Shairp. Froi.i 

long and wretched reign. ,^^ he also held the chair of poetry at Ox- 

Sbah-Jehan, shah ye-han'. See India, ford. As a critic and expositor Shairp was 

Hittory. markedly illuminating and careful. His works 

Shahaptian (sha-hSp'te-an) Indiana, a lin- consist of 'Kilmahoe. a Highland Pastoral, and 

guisiie stock of North- American Indians, the other Poems* (1864); 'Studies in Poetry and 

name of which is adapted froffl the Kootenay Hidosophy,' mcluding essays on Wordsworth, 

mmc of the Nei Perc^, one of its principal Coleridge, and Keble, which furnish some of 

tribes. The divisions of the stock occupied the best of his writings (1868; 4th ed., 1886); 

a large section of country along the Columbia 'Culture and ReIigion> (1870) ; 'Life and Let- 

and its tributaries in what is now northeastern "" of J- D. Forbes' (1873), with Tait; 'Poetic 

Oregon, southeastern Washington, and south- Interpretation of Nature' (1877) ; 'Bums> 

western Idaho, extending from about Ion. ("879); 'Aspects of Poetry' (1881). Post- 

114° 30' to 121°, and between lat. 44° and 46°. humous collections are: 'Sketches in History 

Their western boundary was the Cascade Moun- and Poetry> (1887). edited by Veitch; and 

tains; their westernmost bands, the Klikitat 'Glen Desseray and other Poems' {1888). edited 

on the north, the Tyigh and Warm Springs on W Pelgrave. Consult: Knightj 'Principal 

the south, enveloping for a short distance the Shairp and his Fnends' (1888) ; Sellars, 'Por- 

Chinookan territory along the Columbia which *«'>» *»' Friends' (1889); and the article by 

extended to the Dalles, Shahaptian tribes ex- Dean Boyle m the 'Guardian' for 30 Sept. 1885. 

tended alon^ the tributaries of the Columbia Shakerg, the common name of the United 

for a considerable distance, especially along Society of True Believers in Christ's Second 

Snake River, their eastern boundary being in- Appearing. The name originated in the some- 

terrupted by the Bitter-root Mountains. The what violent and irregular motions — leaping, 

customs and habits of the tribes composing the shouting, etc.,— which were once a part of their 

stock were fairly homogeneous, the family or- worship, but which are bo no longer, the mo- 

ganiaation was loose, and the clan system did tions of the Shakers at worship in these days 

not prevait. They subsisted chiefly on salmon being* uniform and regular, and without sensa- 

and on roots and berries, and after the introdue- tional features. Although originating in Eng- 



ample of thrift, industry, and good morals. Shakers who had been imprisoned for refusing 

The founder of the Shaker sect was Ann to serve, when drafted for the civil war. The 

Lee, bom at Manchester, England, in 1736. Her sum saved to the govemmtnt in the refusal to 

father was a blacksmith, and she became 'at accept pensions would have more than paid for 

an early age the wife of a blacksmith. She was substitutes for the Shakers who had been 

converted in 1738 by Ihe preaching of Jane drafted. 

Wardlaw, a member of the Society of Friends, The Shakers believe that God is king; that 

who exhorted the people to repent of their sins, the sin of Adam is atoned, and that man is 

declaring that the end of all things was at hand, free of all errors except his own ; that every 

that Christ was about to reign, and that his human being will be saved, and that the earth 

second appearance would be in a woman's form, is heaven, now soiled and stained, but ready to 

Ann l*e also preached, and was put in prison be brightened by love and labor. They believe 

at Manchester on a charge of disturbing the in the immediate revelations of the Holy Ghost, 

public peace. When released she began preach- and they regard angels and other spirits as 

mg again, and announced that the Lord Jesus maintaining companionship and intercourse with 

had stood before her in prison, and had be- those who have been purified and exalted by 

come one with her in form and spirit. She the gifts of grace. Shakers believe that at death 

called herself "Ann the Word,* but her follow- they merely throw off the bodily garment, and 

ers gave her the title of 'Mother Ann.* She change the fonn of their existence, but 00 

was persecuted and ann03^d to such a degree more. They expect no resurrection of the boi^, 

that she emigrated to America with seven the spirit, when it has left the mortal frame 

companions, and formed the first Shtker settle- being done with it. 

ment at Water Vliet, near Albany, N. Y. Here The Shakers are steadily diminishing in 
she also endured impnsonment with some of numbers. At its greatest their membership wa« 
her followere who refused to bear arms m the 4,869; and it is now about ifloo, in 15 societies, 
War of Independence, on the ground that it was distributed over the SUtes of New York, Massa- 
sgainst their principles to serve as soldiers, chusetts. New Hampshire, Maine, Connecticut, 
Ann Lee died 8 Sept. 1784, having witnesswl Ohio, and Kentucky. Elder Daniel Offord is the 
the foundmg of two new Shaker comnmni- present head of the Shakers, having been chosen 
ties, one at Hancock, the other on Mount Leb- to that office upon the resignation of Elder Levi 
anon. New Lebanon, N. Y., the first Shaker shaw, at 83 years of age, in January 1904. 
meetmg house being established in the year fol- 
lowing her death, at Mount Lebanon, which b Shiketpeare, shik'spfr, William, English 
slill Ae most flourishing of the Shaker com- dramatic poet; b. Strat ford-on -Avon, Warwick- 
munities. Joseph Meacham, one of Ann Lee's shire, in April ( ?) 156^ ; d. there 23 April 1616. 
successors, gave to the Shakers their effective About a century ago, George Steevens, one of the 
organization, which combines thorough business most eminent Shakespearian editors and critics 
methods with strict adherence to the principles of that period, wrote thus: "All that we know 
of their faith. There is no marriage, the two with any degree of certainly concerning Shakes- 
sexes occupying rooms in separate parts of peare is — that he was born at Stratford-on- 
houses, and when married couples join the Avon, married, and had children there ; went to 
society, they regard each other as brothers and London, where he commenced actor, and wrote 
sifilera only. "The men do the work of farm poems and plays ; returned to Stratford, made 
■nd garden, factory and shop, and some widely bis will, died, and was buried.^ And Tennyson 
extended industries owe their origin to the in- is reputed to have said ; 'The world should 
ventive ability of the Shakers. The women cook be thankful tiiere arc but five facts absolutely 
and attend to the housework, every room being known to us about Shakespeare ; the date of 
a model of cleanliness. They do much of the his birth, 33 April 1564; his marriage at ig to 
tailoring and repairing; prepare seeds and medi- Ann Hatfiaway; his connection with the Globe 
ctnes for market, and make butter and cheese. Theatre, and with BUckfriars; his retirement 
Everybody is occupied, and there is no room or from theatrical life, with a competency, to 
attraction for drones. Stratford; and the dale of his death, which took 

Alcoholic liquors are known only as a medi- place upon the anniversary of his birth, 1616." 

cine, and good health is so general that there If this were strictly true, however, il should 

is but little need for medicine of any kind, be understood that there is nothing exceptional 

'The use of tobacco is tabooed, and the diet, in it, though certain writers who deny tliat 

while both generous and varied, does not in- Shakespeare wrote the works ascribed to him 

elude fiesh-meat or fish. The fact that Shakers have laid much stress upon it. The biographies 

live, as a rule, to an advanced age, and enjoy of the great majority of literary men of that 

excellent health, is adduced in favor of absti- time, especially the dramatists, are as meagre 

ncnce from meat It is also noted as significant as Shakespeare's. In the latest sketch of the 

that none of the Shakers suffer from cancer lives of Beaumont and Fletcher (in the 'Mer- 

The Shaker belief agrees in certain respects maid' series of English dramatic writers) the 

with that of the Quakers, from whom the editor says; <Beaumont and Fletcher, though 

original Shakers were an offshoot. They give not of obscure origin, like the greater number 

due respect to the civil law, but they reject of their fellow dramatists, yet afford no exce(>- 

ecclesiastical supremacy and military service, tion to the general rule in the obscurity that 

Members of the sect who had previously served surrounds their lives." The volume of the same 

as soldiers have refused to accept pensions after series devoted to Webster and Toumeur begins 

joining the Shaker community, and it was thus; 'Nothing is known about the hves 01 



Digitized byGoOgIc 



John Wdjiter and Cyril Touraear. We are biography since the tim« of Malone, the most 

ignorant where tiiey were bom and when they important have been made by Mr. Halliwell- 

<£ed,' etc The history of Marlowe, Mas- Phillipps, who, between 1850 and his death in 

linger, and other protninent dramatists of the pe- iSSg, continued the examination of die ancient 

riod is much the same, as reference to their records and documents likely to throw light 

r»mes in the present work will show. upon the subject, and printed the results in 

This is also true, aj already intimated, of soccessive publications and finally in the monu- 

other great authors than playwrights. Prof, mental work in two royal octavo volumes which 

Kales begins his biographical sketch of Spenser he modestly entitled 'Outlines of the Life of 

('Globe* ed. of his works) thus: 'The life Shakespeare,* the gth edition of which was 

of Spenser is wrapt in a similar obscurity to issued in i8go. Mr. Sidney Lee's 'Life of 

that which hides from us his great predecessor Shakespeare* (iS^) is the most noteworthy of 

Chaucer, and his greater contemporaiy Shake- the other biographies published in the last balf- 

speare, . , , The birth-year of each poet is century. 

determined by inference. The circumstances in Of Tennyson's 'five facts* the first is a mere 

which each died are a matter of controversy, conjecture. William Shakespeare was baptiied. 

What sure information we have of tile lives of aStheparish record proves, on a6 April (O. S.), 

each one is scanty and interrupted.^ bat the date of his birth is not known. It has 

These quotations might be multiplied if been assumed that it was 33 April (3 May by 

ipace permitted. It is dear, therefore, that no the New Style calendar) because babies were 

theory or argument concerning the sutbenticity often baptized three days after birth. The only 

of the wori(s of Shakespeare can be based upon other evidence bearing on the case is the in- 

the lack of information concerning the man. scription on the poet's monnment at Stratford, 

Our positive knowledge of Shakespeare's per- whkh tells us that he died 33 April 1616, in 
Kinal history, however, is by no means so lim- tik 53d year of his age. If he died on the anni- 
ited as Steeveas and Tenrtyson repreaenL The vcrsary of his birth, it might be said, according 
investigations of the last 50 or 60 years in to the usage of the time, that he was in his 
municipal, theatrical, and other records, in the S3d year; but the inscription frovet nothing ex- 
literature of the Elizabethan and succeeding pe- Cept that he could not have been bom later than 
riods, and in other sources of information, have 23 April 1564. 

brought CO light a multitude of indisputable John Shakespeare, the poet's fsther, was of 

facts concernmg the man and his works. the yeoman class, and had been a farmer in a 

Unfortunately, the 6rst biography of Shake- neighboring village before he came to Stratford 

speare worthy of the name was not written about tSS3, and adopted the trade of a ■glover,* 

until 1709, or nearly a century after his death, dealing also in wool and agricultural produce, 

bein^ prepared by Nicholas Rowe as an intro- with which his former occupation made bim 

duction to his edition of the poet's works. It familiar. His ability and public spirit are 

was based mainly upon the researches of Bet- shown by his rapid success in business, which 

terton, the actor, who a few years earlier had soon enabled him to buy two houses in Strat- 

visited Stratford for the express purpose of ford, and by his rising throurfi the lower grades 

ascertaining what could be teamed there about of office to that of high bailiff, or mayor, of the 

the personal history of the dramatist. He com- town in 1568. His wife, Mary Arden, belonged 

municated the results of his investigations to to a minor branch of an old Warwickshire 

Kowe, to whom we are indebted for the ores- family, and inherited a considerable estate from 

ervation of these and other fragments of in- her father. 

formation which Otherwise would have been John and Mary Shakespeare had four sons 

lost. Rowe appears to have exercised great and four daughters. William was the third 

caution in dealing with his materials, discrim- child, but the eldest son. Of his early years 

inating carefully between what he regarded as nodiing is known, but it is probable that at the 

established fact and as doubtful tradition. A age of seven (the earliest at which he could be 

few errors have been detected in the minor de- admitted) he entered the Stratford Grammar 

tails that he gives, but tbe more important par- School, an ancient institution which, after being 

ticulars have been verified by later researches. closed for some years on account of the disso- 

For almost a century after the appearance lution of the local Guild, on whose revenues 

of Rowe's 'Life' no serious attempt was made it was dependent, by Henry VIII. in 1547, was 

to improve upon it Pope, Johnson, and Stee- re-established by Edward VI. in 1S53 a» 'The 

vers, in the bi{^n-aphical sketches prefixed to King's New School of Stratford-upon-Avon.* 

their editions of Shakespeare, substantially re- The masters of the school in the poet's boyhood 

peated Rowe's matter. Edmund Malone was were university men of good scholarship. The 

the first to attempt a biography on a more ex- studies were mainly Latin, with writing and 

tended scale. In the introductions to the <Va- arithmetic, and possibly a little Greek, which 

riorum' editions of 1803, 1S13, and i8ai, he was sometimes taught m the grammar schools 

presented a lai^e amount of new information, at that time. Ben Jonson credits Shakespeare 

based on his researches in the Stratford archives, with "small Latin and less Greek' ; and we may 

the manuscripts collected by tbe actor and be quite certain that the boy had no regular 

manager, Edward Alleyn, at Dulwich, and offi- schooling except what he got at Stratford. It 

cial records and documents in London. His is evident from his works that he had not the 

'Life of Shakespeare,* as completed and pub- learning which a few of the critics have as- 

lisbed in the 'Variorum* of 1831, fills 287 cribed to him. His quotations from Latin lit- 

octavo papes; and to this the discussion of the erature are such as a schoolboy might make 

chronological order of the plays adds iSo pages from Virgil, Ovid, and the other ^thor- *— 

Of the many c 


u>urcei» or iiom Ok familiar stodc in Englith (1668), sajn of Shakespeare: "Those who ac- 

books of the period. The htEtorical materials cuse him to hare wanted IcarotDg, give him 

of his plays are evidently front a very limited the greater commendation; he needed not the 

number of English authorities, like Holinsbed's spectacles of books to read Nature; he looked 

'Chronicles' and North's 'Plutarch'; and in inwards and found her there.* 

the use of these he often makes mistakes of The same great critic, in a ptxitogue to 

which an average schUar could never be guilty. Shakespeare's 'Juliiu Cxsar' in 1672, says of 

It should be understood that the notkm the author of the play: 
that Shakespeare was a learned man is of com- 
paratively modem date. In the references to T^li"""' '^**^ '''"'hl^'°'^''A'to^ 
the dramatist in the literature of his day and T^oi thm tK'i i«'lii( ^mini «ri:°to bUaie- 
for a century after his death (as carefully col' Ua knew the iIudb, bai did 1101 know the nuw. 
lected by the New Shakspere SocieQr of Loo- 5^' J^-T" '"'^ a '"E""?".^''^ 
don) there is no hint of it, while expressions '^'' *" "' """' """''■ "'"'™' "■" ■""«■ 
of the ctmtrary opnion are frequent John Writing again in prose, he alludes to Shake- 
Hales of Eton, wntm? before 1633, and re- gpeare as "wanting that learning and care which 
fernng to a conversation conceming Shake- Jot"~' '"■' ■ 
speare in which Sir John Suckling, Sir William 

Davenant, Ben Jonson, and he himself were En»,.„. _„ „ ^,^, 

engaged, says that, "hearmg Ben frequently re- Shakespeare "was as much a stranger to French 

proaching him [Shakespeare! with the want of as I^tin," and that • 't is agreed that his leam- 

iMrnmg and ignorance of the anoeots," he j^g y,^^ not extraordinary*; and yet he ranks 

[HalesI <told h.m that, if Mr, ShaKcspeare had .his plays beyond any that have ever been pub- 

not read the ancients, he had likewise not stolen jighed in our ianguage." 

anything from them < a fault the other mado These quotations might be multiplied, but 

no conscience of), and that, ti he would pro- enough have been given to show what was 

duee any one topic findy treated by any of the universal opinion of the best critical judges 

them, he would undertake to find somettiing {„ the i?tfi eentnry concerning Shakespeare's 

upon the same subject at least as well written jack (,f learning. Nature, or gtnius, they all 

by Shakespeare.' . , . , agree, more than made up for the deficiency. 

Jasper Mayne, writing in 1637, mentions The single slight hint of the opposite opinion 
Shakespeare amone the dramatists who d«I in writers of the 17th century is in7n 'Address' 
their work 'without Latin helps.* H. Ramwy, by Nahum Tate (noted for his bad «new- 
also in 1637. complimenting Ben Jo'^son ior his modelling" of 'Lear' and other plays of Shake- 
knowledge of Latm and Greek, says that he speare), printed in 1680. He says: «What I 
Mmld comimnd have said concerning the necessity of learning 
That iirhliA jaai Sbtlaaftaic could icirce undenMnd. k, make a complete poet may seem inconsistent 
Leonard Digges, in the verses prefixed to the with my reverence for our Shakespeare. I con- 
1640 edition of Shakespeare's 'Poems,' com- less I could never gel a true account of his 
pliments him for his "Art without art, unparal- learning, and am apt to think" it more than 
ieled as yet," and adds that he borrows nothing common report allows him. But, however it 
from Greek or Latin; yet, as he says. Shake- fared with out anthor for book-learning, 't is 
speare's 'Julius Cwsar' ravished the audience, evident that no man was better studied in men 
and things, the most useful knowledge for a 

S'.''f!iK'™',?v™ ^^ "".f; T:?'''^j?°^''Z?°'' ■ '*'* dramatic *riter,» We see that Tate had failed 

Of le*™. (though wdi Uboutd) Caw.«; ,„ j,;^ endeavor to imd proof of Shakespeare's 

and *<S«janus' too was irksome*— referring to learning, thus indirectly confirming the unani- 

Ben Jonson's Roman plays. mous testimony of the critics of that time to 

The learned Fuller, in his 'Worthies' (prob- *e contrary. 
ably written about 1642), says of Shakespeare: About the middle of the i8th century, John 
"He was an eminent instance of the truth of Upton, the elder George Coleman, and a few 
that rule, Paeta non Hi, sed itascilur; one is nof other critics took the ground that certain pas- 
mode but bom a poet. Indeed his learning was sages in the plays indicated an acquaintance 
very Ijttle ; . . . nature itself was all the art with Greek, Latin, and later foreign authors 
which was used on him.* Then follows the whose works had not been translated into Eng- 
familiar passage about "the wit combats be- Hsh when Shakespeare wrote; but they were 
tween him and Ben Jonson, which two t behold completely refuted by Richard Farmer, in his 
like a Spanish great galleon and an English famous 'Essay on the Learning of Shakespeare,' 
man-of-war. Master Jonson (like the former) published in 1766. Dr. Warton refers to it as 
Jim* built far higher in learning; solid but slow *a work by which an end is put forever to the 
in his performances : Shakespeare, with the dispute conceming the learning of Shakespeare 
English man-of-war, lesser in bulk but lighter It did settle the question until the Baconian 
in sailing, could turn with alt tides, tack about, heretics revived it and made it the comer-stone 
and Uke advantage of all winds, by the quick- "* '""r theory. ^ . . 
ness of his wit and invention * Shakespeare s real education, as Tate inti- 

Lady Margaret Cavendish, in the 'General mates, was in (he study of "men and things.* 

Prologue' to her 'Plays' (1662), after praising His early years were spent in the heart of 

Ben Jonson, says : rural England, where he became familiar with 
woodland scenery and life, and imbibed the love 

■ ^, of nature which is one of his most markij 

bV~N«iur«''t~ligbt 'ete. characteristics. There also he got the minute 
knowledge of the practical side of countiy )^'r 

Essay on Dramatic Poesy* which has furnished material for many volumet 

,y Google 


on dk« plant-lore and garden-craft illustrated dith, were baptized 2 Feb. 1585, about tws 
in his works, and on bis familiarity with faawk- months before their father was twenty-one. 
ing, hunting, fishing, and the habits of English The marriage had evidently been a hurried 
birds and animals. Warwickshire was, more- one, urged on by the relatives of the bride, but 
over, rich in historical associations. The cas- apparently not favored by those of the bride- 
ties of Kenilworth and Warwick had been groom, who could not honorably avoid it, and 
centres of political and military interest during seems not to have been inclined to do so. Some 
the civil wars of the 13th and isth centuries, biographers believe that the couple had been 
Queen Elizabeth's famous visit to the Earl of formally betrothed some months before the 
Leicester at Kenilworth occurred in 1575, when marriage, according to the custom of the timet 
Shakespeare was eleven, and his father, who and this is by no means improbable. The be- 
was then a magistrate at Stratford, may have trothal was then a legal ceremony, consisting 
taken the boy with him to see something of in the interchange of rings, kissing, and joining 
the pageant which attracted throngs of visitors hands, in the presence of witnesses, and often 
from all the region roundabout. The legendary before a priest. Violation of the contract wae 
and romantic lore of the district, in which the punished by the ecclesiastical law with excom- 
redoubtable Guy of Warwick was the chief munication; and the betrothal was a legal bar 
herck must also have stirred and stimulated the to marriage with another person, except by the 
poets youthful imagination. Coventry, in the joint consent of the parties. In Shakespeare's 
same county, was renowned for its old re- time, at least among the common people, it was 
ligious plajfs, which were not entirely sup- often regarded as conferring the rights and 
pressed until 1580; and traveling companies of privileges of the more formal union that was 
players visited Stratford when he was fivcyeare to follow; but later in the century the Church 
old and frequently during his boyhood and authorities condemned this license. There may 
youth. He must have witnessed these local have been such a pre-contract, or betrothal, in 
performances, if not some of those at Coventry, the case, of William and Ann, In the absence 
and we can imagine how they developed his oi any positive testimony to the contrary, it is 
taste and love for the drama. The training in no more than fair to allow them the benefit of 
the grammar school was an insignificant part the doubt. 

of his early education compared with what be It is an interesting fact that this ancient 
got outside of its ancient walls, betrothal is introduced by Shakespeare in at 
It is not improbable that he left school when least seven of his plays, — 'The Two Gentlemen 
he was thirteen. About that time his father's of Verona,' 'The Taming of the Shrew,' 
fortunes ware declining, probably on account of 'Twelfth Night,' 'The Winter's Tale' (twice), 
the general depression m trade, and he may 'Much Ado,' 'Measure for Measure,' and 
have needed the boy's help in his business or 'King John.' In 'Twelfth Night,' Olivia, who 
have found other work for him. An improbable has been betrothed to Sebastian, supposing him 
tradition says that he was bound apprentice to to be the disguised Viola, addresses the latter 
a butcher, but later ran avray to London, Ac- as "husband,* and justifies herself by appeal- 
cording to another tradition, he was an attor- ing to the priest before whom the ceremony had 
nc/s clerk for a time ; and the knowledge of twen performed, with the understanding that it 
law shown in his works has led Lord Campbell was to be kept secret until the marriage should 
and other professional critics to give credit to take place. Similarly, Robert Arden, the poet's 
this story. Judge Allen, however, in his 'Notes maternal grandfather, in a legal document, calls 
on the Bacon-Shakespeare Question' (Boston his daughter Agnes the wife (uxor) of the 
1900), has shown that similar familiarity with man to whom she was married three months 
legal technicalities appears in the works of con- later. 

temporary dramatists, and that Shakespeare Of Shakespeare's life after his marriage until 
often makes mistakes in these matters which no he went to London nothing further is known. 
lawyer or student of law could be guilty of. How he managed to support his family we can- 
Shakespeare's marriage, when he was be- ttot guess. He could have little or no assistance 
tween eighteen and nineteen, is the next fact in from his father, who, in his reduced circum- 
his history of which we have positive proof, statures, could barely take care of his own house- 
The bride, Ann Hathaway, was ' about ei^t hold in which there were now four younger 
years older: She was the daughter of a farmer children. William soon decided to leave hi* 
in the neighboring village of ShoUery, and the wife and babes in Stratford — or perhajw at 
house in which her father, Richard Hathaway, Shottery with Mrs. Hathaway, then a widow 
is supposed to have lived, was bought in iSgz, with a comfortable house and moome — and to 
as Shakespeare's birthplace in Stratford had try his fortune in London. The precise date 
been bought in 1848, for preservation in memory of this move is uncertain, but it was probably 
of the poet. The marriage probably took place in the latter part of 1585 or early in 1586. He 
early in December 1582, a bond, authorizing it came of age in 1585, and that fact may have 
•with once asking of the bans* bemg still ex- influenced him in making the venture. Tradi- 
tant in the Episcopal archives of Worcester, tion says that about this time he was caught 
the diocese in whidi the parties resided. The in deer-stealing on Sir Thomas Lucy's estate, 
^nd bears the date of 28 Nov. 1582, but no and that his departure for the metropolis was 
Kcord of the marriage, which was doubtless in prompted or hastened by the prosecution that 
Ane of the neighboring villages, has survived followed the offense. That the poaching tradi' 
the risks to which English parish registers were tion was founded on fact is quite certain from 
often exposed. A daughter was bom to the the evidence in '2 Henry IV.' and the 'Merry 
pair the next May, her baptism with the name Wives of Windsor' that Lucy is caricatured as 
Susanna being recorded at Stratford on Sunday, Justice Shallow. The "doien white luces* in 
36 May ijS.t Twin children, Hamnet and Ju- the latter play were apparently suggested by the 
ToL. Ill — a 



three luces, or pikes, in the arnu of the Lucy speare, dotditleis t^ his ton's advice, made ap- 

family ; and the allnajonl to poaching in the plication to the College of Heralds for a coat-of- 

context are equally significant. artnsi but the negotiations not being concluded 

What Shakespeare found to do on his ar> at that time, they were renewed in 1599, when 

rival in London we do not know. The tradi* the petition was granted. 

tion that at first he held horses st the door of John had asked that he and his son might be 

the theatre, said to have originated with Sir allowed to quarter on the coat the arms of the 

William Davenant, is not improbable, as it waa Ardens of Wtlmecote, his wife's familv; bvtthe 

then common for gentlemen to go to the theatre heralds snbstituted the arms of tlie Ardens of 

horseback. We know that somehow the Alvanley in Cheshire, apparently because those 

I young man soon got into one of the two play- belonged to a younger branch of the funilf, 

houses then established in London — the Thea- from which Mary Ardcn was descended 
tre and the Curtain — where he doubtless had Shakespeare repaired New Place, which wu 

to begin in some humble capacity. According in a dilapidated condition when he bought it 

to tradition, he was first employed as'a "prompt* We find evidence also that he assisted in re- 

er's attendant, whose duty it was to give the storing the fortunes of his father, and attempted 

performen notke to be read; to enter" on the to regain certain real estate belonging to hia 

stage. Soon, however, his abilities must h^ve mother which had been forfeited through com- 

been recognized, and he began his career of an plications due to a mortgage, 
actor in small parts, gradually working his way The earliest definite notice of Shakespeare's 

up to a better position in the company. appearance on the Stage is of his having been 

If he went to London in 1J85, seven years a piayer in two comedies acted before Elizabetb 

elapsed before we have any positive information at Greenwich Palace in December 1594. Ac- 

about him, or even an;i^ tradition worth men- cording to the official records 'William Kempb 

tioning except that of his holding horses at the William Shakespeare, and Richard Burbage* 

door of the threatre and his first employment in- then received ii^ 6t. 6d. as payment, with Ai 

side as •call-boy.» At length, in 1592, we hear 13*- 4<i. in addition 'by waye of her Majesties 

about him through a contempwary playwright, rewarde' — that is, as a perquisite. 
Robert Greene, who died in the autumn of that Other performances before Elizabeth were 

year, leaving a little bo<^ 'Greens Groatsworth in 1596, twice during the Christmas holidays, 

of Wit, bought with a Million of Repentance,' at Whitehall ; at Richmond Palace on Twelfth 

to be published after his decease. After re- Ni(^t and Shrove Tuesday, 1600; and at White- 

ferrtng to some of his fellow dramatists, Greene hall 36 December the same year. At Christmas 

says of the actors : 'Yes, trust them not, for time, i6oi~3, the company played four times at 

there is an upstart crow, beautified with our Whitehall; and at Richmond, 2 Feb. 1603 <- the 

feathers, that, with his Tygers heart wrapt in a last occasion on which they could have ap- 

Players hide, supposes he is as well able to peared before Elizabeth, as she died 04 March 

bombast out a blanke verse as the best of you ; 1603. 

and being an absolute Johannes Factotom, ia Shakespeare's income from acting was much 

in his owne conceit the only Shake-scene in a greater than from authorship. From the for- 

conntrie." That the epithet of "Shake-scene* mer source before 1599 it was probably iioo a 

refers to Shakespeare cannot be doubted, and year, to which tiie perquisites from perform- 

the passage implies that he was both actor and ances at court might add lis or more. During 

anthor, and perhaps plagiarist also. 'Beautified the -same period the prices for a play ranged 

with our feathers,* as some believe, may refer to from £6 to its. His receipts from revismg 

plagiarism, but it may simply mean gaining and writing plays up to 1599 probably did not 

credit by acting what others have written. The exceed £ao a year, making his entire income 

italicized quotation is a parody of *0 tiger's about ^135, equal to from seven to ten times as 

heart wrapt in a woman's hide" in •a Henry VI.,' much in modem money. From the qttarto edi- 

an old play in which Greene is supposed to have tions of his plays, all 01 which were piratical, he 

had a share and which was revised by Shake- received nothing; but from the editions of his 

■peare. In December 1592, Henry Chettle, who poems — the only works printed under his own 

hjid published Greene's pamphlet for him, control — he may have got something, but we 

brought out his own "Kind Harts Dreame,* in have no means of estimating the amount 

which he apolc^ies for Greene's sneer at Shake- _ When the Burbages built the Globe Theatre 

speare and adds: "Myselfe have seene his de- in 1599, they leased shares in it for as years 

meanor no less civill than he cielent in the to 'those deserving men, Shakespeare, Hemings, 

qualitie [of actor] he professes ; besides, divers Condell, Phillips, and others,* all of whom were 

of worship [people of rank] have reported his players in Shakespeare's company. There were 

uprightness of dealing, which argues his hon- 16 shares in all, of which Shakespeare probably 

esty, and his facetious [felicitous] grace in writ- had two. The amDual receipts of the theatre 

ing, that approves his art." It is clear from are supposed to have been about £8,000, The 

Greene's envy and Chettle's eulogy that, in yearly income of a share in 1635 is known to 

1593, Shakespeare had already won credit, not have been more than £200. In 1600-10 it may 

only by his acting, but also by revising old plays not have been so large, but Shakespeare mtst 

for reproduction on the stage. have received from the theatre, as an actor and 

Little is known of the poet's personal his- a shareholder, at least tsao a year. From 1599 

tory from this time until 1600. In 1596 his the prices of plays averaged £20 or more, and 

son Hamnet died, and wa.-! buried (11 August) performances at court were more frequent and 

at Stratford. Early in 1597 he bought New doubtless better paid. 

Place, a mansion with an acre of land in In 1603 Shakespeare bought 107 acres of 

flie best part of Stratford, and later added land near Stratford for £320, and the same year 

other lands to the estate. In 1596 Jdin Shake- he bought a cottage and garden near New 

Uigilizcd by 



Hace. These inveatments, and hit dealings in do notice of him as an aclor has been discovr 

aciiculturai prodoce of which we have docu- cred. 

mentary evidence, were additional sources of Elizabeth, the only child of the Hails, was 
income. baptiaed 21 Feb. 160B. The poet thus became 
According to Rowe, the poet once received a grandfather about two mouths before he 
a gift of £1,000 from his generous patrou, the was 44. She was married in i6a6 to Thomas 
Earl of Southanqiton. There can be little doubt Nash, a citixen of Stratford, who died in 1647. 
that the amount is exaggerated, but the Earl, Two years later she married Sir John Barnard 
who is known to have been so liberal to others, of Abington Manor, near Northampton. She 
can hardly have omitted to make some sub- had no children by either husband. The last 
stantiat acknowledgment of the tribute paid him of the poet's lineal descendants, she was buried 
in the dedications of *Venus and Adonis' and at Abington 17 Feb. 1669, but no monument 
*Lucrece.* marks her grave. In September 1608, Shake- 
In Mw 1602, almost immediately after he ^care's mother died, her burial being recorded 
came to the throne, King James granted a on the 9th of the month. Her hus&nd, John 
iKense to Shakespeare and his company to play Shakespeare, had died seven years earlier, the 
in London and the provincea. They performed record of his burial being dated 8 Sept 1601. 
not infrequently afterward at court, as the rec- He left no will, and his son William inherited 
i>rds show; and on 15 March 1604, when James the Henley Street birthplace. Shakespeare's 
made his formal passage from the Tower to brother Gilbert (baptized 16 Oct 1566) was 
Westminster, Shakespeare and the eight other buried 3 Feb. 161a, the record, by a clerical 
actors to whom the royal license had been error, calling him "adolescens," though he waq 
granted in 1603, mardied in the royal train, and 45 years old. In February 1613, Richard, his 
each was preaented with four and a half yards last surviving brother (baptized Ii March 
of scarlet cloth, the ntual dress-allowance of I574)> also died. Joan (baptized Ii April 1569) 
actors belongii^ to the royal household. was the only child of John and Mary Shake- 
We have little positive informatioa of the speare now remaining. She married William 
parts played by Shakespeare himseli It is re- Hart, who died in April 1616, his burial taking 

Ejrted that he took that of Adam in 'As You place 00 the 17*, eij^t days before that of the 

ike It,' and, according to Rowe. he acted *^h« poet. Joan outlived her husband and brothei 

Ghost in his own 'Hamlet* ' John Daviea of 30 years. 

Hereford (i6ii>) says that he ■played some In 1610 Shakespeare bought 30 acres of 
kingiy parts in sport' His name heads the list pasture land, adding them to the 107 acres ac- 
of those who took part in the &rat performafKC quired in i6oa,- and in March 1613 he made 
of Ben Jonstm'i 'Every Man in His Humour,* what appears to have been his last investment 
m 1598. In the list of 'the prmcipall actors in in real estate by the purchase of a bouse in 
bU these playes' pre&ced to the Fdio of' i&^ London, near the Blackfriars Theatre. He paid 
his name is also placed first, hut perhaps only £140 fo' h, and soon leased it to ODe John Robt 
because he was the author of the plays. There inson, who had been one of the opponents to 
is no evidence that he eyer gained high rank as the establishment of the theatre, 
an actor. It was probably as early- as 1611 that. Shake- 
In July 160S Shaketpeare paid £440 for the speare returned to Stratford and took up his 
Hoexpired term (31 years) of the moiety, of a residence at New Place. In that year his name 
lease of tha tithes of Stratford, Old Stratford, appear* on a list of Stratford citizens who were 
Bishopton, and Welcombe. It ^)pears to have raising money to pnxnote a I^liament bill *for 
been a good investment, for his soii'in-law, Dt. the better repair of highways.' In the spring 
John Hall, in August 1634. disposed of his in- of 1614 a Puritan preacher, invited to the town 
terest in the remainder of the lease for £400, by the corporation, was hospitably entertained 
or only £40 less than it cost Shakespeare nine- at New Place, pei^aps throuah the influence 
teen years before. Tho lease had now only of Dr. Hall, who may bavt been living with 
twelve years to run, but the officers of the his fathcr-tn-law at the time. In the town 
Stratford Corporation who bought it appear to records we read: 'For one quart of sack and 
have regarded it as a judicioua investment at one auart of claret wine given to a preacher at 
i4oa the New Fkce, xx. d? 

On 5 June 1607 the poet's elder dau^ter In the autumn of 1^14 an attempt was made 
Susanna, Uien 34 years of age, was married to by William Combe, the squire of Welcombe, to 
Dr. Joho Hall, a physician who had a large enclose a considerable area of the common fields 
practice among the good people of Stratford near the town, The project was opposed by tin 
and the adjacent country. He was several times corporation as detrimental to the agricultural 
called to attend the Earl and Countess of interests of the town and tending to diminish 
Nwlhampton, at Ludlow Castle, more than 40 the tithes. Shakespeare, as we have seen, was 
miles off. His medical case-book, written in interested in the tithes, but it would appear 
Latin, was translated and published in London that he was finally led to favor the scheme by 
(1657) after his death, and was reprinted in Combe, who guaranteed that he should suffer 
1679 and 1683. Though an earnest Puritan, he no pecuniary loss. There is no evidence, how- 
was none the less popular with those who were ever, that he took any active part in promoting 
bitterly opposed to the sect the enclosures, which were ultimately thwarted 

Shakespeare's brother Edmund died in Lon- by legal iajimctibn in March i6is. 
don, in December 1607, and was buried in Saint In February 1616, Judith, the poet's younger 

Saviour's Church. Southwark. He is described daughter, was married to Thomas Quiney, who 

in the parish register as 'a player.* and had was nearly four years her junior. He was 

nrobably come to London and entered the Globe dien in business as a vintner, and patronized 

'baatre through his brother's influence, but by the corporation. In. 1617 he was elected 


>y Google 


k burgess, and from 1621 to 1623 held the office only other portrait the Buthenticin of which 

o( chamberlain. Later his business was less is established,— the engraving in the Fdio of 

prosperous, and in 1652 he removed to London, 1623, the execution of which is cqnallj bad. 

where he died a iew years afterward. He had A painted portrait in the Shakespeare Memorial 

three sons, two of whom died in infancy and Gallery at Stratford is believed by many to be 

the third at the age of 20. Judith Quiney lived the original of that engraving, but others think 

to be 76, surviving all her family except her it was copied from the engraving. The ao- 

aunt, Joan Hart, and her niece, Elizabeth called Ely House portrait, accordiiig to some 

Barnard, critics, was the basis of the engraving. There 

Shakespeare's health seems to have been fail- are many other alleged portraits, but their fail- 
ing at the time of Judith's marriage. He had tory is more or less doubtful. 
made his will in the latter part of January 1616, The order in which Shat^speare's works 
as erasures in the document indicate; but for were written has been the subject of much dia- 
some reason it was not engrossed and signed cussion and dispute, but is now approximately 
at that time. In April the condition of the settled. If he wrote the repulsive tr^edy of 
poet seems to have become suddenly worse, 'Titus Andronicus,* it was probably as early 
and the rough draft of the will, after a few as 1590; but the critics generally agree that it 
alterations and interlineations, was si^ed with- was an old play slightly retouched by him 
out waiting for a clean transcript of it. about that time. The three parts of *Heiu r 

There is no mention of his wife in the will VI.* are quite certainly other pla_ys upon which 
except the interlined bequest of the "second he worked in the same way durmg his drama- 
best bed with the furniture* ; but she was amply tic apprenticeship, the second and third parts 
provided for by her rights of dower, and such having a considerably larger share of his work 
omission in a case of the kind is not uncommon than the first part When he attenqited wholly 
in wills of the time. The gift of the bed, like original work, it was in comedy, and "Love's 
many similar bequests in these old wills, was Labour's Lost' was the play. The first version 
doubtless prompted by love and tender associa- must have been written as early as 1591, the 
tions, not the insult of a dying man to the present one, printed in 1598, having been, at 
mother of his children. The misinterpretation the title-page states, 'newly revised and awg* 
of this clause in the will is absolutely the sole mented." 'The Two Gentlemen of Verona' and 
ground for the supposition that the poet was *The Comedy of Errors' soon followed, to* 
unhappy in his conjugal relations, while there is gether with the first draft of 'Romeo and 
the strongest circumstantial evidence to the con- Juliet,' which was afterward revised and en- 
trary. We have seen that, more than ao years larged. 'Richard III.,* which naturally follows 
earlier in London, he was planning for his the trilogy of 'Henry VI.,' appears, on the 
return to a residence in his native town. In whole, to be entirely Shakespeare's, and was 
1597 he was able to buy the best house in probably written in 1592 or 1593, and 'Richard 
Stratford, and he gradually developed and im- II.> soon afterward, though the earliest extant 
proved the estate, making it an ideal home for editions of both plays date only from 1597. 
his declining years — but not, we may be cer- 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' belongs in tixt 
tain, to be shared with a wife from whom he group of early comedies, but was the last of th« 
was estranged. His widow_ survived him al- series, being generally ascribed to 1594. 
most seven years (her burial was on 8 Feb. 'Venus and Adonis' appeared m IS93, and 
ifej) and tradition says that she earnestly the poet, in the dedication to the Earl of 
desired to be laid in the same grave with her Southampton, calls it "the first heir of my in- 
husband. vention,* or imagination; but this seems to 

The funeral of "Will Shakespeare, gent.,* as mean that it was his first literary production, 
the parish register informs us, occurred 25 April ptays in that day not being regarded as litera- 
i6i6. His grave is in the chancel of the parish ture properly So called. The poem was pub- 
church, the legal place for the interment of the lished in 1593, and ran through at least 12 edi- 
ewners of the tithes. It is covered with a stone tions in the next 16 years. 'Lucrece,' also dedi- 
bearing the inscription : cated to Southampton, was published in IS94, 
Good frind, for Jcsoi ukc forbeiie Bnd was almost as popular, eight editions being 
To digs Ihr dust enclDucd hMii; extant. 

SSLmtt ";b2'i,r„"i?E:.'S'"' D"""B »'• »"• ■« >■="• ('595-il!«» th. 
poet completed the series of English historical 

It was not until about 70 years after his plays (except 'Henry VTII,'), the order ap- 
death that these lines were ascribed to Shake- parently being: 'King John' (iS9S), t and 
speare. Neither Dugdale, in 1656, nor Rowe, 2 'Henry IV.* (1596. 1597), and 'Henry V.' 
in 1709, w;hen referring to the tomb, attribute (1598). 'The Merry Wives of Windsor,' said 
them to him. If he desired that something to to have been written at the request of Eliza- 
the same effect should be put upon the stone, bcth, probably came between '2 Henry IV.' and 
it was doubtless from fear that his bonea might 'Henry V.' 'The Merchant of Venice,' writ- 
some day be removed to the ancient chamel ten in 1596 or igg?, together with all the plays 
house that then adjoined the church but was mentioned above, except 'Henry VI.,' is in- 
afterward demolished. eluded in a list of Shakespeare's dramas in 

The monument to the poet on the chancel Francis Meres's 'Palladis Tamia,' published in 

wall was erected before 1623. The life-sized September 1598. 'The Taming of the Shrew' 

bust is supposed to have been copied from a (based upon the anonymous 'Taming of a 

posthumous cast of his face. It is poor as a Shrew,' printed in 1594), though not mentiotwd 

work of art, but it must have been accepted by by Meres, was probably produced in 1597, at 

his surviving relatives as a tolerably good por- the latest. Meres ascribes to Shakespeare a 

trait. It bears a general resemblance to the play entitled 'Love's Labour's Won.* which may 



be the <Tanun^ of th« Shrew,* though many portions of it are his, but it is extremely im- 

critics believe it to be an early {orm of 'All's probable that he wrote a line of it Sundry 

Well that Ends Well' other plays were ascribed to him in his life- 

Between 1508 and 1600 the three brilliant time or afterward, but without authority or 

comedies, 'As You Like It,' 'Much Ado About warrant. 

Nothing,' and 'Twelfth Night' were written. The 'Sonnets' of Shakespeare were first pub- 
but in what order is oncerwm, "Juliua Csesar' lished ia 1609, but Merea m 1598 refers to his 
belongs to the same period. These plays were ^sugred sonnets among his private friends,* 
followed by 'All's Well that Ends Well,' 'Mea- and two of them were printed in 'The Pas- 
sure for Measuxe,' and 'Troilua and Cressida,' sionate Pilgrim,' a piratical collection of verse, 
the dates of all which arc more or less doubtful; in 1599. It is probable that the majority of 
but these plays, which are comedies only in not them were written between 1597 and 1601, but 
having a tragic ending, seem to form a natural some may be of later date. 'A Lover's Corn- 
group, leading up to the period of the great plaint,' printed with the 'Sonnets' in i6og, is 
tragedies, if not partly belonging to it. 'Ham- undoubtedly Shakespeare's. It is in the same 
let' introduces the latter group, the earliest stanza as 'Lucrece,* and internal evidence in- 
quarlo edition having been printed in 1603. It dieates that it was somewhat later than that 
was followed in 1604 by a second quarto, de- poent 'The PhtBnix and the Turtle' must have 
scribed as "newly imprinted and enlarged to been written before 1601, when it was printed 
almost as much again as it was." 'Othello' as Shakespeare's in a volume with Oiester's 
was probably a new . play when it was per- 'Love's Martyr' and poems by Marston, Chap- 
formed before King Tames in November 1604. man, Ben Jonson, and others. In 'The Pas- 
'Macbeth' is genecaliy dated in l6o6 or 160?, aionate Pilgrim,' besides the two sonnets men- 
and 'King Lear' was produced at about the tioned above and two lyrics from 'Love's 
same time. 'Antony and Cleopatra' and 'Co- Labour's Lost,' several other poems are attrib- 
riolanus' are supposed to have been written in uted to Shakespeare and printed in the modem 
1607 or 1608. editions of his works, but some of them are 

The tragedies were folktwed by a groop of known to belong to other authors, and it is 

three plays which have been aptly called "Ro- very doubtful whether any of the rest are his. 
■mancea»: 'Cymbeline,' 'The Winter's Tale,' No collected edition of Shakespeare's plays 

and 'The Tempest'; all written in i6o(>-ii, and appeared until seven years after his death, when 

not improbably in the order mentioned. Camp- the 'first folio,* or the "folio of 1623,* was 

bell, the poet, believed that 'The Tempest' was published. It was nominally edited by two ot 

the last of the plays, James Rnssell Lowell ex- his friends and fellow-actors, John Heming (or 

pressed the same opinion, and many critics agree Hemings) and Penry Condell, and contained 

with them, but some think that 'The Winter's 36 of the plays included in modem cdiciona. 

Tale' was the later work. 'Pericles' being omitted. Sixteen of the plays 

Besides the plays of mixed or doubtful au- had been already puUi^ed in quarto form, the 
thorship belonging to Shakespeare's earliest pe- other ao were printed for the first time. The 
riod and 'The Taming of the Shrew.' there are book evidently had no editing worthy of the 
several others of later date which appear to name. Heming and Condell did little except to- 
have a similar history: 'TImon of Athens,' furnish the publishers with the best copies of 
'Pericles,' and 'Henry VIII.' Shakespeare's the plays they could get; and these were partly 
share in all of them is indisputable, but the manuscripts and partly early quartos, ali of 
critics disagree in explaining the divided au- which had been used in the theatre by the actors 
thorship. 'Ilie most plausible theory is that all in learning their parts. This is evident from 
three were begun by Shakespeare, but for some the fact that in many instances names of actors 
unknown reason were laid asid^ or left un- are inserted at the beginning of speeches and 
finished, and afterward completed hy others. In in stage-directions instead of those of tbe- 
the case of 'Timon' it is neither known nor dramatis fersona. Every conceivable form of 
suspected who the other author was. In 'Per- lypographica] corruption and perversion 
ides' it was undoubtedly George Wilkins, who abounds. It is estimated that at least 20,000 
in 1608 (a year after the play was lirst printed) 'readings* occur that are clearly wrong or 
published a novel avowedly based upon it. The highly suspicious, to say nothing of a far greater 
first two acts of the play appear to be his, but number of minor misprints and mispointings. 
some believe that the later prose scenes and the Verse is often printed as prose, and prose as 
Gower prologues are by a third hand. Large verse. Stage-directions and text are often con< 
portions of 'Henry Vill.' are evidently by founded. Words and phrases from foreign Ian- 
John Fletcher, some of whose metrical pecu- guages are almost invariably corrupted, some- 
liarities are unmistakable. The rest has been times to such a degree that critics cannot decide 
ascribed by one or two critics to Massinger, whether they are Latin, French, or Spanish, 
but there can be liftle doubt that it is Shake- Some plays are divided into acts and scenes, 
speare's. some only into acta, some not at all. and the 

'TTie Two Noble Kinsmen' is another play division ia often confus«i or inaccurate. In 

which some excellent critics believe to be partly face of all these facts the Baconian heretics 

Shakespeare's. The title-page of the earliest claim that the folio was edited by Bacon, the 

edition (1634) ascribes it to 'the memorable plays being carefully revised, corrected, and 

Worthies of tiieir time : Mr. John Fletcher and printed when he had abundant leisure for seeing 

Mr. William Shakespeare.* Fletcher's hand in ttiem through the press. 

it is obvious, but it is uncertain who was the The second folio (1632) was a reprint of 

other author. The anonymous play of 'Edward the first, with few changes for the belter and 

III.' is ascribed to Shakespeare by certain Ger- some for the worse. 'The third appeared ' 

man critics, and some in England believe that 1663, and was reprinted in 1664, with the - ' 



■tion of 'Pericles' and six plays falsely ascribed monly attributed to William Shake^icare. F. A. 
to Shakespeare. The fourth folio (1685) was Wolf (q.v.), in his 'Prolegomena ad Ho- 
a reprint of that of 1664, with no material merum* (1795), essayed to demonstrate that the 
change except that the spelling was somewhat Homeric poems were not the work of any 
modernized. one man, but a compilation of rhapsodies com- 
No other collected edition appeared until posed by different minstrels and sung in the pub- 
1709, when Rowe's, based on the fourth folio, lie assemblies while yet the art of writing was 
was published. The poems were first included little Icnown, Before diis formidable attack 
in the second edition (1714). Of the other com- upon the Homeric authorship there had been 
plete editions in the iSth century and the early wide disagreement among critics upon various 
part of the 19th, the most important were questions regarding- the poems, including the 
Pope's {1733-5), Theobald's (1733), Hamner's probable date of their composition. Obscuri- 
(1744), Warburton's (1747), Johnson's (1765), ties in respect to these matters are referred 
Capell's (176B), Sleevens's revision of Johnson's mainly to the lack of biographical materials re- 
(1773). Malone's (1790), Steevens', with Boy- lating to Homer himself In this particular the 
dell's illustrations (1791-18M), Reed's (1803), case of Shakespeare is involved in almost equal 
Chalmers' (1805), and the *Variormn' of i8ai difficulty, although it is not yet 300 y«at« 
edited by James Boswell from a corrected proof since the reputed dramatist's death. To many it 
left by Malone. Some of these were reprinted seems scarcely less wonderful that the man who 
more than once. wrote the plays and poems known as Shake- 
Since i8ai editions, commentaries, and criti- speare's could have remained so far hidden from 
cal and illustrative works on ^akcspcare bave the world, despite its eager search for him, 
so enormously multiplied that a fist of them, than that those writings should be the produc- 
even in the most concise form, cannot be added tion of b_ person so obscure. When Hume de- 
here. For the bibliography of the subject the clared miracles impassible because improbable, 
reader may be referred to Lowndes's 'Library Whately, by a mock chronicle, reduced Napoleon 
Manual* (Brfin's ed.) ; Franz Thimm'a "Shake- fo nonentity. But the non-existence of Shake- 
speariana' (1864 and 1871) ; the *Encyclop(edia speare is not asserted m the controversy. They 
Britannica' (gth ed.) ; and the 'Shakespeariana' who dispute his authorship base their denial 
<3,68o titles) of the "British Museum Cata- mainly upon antecedent improbability, as Hume 
logue' (published separately in 1897). did his argument a^nat miraclo. Indeed one 
The first complete American edition of conspicuous champion of Shakespeare asks: 
Shakespeare (with life, glossary, and notes by 'Why is it not the simplest plan to let Shakc- 
Dr. Johnson) was pablished in 8 vols, in speare stand as a simple miracle?' regardmg 
I795-*, at Philadelphia. The, iirBt Boston edi- h™ ^s 'a much simpler miracle than he would be 
tion (including only the plays) was in eight " *"' °' ""' current explanations of him were 
volumes <i8o»-4). Three editions of this ap- accepted." Critical inquiry, however, still seeks 
peared, each reset, stereotyping being then un- ""d w" seek a cause equal to the effect, a man 
known. An edition of 17 volumes was brought °' ">«" adequate to the result to be accounted 
out in Philadelphia in 1809, and one in seven ,, 

volumes (edited by O. W. B. Peabody, thou^ . Although this authorship controversy, m va- 
his name does not appear in it) in Boston in T'O"" Phases had earlier beginnmgs, it assumed 
1836. Reprints of Reed's text had been issued "s most definite character about the niiddle of 
there in 1813 and 1814. An edition of the t^e 19th century, since when, as Brandes com- 
plays in 10 volumes (Reed's text), was pub- ?l'^"\ ihe great name of Shakespeare has been 
lished in New York in 1821. and again in 1834. !i??"'J"t!'' ^^ American and European imbe- 
The first critical, thoroughly annotated, and "''^'u 'A roop of less than half-educated peo- 
illustrated American edition was G. C. Ver- P'*-, ^e declares, « have put forth tlie doctnue 
Planck's (3 vols.. New York i844-7>- Of more '■^^\ ^^^.^PP"'! '*"' ^'' "^™* ^." '"'*' «* 
decent editions the only one thiit can be men- P°«n' with which he had really nothmg to do - 
tioned here is Horace Howard Fumess's 'New "''"^'' \''°"^^n }''^%^Z^^J^^°°k T"^ '^^ 
Variorum* (the first since 1821, and on a far ^^X^N"'-;'"^ h"w" ' -^ n'^r Shakespeare' 
larger scale), of which i^ volumes have now I°»' •=''" ^^ "■ Wymans' Bibliography of the 
(I^) been published. This country has also ■7cf't^^^''X'^fT''°^^^^lJl^^'.^^T: 
pfidieed the first Concordance to the 'Poems' '"B that "there had been publ.shed up to that 
(Mrs. H. H. Fumess's, 1B74) and the best d^e asS.books pamphlets and essays as to the 
Concordance to the Complete Works (John tfi. . .'^ f -S' m IT' >, I" ^ '"^'3'^ 
Barllett's, 189s). The first critical work on the „ J""''i' °^ considerable bijlk had been de- 
plays tr^V feminine pen was 'Shakespeare ^°"f ^°'^^ question and m England 6^ Of 
rn \.._.,.=ji /, „ni. I ^Za^,. .-f^ .1 t, iiT.. these, 73 were decided y opposed to Shake- 
rwiS,f I ™J^ /.J;^.! ^^^^^ ^™ speare's authorship, while 65 left the question 
P M^i^ V^T »>,i^rT.,^«W r,^ S,^ undetermined. In other words, out of r6i books, 
m New York, where her father, Lol. James ^^^ ^^^^ -^^ j^^p^ ^f Shakespeare And 
Ramsay, was lieutenant-governor. From the ■_„ ,i,„ ,l. „„„^„i„„ i,,. „„ j„,.i„ „" i„j 

t',', I, I- J 1- c Y J Ti. J J- ij since then the proportion has no doubt remained 

''V,u- '' i.*i'S? "S W'n ^^^ ^''^"^^ much the same." 

bl Dr ToSson w "^ 7^1 ^ '^^ anti-Shakespearian view consists of two 

by Dr. Johnson. W'.J-"a« ^^ J*"^"^' main theories, that of a composite or a «syndi- 

Author of Life of },hal;espfare. ^3,^1, authorship, and that of a single authorship. 

Shakespeare, Authorship of. In the his- H the latter be regarded as involving almost a 

tory of controversy over the authorship or miracle, the other, if has been declared, sug- 

the authenticity of writings two debates during gests a combination of miracles. If there was 

the last hundred years have risen into special great collaboration there must have been also 


there waa ntrtnenhip b evident from the dia- were joindj produced hy at least two oten, one 

coverics of critics wiio show where diSercot a poet and dramatist, the other a business man 

hands have set their marks in the plajs and connected with a theatre: andiin later writings 

poems called Shalcespeare's. this author has amplified this conjecture, which 

The view o£ single author^p, other thai* has also been elaborated by "A Cambridge Giad- 

Shakespeare's, aa mamly held, is known as t^ uate" in a volume entitled 'Is It Shakespeare?' 

Baconian theory. The earliest recorded surmise (,1903)- It is likewise set forth tw William H. 

that the real author of the Shakespeariati writ- Edwards in 'Shaksper not Shakespeare' (igoo). 

ings was Francia Bacon appears to have been *It is enough for me,' he says, "to prove that 

that of "a Mr. William Smith," in a privately- William Shaksper did not write these plays. 

E Tinted letter to Lord EUesmere (i8s»)> basing Who did, I know not, and offer no suggestions; 
is opinion on Shakespeare's obvious incapabil- but when the venerable Shakespeare image has 
ity of producing the works attributed to him, tumbled, and the critics have a little time to 
and on the manifold qualifications of Bacon, clear their eyes of dust and cobwebs, the real 
About the same time Delia Salter Bacon, an auUiors may be discovered — authors, for J 
American woman, gave a more considerable believe there were several associates who wrote 
form to this theonf ("delusion," Brandes calls tmder the assumed name of <WiUiam Shake- 
it) in a number of marine articles, succeeded speare.' ' 

by a volume, 'The Philorophy of the Plays of Toward all this anti- Shakespearian argument 

Shakespeare Unfold«d> .(iSST), m which she the general attitude of writers on the other side 

set forth the deficiencies of the "Stratford hag been that of ridicule and contempt The 

butcher-boy" and «poacher» m contrast to the persistence of the unorthodox, however, haa 

attamments of Bacon, to whom she assigned compelled, in the interest of the Shakespeare 

the principal part m the «uthor8hip of the plays. ^^ ^, ^^^^ ;„ th^t of free scholarship and 

She was followed by Nathaniel Holmes, an f^ir investigation, a more serious attention on 

American jurist and a wnter of much Irterary (he part of those who would uphold the tradi- 

^'"' ?r*a^°'^>^^ ^ Authorship of Shake- ^^^^^^ ^^^ -j^ i^^^j ^^ ^j ^^,^g f^^ i, 

M»eare? (1866, 1886; v^^orouslj- supportingthe ^ ^^^ unorthodox, and of necessity their proofs 

Wian theory, and givmg increased impor- hitherto are chiefly negative. But so too are the 

discoveries of a cipher T the pliTs embodying ZT^ ,^° :^t'"^l^- J^f^ '^° 'l 1 , „/h , .H^^f 

a confession of his authorship by Bacon him^ ?"' Y,n U^F'.^^L'i'^ "!?'"^^^^ "^iT, 

self. This line of investigation was followed l"K "^'^^ whatever they can of a posittve nature 

by Ignatius Donnelly, an American lawyer and ^'l"^."^"^^ documentary sources, the wi^ess 

pblitfcian, in what Brandes calls "his crazy of Shakespeare s contemporaries oral tradition, 

&» 'The Great Cryptogram: Francis Bacon's "id the like. The consensus of Shakespeanans 

Cipher in the so called Shakespeare Plays' (ist "" the conservative side finds in these evidences 

pan 1888). This inquiry was further pursued Probata liU« at least m which they are content 

Ey Donnelly up to his d«.th, and has be^n con- J? «« ""S.' "^*"='*?* ^^ -l^'stlesa demonstra- 

tmued by others ; notabiy, in America, by O. W. ^"- . ^° ">« Baconians their answer is perhaps 

Owen of Detroit, Isaac Hull Piatt of New York, sufficiently conveyed m the conclusion of Sidnev 

and the late R. M. Bucke of London. Ont. For ^ee « ^J?. 'L'fe of WiUiam Shakespeare' 

an exposition of Bacon's anagram, which Piatt <I«98): «The abundance of contemporary evi- 

claims to have discovered in the plays, as well """"^ attestmg Shakespeare s responsibility for 

as of Bucke's views, consult the latter's <Cosmic $« "orks published under his name gives the 

Consciousness' (1901), "Francis Bacon.» Apart Bacoman theory no rational nght to a hearuig; 

from the cipher theory, the general reliance of while such authentic examples of Bacons effMt 

the Baconians is upon points summed up by to write verse as survive prove beyond all pos- 

John Weiss, a reasonable defender of the tradt- s^'l'ty of contradiction that, great as he was as 

tional authorship, in 'Wit. Humor, and Shak- a prose-writer and a philosopher, he was mca- 

speare' C1876), as follows: «The plays are pablc of penning any of the poetry assigned M 

too great, and out of ail proportion to the Shakespeare." And yet, in view of all that 

obscurity which rests upon Shakespeare's life, has followed from the work of Ddia Bacon, it 

and to the insignificance of his contemporary seems proper to repeat Emerson's remark, that 

fame. They are filled with all kinds of classical she opened this question "so that it can never 

allusion, professional information, legal, medical, again be closed." at least until positive proofs 

horticultural, scientific, to an extent which an on one side or the other shall be produced. 

obscure play-actor could not possibly comprise Meanwhile a liberal spirit of investigation can 

within the limits of his ragited and scanty educa- hardly deprecate the controversy which has 

tion. The plays contain remarkable parallel- already thrown so many side li^ts npon the 

isms with passages m Bacon's works, and eoinci- Shakespearian literature and tradition. Besides 

dences of thought and expression," This is the above works cited, of which Wyman'a 

perhaps as fair a summary as could be made in 'Bibliography' is especially important as a 

so few words; bfif the Baconians multiply in- source of reference, a few of the more recent 

stances and arguments with great extension and writings on the subject may be mentioned, 

cumulative force, finding in Bacon's 'Promus' Consult: White, 'Studies in Shakespeare' 

especially, but also in many places thraugfaou) (1886) ; Stopes, 'The Bacon-Shakespeare Ques- 

his writings, words and passagos which they tion Answered' (i88g); Owen. 'Sir Francis 

cite in proof. Bacon's Cipher Story Discovered and Deci- 

Among suggesters and advocates of the phered' ' ~ ■ - ■ 

•syndicate" theory is Appleton Morgan of New speare : ; 

York, who in his work 'The Shakespearean 'Bacon 

Myth' (1680). advanced the view tbst the ol3"s 'Francis BacoB 

>, fiooa! :, 


Allen, 'Notes on the Bacon -Shakespeare Ques- 
tion' (1900); Bayley, 'The Tragedy of Sir 
Francig Bacon : an Appeal for further Investi- 
gation and Research' (i^) ; Crawford, 'The 
Bacon- Shakespeare Question,' in 'Notes and 
Queries,' series 9, Vols IX.-XL (1902-3) ; Gal- 
lop, 'The Bi-literal Cypher of Sir Francis Bacon* 
(1902) ; Mallock, 'Last \yords on Mrs. Gallup's 

New Light on the Bacon-Shakespeare Cypher' 
(1902); 'New Facts relating to the Bacon- 
Shakespeare Question,' in the 'Pall Uall 
Magazrae,' Vol. XXIX., pp. 7?-«9; aiS-^aaS 
(1903); Lang, 'Mrs. Gallup and Francis Ba- 
con,' in 'Monthly Review,' Vol. 11., pp. I4fr- 
163 (IQM); Webb, 'The Mj^tery of William 
Shakespeare: a Summary of Evidence' (igoa) ; 
Boubee, 'Shakespeare ou Bacon?' (1903); the 
various writings on the subject by Edwin Bor- 
matin, published in Leipsic (1895-1903} : and 
Ibe publications of the Bacon Society. 

John H. Cumnat, 
Editorial Staff, 'Encyclopedia Americana.* 

Shakespeare Societiea. The first Shake- 
ipeare society was founded in 1841, in London, 
ind before its dissolution in 1853, had published 
48 volumes. A new English Shakespeare society 
nas organized in 1B74, and the German Shake- 
ipeare Society was founded at Weimar in 1864. 
[n the United Slates the Shakespeare Society 
3f New York was organized in 1885. 

Sbak'tas. See Religious Sects. 

Shale, a sedimentary rock of the variety 
designated a lutyte, that is, a rock made up of 
finely pulverized rock flour with a large though 
variable admixture of clay, and splitting into 
thin layers parallel to the bedding plane. In the 
typical shales the rock splits with a conchoidal or 
ihelly fracture, the surface being marked by wide 
shallow depressions rather I nan by absolute 
tnioothness. In composition, shales may be 
purely argillaceous (argillulyies), but they are 
generally more or less silicious, calcareous, 
ferruginous or carbonaceous, according to the 
material admixed with the clay. The car- 
bonaceous shales are often used for the manu- 
facture of oil or gas, some of them being so 
rich in carbon as to bum with a bright flame. 
Altnn shales are clay shales rich in iron pyrites 
which on decomposing permits the formation of 
sulphuric acid, which in turn reacts upon the 
olay shale. The reactions are approximately as 

(o) aFeS, -i- tOz + 2H,0 = aFeSO. + zH.SO. 
(6) 6H,S0* 4- Al. (Sia),Al,O.H. (Shale) = 
aAl,(SiO.). + 3SiO, -t- 8H,0. 

The aluminum sulphate will often crystallize 
in dry places on the ahale surfaces, forming an 
efflorescence. The sulphate of iron formed will 
(tain the surfaces of the shale a rusty brown. 
Shales are often ground up and artificially dis- 
integrated, to form clay for various purposes in 
the arts. 

Shaler, Alexander, American soldier: b. 
Haddam, Conn., 19 March 1827. He was edu- 
cated in private schools and graduated from 
Brainard Academy in J844. In 1845 he joined 
the Washington Grays (later known as 8th 
regiment New York State militia) and trans- 

ferred to the 7th regiment in iS^, beetrming 
major of that regiment in i86a He was com- 
missioned lieutenant-colonel of the 65th New 
York Volunteers on the outbreak of the Civil 
War, and became colonel in 1862, commanding 
the military prison at Johnson's Island, Ohio, 
during the winter of 1863-4, He served with 
the Army of the Potomac, participating in all 
its battles, until 6 May 1664, when he was taken 
prisoner at the battle of the Wilderness, and 
was held in Charleston, S. C, during the summer 
of that year. After his exchange he com- 
manded a division in the 7th corps and the post 
of Duval's Bluffs, Ark., serving in the South- 
west until he was mustered out 24 Aug, 1865. 
He was commissioned brigadier-genera! of vol- 
unteers in 1863, and brevetted major-general of 
volunteers in 1865. From 1867 until 1870 he 
was president of the board of commissioners of 
the Metropolitan fire department, and commis- 
sioner of the fire department of New York 
1870-3. * He was consulting engineer to the Chi- 
cago board of police and fire in 1874-5, being 
charged with the reorganization and instruction 
of the fire department of that city. From 1867 
till t886 he was major-general of the 1st division 
of the National Guard of the State of New 
York, and was an organizer and president of the 
National Rifle Association of the United States. 
While a member of the board for the purchase 
of sites for armories he was accused of bribery, 
but although he was tried twice the jury dis- 
agreed each time. Gen. Shaler published a 
'Manual of Arms for Light Infantry Using the 
Rifle Musket* (1861). 

Shaler, shi'ler, Nktfianicl Soutiinte, 

American geologist : b. Newport, Ky., 20 Feb. 
184T; d. Cambridge, Mass., 10 April too6. He 
was graduated from the Lawrence Scientific 
School, Harvard, in i86z, served in the Union 
army as an artillery officer, and then returned 
to the Lawrence School, where he was assistant 
and instructor in geology and zoology. He 
accepted the chair of palKoniology at Harvard 
in 1S6S. was transferred in iSS? to that ol 
geology, and he was dean of the Lawrence 
School from 1891, In 1873-80 he was in charge 
of the 'Kentucky geological survey, and from 
1884 was director of the Atlantic division ol 
the United States geological survey. He was 
commissioner of agriculture for the State ol 
Massachusetts at different times, was president 
of the Geological Society of America in 1S95, 
and besides numerous reports for the United 
States geological survey published: 'Kentuckj 
Geologlca! Reports and Memoirs' {7 vols. 
1876-82) ; 'The Story of Our Continent' 
(1892) ; 'The Interpretation of Nature' (1893) ; 
'The United States of America' (2 vols., 1894) ; 
'The Individual: Study of Life and Death' 
(1900); 'The Citizen: A Study of the Indi- 
vidual and the Government' (1904) ; etc. 

Shalloon*, a light woolen textile said to 
derive its name from Chalons in France, where 
it was originally manufactured. 

Shallop, a light fishing-vessel with two 
masts and carrying lug or fore-and-aft sails; 
also a small boat for one or two oarsmen. 

Shallot, or Eschallot, a perennial bulbous 
plant (Allium ascalotiicum) of the order Ltii- 
aceat. The bulbs are seldom two inches long 

. GooqIc 


and an indi in diameter. They send up hollow Shamrock, a name derived from the Irish 
small leaves which are often used for mixing seamrog, meaning "trefoil," and applied to 
with salads and dressings, or are eaten aloue. variouB trifoliate plants native to Ireland, and 
The bulbs are also similarly used They are even to the water-cress (which is not three- 
planted in early spring in rich soil about four parted). Each is said to be the plant picked by 
inches asunder, in rows 15 to 18 inches apart. Saint Patrick as a symbol to illustrate tbe doc- 
and kept cleanly cultivated throughout the sea- trine of the Trinity. The Shamrock is worn on 
son. The leaves may be cut at any time and Saint Patrick's Day, 17th of March, and has 
the bulbs taken up in autumn, dried like onions come to be regarded as the nations plant o( 
or garlic, and kept in a dry, cod place. From Ireland. The black medic (Medicago lupulintii, 
two to six bulbs are usually produced by each Oxalis acetaselia. various clovers, such as the 
bulb planted. In the South they are generally common red clover (rn"/o/i"»»«^a/«»«), a trail- 
planted in autumn and even in the North they 'ng hop-clover, with small leaves and yellow 
may be left in the ground over winter. They ^eads (7". minus), and the common low, white 
are leas grown in the United Sutes than in clover fr. rf>«ii), are widely sold as the «true» 
Europe. shamrock, and exported in large quantities to 
„. , _ . w, ,, , . , the United States and other countries, where 
Shalmane.« shal-ma-ni zir^ second of irishmen make a custom of wearing th^ «>rays 
?iis name, the Assyrian king, who in 853 B.C. q„ ggj^j Patrick's day as a reminder of home 
defeated Benhadad with his ally, Abab, king of - ' 

Israel, at Karkar, tbe Biblicd Kir-haraseth 

(3 Kings Hi. 25), on tbe Orontes. See Ahas; Shui-hai-kwan, shan-hl-kwan, China, a 

AssvuA. 'town ]n the province of Chi-li, situated on the 

Sha'tiwliisfti, tht primitive religion of the Gulf <if Liao-tung, on the Manchurian boimdary, 
Mongol tribes, resembling in its general features an° at the point where the Great Wall reaches 
the superstitions of uncivilized American Indians, "» sea." It is a station on the Imperial North- 
and other savage races. Shamanism cannot be em Railroad, and a point of great strategic 
'called a religion in the sense of a creed or importance. Being a Chineae gamson town, it 
belief with recognized and fundamental prin- was occupied dunng tbe Boxer troubles of 1901 
■eiples. It IS rather the outward expression of by troops of the alhed Powers, 
the imaginations and terrors of an ignorant Shan-si, shan-s€, China, an inland north* 
savage regarding the supernatural, and its prac- ern province, bounded east by Chi-Ii and Ho- 
ticea mainly consist in enchantments and other nan, south by Ho-nan, west by Shen-si, and 
delusions, accompanied by pretended possession north by Mongolia and the Great Wall ; area, 
by spirits, and the various similar deceptions 81,830 square miles. Its rugged surface con- 
through which the shaman, like the African trasts strikingly with the level tracts in some 
sorcerer, and the Indipn medicine-man, exerts of the surrounding provinces, although the, low- 
control over his dupts. There is belief in a land parts of it are represented as being well 
future existence, but without any definite idea cultivated and terraced. The rivers, which are 
as to conditions after death. Shamanism Still almost all tributaries of the Hwang-ho or Yel- 
lingcrs among the less advanced Mongol tribes, low River, are numerous, but not large. The 
and has left its impression even where it has Fen-ho, the largest of these streams, is about 
been superseded by the doctrines of Confucius 300 miles long, and falls into the Yellow River 
and Zoroaster, and of the Buddhists. near the southwest comer of the province, after 

Sharootdn, sha-moTiIn, Pa., borough in draining the central part. The north conUina 

Northumberland County; on the Philadelphia '""le °^ t*ie favorite imperial hunting grounds; 

& R. and Pennsylvania R.R.'s; about 45 miles ana *e inhabitants find sources of wealth m 

north by east of Harrisburg. the capital of the 'he coal, iron, cmnabar, copper, marble, lapis- 

State. It was settled in 1835 by people em- lazuli, jasper, salt, and other minerals, which 

ployed in developing the coal mines. It was '' affords. The principal grains are wheat and 

incorporated as a borough in 1864. It is the millet, besides a great variety of vegetables, with 

industrial and commercial centre of a region rich grapes and other fruits. Besides Tai-yuan, the 

in anthracite coal. The chief industrial estab- capital, there are several populous towns in the 

lishmcnls are foundries, machine shops, kniiting provmce. This province is the original seat of 

and planing mills, and flour mills ; and a large "e Chinese people, and many of the events 

number of the inhabitants of the borough are recorded in their ancient annals occurred within 

employed in the mines in the vicinity. The its borders. Pop. 12,200,500. 
borough has an extensive trade in coal and in Shan (shan) States, Indo-China, a series 

iron products, and in knit goods. There are of petty states on the east of Burma, and north 

18 churches, two free high schools, one under of Siam, occupying an area not well defined, 

the auspices of Saint Edward's Church, seven The northern part of the Shan country com- 

[lublic and three parish schools, and a public prises the North and the South Shan states, 

ibrary. The four banks, two national and two belonging to British Burma, and the southern 

■tate, have a combined capital of $375,ooa part, the Laos or Siamese Shan states belonging 

The government is vested in a chief burgess to Siam The Shans are descendants of an 

and a council of 20 members, 10 of whom are aboriginal race from the mountains on the 

elected annually. The majority of the inhab- western borders of China, and are closely allied 

Hants are native born, but there are a number to the Laos and the Siamese, They are an 

from Wales, Poland, Hungary, and Germany, indolent, laughter- loving people, fond of gam- 

•!» from England, Ireland, and Scotland. Pop. Wing and cock-fighting, not unwarlike, though 

(1910) 19,588. orderly and fairly trustworthy; the women have 

J. F. HooVHi, great influence, and enjoy equal freedom with 

Editor 'The Daily Newt.'' the men. Slavery, however, exists, but in a i 


mild form; and serfdom is general. Wide the the conaulates of all the other natiaiu are litii- 

chief employment is agriculture, there are noted ated there, except the French and American. A 

Rianufactures of chased work in gold and silver, municipal council is elected by the forei^ rent- 

The rule of the native chiefs is gnierally just ers of the English and American quarters, and 

and mild, and taxation is light. Buddhism is another by the French, whose quarter is sep- 

the dominant religion, though it is mingled wiCli arately administered. The subjects and citizens 

many superstitious practices. See Laos; Lolos; of each nationality are under the protection of 

and SiAU. their respective consuls, and amenable to the 

Shan-tung, shan-toong', China, a northern jurisdiction of their courts ; or, where the person 

maritime province bounded north and west 1^ »** "° consul to appeal to, he is amenable to 

Chi-li, southeast by the Gulf of Pe-ehi-li, and *« Chinese authorities. Chmesc in foreign cm- 

the Yellow Sea; and south by Kiang-su and PW are exempt from imperial jnrisdiction. 

Ho-nan ; area, 55,970 square miles. TTie greater Great improvements have recently been carried 

portion of this province is level, but the penin- o"*! tiew roads being made, larger and more 

sular parts of it are hilly. The shores are substantial buildings being erected, including fine 

generally bold, and full of indentations, some of villas, etc. 

which are excellent harbors. Wei-hai<wei leased Along the bank of the Hwang-pu extends a 
to the British, Kiao-chau leased to Germany, wide "bund' or quay, with a bulwark of stone 
and the native towns Teng-chau and Chi-fu are and numerous stone jetties, for landing and 
the only important sea^rt towns along the loading cargo; while the path forms a prome- 
fntire coast The province is intersepwl by nade for the residents from 50 to 80 feet wide, 
several rivers. The only large one flowing It extends for one mile in length, and contains 
direct to the sea is tbe Yellow River or Hwang<- spacious houses surrounded with gardens; the 
ho, which, after traversing the province in a lower stories being often used as stores (go- 
northeast direction, flows into the Gulf of downs) and counting-bouses, the upper as resi- 
Pe-chi-ii. The inland navigation is aURmented dences. 

by the grand canal which traverses the west The chief mission establishments in China 
part of the province northwest to southeast, are at Shanghai. That of the London Mission- 
affording great trading advanUffes, and the arj^ Society has a printing office for publishing 
transit trade is extensive. Drugs and vast quan- religious works in Chinese, from which was 
titles of vegetables are exported; and felt caps, issued in one year 500,000 copies of the New 
carpets, and some coarse hempen cloths are Testament for gratuitous distribution, or at a 
manufactured. The province is over-peopled, small charge. Connected with the mission is a 
and the great proportion of the people are poor; hospital for the gratuitous care of native pa- 
stil! they appear to be contented, and attach tients, under the charge of a medical missionary, 
peculiar importance to this province, on ac- where many thousands attend during the year. 
count of its being the birthplace of Confucius The American Presbyterian Mission not only 
and his disciple Mencius; and also because it print in Chinese, but manufacture the metallic 
contains the Tai-shan, or Great Mount, which types. There is an extensive mission, also, 
forms a favorite resort of devotees from amaz- under the auspices of the French SocUli de la 
1^ distances. Its capital is Tsi-nan. Pop. Propagation de la Foi, where the missionaries 
38,247,90a conform to the dress and manners of the Chi- 

Sbmghai, shftng-hi', China, a seaport city, nese, with an extensive establishment near the 

the most important of the Chinese trea^ ports, walled city, having a cathedral within its pre- 

one of the five opened to foreign commerce in cincts, capable of accommodating 3,000 people. 

1843, in the province of Kiang-sn, near the Besides this the French- have a handsome church 

junction of the Hwang-pu and the Wu-sung in their concession. In the British concession 

fivers, 12 miles from the mouth of the Yang- there is an English church, with several chapels 

tse-kiang, and 150 miles southeast of Nanking, and meeting houses scattered over the other 

Old Shanghai, or the Chinese city, is surrounded parts of the settlement. Here also is a public 

by a wail 24 feet high, pierced by six gates, library, and a branch of the Royal Asiatic So- 

and enclosing an area of about two square miles, ciety. Cotton spinning and shipbuilding are 

The streets are narrow and dirty, and the among the chief industries of Shanghai, and 

buildings, low and crowded ; modem sanitation, there are silk filatures, flour, rice, and paper 

and other improvements, are being introduced mills, furniture and piano works, etc. 

gradually. The principal buildings are the Wei- The port of Shanghai extends from the 

Kwan, a commercial tribunal ; a temple dedi- upper limits of the Hwang-pu, below the native 

cated to the goddess of the seas ; the Hall of shipping, to Wu-sung, a distance of 12 miles. 

Benevolence, and other charitable infititutions; connected by rail, and of which the anchorage 

a medical college; and the city prison. The for foreign vessels extends for four miles below 

foreign settlement is quite distinct in its boun- the settlement. The anchorage is divided into 

danes, government, and commerce. It stands sections, defining the foreign from the Chinese 

on the left bank of the Hwang-pu, below the boundary, where all the vessels are anchored 

walled city from which it is separated by a abreast, and lettered according to their posiUotl, 

moat, spanned hy several bridges. Two creeks steamers being separated from sailing ships A 

divide the settlement into three sections, the foreign harbor-master is appointed by the Chi- 

upper being the French concession ; the central, nese authorities, who retain complete control 

the British ; and the lower the American. They over the conservancy of the harbor and its 

are held at a low rental from the Chinese gov- entrance, and collect all shipping dues, duties 

crnment under a code of regulations drawn up on imports and exports, etc., through the im- 

^ Sf tl^^ty powers. . perial foreign maritime customs. Shanghai hr- 

iTie British section is the most valuable, and water communication with about 9. third < 

)ut ^ third of 


Qiina, and it> tracts has become very exteniiv^ buins and partly river CKpatisions. The toUl 
the pon being connected with a aystem of length is 254 tnilcs. By means of improvements 
steamahip lines which carry cargo and puien- which cost about $5,000,000, the river baa been 
gera to and from all parts of the world. The made navigable from Lough Allen to Limeridt, 
largest trade is with Great Britain and her dfr- and the Grand and Royal canals, which connect 
pendencies, but Japan, the United States, Gcr- the river with Dublin, have increased its corn- 
many, and Russia are increasing their share, mercial importance. 

The gross value of fowi^ imports in 1901 was gj^ gjji're, a large river in Central 

»nt^97W64. the great bulk of whwh repre- Africa, ihich enters the south side of Lake 

MDted goods re-export^ to other ports. The ^chad by several mouths after a course of about 

exports to foreifgicoimtnes for the sanw year ;oo milei from the southeast See Tchad, Lakk. 
were valued at $56,b7£,400L The chief foreign „. . ._ ^ „ 

imports are opium, cotton yams and piece goods, Shark-iucker. See Rxuwa. 

metals, kerosene oil, coal, and sugar ; and the Sharks, an extensive group of elatmo- 

leading exports are raw silk and silk piece branch fishes of the order Stlaekii, in which the 

goods, tea, raw cotton, hides, and native cloths, ctaspers are complex in structure and the peo 

A considerable share of the coasting trade is in loral fins supported on the shoulder-girdle by 

British hands, and both in the home and foreign three b^l axial cartit^es which may be more 

trade steamers are chiefly employed. In 1900, or less subdivided, and which bear the cartilag- 

7,g83350 tons of foreign sbippmg entered and inous fin rays chiefly or exclusively on one side, 

cleared tfae port, of whkh 5.043,700 tons were The external parts of the fins are supported by 

British; besides this the native shipping entered delicate hom~fibres or actinotrichia. From the 

and cleared amounted to 1,449.5^ tons. Pop. rays and skates the sharks arc distinguished 

about 620,000; the foreign population is ?,ooo, by the position of the branchial clefts, which 

of whom 3,000 are British. are always lateral, by the fan-shaped pectoral 

Sbattchil. 3 breed of fowls. See Poin-nty. &>*. which, with few exceptions, have restricMd 

«t..«h. urnit.^ tr»«M(« ««™ *«,.,;-.« bases, and by the shape of the body, which is 

- n . L CK i ■iT"?'*" 4 ' -^"T^ """o" "Iwys elongated, rounded and Uperiag 

journalist: b. Shelbyville, Ky., ao Apnl. 1837; d. ^ (U a,n,nBlv hete^ercal tail 

Hamilton, Bermu/a 2. Feb igoj He was a ^ ^""^^ ^T^^%fit^, or pouches 

war con-espondent for the New York iWrf ^^ich open externally in the neck ^ gilW 

,?«*^ ' ?^,5'^^^«h'; ll^i'^v V" ^"°.;i »"t^ ofVhieh there are five to seve^pSra. 

«=f ™»n=!^rn.^ifJl «?^1 H™,'f^5?I^i,r^ Water may also be admitted to the gills thi^ough 

r^^""'"SlTthf ^^ofoi^pXnLReVoH^ fl T* '"h 1^ Cr ISTTan'^^ri^r'^ "^^ 

tioiiTof Distinguished Generals'; < A NobJeTrea- '^^^ SL^l^t^'^^^^^^^l^^^^^^ T^^} 

SOB, ' a tragedy; and ■ The Ring Master. ' ^-^^^ ^"^'' ."J* """ '"8^ ""^ °™° *^^ 

' -^ '• • The mouth exists on the under surface of the 

SMnaon, shSn'An, WUaon, American poli- head, a conformation compelling some of these 

tkiati: b. Belmont County, Ohio, 24 Feb. 1802; fishes to turn on their backs to bite conveniently 

d. Lawrence, Kan., 30 Aug, 1877. He had a col- objects at the surface. The skin is usually pro- 

legiate and law training and began practice at vided with small tooth-like granules in the form 

St. aairsville, Ohio. In 183a he became attor- of placoid scales ; and is used under the name 

ney for Belmont County, and in 1838 Demo- of shagreen, in the manufacture of varjoua arti- 

cratic governor of the State. After Ae interim cles, such as purses, spectacle-cases, or as a 

of one term he was re-elected in 184a. Durir« substitute for sandpaper. The eggs may be laid 

1844-5, until the suspension of diplomatic rela- in capsules or cases of horny material, within 

tions, he was, mmister to Mexico by appoint- which the embryos are protected, the egg-cases 

■lent of President Tyler ; and after his return being moored or fastened by filaments to rocks 

he practised law in Cinonnatt He was elected or fixed objects, and *e young form escaping 

to CoRgress m iSja, where he served on the jn due time from its covering. The egg-cases 

committee on foreign affairs. In 1855 he was of dog-fishes are frequently cast up on the 

appointed by Pfes«ient Pierce to succeed An- shores, and receive the fanciful or popular name 

drew H. Re^r as governor of Kansas. The of •mermaids'-purses,' <sea.purses,» and the 

contests of the pro- and anti-slavery factitms uke. The majority of the sharks are, however, 

among the people to gam posMsswn of the legis- viviparous and in some the embryos are nour- 

hture made the post an exceedingly onerous one. jshed by means of placenta-like structure. The 

eMCCially for one who endeavored to administer skeleton never attains a high degree of perfec- 

affairs impartially. He resigned in Ai^ust of tion, but is chiefly cartilaginous. The skull 

the following year. After the political troubles exhibits no indications of divisions into distinct 

of Kansas bad subsided he returned to the State ^^anial bones, although the jaws are well de- 

to resiae. veloped and calcified. The lower jaw is at- 

Shannon, a river in Ireland, the largest in tached to the skull, except in one small group, 

the United Kingdom ; rises at the foot of Mount by means of a hyomandibular cartilage and the 

Cuilcagh in the northwest of County Cavan, upper jaw is the pterygopalatine cartilage. And, 

flows west, southwest, through Lough Allen, as in ganoid fishes, the intestine is provided 

then takes an irregnlar course, generally south, with a spiral valve which serve? to increase the 

to Lough Rea. then southwest to Lough Derg, area over which the food has to pass, and the 

then south to Limerick where it becomes a tidal base of the aorta contains rows of valves, 
stream. From here on to its mouth are The species of sharks are numerous and so 

several expansions and it enters the ocean varied in stnicture that the living forms alone 

by a broad estuary. The various lakes have been arranged in about 90 families. With 

through whkh it passes are in part real take the single exception of EkIihhm iticarat '~ 


jvhidi inhabits Lake Nicaragua, all are marine, discovery ■" the tatter region ii MiUtttiinna 
only a few occasionally entering the large rivers owsloni, unique among living sharks in its pro- 
of India. Owing to their active, roving habits, longed snout and protruding mouth. The saw- 
most of them are widely distributed. With per- sharks (^Pristiophorida), which bear a doubly 
haps half a dozen exceptions all sharks are serrate process on the 'snout like the sawfishes 
Strictly carnivorous and predaceous, and because (q.v.), are otherwise shark-like; and the angel- 
of dieir ferocity several of the large species are sharks. (Squatiaidx) , with much flatteneid 
justly feared. A few of the most noteworthy bodies, lead to the skates and rays, 
species are the following: The varieties of extinct ^arks are still more 

The white shark or man-eater {Carcharodon numerous and vary from the delicate little acan- 
earckarias) is wliite below and brown on the thodians, only a few inches long, of the Carbon- 
upper parts. It is probably the best known of iferous, to the huge Tertiary carcarodons, whose 
the sharks, and is found in most seas. (See five-inch teeth indicate a length of 75 feet Many 
Man-eater.) The blue shark (CTarefcorinw of the Palfeozoic sharks were of types very dif- 
glauciu), also known as man-eater, is slaty-biuc ferent from any now living, 
on the upper, and white on the under parts. The liver of some sharks contains a large 
It may attain a length of 20 feet or more, and quantity of oil. and they are accordingly caught 
IS exceedingly destructive to shoals of food- )„ g^eat numbers in some places, and the oil 
fishes, pursuing Its prey even into the fisher- extracted. Shark-fishfng constitutes an industry 
mens nets. Both of these occur occasionally on of ^^^^^ importance on the coast of Russian 
our coasts, where the dusky shark (C. abtcur»s) Lapia^d a^j the northern portion of Norway, 
closely related to the last, but smaUer, is very -Those caught here are chiefly the basking 
common. The thresher shark {ALp^as wipes), ^^^^^ ^^^ ,^^ Greenland shark. The Nor- 
18 known Iw the exceedingly elon^ted upper ^ i^^^ ^ , ^^^^^ ^^^^j^ ^^ ^ ^^ ,^, 
tail-lobe. whKh the fish osm sfter the fashion burden, which carry on the fishery as much as 
of a powerfu fla.l. It feeds ^'"Ay on fishes, ,^ ^/ ^j,^^ ^,^^ i^^^ ,j j^^^^ of 250 to 
\^^T^^AT^t^\ri^' TZT^ 300 fathS^ls. These vessels car,7 five or six 
SL^a1■rperal^^tl^li^ntic^^a iX f- °"h ^n^''"' 1 ^''^^^^t" "^ "i!:.' 
Te"^ atY^ie'i^roX SS at" tl? bSfe^ T^o^X'tui^^^Ltlt^r^'A^^L 
wiS; neVwo'Ss' ^^"'bL"Lr'Sea^ed ^^^ - °'d barrel pierced wi* several holes 
Shark (q.v.) is at bnce recognized by the P^Vf .<"^ ".l ^w^ "^ some kind into it and 
lateral cton^tion of the head to form a hann ""k it to the bottom with stones. .The oil or 
mer-llke structure. The porbeagle shark (Lomno Rrease escapes slowly,, and is earned by the 
comnbicit) may atuin a length of six feet, currents to a distance, thus attracting the keen- 
and is grayish-black. It has slender, very scented fishes to the place where the boat is 
acute teeth and is quite a common visitor to stationed. Here they are caught by hooks baited 
our coasts, where it is also known as the mack- ""*" salted seal s flesh and fastened to the end 
erel-shark. The basking-shark \CeiorkinM ot strong chains. When a shark is hooked three 
maximus) atUins a length of from 30 to 36 of 'he men haul m the chain, while a fourth 
feet, being the largest of all sharks, and is sUnds ready with a mallet, weighing about 20 
found around our coasts but is chiefly an Arctic pounds, to stun the fish when its head appears, 
species. The name is derived from its habit of The fisheries of China, India and Africa, 
lying motionless on the surface of the water which have for their object the white shark and 
in the sun, often in schools. It is sluggish and, other large species for ii\e purpose of supplying 
in spite of its huge size, harmless and feeds on the sharks-fin trade of China, are also of great 
Bsh. Tbe head and teeth are small, the dorsal value, and capture annually a total of not less 
fin very large and the gill-slits long. The than 100,00a sharks. In the United States shark 
(jreenlaod, northern, or sleeper shark (Somni- fisheries have never been developed extensively, 
M»M microcephalai'), attains a length of 18 feet, practically the only one worthy of mention being 
and is brown, shaded with deep blue. It feeds the dog-fish industry of New England and par- 
npon the carcasses of whales, even attacks living ticularly of Maine, where the livers of the spiny 
whales, and is chiefly found in the Arctic seas, or picked dogfish are tried for oil and the flesh 
The spinous shark (Echinorhitius tpinosuj) is ground into a poultry food. Dogfish oil is 
so named from the presence of the spiny scales used by curriers and as an adulterant of cod- 
scattered over its integument. The average liver oil. In Euri^w the dog-fiah fisheries are 
length is seven or eight feet. It is common far more extensive and, besides the oil secured 
on the Atlantic coasts of Europe and Africa, from (he livers, the flesh yields an extract which 
■nd has been taken once on Cape Cod. for nutritive properties compares favorably with 

Of the dog-fishes (q.v,) may be mentioned extract of beef. A splendid industrial field along 

the smooth dog (Galews catiii), and the picked this line seems to await development in ihe 

dog-fish (_Squatui aeanlhias) . Two very re- United Slates. 

markable sharks representing groups now nearly Consult; Jordan and Evermann, "Fishes of 

extinct are the Port Jackson shark (see Cbs- North and Middle America' (Washington 

Tkaciont) and the frilled shark (Chlamydose- 1896) ; Goode and Bean, 'Oceanic Ichthyology^ 

lacftt anguinms). The former is remarkable (Washington 1895) ; Goode, 'Fisheries Indus- 

for the pavement-like teeth and stout fin-spines tries of the United States' (Washington 1884); 

and the latter for its eel-shaped body, diohycercal Dean, 'Fishes. Living and Fossil' (New York 

tail, frilled gill-clefts and prominently lobed i8gs; Kingsley, 'Standard Natural History,* 

teeth. The former occurs in Australian, the Vol. III. (Boston 1885) ; Gunther, 'Introductioo 

latter in Japanese waters. Another very recent to the Study of Fishes' (Edinbur^ 1880);, 

iM - .1 Google 


Woodward, 'Vertebrate Paleontology' (Cam- He studied law, but abandoned it to accept a. 

bridge 1898). joHji PiBCY Moohe, place in the ordnance office. He was the patron 

University of Pennsylvania. '^i the slave Somerset, whom he found in the 

. , streets of London irt 1769, having been turned 

Sharon, shtr'bn. Pa., borough in Mercer a^gy by his maater because of illness. Sharp 
County; on the Shenango River, and on the placed him in a hospital, and on his recovery 
Pennsylvania, the Erie, and the Lake bhore ft procured employment for him. Two years later 
M. S. R.R.'s; about 40 m'les south- southwest of Somerset was claimed by his master, arrested 
Mcadville, and near the Ohio boundary. It is and imprisoned, whereupon Sharp summoned 
in 3 coal-minmg and iron ore region, and its them both before the lord mayor, who dis- 
chief industries are connected With the mimiig charged the slave. The master still refusing to 
and shipping of coal and of iron and steel prod- release him. Sharp brought the case before the 
ucts. The principal industrial establishments are court of the king's bench, which resulted in the 
furnaces, rolling mills, foundries, nail factories, famous decision against the legality of slavery 
machine shops, tile and brick works, boiler i^ England in 1772. In 1777 he resigned from 
works, a brewery, a planing mill, and a furniture the ordnance office because of his disapproval o£ 
factory. There are also manufactured a large the American war, and devoted himself there- 
amount of brass and steel products. The stone aft^f to philanthropy, particularly to the over- 
quarries, in the vicinity, furnish employment to throw of slavery. He was chairman of the 
a number, and contribute to the prosperity of meeting which in 1787 formed the Association 
Sharon. The principal public buildings are the £(,, the Abolition of Slavery and was one of 
business blocks, churches, and schools. The edu- the founders of the negro colony at Sierra 
cational institutions are Hall Institute (Baptist), Leone. He was also an advocate of parliamen- 
founded in 1888, Saint Scholastica Academy 13^ reform, opposed dueling, and favored the 
(R.C), a high school, four public schools, two extension of privileges to Ireland. He wrote 61 
parish schools, a public school library, founded pamphlets in reference to the causes to which 
jn 1877, and several private schools. The two he devoted his life, among which are: "Repre- 
nalional banks have a combined capital of sentation of the Dangerous Tendency of Tol- 
$250,000. Pop. (1910) 15,270. erating Slavery in England' (1772) ; 'Treatise 

Sharon Sprinn, N. Y., village in Schoharie on Duelling' ; Account of the English Polity of 

County; on the Delaware & Hudson railroad; Congregational Courts' (1786); etc. His bi- 

about 60 miles west by north of Albany, It is ograpby was written by Prince Hoare (1810) 

in a valley about 1,100 feet above the sea. It is and by Charles Stuart (1836). 

a famous summer resort, on account of its pic- Bharp, James, Scottish ecclesiastic: b. 

turesque location and its four noted mineral Castle of Banff 4 May 1613 ; d. Magus Muir, 

springs, a white sulphur, a blue sulphur, a ma^- Saint Andrews, 3 May 1679. He was educated 

nesia, and a chalySeate. Pop, about 800; m at the Umversi^ofA!>erdeen,and was appointed 

the summer season, about ic^ooa ri^nt ther^ where his conduct won him the 

Sharp, Abraham, English mathematician: friendship of the clergy He held a professor- 

b. LitUe HOrlon 1(^51; d. Yorkshir* IS July ship m Saint Leonard a College, Samt Andrews. 

1743. Having studied and taught mathematics "«? «" th«i appointed minister at, Crail, Fife- 

in Liverpool, he was employed by John Flam- g""; I" 1656 he was a representative from Ae 

steed in the Greenwich ob^rvatory and made Pt'^8|'yt«'7 '"iwr^u^'' '"^ I"- "^f l,*u 

for him, in 1688-g, Flamsteed's first succosful '""J^'?" J? "=" Vr" « V '^' '" i^"il°"^ 

instiT^nra mu/al arc. Afterward he taught K?„^i?L ''Lr^ F^U.^r^ irt^nt'lf^^h^ 

mathematics in London, and subsequently re- lL*lP«^°°L"tu ^„!* ' „?t2^^ 

tired to Little Morton, where he devoted himself J^« ^J^'J^^^ ^? ?rS^H^^ li,'^n«i?,i^^ 

rately He published a book of logarithms, the ^„^^^k^,' ^Sf^^PP^",w.'^^i?n^AnLwt 

first of its kind, was a joint author with Cros- °J^:''l..^^l'i' ,5Kl wlf^:, ^ h"' ™ ^"'• 

*hwait of 'The British Caulogue,. and plotted ^i^,^,f„t?'?oX^?^'p^rS,'wTc^ 

a number of important astronomKal maps. ^^^^ j;:c£Hshop of SalntS^d^w^'aM pS; 

Sharp, BeciEjr,- the leading character ia of Scotland. In 1663 he secured the cstablish- 

Thackeray's novel, 'Vanity Fair' (1847)' lo ment of a high court commission, in which he 

the notes contributed by Thackeray's daughter, took precedence of the chancellor, and the odioui 

Mrs. Ritchie, to the "Biographical Edition' of persecutions of the Resolutioners by this cour^ 

Thackeray's works, she makes the statement that esi>ecial!y the cruelties it inflicted after the up- 

she once saw the lady who was su^osed to have rising of Pentland, made Sharp an object of in- 

nnconsciously sat for the portrait of Rebecca tense hatred throughout the country, a hatred 

Sharp. Literary gossip contains a story, current shared by the king and court, whose tool he was 

for a time, that Becky was the portrait of regarded. Falling by accident into the hands 

Charlotte Bronte and that Miss Bronte retali- of a party of his enemies in 1679. he was dragged 

ated by drawing Thackeray as Rochester in from the coach in which he was riding with his 

•Jane Eyre.' The character has been incorpo- daughter, and was beaten to death. 

rated into a drama by J M. Barrie in i803; by Sharp, William, Scottish writer: b. Paisley 

Langdon Mitdiell, and by Robert Kitchens and ^^ Sept. 1856; dT Sicily 13 Dec. tops. Hi 

Cosmo Gordon Lennox m 1901. ^as educated at the University of Glasgow, 

after which he made a voyage to Australia. 

In 1879 he settled in London, where he knew 



Philip Bourke Marston and Dante Gabriel Ros- miles northeast of PitUburK. It is in a cotl- 

sett;, whose lives he later wrote. He was a mining reKion. The chief industrial estabiisb< 

critic of art and literature and an industrious ments are foundries, blast furnaces, rolling mills, 

editor. In the latter capacity he projected the machine shops, bottle works, planing mills, wire 

'Canterbury Poets' and the 'Sonnets of the and brick woAs. Other manufactures are oil 

Century.' His early life in the west highlands cans, varnish and japan, chemicals, coal-mining 

of Scotland probably confirmed his taste for Celtic tools, and oil-well machinery. It has large coal 

literature, and among his works is a collection yanb and exports annually a large amount of 

made with the assistance of his wile called < Lyra coal and of steel and iron products. It has a 

Celtica.> In verse he published 'The Human high school, public and parish elementary 

Inheritance' (1882 ; 'Earth's Voices' 1884!: .„k™i. ._j' .'^_.i.i;. .:u_... d__ / \ 

.'s'olS'Biffii/p^;S£:;";,ffl: ??-'• "■'■■ ■»* «^'y- ^- (■»»> 

' Romantic Ballads and Poems of Fantasy > (1B86) ; RicV " 
'Sospiri di Roma' (iSgi); 'Flower o' the Vine' ^X'. 
C18514}; 'Sospiri d'ltalia' (1904). His fiction in- Shaip-BUn, a small hen-hawk (q.v.). 
eludes 'Children of To-morrow' (i8go); 'Madge Sharp-shooters, the name formerly given 

o' the Pool'; 'Wives in Exile> {1898J; 'Silence to the best shots of a company, who were armed 

Farm' (1890). He wrote, also, the biographies with rifles, and took aim in firing. They are 

of Shelley, Heine, and Browning, and 'Literary superseded by the better arms and more com- 

E»»ays»; 'Greek Studies' (1903-4). See Mac- piete organization of modem armies, 
LEOD, Fiona. _. „ 1 « , 

Sharp-tailed Grouse, the northern praiiie- 

Sharpleas, Isasc, American educator: b. chicken (q.v.), a grouse iPediaceut phiuianel- 
Chester County, Pa., 16 Dec 1848. He was '"')■ which has the general habits of the pin- 
graduated from the Lawrence Scientific School, nated grouse, hot differs among other features 
Harvard, in 1873, was instructor in mathematics m lacking the neck-tufts, in the characteristic 
at Haverford College in 1875-9, occupied the *orm of the tail, in which the central pair c4 
chair of mathematics and astronomy there in quills are soft, parallel- edged and square-tippe^ 
1879-85, was dean in 1885-7, and has since been projecting an inch or two beyond the next pair. 
president of the college. He has written text- It is somewhat more fond of brudiy places, and 
books on astronomy and geometry and also flies more, than does the pinnated grouse, which 
published: 'English Education' (in Interna- is steadily encroaching on its northwestern hab- 
tional Education Series) (1892) ; 'Quakers in itU. 

the Revolution>; 'Two Centuries of Pennsyl- gh«t» (shas'U) Indians, probably from 

vama History' ; etc ,^fudi, "three," referring to a triple-peak moun- 

Shtrpless, Jsmcs, American artist: b. Eng- tain. A group of small tribes forming the Sas- 

land 1751; d. New York a6 Feb. 1811. He begwi tean linguistic stock of American Indians, 

his artistic career in the United States in 1794 formerly occupying the territory drained by Kla- 

with a series of pastel portraits for which some math River and its tributaries from the weelera 

of the most eminent men of the day gave hkn base of the Cascade range to the point where the 

sittings; and there are still extant by him por- Klamath flow* through a 'idfc of hills east of 

traits of Washington, JcSerson, Hamilton, etc. Happy Camp, in northern California and ex- 

These are treasured in the National Museum at tenaing over the Siskiyou Mountains in Oregon 

Philadelphia, where they were placed, 40 in all, as far as the eonfluetKe of Stewart and Ri^ue 

in 1S176. rivers. They consisted of two divisions, marked 

Shama rhristian Amrrinn invmtnr- h '•>' t^'Stl^Y divergent dialects, one comprising 

New l^s^rTs^J^Tojn^tkSt Xr^H^'d!^ *« Iru«aitsu, Kammatwa, and Kikatsik; the 

X^dT^a^fe"for' m'ShStt '^L'-^y at ^^^^ "^^'^V r' f^^J^oJ^'Z^^^ 

■ment.butreofth^ Jve^^^su^f^e -r^^^^^^^ 

sslmoa and other hsh, acorns, roots, and seeds. 

. They made basket caps, which the women wore; 

in Washington as well as small lood baskets, and a rude form 

» narrow valley, of dug-out canoe. They rapidly succumbed to 

la miles south of Hagerstown, about the same the encroachments of civilization, and while 

distance north of Harper's Ferry, and three the tribes composing the stock were never popu- 

miles east of Shepherdslown, on the Potomac, logs, their total number in 1903 was only about 

It has no manufactures, but is surrounded by a jov some of whom are on tbe Siletz reservation 

fine farming country, the chief products of which in Oregon. Mount Shasta derives its name 

are corn, wheat, hay, apples, peaches, and other from that of these Indians. 

fruits. It is chiefly noted as the scene of the bat- 01,— ♦- u~».* - u „( .u. c;.™. 

tie of Antietam (q.v,) or Sharpsburg, fought ^^ ™*^ "«»*.» P"'' «*.»■« ,,f'«n^» 

on the ontskiits of the village, 17 SepL 1862 in fj*™**? "nBC.m Siskiyou County m California. 

which more men were killed and wounded than ^^ '", "»* volcwuc or«in ; about 14JSO feet above 

on any other day of the Civil War. Poy, (1890) ^ ,\^u »ll'. ^"?""i' *"* H"^t * *^ 

TTfi-)- fioool i!om' frornl i ion '■ "^' one of which, Whitney IS three miles long. On 

1,163. (1900) 1,030, (1910) 1. 100, jjj^ g,^^ g^j ^^^^ ^^g {^^ ^^.^ j^^g^ ^|.^^_ ^^^ 

Sbarpsburg (Md.), Battle of. See Antik- 300 feet high. The mountain is conical in form 

TAM, Battle op. and has been a dormant volcano for a long 

Sbarpsburg, Pa., borough in Allegheny period. 
County; on the Alle^eny River, and on the Shattock, sh3t'iik, Huriette RoUnson, 

^tsburg & W. and the Pennsylvania R-R-'s ; six American parliamentaiy lawyer and educator : b. 

,y Google 


LowflU, Man., 4 Dec. itek She ttudied Uw, wu *The Lady of Shallot.' Amoag the works he 

UMiUnt ekrlc for the Massachusetts House of has illustrated are ■Browoing's PocauMiSgS) ) 

Representatives in 1872 — a position held by 00 'Tales from Boccaccio' (1899) ; 'Chiswtck 

other woman — and in 1878 was married to Shakespeare* (1900); 'Old Kin» Cole's Book 

Sidney Doanc Shattuck. She has puWiBhed; of Nursery Rhymes' (1901). 
'The Story of Dante's Divine Comedy' (1887) ; Shaw, Edward Richard, American educa- 

*The Woman's Manual of Parliamentary Law' tor: b. Heliport, L. I., 1855; d. Yonkers, N. Y., 

(1891); 'Advanced Rules of Parliamentary 11 Jan. 1903. He was graduated from Lafayette 

Law' (1895} > <tc. College, engaged in teachbg, and became Dro- 

Shattuck School, The, a noted college pre- fcssor of pedagogy, and later dean of the New 

paratory school at Faribault, Mina, wganiied Yoi'K University He resigned from the univer- 

m i86s and controlled by the ProtesUnt Epis- S't? >? '<»■ ""*, !L ""= J,™* °J V' * d ^It 

copal Church. The corporate name of the Shat- supermtttideDt of the public schools of Roche.- 

tuck School and the Seabury Divinity School, *"• W- »■ 

which is also at Faribault, ia the "Bishop Sea- Shaw, George Bernard, Irish dramatist ■ 

bury Mission,* The school has 16 instructors and critic : b. Dublin 26 July 1856. He went to 

and aoo students. The school course is divided London in iS^, engaged in socialistic agitation, 

into five forms of one year each, and the estob- and in 1884 becameoncof the founders of the Fa- 

lishment is managed on the house system. Miii- bian Society. To the volume of 'Fabian Essays 

tary drill is obligatory, and there is a cadet in Socialism (1889) he contributed 'The Basis 

corps with four companies, and an artillery of Socialism' and 'The Transition to Social 

Slatoon with two detachments. The principal Democracy.' During 1886HM he wrote musical 

uildings connected with the school are the and art criticisms for the 'World,' 'Truth' and 

cJiapel, Shumway, Morgan, Smyser and Whipple the 'SUr.' In 1895-6 he contributed dramatic 

halls. The school was named in honor of one criticism to the 'Saturday Review,* and arrested 

of its earliest benefactors. Dr. George Shattuck, attention by the vigor and severity of his judg- 

thc fotmder of Saint Paul's School. Concord, N. ments. In 1893 his first play, 'Widower's 

Ht and its head master from 1867 haa been Houses,' was produced at the Independent The- 

the Rev. James DobbitL Since its organizatioB atre, and was published as Volume I. of the Inde- 

Ihe school has graduated some a,ooo students, pendent Theatre series of plays. Between 1880 and 

Consult Adams, 'Some Famous American 1883 he published several novels, such as 'The 

Schools' (1903). Irrational Knot'; 'Love Among the Artbts' ; 

ok._ .t,a An..^ A— ._!..- j:t-_ .^a 'Cashel Byron's Profession' ; and 'An Unsocial 

te PJ'Y A*'£,„?°,™ r ffUn 8?»'"«"«.?< I.l!».' d..l wi.h ,h= work, of 

— . .**---* -, f ' ii * f — n . , ijuinicascncc oi isocn^' ocai wjlu mc wi 

Iowa CoUifi, GnimeU low., & 1879 took • ftrigmr „d Ib.ra,iht former tsptcidlyi;i,..„...- 

ro>t-8ndo.K com,, m conMitutio™! hi.torr )„, ludf witli W.gncr'. tbid work. 'The Ring 

and economic .cieoce there, .iid 111 ifiSi began a j*^ Nihlungs.i In 1898 he pnbUshed two vol- 

ejnrje m ht. ory and. .eience at John. , ,j^ Pleaaanl and Unplea»nt,> 000- 

K'^»,!il?ir.,S; .("^Sv^^wJVS •^"8 t^' 'Widower', Houee.'; 'Th? Phil- 

In 1883-8 and aga n m i8»M» he wu on the „jj^,> ,^ <m„. Warren's Profeaion> ; 'Yon 

e*torial .US of the Minneapoh. T^n, ,n „ (^ y,,,, i^,^ „j ^, „„, ,(;^ 

i'Sj'.t' <■?'''"' '" ?""'"' *?t'° '*", "?'!: 'ii'la' and 'The Man of De.lin,.' In iboo .,- 

lUhed the 'Arnerrean Review of Review., whieh ^ ,^1,^ p,,,, ;„ PnritaS,,> He u iea!^ 

he h., .inee edi'ei In iBathepubli.hed 'Icar.^ j^ vigoroni, and witty, . nn.tei of irony, and 

a Chapter in the History of Commnism,' which i,^^„p,^ ,,, the traditions either nf the 

was tnmslaed into German. Hi. otter works Oieatr. or of literature. A, a dramatist he i 

TiSSf' „^^ ;" Si' ?'?'!*« ^ reKinreeful in effective .itnationa; bnl hi, play. 

SiPU \°^ inino..> (1S3) ; ,^ „ , ,1^,^ Mi^ Con.nlt his preface, 
'Municipal Government in Gnjt Britain ,^j^ f^^^. Myself to Volume I. of 'Play, 

SS!!.^ '^ie'Ss'To' ^^sred"A sr: ^s st""-"*™'' '" "•"°°" "* "^ 
orrn"i,st"vi"misrtTr°iX";ss ;s— . H«^.wh~i-, .jo.. b™™.., 

written many majasine article, on economk, American humorat: h Une,boron|A Ma,., 

»p,eianymnnicip.r.»biect. Se'SiSre'l'liaiilS-'co'Sie'^n' lij^U'^ 

Shaw, Byam, English artist: b. Madras mained only one year. He then went to the 

13 Not. 1873. In 1878 he went with his bmily West and pursued a number of octupatiotu 

_ . ._ _.._ I 1858, and became a 

Royal Academy Art Schools (1890-3). In i8ga at Foughkeepsie. He contributed humorous 

be began work as an illustrator, and gradually articles to a local pa^r under the signature of 

attained success in this line, first painting 'Rose *Josh Billings,* but his writings failed to attract 

Marie,' being exhibited in 1893. His work much attention until he employed a style of 

was received with favor by art critic^ and be- phonetic spelling resembling his homely method 

came immediately popular as weU. It is marked of pronunciation. His first book, 'Sayings of 

by individuality, fertility of imagination, and "Josh Billings," ' (1866) had an enonnous suc- 

brilliant coloring. His other pictures include . cess. For many years hecontributcdto the 'New 

'Silent Moon' (1894); 'WhiW?' {1896): York Weekly.* In 1863 he began to give puWk 

'Love's Baubles' (1897); 'Truth' (1898); lectures, which consisted of detached bits of 

*LoT« the Osnqueror' ; <A Woman's Protest' ; homely philosophy, usually pointing a moral 

>y Google 


The delivery having an inimitable strain of inqurted a certain dignity and charm whicb 

drollery made him a great popular success. He lends to them the personal stamp of good taste 

Siblished 'Every Boddy's Friend' (1876J ; 'Josh a host of followers have imitated, but rarely at- 
illings' Complete Works* (1876) ; 'Josh Bill- Uined. 
ings' Trump Kards' (1877); 'Josh Billings' Shaw, Robert Gould. American soldier; b. 
Spicc-Box' (1881). Boston, Mass., 10 Oct. 1837; d. Fort Wagner, 
ShavB-, John, American naval officer: b. Charleston harbor, S. C, 18 July 1863. He 
Mount Meliick. Ireland, 1773; d. Philadelphia, studied at Harvard, enlered a New York count- 
Pa., 17 Sept. 1823. After serving on American ing-room, enlisted in the 7th New York regiment 
merchant ships he commanded the schooner at the oulhreak of the Civil War, and was pro- 
Enterprise of the United States navy, and in moted captain (1862), In 1863 be was made 
December 1799 started on an eight months' colonel of the 54th Massachusetts, the first negro 
cruise, during which he engaged in five actions regiment sent from the tree States. The tegi- 
with the French, recapturing 1 1 American priies nient left Boston for the front 28 May, acquitted 
■ and taking 5 French privateers. In one hour's itself satisfactorily in a skirmish on James' 
combat he forced the Flambeau, a French ves- Island, near Charleston, S. C, 16 July, and on 
sel of 100 men and 14 guns, to surrender after 18 July participated with distinction in the 
half of her men were killed or crippled, while the desperate attack on Fort Wagner (q.v.). Shaw 
Enterprise had susUined a loss of but la Shaw was killed while leading his troops. The well- 
was raised to the rank of captain; in 1811 he known Shaw memorial by Saint Gaudens wa» 
directed the defenses of New Orleans, La., and placed in 1897 on Boston Commons. Consult 
in 1813 commanded the naval force which re- Higginson, 'Harvard Memorial Biographies,* 
captured Mobile, Ala., subsequently seeing other Vol. II. (1866), 

service both at home and abroad. Shaw. William Napier, English physicist: 

Shaw Lemuel American jurist- b Bam- h. 4 March 1854. He was educated at Emmanuel 

stable, Mass., 9 JaJu 1781; A. Boston,' Mass., 30 ^"".^S*^ Cambridge and at the Univereity of 

March l86l. He was graduated at Harvard B„*r'""' J^^ «l<^'^'' f?"°* °* Emmanuel College 

University in 1800 and became prominent in the 1877 and was semor tutor there 18^. He has 

practice of law in Boston. He sat in the Massa- PS^''^^'^'^ important papers on -Electrolysis*; 

?husetts House of Representatives and Senate ^P'^^'l^'^V V ",'1^^'T«*"1*'i''I^ ^• 

i8n-i6 and in 1819, and in the State Senate plazebrook, 'A Text-book of Pract«^l Phys- 

1821-9 and 1828-9, and was a member of the "^^ ' ''^ 

State constitutional convention of 1820. As Shaw UiUTersity, an institution for the 

chief justice of the Massachusetts Supreme Court education of the colored race at Raleigh, N. G 

1830-60, he won a high reputation as a juriaL It was founded under the auspices of the Amerr 

His publications include addresses and orations, ican Baptist Home Mission Society primarily 

Shaw, LeaUe Morder, American lawyer '°'^f ^^"i'^'r H,n^°'-S^rn'-^,Vn./°nn* 

. ,..! . ... ■.__!?, KT .0.0 Baptist mmistry. Henry Martin iupper, U.U,, 

mi Pol.Uci.n : b Mom,town, Vl j No. iSji „,; .pp„|„,rf 'prddcni, and org.niirf tht Anl 

S',"™ 'C ,tr Sfci'Si'^.J^S dow in .865, i" « "Wo chin o- tte oui- 

Virnm low,, ,j 1874, .nd from tht low. Col- ,^. , ,^ [ ■ „; ^ .gjj ,^^ ^ 

lS,L^7J?.L*J,L';,>.'^"S;;f.™ S,Jf hJ »" '"> =1™ for oolorrf women, „d Ihcnco- 

esabl shed . l»w practice m Den.son. Iow«. He , ^ ,,, ,, , ,, ^ ,„, f^^ „,^ ,„ 

TO aln proinment m loc»l (ijanci.l crcie>, .nd .g ,,,, „, „ Modinj > whole city 

became prej.dent of he bank of Denison, .nd y^ J p„,cl,„ed fol ».5,ooorthe bofldlw 

of the tank of Mamlla. Iowa. He «™!0t»ljy wei. put on with brick made bjl the .Indents, 

took pan in the eantpaign work of the Repnb- j,, ^^i„J, obtained a chatter fton. the Sale 

Iran pan,, bat d,d not become ptomment nnt J ,,„,,„„„ i„ ,8,5. The organiation of the 

the cimpaip. of ij*, when h.s stjonj •■irocac, „„'i„rsity incltides the Nonn.l, Collegiate, Sel- 

of the gold standard, his .k.lfnl handlmg of j^^j^ Jj Industrial de»rtn.em., the ThioloB- 

slaltstics and keen argninents tn pobltc speaking -^^ j ^^, ,,, Missionary Training Sehorf^ 

won htm a wide reputation; and be was called ,^^ L.„n,rt School, of Medicine and Ph.miacy 

"^J: "f Zif" ■'"""cnt sections of the ,„j ^^ ^.^ 5,.^^, The collegiate depanmeit 

connw. In ■*« k' «•• President of the In- i„|„j„ ^ preparatory course oTtwo^rsi the 
temitional Money Conference |i. Indianapolis, ,,, ^JJ^ „„,;, ,, ,„„ ' ,,„ ^^ 

Ind. In the same year he was elected govemor. ,,;„ of A.B and B.S. are conferred. Music 

In 1902 he was re-elected, but resigned the gov- », , , „, ,j, curriculum. The course in the 
OTiorship 10 Ijcome secretary of the treasury j^', j , j , ^ Leomird 

Z.,'^;'iVrM.^,T™ .hST.'hi i:*J." '""»=' Hosmtal & a pan ^ the nniversity. 

S^. . .1. r. '!"t . r ''"•"%1'r"'- Indnstrial training and work has been a feature 

dent of the Carnegie Trust Company of New ,„„ ,j, ,,„ ^^ „„j,„, j, „,„i,^ ^^ j„ 

some kind of manual work, and training is given 
Shaw, Ridiard Korman. English architect: in carpentering, cabinet, bent iron and machine- 
K Edinburgh 7 May 1831. He was educated shop work, mechanical drawing, architecture 
at Edinburgh where he practised as an architect, and blacksmi thing, sewing, dressmaking; launder. 
being chiefly engaged in the erection of dwelling ing, and domestic science. There is also a sum- 
houses. He has published 'Sketches from the mer school and a night school (established 
Continent* (1858) ; and (with T. G. Jackson) (1809), The most important buildings include 
'Architecture, a Profession or an Art' (1801). Estey Hall. Show Hall, the chapel, the medical 
He has been very successful in planning suh- dormitory, administration building, industrial 
stantial houses of a plain yet elegant elevation, hu il d in gj^ laundry, Leonard Medical Building, 
and to his brick structures of this sort he has Malt of Pharmacy, hospital. Missionary Training 

Digitized byGoOgIc 


Building. The valuation of all the property 19 different Fla=« "> Ed^lanH, and in p«9( yew* 

f 167,000. The tuition fees are smafl, an^ the inany of these were ^esignrt 'in the Indian styte.' 

institution is supported partially by the Arner- At Paisley in Scotland, -where for many yean 

ican Baptist Home Mission Society. The uni- previous to i860 the manufacture of shawls was 

vcrsitv occupies a leading pUce ia the worl; of of gteat importance, the trade originated in the 

the eaucatioa of t^e colored race, and has won beginning of the 19th century. They were made 

the respect of the Southern people. Itisunableto of silk, wool, or cotton, either separately or in' 

meet tne demands made upon it, and is obliged combination; but the best-known class of Pai»- 

to refuse admission to many students. The ley shawls was maitnfactured of fiile wool and 

students ia igio numbered 535. the faculty 45- with patterns in the style of those woven in 
Cashmere. As many as 8,000 looms were at 

Shawl^ a cloth worn loosely over the one time occupied m the weaving of these. Soon 
shoulders, aifloog civilized nations, chiefly by after the middle of the centnry, however, the 
women, but in semi-civilized and barbarous pco- manufacture began fo decline, and for some 
pies by both sexes. Shawls, on account of their years past no shawls ot this character hare been 
simplicity, are ancient garments. They are men- woveit. Tartan shawls, but chielly o( small size, 
Honed by very old writers and are thought to be for indoor or occasional wear, are stil! made at 
alluded to in the Bible (Ezek.xxvii.). The most sereral places in Scotland. Wherever the man- 
ancient shawls, as \teH as the fineat are made ufacture of shawls had been trrominent shawl 
in Cashmt^, where the manufacture has' been clothes are also made and are made up into 
carried on in the same method for centuries, articles of dress for women, and, sometimes, for 
even the patterns of the shawls chaiig^ng^ but lit- mm, as well. 

tte. The material of which cashmere shawls are A few words may be said about the patterns 

made is a very iifle yatu made from the undci of Cashmere shavfis, which have been placed 

wool of the *awl-goat *f Tibet. This yam, by fhe most distinguish etJ decoratfre aitftts of 

known as pashmma, which is m reality a fine modem times in the highest order of art mano- 

rtread, commands a high pnce in the market, facture. The most ehararteristic feature in a 

from ^ tp ?12 a pound. The dyeing of the typical design is what has been usually called' 

yam IS an opet^tlon callme: for the ntmost the "cone" or <p!ne cone.' It appears, howe«r. 

care, aild the dyes Osttf are permanent The to be really a eonventirtwl represenuiion of a 

patterns of the shaWls are produced by two ^rind-^>«nt eypresa-tree, as fhe term jor*, tlM 

methods, by weaving, and by embroidery. Wiere native name of that tree, is also api*e* to thk 

Ae to be embroidered the ground of pattern or part of a patum. The fomi has many 

the shawl is of a pUb pashroina fabric and the modifications, one or mot^ of which often make 

thread used la of the same material. Very prim-' ^p the gronndwork of the designs of other lex. 

Jbve looms are employed for' the mannfacturc tUe fabrics both in India and Persia, and it evm 

Of the Ipom-vraven shawls, and a great length appears on metal-work and papiet-madw made 

^time IS taken In their manufactiire. Three or ;„ Cashmere. Sometimes it is simply called the 

four men sBmetimes work at one loom, and for ^hawl pattern. It is, howeyw, not merdy the 

B6me ofthe finer shawls a year s tune is neces- graceful ooUiac of their ornamental dericea, but 

wry. The more ordmary shawh are produced, ^x^ ,be harmonioua blending of fhetr deep-Umed 

however, about five a year, to each loom. Some- ^olon, which gives a singtdar dUrm to thoM 

times th«e shawls are woven in separate por- exqubite prodactions. 
tions, and afterward joined together with great 

skilL CaShmere shawls sell as low as $70 or Shawnee (sha-ne') Indiana (contracted 
I/Bo' bat one of a first-class pattern and coloring from the Algonquian ShawoMogi, •southerners*), 
will cost as mjadi as $1,00 to $i.Soa Such a an important tribe of the Algonquian stock of 
shawl will weigh about seven pounds and the North American Indians who, according to the 
texture will be very fine and close and the de- best evidence, were oiiginally an offshoot from 
sign intricate. CM the large price of such a fine the Lenape or Delawares, which migrated south- 
shawl about ^150 will repres«nt the cost of th<! ward, hence their popular name, ft is believed 
materials used, $750 the labor expended, and that they entered the present limits of the 
?6oo the duty to be paid and other expenses. United States from the territory north of the 
In the Punjab of India inferior shawls are man- Great Lak«B via the lower peninsula of Mich- 
trfactured a( Nurput, Amritsar, and other places, gan, various bands or divisions settling in south- 
the art having been carried crver from Cashmere, em Illinois, southern Ohio, and (the larger part) 
The fine pashmina is not Used unaduherated in on Cumberland Biver. A portion of the latter 
these, bat is mixed with the coarser goafs wool, drifted southeastward to the headwaters of the 
called kaork. Such shawls are also made at Savannah, where they came in contact with the 
Kerman in Persia. The finest shawls in Persia Cherokees and Catawbas. ^who forced them 
are also made of silk, and are much like the northward into Pennsylvania by i?o?, while those 
Cashmere shawls in appearance. remaining on Cumberland River were driven 

The production of shawls was until recent away by combined Cherokees and Chickasaw*. 

years a very important manufacture in Prance. They Were first mentioned under the name 

and gave occupation to a large number of de- Ouchaouanag, in 1648, as living to the westwarcl 

signers in Paris, who not only fnmished designs of Lake Huron ; later in the century they were 

for those woven in their own country —chiefly found by La Salle in northern Ufinois, while 

at Paris, Lyons, and Nimes — bTit also for shawl- others were settled along the Ohio and the Cum- 

manufacturers in England and Austria, and even berland, and indeed had extended into Maryland, 

for some woven in Cashmere. In 1867 it was Virginia, and Pennsylvania, and even as fat 

estimated that the annual -value of the French souBi as Mobile, Ala., in the country of the 

shawl trade amounted to nearly a million pounds Creeks. They were at war with 



Fraich, and later with the United Sutes, from 
the beginning' of the French and Indian war 
until about i?9S. during which time they had 
concentrated north of the Ohio River. Anthony 
Wayne's victory, followed by the treaty of 
Greenville in 1795, terminated the hostilities of 
the Indians of the Ohio Valley region, a consid- 
erable part of the Shawnees moving to Missouri, 
within Spanish territory, while a few years later 
Others migrated to White River, Indiana, on in- 
vitation of the Delawares, Early in the igth 
century, Tenskwatawa, the "Shawano Prophet,* 
brother of the celebrated Tecumseh, preached a 
new doctrine the acceptance of which would 
Open the way to future happiness and a return 
of the old order of things, not unlike the ''Ghost 
Qance' Teligioa which involved so many of the 
western tribes , beKinfting with 1890. The 
Prophet gathered many adherents from far and 
vide, who established themselves at the mouth 
o.f Tij^»«C|Mioe River, Indiana, . To overcome 
their hostile demonstrations, General Harrison 
ia 1811 led an expedition against them, resulting 
in the defeat of the Indians in the celebrated 
battle of T^pecanoe aod the destruction of their 
settlement, while the tragic death of Tecumseh, 
their recognized leader, in the following year, 
tended to break their hostile spirit. The Shaw' 
nees of Missouri sold their lands to the gov- 
emment in 1825 and were assigned to a reserva- 
tion in Kan^s, but meanwhile a large number of 
them had departed for Texas where they settled 
on the headwaters of Sabine River until driven 
oiit in 1S5CJL In 1831 the Ohio Shawnees ceded 
thdJT lands to the United States Nid joined their 
kindred in Kansas, and in 184S a iarge part of 
these Kansas Shawnees moved to the Canadian 
River in Indian Territory, where they have since 
been officially known as Absentee Shawnees. In 
1S67 tb«i mixed' Shawnees and Senccas who bad 
moved from Ohio to Kansas about 1831, also 

the rest of the tribe joined the Cherokees in 
Indian Territory, with Whom they are now in- 
corporated. The Shawnees known as Black 
Sob's band are those who at first refused to 
move from Kansas with the others. There are 
also Shawnees among the Tuscaroras in New 
York, and others are incorporated among the 
Teton Sioux, while in 1840 a number of 
the tribe accompanied a party of trappers to the 
Tulare Valley of California. 

The Shawnees were early described as of 
good stature, an active, sensible, cheerful people, 
full of laughter and drollery, courageous, high- 
spirited, and manly, yet "the . most deceitful in 
human shape.' Each town had its head-man. 
Polygamy was common and infanticide fre- 
quently practised. It was said that most of the 
Shawnees could speak several languages, due, no 
doubt, to their rovuig propensities when occa- 
sion required, althourfi they were agriculturists 
in Ihe main. The tribe had four phratral or^n- 
izations, the members of which occupied differ- 
ent sides in the council-house duriiig ■ public 
assemblies. , So far as known 13 gentes were 
recognized. Of the population of the Shawnees 
hi earl^ times there is no reliable information, 
the estimates ranging from 1,000 in 1^36 to 2,000 
in t8i;r. In 1902 there were 94 Eastern Shayf- 
nees id Indian Territpry, . and 737 At^ente^ 

Shawnees in Oldahoma. The Shawnees incor< 
porated with the Cherokees are estimated at Soa 
F. W. Hodge, 
Smilhtonian Imlitutiott, IVtulungtuti, D. C. 

Shaya Root, the root; or the plant itself, 
of Oldenlandia vmbellata, of the madder family, 
and sometimes called Indian madder. It is a 
slender branching annual, with narrow opposite 
leaves, and small flowers in panicles. It grows 
wild, and is also cultivated, on the Coromandef 
coast, the outer bark of its roots yielding the 
well known durable red-dye seen in Indian cot- 
ton goods. The leaves have been used as an 
expectorant in native medicine. 

Shaya, shaz, Daniel, American soldier, 
leader of the "Shays' Rebellion^ in Massachu- 
setts : b. Hopkinton, Mass., 1747 ; d. Sparta, 
N. Y., 2Q Sept. 1825. He is first heard of as an 
ensign at Bunker (Breed's) lilll, was. made cap- 
tain I Jan. 1777, and resigned fr.cra the service. 
There is testimony that be was a good soldier. 
The rebellion of 1786-7, in which he was the 
directing figure, arose from a spirit of unrest 
and lawlessness then generally on the increase 
in the country, bet more particularly from special 
reasons for dissatisfaction in Massachusetts. 
Among these were the wastefulness in the costs 
of litigation, the high salaries attached to public 
offices, and above all the exorfailant land taxa-: 
tion. The time was one of financial depression, 
and Governor Bowdoin in his endeavors to suS' 
tain the credit and diminish the debt of the State 
undoubtedly caused heavy burdens to fall upon 
poorer citizens inland. Sheriffs' and county 
courts were kept bu^. In the fall of 1786 five 
or six hundred malcontents, under command o£ 
^lays, gathered at Springfield, the purpose being 
to overawe the supreme court about to ait there, 
and prevent the finding of indictments. After 
a three days' session the court adjountcd. Id 
November, when the court of general sessions' 
attempted to sit at Worcester, Shays filled the, 
court-room with an armed force, and no court 
could be held,. Washington was deeply alarmed 
at the reports of these early successes of the 
insurgents. ^It was but the other day,' said he, 
"that we were shedding our blood to obtain the 
constitutions under which we nayi live, — con- 
stitutions of our own choice and making, — and 
now we are unsheathing the sword to overturii, 
them." An army of 4.400 was now enlisted for 
30 days by Governor Bowdoin, and the money for 
equipment aod munitions was raised by a loan 
from wealthy citizens. The command was given 
to General Benjamin Lincoln, a Revolutionary 
.Veteran. On 25 Dec 1787 Shays, with i.ioQ 
troops, made an attack or the Springfield arsenal, 
guarded by General Shepard with 1,200. Shepard 
at first commanded his men to fire above the in- 
surgents' heads, but as the latter continued to 
advance in good order, a volley was directed 
into their ranks. Four fell; aud the insurgents 
retreated in much confusion, continuing theii 
flight, with many desertions, from town to town.. 
Lincoln pursued them to Petersham, where on 3 
February 150 were taken and the rest dis- 
persed. The rebels continued to gather in small 
bands, for some months; but no large force again 
appeared. The greatest clemency was shown 
toward the leaders, and a very general amnesty 
proclaimed. Shays removed to Vermont, was 
pardoned, and went thence to Sparta, N. Y^^ 

>/ Google 


where he obtained s pmsion for his Revolntian- States' (1886), besides many tnuislations and 

•17 services. Consalt McMaster, 'History of the other works. 

People of the Umted States," Vol. L. (1883); shc«rd, shfrd, T. F. M., English painter: 

v^'vTt ^^''■"''fT^^^" ',-,%"'""■ ^°'' b. Oxford 16 Dec. 1866, After his gradtation in 

^Hl^- ^i ? O^'^^^ry 'goi-) 'Rem-mscences ,8g^ i,^ ^^^ ^ p^^^ ,^ studied i^inting under 

of Shays Rebellion'; Rivers, 'CapUin Shays.' Courtois, Rixens, Lefibre and Rigolot. He has 

Sbaya' Rebellion. See Shays, Dahisl. since then exhibited at the Salon, Royal Acad- 

She, a romance by Rider Haggard (1887), emy. »n<i the Royal Institute of Water Color 

a young Englishman goes to Africa to avenge Painters. He was awarded a bronze medal at the 

the death of an Egyptian ancestor, whose strange Pans Exhibition of 190a He is fond of eastern 

history has come down to him in an old manu- subjects, and scwiery flooded with sunlight, and 

script. The ancestor, a priest of Isis, had been among his paintings of this character are 'A 

slain by an immortal white sorceress somewhere Market Mommg in a City of the Sahara* ; 'An 

in Africa. The sorceress, "She" and the Eng- Arab Blacksmith* ; etc. Among hu scenra of 

lishman finally meet, recognize a mysterious bond English peasant life may be mentioned 'Birds 

between them, and, at the climax of the story, of a Feather* ; 'The Outcast' ; 'Parted' ; etc 

visit a place where turns a mysterious fire which Sbeannan, sher'man, Thomas OukelL 

gives thousands of years of hfe, loveliness, American lawyer: b. Birmingham, England, 3S 

fllrerglh and wisdom or else swift death. "She* Nov. 1834; d. Brooklyn 29 Sept 190a At nine 

for the second time passes into the flame and he came to America with his parents and m 1857 

is instantly consumed. took up his residence in Brooklyn. He was ad- 

Sbe^oak, any one of the small trees or .mitted to the bar in 1859, and in 1868 formed a 

shrubsof the peculUr genus (CwiwnMfl) of oaks partnership with David Dudley Field Later 

native to the East Indies and Australia, John W. Stirling entered the firm which was 

Although closely related to oaks and walnuts, continued after 1873 by Shearman and Stirling, 

the she-oak has no true leaves, substituting This firm defended Jay Gould in suits resulting 

■whorls of long drooping, slender deciduous from the gold panic of 1869, and Henry Ward 

branchlets, and is said to resemble both Scotch Beecher in the suit brought against him by Theo- 

firs and giant horsetails, in its wide-spreading dore Tilton. Shearman was an advocate of abso- 

top. It casts hut little shadow. The branchiets Inte free trade and a vigorous propagandist of 

are acidulous in taste and are liked by cattle. Henry George's single tax theories. From early 

A small and round frnit is called the she-oak years he contributedto legal literature, and was 

apple, and is of bitter taste, and used to flavor joint author of 'Tillinrfiast and Shearman s 

beer. The wood of the she-oak is extremely Practice, Pleadings and Forms' (1861-5), and 

hard, makes excellent fuel, and is valuable for 'Shearman and Rcdfield on Negligence' (1869). 

woodworking; in some species it is reddish, with He prepared for the commissioners of the New 

light and dark streaks, and ia called beef-wood, "ork code, the 'Book of Forms' {1861), and 

The Australians make boomerangs and other the major part of the civil code relating to obli- 

weapons out of its roots. CasuariiM tiricta is ^tions (1865). He also published *Talks on 

the species known as coast she-oak, or sometonea Free Trade' (1881) ; 'Pauper Labor of Europe' 

as he-oak; the forest or erect she-oak is C. ('885); 'Distribution of Wealth' (1887); 

juberota; and the desert one is C. glavco. 'Owners of the United States' (1889); 'The 

She Stoopa to Conquer, or The Histskes 9^^'"?,^^^" ^'^^ ' ^"^^^^ ^'^■ 

ol a Night, a comedy by Oliver Goldsmith, "°" (^°9^}- 

first produced 15 March 1773, and said to have Shears. See Ctiruxr; IIardwake. 

been founded on an incident in the author's own Sliear'water,a sea-bird which skims close to 

""■ the surface of the, water in search of fishes and 

Shea. sh5, John Dawaon ODmary, Ameri- floating animal matter upon which it feeds. The 
can historian : b. New York Z2 July 1824 ; d. shearwaters are larger than the petrels, and differ 
Elizabeth, N. J., 22 Feb. 1892. His father was from both them and the fulmars in their long, 
irincipal of the Columbia College Grammar slender hills, both mandibles of which are hooked 
Jchool where he gained his education, and sub- at the end, and by the short broad nostril -tubes. 
sequently he studied law and was admitted to "he wings are long and narrow, and the tail 
the bar in 1846. He soon turned to literature, rounded or wedge-shaped, never forked. In 
was connected in an editorial capacity with habits they generally resemble the petrels (q.v.). 
Frank Leslie's pnbliBhlng house, and later edited Ten species are recorded as occurring on the 
the 'Catholic News.' But for many yeara his North American coast, the best known being 
attention was given to historical research in prep- »"« common shearwater (Pumn major) and the 
aralion of his 'History of the Catholic Church 8t»ty shearwater (P. slncklatidi). Sailors call 
in the United States,' the 4th volume of which these birds "mutton-birds, » because of the ex- 
was in process of publication at the time of his ccssive fatness of the young which are good 
death. He was connected with many historical eating, and the search for which has nearly 
societies in America and Europe and was the exterminated the once common British species 
first president of the Catholic Historical Society <f v^'^'V'^'')- ,5^"*"'* Newton, 'Dictkmary 
of the United States. His published works in- oi Birds' (New York 1896). 
elude: <The Discovery and Exploration of the Sheath-blU, a family of limicoline bird* 
Mississippi Valley' (1853) ; 'History of the (Chtonidtda) belonging to the order related to 
French and Spanish Missions among the Indian the plovers. The wing^ are long and pointed. 
Tribes of the United States' {i8S4) ; 'The Cath- the tail being of moderate size. The bill is short 
olic Church in Colonial Days' (1883) ; 'The and stout, compressed, strongly arched at its tin. 
Hierarchy of t^e Catholic Church in the United and pfovided at the base with a homv sheath' 




which protects the nostriU. The tarsi are short deal, a high school, public and parish elementajj 

and stout. The white sheath-bill or kelp-pig- schoob, a public school library containing about 
eon {Chionis alba) is the best known species. It 5,000 volumes. The two state banks have a coni- 
inbabiu tlie shores of the islands oil the south- bined caoical of $300,000. The growth of the 
ern end of South America. Its color is pure city has been rapid ; but business men hare been 
whhe, the legs reddish-black, and its average attracted to the place as one in which manu- 
Ungth 15 inches. These birds feed on mcdlusks, facturtng industries have been most successfully 
carrion, fishes, Crustacea, seaweeds and Other conducted. Pop. (1880) 7.314; (iSqo) "S,359; 
food which they can pick up on the seashores. (lODO) a3,o6a; (1910) z6j98. 
On land they much resemWe pigeons, but when Shediinah. See Shikinah 
BYtng in nocks at sea are gull-tike in aspect 01. jj l-j tir->f n i_ *•_ 
Sok in his third voyage >a^ its flesh i. S ^ Sh^dd. shed, Wniiam Grcwiough ThMM. 
to duck, but other aboSnnts represent the flesh American theologian: b Acton. Mass., 21 /une 
as very impalu^te, probably on acconnt of the '^^ ^: ^'"^,^°,^^ >^ ^°''- '^ *** "^ Brad- 
bird's ioa<L uated from the Umversity of Vermont in 1839, 
from Andover Theological Seminary in 1^43 ; 
incient and in 1844-s was pastor of the Congregational 

_ __ . .t been Church in Brandon, Vt. He was professor of 

detennined, bet it -was a great commercial English literature in the University of Vermont 

centre of the Semitic tribes. The Sabxns car- in 1845-52, of sacred rhetoric and pastoral the- 

ried on an extensive trade with India, Europe, ology at Auburn Theological Seminary in 185a- 

Egypt and Syria, in frankincense, gold, ivory, 3, and of ecclesiastical history and lecturer on 

elH»iy, fine textiles, and iweet spices, and for pastoral theology at Andover in 1853-62. He 

this purpose had depots in northern Arabia and acted as assistant pastor at the Brick (Fr«sby- 

Ethiopia. Their wealth became famous in the terian) Church, New York, in 1663-3, t*at ap- 

Orient, and their queen paid a visit to Solomon pointed to ttie chair of Biblical literature at 

with rich gifts, as cited in the Scriptures. They Union Thctdogical Seminary, New York, in l86.'<, 

worshipped natural objects, especially the sun and in 1874 was transferred to that of tystem- 

and moon. In the 8th century they were sub- atic theology, which he occupied until l8ga Hi.i 

ject to the Assyrians; in 24 B.C. the Romans publications include: 'The Method and Influence 

sent an unsuccessful expedition into their terri- of Theological Studies' (l&tS) i 'The True 

tory, and in the 2d, 4ih and 6th centuries, they Nature of the Beautiful and its Influence upon 

became subject to the Ethiopians. Culture' (1851 ) ; 'The Nature and Importance 

Shcboy™. sh.-boi'gan. Wis city county- f^iS'^y o'/'^iiro^y^ tife'^'-TATst^^'ol 

seat of Slieboygan County; on Lake \I«:higan christian Doctrinc> {1863); 'Homiletics and 

at the mouth of Sheboygan R.ver and on the ^,^t^„, Theology' (186?) 'Sermons to the 

Chicago & Northwestern railroad ; about sp ^^,^,31 Man' Tj87i) ; 'Theological Essays' 

nnles north of M.waukee and 100 miles, m di- ^ 377) ; 'Literary iswys- (1878); 'Commen- 

rect hne, northeast of Madison. It has a good j^^^^^s,, Pa^r^fepUtle to the R^omins' (1879) ; 

terbor and steamer connections with the pnn- .Se>mons to the Spiritual Man' (iS&i); <Doc- 
cipal lake pons^ A regular hne of ■'tearners ply ^^ ^^^j^ Punishment' (1885) ; 'Dog- 

between the city and Milwaukee and Chiago j^ Theology- (1S89-M); '.The Proposed 

during the navigation season. The first settle- R^^i^ion of the Westminst^ Standards' (iSgo) 

ment was made in 1836; the pi?'-'- ^'••' ini-nr. ^. ,,. .^^ . 

ment was made in ia3&; the place was incor- ^^^ jj^ ^,^^ published 'Eloquence a Virtue, c 

porated as a village m 1846, and m 1853 was Outlines of a Systematic liVtoric' (igso), 

chartered as 3 citv. Sheboygan is the commer- ,„„,,atio„ from the German of Dr. Fr»nci 

ciatand industrial centre for a large a«d fertile q-heremin ; 'A Manual of Church History' in 

agricultural region. Tlie chief industrial est at- ^^ volumes, translated from the German of 

lishments are five chair factories, In which there Heinrich Ernst Ferdinand Guericke (l8S7) ; 

^re over 2 000 employees ; ii furniture factories, ^^[ ^ ^^^^„ yohimes of Coleridge's works, with 

fptmdry, boot and shoe factories, a shipya^. .^.troductory Essays' (1853); 'The Confession 

lime kilns, brick works, machine, shops, enani- ^j ^^^^ Augustine.' with introductory essay 

eled.ware works, tanneries, carriage factories, ^^g^j. ^^^ ^^^^^ kitroductiotls to Asburv's 

olanmg mills, boiler works, and soap f!'cto2. translation of Ackerman's 'The Christian Ele- 

It has large warehouses, five for cheese alone. ^^^^ .^^ p,^,^ ^^j ^■^^ Platonic Philosophy' 

The goveniment census for igoo gives as the (iggo) gnd to McCosh's 'Intultionof the'Mind' 

number of manufacturing establishments, 20O, >,jji,<' 

and the number of employees in the same. S.S40. Uoo4J- » u„ c i- u 
The amount of capital invested. $7.76^616; Bhce, she. Sir Martin Archer. English . 
annua! amount paid for wages. $1,928,167; for painter: b. Dublin 23 Dec I770;.d. Brighton, 
raw material. 53.9gS.102; and the value of the England 13 Aug. iBsa "c was introduced in 
product $7,469,202. The chair factories, for 1788 to Sir Joshua Reynolds by Edmund Burke, 
which Sheboygan is noted, turn out about and in the same year became a pupil in the Royal 
7000 chairs each day; and the value of the Academy, to the exhibition of which he comtrib- 
annua! output from the furniture factories is uted his first picture in 1789. Althongh by no 
over $3000000 The prhlcipal public buildings means the best portrait painter of his time, he 
are a government building, county courthouse, was, with one or two exceptions, the most fash- 
municipal buildings, the ehorches and schools, lonable. In 1800 he was chosen a "icjnber of the 
There are two parks: in one, Fountain Park, is Royal Academy, and in 1830 on the death of Sir 
an artesian well the waters of which contain Thomas Lawrence, he was elected president and 
considerable miniral salts and are of commercial knighted. He also aspired to literary disUnction, 
value to the city. There are 20 churches, an and in 1805 and 1809 published two parts of a 
asylum for the chronic insane, a Home for the poem entitled 'Rhymes on Art,' in 1814 The 
Friendless, and Saint Nicholas Hospital. The Commemoration of Sir Joshua Reynolds, and 
educational institutions are a day school for the other Poems,' which called forth the praise M 



Byron, in his 'English Bards aod Scotch Re- coaBt ss far south as Georgia and as far west as 

viewers* : Englisli-speaking seitJers had gone, were of a 

And here 1« Shee »d jrait., find , pi«:<, Jwifi-wooled type. Those of the South Atlantic 

WIkhc Mil *adp»dl >^ld ui equal erMci States, the Gulf Coast, Texas and the Pacific 

While fcgoort, ioablj meritid, aittnd Coast, were of Spanish origin, the scrubs of to- 

Tb. pott', riv.1, UK the puoier'. irimid. Jay, which are fast disappearing. A few meriuos 

Among his portraits are those of William IV. were found in the North Atlantic States. 

and Queen Victoria ; all his work is pleasing, but , ^°°^^ ^°^° ""'' '"= •'=^'" " developing 

there is an unpleasant tendency to unnatural °?"^ manufactures and Iwme wool production, 

redness in his flesh tints. ao,00o of the finest Spanish merinoE were mtro- 

et,. 'At* »i *_ ■ T. duced and distributed. The failure of manu- 

Sheedy, Morgan M, American Roman factut^s in 1815-16 led to the slaughter of entire 

Catholicder|yman:b. Ire^dSOd. 1853. He flocks. In 1830 trade revived and a finer wool 

was or<kined priest in 1876. He was he first was required, which resulted in the importation 

president of the Catholic Summer School, atid ^a ^i Saxon merinos tn 18M-3. With the passage 

editor and publisher of the 'Church Quarterly.' of the tariflf in t&sS wool declined in value and 

He IS a frequent ct^nbutor to magaaines and ^heep of Spanish origin again gained ground 

B popular lecturer He hae been rector of Samt fc^ju,, they were hafdier and produced better 

John> Church, A toona Pa smce 1894, aiid has ,„u,ton. In iS^ the manufacture of worsted 

published 'Christian Umty' (1895) ; 'Social gooj, called for longer fleeces. Between 1845 

froblema (.iS*). and 1855 the change was made from fim-wool 

Sheep, Domntic, sheep bred, tnodified and sheep to coarse-wool and mutton sbtt^ Between 

reared for the sake of utilizing their flesh or i860 and 18^ various mutton breeds were im- 

wool. Sheep breeding dates back to aMiquhy. ported ard distributed, but the quality of the 

Jewish and Roman writers have left records of wool of many was tmsatis&ctory. The French 

their systems of breeding. The Romans realised sheep (Rambouillets) produced good mutton and 

the suitability of Spain for sheep-breeding and a finer combing wool than the English broeds 

the superiority of the flocks found there. White and crossed wdl with the merino eiwes. The 

sheep were obtained and bred to the black or various strains of Delaine inerinos originated at 

parti-colored (Jocks which, according to Pliny, this time. In 1870 more than four fifths of aU 

were the common stock. The Tarentine shew the sheep in the United States were either purely 

were the most celcAirated in Italy, but being deli- bred or grade merinos. There were a few 

cate thn became extinct with fhe fall of the Downs and small flocks of various long^wooled 

Roman Empire. The merinos were introduced breeds In the Middk States and in Oie Ohio 

into Spain from Asia Minor, and being hardy, Valley, and some degenerate Mexican sheep in 

they snrvived the conquest of Spain by tSe Goihs Texas and New Mexico. With the increase of 

and Vandals. Subsequently the government ex- population in the East and Middle West, mutton 

tended protection to and developed the breed. In became of more value than wool, and mutton 

England considerable attention was paid to breeds displaced the merino. To-day the merino 

sheep-breeding, and in the 13th century an export and English types of sheep are nearly equal in 

duty was levied on wool. In 1464 the woo! of number, the fortner predominating in the range 

the Spanish merinos was greatly improved by territory and the latter in the farming States. 

tnlerbreeding with Cotswold sheep of England. Estimates show that riie mutton breeds consti- 

In 1763 and i?;* Spanish merinos were intro- tutad about 30 per cent of the flocks o- **•- 

dnced into Saxony and laid the foundation for ranges, and ?o to 80 per cent of those in the 

fte Saxon merino, the finest-wooled sheep iarming States. The tendency to-day is toward 

known. In i?8? merinos were introduced mto « sheep carrying fine woo] and a good carcass. 

England, but as they were not mutton and wool In 1850 the number of mature sheep in the 

producers combined they fotind little favor. United States was 24,000,000, the leading States 

American Flockt.— Ho domesticated sheep being New York and Ohio. Until i860 the 

were found in America. The big-horn (q.v.), or number remained statiotury, but at the 1670 cen- 

wild Rocky Mountain sheep, were known to the bus it had increased to 28^471,375, In 1880 it 

first settlers, but efforts to domesticate them and reached 42,876,313, and has remained about 

cross them with domesticated sheep have proved 40,000,000 since, the igoo census showing 

failures. The early introductions Were made by 31,919.298 ewes and 8,018^5 rams and wethers, 

the Spanish discoverers and the English settlers; The lamb crop is, generally speaking, aho«t two 

Colimibus brought Spanish sheep to America in thirds the number of ewes; in igoo the number 

I493i which were the progenitors of large flocks of lambs dropped and reared to 1 June, or sold 

in New Mexico, Utah and Texas. In 1565 Span- fat, per ewes, was 6891 being highest in the 

ish sheep were introduced into Florida and in North Atlantic States with 758, closely followed 

1773 into California ; the latter multiplied rapidly by the South Atlantic States with 73°, North 

under the care of the priests of the missions and Central with 716, and lowest in Hawaii with 

in 1825 17 of these missions owned 1,003,970 284. In 1889 the census showed that the number 

sheep, exclusive of those owned by ranchers, of sheep and lambs which died from exposure or 

Sheep were. introduced into Virginia from Eng- were killed by dogs was equal to 25 per cent of 

hnd in 1609, into Massachusetts from England the lamb crop. The total number of sheep and 

in 1824, and into New York from Holland in lambs on i Jan. igio was 57,216,000 valued at 

1615. The characteristics of the several original $4-o8 per head, or $233.(S64/xx). The total T»lne 

breeds were blended by continued crossing, and the previotis January was $192,632,000. The 

further modified ^fy importations made between highest values per head in the year igio were 

1783 and i?9D, the result being a stock known in in March. |g.3o U-U and Apnt, $&7S, the low- 

1800 as "native* sheep. The "native" sheep of est being m November, $2.00 and September 

the Middle and Eastern State* along the Atlantic $ The number of sheep and lamba in the 


leading States and territories in April, 1910, were der-worm form (Caenurus cefthralU) of a Upe- 
Monlana, 4.800,000: Wyoming, 4,650,000; New worm {Ttmia cttnitrut) of the dog. The cyst 
Mexico, 3,200,00a; Idaho, 3,600,000; Ohio, 2,6oov- may be removed through an opening in the skull, 
ooo- Cahfomia, I.goofloo; Oregon, 7,750,00a. and further trouble prevented by caring for the 
Breeds. — The breeds of sheep may be clas- dogs, expelling tapeworms by vermifuges, and 
sified according to the length of their wool, as denying them sheep's heads unless cooked. Husk 
long, medium, and short-wooled, and the moun- or hoose is caused by the presence of thread 
tain sheep, the wool of which is more like hair, worms iStrongylut iilario) in the windpipe. 
The long-wooled breeds include the Lincoln, bronchi or tissues of the lungs, causing irritation, 
Cotswold, Leicester, and Romney Marsh. The coughing, emaciation and often death. Scab 
medium and short-wooled breeds include th« (,Acariu icabiei) is due to a minute mite which 
Down breeds, namely. Southdown, Shropshire, burrows in the skin, causing intense irritation or 
Hampshire, Suffolk and Oxford, the Dorset itching. The secretions exuded form a scab. 
Cheviot, and various types of merinos. The hill If neglected, the wool falls off. The Bureao 
breeds include the Black-faced Scotch and Welsh of Animal Industry of the U, S. Department of 
Mountain sheep. The Lincoln is the heaviest Agriculture is pursuing vigorous measures to 
■heep in existence. The Cotswold is one of the stamp out this disease, all infested sheep or those 
oldest English breeds, and in the I2th century in contact with such at stock yavds being dipped 
its wool was a source of great wealth. The once or twice in one of the three dips, tobacco 
Leicester breed was greatly improved by Robert extract and sulphur; lime and sulphur; or nico* 
Bakewell, who began work in 1755 and received tine and sulphur. Dipping does not confer 
very high prices for his sheep; the mutton qual- immunity and if the sheep are placed on infested 
itiea of these breeds were interior but have been ranges they are liabie to a second attack. Liver- 
improved considerably during late years. Tbe fluke or liver-rot is a most destructive affection 
Southdown is the ideal mutton sheep, and has of sheep, due to the presence of flat, oval, leaf- 
been used to a great extent for crossing. The like, suctorial worms (Dulomum hepattcim') 
Shropshire is well known and somewhat similar about one inch long, in the liver or bile-duct. It 
but larger than the Southdown. The other also affects other animals, including man. The 
Down breeds are increasing in popularity. Tbe life-history is complex and requires two hosts, 
Dorscts have horns and the ewes sometimes the sheep and a fresh-water snail (Li'mrwa). 
yean twice a year. The Cheviots are narned Sheep should be kept off contaminated pastures, 
from the hills on which thtr originated and are and when affected be fed dry food and salt daily, 
a hardy breed. The black-faced Scotch and the presence of tbe latter being fatal to the young 
Welsh sheep are small and hardy and furnish flukes as they are eaten. The land should be 
ideal mutton. The merinos originally were bred drained, sown with salt, and in new countries 
primarily for wool ; present day strains, as Ram- imported sheeo from suspected areas should be 
bouillets, the various Delaines, and American quarantined. The sheep-bot or sheep nostril-fly 
merinos furnish fine wool and a gcod carcass. [CEiiruf oris) deposits its maggots on the sheep's 
As the Mohammedans cannot eat swine's fat nostriU. The larvx move upward, live in the 
they developed sheep which have very fat hind mucous membranes of the nostril aid frontal 
quarters and tail, examples being the fat-tailed sinuses for about nine months, are sneezed out, 
^eep of Tartary and the fat-tailed Syriiui sheep, pupate for one month or more, when the fly 
the tails of which weigh ^ to 80 pounds and are emerges. To prevent attacks, feed salt from 
■npported on little trucks attached to the animal two-inch auger holes bored in a log upon which 
and dragged about with it. tar is smeared. The tar gets on the nose and 
Nomenclature.— The male sheep is called a keeps the fiy off. Nodular disease {CEsofhagot- 
'ram,* the female a 'ewe," and the young a toma coltitnbianum) is very prevalent in the 
•Iamb'; castrated males are "wethers." The Southern States. It is caused by the presence 
flesh of the adult is "mutton"; of the young, of a small worm, which while immature pene- 
'lamb.* The entrails furnish sausage cases and tratea the wails of the intestines, causing inflam- 
are also dried and twisted into "catgut" strings mation and subsequently a small nodule or 
for musical instruments. The prepared fat "knot" filled with chees>/ matter and the worm. 
makes 'tallow* or "suet." The coat or fleece is The digestive system is injured and some sheep 
"wool," and the prepared hide is "sheepskin," die. No remedy is suggested, but the selectioti 
which is used for many purposes. of vigorous sheep and the keeping of them on dry 

. Diseases. — Sheep-pox (.Variola ovina) is an land are advised. 

acute, contagious febrile disease of sheep, some- The dipping of sheep is a regular institution 

what siinilar in appearance to smallpox. This on well conducted farms. It is usually done 

disease, although unknown in the United States, soon after shearing and also in the fall, the 

has given trouble in Europe, attacks being at- Iambs being dipped at tbe same time as the rest 

tended by a mortality of from 10 per cent to SO of the flock. It is either a preventive, as in ward- 

per cent. Pneumonia, blackleg or quarter -ill, ing off flies, or a curative measure as already 

and foot-and-mouth disease attack sheep (see shown. Care must he exercised not to make 

RiNDESf^si). The sheep tick, louse or ked dips too strong. Carbolic and arsenical dips arc 

{Mehphagus ovinus) is a wingless insect, a often mixed, being fortified by the addition of 

quarter of an inch long, brownish and with flat- sulphur to prolong the action of the dip. Sheep 

tened abdomen, which lives in the wool and should go into the dipping bath face forward to 

causes considerable injury by puncturing the skin reduce the danger of poisoning and the shock 

to extract blood. The best treatment is dippijog to the nerves, and remain in until the skin is 

the sheep in solutions of poisons, as carbolic acid weL Sheep which have been dipped in poisonous 

or arsenic, and placing' them on new feeding dips should not have access to grass, until dry. 

grounds, Gid or sturdy is due to the presence The wool from dipped sheep is more valuable 

on the brain or spinal cord of the cystic or hlad- than that -from undipped. 




ictical Shepherd' down the Rocky Mom .. , 

'Sheep' (New of I^ke Santa Maria (la*- 3°") in northera 

York, revised 1665) ; Salmon, 'Special Report Mexico. In addition to tiiia, a speciea known at 

an the Sbeqi ItidU5ti7> (Washingtoit 1892) ; Melaon's mountain sheep branches off in south* 

iAw, 'Farmer's Veterinary Adviser' (Ithaca western Nevada, extends through southern Call' 

1900); Shaw, 'The Study of Breeds' (New fomia, and on down the peninsula of Lower Cal- 

York igoo) ; 'Stewart, 'The She^erd's Manual* ifomia for two thirds of its length. The total 

(New York ipo^j; also the *Flock-l»oks' of area of North America inhabited by mountain 

the various societies. Sauitel Frasek sheep is about 3,500 miles long from north to 

ProfeSMr of /tgronomy, Comiti University. »««.*. and its greatest width from east to west, 

«.._ t.-.* , v«. a /^..\ ,.,i,„=. ™,„ .^ which IS found in Alaska, is more than iw> 

Sheep-bot. a bot-fly (q.v.) whose ma^eots ^j,^ Qf North American monntain-sheepi, 

produce the disease of sheep called 'griib in the t^ere are three conspicuous and well marked 

head, bee ^heep. j^p^ ^^ ^^^ offshoots. When diagrammed 

Sheep, DiMUM of, See Shhbp. in a manner calculated to appeal to the eyes they See Couje; Doc. stmi as follows: 
Sheqp-laniel, or Lsmb-UII, the Kalmla or Ttfu Omaoon 

tnountain-laurel (q.v.), which is poisonous to Big-Uora ( Netaoa'* SEieep (Ovit ntlimi) 

lambs and other small animdlg. (Ovit canademWi \ Mexican Sheep (OvU mtxicaniu) 

Sheep, Mouataui, a Keneral term for the BUck Sheep (Ovit MpntO 

wild sheep of the world, which collectively form ^.. g. . 

a group of romantic interest, and scientific im- (Ovij iaJiT \ *'•»""'■ Sheep lOvU /oaaM). 
portance. Excepting their perpetual rivals, the 

wild goats and ibexek, .titey' are, df all bnd ani- The Rockj; Mountain big-horn (q.v.) has 

tnals, the boldest aod most, active rock climbers, been koown since 1803, and is our most widely 

and the most partial to inountain scenery. Wher- known species. All the others are of recent ap' 

ever found, tney inhabit the highest and most pearance, only- the white sheep dating back «a 

rugged and picturesque situations. Strange aa far as 1884. The range of thc'blg-horn extends 

it may appear, the haunts of Ibe Rocky Moun- from lat. 55° and Ion. 130° to San Frandsco 

tain, big-horn include not only our loftiest moun- Mountain, Arizona. It embraces the whole main 

tain ranges and many wild tracts of "bad lands,* range of the Rockies between thOK points, and 

but also the rocky walls of the great abyss also includes the Fraser Rivef' country, one lo~ 

known as the Grand Caiion of the Colorado. It calily in northern WashicKton, two in eastern 

is not strange, therefore, that all big-game hunt- Oregon, the counties of Cdster and Dawson ia 

ers who love grand scenery find great fascination Montana, the Black Hills and Bighorn Moun- 

in the cfuse of wild sheep. No nian worthy of tains of Wyoming, four localities in Utah, and 

tiiename of sportsinan ever kills a ewe, but the the Grand Caiion of the Colorado. 
head of an old ram, adorned with massive cir- This is the 'largest an< .heaviest spedea of 

cling homsj won by dangerous mountain climb- our Ow, and carries tbe most mastjve horns. It 

ing and fair stalking, Is a trophy of whldi any reaches it* maximum -dBvelo(Hnent in the main 

man may justly be proud. raiige^ of the Rocky Mountains in western At 

It seems highly probable th&t the first wild berta. A large ram stands 40 iscbes ibJieight M 

sheep were developed in sOuth-central Asia, ift the shoulders, And weighs about 325 pounds. 

tiie region of the Altai Mountains, western Mon- Homa thatmeaBure 16 inches .in basal circumfer-! 

golia. At all events, the favorable conditions ence may. justly he called very large; Tho 

there obtaining' have' devHoped the great Si- largest and longest an record measured e8^ 

berian srgali XOvis amin&n), whose enormous inches in basal circumference, and 53^ Indies 

horns are a perpetual wotider to all wha behold in length on outer curve, but the genuineness of; 

them. Near by in the SiSr Mountains is found this pair of hoTti& is now dcubted. Ofie.of the 

the Siar (nountaln-sheep. A' comparatively short largest pairs in existence measures 16;^ inches I 

distdn<:e southward in Tibet is the Marco Polo in bas^l ^irouinference, 40^ iochs in length, 

sheep (_Ovis poti), characterised by the enor- and weighs 38 pounds. Apparently the honw of 

mous spread of its horns. A' pair of horns of a mouatain-aheep grow as long as the. wearer 

Ovi) poll owned by LcJrd'Roberts has i spread survives in a heallhy condition. 
between tips of 54J4 inches', and the longest hOm Wild ahe^p. are not covered with wool 9s 1 

measures 75 inches in length on the front curve, domestic sheep are. Next to the skin is a coat 

Sdulhwani • of ' the range' of the Ovis poli, in of fine iWooHy hair, which is for warmth; but 

northern India, occurs the PuYljab wild sheep, through this. grows a coat of long, coar$e hairs, 

and the beautiful burrhel or blue sheep, both of large is diameter, pithy > within and easily, 

them small species. SouthwAstward of Asia broken. 1 This does duty as a. rain-coat, and it. 

only two wild sheep are found, the small' but also- gives the animal its distinctive color. In 

handsomely colored mouflon of Corsica and Sar- summer, ;or . late spriog, wben tbe old pelaee is 

dinia, and the large Barbary wild sheep or shed, the new ?oat is only half ap inch in length,' 

aoudad of tbe mountains of the S^'bai? .'StfKes and the wild ^eep stands forth fully sheared 

of north Africa. Northward from the 'home of , by the hand of Nature, At that season, the 

Ovis antmOH we find the Karocbatkan.sheqi, a. skin is worthless as a' trophy. Mountain- sheep 

species with horns like our white sheep, but oth-t are at their be9t in 'October, Novembei' and 

crWise exhibiting a strong resemblance to our Decanbo', ami ^oold he hunted at no o^er 

lag-horn. And this brings us to Bering Strait time. .The .lambs. are bom in May, and usa^lly 

North America contains a really fine series of there is but OB/e at a birth. Owing tq the prac- 

mountain-shet^. ^ecies almost covering the, tical impossibility of keying movntain-sheep of 

mouqtainous regions of Ala^^ ^"^ extending; any Ameripao, spepe^ alive in castijnlj, ani^ . 



jwberc ea^t of the great s^iint until tluv leacfa Itngtb of a^ £eeti If leedvee its name froin 

jEuU maturity, our HKmberB of t^ genus Ovii (he resemblance of its teeth to those of a rii«cp, 

jire but little known u the. general public, aad having incisor-like ones in 'the .front of the 

consequcntiy are quite unappreciated at tbeir tnoiith and mokis bdiintj- It ic fmrnd along Ihe 

true value. coast from Cape Cod to Texas, and is abunifaat 

The white mountain-^eep of Alaska was not locally Euid especially southward wfaerever the 

iptrcduced to the wtx-ld until 1884. It inhabits conditianB an favorable. L^ the drumfish, the 

nearly all the moimtainous reeions of Alaska theepibeul feeds chiefly upon hard-shelled 

except the Alaska Peninsula, the volley of the moUusks and cruEtaceans, and tsrgi numbers 

Kuskoquim aad the lower valley of the Yukoo. congregate where such food is plentiful and often 

Until recaitly it has been quite abundant oh the prove destructive to oyster-beds. For tiMling 

Kenai Peniosula, and around the head of Cook and similar methods of cooking it is eonsiderep 

Inlet. This animal is all over pure white, and its Superior to any fish in oiir waierg, and cbnse- 

wintcr pelage is long and abtmdant It is quently has a considerable cofflmcrcial impor- 

smaller tham the lug-hom, and its horns never tance. The sheepshead >s'al9b a g¥«at favorite 

exceed 15^ inches in circumfwence. North- with anglers, many of whool are 4ttnctc^ to 

ward lis range extends almost to the Arctic Florida lidiing gEpunds,in|its pursuit- TheK are 

Ocean, and its stouthem limit is found at lat captured on extra stout lines artd books baited 

p8°. In igoi, the New York Zoological Soci- with clam or soft-shelled prab and usually make 

ety sent a collector to Cook Inlet to capture a gallant fight before being finally landed i;i the 

newly-bom Iambs of this species, and bring boat. The fresh-watet ditnhfiSl (q.v.)'- is also' 

them to New York, for acclimatisation in the called sheepshead. 

ail died within a few daya of their capture. Sbeopswool. See Sbo^ois. 

The blaak wountain-ebeep was discovered fn Sbeemess, sher-rri!s', England, a seaport 

i8g6 in notthem British Columbia, and good and garrison town in the bounty of Kicttt, on the 

representatives of this *p«cies a»e to be seen ia ll{cdway Kiver where h Joins the Thames, 35 

the museums of New York, Chicago and Wash- miles southeast of London, It is strongly for- 

ington. The tize of the black sheep is the same tified and has an excellfent harbor. There are 

as that of Ovit dalU. The species is dtaracter- spacious dock-yards. Used for making repairs, 

hed by the wide spread of ita horns, and the and which employ l,Soo hands. The barrad» 

very dark color of its pekge, all except the white accommodate several thousand soldiers and sail- 

•* the Tump-pMch and the abdomen. So far as ors. Sbeemess- on- Sea is the modem town bot^ 

known up to KI04) *« range of this species is dering the shore; the other divisrons-»re Marin*- 

«*y circuRMcaibed, for'it has not beeti reported town (a summer^ bathiny resort), Miletown, 

ihrteide of a small area hi northern British and BankstoWn. Sheemess has a fine beach, 

Columbia. broad esplanades, and splendid biithhig and 

I'aimn's nioiintail»-sheep; often called the boating. ' 
'saddk-backed Bheep,» was discovered on the (!i__„ „„ .„„-rJ ,.=.J f„. i,,^;^*:^^ ^.^cfiL 

.!,„.. «f rt.. ~k.;>. .hun Tint titrt» U irtwiam n* <*'^" "^ *"'P "" which it is used. rroBi tl^e top 

Ih^^nL^**r<J^w' B» ''"•'* ^'™ *** depends the tackle necessary for hoisting. 

™ ^u^\. ■ ^Pr^"**- „ . M-i.„„'. .!.-:«, >« Sh«er? are used on ships, docks, and about ship- 

bo J,'«^h'S.TT,Kf.Zt''rh;;.tS»" ^.'- '»' '!■•"» ""^^•^i^'-^ ««• •■ 

hftired and large-homed, a"* " — -— ^.1. — 
color is pale salmon gray. 

™™JE^~ r^taSi T, vm .Sill jid Ti, •"" which it i. IX. be dropped Sh.<:r. mod i» 

V.I0, of protonlon, Ind ll»™etd in the Yel- 1"" 5>""« "!™' .f"'l"' J!"^ •" [It'',""' 

Clone U n,^» «> tiune ttat it aontelime, '• "«>}«'» .hipbmHlns then- *«k bejnr per- 

CSViuto,. to ippro,ch withh, thin, p,eei. J"""" ^' pe™"" "heej. on. Ihe joefa or 

GT°pki»re to ,dd i.t th» herd 1. rjpidl, l^" '>" ''"""^ """ " "^ ''"■' '"^ , 

increasing. WttLiAM T. HoBitADAY, Sheet, generally spealcing, a broad, flat. 

Director New York Zoological Pork. surface; speeifically a iarge stretch of water or 

Bi. ™.. 1. T f c !Ce i a large Hat portion of some substance whose 

Sheer Tk* or Loiian. Se« SaKf. tSkness I. insiS.i«cant compared to it. length 

abe«p.««teti. S« SHOiamraAK Iotwaks. ^„i breadth, as a sheet of metal., of cardboard, 

Sheepdiead, the name of a fish {Archoiar- etc. ; a large rectangular piece of linen or liko 

r,ra»afor«^Aa(iw} of the family Sparida. materia! used to cover the body during sleep, 

is a stout, deep-bodied fish, with seven or and thus a portion of the ftsmitnte of a bed; 

eight vertical dark bands, and may attain a aa applied to stationery, a large piece o< paper 



either taldvd or unfolded; nautical, a sail, aleo, oEiaineDtatioiis ot s^goylea, etc., and a grace- 
the rope attached to tb< clew of a. Bail. There ful interior with a lofty and richly groined roof, 
are some sululaaces to which the Daoae sheet The other buildiaj^ include the town-hall, coun' 
is not applied. Thus w« apeak of. a board sod cil hall and municipal offices, corn exchange, 
not of a sheet of wood, no matter bow broad, Norfolk market, ThetLtte Kpsal, AthenRum, 
fiat, and thin it is; so we do not speak of a level ^IbrarieL association halls. Mechanics' Institute, 
field as a sheet of ground, althou^ we would AJhert Hall, Music Hall, and various others. 
speak of a pond in the field as a sheet of water; The barracks are surrounded by extensive 
neither do we say a sheet of glass (except .grounds. There are numerous hospitals and 
rarely) hut a pane. The compound she^-glass, several manuqunts. Of educational and literary 
however, is commonly used. As applied to paper institutions the principal are : Firth College ; 
sheets follow two nomeoclatures. Blank sheets Wesley Ranmoor Methodist and People's Col- 
of the stationers' trade are known by arbittary lege; grammar-school, public schools, art ^ool, 
names given to certain sizes, such as cap, legal technical school ; literary and philosophical ia- 
cap, royal, demi-royal. But printed sheets are stitutioiis and museunn. The town enjoys all 
dmdto^ as to siie, hy an anci«lt system of moderu improvemcnls. There are extensive 
Latin nennenclature, ba«ed oit the w nnibei botanical gardens. The Sheffield cutlery ii cele- 
of foldt requirtd 16 bring to that sizea shcst of brated, and all its manuiacltires of steel are 
certain dtmendons. ' Thus a quarto is a sheet famous, including heavy st^ branches, such 
made of four folds, an octavo of etght,' a .as armor plates, rail, large castings for en- 
duodecimo of twctvc, etc {See Book.) Front gines, steel for rifles, etc. The other industries 
this idea of a fotded, printed piece of paper a include the manufacture of optical iustrumetits, 
newspaper is often called a sheet, so, also, the iron aiid hrais foundries, various mills, etc., b«- 
Icaves of books before bound, when the book sides silver plating, bicycles,, cabinet-work, tan- 
is said to be *jn sheets.* A sail is called a sheet ning, etc. Sheffield was in early times a Roman 
because it is made from a Gheet of canvas and station, and was an ijicorporated town under the 
becaiuc it is broad, flat, and thin. The rope AnE^6~5axons. In the 14th century it was at- 
called a aheet (abbreviated from sheet-rope) fready noted for its cutlery. Its history is also 
is used to hold a sail ti^t. extended against connected with the persecurions in the Nether- 
the wind, or to haul it around and change it6 lands, having been the refuge of victims super- 
position. This sheet is sometimes a chain. jng persecution tinder the Duhe of Alva, who 

Sheffield, shSf'fild, Joseph Earle, American mtrodueed their meehanieal skill into the coun- 

inerchant and philanthropist: b. Southport, *Ty It developed mpidly m the igth century. 

Conn., 10 June 1X13 ; d. New Haven, Conn., 16 »"<* became one of the greatest manufacturing 

Feb. 1882. In 1813 he became a partner in a cities of England. 

New York mercantile house, but subsequently ' SliefSeld Scientific Scbool, a department 

removed to Mobile, Ala., where he acquired of Yale University. See Yale Uniwssitv.. 

large mterests hi the cotton trade. From 1835 Sheik, shek, an Arabic word signifying an 

he was resident at New Haven, where he helped aged man «■ elder, is used generally as a title 

to obtain the charter for the New York and of reverence, and has com* to acquire a great 

New Haven railway, yisitmg London to secure variety of significations. Among the Bedouin* 

the co-operation of caprtalists. He also built ,ad other migralory tribes whore patriarchal 

the Chicago and RoiJk Island line. By his gifts goTertmieat prevails, the head of every WJbe is 

and bequests of more than the scientific caUod a sheik The superiors of the Mobamme- 

department of Yale, since known as the Shef- <jaii relinoua or monastic orders are called 

field school, -was reorganized and enlarged. See .heiks. .- The chief mufli is called »h«ik-ul-i6l»iB. 

Yale Univrasttr. In g«nerat the title is given to learned moo, 

^ef^eld, Ala., city in Colbert County; on and by a wickr extensicn ts used as. a oommon 
the Tennessee River, and on the Louisville & title of couitesy, lik« Mr. 
Nashville and the Southern R-R.'s; about two : 3h«U, sh*!, Richaid Lalor, Irish orator, 
miles west of Tuscumbia (q.v.), the county-seat, drMnatist and pollticfan: b. Druiwiowney i? 
and opposite Florence. Sheffield is one of Uie Aug. 1791 i d. Fterwicc, Italy, 35 May 1851. H« 
new cities of the South, founded m 1884 as a *as educated at Sionyhurst College and TrinHy 
result of the great manufacturing movement College, Dublin, studied law at Linooln's Inn 
It IS la an agricultural region in which there and was called to the bar in 1814. His progreM 
are large deposits (rf iron ore. There are five in his pmctice was slow and he tirned to dra- 
large blast furnaces, machine shops, cotton gins, matie writing, having ali«adr produoed a mod- 
cotton compresses, and a grist-mill. There are erately successful drama, <Adefaide> (1814). A 
eight churches, a high school, public graded tragedy, 'The Apostate,' was prodnced tn 1B17, 
schools, an4 several private schools. Pop. and ran thraugh the season. He prodneed 
(1910) 3,400. *Bellamira, or the Fall of Tunis* (ifiiB); 

SbefBald, England, ia the county of York, 'Evadne* (1819); *The Hnguenot* (iSsa), and 

West Riding, at tha junction of the Sheaf and with Jt>hn Banim^ <D»non and Pythias.' Of 

the Don rivers, on several slopos surrounded these 'Evadne' is considered the best. He 

by wooded hilla, The suburbs are attractively next joined trith Curran in contributing to the 

built with many terraces and elegant residences. 'New Monthly M«g»eine* the 'Sketches of the 

There is a great number of churches, chief of Irish Bar.> In 1835 he visited London with 

which is the parish church eretted under the O'Conncll. O'Gorman and odurs to protest 

rei^ of Henry I., which contains some inter- against the bill (hat had been introduced for the 

esting monuments: St Peul'a, a good speci- suppression of the Catholic Association, and 

men of the Grecian; St James'; St George's; during the firogress of the ablation continuing 

St Philip's, and St. Uary's, bavmg exterior until 1839 spoke many limes m public meetmga 

1 ..Google 


in Ireland in beh^f of the Irish cause. When we find in Exodus xxr. 8, ■Let them make me a 

emancipation was finally secured. Shell moved sanctuary tbat I may dwell among them* ; the 

Hie dissolution of the Catholic Association. In Targum of Onkelos has *I will make my 

1830 he entered Parliament from Milbome Port Shechinah to dwell ,■ etc. 

in Dorset, sat for County Louth in 1831, and in The Jews reckoned the Shekinah among the 

1833 was member of the first reformed parlia- marks of divine favor which were wanting to 

ment for County Tipperary. He gradually with- the second Temple, hut expected its return on the 

drew from a dose identification with the Irish appearance of the Messiah. It was the Shekinah 

cause and turned his attention more to the which led the children of Israel as a pillar of 

foreign policies of the empire. Shortly after the fire. See Exodus xix. 9. In the NcwTestament 

accession of William IV, he became commis- the Shekinah is referred to, Luke 11. 5; John 

sioner of Greenwich Hospital, but later ex- i. 14; etc. Consult: Lowman, <On the 

changed this post for the vice-presidency of the Shechinah' ; Taylor, 'Letters of Ben-Mordecai' ; 

board of trade. In 1846 he was appointed master Upham, 'On the Logos.' 

of the mint and his inability to move in the relief au.n-,— ,. „i,si'i,i ~ iir:ii:._ n.u- t ™.. 

of the famine in Ireland, though not thoroughly , Sbeanirne, shel birn. WiUiwn Petty, Lmi^ 

understood in that comltry, yM diminished his "*, VT^J* ^w^"?!^/' « """? ^ o'' 

popularity. His last appointJnent was that of i"^AV""'°'' ' ^? \^?-.k"'' ^'^'^^^^ 

minister to the court of Tuscanv in i8W) He '"™' ''"* ^^° ^'"^ '^'" '=** *•" nniversity and 

wrbrili?ntVnrriamLl^s7«ki"ftcu?h "»<-4 th« <.rmy. While engaged in the «m. 

he lacked spontaneousness, and car,; fully pre- P?Tn™T^?n.^ H J!! w'l""^ ■'' ^^'^^'S 

pared each address. Of his forensic speeches "* Commons for High Wycombe m 1760, and 

Siat delivered as counsel for John O'Connell *" Vil'fff?.!" the following year. He wot 

at the "monster trials* in Dublin in 1S44 is ac- also.ele««i » the Insh parliament, but he never 

~,.,„t.j hi. k-.t sat in either body, for the death of his father in 

counted his best. ,^, ^1^^^^^ ^i^' ^^ ^j,^ jjouse of Lords. He 

Sherel, a unit of weight supposed to have ^as frequently employed by Bute as a negotiator 

been first used in Babylonia, and afterward by ;„ political combinations and on 20 April 1763 he 

the Jews and other peoples; also a com used became president of the board of trade and 

by the Jews and thought to have been mtroduced foreign plantations with a scat in the cabinet; 

by Simon Maccabseus. The weight was reckoned but his speech in the debate on the proceedings 

as one sixtieth part of a maneh, and afterward against WiUtes caused his dismissal from his 

was revised by the Phoenicians to be one fiftieth staff appointment In April 1764 he took his 

part of a maneh (then called nuna). It is seat in the Irish House of Ixirds as Earl of 

probable that the shekel, with other measures Shelburne, and in 1766 took a leading part in 

of weight, underwent much revision as to size, the English parliament in the repeal of the 

shape and weight. Phcenician shekels are found Stamp Act. Under Pitt he became secretary 

in the following weights: 234 grains (Troy), of state for the southern department (23 July 

524 Brains, 218 grains, 808 grams. The Assyr- lygfij^ and in the following month the entire 

lan shekel was of lag grains; their double control of the administration of the colonies 

shekel of 258 grams. The Jewish shekel was was placed in his hands. He endeavofed to 

*■* H^ grains. , , , , , pursue a conciliatory policy toward the Ameri- 

The nse of the shekel as money among the can colonies, but in this was thwarted by his 

ancient Hebrews is popularly supposed to date colleagues, and in January 1768 was superseded 

With Swnon Maccabseus, to whom was given hy Lord Hillsborough. He stood alone with 

(I Mac. XV. s)^the power <to coin money for Chatham against coercing the American coU 

thy country with thine own stamp.* Whether onies, but his opposition was unavailing. In hi* 

or not Simon made use of this privilege is dis- parliamentary speeches, many of which became 

puted V some authorities, but it is generally t^^^us. he always opposed the coercive mea- 

oonceded that either he or his son coined the g^res of Lord North's ministry, recommended 

first Mtivc Hebrew money. This was about 141 measures for ending the hostilities in America, 

tjc The sJ*ekel seems to; have ^n of gold, ^ut declared he would never consent to the ac- 

copper or silver and originally of a shekel m fcnowledgment of American independence. 

weight. The gold shekel was worth about $S.6ft when Lord North resigned in March 1782 

the copper about three cents and ^e silver shelburne declined the king's invitation to form 

shekel about 54 cents. The silver shekel seems a new ministry, but acted as intermediary in 

to have been the most used. A wimmon example passing the post upon Rbckingham. In tlie 

of tt shows on one side a pot of manna, or cabinet formed by the latter, he became secretary 

sacred bread, with the legend "shekel of Israel": of state for home affairs, and tried to introduce, 

on the reverse a flower figure, supposed to have s^^^ji economic reforms. Rookingham's deatfl 

be«i a representation of Aaron s rod budding, occurred in July of that year and Sheibume ac- 

*?! ^^c u^*^"* «Jerusalem the holy.* The ^cpted the duty of forming a government. In 

shekel of the sanctuary (Ex. xxx. 13) or tem- this ministry William Pitt, then only 23. became 

pie tax was supposed, for a long p«iod, to have chancellor of the exchequer. In the debate on 

been a special coinage, but it is now believed (he change of ministry Sheibume declared that 

to have been the silver shekel of the country. ^e still adhered to all the constitutional tdeaa 

Shekinah. shc-Wna, literally "residence', that he had imbibed from his master in politics, 

that is, of God. his visible presence as' mani- Lord Chatham, and that he had not altered his 

fested in a cloud of radiance hovering over the opinion concerning American independence ; but 

mercy seat of the tabernacle, and in the temple during the negotiations of the Peace of Paris he 

of Solomon between the cherubim. The word was reluctantly led to agree to the concession.' 

is not found in the Bible but occurs frequently The coalition of North and Fox against his gov- 

in -the paraphrases of tiie Targum. Thus where emment led to his resignation' 24. Feb. 178^ 

. C_700glc 


In December 17S4 he became Marquis of Lans- attention is given to stock-nising, ImnberioB 

downe in the English peerage. He was one of and coal-mining. The chief manufacturing es- 

the best hated men of his tim^ a circumstance tabli^nnents are flour mills, foundry, lumber 

probably due to his indep«ident spirit in parly mills, agricultural implement works, a woolen 

politics and his supercilious manners. Yet mill, and creameries. There is considerable trade 

many of his views were more enlightened than in farm and dairy products, live stock, and coaL 

bis times. He advocated parliamentary and The one national bank has a capital of f75<ooa 

economic reform. Catholic emancipation and ro- Pop. (1910) 3,708. 

ligious ^<uli^, and free trade. DisraeU said Shelbyrffle, Ind., city, county-seat 

he was 'the first great mimster wl^o compr^ ^y^^^^ County; on the Big Blue River, and on 

hended the rising importance of the middle ^^ Oeveland, C. C. St St L., and the Pittsburg, 

class." He patronized literature and the fine q C. & St. ll R.R.'s; about 26 miles southeast 

arts, and his later years were largely dented to ^^ Indianapolis, and 90 miles north of Louisville, 

his collectioa of books and luctiires Consult ^ j -^^^^ ^ agricultural and stock-raUing 

FitigeiaJd, -Fitzmaunc^ Life of WiUwm, Earl ^^^ ^^^ chief ^nufacturing esUblishmenti 

of ihelbume' (i875-oJ- are flour mills, creameries, barrel factories, lum- 

Sbelbnme, Canada, capiUl of Shelbwne ber and planing mills, ice factories, wagon and 

County, Nova Scotia, a seaport town on the carriage works, and a furniture factory. It is 

southwest coast at the head of a deep and the commercial and industrial centre for a large 

c^Mcious bay, forming one of the safest bar- part of Shelby County, and has constderable 

bors of the province, 160 miles southwest of trade in farm and dairy products, live stock, and 

Halifax. Shelbume is a terminus of the inter- manufactures. There are 12 churches, five public 

colonial railway system, and has an important schools and one parish school, and a public li- 

maritime and transit trade. Ship- repairing brary. The two national banks have a combined 

docks and ironworks are the chief industrial es- capital of $200,000; there are several building 

tablishments ; and its fisheries are valuable. The and loan associations and one private bank. The 

Roseway River supplies abundant water power, cjty has had a steady growth, mainly due to the 

The entrance to the harbor is marked by a general development of the surrounding country, 

lighthouse on McNutt's island; it exhibits two Pop. (igio) 9,500. 

l^ts, the highest lao feet above the sea. After _. „ , „ w .. ^ ■ * 
tiie American Revolution the pt^uUtion of Shel- ^, SheftrrfHe. Ky city county-seat of 
burne was increased to about i2,poo by the ad- She% County; on the Southern and the Louis- 
vent of United Empire loyalists. It has since yi 11 e & Nashville R.Rs; about 38 miles east of 
declined in importance. Louisville and ai miles west of Frankfort. It 

_. ,_ - . , .: . VI _j. 1* m an agricnltural and stock-raising region. 

ShelT.7 lM«c American soldier; b. North ^ quantities of tobacco, in the vianityrarc 
Mountain, Md. " Dec^ ^"^^^ A ^ST^'w" prepared for market and shipped from Shelby- 
Rest, Lincoln County Ky., 18 July 1826. He ^j,^ it has a flour mill, creamenes. machi^ 
became a surveyor and m I7?i removed to Ten- shops, and cigar factories. The educational in- 
nessee. In 1774 he «" appointed lieutenant m s,itutions are a high school, elementary schools, 
tiie company of his father. General Evan Shelby, ^^^^ ^aU School (M. E. South), opened in 
ioLght at the battle of Pwm Pl^'ant, and r^ ^5 stuart Female College, fomided Tn 1839, 
mamed m command "(the fort there until 177S ShelbyvUle Academy for Boys, opened in i86i! 
He was en^^ at the lattie of Long Island ^he three state banks have a combined capital 
flats where his valor won the day. became com- ^ j,o(«wx Tbe govonimem is vested m ■ 
misiary of .die fromier in 1777 with rank as j^viat and a common comiciL Pop. {1910) 
captam, m the sUoceedmg year was promoted ij^iaL ' 
cotonel, and also served as a monber of the ~, _ ™ _ -, 
Virginia house of delegates in that year. He .^ Shen^vflle, Tenn., town, county-seat of 
irfanned the important action at icing's Moun- Bedford County ; on the Duck River, and on the 
tain in 1780, served under Marion in 1781 and Nashville, Chattanooga & Saint Louis railroad; 
under Greene in 1781-3, and was a member of about ^ miles south by east of Nashville. In 
the North Carolina legislature in those years. June 1863 the town was the scene of military 
He was a member of the constitutional conven- operations, and during the greater part of the 
tion in 1791, aed was elected the first governor Civil War, Shelbyville arid vtcimty were scenes 
ti Kentucky in 1792, served until 1796, and of many skirmishes. It is in an agricultural 
again in i8i2-t6. He recruited and led 4/K» and lumbering region, and in the vicinity are 
men to the relief of GeneraJ Harrison in Canada several varieties of good buildiag Btone. The 
in the War of J812, receiving a gold medal from chief manufacturing establishments are found- 
Congress for his services. He declined the ries, machtne shops, lumber and planing mills, 
office of secretary of war in 1817, and after- a large lead-pencil factory, cotton and woolen 
ward lived in retirement, though he acted a? mills, and a flour mill. The chief products 
commissioner with General Jackson in negoUat- shipped are peneil-cedar, telegraph and telephone 
ing the treaty with the Chickasaw Indians in poles, grain, and mules. There are six ehurihts, 
1818. Nine counties in the Southern and West- graded public schools, and the Shelbyville Fe- 
em Sutea are named in his honor, as U also a male College, founded in 1853. The two banks 
college at Shelbyville, Ky. have a combined capital of $i2S,ooa Pop. 

ffljel-byviUe, III., eity, capital of Shelby (i9'o) 2,869. \ 

County; on the Kaskaskia River, and on the Shetd-drake, or Sheldrake, a sea-dUck 

Cleveland, C. C. & St. L., and the Chicago & E. I. (Ttdoma corttula) of the cooler parts of the 

R.R.'s; about 15 miles southeast of Springfield Old World, which frequents sandy shores and 

and 33 miles south by east of Decatur. It is in makes its nest in burrows in sand-dunes, earth- 

ft fertile agricaltnral legiOn in which .considerable «a. cliffs, old rabbit-warrens, etc It is of Ir *" 



eiu tad veiy handsome plumage, and iti the CHlBmaries, as wetl as to iht hard annor, or 
Frisian islands and some other parta o( the *ghell* pnwer, brachiopods of mussels and snails, 
world the people provide it with acceptable arti- Whatever its farm or homology, it serves Ac 
facial breeding-burrows, and take a pOrtior of its purposM of Buppon and protection. The char- 
eggs and down, So making' an annual profit from t^teristic structure of the (xo^deton, tests and 
the arrangement. Several other epeCies of the Other *shelU* of the invertebrates mentinned 
same genus are foilnd throughout Africa, south- above are givan tn the articles on PoR*urHi?EKA, 
eastern Asia and Malaya, one of which is well- ECBiNonmuATA, eta, ; and the prosent treatise 
known in India as the Brahming duck. Much may be restricted to the thellB of the MMuko. 
ornithological interest attaches to these birds, The shells of mollusks vary from entire ah- 
and the name itself is a matter of curious specu- sence, or a mer«)y rudimentary condition, to 
lation. for whicb see Newton, 'Dictionary of highly eldborate and ornaments) examples ; and 
Birds' (Kew Vork 1S96). from almost microscopic minuteness and delicacy 

Sheldoo, Ch«rlea Monroe, American Con- ^ tnassive structures completely enveloping and 
gregationat clergyman and anthor: b. WcUsrviile, protecting the amma! and wetghing several hun- 
N. Y., s6 Feb. 185?. He was graduated from dred pounds. All are composed mainly of car- 
Brown University in 1883. from the Andover bonate of lime, which ui some cases, aa the^ hard 
Theological Seminary in 1886. was ordainad in "he'ls of the cameo-atromhs. amounts to gg per 
1886 to the Congregational ministry, and in 1889 cent, while in others as mnth as 10 per cent 
became pastor of the Central Congregational may consist of other earthy sails, and a. small 
Church of Topcka, Kan. In 1900 be attracted wnoant of organic material called ■conchiolin,* 
considerable attention by his connection with which disappears as shells dry out aiter the 
the Topeka 'Capital,* of which he took entire doth of their occupants. Various flews have 
charge for one week, and whidi he published al been held as to the formation of the shell, but it 
a. distinctively ChTistian daily after principles is plain that the mamle-margin is tlie principal 
enunciated in his book, ^In His Steps' <i8g6>, agent in its deposition; accidental holes and 
a work of sxc^ent intantion, but no literary breaks will be repaired elsewhere, and even the 
importance, which was sold very extensively, foot may setrete shelly matter, but regularly 
Among other volumes by him are: 'Robert this is the function of the epithelial cells a\oa% 
Hardy s Seven Days' (iSga); 'Malcolm Kirk' the edge of the mantle, to separate the car- 
{1897); 'The Wheels ol the Machine' [1901); bonate of lime from the Wood and throw it out, 
'The Narrow Gate' (1002); 'The Heart of the where it crystallizes and cements itself into the 
World' (1904). required fohn as it exudes. This deposition is 

BJwl'doa, Uonel Alien. American jol<ter. ""* continuous, but takes place at more or less 

Y., 30 Aug. I8ai. After stuS at Oherlio "S???!^ f^''T''Tn'"'*'/*^"''* °^ ^ ^^ 

Coll^ he was admitrtd to thebar in 1851 ; and "Editions to the shell made dunng e«h penod 

begaZpractice in Elyria. Qhk>. In i836he was ?f ^f^'^Y *« "^^ «dicated by a thickened 

a delegate to the Philadelphia RepnUkan Con- **"« *°[I";"« t"""'*ii^!l'* """^ """ixK ^""^ 

vention and there supported John C Fremont or nreKwl"' rw««t "Hed a variK. 'Th* various 

as its nominee for Erwident In 1B61 he was dotaJs of sculpture on the exterior surface of the 

commissioned a brigadier-general of militia, and «¥''—*= strue, knobs, nodules, imhncations, 

in that capacity rai»«i many recruits for the "P""" '"d other ferms of omameatalion are aU 

Union army. He was made edonel of the ^ ^^SS^^ ?J '"™^^, "^ ^^^t^^r^Ax^ irr^- 

Ohio Infantry In i86s; won distbolion in the ^^K ^ '.''« .'"^"^= "^^\ '"1 l"^ ?" 

batties of Chickasaw Bayou and Arkansas Post; «*" originally ajtuatoi on the lip. Spmos, for 

and took part in the capture of Vieksbws. He ^i^^- t^" ** ^*'*'*' ""** .Z'^'Z"' ^ 

was brevetted brigadier-general of yolunteeri *"* formed ^ a hollow thon, cleft down its 

in 1865. After the war he removed to New Or- '°"'"" s«^«' ^^ ■" afterwwd filled m whh soUd 

leans, where he practised law; was a Republican »^"'' " the mantle-edge withdraws. What 

member of Congress in 1865^-75; »'^A governor Purpose is served Iv the extreme elaboration of 

of New Mexico in 1881-S. **"> ^P'"!" processes in some cases, can hardly 

•Sh-IW tiIhm. rT7,«w.i. rustiff .i,9ian ^' considered as satisfactonty ascertained. Pos- 

Sh^lff HI«r . tPreSKh Ckihft »liai«0. gibly they are a form of sculptural development 

Algeria, a rjver nsmg on theAtlns ^nge and ^^ich is, in the main, protective, and se<^ to 

flowing north Into ^eMedrterranean Sea wh«h j,. „^^'„ i„n,„„ity 'f^« the aitacks of pr«la- 

«""""«' Moltaganem. It trawSM the ^ ^^hes.* (Cooke, 'Mollusca,' p. 856.) 

great central plalcan, and then flows for a v. „^„„i„.i '.i^s.. .* ^_/ J.'^li 

considerable data noe westward, pualld with « Jm / iT ^ n *t^ "-^^ '^ 

the coast, through a fertile Cgit^nal valley ^S " 'J" .?!r^^" shells. The porcelanoos 

between ^he two coast ranges. It is 400 mil^ !^"."» "* ^''"^^^.t' ^°1T "^t '^^ L'^"^ 

long, and the largest river in the cok»ny/ *j"='lu'=°r"l- °* ^Hu ^Y""' " ^fu'^ 'I*** '^ 

^ ^ , " ' side, the direction of the planes of these laminae 

Ska, the external limy, chittnous or being different m the different layers. Thus 

fiihcious bitegimient or eovermg of such inverte- the plates may lie transversely in the central 

brate ammals as form a hard exosketcton ; or layer and horiiontally in the others, or longitnd- 

some sWurtiffe pesembling the armor of a mol- inally in the middle and crosswise in the outer 

lusk. Thus, broadly, the term affiles to the and nmer layer*. The nacreous shells fbrm the 

JwotectiveMvelogeaf eggs; thetesisofforamin- aecond variety made up of numerous closely- 

ifers, polyaoBiw iud echinoderms, the living-tubes packed layers, the edges of which exhibit nndu- 

of annelids, the exoskeletal intaguments of the Utions of their surfaces. The lustre and pris- 

crustaceans, the shards of beetles, and the egg- matic hues of nacre are due to the minute stri« 

pouches and cuttle-bone of the argonauts and on the anrface whk^ break 19 Md refract the 

i)„r7.,i.. Google 

light (See Peau.) It is toterestiiis to note fonned by die shelt of embryonic life, aad the 

that the nacreous type oi shell occues larseiy largcBt or terminal whorl (body whorl) show- 

among moUuaks which now represent rery an- ing the mouth or aperture, wlueh nuy exhibit 

cient forms. The fibrous shells are composed various dentations of its mar^cins. When Ae 

simply of Buccesuve kminse or layen of pria- oulumella or axis o£ the shell is hollowed, and 

matic cells. In their living state ^cUs are cov opens below at the mouth-apertnrc, die opening 

ered externally by a layer oi animal ntattcc, is named the utnhiiiciu; but it may also be solid 

known as the peiiosttacum, or epidermis, w«il and imperforate. If the aperture cv mouth of 

seen in the fresh-water museels, for exampU- the shell ia notched for the passage of one or 

This layer may, however, be so delicate as to b( more siphons, the shell is said to be siphonosto- 

almost invisible to ordinary observation. The matom. Xf, on thit contrary, its margin is un- 

colors of shells are due to pigment deposited is hrcjten and entire, the shell b hoJostomatous. 
the course of their growth from pigment ocUs The shells of Pteropoih are generally of deli- 

situated along the mantle-margin. When the cate glassy structure, and consist either of a 

valves or pieces of which a shell is oomposad dorsal and ventral or united plate, or of a spiral 

are equal in size the shell is dcoominatad equit ahell. In some extinct forms (for example, 

valve; if more developed to on* side of the Conularia) of Pteropoda the shell was of large 

middle line than to the other it is termed in- siae, and of quadrate shape, 
equilateral. The prominent point of tbe shell is The Crphalapoda or cuttlefishes possess (as 

die ambo or beak; this always points in the di- in the Telrabranchiata; see Nautilus) external 

rectton of tbe mouth, and h^nee the part oct laaay-chaaibered sheila, cm', as in ordinary cases, 

which the mouth is situated is termed anterior; internal shells, which may be destitute of cbsm- 

the opposite posterior. The part where the hinee hers, or chambered as in the extinct BrUmmUt 

is situated, is the dorsal or upper border; tbe or in the existing Spiritla. In the argonaut 

border opposite to this or that by which the (q-v.), the shell ia external, but aingle-cham- 

ihell opens, the ventral side or base. The len^ bered ; and is, moreover, not a true shell, but a 

if a bivalve shell ia measured from its anterior £oot-«earctias of the female only, formed not by 

to its posterior margin ; and its breadth from the ountle but by two of the feet or arms, which 

the doreal to the veotral bordtr. The diells of are specially eimaoded and modified for this 

bivalved moltasks (pelecypods) ,ate shut of office; and tbe ofice of which is the safety of the 

drawn together 1^ the action of either one developing egga. 

or two adductor niMacko. The impressiooa o> Shell, It» IndBatttal Uaea. It may 
"scars* of thase muscles may generally be per. inrprise some to learn that shells rank among 
ceived on the interior of the shells, but in some the principal "flshery" products of the world, 
cases (as in oysterp) only a atngte adductor This refers to those used for industrial purposes 
muscle is developed, this latter ruprcienting the and not to the large supplies for museum and 
posttrior muscle of those (<»ms pMsetaing two. eabmet collections. In Iindon the sales of 
The forms with single muscles are named pearl shells w mother-o6 pearl, amount to about 
Monomyaria, those wili two being termed $4.oo(^an each year, a*! the annual imports of 
DimyaTM. These shells are opened not by mua- this material- int»' rti« United States exceed 
cular action but by that of ligaments situated at fifioafxfo in value. The shells caught in this 
the binge, one of which (the external ligament) eoiMittr aggregate about i,ooo/rao tons annually. 
is put on the stretch when the ^ell is closed. The economic utilization of these is more diver- 
and opens the shell in virtue of ita elasticity, sified than is generally supposed, giving empioy- 
The internal ligament is situated within the ment to many thousands of parsons, and 
hmge, aii4 usually in pits or depressions of consuntty inct«asinghi importance. The most val- 
the shell. This latter is also compressed when Ae uaUe item in «heil production i.s molher-of-peart. 
shell is closed, and aids in opening the sheli 1^ The most importaot is the pearl oyster found in 
Its ehiuicity. The hinge may be curved or many inshore tropical waters of both continents, 
straight, and may exhibit sets of teeth springii« The shells vary greatly in color and iridesoence, 
from one valve and fitting into sockets on d)a bat three getierafdassei are recognized, namely, 
opposite valve of the shelL whha or silver- lipiKsl, yellow or golden-edged. 
In gastercnods the shell is typicalljr a ^iral and Btadky or black-edged ; the last yielding the 
univalve ; and we may conceive of a simple so-caUed ^smoked" tnoth«r-of- pearl, 
conical shell (such as that of the limpet) being The white shell has the silvery lining uni- 
converted into a spiral form by, supposing it lo form over ihe surface, and as it may be cut up 
be first long draws out, and then twisted nptm to greater advantage, it is the most valuable, 
itself from above downward, either to the right When Uack pearl buttons are fashionable, the 
or left side. The apex of the gaeteropod shdl Mack^edsed ahell sells almost as high as the 
is usually more or less oblique ig positioa The best white shell. A fair valuation of mother- 
coils or whorls of the spiral shdl may either be of-pearl shells is $400 per ton, though the 
separated (as in Vermeius) or contiguons, and choicest sdl for upward ef $1,500 per ton. 
in close contact. Sometiines the whorls lie in During tbe last 10 years large quantities of 
one and the same plane, leing coiled round a low-giade pearl shell have been secured from 
central axis (as in the fresh-water Planerbit), the fresh-water mussels of the United States. 
and then the shell is nam^d discoidal. Bnt gen- These occur principally in the Mississippi River 
erally the gasteropod she'-l shows tbe whorls lobe from Prairie du Chien, Wis., to Quincy, HI,, 
wound in an oblique in.'.nner, so as to form ti and to a mudi less extent in adjoining waters, 
true spiral, and ^ells with this oonfdmtatlan Though their ublizatton originated so recently as 
may therefore be nameti trochoid, turreted, tur- iftjr, the present annua! product is very large, 
binate. etc An ordinary gasterofiod (or snail) mceeding 30.000 tons during certain years. The 
shell shows the whorls, wound round a central value is much less than that of choice pearl shell, 
axis or colunxlla; the vudeua or apex bong selling usually for less than fas per ton^ . 



Uany univalve ihells are auffidcntly nacreous costing on an avenge oE three cents per buabd, 
■nd iridescent to be used as mother-ol-pearl, es- or a total of $;oo per mile. To keep such a road 
pecially abalones, top shells, *green snail* shells, in good repair requires about 2,500 bushel) of 
etc In variety and intensity of coloring the shells per mile annually at a cost of about $75. 
pearly lamina of some of these exceeds t^t of Though they constitute the cheapest and most 
tne pearl oyster. However, the coloring is not convenient material in the sections where they 
so harmonious nor is the shell so thick and are commonly used, shells are not wholly satis- 
flat as in Ibe pearl oyster, consequently they arc factoiy for road material owing to their rapid 
not desirable for many purposes for which the wear and the spreading of objectionable lime 
latter are employed. dust. 

Mother-of-pearl is used in the manufacture Oyster shells are largely employed as ballast 

of a great variety of articles for which it is for beds of railroads. While not nearly so dnr- 

Kuliarly adapted by reason of its hardness and able or steady as rock, they answer the purpose 

uty. Most important of these are buttons, fairly well and are the most convenient and eco- 

knife handles, parasol handles, buckles, penhold- nomical material in many localities. Examples of 

ers, pistol stocks, etc It is also used for inlaying their use for this purpose occur on many of the 

and for covering opera glasses, card cases, etc. railroads in Maryland, Virginia, and Louisiana. 

In the aggregate a very large number of persons Oyster shells have been extensively used as 

are given employment in working up this ma- a source of lime, especially for agricultural pur- 

terial. Formerly the business was centred at poses, as well as in masonry. Most of the brick 

Birmingham, England, and Vienna, Austria, buildings erected in colonial times were solidified 

4,000 persons being thus employed at the former with shell lime. Owing to its tendency to absorb 

place a few years ago ; but it has gradually tx- moisture and thus make the houses damp its use 

tended to other localities, especially in France for this purpose was abandoned soon after the 

and the United States. It is claimed that about discovery of limestone in abundance. The quan- 

8/100 persons are employed in working pearl tity of burned oyster shells spread on farming 

shell in Austria, 5,00a in England, 4,000 in lands amounts to many thousands of tons an- 

France, 3,500 in America, and many in various nualty. These shells are also crushed into small 

Other countries. The manufacture of pearl but- particles and fed to chickens to improve their di- 

tons in this country from domestic shells dates gestion and their egg laying. This use is in- 

from 1891 and is already of very great extent, creasing in popularity. Oyster shells arc also 

the 60 factories giving employment to about employed in the manufacture of certain special 

2,500 persons and using 12,000 tons of shells grades of steel owing to their large content of 

annually, yielding about 600,000^000 buttons. carbon. 

Pearl shell is much used for inlaying, es- _ A somewhat recent use for shells in America 
pecially of musical instruments, jewelry boxes, is for spreading on private oyster grounds for 
domestic furniture, church vestments, etc Artis- the purpose of obtaining a •set* of young oysters. 
tic work of this nature is done in the United When the extremely small oysters hatch from 
States as well as in Europe and Asia. The shell the floating eggs and sink to the bottom it is im- 
is cut in simple patterns and is also used in floral portant that they find a clean substance for 
and in arabesque designs. For this purpose the attachment, otherwise they are readily smoth- 
brillianlly colored abalone shell is iwed with ered. It is estimated that 4,000,000 bushels of 
beautiful effect, especially when combined with oyster shells are used annually for this purpose, 
white shell. Some very elaborate work of this mostly in the waters of New York, Connecticut, 
nature is done. A mandolin recently exhibited and Virginia. They are spread immediately be- 
in this country conUined more than 2,000 pieces fore the spawning season, usually in June in the 
of four diiferent kinds of shell, and 335 days' Chesapeake region and in July in Long Island 
work were expended in cutting and finishing the Sound. 

pieces, the whole representing an investment of Several other varieties of shells are used for 

?i,SOO. Some years ago there was exhibited in 'spat collecting," especially «jingles» (Anomia 

New York a piano, the entire keyboard of ophippivm), "quarterdecks* {Crepiduh (omi- 

which was of pearl. The body of the keys was cata) and scallops( Pecten irradians). These 

of ordinary white shell and the flats and sharps are obtained mostly from Peconic Bay at the east 

were of green abalone, the effect being ex- end of Long Lsland where several hundred thou- 

tremely rich and pleasing. sand bushels of mixed shells are dredged an- 

The most abundant shells in America are nually to be marketed in the oyster planting 

those of oysters and clams, especially the former, regions of New York and Connecticut. They 

The product of these approximates 30,000,000 are considered superior to oyster shells for 

bushels annually and the purposes to which they 'clutch," owing to the fact that they are smaller 

are applied are numerous. The most important and only a few young oysters 'set* on each, 

use is in road-making. At various points on the thus avoiding the crowding which occurs when 

Atlantic seaboard, and particularly m the Chesa- large shells are used: Another reason for their 

peake and the Delaware bay regions, many preference is that they are easily broken and dis- 

miles of good roads have been made of this ma- integrated and so do not encumber the ground 

terial. It is estimated that 3,000 miles of roads after serving as 'spat' collectors.' 

on'the Atlantic coast have been surfaced with Large quantities of shells are used for orna- 

shells. Connecticut, Long Island, the Delaware mental purposes. Espi«ially prominent among 

bay side of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, these are the abalone 01* ear shells obtained from 

Virginia, North Carolina and Louisiana contain California, Japan and Various other countries. 

many excellent examples of oyster shell roads. About 500 tons of abalJtme shells are gathered 

"" a road 16 feet wide to a depth of 15 annually on the Pacific cbast of America, worth 

dias large as it was ao 



Jean asp- When cleaned and polished the usually arrives too late. A beautiful pair ol 

iahly iridescent green, red and pearly white these shells are used as beoetiers in the Church 

colors ire exquisite and make these shells beauti- of Saint Sulpice in Paris. This pair is said to 

fully omamental. Much skill is exercised in have been a gift of the republic of Venice to 

polishinK in order to produce the best effects. Francis I. 

Some ofthe abalone shells are of such shape and The most artistic use of shells is in thr 

coloring that it is possible in grinding to pro- formation of cameos, which are cut from uni- 

duce a perfect cross of black a^inst a pearly valve shells made up of laminae of different 

-white background ; these meet with ready sale, colors. The middle lamina, which is usually 

the purchasers usually assuming that the cross white, forms the body of the figure in bas-relief, 

appeared on the shell in nature. and the dark inner layer forms the ground. The 

The large green conch or fountain, shell oh- outer or superficial layer is entirely removed, or 

tained on the Florida coast, the West Indies, it may be used to give a varied appearance to 

etc., is much used for ornament The graceful the surface of. the design. 
curves and the delicate tints of lovely pink color Of the several varieties of shells employed 

make it one of the most attractive of all shelU, in cameo cutting, the black helmet (Casiis 

It is much used in nuking brooches, earritigs, tuherosa) is the most valuable. This occurs in 

etc., and in the form of beads in imitation of the West Indies and to a less extent on the 

pink coral and pink pearls. Large quantities of American coast south of Cape Hatteras. It has 

ccoiches have been pulverized and used in porce- a blackish inner coat and the cameo cut from it 

Iain manufacture. shows white upon an onyx ground varying from 

The pectens or scallop shells have long been dark claret to much lighter shades, producing 
admired owing to their beauty of form. Pur- effective results. This shell is ordinarily 12 
iug the Middle Ages pilgrims ornamented their indies in length, and usually five brooches of 
ck>thing with them, as an indication, doubtless, average size and several smaller articles may be 
of having crossed the sea to the Holy Shrine in cut from each one. The bull's mouth (C. ntfa) 
Palestine, and for this reason they were known is alsa popular; it has a red inner coat and a 
as 'pilgrim shells.* To commemorate that event sardonyx ground. The horned helmet (C eor- 
they were preserved in the heraldic devices of nmla) gives white upon an orange yellow back- 
many families whose ancestors had performed ground. The laminse of this shell are apt to 
that journey. Scallop shells were formerly separate, making it disagreeable to work. The 
much used by cooks for holding foods, hence the queen conch is also used to a considerable ex- 
name 'scalloped oysters.' tent; the ground color is brilliant pink, which 

The popularity of shells for personal oma- is somewhat evanescent cm exposure to light, 

mentation has resulted in their use as currency An attractive method of using this shell is to 

or standard of value amcHig many primitive peo- incise the bas-relief in the pink layer, using 

pies. A well-known example of this is the the white as the background, thus reversing the 

wampum of the North AJncrican aborigines, usual method. 

made from the quahog or hard clam shell, so Shell cameo figures consist of copies of an- 
numerous oa the Atlantic coast. Somewhat less tiques, original designs, and portraits. Some- 
extensive was the use of the tooth shell or Den- times an entire shell — especially of the black 
taiiutti on the northwest coast, and of the abalone helmet variety — is used, and either a small 
on the California coast Even at the present figure is cut on the face of the shell or the 
time in many parts of Africa and to a lesj extent entire surface is covered. In the latter case the 
in British India species of the cowry family are principal design is in the centre and around 
used as currency/ In some seasons 8 or lo ves- it are such minor designs as the fancy of the 
seto zarry cargoes of the money cowry iCyprea artist dictates. Some of these sell very high. 
moneta) to the west coast of Africa, where they and hundreds and even thousands of dollars are 
are exchanged for palm oil and other products. secured for a single carved shell. One exhibited 

The window-glass shell {Placvna place*0), in this country by a Naples artist r^resented 

found in the Pacific and Indian oceans, afad es- two year^' work. 

peciaily among the Philippine Islands, has an The' real value of a cameo consists in purity 
almost flat bivalve shell, six or eight inches in of material^ beauty of design and delicacy of 
length. The inside of this shell is glazed over workmanship. As an art, sheil cameo cutting 
and has a subdoed pearly lustre. It is so thin has become much degraded, having fallen under 
and transparent that print can be read through the deteriorating influences of low-priced pro- 
it, and it is used as a substitute for glass in win- ductions. Most of the cutters at present are 
dows, admitting a soft, mellow l^t into the merely skilled workmen and not artists, and 
room. It is commonly nsed in the Philippines the bulk of the output consists of cheap pro- 
in windows of residences; etc ductions quite inferior to those of half a century 

The giant clam (Tridacna) yields the largest ago. For this reason the fashion for them has 

and heaviest shells in existence, single pairs greatly declined. However, there are yet sev- 

weighing over 5«> poimds in some instances, eral shell cameo workers who compete with 

These are mnch used for ornaments, especially sculptors in artistic productions, 
for fountain basins and for benetiers or holy- Charles H, Stevznsow, 

water fonts. They are found in many tropical United Stales Fish Commissiotter. 

waters, and espec^lly on the pearling grounds. sj,ea See Obdnance; ProjectiuS- 

Divers inadvertently placmg a hand or a foot in ™. ,, « c- ™^ n 

the open shell are held imprisoned, and it is ShelJ Came. See Thimble Ric. 

necessary for the unfortunate man to at once cut Sbell-ibia, or Shell or Snail Eater, names 

oflF the limb in order to save his life. Tn case for the open-bill (q.v.). It is not an ibis, but a 

both hairds are hnprisoned, as in head diving, stork, and feeds principally on snails and fresh- 

esc^M is impossible without assistance, which water mussels. See Opsit-biu. 



Shell Hone?. See Wauptju. 

Sbell-nnd. Sand consisting; in ^reat part 
of fragments of shells camrainuted by the beat- 
ing of the waves (see Sand), and often cod- 
taioing a small proportion of organic matter. It 
is a very useful manure, particularly for clay 
soils, heavy loams, and newly- reel aimed bogs. 
It is also advantageously applied to any soil 
deficient in lime. It neutralizes the organic 
acids whicli abound in peal, and forms with 
them compounds which serve as food for plants. 
Great deposits of shell-sand are found on the 
coasts of Devonshire and Cornwall, and are of 
much value in the agriculture of that district. 
Shell-sand is also found on many other parts 
of the European coasts, and is much used as 
a manure in the maritime districts of France, 
especially Bretagne and Normandy. It abounds 
upon the coast of Florida and the Gulf of Mex- 
ico and in some places has been compacted and 
cemented into the rocky substance called co- 
quina, and often used as a building- stone. 

Shellabarger, Samuel, American lawyer 
aod politician ; b. Clarke County, Ohio, lo Dec. 
1817; d. Washington. D. C, 6 Aug. 1896. He 
was graduated from Miami University, Oxford. 
Ohio, in 184:1, and was admitted lo the bar in 
1S47. In 1851 he w»s elected to the Ohio 
State legislature, and was a member of Con- 
gress in 1861-3, 1865-9, and 1871-3. In i^i 
he introduced what was known as the *Ku 
Klux Law.^ In 1869-71 be wu minister to 
Portugal, and after his last term in Coi^ress 
he was appointed a member of the Civil Ser- 
vice Commission, but devoted himielf to tbc 
practice of law in Washington. 

Shelley, shell, Harry Kowe. American or- 
ganist : b. Connecticut 8 June 1858. He studied 
music at Yale under Professor Stoeckel and 
afterwards under Dndley Buck. After com- 
pleting his musical education in Paris and Lon- 
don, he began his career as professional church 
organist and since 1899 has been engaged at the 
Fifth Avenue Baptist Church, New York. He 
has composed many songs, anthems, and organ 
pieces, and his sustained compositions include 
two sacred cantatas; a lyn'c music drama 'Ro- 
meo and Juliet'; a lyrical intermezzo, *Santa 
Oaus* ; and a 'Symphony in E major.' 

Shelley. Mary WollBtonecraft Godwin, 
English writer: b. London 30 Aug, 17Q7; d. 
there 21 Feb. 1857. She was the daughter of 
William Godwin and Mary WollstonecrafL In 
1814 she eloped with the poet Shelley to Swit- 
zerland, and after the death of his wife, Har- 
riet We5tbrooke. was married to him. While 
traveling with him she composed her famous 
romance of 'Frankenstein* (1818), which ex- 
cited an immense sensation. After her hus- 
band's death she devoted herself much to liter- 
ary work, producing 'Valperga' (182.1) ; 'The 
Last Man* (i8z6); 'Lodore' (1835) ; 'Falkncr' 
(1837) ; and other works of fiction; several 
biographies for the Cabinet Cyclopedia ; 'Jour- 
nal of a Six Weeks' Tour.' with Shelley 1814; 
'Rambles in Germany and Italy' (1844) ; and 
an edition of Shelley's poetical works and mis- 
cellaneous writings. 

Shelley, Percy Bysshe, English poet: b. 
Field Place, near Horsham, Sussex, 4 Aug. 
1792; d. by drowning in the Bay of SpcMia, on 

or after 8 July 1823. He was the eldett son of 
Timothy, afterward Sir Timothy. Shelley, a not 
over-intelligent country gentleman, and grand- 
son of Sir Bysshe Shelley, who was something 
of an adventurer, handsome, clever, and grace- 
less. His mother, Elizabeth Pilford, seems to 
have handed on to him her beauty and her fond- 
ness for writing. After some tutoring he was 
sent to Sion House Academy, at Brentford, a, 
middle class school, where his shjoieas and deli-l 
eacy exposed him to brutal bullying. His biog- 
raphers seem right in dating from this period 
his hatred of tyranny and resistance to all forms 
of oppression. He seems also to have developed 
his faculty for musing, for scientific specula- 
tion, and for wide reading, especially at this 
time in the wild romances of Mrs. RaddiFFe 
and others of her class. On 29 July 1804 he 
entered Eton where he remained for five years, 
developing along the lines just described. His 
tutors were not calculated to inspire his re- 
spect and thus could do little or notliing to 
check his extravagant and abnormal tendencies; 
nor could the outrageous fagging to which he 
was subjected feil to be deleterious to so sensi- 
tive an orgenizBtion as his. He was nicknamed' 
•Mad Bhelley,* lived as much apart as he could, 
dabbled in chemistry, haunted romantic spots, 
read widely — acquiring a taste for the claSsics,- 
— and iaand some consolation in the society 
of Dr, .lames Lind (later represented as 
the hemrit in <The Revolt of Islam' and as 
Zonaras in 'Prince'), an oldetly physi- 
cian of scientific and eccentric tastes, itho was 
apfnrently more sympathetic thSTi discreet in 
his relations with a. youth in need of guidance. ' 
As was natural, the precocioae boy Mon began 
writing and before he wxs seventeci hftd com- 
posed a Radclifikn romance, 'Zastroiii,' as well 
as some immature poetry — e. g., parts of the- 
'W&nderfng Jew' written in conjunrtitin with 
bis coosin and future biographer, Thonn« Med- 
win, who had also been with hitn at SitHi House. 
Perhaps more impottatit for his fntnTe was his 
interest in sertons writers both firactibal and 
theoretical^ Franklin, Pliny, Condorcst, who 
strengthened his native beat toward inquiry and 
were in part responsible for his early abandon- 
ment of religious orthodoxy. 

Shelley left Eton, with somewhat unex- 
plained abruptness, in the summer of 1609: he 
matriculated at University College, Oxford. 10 
April 1810. From ihe amount he published in 
the latter year it would seem that he spent much 
of the interim in writing, and it is known that 
he had a love affair with a cousin, Harriet 
Grove. At Oxford he formed a friendship with 
the able, rather cjrnicat Thomas Jefferson Hogg, 
and was encouraged in his wholesale recalci- 
trancy. The university was little hospitable 
to advanced ideas, and when Shelley sent to 
bishops and heads of ciJIcges copies of his 
syllabus of arguments demonstrating "The Ne- 
cessity of Atheism," it was small wonder, 
though a great pity, that, on his failure to 
answer their questions, the authorities should 
have handed him a sentence of expulsion al- 
ready signed and sealed. (35 March 1811.) 
Ho^ protested and was also expelled. 

The offending pamphlet was Shelley's sixth 
publication, and he still lacked several motitHs 
of beir^ twenty. In iSio he had published — 
Iww is sometliing of a mystaiy — ^astroKtii' 




^Oriental Poetry. By Victor and Caiire' 
(written in conjonctioii viA his sister Eliza- 
beth, withdrawn on the ground that she had 
borrowed from •Monk" Lewis, kmg sought tot 
in vain, but finally edited by Dr, Richard Gar- 
nett in 1896) ; 'Posthnmona Fragments of Mar- 
garet Nicholson' (the mad woman who had 
tried to kill George ITI.) ; and 'Saint Irvyne ; or, 
the Roaicrucian,' another RsdcHSian romance 
It is needless to say that these productions »re 
devoid of intdnsic merit. His fifth publication 
was 'A Political View of the Existing Slate of 
Things,' issued anonymously at Oxford for the 
benefit of Peter Finerty, a prisiMier (or Hbe!. 
This has entirely disappeared. 

Shelley left Oxford with mingled regret and 
indication, and took lodgings in London. Hia 
affair with his cousin Harriet Grove had been 
broken off, And he was soon Involved in the 
most unhappy entanglement of his much en- 
tangled life. Not being permitted to come home 
unless he would break with Hog^ and refusing 
to do this, he found himself adrift iii London, 
and fate brought him in contact with a frlenif 
of his sister Elizabeth's, Harriet Westbrook, the 
pretty daughter of a retired hotel-keeper. She 
was romantic and fancied herself persecuted by 
her family; Shelley was also romantic, and per- 
secuted, and quixotic, and inflammable. When 
he went out of town in July i8ii she wrote hitn 
pitiful letters, whicb so worked upon his feel- 
mgs that he rrturned to London, ran away with 
her, and married her at Edinburgh at the end of 
August. How far the girl's relatives connived at 
the capture of the baronet's son cannot be ascer- 
tained. Naturally the Jiielleys were indignant, 
and cut off the madcap's allowance; but Mr, 
Westbrook allowed them faoo a year, and finally 
Shelley's father contributed the same amount. 

It is unnecessary to detail their movements 
at this juncture save to say that they spent some 
months at Keswick near Southcy and then, 

to attempt to redress tbc wrongs of the long- 
suffering people. Thty were accompanied by 
Harriet's sister. Eliza We^tbrodt.wliosc presence 
grew distesteful to Shelley, and they remained 
only about two months, since the Irish did not 
respond enthusiastically to Shelley's pamphlets. 
Hi was merely a visionary a little ahead of his 
times, for Catbolic emancipation came peace- 
fully not so many years after his death. When 
he returned to England, he excited the atten- 
tion of the government by revolutionary writ- 
ings, but he was not molested. Believing, how- 
ever that an attempt had been made to assas- 
sinate him, he returned with his wife and sister- 
in-law to Ireland, and then he went with Harriet 
to London, where their .fir^t child was bom 
fjune i8i3>. About this time he printed 
privatefv his nebulous poem ■ of free-inought 
'Queen Mab,' accompanied by notes and a 
•vindication" of vegetarianism to which he bad 
become a convert. Eight years later a pirated 
edition brought 'Queen Mab' into notoriety, 
much to its author's disgust. A dialogue 
pamphlet, 'A Refutation of DeLsm' ('1RT4), fol- 
lowed, bringing his publications up to the num- 
ber of fourteen. Meanwhile tie and Harriet had 
become estranged, partly no doubt from natural 
incompatibility, partly from Shelley's instability, 
to use no stronger term. Critics and readers 
Vol. 10 — 4 

win probably never agree as to the exact- dis- 
tribution of responsibility between the onfor- 
tanate pair; but it seems manifest that admira- 
tion for Shelley's geniuA hu naduly ioduaMsed 
many of bis biograpbert in their treatment of 
the matter. He met Miary, the danghter of 

pining for ijrmpathy at a time when be himself 
stood in need of it. She was a nstlch more oon-' 
KCBial partner for him tlvui tbt innkeeper's 
dajugtiter, to whom he lud just been remarried 
according to the riKe gf the Church of Eng- 
lanti and. after Harriet iBa<te the mistake of 
leaving him Md .going with her child to, her 
father's at Bath, he k>st little time in persuading 
his new seventeen-year-old friend to eio&e with 

They left England on aS July 1814 taking 
with them Jane (Claire) Qairmoni, a daughter 
of Godwin's second wife by a former marri»ge. 
They spent some time in Switzerland 3J>d then, 
after some financial difficulties, returned to Eag- 
land in September. Their experiences were later 
recounted by Mary Shelley in 'The History of 9 
Six Weeks' Tour* (1817). Meanwhile Shelley 
had made Harriet the astounding proposition 
that- she should live with him and Mary, and 
. . er his return to England he saw her and the 
son ^he had borne him during their separation. 
Np reconciliation wa^ effected, however, and 
Shelley naturally found himself cut oil from all 
his former sources of income. The death of his 
grandfather early in 1815 induced his father to 
allow htm £1,000 a year in order to g^^rd against 
his encumbering the family estate. He settled 
£300 a year on Harriet, took a house near 
Windsor Forest wrote 'Alastor' (1816, a poem 
still immature in thought, but indjoating a great 
advance in his command of ppetic technic),.and 
studied the classics. In May 1816 he went again 
to Switzerland with jfary and Jane O air mont, 
and there he came under Byron's (q. v.) sway, 
exerting In his turn a strong influence upon his 
new friend. The autumn found Shelley 
back ,in England established at Great Markiw. 
^ere. in December i8i4 he learned of Har- 
riet's suicide in the Serpentine. The '.immediate 
causes of the act are obscure; but, whether or 
not the charges that have been made against 
Harriet's morjils during the closing months of 
her life are fully or partially justified, it seems 
absurd to acquit Shelley of all responsibility for 
her tragic fate. 

He was now free to marry Mary Godwin (30 
Dec. i8t6) but the law would not allow him to 
recover (He control of bis two children by Har- 
riet. SheHey resented Lord Eldon's decision. 
with some justice so far as the management oi 
their education was concerned; yet he had cer- 
tainly so conducted bimself as to make the 
Chancellor's decision seem equitable to most 
people at the time. Meanwhile a Son, William, been born to him and Mary, Leigh Hunt 
had become a friend, and Keats an acquaintance, 
and the elaborate narrative and allegorical 
poem 'Laon and Cylhna' had been begun. Two 
political tracts were also published anij, true to 
the humanitarian principles that always actuated 
his conduct even when its effects were delete- 
rious to others. Shelley ministered to the sick 
and needy around him. His" charity seemed 
boundless, and during his visitations he con- i 


tracted a bad case of ophthalmia. HU health 
had been otheiwi&e poor an<l, as for many rea- 
sons England was not a congenial dwelling- 
place, he determined to go to Italy, lie left 
England with his family, and by the end of 
March 1818 was at Turin. Two months pre- 
viously Oilier had reissued under the title of 
'The Revolt of Islam,' the long poem, whick, on 
its first appearance, had been entitled ''I^on and 
Cythna.' The relationship between the hero 
and heroine had been too close to stfit any save 
the most emancipsted readers, and Shelley had 
reluctantly made a few alterations, in the in- 
terest not so much of conventionality as of the 
success of the poem as a plea for the cause of 
oppressed peoples. No changes could make so 
lotjg and misty a performance popular ; but 
lovers of poetry will always find 'The Revolt of 
Islam' incomparable for its glowing pictures 
and its exquisite melodies. Both in its merits 
and in its defects it reflects, as though it were 
a mirror, its author's unique, attractive, yet 
singularly iiicomplete and unbalanced genius: 

The first months hi Italy were spent at Lake 
Como, Milan, and the Ba.ths of LucCa, and saw 
the completion of the' romantic poenl 'Rofealind 
and Helen* and the translation of Plato's 
^Symposium.' Then Shelley with Jane Clair- 

; Byron with regard 
gitimate daughter Allegra. (See Byron.) The 
poein 'Julian and Maddalo' commemorates 
some features of the visit. Byron loaned Shelley 
a villa at Este, and the latter at once sent for his 
ftmiily. A few weeks later Mary's second child, 
Clara, died at Venice. Returning to Este, Shel- 
ley began "Prometheus Unbound' and. charmed 
by the scenery, wrote the first draft of his beau- 
tiful 'Lines Written Among the Euganean Hills.' 
The vfinter of 1818-19 was spent at Naples, 
which inspired, among other, things, the 'Lines 
Written in Dejection,' and a magnificent ode to 
the beautiful' and oppressed city. Ke also wrote 
to his friend Thomas Love Peacock letters 
justly famous for their powers of description 
and admirable prose style. The Spring of 1819 
found him settled in Rome hard at work upon 
what is often re8:arded as his greatest achieve- 
ment, the aspiring but somewhat nebulous lyrical 
drama. 'Prometheus Unbound,' published in 
1820. Immediately after this he wrote the much 
more realistic tragedy entitled 'The Cenci,' 
probably the least subjective of his works, which 
was composed and published at leghorn ',1 
1819. Shortly before he left Rome in the sum- 
mer, his son William sickened and died. The 
well-nigh heart-broken parents retired to Leg- 
horn and then to Florence, where another son, 
afterward Sir Percy Florence Shelley, was 
bom. Here in October Shelley wrote that 
splendid poem, probably the most nobly imagina- 
tive of all his lyrics, the 'Ode to the West 
Wind,' as well a.<i two of his less successful, 
posthumously published poems, the parody 
'Peter Bell the Third' and 'The Masque of 
Anarchy,' inispired respectively by Words- 
worth's famous poem and by the infamous 
Manchester ■ Massacre. 

The beginning of 1820 saw the wanderer* 
established at Pisa, where Shelley's health bcfpin 
to improve. Several English friends, the Gis- 
bornes and the Williams's, and later Lord 

Byron and the traveller, Trelawnj, added to the 
attractions of the place and stimulated Shell^i 
genius, if not to the production of any elaborate 
poems of consetiuecce save 'Adonais' and 
'Hellas,' at least to the writing of spme of his 
most beautiful lyrics and charming familiar 
pieces. Among the poems of 1820 were the 
'Epistle to Maria Gisbome,' the fantastic 
' .Vitch of Atlas,' the exquisite 'Sensitive 
Plant,' and those matchless lyrics of their kind, 
'The Cloud' and the 'Ode to a Skylark.' The 
chief productiouB of J821 were the Platonic 
'Epipsychidion,' the final form of which was 
inspired hy an idealistic passion Shelley con- 
ceived for Emilia Viviani, an Italian girl confined 
in a convent against her will, the delightful and 
eloquent 'Defence of Poetry' (in prose), the 
immortal eleny on Keats, 'Adonais' (Pisa 
iSai), and 'Hellas,' a lyrical drama reflecting 
the emotions kindled in its liberty-loving author 
by the Greek revolution. The last named piece, 
in some of its choruses at least, gives evidence 
of such maturing powers that, when we take into 
account the range of Shelley's interests, mental 
and enjotional, we find it difficult to set liijiitft 
to his possible achievements if he had been per- 
mitted to live and had developed as steadily 
and as rapidly as he did during the dosing 
years of his short life. It is true that 'Epi- 
psychidion.' despite its marvellous beauty ol 
description and its intensity of spiritual paasion, 
shows that Shelley's idealism was still capable 
of givitig an unwholesome turn to his writings 
and; to put it mildly, a fatuous twist to his con- 
It is true also that the part Shelley took 

irccly argues a great increase in worldly wis- 
dom, though it speaks volumes for Shelley's 
generosity. But. when all deductions are made. 
the developi_ent and the promise of Shelley's 
28th, 29th, and 30th years are scarcely less re- 
markable than the development and promise of 
Keats in .the marvellous year of his great odes 
and 'Lamia.' 

In 1822 Shelley began a drama on Charles I„ 
but di(J, his best work on translations from 
'Faust' and Calderon's 'Magico Prodigioso' 
and on the highly imaginative 'Triumph of 
Life,' unfortunately left incomplete. Ip April 
the Shelleys went with the Williamscs to Lerici, 
and there the friends passed an ideal time luilil 
the arrival of the Hunts drew the kind-hearted 
Shelley early in July to Leghorn and Pisa to 
look after their comfort. On the eighth of July 
he began his return journey with Williams in 
the yacht "Ariel," which they owned jointly. 
Trelawny watched them sail away,. saw a squall 
come up, and when it. was over, could catch 
sight of them no more. His suspicions that all 
was not vrell were allayed for a time; but, as 
the days passed, every .one interested in the two 
voyagers lost hope. On 18 July Shelley's body 
— if the copies of Sophocles and Keats found in 
the pockets definitely marked it as his — was 
washed ashore near Via Reggio. . It was first 
buried in the sand, then cremated — save the 
heart which would not burn — and the ashes 
were buried in the Protestant cemetery at Rome 
(7 Dec. 1822) under the pyramid of Cains 
Cestius and near the grave of Keats. Thera 
seems to be little reasoi[i to' credit the notion 
that the yacht was designedly run down. 

1 ..Google 


Shelley is said to have been tall and slender, 
very youthful in appearance, with a fair com- 
plexion and dark blue eyes full gf artless won- 
der. Trelawny at first sight almost took him 
for a girl. His receptivity, gentleness, charity, 
and other exquisite traits sufncest the woman as 
much as his appearance did; but his hery hatred 
of oppression and shams, his calm defiance of 
public obloquy, his power to charm men of the 
world, forbid us to regard hirn as in any sense 
effeminate. In his writings no less than in his 
character and in his appearance this blending of 
essentially manly and essentially womanly char- 
acteristics is perceptible. His ideals were pas- 
sive rather than active ; his most indisputably 
successful poems are in theme and tone ex- 
pressions of longing-, weakness, pain, and sad- 
ness ; his best descriptive passages are hazy ; 
bis verse i% fluid and melodious rather than 
deeply harmonious. On the other hand, he has 
had the povrer to inspire strong souls with his 
ideals ; more than any other of our poets he has 
caught the Greek secret of endowing with life 
mythical figures and conceptions ; he was a 
scholar, a critic, a man of taste, and a prose- 
writer of no mean order; his genius was varied 
and copious beyond that of most of his contem' 
poraries. With regard to his final rank in Eng- 
lish literature no consensus of opinion seems at- 
tainable. While the public indifference that de- 
pressed him in his own day has long been over- 
come, he has never attained true popularity 
either at home or abroad, and his critics are 
only too likely to become his worshippers or 
else to display too openly a feeling of hostility 
toward his life and works. He is still too much 
the idol of advanced spirits and of people who 
are inclined to be a trifle exquisite in their lit- 
erary tastes and somewhat supercilious with re- 
gard to the tastes of others. His position as a 
great poet is scarcely open to question, but his 
position as a genuine classic in the fullest sense 
of the term is surely doubtful so long as Mat- 
thew Arnold and other qualified critics dissent 
from the praise of bis ideals, the defense of Tiis 
conduct, and the enthusiasm for his elaborate 
poems such as 'Prometheus Unbound' to be 
encountered in extravagant measure in the 
books and essays of his admirers. Perhaps it is 
safe to conclude that, while his conduct must be 
censured in many particulars, his character 
must be pronounced singularly winning and 
lovable, and, that, while his elaborate poems. 
though wonderful, are not sustained works of 
art, his genius as a lyrical poet is in range and 
quality unique and extraordinarily high, 

Biblwgrapky.— Varioas volumes of Shelley's 
poems, imperfect and in some cases pirated, 
helped to spread his small reputation until 1839, 
when Mrs, Shelley published an edition of his 
works in four volumes. Many important poems 
and letters have since been published — e. g., in 
Richard Gamett's 'Relics of Shelley' (1862). 
The most complete edition of the works in verse 
and prose is that by H. B. Fonnan (8 vols., 
iSt^-So). There are good editions of the 
poetry — in several volumes — by Fonnan (the 
new <Aldine,> 1B92), G. E. Woodberry, and 
others — also in one volume by Dowden 
( ' Globe' ), Woodberry (American 'Cam- 
bridge'), and T. Hutchinson ('Oxford,' 1904 
— the latest and fullest). The prose works were 

edited by R. H, Shepherd m 1888 (2 toIs.). 
The authoritative biography is that by Edward 
Dqwden (2 vols., 1886)— too plainly the wtrrk 
of an advocate, as J, C. Jeaffreson's 'The Real 
Shelley' (2 vols., 1885) is the work of a prose- 
cutor. Two good short biographies are those by 
J. A. Symonds ('English Men of Letters,* 
1878) and William Sharp ('Great Writers,* 
1887, with a bibliography). See also works by 
F. Rabbe, H. S, Salt, and others and, of course, 
the earlier lives by Medwin (1847) and Hogg 
(1858), Trelawny's 'Recollections of Shelley 
and Byron,' Leigh Hunt's 'Autobiography.' and 
other books by this devoted friend, etc. Of 
critical essays there is a large number and va- 
riety—see especiaily those by Matthew Arnold, 
Walter Bagehot, Dowden, Garnett, Leslie 
Stephen, and Woodberry. For bibliography con- 
sult Forman's 'Shelley Library.' 

William P. Trent, 
Professor of EHglish Ltttralure, Columbia 

Shelter Island, N. Y., island and town- 
ship, Suffolk county: situated at the eastern 
end of Long Island between Peconic and Gardi- 
ner's Bays : len^h eight miles ; width four. It 
is connected with the mainland and the Long 
Island Railroad by ferry to Greenport. The 
island was originally owned by the Manhasset 
Indians ; was acquired by Lord Sterling, and 
during colonial times belonged to the jurisdic- 
tion of Connecticut, The coast line is irregular 
nnd deeply indented with small bay^ and inlets, 
affording good harbors for yachts and small 
craft; there are excellent facilities for pleasure 
boating and fishing, and the island is a popular 
summer resort and a Methodist camp-meeting 
place. The New York Yacht Club has a station 
on the northern coast. Pop. (1890) 931; (1900) 
1,066; (iQiaest) 1,20a 

Shem, the eldest son of Noah ; according 
to the Mosaic account, he is the father of all 
the nations that inhabited southwestern Asia 
((Jen. X. 21-31), a territory inclusive of Syria, 
Chaldcea, parts of Assyria, of Persia, and of 
the Arabian peninsula. Hence the inhabitants 
are called Semites, and their language and civili- 
zation styled Semitic. See Sbhitic Languacbs. 
Shemalclia, she-ma- ki,', Russia, in Trans- 
caucasia, on the Zagoiovai, about 63 miles 
northwest of Baku. It is situated in the midst 
of mountains, on verdant slopes and was once 
a commercial centre. It has, however, suffered 
from earthquakes, and one in ig02 almost de- 
stroyed it. Silk manufacture is the chief indus- 
try, Shemakha's history from 1712 was one of 
almost continuous warfare ; it was captured and 
occupied in turn by various Persian, Turkish, 
and Russian commanders. Pop. 25,000, 

Shen-Bi, shin-se', China, a northern in- 
terior province, bounded on the north bv the 
Great Wall, which divides it from Mongolia, on 
the east by Shan-si and Honan, on the south- 
east by Hu-peh, on the south by Sze-chuen, and 
on the west !^ Kan-sn ; area, 75,270 square 
miles. It is traversed by the Pehling range, 
separating the basins of the Hwang-ho and 
Yang-tse or Yellow and Great Rivers; is well 
watered, chiefly by the Wei-ho, Ldh. and Wu- 
tiog; prqdtuee good crops of wheat, millet, and 



- cotton; reara great numbers of horiea, cattle, gal, never having been captuKd nor defeated in 
goKts, and sheep; and has tnioct of iron, copper, his eniire career. The British government re- 
lead, coal, and gold. Tbeae, with rhubarb, musk, leased all of the crew not British-bora and 
and wax, are the chief exports. Fop. 8,450^00. turned the vessel over to the American consul. 

Shenandoah, sh£n-an-do'a, Fa., borough in Shenandoah Hountalna, a range in Vir- 
Schuylkill County: on the Pennsylvania, the ginia, belonging to the AUeghanieB, extending 
Philadelphia & R., and the l^high Valley northeast and southwest, and forming the west- 
R.R.'s; about loo miles northwest of Philadel- em boundary of the Shenandoah Valley. 
phia and 13 miles north by east of Potts ville siMnandoah VaUey, Va, between the 
St.'^"S[r'n-'^- i^.?lP'T,""f ^^i.f^:; Shenandoah MounUina ok the iest and the Blue 
1850 ^ Kellcy, but was not laid Otit ^.^ Mountains on the ea*t. It is noted for its 
" a Vly ""I' ^^■- '.K '^ '^ t A A^°^A?.^ bea^ful scenery, and the variety and beauty 
^,1 ^.7,*^V }\lll\^TZ',^Llrt.^' o* i" vegetation: The large forests found here 
trial «nlre of a region rjch m anthracite coal, ■ chestnut, hickory, oak, and other hard- 
six of the argest co lieries in the country are , j .,„. tiL ,..,11. ^.-^.J—j , — n,ij .»;j. 

irithm the timfts of the borough, and a ninber r°°^ ly«>„ 7** P"^/ ^Vf'^tJ; Z t it 

of other lat^ collieries are within a one-mile *^« ^f ™5„i^l,r™",^ 'r/^S, Lw nll.^ 

radius. The chief industries of the place are ^^^ tL^L^^ J^t<^^l^ni l.r^!^ 

connected with the mining and shipping of coal ; ^" , ** ^^TfS?^. «. ,1^^™ if ,tr^ 

machine shops, mining-tc^l works, and foundrie^ ^CJcJ^f ^ 1^hI„™%^.^H=T(«V^ 

are among tiw manufactories. Other manufac- I«'fP»nB "^ ^hil'P H^T Sheridan (q^v.). _ 

turing establishments are hat and cap factories, Shenandoah Valley, MiHtan Operations 

brewery, and printing esublishments. There are m- At the beginning of the Civil War the 

20 churches, representing seven different denomi- Shenandoah Valley was the garden spot of 

nations, seven public schools, five parish schools, Virginia, fall of grain and hay, and teeming 

and a public library. The two national banks with live stock and other supplies essential to 

have a combined capital of $aoo,ooo. There are the Confederates. It became the beaten track 

also a savings bank and three building and k)»n »nd alternately the camping-ground of both ar- 

associations. The government is administered mi«, witnessed much brilliant strategy and 

by a chief burgess and a council of 15 members many hard-fought battles, and at the close of 

chosen at popular clectioa Pop. (1880) 10,147; the war was a scene of desolation. Its topography 

(1890) 15,944; (1900) 20,321; (1910) 35,77* favored the Confederates, since, as covered on 

Shuundoab, a river in Virginia which has the cast by the Blue Ridge, it was the easiest 

its source in Augusta County, and flows north- '""" *"" •»'""*-'"'"' w.,i,.„™™ — t ,u ^ 

east, or the west side of and nearly parallel to 

a»e Blue Ridsw. It enters the Potomac at Har- land and PennsylYa 

per'a Ferry, W. Va. Its total lengdi is about 170 /56r.— Virginia passed an ordinance of se- 

nrilea. It flows rai»dly over nearly all its course cession on 17 April, and the next night Sute 

and fumishea extenaiw water-pwwer which is troops moving, without authority of the gov- 

used for manufacturing and has oontriboted «mor, from Staunton and other points in the 

greatly toward the industrial prosperity of the valley, seized Harper's Ferry, with its arsenal, 

vaUey armory, and munitions of war, the small United 

Shenandoah, The, a ship named after the ?*"'" ^■^''^^'^°'il^ ?"" "''" ""'' 'J^^' 
Shenandoah Wer. V^ginia. bought by the Con- "*» " ^'''*'*' ^,\r^^.^ '"*" •"" 'P^ldy oc- 
jederate Staiea dunng the A«eri^ War of the cup.ed by several Virginia regnnents, and CoU 
Confederacy and in commission as a privateer T. J. Jackson put in command. Jackson was 
during the last year of that war. The Shenan- relieved by G«i. J. E Johnston 23 May Upon 
doah was built in Glasgow in 1863; she was the dash of CoL Uw Wallace wi Romney (q.v.), 
intended for the far Eastern trade but wae pur- J3 J'^^"^ the approach of Gen. B. Patterson 
chased by the Confederates in 1864 and in Cfcto- f'om Chambersburg to Wilhamspolt, tbreateri- 
ber of that year was commissioned as a privateer, ""g h" position, Johnstoa, 15 June, burned all 
The ship, named the Sea King, had sailed the bridges of the Potomac from Harper's Fen^ 
from London for Madeira, where she received northward to WiUiamsport, ab«idoned Har- 
her privateersman's crew, composed mostly of PW s Ferry and fell back to Winchester. On 
officers from the Sumter, the Alabama, then de- 2 July Patterson crossed the Potomac at Wil- 
stroyed and the Georgia, and common sailors. I»nisport, occupied Martmsburg and, under Ger„ 
under the command of Captain James I. Wad- Scott's order, threatened Johnston at Wmches- 
dell. The Shenandoah sailed from Madeira and ter, to hold him there, while Gen. McDowell 
circumnavigated the globe, via Melbourne, being advanced on Gen. Beauregard at Bull Run ; but, 
the only Confederate vessel to do so. In the 18 July, Johnston eluded Patterson, and with 
Qourse of her career she captured or destroyed ftOOO men- marched through Ashb/s Gap to 
99 of the enemy's vessels, valued in the aggre- Piedmont and took cars for Manassas. The 
gate at about $2,000,000. Her last action, the Union occupation of the tower valley was brief; 
last hostility of the war, was on a8 Jmie Patterson, after Johnston had left his front, 
1865. about three months after the war had fatlinpr back to Harper's Ferry, where 25 July 
ended, when the Shenandoah appeared among he was relieved by Gen. Banks, and the Union 
the American whalers near the Bering Straits troops, save a small guard at Harper's Ferry, 
and captured ten vessels before night^ll. On were withdrawn to the Maryland side of the 
a August Captain Wadddl learned from an Potomac. Late In October 'Stonewall" Jack- 
English bark of Lee's surrender, five months he- son was assigned to the command of l^e Co». 
fore. He sailed at once to Liverpool and deliv- federate forces in the lower valley, wilti heail- 
ered his ship to the British man-of-war Done- quarters at Winchester, and wa« reinfaiced by 



LorinK's division from West Vir^nia. Jackson tiie morning of the 24th Banks rett^atcit aoOb- 
■wept the few Union outposts horn the fringes ward on the valle; pike, wai struck, in flank hf 
of the valloj', boke the Baltimore and Ohio Jackson at Middletown and NawCDwn, but 
Railroad and Cbesapeahe and Ohio Cansl in foiled his eflbrts. to intercept him, and after a 
several places, as far westward as Hancock, and running fight from- Middleiown to Wnichostcr, 
10 Jan. 1863 dcove tbe Union forces from ELoob- halted on the night of the 34th an Winchester 
ney and occupied It with Loring's division. By to give battle. On the morning of the 35U1 
orders of tbe CiHifederBte secretary of war, 31 Jackson atta<A(cd Banks, who. had about 7,000 
January, Loring was withdrawn from Romn^ men, defeated him and drove him across the 
to Winchester. wHene JackaOQ remsiaed during Potomac at William^ort. (See Winchestbi, 
the rest of the winter, tbe Union forces again BArrtx op.) JacksOn halted his main body a 
occupying Romney on 7 Fabroafy, demonstrat- few miles beyond Winchester, but tbe cavalry 
ing on Winchester, and sending expcditioiu followed Banks 10 the river. On tbe iSt^i JJck- 
southward to bring in cattle. sen sent part of his force toward Han>er's 
fida^— Active operations began in the volley Perry, which made a demonstration, as though 
tetc in Februaty by the movsicent of two Union intending to force tbe position and cross into 
divisions across the Potomac art Harper's Ferry Matyland. Meanwhile Fremont and McDowell, 
and an aiftraoce on Winchester, near which moving respectively from Franklin on the west 
Lander's division from Romney and the sondi and Predericksbarg on the east, werenMverging 
branch of the Fotonac joined the coluiwi. on Strasburg, in Jackson's rear, to cut him off, 
Mnnaisas and CentreviJlei wet<e evaciMted by Jipoa which he alMndoned his dethonstration on 
Gen. Johnston on 8 and 9 KfarOb, and jaokson. Harper's Ferry and, starling from WincKesIet 
with his! Sfloo men, under Johnston's order, early in the morning of tlie 31st, by a rapid 
abandoned Winchester on the night of the irth, march slipped througii the net prepared for hire 
as he was on the eve of giving battle to Gen. and arrived at Strasburg I June, Fr^mont'e 
Banks, and fell ttack np the vaJtcy 42 imles to fA^rmisbeis being within' a-mile of tlie road ovei 
Mount Jackson, followed by Shielde' (forniMly which he passed. Next day Fremont gave a 
Lander's) division of %nks' corps. On the steffl nhase on the valley pilte, and' Shields' divi- 
30th Shields moved hack to WincbeaCer, fol- sion, now of McDowell's corps, marching lly 
lowed by Jackmn. Informed on the march that Lutay Valley, endeavored to- reach Jacksotfs 
part of %idc9' corps was being sent from the rear or strike htm in flank. Fr6mont pressed 
valley to reiniorae McClellaa east of the Bhic his rear closely in many sharp encouiiMrs, dritv 
Ri(^, Jackson, in ordOr to detain it in the val- log him steadily through Woodstock, Edenburg. 
key, pressed Shields closely, skirmished with him Bnd Moimt Jackson ; but Jackson, avoiding a 
on the evening of the aad, and rieat day brought general engagement, when arriving' at Harrison- 
him to battle at Kemstown (q.v.), less tb^ burg, sent his sick and wounded to Staonion, 
fou^ mites sotifh of Winchester, aiid being dc atul 6 June, tnming to the left, marched toward 
feated, a^cin retreated up the vaUey. Mis an- Port Republic. Later in the day his rear-gsard 
tion had the desired efiEect; Williams' diviMon, had in encounter with Fr6mont'a advance near 
Chat w» oh the march through Snidoer's Gap Harrisonlmi^ (qiv.), In which Gen. Tanwr 
of the Blue Ridge, was recalled, and Banks Ashby, a gallant Confederate cnvali^ corn- 
again pursued Jai^cm np the valley as far as mander, was hilled, and the result of which, was 
Hsrrisonburg, 66 mileK from Windiester, Jack- that Prteienft advance waa rej^lteri. Pr^mom 
son falling back to SWift Rn Gap, is the Bhte advanced in fOrce from Harrisonburg on tbe 
Ridge, oti tbe road from Harrisonburg to Gor- mttming of the 8lh, and af Cross Keys (q.v.) 
donsville, where ha waWhed an opportmity to was met by Jackson, who, after a severe fight, 
strike Banks in flank and rror should he ad- repulsed hhn. Leaving Bwell's division to ro* 
vance from Harrisonburg to Staunton. Under sirt Fr^oiont, should he renew the fiohl next 
President Lincoln's ortter Banks fell back to morning, Jackson matched the rest of his array 
Stntsburg, and Gen. Fr^motrt, commanding a to Port Republk: to meet Shields, who was 
corps, waa ordered to move from Franklin and moving up Luray Valley, and whose advance, 
Monterey to co-operate with Banks in an ad- under Col. Carroll, had dashed into Port 8e- 
Tance on Staunton. Jackson, informed of Fr^ pobJk on the mormng of the 8th, was chiven 
moot's advance, mode a rapid movement from out and joined later in the d^ by a bri^de 
Shrift Run Gap to Staunton and. pushing under Col. E. B. Tyler. Jackson attacked 
through that place on s May, engag«l Fri- the two brigades of Tyler on the morning of the 
months advance, under Gens, Schencb and Mi!- ptfi, and at first was repulsed, bnt finaHy, ob 
— -I the 8th, and in a hard-fOBght battle being reinforced, after a hard fight, drove Tyler 
.J itj^ Schcnck felling back to Fratthllo. from the field and back I0 Conrad's Stort, on 

McBow«x, Battle or.') Jacksoti fol- the other two brigades of Siields* division. (See 

lowed to Franklin, foond Schenck ft» strongly Port Rekiblic. Battlb or.) Ewell had been 

posted to attack and on the iBih began his recalled from Fremont's front, the bridge over 

return march to the valley to attatk Banks. On the South Branch destroyed, thtts checking Fri- 

the 19th he started from Mount Solon, near mont's pursoit, and that ni^t Jackson marched 

Hvrisonburg, on the 21st crossed the Massa- to Brown's Gdp in the Blue Ridge. Fremont 

nwton Mountains from New Market to Luray, and Shields were ordered to cease pursnit and 

a«d, joined by Ewelt's divtskm, swept down the fall hack, the former to Middletown to join 

Ltmy VaHey, with over 16,000 men and 48 guns, Sigrf and Banks, who had advanced from Hw- 

defeated Col. KenVs command of goo men at per's Ferry and Williamsport, the latter to join 

FVool Royal (q.v.), 23 May and pursuing, cap- hi* corps at FVederkkahorg^ The Vallet cam- 

turod the most of ft:. This movement tamed paign of i86a estabHshed Jackson's fw»« as a 

Banks' fortified positfos at Strasburg, and on soldier. From the date of his arrival a jtaon- , 



ton, 5 Way, to the battle of Port Republic was 35 Railroad west of New Creek, which resulted la 
daja, during which he had marched about 300 several encounters, and was partially success- 
miles, fighting four battles and engaging in ful, many bridges bdng burned and the read 
many other encounters, and with 16,000 men had broken in places as far westward as Clarks- 
Itept 60,000 Union troops employed, and par- burg, W. Va. While these movements were in 
alyzed McGellan's campaign against Richmond, progress Gen. Lee defeated Hooker at Chancel- 
On 17 June Jackson stole quietly away from lorsville, after which he immediately began 
Brown's Gap to join Lee on the Chickahominy. preparations for his second invasion of Maryland 
Uunford's cavalry brigade and a few infantry which culminated in the battle of Gettysburg, 
were left in the valley to demonstrate in the and chose the route through the Shenandoah 
direction of Strasburg, and Munford was soon Valley, which offered a safe line of opera- 
relieved by Robertson's brigade, which took post tions, and was held by Union troops not sufli- 
at Harrisonburg and Mew Market When Gea. dent in numbers to present a serious obstacle. 
Pope, ^ June, took command of the Army of Gen. Milroy, with about 9,000 men, occupied 
Virginia, formed by the corps of Fremont, Winchester, with a brigade in observation at 
Banks, and McDowell, he withdrew Fremont and Berryville; Gen. Kellcy, with lOfioo men, was 
Basks from the valley to the east of the Blue at Harper's Ferry; and a detachment of i,300 
Ridge, leaving garrisons of a small brigade each men and a battery, under Col. B. F. Smith, at 
at Winchester, Martinsburg, and Harper's Ferry Martinaburg. There were outposts at Romaey. 
to cover the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and also toward Strasburg and Front Roy^ 
Throughout July and August 1862 the valley watching the Confederate cavalry and infantry 
enjoyed comparative quiet. Ib August Gen. under Gen. Jenkins in the upper valley. Lee 
Lee advanced upon Pope and drove him back began his movement 7 June by ordering Gen. 
to the defenses of Washington, then crossed the Imbodeo, then near Monterey, to move on Rom- 
Potomac into Maryland by a route east of the ney, by way of the SoDth Branch of the PoK>- 
Slue Ridge. Upon arriving at Frederick and mac, and directing Jenkins, with his brigade of 
finding, contrary to his expectations, that Mar- cavalry, to march down the valley and concen- 
tinsburg, Winchester, and Harper's Ferry were trate at Strasburg or Front Royal, to co-operate 
«till held by Union troops, interposing on his with the advance of the army. Ewell's corps, 
proposed line of supply through the Shenandoah leaving Brandy Station on 10 June, passed 
Valley and interfering with his intended move- through Chester Gap and, marching by way of 
ment into Pennsylvania, on 10 September he Front Royal arrived at Cedarville on the even- 
sent «Stonewall» Jackson across the Potomac jng of the lath, where Ewell dettiched Jenkins* 
at Williamsport to clear the valley of Union cavalry brigade and Rodes' division of mfantry 
troops and capture those at Harper's Ferry, to capture MacReynolds' brigade at Berryville; 
Winchester had already been abandoned; Gen. but MacReynolds, discovering their approach. 
White was driven from Martinsburg to Har- withdrew to Winchester, which he reached by a 
per's Ferry on the nth, and on the morning of ronndabont way, on the 13th. Rodes and Jen- 
the ISth Harper's Ferry surrendered and the kins, avoiding Winchester, then pushed on 
entire valley was once more in Confederate pos- to Martinsburg and, on the 14th, drove Smith 
session. When Lee withdrew across the Poto- and his battery from the place, capturing 
mac, after the battle of Antietam. he halted a five guns of the battery that were retiring on 
month on the Opequon and near Winchester; the Williamsport road. Smith and his infantry 
but when McQellan began crossing the Potomac escaping by crossing the Potomac at Shepherds- 
at Berlin, on 25 October, and moved along the town Ford and moving to Maryland Heights. 
cast foot of the Blue Ridge, set his troops Meanwhile Ewell, with the two divisions ol 
in motion up the valley, contesting wjth Me- Early and Edward Johnson, marched direct 
Qellan possession of the passes leading into the on Winchester, surrounding and capturing 
valley, and marching Longstreet's corps through most of Milroys command, on the iSth, aflcr 
Chester Gap to Culpeper Court House, leaving a hard fight, part of those who escaped, 
Jackson's corps in the valley, near Winchester, reaching Harper's Ferry, and part crossing 
with one division at Chester Gap. McQellan the Potomac at Hancock. (See Winches- 
was relieved from command of the Army of the teb, Second Baiti* of.) On the isth Early 
Potomac 7 November, and Burnside, who sue- crossed the Potomac at Williamsport and Shep- 
cecded him, marched for Fredericksburg, and herdstown Ford, and occupied Hagerstown and 
when his advance appeared before that place on Sharpsburg. On the 17th the garrison at Har 
die 17th, Jackson withdrew from the valley by per's Ferry was withdrawn to Maryland Heights. 
way of Swift Run Gap, and joined Lee at Imboden had driven the Union troops from 
Fredericksburg, leaving in the valley a strong Romney, and collected a large herd of cattle, 
brigade of cavalry, supported by a small force and once more the valley of the Shenandoah 
of infantry. Union forces now crossed the was cleared of Union troops. Gen. Lee report* 
Potomac and the Confederates were pushed up that as the result of these operations Ewell 
the valley to New Market, and again the Union captured 4,000 prisoners, with their arms, 38 
traops occupied the lower valley, holding Win- guns, 11 colors, 300 loaded wagons, with their 
Chester, Martinsburg, and Romney, with out- teams, and a considerable quantity of stores ot 
posts at Strasburg, and scouting up the valley all descriptions. After Gettysburg Lee rc- 
of the South Branch as far as Monterey. Under crossed the Potomac at Williamsport on the 
cover of this occupation the Baltimore and Ohio night of 13 July and marched to Winchester 
Railroad was repaired. and Bunker Hill, When Meade crossed the 
rfSj.— Active operatioiiS in the valley began Potomac south ot Harper's Ferry, Longstreet's 
tiiis year by a Oinfederate raid from near corps moved op the valley, crossed the Blue 
Staunton to destroy the Baltim(»e and Ohio Ridge at Chester Gap^ and marched to Cul' 



peper Court House, where it arrived on the to destroy the bridges of tbe Baltimore uid Ohw 
3^ A. P. Hill'a corps followed by the same Kailroad, and with his main body pushed down 
toute, and Ewell's, after pursuing Kelley's Unioa the raliey turnpike, reaching Winchester 2 July. 
troops west of Martinsburg, found Chester Gap After driving all the Union troops from the 
*nd Manassas Gap held by Meade, who was tower valley, ftsd destroying as much as possible 
tuarching along the east side of tiie Blue Ridge, of the railroad and canal, he crossed the Poto ' 
and crossing higher up, at Thornton's Gap, mac at Shepherdstown, demonstrated on Mary- 
joined Uie army at Culpeper. ' (See Manassas land Heights (q.v.), and marching through 
Gap, Ekoageubitt at.) Again the lower val- Frederick, defeated Gea Lew Wallace at 
ky was reoccupied by Union troops, and re- Monocacy (q.v.), g July, and then marched on 
mained in their possession at the opening of the Washington (q.y.). Failing to take Washington 
campaign of 1864. Late in tbe year Gen. Early by surprise, as he had hoped to do, he retraced 
was put in command of two infantry brigades his Bteps, recrossed the Potomac at White's 
and some cavalry to hold the upper valley. Ford on the 14th, and restihg two days near 
annoy the Union forces at Winchester, and Leesburg, moved on the morning of the i6th 
a>llect and bring away everything useful to the for the Shenandoah Valley by way of Snicker's 
Union troops or his own, and especially to buy Gap in die Blue Ridge; crossed the Shenandoah 
or seize cattle, horses, sheep, and hogs, in which River at Snidcer's Ferry, and on the i?th took 
file lower valley and that of the South Branch positioh near Berryville. Meanwhile Hunter 
abounded. His instructions to do this were and Crook, who had retreated from Lynchburg 
carried out to the letler, and the winter of to the Kaiiawha, had come by steamboat and 
1863-4 witnessed one of the moat remarkable railroad and joined the forces at Harper's Ferry, 
fiKaging campaigns known, in which the lowfer and on die i8th and igth engaged Early at 
valley and diat of the SouA Branch were Snicker's Ferry and Berry's Ferry (q.v.) with- 
■tripped of thoQsands of animals. These forag-' ont success. During the 19th Early heard that 
ing parties brought on many collisions between Averell's division of cavalry, which also had 
fte opposing troops. come from the west, was marching from Mar- 
1B64.— In the general movement planned by tinsburg toward Winchester, threatening hia 
Gen. Grant for the armies under his command rear, whereupon, during the mg^t, he began a 
in May 1864, Gen. Sigel, who had command in retreat to Sirasburg. Averell defeated Rant- 
the Shenandoah Valley, was to advance from seiir's division at Stmhenson's Depot on the 
Harper's Ferry and Winchester up flie valley, 20th, which caused Early to move back with one 
■ei;e the rich stores of grain, and form a junc- division from Newtowt} to Winchester; but 
tion with Gen. Croolci'whp, with davalry, infan-, being threatened by the Union advance from 
tty, and artillery, was to inarch from the moutti' Berryville, he again fell back to Newtown, and 
of Gauley River, W. Va', to destrOT thi Vir- on the 21st concentrated his infantry near Mid-' 
tfinia and Tennessee Railroad and rdnforcS dletown. Next day he fell back beyond Cedar 
Sigel at Staonton, fof ' a movement on Lynch- Creek and covered all the roads from Winches- 
burg. Sigel had about 24,000 men in his de- ter. Crook and Averell united their forces at 
partmen^ most of them guarding the railroad Kemstown, and on Jlje morning of the 24th 
from the Monocacy and Harper's Ferry to Par- Early again moved on Winchester, attacked 
kersburg and Wheeling. He concentrated part Crook, and drov; him back, pursuing beyond 
of his command at Winchester, ordered his Winchester. (See ICebnstown, Second Battle, 
cavalry to Cedar Creek and Stra^burg and, or.) Early continued the pursuit next day to 
starting from Winchester 9 May, with 5,500 in- Bunker Hill, Crook and Averell recrpssing the 
fantry and artillery, ifioo cavalry, and 28 guns, Potomac. On the 26th Early torched to Mar- 
moved np the valley. His cavalry had several tinsburg (q.v.), and devoted the 27th and 28th 
mishaps and ^M badly punished and, after a to the destruction of the railroad; and on the. 
severe defeat of his command by Gen. Brcckin- agth McCausland crossed the Fotomac on his 
ridge at New Market, 15 May, he retreated to noted raid to Chambersburg, Pa. (qv,). Earhr ' 
Cedar Creek. Gen. Hunter relieved him on the remained at Martinsburg and Bunker Hill until 
3ist and, being reinforced to 8,50a iDen, ad- 3 August, Sending expeditions into Maryland by 
vanced upon Gen. W. E, Jones at Piedmont, Williamsport and Shepherdstown fords to Ha- 
defeated him there 5 June, and next day occu- gerstown and Sharpsburg, collecting horses, cat- 
pied Staunton. (See PiEDUoirr, Battle of.) tie, and other supplies, and, ,recrossii^ the 
At Staunton Hunter was joined by Gens. <Zrook Potomac on the 6th, concentrated, at Bunker 
and Averell, and began the work of destruction, Hill on the, 7th. 

thoroughly and quickly completed it, and oa Gen. Grant had been annoyed and disturbed 

the 7th marched on Lynchburg, which he failed by these Confederate irruptions and operations 

to take, and was driven westward by Gen. Early, in the valley, and had come to the decision that 

who, with his corps of'8,D0O men, had been sent it should he made untenable for either army 

fay Gen. Lee, 12 June, from Gaines' Mill to expel and had framed instructions for Gen. Huiiter 

Hunter from the valley and, if possible, destroy to drive the Cimfederates from it and make it '■ 

bim, and then threaten Washington. It may a_ waste, where no , army could live. . Hunter 

here be stated that Hunter, Crook, and Averell yielded the command to Geo. Sheridan, who 

marched to the Kanawha, and thus left the val- assumed commaxid 7 Augiist and proceeded to 

1^ open to. Early,- On 23 June Early began his carry out Grant's instructions. On the morning 

return march froB the pursuit of Hunter, and of the roth ^eridan marched his army, which 

reached Staunton on the 27th. He had been, had been inoved to Halltown, . near Harper'* 

joined by Gen. Breckinridge's division of infan- Ferry, toward Early's line of communication. , 

try, and McCauslan,d's brigade of cavalry. On . upon which Early, abandoned Wlnijhester on the- 

the 29th he sent the greater part of his cavalry" nth and fell baclt to Cedar Creek, followed by 



Sbeijidap next day; At Cedar Creek Early re< ticpJly tstdai the Valley campftign of 1864. 
ceived remforcemehts — a division af infantry. There were numeroua raids apd cavalry wic.ou&r 
two brigades of cavalry, and a battalion of ar- tere, but no eeneral moveiueats or. he«vy sut 
tillery froni Lee's array, all under command oi Hagements. Early remained ia tjie vicinity of 
Geo. R. H- Anderson — aivl resumed. th^ aSen- New Uarket until 16 December, wbea be idX 
siv« so twereasiyely 'with liis cavaJiy, bringing back to near S^unton. and Slieriilaii went ioto 
oa severaf sharp encounters, .that Sheridan with- winter q^uarters at Kcrnstown. B«tweei] the 
drew bis infai^try on the night of the i6th, his two there was no subsistence Jor man or beastf 
cavalry followipg next day, driving all the live the valley had been desolated. One of EarJ^a 
stock in that p^rt of the vallev before il, and staff records ia hi$ diary that from the time of 
burning, the grain from Cedar Creek to Berry- Early's appearance in the valley late m June tUl 
ville, near wHch Sheridan had taken position, the middle of Nov«mbef hf had siarcbed 1,670 
Early pursue4 Sheridaa on the moi^ning of the miles and had 75 battlae and ^irnushes. 
17th, struck and routed' part of his conimand JS65.— During the winter the groatcr part 
near Winshester, driving it throush the towp, ©f Early's command waaaent to Gen,. Le« at 
and on the aist moved with his whole array to Petersburg, kaving Early a very email force of 
attack Sheridan at Berryville. That night infantry a;id cavalry. Oh ZJ February, Gen. 
Sheridan, after some sharp encoiwiters with jheridan, with two well-equipptd divisions of 
Early's advance, fell b^ck to Hall Town, For i^avalry qf Bfloo men each, started from Wiit- 
three days £arly demonstrated on Sheridan's Chester on the last cafm>aign up the Shtnaodeah 
■osition, then,. leaving pnc division in front i^£ YaiWy, a»d with but littk oppositiiM. reached 
Sheridan, niai«hed on the zstji .with four diviT Staunton, EarJy falling back to Waynesboiou^. 
sions and his cavalry, to Lee Town and toward The work of .dMtrJjctkjn al Staunton was. com-i 
Shepherdstowti, his ca.valry pushing on to Wil- pleted, and Earjy was followed to Wayneisbot- 
liamsport. Beyon4 I-ee Town Earl;^ met and ough, where a March his command of 1,800 men 
engaged Torbe^t's cavalry, driving it back to w^s defeated and dis^er^ed, rsost of them being 
Shepherdplpwn. ' (See ^hsph£hdstowN( En-, captured, with all their colors, ii guns, and tr.ain- 
WOEMENTS AT.) Early remained thM oight at (See W^vmksbqbowh, Battle of.^.;. Sheridan 
ShMherdstowfi, where he wa? joined neiLt (liy. then moyed i^runolestcd to the Virginia Central 
by his cavalry, ^'bich' }>ad demonstrated on W)!-, Railroad, which he deitro'yed f»r . oiiles, and- 
liamsMtt, and the eomniand returned to Win- niari^ied to White House, on .(he PamuJikey: 
Chester,' On SS August Sheridan advanced his RWer, whfre he arrived, 19 lyiarcli, and thei» 
infantry to' Charles to vifn... Hprn't's cavalry divi- moved to join' Orant's' ar?v.l'eIore Petersburg, 
siori, going by way of Lee Town, drove the. . There ia no area upon which Jhy armies, con- 
Confederate cavalry frpm, tha^. 'place to Smith-.' tended that witnessed piore .briU^wjt .strategy,, 
field Aod across the Op^uqn. Next day Early, fertility. of resouf-cc,, more rapid anit.exljausiing 
drove Merriit back through Spiilhfield, but'waa iparches, and more gallant fighting than that 
checked and driven bacfe acrps^ the Opequon by enclosed by the Allegheny Moutttayis aqd the 
a division O.f Sheridan's infafttry, '(See SifiXH-' Blue Ridge; 'there was no otjier section of the 
riELp, EmgacimbNt aj.) Tliere were now sey- country whose iahahitac.fs suffered more than. 
erarn\inor encounters and <puiiter demon^tra- did tnose,Df the Shenandoah Valjey. Consult: 
tlons, and on the morning of iQ Sepiein'bef , 'Official Records.' Vols. 1I„ V., XI., 5ll„ XIX., 
Sheridan crossed the ' Opequon and in a hard- XXL. XXV., XJCVII^ XXIX., XXXV?!., XLIL. 
fougtit bpnie' defeated Early, who retreated to XLIU., XLVL, U.: AHiui, 'Jackson's Valley 
Newtown lind Fisher's , Hill, near . Strasburg. Campaign' ; Pond.- 'The Shenandoah Valley in 
(See 'Oi^t-oN-, BATri:E of thb..") 'Si^eridan foT- 1864' ■ Early, 'The Last Year of the War . for 
lowed, on the 20th. and on .tjip alst again de- Independence*;, Kellogg, 'The Shenandoali Val- 
fea,ted fiariy ^t Fi^r's 11111 ('q.v.), an(i pursued: ley ?nd Virginia, 1861 t6 1865^' ; Sheridan, 'per- 
his :retreatmg troops duHng thfe night, &nd next sOnal Memoirs,' Vol. 11. ; The Century pom- 
day K> Mount Jackson. Beyond .New Market papy's 'Battles and Leader^ of the. Civil War,' 
Early abandoned the valley pike aiad .took a' Vols. I, IL, in., IV. ^ a! CaWak. 
r6ad leading to Port Republic. Sheriifen, not „^ ,, .. ,, , tj «. 
having bis cavalry with him,, halted until , it ,_-!!!«'«;-^K' J*'^."-^"« ■ ?1 ■^*'°„ t""^* 
came up on the 2Sth, when it advanced to lyS-toong , Hanchnna. the soiithernmost prov- 
Stauntoti and Waynesborbugh, dearOying the 'Jjce, stt-etchmg into the Jdlbw ;^a ^M-^- 
railroad between the two , places, but.Ving, the gulf of Liao Tung dnd- Korea Bay, has an 
tfirearined'ln'flan'k and i+ar fiy EaVly, M bapk, "«/ ^ 37,000 square nnlcs a pleasat,tc1miate. 
burning mUls, store-houses,, barns, grain, and' and is generally fCTtfle. Pop: «.ooo,«». The- 
forage, driving before them all live s.lock and sf^them portion of the provmce is IpioWti ^s the- 
devastating thl'whole width of thj valley from Li^o Tvrng Pen.nMila ; at the extrwnjty is Fort 
Statniton %oithvard. On the retitrn mafch - A"hur (q.v.) taken by Japan m the war of ■ 
Sheridap S cavalry was harassed by (hat .of 1894-S, h"t relroceded fo China on the payjnent 
the-Coniedetates. who were turned 'Upon and of 3«.o«>^ooo'ae!a ($21,300,000). In l8g8. how- 
rdlited at Tben's Broolt, 9 Octdbcr, when Sheri- ever, the Oiitiese leased it and adiacent territory 
dan restiraed his rtiarch' down the valley,, halt- including Talienwan or Dalnj, ^R"*!*- Con- 
ing 'pn the ro9i on the north side of Cedar segitent on (he Boxer troubles ,df 190I ,R".ssja 
cAek. EsVW had followed,: and: on the'mdm- oceupted the , whole of Manohuna, and rapidly 
iiig Of iQ' Octobtr fell opon Sheridan's ariny and " P''^*"''"*^^? '^""Ij'' **■ , ^^ VrKeOott was 
drove it "back in 'ioAie disoi'der, hut ft was rallied . interrupted by ttie Russo-JapaWese war at 11904. 
near 'MJddietown and,'TesutOing the o'l^ensive,, ^** *i*«CHtJTOA. 

deKeatetf Early, "who retreated to New Market. Shen'itone, WilUam, English P»et >nd 

(Sw'CiiDAR Cimes, Battle qr.) This pi'aq- Jajiifccaiw-gardener : li. Hales Owoas, W9r;cester- 

i-.d.. Google 


■hire, Norember i7Jjt! d. dure II Feb. i;^. He Shqiard, WUliam, American soldier: b, 
was educated at OxfQrd, and intended entering Boston, Mas^i i Dec 1737; d. Wcstfield, Mass., 
a profession, but after inberiting bis fatber's Ji Nov. 1817. He enlisted in the provinciat 
estate, Leasowes, lived in retirement upon it, army at the outbreak of the French and Indian 
devoting his life to its embellishment and to war and served until 1763, participating in the * 
wn'tinf; poetry, mudi of which was vETy popvlar, battles of Fort Wiltiara Henry and Crown Point, 
though little of it Ie now remembered. Among and attaining rank as captain. He entered the 
his poems are 'The Schooimistress' (1743); ContinentaJ service at the beginning of the 
'Pastoral Ballad' (1743); and the stanzas American Revolution, became colonel in 1777 
'Wrilten in an Inn.* His complete works were and served until the dose of the war. He was 
D-iblished in three volumes (i76t-g), and an edi- engaged in as.battles, and won a high reputation 
linn of his poems with a memoir by GtlfiUan ap- for his courage and ability. In itSS-qd he was 
peared in 1854. a member of the executive council and as briga- 
■-,,,,.,, ,^ , , . .- . dier-general in command of Ae militia he de- 
Sbeol, she ol, a Hebrew word sjgD.fymg fended the arsenal in Springfield at the time of 
the place of the dead. Wherever it occurs m the shajs' Rebellion la 1786. He w«a afterward 
Hebrew text it is rendered in the authorized pw,n»ted major-»eBeral of militia and in tjg?- 
Engliih version by "grave* or by "hell," or by ,8^ served aa meiabcr of Coogress. 
•pit.' In the revised version 'Sheol* is gan- cu— 1.-^ vi_~ o_. ti,-„- 
ei-alfcy left untranslated In the text, while «grave» Shephcrfd Kings. Sec Hyksos. 
is ^t in Ae margin. See Hades: Hill. ShephMd's Purae, a small cruciterous 
_,-,,_,,,,. , . weed (Bursa b^rsa-pastoris) . It has rosettes 
Shep ard, Charlea Upham, American min- of lobed or pinnatifid leaves, 3 short stem, 
•ralraist'; b. Little Compton, R.I^JQjttiie. 1804; branching into spreading pedicels carrying ra- 
*. Ctattleston, S. C, 1 May 1886. He wa» eemes of small white flowers rajridly succeeded 
graduated from Atnheral in 1&14 and made ft t^ triangularly heart-shaped capsule^ which 
HMcial study of botany mid mineralogy in the have suggested this name, and also those of 
followmg year. He was lecturer on natural hit- mother's, heart, case-weed, shenherd's bag, etc, 
tory at Yale m 1630-47, occupied the diair o* by their resemblance to andeat waUets. Origi- 
chemistry at the Medical Collese of South Caro> nally European, this plant has been naturalized 
lini it! 18^4-^1 and resumed it for a few years throughout the tenji>*Bate regions, bloomrag 
after the Civil War. He was profesGor'of'chera* (luring the entire y^ar, and was formerly used 
istry and natural history at Amherst in 184S-52, as an anti-scofbutic and in hawiatura. 
Hid from iSsa^-.? was lecturer on M"";! his- Shep-herdateWB, W. Va., tawt. in Jeffe«on 
tory/ after which he W" ^-^^ FofessM County; on the Potomac River, and on the Nor- 
emeritw^ Hifl mvesti^hons resulted m the folk &' Western ruilroad! about 65 miles west 
discovery of anew species of microme m 1835, of Washington, D. C, and to mites above 
0f.warwieHtemi83e, andof danbnrrtem 1839, Harper's Ferry. It was settled in 1732; but 
and he was also *e discowrw of vaiOaWe de- ^„^ ^ ^^^ reason to believe a settlement was 
posits of phosphate of lime near Charteston ^,^5 ^s earfy as 1718, by German cdonists 
which have proved of great value to agriculture, f^^ Pennsylvania. Iri 1762 it was incorp«r- 
and their use in the manufacture of supCTphos- g^^ „ , ^^. f^^^ ^gji^d Mecklenburg ind 
phate fertflieers has made an infant addition aferward changed to Shepherdstown. It is in 
to. the chemical mdttStries of South Cirolma. a„ agricultural tegiOn. The chief manufactory 
His wrfleefion Of mtaenih was at one time the jj a knitting factory. Other industrial estab- 
best m the <;oantry, but was mifortunately par- Kshments are a flour mill, machine shop, and 
hally destroyed by fire three years after its pur- cement-worte. There are nine churches two of 
phase by Amherst m 1877. , In addition to his „hich are for the colored. The educational in- 
numerous scientific papers his publicat-ons in- stitutions are Shepherd College, State Normal 
dude: ^Report on the Geological Survey o* School, and graded public schools. The bank 
COTnectKut' C1837) ; 'Treatise on Mineralc^> has a capital of $25,000. The government is 
(1855) ; etc. vested in a mayor, recorder, smd a council of five 
SlMpaid, Bilirard none, Amencan lawyer members, elected annually, fop {'««'> ^-'S^^ 
b. New Ywfc i^; d. ag July iqii. He was ^1910) 1,2715. H L. SNYpra, 
wadualed from the College of the City of New Bdiior 'Tlu «Pgtrl<r,' 
York In 186ft ttndjed law and wai admitted $he«hti-i»t«nm, EngtgeiBWih « .nd «««■. 
to th«i bw. He Wabhdied a practice m Brook- Situated In a great bend of the Potomac, nine 
lyn. and was an «c«tv« member of the Demo- mUes east of Martmsbut^. and on one of the 
eratic ^afty there, bomg one of the orgamzera principal routes tram the Shenandoah Valley to 
of ttio Young Man's DewDcratic Club of Brook- UtTyUnd, Shepherdstown. W. Va., was the 
lyn. He held no puWic office except as member scene of much activity during the Civil War. 
of the civil fietvice 4ammw«i«n of the aty m Both amies, at various times, croased the Po- 
1883-^, and chairmdn of that commission m tomae at a ford about one mile below the town, 
ABS-go. In 1884-5 he W»B a State Koreltry «om- which was used by the Confederates when they 
miasioner, and was the author of the Commia^ mthdrew from ttie Antietam battlefield, iS-tg 
BtoB's report for that year. In 1901 be was the Sept. i«6a, and by a great part of Lee's infantry 
regular I>emMm«lc nominee' -for mayor of when they marched to Gettysburg id June 1863. 
Greater New York, but was deteated. For On 35 Sept 1863 Gen. Pleasonton's cavalry 
sitverBl year* he was uumkI for fhe New York division crossed the ford on a roconnotsBance to- 
Ibpid 'Transit ComBinioft, and resigned that ward Martinsburg, and a few miles beyond 
jMsition in March 19M to become general conn- Shepherdstown cncotmteiwd the Confederates 
ael for tiie P«iiniylvania Railroad. in some force, and was cbedcsd after eapluifng 

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a few men. Again (i Oct. 1863) Pleasonton confusion nearly a mile. Early brought up the 
crowed the river, with 500 cavalry and a battery rest of his command, and after a short and sharp 
of six guns, drove the 9th Virginia cavalry from contest in which artillery was freelv used, Tor- 
Shepherd stown, and pursued it across the Ope- bert ordered his two divisions to fall back, Wil- 
■ quon and into Martinsburg, where he encoun- son's by the route it had come, Merritt's by the 
tered the rest of Col. W, H. F. Lee's brigade and direct road to Sbepherdstown. Merritt was fol- 
a battery which were driven from the place, lowed so closely by Early that when near 
Pleasonton remained in the town until S p.u., Shepherdstown and on the Charlestown road, 
when he started on his return march, followed Custer's brigade was ordered out to repel the ad- 
by Confederate cavalry and two guns, with whom vance, in which it succeeded, driving it back; 
about dark he had an encounter when within a hut it was in turn struck in tiank and rear by 
mile of Shepherdstown, after which he recrossed Gordon's division, which had marched across the 
the Potomac. The loss was slight on both sides, country. Devin's brigade was sent to Custer's 
On r6 Oct. 1862 in co-operation with Gen. Han- relief, and engaged Gordon. Custer was cut oft 
cock's division, which advanced from Harper's and, after a sharp fight, made his escape' by 
Ferry toward Charlestown and Winchester, Gen. crossing the Shepherdstown Ford into Mary- 
Humphreys, with about 500 cavalry, 6,000 in- 'and. It was now dark ; Merntl rejomed Wil- 
fantry, and six gans, marched from Sharpsburg, *on. and both joined Sheridan. The loss was 
crossed Shepherdstown Ford at 4, and considerable on both sides. Early encamped 
moved toward Smithfield on a reconnoissance. near Shepherdstown, and next day moved bade 
A mile out of Shepherdstown his advance was across the Opequon, and on the 37th to Bunker 
contested by Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry brigade and HilL E. A. Cabvan. 
two guns. Lee was driven beyond KeameysTille, ci,„t,„j«^_„ /H«*ai.,'^i w™-* !]>.«« 
where he was reinforced by cavalry and a ™i» S°";?^T i ".t!t ' t^^ !h^A 
brigade of infant,?, but was'driven back, and T1„S*"«.^h ■i;t^1^S*«/^ w f^ 
Humphreys went into bivouac Humphr^s re- ° '/"*"'*'". ''"if"'li'^ "'*^^*J**,r^ ^^J^ 
sume3 his march on the morning of*^ the 17th. »"<• r*^"?""* **■* Potomac mto Virginia by Om 
and lyi miles beyond KeameysviTle came upotl f^^^"^T'!T "" ^'^"d. ^■"'f/ ' -f"''". ^ 
Lee in a strong position. Not desiring to brmg ^" Shepherdstown and about aH miles^from 
on an engagement, and having his ca«!ry make Sharpsburg. Leaving some artillery and two 
a dash on Smithfield, which was found occupied "?^' ">i^"t\y brigades at the ford to bold Mo- 
by Confederate cavalry, Humphreys returtied to ^lellan in cheeky he marched his army for the 
Sharpsburg by the way he had gone out, fol- Opfl"on , On the morning of the igth Pleaaon- 
lowed by cavalry and artillety aa far a* SJiep- 5™ 1 '^''^^. Allowed Lee to the Potomac, and 
herdstown. m the evening detachments of the Fifth corps 
After his Gettysburg canujaign Gen. Lee re- ^^f**^ **"* V''"-' "l™"* "*?>' ."'* Confederate 
crossed the Potomac at Wiliiamsport 14 July infantry, and sewed some of the artillery. To 
1863. On that day, to watch his movements, ascertam how far Lee had retreated, Gen. Porter 
Gen. Gregg's cavalry division was sent across "** authorized by McClellan to send a recon- 
the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and on the 15th noissance beyond the Potomac on the morning 
marched to Shepherdstown. driving some cavalry °i *« aoth, and Porter ordered over the di- 
from the town that evening and encamping near, visions of Gens. Morell and Sykes. Before day- 
On the i6th, about i p.m., Gregg's advance, near '"Sht two regiments crossed with spare horses, 
ICcamnrsville was attacked by Gen. Fitzhugh secured three guns that had been taken the night 
Lee, with his own and Chambliss' brigade, sup- before, and took them to the Maryland side. At 
ported by Jenkins' brigade. Gregg was gradually 8 o'clock Sykes crossed the river with LoveU'j 
driven back upon his guns, when he rallied his brigade of regulars and pushed out a mile on 
command, and the sharp engagement was con- the Charlestown road, when he discovered the 
tinued, lasting until darl^ both sides dismounted. Confederates in force, upon which Loveil fell 
This engagement was on the Boteler farm, about hack, skirmishing, to the heights near the river, 
a mile from town. During the early morning and Warren's small brigade of two regiments 
Gregg fell back to Harper's Ferry, with a loss of formed on his left. The Confederates encoun- 
70 killed, wounded and missing as the result of ^ercd were Gen. A. P. Hill's division of six 
his fight on the i6th. The Confederate loss was brigades, supported by tttfee brigades under Gen. 
106. Early, all sent back by Gen. Lee when he heard 
On 21 Aug. 1864 Gen, Sheridan fell back that the Union advance had crossed the river, 
from the line ol the Opequon to Halt Town, near Hill's skirmishers had slowly pressed bock 
Harper's Ferry, the cavalry, under Gen. Torbert, Loveil, and meanwhile Barnes' brigade of 
being moved to his right at and near Shepherds- Morell's division had crossed the river, under 
*own. Gen, Early demonstrated on the position orders to go on the road to Shepherdstown ; but 
jt Hall Town for three da);s, and on the 2Sth Sykes ordered it straight to the top of a high 
with the four infantry divisions of Rodes, steep bluff on the river-bank to connect with 
Ramseur, Gordon, and Wharton, with their artil- Lovell'a right Before Barnes' brigade had all 
lery, moved northward toward Shepherdstown, taken position Sykes came to the conclusion that 
his cavalry at the same time moving on Williams- he was too largely outnumbered to remain on 
port to keep up the impression of an invasion that side of the river, and ordered the troops 
of Maryland and Pennsylvania. Between Lee to recross, whidi was done by the left in good 
Town, seven miles southwest of Shepherdstown, order, under cover of a heavy artillery-fir« 
and Keanieysville Early came upon Merritt's from the Union batteries on the Maryland side; 
and Wilson's cavalry divisions, under Torbert but the withdrawal on the right was not ac- 
who had marched from Shepherdstown and complished without disaster. The iiStb Penn- 
Duflield's that morning, on a reconnoissance to sylvania or "Corn-Exchange" regiment, 737 
Lee Town. Torben promptly attacked Whar-. officers and men, had ascended the hi^ blut^ 
ton's division, Early's, advance, driving it back in and was not fairly in position wl^ it was al- 



tacked by five brigades of A, P. Hill'a division, falling in with bad company deserted fiit ^it- 
It made a good fight, but was attacked on ter and took to a life of thieving. H^ was £f4t 
t)odi flanka and in front; Cot, Preroat was brought up in court in 1723 as a runaway ^»- 
woundcd, and it was driven in disorder over the prenlice, but having secured his release, be 
precipitous rocl^ bluff, many being killed and thenceforth, as he confessed, felt to robbing 
wounded in falling to the roadway below. The almost every one that stood in his way. Having 
men began to cross the river, and the Confed- offended Jonathan Wild, a broker of stolen 
crates, advancing fo the bluff, fired upon them goods and informer against thieves, his capture 
as they were struggling to regain the opposite was effected 23 July 1724. He was tried at the 
shore. Some were killed in the water; some Old Bailey and condemned to death, but before 
were drowned : others, who took refuge in old his execution was effected he escaped from 
lime-kilns on the bank of the river, were killed prison twice. He was hanged at T^urn in the 
or wounded by careless firing of the Union bat- presence, it is said, of over 200,000 people. He 
teries ; and some surrendered. In this disastrous was celebrated by ail the journals and chap- 
affair the regiment lost 63 killed, 101 wounded, books, and even by the divines, who exhorted 
and 105 missing, or 260 out of a total brigade their flocks to emulate him in a spiritual sense, 
loss of 317. A. P. Hill s loss was 30 killed and Flays have been constructed around his person- 
231 wounded. The Union loss on the 19th and ality and Harrison Ainsworth made him the 
20th was 71 killed, 161 wounded, and 131 miss- hero of his novel *Jack Sheppard* (1839). 
ing; the Confederate loss, 33 killed and 252 Sherbrooke, ■hir'bruk. Sir John Coap«, 
wounded. After the engagement of the 20th English soldier: b. England 1764; d. Calverton, 
A. P. Hill and Early marched from the field and Nottinghamshire, 14 Feb. 1830. He was com- 
joined the main body of the army, which missioned ensign in the army in 1780, served in 
bivouacked that night on the Opequon near Mar- Nova Scotia in 1 781-5, and in i7d6-]8od wason 
tinsburg. Consult : 'Official Records,' Vol. duty in India. He was sent to Egypt to nego- 
?CIX.; Smith, 'History of the IlSth Fennsyl- tiate atreaty with the fioysin 1S07. andin t8o8 
vania Volunteers,' £. A. Caxuait. ^™* ^'^ temporary command of aii the troops in 

01 1 „Ks„*ii n.,.^.. Tt^.*.^ i.^^^!^,^ Sicily. He later served in Portugal, was second 

Sheplej, shepTI toorgcPoater, American ;„ command to WeUesley in the campaign of 

so!d«r and junsf. b. Saco, Maine I Jan^ 1819; .g,^, a„d was awarded a medal for gaU^t con- 

d. Poniand, Maine 20 July 187a He was duct at Talavera. In 1811 he beciSne lieuten- 

Kduated from Dartmouth in 1837, from the jmt-general and was appointed govemor-gen- 

na l^w School at Cambridge m 1839, and eral of Nova Scotia, ancffu i8i6hebecamecap- 

admitted to the bar in 1840. He settled in Port- tain-general and govemor-in-chief of Canada, 

land m 1844 where he established a large prac- He resigned in ,8,8 in consequence of a para- 

tice and in 1848-9 and in 1853-61 he was United lytic stroke and lived the remainder of his lif« 

States attorney for Maine. In 1861 he was com- in retirement. 

missioned colonel of volunteers in the Union i>i.i.i^».i. .. ^ 

army, participated in General Butler's expedi- , SherbroolM, Robert Low*, ViSCOUdT. See 

tion against New Orleans, commanded as act- ^°'"'^- Kobb»t. 

ing brigadier-genera! at Ship Island, and after Sfaerbrooke, Canada, city and county-seat 

the capture of New Orleans was appointed mill- of Sherbrooke County, Quebec; on the Canadian 

tary commandant, acting mayor, and was in P., Grand T,, Boston & M., and Quebec Central 

charge of the defenses of the city until 1862 railways; loi miles east of Montreal. The city 

when he was appointed military governor of is built on both sides of the Magog River at its 

Louisiana and commissioned brigadier-general junction with the Saint FranciE. and both rivers 

of volunteers. He commanded the military dis- are crossed by fine bridges and afford abundant 

Irict of Virginia and North Carolina in 1864- water power tor manufacturing. The most im- 

was with the army of the James in 1864-5, ana portant industry is the manufacture of woolen 

entered Richmond 3 April 1865. He was ap- cloth, one mill employing nearly 1,000 persons; 

pointed military governor of the city and held other manufactures are paper, cotton goods, 

the command until June when he resigned and carpets, clothing, foundry products, niacbinery, 

resumed his law practice. Fr«n 1869 until his axes, bobbins, electrical supplies, and cigars; 

death he served as United States circuit judge and there ai« breweries, tanneries, and flour 

of the first judicia.1 court of Mame. Hia deci- ^j lumber milla. Copper, asbestos, and 

•ions appear in Hohnea 'Reports' (1877). chrome iron ore are mined in the vicinity. 

Sheppard, sh^p'ard, EliMb«ai Sara, Eng- The local trade is important, and lumber, paper 

lish novelist: b. Blackheath 1830; d. Brixton 13 pulp, asbestos, copper, and lime are exported 

March 1862. She wrote 'Charles Auehester,> a to the United States. It is the seat of a Roman 

still popular musical fiction which introduces Catholic bishop, and has fine county buildings, 

Mendelssohn as Seraphael (t8s3) ! 'Counter- ^t.^fR^^ building, several churches, an acad- 

girts. or the Cross of W (185^^; 'My F.«t ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^1 ^^^ 

Season* (i8s5); 'The Double> (1856); ^J^i« ^ ^{ newspapers. Po^. about 

'Rumor,* in which Beethoven is a prominent ti«» 
personage {1858), and other works. She is ^^' 

(aid to have used at times the pseudonym *E. Shen All Khan, sher STlt khan, Ameer ttf 

Berger.* Afghanistan: b. about i8is: d. Mezaricheff »t 

Shepptti, John 0«ck>, English criminal: Peb. ,879. He was the younger son by a favo- 

b. Stepney Dec 1703; d. Tyburn 16 Nov. 1724. rite wife of Dpst Mohammed Khan and was 

He was brought up in the workhouse of Bishops- nominated successor to the throne to the exdu- 

gate, his father having died the year after his aion of Mobainmcd Afial Khan, the eldest bom 

bhth. He was app^ntioed to a carpenter, but bv another wife. Dost Mobamnud died i« rMj 

M -. i./GooqIc 


•ad a frstricidal war ensued to determine the the rejpular army. After the battle of Fisfaer't 
tHDiscssioii of the throne. In December 1863 Hill he laid waste the Shenandoah Valley. 
Sbere Ali secured the recognition of the BritUh Practically everything destructible was deatroyed, 
government to his succession, and in the contest and the horses, cattle, and sheep were driven out. 
that followed Mohammed Afxal was taken His object in devastating the country was to 
prisoner. The brother and son of the latlei, prevent future expeditions by the Confederates 
who retained possession of Afghan-Turkestan, up the Valley by destroying the means of sub- 
renewed the war and in a battle which took sistencc. The non-combatants were reduced to 
place in May 1866 the majority of Sbere All's the verge of starvation, and Sheridan has been 
troops deserted to the enemy. For the next much censured for his course. On 19 Oct. 1864 
three years Shere Ali's fortunes ebbed and his army was surprised and routed in the battle 
flowed and at times he seemed likely to lose his of Cedar Creek (q.v.) by Early, who neglected 
throne forever. In 1869, however, with the to pursue. Sheridan, who was 2o miles away 
recognition of the English he was fully estab- when the battle began, made his famous ride, 
lished on the throne of Kabul. In 1877 he be- rallied his demaratucd troops, returned, and 
came estranjed from the British government, deosivdy defeated the army of Early. On .8 
and refused lo receive a British mission at Nov, ^64 Sheridan was made major-gEneral in 
Ktbui. At the sasie timt he matk ovorturog to *he regular army. From 27 Feb. to 24 March 
Russia, and received her raiasi<»i. while relations 1^5 he made a raid from Wmchester to Peters- 
between Russia and Great Britain were strained, ^urg cutting three railroads, two canals, tele- 
The British mission being a second time re, IP^i>^ "".T^^. destroying supphes, and leavitig 
pulsed, war was declared %nd the British in- only one line of ra;lroa(f by which supplies could 

sifs^sia^rTh^ssTin'ts H^3SHSi^HS 

ipumey until he bad crosa^l the Ruasian f«,n- ^^^^J^.^t If ShT Ap'l^Xx V^ourt 

tier, where he died suddenly. jj^^^ jl^^ surrender took place (9 April), 

Sheridan, PUlip Hemr, American soldier: From May 1865 to March 1867 Sheridan eom- 

b. Albany, N. Y., 6 March 1831; d, Nonquitt, n»anded the Military Division (later D^art- 

Mass., 3 Aug, 1888. He was graduated at the jnent) ot the Gulf. His strong force on the 

United States Military Academy in 1853, ranking JJexican border etKoura^ed the Liberals and 

34th in a class of 52. He served in the 3d and force<( the French to withdraw their sup[)ort 

4th infantry regiments in the West until May from Maximilian, In his 'Personal Memoirs* 

1861, when he was appointed captain in the T3lh Sheridan states that material assistance was 

Infantry. In Qeijwvtwr iWl ht jwa made (tuar- s«cretly given by the United States aulhorilies 

termaster and commissary of the Union army in to the Liberal army under Juarei, 30,000 

southwestern Missouri, ]^e was Halleck's quar- muskets at one time being sent to the latter from 

termaster durhtg the Corinth campaign in 1862. the United States arsenal at Baton Rouge, After 

In May 1862 he was appointed colonel of the the passage of the reconstruction acts, in March 

ad Michigan cavalry and was made brigadier- 1867, Sheridan was placed in command of the 

general of volunteers in July- He served with Fifth Military District, consisting of Louisiana 

distinction in the battles of Perryville and Stone and Texas, with headquarters at New Orleans, 

River (qq.v.), and was made major-general of His career as military governor was a stormy 

volunteers 31 Dec. i8fe. In 1853 ne distin- one. He was in favor of radical measures in 

gvished himself in the bloody battle of Chicka- dealing with the conquered Sonthemers, and in 

mauga (q.v.), and also bore an important part in the troubles that arose in his district he was 

the battle of Chattanooga (q.v.), where he at- supported by General Grant and opposed by 

tracted the attention of General Grant, who. President Johnson, who sent »e*^ral mesaengfert 

when he assumed command in Virginia, had to him in the endeavor to influence him to a 

Sheridan transferred (A^iil 1864} to the Army mnie moderate course. Sheridan, believing' that 

o( the Potonac *a commander of the cavalry severe measures were neceasary, refused to ton- 

lorps. Sheridan wqa actively engaged in the form to the suggestions of the President's agents, 

battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court and Johnson, after Sheridan's whotesaln temoral 

House, Cold Harbor (qav,)., ehj. From 9-«H of ch-il oScers, relieved him fnjm command of 

May iS^ he raided the Confederate oommuniT jhe Fifth Military District in September 1867. 

cationt around Richmond, destroying ten miles General Grant streniuusly protested, but John- 

of (rack on three important railroads, cutting 800 was firm, and Sheridan was transferred to 

the telegraph wires, capturing several trains, and the Department of the Missouri, In 1869, when 

causing much alarm in the Confederate capital General Grant became President, Sheridan was 

On 28 Mflv he fftught the b«tfie of Hawes' Shop made lieuteaant-^jenend. In 1870-1 he was with 

(q.v,) and II June that of TrevilJan's Station, the German armies observing the campaigns of 

Neariy every day in May, June, and July Sheri- the Franco-German war ; in 187s was again sent 

dan's cavalry whs enRagad with ^e Coiifederate to New Orleans on account of the political riots 

n ?^su"c- 
:Mef of the 
, In person, 

stout, -with 
e was gmfi, 



i around Richmond, destroying ten miles General Grant streniuusly protested, but John- 

of (rack on three important railroads, cutting 800 was firm, and Sheridan was transferred to 

the telegraph wires, capturing several trains, and the Department of the Missouri, In 1869, when 

causing much alarm in the Confederate capital General Grant became President, Sheridan was 

On 28 Mflv he fftught the b«tfie of Hawes' Shop made lieutenant-^jenend. In 1870-1 he was with 

■'"•') and II June that of TrevilJan's Station, the German armies observing the campaigns of 

ly every day in May, June, and July Sheri- the Franco-German war ; in 187s was again ! 

cavalry whs enRagad with tfie Coiifederate to New Orleans on account of the political t 

troops or raiding their commimicatioDS. On 7 in that city; in 1878 commanded the Western 

Aug. 1864 he Was placed in command hf the Southwestern Military Divisions; in 1883 sut- 

Army of the Shenandoah with inslrDctions to eeeded Sherman as commander-in^Wef of the 

clear the Confederates out of the Valley. He army; snd in 1888 was madt general. In person, 

defeated Ea^ at Winchester (q.v.) 19 Septem- General SherMan w«s short and stout, with 

ber, and at Fisher's Hill u S«ptember, and was rather harsh features. In manner he was gmfi, 

rawatded by baii« made a. brigadier-general in but not wikind. He w«s trusted by hia^ioldkrv 


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who called him 'Little PhiP and believed him less effettive was his speech at the arraig 

invincible. He married, in 1879, Miss Rucker, of Hastings in Westminster H«H, Jim« 1788. 

daughter of General D. H. Rueker of the United Throughout his public career he maintained 

States army. In religion, General Sheridan was the reputation of a pare and independent 

a devout Roman Catholic. He alwajs refused statesman. 

to enter politics. His wife died 179a; and on 27 April 1795 he 

Consnlt: Sheridan, 'Personal Memoirs' married Esther Jane Ogle. His income from 

(1888); Davies, 'General Sheridan' (1895)1 Drury Lane averaged £10.000; but he often 

Newhall, 'With General Sheridan in Lee's Last overdrew his resources to lead a dazzling 

Campaign' (i866>. social life. From i79' to 1794 the Theatre 

Walteb L. Fleming, Royal was rebuilt at ruinous expense to Sheri- 

Profes3or of History, Welt Virginia Univtrsity. dan; and the destruction of the new house by 

ci._:.i._ d:..i.«.j iirtn.T.- v>,™i;,:i, .1..,™.. ''''* '" '805 involved him in serious financial 

Shendan, Rich^d Brin.Iej.Enghsh drama- difficultier^ In 1812 he failed of re.el«:tion to 

'"V.°J'r'?,".V!i ?T."^;n ,Mv'';s,rt H^; P="-li»=«nt; and m August 1813 he wa. ar- 

3oOctoberi7Si;d. London, 7 July 1816. H.s ^^^^j f^^ j^^^ His health, weakened by 

lather, Thomas Sher dan, was an actor; hw ^, dissipations, failed rapidly; and he died 

mother was a dramat st and noveUst At the ^^^^^ j„ ^„^ '^^ ^^^ ^^^^-^^ -^ Westmin- 

''^°J -i^^, ,^ A^J^U . t \ W? ster Abbey. Consult Fraser Rae. 'Sheridan, a 

176a to .768 he attended Harrow school, where Biography'; and Brander Matthews, 'Intro- 

Among the people that he met was the emi- Shendan, Tbomaa, Irish clergyman, graad- 

nent composer, Thomas Linley. Linley's father of Richard B. Sberidan (O-v.) : h. County 

daughter, well-known as a singer, was a lovely Cavan, Ireland, about 16S4; d. Dublin, Ireland, 

and coquetiish girt with many admirers. To la Sept. 1738. He was educated at Trinity 

sbidd her from the persecutions of a Major Colkge, Dublin; was al one time chaplain 

Mathews, Sheridan arranged to escort her to to the lord lieutenant, and later secured a liv- 

a French convent. Near Calais he became ing through Dean Swift, of whom he was a 

secretly married to her: his age was 21 and close friend. He was noted for his wit and his 

hers 18. Linley brought them back to Bath gay carelessness, though his extravagance had 

and separated them. After his return, Sheridan reduced him to direst poverty. He wrote 'The 

fought two duels with Mathews, disarming Art of Punning,' translated Persius in prose 

his opponent the first tinve and being- himself and Sophocles' 'Philoctetes' in verse. His son 

seriously wounded the second. On 13 April Thomas, elocutionist, father of Richard B. Sher- 

1773. he married Miss Linley openly. idan, the dramatist (q.v.) : b. near Dublin, Ire- 

At a very early age he began writing for land, 1721; d. Margate. Kent. 14 Aug. 1788. He 

the theatre. On 17 January 1775. his fiirce- was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, became 

comedy, 'The Rivals,' was produced at Cov- an actor and theatre manager, and afterward 

ent Garden. It failed and was withdrawn. In was successful as a lecturer and teacher of elo- 

a revised form it reappeared on 28 January, euticai. He published : 'L*cturci on the Art of 

and is still being played. His farce, 'Saint Beading' {1775); 'Dictionary o£ the English 

Patrick's Day,' was first acted on 2 May 1775- Language' ( 1780) ; 'Life of Dean Swifl' 

It was followed on 2i Nov. 1775. by 'The (1784) ■ etc 

Ope'ra.' In 1776 he succeeded Garrick as mana- ^^'^''°™^ ^A'-'^"^"'^'"?'' of Mohammed. 

g2r of the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. He ?p^ <*"""<*' ^^^ '"J^' ""'^ and female.lme 

was careless in business, bw hi* personid popu- ^^°^' ""**" PO»mm this rank are distinguished 

htity atoned for his practical ^ort<:omiogs. by green turbans and veils, ffreen bemg he color 

He produced a revision of Vanbrugh's of the Prophet In India they arc called Sey- 

'Rclapse,' called 'A Trip to Scarborough," ^'^■ 

34 Feb. 1777' On 8 May 1777, he presented at Sheriff, an ofAccr who represents the execu- 
Drury I«ne one of the greatest comedies of tive power of a county in the United States, and 
all time. 'The School for ScandaL' He was is elected either by the legislature or the dtiiens. 
then only 25. A farce called 'The Critic.' in The requirements are controlled by statute, but 
which he satirized his jealous rival. Cumber- usually they are that the person so elected must 
land, was performed ap Oct 1779- This prac- be over ai, a citizen of the United States, and 
tically closed his career as a dramatist; though a resident of the county that he_ represents. 
on 34 May I79p, he produced 'Pizarro, a melo- Power to fill a vacancy occurring tn the office 
drama adapted from the German of Kotzebne. of sheriff is regulated by statute. The sheriff 
His gaiety and talent made him a great is required to take a prescribed oath in order 
favorite in society. On 12 Sept. 1780 he was to qualify, and to furnish a bond for the faith- 
elected to the Commons for Stafford, and ful discharge of the duties of his office. The 
began a remarkable parliamentary career. He sheriff in person or by deputy executes civil and 
developed wondrous power as an orator, and criminal process throughout the county ; has 
was unexcelled for brilliancy and eloquence, charge of the prisoners, attends court, and keeps 
He was conspicuous in the impeachment of the peace. His judicial authority is generally 
Warren Hastings. On 7 Feb. 1787 his great confined to ascertaining damages on writs of 
speech before the House of Commons, relating inquiry. He is not liable for any errors in act- 
to the Princesses of Oude, held his auditors ing in a jndicial capacity — the office is almost 
enthralled for five hours and a half. Hardly excltuiwly mtnisteriat. A >lMriff bat the n-^ 

if bat the ri^ 

. Ciooglc 


when it i» reasonably necessary, to lawfully siiwr not very complete general education, he studied 
mon any citiEen for a&sistance in the execution Ia.w and was admitted to the bar at 21. In 1848 
of his duly, and one failing to obey the summons be was a delegate to the National Whig con- 
ia liable to indictment; he has also the right to vention at Philadelphia. He was president of the 
appoint general or special deputies iit such man- first Republican convention in Ohio, held at Co- 
rner as may be prescribed by his jurisdiction; lumbus, 13 July 1855, which nominated Salmon 
but the sheriff cannot delegate his authority to P. Chase for governor. In 1855 be was elected 
appoint a deputy. The sheriff is liable for all a member of the 34th Congress. He took a 
damages caused by any wrongful act of his prominent part in the proceedings of the House; 
office, and may be criminally liable for a wilful was on the Committee of Inquiry sent to Kansas, 
breach of his duty, it a corrupt motive is shown. Hewas prominently identified with the support of 
A sheriff's sale is one conducted by a sheriff, or all measures for the prosecution of the Civil 
by a person by him deputized, of property held War ; defended the protective tariff, and the re- 
under proper authority. funding of the National debt. He was a mem ■ 

Sherlock, sher'16k, Charles Reginald, ^er of the committee that visited Louisiana ti» 
American author and joumalistL b. Montrose, supervise the counting of the returns of that 
Pa., 12 May 1857. He began newspaper work State, and a member of the Electoral Commis- 
in 1B76 on the 'Syracuse Courier* and in 1883-4 ^'°"' In ConBrcss Mr Sherman qmckly demon- 
he was city editor of the 'Albany Joumal.> "rated his exceptional power as a master of 
From 1887-1900 he was editor of the 'Syracuse "pan'^e. He watched carefully the appropriation 
Standard.* He has published 'Your Uncle bills, speedily extended the credit of the goyem- 
Lew» (1901); 'The Red AnviP (1902). ment, and provided for its future support. When 

„. , , __ t- 1- 1. 1 . 1. Salmon P. Chase resigned the U. S. senatorship 

SherlMk, Thorws, English prelate: b. f.^m Ohio to enter the cabinet of Presidetrt 

London. England, i6t8; d. there 18 July 1761 u„^^^^ ^^ secretary of the treasury. Mr. Sher- 

He was educated at Cambridge, was appomted ^^^ was elected his successor and took 

Master of the Temple in i7t»4. vice-chancellor of hj, ^^^f ^arch 1861. In 1881 he was re- 

the university in 1714. and Dean of Chichester ^i^cted to the senate, where he remained until 

in 1716. after which he entered mto a contro- jgg^ „^^^ ^^^ ^^^ appointed Secretary of State 

versy with Bishop Hoadly in defense of the ^ President McKinley, He resigned that office 

corporation and test acts. In 1728 he was ap- however, in 1898, on account of failing health, 

pointed to the see of Bangor, and m 1734 trans- jj^ ^^^ ^ candidate for the Presidential nom- 

lated to that of Salisbury. He was offered the jnation in 1884 and i88a Among his publications 

primacy on the decease of Archbishop Potter, m are : 'Selected Speeches and Reports on Finance 

1747, but he refused it; and the following year and Taxation* (1879) ; and < Recollections of 

was translated to the see of London, where he po„y Years in the House, Senate, and Cabinet* 

remamed till his death. He was noted for his (1893). From i860 to 1900, there Was scarcely 

eloquence as a preacher, his sermons long being ^ g^eat financial measure with which Ihe naiile 

considered models of pulptt eloquences and. of of joj,n Sherman was not connected. Among 

his celebrated controversial works on Christian these were, the making of United States treas- 

evidences may be mentioned: 'The Use and In- „ry notes legal tender, the enacting of the na- 

tent of Prophecy* (1725) .: and 'Trya! of the ,ionai hanking bill, the refunding act of 1870, and 

Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus' (1729). the resumption of specie payments. The detailed 

His 'Discourses at the Temple Church' were record of measures by which the legal tender 

published in four volumes (1754-8) and his notes of the government reached par, and by 

'Works' were edited by Hughes {5 vols., 1830). which specie resumption became an accomplished 

Sherlock Holmes, Adventurea of, a coilec- fact at the time fixed for it, exhibits the man 

tion of stories by A. Conan Doyle (q.v.), in each under whose leadership this was done as a finan- 

ot which Holmes figures as a scientific amateur C'"" °i the highest order. 

detective of remarkable skill. He is enslaved to Sherman, Roger, American legislator: tx 

cocaine and in manner is brusque and eccentric; Newton, Mass., 19 April 1721; d- New HavcK, 

but by a method of a posteriori reasoning, ap- Conn., 23 July 1793, He was apprenticed to a 

plied to apparently unimportant facts of common shoemaker when a child, but in 1743 he removed 

life, he is enabled to uncover most femote and to New Milford, Conn., where he was engaged 

disconnected causes. The 12 tales are full of with his brother in keeping a small store. He 

bizarre and often grewsome details. studied law, politics, and mathematics withotit 

Sherman, shfir'man, Frank Dempster, * teacher, was appointed surveyor for his county 

American poet: b. Peeliskill, N. Y., 6 May i860, 'n 174S and for several years made the astronom- 

He was graduated from Columbia in 1^4 and '^' observations for an almanac published in 

subsequently studied at Harvard. For many "^'* Yojk- In 1754 he was admitted to the bar, 

years he has been an adjunct professor of archi- S':''"d for several terms in the provincial as- 

teclure at Columbia. He has published: 'Mad- semt'ly, and in 1761 removed to New Haven, 

rigals and Catches' (1887) ; 'Lyrics for a Lute' V^"- .^e became judge of the court of common 

(1890) ; 'New Waggings of Old Tales* with P'^' ".^'f "■ J^ and served in that position 

John KSndrick Bangs (rSS?) : <Little Folk ??*' »* J"*>K« <** the superior court for 23 years. 

Lyrics' (1892) ; etc. ^? ^^ Msistam governor in 1766-8;, treasurer 

<Jt,«™,™ i„t.- A ■ ,„ .»„..„,„. 1, ?.* ^"'^ *^"ce« m 1766-76. and a member of 

ShCTinan John. American statesman: b. Congress from r774-<)i, when he was elected 

Lancaster.^Ohio^o May 1823 ; d, Washington, senator in which capacity he served the re- 

p. C, 22 Oct 190a He was the 8th child m a mainder of his life. He was one of the com- 

family of 11. bemg the junior by three years of mitfee of five to draft the Declaration of Inde- 

his brother Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman pendence which he afterward signed, was an 

(q.v.). After having secured an irregular and active member «f various war and ordnance com- 



mtttees, served on the treasury board and ia in Louisiana. The institution was opened i Jiui. 
1777 was one of the framers of the original 1860, as the Louisiana State Seminary of Learn- 
Anides o£ Confederation. He assisted in the ing and Military Academy, and Sherman re- 
codification of the laws of Connecticut, was a mained its superintendent until 18 Jan. 1861, 
delegate to the Federal Constitutional Conven- when he wrote to the governor asking to be 
tion in 1787, where he played a prominent part, relieved the moment the State determmed to 
and from 1784 until hia death was mayor of New secede. His request having been granted, he 
Haven. went to Saint Louis in Februaiy 1861, and 
Sbernua, Thonuui Wert, American mi!i- «?* for a short time president of a Saint Loub 
tary officer: b. Newport, R. L, a6 Mar^h 1813; ""'"^^^ company. Wh^e holding this place he 
d. there 16 March i^ He was graduated from ^^s deeply "Merwted m the approach of the 
the United States Military Academy in 1836 struggle between North and South, makmgvalu- 
«nd six years later served in Florida against the f'^'t- "iSB«fon|. some of which were shown 
Indiana. He was in command of a battery at J'^' ^" brother, John Sherman, ihen in Congress, 
Buena Vista during the Mexican War, and for to Secretary of War Cameron. "On the neces- 
his bravery and excellent service was brevetted ^'^ "' f T iH* ' g^veniment, and that gov- 
major, 18*7. He also commanded the land forces ^^^.^^l/t^ "''' constitutional one » he de- 
in thi e^edition against Port Royal !86i^. j'^"'*' '^ have never wavered, but I do recoil 
As a result of injuries received at Port Hudson, fr<»°, » ^^' ^^'"^ 1'' ^egro is the only ques- 
La., 1863, he was given leave of absence until "V », oir ci. ■ . j 1 t 
i86i whm he took command of an artillery di- , ^P, May 186 1, Shernian was appointed colonel 
vi^n in the Department of the Gulf. He was °* the 13th regular uifant.ry, and 30 June he 
retired as major general 31 Dec i8;o. assumed command of a brigade of McDowel! s 
«>. ....>>■ m , . , army. He took an honorable part in the first 
Shermm, WilliMi Tecumseh : b. Lancas- battle of Bull Run ; on 3 August received his com- 
ter, Ohio, 8 Feb. 1820; d. New York 14 Feb. mission as brigadier-general of volunteers, dat- 
1891 ; son of Judge Charles R. Sherman. His ing from 17 May, and 24 August was ordered to 
father died when he was about nme years old. duty in the Department of the Cumberland, un- 
uid he «^s brought up m the family of Hoa der Gen. Robert Anderson, whom he succeeded 
Thomas Ewing, who ptocured for him an ap- j^ command of the department 8 October. Onthe 
ppintmenl as cadet at flie United SUtes Mill- 26th of the same month he wrote that "to accom- 
lary^ Academy, West Poiat He is described as pljsh the only purpose for which Kentucky can 
having been at the time a tall, shm, loose-jomted ^^ used there should be a force here of a»«00 
kd, with red hair, fair, burned skin, and piercing men." In November Gen. Sherman, who was 
blAck eyes. In July 1840 he graduated from severely criticized by many for his assertions 
the academy, and was appomted ad lieutenant as to the number of men needed for the war in 
in the Third Artillery, and 1st lieutenant Nay. his section, was relieved from his command and 
1841. He served m Flonda rnitil 1842, and was sent to Missouri. After a short leave home he 
afterward m garnaon at Fort Moultrie, S. C „as employed for a time as commander of the 
At the first rumor of war with Mexico he showed camp of instruction at Benton Barracks, near 
great impatience to be sent to Texas, but the Saint LouU. In February i86z, he was trans- 
war d^rtment, instead, ordered him to Califor- ferrod to Paducah, Ky., where he orgaoiied the 
nia. The voyage appears to have made hnn division which he subsequently commanded at 
strongly in favor of an mteroceamc canal Shiloh. In this hard-fought, two days' conflict 
He served m California, as actmg assistant adju- Sherman was severely wounded, and Gen Grant 
lant-general of the department, until Feb. 1&49, declared that "to his individual efforts I am 
.when he was traniferred to^similar duty on the indebted for the success of that battle.' Gen. 
staff of Gen. Persifor F. Smith, who commanded Sherman was commissioned major-general of 
the division of the Pacific. Having been ordered volunteers, I May, and in the same month com- 
to New York as bearer of despatches, he wal pelted the Confederates to evacuate Corinth, 
marned in January 1850, to EJlen Boyle, daugh- which was followed, in July, by the occupation 
ter of his foster-father, Hon. Thomas Ewing, of Memphis. His campaign against Vicksburg 
then Secretary of the Interior. proved unfortunate. He was defeated and driven 
In September 1850, Sherman was traiis- back at Chickasaw Bayou, but afterward ren- 
fcrred to the commissary department with the dered effective aid to Gen, Grant in the opera- 
iwik of captain, and stationed at Saint Louis and tions which, resulted in the surrender of Vicics- 
New Orleans. Shortly after his arrival at New burg. 

Orleans he received notice of his appointment Gen. Sherman was made a brigadier-general 
as partner in the banking firm of Lucas & Tur- of the regular army in July 1863. After the fall 
ner, a branch of Lucas & Simonds, of Saint of Vicksburg and Port Hudson the Western 
Louis, and, feeling that he could do better in armies lay comparatively idle for a time, and 
business than in die «rmy, obtained a sist months' early in the autumn Gen. Sherman was occupied 
leave of absence, and started for California to in rebuilding the Memphis & Charleston railroad 
represent the house. When the leave of absence to the East, that the armies might draw supplies 
expired he resigned his place in the army. Sher- by that route. White engaged on this work he 
man at this time saw the danger of the slavery was ordered fo cross the Tennessee and march 
issue. 'Unless people both North and South," eastward. The battle of Chattanooga, in which 
be wrote in August 1S56, "learn more modera- Sherman distinguished himself, followed, and ht 
tion. we'll see sights in the way of civil war." was next sent lo the relief of Bumsidt he- 
Sherman removed toNew York in 1857, and sieged by the Confederates in Knoxville. Shet' 
to Leavenworth, Kan., in 1838, where he pcao- man forced Longstreet to raise the siege 5 Dec. 
Used law until July 1859, when he was tieeteA 1863. After a few weeks in winter quarters 
s^p^ntendent of the proposed nulitaty tcadenty in northern Alabama. Sherman, in January 1EU4, 



■ude a raid across the State of Mississiiipi from Atlanta, 103 killed, 43S wounded, and >;8 
rrom Jackson to Meridian and back again, missiog. Congress, iq Jan. 1865, tendered tno 
doing a vast amount of damage to railways, Con- thanks of the people of the United States to 
federate propertj, and the country at large. Gen. Sherman and his command. Sherroan 
Gen, Grant being inTited to take unham- moved northward i February and occupied Co- 
pered command of the military forces of the hmibia 17 February, the place being destroyed 
United States, and to repeat, if possible, in the by a conflagration for which Gen. Sherman 
East, the successes which had attended his career always claimed that he was not responsible, 
in ihe West, assigned Sherman to the command Gen. Jotmston was recalled 10 ooinn»«a< by 
of the Military Division of the Mississippi, in- the chiek of the sinking Copfcderacy, and aft« 
duding the Departments of the Ohio, the Ten- several desperate encouabftrs. Gens. Shennan 
.lessee, the Cumberland, and the Arkansas, with "«d Johnston met at Durham Station, N', C, 
temporary headquarters at Nashville, and with 18 April. The t«rms agreed upon were 
orders to move on Atlanta. With an army of ""^^ liberal to the Confederates, Edlo«-ing them 
about 100,000 men Gen. Sherman invaded Geor- to deposit their arms at their State capitals, 
gia. He was opposed by Gen. Joseph E. John- aod providmg for the recognition of their State 
ston, with about 45,000 Confederates in excellent governments. The terms were made subject 
spirit and discipline, but poorly provided with «> "^ approval of supenor awthonty, and 
muniUons of war, as compared with the Union a suspenwoa of hostilities was agreed up<m to 
forces. Johnston engaged Sherman's army at obtain that consent. 48 hours notice to be given 
Dalton, Resaca, CassviSe, Dallas and Kenesaw by either side before resuming hostihties. Ion- 
Mountain. At the last named place, 37 June, the ?"? "*^ been murdered; there was a vindictive 
Confederates, owing to the shortness of artillery ^^^^S toward the South at Washmgton, and 
ammunition, reserved their cannon for the final 1?''"^° ^"^ ,*"* cabinet wholly disapproved 
charge of the Union troops, receiving them G«- Sherman s arrangement, and wrfered Gen. 
with a destructive fire whicrwon the Say for ^rant to take charge of Shemian-s commaad^ 
the South Grant, always generous in his recognition Of 
ci,-,.™.!-!^ ^r^,T^^a t,«™_^-. ,.^..^A -«t I,- Sherman's merits, went to Raleigh, as dire«teif, 
Shermans progress, however, could not be . . , ,, ,„ oi,„J^„„ »»,., i,™,.^ \^Z..S^J^Z 

,, 1 1 .u. d;_i Lj _ ..__ i. 1..1'. ■ •>«' l8tt to fiherman the honor 01 receivine 

stayed, and the Richmond government, believing t„i,-_.-_.„ „,._..„j», ,,„ 4V. „_„ ,.._,. "S 

that Johnston was not doing all that cofild be i^",^J j^ ^^J^t T7,*^^* S 

done with the men at his command, relieved him S^T^^^^i.^fV^t^J^f ^.11* ™*!-™ 

^^A ^.,t Vr,^A :» uu ^u-^ cv,,™ v.,..u, tni regaraed oa unjuat treatment on this occasion 

and put Hood m his place^ Sharp battles fol- by Secretary of War Stanton, and d«lined pub- 

lowea m the vicmity of Atlanta and at length ^ ^^ ^^^^ Staaton'a profTenid hand M th« 

Hood was compelled to evacuate the c.W dur- ^t ^^^^ ;„ Washington 24 May .865. 

ing the night of 1 SeptMnher. Gen. Sherman » sh.rmkn was appointed %o comm»^ ttia 

issued an order that ^ I the inhabitants should milftarydirision of ihe Mississippi «? June ,86,; 

leave Atlanta, going North or^South as they promoted to be U«.tenant-gen^l a; July i«*, 

saw fit, and offering transportation to that end. ^nd asaigned in August to the Militari Iftvision 

Mayor Calhoun and other citizens appealed in ^f the Missooti On the aoceaion of Geo. 

vain to have the order recalled. «You cannot Grant to the Presicboncy. Shenium Sttcceeded 

qualify war in harsher term3_ than I will," an- to the command of the army as Beneral. AbotU 

swered (^a Sherman, "war is cruelty and you t}m lime he wrote: «I do think some politkai 

cannot refaie it» The order was carried out, and power might be given to ihe jwing men who 

approved by the authorities at Washington. Gen. ^pfed in the rebel army, for they ate a better 

Sherman gave as his reasons to his military supe- daw than the adventurers who have gone South 

riors that he wanted all the houses for military pprdy for ofEce." Gen. Sherman retired 8 Fek 

and storage punioses, and did not wish to be J8B4. taking, to the last, an active interest ta 

burdened with the care of the inhabiUntS. p„bl[c affairs. A splendid equestrian stattie, by 

Genera! Sherman became convinced, after 3 gauit Gaudens, presenting Gen. Sherwan in 

series of indecisive operations against Hood, characteristic attitude, as when he rode at th« 

that the aim of the latter was to draw bun head of his army, was unveiled at the south- 

out of Geor^a. He determined on marching to eastern entrance ot Central Park, New Yoifa 

the sea, cutting a swath of devastation through ;„ 1903, and another handsome equestrian statue 

the heart of the Confederacy, and destroying, ^i the great General was dedicattd in Wasbirgi 

as far as possible, the sources of Confederate ton the same year, President Roosevelt taking 

supplies. Gen. Grant fully approved the plan, part in the ceremonies. The Waslrington statue 

and Sherman, after buping Atlanta, breaking stenda on the spot whence Sherman reviewod the. 

up the railway, and sending a part of his army to grand march of the Union army in 186s. 
reinforce Thomas at Nashville, started, with Heotiy Hanw 

about 70,000 men, on his memorable march. He oi,*..™™ t— . -J*, « _i ^ ' 

ordered his troops to forage liberally on the ^ »'«"«»>. Texas, ci^, com. ty-se^ o' 

country, and although foraging was suppoed S"^°".P"S%' ?? 5^ ii^'^'"''^' J-^n?' i' 

tn Tip (Inne hv rpoiiTar H-ta^c nr^W Jt ^^= ;„ *"* Houston & T. C, the Missoun, K. & T., the 

«s most compkle. The Conf„l,r,l., had vit- ?!„'" , S, fl^.i; . .w t. n I. ■- . S?' 

luaBy no force to oppo.e to Shem.r', advance, ^S.Jf^, , ' • f.' '"■ 'i'' '"? *!Pi 

and .hen the governors of Alabami, SouU^ STI' L^SZ' ,\„JL"..^T\°' ^^ 

Orolina, and Grergia were appealed to from i'^Jt. SS^^^T Ti- • ■ ? '""'««' 

Richmond, the Srst mentioned re'pitd that none £S.«1 rSn T.Jl,™'^?' .i^'T°^' 'i^ 

tut cripples, ..onteo and children, and very old S'.^e I.T. ^'"'S"- ?". j'""* i? ."''2 

ncD were left in th. tttat. <;herni.,> .„t„r.^ nofthwest It has a cotton gin the original cost 

wSSfD^ellr.totngfo'rSiS ™"h " «"'' '^ "^"'^ '"«"' 1"«« oono"'-*" 



ail milli, flour milU, lutuber nulls, aa^wte (faops, quired to perfect its daror. Somcttuies bitter 

brt^ work^ fQundries, broom and itialtrew fac- aimtmda are iufuaed to give the vnne ■ nutty 

tories, furniture factories, carriage and waRon flavor. The dry sherry, t^t whidi is least sweet, 

works, ba^ factory, and marble works. It nas is the most esteemed. Tbe ^est variety oi 

ao extensive trade in coin, wheat, fruit, cotton sherp; is the Maiuanilla sherry, the excellent 

products, marble, and manufactured articles, qualities of which are determined by the nature 

The principal public buildings are a government of the soil and the lie of the district in which it 

buildmg, county court-bousc, municipal build- is grown; Amontillado and Montilla sherries and 

ings, several of the business blocks, the churches Vino de Pasta are also hiehly esteemed. The 

«hd schools. There are eight churches, Ibe sherry wines are shipped for the most part at 

North Texas Female College (M.E.), the Shef- CadiZj and are principally exported to England. 

man Institute, the Austin College for Boys No wine is more largely imitated and adulterated 

(Presbyterian), Saint Joseph's Academy (R.C.), than sherry. 

the Fred Douglass High School for colored gl^erwood, sher'wud, KadiarinB KmbkcI 
pppils, a commercia! college, public and parish Brownlce, American writer: b. Poland, Ohio, 
deraentary schools, and a public ibranr. The 24 Sept :%i. She was married to I. M. Sher- 
two banks have a comhbied capital of |900/x)a y,ood ih ifeg, was editor of the woman's de- 
Pop. (1910! 124T2. partment of the ^National Tribune' (1S83-98), 
Sherman Act, an act of the United States has been active in women's clubs and is president 
Confess, ^proved 14 Juljr 1890. It was the of the Ohio Newspaper Women's Association, 
culmination of a long disagreement between the She has published 'Campfire and Memorial 
two Houses over a financial policy, neither side Poems' j "The Dream of the Ages.' 
being disposed to yield. This bill was supported Sherwood, Uarearet Poltock, American 
by Senator Sherman and others as a compromise ^^^^ ^„i educator: b. Ballston. N. Y., I Nov. 
measure. It mstructed the Secretary of the ^^^ ghe was graduated from Vassar College 
Treasury to buy silver bullion to the amount of ;„ jggg ^^ ^^^^^ ,ggg ^,gg (,g^ associate pro- 
4joo,ooo ounces a mondi, and to muc treasury f^^^^ „f g jj^^ literature at Weljesley Colfcge. 
notes la payment, Tliough the bdl was ap- she has published <An ExFeriment ia Altruism* 
proved,_the financial policy continued to, be a (,335) t^ Puritan BohSiia> (1896); <Dry- 
disturbmg question and arguments favoring a j^.. Dramatic Theory and Practic? (i8g8) ; 
^^^^ *^L^ presented at almost every oppor- < Henry Washington, Idealist' (iSgg). 

tunity. The bUBiness depression of the sommer ™1 .^, ' ,. .J; ^., . 

of 1893 was alleged to be a eonwquence of th« . Sherwood^ M«ry BLinbe^Wdm, Amer- 
bffl, and President Qeveland summoned Con- ican author: b. Keen, N.H., 1830; d. New York 
gre»s to convene in special sesMOn, 7 August " *^P*;.!?^- ^"* V"' ™ daughter of General 
A bill to repeal the sii^r-purchasing proviso of Jf"" Wilson, member of Congress from New 
the Sherman Act passed the House 28 Au^st. Hampshire, and when 17 was left in .«re of a 
Im the Senate, the Voorhees bill was presented as '='«« ^''y ''? ™ mother s death. Gifted witii 
a nhsiltnte, its provisions being a repeal of Ihe beauty and inteligence she won much ad- 
■avcr-pnrdiasit^ clause, but affirming bimetal- 5««"on at the capital and tiunibM|ri among her 
lism as a National poHcy. After a protracted f***"^' S""* '"«'}«■ Bancroft Bryant Motley, 
contest the Voorhees bill passed the Senaie 30 and Prescott. She was married to John Sher- 
October, it was concurred In by the House i wo?^, a lawyw of Washington. She Nigiged 
November, and the President approved it the "> I'terary work, traveled extensively in Europe, 
Mm > day ^^ was actively engaged in venous cfaantable 
—, .. ,'. . t ). o., -:,t, - . - ji J enterprises. Her pubHealions Include: *Tho 
Sherrr, a favorite Span^h wne so called gareasm of Destiny^ {1877) ; <A Transplanted 
because chiefly produced m the neighborhood of g„,^, (igg^j <Royal Girls ^nd Royal Courts' 
aieres,near C^<i>t.ia Andalusia, Spain. Lnlike (,88?); <Swek Brin> tiSb) ; etc/besides nu- 
many of the French wires, the manufacture of m-.oVa'ooe™, ,;™pd under*M E. 'iv S» 
iherty is carried on chiefly bv a few large con- °""°^l^^^ "J?^^ „"^' ^ V^" ^' ,. ^ 
cems. The industry has principally passed to f''*''*?*^ "."^ ««rth* Butli English 
French and British proprietors, who have greatly author: b. Stanford. Wtffcestersb re, 6 May 
improTfcd the manufacture and have bettered the '773; a. IwicketAam. Middlesex, 22 SepL 1851. 
grade of commercial sherries. The best soil In 1803 she was .marned to her consm Henry 
consists chiefly of carbonate of lime, with a small i'^etTwrd Capl*m) Sherwood, and went with 
admixture of Siler and clay, and occasionally hSp» tj? }^*^ reluming in 1818. Her first book, 
magnesia. Red and white grapes are used indis- iraditioas,' was wntteo when she was 17. Her 
criminately. When ripe and gathered they are 'Su»an Grey\ <i9a2) wai one of the first at- 
spread on mats, and left to dry for two or three 'Mnpta » write on religioua subjects for the 
davs ; they are then freed from the stalks, and the P<mw, and for tnany years her yanous wnttngs 
rtrttcn or unripe berries rejected. Being now w^re extremely popular ill religious orclee. Of 
introduced into vats, with a layer of burned her 90 religious wo^l" /"^ Jl?"" t''* !>"'. «" 
gypsum on the surface, they are trodden by peas- membered are: 'T^e Little Woodman'; 'Little 
ants with wooden shoes. The juice is collected Henn- =nd His Bearer'; <Fairchild Family'; 
in casks, in which the fermentation is allowed to 'The Lady tff tw* Msnor.' 
take place, continuing generally from Oetobe* Sherwood. Rbrina Emmlitt, American art- 
tin the beginning or middle of DecemSer, The isf: b. New York 1857. She was the pupil of 
wines are then racked from the lees, and Aose William Chase in her native city, and afterward 
intended for exportation receive additions of studied at Paris in the Jullen Academy. A 
brani^, seldom more than 3 or 4 gallons to the silver medal was awarded to her at the Paris 
butt The new wine is harsh and fiery, but mel- Exposition of T88g and a medal at the Columbian 
low* br behig allowed to remain in the wood Exposition of 1^3. She is a member of the 
4 «f * Tearsi though rj or ao years are re- Society of American Artists, of the Ncfc Yoilt 

vot.iB_8 , Goot^Ic 


Water Color Society and of the American Water 
Color Society. Her work as an illustrator has 
attracted wide attention. 

Sherwood Forest, an ancient forest in 
Nottinghamshire, Engiand, in a hilly district be- 
tween Nottingham and Worksop, The tract 
covered about 200 square miles and was formerly 
a royal forest, famous as the scene of the exploits 
of Robin Hood and his merry men, many legends 
of whom are yet to be heard in the surround- 
ing country. Only a small portion of the forest, 
near Rotterbam, still remains. The rest of the 
country it once covered is now occupied by 
country'Seats and private parks, and is for the 
most part bare of trees. 

Shefland, Scotland, a county embracing 
die group of islands northeast of Orkney, of 
which 20 are inhabited. They eonlain 566 square 
miles, and the largest are Mainland, Yell, Unst, 
Fetlar, Bressay, Whalsay and Foula. Mainland 
contains about two thirds of the entire acreage; 
its surface is hilly with indented coast line and 
interspersed by numerous lochs. Ronas Hill 
(1^175 feet) is the highest point in the northwest 
of Mainland: The Sneug (1,372 feet), in 
Foula, is next in heighL The coasts of the 
whole group are bold and rocky, presenting some 
fine landscape. Peat moss covers much of the 
surface, and some cereal crops and vegetables 
are growa The pastures cover about 43^>CX> 
acres. Domestic animals are reared — the small 
Shetland ponies are well known — but the chief 
industry consists in the herring fisheries. The 
manufactures are mainly woolens. Lerwick, on 
Brassey Sound, is the c^tal; and Scalloway 
the targeat village, — both in Mainland. The 
exports are- fish, oil, cattle, horses, eggs and 
gloves. There are 6t public schools, church 
schools and several schools for superior educa- 
tion. The inhabitants are of Norse extraction 
and were for several centuries under Scandi- 
navian sovereigns. Since 1468 they have be- 
km^ed to Scotland. There are numerous an- 
tiquities which are highly interesting, including 
brochs, stsnding-stoiies, tumuli, and the ruins 01 
a Roman camp on Fetlar Island. Pop, about 

Shewbread, shetrSd, the 12 unleavened 
loaves placed upon a table in the outer depart- 
ment of the Jewish sanctuary. The number la 
represented the 13 tribes. The loaves were 
placed in two piles, one above another, and were 
changed every sabbath day by the priests. The 
removed bread became the property of the 
priests, who alone had a right to eat of it, and 
only in the holy place. In cases of emergency, 
however, they incurred no blame by giving it 
to persons who were in a state of ceremonial 
purity, as in the instance of David and his men 
(1 Sam. xxi. 4-6; Matt xii. 4). 

Shiahs, she'as. See Rzucious Sects; 

Shib'boleth, a word which on a certain 
occasion served as a test to distinguish ^hra- 
imites from Gibeonites. Jephtha's men, Gibe- 
onites, held the ford of Jordan, with orders to 
suffer no Ephraimite to cross over. When chal- 
lenged with the question 'Art thou an Ephraim- 
ite?" the man of Ephraim would answer 'Nay.' 
•Say now Shibboleth* ; and the other pro- 
Doimced it •Sibbolefh,* 'for he could not frame 

to pronounce it right* In the Septuagint ver- 
sion, which is followed t^ the Latin Vulgate, 
the 'point' of the question is completely lost: 
*Art thou not an Ephraimite?* and they said 
'Nay.* And they said to him, "Then say 
jfocfty*,' that is, *say ear» (of com), which is 
the etymological meaning of the Hebrew word 
shibboleth : *and he framed not to speak so.* 

Shield, sheld, William, English composer: 
b, Swalwall, Durham, 5 March 1748; d. London 
25 Jan. 1829, He early studied music and com- 
posed anthems that were sung in Durham cathe- 
dral. His earliest sustained work was a comic 
opera, 'The Flitch of Bacon' (17^), and having 
been appointed composer to Co vent Garden 
(1778-97) he produced several other works, in- 
eluding 'Rosina' (1783); 'The Poor Soldier* 
(1784); 'The Woodman' (1792): 'Two Faces 
Under a Hood* (1807). But he is best known 
by his songs, among which are *The Heaving of 
the Lead' ; 'The Arethusa' ; 'The Thorn' ; 'The 
Ploughboy'; and 'The Wolf The tune of 
'Auld Lang Syne,' as now sung, was introduced 
into his 'Rosma' ; the authorship of 'Coming 
through the Rye' has also been claimed for 
Shield. Among his literary works are; 'An 
Introduction to Harmony* (1817) ; and 'Rudi- 
ments of Thorough Bass.* His musical produc- 
tions comprise several collections of ^ees, IhiI- 
lads, trios, etc 

Shield, a plate or framework of various - 
shapes and materials, and variously covered and 
adorned, formerly in extensive use among 
almost all peoples and still used by savage tribes. 
The shield is of very great antiqaity. The 
spearmen of ancient ^^t used rectangular 
shields with a semicircular top. These shidds 
were about half the soldier's height, and were 
generally covered with bull's hide, having the 
hair outvirard. Occasionally they were strength- 
ened by studs and rims of metal. The larger 
kinds were strapped across the shoulders by a 
thong, but the smaller bucklers had wooden bars 
enabling them to be grasped by the hand. The 
shields of the warriors in the Iliad were of on- 
tanned hide and metal, large enough to cover tin 
whole man, and, when not in use, were supported 
on the warrior's back by means of a leather belt 
Many of them bore ornamental and other de- 
but in some cases the devices described are 

smaller than those of the heroic age. The 
'clipeus," circular in some eases, and in others 
oval, was used in Greece and in early Rome, but 
only by the. higher class of Roman soldiers, and 
it was soon altogether abandoned by the Romans 
in favor of the Sabine shield loiown as the 
'scutum.* The scutum was of wood or wicker- 
work, either rectangular or oval in shape, and 
often curved. According to Polybius it was 4 
feel long by 2i4 broad, or rather larger. The 
shields of die early Franks, the Scandinavians, 
and the Anglo-Saxons were round. That of the 
Anglo-Saxons was of wood covered with leather, 
and had a prominent ceiitral boss. The shield 
of the Normans at the period of the Conquest 
was targ^ kite-shaped, and elaborately adorned. 
In later times this gave place to smaller, though 
still triangular forms, hut with the introduction 
of firearms shields were abandoned as useleast 
except by the Scottish Highlaaders, who made 

i)„rz.,i ..Google 


«ooi! use of them in the last Stuart rebellion, and making, and the manufacture of glass, eardien- 

by savage and semi-savage tribes. ware, chain-cables, and anchors. Coal is shipped 

aiields, sh6ldz, Charles WoodnrfT, Ameri- principally at the Tyne dock belonging to the 

can educafor; b. New Albany, Ind., 4 April 1825; North-Eastern Railway Company. A stone pier 

A. Newport, R, I., 26 Aug. 1904. He was grad- " ™"^ ''^"^ "^ "*" construcled at the mouth of 

iiated from Princeton in 1844, from the TheoloKi- the harbor. 

cal Seminary there in [847, was ordained in the Shiitea, she'Its, a sect of Mohammedans, 
Presbyterian ministry and served in charge of bo called from the Arab word "shiah," meaning 
pastorates at Hempstead, L. I., in 1849-50, and a sect. The Shiites believe that All, the son- 
in Philadelphia in 1860-^5. He later occupied in-law of Mohammed, was the rightful successor 
the chair of harmony of science and revealed of the prophet, and ihey accord to him honor 
rejigion at Princeton, His publications include: hardly second to that paid to Mohammed him- 
' The Presbyterian Book of Common Prayer ac- self. They assert that the first three caliphs, 
cording to the Revision of the Westminster Abubekir, Omar and Othman, were usurpers. 
Divines' (E864); 1 Religion and Science in Rela- and an essential part of Ihcir religious practice is 
tion to Philosophy) (1875); 'The Order of the to curse and denounce their memories. As the 
Sciences) (18&2): <The United Church of the caliphs named are held in h^ reverence by the 
United States* ^i8q6); 'The Scientific Evidences orthodox Mohammedans, the animosity between 
Of Revealed Religion* (igoo); etc. the latter and the Shiites is of the fiercest char- 
SUelds, James, American military officer: f"^- '^ ^as for many centuries bem the ^use 
b. Dungan^on. IreUnd, 1810; d. Ottumwa, Iowa, ^ '^'^E'^^^ry strife the fact that Ah and h.s 
I June l8?9. He came to the United States iiJ t"'*,^^"^*!" murdered be mg made a ground 
18^ and 4Stering the army subsequently served \^^^ ^^'1* p' avenging their deaths as a 
through the Mcxfcan War and for bravefy in the ^"J f '""t,^^?':, t^rf:!,"^,!', "S^^^^i^ ,^^^ 
battle! of Cerro Gordo and Chapultepec was bre- Shiites most of the inhabitants belonging to that 
■_...... I TT 1 Ti?.. , r-...._ sect, which exists also in Central Asia and India, 

and numbers in all about 18,000,000 persons. See 

also Religious Sects. 

„ ^_ ^ .,_ ^^ ^ Shikarpur, shik-ar-poor', India, (i) Capital 

JaVkson at Wi"n'chester,"23 March r862r"He was of a district of the same name, in the Sind Divi- 

defeated at Port Republic g June 1862 and re- ?i°^' Province of Bombay, 150 miles southeast of 

signed his commission in 1863. Khelat and 18 miles west of the Indus River. 

of Kftnf °sSs,S£w*ts sr™ ?«"i"'in°Ja,iz/'rzi's ifs 's,"5 

Krind .„d D„h„ ,„p,c5v,.j, ™ op„.i« j" .'."s't.?,;;. 'ks ' "d ts Ss 

bmk, oflheTyne ™r itsmm.J,n tke North jj.^j^ „id„«.. Tt, „,dc hu always bett, 

So, Tht port of Sbxldi fonntd by .1. np.t)^ i„po„a„,, „„i„g to tb= town's position on the 

s,on of the ™r into a w,d=b.y. has bcjn greatly j^ p' „;„„„ ,„ji, .^j Khorassan. 

SE'^'';?„£?.„H Ji™lS,^.,™i. S The mamfinores indSde carpels, mnslins, and 

»y s°. at t£i i™ Th"r°?L yiyeM- T""^' The «.il i. very produetiv^ and yield. 

retSdaSa^ginSr-nJ^giSred S^'Thf SSrie, of Shikarnnr covers an 

.•;r"of fejiefdbv? "" -"'*■"■ .™of,3s?.'™ i£.XToX7"ltTs 

;™4.=°st4tsfhfLth b„h of the ;„'rsi^^^ 

Tyne, form, part of the n.nn,e, of Tyne- j portion and forest, along th» banks of the 
S; ri..'r'1'j .ItSTif ,'^ou "'d ™1 2 Indus. 'Agrienltnre. chief crop. nee. millet and 
S^JZ^hT .o,T,, j/b,^ l,„r S "l""'- 1> dependent on canal, from the Indns. 
portion, the former with narrow streets and cu-iv ti-i't- a ■ cu ■ 
lanes, and the latter with spacious streets and , =>™«a. shii ka, Asia in eastern bibena, 
squares. The township extends m. the river to "^^^ "} ^^^^ Trans-Baikal region, among the 
Willington, and includes Northumberiand Dock Yabloni Mountains, and is one of the chief trih- 
and Albert Edward Dock. The chief industrial "^"^ "l "'^ /^'P}^^ into which it etnpties at 
estabhshments are ship-building yards, saltworks, ? po rat beyond Ust Strelka. It is 260 miles 
iron foundries, marine-engine works, and elec- lo"<i navigable about one half of the year, 
trical works. Fishing is largely carried on, and ^" ""'t'^'' '*^ f'"^^*" ^^.^ '^ uUlized as a high- 
much fish is sent to many parts of England. *=y- Sryetinsk is an important station on _ the 
South Shields, opposite North Shields, com- '''ve'-. for vessels gomg to Khabarovsk. It is a 
municates with the latter by steam- ferries. The '^rminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway, and the 
Old part of the town consists of long narrow starting point of Russian expeditions on Hie 
Streets running parallel to the river; but the Lower Amur. 

modern part, immediately behind, occupies a Shillaber, shil'a-ber, Benjamin Penhallow, 

higher site and possesses many handsome build- 'Mas. Pabtington,' American humorist ; b. 

ings. The public institutions include a town- Portsmouth, N. H., 13 July 1814 ; d, Chelsea, 

hall, police buildings (1893) ; a custom-house, Mass., 35 Nov. iScjo. After a brief secondary 

free library and museum, infirmary, fever hos- schooling and training in a local printer's office, 

tital, public baths and washhouses; nautical coi- he went to Boston, where he followed his trade 

:ge, national and other schools, and several be- in several newspaper offices ; with the interrup- 

nevolent endowments. The chief industries are tion of a year's voyage to British Guiana. Then 

coal-mining and coal shipments, ship-building he began journalistic work. Achieving from the 

and ship- repairing, marine-engine and boiler- first (184?) a great success with his 'Sayings o£ 



N.TS. PartHtttoti,' whoie homely wisdom is reached Savannah 17 March, and sent McClar- 

closely allied to that of the Widow Bedott In naod's, and C. F, Smith's division under W. H, 

Boston he was auccessively an editor of the Pott, L. Wallace to Pittsburg. Premiss' division fol- 

alid editor-in-chief of the 'Carpet-Bag,' a hu- lowed later. Little or no attention was paid 

notoiH publication of short-lived fame, and of to lines of battle or reserves, both Grant and 

tlie 'Saturday Evening Gazette.' Shiilaber's Sherman looking upon the concentration as 

work was not, as one critic has phrased it, preparatory to an advance upon Corinth Gen. 

'trained to move in literary circles," but in Lew Wallace's division was establislied at 

that was simitar to most American humor of its Crump's Landing, some six miles below, where, 

p:riod. Among the titles of his books are: as Grant explained to Halleck, he had a good 

'.lihymes with Reason .and without' (1852) ; road which would enable him "to form a junc- 

' 1-ife and Sayings of Mrs. Partington' (1853) ; tion with the main column, . . . six or seven 

' Mrs. Partington's Knitting Work' ( 185^) ; miles before reaching Cormth." 
'Partingtonian Patchwork' (1872) ; and 'Criuses In regard to this move Gen. Halleck, 30 

with Captain Bob' (1880). March, telegraphed: "By all means keep your 

Shillelagh, sH-la'la, the cudgel carried by forces together until you connect with Gen. 

die conventional Irishman, with which he is Buell, and wait till you are properly fortified 

siin»oscd to delight to play on the heads of his and receive orders." No attention was paid to 

friends on occasion. The name is borrowed this direction as to fortifying, and neither abatis 

from the once famous oak forest of ShilleUgh nc rifle-pits were constructed, nor timber felled. 

in the southwest corner of County Wicklow. Gen. Grant in his 'Memoirs' says of this. 

_../ ._. T_ .1, 1 r_;..j c..... . J : consideration." Ine lurttier reason given by 

24W cents. In the United States, a denomma- r- . .1. .. ii. i-_ i r .r _ 

,d.,ivdv .0 ih, doll„ ,„ difo.„. S>..... but rid „o '£ li .'.uooTiS 'ii^Z 

I'elow that of the English shilling v 

ly supplied with water. Gen. 
'Memoirs,' writes; "We did 

,e.p»di„ v.l„. .or Ih. p™y .„d th, pc..d. Sr.'^V.u, ;,»;."„.»» » S„k, KaS 
Shlloh, shi 16, Palestine, occupied the sum- ^e had no orders to do so. and because such a 
mit of a high mountain north of BetheL The course would have made our raw men timid"; 
.\rk of the Covenant or Tabernacle (q.v.) rested and in a court-martial case he testified: "To 
Iiere from the tune of Joshua to that of Eli. have erected fortifications would have been an 
when It was carried away by the Philistines, evidence of weakness, and would have invited 
Prior to this, Shlloh was the religious seat of an attack* There was no expectation of an 
the Israelites and a great feast was held annu- attack. Grant, in his 'Memoirs,' says: 'The 
ally. The phrase of the Scriptures "until Shiloh fact is, I regarded the campaign we were en- 
cwne." has received considerable attention from gaged in as an offensive one, and had no ide» 
theologians, and its accepted interpretation is — that the enemy would leave strong inlrench- 
•unlil Christ come," or "until rest come." A ments to take the initiative when he knew he 
small village site, 20 miles north of Jerusalem. IS would be attacked where he was if he remained-* 
identified with the ancient Shlloh. Gen. Nelson, the advance of Buell on the march 
Shilob, Ehi'ld (Tenn.), BatOc of. This from Columbia, telegraphed Grant on 3 April 
engagement, known also as Pittsburg Landing, that he could be at Savannah 5 April, and in 
was fought 6-7 April 1862. between the Union reply was informed Friday, 4 April, that he 
forces of Gen. Grant, commanding the Army need not hurrj^, as boats could not be ready to 
of the Tennessee, and of Gen. Buell, command- take him to Pittsburg until the 8th. The same 
ing the Army of the Ohio — the latter arriving day Grant notified Gen, Prentiss: "The review 
the night of the first day — and the Confederate of yonr division will not take place until Tues- 
Army of the Mississippi under Gen. A. Sidney day next." Two days before the time fixed for 
Johnston, with Gen, P. G. T. Beauregard second review Prentiss and his division were prisoners 
m command. in the hands of the enemy. TTiis conviction that 
After the battles of Mill Springs and Fort there would be no attack led not only to n?glect- 
Donelson (qq.v.) Gen. Johnston withdrew from ing all defensive preparations, but to selecting 
Kentucky and Tennessee to the line of the camp-grounds without regard to a line of battle 
Memphis and Charleston Railroad, and soon and chiefly with reference to available ground 
after concentrated his army at Corinth, Miss, and the convenience of water. Three of Sher- 
The Union forces were sent up the Tennessee man's brigades were established about Shiloh 
River under Gen, C. F. Smith, Gen. Grant hav- Church, and the fourth two miles distant. This 
ing been ordered by Gen. Halleck to remain at wide space was later filled in part by Prentiss* 
Fort Henry (q.v.), Gen. W. T. Sherman, com- division, leaving extensive gaps on each of his 
manding the advance, and seeking to cut the flanks. According to maps of both Grant and 
railroad, finding the country above Pittsburg Sherman, McClemand's division was camped to 
Landing under warer, fell back to that point, the left and rear of Sherman, and nearly at 
and recommended its occupation to Gen, Smith, right angles to the latter, with its flank toward 
who had remained at Savannah. Sherman es- the enemy's position. Hurlbut's division was a 
tablished his division rg March at Shiloh mile in rear of Prentiss, and W. H. L, Wallace's 
Church, about two and a half miles back from about the same in rear of Sherman. 
the Larding, Gen. Hurlbut's division having There had been a considerable .show of Con- 
been encamped one mile out from the river, federate cavalry several miles to the front 4 
Gen. Grant, having been restored to command, April, but on the sth Sherman wrote Grant: 


>. Google 


•All ia qjiiet aUmy my liii«s now- We are in no order or sy?teqi in earning; no relation oi 
Uie act 6l exchanging cavalry according to your one command t9 another: no de&ned front Of 
ortler. The enemy cias cavalxjr in our front, known rear, except an impa»aable river- Tbere 
aud I think tliere are two regimeats and one was no common directing head or superior offi- 
battery six miles out-' The same day one of cer beyond the rank of division commander 
hia regiments had b«en engaged under bis orders placed on the firing line, whom all would reo^ 
in culling a road and bridging a creek in his niic and promptly obey-" , , . «The night be- 
fiont for the advatKe on Corinth- Later In fore had been passed by the Union troops in 
the day Sherman wrote Grant ; "1 have no merry-making until the camp sank into a paace- 
donbt that nothing will occur to-day more than fui slumber, irom which they were aroused by 
some picket-finng,' and that he did not 'appre- the roar of musketry and the booming of thfc 
bend anything lite an attack* on his position, guns of the Fifth Battery,* As to the early 
The same day, after Sherman's report from hours of the day of battle, he observes : *The 
the front. Grant, who had gone back to Savan- bngle's cheery notes aroused the camp at the 
nab for the ni^t, telegraphed Haltech: 'Ihave dawn of day; breakfast was over, and all was 
scarcely the faintest idea of an attack (generd ready tor an early morning drill, when the 
one) being made upon us, but will be pr«iared faint reports of distant picket-shots were heard 
should sudi a thing take place. Gen. Nelson's and then came the pattermg fire of ^le reserves, 
division has "arrived. The other two of Gen. . ', followed by volleys on the right that told 
Buell's column will arrive to-morrow and next of swiftly approaching danger.* The pickets 
day. It is my present intention to send them of Prentiss were the firet to encounter the Con- 
to Hamburg, some four miles above Pittsburg, federate advance, and being strongly re-inforced, 
when they all get here. From that point to Cor- they attacked Hardee's oncoming line. 'The lat- 
inih the road is good, and a junction can be ter pushed rapidly forward and thrust strong 
formed with the troops from Pittsburg at a)- flanking forces into the wide gaps on Prentii?' 
most any point." Grant, the same day, tele- ilanks, thus turning both, as we'll as Shermati> 
graphed Buell: "The enemy at and near Cor- left, and the right of Stuart, — Sherman's iso- 
mth are probably from 6o,odo to 80,000, " lated bngade. 

At the very time of these various inter- Sherman's brigades formed on their color- 
changes of opinion Hardee's corps was in line line, a portion of the troops Ijeing called from 
of battle within a mile and a halt of Sherman's their breakfast for the puroose. They advanced 
headquarters, having deployed in diis posiliop between zoo and 3D0 yards, met the enemy ifi 
at 10 A.M., S April, wifh Gen. Bragg's corps - force, and checked his advance for a time, 
forming as a second line, and Polk's and Brecfc- Sherman tneantime sending to Meaernand for a 
inridge s corps, the rear of Johnston'*; army, clos- battalion of cavalry to join one of his "for the 
ing up. The Confederate arm? had marrhed purpose of discovering the strength and design 
from Corinth the mofning of 3 April, expecting of the enemy.* It was not until 8 o'clodf, 
to attack Saturday morning, the 5th, but a however, that Gen. Sherman became convinced 
heavy storm and other causes delayed so that that it was an attack in force. He fhus fixes 
die attack was postponed till Sunday morn- the time in his oflicial report : 'About 8 a.u. 
trig, the 6tb.' Such was the situation Saturday I saw the glistening bayonets of heavy masses 
night ill the Union camps. While there was a of iofantry to our left front in the woods beyond 
very general feeling among the pickets and tbe small stream alluded to, and became satis- 
many subordinate officers that the enemy was fied for the first time that the enemy designe<^ 
neai in considerable force, it was discredited by a determined attack on our whole camp,* At 
Gen. Sherman, and so the usual precautionary 10 o'clock most of the advanced Union camp^ 
orders were not given to medical, ordnance, were in the hands of the enemy. There haj 
quartermaster, or commissary officers, or to the been no time to strike tents or reifiove stons 
troops, and no one had any official intimation or private baggage- Sherman relates that two 
that a batde was impending, or knew thaf of his horses were killed at the picket-rope, and 
Johnston's entire army was close to their front that he found them still tied there when the 
awaiting daylight to attack. There had been camps were recovered the next d^- 
somc strengthening of pickeits, but nothing was In spite of this general surprise, and of the 
done which even the suspected presence of the tremendous onslaught of solidly formed bat- 
Confederate army would have called for. tie-lines, there was throughout the day much 

Gen, Prentiss, after the war, in the first pub- stubborn and even remarkable filling, in which 

lie utterance on the question of surprise, said: Sherman, Prentiss, McClem^nd, and Hnrlhut 

*In reference to the still general inquiry, 'Was were personally conspicuous. After the hsttle 

C'lr army surprised at Shiloh?' I can only reply began, Sherman's conduct was beyond ptaise. 

for myself that I had not the slightest idea that There were probably 20,000 men in regiments 

a general engagement was to be fought that that maintained their shattered organizations, 

day," He said further; *We were not pre- and in broken groups, in batteries, and in mixed 

Sared on the 6th of April*; but •admonished forces rallied by braTe officers and men, whfciT, 

y the action of the enemy on Friday evening," together, without special reg9.rd to lines,' held 

he had strengthened his pickets. with desperate courage against the enveloping 

Gen. Andrew Hickenlooper. now one of the enemy. Many of fliem were killed or wonnded 

principal officers of the Society of the Army of before flie 4iy ended. But nothing eotfld t>er- 

the Tennessee, an officer of note in Grant's manently resist the well-ordered Cortfederat? 

army throughout the war, and a strong friend movement. Gen. Grant wrote that when he met 

of Grant and Sherman ever after, comrnanded Buelt at the Landhig, which was af I p.m., 

a battery in Prentiss' division at Shiloh. In the 'there probably were as many as four or five 

course of an exhaustive review of *e battle ht thousand stragglers lyttig ander cOver of fte 

says of the general situnlion : "There had been river bluff, panic-stricken, most of whom wonid 


>. Google 

Mice, before they would have taken muskets ai „ .. _ .. _ .. _ 

marched to the front to protect themselves. * rion), and becoming hotly engageu mcie, m 

As the day advanced, the Union line was co-operation with "Wallace's left regiment. Wal- 

fast disintegrating. Gen. Sherman, testifying lace, at the close of the battle, held the front 

under oath at a subsequent trial, said that 'at of the Army of the Tennessee, McCletnand, 

least 10,000 ran away. * Prentiss' division, fight- Sherman, and Hurlbut being warmly engaged at 

ing till the last, was surrendered and captured the close in connection with the left of Wallace, 

soon after 5 p.m., having maintained tts or- and the right of McCook. About ^ p.m. the 

ganization to the last, and given the best illus- Army of the Tennessee rsoccupied Its former 

tration of pluck, endurance, and persistence in camps. 

fighting that the history of the first day affords. When Buell first advanced he was joined by 

Sherman's organiaation was destroyed, aud ho, Col. J, M, Tuttlo of W. H. L. Wallace's second 

with a small force of bis own, was lighting division, who gathered up about 1,000 men d 

stubbornly with McClemand, whose organiULr his own command, rallied many oiore from 

tion, though much broken, was still maintained, fragments about his bivouac, tod without ofr 

About 2 P.M. Gen, Johnston was wounded, and deis proceQded to BueU's lines, reported to him, 

died in half an hour. The transfer of com- and fought with him throu^ the day- At day- 

raand to Gen. Beauregard caused a lull in the l^hi Grant gave Sherman orders to advance 00 

light, and a delay in movement, but at 5 the the ri^ht. He thereupon sent his staff officers 

Union Une had been forced back into a. comer to collect his men and moved Forward about 7 

n the Tennessee River and Snake Creek, a.m. At 9 o'clock Hurlbut moved under Grant's 

an area which included the Landing. Here the orders to support McClemand, who, with Sher- 
line presented a front of about a mjle and a half man, was then engaged near his former camp. 
to the enemy. Just as an assault on this posi- Lew Wallace had advanced earlier, and held 
tion was being delivered at the right of the the right of Grant's army. This division finally 
Confederate lines, Ammen's brigade of Nelson's swung around upon the ground originally occu- 
division of BueU's army, which had marched pied by Gen. Sherman's camps, there coming in 
from Savannah through the swamps, was fer- contact with the right of McCook of BuSl'a 
ried across the river, and two regiments ad- line. Here the battfe ended, 
vanced and opened fire upon the right regi- The division commanders of Grant's army 
ments of the enemy, which, m charging forward, were J. A. licClemand, W. H. L. Wallace, 
had nearly reached the Landing. The assault Lewis Wallace, S. A. Hurlbut, W. T. Sherman, 
was checked without severe fighting, but the ar- and B, M. Prentiss. Gen. BueU's divisions on 
rival of fresh troops thus became known, and the the field were A. McD. Mi--Cook, William Nei- 
Confederate attack ended for the day. At this son, Thomas L. Crittenden, and T. J. Wood, 
time Grant's line in front of the Landing was The division comnianders of Johnston's army 
held by the broken organization of Hurlbut, *ere; of Polk's corps, C. Clark and B. P. 
W. H. L. Wallace, McClemand, and Sherman. Cheatham; of Braggs corps. D. Ruggles and 
There were portions of various organizations J. M. Withers; of Hardee's corps, T. C. Hind- 
available within the protected area, and Lew man, P. R. Cleburne, and S. A. M. Wood; 
Wallace arrived duringthe night with 5,000 men. reserve corps, J.C.Breckinridge. The best esti; 
Buell himself had arrived at 1 p.M.,and spent the mates of strength give Grant 33,000 at the open- 
afternoon in learning conditions and studying ing of the battle, and Lew Wallace's reinforce- 
the ground, and the night in posting his troops, ment for the second day 5,000. The officiafl 
Nelson's division was ferried over at night, and reports give Johnston's strength a' 

advanced on the left; Crittenden's, as the steam- 40,000. The losses of Grant's army were 1,513 
ers brought it from Savannah, was placed on killed, 6,601 wounded, and a, 830 missing; total, 
Nelson's right; Two brigades of McCook's 10,944. Buelllost 341 killed, 1,807 wounded, and 

division, which followed Crittenden up the river, 55 missing; total, 3,103. Total Union loss, i„. 

were established still further to the nght. The 047, The Confederate loss was 1,733 killed. 

Union gunboats Tyler and Lexington anchored 8,013 wounded, and 959 missing; total, 10,694. 

off the ravine next above the Landing, and Consult: 'OtJirial Records,* Vols. X., LII.. Part 

near the close of the firat day's fight, fir^d I. ;Grant, 'Personal Memoirs,' Vol. I.:Sherman, 

effectively upon the Confederate right flank and * Memoirs, ' Vol. L ; Van Home, ' History of the 

front. OS the Union lino was forced back toward Army of the Cumberland, ' Vol. L 

the riv«r. These boats continued their heavy H. V. Bovnton. 

shdlling at intervals during the night, t ' 

— at discomfiture of the Confederate can,^=. . , 

The battle of Monday, 7th,.was opened under «^P^^ ^„, -„-^^- „f-tiie Gulf of Yeddo, So mUes 

Gen. Buell'a orders and direction. His left and "^sj^™ . r-r 1 i. u j ... 

centre advanced and became engaged with the P^^thwest of Tokyo It was nearly de^ 

enemy's pickets immediately after laylight, and ^^ ^ earthquake and tidal wave '" '8s^^ 

encounte'red their main line at 6 A.M. ^iTcCiok'B was rebuilt, .and since 1 857. when the Dutch 

two brigades moved at once into action, and J-^^^^ ™^ ^'^n^' %^'^ ^'^ " ^"** P°'* ^'" 

were established still further to the right. The '°'^'En commerce, i-op. 5,000. 

Army of the Ohio pressed steadily forward, and ShimonoMki, Bhi-m6-n&-8£k'fi, or Akama- 

at 4 P.M. had possession of the camps of Stuart, gasefei, !l<k9-m3-ga-sSk'E, Japan, a. fortiHed 

Prentiss, and a part of McClernand's. Two town, railway terminus, and active seaport, at 

brigades of T, J. Wood's division arrived as the southernmost point of Hondo, commanding 

the battle was ending, but only one reached the the strait leading from the Inland Sea to the Sea 

front. The action closed soon after 4, Buell's of Japan. The strait at one point only one quar- 

torces at that time covering two miles o£ the terotamile wide separates the islands of Honda 

izcd by Google 


and Kiusiu. At Shimonoseki, on 25 June 1863, Bjfatem; but the di'iease must be allowed to ran 

the American steamer Pembroke was fired upon its course, although the irritation can be dhnin- 

by the Japanese for attempting to enter the strait, isbed. 

which had been ordered closed by the Mikado: fihinn rharioa TT/wmr-ii a^_«*.... 1 

16 J-ly the Unitrf SUtt. .hip WyominB de^ cBctT^ST T„STAn,il ,^<, H. . 


M.^ui.I>.,„,J.(„.„dLiH.Scb.n/J [;S5;.sS,?S"M°n,'!"(.'fe)?SJ' "^"^ 

Shin-Dlaster a bank-note e^neekllv nnc „ S^iinn. Gsorge Wolie, American PrcKestanl 

The lern. i. derived from an old .Sdier having 5^ fei^yt^f??;!?,'' ,''T 'H P'".'«l«l- 

u.ed a quantity of worthies, paper eCrrencj u fe^J "K ^.'"2' " *3' "»'' j'"' " *• 

plaaler.lor a wonnded leg. See Mo!,«y. pJn. S^'^'„,9"'^„'S„?°^ '%'• «"''■'".' I""- 

-, , „ - , .. .1 ^ , '"B TSnous rectorships m Pennsylvania ana 

Shinee, one of various small «lTery fishes New York State became rector of Grace ChundL 

of the fa*ily Cj/inn.dar found in all streams Newton, which position he still (ig04) holds, 

from Nefc England to I^sas and Louisiana, He is president of the Boston Chapter of th« 

especially in those choked with weeds. They American Actors' Church Alliance, and his »ep. 

are the object of childish angling expeditions, nions on 'The Stage as a Teacher' and <The 

? . !f"^"?** ^" ^^^^ e"0''Bh to be cooked, Theatre as a Place of Amusement^ have had a 

but should be e^ at once, as tbe;flesh spoils wide circulation. He has published: 'Manual 

quickly (See Dace; Minnow.) The moon- of the Prayer Book'; <Q«e3tiona About Our 

fish (Vomer seltpennu) is sometimes called Church'; <Friendly Talks About Marriage': 

blunt-nosed shmer. <Xhe Episcopal Churdi^ etc 

Shingle, s ^in pieee of wood, having ghinn, MiUcent WMhbnrn, American au- 

parallel sides, and thicker at one end than the thor, sister of C. H. Shinn (q.v ) : b. Niles 

other commonly used as a roof covenog instead Cal., 15 April 1838. She was graduated from 

of, slates, tiles or metaL To hang out one's the University of California in i^ and was ed- 

Bhingle means to enter in business and announce Jtor of the San Francisco 'Commercial Herald* 

that busines.^ to the public by erectmg a sign, during her last year in college. She edited 'The 

The ejcpression arose from the fact that shingles. Overland Monthly' 1883-94, and has published 

in the pioneer days of Amenca, afforded cheap (Notes on the Development of a Chi!4> 

and convenient material for such announcements. (1894-9), since translated into German. 

SUngles, a d^ease (Aerfw *«(tT) charac- Shinnecock, shin'S-kSk. a bay on the south 

tefi«d by an eruption of /esicles on an inflamed shore of Long Island (q.v.). It indents Suffolk 

fiorface ofskin. Then name is denvativeiy county for about 12 miles, and at the entrance is 

«latedto«ng(e, a belt or girdle. The eruption a ]ong_ narrow sand-bar. Nearby is the land 

consists of red spots and small vesicles which are owned by the Shinnecock Indians, 
mostly disposed round one side of the body, like cu- „ 1 t j- ., 

a half belt In rare cases it encircles the body. , Shmnecocic IrdiMii, an Algonquian tribe 

It has an obscurely nervous character, occurs in °* ¥'"K Island. N. Y., formerly occupying the 

the course of a nerve, and is preceded by stinging so«t''ern coast from Shinnecock Bay to Montauk 

neuralgic pains, also by languor, lassitude, loss pen'"sula. Many of them early joined the 

of appetite, shiverings, headache, nausea, quick- Brothertown Indians, and the 150 that now re- 

ened pulse, etc, after which the eruption appears f?^'" «" '"«"' '■escrvation of about 400 acres, 

in irregular patches. The vesicles become en- three miles west of Southampton, have interaiar- 

larged to the size of small pearls in 24 to aiS P^'' ;«"" negroes until their aboriginal character 

hout«, and fresh clusters occur for three or four °^^ °^^^ flmost obliterated 
days, completing the' belt-like appearance. As Sbintoiam, shtn'to-Izm, the primitive re- 

the eruption recedes by the fifth or sixth day, the Hgion, or rather cult, of Japan. It has many 

vesicles become white and opaque, and the red thousands of gods, the chief deity being Ama- 

tnargins become livid or purple. Sometimes terasa, the sun-goddess, from whom the Mikado 

the vesicles burst, and several of the patches run is said to be descended, and the other gods aro 

tocher, forming irritable sores, discharging a supposed to be heroes and ancestors, to whom 

thin serom fluid, which concretes and forms a prayers are addressed, offerings made, and in 

crnst, that falls off as the parts beneath heal, whose honor dances of a ceremonious and or- 

The disease is not contagious. It is sometimes derly diaracter are held. Shintoism has many 

produced by sudden exposure to cold after violent priests but no dogmas. It does not teach 

exercise, and sometimes follows acute affections any moral principles. Its hold on the peopio 

of the respiratory organs. A similar eruption is due to its association for many ages past 

may appear on the lips and chin in a com- with their ancestral traditions and attachments, 

non cold. The treatment consists in gentle lax- and this has prevented it from being wholly 

aiivM, and in rectifyinf any derangemeM of du lapencded by Boddhimi, which was for ceo- 


turici after its iotroductioii and uodl a very 
recent period, the state religion, Tbe Shinto 
temples are nearly soo,ooo in number, as against 
about 73,000 Buddhist temsles, but the large 

Ship. A ship is a large boat, or vessel, in- 
tended for navigating the ocean. Technically a 
ship is a vessel carrying not fewer than three 
masts rigged with square sails. In the present 
day ships are of two kinds, sail and steam. For 
a history oiF the former see the article Sailing 
Vessels, and for a historical sketch of steam- 
ships, see the article Steau Vessels. A de- 
tailed description of vessels used in naval war~ 
fare will be found under the title Warships. 

The leading qualities of a ship include sta- 
bilitr, capacity, strength, and speed. The stabil- 
ity of 3 vessd depends on the proportion of her 
parts and her load and displacement. The dis- 
placement of a ship is measured by the volume 
of water which she displaces when afloat. The 
weight of this volume of water is of course 
fqiial to the entire weight of tbe ship with her 
■tores and cargo, whUe its bulk is equal to that 
fif tbe portion of the ship immersed. Tbe ca- 
pacity of a ship is her power of carrying staria 
and cargo, to^lfaer with crew and passengers. 
Tbe greater this capacity is in proportion to the 
flize, and the greater the speed of the vessel, 
the greater is her ntility. The more lightly a 
vessel is built the greater will be her capacity for 
her size; hut the lightness of a vessel is limited 
by the need of strength, to resist straii). Ca- 
pacity is also to some extent dependent on form, 
and the form which is niost conducive to high 
^wed' is not necessarily that which gives the 
freatest capacity for stowage. The speed of a 
vessel, as also facility of evolution or prompti- 
tude in obeying her helm, depends on tbe due 
proportion of her parts. 

Cotutruclion. — In designing a ship the mid- 
ship area is reckoned, and a midship section 
made from which the proportions of the other 
parts of the ship are calculated. Tbe whole 
plan of the ship is then drawn in three related 
sectional plans, called the sheer-plan, the body- 
plan, and tbe half-breadth plan. Tbe sheer-plan 
is a projection on a vertical longitudinal plane 
dividmg the ship into two parts, and gives a 
complete view of the side, representing the 
length, depth, rake of the stem and stem, with 
the wales, water-lines, decks, ports, masts, and 
channels. The body-plan is a projection of the 
largest vertical and atbwart-ship section, show- 
ing the breadth, and having described upon it 
every timber composing the frame of the ship, 
diose running forward from tbe place of great- 
est breadth being described on the right hand, 
those running aft on the left. Tbe half-breadth 
pbm shows tbe half-ship lengthwise as seen from 
above. The water lines are drawn on tbe sheer- 
plan as parallel straight lines ; they are dotted 
in or drawn in blue ink on the half-breadth 
plan, and show the width and horizontal curves 
of tbe hull at different levels corresponding with 
the water lines in the sheer-plan. Half-models 
of the vessel are also made. These are con- 
structed of thin strips of wood laid horizontally 
on each other, which represent the parallel wa- 
ter lines, and can be taken apart to serve as 
Ruodels for the full-siud drawing. Wbui tb« 

plans are complete full-siitd drawings are traced 
In chalk on the floor of a room called the mold- 
loft, which is usually of a length equal to half 
that of the largest ship, in addition to the whok 
height of her hull. Inis operation is called lay- 
ing off tbe ship. It aappltes the workmen with 
tbe exact shape and position of that which con- 
stitutes what is called the frame of the ship. 
Pine models are then made of the different parts. 
The material formerly used in ship construc- 
tion was timber, but mis is now superseded by 
iron, and iron again is being in many eases re- 
placed by steel. Wood is only now used for 
the smaller sea-going VMsels, coasting craft, and 

Tp Kctioa of wpodtn tom): A. kMl: B, keelMOt 
■JH kcdi D, door; EE. futtodu; F^ lop-ti»l>ui 
IcnstbentnE piece; HM, vtles; I, 

plinka;__K, boTinm plsnh; L, girliiwrd 


■e rml; : 



small yachts and boats. The material con^ 
monly used for wooden vessels are oak, teak, 
cedar, pine, beech, elm, and many others, some 
being more suitable for one purpose, and Bome 
for another. In forming the separate pieces of 
the frame, which is technically called the con- 
version of the timber, the principal points to be 
studied are the use of the proper wood to give 
the requisite strength or toughness to each part; 
the selection of pieces from which tbe most im- 
portant parts can be cut in the most perfect 
manner, and all the frame made as strong and 
free from faults as possible; and lastly, the 
economical use of timber. The last object it 
often found to be practically antagonistic to the 
others, for though a small gain which sacrifice* 
the efficiency of a costly machine can never be 
dreamed of as economy, it is not always easy to 
hit the exact mean between waste of material 
and sacrifice of efficiency; and when a low prime 
cost is an object, false economy is often practised 
deliberately. It is one of tbe advantages of tbe 
use of iron that the cost of material can be more 
exactly proportioned to tbe degree of efhciencp 
it is designed to secure. 

Ketl and Frafte. — The keel is usually main 
of elm, which is tough and not easily injured 
by water, and is very suitable for receiving the 
numerous faatenuigs -necessary to fit tbe ottMf 

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^fts into it Iq large vessels the ke«l is usually tance thin in woodea sbipa, lod do«8 not ai iti 

made of several pi^e$ of timber scarfed to- Ibem hold the position of foundation or <back- 

E ether. The lieel is not perfectly horizontai, bone" to the whole structure, since an iron ves- 
iit deeper at the stem than the bow, which sel ought to be mutually gupportiag throu^iaut 
gives the ship greater steadiness and freedom An iron ship, in fact, resembles a tubular iron 
of motion. Below the keel is placed the false bridge, closed at both ends, and the deck is of 
keel, of elm 4 to 5 inches thick, which protects as much importance as the bottom to the streogdi 
the true keel from abrasion, and gives greater of the whole, The keel is constructed of plaOs 
steadiness to tbe ship. At both en<& of the keel riveted together, and sometimes is made hollow. 
is placed the dead-wood, which, cut into a cuivi- From it, and riveted to it on either tide, rise the 
linear form at its upi)er surface, forms tbe liite ribs, which are girders built up of plates, and 
of the bottom of the ship's body, Tbe stem and to the ribs on ihe outside i£ fastened the pktiiig. 
stern posts are set up at each extremity. Tbe Tbe plating consists of sheets of iron plate orer^ 
Item post is curved at its lower extremity. In lapping each other at the edges, where they aic 
a large ship it is divided into three pieces, called riveted together. The plates Vary in thickness 
iqtper, lower, and middle. The scarf which according to position and strength required, 
unites the stem post with tbe keel is called the There may be an' inner skin of plating as weH 
boxing. The stem post is, if possible, made of as an outer, and this of course adds to tile 
one piece of oak, so as tp have greater strength Weggth and safety of tbe vessel. The ribs an 
to support the rudder. It is inserted into the tied together and at tbe same time held apart 
keel by tenons and mortices. The frame of the by beams of Iron, which simport the deck or 
ship consists of floors, cross-pieces, futtocks, and decks. The decks consist of wooden planking 
top timbers. The floor timbers are placed across with thin metaJ prates below. In the finer claa 
the keel perpendicularly to its length, the upper o{ ships there are water-t^ht partitions or balk- 
surface of the keel and dead-wood bfing .cut beads of iron stre.tcbing across the tescel from 
to receive them. They are fastened in vafio* «>de to side and from keel tO deck, with waters 
manners. The timbers which joio the floor are tight doors in them, so that if in case of an aoCi- 
called the first futtocks. Other floors and fut- dent the water gets into one of theiti the rot nmr 
locks are placed upon the first to complete the keep tbe s^ip afloat 

frame. The timbers of the frame below the sui;- I-auncking. — Tbe laiuichiiig of a vessel is a 
face of the water are curvilinear, above it nearly delicate <^eration, and, as tnarbiv tbe conmle- 
rectilinear. The distance between the frames |s tion of the more important labors of the shq>- 
called room and space. Upon this the relative builder, is frequently made the occasion df a 
weight and strength of the ship greatly depend, public e^chibitioti Bnd cel^ration. Two paral- 
The stemson is worked ib as a support to tbe lei inclined platforms of solid timber are 
stem; the keelson, placed above the keels, serves laid one 0|i each side of the keel, at 
to secure the floor timbers, and is scarfed to the the distance of a fetf feet from it at^ 
stemson and sternson, which latter is bolted to extending from the stem a* far below tfap 
the stem post. The beams which support the stem as can be reached at low water. In the 
decks are received on longitudinal ribs called position they are carefully and firmly blocked 
shelves, which form part of the frame, and above and supported throughout their length. Thia 
which are the waterways. The frame being com- double platform is called the ways. Upon it a 
Dieted the skin or planking is applied, the vessel second system of timber is loosely laid, and well 
being first set upright, and plumbed to ascertain greased between. The space from these kit to 
that her frame is duly proportioned. The outer the ship's bottom is everywhere filled with 
planking of a large vessel of oak is 3 to 6 inches wedges of soft wood fashioned to its curvw, 
thick. It is fastened to the ribs by bolts and The whole is called the $iadl& The extremities 
trenails, or by plugs of oak tightened by wedgef- oi Ihe cradle at the bow and stern arc bound 
The decks of a ship are not completely flat, but tightly across the keel wi^ chains or roiies, and 
are set to the segment of a large circle, which it is further kept from spreading by atout mold- 
enables them to throw off the water. The holes ings, which overlap the outer edges of the wayj. 
for carrying away the water are called scuppers. When tbe rising tide has reached well up the 
The seams of the outer planking of a wooden ways the wedges are simultaneously driven on 
vessel are made watertignt by caulking. This every side, and the ship is raised from the blocks 
is forcing oakum (see Oakum), by means of on which she has hitherto rested, and made to 
sharp iron wedges called caulking irons, info repose entirely on the cradle. The shores an 
the seams of the planking, which are forced open all removed except the two spurs or dog-sbores 
b)[ reaming irons. The seams are then paved near the stem, and when the proper moment 
with melted pitch. The decks are also caulked has arrived these are also knocked away by fall- 
with oakum. ing weights, the rope holding up which is cut 
Iron and SUtl. — For ship-building purposes when all is ready. The vessel, oow abandoned 
iron and steel have been found by experience to to her weight, and encouraged by the yielding 
be greatly superior to wood. An iron vessel is of the grease, begins slowly failing along the in- 
lighter than a wooden one of the same size, and clined plane; her motion becomes at each mo- 
with iron the same strength may be obtained ment more and more rapid until finally the no~ 
with less weight. Iron is also far more manage- ble fabric has abandotwd its union with the 
able than wood, as it can be bent with ease into land, and entered upon its destiaed element 
any reouired shape. Steel is a still lighter ma- Mattt and Spart.— Jbtie are various rules 
terial than iron. The same names for the dif- for sparring ships, all founded upOn their length 
fcrent parts are generally retained in building and breadth, whkh are the main elements oi 
with iron or sleel, though they have little cor- stability. It may be suiikient to name one siit- 
respondence with the parts of a wooden vessel pie rule for the length of the main matt, tUs 
except in positioa The keel is of £ac less impor- being tbe prim; inoyer; deduct one twelfth from 

. Google 

the vessel's extrone breadth, multiply the resuh bent to the yards, and fore-and-aft sails tni- 
fay a; this will give height of mast from deck, versing on stays or bent to gaSs. Let us de- 
The top mast may be diree fifths of the lower scribe an entire suit, beginning forward. On 
mast, the main yard seven eighths of the same, the extremity of the bowsprit is the flying jib, 
wai so on upward. The foremast may equal a three-cornered sail, which goes from the end 
.seven eighths of the main, with upper masts of its boom upward along its stay, leading to 
SQd yards in propartion. The niizzcn mast, if the fore-top-gallant-mast-bead, and confined to 
stepped <m the keelson; ia five sixths of the main the stay by rings of wood or iron, called hanks, 
mast The best rules on &ii subject are per- The jib, which leads from its boom to the fore- 
haps found in tables accurately prepared, in top-mast-head, is of similar form, and so is the 
which the lengths of the masts are givm in fore-top-mast-sCay-sail, ninning from the bow- 
fnietions of the ship's breadth, and those of the sprit end toward the masthead. On the fore- 
jrards in fractions of the length. For the rest, mast we have the foresail, bent to the foreyard, 
it will be in most cases necessary to modify any and spread at the foot by means of tacks and 
given rule, in all instances, with immediate ret- sheets; above it, the fore- top- sail, bent to (he 
ecence to the particulv model of the ship, and top-^ai 1-yard, by means of whkh it i; hoisted 
to the uses for which she is destined. It would aloft, "while its lower comers are Spread to the 
be an advantageoas improvement in merchant extremities of the foreyard ; next the top-gallant- 
ships, not sparred to the extent of their ca- sail, bent to its yard, and sheeting home to the 
pacity, to make the fore and main masts in all top-sail-yard ; and so with the royal and sky 
cases of equal dimensions, With improved ap- sail. Double top-sails and top- gall ant- sails are 
pearance diey would have all the respective spars now much in use, that is to say, these sails art 
and sails, except the courses, answering equally practidally made each into tWo sails, \vhicft gives 
for both masts. This would enable them to go groiter ease in handling. All these satis are 
to sea with fewer spare ones, or to derive more turned at pleasure, to be presented to the wind, 
advantage from the nsual number. In small by means of braces attached to their yard-arm, 
ships, all the spars are of single sticks of pine and leading to the mainmast. The mainmast is 
liinber, which, for equal contents, are always furnished vHth & similar suit of saih, somewhat 
stronger; but for ships above 6o» or 700 tons it larger; the miziren, also, though smallei than 
is impossible to procnre single trees sufBciently either, instead of a sqoare sail on the lower mast. 
Urge; and then it becomes necessary to resort it has a gaff sail, hoiating np and down abaft 
tp made masts (so called), which are of oak the ntast. Some ships have similar gaff sails on 
and pine, very artificially put together, ttnd tiic fore and main masts, which are found of 
bound with stont hoopi of iron. Hollow iron great use in gales of wind as a substitute for 
masts are also frequently used. storrri staysails. Most cuttj also light Staysails 

Riggitig. — Many large vessels are fitted with between the masts; but they are very frouble- 
iour masts, some with five. The standing and some, and worse than useless. Studdirg sails 
part of the running rigging are formed of wire extended on special spars outside the square 
K^e. The masts and bowsprit of a ship are sails when going large are very useful. The 
not abandoned to their own unsupported perfection of equipping a ship with spars, rig- 
stren^, but require to be sustained by the ging, and sails, consists in so disposing them, 
.standmg rigging. This consists, for the bow- that, in a whole-sail bree/e, the centre of effort 
sprit, of gammoning and bob-stays, confining h of all the sails will be in the same line with the 
down to the stem; and shrouds which sustain ship's centre of rotation; or that the efforts of 
the immense lateral pressure wliich it endures the forward and after sails to turn the ship will 
when on a wind. The jib-boonl and flying jib- be so exactly balanced as not to require any eon- 
boom are in like manner supported by means of tinued assistance from the rudder in either di- 
nwrtingales and guys. The foremast is sup- rection ; for this, while it impedes her progress, 
ported by three or fonr pairs of shrouds on does rot leave the entire force of the rudder dis- 
either side, and by two stays led forward to the posable when necessary to turn. Of the two 
bowsprit The foretop mast is supported by evils, however, seamen have more patience with 
shrouds setting up in the top, back-stays de- a ship disposed to approach the wind than with 
•cending to the diannets (broad pieces of planks one needing the continued action of the helm to 
fixed edgewise to the outside of the vessel for keep her from falling off. 

spreading the lower rigging), and stays leading The accompanying plates show the hull, 

to the bowsprit end. The topgallant and royal spars, rigging, sails, etc., of a four-masted vessel, 

masts have also their shrouds setting up through having the aftmost or jigger-mast bark-rigged 

the cross-trees, their backstays descending to the (four-masted bark). All the names of the 

channels, and their stays leading to the jib and various parts will be found from the following 

flying jib-booms. In like manner are the main lists: 

and mizzen masts siipportedj except that the FLA i El. 

main-stays set up on deck beside the heel of the the hull, spars, and standing RICCIMG. 

bowsprit, the main-top-mast-stays at the head of The Hull. 

the foremast, the main-top-gal i ant-stay to the ,. Hod 14. Cai-he»d. 

fore-top-mast-head, and main-royal-stay to the *. Cutwiier. 15. Hend-raita. 

fore-top-gallant-mast-head. The mizzen -stay also »• I??" u,j^ JS" s^'^i 

sets up beside the mainmast, and the same t Si.™ 11'. UgW^rdn. 

in ascending. The running rigging consists of *. Rudder. 19. For»d«:l(lni««. 

the tacks and sheets that serve to spread the J- SS'-^.^Jt ^ nli"'™"' 

sails, the halyards, traces, lifts, clewlines, and g! MincD-chain*. 31! Companion. 

all other ropes used in making, taking in, or lo. Baiwarin. aj. SWiiEht. 

Maneuvering the sails. "■ ?^"* If t^^i^ 

SaiU. — The sails of a ship are square sails ,j. TTall-bmrds. 


jj. Forc-iopiDUt. 


55. iitia upper loyuU rud- 

56. Main lower topgallant 

57. Maia upp« lopgaUaB' 
sB. Mnin-niyil nrd. 

S9. Croujack Taid. 
lut. in. Miuen tower topaaU 

til. Miiun upper topnil 

:r topKsllant 

pgallant suit. 64. Miuen-rDval ^rd. 

yal DUK. 6s. hggtt-Htfl. 

It. 66. JiRgcr-boom. 

gallaDt mast 6S. M>in-top, 

. 69. UilzCB-tDp, 

I topsail yaid. ;d. Jigflcr top. 


la lower tc 

Tbe Staodiog Riigins. 

u BowauriE-ahroud. 
I. MarlingalcBlay. 
|. Tit»-boafu guya. 


I. Outer-jib Ray. 
}. Fljiai-jib Mar. 
I. Fore-roysl itiy. 

A 3S. Maia-topgailanl 
A 16. Main-royal lift. 
A 37. Miuen-ttsyi. 

A 59. MilMB-1 ' 

1 ij. Fore-topgallant 

!. Fore-topgallanc bach- 

r. Forc-roTal baek-M*y. 

I. Fore-liA. 

). Fore-topsail lifL 

1. Pore-topgatlaat lift. 

I. Fore-royal lift 

r. Main-nayt- 

|. UiiD-topmasI alaya. 

I. M sin-topgallant rig- 

u Main - topmatt fadck- 
, 'Majn-lopgallant back- 

A«5- Mill 
A4«. Miu 

A 4B. Crossjsck lift. 
A 40. Miiren-topuil lift 
A SO Miiien-topgallant Hft 
A SI. Miiien-royal lift 

A SJ- JigjeeT-tniddle otay. 
A 54. Jiggei-topniaat Ray, 
A IS- jiggcr-top^llint atay. 
A S5- Jigger-rigging. 
A !?. Jigeer-lapmait rir 

A 53. Jigger-topniBit back- 

* S9i Jigger-topganant book. 



L Pore lower 

T topgallant 
F Upper topgallant 1 

I. Main upper topsaij. 
>. Main lower topgallant 

[len lower topgal- 

>n( nil. 

uen ama topga)- 

A 19. Fori.-iopnu*t ■tay.talL 

A at! Outerj'ib. 
AJ2. Flyinn-Jib. 
A aj. Hain^topRitM May 

A 14. Main -topgallant itay- 

A IS. Main-royal itay-niL 
A 26. Miiten-tapmaat stay- 

A 17. Mliien-lopgallantMiy- 

A at. Miiten-coyaJ it«r-MlL 

A 30. Jigger middle 1 

A It. Jigg«r-top«a]la« ftep 
.an. ^ 

■ A 34. i2s tOpMlL 

Tbc R 

10. Main-IopsaO r 
«. 4-vi«-*«D«. tackles. 

i. Foie clew-giniet. Si. Crouiack tack- 

S- Fore lower topsail SJ- CraBS|A<:k dew-gi 

■boet 54- Ciosfljack bracea. 

6. Fore lower topaail dew- iS- Mima lower 1 

J. Fore lower topaail **• Miiao lower 1 

8. Fore upper topsail ST- ^^^^^ "Cper I 

topsail JB- "■^•°4i„'S'" ' 

o™'" 'uiSiT tOpUil »• **^{J^ "P"" ' 

QIC lower topgallant ■-.•.. «-«■ 


16. For 

ve lower topgallant 

re upper topgallant 

lie Wper topgallant 

upper topgaQant 

■ pgellant 

i-topmssl ng- 

i-Copgallant rig- 

i-cap back-stay. 
i-topioasc back- 

1 - topgallant 

IT. Foic-ioysl sheet 
li. Fore-royal clewlines. 
19. Fore-royal bnces. 
to, Forwiopsail halyards. 
21. Fore - topgallsnt hal 

». F«re-royal balyaida. 
SI. Fore-aignal buyarda. 
34. Fore reef-tackles. 
3j. Foie topaail 

at. Hain-tack. 

37- Main-sbeet 

aS. Main clcw-fAmet 

Xf. Main-brace. 

ti. Miiaca lower topsal- 

lant dew-lino. 
61. Miiien lower topgil- 

61. MiJtaen upper lopga)- 

64. Miiicn upper topgal- 

6i. Miuen upper lopgal- 

6fi. Mimn-royal sheet 

6r. Miiien-roysl ckw-liaea. 

68. Miizen-ioyal bracca. 

69. MisicD-topuil halyards. 
7». Micuo-tapgallant tia|. 

!-■- Mi'" 

gnal hal] 

74. Miuen-lopsaii i e e f- 

reef '*■ ""^j 

7?. J-raer 1 
78. Ensign 

MaiQ-brace. •» Britisb enucn. 

Main lower topsail Jo. Gsff-topjsiPbsl yards. 

topsail t6. Plying-iib shert. 

„ 87. Ouler-iib aheet 

topaail ak. lnner-]ib sheet 

89. Fore-lopmast lUy-ad 


3$. Mail 

37. Main"i(iwer topgallant 91. Midn' 

38. Main lower topgallant 9J. Main- 

39. Main upper topgallant 94. Mine 

40. Main upper topgallsnt 9;. Mine 

i-topmast stay- 

i-top^lant stay- 

Hsin upper topgallant 96, Miizen-royal stay^aail 

97- Jigger stay-asil shret, 
9«. Jigger-topmast stay -nil 

4a. Mc 

45. Main-topaail halyards. eg. Jigger-iopgallsnt atay- 

46. Main-topgallant hal- sail sheet 

yards. 100. Beef points. 

47. Uain-royal halyirdi. 101. Fo re-bun tlinea. 

48. Main sinial-balyaids. loi. Main-bunt lines. 

49. Main reef-tachlea. roj. Crossjsck buntllnta. 

Cargo and Ballast.— V/hm the articles it\ a 
ship's cargo are heavy and light, the heavier are 
placed nearest the bottom, to increase the ship's 
stability. When, however, all are heavy, there 
may be danger of making a ship too stiff; so 
that, not being balanced, she will roll violently, 
and, perchance, risk the fracture of a mast, or 
even spring a leak. To obviate this danger the 
cargo should he raised : if iron, some sjiouid be 
stowed between decks ; if coal or salt, iLfiiajr be 

,1 d./Cooglc 


helped up in the centre, taking care to secure it merit of the muki-niuted merchant schooner, 

against shilling should the ship be knocked which hu ftdvaoced with such rapid strides dur- 

down by « sea or squall. Heavy articles should ing the past few years, ts one of the most re- 

never be placed toward the extremities, lest they markahle features in the ship-building industry 

promote pitching. In aU ca#es care must be of the Atlantic coast. The fore-and-aft schooner 

takenlopreserve the trim of the ship — Ihatjqst has always been a favorite type of ship in 

proportion between her draft forward and aft the American merchant trade, whether coasting 

which the estimate of the builder, or, when a or deep-sea, and the great breadth of hull and 

voyage has been made. eAperience itself, has length of spars of such craft have rendered them 

determined to be most favorable to rapid sail- an easily recognized UT)e tho- world over. As 

ing. See also Navigation; Ship-buiijiinc. compared with the square-rigged vessels of the 

, , , If schooner, brig, brigantinc, or bark type, the 

Ship-building. The early history of ship- American fore-and-after has the advantage of 

bitildmg and the de*elopment of the sailmg being a better craft when sailing close-hauled 

ship and the steam ship will be found under g^d of requiring fewer men to man it. In an 

the titles Saiung Vessels; Ship, and Steam ^^^^j^^ j^y ^f ^i;^ development of our merchant 

Vessei^. The change from wood to iron in marine in the coasting trade, the Iwo-masted 

ship ccmstruction about the middle of the 19th schooner was the common type ; then came the 

century, was followed by the revolutionaiy ,hree-masted schooner, and this was followed by 

methods of steel ship-building, and by lagp yt^^ie of four, five, six, and now seven masts. 

steel had displaced ifon m the shipyards of j^ie carrying capacity of these schooners, the 

Great Bntam and the United States. Ameri- largest of „^[^i^ ^^e engaged almost entirely in 

can ship-buildmg under the era of steel re«hefl the coal-carrying trade, is exceedingly large. 

Its perfection m 1892 and i8g6, when the baint j^^^^ ^^^ five-masted schooner constructed at 

Louis and the Samt Paul, two ocean Imers, Camden, Maine, in 1809, is 318 feet in length, 44 

were built by the Cramp Company, Thpse f^^ ^eam, and 2i^^et in depth. The vessel 

vessels were constructed entirely of domestic ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^j ^^I on her maximum 

material, thus markinK a new era m American ^^^^ ^^^k on this vessel had scarcely been 

«hip-buildmg. American yards now receive completed before Capt. Crowley, of Taunton, 

orders not only from foreign firms for mer- jj^jj^ ^ad given orders for the constroctioB 

chant ships, but from foreign governments for ^j ^ six-masted schooner. This vessel is 336 

warships. Withm a very few years the system („( ^ ^^^^^^ ^ f^^j ;„ ^eam, and has 22 feet 

of utiliiHig power has been revojutiomied m ^^^^^^ ^j [jqU Qn her maximum draft of 24 

shipyards. Electric power is largely used at j^^t ^^e will carry 5,500 tons of cargo. Her 

the Cramp yards and almost exclusively at the j^^^^ masts are each 116 feet in length, and her 

New York Shtp-huilding Company's plant in topmasts 58 feet. 

Camden, N. J, Then came the seven-masted steel schooner 

Ameriean Tonnage.— 'During the fiscal year jn igp^ built from designs by B. B. Crownin- 
ended jo June 1910, the Bureau of Navigation shield, of Boston, the designer of many small 
reported that Ijoi vessels of 343,068 gross toi» and very successful racing craft. Unlike her 
were built in the United States and olficially predecessors, the new schooner is constructed 
numbered, compared with 1,241 vessel's of throughout of steeL She has a bar keel ot 
23^090 tons for the previoas fiscal year. Tbc forged tteel 3^ inches In width by 12 inches in 
increase compared with 1991 was in veisels depth, which extends from stem to stemposL 
of Ifloo gross tons and upward. For igio new There is a cellular double bottom with a con- 
sail tonnage was I9i358 ttins ; 1909, JB,9SD tinuous, single, vertical, keel plate weighing 22.*; 
tons. For 1910 new canal boats, barges, etc, pounds to the square foot. The upper bilffrr 
aggregated 64,717 tons; 1909. 60,932 tons. New strake is of 28^-poimd plate for two thirds ot 
Steel steamers aggregated 334.988 tons, com- the length. The middle bilge-strake is of 3O 
pared with 123.142 tons in 1909. In- 1910 the pounds weight for the same distance and the 
total output of the world's shipyards amounted lower bilgc-strake 25 pounds. The bottom 
to 589 vessels, aggregating i, 551.532 tons. Of strake is of 20-pound plate, while the garboard 
these the output of Great Britain and her colo- strake is of 29-pound plate for two thirds of 
nies amounted to 46s ships, aggregating the length. AH of the plating reduces to i8j4 
991,113 tons, distributed as follows: Scotland, pounds at the ends of the veseel. except in the 
362 ships of 204431 tons ; England, 380 ships of case of the garboard strake, which will reduce 
(63,377 tons; Ireland. 17 ships of 118,295 tons; to 25 pounds at the ends. There are three com- 
the royal dockj'atds. 6 ships of 4S;99o tons ; the pi^te decks, which are of steel plating, the upper 
colonies, 70 ships of 6o,027 tons. The total ton- d^j-k, forecastle and poop-deck being wood-cov- 
nage built in the United States — which ranked „cd. A collision bulkhead is worked jn at a 
second — was 342,068, or a little moreithan the suitable distance from the stem. The lower 
year before. On our seaboard there are 12 ship- ^^^^^ throughout the vessel are built of steel, 
yards capable of turnmg out vessels of the ^^^^ [app^j ^^^^^ flugji butts, and stiffening 
largest class, and 17 others at which average- ^^^^^^ extending inside for the full length. The 
siied ships can be builL On the Lakes there arc pia,^^ ^^e single-riveted at the edges and dorf- 
nine large ship-building estabhshmentB and five ble-riveted at the butts. The plating is double 
smaller ones. at the mast partners and at the bounds. The 

Steel Schooners. — The use of steel in the masts arc all 135 feet in length from the mast 

construdion ot the modem passenger steam- step to the top of the upper band, and Ihey have 

ships (see Steam Vessels) and of the modern a uniform diameter throughout of 32 inches. 

naval vessel (see Warships) hag developed the The topmasts are of Oregon pine. They are 58 

Steel freighter, the merchaht schooner with four, feet in length over all, tapering from 18 inchei 

five, six, and seven masls. Indeed the develop- {n diameter To 10 inches, Mccept tha forenait. 








which i* 64 fe«t in Icnftii and ao inches at its feitiire on thia ship. The bunkers »e locked 
point of greatest diameter. The booms of the above the boilers i toe ends of tbe bunkers are 
first five masts aie 45 feet in length by 14 inchcB inclined in such a manner that the tnilk of the 
in diameter, the spanker boom beine 75 feet in coal will gravitate tbrouRh chutes and be de- 
iength by 16 inchJi» in diameter. The total sail posited on the firing platform. The capacity of 
area of the lower sails and topsails is 40,617 the permaneat bunker is over 4,00a tons, and a 
square feet. All of the standing rigging, and in reserve bunker is fitted contiguous to the boiler 
^lecial cases the running rigging for the lower room, having a capacity for about 2,000 tons of 
sails, are of a high quality of wire rope. Al- coal. The Minnesota has 16 Niclausse water- 
though this vessel is propelled entirely by sails, tube boilers, having a woricing pressure of 260 
she carries quite a considerable instalment of pounds per square inch. They will supply steam 
machinery, including one ^inch by lo-inch Hyde to two main engines of the trifde-expaosion type, 
double-cylinder ship engine, and five 6-inch b; which are arranged side by side, working se?- 
8-inch Hyde hoisting engines. There are two arate shafts. The propeller wheels are 20 feet 
vertical boilers 56 inches in diameter by go in diameter, and revolve 78 times per minute. 
inches high, one in the forward house and one The horse-power of the engines is about lO/XtO, 
in the after house. The boilers are built for a and they will drive the ship at a speed of about 
working pressure of lOO pounds to the square 14 knots per hour. To realize the great sije of 
inch. There are two 8-inch by 4-inch by 6-inch the ship, one must but recapitulate the various 
duplex pumps and two direct-acting steam decks, platforms, etc., from the keel to the top- 
"amps, with steam and water cylinder, each 12 most bridge. First there is the outer bottom uf 
iches in diameter by 12 inches stroke. As the the ship; 6 feet above that is the inner bottom 
result of the installation of steam power on or floor; then within the molded or plated 
board for the purpose of hoisting anchors and structure of the vessel are the orlop, lower, be- 
sails the number of hands necessary to work this twcen, main, and upper decks. All of these 
large vessel is considerably reduced, the total decks are of steel plating, and the whole struc- 
number required being only 19 men. The total ture of the ship from the bottom to the upper 
cost of the vessel delivered was about $250,000, deck is 56 feet in beijtht, the upper deck run- 
Steel Steamships. — As a type of the modem ning, as we have said, m an unbroken sweep the 
ocean liner built of Steel, the Minnesota con- whole 630 feet length of the vessel. Above the 
structed at New London, Conn., in 1903, is illus- upper deck arc the promenade deck, the upper 
trative-of the wonders of latter day ship-building, promenade deck, and the boat deck, this last 
The dimensions of the Minnesota are : Length being about 80 feet above the keel, while 8 feet 
over all, 630 feet; breadth, 73 feet 6 inches; above this, or 88 feet above the keel, is the cap- 
inolded depth from keel lo upper deck, 56 feet, tain's bridge. Now, since the vessel at her 
On a draft of 33 feet the displacement is 33,000 lightest draft draws 17 feet of water, the cap- 
tons, and on a maximum draft of 36% feet, to tain's bridge, when the vessel is running light, 
which tbe vessel can be loaded vmcnever the will be over 70 feet above the water, and the 
depth of our harbors will admit of it, the dis- passengers on the topmost upper deck will be 
placement will be 3^fioo tons. The space occu- between 60 and 70 feet above the water. 
pied by machinery is the smallest practicable, so At»^ricatt Seamnt.— In considering the im- 
that space for cargo may be as large as possi- pi,rtant question of the manning of American 
blc. In order that cargo may be readdy stowed, ships, it is gratifying to learn that there is a 
the ordmap' type of hold pillar has been dis- marked increase in the percentage of American 
pensed with, and large box-shaped columns are over seamen of foreign nationality. The re- 
fitted, supportmg heavy girders which rmi longt- turns compiled from the reports of shippingcom- 
tudinally under the transverse beams which niissLoners showing the nationality of seamen 
carry the decks. These columns are widely ehipped on American vessels for the 17 years 
spaced, and m some cases only one is fitted m from 1893 to 1910, prove that there has been 
a hold, whereas by the older method ten pillars ^n increase in the percentage 01 Americans from 
would be required. A longitudinal bulkhead i* 3, j^r cent in 1905 to 49.2 per cent in 1909, and 
fitted the whole length of the ship; this divides iq ^.3 per cent in 1910. Out of a total of over 
each hold into two separate compartments, and 71,000 dipped in i8c>4, 22,000 were Americans, 
therefore tbe hatches are fitted in pairs, one to 22,000 Scandinavian, 10,000 British, 6,000 Ger- 
each hold. Some of the hatches are so large mans, 865 Italian^ and 628 were French; while 
that bullcT freight, «uch as a locomotive or various other nationalities together represented 
freight car, or large marine or land boilers, can a total of In 1910, out of a total of over 
tw lowered right down into the hold. Every 185,700 shipped, 91,546 were Americans, 18,600 
batch can be loaded or discharged simultane- Scandinavians, 21,006 British, 6,800 Germans, 
ously if desired. The caigo-handling plant on 3,649 Italians, 24,546 Spanish, and there were 
this vessel is very complete, and designed so as about 38.500 of mixed nationality. It must be 
to cut down the nmnbcr of men to a minimum, understood that while there is a total of about 
Two windies and two booms are fitted to handle 190.000 shipments, they really represent only 
caigo at each hatch. The booms, 34 in num- about 40.Q00 seamen. Further proof of the great- 
ber, are built of steel. Two heavy booms arc er interest of Americans in ttieir merchant ma- 
fitted to lift weights of from 30 to 50 tonj. rine and their tendency to seek employment there- 
The winches for cargo handling are 34 in num- in is afforded by a table given by the Commis- 
ber, all electrically operated. One hold in the sioner of navigation, showing the nativity of men 
ship is devoted to carrying frozen meat, and is employedon654Sea-going American vessels. Out 
completely insulated; its capacity being about of a total of 13.879 men, 5,455 are Americans 
2,500 tons. The insulation is so arranged that by birth or naturalization, 2,347 are British, ana 
ordmary cargo can be carried on return trip, the balance is made up of various nationalities. 
The arrangement of coal bunkers is a novel As the Uble does not include the masters of 



tbesc vesadt, all of whom must Iw citizens, It China, Jap&n and AuEtr^ia a bill ii now beta? 
may be said that of the whole complement of considL-red by Congress. It authorizes the Post- 
these ressela, amountmg to 14.S36. 42 P"" master-General to pay the pr<^K>sed lines for 
cent were Americans. See, also, Americak carrying American maiL The last section of 
Ship-biotjhnc; Navai. ABCHrracrunE; Ship. the measure provides: "That the total expen- 
Ship-buUding. American. See Amewcan '*''"," ^°J foreign mail "'vice in any one year 
eiu.B-nmimKc *"" "ol exceed the estmiated revenue there- 
^^"T. , ^ _ „, from for that year.' It is expected ihat the bill. 
Sbip-canata. See Canals; Waterways. jf enacted, would open up South America and 
Sbip-fever. See Typhus Fethl the Orient to American commerce to an extent 
Ship-money, a tax which had much to do never before known in the history of the United 
with provoking the rebellion which cost Charles States. It would assure a fortnightly mail and 
L his head. It was customary in England iti passenger service between this country and Rio 
times of extraordinary peril for the sovereign to Janeiro, anothEr to Buenos Ayrcs a third lo 
call upon the seaports and maritime counties the West Coast of South America, two from 
to supply ships-of-war for the national defense, the Pacific Coast to the Orient and one to 
The ships which took part in the defeat of the Australia. Ships of at least 16 knots speed 
Danish Armada were obtained in this way. wvi? ^ "**°- , , - . . „ 
No such peril existed when Charles I., in Octo- ^ The granting of ship subsidies would not 
ber 1634, ordered the magistrates of London *« an unusual departure of the past of the 
and other seaport towns to provide ships-of-war, Un'ted Slates govemnient The first act anihor- 
and also empowered the magistrates to 'tvy a '°"8 Vosta\ subventions was that of 3 March 
tax for that pnrpose. Resistance to the levy "JMS. Power was given to the Postmaster- 
was met by further decrees, extending the tax ^i*""^' *<> '"'^' contracts for payments of 
to the whole kingdom, and directing fliat every fKifted rates on weight of mail carried to 
landholder and other inhabitant be assessed ^'^^"^ Port8-24 cents per half ounce for 
according to his means, and the tax collected P°^'^ 3.o<^ "?"'" ^"'.^"Ur"' t"!"" ^/ ^^ 
by distress if necessary. When John Hamp- """" to Mexico and the West Indies, In lajj 
din refused to pay the tax, and was brought to t '=""f^?=t "" •"'"^=, «'"' »!}= 0^9^\ fteam 
trial, the judges decided, eight to four, in favor Nav.gation Company for a mail service between 
Of the Crown. One of the early acW of the ^ew "i ork and Bremen and Havre. The com - 

Ll^^m^Vi'r%eSl^^d ::i£'r^l?.^ T.,Tto%rV^lkVr'r^ ^n, i^S-C^Tr 

Bhip-money tax illegal, ano no attempt has since „:" „ .. ij_ ■;. i„ .0 Zi r- 11- 

b.^ ™d.',o cClJ*..!,™^ in L^Urt. J:? ."pK ,i°LK?i'„I, S„S°,„ fc'cp'it" 
Ship-railway, a railroad for transporting 250 per voyage, making 20 voyages a year. ,* 
vessels from one body of water to another, number of similar contracts were made about 
Capt. J. B. Eads' plan for the Tehuantepec Ship the same time, but in 1858 the granting of mail 
Railway across the isthmus between North and subventions was abandoned, and vessels carry- 
South America, in Mexican territory, consists ing the mails were allowed only the sea postage 
essentially of a series of some eight or ten plus the inland postage on malls carried. Pos- 
tracka, having a carrying car or cradle of some tal subventions were allowed to lines running 
five sectitms, with altogether 1,000 wheels between New York and Rio de Janeiro, ana 
Calculated for a vessel of 10,000 tons, this would between the Pacific coast and China, but were 
not give a pressure so great as that of an ordi- discontinued in 1875 after running 10 years. 
nary locomotive. A ship-railway is in operation In 1891 a law was enacted authorizing the 
by the Canadian government between Chig- Postmaster- Genera! to make contracts with 
necto Bay, in the Bay of Fundy, across the American shipowners for carrying the mails 
isthmus to Northumberland Straits, a distance between America and foreign ports. Steam- 
of 17 miles. This enables vessels to go from ships were placed in four classes: iron and 
Prince Edward Island to Saint John, New Bruns- steel vessels of not less than 8,000 tons with a 
wick, in 12 hours, and greatly facilitates the spfed of 20 knots per hour; iron and steel 
transport of grain in bulk from the lake ports vessels of not less than 5,000 tons, with a speed 
to New Brunswick. The vessels are raised by O' « knots ; iron and steel ships of not less 
hydraulic pressure a height of 40 feet to the 'han 2.S00 tons and a speed of 14 knots; iron, 
level of the railway, and placed on a double «te^'. and wooden ships of not less than 1,500 
track 18 feet from centre to centre. The flex- '""^ and a speed of la knots. This law is still 
ible car system of ship-railway invented by ™ ^orcc The most that may be paid for carry- 
William Smith, harbor engineer of Aberdeen, mg the mails is $4, $2, Si, and 60c per niile 
Scotland, is designed to allow of the use of "'1^°. ^°l 'n" respective classes. The require- 
ordinary railway gradients. The car is in sec- ■"'"* " '*"" contracts be let to the lowest bidder, 
tions, each carried on a compound hogie run- ^.^". *P'^ <»* **« PwaiWe^t af.tation of tbe 
ning on parallel lines. Vertical and lateral flex- ^IPP'^K .interests a general objection to ail 
ibility are secured, and the ship is sustained on *'P subsidies has prevaded m this country. It 
the car by water-cushions, so that it is virtually ^^ been pointed out that America* shipinng 
kept floating. The ship is raised onto the "" *f, •"»^' f«s '» f^onstantly <I«"ning In 
cars by means of a submerged Shipway enclosed '<»S the .toal tonnage of the United States 
within a wet dock engaged m foreigTi trade was only (J43.7SO as 
„. . „. ■ ., „ contrasted with 2,496,&)<t tons in 1861, while the 
Ship-Milmg. See Navigatiok, the Sa- tonnage of foreign nations has constantly ia- 
BHCX or MoKSM. creased. Without government subsidies it has 
Ship -Subiidiea. To insure the establish- been contended that the costs of construction 
ment oi fast American mail and passenger lines and operation are heavier in America than else- 
to Brazil, Argentina and the Philippines, where. Since 1840 the United ,Kingc|Qiri bw 




gnmted Itfaersd sidtrcotlons for carrying the works, including 'Four Cardinal Virtues' 
mails, while in America nto action has been (1871J ; 'Theory About Sin' (1872); and' 
taken, though bills for granting subsidies have 'Principles of the Faith' (1S78) : edited three 
for the last 10 years been constantly boforc volumes of reli^ous poetry ('Lyra Euchar- 
Congrcss. Government aid is granted to a tstica,' 'Messianica,* and 'Mystica' (1863-5); 
small proportion of German shipping. In and wrote numerous pamphlets and articles for 
France, subsidies are paid in the form of both the periodica! press. As a Roman Catholic he 
construction and nadgation bounties. In spite, has published "Truthfulness and Ritualism' 
however, of the liberal payments in aid of (1875^*0); 'Annus Sanctus' (1884); and 
French shipping, the industry is far from pros- 'Carmina Mariana,' an anthology (1893; rgoa), 
perous. The French mercantile marine has a and a generous contributor to magazines. 
tonnage of about 1,250.000 of which 650900 Shipley, England, a town of Yorkshire 
consists of saihng vessels, » large part of which My^^ Riding), lies three miles north of Brad- 
would not be operated at all were it not to J^rd, on the Aire River. The large parish 
obtajn the subsidies. German^-, on the other church of Saint Paul is a fine modern fiothic 
hand, has a merchant shipping tonnage of specimta. The principal industry is the manu- 
2.400,000 though It pays no general subsidies, facture of wooleSs anJdotha. and the quarrying 
The Italian government, also, has paid both ^jj stone 1 j o 
operation and construction subsidies since 18S6. „,. , ' r • tr t ■ .1. 
A similar policy was adopted by Japan in i8<A Ship man. Loiua Evan^ ^^"'^" »"'•""■ 
and by Austria-Hungary in 1893. Other coun- ^5^ plajwright : b. Brookljj, N. Y 2 Aug. 
tries, however, whidi have granted subsidies, '8^- . ^^ '^?^ educated at the Brooklyn Poly- 
show an increase in tonnage folly equal to thrt technic Institute and at Harvard University; 
in the case of these three latter nations. waf edi to ri^ writer on 'Lesl.t a WeeWy' 1895-*, 

It seems probable now that the movement in f"^ a contributor to New York <Life> from the 
favor of the granting of subsidies to United '^"'^'^ y*^'"^' , "« has published 'Urban Dia- 
. States shipping will succeed in its purpose. The IoEues> ; 'D Arcy of the Guards.* 
immediate cause of the administration's deci- Shi^«n, Edward, medical director of the 
son to act has been the threat of the foreign United States Navy ; b, in New Jersey, 18 June, 
steamship lines to raise their freight rates be- 1826, He was graduated from Princeton in 
twecn this country and other parts of the world. 1845, and received the degree of M. D. from 
The need for a better freight and passenger the University of Pennsylvania in 1S48. He 
service between the United States and South was appointed to he United States Navy from 
America is so apparent that action cannot long Pennsylvania, in 1849, as assistant surgeon ; pro- 
be delayed. At nis inauguration. Marshal da moted to commanding surgeon in i86t, and to 
Forseca, the new President of Brazil, said: the office of medical director in 1876; retired 
'There n much to be done to foster and develop in i^; rear-admiral retired, 1907. He was on 
trade between the United States and Brazil, the Congress when it was destroyed by the 
One crying necessity is an adwuate cargo-boat Alerrivtac and on the New Ironsides in both 
and passen^r-^ip service. It is high time battles of Fort Fisher. He has written: 'Thirty 
some American company took this matter in Years at Sea' 'A Cbristraas at Sea'; 'Naval 
hand and gave us fast, iip-to-date transport Battles of America* (1905) ; 'Naval Battles of 
facilities, lack of which at present hinders the the World* (i905). 

growth of trade. Establishment of such lines Shippiwui, shIp-I-gSn'. Canada, a seaport 

^^.'"^ ^^ immense ""Pjtus to commercial town of Gloucester County, New Brunswick, 

rdations between Braiil and the United StatM.> ^t the southeastern entrance to Chaleur Bay, 

This It IS now agreed, applies likewise to other opposite Shippigan Island. 70 mites east of 

South American countries. , Bathurst It Is a terminus of the Intercolonial 

Senator Frye introduced in. Dec 1910 a Railway system, and has steam-ferry commnni- 

Short measure m Congress giving American (.^(jon „i(h Saint George's Bay, Newfoundland, 

ships the advantage m the use of the Panama jj has a fine harbor a maritime trade and 

Canal. The bill provided that the toll charges yai^able fisheries. Beyond Shippigan I'sland, 

of all ships of the United States and all mer- mj^coo Island is frequented by s^rtsmcn fo^ 

chant ships of American registrvui the canal y ^he best fn Canada. 

should be paid out of the United States Trcas- „. . , ,_. , r r- 

ury. This is a form of subsidy for the benefit Shipping Articles. Sec Seaman. 

of^ American ships only. Shipping, Z^w of. A ship is a vessel in- 

Short BaUoL See Baudot Shokt. tended for navigation and transportation, and 

si-pi.. p.». B.ik„ p»f™u. «»d. ;;'S4 'aic.lTn'd'.'S-d'Srir' 

teSf. „. ."fe f„;^J4'.".°wT'''i "«; "liipi The ,«t>tio„ of ownCT.hip i. of.i im- 

a'dS, Ao" RuShX-Keto't U TZ- S'/ tss 'i.Ti.s'r T°Z 

Si^fS .™;,S^fIir™., ""'» <" P" '" « th, work pro^ 

ol»s, on ih. suinmii of the pasi. ^„„^ j„„ „^ p,„ ,j^ ,j|, „ ,,,, pordijser 

Shipley, shTpIT, Orby. English editor aivl ontti the vessel is in a deliverable state, and 

author : b. i July 1832; He was graduated the purchaser is notified to that elTeet, unless the 

from Jesus College^ Cambridge, in 1854; waa partiea stipulate that title shall pass sooner 

ordained to the ministry of the Church of Eng- The British House of Lords has finally estab- 

land; hut in 1878 was received by Cardinal lisbed on appeal that this is the rule also in 

Manning into the Ifoman Catholic Church. England. Title to a ship can pass by oral con. 

Previous to his submission he published acveral tract in the United States; ui England » 

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bill of sale is necessary. In case of disagree- an end in iSSi, It i 

meat between the owners of a vessel as to the among the ignorant. 

use to whicb it shall be put, or whether it Ghatl SUpworm, See TtssDa 

be used at all, the courts may decree a sale oi.i_ Lti n * • ■ 

of the ship, and division of the proceeds. By . .'J^f*- „.!i'. ■■^*' ,?*"!?%' ^'i '^™<"<=»" 

the Revised SUtutes of the Unitl^d States, the ^^'f',^: P.ttsburg, Pa., 26^ Jan. 1832. He wai 

owner or owners of a ship, which has met v^ith fraduated from Vale m 1853 and from, the 

or caused a disaster, through the fault of the ^^\ 4" ■H'^' ^^ "^■"^ ■''"0 Admitted 

master or otherwise, may escape all liability *? the bar m his native city in 1856 he prac- 

beyond the value of the ship, and any freight ""^ .*>?"« "».*'' "'.J'f'J' '■^ be was appointed 

charge.* which it has earned by making a sur- associate justice of the United States Supreme 

render of all interest in the vessel and freight ^"rt 

money, if the vessel is still in existence, in Shiru, Oliver Perry, American jurist: b- 

whatever condition it may be. Without such Pittsburg, Pa., 22 Oct. 1833. He was ^du- 

surrender the owner or owners are held respoo- aled from the University of Athens, Ohio, in 

sible only for an amount equal to the value 1B53, from the Yale Law School in 1856, and 

of the ship and freight earnings, in the condi- was admitted to the bar in that year. He 

tion the ship was after the disaster. served in the Civil War as adjutant on the 

Only vessels built within [he United States, staff of Gen. Herron in i86»-i4, and then re* 

and belonging wholly to citizens thereof, and signed to resume his law practice. He wa( 

vessels which may be captured in war by citi- appointed judge of the United States district 

zens of the United Stales, and lawfully con- court of Northern Iowa in i883, and served 

demned as prizes^ or vessels which may be until 1903, when he was retired, having reached 

forfeited for violation of the laws of the United the age limit. 

States, being wholly owned by citizens, or ves- Slurfe, shS'raz, Persia, in the province 
sels wrecked in _ the United_ States, and pur- ^t Pars, lies in a high valley, 220 miles south- 
chased and repaired by a citiieti. In rase the „est ^f Ispahan, and is reached by lofty passes, 
repairs cost three fourths the value of the ves- itg nearest point is Kodijan. The city, lyith 
»ef when repaired can obwm American registry, thousands of the inhabitants, was nearly de- 
unless by a special act of Congrress granting that jtroyed in 1853, by earthquake. The town now 
privilege. A vessel to be_ engaged in the coast- rebuilt conUins mosques, a bazaar, but nothing 
mg trade, or m fishing, instead of being regis- noteworthy ; the suburbs are more atlrartivc. 
tered must be enrolled if of 20 tons and up- At the north are the tombs of the celebrated 
ward, and it of less than 20 tons it must be po^ts Hafii and Sadi. It is a centre of trade, 
licensed. American laws also provide for the ^^^ to its position on the commercial routes 
regular inspection of steam vessels, leading from the port of Bushire. Shiran is 

The master IS responsible for the proper /a^nous for its wines and inlaid work of wood 
navigation of the ship, and has all the powers ^nd metal, and its poets have attributed to the 
necessary for t^t purpose. He is entitled to the town every charm of surroundings — climate, 
obedience of officers and crew. He may, when produce. Howers, and people. It has extensive 
not at the home port, contract for repairs and jnanufactures of sUk and cotton, firearms, cut- 
supplies, and may even sell the ship should ]g™ glass t . . — . - 
necessity arise. His treatment of seamen is ^[Q^ ^^^i ^. 
regulated by law. See Naval Ahchitbcturk; p™ gnooa 
Navigation ; Sail akd Steam ; Seamen. «t, . 1 .1 . » r . ■ - .1. .t 

Consult: Pardons, <Law of Shipping*; Ab- »^*. she r5, Africa, a fiver in the south- 

bott, 'Law of Merchant Ships' ; Reeves, <His- ^stera part of the continent. It rises in Lake 

tory of the Law of Shipping and Navigation.> Nyassa, and, after a course of 370 miles, flows 

_. . n -! ^ ^ r r- o_r inio the Zambesi. It is navigable except where 

Ships, Registration of. See SrfrppiKC, jnrerrupted by the Mtirchison cataract and rapids, 

l-** <"■ Which have a fall of 1.200 feet. If flows through 

Ships That Pass in tiie Night, the title of a rich agricultural country and has become an 

a widdy read story by Beatrice Harraden. It important commercial route to the lakes region. 

achieved notoriety when it was published in There are several Scotch and English missions 

1894 to some extent, very possibly on account and settlements in the Shire country. Cotton 

of its taking title. The scene is laid in a and grain are the chief products. The Shire wis 

Swiss winter resort for consumptives, discovered by Livingstone (1858-63), and the 

Shipton, ship'ton. Mother, an English district was annexed bs British territory in 1889, 
prophetess about whose existence there seems SlirC, shfr or sh[r, in the United States 

to be no certainty, while there is no doubt that the more modem term county replaces this 

many of the sayings attributed to her were older name. Shire is an English term, still 

fabricated hy others. According to S. Baker, in general use in portions of England, although 

who published Mother Shipton's pretended superseded by the modern form in many places, 

prophecies in 17^, she was born near Knares- In the United States counties are the first divi- 

borough, Yorkshire, in July 1488, and baptized sion of the State, and townships the next. The 

as Ursula Southiel. She died, according to use of the word !4iire in the States has no 

the same authority; at over 70 years of age, significance as to division; it is merely a portion 

but it was not until 1641 that a pamphlet ap- of a name. Thus we have the S»>unty of York- 

peared containing some of her alleged predic- shire." But in England this is different ^re 

tions. In 1645 all her prophecies were considered so used is in itself an indication that the 

as having been fulfilled. In 1862 a predic- division is a county and to speak of the "county 

tion was made, with Mother Shipton's name of YorlcEhire^ woald be redundant, 
appended to it, that the Vorld would come to There have beeh stated different periods 




M which, it » Slid, EngianH was divided into itatlty, sherV, Jaifim, Engliafa i^tt *ni 

skircst It is probable tHat all stieh steteaients dnunatist; b, London 18 Sept 1596; d. th<!re ag 

are incorrect, and that although there exists Oct 1666. He was educated at Oaftird aod 

in England a system ot Buboiviaions khown Catnht-idge, and, having taken hot^ ortfeit, Ub' 

U ahires, the country nerer was conscbusly tained a cnracy near Saint Albaris. He aobta 

90 divided. If it be remranbered that the Saxon aftci* went over to the Chureh of Rotne. Thefl 

people were a collection of dans and that these he removed to London, became a writer for tM 

chns were dividett into faiiriliefi two or three stage, and acquired a reputation which caused 

large farnilies to the clan, the seefning Sncon- Mtn to be taken into the service of Queen 

sbtency of the above itatenwtit is explained^ Henrietta Maria. His first comedy wds licensed 

The head of the family was bead not an>y iti a in 1625, and from that date he produced ihany 

domestic way, but in every way. He was the plays in rapid snceession. lii 1636 he -went 

Mipreme law-grver in die family. He himftell to Ireland to assist Ogilby in the matragemenf 

was under the leadership of the head Of the cldn, of the new theatre at Dublin, After h>e return, 

m tribal cooimtmity. These tribal cdmmnnltieB probably earW in 1640,, he wrote much, an4 

united to form what is known as hutidrads, and >fras conceded the fot/ctaost of English play- 

thc hundreds united to form shires. Thius the wrights. He died of exposure during the great 

country instead of bein^ divided into shires tiic. He was last of the actable series at 

was formed by the union of many separate Elizabethan and Jacobean playwrights ; aad his 

shires, each of which was, practically, an inde- works, while frequently fhm in plot and lootely 

pendent kingdom It was after this union of constructed, are clever, suave, and abounding ia 

shires under one oaticoial head, not i ^n- fancy. Besides 37 trage^es and comedies, hS; 

taneous process, but qne of slow and si times published a volume of poenu. His best dramas, 

retrogradal growth, that the shire took its aje the tragedies, <Tho Traitor,' 'The Roy^l 

position as a subordinate part of the kingdom.. Master,' and 'The Cardinal' ; ani the comedies, 

As such it had at its head the shire-reeve, 'Hyde, Park,' 'The Ball,' 'The Gamester,* 

whence the modem sbtritl. The abire-rceve and 'The Imposture.' The best edition of hi». 

preceding the Norman conquest was one of tw9 dramatic works is thai by Gifford and Dyce 

heads oi the shire organization, the Other being (1833)- Consult: Wood, 'AfJienae Oxonienses,' 

the ealdomian (or earl), whence comes our ea. BliU (iSt?-); Ward,- <Htstofy of Eiigfish 

modern alderman. The eaMorman seemed to. Dramatic Literature' {i8rt)- 
represent the old organiwtion and dignity of Shirley, ^mUiam. American colonial gov 

Aeshire whenit wasan independeMkingdcmi; ernor: I. Preston, Sussex, 1693; d. Roxbury, 

he shared certain ofees with the bishop. But Mass., 24 March 1^71. He stuped law and in 

the shire-reeve was awre particuiarly the repre- 173, came (o America, ietlled in Boston, Mass, 

senUtive of the king, and after the NoroiaO and there engaged in that profession He waa 

Conquest he became purdy a royal officer, with royal governor of Massachusetts in 1741-S, 

his umKjrtance considerably curtoUed. He held planned the successful expedition against Cape 

the sheriffs toum, an annual court to which Breton in 1745, and in 1745-53 was in England! 

lame the vassals of the king. The appeal from after which he returned to Massachusetts as 

this contt was to the king himself, and from this governor. He made a treaty with the Eastern 

appeal came the growth of the king* ^urt. la Indians ia 1754, explored the Kennebec River, 

ifs three branches of Kina^s Bench. Common and erected several forts on its banks, and at 

Pleas, and Exchequer. This court assessed the outbreak of the French war jn 1755 was 

taxes, also, and thns the sheriff became the commander-in-chief of the British forces iri 

financial head of the shire; to the sheriff's North America. He planned the expedition 

conrt, loo, fell the election of knights ot the ^f Qen Prideaiu ■ ■ — 

shire, thus giving it the function of an assem- panied it as far a. v^ant.^, ^u. 

Hy for the choice of rtire rspresehtatives. jn his military command and i = bv-,^..,^.- 

Prom the time of the PlantM«iet accession to sjjjp ;„ j^jg. He was later appointed governor 

the throne the importance of the shire organ- of the Bahamas, a post he resigned in 1770. and 

iMtion decreased, the sheriff n«w being merely [jien returned to Massachusetts, where he lived 

«i aid to the County court (q.v.). (See jn retirement the remainder of his life. He 

Covi«T;FEaDAi. Sybtem.) Consult: T.R. wrote: 'Electra,' a tragedy; <Bertha.> a 

P**^! ^'?'^^''* ** ^".flish People* Vol. masque; 'Conduct of Gen. William Briefly 

L (1870^2); 'Conquest of England' (1884); Stated' (1758) ; etc 

'The Making of England' (1885) I Freeman's oi.' 1 1 1. /~i. 1 .. i, .- l 
<Nom«n Conquest,' Vol. I., ch. ii.-iv. (1870). ,- . ^•'»'b* "°tu ^^ <^''=r"«".« ^'^°'}^^'J"*- 
^ ' ' V / / lished in 1849. The scene is laid in the York- 
ShirUw, sher'la, Waltar, American painter: shire country, with which the author had been 
b. Paisley, Scotland. 6 Ai«. 1838. He was acquainted from cbildliood. The heroine. Shir- 
brought to the United States in his soeonA 'ey, was drawn from her own sister Emily. The 
ynf, and began his artislk: career in early book is richer in portrayal of character than in 
manhood as a bank-note engraver. He ex- striking incident. 

hibitcd for the first time in th« National Acad- Shirt; the name of certain garments worn 

eipy of Design in 1861. After a cowae of sevea hgr males beneath the outer clothing. The shirt 

years' study at Munich (1870-78) he adopted is of ancient origin, having been worn in Eng- 

genre-painting as hia specialty, and has also land before the Norman conquest. It wm of 

done a good deal of work in decoration and linen, and from being a plain and homely article 

book and magazine illustration. He was one of attire it gradually became one of great 

of the founders and the first president of the Itsxury and display, with embroidered collar. 

Society of American Artists. Since 18S8 he front and wrists. Shirts of silk, and shirts of 

has been national acadeniician. aail, BometinKs concealed beneath the_aaier 
Vol. 19 _« 

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■hir^ were worn id the Middle Ages, and at Mahadewa, "greater god*; but the title Shiva, 

a much l&ter period. The shirt reached its 'the good,* wu more geaerallj applied to tiim 

tdghest display in the later Stuart period, when by his votaries. While Shiva is the most popu- 

■t was irequently ornamented wiu cut work, lar of the Hindu pantheon, his worship more 

representiuK historical and other scenes. The widely obtains in ti>c south than in the north, 

tendency has since been toward a plainness although his throne is the HimaJajas, and he is 

that is almost austere, the only part of the shirt a destroying god, yet sometimes restoring and 

visible being the spotless upper front and cu&a. fructifying in in^uence. Thus in the south 

In wa,nn weather costly shirts of varied colors he is widely honored under the ajmibol of the 

and light material are worn. The manufacture phallus or lingam. Although he is i Oravidian 

of shirts is an important American industry, god, in the struggle between Brkhmanism and 

and gives employment to many thousands of Buddhism he was adopted into the Brahman- 

both sexes. istic system and identified with the Vedic Riidra, 

tTi I .1,1-' ,1 ,„ 'r____j..'. - I..!,, i-m Bod of storms. Gxisult: Muir, 'Original San' 

Shirwa, _sh(r'wa,_ or_ Tarnandu «,^ a lake m ^. _. , ^ (r-schirbte d« indi«.h« 

•outheast Africa on the frontier of British Nyas- 

skrit Texts' ; Wurm. 'Geschichte der indischen 

•outneasT nirica on uie irontier or nnusn nyas- d.i:™:™.> i-iSi-t 

•aland and Portuguese East Africa, about 80 K*"K«)n IHS73J. 
miles southeast of Lake Nyassa. It is a se- Snoa, snfi'a, Abyssmia, northeast Africa, 

duded basin of oval shape, 60 miles long and an important central province with ill-defined 

30 miles broad, mostly shallow and infected boundaries. It consists of a series of plateaus 

Iw hippopotami and crocodiles. Several small at 3,000 feet above sea-level, traversed by moun- 

nvers enter the lake on the south and west, tain chains, which, in the culminating point, 

but it has no outlet The lake lies at an eleva- Mount Metatite, near Ankober, have a height of 

tion of 1,800 feet above the sea, and is sur- 10,700 feet Its east portion, called Effat, has 

rounded by mountains from 7,000 to 8,000 feet » less elevated and more generally sloping sui'- 

high. Mount Zomba on the west shore is ?,ooo face, which is higSily cultivated, and yields gwid 

feet high and 20 miles long. The surrounding crops of grain, chiefly wheat and barley. Cotton 

country is very beautiful and clothed with rich "Iw >» extensively cultivated. The higher pla- 

Tegetation. teaus are devoted to pasture. Amon^ indigc- 

BLi 1. t. vw i.«i T? .' 1 ■ .t nous trees is the funifenu exceUa, which in the 

c^^S*^ 'Y^^^ Egyptun king, the course of s century aitains a height of 160 feet. 

Sheshenk I. of the monuments, and the first ^-.^ ^ diameter at the base of f^r to five feet 

aoyere^ of the BubasUte or Libyan. dynasty, jhe exports of the province comprise grain and 

Shishak I. rose to the throne from bein^ com- \^rm quantities of a durable cotton doth, and 

?^*'r*l?"?PT'/"'^'''Z!!'-"'"'if""l"'/{? to these may be added, as articles of trade, 

him Jeroboam fled for protection when he feU ^^^ gold-dust, ivory, gums and spices, ostrich 

under the suspicion of Solomon (i Kings xL fathers, hides, dye-wooHs, medicinal plants, etc. 

^' =j "..""i i"u'''\'^*'^ ^j °- Rehoboam he Christianity was introdocrf as early as the 3d 

invaded Judah, whose fenced cities he took one ^juty. and is still professed by a large number 

after another until he arrived at Jerusalem, ^f the inhabitants, though in a degenerate fonn. 

which, according to the statement of Josephus, pop_ estimated at 2.500,000, of whom about 

fell without a struggle. (Compare 3 ChroiL ,,000,000 are Christians, and the rest chiefly Mo- 

xu. i-io). Shishak pillaged the temple and hanunedans. The present capital is Adis Abeba. 

Ae king's palace carrymg off the treasure but the chief town is Ankober. 
accumulated m the reigns of Solomon and uliti t r- 1 r- 

Oavid. and reducing Ju^h to the position of Shoalt, laid of. See Isles or Shoals. 
a tributary kingdom. He ascended the throne Shock, William Hcnrr, American engi- 

of Egypt about gSo b.c. and reigned at least neer: b. Baltimore 15 June i8ai. He became 

ai years. On the southern wall of the great 3d assistant engineer of the navy in January 

Temple of Kamak, in Upper Egypt, is a record 1845, and served in the Mexican War, In March 

of the conquests of Shishak and of the coun- 1851 he was appointed chief engineer. In 

tries ruled by him. On this are four rows of i8S4-S he supenntended the construction of 

prisoners. Each figure has his arms tied be- marine engines at West Point, and the next year 

hind him, and a rope around his neck, and was detailed as engineer of the Merrimac He 

Shishak. a colossal figure, leads them by a was president of the examining board of engi~ 

string, meanwhile brandishing a weapon. In the neers in 1860-2 and became superintendent of 

lists of his conquests during the expedition the buildii^ of river monitors at Saint Louis 

in which Judah was subjected to his rule we find during the following year. Dftring 1863-S he 

the names of cities in both the kingdoms of was fleet-engineer under Admiral Karragut at 

Israel and Judah and of several Arabian tribes Mobile and later under Admiral Thatcher, and 

to the south of Palestine. Among those of while so engaged he ' constructed an instrument 

the cities which can be recognized in these lists for the destruction of floating torpedoes and 

are Rabboth, Taanach. Sunem, Rehob, Hap- torpedo electric wires. Later he became chief 

baraim Adoraim, Mahanaim, Gibeon, Beth- engineer at the Washington Na^y Yard; fleet- 

Horon, Kedemoth, Ajalon, Megiddo, and Judah engineer of the European squadron; in r87tv-l 

Maluk, ■the royal city of Judah,* or Jerusalem, acting-chief of the bureau of steSm engineering, 

Shishak appears to have been one of the ablest which department he represented at the Vienna 

and most powerful of the Egyptian monarchs. Exposition in 1873. In 1877 he wag appointed 

All Egypt was under his sway. engineer-in-chief of the United States Navy and 

gt,]..;... Ti/-_j c„ If .,.„.„ ., serred until 1883. when he was retired. In i8ffl 

SWttim Wood. See Kittim. j,^ invented a rotary projectile for smooth-bore 

Shi'Taiam, the relinion of the Shivaites, or guns; in 1869 a relieving cushion for wire rip 

wor^ippers of Shiva, an aiKient Dravidian di- ging for ships; in 1870 a projectne for smalf 

Tinity of Southern India. Hia proper name waa- arms. His 'Steam Boilers : their Design, Ca»- 



•tniction, and Managanent' (1881) has become adrenalin. Massage and heat, and sometimes 

the standard work upon that subject rectal injeii^ioDE of plain hot (iio'-iis" P.) 

_. . ,, .. I J ■ c .u water, or hot salt water (i teaspoonful of salt 

Shock a sudden vital depression of the j^ j^j of water) are very useful in extreme 

body, usually due to sudden derangement of the gases 

functions of the nervous system, and generally Shot <;.ii. Ttnnre .«i. "^nniK 

accompanied by a dilatation of the blood-vessels S^ u-,, j o^ «^?\ ^ , 

of the surface of the body and a marked de- ?'>°<=-''?'*'? Stork, or Whale-he*d, a large 

crease in blood-pressure. Such a condition may ?*?,* (Balamcfps rex) found on the White 

be brought about by both physically or psychic- ""^- " ^ browmsh-gray with black wings, Uil 

ally acting causes, A blow, a fall, a hem- "«<• i«t, the head is slightly crested, the bill 

orrhage, an operation, sudden fright, an appal- «nort. broad and deep, with the tip hooked and 

ling sight, a heartrending cry, sudden financial jnottled dusky and yellow. These birds, also 

toss, or great and sudden bereavement, these are known as "boat-bills," live tn flocks in swampy 

among the many causes constantly acting to woods and morasses, and feed upon all kinds of 

bring about such a condition. The symplonis ^P^'^ t?",'"*^', ",°^^ °^'}' ^loUusks and car- 

of shock vary greatly according to the type of V°^ Althouj^ they Jterch upon trees, the neat 

cause and the individuality of the patient. Some- }» "n,."* ground, a slight Iiamg of grass, etc, 

times the symptoms begin at once; under othM '" a slight nollow The eggs are white and from 

circmnstances the results may be delayed for * to 10 m number. 

a long period. A very severe form of shook ia Shoebunmess, shooTier-I-nes, England, 

spoken of as surgical shock. This nsually results county of Essex, in marshy land at the mouth 

from severe operations which involve nervous of the Thames, opposite Sheerness, 45 miles 

structures, take much time, aiul large quantities east of London ; has a sdiool of gunnery, artil- 

of anaesthetic. A condition closely resembling leiy barracks, appliances for experiments in 

SDrgical shock may follow the severe hemortliage arms, guns, etc., where practical instruction in 

of placenta prgevia, ectopic pregnant?, or other target shooting tactics, etc, is imparted to the 

form of internal hemorrhage. (See Bleeding.) officers and men of the British. Pop. about 

The symptoms of shock are very characteristic. 5,000, 

The face usually becomes blanched and pale, the ShoefTel, Mas. John B. See Booth, 

body becomes cold and is covered with clammy Agnes 

perspiradon, the hands and feet usuaUy .become Shoe'maker. John Vietch, American physi- 

tcy, the brain BMms to be ui a whirl, and con- ^j^. ^ Chambersburg, Pa^, 18 March 1853. 

is usually quickened; the arteries at the wrist 

lege in 1874, and was engaged as lecturer there 

11 -A / kT*^^'i= ^^ breathing is ^^^j, jgge, since when he has been professor at 

usually rapid and shallow, labored ai^l at times ^^ MSico-Chirurgical College of Philadelphia, 

irregular The eyes are often sunken and listless He was one of the founders of the 'Medical 

*"''.*^ ^™y«"""« 5* ""= ^-ly 13 dimmished Bulletin* in 1879 and has since beeti its editor, 

one to two degrees. The most important single Hc has publish^ various medical treatises. 
factor in pure shock of the type described is 01. ,_ ,.- ^ ■ »» . 

the sudden fail in blood-pressure. This is .. ShoMnakor STidhaol Myers, American a u- 

thought to be due to purely nervous causes, *^°^ *"? traveler: b. Covington, Ky., 26 June 

the most potent one of which is paralysis of the '*S3- He spent two years at Cornell University 

sympathetic nervous fibres. This causes sudden "/"^ ^'"'= ^^7A has traveled extensively oyer 

dilatation of the blood-vessels, loss of lone of the the greater part of the world, makmg special 

vessel-walls, with loss of blood-pressure; hence ^S-^^*'^'?^!".!, "V"^'^^- (,^^m ^^ V/^^ 

the symptoms, and oftentimes the resultant death. '^''^'^/'^ '° ^he I^nd of the Morning' (1893); 

Why the sympathetic nervous system should be 'Se^'^d Provinces of the Tsw> (^3) ;■ Quaint 

t oresent unknown Corners of Ancient Empires' (1899); 'Palaces 

Sometimes the symptoms of shock are much les^ ^^ ^p^°'^ "f^^ary. Queen of Scots' (1901) ; 

severe. There is temporary faintness, slight ^^^ '^'^^ Siberian Railway' (1903) ; etc. 

pallor, and a feeling of tiausea, and the attack Sbofun, sh6-gooin, the highest govern- 

- " ■ " slight shock and the menl officer in the Japanese government during 

shock that results from the pugilist's 'solar- tlw continuance of the feudal system. He » 

plexus* blow, that may bring death, every variety ongutally a purely military officer, commander- 

of change may be noted. In severe accidents m-chief of the army and first vass^ to the 

many patients, while not suffering from physical emperor. The office became hereditary, and the 

injury, are often prostrated and develop true Shoguns gradually acquired nearly all the real 

railroad shock, or traumatic neurasthenia. (See powers of government, leaving only the title of 

Neurasthenia.) Psychical shock may induce royalty to the emperor. The latter resided at 

neurasthenia ; it may be a potent cause of mental Kioto while the Sbogun held court at Yedo 

disease; or it may even cause death. The in, (Tokyo) whence he ruled in the emperors 

fhience of shock upon pregnant women is of "?•".« "«, ^'s "'^JS^'^?.""^- t ^^ shogunate wM 

great importance. Shock in such circumstances abolished m 1S68. See Japan ; History. 

may bring about miscarriage, or cause malfor- ShoUpnr, sho-la-poor', India, (i) Chief 

mations of the fcetus. Mild cases of shock are town of the district of Sholapur in Bombay, 

recovered -from without aid. A stage of inaction 150 miles southeast of Poona. Noteworthy are 

sets in, the patient becomes warmer, the blood- the old bazar, wi^ a section for each day of 

vessels retain their tone, and equilibrium is the week; the temples of the gardens and 

restored. More severe attacks require hot-water fine tanks; the old fort and walls, the high 



iag presses, publishing newspapers in as many fioeks, which frequent open fields and the sea- 
native dialects. In 1818 tlie town was stormed side meadows. In the western and interior parts 
and taken by the British. of the United States numerous distinct va- 
(2) The district of Sholapur covers an rieties occur, some of which breed in the moun- 
area of 4,521 square miles. The chief products tains within our borders. They range as far 
are millet, oil seeds and pulse. Cultivation soulh as Texas and Mexico. Tlie shnre-larks 
depends largely upon irrijation (die Ekruk are closely related to_ the famous skylark of 
tank is one of the latest in the Deccan). Barsi Europe They nest in a depression in the 
is the principal commercial centre, and has ground and lay tour . or five eggs — French 
eight cotton factories. Pomdharpur a another white, mottled with dull olive-green or ycllow- 
■Meccfl." The Great Indian Peninsula R.R. ish-brown, but very variable. Nesting begins 
traverses the district, with branches. Pop, very early in the spring and several broods 
about &»,ooai may be raised. 

Shooter Island, an island in Newsrk Bay, Shorey, sho'rl, Paul, American educator: 

separated by a narrow channel from' Staten b. Davenport, Iowa, 3 Aug. 1857. He was 

Island, N. Y., one mile east erf Elizabeth, N. J. graduated from Harvard University in 1878 and 

It is chiefly noted for its l«rge ship-buHding was admitted to the Chieago bar in 1880. He 

planL was professor of Greek at Bryn Mawr College 

Shooting Stari. See Metcohs. iSSs-ga. rKigning in the !?""?«" to fi" « 

_. ? , r-j J nr u Similar chair at the Umvergity of Chicago. He 

Shore, Jane, mistress of Edward IV :b. [,35 punished 'D* Platonis fdearum Doctrina' 

London; d. there 1527. She was remark^le (,884); 'The Idea of Good in Plato's Repub- 

for her beauty and cultivated m mmd. Her y,^. (,g^ j 'The Odes and Epodes of Horace' 

influence with Edward was never exercised but (iggg) 

to the benefit of others. (See Edward IV.) ^ otJ_» t»i«i _ » j- 1 ■ . 1. 

Richard HI., partly to revive among the citi- _ ?>««> *""*"■ Amencaii diplomatist: b. 

zens the memory of the licentiousness of bis fp^ng Garden, Va., 30 Sepf I7»; d. Phila- 

brolher, whom he accused of being "the chief ^''Pjl'.?;, ^^■' 5 B«^ ^^f, «« was educated 

abettor of that witch Shore.* determined to ?* William arid Mary College, became a mem- 

txpose her to public Ignominy. He declared *»' »* "l^ Virginia executive eonncil m 1785 

before the. council that the witchcraft of Ja^e "^s ap^mfed secretary of legation at Paris, an 

Shore and her associates had withered his arm, '^ % departure of Jefferson, the 

although he was bom with that member shrunk '7^' ^became ehargi d'olfatres. In January 
and shiiveled- He was unable to effect his J752. he was appointed mmister to the Nether- 
purpose in this manner, and directed her to l'"''*'^*'^,. " December went to Madrid, whitlier 
be tried for adultery by the spiritoal court, be and William Carmichael had been detailed as 
which condemned her to do penance in a white commissioners plenipotentiary to treat with 
sheet, at Saint Paul's, before the whole people. g«>'" '« respect to boundaries and cotnmerce. 
She latterly fell into poverty, and appears to "« became minister resident in 1794, and at the 
have died in 1526 or 1527. rier story appears departure of hw former associate concluded the 
in literature in aiakespeare'ft 'Richard III.'; negotiations and signed the treaty of friend- 
and in a tragedy. 'Jane Shore.' by Rowe, in «"'?' commerce and boundaries 27 Oct 1795- 
many old English ballads, and it has even been Short-eared Ovl, a small, nearly cosmo- 
introduced upon the French stage. politan owl (Asia accipilrinus] , so called be- 

ttc. (qVvj, vWch ire to li foind a]ong thi ?""''' " * '"}, brown .n<l I! .nchei m loljl 

bachS of th, «. or other l.m, bodies o( '"^'f- '" '"'"" "« """< »' "'''"I' '»'• 

water, where they seek their food at the edge ^l-^-J- 

of the waves. Shore-bird shooting is an amuse- Shorter, Clement King, English editor. 

ment of the autumn and early spring, when He is regarded as one of the ablest editors iii 

these birds are migrating between the South and London: has had charge of the 'Sketch Album' 

the far northern breeding-places to which most and 'English Illusti-ated Magazine' ; became 

of them resort in summer, and is usually carried editor of the 'Illustrated London News' in 1891, 

on by the aid of stationary decoys, and calls and is at present editor of the ' Sphere' and the 

for skill and patience. Consult: Elliott, 'Shore 'Tattler.' He has published: 'Charlotte B 

Birds' [New York iSqs); Seebohm, 'Geograph- and I' "■ '• '" ■ ■ •■ 

ieal Distribution of the Family CharadriidK' Sixty 

(London 1887) ; and books relating to shooting, etc. 

Shore-lark, a small bird [OlocoHi altes- Shorter, Dora Sigenon, English author: 

Ms), a native of the north of America. Eurooe. She is the wife of Clement King Shorter (q.v.) 

and Asia. Within the United States it is •"•! *"» written: 'Verses' (189*); 'Ballads 

found in winter as far south as North Carolina «■"* Poems' (1809) ; 'The Woman Who Went 

and Illinois. The adult male is about seven " Hell' (1902); etc. 

inches long; in summer, lores, cheeks, gorget. Shorter Catechism, a catechism exten- 

and band on top of head, ending in erectile sively used by English-speaking Presbyterians 

tufts, black ; nape, mantle and upper tail coverts throttghout the world, and which was framed 

pinkish -brown, white beneath. The eastern or during the time of the English Commonwealth. 

typical shore-lark breeds along the northern A Committee of Assembly was appointed 5 

border of the United States and in British Aug. 1847 to prepare the Shorter Catechism, 

America. In ' winter it migrates southward in which was presented to the Engli^i Parliamw' 

. Google 


26 NovendxT, tbat year, and was ordered to be miles soutli ai Cairo in 1903 fay ProfenorsGreil- 

printed by vote of Parliament, 16 April t6(S. fell and Hunt, there is a contnct whb a .writer 

The Scotch General Aflsembly adopted the cate- of tachygraphy, made 137 a.d., whereby a ala-re 

chism [6 July 1648, and the Scotch Parliament boy was to be taught sborthand for 120 dracbinc 

the following February ratified this action. Set ($24) 1 4" draclinMe were to be paid down, 40 

Catbchisu. more on satisfactory evidence of the progresi <lf 

„,,,,„ L Tii. 1. the boy, and the last 40 when he had become 

Shorthand {Stenography, Phonography, profident 
Tachygraphy) IS a term applied to any system shorthand seems to have been much used 
of contractwl wnling by which spoken words ^y d,e early Christians. It is supposed that 
are recorded. The early history of this art la Saint Paul dictated to amanuenses several of his 
closely allied with palaeography, and it has been epistles, notably that to the Colossians, where 
traced into the misls of antiquitjr. Antiquanans ■fychicus acted as shorthand writer and Ore- 
have tried to connect it with hieroglyphica and ^^^^^ ^^ transcriber. We know that Origen in 
to show that It was used more iMn 1,000 yeais t(,e 3d century was assisted in the pr«paration of 
before Christ by the Persians, Egyptians and ^is ^ Commentaries on the Scriptures' by clerks 
Hebrews. Abbreviated wntmg, to take down ^^o wrote in shorthand from his dictation, 
lectures and also for the preservation of poems g.i^t Angostine refers to an epi5Cf)pal aisem- 
recited at the Pythean, Nemean and Olympic y^^^ ^^^ ^^ Carlhage late in the 4th centuw, 
games, was practised by the early Greeks, and ^^ ^j^pj, ^jght stenographers were employed Ul 
there are specimens of ancient Greek rtotip or ^jayg ^f twa About the same period the poet 
shorthand, in the Va .can Library, at Rome, the A^jonius praised a youth who could write falter 
.Bibhotheque Nationale. at Pans, and the British than hit master could dielate. and, with poetic 
Mitseum. ~_ , ^ ., ■ . , license, even faster than he could Uiink; and in 

Anci^nl //utory.— The definite eiistence of mother poem Ktpresjed hi> wfanirMitfo of the 

shorthand reporting dates m Uie centiiiy pre- .3^,, ^l the atenc«raphers of .the time.. Charie- 

ceding the Christian era. Tiro the accomplished ^ ^i ^ (he Franks for 46 years and 

freedman and amanuensis of Cicero was in 63 Jijoewiie Roman emperor during the 14 jwifs 

B.C the first known practitioner of the art He preceding his death in 814. posstMing an amount 

Xrted speeches of his master, which were ^f harrang unusual in his age. endeavored to 

-ward revised by the orator; and as «o(* become pSdcienf in writing Tironian notw. 

Tyomofij became the established name for g^^ (be tetguo Ulina was iaat giving place .tO 

riiotlhaiMiwrumK Its mvenuon was subsequently j^^ ^ Romm,^, from which the modem 

.Mciibed to him. ,At that period. Rome was Romanic langtiages of Europe sprang. At the 

drawing from Greece her stores of learning and -CouncU of Rheims in 813, priests were admail- 

art, and Two » s^tcm was probably an adag- 4^,,^ ^ address the people in .the rustic tohgw- 

.tobtm from the Greek. Plutarch informs us m Nor was a knowledge of the art confined to the 

his life of Catp jhe Younser that Cicero dis- .western civilization. A translation by Prrf. 

tobuted notani (stjortiiaad reporters) in ya- Hugel, of Dresden, from the Arstuc, narrsfcis 

flOiK fiarts of the bpnate House on the occasion i,^,^ ^ Chinese in 983 a.i>., who bad BCl]uii)i^ 

of the TDlB as to th« fate of Catdine, the chief Arabic speech and writing in leas tiian fine 

-purpose being to uke iown the speeches of months, took down in shorthand from the lips 

-Caesur. and Cato. The text, of those speodios „£ .hig teachers 16 books of Galen. ' 

may :be given by SalluBt in his history of the Modern History.— The. first modem short- 

Catilinian conspiracy, diapter^ 5J-53, or tt^e band work was printed in London in 1588 and 

historian may have followed tlie example of dedicated by its author, Dr, Timothy BriotV, 

-Thucydides and embotjied in tbem bis concep- k> C^een Elisabeth. The first French puyl^^- 

tion ai the character and policy of the two tion, that of Jacques Cossard, appeared in 4651. 

foremost Senators, Maecenas, the famous The oldest German system was published m 

statesman, courtier, and patron of literature, i6?9. Gnrney's is the oldest living aystejji Of 

introdueed some improvements in shorthand, English shorthand. It was first issued by Ma- 

and, according to Dion Cassius, instructed many son in 1720 and improYed by Thomas GunWy 

in the art through his freedman Aquila. Sen- in 175a Taylor's system appeared in 1786, st*- 

eca afterward increased the number of nota- sequent editions of which bOr* OiC name of 

tions to a total of S,ooa Scaligef made a col- Odeli, Harding, and so on. This system has a 

lection of the notes of Tiro, Seneca, and otJiers, -remarkable history of successful adaptatk>n to 

which is appended to tfae great wotk of Janas tnntinentai languages. Bertin adapted it to tb^ 

Gruterus, published at HeideUjerg, in 1603, French, and Danzer In rSoi adapted it to t« 

An illustrious German scholar, lilrich, in Germaij language. Marti's tachygraphy was an 

1817 analyzed the Tironian notes, and his analy- adaptation of Taylor's alphabet -to the Spanish 

sis shows that Roman shorthand, thongh a language and was first published in 1800. By a 

strain on the memory answered the practical royal ordinance in 1802 a chair for shorthand 

purposes of stenography quite as well as the was established in the universi^ at Madrid and 

■ysiemt in vogae in the early part of the iQth Marti named as professor. The cartes of C»- 

centiiry, such, for exam|rfe, as the one sketched diz first had an official shorthand report of its 

by Charles Dickens from his own nqterience in proceedings in 181a Marti's tachygraphy was 

the 38th chapter of *David Copperfield.' We m iSaS applied to the Italian language by Ijis 

are informed by Suetonius that the Emperor son, who also adapted it to the Portuguese. 

Augustus taught the art to his grandchildren, Pereira had also, early Ir the centoiy. adapted 

and- that the Emperor Titus was a skilful Taylor's alphabet to the Portuguese, The iotri>- 

■tenographer. Martial, who lived in the time of duction of shorthand into Mexico and the coun- 

Nero, has left an epigram upon a shorthand tries of South America followed the« adapta- 

wriCer: CurraiU verba licet, manus est vtlocior tions. Amanti, an Italian, adapted Taylor'a 

mt. Among ancient papyri discovemd ;oo ithorthaad to his ow9 laiWBS*- ftfi^ «* nio.^ifiofl 

V Google 


**? P^P^S" •' " now used by ttw ofEdal corps 1841, and it u ased in the Prassiaft Chamber 
of the Chamber of Deputies. The three pre- which is the sole exception to the official use of 
Wbng French systems are those of Prevost, Gabelsberger's shorthand in Germany. In Rus- 
l>uployB, and Prepean, the first named being a sia a translation of Gabelsbenter ia officially em- 
mod ificati on of Taylor. It is estimated that the ployed in the imperial senate, the court of caasa- 
bibliography of shorthand comprises r6,00o vol- tion and other law courts. There was, of course 
umes, exclusive of reissues or editions. A valu- a gradual development of the art ' down to 
able contnbution to the English branch of this Isaac Pitman's invention. Dr. Bright's system 
subject has been made fay Julius Ensign Rock- was cumbrous and followed the vertical style 
weil published bv the Government as Circular of Chinese writing; but he indicated a present 
of Information No. 2, Bureau of Education, particle by two final dots just as Isaac Pitman 
Washington (1884), and Circular No. i (1803). nearly three centuries afterward denoted it by 
The latter contains a reproduction of 113 Eng- one. 

lish shorthand alphabets, extending from the Phonelics.— The phonetic principle was hrst 

first alphabetic system, that of Willis in _i6(M, applied to English shorthand by John Willis, ia 

tothe Duployan method adapted by Pemm m 1602, and it was further developed from rime 

^™ I . . - . '" *""*' '"'* '* remained for Isaac Pitman to 

A court of law in England in 1740 took the make it a complete basis; in other words to 

initial step in appointing an official shorthand invent phonography or sound hand As there 

writer. The next mstance of the public recogni- are in the English language 43 distinct sounds, 

non of shoMhand m that country occurred in represented by 26 letters, Isaac Pitman adopted 

1^ when the House of Commons, during the an extended alphabet by which consonants are 

<nal of Warren Hastings, called the shorthand indicated by simple geometrical strokes, straight 

wnter to the bar and required him to read from or curved, the light sounds denoted by light 

3m notes the exact words used by Mr. Burke, strokes and the heavy ones by corresponding 

and thereupon resolved that Mr. Burke had heavy strokes. The leading heavy vowels are rep- 

■exceeded hit instructions in accusing Sir Elijah resented by six heavy dots and a like number of 

impey of murder. The publication of Hansard's heavy dashes, placed at the beginning, middle, 

jyebatea was begun in 1803 and has become a Or end of the strokes, and before or after as 

general system of reports of representative they precede or follow the consonants. The 

bodies in Great Britain and her colonies. It is same course is followed with the light vowels, 

compiled from newspaper reports, supplemented Diphthongs are provided for by a combination 

by special reports. This system is closely fol- of dash forms, and by a small semicircle dif- 

lowed in some of the colonies, as in New ferently fofmed and placed in different poii- 

Zealand, while a method similar to that pur- tions. Circles, hooks, and loops are employed 

■ued by our national legislature has been in distinct offices. As an illustration, the word 

■dcqtted by the Canadian Parliament The caught is composed of three sounds represented 

Hansard's report is semi-official, the speeches by six letters. It is Spelled phonetically kawt. 

being submitted to members for revision, and it and in phonography it is wtitten with two 

u'subwdined by the Houae of Commons. The straight Strokes jointd, ofte horizontal and the 

official shorthand writing for the British Parlia- other perpendicular, and a disjoined dash. In 

ment is cpnfined to the committee reporting, in rapid writing Iht dash is omitted, as an impor- 

which Pitman's and Gurney's systems have long tant feature of the art in reportmg is the use 

had governmental recognition. of consonant outlines, omitting vowels. It fol- 

Tbe American colonies were not fa* behind lows that shorthand ia more readily adapted to 

the mother country in the use of shorthand, a consonantal than a vowel language, and for 

The Virginia Convention of 178S, called to de- this reason French is easy and Japanese difE- 

liberate on the ratification of the Constitution of cult. In every case, however, many brief forma, 

the United States, was reported in shorthand more or less arbitrary, are used for words of 

in a meritorious manner by David Robertson, freoueni occurrence. 

of Petersburg, Va., and in 1903 the National Pitman System. — As has been stated, ver- 
Shorthand Reporters' Association of the United barim reporting in the English-speaking world 
States erected a tablet in Saint Augustine's dates from the invention of phonography b.v Sir 
Chtn-ch, Philadelphia, to the memory of Thomas Isaac Pitman, for in recognition of his eminent 
Lloyd, the official reporter of the National service, the honor of knighthood was conferred 
House of Representatives, ist session 1st Conn on him byOueen Victoria. There was a cele- 
cress. This tablet bears the following inscrip- bration in London in 18B7 known as the Golden 
Son; Jubilee of Phonography, in which an array of 
, „ ,, . . . ., ,.- T. ■ talent was displayed which came as a surprise 
^^"t^^" Am^ican"ih"thi^d t«o^?il° *° '"'^" "^ '^""» °" '^^ *'<*^ °* *^^ Atlantic, 
14 August i7s6— 19 Jinuiry iB^. who were unaware of the accomplishments nec- 
essary to make the career of a shorthand re- 
in 1834 Franz Xavier Gabelsberger, secre- porter successful Sir Isaac died in iSg?, after 
tary to the ministry in Bavaria, brought out his having witnessed the introduction of phonog- 
invention, and in 1837 Isaac Pitman, of Bath, r^aphy into every land that Anglo-Saxon civiliza- 
England, gave to the world the first edition tTon has penetrated. The inventor received great 
of phonography, or sound hand. Gabela- aid from his brothers, but that of his youngest 
berger's system, with adaptations, has been brother was conspicuous and American. Benn 
widely introduced in Austria-Hungary, Switwr- Pitman came to the United States in 1853 and 
land, Russia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, established in Cincinnati a phonographic insti- 
Fintand, Poland, Holland, Belgium, Servia, and tutc and a publishing house, which are still in 
Rumania, although in some of these countries successful operation. For many years he had 
modi6cations of the Stolzean method predom- had an able association in the person of Jerome 
inate. Wilhehn Stolw published his jyitem in B. Howard. In 1903, Mr. Berni Pitman. haTint 




spent 50 years in flie dissemination and devel- 
opment in the United States of his brother's 
invention, the National Shorthand Association, 
which met in Cincinnati, made an appropriate 
celebration of the golden jubilee of his labors. 

The following is the complete alphabet of 
the Isaac Pitman system as presented in "Course 

in Isaac Pitman Shorthand* (ign) 


Tii« Phokogbaphk Auhawt. 







P \ B \ 1 

F V, 

V *^ 

T 1 D 1 ] 

TM ( 

TH ( 

CH/ J / 

s ) 

z ) 

K — G — I 



N — 

NG w 

LIQUIDS, L /^ R "^ --^ 

COU.BSCINTt. W ^^ Ver" ASPtKATK H o" ^ 


»«. taA 


„ toy 


» tm 


„ tMW 


» t" 


» tiw 


hand alphabet, and wjtli the assistance of dis- 
tinsuished educators and practitioners improved 
it. be had a three-foid object in view: 

t. To gin thoM oho hid mmonndm to mtkt, > 
mote clcnKnury mettod of writiiiK. plun, nnplc, nitil* 
■uluircil in ■ ftw wcelu. aad capable of beuiii executed 
■I Ihe rale of to 01 &> words a minule. 

a. To develop ■ itylr of writing for Ihe n»e of bmi- 

h til* «B<e of spee<:ti and the legibility of prim 
J. To aabiiah ■ ■rsienl <rf rejxjrtina for Ihr- 

ordinary writing are made bj a single stroke of 
the pen, the contDnrs being traced regardless of 
details. In India, Navina, of the Punjab Uni- 
versity, invented an alphabet of new Hindi 
cliai^cters, which is sftid to form the buis of a 
rapid and legible system of shorthand. Other 
systems, based on Isaac Pitman's, have been in- 
troduced in the United States by Elias Longley, 
Andrew J. Graham, and James E. Munson. ^fr. 
Graham brought out the first edition of his 
'Standard Phonography* in 185S. 

Sficikxn ov liAAC PnuAK Sbobtkamil 

"S V. 

DIPHTHOITOS. v| I ''! OW 1 01 J U '\ WI 

To these brief elementary signs, which rep- 
resent every distinct elementary sound in Eng- 
•i-i- — s added abbreviating adjuncts and prin- 




1Iei.latlM*l.r. Myin 

TC 1* thai 

evefy young p«Km. 

eitl ihonhand kod 

typewritloj. Hef* ycu tmre m 

M.I ffi««pHn* »d 

cenatD u (ome tun 

to be eg 

lica]lj..ailab[.. le 

he. thoro 

ighly will n«d 



How well the itrventor succeeded in his real- 
ization of these first two resolves may be seen 
in the representation in the next column, and the 
history of the dissemination of the art proves 
diat this third has also been crowned with suc- 

Pitman's phonography has not only been suc- 
ecssfuliy adapted to such languages as the Span- 
ish and Dutch, but even to the Mala^sv for 
olficial use in Madagascar; and in igoa Edward 
Gantlett made an adaptation to the Japanese 
languge under the title < Phonographica Ja- 
ponica.' In Japan and China a method of 

O&ial Vte. — The enlarged use of attoft- 
hand, owing to the demands of State legislft- 
tures, courts, and the business world, is, well 
known. The National Shorthand Reporters' 
Association. (Willis N. Tiffariy, Los Angeles, 
president, tan), has .an execuBve committee 
composed of reporters from 35 States, 2 Terri- 
tories, and the Dislrict of Columbia. The Sen- 
ate of the United States in 1848 made a contract 
for a verbatim report of its debates and pro- 
ceedings, and the same course was adopted by 
the House of Representatives in the following 
year. Before 1848 the 'Congressional Globe' 
contained an abstract of the debates and such 
speeches in full as members wrote or had spe- 
ciallj; reported. In 1873 Congress adopted the 
existing mediod and transferred the official pub- 
lication of the proceedings from private con- 
tract to the government printing office. Bf 
this method each house employs a corps of five 
reporters, the Senate paying to its corps $25,000 
a year and the reporters ofthe House receivinc 
$5,000 a year cadL In addition, the House of 
Representatives emplc^i a corps of oSdsl tc- 
porters of coimnitteea. 



Shorthiuid has reached the highest possible 
development in every oountry where a parlia- 
roentary form of government has obtained- Tur- 
key possessed no system of shorthand until her 
accession to the list of constitutional states, 
brought about by the reform movement of 187G. 
The Turkish Parliament met in 1877 and much 
difficulty was found in securing reports. 
Stenographers were empluyed to translate on 
the spot into French the speeches delivered in 
Turkish, but in iliie work the note-takers failed. 
The speakers were then required to reduce their 
remarks to writing before delivery, but it was 
found that such a rule could not be applied to 
a deliberative bodj*. Efforts were then made 
to invent a stenographic machine, but this 
proved a failure there as elsewhere. Gabeis- 
berger's systepi was translated into Turkish by 
Griinbaum, and ttie pi^lern was about to he 
successfully solved when the Parliament was 
dissolved and ibe constitution abrogated fey the 
will of the Sultan. 

The continent^! countries of EOrope and 
Great Britain are far in advance of the United 
States in making instruction in shophaod a. ma- 
terial and essential [Art of 'education. In this 
country- this knowledge must be sought by in- 
dividiKi! effort, and is gain'ed by self- in struct ion 
or in private schools- In view of the peculiar 
qualifications reqdired to evcel in the »rt, as 
dexterity of hand, alertness of mind, a nervous 
temperamecft under control, Ibis method is 
hardly subject to criticism. There niust he, of 
course, rivalry and degrees- of merit between 
different systems or different styles of the same 
system; but every writer adapts his shorthand 
to his own personality, so that a good writer 
may employ an inferior method and a poor one 
may uso a superior shorthand invention. 

Clamwce a. Pitman, M.P.S., N.S.R.A. 

Shorthom, a breed of cattle. See Daisy- 
INc; Ok. 

ShortliDiisp, Joa^h Henrj', English man- 
Dfacturer . and author: b. Binningham 9 Sept 
1834; d. London 4 March 1903. After a .sec- 
ondary education at Tottenham, he became a 
manufacturer of sulphuric acid at Birmingham, 
but found an avocation in literature, and pri- 
vately: printed a halt-mystical work of fiction, 
^John jnglcsant.* This was published in r88i, 
was much tajked of, and gained a solid success. 
Other works of his, such as 'The Little School- 
master Mark* (1883-4) and <Sir Pen:ivai' 
(r886), did not encounter a similar acceptance, 
but are greatly priied by tlioughtful readers. 
Besides his fiction he wrote an essay on 'The 
Platonism of Wordsworth' (1882). 

Shortia, a genus of plants of the Diaftnsia 
family, containing two species, one (i", uniflora), 
in Japan, and the other a very local plant, in the 
Alleghany Mountains. The latter species 
{Shortia galacifolia), is an interesting plant his- 
torically, being closely associated with Dr. Asa 
Gray. When in Paris in 1839, Dr. Gray saw an 
unnamed specimen, with cmly leaves and fruit, 
in the herbarium of the elder Michaux, who 
Mated that he had collected it in 1788. in the high 
mountains of Carolina. Dr. Gray afterward 
searched for it in that region, but was uniuccess- 
ful. He, however, described this plant, "with 
tha baMt of pyrola and the foliage of gatax,* 
and named it in honor of Dr. C W. Shot Thf- 

Shortia was afterward found (1677), althougfa 
not in the locality mentioned by Michaux, but 
was in flower and was sent to Dr. Gray, to ver- 
ify his classifi cation. In f886, almost one hun- 
dred years after it was first seen, and after 
much laborious searching, the Shorlia was re- 
discovered by Dr. Sargent, in practically the 
identical region visited by Miehaux. Later Still 
it was found in such quantities that it was trans- 
planted, and this, once unknown flower is now 
becoming a common plant in horticulture. It 
has a creeping rootstock, 3 large tuft of long- 
petioled, evergreen leaves, with brownish stains, 
thin and serrate, and shaped very lU<e the galax 
leaves used in floral decoration. There are sev- 
eral flower srapes, some six inches tall, bearing 
solitaij' nodding, iive-meroua, bell-shaped flawers 
an inch long and wide, with white fringed petals, 
blooming in the early spring. 

Shortsightedness. See Vision, Defects of, 

Shortt, Adam, Canadian political econo- 
mist: b. near Loudon, Out., 24 Nov. i8s(k He 
was educated at the universities of Queen's 
(Kingston, Ont.), Edinburgh, and Glasgow, and 
oh his return to Canada became an ■ssistaDt in 
philosophy at Queen's University, and after the 
establishment of the Macdonald chair of political 
science at Queen's was appointed to fill it. He 
has made a close study of Canadian economic 
problems as well as of English and Frendj 
colonial policies, and has published in the 'Jour- 
nal of the Canadian Bankers' Association' a 
series of papers on the 'History of Canadian 
Currency,' and 'Banking and Exchange.' 

Shoahone (sho-sho'ne) Falla, a waterfall 
in the Snake Rjver (q.v.), in the southern 
part of Idaho, about 30 miles south of Sho- 
shone. Above the faJU proper, (he canon is 
about 750 feet wide and 1,200 feet deep. The 
waters are deep and flow with scarcely a ripple 
until the rapids are reached, when the water 
Spreads out fan-like and drops over numerous 
precipices, some 50 feet in height, then, as it 
were, gathers its entire volume and plunges ovei: 
a precipice 210 feet in height Bctow this fall 
the canon is about 1,000 feet in depth. 

Shoshonean Indians (adapted from 
ShoshoHt, an important Shoshonean tribe, whose 
name is probably an opprobrious Sionan epithet). 
A linguistic stock of American abongines 
which formerly occupied a large part of the 
great interior basin of the United States. On 
the north, Shoshonean tribes extended far inti. 
Oregon, where Shahaptian territory was met 
On the northeast the eastern limits of the pris-. 
tine habitat of the Shoshonean tribes are un- 
known; the narrative of Lewis and Clark asserts 
that the Shoshoni bands encountered on Jeffer- 
son River, whose summer home was on the 
headwaters of the Columbia, formerly lived, 
within their own recollection, in the plains east 
of the Rocky Mountains, whence they wtr« 
driven to their mountain retreats by the Min- 
itari (Atsina), who had obtained fitearma, and 
much of whose territory was formerly occupied 
by Shoshonean tribes- Later a division of the 
Bannock held the finest portion of southwestern 
Montana, whence they were apparently being 
pushed westward across the mountains i^ 
Btackfeet. On the east the Tukuarika, or 
Sheepeaters. held the Yellowstone Park coun- 
try, while the Washaki occupied southweslcnt 

>y Google 


WTcming. Nearly the entiTe mountainous part system, sacceeafiilly cidtivate the sandy soil, and 

of Colorado was held by the several Ute bands, have earned just renown as potters, weaveiA 

indudlng ttie northern drainage of the San Juan and basket -m^ers. 

in the southeaat and extending into northeastern The population of the Shashonean tribes apr 
New Mexico. The Comanche division o£ the proximates 16,000^ distributed as follows: Bott" 
Slock extended farther eastward than any otlier, nock, about 500 under Fort Hall agency and 
but with the exception of the Penetehka band, 100 under Lemhi agency, Idaho ; total, 60a, 
tiiia important and warlike tribe did not make Chemekumy 230 under Colorado River agency, 
its appearance in the southern plains until the Arizona. Comanche, 1,409 under Kiowa, Comr 
beginning of the 18th century, although they anche, and Wichita agency, Oktehoma. Hopi, or 
later extended their raids throughout the greater MoJa, i-A^i (including Tewa), in seven puebiM 
part of Texas and far into Mexico. On the in northeastern Arizona. Paiute (including 
south, Shoshonean tribes were limited generally many small bands), 200 near Fort Bidwell, Cal.; 
to Colorado River in Arizona and California; 656 on Pyramid Lake reservation; 413 on Walkar 
the Chemehuevi occupied both baidis of that Lake reservation, and 223 under Western Shor 
stream above and below Bill Williams fork, and ahoni agency, Nevada; 107 under Klamath 
the Kaibabs, Shivwits, and Kwaiantikwakets agency and y% nnder Warm Spring agency, 
(Paiute divisions) occupied northwestern An- Oregon; 100 at Saint George, Utah; to 
zona and southwestern Utah, The pueblo- which ahoald be added 128 Sbivwits and ISO 
dwelling Hopi or ^oki occupied seven villagoi Kaibabs near Saint George, Utah, and be- 
in northeastern Arizona in the middle of the tween 3.50O ■ and 4.'X« (includinp Gosiut& 
ifith otntury, some of which were auJiE$q«UBitly Paviotso, etc.) in southeastern California and 
Abandoned and new oties established, and about western Nevada; total about 5>Soo- Shoshoi^ 
the cloae of the i?tli century Tewj In- about 900 under Fort Hall agency and 300 under 
diana of'.Tanban stod^ from the Rio Grande I,.enihi agencx, Idaho, 333 under Western Sho- 
CElabllsbed the pueblo of Uano ampng the Hopi shoni agency, l^evada; 804 under Shgshoni 
(see TVBtLV/M). In the southwest, Shoshoneau s^eney, Wyoming; total about 1,337. Tobikkar 
trihes had pressed across California, occupying (including Kawia). about 9,300 classed as "Mis* 
« wide belt of country to the Pacific In Uieir sion Indians^ unoer the Mission Tule River 
extension northward they had reached as far as jtsency, Califoniip. Tukuariko, or Sktepeaters, 
Tulare Lake, from which territory they had ap- ^ under L^l^ agency, Idaho. Vt£, d^i Ca- 
patently dispossessed Mariposan tribes. A little pote, Moache, and Wiminuchi under Southern 
farther northward they bad crossed the Sierras Ute agency, Colorado ; 457 Uinta, 820 Uncom- 
and occupied the heads of San Joaquin and gahgre, and 371 White River Ute under Uinta 
Kings rivers; they also occupied nearly the and Ooray agency, Utah; total 2,589. 
whole of Nevada, and the entire southeastern p W Hodge, 
S?"^."* .Oregon was likewise inhabited by uihes ■. Smithsonian ItutiluHon, fVathinston. 

" 'SSr ■hf.-sr'Ji.™ o. =o»„y .ecu- !r,^".^'"ri 

pied by Siese tribes, which ranged from tim- ShouWer-girdle. See Shoulder-joint. 

Aered mountains to desert plains, with great dif- Shoulder- joint, the articulation of the 

ference in climatic conditions, their habits and cpper arm or humerus witii the glenoid cavi^ 

customs greatly varied. The northern and east' of the scapula or ihoulder-blade. This joint is 

ern members of the stock — the Bannock, an exan^le of the enarthrodia! or ball-and-sodiet 

Shoshoni, Ute, and Comanche — were hunting joints; the balMike or rounded head of the 

Indians, Jivmg in tipis and subsisting almost en- hunKrus working in the shallow cup of the 

tirelv on large game, including the buffalo; but glenoid cavity. The head of the humerus is 

of these tribes only the Comanche were easen- very large when compared with the glenoid or 

ttally "Buffalo Indians." Most of the western receiving cavity. The capsule which snrrounda 

tribes of the stock, notably the Paiute, inhab- and encloses the j(»nt is of very loose nature, but 

ited in the main an inhospitable desert region is intimately connected with Uie muscles which 

which afforded scant subsistence in liie way of are attached to the head of the humerus. The 

seeds, berries, roots, fish, and small game. The joint itself is guarded against dislocatitm or dis- 

necessity of digging roots for food early earned nlaoement by the strong ligaments surrounding 

for them the sobriquet "Diggers,' 3 name still it, as well as by the tendons of its investing and 

applied to the Paiutes and their relatives in other muscles ; while superiorly the acromion 

eastern California, western Nevada, and western and coracoid processes 01 the scapula form an 

Utah, particularly those not under official con- arch, together with the coraco-acromial ligament, 

trol. Li\-ing in rude brush shelters or some- which further serves to protect the joint The 

times even in holes in the groond, and living on shoulder arch or girdle, -also called pectoral arch 

the meager natural products of the desert, these or girdle, is in vertebrates — in mammals, none 

Indians have been regarded as in some respects above monotremes (see Monotramata) — 

among the lowest in the culture scale of the usually attached to the sternum ventrally.and to 

tribes of the United States, although some of the it the fore limbs are articulated. It has only 

Paiute divisions and the Chemehuevi practise an indirect connection with the vertebral column, 

agriculture to some extent. The Hopi or Moki, Rudimentary or greatly modified in the majority 

whose country in northeastern Arizona was the of mammals, this girdle is especially marked in 

Province of Tusayan (see TtisAVAN) of the certain groups of birds (see ORKrrHOLOGY). In 

early Spaniards, are much farther advanced than man the clavicle is completely developed, and 

any of the Shoshonean tribes, due probably to a with the scapula this forms Uie bone- structure 

large infusion of eastern Pueblo and other for- of the shoulder-girdle, which, relatively, is en- 

eign blood ; they live in permanent adobe houses, dowed with superior strength. 
have a highly developed social and religious "Hie articulating surfaces of Uie ahoulder-joh^ 


>/ Google 


are covered with cartilage. The capsular liga- for which he received from ^Dvenuncnt a pen- 
ment forms the chief ligamentous structuie. sion of $6,000 a year in addition to his pay in 
It serves chiefly to support the inner and upper the artny. He attained the rank of lieutenant- 
portion of the glenoid ligament, which is fixed general in 1831 ; and retired in 1825. 
around the margin of the cavity of that name. ShrapneL See Projectiles. 
Its function is chiefly that of deepening- the 

cavity by adding to its circumference, and it also Shreve, shr€v, Heniy Miller, American in- 
protects the bony edge of the cavity. The mo- ventor: b. Burlington County, N. J., 21 Oct 
tions of the shoulder-jaint are limited and con- 1785 ; d. Saint Louis 6 March 1854. Eariy in hfe 
trolled by the interlocking of the bones, as well he engaged in navigation on the Western nvers, 
ms by the tension of the capsule. The biceps and in 1815 ascended the Mississippi to Louis- 
muscle, in the relations of its tendons to this ville, Ky„ in the Enterprise, the first nver steam- 
joint, subserves several important uses. Pri- boat. In i8ao he built the Washington, of 40O 
marily, and from its connection with both elbow tons burden ; remodeled it in 1824, so as to oper- 
and shouider-joints, it brings the movements of ate each of the side wheels witli a separate 
both into harmonious relation; while it strength- engine; invested the snag boat HeliopoHs, for ■ 
ens the upper portion of the articular cavity, and removing snags from rivers; and in 1829 pal- 
steadies the head of the humerus, throu^ its ented a steam battering ram for harbor defense. 
relation to the bicipiul groove of that bone. In 1826 he was made superintendent of improve- 
This joint is liable to various diseases and ments in Western rivers, and continued in that 
injuries. Local injury may result in inflamma- office till 1841. 

tion, while diseased conditions of constitutional Shreveport, shrfv'port. La., city, parish- 
origin may give rise to strumous or scrofulous seat of Caddo parish; on the Bed River, and on 
disorders of the joint, to syphilitic lesions, and the Houston & S., the Kansas City Southern, the 
to gouty or rheumatic attacks. Of the accidents Shreveport & R. R. Valley, the Saint Louis 
to which the joint is liable, dislocations are by Southwestern, the Texas 4 P., and the Vicks- 
far the most frequent, while fractures are not burg, S. & P. R.R.'s ; about 325 miles northwest 
uncommon. Fi^cture of the acromion process of New Orleans and about 15 miles from the 
of the scapula, of the coracoid process, of the Te:cas boundary. It is the commercial and in- 
neck of the shoulder-blade, and of the upper part dustrial centre of the northwestern part of the 
of the humerus arc of most common occurrence State. It was incorporated as a city in 18J9. 
among these accidents. During the Civil War, from the time Baton 
Shovel-nose. See Stubchoh. Rouge was captured by the Union forces until 
01. ^.ii_ „, c«_„..t.iii , r...h.„,<.^ ^.,^t- the close of the war, Shreveport was the capital 
,<r^^°f^^' O"^ °P?°'?'""t a freshwater duck j j^ g j . ^ ,, ^ i^.„it„„I region 
(^Spalula ciymta). distmguishcd by the bill be- .„ ^j^j^j, ^^^^^ j^ ,^^ ^j^j^f «j„^j Ther?are 
ing longer than the head, and narrowed at its ^^^^j ^^^^^^ compresses, cottonseed-oil milk 
base, while the tip is hooked and broadened, ^^^^^„^ .^ops, railr^d shops, ice factories, lum- 
and Its processes are long and slen- ^^ ^^^ stock yards. Its railroad facilities and 
der. The average length of this bird IS about opportunities for river transportation give it 
18 or 20 inches The nale h>« the head and 5 j^, advantages as 3 shipping point and as a 
upper neck bright green, and the lower neck jobbing place. The chief exports are cotton 
white. The scapular feathers are white The products, live stock, hides, wax, wool, lumber, 
back IS brown, the pnnm? wing- feathers black- ^„^ -^^^ The principal public buildings are a 
ish-brown. The tip of the wing is paJe blue, as government building, parish court-house, head- 
also arc the wing-coverts. The tail and upper quarters of the State board of health, and a hos- 
tail-coverts are black. The breast and belly are pital. There are 12 churches, and public and 
hght brown or chestnut. It feeds on worms, m- church schools. There is one private bank; the 
sects, snails, small fishes, and vcgetaWe matters, ^„e Other banks have a combined capital of 
and mhabits lahe-margms and marshy spots, and i.50000. Pop. (igio) 28,015 
breeds numerously all over the northern half of ' ' , • • ,11. 
North America, as well as in Northern Europe ^}^^• ?".^ «* '"^ ""^"'^ mammals of the 

and Asia, making its nest on the ground. »""■? Sortctda. and order Ifuecttvora The 
_, ,, „ „ . . . , shrews have hairy mouse-like iMdies and ordi- 
Shr.-dy, Hrarr Mcmin, Ani.r,c,n sculi>- ,„, tom..d tor runniog, a-d »ot for bur- 
tor; b. N« York 24 Oct I8?i. H« wu gi.da- „„';„ „ ;„ ,t, j„i,j „„,„,' ^^, „j „„ 
attd at Columbia (1854) Modicd law. wtnt ,„ comparatively will developed, the, live on 
mto business, and finally taking np sculpture as the ground, though a few are arboreal and others 
.n amateur, developed himself, without the direc- ,,1^ The jaws are prolonged, and a mobile 
tion of any teacher, into a professional sculptor, ,„„„, generally exists. There ire sia upper and 
being snccessfol m a competition for the eaecu- ,„„, lower incisors, the middle pair of the upper 
tion of an equestnan sUtue m Brooklyn jaw being long and curved. The first lower in- 
(t50«o) iiioii of the -Grant Memorial- for '^-^^ project boriaonully and form with the 
Washington (?!»,ooo) igo! i while he was snb- „„„ ^ forceps-like structure for the grasp- 
SMuently commissioned by the Holland Society ■ „, ,„j„ ,„,„„ ^-^^^^ ,„„ ,^5 larger part 
^!J" ^i'^J? "j'" *° "li""""» "«"C °< of their fare. This family .s mnch the largest one 
William the tiilent. of (he Insectivora and the numerous species are 
Shrap'nel, Henry, British soldier and in- found in most parts of the world and present 
ventor ; b. 1755 ; d. 1S42. He entered the Royal many interesting adaptations. 
Artillery in 1770. served with the Duke of Within the limits of the United States four 
York's army in Flanders, and shortly after the genera and about 60 species occur. In the typ- 
siege of Dunkirk invented the case-shot known ical genus Sorer the ears are large and of nor- 
by the name of shrapnel-shells, an invention mal conformation and the feet are not ftipged 



with stiff hairs. The common shrew (S. per- also, like these animals, progress by leaping; 

sonata) is a frail little creature less than three They inhabit dry rcx:ky situations, feed on insects 

inches long with a scantily-haired tail measur- and other small Invertebrata and are nocturnal, 

ing one inch and may readily be distinguished Consult; Dobson, 'Proceedings Zoological So* 

by its prolonged muiile, and by the teeth being ciety' of London (l8go) ; Dobson, 'Monograph 

colored brown at their lips. It feeds upon in- of the Insectivora' (London 1882-go) ; Mer- 

sects and their larvx. and inhabits dry places, riam, 'Mammals of the Adirondack Region' 

making a nest of leaves and grasses. The young, (New York 1884); and Merriam and Miller, 

numbering from five to seven, are born in the *North American Famia No. 10' (Washington 

spring. Theselittleanimaisare very voracious in 1895), 

their habits, and frequently kill and devour one Shrew-mole, a large mole (Scalopi aquaU- 

another. Neoiorex has large feet fringed with cus) inhabiting wet meadovi-s and the border* 

«iff haira and includes the Urge water shrew pf marshes and streams throughout most of 

(5. fialuslns) , SIX inches long, as well as several jjorth America. See Mole. 

'^r^'^-'h >^'''w'-n''=i?rnrfn^,^^^' Shrewsbuiy. shrooz^ii-rt. England, the 

S^^*h^?.* faSlelSr^Vl^^^i'^'es^^ls -"-^-« f ^h^psbire on the 4 ^k of 

fo^nd chiefly in the Rocky Mountain region and ^^^^Tu'lT.tXli^^.li^l ^7^1^!^, 

Bhri^ is" a characteristically American "= Vf ""l"if;i'^r«''Jw,"/ f 'llX^^r!^.'.",! 

genus with mole-like fur and the external ear ^' Tfi v^ T^ ^, ,c ,rf nlr?™ /n1 

r'^nr^^c'o"lrT/'oti°n^r1id" l^J t74:'an^=bS?dred^brclT'f=ra:;;e^rs^ ^XJ 

= a'mo"ng'3,eTa^. VS-'ta led' o^mct -^-^°^ ^^e period of James If and two 

cu—™ t a h..».v...j.^ 1. tu^ k-c» L^«...n ,^^^:^ towers of the reign of Edward 1., are parts of the 

^^ Iri»- i„^ «c?™ ^I„^H ^^^ ^uT. oW «*tle built by Roger de Momgomery. Saint 

tLtZ W.J» ,™j*^h Pw™ .^^mJlni M^ry''. an interestini church of the loth cen- 

^^ jy^il^l ^l^^^ Im^^II^mI: tnry; Saint Giles'-dates from the reign of Henry 

^i« I^fl,, »hr«,?L^ rJ^,fnT^?^^ I.;-Holy Cross, early Norman; and Saint 

,Z ...^V^^ttf^r^^Z/L^^lh^Tl^ Alkmonds are the most noteworthy chnrdies. 

active and ,s frequently found on the surface of ^j^ j, ^^^-^ buildings are public halls, mu- 

or burrowing m the snow. At this season it free library, market-house - including 

feeds largely on beechnuts as well a! h-berttat- c^^exch an ge - barracks, and Royal Grammar 

;^t'nr7,nH «h^ Jrfit/ift'^lf,^^;i^n'^r^ School. The industries Include glass- staining. 

ror ^ndls weJra?m1<^"larg^^^^^^^ rif^'Tbr'^t™"''^' "*""'""■ *°''""' """ 

Like other shrews it has upon the knees and ^-^a ^"^ ''""■■'«; , ., „, , , 

elbows glands, the secretion of which give it Shreyvogel, shn yo-gel, Charlea, American 

a peculiar and disagreeable odor. artist: b. New York 4 Jan. 1861. He was 

Among wrterewing exotic species the follow- successively gold engraver, die sinker, and 

ing may be mentioned : tire European and Asi- lithograi^er. From 1886 to 1889 be studied 

atic water shrew {Crossapus fodieiu) attains a painting in Munich under Frank Kirchbach and 

total length of from 4^ to 5 inches. The fur is Car' Marr, and returning to New York was 

of delicate te:narc, wid adapted to resiat the awarded the Thomas B. Clarke prize at the Na- 

Bction o* water. A prominent fringe of stifT t'Wal Academy of Design for his oil painting 

white hairs is found on the tail as well as the 'My Bunkie.' He aUo won a medal at the 

toes of this form, this fringe forming a dis- Pans Exposition m 1900. The best known 

linctive feature of the species. The teeth are among his other paintings, most of which deal 

also fewer than in the American water shrew, with Wcslern frontier life, are the 'Ust Stond> 

The food resemWes that of the common shrew, and 'How Kola.' 

but aquatic larvz and the young of fishes ap- Shrike, or Butcher-bird, a bird of the 
pear to forro a large part of its nutriment. They passerine Jamily Laniida, and especially of the 
are of very active habits, diving and swimming typical group Lamina; several other sub-families 
with gipeat facility. The musk-shrew {Crocv are not represented in North America. The 
Aira' cteTMlea) of India is -remarkebie for the true shrikes have the bill broad at the base, and 
strong musky odor which emanatts from glands hooked and toothed at the tip, resembling the 
situated on the sides of the body. It enters bill of a bird of prey. A dense tuft of bristles 
houses at nights to feed upon cockroaches. Re- surrounds the nostrils and others project from 
sembling the Soncidg are the elephant-ahrewa the base of the hill. The feet are small, and, ex- 
(MaeroseeHdei). They have tiie zygoma and cept for the laterally scutellate structure, are of 
auditory bulla developed and the muzzle forms ^pically passerine type. The shrikes feed 
a slender prvboscis-like organ with the nostrils chiefly upon insects, reptiles, small mammals, 
at its tip. The eyes are of moderate size, and the and small birds and their young. About 20O 
ears well developed and covered with hairs. The species of shrikes are found in all parts of the 
tore feet are short, and possess five toes, while world, and four species of Lanius within 
the hind legs and feet are very long, and are the United Stales. The loggerhead shrike (£,A»- 
provided with compressed claw-like nails. The doviciaaai) is the usual summer species of the 
tail is elongated and slender. The elephant eastern United States, where it is resident south- 
shrews or jumping shrews are confined to Africa, erly and migratory in the North. These birds 
The favorite attitude of these creatures is a sit- are seen usually in pairs flitting about the bor- 
ting posture, much resembling that of the jer- ders of woods and along fence-rows. The food 
boas and laiigaroos, and from the greater length consists chiefly of insects which the male is said 
nf the hind as compared with the fore liniba thej sometimes to impale on thorns. They also U- 

1 ...Gooqle 


tack the young of other birds. The nest is iogs. The ^rliest form of shrines was that ol 

generally built in bushes and is of large sUe, the diminutive model of a Gothic church with 

and composed of grass and weeds lined with bigh-piicbed roof. Some shrines, as that of St. 

bair and feathers. The eggs, usually five in Alban, Britain's protonmrlyr at St, Albans, Ihut 

number, are white, tinted with green, and spot' of St, Edward the Gsiifessor at Westminster. 

ted with brown of various hues. The logger- of St. Genevieve at Paris, were imposing archi- 

head shrike is eight or nine inches long, slate- tectural structures. The shrine of St. Charles 

colored above, and plain ashy white below, with Borromeo in the Duonio of Milan is of beaten 

a black stripe through the eyes and meeting silver faced with rock-crystal. 
acros.s the forehead. In the West ii is replaced Shrop'ddre, a breed of sheep (q.v.). 

by two sub-species, the white-rumped and the oi. ■ jj-ji ^uti 

Clifomia .hiitts. Shrond, a word dcMvri from 11,, A,.slo- 

Th, Gr„i Northern shrike (t. So,«I« Is S.xop •.craf a mrmejl and mora 

found in tha United States only in winter, and "P"'""? «ie ■" whtch .t was 

breeds in British America. It is nine ti ten ™"°">'T' to wrap the dead. Th'J ™lo,n ha. 

inches long, marked below with nnmeroos line. '«? B?nerally abandoned, and *« dead are 

™s''orrh;'"fSeh's'd%hTnS";; 'K't •■"" ^'^^ trsii:rs:i'f^J!iZ 

uSS'Z tetarU" .?y,Tare'stoila^ 'f . ^he shrond has hgnred in 'many ghoa, 

to those of the loggerhead shrike. The song is s'°"es. 

harsh, but this bird possesses considerable imita- Shrouds, large ropes stretched from the 

tive powers. The food consists of mice, shrews, «eads of the lower masts to both .sides of a ship, 

insects, and in winter especially of small birds. ^° support the masts, and named accordmg to 

This species especially has a habit of suspend- '"^ masts to which they belong, the mam, fore 

ing its prey upon thorns or fence splinters, or in and miizen shrouds. 

forks of tree-branches. The signihcance of this Shrovc'tide, the three days between the 

remarkable habit is not understood. By some evening of the Saturday before Qiiinquagcsima 

it is beiicved to be a storage of food ; by others and the morning of Ash Wednesday ; so ijallcd 

only ao effort at convenience in eating the because anoiently people were wont on those 

prey. days to make confession oC their. sins and to 

Closely related species of shrikes with similar obtain absolution (to be ihriven) in prepara- 

habits occur in Europe, and more distinct ones tion for the season of Lent, The Tuesday of 

in other countries. The Oreaca cristala of Aus- Shrovetide is called Shrove Tuesday ; its evening 

tralia lives chiefly on the ground, and is noted was given up to merrymakitig and to feasting on 

for its peculiar and somewhat ventriloquial song, pancakes ^nij fritters: hence the name Pancake- 

which begins with low notes, and gradually in- Tuesday or Pancake-night; in French Shrove* 

creases in height and power so as to delude the Tuesday is t4ardi-Gr«G (q.v.). 

hearer into fancying that the songster has been Shrubs are woody-stemmed plants, which, 

gradually comtng from a great distance toward according to some writers, are l«ss than five 

him. It la sometimes called the bell-bird. The times the height of a man. They often have scv- 

pipmg-crow (q.v.) and the pied crow-shnfce «ral slender main stems, and branch close to the 

iStrepera gracultna), of New South Wales, ground, retaining these lateral shoots, whith are 

represent a distinct sub-family, Vanous Other ligrified, and bear fruit r(»eatedly. The lines of 

birds have been named "shrikes » of which the difference between herbs and shtubs; aad shrubs 

most important are the bush-shnkes which be- md trees, are arbitrary and ditficiilt to define 

long with the ant-birds in the family Pormieari- exactly. Undersbrubs are those perennials 

irftr. Consult: Gadow, 'Catalogue of the Birda which send up from underground stews anntial 

of British Museum,' Vol. XV. (London 1890) ; shoots that donot become woody, and die off in 

Evans, "Birds* (London igao). the autumn as do those of 5a/wB ^mtriuii. The 

Shrimp, a small decapod crustacean (see yvng shoots of such undersbrubs as Galium 

Decapoda; Crustacea) of the genus Crangon. Q«en weave bndies togetheH' A sewi-shrub u 

and looking like miniature crayfish. They in- P«<;"cally the sbrnbfty herb, ■n^iose yrady shoou 

habit sandy coasts, and in Europe are caught for only become woody at the Use. before <he rtext 

market in immense numbers by nets when swim^ P*""^ °' "t^^'^^'T' ^""^ ,7^'^^ '^'^*^- «"*■<*'» 

ming about near the beach at high tide. The "" above this. The small, shrub iS a. low tir 

familiar British species is C. vulgaris. A re- <^ trailing plant like the Dculma \gr»nlu 

lated species (C. franciscorMm') is found on the "** Bpigao reptiu. When la^er -and nmch 

California coast where it has considerable com- branched, the shrub is called a. bush ; and when 

mercial importance, being gathered and dried by ^ '"?* ^ *<' resemblea tree as the fiyrmga 

the ainese. The red color exhibited by o*te" ".'* becomes arbotescent Some of the 

shrimps when prepared for the (able is the result V'"'^' a^e even climbing plants, like the Cehu- 

o£ a chemical change during cooking, they being 'T"', ■""'*™ and certain roses. Like trees, 

naturally translucent and colored much like the »h rubs may be deciduous or evergreen, and are 

sand in which they live. A very great number ?l'"JJ'*'^y-.u-^i!? ""-I^^ *° ^"^ \" ^'T"' 

of crustaceans more or less closely related to r^STJ^ J'- ' "*' ■",l!L!^'™°T ''^1^'"*' 

the shrimps live in the sea and a few in fresh ?"'' *°™ '""Bf? "* vegetation onforest edges, 

water. Consult Stebbing, 'Crustacea' (New " i!;'""^ /f'!*' S?"" J"2.°"» ^''/".u"' 

York 1001) tremely useful to the hortieuiturijt for their 
flowers and for their fruits, often of economic 

Shrine, the case in which holy relics are value; and to tlie landscape gardener, for con- 
kept. Shrines are usually richly ornamented cealing fences and butldincs. and for softening 
with gold, precious stones, and elaborate carv< the edges of trees masses. 



Sbabrick, sfa&'brrtc, Jtrfui Templar, Ameri- Bird>> (1863); ^Oeteology of Anri« Ol^At 

•on naval oSket: b. Bull's Island, S. C, 12 (1885); 'The Myology of the Raven' (iStw)] 

Sept 17^; lost at sea in the sloop of -war Eper- <I,ectare3 on Biology' (iSsa); and vartous 

vier, 1815. He entered the navy as midshipman other vorki. 

te w, h th= Ltopard ... 1807, md.m 18.2 ».. „„;;^„i,„ „.t of Vit™, ,»rm„dld bj 

sl;4rftf„r-.'io';3-^&|S I -Slur's 

President when she was captured in 1815 and in ,j^^ j^tance. MiJeh Wsinesa is traisaeted 

llie war with Algiers in that year was lieutenant ^^^^^^ (^c large Square. Interesting features 
of the Guernere, the flagship of Commodore ^ mosqu^ a fine mau«.le»m (rgth cen- 

Decatiir. with whom he was engaged m all the , „f TJ?. /-' j Viiier Diezzar-Hassaa- 

movements, against the Barbary P-wers Upon ^^h\:1he'trrSs'and tLe hathrihS"^. 

fte eonehtsion of peace fiej^scom^^^ ^^ residence of a Greek archbishop. There arc 

bear the treaty to the United States He sailed ^ ^^^ manufactures of copper, silk, leather, 

in command of the. Epervier early m July 1815 clothing, and slippers, and aa ext«isrve trade, 

and was never aga.a heard from after passing ^^^^ ^^-^^ «a'Sr« unTucces^ul attempS 

uioraitar. ^^ capture the town; it capitulated, however, 

Sbubrick, WillUm Brandford, American Jn ]g^ 

naval officer, brother of John Templar Shu- ^, j,j, .^i^is.t i?_— . iir^..j ii. .i.L- 

brick (q.v.) ; h. Bull's Island, S. C, 31 Oct i^oi . Shnrtleff sliirtief, Emwt -WirtWton, 

d. Washington, D. C, 27 May 1874. He entered American poet md clergyman:^ Bostoi^ Mass„ 

Harvard in 1805, but was appointed midshipman ^Appl i8fe. He was gradu^ed from Andover 

in 1806. He attained rank as lieutenant in i8ii P"'!"^^ ^"""'^Jl.'^'„t^'**^f;;*Ka- 

was placed in command of a gunboat in Hamp- bonal pastors at ^^inw and Plymo^.J^ss., 

ten Roads, was engaged in the defense of Nor- '^J^ ,'?*^ ^- ^S^^ °* '*T u ^2"" 

folk and the navy yard at Gosport and later in «^?ft*l}^V" Church in Siini^polia. He hat 

that year was transferred to the Constitution. ^'^^^J^^^.^^p- „^Hv*^'^"" 

He participated in the capture of the Cyane and (>883> ; 'Shadow of the Ai^l> (1896) ; etc 
the Levant by that vessel and waa voted a sword Shurtleff, Roawell Horst, American artist: 

by his native Slate and a medal by Congress in b. Rindge, N. H^ 14 June 1838. He was gradu- 

recvgnition .of hia aerrices. He sailed around ated at Dartmouth College in 1851; worked at 

the world in tiie Washington in 1815-18, the first lithography and drawing on wood till 1861, when 

United States vessel to make that cruise, was j,e (nlisted with the Mfb New Vork Volunteers, 

appointed cooimander m iSao and served until of which he became lieutenant and adjutant He 

iSa6 m commaDd of the navy yard* at Chartes- was the first Union officer wounded and taken 

»own, Massi, and at New York. In i&* he was prisoper in the war. 19 July 1861, and was not 

appointed to the conMoand of the Lexington^ai released until after nearly eight months' in}t 

coBinnaaxined captain in 1831, and in 1838-40 prisonment. Illustration of books and magazines 

was in command of the West India Bquadron. absorfaed his efforts for many years, but he began 

He had charge of the Norfdk navy yard in to paint in 1870 and has execnted numerons lan^- 

)«4i>-3, was chief of the bnrean of dothmg and scapes ta both- water and oil, largely transcr^ 

provisions for the navy m 1845-6, in the latter ©f scenery in the Adirondadts. 
ywr was appointed to command the Pacific -■_.,--„ 

squadron, captured several ports during the ^„ Shnrtleff College, located at Upper Alton, 
Mexican War, and in 1852 was appointed to I"- " "*^ 'ouaded by the Baptists and first 
the lighthonte boattJ-. He was in command of tht opened to students m 1827. The organization in- 
Atlantic coast squadron for a time in 1853, and dudes a preparatory department a collegial,* 
then returned his duties as chairman of the light- departmepL . and a Divmity School. Normal. 
house board, in which post he remained until commercial, music, and art courses are also pro- 
his retirement with the exception of 1858-9, vided. There are two regular college courses 
when he was in command of the Brazil squad- leading to the degrees of A.B. and B.S, re- 
ran and Paraguay expedition. He was retired in spectively. The theological course is two years 
1861, but remained on the advisory board until m length. All departments, including the theo- 
1870; and in 1862 he was commissioned rear logical department, are coeducational ; in 1902-3 
admiral. there was.onejroman in the Divinity School, 
ei. t.ij. ,1,.,^'t-i. Tj-t.— » m-i.-;, i_ • I" '510 the buildings were valued at $100,000, 
Shuleldt. shoo felt, Robert Wilson, Amert- ^^ productive fun<S amounted to $i6i,i3ran2 
can surgeon and biologist: b. New York i Dec ^^^ ^„^i j^^^^ ^^ ^ g_ The librt^Tcon^ 
1850 Graduated at Cornell University. 1874; tained 12,000 voIumesVand the students num. 
at the medical school tjf Cplumbia University tered 129. of whom 72 were women. 
in 1876, He sen-ed in the Civil War; was sur- 
geon with Generals Merritt. Crook, and Sheridan Shuster, shoos'ter, or Shdshtar, Persia, ^ 
in frontier Indian wars 1876-1881 ; curator Army the province of IQiuzistan, on the Karun, ag* 
lledical Museum, Washington. 1882; honorary miles soutfaweet of Ispahan. It is a walled tow^ 
curator Smithsonian Institution i8g5 ; member defended by a castk. It is favorably situaCed for 
of numerous learned societies ia the United commerce. The houses, of stone, are built witfc 
States and Europe. Has written 'Anatomy oi two storiea underground.' Wandering trflkds^ 



which generally' camp with their flocks and herds convcTcd the sugarcaiies that grow is the 

in the vicinity during the winter, add consider- vicinity, as well aa the rafts of timber from 

ably to the populatkin. The inhabitants are the forests of Kwang-ei to the maricets of 

noted for their hospitality. The site of the an- Canton. 

cient Suca is not far irom Shuster. Pop. si« (sC'a) Indiww. a Pueblo tribe of New 

OfliX. Mexico. See Qucacs. 

8hut4n Sode^, an American organization Sial'oKogue, any medicine which promotes 

established in order to soften the lot of invalids the flow of saliva. Such medicines are either 

by supplying various desirable objecta which vegetable or mineral. The former embrace most 

might otherwise be unattainable. Local socie- of the pungent plants, particularly sorrel, to- 

ties, besides suf^lying their sick members with bacco, pellitory root, and mezereon ; the latter, 

fruit, flowers, reading material, medicines, and several of the metals, when. taken constitution' 

nourishing foods, also undertake to supply easy- ally, especially mercury. The first are called 

chairs and other helps to convalescence. masticatories, because the effect is produced 

Shufter, Harton Daniel. American Uni- nw"'? by chewing. 

versalist clergyman : b. New Philadelphia, Ohio, Siam, 6t-4m' or s^-am', an independent 

4 Aug. 1853. He was graduated from the Uni- kingdom of southeastern Asia, bounded on the 

versity of Wooster, Ohio, in 1876, from the Bap- west and northwest by Burma, on the east and 

tist Theological Seminary, Chicago, in 1861, and southeast by the French possessions of Tonkin, 

was ordained in the Baptist ministry. He was Anam and Cambodia, and on the south by the 

in charge of the Olivet Baptist Church, Minnc- Gulf of Siam. The boundary on the northwest 

apolis, for some years, but afterward changed was delimited in i8gi, and m J8g3 the Mekong 

his views and became pastor of the First Univer^ River was made the boundary on the French side 

saljst Church there. He has published: *Wit for a considerable distance. France also has (he 

and Humor of the Bible' (1892) ; 'Justice and t^fiht *« erect stations on a certain portion of 

Mercy' (1894J ; 'Applied Evolution' (1900) ; the west bank of the Mekong. The integrity of 

glQ_ the kingdom was provided for fay an Anglo- 

„■. i^, . ^ 1 J V __ French agreement concluded in iSgiS. The total 

Shntde, an instrument tised by weaver ^„^ ^f ^^ covinirj. within the boundaries, is 

for shooting or passing the thread of thcweft ,bout a.,^^^ ^e miles, of which about on« 

from one side of aie web to the other, between ,„ j, j^ ^he Malay Peninsula. The popu- 

the threads of the warp. It is a boat-shaped j^j^ ;, imperfectly known, and the esti- 

piece of wood which carries a bobbm or cop mates vary between wide extremes. The popula- 

containmg the yam of the weft or woof. The jion of SUm wifhui its present limits may be 

shuttle sometimes has wheels to facilitate its ^tiont 6,cno,ooa 

motion. .... Topography. — The surface of the country is 

In a sewmg machine, the sliding thread-hold- mountainous in the nortii, the mountains being 
er which carries the lower thread between the branches of the great Himalaya system; the 
needle and the upper thread, to make a lock northeastern and eastern parts are still very 
stitch. In hydraulic engineering, the gate which imperfectly known. Southward, the conntry con- 
opens to allow the water to flow onto a wheel, gjgts of a vast plain. Off the coasts at a distance 
That side of the wheel which receives the water of 10 or 15 nules are numerous islands, mostly 
is known as the shuttle side. rocky, and considerably elevated. There are, 

Shylock, a character in Shakespeare's besides numerous small rivers, two great navi- 

*Merchanl of Venkie.* He lends Antonio, a gable streams — the Menara or Meinam, and the 

merchant of Venice, 3.000 ducata on condition Mekong. Of these the Menam is the most im- 

that in the failure to pay in three months the portant. as intersecting the greater part of Sum 

forfeit shall be a pound of the merxiiant's flesh proper, and almost monopoliiing its trade and 

cut off wherever Shylock chooses. His purpose navigation. It rises by two chief branches in the 

is defeated by Portia, representing a young law- -^"^ countt^ in the north of the kingdom, has 

yer equipped with the opinion of Bellario, a an estimated course of 800 miles, and falls into 

learned doctor of Padua. Up to the time of the Gu f of Siam by three channels 18 miles <m 

Macklin, who played Shylock in 1741. the part f^irect Ime) belowBangkok. All the Siamese 

had been always represented by the low come- "*'"j' *" "<™^'' between June and S<jitMnber, 

dian, and was given a broadly humorous inter- ?"*i ^°}^>? <:ircumstance is mamly due the feitil- 

pretation. Macklui invested it with tragic quali- 't^ "* J''^'" b^^'"*-, ^he climate of so extensive 

ties and represented the Jew as a revengeful, "country varies of course, with the latitude and 

inexorable money lender. In 1814 Edmund the elevation of its surface ; but. as m other 

Keane presented the part ,0 as to elicit sympathy ^Ta^^ T" f^^ " k" ' "" '^°"l' ^^? *"J"^ 

for one who was ill-used hv circumstanced *"' °^' '"* •*"™e'^ beginning in April or May. 

P.-.^^.^Ji^!^„^^^./,„ f- ,i,,^i.f ^,, a! ,^f. and continuing till about the commencement of 

t^^^^alScTd^L^e^/n'^ r^fnt^'^i arTo^wTn^blTorC ^^heVea^n' if^" S* 

his conspU against the state his conviction ZJt°BZ^iir.S-J;'r.^^^SV] 

was of doubtful propriety. minimum. S4°. On the whole the countr?^ii 

Si-kung, se-ke-ang', or West River, healthy, though in the wet season ague and 

China, the most important of the streams which cholera are prevalent. 

imite to form the Canton River. It rises in the Minerah, — Gold is extensively diffused, and 

province of Kwang-si, and is navigable for ves- is obtained in tolerable purity. Tin, iron, copper, 

aels drawing ra feet 75 miles from the sea. It and lead are abundant, and are wrought, espe- 

is also called the Blue River, from the remark- cially the two former, on a large scale by the 

able purity and clearness of its waters. By it are Chinese. Zinc and antimony are found to the 




east of the Menam. Tlie 3Bn>li>^(i oriental ruby, cardunoins, ivory, bonil and hidea, with vsrloua 

and oriental topaz are found in the hills of minoi articles; the imports, all kinds of tejctile 

Chantibun, on the east side of the gulf. fabrics, iron and steel goods, earthen and glass 

fegetation.^ Rice and maize are the grains ware, hardware and cutlciy, opium, su^r, etc. 

most extensively cultivated in the country. Of The total exports from Bangkok (mainly to 

the tropical farinaceous roots the Siamese raise Singapore and Hong Kong) were valued in 1900 

the usual varieties, and among others the sweet- at $15,000,000, chie&y rice; the imports at 

potato. Cocoa and areca palms are numerous, $12,000^000. Of British and foreign vesaels there 

especially the former, in the lower districts; etuered the port of Bangkok in 1900, 454, of 

and the oil is extensively exported. No part of 380,47? tons, of which 169 of 141,856 tons were 

the East is more celebrate^ for the abundance British. The number of vessels cleared was 450, 

and quality of its fruits. The mango, man~ of 378,073 tons, of which 169, with a tonnage of 

gosteen, litchi, durian, pom^ranate, guava, pine- 1^530, were British, There is a large importa- 

apple, and, in short, all the fruits of southeastern tion into Bangkok of British goods transshipped 

Asia, the Indian Islands, and tropical America, at Singapore. Formerly British predominance in 

are abundant and of exqurilte quality. The the carrying trade of Siam was overwhelming, 

cultivation of the sugarcane is carried on on but other countries, such as Germany and France, 

an extensive scale. Black pep^^er of good qual- have greatly improved their position in recent 

ity, tobacco, and cotton of several sorts are years. The chief money of Siam is the Ittai, 

largely produced. Sappan-wood is procured ex- a silver coin the value of which is about 30 cents; 

tensively from the forests between lat. to° and the Mexican dollar, value 55 cents, is also com- 

13', and in point of quantity it forms one of the mon. Only silver and bronze coins are issued, 
most considerable of the Siamese exports. Ex- Arts, Manufactures , rU. — The Siamese have 

cellent teak-timber abounds in the forests of made but little progress in the useful arts. 

Upper Siam, and is much used in the construe- House-carpentry, canoe and junk building, man- 

tion of junks and temples. ufacturing pottery and coarse cutlery, leather' 

Animais. — Among carnivorous animals are dressing, and the construction of musical instru- 

the tiger and leopard, the bear, otter, the musk- ments, are their chief mechanical employments, 

civet, the cat and the dog, both wild and domes- A few rude hand-looms are in operation, chieAy 

tic. Porcupines, squirrels, rats, and mice are worked by women, but the fabrics, whether of 

common. The orang-utan and other species of silk or cotton, are of very coarse quality. Their 

apes are abundant Among the ruminating quad- domestic architecture is in an equally rude and 

rupeds are found seven species of deer, the backward state — the houses of the lower orders 

sheep, goat, ox, and butfalo. The single-homed . being formed wholly of wood or bamboo, roofed 

rhinoceros is met with in unusual numbers, and with palm-leaves, and mostly raised on piles, as 

is hunted for its hide and horn, both of which in the rest of ultra-Gangetic India. A few only 

are exported to China. The principal boast of in the capita! are built with brick and mortar, 

the Siamese, however, is in the high perfection Uany of their houses, too, are constructed on 

of their elephants, which here attain a size and boats, which abound on the river near Baiwkok; 

beauty elsewhere unknown, and are held in high of the arch they are wholly ignorant Roads 

esteem throughout India. Among the birds the there are none; and wheel-carnages are all hut 

water-birds am' waders are b^ far the most unknown. On their rehgious ediliceB, however, 

numerous; geese, ducks, boobies, cormorants, the Siamese bestow abundant labor and expense; 

king-fishers, storks, and pelicans are frequent; these are constructed of solid masonry, and cov- 

the forests abound with peacocks, pheasants, and ereti with tiles, having all the wood-work labori- 

pigcons ; and in the islands are large flocks of the ously carved and gilded, and filled with carved 

swallows that produce the famed edible birds'- uid richly>gilt images of Buddha. 
nests. Crocodiles, geckoes, and other kinds of Inhabitants, Religion, tU. — The Siamese, in 

lizards, tortoises, and green-turtles are numerous, comm<»i with the Lw»s, Cambodian^ and Malays, 

the last of which, as well as their eggs, are in are members of the great Mongolian family, and 

great request among the Siamese as an article of of the same race as the people of Burma and 

food, and from their sale add not inconsiderably Anara. In stature they do not average more 

to the royal revenue. The python serpent attains than S feet 3 inches in height ; they have a lighter 

an immense size, and there are many species of colored skin than the western Asiatics, but 

snakes. The fish of the Menam are abundant. darker than the Chinese. They are inclined to 

Trade and Navigation.— Siam has a most obesity, have large lower limbs, and stout long ■ 

extensive trade, both inland and coastwise, as arms ; yet they are by no means a strong or ro- 

well as foreign. Every province of the kingdom bust people. Their faces are broad and flat, with 

produces some article in foreign demand ; and round prominent cheek-bones, a small nose ob- 

Bangkok, from its situation on the Menam, has tusely pointed, and rather hollow at the bridge, 

become the great centre of all its commerce, a large mouth with rather thick lips, the lower 

The principal articles brought down from the jaw long and square at the back, small black 

higher provinces are rice and paddy, cotton, teak- eyes a low forehead, and very scanty beard, 

timber, rosewood, and sappan-wood, lac, benzoin. Their hair is always black, thick, coarse, and 

ivory, and bees' -wax ; while the districts east and lanl^ worn close by both sexes, except from the 

west of the Menam furnish gamboge, cardamoms, forehead to the crown, where it is about 2 inches 

and sugar; the Malay provinces tin. zinc, cotton, long, ai)d made to stand erect They are tem- 

elC; The foreign trade is eonducted chiefly with perale and alDStetiiious, by no means revengeful,. 

China and more especially with Hong Kong, obedient to the lawa, and strongly attached by 

British India, the United States, and Great their domestic ties. Of the population it is esti- 

Britain. The exports to Europe, carried on mated that 2,000,000 are Siamese, whiter tiie 

partly through Singapore and partly direct, com- Chinese number 1,000,000, ttie Malays liOOOigoiv 

pnse nee, teak, pepper, bullocks, gamboge, tin, and the loos 2j3O0flai. - 



The Siamese profSM Buddhiua of a Ttrj de- at Uiis period sent between Siam and the coait 

rled kind, introduced into the country about of Fiance, With which Phaulcon intrigued to 
middle of the 7th century. The moral code bring about a revolution. This led to his down- 
o{ the religion ia comprised m five negative fall and death, as well as the expulsion «f the 
precepts — (i) not to kill (which extends to French. Contests for the throne distracted the 
animals, plants, and even seeds) 1 (2) not to country from i6go til! I7Sg ; during which inter- 
steal; (3) to commit no impurity; (4) not to tell va! Alompra, the victorions ruler of Burma, 
falsehoods; tsJ to drink no intoxicatii^ liquors, overran the whole valley of the Mcnam, The 
Little attention, however, is paid to any oi these, country was afterward wrested from the Bur- 
except by the priests. mese by Pye-ya-tak or Phyatak, who was of 

Language, Literature, and Bdncation. — The Chinese extraction, at the head of a number of 

Siamese language is exceedingly simple in its natives. He planted himself on the throne, and 

construction, and forms a connecting link be- with a view to commerce made Bangkok the 

tween the Chinese and Malay. Siamese re~ metropolis, instead of Ayuthia. Bring a cruet 

sembles Chinese in the importance given to tone, ruler he was murdered by his general Chakri, 

the same word having often several very differ- who himself seired the throne in 1782, and was 

ent meanings according to the tone in which die founder of the present reigning dynasty. 

it is pronounced. The written characters seem Maha Mong-Kut, who ascended the throne m 

to be derived from a form of Sanskrit The lit- 1851, pnd died in 1868, was 3 man of scienoe 

erature is meagre, unini cresting, and in point of .and energy. He was succeeded by the 

imagination and force of expression much below present sovereign, Chulalongkom. 
the Arabic, Persian, or Hindustani; the style Siam, Gulf of, Easi India, a large arm of 

is simple and literal, hut by no means perspic- the China Sea, bounded by the Malay Penin- 

uous. The Siamese have no histories of a trust- sula on the west, and by Siam and French 

worthy character, their works on medicine and Indo-China on the east. It is about 400 miles 

law are full of ignorance and confusion, and long and 250 miles wide, but very shallow. 

those on religion and philosophy translations or being nowhere more than 300 feet in depth, 

mere compilations. They have some excellent The large delta of the Mekong is steadily 

fables, with very good dramas and other poems, encroachmg on its waters. 
Rhymes are very abundant in Siamese, and their Si'amang, See Gibbon. 
poems are full of rhyming jingles and allitera- ' Siamese (sl-a-mes' or mei') Twins: b. 

tion. The printing-press has been introduced hi Bangesau, Siam 15 April i8n; d Mount 

recent years, and many of the beat Siamese ^iry. N. C 17 Jan. 1874. The name given 

works can now be had in a printed form. Edu- ^^ ^^^ ' individuals of Chinese extraction, 

cation IS earned to a very limited extent; few „3n,^(i chang and Eng, who from "•- 

can do more than read and write awkwardly, and manner of their physii ' ■ • 

perhaps cast accounts. were reg ' ' 

Govemmetit. — The government of Siam is duplicity.* ^...., ^..„ .^ ^^ 

that of an absolute monarchy. The king Is con- inches in height could walk .^n a^^ =...... 

sidered almost in the light of a deity, and ad- j^ ^i^p^ji ,829 they were brought to America 
dressed as such, his most common designations ^„^ exhibited throughout the United States 
bemg 'Sacred lord 9* l;yes,» 'Owner of i^» ^„^ i^^^^ ,„ Europe. They finally settled at 
•Most exalted and infallible lord,» etc. TJe Mount Airy, and fived there until their death, 
kingdom 19 hereditary; bnt the eldest son of the sian-fu, provincial capital of Shensi, N. W. 
king does not necessanly succeed his father, Q,i„j_ ^|^^„ erroneously called Si-ngan-fu. Sin- 
Who may nominate another to be his heir. Ihe (jan-fu, Hsian-fu; formerly called Chang-an. 
executive power is m the hands of the tang who Once the important capital of the Tang Dyn- 
IS assisted by a cabinet consistmg Of aie heads ^^^ (618.Q06). Population is probably about 
of the chief departments of state, and mduding 300,000. City became famous through the dis- 
the mmisters of foreign affairs, the mtenor, ]ii»- covery in 1625 near the western surhurban gate 
tice. finance, war, public instruction, public ^f (he "Nestoriaa Monument," dated 781, a 
works, etc. The legislative power is exercised two-ton limestone stela, 10 feet high, with an 
by the king in conjunction with a legisUtive inscription of more Iban 2,000 characters in 
council consisting of the mmisters of slate and Chinese and Syriac (Estrangelo). The Jnscrip- 
a certain number of other persons, the duty of tion tells of the arrival in 6j5 of Nestorian mis- 
the council being to revise, amend, and complete sionaries from Syria, who were well received 
the legislation of the country. The council may by emperor Taitsung. In 1907 the Danish ex- 
appoint committees to deal With various sub- pbrer, Frita von Holm, set out to try and pro- 
jects on whidi legislation is proposed; and it cure the Tablet for science, but the mandarins 
IS even entrusted with the power of promul- at Sian-fu caused the sione lo be removed into 
gating laws without the royal assent should the the Peilin or "Stone Coppice* inside the city 
monarch be in any way disabled. walls, where it will be safe and under roof. 

Hittory.— Siam appears to have no place ii: The Holm-expedition thus preserved the stda 

htstoiy prior to 638 A.n., and the credible records for all ages, but it furthermore obtained a pcr- 

go back only to .1350, the date of the foundation feet limestone replica of the monument, 10 feet 

of Aynthia, the old capital, on the Menam. about high and wciBhina; two tons, which was brought 

60 miles above its mouth. In l6l3 an English to New York, \vhcre it was placed as a loan 

ship ascended this river as far as Ayuthia, eight in the Metropolitan Museum of Art 'Ching- 
years after which the Portuguese sent thither' chiaopi" is the Chinese name of the Tablet, 

their first missionaries. In T689 Constantine Sian-fu was again the capital of Qiina for 

Phaulcon, an enterprising Greek, became prime- nine months, in 1900-ot, when their late Majes- 

mhtistcr, and introduced a respect for European ties the emperor and empress-dowager fled , 

customs and notions. Mutual embassies were thither from Peking during the Boxer troables, ' 


PhotvOrvpta pmsnted by Dr^ FrllP von Holm, 


The picture leprMcnli the monument as It now stindi, pmtected and under roof as a result of THE HOLM- 
NESTOR--" — — - ■ ■ ■■- - ' 




_ I, se-ar-ga'6, an island of the Philip- Topography, — The coast line ia very cxten- 
uuica, ao miles from the northeast coast of sive, but the Arctic Ocean is ice-bound at least 
Mindanao; length ao miles, north and south; lo months out of the !3 and is almost Talueless 
width, 14 miles ; area, 176 square miles. It is for commercial purposes, while the Sea of 
traversed from north to south by a momitain Okhotsk, on the Pacific, is infested with masses 
range, the highest peaks of which are in the of floating; ice and dense fogs durii^; several 
south. The northern, southern, and western months of the year. Asiatic Russia in the ex- 
coasts are paralleled by a reef lying three miles treme southwest ia partly below the level of the 
off shore; the ports on the coast are reached by ocean, and is drained either into the Caspian, or 
natural channels through this reef. The island by the Amu Daria and Sir Daria into the Aral, 
has seven towns, several hamlets, and a consid- A large part of this region is desert, and the soil 
erable rural population. is frequently impregnated with salt The re- 

Sibaltin, s«-ba-I6n', Philippines, pueblo, "winder of the Russian territory, though corn- 
province of Antique, island of Panay, on the f*^'"? '^"^ ""°« ,*>* northern Asia from west 
Sibalon River, 6 miles from its mouth. 10 miles *°. "\^^' much Jess diversity of surface than 
northeast of San Josi dc Buenavista. Pop. might be presumed from its extenL Assuming 
j,fig(^ "^ the meridian of 105 as a line of demarcation, 
"^^i ... «,..«. ^ ... **" regions will be formed — a western and an 

Sibbald s or Blue Whale. Sec Whalb. eastern, exhibiting a very marked difference in 

Siberia, si-be'ri-a, and Amatic Russia, the the configuration of their surface. Both re- 
large section of the Russian Empire (see Rus- gions have their greatest altitude in the south, 
sia), east of the Ural Mountains and Caspian and may be considered as a vast inclined plane, 
Sea, occupying the whole of northern Asia above sloping gradually north to the Arctic Ocean; 
lat. 50" N., and between Ion. 60° and 190° E., and but the eastern region is traversed in different 
in the southwest, extending so far south as the directions by several mountain'regions, whereat 
parallel of 40°, It b bounded north by the the western region, with the exception of the 
Arctic Ocean, east by the Sea of Kamchatka chain of the Ural on the western, and that of 
and the North Pacific Ocean, south by the Sea the Altai on the southern frontiers, forma a vast 
of Okhotsk, the Chinese territories, Tibet, plain, almost unbroken by any greater heights 
Afghanistan, and Persia, and west by Russia in than a few hills and the banks of the rivers 
Europe; greatest length, from west to east, diout which wbd across it. This plain, toward the 
3j6oo miles; greatest breadth, about 2,200 miles, south, has a height of about 2,000 feet aboTe the 
The total area of Siberia proper, including the sea, but toward the north is so near its level 
island of Sakhalin, in the north Pacific, ceded by as often to become extensively inundated. For 
Japan in i8?6, ia 4,833.496 square miles ; pop. convenience of description it has been arranged, 
(1897) 5,727,090. Since the extension of the according to its productive powers, in four di- 
Rusiian dominions in central Asia a territorial visions — the sleppe or pastoral, the agricultural, 
division called Central Asia has been formed, the woody, and the moorland or tundra. The 
partly taken from what was formerly Siberia, steppe, occupying the most elevated part of the 
partly formed of newly-acquired territory, and plain, extends from the southern frontiers north 
comprising the geogr^hical regions sub-divided to lat 55° ; and from the western frontiers, 
into provinces, of Northern Caucasia, and Trans- within these limits, east to the banks of the 
Cancasia, forming the Caucasus, area, 180,843 Irtish. The greater part of it consists of what is 
square miles ; pop. 9,248,695 ; the Steppes, area, called the Steppe of Ishim, and has a bare and 
?SS.793 square miles; pop. 2,461,278; Turkestan, almost sterile surface, often incrusted with salt, 
409,434 square miles ; pop. 4,888,183 ; Trans- but also occasionally covered with a scanty vege- 
Caspian, 214,237 square miles; pop. 372,193; tation. The agricultural division extends north- 
giving with the Caspian Sea, area, 169,381 square ward to about laL 60°. In many parts, where 
miles, a total area for Asiatic Russia of 6,564,778 it borders on the steppe, it has much of the same 
square miles, pop. (1897) 23,697,469. Siberia, character, and has only oecasioiwl tracts which 
strictly so-called, is therefore of smaller extent have been or can be advantageously brought 
than formerly. The administrative divisions of under the plow; and in many other parts prime- 
the whole territory, with their separate popula- val forests are often found. The division thus 
tion, are exhibited in the table given under named, an extent more than double that of the 
Russia (q.v.). The chief towns of Siberia are British Isl.inds, under favorable circumstances 
Irkutsk, capital of eastern Siberia, a trading might furnish subsistence to a very lar^e popula- 
city ; Tomsk, capital of Tomsk province, a trad- tion ; hut as yet it is only the more fertile alluvial 
ing city, with a university; Tobolsk, capital of tracts adjacent to the rivers that have been 
western Siberia, Omsk, Krasnoiarsk, and brought under anything like regular culture. 
Yakutsk. The principal ports are Vladivostock, Within this division, though not properly belong- 
on the Sea of Japan, the chief naval station of ing to i^ is the Steppe of Baraba, situated he- 
Russia on the Pacific; Okhotsk, on the Sea of tween the Irtish and the Obi. It has a more 
Okhotsk ; and Petropavlovsk, on the east coast abundant vegetation than the Steppe of Ishim, 
of Kamchatka. Other important towns of which it otherwise resembles, and in its northern 
Asiatic Russia are Tiflis, Fashkend. Baku, etc. portion is covered with nearly continuous foresic 

The leasing of the Liao-tung Peninsula with of birch and fir, haunted by numerous wild ani- 
Port Arthur and Dalny (qq.v.) from the Chin- mals, including the beaver. From this the 
ese in 1898, and the protectorate established over wooded division extends northward to lat. 64°, 
Manchuria, consequent on the Boxer troubles of and in parts to 66°, though in the higher latitude 
1901, embroiled Russia in war with Japan in the trees are seldom of very vigorous growth, 
1904, retarding the colonization of hfanchuria The whole of this division is covered with vast 
whidi was rapidly proceeding to a probable an- forests of birch and difFerent species of fir and 
-^— '^ e Mai '"' ' " ' "- ■ 

UAKCHUKIA. pine. The population, few in numbers, 

Vot. 19 




tied chiefly on the banks of the Obi and Yenisei, often seen. To the east of the Kolyma branches 
and live mainly on game and fish ; the latter, from the Stanovoi Mountains stretch north, and 
including salmon, sturgeon, and herrings, ascend- form a series of ranges which frequently rise 
ing from the sea as far as the confluence of the from 2,000 feet to 3,000 feet. Some of these 
Tom. Wild animals also are very numerous, and penetrate to the north coast, and are seen form- 
many valuable furs are obtained. The last di- ing precipitous cliffs at Shelagskoi Nos, Cape 
vision is that of the moorland or tundra, con- North, and other headlands. Other ramiiica- 
sisting of a low monotonous flat covered with tions from the Stanovoi pursue an opposite 
moss, and nearly destitute of trees. It extends course, and traverse the remarkable penmsula 
along the shores of the Arctic Ocean, and has so of Kamchatka almost centrally to its southern 
rigorous a climate that even in summer ice is extremity. 

found a few inches below tlie surface. Here Hydrography.— The rivers are numerous and 

the reindeer exists in vast herds, both wild and of great magnitude. From the conliguratioii of 

domesticated; white bears and foxes are also the country they almost all flow in a northerly 

numerous, and furnish valuable furs; and the direction, and belong to the basin of the Arctic 

coasts and mouths of the rivers are frequented Ocean. The chief exceptions are the Anadir and 

by immense shoals of fish and (locks of fowl. the affluents of the Amur in the east, and the Sir 

Siberia to the east of ion. 105°, forming Daria, Amu Daria, and other streams in the 

nearly one half of the whole territory, has a southwest. The great rivers belonging to the 

much more diversified surface than the western basin of the Arctic Ocean flow for the most part 

region, and owing partly to its general rugged- through immense tracts of level country, and 

ness and elevation, and partly to the greater hence are remarkable at once for the length of 

severity of its climate, has much less land their course, the volume of water which they ac- 

adapted for agricultural purposes. The Sea of cumulate from numerous and important affluents, 

Okhotsk has a bold and rocky shore, and the and the few obstacles whkh they present to a 

country behind rises with a steep ascent till a continuous navigation. The advantages whidi 

mountain- range is formed, with a general altitude they offer in the latter respect are diminished 

of nearly 3,000 feet above sea-level. This range, by the long period during which they are frozen 

under the name of the Stanovoi Mountains, runs over ; but even then they do not cease to be 

nearly parallel with the coast till it reaches the available for traffic, and becoiae, in fact, the 

frontiers of China, where it takes the name of great highways of the country. The Obi is 

the Jablonnoi Mountains, and proceeding west one of the largest rivers of the Old World ; the 

continues for a long distance to form the length of its course is 2,400 miles, and the area 

boundary between the two empires. It then takes of its basin is 1,224435 square miles. Among 

the name of tite Mountains of Daouria, and its Important affitients, many of them so large as 

throws out numerous ramifications, which, con- to be entitled to rank as magnificent rivers, are 

tinuing west, throw their arms round Lake the Irtish, Ishim, and Tobol, which, by uniting 

Baikal, and cover almost all the south part of the their streams, more than double its volume; 

government of Irkutsk. Other ramifications, the Tom, Tchulin, and Ket The estuary of the 

proceeding north, form the water-sheds of the Obi forms a gulf from 70 miles to 80 miles wide, 

numerous affluents of the right bank of the and about 400 miles long. Large quantities of 

Lena. On both sides of this river the surface fish are taken in this river and its tributaries, 

continues elevated, and forms a table-land, the The Yenisei, the second river in importance, 

interior of which is still very imperfectly known, draws its waters from an area of not less than 

The best portions of eastern Siberia occur in i,oao,ooo square miles. The length of its coursf, 

the south of the government of Irkutsk, where, if measured from the commencement of the 

in the lower and more open valleys in the vicin- Selenga, its remotest tributary, exceeds that of 

ity of Lake Baikal, cultivation has been at- the Obi by loo miles. Its most important 

tempted with success, and the oak and hazel, affluents are the Selenga, which, before entering 

unknown in other parts of Siberia, are found Lake Baikal, drains an area of more than 140000 

growing freely. In almost the whole of the square miles ; the Angara, which receives the 

same government, where the configuration of the discharge of the lake, and in the lower part of its 

surface does not present invincible obstacles, course takes the name of Upper Tunguska; the 

all the grains of Europe are grown, and even Middle Tunguska, and the Lower Tunguska. 

the mountains and hills are covered during the The estuary of the Yenisei is about 20 miles 

rreater part of the year with good pasture, wide, and 200 miles long. The Lena has a course 

Still farther north, in the government of of about 2,000 miles, and drains an area of about 

Yakutsk, as far as the town of same name, com 800,000 square miles. It rises hardly ao miles 

is cultivated in patches in the upper vale of to the west of Lake Baikal, and becomes nav- 

the Lena, though the far greater part of it is igable at 50 miles from its source. Its principal 

covered with fir and pine. The north part of affluents are the Vitim, which has a course of 

eastern Siberia consists of two distinct portions, 700 miles, of which a considerable part is navi- 

Ihe one extending from Ion. 105° E. to the gable ; the Olekma, which flows 500 miles 

lower valley of the Lena, and the other from through interminable forests; the Aldan, which 

that valley east to Bering Sea. The former drains an extensive tract of table-land between 

portion is imperfectly known; the latter, as far Ion. 125° and 140° E. ; and the Viliui, which rises 

as the Kolyma, is traversed from north to south in a mountainous district not far from the Lower 

by chains of low hills, separated from each other Tunguska, and flows west for about 600 miles. 

by wide valleys or open plains, and generally The most important of the minor rivers which 

overgrown with stunted larch and birch. In send their waters directly to the Arctic Ocean 

thsse valleys and plains are numerous lakes, are the Olenek, between the Yenisei and Lena; 

generally well supplied with fish, and bordered and to the east of the latter, the Indighirka and 

by low banks, on which a rich grassy sward is Kolyma. The only important lakes are those of 




..... kf' 





Baikal in the government of Irkutsk, the Sea of Yeniseisk, are highly auriferous, and that a 

Aral, and Balkash-Nor or Tenghiz. in the south- larger in area than the whole of France coi 

west. Numerous other lakes are scattered over gold, not in its alluvia, but in the very matrix 

the surface, and more especially in the tundras, of its rocks of palseozoic schists and limestones, 

where whole chains of them, covering extensive which, when pounded and analyzed, are found to 

tracts, not unfrequently occur. be more or less impregnated with gold. The 

Geology and Minerals. — Granite and crystal- principal mining districts are those of the Ural 

line schists are found chiefly on the eastern already mentioned, the Altai, and Nertchinsk, 
slopes of the Ural Mountains, in the south among in the basin of the Amur. Besides gold, iron, 
the mountain-ranges of the Altai as far north as copper, silver, platinum, lead, tin, and zinc are 
lat. S7° N., and between Ion. 85° and 120° E., found in greater or less abundance. The other 
chiefly in the governments of Tomsk and Irkutsk, notable minerals of Siberia are the emerald and 
on botti sides of the Upper Tunguska and east topaz, of which there arc celebrated mines at 
of the Yenisei; in the upper part of the basin Nertchinsk; salt, found in natural crystals on 
of the Middle Tunguska; and in the very east- the banks of lakes, chiefly in the steppes of 
ern extremity of the country, from Ion. 165° Ishim and Baraba; jasper and porphyry of great 
to the shores of Bering Strait. The volcanic beauty, quarried especially in the valley of the 
rocks belong mostly to the Tertiary period, and Charysh among the Altai Mountains ; lapis- 
are found chiefly in the south, in connection lazuli, found among the mountains in the vicin- 
with the granite and crystalline schists above ity of Lake Baikal ; diamonds, found occasionally 
described. They compose the great mass of the on the eastern slopes of the Ural Mountains; 
mountain-range which skirts the western shores malachite, obtained in greater or less quantity 
of Lake Baikal, and are seen in a still more from all the mining districts, containing cojiper; 
magnificent and interesting form in the moun- and mica, in the form of large plates, extensively 
tains which proceed from north to south, nearly used as a substitute for glass, and found in 
through the centre of the Peninsula of Kam- greatest abundance on the banks of the Vitim. 
chatka, where are several active volcanoes. Climate. — This country is remarkable for its 
Palaeozoic rocks, including the rocks belong- rigor. The isothermal line which skirts the 
ing partly to the Silurian, partly to the De- southern coast of Iceland, in proceeding east, 
vonian, and partly to the Carboniferous systems, descends rapidly till it reaches Saint Petera- 
are developed chiefly in the south, where they oc- burg, and then more gradually till it reaches Ion. 
cupyalargespaceiu the form ofa triangle.theapex too E., where it is found in lat. 52°. From 
of which is at the town of Irkutsk, and the base this it proceeds nearly due east, passing through 
on the parallel of 60°, between Ion. 85° and the southern part of Lake Baikal, the town of 
120° E. Another large development of the same Nertchinsk, and the southern extremity of 
rocks is seen on the northwest and north of Kamchatka. It thus appears that the southern 
the Sea of Okhotsk, and to a considerable dis- coast of Iceland, in lat. 63°, has the same mean 
tance inland. Secondary rocks higher in the temperature as eastern Siberia in lat. 52° ; in 
series than the Carboniferous system commence other words, that in proceeding from west to- 
near the northern shores of Lake Tenghiz, and east the cold increases so much as to make places 
stretch northward, occupying a considerable tract in the same latitude as Berlin to have a climate 
on both sides of the upper valley of the Irtish; nearly as cold as Iceland. In the same manner 
a more partial development of the same recks the line of permanent ground-frost descends in 
is seen on the north of the Obi, commencing parts of Siberia as far south as lat. 56°, nearly 
near the confluence of the Ket, and extending the same as that of Edinburgh ; and over the 
north in a comparatively narrow belt to the whole country to the east of the Ural Moun- 
sonrces of the Taz. The most extensive forma- tains is as low as lat. 60°. Erman found that 
tion in Siberia is the Tertiary, which stretches annually between 17 December and 18 February, 
almost continuously from the last slopes of the and most frequently in the first three weeks 
Ural Mountains east across the Obi to the val- of January, cold is experienced exceeding 90° 
ley of the Yenisei ; and in other quarters, though F. below the freezing-point ; and that for 
more intermingled with earlier formations, two entire months, or one sixth part of the 
covers no inconsiderable portion of the whole whole year, mercury is a solid body. This ex- 
surface. The shores of the Arctic Ocean, almost Ireme winter is succeeded by an exceedingly 
throughout their whole extent, and to a consider- warm summer. Thaw usually commences on 
able distance inland, have a deep alluvial cov- the ist of April, and the temperature increases 
ering, remarkable for containing deposits of rapidly till it attains its maximum in July. In 
fossil elephants and other animals in such quan- this month the average height of the thermom- 
tifies that the ivory obtained from them forms eter is about 66° P., but it not unfrequently 
an important article of commerce. The minerals rises in the shade above 77*. In Yakutsk, where 
of Siberia are evidently of immense value, and the cold is severest, notwithstanding its long and 
though the real extent of surface on which they extreme winter, there are 128 days in the year 
are found is as yet only roughly guessed at, without frost; and within that period several 
there cannot be a doubt that the most precious kinds of grain, not excluding wheat, have time 
of all the metals exists there in greater abun- to attain maturity; and in rich alluvial soils 
dance than in any other part of the Old World, often produce a return of fifteen-fold. 
Till recently the auriferous deposits wer^ sup- Manufaclurcs and Commerce.— Thn manu- 
posed to he almost confined to the eastern slopes factures are limited, and are confined for the 
of the Ural Mountains, and to occupy a zone ex- most part to a few of the larger towns, where 
tending over from 5° to 6° of latitude to the government factories have been established. The 
north and sooth of Ekaterinburg; but it has more important articles are leather, earthenware, 
been discovered that some of the eastern regions, porcelain, glass, and hardware. In some plaees, 
oarticiilarly in the governments of Tomsk and as at Telma, large woolen and linen factoriea 

I . Google 

^muloy a. considerable number of hands, chiefly The Bnriats dwell chieOy on both sides of Lake 
exiles, in weaving woolen and linen cloth, and Baikal, and eastward as far as the Onon. They 
in conducting all the previous processes of pre- are of Mongol origin, and closely allied to the 
paring the wool, fiax, etc. The trade is of con- natives of the northern provinces of China both 
siderable extent; and in so far as confined to the in language and customs. The Tunguzes or 
produce of the country consists cliieSy of cattle, Toongooses are the most widely dispersed of all 
fish, caviar, furs, skins, and metals. A very im- the native tribes, being found throughout many 
portant transit trade is also carried on across parts of Siberia from the Arctic shores to the 
the country between Russia in Europe and frontiers of China. They are considered 
China, From the latter part by far the most the best-formed of the native Siberians, are 
important article is tea, both in the dried leaf very expert horsemen, and live chiefly by hunt- 
and in the form of cakes or bricks. The greater ing. The Yakuts live intermingled with the Tun- 
part of the latter is disposed of to the nomadic guzes, and confine themselves almost entirely to 
tribes, and a very large proportion of the former 3ie rearing of horses and cattle, and the prepa- 
never passes beyond the limits of Siberia, but b ration of dairy produce from them. They are of 
retained for home consumption. Otlier articles Tartar origin, and not a few of them are nomi- 
of importance from China are coarse cotton ral converts to Christianity, though the majority, 
stuffs, rhubarb, silks, satins, etc The diief mart like the Timguzes, still adhere to Shamanism, 
for this trade is the town of Kiachta, and exten- The Tchuktches occupy the northeastern portion 
sive fairs are held at various places. For the of Siberia, and their language proves them to 
interior traffic the rivers naturally furnish the have a common origin with the Esquimos. 
most important conveyance ; but when these be- Some of them spend their time in hunting arid 
come dosed with ice other means of conveyance fishing, while others are nomadic in their habits, 
must be resorted to, among which the most Interesting and valuable information on these 
characteristic is that of siedges drawn by rein- tribes was collected by the MorrisK. Jesup 
deer or dogs. Great impetus has been given to Elxpedition which returned to the United States 
commerce and colonization generally throughout in 1904. 

the region, by the completion of the railway. History. — Siberia appears to have been -partly 
the longest in the world, connecting the far conquered by Graghis-Khan and his successors. 
Orient with Europe. (See TKAtrs-SiBEitiAH but did not become known to Europe till 1580, 
KAitwAY.) The length of railways throughout when a Cossack called Yermak Timofeyew, who 
Asiatic Russia in 1903 was 9,026 miles. A trade had long robbed the vessels which navigated the 
by sea has also been opened up between Eu- Volga, finding himself hotly pressed by the Ciar 
rope and the rivers Obi and Yenisei. of Moscow, crossed over into Asia with his ac- 
Ethnolo^y. — The races and tribes scattered complices. Their number sufficed to form a 
over the different parts of Siberia are so nu- small army, and their courage soon enabled them 
meiqus that little more can be done here than to acquire extensive settlements. These Yermak 
to give the names of the more important At offered to the ciar on the condition of obtaining 
least two thirds of the whole population is Rus- pardon. The offer was accepted, and thus Rus- 
sian, and consists either of voluntary emigrants, sia for the first time obtained a footing in Asia, 
who have found it their interest to settle in the The territories thus conquered belonged to the 
cotmtry, or of exiles and their descendants. In Tartar prince Kutshum-Khan, and included his 
regard to the exiles Siberia is merely a penal residence, which, called by the natives Isker, 
settlement, and hence that portion of the popula- and by the Cossacks Sibir, has given name to 
tion which, as coming from Europe, ought to be the whole country. The conquests of Yermak 
the most civilized, is not likely to be the most were gradualU extended, till the whole country 
exemplary. A more unsophisticated, and far west of the Obi was subjected to the czar. In 
more interesting, population is furnished by the 1604 the town of Tomsk was founded, and be- 
indigenous tribes. Beginning at the Ural Moun- came a centre from which new expeditions were 
tains and proceeding eastward we find the fitted out and new conquests made. Private 
Samoyedes in the northwesL Immediately south adventurers, instigated chiefly by the hope of 
of these the Ostiaks occupy both sides of the plunder, proceeded in all directions to the south, 
Obi, up to the confluence of the Irtish, the north- where, not without serious reverses, they suc- 
em part of the steppe of Baraba, and the ceeded in expelling the Kirghiz; and to the east, 
whole of the woody region eastward to the where they entered the basin of the Lena, sub- 
banks of the Yenisei. Tliey !:Te by fishing and dued the Yakuts, and finally, after passing the 
hunting, and though their physical structure is Aldan Mountains, reached the Sea of Okhotsk, 
by no means robust ihey display both great dex- In the neighborhood of Lake Baikal a formidahle 
terity and courage in jittacking the larger and resistance was made by the Buriats, but their 
fiercer animals, both of the land and water, subjugation was finally completed in 1658. The 
Some of them have embraced Christianity, but town of Nertchinsk, which has since become so 
the great majority continue addicted to Shaman- celebrated for its mines, was then founded, and, 
ism. In the south, among the Altai Mountains, two years after, that of Irkutsk^ A further 
the Kalmucks predominate, but have laid aside extension of conquests to the south brought the 
a number of the usual peculiarities of their race, adventurers into collision with the Chinese, and 
They subsist chiefiy on the produce of their both governments taking part in the quarrel, ■- 
horses, cattle, and sheep, and cultivate a little war, threatening the existence of one or other 
grain and tobacco. They have some skill in of the empires, became jmmment. It was, how- 
mechanical arts, particularly in the working of ever, prevented, partly by the intervention of 
iron, and make their own gunpowder. Though the Jesuits resident at Pekmg, and a treaty in 
not Buddhists they are generally addicted to 1689 definitely fixed the boundaries of the two 
other forms of superstition. Among the eastern empires. A second treaty m 1727, confifming the 
slopes of the Aliii are several Turkish tribes, former, regulated thr commercial mtereourse. 

>y Google 


juid confined it to the two localities o£ Kiachta continuous line from the Atlantic to the Pacific 

and Mairaachen. Never has so larg? a territory He projected a telegraphic line with Europe by 

been acquired at so little expense. Russia, way of Bering Strait and Siberia and to this 

almost without any expenditure o£ her own end obtained valuable franchises from Russia, 

means, and chiefly by the aid of a few Cossack but the project was abandoned when the success 

adventurers, in little more than a century more of the submarine telegraph was assured. After 

than doubled her area. The greater part of retiring; from the telegraph business he engaged 

it indeed is a frozen inhospitable region, which in railroading, mining operations and various 

must always remain comparatively worthless ; other industries. He owned large tracts of im- 

but vast tracts possess a climate and soil well proved land and was interested in a seed and 

adapted for agriculture, and seem destined to nursery business at Rochester. He founded the 

become the abodes of a dense population engaged Sibley College of Mechanical Arts at Cornell 

in agriculture, mines and fisheries. The Russian University and presented Sibley Hall to the 

dommions were extended by the acquisition of University of Rochester. 

the Amur territon'. and ccast regions of Man- giblcy College, a department of Cornell 

chuna ceded by Clima m iBSo and iBm, and by University. See Cornell Universitv 

later acquisitions already detailed under Russia, c:v-.— _ - u- -'- r v. 'ii 

oomiQua (Wi); Cobbold, <Io™™ost As»> "'^ fouihtut of Sami.go de Cub. ne.r wbrdi 

V.™\ . nXi ^.L^ff (r..:j. . c:>..^:.) i^^ *"■= United States troops disenibarked in the 

n^ ' F^as^r^TlIe R«t sfbeH^ ( Q^l • Spanish- American War. It was the scene of a 

H^in 'xCuBh Lia> (ift^V ^Sh sharp struggle between the American and Span- 

^^M^'hinJ^^n sLr^' (i8Qi\^r'ausse <R^' ^''^ f*"""^ ^3 June 1898. Four troops of Rough 

<Roughmg It m^beria (1897) , K-rausse, Kus- ^^^ ^^^^ Colonels Wood and Roosevdit, 

Sia m Asia' (1800) Lansdell, ^Russian Central „.„^ ™»s...u.j ,. .u;. .^■„. ^a ,a a_=.- _. 

A.ioJ /itttlel- ^i^nR anri RnM <'niP TTpart nf *"^ ambushed at this pomt and 16 Americans 

4 ' *??5^v S^HifncT <ThVn,,?h ^rtrl,> Were killed. Notwithstanding their surprise ^nd 

^1,^^ SUdlmg, 'Through SLbena' losses the Americans charged up the hill with 

UOOIJ. gjipf, intrepidity that the Spaniards abandoned 

Siberian RaUvay. Sec Trans-Sibemam their block-house and fortified position, leaving 

Railway. 40 of their dead behind. The village was found 

Sibley, sib'll, Henry Hutinga, American to be infested with yellow fever, and in July 

soldier: b. Detroit, Mich., 20 Feb. 1811 ; d. Saint was burned to the ground at the request of the 

Paul, Minn., 18 Feb. 1891. He was chosen dele- medical officers. 

gate to Conf^ess from Wisconsin and Minne- Sibonga, se-bong'a, Philippines, pueblo, 

SOta Territories in 1849, representing both in a province of Cthii, on the east coast, aS miles west 

similar capacity until 1853. He was elected the of Cebii, the provincial capital. It is on the coast 

first governor of Minnesota 1858, and through highway, has a good anchorage, and is open 

his personal efforts he successfully brought the to coastwise trade. Pop. 23,455. 

Sioux war to a dose 1863. The later years of Sibutu, se-boo'too, an island of the Tawi 

his life were occupied with the general educa- ya^; gf^up, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines. 30 

tional interests of his State. miles southwest of the island o£ Tawi Tawi ; 18 

Sibley, Henry Hopkina, American gen- miles long, two miles wide; area 36 square miles. 
eral: b. Natchitoches, La., 25 May 1816; d. The surface is mostly flat, with a conical hill in 
Fredericksburg, Va., 23 Aug. 1886. He was the centre rising to the height of 500 feet. It 
graduated from the United Slates Military is heavily wooded, and the soil is fertile, but 
Academy in 1838, served in the Florida and there is no agriculture ; there is a transient pop- 
Mexican wars, and at the outbreak of the Civil uiation of Moro and Sulu fishermen and a small 
War entered the Confederate service and reached village on the southeast. coast. This island was 
the rank of brigadier -general. At the close of found to be nine miies outside the western line 
the war he went into the service of the Khedive of demarcation under the Paris treaty with 
of Egypt where he held the commission of Spain, and in igoo was broti^t (with Cagayan) 
brigadier-general. hy the United States for $100,000. 

Sibley, Hiram, American financier: b. Sibuyan, se-boo-yan', an island of the 

North Adams, Mass., 6 Feb. 1807 ; d. Rochester, Romblon group, Philippines, the second largest 

N Y., 12 July i88a 'In his early life he worked and most eastern island of the group, 50 miles 

as shoemaker, and later as journeyman ma- north of Panay; area 90 square miles. It i% 

chinist in a cotton- factory. In 1843 he estab- very mountainous, the highest peak being Mount 

lished a banking business at Rochester and later Sibuyan (6424 feet) ; there are three prinapal 

was elected sheriff of Monroe County. He was rivers, and a number of smaller rivers and 

interested in the early experiments in electric streams which furnish excellent drinkmg water, 

telegraph and aided in securing an appropriation The island is heavily wooded, and the soil very 

from Gingress to further the inventions of Sam- fertile, but the inhabitants lack thrift and m- 

uel F. B. Morse. He combined with other cap- duslry, and no attempt is made to develop their 

italists, among whom was Ezra Cornell, and natural resources. Some rice, vegetables, 

consol'dated the small existing telegraph com- and an inferior quality of tobacco are raised, 

panics into the Western Union, which was char- '<"" home use only. Gold is found in the sands 

tered by the legislatures of New York and of "le Nailog River, and a number of the m- 

Wisconsin in 1856. He was elected president of habitants are engaged m placer raining; trepang 

the company and held the office for ten years, and tortoise shells are gathered on the coast. 

In 1861. he began the construction of a trans- PoP- 18,000. 

continental railway that was afterward incor- Sibyl, sibtl, and Sib'ylline Books. Certain 

porated with the Eastern systems, making a women supposed to be inspired by a deity * 




called Sib^ t^ the Gr«eks. Regarding their crnville, N. Y., 14 Sept. igoa He was appointed 
number and their native counlTies ancient acting midshipnian in 1851 and rose to be lieu- 
writers, Greek and Latin, are greatly at va- tenant in i860. He was assigned to the Gull 
riaiice, Neither Homer nor Herodotus makes blockading squadron in 1861 and as executive 
any mention of a Sibyl; but Heraclitus, the officer on the Oneida was engaged at the bom- 
philosopher, who was a little earlier than the bardment of Forts Jackson and Saint Philip. 
lather of history, mentions one Sibyl. Aris- He assisted in llie destruction of the Confed- 
tophanes, Plato and the author of a book, 'Won- eratc flotilla in i86j, participated in the pas- 
derful Stories,' anciently attributed to Aristotle, sage of the Vicksburg batteries and corn- 
appear to know of only one Sibyl, Varro, the manded in the engagement witli the Confederate 
great Roman polymath, reckons ten Sibyls, ram Arkansas in that year. He was in com- 
namely the Persic, Delphic, Cumxan (of Cunue mand of the Seneca in both attacks on Fort 
in Iialy^, Erythraean, Samian, Cuman (of Fisher and was in charge of the left wing in 
Cyma: m .^^loHs), Hellespontic, Phrygian, the naval land assault on that fort 15 Jan. 1865. 
Libyan and Tiburtine (worshipped at Tibur). He was engaged in various commands after 
These Sibyls lived in different epodes, and, ac- the Civil War, was inspector of ordnance at the 
cording to Pausanias the earliest was the Boston navy yard in 1880-2, chief of the bureau 
Libyan; he refers the Erythraan Sibyl to of ordnance in 1882-go, and in 1894-7 he was 
the time of the Trojan war; his third Sibyl is the successively in command of the Portsmouth 
Cunisean (of Italian Cumse), the most celebrated and Brooklyn navy yards. He was appointed 
of them all. In the traditional history of the commander-in-chief of the North Atlantic 
Roman kings, she sold to Tarquin the Proud Squadron in 1897 with rank as rear-admiral, but 
the Sibylline books. First she offered him at the outbreak of the Spanish War was placed 
nine ; these refused, she burned three and offered, on sick leave. After partial recovery he asked 
at the same price, the remaining six ; Tarquin for active duty and was appointed president of 
again refused to buy, whereupon other three the board of strategy. He was retired in 1898 
were burned and the last three offered, still at after 47 years of service. 

the same price, and were bought by Tarquin. Sicard, se-kar, Roch Ambroiae Cucurron, 
In these books was written the fate of the Ro- educator of the deaf and dumb: b. Fousseret, 
man people and state. They were entrusted to near Toulouse, ao Sept. 17+2; d. Paris 10 May 
a commission of 15 members, who were to 1822, He was appointed in 1786 director of a 
consult them on occasions of public danger, for school established for the training of deat- 
direction as to the religious observances neces- mutes by the archbishop of Bordeaux. In 1789 
wry to avert extraordmary calamities and to he removed to Paris, and was chosen successor 
expiate prodigies; they were written m Greek to the Abbe TEpee as director of the Paris Jn- 
hexameter verses, and hence, the commission of stitution for Deaf-mutes, He made some im- 
the Quindecimviri Sacris Faciundis was always portant improvements in the system of his 
assisted by two Greek interpreters. The books predecessor. During the Revolution he narrow- 
were preserved in a stone chest deposited in w escaped with his life; and having under the 
the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and were de- Directory become one of the conductors of the 
stroycd by the (ire that consumed the temple in 'Annales Religieuses,' it was only by conceal- 
Ihe year 83 ac. To recover the Sibylline ing himself that he avoided the consequences 
prophecies, the Senate seven years after sent of a sentence of exile pronounced against him- 
ambassadors to Erythr* in the Troad, who self and other journalists. On the overthrow 
brought back thence about 1,000 verses; other of Ihc Directory he resumed his duties at the 
verses were collected in Ilium, Samos, Sicily, school of instruction for the deaf and dumb. 
Italy and Africa. In addition there came into and in 1816 he was made member of the Acad- 
circulation about this time a great many so- etny. Besides other works, he was the author 
called Sibylline oracles' Augustus, 12 a.d., or- of 'Cours d'Instruction d'un Sourd-miiet de 
dered strict search to be made for these, and a Naissance' ; and 'Thiorie des Signes pour I'ln- 
great many of the spurious oracles were burned; struction des Sourds-miiets.' Consult Berthier, 
the authentic Sibylline verses after being sub- 'L'Abbe Sicard' (1875), 

jected to criiica: revision were d^sited in the sic'ca, a weight in India of about 180 

temple of the Palatine Apollo : they appear to grains troy. The sicca rupee, formerly a current 

have ^en still in existence as late as the year ^^i„ jj, i^dja contained about 176 grains of pure 

400, The Fathers and other Christian authors s]]ver, and was equal to about 50 cents 
often quote the Siby line verses as containing o-ji" tr .w ■ • l- 

prophecies of Christianity: a memorable in" , Sidl .an Vespers the name givenm his- 

Stance of this is the coupling of Sibylla with ^°'y '" <he massacre of the French at Palermo. 

David in the first stanza of the Dies Ir^~ Sicily, on Easter Monday 30 March 1282, be- 

leslr David cum Sibylh. witness David with c^^se the first stroke of he vesper bell was the 

the Sibyl, as both of them prophesying the de- Jigna agreed upon for the massacre to begin 

struction of the earth bv fire ■ these Sibylline Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX. of 

vprsps urpre imHniihtPfllv snnrioiis mo« nf ihpni Ff^nce, had become master of Naples and Sicily 

SSLSV^i™'?"/.? ^wSi. ta^^^^^ k, 'f, d.fe. .„d to.., ot King Manfred .,,h. 

centSry «xt precedinB our m : snch of them '"W' »J,1'%"'.1"'» "?"' "'« T™"S. 1 f"' 

« co™ dowi. to o„, itae have been eol- ""''"• Manfred s nephew and r.ghtfnl king, 

lected and repeatedly printed. See Renan. 'Hist. Sf , " "I? "'"j! . "««™, .K'rs of age. 

fttive ' . . ■ w 1 quered people, and the French garrisons tn Pa- 

^ lermo and other places committed the gravest 

Sic'ard, Hontfomery, American naval outrages upon the inhabitants. Women especially 

officer: b. Utica, N. Y., 30 Sept. 1836; d. West- were victims of the brutal soldiery, and the 

1 ..Google 


animosity of the Sicilians toward the French be- 
came aroused to a high pitch. Meantime Gio- 
vanni tli Procida, a nobleman who had been de- 
prived of his estates by Charles for his fidelity 
to Manfred, was actively seeking to bring about 
the expulsion of the French frocn Sicily. Con- 
slantia, a daughter of Manfred, was tnanied io 
King Peter, of Aragon, and Procida appealed 
to Peter, and also procured the necessary means 
to enable Peter to move against Charles. The 
Sicilians, encouraged by Procida, and directly 
inflamed, it is stated, by a gross insult offered 
to a young Sicilian bride by a French soldier, 
planned a general uprising and massacre. At 
the appointed signal the people of Palermo fell 
lyion the French, sparing neither age nor sex, 
and cutting off also Sicilian women who were 
companions of Frenchmen. The number 
massacred was about 8,000. Messina in April 
followed the example of Palermo, and while 
Charles was besieging Messina, King Peter 
landed at Palermo with 10,000 foot-soldiers and 
800 men-at-arms, Charles fled to Calabria, and 
the succession to the crown of Sicily was set- 
tled on James, the second son of Peter and 
Constantia, the ultimate result being the inde- 
pendence of Sicily under Frederick, a brother 
of James. 

Sicilies, sIsT-Hz, The Two, a former king- 
dom of Italy, consisting of Naples and Sicily. 
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire 
(476 A.D.) Lower Italy became subject to the 
Ostrogoths. About the middle of the Gth 
century Naples and Sicily fell under the power 
of the Greek emperors. Both countries were 
subject to one governor, the exarch of Ravenna, 
who conducted the administration by means of 
dukes. During the contest between the exarchs 
and Lombards there sprung up, in the Qlh 
century, several independent duchies, such as 
Salerno, Capua, and Tarento. The most power- 
ful was the Lombard duchy of Benevento. 
Naples, Amalfi, and Gaeta maintained them- 
selves as republics. About the same time the 
Saracens invaded Calabria from Sicily. They 
conquered Bari and contended with the Greeks 
for the possession of Lower Italy, until the 
Emperor Otho I, (96?) subjected Benevento to 
the German Empire. Germans, Greeks and 
Arabs now struggled for the possession of this 
beautiful country. This induced some warlike 
adventurers, Normans from France, in the 
nth century, to try their fortune here. They 
assisted the Greek duke Sergius against Prince 
Pandorf of Capua, and were rewarded with 
the tract of land on which they founded the 
town of Aversa. More Normans soon followed. 
in 104? the 13 sons of Tancred de HauteviUe, 
a count in Lower Normandy, came in with their 
followers. Among these brothers Robert Guis- 
card was the boldest and most artful. He con- 
trived to gain over the peasants, and formed 
out of them his best soldiers. His policy led 
him to hold Apulia, which he had conquered, as 
a Papal fief (1053) ; and he promised 
to hold as Papal fiefs such tracts as should af- 
terward be subdued by the Normans in Cala- 
bria and Sicily. He then (1060) took the 
title of Duke of Apulia and Calabria. His 
youngest brother. Count Roger, conquered 
Sicily in 1072, and, after the death of Count 
Robert and his sons, united in his own person 

the whole power of the house of Hauleville. His 

son and successor, Roger II., completed, after 
IIOi, the conquest of all Lower Italy by subdu- 
ing Capua, Amalfi, and Naples, at that time cele- 
brated commercial republics. He then received, 
in 1130, from tlie anti-pope Anacletus IL, by 
whom he was solemnly infeoffed, the title of 
King of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily. Uniting 
Siciiy to his Italian dominions he now called his 
kingdom the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. 
This union of Naples and Sicily continued 150 
yeirs. Each country preserved its existing laws. 

In 1268 Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis 
IX, of France, caused the legitimate heir, Con- 
radin of Swabia, to be beheaded. Sicily freed 
herself in 1282 from the oppressions of the 
French by the aid of King Pedro of Aragon, and 
Naples was now separated from it, Sicily being 
under the kings of Aragon, while Naples was 
under the Angevin dynasty. This dynasty was 
dispossessed in 1442 by Philip V. of Aragon, who 
bestowed Naples on his natural son Ferdinand. 

In 1504 Sicily was again united to Naples un- 
der the Spanish crown, and governed by vice- 
roys till 1713. when the peace of Utrecht again 
divided the Two Sicilies, Naples falling to Arch- 
duke Charles of Austria, Sicily to Duke Victor 
Amadeus of Savoy. King Philip V, of Spain 
reconquered Sicily in 1718, at the instigation of 
Alberoni, but was forced to cede it to Austria 
in 1720, Savoy receiving Sardinia in exchange, 
by which means the Two Sicilies became a part 
of the Austrian dominions. In 1734 the Spanish 
Infante Don Carlos, son of Philip V., at the 
head of an army invaded Naples, conquered 
both the continental and the insular part of the 
kingdom, and was crowned at Palermo in 1735 
as Charles IV. This change was sanctioned by 
the treaty of Vienna (1783), and till i860 this 
line of the Bourbon family maintained posses- 
sion of the Two Sicilies, except for a few years 
during the Napoleonic period, when Joseph 
Bonaparte and Joachim Murat reigned on the 
mainland as kings of Naples, In 1759, when 
Charles IV. ascended the Spanish throne under 
the name of Charles III., he conferred the 
kingdom of the Two Sicilies on his third son 
Ferdinand, and decreed at the same time that it 
should never again be united to the Spanish 
monarchy. The reign of Ferdinand extended 
through the stormy period of the French Revo- 
lution and the subsequent European commotions. 
His successors, Francis L, Ferdinand II. 
(Bomba), and Francis II. were despotic tyrants 
who forced the people into periodic revolt, put 
down with much severity. In i860, however, an 
insurrection broke out in Sicily, and an expedi- 
tion of volunteers from Piedmont and other 
Italian provinces under Garibaldi sailed from 
Genoa to the assistance of the insurgents. The 
result was that the Neapolitan troops were 
driven from the island. Garibaldi, following 
up his success, crossed over to the mainland, 
where he met little or no opposition; Francis 
11. fled from Naples; the strong places in his 
hands were reduced ; and by a popular vote the 
kingdom of the Two Sicilies ceased to exist as 
such and became an integral part of the king- 
dom of Italy. See Italy, 

Sicily, the largest island of the Mediter- 
ranean, belonging to Italy, and formerly a part 
of the kingdom of Naples or of the Two Sicfl- 

1 ..Google 

•es. It 19 only separated from the aoutLwestem 
extremity of Italy by the narrow Strait of 
Messina, and extends from lat. 36° 38' to 38° 
18' N. : Ion. 12° 2$' to 15° 35' E, II is divided 
into the following seTcn provinces, each with a 
■zhief city of the same name: — 











the island stretches across it taking the 
first of the Neptunian and then of the Mado- 
niao Mountains, The whole range bears a stronj{ 
resemblance to the branch of the Apennines 
which stretches to the southern extremity of 
Italy and strongly countenances the opinion 
generally entertained that it was originally con- 
tinuous with it and that Sicily consequently 
must at one time have been not an island but a 
part of the European continent The most re- 
markable natural feature of Sicily and one of 
the greatest wonders of the world is Mount 
Etna, which attains a height of 10,874 feet Com- 
pared with this all the other summits of the 
island are insignificant, the loftiest of theni, 
Calatabellota, Monte Cuccio, Monte Scuderi, 
and Dinnamare over Messina being all between 
3,000 and 4,000 feet. The great majority of the 
mountains have a far less average height. Their 
sides are generally covered with magnificent 
forests. The rivers and streams are very numer- 
ous, and not a few of them of classical celebrity, 
but they are individually insignificant, and in 
summer are often almost without water. The 
most deserving of notice are the Giaretta or 
Simeti« on the east coast, the Salso, Platani, 
Calatabellota or Isbura, and Belice on the south 
and southwest, and the Termini, Fiume Grande, 
and Pollina on the north. There are no lakes 
worthy of the name; the largest is Lentini, not 
far from the east coast 

Climate.— The climate is excellent, and ex- 
cept in some spots where the air becomes tainted 
by the effluvia of morasses and stagnant pools 
very healthy. The thermometer in the hottest 
days rises to 90° or 92°, and even in the depth 
of winter very seldom falls below 36°; the mf- 
dium temperature is 62'' 5'. The slq" in summer 
is for the most part beautifully clear and serene, 
but after the autumnal equinox dews and fogs 
increase, and rain falls in frequent and heavy 
showers. The most annoying wind is the south- 
east or sirocco, which, blowing from the deserts 
of Africa, is almost intolerable from its stifling 
heat Much rain falls in winter, usually com- 
mencing in November, and continuing to fall at 
intervals, often in very heavy torrents, with vivid 
lightning, and occasional snow-storms, till March, 
while not unfrequently, particularly in the inte- 
rior, long droughts prevail from April to Novem- 
ber, to serious injury of the harvest and vintage. 

Geology. — Etna itself, and the large circu- 
lar space of which it forms the centre, extend- 

ing west to Bronte and east to the coast over the 
whole tract that lies between Catania and Taor- 
mina, is covered completely with volcanic prod- 
ucts. Granite, with gneiss and mica-schist, 
has its only large development in the northeast 
The Jura-limestone occupies only two small 
patches \ but the series of rocks immediately 
above the limestone and belonging to the Creta- 
ceous system are so largely dcvelmjed as to 
cover at least a half of the whole surface of the 
island. The rocks of the Tertiary formation 
occur chiefly in the southeast and the west The 
minerals of Sicily are more numerous than val- 
uable. They include argentiferous lead, quick- 
silver, iron, copper, and antimony in quantities 
so limited that few of them are worked; lig- 
nite, bitumen, petroleum, and naphtha ; asbes- 
tos, gypsum, emery, alum, rock-salt, nitre, sul- 
phur, and a great variety of marbles, agates, 
chalcedonies, and jaspers. The most important 
of all these is sulphur, which has been worked in 
mines for more dian three centuries, and is ex- 
tensively exported. 

Veeetalion, etc. — Both the climate and rich 
soil 01 the island procure for it both a very large 
amount and great variety of vegetable products. 
The hiHy regions, presenting alternately bold 
crags and undulating slopes, are generally 
clothed with forests of tine timber, among which 
the prevailing trees are oak, ash, pine, elm, and 
chestnuts ; or covered with pastures, on which 
numerous flocks and herds are reared. In the 
lower grounds cultivation is general, and the 
crops are often remarkable for their luxuriance, 
though the mode of culture is for the most 
part unskilful and careless in the extreme: The 
nost important crops are wheat, maize, barley, and 
lentils, or other pulse. Next to grain the most 
important objects of culture are the vine and 
the olive, the orange and the lemon. The pro- 
duce of the vine is partly dried into raisins, but 
is much more frequently converted into vrines 
of various kinds, and generally of rich flavor. 
Other vegetable products deserving of notice are 
the mulberry, extensively used in rearing silk- 
worms; saffron and sumach; cotton, which has 
its chief locality near Mazzat?; manna obtained 
by incisions in the bark of a species of ash, va- 
rious species of fruit, more especially the Indian 
fig or prickly-pear, on. which when in season 
great numbers of the lower orders subsist, the 
almond, common fig, date, liquorice-plant, and 
sugarcane. To these might be added a great 
number of trees and plants valuable for fruit, 
fibre, medicinal properties, or the essences ex- 
tracted from them. 

Manufactures, Trade, etc. — The manufac- 
tures include the ordinary silk, woolen, linen, 
and cotton tissues, for the most part of a coarser 
description; oil-cloths, leather, cordage, glass, 
earthenware, etc. Trade suffers much from want 
of inland communication, but the vast extent of 
sea-coast, and the many valuable products in- 
digenous to the island, should make it much 
greater than it is at present The only occupa- 
tion for which the Sicilians seem to show any 
particular predilection is that of fishing, for 
which they possess numerous advantages, the 
fisheries along the coast being the finest in 
the Mediterranean. The most important articles 
of export are oranges and lemons, wines, essences, 
sulphur, olive-oil, sumach, silk, liquorice, and 
cream-of-tartar ; of imports, colonial produce. 



cotton and woolen yam, silk, linen, cotton, and manner of the preparation of food is now proved 

woolen goods, hides, hardware, etc. to be very great as an actual aid to appetite and 

Religion, EdncaliaA, e(t.— The Roman Cath- digestion, though it has been practically ignored 

olic is tte established religion and the great body for centuries. How greatly exaggerated thi» 

of the people nominally belong to it, though jt influence would be in illness may be readily per- 

considerable number of Greeks, who profess the eeived. Therefore the invalid's tray must be 

worship of their own church, live in different made attractive at any cost of effort or even 

parts of the island, and more especially in the of time on the part of the nurse ; it is her spe- 

vicinity of Palermo. The greatest bigotry, ac- cial province, and perhaps the only one in her 

companied with the grossest immorality, is very professional sphere in which she may give play 

prevalent among the higher and has also spread to her aesthetic sensibilities. It is therefore not 

widely among the lower orders. Education is true that a woman without zsthetic sense makes 

very much neglected. As late as 1864 upward the best nurse, for this especial reason of attract* 

of nine tenths of the population were wholly ive service, and for the very potent reason that an 

uneducated. National schools are now, how- invalid with any zsthetic perception (made 

ever, everywhere established, and the towns keener by illness) will need a nurse's sympathy 

C assess commercial and grammar schools. Pa- and appreciation of his condition and point of 
;rmo, Catania, and Messina can even boast of view. 
universities, though, that of Palermo excepted. All service should be upon the very best china 
they are very insignificant and linen available, with variation in these if 
History. — According to early tradition the possible; the least novelty or diversion is accept- 
first inhabitants of Sicily were Cyclopes and Les- able, as the strongest people are reduced by 
trygonians, a kind of fabulous beings, who long illness to a childlike attitude. A freshly cat 
furnished the poets with ample materials, of flower on a tray adds greatly to its first effect 
which, among others, Virgil has largely availed upon a patient, and attractive garnishes to even 
himself. Sicanians from Iberia afterward unattractive dishes may be devised by a skilful 
^ined such a footing in the island, as to change nurse. The color of paps and gruels is not 
Its name from Trinacria, which it had hitherto appetizing; the color of beef juice is absolutely 
borne, to that of Sicania. The Siculi, driven revolting to very many; therefore opaque ware 
from Italy, crossed the straits, and having van- is to be selected for serving such. If a bent 
quished the Sicanians, gave the island the name tube be used for the patient to take liquids with, 
which it still bears. After a considerable interval much discomfort of sitting up or disgust at see- 
the Greeks began to plant colonies on the coast, ing what he is taking is avoided. In quantity 
and founded a number of towns, of which Syra- the service must be underestimated rather than 
cuse, Agrigentum, and Messina became the most overestimated ; sufficient porridge for a day 
celebrated. Tliey were not, however, allowed to laborer will have little charm for a patient with 
remain in undisturbed possession. The island was no appetite. Care must be taken in conveying 
CTinquered first by the Carthaginians, and next the tray that nothing upon it be spilled or 
hs the Romans; and on the decline of their em- smeared. Too much stress cannot be put upon 
pire, it was overrun bw the Goths, who retained these points. 

possession till Belisanus expelled them. In the A nurse must know the underlying principles 
beginning of the gth century the Saracens of food values, and their chemical composition, 
became masters, and continued so till their ex- as well as the proper preparation of foods of 
pulsion by the Normans, who remained long each class to make its essential properties best 
enough in possession to establish the feudal sys- available to the weak stomach. She must know 
tem in all its rigor. For a continuation of the that steak or chop slightly broiled is more easily 
history of Sicily see SlclLiM, The Two, and also iJigested than the 'well-done' variety; that an 
Italy. Consult Freeman, 'History of Sicily ^BK slightly boiled, or one well mixed with air 
from the Earliest Times' (1891-4)- by beatmg, gives up its albumen with least 
resbtance to the digestive juices. On the other 
»ck. Food* for tiie. That diet is one of hand, starchy foods must be long subjected to 
the strongest factors m the control as well as in boiling temperature that the starch-cells may be 
the progress of disease is practically an axiom ruptured, and digestion of them, so difficult even 
to this generation, and one appreciated especially in health, be begun for the invalid. Seasoning 
by the nurse upon whom falls the carrying out is a more important point in skk-cooking than 
of the doctor's orders. Strict observance of a under ordinary conditions, and may he used ex- 
regimen prescribed by the physician in charge of tensivety on account of the mild stimulating 
a case, with no pampering of a patient's prefer- action of condiments on the gastric juices, as 
ences and no indulgence of a person's own the- well as for their flavor, although a judicious 
ones, IS the stern duty of one who would most nurse will not apply this principle to excess, 
fundamentally and materially alter a diseased or Tea, chocolate, cocoa, and coffee, may be used 
abnormal physical condition. Very frequently with moderation except in certain troubles in 
there is increased demand tor food in sickness, which they will be specially forbidden ; they com- 
too often associated with partial or complete in- bine slight restorative power with some mitri- 
ability to take it or, if it is taken, to digest tlve value, and at least do no harm, especially if 
It property; gastric secretions are almost always the tea or coffee be taken clear, 
perverted in an acute or chronic case, and appe- The time of administering food is another 
tite and taste, under normal conditions a safe important point In almost no case is sleep to 
criterion, must be absolutely disregarded in ab- be interrupted for the sake of a meal. The best 
normal circumstances. times are when the patient has been quiet for 
Too much care cannot be given to the service a while and can be quiet for at least an hour 
of meals during illness. The psychological influ- more ; that is, undisturbed by visits from doctor 
encc exerted upon a healthy person by the Or friends, by baths or bedmaking, or am:Uiing 



tending to the least excitement. If a fever is any appreciable extent Rhubarb drink well 

present the most abundant meal of tbe day prepared is very refreshing, and almost alwayt 

should be given when the fever is at its lowest, beneficial ; green gooseberries and mulberries af- 

as gastric juices are least active in presence of ford a variety in their season, and all the juicy 

fever. berries of summer make good drinks. The 

Food may be selected in some measure wicli liquid for all these should be perfectly clear after 

regard to the affected part. Throat and lung straining, and never contain any pulp or seeds, 

troubles demand non-irrjtating foods, or even Gum-arabic Drink. — Make with one ounce of 

those of a sootliing character, as flaxseed tea; gum arable to I pint of boiling water, seasoned 

a disease involving the stomach would demand with 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, sherry, and the 

food the digestion of which is accomplished in juice of a large lemon. 

the intestines, as carbohydrates or starches; and Bron-Jea.— To i pint of wheat bran add 1 
vice vena. The quantity and total amount are quart of boiling water; keep this hot, but boil 
determined by the case : a suppurative process less than 1 hour. Strain and serve with sugar 
demands much and frequent feeding, as it uses and cream. Corn-tea is made in the same pro- 
tissue and energy at an almost unthinkable rate; portions of parched com ground in a mortar. 
the cure of consumption is also largely a stuffing Toasl-waler. — Cut stale bread in ^-inch 
process ; in other acute eases food may be with- slices, and dry thoroughly in the oven until crisp 
held for over 24 hours with great benefit, but the and brown. Break into small pieces, and add 
diet must be very carefully guarded when food is an equal quantity of boiling water; all this to 
resumed. Some of the more important foods for stand an hour ; then season with salt, strain, and 
the sick are here given, with modes of prepara- either chill or reheat. A iittle wine may be 
tion and some indications of their spheres of added. This is often beneficial in cases of ex- 
usefulness, treme nausea. 

Liquid Foods Made of Water. — Used as cool- Rice-water. — Wash 2 tablespoon fuls of rice 

ing drinks in fevers. and add 2 cups of boiling water, Stick-cinna- 

Lemonade. — This is best prepared by making mon or leraon-peel may also be added. Boil J4 
a syrup of I cup of water and '/i cup of sugar, hour, strain, and reheat or chill as desired. 
is boiled S or 10 minutes. Make the drink as it Barley-water. — Soak 3 table spoon fuls of bar- 
is needed in the proportions of 2 tablespoon fuls ley overnight ; boil in 4 cups of cold water for 
of syrup to 1 of lemon-juice and Yi cup o£ water. iVi hours ; strain, and season with salt, lemon- 
Mineral waters may be substituted for plain juice, and sugar. The starch of barley is very 
water, especially when the stomach is irritable. beneficial for diminishing a laxative condition. 

Orangeade. — Use I'A tablespoonfuls of the Oatmeal^water. — Take ^ cup of fine oatmeal 

same syrup as for lemonade, and the juice of an with 1 quart of boiled water; set in a warm 

orange — less if the orange is sweet. Pour over place for 1^2 hours; strain and cool. It makes 

crushed ice. an excellent summer drink, is always safe in 

Cm/' e-;«icf.~ Thoroughly clean I'/i cups of quantity in the hottest weather, and is valuable 

Concord grapes, add I cup of cold water, and in diarrhtea of children. 

cook ij^ hours in a doable boiler. Add J-S cup Macaroni-water.— Indian meal or any of tlie 

of su^r, strain, and cool. starchy foods may be used for this water in 

Jrtsh Moss Lemonade. — Soak J4 cup of Irish similar ways. Above all, such waters must be 

moss in cold water to cover it ; remove this, add made palatable, and should be served in a man- 

2 cups of fresh water, and cook 20 minutes in a ner that does not betray their weak character, 

double boiler. Strain, and to Yi cup of liquid By increasing the amount of cereal, and by 

add sugar and the juice of i lemon. longer boiling, a gruel may be made. 

Flaxseed Lemonade. — Into i pint of boiling Oatmeal Gruel. — Boil 1 tablespoonful of oat- 
water put 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar and 3 of meal in i pint of water ^ of an hour ; strain 
whole flaxseed. Steep i hour ; strain and add it, and if too thick reduce to desired consistency 
the juic* of a lemon; serve direct from the ice. with boiling water. Season with salt. 
This is desirable in throat and lung troubles. Oatmeal Gruel with ,Wi/Jt.— This is made by 
giving relief as well as affording some nutriment soaking the oatmeal in water overnight in pro- 
It is very soothing in tonsillitis. portions of half as much cereal as water. Boil 

Poius Imperialis. — To I quart of boiling an hour in the same water, then blend thoroughly 

water and Yi ounce of cream of tartar, the juice with i pint of boiling milk and boil 5 minutes 

of a lemon, and 2 tablespoonfuls of sifted sugar more. 

or strained honey. Cover this until cold. This Caudle. — Beat 1 egg to a froth, add a wine- 
is a useful drink in fevers if the nrine is high- glass of sherry and Y, pint of any kind of gruel ; 
colored or scanty. flavor with nutmeg, iemon-peel, and sugar. 

Egg-water. — The white of one or two eggs Gruels arc comprised under the head of semi- 
well beaten is to be put into ^ pint of ice- solids. Discretion must be used in the adminis- 
water with a little salt or sugar. This may be tration of gruel when symptoms of inflammation 
given to the weakest patient, and will almost are present, since starch in general, and com or 
invariably be retained, while the albumen will oatmeal gruel in particular, are very hcat-pro- 
afford necessary nourishment. The water may ductive. Care must always be taken in making 
be flavored with sherry, or may be changed to gruels to cook them thoroughly, that the starch 
lenwnade, orangeade, or grape-juice. Almost may be made altogether available to a weak diges- 
any fruit-water is refreshing to a patient, espe- tion. Arrowroot is advisable as an especially 
cially if he is suffering with fever or chronic digestible gruel, and of avail even in the pres- 
disease or convalescing. The acids and salts of ence of irrit.ition of the stomach, 
fruit are valuable food additions, though they Mulled Wine. — Soak broken stick-cinnamon 
may not be relied on to furnish nourishment to and Y' doien cloves in Y' cup of boiling water 



for 10 nunutca. Strain and add the beaten Water and fresh milk, boiled in equal parts, 

whites of 3 eggs and 2 tablespoonfuls of sugar, will afford relief in cases of mild exhaustion. 

Into this pour from a height I cup of sweet wine being quickljf absorbed with the least possible 

that has been boiled (but not in tinware). Pour effort In giving milk to a patient the most 

from glass to glass several times to make it important point to observe is very slow adminis- 

light. tration; it must be eaten rather than drunk, even 

Pap. — Thicken 1 pint of milk with i table- under normal conditions, and a weak stomach 

spoonful of flour ; cook 10 minutes, and beat in cannot manage its curd in bulk. Lime-waler 

the white of an egg if desired. Corn-starch, or bicarbonate of soda, added in small quantily 

rice-flour, and arrowroot arc used also in this to milk in cases of acidity of the stomacli, may 

way as thickening. prevent the formation of curd. In bad cases of 

Plum Porridge. — Mince 12 raisins, and bring nausea mjlk may be retained if fed by the tea- 

them to a boil in i pint of milk; thicken with spoon at short intervals. In all cases of milk 

I teaspoonful of corn-starch in a cold-water diet in whole or in part it is safer to pasteurize 

paste, and boil 5 minutes ; strain and serve, or sterilize the milk unless one is perfectly sure 

Raisins impart a fruity taste that gives variety, of its source and its mode of transportation. 

and they afford the easily-digested fruit-sugar. This would practically obviate any ri.ik. The 

This is of service in diarrhcea. change from a solid to a milk diet must be made 

Sago-milk. — Take i tablespoonful of pearl gradually; also, if tlie case no longer warrants 

sago, wash and soak it overnight in 4 tablespoon- all liquid, the change back to solid must be 

fuls of cold water. Boil the sago with I quart gradual, as the digestive system will rebel at 

of milk in a double boiler until the sago is dis- sudden alterations in regimen. The amount of 

solved. Sweeten slightly and serve hot or cold, milk to be given daily, its modifications, and the 

Treacle Posscll. — Boil a cup of milk and stir frequency of administration will be regulated by 

in I tablespoonful of molasses. Bring thb to a tile physician in charge of the case, 
boil, and strain before serving. Beef preparations are likewise made in many 

Milk preparations may be provided in great ways, so as to adapt them to different patients 

variety, and often with the most desirable re- ia various circumstances. Those described be- 

sults. The more useful of them are specified low will all be found to possess special advan- 

below. tages. 

Albuminized Milk. — The white of I egg, J4 Beef-tea.— A pound of beef cut from the 

Clip of milk, and a pinch of salt are shaken to- round or neck is cut into very small pieces, put 

gether thoroughly and chilled. into an earthen or porcelain pot, covered closely, 

Milk Punch. — To % pint of milk add i table- and allowed to soak in i quart of cold water for 

Spoonful (or less, according to case and indi- an hour or two. Heat in the same vessel to the 

vidual) of whiskey, rum, brandy, or sherry, boiling point, then allow the preparation to sim- 

sugar, and a few gratings of nutmeg. Mix, mer 2 hours, or until the salts and soluble albu- 

cover, and shake well. The milk may be hot if men of the heef are quite extracted. Season 

so desired. this, and strain it or not, as desired ; remove all 

Kumiss.— Dissolve >3 of a yeast-cake in I fat, however the tea is served, as the least trace 

tablespoonful of lukewarm water ; add this to i of fat is disgusting to a sick person, A perfectly 

quart of wnrm milk to which I'/i teaspoonfuls clear liquid may be obtained by stirring in the 

of sugar has beeo added ; fiU strong bottles to beaten white of an egg and again straining, 

the neck and cork them firmly; then invert them. This beef-tea is stimulating, but by no means 

and allow them to remain for fermentation at nutritive, as most of the albumens have been 

about 80° F. Chill after 6 or 8 hours. Re- precipitated by the heat; so discretion must be 

move the corks with care, or draw off the kumiss used in its administration; since it may excite 

with a champagne tap. a weak patient and prevent sleep. 

Sterilized Milk. — Fill perfectly clean pint hot- Beef Essence. — Finely mince 1 pound of lean 

ties with milk almost to the top, and plug with beet (no fat); put into a fruit-jar, cork tightly, 

absorbent cotton ; place all the bottles in a steam- and set into 3 kettle of cold water over a slow 

er so arranged that they will not touch the hot- fire; let it boil 3 hours, then strain through a 

tom or each other. Immerse in cold water to Ji sieve, and season with salt and red pepper. An 

their height, and bring this bath to the boiling other method of preparing this beef essence, 

point; keep it at 170° F. for about 10 mintites. which has some nutritive value in addition to the 

Remove cotton-plugs, and cork bottles with rub- stimulating quality, is to add i pint of cold water 

ber corks if possible, keeping them in a coo! lo the minced beef in the jar, allow it to macer- 

place until used ; then use the milk only once, ate for 3 hours, with occasional stirring, and to 

never offering 3 second lime even to an infant. simmer in the water bath after it has once come 

Pasteurised Milk. — This is similarly pre- to the boiling-point Strain as before, and wash 

pared, but the water is on no account allowed to the remainder with cold water to make the whole 

boil, and is kept at le?" F. for 30 to 60 minutes, measure i pint. Vary the flavor if it is often 

Special pasteuriiera are available for this pur- given by bay-leaf, clove, mace, celery, or other 

pose. aromatic substance. 

Peptonized Milk.— Mix thoroughly 5 grains Peptonized Beef-tea. — To l4 pound of raw 
of pancreatic extract and 15 grains of bicarhon- lean beef that has been finely mmced, add 10 
ale of soda in 2 tablespoonfuls of water; add i grains of pepsin, and 3 drops of dilute hydro- 
pint of fresh milk, and keep warm (about 115° chloric acid. Put in a tumbler, cover with cold 
F.) in a covered jar for '/; hour; then chill the water, and stand for two hours in a warm place 
mixture. If the resulting slightly bitter taate is (about 90° F.), •stirring frequently. This should 
disagreeable, the preparation may be sweetened, always be used the day it is made, although n 

>y Google 


Bouillon and CoKsommi. — These may be done. Strain and remove fat Rice may be 

given to a convalescent as usually prepared; they boiled with it at first, and strained out, or ii may 

are too stimulating, however, for a weak be added and boiled in the stock. 

patient. Chicken Panada.— Chop and rub fine "4 

Beef Juice.— Broil Yt pound of lean juicy pound of the white meat ot chicken, raw. Mix 

beef over a hot fire, turning frequently, merely with Yi cup of fresh bread crumbs and Yi cup 

to the point of heating the meat through; cut of milk; beat in the whites of two or three eggs. 

the meat into dice, and extract the beef juice Season and poach in little earthen cups, 
with a meat-press or a lemon-squeezer. Heat Oyster foods have also their peculiar valut^, 

the extract by setting in a dish of hot water; and a few of the numerous forms of preparation 

never apply enough heat to coagulate the juices, are here given. 

as tliey would be rendered less digestible, defeat- Oyster Juice. — Mince with a silver knife I 

ing the express purpose of this preparation, dozen fat oysters, put them into a fruit-jar, and 

This is highly nutritive. Broiled beef-tea is the stand in hot water for half an hour. Strain 

same preparation diluted, as the case or indi- the liquid out, skim, and season. This may be 

vidi:al may require, by hot (not boiling) water. diluted or served in concentrated form. 

Frosen Beef-lea. — It is often desirable to Oyj(fr BroiA.— Add ^ pint of cold water be- 

administer nourishment as pleasantly as possible fore putting the jar, as above directed, in the 

in hot weather, or in a case of high fever. Any hot balh. Or the broth may be creamed by the 

of the beef-teas given above may be frozen. In addition of flour and milk. 

small quantities it is most convenient to fill a Oyster Soup. ^-'Ra'a together 2 tables poonfuls 

pound baking-powder tin, or other tin case, J^ each of flour and butter, and add i pint oi hot 

full, and pack with ice and salt in a small pail; milk; then drain and add gradually the liquor 

stir and beat as the mixture freezes until a con- from one pint of oysters; and when the mixture 

sistency of mush is obtained. is brought to a boil add the oysters, which must 

Beef Juice and Cereal. — Use I tablespoonful have been well washed. Cook all together until 

of thoroughly cooked oatmeal or other cereal to the oysters begin to grow plump and the edges 

2 tablespoon fuls of boiling water \ add I cup of begin to curl. After seasoning, this must be 

strong beef-tea; bring all to the boiling point; served instantly with crackers, 
season well, and serve with toast or crackers. Oysters possess a slight nutritive value, and 

Bartkototv's Food. — Soak I ounce of sago in all the nourishment is easily available to a weak 

}ii pint of milk for 10 minutes. To this add ^ digestion, especially if the tough adductor muscle 

pint of beef-tea, the yolk of an egg, beaten, and be removed. An irritable stomach will often 

seasoning of celery salL This is considered a welcome oysters or clams attractively prepared, 

complete food, and benefit by the nourishment Clams are much 

Scraped Beef Balls, — A small piece of round tougher than oysters, and should be given to an 

steak is cut into strips, and the freshly-cut sur- invalid only as broth or liquor. Whole raw oys- 

face is scraped with a rather dull knife, reserv- ters are frequently served to convalescents, 
ing all the soft part of the meat and leaving Clam Broth, — Take as many large clams as 

connective tissue. Form the pulp into balls, desired, and thoroughly wash and scrub them; 

using but slight pressure ; season with a very put in a kettle with a very small amount of 

little pepper and salt. The balls may be either water in proportion, and cook until the shells 

broiled or cooked in an omelet pan that is begin to open. Then strain the liquor off 

sprinkled with salt. Serve on toast, and garnish through cheese-cloth, season, and dilute if de- 

as prettily as possible to divert attention from sired. This may be hot, cold, or frozen; it may 

the raw appearance of beef. The flavor may be be kept in this fundamental form for a long time 

altered, if the patient's digestion allows, by addi- if cooked, and may be varied by flavorings of 

tions of minced celery, chopped almonds or other herbs, or reinforced by pulverized cracker 

nuts, butter, or egg albumen, crumbs. By the addition of milk and flour, 

Raul Beef Sandwiches. — Use the raw scraped cream of clams is obtained. The plain broth is 

beef, well seasoned with salt; cover half a slice very valuable in nausea, 

of bread that is cut very thin and buttered; Egg-nog. — This food is made in a number 

press down the other half, and serve. The of ways ; it is very frequently a Staple for in- 

object is to serve this raw beef (as attractively valids of long standing, and a fagging interest in 

as possible) because of its nutritive qualities; it may be revived by a slight variation. The 

the rareness, being often distasteful, must be white and yolk of the egg may be beaten s^- 

disguised. rately or together; the flavoring may be wme, 

Mutton Broth. — Wipe and clean from skin whiskey, brandy, or, if alcohols are not desirable, 

and fat 3 pounds of mutton from the neck; cut vanilla or some fruit-juices; usually a little 

in small pieces, and put all into a kettle ; cover nutmeg is added, and always salt where eggs are 

with cold water and bring slowly to boiling- used. The milk may he hot or cold, or ^ milk 

point; then simmer for more than 3 hours, or and hot water may be used. A good standard 

until meat is perfectly tender. Strain, skim, and recipe is as follows : i egg, ^ cup of milk, i 

add rice or barley. tablespoonful of sugar, 2 tablespoon fuls of 

Veal Broth.— TXus may be made with '/i flavoring if it is a wine, i tablespoonful if brandy 

pound of veal, chopped fine, to i pint of cold or whiskey, I teaspoonful if vanilla. If the 

water. Prepare in same way as mutton broth. white of the egg is beaten the patient will find 

Chicken Broth. — Select an older fowl for it more convenient to drink with a glass tube 

this, as it makes a more nutritious broth. Re- or straw. 

move skin and fat ; disjoint and break the bones. Bonnyctabber. — Skimmed milk which has be- 

Cover with cold water in stew-pan, bring to boil- come thick by standing. It is served in the same 

ing-point slowly, and simmer for several hours, dish it has stood in, with whipped cream or 

Season with salt and a little pepper when half white of egg. 




Wi»e iVhfy.— Scald i cup of milk, add i cup cially, the starch in these preparations must be 

of sherry or port wine, and stand 5 miDUtes. made soluble and directly available, and the only 

Strain and sweeten if desired. Whey can also way of accomplishing tiiis is by thorough eook- 

be separated by lemon-juice, vinegar, or rennet. ing. Most of the ordinary cream soups are 

Junket Custard. — Heat lukewarm (not hot) possible to the invalid ; precaution must be taken, 
I cup of milk; add 3 tablespoon fuls of sugar and however, to see that they are: especially prepared 
I teaspoontul of brandy, or }4 teaspoonful of in order that the butter and flour used for thick- 
vanilla. To this add J4 junket tablet dissolved tning this class of soups he not cooked together; 
in I teaspoonful of cold water ; turn into small for when this fat and starch are mixed it is 
molds and cool. This may also be frozen, if well-nigh impossible for an impaired digestion 
packed in a small tin box and surrounded with to deal with them. When possible, it ia well also 
ice and salt to have the milk merely heated and not boiled. 

Egg Custard.— Mix Y3 cup of milk, 1 Uble- as boiling detracts from the beneficial results of 

spoonful of sugar, and i egg, beaten whole. Put milk and tends to constipation. The simpler 

mto cups and bake in water. soups in this class, for which redpcs can be 

Caramel Custard.— To the above add enough found in any modem cook-book, are advisable : 

browned sugar to give color and caramel taste. ^xxh as rice soup, poUto soup, black or white 

Chocolate Custard.— MA melted chocolate to bean soup, pea soup, creams of celery, corn, or 

regular egg-custard recipe. , . ., . asparagus, tapioca soup, bread soup. If well 

Bread JeUy.— Toast brown the inside of 5 prepared, these soupa would be included under 

bUccs of stale bread, and soak in 2 quarts of semi-solids, as they must be eaten, not' drunl^ 

boiling water with a few slices of lemon; later and contain a good deal of nourishment. 

jet this boil to a jelly; strain, sweeten, and eat ro«(.— This must be made of stale bread 

>t cold. A little gelatin may be added, but is not f^om which crust has been removed, and slowly 

ncceMaiy. browned over a flame until thoroughly crisp. 

CM<:fe«/e«y-pis IS preiared like chicken Dextrinked Bread.- Sts\t bread heated in 

broth but the stock is allowed to solidify If the oven until it has become dark brown, 

poured into attrac ive molds the jelly will, be Torretied Bread.- Prepared in the same man- 

pleasmg to the P-V^'-^t ; or rt "JfT be ™' ^«f ner as dextriniied. but wSh greater heat anTfor 

cubes and used as a garnish to other thmgs. „ lonffer time. 

^ **" '^!,Vn?« "' Tfi' ^ '"'*''*''' *'"• '^'^ '""^ ^"W"* Bread.- Remove all crust f«>m a loaf 

™e panem can rai II. ^^ loose-textured bread; from the inside portion 

cVi'Sg" wS,:nr dd'f'^': ofsu^rl ^^'tlTrU^\^J^l "t 1^^^^^™ 

cup of sherry or Madeira, J^ cup of orange- <»!«; and "«p Serve with whipped cream, 

jurce. and 3 tablespoonfuls"^ of '^Jemon-ju^e. ,u P? ^"1 "^ *''bf" r"{.''>'-"'^/°'" '"'=''"',? 

Strain, mold, and chill *^^* " *« thoroughly ^iked m loaves small 

Lemon /^Hji.-Make this with ^ box of gela- «'""'Sh to warrant complete killing of all yeast. 

tin dissolved in 'A cup of water, dissolved in ti'A ^"'"^'^ ^t^'^ ^'^,^ 'f, ".'=^" .^°J''. «""?" '" * 

caps of boiling water; strain and add to i cap P* f "»."'i'5 "«>shghtiy impaired digestion A 

of sugar and ^ cup of lemon-juice. !°^* should not be cut for 24 Hours after bak- 

Ora»gr Jelly— Same as wine jelly, usii« V/i '"K- „ Y^'3' frequently m disease the stomach and 

cups of orange-juice and 3 tablespoon fuls of ''"jll intestine cannot ho d or digest food. In 

lemon-iuice ^""^ ^^'^^ ^' mtroduetion of food mto the 

Cider Jelly.— Use cider, dilute or not, in pro- ^"^^^ through the rectum, by means of a David- 
portion of 3^4 cups of liquid to !4 box of gelatin *?« syrmge, is necessary o' --f"."*^!" >; * 

or a tablespoonfuls. ™ formula; encmata raor 

Gelatins in combination with other things are ™^^ given; 

beneficial to ill persons, though by no means Nutrtitve Enemata. — When it is impossible 

highly nutritious ; a very distinct flavor is necea- for the patient to Uke food as ordinarily, a nutri- 

say to secure palatability, or even digestibility. ***'= enema will be ordered. Special fonnidiB 

Indian-meal Miuk.— Mix '/, cup of Indian *'" probably be given by the physician, but a 

meal with '4 teaspoonful of salt and ^ cup of ^fe rule is to add to i pint of the foundation 

milk; stir this into 1 cup of boiling water and liquid (which is usually milk, b-xauGe of itt 

cook 3 hours in double boiler. Serve with sugar simple, convenient, and unirritaling character, 

and cream. though only about >^ absorbed ; but may be beef- 

Rye-meal Musk.—iAi'x. J4 cup of rye meal t=a, mild gruel, or eggs) i tableapoonful of 

with Vi teaspoonful of salt and 'A cup of cold I'lUW pancreaticua and 30 grains of bicarbonate 

water; add to V/t cups of boiling water; boil 5 o* soda. Administer at once after preparation 

minutes; then cook in double boiler. Serve with " added. 

maple syrup if possible, or with sugar and Special formulae are given, as they are fre- 

cream. quently ordered by name ; 

Egyptian Porridge.— Vse 3 tablespoonfuls of Peptone and milk enema : 60 grams peptone, 

lentil flour, mixed with salt and I pint of waier 2S0 c,c. milk. 

to a paste. Boil 10 minutes, constantly stirring. Egg and milk: 3 eggs, 3 grams writ, 250 c.c. 

This is nutritive and agreeable. milk. 

Mushes.— Oi all the other ordinary cereals Sugar and milk; 60 gniifls grape-sugar, 250 

mushes may be similarly prepared, the special c.c. milk. 

precaution being to cook the cereal a sufficient Boas' enema: 250 ^c- milk, yolks of 2 eggs, 

length of time, always I hour, and longer if the pinch of salt, iS cc. red wine, 15 grams starch or 

heat is not great For a w^k digestion espe- ' 




Rjegd's enema: 250 c.c. milk, all of 3 or 3 York, but did not gndiute. He began to learn 

eggs, 2 or 3 pinches of salt, 30 c.c. red wine. the printer's trade, then turned to the study of 

Tournier's eneina : 140 to rjo c.c beef-tea or law, and was admitted to the bar in 1846. In 

raw beef juice, yolks of 6 eggs, 2 saltspoonfuls 1847 he entered the legislature as a Democrat, 

salt, 20 to 40 cc. red wine. and in 1853 was appointed corporation counsel 

Wine may be omitted from any of these for New York. In that year he accompanied 

formulae. James Buchanan to England as secretary of Ic- 

Leube's Pancreas Enema : Mix 50 grams of gation. Returning to America in 1855 he was 

pancreas, 150 grams lean meal and 30 grams of elected to the New York State Senate, and two 

fat, all chopped as finely as possible in 150 c.c. years later became a member of Congress, seri-- 

lukewarm water. This is an attempt to imiute ""g until 1861. He was tried for the murder of 

natural intestinal digestion, is claimed to be un- Philip Barton Key, whom he shot 27 Feb. 1859, 

irritating as well as nourishing, and is retained on account of a guilty intimacy with Sickles' 

well. wife, and was acquitted. At the beginning of 

Enemata should always be given at body tem- the Civil War he raised in New York the Ex- 

?erature in bulk not to exceed 4 to S ounces, celsior Brigade of U, S. volunteers, and was 
hey must be introduced as high as possible, commissioned colonel of one of its regiments, 
and be given vcr>' slowly; the patient must lie ™^ TOta ^ew York. In September 1861 he was 
perfectly quiet for at least an hour after injec- nominated bngadicr-general of volunteers, and 
tion. During 24 hours 3 or 4 nutritive enemata *"=•■ ^""^ ^^^^V '"* appointment was confirmed, 
and one cleansing enema are sufficient for a the promotion 10 date from llie day of his nomi- 
paticnt. Trial is often necessary with various nation. He participated in the Peninsula cam- 
formula: before one is found that can be retained. ^'Sn (q.v.) and the batile of Antietam, under 
A very small quantity of opium added may help McCiellan, and at Fredericksburg commanded a 
to retain them, but is not advisable without a d";"""!- Having been rnadc major-general of 
physician's special orders. volunteers m November 1862, he was given com- 
c , ^ c. r„. ,,^«= \i n D^ r\ mand 01 the Ihird corps in February 1863, and 
, , , Smith Ely JelliffeM.D., Ph.D., bore a distinguished pan in the battl^ of Chan- 
hslruclor i« TherapeuKcs. Colutnbta UmVtrs^ty, cellorsviUe and Gettysburg (qq.v.). At Chan- 
Medual Defartment. cellorsville he cut off the enemy's ammunition 
Sick Man of Europe, The, a term applied *'^'"'.^"<^ by rallying the retreating artillery 
to Turkey in 1854. bythe Czar Nicholas, in a gamed the first success of the day. At Gettys- 
conversation with Sir Hamilton Seymour, the """]! '"%,,^°'S^*",''t'^^ }\l ^^""^"u'^^ ^1' 
British ambassador at Saint Petersburg. The czar '""'* °" V** Federal left, at the Peach Orchard. 
intimated his opinion that Turkey was sick and ^"'' .Sickles lost a leg m the encounter. He 
dying. He therefore proposed that, to avoid a continued m active service until 1865, when he 
European war when the demise took place, was sent on a private mission to Colombia and 
Russia and Great Britain should come at once """=5 South Amerjcan countries He ,oii«d the 
to a private arrangement as to the disposal of "B"'" ^^?"y '" .'866, and on 2 March 186? was 
the Sick Mail's effects. As France was ignored ^revetted brigadier- general for bravery at Frcd- 
in the arrangement, there was some doubt as e^cV^burg, and major-Reneral for gallant and 
to the good faith of the czar. The British gov- "^r'torious service at Gettysburg. Durmg the 
ernmcnt rejected the proposal, intimated its "'"'y y^?""^ °^ '*'« reconstruction of the South 
belief in the recovery of the^ick Man, and soon \^ *^^ '" conimand of the military district of 
after fought by his side in the Crimean war. '!>« Carolinas-biit m 1867 President Johnson re- 
lieved him of his command and offered him the 
Sickingen, zlklng-ifn, Franz von, German mission to the Netherlands, which he declined, 
soldier and Protestant reformer: b. near Kreuz- On 14 April i86g he was placed on the retired 
nach 2 March 1481 ; d. 7 May 1523. From early list of the army with the rank of major-general. 
youth he devoted himself to the military life. From 1869 to 1873 he was United Slates min- 
The protection of the oppressed was his chief oc- ister to Spain, where he had diplomatic manage- 
cupation. He assisted many a creditor in pro- ment of the Virginius case; in 1890 was sheriff 
curing what was due him from a powerful of New York County, N. Y. ; and in 1892 
debtor. He was the enemy of tyranny, and en- was again elected to Congress. For several 
deavored on every occasion to repress the despot- years he was president of the New York State 
ism of princes and the arrogance of the priests. Board of Civil Service Commissioners. 
Without being a scholar he loved science and -,. ..-.,- t .l u 
protected men of learning (for instance Reuch- Sicyon, sish i-on. Greece, one of the Old- 

iin, whom he defended against the monks of 

celebrated, and handsome of the 

Cologne) ; and in his castle of Ebernburg many '^1="' utics of the country on the Asopus River, 

persecuted scholars found a safe asylum. He about three miles from its port on the Gulf of 

was a friend of the Reformation, and contributed Cormth. The site is now occupied by Vasilika, 

greatly to extend it in the countries which a village with about fifty families. With ad] a- 

Eordered on the Rhine. At last he engaged in cent territory the city formed the small state 

a quarrel with Treves, the palatinate, and Hesse. of.Sicyonia; at an early period it was ruled by 

which drew upon him the ban of the empire. P^'n^s, but later became a democracy, and 

He died soon after the surrender of Neustall, '°'"^^*1 ^'.'^ Ach^an league finally coming under 

one of his castles, having previously received "'f dommalion of Rome. Sicyon was especially 

a severe injury from a fall "during a sally. Con- "lebrated for its schools of sculpture and paint- 

sult the stildy by Ulmann ( 1872) . '"S- , ^^ f ="'' "^ "=».">« '? =. f^^^, f f' "'"'^^ 

, numbered among its disciples Polycletus and 

Sickles, sik'k, Daniel Edgar, American Apellcs, both natives of Sicyon. The ancient 

soldier: b. New York 20 t?ct 1B25. He was theatre has been excavated by the Americatt 

educated at the University of. the City of New Archaeological School at Athens. 



Siddhartiia <*hc who has accomplished his which we possess, but it appears that it 

aim*), the name given to Prince Gautama ing in duration very slowly- The length of a 
Buddha (see Buddhism) at his birth in the 7th sidereal day is 23 hours 56 minutes 4.092 sec- 
century B.C. This was his individual name; onds. A sidereal year is the exact period of the 
Gautama, that of his tribe — settlers in Gakja revolution of the earth round the sun. 
<,r Gaula, a region situated between the plain of Siderite, a mineral composed of carbonate of 
the Ganges and the Himalaya Mountains, iron, and when pure crystallizing in tlie rhom- 
Buddha was a title of later ongin^ Consult E. bohedral system. It then is also known as 
.Arnold, <The Light of Asia' (1879). spathic iron. Another name is chalybile. The 
Siddons, sid'onz, Sarah Kemble, Enghsh faces of the rhombohedral crystals are commonly 
actress: b. Brecon, South Wales, 5 July 1755; curved, and there is a perfect rhombohedral 
d. London 8 June 1831. tSee Kemble, Roger.) cleavage. Besides this it occurs in botrycidal 
She appeared early on the provincial stage, won and in globular form, with a more or less fibrous 
.some local fame at Wolverhampton and Chelten- internal structure. Again it is massive, or 
ham, and was secured by Garrick for Drury Lane, coarsely or finely granular. 
where her failure was distinct. After this she acted The hardness is 3.5 to 4.5 ; the specific gravity 
successively at Birmingham, Manchester, York, 3.7 to 3.9. It has a vitreous lustre, and is often 
and Bath, where she opened in her great part of more or less pearly. The color varies from ash- 
Lady Macbeth, increasing her reputation to such gray, through yellowish -gray, greenish-gray, to 
a degree that she was again engaged at Drury brown and brownish-red; sometimes it is white. 
Lane. Her re-appearance :n London took place The streak is white. It is commonly translucent 
on 10 Oct. 1782, in the character of Isabella in or subtranslucent. 

the play of that name, being Garriek's adapta- In composition it is: FeCO,; carbondioxide 

tion of Southeme's 'Fatal Marriage.* Hersuc- 37.9 and iron protoxide 62.1. Part of the iron is 

cess was complete. The public were astonished usually replaced by manganese, and often by 

by her powers, and she was universaily acknow- magnesium or calcium 

ledged to be the first tragic actress of the Eng- The principal varieties are (a) crystallized, 

lish stage. She subsequently visited Dublin and ((,) concretionary, in globular form, with fibrous 

Edinburgh with equal applause. She appeared structure, (c) granular, (rf) massive, (e) 

as Lady Macbeth for the first time in London on oolitic, and (/) earthy, with a large admixture 

2 Feb. 1785, and in that character was declared of day. This latter varied constitutes a large 

perfect by competent critics. Christopher North, part of the clay in stones of the coal formations. 

Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, Lord Erskine and many In the United States siderite occurs at 

others agree in praise of her performances, Plymouth, Vt. ; Sterling. Mass. ; Roibury. Conn. ; 

which were at their best in tragedy, and be- Antwerp, Jefferson County, N. Y., and at the 

longed to the fine old declamatory (sometimes Rossie iron mines, St. Lawrence County, N. Y., 

called the *Kemhle") school. In solemn ma- and in North Carolina. Also in Pennsylvania, 

jesty, pathos, and minute finish she surpassed Ohio and other States, ciiietly as clay iron stones 

Rachel (q.v.). For 30 years she continued to in the Coal measures. See Aerosidewte. 

astonish and enchant the lovers of the drama, _., . . , , ■ » ■ / 

and having acquired an ample fortune, and been ,. ^'**'^"''T', ^ T^V^''?^> '" Arizona for 

portrayed by Reynolds as the 'Tragic Muse,' the horned rattlesnake (Crotalu^ comulus). je- 

took her leave of the stag* in igia, before ^^'"^^ '° "^ sidewise method of progression, 

an audience which melted into tears on the oc- See Rattlesnake. 

casion. She, however, performed subsequently Sidgwick, sij'wlk, Eleanor HaitUnd 

at benefits and gave privately Shakespearian (Balfour), English educator: b. Scotland H 

readings. She was seen as Rosalind, Ophelia, and March l845. She was married in 187(1 to Prof. 

Desdemona, with great success; and as Cath- Heniy Sidgwick (q.v.). In 1880-2 she was vice- 

arine in 'Henry VlII.' discovered a part nearly principal of Newnham College, Cambridge, and 

as well suited to her as that of Lady Macbeth, in 1892 was appointed principal She was a 

Consult the 'Lives' by Campbell (1834); Ken- member of the Royal commission on secondary 

nard (1886). education of 1894, and has published 'Health 

Side-Hddle Flower. See Sarbacenia. Statistics of Women Students of Cambridge 

D-.I > 1 ^i I. I < . . J . 3nd Oxford' (1890), and papers on educational 

Side'real Clock, a clock regulated to and other topics 

measure sidereal time, reckoned by sidereal days _, , , , ,., „ , ... 

of 23 hours, 56 minutes, 4 seconds mean solar .Sidgwick, Henry. Enghsh philosophical 

time, which are measured by the interval be- "Titer: b. Skipton, Yorkshire, 31 May 1838; 

tween two successive passages of any fixed star °- Witham 28 Aug. 190a In 1859 Ik was grad- 

over the same meridian, and divided into 24 »'"«<1 ^">^ Trinity College, Cambridge, where 

sidereal hours. «« "»« fellow and assistant tutor. He took part 

„. . 1 o .. f 17 •" t*'* movement for the abolition of tests, and in 

Sidereal System. See Stars. connection with it he resigned his fellowship 
Sidereal Time, time measured by the ap- ' in 1869. In 18S3 he was elected Knightbridge 

parent motion of the stars. A sidereal day is professor of moral philosophy in his university, 

the time from the passage of a star across the and two years later again became an ordinary 

meridian till its next passage. If the stars are fellow of his college. Sidgwick's published 

supposed to be absolutely fixed and at an in- works are : 'The Ethics of Conformity and 

finite distance, a sidereal day is exactly the Subscription' (1871) ; 'The Methods of Ethics> 

period of the revolution of the earth on its axis; (1874; now in fllh edition), a work of great im- 

the efiects of the motions of the stars and the portance, in which he attempts to reconcile 

motion of the earth in its orbit are insensible, utilitarianism with intuitionism ; 'The Principles 

A sidereal day is the most constant unit of time of Political Economy' (1883}, of an eclectic 

1 ..Google 


character; 'The Scope and Method of Economic 
Science' (i88e), his presidential address to the 
economic section of the British Association ; 
'Outlines of the History of Ethics' C1886), an 
extended repriot of his article on Ethics in the 
'Encycloiuedia Britannica'; and 'The Elements 
of Politics' (1891). 

Sidi-Bcl-Abbds, se'de-bel-ab-bis', Algeria, 
in the department of Oran, lies 48 miles south 
of the town of Oran, on the Mekerra River. It 
is a modem walled town, and occupies a height 
rising from a fertile, healthy and populous plain. 
Numerous fountains adorn the town. Esparto 
grass grows here profusely. There is some trade 
in hides, alfa, cattle, etc. Fop. 23,388. 

Sidney, sId'nT, Algernon, English states- 
man, son of the id Earl of Leicester: b. Pens- 
hurst, Kent, 1622 ; d. London 7 Dec. 1682. He 
was educated under the supervision of his father, 
whom he accompanied on his embassies to Den- 
mark and to France. He served in 1642 as cap- 
tain of 3 troop of horse in Ireland, and in the 
civil war espoused the cause of Parliament He 
was promoted colonel of horse in 1645, was re- 
turned to the Long Parliament in 1646 as member 
for Cardiff, and in 1647 was appointed lieuten- 
ant-general of the horse in Ireland and governor 
of Dublin, but was soon superseded and in 
1648-50 was governor of Dover. In 1649 he 
was appointed one of the commissioners for the 
trial of Charles I., but while he attended three 
of the preliminary meetings he was not present 
at the trial and did not sign the warrant. He is 
frequently quoted as approving the measure, 
and later admitted his justification of it, but his 
plan, though not exactly clear, seems to have 
been the deposition of the king by an agreement 
of both bouses. He incurred the enmity of 
Cromwell by his opposition, and during the first 
three years of the Commonwealth he stood 
aloof. In 1652, however, he was elected a mem- 
ber of the council of state and attended 82 
meetings in the four and a half months before 
the council was dissolved by Cromwell, being 
particularly occupied with foreign affairs. He 
protested against the Protectorate of Cromwell 
and afterward held aloof from public affairs until 
the restoration of the Long Parliament by th^ 
army in 1659. when he resumedhis place and 
was again appointed to the council of state. In 
that year he was sent as a commissioner to nego- 
tiate a peace between Sweden and Denmark, 
and while engaged in this mission the Restora- 
tion took place. Aware tliat his part m the 
civil troubles could but bring him into dis- 
favor with the royal party, he remained in exile 
until 1677, when he was given leave to return 
to settle his private affairs. The excitement at- 
tending the exclusion struggle drew Sidney 
again into politics and he made several unsuc- 
cessful attempts to enter Parliament, although 
outside of that body he wielded a considerable 
influence. He vindicated himself from an ac- ' 
cusation of being the head of a great non-con- 
formist plot soon after the discovery of the 
•popish plot," but his private letters though 
written with great caution show a deep sym- 
pathy for the non-conformists and the Scots as 
well as an invincible hatred for bishops and 
Roman Catholics. He was engaged in an in- 
trigue with the French ambassador throufrfi 
irbom he eodeavorad to persuade Loiris XIV. to 

aid the establishment of a republic in EJigland 

and evidently hoped to gain at least the main- 
tenance of the rights of Parliament. He un- 
doubtedly received pecuniary aid to the extent of 
1,000 guineas throtigh the French ambassador, 
though he evidently used the money for public 
purposes. He seems to have taken no part in 
the armed resistance of Shaftesbury in i<^a, but 
in 1683 he formed one of the *council of six* 
in the "Ryehouse Plot' to organize an insurrec- 
tion among the Scottish malcontents. He was 
arrested after its discovery and sent to the 
Tower, charged with three overt acts of treason, 
consisting of; consultations amounting to a con- 
spiracy to levy war against the king; invitation 
to certain Scots to co-operate with his plans ; 
and of having written a treasonable libel con- 
cerning the lawfulness of deposing kings. The 
only witness against him on tke first charge was 
the infamous Lord Howard, the second charge 
was proven unfounded, and regarding the third 
though his authorship of the incriminating paper 
was undoubted, yet there was nothing to show 
that it was intended for publication. The law de- 
manded two witnesses for high treason. Jeff- 
reys accepted the paper as the second witness 
required by the law, and on this faidty evidence 
Sidney was sentenced to death. After a fruitless 
petition to the king he was executed on Tower 
Hill. His "Discourses on Government' exhibit 
great acuteness, are forcibly written, and con- 
tain valuable historical information. They were 
first printed in 1698, and have been reprinted in 
1740, 1751, and 1773. Consult: Meadley, 'Mem- 
oirs of Algernon Sidney' (1813) ; Van Sand- 
voord, 'Life of Algernon Sidney' {1851) ; 
Ewald, 'Life and Times of Algernon Sidney' 

Sidney, Sir PhiSp, English soldier, states- 
man and poet: b. Penshurst, Kent, 30 Nov, 
1554; d. Amhem, Netherlands, 17 Oct. 1586. 
After studying at Christ Church, Oxford, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, he set off on his 
travels at 18. visited France, Hungary, and Italy, 
and, returning through Germany and Flanders, 
arrived in England in 1575. He became a favor- 
ite with the queen, who in 1576 sent him on an 
embassy to Germany. He had a quarrel with 
the Earl of Oxford, but the queen interposed 
to prevent a duel from taking place. Sidney, 
displeased at the issue of the affair, then retired 
to Wilton in Wiltshire, 1580. and amused him- 
self with the composition of his celebrated pas- 
toral romance, 'Arcadia.' In 1565 he projected 
with Sir Francis Drake an expedition against 
the Spaniards in America, and he bad gone to 
Plymouth to embark on the undertaking, when 
an express mandate from Elizabeth recalled him 
to coiirl. Her influence also was exerted to 
prevent him from being elected king of Poland, 
"refusing," as Camden says, "to further his ad- 
of fear that she should lose the 

pointed governor of Fliisliinir, and general o. 

cavalry under his uncle Dudley, earl of Leicester, 
who commanded the forces gent to assist the 
Dutch against the Spaniards. On 22 Sept. 1^, 
being at the head of a detachment of the English 
troops, he fell in with a convoy of the enemy 
marching toward Zutphen. In the rash charge 
of 500 against 3,000, Sidney received a shot in 
his thigh, which shattered the bone. An incident 



that occurred as he was being borne off the scholarships, and a number of exhibitions. Tlit 

field illustrates hia character. It is thus re- scholarships vary in value from $150 to ^303 a 
corded by Lord Brooke, his biographer; *In year. The college was erected on the site of an 
which sad progress, passing along by the rest of ancient Franciscan convent. It consists of two 
the army where his uncle the general was, and courts much defaced by modern alterations, 
being thirsty with excess of bleeding, he called Oliver Cromwell and Thomas Fuller were mem- 
for some drink, which was presently brought bers of this college. There are eight church 
him ; but as he was putting the bottle to his livings in the patronage of the college, 
moulh he saw a poor soldier carried along who Sidoa, si'don, or Zidon (Arabian, Saida), 
had eaten his last at the same feas^ ghastly Phcrnicia (q.v.), on the Syrian coast of the Medi- 
rasting up his eyes at the bottle. Which Sir terranean, lies midway between Tyre and Beirut 
Philip perceiving took it from his head before it is surrounded by a wall with two gates. Its 
he drank, and delivered it to the poor man with chief interest is historical It was a wlalthy and 
these words : 'Thy necessity is greater than ancient cily, with an excellent harbor and much 
mine.' » His body was earned to England, and commercial enterprise. It was watered by the 
after lying wveral days in state was buried in ^leains of Lebanon, and many allusions to it 
Old Samt Pauls Cathedral. His brief career, are found in secular and Scriptural writings 
which to many may seem not to justify hisgreat Sidon was referred to as 'The first-born of 
reputation, nevertheless made a powerful impres- Canaan> ; Homer alludes to the ingenious 
sion on English patriotism. So universally was Sidonians and their artistic handiwork The 
he esteemed that a general moummg for hira town was famous for its manufactures of glass 
was observed throughout the whole country. For linen, purple dye, and perfumes. The Sidonians 
a month no gentlemen of quality cared to ap- had their own monarch, but it was once subject 
pear in London without mourning garb. He was to Tyre, and later to the Persians. It passed 
panegyrized by his contemporaries, and the uni- through many vicissitudes, finally passing over 
versifies issued three volumes of elegies on his to the Moslems (1291). in the 17th and i8th 
death His works, besides the Arcadia,' con^ centuries it became the seat of French com- 
Sist of the <Defence of Poesy' :"Astrophel, and merce. It is now called Saidi. Interesting 
Stella'; a collection entitled 'Songs and Son- sarcophagi have been found here (now in Cor^ 
nets,' and other poetical pieces. None of this stantinople) Poo iixwo 
was published in his lifetime, his great contem- e-j T - « . ,' ,.' „ „ 
porary fame being based on the reports of those Sidonia, Order of. See Osmbs, Royal. 
to whom his manuscripts were communicated. Sid'ra, Oulf of (ancient Svims Major), 
He is best known for his 'Arcadia,' one of the Tripoli, a wide gulf of the Mediterranean Sea 
earliest specimens of the heroic romance, writ- between the main portion of Tripoli and the pla- 
ten in mingled prose and verse, the latter ex- ?"" "f Barca. Its coast-line of over 500 miles 
hibiting various attempts to naturalize the mea- '" "^^'t *'"i shoals and sand-banks, offering no 
sures of Roman poetry, and for the 'Astrophd harbor except Bengazi, at the extreme eastern 
and Stella' cycle of 108 sonnets and 11 songs. *"''■ 

Consult: 'Life' by Fulk Greville; also Davis, Siebengebirge, zfi'b«n-g6-ber"ge, Germany, 

'Life and Times of Sir Philip Sidney' (1859) ; a small chain of mountains near the Rhine, — 

Lloyd, 'Life of Sir Philip Sidney' (1862J; Prussia, 20 miles above Cologne. Above the 
Boum^ 'Memoir of Sir Philip Sidney' (i86z) ; main range rise seven lofty summits, whence the 
Symonds, 'Sir Philip Sidney' (1886); 'Sir name. These rugged heights are all crowned 
Philip Sidney: a Type of English Character in with ancient lordly castles. Olberg is the high- 
the Elizabethan Age' (1891); Ely, 'Chaucer, est peak (1,522 feet); while the Drachenfels is 
Spenser and Sidney' (1894) ; Marshall, 'Pens- the more interesting. Cologne Cathedral was 
hurst Castle in the Time of Sir I^ip Sidney' built from stones quarried in these Rhenish 
(1894). mountains. Some of the peaks are ascended by 
Sidney Luska. See Hakland, Hxkby. especially built railways. The scenery is ro- 
Sidney, Ohio, city, county-Beat of Shelby "^"'"= ^"^ interesting. 
County; on the Miami River, the Miami & Ene Siebert, se'bert, Wilbur Henry, American 
Canal, and on the Cincinnati, H. & D., and educator : b. Columbus, Ohio, 30 Aug. i86a He 
the QeveUnd, C, C. & St. L R.R.'s; about was graduated from the Ohio Stale University in 
40 miles north of Dayton and 6$ miles west by 188S, studied in Germany in 1890-I, was asso- 
north of Columbus. It is in an agricultural ciate professor of European histoi^ at the Ohio 
r^ion, and has considerable manufacturing in- State University in 1898-1903, smce when he 
terests. The government census of 1900 gives has been professor of that branch. He )ias pub- 
the number of manufacturing establishments in lished: 'The Underground Railroad from 
the city at loi, with a capital invested of $1,173,- Slavery to Freedom' (1898-9) ; 'The Govern- 
805. There were in these establishments 935 ment of Ohio' (1903); etc. 
wage-earners, receiving annually a total of $337,- SleboW, zeTjolt, Kul Theodor Ernat von. 
610. The raw material cost annually $1,^669, German physiologist and zoologist: b. Wiirzburg 
and the annual vajueofthe product was $i3s8r ,6 Feb. 1804; d. Munich 7 April 1885. He 
6a6. The educational institutions are a high studied at Gottingen and Berlin, in 1840 was 
achool,_ public and pansh elementary schools, ^ade professor of physiology at Erlangen, in 
two private schools, and a public library. Pop. ig^g at Freiburg, in 1850 at Breslau. In 1853 he 
(1910) 6,607. was made professor of physiology and corn- 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, Eng- parative anatomy at Munich, where to his chair 
land, was founded in 1594 by Lady Frances Sid- were later added duties as professor of zoology 
ney, countess-dowager of Sussex, aunt to Sir and director of (he zoological and zootomical 
Philip Sidney. There are 10 fellowships, 34 cabinet. His ajntributions to scientific research 



are suggested by Ihc titles of his monographs : 

'Observaliones de Salamandris et Tritonibus' 
(i8z8>; 'Ueber die Band und Blasenwiirmer' 
(1854) ; 'Wahre Parthenogenesis bei Schmetter- 
lingen und Bienen' (1856); 'Beitrage lur 
Parthenogenesis der Arthopoden' (1871). Con- 
sult Hertwig's memorial address 'Gedachtniss- 
rede> (1886). 

Siebold, Philipp Franz von, German phy- 
sician and traveler: b. Wurzburg 17 Feb. 1796; 
d. Munich 18 Oct 1866. He was a son of a pro- 
fessor of medicine at Wiirzburg, and there re- 
ceived his education. In 1822 be removed to the 
Netherlands and became sanitary officer at Ba- 
tavia. He accompanied the Dutch embassy to 
Japan in 1826 and remained there until 1830. He 
made a second visit in 1859-62. His books upon 
the Japanese, their language, the flora and 
fauna of the country, etc., did much to make that 
country known to the world. He published: 
'Nippon, Archiv zur Beschreibung von Jyian* 
(1832) ; 'Fauna japonica' (1833) ; 'Flora 
japonica' (1835) ; 'Bibliotheca japonica' 
('833-41); 'Calaiogus librorum japonicorum' 
(1845) : 'Isagoge in bibliothecam Japonicam' 
(1841) ; 'Epitome linguae japonica:' (1826-53); 
'Florx japonicae familiae naturales' (1851). 

Si^e, in warfare, the surrounding or in- 
vestment of a fortified place by an army with a 
view to its capture. The taking of a fortified 
place may be attempted (i) by surprise, (2) by a 
sudden onset, (3) by blockade out of gunshot 
(see Blockai>E>, (4) by a siege, properly so 
called. In a regular siege the fortress is first 
blockaded, so as to cut off all intercourse from 
without, the besieging force encamping just be- 
yond reach of the enemies' guns. Then if any 
detached works are situated before the, 
their capture must be effected in order to admit 
the opening of the trenches. Tlie trenches are 
formed in the direction of the fortress; hut that 
they may not be enfiladed from thence, they must 
proceed in a zigzag form. For the protectwn 
of the workers trenches called parallels, because 
they run in a direction parallel or nearly so to 
the sides of the fortress, are dug at intervals. 
While the trenches are being opened, the be- 
sieged, by sallies and counter operations of every 
kind, strive to drive off the besiegers, and to 
destroy their work; and the besiegers make 
efforts to establish themselves more and more 
securely, to raise batteries, and then, by means 
of trenches and advanced parallels, to approach 
the walls of the fortress ; and all the while the 
artillery is kept constantly playing from the bat- 
teries of the besiegers as well as from the works 
and guns of the besieged. From the last 
parallel, which approaches very near the fortress, 
the besiegers prepare to make breaches. Here 
likewise mining operations are carried on when- 
ever they are found advisable. When at last the 
breaches are practicable the storming or scaling 
of the walls follows. See Fortification. 

Among the great sieges in the world's history 
were those of Troy, Tyre (572. 332 b.c). Syra- 
cuse {396 B.C.), Saguntum (zig B.C.), Jerusalem 
(70 A.O.), Acre (1191, etc.), Calais (134;), Or- 
leans (1428), Constantinople (1453), Haarlem 
(1572-3). Leyden (1574), Breda (1623), Ro- 
chelle {i6z8), Magdeburg (1631), Breisach 
(1638). Taunton {i«44-s), Londonderry (1689), 

Gibralur (1731, 1779. i7^-3>, Prague 
(1741-4), Leipsic (1757, 1813), Quebec (1759- 
60), Seringapatam (1799), Genoa (1800), Sara- 
gossa (1808-9), Ciudad Rodrigo (1810, 1812), 
New Orleans (1814), Antwerp {1832), Rome 
(1849), Sebasiopol (1854-5). Kars (1855), 
Lucknow (1857), Delhi (1857), Gaeta (1860-1), 
Vicksburg (1863), Charleston (1863-4), Rich- 
mond (1864-S), Met! (1870), Strasburg (1870), 
Belfort (1870-1), Paris (1870-1), Plevna 
(1877), Khartum (1884), Ladysmith (1900). 
and Port Arthur (1904). 

Siege Gun. See Foktification ; Ordnance. 

Siegen, ze'gfn, Ludwig von, German in- 
ventor: b. about 1609; d. Wolfenbuttel 1680. He 
was a lieutenant in the Hessian army and in- 
vented the art of mezzotint engraving which 
was learned from him by Prince Rupert and so 
introduced into England. 

Siegen, Germany, Prussia, a town in the 
province of Westphalia, on the Sieg River, 63 
miles east of Cologne. Two castles, belonging 
to the period of the Principality, ire in this town, 
several Protestant and Catholic churches, and a 
monument to William I., and a bronze bust of 
Bismarck. It has always had important mining 
and manufacturing interests, and is the centre of 
the mining industry of southern Westphalia. 
It has large tanneries, foundries, factories for 
leather and paper, etc. It is on the line of sev- 
eral railways. There is a school of mining and 
a real gymnasium. 

SiemenB, ze'mens, Ernst Werner von, 
German engineer and electrician : b. Lenthe 13 
Dec. i8r6; d. Berlin 6 Dec. 1892. He entered 
the Prussian artillery in 1834. Having developed 
scientific tastes, he took out his Tirst patent in 
1842 for a process of silver and gold electro 
plating. In 1842 he went to England with his 
brother^ Karl Wilhelm, to establish the business 
known there by the firm name of Siemens Broth- 
ers. In 1844 he took charge of the artillery 
workshops in Berlin. He aided in developing 
the telegraphic system in Prussia, and discovered 
the insulating properties of gutta-percha which 
were utilized in underground and submarine 
cables. He left the army in 1649 and devoted 
his energies to electrical business, particularly 
the construction of telegraph apparatus. The 
first great continental telegraph line, that between 
Berlin and Frankfort-on-the-Main, was built by 
him in 1849, and the firm of Siemens Brothers 
laid six Atlantic cables. The pneumatic- tube 
system was invented by him and also various 
modifKations of self-acting dynamos. In 18S6 
he gave 500,000 marks to found an institute of 
physics and technology. He published 'Posi- 
tive Vorschlage zu einem Patentgesetz' (1869); 
'Gesammelte Abhandlungen und Vortrage' 
(18S1); 'Wissenschaftlichc und technische 
Arbeiten' (1889-91) ; 'Lebenserinnerungen* 

Siemens, se'menz, Sih Karl Wilhelm, Eng- 
lish physicist and inventor ; h. Lenthe, Hanover, 
4 April 1823; d. London 19 Nov. 1883. He was 
educated at the gymnasium at Liibeck. the poly- 
technic school at Magdeburg, and the Uni- 
versity of Gottingen. At 19 he became a pupil 



in the engine works of Count Stolberg, and a ^jf*^ se-a'na, or Sienna, sc-Sn'n?, Italy, 
year later visited England for the purpose of (i) Capital of a province of the same name, and 
introducing a method of electro plating, the joint an archiepiscopal see, 6i miles south of Rorence, 
invention of his brother Werner and himself, occupies a lofty site on the southern frontiers of 
Id the same year the brothers invented a differ- Tuscany. It is enclosed by an Etruscan wall 
ential governor for si earn- engines, and in 1844 with nine gates, has a strong citadel, and is ia 
he again went to England to patent this inven- all respects a typical Italian town; the Piazza 
tioo. From that time he settled in England, be- di Vittorio Emanuele is historical. Siena out- 
coming naturalized in 1859. Among tlic many ranks all the other cities in its art history from 
other inventions with which he, in combination the 13th to Che l6th centuries (excepting Rome 
with his brothers, must be credited, are the re- and Florence). This art is largely represented 
generating gas furnace for metallurgical pur- in its public buildings ; the fine Gothic calhe- 
poses, the processofmakingsteel and iron direct dral^ Ci3th centiu'y) has a remarkable faqade 
from the ore, which has revolutionized the steel inlaid with marbles of various colors and with 
and iron trades, and improvements in the raanu- profuse decorations, after a design by Pisano. 
facture and laying of telegraph lines. He was the interior contains a famous pulpit by the 
elected to the Royal Society in 1862; was one same sculptor (1274) ; a mosaic pavement inlaid 
lime president of the British Association ; and with biblical scenes and magnificent choir stalls 
was knighted in 1883. He published 'On the of fine renaissance; 6 paintings by Michelan- 
Utilization of Heat and Other Natural Forces> gelo ; bronze statue of John the Baptist, by Don- 
( 1878) ; <The Dynamo Electric Current and its ^^^^^° ■ a high-al(ar by Peruzzx, etc. In the library 
Steadiness' (1881); 'On the Conservation of "'^ the celebrated frescoes by Pinturicchio, and 
Solar Energy' {1883). His 'Scientific Works> t^e finely illuminated choir-books, resting on 
were edited by E. F. Bamber (1888). elaborately carved desks. On the south side 
of the cathedral is the antique marble group 
Slemenng, zfi'mEr-Ing, Rudolpii, German of the three graces, found {1460) in the Palazzo 
sculptor; b. Konigsberg 10 Aug. 1835; d. 23 Colonna at Rome. Beneath the cathedral the 
Jan. 1905. He attended the local Art Academy Church of San Giovanni is enclosed as a crypt. 
in youth, and afterward became the pupil of It was formerly a baptistery and contains some 
Blaser in Berlin. He was invited to take part fine baptismal fonts and bronze bas-reliefs. The 
in the decoration of Konigsberg University, and other most interesting churches are: San Do- 
furnisned for that purpose medalhon portraits oi menico, Fontegiusta, Santo Bernardino, Fonte 
its learned men. In i860 he produced his'Pe- Gaja, Sant Agoslino, the Coliegiata di Proven- 
nelope' and in i860 a sitting figure in marble of zano, etc, all rich in chef d'xxtvres of painting 
King Wilhelm for the Exchange in Berlin; and and sculpture by Sienese and other Italian 
a lerra-cotta statue of Liebnitz, for the Academy artists. The city contains numerous and splen- 
of Science at Perth, productions remarkable for did palaces, municipal offices and public insti- 
realistic modeUng, and imposing expression. In tutions, induding the Palatii Tolomei (120s) 
1871 he executed the masterly relief ' Uprising of and Buonsignori ; Palazzo del Governo, contain- 
the People at the Summons of their King'; and ing valuable archives (52,000 MSS.) ; Palazzo 
the following year a design for the Goethe monu- Spanocchi (now post-office and telegraph 
ment. His next work was the statue of Fred- bureau) ; the Loggia dei Nobili (in imitation of 
erick the Great for Marienburg. In 1882 he the Log^ dei Lanzi at Florence), and the 
completed the sculpture for the monument of the Palazzo Publico. The Instituto dei Belli Arti 
counts in Berlin. The greatest of his works, contains a fine collection of paintings of the 
however, was the war monument in the market early Sienese school, from the dismantled mon- 
place at Leipsic, ' Germany, ' as an armed heroine, asteries, and modem works ; the Public Library 
Worthyalaoof special noticewasthesittingsutue contains 76,oc» volumes and 5,000 MSS.; the 
of Emperor William L with the four colossal eques- Academia dei Fisiocritici contains a museum 
trianfigures — King Albert o( Saxony, Emperor of natural history; the University (1321) has 
Frederick. Bismarck. Moltkc, and eight figures limited facilities, and but two faculties; there 
of soldiers. He was the author of the colossal are a lyceum, a technical school, a theatre, and 
equestrian statue of Washington whose pedesta! many prosperous charitable institutions and hos- 
ts enriched with reliefs and accessory sculptures, pitals. Fonte Gaia. Fontrfiranda — immortalized 
— ■ ■ 3 unveiled in Fair- by Dante — and Fonte Nuova t" ■'- 

mount Park, Philadelphia. May 1897. Siemer- beautiful fountains, and at the southeast stands 

ing's group, 'Saint Gertrude Hospitably receiving the Benedictine convent "Monte-Oli veto Mag-^ 

a Traveling Scholar. > was finished and set upon f^ort' on the summit of Mount Acofur, with 

the Bridge of Saint Gertrude at Berlin in 1896. "ne frescoes. The Lizza promenade is much 

He was also the author <A numerous portrait frequented. The manufactures are unimportant ; 

busts, and occupied the post of royal professor in "^de consists chief!? in common and fine 

Ranch Museum. marble. 

_. , . „ .,-,„,., . Its history 13 somewhat mythical as tg origin, 

_ SiemiradjH, syem-l-radz ki, Henryk, Pol- and of ancient date. From the Etruscans — its 

wh painter ; b. Grodno government 15 Nov. 1843. founders — it passed into the hands of the Ro- 

He studied art m the Academy of Samt Peters- mans, and then to t!ie Lombards. The people 

burg, and after a sojourn in Munich, fixed his rebelled against the rule of the nobles in the 

stUdK. in Rome. Among his best canvases are: 12th century, and warred with Florence in that 

'Nero 5 Torches' (1876); 'The Vase or the and the succeeding century, and in the I4tb cen- 

fji^r ^^79): 'The Amuet-Sellcr' (1888); tury they resigned their liberties to the Duke 

'Uinst Stillmg the Waves.' He also decor- of Milan, after many years of internal strife; 

ated with much skill two ceilings in the Netcb- especially memorable is the strife of 1480, when 

aiev PaUce of Saint Petersburg. Pandoifo Petrucci acquired practical control of i 



the state. Later, the city placed itself under the The protectorate extends inland SO as to nave 
protection of Charles V. of Spain, and thus French Guinea on the north, Liberia on the 
iniposed upon itself a burden of tyranny, while east and southeast) area, about 30,000 square 
hoping to be freed from a petty dcspoiism, and miles. The surface near the shore, though some- 
the city became the scene of fretjuent rioi and times rocky, is generally flat, but in the interior 
bloodshed. The Siencse then entered into treaty are many hills and mountains, varying in height 
with France. Finally, after renewed hostilities from 500 to 3,«Xi feet. Some parts are low and 
by Spain and Cosimo I. de Medici, Siena was swampy; most parts are well watered. The soil, 
reduced and annexed to Tuscany. In 1859, the of which only a comparatively small portion is 
city was the first to vote for (he monarchy of under regular cultivation, is fertile, growing ex- 
Victor Emmanuel H., which led to the union of cellent crops of rice, Indian-corn, yams, plan- 
the Italian stales. Pop. 28,355. (2) The Prov- tains, pumpkins, and cassava. Sugar, coffee, 
ince of Siena, in the grand duchy of Tuscany, indigo, ginger, and cotton also thrive well. The 
covers an area of 1471 square miles, and is fruits include the baobab, cocoanut, banana, 
divided into two districts, Montepulciano and pineapple, orange, lime, guava, papaw, pome- 
Siena. There is an important agricultural in- granate, etc. The forests are extensive, and the 
dustry; also an extensive silk industry. The trees in them are often so magnificent as to be 
chief products are wheat, wine, and olives. The converted into caiioes (Capable of containing 100 
province is traversed by the Florence-Rome rail- men. The principal live stock are pigs and 
way which branches off at Asciano toward goats. Poultry also, particularly guinea-fowls, 
Siena, Pop. 233,83a are very abundant Tlie fisheries both on the 
_, , . , , , / . , Ti 1. n , coast and in the rivers are productive. The chief 
SienkiewicB, sy£n;kyevich, Henryk, Pol- industrial establishments are those i; '"• ■' 

Kh novelist :b. Vola Okrzeyska. government of paim-oil is extracted and prepared. Boal-build- 
Radom, 4 May 1846. He was educated at the \„g jg 3,50 (.a„ied on to some extent, native cloth 
University of Warsaw, published some critical jg „^^^„^ and leather is dressed on a small scale, 
articles m l86g, was for a time editor of 'Siovo,' Trade is carried on chiefly with Great Britain. 
a journal of Warsaw, and m 1870 sent to press The lota! value of imports for the year 1901 was 
his first work of fiction,_<Na Marne,> rendered $2,74M3o; of exports, 51,520,050. The total ton- 
into English by the official translator Jeremcah ngge of vessels entered and cleared for the same 
Curtin (q.v-). as 'In Vain' (1899). In 1876 he y^^j ^^g 1,249,808 Ions, of which 1,028,941 were 
came tothe United States, where for a lime British. The principal articles of import are 
he remained m California. He traveled also cottons, wines and spirits, tobacco, apparel, hab- 
m central Afnca m 1891 Among his chief erdashery, flour, salt, etc.; of exports, palm- 
works accessible in English are the foUowinK. kernels, kola-nuts, gum copal, ginger, benniseed. 
all by Curtin except where otherwise specified: ^tc. The total revenue in 1901 was $960,690, and 
•The Deluge' (1891) ; <With Fire and Sword» the expenditure amounted to about ^7.Soa 
(1893); 'Without Dograa> (Young) (1893); The strongest religious bodies are the Church 
'Pan Michael' (1894): 'Quo Vadis?' (1897). of England and the Wesleyan Methodists. The 
with scene in the Rome of Nero, his best-known number of white inhabitants is only about 350. 
hook; 'Let Us Follow Him> (1897) ; 'So Runs Education is denominational, but is assisted by 
the World> (the Soissons) {1898); 'On the state aid. There arc some 80 elementary schools. 
Bright Shore' (1898); 'Sielanka and Other the number of pupils on *he rolls being over 
Stories' (i8g8); and 'Knights of the Cross' 8,000. There is a college at Furab Bay for the 
(1899). Perhaps lus bestworkis to bejound in education of a native ministry, supported by the 
'With Fire and Sword,' <The Deluge,* wid Chiirch Missionary Society and affiliated to 
'Pan Michael.' In 1905 he received the Nobel Durham University; secondary schools for boya 
priM in hterature. .and for girls at Freetown, a technical school, etc 
Sicm. Jnato, Mexican educator and sitrra Leone was discovered by the Portuguese 
statesman : b. Campeche 36 Jan. 1848. At the ;„ 1463 and first became a British colony in 1787. 
age of z3 he became a lawyer and advocate, Soon after, a company was formed with the 
After the downfall of President Lcrdo, Sierra humane intenrion of making it a home for free 
retired from pohtics, hut soon re-entered public negroes, and proving by their means that colonial 
service as a member of the lower branch of the products could be raised without slave-labor. 
federal congress. In this position his education, \„ igo, a grmt of the peninsnla was made to the 
oratorical abilities, and intense loyalty soon won company, but m 1807 the company ceded all their 
for him great influence and prominence. He rights to the crown. Since then the position of 
was called from Europe, where he was serving gierra Leone has varied at different timet. Its 
on an important mission, to become secretary of aPairs are now administered by a nnvemor and 
public instruction. A number of his historical 3^ executive council of several official members, 
and educational works are used as text-books ^th a legislative council. One great obstacle 
- "-- National Preparatory School apd in other (q jts prosperity is the deadly nature of its cli- 

s of learning. mate, particularly to Europeans; but i 
Sierra Leone, se-?r'ra le-6'n5 or le-on' Rress- though slow, has been steady. The natives 
(Sp. ia-o*na). West Africa, a British colonial can live in comfort with little exertion. Free- 
territory, consisting of a colony proper and a to*" 'l-^) 's now a fortified coalmg station 
■ ; protectorate. The colony con- and centre of trade. A railway runs inland for 

sists of the peninsula of Sierra Leone, about 25 some distance. Pop, about 80,000; with pro- 
miles long and 12 miles broad, of Sherbro Island tectorate, about 1,000,000. 

and a few islets, and of all the coast strip be- Sierra Madre, ma'dra (Sp. ma'thra). (1) A 
tween French Guinea and Liberia; total area, range of mountains in Southern CaHfornia, in 
about Zfica square miles. The capital, Freetown, Los Angeles and adjoining counties on the north- 
is at the northwest extremity of the peninsula, east. (2) A range in the southern part oi Wy- 



oming in Carbon County. (3) The range in thering its progress, and wrote three pampbleU 

Mexico which borders the plateau on the west, on the mode in which the three estates were to 

It is a continuation of the range on the west- vote, whereby he was brought into very scneral 

em border of the Great Sail Lake basin in the and favorable notice. With him originated the 

United States. In Mexico, the range is much idea of a new geographical division of France 

broken; the peaks, exc^t a few, do not exceed into departments, arrondissements, and com- 

10,000 feet in height. This range is sometimes munes. He also took an active part in the for- 

called Sierra Madre del Facifico. In Southern mation of the new constitution, and was in 1791 

Mexico is a range called Sierra Madre del Sur. member for the department of the Seine. In 

(See Mexico) (4) One of the three principal 1?92 he was deputy for the department of the 

mountain ranges of the island of Luzon, Philip- Sarthe; but generally contented himself with 

pines. It begins at Caraballo de Baler, in the merely recordmg his vote. During the Reign 

southeastern part of the province of Nueva of Terror he withdrew into the country, but 

Ecija and extends northeast to Cape Engaik), on the downfall of Robespierre he returned to 

the northeast point of the island. A branch of the convention and took an active part in puh- 

this range called MamparSn starting at Caralwllo lie measures, more especially forei|^ affairs, con- 

Sur, in (he northern cart of Nueva Ecija ex- ducting seven! important negotiations with other 

tends to the north. Tlie highest peak is Mount states. In 1798 he went on a mission to Berlin, 

Moises. and succeeded in securing the neutrality of 

Sierra Hadre del Padrico. See SiEUtA ?"Vi?: ^ ^^ l^"^" j" ^^r^^^ succeeded 

j,jjj„^^ Bewbell as a member of the Directory, and 

_, „ , ■ , „ o c ir shortly after succeeded in displacing three of 

Siem HftdR del Sm. See Subka Madbbl hj, colleapies, so as to obtain a majority favor- 
Sierra Morcna, mo-re'na, Spain, an irregu- able to his views. He afterward, with the aa- 
lar mountain chain, about 380 miles in extent, sistance of Fouch£, closed the Jacobin Club, 
which forms the watershed between the Gua- This measure made him very obnoxious to the 
diana and Guadalquivir rivers, and extends be- extreme Republican party, and under the con- 
tween the south and the northern boundaries of viction that faction was now to be kept down 
Andalusia, for which reason it is sometimes only by force he began to look out for a mi1itai7 
known as the Andalusian System. This system leader. He thouriit of several, but fixed at last 
consists of three distinct parts. The eastern on Bonaparte. The revolution of the i8tb Bru- 
division through which the railroad and high- maire was the result ; but Sieyes, who hoped 
way pass on the way to Madrid, presents a mag- he had only obtained a coadjutor, soon learned 
■' ■ ■ ~ . - . ■' ■ • had SI '* 

nificent landscape. Tbe highest summits are that he had subjected himself to a mastpr. 

Cerro EstreUa {5,500 feet), m the west, and in did not, however, retire unrewarded, but proved 

Estremadura, the Tudia. On the watershed, be- that the simplicity and disinterestedness of 

tween the Murtiga and the Huelva near tbe which he had boasted were more nominal than 

source of the Odiel, the water fall is great; real, by obtaining, along with the title of count, 

many chestnut trees and cork oaks are found; grants of lands and other property to the. value, 

also extensive marble qnarries. The range of at least fasc^ooa 

abounds in copper, linc, quicksilver, iron, etc, Slffienr'. See Makuot. 

r,.fj^^T^ ?„";T!Pti,^,^n»"in*''r™?'^ Siffo, sif-loo'. Or Slbbfi, Mb-boo', a river 

ran^e*) (i) The loftiest mountain range in ^f the island of Luzon. Philippines. It rises in 

Spain. It extends east and west through A nda- ^he eastern part of the provide of Bmitt^and 

lusia and Granada, terminatmg on the Mediter- n^„^ south "and east through the province^ 

ranean shore where it forms several prpmor^ i^bej, to the Rio Giandede (i^j^Tit Z 

tones. Its highest peak, Mulahacen (11,678 ^^^ ^f the most important trib^M of thi 

feet), is covered by perpetual snow; Veleta, next Caravan in Isahela 

in height, has an elevation of II J78 feet These ^--^^y^ "^ ^^■ 

high peaks are penetrated by deep valleys or _S»geI. sag«I, Fran*. American military 

gorges, with here and there small, icy lakes, of ?™«^^ »; Sinsheim, Baden, 18 Nov. 1824 ; d. 

which the Corral de Veleta extends into an im- ^'^ X."™ ?' "«B- '902. He was graduated 

mense glacier 8,580 feet high. The loftiest pass *™?> *<' military school at Carlsruhe in 1843, 

is the Qsllado de Veleta (9,900 feet), where the ^° *** commissioned lieutenant in the army, 

snow line is from 8,970 to 9,300 feet high. (2) but resigned m 1847. In 1848 he raised a corps 

A mounuin range in California, separatmg the t** volunteers to serve in the Baden insurrection 

interior basin of Nevada from the vaUey of Call- afid, became commander-in-chiet of the revolu- 

fomia. The highest peaks and the cfest line of ''P"""- Arrested by the Swiss authorities in 

the range are on the eastern margin. The high- J?5i he escaped and in 1852 came to the United 

est peaks in rank of altitude are Whitney, Tyn- ='^^^- Hf. setded in New York and conducted 

dall, Dana. Brewer, and Lyell. The chief passes ?^"1 " ™'""^3' i?agazine <Die Revue,* remov- 

are the Truckee, 7,200 feet, and crossed by the "iS.m "S? to baint Louis where he established 

Central Pacific; the Beckworth, S.igo feet; the a similar paper and also engaged in teaching. 

Walker, 5.320 feet ; Tehachaja, 1830 feet, crossed ^* '"? outbreak of Ihe Civil War he oixaniied 

by the Southern Pacific. (SmRocicy Moun- f,. "/""f"^ t^^*^* Federal army and went to 

TAINS.) (3) A mountain range in Colombia, »* front, participated in the battles of Oirthw^, 

S. A., 23.779 feet in height. See Colombia. D"K Spnn^s.and Pea R.dge; and in May iSi 

„, » ■ . = . , . , . was commissioned brigadier-general of volun- 

.. ^"y?.'' .^V*"??^' Emmanuel Jo«eph (the teers. He was promoted major-general in 1862 

Abbe SieySs), French politician: b. Frejus and assigned to a corps in the Army of Vir- 

1748; d. Pans 1836. He commenced his studies ginia, which he commanded in the series of 

at the University of Pans, and when the Revo^ operations from Cedar Creek to the second liat- 

tution broke out he took an active part in fur- tie of Bull Run. He was appointed to com 



maud the Western Pensylvania Reserves in tivi^. SJgisntund rescued her and on the mur- 
1863 and in 1864 was transferred to the com- der of Durazzo was crowned king of Hungary 
mand of the Department of Western Virginia, in 1387. His war against the Turks, though sup- 
successfully defending Maryland Heights against ported by the French and German chivalry, re- 
General Early's raid m July 1864. though his suited in a disastrous defeat at Nicopolis in 1396, 
force was but 4,000 men against 15,000. He re- and Sigismund was compelled to escape into 
signed his commission after the war, was editor Greece, On his return to Hungary in J401 he 
of the Baltimore 'Wrecker' in 1865-7 and later found his queen dead, his throne occupied by 
removed to New York. He was appointed col- Ladislaus of Naples, and his brother Wences- 
lector of internal revenue in 1871 and elected laus maintaining with difficulty his throne in 
registrar of New York in the same year. Bohemia, having been deposed in Germany. He 
In 1868 he was appointed pension-agent, and was imprisoned by Ladislaus, but escaped, raised 
later edited the 'New York Monthly.' a Ger- a large force and in 1403 succeeded in expelling 
man-American publication, and was the author Ladislaus and subduing the kingdom. In 141 1 
of various essays on military subjects. he was elected emperor of Germany and was 
Sighing;, an act of respiration beginning in crowned at Aix-ta- Chape lie in 1414. During 
an involuntary, often sudden, sometimes pro- the Council of Constance in 1414 he allowed 
longed inspiration, in which the diaphragm John Huss to be put to death for heresy, an 
descends; uie expiralory act which follows, and act which resulted in the Hussite war. Wences- 
wbich constitutes the "sigh,* being caused by laus died in 1419, but it was not until 1431, 
the recoil of the chest-walls and lungs and by when he signed the compact with the Council ol 
the action of the abdominal muscles. Sighing Basel, that the Hussites would permit the ac- 
usually illustrates simple respiration as modified knowledgment of his succession to the Bohe- 
by mental or emotional conditions or by some mian throne. He was crowned emperor in 
factor of sensation. During strained attention, Milan in 1431, and his coronation was repeated 
as when listening to a thrilling speaker, or wit- in Rome in 1433. The Luxemburg dynasty be- 
nessing an exciting scene, the resiiirations be- came extinct at his death, as he was succeeded 
come very short and quickly recurring, with an by his son-in-law, Albert II. of Saxony, 
occasional long sighing inspiration at intervals. Sigiaraund I„ aurnamed The Grkt, king 
Sight See Eye; Senses; Vision. of Poland: b. i Jan. 1467; d. Cracow 1 April 
Sight, Defects ol. See Vision, Defects OF. '548- He was the youngest son of King Casi- 
r,. ... . ...,.,. ( f -1 mir IV., and in 1506 succeeded his brother Alex- 

SigiUana sij-i-lan-a a genus of foss. ^^^^^ „„ j,,^ ^^^^^ ^j p^,^^ The war with 
plants found m great abundance m the coal ^^e Russians, which was urged forward by the 
measures. The plant occurs in the form of corn- Lithuanian prince Michad Glinski, gave him em- 
pressed stems attaining 3 height of 40 to 50 feet, pioyment thVoughout his whole reign. The peace 
and a breadth of 5 feet. The stem is seldom „f p^^^^^ ^^^ „,5„ disturbed by inroads of the 
found preserved so as to show any structure or Tartars, and of the Wallachians. On the other 
even its cyhndrical form ; .1 generally occurs as ^^„^ p^^^^^ „^^ increased by the addition of 
a double layer of coal, sliowing on the outer sur- Masovia. By his toleration the Reformation 
faces longitudinal furrows due to the arrange- s-^ead in Poland, and Protestantism became the 
ment of the leaves on the stem, and at regular prevailing religion both in Grand Poland and 
intervals the scars produced by the bases of the poij^,, Prussia. Sigismund, after the death of 
leaf-stalks. The roots are found preserved in i,is wife, Barbara Zapolika, married a daughter 
the shale which forms the floor of all coal of the waywodc of Transylvania and Bona 
seams : they were originally supposed to be dis- sforza of Milan. This marriage was the cause 
tinct plants, and have received the generic name ^f njj„y misfortunes to the country. The Italian 
of Sitgmana. No foliage of any kind has been soon secured for herself an influence in the gov- 
fouiid connected with the trunk. Some suppose ernment, sold the public offices and at last placed 
Sigillarias to be allied to tree-ferns, others to piaU Kmita at the head of the administration, 
Conifer(e. King says that if in imagination we which acts contributed to destroy the popularity 
delineate a channeled stem of any height he- ^f ,1,^ king. Under Sigismund the golden age of 
tween 12 and 100 feet, crowned with a pendant andent Polish literature began, 
fern-like foliage, furnished with Sigiimund II.. Augwtus, king of Poland; 

Sigismund, sljfs-mflnd (Ger. ze'gls- mother, Bona Sforza. allowed him to grow up 
moont), emperor of Germany, son of Charles in luxury and effeminacy that she might be 
IV, : b. 14 Feb. 1368; d. Znaim, Moravia, 9 Dec. able to continue her influence during the govern- 
1437. He succeeded to the margraviate of meiit of her son ; but upon his accession he 
Brandenburg on the death of his father in 1378, disappointed her expectations. When by the 
while his brother Wencealaus, king of Bohemia, revival of ancient laws he proceeded firmly in 
succeeded to (he throne. By his marriage to curtailing the powers of the nohiiity they en- 
Mary, heir of Louis the Great, king of Poland deavored unsuccessfully to depose him. Bona, 
and Hungary, he became heir-apparent to the universally haled, finally quitted Poland with 
throne of these two countries, but on the death immense treasures for Italy, where she was pois- 
of Lonis in 1383 the Poles chose Hedwig, Louis' oned by her paramour in 1557. Under SiR- 
younger daughter, for their queen, and the ismund (he Reformation made great progress in 
regency of the Hungarian throne was seized by Poland, and many senators, landed proprietors, 
Charles Durazzo, while Mary was kept in cap- bishops, and clergy exchanged the Rom.nv 

>y Google 


Catliolic iaith for Prousiantism. In 1563 being detailed in the successive words and arti- 

Sigisinand gave toleration to the different re- ficial arrangements of written language. The 

ligious parties, and in 1572, at the diet of War- eye, the hand, the whole body, speak simul- 

saw, proclaimed universal religious freedom, taneously on one subject; the representation 

With his death the Jagellon race became ex- changes every moment, and these peculiarities, 

tinct- with the elliptical form of expression which is 

Sieismund III., or Sigismund Vasa, king adopted in conversation, give a rapidity to com- 
of Poland and Sweden : b. 1566 ; d. Warsaw 1632. munication by the sign language which, on com- 
He was the only son of John III., king of mon subjects, among those familiar with it, 
Sweden, and of the Polish princess Catharina, a surpasses that of speech. If we remark the new 
sister of Augustus Sigismund II. After the shades of meaning given to the same words by 
death of Stephen Bathori he was invited, in 1587, the varying attitude and general expression (rf 
to become king of Poland, and having sworn the the speaker, and the accuracy with which a nice 
Pacta Conventa was crowned at Cracow. He observer will discover, in these signs, the 
was a very zealous Catholic, and his principal thoughts, and feelings, and intentions, even ot 
aim was the extension of the Roman Catholic one who wishes to conceal them, we shall find 
faith in Poland. On the death of his father, reason to believe that they are capable of con- 
John III., in 1592, he set out for Sweden to take veying the most delicate shades of thought. Gen- 
possession of the throne to which he had sue- eric and abstract terms, as their objects do not 
ceeded, and was crowned in 1594. On his return exist in nature, have no correspondmg terms of 
to Poland he was obliged to leave Sweden equal clearness in the sign language; and the 
under the regency of his uncle, who ultimately abbreviated manner in which we expttsa rela- 
reigned over it as Charles IX. Sigismund's re- tions by conjunctions, prepositions, relatives, and 
fusal to give up the Swedish crown of which jnflectbns, can only be imitated by adopting sim- 
he became deprived, involved Poland in a dis- j'ar conventional signs, which do not easily fall 
astrous war with Sweden, which lasted for 60 '" W'th the idiom of the language. In these re- 
years. Spects, therefore, the sign language wants the 

Sigl, zfi'gl, Gewg, mechanical inventor: b. ?lBebraic brevity and accuracy which are found 

Breitenfurth, Lower Austria, 181 1; d. Vienna '" artificial languages, and which render these so 

9 May 1887. He was in youth apprenticed to a ^valuable as mediums of thought and instrii- 

locksmith, and practised his trade in Bavaria. '"'^" .<>' philosophical investigation; at the 

Wtirlemberg and Switzerland. In 1832 he took ^^""^ ""^ '^ ?* capable of describing what is 

employment in the rapid printing press factory of """eyed by these forms, with an accuracy at 

Hellwig and Miiller, and in 1837 introduced the ™^' as great as that of words, by circomlocu- 

manufacture of rapid printing presses into the ^'°" a™ example. It is worthy of remark that 

hand press factory of Dingier in Zweibriick, and 'i"^ order of expression in the sign language is 

opened a branch factory of the same sort in Vi- ^h^* ""'"> ,*'^ term inverted — the subject be- 

enna, where he constructed the first rapid lilho- *o« "',': Qual'iy. the object before the action, and, 

graphic press (1851). Later he manufactured «i".«"">'- *« thing modified before the modifier. 

rotary presses, and applied himself to improv- ^"'^ language, in its elements, is to be found 

ing the kicomotive and other machinery, among all nations and has ever been the ipe- 

o:~_ T ....... ^u -.= „f . « Li^rf.. .vi "'t"" of communication between voyagers and 

Sign Lamguagea^are of two kinds, the tj,e natives of newly discovered, countries. It 

descriptive and the characteristic or indicative j, employed by many savage trihes to supply 
signs. Descriptive signs involve an account, ,t, i„ „, eapressiin in their langnagi or 
inore oi; less complete of the appearance, quali- ,„ communicate with other tribes, as has been 
ties, and uses of an object, or the circumstances observed among the Indians of North America, 
of an event, for the purpose of description or Among the Indians of the western regions of tlie 
explanation: and must, from their nature, he United Slates llajor Long found it an organ- 
varied, like a painling, only by the point of vie* j„j language employed between tribes who 
from which the objects are described, or the ,p„i„ different .riiculate languages. His ac- 
eapacity and accuracy of the person that de- ,„„„,_ „ ,5,1 „ „,,,„, gj,„ j ,„biequenl 
scribes. The indicative signs, on the contrary, inquirers, shows that it corresponds very closely 
which are employed in common conversation, with tliat adopted in the school of Paris; and 
are usually mere abbreviations of Uicse, in- . Hawaiian, who visited an American asylum 
volving a single striking feature of the person, f^^ deaf-mutes, gave a narrative of his life 

— , , 1. , - - J. J 'vi (ica J -111 like 9, B-i*'; A jjatidtivi; vi uia iin 

. :vent ; as an elephant is indicated jn tbe sign language, which was perfectly under- 

by its trunk, a flower by its fragrance, or a town stood by the pupils. As a proof that the sign 

by a collection of roofs. TTic signs of persons language does possess a universal character in 

are usually conventional, and derived from some i,s cultivated form, a trustworthy authority, who 

feature, or mark, or habit, but often from a 

himself acquired it in this form, has asserted that 

accidental circumsUnce in dress, etc, which he employed it, or had seen it employed, with 

struck ihe deaf-mute on 6rst_ seeing the person, success, in communicating with an American In- 

and is still referred to when it no longer exists, dian. a Hawaiian. ■ Chinese, and the deaf and 

This form of expression, as developed in certain jumb in various parts of the United States in 

institutions for deaf-mutes, is of a character England. Scotland, France, Germany. Switier- 

which tlKtse who value it least admit to surpass ]and and Italy. 

speech in the force with which it communicates t.. , — t- . vt m 

the feelings and states ot mind. Like painting Signal Corps. See Abuy and Navy Ma- 

(as Condillac observes) it has the immense ad- nel-vehs; Army of the United States. 

vantage of presenting a group of ideas at once. Signal Service, The. See Weather 

which lose much of their force and beauty by Bukeau, The. 

izcd by Google 


Signals and Signaling. The most perfect equivaJent to a cone point upward, a Mnnani 

means for the communication of messages by to a cone point downward, and a wheft or 

means of audible or visible signs to distances tied flag to a. drum. The positions of the sema- 

gnater than can be reached by the human voice, phore arm, numbered i, 2, 3 on the opposite side 

consists in the use of electricity; but until the from the indicator, and 4 on the same side 

recent invention of wireless telegraphy the use as the indicator, represent the shapes of the 

of electricity required a more or less fixed con- first two systems. The code signals in all these 

nection between the place signaled from and ihc systems denote things or meanmgs rather than 

place signaled to. Flags of various shapes and words, and thus they can be interpreted by ships 

colors, cones, balls, drums, movable arms or of all nations. For some purposes what is called 

semaphores (as in railways), blasts of sound, the movable semaphore may be used, and the 

flashes of light and other signaling media have arms of this semaphore may be represented by 

been adopted for different purposes. Signaling (tags waved by a man standing in a conspicuous 

at sea according to the international code is place. In this case, however, the French have B 

mainly effected by flags, either singly or in different alphabetic code from the British. The 

groups, interpreted in accordance with the inter- Morse telegraphic code of dots and dashes may 

national code-book. The present system is of be used in signaling not only by the electric 

gradual growth out of the earlier ones devised telegraph, but also in several other ways. The 

by Sir Home Popham (1803), Captain Marryat dot and the dash may be indicated by blasts of 

(1817). and others. The old international code sound or flashes of light of about one second 

introduced in 1857 was superseded by a new one and three seconds duration respectively, but the 

in 1902 The latter was prepared by a commit- excessive use of such signals is liable to lead 

tee appointed by the Board of Trade, and took to confusion. The movements of a hand flag, 

its final shape after foreign governments had »"eh as is used in place of the movable sema- 

been consulted. The new code differs from the phore, may also be adapted to the Morse code, 

old one mainly in having a complete flag alpha- In an appendix to the 'International Code-Book' 

bet, and in the substitution of three-flag signals particulars are given regarding sound signals 

for all the four-flag signals of the r8S7 code, to be made during fog. mist, falling snow, or 

except in the names of places and of ships. The heavy ramstomis on the whisde or siren and 

27 flags used in the code comprise the "code fog-horn (see Foci-signals} ; sound signals tobe 

flag,* or 'answering pennant," hoisted before a used by vessels in sight of one another; and 

code signal is given and as a sign that a sigjial distress signals, made by means of guns, explo- 

has been understood ; five pennants, denoting the «ive«, fog-signals, flames, rockets, etc Different 

letters C — G; two burgees, denoting A and B; nations have different systems of meteorological 

and 19 square flags, representing the other letters signals, the most elaborate being that of the 

of the alphabet. Some of the alphabetic flags United Sutes. For military purposes the field 

have special meanings when hoisted alone; thus, telegraph is extensively used, but the heliograph 

C means Yes ; D, No. From the 27 flags (using (see Heliostat) is also in reguUr use. 

only one set) not less than 7<w separate two- ^igaah, Raihray. See Railway Signals. 

flag signals can be made, and to the greater num- ■o™— ■ -j 

ber of these a definite meaning is attached in the Stg'natnreB, Doctrine of, a medixval 
code : thus, A over B means 'Abandon the vessel theory of medicine, which was carried into prac- 
as fast as possible' ; code flag over S, 'I want tice by those who believed that *God . . . 
a pilot.* The number of three-flag combinations maketh . . . herbs for the use of men, 
possible with the alphabetic flags i^]5,6oo, thus and hath not only stamped upon them a distinct 
affording scope for an immense variety of sig- form, but also given them particular signatures, 
nais of all degrees of importance. PCJ, for whereby a man may read even in legible char- 
tnstance, means, 'You will find great difliculty in acters the use of them.* Many names of plants 
getting through the ice at ■ — ,■ the place being in- were derived from these 'legible characters." 
dicated by a following geographical sigiial. The Thus, the color of plants often designated the 
code flag above two alphabetic flags gives lati- particular kind of diseases to be cured by them. 
tudes and longitudes ; under two flags, nura- Such plants as the Saitguittaria, or bloodroot, so- 
bers. As already stated, in the new code four- called from the red juice which flows instantly 
flag signals are not used for general purposes, upon bruising its fleshy stems, or roots, were 
They may be used, however, in spelling words naturally considered a cure for blood affections ; 
alphabetically; and as there is now a complete and the herb-robert (Geranium roberlianam), 
alphabet of flags, any word may be spelt in this which assumes a beautiful red tint when dying, 
way, but the code signals, having their own spc- would stanch wounds. An infusion of the ycl- 
cial conventional significations (all given in the low bark of barberries (Berberis) was said to 
code-book), are a means of more rapid com- have been a cure for jaundice, as was also the 
municalion. There are never more than foor saffron. Form was another index of medical 
flags hoisted at once. When, owing to distance virtues. The liverwort (Hepatica triloba), hav- 
or the state of the atmosphere, the colors of ing a three-lobed leaf somewhat in the shape 
flags cannot be made out, a system of distant of the liver, and, furthermore, mottled with 
signals must be resorted to. There are three purple, when old, was a cure for liver troubles ; 
systems of these in the code-book, so constructed and the saxifrage, the •stone-breaker,* so-called 
that any one can be interpreted in terms of the from its habit of growing in the fissures of 
elements of another, and all three in terms rocks, as well as the stony seeds of gromwell, 
of the flag code. These systems involve respec- were believed to be able to break up gravel. 
tively the use of (i) cones, balls, and drums; The well-known mandrake (Mandragora). and 
(a) balls, square flags, pennants, and whefts; the ginseng (Aralia), valued by the Chinese. 
and (3) a fixed semaphore. A square flag is ai love-channs and aphrodisiacs, gained their 



snppositious virtnts on account of the fancied were suspended either from projecting metal- 
semblance of their forked roots to human fig- work, from a post or an obelisk, or from a sort 
ures. Even the seeds of ferns, at one time sup- of miniature triumphal archway, and somelimes 
posed to be invisible, transferred this quality to cost great sums. These creaking and ponderous 
the possessor of the seeds, who thus himself be- signboards proved a source of annoyance, some- 
came invisible: plants resembling ihe moon in times of positive danger, as when in i?i8 one in 
her various stages, as the moon-daisy or the Fleet Street, London, dragged down a house 
semi-lunate segments of the moonwort iBoiry- front, and killed in its fall four persons. So in 
ekium Itinaria) were supposed able, by involved i^-ez-^o, under act of parliament, the London 
and akhemistic reasoning, to cure uterine dis- signboards were either wholly removed or at 
eases, or were made party to magical perform- least affixed to the fronts of the houses; and 
anees, such as unshoeing horses which trod upon this example was gradually followed throughout 
them. The rootstock of Solomon's seal (Po/j- the kingdom, though here and there signposts 
gonatum), when cut transvertely, shows certain linger, or have been restored, even in London, 
marks, imagined to represent a seal, which the One of the oldest and most interesting signs 
old herbalists thought pointed to its employ- still existing is the "Red Lion» at Martiesham, 
ment as a styptic for wounds, and they told how Suffolk. England, for it was the figurehead ol 
the crushed rootstock would shortly take away one of the Dutch fleet defeated off Southwold in 
bruises caused by 'women's wilfulness in 1672; but the history even of vanished sign- 
stumbling upon their hasty husbands' fists.* boards has no slight interest. A good many sign- 
Helen Ingehsoli. boards have been painted by great artists, Hol- 

o:„' » :_ T! i._j t .1.. 1 i„ bein, Correggio, Paul Potter, Hogarth, Wilson, 

Sig net. m England, one of the royal aeala, Borland, olvid Cox. "Old* Crome. Sam Bough, 

used msealmgpnyatel«tcre and all such grants ^^ gir J. E. Millais (some of which are still 

as pass the sovereign's hwid by biH s.gnwL It ^^tj,„,) •'j„ tj,^ United States many old and 

M always in the cuaody of the secretary of state picturesque signs are still to be found in Eastern 

for the home department. ^jti^g particularly in Atlantic coast towns. Mod- 

Signorelli, s§n-y6-rfrie, Luca {called also «ni signs are made mostly of meUl and wire- 

Lnca da Cortona), Italian painter: b. Cortona netting. See also LrpiMiua 

about 1440; d. Arezzo is^S- He studied first Signs, Mathematical ^^e those symbols 

under Matteo da Siena, and then under Fietro which indicate mathematical processes and con- 

della Francesca. He began to distinguish him- dilions. a + b, a~b, a -f- 6, a X ft, and a ~ * 

lelf about 1472, and painted till 1512, or perhaps read a plus b, a minus b, a divided by b, a mnlti- 

later. He holds an important place in ttie his- plied by b, and the difference between a and b; 

lory of art aa the first who applied anatomical a>i, a<^b, a=i, a^^.i, and a — 6 read 

knowledge to painting, and thus became the a greater than b, a less than b, a equal to b, a 

precursor of Michelangelo. Signorelli painted approximately equal to b, and a identical with b; 

in the Sistine chapel, at Arezzo, Citti di Cas- J is the sign of integration ; .*. denotes then or 

tdlo, Cortona, Perugia, and Volterra; but his therefore, and -,■ denotes since or becaiue; 

greatest works are the magtiificent frescoes in o^ 

the chapel of the Madonna di San Briiio in the i/STi^Avare present the square root, the cube 

cathedral of Orvieto. The series comprises the root, and the nth root of a. 

'History of Antichrist,' the 'Resurrection of Sieoumer sTg'4r-nI, Lydla Huntley, 

the Dead,' •Hell,' and 'Paradise.' It was Amencan author, b. Norwich. Conn., I Sept. 

commenced by Fra Angelico about i447, ana 1791 ; d. Hartford, Conn., 10 June iSSs. She re- 

finished by Signorelli between i49g and 1504. chived a good education, showed considerable 

These frescoes were studied by Canova, and by facility in rhyme at an early age, and many of 

Michelangelo, who did not disdain to copy !,£, pje^es were published in the periodicals of 

some of the figures for his 'Last Judgment.' t],e day. For some time before her marriage to 

Among his other works the most worthy of Charles Sigourney in 1819, she had been en- 

mention are the 'Madonna Enthroned,' the gaged in teaching schools for young ladies. In 

altar-piece of St Onofno in the cathedral of ,8,5 she published 'Moral Pieces in Prose and 

Perugia; the 'Adoration of the Magi,' now m Verse.' which was quickly followed by other 

the Louvre; the 'Annuneiation,' and a 'Ma- works, most of which enjoyed great popularity, 

donna, at Volterra. bignorelli was a man of Among her principal poems are : < Traits of the 

high character, and attamed municipal as well Aborigines of America' (1822); 'Pocahontas' 

as artistic honors. (1841); 'Scenes in my Native Land' (1844); 

fflgns and Signboarda. The art of sign 'Voice of Flowers' (1845). Her prose works 

painting was known among the Greeks and are mainly biographical, histoncal, didactic and 

Romans, and specimens of ancient signs have eP'Molaiy. In 1840 she visited Europe, and m 

been found at fWipeii and Hercalaneum, some- 1^42 gave some rem miscences of the tour m a 

times painted, but oftener carved. A bush was volume entitled 'Pleasant Mcmoncs of Pleasant 

the «^ of many taverns so late as the reign of ^f"'''' She has been ca led the JAtnencan 

lames I. Dtiring the Middle Ages every trade Hemans.' and certainly rivals her English proto- 

had its emblem, some of which have survived, tyP« '" copiousness, having, by her own compu- 

as the chemist's pestle and mortar, the pawn- W'io". """'"f" ^ works (in whole or in i«rt), 

broker's three balls, and the barber's pole. Be- """l •?."« than 2,000 contributions 10 about 300 

sides these trade emblems, every individual trader P«"'>.°""'f -^onsult the amobiographic 'Letters 

might have his own special device: Southey's <>* L"< (H»6). 

father, a Bristol linen-draper, for his chose a Sigabee, sigs'bS, Charles Dwight, Ameri- 

hare. During the i6th and 17th centuries hoge can naval officer: b. Albany. N. Y., 16 Jan. i94S: 

painted signs came greatly into vogue. They He was appointed to the United States Naval 

13,0 zod./GooQie 


Academy in i8s9. was graduated in 1863, was Sigiiird, ze'goord, or Sigurde, a name 

made ensign in that year, and for his first two famous in Scandinavian niytholc^y. Accord- 
years of service was attached to the Mononga- inp to the legend Sigurd, the Siegfried of the 
hela and the Brooklyn of the West Gulf squad- Nibelungenlied, is the posthumous son of Sig- 
ron. He took uart in the bombardments of, mund, son of Volsung, a descendant of Odin; is 
and attack on, Fort Fisher, and in the battle of born in the palace of Hialprek, king of Denmark, 
Mobile Bay. In 1S68 he attained the grade of and grows up into splendid manhood. With his 
lieutenant-commander. Thereafter he was em- good sword Gram, which had once been wielded 
ployed in various duties, being at different by Odin, he slays the dragon Fafnir, and ob- 
times with the Asiatic and North Atlantic squad- lains the golden treasure whicli it guarded; by 
rons; stationed at the Naval Academy 1869-70; eating the monster's heart he is endowed with a 
in the hydrographic office (1873-4) i and com- wisdom which enables him to understand the 
mander of the coast-survey steamer Blake em- songs of the birds. Riding off with his spoil 
ployed in deep-sea exploration for the govern- iie strikes through a lonely heath, in the midst 
ment. The chief portion of the outfit of the of which is a volume of flame, surrounding a 
Blake consisted of inventions or adaptations by house in which a fair maiden Brenhyldr (Brun- 
Sigsbee, and in recognition of these received a hild in the Nibelungenlied), daughter of Atli, 
gold medal at the London International Fisher- lay asleep, never to be wakened until there came 
les Exhibition and he decoration of the Red a hero brave enough to ride through the fierce 
E^le of Prussia from Emperor William I. flame. Sigurd enters and wakes up Brenhyldr, 
Promoted commander in 1882, he was success- to whom he plights his troth, and then rides to 
ively on duty at the Academy (1882-5) ; eom- the palace of Giuki the Niblung, who wishes 
mander of the practice-ship Dale (1883-4), and Sigurd to marry his daughter Gudrun (Chriem- 
of the Kearsarge on the European station hild). Gudrun's mother gives Sigurd a potion 
(i88s-6); and on shore duty (1887-90). In which causes him to forget Brenhyldr, and he 
1890-2 he commanded the training-ship Ports- marries Gudrun. Her brother Gtmnar 
mouth, in l8g3 was made chief of the hydro- (Gunlher), having determined to marry Bren- 
graphic office, was made captain 3i March 1897, hyldr, tries vainly to ride through the flames, 
and on 10 April subsequent assigned lo the com- and so his mother by her magic arts made 
mand of the Maine. The Maine was designed Sigurd change shapes and arms with Gunnar. 
at the Navy department, built at the New York and so rescue Brenhyldr. On the bridal bed 
navy yard, commissioned 17 Sept. i8gs, and the Sigurd places his sword between himself and 
most powerful second-class battleship in the Brenhyldr, and the following morning he re- 
United States navy. In January 1898 the vessel sumes his shape, and hands her over to Gunnar. 
was ordered to the port of Havana, Cuba, arriv- No sooner is this done than the power of the 
ing there 25 January. There it was met by an elixr passes off. and he sees when too late that 
official Spanish pilot, and moored to a mooring- he has betrayed his first love. After the lapse 
buoy chosen by him. At 940 o'clock on the even- oi years Brenhyldr is told that she was rescued 
ing of 15 February the Maine was destroyed by "''om the flames by bigurd, and not by Gnnnar 
an explosion in which the entire forward part as she thought; and her love for the hero gr;^^ 
of the ship was utterly wrecked. Two officers way to wrath and thouglils of vengeance. She 
and264of the crew perished. The UnitedSuies "rEes Gunnar and his brothers to slay him. bt^t 
courrof inquiry appointed to inquire into- the {>? 'hey had already taken an oath not to hurt 
catastrophe lound th^ the vessel was destroyed ^"iV J'^tJ '\^"T ,7^7' J"""?'^-' "IF'-^'n"'! 
by the explosion of a submarine mine, and that halt-brother to do the deed, and Sigurd is killed 
no evidence was obtainable fixing the blame. A ^? he lay sleeping. The death of the. hero re- 
iiu cviociii-c Bo= uuu ■„,!. „„„„„„ ;n,-»=.i<T^ vives al the bve of RrcnhyJdr, and j"mg down 
Spanish court making a simulianeous mvestiga- ^ . sword Gram hetweeS them, 

ion reported that the disaster was caused by an > broken-hearted on his funeral pile. 

mtemal explosion. It was very generally be- _ , r r 

lieved, however, in the United States that the ,-Sika, se ka, the common deer of Japan 

loss of the ship was in some way due to Spanish (Cfreiw «fea), representing a group (subgenus 

initiative. Therefore, says Sigsbee in his own Sika), whose peculiarity is that the antlers have 

narrative. «althoush the war which followed was "°. bez-tine. so that each has usually 01 Jy four 

not founded on the destruction of the Maine as 9°*"^%- *^e lail i.s long woportionately. and the 

a political cause, that disaster wa., the pivotal f^hial white patch is bordered with black. The 

event of the conflict." Sigsbee's wise despatches Japanese deer abundant in tlie forests of nortli- 

« the t me did much to sSspeiid any popular de- 9^" JfPa" and China, is of small sii^e. dark brown 

mand for immediate repri.,.ls. while his expert |" ^^'o-- ''-d the greater pari o the tail wh.-e; 

knowledge was of great vali«; to the court of !>"'. '" ^^^^^^ t*-,^^'! T"^ T^tt^,' 

inquiry. He rendered diptinguisiied service diir- ]^''-,l"f 'I"* J,"^''" ^rr'^"'',^"^^"? ]^^Z^t 

ing the Spanish-American war as command.-r of "f deer are of en caught m traps and kept as 

the converted liner Saint Paul, with which 24 P"!^'' ""= P<^P'5; ^^ V' f P^'* ^^* V™ ■'' 

May he captured the collier Reslormel. securing '" European parks. A closely related form is 

Cei^era-s coal snpply, and 22 June defeated the '^"^ Caspian deer (C caspu:us) of northern 

cruiser Isabella 11. and destroyer Terror off San P^^ia. Consu t Lydekkcr, 'Deer of All Unds' 

Juan, Porto Rico. Subsequently he was or- (London 1898). 

dered to command the Texas, in 1900-2 was Sikhim, sikTm. or Sikkim, India, a native 

chief officer of naval intelligence, in igo.l was state under British protection, situated in the 

made commandrr of the navy yard at League eastern Himalayas between Nepal and Bhutan, 

Island, Pa., and promoted rear-admiral. He and between Tibet and the province of Bengal, 

publi'lied: 'Deep .Sea Sounding and Dredging' Area, 2,818 square miles. It forms part of the 

(t88o). and 'The Maine* (1899). snuth slope of the Himalayas and ranges in 




altitude from i8,ooo feet in the north to i^Ooo wavered from their allegiance at the time of the 

feet in the south. The climate is accordingly great Mutiny. They are among the best of 

varied, ranging from tropical to alpine. For- the British Indian troops. See also India; Re- 

merly most of the area was covered with forest, lioious Sects. 

but the greater part below 5,«» feet has in re- ^^^ sa'ke-no or se-ke'no (ancient, 

cent years been cleared and .cultivated. The Sikinos). Greece, an island east of Melos. be- 

chcet products are mane and nee. The moun- jonging to the Cyclades. It is lo miles long by 

tarn roads are good and ;he route of j^ree wide. It has a rugged mountainous sur- 

trade with centra^ Tibet passes through he f ^ut the soil is fertile. Wine is the staple. 

state The inhabitants are Buddhists of Tibetan n, ^hief town is situated on the brow oi a 

«ock and governed by a raja, the capital being ^n precipice. In ancient times the island be- 

J"nj,'.V,"f .The country was formerly controlled ^^^ ^^ to Athens, and in the Middle Ages to the 

by Tibet, but came under British protection by duchy of Naxos 

a treaty with China in i8go. „' ' _ , . ,„„, , , 

Sikaika, sIk'-sT-ka {•Blackfeet,* by which 
Sikha, seks, the name of a religious sect name they are popularly and officially known), 
in British India, which has come in course of an important tribe and confederacy of the At- 
time to be virtually also the designation of a gonquian stock of North American Indians, the 
race or people. Nanak Shah was the founder of confederacy comprising the Siksika proper, the 
flie sect, which worships only one omnipotent Kino or Bloods, and the Piegan. They should 
and invisible God, and whose tenets reflect the "ot be confounded with the Blackfoot division of 
broadest religious philanthropy and toleration, the Teton Sioux on Standing Rock reserva- 
Nanak Shah belonged to the Hindu tribe of the t>on, N. D. The early Siksika home was the 
Vedis, and was bom in 1469 in the village of country north of Lesser Slave Lake, but in the 
Talwandi, now the town of Rajapur, in the middle of the 18th century they appear to have 
province of Lahore. Nanak was a profound ''ved on the west side of Lake Winnipeg, whence 
thinker, and far in advance of the views which "ley were forced westward by the Crees ; 40 
prevailed in his day in any part of the world in years later the Siksika proper occupied southern 
relation to liberty of conscience and human baskatchewan River while the Piegan lived 
brotherhood. His impressions in this regard on lis headwaters after which time the latter, 
were largely derived from the works of a Mo- loljowed by the Siksika, moved down to the 
hammedati named Kabik with which he became M.ssoun River Early m the 19th century the 
acquainted in his travels. He sought to intro- jlf"* <?* ^« Siksika was northern Montana and 
dnce simplicity of faith and purity of morals, f"= '"I'^^T l^"^ f .u'"-'*' ^"'"'f ■J-f,!^^'^'"^ 
and to induce Hindus and Mohammedans to ^^9^ ,")« Roct.esto the junction of M.Ik River 
live in harmony. He died about 1540, and was ^'^^^t M'^.^""". «"d Jrom Musselshell R.ver 
buried at Kirtipur, -which is theref^e a place of "I Moijtana to Saskatchewan River in Canada, 
nilgrimage f- he .Sikhs. He wej. deserved the ^h^ ^S^^^^^.^ ^^it"^! ^ 
honor m which his memory 13 held. His life ;, ^ g,^^.^ ^ , ^. g,^ ^; 
was pure, he absolutely any power to ^^-^, ^ Canadian rule, while the Piegan. 
perforin miracles, and he taught his disc.p es to ^^^ constitute about half the confederacy, are 
worship God alone. Although peace between ^^iefly in Montana. Both the men and women 
inen was an essential part of the Sikh religion, ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^i f^^^^j ^^ practised polygamy, 
the horrible persecuttons to which they were ^„^ ^n the death of the husband his wives be- 
subjected by the Mohammedans forced the Sikhs came the potential wives of his eldest brother, 
to become a military people, and under their ^.[jiig his property descended to his sons, or, if 
great leader, Govind Smh. they fought so hrayely i,e had none ; to bis brolliers. These Indians 
and successfully as to receive Ihe title of. Sihns „ere always noted for their warlike characier, 
or lions. They wore a blue dress, let their hair (h^ir hostilities being conducted chiefly against 
grow, and were always armed. Govind Sinh the Cree, Crows, Shoshoni, Kiitenai, and Flat- 
also instituted the order of •akalis" or "immor- heads. They relied mainly on the buffalo for 
tals," in whom to this day rests the supreme subsistence, their food, clothing, shelter, and 
direction of religious affairs among the Sikhs, some of their implements and utensils being de- 
The struggle between Siklis and Mohammedans, rived from this useful animal. They lived in 
and between independent communities of Sikhs skin tipis, and besides bags and cases of hide 
continued, until Runjeet Singh, the son of Maha- or parfleche, made implements and utensils of 
Singh, succeeded in establishing himself as stone, bone, horn, and wood, but no pottery or 
despotic ruler of the Sikhs, about the close of basketry. Marriage within the gens was pro- 
the 18th century, and made himself master of a hibited, but this rule is not now strictly ob- 
territory comprehending the whole Punjab and served. Each gens had its chief, and the chiefs 
adjoining districts, with an area of 69.000 square of the gentes chose the tribal chief, but tlie power 
miles. After the death of Runjeet Sin^, and of the latter was in the main only advisory. The 
while his son, Dhulip Singh, a minor, was the Siksika are nature worshippers, their principal 
nominal ruler, war broke out between the Brit- deity being Ihc sun, whose wife is the moon, and 
i»h and the Sikhs, in l84S- The struggle lasted whose sur\-iving child is the morning star, while 
with varying fortune, and intervals of temporary physical objects and forces are minor deities. In 
submission on the partof the Sikhs, until the the latter part of the 18th century these tribes 
decisive battle of 21 Feb. 1849, when the Sikh were estimated at, but they lost about a 
power was completely broken, their territory third of their number by smallpox in 1836, and 
being annexed in the following month to the in 1858 aggregated only about 7,300. The num- 
Brilish empire in India. The Sikhs have since ber of Siksika, Bloods, and Piegan on rcserva- 
proven faiUiful friends of the British, and never tions in Alberta is now about 5,000, and the pop- 


nUcion of the Piegans on th« Blackfoot reserva- silo than at the top, the first one starting six 

tion in Montana is 2AI3- F. W. Hodge, bches from the bottom, the second a foot above 

Smithtonian Imiitution, Washington, D. C. *'' ^P^ increasing the space six inches with 

„.„ „ ■, r jj each hoop until near the top they are finally four 

Si'lage, or Ennlage, green fodder pre- f^^j ^^^^ 

served in a succulent sute by exclusion of air, fhe crops used for silage include com, mil- 

where it undergoes certain changes. In the kt, common red and alsike clover, rye, oats, pea- 

Uniied States Indian com (^M viayi) is pre- vine, sorghum and alfalfa. The making of silage 

enunenUy the crop for silage, so when other f^om several of these crops is in a more or less 

crops are utihzed a designatory adjective is pre- experimental stage. The low cost and ease with 

fixed as dover-silage. etc. Silage may be stored i^hich heavy crops of corn can be produced; the 

in silos, or air-tight structures, made of wood, flight losses sustained in the silo (a to to per 

brick, stone, concrete or iron, and either circu- cenl),and the few objectionable features thai corn 

lar, square, octagona or rectangular m section, jjiagg ^^ ^^j^^ j^ ^^^ general purpose crop, 

the round wooden silo being the most common, ^hc percentage of losses which occurs in drying 

because umber has been the cheapest material com fodder in the field under good conditions 

and a_ cylindrical vessel requires the use of less jg about the same as that attending its loss when 

material, contains less waste space, and presents converted into silage. The cost of growing and 

the greatest strength, pressure being distributed pi^^i^g , ^^n of silage in the silo generally 

equally at all points from the centre. When .^^ries between $1.75 and $ The Southern 

placed in silos the fodder is usually cut or j^nt varieties produce the heaviest crops, and, i( 

shredded into short lengths so that it will occupy ^^ ^^^^^^ sufficiently in the district, are gener- 

less space, incorpoi^te less air and, undergo less „i, „, yhe best time to cut com for silage 

fermentation In Europe grass is frequently j^ „hen the kernels are mature, but the stalks. 

Stacked m the open or put into clamps or pits 1^^^^ ^^ j^usks green, as under these conditions 

without cutting It into l«igths The use of the i^g, fermentation and other losses occur. Millet 

91I0 m one form or another dates back to an- has been tried to a small extent. Qover makes 

tiquity, the damp being probably the oldest ^ ,), i,ut the unavoidable losses are 

form. About a hundred years ago, this method higher tluii with com. This crop should be cut 

of preserving fodders attracted attention in ^^en the bloom has begun to tu^ brown. Rye 

Europe and in i8?5 Dr. Manly Miles of Michi- ^^ ^ajs, owing to their hollow stems which 

gan, and in i8;6 F Morris of Man-land, mtro- considerable air, are subject to serious 

auced the system mto the United States Many j^^^, ;„ ^^j^^ ^^en m4de into silage. Pea-vine 

extravagant dauna were advanced m Its behalf ,;, j, I by-product of canning factories. 

by early enthusiasts, and lack of knowledge led Alfalfa silage is still in the experimental stage. 

to manv failures, so that the progress made was grass is us?d for silage in the United Kingdom. 

small for some years. In 1882 but 92 farmers ^ * 
could be found who used the silo in the United 
States, The work of Professors McBryde and 

King, of the Wisconsin and other agricultural ^,1. 

experiment stations, made the position of the Wkter Aih ^^ Crade lra«*ii Etker 

silo and silage secure. •*•" S^™ '*"„ '""•• 

The size of the silo is important, serious ""•" 

losses occurring from lack of proportion be- Corn t».i i.x 1.7 Co li.e o.B 

tween the size of the silo and the amount of »«1 Oovet. 71.0 a.i 4.* M ".« i.« 

silage fed daily. The exposed surface is usually 

too great. The upper layer, if exposed, spoils; 

hence about 1.2 inches should be fed each dj^r mcKTiMLiTr of silage (hekry). 

from the whole surface and 2 inches would be .^ 

better. A cow will consume 35 to 40 pounds i^ ^,^ 

per day, and if a cubic foot weighs 40 pounds, mut- ™ t-"™ free ^^ 

we may allow 5 to 6 square feet by 2 inches thick "r *xtr»ct ■" 

per cow per day. Silos less than six feet in q^^ ,;„„_ g^^, 

diameter are not considered to be practical on niik ttagc lo ni«- 

account of the friction of the walls preventing wre — ^■■■■^ 64 S» «J «9 M 

the contents from settling properly, and the giuhiB ..', h 6s n 79 8» 

greater surface in proportion to _ bulk means 

greater percentage of loss. Deep silos are pref- . - - . • 

erable to shallow ones, as a 36-foot silo will When com is nearly mature before being 

store nearly five times the amount that a siloed it will contain from 50 per cent to 100 per 

12-foot one will, the diameters being equal, cent more dry matter and nutrients than these 

King calculates that the average weight of a figures show, be more palatable and probably 

cubic foot of silage from a silo 10 feet deep is more digestible. The digestibility of com silage 

18.7 pounds, while the average from one 36 feet and dry fodder com 

deep is 42.8 pounds. All silos should be at least being somewhat les 

20 feet deep, and 30 feet is better. The pressure fodder. , . , , 

of the silage when settling increases with the Silage is pre-eminently a food for the cow 

depth at the rate of 11 pounds per square foot and its use will largely remain with the dairy 

for each foot of depth, hence, at 10 feet down farmer. Feeding trials with dairy cows show 

the lateral pressure is about no pounds per that silage usually gives better results than a 

square foot; at 20 feet, 220 pounds, and at 30 corresponding amount of dry fodder. It has 

feet, 330 pounds; therefore, the hoops should be been ascertained that the use of silage produces 

larger, stronger, and closer at the bottom of the from 4 to 5 per cent more milk and fat per lOO 




pounds of diy matter fed, due to the ailage heiag either annual or perennial, and of varying habit 

more acceptable, and the stalks of cora being and inflorescence. Many species are viscid pubes- 

cut up in the silage and eaten, instead of rejected cent, as SUene virginica, S. caroliniana, and S. 

as when fed in the form of corn fodder. In vUcosa, the last the catchfly, which ia carnivorous 

feeding great care must be exercised not to to a slight degree, and holds its victims by its 

leave uncoosumed and putrifying silage about stickiness. In general, however, the viscid steins 

the stables as the odor may taint the milk. Sev- prevent crawling insects, such as ants, from steal- 

eral milk-condensing factories refuse the milk ing honey, and both common and generic names 

from silage-fed cows. Experts may detect a refer to this characteristic. Siient nutant and 

silage odor or flavor in milk from silage-fed S. nocHHora are now naturalized in America and 

cows, but this is of little import, as such are faded and unattractive in the daytime, hut 

mill^ and butter made from it, are now sold are in full bloom, with starry white petals at 

to critical customers in cities at high prices, night, attracting night-ftying insects by their 

When used for fattening cattle, silage produces fragrance. Another naturaliied silene, found at 

a more watery carcass than dry fodder. It is a the borders of fields, is the S. vulgaris.^ glaucous 

good feed for sheep, being especially useful for tall plant, known as bladder campion, cowbells, 

ewes with Iambs at foot It is not adapted to behen, and spattling or frothy poppy. The first 

pig feeding nor to work horses, but small two names refer to the inflated calyx, which is 

amounts may be fed to idle horses. much more conspicuous than the while notched 

Consult: King, 'Physics of Agriculture'; petals protruding from the top, and in fruit is 

Bnlletin 83, Wis. Agri. Exp. Station, Madison, nearly globose, nodding in cymose panicles. It is 

Wis. (1900) ; Woll, <A Book of Silage* ; 'Mod- of papery texture, tinted pale green flushed with 

em Silage Methods' (1903) ; Henry, 'Feeds and rose, and is reticulated with delicate veinings. It 

Feeding!' Sakubl Fraseh, '^ ^^''' *^^' English peasants have eaten its young 

Professor of Agronomy, Cornell University. shoots, tasting like green peas, instead of as- 

_„ , ,-,. ,, . . ■ ,1. . . paragus. The moss-campion (S. acaulis), a 

Sitoo,,sS-lao, Mexico, a town in the state ^^ft^j perennial covered with reddish purple 

of Guanajuato, situated on the Mexican Cen- flo„„s, is common to Arctic regions and moun- 

tral railroad, 15 miles southwest of Guanajuato. ta;„ jhe sweet-william catchfly (5. armeria). 

It IS the centre of a rich agricultural distnct, ^;,h rose-eolored flowers; and the fire pink (S. 

and manufactures cotton and woolen goods, virginica), whose crimson flowers blaze in 

Pop. about 18,000. southern dry woods, are all cultivated, to which 

Slas Hamcr, a novel by George Eliot the northern wild pink (5. caroliniana) might 

(1861). It is the story of a poor, dull-witted well be added, as it has many rose-colored or 

Methodist cloth-weaver whose life has been white flowers in very early spring. 

wrecked by a false accusation of theft that he »:i„» t,„, „ ,,. . » .-_ . 

has been unable to disprove. He is saved from „,„^'^*7"*""' S' "^ «' various times and 

despair by the filial love of a little child whom ?i'^'L l.''°^7»°u*- "'«?'"?■ '"■ "P^'^l Pa"ncr. 

be has found by chance. Sixteen years after- I" ^^J'J^f phraseology a member of a firm 

ward the real thief is discovered and Silas' good ?;M?^^,h ?^.!^ n \ . ^^^ ^^"^^ ^°^ 

mune is restored. This simple frameiork l'.=^y in the concern, but who shares the res^^ 

serves the author u occasion for presenting !'^'/;*7 «"1'''''''^P". °^ ''l%*>r?""'"t'°°- ^- 

^l^ SssT^^-^BT^y^^H^sle-iS 'A'^^^^^^oi fh? b^u^Ses^ o^de^ol 

Silav, se-ir, Philippines, pueblo of Negros „, - 1-, , 

Occidental, on Gnimaria Strait, 10 miles north of ."f™' si-leniis, represented m ancient 

Bacolod. It is a large and prosperous town mythology as the mentor and companion of 

open to coasting trade, and is a telegraph and Bacchus, the god of wine. Silenus, according to 

military station. Pop. 14,537. *** '^^"'*' "** B™erally drunk himselL iTe is 

SUlierracL Una L, English novelist: ^^^^ ^^^^^^ mucs 

Buckhurst Hill, Essex, May 1862. 'The Success jnfant Bacchus ii 

of Mark Wyngate' £1002), attracted much favor- q.. . , ie'V't " "V^" e _ s 

able notice. Other work; of hers are 'The En- , SileMa, sMfi shI-? (German Schlesikj) a 

chanter' (iSg?); 'The Lady of Dreams' (looi); '?™" ''"'^^ belon^ng to Bohemia, now di- 

'Princess Puck' (1902); 'The Wedding ofthe '"''!? between Prussia and Austria. ^ 

Lady of LovelP (1004). Prussian Silesia is a province situated in the 

__ . ^ w„ , ,' i. Tj 1 J ■,■ southeastern part of the kingdom, between Bo- 

m H«;oi mile, north of Buiogstoke, „j ,„ ^ j,„j,j „, g^ „„« j 

to™ of CaCT Scgmt, or Oillcva Atrebjtim, „,,„rf lengthwi.c by the great longitudinal 

a Roman town the mam featnre, of wh.a are „„^ „, „,, gd„. yjj, ri„r'fi„»s through the 

ui amphitheatre, and the city walli, a,?* province from southeast to northwest, and with 

yards long. The foundations of a basdKa, f„ numerous right and left branches drains prac- 

forum baths, and a temple, have also been ei- u^„y ,^ „j„|j „{ ;„ „„ t„ ^^ „„, „fni, 

cavaled. and rings, corns seals, brolten pottery ^^^ ^^^ ^^ surface is taken up by the eastern 

in abundance have been found near the surftce. ,,^ „f ,^5 s„j„jj Mountains, with its numer- 

Antiquarians have given the place much study. ,^^ spu„ and minor ranges. East of the Oder 

Silene, a large, widely distributed genus the land rises in several more or less isolated and 

of the pink timily(CaryophyUaceiE), having op- hilly, but not high, plateaus. Nearly nine tenths 

posite leaves, and five-merous flowers, with a of the forests are coniferous, Silesia is rich in 

more or less inflated calyx. The silenes are mineral resources. Its coal deposits are the rich* 



-St in Genmny. Iron and line are mined in large without folds were worn ; snuff-boxes were iriH/le 

quantilies, and lead and silver are also found, of plain wood ; and, instead of painted ponraits. 

The total value of coal, zinc, lead, and iron outlines only were drawn in profile. All these 

mined in ipoi amounted to over ^jocajooo. The fashions were called d la Silhouette: bnt the 

climate in the lowlands is favorable for agricul- name remained only in the ease of the profiles, 

ture, and the valley of tlie Oder is very tertile, because the ease with which they may be drawn, 

and one of the richest wheat and barley regions or cut oi:t of black paper, makes them popular, 

in the empire. Oats, rye, buckwheat, potatoes, though, considered as works of art, they have 

and fruit are also raised in largi; quantities, and httle value. Some faces — those with a marked 

there is some viticulture. The textile industry profile — are easily taken in this way; while 

is the most important, next to which follow the others lose their character entirely, particularly 

metal industries and others depending on mining those whose traits are well harmonized. These 

and quarrying, such as the manufacture of ce- representations may be taken very well from 

ment, porcelain, and glass. Lumbering and the the shadow of a person on a paper held on the 

manu^cture of paper, beet-sugar, starch, and wail: and, in order tc make the shadow more 

liquors are also important. Besides the main steady, it is well to rest the head on a book 

Oder there are scarcely any navigable water- or the like, put between the face and the paper, 

ways. There are. about 2,500 miles of railroad. The paper is then cut according to the outline 

Pop. about 4,800,000. The capital is Breslau. of the shadow, and the outer surface pasted on 

Austrian Silesia is a crownland and duchy black paper. 
jitMri b«w«n tta south.™ p.rt of PrmUn Silic'iiirf Wood. > variety of the 

Sil..,i and Morav... ,nd hounded on the south- ^„^ ^ ^^ ^ *,jj|, ^^ J,.^^^,, . ^ 

east by Gahc.a and Hungary. It measures IJS „„,pt„„, ,'^, ^^ OpaH.«I wood i. wood 

■ndes from northwest to southeast a breadth ^^ J j ■ , ,,tri|iX.ood includes either 

of a> m.ies, and an area of 1,987 square m.les. „, ,j» .j„„ ,f„'J „ ,^j ,^ j j„„ ^, 

The northwestern part belot^gj to the Sndetic („, p,u,„„r„Y). According t" J. D. Dana 

¥.°/??.V"^J.^;.r*?."f™.'l.'!;f .Sff'i;'.°.': "be. trees now siliciS.d in Arirona seem orig- 

.1 -vj 7- .------- - - ■ r ., - iiic trees now siiiciiiea m nrizona seem on' 

... the middle is the transverse valley of the j^^n ^^ ^^^^ flourished on the shores of an 
Oder. The chief mineral products are coal and ^^^^^^ j^^ -^^^ ^^j^f, ,i, f^„ ^^^ kKs^mt 
iron, the coal amountmg to nearly S,oco,ooo tons „ater-logged ; then they were buried beneath 
annually. Agriculture is confined to the central ^okamc material of a highly ailicious character 
lowlands, and yields gram, augar-beets, and fruit, .^^ich underwent alteration through the action 
The industries are more important ; there are ^f ^^ter setting free more silica than the water 
machine shops, steam textile mills, beet-sugar ^^^^ jj^jj ;„ solution As the wood decayed 
factories, distilleries, etc. There is a consider- j^is silica was deposited in its cells until finally 
able transit trade in Austnan w me s, salt, and ^^ „,^y fji^^ completely disappeared and what 
also m beef. Pop. about 720,000. The capital ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^5^ change 
IS Troppau. took olace only particle by particle, the minutest 
In the early Middle Ages Silesia was inhab- cells of the wood are preserved and may be 
ited by a Slavonic people supposed to have g^en under the microscope. In the great i>etri- 
Bupplanted an earlier Germanic population. In g^d forests of Arizona, recently made a govem- 
the loth centurv it was incorporated with m^nt pj^k, there are trunks of trees three or 
Poland. In the latter part of the izth century f^ur f^^ ;„ diameter and over 100 feet in 
it was made a separate duchy by the intervention length, completely changed to quartz. Over the 
of Frederick Barbarossa, and from this time whole section are scattered petrified trunks and 
Silesia began to undergo German ization, chiefly fragments from the size of a hickory-nut to 
by the immigration of German colonists. In geveral feet in diameter. At one place in the 
the 13th century the duchy was divided into park a petrified tree has fallen across a ravine 
numerous semi-independent principalities, which about 50 feet wide, forming a natural bridge, 
sought the protection of Bohemia against Poland. This Arizona petrified wood has been extensively 
By the middle of the 14th century they had exhibited and sold under the trade names of 
become actual vassals of the Bohemian king, "jasperized wood," 'agatized wood," and 'wood- 
and in 1536 they passed with Bohemia into the stone," having been manufactured into tiles, 
possession of the house of Hapsburg. In 167s paper-weights, cane and umbrella handles, and 
Frederick William, the "Grcat^ Elector* of many novelties, while complete transverse sec- 
Brandenburg, laid claim to Silesia based on a tions have been mounted as table-tops. The ma- 
former agreement of mutual succession. The terial is partly jasper, richly colored red and 
emperor refused to recognize the claim, and the yellow bv the oxides of iron, and partly trans- 
three Silesian wars followed, which ended in lucent chalcedony, with occasional spots of clear 
I/63 with the supremacy of Prussia over what quart! and amethyst. Silicified wood abounds in 
is now Prussian Silesia. the Rocky Mountains, while a similar forest 
™.i. ^ II «^ -.' ■,. n,- _- _. ..,>..•:,,- exists in the Yellowstone Park. Opalized wood 
Silhouette, sIl-00-et , .s the representation . , common, especially in CalifomU and 
of the outlines of an object filled with black Qrg„on ^ 
in which the inner lines are sometimes slightly 

drawn in white. The iiame comes from Eiienne SU'icot^ in chemistry, one of the non- 

de Silhouette, French minister of finance in 1759. metallk elements, symbol Si, atomic weight 

He strove by severe economy to remedy the 264. Next to oxygen it is the moat abundant 

evils of a war which had just terminated, leav- element found in the earth. It does not occur in 

ing the country in great exhaustion. At the nature in the free state but in combination with 

end of nine months he was obliged to leave his oxygen (silica) and with oxygen and various 

place. During this period all the fashions in metallic elements as potassium, sodium, altimin- 

Paris took the character of parsimony. Coats ium, calcium, etc., in the form of silicates. Sit 



Itoi^ may be prepared by heating a mixture of Polybiiis, and contains occasional splendid ^as- 
metallic sodium and the double flouride of so- sages; the descrijition of the passage of Hannibal 
diumand silicon (NaiSiFiH- Nai = 6NaF + Si) ; across the Alps is particubrly admired. There 
also by action of heat on a mixture of magiie- arc editions by Drakenborch (1717, 4to>, Ru- 
sium and silica (sand). It exists in three alio- perti (Gottingen 1795-8, two vols. 8vo), and 
tropic forms, an amorphous brown powder, a Bauer (Leipsic 1891-2). 

graphitoidal, and a crystalline variety. The gilk and Silk Industry. Silk is the queen 

amorphous form is msoluble in all acids except ^f ju the fibres, and its introduction into the 

hydrofluoric; it dissolves in potassium hydrox- arts and manufactures originated in China 3,400 

ide to form a silicate; and burns in the air at years before the Christian era. In 2650 B.C, 

high temperatures to SiO.. The crystalline va- Si-ling-Chi, empress of China, invented silk tis- 

riety is very hard, is but hltle if at 2,1 attacked sues, which contributed so immensely to the 

by hydrofluoric acid or poUssium hydroxide, prosperity of her country that she was placed 

and cannot be burned. Silicon forms compounds among the Chinese divinities under the name of 

with oxygen, sulphur, chlorine and some others oSien-Thsan," signifying "the first promoter of 

but the most important are the oxide SjO, and sUk industry.* Thence the art traveled to India 

tbe salts derived from the various silicic acids. and Japan, and finally to Europe in 552 a.D. 

Silica SiOi, oxide of silicon, occurs very The Moors imported sericulture into Spain 
abundantly in nature both in crystalline and abom 910. Greece and luly undertook sericul- 
amorphous forms. Quartz, a very pure form of (u^e in the 12th century. Silk culture was next 
sihca. crystallues in six sided prisms termi- undertaken in France, 'and silk became so 
nated by six sided pyramids. The finer crystals common," says Mezerin in his chronicles, 'that 
of quartz are called rock crystal while the im- ,-„ ,],e year 1347 as many as a thousand citizens 
perfectly crystalline variety is known as quartz- of Genoa appeared clothed in silk in a public 
ite. Of the amorphous forms we have opal, procession.' In England silk was scarce, even 
agate, amethyst, f!mt, sand, etc. SiUca can be so {^le as the reign of Elizabeth. The story is 
obtained in a fine state by melting sand or a related that Henry IV. of France had indulged 
silicate with sodium carbonate whereby a silicate ,he fancy to stock the grounds of the Tuileries 
of sodium IS formed. This is dissolved m water „ith mulberry trees; in 1600 he procured silk- 
and hydrochloric acid added. Silicic acid sep- „orm eggs from Italy, and this patriotic king 
arates m a gelalmous condition. The who e is took other measures to encourage the nascent 
evaporated to dryness, heated for a time a little industry. James I. of England, hearing the 
above the boiling point of water, and then news across the channel, set to work in 1608 to 
washed with dilute hydrochloric acid. The sil- imitate him at the royal domain of Oatlands. 
ica IS left behind ai a gntty white powder m- xhen the thought occurred to some of the more 
soluble in water and in most acids. Hydro- progressive and independent nobles of the Eng- 
fluonc acid dissolves m. however, with the ijsh court that Ihe time had arrived to have 
formation of silicon tetrafluonde(StF.). It done with importing luxuries from the Conti- 
also dissolves m alkalies to form silicates Not ,„«(. There were the fair and promising pos- 
aeted on by heat except that of the oxyhydro- sessions in America which should be made to 
gen blow pipe which fuses it, Sdica. generally yjeid the mother country silk at least. A half 
m the form of sand, is used largely in the century previous, in 1552. Cortes had experi- 
prcparation of mortar, glws, and pottery. In tnented with partial success in the same product 
iDctallurgical operations it is used as a fiux among the Aztecs in Mexico. The time seemed 
with ores contaimng limestone with which it propitious now to reap great profit from such an 
fonns a glassy slag which floats on the molten underuking. The &irl of Southampton was 
metal carrying with it many impunties from the among those who showed the most interest in 
ore. Silica forms a number of hydrates which the project. In a mandate to thia earl who 
have acid properties and from which a vast ^^^ treasurer and counsel to the Company of 
number of salts are derived. A great many Virginia, James wrote: "Right trusty and well- 
very complex salts of these silicic acids are beloved, we greet you. Whereas we understand 
found in the earths crust, the metallic elements that the soil in Virginia naturally yieldeth store. 
being usually sodium, potassium, magnesium, of excellent mulberry trees, we have taken into 
aluminium, calcium and frequently small amounts ^^^ Princely consideration the great benefit that 
of other elements. Some of the best known j^y g^„ to the Adventurers and Planters by 
silicates are the minerals feldspar, mica, ^rnet, the breeds of silk-worms and setting up of silk 
Ulc meerschaum, etc. Clay is largely a silicate, ^^rks in those parts. And therefore of our 

Sil'ius, Titus Catiua, Italictia, Roman poet; gracious Inclination to a design of so much 

flourished about 25-101 a.d. At Rome he ap- honor and advantage to the public we have 

plied himself to the bar, and became a celebrated thought good, as at sundry other times, so now 

orator and advocate. He was consul at the more particularly to recommend it to your spe- 

time of Nero's death, and incurred some re- cial care, hereby charging and requiring you to 

proach for assisting in that tyrant's prosecu- take speedy order that our people there use all 

tions, but acquired honor from his conduct in possible diligence in breeding silk-worms ^nd 

the proconsulate of Asia, assigried to him by erecting silk works, and that they rather bestow 

Vespasian, from which he retired into private their travell in compassing this, rich and solid 

life, and collected books, statues, and busts of commodity than in that of tobacco, which, besidt 

eminent men. He finally retired to his seat much necessarj' expense, brings with it many 

in Campania, where he died. The only work of disorders and inconveniences.' 

Silius which has reached modem times is an It was from Italy that those skilled in the 

epic 'Putiica' in 16 books, written with more making of silk carried the industry into France, 

diligence than genius. It takes as its theme But at the end of the 17th century, after the 

the Second Punic war, according to Livy and revocation of the Edict of Nantes, i^s, the 



wotk«ra m silk fled in crowds from France and authorized by a number of Slates. In New Enj;- 
tried silk manufacture, with more or less sue- land, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 
cess, in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and especially, great interest was taken in the sub- 
England. The French Revolution also influ- jecL Eira Stiles, president of Yale College, 
enced the migration of silk-weavers from France and Benjamin Franklin, of Fhiladelpliia, 
to other lands. Those two events were chief were among the most notable promoters 
causes in the distribution of the industry of the movement. In Dec. 1825, the sub- 
throughout Europe, and eventually in the ject of silk-culture began to receive na- 
United States. tional attention, being brought before Congress 
SmeHdKK tn /^ntmcii.— Shipwreck overtook by a resolution of inquiry introduced by Mr. 
the expedition sent out from England by the Miner, of Pennsylvania, and referred 10 the 
Virginia Company under Sir George Summers, Committee on Agriculture. This committee re- 
and not till four years later was the actual begin- ported favorably m the spring of 1826, the report 
ning in silk culture made. In London, in the including a resolution directing the Secretary of 
meanwhile, the merchants and noblemen who the Treasury to cause to be prepared a well-di- 
had advanced money on the future products of KJ^'!;? manual on the growth and manufacture 
the Virginia plantations were not satisfied with "f silk. Inquiries for information on the eub ject 
the resulU. Nothing substantial was forthcom- were sent out by the Secretary, Mr. Richard 
ing. Even the profits on the tobacco crop were ^^s\ in i8a6; and from the replies and other 
small, and after the king's decree against the im- material a manual was compiled entitled "Utter 
portation of tobacco something like panic ensued JT^J" ^S% secretary o£ the Treasury," dated 7 
among the stockholders in the Company of Vir- F«''. 182& Six thousand copies were pnnted 
ginia. In 1619 they got the sanction of the ?' ""■''" ot Congress. This document became 
king, and the exclusive privilege of taking know" as the «Rush . Letter" ; it contains 2» 
negroes from Africa into slavery in the colonies. P'-B". besides illustrations of machinery, and is 
IniSaa peremptory and urgent directions were a carefully executed work. „. . , 
forwarded to encourage silk-culture. In 1629, a ^ ^'* ""Jo™'' action and the publication by 
charter of incorporation was granted to the silk Congress at the same session, and at many sub- 
throwsters of London. Aid was prombed by the «.'?"«"' sessions, of other documents relating to 
Crown to colonists who entered heartily into ^ilk-culture, toge^er with the serious conaidera- 
the work, and punishments were ordered for '"?'' "» the subject by the Congressional Com- 
thosc who neglected it. The Colonial legislature "IJittee on Manufactures, as well as by the 
passed an act requiring ten mulberry trees to be Committee oti Agriculture, enlisted gmeral at- 
^antcd on even' hundred acres. Tlie fine for V"5T'. ^"1"""" 1 ^.'?'* "" .1 Pi.-u'"=< '^'• 
neglect to do this was ao pounds of tobacco. Legislatures of sevwal^utes passed bills for its 
The same act included a preSlium of 50 pomids 'J^":?5i°«"'' r** -.J""" determmed effort 
of^obacco for every pound of reeled silk pr^ -^^^^ l^^i^^rs ^^^^"wV sV^^' 

.ttl^'"^'h:r^' 'rtr"?:o±lT^^nl^ NrTorrand'^do'n^tSlf&^'SJS; 

little. The king and the Compaiv of V.rgma jg^ ^^^ ^ jj ,839, and there were many 

had a falling out, and the latter was bereft of ^ther gatherings devSSd to the cause, 

the English throne. In t666, a" acts giving ,„^ 1,^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ y^j^^ S ^ . g^ 

bouiities for silk or reqmrmg mulberry trees to Notwithstanding the favorable climatic condil 

be planted in Virginia were repealed An inter- tj^^g ^oth in France and the United Sutes for 

lude occurred in si!k-culture until the last years the growth of mulberry trees and the rearing of 

Of he century when several French Huguenots silkworms and cocoons, silk-culture has diin- 

settled m South Carolina. These were skilled jled in both countries because more rwnunera 

workmen and they were in earriest m their en- tive occupations are afforded by other lines of 

deavor to cultivate silk in profitable quantities, industry. Although in France the raisers of cc- 

Contemporary with them was an energetic Eng- coons and reelers of silk are protected by a 

lishman, Sir Nicholas Johnson who formed a considerable bounty, payable by the French gov- 

colony in the same province which was wiown ernment to her citizens as against the Italians, 

for more than a century by the name of Silk that country produces to-day less than 4 per 

Hope. The demand for raw silk m England cent of the world's supply of raw silk Her silk 

soon increased by reason of the establishment manufacturers are well content to purchase, as 

of a silk-throwing mill at Detty, m 1719. by Sir America does, the raw silk from Italy, Japan. 

Thomas Lombe. Dunng the first 35 years of the and China, in all of which countries the ruling 

i8th century of the silk industry was also intro- rates of wages are much less than in France and 

duced into Louisiana and Georgia. But not- very much less than in the United States. Both 

withstanding the efforts of essayists and the France and the United States pursue the same 

premiums and bounties offered by colonial as- fiscal policy of admitting raw silk free of duty 

semblies and by the English Parliament, the and therefore both arc on a par in this respect. 

planters could not he stirred to much activity in Under this policy Fjance produces only a small 

raising silk. portion of the raw silk needed for its silk man- 

From 1750 to 1772, the period of its greatest ufacturers, while in the United States silk-cul- 

activity before the Revolution, the export of raw ture, which was introduced simultaneously to its 

silk averaged only 500 pounds per annum and stimulation in France 300 years ago, has practi- 

rarely exceeded 1,000 pounds in a single year. eally ceased to exist, although since 1844 Vo- 

For many years after the War of the Revolu- radic attempts to revive it have been made in 

tion premiums and bounties for planting mul- California and Kansas, and more recently in 

berry trees and for producing raw silk were Georgia. 

Digitized by 





From first to last the results of fully 150 
years were required to demonstrate in the South 
tbat the culture of silk could not be made there 
■ paying' occupation. As a pursuit it never 
crowded out the cultivation of the tobacco plant; 
and when cotton was introduced as an agricul- 
tural staple, the effort to maintain the silk 
product was relinquished without a struggle. The 
real reason of the failure was always plain. The 
cost of producing reeled silk has ever remained 
less in Italy and the Orient than elsewhere. 
The unpaid labor of the negro slave and the un- 
tutored Indian, it was believed, would contribute 
to the reduction of that competition. It never 
did, however. Neither the African nor the sav- 
age took kindly to reeling the cocoon, and the 
skilled hand of the white had to be employed. 
That hand in this country cannot be employed 
for a few cents a day. Without doubt the white 
malbcrry tree will grow and flourish in great 
abundance in CaliMrnta soil. Silkworms can 
be raised there apparently without limit. But 
when the time arrives in California or in the 
South to harvest the cocoons the same old diffi- 
culty comes to pass that was encountered by the 
people who believed that the slaves brought from 
Afnca, together with the native Indians, would 
reel the cocoons without cost. 

dent enough the last 40 years that the effort to 
establish sericulture in any part of the United 
States is misdirected. It has been the testimony 
of all engaged in the industry and acquairrted 
with facts that sericulture in the United States 
offers no pecuniary inducement 

During the period of protection afforded to 
sericulture in the United States by the National 
Government, in addititm to the bounties voted by 
man^ States, revenue duties were imposed on 
foreign raw silk, ag follows: 

1816 to 1831, 15 per cen 
igji 10 .841. laSiper c. 


1846 t< 

1S46, JO colt* ^ 
I8S6, IJ per oen 

After 1857 raw silk was free of dutr, although 
10 per cent duty had to be paid till 1865 on any 
Asiatic lilfc which was reshipped from Europe 
to the United States, because coming from coun- 
tries beyond the Cape of Good Hope. The for- 
eign invoice value of this 'reshipped Asiatic* 
during the years 1858-65 amounted to $1,174,624. 
The amount of duty paid between 1843 and 1857 
exceeded $1,000,000. In that year all duties on 
r»w silk were removed, "^ 

Sewhtg-iiiks and Small Wares. — The making 
of sewing silk had become a household industry 
in New England, at first by hand and later by 
machinery. The manufacture of silk trimmings 
of various kinds was commenced in 1815 at Fhil- 
■delpbia, and ribbons in iSag at Baltimore. In 
1838 Wm. H. Horstmann, in Philadelphia, had 
power looms made from his own designs; and 
he introduced in this country power-loom weav- 
ing for narrow textile fabrics and small vrares 
snnu Han ecus ly with the first power- loom in 
Basel, Switzerland. A successful competition 
was established with nearly all articles of passe- 
teries of French manufacture. Gold laces 
e made by power by Mr. Horstmann several 
years prior to the first attempt in Europe. At 
Baltimore, in 1840, there was a factory using 15 
Vol. 19 — » 

or aojacquard looms in making silk and worsted 
vestings. But these were the days of rdatively 
small things. Some raw silk was imported to 
supply these establishments. The importation 
of raw silk in 1830 from Great Britain amounted 
to $17,985, from France $3,240, Italy $8,15;^ 
China $89,696. Total value $119,074. In 1837 
the total value of the importation had risen to 
$211,694; in 1840 to $234,235. 

The United States census compilation for the 
year 1840 gives the production of raw silk for 
the previous year in the United States as 6i,55av. 
pounds, valued at $250,000. The capital em- 
ployed in silk manufacture is stated as $374,374. 
Probably the consumption of raw silk, both do- 
mestic and foreign, during any one year in tht 
period under consideration, did not exceed a 
value of $300^00, and the goods made may have 
been worth $600,000, or even more, since the 
Bewing~silk made in Maaaatdiusetta in 1837 was 
valued at $150,000. 

The following are summaries of the United 
States census returns of the American silk in- 
dustry in 1850 and 1S60; 

14iiiDt>cr of nuaftcturiBB »- 


Aawunt of ctpitml cmplored... 
Number of operativcl, mila. .. 

Total operatiTCi 

Amount of wue« p*id . . . - . . . 
Vilue flf pcoducti, Kwini Hik. 

" " ■■ ink cloth.. 

". " " f ringei, 

Pounifi of nw lilk coiuiuDcd!! 

jS6o. — Three events that occurred about the 
year 186a were destined to exert a marked in- 
fluence OQ the silk industry of the world. Two of 
these events may be classed as political and one 
as industrial, but all and each greatly influenced 
industrial-commercial consequences which flowed 

In the United Sutes when the Civil War 
began in 1861 it was essential of course to pro- 
vide money for the National GovemmenL At 
this time the duty on silk goods imported was 
24 per cent ad valorem. Among the new duties 
that were imposed on imports for revenue only 
was 30 per cent, on 3 March 1861, and then ^ 
per cent 5 Aug. 1861, on manufactured silk. 
During a short time before and after the out- 
break of hostilities business of almost every sort 
was paralyzed; the imports of raw silk and of 
silk goods alike fell off materially. The follow- 
ing statistics of imports indicate the trade move- 
ments of the period: 



Ponlsn iBT<riea 

value of lilk 
Cood* imparted 







It was apparent though that the \ 

had given impulse to the silk industry .. , 

PatersoD, N. J., under the leadership of the manufactories that city possesses; but the lead- 

Byles, the Tilts and of C. ijunbert, 2II of ing and most noted feature of its industries u 

whom were English bom, and at South Man- its many silk mills, and the multipUed prosper^ 

Chester, Conn., by the Cheneys. When the tariff of these has been the direct result of the tarifi 

was again advanced on 30 June 1S64, and this biU of 1864. 

time not only for revenue but for protection, to For the year 1870 the United States census 

(So per cent, there was an immediate show of ac- returns showed that the value of manufactured 

tivily among those engaged in silk importing silk in Paterson amounted to $4,263,36a The 

to consider the possibilities of manufacturing population counted 33,579, of whom 12^^ were 

St home. Th^ mw the commercial advantage of of foreign birth. These included 5,124 natives 

supplying their deficiencies in supplies of im~ of IrclaHd, 3J47 English, 1,439 Germans, and 

ported goods by more rapid manufacturing at 1,360 from Holland. There were also French 

the domestic centres of the industry. They in- weavers from Lyons, Italians and Swiss. It wai 

Stilled power-loom weaving in their mills which beginning to be demonstrated that the silk-mak- 

at first were small, in size, but rapidly grew ers' art, transplanted from Europe, had a fair 

larger. Thus it was that the manufacture of prospect of becoming domesticated in the United 

ribbons and broad goods was largely influenced States. 

at the outset by the importers themselves. Like- On a6 June 18^ the Silk Association of 
wise those already engaged in the effort to sal- America was organized in New York as the 
isfactorily weave silk fabrics here received a outcome of a call issued on iz June by the Silk 
fresh stimulus. They had had a long up-bill Industry Association of Paterson. The pro- 
struggle, owing largely to lack of a sufficient claimed object was coKiperation in all measures 
numlier of skilled silk-weavers in the country, that in any way affected the common interest of 
Lack of sufficient capital ako greatly hindered it* silk-making in the United States, 
development Centennial ExhAilian of 1S76. — The Aroeri- 

England decreed free trade by the Cobden can silk exhibit at the Centennial Exhibition, 

treaties of i860, whereby the" silk duties of 15 held at Philadelphia during six months of the 

Ssr cent were abolished, and thereafter in Great year 1876 attracted great attention day after day, 

ritain 'all silk gooSs have been entered free of and excited much surprise by the variety and 

duty. In the same year at Adlisweil in Swltzer- excellence of fancy silks, ribbons, handkerchiefs 

land, the lirst large silk mill to operate powei^ and scarfs displ^ed and woven on the tpoL The 

loom weaving on the factory system was estab- discovery was made by the newspapers and |[en- 

Itshed in Europe by the Schwarzenbachs. It eral public that ulk fabrics made m the United 

started with several hundred power-looms, all States met many wants of the consumer, 

operated by water power. Among the foreign observers, one wrote to 

Power-ioom Weaving. — Prior to this period the 'Courier' in Macclesfield, the headquarters 
the European production was for the most part of the English silk manufacture, that, in his opin- 
on hand loams, l^e aim became at once to ion, the English silk manufacturers had acted 
overcome the advantage of cheap labor there by wisely in not exhibiting their goods in conqwti- 
power-looms here; and a considerable develop- tion, as they would have exposed their inferior- 
ment of the silk business by power-looms was ity in quality and price. ■! noticed at the Ex- 
made within a few years after the passage of the hibition,* the writer continued, "that our uei^- 
high tariff bill. A prejudice was encountered bor at Leek had had the courage to send exhib- 
at first, however, in favor of the foreign make of its of sewing^lk, but any one comparing them 
goods. with the cases «f the Nonotuek or Conicelli Silk 

William Strange, of Paterson, who erected Company, Belding Brotheri or BraiOerd, Arm- 
there a large ribbon plant in 1868, and whose strong_ & Company, would not fail to notice 
father and uncle had been large importers of their inferiority, in lustre and finish. In silk 
ribbons for many years at New York, met this piece goods and dresses, I was quite as- 
prejudice by boldly stating, "We manufacture tonished at the magnificent goods shown by 
the same goods from the same material, by the Cheney Brothers, Dexter, Lambert & Com- 
same workmen and on better looms.' pany, Hamil &. Booth, and William Strange 

The demand for skilled labor was constantly & Company, of Paterson; and that there is 
attracting a large imrnigration from the silk man- no inferiority in machinery or dyeing is testified 
ufacttiring centres of the continent and from by the beantful silk-throwing machinery of 
Great Britain. The effect of this impulse gi\'en the Danforlh Machine Company and the 
by power-loom weaving of silk goods in the finely arranged cases o£ Weidmann & Greppo, 
United States was marked. It soon came to be dyers of Paterson." In an appreciative article 
admitted in the . New York market that on the Exhibition, published in the 'Kevue des 
domestic ribbons were quite as good in Deux Mondes,* Jules Simonin pointed out the 
manufacture and pattern as the imported, silk industry of America as among the successes 
TTiat concession steadily increased among buy- with which France would be driven to a closer 
ers, and in time it applied to all the products of competition. The Swiss Commissioner-General 
the American silk mills. The protective duty did to the Exhibition called attention, in his official 
not affect merely the weaving machinery alone, report, to the progress of Americans in silk 
but it touched every branch of the silk manufac- manufacture and warned his countrymen to be 
luring industry. This protective tariff, allied prepared for vigorous rivalry, 
with Paterson's abundant water power, its prox- The Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia 
tmity to New York {33 miles) and good facili- gave a considerable impulse to the domestic pro- 
ties for transportation, resulted in the making duction of "fancies" and Jacquard weaves. Mr. 
of Paterson. Locomotive works, iron works and Albert Tilt had prophetically said in a report on 



fimdea, Scarfs, HandkerdiJefs (ind Tie Silks" 
to the Stlk Association of America in May 1875 : 
*Sutely the deatinr of Americsn silk manufac- 
turers rests in their own hands.' , 

In 1S76 the production of the American silk 
mills was : 


Silh drru good* $ i,ijo,sjs 

MilliMH'*'"! <■< "OB- l.7»».II> 

SUti handkcrclikta (137,000 

Foulardi 4r>.ooo 

Ribbons <.safi,SS6 

Lac« JMiSDO 

Sewinea Md lwi»i 7.*J».Si9 

UdiM^dm. trimmings, etc 4,s78,fljo 

R'sidi ind bindiagi ji 5,000 

Fsnodi of reeled lilk consumed, i,i443^ (nw nik 

averaged » per pooad). 
I'ouiuu of ipuB ailk ccoiumed, i4a,D0aL 

The Tariffs of the United States— The war 
tiriffs of i86i-<4 gave a great impulse to all 
kinds of mann&tcturing in the United States, and 
quite naturellT the domestic silk inihistrT was 
benefitted. The demand for skilled labor at- 
tracted a considerable immigration from the 
nianufacturins centres of Enropo. The quality 
of the domestic silk fabrics put on the market 
was gradually irapcoved. Economies in pro- 
cesses were introduced. Following the com- 
mercial and industrial depression which existed 
in the United States from 1873 to 1878, grow- 
ing out of the commerdal panic of 1873, 
alt textile industries were much vexed by 
lariR agitations, tariff commissions, and pro- 
pcMed cbangea of schedules and rales of 
duly. In t8Si, the tendency of fashion veered 
from brocades and Jacqoaril weaves to gros- 
grain, both in bmad goods and ribbons. Fin^ 
ally on i July 1883, the general rate of duty 
on silk goods was reduced from 60 to 50 per cent. 
That year the foreign invoice value of silk man- 
ufactures entered at the port of New York 
amounted to $3^305.236. and for the entire 
United States $33^07,113; The valoe of the 
domestic product anwunted to %^fi596\. From 
1893-7 there was a space of four years of stress 
and struggle to the textile industries of the 
United States, a time when the weak were forced 
to the wall and the strongest in staying capacity 
found endurance difficult. Those were years 
when the lawmakers ju^W with the tariff 
and no man could prophesy just what legislatioa 
in that regard might happen ne^t. But during 
the year last named the Ding^ey Tariff Bill fixed 
a specific duty averaging 30 per cent on all silk 
manufactures from abroad, which immediately 
removed many of the disadvantages endured by 
the domestic industry since 1883. In 1900 the in- 
dustry attained to third place in any considera- 
tion of textile manufactures in the United States, 
and to second place among the silk manufactur- 
ing countries of the world. It prodticed in that 

87,636.88] yards of broad lilki, plain, fancies. 

jamuard* and pieee dyed.. tJi,I]a.8ie 

S,»7'>.<I3J yarda of velveta and pUuha 4.9S9,97I 

i,3J3,ii9 yards of upbolitery and tapcslr;^ 

Ri"^n» (0 thV Vajiie i>i.'.'.'.\'.V.'.'.'.'.'.V.\'.V.'. iSlJI^i" 
■,46!,S7] poiindi of DiaehiiK twin. acwJDg, 

eaibroiderf and waah ailka o.aM.Soo 

(jlovn, lacel, Teilingt, trimmingland aundiiea 6,586,611 


Modem Silk Machinery and Rent Silk Sup- 
plies. — In the ^st 15 years power-loom weaving 
has revolutionized most of the processes of silk 
manufacturing. The changes wrought have 
brought silk tebrics within the reach of a small 
purse, and thereby greatly increased the de- 
mand on the raw silk producing countries. 
Changing conditions in the industrial world, 
which have introduced a vastly greater variety 
of silk fabrics mixed with cotton and wool fibres, 
have aUo added to the demand. The annual raw 
silk supply of the world has increased 3}i times 
since 1870; has doubled since 1875; since i8go it 
has increased 60 per cent; since 1695 ao per cent. 
No limit can be placed upon the capacity of 
Japan and China to produce raw silk provided 
the demand continues steadily. By close .attelt- 
tion to the commercial requirements of her cus- 
tomers in raw silk Japan has very greatly 
increased her output and export. Her annual 
shipments of raw sUk are now more than five-fold 
greater than they were in 1870. At that time 
she shipped abroad 2,000,000 pounds. This year 
she will ship close to 11,000,000 pounds, and the 
United States alone wilt take 60 per cent of it 
For the past eight years the American silk man* 
ufacCurers have received and consumed 60 per 
cent of Japan's export of raw silk. 

From 'China, the increase is much less 
marked. In 1870 China exported 6,000,000 
pounds of raw silk. In 1699-1900 season, China 
reached her highest figures of export, namely, 
15,000,000 pounds, or an increase ot igo per cent 
in the 30 years. The best authorities estimate that 
China now produces annually the eqnivalenl of 
250,000 picul bales of raw silk, 55 per cent rep- 
resenting domestic consumption and 4S per cent * 
export. Japan produces the equivalent of 120,000 
picul bales, 40 per cent representing domestic 
CTinsumption and 60 per cent export. Italy pro- 
duces the equivalent ot 75,000 picul bales, 20 per 
cent representing domestic consumption and 80 
per cent export. To represent r.ooO.odo kilo- 
grams of raw gilk reeled in Italy from imported 
cocoons in 1902-3 season, we must add the 
equivalent of 15,000 picuJbales to the usual out- 
put of Italian raw siHc in ordinary years. The 
supply of raw silk to the silk mills of the United 
States at the present time is approximately as 
follows in ordinary seasons: From Japan, so 
per cent; China, 25 per cent; Italy, 25 per cent. 

Silk is a unique thing because its raw mate- 
rial is produced by the cheapest labor in the 
world, while its finished product is among the 
most costly of merchandise. 

Making Silk. Past and Present Methods.— 
A silk mill of the present day would very Hkely 
prove a curious apd interesting establishment to 
the pioneers of the industry. As for those first 
experimenters in the making of the fahric^ who 
crossed from Italy into France during the latter 
part of the 13th century and labored long for 
crude results, present methods might suggest 
even the magic of the magician. It was under 
the patronage of Louis XI. of France that Guil- 

ty GoOg I C 


laume Brissoiwt established at Lyons a small quadrangles and groups that compose an indu*' 

factory for the making of silk textile mixed wilb trial conmiunity. There are seven separate din- 

ailver and gold; but nearly a century and a half sions in the silk tnannfacture — throwing, dy*- 

vanished before any progress in the manufacture ing in the skein, winding. Weaving, dyeing in the 

was sufficiently pronounced to be recorded. The piece, printing and finishing. A few exceptional 

first looms for "fashioned silk* — figured tissue plants include the entire process. Raw silk has 

— were set up in 1605 by Claud Dangon. His a yellow or while color. It is reeled from the 

loom caused a complete change in the way of i,ocoon in skeins. Any visitor on a tour of 

manufacture. Following that chronicle comes a observation in the mills would be shown this 

brief account about Octavio Mey, a merchant of supply first packed in the storage house. The 

Lyons, who, one day in the year 1663, put ■ several departments of the establishment are 

small bunch of silk threads into his mouth and devoted to the throwing, preparing and 

diewed them. When he took them out he saw weaving. The dyeing, priming and finishing 

that the silk had a lustre. That observation led departments are often separate buildings. Any 

to the method of giving artificial gloss to the one whose interest can be stimulated by ingen- 

woven cloth. After 81 years more had passed, ious achievement will find the process of crealinit 

in 1744, an inventive workman, named Vaucan- silk fabrics attractive from the beginning 

son, tried to convince his associates that the Brought from the storage house the raw silk is 

manual labor given to the loom could be reduced, given to the throwster. It being in a condition 

They destroyed his loom and beat him. Then, too fine and delicate for ordinary use, there is 

as the legend is set down, he invented a machine, necessity to subject it to a series of operations 

for spile, by which a donkey wove a whole piece called throwing — that is, winditig, cleaning, doub- 

of silk without the aid of man. But nothing ad- linft twisting, re-winding and reeling the raw 

ditiortal has been related of Vaucanson or his into more substantial yam. The operator who 

work. does this is called a throwster, the dictionary 

JACQUjUU). makers say, because of the old Saxon expressicMI 

. ,„ _ , ~ , ., - T Ikrawan, meaning to twist The silk when thus 

Not agam fall 1804, when Charles Mane Jac- treated is named, accojding to the several pur- 
quard emerged from obscurity and appeared be- ^^^.^ far which it is designed, singles, tram and 
fore Napoleon as the man persecuted by his organzine. The first is made by giving the sin- 
fellow workmen in Lyons, who had invented a g|e thread a twist to give it strength and firm- 
oontnvance for tymg a knot m a taut string, did ness. The second consists of two or more 
the progress of silk manufacture become notably threads thrown just sufficiently together to hold, 
evident. Napoleon appreciated the exceptional by a twist of one or more turns to the inch, 
jngenaity of Jacquard and placed him in charge The degree of twist varies according to the 
of the machinery of the C otuemaloire des Arls tpedtA article proposed to be made. Organiiae 
et Metifrt. It is a pleasing story among many jj formed of two or more singles, according to 
told of Napoleon, and it has been repeated many the thickness required, twisted together usually 
times. Before the arrival of Jacquard, silk weav- in r contrary direction to that of the singles of 
ing of figured goods was a complicated labor, ^hich it is composed. 

It had been going on with an infinite display of Sewing-silk and machine twist is likewise 

patience and pains a couple of centuries. Eveiy manufactured complete in the gum; sewing silk 

loom required the attention of at least two work- ^,^„g ^gj^ f^on, t^ strands and machine twUt 

men; and there was a great deal of mounting f^Q^ t^ree. The last process before reeling is 

-and dismounting, screwing and unscrewing, jtretchi.^. The stretching machine is an Amer- 

whencver it was necessary to fix or anbx icar invention of great value to sewing silk man- 

the Bilk «i the frames. The weaving was ufacturers. This is used to even up the thread 

tedious. Jacquard s l<Kim needed only one ^„^ ^^ ^^^ ,( fimmess and uniformity in siic, 

tnan._ The handling of the mechanism was (j,^ operation lending to draw down the 

suffioently simplified to make his work i^oBer and thicker portions to the same diameter 

easy. It was an appendage to the old loom, or ^^ j^^ thinner ones. Singles, tram, organiine, 

an ordinary loom with a modified harness con- sewing-silk and machine twist are then trans- 

Bisting of a set of string, one for each of the fgrred to a reel and made into skeins preparatory 

warp threads, every string suspended from a f^^ [^e dyer 

bearing at the top. A pattern coiild be worked The dyer boils the skeins in soap and water 

out by cards pierced with round holes. In the to free them from any remaining gum and to 

cards lay the greatest part of the ingenuity. It ^j^^ the desired softness and lustre. This 

was plain at once that any number of patterns ^y^^ g^^y from the silk from 20 to 30 per '■ent 

could be produced. With the addition of some ^f j^, original weight, leaving it on an average 

minor inventions m other divisions of the in- ,2 ounces to the pound. Next it is put into the 

dustry. the manufacture of silk by hand looms jy, .^,,t. a^j the dyer may or may not, by use 

went on the next half century without any im- ^f mefanic substances in the dye, make the silk 

provement which created any radical change, appear heavier and thicker and stronger than it 

The application of water and steam power to the naturally would be. By general consent black 

loom was the next advance. ^r dark-colored silk is allowed to be weighted 

» iiTR Mm iw THE aoTH raNTUBY sufficicnt to make up partly the loss in boiling. 

A SILK MILL IM THE 20TH CENTUfiY. ^jght colors do not bear SO much weighting. 

The silk mill of the present day, completely Most of them, in fact, admit of no adulteration. 

eqtii[qied, presents an interesting appearance. It injures and weakens the texture. Any silk, 

Tne largest of these in the United States are in if heavily loaded, will break easily, feel rough ta 

New Jersey, Pennsylvania. Connecticut, Massa- the touch because of the particles of the dye, 

c^UMtts, Michigan, and New York. Some of and burn smolderingly into a yellow, greasy ash, 

Okk nulls, with their collateral buildings, form instead of a crisp cinder. 

>y Google 


Follewinff Qit dyeing comes the process of over a sheet a couple of yards or more to an op- 
winding the silk on spools, work reqmring much posite frame, similar in appearance to the first 
skill and care, as it is in a condition known as tnentioned, where two more women receive them 
soft silk. The operatives who perform this work and drawn them taut. As the warp is fastened it 
are a separate class, soft-silk winders. Sewing- is drawn forward around a cylinder. This warp, 
silk and machine twist are spooled or skeined when put on the loom by a drawer-in, is ready 
preparatory far the market either on small spools, for the weaving, whether it be plain, or as satin 
or if embroidery silks, in skeins. When dyed or velvet, twilled on one side, or in figures in- 
silk leaves the hands of the *soft-silk winder' it troduced by means of the Jacquard harness. 
is ready for weaving broad KQods, ribbons, braids. The winding of the woof, or the filling, is ac- 
laces, sashes, handkerchieia, etc In any woven fomplished by winding from the spool or bobbin 
fabric there are two systems of threads, the to a smaller spool called a quill on a quilling 
warp or chain running lengthwise in the cloth, frame. The quill fits into the shuttle which 
and the filling or woof crossing the former at conveys the tiiread across the warp. 
right angles. This crossing, or interlacing, con- 
sists of every warp thread being placed alter- ">0M AMD HAKNESS. 
Mtely under and over one or more threads of The modem power loom is a strong iron 
the filling system. The arrwigement of this m- f^ame, at the back of which is the horirontal 
terlacmg is technically called Uie weave, and the team or roller from which the warp unwinds, 
variety in which the points of crossm^ can be a^d at the front the roller on which the web is 
distributed appears to_ be without limit. It .is ^und as it is made. Between the two is the 
chiefly the weave which mves to a fabric its harness, which is a series of frames with eye- 
character, m connection with the material used, jetj one for every thread, or set of threads, of 
the tension of the threads and the combination the warp. In plain weaving the harness 
of colors. frames are in two sets, of three frames 
each, one set of which is up while the other 
FOUNDATION WEAVES. jg down. The number Can be increased to 

There are three foundation weaves. They several frames, al! acting independent of one an- 

are designated as taffeta, serge and satin. In other, for complicated patterns; and in the Jac- 

the foundation weaves each thread effects only quard loom the harness becomes a set of strings 

one crossing in one repeat of the weave, and the instead of a frame, so that every thread of the 

points of the interlacing occur in a given rotation, warp can be raised or lowered separately. Be- 

A repeat in the foundation weaves comprises the tween the beam and the harness is the reed, 

same number of warp-thrcads as of picks or fill- through which the warp threads pass to the 

ing threads ; and if this number be eight, for in- take-up roller in front of the loom, and between 

stance, the weave is called an eight-shaft or an the harness and the web roller, the shuttle and 

eight-harness weave. the batten. As the machine revolves the warp 

In the old heavily built and complicated threads passing from the beam through the reed, 

looms, the reoeat was limited to twelve shafts are lifted or depressed bj; the harness; in the 

and twelve picks, but modern looms are of much opening made by such lifting or depressing, the 

lighter make and simpler construction. A re- shuttle flies across the warp, andT the batten 

Sat of 35 shafts can now be made, while in the beats up the thread it leaves, and a new 
[ing it is almost unlimited. woof is added to the fabric. The corn- 
There are also two additional and entirely dif- plications of the fabrication reveal them- 
ferent weaves, namely, gauze and velvet weaves, selves as soon as the power is turned on and 
Velvet weave is described below. In gauze the actual web begins to appear, close, compact 
weaves, the threads work in groups of two sets, and delicate. In high-grade Jacquard work the 
One set continuously remains below the filling; hack of the weave is uppermost, and moment 
the other is alternately raised on the right and after moment it steadily increases as if by ma^ic 
left sides of the first, and is therefore alwajfS It is the rich and costly fabric coming into view 
above the filling. In this manner, a crossing is for which the worm spun its cocoon many 
made, which holds the filling in place. months previously in Japan, China or Italy. An 
To begin with, a warp must be constructed, energetic weaver on a power loom can turn otit 
and this is usually made of organzine, but from 10 to 20 yards a day — that is, a day of 
can be made of single thread or tram. 10 hours' labor. 
Those engaged in that labor, usually women 

— will be found, perhaps, in one of the change of wxATt. 

upper lofts of the mill. It is one of the quiet Attention may be directed to the fact that 

processes, cleanly, and though not particularly there are other ways of varying the weave. In 

difficult is considered one of the most important satin, for instance, the result is attained by 

in successful silk manufacturing. The yam throwing the warp mostly to the upper surface, 

having been transferred from the skeins As the organzine, or warp silk, is Uie most lus- 

to bobbins, these are set in a frame from trous, the satiny effect is produced. Gros grain 

which the warp-machine is to be fed. At best is made by flam weaving.half upandhalf down, 

tiie mere written description of any mechanical with a woot of a thickness to correspond with 

process can only prove more or less vague. It the rib or grain. Stripes, if in the length, are 

needs the eye to reveal it. But it may be said produced by warp threads of different colors; if 

that this contrivance on which the warp is in the width, by feeding the woof from shuttles 

arranged would have the appearance, to the carrying different colors of thread, each of which, 

casual observer, of an upright frame girded with by an automatic device, is lifted into position to 

long, white strings. It is about a yard in width, be thrown at the proper moment; and plaids by 

Two women sit before it and draw the silken making both warp and woof threads of differeirt 

direads between the cords. They are strung colors. 

Uiglizcd by 



TILVETS. material, and usually only coarse «ies. In this 
,, , . . , ■!. .. I ,[. c .. respect he differs noticeably from the European 
Velvet IS made in two ways, that of the finest ^j,i;ufacturer. His aim, besides perfection in his 
grade I>emE_woveii by looping the warp, thread ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^j^ ^^j,^ ^j materials, is the g^in- 
over fine wires, which give, T)y their sue, the f ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^jyu^ ^^^ ^^e looms in yard- 
desired length of pile. When the weaver has ^ ^. ^ yardage reduces the average 
made a few inches of web requiring several hun- ^j ^ ^^^ general expenses. Low grades 
dreds of these wires, he stops the loom and runs ^^^ f^^ ^^^^ ^^^ better suited for hand looms 
a knife along each of these wires, guided by a ^^j therefore, not much used by silk 
p-oove m Its upper surface. The other syEton jnanufgcturers in the United States. No- 
is that made possible by the power loom for the ^j^.^ g^^^jj ^ (,1^^,,. gj^g that it is es- 
productionof pile fabrics. In this two cloths are ^^^^J^^^ f^^ (hose in control of these mills to 
woven together, the pile binding the two until a ^^^. assiduously the trend of style and fashion, 
knife, working like a shuttle, ciits_ them apart. Versatility is a decided necessity in the capacity 
Velvets are brushed, sheared, and ironed to the ^^ ^ j^^^ j^ ^^^ ^^„ remarked by an expen- 
jinest possible degree, of evenness. It should ^^^^ observer that it is astonishing to note the 
have been stated also in regard to broad silk that j^^,;^^ ^■^^^^ „j,ich the American mill changes 
after it eaves the loom it passes to workwomoi, ^^^^ fj^^ ^^ y^ f^om simple to complicated, 
who pick jt over, yard by yard, for knots in the f^^^ i^j^, (o faconn* goods, and from yam- to 
weave and to discover any imperfections. ITiese pi^e-dyed weaves. One of the important factors 
are remedied and wherever the silk i"»y have g^^ contributes to the energy which endeavors 
been soiled it is cleaned Then it is sent to the ^ ,j , ^^ occasion is the simplicity of 
finishing room. It is there treated with differ- ^^ American machinery. It is agreed that it 
ent processes, according to the special character- ^^^,l^ ^^ ordinary weaver to do work which in 
istics desired, as high lustre, hard or soft touch, f^j^^- ^-^^^^ ^^^ t,^ accomplished only by the 
etc. If, however, the silk is not yani-d;yed, it ^^^ » jj^j^^j ^^^ experienced. In the United 
goes from the loom to be piece-dycd in anv states there has never been any suspension in the 
shade desired, or to be printed. Like <?hco, it ^^^^^r to keep foremost in new mechanical in- 
is printed on a machine having a roller for each trojurtions. Antiquated and wom-oirt eqaip- 
'°'°'"- ment have been replaced always by the modem 
TBK usuLT. and more economical, the constant effort being 
Finally the total result comes to the superin- to redu" the cost of production. 
tendent of the mill for inspection. He considers Twnnwrnn n*MTfl. 
it critically, for the reputation of the establish- THBOWINQ Plamts. 
ment, in competition with the numerous other Some of the American improvements made 
mills, depends on the quality of the silk he can within the past decade should include the success 
produce. These men are experts, and they give in perfecting the winding frame in throwing, so 
as much time to the acquiring of an education in as to produce more perfectly wound spoofs at 
the textile schools of France^ Switzerland and high speed and obviate the necessity for re- 
Germany as a lawyer or physician does gualify- drawing. In the latest improved frame the bob- 
ing himself to practise. At Lyons, Ziirich and bin is carried by a spindle having two heads 
Crefeld they are taught silk-weaving as one of resting on the driving wheels, its bearings being 
the fine arts. It is they who provide much of the supported upon incHned planes that sustain most 
instruction now which is given in the American of the weight, yet force the spindle into sufficient 
mills. There are, however, textile schools of re- contact with the friction wheel to secure a poai- 
cent origin at Paterson and Philadelphia for in- tive drive, the double support allowing high 
struction in silk weaving. The Philadelphia speed without throwing out the spindle. Double 
Textile School instruction includes the design- decking the winding frame has also been adopted 
ing, warping, weaving, dyeing, analysis, etc^ the by some to oconomi/e space. The doublii^ 
practical portion of the instruction being facil- frame has been perfected sufficiently to permit 
itatcd by an equipment of the most up-to-date work to be done at double speed of heretofore, 
machinery. The self-reliance and courage so and with better results. The old 'flyer' and 
characteristic of Americans in producing sue- 'jack-pin* system has been partially displaced 
cessful results in the industrial and commercial by a cap on the bobbin, by means of which the 
progress of the country are characteristic also thread can be drawn off naturally and the desired 
of the operatives and workers in the mills. The tension applied on the assembled threads. In 
American system of education which for the spinning, the Continental belt system, so called, 
most part is absolutely without any charge to where the spindles are driven by contact with an 
the boys and girls develops keenness of intellect, endless belt instead of by bands, has been adopted 
habits of thought, enterprise and knowledge in all new installations. More than one halt of 
which are of great service to them in whatever all the spinning spindles in the American mills 
employment they enter. This is an element of are of this system, although only first introduced 
strength to the country which competing nations in 1889. A double-deck machine of this type, 
will have to face more and more in the future, giving double the number of spindles in the same 
Trained and educated men, even from the high- space, still further solved the problem of econ- 
est colleges and universities, are more and more omy of space. In i8q5 a combined spinner and 
devoting themselves to the industrial arts and doubler, was designed that has resulted in being 
'o transportation and commercial problems, the largely adopted, not only in the United States, 
practlcaf effect being the cheapening of trans- but in se\eral foreign countries, and in the 
portation, economies in cost of production, and technical schools of England and Switzerland^ 
the'refore lower prices to consumers. An el?ort to solve the problem cif spinning, doub- 
For the most part the American manufacturer lingand twisting organzine in one process has rcr 
of broad silk uses only the best quality of the raw suited in the production of practical machines of 


fedth belt-driven and the OW band-drive Syatem. .^urca vnunoiu mna uur aovu. 

The improvements in throwing madiinety during Fihiiu intermixed with gold and silver, 

Uie past 30 years are estimated to save about 40 Bmcfae veiveti, !■«■ ud noveitiu of cverj Idndi 

per cent in floor space and 20 per cent in the cost 

of throwing. I" other words these Lyons prodorticms 


gap between the power-looms and the Gobelin 

In weaving perhatts there has beeti more pro- There is also the power dnven hand loom 

Kress in improved machinery the last decade than called the French loom, but there are not many 

m the three preceding decades. The improve- of these looms m the United States, and not 

ments have produced a loom of very high effi- many now in use m Switzerland or in France, 

ciency, equipped with mechanical devices designed The regular power loom known as the crank 

lor saving time, labor and material, soch as nu- loom- has largely supplanted them. In the 

merous multipliers, two-weave, leno, swivel, French loom the lay swings from the top of Oie 

embroidery motions, and many others all ar- loom; is mov^d backward by an eccentric, but 

ranged to work automatically. Special mention falls forward by its own weight ; m so doing the 

should be made of the improvements by which pick is beaten np wirti a short quick stroke. On 

all classes of taffeta effects, formerly made on the crank loom the lay revolves on a shaft at 

hand looms only, are now made on power looms, the bottom of the teom ; it is moved baA and 

In the Jacquard loom there has been so many forth by a crank and the pick is pressed into the 

improvements the last 10 years that it has be- doth, 

come almost a new loom. This fs spedally ubbonS. 
noticeable in the saving of cards and the increase 

of speed. Attachments have been added which Many changes have also come to pass in the 

dispense with the pattern of bws chain on the development of the ribbon loom. These are now 

loom, the cards being so punched that the shtrttle capable of high speed and show a great advanpe 

boxes are controlled by the Jacquard, over the Swiss and German types, which were 

While the hand loom is no longer a factor of the ribbon looms principally in use ten years 

importance in broad silk weaving in the United ago. The modem ribbon loom was first designed 

States, nevertheless it remains a very consider- in the United States. Under the old methods of 

able factor in Europe and the countries of lower handling the waip it was necesaaiy-4o -employ 

wages. In igoo there were 97445 hand looms, men on the looms. At present the warp is placed 

available for silk weaving in France, Germany, on beams similar to broad-silk loorn^,' and every 

SwilEcrland, and Italy, as against 61,957 silk warp is kt oS automatically from each beam, 

power looms in the same countries. Hand making it unoecessary for the weaver to go be- 

tooms do not require so much capital to install hind the looms for this purpose.' The best type 

and operate. They are much less expensive in of ribbon loom, the high-speed automatic, in- 

eonstruction ; when idle, the interest^ and gen- cludea all the latest improvements of comtruc- 

eral expense account rimning against- Uiem tton. It is adapted to high-grade Jacquard work, 

is small, and production is therefore read- where high speed has been slow of adoption. It 

Dy stopped without loss. It, represents a has the automatic let-off system for the warps, 

household industry in the main, and quite is capable of a more uniform weave than the old 

the reverse of the factory or mill system which machine and has greater productive capacity. 

has been described. The greatest perfec- Attention may be directed also to a very efficient 

tion in weaving is also obtaiftablc on the hand silt-velvet ribbon loom that has recently coma 

loom on account of the slower production, into use. Incidentally, it issy be mentioned that 

There are two commercial reasons, also, why nowhere has inventive genius, in connection with 

hand looms continue in such considerable use, the power loom, been so notable as in the United 

despite the perfection which power loom weav- States. The most pronounced features of Amer- 

ing has attamed. Scan power looms arc light construction, ease in 

1. The possibility of using finer aiiea and handling, simplicity in operation, accuracy of 
cheaper grades of silk. The more uneven and weave, and moderate cost 

less elastic raw silks and the inferior grades of The total weekly labor in an American silk 

waste silk bring a lower price than the better mill is usually 58 hours, althou^ the legal tkat 

^des, and require a slower manipulation than allowed by factory laws vanes in different 

a possible on uie power loom. With low wa^ States. 

for labor, and every item of cost of production The End of the Century. — Looking hack 50 

Icisened, a profit is reached which vanishes years at the end of the century the notable fact 

when higher priced labor undertakes to do the 13 apparent that the value of American products 

same thing. Europe has alwajrs had a monopoly of in silk in 1900 was nearly 60 times as great as 

the cheapest ^oods and the highest priced goods, in 1850. The American manufacturer had ar- 

2. The highest class and most expensive rived at a period in which the importation was 
productions known to the industry are possible confined almost wh^ly to-the costliest fabrics in 
only on the hand loom. Weaves of highly broad, silks, the fashionable novelties, ahurch 
complicated design, and great variety of mate- vestments and specialties not suitable for me- 
dals, require very slow production and the most chanical weaving. The industry had spread from 
skilful operatives. Some fabrics are limited to New England and the Middle States into many 
one or two yards production per day, and some other States, although the comparative rank, in 
weaves employ it> to 20 colors in ttie filling, importance was as follows: New Jersey, 
Their cost may range from $4 to $to per yard. Pennsylvania^New York, Connecticut, and Mas- 
France, and especially Lyons, has always been sachusetts. Those States had respectively iScn 
renowned for these productions. Among these 121, 92, 38, and 20 silk manufactories. The 
high grade Bpecialtiea may be named: ' greatest growth was noticeable in Pennsylvania. 




M Tears prevjously the silk industry in that por- 
tion of our country was scarcely apparent Be- 
tween 1880 and i8go, in Pennsylvania alone, 
'throwing* plants at first and weaving plants 
later, were established in 18 separate towns or 
plaices where previously there had been 
none. The incentive was cheaper fuel, cheaper 
wages, lower taxes, less cost for factory space. 

During the last decade the silk industry of the 
United States reached tfae point where its future 
seemed assured as a permanent branch of the 
textile industries of the country. American man- 
nfacturers had shown their ability to meet the 
exacting demands of consumers by producing 
nearly all descriptions of weaves known to the 
trade. Silk mills were erected at many new 
points in this decade, 52 bein^ located in Fennsyl- 
Tania, 14 in New York, 10 in New Jersey, four 
in G>nnecticul, four in New Hampshire, three in 
Rhode Island, two each in Delaware, Maryland, 
Virginia and North Carolina, and one each in 
Michigan, Ohio, Illinois and Wisconsin, aggre- 
gating 99 separate places where silk mills were 
put in operation in the 10 years. 

Power loom weaving and ingenious mechani- 
dans combined have revolutionized nearly all the 

processes of the manufacture. The accompany- 
ing statistical tables illustrate the great change* 
that have taken place in mechanical equipment 
in different countries in recent years. 

The United States have been a leading factor 
in the development, and especially so in the past 
five years. If the present fiscal policy of the 
Republic endures, the United States will soon 
take first rank in its annual output of silk prod- 
ucts. It now holds second place, France being 
first in value of annual production. The su- 
premacy of the United States as an industrial 
nation means tower prices to consumers, and 
consequently a much wider distribution of pro- 
ducts than ever before. When this can 
truthfully be said of articles of adornment and 
art, as of silk goods, every American can take 
pride in the industrial and commercial achieve- 

The tables following indicate in figures the 
comparative growth of the silk industry in the 
United States, 187S7I900, (i) by loom equip- 
ment (3) description of production, etc. A 
comprehensive view of the world's silk industry 
and its production of raw silk is presented in 
this encyclopedia under the title Woiu>'s Silk 



Power loomi 



Brotd aoodt 

Narrow ftbrio. 


Btoed VMd> 

Narrow fabric! 


:l;} ■•::::::::::::■ 










Prior to i»oa tl 

iiisi induitry ipve employmeat t( 

1 cooddcnble ntuuber of loomj, both power 


The figures for 1880-1900 are United States census returns for those years. 










Braids.ind bi'ndio^' 


Topntriei Md uph^iT IMffa 


!».»£,] 13 


l«9.' 54.599 


• Strictly dress good» 
ndkcrchicfl and foulard) 

It reported. 






I.I 19,815 



1 .463.575 

. 65.415 



Silk-cotton Trees, any one of the trees considerable extent for threads and various 
belonging to several tropical genera of the fabrics. The Chinese also use the gray silk of 
iialvacetr, as Bombax, Eriodendroti, Ockrona, an allied species {B, cyntkia), which feeds on 
and Pachira. They are usually large trees, the the tree of heaven {Atlanthus glanduiosa), for 
ercater number native to South America, with the manufacture of a soft fabric Since the 
handsome raallow-likc flowers, light, soft wood, thread cannot be reeled the silk is obtained bj,.--' 
and bark containing bast fibres used for cordage, carding methods. So far as known these specieSj. 
Those species most entitled to the name are have not been extensively employed commef^ 
Bombax malabaricttm of the East Indies, and cially except in the Orient, though they have 
Eriodendron artfracttiosvm^i both the Oriental been used tentatively in France and Otber silk- 
and American tropics. The latter, the silk- manufacturing countries. The tussur or tusseb 
cotton tree of the West Indies, is one of the moth {Anlh^aa papkia) spins a hard grayish- 
most abundant and largest trees of the Antil- white cocoon from which the natives of India, 
lean forests, and is either low-branched or tall where the species is indigenous, manufacture 
with naked trunk and massive crown lifted high tussur silk. The Bengalese use the pure white 
above the other trees. When young' its trunk silk of the boro poloo (Bombyx textor) and the 
and branches are covered with sharp_ spines, yellow silk of the dasee-worm (fl. fortunatm) 
which afterward disappear. The bark is hard, for making a silk cloth which rarely reaches the 
clean, and white, surrounding a pulpy interior, world's markets because of its inferior quality. 
The trunk is sometimes too feet high, and in Several North and South American species yield 
well-grown specimens is without branches for silk which has not become commercially im- 
the lower part; but as the tree ages the trunk portant Of these the best known are probably 
enlarges near the ground, being someiimes 12 the cecropia (Platysamia cecropia) and the poly- 
feet m diameter, and great buttresses, tall and phemus {Teiea potyphemus). The amount of 
thin, spring from it on all sides and run out in silk they produce is far greater and stronger 
an undulating fashion, for perhaps more than than is produced by the Qiinese silkworm, but 
100 feet along the surface of the ground, before the thread cannot be reeled without difficulty, 
finally penetrating the soil and anchorinEf the The most important and most widely dis- 
tree. These braces are invaluable for bracing seminated species of silkworm is Bombyx ptcri, 
the tree asainst heavy winds. The leaves are a native either of northern China or of BengaL 

S lossy, dark green, and deciduous. The yellow It seems to have been domesticated at a vei^r 

owers appear just before the leaves and are early date, which is placed by Chinese authori- 

followed by great pods whose valves hurst open ties at a6oo B.C., when the wife of Emperor 

when mature, causing the tree to seem smothered Hoang-ti commenced feeding the caterpillars. 

in glistening white thistle down. This is be- In 552, two monks brought eggs to Constaoti- 

cause the seeds are wholly invested jn delicate nople, superintended experiments in cultivating 

cotton-like fibres, and being very light are car- the worms, and turned the industry over to the 

ried off by the wind for long distances. Un- Emperor Justinian by whom it was monopolized. 

fortunately, although closely allied to the cotr Neighbonng peoples soon took it up, however; 

tcMi plant iCossifpiunt) these fibres are too short and now many countries, especially those of the 

to be woven into textiles ; but those of one Mediterranean region, Persia, India, and Arabia, 

■ilk-cotton tree, Eriodendron anfractutiitim, are raise silk in commercial quantities. 
employed for stuffing^ cushions and other m- The silkworm is the larva of a large moth 

houtery, and are an important article of trade, with a short thick body, stout legs, and broad 

the principal source of supply being Java. This white wings crossed by several black lines or 

species is found both in southern Asia and in by a pale brown bar upon the anterior pair. In 

tropical America, and is a tree from 50 to 100 early summer the females lay from 300 to 500 

feet high, with palmate leaves and showy flow- bluish eggs, about as large as a pin's head, 

ers. Its seeds are eaten in some Pacific islands, singly upon any convenient surface, gluing them 

Ochroma lagoput is also called down-tree, or there by a mucilaginous secretion, silky when 

cork-wood, on account of its light porous wood. dry. These do not hatch until the following 

RIIWWmh* «:«. As/-.»«*B spring. Then the !arva^ about one quarter of 

Silk Weed. Sec Asclepias. j,^ i^j^,, ]p„^ ^^j yellowish-gray or trownbh, 

Silkwocm-gut, a substance prepared from commence to feed, and soon consume about 

the silky secretion of the caterpillars of the their own weight of fohage daily and incrMse 

ordinary silkworm taken from the insects' body, rapidly in size. When about 10 days old they 

and constitnting the lustrous and strong line become lethargic and stop eating until after 

10 well known to anglers under the name of fn^y have east their skins. In this operation the 

*g\il» old skin hursts near the front and the cater- 
pillar squirms itself out, leaving the old skin 

Silkwonas, entomologically, any cater- attached to the branch or leaf upon which it 

pillar which spins a cocoon of silky fibre; pop- was stationed. The worms rapidly increase in 

nlariy, the various species which yield a fibre size immediately after the molt, then steadily 

used commercially. All are caterpillars of diminish as the time for the next molt ap- 

moths, and feed upon foliage of various trees proaches. The process is performed four times 

and shrubs. Among the less important species before the caterpillar spins its cocoon, which it 

the following are probably best known: The does when about six weeks old. At this time 

Japanese oak-feeding silk-moth iBonbyx yama- it is about three inches long and half an inch 

Moi) is noted for its green-tinted silk, which in diameter, has 12 visible body segments, three 

is used in Japan and China for embroidery; a pairs of true legs and five pairs of pro-legs, 

close relative (B. peryni), also an oak-feeding It now ceases to feed, empties its alimentary 

insect, is a native of northern China, where its tract, and seems to shrink in size. The spinning 

luge grayish-browD cocoons are used to a then commences, the insect making first an outer 

i)„r7,>i„, Google 


K-itm)tk known as the *floss,* and tben winding grades for manufacture, a separate lot being 

tiie silk in a continuous thread around its body selected for breeding. The sexes are readily 

which continues to decrease in size; indeed, the recognized, the males being smaller and their 

completed cocoon is considerably shorter than the cocoons having more pointed ends than those 

caterpillar itself, bein^ only about i^ inches long, of the females. After grading they arc heated 

The operation of spinning occupies about five to destroy the insects within, whose emergence, 

days, during which time the insect usually pro- if left alive, would break the thread many times. 

duces from a,ooo to 3,ooo feet of silk, which^ The manufacturing process is then commenced. 
when microscopically examined, is seen to con- Where a uniform and favorable temperature 

sist of two blended strands. These are produced are not maintained, where humidity and purity 

t^ special glands (sericteria) which extend of the air are impaired, and still mare where 

nearly the whole length of the body and ter- there is deviation from the strictest cleanliness, 

mi Date in apertures (spinnerets) situated in silk growers have often experienced serious 

the mouth. In from 15 to 20 days after the losses of their caterpillars at all stages of tiieir 

chrysalis has been formed the adult insect growth. Purifying tlie breeding and feeding 

emerges, lays its eggs and dies. It has been giuarters after each 'crop,* and again before the 

estimated that there are about 20,000 to 40,000 introduction of a new one, are essential. The 

eggs, popularly known as "seed* in an ounce ; walls are whitewashed, the trays sterilized in 

Uout one ounce of eggs will yield 100 pounds various ways, and the apartments fumigated 

of eocoons or nine pounds of raw silk; from with burning sulphur. No detail that will insure 

ij to 20 pounds of good mulberry leaves should cleanliness throughout; the feeding period niust 

yield one pound of cocoons; and well grown be neglected, else the worms may suffer from 

mulberry trees should yield about 100 pounds of the diseases which follow in the wake of 

leaves. The amount of space allowed for the neglect Four of these, called in France pebrjne, 

caterpillars produced from an ounce of eggs muscardine, gattine, and flacherie, are due to 

varios from one square yard, immediately after infectious organisms; for a fifth disease, gras- 

hatching, to about 64 square yards when spin- serie,_ no ascribable cause has been discovered. 

ning time arrives — each change being double Pebrine devastated France to such an extent 

the previous space: 2, 4, 8, j6, and 33. that by 1847 eggs were all imported from Italy. 

The food of the caterpillars is preferably the By 1865 the only safe source of egg-supply waa 

foliage of the white mulberry tree (Moruj n/ta), Japan. Pasteur showed that rational methods 

but several other species are emploved, notably of cleanliness in the breeding and feeding were 

the Japanese mulberry (M. jajiotucah the alpine the only remedy; the result is that France ex- 

tnulberry, iM. alpina), and it. muUicauHs and ports about lo.toigs of eggs annually. 
M- morelli. The osage orange (q.v.) is occa- Consult: Kelly, 'Culture of Mulberry SUfc- 

sionally used as a substitute, but i3 said to worm,' Bulletin 39, Division of Eutomolo^, 

produce an inferior grade of silk. The black Unite^' Slates Department . of Agrioiliur* 

mulberry (_M. nigra') is objectionable because (Washington 1903; Bulletin 9); Villon, '1* 

slow in growth. The caterpillars also thrive Soie' (Paris i^} ; Verson And Quajat, 'II 

tipon the leaves of lettuce and some other filngcUo e I'arte sericola' (Padua i8s»). 


requisiie is an ampie suppiy 01 louage, tou ™— ',~~~. ^ i, ' rTJ-'' ll'-i^'iT' "dS" — iV ' ~ 

too (at oiragb .pmio gi.e cib ampU room ?""''''f I'm «< m iMi. mWrf b„„„CT 

to develop ils bri,ch» m all direcl.on., the " 5"!''°™!;' Hj' ""i"^ ■'% "S Pf' K-l 

dLunce raryins from 15 to « f«t d.pecding «"■'«''. >> «[' P'"'^'! D'™''? School. Ha 

upon the vfiet?. method of tSiniog, etr^Fr^ S',^ '"Jf'lA K, '7r,™Sv ™"S; 

qlSnily the tiee. are ttuled muth Ibe a. ^'^''S'Il "JjJ^v^,? "?. ™.wT/Tf -ff^S 

"1 pollardb. (q.v.), except that the brancbra J*""'! *' iSf- u !^ a'I "'"-^P"* 

re em whSe ma^L The eggi having beS he went to Ohio, where he d,d .ome teachmg 

nter at a len,per,tire of lei that, ';l'°il',''T? ,?''";' ^r1"'%"*^ '"'?""' 

, dry drenlating atmosphere, »te of the Oakland high-school ( .871 ) and profe.ipr 

placed in a room or an incubator in , hick the ^'^'t '%'"!" '^ "..Y"'S!?'^„°'J-'t 

temperature is raUed gradually to about 73". !■?"";, '">, 'f 3 he retuirted to Oh.o to devot. 

In about 10 days the la™ emeije and are cov- '""V"" ZY' "" ' f "7 '"illL '^i'Ll"' J"? 

ered with ibSu oi perforated {aper sprinkled ""tl™'"'' ™r wilbngly collect wh« he had 

with chopped mulbeJD. leaves. &eh should S '???'"''. ?™i"' " ""^JS't ■""'™'"'' 

be renewed about nine times duriog the first "!,«. *";!";=:, "= ""■ ,n™nheHs., a reeog- 

a hours, each time by placing a ficsh paper P*™ '"'"* j' '" B">""'' '• ampI.C and a )uM 

above the soiled one. wbaTsbould be burned. '"'"«= » '^ P'"' "l "'?■ "■*." ?"»'? 

Paper with larger perfomtions is necessary as '^S amtenty not a, has been pomted out, 

the worms grow. A. they approach maturity "''''= «"">"■ Indeed be was ,n thought 

their appetites become voracioS. When readj H.^ „'r!i°' VI » ' 1 "S"" > - f °™ .j' 

to spiT they should be supplied with bru.h, 'i' "^'^ ,",' Fool s Prayer > ,s the property 

atraw or other material upon which to form iL"'^ J^SS,"*'' , ■ f?nh™ious selection, 

their eocoons and the temperature at this time ,I?Z^ *t '' ,™'""" ™; '>"'■ 'Hermioni 

should be kept about 75. and the humidity ?23 "J,"*"^ I^o^S^^PP'^"'^^,'"^^; an<l m ipoo 

close to 65: At all times scrupulous cleanliness .^' ?°"^' ^''^?"' Rowland S,I , with an In- 

l! essential, a. also is abundant fredi air. '"^•""'^ Compriimg Some Famibar Letler,.> 
When spinninB is completed, no sound is heard Sill. Joahiu Woodrow, American generaJ: 

inside the cpcoon. The cocoons are then sorted h. Chilicothe. Ohio, 6 Dec 1831 ; d. M«rfre*»J 

according to quality, siae, and color into nine boio, Tenn., 31 Dec. 1862. He was graduated 

kept over s 
50* F. in 


from the United Statea Military Academy in 6 to 7 and its specific gravity from 3^ to 3^ 
1853. and was soon called to the Academy as The color is various shades of brown, or gray, or 
assistant professor of ethics, geography, and greenish. The streak is uncolored, and the min- 
history. He resigned from the army in 1861 eial varies from transparent to translucent. It 
and hecame professor of civil engineering and occurs in gneiss, mica schist, and other meta- 
mathematics in the Brooklyn Polytechnic Insti- morphic rocks, in Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
tule. He commanded a division of the Army of New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, North Caro- 
Ohio in 1862, and was killed while leading hi) lina, etc. The name was given in honor of Pro- 
brigade at the battle of Murfreesboro. fessor Silliman of New Haven. 

Silliman, sTl'I-m^n, Benjamin, American Siloam, sl-ld'am, or SUoafa, sl-lo'a, a pool 
scientist: b. North Stratford, Conn., 8 Aua or tank in Jerusalem, fed by the waters of 
1779; d. New Haven, Conn., 24 Nov. 1864. He Gihon and forming part of the ancient water- 
was graduated from Vale in 17^, studied law, supply system of tne city: a tunnel leadi to the 
and was admitted to the bar in 1802, but accepted pool from the 'fountain of the Virgin.* In 1880 
the diair of chemistry and natural history at some bo^s playing in the pool crawled into 
Yale in 1803. He went abroad in 1805 to this ancient tunnel, and one of them noticed 
continue his Studies, and while m Edinburgh a tablet bearing an inscription. That inscription, ■ 
became interested in geology. On his return as deciphered by scholars in 1881, tells of 
home he made a geological survey of A part of errors of measurement committed by the miners 
Connecticut, the first survey of the kind made and how they were corrected. In places the 
in the United States, and in 1807 published an inscription is undecipherable, but, line for linti 
account of the celebrated Weston meteorite it is rendered thns : 

of 14 Dec. 1807- In iSil he began a series of i .h t„ j v .i,- ■ .h i.-^ 1 ih, ^ t 

experiments with the compound blow-pipe, ob- '■ i^i" ^ ihe ^ne" "ere E^ym""^ " ™™"- 

tamed for the first time m the United States 1. The pick, each towatd bis M!o« tnd while tfierti 

the metals sodium and potassium, and discovered ^^ y^ •'"™ ">"" *<> be cot, there wu heard the 

in 1822 the fusion of the carbons in the voltaic ^ Cail"^ t'o l^s'fSow, for ihere mu » nUiirietiati' in 

arc He founded the 'American Journal of the rock □□ the right hand . . . ud on ihe dvr 

Science* in 1818, acting as its sole editor until ■♦• O* .natwling through, the eotten inrote pick ■luiut 

183R and as senior eSitor rniHI 1846, opened 5. jtE «t'Sf.Z'!he°^nnel to ih, pool. » oao eubi.., 

the Lowell Institute in Boston with a senes o£ and . . . 

lectures on geology in 1838, and in 1840 was «■ Cob'W T^^""' •^'^ "' *■« "** •'»" ^* ewaw 

elected president of the American Association of 'C^ectuiS 

Geologists. He resigned his chair at Yale ill _„ «,, , . 

1853 and was made professor emeritus, but con- „ .8a«r«. dlfl-ffct, the name of an ancient 

tinued to lecture until 1853 when he retired. Bit"" .tnbo which inhabited, the district m- 

He was named by Congress for one of the orig- ™™ ™ ™ modem counties, of HereforcV 

inal members of the National Academy of S?^"'' ™w»«>ck. Mpnmputh. and Glamorgan. 

Sciences in 1863. His publications include: They were of the ear icr Celtic stock,- and wer« 

'Jonmal of Travels in England' (i8ro): 'Ele- ^°^« ™e most warlike of the British tribes. 

ments of Chemistry* ((Sag); 'Consistency of Thcr were subdued by the Romans about 78 A.11. 

I)i9C0veries of Modern Geology with the Sacred SHaiian or BQiiric ByBtcm, a tertn applied 

History of the Creation and the Deluge* (1837) ; in 183J by Sir Roderick Murchi son, directoi^ 

'Narration of a visit to Europe in if^l> general .of the Geological Survey of Great 

(1854) ; etc Consult Fisher, *Ltfe of Benjamm Britain, to those rocks of South Wale* (the 

Silliman* (1866). country of the old Silures), which were formerly 

Siniman, Bcnjanrfn. American chemist, included as "grauwacke» in the Transition Sys- 

«m of the preceding: b. New Haven, Conn, tern of rocks. In the typical region the rocks 

4 Dec i8r6; d. there 14 Jan. 1885. He was are divided ao follows : 

f:raduated from Yale in 1837, and in 1838 became iSE^iS 

instructor in chemistry, mineralogy, and geology new. ¥eet. 

at Yale, was appointed professor of applied f £. Ludlow Group 1,000 

chemistry in 1846, and in 1834 succeeded his Upper Siluriin ^ ;. Wenlock Group 1,800 

father in the chair of chemistry, a position he ' + li«™^-«t e™p a,"" 

occupied until his death. He was one of the f 3. Eala and Caradoc Croup. «,ooo 

founders in 1847 of the Yale Scientific School, tower Snnrianj a. Llandeilo Groop 

and was professor of medical chemistry and ' .. Aremg Group *-°'" 

to:ticology in the University of Louisville. Ky., ig.soo 

in 1849-S+ He was in_ charge of the depart- while Murchison was studying these strata in 

ments of'WhemiStry,, mineralogy, and geology SquUi vVgi^ ^^ renowned Adam Sedgwick 

at the WorHiFair inNew York m 1853, was studied the rocks of North Wales, making out 

elected one of Ihe onginal members of the Na- their true succession, and naming them 'Cara- 

tional Academy of Sciences in 1863, and in 1869 brian." Uqm the ancient name of the district, 

became one of the state chemists of Connecticut. Cambria. These were abo divided into an upper 

He published: 'First Principles of Chemistry' and lower division, and as the study continued 

(1846); 'Pnnaples of Physics' (1854) ;*Am. year after year, higher and higher strata were 

erican Contributions to Chemistry* (1875) ; etc added to the lop of the Cambrian seriee. Like- 

Sillimanite, a mineral occurring in long wise, in the study of the Silurian strata, Mnrchi- 

slender crystals, and fibrous masses, and com- son included lower and lower strata, and thus 

posed of silicate of aluminium (silica 36.9, the two systems overlapped. It finally appeared 

slumina 63.1 = 100), Its crystals belong to the that Murchison's Lower Silurian and Sedgwick^ 

erthorhombic system; its bardnesg varies from Upper Cambrian were equivalents, and this gavt 



principals, and has only recently been settled tnr several times held cabinet positions in ministries 
the adoption of Lapworth's name 'Ordovician* or^nized by Campos and Canovas, but in i8gi 
for the middle series. Thus the term Silurjc or became the leader of a new Conservative parQr. 
Silurian is restricted to-day by most geologists On the downfall of the Sagasta ministry after 
to the Upper Silurian of Murchison. the Spanish'American war be was appointed 
In North Atnerica the following subdivisions prime minister, as the recognized leader of ths 
are recc^nized: Conservatives and Catholics. He avoided ex- 
Upper SUurfc or CTug«> aroup. l^'J^^^^'l^-' ""^ ^«'"*<* Opposition Uicause 
Manliiu limeBiDna, oc did not bring about the expected reforms; 
Bertie Umettaaet, tc therefore withdrew from the ministry in 
Mi^'e sauriT^'Mafmrui HTOHD. 'SCO- '>"' w^* ^(P'" placed at the head of the 
Guelph fonoiiioii. Cabinet in December jgoa. 
kS^hSSr'lS!^!"' Silver, one of the best known meUls, baa 
QiDton forinatiiin. been in use for a long period, probably since 
I-<»*^a Siluiic or Oiwegu gronp. before the beginning of history. It is widely dis- 
O^l ™gl™mte ot uaditone, tiibuted and can be easily eitmcted from some 

Below this is the Ordovic The formations FAyncai i'ro^crtuj.— Silver is very malleable 

are typically exposed in the State of New York, and ductile, being surpassed only by gold io 

where the lower members are conglomerates and these qualities. It is harder than gold, but 

sandstones, the middle abates, limestones and softer than copper. It can be rolled into sheets 

dolomites, and the upper shales and shaly time- i/iooo inch thick, and silver foil is made thin 

stones. The formations are best exposed ak>ng enough to transmit light Silver leads a[] the 

the Niagara River, where most of them are metals as a conductor of electricity and is 

visible. The aggregate thickness here is 2,100 second only to ^old as a conductor of heat Its 

feet, though the upper member (Manlius) is specific gravity is about 10-46; its melting point 

partially absent Eastward in New York some $60° C, and it can be distilled as a greenish 

strata thin out, while others are absent through vapor in the electric arc, its boiling point being 

erosion. The Siluric strata are well developed over afioo" C, When molten it can absorb 

in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, oxygen to 22 times its own volume; this is given 

Kentucky, and Tennessee, though generally much off when the metal cools, causing the phenomc- 

thinner than in New York. They are also more non known as 'spitting.* This occurs only when 

calcareous. In the Appalachians the Siluric the silver is pure and a very small per cent of 

strata are frequently represented by shore dfc- copper, zinc or bismuth prevents it, as does a 

posits. Throughout most of their extent, the layer of some substance having no oxydizing 

strata are richly fossiliferous, containing sponges, action on the molten metal, like powdered char- 

graptolites, corals, trachic^ds, mollusks and coal or common salt 

trilobites. Fish are also found, but are rare. Chemical Prop«rliet.— Si[m alloys readily 

Toward the end of Siluric time the remarkable with mercury, lead, zinc, gold and copper. The 

crustaceans known as eurypterids (q.v.) became sHoy with mercuty, known as silver amalgam, 

abundant and constituted a marked feature of the is formed in various processes for extracting 

life. _ ^ _ , silver from ores, mercury being able to extract 

During mid-Siluric time the mterior conti- metallic silver from its compounds with chlorine, 

aental sea was united with the waters covering bromine and iodine. If such an amalgam be 

parts of Europe, probably by a channel across heated above the boiling point of mercury the 

the Arctic region. This permitted migration mercury volatilizes, leaving the silver. Lead 

from European seas into central North America, has the power of extracting silver from its com- 

BO that we find many Siluric fossils of this region pounds with copper, sulphur, arsenic, antimony 

alsocommonin the European localities (Gotland, gnd silver salts by the formation of lead-sif- 

etc). Migration along an Atlantic coast line ver alloys, a property of great metallurgical 

between Western Europe and eastern North importance in the treatment of silver ores. 

America also took place in Siluric time, as Alloys of silver and copper are formed in 

shown by the similar formal characteristics of smelting argentiferous copper ores, the silver 

the Silunc beds of Maine and the island of Anti- and copper being subsequently separated by 

costi to those of southern England. refining. As pure silver is soft and abrades 

In late Silunc time the waters of the mterior easily, all silver used in coinage or for making 

sea were entirely enclosed and life became ex- silverware is alloyed with copper to give hard- 

tinct, the sea water itself becoming highly con- ness. The United States silver coinage contain* 

cenlratcd. In this enclosed basin the salt-bear- goo parts silver and 100 parts copper; British 

ing strata of the Salina formation were laid coinage contains 925 parts silver and 75 parts 

down. See Geology ; Sauna Fohmatiow, copper, 

A. W. Gbabau, Silver is not affected by either dry or moist 

Of Columbta Univernly. air at ordinary temperatures, neither is it affected 

Silu'rldse. See Catfish. by caustic alkalies, or vegetable acids. It is dis- 

SOu'ritt, The. See Vauchan, Hemry. solved b^ hot, concentrated sulphuric acid, and 

ail „ n a> ji o It easily disscdved by nitric acid. Sulphuretted 

Sil™.«., .n-.a'nO.. S,^ Ma«. h,drVn forms .ilv.r sulphide .nd lo this 

SUvela, Francisco, Spanish statesman and is due the familiar tarnishing or blackening of 

Conservative leader; b. Madrid 1843; d. ag silverware, either by articles of food containing 

lity 1905. He studied law, and entering sulphur, as eggs, or by the minute percent^e 

i3„rz.,i ..Google 


•f ■ulphnretted hydrogen contained in city air These douUe sulphides at American rilver minet 

or the air of rooms when coal gas is used as an seldom occur in bodies of sufficient size and 

illuminant So-called oxydizcd silver is silver purity to be worked alone, bnt are not uncom- 

with a superficial black coating obtained by mon. One or more are found at mines in Mon- 

immNsing in potassium sulphide, or platinum tana, Idaho, Utah, Colorado and Arizona, 

chloride. Frosted silver has a rough clead sur- Large masses of pyrargyrite have been taken 

face produced by heating with nitre. from mines in the state of Guanajuato, MexicoL 

Silver forms three oxides, but none is of Mention may be made of the nJnes in the Rut^ 

any particular importance. Silver chloride District, of Gunnison County, Colorado, and al 

(AgO), readily formed as a curdy white precipi- Silver City, Idaho, 

tate on adding a soluble chloride to an acid so- Silver being a precious metal a small per 
lution of a silver salt, is insoluble in acids but cent of it in lead or copper ores makes it the 
readily soluble in ammonia, in potassium cya- metal of chief value. Even when it is the metal 
nide and in sodium hyposulphite and leas soluble of lower value a few ounces in a ton of ore 
in a saturated solution of any one of several means the difference between . profit and loss 
chlorides. It is also formed in treating silver in working a mine. Of the lead-silver ores by 
ores with common salt Silver nitrate (A^NOi), far the most important is galena, lead sulphide 
formed by dissolving silver in nitric acid, is a (PbS). Practically all g^ena contains silver, 
white crystalline salt readily soluble in water, the extremes being represented by galena from 
Fused and cast into sticks it is known as lunar Carinthia, Austria, containing .05 ounce per 
caustic and is used in surgery. In solution it is '""• *"■' frwn Idaho, up to 2^040 ounces per ton. 
used as a chemical reagent. Silver bromide I" galena the silver is present eittier as 
(AgBr) and silver iodide (Agl) resemble the iscwiorphous silver sulphide, or some finely di»- 
chloride and like it are used in photography, seminaled silver mineral. In oxydized lead ores. 
Silver sulphate (AgiSQ,), a slightly yellow cerusstte, etc., the silver is mostly present as 
crystalline salt, is readily soluble in hot water chloride. Of the strictly copper silver ores, th« 
but less in cold. Silver sulphide, black, is formed most important is tetrahedrite, or gray cop- 
by adding a soluble sulphide to a silver salt, P^r ore, which is essentially a sulphide of copper 

Silver Oret.~Tht minerals which, singly or and antimony (4CuS.Sb.S1), though actually of 
in combination, are mined as silver orea may be very varying composition, and the related min- 
divided into three classes: Silver minerals s^^' tennantite (4CutS.AsjSi), also called gray 
proper, lead silver minerals, and lead copper copper. "Hiese minerals are of common occur- 
miner^s. In the first class come native silver; rence in Gunnison, Dear Creek, Summit and 
cerargyrite, argenlite, pyrargyrite, proustite, etc. Gilpin counties, Colorado. Silver is also found 
Native silver occurs in irregular bunches or associated with chaleopyrite, chatcocite, bornite 
thread-like, or branching masses, either by itself ■"<* '^^^ copper minerals, also with iron pyrite, 
or associated with other silver ores or with 'inc blende, hematite and various minerals, all of 
native copper. It adds to the value of an ore which may be classed as silver ores when the 
body, but rarely occurs in sufficient quantity Percentage of silver is enough to make its ex- 
10 be worked for itself. The once famous Silver h;a«ion profitable. To-day tile largert part of 
Islet mine on the north shore of Lake Superior ^^e worid s silver supply comes from mines not 
produced splendid specimens of native silver, worked for silver alone but rather for gold, 
Cerargyrile, bom silver is the chloride, and copper or lead, the silver being a by-product 
contains 75.3 per cent of silver when pure. It Thus it happens that the operation of many 
occurs in hom-like masses, of a grayish color silver-producing mines and the resulting output 
which turns black on exposure to light is so °i silver depend not on the market price of 
soft that it can be easily cut with a knife and s'lver but on the price of lead or eo^ier. It is 
is of common occurrence in what is known as altogether likely that the proportion of silver 
the oxydized zone of mines worked for silver, obtained from strictly silver mines will be smaller 
Rich masses have been taken from the mines i" the future than it is now, while owing to im- 
at Leadville, Colo., and there are many other provements in metallurgical processes the pro- 
mines producing this ore in the West Larger portion of by-product silver will increase. 
quantities have come from some Mexican mines. Metallurgy of Silver Ores.^ Silver ores as 
particularly those in Guanajuato. Embolite, a previously noted may be divided into silver ores, 
chlorobromlde, AgCQBrJ, bromyrite, the bro- proper, silver-lead and silver-copper ores. The) 
mide, and iodyrite, the idodide, resemble horn may also be divided into (i) free-milling; (3) 
silver closely and are found associated with it. refractory, and (3) smelting ores. The first 
Argentite, or silver-glance, silver sulphide includes native silver, also the chloride and 
(AgiS) is the commonest of the silver minerals bromide of silver, the metal being extracted by 
proper. It is black, has a metallic lustre and its forming an amalgam with mercury. In so- 
cuts easily, though harder than horn-silver, called refractory ores, usually silver sulphide 
When pure it contains 87.1 per cent of silver, with or without the sulphides of arsenic and 
Silver sulphide combines readily with the su!- antimony, the ores are roasted with salt or other- 
phides of antimony or arsenic, forming double wise treated prior to amalgamation. The smelt- 
sails. Of these pyrargyrite (3Ag,S.SbiS.) or ing ores include particularly silver-lead and sil- 
ruby silver ore contains 60 per cent of silver, ver-copper ores. The oldest of the methods 
proustite (sAgiS.AsiS.), also called ruby silver of extracting silver by amalgamation, one still 
ore, contains 65.5 per cent ; stephanite used in Mexico, is the patio process. In this 
(sAg^S.SlhS,) 68.S per cent, and polybasite the ore is coarsely crushed by stamps or by a 
AgjS.SbiS*) nominally contains 75.6 per cent Chilean mill, then transferred to an arrastra, 
silver but usually part of the silver is replaced a circular space paved with stone, where the 
by copper and part of the antimony by arsenic ore mixed with water fs ground fine under 

izcd by Google 

heavy stoaes drawn around by mules. By the 
addition of mercury all gold and free silver are 
extracted. The wet ore is then spread on the 
patio or amalgamating floor, thoroughly mixed 
with 3 to S per cent of salt, by mules tread- 
ing it, allowed to stand a few days and then cop- 
per sulphate and mercury are added and the 
ore well trodden for several days, mercury being 
added from time to time to collect the silver 
as an amalgam. The chemical reactions which 
take place are complicated. Finally the mass 
IS washed to remove son- metallic material, the 
heavy silver amalgam is collected and the mer- 
cury recovered by distillation, leaving the silver. 
Of the modem amalgamation processes the 
Washoe was developed for treating the Comdex 
silver-gold ores of the Comstock lode. The 
ore was broken in a crusher, reduced to pulp 
by stamps and then transferred to iron pans 
4 to 6 feet in diameter, known as amalgamating 
pans. The pans had a false bottom or die, on 
which revolved an iron plate, or muller, having 
cast-iron shoes. The ore pulp, one to three tons, 
with the necessary amount of salt, copper sul- 
phate and mercury, was heated with a steam coil 
or by blowing in steam and ground three to five 
hours. Then the light material was washed away 
and the amalgam collected. Various modifica- 
tions of the Washoe process have been devised 
and there are stilt many mills using some form 
of pan amalgamation, but the extraction is 
usually not very high. Silver chloride is soluble 
In a saturated soluble solution of salt and more 
BoluUe in sodium h^osulphite. Hence pro- 
cesses h^ye been devised which aim to convert 
the silver in an ore to a chloride by roasting 
with salt, and then remove it by leaching. In the 
Augustin process the roasted ore is leached with 
a solution of salt, and in the Russell process 
with sotUuBi. hyposulphite and cuprous sodium 
hyposulphite. Neither process is now in use 
in the United States. 

Smelting, where practicable has the advan- 
tages of simplicity, speed and often high e^c- 
tiaction as compared with all other methods of 
treating ores not free-milling. It is the regular 
method of treating lead-silver and copper-silver 
ores. Lead ores are smelted >n the usual way 
(see Ijud) ; the silver goes into the lead and 
is .recovered by the zinc, or Parkes, process. In 
the copper ores (see Coppek) the silver goes 
with the copper and may be separated by electro- 
lytic refining. Gold-silver alloys obtained from 
milling or smelting ores of many varieties are 
also treated electrolytically (see Gold). The sil- 
ver obtained from some silver-lead ores is often 
furified by cupdlation. A small reverberatory 
iirnace with a hearth of bone ash is used. The 
lead bullion is melted, the lead oxydized to 
litharge by a jet of air until the silver bath is 
clear, then the silver is cast in molds forming 
silver pigs or bars. Many ores carrying silver 
go to concentrating mills eqtripped with jigs, 
vanners, etc., for separating the ore from the 
ganguc. The concentrates thus obtained are 
usually smelted. 

Silver Producinf Dm/ nV (J.— The largest sin- 
gle producer of silver in the world to-day is 
the Broken Hill Proprietary Co., of New South 
Wales, Australia. The once famous Comstock 
lode mines in Nevada, which produced ore 
carrying values of two parts gold to three parts 
■liver, are now unin^iortant, and probably the 

largest individual silver producer in the United 
States is the Amalgamated Copper Co., the ^Iver 
being a by-product of its mines at Butte, 
Mont. Leadville, Colo., is an important sil- 
ver producing camp, but the ores are now gen- 
erally low-grade. Silver Cliff and Agpen, Colo., 
were noted for their output of high-grade 
silver ores. In Utah the mines at Park City, 
notably the Daly West, are large producers of 
silver, though the ores also contain gold, lead, and 
copper. In Idaho the silver-lead mines of the 
Gnur d'Alene region produce in the aggregate 
much silver. In Mexico the slates of Chihua- 
hua, Durango, Guanajuato and Hidalgo all con- 
tain important silver-gold or silver-lead mines. 
The mines of Guanajuato are estimated to have 
produced one sixth of the silver of the world 
and the Valenciana has an established record of 
production of 300,000,000 ounces. In South 
America the once famous mines of Cerro <le 
Pasco in Peru are to be worked again by a New 
York company, but chiefly for copper. The sil- 
ver output of the Cerro de Pasco mines from 
their discovery in 1630 up to 1886 is estimated at 
462,230,000 ounces. In Europe, Germany is the 
most important silver-producing country, ths 
metal coming from the Mansfeld copper mines, 
the silver-lead mines at Mechevnich and the 
mines of the upper and lower Harz. 

The world's production of stiver in 1908 
amounted to 203,186,370 troy ounces, valued at 
9to8,684,4oa. Mexico that year led the world in 
silver production, and Mexico and the United 
States together produced nearly 70 per cent of 
the total output The principal silver-producing 
countries are as follows, the figures being taken 
from 'The Mineral Industry': 




0:inmerd*l value 





With the exception of the years 189s and 
1902 when Mexico first led, the United States 
led the world in silver production for over 30 
years up to 1902. Of the continents North 
America is easily first, with Europe now second. 

According to the same authority the output 

' ef silver-producinf t^*-"— ~' ->-- " 

in 1909 V 


Troy 02. 


mmwdal viltie 


Uses of Silver, — Silver is used for coinage 
and (or ornamental articles, while the chloride, 
bromide and iodide of silver are of great im- 
portance from theiruse in photography. Articles 
plated with silver are in common use, as the 
cost of plating is small if the film of silver de- 
posited is thin. A solution <A the donUc salt 



potassium eilver chloride (KCN.Af^N) is used, the ventnl fim mm on the middle of the abdomen 

from which the silver is readily deposited. The and the pectorals at a high level. Most of them 

articles to be plated are thoroughly cleaned, at- are small carnivoroue fishes living in schools in 

tached to the tiegatire pole of an electrical cir- shallow bays of the sea, but a few are fresh- 

cuit of low voltage and immersed in the bath, water. They are important diieily as food for 

a silver plate being attached to the positive pole, other fishes, but several of the larger ones are 

The silver as deposited has a dead surface but is valued as human food. Fifteen genera and 6o 

made bright by burnishing after removal from species have been enumerated, most of which are 

the bath. North American. They abound especially in 

In photography silver chloride in a layer of the Gulf of Mexico. Menidia nolala is the form 
albumen or gelatine is used on the ordinary best known along the coast of the New England 
printing papers; various organic compounds are and Middle StaCes, where it abounds. It is a 
formed which are changed on exposure to light, delicate translucent little fish of a greenish color, 
and this change is shown by the action of cer- has a conEplcuous lateral silvery band, and is 
tarn reducing agents, developers, the resulting found everywhere along the shores in large 
image being formed of unknown silver salts sus- schools. They may be fried to a crisp and eaten 
pended in the gelatine. In bromide prints which .whole like smelts. The brook or lake silver- 
are more durable, the image is due to finely side {ilabidtsihes tUculuti is found abundantly 
divided metallic silver. In the ordinary photo- in ponds and sluggish streams throughout the 
graphic dry plates, silver bromide or iodide is Mississippi Valley and Southern States, and is 
used in a gebtine film, as these salts are more often called alapjaclt Consult Jordan and Ever- 
easily affected by light. See Bimetalusu; mano, 'Food and Game Fishea* (New York 
Coinage; Electko-chemical Imdustwes; Cop- !903)- 
per; Gold; Lead; Photooraphv. _., ___ .t j .!_■ i. j ■. ■- i 

For statistics of production consult <The . f^T'^^-tJ^^,^" ^''.'^ • tv"^ '* i'^ ' 

Mineral Industry' an<ithe -Mineral Resources tended to descnbe S.ver pbte m the us«a sense. 

of the United Slates' ; for metallurgy see Schna- *f'*''-,^"? reference to.go^d plate and Uiat made 

bel, <Metallurgy>; the 'Engineering and Mining "f ^^^^t ="'''?' ^ "■=*'^ necessary. There has 

{±S;Aln7sf4^'°^'''=^'^'^ ^i^X'Sf^Ks^seranrayiTsLir;^ 

Insntute 4f Mming Engmeers. proportionate amount of gold plate made for 

.. pj' ,c • . SAMUn. aANTOBiV pure ornament, in Europe and in the Orient. 

Attoc.^ Editor 'EngatertHg and IdtntMg Jour- '■Silver gilt" on the other hand, has been, at 

""*• certain epochs, very popular; and modem col- 

mver, PnlmliiatliiK. See Explostves; Ftn.- lectors find a cnarm in the look of the old pieces 

UINATES. from which the gilding has been rubbed so much 

SilTCT Age. the designation applied to the ""f l''^ yellow, fook of the gold js "doced to a 

second mythological period in the history of ^fKT"' """^'^'"^ *<^ "■'°' "* ^^'^ '''^" *"" 

the world, under the care of Jupiter. It sue- •'■K'»ly- , . , ., , . , , ^ - 

ceeded the Golden Age. The phrase is also .. ^« ""'""^ °^ silver pla e involves most of 

applied to a period of Roman literature sue- *^%L™1.''1^ °^ """?' "^ ' ^^^^ ^^^ .^ 

ceeding the most brilliant period, and extending '""(l^ ™1"<* j" peculiar to certam metals. othep 

from about u a » to 180 ad "^" s"'^" *"<* B™''- Castmg and then finishing 

trom about 14 A.l>. t^** /■"■ the cast by means of the chasing tool, the graver. 

SUver CertificBte.. See FiNAHCK. the file, etc.; hammering, whether by the hand 

Silver Fir. See Fm, hammer or by the snarl ing-iron, which is a fixed 

Silver Fo», a glossy black variety of the hammer with an elastic handle upon which an 

Canadian red fox (,yulpct fulvuj) with a silvery assistant strikes rapid little blows, thus aettii^ 

grizzle on the forehead, and on the flanks the head of the hammer into motion ; drawing 

passing upward to the rump. It is extremely out, as wire, of any section or similar drawing 

rare, and the ftir is very valuable. out of the metal into tubes, alt of which is done 

Silver Grays. See Whigs ^^ t*** silver-smith himself in fine hand-work; 

-,, T .^ c I ^ ' saw-CTttting, by which a pierced pattern can be 

SUnr L«e. See Laci. ^de easily ; solderitig, by means of which not 

SOnr Plate. See Plate. only are the parts of a vessel put together, but 

Silver Question. See Banks and Bank- also ornamental additicms made, whether mere 

INC ; BiirerALusM ; Bryan, WiiitAM Jennings ; b^Hs of grains of gold as in much Greek and 

DEMocRAnc Party; McKinley, William; Etruscan work, or in the form of figures, medal- 

MoNZY lions, floral and other adjuncts which may either 

Silver Standard. See BiuETAUjsit. ^ "^ t^^ »?'''' "'^'' ""■ ^' '•? precious metal 

ouTu awiuuw. jEs ujaiiii.oi.Ljom. ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^j^^^ ^j,^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ jp^^ valuable 

SUver Wedduig. See WniotHOB. sobsunce such as tin ; all these are used contio- 

^verberry. See Oleaster. ualty in making silverware. The modem uses 

SHvering. See Gildinc o* machinery are in the main attempts to carry 

_., ■ #11 p If™ "ut these dmerent kinds of work with less 

SUvcnn* Glaas. Sec Mbroe. j,^^. (h^g rolling out meta! into sheets takes 

SilvcTBidfl, a name given to various small the place of hammering out flat; spinning up by 

fishes because of their bright silvery color and means of a revolving mold takes the place of 

especially to members of the family Alhtriitida hammering into shape, as the bowl of a drinking 

of the order Peretsocet. These fishes have the cup; and the like: the tendency being always 

third upper pharyngeal bone enlarged, slender to use machinery even where its use destroys 

and elongated bodies with rather large, easily the effect of the piece. It is extremelj; difficult 

detached cycloid scales. Tlie spinous dorsal fin to avoid a mechanical hardness in machine-mad* 

it weak and well teparated from (he soft dorsal, work, because the machine products aXl that it 

I - ,ib/Googlc 


does in exact fac-stinile, one piece of another. A and the inside of the hammered bowt witi 
tiiin plate of silver hammered by hand is nf not he concealed ; but in pieces for table use it is 
slightly different thicknesses in its parts and it fonnd a convenience to give a perfectly uniform 
is nowhere perfectly smooth; whereas the rolled and smooth interior, and this custom of lining 
sheet of silver is as imiform if not as smooth as is therefore common. In making' a drinking-cup 
the surface of a mirror, and the use of such a it is possible, as was said above, to add other 
smooth surface injures greatly the artistic etfec- PJeces of metal to the three principal parts. 
tiveness of the piece of which it forms a part Thus a thin sheet of silver may be secured be- 
Tbe above described processes make the piece; tween the bowl and the stem, the stem passing 
but there are several decorative appliances which through it; and if this sheet has been cut into 
may be used to modify its appearance. Thus minute subdivisions, somewhat long and slender 
enameling is used very freely both with silver and radiating from the centre, these subdivisions 
a:5d silver gilt (see Enamelikc), and niello may be twisted and curled afterward to produce 
(q.v.) is used especially with silver as one of the »« ««<« like that of the petals of some varieties 
most common melhods of ornamentation. of chrysanthemums or other blossoms. So a 
An old-fashioned silver goblet may be made ?'*'«<>* ^"''" inserted in like manner at either 
of the following pieces : a bowl, a foot or base, "e bottom of the bowl or the top of the foot 
a shaft or stem which unites the bowl to the ""ay ^^7' 0==" hammered mto shape and em- 
foot, and such additional pieces as may be put °°.^^° 'P^^ J f^^^ I>a"^"i, and the edge only 
on ^r ornament. Ut us take a somewhat oma- slightly lobed or engrailed^ that is, cut mto con- 
mental piece and consider the probable way io ^f °';L*^'"'StI* xu^'* '" ^ juxtaposition 

fecily circular or ihapcd with lobe into a >ix- •»'" •'"" "l" ormmcntal pattcmsarc conrnion- 

leaved or eight leaved or other section, will be 'r, "«^ »• " TO"!,';''"'^ ?". """ P'f" 

hamniered b? hand with tooH which are some- ■>' "teul nay be held with a pair of nippers with 

itaeTot metal bnt more often of hardwood or »= hand, and steadied upon .onicthin. which 

hirt; An anvil is psed with a beak, and this "f 'I 5' " i' °j S "".'}■ t°?v"',.' »«■'"«- 

™.V i*T,U.,«iHWe or airain a "stake » that is to ^^"^ °* "°°'*i ^^ ^^^ attacked by the hammer 

S' a soI?J"'S ffrTiVn «Si in a woidS "d in the otic, hand. On the other hand the 

j;9L?sSi;sx^b?^s^s SiHKSS^inSSi 

the thin metal is applied when it has reached a Spon the iwiirt of the snarfing-iron which is m- 
certam approximation to_the.shape desjred and ^{^ ^^j -J^ „^;^^ ^^^j^^ is communicated as 
upon which the hammenng is continued. The jj^^j^^ j,^^^ j„ ^^jj^^^ ^^ ^^ i, ^ 
exact shape is got by frequent measuring with ^^ ^^ ,^ ^.^^ ^^ the piece and the artist 
dividers or compasses, or by fitting upon a mold. ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ watches the right side either con- 
Still, hammenng upon_a stake is the >d"l *ya- tinually, as when the snarling-iron is used, or at 
tem. and the little irregularities caused by frequent short intervals, as when he is hammer- 
tbe hammer strokes are not to he effaced with ;„_ ^y hand. The relief pattern produced in this 
too much care, as their slight changes of aur- ^^y {g (o be worked all over with the chasing 
face help the design. In saying this it is not tool at a later time, its modulations altered more 
meant to praise the modern trick of distribut- ^r less, the edges of the embossings made more 
ins hammer strokes over the whole surface with sharp and distinct or softer, as may be desired, 
deliberate purpose of givmg it a honey-combed and the amount of relief even diminished in cer- 
appearance. That is often an affectation without tain cases by driving the silver back. In order 
fortunate results. The foot may i>e made in ex- that this may be done to better advantage tiie 
actly the same way as the bowl, that is to say, it hollow bowl is filled with some firm and yet 
may be an inverted bowl of a different shape as slightly yielding material such as pitch, or the 
is very often the case; or the hammering may be plate, if not hollowed, may be held upon a pitch- 
carried farther until the hollow part of the bowl block which is merely a solid block of wood with 
disappears in a nearly flat disk resembling the the upper surface hollowed out and filled with a 
flat foot of a wine-glass. The stem may be of kind of cushion of the pitch. 

solid casting and may even be a little statuette, It is evident that very often a piece of silver- 

or even a group of two or three human figures ware can be formed at one operation, however 

closely united in a single mass of metal; or a much the workman may elaborate its surface 

design of parts alternately more or less project- afterward. Thus a goblet without a foot, 

ing, with prettily molded transitions from the tumbler- shaped or beaker-shaped (that is. with a 

projections to the hollows, may be used. This flaring and rounded lip) or mug-shaped (that is, 

solid stem may be secured to the t<q) and the with the lip somewhat smaller in circumference 

foot by soldering, or by boring a hole in the than the base) may all be made at one operation, 

cup and foot and passing the ends of the stem or else the greater part of the top may be thus 

through these holes, where they are then ham- made at one operation and the bottom soldered 

mered out in the way that the head of a rivet is in. It is very common to cut the form of a mug 

formed, the rough heads being then covered by or beaker out of thin silver and then to roll it 

another plate of silver or by solder The bowl up and solder together the meeting edges, which 

will very often be lined, that is, an inner bowl edges may have been in the first place notched or 

vrill be laid into the outer one, and this with the clipped in such a way that the mere hammering 

Eurpose of concealing the inner face of the outer can unite them rather closely tt^ether, even to 

owl. The reason for this is that if the outer the extent of making the junction water-tight, 

bowl is decorated by hammering with patterns HiXory.— The silverware of antiquity is hut 

showing in relief on the exterior, those patterns little known because of the perishable character 

show in hollows in the interior in what is of the metal. Gold, on the other hand, remains 

thought an awkward way. Of course in a very intact even in damp soil. It appears, however, 

nch piece of metal work this will not be the case, that io the Mediterranean world of antiqui^. 


Bold was much more common relatively to silver lowing: Criops, W. J., *01d English Plate. Ita 
ihan in modem times. The wall pamtines of Makers and Marks,' of which the eighth edition 
Egypt show vases of many fonns, some of ex- was printed in 1903. In this book there are full 
treme beauty, and these are commonly colored tables of those established and recognized stamps, 
yellow, and in at least some cases they are dis- the makers' marks and plate marks by means 
tinctly described as being of gold. Silver vessels of which the date and often the maker of a piece 
of ancient Egypt exist,_ however, in different can be ascertained. By the same author there is 
museums, and many" silver bowls have been a smaller book, 'Old French Plate,> a handbook 
found in Cyprus, some of which are adorned in for tiie collector, first printed in i88a Chaffer's 
relief in a semi-Egyptian style, Asiatic principle* <HalI Marks on Gold and Silver Plate' (6th 
of design being mixed in a curious way with edition, London 1883), and probably later edi- 
Egyptian details. tions, is a useful book of reference. There b a 
*' Silverware of pure Greek epochs is very un- a small book of much interest by J. H. Buck, 
common, but a few beautiful pieces have been 'Old Plate, Ecclesiastical. Decorative and Do- 
found in tombs. Gfwco-Roman work is much mestic* (New York, 1888); " ■ 
more common in our museums; the famous so 'Old London Silver* (Nev 
called Oesar vase, a two-handled drinking cup, 
in the museum at Saint Germain near Paris, the 
still more elaborate one in the Naples Museum, for the artistical side of the study is probably 
the famous Hildesheim treasure m the Berlin the catalogue of the South Kensington Museum, 
Museum, including a score of most decorative 'Ancient and Modem Silver- Smith's Work,' by 
pieces, and the other hardly less important finds John Hungerford Pollen. There is a valuable 
made in Italy, especially in Pompeii and its im- catalogue of the exposition of silver plate held 
mediate neighbornood, or some found on the faj^ the Burlington Fine Arts Qub in London, 
shores of the Black Sea, such as the famous with many fine illustrations, and a catalogue of 
PetroBSa treasure of gold objects which was a loan collection of plate held in the Fitzwilliam 
exhibited at Paris in 1900 and which is pre- Musemn, Cafflbridge (England) 1896. Books of 
served permanently in the museum at Bucharest, illustration are numerous, and since the ^neral 
•re all valuable specimens. By far the greater introduction of photo-engraving of different 
part of our possessions in ancient silverware is kinds these have become extremely valuable, 
of the mediKval epoch beginning with the 8th Such are 'Corporation and College Plate,' pub- 
century, except for a very few earlier pieces, lisbed by the Anmdel Societyjfor Promoring the 
The treasury at Aix-la-Chapelle and the Cathe- Knowledge of Art London i86g; 'Die Silberar- 
dral of Monza in Lombardy possess specimens beiten von Anton Eisenhoit,' by Julius Lessing, 
of the 8th and gth CMiturles, and the treas- Berlin; ' Meisterwerke alter Goldschmiede- 
ories of many Italian churches have ■ specimen kuDst ans dem i4--i6- Jahrhundert,' Frankfort- 
or two of fine work. Perhaps the richest of all am-Main 18S3. There are also the imponanl 
is the treasury of Saint Marks Church at Venice, treatises on industrial and decorative art. of 
and in that church the famous altar-piece called which one of the most valuable is Jules La- 
the 'Pala d'oro* remains as the most important barte's 'Histoire des Arts Tndustriels,^ first pub- 
piece of loth and itth century work remain- lished in 1S66; second edition somewhat 
log in Europe. This superb piec^ finely en- modified. Bussau. Stubcis. 

graved and given in great detail by Labartc (see «« ,»_ » • ^ .t - ._ 

Eis book Jn bibliography), is a wonderful com- Snves'ter, or SylVMter. the name of two 

bination in gold and silver gilt with sculpture in POP=s »■"! an antipope, as follows: 
relief and much ornamental setting of jewels — Silvester I., Saint He succeeded Saint 

true and imitation. Throughout the Middle Ages Melchiades in 314, and his pontificate lasted till 

altar vessels, that is, pieces used for the euchar- M5. He presided through his delegate at the 

ist, were made often of copper or bronie, but Council of Nice, and is said to have held a 

also very often of the precious metals, and these council at Rome to condemn the errors of Ariua 

were often richly omaraented with _ enamels, and others. The story of his having baptized 

Some few such pieces remam ; enough, indeed, to ConsUntine and received Rome and its temporal- 

almost allow us to restore in imagination the „\g^ ^^ ^ donation, is pure fiction. Many 

condition of the art of silver work in the 12th churches were built or completed in his reign, 

and 13th centunes and Uter. Domestic During his pontificate the Arian heresy was at 

vessels and those made for the state occasions jij height, against which Saint Athanasius was 

of certain noble families, royal courts, or asso- the g^^at opponent 

ciationa and guilds, are not uncommon. There oiu—*— tt i^-— ~.\ i, « j 

are many preserved in England, where there has „ SUvestet II. (GManx) : b. Auvet^e; d. 
been less destruction of iTiese non-ecclesiastical Ro^e May 1003. At an «irly age he entered the 
pieces than on the Continent because of the monastery of Saint Gerard, in Aunllac, and after 
continuity of English political and social condi- !*ynB « foundation fw all the sciences oiltiyated 
tions; although the ecclesiastical plate of the .■" "^^ age he went to Spain to bear the Arab- 
British Islands has disappeared in great measure >an doctors, and was later appointed by Hu^ 
because of the religious changes of the i6th CaP^ preceptor to his son, Robert. Otho III., 
century. Silverware of the i8th century is pre- emperor, who had also been his pupil, conferred 
served in England in great quantities because of "pon him the archbishopric of Ravenna in 998; 
tile number of families which have held their and on the death of Gregory V., in 999, pro- 
possessions nntil in recent times their value has "i"d his election to the papacy, when he took 
become so enomtons that they pass into the the name of Silvester. He was a great pro- 
market or are sold at auction and gravitate to- moter of learntng, and a proficient in various 
inrd permanent collections. branches of science himsdf, his scientific know- 
The best guide to the study of such English ledge procuring for him the reputation of a 
VM* Htd a good book of reference is the fol- magician. He composed a ntmiber of workfc 


paiticalarly on srithmetie and Keotnetry; and Simcoe, sim'ka, John Graves, first gov 

with his own hands made a dock, a globe, and emor of Upper Canada : b. Cotterstock, North- 

an astrolabe. Several of his letters on varions amptonshire, England, 25 Feb, 1753; d. Torbay, 

subjects were printed at Paris in 1611; but the Devonshire, 26 Oct 1806. He was educated at 

most complete collection has been given by Du Oxford, and in 1771 entered the army as en- 

Chesnc. He was the first Frenchman to ascend sign. He fought throughout the war against 

the papal chair. the American colonies, and was made a colonel 

Silvester in. On the expulsion of Bene- in 1781. Returning to England after dmwal- 

dict IX. from Kome 1044, he was chosen in Ben- Us' surrender, he entered Parliament in 1790 

edict's place. His sway as pope or antipopc as member for St. Mawe's, Cornwall; and in 

la-'ted but three months, however, and after i79i on the division of the Canadas, became the 

tniog expelled from Rome in his turn he was first lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada. He 

dcfcsed by the Synod of Sutri in 1046 and established his capital at Newark (now Ni- 

confined in a monastery. agara) on 8 July 1792 and began his adniinis- 

Silybum, a genus of composite plants, the tration with a legislature of seven members. He 

best known species being the holy thistle or encouraged the loyalists from the indeoendent 

lady's milk. S. marianmn iCarduui marianus), states to settle m the new country and devoted 

a tall plant with large spreading prickly leaves, himself to ils agricultural development and mili- 

Those near the base are pinnalifid, and spotud tary defense. In 1793 he set about removing 

with white, suined, according to legend, by the seat of government from Newark to To- 

drops of the Virgin's milk. It was formerly ronto, which capital he praaically founded. In 

cultivated in English gardens, not only for or- 1794 he was appointed commandant of Santo 

nament, but also for its edible roots, leaves, and Domingo; but returned to England m 1797, 

large, purple heads, surrounded by spiny in- where he was promoted lieutenant-generaL In 

volucre. It has become naturalized in Ontario. >8o6 he was appointed commander-in-chief in In- 

Simmcaa, se-«i5n'kas, Spain, 7 miles dia, but was taken ill on the voyage out and 

nathwest of Valladolid, on the Pisuerga, is an obliged to return. 

old walled town. The ancient castle was oon- Simcoe, Lake, Ontario, Canada, a lake 

verted into a record hall, where the archives of situated about midway between Georgian Bay 

the kingdom have been preserved since the reign and Lake Ontario. It is about 30 miles long and 

of Philip II. (1563). They comprise 30/xx>,ooo 18 miles wide, and contains several islands. The 

state and private dociJments, and occupy 46 banks are densely wooded, and good whitdish 

rooms. Pop. 1,20a are found in its water. It discharges into Geor- 

Stmblrak, slm-b(rak', Russia, (i) eapiUl of sian Bay through the Severn River. Barrie and 

a government of that name, on the Volga, 576 Onllia, connected with the Canadian railway 

miles by rail southeast of Moscow, is a well- system, are the chief towns on its shores, 
bnilt town. The chief buildings occupy an emi- Simcox, slm'kOks, Edltfa Jemima, English 

nence overlooking the river; the business por- miscellaneous writer: b, 1844; d. 1901. She 

tion is lower down, and still farther are the contributed largely to the 'Academy' ; the 

quarters of the poor. There are two Greek 'Fortnightly Review'; and other periodicals at 

cathedrals, gymnasia for children of both first using the pseudonym, 'H. Lawrenny." Her 

sexes; several other roi;>xd schools, a -sana- published volumes were: 'Natural Law; An Es- 

torium two public libraries, a good theatre, and say in Ethics* (1877) ; 'Episodes in the Lives 

maay flourishing benevolent institutions. There of Men, Women, and Lovers,' stories (1882) ; 

is a public garden on Vyenets Hill, and numcr- 'Primitive Civilizations, or Ouflines of the His- 

ous private gardens. Fruits are cultivated and tory of Ownership in Archaic Communities* 

exported. Fishing is one of the chief occujpa- (1894). 

tk>ns. Trade in corn, potash, wool, _ fruits, Simeon, slm'?-6n, the second son of 

wooden ware, and manufactured goods is con- Jacob and Leah, and ancestor of one of the 

mderable. As usual in Russian towns, an enor- Twelve Tribes of Israd, which dwelt to th» 

mous business is transacted at the annual fair, north of the tribe of Judah, When Simeon 

Karamzin was bom here. Pop. about 45,000. ^nj his brethren went into Egypt to buy com, 

(a) The government of Simbirsk contains an his brother, Joseph, then chief minister of Egypt, 

area of 19,110 square miles. Its vast plain is but not yet known to his brethren, insisted on 

watered by the Volga, and is fertile. The Benjamin, the youngest brother, being brought 

higher portions are at the east. The west is to him, and detained Simeon as a hostage tor 

traversed by numerons rivers, aod the Sura is his forthcoming. 

the principal stream in this section. Its tribu- gj^ StyKtea, stMI'tez. See PniAS 

taries are not navigable. The forests of the 5,,,,- 

KOvernmeDt are quite extensive; there are broad «, ' . ,,.- — , ^ .- ,.,,- .. 
^stures. much arable land, a few lakes and , Simeto, 9e-ro5't6, or GUretta, jS-rSt'ta, the 
marshes. The climate is temperate, compara- largest river of Sicily. It flows west and south 
lively speaking. The chief crops are cereals, of Mount Etna into the Gulf of Catania, is 93 
flax, hemp, tobacco, and hay. Fish are abun- >"»«» '""K, but unnavigable. 
dant. Sulphur, iron ore, salt, ochre, asphalt, Simferopol, slm-fer-S'poIy, Russia, capital 
and building stones are quarried. All kinds of of the government of Taurida, on an elevated 
wooden ware are made, besides felt goods, nets, plain at the foot of lofty hills, 40 miles north- 
ropes, gloves, caps, and handkerchiefs. The east of SevastopoL It consists of an old and 
larger manufactories include woolen mills, dis- a new town — the former poorly built, and occu' 
tilleries, tanneries, glass and starch works, and pied chietly by Tartars, the latter with a hand- 
flour mills. The exports are grains. Pop. some square and regular, spacious streets,, and 
1,750,000. lus several churches and mosques, a gymoasmo^ 



and > larg. civil and military hospital. Pop. as will enable thein to earn their livelihood It 

about 60,000. was chartered in 1899 and opcoed in igoa. The 

Simi'adae, the family which embraces the departments of study include housdiold eco- 

anthropoid apes. See Afe, and the names of nomics, secretarial course, library course, sd- 

the animals there referred. ence courses (including general sciencs, prepar- 

Simla. India, the chief town of a diatriet '^„-^°^, t^^hing, and medical preparrtory), 

of the same name in the Punjab, the most im- horticulture, and courses m preparaUon fornurs- 

portant of the hill-resorts, and the summer liead- ^- .^*:t ^" two were added to the currrcu- 

quarters of the Indian Kovemment; about 98 i""" "" ""* y^r >i»3-4- The fuU courses are 

miles north-northeast of Ambaia, 7.156 feet *<>"<■ y^rs m lengUi. but college graduates 

above the sea. and since 1903 Connected by a and oUiers who have luid the academic work can 

mountain railway with the Peninsular railway «""P'ete the technical courses m one or two 

system. Simla is situated on a series of wooded J^"- The course m commercial horticulture 

hill ridges, covered with deodars, rhododendrons, ^*° '^ completed in three years, but a fuU 

and au innumerable variety of ferns; commands ■="""= ''^ ^°'^l ^f^^K}^ ''''? P™v.ded; by ar- 

-f. ./., *r-'. . ranirpm^nt with th^^ Maqcai^hnc^ire Aart^nlf-nral 

magnificent prospect of the Himalayas; and "npment with the Massachusetts Agricultural 
- ^ equaWe tempwature that rarely exceeds f^""'^" "* Amhpr.t 1W.« n„1v tt,, wnrV nf th. 
The governor-general and the conmiaiider- 

r"equaWe''teBJp^ti'e'tharrarel/eMeedi «°'^1* "' Amherst, Mass., only Uie work of the 
rt,^ ■,nv™.nr.i™.™i =„A th. «.i™a«H-^ 4"' two_ years of the horticultural < 

i»-d.ief uiuiUj raSove hilhtr ,ith Ihor .Blic ''^'f Simmon. Collcg.j the third or tli. third 

taS from Clcutti ind go into residora for T -u ,"?'!, """' ".J"''';='l '»' " 1>« 

«» month.. All ttaoiviroi, are dotted with pic- '^•^"'''••'l College Beside, the four j»ar.- 

tnresaue viUn., snd there are chnrches, uhooli, ""'," '" Prepuntion for there is . one 

hotels, clubs, bmks, etc. The chief «iooU u, Jear .course especi.llj. intended tor Jiose »hi> 

the Eomm Citholie Orphan^e for the chil- '">" '»<' eolkge work, "d aim . short sum- 

dien of soldiers, on the model of the Lawrence "er course. Students are dlowed to Uke single 

>«ylam.i the Mayo indnstrial school, for the studies from the curriculum from anjr departmeiit 

orphan, of poor civilian.; Bishop tittem', P'"iil"l '5'!'."= '"■''''J '■"■ admission to the 

aehool and thePunjab gir^' acS b«h fo! '»5,«' if'J?'' ."> "K" *at patticuUr 

the higher education of the children if weil-t^ V^'-, Iii=h . Jepanmenl^ however, lead, to • 

do European.. The district of Simla which i< *«"'" Pnaieal ""P"'"'"; J*"!, ?" ?'» 

«.lirel, iSromided b, petty natin st^to, h.. evcnmg cl...e. in shorthand, WiewHting, lan- 

.n arei nf r8 square mil^ if which only i«mt ?"«"■ ^'"h ^S"' "' ' "" """l""'' 

12 ar. coldvatid. The cTip. are wheat, Indian " "?' cM'e.latedm the ,ame manner a. the day 

com, ginger, and poppT^ ESott. m being J"^ ■?• ? "»?*■ ^Sf" ^y Person, occupied 

madi Wirow hopaVSi aid cioAona. ThJ JfiniT the day who wish to improve tbemselve. 

neiBhborinc mounuins Vield lead iron, and *" studies relating to their occupations By an 

Z? tS tSTS hill'SuntS iasTiuired l'""^"' ""*"'"'.*= =°""»' '^f^. 

Vthe British in 1816, as a result of the Gurkha ^^""^ "= P.'°P«"' ifl. nafagement of that 

w.r, ^nd ha. .ince bSn augmented hy purchase, «''°^ "' "J";'",'"?."' Smunons Cohege, 

lapsi, and exchange. The S house was builJ S' P^^I^^'T' '"'"/ ""^T^ 'ZJ 

to iStp; Ijird W. Bentinck was the first gov- ^"^l' ™,'f»»- l» a.cordance with this agree- 

emor-gmeral to .elect it as his smnmer qu.r- i"™ <>' '"."'"f '""f.i '?""' "eiea' ™"« 

rera Pnn town rewvr di.trict ai«vy in cookery m place of the former norma! coutM 

ter. fop., town, t5,ooo. district, 50,000. ^j ^^^ Cooking School, and private practice le.- 

Stminon^ sIm dnz, Edwnrd Emerson, .on.. The funds of the Cooking School become 

American painter: b. Concord, Mas.., 37 Oct a permanent fund for two scholarships. The 

1852. After hi. graduation at Harvard (1874), college in 1904 occupies Simmons Hall and two 

he studied painting in Paris under Lefehvre and private houses a. dormitories. The productive 

Boulanger. He became a member of the So- fund, in 1904 amounted to $2,220,000; the stud- 

ciety of American Artists in 1888. and his work, ents in day courses numbered 283, and in even- 

leceived Kcognition at the Paris Salon (i88a) ; jng courses 145; the faculty numbered 40. 
Paris Exposition . (i88p) ; and Pennsylvania „. . „,.„. _., . . 

Academy hm)- One of hi. bet picture, i. ^Pf^ ""'•, Willtm Oiln.»e, .American 

<The diipenteV. Soa> {1890). novelist; h. Charleston 5. C, 17 Apnl 1S06; d. 

,^ .-_ u- . . , - .. there it June 1870. He received a ucondatr 

wS™°!?-^"^ Anterican .colptor: b. ^^,i„„ „ Charleaton, wa. a clerk to a cheni 

Webster, Maine ti Jan 1839. He tojeant. j^ t„„ ,,„ ,„„,j j^, „ ^ ,„ ^^ „ 

into notice m 1865-6, when, at Washington, D. ijier^ure, published a volume of 'Lyrical and 

C, he produced «.eral bronre medallion, of q^, p„^, „g^^, „j ,„ ,^ ^4„, ^i. 

member, of the cabinet and fam»i. army and „, ,„j , „ „^„ „, ,^ ichartiton Qty Ga- 

navyofhcers, including Fariagut. Porter, Grant, „„ , „jij|, ,^,i„ ,„ ,g „^^ „,„, j, j|, 

Meade, Shendan, ShemiMi etc. In 1868 he fortune, and necessitated a busy pen. A few 

went to Rome, Italy, where he now resiiles. He „f j;, ,„ h„, ^ ,„ ,tj anthologies, bnt 

ha. eaecnted aboot top portrait bust, in mar- ,„ ;, ,„„ ,„„„ ,„, j;, „„k, „, j„i„^ ,(,„, 

iie, and about 15 public monument, including ^, ventured, and alway. with failure, to paa 

•i-i— . of <rfn. Grant and Roger William, in times and strange lands; but when he laid hi. 

the Kational Capitol, and numeron. ideal .tat- ,„„„ ;„ ,^ ^„„, „j Southwest he «.. ,.01,- 

ues, among which are Penelope. Medusa. Seraph wincing and vigorous; in the Georgia gold fields. 

Abdiel. Galatea, etc. i^, ^^^ Southern battle-fields of the Revolutioti, 

Sunmon. College, located at Boston, in fore.t and bayou he conducted bold adven- 

Mass. It was founded in accordance with the tures, described in a manner suggestive of 

will of John Simmons, for the purpose of pro- Cooper, though failing. in Cooper's constructive 

vidiflg education for women in such branches .kill. 'The Vemassce,' a story of colonial 



South Girolimt, is generalty ranked as his best 1880, 1884, and 1886. He was State senator 
Before tiie Civil War he had attained a very 1880-98, and was elected president of the State 
considerable reputation, being somewhat read senate in J88g, 1891, 1895, 1897, and 1898. He 
even in Britain and Europe. After the war sat in the United States Senate 1898-1903. 
he found himself out of vogue. He was at Simon, se-tnoh, Juki (Francoii Stdisc). 
Jtie time editor of the <Southem Quarter y Re- pt^,^ philosopher and statesman: b. Lorient, 
view.' Others of his volumes are : 'Atalantis' department -,£ Morbihan, 27 Dec. 1814; d. Paris 
(1833), a poem: 'CaKle Dismal' (ia4S); The g June 1896. He was educated at the college 
Par isan' (1835); 'The Maroon' (1855): 'Eu- ^f his native town, and in the Ecole Normaie. 
tew' (1856J: *TheCass.queof Kiawah' (i860). p„is. In 1839 he succeeded Cousin as pro- 
Consult Trent, <William Gilmore Smims> f^^^ ^f philosmhy in the Sorbonne, but lost 
t'''^'' this post in 1851 by refusing to tokc the oath of 

Sim'nel, Lambert, English impostor and allegiance to Napoleon III, He was returned 
pretender to the throne: b. Oxford about 1472. to the Constituent Assembly by the department 
While a boy he was trained by a priest, one of C6tcs-du-Nord in 1848, In 1855-6 he deliv- 
Bicbard Simon, to personate the claims of the ered a series of philosophical lectures in sev- 
York faction early m the reign of Henry VIL era! towns of Belgium, and in 1863 he was re- 
in 1487 he gave himself out as Edward, Earl turned to the Chamber of Deputies for a divi- 
of Warwick, son of Clarence, and sole heir of aion of the department of the Seine. He strongly 
the house of York, He was crowned at Dub- opposed the war with Prussia, and after tlie 
lin as Edward VI. Supported by troops fur- revolution of 1870 became a member of the pro- 
nished by malcontent nobles he landed in Eng- visional government, and was minister of cdu- 
land, but was defeated a few days later at cation imder Thiers from 1871 to 1873. In 1875 
Stoke. Henry imprisoned Simon lor life, but he was elected to the senate, and member of the 
gave Simnel a place in the scullery and after- Academy. In 1876 he became leader of the Re- 
ward made him falconer. publicans, and was minister of the interior and 

Simnel Cake, a raised cake, with a crust premier until 16 May 1877, when he was dis- 
colored with saffron, the interior being filled imssed by MacMahon. He was a ctmsistait ad- 
with the materials of a very rich plum pud- voMte of free trade and of liberal principles 
ding. They are made up very sUff, boiled in a ""d opposed M. Ferry's bill of 1879 for sup- 
cloth for several hours, then hrushed over with P^*»?K non-authorwcd religious bodies. In 
egg and baked over a quick fire. >882 he was elecl^ Penmn^nt secretary of ^ 

„, , , ,, , nt-t-m .! Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. He 

SuBois, »Im'6;Is, or Dmibr^ So, Asia edited various journals, including the 'Slide' 

Minor, a river rising in the Kaz Dagh-Ida and and the 'Echo Universel.' His chief works include 

emptying into the Scamander or Xanthus, now iHistoire de I'Ecolc d'Alexandrie' (1844-5); 

supposed to be identical with the Mendert An- <j^ Devoir' (1854); 'La Libert* de Con- 

cient Troy was partly built upon Its banla, and science' ( 1857) j tL'Ouvrierc'(i863) ; 'L'Ecole' 

the peak of Samothrace towers above it It (1864)- <Le Travail' C1866); 'La Politique 

bordered the battle fields of the Trojan war, RadJcaJe' (1868); *La Peine de Mort* O869) ; 

sung by Homer and other Grecian poets. 'Souvenirs du 4 Septcmhre' (1874) ; «Le Gouv- 

Si'mon, Joseph, American pioneer: b. emement de M. Thiers' (18^) ; 'Le Livre dn 
1712; d. Lancaster, Pa., 24 Jan. 1804. Emi- Petit Citoyen' (1880); 'Victor Cousin* (1887); 
grating to Lancaster about 1740, he engaged in 'La Fcmme du XXe Siede' (1891) ; *Quatrc 
the Indian trade, soon becoming prominent in Portraits: Lamartine, Le (Cardinal Lavigerie, 
that line and one of the largest land holders Rcnan, L'Empereur Guillaume IL' (i8g6); etc 
in Pennsylvania, his enterprises extending to the He also produced excellent editions of the writ- 
Mississippi, while he had an interest in busi- inga of several great French philosophers, in- 
ness in the Indian Territory. He supplied the eluding Descartes and Malebranche. 
Continental army with rifles, ammunition, drums, 54^ RidMrd, Roman Catholic theolo- 
blankets, and other supplies. A deed given to g^^ ,„j ^^holar: b. Dieppe 13 May 1638; d. 
liim and 11 tradera 8 Nov. JT^^ stiU Preserved g.^.^ „ ^pril 1712. He was member of the 
m Independence Hall. Philadelphia, records the Qratory in Paris, but soon abandoning the order 
treaty of Fort Stanwix, whereby a tract of land j,^ ^^( ^is life as parish priest in his native 
comprising the pr«ent SUte of West V^ginia t^wn^nd the publication frSm time to time of 
was granted to them by all the tnbes of the Six ^is works alone interrupted the uneventfuhiesa 
Nations. The grant iiever passed into the hands of his career. Yet he must be looked upon as 
of the purchasers, owmg to Vena's resistance j^e father of modem Biblical science ^d he 
and the breaking out of tiie Revolution. Con- ^ f j^^^^j ^^ authority of church tradition 
suit: Ellis and Evans 'History of Lancaster j^ handling the origin, authenticity, and inter- 
Coun^^; Markens, 'The Hebrews in Amerjca,' t^tj^n □*( the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures. 
PP-.?t^: lf"?'v V°t' °' O'lAmeman H.s- ^^ „j ^is conclusions aroused much bitter 
toncal Society,' Vol. I., pp. 120-131. Vol. IX., ^nJoversy in his day and met with the approval 
pp. 3'-32- of neither the Roman Catholic nor Protestant 

Simon, Joseph, American politician: b. reader. Although at one time an object of sus- 
Germany 1851. He was brought to this country picion by the Church authorities, Simon re- 
in intancy, and since 1857 has been a resident mained a failhful Catholic and died in the 
of Portland, Ore. Admitted to the bar in Oiurch. His principal publications were: 'His- 
1872, he was elected to the City Council in 1877, toire Critique du Vieux Testament' (1678); 
serving for three years. In 1878 he managed 'Histoire Critique du Nouveau Testament* 
the State campaign for the Republicans, and (i(i(3) ; 'Histoire Critique des Principaux Corn- 
was chairman of the Sute Central Committee in mentateurs du Nouveau Testament* (1693); 


*NouT«!ks ObMTvations sur la Texts et les Si'mon'a Town, Cape Colony, South 

Verskms du Nouveau Testament* (1695). Con- Africa, on the west coast of False Bay, about 

suit: Beraus, 'Richard Simon' (1869); and aa miles from Cape Town, has a safe anchorage, 

'Notice Bibliographiqae sur Richard Simon> and is extensively fortified. There is a large 

(1882). arsenal, dock yards, naval hospitals, and a high 

Si'moD HagUB, ma'jiis, a magician, men- school, A railway connects it with the interior. 

tioned in the Acts of the Apostles: b. Sitton ^'^ position lends it considerable military and 

in Samaria. He professed to be an «on of an commercial importance, ft has a salubrious di- 

exalted nature, and called himself the supreme ""at^ PoP- 3.572- 

power of God. (See Gnostics.) Struck with Sirn'onton, Cliarles H., American jnrist: 

astonishment at the miracles of the apostles, and b. Charleston, S. C, 11 July iSig; d. Philadel- 

at the effect which followed the imposition of phla, Pa., 25 April 1904. He was graduated from 

hands, he offered them a sum of money to be South Carohna College, studiedlaw, andengaged 

endued with similar powers. His proposal met in praclice in his native city. He served in the 

with an indignant refusal on the part of Peter; South Carolina legislature in 1858-86, with the 

and from the fact of Simon Magus being the interruptionsot the Civil War and the reconstriK- 

first person who attempted to trafhc with money tion. At the outbreak of the war he entered the 

in spiritual functions and endowments, the term Confederate army and served until nearly the 

simony has been employed to designate such close of the war, when he was taken prisoner, 

trafiic. (See Simomy.) After this Simon trav- In 1886-53 he was judge of the United States 

ded through the empire 7"'*^'"^ proselytes, tak' District Court of his State, after which he was 

:».. ... u:.. -»«..»...:..^_ - T : l -^ i.^_ ;..j..« ^t *i.. rT«;*.j c*...-.. z^;-.....:. r-.......^ u:.. 

times as Minerva, calling her at the same time sions, State of Sooth Carolina' (1837); 'The 

the first intelligence, or mother of all things. Federal Courts, Organization, Jurisdiction, and 

Simonds, Frederic William, American Procedure' ('898); etc. 

geologist: b. Charlestown, Mass., 3 July 1853. Simony (from 'Simon Magus', Acts 

He was graduated from Cornell University in viii.), a transation by which something 

1875. and was instructor in geology and palae- sacred or spiritual is given, or received, for a 

ontology there 1875-7. He was professor of pecuniary compensation, or a temporal benefit 

geology, zoology, and botany at the University The nature of Simony is dearly illustrated iu 

of North Carolina 1877-81, and of geologi' and the case of Simon Magus, when it was com- 

biology at the University of Arkansas 1887-90. mitted for the first time. Simon was a Santa- 

Since 189s he has been professor of geology at rian, noted for his skill in magic. Attracted 

the University of Texas. He has published the by the miracles wrought by the preachers of 

'Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Christianity, he adopted the new faith and was 

Arkansas' (1891) i 'A Record of the Geokigy baptized by Philip. Later, Peter and John came 

of Texas* for the decade ending 31 Dec 1896- to the East to minister to the new converts. 

1900; etc "Then laid they their hands on them and they 

Siinaiudes, sI-m6nTdci, Greek lyric poet: received the Holy Ghost" When Shnon saw 

b. Island of Ceos 556; d, about 468 ac. In- *'*• ''e offered them money, saying: •Give me 

vited by Hipparchus, tyrant of Athens, to visit f^" *»« power,* But Peter said unto hun: 

that city, he there met AnacreonandLasus, Pin- "Thy money penshwiA thee, because thou hast 

dar's master. After the death of Hipparchus he thought that the gift of God may be purchased 

proceeded to Thessaly, where he won the favor with money." , ^ . 

of the Aleuads and Scopads, whose victories in , Simraiy. later, assumed many forms, but rt 

the games he afterward celebrated. Returning ^ways implies an exchange of some material 

to Athens, in a competition for the best elegy o}'"^ <"■ temporal benefit for soraethmg spiritual, 

upon those who fell on the field of Marathon, t^* concerns God, ptmcwally, as purchased 

he gained the prize over .Eschylus himself, omce,. or preferment m the Church. The d^ree 

Shortly after this he was invited to the court ",* ""» affiliation as well as the disposition of 

of Hiero at Syracuse, where he remained till his ^°^^ 'r'''° ?." SU'lty of this sin, account for its 

death at the age of 90. He appears to have several modifications and fall to the provmce of 

been a chief favorite with Hiero in a court theologians. , , „• 

adorned by the presence, among others, of Pin- ^"^ ecclesiastical^ penalties imposed for Si- 

dar. Bacchylides, and -Eschylus. Poetic con- """•'' according to its degree of perversity, are 

ception. pathos, and perfect power of expression, excommunication; reservation of absolution for 
.^...-•■r .. ■., .*■ . j^hich procured for <he culpnt to the Pope; suspension of clerics 

him the surname of Melicertes, are among the Y^°.^'-^ B^j"? °L'^- "stitution of benefices 

chief characteristics of his poetry, though in «"« " "• ^^^ the like. Jqhn J. V Becket. 
copiousness, vigor, and originality he was sur- Slmoom', Simoon, or Samnn (Arabic, 

passed by Pindar. He brought the elegy and tamina, ■'hot* and "poisoDOUs"), a noxious hot 

epigram to a high degree of perfection, and in wind which blows at the period of the equinoxes 

the dithyramb and triumphal ode he particularly in most countries bordering on sandy deserts, 

distinguished himself. To Simonides belongs espec-ally in certain parts of Asia and Africa, 

the unenviable fame of being the first who took where its temperature has been known to reach 

money for his poems, The best editions of his as high as i3cr. The intense and parching heat, 

works are Schneidewin's 'Simonidis Cei Carrai- resembling that of an oven, is derived from the 

num Reliquia:' (1835); and Beak's (in his hot sands, which, in the deserts of Africa and 

•Poetae Lyrici Grsci'). Arabia, often become heated for a depth oi 

SimoooMU, ai-m&-n&'a&.'i. See Sbiuono- some inches to 200° F. This hot sand is whirted 

enCL up from the earth by the advandng wind, and 

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the whole air !) filled with an extremely subtle iu completion in five and one half ye»n. tot 

and penetratiRf dust, the effect of which, if $i3r4i3ja^ It is » kilometres, cr 12-4 miles, lO 

hreathed freely, is to induce suffocation. The length, the longest tunnel in the world, and the 

approach of the simoom is heralded by a tbb third, with Mont Cenia and Mont Gotthatd, 

haie along the horizon, which rapidly becomes connecting Italy by rail with the adjacent coun- 

more and more dense, till it covers the whole tries. See Tunmels. 

face of the heavens. This is followed by fierce Simplon Tunnel, The, an important work 
gusts of wind, accompanied with clouds of red of engineering through the Lepontine Alps, de~ 
and burning sand, which are whirled round in signed to afford a better means of communica- 
rapid gyrations, and so swept onward. Some- tion between France and Italy. It was corn- 
times whole caravans are buried in the masses menced in August 1898, and will be nearly 13 
of sand thus carried along. The simoom gen- miles in length See Tunnels. 
erally lasts from 6 to J3 hours and sometimw Simp'aon, Edwmrd, American naval offi- 
longer. When Uie wind blows in squalls death „,. t. New York 3 March 1824; d. Washlng- 
is often very suddenly produced by actual sufio- ^^^ jj (-._ ^ p^ jggg^ j^e was appointed mid- 
cation, and IS followed by bleeding at the nose ^ipn,an in the navy in 1840. was graduated from 
and mouth. Persons exposed to it protect them- Annapolis in 1846, and served in the Mexican 
selves by stopping the mouth and nose with ^^ ;,„ ^^^ steamer Vixen. In 1858-63 he was in 
handkerchiefs, and the camels mstinctivdy bury ^j^^ ^f (j,^ department of naval gunnery at 
their noses m the sand at its approach. Ihc the Naval Academy, commandant of midshipmen 
effects of the simoom are felt in the south of „, i86a-3, and commanded the monitor Passaic 
Europe, the hot wind produced in Italy being ^ ,gg participating in Beveril engagements. 
called the sirocco. In Turkey this wmd is called ^e was commissioned eonmiander in 1865; 
the •'samieli' ; in Guinea and Senegambia a sua- g^^^ ^ fleet-captain of the consolidated Gulf 
liar wind is called '■harmatlan.' See Habmat- squadron ; was present at the fall of Mobile, and 
'*"■ _ , received the BHrrender of the Confldetate fleet 

Sim"plicidenta'ta, one of the two divisions on Tombif^e River, He became captain in 

of the order of rodents (Rodentia), embracing 1870, commodore in 1878, and Mar-«dmiral in 

those with only a single pair of upper incisors. 1884. He was retired in t88^ but was president 

It includes all of the rodents except the pikas of the United States Naval Institute in lSS^-& 

and hares, which are duplici dentate. See He published : 'Ordnance and Naval Gunnezy' 

LepouDjG. (i86a) ; 'The Naval Mission to Eun>pe* 

Sin^jlkiiis, sim-pHshl-us, a peripatetic (1873) ; 'Report of the Gun Foundry Board* 

philosopher: b. in Cilicia. He was a pupil of (1885); etc. 

Ammonius and Damaicius, and taught in Alex- Simpson, Sni George, Scottish traveler: b. 

andria and Athens during the reign of Justin- Loch Broom, Ross-shire, about 1796; d. Lachine, 

ian. In consequence of the persecutions these near Montreal, P. Q., 7 Sept. 1860. In 1809-20 

philosophers suffered from the decrees of the he was employed by a London firm in the West 

Christian emperor, seven of them, among whom India trade, where his ability attracted the at- 

WBB Simpliciiw, sought protection in the court tention of the Earl of Seikhk, IhenihsKl of the 

of King ChosToes of Persia. Disappointed in Hudson Bay Company, and in i&JO he wa^ 

their expectations in the East, they resolved to »ppointed to conduct the aflairs of the company 

return, and the Persian king made it one of the in America. He united the Hudson Bay Com- 

artkles of a treatyof peace with Ju^inian, that pany and the Northwest Company, and became 

these philosophers should be exempted from successively governor of the northern depart- 

the disqualifications imposed Upon all pagans, ment, governor- in -chief of Rupert's Land, and 

Among the works of Simplicius are commen- general superintendent of the affairs of the 

tartes on Aristotle's ^Catteririx Phyaictt,' 'De Hudson Bay Company, He planned the expedi- 

Ccelo,' and 'De Asima,' and also one «n the tion of his cousin Thomas Simpson in 1836-9, 

'Enchiridion' of Epictetus. greatly a'ied other explorers, and in i&ti-a 

Simplon, Bim'plon, Fr. s5fi-plAft (Ital. made the overland journey around the world, 

Semhone, sem-pe-o'ne), Switzerland, a moun- clauning to be the first traveler to compete the 

tain of the Lepontine Alps, 11.117 feet high, in Jfurney. He was knighted in 1841 He pub- 

the east of the canton ofValais. The road that lished; 'Narrative of. an Overland Journey 

passes over it was regarded as one of the most Around the World During the Years i«4i-fl» (2 

celebrated engineering works of the early part of vols. 1S47). 

the igth century, but is decreasing in im~ Simpson, MMthcv, American Methodist 

portance since the advent of railroads, and bishop and educatqr; b. Cadiz, Ohio, ti June 

the construction ofthe Simplon tunnel, afford- 181 1; d. Philadelphia, Pa., 18 June 1884. He 

ing direct communication between Switzerland, studied medicine and was admitted to its practice 

France, and Italy. The road commences in 1833, but in 1834 closed hia office and set out 

near Brieg on the Swiss side, and ter- as a Methodist itinerant, filling 33 appointments 

minates at E)omodossola in Piedmont It was in six weeks' lours. In 1835 he became pastor of 

begun in 1800 under the direction of Napoleon, the Liberty Street Church, of Pittsburg, Pa., and 

and was completed in 1806. It is 38 miles long, in 1837 vice-president of Allegheny College 

from 25 to 30 feet wide, is carried across 611 (Meadville, Pa.), and professor there of natural 

bridges, and through a number of great tunnels, science. He was elected, in 1839, first president 

rises to the height of 6,578 feet, and has 20 sta- of Indiana Asbury (the present De Pauw) 

tion houses for travelers. The railway tunnel University, and undertook his work with three 

through the mountain from Brieg on the Swiss professors and 11 students in the four rooms of 

aide to Iselle on the Italian side, was com- a hired buildmg. After a successful administra- 

menced 13 Nov. 1898, and the contract called for tion, he resigned in 1858, and became editor of 

1.. Google 


the 'Western Giristian Advocate,' ofGcial organ Simrock, zlm'rJJk,' Kail J<rMpl^ Geraiaa 

of his Church for the West. In this ioumal the poet; b. Bonn, Germuiy, 38 Aug, itios; d. ihtn 

editor took decided positions on slaveiy, and 18 July 1876. He studied at the university o£ 

other subjects of current discussion. He was his native cit? and at Berlin, and in i&r5 o^ 

elected bishop in 1852; and in 1857, when a tered the Prussian civil service, which he was 

delegate to the World's Evangelical Alliance at later compelled to leave on account of a revolu- 

Berlin, preached in the Gamisonkirche, that being tionary poem which he had writtea He tran»- 

the first instance in which an established church lated Shakespeare's poems and some of his plays, 

in Prussia had been opened to an English- apeak' and published (with Echternieycr and Henschel) 

ing Evangelical. During the Civil War he was a 'Quellen des Shakspere' (1831). He also put^ 

frequent adviser of President Lincoln. In 1S81 lished 'Handbuch der deutschen Mytholi^ie* 

he delivered the opening address at the Ecumen' (1853-^) ; 'Deutsche Volksbiicher' (.i&39-^) ; 

ical Methodist Conference in Londoa He waa 'Heldenbuch' (1843-9), illustrative of the 

best known for his eloquence, and published a heroic traditions of the Teutonic race, and his 

volume of 'Lectures on Preaching' (1879)- own 'Poems' (1844). In 1850 he was appointed 

In his own church he had also a considerable professor of old G«rman langnage and litera- 

reputation as a parliamentarian and presidmg ture at Bonn, a post which he held till his 

officer. He further published: 'Hundred Years death. 

of Methodism' (1876); and 'Cyclopsdia of gj„ gj George Robert, English poet 

Methodism' (5th rev. ed. 1883). A posthumous ^^j dramatist: b. London 2 Sept. 1847. He was 

collection of sermons was edited ty Crookfl educated at Hanwell College iid at Bonn, and 

O885). Of his orations among the best known ^i„^^ .gy^ ^^ ^een engaged as a journalist 

B that at the funeral of Lincoln. A stotue of ^nd playwright. His publications include: 

hjm was placed in Philadelphia on the edge of -Dragonet Ballads' (1875); 'How the Poor 

Fairmount Park 3 April 190a, Consuh *Biog- Uvt^ (1883) ; 'Once Upon a Christmas Time' 

raphy' by Crooks (iSgo). (189B); 'Living London* (1902); ett His 

Simpson College, located at Indianol*. plays include: 'The Lights of London' (1882); 

Iowa. It was founded in 1867 by the Des Moines 'iwf' Little Vagabonds'; 'In London Town*; 

Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 'Scarlet Sin'; etc. 

from which it derives most of^iu support and Sinn, Jatncs Marlon, American sorgeon: 
patronage. Its organization includes seven de- ]^ Lancaster County, S. C, 25 Jan. 1813; d, 
partments: (l) college of liberal arts; (2) New York 13 Nov. 1883. He was graduated 
academy and notmil courses ; (3) the school of from South Carolina College in i8.iz; studied 
business; (4) the school of shorthand and type- medicine at Charleston and at Phiiadelphia, 
writing; (5) the conservatory , of music; (6) and in 1835 began to practise. He was settled 
^he school of oratory; {7) the _ school of art. at Montgomery, Ala., during 1840-53. where he 
A summer school is also maintained. The col- became known for bis successful operations tor 
Ic^ department offers three courses, classical, strabismus and club-fool. In J845 he made 
phikiiophical snd scientific, leading to the de- known his hypothesis on the- cause and proper 
grees of bachelor of arts, bachelor of philosophy, treatment of trUmtu uatcentium. The effective- 
Kid bachelor of science; these courses are all ness of the treatment was lat^r, demonstrated bjf 
l3P|ely elective, the choice of the student being a long series of eiperiments. In the same year 
limited to a certain extent by the degree he be began experiments to test a treatment he 
wishes to obtaia Graduate work is provided had conceived for vesico-vaginal fistula, in the 
for, leading to the degrees of master of arts, cqurae of which be devised the- silver sntura 
■naster of philosophy, and master of science, and several instruments, the chief of which is 
Military drill and military science are a part of the duckbill ^eculum, known- as the Sims 
the curriculum, but are elective, except that drill speculum. Id 1^3 be Temov«d. to New York 
Is required for the men in the tnt two terms and shortly began a movement for the es- 
of the freshman year. The academic _dcpart- tablishment ' of a bospitaj for tbe diseases 
ment offers three courses in preparation fw of womea A teisporary rtrncture was built in 
die three college courses; there are two normal 1855, and a charter and approprialjon were 
courses offered, one of three years, and one of granted hy the legislature ia 1857 for the per- 
five years, the work of the last two years of the man^nt institution, built in 1866 on the pavilion 
totter course being almost entirely elective. The system. Dr. Siras went to Europe in i86t and 
college is co-educational and there is a dorfflitory performed the operation for vesico-vaginal fistula 
for women on the campus. The students of the in the hospitals of London, Paris, Edinburgh 
different departments maintain a number of and Dublin. In 1862 he settled in Paris and 
literary societies, all of which have their fur- secured a lucrative practice. From 1864 to 1868 
nlshed halls. "The college athletics are tmder he practised in London, and in the latter year 
the control of a joint committee, two members retnmed to America. He was again in Paris in 
of which are appointed by the faculty, and three 1870, and was surgeon- in -chief of an Anglo- 
by the athletic associatioa The buildings (1Q04) American ambulance corps that treated both 
were College Hall, Science Hall, Ladies' Hall, Frendi and Carman soldiers after the battle of 
die administration building, the gymnasia, and Sedaa In 1872 he was reappointrd a member 
llie Ctmtervatory of Music (erected 19^) ; of the board of surgeons of the Woman's Hoi- 
grounds and buildings were valued at about pital, but resigned in 1874. Among his pub- 
1675,000; the library contained 3,500 volumes, lished works are 'Clinical Notes on Uterine 
The productive funds whoi last reported were Surgery' (1865) ;■ 'Treatise on Ovariotomy' 
$68,343; the annual income was $20,62a The (1873); 'History of the Discoverv of Anasttie- 
Students numbered 772, of whom no were in sia' ; '"The Story of My Life* (1884). A bronn 
the fiununer school, and the faculty ag. statue of him it in Bryant Park, New York. 


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e not crimes or misdemunor^ 
s are variously classed, nanielj, u of oinis- 
__ .. , ,. _ ' "n*! of commission; as against God, our 
served during the Civil War in the 37th New fellowmen or ourselves ; as premeditated and uo- 
Jersej' regiment After the war he devoted premeditated; internal and external; mortal and 
himself to electrical c?(periment3. He con- venial. Regarding these several kinds of sia 
structed an electric motor, which prc^elled a and classifications of sins, theologians of all 
16-foot boat at the rate of four miles an hour, schools are in agreement, except the last di- 
He was the first to apply electricity to the pro- vision, that of mortal and venial The divines 
pulsion and guidance of movable torpedoes. He of the Protestant churches in the time of the 
also devised a dynamite boat with a speed of Reformation, while admitting a difference among 
18 miles an hour to be used in harbor and coast sins so that some would be more heinous than 
defense. others, looked on all sins alike as mortaJ ; that 
Sinw-Dudley Gun. See Obdnance. is, deserving everlasting punishment Thus 
„. , _' _ .. . .. Calvin writes: *The sins of believers are vernal, 
Sim •on. Robert, Scottish mathematician: „^ because they do not merit death, but because 
b. Ayrshire 14 Oct 1687 ; d. Glasgow 1 Oct 1768. ^^cre is no condemnation for those who are in 
He was educated at the University of Glasgow, j^^„^ Christ, their sin not being imputed* ; even 
where he became professor of mathematics in o,e daily falls of good men make them "liable 
1711. By tiie advice of Halley he directed his ^ the penalty of death before the judgment seat 
private studies to the restoration of the ancient ^f (^ (Calvin, Inot Chr. iii. 4). In the doc- 
geometers. His first labor in this direction was ,rine of the Roman Catholic Chureh it is taught 
to restore the Ponsras of EiKlid. In I73S he that no one who is in friendship of a holy God 
published his 'Sectionum Conicarum Libn is guilty of sins which in their own nature merit 
Qumque.' a work intended as an introduction to eternal death: hence a distinction is drawn be- 
the study of Apollonius of Perga. The next tween sins mortal and sins venial; mortal sma 
object of his laborwas the<Lo«Plani'of Apol- are against the very end of God's law. which is 
lonius. which he completed in 1738, but which the love of God, and they deserve everlasting 
he did not venture to publish till 1749. The punishment; venial sins, the daily falls of good 
restoration of the element of Euclid was the ^en, do not annihilate the friendship of the 
great object of Dr. Simsons care, and aa edition g^vl with God, and grace Is still left whereby 
of the 'Elements' was published in 1756. a work (he sin may be repaired. 
which has always enjoyed a high character -^ , , Awelimfh. The thr first wnrk 

tinr, hin thiawnrlc waa tint mihliHhpd till after "scinating study of human motives* at once 
of Euclid.' 

Sl™<». S™p»n. A».™.„ phibnttoo- p^g",:!',,!'' ".^S SiT'^Krf '•.rhroT'T. 

ColfcB^ m 1800 thmmndijd law wthAar™ „( Ak.b, on Iht 011.;. This i. Ib^ j.ct«l oiou.^ 

protaaon. a,m w.. >»'* !"'' '"'"'"'S Mont l.bltts conBining the Ton Comni.nd. 

Ih. tomly life of . oonrtry g^tlonjin In „,„,^ -^ ^^^ „, ^„„„j„ „„,; „,, 

Yonkm wbete b,. ratatt »•! txtm.i.t He j,^ pe„i„,„u consW, of ihra distinct iion- 

,,s founder of »« Monnt S.n.i Hosp.»l of New ,,.„ JJ.^ ^ individually as Mount. 

Indigent Jews in Jerusaiem, ^ enclosed by perpendicular walls of rock. Thenu- 

SimultaneOQS Equations, in mathematics, merous caves were the hmnes of hermits. The 

two equations are simultaneous when the value mountains stand out in bold relief. There have 

of the unknown quantities which enter them are been many controversies as to which peak might 

the same in both at the same time. A group of be the "MounUin of the Law,» and Mount Ser- 

equations is simultaneous when the value of bal now bears that distinction, after much re- 

the unknoivn quantities is the same in them all search. At the foot of Mount Musa stands the 

at the same time. convent of Saint Catharine. The rock inscrip- 

Sin, any thought, word or deed against tione, dating from an early era, an interestii^ 

the law of God. Such is Saint Augustine's EUnaloa, se-na-ld'a, Mexico, a state bounded 

definition, but it does not cover Original Sin on the north by Sonora and Chihuahua, on the 

(q.v.), save in so far as it was Adam's own trans- cast by Chihuahua and Durango, on the south by 

gression : in distinction from original sin all the territory of Tepic and the Pacific Ocean, and 

other sins are called actual sins. Offenses against on the west by the Gulf of California. Area 

purdy human law may be crimes, misdoneanors 33,671 square miles. From the Gulf, the land 

etc., and the same may be called sins: but a sin rises gradually to the Sierra Madre Mountains, 

is not necessarily a crime, no matter how heinous the principal range in the state. There are nn- 

it may be. For example, the most grievous sins merous rivers, some of which are navigable. An 

may be sins purely of thought or of desireor inten- excellent natural harbor is that of Topolobampo. 



■nd lead) is Id t&e east, and the deposits of eldest son William received the barony of New- 
metals there are regaraed as perhaps the most burgh, Aberdeenshire; his second son, Sir Oliver, 
valuable in Mexico; there, also, the climate is received all bis lands south of the Tay; and to 
cool, frosts occur frequently, and the rainfall his third son, also named William, he conveyed 
is excessive. The low and hot western belt is the earldom of Caithness, 
devoted to agriculture, the chief products being Barons SinclaiT. — Sir Oliver Sinclair re- 
cereals, cotton, tobacco, sugarcane, coffee, and linquished to his eldest brother, William, the 
fruits. These crops are said to yield about jands of Cowsland, Midlothian, with the barmy 
$8/100,000 annually, and the cattle industry about of Dysart and adjacent lands in Fife for the 
^,000,000 (value of Mexican silver "dollar,* title to the barony of Roslin, Henry, a son 
jo.39a). The two customs ports are AlUta and of the latter, was created Lord Sinclair in 1489, 
MazatlSn, Exports are valued at $5,000,000 ap- falling at the battle of Flodden g Sept 1513. 
proximately, and imports $6,ooo,ooa Interior The third lord was a supporter of the Reforma- 
comrounication is furnished by the Western tion. The seventh lord, having no male issue, 
Mexican, or Sinaloa and Durango Railway, and and his daughter Catherine having married 
by good wagon-roads ; communication with other John Saint Clair, younger of Hermanston (the 
coast states and foreign countries, by the Pacific family already alJoded to), the son of this mar- 
Mail, Mexican International, and other steam* riage became eighth Lord Sinclair. Thus the 
ship lines. The capita] of the state is Culiacin title went to the Sinclairs of Hermanston, who 
Resales, a town of 10,487 inhabitants, connected have retained it 

by rail with the port of Altata; it has a gov- Sinclairs of Roslin. — The above-mentioned 
emment palace, cathedral, mint, cotton mills, etc Sir Oliver, son of the third earl of Orkney, had 
The largest city in the state, and the chief Pacific five sons, of whom the third. Sir Oliver, was the 
port of the republic, is Mazatlin (pop. tSi^S^). celebrated favorite of James V., who had com- 
which is built on a small peninsula opposite Olas mand of the Scottish army at the rout of Sot- 
Atlas Bay. Total population of the state, 296,10^ way Moss in IS42. His fourth son became Dean 
Compare 'Mexico, a Geographical Sketch,* of Restalrig. Tne last of Sir Oliver's line sold 
< Washington igoo). the estates of Roslin to one of the sons of the 
Markion Wilcox, eiriith Lord Sinclair, and these estates, together 
Authority Oft LaHn-AmerKa. with those of Pysart were inherited l^ the 
Sfaurific ManuKript See Breti jl?"?* J'"'A'^ ^T^f, ^randsoi^ Sir James Saint 
_, ,. _ ^, Clair Erskme of Alva, succeeded his uncle as 
Smcaline. See Neuwnb. second Earl of Rosslyn in 1805. 
Sincere Bretfaren. See EtiLiaious Skts. Earls of Caithness.— This title, conferred 
Sincerity. Order of. See Obders, Royal. on William Sinclair, third earl of Orkney, was 
-. , . , M 1- i„ 1,1=,' „ Coin* inherited by his second son, William. From 
Sindair, sin'klar or sln-klar , or Satot ^ ^ ^ ^ family which now enjoys 
Cl«^. F«n«ly of. The name is of Norman ^^^^ .^ ^^^ descended. The sixth Earl 
origin, and was first borne m B"tain ^ W^- ^f aithness, being deeply involved in debt, 
deme. Count de Santo (^bro, who aecomiwmed ^^^^^^ ;„ \^ a deposition in favor of Sir 
the Conqueror into England- The son of this j^ Campbell of Glenorchy, his principal cred- 
count settled m Scotland in the reign of David f ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^j ^'j Caithness in i6?7, 
I., receiving from that monarch a grant of, the f,^^ ,j,,. j^^^^^ ^j jj^j^ ^,,_ jje was ultimately 
barony of Roslin. His descendanU obtained obliged to relinquish the title in favor of Geot^ 
also the earldoms of Orkney and Caithness, gindair of Kefss, a grandson of the fifth earl 
Another branch of the family, the SincUirs of ^^ Caithness, The SincUirs of Ulster, from 
Hermanston, derive their descent f ran Hen^ ^^^ ^^^^ gi^ j^^^^ Sinclair (q.v.), are a 
de Santo Claro, vicecomis of Richard de Mor- ^^^^^j^ ^j ^^^ ^^^y^ ^^^^ ^f Caithness. 
yiUe, chancellor of Srotland, from whom he q^i,^^ branches of the Sinclair family in- 
Obtamed m 1162 a charter of the lands of Her- ^,^j^ ^^ Sinclairs of Dunbeath, Invemess-shirc, 
marKtoQ. Sir Henry Saint Qair of Koslin ^^ Longformacus, Berwickshire, and of Stevens- 
swore fealty to Edward I. of England, but gave ^^ j^^^ 
bis adherence to Robert Bruce, from whom in ^ 

1317 he obtained a grant of land in the moor Sinclair, Sir John, Scottish author and 
of Pentland. Sir William, his son, married agriculturist : b. Thurso Castle, Caithness, Scot- 
Isabel of Strathearn, Caithness, and Orkney, land, 10 May 1754; d- Edinburgh ^1 Dec. l83S- 
and by this means the earldom of Ofkney came He was educated at the universities of Edin- 
into the family, William, the third earl, was burgh, Glasgow and Oxford, was called to the 
one of the most powerful noblemen in the king- bar in i775, but did not engage in practice. He 
dom. In 1446 he founded Roslin chapel, one was elected to Parliament in 1780, served with 
of the chief architectural beauties of Scotland, brief interruptions until 1811, and jn 1786 was 
He was high chancellor of Scotland from created a baronet. He took an active share in 
1454-8, and also admiral of Scotland, For re- buildine up the fisheries and in promoting apri- 
signing his claim te the lordship of Nithsdale cultural interests, founded the Scottish Society 
he obtained a grant of the earldom of Caithness of Wool Growers in 1791. ^nd the Board of 
38 Aug. 1455, In 1470 the earldom of Orkney Agriculture in 1793, acting as the first president 
and the lordship of Shetland were purchased bjf ofboth associations, and in that capacity nwm- 
the king from the Sinclairs, in lieu of which tained an extensive correspondence with Gen. 
they were granted the castle of Ravenscrai^ at Washingtoa The most remarkable work of his 
Dysart, Jn Fife, with several lands adjoining, life was the compiling of the stupendous Ste- 
He is now styled Earl of Caithness and Lord tistical Account of Scotland, drawn up from the 
Sinclair. His daughter, Catharine married the Communications of the Ministers of the Dif- 
Duke of Albany, second son of James II. Hb lerent Parishes' (21 vols. 1791-9)- "is other 

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publications iDclucle 367 pamphlets and 18 other aod exported Pulse, pnn^dns, and other sno- 

volumes, among which are: 'History of the culent plants are raised, and the date, mangot 

Public Revenue of the British Empire' (3 vols, plantain, pomegranate, lime, citron, tamariniL 

1785-9) : 'Code of Health and Longevity' (4 fig, mulberry, pistachio, melon, grape, etc., arc 

vols. 1807) ; 'Code of A^jriculture' (1819) ; etc. among the principal fruits. In moist situations 

SinclMT. WUliam Macdonald, English B'Sa"'"^ 8'?'^ ^*?u™\ """^ "'^ ,»°™f'»,'»- 

Anglican clergyman: b. Leeds 3 June iSgO. elude the Uger panther hyena, jackal wolf, foj^ 

He was educat^at Balliol College, Oxford. t<^k »"t<^"°f ■ ""^ "t^er kinds ofdeer, wdd ass, w.d 

holy orders, is examining chaplain to the bishop ^"S- «c. The domestic ananaU include camels, 

of Lndon, honorary chaplaiA to the king. anS *""^*'T'v'j'""';^;,f*'"^L?1? ^ft V"" '^T^* 

Since .B89 has been archdeacon of London and "« valuable, both " beasts of burden and as 

canon of Saint Paul's. He has written: 'The ^^!l'^'T Va^J"'^^ '^'^ ^"I I"'^ .'^^^IT^ 

Psalms in the Original Rhythm' (1879); <Les- ^<'^' the buffafoes arc prized for their hlde^ 

sons on the Gospel of Saint jihn' {1882); Aedi. and mill^^f whjch last |:ft« .«. nmde. 

<Christ and Our Times> (1894) ; 'The Churches **"■* '* »^ important aTOcle of traffic in Indian 

and the East> (1898) ; 'The Church and the fonmerce Birds are m ^at variety. Fish 

Nonconformists'^ (Igw) ; 'The Authority of f°"°, » ?h,ef part of the food, of the poorer 

Sunday' Ciooi) ' etc. people. Venomous snakes, scorpions, and ccnti- 

yuj./ 1 pedes are common. 

Sind, Smdh, or Sonde (From ttndhti, a The Sindians. a mixed race of Jats and 

collection of waters), British India, an ex- Balnchis, are partly of the Hindu and partly 

tensive territory and division of the province ^l the Mohammedan fahh. They are well madt 

of Bombay, comprising the lower course and ^^d handsome; tall, inclmed to corpulence, and 

delta of the Indus, and hounded on the west q^ jgrk complexion ; the women are noted for 

and northwest by Baluchistan and Afghanistan; )j,eir beauty. The moral character of the people 

northeast by the Punjab; east by Rajputana; j, jo„_ xhc language differs little from the 

and south Iv the Rann of Cutch and the Indian pure Hindi of Upper India, though more regular 

Ocean; lenffth, north to south, about 380 miles; and complete in the inflexions of its nouns and 

greatest breadth, east to west, 280 miles; area, verbs. Balnchi is also much spoken, especially 

estimated at 53>S98 square miles. The capital is in the districts west of the Indus ; and Persian 

Hyderabad,, the chief port Karachi, connected may be considered as the language of the higher 

by rail. The aeacoast, except at the western orders. The natives are very ingenious as 

extremity (Cape Uonza), is very low, being weavers, turners, and artisans, and are specially 

composed of mud-banks deposited from the noted for thdr skill in the prodnctian of moden 

rivers of the delta, or of low hills of sand blown lacquer work, famed throughottt India. The 

in from the beach, the whole shore being a leading textile fabrics are coarse silk, cotton, or 

dreary swamp, destitute of trees or shrubs, and tnixed cloths. The coarse silk goods are woven 

submerged .^t spring .tides. In the dry season from silk imported from China and Persia, 

the 'Stiff cby soil, which is strongly impregnated Sind imports British manufactured goods, sugar, 

with nitre, abundant crop of gigantic groceries and spices, raw silk, etc. Its exports, 

grass, with furze, mimosas, and cacti, and principally its own productions, comprise rice 

affords pasture to numerous herds of buffaloes, and other grains, ghee, indigo, potash, dried fish, 

West.of the Indus the Hala MounUins approach wool, hides, etc. Then; is a transit trade with 

the river at Sihwan, and come close to the sea the Punjab, Persia, and Afghanistan, which has 

U.Cape Monza; and between, the former plage been improved by the Indus Valley railway, 

and- Karachi, on the northwest mouth of ihc The harbor of KarSchi has been improved at 

Indus, is a maze of hills, the highest of which considerable expense, and trade is increasi