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rLORENCB WAGONS 

(On Xarlul as Ytan) 



• SfCdisj# TAfjr Art Made From 

JbM niUr HUMltd, Ulli snde Inmba. Ixrt qnsltlj st Iron ud ilH^ isd flnlihfd vlth Ihi 



CHOICE IOWA SEED S 

Iowa [a one of the choice garden Hx>ta of the whole wnrld.' XhA 
owncrtcCthe A. A. Barry Seed Company live on i (nrm tn tha 

Iwls'Td «e th.«fQrl!S" bS"r Ij^tVoiTto fu™f[ .ImS"' '^'' 

J^et'^^'lor'toi^mSney t^n'' Mj-^othn "s?ed hV^f")^^ 

PROM FARMER TO PARMER AT WHOLEAALB PRIC^ 

WITH NO MrDDLEMAN'S PROPfT. 



(Dod. We'aUo have ■ mignificent stock al bulbs and rng* i,"^ 




ESTABLISHED 1841 



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H ?\EB1CAN 

7 ^ GRICULTURIST . 

YEAR BOOK 
AND ALMANAC 



A Complete Reference Work 
for the Farms and Homes 
of America. An Indispen- 
sable Business Guide and 
Almanac for 1905 

Prepared under the direction 
of the Presidefit and Editor 

HERBERT MYRICK 



ORANGE JUDD COMPANY 

SPRINGFIELD NEW YORK CHICAGO 

Copyright iqos ^^^ Right* Reservea 



Almanac Calculations for 1905 

The year 1905 comprises the latter part of the 129th and the 
beginning of the 130th year of American Independence, and cor- 
responds to the year 6618 of the Julian Period; the year 5665-5666 
of the Jewish era (the year 5666 begins at sunset on September 
29); the year 2658 since the foundation of Rome, according to 
Varro; the year 2565 of the Japanese era, and to the 38th year of 
the period entitled "Meiji." 

Morning and Evoning Stars 

The Planet Venus will be Evening Star until April 27, and 
then Morning Star the balance of the year. 

The Planet Mars is Morning Star till May 8, after which date 
he is Evening Star to end of the year. 

The Planet Jupiter begins as Evening Star and continues as 
such until May 4, after which date he is Morning Star until No- 
vember 24, and then Evening Star the rest of the year. 



Epiphany, 

Septuagesima Sunday, 
Sexagesima Sunday, 
Quinquagesima Sunday, 
Shrove Tuesday, 
Ash Wednesday, 
Quadragesima Sunday, 
Palm Sunday, 
Good Friday, 



Church Days 




Jan. 6 


Haster Sunday, 


Apr. 23 


Feb. 19 


Low Sunday, 


Apr. 30 


Feb. 26 


Rogation Sunday, 


May 28 


Mar. 5 


Ascension Day, 


June 1 


Mar. 7 


Whit Sunday, 


June 11 


Mar. 8 


Trinity Sunday, 


June 18 


Mar. 12 


Corpus Ohristi, 


June 22 


Apr. 16 


Advent Sunday. 


Dec. 3 


Apr. 21 


Christmas Day, 


Dec. 25 



Eclipses 

I. A partial eclipse of the Moon February 19; invisible here, 
but the beginning visible in eastern Europe and Africa, and all 
of Asia and Australia, and the end visible throughout the whole 
of Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. 

II. An annular eclipse of the Sun March 5; not visible here, 
but visible In Australia and a large portion of the South Pacific 
and Indian oceans. 

III. A partial eclipse of the Moon August 14-15; visible here, 
the beginning visible generally in North and South America. 
Europe and Africa, and the ending generally throughout the 
whole of North and South America and the extreme western 
portion of Africa. Time of the eclipse is as follows (Eastern 
standard time): Moon enters penumbra August 14d., 8m. p. m. ; 
Moon enters shadow August 113., 9h., 39m., p. m.; middle of 
eclipse August 14d., lOh., 41m., p. m.; Moon leaves shadow Au- 
gust 14d., llh., 43m., p. m. ; Moon leaves penumbra Augudt 15d., 
Ih., 14nfv, a. m. For Central time, deduct one hour. 

IV. A total eclipse of the Sun August 30; visible here as a 
partial eclipse, the Sun rising eclipsed. The path of totality wlir 
run through Labrador, the North Atlantic ocean, thence across 
Spain and Portugal, and thence across the Mediterranean, 
through northwestern Africa. - v- . ., ..... ,♦ 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST TEAR BOOK 3 

THE INFLUENCE OF THE MOON. 

By PROP. DAVID TODD. 

The changes of the Moon's phases are popularly supposed to 
affect the weather, though this fact has not been absolutely 
proved. The following table, ascribed to the great astronomer. 
Sir William Herschel, based on the variation of the attraction 
of the Sun and Moon in their several positions with respect to 
the Earth, has been confii.'icd in a great many cases: 



If it be new ur full 
Moon or the Moon 

enters into the first The weather 
or last quarter at: ip summer- 
Noon Very rainy 

From 2 to 4pm Changeable 

4 to 6 Fair 

6 to 8 Fair, wind N W 

Rain, wind S W 

8 to 10 Fair, wind N W 

Rain, wind S W 

10 to 12 Fair 

12 to 2 am Pair 

2 to 4 Cold and showers 

4to 6 R*in 

6 to 8 Wind and rain 

8 to 10 Changeable 

10 to noon Showers 



Trtll be: 

Tn winter— 
t::now and rain 
Fair and mild 
Fair 

Fair, wind i^ or N E 
Rain, wind S or S W 
Fair, wind N or N B 
Rain, wind 8 or S W 
Fair -.nd frosty 
Hard f'rost, unless wind 8 
Snow '4..:' "tormy 
Snow aiM* stormy 
Stormy 

Snow OT T.in 
Cold, higt* wind 



Thin clouds are frequently observed to break away about 
the time of full moon. A ring around the Moon is a sign of a 
storm within 36 hours. The times of the Moon's phases may be 
found in the Almanac under each month. 

The Tides are due to the influence of the Moon, and to that 
of the Sun in a lesser degree. That part of the ocean directly 
under the Moon is affected more strongly by the Moon's attrac- 
tion than the body of the Earth is, and hence is drawn away 
from it slightly. For the same reason, the Earth is attracted 
a little more than the water on the side opposite the Moon. 
Thus the water tends to bulge out and form Flood Tides at 
the points nearest and opposite the Moon. Midway between 
there will be low water or Ebb Tides. Because of the Earth's 
rotation, every place has two high tides and two low tides In 
a little over a day. The highest tide.s or Spring Tides occur 
at the time of new or full moon, while the lowest or Neap Tides 
are found at quadrature. In the former, the Sun and Moon 
are in the same or opposite directions, while in the latter case 
the action of one is at right angles to that of the other, so that 
they tend to neutralize each other. 



No advertisement is allowed in the columns of the American 
Agriculturist weeklies unless we believe that any subscriber 
can safely do business with the advertiser. 



4 AMERICAN AaRICUT.TURIST THAR BOOK 

EXPLANATION OF ASTRONOMICAL TABLES FOR 1905. 

[Prepared by Prof. David Todd, Director Amherst College Obseryatory, 

and Robert H. Baker, Assistant.] 

Under each month are given the astronomical phenomena 
which occur during the month. The name of the month ap- 
pears at the top of the page and the day in the first column. 

MOON SOUTHSr-The time in hcurs and minutes when the 
center of the Moon passes the Meridian or is due south in the 
heavens. This is Eastern standard time and is approximately 
correct for the longritude of Philadelphia. For St. Louis, add 
two minutes, for Denver faur and San Francisco six minutes. 

RISES BEFORE OR SETS AFTER SUN— The difference in 
time, given in hours and minutes, between the rising and set- 
ting of the Sun and that of the planets Mercury and Venus. 

LIGHT AND DARK between 6 p. m. and 6 a. m.— The chart 
shows the amount of Darkness and of Moonlight or Sunlight 
between 6 p. m. and 6 a. m. A strip corresponds to each day 
of the month and is divided into squares representing two 
hours.. The figures at the top of the diagram show the time 
in hours. The shaded portions represent the time when there 
is neither cuxilight nor moonlight. The unshaded parts show the 
time when either Sun or Moon is visible. During the Summer 
months, the Sun rises before 6 a. m. and sets after 6 p. m., so 
'that then the light encroaches upon both edges of the chart. 

PLANETARY CONFIGURATIONS— The Moon makes a com- 
plete circuit of the heavens every month and during that time 
passes all the planets. The times of Fhese occurrences are 
given, as well as the time when the Moon is highest and lowest 
In the sky and when it is nearest and farthest from the Earth. The 
date of a planet's entering a new constellation is noted In this 
column and also the time of its near approach to a bright star. 
Unless specified as (sign), the constellation is meant. The time 
is Eastern standard time. For the middle states subtract one 
hour, for the western states two hours) for the Pacific coast 
three hours. 

POSITIONS OF SUN AND PLANETS— The constellations In 
which these objects appear on the first day of the month. 

METEOR SHOWERS— The days during which these show- 
ers of Meteors or Shooting Stars appear, also the Radiant or 
point in the sky from which they appear to come, and the char- 
acter of the Meteors— slow, "bright, etc. The most conspicu- 
ous showers are starred (*). 

MORNING AND EVENING STARS— Planets rising before 
Sun are called Morning Stars, setting after Sun, Evening Stars. 
" MINIMA OF ALGOL— Every third Minimum or time of least 
brightness of Algol is here given, except in May and June, when 
the star is near the Sun. Time the same as in Planetary Con- 
figrurations.\ 

WHEN POLARIS IS NORTH— Polaris is over two Moon- 
breadths from the true pole of the heavens, and hence is ex- . 
actly north but twice a day— when 4t pas|ues.tbe^n)ecMi£Ui ajjove 
or below the pole. The times given are Eastern standard time. 



1st Month. 




JANUARY. 




1905. 


nooa'a PluaM. 


E..t.r.Yl».. 


C««traltl». 


noairtiUBTlM. 




D. U. H. 






NaT Kaon 






B li 17 Morn. 

18 1 11 Evan. 




It S UXtSd. 


18 2 uKS 


Fall Moon. 


21 2 14 Horn 




21 UUotn 


LaitQnartai 


87 7 ».■*«. 


n B Mlven! 


27 6 MEren. 


i 


i 


1 


!^ 








Lat.42= + 


I*t8S° + 


Waatbar Pom. 


1 


85r 






aun 


gun 


Moon 




aue. 


Beu 


BlHl 






BlNt 






* 




H.H. 


2.11. 






H.N. 




L 


c 


^ 


780 


i 30 


3 4 


7 3 


n 


249 


OoldwaM. Ftem- 




c 


"i 


730 


4 40 


4 11 


7 3 


6 6 


3 62 




c 


? 


7 30 


4 40 


6 16 


7 3 


6 7 


463 


Gulrcoait 




c 


7 30 


4 41 


6 10 


7 3 


6 8 


6 61 






a 


> 


7 30 


4 42 


Bets. 


7 3 


6 8 


sets. 




• 


/ 


7 30 


443 


6 61 


7 3 


6 8 


6 13 




• 


y 


7 30 


4 44 


660 


7 3 


6 10 


7 10 


lud. 




• 


i^ 


7 29 


4 46 


750 


7 3 


6 11 


8 6 


atorm war., 
■tonnr waathei 

MSfi""^ ■' a i 
Rood laTaiSi. 




• 

• 


a; 


729 
7 29 


4 46 
4 47 


8S0 
9 61 


7 3 
7 3 


6 12 
6 18 


2 
9 68 




• 


» 


7 29 


4 48 


10 60 


7 3 


6 13 


10 SI 




• 


X 


7 29 


4 49 


1146 


7 3 


6 14 


11 42 


leaMTar. 




i 


K 


728 


460 


mom 


7 3 


SIB 


morn 


Cola Mriod. Cold, 
blmtCTT weather 




i 


V 


728 


4 61 


4G 


7 3 


6 16 


036 




J 


T 


727 


4 62 


1 46 


7 3 


5 17 


182 


.SfeSE 




5 


T 


7 27 


4 64 


2 44 


7 3 


6 18 


2 27 






» 


726 


4 65 


3 44 


7 2 


6 19 


323 


vitwaatbarover 






U 


7 28 


4 57 


4 44 


7 2 


6 19 


421 


wait aeclloDt.— 






n 


7 26 


458 


5 43 


7 2 


620 


6 18 


Bunny a.T,oT«r 
». Xng. BUtes. 






n 


7 26 


4 69 


rises. 


7 1 


5 21 


rises. 






2E 


7 24 


6 


643 


7 1 


6 22 


6 3 


Btonn wave. Baln- 




Q 


SE 


7 24 


5 1 


6 54 


7 1 


S23 


7 10 


Ull over region 
aiteDdlB? from 
GulftolowerAp* 






a 


7 23 


6 2 


8 8 


7 


6 24 


8 17 






a 


7 22 


• 4 


9 23 


7 


6 26 


9 27 


palachUn mu. 






HJ! 


7 22 


6-5 


10 33 


669 


626 


10 31 


Cola waro. p*. 
ciaedly GUaat 

pplntB Weit ftnd 
NotUineBt. 




2 


"le 


7 21 
720 


5 7 

6 8 


11 44 
mora 


6 69 
6 68 


6 2-' 
6 28 


11 36 
mom 








7 10 


6 9 


064 


6 67 


S29 


41 




I 


^ 


7 18 


6 10 


2 3 


6 67 


1 80 


144 


BrtBht psriod. 




It 


in, 


7 17 


6 11 


3 7 


666 


6 81 


S46 


Brilltaot waath- 


81 


Ho.' 


C 


"L 


7 


u^ 


513 


i 8 


666 


6 8^ 


3 44 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



ASTRONOMY FOR JANUARY, 1905. 



Eastom 

Moon Ri«tes before or 

souths sets after Sun 

For Pftc Mercury Venus 



Standard Time— 75th Meridian. 



coast 
add. 6 m 

Date A m 



nses 
before 

H M 



Light and dark 
between 6pm 
and 6am 

Eve Morn 

6 8 10 12 2 4 6 




7 am 
19th, 9 



Meteor Showers 
Date Radiant Meteors 



Sun 

Mercury 

Venus 

Mars 

Jupiter 

Saturn 

Uranus 

Neptune 



Sagittarius 

Oapricornus 

Virgo 

Pisces 

Oapricornus 

Sagittarius 

Gemini 



2- 3* 
2- 4 
14-20 
18-28 



Quadrans 
Cancer 
Cygnus 
Corona 



Moon farthest from 
Earth, 11th. 8 pm. 

Moon nearest the 
Earth, 23d I p m. 



Minima 

Date 

Jan 2 
10 
19 
28 



Planetary 

configurations 

and other 

phenomena 

Mars near Alpha Virginls. 

Venus enters Aqnarins. 

Etfirth nearest Sun. 
12 m Moon low&st— passes Uranun 
4th, 6pm Moon panses Mercury, 
11 p m Mercury fait heat N of Sun. 

Jupiter passes Mn Piscium, 

Moon passes Saturn. 

Moon passes Venus. 



>Iercury stationary. 
Jupiter 90 Degrees from Sun. 
Moon passes Jupiter. 
Mercury passes Uranus, 
Saturn passes Gamma Capri- 

corni. 
Moon occults Gamma Tauri. 

Moon highest, 
u m Moon passes Neptune. 
Sun in Oapricornus. 
Mercury farthest W of Sun. 

Mars passes Lambda Virginia. 
Venus in Pisces. 
Mars enters Libra. 



Sam Venus crosses Ecliptic. 
."lOth, 10 a m Mercury crosses Ecliptic. 
Morning Evening 

stars stars 

Mercury Venus 

Mars Jupiter 

Uranus Saturn 

Neptune 

When Polaris la North 

of Algol Dat^ Time 

Jan 16 43 am 6 41pm 

10 6 8 6 6 

20 5 29 5 27 1 

30 4 49 4 47 

Polaris due*-north t^vice 
a day— when passing, 
meridian. For intermedi- 
ate dates add llh 58m. 



swift 

slow 
swift 



Algol 

Time 

6 21 a m 

8 48 pm 

11.15 a m 

142 a m 



For intermediate dates 
add 2d 20h 49m. 



8 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST TEAR BOOK 

SEASONABLE WORK FOR JANUARY. 

NORTH— Too many farmers think there Is nothing: to do, 
since all vegetation is dormant. Although the soil is in no con- 
dition to work, there is plenty of work to be done. It is a ^ood 
time to foot up accounts, figure out where the losses, as well as 
profits came in last year, and lay new plans which will decrease 
the losses and increase the profits. What buildings or fences 
must be built or remodeled, what land, if any, should be drained, 
what stock to keep, how to improve the pastures, which naead- 
ows should be broken up, what crops to raise, etc., should be 
studied. When the spring work opens, each day will have its 
problems and there will bQ little time to look and plan ahead. 
Now is a good time to cut and house firewood for the year. 
Keep a watchful eye on fowls and farm animals, give them lots 
of attention; they will repay you well. Animals well wintered 
are half summered. Harvest your ice and pack it closely in the 
icehouse. Keep the snow packed around your fruit trees or use 
netting to keep mice away from the bark. Large poultrj'-men 
will be busy With incubators. Gardeners haul manure, muck 
and lime into convenient places for spring work. Keep the snow 
shoveled oft the glass of greenhouses, hotbeds and forcing pits. 
Lettuce sown under glass will come to market in April, radishes 
in March. Some pruning of fruit trees may be done on warm 
days. Asparagus and rhubarb should be top-dressed if not al- 
ready done. Order seed catalogs. Take an active part in the 
grange, farm institutes, and all social gatherings. Encouragre 
the young people to attend these meetings and keep up reading 
circles. 

SOUTH-^Fallowing is the order of the day. Spring work 
should be pushed. In bad weather work on tobacco which has 
not yet been stripped. If the season is early, oats may be sown. 
If the ground can't be worked, build and remodel fences, build- 
ings, etc. If not already done, put in the year's supply of wood. 
Grind the scythe and sections, get the plow, drag, roller, etc., 
in first-class condition. Shell your seed corn. Look after the 
water supply for the stock, fix up the creek, clean out the ponds, 
make new ones and see to it that there is abundance of water 
conveniently located. In hot weather, free access of your stock 
to water is co-ordinate with good pasture. Ornamental shrubs 
and grapevines may be trimmed and staked or tied as desired. 
Look after the lawn, give it some fertilizer. If any hens want 
to sit, give them some good, fresh, fertile eggs. They will hatch 
out some profitable chicks, if a little extra care is given. Sow 
onions, turnips and radishes; fall sown lettuce may be trans- 
planted. Earth up celery, top-dress asparagus beds. Early cab- 
bage, lettuce and peas may be put out. Cultivate cauliflower 
and broccoli. Endive should be ready for market. Spinach, 
carrots, parsley, beets, kale and collards would do well planted 
now. Set out onion sets. Give the garden a good start. 



2d Month. 


FEBRUARY. 


1905. 


MM>o-a PluMi. 


BMtwB TlBc. 1 Cantnl Time. 






"i "i "sKorn. "i "i "iUom. 
n 11 aOHoin. 12 10 2eUoiu. 
19 1 62 Even. 19 62 Evan. 
28 6 IMom. 28 1 4 Horn. 




Flnt Qiurt«r. . . . 




JLutQiUTtaT 





AHEMCAN AORICUl-TrRIB* 
FEBRUAHI, IHB. 

lantcm atindiird Tiiiie-750i Meildiin. 



F«PaeMer™riV™u.^ 
Dil* > m H H H H e 



( S3 



■.s Sabiin. 



IK9 Alpha LJbrKC 



1 Moon hlrhe«-li»»«« Sfptiine. 
^ <ln>leib1e In U 9). 

I 19th Moon psttiallj ccltweel 






oweBI— EBBSUa tliuiiu. 



of Sun and Ueteoi St 

Cooateiuaon (.u ^„rt,. 



Minima <rf Algol 



I Polaris 13 North 



NeDtons Gemini 



12 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST YEAR BOOK 

FEBRUARY. 

NORTH— Continue uncompleted operations of January. This 
is one of the coldest months and greenhouses should be given 
much attention. Little ventilation is required, except an hour 
or so in the middle of the day. Let heated air out rather than 
cold in. Avoid hot, dry atmosphere. Syringe for red spider; 
use tobacco for aphis. Bring out the hyacinths and other bulbs 
from the dark cellar, if they have a liberal root system. Trim 
trees, cut scions, order nursery stock and sow seeds in window 
boxes. Look out for the fine manure supply, and have plenty 
on hand for early vegetables. Add plenty of water to prevent 
firefanging.. Tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, lettuce, pepper, 
eggplant, etc., should be started under glass the last of the 
month. Lettuce sown now will be ready for market in May, 
radishes in April. Early cabbage may be started. Poultrymen 
and dairy farmers should give special attention to providing 
exercise, clean, warm quarters and nourishing food for their 
charges. Watch the sheep; an hour at midnight may save three 
or four early lambs. Run the incubator on full time and en- 
courage bens to sit. Glance over tools, seeds and fertilizers to 
see that all is in readiness for the spring rush. 

SOUTH— This is the best month for planting fruit trees and 
plants of all kind, especially strawberries, raspberries, blackber- 
ries, pears and apples. Grapevines may be planted now or a 
month later.. Get your nursery order in very early. One of the 
great weaknesses of the south is the incapacity of nurserymen 
to furnish sufficient good, strong plants. Northern plants are 
frozen up at this time, and makes importation tardy. Still, with 
good care and proper attention to planting, watering, shading, 
etc., good results are obtained, even with this handicap of ob- 
taining northern grown stock. It is always best to take a plant 
from cold to warm climate rather than vice versa. Plant Irish 
potatoes, peas, squashes, melons, sweet corn, carrots, radishes, 
parsnips, spinach, salsify. Beets may be sown. Tend to aspar- 
agus beds. Transplant early cabbage and lettuce. In favorable 
localities beans and corn will do well planted now. These may 
require little protection a few nights, but results will more than 
repay. A popular superstition makes St. Valentine's day the 
best time for planting nearly all vegetables. As far north as 
Kentucky and Virginia, celery and tomatoes are sown for plants 
about the middle of the month. Sow oats and clover and fallow- 
ing is not out of season. Start the plow, especially on turf land, 
for corn and cotton. Continue stripping tobacco. Do not forget 
the stock. Cultivate fruits if good results are wanted, and keep 
up through the growing season. If new tools or any repairing is 
needed, attend to it at once. It is well to have duplicate tools 
of the leading sorts. Then no time will be lost by the breaking 
of the fork, spade, hoe, etc. Time lost in this way is oftep 
worth more than three or four times the cost of the implement. 



3d Month. MARCH. 



14 



AMERICAN AQRICULTURIST 



MAllCH, 1905. 
Eastern Standard Time— 75th Meridian. 



Moon Rises before or 
soullis sets after Sun Lignt 

For Pac Mercury Venusf^^^^" 

coast 
add 6 m 

Date a m 




Planetary 

contigaratious 

and other 

pheuumcna 

Mercury farthest 8 of Sun. 
Venus enters Aries. 
Venus nearest Sun. 
Moon passes Mercury. 
Annular eclipse of Sun (iuTis). 
Moon passes Juno. 

Mercury passes Sun, 
Sun enters Pisces. 
Mercury enters Pisces. 
Moon occults Theta Tauri. 
Saturn near Iot» Aqunrii. 

Moon highest— passes Neptune. 
Neptune stationary. 



2l3t, 12 a m Mercury crosses Ecliptic. 
21st, 2 a m Sun enters Aries. 
5pm Venus brightest* 



Moon passes Mars. 
Mercury nearest Sun. 
Venus farthest N of Sun. 
Moon passes Uranus, 
m Moon lowest. 

Mercury enters Aries. 
Moon passes Saturn. 



Positions of Sun and 
Planets on Mar 1 

Constellation 
Aquarius 



Sun 

Mercury 

Venus 

Mars 

Jupiter 

Saturn 

Uranus 

Neptune 



Aquarius 

Pisces 

Libra 

Aries 

Aquarius 

Sagittarus 

Gemini 



Meteor Showers 

Date Radiant Meteors 

1-4 Leo slow 

14 Draco swift 

24 Ursa Major swift 

28 Draco 



Moon farthest from 
Earth, Lth, 2 am. 

Moon nearest the 
Earth, 2l8t, 6 am. 



Minima of 

Date 

Mar 3 
12 
20 
29 



Algol 

Time 

11 30 a m 
1 58 a m 
4 24 p m 
650 a m 



Morning 
stars 

Mercury 
(until 9th) 
Saturn 
tJranus 



When 
Date 
Marl 



Evening 
stars 

Mercury 
(after 9th) 
Venus 
Mars 
Jupiter 
Neptune 

Polaris Is North 

Time 



a m 



p m 



Hi 
20 



For intermediate dates> 
add 2d 20h 49m. 



2 51 
2 15 
1 36 
30 12 56 

For intermediate dktei 
add llh 58m. 



219 

2 13 

134 

12 5t 



) 



16 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST YEAR BOOK 

MARCH. 

NORTH— The weather is still uncertain and many winter 
operations may be continued, such as wood cutting, drav^ring: 
and spreading manure, repairing machinery, mending harnessses, 
completing the stock of seeds, fertilizers, marketing produce, 
etc. Brighter sunshine and longer days will begin to show their 
good effects on plants in the greenhouse. Repot all plants which 
have large root systems. Continue spraying for red spider and 
use tobacco and sulphur on the pipes for insects. Fruit trees 
in light, dry soils may be safely planted in some sections. Oet 
stock from the nearest reliable nurseryman who knows the im- 
portance of having roots properly protected. This is the busy- 
season for vegetables. Hotbeds must be started and seeds of 
the hardier vegetables may be sown in the open ground in 1o* 
cations where the frost is out and ground dry. Asparacrus, cab- 
bage, cauliflower, carrot, leek, lettuce, onion, parsnip, peas, 
squash, turnip, etc., may be planted. In New England, toma- 
toes, pepper, cauliflower seeds, are sown under glass flrst o^ the 
month. However, in the latitude of New York and Philadelphia, 
outside planting is usually safe as above, and asparagus and 
rhubarb are transplanted. Cabbage and cauliflower sown in Feb- 
ruary should be transplanted when four leaves show. Lettuce, 
cabbage and cauliflower should have a temperature of 60 to '{0 
degrees, and tomatoes 10 degrees higher. Vine and bush prun- 
ing and fence mending are in order. Lawns may now be raked 
off and top-dressed (if not done in the fall) with short manure 
or rich garden earth mixed with one-tenth part of bone dust or 
similar fertilizer, where manure is not obtainable. On light 
soils, flower beds may be dug up so as to promote planting in 
the busy season. Clean up the cellar and throw out all refuse 
vegetables. Sprout the potatoes and put a few in a light place 
for early planting, where green sprouts will start. 

SOUTH— Tender vegetables may now be safely sown, such 
as eggplant, okra, melon, squash and tomatoes. If not already 
planted in the hotbed look after sweet potatoes. Plant rice, 
millet, sugar cane, sorghum and kaflr corn. In favorable loca- 
tions, watermelons, cantaloupes and squashes may be safely 
put out. Early planted corn and vegetables should receive cul- 
tivation. Sow wheat and clover, rebed cotton land and plant 
cotton. Fruit trees can be set out. Hardy vegetables, including 
onions, leeKS, turnips and potatoes, may be put out, if not done 
last month. Mustard for salad should be sown every two weeks. 
Parsley and tomatoes may be sown in the open ground and hot- 
bed plants may be set in the field. Cabbages and collards may 
be transplanted, as also tomatoes and beets. Peas and beans 
for succession should be planted. Beets, turnips, etc., sown last 
month should be thinned and cultivated. Sow early celery, and 
spinach. Set out strawberry beds. In the latitude of KentyciM^ 
and Tennessee, gardeners are busy sowing the earliest vegetW 
bles, including celery, parsley and parsnip. Potatoes are also 
planted the latter part of ♦^^'^ month. Eggplant seed is sown 
under glass. Extra farm -..k.,- may be secured. Many hire 
three or four more than necessary and turn off the poor ones. 



4th Month. APRIL. 1906. 



18 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



APRIL. 19J5. 
Eastern Standard Time— 75th Meridian. 



Moon Rises before or 
souths sets after Sim 
For Pac Mercury Venns 



coast 
add 6 m 

Date a m 



sets 
after 

H M 



sets 
after 

H M 



Light and dark 
between 6pm 
and 6am 

Eve Morn 

6 8 10 12 2 1 6 



1 

2 
3 
4 

6 
6 

7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 



9 49 

10 33 

11 15 

1157 

p m 

123 

2 7 
253 

3 41 

4 31 
523 

6 16 

7 10 

8 "4 
8 59 
954 

1019 

1145 

a m 

12 42 
140 

2 37 

3 34 

4 30 
523 
614 
7 2 

7 47 

8 31 

9 14 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 









38 
39 
40 
40 
40 
39 
39 
36 
34 
30 
26 
22 
17 
13 
7 

54 
46 
39 
31 
22 
12 



Rises 
before 
12 



3 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 










57 
52 
47 
44 
38 
31 
28 
23 
17 
11 

4 

58 
52 
45 
37 
30 
23 
13 

7 

59 
50 
41 
34 
25 




Planetary 

con Hgu rations 

and other 

phenomena 

6am Mars stationary. 



Mercury farthest E of Sun. 

Venus stationary. 

Moon passes Jupiter. 

Moon passes Venus. 

Uranus stationary. 

tJranus near Lambda Sagittarii. 

Moon highest. 

a m Moon passes Neptune. 

Mercury stationary. 



9am 


1pm 


1pm 


12 am 


^t>ni 


9am 


nth, 10 


11 am 



k 











16 
19 
21 
23 
27 



Rises 

before 

31 

31 

37 



a 



L 



2pm 
20th, 9 



Sun 
Sun 
p m 



enters 
enters 
Moon 



Aries, 

Taurus 

passes 



(sign). 
Mars. 



20th, 11 p m Moon oc'ts GammaLibrae. 
4pm Mercury passes Sun. 
23d, 9pm Moon passes Uranus. 
23d, 11 p m Moon lowest. 

5am Venus passes Sun. 
9am Mercury crosses Ecliptic. 
28th, 10 a m Moon passes Saturn. 



Positions of Sun and 
Planets on Apr 1 

Constellation 

Sun Pisces 

Mercury Aries 

Venus Ar'es 

Mars Libra 

Jupiter Aries 

Saturn Aquarius 

Uranus Sagittarius 

Neptune Gemini 



Moon farthest fiom 
Earth, 4th, 4 a m. 

Moon nc.irt'st the 
Earth, 18th, 5 pm. 



Meteor Showers 
Date Radiant Meteors 



12-24 Virgo 
18-23 Hydra 
20-22* Lyra 
30 Draco 



slow 
long 
swift 
slow 



Morning 

stars 
Mercury 
(after 23d) 
Venus 
(after 27th) 
Saturn 
Uranus 



Minima of Algol 
Date Time 



April 6 
15 
24 



9 17 p m 

11 44 a m 

2 11 a m 



For intermediate dates 
add '2d 20h 49m. 



Evening 
stars 

Mercury 
(until 23d) 
Venus 
(until 27th) 
^lars 
Jupiter 
Neptvme 

When Polaris Is North 

Date Time 

Apr 1 12 4P a m 12 47 p m 
10 12 13' 12 11 

20 11-34 111 32 

30 10 54 10 52 

For intermediate dates 
add llh 58m. 



18 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



Moon 
souths 



Date a m 



Eastern 

Rises before or 
sets after Sun Light 
For Pac Mercury Venus between 

coast sets sets 
add 6 m after after 

H M HM 

38 
39 
iO 
40 
40 
39 
39 
36 
34 
30 
26 
22 
17 
13 
7 

54 



APRIL, 1935. 
Standard Time— 75th Meridian. 



and dark 
6pm 
and 6am 

£▼0 Mom 

6 8 10 12 2 i 6 



1 

2 

3 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 



9 49 

10 33 

11 15 

1157 

p m 

123 

2 7 
253 

3 41 

4 31 
523 

6 16 

7 10 

8 4 
8 59 
954 

10 49 

1146 

a m 

12 42 
140 
237 

3 34 

4 30 
523 

6 14 

7 2 

7 47 

8 31 

9 14 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 









Rises 
before 
12 








3 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

I 










16 Rises 
19 before 
21 31 
23 31 
27 37 



46 
39 
31 

22- 
12 





57 
52 
47 
44 

38 
31 
28 
23 
17 
11 

4 

58 
52 
45 
37 
30 
23 
15 

7 

59 
50 
41 
34 
25 




Positions of Sun and 
Planets on Apr 1 

Constellation 

Sun Pisces 

Mercury Aries 

Venus Ar''es 

Mars Libra 

Jupiter Aries 

Saturn Aquarius 

Uranus Sagittarius 

Neptune Qemini 



Moon farthest fiom 
Karth. 1th. 4 a m. 

Moon nc.ircst the 
Earth, 18th, 5 pm. 



9am 
lltii, 10 
U am 



Planetary 

con Hi^ rations 

and other 

phenomena 

Mars statiouar)-. 

Mercury farthest E of Sun. 

Venus stationary. 

Moon pa.sties Jupiter. 

Moon passes Venus. 

Uranus stationary. 

tJratius near Lambda Sagittarii. 

Moon higliest. 

a m Moon pa-sses Neptune. 

Mercury stationary. 



k 



a 



mh 

2pm 

20th. 9pm 
20th, 11 p m 



Sun 
Sun 



enters 
enters 
Moon 



Aries. 

Taurus 

passes 



fsign). 
Mars. 



L 



Moon oc'ts GammaLibrae. 
4pm Mercury passes Sun. 
23d, 9pm Moon passes Uranus. 
23d, 11 p m Moon lowest. 

5am Venus passes Sun, 
9am Mercury crosses Ecliptic. 
1 28th, 10 am Moon passes Saturn. 



Meteor Showers 
Date Radiant Meteors 



12-24 Virgo 
18-23 Hydra 
20-22* Lyra 
30 Draco 



slow 
long 
swift 
slow 



Morning 

stars 
Mercury 
(after 23d) 
Veiuis 



Evening 
stars 

Mercury 
(until 23d) 
Venus 



Minima of Algol 

Date Time 

April 6 9 17 p m 

15 11 44 a m 

24 2 11 a m 



For intermediate dates 
add 2d 20h 49m. 



(after 27th) (until 27th) 
Saturn Mars 

Uranus Jupiter 

Neptune 

When Polaris Is North 

Date Time 

Apr 1 12 4P a m 12 47 p m 



10 12 13' 
20 11 34 
30 10 54 



12 11 

,11 .T.' 
10 52 



For intermediate dates 
add lib 58m. 



22 



AMERICAN AORICULTURIBT 



MAT, 1905. 

Eastern Standard Time— 75th Mciidian. 

Moon- Rises before oe 

souths sets after Sun Light and dark 

For Pac Merciirj- Venus ^l'^\ 1 ^ " Planetary 

coast rises rises *"" " * ,, configurations 

Eve Mom 



add 6 m before before 
Date am HM HM6 8 



10 12 2 4 6 



and other 
phenomena 




Positions 

Planets on May 1 

Constellation 

Sun Aries 

Mercury Aries 

Venus Aries 

Mars Libra 

Jupiter Aries 

Saturn Aquarius 

Uranus Sagittarius 

Neptune Gemini 

Moon farthest froni 
Eiirth, 1st. 10 a ra. 

Moon nearest the 
Earth. 16th. midnight. 

Moon I'arthest from 
Earth, iSth, 1 a m. 



,3d, 2am Moon passes Mercury. 

7am Moon passes Venus. 

lam Jupiter passes Sup. 
Ith» Sara Moon passes Jupiter. 
12 a m Mercury stationary, 
8th, 3pm Mercxu-y farthest from Sun. 

3pm Mars 180 Degrees from Sun. 

8th, 4pm Moon highest. 

8th, 5pm Moon passes Neptune. 

4am Mars crosses EclipUc. 

Sun enters Taurus. 

2am Moon occults Kta Virginis. 
Ham Venus stationarj'. 
5 p mi Moon passes Mars. 

Mars near Alplia Librae. 
2l3t. 5am Moon passes Uranus. 

9am Mercury farthest W of Sun. 
2l8t, 11 a m Moon lowest. 
2l8t, 2pm Sun enters Gemini (sign). 

Sam Jupiter 90 Degrees from Sun. 

8pm Moon passes Jupiter, 



12 a m 
2am 



Mercury farthest S of Sun. 
Moon passes Venus. 



Meteor Showers 

Date Radiant Meteors 

1- 6* Aquarius streaks 
11-18 Corona small 
30-Aug Pegasus swift 
May-July Ophiuchus 

V slow 

Minima of Algol 

Algol too near Sun 
for observation during 
May. 



Morning 
stars 

Mercury 
Venus 
Jupiter 
(after Ith) 
Saturn 



Evening 
stars 

Mars 
Jupiter 
(until 4th) 
Uranus 
Neptune 



When Polaris Is North 

Date Time 

May 1 10 48 a m 10 46 p m 
10 10 13 10 11 

20 9 33 9 31 

30 8 54 8 52 

For intermediate dates 
add llh 58m. 



TBAR BOOK AND AUIAMAO 



24 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST TBAtl BOOK 

MAY. 

NORTH— Another busy month, even if the work has been 
well kept up during the spring. Use the hoe and cultivator vig- 
orously to keep down weeds and conserve moisture. If not done 
before, most of the smaller fruits may yet jbe planted the first 
of the month. If caterpillars, slugs or worms make their ap- 
pearance on the young shoots of vines or trees, a free applica- 
tion of tobacco dust mixed with pyrethrum powder should be 
used. It would be well to use these as preventives, for these 
pests are hard to exterminate when they get a foothold. Fires 
in the greenhouses may now be dispensed with. Put on a 
thicker covering of whitewash over the glass. Ventilate care- 
fully. Mow the lawns, trim up the edgings and hoe and rake 
the flower beds. If weeds are not kept down as they first appear, 
three times the labor will be required to eradicate them next 
month. Cuttings or young plants of chrysanthemums, if started 
now, will give plants for fall flowering. Spray and graft fruit 
tree9» if not done before. Thin out all the vegetables sown last 
month, which are large enough, and hoe deeply all planted 
crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, lettuc^, etc. Sow brussels 
sprouts, peas, spinach, lettuce, radish, onions, beets, cabbage, 
beans and corn for a succession of crops. Put out pole beans, 
including lima, also squashes, melon, celery and cucumbers. Do 
not let the cultivator get rusty; keep It going in all such crops 
as are large enough. Strawberry planting should be done as 
early as possible. Better in April than in May. Tomato, pepper 
and eggplants are usually sown the middle of the month. Rhu- 
barb and asparagus should be ready for market; also lettuce 
or radishes which were put in cold frames in March. Additional 
labor will probably be required, marketing of crops occupies a 
large portion of time, while thinning out of sown crops and 
keeping down weeds entail an amount of labor not before neces- 
sary. To withhold labor at this critical time is shortsighted 
economy, as the amateur gardener will find. Before turning 
cattle into pasture, see that fences and walls are in proper 
shape. If not done before, make a raid on the vermin in the 
poultry house. 

SOUTH— Fight the weeds. Corn planted last month should 
now be ready to be cultivated. More corn may be planted if 
desired for a late crop or for silage. Thoroughly prepare land 
and Bet out tobacco plants. In the cotton regions, hoe cotton 
and chop to a stand. Farmers who believe in applying fertilizers 
at the time of first cultivation of corn should now put their the- 
ory tn practice. Sow winter cabbage, more lettuce and radishes, 
also melons, squashes, cucumbers, etc. Sow seeds for late crops 
of peppers and tomatoes. Sweet potatoes may be set out. Plant 
late varieties of corn for succession. ''A dry May makes a good 
crop year," old farmers say. However, if too dry, irrigate or se- 
cure water supply in any way possible. Plenty of pole beans 
should be supplied at this time. 

In writing to the advertiser say: "I saw your adv in one of 
the old reliable American Agriculturist weeklies." 



6th Month. JUNE. 1905. 



26 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



nses 



rises 



JUNE, 1905. 
Eastern Standard Time^75th Meridian. 
Moon Rises before or 
souths sets after Sun Light and dark 

For Pac Mercury Venus between 6pm PUnHj^rr 

and 6am rianewy 

^f conngurations 

Mom and other 

12 2 1 6 phenomena 

4am Moon passes Jupiter. 
6am Mercury passes Jupiter. 
2d, 7am Venus brightest. 

11 p m Moon highest. 

12 a m Moon passes Neptune. 
Mercury in Taurus, 




4pm 
Sam 



Jupiter enters Taurus. 



Moon passes Mars. 
Jupiter stationary. 



17th, 12 a m Mercury crosses Ecliptic. 
1pm Moon passes Neptune. 
17th, 7pm Mars stationary. 
17th, S p m Moon lowest. 

Sun enters Gemini. 
2pm Mercury nearest Sun. 
5am Moon passes Saturn. 

Sun in Pisces (sign). 
4am Mercury passes Sun, 

5pm Mercury passes Neptune. 



Positions of Sun 
Planets on June 

Constellation 
Taurus 



Sun 

Mercury 

Venus 

Mars 

Jupiter 

Saturn 

Dranus 

Neptune 



Taurus 

Aries 

Libra 

Aries 

Aquarius 

Sagittarius 

Gemini 



the 



3pm 

12 a m 

4am 

Meteor Showers 
Date Radiant Meteors 

10 Ophiuchus V. sr'V 
11-19 Draco swift 

26 Andromeda streaks 
Jun-Aug Vulpecula swift 



Moon passes Venus. 
Moon passes Jupiter, 
Neptune near Sun. 

Morning TSrening 

stars stars 

Mercury Mercury 

(until 24th) (after 24th) 
Venus Mars 



Jupiter 



Saturn 
Uranus 
Neptune 



Moon nearest 
H^rth, 13th, 8 pm. 

Moon farthest from 
Earth. 2Sth, 7 pm. 



Minima of Algol 

Date Time 

June 29 12 58 a m 



Algol too near Sun for 
observation during June. 



When Polaris Is North 

r».ile Time 

Jnr.<> 1846am 8 44pm 

10 8 11 8 9 

20 7 31 7 29 ' 

30 6 52 6 50 

For intermediate dates 
add Uh 58m. 



28 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST TEAR BOOK 

JUNE. 

NORTH— So far all has been outlay but now market, gar- 
deners begin to reap their reward. If plants get an early start 
and weather has been favorable, asparagus, beets, cauliflower, 
cabbage, lettuce, onions, peas, radishes, rhubarb, spinach and 
turnips are ready to sell off, and the ground plowed for the sec- 
ond crop, except in the cases of asparagus and rhubarb. Suc- 
cession crops of beets, bush beans, cabbages, cucumbers, let- 
tuce, peas, radishes and potatoes may still be protitably planted 
for the home garden. While the crops are being gathered, weeds 
are apt to steal a march and destroy the hard work of former 
months. A man can hoe and rake over several times as much 
ground when the weeds are young as he can after they are 6 
Inches high. "A stitch in time saves nine" in a case of fighting 
weeds in a garden. If strawberries have not been mulched with 
hay or straw in winter, the cuttings from the lawn are a con- 
venient thing to place between the rows to keep the fruit from 
getting sanded by dashing rains. Small fruits such as goose- 
berries, raspberries, etc., are much improved by having a mulch 
placed around the roots this month. Sweet corn must be planted 
every ten days to keep up a succession, beginning with the ear- 
liest varieties, such as Corey and Minnesota. Thin beets and 
transplant field celery, cabbage, leeks and broccoli. Late plant- 
ings of fodder corn will often mature a good crop on rich land. 
Watch out for all kinds of insects. The farmer must fight for 
all he gets. Do to the insects what they would do to the plants, 
and do it first. Haying usually begins in June. Cut the clover 
before the blossoms dry. Better have a few extra parts of ma- 
chines on hand to replace breakage. Don't neglect the stock and 
chickens. They will repay care now as well as in February. 
Watch the bees and have hives ready for new swarms, 

SOUTH— Keep the cultivator going in the corn field. Give 
the corn an excellent start and the battle Is half won. .Finish 
planting tobacco. Plant chufas and cowpeas. Harvest oats and 
wheat and do not wait for all of tho heads to ripen. If you do. 
you will lose much by shelling. Cowpeas are fine sown with 
corn. They Improve the land, add to the crop produced, and 
offer little Injury to the corn. I^and not in use, or which is not 
to be soon, should be planted with p«'as, if possible, even if no 
other use Is to be made of them than to keep the land occupied. 
Many now plant sweet potatoes. Karly Irish potatoes should 
be dug and those wanted for late i)lanting should be spread out 
In partial light to "green." Growing crops will require much at- 
tention this month. Thorough cultivation will serve the double 
purpose of killing weeds and conserving moisture. Plant beans, 
melons, tomatoes, squashes, etc. Transplant cabbage and cau- 
liflower. 



No Advertisement Is allowed In the columns of the American 
Agriculturist weeklies unless we believe that any subscriber 
can safely do business with the advertiser. 



7th Month. JULY. 190S. 



30 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



JULY, 1905. 
Eastern Standard Time— 75th Meridian. 



Moon Jftises before or 
souths sets after Sun 



Venua 
rises 
before 

Date am H M H M 



For Pae Mercury 

coast sets 
add 6 m after 



Light and dark 
between 6pm 
and 6am 



Eve 
e 8 10 



Mom 
12 2 A • 




Planetary 

configurations 

and other 

phenomena 

Mercury farthest N. of Bun. 
Moon highest— passes Neptune, 
a m Venus passes Jupiter. 
Mercury enter's Cancer. 

Venus farthest W of Sun. 



Moon passes Mars. 



Moon passes Neptune. 
Moon lowest. 
Mercury enters Leo, 
Venus farthest S of Sun. 
Sun enters Cancer. 
Moon passes Jupiter. 



Sun enters Cancer (sign). 

Mercury crosses Ecliptic. 

Moon passes Jupiter. 
Moon occults Gamma Tauri. 

Moon passes Venus. 

Moon highest, 
p m Moon passes Neptune. 



Positions of Sun and 
Planets on July 1 

Constellation 



Sun 

Mercury 

Venus 

Mars 

Jupiter 

Saturn 

Uranus 

Neptune 



Gemini 

Gemini 

Taurus 

Libra 

Taurus 

Aquarius 

Sivgittarius 

Gemini 



Meteor Showers 

Date Radiant Meteors 

6-22 Sagittarius t slow 
28* Aquarius alow 

July-Aug Piscis Aust 

long 
July-Sept Cepheus swift 



Morning 
stars 

Venus 

Jupiter 

Neptune 



Evening 

stars 

Mercury 
Mars 
Saturn 
Uranus 



Moon nearest the 
Earth, 9th. midnight. 

Moon farthest from 
Earth, 23d 1 p m. 



Minima of 

Date 

July 7 
16 
7A 



Algol 

Time 

3 24 p m 
5 51 a m 
8 18 p m 



For intermediate dates 
add 2d 20h 49m. * 



When Polaris Is North 

Date Time 

July 16 48 am 646pm 

10 6 12 6 10 

20533 531 

30 4 54 4 52 

For intermediate dates 
add lib 58m. 



32 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST YEAR BOOK 

JULY. 

NORTH— In the greenhouse, water and ventilate carefully; 
also fumigate with tobacco or something equally good. The at- 
mosphere should be kept moist. Dahlias, roses, gladioli and 
herbaceous perennial and annual plants should be staked. Do 
not tie too tightly. Early vegetables may be marketecj. This 
is the time to thir) apples, pears, peaches, etc. If the fruit sets 
very full, it will be found advisable to thin out at least one-half 
or two-thirds, and the remaining will make up in weight and 
quality. Cabbages, cauliflower and celery, if wanted for fall or 
winter use, should be planted this month. Sweet corn, beans, 
cucumbers and lettuce may yet be sown for late crops; also 
rutabaga turnips. Transplant late celery. Finish the haying 
and go through the corn a couple of times before harvest. Early 
cut hay is best, and lowland or swamp hay can usually be ob- 
tained to good advantage early this month. Grass land may be 
plowed and sown to rutabaga. The poultryman will give his 
fowls a wide range. If they will leave the crops alone, they are 
an excellent insecticide. 

SOUTH— There is a lull in farm operations at this time, 
though there is plenty which may profitably be done. Harvest 
and thresh oats and wheat, if not done last month. Cultivation 
of cotton is generally completed during this month. Sweet po- 
tatoes may still be planted with good results, and from now on 
the "vines" instead of "draws" are used. Those which have 
already been planted should be hoed or moved to prevent the 
vines from routing at the joints. Extra time in preparing the 
seed bed will not be thrown away, as thoroughly cultivated 
ground holds moisture better and produces more ideal conditions 
for the potatoes. Ordinarily this month is dry and much atten- 
tion should be given stock in the way of supplying plenty of 
fresh water. Pastures are very apt to go short also, and atten- 
tion is needed in this respect. An early sown plot of corn or 
peas and oats would come acceptable now to tide the stock 
over a dry spell. Cowpeas which were sown for early hay should 
now be cut, which will give them ample time to make a second 
crop for October cutting. This is an excellent time to prepare 
buildings, sheds, etc., for winter, and to get out material for 
new buildings which are to be put up during the winter. The 
season Is usually dry for planting garden vegetables success- 
fully, though carrots, parsnips, endive, turnips, Irish potatoes 
and pickling cucumbers may be sown if desired. It would be 
well to put out a crop of rutabaga for the stock. Transplant 
cabbage, cauliflower, leeks, broccoli and early crop celery. The 
dry condition of the ground makes it imperative that the very 
best of seed be obtained. 

We guarantee the reliability of every advertisement in the 
American Agriculturist weeklies, and will make good any loss 
which any subscriber- may sustain, while -his subscription lasts, 
by trusting any advertiser who may prove to be a deliberate 
aarlndler. 



8th Month. AUQUST. 1905. 



34 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



AUGUST, 1905. 
Eastern Standaitl Time— 76th Meridian. 



Muon Rises before or 
souths sets after Sun 
For Pac Mercury Venus 
c-Oast sets rises 
add 6 m after 

Date p m H M 

1 13 34 

2 129 

3 2 23 

4 3 16 

5 1 8 

6 5 1 

7 5 54 

8 6 48 

9 7 42 

10 9 37 

11 9 32 

12 10 2S 

13 11 18 

14 am 

15 12 7 

16 12 51 

17 139 

18 2 22 

19 3 5 

20 3 47 

21 4 30 

22 5 14 

23 5 59 

24 6 47 

25 738 

26 8 30 

27 924 

28 10 20 beiote 

29 1115 

30 p m 

31 15 8 

PoAUona of Sim and 
Planets on Aug 1 

Gonatellation 



Light and dark 
between 6pm 
and Gam ' 

Ere Mom 

6 8 10 12 2 4 6 




Planetary 

configarations 

and other 

phenomena 

Mars near Iota Librae. 

Sam Mercury farthest E of Sun. 

2d, 11 p m Moon passes Mercury. 

1pm Mercury farthest from Sun. 



a m 



Venus enters Gemini. 

Moon passes Mars. 
Sun enters Leo. 



lam Moon passes Uranus, 
nth, 1pm Moon lowest. 
14th, Moon partially eclipsed. 

5pm Mercury passes Neptune. 
10 a m Mercury stationary. 
15th, 4pm Moon passes Saturn. 



Mars enters Scorpio» 
Mars near Delta Scorpii. 
10 a m Moon passes Jupiter. 
23d, 4pm Sun enters Virgo (sign). 
26th, 2am Moon highest. 
7am Moon passes Neptune. 
Sam Moon passes Venus. 
Venus enters Cancer. 
Sun totally eclipsed (visible in 
U S as partial). 
30th, 4am Moon passes Mercury. 



Bun 


Cancer 


Mtrcury 


Leo 


Venus 


Taurus 


Man 


Libra 


Jupiter 


Taurus 


Saturn 


Aquarius 


Uranus 


Sagittarius 


Neptuns 


Gemini 



Meteor Showers 

Date Radiant Meteors 

10-12* Perseus swift 

15 Cygnus swift 

21-25 Draco bright 

Aug-Oct Auriga streaks 

Minima oi Algol 
Date Time 



Morning 


Ereuing 


stars 


stars 


Mercury 


Mercury 


(after 29th) 


(until 29th) 


Venus 


Mars 


Neptune 


Jupiter 


• 


Saturn 




Uranus 



Moon nearest the 
Earth, 4th, 3 p ra. 

Moon farthest from 
Elarth, 20th, Sam. 



Aug 2 
11 
19 
28 



10 45 a m 
1 12 a m 
3 38 p m 
6 5am 



For intermediate dates 
add 2d 20h 49m. 



When Polaris Is North 

Date Time 

Aug 1446am 444pm 

10 4 11 4 9 

20 3 32 3 30 

30 2 S3 2 31 

For intcnncdiate dates 
add llh 58m. 



36 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST TEAR BOOK 

AUGUST. 

NORTH— Watering, ventilating and fumigating the tgreen- 
house should be given the same attention as last month. If 
not already done, carnations and other plants should be cut 
back, if desired to produce flowers in winter. Chrysanthemums 
may be mkde bushy by toppinig. Cut oflf the strawberry runners 
close to the parent plant so the full force of roots may go into 
the crowns for the next season's growth. Old stems of jaspber- 
ries, blackberries, etc., which have borne their fruit, may be 
cut away. Thin out the young shoots to three or four canes to 
each hill. Give cabbage, cauliflower and celery deep cultiva- 
tion. In many sections onions are ready for harvesting. When 
the tops become yellow and drop down, harvest at once. They 
may be dried by putting in a shed in rather thin layers. Bush 
beans and peas may still be sown for late crops. Spinach for 
fall marketing may be sown. Begin to earth up celery and set 
more; also plant endive. Pick, ripen and market early pears, 
also other early fruit. New shoots of blackberries may be 
pinched back. The market gardener will generally be busy mar- 
keting vegetables and stirring up the soil. The weeder may still 
be used to a good advantage. Continue spraying operatlo^is. 
Upon the average farm this is one of the easiest of the warm 
months, and it will be well to plan a little vacation trip. 

SOUTH— Plant late varieties of peas and gather the .first 
cowpeas. Fodder may be pulled and cotton picking generally 
begins this month. Attention should be given the tobacco 
crop. In southern sections plant Irish potatoes early for fall 
crop. Sweet potatoes may still be planted early in the month, 
and under favorable conditions will do fairly well. Harvest the 
fodder crop and carefully put away for winter use. Do not delay 
these general farm operations, for cotton picking comes in the 
last of the month, and everything gives place to it. The stock 
may be short of feed and water. Watch out for it. Sow plenty 
of turnips, especially winter varieties. Chickens will thrive on 
these, if given access to them. If there is sufficient moisture in 
the ground, sow cabbage for latest crop. Successional crops of 
cauliflower, collards, carrots, squashes, cabbages, radishes and 
beets may be sown. Onion sets are planted now. 

TO SHOOT ON THE WING. 

Aim just forward of the head of the game at a short range, 
and its own length ahead at a fairly long range, and jerk the 
muzzle in time with the flight of the object, then fire without 
stopping the correct sideways movement of the guri and without 
dwelling a moment on the aim. Pull the trigger with the fin^r, 
adding no wrist movement. Keep the eyes open when firing. 
Study causes of failures and watch older sportsmen. 

In writing to the advertiser say: "I saw your adv In one of 
the old reliable American Agriculturist weeklies." 



9tb Month 




SEPTEMBER. 


1905. 




Eut«-n Tl.<. 


Cantral TiBt. 


A«(.«M>liiTiBi.. 










FintQnuttir 


5 li 9 Ktid 


S 10 SEren. 




Pall Moon. 


IS I lDEi«D. 


IS lOBTcn. 


IS 11 lb Mora". 


UnQnvur 






21 t 1BEt«d. 
2S % MKven. 


sSEks 




28 « WS^ml 


Vi i uSi:^ 








I 








1 


s 


^.to° + 


l*t.W> + 


WMtharPara- 




8^ 


Tf555 


■§55- 






B 


BiMI 


BeW. 


Bcu. 


Rim 


E 




5 


H. M. 






H.M. 




J 


^ 


G 26 


g 23 


S 2 


6 86 


«24 


8 6 


W«nn Wbto. Ab- 




tat. 


• 


•w 


S 26 


6 32 


8 39 


6 86 


6 23 


8 48 


aormallj hlgU 
•on£' ot Ohio * 




San. 


• 


A 


527 




9 16 


636 


6 21 


9 as 




Uo. 


• 


^ 


528 




9 63 


6 37 


6 20 


10 l^ 


w«tUl«i.ilTec. 




ra. 


J 


n 


229 


18 87 


10 87 


6 87 


6 19 


10 6B 


Dniottled. flint. 




W«. 


5 


"t 


30 


^26 


11 24 


688 


6 7 


11 49 


At.co'«itomy. 




rh. 


J 


/ 


fi32 


023 


mom 


689 


616 


mOTD 




Fri. 


» 


/ 


5S3 


S23 


17 


5 89 


6 5 


42 




3»t 


J 


>} 


5S4 


em 


1 18 


640 


6 4 


1 3S 


TroplMd itorm. 




inn. 


5 


y^ 


ess 


6 18 


2 14 


6 41 


6 12 


2 36 






Mo. 




y 


036 


6 16 


3 14 


6 41 


6 11 


S33 


"fi^'^itSiSl? 




Tn. 




ss 


6 37 


6 14 


4 16 


6 42 


6 10 


4 30 


So;liIpUiS?"° 




We. 




» 


638 


6 13 


riaei. 


6 43 


6 8 




CoolWaTe. Bhftrp 




rh. 




X 


6 39 


6 11 


■ 61 


6 43 


6 7 


61 


ftoatalaceoUona 




Fri. 


Q 


X 


6 40 


6 9 


7 20 


6 44 


6 6 


7 24 


B3t 




Bftt. 




X 


5« 


6 7 


7 48 


6 45 


6 4 


7 56 




Bnn. 




r 


6 42 


S 6 


8 14 


6 46 


6 3 


8 27 






Mo. 




r 


5« 


6 4 


8 46 


6 46 


6 2 


9 2 






Tn. 




» 


6 44 


6 2 


9 20 


5 47 


S 


S 40 


Sri"™- 




Wo. 




» 


5 46 


8 


10 


6 47 


6 69 


10 23 




Th. 




tf 


6 46 


6 69 


10 46 


6 48 


608 


11 10 


w 




Fri. 




n 


6 47 


6 67 


11 36 


6 48 


5 67 


morn 




33 


B»t. 


C 


n 


6 49 


666 




6 49 


6 66 


1 




S4 


Sod. 


c 


35 


660 


563 


36 


6 49 


653 


58 




!G 


Mo. 


c 


95 


6 61 


6 62 


1 40 


660 


6 62 


2 




28 


Tn. 


c 


a 


6 62 


66(> 


2 48 


6 61 


6 61 


3 4 




17 


We. 


c 


9, 


6 63 


648 


4 2 


6 62 


6 4S 


4 12 




M 


rh. 


• 


n 


664 


646 


6 19 


6 62 


6 48 


5 24 


Oniettled, Bituti- 


29 


Fri. 


• 


m 


6B5 


6 46 


setB. 


B63 


6 47 


■etB. 


ryBlangBUoout 


30 


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• 




6 


66 


6 43 


7 10 


6 64 


6 46 


7 32 


Ifne. and over 
Gie&tLokM. 



38 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



coast 
add 6 m 

Date p m 



SEPTEMBER. l»i>. 

Eastern Standard Time— 75th Meridian. 
Rises before or 

»et8 after Sun Liglit and dark 
between 6 p m 
vises »»^ 6am 
before Eve Morn 

H M6 8 10 12 '2 4 G 
12 



Mooa 

souths 

For Pac Mercury Venus 



uses 
before 
H M 




Vlhuetaxs 

contignratjoos 

and other 

phenomena 




9 ]) m 
lam 

22d. 11 
5pm 

12 m 

25th, 4 
4pm 
7am 

10 p m 



Moon passes Vesta. 

Mars near Antai^s. 

Moon passes Mars, 
a m Moon passes Uranus. 

Mercury stationary, 
p m Moon lowest. 

Uranus stationary. 

Moon pa^ises Saturn. 

Venus cros es Ecliptic. 

p m Mercuij crosses Sclif>tic 

Venus enters Leo. 

MerciuT farthest W of Sun. 

Sun enters Virgo, 

Mercury nearest Sun. 

Moon passes Jupiter. 
Mocn occults Aldebaran. 
a m Moon highest. 
Moon passes Neptune. 
Sun enters Libra (sign). 
p m lupiter stationary. 
Venus passes Regulus. 
Moon passes Venus. 
Moon imsses Merctuy. 
Saturn near Iota Aqnarii. 



Mars enters Sagittarius. 



Positions of Sun and 
Planets on Sept 1 

Constellation 



Sun 


Leo 


Mercury 


Leo 


Venus 


Cancer 


Mars 


Scorpio 


Jupiter 


Taurus 


Saturn 


Aquarius 


Uranus 


Sagittarius 


Neptune 


Gemini 



Meteor Showers 

Date Radiant Meteors 

3- 8 Andromeda v. swift 

5-15 Perseus swift 

21 Aries slow 

27 Orion streaks 



Morning 
stars 

Mercury 

Venus 

Neptune 



EveaiiiiS 
stars 

Mais 

Juniftei! 

Satnm 

Uramus 



Moon nearest the 
Efetrth, 1st, 6 am. 

Moon farthest from 
Earth, 16th, midnight. 

Moon nearest the 
Earth, 29th, noon. 



Minima of 
Date 

Sept 5 
14 
23 



Algol 

Time 

8 32 p m 

10 59 a m 

1 26 a m 



For intermediate dates 
add 2d 20h 49m. 



When Polaris is North 

Date Time 

Sept 1 2 45am243pm 

10 2 10 2 8 

20 130 123 

30 12 51 12 49 



For intermediate dates 
add llh 5Sm. 



: BOOK AND AliUANAC 




40 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST TEAR BOOK 

SEPTEMBER. 

NORTH— Hyacinths, tulips and moLJt of the varieties of lilies 
may be planted this month. Pansies, daisies, mlgrnonettes, 
sweet alyssum, candytuft, etc., should be put out. New plant- 
ings of strawberry plants may still be made from runners which 
were layered in pots. The sooner they are planted the better. 
If they make runners, they should be closely trimmed back as 
mentioned last month. Cut out and thin the raspberries and 
blackberries, if not done. Tender plants should be carried in 
under glass. Violets are hardy and may be left out until after 
a light frost. Do not let the runners grow on them, but trim 
the same as strawberries. Repair the greenhouses and put them 
in order for cold weather. Continue earthing up celery. Harvest 
onions, beets, turnips, cucumbers, squash and melons. The 
main crop of spinach or sprouts which is wanted for winter or 
spring use should be sown. The flat sort of turnips may still 
be sown first of the month. Corn and apples should be gathered 
and many kinds of vegetables taken to market. Give poultry 
and swine liberal rations so that they may lay on fat during 
the cool autumn weather. Grass land may be seeded down. Rye 
is often sown on vacant land at this time. 

SOUTH— Carrots may be sown for a late crop. For succes- 
sion, sow lettuce, cabbage and winter radishes for early spring 
marketing. Give celery plants thorough cultivation and sow a 
few turnips. Transplant cabbage and cauliflower. In the latitude 
of Virginia, start early greenhouse crops, such as lettuce. Beans 
may still be sown. House tobacco and keep the teams and plows 
busy fallowing. Pick cotton. Sow fall oats, rye, turnips, cab- 
bage, collards, beets, radishes, lettuce, etc., for winter use. 

THE ZODIAC. 

The Zodiac is a band 16 degrees in width, extending around 
the heavens. The Sun's path, or Ecliptic, is the middle line of 
the Zodiac. The Moon and principal planets, as well as the 
Sun, are always found within this belt. It is divided into 12 
equal parts, called Signs of the Zodiac, which take their names 
from the 12 Zodiacal Constellations included in this belt. The 
signs and constellations of the same name are not coincident. 
For instance, the Sun enters the sign Aries at the beginning of 
Spring, but still remains in the constellation Pisces. 

The names of the Signs of the Zodiac in their order are: 
Aries, the Ram; Taurus, the Bull: Gemini, the Twins; Cancer, 
the Crab; Leo, the Lion; Virgo, the Virgin; Libra, the Scales; 
Scorpio, the Scorpion; Sagittarius, the Archer; Capricornus. the 
Goat; Aquarius, the Water Bearer; Pisces, the Fishes. They 
are often recalled by the following bit of rhyme: 

The Ram, the Bull, the Heavenly Twins, 

And next the Crab, the Lion shines, 
The Virgin and the Scales, 

The Scorpion, Archer and Sea-goat, 

The Man that bears the watering-pot. 
And Fish with glittering tails. 



10th Month. OCTOBER. 1905. 



42 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



OCTOBER. 1905. 
Eastern Standard Time-75th Meridian. 



Moon Rises before or 
souths sets after Sun Light 
For Pac Mercury Venus between 



coast 
add 6 m 

Date p m 



rises 

before 

H M 



rises «>d 6 a 
before Eve 

H M 6. 8 10 

41 



and dark 
6pm 
m 

Mom 

12 2 4 6 



Planetary 

configurations 

and other 

phenomena 




1th, 2am Neptune 90 Deg from Suiu 
tth, 7am Moon passes Mars. 
12 m Moon passes Uranus. 
lam Moon lowest. 

10 p m Venus near Chi Leonis. 
3pm Mars passes Uranus. 
3th, 10 p m Moon passes Saturn. 



Sam Mercury passes Sun. 
Venus enters Virgo. 

3pm Venus nearest Sun. 
15th. lam Mars farthest 3 of Sun. 
12 a m Moon occults G«amma Tauri. 
17th, 2am Moou passes Jupiter. 
6pm Moon highest. 

Moon paHsesi Neptune. 

Mercury crosses EclipUc. 

Mercury enters Libra. 

Sun enters Scorpio (sign). 

Venus passes Eta Virginis. 

4am Moon passes Venus. 

^ 4 p m Moon passes Mercury. 
Sun enters Libra. 
3l8t» lam Saturn stationary. 
10 p m Moon passes Uranus. 



12 


a m 


8 


a m 


9pm 


8 


a m 



Positions of Sun and 
Planets on Oct 1 

Constellation 

Virgo 

Virgo 

Leo 

Sagittarius 

Taurus 

.Vquarius 
Sagittarius 

Gemini 



Meteor Showers 
Date Radiant Meteors 



Sun 

Mercury 

Venus 

Mars 

.Tupiter 

Saturn 

Uranus 

Neptune 



2 Bootes 

8 Taurus 
18-20* Orion 
29 Gemini 



bright 
streaks 
swift 
V swift 



Minima of Algol 



from 



Moon farthest 
Earth. 11th. 7 a ni. 

Moon nearest the 
Earth, 27th. 11 p m. 



Date 

Oct 1 
10 
18 

27 



Time 

3 53 p m 

6 20 a m 

8 47 p m 

11 IJ a m 



M'g stars E'g stara 

Mercury Mercury 

(luitil 12th) (after 12th) 
Venus Mars 

Jupiter 
Saturn 
Uranus 
Neptune 

When Polaris Is North 



Date 



Time 



. For intermediate dates 
add 2d 20h 49m. 



Oct 1 12 47 a m 12 45 p m 

10 12 12 12 10 

20 11 34 11 32 

30 11 55 11 53 

For intermediate dates 
add llh 58m. 



44 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST YEAR BOOK 

OCTOBER. 

NORTH— In northern localities, it will be well to look after 
the tender plants, and get them under cover during the early 
part of the month. In the greenhouses, avoid the use of Are 
heat as long as possible. However, do not let the temperature 
go below 50 degrees at night. If there are indications the night 
is likely lo be a cold one, the sashes which have been raised 
for ventilation during the day may be let down early in the af- 
ternoon. It will be well to place the hardier sorts of plants, 
such as carnations, azaleas, roses, etc., in a cold frame or pit 
until the middle of November. They will do better here than in 
a greenhouse, and will make stronger and healthier roots, which 
will enable them to withstand forcing much better than when 
they are placed in the greenhouse. Watch for and destroy insects. 
.Fall bulbs, such as tulips and hyacinths, may be planted during 
the month. Gladioli, caladiums, tuberoses, dahlias, etc., w^hich 
were planted in the spring, should be taken up, dried and put 
away in some dry place which is free from frost. All sorts of 
fruit trees and shrubs may be set out this month. If the plant- 
ing is done late in the month, a liberal dressing of mulch should 
be applied as a protection fo the roots during winter. Strawber- 
ries layered In pots may yet be plahted early in the month. 
Great care should be taken to trim the runners from early 
plantings. Finl.sh up harvesting apples and corn. Potato dig- 
ging and gathering root crops should be done this month. Cut 
the silage corn in the glaze. In the vegetable garden, this is one 
of the busiest fall months. Celery is in full growth and requires 
earthing up. and during the last part of the month some may 
be stored away in trenches. Sweet potatoes, parsnips, beets, 
squash, etc., not intended to be left* in the ground during the 
winter, should be dug by the end of the month. Put in cold 
frames cauliflower and lettuce which was sown last month. As- 
paragus and rhubarb, if wanted for use in winter, should be 
taken up in large bunches and stored away in a pit, shed or 
cellar for six or eight weeks, when it may be taken into the 
greenhouse and packed closely under the benches. Treated this 
way, it will be ready for use from January to March. Spinach 
may be sown. Greenhouses, hotbeds, henhouses and barns 
should be put in order for the coming winter. 

SOUTH— Harvest corn, sow wheat. Cotton picking is con- 
tinued. Gather and house corn, ground peas, chufas and cane 
for seed. Grind cane. Dig, sort and store sweet potatoes and 
gather peas. Set out cabbage and coUard plants. Cultivate all 
crops planted last month. Onion sets may be put in* now. Sow 
winter spinach. Carefully earth up celery and set out more. 
Radishes and other successional crops may be sown. Top-drcas 
asparagus and transplant strawberries, cabbage and cauliflower. 
Cucumbers in greenhouses are started this month. 

No advertisement is allowed in the columns of the American 
Agriculturist weeklies unless we believe that any subscriber 
can safely do business with the advertiser. 



nth Month. NOVEMBER. 1905. 



nntOurlw 8 S »B*M, S T ttSren. is SeSrM. 

RUlMoon. 12 II Mom. 11 U llKrui. 11 Id 11 Xr«a. 

UnQouMi I IS S S4BTen. | 19 7 MXtsb. | IB I MEtmi. 



46 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



NOVEMBER, 1905. 
Eastern Standard Time— 75th Meridian. 



Moon Rises before or 

souths sets after Sun Light and dark 

For Pac Mercury Venus between 6 p m 

coast sets rises aud 6 a m 
add 6 ra after before Eve Morn 

Datepm HM HM68 10 12 24G 



1 
2 
3 
4 

5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

ar 

28 

29 
30 



4 9 r;o 

5 4 32 

5 56 33 

6 45 35 

7 32 37 

8 16 39 

8 59 40 

9 41 42 



2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 



10 23 42 1 59 

11 5 45 1 58 

11 49 46 1 56 
am 49 1 56 

12 35 .0 51 1 55 

1 22 53 1 53 

2 10 54 1 52 

3 55 1 51 

3 51 57 

4 42 59 1 49 




5 33 

6 24 

7 16 

8 7 

9 1 
9 55 

10 53 

11 52 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



1 11 1 41 



1 14 



p m 1 13 

152 1 14 1 35 

2 51 1 14 1 31 

3 46 1 15 1 33 



Planetary 

confifai rations 

and other 

phenomena 

9am Moon lowest. 

4am Moon passes Mars. 

7 a ra Venus passes Theta Virginia. 
Sam Moon passes Satinu. 
lam Venus farthest N of Sun. 

Mercury enters Scorpio. 
10 a m Mars nearest San. 



2am Moon passes Saturn. 

lam Moon highest. 

Sam Moon passes Neptune. 

Mars enters Capricornua. 

Venus enters Libra. 
7 a m Saturn 90 Degrees from Sun. 
10 p m Mercury farthest S of Sun. 

Sun eriters Scorpio. 
6pm Sun enters Sagittarius (sign). 

lam Jupiter 180 Degrees from Sun, 
lam Moon passes Venus. 

Mercury enters Sagittarius. 

12 a m Mercury farthest E of Sun. 
lam Moon pas.ses Mercury. 

28th, Ham Moon passes Uranus. 

28th, 8pm Moon lowest. 



Positions of Sun and 
I^lanets on Nov 1 

Constellation 



Sun 


Libra 


Merciiry 


Libra 


Venus 


Virgo 


Mars 


Sagittarius 


Jupiter 


Taurus 


Saturn 


Aquarius 


Uranus 


Sagittarius 


Neptune 


Gemini 



Moon farthest from 
Earth. 10th. 8 a m. 

Moon nearest the 
Eaith, 25th. 11 a ra. 



Meteor Showers 

Date Radiant Meteors 

2 Taurus bright 

14-16* Leo streaks 

20-23 TauriLs bright 

17-23* Androraeda trains 

Minima of Algol 

Date Time 

Nov 5 1 40 a m 

13 4 7 i> ra 

22 6 34 a ra 

30 9 1pm 

For intermediate dates 
add 2d 20h 49m. 



Morning 


Evening 


stars 


stars 


Venus 


Mercury 




Mars 




Jupiter 




Saturn 




Uranus 




Neptune 



When Polaris is North 

Date Time 

Nov 1 10 47 a m 10 45 p m 

10 10 12 10 10 

20 9 41 9 39 

30 8 52 8 50 

•For intermediate dates 
add Uh 58ra. 




^^^JSfoVEJ-I§E-^ 



48 AMERICAN AORTCT^LTTTRTST TEAR BOOK 

NOVEMBER. 

NORTH — The outdoor season Is drawing to a close and all 
harvesting still undone should he hurried to a finish. All plants 
should be indoors and a sharp outlook kept for cold snaps. 
When fire heat is finally used in greenhouses, be careful to keep 
up the proper moisture by syringing, sprinkling the walks, etc. 
Use a covering of rough litter and leaves to sprinkle over the 
beds of hyacinths or other fall bulbs. A good dressing of well- 
decayed manure added to the land will show to a good advan- 
tage the following spring. Grass seed and' winter rye may be 
.«?own before the ground freezes. Fall plowing is always in or- 
der. Straw mulching of strawberries should be done this month. 
Prune grapevines and fruit trees. If cuttings or scions of fruit 
trees for grafts are desired, they should be tied in small bunches 
and buried in tne ground until spring. Trim off the asparagus 
beds and burn the stems if there are berries on them. Spread 
a heavy dressing of manure, 3 or 4 inches thick, over the beds. 
Onions, cabbage, spinach or lettuce plants that are outside 
should be covered -with 2 or 3 inches of some sort of mulching, 
such as straw or leaves, to protect them during the winter. 
Cabbages that have headed may be preserved from frost hy 
simply pulling up and packing close together in a dry spot in 
the open field. . In- early December they should be covered up 
with leaves, or with a dressing of light soil. Cabbages s6 packed 
will keep until March if the covering has not been put on too 
early. Good ventilation should be given cold frames where cab- 
bage and lettuce plants have been sown. On the approach of 
cold weather, straw mats or shutters are a great protection to 
plants. All kinds of root crops, cabbages and onions should be 
In a safe place. Bleaching celery should be finished. Parsnips 
and horse-radish may be left in the ground until spring, but a 
portion should be dug for winter use. Clear (^ stones, rocks 
and stumps. Trees and shrubbery mav be transplanted. 

SOUTH— Keep the plow, going. When done in the fall, this 
not only benefits the soil, but greatly facilitates work at the 
hurried .season of the spring. Put out onions. Finish picking 
cotton. Gather Kieflfer pears. Cotton picking will claim the 
larger per cent of the time this month. Ginning cotton, clear- 
ing up and putting away seed, are in order. It will be well to 
.sow winter oats, wheat or rye this month for winter pasturing, 
or for the grain next summer, or to be turned under, as Is de- 
sired. The land needs a cover crop, both to take up and hold 
the plant food as It becomes available, and to check washing 
of the surplus soil. Southern farmers would be much better off 
If they would follow the practice of keeping more of their land 
busy during the winter months. Fruit trees of all sorts may 
be .set out. Early peas for spring use may be sown. Set out 
more cabbage and onion sets. Give celery a final earthing up 
for bleaching. T^atest radishes may be sown and lettuce may 
be started in hotbeds or greenhouses. 



Peat yields an average of 12,000 tons to the acre. 



12th Month. DBCEMBER. 


1905. 








noaxul. TIM. 


nnt QnkTtiT 

LiatftQacieri!^.'."' 
HevKoou 


"s "l ffllT«n. 
11 6 MEyen. 


11 6 aeBTiD. 

•a 10 *BTeii. 


8 li taVom. 
11 4 2a£Tan. 
19 E BMoTO. 

25 » lETBD. 



50 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



DECEMBER. 1903. 
Eastern Standaid Time— 75th Meridian. 



Moon Rises before or 
souths sets after Sun Light and dark 
Pw Pac Mercury Vem« ^^^w^»» 6pm 



coast 
add 6 m 

Dfttepm 



sets 
after 

HM 



nsea and 6 a m 
before Mom Eye 

BM68 10 12 246 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

11 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

ao 

21 
22 
23 
21 
25 

as 

27 
28 
29 
30 
31 



4 39 

5 27 

6 13 

6 57 

7 39 

8 21 

9 3 
946 

10 31 
1118 
a m 
12 6 
12 57 

1 

2 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 









15 

16 

H 

13 

9 

7 

3 



55 

49 

42 

36 

29 

20 



48 

39 Rises 

31 before 



21 
12 
2 
52 
44 
38 
31 



10 33 

11 33 
p in 

130 
226 

3 17 

4 6 
4 51 



27 
30 
49 

8 
16 
22 
30 
33 
36 
40 
43 
45 
46 
46 



1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 









a 



31 

30 

29 

28 

26 

24 

23 

22 

20 

19 

17 

16 

16 

13 

11 

9 

7 

6 

4 

4 

2 



59 

sr 

56 

53 
52 
50 
49 
48 
46 




k 



■E 



I 



4 

12 



a m 

m 



Planetary 

conflgiirations 

and other 

phenomena 

Moon passes Mars. 

Moon passes Baturn. 



Positions 
Planets 

Sun 

Mercury 

Venus 

Mars 

lupiter 

Saturn 

Uranus 

Neptune 



and 



of Sun 
on Dec 1 

Constellation 

Scorpio 
Sagittarius 
Libra 

Capricomns 
Taurus 
Aquarius 
Sagittarius 
Gemini 



3Dth. 12 
6am 
3am 

Meteor Showers 

Date Radiant Meteors 

Ursa Major swift 



4 
6 

10-12* 
25 



Taurus 
Gemini 
Gemini 



Moon farthest from 
Earth. 7th, 5 p m,' 

Moon nearest the 
Earth, 23d, 5 p m. 



For intermediate 

add 2d 20h 49m. 



2am Mercury stationary. 

Venus enters Scorpio. 
10 p m Mercury crosses Ecliptic, 
lam Moon passes Jupiter. 
10th, 5pm Venus passes Beta Scorpil. 
10th, S p m Moon occnTfi Aldebaran. 
10 a m Moon highest— passes Neptune. 
12 m Mercury nearest Sun, 
5pm Mercury passes Sun. 

Sun enters Sagltfarins. 
Mars near Delta Capricorbl. 



Mars enters Aauarius. 
9pm Mercury near Venus. 
7am Sun enters GapricOrnus falgn). 
1pm Moon occulta Gamma Librae. 
1pm Moon passes Mercury. 
11 p m Mars Jmlsms SaturtL 
Sam ^rood lowest. 
26th, 2pm Uranus passes Sun. 

Venus enters Saglttaiius. 

a m Moon passes Saturn. 

Moon passes Mars. 

Neptune 180 Degrees from Sun. 

M'g Stan E't stars 
Mercury Mercury 

(after 15th) (until ISth) 
Venus Mara 

Uranus Jupiter 

(after a6th) Saturn 
Uranus 
(until mh) 
Neptnne 
Polaris is North 
Time 
1 48am SiSpra 
8 12 8 10 
7 83 7 31 
6 53 6 51 

dates For intermediate datea 

add llh 58m. 



bright 
sWlft 
V. slow 



Minima of Algol 




Date 


Time 


When 
Date 


Dec 9 

18 


11 28 a m 
1 65 a m 


Dec 1 

10 


26 


4 22 p m 


2D 
30 



52 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

DECEMBER. 

NOHTH— This is decidedly a winter month and farm work 
soon settles into the winter routine of caring for stock, hauling 
and sawing wood, marketing crops, carting manure, etc. Close 
attention should be given tender plants. A little neglect for only 
one night in cold December weather may spoil all the hard la- 
bor of spring and fall. Extra vigilance is required and strong 
fires in the greenhouses must be kept up during the night. In 
greenhouses, if the night starts out very cold, it is weli to set 
plants under the benches or on the walks, and as far as possible 
remove them from cold places. Paper thrown lightly over the 
tops may save injury. Grapevines and raspberries may be laid 
down as near the ground as possible and covered with a rough 
Utter or leaves or even a few inches of soil. Strawberries 
should be mulched. Protect spinach, kale and strawberries with 
a light covering where needed. Prepare compost and tend to 
hotbeds. Snow which accumulates on cold frames or green- 
houses should be removed. During bad weather hotbed mats 
may be made, sashes mended and tools repaired. Every farmer 
should spend more time In reading, that he may keep up with 
the times. 

SOUTH— Strip tobacco. Replenish the wood pile, for the 
cold weather now is sure to follow. Do not forget your live 
stock; they need constant attention at this time. See that they 
are snugly housed. Oats in the far south may be sown yet this 
month. Clean up new land and plow if possible. The improve- 
ment of buildings should receive attention. Fruit trees may 
still be planted and most varieties, except peaches, may be 
pruned and put in shape. More onion sets may be planted. 
Celery is earthed up and bleached. Sow cabbage for winter 
heading. Transplant October sown plants. Peas may be sown 
for spring use. As is the case with the northern farmer, more 
reading should be done. Make your plans for the coming year, 
and see that your plans go through. 

DIRECT T.EGISI^ATION. 

Oregon is^ the only state as yet to put direct legislation into 
practice, although Utah and South Dakota both have direct leg- 
islation amendments to their constitutions. Last June two 
statutes, one for direct primaries and one for liquor local op- 
tion, were enacted there, as allowed by the initiative and ref- 
erendum amendment to the constitution, by direct vote of the 
people, without the intervention of legislature. The initiative 
means the proposal of a law by a percentage of the voters, 
which must then go to the referendum, which means the vote 
at the polls on a law proposed through the initiative, or on any 
law-making body, whose reference is petitioned for by a per- 
centage of the voters. The referendum protects the citizens 
from bad laws which the legislature might enact. 



TBAR BOOK AND AL.MANAC 

The Weather 



53 




BlMk Trit^lar WhntFlaffvHb 
^U« tqiart la 





CoMWm. 



FLAG SIGNALS OF WEATHER BUREAU. 

No. 1— Clear or fair weather. 

No. 2— Rain or snow. 

No. 3— Local rain or snow. 

No. 4— Temperature; placed above 1, 2, 8, indicates warm 
weather; placed below, cold weather; no display, stationary 
temperature. 

No. 5— A cold wave or sudden fall in temperature. 

A special storm flag, red with black square in center, is 
prescribed for use in North Dakota, South Dakota. Minnesota, 
Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming. Montana, Colorado, Kansas, Indian 
Territory, Oklahoma and Texas to indicate high winds accom- 
panied with snow. 

When the signs are displayed on poles, the signals should be 
arranged 'to read downward. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS DURING CROP SEASON OF 1904. 



The amounts of precipitation for the crop season of 1904, 
from March 1 to October 3, were much below the average rec- 
ord in the Atlantic coast districts south of New England, and 
generally throughout the southern states, except in the ex- 
treme soilth of Florida and parts of Texas. There was also 
a general deficiency in northern Iowa and Illinois, throughout 
the greater part of the upper Missouri valley, and on the north 
Pacific coast. Generally throughout the middle and southern 
Pacific coast states, in the country from the central and south- 
ern Rocky mountain region eastward over the lower Missouri 
valley with a narrow extension into Indiana and Ohio, and over 
most of Minnesota, Wisconsin and New England, the seasonal 
precipitation was in excess of the average. 

During this period, the states of Kansas and Missouri re- 
ceived the worst wetting down, the rainfall over the greatest 
portion of these states exceeding 40 inches. In the districts 
bordering on this area of excessive moisture, thence southward 



54 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST YEAR BOOK 

over the lower Mississippi valley, the whole of the gulf coast, 
in Florida and the greater portion o( the Carolinas, the rainfall 
measured from 24 to over 36 inches. Much of New England, lim- 
ited districts in the upper Ohio valley, Michigan and Minnesota, 
and on the northern and central Pacific coast, received 24 to 
30 inches of rainfall. The semi-arid regions of interior and 
southern CuHfornia. most of Nevada and lower Ariaona, and 
parts of Utah, as well as parts of Oregon and Montana, were 
visited by the lightest fall of rain, from 2 to 6 inches. Eastw|ird 
of this area until the 105th meridlAQ 1$ reached the rainfall for 
the season was 6 to 12 inches. 

, There was a deficiency in temperature during the crop sea- 
son over most of the districts east of the Rooky mountains, the 
exceptions being limited portions of the Atlantic ooast states, 
larger areas in the eastern gulf states, and practically the entire 
western gulf region. In the central valleys and upper lake re- 
gion there were departures from the normal temperature 
amounting to from 1 to 3 degrees per day. Over the southern 
portions of the country there was an excess In temperature, 
but not large, being not more than 1 degree per day, and for 
the most part not that. Limited areas of deficient temperature 
occurred in the Rooky mountains and on the north Paoiflc coast, 
but west of the Rockies the seasonal departures were generally, 
though slightly, in excesE. 

The maps on the three following pages show clearly each of 
these weather conditions here described during the crop season. 

APPROPRIATIONS BY CONGRESS FOR SIX YEARS, 

1898-1903, 
[In round millions. 1 

1898 1899 1906"~1901 1 902 1903 

Defloienoies $8.5 $847.1 $46.8 $13.7 $iO $24^9 

Legislative, executive, judicial.. 21.6 21.6 23.3 24.1 24.5 25.3 

Sundry civil :M.3 a3,9 39.3 49.5 54.5 54.3 

Support of army 23,1 23.1 80,4 114.2 116.7 91.7 

Naval service ;.. 33,0 56.0 48,0 61.1 78.1 78.8 

Indian service 7.6 7.6 7.5 8.1 9.7 8.9 

Rivers and harbors 19.2 14.4 25.1 16.1 7.0 82.5 

Forts and fortifications 9,5 9.3 4.9 7.3 7.3 7,2 

Military academy 4 .4 .6 .6 ,7 3.6 

Pensions 141.2 141.2 145.2 145.2 146.2 139.8 

Consular and diplomatic 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 

Agricultural department 3.1 8.5 3.7 4.0 4.6 6.2 

District of Columbia 6,1 6.4 6.8 7.6 8.6 8.5 

Miscellaneous 1.1 6.0 28.7 8.2 7.9 4.0 

Total $3 11.1 $673.0 $46 2.5 $467.1 %m^ $486^4 

The appropriations for the postoffloe department are Indeft- 
nlte, and are therefore not given. 



58 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 
HIRED HELP ON THE FARM. 



"Help Is just like produce— the best will bring the best prices 
in any market, and if a farmer is not willing: to pay good 
wages, men will go elsewhere." So says a successful farmer 
and his sentiments are voiced by all other farmers of his class. 
One and all agree that with the competition of the city factories, 
where men can get employment the year round at good wages, 
and without toiling from early dawn till after dark, farmers 
must strive to offer better inducements. 

There Is no occupation in which men and women can so 
easily save all their wages as working on an American farm, 
with room and board provided. These wages quickly accumu- 
late if properly invested, and it will not take many years for 
the hired man to become an owner. But the only way for a man 
to learn farming and insure success is by farming out. 

The best way to get good help or for people to get good po- 
sitions is through a little advertisement in The Help Bureau of 
the American Agriculturist weeklies. The cost is only 4 cents 
per word in Orange Judd Farmer of Chicago, 5 cents in Ameri- 
can Agriculturist at New York, and 4 cents in The New England 
Homestead, at Springfield, Mass., these papers covering the re- 
spective sections. 

STATE FREE EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS. 



Connecticut— New Haven, 39 
Church St.; Hartford, 59 Trum- 
bull St.; Bridgeport, 1005 Broad 
St.; Norwich, 43 Broadway; 
Waterbury, 36 North Main St. 

Illinois— Chicago, 429 Wabash 
Ave., 234 Chicago Ave., corner 
Canal and Randolph Sts. ; Pe- 
oria, corner South Adams and 
Liberty Sts. 

Kansas— Topeka, State House; 
Kansas City, 4 City Hall. 

Maryland — Baltimore, 110 
West Saratoga St. 

Minnesota— Duluth, 407 West 
Michigan St. 

Missouri — St. Louis, 813% 
Chestnut St.; Kansas City, 207 
Nelson Bldg.; St. Joseph. 429 
Francis St. 

Montana— Butte, City Hall; 
Kallspcl. 

Nebraska — Lincoln, State 
Capitol. 

New York— New York City, 
107 East 31st St. 

Ohio — Cleveland, Arcade 
Bldg. ; Columbus, corner Broad 



and High Sts.; Cincinnati, 206 
West Seventh St. ; Dayton, cor- 
ner Fifth and Main Sts.; To- 
ledo, Chamber of Commerce. 

West Virginia— Wheeling, 143 
16th St. 

Wisconsin— Milwaukee, 153 
Second St.; Superior, 903-903% 
Tower Ave. 

Ohio was the first state In 
the union to realize the bene- 
fits to be derived from state 
employment offices. In 1890 of- 
fices were established in each 
of the five cities named above, 
and these have been conduct- 
ed ever since that date with 
most satisfactory results. No 
compensation or fee is charged 
or received, directly or Indi- 
rectly, from persons applying 
for employment or help 
through any such bureau in 
any state where bureaus are 
established. All expenses of 
the bureaus arc paid oy the 
state. 



i 



TBAR BOOR AND ALMANAC 59 

Commercial Agriculture 

Markets and Marketing 



Three crops alone grown in the United States in 1904, 
corn, cotton and wheat, had an aggregate value of two 
billion dollars. Further billions are represented in other 
farm products, field and orchard crops, live stock, output of 
the dairy, etc. In nearly a billion and a half dollars of mer- 
chandise exported from our coasts each year, approximately 
two-thirds come from the soil. The farming industry is thus 
the basis of the national wealth and prosperity. 

The six million farms scattered over our broad land rep- 
resent the partners, the brotherhood, in this great enterprise 
of producing not only enough for home requirements, but 
the ever liberal surplus, mounting into the hundreds of 
millions dollars, for export to less fortunate nations. This 
graphic showing of just what the business of farming 
amounts to, suggests at once that farmers should be busi- 
ness men. 

The subject of Commercial Agriculture includes in a 
large way this whole question of markets and marketing. 
It is, after all, as important as the understanding of crop 
productions. In these days of sharp competition, it is very 
necessary that the agriculturist should not only know how 
to raise a crop, but should know how to dispose of it so as 
to get the most profit as a result of money and labor in- 
vested. It is not our purpose to speak here of the gain 
secured through converting grain and hay crops into beef, 
pork and mutton, or milk into dairy products, etc.; rather 
to portray the various methods of handling and marketing 
farm products in the raw or original state. 



APPROVED MARKETING FORMS IN VOGUE. 

Methods of moving farm products from the producer tO 
the consumer have shown radical changes in the last geni^r- 
atldn, although the course now followed is much the same 
as for a year or two past. There is still the very simple 
plan of marketing farm produce in the way of peddling it 



60 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

from wagons to the doors of consumers in villages, towns 
and cities. While this method is one much employed by 
small farmers, gardeners and fruit growers, it can at times 
be profitably followed on a scale of considerable magnitude 
if the business is carefully and thoroughly developed, even 
though from* a small beginning. Innumerable families in 
all of our centers of population who are entirely dependent 
upon purchases for food supplies, are more than willing to 
secure an important part direct from producers. They de- 
mand strictly fresh and sound produce, however, and for 
such are usually willing to pay full market rates. In many 
instances families will be willing to pay a little more for 
something especially nice, rather than buy a product a little 
less desirable at the store even at a lower figure. 

One thing is sure. Whatever is offered to consumers 
diiect from the farmer's wagon must be first-class in every 
respect, attractive in appearance and sound and sweet in 
quality. A mistake often made is, presuming that the 
average housekeeper will pay a big bonus to get fresh 
country stock. She is willing to pay a full price, but that 
is all; in securing this the producer, as a rule, should be 
satisfied, because he saves all the middlemen's charges and 
it is usually a quick trade with immediate and profitable 
returns. 

A second method of disposing of farm produce is to sell 
to a local grocer or marketman. This has some advantages, 
but like the first named can, as a rule, be carried on only 
in a limited way. Not infrequently the local retailer with 
an established family trade can handle the product of the 
small farmer and gardener to mutual advantage. 

The farmer who produces on a larger scale can sell his 
grain, live stock, wool, poultry, eggs, fruits, vegetables, etc., 
direct to a local buyer, who in turn has his established outlet 
at distant large points of consumption and distribution, and 
after accumulating a carload or more from various farmers, 
ships as market conditions warrant. 

A merit of this plan is the securing of a known price 
for the goods without special risk of loss through dishonest 
consignee or the annoyance and expense of express, freight 
or commission charges. And a positive drawback is the fact 
that this local middleman must take out a considerable 
profit to himself in order to stand shrinkage in his net 
returns through decline of market between the time of buy- 
ing from the producer and selling at the distant city, 
deterioration or loss of the produce while in transit, etc. 
Therefore, granted a local buyer takes your grain, live hogs, 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 61 

poultry. or potatoes, it is reasonable to presume that he is 
getting a fairly large slice of the middleman's profits, 

A fourth method of selling produce is shipping to cus- 
tomers, at distant points, previously secured, perhaps 
through working up a trade from small beginnings. In 
many instances this is a favorite and successful method, 
especially where the farmer has taken pains to establish 
a reputation for fine quality goods and honest pack and 
count. 

COMMISSION MERCHANTS— CO-OPERATIVE SELLING. 

Another long-established and highly regarded method 
through which farm produce is sold is the commission mer- 
chant, who handles by far the greater part of the farmer^ 
surplus. This is true of perishable products, such as fruits 
and vegetables, and perhaps less so of poultry^ eggs and 
hay. As for grain, live stock, etc., while they are frequently 
sold by the farmer direct to country buyers, they subse- 
quently pass through the hands of commission merchants 
in the big cities before being finally distributed in the 
various channels of trade. The tendency in this age is to. 
eliminate, so far as possible, the toll exacted by the middle-' 
man. But the day has not yet come when the commission 
merchant is unnecessary. 

Co-operative buying and co-operative selling are suc- 
cessful in a small way, and there is an important future for 
this economy. But the farmer of to-day, in facing the 
practical problems of how to get the most out of his prod- 
uce, is obliged to depend very largely upon commission 
merchants. 

While co-operative buying and selling are not very gen- 
erally employed, as just intimated, the fact remains that 
this is a field of the greatest usefulness. The co-operative 
movement has long been very much at the front in England 
and on the continent of Europe. A few very successful co- 
operative societies have held a place in marketing farm 
produce in this country; others have been inaugurated, but 
have fallen short of expectations, due largely to poor man- 
agement. In this connection it would be interesting and 
helpful to Individuals and to localities to secure and study 
thoroughly Myrick's book. How to Co-operate, published by 
Orange Judd Company, price $1, prepaid. 

Commission merchants are always found in the trade 
centers, where buyefrs are looking for needed services of 
this character; they understand the wants of the trad« 



62 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

better than the single individual who is perhaps 50 or 500 
miles distant. Through long experience and the development 
and evolution of business methods, the commission mer- 
chant is in a position to secure the quickest distribution of 
such produce as is consigned to him, getting all there is in 
the market for the consignor. In a large sense, he is the 
agent for the producer and shipper, standing for their best 
interests, and for his compensation in a way of commission 
charges endeavors to do for the countryman what the latter 
could not do for himself. 

While the commission merchant is theoretically the 
agent for the producer and shipper, too often he has moved 
away from the original plan and is practically a dealer or 
middleman. Here is one of the weakest phases In this whole 
proposition of handling farm produce on commission. It is 
something which has developed year by year, and never 
more in evidence than the past 12 months. A great many 
so-called Cbmmission merchants practically sell to them- 
selves the produce which they receive from the country 
shipper; then in turn they resell this at an advance to out- 
siders, thus securing an advantage which does not appear 
on the surface. 

This great power to make or mar the profit side of the 
farmer's ledger only emphasizes the necessity of securing an 
honest and capable commission merchant. That many are 
absolutely dishonest is a fact too well known to need fur- 
ther comment here. That many, while technically honest 
and ready to pay their bills, yet are tricky and more than 
willing to engage in sharp practices with the country ship- 
per, is also too true. The black sheep in the flock, however, 
cannot long hide their color, and it should be the endeavor 
of everyone having dealings with such to publish to the 
world these trickeries. Per contra, is the necessity of deal- 
ing with reliable commission merchants, and once secured, 
stick to them until there Is good reason for change. A com- 
mon method of tricky commission merchants is to send out 
specious circular letters claiming to secure more than full 
market prices, usually quoting the various commodities at 
figures higher than anyone can possibly get. They thus se- 
cure consignments from the country, make any sort of 
return they wish, and if complaint is made pretend the 
goods were short in weight or measure, or damaged in qual- 
ity, and pocket the difference, the consignor 99 times out of 
100 being absolutely powerless to even trace the dishonesty, 
although he is morally certain that a wicked fraud has 
been done. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 63 

FARMERS SHOULD MASTER MARKET CONDITIONS. 

The commission merchant of integrity who does the best 
he can for his customer finds it at times impossible to give 
complete satisfaction, through no fault of his own. This 
is particularly true with regard to perishable produce which 
must be handled quickly, and where price changes are liable 
to be rapid and violent. Country shippers are often misled 
through failure to fully understand true values and market 
quotations. While these may and should properly portray 
the situation when published, conditions may be entirely 
changed at the time the prospective shipper reads them. 

Quotations governing the market at a certain hour of 
the day may be entirely at variance with conditions six 
hours later. For example, early morning prices for a given 
commodity may rule high, owing to an apparent scarcity, 
but later trains may so swell the receipts as to make a posi- 
tive glut on the market, forcing dealers to sell at much 
lower prices than those originally obtained, in order to pre- 
vent worse loss. 

Another feature of selling through commission mer- 
chants too often leads to misunderstandings and disappoint- 
ment. The . farmer who studies the market report finds 
peaches quoted at 50 to 75 cents per basl%et, or dressed fowls 
8 to 10 cents per pound, or choice beef steers $5.50 to $6 per 
100 pounds. He at once assumes his property ranks with 
the best and expects that returns will show outside quo- 
tations were secured. He fails to realize that his own prod- 
uce must take its place with an enormoug quantity from 
all sections, and that what might appear strictly choice at 
home would grade far below that when placed by the side 
of the best consignments on the market on a given day, and 
naturally he should not expect that his goods will always 
command outside quotations. 

GRADING AND PACKING COUNT FOR MUCH. 

Requisite allowance must be made for quality, realizing 
that even for sound stock there are several prices obtained. 
This suggests the wisdom first of all of making your produce 
as choice as possible before offering it on the market, and, 
furthermore, grading it properly; do not mix inferior stuff 
with strictly choice, even though the latter largely predomi- 
nates, because the result will be an unsatisfactory lowering 
of the. average price. The shipment of farm produce, espe- 
cially perishable goods, is always a matter of considerable 



64 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

uncertainty, and it naturally follows that trustworthy 
agents be selected to do the .selling, and, furthermore, that 
the fanner and shipper be well posted regarding market 
conditions. 

COST OF MARKETING FARM PRODUCE. 

In markets of any size and importance, this includes 
such items as freight and express charges, storage, demur- 
rage, cartage, weighing, inspection and commissions, but 
not necessarily all of these. Uniformity of charges in the 
different marlfets is quite lacking, although goods which 
quitkly deteriorate in keeping quality are obliged to pay a 
heavier rate than others. The market must be big enough 
and broad enough to take care of any usual supply of per- 
ishable goods, and, so far as that is concerned, of a supply 
which for the time being may be even greater than usual. 

Such perishable produce as fruits, vegetables, poultry, 
butter, eggs, etc., must be handled expeditiously, and must 
stand greater charges in proportion for selling than grain, 
liv^e stock, wool, etc. From the time the goods leave the 
country shipping station until returns are made and check 
received, several charges must be borne. On goods sent to 
a distant town or city to be sold on commission, the railroad 
or vessel freight is always charged up; next comes cartage 
from wharf or depot to salesroom or warehouse. Goods not 
to be sold immediately, but held for a time in order to catch 
a better market, must as a rule pay storage and sometimes 
insurance. 

Rates of commission are usually in the way of percent- 
age on gross amount of money received from the sale of the 
goods. Some loss must be expected in the, way of deterio- 
ration, breakage and other occasional charges, although the 
latter are infrequent. If unusual work is required in connec- 
tion with handling the commodity, a charge is made. Iced 
poultry which has come from a distance is re-iced in 
transit and this is often true of other highly :.>erishable 
stuff. If placed in cold storage for a season, there is of 
course a charge made. Live poultry, when sent in coops to 
be returned, is sometimes subject to a small charge for 
handling the empties. 

The following table shows the usual cost of cartage in the 
cities named and affords a fair average of these items in all 
wholesale markets. Such cost is added to freight and ex- 
press charges paid by the commission merchant, and charged 
up against the country shipper, before making any returns 
accompanied by check or draft. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 65 

CARTAGE DEPOT OR DOCK TO WAREHOUSE IN CENTS. 



^ I 35 I I I 3 I 

• I SS -o 5 2 ^- * 



Butter, p tub 3@5 5 3 5 — 2'&'2i^ 2»^^3 6 

Eggrs, p case 3@5 3 3@7 2 — 2^^m 2®3 5 

Poultry, p pkg 5@10 5@10 5(§)8 5 — 'lO 3@5 25 

Hides, p 100 lbs t2 2%(g)4 10 5 — 4@6 4 2%@3 

Apples, p bbl 5@10 5 5@7 3 b 5 4(Q)6 5(@8 

Oranges, p box 5 3 4(g)5 2 2@3 2^ 3^/^(5)4 4 

Dried ITr'ts, p 100 lbs 5 5@8 lo — — — — 2%@3 

Potatoes, p bbl 5^ 2 2^2% 2 — 1@>2 2'?i'2V& 2% 

Onions, p bbl..." 5 5—325 6 2V^ 

Fresh veg, p pkg...3@7% 5(^8 3@10 — 5 — — 2^ 

Veal calves, each.. 10 _ 10 — — 3(5)8 3(96 2%@4 

Wool, p 100 lbs 3#5 — 5 3 — 1(8)2 4 4@5 

•? bbl. tP hide. 

RATES OF COMMISSION. 

These vary greatly, but unless subject to special ar- 
rangement are usually 5 to 10% on perishable produce. 
Where potatoes are sold by the carload at a 5% rate, the 
commission per car is usually understood to be not less than 
110, otherwise 10% on amount of sale. The commission on 
apples is 5 to 15% in carloads; in some instances a fixed rate 
of about 15 cents per barrel is made, and when jobbed from 
the car, an additional charge of 3 to 5 cents per barrel for 
cartage is usually charged to country consignor. If apples 
are placed in cold storage, this means a charge of 25 to 50 
cents per barrel for the season, from October to May, or 
about 10 cents per month per barrel for short storage. 
In the season of 1904-5 the full charge is generally 40 cents. 

When sent to cold storage, eggs usually pay 35 to 40 
cents per case of 30 dozen for the season of six months, or 
10 cents per case per month for short storage. In warm 
weather a charge is frequently made of 10 cents per case for 
candling, work which must necessarily be repeated in the 
course of a few weeks, unless the eggs are sold in the mean- 
time. During the season of candling, the loss through bad 
eggs runs from one-half dozen, which would be called first- 
class, to about two dozen per case of 40 dozen or occasion- 
ally higher. 

Wool commission charges are not uniform, nor yet 
greatly different in the end, taking one market with another. 



66 AMERICAN AQRICULTURIST 

Commissions are 1 to 1V6 cents per pound but due to compe- 
tition among brokers are often somewhat shaded. Charges 
outside of freights and commissions include such items as 
cartage, storage, interest on money advanced, etc. In Bos- 
ton, cartage about 8 cents per bag, storag^e not charged usu- 
ally, but if long held about 6 cents per bag per month, inter- 
est 6% per annum on advances. New York, cartage 5 cents 
per 100 pounds, and if wool is ifehandled for closer grading, 
a charge is sometimes made of % cent per pound, but this ia 
seldom an item of expense. Chicago, cartage 6 cents per 
bag, commission 1 cent per pound, this usually coverihgr the 
charges for grading, weighing, etc. San Francisco, cartage 
10 cents per bale, storage per month 15 cents per bale, insur* 
ance per month 20 cents on each $100, com^misslon ^ cent per 
pound, interest on advances rate of 10%. 

In the subjoined table, the commission charges at various 
points apply as a rule to relatively small lots; business in a 
large way often being conducted at special rates according 
to previous agreement. 

ACTUAL COMMISSIONS CHARGED FOR HANDLING. 



»i»i»**i >— ^^ifcw Y bI I* ■■— ■.■ ■■■■.■ - ■ ■ — ...■- ^,1 - ■ ■ , ■ - - ■ • — -■ — - . - - i**- "% J ITT 



^ S ^ I 

I I SS 3 « S ^ 1^ 

^ fiQ ^io, o o m t/a 

% % '% % '% ""%" * * 

Butter 555 10 5555 

Eggs 5 5 5 10 5 5 5 6 

Poultry 555 10 5655 

Hides 2®3 5 6 5 5 5 6 a^@)6 

Apples 10 20cbbl5@10 8(3)10 10(^15 5@10 6 8 

Oranges 8(5)10 8 10 8(^10 10 10 10 8 

Small fruits 5(S)10 8 10 7(5)10 10 10 10 8 

Dried fruits 5^)10 4@)10 5 5@10 10 5 5 5 ' 

Potatoes 5@10 8 7#10 10 5c bu 5(9)10 5 5 

Onions 10 8 7@10 10 10@15 5#10 B 6 

Fresh vegetables ...5@10 5(g)8 10 10 10 10 10 8 

Veals 5 30c 5 — 5 5 10 2m 

Wool Iclb Iclb 5 Iclb — lo lb 5 2% 

HOW TO MAKE A CHOICE OF A BROKER. 

Due care should be exercised in the selection of a Com- 
mission merchant or broker. In cities of any considerable 
importance, and in many of the large towns, honorable mem- 
bers of this class of traders can always be found. If en- 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 9ft 

tirely unacquainted, your local banker may be able to fur- 
nish you some particulars about the standing of individual 
commission concerns; and if any of the mercantile agencies, 
such as Bradstreet or Dun, is available, much more can be 
learned, although none of these instrumentalities can always 
know to a certainty whether a business house is inclined to 
be tricky even though the same may have a bank account 
and pay its bills promptly. 

RATES FOR HANDLING CAR LOTS. 

Goods sold on track in full cars naturally exact a smaller 
bill of expense than where handled in a small way, commis- 
sion rates ranging usually from 2% to 5%; this" applies par- 
ticularly to such articles as apples, potatoes, etc. Demurrage 
is a charge made by railroads for the delay or detention of 
cars beyond the time usually allowed for loading and unload- 
ing; 48 hours is usually considered the proper time for this 
work. Perishable goods are of course promptly withdrawn 
and distributed. In New York, such goods as hides, dried 
fruits, etc., are charged $1 per day per car after the first 48 
hours. In Philadelphia, the demurrage on apples or potatoes 
Is $2 per car, and on poultry in barrels 25 cents per package. 
In such western points as Columbus, Chicago, Cincinnati 
and St. Louis, the rate is about $1 per car per day, while In 
San Francisco as high as $3 per day is charged. These reg- 
ulations are not ironclad, however, but subject to the will 
of transportation companies, depending upon the favor they 
care to show shippers, and in many Instances are not en- 
forced. 

THE QUESTION OF SHRINKAGE 

is a difficult one to handle. Butter will frequently show a 
loss of one pound to the tub, poultry one pound or more to 
100 pounds originally shipped, hides fully 3%, oranges, fresh 
fruits and vegetables 5 to 20%, dried fruits 1 to 2%. Dressed 
veal shrinks two to four pounds per carcass, and there is 
sometimes a shrinkage of 2 to 4% in wool for the first month. 
If the car is tight and the weights correct at point of 
shipment, there ought to be little shrinkage in grain, either 
in bulk or sacked. The shrinkage in weight in cattle, hogs 
and sheep is considerable. Irrespective of frequent loss 
through overloading, resulting in serious injury or death of 
one or more animals. This natural loss in weight, however, 
is made up wholly or in part by liberal feeding and watering 
of live stock at point of sale Just before going on the scales 
to be weighed. 



<S AMIDBIOAN AORICULTUBIBT 

The Grain Trade 

ITS INS AND OUTS IN WORLD'S MARKET PLACES. 

The United States longr since took its place as a surplus 
country in the production of the great cereal crops. This is 
true all along the line. We produce much more wheat than 
is needed for home consumption, and the surplus is available 
for export in the form of both wheat and flour. The wheat 
crop of 1904 was far short of a full one, but in years of liberal 
production like that of the two preceding seasons we can 
easily spare 200,000,000 bushels wheat for foreign mouths. 
Most of the grain Js consumed in the countries, where grown, 
if export trade is normally large. Foreigners want our oats 
when the prl<le Is low, and there Is always more or less ex- 
port trade in other grains, and in field seeds. Of course, 
after all, the home market is the best. 

What interests the American farmer isr the widest char- 
acter in the demand for our surplus, whether from home or 
foreign sources. There is always this important surplus for 
home requirements to dispose of. This is true of the local or 
village market, which will absorb a large part of the garden 
crop of a single community; it is so in the larger sense of 
country wide production and distribution of grain, and live 
Stock, and cotton. In the single instance of our cereal crops 
sucU enormous quantities are placed on the markets of the 
world that it is important producers should understand some 
of the methods it^ vogue in handling these^farm products. 
The grain trade is divided primarily into two divisions, the 
cash and the speculative branches. These are in many in- 
stances so closely related and interwoven that it is frequent- 
ly impossible to tell Just where the legitimate crosses the 
line into purely speculative channels. Furthermore, the 
transactions in the actual property are frequently influenced 
by the position of the speculative markets, these at times 
going far to control fluctuations from day to day. But in 
the main, the irrefragable law of supply and demand holds 
sway. 

THE MAKING OF THE PRICE LEVER. 

That the price of a commodity is higher or lower to-day 
than it was yesterday, or will be to-morrow, is due to a 
multiplicity of influences. A factor of the highest impor- 
tance and greatest force, at one time, may be relegated to 
the background at another and be apparently of no coiMie- 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 69 

quence. Again, influences legritimate in every sense, and 
which would ordinarily leave their impress on values, are at 
times arbitrarily set aside by something entirely unexpected 
and unforeseen, but which for the moment wields great 
power. This general fact is much more true of such farm 
crops as the leading cereals, where speculation is greatly in 
evidence, than of such products as have no part in specula- 
tion, for various reasons — live stock, poultry and fruits and 
vegetables, either perishable in nature, or of such a charac- 
ter as to preclude any thought of bargaining and sale for 
future delivery in the truly speculative sense. 

Probably in no product of agriculture are so many influ- 
ences forceful in moving values up and down as in wheat; 
and this is here taken as an example portraying these things. 
Factors other than supply and demand include such as crop 
conditions at home and abroad, the foreign situation, politi- 
cal disturbances, either in this or foreign countries, tariff 
or other national legislation, forces exhibited by the concen- 
trated capital daily enlisted in speculation, and last but by 
no means least, sentiment. Daily fluctuations in the price 
of grain, making their impress upon every bushel the farmer 
has to sell, and often upon other crops not. yet seeded, are 
first registered on the big exchanges of this country and 
Europe. 

Strange as it may seem to those who have not given the 
subject particular study, England and western Europe large- 
ly control the price of grain throughout the world. The 
United States, Russia, Argentina, India, Australia, etc. — 
countries which ordinarily produce more than they can con- 
sume — pour their surplus into that great industrial territory 
indicated. England, Germany, the Netherlands, etc., natu- 
rally buy where they can get the goods cheapest. With the 
surplus countries of the world looking to western . Europe 
for an outlet, it is therefore not strange that London, Ant- 
werp and Berlin have much to do with determining the price 
the Dakota farmer will get for his wheat, or the Kansas 
farmer for his corn. 

THE WORLD'S BEST CUSTOMER. 

Of the entire world's crops of cereals, only 7 to 10% are 
exported from the countries where grown, the remainder 
being consumed at home. But, as most of this surplus, enor- 
mous when measured in bushels, looks to England and a 
few European countries for an outlet, the latter have a very 
powerful voice in shaping values. This means in effect that 



to AlrfERiCAl^ AGRlCliLTUili^ 

ih the lohg run the ^aih tharltGts are mdde very \A¥JS&y 
!n the cohsliming countries of westel-h Bul*op^, Which iafe 
ehdblea Ih a flegtee to dictate to the rest 6t the Wdfld what 
they Shall pay; bUt not always in seasons c>f g6ft§httl cfop 
shortages. 

SHAPING INFLUENCES IN GRAIN PRICES. 

A hiimber of Influences, varying In their pbwef*, tti&y 
aiWa^s be depended upon to shape grain prlCes. tf tHSfe 
IS a crop shortag:e, either at hortie or abroad, this t^hdS to 
strengthen the market, and so with the conditloh df Ihe 
g:i'dWihg and niatui'lng crop. If the winter wh^at arfea goes 
iiito the ground in rather pbot* condition, with libsslBlSr k 
decreksed acreage, the fact is ifiade the most of; if it is SiiB- 
jected to a haM winter, pierhaps with alternkte tHaW Arid 
f revise in February and Mat-ch, this is cohdiiciivfe tb cf6p 
scares and higher prices. Then there is a possibility 5f daifl- 
age later In the §ea^on through droUth, insect pefets or early 
ftostis in the autiimfi prior to full maturity. The pofeitibh of 
stocks, both in sight and coinprislhg what is kndwh M§ the 
"visible supply," and the indeterminable amount alwkys In 
farmers' hands, are always closely watdhed by opfefatdrs, fth 
apipareht partial exhaustion serving ks k stithiiius, and a 
plethora as a deterrent. Occasional threatenlngs of war in 
Europe, suggestive of disturbances to farmihg bt^erations 
there, are usually favorable to higher prices. 

The exJ)ort movement of grain and flour iS alWays dlos^- 
ly watched, and if large, favors highfei* prices. In this saiHe 
cohnedtion, repotted shott stocks in foreign coUntrlefe afe 
alsb helpful. In addition to all the^e influenceis nkm@Q, 
siiecUlatlve manipulation of the markets, sometimes d^VfelOlJ- 
Ing into positive corners, and conducted by Shrewd tiibrieyed 
operktors, whO perhaps ignore in a degree rekl legitiiHate 
elements, at times fOrdes prides mktferially higher. 

The convet-se is true in a generkl way in influencing the 
grain markets toward k loWet level. H^avy crot)s at hdtfie, 
either present or prospective, the accumulation df a llb^fkl 
surplus, the recognition of big farm reserves. So with heavy 
yields abro&d, Whidh ^Ithet* feflude the necessities of import- 
ing countries, or perhaps increase the exportable surplus of 
countries which compete in the world's markets \VilH the 
United States. Wheh the markets are dull it is an eapy 
mktter for bearish speculators to depress pricesj through a 
littl§ vigbtdUs selling; because at such times other Operators, 
ev§h thdugTi favorable to higher prices, refuse to offef Sub- 
part, dWlhg t§ lack Qt iteah bUyirig ift^ehtlte. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 71 

HANDLING THE ACTUAL GRAIN. 

Thus an incalculable number of influences, some of them 
purely speculative, are always at work in shaping the price 
of every bushel of grain marketed day by day. And buyers 
of the actual property, either for local distribution, for mill, 
for shipment to distant points or abroad, are always largely 
dependent upon the speculative end of the market. Grain 
shipped by farmers and interior dealers to the big distribut- 
ing centers, such as Chicago, St. Louis, Minneapolis, Toledo, 
etc., is inspected and graded upon arrival. A certain propor- 
tion of it known as ''contract grades," i. e., grain good 
enough to be delivered on speculative contracts, is not imme- 
diately offered on the open market, perhaps going to All 
sales previously made, or sent to public warehouses for 
later disposal. 

SELLING BY SAMPLE. 

A large part of the grain is sold by sample, even though 
Inspected and graded, seller and buyer meeting on common 
ground and flxing the price according to the merits of the 
property. The big trading halls of the exchanges include 
large numbers of sample tables. Here are displayed care- 
fully drawn samples representing the average of every car 
of grain, flour, seed or mill stuffs on sale that day. Buyer 
and seller soon agree upon a price, transactions are quickly 
closed, payment is made by check, and the business is all 
done on a strictly cash basis. Farmers in our great grain 
states as a rule sell direct to dealer at country shipping 
point, but a large number in the aggregate load their own 
grain into car and ship to one of the big markets. Here the 
expenses for selling include such items as freight, inspec- 
tion, commission, and at times other features, as switching 
and demurrage charges. 

BEST FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AMERICAN GRAIN. 

Liverpool and London are great centers for handling 
American wheat and corn, vast quantities also going to con- 
tinental and other foreign ports. The grain is shipped both 
In bag and in bulk, some of the ocean vessels containing 
10,000 tons. The grain is at once unloaded and placed in 
warehouses built alongside the docks. Most of the American 
grain is sold to the foreign buyer before being shipped, and 
at a certain figure which includes freight, insurance charges, 



72 AMERICAN AORICUL.TURI8T 

etc., the trading price here being groverned very largely by 
the world's markets also. Wheat sold at $1 per bushel by 
the producer will, with railroad freights in America, ocean 
freights across the Atlantic, and various warehouse and 
brokerage charges on the English side, increase in price 
about 15 cents, or in other words will be worth 11.15 when 
it reaches the foreign miller. A very large business is done 
in London in buying and selling full cargoes or shiploads. 
Speculative trading in grain is followed extensively in Liver- 
pool, Antwerp, Berlin and Paris. 

Wheat 

DISTRIBUTING THE WORLD'S WHEAT CROPS. 

It might almost be said that there is a wheat harvest 
for every day in the year, so universal is this greatest of all 
bread staples. It is grown in every civilized portion of the 
globe, in both northern and southern hemispheres, particu- 
larly in wide stretches of the temperate zones. New Zealand 
and Chili harvest in January, Argentina, South Africa, 
Australia and Burmah in November and December. During 
the intermediate months, work of this character is going on 
in some portions of the world. The world's wheat crop now 
approximates 3000 million bushels. Of this the United States 
produces a larger proportion than any single country and is 
credited with an annual yield of 20 to 28% of the whole 
production. 

The principal wheat growers of the world are the United 
States, Russia, France, India, Austria-Hungary, Germany 
and Argentina, in about the order named. Germany, France 
and India consume most of the wheat grown within their 
own borders, the others each year have a liberal surplus, 
which is marketed, chiefly in western Europe. 

The big buyers of wheat are first and foremost, the 
United Kingdom, which raises a crop of about 55 to 65 mil- 
lion bushels annually, but requires in addition nearly 200 
millions more. Much of the continent of Europe is an im- 
porter of wheat and flour. France, while/ an enormous pro- 
ducer of wheat, is liable to require net imports each year of 
12 to 20 million bushels, and occasionally as high as 50 
millions and upward. Germany needs annual net imports 
of 25 to 50 million bushels; Belgium, 25 to 45; Holland, 12 to 
16; Italy, 20 to 40; Switzerland about 15, and others enough 
to make a grand total for all importing countries of 3&0 to 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 73 

400 miUlon bushels annually. Stated differently, the average 
weekly wheat and flour requirements of western Europe are 
equivalent to 7,000,000 bushels and upward. 

WHEAT MOVEMENT AND MARKET. 

From threshing machine and farm granary to flour mills, 
both at home and abroad, a large part of the surplus wheat 
crop rests temporarily at what are known as primary mar- 
kets. These include Chicago, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Du- 
luth, St. Louis, Toledo, Detroit, Kansas City and Peoria. 
Most of these cities are points of wheat accumulation, par- 
ticularly in winter, a time prior to the opening of cheap 
water navigation, when grain moves rapidly toward tide- 
water to be available for ocean-going vessels. The leading 
secondary or seaboard markets are New York, Boston, Phil- 
adelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, Galveston, Newport News 
and -San Francisco. At all these points extensive shipping 
interests are engaged in forwarding to foreign ports. Ex- 
ports of wheat and wheat in the form of flour vary greatly 
according to domestic supply and foreign requirements. 

THE MODERATE WHEAT CROP OP 1904. 

Due to adverse influences, which developed late in the 
season, the United States wheat crop of 1904 fell far short 
of the bumper yields of the three preceding seasons. The 
winter wheat crop was estimated at 327,489,000 bushels, 
spring 227,224,000, an aggregate .of 554,713,000 bushels. This 
may be compared with 703,500,000 bushels in 1903, 760 in 1902 
and 752 millions in 1901. 

m many respects the past season was the most remark^ 
able ever experienced in the history of the crop reporting of 
this country. Disaster and damage pursued the crop from 
seed time to .harvest. The area brought to harvest was very 
much less than that of the preceding year, this accounting 
tor most of the loss, although the rate of yield for the 
country at large was only 11% bushels to the acre, against 
nearly 13 bushels the preceding season. Part of the decrease 
In area occurred in the fall of 1903, when on account of the 
generally unfavorable conditions attending the preparation 
of the seed bed, it was not possible to plant the full acreage 
intended. An additional decrease occurred in the winter 
wheat belt, especially In the Ohio valley, as the result of 
winterkilling, and the substituting of spring crops. A fur- 



74 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



ther decrease was due to the abandonment of fields. In the 
spring wheat territory the crop was cut down sharply by 
rust, particularly in the.Dakotas and Minnesota. 

P^ARM STOCKS OF WHEAT FOR 15 YEARS. 
[U. S. department of agriculture. Amount on hand March 1.] 



Yeiir 



•Farm price. 
Bushels cents Year 



•Farm price, 
Bushels cents 



1904 133.000,000 

1903 164,000.000 

1902 174,000,000 

1901 128,000,000 

1900 159.000,000 

1899 198,000.000 

1898 121.000.000 

1897 88,000.000 

1896 123,000.000 

1895 127.000.000 

1894 137,000,000 

1893 153,000,000 



69.5 1892 171,000.000 83.9 

63.0 1891 143.000,000 83.8 

62.4 1890 156.000.000 69.8 

61.9 1889 llo.OOO.OOO 92.6 

58.4 1888 132,000,000 68.1 

58.2 1887 130.000.000 68.7 

80.8 1886 117.000.000 77.1 

71.6 1885 169,000,000 64.5 

50.9 1884 119,000,000 91.1 

49.1 1883 143,000,000 88.2 

53.8 1882 113,000,000 119.2 

62.4 



♦Average price on farms preceding December. 

IMPOIITS GRAIN. COTTON AND OTHER CROPS INTO U. S. 

[In thousands.] 







-9 


,23 

.0) 




►OB 

0) a> 


a 


1 


1 


1 


seed, 
els 


tobac- 
uunds, 


Year 
June 

Flou 




0.a 


«J3 






1 


E5 






^•5 

OS 01 




1904.. 47 




17 


171 


33 


91 


49 


10 


6 


114 


213 


31,162 


1903.. • 


1,077 


40 


137 


• 


56 


75 


8 


5 


293 


129 


34,016 


1902.. ♦ 


119 


18 


25 


• 


57 


99 


9 


6 


48 


477 


29,429 


1901.. ♦ 


600 


5 


21 


* 


171 


47 


7 


4 


143 


1,632 


26,851 


1900.. • 


317 


2 


41 


* 


190 


67 


7 


3 


144 


67 


20.619 


1899.. ♦ 


1,871 


4 


12 


« 


110 


50 


6 


4 


20 


82 


14,035 


1898.. 2 


2,047 


3 


9 


33 


125 


53 


6 


4 


4 


138 


10.477 


1897.. 2 


1,6?.4 


6 


46 


• 


1,272 


52 


9 


5 


120 


105 


13.805 


1896.. 1 


2,110 


4 


48 


* 


837 


55 


8 


8 


303 


755 


32,883 


1895.. 2 


1,430 


17 


308 


13 


2,117 


49 


i 


7 


202 


4,166 


26,668 


1894.. • 


1,181 


2 


8 


* 


791 


28 


5 


2 


87 


593 


19,663 


1893.. ♦ 


966 


2 


21 


9 


1,970 


43 


7 


5 


104 


112 


28,110 


1892.. • 


2.4GO 


15 


20 


84 


3,146 


29 


8 


5 


80 


285 


21,989 


1891.. 8 


546 


2 


10 


141 


5,079 


21 


6 


11 


58 


1,516 


23,061- 


1890.. 1 


157 


2 


21 


198 


11,333 


8 


8 


37 


125 


2,391 


28.721 


1889.. 1 


131 


2 


22 


• 


11,366 


8 


8 


56 


105 


3,259 


20,107 


1888.. 3 


583 


37 


68 


• 


10,831 


5 


6 


48 


100 


1.584 


18.600 


1887.. 1 


278 


31 


87 


18 


10,356 


4 


7 


33 


78 


415 


17.619 



* Less than 1000. t In millions of pounds. 



TSAR BOOK AXn> MMMAQ 76 

WHEAT ACJtBAaB AND YIS2U> BY BTATBS. 

WINTSR. 

r— AoreB*-— — > At. yiold,bu. ^^ -isusiitiiF* 

Cropef 1904 1908 1908 1004 1908 1902 1904 19 8 

N. Y 485 539 539 11.5 16.5 16.5 5,578 8,894 fj^ 

Pa J,519 1.616 1,600 14.0 15.3 15.0 21,266 24.725 24,000 

Tex 1,167 1.215 1.125 11.2 15.5 10.9 13,070 18333 12.W8 

Ark. 275 345 375 9.5 7.0 8.5 2.613 2.415 3.X8t 

Tenn 880 1.092 1.040 U.7 7.1 7.5 9,711 7,753 7.80C 

W. Vft 356 445 450 10.5 10.0 7.5 3.738 4,450 3.378 

Ky 880 1.312 1,200 12.0 8.5 8.5 10,200 X0,302 10,200 

1.650 2,390 2,490 10.6 14.1 16.9 17,490 33,699 42,081 

Mich 801 1,027 1.017 8.0 15.8 17.0 6,408 16.229 17,280 

Ind 1.80B 2,677 2,850 9.5 12.0 16.1 17,148 32,124 42,665 

III 1.524 1.772 1.772 14.2 10.5 19.0 21,641 18,606 .S3,66g 

Wis 108 120 125 14.0 15.8 16.5 1.512 1,896 2,06$ 

mnn 100 106 95 13.0 15.0 11.0 1,300 1,575 J,045 

Ift 70 77 83 12.0 15.6 19.0 840 1.201 l.ilJ 

Mo 2,650 2.928 3,050 10.8 9.0 19.6 28,620 26.352 59.780 

Kgn 5.700 6,051 4.034 11.6 15.0 10 6 66,120 90.765 42,760 

N«b 1.848 2,168 1.885 11.9 16.3 22.0 21.991 35,388 41,470 

cm 1,500 2,519 2.597 11.0 12.3 14.5 16,600 30,984 37.657 

Ore 291 aOO 323 21.5 20.0 .) 6,257 6,000 6.525 

Wash 363 382 424 27.5 21.2 26. 9,983 8,098 11,194 

Olda 1,359 1,720 1,470 9.2 16.6 11.9 12,503 28,552 17,493 

Other 3,300 3,672 3,636 10.0 9.5 10.0 33,000 34.884 36.360 

Total .,.28,551 34,3 72 31 ,980 11.5 12.9 14 .5 327, 4«9 4^.675 463,191 

*In round thousands of acres and bushels]^ 

SPRJNa. 

""" '^^ — Acres* > ' Av. yield, bu. ~r Busheli * - ' ^ 

Crop of 1904 1903 1902 1 904 1903 1902 1904 1903 1902 

N. E 10 10 10 20.0 17.0 17.5 200 170 "176 

Mich 33 33 33 8.5 12.5 16.9 280 413 658 

III 114 114 114 14.2 10.5 18.5 1,619 1,197 2.109 

Wis 581 612 577 10.5 13.9 17.0 6.101 8,507 9,809 

Minn 6.909 5.969 6,091 11.2 11.6 12.3 66,181 69.240 74,819 

I&. 1,08S 1,094 1.152 12.0 12.4 14.9 12,996 13.566 17^86 

Kan 50 91 91 11.0 15.0 10.0 550 1.365 910 

Neb 827 1,069 1,125 11.6 10.0 14.5 9,593 10,690 16.313 

N. P 4.661 4,681 4.545 10.5 11.8 16.3 48.941 65.836 75.084 

8. D 4.033 3,878 4.040 8.2 13.8 12.2 33.071 53,516 49,228 

Cal 88 92 105 11.0 11.0 13.0 968 1.012 1.365 

On. 690 680 627 19.4 18.8 20.6 13,386 13,008 12,916 

Wftsh 925 916 826 36.1 21.2 26.1 24.143 19.420 21.559 

Other 724 827 909 12.7 13.5 16.5 9,195 12,486 14,999 

^otal ...li».728 20 ,17 6 20,245 iTe iSis 14.6 227,224 25 9,826 297.169 

•In round thousands of acr^s and bushels. 



76 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 
THE WORLD'S WHEAT CROP. 



[In millions of bushels.] 

Crop of 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897 1896 

Europe. 

France 366 352 264 325 360 365 248 340 

Russia proper ) 324 317 312 •332 215 300 

Poland \ aQll 608 13 20 21 21 17 20 

Caucasia ) 56 56 56 52 30 46 

Hungary 151 170 126 141 140 118 93 140 

Austria 48 48 41 40 49 44 32 42 

Croatia and Slavonia 13 12 9 11 8 11 2 6 

Herzegovina and Bosnia... 22221222 

Italy 179 132 126 116 132 133 88 134 

Germany 132 143 92 140 140 132 105 110 

Spain 104 112 116 89 97 •lOS 100 70 

Portugal 8 10 JO 8 6 8 10 6 

Roumania 71 73 70 55 24 *5S 29 80 

Bulgaria J r- 44 27 26 20 •32 25 40 

Eastern Roumelia i 6 5 3 6 3 8 

Servia 11 12 8 9 11 11 7 14 

Turkey-in-Europe 20 20 16 16 12 22 16 22 

Greece 7 3 2 2 2 3 3 5 

United Kingdom 48 58 53 52 67 74 54 59 

Belgium 12 13 12 12 13 16 19 19 

Holland 4 7 4 5 5 6 5 6 

Switzerland 44444444 

Sweden 53444445 

Denmark 44233255 

Norway 11111111 

Cyprus, Malta, etc 22222222 

Total Europe 1865 1833 1390 1461 1493 1564 1119 1485 

America. 

United States 640 680 720 600 584 712 590 470 

Canada 80 94 84 44 58 65 60 38 

Mexico 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 15 

Argentina 136 104 48 72 101 108 60 25 

Chili 14 14 8 8 8 11 16 13 

Uruguay 68468263 

Total America 892 916 880 746 775 814 747 564 

Asia. 

India 304 292 228 248 184 232 205 206 

Turkey-in-Asia 3228282832405040 

Persia 16 14 15 16 16 17 20 20 

Japan 16 16 16 16 20 20 14 14 

Total Asia 368 350 287 308 252 309 289 280 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 77 

THE WORLD'S WHEAT CROP-Continued. 

Crop of 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897^1896 

Africa. 

Alireria 34 33 23 17 12 27 16 18 

Tunis 8 8 6 5 4 6 6 6 

Epypt 88898867 

The Cape 44444442 

Total Africa 54 53 41 35 28 46 32 33 

Australasia. 

Victoria 24.'' 3 15 17 16 19 12 7 

South Australia 15 6 8 11 8 8 6 8 

New Zealand 8 7 4 6 8 10 10 7 

New South Wales 28 1 18 13 8 8 7 7 

Tasmania 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 

Other Australia 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 

Total Australasia 80 19 48 50 42 48 37 26 

World's total 32 5 9 3171 2 646 2600 2590 2780 2224 2388 

a Most recent estimate of central statistical committee, prob* 
ably an overestimate. 

* Believed to have been overestimated. 

N. B.— The crops are those harvested prior to the first Sep- 
tember in the years mentioned, excepting in the cases of Aus- 
tralasia, Argentina, Uruguay, The Cape and Chili, which a1*e 
those of the November-February following. These figures are 
taken from the Liverpool Corn Trade News, and so far as the 
United States is concerned, differ somewhat from American 
AiSrrleulturist's compilations. 

WORLD PRODUCT OF GOLD AND SILVER, 

[In round millions.] 



/ Gold , , Silver ^ 

Fine Fine Com'l Coln'g 

__^ ounoM Value ou n ces v alue valut 

1903 15 $330 170 $91 $219"" 

1902 14 295 166 88 216 

1901 12 262 173 103 m 

1900 12 254 173 X07 2«4 

1899 » 14 306 168 101 217 

1898 13 386 169 99 »18 

Yearly average, 1893 to 1898 8 194 162 108 210 

Yearly average, 1883 to 1893 5 114 109 108 141 

Yearly averace, 1873 to 1883 4 93 69 7C fi2 

Yearly average, 1860 to 1673 G 125 42 56 64 



78 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

30 YEARS OF WHEAT PRICES AT CHICAGO—NO. 2 CASH. 

[In cents per bushel.] 



Year Jan. May July Sept. Dec. 

1904 82® 94 100@106 95@112 106@il8 r08@ir2 

1903 70@ 79 70@ 84 75^ 84 74@ 93 80@ 83 

1902 74® 80 72@ 76 7W 79 70@ 96 72@ 77 

1901 71@ 76 70@ 75 68@ 71 68@ 71 73@ 79 

1900 61@ 67 63@ 67 74@ 81 72(^)79 69@ 74 

1899 66@ 76 68@ 79 68@ 75 69(^75 64@ 69 

1898 89^110 117(§yl85 , 65@ 88 62@ 68 62@ 70 

1897 71(3)94 68@ 98 .68(^80 85@101 88@109 

1896 55@ 69 57@ 68 54(^62 55^70 74# 93 

1895 48(3) 55 60@ 85 61@) 75 55@ 65 34<3l 60 

1894 59@ 64 53(3)60 50^60 50@ 56 62<9 57 

1893 72(3) 78 68(3) 76 54@ 66 62(^ 70 69@ 65 

1892 84(3)91 80@ 86 76@ 80 71(3)75 69^)73 

1891 87(3) 96 99(5)108 84(8) 95 90(3)100 89(3) 94 

1890 74(g) 78 89^100 85@ 94 96(3)105 87@ 93 

1889 92(3)102 77(3)87 76(3)85 75Cd) 83 76@ 80 

1888 75@ 79 80@ 90 79(3)86 90(3)200 97(3)106 

1887 77@ 80 80(3) 89 67(3) 71 67(3) 72 75@ 80 

1886 77(g) 85 72@ 79 73@ 79 72(g) 77 76@ 80 

1885 76@ 82 86@ 91 85@ 91 76@ 87 83@ 89 

1884 88(g) 96 85@ 95 79@ 85 73@ 80 89(3)76 

1883 93@104 107@114 96@103 92^100 94@ 99 

1882 125@135 123(3)129 126@136 97^108 90@ 95 

1881 95(3)100 101@113 108(g)122 120(g)141 124@)130 

1880 114@133 112(9)119 86@ 97 87(gl 96 93(8)1U 

1879 81(3) 87 90@103 88@105 85(0)106 122@134 

1875 88(S) 91 89@107 99@129 105(3)119 93(3)104 

1873 119(3)126 122@134 114@146 89@121 105^117 

According to records kept by the Chicago Trade Bulletin, 
wheat touched $1.61 in August, 1872; $2.47 in August. 1869; $2.85 in 

May, 1867, and sold at a range of 80 cents to $1.15 in 1863. 



The dandelion produces 12,000 seeds per plant; thistle, 65,000; 
burdock, 43,000, and plantain, 44,000. 

One pound of sheep's wool will produce one yard of best 
cloth. 

A silk thread is three times as strong as one of flax the 
same thickness. 

Beets yield 12 to 13% of their weight in sugar. 



In writing to the advertiser say: **I saw your adv in one of 
the old reliable American Agriculturist weeklies." 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 79 

VISIBLE SUPPLY OF WHEAT IN U. S. AND CANADA. 
[In millions of bushels, first week in each month.] 



Teay Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr, May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

1904 38 39 34 32 30 20 14 13 13 18 28 37 

1903 50 48 47 42 33 23 16 13 13 19 25 32, 

1902 59 58 54 48 38 26 19 22 21 26 32 46 

1901 61 59 57 54 47 37 30 30 28 37 41 55 

1900 58 54 54 54 50 45 47 48 50 55 60 62 

1899 27 28 29 30 27 26 34 38 35 42 51 56 

1898 39 36 33 30 23 22 15 9 7 11 17 24 

1897 55 48 43 39 34 24 18 18 15 21 29 35 

1S96 70 66 63 60 56 50 47 46 46 50 59 56 

1S95 88 83 79 74 62 52 45 39 35 42 53 64 

1894 80 80 76 71 65 59 54 60 67 71 80 85 

1893 81 81 79 78 73 71 62 59 57 63 71 78 

1892 46 43 42 41 38 30 24 24 36 48 65 73 

1S91 26 24 23 22 21 16 13 17 20 28 36 42 

1890 34 31 29 27 23 22 20 18 18 17 21 25 

1889 38 35 32 29 25 20 14 13 14 19 26 33 

1888 44 42 38 34 32 26 24 22 29 32 33 36 

1887 63 62 58 52 47 43 34 33 31 31 34 40 

1886 58 55 52 49 43 35 28 35 43 51 56 60 

1885 48 48 48 48 44 41 41 40 43 45 52 56 

3884 36 33 35 32 24 19 15 14 18 26 36 43 

1883 21 22 23 23 21 20 19 18 21 27 31 33 

1882 18 18 17 12 11 9 10 14 12 13 16 20 

1881 29 28 26 21 19 15 16 17 20 19 21 20 



Com 

So enormous is the annual corn crop of the United States 
that the average person loses sight of the relatively small 
production in the outside world. Argentina and Austria 
grow considerable quantities, but aside from the countries 
named the production of maize is small. The world's crop 
on a full year will approximate 3,000,000,000 bushels, and of 
this five-sixths will be found in the United States. During 
the past two or three years, the prominence of Argentina 
as a corn grower has attracted much attention, especially 
as most of the crop produced in that country is surplus 
which is available for Europe, and competing directly with 
our own. 

But all in all, our farmers practically enjoy a monopoly 
in this great cereal, producing something like four-fifths of 
the world's crop, Austria-Hungary grows considerable 
quantities, and so with other countries in eastern Europe, 



80 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Italy, Egypt, etc. While Canada is important as a grower 
of wheat, oats, barley, etc., little advance has been made in 
corn culture in recent years, owing to the short season for 
crop growth. 

WORLD-WIDE DISTRIBUTION. 

While the production of corn in the United Stajtes greatly 
exceeds that of all other countries put together, the propor- 
tion seeking a foreign outlet is comparatively small. This is 
due to the fact that the crop is very largely consumed in 
the coimtries where grown, and also the necessity of the 
surplus states providing needed requirements for consump- 
tive purposes in many portions of the east and south. In an 
dccasional year when our crop is large and price low, we 
export 200,000,000 bushels and upward, but this is- only 8 or 
10% of the crop. When prices are com^jaratively high, as 
during the pasit two years, foreigners see«i to be able to get 
along without very much American corn, and our exports 
fall off to small proportions. This, will be shown in tables 
elsewhere, indicating the foreign movement of our principal 
farm crops. Western Europe conitimies the chiefest buyer of 
our com surplus. 

But the amount availab-le for foreign markets is rela- 
tively very much less than in wheat, owing to the heavy 
feeding of live stock. In the mechanic arts corn is put to 
various uses not dreamed of years ago. The glucose indus- 
try has developed rapidly, requiring large quantities of corn, 
and there is here a resultant valuable by-product suitable 
for live stock ration^. Corn oil in manufactures is coming 
into some prominence. Progressive millers are constantly 
introducing new cereal foods into which corn largely enters, 
and lastly, the pith and fiber of cornstalks are being trans- 
formed into valuable material. 

THE CORN CROP OF THE UNITED STATES. 

As already noted, this is far and away greater than the 
corn crop of any other country. Furthermore, our domestic 
crop of corn greatly exceeds the production in other cereals, 
wheat, oats, etc., both in tonnage and value. The area given 
to corn has in(>reased slightly year by year, until a round 
100,000,000 acres given over to this crop does not seem so 
very remote. Taking the country at large, the average an- 
nual rate of yield per acre is 23 to 27 bushels, and in excep- 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 81 

tlonally good years a little more. The estimated rate of yield 
in 1904 was 27.7 bushels. Seven states in the middle and cen- 
tral west, known as the great surplus states, show aggre- 
gate yields very much ahead of other parts of the country. 
These include Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, 
Indiana and Ohio. Among other very important corn states 
are Kentucky, Tennessee, Texas, etc., and it is a noteworthy 
fact that the corn belt in the last few years has crept north 
rapidly, and good crops are now secured in considerable 
areas in Minnesota and the Dakotas, Wisconsin, Michigan, 
etc., where a generation ago such would have been thought 
impossible. 



VISIBLE SUPPLY OP CORN IN U. S. AND CANADA. 
[In round-millions of bushels, first week of month named.] 



Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec 

1904 6 7 9 10 8 4 6 6 4 6 2 — 

1903 7 8 11 10 6 5 7 7 6 9 7 5 

1902 12 12 10 9 6 4 6 7 3 3 3 4 

1901 11 15 20 22 19 16 14 13 13 14 13 11 

1900 13 15 20 23 18 12 11 12 5 8 8 9 

1899 21 28 33 33 22 13 14 10 7 12 13 12 

1898 38 40 41 43 27 21 23 18 17 21 24 20 

1897 20 23 26 25 17 14 16 17 31 37 45 40 

1896 6 12 13 17 11 10 9 12 14 14 19 17 

1895 11 13 13 13 9 11 9 5 5 5 5 6 

1894 10 15 19 17 10 8 5 4 3 4 3 5 

1893 11 14 16 15 10 8 8 7 6 9 8 7 

1892 7 7 10 12 6 4 8 7 8 11 13 11 

1891 333336447832 

1890 9 12 14 21 13 14 14 12 8 9 7 2 

1889 10 13 16 17 12 12 9 7 12 12 8 6 

1888 6 7 9 9 8 9 11 8 8 10 11 7 

1887 14 16 16 19 19 13 10 8 6 7 8 5 

1886 8 7 11 16 12 8 9 9 12 13 13 11 

1885 456985545554 

1884 10 13 14 17 12 8 7 4 4 7 5 5 

1883 9 11 14 18 17 14 13 11 11 14 10 9 

1882 17 18 14 10 8 10 7 6 6 7 4 6 

1881 16 17 16 14 13 10 15 16 23 27 26 19 

We guarantee the reliability of every advertisement in the 
American Agriculturist weeklies, and will make good any loss 
which any subscriber may sustain, while his subscription lasts, 
by trusting any advertiser who may prove to be a deliberate 
swindler. 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 
CORN ACREAGE IN U. S. AND YIELD BY STATES. 

[Total acres and total bushels in thousands.] 



, Acres— \ A v. yield, bu. / Bushels ■■% 

Crop of 1904 1908 1902 1904 1908 1902 1904 1908 1902 

111 9,646 9.457 9,650 37.6 31.2 38.0 861,726 296.068 366,700 

la 8,795 8,069 8,275 37.2 39.1 36.5 327,174 234,808 329,263 

Neb 7.554 7,263 7.411 34.8 28.8 34.5 262,879 209,174 265,680 

Mo 5.844 6,025 6,925 25.9 29.0 36.8 151,360 174,725 254,840 

Kan 6,540 7,426 7.735 22.6 26.3 28.5 147.804 195,304 220,448 

Ind 4,729 4,504 4,550 33.2 34.3 37.5 157,003 154,487 170,625 

Ohio 3.865 3,752 3,950 32.7 30.0 36.5 126,386 112,560 144.176 

Ky 3,346 3,313 3,415 27.7 26.9 26.0 92,684 89,120 88,790 

Tenn 3,355 3,322 3,425 27.0 26.7 22.8 90,585 88,697 78,090 

Tex 5.676 5,565 5,351 28.1 27.0 13.5 159,496 150,265 72,239 

Ark 2,559 2,485 2,485 21.5 18.3 21.3 55,019 45,476 52.931 

Wis 1,777 1,742 1,725 33.1 28.6 29.1 58,819 49.821 50,198 

Mich 1,484 1,530 1,577 31.0 35.4 30.0 46.004 64.162 47,310 

Minn 1.686 1,606 1.708 30.0 28.9 27.3 50.580 46,413 46.628 

Pa 1.461 1.447 1.477 32.0 32.0 30.0 46,752 46,304 44,310 

Okla 1.717 1,455 1.500 26.5 18.1 29.2 45.501 26.336 43,800 

S. D 1.503 1,445 1,505 23.8 29.6 13.0 35,771 42,762 19,565 

W. Va 776 768 776 26.0 25.0 25.2 20,176 19,200 19,556 

N. Y 670 657 670 30.0 24.5 24.0 20,100 16,097 16,080 

Cal 49 51 56 30.0 30.2 28.0 1,470 1.540 1,668 

N. D 60 66 65 19.0 18.3 22.8 1,140 1,208 1,482 

Ore 20 20 20 26.0 24.0 23.0 520 480 460 

Wash 11 11 10 25.0 25.0 25.0 275 275 260 

Other 19.665 19.470 19.277 16.0 15.0 12.0 314,640 292.050 231,324 



Total 92.788 91.449 94.448 27.7 26.0 27.12.573,863 2.346,312 2,566,311 

WORLDS CORN CROP, MILLIONS' OF BUSHELS. 
[Compiled chiefly from Corn Trade Year Book.] 



C?r0P of 1908 1902 1901 1900 1890 1898 Av». to 



IS 



Argentina 104 72 69 60 72 56 72 3.8 

Austria-Hungary ... 160 123 145 162 145 164 149 6.8 

Bulgaria 24 16 30 36 20 38 27 0.8 

Canada 28 20 25 28 22 24 24 1.0 

Egypt 24 20 30 20 30 32 26 0.8 

Italy 86 64 86 83 89 80 81 3.1 

Roumania 77 60 112 85 28 102 77 2.8 

Russia 47 44 66 34 31 48 46 1.7 

Uruguay 8 7 7 3 6 4 6 0.2 

United States 2176 2448 1419 2188 2078 1924 2039 79.5 

Total 2734 2874 2084 2673 2521 2472 2646 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 

CORN PRICES AT CHICAGO—NO. 2 CASH. 

[In cents per bushel.] 



83 



Tear Jan. 


May 


July 


Sept. 


Dec. 


Year Jan. 


May 


July 


Sept. 


Deo. 


1904.. 42-48 


47-50 


47-50 


51-55 


46-48 


1888. 


.47-50 


54-60 


45-51 


40-46 


33-36 


1903.. 44-48 


44-46 


49-53 


45-53 


42-44 


1887. 


.35-38 


37-39 


34-38 


40-44 


46-62 


1902. .66-64 


59-66 


56-88 


57-62 


44-57 


1886. 


.36-37 


34-37 


34-45 


36-41 


36-38 


1901.. 36-38 


43-58 


43-58 


54-60 


62-67 


1885. 


.34-40 


44-49 


45-48 


40-46 


86-43 


1900. .30-32 


36-40 


38-45 


39-43 


35-40 


1884. 


.51-58 


52-57 


49-57 


51-87 


34-40 


1899.. 35-38 


32-35 


31-35 


31-35 


30-31 


1883. 


.49-61 


52-57 


47-53 


47-53 


64-68 


1896. .26-28 


33-37 


32-35 


29-31 


33-38 


1882. 


.60-62 


68-77 


74-83 


57-76 


48-60 


1897. .21-23 


23-26 


24-29 


27-32 


25-27 


1881. 


.36-38 


41-45 


45-51 


60-74 


58-64 


1896.. 25-28 


27-30 


24-28 


19-22 


22-24 


1880. 


.36-41 


36-38 


33-38 


39-41 


35-42 


1895.. 40-46 


46-55 


41-47 


31-36 


24-27 


1879. 


.29-31 


33-36 


34-37 


32-39 


39-43 


1894. .34-36 


36-39 


40-46 


48-58 


41-48 


1878. 


.38-44 


34-41 


35-41 


34-38 


29-32 


1893.. 40-45 


39-46 


35-42 


37-43 


34-37 


1877. 


.41-44 


43-58 


46-51 


41-46 


41-46 


1892. .37-39 


40-100 47-52 


43-49 


39-43 


1876. 


.40-45 


44-49 


42-48 


43-48 


43-47 


1891.. 47-50 


o5-70 


57-66 


48-68 


39-59 


1875. 


.64-70 


60-76 


67-77 


54-62 


45-64 


1S90.. 28-30 


32-35 


33-47 


44-50 


47-53 


1874. 


.49-61 


55-66 


58-80 


66-86 


71-85 


1889.. 33-36 


33-36 


34-37 


30-34 


29-35 


1873. 


.30-31 


37-43 


32-34 


32-44 


44-64 



ENORMOUS HOME CONSUMPTION OP CORN. 

The draft made upon our splendid corn crop, particu- 
larly in the stock feeding states, has been alluded to else- 
where. Almost equally important are the necessities of the 
older middle and eastern states, where the crop of field corn 
is small, and where the requirements of dairy farmers are 
heavy. Low rates of freight from the producing states to 
the seaboard, especially during the period of navigation, are 
great aids to the distribution of the surplus, enormous quan- 
tities of corn being carried every summer from Chicago to 
Buffalo at a rate as low as 1 cent per bushel. Leading ex- 
port points are New Orleans, Newport News, Baltimore, 
Philadelphia, New Yorlc and Boston. 

The up-to-date farmer does not need to be told that corn 
as a fodder crop has never been so much appreciated as 
now. A generation ago it was the custom in the great cen- 
tral western states to husk corn standing in the fields, and 
then turn in stock cattle to utilize so much of the stalks and 
imperfect ears as pleased their fancy, trampling on the re- 
mainder, perhaps burning over the dry stalks and stubble 
prior to plowing another season. In fact, this slipshod 
method is still followed to some extent in a few states, but 
the exceptional neglect proves the rule of husbanding this 
valuable plant. The silo and the shredder are working a 
veritable revolution in the economical utilization of corn. 



M AlIimiOAN AORICUIiTTTRIST 

This is nowhore mor« true than in the older middle and east- 
ern states, where silas^e corn is very largely grown, with no 
thought of permitting it tp mature in the field to a p6int 
where husking is in order. 



Oats 

Something like 8,000,000,000 bushels oats are grown each 
year in the northern hemisphei'e, this crop being given little 
consideration in Australasia, South Africa and South Amer* 
lea. The United States is the largest producer, but Kussia 
is a close second, these two countries making up practically 
half the oats tonnage of the world. Next in Importance fol« 
low Germany, France, Austria- Hungary, the United King- 
dom and Canada, In about the order named. This crop is 
a prime favorite in all northern latitudes, and in foreign 
countries as well as our own is regarded a sure one. 



A BILLION BUSHEL PRODUCER. 

In a full year the United States crop aj;)proximattt 
1,000,000,000 bushels, exceeding that occasionally, last year 
falling slightly under the amount named. The area devoted 
to oats is something like 80,000,000 ^cres. While this is ma- 
terially less than the wheat acreage, the larger rate of yield 
to the acre, 25 to 40 bushels, results here In a measured bulk 
very much greater than that of wheat. Considerable atten- 
tion is given this crop in every state, although the yield tn 
the south is relatively small. In recent years, Iowa has pro- 
duced more than any other one state, followed closely by 
Minnesota and Illinois, while other leaders include Wiscon- 
sin, New York, Pennsylvania, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, Ne- 
braska, etc. 



THE bPLENDID OATS CROP OP 1904. 

The season was in every way strikingly favorable tor the 
development of large heads and a heavy grain, the only ex* 
caption to this being the fact that at the time of seeding an 
excess of moisture interfered to some extent witb the prep- 
aration of the seedbed. The average rate of yield of oats 
was S3 bushels per acre, which on a basis of the estimated 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 86 

acreage makes a total crop of 973,135,000 bushels. In 1903, the 
crop upon practioally the same acreage was estimated at 
823,138,000 bushels, showing an increased production last year 
without any incresuse in the acreage, of 150,000,000 bushels. 
The fact that the rate of yield in 1904 in the greater portion 
of the producing district was materially larger than the con- 
dition reported would heve indicated when figured on the 
basis of past experience, furnishes evidence that this crop is 
now receiving nwre attention in the way of careful prepara- 
tion and seed selection than ever before. 

OATS ACREAGE AND YIELD BY STATES. 
[In round thousands.] 



/ Acres s ^Bu8. p. acre— V , — Bushels*-^ 

Crop of 1904 1908 1902 1904 1903 1902 19 04 1903 1 902 

Iowa 4,040 4,165 4.250 34.2 25.6 34.1 138 107 145 

Illinois 3,925 4,132 4,350 30.0 25.3 35.4 118 105 154 

Wisconsin 2,435 2,435 2,435 34.0 30.0 39.4 83 78 96 

Minnesota 2,366 2,320 2,275 36.0 32.7 40.0 130 76 91 

Nebraska 2,013 1,964 1,896 30.0 30.2 34.6 60 59 66 

New York 1,314 1,301 1.370 35.5 35.5 33.5 47 46 46 

Pennsylvania .. 1499 1.187 1,250 34.3 32.0 31.2 41 38 39 

Ohio 1,208 1,162 1,210 40.0 28.1 39.3 48 33 48 

Indiana 1,294 1,269 1,410 32.1 25.6 34.6 42 32 49 

Michigan 1.118 1,065 1,075 32.0 29.7 37.1 36 32 40 

Texas "915 906 915 31.0 34.8 29.3 28 32 27 

South Dakota .. 813 774 737 35.0 35.0 34.6 28 27 26 

Kansas 971 971 971 23.0 25.5 30.0 22 25 29 

North Dakota .. 879 837 797 38.0 26.0 40.5 33 22 32 

Missouri 844 888 9.35 22.4 22.4 32.0 19 20 30 

Oregon 277 288 285 30.0 33.6 33.0 8 10 9 

Washington .... 149 158 155 40.0 45.0 48.3 6 7 7 

Oklahoma 295 314 285 24.0 21.6 47.3 7 7 13 

Kentucky 273 268 285 26.6 21.4 24.9 7 6 7 

Arkansas 256 270 275 21.4 17.5 18.3 5 5 5 

California 170 167 165 28.5 26.6 33.4 5 4 6 

Tennessee 195 209 220 25.2 18.8 19.1 5 4 4 

West Virginia.. 86 86 90 27.0 24.5 23.0 2 2 2 

Other 2,459 2,435 2,510 21.5 20.0 23.0 53 49 58 



Total 29,494 29,561 30,146 33.0 27.8 34.1 973 823 1028 

•In round millions of bushels! ~~ ' 

We guarantee the reliability of every advertisement in the 
American Agriculturist weeklies, and will make good any loss 
which any subscriber may sustain, while his subscription lasts, 
by trusting any advertiser who may prove to be a deliberate 
swindler. 



IS AMORICAN AGRICULTUBIST 

CUTS PRICES AT CHICAGO-NO. 2 CASH. 
[In cents per bushel.] 

ywjr>n: "May "July TJept! Jbec/^Yw JT mi. Vi£y"":iiiiy%9p^"t>e^ 

1904..36-42 3«-45 38-45 29-34 29-31 iS59. .24-25 21-24 2Z-& '19'W W-Zl 

1903. .31-34 33-38 33-45 35-38 33-39 1888.. 80-32 32-38 28-38 23-2$ 8^-27 

1902.. 38-46 41-40 30-66 26-27 20-82 1887..SB-27 26'28 24-27 23-27 28«81 

1901.. 23-24 28-31 27-89 38-38 48-48 1886. .28-86 26-80 27-82 24-26 25-27 

1900.. 22-83 21-24 21-84 21-22 22-23 188^.. 25-29 31-36 26-38 24-27 37«29 

1899.. 26-28 24-28 20-25 21-23 22-23 1884.. 31-34 31-34 28-33 24-26 23^26 

1898.. 21-24 26-32 21-26 20-22 26-28 1883.. 35-40 38-43 27-37 25-29 30-36 

1897.. 16-17 17-19 17-18 19-21 21-24 1882.. 42-45 48-55 52-62 30-36 34-42 

1896.. 17-19 18-20 15-19 14-17 16-19 188].. 30*32 36-40 37-45 36-46 43-48 

1895.. 27-29 27-31 22-25 18-21 16-18 1880.. 32-36 29-34 23-26 27-35 29-33 

1894.. 26-29 32-36 29-41 27-81 28-29 1879.. 19-20 24-31 25-37 21-27 33-37 

1893.. 30-32 29-32 22-30 23-29 27-29 1875.. 52-53 57-65 48-56 34-40 29-31 

1892.. 28-30 28-34 30-34 31-34 29-31 1873.. 24-26 30-34 27-30 26-31 34-41 

1891.. 41-44 45-54 27-45 26-30 31-34 1869.. 46-50 56-63 57-71 42-46 40-45 

1890. .20-21 84-30 27-35 44-51 41-44 

Rff0 

The domestic crop of rye torms a very inslgnifloant pro* 
portion of the world's production. The last n#tmed In a |riv«n 
year approximates J300 million bushels. The United States 
produces something like 30,000,000 bushels, or practically 8%. 
^ For many years Russia has been the leading rye grower of 
the world, making UP about half the total crop, Germany 
follows with something like 20% of the world's supply of 
rye, while Austria-Hungary and France each grows more 
than the United States. Rye continues the popular breads 
stuff of the country people of central and eastern B^urope, 
and this accounts for the tremendous breadth given thi9 
cereal from the Rhine to the Siberian border. In Hussla* 
the rye crop is substantially of as much value and impor* 
tance as wheat, and is grown in a good many provinces. 

THB3 UNITED STATJCS BYE CROP. 

No advance has been made in the attention given rye in 
recent years. The acreage is praetieally stationary, some- 
where around 2,000,000 acres, the crop a fairly sure one, rate 
of yield varying not far from 15 bushels to the acre, one year 
with another. The small annual production is more than 
ample for domestic requirements, and under the sUghtest 
encouragement a considerable fraction of it would go abroad. 

Exports are generally small and unimportant. The domestic 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 87 

demand for rye as a breadstuff is meager, while a consid- 
erable portion of the crop goes to distillers. In the great 
market places, rye, always a sluggrish affair, usually shows a 
close sympathy with wheat, so far as values are concerned. 

MONTHLY RANGE OF CASH (NO. 2) RYE AT CHICAGO. 

[In cents per bushel.] 



Year Jan. 


May 

69-78 


July 
63-75 


Sept. 
69-75 


Dec. 


Year 


Jan. 

748-51 


May 
62-67 


July 

46-56 


Sept. 

"37-41' 


Dec. 


1904.. 51-57 


•81-83 


1895. 


"32-36 


1903.. 47-48 


48-50 


49-52 


53-60 


50-52 


1894. 


.44-46 


44-49 


40-48 


46-48 


48-50 


1902. .58-59 


57-58 


52-57 


49-50 


48-49 


1893. 


.50-58 


61-60 


43-51 


40-47 


45-48 


1901.. 56-67 


54-58 


52-61 


49-51 


48-50 


1892. 


.78-87 


70-79 


65-75 


65-58 


46-52 


1900. .47-49 


51-54 


47-57 


52-56 


59-66 


1891. 


.61-72 


83-92 


66-77 


82-91 


86-92 


1899.. 50-52 


53-56 


50-58 


50-53 


45-49 


1890. 


.43-45 


49-54 


47-54 


68-63 


64-69 


1898. .53-59 


42-48 


61-60 


54-58 


49-52 


1888. 


.61-64 


63-70 


44-53 


60-55 


60-52 


! 1897. .36-38 


32-36 


33-40 


47-56 


45-48 


1885. 


.52-64 


68-73 


67-61 


66-60 


68-61 


1896.. 32-41 


33-37 


29-32 


30-37 


37-43 


1882. 


.96-96 


77-83 


66-76 


67-67 


67-69 



•November price. 

The rye crop received a little more attention during the 
decade from 1880 to 1890 than at any time before or since, 
but the difference was not sufficiently marked to indicate 
any radical change in cropping. The fact that rye is the 
principal bread cereal for a large proportion of the popula- 
tion of the world makes its neglect in American agriculture 
a striking indication of international differences in dietic 
tastes. While the Russian peasant and small German farmer 
subsist almost entirely upon this grain, there is no popula- 
tion in our country which regards it as its principal bread 
grain; in fact, about the only use which is made of rye for 
human consumption as food in this country is its occasional 
appearance upon the table as a variation from the regular 
bread grain. 

The stationary character of rye production during the 
last two decades, when taken in connection with the rapid 
increase in population and consuming ability, indicates that 
the per capita supply of rye is steadily decreasing. The bulk 
of the crop now grown is used in the production of distilled 
spirits and for feeding purposes. The demand for grain for 
purposes of distillation is moderately uniform, but as it has 
no special advantages over other forms of grain for feed- 
ing purposes, there is little probability that the crop will ever 
become one of importance to American farmers. 

The crop yield thip year is slightly below the normal, 
but was larger than expected early in the season. The rate 
of yield was comparatively uniform in the districts of prin- 



88 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

cipal production. The average tor the country was 16.1 
bushels, making a total crop this year ol 30,286.0(M) bushels, 
grown upon 1,991,000 acres. 

ACREAGE AND PRODUCTION OF RYE. 1904. 



Crop of Acres Bus, p. acre Bushel s 

New York 156,000 15.1 2,356,000 

Pennsylvania 358,000 16.0 5,728,000 

Texas 4,000 13.6 54,000 

Arkansas 3,000 10*0 30,000 

Tennessee 14.000 13,1 169,000 

West Virginia 14,000 13.7 178.000 

Kentucky 16.000 13.2 211,000 

Ohio 17.000 18.5 281.000 

Michigan 161.000 13.0 2,093.000 

Indiana 35.000 14.9 522.000 

Illinois 73.000 17.2 1.256,000 

Wisconsin 854.000 17.0 6,018.000 

Minnesota 111,000 17.1 1.899,000 

Iowa 76,000 17.7 1,345.000 

Missouri 21,000 14.0 294,000 

Kansas 77,000 12.5 963,000 

Nebraska 158,000 16.0 2,528,000 

North Dakota 31,000 19.1 592,000 

South Dakota 38,000 16.0 608.000 

California 68.000 8.0 644.000 

Oregon 11.000 16.2 167.000 

Washington 3.000 20.0 60.000 

Oklahoma 4,000 IQ.O 40.000 

Other 188,000 12.5 2.350,000 

Total 1,991,000 15.1 30,386,000 

1903 2,061,000 15.4 31,842,000 

Hurley 

Northern and eastern Europe have long been foremogt 
in the barley producing countries of the world. The situ* 
ation does not change materially from year to year, al- 
though the notable and important feature for the American 
farmer is the marked increase given this cereal in the United 
States. We still stand no better than fifth, however, among 
the produoing countries of the world. Russia is the largest 
barley grower, with a product at least two and one-half 
times greater than ours, while Austria and Germany eaoh 
probably produces slightly nu>re than the annual crop of the 
United States. Some of the Russian crop finds lodgment in 
Glermany* « heavy consumer aa well as producer. Austria- 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC S9 

Hungary crowi much barley, and the cereal is also popular 
in such northern portions of Europe as Scandinavia, France 
and the United Kingdom. 

Russia and southeastern Europe, as above noted, are the 
chief exporting countries, although the United States, par- 
ticularly the Pacific coast, ships some barley each year and 
Canada also has a small surplus. The latter would find a 
market in the United States but for the' tarifC barrier* 



SHARP INCREASE IN THE DOMESTIC BARLEY CROP. 

Not a popular cereal in the same sense that are wheat, 
corn and oats, barley has its place in the list of domestic 
cereals, and in recent years has been shown greatly in- 
creased favor. It- is still, however, largely localized in a few 
such states as Minnesota, California, North Dakota, Iowa 
and Wisconsin, in about the order named in importance. 
The area given over to this crop now considerably exceeds 
5,000,000 acres, and the tonnage is very substantial in char- 
acter. 

It has been found that barley makes an exceedingly good 
complementary crop for spring wheat In the northwest, and 
the natural tendency to diversify production wherevet it can 
be done has resulted in a tremendous increase in barley acre- 
age In the territory which a few years ago was devoted ex- 
clusively to spring wheat. In the Red river valley, for exam- 
ple, where until five years ago there was almost nothing 
except wheat, there is now a large and constantly increasing 
percentage of the land devoted to the barley crop. The re- 
sults both in yield and in financial return have proved so 
satisfactory that barley may now be regarded as a perma- 
nent secondary crop in this important section of the country, 
the great demand for barley in this country is for brewing 
purposes, and this industry furnishes an outlet for a greater 
part of the high grade produced at relatively good figures. 
There is a growing use, however, of the crop for feeding 
purposes, and a considerable proportion, especially of the 
lower grades, is thus disposed of. 

THE BARLEY CROP OF 1904 

was one of rather more than an average In rate of yield. 
With a production fairly uniform in all states of importance. 
The season was favorable, the quality of the crop reasonably 
•atisfactory. 



fO AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

DISTRIBUTION OF BARLEY CROP OF 1904 BY STATES. 



Crop of Acre s 

New York 110,000" 

Pennsylvania 9,000 

Texas 5,000 

Arkansas 1,000 

Tennessee 2,000 

West Virginia 1,000 

Kentucky 1,000 

Ohio 33,000 

Michigan 45,000 

Indiana 11,000 

r.linois 23,000 

Wisconsin 507,000 

Minnesota 1,121,000 

Iowa 595,000 

Missouri 2,000 

Kansas 145,000 

Nebraska 104,000 

North Dakota 606,000 

South Dakota 357,000 

California 1,365,000 

Oregon 74,000 

Washington 165.000 

Oklahoma 17,000 

Other 135,000 

Totals 5,434,000 

1903 4.942.000 



Bus. p. acre 



27.0 
23.0 
30.0 
21.0 
22.5 
25.0 
21.1 
28.0 
24.6 
28.6 
27.5 
31.0 
28.7 
28.0 
21.1 
20.5 
28.0 
27.9 
27.0 
21.8 
27.0 
35.0 
30.0 
22.0 

26.6 
26.3 



Bushels 



2,970,000 

207,000 

150,000 

21,000 

45,000 

25,000 

21,000 

924.000 

1,107,000 

315,000 

633.000 

15,717,000 

32,173,000 

16,660,000 

42,000 

2,973,000 

2,912,000 

16,907,000 

9,639,000 

29,757,000 

1,998,000 

5,775,000 

510,000 

2,970,000 

144,451.000 
139,145,000 



RANGE OF BARLEY PRICES AT CHICAGO. 
[In cents per bushel.] 





/ — January — ^ 


, May . 


<— Septembe^-^ 


r-December--, 


Year 


Malt'g 


Feed 

35@44 


Malt'g 

50@)60 


Feed 


Malt'g 


Feed 
35(0)43 


Malt'g 
42^55 


Feed 


1904 .... 


45@G2 


32@46 


45(^58 


35(0^40 


1903 .... 


, 52(^64 


31(&44 


38@54 


23@38 


47(§)62 


31(^41 


44^^62 


28/5)42 


1902 .... 


, 50(^66 


36^45 


60@72 


37@50 


51(p>63 


20m2 


50@62 


32(5)41 


1901 .... 


49^64 


31@43 


45@59 


23@38 


51#67 


33@47 


51@)65 


34@43 


1900 .... 


41@53 


22@31 


32^45 


19@28 


42©/57 


24(0)38 


53(S<64 


35@42 


1899 .... 


42(0/55 


23@34 


41P52 


20(^)31 


33(046 


lSCw21 


38(^51 


21(^32 


1898 .... 


21(ct4Z 


15(?i^25 


4l(aM 


23(0'.S5 


32(0)46 


19^29 


39^52 


22(0^ 


1897 .... 


30^36 


23(&26 


30(0)40 


23(0^27 


32(040 


26(028 


32(0^45 


25(528 


1896 .... 


mt*o 


22ra28 


31(040 


25(^:10 


30(0:36 


20(028 


3.3(038 


22@25 


18J>5 .... 


5U/56 


.30(^40 


50(5:52 


46(?/;.')0 


40rdA5 


2bfa:]^ 


33(0^40 


22(5)27 


1894 .... 


imm 


35(??10 


53(0^60 


45(Oi50 


53(0)57 


48(Of)2 


35(0^55 


46#50 


1893 .... 


mmo 


.30(^f40 


53(5;66 


38(0^50 


42'0.5C 


'.]2((iA0 


40(0^55 


30@>40 


1892 .... 


52rff63 


3lr&40 


48(ff60 


.T0(ff45 


53(^/68 


3.')ra45 


55(0^70 


33(546 


1891 .... 


60#75 


50*9)55 


70<g^77 


65@68 


46(^67 


30(^40 


47(8^60 


35@40 



fllAfi mm AN§ ALMAltAC dl 

Probably never before in commercial history has Euro|>e 
CflttSfe siich strenuous effbrts to secure release from the thrall- 
§0% of the United States in regard to raw cotton sup^ll^is, 
^ at present. Elngrland i§ takihi^ the initiative in this w^fk, 
Btlt f'rance and Gerttiahy are striving unceasingly to encbiir- 
afe arid develop cotton cjiiture oh ah extensive scale Ih thfeir 
vaHeus colonies. Efforts are being m^de in every civilised 
part of the globe where climatic cbrlditions are at all favbr- 
abie to build up the cotton growing industry, suggesting ih- 
3i'9cUi^d cethp^tlflbh ih the years to oome. Thi^ greiat ^ftf^le 
is cultivated mostly in the district between 20 degrees and 
35 degrees north latitude. Within these lines lie the cotton 
seetiiaris of North America, Egypt^ North Africa and Asia. 
84lutH 0f the equatdr^ cottoh is grdwn for commercial pdr- 
pd§§s ill i^razii and to a limited extent in Australia, South 
AtHdd ahd the isldiidg of the Pacific. 

With the ushel*lht ih of the 19th century, or more pat*- 
tiettlarly the decade 1791-1801, the invention of thfe cotton gin 
gatfe an impetus to the production in the United States. 
Wlthih 20 years this Gduntry had assumed the positioh It 
hds sihcfe maintaified, that of the leading producer Of the 
w§jpld. I^'igures in acbbthpanying tabled^ afford a good idea 
of liie advance in dbttdh growing in the t^nlted States dUf Iflg 
the past decade. 

tTNITED STATES COTTON CROP BY STATES. 

[Last three figures (000' s) omitted.] 
[From the New York Commercial and Financial Chronicle.] 

~~"^"^"^ i§6i I§® iiro i9Bi 190D 1899 TM I 

CTqjj of iteiea ftaifeB Baleii B^l tfg galea feale a a&lei fia 

fea^ V... 2,992 2m &0 2,203 2,2S6 1,796 l74S7~ui7 

UrtllBiana 918 2.008 2,317 2*273 2,456 1,867 2,128 1,810 

^ &nd Fla.... 1.842 1,413 1.B76 1,509 1,366 1,858 1,109 983 

Vlrgima ; — 466 476 455 415 418 714 495 

North Carolina. 609 376 386 326 310 318 281 199 

Alabama 1,279 202 217 157 124 203 291 200 

South Carolina. 1.100 . 109 210 278 238 266 476 ^2 

Tennessee, etc.. 3,422 2,985 S,S88 9,501 3,282 3.2i7 2,225 2,086 

tmM 12,162 10,128 10,768 10.701 10,425 9,440 8.7ll 7,162 



92 



AMBItlCAN AGRICULTURIST 



In connection with the above showing, the following ta- 
ble carries the United 'States crop review back to 1880: 



Year Bales 

1894 9,90i7000" 

1893 7,550,000 

1892 6,700,000 

1891 9,035 ,000 

1890 8,653,000 

1889 7,311,000 

1888 6,938,000 

1887 7,046,000 



Year Bales 

1886 6,505,000 

1885 6,576.000 

1884 5 ,706,000 

1883 5,713.000 

1882 6,950,000 

1881 5,456,000 

1880 6,606.000 



IMPORTS COTTON INTO THE U. S. AND FOREIGN TRADE 

IN COTTON MANUFACTURES. 



Imports cotton. 
Year pounds 

1903-4 48,840,590 

1902-3 74,874,426 

1901-2 98.715,680 

1900-1 46,631,283 

1899-0 67,398,521 

1898-9 50,158,158 

1897-8 52,660,363 

1896-7 51,898,926 

1895-6 55,350.520 

1894-5 49.332,022 

1893-4 27.705,949 

1892-3 43,367,952 

1891-2 28,663,769 

1890-1 20,908,817 

1889-0 8,606,049 

1888-9 7,973.039 



Imports cotton 
manufactures 



Exports 
manufactures 



$49,524,246 
52,462.684 
44,460,126 
40,246,935 
41,296,242 
32,054.434 
28,367.300 
34,429.363 
32,437,504 
33,196,625 
22,346,557 
33,560,293 
28,323,841 
29,712,624 
29,918,055 
26,805,942 



$22,403,713 
32,216.^ 
32,108,362 
20.272,418 
24.003.087 
23.766.916 
17,024,092 
21,037,678 
16,837.396 
13.789.810 
14,340,886 
11,809.355 
13,266,277 
13,604,857 
9,999,277 
10,212.644 



UNITED STATES COTTON CROP OF 1904-5. 

The opening months of the year 1904 saw substantial 
advances in the cotton market, prices at New York for mid- 
dling upland soared above 16 cents per pound. In view of 
this fact it is not surprising that the acreage devoted to cot- 
ton in the south last summer should have been the greatest 
on record. The area under that staple in the United States 
for 1904 aggregated 31,730,000 acres, an increase of 10% over 
1903. While final estimates for the resultant crop are not 
yet available, the preliminary government report placed the 
yield at 12,162,000 bales, the greatest ever known. 

There was the old cry that high prices seriously dis- 
turbed operators and spinners, both in this country and in 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 93 

Surope. Manufacturers claimed they could not buy cotton 
at the high prices and profitably convert it into finished 
goods. With the demand on the part ot the world's consum- 
ers rather slussish at the high prices, the tendency up to last 
fall was toward reduction in the output of mills, all the way 
from northern New Bngland to the south Atlantic states. 

Planters throughout the entire United States are taking 
a keen interest in the efforts of the department of agriculture 
at Washington to destroy that pernicious pest, the Mexican 
boll weevil. The insect is still ravaging certain districts of 
Texas and a amall part of Louisiana. Last year the depart- 
ment imported an ant from Guatemala which it is hoped 
will in time not only check the further spread of the cotton 
boll weevil throughout the southwest, but will eliminate the 
pest altogether. However, it will take another season to 
fully demonstrate the possibilities of this weevil destroyer. 

Price of middling upland cotton at New York at the 
opening of several months for a number of years, in cents 
per pound: ^ 

Year Jan. Mar. May July Sept. O ct . N ov. Dec. 

1904 13 161-4 13 MO 10 4-5 111-10 10 3-5 101-10 8~ 

1908 9 10 10 3-4 12 3-4 12 1-2 10 11 1-16 12 1-2 

1902 8 6-16 813-16 911-16 91-4 9 8 813-20 811-20 

1901 101-8 91-4 8 5-16 8 9-16 8 9-16 815-16 715-16 8 

1900 7 3-4 9 5-16 9 13-16 10 1-4 9 7-8 10 7-8 9 5-8 10 1-8 

m 5 7-8 6 9-16 61-8 6 3-16 61-4 7 3-16 7 3-8 718*16 

1896 515-16 6 5-16 6 5-16 6 3-16 6 3-4 6 3-8 6 5-16 6 6-8 

1897 7 3-16 7 7-16 7 3-4 715-16 71-2 61-2 6 613-16 

1S96 9 5-16 718-16 81-4 7 3-8 81-2 8 3-8 81-8 711*16 

1895 511-16 5 9-16 613-16 71-8 81-4 91-8 9 8 5-8 

1894 8 7 5-8 7 5-16 7 3-16 615-16 61-4 5 3-4 515-16 

18S3 9 7-8 9 3-16 7 3-4 81-8 8 81-16 8 3-16 81-16 

1892 713-16 71-16 71-4 7 3-8 71-16 713-16 8 3-16 10 

1891 9 5-16 9 8 7-18 12 813-16 8 5-8 8 3-8 81-16 



Tobacco 

This important crop of the United States is separated into 
two distinct types, cigar leaf and heavy leaf tobacco. The 
former is grown in a comparatively few states, chiefly along 
the Connecticut valley in New England; in Pennsylvania, 
N*w York, Wisconsin, the Miami valley of Ohio and to a 
moderate extent in Florida and Georgia. Heavy leaf is used 
chiefly in manufacturing plug, cut and smoking tobacco, and 



M AMBRICAN AGRICULTURIST 

figures conspicuously fn the export trade of the United 
States. It is composed of various types and is produced ex- 
tensively in such states as Kentucky, Tennessee, southern 
Ohio, Maryland, Virginia and the Carolinas. Other middle 
and southern states grow small quantities of heavy leaf. 

After distressingly low prices realize* for the 1903 tobacco 
crop of the United States, planters in nearly all sections of 
the country cut down the acreage sharply during 1904. In 
some of the southern states, particularly the south Atlantic 
sections, a few districts saw a curtailment in acreage 
amounting to 50%. In the cigar leaf producing states of 
New England and Pennsylvania, the acreage was reduced to 
a moderate extent. In New York, farmers planted less to- 
bacco than for several years. In fact. New York appears to 
be declining a^ a tobacco producing section. In Wisconsin 
the decrease was quite pronounced, but in Ohio the tendency 
was to continue quite extensively in producing cigar leaf 
types. 

It has been claimed and not disputed that the bulk of 
the 1903 crop in the dark tobacco districts of Tennessee and 
Kentucky sold last year at prices below actual cost of pro- 
duction. As a result, considerable activity is noted there 
and in other parts of the south in the formation of tobacco 
growers' protective associations for the purpose of buoying 
prices. The closing months of 1904 witnessed the merger of 
the Consolidated, American and Continental tobacco com- 
panies into a huge corporation with an authorized capital 
of $180,000,000. This is the most gigantic "trust" yet expe- 
rienced in the history of the tobacco trade. 

GROWING TOBACCO UNDER SHADE. 

An almost collapse in New England has been experienced 
in the tent tobacco industry. The years 1902 and 1903 saw 
^ heavy acreage planted to Sumatra in this manner in New 
England, but growers experienced great difficulty in selling 
the tobacco at remunerative prices after they had raised it. 
Some claimed they could get 25 cents per pound on an aver- 
age for the leaf, but the enormous cost of producing Su- 
matra under cover rendered this price unprofitable. The 
area devoted to tent tobacco in New England in 1904 dropped 
to less than 100 acres. At the heyday of the "craze," two 
or three years ago, it is estimated that 800 to 1000 acres were 
devoted to tent tobacco along the Connecticut river. Ib 
Florida, however, growers report much success in producing 



THAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 9S 

tobacco under oloth. and are hopeful of an oxtenaion of the 
industry. The department of agriculture conducted experi- 
ments during 1904 in breeding and selecting varieties of to- 
bacco seed. They established two or three plantations in 
different parts of Connecticut. Important results are expect- 
ed of this work. 



INCREASE IN THE TOBACCO BtTSINBSB. 
[MTd tobacco, millions lbs.; internal revenue, millions dollnrs.] 



1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1895 1890 1888 1878 1863 



Manuf'd tobacco.. 355 337 328 314 301 274 253 170 115 24 

Cigars, millions.. 7404 7426 6864 6915 6177 4099 4229 3228 1780 199 

Cigarets. miirns.3226 3031 2651 r28 3259 4238 2505 640 27 

Internal revenue... 44 44 52 51 63 31 33 42 34 3 



IMPORTS OF LEAF TOBACCO INTO THE UNITED STATES. 

[In round millions of pounds.] 



Fifleal year 












Value 


ended 








Total 


Total 


per lb. of 


Juneao 


Cuba 


Sumatra 


Others 


leaf 


wrappers wrappers 


1904 


. ao 

,. 88 


7 
6 


4 
6 


31 
34 


7 
6 


80.78 


1908 


.74 


isoi 


. 19 
. 19 


S 

6 


6 
2 


89 
27 


6 
6 


.88 


1901 


.90 


1900 


. 11 


4 


2 


17 


5 


.92 


1899 


. 7 


3 


2 


12 


4 


1.06 


1898 


. 4 


4 


2 


10 


4 


.98 


18W 


. 4 


7 


2 


18 


6 


.98 


1886 


. 27 


4 


8 


33 


5 


1.07 


1886 


. 80 


6 


1 


26 


fi 


1.27 



RAW TOBACCO EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED STATES. 
[In millions of pounds. Fiscal year ended June 30.] 



1904 817 1898 883 1894 290 1888 

1908 888 1888 868 1893 886 1888 288 

1908 801 1887 315 1898 855 1887 804 

1981 815 1886 295 1891 249 1886 888 

1900 844 396 80X 1890 285 1% 2» 



96 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

CIGAR LEAF TOBACCO CROPS OF THE UNITED STATES. 
[In thousands of cases of 360 pounds each.] 

Crop of 1904 lfl03 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1892*1889*187 9 

Ohio 122 120 128 70 98 115 110 54 107 99 

Wisconsin 116 158 151 57 127 113 75 51 55 30 

Pennsylvania 83 86 92 94 71 93 89 85 82 106 

New England .... 77 68 83 89 73 69 57 66 34 56 

New York 16 23 22 30 32 31 30 43 27 19 

Southern 15 14 14 6 6 10 7 — 2 - 

Total 429 469 490 346 407 421 368 299 307 310 

*Federal census. 



Hay 



THE HAY CROP AND MARKET. 

Second only to corn in its money value, the yearly crop 
of hay in the United States is certainly worth the most 
careful consideration in care and marketing. It is annually 
worth over half a billion of dollars. Some 40,000,000 to 45,- 
000,000 acres are annually devoted to growing hay, which 
area has shown a slight increase during recent years. In 
good years 65,000,000 tons are harvested. Taking the entire 
country, the average rate of yield per acre is about 1% tons, 
covering a number of years, though certain sections may 
make much better showing during brief periods. In 1903 and 
also 1902 the average yield was about 1% tons. In 1904 it was 
estimated at 1.45 tons. According to the department of agri- 
culture, the price on the farm at the opening of December 
has in recent years shown a higher tendency, $9 to $10 per 
ton. Considerable change has taken place in the crop in 
recent years. Large areas through the central and western 
states which formerly yielded considerable wild or prairie 
grass have been put under cultivation and seeded to timo- 
thy and clovers. 

Prairie hay is still the mainstay of the markets in the 
central and western states, the best grass selling well in 
comparison with tame grasses. The extensive yields of al- 
falfa in the Rocky mountain plateau and westward to the 
Pacific coast, farmers securing two, three and four crops in 
a season, are all consumed in the territories where grown, 
little of this description finding its way east of the Missouri 
river, hence affording no particular competition to the de- 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 97 

scriptions first named. The leading hay states include New 
York, Pennsylvania. Ohio, Illinois, Iowa. Kansas, Sou^h Da- 
kota and California. Hay for shipment is compressed into 
compact bales, these differii^g in size. Within the past few 
years farmers show more disposition to bale for home use, in 
order to avoid loss on top and outside of stack when unpro- 
tected from storms. Timothy hay can be baled as soon as 
It is thoroughly dry. Prairie can be baled in the field direct: 
the sooner the work is done, the less loss from bleaching and 
rain. The usual length of bales for market is 3 feet for 
small and 4 for large; there is a popular size 30 inches long. 
The cross section of the bale varies, 14x18 inches, 16x18, 16x20, 
17x22, 18x22; weights 75 to 160 pounds. 

But little hay is exported annually, it not being a sur- 
plus crop. Farmers in the qlder middle and eastern states 
secure higher prices through nearness to big consuming 
markets, yet are obliged to face some competition from 
prairie hay shipped directly to the east from sections west 
of the Mississippi river, particularly in seasons of scarcity. 
The Chicago market prefers a small bale, weighing 70 to 90 
pounds, St. Louis takes a little heavier bale, while in New 
York large bales are the rule, these weighing 200 pounds and 
over. 

A uniform scale for grading hay has not as yet been 
established, although the efforts on the part of the hay trade 
are meeting with moderate success; many of the im- 
portant cities observe rules of their own. The national hay 
dealers* association has for years endeavored to induce all 
the leading markets to adopt its rules for grading. 

Straw is usually marketed in large bales, the price vary- 
ing greatly, according to brightness and other attraction, and 
the character of a somewhat irregular demand. To secure 
best figures, rye, wheat and oat straw should be reasonably 
clean, possessing good color, sound and well baled. There is 
a market for long, straight rye straw, if carefully pressed 
in bundles, and bright. 

Hay Is exported only when the English crop is very 
short and providing ocean freights are low. . These vary con- 
siderably, $2.50 to $5 per long ton of 2240 pounds. Our exports, 
meager at best, have increased some in recent years; from 
10,000 to 12,000 tons in the early 80's, to 50,000 and 60,000 tons 
annually the last few years. These are more than offset, 
however, by imports from Canada of 100,000 to 300,000 tons 
annually. The rate of duty, $4 per ton, serves to shut out 
considerable quantities of Canadian hay which otherwise 
would cross the border. In considering the course of prices 



98 AMERICAN AORICULTURI8T 

a short year. It is always necessary to recognize the fact of 
the rapid development of forage crops, which in seasons of 
hay plenty are neglected. When early summer points to an 
Indifferent yield of hay, farmers put in an increased acreage 
of hungarian, the millets, fodder corn, field peas, etc. 



EXPORTS PRINCIPAL. FARM CROPS FROM THK U. 8. 

[In round millions.] 



Year end- 
ed June 30 

Flour, bbls. 


Wheat, 

bushels 


Com, 

bushels 


Oats, 
bushels 


'Rye, 
bushels 




Clover 
|seed, lbs. 




Cotton, 
bale» 


Apples, 
barrels* 


* 

CO 




'04.. 17 


44 


56 


1 


1 


11 


6 


13 


6 


2018 


60 


11 


1503 


13 


306 


'03.. 20 


114 


75 


5 


5 


8 


16 


18 


7 


1666 


50 


8 


1671 


62 


357 


•02. .18 


155 


27 


10 


3 


9 


7 


6 


7 


460 


153 


11 


1633 


56 


291 


•01.. 19 


132 


178 


37 


2 


6 


12 


8 


7 


884 


89 


15 


1714 


43 


307 


•00.. 19 


102 


209 


41 


2 


24 


32 


15 


6 


526 


72 


13 


1627 


50 


345 


•99.. 18 


139 


174 


30 


10 


2 


19 


16 


7 


380 


65 


21 


1567 


34 


2^ 


•98 15 


148 


209 


69 


16 


11 


31 


10 


8 


605 


82 


17 


1356 


33 


263 


'97.. 15 


80 


177 


35 


9 


19 


13 


17 


6 . 


1495 


62 


11 


1056 


27 


315 


•96.. 15 


61 


100 


13 


1 


8 


6 


12 


5 


360 


59 


17 


798 


27 


288 


•95.. 15 


76 


28 


1 




2 


23 


5 


7 


819 


47 


18 


784 


11 


294 


•94. .17 


88 


65 


6 


— 


5 


45 


10 


5 


79 


54 


17 


745 


5 


269 


'93.. 17 


117 


46 


2 


1 


3 


8 


7 


4 


408 


33 


11 


802 


5 


24S 


•92.. 15 


157 


75 


9 


12 


3 


20 


10 


6 


939 


35 


13 


826 


12 


241 


•91.. 11 


55 


31 


1 


— 




21 


9 


6 


135 


28 


9 


638 


10 


237 


'90.. 12 


54 


102 


14 


2 




27 


11 


5 


545 


36 


8 


712 


8 


244 


'89.. 9 


46 


70 


1 


— 




34 


10 


5 


942 


22 


13 


588 


11 


212 


'88.. 12 


66 


24 


— 


— 




13 


2 


5 


490 


18 


7 


563 


6 


249 


'87.. 12 

« — — 


102 


40 








8 


7 


4 


592 


14 


— 


622 


11 


294 



•In thousands. 



TO DO BUSINESS WITH THE GOVERNMENT. 

In writing for information under any of the departments of 
government, apply either to the special officer under whose 
division the inquiry seems to fall, or if this point is not evi- 
dent, write simply to the department as a whole; as, for in- 
stance, when writing for bulletins upon farm topics, address 
♦he "Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C." But in 
writing for information concerning weather or meteorology, 
the letter would naturally be addressed to Chief of Weather 
Bureau, Washington, D. C. 

When writing to express an opinion on pending legislation, 
the person to address is the representative in congress from a 
person's own district, or to one or both of the senators from 
your state. Address them simply at Washington, D. C. 



TEAB BOOK AND ALMANAC 99 

HAY CROP OF THE UNITED STATES. 

Under "value" is first given average value per ton of 
hay on the farms of the country, December 1. 



Yield Value triide, 



Foreign Price timotliy per ton 



thou, teas 7«}ew York ('htcatfo 



:^S S 



•'§ s 5- ^ .5 ? I -s 1 a ^ « a 

£5 ;» is oS g€ a a ^ g 



^ << g £3 Hg Oft o5 £ w s -< fi a ^ 5 

1904. .40 1.45 58 _ -I- — — $19.00 $18.50 $17.00 $12.50 $14.00 $12.50 

1903.. 40 1.4 58 — — 293 51 21.00 25.00 19.00 14.00 15.00 13.00 

1902. .40 1.5 60 $9.06 $542 48 153 19.00 20.00 21.00 13.00 15.00 13.00 

1901.. 39 1.3 51 10.01 506 143 89 19.50 19.00 19.00 14.00 15.00 13.90 

190O..39 1.3 50 8.89 446 144 73 18.00 19.00 19.00 11.50 12.50 14.00 

1899.. 41 1.4 57 7.27 412 20 65 13.50 19.00 17.50 10.00 13.00 11.50 

1898.. 43 1.6 66 6.00 398 4 82 16.00 15.50 13.50 9.30 8.50 8.25 

1897.. 43 1.42 61 — — 120 62 16.00 16.00 16.00 10.00 11.00 10.00 

1896. .43 1.37 59 6.55 388 303 59 20.00 20.00 17.00 13.00 12.00 11.00 

1895.. 44 1.1 47 8.35 393 202 47 16.00 22.00 18.00 11.00 15.00 14.00 

1894.. 48 1.1 55 8.54 468 87 54 17.00 18.00 16.00 11.00 12.00 11.00 

1893.. 50 1.3 66 8.68 .571 104 33 18.00 19.00 18.00 12.00 11.00 11.00 

1892. . * 1.2 t57 8.49 (484 80 35 18.00 19.00 18.00 12.00 12.00 13.00 

1891.. • 1.2 $53 8.39 $445 58 28 13.00 18.00 17.00 10.00 12.00 15.00 

1890.. • 1.2 $50 7.74 $387 125 36 17.00 16.00 14.00 9.00 11.00 11.00 

1889.. * 1.3 $48 7.88 $378 105 22 18.00 18.00 17.00 10.00 11.00 11.00 

1888.. 39 1.2 47 10.76 408 100 18 18.00 20.00 19.00 13.00 15.00 12.00 

1887. .38 1.2 41 9.34 413 78 14 16.00 17.00 18.00 10.00 15.00 15.00 

1886.. 37 1.2 42 7.36 353 92 13 19.00 17.00 18.00 12.00 12.00 11.00 

1885.. 40 1.3 45 9.15 390 161 11 20.00 23.00 19.00 13.00 15.00 12.00 

1884.. 39 1.3 48 8.17 396 119 17 18.00 22.00 19.00 11.00 13.00 12.00 

1883.. 36 1.3 47 8.21 385 98 13 17.00 18.00 18.00 12.00 13.00 11.00 

.1882. .32 1.2 38 9.76 371 86 11 20.00 20.00 18.00 14.00 15.00 12.00 

1881.. 31 1.1 35 11.82 415 32 13 24.00 20.00 22.00 16.00 14.00 17.00 

1880.. 26 1.2 32 11.62 372 27 14 17.00 22.00 24.00 13.0U 16.00 16.00 

1877.. 25 1.2 32 8.50 272 — 7 — — — 9.00 10.00 U.OD 

1875.. 24 1.2 28 12.21 342— 7 — — — — — ^ 

1873..22 1.1 25 13.60 340— 5 — — — — — — 

1870.. 20 1.2 25 13.56 339— 7 — — — — — - 

1869. .19 1.4 26 12.78 338 — — — — — — — — 

1868.. 22 1.1 26 13.46 352— 6 — — — — — — 

1867. .20 1.3 26 14.49 373— 5 — — — — — ^ 

1866.. 18 1.2 22 14.58 318— 9 — — — — — - 



• No estimates for year named. Imports and exports for year 
ended June 30 therefore apply to crop of preceding^ year. 
$ Commercial estimates. 



100 AMERICAN AQRICULTURI8T 

Apples 

THE APPLE CROP AND MARKET. 

At no time in the history of farming has more attention 
been given to apple culture. Growers are practicing better 
care of orchards and are placing the product on the market 
in better condition, which ought to result in increased prices 
for the best fruit. A feature of the past few years is the 
greater desire to observe the principles taught in the schools 
of agriculture and horticulture, that best results may be at- 
tained. Within the past year or two there has been much 
discussion over cultural methods, but all agree on the neces- 
sity of proper spraying, a judicious thinning of fruit and 
intelligent care in picking, packing and marketing. The last 
named includes the very prominent fact of storage on the 
farm, in village and in city. Farmers and fruit growers 
show progress in solving the problem of storage on the 
farm, and a great many cold storage plants have been estab- 
lished. The successful orchardist who raises apples for 
profit has long since left the ranks of those who pay little 
or no attention to the needed requisites. 

COMMERCIAL APPLE DISTRICTS. 

The Important states are New York, Maine, Michigan, 
Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Ohio and Vermont 
In the northern and eastern sections of the United States. 
But little change has taken place recently, with the excep- 
tion that large orchards are each year being put out in 
Arkansas and Texas and some other portions of the south- 
west. In the highly Important territory of the central Mis- 
sissippi basin are included the heavy apple producing states 
of Missouri, Arkansas, portions of Kansas, Illinois and Iowa. 
Virginia has assumed a prominent position in certain varie- 
ties of choice table apples, enjoying something of an export 
trade. This branch of horticulture Is also receiving increased 
attention In Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky and other 
parts of the middle south. West of the Rocky mountains, 
California, Oregon and Washington are making steady 
growth In apple culture, and Idaho, Montana and Colorado 
show excellent results. 

The larger middle and eastern states. Including Michi- 
gan, New York and part of northern New England, always 
furnish a liberal surplus of apples for winter markets. Quite 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 101 

a proportion of which is exported. Canada maintains her 
enviable reputation as a producer of magnificent fruit, par- 
ticularly the provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia, the last 
named in a good year raising 500,000 barrels of fine apples, 
which go to the English markets. There Is still a deficiency, 
in some of the central states, of the best class of winter 
fruit, but orchardists are making commendable progress In 
weeding out the poor varieties and replacing with standards. 
It may be also noted that urgent need Is still in evidence of 
mtelligent work of orchardists in the care of trees and in 
battling insect and fungous pests in order to secure perfect 
fruit. 



PROMINENT COMMERCIAL, FAVORITES. 

The standard varieties in winter fruit continue as for 
several years past. In the middle and eastern states and 
Canada, these include Baldwin, Greening, Northern Spy, 
Spitzenberg, etc. The Russet, which for a number of years 
was in some neglect, has recently shown more evidence of 
again coming into favor. In the west and southwest the 
Ben Davis is the most popular variety. Good selling apples 
in their season also include such varieties as the Graven- 
stein, Pippin, King, Bellflower, Jenneting and Winesap. 



WEIGHTS OP VARIETIES OF APPLES PER BUSHEL. 

[Bailey.] 

The following varieties, when taken from the trees in 
October, gave the following weights: 



Pounds Pounds 

Baldwin 50 Rambo 50 

Belmont 50 Rhode Island Greening 52 

Ben Davis 47 Roxbury Russet 50 

Bunker Hill 49 Rubicon 46 

Esopus Spitzenberg 44 Stark 56 

Pallawater 48 Swaar 51 

Golden Russet 53 Sweet Bough a 39 

Lawyer 47 Talman Sweet 48 

Nickajack 51 Tompkins King 44 

Northern Spy 46 Yellow Bellefleur 46 

Pennock 47 , 



102 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

HANDLING THE SURPLUS CROP. 

Every year there is a flood of fair to good autumn apples 
in practically all markets. This shows that it is easy to 
overdo the production of this grade of fruit. Each season 
from August to November finds the markets flooded with 
soft stock, indifferent in quality, selling at mean prices. 
While much of this class of fruit goes from orchard to cider 
mills, and large quantities to evaporators, the markets as a 
rule are burdened with autumn apples. Most of these must 
be. handled by domestic markets, although Europe will take 
a moderate quantity of strictly choice autumn fruit for table 
purposes. Strictly fancy table stock, by the way, generally 
flnds a good market in the autumn. 

In handling the crop of winter apples, fruit growers now 
generally understand approved methods of storing and keep- 
ing apples at home, so that an important part of the crop is 
thus cared for, providing prices are temporarily unfavora- 
ble. Apple dealers in the cities, particularly In a short year, 
get into the field early, and contract many orchards at an 
agreed price, picking, packing and shipping the fruit at 
their convenience when fully matured in September or Oc- 
tober. 

A feature of the apple trade. in late years has been the 
scarcity and the high price of barrels at picking time. Prices 
of these packages have been very high for at least two 
years, cutting sharply into the profits of the growers. This 
reduced the profits of picking second grade fruit until a 
great deal was allowed to go to waste in the orchards. The 
season of 1904-5 was marked by a large crop of apples in 
New York state, some portions of New England, Michigan 
and a few other sections. Barrels were very scarce and 
prices for the frUit were such as not to pay for picking infe- 
rior stuff. It has also become quite a problem to secure 
sufiicient help during the picking season in the large orchard 
districts. 

EXPORTS OF APPLES. 

The export trade in apples has long since assumed a 
prominent place, and there is reason for belief that it will 
year by year show a greater total. The quantity of apples 
that can be shipped abroad depends very largely upon the 
home crop and prices, and upon supplies of fruit in western 
Europe, the chief consumer of the surplus exported from 
America. When our crop is short and prices high, exports 



TOAR BOOK AXD ALMANAC lOS 

are restricted. But when conditions are favorable, a total 
of 3,500,000 barrels apples and upward is shipped from the 
United States and Canada in a season, the bulk of these go- 
ing to the United Kingdom. 

The growth of the trade in American and Canadian ap- 
ples on the continent of Europe is uneven, but on the whole 
fairly encouraging. As this fruit is regarded by the conti- 
nental orchardist a direct competitor of his own product, 
the agrarian party in some of the European countries, par- 
ticularly Germany, does everything possible to restrict the 
entrance of American apples. But, in spite of difficulties of 
this character, our apples are each year shown much favor 
in central and eastern Europe. 

While much of the export trade is made up of barreled 
fruit, the apple box is increasing somewhat in popularity 
with foreign dealers. On the Pacific coast the box is the 
standard package, in which large quantities are exported 
to the Orient, as well as to Europe. The apple export trade 
of 1903-4 was very encouraging, exceeding 3,800,000 barrels 
from the United States and Canada. The season of 1904-5 
promises to be equal, if not greater. Perhaps the most pop- 
ular seller in the English market is the Baldwin, although 
King, Newtown Pippin, Northern Spy, Greening and Russet 
are favorites. 

Indiscriminate packing and shipping Is a mistake too 
often made in exporting. It should be remembered that 
foreign buyers demand sound fruit well selected and prop- 
erly packed; nothing else should be shipped abroad. Ocean 
freights on apples, Boston or New York to Liverpool, are 
usually 40 to 70 cents per barrel. Selling charges in Liver- 
pool are close to 15 cents, this including dockage, town dues. 
Insurance, advertising, sampling and labor in handling. In 
addition is the 5% commission on sales. Suppose, for exam- 
ple, a parcel of 100 barrels Baldwins, well packed, sells at 
16 shillings per barrel, equal to about $3.85; 5% commission 
on this would be 19 cents, to which may be added the 15 
cents, total about 34 cents, this representing charges for sell- 
ing a barrel of apples after reaching Liverpool. 

As a rule, apples landing at English markets are sold at 
auction and quick disposition Is made of the entire ship- 
load, the fruit going in lots of 20 barrels and upward. Great 
Britain always has a small to moderate crop of apples; also 
imports fair quantities from northern Europe during the 
autumn, and in early spring Australia sends some apples to 
the mother country. But In the main, the chief dependence 
is on the United States and Canada, which ship freely dur- 



104 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



ing the winter season, or from September to April inclusive. 
Ocean freights on apples, Boston or New York to Hamburg, 
the leading German market, are usually 70 to 75 cents per 
barrel, occasionally as low as 60 cents. 



APPLE CHOP OF UNITED STATES IN RECENT YEARS. 

""T""! i90T ~ 1903 1902 ~ 

^rop oi Barrels Barrels Barrels 

New England: 

Maine 1,425,000 1,050,000 1,200,000 

New Hampshire 940,000 675,000 900.000 

Vermont 700,000 430,000 600,000 

Massachusetts 995,000 660.000 1,0&0.000 

Rhode Island 140,000 113,000 150,000 

Connecticut 670,000 479,000 720,000 

Total 4,870,000 3,407,000 4,«20,000 

Central: 

New York 7,200,000 5,250,000 6.250,000 

New Jersey 1.250,000 1,120,000 1,400.000 

Pennsylvania 4,150,000 8,800,000 3,300,000 

Delaware 195,000 150,000 235,000 

Ohio 3,275,000 3,100,000 3,500,000 

Michigan 3,515,000 3,260,000 3.400,000 

Wisconsin 375,000 300,000 280,000 

Total 19.960,000 16,980,000 18,365,000 

Middle west: 

Indiana 730,000 980,000 1,400,000 

Illinois 632.000 924.000 2,100,000 

Missouri 600,000 466,000 1,400,000 

Kansas 540,000 450,000 1,000,000 

Nebraska 345,000 214,000 450,000 

Iowa 1,550,000 1,306.000 1,250,000 

Arkansas 1,100,000 800,000 1,000,000 

Total 5,397,000 5,240,000 8,600.000 

Southern: 

West Virginia 960,000 2,400,000 2.000,000 

Virginia 1,850,000 2,250,000 2,500.000 

Maryland 375,000 975,000 780,000 

Kentucky 2,900,000 2.700,000 2,000,000 

Tennessee 2,650,000 2,295,000 1,800,000 

Totol 8,735,000 10,620,000 9,080.000 



YBAR BQOK AND AI^MANAC W 

"IT ~ Barrels ISriili Barr^lp 

crop of 1904 1903 1902 

■ ■ " » llJUtl--! ■ I i > ■■ ■ !■ 11 HP" •■■ ^ I I . » ■ ■« . ■ > ■ ■ 

Far west: 

Colorado 275,000 mOQO 200,000 

Idaho ,, 105,000 95,000 , 100,000 

Utah 116,000 110,000 95,000 

Montana 26,000 25,000 25,000 

California 865,000 1,160,000 1,100,000 

Oregon 560,000 502,000 420,000 

Washingrton 503,000 437,000 416,000 

Total 2,449,000 2.559.000 2,416,000 

All other 3,960,000 3,820,000 3,548,000 

United States crop 45 ,360.000 42.626,000 46.625,000 

Earlier years: 1901. 26,970,000; 1900, 56.820,000; 1899, 58,466,000 (fed- 
eral census figures); 1896, 69,879,000; 1889, 57,242,000 (federal census 
figures). 

EXPORTS DRIED APPIrBS FROM UNITB3D STATES. 



Yttur 






Year 






6nded 


Total 


Avg. 


en4^4 


Totftl 


Avg. 


Juneeo Pounds 


value 


value 


June 80 Pounds 


value 


▼alA 


1904.. 22,730,009 


$1,257,900 


5.58c 


1894.. 2,846,645 


$168,054 


5.90c 


1903. .89,647,179 


2,381,469 


6.00 


1893.. 7,906,819 


482,086 


6.02 


1902.. 15,664,468 


1,190,593 


7.60 


1892.. 26,042,063 


1,288,102 


4.57 


1901.. 28,309.023 


1,510,581 


5.33 


1891,. 6,973,168 


409,605 


5.87 


1900. .34,964,010 


2,247,861 


6.42 


1890. .20,861,462 


1.038,682 


4.98 


1899.. 19,305,739 


1,246,733 


6.45 


1889.. 22.102,579 


1,201,070 


5.43 


1898.. 31,031,254 


1,897,725 


6.11 


1888.. 11,803,161 


812,682 


7.73 


1897. .30,883,921 


1,356,678 


4.39 


1887.. 8,130,396 


413.363 


5.08 


1896.. 26,691,963 


1,340,507 


5.02 


1886.. 10,473,183 


548,434- 


5.2S 


1895.. 7,085,946 


461,214 


6.50 


1885.. 18,416,573 


1,062,859 


6.77 



POINTS IN BARRBLINQ APPLES. 



In packing for either domeBtic or foreign markets, proper 
selection, uniform M%e of package and good Judgment in 
character of the work bring best results. The fruit should 
run uniform throughout the barrel, both in quality and size; 
should be closeiy and tightly packed, without undue bruis- 
ing, one end of the barrel nicely faced, the package well 
coopered, and stenciled with- the name of the variety and 
quality. No. 1 apples should prove just what they claim, 
the barrel containing absolutely no No. 2 fruit. In order to 
ship safely and satisfactorily, apples must be packed tight. 

No. 1 apples must be 2% inches in diameter if of the fol- 
lowing varieties: Ben Davis, Willow Twig, Baldwin, Green- 
ing. Varieties such as Romanite, Russet, Winesap, Jona- 



106 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

than, Missouri Pippin and others will be 2% inches In diam- 
eter. They must be free from worms, not over 10% affected 
by defacement of surtace, hand packed, not bruised or skin 
broken, and must be of a bright, normal color, and shapely. 
A No. 2 apple may be one-quarter of an inch less in size, not 
over 20% affected by defacement of surface, etc. 

The standard apple barrel of the United. States, i. e., the 
barrel adopted by the International Apple Shippers' Associ- 
ation, contains 100 quarts, or about the same as the standard 
cranberry barrel. Officials of this association state that the 
apple barrel should have 17%-inch heads, 28%-inch staves 
and 64 inches bulge. This barrel holds three bushels. Bushel 
boxes were recommended to be ll%xll%x20 inches on the 
inside. While this barrel described is generally considered 
as standard, the apple crop of the country is by no means 
packed in barrels of this uniform size. While it is used in 
most orchards of western New York, the Hudson river dis- 
trict uses a smaller barrel known as **the 16%-Inch barrel." 
In Nova Scotia, a district which turns out 500,000 barrels of 
export apples each year, the 96-quart barrel Is generally 
used. In Ontario the 30-inch stave barrel is much used. 

LEADING APPLE COUNTIES OF U. S. AND CANADA. 

Arkansas— Benton, Carroll. Madison, Washington. 

California — Sonoma, Santa Cruz, Los Angeles, Eldorado, 
Napa, Santa Clara. 

Colorado — Fremont, Jefferson, Boulder, Larimer, Mesa, 
Delta, 'Montrose. 

Connecticut— Fairfield, Litchfield, Hartford, New Haven. 

Illinois— Madison, Adams, Marion, Sh::rlby, Union, Wil- 
liamson, Hancock, Wayne, Washington. 

Iowa — Adams, Clarke, Decatur, Fremont, Mills, Mont- 
gomery, Page, Ringgold, Taylor, Union, Warren, Lee. 

Kansas — Labette. Cherokee, Leavenworth, Bourbon. 
Brown, Douglas, Shawnee. 

Kentucky — Meade, Warren, Hardin, Campbell. 

Maine — Oxford, Kennebec, Cumberland, Penobscot, Som- 
erset, York. 

Maryland— Baltimore, Frederick, Carroll, Montgomery. 

Massachusetts— Worcester, Middlesex, Franklin, Hamp- 
shire, Berkshire, Essex. 

Michigan — Berrien, Oakland, Lenawee, Kent, Allegan, 
Van Buren, Cass, Saint Joseph. 

Missouri — Nodaway, Jasper, Vernon, Greene, Andrew, 
Jackson, Howell, Clay, Texas, Webster. 



TEAR BOOK AND AJOiANAC 107 

Nebraska — Otoe, Richardson, Nemaha, Cass, Johnson, 
Pawnee. 

NefW Hampshire— Grafton, Merrimack, Hillsboro, Rock- 
ingham, Os^rroll. 

New York — Niagara, Monroe, Genesee, Erie, Wayne, Or- 
leans, Ontario, Steuben, Oswego, Albany. 

Ohio — Washington, Ashtabula, Columbiana, Cuyahoga, 
Clermont, gtark. 

Oregon — Clackamas, Marion, Linn, Yamhill, Washington. 

Pennsylvania — Allegheny, Crawford, Erie, Butler, Sus- 
quehanna, Westmoreland, Clinton. 

Vermont — Windsor, Windham, Orange, Washington, Rut- 
land. 

Virginia — Augusta, Rockingham, Albemarle, Patrick, 
Rappahannock. 

Washington— Walla Walla, Columbia, Clark, Whitmaji, 
Spokane. 

Wisconsin — Fond du J^ac, Outagamie, Rock. 

Nova ScQtia— Annapolis, Halifax, Hants, Kings. 

Ontario — Brant, Dundas, Durham, pigin, Essex, Fronte- 
nac, Qlengarry, Grenville, Haldimand, Halton, Huron, Kent, 
Lambton, Leeds, Lincoln, Middlesex, Norfolk, Northumber- 
land, Ontario, Oxford, Peel, Perth, Prince Edward, Stormont, 
Waterloo, WeHand, Wellington, Wentworth, York. 

Quebec — Chateaugay, Drummond, Huntington, Iberville, 
Richmond. 



HISTORIC FIRES. 



There have been many destructive fires in the history of the 
world txovfi Nineveh to Baltimore. 

London, 1666, when flve-sixths of the city within the walls 
was burned. This was the year following the great plague, and 
appalling as was the loss, the gain was even greater, as the 
germs of the plague were destroyed, and the new city was built 
more openly and hygienically. 

MoscoWf 1312, when the French entered the Russian capital, 
and fires were started which raged six days and burned nine- 
tenths of the city. 

In this country, one of the first great fires was in New York, 
1835, loss $18,000,000. Portland, Me., was set on fire by Fourth of 
July crackers, and suffered a loss of $10,000,000. Chicago, in 1871, 
had the most disastrous conflagration of any in the United 
States, with a loss of 200 lives, $190,000,000 in property, and the 
destruction of thousands of homes. Boston followed in 1872, the 
loss being almost entirely in the business section, amount $80.- 
000,000. Baltimore, in 1904, burned the commercial center, loss 
$50,000,000. 



108 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



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YBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 109 

Potatoes 

POTATO CROP OF THE WORLD. 

The world's production of potatoes in an average year 
Is approximately 4000 million bushels. This may be com- 
pared with the world's crop of wheat of 3000 millions, of 
corn substantially the same, of rye 1300 and of barley 800 
million bushels. This brief array of figures shows at a 
glance the great Importance of what Is a principal food prod- 
uct of modern nations. The potato is a staple of the masses 
to such an extent that Surope produces annually 2% times 
as much in bulk of this crop as of wheat. The average 
potato crop of all Europe reported, including the tjnited 
Kingdom, is something like 3500 million bushels. The rate 
of yield per acre is larger in the United Kingdom and Europe 
than in the United States, hinting at the possibility of great- 
ly increased production of potatoes from a given area, pro- 
viding conditions are favorable. 

The potato crop of 1904 was unusually large, exceeding 
anything in recent years. Some development of rot in im- 
portant potato producing states, such as Wisconsin, Michi- 
gan and New York, cut Into the crop somewhat. According 
to final returns of American Agriculturist's county corre- 
spondents, carefully summarized, also giving due weight to 
all other reliable testimony at hand, the potato crop of the 
United States in 1904 approximates 288,700,000 bushels, com- 
pared with 255,000,000 bushels one year ago, and 272,000,000 
bushels in 1902. 

The quality was generally good, although some com- 
plaints of rather large and coarse tubers reach us from a few 
sections. This quite outside of the development of rot just at 
time of harvest, which proved quite serious in portions of 
certain states, as indicated. 

WHERE THE COMMERCIAL CROP IS LARGE. 

In studying the latest comparativ^e figures on the potato 
crop by states, it will be noted that the increase in the heavy 
producing sections of the northwest compared with 1903 was 
very marked. Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota 
together showed something like 24,000,000 bushels more po- 
tatoes than: in 1903, although the gain is not so marked com- 
pared with two years ago. 



110 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

New York, always a very important producer, and a 
potent factor in shaping values, both east and west, showed 
up with much the same crop as 1903, after taking account of 
the development of rot, which slightly reduced the average 
rate of yield of marketable potatoes. Pennsylvania and 
Ohio made a slight increase, while the gain in New England 
over 1903 was substantial, owing chiefly to the splendid crop 
produced in the Aroostook potato district of northern Maine. 
Taking the country at large, the average rate of yield per 
acre appeared to be something like ten bushels heavier than 
a year earlier, and substantially greater than in any recent 
year. 

The potato crop of 1904, compared with the production of 
recent years, was as follows: 

\ 

Crop of Acres Per acre Bushels 



1904 3,026,000 

1903 3,004,000 

1902 3,016,000 

1901 2,919,000 



95 


288,664.000 


85 


255,009,000 


90 


271,777,000 


62 


183,321,000 



In making comparisons it should be borne in mind that 
with the exception of 1902 the crops above presented were 
all small crops, so that while the crop for 1904 closely crowds 
the 300 million mark, as a matter of fact it is only moder- 
ately larger than previous good crops, and only slightly 
larger than the crop of 1899, as reported by the federal cen- 
sus enumeration. In the meantime, the population of the 
country has increased by fully 7%, so that the relative potato 
supply for the two years in question is not radically changed. 

It is a most important factor in making up food require- 
ments. A crop universal geographically, yet the main sur- 
plus available for markets after harvest is ended is derived 
from comparatively few states. These include New England, 
New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Colorado, the 
Dakotas, and to a less extent Iowa, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
Nebraska, Utah and California. While other sections, in- 
cluding the south, turn off liberal crops, these as a rule are 
mostly consumed at home, although in certain years various 
states not in the commercial belt named have a liberal sur- 
plus for export 'beyond their borders. Nor is there much in- 
ternational trade in potatoes, nearly every country, both 
in America and Europe, consuming almost or quite its entire 
production, one year with another. A number of countries 
yield a moderate surplus beyond home requirements, export- 



fHAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 111 

ing this to neigrhborlng territory not so fortunate. But so 
far as the United States is concerned, the imports and ex- 
ports are insignificant compared with the great volume of 
the crop. 

A full yield of potatoes in the United States is 280,000,000 
bushels. This has been exceeded but once or twice, while in 
short years the crop measured only 150 to 175 millions. Where 
extended areas have been brought under this crop in some 
states, a portion of the normal acreage In other states may 
be, one year with another, devoted to other crops, partic- 
ularly following a season of low prices. 

Owing to the great bulk and perishable nature of the 
crop, it cannot be handled as advantageously as many oth- 
ers. As a result, in years of big crops, net returns to farm- 
ers located long distances from markets are often quite un- 
satisfactory. The area under this crop is about 3,000,000 
acres. 

The potato is a pioneer, in a sense, yielding exception- 
ally well in such comparatively new countries as northern 
Maine, parts of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, the Dako- 
tas and Colorado. Northern grown stock is in great demand 
each season for shipment to the middle and southern states 
for seed purposes. This applies particularly to quality, rate 
of yield and freedom from disease. The chief enemies of 
the potato crop are insects, blight and rust, followed by a 
tendency toward rapid rotting late in the season and after 
harvest. . 

THE FOREIGN TRADE IN POTATOES IS SMALL., 

year by year, yet in some seasons makes a respectable show- 
ing. When the home crop is poor, considerable quantities 
of potatoes ar^ imported from Scotland and northern Eu- 
rope, and Imports usually include some stock from the lower 
Canadian provinces. Some potatoes are brought to Atlantic 
coast cities each winter and spring from the Bermudas, 
before our own southern crop is ready for market, but these 
exert no appreciable influence on our aggregate crop of 
late fall. 



We guarantee the reliability of every advertisement In the 
American Agriculturist weeklies, and will make good any loss 
which any subscriber may sustain, while his subscription lasts, 
by trusting any advertiser who may prove to be a deliberate 
swindler. 



112 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

POTATO CROP BY STATES— ACREAGE AND YIELD. 

[In round thousands.] 





/ — Acres gruwu — ^ 


Yield per acre, 


bUB. 


,^Total production, bus.-^ 


Crop of 


1904 


1903 


1902 


1901 


1904 


1908 


1902 


1901 


1904 


1903 


1902 


iwa 


Me 


66' 


"63" 


m 


55" 


200 


160 


125 


140 


13,200 


9,765 


7,500 


7.700 


N. H. . 


20 


19 


20 


20 


145 


100 


85 


80 


2,900 


1,900 


1.700 


1,600 


Vt 


22 


22 


24 


23 


110 


125 


100 


85 


2,420 


2,750 


2,400 


1.955 


Mass. . 


25 


24 


26 


26 


125 


103 


108 


65 


3,125 


2,475 


2,808 


1,625 


R. I. ... 


5 


5 


5 


5 


100 


80 


88 


85 


500 


440 


484 


425 


y^^ L* • • ■ • • 


20 


20 


22 


22 


100 


90 


98 


70 


2,000 


1,800 


2,205 


1,540 


N. Y... 


360 


360 


365 


350 


95 


85 


90 


85 


30,960 


30.600 


32.800 


29,850 


N. J. .. 


45 


45 


46 


45 


86 


100 


90 


70 


4,275 


4,500 


4,140 


3.150 


Pa 


210 


210 


220 


195 


80 


80 


77 


75 


17,220 


16,800 


16,940 


14,626 


V^« •••••• 


173 


170 


170 


168 


95 


78 


100 


58 


16.436 


13,200 


17.000 


9,744 


Mich. .. 


268 


268 


270 


210 


106 


81 


85 


90 


28.408 


21,700 


23,C00 


18.900 


Ind. . . . 


92 


90 


94 


110 


91 


77 


90 


28 


8.372 


6,930 


8,460 


3.080 


Ill 


151 


148 


145 


153 


98 


72 


90 


32 


14,798 


10,666 


13,050 


4,896 


Wis. ... 


242 


240 


235 


225 


no 


65 


100 


60 


26,620 


15,600 


23,500 


13,500 


XSi% . . • • . 


164 


157 


175 


170 


118 


68 


100 


27 


19,352 


10,675 


17,500 


4.n90 


Minn. .. 


150 


147 


145 


130 


84 


71 


96 


56 


12,600 


10,436 


13,775 


7.280 


Mo 


85 


88 


. 92 


89 


89 


71 


110 


20 


7,565 


6.248 


10,120 


1,V80 


Kan. . . 


85 


86 


91 


90 


?0 


67 


105 


24 


6,800 


5,762 


9.556 


2,160 


Neb. . . 


88 


85 


84 


164 


110 


74 


120 


34 


9,680 


6.290 


10,080 


5.576 


S. D. .. 


37 


36 


35 


61 


90 


100 


100 


50 


3,330 


3.600 


3.500 


3,060 


N. D. .. 


21 


22 


22 


37 


104 


80 


86 


90 


2,184 


1.760 


1.870 


3.330 


Col. ... 


40 


40 


39 


38 


125 


100 


100 


110 


5,000 


4.000 


3,900 


4,180 


Cal. ... 


42 


45 


45 


30 


135 


122 


140 


125 


5,670 


5.490 


6.300 


3,750 


Ore. . . . 


33 


33 


33 


23 


90 


157 


130 


146 


2,970 


5,180 


•1,690 


3,220 


Wash. . 


26 


26 


27 


21 


115 


164 


125 


115 


2,990 


4,264 


3,375 


2.415 


Other ' . 


550 525 525 460 
3025 3005 3016 2919 


78 
95 


75 

81 


65 
90 


60 
62 2 


43,280 


41.625 
244,445 


34,125 


29,400 


Total .. 


288,664 : 


271,777 


183.321 



AMERICAN POTATO CROP FOR 21 YEARS, WITH 

COMPARISONS. 

The Imports and exports corresponding to the domestic 
crop of 1903, are for the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1904, as 
all imports are during the period October to June, and so 
on for the other years. Boston market prices for November, 
January and April, following the harvest, are selected, be- 
cause most sensitive to importations. The average value of 
imported potatoes is given under ••Imports." The average 
prices on farms of United States December 1, as returned to 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



113 



United States department of agriculture, are stated under 
"Farm." 



Yield in bus. 



United States 



Prices of potatoes 



Crop Acres Per 
of p otato es ac re 

1904.. 3, 025 .000 95 

19a3..3,0O5,0OO 81 

1902. .3,016,000 90 

1901. .2,919,000 66 

1900.. 2, 923 ,000 87 

1899. .2,976,000 81 

1898.. 2,778,000 73 

1897. .2,745,000 64 

1896.. 2,865,000 86 

1895.. 3, 204 ,000 88 

1894.. 2,914. 000 64 

1893. .2.605,000 72 

1S92.. 2, 506,000 62 

1891.. 2,660,000 93 

1890. .2,606,000 58 

1889.. 2,601 ,000 76 

1888.. 2,533,000 80 

1887.. 2,357,000 57 

1886.. 2,287 ,000 78 

1885.. 2,226.000 78 

1884. .2,221,000 86 



Total 
crop 



Imports, 

DUS. 



Exports, 
bus. 



Imp. 
H. Farm 



Nov. Jan. Apr. 



288,664.000 
244.445,000 
271,777,000 
193,121,000 
255,100,000 
242,950,000 
203,928,000 
174,116,000 
245,480,000 
286,350,000 
185,000,000 
183,000,000 
155.000,000 
250,000,000 
150.000,000 
218,000,000 
202,000,000 
134,000,000 
168.000,000 
175,000,000 
191.000.000 



•18,965 
3,166,581 

358,505 
7,666.162 

a71,909 

155,413 

530.420 
1.171,282 

247.186 

175.240 
1,343.000 
3,003.000 
4,317,000 

187,000 
5,402,000 
3,416,000 

883,000 
8,260,000 
1,432,000 
1,937,000 

659.000 



•213.160 
484,042 
843.075 
628,484 
741,483 
803,360 
581.833 
605,187 
926.646 
680,000 
573,000 
793,000 
846,000 
557,000 
341.000 
407,000 
472,000 
404,000 
435,000 
495,000 
80,000 



$0.58 
.66 
.41 
.61 
.95 
.56 
.40 
.58 
.73 
.45 
.42 
.47 
.95 
.51 
.40 
.36 
/.45 
.38 
.33 
.30 



$0.50 
.47 
.77 
.43 
.39 
.41 
.55 
.29 
.27 
.54 
.59 
.67 
.37 
.78 
.40 
.40 
.69 
.45 
.53 



$0.55 
.55 
.78 
.80 
.65 
.51 
.43 
.75 
.39 
.38 
.38 
.68 
.80 
.50 
.85 
.60 
.60 
.80 
.60 
.60 
.57 



$0.60 
.70 
.88 
.87 
.72 
.65 
.70 
.83 
.40 
.35 
.58 
.68 

1.00 
.50 

1.05 
.70 
.60 
.90 
.60 
.85 
.58 



$1.05 
.85 
.95 
.70 
.58 
.90 
.90 
.43 
.35 
."iO 
.80 

1.10 
.46 

1.15 

1.00 
.60 

1.12 
.70 
.80 
.65 



Sugar 



THE AMERICAN SUGAR INDUSTRY. 



The growing of cane and beets in the United States for 
the production of sugar is becoming one of the important 
industries. The permanent success of the proposition is so 
thoroughly bound up with the import trade in raw sugars 
that the business is extremely sensitive to tariffs, reciprocity 
treaties, or "free trade" between the United States and our 
new Insular possessions, such as Hawaii, Porto Rico and 
the Philippines. The domestic production of cane sugar, 
confined largely to Louisiana, has shown very slow growth 
In recent years. Perhaps one of the greatest needs in devel- 
oping the cane sugar industry is a higher sugar content 
in cane. This Is a matter discussed far and wide, forming 
an important topic in every convention of cane growers. 

The sugar beet industry has held its own in the past two 
or three years, and under favorable conditions Is a profitable 



114 AMESRICAN AGRICULTURIST 

crop. The beets are either grown by companies who own 
factories, or by farmers who live in the neighborhood of 
such factories. 

So far as the world's production of cane sugar is con- 
cerned, this has increased from substantially 3,000,000 tons 
annually to upward of 4,000,000 tons. In the season of 1899-0, 
cane sugar constituted only 35% of the world's total sugar 
production. By 1902-3 this had increased to 42%, and in 
1904-6 48%, due to the shortage in beets. According to fig- 
ures furnished by the Sugar Trade Journal, and Licht's esti- 
mate of European crops, the world's output of cane and beet 
3Ugar, 10,471,800 tons for 1903-4, was the maximum in the 
history of the sugar industry. The Cuban output of cane 
sugar has assumed normal proportions after the war dis- 
turbances of recent years. Cuba and Java continue far in 
the lead as single producers of cane sugar, making up fully 
half the world's total, followed in importance by Hawaii, 
the Philippines, Porto Rico, etc. A feature worthy of special 
note is the hint that the world's production of cane sugrar is 
increasing rapidly, as above indicated. 

METHOD OP PAYING FOR SUGAR BEETS. 

The matter of paying for sugar beets in the United States 
is based primarily on the purity and per cent of 9ugar con- 
tent. In all cases, the price is for beets delivered at the fac- 
tory net weight less tare. Two methods are in vogue: 1, to 
pay a straight price for all beets; 2, to pay a minimum price 
for beets containing 12% sugar and a certain fixed sum, usu- 
ally 25 cents per ton, for each additional 1% of sugar. 

PRICES AT SUGAR FACTORIES. 

A glance at the record of prices paid at various beet su- 
gar factories during the season of 1904-5 affords interesting 
comment on the industry. In Lakin county, Kan., the crop 
was between 3000 and 4000 tons, for which growers received 
%5 per ton, with $1 additional as bounty from the state. To 
stimulate the industry in untried areas, $9000 state bounty 
was offered to be paid to growers who marketed and manu- 
factured into sugar beets testing 12% or more of sugar. This 
resulted in a large increase in acreage and a general stimulus 
to the business. At Holland, Mich., the factory was obligred 
to give notice to farmers not to deliver their beets except 
in small amounts. The crop was very large in that section 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



115 



and the factory was deluged with beets. Through some sec- 
tions of Wisconsin the crop was not up to standard of sugar 
content and farmers did not market the beets, but fed them 
to stock, finding good returns in this practice. The great 
need throughout beet growing sections is for improvement 
in methods of culture and increase in sugar content. 

THE SUGAR TRADE IN THE UNITED STATES. 

All the figures in the following table (except those of the 
beet sugar production for all years and the 1903-4 figures of 
the cane sugar production, which are from WiUet & Gray's 
Statistical Sugar Trade Journal), were compiled from the 
Statistical Abstract of the United States, with advance fig- 
ures furnished by the bureau of statistics. 





Domestic production 


Imports 


Consumj 
Total, 1 


ptlon 


Fiscal 


Cane, 


BMta, 


Total* ' 


Total, 


Value. 


:*ercap. 
pounds 


years 


long tons 


lout tons 

191,000 


long >ns 

531,000 


long tons 


millions 


lonrr nt 


1904-.5. 


. .340,000 


— 


l«)S-4. 


. .215,000 


208.135 


423,136 


1,651.171 


$71.9 


— 


— 


1902-3. 


..300,000 


195,463 


495,4b: 


1,882.191 
1,779.466 


72.1 


_ 


— 


1901-2. 


. .310,614 


163,126 


473,740 


90.4 


2,372,316 


68.7 


1900-1. 


..277,891 


76,859 


354,750 


1,798.252 


100.2 


2.219.847 


65.2 


1899-0. 


..149,191 


95.000 


244,191 


1.781,361 


94.9 


2.078.068 


62.6 


1898-9. 


..248,954 


32,471 


281,425 


1,200,857 


60.4 


2.002.902 


61.5 


1897-8. 


..316,183 


40,399 


366.582 


2.195.493 


99.0 


2,070.978 


64.8 


1896-7. 


..287,578 


40.000 


327,578 


1.743,901 


89.2 


1.960,066 


62.5 


1895-6. 


..242,693 


30.000 


272.693 


1,595,763 


76.4 


1,949,744 


6.3.4 


1894-5. 


. .325.621 


20,443 


346.064 


1,939,818 


126.8 


2.012,714 


66.7 


^m-i. 


..272,913 


20.453 


493.366 


1,681,448 


116.2 


1.906,758 


64.4 


1892-3. 


. .206,816 


12,091 


218.907 


1,586,834 


104.4 


1,853,370 


63.8 


1891-2. 


..165,437 


5,359 


170,796 


1,554,142 


. 105.7 


1,888,851 


66.3 


1890-1. 


..221,951 


2,800 


224.751 


1,309,826 


96.0 


l,476,:m 


52.8 


1889-0. 


..136,503 


2,600 


139,103 


1.233,122 


88.5 


1.416,474 


51.8 


1888-9. 


..153,909 


1,910 


155,819 


1.205,484 


74.2 


1.519.283 


56.7 


1887-8. 


..167.814 


255 


168.069 


1,400,197 


78.4 


1.381.714 


52.7 


1886-7. 


.. 85,394 


800 


86,194 


1.200.840 


80.7 


1,459.^J80 


.-)6.9 


188.5-6. 


. .135,158 


600 


135,758 


1,213.341 


72.5 


1.298.380 


r.1.8 


1884-5. 


..100.876 


953 


101.829 


1.230.543 


98.2 


1,309,383 


53.4 



RATES OF DT'TY ON FOREIGN SUGARS. 

1861, 5 cents per pound: 1862, 4 cents per pound; 1864, 5 cents 
per pound; 1870, 4 cents per pound; 1874. 5 cents per pound; 1^, 
2 1-3 to 3% cents per pound; 1890, y^ cent duty, bounty on domes- 
tic sugar, 2 cents per pound; 1894. 40 per cent ad valorem; 1897, 
1 to 2H cents per pound, average about 72 per cent. The highest 
figures in the present (1897) law are for refined sugar, biu raws 
constitute by far the bulk of Imports. 



116 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION OP SUGAR. 

[In tons of 2240 pounds.] 



Season Beet 



Cane 



Total 



Season Beet 



Cane 



Total 



1904-5*. 5,311,000 4,591,000 9,902,000 

1903-4. .6,083,000 4,388,800 10,471,800 

1902-3.. 5,717,332 4,117,629 9,834,961 

1901-2.. 6,923,487 4,063,282 10,986,769 

1900-1.. 6,066,939 3,650,416 9,717,355 

1899-0. .5,596,390 2,742,983 8,339,373 

1898-9. .5,014,572 2,929,865 7,944,437 

1897-8. .4,872,173 2,864,255 7,736,428 

1896-7.. 4,954,000 2,839,000 7,793,000 



1895-6.. 4,232,000 2,556,000 6,788,000 
1894-5.. 4,691,000 3,137,000 7,828,000 
1893-4.. 3, 786, 000 3,260,000 7,046,000 
1892-3.. 3,444,000 2,769,000 6,113,000 
1891-2.-3,445,000 2,785,000 6,230.000 

2,597,000 

2,138,000 

2,359,000 

2.541,000 



1890-1.. 3,640,000 
1889-0. .3,563,000 
1888-9.-2,708,000 
1887-8.. 2,407 ,000 



6,237,000 
5,701.000 
5.067,000 
4.948.000 



• Tbe dsrures since 1896-7 are compiled from the following 
sources: Cane sugar production of the world and beet suirar 
production of the United States, Willet & Gray; beet sugar pro- 
duction of Europe, Licht. 

Hops 

Hops are grown in a sniall way in a number of states, 
but there are only two^ distinct commercial hop producing 
sections in the United States. The most important is the 
Pacific coast, comprising the states of California, Oregon 
and Washington. This district raises nearly three-fourths 
of the commercial crop of the country. New York produces 
practically all the remainder. Wisconsin boasts a few com- 
mercial yards, but her total output of hops is light. The 
soil and climate of the Pacific hop states are conducive to a 
high yield per acre, much more so than New York. In re- 
cent years the acreage in the former district has enlarged, 
while New York hop growers lost interest in the business 
until the better prices of the past season. A continuation of 
these may cause a revival of the industry in the Empire 
state. 

Great Britain is cutting down her hop acreage steadily. 
In 1885 United Kingdom farmers devoted 70,127 acres to hops, 
whereas the 1904 acreage was only 47,799. Germany is an im- 
portant producer of hops, and the same may be said of Aus- 
tria. Belgium, France and Russia cut some figure in the 
commercial world, and Holland to a moderate extent. Aus- 
tralasia grows about 10,000 bales per annum, not enough to 
supply her home demand. 

Owing to the partial failure of the English crop, and the 
general increased, consumption of hops throughout the 
world, the 1904 output sold at the highest figures since the 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



117 



sensational prices of 1882. Overproduction in 1894-6 oaused 
the lowest values on record. Since that time, however, there 
has been a gradual reoovery and prices are at a level en? 
couraging to producers. 



FOREIGN HOP TRADE. 

Exports of hops from the United States for the year 
ended June 30, 1904, showed a revival from the low ebb of the 
preceding season. As the English crop of 1904 was the small- 
est in many years, it was the prediction of dealers that the 
United States would be able to se41 her surplus Itops abroad 
during 1904 and 1905. 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF HOPS AND VALUES. 
[Last OOO's omitted; year ending June 30.] 





«k 


«» 










» 


•k 








^ 


^3 


f« 




•S 


•1 


•s 


^•2 


If 




•^ 


•f 


§• 


§-n 


|§ 




^s. 


IS. 


& 


l§ 


s.g 




IS. 


>a. 


8 


&% 


H4 0* 




>g 


t^a 


6 


SS. 


S2 




^g 


1904. 


.10,986 


2,758 


J 


^,116 


$1,374 


1898. 


.17,161 


2,376 


$2,643 


$648 


1903. 


. 7,794 


6,011 




1,910 


1.808 


1897. 


.11,425 


3,018 




1,305 


630 


1902. 


.10.715 


2,805 




1,550 


834 


1896. 


.16,765 


2,772 




1.479 


600 


1901. 


.14,964 


2.606 




2,467 


851 


189&. 


.17,523 


3,134 




1,873 


600 


1900. 


.12,639 


2,590 




1.708 


713 


1894. 


.17,473 


828 




484 


3,844 


1899; 


.21,146 


1,319 




3,626 


581 
















U. 3. 


FOREIGN TRADE. 


SUPPLY, CONSUMPTION. 

t 








>. 






1 
0* 






>* 




• 


1 

0t 


% 


OQ 
Ik 


9 


1 


>» 


a 

9 


VI 

c 




§: 

9 


I 


>f 




1 




1 


a 


Total 
supp] 


tConi 
tion 


g. 




OD 

1r^ 


a 




tConi 
tion 


1903.. 


. 61 


144 


15 


159 


267 


1896.. 


. 63 


112 


17 


129 


177 


1902.. 


. 43 


152 


33 


185 


247 


1895.. 


. 93 


199 


15 


214 


184 


1901.. 


. 60 


ICO 


16 


166 


226 


1894.. 


. 97 


228 


17 


240 


184 


1900.. 


. 83 


125 


15 


140 


219 


1893.. 


. 97 


171 


5 


176 


171 


1899.. 


. 70 


140 


14 


154 


204 


1892. . 


. 63 


170 


15 


175 


178 


1898.. 


117 


98 


7 


105 


208 


1891.. 


. 70 


138 


13 


151 


164 


1897.. 


. 95 


130 


13 


143 


192 


1890.. 


. 49 


143 


21 


164 


157 



* Thousands of bales, f Consumption at one pound hops to 
a barrel of beer. 



118 



AMERICAN AGRICULTUIII^T 



PRICES AT NEW YORK CITY, CHOICE STATE HOPS. 

[In cents per pound.] 





1903-4 


1902-3 


1901-S 


1900-1 


1899-6 


1898*9 


Sept. 


21({i'S0 


26 (&)28 


16 #16% 


13 @15 


12 #14 


12#13 


Oct. 


31@33 


26 (0)28 


13 #15 


13%#15 


14 #15 


15#16 


Nov. 


30@32 


82 ex)34 


14 #15% 


18 #19 


13 #14% 


20@21 


Dec. 


31(5)33 


36 @38 


14 #15% 


20 #22 


13%@14% 


20#21 


Jan. 


34(^37 


35 mi 


14 #15% 


20 #22 


12%#14 


19#20 


Feb. 


361/38 


35 (??37 


14%#16 


20 #22 


13 #14 


19#19% 


Mar. 


35@36 


35 #36 


17 #18 


20 #22 


13 #14 


18#19 


Apr. 


34^38 


30 #32 


17%#18% 


20 #21 


13 #14 


17#18 


May 


3.3(^)85 


28 ^m 


19 #20 


19 #20 


13 #14 


imn 


June 


33@35 


33 #24 


20%#2a 


18 #19 


18 #14 


16#17 


July 


31ca)34 


21 #22 


21%#23% 


17%#18 


13 #14% 


15#ie 


Aug. 


33@35 


20y2(a)2m 


24%#26 


17 #18 


13 #14 

1890-1 


15#16 




1896-7 


9 #12 


1893-4 
22 #24 


1891-3 
15 #18 


1889-90 


Sept. 


SWft'iO 


23#28 


14#16 


Oct. 


9 mi 


9 #11 


21 #24 


IQ @17 


43#47 


11#13 


Nov. 


10^^@15 


10 #13 


22 #23 


19 #21 


35#47 


11#14 


Dec. 


14 m6 


11 #12% 21i4#23 


20 #22 


32#45 


13@14% 


Jan. 


........14 015 


10%#12 


21%(Q^22% 21 #28 


32#38 


13#16 


Feb. 


13^(^14 


10 #n 


21 #23 


85 #27 


33#3q 


13(^20 


,Mar. 


iv/zmz 


10 #n 


18 #21 


24 #25 


28#31 


14<g)20 


Apr. 


10 mi'^^ (?i)10 


18 #19 


26 #32 


27#32 


16#18 


May 


10 mOVa 8 ((i>lQ 


16 #18 


28 #30 


29#32 


18#20 


June 


9 mo 


8 # 9 


14 #1^ 


24 #29 


30#32 


20#22 


July 


9 #10 


8 #9 


12 #14 


24 (?J26 


32#28 


20#a8 


Aug. 


9 mo 


7 #10 


10 #12 


24%#27 


17(5)20 


@1#28 



HOP PRODUCTION BY COUNTRIES. 
[In thousands of bales of 180 pounds net, American standard.] 
Crop of *3904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897 1896 1895 1894 1892 1890 



Germkny ....265 280 321 190 2G7 336 268 310 353 368 404 300 164 

Austria ......125 78 122 210 112 132 76 99 1.36 % 109 79 65 

France ...... t63 25 2} 28 44 48 37 38 43 

England 180 249 103 404 216 411 222 256 281 

Oth'r c'nlrjes 40 91 44 



343 



38 44 54 
395 257 176 



Total 673 723 701 832 639 927 603 703 813 848 946 680 459 

IT. S 234 205 195 210 208 240 215 225 175 292 320 223 205 

Aggregate. . 907 92 8 896 1042 847 11 67 818 903 988 1140 1266 903 664 

♦American Agriculturist's preliminary estijnate. This journal 
is an accepted authority on America's hop crop, but it frankly 
admits this crop is one of the most difficult to report upon, :f6r 
obvious reasons. Figures of each crop are subject to final re- 
vision at the close of each year, when data are available of the 
interior and foreign movement, t Includes Belgium. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 
HOP CROP OP THE WORLD. 



119 



In the following table are given for a long series of years 
the bales of hops produced each season in the United States 
and in ESurope (Including England), the total constituting 
about 95% of the world's supply. It also shows the number 
of bales of each crop exported from the United States, and 
the imports of foreign hops into the United States, with av- 
erage yearly United States export prices. 

HOP CROPS AND PRICES. 
[In thousands of bales of 180 pounds net.] 



tCrop of 


U. S. 
crop 


European Total 
crop crop 

673 907 
723 928 
701 896 
832 1042 
639 847 
927 1167 
603 818 
703 928 
813 988 
946 1266 
680 903 
459 664 
717 935 

387 512 
379 474 
428 538 
746 939 
773 963 
720 916 
647 799 


U. S. 
exp'ts 

61 
43 
60 
83 
70 
117 
95 
63 
97 
63 
49 
42 
1 

43 
54 
17 


I 

U. S. 
imp'ts 

15 
33 
16 
15 

14 

rr 
( 

13 
17 
17 
15 
21 
36 
103 
12 


Lverage 

export 

price 

•U. S. 


1904 

1903 


.... 234 
.... 205 


19.2 


1902 


. • . • 19o 


24.6 


1901 


.... 210 


14.5 


1900 , 


.... 208 


16.5 


1899 


... 240 


13.5 


1898 

1897 


.... 215 
... 225 


17.1 
15.4 


1896 


■1 ."•■ 

... llO 


10.2 


1894 


... 320 


10.7 


1892 


... 223 


23.7 


1890 


..; 205 


26.6 


1889 


... 218 


29.0 


1886 




21.0 


1882 


... 125 


71.8 


1879 


9 m • vO 


26.3 


1874 : 


... 110 


41.9 


Average 1881-1890 
1885-1889 


...193 

...190 


t50.1 
t20.7 

tso.i 
tso.o 


1881-1885 

1876-1880 


... 196 
... 152 







* Average annual export value (in cents per pound) of hops 
shipped from the United States. tObserve that the year given is 
that in which the crop was produced; therefore, exports from 
the United States of the 1904 crop will not be known until 
July, 1905. t Highest average annual import value of hops im- 
ported Into Hambursr during the period noted. 



120 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Onions 

THE COMMERCIAL ONION CROP. 

On many northern farms, onion growing Is being followed 
on a commercial scale, and In the past year Texas and other 
parts of the southwest have also given this crop attention. 
While not a staple crop in the same sense as potatoes and 
apples, the onion is being given wide attention in a number 
of states. To successfully grow onions for autumn and win- 
ter markets is little less than a trade, owing to the many 
ins and outs in the way of character of soil, handling the 
seed, cultivation, battling insect and fungous pests, harvest- 
ing and marketing the crop. Much hand labor is involved In 
the proper cultivation, even in a large way. There is also 
great risk in growing onions through unfavorable climatic 
conditions and the ravages of insects. 

The commercial onion belt has expanded somewhat in 
recent years. For a long time this crop was grown chiefly 
in New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Ohio and Michi- 
gan. The specialty was later firmly established in parts of 
Wisconsin and more recently in Indiana. Outside of the 
states named, onions are grown in considerable quantities 
in a few counties in Texas, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, 
etc. The growing of onion sets Is quite a s|)eoialty in Indi- 
ana, Ohio and Pennsylvania. While the onion industry is 
gradually expanding, the acreage remains much the same 
from year to year, fluctuating with price and conditions. 

The red and yellow standard varieties are being grown 
more extensively than others and form the bulk of the crop. 
The white onion is a specialty among farmers along the 
north coast of Long Island sound in Connecticut. The rate 
of yield per acre varies greatly, according to character of the 
soil, weather and attention, given the crop. Intensive cul- 
tivation under propitious surroundings frequently returns 
a yield of 600 bushels per acre, and occasionally small tracts 
yield at the rate of 800 to 900 bushels, or possibly more. The 
average yield in 1903 on an estimated acreage was 240 bushels 
per acre, against 300 bushels in 1902, but in 1904 the acreage and 
yields showed a slight Increase, the average being 266 bush- 
els per acre. The yield is highest where the crop is held in 
greatest esteem, and where the most intelligent attention is 
given It; notably the Connecticut valley, central New York, 
northern Ohio, etc. 

Growers find that onions keep well when properly han- 
dled, and in handling the harvest crop they are careful that 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 121 

but a small portion remains on hand until spring. Often 
serious loss occurs through natural shrinkage, rot and 
sprouting. Growers making a business of this crop hold no 
uniform views as to best time of selling, being guided by 
market conditions. If the price is high in the fall, the 
chances are the bulk of the crop leaves first hands early; if 
unfavorable, growers often prefer to store and hold rather 
than sell direct from the harvest field. The crop is bought 
largely by city dealers and speculators, who send their agents 
through the onion belt, buying, shipping and storing, with 
a view of realizing a profit later in the season. Dampness 
and warmth hasten the decay of onions, and fear of this 
often impels farmers to sell early, even at relatively low 
prices. The crop is practically all consumed at home. A 
small quantity is exported, while imports are considerable. 
As a rule, the foreign onions coming to this country are fancy 
varieties from Spain and Bermuda. In an occasional short 
year liberal quantities are imported from Egypt. 

THE ONION CROP OF 1904. 

Exceeded in occasional years of plenty, the commercial 
onion crop of 1904 was after all a generally good one. It 
would have been much larger but for the development of 
serious damage in New York, and to a smaller extent in 
portions of the west and in New England. What may be 
considered the commercial crop, i. e., onions which are in 
sight for the big distributing markets, approximated 3,300,000 
bushels* 10% increase over one year ago, but smaller than 
two years ago. The area finally brought to harvest in the 
commercial onion belt, estimated at 12,320 acres, was slightly 
under that of a year ago. As to quality of the onions, this 
was variable. Practically every section had some good 
onions, here and there splendid crops, but advices frequently 
indicated disappointing size and quality of the bulbs. The 
rate of yield was excellent in many counties outside the 
damage district, especially where farmers fully understand 
the ins and outs of growing onions. While the estimated 
average rate of yield for the entire country was 266 bushels 
to the acre, in a considerable number of instances crops 
made 400 to 500 bushels. 

We guarantee the reliability of every advertisement in the 
American Agriculturist weeklies, and will make good any loss 
which any subscriber may sustain, while his subscription lasts, 
by trusting any advertiser who may prove to be a deliberate 
i swindler. 



122 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

ONION PRICES AND FOREIGN MOVEMENT 
For a series of years. 







Price per bushel at New York 






Crop of 


Bushels 


f • — 




■\ • 


Bxports, Importi, 






Oc.. 


Jan. 

"|1.00@1.25~ 


Apr. 


bushels 


bushels 


1904-5 ... 


.. 3,288.000 


$0.75(0)1.00 


— 


1903-4. ... 


.. 3.090,000 


.50® .70 


.im .90 


|1.00@1.50 


144,764 


1.171.^2 


1902-3 ... 


.. 3,822,000 


.50@ .90 


.50(&) .90 


.35(g) .75 


145,509 


915,599 


1901-2 ... 


.. 2,990,000 


.80@1.10 


1.20(&1.60 


1.20@1.80 


113,531 


796^6 


1900-1 ... 


.. 3,738,000 


.50^: .60 


1.00@1.20 


1.20@l.e0 


165,391 


773,306 


1899-00 .. 


.. 4,615,000 


.40@ .50 


.40^ .70 


.70@ .85 


171,636 


546.705 


1898-99 .. 


.. 3,100,000 


.40@ .70 


.60® .90 


.80(55)1.20 


164,902 


771,960 


1897-98 .. 


.. 2,800,000 


.40@1.00 


1.000)1.40 


.60@1.10 


100,148 


488,853 


1896-97 .. 


.. 2,818.000 


.20^ .70 


.80@1.10 


— 


73.511 


560,13S 


1895-96 .. 


.. 2,973,000 


.25@ .60 


.20@ .50 


.30® .60 


2,916 


— 


1894-95 .. 


.. 1,944,000 


.60® .70 


.^Mi .80 


.80til.20 


53,335 


— 


1893-94 .. 


.. 2,330,000 


.50@ .80 


.50@ .75 


.30® .60 


— 


— 


1892-93 .. 


.. 2,600,000 


.60@1.00 


.60@1.00 


.80®1.4O 


— 


— 


1891-92 .. 


.. 3,200.000 


.40@ .70 


.80@1.00 


.60®1.10 


— 


— 



So far as what is known as the commercial onion crop is 
concerned, this is grown on approximately 13,000 to 14,000 
acres. The federal census of 1900 placed the area under 
onions at 24,282 acres. This, however. Included a very large 
number of patches only one-eighth to one-quarter acre, etc., 
which served to swell the aggregate, but did not affect the 
commercial crop as a whole. This annually approximates 
3,000,000 to 4,000,000 bushels. 

THE COMMERCIAL CROP OF ONIONS OF UNITED STATES. 



Number of acres Yield in thousands 

in crop of bushels 

Crop of , ^f ^ 

1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 

Massachusetts 1.320 1260 1200 1025 1065 360 300 432 300 28U 

Southport (Ct.) dist.. 900 1000 950 1000 1000 202 135 323 215 250 

.Other Connecticut ..300 300 350 425 450 63 78 114 251 113 

Rhode Island 250 250 250 200 190 50 62 69 45 38 

Orange Co., N. Y.... 1700 1850 1800 1800 1500 510 300 720 405 585 

Other New York .... 1550 1900 1950 — — 325 490 439 400 - 

Pennsylvania 350 350 300 — — 75 70 67 65 - 

Ohio 2700 2650 2700 2400 2600 877 860 1053 744 945 

Illinois 900 800 800 660 700 202 200 160 163 227 

Indiana 900 900 850 — — 270 225 127 150 - 

Michigan 850 950 950 — — 204 214 143 187 - 

Wisconsin 600 650 650 700 900 150 156 146 125 815 

Total 12320 12860 12750 11040 11150 3288 3090 3794 3050 3700 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 123 

Crass Seeds 

THE LEADING GRASS SEEDS. 

Timothy and clover se.ed for market are grown in the 
north central states, while small amounts are produced 
throughout many northern states. In a considerable num- 
ber of isolated sections, often including a whole county, 
farmers have built up quite an industry in growing these 
grasses for the seed. Most of the timothy and clover seed 
available for domestic and foreign markets Is produced in 
the north central states; next to nothing as far east as New 
England, and only small quantities east of Indiana and Mich- 
igan, both Important producers. 

The proportion of the grass crops set aside for seed de- 
pends somewhat upon the condition of the seed markets. 
But taking a long series of years, certain states which orig- 
inally secured large crops now direct their attention to other 
things. This is particularly true of clover. The territory 
north of the Ohio river and extending west to the Missouri 
river forms the clover and timothy seed belt. The crop of 
alfalfa, or "lucerne," as it is called in Europe, is grown 
chiefly in the semi-arid belt of the west and the rich valleys 
of the Rocky mountain and Pacific coast country. But in 
the last five years alfalfa has become a highly favored crop 
(not for seed purposes) in eastern Kansas and Nebraska, 
in portions of the Mississippi valley, and as far east, in 
rather more than an experimental way, as New York. Hun- 
garian and the millets are favorite catch crops, but no con- 
siderable quantities of these grasses are raised and threshed 
for seed. 

SEED EXPORTS HIGHLY IMPORTANT. 

In order to find favor in foreign markets it is very im- 
portant to keep the crop of grass seed free from weed seeds. 
After home requirements are made up there is always an ex- 
port surplus of both clover and timothy, and the price of 
every bushel of seed grown depends largely upon the char- 
acter of the foreign demand. Germany and the United 
Kingdom are the largest European buyers, although there 
are some exports direct to Prance and other parts of the con- 
tinent. Our trade with Canada is perhaps more important 
than all, especially so far as timothy is concerned. 



124 



AMERICAN AaRICULTURIST 
EXPORTS OF GRASS SEEDS. 



Tr. ended 
June 80 




Clover 






Timothy 




Pounds 


Total value Av. value j^ounds 


Total value A 


V. val. 


1904 


. 6,440,618 


$600,626 


9.3c 


12,672,676 


$480,946 


3.7c 


1903 


. 15,522,527 


1,549,687 


9.9 


18,289,917 


853,829 


4.7 


1902 


. 7,256,573 


594,733 


8.0 


5.966,986 


373,046 


6.6 


1901 


. U,998.674 


1,063,506 


8.8 


7.275,806 


296,640 


4.1 


1900 


. 32,069,371 


2,379,372 


7.4 


15,078.186 


505,758 


3.3 


1899 


. 19,980,434 


1,264,922 


6.3 


16,149,611 


492,710 


3.0 


1898 


. 31,155,381 


1,892,101 


6.7 


10,238,780 


317,173 


3.1 


1897 


. 13,042.994 


1.003,157 


7.7 


16,733,993 


574,457 


3.4 


lo9b • •• • • 


. 5,539,787 


437,493 


7.8 


11,894,536 


518,755 


4.3 


1895 


. 22,900,672 


2,124,997 


9.3 


4.939,237 


277,160 


5.6 


1894 


. 45,418,663 


4,540,851 


10.0 


10,155,867 


449,207 


4.4 


1893 


. 8,189,553 


988.029 


12.1 


7,077,131 


504.937 


7.1 


1892 


. 19,532,411 


1,636,671 


8.4 


10,318,074 


381,651 


3.7 


1S91 


. 20,773,884 


1,575,039 


7.6 


8,757,788 


370,151 


4.2 


1890 


. 26.500,578 


1,762.034 


6.6 


11,051,053 


473.770 


4.2 


1889 


. 34,253,137 


• 3.110,583 


9.1 


10,200.673 


451.728 


4.4 


1888 


. 13,357,899 


1,009,695 


7.5 


2,097,197 


117,677 


5.6 


1887 


. 7,932,390 


630.850 


7.9 


6,500,004 


2S1.048 


U 


1886 


. 2,652,438 


264,882 


9.9 


4,023,937 


175,754 


4.3 


1885 


. 17,653,112 


1,525,283 


8.6 


3.830,737 


157,444 


4.1 



RANGE OF PRICES OF GRASS SEEDS AT CHICAGO. 
[Per 100 pounds for prime quality.] 



Year 




Clover 




Timothy 




Hungarian 


6er. millet 


Jan. 1 Mar. 1 Oct. 1 ' 


Jan. 1 Mar. 1 Oct. 1 


Mar. 1 Oct. 1 Mar. 1 Oct. 1 


1904 .... 


....$11.00 $10.90 $11.75 


$2.90 


$3.15 


$2.80 


$1.85 


$1.25 


$1.30 


$1.20 


1903 .... 


.... 11.00 


11.80 


10.60 


4.25 


3.75 


2.90 


1.60 


1.00 


1.15 


IM 


1902 .... 


.... o.OU 


8.75 


9.50 


6.45 


6.35 


3.75 


1.75 


1.25 


2.00 


1.00 


1901 .... 


.... 10.25 


10.75 


8.25 


4.75 


4.40 


5.35 


1.10 


1.00 


1.20 


1.10 


1900 .... 


.... 8.00 


8.25 


10.00 


2.65 


2.50 


4.60 


.85 


.75 


1.20 


1.10 


1899 .... 


.... 7.00 


6.10 


8.50 


2.25 


2.40 


2.35 


.85 


.60 


1.25 


.86 


1898 .... 


.... 5.35 


5.15 


7.25 


2.40 


3.00 


2.20 


1.00 


.60 


1.10 


.80 


1897 .... 


.... 8.25 


7.50 


5.30 


2.70 


2.65 


2.77 


.60 


.66 


.75 


.80 


1896 .... 


.... 7.25 


• 7.40 


8.25 


3.60 


3.60 


2.55 


.80 


.60 


.85 


.60 


1895 .... 


.... 9.10 


9.00 


7.00 


5.52 


5.80 


4.35 


1.65 


.80 


1.65 


.80 


1894 .... 


.... 10.75 


8.85 


8.50 


4.35 


4.10 


5.20 


1.90 


1.25 


1.00 


1.25 


18^3 .... 


.... 13.33 


13.12 


9.25 


4.50 


4.44 


3.20 


2.10 


1.10 


1.60 


— 


1892 .... 


.... 9.16 


10.00 


10.25 


2.73 


2.80 


3 44 


1.10 


1.20 


1.30 


1.20 


1891 .... 


.... 7.00 


7.46 


7.16 


2.77 


2.82 


2.77 


1.10 


.80 


1.50 


1.00 


1800 .... 


. . . . 5.66 


5.33 


6.83 


2.64 


2.71 


2.95 


.70 


.90 


.80 


.80 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 125 

Flaxseed 

Flaxseed production of the united states. 

This crop may be called a specialty of the northwest, 
for Minnesota and the Dakotas produce more than half the 
output of the entire country. Other western states, a little 
further south, seem to be losing ground of late in regard 
to flax cultivation. However, the industry is quite impor- 
tant in southeajstern Kansas and parts of Iowa, Missouri, 
Wisconsin and Nebraska. The flaxseed acreage from year to 
year is governed largely by prices. 

The Chicago range of flaxseed quotations, for No. 1 
northwestern, during 1903, was 89 cents to $1.24 per bushel. 
Toward the close of 1904 prices were $1.15 to 11.20. In 1901 
flaxseed sold up to $1.90 on the Chicago market, while In the 
summer of 1896 quotations dropped to 63 cents. Exports of 
flaxseed from the United States the past ten years ranged 
mostly from 2,000,000 to 4,000,000 bushels per annum. In 1903-4, 
however, the movement abroad aggregated only 768,000 bush- 
els. The accompanying table shows the flaxseed crop of the 
United States in recent years, the acreage and the yield per 
acre. These figures from American Agriculturist's special 
crop reports. 

FLAXSEED CROPS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Year Acres 

1904 2,2757000" 

1903 3,159,000 

1902 3,401,000 

1901 3,050,000 

1900 2,525,000 

1899 ■ 1,679.000 

1898 1,553,000 

1897 1,130,000 

1896 1.145,000 



eld in bus. 


Bus. per acre 


22,190,000 


9.8 


26,639,000 


8.4 


29,351,000 


8.7 


29.079,000 


9.5 


23,412.000 


9.0 


20.086,000 


12.0 


17,217,000 


11.1 


10,891,000 


9.6 


17,402,000 


11.3 



Broom Com 

THE BROOM CORN INDUSTRY. 

Inconsiderable amounts of broom corn for local or foreign 
use are grown in a number of states, the plant thriving 
under various climatic conditions and in varied soils. The 
bulk of the commercial product, however, is grown in but 



126 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

few states, chiefly Kansas, Oklahoma, Illinois and Nebraska. 
Until the season of 1904, Kansas and Illinois were the lead- 
ing: states, while Nebraska came third and Oklahoma pro- 
duced a much smaller amount. This year, as a result of a 
combination of a number of conditions, Oklahoma came to 
the front rank with a larg^er acreage and almost as larsre a 
production as Kansas, while Illinois fell off considerably and 
other sections remained about the same. 

The large increase in Oklahoma was mostly due to the 
substitution of broom corn for abandoned wheat, which -was 
destroyed by the severe freezes in the winter of 1903-4. The 
soil in Oklahoma is particularly adapted to growing large 
yields of the crop. But owing to the fact that the business 
is new to the farmers, the product has been put on the mar- 
ket in irregular, and, at times, very poor condition. 

In Illinois practically all of the commercial crop is pro- 
duced in the counties of Coles, Edgar and Douglas; this has 
been true for many years. During the past season weather 
was unfavorable to the growth and harvesting of the crop, 
which was considerably damaged in that section. For years 
Illinois furnished the great bulk of the commercial product, 
but during the past three or four years leading growers have 
apparently lost interest and cut their acreage down very 
low. The production in Kansas increased yearly unn^ 1903, 
when the totar output fell off about 2,000,000 pounds; 1904. 
however, shows a return to almost normal production. In 
Nebraska the crop is largely confined to a belt of counties 
lying south of the Platte river and west of Hastings, but the 
state's total output is comparatively small and of relatively 
slight importance. 

BROOM CORN ACREAGE AND YIELD, BY STATES. 



1904 1903 1902 

Crop of /— — N I — s , — \ 

Acres Yld Lbs Acres Yld Lbs Acres Yld Lbs 



Kan. ...32.500 425 14,812,000 29,640 450 13.338,000 37,050 410 15,190.500 

Okla. ... 45,000 310 13,950,000 20,000 300 6,000,000 — — — 

111 16.000 525 8,400,000 17,500 550 9,625,000 25,600 710 18,105,000 

Neb. ... 6,000 475 2,850,000 4,800 500 1,400,000 8,000 500 4,000,000 

Others .. 2,000 400 800,000 2,000 420 840,000 5,775 425 2,454,000 



Total.. 101, ?>00 404 40.812,000 73.940 422 31,203,000 75,825 524 39,749,500 



While nearly all of the broom corn crop is consumed at 
home, moderate quantities, both in raw and manufactured 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



127 



state, are annually shipped abroad. Aside from the manu- 
facture of brooms of various sizes, its uses are few; probably 
the chief one being for artificial stems for flowers by flor- 
ists. The chief export is to Canada, with a fair amount to 
Cuba, Germany, Australasia and South America. Prices vary 
widely from year to year, and even in the same year, as will 
be seen by referring to accompanying table. 

BROOM CORN PRICES PER TON AT CHICAGO. 



Month 


1904 


1903 


1902 


1901 


1900 


1897 


1896 


1895 


18£H 


1893' 


1890 


January . . 


'...$70 


$50' 


$100 


$60 


$170"^ 


'$60 


$40" 


$90 


$65' 


$100 


$115 




120 


100 


170 


110 


200 


70 




110 


70 


110 


130 


February . 


... 80 


50 


100 


60 


165 


60 


40 


90 


60 


100 


115 




120 


95 


170 


110 


200 


70 


— 


110 


70 


110 


120 


March 


...70 


60 


80 


60 


165 


GO 


45 


90 


60 


100 


115 




120 


95 


160 


110 


200 


70 


50 


110 


70 


110 


125 


April 


...70 


50 


80 


50 


165 


60 


45 


90 


60 


100 


llo 




120 


96 


160 


100 


200 


70 


50 


110 


70 


110 


125 


May 


...80 


50 


80 


50 


165 


60 


45 


90 


60 


100 


115 




125 


95 


160 


100 


200 


70 


50 


110 


70 




125 


June 


...70 


60 


80 


50 


165 


60 


45 


90 


60 


100 


115 




120 


90 


160 


100 


200 


70 


50 


110 


70 


— 


125 


July 


...70 


45 


80 


60 


150 


60 


45 


90 


60 


100 


110 




120 


110 


170 


ICO 


200 


70 


50 


110 


70 


— 


130 


August . . . 


...75 


55 


80 


60 


150 


60 


45 


70 


70 


100 


110 


• 


120 


100 


170 


120 


200 


70 


50 


80 


80 


— 


120 


September 


... 70 


55 


70 


75 


110 


60 


45 


70 


80 


90 


110 




100 


100 


125 


120 


160 


70 


50 


80 


90 


— 


120 


October ... 


... 60 


55 


60 


75 


70 


70 


60 


60 


100 


80 


90 




100 


120 


115 


150 


120 


80 


70 


05 


110 


90 


105 


November 


... 60 


110 


60 


100 


60 


70 


60 


45 


90 


75 


90 




100 


125 


115 


180 


110 


80 


70 


50 


110 




100 


December 


...65 


105 


50 


100 


60 


70 


60 


45 


90 


65 


90 




110 


120 


115 


170 


110 


80 


70 


— 


110 


70 





HOW TO GET A GOVERNMENT POSITIpN. 

A manual of complete information respecting civil service 
examinations and appointments, and an application paper for 
the departmental service at Washington, the railway mall serv- 
ice, the Indian school service, and the government printing serv- 
ice, can be obtained upon request made directly to the commis- 
sion at Washington. Requests for information and application 
blanks for the customs, postal, Internal revenue and other 
services should be made to the board of examiners at the ofllce 
or in the district where the position is sought. 



128 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

3eans 

THE FIELD BEAN CROP. 

The growing of field beans on a commercial scale is slow- 
ly increasing in popularity among farmers. With the excep- 
tion of small areas, the production is confined chiefly to a 
few states, notably Michigan, New York and California, in 
the order named. In the federal census of 1900, Michigan 
had the first place, with 167,000 acres credited to that crop, 
compared with 129,000 in New York. ' A considerable acreage 
is found in Maine, and some attention is also devoted to field 
beans in other northern states. The annual crop of the 
United States approximates 4,000,000 bushels, and has shown 
some gain in the last ten years. 

The rate of yield of beans averages 10 to 20 bushels per 
acre, while much larger yields are frequently harvested. 
In New York, the bean section is confined chiefiy to a num- 
ber of counties in the western part of the state, including 
Orleans, Monroe, Livingston, Genesee and Wyoming. In 
California, Ventura is the leader, other important bean pro- 
ducing counties being Santa Barbara and Sacramento. The 
crop is fairly well distributed in central and southern Mich- 
igan, including such counties a? Livingston, Van Buren and 
Jackson. 

There would seem to be fair reason for encouragement in 
the production of this crop, as the annual yield is materially 
under domestic requirements. Exports of beans form a con- 
siderable total, in some years closely crowding 1,000,000 bush- 
els, but usually nearer half that. On the other hand, im- 
ports are very much greater, in some recent years materially 
exceeding 1,000,000 bushels. 

Navy or hand picked pea beans are perhaps the standard 
in regulating market-prices. Several varieties may be found 
in any of the general markets. Prices have maintained a 
fairly satisfactory level since the low period of the late 90's, 
when pea beans sold in Chicago as low as 72 cents a bushel. 
During most of 1904 the market has ranged at $1.75 to $2.25. 
The accompanying table deals exclusively with dried beans 
for table purposes, including such varieties as navy, ,pea, 
lima, etc. The rate of duty on foreign beans is 40 cents a 
bushel. 



In writing to the advertiser say: "I saw your adv in one of 
the old reliable American Agriculturist weeklies." 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 129 

DOMESTIC PRICES, IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OP BEANS. 

Price of pea beans Foreten trade in 

per bushel oeans 

Y«ar Chicago New York Exports Imports 
Nov. 1 M a y 1 Nov. 1 May 1 Bosheis Av. val. B ushels Av.val. 

1904-5 $1.75 — $1.85 — •152,994 $2.47 •fiof,^! ■$r24 

1903-4 ..... 2.00 $1.80 2.15 $1.85 •248,806 2.19 629,118 1.24 

1902-3 2.90 2.10 2.45 2.25 232,841 2.28 1.088,465 1.20 

1901-2 1.92 1.85 2.05 1.86 324,481 1.90 881,966 1.30 

1900-1 1.87 1.90 2.05 2.10 468,670 1.84 1,099,640 1.18 

1899-0 1.85 2.18 1.89 2.25 617,355 1.59 967,031 1.08 

1898-9 1.15 1.20 1.27 1.32 883,201 1.43 184,499 .89 

1897-8 1.00 1.30 1.13 1.41 854,284 1.28 163,560 .91 

1896-7 98 .72 1.25 .90 900,219 1.23 482,986 1.01 

1895-6 1.25 .94 1.25 1.18 473,975 1.33 613,801 1.07 

1894-5 1.52 1.75 1.85 2.05 242,680 1.76 1,535,960 1.00 

1893-4 1.80 1.75 1.90 2.00 326,748 1.74 1,184,081 .94 

1892-3 2.00 2.05 2.10 1.95 389,913 1.91 1,754,943 .99 

1891-2 1.80 1.75 2.00 1.65 637,972 1.39 874,050 1.09 

1890-1 2.25 2.30 2.40 2.35 251,063 1.88 1,656,768 1.26 

1889-0 1.75 1.80 2.00 1.95 261,212 2.13 1,250,287 1.04 

1888-9 — — 2.05 1.70 294,456 1.90 765,483 1.02 

1887-8 — — 2.25 2.90 253,170 1.83 1,942,864 1.12 

1886-7 — — 1.70 1.65 387,222 1.45 648,388 .93 

1885-6 — — 2.00 1.30 408,318 1.39 649,002 .90 

1884-5 — — 1.85 1.60 271,044 1.92 284,770 .89 

• Beans and peas, t Three months ended September 30, 1904. 

CASTOR BEAN CROP. 



Castoi^ beans for commercial purposes are grown princi- 
pally in a strip of country beginning In southern Illinois and 
extending across Missouri into eastern Kansas. Small 
amounts are grown in other localities, notably parts of Okla- 
homa and Nebraska. The annual yield is 100,000 to 200,000 
bushels, practically all consumed by a few crushers located 
at St. Louis. It is a question whether the acreagef annually 
devoted to castor beans could be very largely increased and 
still 'permit sale at remunerative prices. In many instances 
growers consider castor beans a better paying crop than 
grain, and would be satisfied with $1.25 per bushel, a figure 
OQcasionally touched, although one year with another the 
price remains clos© to $1 per bushel to farmers. The mar- 
ket is dependent largely upon the actions of the castor oil 
combine^ 

• The American output of castor oil is insufflcient to meet 
trade requirements and a considerable amount is imported 



1.10 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



yearly. Purthermore, the amount of beans imported is rap- 
idly increasing. In 1897 there were 84,128 bushels imported; 
in 1900, 136,590 bushels, and in 1904, 498,089 bushels. It win be 
seen that in the past seven years the imports of beans have 
grown immensely. From 45 to 47% of the Weight of the bean 
is oll« which is obtained by expression. In Florida atid 
other warm countries the castor bean is a perennial, growing 
to a hight of 30 to 50 feet; and in colder climates, it is an 
annual, flourishing In latitude 35 to^ 40 degrees, and would 
no doubt do well in Ine middle south and west. The yield 
varies greatly, often 10 to 12 bushels (of 46 pounds) per &(:iti 
occasionally up to 15 or 20. The pomace is considered valu- 
able for fertilizing purposes. 

IMPORrrS CASTOR BEANS AND CASTOR OIL. 



Year 


Castor beans 




Castor oil 




ended rr-"* 

JanedftBnshels 













Value At. value thity banons 


Value i 


A. 7- val. 

"10.44 


pttty 


1904 ....498,039 


1430,891 $0.86 


25c 10,745 


14,790 


3gc 


1903 .... 380.270 


867.889 .94 


25 6,643 


3,635 


.54 


35 


1902 ....312,323 


366,901 1.17 


25 3,993 


3,227 


.80 


35 


1901 ....191,288 


255,594 1.33 


25 3,668 


2,575 


.70 


35 


1900 ....125,590 


169,592 1.25 


25 3,489 


2,048 


.58 


35 


1899 .... 25,003 


29,169 1.16 


25 8,106 


8,470 


.42 


86 


li9S .... 19,661 


23,676 1.25 


25 4,126 


2,987 


.12 


35 


1897 .... 84,128 


93,151 1.11 


25 4,368 


1,829 


.42 


35 


1896 ....145,725 


117,945 .81 


25 23,574 


8,461 


.36 


35 


1895 ....277,231 


215,360 .81 


25 33,636 


11,892 


.35 


35 


1894 .... 47,448 


41,931 .88 


50 4,256 


1,654 


.39 


80 


1I9S ....147,061 


148,904 1.01 


50 1,518 


712 


.47 


80 


1898 ....163,089 


160,919 .98 


50 2,284 


973 


.43 


80 



The Peppermint Crop 

Pe^p^rmint Is grown extensively in isolated portiohs of 
the United States for its essential oil, largely used ift medi- 
cine and the manufacture of candy. The prosperity of this, 
small branch of farming, or the periods of depression, de- 
pend entirely upon the price of peppermint oil. After a long 
stretch of high prices, the level a few years ago sank d6 low 
that the business was unprofitable, ahd many farmers quit 
the cultivation of the peppermint plant. In the last two or 
three years the price of oil has ruled higher, and more at- 
tention is now given the industry. 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 131 

The area given over to peppermint farming was orig- 
inally restricted to New York, chiefly Wayne county, but 
the peppermint belt has moved westward and to-day the in- 
dustry centers in a few counties in southern Michigan and 
northern Indiana. Farmers in Wayne county, N. Y., look 
upon the crop with a little more favor than five years ago. 
Efforts during the last two or three years to produce the oil 
west of the Rocky mountains were quite successful in an 
experimental way, but the output from that source does not 
afCect the commercial supply. Texas and other parts of the 
soulh are also experimenting with mint. 

The amount of oil produced in the United States Is In 
excess of home requirements, and the surplus is marketed 
in Europe, where it finds ready sale. The rapid development 
of the industry in Japan in the past ten years results in a 
big surplus there, and this is also shipped to European 
markets, competing sharply with the United States product. 
England and Germany and a few other countries also pro- 
duce a small amount. 

YIELD OP OIL AND PRODUCTION. 

When the plant has reached the proper stage of devel- 
opment, the crop is cut and the oil distilled. The yield varies 
greatly, according to the age and condition of the plants and 
to the favorableness of the weather. New fields, if in prime 
condition, when harvested, will yield at the rate of 30 pounds 
of oil per acre, or possibly more, while from old plants only 
half that amount can be expected. The acreage of "black 
mint'* is increasing, although the oil commands much lower 
figures than regular stock. The so-called black or English 
mint produces larger yields, often averaging 75 pounds of oil 
to the acre. 

The total output for the United States is 200,000 to 250,000 
pounds annually. The export trade has fallen off during the 
past five or six years very perceptibly, due to small surplus 
and attendant high prices in the United States. In 1897 there 
was 162,492 pounds of oil exported, while in 1903 the move- 
ment was but 13,033 pounds. In 1904, however, exports rose 
to 42,939 pounds, due to an increased acreage. Owing to 
good prices obtained in 1902, Japan put out a large acreage 
for 1903, with the result that that year's distillation was over 
300,000 pounds of oil. Again in 1904 their crop was large. 
The Japanese oil is of poorer quality than the American, 
and the admixture of the two frequently brought about 



132 AMBRICAN AGRICULTURIST 

much trouble. However, this adulteration Is now quite 
easily detected by specific grravity and other means. 

Prices of oil are much more satisfactory to producers now 
than in the late *90's, when the market suffered a sevefe'e 
slump. Oil then sold down to a figure as low as 75 cents to 
$1.25 per pound. In the winter of 1903^4 the market was %2M 
to $2.60 per pound, and in the summer and autumn of 1904 
prices in the principal markets reached 13.50 to 14 per pound, 
due to the decreased acreaire and the dlscouratrins condition 
of the crop of 1904. According to the New York Oil, 
Paint and Drug Reporter, a price as high as $4.37^ per 
pound was reached in 1885, while ten years earlier a figure as 
high as $5.50 was barely touched. In the early '70's, prices 
were largely $2.75 to $3.75, and in the early '80's, $2.25 to $3. 

PEPPERMINT OIL, EXPORTS FROM THE UNITED ST ATM. 

[Tear ended June 3ft] 

1904 1903 1902 igof 1900^ 1898 1896" 



Pounds 42,939 13,033 36,301 60,166 89,558 145,375 85,290 

Value $124,728 $34,943 $54,898 '$6.3,672 $90,298 $180,811 $174,810 

Average value. $2.90 $2.68 $1.51 $1.05 $ 1.01 $1.24 $2.06 

The Cranberry Crop 

Over nine-tenths of the cranberries grown in the United 
States are produced in Massachusetts, New Jersey and Wis- 
consin. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York and Michigan 
are 'small producers. The heavy counties of Massachusetts 
are Plymouth and Barnstable, constituting Cape Cod. The 
chief counties of New Jersey are Burlington, Ocean, Atlan- 
tic, Camden and Monmouth. Canada has a few extensive 
marshes, but the conditions are generally unfavorable for 
the industry. 

A normal crop is considered to be about 1,000,000 bushels. 
The acreage Is slowly increasing in most of the leading 
states. In 1891 there were 760,000 bushels harvested, in 1898 
1,000,000, in 1897 415,000, in 1901 950,000, in 1903 935,000 bushels. 
In the states where mostly grown, the size of the package 
is regulated by law. In Massachusetts, New Jersey and 
Wisconsin, the crate must hold one bushel, or 32 quarts 
dry measure. New Jersey law provides that the standard 
crate shall be 7^x12x22 inches, capacity 1980 cubic inches, 
with the barrel three times a crate, or containing 96 quarts. 
The Massachusetts barrel is 100- quarts. •• . 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



133 



Practically none of the cranberry crop Is exported. Ef- 
forts were made a few years ago, mostly by New Jersey 
growers, to build up an export trade, but nothing: of conse- 
quencie has ever been accomplished. An ad valorem duty of 
25% is placed upon foreign cranberries, which serves to shut 
out shipments from Canada. 

CRANBERRY CROPS AND MARKETS, BY YEARS. 







Crop in 


biiRhels 


] 


Boston price per 


bushel 




New 


New 






\ 


Crop of 


England 

. 450.000 


Jersey 


West 


Total 


October 
$2.00 " 


Januai 
"■$2.50 


y May 


i«"W • • • • 


240,000 


75.000 


765,000 


— 


1903 .... 


. 425,000 


410.000 


100,000 


935,000 


2.25 


2.50 


— 


1902 .... 


. 410,000 


135.000 


1.^,000 


675,000 


2.00 


3.00 


— 


1901 ..., 


. 540,000 


300,000 


110.000 


950,000 


2.00 


2.00 


— 


liNH) ... 


. . 475.000 


250,000 


75.000 


800,000 


1.75 


3.00 


— 


1899 ... 


.. 600,000 


240,000 


120,000 


960,000 


1.50 


2.00 


.^ 


1898 .... 


. 425,000 


360.000 


100.000 


875,000 


1.75 


2.00 


— 


1897 ... 


.. 256.000 


120,000 


50.000 


415,000 


2.00 


2.50 


^— 


1896 ... 


.. 380.000 


130.000 


50.000 


560,000 


1.75 


1.25 


$1.00 


1895 .... 


. 420,000 


210.000 


10.000 


640,000 


2.50 


2.00 


2.50 


1894 ... 


.. 1S5,000 


200.000 


25,000 


410,000 


2.50 


3.00 


.75 


1893 ... 


.. 575,000 


325.000 


100,000 


1.000,000 


1.50 


2.50 


3.00 


1892 .... 


. 375,000 


160.000 


65.000 


600,000 


1.50 


2.25 


3.00 


1891 ... 


.. 4S0,000 


250.000 


30.000 


760,000 


2.00 


2.26 


2.00 


1890 ... 


.. 375,000 


200.000 


225,000 


800.000 


2.25 


3.00 


3.50 


1889 .... 


. 350,000 


200.000 


70.000 


620.000 


2.00 


3.00 


5.00 


Iwiu ■ • • 


.. 260,000 


225.000 


100,000 


585.000 


2.00 


2.25 


1.00 


1887 ... 


.. 306.000 


164.000 


141,000 


611,000 


2.00 


3.00 


3.00 


1886 .... 


.. 275.000 


234.000 


31,000 


540,000 


1.50 


2.75 


4.00 


1885 ... 


.. 280.879 


198.125 


264,432 


743,436 


1.70 


1.40 


.75 


locM . . . . 


.. 130,583 


124,648 


24.783 


280,014 


3.00 


4.75 


2.75 


1883 .... 


. 141,964 


118.524 


135.507 


395.996 


3.00 


3.75 


5.60 


1882 .... 


,. 193,664 


78,507 


50,000 


322,171 


3.00 


4.50 


3.60 


1881 ... 


.. 160,825 


157.014 


143.186 


461,025 


2.00 


4.00 


3.00 


1880 .... 


. 250.500 


128,700 


113,430 


492,630 


2.00 


2.00 


1.00 



The best soil for the cranberry is a black peat or muck 
bottom, w^here plenty of sand is available. It is necessary to 
insure best results to have a liberal supply of running water. 
The establishment of a cranberry bog requires a large ex- 
penditure of labor and money, and even then the business is 
haxardous unless thoroughly understood and cared for. The 
question of drainage is a highly important one. Cranberry 
vines are flooded in the fall, beginning in October, and this 
is continued as late as May, when the water is drawn oft. 
This furnishes protection from frosts, and in some degree 



134 AMERICAN AGBICULTURIST 

from insect pests. Blassoms appear in June and with an> 
ample supply of moisture the fruit ripens in August and 
September, the harvest continuing into October. The cran- 
berry frequently suffers both in fruit and vine from the rav- 
ages of insects and the crop is also subject to damage 
through fungous diseases and drouth. 

Experiments in preventing scald by the "use of fungicides 
have been conducted. The consensus of opinion of experts 
indicates that bordeaux mixture is the most valuable fungi- 
cide for use in combating the cranberry scald, provided it 
is properly prepared from fresh slaked stone lime, with the 
addition of resin mixture. 

The fruit should be carefully cleaned when harvested, 
screened and assorted, due attention being given to the proc- 
ess of ripening or coloring previous to placing in barrels 
and crates. Cold storage for keeping cranberries during 
early autumn is not generally favored; successful growers 
prefer to store the fruit in a cool, dry bog house or cellar, 
disposing of it before the cold weather sets in. 

Commercial Truck Growing 

Asparagus is a vegetable which brings fancy prices early 
In the season, but owing to the rapidity with which the crop 
develops the market comes to an abrupt drop as soon as a 
large supply is produced; only fine, perfect stalks should be 
shipped, neatly tied in bunches of even siee and quality, these 
packed in boxes holding a dozen or more bunches, and well 
protected by loose, soft paper or moss during transit. A 
requisite in marketing cauliflower to advantage is to have 
the heads good size, bright and cream-like in appearance, as 
wilted or badly stained specimens sell poorly. Long Island 
is pre-eminent as a grower of cauliflower for market, and 
producers are fairly well organized to work together to se- 
cure best prices. 

Chicago and eastern markets demand head lettuce at 
highest prices, while further west the curled variety is a fa- 
vorite. These vegetables are Dest marketed in small barrels. 
Green peas heat and mold readily, and must be cool and dry 
when packed and shipped; the one-third-bushel basket is a 
popular size, and of course the earliest on the market com- 
mand best prices. Btring beans are easily handled, but all 
markets are generally supplied from home gardens after the 
opening of the season, and shipments from a distance often 
prove unprofitable. Radishes should be washed and dried, 
tied in small bunches; pithy roots. should be kept atliom^.. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 135 

Tomatoes are nowadays upon the market the year 
around, exclusive of those grown under glass. The southern 
truck regions are producing large quantities during the 
winter, which Alls in the season not supplied by northern 
gardens. Beginning with Florida, the season advances rap- 
Idly, with a corresponding decline in prices. Only smooth, 
bright fruit should be marketed, and of course the earlier 
the better. The earliest varieties, grown in the south, are 
usually shipped in crates holding six small baskets, but later 
crops in the one-third-bushel basket, followed by "home 
grown" in the early autumn, in baskets of one-half and one 
bushel. 

Cabbage is the standard favorite crop of market garden- 
ers. Ship in heads solid in texture, having some of the outside 
leaves and stems removed, and pack tightly in crates of 
about^one barrel capacity, as the shrinkage is considerable. 
Celery should be bright, well bleached, and crisp, tied in 
bunches of about one dozen stalks and packed in boxes of 
six or 12 dozen each. Honey is not subject to the same price 
fluctuations common to perishable produce, generally meeting 
a slow but steady sale. That shipped from Utah and other 
western states is largely the extracted honey, while eastern 
producers sell it in the comb, the one-pound frame forming 
the uniform package, a case holding 12 to 24 of these, usual- 
ly with a glass front. 

PACKING AND PACKAGES FOR FRESH FRUITS. 

Fruit and vegetables are put on the market In a great 
variety of packages. The market demands have not as yet 
been able to establish a uniform package for any of these 
products. Strawberries are handled in 16-quart, 24-quart 
and 32-quart cases. Michigan and Wisconsin ship very 
largely in 16-quart cases; southern Illinois, Arkansas and 
other parts of the middle south the 24-quart case, northern 
Ohio and many of the eastern states the 32-quart case, this 
also finding considerable favor in Florida. Strawberries 
should not be picked immediately after a heavy rain, as they 
are liable to reach the market in a soft condition. 

Owing to their very perishable nature, red raspberries 
are usually shipped in cases of 24 pints, while black rasp- 
berries are handled in both pints and quarts; blackberries 
in quart boxes or baskets almost exclusively, these in 24 or 
32-quart cases. Gooseberries are handled in the same man- 
ner, but should be picked before they begin to turn color. 



136 AMERICAN AGRICULTURI0T 

Peaches are handled aa a whole in a less satisfactory 
manner to producer and consumer than any other variety 
of fruit. The markets are often flooded with small, hard, 
unripe specimens, lacking: in flavor and other desirable qual- 
ities» while at the same time there may he a positive scarc- 
ity of this luscious product of the orchard. As a result 
prices cover an extremely wide range. The styles of pack- 
age vary greatly. The popular one in the west is the one- 
fifth-bushel basket, enormous quantities of these being used. 
In Michigan. In the fruit sections of the middle and eastern 
states, half-bushel and five-eighths-bushel baskets are large- 
ly in evidence; early peaches from the south are packed in 
crates, these usually holding a number of small baskets. 
This shape was also quite popular in the season of 1904 for 
peaches grown In the middle states. 

Plums are usually marketed in the 24-quart case and in 
10-pound baskets. California fruits, so generally recognized 
for their standard excellence, are shipped in packages of 
uniform size and shape; grapes In crates containing four and 
eight baskets of five to seven pounds each, peaches in 20- 
pound boxes, pears 40-pound boxes, etc. Oranges, both Cal- 
ifornia arid Florida, are universally packed In boxes holding 
176, 226 and SOO, etc. 

In the important grape sections of New York, Ohio, Mich- 
igan, etc., growers have reduced the picking, packing and 
marketing to a science. The packages almost universally In 
use for autumn, when the large crop is marketed, are the 
eight*pound basket and the four-pound or "pony" size, enor- 
mous quantities being shipped every week during the season. 
Grapes should be handled as little as possible, so as not to 
disturb the bloom. Pack stem downward, package well 
filled, so that when the cover is removed, an even, stemless 
surface is presented. The eight varieties of grapes which 
appear on the market earliest are as follows: Niagara, 
Moore's Early, Ives, Hartford, Worden, Champion, Concord 
and Perkins. First shipments are from Florida, Georgia and 
Louisiana, followed rapidly by such as Ives from southern 
Illinois, Indiana and Ohio; then Concord from southern Iowa, 
Missouri, etc. The first grapes from Michigan are Cham- 
pion, followed by Ives and Concord from* northwestern Ohio. 
The bulk of Concord, Catawba, late Niagara, Delaware, etc., 
are from northern Ohio, northwest Pennsylvania and New 
York state. Large quantities are also grown in the Hudson 
valley. In the season of 1904 the Michigan grape crop was 
somewhat short, but good yields in western New York 
brought the crop average up to about normal. 



TEAR 600K AND ALMANAC l87 

HANDLING SMALL FRUITS AND GARDEN TRUCK. 

The stnall fruit and truck business requires, to assure 
profitable returns, the greatest care in handling and dis- 
tributing the finished product. This is particularly true of 
all perishable products, including fresh vegetables and small 
fruits. To secure best results to grower and country shipper 
such goods require the keenest attention from beginning to 
end. Too often serious loss follows improper handling, and 
as a result there is no particular profit to anyone, except 
the transportation company, which gets as much for carry- 
ing carelessly packed produce, commanding a low price In 
market, as. for that which reaches its destination in good 
shape ready for quick sale. In shipping such products as 
berries, other fresh fruits, and green vegetables, it is impor- 
tant to have them reach the wholesale market at a very 
early hour in the morning in order to catch the best trade 
and consequently best prices. Often delayed consignments 
reaching the market in the middle of the day, or in the af- 
ternoon, must sell at very low figures, or go over to anothei* 
day, and in the latter case may appear to poor advantage. 

The attractiveness of the product has a very important 
influence upon its sale. Berries should be placed on the 
toarket in fresh, clean boxes or baskets, packages free from 
inferior, damaged or overripe fruit, and such vegetables as 
radishes, young onions, carrots, parsnips, lettuce, etc., 
should be washed clean and present a bright, fl*esh, crisp 
appearance. Study the markets to which you expect to ship* 
and place your goods thereon ih uniform approved packages, 
"honest count, weight and measure," etc. The shipper who 
is disposed to "face" his small fruit or vegetables in baskets, 
boxes or barrels, is always found out; on the other hand» 
honesty of packing and high quality mean quick apprecia/- 
tlon. 

FIVE DECADES OF AMERICAN CROPS. 

In most instances the area given over to the great stajjle 
crops keeps pace with the growth of population in th6 United 
States, yet there is no overproduction in the main. While 
tne general tendency In the great field staples li3 toward an 
increased crop production, the home requirements are each 
year greater, and under fairly favorable conditions the sur- 
plus will find a ready market abroad. In the following table 
showing principal United States farm crops in round mil- 
lions of bushels, bales and tons, the, figures for the years 



138 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



1895 to 1904 inclusive are taken from American Agriculturist, 
with the exception of cotton and buckwheat, these trade 
estimates. The returns for 1860 to 1894 inclusive are mostly 
from the United States department of agriculture. 

PRODUCTION PRINCIPAL FARM CROPS BY YEARS. 



•a • J,- • « « OD 

O S 4*^* ma ^ ^M , . 

e___6|__M_6l SB »s is 

1904 12. 554 2574 973 30 144 

1903 10.1 703 2346 823 .32 139 

1902 10.7 760 2556 1028 34 138 

1901 10.7 752 1419 700 30 110 

1900 10.4 510 2188 832 24 59 

1899 9.1 565 2207 869 24 73 

1898 11.1 715 1868 799 26 56 

1897 10. 589 1823 814 — — 

1896 8.5 470 2269 714 24 70 

1895 7.2 460 2272 904 27 87 

1894 9.5 460 1213 662 27 61 

1893 7.5 396 1619 639 27 70 

1892 t6.7 516 1628 661 . • ♦ 

1891 J9. 612 2060 738 • • 

1890 t8.7 399 1490 524 29 • 

1889 7.5 491 2113 751 28 ♦ 

1888 6.9 416 1987 701 28 64 

1887 7. 456 1456 660 21 57 

1886 6.3 457 1665 624 24 59 

1885 6.6 357 1936 629 27 58 

1884 5.7 513 1795 584 29 61 

1883 5.7 421 1551 571 28 50 

1882 7. 504 1617 488 30 49 

1881 :t5.5 383 1195 416 21 41 

1880 5,7 499 1717 418 25 45 

1877 t4.8 364 1343 406 21 34 

1875 ^4.6 292 1321 354 18 S7 

1873 t4.1 281 932 270 15 32 

1870 13. 236 1094 247 15 26 

1865 0.3 149 704 225 20 11 

1860 . . . :^_4.9 173 8.39 173 21 16 

♦ No estimate for year indicated by asterisk, 
ceding year, t Commercial estimates. 



•» 








^ 




u 


|a 




S5 


1 


II 


15 


289 


58 


15 


255 


58 


15 


272 


60 


15 


183 


51 


10 


255 


52 


11 


243 


59 


12 


204 


68 


14 


174 


67 


15 


245 


59 


13 


286 


48 


12 


171 


55 


• 


183 


66 


* 


« 




* 


« 




m 


• 




12 


• 




11 


202 


47 


12 


134 


41 


11 


168 


42 


13 


175 


45 


11 


191 


48 


8 


208 


47 


11 


171 


38 


9 


109 


35 


15 


168 


32 


10 


170 


32 


10 


167 


28 


8 


106 


25 


10 


115 


25 


18 


101 


24 


18 


111 


19 



t Crop of pre- 



No advertisement is allowed in the columns of the American 
Agriculturist weeklies unless we believe that any subscriber 
can safely do business with the advertiser. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 139 

IMPORTS' GRAIN AND COTTON INTO UNITED KINGDOM. 

[Stated- in round millions.] 



Bar- 
Calendar Wheat, Flour, ley, Oat8, 
year ' cwts. cwte. cwta. cwta. 

1904* 80 12 23 12 

1903 88 20 26 16 

1902 81 19 25 16 

1901 .■.;... 70 23 22 22 

1900 ....69 22 17 20 

1899 -. 67 23 17 16 

1898 ....65 21 24 16 

1897 63 19 19 16 

1896 70 21 22 18 

1895 82 18 24 16 

1894 70 19 31 15 

1893 65 20 23 14 

1892 ...65 22 14 16 

1891 66 17 17 17 

1890 60 16 17 13 

1889 ....59 16 17 16 

1888 57 17 21 19 

1887 56 18 14 14 

1886 47 15 14 13 

1885 61 16 15 13 

1883 64 16 16 15 

1881 57 11 10 10 

♦ Ten months ended October 31. 



Cot- 
Corn, Peas, Beans, ton, 
cwts. cwts. cwts. cwts. 



37 


2 


2 


11 


50, 


2 


2 


16 


44 


2 


2 


16 


51 


2 


2 


16 


54 


2 


2 


16 


63 


3 


2 


15 


57 


2 


2 


19 


54 


3 


3 


15 


52 


3 


3 


16 


34 


2 


4 


16 


35 


2 


5 


16 


33 


2 


4 


13 


35 


3 


4 


16 


27 


2 


4 


18 


43 


2 


3 


16 


36 


2 


4 


17 


25 


2 


3 


15 


31 


3 


2 


16 


31 


2 


3 


15 


32 


2 


4 


13 


32 


2 


4 


15 


33 


2 


2 


15 



PRICES FOR THE YEAR 1904. 



J an. 1 

Sweet potatoes, p bbl...$3.60 

Beets, p bbl 3.00 

Celery, p doz bchs 50 

Cabbage, P bbl 2.25 

Cauliflower, p doz 1.65 

Turnips, p bbl 1.20 

Tallow, No 1. p lb 05% 

Dressed hogs, p 100 lbs. 7.25 
Dressed veal, p 100 lbs. 10.50 

Mess pork, p bbl 14.50 

Lard, p 100 Ibs.i 7.50 

Bran, p ton 20.50 

Middlings, p ton 24.00 

Beeswax, p lb 30 

Honey, comb, p lb 14 

Maple syrup, p gal 95 



Boston s 

Apr. 1 July 1 Oct. 1 



, — New York--* 
Jan. 1 Apr. 1 



$3.50 

3.00 

.75 

3.50 

1.50 

1.25 

.05H 

7.50 

10.50 

16.00 

7.50 

21.00 

24.00 

.29 



t51.40 

1.75 

1.60 

.04V4 

8.00 

10.00 

14.00 

8.00 

21.25 

25.00 

.30 

.14 



$2.25 

1.00 

.50 

1.00 

•3.25 

.80 

.04% 

7.50 

11.00 

14.00 

8.00 

21.25 

24.00 

.14 



1.00 — 



$3.50 

3.00 

.50 

2.50 

1.75 

1.25 

.05% 

7.50 

11.50 

14.00 

7.20 

21.50 

23.50 

.29 

.14% 

.85 



$4.50 

4.00 

.75 

3.75 

1.50 

L50 

.05 

8.25 

10.50 

14.75 

7.16 

20.00 

23.50 

.31 

.14 

.85 



149 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

PRICES FOR THE YEAR 1904— Continued. 



/—New York-^ ^ Chicago » 

Julyl Oct. 1 Jan.l Apr. 1 July 1 Oct. 1 



Sweet potatoes, p bbl... — $2.00 $2.75 $3.50 — $2.75 

Beets, p bbl t$1.50 1.25 2.00 2.50 •$1.50 1.00 

Celery, p doz bchs — .50 .25 .35 .50 .35 

Cabbage, p bbl 1.00 .75 2.75 3.75 $1.50 $.75 

Cauliflower, p doz — •3.00 1.25 1.25 .50 .35 

Turnips, p bbl ......1.00 .85 1.75 3.00 tl.50 1.00 

Tallow, No 1, p lb 04% .04% .04 .05 .04% M% 

Dressed hogs, p 100 lbs. 8.50 9.00 6.00 6.00 5.00 6.00 

Dressed veal, p 100 lbs. 8.50 10.50 9.00 8.00 8.00 9.00 

Mess pork, p bbl 14.00 13.50 13.00 13.25 13.00 11.50 

Lard, p 100 lbs 7.50 7.75 7.00 6.25 6.25 7.75 

Bran, p ton 19.00 21.00 16.00 15.50 18.00 19.00 

Middlings, p ton 21.50 24.00 16.50 16.50 19.50 20.50 

Beeswax, p lb 30 .28 .29 .32 .30 .33 

Honey, comb, p lb 13 .14 .11 .10% .10 .12 

Maple syrup-, p gal 75 — — -- — - -- 

• p bbl, t P 100 bchs, t P era. 

SIX YEARS OF CROPS 

in the United States. The figures for 1899 are in most instances 

from the federal census. For other years, the American Agri- 
culturist's data are the accepted authority. 

[In round thousands, last three figures omitted.] 

1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 mJf 

Corn, bus 2,574,000 2,346,000 2,566,311 1,418,849 2,188,019 2,666,440 

Wheat, bus 554,713 703,500 760,350 752,311 610,504 658,634 

Oats, bus 973,135 823,138 1,028,220 700,869 832,254 943,389 

Rye, bus 30.286 31,822 33,631 30,345 23,959 25,569 

Barley, bus 144,451 139.145 134.954 109,933 81316 119,635 

Buckwheat, bus.... — •14,000 14,530 15,126 9,567 U,234 

Flaxseed, bus 22.190 26,639 29,351 29,079 23,412 19,753 

Potatoes (wh.),bus. 288,664 255,009 271,777 193,121 255,100 273.328 

Apples, bbis 45,360 42,626 44,220 26,970 66,820 58.466 

Onions, bus 3,288 3,090 3.822 3,050 3,738 4,600 

Cranberries, bus... 765 935 675 950 800 988 

Hay. tons 58,164 57,806 61,000 50.981 52,006 69.000 

Tobacco, cs (350 lbs) 149,695 164,080 1181,650 1121.450 tl42,800 668,979 

Broom corn. lbs.... 40.812 31.203 39,750 37,150 39,506 — 

Cotton, bis (495 lbs) ^10,500 'lO.OOO 10,720 9,966 10,401 9,535 

Hops, bales 234 205 196 210* 208 275 

Cane sugar, tons... $215 300 $310 $270 $147 9246 

Beet sugar, tons. §208 §195 §163 §77 §73 §32 

• Preliminary estimates, t Cigar leaf only. $ Exclusive of 
Porto Rico and Hawaii. § Commercial estimates. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 141 

Live StQck 

Cattle 

MOVEMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF CATTX4P. 

The cattle industry of the United States, despite the 
breaking up of the^great ranches of the west, is of more 
importance than ever before. Each year sees a greater cap- 
ital devoted to the rearing, feeding and slaughtering of 
beeves. This is not wonderful In view of the ever-growing 
requirements for domestic consumption and a continuation 
of a healthy export trade. Methods of handling cattle from 
range and feed lot, to and through all distributing channels, 
are much as in recent years. 

Five or six centrally located cities of the United States 
slaughter and distribute the larger part of the beef con- 
sumed at home and sent abroad, yet a liberal business of 
this character is carried on at such eastern points as Pitts* 
burg, Buffalo, New York, Philadelphia, etc. New England . 
slau^^htering and packing centers pay relatively less atten- 
tion to beef than to pork and mutton. 

A feature of agriculture in the older middle and eastern 
states the past few years is the endeavor, within reasonable 
limitations, to build up a local business in fattening, slaugh- 
tering and marketing cattle. Progress in this direction has 
been slow, however, owing to the very sharp competition of 
Western beef interests. These particularly dominate the 
meat trade in all the large towns and cities of the east. 

The winters of 1903-4 and the entire year of 1904 were 
featured by comparatively low prices for cattle. However, 
stock marketed during the latter half of the past year was 
in most instances bought as feeders at a safe range of prices. 
On this account losses on fattened cattle were not so heavy 
as during the preceding year, when farmers sold fat cattle 
at low figures, and had bought the same stock when thin 
at high prices. The great strike of packing house employees 
at western markets during the summer of 1904 upset cattle 
conditions for many weeks. However, upon the settlement 
of difficulties normal conditions were shortly restored. It is 
estimated the packing house strike caused a total loss to 
slaughterers, feedersandshlppersof many millions of dollars. 



144 AMERICAN AORICmiJURIST 

NUMBER, AVERAGE PRICE AND FARM VALUE OF CAT- 
TLE IN THE UNITED STATES ON JANUARY 1, 1904. 

[Department of agriculture.] 



Milch cows 



Other cattle 



States and 
territories 



u 

V 

a 






— \ 

9 

a 
► ■ 

a 



u 

g 

iz; 



8 

feS • 



— \ 

s 



a 



Me 185,417 $29.91 $5,545,822 122,440 $15.74 $1,926,643 

N. H 124,904 31.01 3,873,273 102,210 16.33 1,566,580 

Vt 288,197 26.32 7,585,345 223,634 13.73 3,070.176 

Mass 188,740 40.40 7.625,096 94,334 17.11 1,614,366 

R. 1 25,723 40.10 1,031.492 10,549 19.25 203,026 

Ct 129,567 39.50 5,117,896 86,609 20.37 1.764.493 

N. Y 1,655,328 35.49 58.747.591 936,300 18.08 16.924,184 

N. J 179,241 39.04 6,997,569 82,061 20.33 1.668,489 

Pa 1.055,071 34.08 35,956,820 798,449 21.83 17.481,341 

Del 34,779 33.91 1,179,356 21,390 17.61 376,622 

Md 148,912 29.63 4,412,263 132,652 18.49 2.462.663^ 

Va 255,280 24.76 6.320,733 436,189 17.04 7,431,780 

N. C 197,431 22.36 4,414,557 298,539 10.74 3,206.759 

S. C 110.812 24.48 2,7X2,678 176,603 11.17 1,972,144 

Ga 280.096 22.68 6,352.577 635,494 11.36 7.219.407 

Fla 86,149 23.38 2,014,164 522,526 9.09 4,749.132 

Ala 232,444 19.57 4,548,929 379,353 7.70 2,922,797 

Miss 269,311 22.38 6,027,180 423,132 9.60 4,060,881 

La 168,000 24.39 4,097,520 404,945 10.29 4,168.908 

Tex 821,991 19.66 16,160,343 8,087.989 10.13 81,928.093 

Ark 278,082 18.39 5,113,928 468,964 7.65 3,587,246 

Tenn 285,383 22.23 6,344,064 433,657 11.43 4.954,470 

W. Va 182,201 28.66 5.221,881 3454»9 20.64 7,123.727 

Ky 295,584 25.05 7.404,379 488,561 16.64 8,131.271 

Ohio 782,866 33.17 25,967,665 1,154,323 21.37 24,666,963 

Mich 550,643 32.79 18,055,584 729,077 16.71 12,180.406 

Ind 553,115 30.57 16,908,726 895,583 21.13 1$,919,826 

111 1.005.484 33.81 33,995,414 1,683,709 24.78 41.714,062 

Wis 1,063,944 31.00 32,982.264 1.137,211 14.59 16.693.165 

Minn 820,439 25.45 20,880.173 932,481 11.41 10,636.263 

la 1,363,094 29.09 39,652,404 3,502,532 22.10 77,395,457 

Mo 581,415 26.04 15,140,047 1,419,132 19.40 27,626,913 

Kan 699,246 24.91 17,418,218 2,604,174 18.90 49,228,000 

Neb 649,830 26.53 17,240,229 2,355,919 17.48 41.184.298 

S. D 386,253 24.93 9,629,287 1,485,417 18.19 27.013.348 

N. D 183,332 28.89 5.296,461 610,923 17.65 10.719,863 

Mont 53,951 36.20 1,953,026 1,059,045 19.42 20,563,797 

Wyo 19,391 32.96 639,127 804,021 19.60 15,760,416 

Col 121,775 30.06 3,660,566. 1,260,574 16.45 20,733,666 



TEAR BOOK AXD ALMANAC 145 

N. M 19.590 $31.30 1013,167 916.095 $14.55 $13,330,466 

Aril 18,856 35.91 677»119 656.841 17.30 9,633,401 

Utah 69,496 30.93 2,149,511 251.783 17.39 4,378,504 

Nev 16.170 36.62 592,145 382,373 22.34 8.541.141 

Ida, 57,327 31.28 1,793,189 351,226 17.97 6,310,761 

Wash. ......... 154.454 33.41 5.160,308 297,513 19.08 5,676,81Q 

Ore. ..:.. 136.199 30.06 4.094,142 575,744 16.25 9.354,628 

Cal 344,232 38.55 13.270.144 1.089,532 21.98 23,944.214 

OMa. ^ 18»,616 21.05 . 3,970,867 1.351.999 14.06 19.011.943 

Ind. Ter. ..:... 10!. 447 -22.64 2,296.760 510,582 13.13 6,705,420 

United States. 17,419 ,817 $29.21 $508,841,489 43,629.498 $16.32 $712,178,134 



EXPORTS OP BEEF AND BEEF PRODUCTS. 



[In round millions of pounds.] 



Tear ended 
June 30 



Beef. 

canned 



mi 57 

1903 76 

1902 67 

1901 53 

1900 56 

1899 38 

1S98 37 

1897 54 

1896 64 

1885 64 

1894 56 

1893 79 

1892 87 



Beef, 
fresh 



299 
254 
301 
352 
329 
282 
275 
290 
225 
191 
194 
206 
221 



Othfr 
cure^ 

57^ 

53 

52 

58 

50 

49 

46 

68 

71 

63 

64 

59 

71 



Tallow 



76 
27 
34 
77 
89 
107 
82 
75 
53 
26 
55 
62 
90 



Oleomar- 
garine 



171 
133 
144 
166 
151 
148 
137 
118 
109 

88 
127 
117 

93 



Total 

value 



$53,286,225 
51.048.679 
53,230.716 
56,556.193 
54,080,807- 
43,780,976 
40.197.094 
49.905,389 
39,644.482 
35,578.071 
40.687,708 
43,002.657 
43,643,645 



RANGE OF CATTLE PRICES AT CHICAGO. 

Dry butcher Stockers Western 

Native steers, cows and and range 

Year 1200 to 1800 lbs, heife rs feeders catt le 

1904 ^$3.75^7.00 ^.00(&'5y25 $2.00^4.50 ^2725^^5^ 

1903 ". . . . 4.00@)6.65 2.76Ca)4.75 2.50@5.00 2.50^4.65 

1902 3.60@9.00 3.25(^)8.25 1.90@6.00 2.00(^/7.40 

1901 3.60(§)9.30 ?.20(g)8.00 1.65@5.15 1.50(g/5.75 

1900 3:B0@8.50 3.20(^6.00 2.10(^5.25 3.20^35 

1899 4.00^8.25 3.50@6.85 2.50(g)5.40 3.75^5.70 

1898 Z.^Om-25 3.20^5.40 2.40(g)4.75 3.25(^5.10 

1897 3.25@6.50 1.50@4.50. 2.25(3)4.50 2.25^4.60 

1896 3.40@6.50 1.25(g)4.50 1.90@4.10 2.10(g)5.50 

1896 3.60(g)6.60 1.50(§)5.75 1.75(§)5.15 1.90@5.76 

1894 3.00(g)6.60 1.00(^4.40 1.75(g)4.15 1.50(^1)5.50 

18W 4.00@6.75 1.25@5.00 2.00(g)4.90 1.75@6.00 

1892 3.75@7.00 1.00(g)4.00 1.50@4.10 1.50^5.25 

1^ 4.00^7.15 1.25^4.60 1.75(g)4.75 2.00(3)5.60 



146 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Hogs 

Regarding general hog supplies, it may be said that the 
' distribution of swine throughout the world is uneven. North 
America and Europe probably show 95% of the total num- 
ber; the United States, Germany and Russia have nearly 
70% of these and the United States alone has 35 to 4&% of 
the whole. This distribution is readily accounted for. In the 
case of most farm animals grass is a principal foodstuff. In 
the case of hogs it is grain. The countries named are the 
great grain producers. Of corn, the best hog feed of all, the 
United States has the monopoly in production. 

Enormous quantities of hog meat and products are con- 
sumed annually in the United States and sent abroad. Each 
twelve months a total of a,pproximately 30,000,000 hogs are 
slaughtered in the United States, of which 20 to 25 million 
are handled in the packing houses of comparatively few 
cities. Economies practiced where the business is conducted 
on a large scale, and facilities for distribution of fresh prod- 
uct through the refrigerator .service, constantly tend to fur- 
ther concentrate the killing at large' centers. 

RECEIPTS OF HOGS AT LEADING POINTS BY YEARS. 

[Stated in roiarid thousands.] 
THE FOUR LEADING WESTERN POINTS. 

1904 1903 1902 '« 1901 l900" 1899 18 9 8 1897 1896 1^ 

Chicago 5916* 7325 7895 8290 8109 8178 8817 8364 7885 6057 

Kansas City . . . 1833* 1969 2279 3716 3094 2959 3673 3351 2458 194? 

Omaha 1951* 2231 2247 2414 2201 2216 2101 1611 1187 1460 

St. Louis 1618*1700 1330 1924 1792 1801 1728 1627 1085 777 

*January 1 to November 10. 

THE MIDDLE WEST. 

Cincinnati 690* 736 722 767 815 869 895^ 875 773 592 

Indianapolis 1273*1530 1251 1487 1323 1546 1681 1253 1109 879 

Cleveland 731* 885 926 846 989 1098 918 652 375 270 

1 — ■ 

♦January 1 to November 10. 

THE EASTERN MARKETS. 

New York 1526*1518 1349 1681 182^~l825 1797 1578 17!S3 1488 

Boston 704§ 1266 1448 1401 1275 1681 1495 1420 1400 1873 

Buffalo 1876*2440 2227 2040 2032 2160 2558 5621 5256 6058 

Pittsburg 2018*2008 1745 1125 _ _ — 1894 1063 999 

Philadelphia 135* 146 146 160 198 245 240 250 259 275 

*Januarjri to November 10. gJanuary 1 to June 30. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 
ADDITIONAL GROWING TRADE CBNTBRS. 



147 



1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897 1896 1893 

St. Paul 717* 759 659 609 495 366 m m ^4 i§4 

Sioux City 876*1008 1008 960 833 568 474 360 341 329 

St. Joseph 1290tl700 1699 1105 1679 1402 1034 400 252 240 

New Orleans .... 16§ 115 11 17 19 — — 18 26 30 

Denver 138* 117 87 109 116 120 82 75 48 62 

*Jan. 1 to Nov. 10. tJan. 1 to Nov. 1. jYear ended July 1. 
' TOTAL HOG PACKING BY YEARS. 
[Year ended March 1.] 

'■ Live receipts, 

Western Eastern N. Y., PhUa. Total 

Year packing packing & B altimore supply^ 

1904 22,375,000 2,780,000 2,461,000 27,6i6;600 

1903 20,605,000 2,800,000 1,841,000 25,246,000 

1902 25,410,000 2,749,000 2.235,000 30,395,000 

1901 23,265,000 2,759.000 2,620.000 28.980,000 

1900 22,215,000 3.092,000 2,879,000 28.172,000 

1899 23.510,000 3.164,000 2.978.000 29.793.000 

1898 20.201,000 3,073,000 2,861,000 26,134,000 

1897 16,929,000 2,791,000 2,960.000 22,670,000 

1896 15,010,000 2,603.000 2,867.000 20.480.000 

1895 16,003.000 3.099,000 2,517.000 21.619,000 

1894 11.606,000 2,701,000 2,483,000 16,789,000 

1893 12,390,000 3,016,000 2,790,000 18,196,000 

1892 14.467.000 2,f71.000 3,684,000 20,912,000 

1891 17.713,000 2,540,000 3,713.000 23,966,000 



THE 1904 HOG PACK AT LEADING CITIES. 
[Year ended March 1.] 

Number 



Number 



ChicsLgo 

Kansas City ... 

Omaha 

St. Joseph, Mo. 

St. Louis 

Indianapolis ... 



.6,713,000 Sioux City 468.000 

.2,087,000 St. Paul 811.000 

.2,174,000 Milwaukee 846,000 

.1,609,000 Cleveland 626,000 

.1,571,000 Cincinnati 586,000 

.1,124,000 Cedar Rapids, la 502,000 



The great hogr-packing section of the United States is 
the territory comprising the "corn belt" states of the Mis- 
sissippi valley. This is but natural, as the great packing 
houses are situated close to the base of supply, and there is 
more economy in shipping the finished product long dis- 
tances to consuming centers than in shipping the live ani- 
mals. But all this granted, there is after all an important 



/148 AKBRICAN AGRICnLTTmiBT 

packing: business in the middle and eiastern- states, including 
such centers as Pittsburg, Buffalo; Jersey City, Worcester, 
SpringrHeld, Boston, amounting to 3,000,000 hogs annually. 
The following table, compiled from figures furnished by the 
Cincinnati Price Current, shows the rate at which hogs have 
been slaughtered in the winter periods at western markets. 

SEASON OP WINTER PORK PACKING IN THE3 WB3BT. 

[Stated in thousands of hogs.] 



s 



CO 

* ® ,2 

^Z^ I' i 5 *V I 3 I I" 

1903-4 ... 2926 862 747 628 248 423 479 126 6439 

1902-3 ... 2952 747 778 504 221 295 359 144 6000 

1901-2 ... 3434 1272 939 643 234 322 477 150 7470 

1900-1 ... 2970 1178 786 667 245 396 434 144 6820 

1899-0 ... 2870 960 729 604 270 339 411 132 631E 

1898-9 ... 3249 1220 791 729 297 446 442 19« 7370 

1897-8 .:. 2673 1305 550 526 276 508 428 177 6448 

1896-7 ... 2285 1025 440 415 240 360 345 120 S230 

1895-6 ... 2375 869 . 417 388 250 368 336 129 6i32 

1894-5 ... 2475 885 535 373 266 349 308 137 5328 

1893-4 ... 1696 585 380 265 190 143 258 104 3611 

1892-3 ... 1478 617 408 226 '204 120 205 112 3370 

1891-2 ... 2757 863 635 350 289 326 317 101 663S 

1890-1 ... 2838 937 584 291 301 338 315 113 5717 

1889-0 ... 2179 682 373 349 272 301 326 106 4588 

1888-9 ... 1462 712 333 336 300 274 278 153 3^ 

1887-8 ... 1732 780 364 370 310 219 301 191 4267 

1886-7 ... 1844 769 243 371 331 327 352 199 .4436 

1885-6 ... 2393 656 106 369 333 343 291 122 4613 

1884-5 ... 2368 607 141 442 385 337 317 165 4762 

1883-4 ... 2011 427 65 382 365 265 274 142 3931 

1882-3 ... 2558 445 91 357 425 294 276 126 4542 

1881-2 ... 2368 346 85 316 385 324 249 131 4204 

1880-1 ... 2781 340 96 474 522 326 389 231 5159 

1875-6 ... 1592 75 18 330 563 182 323 223 3306 

1870-1 ... 918 36 — 306 500 241 105 242 2348 

1865-6 ... 507 — — 117 354 88 36 91 1193 

1860-1 ... 272 — — 80 434 51 39 199 1075 



^^^— ^»- 



DISTRIBUTION AND VALUE IN THE UNITED STATES. 

As the United States is noted for being populated by a 
meat-eating people, it is but natural that the domestic con- 
sumption of pork in its varied forms is enormous. In addl- 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



U9 



tion, the foreign trade in pork product forms a very impor- 
tant part of our export business one year with another. 
Probably no other single article in the foreign trade is so 
widely distributed. In the United States, the distribution of 
hogs and pork is largely the same, geographically speaking. 

DOMESTIC HOG SUPPLY IN LEADING CORN STATES. 

[In round thousands.] 



1904 Number V alue 

Ohio 2.540 $T4T986 

Indiana 3,144 18,864 

lUinois 4,579 29,764 

Iowa 7,303 47.470 

Missouri 3.321 19.926 

Kansas 2.668 15.604 

Nebraska 3.323 20.603 

Other 26,768 167,217 



Year Number Value 

1904, total. . .50,664 $312,817 

1903 49,017 334,311 

1902 46,612 298.805 

1900 49,242 45,725 

1899 48,934 205.301 

1898 49.597 212,063 

1897 ...47,646 196,257 

1896 46.302 204.402 



HOG PRICES AT CHICAGO PER 100 POUNDS. 



Heavy packing, 
Year 260 to 460 lbs. 

1904 * $3.75e'6.30 

1903 3.90(S>7.87% 

1902 5.70@8.25 

1901 4.80@7.37% 

1900 4.05@5.85 

1899 3.35@4.80 

1896 3.10@4.80 

1897 2.50@4.50 

1896 2.40@4.45 

1896 3.25®5.45 

1894 3.90®6.7o 

1893 3.80@8.75 

1892 3.70®7.00 

1891 3.25@5.70 



Mixed packing, 
200 to 250 lbs. 



Light bacon, 
150 to 200 lbs. 



|3.70t^6.20 
3.85@5.70 
5.65(3)8.20 
4.85(g/7.30 
4.05^5.82% 
3.40(^5.00 
3.10@4.70 
2.90^4.60 
2.75@4.46 
3.25(g)5.65 
3.90^6.66 
4.25@8.66 
3.65@6.70 
3.25@5.75 



|3.60@6.10 
3.90<g'7.55 
6.40(3/7.96 
4.75@7.20 
4.00(g)5.75 
3.30@5.00 
3.10@4.65 
3.00(g)4.65 
2.80@4.45 
3.25(g)5.7U 
3.50@6.45 
4.40@8.50 
3.60(3)6.85 
3.15(g)5.95 



THE AVERAGE COST 

Per 100 pounds of hogs packed in the west in recent years has 

been, for the year ended March 1: 



Summer 

1903-4 $6.11 

1902-3 7.06 

1901-2 5.92 

1900-1 6.12 



Winter Year 



Summer 

1899-0 $4.00 

1898-9 3.85 

1897-8 3.70 

1896-7 3.30 



Winter Year 



14.74 
6.44 
5.97 
5.02 



$5.54 
6.81 
5.94 
6.07 



$4.29 
3.52 
3.53 
3.30 



$4.11 
3.71 
3.63 
3.30 



166 AMERICAN AGRICUL+URIST 

SEVEN YEARS' EXPORTS OF HOG PRODUCTS. 
[In millions of pounds.] 



Year Bacon anc 

1903-4 447 

xItUm'U •••••••r««««> •4ZX 

1901-2 611 

1900-1 673 

1899-0 709 

1898-9... 789 

1897-8 850 



3 Porlc 


L.ard 


Total value 


140 


561 


$105,248,666 


116 


490 


. 110.740,915 


160 


556 


126,818,431 , 


169 


611 


119,253,122 


159 


661 


109,572,863 


178 


711 


115,179^0 


100 


709 


110,801.151 



Sheep 



There is scarcely a country in the world, except in the 
frigrid zone, but what boasts of her flocks. The woolskins 
thus constitute one of the great universal species of live 
stock. The industry in the United States, prominent for a 
century and more, has always been subject to great fluctu- 
ations in point of profits to farmers. 

Perhaps more than any other agricultural branch of farm- 
ing this is affected by legislation. For many years sheep 
were kept very largely for their wool product, the fleeces be- 
ing regarded the profitable end of sheep husbandry. Because 
of this, every infiuence affecting wool prices was reflected 
in corresponding changes in the number of sheep kept. But 
in the last dozen years there has been a remarkable and 
gratifying increase in the consumption of mutton, and the 
tendency is now largely in the direction of raising sheep for 
slaughter, with wool as an incidental product. However, 
the wool market last year proved sensationally high and en- 
couraged flockmasters greatly. 

SHEEP MOVEMENT IN THE WEST. 



, Chicago X 

Year Receipts Sh ipm' ts 

1904 ♦3,912,000 ' — 

1903 4,583,000 1,000,000 

1902 4,516,000 832,000 

1901 4,044,000 763,000 

1900 3,549,000 487,000 

1899 3,683,000 387,000 

1898 3,589,000 543,000 

1897 3. 607. COO 638.000_ 

•January 1 to November 



r Kansaa 

Recei pts 

♦883^300 
1,152,000 
1,154,000 

961.000 

839,000 

915.000 

963,000 
1,115,000 



City X 

Shipm'ts 



-Omaha- 



Receip ts Shipm 'ts 

— 1,562,500 — 

361,000 1,864,000 892,190 

411,292 1,743,000 863,250 

195,000 1,315,000 563,000 

216,000 1,277,000 553,000 

308,000 1,087,000 342,000 

331,000 1,085,000 483,000 

306,000 627.000 206,000 



10. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 161 

SHEEP IN THE UNITED STATES BY STATES, JAN. 1, 1904. 
[United States Department of Agriculture.] 



8tate 


Number Per~hd. 

313*982 $2.84 


Value 


State 


Number P 


*er hd. 
$2.79 


Value 


Me. .... 


1893,153 


Neb. . 


. . 493,340 


$1,376,664 


N. H. .. 


82.606 


2.83 


233,392 


S. D. . 


.. 927,246 


2.71 


2.509 .:i^ 


Vt 


246,488 


2.83 


697,117 


N. D. 


.. 836.059 


2.68 


2.252.008 


Mass. .. 


44,856 


4.27 


191,424 


Mont. 


.. 5,270.063 


2.31 


12,184 ,38o 


R. I. ... 


8.834 


3.69 


32.576 


Wyo. . 


.. 4.602.668 


2.58 


11.883,603 


V/ la •••••• 


34,264 


4.54 


156.532 


Col. .. 


.. 1,846.518 


2.25 


4.152.265 


N. Y. .. 


1.313.974 


3.84 


5,042,638 


N. M. 


. . 3,860,466 


1.93 


7.464.598 


N. J. ... 


44.685 


4.08 


182,439 


Ariz. . 


.. 1.088.188 


2.18 


2.376.841 


Pa 


963,421 


3.53 


3.402,129 


Utah . 


.. 2.391.947 


2.29 


5.468.230 


Del 


11.946 


4.03 


48.199 


Nev. . 


. . 879.602 


2.48 


2.185.283 


Md 


163.664 


3.64 


694.686 


Ida. . . 


.. 3,688,034 


2.21 


7.913.050 


Va 


672.314 


2.96 


1.706,611 


Wash. 


.. 894,335 


2.78 


2,490.633 


N. C. .. 


203.027 


1.96 


401.426 


Ore. .. 


.. 2,927,198 


2.04 


5,976.461 


8. C. ... 


59,462 


1.97 


117.311 


Cal. .. 


.. 2.271,249 


2.75 


6,237.768 


6a 


276,660 


1.72 


476,298 


Okla. 


64,242 


2.58 


165,686 


Fla 


110.966 


2.16 


238.909 


I. T. .. 


26.296 


2.11 


53.488 


Ala 

Miss. ... 


196.773 
187,489 


1 «t 


358.600 
314.907 










1.68 


Total 


..51,630,144 $2.59 $133,530,099 


La 


176.656 


1.89 


333.012 


1903.. 


..63,964,876 


2.63 


168,315.750 


Tex 


1.667.139 


1.97 


3,285,431 


1902.. 


. .62,039,091 


2.65 


164,446.091 


Ark 


196,704 


1.65 


327,027 


1901.. 


..59,756,718 


2.96 


178.072.476 


Tenn. . . 


300.378 


2.24 


671.584 


1900.. 


..41,883,065 


2.93 


122.665.913 


W. Va... 


648.951 


3.06 


1,995,784 


1899. . 


. .39.114,453 


2.75 


107,697,530 


Ky 


719.779 


2.71 


1,948,441 


1896.. 


..37.656.960 


2.46 


92,721,133 


Ohio ... 


3.171.963 


3.20 


10.168.528 


1897.. 


. .36.818.643 


1.82 


67,020,942 


Mich. .. 


2,120,090 


3.14 


6,659.416 


1896.. 


..38,298.783 


1.70 


65,167.735 


Ind 


1.233.447 


3.45 


4.249.472 


1895.. 


..42.294.064 


1.58 


66.685.767 


ni 


820,184 


3.56 


2,910,751 


1894.. 


..45.048,017 


1.98 


89,186,110 


Wis 


1.355,341 


2.94 


3,981,721 


1893.. 


..47.273.553 


2.66 


125,909.264 


Minn. .. 


513,337 


2.61 


1.340*631 


1892.. 


..44.938.365 


2.58 


116.121,290 


la 


862,118 


3.31 


2,856.886 


1891.. 


..43.431.136 


2.50 


108.379.447 


Mo 


778,121 


2.90 


2.2M.683 


1890.. 


..44.336.072 


2.27 


100.659,761 


Kan. ... 


263,219 


2.97 


781.312 






« 





RECEIPTS OF SHEEP AT LEADING POINTS BY YEARS. 

[Stated in round thousands.] 
THE FOUR LEADING WESTERN l^ARKETS. 



1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897 1895 1893 

Chicago ... 1 3912* 4583 4516 4044 3549 3683 3589 3607 3407 3031 

Kansas City .... 883* 1152 1154 980 860 953 980 1134 865 570 

Omaha 1562*1864 1743 1315 1277 1086 1085 627 205 252 

St. Louis 604* 528 523 520 416 409 436 609 455 350 

'January 1 to November 10. 



162 



AMERICAN AORICULTURlflT 
THE MIDDLE WEST. 



1904 1903 1902 1 90 1 1900 189 9 1898 1897 1895 1893 

Cincinnati 354* 394 356 332 283 387 427 M 652 ^ 

Indianapolis 78* 101 103 126 67 65 85 98 122 83 

Cleveland 168 * 194 187 143 130 96 70 73 90 62 

^January 1 to November 10. 



THE EASTERN MARKETS. 



New York 1514*1944 2038 2162 1953 1762 1883 1631 2375 2055 

Boston 195t 426 476 450 367 375 493 559 784 530 

Pittsburg 1126* 703 — — — — — 1011 843 716 

Buffalo 1876*2440 1129 2061 1668 1712 1784 18T8 -3228 257^ 

Philadelphia 427* 437 492 473 369 341 339 376 677 45» 

*January 1 to November 1. f January 1 to June 30. 



ADDITIONAL GROWING TRADEi CENTERS. 



St. Paul 636* 876 601 331 486 382 429 300 • 175 158 

Sioux City 23* 42 61 67 61 36 21 10 14 27 

St. Joseph, Mo... 7148 599 561 S26 390 258 121 14 22 26 

New Orleans .... 6t 6t 13 12 12 — — 13 23 29 

Denver 331* 318 317 226 306 221 _284 306 156 130 

*Jan. 1 to Nov. 10. §Jan. 1 to Nov 1. tYeaFended July 1. 



EXPORTS OF SHEEP AND MUTTON; IMPORTS OP SHEEP. 



eldSd g^^^P ^ 

JiineaO yamber Value 

1904 * 301,313 

1903 176,961 

1902 358,720 

1901 297,925 

1900 125,772 

1899 ..? 143,286 

1898 199,690 

1897 244,120 

1896 491,565 

1895 405,748 

1894 182,370 

1893 37.260 

1892 46,960 

1891 69,947 

1890 67,521 



DxporUh 



Muttbn 



$1,954,604 

1.067,860 

1,940,060 

1,933,000 

733,477 

853,555 

1,213,886 

1,531,645 

3,076,384 

2.030,886 

832.763 

126,394 

161,105 

261,109 

243,077 



465,255 
6,144,020 
430,351 
690.121 
773,760 
379.110 
329.169 
361,955 
422,950 
591,499 
2,197,900 
108,214 
101,463 
199,395 
256,7U 



$40,618 

532.476 

37,067 

46,643 

64,313 

29,427 

27,961 

28.341 

31,793 

47.832 

174,404 

9,175 

9.022 

18,959 

21,793 



imports 
Sheep 



Pounds Value Number 



236.841 
299,886 
266,953 
331,488 
381,792 
345,911 
392,314 
405.633 
322,692 
291,461 
242,368 
459.484 
380,814 
345.766 
393,794 



Valtie 

f7§TM 

1,036,934 

955,710 

l.Sd6,277 

1,365,026 

1,199,081 

1,106,322 

1.019,668 

853,630 

682,618 

788,181 

1.682.977 

r;i4o.53o 

l»219.a06 
1.268.209 



TBAR POOK AND ALMANAC 
RANGE OF PRICES OP FLEECE WOOL. 



153 



Wholesale prices at New York city, in cents pe» pound. The 
Ohio wools are washed clothing, the Kentucky and Indiana are 
unwashed. 





, Jfiitntti^ 




ApHl- 






July- 




r\ 


October 






•d 






•o 


■ ^ 


"O 


— ^ 1 

•6 


•O 


■ \ 
•d 




s 

o 


®s5 


-2 

*2 


ss 

o 


S rsap 

Oct* 




s 

* 

o 




§1 


3 

o 




^1 

*5 


Year 


2>< 


2|"§ 
32 


53 

25 


ox 

33 


2|l 

o€3 

32 


£3 

25% 


o'A OS a 

34% 33 


30 


2a 

ox 




m2 


aJatI • ■ 9 


34 


34 


30 


1903 ... 


30 


31 


23% 


29% 


30% 


22% 


33 


25 


25 


34 


25% 


25 


1902 ... 


251^ 


26% 


21% 


25 


26% 


21% 


27 


27% 


22% 


28 


28% 


22% 


1901 ... 


26 


29 


23% 


25 


27% 


22% 


25 


26 


19% 


25 


26% 


20 


1900 ... 


35 


36% 


28 


32% 


36 


27% 


30% 


34 


25 


27 


28% 


24 


1899 ... 


26% 


29 


21% 


25 


28 


21% 


28% 


31 


23 


31 


33% 


24 


1898 ... 


28 


30 


22 


29 


29% 


22 


28 


29% 


22 


28% 


30 


22% 


1897 ... 


19 


20 


17 


21 


22% 


20 


21% 


23% 


20 


27 


29 


33 


1896 . . . 


19 


21 


17% 


19 


21 


17 


17 


18 


14% 


18 


19 


15 


1895 . . . 


17H 


20 


17 


16% 


20 


17 


18 


21 


19 


18 


21 


19 


1894 ... 


23 


24 


19 


21 


23 


19 


20 


20 


17 


18% 


21 


18 


1893 ... 


29% 


33 


25% 


30% 


33 


25% 


24% 


27 


21 


23 


25% 


20 



QUOTATIONS ON SHEEP AND LAMBS AT CHICAGO. 
[Poor to best, per 100 pounds live weight.] 



Native 

Year sheep 

1904 $2.25@6.00 

1903 2.25(9)7.00 

1902 1.25@6.50 

1901 1.40@5.25 

1900 2.00@6.50 

1899 2.25@5.65 

1898 2.00@5.25 

1897 1.500)5.35 

1896 1.75@4.60 

1895 1.75(8)5.50 

1894 1.50@5.40 

1893 1.25(8)6.25 

1892 2.25(^6.90 

laa 2.00(8)7.00 



Native 
lambs 



$3.50(8)7.10 
2.50@8.00 
2.00(8)7.25 
2.00@6.25 
3.00@7.60 
3.50(8)7.45 
3.50(g)7.10 
3.00P6.aO 
1.85(56.60 
1.75(8)6.35 
1.00(^^6.00 
2.25(8)7.55 
3.00(8)8.25 
3.25(g)8.50 



Western 
sheep 



$2.50(85.50 
2.75^t'3.75 
1.25(8^6.30 
1.50(&'5.25 
3.00(^6.50 
2.50(8)5.55 
3.00(8)5.25 
2.00@4.60 
1.15(g)4.30 
1.50(8)5.35 
1.10(8'5.40 
1.25(g)6.45 
3.00(§)6.75 
3.25@6.85 



Tex. and Mex. 
sheep 
and lambs 



$2.50@7.50 
2.50(9)7.60 
2.75@5.90 
4.00(8)7.60 
4.00(8)7.00 
3.75^6.75 
2.00(8)4.25 
1.25(g)3.75 
1.00@5.15 
1.00(g)4.50 
1.25@5.60 
2.25@6.36 
2.06(g)5.76 



154 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

WOOL CLIP OF UNITED STATES, BY STATES. 



State 



Clip of 1904, 
pounds 



Me 1,380,000 



N. H. 
Vt. .. 
Mass. 
R. I. 
Ct. .. 
N. Y. 
N. J. 



• •••••' 



390.600 
%0,000 
174,000 
35,750 
150,000 
4.050.000 
160,000 



Pa 5,100,000 

Del 39,000 

Md; 500,000 

W. Va 2,517,500 

Ky 2,875,000 

Ohio 12,198,432 

Mich 7,800,000 

Ind 4,550,000 

111 3,806,250 

Wis 4,525.000 

Minn 2,450,000 

la 3,510,000 

Mo 3,737.500 

Va 1,507,500 

N. C 820,000 

S. C 200,000 

Ga 950,000 

Fla 350,000 

Ala 700,000 

Miss 920,000 

La 573.500 

Ark 800,000 

Tenn 1,105,000 

Kan 1,360,000 

Neb 2,000,000 

S. D 3,881,250 

N. D 2,925,000 

Mont 37,773,000 



Scoured 
equiv't, 
pounds 



828.000 

195,300 

480,000 

96,700 

20,735 

90,000 

2,025.000 

84.800 

2,448.000 

19,500 

265,000 

1,359.450 

1,782,500 

5,855,247 

3,900,000 

2,275,000 

1.827,000 

2,353,000 

1,176,000 

1,725,000 

1,906,125 

934,650 

475,600 

116,000 

570,000 

210,000. 

420,000 

533,609 

315,4S 

464,( 

663,( 

435,2Q0 

640,000 

1,552,500 

1,170,000 

13,598,280 



State 



Clip of 1904, 
pounds 



Scoured 
equiv't, 
pounds 



Wyo 29,450,000 8,835,000 

Ida 14,950.000 5,232,500 

Wash 4,480,000 1,4.33.600 

Ore 14,500,000 4.495,000 

Cal 11,781,250 2,770.000 

Nev 4,200,000 1,260.000 

Utah 13,162,500 4.324,635 

Col 9,100.000 2,912,000 

Ariz 4,340.000 1.345,400 

N. M 17.325,000 6.237.000 

Tex 9,360,000 2,995,200 

Okla. I. T... 360.000 115.200 

Total 249,783.032 95,795,147 

Pulled wool. 42,000,000 28,140.000 



G'd total,*04.291,783,032 

1903 287,450,000 

1902 316,341,032 

1901 302,502,382 

1900 288,636,621 

1899 272,191,330 

1898 266,720.684 

1897 259,153,251 

1896 272,475,000 

1895 294,297,000 

1894 325,211,000 

1893 348,538,000 

1892 333,018,000 

1891 307,402,000 

1890 309,475,000 

1880* .155,682,000 

1870* 100,102,000 

I860* 60,264,000 

1850* 52,517,000 

1840* 36,802,000 



123.935,147 
124,366.405 
137,912,085 
126,814.690 
118,223,120 
113,958,468 
111.661.581 
111,365,987 
115.285.000 
125,719.000 
140.292,000 
151,104.000 
145,.^00.000 
139,327.000 
139.628,000 



♦United States census. 

Our Dairy Department 

BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

The standard of excellence was never higher, nor were 
cheese factories and creameries ever better manned than at 
the present day. The production of cheese continues con- 
siderably greater than domestic requirements and the foreign 
outlet should be greatly expanded. The situation is some- 
what different in butter. The splendid home market* ab- 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 155 

sorb practically the entire output of creamerleB and dairies. 
True, a moderate quantity of butter is exported each year, 
.•l»ut this is very small compared with the total product. 

In the single item of butter the annual production on 
farms and in creameries approximates 1,500,000,000 pounds. 
The annual cheese production, includinsr that made on farms 
' and in factories, to about 300,000.000 pounds. In butter, sub- 
stantially two-thirds of the total is made on farms, while 
in cheese the situation is very different, factory production 
coDstitutingr over 90% of the total. The ten most important 
stateg in dairying, according to the federal census of 1900, 
arranged in order of rank as follows: New York, Iowa, Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin. Pennsylvania, Texas, Ohio, Missouri, Min- 
nesota and Kansas; this based on the number of dairy cows 
in each of the states. But, if prime consideration be given 
to gallons of milk produced, Pennsylvania would take third 
place. Wisconsin fourth, with Texas at the foot of the list. If 
greatest weight be given to farm value of dairy produce, the 
ord«r is as follows: New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Iowa, 
Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, Texas, Missouri. 

It will be noted that from every point of view New York 
ranked as the leading dairy state, but the central west is a 
close second. In fact, in the years 1900-1904, inclusive, the 
great west has niHarly dominated the butter trade of the 
country, and 1905 has much of promise. Outside of a few 
western states of the highest Importance as dairy sections, 
'such as Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, dairy cows are 
kept as incidental to the more general live stock interests. 
It is now generally agreed that good butter can be made 
wherever good beef can be raised. The older middle and 
eastern states. Including northern New England, are favored 
with nearness to splendid consuming markets, which readily 
absorb every pound of butter that can be produced. The 
great central west is favored with excellent pastures, and 
cheap grain and millfeeds, but is obliged to pay fairly heavy 
freights to the Atlantic seaboard. 

THE FOREIGN OUTLET SHOULD ENLARGE. 

The weakest spot in the dairy trade is the woful lack of 
a foreign outlet. True, exports are considerable, but should 
be greatly enlarged. The splendid cheese made In Canada 
is a sharp, competitor and exports for the United States in 
recent years have fallen far short of a decade ago. 

Commendable efforts are being made by the trade In 
enlarging the foreign outlet for butter. The United King- 



156 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



dom, an enormous consumer of foreign made butter, con- 
tinues to be our best consumer for the comparatively small 
amount we export. Denmark enjoys the lion's share of the 
trade with England, getting annually about half of it, Rus- 
sia coming second. Canada ships to England about five 
times as much butter as goes from our own borders. 

In the accompanying tables may be seen the movement' 
at the two chief distributing centers. Receipts of butter at 
Chicago are substantially heavier than a dozen years ago, 
while there is less difference in the movement toward New 
York city. Prices of butter and cheese both averaged low 
during the summer of 1904. 

DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN MOVEMENT OP BUTTER. 













F 


oreign trade in butter. 






Chic 


iago 


New York 




year ended .1 tine 30 




/• 


00 




^ 
• 




5 




<D 


OD 


1 


iReeeipts, 
pounds, 
millions 
and tenth 


III 


IReeeipts, 
1 pounds, 
I millions 
and tenth 


V .-. g 


Rxports, 
pounds, 
millions 
and tenth 


Average 
value, C6D 


Imports, 
pounds 


Average 
value, cen 


Rate Of 
duty, cent 


1904. 


. . — 


*17'??26 


♦120.0 •17^/^(5)26 


10.7 


16.5 


153,536 


22.6 


6 


i9a'j. 


..232.0 


\%W12&V2 


129.7 


19(?i29 


8.9 


18.0 


207,007 


24.9 


6 


1902. 


..219.3 


19@28 


115.9 


20@29 


16.0 


18.0 


453.978 


17.7 


6 


1901. 


..253.8 


18@24 


122.4 


19(g)25 


23.2 


17.2 


93,669 


20.7 


6 


1900. 


..244.4 


18@26 


115.3 


16(5)27 


18.3 


17.2 


49,791 


19.6 


6 


1899. 


..231.0 


17@26 


113.9 


18®27 


20.2 


16.1 


23,700 


16.7 


6 


1898. 


..222.6 


16(S)22 


117.1 


17@23 


25.7 


15.0 


31,984 


17.1 


6 


1897. 


..225.5 


14(9)23 


126.6 


14(5)24 


31.3 


14.3 


38,000 


16.0 


4 


1896. 


..2.'i6.8 


15@24 


129.6 


15(g)26 


19.4 


15.2 


52,000 


16.4 


4 


1895. 


..186.2 


16@25 


108.8 


17(9)28 


5.6 


16.2 


72,000 


18.0 


4 


1894. 


..167.4 


15<g)27 


93.8 


17@28 


11.8 


17.5 


144,000 


16.2 


6 


1893. 


..150.7 


19(8)33 


97.6 


20(5)35 


8.9 


18.7 


73,000 


18.4 


6 


1892. 


..154.1 


17(3)31 


99.8 


17(5)32 


15.0 


16.3 


114.000 


14.5 


6 


1891. 


..137.8 


17(5)35 


109.5 


t22(9)26 


15.2 


14.5 


381,000 


15.4 


6 


1890. 


..147.2 


14^29 


113.5 


t20(6)23 


29.7 


14.0 


76,000 


18.0 




1889. 


..158.1 


il6 


122.6 


t21(5)23 


15.5 


16.6 


179.000 


13.7 




1888. 


..103.5 


tl8 


101.9 


t24(5)26 


10.5 


18.0 


143,000 


18.4 




1887. 


..107.7 


$15 


100.7 


123(5^35 


12.5 


15.8 


236,000 


16.1 




1886. 


..106.2 


J15% 


98.9 


t25r5)07 


19.0 


15.6 


179,000 


15.8 




1885. 


— 


16@40 


99.4 


ta0(5)?4 


21.7 


16.8 


187,000 


18.7 




1884. 


— 


»8 


93.3 


t20(5)?5 


20.6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1883. 


~. 


tl8 


93.4 


120(9^36 


12.3 


18.6 


— 


— 


— 


1882. 


—. 


tl9 


80.5 


t28@32 


14.8 


— 


— 


—A 


— 


1881. 


— 


tl9 


89.1 


t24(5!27 


31.6 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1880. 


— 


18(5)37 


— 


— 


39.2 


17.1 


— 


— 


— 



•January 1 to November 15. tAverage for western extra 
creameries. ^Represents average price for all. 



TIDAR BOOK AND AUfANAC 

chhbsb: movement and foreign trade. 



167 



Chicago 



New York 



Foreign trade In cheese, 
year ended June 30 



9 









^ .-.5 






1903 82.1 

1902.... 88.7 
1901.... 116.3 
1900.... 115.3 
1899.... 99.4 

ioHo. ... 0.7.0 
loai • . • . o4. 1 

1896 .... 73. 1 
1895.... 58.3 
1894.... 60.4 
1893.... 59.3 
1892.... 64.4 
1891.... 63.9 
1890.... 68.8 
1889.... 56.8 
1888.... 51.8 
1887.... 44.3 
1886.... 35.9 

loo4. ... "^ 

1882. ... — 



•7(?n2% 

10^14V6 
9^13 
9<ft^l2 
7(9)12% 
8(^13 
8(5)11 

imt 

6(3)10 

mm 

1(1112 
8'ffl2 
7(512 
7(5^11 

t9 

t 9 

t8 

tio 

til 



♦55.0 
67.3 
60.7 
69.0 
70.1 
59.3 
58.8 
79.9 
55.4 
62.8 
79.8 
78.5 

100.1 
89.3 
99.8 
96.5 
99.6 
99.7 
97.1 

120.3 

117.6 



El 



ias 



4 



6V^(5)12 
9%Ca)15% 
9@13% 

mi2^ 

9(5)13% 

7%(5)13 

7(5)11 

7(5)12 

6ra)ll 

6v5)12 

9(5^2 

9(512 

9(5^13 

tlO(5;ll 

t 9(5 10 

tlO<5)ll 

tlO(ft)ll 

tll(512 

t 9(5)11 

t 9(5)12 

tl0(®13 



c a-S** 

saa3 

22.7 

20.7 

17.0 

15.0 

13.3 

11.7 

10.0 

12.3 

10.7 

10.3 

8.7 

10.2 

8.3 

8.9 

9.3 

8.2 

8.8 

6.6 

6.3 



<>_ 

14.4 

15.4 

14.9 

13.9 

13.1 

13.2 

13.4 

13.5 

13.6 

14.1 

14.2 

14.0 

14.9 

15.3 

14.0 

13.8 

13.9 

13.3 

13.5 





II 

6 ^ 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

4 

4 

4 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

4 

4 

4 

4 



•January 1 to November 15. tAverage price for the year. 
STATE STANDARDS FOR MILK AND CREAM. 



Milk 

' Bolidfl 

8tatft Total not 

solids fat 

%__% _ 

Dist. of Col... — 

aa — 8.5 

III 12 - 

Ind — 9 

la. 12.5 — 

Ky 12 - 

Me 12 — 

Md 12.5 — 

Mass 13 9.3 

Mich 12.5 — 

Minn 13 — 

Mont 12 — 

Neb. ..:?.....;.— — 



Fat 

c 

/o 



a 
% 

u 

Fat 

% 
20 



15 

1.-, 
15 



3.5 
3.5 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 — 
3.5 — 
3.7 — 
3 - 
3.5 20 
3 — 
3 15 



Milk 

' Solids ~^ 
Stat« Total not 

solids fat Fat 

N. w 13 n.r. 3.5 

N. J 12 — — 

N. Y 12 — 3 

N. D 12 — 3 

Ohio 12 — 3 

Ore 12 9 3 

Pa 12.5 — 3 

R. 1 ...I. \ii '~~ 2.5 

S. C —- 8.5 3 

\j lan ... .••..«. ""~ •"" •■" 

Vt 12.5 9.25 4 

Wash — 8 3 

Wis — -3 



«e 
« 
u 
V 
Fat 

lO 



15 



18 



158 AMBRICAN AGRICULTURIST 

AREA PRINCIPAL. FARM CROPS BY YEARS. 
[In round millions of acres. U. S. department of agriculture.] 

















Buck 


Fkv 




Tear 


Cotton Wheat Corn 


Osts 


Bye 


Barley 


wlieat 


tatoes 


Bay 


1904 .... 


31 


48 


93 


29 


2 


5 


__ 


3 


40 


1903 .... 


29 


155 


t91 


t30 


t2 


t5 


tl 


t3 


t40 


1902 .... 


28 


t52 


94 


29 


2 


4.7 


0.8 


3 


t« 


1901 .... 


28 


t52 


91 


29 


2 


4.3 


0.8 


2.8 


39 


1900 .... 


25 


42 


83 


27 


1.6 


2.9 


0.6 


2.7 


39 


1899 .... 


23 


45 


82 


26 


1.7 


2.9 


0.7 


2.6 


41 


1898 .... 


25 


44 


78 


26 


1.6 


2.6 


0.7 


2.5 


43 


1897 .... 


24 


t39 


t83 


t29 




— 


— 


t2.7 


144 


1896 .... 


23 


137 


81 


t30 


1.8 


3 


0.8 


t2.8 


43 


1895 .... 


20 


34 


82 


130 


2 


3.3 


0.8 


3 


44 


1894 .... 


24 


35 


63 


27 


2 


3.2 


0.8 


2.7 


48 


1893 .... 


20 


35 


72 


27 


2 


3.2 


0.8 


2.6 


SO 


1892 .... 


tl8 


39 


71 


27 


* 


« 


* 


• 


« 


1891 .... 


t21 


40 


76 


26 


* 


« 


* 


* 


• 


1890 .... 


t21 


36 


72 


26 


* 


• 


* 


• 


• 


1889 .... 


20 


38 


78 


27 


• 


• 


* 


• 


• 


1888 .... 


19 


37 


76 


27 


2.4 


3 


9 


2.5 


39 


1887 .... 


19 


38 


72 


26 


2 


2.9 


9 


2.4 


38 


1886 .... 


18 


37 


76 


24 


2 


2.7 


9 


2.3 


37 


1885 .... 


18 


34 


73 


23 


2 


2.7 


0.9 


2.3 


40 


1882 .... 


17 


37 


66 


18 


2 


2.3 


0.8 


2.2 


32 


1880 .... 


15 


38 


62 


16 


1.8 


1.8 


0.8 


1.8 


26 


1875 .... 


, — 


26 


45 


12 


1.4 


1.8 


0.6 


1.5 


24 


1870 .... 


, — 


19 


39 


9 


1.2 


1 


0.5 


1.3 


20 


1865 .... 


— 


12 


19 


7 


1.4 


0.5 


1.0 


1 


16 


•No 


estimate for year indicated, 


. tCommerclal estimate. 





The Poultry Industry 

Each year finds this branch of farmingr more strongrly in 
favor. As a specialty, poultry farming is given wide atten- 
tion in the older middle and eastern states, particularly in 
territory contiguous to the big cities. Yet the bulk of the 
qupply is still centered in the middle west and southwest, 
where there is plenty of range and where grain and feeds 
are cheapest. Poultry raising has assumed the proportions 
of a distinct industry, largely replacing the position it held 
a generation ago of a mere incident in general farming. Per- 
haps the feature of the past 18 months is the relative scarcity 
In turkeys. Supplies for market have been short for two 
winters and prices high. 

In recent years the keenest consideration has been ac- 
corded egg production, broiler raising, capon rearing and 
the dressing of poultry for city markets. It requires con- , 



TBAR BOOK AND AI«MANAC 



159 



siderable capital and much skill to succesBfully enffage in 
the raising of early spring chickens or broilers, but the incu- 
bator, the brooder, various other devices and a wider under- 
standing of care of poultry make good profits possible. Cold 
storage has also been a powerful factor in developing the 
poultry industry, serving to regulate prices here, as in many 
other lines of perishable farm produce. It is estimated that 
the cold storage capacity for eggs and poultry increased 60% 
during the ten years ending with 1900, and since then the 
enlargement in storage capacity has been heavy. 

Poultry on farms was given much consideration when 
the last federal census was taken. It was difficult to secure 
comprehensive data, because so many farmers had failed to 
give the poultry business the proper consideration, and many 
of the county returns were little more than estimates at best. 

Farmers of the United States experience no difficulty in 
finding a good domestic market for their eggs. Compared 
with the total production, foreign shipments of eggs from 
this country are very small. Our exports have fallen off re- 
cently to much smaller proportions than a few years ago, 
owing chiefly to the enormous demands for home use. The 
duty of 5 cents per dozen shuts out foreign eggs, although a 
few filter across the border from Canada each year. 

FOREIGN EGG TRADE, YEAR ENDED JUNE 30. 



/ Exports ^ 

Tear Ayg. val., 
pozent cen ts 

r904 ...1,7X6.32 22.3~~ 

1903 1,517,189 21.4 

1902 2,717,990 1S.4 

1901 3.692,875 113 

1900 5,920,727 16.6 

1899 ..'. 3.6«3,811 17.3 

\m 2,754,810 15.9 

1897 l,300,lR 13.9 

1896 328,485 14.6 

1896 151,007 16.7 

1894 163,061 16.1 

189S 143,489 23.1 

1892 183,063 17.4 

1891 363,116 17.6 

1850 380,884 15.4 

1889 648,750 13.8 

1888 419,701 16.0 

1887 373,772 16.3 

18IS ....: 240,768 21.5 

..;> 360,083 20.8 



r 


Arg. yal., 


Dtity; 
cents 


Dozens 


cents 


496.825 


12.4 


5 


368.480 


8.0 


5 


384,070 


9.7 


5 


126,520 


8.2 


5 


135,088 


— 


5 


226,180 


9.4 


6 


166,810 


— 


S 


579,681 


8.2 


3 


947,132 


9.3 


3 


2,705,502 


11.7 


3 


1.791,430 


11.1 


5 


3,318,011 


11.8 


6 


4,188,492 


12.4 


6 


8,233,043 


10.8 


5 


15,062,796 


13.7 


free 


15,918,809 


15.2 


free 


15.64a,861 


14.8 


free 


13,936,064 


14.1 


free 


16,098,450 


16.4 


free 


15,S79.065 


.17.4 


free 



160 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

EGG MOVEMENT AND MARKET; RECEIPT& AND PRICES 

AT LEADING POINTS. 







New York 






Chicago 




Boston 






Prices (in cents) 


Prices (in centB^ 


> 


PriceffCtn cents^ 






r4 


*4 


ft 


.d 

«'Od 


H ^. . 


■H 


i-» 




^ 


Tear 


III 


• 


4a 
A 




Rect 
mill] 
dose 


Apr. 
Sept 


Q 


< 


■ta 

1 
25 


1 
P 


1904 .... 


....♦93.6 


19 


24 


3^ 


t*63.1 


18 21 


27 


19 


38 


1903 .... 


.... 88.2 


20 


26 


38 


94.0 


18 21 


28 


20 


28 


40 


1902 .... 


.... 82.3 


18 


24 


29 


79.8 


16 20% 


25 


18 


22 


30 


1901 .... 


.... 87.3 


14 


22 


31 


83.5 


12% 17 


A 


14 


ao- 


30 


1^ .... 


.... 84.0 


18% 


14 


29 


74.3 


11%' 16 


26 


12% 


22 


30 


1^ .... 


.... 78.7 


'14V6 


21 


24 


62.9 


13 16% 


20 


13% 


17 


25 


1S98 .... 


.... 76.3 


11% 


17% 


27 


64.4 


10% 14% 


26 


U 


18 


25 


1897 .... 


.... 83.1 


11 


19 


25 


65.0 


9% 13% 


19 


14 


•23 


32 


1896 • • . . 


.... 77.8 


12% 


18 


27 


69.0 


10% 11% 


22 


16 


20 


33 


1895 .... 


.... 68.5 


14% 


17 


27 


64.6 


12 13 


20 


15* 


2» 


28 


1894 .... 


.... 69.7 


12 


19 


27 


63.2 


10 15 


21 


13 


22 


ao 


1893 .... 


.... 63.4 


16 


18 


28 


51.9 


14% 14 


21 


18 


22 


.% 


1892 .... 


.... 6D.7 


13% 


22 


32 


64.6 


13 17% 


24 


15 


26 


35 


1891 .... 


.... 56.0 


20 


19% 


29% 


41.8 


17% 16% 


26 


22 


23 


35 


1890 .... 


.... 51.5 


17 


24 


32 


44.3 


14 a6% 


25 


18 


24 - 


35 


1889 .... 


• • • • "' 


14% 


16% 


29 


30.6 


10% 14% 


24 


15 


22 


32 


1888 .... 


• • • • ""^ 


22 


20% 


26 


18.7 


14 16 


22 


21 


21 


30 


1887 .... 


• • • • "^* 


13% 


17% 


26 


13.5 


— — 


— 


16 


21 


30 


1885 .... 


• • • • ^«* 


15% 


16 


28 


11.4 


— — 


— 


17 


18 


28 


1883 .... 


.... 21.0 


20 


23% 


31% 


— 


— — 


— 


21 


24 


32 



* Jan. 1 to Nov. 10. t Not including^ through shipments. 



Hides 

In a sense a by-product of the farm, the trade in hideJEi 
and skins is always interesting. A sentiinent of some breadtJi 
has appeared in the east demandingr the importation of hides 
free of all tariff. This has been in evidence during^ the past 
12 months, and took accentuated shape in the Massachusetts 
election in November, 1904, when it was made somewhat of 
an issue in the state campaign. In a general way, however, 
congress is loath to open the tariff question, and any effoi^t 
to do so would be bitterly opposed by protection interests. 
For many years foreign hides and skins were on the free list, 
but at the last revision of t^e tariff laws in 1897, were placed 
on the dutiable list at the rate of 15% ad valorem. The law 
provides, however, that upon all leather exported, made 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 161 

from imported hides, there shall be allowed a drawback 
equal to the amount of duty paid on such hides. This prac- 
tically amounts to free hides so far as the business is con- 
cerned in manufacturing leather and leather goods for the 
foreign markets. 

In the wholesale markets, domestic hides are placed in 
two general classifications, country skins and packer hides. 
The shrinkage from green weight at time taken off to green 
cured weight, at which they are sold, is about 15%. This 
shrinkage varies with the season at which hides are taken 
off. In some instances, long haired hides taken from cattle 
killed during the winter will shrink as little as 9 to 10%, 
while short haired hides from summer killed cattle will 
shrink 18 to 20%. Hides taken off by packers will run about 
as follows for average weight: Native steers 65 pounds, na- 
tive cows 55 pounds, Texas and western range steers 60 
pounds, Texas and western range cows 50 pounds. The 
weight of the green hide in percentage of the total weight of 
the live animal is 5 to 6% in the case of fat corn fed native 
stocii, up to 8 to 9% on rough grass fed steers from the range 
territory of Texas and other western sections. 



Situation in Oteo Traffic 

The evidence in the case goes to show general wisdom in 
framing the federal oleo law in effect in 1902, and its enforce- 
ment since. The criticisms made by ihe cattle feeding inter- 
ests at the time, no doubt thoroughly sincere, have quite 
disappeared. There is no further suggestion that beef cat- 
tle, or for that matter swine, would turn more dollars into 
the farmers' pockets if it were not for the restrictions of 
the oleo law. 

About the only ripple of novelty in the situation is the 
development late in 1904 of an effort among oleo interests look- 
ing toward a repeal of the law. This immediately followed the 
announcement of a decision of the supreme court to the effect 
that the use of palm oil constitutes "artificial coloration," 
which is directly against the provisions of the law. Oleo 
manufacturers have shown a disposition to get together, 
create a fund, form a lobby and seek to secure changes in 
the federal law which will enable them to do about as they 
please in handling the traffic. The dairy interests are keenly 
alive to the situation, however, and will resist any attempt in 
this direction. 



162 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

THE ANNUAL OUTPUT OF OLEO 

is now only one-third what it was at the high water mark. 
During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1904, 48.000,000 pounds 
were manufactured, against 73,000,000 pounds in 1903, and 
126,000,000 pounds in 1902, the last year under the low tax 
rate of 2 cents a pound. It will be recalled that under the 
present law, oleo colored in imitation of butter pays 10 cente 
a pound, and that sold in its natural color % cent per pound. 
During the first three months of the fiscal year 1904-5, the 
total production of oleo, colored and uncolored, was only 
7,660,000 pounds, compared with 11,638,000 pounds the same 
period one year earlier. This showed a decrease of the bogus 
butter in three months of the present fiscal year of 4,000,000 
pounds. 

'The claim of the oleo people that a regulated traffic in 
the product would mean permanently higher prices for but- 
ter, this in turn unfavorably affecting consumers, has fallen 
flat. Butter really averaged somewhat lower in 1903 and 1904 
than prior to these years. Stated differently, the cost of but- 
ter to consumers has not been unfavorably affected by the 
new oleo law. During the first year in which the present 
law was in effect, the output of oleo was smaller by 50,000,000 
pounds, yet dairymen prevented any shortage in requisite 
butter supply, increasing their output of the latter to such 
an extent that there was plenty at prices anything but ex- 
orbitant. 

In fact, there was a considerable excess in the produc- 
tion of butter over the amount necessary to take the place 
of supplanted oleo, and in consequence butter prices through- 
out much of the summer and autumn of 1904 ruled rather 
low. These conditions will right themselves in time. 

PRODUCTION OP OLEOMARGARINE. 



Yr. ended Production, 


Revenue 


Yr. ended 


Production, 


Revenue 


June 30 


pounds 


to U. S. 


June 30 


pounds 


to U. 8. 


1904 


.. 48,071,000 


$484,097 


1895 


. 56,958,000 


$1,409,000 


1903 


.. 71,211,000 


443,272 


1894 


. 69,622,000 


1,723,000 


1902 


..126,316,000 


2,944,000 


1893 


. 67,224,000 


1,671,000 


1901 


..104,944,000 


2,518,000 


1892 


. 48.364,000 


1.266,000 


1900 


..107,045,000 


2,544,000 


1891 


. 44.392,000 


1,078,000 


1899 


.. 83,130,000 


1,967,000 


1890 


. 32,824,000 


786.000 


1898 


.. 57,516,000 


1,316,000 


1889 


. 35,664,000 


894,000 


1897 


,. 45,531,000 


1,034,000 


1888 


. 34,326,000 


864.000 


1896 


,. 50,853,000 


1,219,000 


♦1887 


. 21,514,000- 


724.000 



•From November 1, 1886, to June 30, 1887. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 163 

Milk Statistics 

ORGANIZATIONS OP MILK PRODUCERS. 

For a number of years influential organizations have 
been maintained in the east for co-operative effort in mar- 
keting milk at advantageous terms. Perhaps the best of 
these organizations is in New England, contiguous to the 
Boston market. Another fairly strong association covers the 
territory shipping into New York city, and there are still 
others handling milk in the Philadelphia territory, in the 
Pittsbure: territory, Chicago, etc.; although organization in 
the west, as a whole, is wholly inadequate to enable produc- 
er to secure reasonable profits. 

Long known as the New England Milk Producers' Union, 
a large number of milk farmers within a radius of 75 miles 
of Boston have been associated to secure reasonable prices, 
with a margin of profit. A year or two ago the name was 
changed from union to association, and in 1904, by vote of the 
members, it was merged into the Boston Co-operative Milk 
Producers' Company. The officers of this company are as 
follows: President, M. A. Morse of Belchertown, Mass.; first 
vice-president, J. Bemis of Charlton, Mass.; second vice- 
president, Stanley H. Abbott of Wilton, N. H.; clerk, W. A. 
Hunter of Worcester, Mass.; treasurer, M. P. Palmer of 
Groton, Mass. 

The Five States Milk Producers' Association has been in 
the field for a number of years in the milk territory tribu- 
tary to New York city. This includes southeastern New 
York, northwestern Pennsylvania, northern New Jersey, 
western Connecticut and one or two towns in Massachusetts. 
The organization has done good work in advancing the in- 
terests of producers, and in securing a general advance in 
price, compared with the low level of a few years ago. The 
officers of the F. S. M. P. A. are as follows: President, Ira L. 
Snell of Kenwood, N. Y. ; vice-president, I. P. Moore of Rox- 
bury, N. Y.; secretary-treasurer, H. T. Coon of Homer, N. Y, 

THE NEW YORK MILK BUSINESS. 

No material change has taken place in the past year and 
more m methods of handling the business in Greater New 
York. The milk exchange, which is composed of a few of 
the larger dealers and some producers, "flyes the price of 
milk shipped to the New York market" monthly or oftener. 
This exchange price includes the freight from country to 



164 AM&RICAN AGRICULTURIST 

city. On milk from west of the Hudson river, 5 cents per 
can is deducted from this price as an "allowance" for ferri- 
age or transfer. The cans hold 40 quarts, and are generally 
furnished by the shipper; there is much complaint of lost 
cans. Instead of the uniform freight rate of 32 cents per 
can of 40 quarts that had prevailed for years (except that 
a very short haul near market was charged 25 cents), the 
interstate commerce commission decreed in March, 1897, a 
23-cent rate for all stations in the zone within 40 miles of 
the terminal at New York city, Jersey City, etc.; between 
40 and 100 miles, 26 cents; between 100 and 190 miles, 29 cents; 
beyond 190 miles, 32 cents. Milk is hauled 400 miles to the 
New York market, and 135 miles to Boston. The exchange 
price is based on zone B; thus $1.31 per can, less freight 26 
cents and ferriage 5 cents, nets the producer $1 per can, or 
2H cents per quart if he gets the full market price. Hence, 
$1.31 per can is said to make "the exchange price 2V6c per 
quart." How this operates at various distances is here 
shown: 

FREIGHT ZONES AND RATES FOR NEW YORK MILK. 

t Zones — — ^ 

A B C D 

Miles from market 40 41 to 100 101 to 190 Overl90 

Freight rate per can of 40 qts... $0.23 $0.26 $0.29 $0.32 

Add for ferriage on milk deliv- 
ered on west side of the Hud- 
son, per can 05 .05 .05 .05 

Total cost of getting milk to 
market from west side of river. .28 .31 .34 .37 

Suppose exchange price at New 
York is, per can 1.31 1.31 1.31 1.31 

Deducting freight and ferriage 
leaves presumable net price at 
farmers' stations, per can 98 1.00 .97 .94 

Equal to, cents per quart 2.45c 2.5c 2.425c 2.35c 

— — — ' ' ■ — ■ — — --■■■. 

Many farmers sell to a creamery at their local railroad 
station that is operated by a city dealer, instead of shipping 
direct to dealers in the city at exchange price. In such cases 
the farmer often agrees to accept % or % cent per quart 
less than the exchange price. In other words, these farmers 
get ^ to % cent less than fixed prices. In consideration of 
this discount, the creamery usually agrees to take all the 
milk, whereas one who ships to a peddler may have to keep 
at home his surplus, or accept what it will sell for at auction 
on the railroad platform at the city terminal, unless the 
dealer agrees to pay full price for all he sends. If the sup- 



TBAR BOOK "AND ALMANAC , 165 

ply is overlarge, the exchange reduces the price, bo fhat 
dealers practically control both ends . of the trade. In all 
cases the producer bears the labor or cost of hauling the 
milk from the farm to the local shipping station or cream- 
ery. In the past year, 1904, commendable progress has been 
made In New York state in the organization among milk 
producers of co-operative creameries, and a helpful associa- 
tion of these has been formed. This is known as the Five 
States Co-operative Creameries Association. The president 
is D. C. Markham of Port Leyden, N. Y., and the secretary 
William Hunt, of Great Bend, Pa. 

WHOLESALE PRICES OF MILK IN NEW YORK MARKETS. 



Year t^S^ ^i*-' ^ « c^i 3 !! 

^_«_^ !^ < _w ^O _J5 ft _•? b4 S H S_ 

1904 2%. 2% 2 2 2% 2i/i> 2% 314 3% 3% 3 3 32% 2.27 

1903 3% 2% 2% 214 214 2% 3 3 3% 3% 3% 3% 34% 2.84 

1902 2% 2% 2% 2V^ 2% 2^^ 3 3^ 3% 3% 3^ 3 34% 2.88 

1901 2% 2% 2 214 2% 2% 2% 3% 3% 3 2% 2% 31% 2.63 

1900 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 3 3 3% 3 3 2% 32% 2.72 

1899 2% 2% 2 2% 2^4 2V2 2% 3% 3% 2% 2% 2% 30% 2.53 

1898 2% 2% 1% 2 2% 2% 2% 2% 3 2% 2% 2% 28% 2.39 

1897 2% 2 1% 2 2 2^4 2% 3 3 2% 2% 2% — — 

1896 2% 2 1% 2 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 27% 2.28 

1896 2% 2 2 2 2% 2% 3 3 3 3 2% 2% 30% 2.54 

1894 2% 2 1% 2 2% 3 3% 3% 3 2% 2% 2% 31% 2.59 

1893 2% 2% 2 2% 2% 3 3 3 3 3 2% 2% 33% 2.76 

1892 2% 2% 2 2 2% 2% 3 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 32% 2.71 

1891 2% 2% 2 2 2% 2% 3 3% 3% 3% 3 3 32% 2.71 

1890 2% 2 2 2 2% 2% 2% 2% 3% 3 3 2% 30% 2.57 

1889 2% 2 2 2 2 2% 2% 3 3% 3% 3% 3 31% 2.59 

1888 3 2% 2 2^ 2% 2Vz 3 3% 3% 3 3 3 33% 2.80 

1887 3 2% 2 2% 2% 2% 3 3% 3% 3% 3% 3 35 2.91 

1886 3 2 2 2% 2% 2% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3 3 34% 2.87 

1885 3 2% 2% 8 3 3 3 3% 4 3% 3% 3 37 3.08 

1884 3% 1% 2% 3 3 3% 3% 4 4 3% 3% 3 39% 3.29 

1883 3 2% 2% 3 3 3% 3% 4% 4% 4% 3% 3% 41% 3.45 

1882 3 2% 2% 2% 3 3% 3% 3% 4% AV4. 3% 3% 40% 3.37 

1881 3 2 2 2 2% 3 4 5 4% 4 4 3% 39% 3.29 

1880.. >. .3 2 2 2% 2% 2% 3 4 4 3% 3% 3 35% 2.95 

1879 2% 2 2 2 2 2 2% 3% 3% 3% 3 3 31% 2.62 

1878 3 2 2 2% 2% 2% 2% 3 3% 3 2% 2% 30% 2.56 

1877 3 2% 2% 2% 2% 3 4 4 4 4 3% 3 38% 3.20 

1876 3 3 2% 3 3 3 3% 4 4 4 3% 3 39% 3.29 

1874 3^ 8 2% 3 3 3% 3% 4 4% 4 4 4 42% 3.56 

1872 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 5 4 4 46 3.83 

1870 4 3% 3 3% 4 4 6 6 6 5 4% 4 53% 4.47 

1868 4% 3% 3 3% 4 4 5 6% 7 6 6 6% 68 4.83 



166 AMERICAN AGRICULTURICT 

MAGNITUPK OF NEW YORK MILK TRADE. 
[New York department of agriculture.] 






Year 



Receipts, 40-qt. cans 



1903 17,349,000 

1802 14.814,527 

1901 14.000,000 

1900 13,504,610 

1899 13.121,655 

1898 12.382,106 

1897 10,388,356 

1896 ^ 10,975,417 



Year Receipts, 40-qt. cans 

1895 .¥,336.827" 

1894 9,485,018 

1893 9,303,315 

1892 9,084.781 

1891 8.269,953 

1890 8.141.983 

1889 6,630,278 

1888 6,062,216 



MONTHLY PHILADELPHIA MILK PRICES, PER QUART.* 



Year c^'SsS^c-^^t^ ►wS ^ 

1904.... 74 " 4 4 4 4 3V2 'iVs 'SVa 3V^ 4 iW^lii 47 3,91 

1903 4 4 4 4 4 .'U^ 4 3% SV2 AV2 A% 4Va 48 4 

1802 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3% 3^2 4 4^^ 4^ 48 4 

1901 3^^ 31/2 3y2 3V^ 3V& 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 42% ZM 

1900 4 3% 3% 3Vo 31/3 31/2 3% 3% 3% 3% 4 4 44% 3.70 

1899 3% 3% S Va 3% 2% 2 % 3 3 3% 3 % 4 4 4 3.33 

*Freight i» included in these prices and averagres about V^ 
cent per qu«irt, 

PHXLAPELPHIA MILK RECEIPTS IN QUARTS. 

[In round thousands.] 

Yfar Pepn . R 7R. R eadin g I ^^ti ig b B .~<S;7 ). V^^ ro^^|^ Tot*l 

1903 47 .985 38,842' 10.201 7701^ 7,200 111.243 

1902 44,295 86.836 9,885 6,503 7,200 104.719 

J901 42,042 37,587 10,340 6,268 7,200 103.437 

1900 39,821 39.491 10,016 6,029 7,200 ' 108,557 

1899 38.632 38,243 9,625 5,880 7,200 99,590 

1^98 38.091 34.635 8,688 6,106 7,200 94.7^0 

1897 37,101 33.414 8.060 6.384 9.000 93,959 

1896 38.202 84.971 7,431 6,875 9.000 9«.|7» 

1895 ♦40,043 84.054 6,988 6,134 9,000 9^,319 

1894 ♦39.490 85,945 7.056 6.549 9,500 ^98.540 

1893 ♦39,296 35.484 3.705 6,055 10,000 94,540 

J892 ♦38.243 36.749 ^ 5.687 10,600 91.2T9 

1891 ^36,204 36,785 — 5,006 10,600 88,506 

1890 ♦35,350 37,888 — 5,420 10,600 89,21)8 

1889 ♦32,510 37,390 ^ 5,236 10.500 85,636 

1898 ^31,079 37,524 — 3.608 10,000 83,311 

mi *30. 617 36.152 — 1,410 10.000 79.179 

♦Philadelphia^ an4 Camd«n receipts included. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 167 

MILK PRICES AT BOSTON FOR A PERIOD OF YEARS. 



Yearly average 



Seaaon gZ^^ 

*'^?L_ 

1904-5 371/20 

1903-4 371/^ 

1902-3 33-34 

1901-2 33 

1900-1 33 

1899-0 31 

1898-9 31 

1897-8 33 

1896.7 33 

1895-6 33 

1894-5 33 

1893-4 33 

1892-3 33 

1891-2 33 

1890-1 32 

1889-0 32 

1888-9 32 

1887-8 30 

1886-7 30 

1885-6 30-32 

1884-5 34 

1883-4 35 

1882-3 35 






It 



I 



a* 



37%c 
37% 
37% 
34%-38% 
37 
33 
33 
33 
35 
37 
37 
37 
37 
37 
36 
38 
38 
36 
36 

36-37 
42 
40 
43 



37%c 

37% 

35% 

35% 

35 

32 

32 

33 

34 

35 

35 

35 

35 

35 

33 

35 

35 

33 

33 

34 

3S 

39 

38 



4.4c 

4.4 

4.2 

4.2 

4.1 

3.8 

3.8 

3.9 

4.0 

4.1 

4.1 

4.1 

4.1 

4.1 

3.9 

4.1 

4.1 

3.9 

3.9 

4.0 

4.5 

4.6 

4.5 



MONTHLY CHICAGO MILK PRICES, PER 8-GAL CAN.* 



% 


Jan. 


• 


• 


• 

u 




June 


^ 5 1 S 


• 

1 


Dec. 

Arer. 
p. can 

1 


<9^ 


19(M.. 


.$1.15 


$1.15 $1.15 


$1.05 $.75 $.75 $.85 $.85 $.95 $.95 $1.15 $1.15 $.99 $.030 


1903.. 


. 1.15 


1.15 


1.10 


1.05 


.80 


.80 


.90 1.00 1.00 1.00 


1.15 


1.15 1.02 


.032 


1902.. 


. 1.10 


1.10 


1.00 


.95 


.75 


.75 


.85 .90 .95 .95 


1.15 


1.15 .97 


.030 


1901.. 


. 1.10 


1.10 


.95 


.90 


.75 


.75 


.85 .90 .95 .95 


1.15 


1.15 .96 


.030 


1900.. 


. 1.10 


1.10 


.95 


.90 


.75 


.75 


.85 .85 .95 .95 


1.15 


1.15 .95 


.029 


1899.. 


. 1.00 


1.00 


.90 


.90 


.75 


.75 


.85 .85 .95 .95 


1.15 


1.15 .93 


.029 


1898.. 


. 1.00 


.80 


.80 


.80 


.65 


.65 


.75 .85 .90 .90 


1.15 


1.10 .86 


.026 


1897.. 


. .90 


.80 


.75 


.75 


.65 


.65 


.70 .75 .80 .85 


1.00 


1.00 .80 


.026 


1896. 


. .90 


.90 


.75 


.70 


.65 


.65 


.75 .75 .80 .85 


.85 


.80 .78 


.024 


1895. 


. .80 


.80 


.75 


.70 


.60 


.60 


.65 .65 .70 .70 


.85 


.87 .72 


.022 



♦The above prices are for milk delivered at railroad depot in 
Uie city. 



168 



AMERICAN AaRICULTUBier 



Horses 

DISTRIBUTION OF HORSES. 

The distribution, January 1. 1904, in the leading agricul- 
tural states and the total number and value of horses in the 
United States on January 1 of each year since 1895, accord- 
ing to estimates prepared by the statistical bureau of Ameri- 
can Agriculturist, are as follows: 

NUMBER AND VALUE OF HOflSES, BY STATES, 1904. 



State Nujvn ber V alue 

N. Y., 632;000 $48;032,000' 

Pa 597,000 42,984,000 

Tex. 1,274,000 55,483,000 

Tenn 342,000 22,230,000 

Ky 471,000 28,590,000 

Ohio 1,123,000 80,014,000 

Mich 604,000 45,300»000 

Ind 779,000 58,503,000 

111 1,378,000 100,043,000 

Wis 583,000 47,340,000 

Minn 758,000 56,850,000 

la 1,409.000 102,859,000 

Mo 916,000 59,540,000 



Statte Num ber Value 

Kan. 98M()0 $63,183,000 

Neb 818,000 50,307.000 

Others .... 6,534,000 364,809,000 

Total, '04.19,213,000 $1,226,067,000 

1903 19,068,000 1,147,517.000 

1902 19,015.000 1,031.640.000 

1900 14,886.000 678,941,000 

1899 14.801,000 699.446,000 

1898 14,873.000 534.926.000 

1897 15.633.000 52S.723.000 

1896 15,867.000 550.632.000 

1895 16,082,000 678.807.000 



FOREIGN TRADE IN HORSES. 



Year 

ended ^ 

Jan eao No. 

1904 42,001 

1903 34,007 

1902 103,020 

1901 82.250 

1900 64,709 

1899 45,778 

1898 51,150 

1897 39,352 

1896 25,126 

1895 19,984 

1894 5,246 

1893 2,967 

1892 3.226 

1891 3,110 

1890 3,501 

1888 2,263 

1885 1,947 



Exports 



Imports 



Value 

■$37189,100" 

3,152,159 

10,048,046 

8,873,845 

7,612,056 

5,444,342 

6,176,569 

4,769,265 

3,530,703 

2,209,298 

1,108,995 

718,607 

611,188 

784,908 

680,410 

412,774 

377,692 



No. 

4,728 

4,998 

4.832 

3,785 

3,103 

3,042 

8,085 

6,928 

9,991 

13,098 

6,166 

16,451 

14,074 

22,537 

49,116 

62,411 

40,255 



Value 



$1,460,287 

1,533,796 

1,577,254 

985,738 

596.622 

541.060 

414.889 

464.806 

662.691 

1.055.191 

1.319.672 

2,388,267 

2,455.8tt 

3,265.254 

4,840,485 

5,405,863 

3.292.297 



TBAR BOOK AND AliMANAO 169 

RB5CEIPTS OF HOUGHS AT LBADINO POINTS BY YBARS. 

[Stated In thouMinda.] 



1904 1908 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 lafl? 189^^896 iSU 1893 

Chicago 875 100 102 109" 99 112 119 112 106 118 97 82 

Kansas City .... 571 67 77 97 103 34 17 87 .^ 53 44 36 

Omaha 44t 62 42 36 60 34 10 7 10 7 8 12 

St. IxkuiR 1501 128 109 129 146 119 HO 88 93 21 13 12 

Cincinnati 17* 17 8 5 9 5 3 2 4 8 4 5 

Indianapolis .... 27* 34 36 33 33 28 80 30 a^t IS 8 7 

Sioux City 4t 12 19 18 31 8 1 t t t 1 2 

St. Paul et78 15 2761ttttl 

St. Joseph, Mo.. 24taoa028 14 9 1138ai2 

De nver ........... 12^ 16 24 17 23 10_ 5 2 8 8 6 8 

tLess than 1000 head. JJan. 1 to Nov. 10. jJan. 1 to Oct. 1. 

IMPORTS OP ANIMALS, MEAT AND DAIBY PRODUCTS 

INTO UNITED KINGDOM. 
[Stated in round thousands.] 



■•— ^.» 



Bacon M«r- > 

^. _ and B««f, Bfefi But- gar- 

Calmdsr Osttl*, Sheep, hams, fresh, salted, t«r, Ine, Cheetf 

yo e yo» yp. cw t B« o wt s, owu. c wts. cwts . 4?w te. 

1904» 462 307 5573 3663 119 mT^ 774 2098 

19Q8 622 354 6298 4160 173 4061 8S2 2694 

^M 419 283 6571 3707 163 8975 966 2546 

1901 496 384 7632 4509 204 370S 962 2587 

1900 496 383 7443 4128 193 3879 920 2706 

1899 504 608 7782 3803 178 8890 953 2384 

1898 569 664 7683 3101 209 8209 901 2389 

1897 618 618 6729 3010 175 3818 937 2603 

1896 562 770 6009 2660 247 3038 926 2246 

1896 416 1065 5353 2191 220 2826 940 2134 

1894 475 485 4819 2104 242 3576 1109 2266 

1898 340 63 4187 1808 201 2827 1300 2077 

1892 502 79 5135 2080 275 2188 1306 2238 

1891 507 345 4716 1921 248 2136 1235 2041 

1890 643 358 5000 1855 276 2028 1080 2144 

1889 655 678 4484 1886 262 1828 1248 1908 

1888 377 966 3594 887 227 1671 1140 1918 

1887 296 971 3928 656 218 1818 1276 1837 

1888 320 1039 4211 807 191 1644 888 1735 

1888 373 751 4058 903 239 12401 -* 1834 

1884 426 945 3418 878 212 2476 ^ 1927 

1888 475 m6 3696 806 289 2334 — 1800 

1888 844 1184 2904 464 228 2170 ^ 1695 

1881 319 936 4627 817 261 20 47 >■ 1840 

•Ten months ended Oct. 81. t Includes **marfarine/' 



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EXPORTS DOMB38TIC AKlMALfl AKD MEAT PRODUCTS 

FROM UNITED STATES. 
[Stated in round mlllionB.] 



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*.» C «D OB ® 



ft s*" * "2 s s • • • -1 is • to I ? 

« fi«D £^ is^ ^ ^ 5 iSh ^ si: 2 '5 i H 

i 2I £l ll I 2 S 21 j I& I S I I 



I 



•04. .r.93 6 46 flOl 57 2W 57 76 249 194 112 561 171 165 11 28 1776 

03.. 402 4 38 177 76 254 52 27 207 214 95 491 133 126 9 1ft 1617 

02.. 393 8 131 358 67 .'$01 49 34 883 228 116 557 144 139 16 X\ 2717 

01.. 469 22 116 298 53 :{5l 55 77 456 217 139 Oil 166 162 23 40 a602 

'00.. 8^ 51108 125 56 329 47 89 512 196 133 662 151 147 18 48 6M0 

'99.. 389 3S 52 143 38 282 47 107 563 226 137 711148 142 20 38 3693 

'9i. .439 14 59 200 37 275 44 82 6ri0 200 88 709 187 138 26 58 2764 

'il7..392 29 40 244 54 290 69 75 500 165 67 568 5 114 31 51 I8OO 

'96. .372 21 31 492 64 225 71 53 425 129 69 510 6 103 19 37 828 

'96..332 7 16 406 64 191 62 26 453 106 58 475 10 78 6 60 ISl 

'94.. 869 2 7 132 56 194 63 65 417 87 64 448 4 123 12 74 163 

4 37 79 206 68 62 392 82 t^^ 366 3 114 9 81 143 

5 61 110 194 90 112 516 
7 129 51 138 65 78 367 
3 122 43 84 36 63 364 



•98. .287 27 

•»..875 96 

'89. .206 45 

'87.. 106 75 



82 ri2 366 

84 81 498 

43 64 318 

56 86 .322 



3 114 9 81 

2 80 15 82 363 

2 28 16 35 649 

1 46 13 81 373 



• Expressed in thousands. 



IMPORTS, ANIMALS AND MEAT PRODUCTS. 
[Stated In round thounanda.] 



Ttar 

aided C4ttl«, Hcrriefi, Rheep, Kggs, 

Jttneao _ No. J^o. No. tloz. 

W04 7 16 5 ~ l38 "497 

1903 66 5 301 368 

1902 96 2 267 384 

1901 146 4 331 127 

1900 181 3 382 135 

200 3 346 225 

292 3 .392 166 

329 7 406 680 

1996 218 10 323 947 

1895 150 13 291 2,706 

1894 2 6 243 1.791 

1893 3 15 459 .3.318 

1892 2 14 381 4,188 

1881 12 22 346 8,233 

1889 62 69 405 15,919 

188? 87 56 480 13,d36 



Hides, 

skins, 

dollars 



Butter, Cheese, 
lbs. lbs. 



52.006 


164 


22,V07 


58.031 


207 


20,671 


58.006 


454 


17,068 


48.220 


94 


15.329 


57,926 


42 


13,445 


41,988 


24 


11,826 


37.069 


32 


10,012 


27,863 


38 


12,319 


30.520 


52 


10.728 


27.oa3 


72 


10,276 


16,796 


144 


8,743 


28,.348 


73 


lo.ls^b 


26.850 


144 


8,305 


27,931 


381 


8.864 


26,128 


179 


8.207 


24.219 


286 


6.692 



Agricultural Topics 



1S98 it appeared 
many counties 
central Tesat 



3 enemy to the cotton crop In 



1835 It ha<3 spread 



In 



IMS It coverea t 
thirda of the state 
and was found In 
Isolated coloniea In 
adjacent sections. 
It has appeared at 
two points In L.ou- 



The [naect Is very 
destructive, reduc- 
ing the crop fully 

ever it has become 
estahllshed. It is 
estimated that the 
money toas of the 




Pig a^-Cotton boll weevil larva 
at left pupa at right— about five 
times natural size (Qrlglnal) 

The adult Wfe\ll itierages about 
length ind hu" a beak aliout one h. 
It [■) of grH\l3h or reddish brown col 



size (origins 

Texas erowers caused by- 
wee vll In 1903 was JIS.OOO.- 
000. The Slate of Texas 
ha" appropriated funds 
for the Invei^tlgatlon and 
destruction of the weeill 
since IMS and the United 
States government since 
1901 Cotton growers 
throughout the affected 
portions of Texas have 
held many conventions to 
dcvlae means of combat 
tng this enemy The in- 
sect threatens to spread 
to all cotton growing 
sections of the pountr\ 
one quarter ol an Inch in 
If the length of the bodj 
ir Us general appearance 



TIAfi BOOK AND 



!) 



:i 



ll 

H 

I! 

f 
I 
1 



e of boll wepvll — 



the adult woevll iBSues, and In about seven days beglna thi 
producllon of another generation. Climatti! conditions cauai 
considerable variations, but on an average It requires from twi 
to three weeks for a weevil to develop from the egg to the adult 
The plainest Indication of the presence or the weevil In t 
cotton field Is in the Haring (Fig. 4) and falling of the sqiiarei 
or forma which lake place. In general, wUhln a day or twi 
after the egg is deposited. However, as alt plenterg are aware 



heavy rains after drouth, ax well as Bomp other climatic con- 
ditions, have the same efTect upon the plants. It the planter 
should observe an tinimual shediUns of the fruit he may eaally 
determine the ciiiise by gathering n fpw of the fallen BguareB. 
If upon cuilinE open thene Hquares he llnds a Bmall, whlllsh, 
curved Krub, there la but little doubt that the cause ot th« 



trouble la the boll weevil. The specimen should then be »ent to 
an entomoloBlst far final determination. 

No aatlBlactory meanH ot destraylns the weevil by polMM 
W InsecttcldeB have been found, because It ia protected by the 



176 

n square or boll within which it hatches But it ha-- 1 en 
talned that by planting early varieties and hastening md' 
turltj by earU planting good cultivation and fertilialii; the 
crop will be made before the weevil appears In lirge i \ nbera 
Planting In rows 4 or E (e«t apart is al'o advocated thTt the 
worms In the fallen bolls mav be destroyed bi dr>lng 1 -un 
shine As soon as the crop Is gathered the cotton stalk" hould 
be burned If the stalks are not destroyed the weevil iMll ll\c 
o\er winter and appear in destructive numbers the following 
seison unless the winter has been \fr-\ wet and the succeedlne 
summer is very dry 

SAN JOSE SCAI.E 

The pernicious or San Jose scale was found In destructive 
numbers in many California orchards in IKSO it Is lupposed tn 
ha\c been brought to that state about 11 
on plants received from China In 13OT it 
WAS discovered tn Virginia and In New 
Jersey in 18M It probablj was scattered 
througii many states b> infected niir<<ery 
stoik before Its preseni.e wai suspected 
'" ' V firmly established In almos' 



fruit setti 


una 






The SOS 




the 1 


noHt serious orchard 


enemy eve 


r encountered It la so Inslgnifl- 




d^oVe 


the c 


oior of bark that it 








entire orcliard before 


the owner 




s wh 


»l it is It raultlplU s 


in summe 


r and 


fall 





pidlty and destroys bv sucking the juices 
of the plant It la dormant In winter and 
is not killed by te\ere cold It is spiead 
from tree to tree on the feet of birds and 
perhapa b\ the wind An Infested trep 
generallt dies In three years and some- 
Tour g of Chinese The Mcale la destroved by hidrocjanlo 
Ladv Peetle sold gsi-i and in manj states nurserjmen 
are compeikd bj law lo fumigate all stock 
with this gas before shipping Nurseries are also Inspected by- 
stale entomologltts annually \\ here su(h precautions are fol- 
lowed, there Is little danger of young trees being infested. But 
the scale Is already so generally disseminated that fruit growers 
cannot expect to escape It. 

The moat available and satisfactory means of destroying (ho 
scale in an orchard la by spraying the trees in winter or early- 
spring with a solution of lime, sulphur and salt; this must be 

in eoual ouantltiea to form a sulphide, which Is Ibe de- 
ment of the compound. Frequently an excexa 




TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 177 

of lime is used to insure perfect combination. A proper 
formula is: Lime 20 pounds, sulphur flour 15 pounds, salt ten 
pounds, water 50 gallons. This is made by slaking the lime with 
hot water and then mixing the sulphur with it, forming a paste 
free from lumps. This is poured into a pot of water and boiled 
for two hours, the salt is added and the material strained Into a 
spraying barrel and applied. Another well-known formula is: 50 
pounds lime, 50 pounds sulphur and 50 pounds salt, with 150 gal- 
lons of water. It is claimed that the mixture can be made with- 
out boiling by adding two pounds of caus- 
tic potash to the mixture; the potash gen- 
erates a great heat- 
One of the natural enemies of the San 
Jose scale is an Asiatic ladybird, Chilocor us 
similis, recently Imported by the United 
States department of agriculture from 
China. Many colonies of this insect have 
been sent to experiment stations and indi- 
viduals having large orchards. The results 
have not been generally satisfactory. How- 
_,. , _ , ever, in some of the southern states, par- 

Chinese Lady- ticularly Gfeorgla. the little beetle seems to 
Beetle. be thriving. Because of adverse natural 

conditions this Insect does not multiply as 
rapidly in our central and northern states as in the more conge- 
nial southern environments. There is. however, encouraging 
promise that this friendly insect may eventually become estab- 
lished in some sections and that it may be a factor in holding 
the scale in check to some extent. 

COMPETITION IN TROPICAL AGRICULTURE. 

It is undoubtedly true that the near future is to see a new 
form of competition for American producers. This will be due 
to the great enlargement of agricultural production in the 
tropics. The unlimited fertility of the soil and climate In Cuba, 
Porto Rico, the Philippines and other tropical countries, makes 
It possible for those sections to produce sugar, tobacco, rice, ■ 
cotton and many other crops at vastly less cost than these 
crops can be produced for in the United States. 

Whether such tropical produce shall be admitted into the 
Hnited States duty free, or at reduced rates of duty, will be one 
of the great economic issues of the next few years. Our domes- 
tic farmers will have to decide whether they want to meet such 
tropical competition without any protest, or whether they will 
Insist upon high tariff protection against It, just as manufac- 
turers of iron, steel and other goods have been protected against 
foreign competition. 

The prospects of tropical development were emphasized in 
an address to the international geographical congress New 
York, September 13, 1904, by O. P. Austin, chief United States 
bureau of statistics, who said: 

The 20th century duty of commerce and geography com- 
bined is the development of the tropics. The temperate zones 



178 



AMBRICAN AQRICTTLTURIST 



have during: the last century been pretty well developed, espe- 
cially the north temperate sione, and they have become the pro- 
ducers of more than three-fourths in value of the products enter- 
ing: into international commerce. While the temperate sones 
have one-half thp world's population, they furnish much more 
than one-half of its natural products and nearly all of the man- 
ufactures, and supply more than three-fourths of the merchan- 
dise which enters into international commerce. 

On the other hand, the tropics with the other half of the 
world's population and by nature the most productive section, 
supply in fact less than one-fourth of that which enters into 
international commerce. The world is demanding tropical prod- 
ucts In rapidly Increasing: quantities. The value of tropical 
products imported into the United States at the present time !s 
about 430 million dollars a year, against 140 millions in 1870. This 
is a threefold gain in value, while the fact that prices have 
fallen more than one-half in most of these articles meantime, 
indicated that the quantity of tropical products now imported Is 
fully six times as great as in 1870. 

The United States draws its chief supply of sugar from the 
tropics, while European countriee^produced it in the temperate 
zone from beets. Even in sugar it seems not improbable that 
the application in the tropics of the same high degree of skill 
now applied to sugar production in the temperate zones might 
produce sugar in the tropics at such low cost as to permit the 
temperate zones to again utilize for the production of bread- 
stuffs some portion of the lands now devoted to sugar, and thus 
adjust production to natural conditions of soil and climate in 
both the temperate and the torrid zones. 

The great causes of delay in development of the tropics were 
their unhealthfulness for whites from the temperate zone, dlffl- 
culty of applying mechanical power to the development, indis- 
position of native races to labor, and uncertainty as to gov- 
, ernmental protection for life and investment. In all of these, 
conditions have greatly improved in recent years. 

VALUE OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OP POULTRY AND 

GAME, 1884 TO 1904. 



Imports Exports 

Fiscal of poultry of Doultry 

year ana game a nd game 

i904"T. — $1,009,304 

1903 — 1.079,056 

1902 — 856,801 

1901 - 1,070,190 

1900 $311,638 753.399 

1899 265,032 505,540 

1898 239,681 385,914 

1897 211.122 140,858 

1896 226.600 80.399 

1895 233.416 69,287 

1894 274,789 71.880 



^ , Imports 

Fiscal of poultry 

_year anagame^ 

1893 .;7$525".269 

1892 307,752 

1891 357,927 

1890 413,491 

1889 392,712 

1888 358,204 

1887 305,402 

1886 338,840 

1885 280,123 

1884 590,791 



of poultry 
ana game 



$61,094 
37.989 
34,340 

120.725 
95.968 
67,692 
68.687 
87,315 
97,012 
69,61S 



R B0017 AND ALMANAC 

Fertilizers 




USE OF FERTILIZERS IILLU ST RATED. 
In tho unshaded states, less thaji 1 per cent of rhe average 
annual value ot cropa la expended (or commercial fertilizers; 
(2) llghtsat Bhadins. l to 3 per cent; (3) medium shading, 3 X'l 
5 per cent: (I) darkest shading. G to 10 per oent. Yet It la prob- 
able that the average farm profits are greatest In the sections 
where the largest proportion o( the crop goes for lertlllzlng 

NUMBER OP POUNDS OF FERTILIZER REQUIRED PER 

ACRE APPLIED IN ROWS. 

ir 10 pounds ot tei 
the rows are 1« Inch* 
h* needed per acre, a 



No. 1 

p. 100 ydti. 



18 Ir 



2ft. 2\itt.2%tt. aft. 3^4 ft. itt. 4Wft. 5ft. 



1*70 1175 1065 



. ZS40 220i 1766 



1330 1225 1050 



. 3430 2S15 2060 1865 1715 1470 1286 114E 1030 

.3920 2940 S360 sm iHo 1680 1470 uoe un 



180 AlifliaCAN AdfttCm.TURtBT 

FORMULAS FOR MIXING AGRICULTURAL CHBMICAL.S. 

[As used by many farmers and analyzed by various experiment 

stations.] 



Composition of mikturei AfialyseiLi^er «lt 

#■* ■ " ■ . ■ I 1.1^ olf lbs* ox dMsli 

fi Crop tof Which Is S *-g S- -jg 5- •gll "*'"* - 
S is intended g'S ^ •§! rS §» %i Sdr^S ^ «' 

1 General use.... 834 6«6 208 292 — — _ — 4. 9. 77fe 

2 General use.... 1000 450 170 280 200 — — — 3. 10. 7.8 

3 General u««.... 400 — 200 200 400 — 200 600 3. 12. 5.t 

4 General Use.... 1060 750 — 100 — 100 — — 3. 10. 2 A 

5 Potatoes 400 {200 200 200 400 100 100 400 3.4 10. 7.4 

6 Potatoes 900 t200 200 — — 450 260 — 4.8 8. 11. 

7 Potatoes 800 500 — — — 450 250 — S.4 8. 11. 

8 Potatoes 800 6OO 400 — — 675 250 — 5.8 6. 12. 

9 Potatoes 500 750 — 200 — 300 350 — 4. 5.3 12. 

10 Whtat , oats , ry e , 

oOrn 600 tlOO 50 150 ~ — 100 — 2. 10. 7.i 

11 Corn 1000 500 300 250 700 ~ — — 8. 8. 4. 

12 Oats 120 — — 160 — ~ 120 120 3. 9. 13. 

13 Rye 280 t320 — 180 — — — 280 2. 8. 8.6 

14 Barley 140 — 235 65 — — — — 10. 5. 7. 

15 Buckwheat .... 160 — — 100 — — 160 160 6. 9. 12. * 

16 Fruit trees 425 — 50 100 — ~ — — 1. 10. 9. 

17 Mrkt grardening 700 — — 400 700 — 200 — 1. 9. 10. 

18 Tomatoes 320 — — 160 — — 160 — 3. 8. 11. 

19 Melons 80C — — 100 — — 200 800 2. 18. 4. 

20 Cabbage 448 — — — 112. — 224 — 4. 11. — 

21 Beans 500 JlOO 50 250 — — — — 2. 9. 14. 

22 Beets 100 — 100 100 — — 100 100 7. 8. 14. 

23 Clover 300 — —♦400 ^ -- loo — 1.8 6. 6. 

24 Cotton 200 tlOO —•300 — — — 200 1. 8. 6. 

25 II Tobacco — — — — — 180 140 260 3. 11. 1.6 

* Kainlt. t Cottonseed meal, t Dried blood. S Ground ftsh. 
II This Was Used at the south. The popular mixture in the Con-> 
nectlcUt valley for raising prime cigar wrapper leaf tobaoco is 
cottonseed meal 2000 pounds, high greule cotton hull ash 1000 
pounds, oyster shell lime 500 pounds, land plaster or gypsum 
500 pounds, on each acre. Various modifications of the formula 
are used. 

Air-slaked lime, as has been observed in other eitperiments, 
has had a wonderfully beneficial effect in connection With cer^ 
tain plants, which has been attributed by us not only to its 
direct fertilizing action, but also largely to its having overcome 
the acidity of the soil or to its having effected the decomposition 
oC constituents of the same Which exerted an injurious influence 
upon the growth of certain plants* 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 181 

Irrigation 

THE NATIONAL IRRIGATION LAW. 

It is entitled "an act approprlatingr the receipts from the 
Bale and disposal of public lands in certain states and territo- 
ries to the construction of irrigation works for the reclamation 
of arid lands." It was approved June 17, 1902 (32 Stat., 388). 
This law is one of the most Important ever enacted by Con- 
gress. The law has stood the test of experience. The act \b 
yery gr^neral and allows wide executive discretion in its appll« 
cation, experience shows that the law should be left alone 
until some of the works authorized have been actually con- 
structed and lands reclaimed. Then will be time enough to 
consider whether any radical changes are required. 

The law provides that all moneys received from the sale and 
disposal of public lands in Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, 
Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Da- 
kota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington 
and Wyoming shall be set aside in the national treasury as 
a reclamation fund. This fund is to be used "in the examina- 
tion and survey for and the construction and maintenance of 
irrigation works for storage, diversion and development of wa- 
ters. Including artesian wells, for the reclamation of arid and 
semi-arid lands in the said states and territories." 

This fund now amounts to nearly 30 millions of dollars. 
Lands needed for irrigation works, or to be reclaimed by these 
works, may be withdrawn from hon^estead entry or sale, until 
the fvasibility of such works is decided upon. Lands irrigated 
by government works are reserved to actual settlers in tracts 
of not less than 40 or more than 160 acres. The cost of construct- 
ing irrigation works is apportioned upon the land thus reclaimed. 
The settler is entitled to acquire such land at said price, pay- 
ment to be made in ten equal annual installments. When 
these payments have been completed for the major portion of 
the lands irrigated, the management and operation of the irri- 
gation works shall pass to the owners of the lands irrigated, 
and the works are to be maintained at their expense. This 
permits the government not only to construct, but to operate 
the works for a period sufficiently long to get everything in 
good working order. The management then can pass gradually 
Into the hands of an association of the water users. 

Thus the settler, in the course of time, returns to the gov- 
ernment every dollar it spends in constructing the irrigation 
works. Thereafter the owners of the land irrigated operate 
such works In their own interest, and simply have to pay the 
bare cost of maintenance. This insures an ample supply of 
water to the land owner at bare cost. Title to the water koea 
with the land, and no middleman or corporation can take it 
away. 

Since government derives the capital of the reclamation fund 
from the sale of public lands, and has the money returned to 



192 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

it from year to year to be used in additional works, this great 
system involves no expetlAd whatevfei' to the taxpayers of the 
country. It provides lands and waters ^r actual settlers at 
actual cost, but makes the water Inhere to the land. The new 
law also provides for its operation with due regard to the stat- 
utes of the different states. It virtually divides the fund de- 
rived from the sale of land in each state, so that 51 per cent of 
the fund must be expended within said state if there are sufll- 
cldnt feasible irrigation projects therein, while the other 49 per 
cent Can be expended in any one of the states or territories. 

tJilder this law an immense amount of work has already 
be6h dohe by the reclamation services of the department of the 
interior, with headquarters at Washington, D. C. This i^ork 
consists largely of surveys and measurements of water* but 
now vaHous irrigation works are under actual consttuctldh. 
V*u\\ particulars of the lands open to settlement under each df 
these irrigation projects may be obtained, free of cost, by ad- 
dresBlng Reclamation Service, Washington, D. C. 

STEALING THE PUBLIC LANDS. 

The federal , irrigation law promises to be of the utmoiit 
beneflcence. It should be supplemented by such refotms of the 
public land laws, and such Improvements In the lawd pertain- 
Ing to forestry, as will forever Insure that the remaining pilbUc 
lands and forests shall be consierved and administered In the 
interejlt of actual settlers arid the public welfare, as thotougrhly 
as the Irrigation law aims to conserve the public interest in the 
land and waters reclaimed under the provisions of this law. 

The forests of the west are being located by timber thieved 
and timber speculators under the timber and stone act. The 
fertile lands which should be reserved for the home-maker ar« 
Deing located by speculators and stockmen who have no thougrht 
or purpose of ever making a home upon them. Under the des- 
ert land act the public domain is being butchered and gutted, 
and hundreds of thousands of acres of irrigable lands are being 
annually absorbed into private ownership in the hands of those 
Who will either devote them to the raising of live stock, and 
make of them ranges for cattle and sheep, or hold them in 
speculative hands against the day when the home-builder Will 
want the land, or when the government will want it to reclaim 
for the home-maker. And under the commutation clause of 
the homestead act, the hobo locator, the cowboy or the sheej} 
herder, who is the tool of the big live stock outfit, the other 
lands are fast being absorbed, to be fenced In with barbed wire 
fences against the Incoming settler. 

Particulars about public lands available for entry under the 
various land laws now existing may be obtained upon applica* 
tion to the commissioner of the general land office, Washing* 
ton, D. C. In a few of the Western states considerable ar<*li9 
are still the property of the state. Texas has the greatest 
wealth in such state lands. 



BOOK ANn ALMANAC 

Forestry 




'i^'"r:::rr'>iyC\ 



~m 



PRINCIPAL FOREST AREAS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

The rapid diminution of American lorestB ia emphaalied by 
the above map. The constant upward tendency In pricpH ol all 
lumber eraphttBlies the serlouBnesa of the forestry question. 
It is of t>ie utmost Importance that both state and federal 
governments co-operate In a policy that will encourage the de- 
velopment of new forests and the b<'St care of existing forests. 

ARBOR DAT OBBBR VANCE. 

Alabama - "lSS7 "February " 22- ' ' 

Alaska Not observed. 

Arizona VeO. — . 1S95 Friday following 1st day of Apr., 

also Friday following 1st day 
of Feb. 

Arkansas Dec. 15.1895 Dec. 15 {Irregularly observed). 

CalKornla Observed by separate counties. 

but not generally. 

Colorado IS9* Third Friday In Apr. 

Connecticut 1S86 Appointed by governor, last Fri- 
day in Apr. or first in May 

Delaware 1901 Appointed by governor, usually 



1S4 



AMSmCAN AQRICULTURIBT 
ARBOR DAY OBSERVANCE— Continued. 



When first 
S tate observed ^Annual observance 

platrict of Columbia Not obaerved. ' 

Florida Feb. 9, 1886 First Friday In Feb. 

Georg-la 1890 First Friday in Dec. 

Xda)io 1, 1886 Last Monday in Apr. 

Illinois 1888 Date fixed by governor and supt. 

of public Instruction. 

Indian Territory Not observed. 

Indiana 1884 Last Friday in Oct. 

Iowa 1887 Date fixed by proclQ,mation of 

governor. 

Kansas 1875 Do. 

Kentucky 1894 Not regularly observed. 

ILiOuisiana Not observed. 

Ihlaine 1887 Date fixed by proclamation of 

governor, usually early in May. 
Maryland Apr. 10, 1889 In Apr.; date fixed by proclama- 
tion of governor. 

Massachusetts 1886 Last Saturday in Apr. 

Michigan Apr. —, 1885 Last Friday in Apr. 

Minnesota 1895 Date fixed by proclamation of 

governor, usually last of Apr. 

or first of May. 

Mississippi Dec. 10, 1902 Dec. 10. 

Missouri , . . , Apr. 16, 1886 Friday after Ist Tuesday In Apr. 

Montana Mar. 11. 1895 Second Tuesday In May. 

Nebraska Apr. 10, 1872 Apr. 22. 

Nevada 1887 Date fixed by proolamation of 

governor, usually in Apr. 

New Hampshire 188S No date fixed, usually In May. 

New Jersey Apr. 18, 1884 Usually third Friday in Apr., 

appointed by governor. 

New Mexico Feb. 16, 1891 Second Friday In Mar. 

New York May 3, 1889 Friday following 1st day of May. 

North Carolina Oct. 12, usually ob.served. 

North Dakota May ~, 1890 First Friday in May. 

Ohio Apr. 27,1882 Second or third Friday in Apr. 

Oklahoma Second Friday in Apr. 

Oregon Apr. — . j»87 Appointment by governor In 

Apr. or May. 
Pennsylvania 1887 In Oct.; appointment by supt. 

of instruction. 

Rhode Island Apr. 29, 1886 Second Friday in May. 

South Carolina...Nov. — , 1899 Third Friday In Nov. 

South Dakota , Date fixed by governor. 

Tennessee ..,, 1887 Pate fixed annually in Nov. 

Texas Feb. 22, 1889 Feb. 22. 

Utah 1896 Apr. 15. 

Vermont 1885 Latter part of Apr. or first of 

May. 
Virginia 1892 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMAWAC 185 

ARBOK DAY OBSKRVANCB-Continued. 



When first 
State observed Annual obser vance 

Washingrton .7.7."." Irregularly observed ; date set 

by governor; different daten 
east and west of the C^ascadeH. 

West Virginia 1881 Third Friday In Apr. and third 

Friday in Nov. 

Wisconsin 1889 Date fixed by governor. 

Wyoming 1888 Do^ 

Fisheries 

PROPAGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD FISHES. 

The necessity of maintaining the fish supply in public and 
private waters is becoming more urgent each year, and the 
applications for all kinds of fish now greatly exceed those of a 
few years ago, taxing to the utmost the resources of the various 
hatcheries. In order to keep pace with the increajsed catch by 
commercial fishermen and anglers, the establishment of addi- 
tional hatcheries from time to time is demanded, and larger 
appropriations are required to operate existing hatcheries to 
their full capacity. 

The number of fish and fertilized ova distributed in 1903 
was somewhat less than in the previous year, the decrease being 
due to seasonal conditions which could not be foreseen or obvi- 
ated; the distributions were as follows: Bggs 182,238^73, fry 
1,0S6,988,743, fingerlings, yearlings and adults 6.830,359, total 1,226,- 
067.475. 

FISHING STATIONS. 

The following stations, some of which are auxiliary, are 
operated by the commission: Green Lake, Me.; Crais Brook. 
M6. ; Grand Lake Stream, Me.; Nashua, N. H. ; St. Jonnsbury, 
Vt.; Swanton* Vt. ; Gloucester, Mass.; Woods Hole, Mass.; Cape 
Vincent. N. Y.; Steamer Fish Hawk (Delaware river); Batfery, 
Md.; Bryans Point, Md.; Fish Lakes, D. C; Wytheville, Va.; 
White Sulphur Springs, W. Va.; Erwin, Tenn.; Cold Springs, 
Ga.; Qdenton, N. C; Weldon, N. C; Put in Bay, O.; Northvllle, 
Mich. ; Detroit, Mich. ; Sault Ste Marie, Mich. ; Charlevoix, Mich. ; 
Alpena, Mich.; Quincy, III.; Manchester, la.; Bellevue, la.; 
Neosho, Mo.; San Marcos, Tex.; LeadviUe, Col.; Spearfish. S. D. ; 
Boseman, Mont.; Baird, Cal.; Battle Creek, Cal.; Mill Creek, 
Cal.; Clackamas, Ore.; Little White Salmon, Ore.; Big White 
Salmon, Ore, Eagle and Tanner creeks, Ore.; Rogue River, 
Wash.; Baker lake. Wash.; Birdsview, Wash. 

Lobster was cultivated at two fishing stations in 1903, cod 
at two, flatfish two, shad four, pike perch two, yellow perch 
two, whitefish sev^n, lake trout five, salmon 11. 



'P-gS«8IS" I I M I 1^ I I I 1 ISg""g"SfS IK" 
'"I lass 1 I I M 1 I I 1"! 1 I I 1 I I 1 I I IS* l^« 



ip3 






r 4 rtf a v Q 
ISnnQQi 






I 1 I I I I igi I I n 1 



III ii 



188 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Manufacturing 



RELATIVE CONDITIONS IN THE MANUFACTURING AND 
NON-MANUFACTURING SECTIONS OF 
THE UNITED STATES. 




Manufacturing section includes area north of the Potomac 
and Ohio, and east of the Mississippi, viz., the New England and 
Middle states, and Maryland, District of Columbia, Ohio, Indi- 
ana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin. 



Manufacturing 
section 



Per cent of total population of U. S... 50.9 

Per cent of total area of U. S 14.1 

Gross value of manufactures in 1900.. $10 ,021 ,718, 461 
Per cent of total manufactures pro- 
duced in section 77 

Salaries and wages paid in mfg. in 1900. $2,194,936,683 
No. persons employed in mfg., 1900... 4,437,714 
Av. value per acre of all farm lands.. $24.07 
Av. p acre of all farm lands and bldgs. 32.60 
Average value per acre of land (im- 
proved only) and buildings 58.60 

Av. value buildings per improved acre. 15.25 



Other sta tes 

49.1 

S5.9 

$2,988,318,053 

23 

$536,471,666 

1,273,917 

$12.78 

14.86 

3t66 
6.6i 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 189 



Manufacturing 
sec tion Other states 

Av. value of implements owned per 

improved acre $2.54 $1.47 

Average value p head of milch cows. :{3.62 27.46 

Average value per head of horses 60.87 43.82 

Average value of all farm products 

per Improved acre 141.00 101.40 

Average value of farm products, per 

person engaged 619.25 394.50 

Deposits in savings banks, total 2.200.439,838 249.108,047 

Deposits in savings banks, per capita. 56.90 6.67 

Deposits in all banks, total 5.949,984.845 1.384.666,395 

Deposits in all banks, per capita 153.80 37.10 

Bank clearings, total 78,856,970,422 8.225,479,659 

Bank clearingrs. average per capita... 1,973.50 220.40 

Banking resources, total 8,613,200.000 2,167,500,000 

Banking resources, average p capita. 222.65 58.10 
Real and personal property, assessed 

valuation 23,445,809,898 10,388,667,238 

Real and personal property, p capita. 606.25 278.50 

Salaries paid teachers in pub. schools. 85,234,961 52,452,785 

Newspapers published, number 9,151 9,075 

Newspapers, aggregate circulation ... 6,168,125,616 2,000,023,133 



PRODUCTION OF IRON AND STEEL IN THE UNITED 

STATES. 
[Showing increase in exportations.] 



_ 1 880 1890 19 00 190 3 

Pig iron produced, millions of tons 3 9 ^13 18 

Crude steel produced, millions of tons 1 4 10 — 

Domestic iron used, per cent 78 98 98 — 

Price of pig iron. No. 1 foundry, dollars per ton. 28 18 19 19 

Price of steel rails, dollars per ton 67 31 32 28 

Price of wire nails, dollars per 100-lb keg — »2.51 2.76 2.13 

Manufactures imported, millions of dollars 71 41 20 51 

Manufactures exported, millions of dollars 14 25 12 1 96 

The Canning Industry 

The canning of fruits, vegetables, fish and meat has become 
one of the great industries of the United States. There has 
been a tremendous growth in the trade during recent years 
and factories have sprung up in great numbers throughout 
the country. On the next page are given statistics showing the 
number of concerns in the various states and the kind of goods 
canned in each state. 



190 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 
STATE CANNERIES. 



No. Of 
State factories Goods canned 

Ala 3 Oysters, lima beans, tomatoes. 

Alaska 60 Salmon. 

Ariz. 1 

Ark. 7 Tomatoes, berries, corn and potatoes. 

CaL 8 Fruit and vegetables. 

CoL 9 Tomatoes, fruit and vegetables. 

Ct 7 Tomatoes, corn and other vegetables. 

Del 62 Peas, peaches and tomatoes. 

Fla 9 Fish, pineapples, guavas. 

Ga 15 Oysters, peaches, vegetables. 

Ill 67 Corn, tomatoes, beans, pumpkins. 

Ind 65 Tomatoes and vegetables. 

la 32 Corn, tomatoes. 

Kan 7 Tomatoes, peas, apples, pumpkins.' 

Ky 14 Tomatoes, peas, corn, vegetables. 

I^a 5 ^rui*,, beans, oysters. 

Me 138 feardines and shell fish, corn, berries. 

Md 370 Tomatoes, peas, corn, sauerkraut, oysters, 

fruit. 

Mass 18 Meats, fish, baked beans. 

Mich 33 

Minn 6 

Miss 12 Fruits, beans, figs, oysters, crabs. 

Mo 53 Tomatoes, corn, fruits. 

Neb 6 Corn, tomatoes, apples, pears. 

N. C 19 Tomatoes, peaches, oysters. 

N. J 84 Tomatoes, beans, corn, berries. 

N. M 2 

N. Y 219 Vegetables and fruits. 

Ohio 77 Corn, tomatoes, fruit and vegetables. 

Okla 1 

Ore 43 Salmon, fruit and vegetables. 

Pa 45 Corn and tomatoes. 

S. C 9 Shell fish and vegetables. 

S. D 1 

Tenn. 18 Fruit and vegetables. 

Tex 12 Vegetables, shell fish. 

Utah 16 Tomatoes. 

Vt 8 Maple sugar, jelly. 

Va 183 Tomatoes, peaches, pears, shell fish. 

Wash 45 Salmon, tomatoes and corn. 

W, Va. 10 Fruits, berries, vegetables. 

Wis 34 Peas, tomatoes, corn. 



No advertisement is allowed in the columns of the American 
Agriculturist weeklies unless we believe that any subscriber 
can safely do business with the advertiser. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALICANAC 



191 



Finance 



SAVINGS BANK DEPOSITS. 

■ 

The total deposits In all the savings banks of the world, 
according to latest official information received by the depart- 
ment of commerce and labor, through its bureau of statistics, 
amounted to over 10*^ billion dollars, contributed by 82,640,000 
depositors. Of this total the United States shows aggregate 
deposits of $3,060,179,000. credited to 7,305,000 depositors. As the 
figures used in arriving at the grand totals cover about one- 
half of the population of the world, viz, over 770 million, it 
appears that the United States, with less than 9V^ per cent of 
the total population considered, contributes over 29 per cent 
of the total savings deposits recorded. 

NUMBER DEPOSITORS. AMOUNT DEPOSITS, AVERAGE 
DEPOSIT ACCOUNTS, AND AVERAGE DEPOSIT PER 
INHABITANT IN POSTAL AND OTHER SAVINGS 
BANKS OF WORLD. 



Am't 
Number Aver- P6r 
Country of Total age iuhabi- 
depositors depo alta deposit t aiit 

Australia, commonwealth of... 1,086,018 $164^161,981 $161.15 $43.47 

Austria 4,946,307 876,941,933 177.29 33.47 

Belgium 2,088,448 141,851.419 67.92 20.37 

Canada 213,638 60,771,128 289.14 10.99 

Denmark 1,203,120 236,170,057 196.29 96.41 

France 11,298,474 847,224,910 75.01 21.75 

Germany 15,432,211 2.273,406,226 147^8 39.98 

♦Prussia 9,377,503 1,485,793,500 158.44 43.10 

Holland 1,330,275 72,738,817 54.83 13.60 

Hungary 1,717,515 432,810,515 251.91 21.92 

India, British 866,693 34,656,371 39.98 .15 

Italy 6,740.138 482,263,472 71.55 14.52 

Japan 7,467,452 40,887,186 5.48 .90 

New Zealand 261,948 38,332,823 146.34 49.61 

Norway 718,823 89,633,481 124.69 39.94 

Roumania 145,507 7,426,031 51.04 1.26 

Russia, including Asiatic part. 4,950,607 445,014,951 89.90 3.16 

.Finland 226,894 21,144,278 93.19 7.60 

Sweden 1,892,586 151,480,442 80.54 29.14 

Switzerland 1,300,000 193,000,000 148.46 62.26 

United Kingdom 11,093,469 966,854,253 87.15 22.82 

Other British colonies 354,275 32,936,217 92.97 2.78 

Total 75,334,398 $7,609,706,491 $101.01 $11.00 

United States 7,305.443 3,060,178,611 418.89 37.38 

Grand total .82,639.841 $10,669,885,102 

*Not included in the total. 



192 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

FINANCIAL STANDING OF THE WORLD. 





Popniation 
in round 
milllonB 




Millions of dollars 


Dollars 


1 per capita of 


Gonntry 


■a 

! ^ 


I 

a 


a 

G 
9 

> 

62 


1 
60 


1 

479 


r 

1 
100 


1 

a 

7.00 


• 

g 
1 


Argentina 


... 4 


173 


99 


13.00 


Australasia 


... 3 


213 


203 


140 


142 


1084 


287 


11.00 


37.00 


Austria-Hungary 


.. 45 


349 


387 


75 


75 


1107 


24 


1.12 


1.67 


Austria 


... 26 


— 


— 


350 


350 


739 


28 


1.31 


13.40 


Hungary 


...19 


— 


— 


220 


221 


1038 


53 


2.00 


11.00 


Belgium 


... 6 


358 


439 


122 


116 


544 


81 


4.00 


18.00 


Brazil 


... 4 


177 


113 


137 


99 


540 


37 


1.00 


9.00 


Canada 


... 5 


213 


224 


58 


50 


271 


49 


2.00 


10.00 


Chile 


... 3 


61 


48 


38 


44 


107 


35 


1.00 


12.00 


China 


...407 


134 


198 


62 


71 


613 


1 


.07 


.15 


Cuba 


... 1 


77 


58 


18 


19 


— 


— 




11.00 


Denmark 


... 2 


85 


116 


20 


20 


G6 


26 


.89 


8.00 


Egypt 


... 9 


87 


73 


60 


56 


500 


51 


2.00 


6.00 


France 


... 38 


820 


848 


95 


695 


6856 


150 


5.00 


17.00 


German Empire . 


... 58 


1143 


1340 


495 


653 


698 


11 


.12 


8.00 


British India 


...294 


408 


255 


371 


346 


1102 


4 


3.52 


1.00 


Italy 


...32 


284 


342 


375 


356 


2560 


78 


.47 


11.00 


Japan 


... 45 


127 


135 


133 


132 


261 


5 


.67 


2.00 


Mexico 


... 13 


88 


74 


29 


27 


175 


12 


2.61 


2.15 


Netherlands 


... 5 


732 


867 


61 


61 


463 


86 


1.00 


11.00 


Norway 


... 2 


45 


78 


27 


27 


70 


31 


— 


11.00 


Peru 4 


... 4 


17 
392 


21 
305 


7 
101 


7 
1116 


23 
3414 


5 
24 


1.07 
4.00 


1.63 


Russia 


...141 


7.00 


Spain 


... 18 


154 


176 


197 


187 


2061 


110 


.61 


10.00 


Sweden 


... 5 


105 


134 


49 


49 


92 


17 


.26 


9.00 


Switzerland 


... 3 


217 


168 


20 


20 


17 


5 


— 


6.00 


United Kingdom 


... 41 


1379 


2579 


737 


897 


3S85 


92 


3.63 


17.00 


United States — 


... 80 


1392 


1025 


694 


644 


925 


11 


— 


8.00 



GOLD AND SILVER COINAGE IN MINTS OF THE WORLD. 

[In round millions.] 



f Gold ^ , Silver ^ 

Year Fine ounces Value Fine ounces Value 

1902 10 $220 149 ^$193 ~" 

1901 %.. 12 248 . 107 138 

1900 17 354 143 185 

1890 7 149 117 152 

1880 7 149 65 84 

1873 12 257 101 131 

Total, 1873-02..288 6,954 3,127 4,044 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 193 

Pensions 



• 



The pension system was the greatest as a burden to tY^^ 
people of the United States in 1893, since which time the burdei 
has been constantly decreasing until it has shrunk in 11 years 
from $2.24 to less than $1.32 per $1000 of taxable wealth. In 10 
years more the burden will cease to be noticed. 

SUMMARY FOR FIVE YEARS. 



190t 190n 1902 1901 1900 

Number Cca ses~( ) n~ha n d .'. . ...T. .2s:..523~~304.Sl)9 ~339,"4::6~4o:{.r,t)9"~~4:{7'.l(!4 

Clerks 1.7:U 1,7.'{6 1.7^6 1,741 1.711 

Applications filed 2.'.4.r.:J 225.871 18S.626 219.179 181.005 

Admissions 151.211 i:50.109 117.2HS 106.990 102.596 

Rejections 108.114 113.794 llS.4<^i 110.254 116,129 

Benefit cases 8.725 8.203 10.441 9,8:?6 8,000 

Total num ber cases ad judged. 268 .050 2.52.106 246.173 227.080 226.7L5 

PENSION CLAIMS FJURD AND AI^I^OWED. 
[Issues in round thousands.] 



1862 



i8ro 


INSO 


1890 


1893 


19(i:{ 


1904 


24 

18 


141 
19 


105 
66 


119 
121 


52 

40 


55 
44 



Applicatioiis 2 

Claims allowed — 

PENSIONS OF THE SEVERAL WARS. 

War of the Revolution (estimated) $70,000,000.00 

War of 1S12 (service. withDUt r<\i?ard to di.sability). . 45.:i26.774.16 
Indian wars (service, without reirard to disability). 6,980,896.93 
War with Mexico (service, without reirard to dis- 
ability) 35,162,130.35 

War of the Rebellion 3,011,373,235.13 

War with Spain 8..586.200.09 

Regular establishment 2,287.924.99 

Actual total disbursements in pensions $3,179,717,161.65 

The amounts paid as pensions on account of disabilities and 
deaths as results of military and naval service during the wars 
of 1812 and with Mexico and in time of peace to the beginning of 
the war with Spain are included in the r»ayments on account of 
the war of the Rebellion. However, beginning with the last 
fiscal year, those pensioned on account of disabilities incurred 
in time of peace since the close of the war of the Rebellion 
have been classified as the "regular establishment." Hereafter 
this expenditure will appear as a separate item, and not charged 
to the war of the Rebellion as heretofore. 



194 AMERICAN AORICULTURIST 

The number of pensioners In the United States in 1904 
989,852; the total amount paid, $140,257,000. There were also 4910 
pensioners residing outside of the United States, drawing $722,440. 
On the pension roll there were 720,315 soldiers, 273,841 wldo^rs 
and 606 army nurses. 

Total wealth Cost of pen- ' 
of the U. S. sion systeni 
Tear in round billions per $1000 



1904 nilO $1.32 

1903 *107 1.32 

1900 94 1.50 

1895 77 1.90 

1893 '72 2.24 

1890 6 5 1.40 

*EsUmated.~ 
AVERAGE VALUE OF PENSIONS. 



1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 



Average annual value each pension... $i:i4 $1.33 $1.'?2 $131 $132 

regular establishment 173 — -- — — 

under general law 180 176 171 168 167 

under act 1890 110 108 108 108 108 

war with Spain ._. -^.132 J37_ HO 153 169 

CLASSIFICATION OF PENSIONERS, JULY 1, 1904. 






m 



^"" •? I ^ sl s-l ►•I »i s-S 

9 c I @i il si §s g| 



»15 

3 




_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


__ 


7 


-_ 


— 


— 


_ 


.— 


._ 


-— 




238 


84 


2 


1 


.606 


— 


— 


433 


161 


16 


7 


-^ 




— 


11 


4 


.494 


.202 


— — 


— 


— 


7 


2 


1 


I 


— 



Revolutionary — 1 2 

War of 1812 1 

•Indian wars 2 

•Mexican war 5 

•Civil war (after March, '61). — 
•Civil war (after June, '90)... — 

•War with Spain — 

Reg ular esta blishm ent — 

♦Number in thousands. 

Total number of pensioners, 994,762. 

Population 

The increase of population In the United States from 1890 to 
1900 was 21,253,303, or 34 per cent, of which R.083,fi83 was due to 
annexation of new territory. The eastern half of the country 
holds 90 per cent of the total population, the Atlantic coast 
alone holding 40 per cent. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



195 



ONE HT^NDRED T.ARGEST CITIES, U. S. A. 



[Census of 1900.] 



Xew York 

Chicago, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa 

St. Liouis, Mo 

Boston , Mass 

Baltimore, Md 

Cleveland, O 

Buffalo, N. Y 

San Francisco, Cal.. 

Cincinnati , O 

Pittsburg, Pa 

New^ Orleans, I^a 

Detroit, Mich 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Washington. D. C. .. 

Newark, N. J 

Jersey City, N. J 

Louisville, Ky 

Minneapolis, Minn. . 

Providence, R. I 

Indianapolis, Ind. ... 
Kansas City. Mo. ... 

St. Paul, Minn 

Rochester, N. Y 

Denver, Col 

Toledo, O 

Allegheny, Pa 

Columbus, O 

Worcester, Mass 

Syracuse, N. Y 

New Haven, Ct 

Paterson, N. J 

Fall River, Mass 

St. Joseph. Mo 

Omaha, Neb 

Los Angeles, Cal 

Memphis, Tenn 

Scranton. Pa 

Lowell, Mass 

Albany, N. Y 

Cambridge, Mass 

Portland, Ore 

Atlanta, Ga 

Grand Rapids, Mich.... 

Dayton, O 

Richmond, Va 

Nashville, Tenn 

Seattle, Wash. 

Hartford, Ct 

Reading, Pa 



3,437 
1 .6'JX 
1 ,29:i 
57.') 
5«0 
5UX 
381 
352 
342 



325^)2 



• • • • ' 



321 

287 

285 

285 

278 

2U? 

206 

204 

202 

175 

169 

163 

163 

162 

133 

131 

129 

12:) 

118 

lOS 

108 

105 

104 

1('2 

102 

102 

102 

102 

94 

94 

91 

90 

89 

87 

85 

85 

80 

80 

79 

78 



202 

575 

097 
238 
892 
957 
768 
387 
782 



616 
104 
704 
315 
718 
070 
433 
731 
718 
597 
164 
752 
065 
508 
859 
822 
896 
560 
421 
374 
027 
171 
853 
979 
555 
479 
320 
026 
969 
151 
886 
426 
872 
565 
533 
050 
865 
671 
850 
961 



Wilmington, Del 76.508 

Camden, N. J 75.935 

Troy, N. Y 75.057 

Trenton, N. J 73,307 

Bridgeport, Ct 70.996 

Lynn, Mass 68,513 

Oakland, Cal 66,960 

J^awrence, Mass 62.559 

New Bedford, Mass 62,442 

Des Moines, la. 62,139 

Springfield, Mass 62,059 

Somerville, Mass 61.643 

lloboken, N. J 59,364 

Evansville, Ind 59,007 

Manchester, N. H 56,987 

THica, N. Y 56,383 

Peoria, 111 56,100 

Charleston. S. C 55,807 

Savannah. Ga 54,244 

Salt Lake City, Utah... 53,531 

San Antonio. Tex 53,321 

Duluth, Minn 52.969 

Krie, Pa 52.733 

Elizabeth, N. J 52.130 

Wilkesbarre. Pa 51.721r 

Kansas City, Kan 51.418 

Harrisburg. Pa 50.167 

Portland, Me 50.145 

Yonkers, N. Y 47.931 

Norfolk, Va 46.624 

Waterbiiry , Ct 45.859 

Holyoke, Mass 45,712 

Ft. Wayne, Ind 45.115 

Youngstown, 44.885 

Houston, Tex 44,633 

Covington, Ky 42,938 

Akron, 42,728 

Dallas. Tex 42.638 

Saginaw. Mich 42.435 

T^ancaster. Pa 41,459 

Lincoln. Neb 40.169 

Brockton, Mass 40.063 

Binghamton, N. Y 39,647 

Augusta, Ga 39,441 

Honolulu. Hawaii 39.305 

Pawtucket. R. 1 39,231 

Altoona, Pa 38.973 

AVheeling, W. Va 38.878 

Mobile, Ala 38,469 

Birmingham, Ala 38,415 



196 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



OUR POPULATION BY STATES AND TERRITORIES. 



Totals by thousands 
St ates, terri tories 1880 1890 1900_ 

Alabama .....T. . . .TTTTlMz 1,513 1,828 

Arkansas 802 1,128 1,>11 

California 864 1,208 1,485 

Colorado 194 412 539 

Connecticut 622 746 908 

Delaware 146 168 184 

Florida 269 391 528 

Georgia 1,542 1.837 2,216 

Idaho 32 84 161 

Illinois 3,077 3,^26 . 4,821 

Indiana 1,978 2,192 2,516 

Iowa 1,624 1,911 2,231 

Kansas 996 1,427 1.470 

Kentucky 1.648 1.858 2,147 

Louisiana *... 939 1,118 1,381 

Maine 648 661 694 

Maryland 934 1.042 1.188 

Massachusetts 1.783 2,238 2.805 

Michigan 1.636 2,093 2,420 

Minnesota 780 1,301 IJOl 

Mississippi 1,131 1,289 1,551 

Missouri 2.168 2.079 3.106 

Montana 39 132 243 

Nebraska 452 1.058 1,066 

Nevada 62 45 42 

New Hampshire 346 376 411 

New Jersey 1.131 1,444 1,883 

New York 5,082 5,997 7,268 

North Carolina 1,399 1,617 1,898 

North Dakota 36 182 319 

Ohio 3,198 3,672 4,157 

Oregon 174 313 413 

Pennsylvania 4,282 5.258 6.302 

Rhode Island 276 345 428 

South Carolina 995 1.151 1.340 

South Dakota 98 328 401 

Tennessee 1,542 1.767 2,020 

Texas 1,591 2,235 3.048 

Utah 143 207 276 

Vermont 332 332 343 

Virginia 1,512 1,655 1.854 

Washington 75 349 518 

West Virginia 618 762 958 

Wisconsin 1,315 1.686 2.069 

Wyoming 20 60 92 

Alaska _ 30 63 

Arizona 40 59 122 

District Qt Columbia. 177 230 278 



Admitted to Union 



December 

June 

September 

August 
•January 
•December 

March 
•January 

July 

December 

December 

December 

January 

June 

April 

March 
•April 
•February 

January 

May 

December 

August 

November 

March 

October 
♦June 
♦December 
♦July 
♦November 

November 

November 

February 
•December 
•May 
•May 

November 

June 

December 

January 

March 
•June 

November 

June 

May 

July 



14, 1819 

15, 1S36 
9, 1850 

1, 1876 
9, 1788 

7, 1787 
3, 1846 

2, 1788 

3, 1890 
3, 1818 

11, 1816 

28, 1846 

29, 1861 
1, 1792 

30, 1812 
15, 1820 

28, 1788 
6, 1788 

26, 1837 

11, 1858 
10. 1817 

10, IJjiil 

8. 1889 
1. 1867 

31, 1864 
21, 1788 

18, 1787 
26. 1788 
21, 1789 

3, 1889 

29, 1802 
14, 1859 

12, 1787 
29, 1790 
23, 1788 

3, 1889 
1, 1796 

29, 1846 

4, 1896 
4, 1791 

25, 1788 

11, 1889 

19, 1868 
29, 1848 
U. 1890 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 197 

OUR POPULATION BY STATES AND TERRITORIES-Contiuued. 



_ .^ . Totals by thousands 

Territories U^j^O 1^90 1900 

Indiarr~Territory — — 392' 

New Mexico 110 153 195 

Oklahoma — 61 398 



Totals 50.155 62,(J52 76,212 

*Tho 13 original states. The dates indicate when those states 
ratified the constitution of the ITnited States. 

The United States Army 

Commander-in-chief, Theodore Roosevelt, President. 

Secretary of War, William H. Taft. 

Assistant Secretary of War, Robert Shaw Oliver. 

GENERAL STAFF OF THE ARMY. 

Lieutenant General, Adna R. Chaffee, Chief of Staff. 
Major General, George L. Gillespie. 
Brigadier General, Tasker H. BliSs. 
Brigadier General, John P. Story. 

THE NEW ARMY LAW. 

The principal change involved in the military organization 
by this law is the establishment of a General Staff Corps, **to 
be composed of officers detailed from the army at large, under 
such rules as may be prescribed by the President." * None of 
these officers may be below the grade of brigadier-general, and 
shall be detailed for a period of four years, unless sooner re- 
lieved. 'The entire corps shall consist of four Colonels, six 
Lieutenant-Colonels, 12 Majors and 20 Captains, whose duties 
shall be "to prepare plans for the national defense and for the 
mobilization of the military forces in time of war; to investigate 
and report upon all questions affecting \he efficiency of the 
army and its state of preparation for military operations; to 
render professional aid and assistance to the Secretary of War 
and to general officers and other superior commanders, and to 
act as their agents in informing and co-ordinating the action 
of all the different officers who are subject under the terms of 
this act to the supervision of the Chief of Staff; and to perform 
such other militarj' duties not otherwise assigned by law as 
may be from time to time prescribed by the President." 

The President's command is exercised through the Secretary 
of War and the Chief of Staff. The Secretary of War is 
charged with carrying out the policies of the President in mili- 
tary affairs. He directly represents the President and is bound 
always to act in conformity with the President's instructions. 



198 AMEEICAN A0RICUi:.TUltiaT 

Under the law and the decieiona of the Supreme Court, lii^ acts 
are the President's acts, and his directions and orders are the 
President's directions and orders. 

The Chief of Staff is charged with the duty of Bupervieing, 
under the direction of the Secretary of War, all troops of the 
line, the Adjutant-General's, Inspector-General's, Judge-Advo- 
cate-General's, Quartermaster's, Subsistence, Medical, Pay and 
Ordnance departments, the Corps of Engineers and the Slgrnal 
Corps. He performs such other military duties not otherw^ise 
assigned by law as may be assigned to him by the President, 

The assistant offlcers of the General Staff Corpe wUl per- 
form such duties as may be assigned them under the law by 
the Chief of Staff. 



STRENGTH OF THE ARMY. 

At the date of the last reports received from the mlUtary 
departments (October 15, 1904), the actual strength of the regu- 
lar army was 3744 officers and 56,439 enlisted men, distributed 
as follows: 



Country Officers Enlisted men Total 



United States 2,892 

Philippine Islands 779 

Porto Rico 5 

Haw^aiian Islands 7 

China 5 

Alaska 56 

Total 3,744 



43.570 


46.462 


11,538 


12.317 


5 


10 


209 


216 


181 


136 


986 


1,042 


56.439 


60.183 



The distribution among the different branches of the ser- 
vice is as follows: General officers and staff organizations, 410S; 
cavalry, 12,846; artillery, 15,580; infantry, 25,546; recruits and nnis- 
cellaneouB, 2103. 



OUR ARMY. 

Compared with the military powers of Europe, our standiner 
army of 60,000 is very small. Germany has 4,000,000 on war foot- 
ing; France, 3,500,000, and Russia, 4,500,000. Austria, Italy, Great 
Britain, Turkey and Spain even, have all possessed armies 
greatly outnumbering our own. The great strength of the 
United States, however, lies in the 10,000,000 untrained men avail- 
able for military duty. 

The pay of the officers in active service is as follows: Lieu- 
tenant*General, $11,000; Major-General, $7500; Brigadier-General, 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 199 

15500; Colonel, $3500; Lieutenant-Colonel, $3000; Major, $2500; 
mounted Captain, $2000; Captain on foot, $1800; a regimental Ad- 
jutant, $2000; regimental Quartermaster, $2000; First Lieutenant, 
mounted, $1600; First Lieutenant, on foot, $1500; Second Lieuten- 
ant, mounted, $1500; Second Lieutenant, on foot, $1400. . All of 
the officers, from the Colonel down, receive additional amounts 
after five, ten, 15 and 20 years' service, but there is a limit to 
this amount; thus the maximum pay of a Colonel is $4500 per 
annum. The pay of a private, whether artillery, cavalry or In- 
fantry, is $17 per month for the first and second years, $18 for 
the third, $19 for the fourth year, $20 for the fifth year. After 
five years' continuous service they receive $2 per month extra. 

The national guard or militia is a voluntary organization 
for state defense, but liable to national duty upon summons 
of the President of the United States. The militia in each state 
is divided into brigades, regiments and companies. In February, 
1901, Congress enacted a law that the army of the United 
States, Including the existing organizations, "shall consist of 15 
regiments of cavalry, a corps of artillery, 30 regiments of infan- 
try, one Lieutenant-General, six Major-Generals, 15 Brigadier- 
Generals, an Adjutant-General's Department, an Inspector- 
General's Department, a Judge-Advocate-General's Department, 
a Medical Department, a Pay Department, a Corps of Engi- 
neers, an Ordnance Department, a Signal Corps, the officers of 
the Record and Pension Ofl^ice, the Chaplains, the oflflcers and 
enlisted men of the army on the retired list, the professors, 
corps of cadets, the army detachments and band at the United 
States Military Academy, Indian scouts as now authorized by 
law, and such other officers and enlisted men as may hereinafter 
be provided for." 

RECRUITING STANDARD OP THE ARMY. 

Applicants for first enlistment must be between the ages of 
18 and 35 years, of good character and habits, free from disease, 
and must be able to speak, read and write the English language. 
No person under 18 years of age will be enlisted or re-enlisted, 
and minors between the ages of 18 and 21 years must not be 
enlisted without the written consent of father, only surviving 
parent, or legally appointed guardian. Original enlistments will 
be confined to persons who are citizens of the United States, or 
who have made legal declaration of their intention to become 
citizens thereof. Married men will be enlisted only upon the 
approval fif a regimental commander. For infantry and heavy 
artillery, the hight must not be less than 5 feet 4 inches, and 
weight not less than 120 pounds and not more than 190 pounds. 
For cavalry and ll^ht artillery the hight must be not less than 
5 feet 4 Inches and not more than 5 feet 10 inches, and weight 
not to exceed 165 pounds. 

It is not necessary that the applicant should conform exactly 
to the figures indicated in the standard table of proportions. A 



200 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



variation not exceeding ten pounds in weight or 2 inches in 
chest measurement (at expiration) below the standard giV6n in 
the table Is admissible when the applicant is active ahd has 
firm muscles. The term of service is three years. 

TME MILITIA ACT. 

Of equal importance with the general staff in its relation 
to the general military efficiency of the country is the act to 
promote the efficiency of the militia, approved January 21, 1908, 
supplemented by an appropriation of $2,000,000 in the tirmy ap- 
propriation act of March 2, 1903. The act proceeds mainly upon 
the ideas that whenever the United States becomes involved 
in war, the regular army will form but a small part of its 
armed force, and the country must rely, for immediate and 
special exigencies, upon militia, and for service going beyond 
the proper limits of militia upon volunteers. . 

The total strength of the organized militia by states is as 
follows: 

MILITIA FORCE OF THE UNITED STATES. 



State I g 

§3 

Me 108 

N. H 110 

Vt 60 

Mass 382 

R. 1 155 

Ct 194 

N. T 859 

N. J 273 

Pa 700 

Del 42 

Md 139 

Va 146 

W. Va 112 

N. C 176 

8. C 352 

aa 338 

Fla 104 

Ala 220 

Miss 153 

La 128 

Tex 251 

Ark. 126 

Ky 119 

Tenn 91 

Ohio 416 

Ind 186 

Mich 195 



e'S 



I 



n 



& 



se-c 

^1,156 
1,232 

716 
4,737 
1,258 
2,425 
13,551 
3,765 
8,643 

326 
1,915 
2,185 

883 
1.684 
2,677 
4,429 
1,348 
2,361 
1.220 
1,390 
2,829 
1.516 
1.658 
1.213 
5,585 
2,222 
2,911 



o 



1,264 
1.342 

776 
5,119 
1.413 
2.619 
14,410 
4,038 
9.343 

•368 
2,054 
2.331 

995 
1,860 
3.029 
4.767 
1,452 
2.581 
1.373 
1.518 
3.080 
1.642 
1.777 
1.304 
6.001 
2.408 
3.106 



State 



Ho 



i 



111 470 

Mo 193 

Wis 195 

Minn 183 

la, 218 

Neb Ill 

Kan .115 

Nev 11 

Ore 104 

Cal 299 

Col 78 

N. D 71 

S. D 95 

Mont 24 

Wash 71 

Ida 31 

Wyo 26 

Utah 43 

Territories 

Ariss 42 

N. M 50 

Okla 60 

Hawaii 46 

Dist. of Col.. 130 



I 

to 3 

»o& 



6,524 

2,484 

2,578 

1.789 

2,412 

1,484 

1,196 

127 

1,176 

3,173 

1,005 

647 

854 

316 

887 

637 

297 

483 

341 
562 
566 
495 
1,130 






6.994 

2.6r7 

2,773 

1.922 

2.630 

1.595 

1.311 

138 

1.280 

3.472 

1.0^ 

718 

949 

340 

968 



323 
526 

883 
612 
626 
541 
1.260 



Aggregate.8,751 106.998 116.749 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 201 

UNITED STATES FORTS, BARRACKS AND CAMPS, ARSE- 
NALS AND HOSPITALS. 



Forts, 
barracks Arse- Hospl- 
and camp s nals tals 

Me 5 — — 

N. H 1 _ - 

Vt 1 _ _ 

Mass 8 2 — 

Xw« Xa ■ •• • • • • TI ~ — ^ 

Ct 2 — — 

N. Y 13 2 — 

Pa — 2 — 

Del 2 — — 

Md 6 — — 

Va 4 — _ 

N. C 1 — — 

S. C 4 _ _ 

Ga 3—1 

Fla 6 — — 

Ala 2 — — 

La 2 — — 

Tex 7 1 — 

Ark 1—1 

Mo 1 — — 

Tenn — 1 — 

Ky 1 - - 

1 — _ 



Forts. 

barracks Arse- Hospl' 

and c amps na ls tals 

1 1 1 ~~l 1 — ~ 

Mich 2 — — 

Minn i — ^ 

la 1 _- . — 

Neb 3 _ — 

Kan 2 — — 

Okla 2 — — 

Col 1 _. -. 

Wyo 4 — — 

Mont 4 — — 

N. D 1 — — 

S. D 1 — — 

Ida •... 1 — — 

Utah 2 — — 

N. M 1 — 1 

Ariz 4 — — 

Cal 11 2 — 

Ore 1 — — 

Wash 10 — — 

Alaska — 6 — — 

Hawaii — 1 -- — 

Porto Rico. 2 — — 

Wash.,D.C. 1 — — 



TROOPS ENGAGED IN WARS OF UNITED STATES. 



Wars Years 

iTevoiutlon .77777. 7T1775-83" 

Northwest Indians 1790-95 

With France 1798-1800 

With Tripoli 1801-05 

Creek Indians 1813-14 

War of 1812 1812-15 

Seminole Indians 1817-18 

Black Hawk Indians 1831-32 

Creek Indians 1836-37 

Cherokee troubles 1836-37 

Florida Indians 1835-43 

Aroostook troubles 1838-39 

Mexican 1846-48 

Apache, etc 1849-55 

Seminole Indians 1856-58 

Civil war 1861-66 

With Spain 1898 

•Naval forces. 



Total troops 



309,781 

8,983 

•4,593 

•3,330 

13,781 

556,622 

7,911 

6,465 

13,418 

9.494 

41,122 

1.500 

112.230 

2,561 

3,687 

2,778,304 

225,000 



202 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

UNITED STATES SOLDIERS IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



State AgRTcgato 

New York "7. ~ .77. .7.7 . . . 455,5(38" 

Pennsylvania 366,326 

Ohio 317,133 

Illinois 258,217 

Indiana 195,147 

Massachusetts 151 .785 

Missouri 107,773 

Wisconsin 96.118 

Michigan 90,119 

New Jersey 79,511 

Kentucky 78,540 

Iowa 75,860 

Maine 71,745 

Connecticut 52,270 

Maryland 49,730 

Vermont 35,256 



State Ag-gregate 

New Hampshire 34,605 

West Virginia 30,003 

Minnesota 25,034 

Rhode Island 23,711 

Kansas 20,097 

District of Columbia.... 16,872 

Delaware 13,651 

Total 2.653,062 

The total number called for, 
under all calls made by the 
President, from April 15, 1861« 
to April 14, 1865, was 2,759,049. 
Their terms of service under 
the calls were from three 
months to three years. 



ADMISSION TO WEST POINT ACADEMY. 

One cadet may be nominated from each congressional dis- 
trict and from each territory by the representative of his dis- 
trict or territory; two cadets at large are appointed from each 
state by the state senators, and 40 cadets are appointed by the 
President from the country at large and the District of Colum- 
bia. The representative may nominate two legally qualified sec- 
ond candidates, to be designated alternates. The alternates will 
receive from the war department a letter of api)ointment, and 
will be examined with regular appointee, and if duly qualified, 
the first will be admitted to the academy in event of failure of 
principal to pass prescribed examinations, and the second in 
event of failure of the first alternate. Appointees must be be- 
tween 17 and 22 years, free from any infirmity which may ren- 
der them unfit for military service, and able to pass a careful 
examination in reading, writing, orthography, arithmetic, gram- 
mar, geography and history of the T'nited States. Many appli- 
cants are rejected because of physical defects. Candidates must 
be residents of the district from which appointment is made. 

The academy was founded in 1802. It is located near the 
Hudson river at West Point, N. Y. A thorough course of four 
years is given. Academic duties begin September 1 and continue 
until June 1. Examinations are held in each January and June, 
and cadets found proficient in studies and correct in conduct 
are given the particular standing In their class to which their 
merits entitle them, while those pupils deficient in either con- 
duct or studies are discharged. Cadets are allowed but one 
leave of absence during the four years' course, and this is 
granted at the expiration of the first two years. 

Cadets are paid $500 per year, and allowed one ration per 
day, or an equivalent of 30 cents per day, makingr the entire 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 203 

allowance $609.50 per year. Graduates must remain at least four 
years longer in government service, unless sooner discharged. 
They are appointed to duty in the military department for 
which they s^em best adapted. Young men who wish to try for 
admission to West Point should apply to the congressman from 
their district. 



The JVaVy 



NAVY OFFICERS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

ACTIVE LIST. 



_ _ _ Salaries 

Admiral. George Dewey of~Vermont. .~ .77 7.77.77.77.113^500 

24 Rear Admirals, G. C. Remey, J. C. Watson, Silas 
Casey, F. J. Higginson, F. Rodgers, Louis Kempff, Q. 

W. Sumner, A. S. Barker, C. S. Cotton 7,500 

R. D. Evans, S. W. Terry, Merrill Miller, J. J. Read, 
H. C. Taylor, M. L. Johnson, F. Wildes, Henry Glass, 
C. E. Clark, P. H. Cooper, A. S. Crowninshleld, J. B. 

Coghlan, J. H. Sands, Yates Stirling, W. C. Wise 5.500 

75 Captains 3,500 

118 Commanders 3,000 

177 Lieutenant Commanders 2,500 

306 Lieutenants l.gOO 

73 Lieutenants (Junior Grade) 1,500 

138 Ensigns 1,400 

125 Midshipmen 500 to 950 

24 Chaplains 1900 to 2500 



MARINE CORPS. 

Major-Oeneral commandant. Colonels 7 

Charles Hey wood Lieutenant-Colonels 6 

Adjutant and Inspector's De- Majors 15 

partment 15 Captains 72 

Quartermaster's department 10 First Lieutenants 75 

Paymaster's department — 4 Second Lieutenants 19 

ADMISSION TO NAVAL ACADEMY. 

Each member or delegate of the national house of repre- 
sentatives may nominate a naval cadet to the academy at 
A.nnapolis, Md.; and one is appointed for the District of Colum- 
bia and ten at large by the President. Candidates must reside 
in the district for which they are nominated. Candidates for 
cadet engineers are chosen by the secretary of the navy with- 



204 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

out. regard to number or residence, and from these candidates 
25 arc selected on competitive examination. 

Applicants for admission to tlie academy must be between 
13 and 20 years of age, pliysically sound, well formed and of 
robust constitution. Cadets are given a six-year course of 
study, two of whicii are given at sea, and must serve two years 
after graduation, unless discharged. 



INCREASE IN NAVY. 

The amount given below, $23,826,860, is the estimated amount 
required to be appropriated for work on new vessels authorized 
by Congress for "increase of the navy, construction and ma- 
chinery," for the liscal year ending June 30, 1905. 

Amount required under bureau of construction and repair: 

For fiscal year 1908-4 $19,815,340 

For fiscal year 1904-5 16,408,404 

$36,223,744 

Under bureau of steam engineering: 

For fiscal year ]90:;-4 $9,375,922 

For fiscal year 1904-5 8.242,800 

■ 17,618,722 

Aggregate $53,842,466 

Balance in treasury available for above July 1, 1903 (less 
the sum of $260,000 for one gunboat to take the place 
of the Michigan on the (ireat I^akes. authorized 
by act approved May 4, 1898, said vessel to be built 
as soon as permitted under treaty) 30,015,606 



Appropriation required for fiscal year 1904-5 $23,826,860 



HOW VESSELS COMMUNICATE. 

The code of signals used by vessels at sea is prepared by a 
committee appointed at the Intent, tional Marine Conferences 
that are held every few years. J*:aih ship has a set of flags 
and a supply of rockets which represent 200 or 300 combinations. 
These can be interpreted by the code book into sentences cov- 
ering almost every conceivable situation. Ships that pass in 
the night make signals by fire; in the day, by Hags. The won- 
derful wireless telegraph system, now rapidly coming into use, 
will speedily work great changes in methods of communication 
between vessels at sea. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



206 



UNITED STATES NAVY. 



1ST CLASS BATTLESHIPS. 
Building or Authorized. 



ARMORED CRUISERS-Con. 



Name 



Tons Sp'd Guns 



Name .T?**?_ 

Alabama 11 ,565 

Connecticut ....16,000 

Georgia 14,948 

Idaho 13,000 

Illinois 11,565 

Indiana 10,288 

Iowa 11,340 

Kansas 16,000 

Kearsarge 11,540 

Kentucky 11,540 

Louisiana 16,000 

Maine 12,300 

Massachusetts. .10,288 

Minnesota 16,000 

Mississippi 13,000 

Missouri 12,230 

Nebraska 14 ,932 

New Jersey 14,948 

Ohio 12,508 

Oregon 10,242 

Rhode Island . . .14.932 

Vermont 16,000 

Virginia 14,948 

Wisconsin 11,564 



Bp' d Gun s 
17 48 
18 
19 
17 



17.4 

16.5 

17 

18 

16.8 

16.8 

18 

18 

16.2 

18 

17 

19 

19 

18 

16.7 

18 

19 

17.1 



74 
66 
52 
46 
45 
48 
74 
56 
60 
74 
44 
48 
74 
52 
44 
66 
66 
44 
46 
66 
74 
66 
46 



Washington ....14,500 22 68 
West Virginia ..13.680 22 66 

PROTECTED CRUISERS. 



2D CLASS BATTLESHIP. 



Name Tons 

Albany 3.769" 

Atlanta 3,000 

Baltimore 4.413 

Boston 3,035 

Charleston .... 9,700 
Chattanooga ... 3.200 

Chicago 5,000 

Cincinnati 3.213 

Cleveland 3,200 

Columbia 7,375 

Denver 3,200 

Des Moines 3,200 

Galveston 3,200 

Milwaukee 9,700 

Minneapolis .... 7,375 

Newark 4.098 

New Orleans.... 3,769 

Olympia 5,870 

Philadelphia .... 4.410 

Raleigh 3,213 

San Francisco .. 4,868 

St. Louis 9.700 

Tacoma 3,200 



~8p'd Guns 



20.5 

15.6 

20 

15.6 

22 

16.5 

18 

19 

16.5 

22.8 

16.5 

16.5 

16.5 

22 

23 

19 

20 

21.6 

19.6 

19 

19.6 

22 

16.5 



30 
21 
83 
21 
68 
25 
32 
24 
25 
28 
25 
25 
25 
68 
28 
32 
80 
36 
90 
25 
28 
68 
24 



Name 



Texas 



To ii8~8'p'd"GiIHg UNPROTECTED CRUISERS. 
6,315 17.8 30 -^ 



ARMORED CRUISERS. 



Name 



Detroit , 

Marblehead 
Montgomery 



Toii8_ 

"2.089 
2.089 
2.089 



Sp'd Guns 



18.7 
18.4 
19 



21 
21 
20 



Name Tona_Sp'd Guns 

Brooklyn 9,215 21.9 43 

California 13,680 22 66 

Colorado 13,680 22 66 

Maryland 13,680 22 66 

New York 8,200 21 32 

Pennsylvania ..13,680 22 66 

South Dakota ..13,680 22 66 

Tennea— 14,600 22 68 



HARBOR-DEFENSE 
TORS. 



MONI- 



Na me Ton s Sp'd Gane 

Arkansas 3,200 Tl.S 17 

Florida 3,200 11.5 IT 

Nevada 3,200 11.6 17 

Wyoming 8.200 116 17 



206 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



SINGLE TURRET MONI- 
TORS. 



COMP. GUNBOAT^— Con. 



^Naine T(ni8_Sp\i Guns 

Canonicus 2,100 6 4 

Jason 1,875 5-6 4 

Lehigh 1,875 5-6 4 

Montauk 1,875 5-6 4 

Nahant 1.875 5 -6 4 

DOUBLE TURRET MONI- 
TORS. 



_N»me Tons_Sp'd Guns 

Amphitrite 3,960~10.5 " 16 

Miantonomah .. 3,990 10.5 13 

Monadnock 4,005 12 14 

Monterey 4,084 13.6 16 

Puritan 6,060 12.4 30 

Terror 3.990 10.5 16 

STEEL GUNBOATS. 

Kam e To ua Sp'd Gun s 

Bancroft > 839 14.3 14 

Bennington 1,710 17.5 16 

Castine 1,177 16 15 

Concord 1,710 16.8 14 

Don Juan de 

Austria 1,130 14 12 

General Alava.. 1,390 10.5 5 

Isla de Cuba.... 1,125 14 12 

Isla de Luzon... 1.125 14 12 

Machias 1,177 15.4 16 

Petrel 892 11.7 10 

Topeka 2,300 16 15 

Yorktown 1,710 16.1 16 

Gunboat No. 16. — — — 

■ 1 

LIGHT DRAFT GUNBOATS. 

Name T ou" 8~Sp 'djCiiuiB 

Helena 1,397 15^5 19 

Nashville 1,371 16.3 16 

Wilming to n .... 1 .39 7 15.0 2 

COMPOSITE GUNBOATS. 

Ua me T oii b 8 p' d Gu ns 

Annapolis 1,060 13.1 13" 

Dubuque 1,050 12.5 14 

Marietta 1,000 13 13 



Name Ton s S p'd Gu na 

Newport 1,(J00 12.2 13 

Paducah 1,050 12.5 14 

Princeton 1,100 12 13 

Vicksburg 1,000 12.7 13 

Wheeling 1,000 12.8 13 



SPECIAL CLASS. 



Name 



Tons Sp'd Guns 



Dolphin, steel 
dispatch boat. 1,486 15.5 11 

Vesuvius, steel 
dynamite gun- 
boat 929 21.4 8 



TORPEDO BOATS. 

Name T o ns 

Bagley 175 

Bailey 280 

Barney 175 

Biddle 175 

Blakely 196 

Cushing 105 

Davis 154 

Dahlgren 146.4 

De Long 196 

Du Pont 165 

Ericsson , 120 

P^arragut 279 

Fox 154 

Foote 142 

Goldsborough 255 

Gwin 45.7 

Mackenzie 65 

Manley — 

McKee 65 

Morris 104.7 

Nicholson 178 

O'Brien 178 

Porter 165 

Rodgers 142 

Rowan 210 

Shubrick 200 

Somers 150 

Stockton ,.200- 

Stringham 340 

T. A. M. Craven 146.4 

Talbot 46.5 



.5 
.4 
.5 



.1 
.1 
.5 



^peed 

29.1 

30.1 

29 

28.5 

26 

22 

23 

30 

25.5 

28.5 

24 

30 

2:i 

24 

30 

20.8 

20.1 

19.8 

24 

26 

26 

28.6 

24.* 

27 

26 

17.5 

26 

30 

30.5 

2L1 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



207 



TORPEDO BOATB-Con. 



SUBMARINE BOATS-Con. 



Nfcmc T onft Speed 

Tlngey 165 26* 

Thornton 200 27.5 

Wilkes 165 25.9 

Wlnelow 142 24.8 

Guns — Each boat has two or 
three torpedo tubes and three 
or four guns. 

TRAINING SHIP - NAVAL. 
ACADEMY— SHEATHED. 



1 Nam« 


Tons 


8p'd G 

.M. 

Sp'd G 
16.1 


UU8 


I Chesapeake 1,175 

ARMORED RA 


14 


Name 
Katahdin 


Tons 
.. 2.155 


runs 
4 



TORPEDO BOAT DESTROY- 
ERS. 



Namt 



Bainbridge 420 

Barry 420 

Chauncey 420 

Dale 420 

Decatur 420 

Hopkins 408 

Hull 408 

Lawrence 402 

Macdonough 402 

Paul Jones 480 

Perry 480 

Preble 480 

Stewart 420 

Truxtun 433 

Whipple 433 

Worden 433 



Ton s 8pe ed 
^ 29 

29 
29 
28 
28.1 
29 
29 
30 
30 
28.9 
28.3 
28 
29 
29.5 
28.5 
30 



Guns— Two tdrpedo 
and seven guns each. 



tubes 



SUBMARINE BOATS. 

Name ;To ns Speed 

Adder 122.5 8 

Grampus 120 8 



Name 



Tons" 



Holland 74 

Moccasin 122.5 

Pike 120 

Plunger 122.5 

Porpoise i22.5 

Shark 122.5 



^peed 
"8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 



Guns— One torpedo expulsion 
tube and three torpedoes each. 

OTHER BOATS IN UNITED 
STATES NAVY. 



TI 



ass 



No. 



Iron and wooden ste m ves- 
sels U 

Wooden sailing 7 

Steel, iron, wooden steam 

tugs 41 

Auxiliary cruisers 5 

Converted yachts 23 

Colliers 16 

Hospital a nd supply ships... 11 

VESSELS UNDER CON- 
STRUCTION OR AU- 
THORIZED. 



Class 



No. 



First-class battleships 14 

Armored cruisers 8 

Protected cruisers 9 

Gunboat for Great lakes (not 

begun) 1 

Composite gunboats 2 

Steel torpedo boats 6 

Training ships t 

Training brig 1 

Tugs^.^ ^ 2 

VESSELS UNFIT FOR SEA 
SERVICE. 



Class 



No. 



Iron single-turret monitors.. 5 
Wooden cruising vessels, 

steam 10 

Wooden sailing vessels 8 



20S AMERICAN AQRICULTURIST 

HISTORIC VESSELS OF THE UNITED STATES NAVY. 

Le Bon Humme Richard, the ship with which the intrepid 
John Paul Jones won his figlit witli the larger and stronger 
British ship, the Serapis, in 1779. 

Alliance, Commodore Jones's ship in cruise of British waters, 
1779; and capture of British shi[)s. Atalanta and Trekassey, 1781. 

Dolphin, defeated two British ships, 1812; and a British 
squadron, 1813. 

Enterprise, successful in battle of Lake Champlain, 1776; in 
French war, 1800; at Tripoli, 1801; and war with England, 1813. 

Constellation, defeated the French warships, Insurgcnte, 
1799, and Vengeance, 1800. 

Intrepid, recaptured the Philadelphia at Tripoli, 1804. 

Constitution, never lost a ])attle; principal victories against 
the British Guerriere and Java in 1812, and the British Cyane 
and Levant, in 1815. 

Wasp, defeated the British Frolic, 1812; Reindeer, 18J4; and 
Avon, 1814. 

Essex, defeated British ship Alert in 1812, and was captured 
by Phoebe and Cherub in 1814. 

Hornet, defeated British ships Peacock in 1813, and Penguin 
In 1815. 

Chesapeake, commanded by Capt. Lawrence, captured by 
the British Shannon, 1813, one of the defeats, like that at Bun- 
ker Hill, as glorious as a victory. 

Lawrence, Perry's flagship, victory of Lake Erie, 1813. 

Saratoga, McDonough's flagship, victory on Lake Cham- 
plain, 1814. 

Mississippi, flagship, expedition to Japan, one of the "victo- 
ries of peace," 1853. 

Hartford, Farragut's flagship, passage of Forts Jackson and 
St. Philip, 1862; of Vicksburg batteries, 1862; battle of Port Hud- 
son, 1863; Mobile Bay 1864; and in Formosa expedition, 1867. 

Kearsarge, defeated the Confederate Alabama, 1864. 

Monitor, first of the kind, built by John Ericsson, attacked 
and drove away the Confederate Merrimac, after it had de- 
stroyed the Cumberland and Congress at Hampton Roads, 
in 1862. 

Olympia, flagship of Admiral Dewey's squadron, battle of 
Manila Bay, May 1, 1898. 

New York, Sampson's flagship, blockade of Santiago. 

Oregon, record voyage from San Francisco to Florida March 
19-May 24, 1898; blockade of Santiago, destruction of Spanish 
fleet, July 3, 1898. 

Texas, blockade of Santiago and fight, 1898. 

Brooklyn, blockade of Santiago and battle, 1898, 

Iowa, blockade of Santiago and battle, 1898. 

Indiana, blockade of Santiago and battle, 1898. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC M 

American Insular Affairs 

CUBA. 

The Republic of Cuba, established July 3, 1002, is now enjoy- 
ing its third year as such, under the administration of Presi- 
dent Tomaso lilstrada Palma. Under the constitution, the leg- 
islative power is exercised by two elective bodies— the house 
of representatives and the senate, conjointly called congress. 
The senate is composed of four senators from each of the six 
provinces, elected for eight years by the provincial councilmen» 
and by a double number of electors, constituting together an 
electoral board. The house of representatives is composed of 
one representative for each 25.000 inhabitants or fraction thereof 
over 12,500. elected for four years by direct vote. One-half the 
members of the house are to be elected every two years. The 
house now consists of 63 members. The six provinces into 
which Cuba is divided are looked after by governors. 

Reports at the end of the first year showed that a good 
financial condition existed in the island, the surplus in the treas- 
ury then being $3,522,681. During the year 1903 the exports 
amounted to $67,097,676 and the imports $78,486,409, making a to- 
tal of $145,564,085 for the foreign commerce. The trade of Cuba 
with the United States during the fiscal years (ended June 30) 
from 1899 to 1903 was: 

Value of Value of 

Year imports from U. S. exports to U. S. 



1903 $20,140,132 $62,942,790 

1902 25,012,109 34,694,684 

1901 24,100,453 43,423,088 

1900 25,236,808 31,371,704 

1899 17,247,952 25,408,828 

Since the reciprocity treaty has been in operation between 
the United States and Cuba (practically since January 1, 1904), 
the trade and commerce between the two countries has greatly 
increased. According to statistics compiled by the department 
of commerce and labor, the United States' exports to Cuba dur- 
ing the first three months of 1904 amounted in value to $6,495,149, 
against $9,211,063 during the first three months in 1903, an in- 
crease of nearly 25 per cent. The percentage of increase of im- 
ports from Cuba into the United States is still greater, amount- 
ing to nearly 100 per cent. The principal articles of export are 
sugar, tobacco and cigars, iron and manganese ore, fruit, coffee, 
cocoa, molasses and sponges; of import, animals, breadstuffs, 
coal and coke, iron and steel, wood, liquor, cotton, chemicals 
and vegetables. 

The following is the amount of sugar produced since 18^9: 
1899 335.000 tons, 1900 284,000, 1901 875,000, 1902 826,646, 1903 975,000. 

The total area of Cuba is 44,000 square miles, and about 10 



310 



AMBRtCAN AGRICVLTT7RI0T 



per cent of the cultivated area of the island ie given over to 
the raising of tobacco; in its cultivation and in the manufac- 
ture of cigars, etc., nearly 100,000 people are employed. In 1902 
there were 15,444 tons of leaf tobacco exported, besides 208,166,000 
cigars and 11,509,000 packages of cigarets. 

The population of Cuba at the last census was 1.672,846. IXL 
1899 there was only about 10 per cent of these who had a good* 
thorough education. About 2 per cent could read but not write, 
38 per cent could write and 64 per cent could neither read nor 
write. During the short regime of the United States, the whole 
school system was reorganised, and in 1900 there were 180.000 
children enrolled in 8099 schools* 

GOMMJBRCE OF THE UNITED STATES WITH PORTO RICO 

AND THE HAWAIIAN AND PHILIPPINB 

ISLANDS PROM 1897 TO 1903. 



Oommerce with 
Porto Rico 

June 80— jjp^jjj i^g ^ 

Forto Porto 
Bioo Rico 

1903 $11,057,195 $12,246,225 

1902 8,378.766 10,882,653 

1901 5,883,892 6,861,917 

1900 3.078,648 4,640,449 

1899 3.179,827 2,685,848 

1898 2.414,856 1,505,946 

1897 2,181,024 1,988,888 



Commerce with the 
Hawaiian tslands 



Imports 

into U. 8. 

from 

Hawaii 



Export* 

from 

U.S. to 

HawaU 



^S^S&V*^* 



[Blaads 

r «\ 

Imports Exports 
into U. 8 ^2^"^^ 

PhU%. PhlUp. 
pinea pinei 

111.372,584 14,039.909 

6,612,700 5,251,867 

4,420.912 4,027.064 

5,971.208 2,640.449 

4,409,774 404.193 

3,830,415 127,804 

4,383.740 94,597 



$26,242,869 $10,840,472 

24.730,060 — 

27,903,058 — 

20,707,903 13.509,148 

17,831,463 9,805,470 

17,187.380 5,907,155 

13.687,799 4,690,075 



THE GOVERNMENT OP PORTO RICO. 

The island of Porto Rico was ceded to the United States by- 
Spain at the treaty of Paris. April 11, 1899. For a time a military 
government was maintained until a civil government was effected 
by an act of Congress, April 12, 1900, known as the Foraker act. 
In accordance with this act, the island was obliged to pay du- 
ties on all imports until a system of local taxation could be put 
in operation which would meet the expenses of the government, 
when the Legislative Assembly was to notify the President. It 
also paid 20 per cent of the regular rates of duty upon Porto 
Rican articles imported into the United States. On July 25, 1901, 
the President issued a proclamation, since which date free trade 
has existed between Porto Rico and the United States. 

The chief executive of the island has the official title of 
"The Governor of Porto Rico." and is appointed by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Senate; his term is for four years and until his successor 
is chosen and qualified, unless sooner removed by the President. 
The powers of the governor are similar to those of the governors 



TBAB BOOK AND ALliANAC 211 

of the territories of the United States. He may veto any legis- 
lation enacted, but is responsible to the President for his con- 
duct of public affairs. He Is also commander In chief of the 
militia of the island. An annual report to the President of the 
condition of affairs in Porto Rico is required of the governor. 

The President also appoints, by and with the consent of the 
Senate, a secretary, an attorney-general, a treasurer, an au- 
ditor, a commissioner of interior and a commissioner of edu- 
cation; these with five other persons of good repute, likewise 
appointed by the President, comprise the executive council. 

All legislative powers are vested in the Legislative Assem- 
bly, which consists of two houses— the executive council, just 
mentioned, and the house of delegates. The latter consists of 
35 members elected biennially by the qualified voters. For the 
purposes of such elections Porto Rico has been divided by the 
executive council into seven districts, as nearly equal as possible 
in population, and each district is entitled to five members in 
the house of delegates. The Legislative Assembly enacts laws 
known as revised statutes. These laws apply to the particular 
needs of the people and are subject to the approval of Congress. 

The present governor of Porto Rico is William H. Hunt, who 
resides at San Juan, the capital. 

EDUCATION IN PORTO RICO. 

Spain has done little toward educating the people, and build- 
ings, system and teachers have all had to be provided since the 
island came into the possession of the United States. As fast 
as possible, the native teachers are being taught English, and 
eaci summer a party of them is brought to Boston for study 
and to learn our ways and language. There are now (report of 
1901-02) in the island 322,393 children of school age, not quite one- 
fifth of whom are on the school rolls. There were in June, 1902, 
921 schools open, 47 being night and special schools. The aver- 
age number of teachers employed each month was 911, 96 Amer- 
ican. The Porto Ricans show an enthusiasm for learning, espe- 
cially among the teachers, which is most encouraging. 

THE PHILIPPINES. 

Civil Governor, Luke E. Wright, salary $15,000. 

Vice Civil Governor and Secretary of Finance and Justice, 
Henry C. Ide, salary $10,500. 

Secretary of Interior, Dean C. Worcester, salary $10,500. 

Secretary of Public Instruction, Gen. James F. Smith. 

Attorney-General, L. R. Wilfley. 

Director of Posts, C. M, Cotterman. 

The government of the Philippine archipelago is in the hands 
of the governor, who acts with the advice and consent of the 
Philippine commission, appointed by the President of the United 
States. The governor is also president of this commission, of 
which the following are members: Dean C. Worcester, Henry 



' 



ni AinDIIiaA.K AORXOnZiTUllXST 

C. Ide, Gen. James F. Smith, Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, 
Benito Legarda and Jose Luaurlafca. 

There are four executive departments— interior, finance and 
justice, commerce and police and public instruction. The leg- 
islature is biennial and one branch is elected by the Filipino 
people. The islands are divided into 39 provinces, each with 
a governor, secretary and treasurer, elected by the people 
through the municipal councilors of each town, the latter being 
elected by direct vote. 

Among the great mass of the people there is now no dis- 
order and no disposition to violence, but the island of Samar 
has a population on the mountains, many of whom are given 
to raiding the towns along the coast. Ladronism is now less 
prevalent on all the islands, as it has been vigorously pursued 
and punished by the scouts and constables. There are about 
12.000 American troops on the islands. 

Although agriculture is the chief line of industry, the meth- 
ods of production on the islands are crude and labor is .rather 
unreliable, so that the progress toward up-to-date farming has 
been slow. The chief products are sugar, tobacco, copra, rice, 
hemp, corn, cocoanuts and cocoa. There are also many mines 
in the Philippines, such as gold, lead, coal, copper, iron ore, 
sulphur, marble and silver, but the mining fields have never 
been properly prospected. During the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1904, exports from the Islands were $80,226,127, Imports ^,221,- 
250. Exports fell off as compared with 1903, because of a de- 
crease in copra and sugrar crops, due to small amount of rainfall 
in certain sections and to plague of locusts. Of exportatlons, 
$21,794,900 was hemp; of importations, $11,548,814 was rice, the 
principal food of the people. 

The population is 7,635,426; of these, 6,987,686 are civilized and 
647,740 wild. Manila has 219,028 inhabitants. The wants of the 
average native are but few, as his diet consists mostly of rice 
and fish, with but little meat, and his clothing is scant. The 
wild Inhabitants are as primitive as any to be found upon the 
globe. The total area of the Philippine Islands, which are vari- 
ously estimated from 1200 to 1800 in number, is 119,642 square miles. 

EDUCATION IN THE PHILIPPINES. 

English is made the language of the schools. There are nu- 
merous native dialects and In only two Is there the least attempt 
at literature; therefore a knowledge of reading in any of them 
would lead to nothing broad in education. The Filipino teachers 
are regularly instructed In English, and many can now teach 
and malce their reports In that language. There are in the 
archipelago 17 school divisions, 3400 Filipino teachers, 847 Ameri- 
can teachers and superintendents, over 200,000 children on it)Us 
of day schools, and 25,000 pupils on rolls of night schools. 

Agriculture and trades are taught In many of the schools, 
especially In the country districts. American teachers have 
shown much devotion and heroism, most of them acting as 
nurses during a visitation of cholera, four dyinv of the disease. 



TBAR BOOK AND AIjMANAC 21B 

PHILIPPINE CL.A8SIFIBD SERVICE. 

The employees in the insular service of the Philippine Is- 
lands are not embraced in the classified service of the United 
States, but are appointed In conformity with civil service rules 
promulgated by the civil governor of the islands, under author- 
ity vested in him by an act passed by the United States Phil- 
ippine commission on September 19, 1900. This act provides for 
a civil service board of three persons, and in other respects Is 
similar to the United States civil service act. The United States 
civil service commission assists the Philippine civil service 
board by conducting examinations for the Philippine service in 
all states and territories of the United States, and extends its 
aid to the Philippine board in all practical ways. 

Provision is made in the United States civil service rules for 
the transfer to the federal classified service of employees who 
have served for three years in the Philippine classified service. 

HAWAII. 

The eight Islands comprising this territory were discovered 
by Capt. Cook in 1778. They were annexed to the United States 
in 1898, organized as a territory in April, 1900, and the new gov- 
ernment was inaugurated in June, 1900. The governor is San- 
ford B. Dole. The population is over 150,000—30,000 native Ha- 
waiians and the rest Portuguese, Japanese, Chinese, Scandina- 
vians, Spanish, British, German and Americans. The school 
children of the first four-mentioned nationalities number 16,229; 
of others, 1505, and the former have increased more rapidly. In 
the year ending June 30, 1903, out of 9967 arrests, 7480 were of 
Hawaiians, Japanese and Chinese, the offenses being chiefly 
gambling, illicit selling of liquor and drunkenness. 

Exports for the year ending June 30, 1903, exceeded in value 
those of the preceding year by $1,481 ,703, sugar and coffee leading. 

The total exports in 1902 were $24,793,735; in 1903, $26,275,438; 
total imports In 1903 were $15,817,039. 

Agriculture is a profitable business, and Is largely carried on, 
the products grown ranging from rubber, bread fruit and simi- 
lar tropical plants to oats, barley and onions. Sugar cane, cof- 
fee, rice and tropical fruits are at present most profitable. There 
are two companies of fortillzor manufacturers, which sell some 
35,000 tons a year, the material entering Into the fertilizer being 
mostly imported. A farmers' institute was organized in 1902, 
and is doing good work. 

There are four steam railways, for freight and passengers, 
and one electric for passengers. Two more are incorporated, 
but not begun. There are 144 public and 59 private schools, with 
a total teaching force of 450, and 18,415 pupils, of whom 16,218 are 
between six and 15, the age at which attendance is compulsory. 
About lUOU below six attend kindergartens, and rather more 
above 15 are at high schools, colleges, etc. Besides these regu- 
lar schools, there are two Industrial reform schools, and sew- 
ing, carving, agriculture bamboo work, weaving, drawing and 



214 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

singing: are taught in the public schools. I^eprosy is the curse 
of the natives, and a few of other nationalities contract the dis- 
ease. All lepers are confined to the leper settlement on the 
island of Kalawao, but the number of patients on June 30, 1903, 
was somewhat less than a year before. 

CIVIL SERVICE IN PORTO RICO AND HAWAII. 

The federal positions in Porto Rico and Hawaii are em- 
braced in the scope of the United States civil service act, and 
are filled in the same ways as federal positions in the United 
States. The civil service system has not yet been extended to 
the insular and municipal positions of the islands. 

GUAM. 

This is an interesting little island of 150 square miles and 
9000 people. It was ceded to the United States by Spain and is 
the largest of the Ladrone archipelago. It is in direct line from 
San Francisco to the Philippines, 900 miles from Manila, and 
5200 from San .Francisco. The Important industry is the produc- 
tion of copra. 

THE SAMOAN ISLANDS. 

The importance of these islands is their position as a coaling 
station, lying as they do in a direct line between San Franclscc 
and Australia, about 2000 miles south and 900 miles west of the 
Hawaiian Islands. The group consists of ten inhabited and 
two uninhabited islands, the total area being about 1700 square 
miles and the population 36,000 people. The United States has 
taken possession of the island of Tutuila and erected a coaling 
station at its chief harbor, Pago Pago. The Islands are fertile, 
producing cocoanuts, cotton, sugar and coffee, the most Im- 
portant being cocoanuts, from which the "copra" of commerce 
is obtained, and which is exported to Europe and the United 
States, being used in the manufacture of cocoanut oil. The 
entire exports amount to about $250,000 a year, one-tlfth of 
which comes to the United States. 



In New Haven, Ct.. in 1647, a young man was sent to the 
whipping post on Monday for not going to church on Sunday. 
Two brothers were beaten by their father for visiting young wo- 
men on Saturday after sunset, and lived unmarried to their 
deaths from mortification! 

In Central Africa, a traveler reports a tribe of crane-like na- 
tives, who dwell on marshes, feed on frogs and fish, and stand 
for hours on one leg. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 215 

The Dominion of Canada 

Scat of Government— Ottawa. 

Governor General— The Right Hon. Earl Grey, G. C. M. G. 

($48,667). 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL. 

President of the Privy (\)uncil (first minister)— Right Hon. 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, G. C. M. i\. 

Minister of Trade and Commerce— Right Hon. Sir Richard J. 
Cart Wright, G. C. M. G. 

Secretary of Stnte— Hon. Richard William Scott. K. C 

Minister of Militia and Defense— Hon. Sir Frederick W. Bor- 
den. K. C. M. G. 

Postmaster General— Hon. Sir William Miilock. K. C M. G. 

Minister of Agriculture— Hon. Sydney Arthur Fisher. 

Minister of Finance — Hon. William Stevens Fielding. 

Minister of the Interior— Hon. Clifford Sifton. 

Minister of Customs — Hon. William Paterson. 

Minister of Public Works — Hon. James Sutherland. 

Minister of Justice— Hon. Charles Fitzpatrick, K. C. 

AVithont portfolio— Hon. W. Templeman. 

Minister of Marine and Fisheries— Hon. J. Raymond Prefon- 
taine. 

Minister of Railways and Canals — Hon. Henry R. Emmerson. 

Minister of Inland Revenue— Hon. Louis P. IJrpdeur. 

Without portfolio— Hon. C^harles S. Hyman (acting minister 
of public works, Mr. Sutherland being in poor health). 

HOW CANADA IS RULED. 

The form of Canadian government is modeled after that of 
Great Britain. The king is the source of authority, represented 
by the governor-general and privy council of 14 members. Leg- 
islature is composed of two branches; a senate of 81 members 
appointed for life by the king on nomination of the prime min- 
ister. The speaker's salary is $40(X), while the members receive 
$1500 per session. The house of commons is the second branch, 
composed of 214 members, who are elected by the ballot of qual- 
ified male voters for a five years' term. 

Each province has a separate local parliament and admin- 
istration under a lieutenant-governor appointed by the gover- 
nor-general and paid by the Dominion. Local legislation is 
generally left to the provinces. Counties and townships have 
local councils which attend to local affairs, such as schools 
and taxes. 

The highest court is the supreme court of Canada, with a 
chief justice, salary $8000, and live judges, 'Salary, $7000; also a 
court of exchequer for trying cases connected with the revenue. 
All other courts are in the various provinces and include courts 
of chancery, king's bench, common pleas, error and appeal, 



216 



AWBtttCAS AORICfTTL'PTmiST 



superior and county, general sesalons. division courts, besides 
nuinerous local police courts. Trial by jury prevails and the 
system of law is based largely upon that of Engrland. 

The number of representatives to the house of commons and 
the population to each member are as under: 



Number of 
Province representatives 

Ontario 7.77. 86 

Quebec 65 

Nova Scotia 18 

New Brunswick 13 

Prince Edward Island 4 

Manitoba 10 

British Columbia 7 

Northwest territories 10 

Yukon 1 

214 



Population to 
each member 



25.383 
25.367 
25.532 
25,470 
25.812 
25.521 
25,522 
18,443 
27,219 

25,100 



POPULATION OF CANADA BY PROVINCES. 



■ 1901 _ 

Canada 5,3717315' 

British Columbia 178,657 

Manitoba 256,211 

New Brunswick 331.120 

Nova Scotia 459.574 

Ontario 2,182.947 

Prince Edward Island. 103,259 

Quebec 1,648,898 

The Territories 211,649 

•Decrease. 



% in- 
crease 



11.14 

81.98 

67.16 

3.06 

2.04 

3.25 

•5.34 

10.77 

113.86 



1891 



4,833,239 

98,173 

152,506 

321,263 

450,396 

2.114.321 

109,078 

1,488,535 

98.967 



POPULATION. 
[Cities and Towns Over 10,000] 



% in- 
crease 

ri.76 

98.49 

144.95 

0.00 

2.23 

9.73 

0.17 

9.53 

75.33 



Brantford 16,619 

Charlottetown 12,080 

Guelph 11,496 

Halifax 40,832 

Hamilton 52,634 

Hull 13,993 

Kingston 17,961 

London t.... 37.981 

Mile End 10.933 

Montreal 267,730 

Ottawa 59,928 

Peterboro 11,239 



Quebec 68,840 

Ste. Cunegonde 10.912 

St. Henri 21,192 

St. John 40,711 

St. Thomas 11.486 

Sherbrooke 11,765 

Toronto 208,040 

Valleyfleld 11.056 

Vancouver 26433 

Victoria 20,816 

Windsor 12,153 

Winnipeg 42.340 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 217 

VAL.UE3S OP THE IMPORTS INTO AND EXPORTS FROM 

CANADA, BY COUNTRIES. 

[Six months ended Dee. 31— Values given in round thousands.] 

C ountriea Imports Exports Imports Exports 

British empire. 

Great Britain $27,417 $81,225 $32,129 $79,184 

Hritish Africa 34 763 39 1,379 

British Australasia: 

Australia 24 1,370 40 1,398 

New Zealand 18 256 2 301 

British Bast Indies 978 20 1,417 9 

British aulana 105 243 794 201 

British West Indies 734 978 1,833 1,026 

Newfoundland 849 1,394 876 1,861 

Other British colonies 61 42 152 99 

^mm^-m^^-^^m^^ MM^B^BiaM^^ ««a*i^HBriMMa^B ^HW^B^MM^Ha^ 

Totals $30,224 $86,294 $37,283 $85,461 

Foreigni countries. 

Argentine Republic $350 $563 $151 $696 

Austria-Hungary 184 /I 508 — 

Belgium 970 1,345 1,838 786 

Brazil 105 406 82 314 

China 309 75 374 89 

Chile 41 80 17 121 

Prance 3,365 685 3,011 1,080 

Germany 6,083 1,264 4,958 1,259 

Holland 593 186 475 642 

Italy 153 140 194 137 

Japan 813 206 1,218 153 

Norway and Sweden 55 61 131 258 

Spain 595 77 618 47 

Switzerland 430 6 641 3 

United States 60,389 40,271 71,881 40,844 

West Indies: 

Cuba 141 344 184 476 

Porto Rico 141 210 147 226 

Other foreign countries.... 1,090 810 953 846 

Totals $75,816 $46,688 $87,390 $47,835 

Grand totals $106,040 $132,982 $124,674 $133,286 



In experimenting with aluminum horseshoes In the Russian 
cavalry, it has been discovered that these shoes last longer and 
preserve the foot better than those of iron. 



218 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

QUANTITIES AND VALUES OF GRAINS EXPORTED FROM 
CANADA DURING FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1903. 



Grains Values 

Parley ^$457,233" 

Beans 79,801 

Buckwheat 175.394 

Indian corn 1,085,601 

Oats 2,632,886 

Peas 1,056,266 

Rye 701,288 

Wheat 29,088,781 

All other 3,299 

Total $35,280,549 



Bushels 



947,012 

51,095 

314,349 

2,132,908 

7,753,049 

1,149,157 

1,205,022 

38,998,923 

5,450 

52,556,965 



SEA FISHERIES IN CAN- 
ADA, 1902. 

T" ; Value by 

Province millions 

Nova Scotia $7.3 

New Brunswick 3.9 

British Columbia 5.2 

Quebec 2.0 

Prince Edward Island 8 

Tota l .^y ^19.2_ 

FRESH WATER FISHER- 
IES, 1902. 



Province 



Value by 
millions 

Ontario .".'... $1.2 

Manitoba and territories. 1.1 

_Total_ $2.3 

LEGISLATURE AND VOT- 
ING. 

In all the provinces there is 
manhood suffrage, limited by 
residence and citizenship, but 
In Prince Edward Island 15 are 
elected on a special real estate 
(jnaliflcation. In all the prov- 
inces the duration of the as- 
sembly is four years, unless 



sooner dissolved. Sessions are 
annual. In all of the prov- 
inces the speakers of the as- 
semblies are elected by the 
members. In both houses 
members are paid. Members 
require no property qualifica- 
tion. The legislative powers 
of the legislatures are defined 
by the British North America 
act of 1867. Widows and un- 
married women, when taxed, 
can vote at municipal elections 
in Ontario and the Northwest 
Territories; in Manitoba and 
British Columbia, all women 
who are taxed In their own 
right can vote at such elec- 
tions. 

EDUCATION AND RELI- 
GION IN CANADA. 

There are over 18,000 public 
schools in Canada, and over 
1000 other schools— high, nor- 
mal and model. .For the main- 
tenance of these schools $11,- 
000,000 is expended. As there is 
no state church, religious liber- 
ty, equal to that in the United 
States, is enjoyed. About 142 
different denominations exist 
throughout the Dominion, em- 
bracing 99.17 per cent of the 
whole population. 



TEAK BOOK AND ALMANAC 

Th0 Orient 



in nniy rnaltip 1 

t 1h pOBslbte <^hlna wbh 1 

world force whtn the 



mine felt In China In nearly ever? 
iiina nad been the ceacher of the eastern 
inn wer<> ntlll barbarlarm, It was not easy 




the 



United States. 



leeatlona. The leaders 
serloualy consider this 
and Anally r"- ■ — 



marched upon Peking in defence 
of th^ empire began Immediate 

proposition of foreign aggresslv .. ._ , _ 

aroused from Itg sleep of centuries. The victories Of Japan 
have undoubtedly had their due influencee as well. 

It la notable in this regard that among lis substantial im- 
provements are those looking to military strength, In prepara- 
tions and plana for the prompt mobilization, equipment iind 
most Improved instruction and training of a. powerful army. 



220 AMERICAN AGRICULTtTRIST 

Heretofore China's people have been buried In study and the 
close pursuits of business. Hereafter, following the example of 
Christian nations, we may expect memorials to be erected to 
her successful soldiers. Referring to the Disarmament Society 
instituted by Austria, a circular is widely distributed calling 
attention to the fact that shortly after this, war was instituted 
between various nations. This manifesto declares that: "If 
there is any member of this society who has played peace- 
maker, we have not heard of him. Germany has, consequently, 
seized our Kiao-chau and Russia our' Port Arthur. Since the 
Disarmament Society was formed, great countries have ener- 
getically purchased men-of-war and used every means to obtain 
a power balance." The most significant declaration of this 
notable address is that: "If we maintain an army, the "weak 
countries will fear us and the strong will respect us. If "we 
ally ourselves with Europe, then Europe will win, if with Asia, 
then Asia will win." 

At last the Chinese have learned that their only road to 
national prestige is to help thomselves; that Confucianism -will 
not be abolished by modern methods; and that, aided by mod- 
ern forces and influences, their religion may be widely es- 
tablished. 

It should be remembered that this dawn of a new era in 
China is not the awakening of a savage nation, but that they 
were civilized before our ancestors and that they had a printed 
language, shown in the oldest newspaper in history, published 
at Peking, and that China was creating classics long before 
many western nations had established^ an alphabet. 

Too generally the American people are ignorant of China's 
strenuous shaking free of the conservatism of centuries. How- 
ever, it is a positive and decisive movement that will soon inter- 
est the business world of America, as well as other commercial 
nations. 

JAPAN. 

A countless chain of islands, large and small, lying in the 
northwestern corner of the Pacific ocean, and close to the east- 
ern coast of Asia, constitute the empire of Japan, an empire 
ruled over for more than 2550 years by an imperial house of 
unbroken lineage— this in marked contrast to the adjacent 
countries in Asia, China and Korea, where the dynastic changes 
have been many. 

In ancient times the administrative system in this empire 
was very simple, there being no distinction made between mili- 
tary and civil affairs, but the whole nation considered as one 
big family, with the emperor over it. During the middle ages, 
however, the military classes pushed the court into the back- 
ground, and for several centuries the real power of government 
was vested in several successive regencies, until in 1867, when 
the imperial regime was again established. Twenty-two years 
after this restoration, a constitution was promulgated and 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 221 

Japan became a constitutional monarchy, with the imperial pre- 
rogative strictly defined. 

In the existing administrative system there is the privy 
council as the supreme advisory organ to the emperor, wliile 
on the other hand there is the cabinet as central administrative 
headquarters, having under it the nine departments of state— 
the departments of foreign affairs, home aftalrs, finance, war, 
the navy, justice, education, agriculture and commerce, and 
communications. 

In 1899 Japan had a population of 44,260,604 people, of whom 
22,329,925 were males and 21,^30,681 females. The large majority 
of these people are engaged in agricultural pursuits, chiefly rice 
culture, Japan's biggest industry, and in silk worm raising, 
which comes next in importance as an article of domestic pro- 
duction, and as an article of export leads all others. On account 
of the position of the country and its many indentations, the 
ftshini? industry is naturally large, and it is estimated that there 
are 900,000 families of fishermen. Fish, it should be said, forms, 
together with rice, almost the entire diet of the people, for meat 
is very little used. 

Only 15.7 per cent of the total area of Japan, or 14,995,272 
acres of the land, is arable, and it is estimated that 55 per cent 
of the agricultural families cultivate less than two acres apiece. 
Of course it is the low standard of living that enables the people 
to get along ^th farms of this size, though the income of most 
of the owners is generally increased by engaging in silk worni 
raising, reeling silk and working for wages in the intervals of 
farm work. The government has encouraged modern methods 
of farming by the establishment of experiment stations and 
the maintenance of six agricultural schools. 

The principal exports from Japan are raw silk, habutaye 
(silk tissue), cotton yarns, matches, fancy matting, tea, cam- 
phor, marine products, copper, coal, etc. Of these, raw silk and 
habutaye lead in volume and value, arid have their best cus- 
tomers in the United States and Prance. The principal imports 
are machinery, iron ware, petroleum, sugar, raw cotton, cotton 
fabrics and woolen goods. The following table shows the value 
of exports and imports of the principal commodities for five 
years beginning 1898, the values being given in millions of yen 
(not quite 50 cents): 



Tear 


Exports 
yen 


Imports 
yen 


Tota 1 Excess of imports 
yen yen 


1902 


258 


271 
255 
287 
220 

277 


590 13 


1901 


252 


508 3 


1900 


204 


491 82 


1899 


214 


435 5 


1898 


165 


443 111 



The department of education superintends the educational 
affairs of the country, besides maintaining institutions essen- 
tial for the state. A^ordix^ to statistics compiled in 1901, there 



222 AMERICAN AG-RTCULTTTRTST 

were 20,284 primary schools throughout the country, together 
with 6726 branches, making a total of 27,010. The teachers on 
duty numbered 102,700 and pupils in attendance 4,980,604. There 
were also 54 normal schools and two schools for the blind, and 
deaf and dumb, one at Kyoto and the other at Tokyo. The im- 
perial library at Tokyo is maintained by the g'overnmont and 
has 418,592 volumes. There are 49 other libraries in the country 
and these contain altogether 408,570 books. 

In 1902, Japan had over 81.903 miles of telegraph line.s and 
telephone lines extending over about 105,762 miles. The railroad 
service possessed 4237 miles on March 31, 1903. 



Immigration 



There Is a slight decrease in the immigration figures for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904, there being in all 812,870 
immigrants who arrived in this country, against 857,046 for the 
year ending June 30, 1903. Italy sent us the largest number, 
though Russia and Austria-Hungary were not far behind. Im- 
migrants came also from all the other European countries, 
China, Japan, India, Turkej' in Asia, Africa, Australia, Philip- 
pine Islands, British North America, Central America, Mexico, 
South America and West Indies. During the first ten months 
of 1904, ending September 30, the number of immigrants to ar- 
rive at the various ports in the United States was as follows: 
Baltimore 30.696. Boston 48.500, New York 452,034, Philadelphia 
14,159, San Francisco 14.359. 

IMMIGRATION STATISTICS FOR ELEVEN YEARS. 



Sex of immigrants 

Years ending June 30: . Male Female Total 

i90T 7. i.... ... ] 549,100 ^263,770 812,870 

1903 613,146 243,900 857,046 

1902 466,369 182,374 648,743 

1901 3.31,055 156,863 487,918 

1900 304,148 144,424 448,572 

1899 195,277 116,438 311,715 

1898 1.35,775 93,524 223,299 

1897 135,107 95,725 230,832 

1896 212,466 130.801 343,267 

1895 149,016 109,520 258,536 

1894 169,274 116,357 285,631 



THEATER FIRES. 



Brooklyn Theater, 1876, 295 lives lost. 

Ring Thoater, Vienna, 1881, nearly 1000. 

Charity Bazaar, Paris, 1897, over 150. 

Iro(iU()is Theater, Chicago, 1903, between 600 and 700. 



TBAH 900K AND ALMANAC 223 

Transportation and Communication 

PROGRESS OF GOOD ROADS LEGISLATION. 

[By Assistant Director M. O. Eldrldge, Office of Public Road 
Inquiries, Department of Agriculture, prepared especially for the 
American Agriculturist Year Book and Almanac] 

Road legislation in the various states is steadily progressing 
along practical lines. The old method of working out the road 
tax is now generally recognised as totally inadequate and is 
being superseded by some form of cash tax, the revenue thus 
secured being expended under the direction of expert road engi- 
neers in the construction of Improved highways. Many of the 
states, especially in the south, are working their convicts on the 
public roads with most satisfactory results, the convict labor 
being thus removed from competitive lines of work and placed 
In non-competitive. In many states, counties are authorlEed to 
issue bonds for the purpose of raising funds for road improve- 
ment. In some states the revenues arising from certain speci- 
fied sources are applied to the improvement of the public high- 
ways. 

The most important feature of state legislation, however. Is 
state aid. From the following statistics it will be seen that the 
New England states, the four central states, and Maryland, 
Ohio, Illinois, Iowa and Michigan, have all adopted this system 
or have established state highway commissions. In some cases 
the state paj's half the cost of the roads, in others one-third, in 
others one-fourth. This system provides ample funds, skilled 
supervision, uniformity of plans, and economy in expenditure. 

LEGISIaATION, STATE APPROPRIATIONS AND MILEAGE 
OF ROADS IN VARIOUS STATES. 

Alabama— Recent legislature passed a general law permitting 
counties to vote at any tlm« for bond issue or special levy. 
About 1000 miles of gravel (Including chert) roads and 300 miles 
of stone road, already built. 

California— State has a bureau of highways with one com- 
missioner. Most of the roads constructed by county boards of 
supervisors by direct taxation. State controls 140 miles of 
mountain roads and pays entire cost of construction. State 
spent for mountain roads in 1897, |44,900; in 1899, $74,500; in 1901, 
S23,0e0; In 1903, $58,360. 

Connecticut— Total road mileage 15,000. About 500 miles of 
permanent roads have been constructed since 1895 at about $4000 
per mile, the state paying two-thirds and in some cases three- 
fourths of the cost, the balance being paid by the towns. State 
sp^nt between 1896 and 1902 the sum of $1,233,000, the counties 
$^0,942. The last legislature appropriated for state work for 
1903-4» 1225,000. 



224 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Delaware — State aid bill passed in April, 1903, providing for 
three commissioners and for $30,000 a year for two years, the 
state to pay half the cost and the counties half. The money is 
to be equally distributed among the three counties, Newcastle, 
Sussex and Kent. 

Florida— 200 miles of shell and gravel roads and 150 miles 
of stone roads already built. The last legislature set aside pro- 
ceeds of Indian war claims recently authorized by Congress for 
road improvement. From this sum state will realize over a half 
million dollars. In June, 1903, the legislature provided that all 
money in the internal improvement fund, or which may be de- 
rived from the sale of swamp lands, shall be devoted to the 
construction of hard roads. The money to be divided among- 
the several counties in proportion to their assessed valuation. 
The legislature of June, 1899, provided that all one-year con- 
victs shall be worked on the public roads. 

Georgia— Total road mileage, 45,000; 1000 miles of gravel roads 
and over 200 miles of stone road already built. Convicts used 
and money raised by direct taxation. 

Illinois— In 1903 the legislature provided for the appointment 
of a good roads commission, consisting of three persons to study 
road problems in the state and to report to the next legislature 
recommending suitable legislation. The commission is now en- 
gaged in the work and is making an effort to carry into effect 
the existing law, which provides that the convicts at state peni- 
tentiaries shall be used in preparing rock for road building, 
such material to be furnished the counties free of cost. 

Indiana— Total mileage, 58.000. Said to have 8000 miles of 
good gravel roads, all built by local assessment, no state aid 
being provided. 

Iowa— Total mileage, 100,257. An act was passed by the gen- 
eral assembly and approved April 13, 1904, providing for the ap- 
pointment of a state highway commission and designating the 
Iowa state college at Ames to act as such commission. 

Kentucky — Mileage of gravel roads, 2000; of stone roads, 
5600, mainly built as toll roads, but now free. 

Maine— State aid was adopted in 1901 to a small extent, the 
law providing that any city or town may receive from the state 
treasury one-half the sum actually appropriated for a state 
road within the corporate limits of such city or town, but the 
sum to be received from the state shall in no case exceed $200. 

Maryland— Total mileage, 16,000, of which 497 are toll roads. 
There are about 900 miles of stone, shell and gravel roads main- 
tained by the counties. It is estimated that the counties spend 
$600,000 annually for road maintenance and that the people of 
the state pay $140,000 annually in tolls. Highway commission 
established in 1896. The general assembly passed an act In 1904 
providing state aid and appropriating $200,000 for the purpose. 
The amount received by each county is In direct proportion of 
the road mileage of the county to the total mileage of the state. 

Massachusetts— Total mileage, estimated, 20,000. The state 
appropriates annually $490,000 in the form of state aid. The state 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



225 



STCCu 


















VALUE OF IMPROVED ROADWAYS. 



Comparative capacity of an animal pulling loads over dif- 
ferent kinds of highway. 



226 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

pays the entire cost of the road, but 25 per cent of the cost is 
assessed on the counties. The recent legislature appropriated 
$2,250,000, to be expended for state highways during the next five 
years; 504 miles built or under contract up to January 1, 1904. 
Highway commission established in 1894. 

Michigan— Every township has right to raise money by bond- 
ing to the extent of 5 per cent of its valuation to build roads. 
Any county may adopt the county road law and assess a '2 mill 
tax. Has state highway department, but no money has been 
appropriated for state aid. Total mileage, 80,000. 

Missouri— 89,946 miles of public roads, of which 1262 miles are 
macadam, gravel and slag roads, the remainder being earth 
roads. No state aid. 

New Hampshire— Legislation has been enacted proviaingr for 
the appointment of a state engineer, who is to prepare a high- 
way map of the state and plan a system of continuous main 
highways, $15,000 being appropriated for the purpose. It also 
provided that the governor and council shall prepare for the 
next general assembly a bill providing fully for the inauguration 
of a system of state work and state expenditure. The next gen- 
eral assembly meets in 1905. 

New Jersey— State aid was adopted in 1891 and became op- 
erative in 1892. In 1895 a more comprehensive law was enacted 
under which the state bore one-third of the expense, property 
owners on line of road one-tenth and the county the balance. 
Another law was passed in 1903 permitting an increase in the 
state appropriation to $400,000, giving the counties the right to 
assess upon their ratables for road purposes to the extent of 
1 per cent, exclusive of the state appropriation, and allowing the 
townships to pay 10 per cent instead of the property owners 
along the line. Under the law of 1895, 900 miles of roads have 
been built; under the law of 1903, 65 miles have been built and 
several hundred miles projected. Total number built by the 
state to July 1, 1904, 1100. The state appropriates $250,000 per 
annum as state aid. Total mileage, 20,000. 

New York— State aid was adopted in 1898, the state paying 
50 per cent of the cost of roads, the counties 35 per cent, and the 
towns or abutting property owners 15 per cent. Total mileage, 
74,097. Up to July 1, 1904, nearly 700 miles of roads were con- 
structed or in process of construction, in accordance with state 
aid law. Total amount appropriated by the state, counties and 
towns for improvement, repair and maintenance of public high- 
ways, $11,707,667.24. Total amount available for year 1904, $3,524,- 
480.19. The legislature has once passed a constitutional amend- 
ment providing that the state may bond itself for $50,000,000, of 
which $5,000,000 is to be available each year for ten years for 
road improvement. This amendment must be passed by the 
next legislature and then submitted to the popular vote before 
it becomes effective. 

North Carolina— Has a highway commission established 
three years ago. Has 400 mi)es of gravel roads and 300 miles of 
stone roads. 



J 



TICAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 227 

Ohio— The last general assembly enacted legislation provid- 
ing for a state highway department, and for state aid in the 
following proportion: One-fourth to be paid by the state and 
three-fourths to be a county charge, but one-third of said three- 
fourths to be paid by the township. In apportioning the 25 per 
cent to be paid by the township, 10 per cent shall be a charge 
upon the whole township and 15 per cent a c;^arge upon the 
abutting property. No appropriation for construction under 
this act has yet been made. The total mileage of the state is 
about 80»000. 

Pennsylvania— The legislature of 1903 adopted a state aid 
law, approved April 15, 1903, creating a state highway depart- 
ment, and providing that two-thirds of the cost of rebuilding 
roads is to be borne by the state, one-sixth by the county, and 
one-sixth by the township. A total appropriation of $6,500,000 
was made, distributed as follows: $500,000, for each of the first 
two years, $1,250,000 for each of the next two years, and $1,500,000 
for each of the next two years. The total mileage is 99,224. 

Rhode Island— The last legislature passed a resolution ap- 
propriating $100,000 for the construction and maintenance of 
highways under the direction of the state board of public roads, 
which was created by the preceding legislature. Out of 2240 
miles of highway in Rhode Island, about 500 miles have been 
improved by the use of gravel and stone. 

South Carolina— Counties are allowed to hold elections to de- 
cide upon bonding for permanent improvement of the highways 
to an amount not to exceed $200,000, or 8 per cent of the assessed 
valuation. Other legislation has been enacted permitting coun- 
ties to work convicts . with ten-year sentences in chain gangs. 

Tennessee— 1200 miles of gravel roads and 1000 miles of stone 
roads in the state. No state aid. 

Texas— 2000 miles of gravel roads and more than 200 miles of 
stone roads. No state aid. 

Vermont— The Vermont plan for state aid assesses an an- 
nual state tax of 5 mills on the dollar, to which is added the 
revenues from the local option license law. The fund for the 
year 1904 is $130,811.37. This is apportioned to the towns in the 
proportion the mileage of each bears to the total mileage of the 
state. Vermont has a state highway commissioner. Total road 
mileage, 14,019. 

Virginia— 300 miles of gravel roads and 550 miles of stone 
roads, mainly built as toll roads. State legislation not yet es- 
tablished. 

Public sentiment in favor of better roads has grown so rap- 
idly that the office of public road inquiries is being constantly 
appealed to for engineers skilled in the art of road building to 
take charge of state and county work, and the demand for such 
men exceeds the supply. It would therefore seem advisable that 
in connection with this office there should be established In 
Washington a post-graduate school, where graduates in civil 
engineering from the land-grant colleges could secure' a thor- 
ough course in road building. 



228 



AUBRICAN AGRICULTURIST 
OUR MERCHANT MARINE SINCE 1S90. 



Tonnage of the sailing: and steam vessels of the merchant 
marine of the United States employed in the foreign and coast- 
wise trade and in the fisheries. 



Tear 




•2p« 


1 

*■©£ 


"d Id 0} a 


• 

. a 

=2 


Annual in- 
crease or 
decrease, 
per cent 


ended 
June 80 


Forelir 
trade, 1 
thousa 


Coastw 
trade, 1 
inillioii 


Whale 
eries, t 
thouaa 


God an 

uiacke 

tisheri 

tons 

thousa 


Total 1 
lions ol 


1903 


879 


5.1 


9.5 


57.5 


6.0 


4.99 


1902 


873 


4.8 


9.3 


56.6 


5.7 


4.95 


1901 


879 


4.5 


9.5 


52.4 


5.5 


6.96 


1900 


816 


4.2 


9.8 


51.6 


5.1 


6.18 


1899 


837 


. 3.9 


11.0 


50.6 


4.8 


2.41 


1898 


726 


3.9 


11.4 


52.3 


4.7 


-0.40 


1897 


792 


3.8 


12.7 


66.6 


4.7 


1.38 


1896 


829 


3.7 


15.1 


68.6 


4.7 


1.47 


1895 


822 


3.7 


15.8 


69.0 


4.6 


—1.30 


1894 


899 


3.6 


16.4 


71.5 


4.6 


—2.90 


1893 


883 


3.8 


16.6 


70.5 


4.8 


1.26 


1892 


977 


3.7 


17.0 


69.4 


4.7 


1.71 


1891 


988 


3.6 


17.2 


68.9 


4.6 


5.88 


1890 


928 


3.4 


18.6 


68.3 


4.4 


2.71 



STEAMBOAT INSPECTION. 
[For fiscal year ending June 30, 1903; latest published report.] 

Vessels inspected, number and tonnage 

, ^ 

Division For. steamers Dom. steamers Motor vessels 
No^ Tonn age N o. Tonnage No. T'age 

Pacific coast .7 29 124^712 984 316;2'74 39 27260 

Atlantic coast 216 1,347,090 3,659 1,197,818 66 2,977 

Western rivers 4 819 918 137.492 31 1^43 

Northern lakes 61 47.030 2.095 1,479.374 — — 

Gulf and coast 50 147,003 640 128,163 17 470 

Total 360 1.666.664 8.296 3.259,121 . 153 ^ 6.850 

Total number of accidents resulting in loss of life during 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903: Fire, one; collision, 23; 
breaking of steam pipes, mud drums, etc., three; explosions, 
four; snags, wrecks and sinking. 15; accidents to machinery, 
three; total. 49; decrease over previous year of six. 

Total number of lives lost by accident from various causes 
during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903: Fire, one; collisions, 
49; breaking of steam pipes, mud drums, etc.. 14; explosions or 
accidental escape of steam. 23; snags, wrecks or sinking, 49; 
accidental drowning, 145; miscellaneous causes, 11; total, 292; de- 
crease over previous year of 153. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 229 

FOREIGN CARRYING TRADE OF UNITED STATES. 

[In millions of dollars.] 

i SHO ^]S7Q I'SS O 1 890 l"900 1903 

American^^ssels r.07 :irj2 2r.8 202 1 95 21 4 

Foreign vessels 255 (538 1124 1871 1894 2 '26 

Total sea trade 762 991 1482 1573 2089 2240 

Und vehicles — — 20 73 154 205 

Total trade 762 991 1503 1647 2244 ' 2415 

Per cent. 

Trade of American vessels.. 66 35 17 12 9.3 9.1 



United States Railway Statistics 

[Poor's Railway Manual, 1903.] 

RAILROADS OF THE UNITED STATES BY STATES AND 

TERRITORIES. 
[Miles completed, December 31, 1902.] 



States and territories 



Total 
miles 



States and territories 



Total 
miles 



Alabama 4 

Arkansas 3 

California 5 

Colorado 4 

Connecticut 1 

Delaware 

Florida 3 

(reorgia 6 

Idaho 1 

Illinois 11 

Indiana 6 

Iowa 9 

Kansas 8 

Kentucky 3 

Louisiana 3 

Maine ••■.. 2 

Maryland 1 

Massachusetts 2 

Michigan 8 

Minnesota 7 

Mississippi 3 

Missouri 7 

Montana 3 

Nebraska 5 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 1 



,857.12 
,530.99 
,772.59 
,801.54 
,025.90 

337.14 
,435.81 
,109.73 
,433.91 
,398.07 
,801.87 
,559.48 
,803.18 
,177.74 
,065.01 
,002.13 
,369.00 
,114.94 
,241.10 
,285.40 
,099.15 
,148.03 
,234.27 
,777.66 

960.53 
.191.95 



New Jersey 2,238.14 

New York 8,137.49 

North Carolina 3,798.03 

North Dakota 3,079.35 

Ohio 8,971.76 

Oregon 1,711.94 

Pennsylvania 10,508.45 

Rhode Island 209.29 

South Carolina 3,011.44 

South Dakota 3,027.74 

Tennessee 3,280.87 

Texas 10,874.17 

Utah 1,611.40 

Vermont 1,052.31 

Virginia 3,870.58 

Washington 3,112.31 

West Virginia 2,645.97 

Wisconsin 6,873.40 

Wyoming 1,313.31 

Arizona 1,617.49 

District of Columbia... 24.87 

Indian Territory 2,144.03 

New Mexico 2,349.20 

Oklahoma 1,663.83 



Ignited States 



.203,131.61 



In Europe, 86,592 people die each year from accident; in the 
United States, 86,000 in the same time. 

Nine hundred people in 1,000,000 die of old age. 



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!5='S = J='S = B3fl = J!'j: = S°j!'ii 



234 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

UNITED STATES RAILROADS. 



1883 1890 18% 1902 



Length of lines, in thousands of miles 120 163 179 199 

Capital stock, in billions of dollars 3 4 5 6 

Dividends, per cent upon stock 2.77 1.80 1.58 2.93 

Funded debt, in billions of dollars 3 5 5 6 

Interest, per cent upon bonds and debt 4.58 4.13 4.09 4.03 

Passengers carried, in millions 312 520 529 655 

Avg. receipts p passenger, cents p mile... 2.42 2.17 2.0 2.0 

Freight carried, in millions of tons 400 691 755 1192 

Average receip|:s per ton, cents per mile... 1.0 0.93 0.84 0.76 
Gross earnings of railroads, thousand dol- 
lars per mile 7 6 6 8 

Net earnings of railroads, thousand dol- 
lars per mile 2 2 12 

Per cent of expenses to earning s 63 68 70 67 

RAILWAY FACTS. 

In 1904 there were more than 200,000 miles of railroads in this 
country. There are 37,000 passenger and 1,600,000 freight cars; 
locomotives number 41,000, of which 10,000 are for passenger ser- 
vice. A modern locomotive costs from $15,000 to $18,000. Freight 
trains carry 1,250,000,000 tons per year. It would require 25,000,000 
teams to do the work now done by railways. The passeng'er 
rolling stock would make a solid train 500 miles long. 

RAILWAY STATISTICS OF CHIEF NATIONS. 

[Railway Gazette.] 



Miles Miles 

1 900 open 1900 open 

Great BritaiiTr. .T 21.864~~'Scandinavia ' 8.320 

France 26,611 Belgium 3,948 

Germany 31,933 Switzerland 2,357 

Russia 29,892 Europe (total) 176,174 

Spain 8,300 United States 197.237 

Italy -jiiL-:^ 9,810 The world 490.962 

RAILROAD ACCIDENTS IN THE UNITED STATES. 
[From report of interstate commerce commission.] 



, 1902 , , 19()1 , , 1900- 



Killed Injured Killed Injured Killed Injured 



Passengers 303 C,089 282 4,988 249 4,128 

Employees 2,516 33,711 2,675 41,142 2,550 39,643 

Total 2.819 39,800 2,9.')7 46.130_ 2.799_ 43.771 

In 1JXI2 there were 5042 train collisions and .%.'« derailments, or 
a total of StiTf) accidents, involving a total monetary loss of 
$7,645,406. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 2S5 

STREKT AND ELECTRIC RAILWAYS, 1890 AND 1902. 

[U nited States Csnsus R eports.] 

Average 
Total no. no. rides 
fare passen- per In- 
Geographic divisions Year Populatlon*_ gers carried habitant 

United "states !.r....Tri902 " 75, '994, 575 ~ 4,809,554,438 63 

1890 62.622,250 2,023.010,202 32 

Increase 13..372.325 2,786,544.236 31 

North Atlantic 1902 21.046,695 2,618.528.979 124 

1890 17,401,545 1.141,187.460 66 

Increase 3.645,150 1,477,341,519 58 

South Atlantic 1902 10,443,480 332.541,075 32 

1890 8,857,920 101.647,174 11 

Increase 1.585.560 230.893,901 21 

North central 1902 26,333.004 1.344,000.951 51 

1890 22,362,279 538.309.887 24 

Increase 3,970,725 806.691,064 27 

South central 1902 14,080,047 210,103,861 16 

1890 10,972,893 98,005,026 9 

Increase 3,107,154 112,098,835 6 

Western 1902 4,091,849 304,379,572 74 

1890 3,027,613 143,860,655 48 

Increase 1.063,736 160.518,917 26 

•Population shown for 1902 Is that reported by census of 1900. 

Prom this table It appears that the most extensive use of 
street and electric railways is in the North Atlantic states, 
where the average number of rides per inhabitant in 1902 was 
124; the Western states come next with an average of 74. The 
greatest increase in this respect is shown for the South Atlantic 
states, where the average was almost three times as great in 
1902 as it was in 1890. The average number of rides per inhabi- 
tant for the entire United States has almost doubled during the 
12 years. 

STREET A ND EL ECTRIC R AI LWAYS. CENS US FIGURES^ 
/ r~^*®~Tr-r-^ ' —isw , , %i,l^^,e^:jz; 

Number Miles Number Miles Number Miles 

Character ofcom^ single of com- single of com- single 
of power panics track panics track panics ^track 

United States.849* 22,589.47 761* 8.123.02 il76 178.1 

Electric 747 21,920.07 126 1,261.97 492.9 1,637.0 

Animal 67 259.10 506 5,661.44 86.8 95.4 

Cable 26 240.69 55 488.31 52.7 50.7 

Steam 9 169.61 74 711.30 87.8 76^ 

♦This total is based on motive power. 



236 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

COMPARATIVE SI'MMARY, ALL COMPANIES, 1890 AND 1902. 



%m- 
Items_^^ 1902 1890 crease 

Number of companies ~~ 987~ 706 39.8 

Cost construction and equipment. $2,167,634,077 $389,357,289 456.7 

Capital stock issued $1,315,572,960 $28^,058.133 355.1 

Funded debt outstanding $992,709,139 $189,177,824 424.7 

Earnings from operation $247,553,999 $90,617,211 173.2 

Operating expenditures $142,312,597 $62,011,185 129.5 

% operating expenses of earnings. 57.5 68.4 — 

Number of passenger cars 60,290 32,505 85.5 

Number faro passengers carried.. 4,809.554.438 2,023,010,202 137.7 

Number of employ ee s* 133,6 41 70,764 88.9 

♦Efxclusive of salaried officials and clerks. 



STARTING A RURAL TELEPHONE LINE. 

Every up-to-date farmer should have a telephone. He can- 
not afford to be without the great time saver and distance an- 
nihilator. The way to secure telephone service is to try to get 
it from an existing company if possible. If they will not give 
service at reasonable rates, say for $10 to $18 per year, depend- 
ing Upon the distance you are from the line or from central, 
then organize your own company, build your own lines and 
operate them. 

The first thing is to agitate and discuss the question among 
the neighbors and business men who should, be connected by 
telephone. Call a meeting, appoint a committee on organization 
and construction, who will arrange to form a stock company 
and incorporate under the laws of the state. This will not hin- 
der the fullest co-operation on the part of all who desire to 
work or furnish materials, because they can take their pay in 
stock. Encourage many small stockholders rather than a few 
large ones. 

Before incorporating, make a careful canvass of the terri- 
tory and get promises in writing from all who will take instru- 
ments. Then make estimates of the number of miles of line 
that will have to be built, not forgetting to secure a franchise 
from the highway commissioners to build along the highway, 
also consent from the property holders. 

On nearly all lines it is best to build a two-wire or a me- 
tallic circuit, which will avoid "crosstalk." If. however, it is 
for most part a country line and away from trolley and electric 
light disturbances, and also if the service is to be purely local, 
it may be most economical to build a one-wire or grounded 
circuit line. In either case it will be best to buy "bridging" 
telephones, rather than the "series," and to buy good ones, 
which need not cost more than $13 to $15 each. The wire should 
be No. 12 BB galvanized, which weighs about 165 pounds to the 
mile. 




TBAR BOOK AND AUfANAC 237 

The poles generally should be 26 feet long and 8 to 9 inches 
in diameter at a point 4% feet from the butt. Holes should be 
4 to 4^ feet deep. Chestnut or cedar poles are both light and 
durable. They will probably cost $1.25 each delivered at the 
hole, all pe^ed and ready to set. Small poles rot oft too quickly. 
Holes can be dug for 10 to 20 cents each, depending upon the 
nature of the soil. The poles should be set from 150 to 175 feet 
apart. For heavy lines the former is better; for straight lines 
that carry but two wires the latter distance will do. Avoid 
kinks and shun trees as you would a pestilence. It will cost 
more in the end to hunt trouble and make repairs caused by 
trees than it would to have set poles and dodged them. A line 
will cost complete from |75 to $100 per mile, if It is built to stay, 
and contains crossarms, etc., to carry several wires. For rais- 
ing poles a "dead man" and four or Ave very live men are 
needed to do the work fast. 



AMERICAN TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH COMPAI^Y 

STATISTICS. 
[From January 1, 1900-1904.] 



1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 



Exchanges 1.239 1,348 1,411 1,514 1,609 

Branch offices 1,187 1,427 1,594 1,861 2,131 

Miles wire on poles and 

buildings 524.123 M4.730 841.140 1,109,017 1,868,140 

Miles wire underground 489,250 705,269 883,679 1.328,685 1,618,691 

Miles wire submarine.. 3,404 4,203 4,200 6,048 6,358 

Total miles wire 1,016.777 1,354,202 1,729,019 2,443.750 2.983,189 

Total circuits 422,620 508.262 592,467 742,654 798,901 

Total employees 25.741 32,837 40,864 50.350 53,795 

Total subscribers 632,946 800,880 1.020,647 1,277,983 1,525.167 



THE TELEGRAPH BUSINESS. 
[Statistics of the Western Union Telegraph Company.] 



1900 1901 1 902 1903 1904 

Miles of line 192.705 193.589 m^l^ 196.517 199.350 

Miles of wire 933.153 972.766 1.029,984 1,089,212 1,155,405 

Number of offices 22,900 23,238 23,667 23,120 23,458 

No. messages sent, millions.. 63 65 69.3 69.7 67.9 

Receipts, millions of dollars. 24 26 28 29 29 

Bxpenses, millions of dollars. 18 19 20.7 20.9 21.3 

Profits, millions of dollars... 6 6 7 8 7 

Average toll per message — 30.8 30.9 31.0 31.4 ( 31.7 

Average cost per message... 25.1 25.1 25.7 25.6 ^ 28.1 



238 AMBRICAN AaRlCITl.TURIST 

GROWTH OP THE TELEGRAPH. 

Number of messages, 1870: Russia 2,716,300, Norway 466,700, 
Sweden 590,300, Denmark 513,623, Germany 8,207,800, Belgium 
1,998.800, France 5,663,800, Switzerland 1,629,235, Spain 1,050,000, Italy 
1,289,000, Austria 3,388,249, Hungary 1,489,000, United States 9,157,- 
646, Great Britain and* Ireland 9,650,000. 

Number of messages, 1901: Russia 19,257,456, Norway 2,267,915, 
Sweden 2,749,483, Denmark 2,293,246, Germany 45,146,281, Belgium 
14,322,560, France 50,486,435, Switzerland 3,272,345, Spain 5-,131,495, 
Italy 11,178,282, Austria-Hungary 30,048,910, United States (In 
1903) 91,300,000, Great Britain and Ireland (in 1902) 90»432,041. 

WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY. 

It is over ten years ago since Marconi first announced his 
success in transmitting intelligence to a distance by means of 
wireless telegraphy, but it was not until the year 1902 that the 
successful issue of this system was witnessed. To-day, how- 
ever, the Marconi system is not alone, for almost every civi- 
lized nation has developed one or more systems of wireless 
telegraphy. In the United States the De Forest and Fessenden 
systems are mostly in use in the wireless telegraph stations 
along the coasts, but the government employs no less than four 
different systems in its various departments— namely the Slaby- 
Arco, by the navy department; the Braun system, by the army 
for land operations; the Wildman system, by the signal corps 
of the army, and the .Fessenden system, or modification of that 
system, by the weather bureau. 

The apparatus required for the operation of this wireless 
telegraphy is a generator for setting up the electric oscillations 
in a vertical wire, or antenna as it is called, from which the 
electric waves are radiated into free space, together with a 
vertical wire at a receiving station, which intercepts and ab- 
sorbs some of the electric waves, which are transformed into 
electric oscillations in that wire, where they are detected by a 
receiver of electric oscillations. The received oscillations are 
very weak as compared with the oscillations in the transmit- 
ting wire, but by employing very sensitive detectors of such 
oscillations, the signals transmitted may be received at a great 
distance from their source. The United States government is 
now seriously considering the advisability of obtaining, by con- 
gressional enactment or otherwise, the exclusive control of all 
wireless telegraph stations on the coasts of this country^ on the 
ground that only in this way can the coast be properly defend- 
ed in time of war, so far as wireless telegraphy may be useful 
to that end. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 289 

United States Postal 



RURAL FREE DELIVERY. 

The ^owth of rural free delivery in this country has been 
wonderfully rapid. At the beginning of the fiscal year 1899, there 
were less than 200 routes in operation, while now there are almost 
25,000, bringing a daily mail service to more than 12,500,000 rural 
dwellers. This system is now established in 142 counties in the 
United States. It is proving a great factor in bringing the 
country people into closer touch with the outer world, among 
its advanJLages being that it advances general intelligence 
through the increased circulation of legitimate journals and 
periodicals, encourages a desire for letter writing, quickens bus- 
iness transactions, and so on. 

Por the benefit of people living in remote districts where the 
population is too scanty to justify the establishment of rural 
free delivery, the postoflice department has arranged for the 
delivery of mall into boxes along the lines of 20,000 star routes, 
aggregating 249,000 miles in length, and over 500,000 people are 
having their mail delivered to them by star route carriers in 
this way. All reports so far are to the effect that the service 
is proving satisfactory. 

The appropriation made by Congress for the continuation 
and extension of rural free delivery service for the year endinir 
June 30, 1904, was $12,921,700. 



TELEPHONE SERVICE IN CONNECTION WITH FREE 

DELIVERY. 

The extension of the rural free delivery service and the con- 
sequent increase in the use of the mails by the patrons residing 
along the rural routes, together with the extension of the tele- 
phone service into the farming districts of the country, has sug- 
gested the propriety of extending the privilege of the special 
delivery of such letters, or the contents thereof, by means of 
the telephone, it being proposed that a special stamp be pro- 
vided covering the cost of such transmission, the use of which 
stamp would authorize the postmaster at the office of delivery 
to open such letter and telephone its contents to the person to 
whom it is addressed. It will be seen that if such plan is feasi- 
ble, 24 hours' time will be saved in the transmission of impor- 
tant messages to many people residing along the line.s of rural 
delivery routes. 



240 AMERICAN AGRICULTUMST 

COST OF RURAL FREE DELIVERY SERVICE. 



Number Cost of service 
Year of carriers in millions 



190:J 15,119 $8,011 

1902 8,466 3,993 

1901 4,301 1,749 

1900 1,276 420 

1899 391 149 

1898 148 49 

1897 44 — 



RURAL BOXES. 

Patrons of the rural free delivery service are required to 
furnish at their own cost a box for the reception of their mail, 
complying with certain specifications as to size, shape and "work- 
manship, and made of galvanized sheet Iron or sheet steel, the 
same to be approved by the postoffice department.. There are 
severe penalties for the depredation of approved boxes. 



THE DISCONTINUANCE OF STAR SERVICE. 

The star service discontinued during the year ended June 
30, 190H, by reason of the establishment of rural free delivery 
service, amounted to $303,195.94. In some cases the postoffice 
department subsequently found it necessary to re-establish the 
star service, but the cost of service as re-established has not 
been deducted from the amount above named. 



POSTAL CHECKS. 

The rapid extension of the rural free delivery service has 
Increased the demand that the government shall provide some 
easy, convenient and safe method for the transmission of small 
sums of money through the mails, and the importance of pass- 
ing some law which will insure the people this advantage is 
being urged upon congress. As the free delivery service has 
been extended, the number of letters carrying small sums of 
currency has greatly increased. At present there is no con- 
venient method provided in the rural districts for making such 
remittances through the mails, except in currency or postage 
stamps* and such remittances are a constant temptation to 
those handling them. The post check or the coupon dollar 
shown herewith seems to be the simplest and safest means of 
obviating this evil. 







TEN CENTS ,, 



TEN CENTS 



-artf*l>*i>fif»i^Sr*t»- 



01 



TWENTYFWE CENTS 



FIFTY CENTS 






n 









242 



AMERICAN AGBICULTURIST 



POSTOFFICES BY STATES AND KINDS. 
[Fiscal year ending June 30, 1903.] 



Number 

Whole of pres- 
States and number idential 
. territories of offices offices 

Alabama 2,550 55 

Alaska 101 4 

Arizona 257 21 

Arkansas 2,037 60 

California 1,658 152 

Colorado 752 57 

Connecticut 446 89 

Delaware 132 15 

District of Columbia. 1 1 

Florida 1,181 40 

Georgia 2,474 80 

Idaho 501 30 

Illinois 2.347 314 

Indiana 1,862 185 

Indian Territory 668 39 

Iowa 1,633 285 

Kansas 1,475 161 

Kentucky 3269 77 

Louisiana 1,314 43 

Maine 1,166 72 

Maryland 1,020 38 

Massachusetts 790 177 

Michlgran 1,929 233 

Minnesota 1,586 169 

Mississippi 2,187 61 

Missouri 2,813 170 

Montana 546 33 

Nebraska 1,002 126 

Nevada 186 12 

New Hampshire 527 54 

New Jersey 875 125 

New Mexico 387 14 

New York 3,319 392 

North Carolina 3,082 74 

North Dakota 768 51 

Ohio 2,920 261 

Oklahoma 863 47 

Oregon 870 42 

Pennsylvania 4,912 360 

Rhode Island 137 23 

South Carolina 1,246 39 

South Dakota 649 59 

Tennessee 2,477 63 



Gross 
Money Total receipts, 
order offices thou- 
offlces 4th class sands 



683 


2,495 


$1,054 


21 


97 


35 


89 


236 


219 


600 


1,977 


887 


847 


1,506 


3,852 


342 


695 


1,470 


282 


357 


1,988 


57 


117 


224 


.— 


— 


871 


418 


1.141 


673 


671 


2,394 


1.719 


163 


471 


313 


1,159 


2,033 


13,696 


831 


1,677 


3,342 


166 


629 


373 


1,003 


1,348 


3,433 


764 


1.314 


1,980 


607 


3,192 


1,812 


366 


1,271 


1.220 


455 


1.094 


1,320 


307 


982 


1.965 


432 


613 


7,542 


810 


1,696 


4.252 


640 


1*417 


3,379 


393 


2,126 


816 


1,192 


2,643 


6,071 


169 


613 


514 


491 


876 


1.788 


47 


174 


117 


248 


473 


713 


403 


750 


3.367 


109 


373 


198 


1,587 


2,927 


23,062 


468 


3,008 


1,129 


244 


717 


680 


1,265 


2,659 


7,764 


246 


816 


601 


334 


828 


789 


2,379 


4,562 


11,666 


75 


114 


827 


273 


1,207 


632 


252 


590 


586 


495 


2,414 


1,622 



TBAJt BOOK AND ALMAXAC 248 
POSTOPFICES BY STATES AND KINDS— Continued. 

Number Gross 

Whole ofpres- Money Total receipts 

States and number idential order offices thou- 

territori es of offices offices offices 4th class sands 

Texas ..~ 3,313 197 1,087 3,116 2.865 

Utah -330 17 126 313 413 

Vermont 533 47 290 486 ,648 

Virginia 3,722 72 764 3,650 1,763 

Washington 945 56 363 889 1,170 

West Virginia 2.230 58 356 2,172 980 

Wisconsin I.«i75 165 710 1,510 3,044 

Wyoming 331 16 92 315 181 

Hawaii 91 4 53 87 117 

Porto Rico 81 4 28 77 91 

Tutuila (Samoa) 1—11 — 

Guam 1 — 1 1 — 

Midway Islands 1 — — 1 — 

Total 74.169 5.039 2 6. 164 69. 130 $93,466 

STATISTICS OF THE POSTAL SERVICE. 

[From the annual reports of the postmaster general.] 

[In millions of dollars.] 

Expended for ^ 

transportation of ^ P 

Year Post- Extent Revenue , s 75 ^ 

ended offices of post of dep't Domltic For'^n ^g 

June 30 routes mail mail ^ ^ 

Number Miles Thousands 

1903 74,169 506,268 $134 $63 $2,580 $138 

1902 75,924 507,540 121 59 2,410 124 

1901 76,945 511,808 111 56 2,148 115 

1900 76.688 500,990 102 54 2,100 107 

1899 75,000 496,949 95 52 1.769 101 

1898 73,570 480.461 89 50 1,760 98 

1897 71.022 470,032 82 48 1,890 94 

1896 70,360 463,313 82 47 1,530 90 

1895 70,064 456,026 76 46 1,173 86 

1894 69,805 455,746 75 45 1,239 84 

1893 68,403 453.833 75 41 1,097 81 

1892 67,119 447,591 70 39 774 76 

1891 64,329 439,027 65 37 620 71 

1890 62,401 427.990 60 34 563 65 

1889 58,999 416,159 56 32 541 01 

1888 57,376 403,977 52 29 547 56 

1887 55.157 373,142 48 27 402 53 

1885 51.252 365,251 42 27 331 50 

1880 42,898 343,888 33 20 199 36 

1876 36,383 281,798 28 17 753 33 



244 AMERICAN AGRICUI.TURIST 

RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OP POSTOPFICE SERV- 
ICE BY DECADES, AND FOR 1903 AND 1904. 

[Receipts, expenditures, surplus and deficit, in thousands.] 

Year No. of offices Receipts Expenditures Surplus Deficit 

1904 71,131 $143,582 $152,362 ^^^^^ $8,779 

1903# 74,169 134,224 138,784 — 4,560 

1902 75,924 121,848 124,809 — 2,961 

1892 67,119 70,930 76,980 — 6,050 

1882 46,231 41,883 40,482 $1,400 — 

1872 31,863 21,915 26,658 — 4.742 

1862 28,875 8,299 11,125 — 2,825 

1852 20,901 6,925 7,108 — 182 

1842 13,733 4,546 5,674 — 1,127 

1832 .: 9,205 2,258 2,266 — 7 

1822 4,709 1,117 1,167 — $50 

1812 2,610 649 540 109 — 

1802 1,U4 327 269 57 — 

1792 195 67 54 12 — 

ESTIMATES. 

Postal revenue, year ending June 30, 1903 $134,224,443.00 

Add 9 per cent 12,080,199.87 

Estimated revenue for 1904 146,304,642.87 

Appropriation for 1904 153,511,549.75 

Estimated deficit for 1904 7,206,906.88 

Estimated revenue for 1904 $146,304,642.87 

Add 9 per cent 13,167,417.85 

Estimated revenue for 1905 159,472,060.72 

Estimated expenditures for 1905 168,085,770.00 

Estimated deficit for 1905 8,613,709.28 

ELECTRIC CAR SERVICE. 

On June 30, 1903, there were In operation 379 electric and 
cable car routes, with a total length of 4283 miles, an annual 
travel of 8,585,950 miles, and costing $46,216. The increase in 
length was 775 miles, in annual travel 1,051,193 miles, and in 
annual expenditure $46,867. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 245 

MAIL TRANSPORTATION. 

On June 30, 1903, the total number of domestic routes of all 
classes was 33,448; their length 506.268 miles, and the annual 
travel 493,193,359 miles. Compared with the preceding year this 
Is a decrease in length of routes of 1272 miles, but an increase 
in annual travel of 18.958,671 miles. The expenditure for such 
service for the last fiscal year was $63,594,542.34, an increase of 
$4,312,664.81. 

INTERNATIONAL MONEY ORDERS. 

Special forms of application for foreign money orders will be 
furnished to persons who desire them. 

The value of the British pound sterling in L^nited States 
money is fixed by convention at $4.87; the German mark at 24 
cents gold; French and Swiss franc and Italian lire at 19.4 cents 
gold; Swedish and Norwegian kroner at 27 cents; Netherlands 
florin at 41 cents, Portuguese milreis at 80 cents. 

International money orders are issued payable in Africa, 
Algeria, Arabia, Australia, Austria, Azores. Bahamas, Ber- 
muda, British Bechuanaland, Borneo, British Guiana. British 
Honduras, Bulgaria, Canada, Cape Colony, Ceylon, Chili, China, 
Crete, Cuba, Cyprus, Danish West Indies, Denmark, Dutch. East 
Indies, Egypt, Falkland Islands, Faroe Islands, Finland. France, 
Germany, Gibraltar, Great Britain and Ireland, Hawaiian Is- 
lands, Honduras, Hongkong. Hungary. Iceland, India, Italy, 
Jamaica, Japan, Java. Leeward Islands, Luxemburg, Madeira, 
Malacca^ Malta, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New South 
Wales, Newfoundland, New Zealand, North Borneo, Norway, 
Orange River Colony, Panama, Persia, Porto Rico, Portugal, 
Queensland, Rhodes, Roumania, Russia, St. Helena, Salvador, 
Servia, Siam, South Australia, Spice Islands, Straits Settle- 
ments, Sumatra, Sweden, Switzerland, Tasmania, Tobago, Trans- 
vaal, Trinidad, Tripoli, Tunis. Turkey, Victoria, Western Aus- 
tralia, West Indies, Windward Islands and Zanzibar. 
Fees collected on international money orders: 

Not exceeding $10 $0.10 Not exceeding $60 $0.60 

Not exceeding $20 20 Not exceeding $70 70 

Not exceeding $30 30 Not exceeding $80 ZC 

Not exceeding $40 40 Not exceeding $90 90 

Not exceeding $50 50 Not exceeding $100 1.00 

Rates of fees for Mexico, Costa Rica, Liberia, the Transvaal 
and Bolivia: 

Orders for sums $10 or less.$0.0S Over $50, not exceeding $60.. $0.30 

Over $10, not exceeding $20. . .10 Over $60, not exceeding $70. . .35 

Over $20, not exceeding $30. . .15 Over $70, not exceeding $80. . .40 

Over $30, not exceeding $40. . .20 Over $80, not exceeding $90. . ,45 

Over $40, not exceeding $50. . .25 Over $90, not exceeding $100. .50 



246 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

The maximum amount for which a singrle international 
money order may be drawn is, for orders payable in— 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Cape Col- 
ony and Jamaica (as heretofore) £10 5s 4d= ^ 

New Zealand £20 10s 8d= 100 

Queensland £20 10s 8d= 100 

France, Algeria and Tunis Francs 515= 100 

Belgium Francs 515=r ICO 

Switzerland Francs 515= 100 

Italy Lire or francs 515= 100 

Portugal Milrels 113.640 rels= 100 

Netherlands Florins 243.90 cents= ICO 

Germany Marks 416.67= 100 

Sweden Kroner 370=:= 100 

Norway Kroner 370= 100 

Denmark Kroner 370^ 100 

Canada 100 

Hawaiian (or Sandwich) Islands 100 

Japan 100 

Honduras 100 

Newfoundland 100 

New South Wales £20 10s 8d^ 100 

Victoria £20 10s 8d= 100 

Tasmginia £20 10s 8d= 100 

Windward Islands £20 10s 8d= 100 

Leeward Islands £20 10s Sd= 100 

Bahamas £20 10s 8d= 100 

The Colony of Trinidad and Tobago £20 10s 8d= ICO 

Austria Francs 515= 100 

Hungary Francs 515= 100 

British Guiana £10 5s 4d= 50 

Bermuda £10 5s 4d=r 50 

South Australia £20 10s 8d= 100 

Luxemburg, Grand Duchy of Francs 515= 100 

Salvador 100 

Hongkong 100 

Finland Kroner 370= 100 

Servia .Francs 515=: 100 

Egypt 100 

Chili 100 

British Honduras £20 10s 8d=:= 100 

Cuba 100 

Porto Rico 100 

Mexico 100 

Russia 194 rubles 33 copeks= 100 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 247 

COST OF DOMESTIC MONEY ORDERS. 

On orders not exceeding $2.50 $0.03 

Over $2.50 and not exceeding $5 05 

Over $5 and not exceeding $10 08 

Over $10 and not exceeding $20 10 

Over $20 and not exceeding $30 12 

Over $30 and not exceeding $40 15 

Over $40 and not exceeding $50 18 

Over $50 and not exceeding $60 20 

Over $60 and not exceeding $75 25 

Over $75 and not exceeding $100 30 

RATES OP POSTAGE. 

First-Class Matter— Letters, matter wholly or partly in writ- 
ing, drawings and plans containing written words, letters or de- 
scriptive figures, and matter wliich is sealed against inspec- 
tion, are flrst-class matter, and subject to the postage rate of 
2 cents for each ounce or fraction thereof. This rate applies also 
to letters for Canada, Mexico, Porto Rico, Guam and the Phil- 
ippine Islands. 

On local or drop letters, 2 cents for each ounce or fraction 
thereof; where there is no carrier system, 1 cent an ounce. 

Postal cards having anything attached except a label of 
address, or having writing or printing on the face other than 
the address, are subject to letter rates of postage. 

Second-Class Matter— Embraces "all newspapers and other 
periodical publications which are issued at stated intervals and 
as frequently as four times a year, originated and published for 
the dissemination of information of a public character, or de- 
voted to literature, the sciences, arts' or some special industry, 
and which have a legitimate list of subscribers, provided, how- 
ever, that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to 
admit to the second-class rate regular publications, designed pri- 
marily for advertising purposes or free circulation, or for circu- 
lation at nominal rates." On newspapers and periodical publica- 
tions of the second class, when sent by others than the publisher 
or news agent, the postage shall be prepaid at the rate of one 
cent for each four ounces of fractional part thereof. 

Thlrd-Class Matter— Embraces books, circulars, photographs, 
printed labels, proof sheets, corrected proof sheets with manu- 
script copy accompanying the same, seeds, cuttings, roots, 
scions and plants; and postage shall be paid thereon at the rate 
of 1 cent for each two ounces or fractional part thereof. 

Fourth-Class Matter— Embraces blank address tags or labels, 
patterns, playing cards, visiting cards, ornamented paper, en- 
velopes plain or printed, paper ba^s plain or printed, and sam- 
ples of merchandise, models, samples of ores, metals, minerals, 
cut flowers, or any other matter not Included in the first, sec- 



248 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

ond or third classes, and which is not liable to destroy or other- 
wise damage the contents of the mail bag. Postage rate thereon, 
1 cent for each ounce or fractional part thereof. 

The act regulating second«class matter was passed March 3, 
1879, and remained legally unchanged until March, 1900, when it 
was decided that "the legitimate list of subscribers prescribed 
by law must approximate 50 per cent of the number of copies 
regularly Issued and circulated by mail or otherwise." The 
phrase "periodical publications" is now ruled to include "only 
those which consist of current news or miscellaneous literature 
matter or both, not excluding advertising." Another rulingr of 
interest is that, interpreting the phrase "for the dissemination 
of information of a public character" as barring local religrlous 
publications. Among the various phases of the mailing problem 
now under consideration are: The attempt to stop the practice 
of subscribing in bulk for publications, the admittance of sann- 
pie copies at the same rate as those subscribed for, and the 
"recommendation of a rate of 4 cents a pound for all publica- 
tions excepting dailies, weeklies, semi-weeklies and tri-weeklies." 



The Parcels Post 



HOW THE EXPRESS COMPANIES AND THE POSTOP.FICB 
IMPOSE A HIGH TAX UPON THE TRANSPORTATION 
OF PACKAGES— A SIMPLE REMEDY IN THE PARCELS 
POST. 

From the cradle to the grave, every individual in America 
is constantly, insidiously and unjustly taxed, by reason of the 
extortionate charges for transporting merchandise packages by 
either express or mail. The abuse is one of the rankest to which 
the public submits. 

No consideration exists which justifies a longer continuance 
of this evil. On the contrary, the time is ripe for the introduc- 
tion of a parcels post that shall make easy and cheap the trans- 
portation of large or small parcels between the people of this 
country. 

The parcels post long since became indispensable in Great 
Britain and most European countries, at rates from 25 to 95 
per cent less than the postage or express charges in the United 
States. It is absolutely certain that the parcels post could be 
introduced here on a basis that would be self-sustaining. 

Already the postofflce carries each year 2000 million parcels 
of magazines and newspapers at 1 cent per pound, the limit 
of weight being a 220-pound mail sack. 

Over 100 million parcels of magazines and newspapers are 
mailed by the general public annually at 4 cents per pound, and 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC S4i 

nearly 1000 million parcels of books are posted yearly at 8 cents 
per pound, the weight limit in these two cases being four pounds 
per package. 

Over 300 million parcels of magazines and local newspapers 
are carried post free eac|i year within the county of publication. 

But of general merchandise, only about 75 million parcels 
are carried in the mails yearly, because the rate is 16 cents per 
pound, and the weight of a single package cannot exceed four 
pounds. 

The total number of parcels carried in the mails each year 
now probably exceeds 4000 millions in number, and 250,000 tons 
in weight. This greatly exceeds both in number of pieces and 
weight, the letter post. 

The public want the merchandise rate of postage reduced 
to 1 cent for three ounces, 5 cents for one pound, and 25 cents 
for 11 pounds. 

Express companies are fighting this reform tooth and nail, 
because they say it would transfer much of their business to 
the mails. 

The express companies also oppose the public demand for 
a suitable postal currency, to supersede the present inconvenient 
and costly postal money order service. The latter seems to be 
cleverly designed to compel people to send money by express 
orders. It is a notorious fact that the express companies thus 
obtain the use of millions of capital, not only free of cost ex- 
cept for transportation, but are actually paid for handling the 
money. It is as though a depositor not only received no inter- 
est on his money in the bank, but actually paid the bank 1 or 
2 per cent per annum on his deposit for having the use of his 
money! 

The express companies compete with the postofflce in every 
possible way. They transport and deliver certain parcels at a 
fraction less than the postage rate. 

But the express companies in Great Britain and Europe 
compete profitably even with the low rates on parcels post 
which prevail in those countries. In Germany, parcels are car- 
ried all distances at a total cost of only 12 cents for an 11-pound 
package, while parcels up to 110 pounds in weight may be posted 
at a proportional reduction per pound. In Switzerland the rates 
are much less. 

In the United States the postage on merchandise averages 
about 16 times as much as the rate in Germany. For instance, 
it costs 64 cents to mail four pounds in the United States, while 
in Germany 110 pounds may be mailed for only 60 cents. 

There is a library post in Germany and Switzerland by 
which, at a cost of only 3 cents for four pounds, you can have 
any book you want mailed to you from the public library and 
carried back from your home to the library, the 3 cents cov- 
ering postage both ways. 

In the United States the rate is 16 cents per pound each 
way« making four pounds of library books cost $1.28 for the 



260 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

round trip from home to library and back. The library post is 
therefore three times as expensive here as abroad. 

Tlie free delivery of letters and papers has been a great 
convenience to farmers, so much so that this year congrress ap- 
propriated $20,000,000 for this service, whereas only a few years 
ago it utterly refused to even authorize the experiment of rural 
free delivery. 

But the farmer is still compelled to hitch up his team and 
go to the postofRce every time he wants to receive a package 
of merchandise or mail a pound of produce. 

Not only that, but the rate of postage is so high as to make 
the mails practically prohibitive for his business. The farmer, 
like other people, therefore, has to pay the express companies 
their robber tariff. 

Yet the rural mail carrier is going right by every farm- 
house every day. Here is an agency by which, were the rates 
reasonable, farmers could ship their produce fresh every day 
direct to consumers, and in return could have any kind of 
merchandise they want delivered at the farmer's door. 

If the postage on parcels post were reduced to say 1 cent 
for three ounces, 5 cents for one pound, and 25 cents for 11 
pounds, the service would doubtless be self-sustaining. And 
there would be business enough left for the express companies 
to earn a reasonable dividend on their actual investment. But 
Uncle Sam would better buy out the express companies, at the 
present market quotation, rather than delay making lower 
rates on the parcels post. 

Of course the express lobby at Washington is, at first sight, 
a hard one to overcome, since Thomas C. Piatt, United States 
senator from New York, is president of the United States ex- 
press company. 

Yet a grand, overwhelming demand for parcels post, unani- 
mously voiced and insisted upon by the great public, will com- 
pel favorable action by congress, just as it compelled favorable 
action for rural free delivery. 



It's a shame the way the express companies tax the public 
through excessive rates on small parcels. This is due to the 
high postage on merchandise. Here in America the postage is 
16 cents per pound on merchandise and package must not exceed 
four pounds in weight. In Switzerland, the rate is only 3 cents 
per pound up to 11 pounds, and in Germany 6 cents, with 11 
pounds limit. 

During the fiscal year 1904 there were received by the United 
States 54.078 parcels, with a total weight of 192,396 pounds. Com- 
pared with the previous year this shows a decrease in the num- 
ber of parcels of 20,072 and a decrease in weight of 276,449 pounds. 
Parcels post conventions have recently been completed with 
Hongkong, Japan and Norway. Each of these conventions re- 
stricts the value of any parcel to $50 and its weight to 4 pounds 
6 ounces, which restrictions now ap[)ly also to parcels exchanged 
between this country and Germany. 



TBAR BOOK AND AUCANAC 261 

PARCELS POST REGULATIONS. 

In Bolivia, Chiie, Guatemala, British Guiana, Honduras* 
British Honduras, Nickragua. Salvador and Venezuela, the 
greatest length allowable for a package is 3 feet 6 inches, and 
the greatest length and girth combined 6 feet; in Colombia, 
Costa Rica and Mexico, the greatest length is 2 feet and the 
greatest girth 4 feet. The greatest weight allowable is 11 
pounds in all of the countries. The postage for a parcel not 
exceeding one pound is 12 cents, and 12 cents for every additional 
pound or fraction of a pound, In all of the above mentioned 
countries except Bolivia and Chile, where 20 cents Is charged 
for a parcel not exceeding one pound, and 20 cents for every 
additional pound or fraction of a pouivd. The exchange post- 
offlces. which may dispatch and receive parcels post mail are 
shown in the following table: 



f Exchange postofflces % 

Countries United States Latin America 

Bolivia New York and San La Paz. 

Francisco. 

Chile New York and San Valparaiso. 

Francisco 

Colombia ,. All offices authorized to exchange mails 

Costa Rica between the two countries. 

Guatemala New York, New Or- Guatemala City, 

leans and San Retalhuleu and 
Francisco. Puerto Barrios. 

Guiana, British All offices authorized to exchange mails. 

Honduras New York, New Or- Tegucigalpa, Puerto 

leans and San Cortez, Amapala 
Francisco. and Trujillo. 

Honduras. British.. New Orleans. Belize. 

Mexico All offices authorized to exchange mails. 

Nicaragua New York, New Or- Bluefields. San Juan 

leans and San del Norte and Co- 
Francisco, rinto. 

Salvador New York and San San Salvador. 

Francisco. 

Venezuela All offices authorized to exchange mails. 



252 , AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Education 

SUCCESS OF CONSOLIDATION OF SCHOOLS. 

There are now 20 states where Ihe plan of uniting several 
small ungraded schools into a single large graded one is in 
operation in the rural towns to a greater or less extent. Con- 
solidation has proved a succes"^ in every case, and has been 
found less expensive than the district schools, even after pay- 
ing for the transportation of the children living at a distance. 
In Massachusetts, over 65 per cent of the townships have been 
consolidated in whole or in part. Consolidation exists largely in 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Vermont, Ohio, 
Indiana, Iowa and Kansas, iand to some extent in Maine, Rhode 
Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North 
Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Louisiana and 
Florida. The following will show the comparative cost of the 
two plans; 

DISTRICT PLAN. 

Salaries for seven teachers for seven months $2492.00 

Institute fee for seven institutes 124.60 

Fuel for seven rooms at $30 per room 210.00 

Supplies for seven rooms at $10 per room 70.00 

Repairs at $20 per room 140.00 

Total $3036.60 

CONSOLIDATION PLAN. 

Salaries for 'four teachers for seven months $1442.00 

Institute fee for seven institutes 72.10 

Fuel for four rooms at $30 per room 120.00 

Supplies for four rooms at $10 per room 40.00 

Repairs at $20 per room 80.00 

Total $1754.10 

Transportation at $8.87 per day $1225.00 

Difference in favor of consolidation 57.50 



$3036.60 

AGRICULTURAL HIGH SCHOOLS. 

Agricultural high schools between the country school and 
the college of agriculture have proved successful and very prac- 
tical in Minnesota, Nebraska and North Dakota. They are more 
practical for country young people than are city high schools 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



268 



for city youth, and other states, as Maine, Alabama and Wis- 
consin, are starting them. 

Large agricultural high schools, in which each student has 
the advantages of a large equipment of laboratories, improved 
live stock, etc., and of a strong faculty of specialists, and to 
which come students from consolidated rural schools prepared 
in the academic studies, can provide the technical training in 
agriculture and country home making in the shortest practica- 
ble time, at the least expense to the state and pupil, and in the 
very best way. 

A state agricultural college, supplied with graduates of agri- 
cultural high schools, would be able to give advanced work 
that would turn out teachers, experimenters and specialists in 
farming of a high order. This system would provide experiment 
farms, demonstration farms and model farms. Each state would 
have its central experiment station farm at the agricultural 
college, and a branch station farm at each agricultural high 
school. These would serve for purposes of instruction as well 
as for experimental work. At each consolidated rural school 
a miniature farm of 10 acres would serve to demonstrate many 
of the things wrought out by experiment stations and many 
practical details of farm work. 



STATISTICS OF SCHOOL SYSTEMS. 



Estimate 
of popula- 
tion in 1902 

United States 78,544,816 

North Atlantic division... 21 ,802 ,750 
South , Atlantic division... 10.696, 435 

South central division 14,715,700 

North central division.... 26 ,912 ,400 
Western division 4,417.531 



-No. children of school age-^ 
Boys Girls Total 



11,217,401 


11,044,462 


22,261,863 


2,666,035 


2,633,755 


5,329.790 


1,7U,395 


1.689,728 


3.401.123 


2,445,342 


2,383,097 


4,828,439 


3,833,806 


3,760,164 


7,593,970 


560,823 


547,718 


1,108,541 



NUMBER OF PUPILS OF ALL AGES ENROLLED IN 

SCHOOLS IN 1902. 



Boys 



United States 8,609,418 

North Atlantic division.1,872.442 
South Atlantic division. 1,120 ,271 
South central division.. 1,584,924 
North central division.. 2, 968 ,396 
Western division 463,385 





Per cent of 




school popu- 






lation en- 


Girls 


Total 


rolled, '02 


7,916,469 


15,925,887 


71.54 


1.861.241 


3,733,683 


70.05 


1,159,019 


2,279,290 


67.02 


1.571,666 


3,156,590 


65.37 


2,898,000 


5,866,396 


77.25 


426,543 


899,928 


80.28 



264 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY OP TEACHERS. 



Male 

TnTted States $49.05' 

North Atlantic division 59.01 

South Atlantic division 30.50 

South central division 44.28 

North central division 50.85 

Western division 65.90 



Female 

~$39.77~~ 
40.17 
28.60 
36.88 
39.60 
53.73 



WHOLE NUMBER OF TEACHERS 

SCHOOLS. 



EMPLOYED IN 



Male 



Female 



Total 



United States 122,392 

North Atlantic division 18,069 

South Atlantic division 19,567 

South central division 30,652 

North central division 48,152 

Western division 5,952 



317,204 


439,596 


90.003 


108,072 


31,818 


51,385 


34,848 


65.500 


139,691 


187,843 


20,844 


26,796 



SCHOOL EXPENDITURE. 





Total 
expended 
in roun 
1889-90 


amount 
I for schools 
d millions 
1901-2 

$235 
91 
14 
16 
93 
19 


Per capita 
of population 
1889-90 1901-2 


United States 

North Atlantic division. 
South Atlantic division. 
South central division.. 
North central division.. 
Western division 


$140 

48 

8 

10 

63 

10 


$2:24 $2.99 

2.76 4.18 

.99 1.32 

.97 1.14 

2.81 3.48 

3.37 4.39 


AVERAGE NUMBER DAYS 


SCHOOLS WERE KEPT. 




1889-90 


1901-2 


Avg. no. days 
attended by 
each pupil en- 
rolled in 1901-2 


United States 


134.7 


145.0 
177.3 
115.8 
100.6 
156.5 
143.9 


100.1 


North Atlantic division. 
South Atlantic division. 
South central division .. 
North central division . 
Western division 


66.6 

99.9 

. . . ( . 88.2 

148.0 

135.0 


130.2 
73.4 
66.9 

100.4 
99.2 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 255 

PUPILS IN SPECIAL SCHOOLS, 1901-2. 
[Report of Coipmissioner of Education.] 

City evening schools, estimated 207,162 

Business sciiools 137,247 

Schools for defectives 28,827 

Reform schools 35,247 

Government Indian schools 24,120 

Indian schools (five civilized tribes) 13,864 

Schools in Alaska 3,441 

Orphan asylums 15,000 

Private kindergartens , 105,932 

Miscellaneous 50,000 

620,840 
Schools and colleges, public and private 17,460,000 

18,080,840 
NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

The first training school for teachers was opened in Stettin, 
Prussia, in 1735. The first one in the United States was at Lex- 
ington. Mass. (now moved to Framingham, Mass.), in 1839. 
Now every state and territory, excepting Wyoming and Ne- 
vada, where teachers are educated in the state colleges, has at 
least one normal school. There are in the United States (1901-2) 
173 public and 109 private normal schools, with a total of 3277 
instructors, 65,068 students and 10,005 graduates. 

PUBLIC NORMAL SCHOOLS. 

Alabama— Florence, Jacksonville, Livingston, Montgomery, Nor- 
mal (colored), Troy. 

Arizona— Tempe. 

Arkansas— Pine Bluft. 

California— Chico, Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose. 

Colorado— Greeley. 

Connecticut— Bridgeport, New Britain, New Haven, Willimantic. 

Delaware— Wilmington. 

District of Columbia— Washington. 

Florida— De Funiak Springs, Tallahassee. 

Georgia— Athens, Milledgeville. ^ 

Idaho— Albion, Lewis ton. 

Illinois— Carbondale, Chicago, Station O, Normal. 

Indiana^-Indianapolis, Terre Haute. 

Iowa— Boonesboro, Cedar Falls, Dexter, Rockwell City, Wood- 
bine. 

Kansas— Emporia. 



256 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Kentucky— Corinth, Frankfort (colored), Hazard, Louisville, 
Magnolia, Temple Hill, Upton. 

Louisiana-^Natchitoches, New Orleans. 

Maine— Cas tine, Farmington, Fort Ivent, Gorham. 

Maryland— Baltimore (Maryland State Normal School; Baltimore 
Normal School for Education of Colored Teachers). 

Massachusetts — Boston (Boston Normal School; Massuchusetts 
Normal Art School), Bridgewater, Cambridge, Fitchburg, 
Framingham, Lowell, North Adams, Salem, Westfield, Wor- 
cester. 

Michigan— Detroit, Mount Pleasant, Tpsilanti. 

Minnesota— Mankato, Moorhead, St. Cloud, St. Paul, AVinona. 

Mississippi— Abbeville, Holly Springs (Holly Springs Normal In- 
stitute; Mississippi State Normal School), Paris, Sherman, 
Troy, Walnut Grove. 

Missouri— Cape Girardeau, KirksvIUe, St. Louis, Warrensburg. 

Montana— Dillon. 

Nebraska— Peru. 

New Hampshire— Plymouth. 

New Jersey — Newark, Paterson, Trenton. 

New Mexico— Silver (iity. 

New York— Albany, Brockport, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Cortland, 
Fredonia, Geneseo, Jamaica, New Paltz, New York, Oneonta, 
Oswego, Plattsburg, Potsdam, Syracuse. 

North Carolina— Elizabeth City (colored), Fayetteville (colored), 
Franklinton, Goldsboro, Greensboro, Plymouth, Salisbury. 

North Dakota— Mayville, Valley City. 

Ohio— Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, Geneva, Wads- 
worth. 

Oklahoma— Edmond. 

Oregon— Ashland, Drain, Monmouth, Weston. 

Pennsylvania— Bloomsburg, California, Clarion, East Strouds- 
burg, Edinboro, Indiana, Kutztown, Lockhaven, Mansfield, 
Millersville, Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Shippensburg, Slippery 
Rock, West Chester. 

Rhode Island— Providence. 

South Carolina— Rockhlll." 

South Dakota— Madison, Spearflsh, Springfield. 

Tennessee— Nashville. 

Texas— Detroit, Huntsvllle, Timpson. 

Utah— Cedar City, Salt Lake City. 

Vermont— Castleton, Johnson, Randolph. 

Virginia — Farmville, Hampton, Petersburg. 

Washington— Cheney, EUensburg. 

West Virginia— Athens, Fairmont, Glenville, Huntington, Insti- 
tute (colored), Shepherdstown, West Liberty. 

Wisconsin— Milwaukee, Oshkosh. Plattsville, River Falls, Ste- 
phens Point, West Superior, Whitewater. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 257 

SCHOOLS FOR MANUAL TRAINING. 

There were in 1901-2, 163 schools devoted chiefly to manual 
training, with nearly 50,0C0 pupils; 39 of these schools were for 
Indian children. Besides these special schools. 270 public schools 
in 1901-2 gave manual instruction to the pupils. This work be- 
gan in 1890 in :^7 cities, and has steadily increased until the last 
report shows 270 cities giving this training. 

SCHOOLS IN ALASKA. 

In 1901-2 there were in Alaska 27 schools, with 33 teachers, 
and a total of 1791 pupils. Four of these schools were for white 
pupils, three for both white and native, and the rest for natives, 
including Eskimos, Aleuts and Indians. Fifty Alaskan children 
were also attending the Carlisle Indian school, most of them 
doing well in all ways. Missions of 11 denominations have 
schools in connection with their religious work. 

SCHOOLS FOR THE DEFECTIVE CLASSES. 

There are reported 39 schools for the blind, with 487 instruc- 
tors and 4315 pupils. There are 105.804 books in the libraries of 
these schools, and in the year 1901-2 $77,877 was expended for 
buildings and improvements, and $1,072,512 for support. 

In 121 schools for the deaf are 1,315 teachers and 11,938 pupils. 
The sum of $467,124 was expended for buildings and $2,189,677 for 
salaries and support. Of these institutions, 57 are state, 49 pub- 
lic day schools, and 15 private. 

There are 20 state and 12 private schools for the feeble- 
minded, wnth 339 teachers, 801 assistants and 12,579 pupils. 

STATE INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BLIND. 

Alabama— Talladega, Alabama Academy for the Blind. 
Arkansas— Little Rock, Arkansas School for the Blind. 
California — Berkeley, California Institution for the Deaf and 

Blind. 
Colorado — Colorado Springs, Colorado School for the Deaf and 

Blind. 
Florida— St. Augustine, State Institute for the Deaf and Blind. 
Georgia — Macon, Georgia Academy for the Blind. 
Illinois — Jacksonville, Illinois Institution for the Education of the 

Blind. 
Indiana — Indianapolis, Indiana Institution for the Education of 

the Blind. 
Iowa— Vinton, Iowa College for the Blind. 
Kansas— Kansas City, State Institution for the Education of 

the Blind. 



268 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Kentucky-^liouisville, Kentucky Institution for the Bducation 
of the Blind. 

Louisiana—Baton Rouge, State Institution for the Kducation 
of the Blind. 

Maryland— Baltimore, Maryland School for Colored Blind and 
Deaf; Maryland School for the Blind. 

Massachusetts— South Boston, Perkins Institute and Massachu- 
setts School for Blind. 

Michigan— Lansing, Michigan School for Blind. 

Minnesota— iFarlbault, Minnesota School for Blind. 

Mississippi— Jackson, Institution for the Blind of Mississippi. 

Missouri— St Louis, Missouri School for Blind. 

Montana— Boulder, Montana Deaf and Dumb Asylum. 

Nebraska— Nebraska City, Nebraska Institute for the Blind. 

New York- Batavia, New York State School for the Blind. 
New York, New York Institution for the Blind. 

North Carolina— Raleigh, North Carolina Institution for the Ed- 
ucation of the Deaf and Dumb and Blind. 

Ohio— Columbus, Ohio Institution for the Blind. 

Oregon— Salem, Oregon School for the Blind. 

Pennsylvania— Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Institution for the In- 
structlon of the Blind. 
Pittsburg, Western Pennsylvania Institution for the Blind. 

South Carolina— Cedar Springs, South Carolina Institution for 
the Education of the Deaf and Blind. 

Tennessee— Nashville, Tennessee School for Blind. 

Texas— Austin, Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institute for Colored 
Youth; Texas Institution for the Blind. 

Virginia— Staunton, Virginia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb 
and the Blind. 

Washington— Vancouver, Washington School for Defective 
Youth. 

West Virginia^Romney, West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and 
Blind. 

Wisconsin— Janesville, Wisconsin School for the Blind. 

STATE INSTITUTIONS FOR THE DEAP. 

Alabama— Talladega, Alabama Institute for the Deaf. 
Arkansas— Little Rock, Arkansas Deaf Mute Institute. 
California— Berkeley, California Institution for the Education of 

the Deaf and the Blind. 
Colorado— Colorado Springs, Colorado School for the Deaf and 

Blind. 
Connecticut— Hartford, American School for the Deaf. 

Mystic, Mystic Oral School for the Deaf. 
District of Columbia— Washington, the Columbia Institution for 

the Deaf; Gallaudet College; Kendall School. 
Florida— St. Augustine, State Institution for the Deaf and the 

Blind. 
Georgia— Cave Spring, Georgia School for the Deal 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 259 

Illinois — ^Jacksonville, Illinois Institution for the Education of 
the Deaf and Dumb. 

Indiana— Indianapolis, Indiana Institution for the Education of 
the Deaf. 

Iowa— Council Bluffs, Iowa School for the Deaf. 

Kansas — Olathe, Kansas Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

Kentucky— Danville, Kentucky Institution for the Education of 
Deaf Mute^. 

Louisiana— Baton Rouge, Louisiana Institution for the Deaf 
and Dumb. 

Maine — Portland, Maine School for the Deaf. 

Maryland— Baltimore, Maryland School for the Colored Blind 
and Deaf. 
Frederick, Maryland School for the Deaf and Dumb. 

Massachusetts— Beverly, New England Industrial School for 
Deaf Mutes. 
Northampton, Clarke School for the Deaf. 

Michigan— Flint, Michigan School for the Deaf. 

Minnesota— Faribault, Minnesota School for the Deaf. 

Mississippi— Jackson Institution for the Education of the Deaf 
and Dumb. 

Missouri— Fulton, Missouri School for the Deaf. 

Montana — Boulder, Montana Deaf and Dumb Asylum. 

Nebraska— Omaha, Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

New Jersey— Trenton, New Jersey School for Deaf Mutes. 

New Mexico— Santa Fe, New Mexico School for the Deaf and 
the Blind. 

New York— Albany, Albany Home School for the Oral Instruc- 
tion of the Deaf. 
Fordham, St. Joseph's Institute for the Improved Instruction 

of Deaf Mutes. 
Malone, Northern New York Institution for Deaf Mutes. 
New York (904 Lexington avenue). Institution for the Im- 
proved Instruction of Deaf Mutes; (Station M), New York 
Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb. 
Rochester, Western New York Institution for Deaf Mutes. 
Rome, Central New York Institution for Deaf Mutes. 

North Carolina— Morgantown, North Carolina School for the 
Deaf and Dumb. 
Raleigh, North Carolina Institution for the Deaf, Dumb and 
Blind. 

North Dakota— Devil's Lake, Deaf and Dumb Asylum. 

Ohio — Columbus, Ohio Institution for the Education of the Deaf 
and Dumb. 

Oklahoma— Guthrie, Oklahoma Institute for the Deaf. 

Oregon — Salem, Oregon School for Deaf Mutes. 

Pennsylvania— Edgewood Park, Western Pennsylvania Institu- 
tion for the Deaf and Dumb. 
Philadelphia, Home for the training in speech of deaf children 

before they are of school age. 
Mount Airy, Philadelphia,, Pennsylvania Institution for the 
Deaf and Dumb. 



260 AMBRICAN AaRICULTURIST 

Scran ton, Pennsylvania Oral School for the Deaf. 
Rhode Island—Providence, Rhode Island Institute for the Deaf. 
South Carolina^Cedar Springs, South Carolina Institution for 

the Education of the Deaf and the Blind. 
South Dakota— Sioux Falls, South Dakota School for Deaf 

Mutes. 
Tennessee— Knox ville, Tennessee Deaf and Dumb School. 
Texas— Austin, Deaf, Dumb and Blind Institute for Colored 

Children; Texas School for the Deaf. 
Utah— Ogden, Utah State School for the Deaf and Dumb. 
Virginia— Staunton, Virginia Institution for the Deaf and Blind. 
Washington— Vancouver, Washington School for Defective 

Youth. 
West Virginia— Romney, West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and 

Blind. 
Wisconsin— Delavan, Wisconsin School for the Deaf 



STATE INSTITUTIONS FOR THE FEEBLE-MINDED. 

California— Eldridge, California Home for the Care and Training 
of Feeble-Minded Children. 

Illinois— Lincoln, Illinois Asylum for Feeble-Minded Children. 

Indiana— Fort Wayne, Indiana School for Feeble-Minded Youth. 

Iowa— Glen wood, Iowa Institution for Feeble-Minded Children. 

Kansas— Winfield, Kansas State Asylum for Idiotic and Imbe- 
cile Youth. 

Kentucky— Frankfort, Institution for the Education and Train- 
ing of Feeble-Minded Children. 

Massachusetts— Waverly, Massachusetts School for the Peeble- 
Minded. 

Michigan— Lapeer, Michigan Home for the Feeble-Minded and 
Epileptic. 

Minnesota— Faribault, Minnesota School for the Feeble-Minded. 

Nebraska— Beatrice, Nebraska Institution for Feeble-Minded 
Youth. 

New Jersey— Vineland, New Jersey Training School- for Feeble- 
Minded Children; New Jersey Institution for Feeble-Minded 
Women. 

New York— Newark, New York Custodial Asylum for Feeble- 
Minded Women. 
New York, School for Feeble-Minded. 

Syracuse, Syracuse State Institution for Feeble-Minded 
Children. 

Ohio— Columbus, Ohio Institution for the Education of Feeble* 
Minded Youth. 

Pennsylvania -El wyn, Pennsylvania Training School for Feeble- 
Minded Children. 

Washington— Vancouver, Washington School for Defective 
Youth. 

Wisconsin— Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin Home for Feeble-Minded. 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 261 

SCHOOLS OF MUSIC. 

New York City— Grand Conservatory of Music, 250 West 23d 

street. James F. Neill, recording secretary. 
Metropolitan College of Music, 21 East 14th street. John G. 

Griggs, secretary. 
National Dramatic Conservatory, 23 West 44th street. T. 

Francis Brien, secretary. 
New York College of Music, 128 East 58th street. 
New York Conservatory of Music, 112 East ISth street. Etta 

F. Hull, secretary. 
New York German Conservatory of Music, 37 West 42d street. 
New York Institute for Violhi Playing and School for Piano 

and Vocal Culture. 230 p:ast 62d street. 
Boston. Mass.— New England Conservatory of Music. 
Faelten Pianoforte School, 162 Boylston street. 
Virgil Clavier School. 
Chicago, 111.— Chicago Musical College, 202 Michigan avenue. 
Chicago Auditorium Conservatory, Auditorium building. Roy 

Arthur Hunt, Manager. 
Chicago Piano College. 421 and 243 Wabash avenue. 
Cincinnati, O.— Cincinnati (Conservatory of Music, Highland ave- 
nue, Burnet avenue and Oak street. 
College of Music of Cincinnati. 



SCHOOLS OF ART. 

New York City— New York School of Applied Design for Women, 

200 West 23d street. Miss Harriet Z. BIckford. secretarj'. 
School of Industrial Art and Technical Design for Women, 1,')9 

West 23d street. Henry D. Crisp, secretary. 
New York School of Art, 57th street. 
Woman's Art School, Cooper Union. Miss Mary A. Vinton, 

president. 
Art Students* League, 215 West 57th street, Elna de Mier, 

secretary. 
National Academy of Design. 53 East 23d stroet. 
Boston, Mass.— Massachusetts Normal Art School, 'Exeter street, 

corner Newbury street. 
Museum of Fine Arts, Dartmouth street, corner St. James 

avenue. 
South Boston School of Art, junction of Emerson and East 

Fourth streets. 
Cowles Art School, 221 Columbus avenue. 
Chicago, 111.— School of Illustrating and .Designing (School of 

Black and White), 115-llC Auditorium building. 
Art Institute School of Art. 
School of Elementary Art Instruction, 730 and 203 Michigan 

avenue. 
School of Illustration, 26 East Van Buren street. 



$62 AMERICA^ Aa^gyf.Tyiti9T 

Art Students' LeafiTue, Art Institute. 
School of Progrres^ive Art, ^ Auditorium building. 
St. Louis, Mo.— School of Fine Arts, Locust street, pear corner 

19th street. H. C. Ives, director. 
San Francisco, Cal.— School of Design, in connection wltl^ the 
San Franeisoo Art Association, Mark Hopkins Institute 
of Art. 
Philadelphia. Pa.— Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Inc^ustry, 
Chestnut street. 
Philadelphia School of Design for Women, North Broad and n 
Water streets. ' j 

Cincinnati, O.— Art School of the Cincinnati Museum Association, ; 

EJdian Park. 
PertveTi'Qol. ^Students' School of Art, 1517 Tremont street. ^ 

SCHOOLS OF DOMESTIC SCIENCE. I 

[And Institutions W|ilcli Have Courses In Domestic Sciepee 

and Cookery.] 

Alabama— Auburn, Agricultural College Normal School for Col- 
ored Pupils. 
Arizona— Tucson, University of Arizona. 
California — Oakland, School of Training for Domestics. 

Palo Alto, Leland Stanford, Junior, University. 
Colorado— Fort Collins, State Asrlcultural College. 

Greeley, State Normal School. • 

Connecticut— Bridgeport, Telegram-Union Cooking School. 

Middletown, Summer School of Chemistry and Blolog5' at "Wes- 
leyan University. 

New JIaven, Bpardman School. 

Storrs, Connecticut Agricultural College. 

Waterbury, the Young Women's Friendly League. 
Florida— Tallahassee, State Normal and Industrial College. 
Georgia— Athens, State Normal School. 

Atlanta, Atlanta University. 

MllledgevIUe, Georgia Normal and Industrial College. 

South Atlanta, Clark University for Colored Students. 
Illinois— Carthage, Carthage College. 

Chicago, Domestic Science Training School, 53 Dearborn street; 
School of Domestic Science and Arts, 147-153 Fifth avenue; 
University of Chicago. 

Decatur, James Mllllken University. 

Evanston, School of Domestic Science. 

Urbana, State University. 
Indiana— Lafayette, Purdue University. 
Iowa— Ames, Iowa State College. 
Kansas— Manhattan, State Agricultural College. 
Kentucky— Berea, Berea College. 

Frankfort, State Normal School for Colorecl Studentf. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 263 

Louisiana — New Orleans, Southern University. 

Ruston. Louisiana Industrial Institute. 
Maine— Lewlston, Bates College. 
Massachusetts— Auburndale. LaseU Seminary. 

Boston. Boston Cooking School, Boylston street; Miss Farm- 
er's Cooking School, 30 Huntington avenue; Simmons College; 
Y. W. C. A. School of Domestic Science. 

Cambridgeport, Y. W. C. A. School. 

Northfleld. Northfleld Seminary. 

Northampton, Smith College. 

South Framingham, State Normal School. 
Michigan— Agricultural College, State Agricultural College. 
Minnesota — St. Anthony Park, University of Minnesota. 
Missouri — Columbia, University of Missouri. 

Jefferson City, Lincoln Institute. 

St. Louis. Women's Training School, 1728 Locust street. 
Montana — Bozeman, State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 

Arts. 
Nebraska— Lincoln, University of Nebraska. 
New Hampshire— Exeter, Robinson Female Seminary. 
Nevada— Reno, State University. 
New Mexico — Mesilla Park, State University. 
New York— Brooklyn, Adelphl College; Pratt Institute. 

Buffalo. Women's Educational and Industrial Union. 

Chautauqua, School of Domestic Science. 

New Brighton, S. J., McKinley Domestic Training School for 
Colored Students. 

New York, Teachers' College of Columbia University; New 
York Cooking School, Fourth avenue, corner 22d street; 
Greater New York Cooking School, 2 East 42d street. 

Niagara Falls, Oread Institute. 

Potsdam, Thomas H. Clarkson School of Technology. 

Rochester, Mechanics' Institute. 

Syracuse, Classical School. 
North Carolina— Asheville, Home Industrial School. 

Concord, Scotia Seminary for Colored Girls. 

Greensboro, Agricultural and Mechanical College for Colored 
Students. 

Raleigh, Shaw University for Colored Students. 
North Dakota— Agricultural College, State Agricultural College. 
Ohio — Columbus, State University. 

Painesville, Lake Erie College. 

Toledo, Toledo Polytechnic School. 

Xenia, Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans' Home. 
Oklahoma— Stillwater, Agricultural and Mechanical College. 
Oregon — Corvallis, State Agricultural College. 

Sllverton, Silverton College. 
Pennsylvania— Philadelphia, Philadelphia Cooking School, 1715 
Chestnut street; School of Housekeeping, 12th and Sansom 
streets; Drexel Institute. 

Pittsburg, the School of Domestic Arts. 

Ridgeway, classes for housekeepers and cooks. 



ZM AMERICAN AQRICULTURIST 

Rhode Island— Providence, Providence Cooklnpr School. 

South Carolina— Orangeburg, Claflin Upiverslty; Colore^ Normal 

College. 
South Dakota— Brookings, State Agricultural Cojlege. 
Tennessee— Harriman, American Uriiyerslty of Harrfman. 
Utah— Logan, Agricultural College; Brlgham Young College. 
Virginia— Hampton, Normal an^ Agricultural Institute.' 
West Virginia— Morgan town, Wfst Virginia University. 
Wisconsin— Menomonee, Stout Manual Training School. 
Milwaukee, Y. W. C. A. School of Domestic Arts; Downer 

College. 
Cape Breton— Sydney, Training School and Home for T^ady 

Immigrants. 
Nova Scotia— Truro, Truro Normal Training School of pom^g^ic 

Science. 
Ontario — Hamilton, Ontario Normal School of Domestic Science; 

Mrs. M. C. Bradley's Hamilton School of Cookery. 
Ottawa, Y. W. C. A. Scliool of Domestic Science. 
Toronto, Lillian Massey Normal School of Domestic Science, 

145 Jarvis street; School of Domestic Science, 18 Elm street. 
Quebec— Montreal, Y. W. C. A; School of Cookery. 
Porto Rico — San Juan, Heye Ifemorial School of Domestic 

Science. 

TRAINING SCHOOLS FOR NUBSBS. 

Albany, N. Y.— The Albany Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
Anji Arbor, Mich.— University of Michigan Training School for 

Nurses, 1131 East Catherine street. 
Baltimore, M<J.— The Johns Hopkins Hospital Training School 
for Kurses, Broadway. 
Maryland Geiieral Hospital Trailing School for Nurses. 
Mount Hope Retreat Training School (or Nurses. 
Bangor, Me.— Bangor Training School for Nurses. 
Beverly, Mass.— Beverly Ifospital Training School for Nijrses. 
Blnghamton, N. Y.— Binghamton State Hospit^.1 Training Sel^ool 

for Nurses. 
Boston, Mass.— The Boston City Hospital Training School for 
Nurses: 
MQ.ssachMsetts Homeopathic Hospital Training Scfipol for 

Nurses, Sast Concord street. 
Training School for Nurses at New England hospital for 

Women and Children, DimocK street. 

Training School for Nurses of the Boston Children's Hospital. 

Training School for Nurses of the Boston Lying-in Hospital, 

24 McLean street. 

Bridgeport, Ct.— Bridgeport Hospital Training Scl)ool for Nurses. 

Brooklyp, N. Y.— Brooklyn Maternity apd I^ew York State School 

for Training Nurses. Washington avenue an4 Douglass street. 

Brooklyn Homeopathic Hospital Training School for Nurses, 

100 Cumberland street. 
Brooklyn Hospital 7ralnl^g School (or Nurses. 



TfiAit BOOK ASH AL.MA17AG 2(5 

iyd6ltlyii dlty Tfalnlnig School. 

Lens Island College Host)ltal Tralhing School for Nurses. 
M^moHkl 1* l-alnlng School for Nurses. 

Training School for Nurses at Methodist Episcopal Hospital. 
Buffalo, N. Y.— Buttald General Hospital 'training School for 
Nurses, 100 High street. 
Buffalo State Hospital I'l'aining &thooi for Nurses. 
Children's Hospital Trainihg School for Nurses. 
BuHin^tdn. Vt.^Mary Fletcher Hospital Training School for 

-Nursfes. 
Charleston, S. C— Charleston Training School for Nurses, City 

Hospital. 
Chelsea, Mafe6.---Rtifii8 S. Frost Qenel-al Hospital Ttaihitig 

School tot Nurses. 
Chidagd, 111.— Eiaptist Host)itai Training School fdf Nlirses, 
34th street. 
Hahnemann Hdi^^ltai Traihirig fiUsHdolfor Ntlf^es; 
Illinois t'railiing St3h&dl fob Nurises, 9D4 Monroe str^^. 
Llikdside Hospital Tfainihg School for Nurses, 4147 Lake avenue. 
Mercy Hospital Training School for Nurses, Calumet avfenue 

ktiti 26th street. 
Michael Reese Hospital School for Nurses, 39th Street and 

Gf oveiand avenue. 
National Temperance Hospital Training School for Nurses, 

1619 Diversey avenue. 
Passavant Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
Post-Graduate Training School for Nurses, 3400 Dearborn street. 
St. Luke's Hospital Training School for Nurses, 1420 Indiana 

avenue. 
School for Nurses of Mary Thompson Hospital, cornel* of Ad- 
ams and Paulina streets. 
Training School for Nurses at Women's Hospital of dhi^ago. 
Wesley Hospital Gaining School for Nurses, 25th and Deaf- 
born streets. 
Cintittnatl^ O.— Cincinnati Hospital /training School for NurSsefe. 
Clarinda, la— Training School for Nurses at the to^a Hospital 

tbr the Insane. 
Cleveland, O.— Cleveland State Hospital Training School for 
Attendants. . . ^ . ., 

Clinton, Mass.--Ti^alifilnt fe6h©61 fdl- Nut-fees at CliiitOh Hdsjiitdl. 
Columbia, S. C— South Carolina State Hospital fdr the Insane 

Training School for Nurses. 
Colutnbus, O.— t*fbtfestant Hospital Training School for Nurses, 

Park street. 
Concord, N. H.— Margaret Pillsbury General Hospital Training 
School for Nurses. 
Neiv Hampshire Asylum for the insane Training School for 
Nurses. 
Danvers, Mass.—'training School for Nurses at the Danvers in- 
sane itospital. 
Danville, Pa.— Training School for Attendants at the State lios- 
pltal for the Insane. 



266 AMERICAN AGRICULTUBIST 

Denver, Col.— Colorado Training Scliool for Nurses in connection 
witli the Arapahoe County Hospital. 

Des Moines, la.— Cottage Hospital Training School for Nurses, 
1121 Fourth street. 

Detroit, Mich.— Detroit Emergency Hospital Training School for 
Nurses. 
Farrand Training School for Nurses. 
Grace Hospital School of Nursing. 

Fall River, Mass.— Fall River Hospital Nurse Training School. 

Fergus Falls, Minn.— Training School for Nurses, Hospital for 
the Insane. 

Grand Rapids, Mich.— U. B. A. Home and Hospital. 

Hartford, Ct.— Hartford Hospital "training School for Nurses. 
Training School for Nurses at the Retreat for the Insane. 

Independence, la.— Attendants' Training School at Iowa Hospi- 
tal for the Insane. 

Indianapolis, Ind.— City Hospital Training School. 

Jersey City, N. J.— Christ Hospital Training School for Nurses. 

Kalamazoo, Mich.— Training School for Attendants at the Mich- 
igan Asylum for the Insane. 

Kankakee, 111.— Illinois Eastern Hospital for the Insane Training 
School for Nurses and Attendants. 

Lawrence, Mass.— Training School for Nurses at General Hos- 
pital. 

Lewiston, Me.— Central Maine General Hospital Nurse Training 
School. 

Lowell, Mass.— Lowell Hospital Association Training School for 
Nurses. 

Maiden, Mass.— Nurse Training School of the Maiden Hospital. 

Manchester, N. H.— Training School for Nurses at the Elliot 
Hospital. 

Marion, Va.— Training School for Attendants at the South West- 
ern State Hospital. 

Middletown, Orange County, N. Y.— Training School ^for Nurses 
at Middletown State Homeopathic Hospital. 

Minneapolis, Minn.— Northwestern Hospital Training School. 

Morris Plains, N. J.— New Jersey State Hospital Training School 
for Nurses. 

Mount Pleasant, Ta.— Training School for Attendants at the Iowa 
Hospital for the Insane. 

Newark, N. J.— City Hospital Training School for Nurses. 

Newburyport, Mass.— Newburyport Training School for Nurses. 

New Haven, Ct.— Connecticut Training School for Nurses. 

New London. Ct.— Nurse Training School of the Memorial Hos- 
pital Association. 

New Orleans, La.— Charity Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
Touro Infirmary Training School for Nurses. 

Newport, R. I.— Newport Hospital School for Nurses. 

Newton, Mass.— Nurse Training School at the Newton Hospital. 

New York, N. Y.— City Hospital Male Training School. Black- 
well's island. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 267 

New York City Training School for Nurses, Blackwell's island. 

Hahnemann Hospital Training School for Nurses. 

New York Hospital Training School for Nurses, West 15th 

street. 
Manhattan State Hospital West Training School, Ward's island. 
Mount Sinai Training School for Nurses, 149 East 67th street. 
The Presbyterian Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
St. Luke's Hospital Training School for Nurses, 113th street 

and Amsterdam avenue. 
New York Training School for Nurses, 426 East 26th street, in 
connection with Bellevue Hospital. 
Margaret Fahnestock Training School for Nurses. 
Northampton, Mass.— Northampton Lunatic Hospital Training 

School for Nurses. 
Norwich, Ct.— William W. Backus Hospital Training School for 

Nurses. 
Orange, N. J.— Orange Training School for Nurses. 
Philadelphia, Pa.— Friends' Asylum for the Insane Training 
School for Nurses. 
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Training School for 

Nurses, 3400 Spruce street. 
•Methodist Episcopal Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
Pennsylvania Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
Philadelphia Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
Philadelphia Polyclinic Training School for Nurses. 
Presbyterian Hospital Training School for Nurses, 51 North 

39th s-treet. 
Training School for Nurses of the Protestant Episcopal Church 

Hospital. 
Woman's Hospital of Philadelphia Training School for Nurses, 
North College avenue and 22d street. 
Pittsburg, Pa.—Training School for Nurses at Western Penn- 
sylvania Hospital. 
Pittsfleld, Mass.— Henry W. Bishop Memorial Training School 

for Nurses. 
Pontiac, Mich.— Eastern Michigan Asylum Training School for 

Attendants. 
Portland, Me.— Maine General Hospital Training School for 

Nurses. 
Portsmouth, N. H.— Training School for Nurses at the Ports- 
mouth Cottage Hospital. 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y.— Hudson River State Hospital Training 

School for Attendants. 
Providence, R. I.— Rhode Island Hospital Training School for 

Nurses. 
Quincy, Mass.— Nurse Training School of the City Hospital. 
Rochester, Minn.— Rochester State Hospital Training School for 

Nurses. 
Rochester, N. Y.— Training School for Nurses, Rochester City 
Hospital. 
Training School for Nurses, Rochester State Hospital. 
Rockford', 111.— Rockford Hospital Training School for Nurses. 



268 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

St. Louis, Mo.— St. Louis Training School for Nurses, 1224 Dillon 

street. 
St. Peter, Minn.— Training School for Nurses at St. Peter State 

Hospital. 
Salt Lake City, Utah— Nurses' Training School of St. Mark's 

Hospital. 
San Francisco, Cal.— Hospital for Children and Training School 

for Nurses, 3700 California street. 
St. Luke's Hospital Nurse Training School. 
Scranton, Pa.— Moses Taylpr Hospital Nurse Training School. 

Scranton Training School for Nurses. 
Somerville, Mass.— Somerville Hospital Training School for 

Nurses. 
South Framingham, Mass.— Framingham Training School for 

Nurses. 
Springfield, Mass.— Nursing Institute, 563 South Main street. 
Syracuse, N. Y.— Syracuse Training School for Nurses, Hospital 

of House of Good Shepherd. 
Taunton, Mass.— Morton Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
Tewksbury, Mass.— State Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
Tuscaloosa, Ala.— Alabama Bryce Hospital Training School for 

Nurses. 
Utica, N. Y.— Training School for Attendants at Utica State 

Hospital. 
Washington, D. C— Garfield Memorial Hospital Training School 

for Nurses. 
Waverly, Mass. — McLean Hospital Training School for Nurses. 
Westboro, Mass.— Training School for Nurses in connection with 

the "Westboro Insane Hospital. 
Wilkesbarre, Pa.— Training School for Nurses of the Wilkesbarre 

City Hospital. 
Willard, N. Y.— Training School for Nurses at the Willard State 

Hospital. 
Williamsport, Pa.— Training School for Nurses of the Williams- 
port Hospital. 
Worcester, Mass.— Worcester City Hospital Department of Nurs- 
ing. 
Memorial Hospital Training School for Nurses. 



There were two passages in the address of David J. Brewer, 
justice of the United States Supreme Court, before the interna- 
tional congress of lawyers and jurists at St. Louis in Septem- 
ber, 1904, which were greeted with especially prolonged applause. 
This was one of them: "You can see 20 acres of Philippine life 
at the world's fair, but you cannot see a square rod of the 
constitution." And the other was of a character to make the 
great applause of similar significance: "The purchase which this 
great exposition commemorates was not the result of conquest 
and came not at the end of war. Not a gun was fired or a life 
lost. A lawyer, not a soldier, made the transfer. The glory of 
that transfer is one of the laurels of our profession." 



TEAR BOOK AND AUC ANAC M9 

Libraries in the United States 

The library at Peterboro, N. H.. was establlqibed in 1S33 and 
is consi<)ere€| tbe first public library In tbe country supported 
wholly or partly by public taxation. A f re« public library was 
established at Wayland, Mass., and opened to the public in 1850. 
A third was opened In March. 1883, at New Bedford, Mass. The 
public library movement is an American idea, but waa tak^n up 
in England to some extent as a result of a parliamentary com- 
mlQfiion, whiob reported ip 1850. 

SOURCES OF SUPPORT. 

[Ubraries of ov«r looo volumesi.] 

— — ■ . — ^— — — ^^^^^- ^— ^— ^— ^^— ^— ^— ^-^— - . . I 

V^est' 
NA SA SCNC ern 
Number dlv ^div div div div U.S. 

Owning buildlngra 612 54 44 m 3f^ld4d 

Renting buildings 386 23 19 203 61 592 

Supported by taxation 10S9 113 94 931 208 2975 

Supported by corporation 1329 302 269 793 177 2870 

Supported by both 115 6 11 4 8 138 

Free 1417 88 85 946 198 2784 

Free for reference 701 233 191 486 124 1735 

aubaoriptlon 355 lOO 98 296 65 914 

Circulating 251 21 14 141 20 447 

Reference 459 128 124 341 96 U48 

Both ciroiilating and reference.. 1768 m 236 1846 871 3788 

LX9RAI%Y OF CONGRESS. 

The Library of Congress was established in 1800: destroy td 
by fire in 1814. Jn 1851, 35,000 volumes were destroyed by fire. 
The library Is increased by appropriation, by copyright depositi, 
by gifts and exchangea. Special accessions have been: Peter 
Foro« collection, 82,529 volumes, and 37,000 pamphlets, 1$67; Count 
de Rochambeau colleotion; MBS., 1883; Toner coHection, 84,484 
volumes, a «ift. 1882; Hubbard colleotion. gift, 1898. The total 
volumes. 1.292,993. June 30, 1903, is the largest in the Western 
Hemiaphere. In 1897 the collection was removed to the new 
library building, erected at a coat of |6.347,000, additional cost of 
land S^.OOO, occupying a floor space of about flight agres, and 
will acQommodate 2.200,000 octavo volumes. The book stacks con- 
tain about 45 miles of shelving. There are 231 employees. The 
L<aw I4brary for congressional reference remains at the capitoi. 



.wi- 



The more boolcs of the right Hind are read, the more ef- 
fioient a nation becomes. To deny that books of the right kind 
contribute to human efHcienoy. or that the great books of a 
nation contribute to a nation's efficiency, is like a refusal to 
acknowledge that heat comes from the sun. or motive power 
from ateam. No man or woman who contests that sort of prop« 
osition deserves a hearing.— [Sidney Lee. 



J= Iff «SEdolldl|°f2&||||"^l 

86B I IS H'i' Sl.SSil? I !M.|i8il.6Bi i 



'St'Si' I lESlBSSiiiisSSlIsliSSl ' 

is?i§S5issBigisgii§5fii§igsgB§§ 






"l^-B-S" 






^t 


m 


n 


ihn 




Pm" 


21 


iM 


n 




u 


jJ.O 


i 

s 


iiil- 


r 




i 


^3^2 5 






£:;£»££»t-BSaSE^es 



272 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

TOTAL NUMBER OF LIBRARIES AND NUMBER OF VOL- 
UMES IN THE UNITED STATES. 



States and ciS 

territories g ^ « 

Me llf 

N. H 143 

Vt 96 

Mass 571 

Ct 197 

N. Y 718 

N. J 154 

Pa 401 

Del 13 

Md 80 

Dist. of Col.... 74 

Va 64 

W. Va 23 

N. C 57 

S. C 39 

Ga 55 

Fla 16 

Ky 76 

Tenn 77 

Ala 43 

Miss 30 

La 40 

Tex 69 

Ark 28 



ODO 



40 
58 
79 
122 
16 
73 
295 
120 
197 
10 
31 
16 
38 
15 
34 
31 
53 
15 
to 
57 
20 
37 
18 
77 
21 



o « ® 
^ c "• 
cflS® 

151" 
201 
175 
693 

98 

270 

1013 

274 

598 

23 
111 

90 
102 

38 

91 

70 
108 

31 
119 
134 

63 

67 

58 
146 

49 



08^ 

States and 'ci® 

territories ST 5 

Im td 3 

ti®>_ 

Okla 8 

Ind. Ter 3 

Ohio 266 

Ind 164 

111 309 

Mich ..193 

Wis 165 

Minn 123 

la 170 

Mo 141 

N. D 16 

S. D 26 

Neb 51 

Kan 104 

Mont 14 

Wyo 8 

N. M 11 

Ariz 5 

Utah 13 

Nev 6 

Ida 9 

Wash 31 

Ore 24 

Cal 212 






8 

4 

212 

157 

197 

164 

144 

92 

199 

129 

23 

20 

78 

111 

16 

5 

28 

4 

4 

19 

6 

4 

19 

26 

699 



"5 = 

©od 
H>ea 

10 

7 

478 

321 

506 

357 

309 

215 

369 

270 

39 

46 

129 

215 

30 

13 

82 

15 

9 

32 

12 

13 

50 

50 

911 



LIBRARY SCHOOLS. 

Four library schools have been organized within 15 years to 
meet the demand for systematic training of librarians and as- 
sistants. Men and women are admitted. The schools are: New 
York State Library School at Albany; Pratt Institute Library 
School, Brooklyn; Library School of Drexel Institute, Philadel- 
phia; University of Illinois State Library School. Summer 
courses in library training are offered at the New York State 
School at Albany, also at Chautauqua, Iowa State University, 
Wisconsin State University and the Amherst College Library. 
Two new schools have been established, one for the training 
of children's librarians, with two years' course, at the Carnegie 
Library of Pittsburg, and one at Simmons College, Boston, 
for young women only. A library school has also been organ- 
ized at Western Reserve College, Cleveland, with an endowment 
from Andrew Carnegie. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 27S 

Religion and Temperance 

THE RURAL CHURCH. 

As the number of abandoned farms multiplies each year, 
the churches in rural villages have a more serious problem to 
contend with. They cannot draw upon the government for 
their support, as do the schools, and hence any shrinkage in 
the population of a village has an impoverishing effect upon the 
churches. Then, too, in many country places, owing to poor 
roads, the people do not attend church, and offer no contribu- 
tion to its support. In not a few instances it is the immigration 
of city people to the country alone that saves the churches 
from depletion. There are in the state of Maine 95 towns which 
have no religious services whatever, and the same condition 
exists in more villages in Illinois than in any ether state in the 
Union. .It is said that over half the state of Vermont never 
goes to church. 

CHURCH STATISTICS. 

[As compiled by Dr. Henry K. Carroll of the New York In- 
dependent.] 

During 1902 there was a net gain of 720 ministers, 1261 
churches and 403,743 communicants in all the denominations in 
this country. The increases for the various larger denomina- 
tions, as far as communicants are concerned, are: 

Catholics (eight bodies) 120,634 

Methodists (17 bodies) 98,184 

Lutherans (22 bodies) 49.320 

Baptists (13 bodies) 48,654 

Presbyterians (12 bodies) 30.001 

Disciples of Christ 27,836 

Protestant Episcopal (two bodies) 16,355 

Congregationalists 13,330 

United Brethien (two bodie.s) .^ 10,345 

Adventists (six bodies) 9,782 

Reformed (three bodies) 8,498 

Germa,n Evangelical Synod 5,875 

Evangelical (four bodies) 4,311 

Decrease: Dunkards, communicants 9000; German Evangelical 
Protestants, communicants 16,500; Latter-Day Saints, ministers 
400, churches 86, communicants 3324; United Brethren, ministers 
158, churches 172. 



According to the revised (1898) edition of Mulhall's Diction- 
ary of Statistics, there are 476,100,000 Christians and 654,200,000 
non-Christians in the world. The same authority places the 
number of Roman Catholics in Europe, America and Australia 
at 223,090,000; Protestants, 157,050,000, and Greeks, 88,660.000. It has 
been estimated that there are in the world 256,000,000 followers 
of Confucius, 190,000,000 Hindoos, 148,000,000 Buddhists, 118,000.000 
Polytheists, 43,000,000 Taoists, 14,000,000 Shintoists and 12,000,000 
Jews. 



274 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

RELATIVE STANDING. 



Year Year 

1890 Den ominations 1902 

1 Roman Catholic 1 

2 Methodist Episcopal 2 

4 Regular Baptist, South 3 

3 Regular Baptist, Colored 4 

5 Methodist Episcopal, South 5 

8 Disciples 6 

7 Presbyterian North 7 

6 Regular Baptist. North 8 

9 Protestant Episcopal 9 

11 African Methodist Episcopal 10 

10 Congregational 11 

12 Lutheran Synodical Conference 12 

13 African Methodist Episcopal, Zion 13 

14 Lutheran General Council 14 

21 Latter-Day Saints 15 

15 Reformed German 16 

16 United Brethren 17 

18 Presbyterian, South 18 

17 Lutheran General Synod 19 

20 German Evangelical Synod 20 

23 Colored Methodist Episcopal 21 

19 Cumberland Presbyterian 22 

22 Methodist Protestant 23 

25 United Norwegian Lutheran 24 

26 United Presbyterian 26 

27 Reformed Dutch 27 



The Latter-Day Saints have shown in 12 years the greatest 
gain in standing, having moved from the 21st to the 15th position. 
Dr. Carroll notes that a new Lutheran Synod, the Slovakian, 
has been organized in this country during the year, composed 
of Finns. 

THE RELIGIOUS EDUCATION ASSOCIATION. 

Owing to a general feeling throughout the country that the 
Sunday schools are not accomplishing all that they might do, 
and that the young people seem to be deficient in religion and 
morality, a meeting of those interested in bettering these con- 
ditions was called in Chicago in 1903. The meeting was at- 
tended by representatives of 15 denominations, from 23 states 
and from Canada, and the result was the forming of the Re- 
ligious Education Association, having 17 departments fully 
organized and dealing with colleges, theological seminaries, 
churches, Sunday schools, public schools, teachers, youngr peo- 
ple's societies, the home, libraries, summer assemblies, music 
and the like. The ofllcers were chosen from all parts of the 



\ 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



275 



country. The association now has over 1800 members and is 
constantly growing; there are members in every state in the 
Union, besides Canada, England, France, Germany, Turkey, 
India and Japan and South Africa. Its headquarters are at 
1S3-155 Lasalle street, Chicago. The preside^Ht of the association 
at present is Charles Cuthbert Hall, president of l^nion tlieo- 
logical seminary, New York city, and Ira Landrith of Chicago is 
the general secretary. 



SUNDAY SCHOOLS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

[Compiled by the American Sunday School Union.] 

These statistics do not include Roman Catholic, Hebrew nor 
non-Evangelical church schools (except in Maryland). There 
are about 750,000 scholars in Roman Catholic Sunday schools; and 
about 225.000 in other schools not counted. This would leave 
from 7,000,000 to 9,000,000 youths between four and 16 years of age 
in the United States not in Sunday schools of any denomination. 



Schol- 

Stato or ter. Schools ars 

Ala 4,000 2i5.006~ 

Alaska 39 2,074 

Ariz 85 5.660 

Ark 2,050 151,000 

Cal 1.688 118,845 

Col 841 66,575 

Ct 1,260 125.000 

Del 392 39,592 

Dist. Columbia. 252 46,667 

Fla 2.400 94.870 

Ga r 4,616 253,410 

Ida 205 11.527 

111 7,981 717,307 

Indian Ter 387 16.393 

Ind 5,617 515,568 

la 4.243 378,734 

Kan 4.293 261,763 

Ky 3,234 208,985 

La 820 55.000 

Me 2,006 110,315 

Md 2.531 206,156 

Mass 1.917 277.492 

Mich 4.538 370,707 

Minn 1.928 174,569 

Miss 2,025 101,280 

Mo 6,725 651,111 

Mont 321 17,334 



Schol- 

Stato or ter. Schools ars 

"NebT". . .T.T77. . . . . 2,557 168,515 

Nev 59 3,342 

N. H 624 42,482 

N. M 97 3,651 

N. Y 8,487 1,061.873 

N. C 5.817 342,734 

N. D 816 55,488 

Ohio 7.671 713,413 

Okla 1,000 50,000 

Ore 1,093 81,474 

Pa 9,931 1,283.843 

S, C 4.703 340.303 

S. D 800 48,378 

Tenn 4,870 285.266 

Tex 5,591 343,024 

I^tah 135 7.053 

Vt 781 54,230 

Va 4,800 330,000 

Wash 1,451 81,575 

W. Va 2,024 152,945 

Wis 6.768 447.617 

Wyo 124 6,847 

Hawaii 230 15,840 

Total 139,501 11,474,441 



2T§ amnixcAK aoriculturibt 

MIB8IONAIIY TRAINING 8CHOOL8. 

Atlanta. Ga.— Stewart Missionary Foundation for Afric^' 
(Metho^tat). 

Berrien Springs, Mich.— Emanuel Missionary College (Indus- 
trial Institute). 

Boston, Mass.— Gordon Missionary Training School (Inde- 
pendent). 
Oriental Missionary Seminary (Independent). 

Brooklyn, N. Y.— Union Missionary Training Institute (In- 
dependent). 

Chicago, 111.— Moody Bible Institute (Independent). 
Training School for City. Home and Foreign Missions (Meth- 
odist). 
Missionary Training School (Baptist). 

Hartiford, Ct.— School of Bellglous Pedagogy (Indiependent). 
Special Missionary Courses (Hartford Seminary). 

Herkimer, N. Y.— Folfs Mission Institute (Metl^odlst- for 
#omen). 

Kansas City. Mo.— Scarriet Bible and Training School 
(Methodist). 

Los Angeles, Cal.— Training School for Christian Workers 
(Independent). 

New York, N. Y.— Deaconess' Home and Training School 
(Methodist). 
Training School for Deaconesses (Protestant Episcopal). 
Bible Teachers' Training School (Independent). 

NyacK. N. Y.— Bible Teachers' Training School (Independent). 

Northfleld, Mass.— Bible Training School (Independent). 

Philadelphia, Pa.— Training School for Christian Work 
(Baptist). 

San Francisco, Cal.— Missionary Extension School (Inda<r 
pendent). 

Wooster, O.— Bible and Missionary Training School (Pres* 
byterian), 

Xenia, O.— Training School for Christian Workers' (Inde* 
pendent). 

RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 

Actors* Church AUiance^Rev. W. B. Bentloy, secretary, New 
York City. 

American Purity Alliance^Mrs. Anna R. Powell, secretary. 
943 East Sixth street. Plaintield, N. J. 

American Society of Religious Education— J. E. Gilbert, D. D., 
general secretary, 12th and G streets, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

American Unitarian Association— Rev. C. E. St. John, secre* 
tary, 25 Beacon street, Boston, Mass. 

Baptist Young People's Union of America— Rev. Walter Cal* 
ley, general secretary, 324 Dearborn street, Clhicago, 111. 

Boys' Welcome Hall Association— Mrs. F. McCammon. secre* 
tary, 185 Chauncey street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip— Rev. J. G. Haminer« 
Jr, general secretary, Newark, N. J. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 277 

Brotherhood of St. Andrew—HerbeVt Carleton, secretary, 
Pittsburg, Pa. 

Christian and Missionary Alliance— Rev. A. E. Funk, general 
secretary, New York City. 

Girls' Friendly Soceity in America— Miss K. Alexander, sec- 
retary, 659 West I^exington street. Baltimo-re, Md. 

Mission Board of Seventh Day Adventlsts— W. A. Splcer, sec- 
retary, Battle Creek, Mich. 

National Christian League for the Promotion of Social Pu- 
rity—Frances M. Applegate, corresponding secretary, 33 East 
22d street. New York City. 

National Conference of Unitarians— Rev. W. F. Greenman, 
general secretary, 25 Beacon street. Boston. Mass. 

Salvation Army— Col. E. J. Higgins, secretary, 120 and 124 
West 14th street. New York City. 

Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions— F. P. 
Turner, general secretary, 3 West 29th street. New York City. 

United Society of Christian Endeavor— J. W. Baer, general 
secretary, 646 Washington street. Boston, Mass. 

Ignited Society of Free Baptist Yoking People— H. S. Myers, 
general secretary, Hillsdale, Mich. 

Volunteers of America— 38 Cooper square. New York City. 

Women's Centenary Association— Mrs. N. M. Stouder, corre- 
sponding secretary, Muncie, Ind. 

Woman's Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Pro- 
testant Church— Mrs. W. A. Morris, corresponding secretary,- 
Kansas Citys Kan. 

TEMPERANCE ORGANIZATIONS. 



Young People's Prohibition League ; secretary, Susie A. 
Stearns, Saratoga, N. Y. 

National Woman's Christian Temperance Union; correspond- 
ing secretary. Mrs. Susan M. D. Fry, Chicago, 111. 

Prohibition Union for Christian Men; secretary, Howard L. 
Wilson, Rochester, N. Y. 

Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America; secretary, Rev. 
A. P. Doyle, New York City. 

Good Templars; secretary. Col. B. F. Parker. Milwaukee, Wis. 

Young People's Christian Temperance Union; corresponding 
secretary, Mattle G. Squires, Chicago, 111. 

Intercollegiate Prohibition Association; secretary, Harry S. 
Warner, Chicago, 111. 

American Anti-Saloon League; corresponding secretary, 
James L. Ervln, Washington, D. C. 



The best work for temperance Is a temperate fife. You may 
be a teetotaler, yet be Intemperate In food or speech. Most adults 
eat too much and we surely all talk too much. 



278 AMERICAN AORlCULTURISf 

LAWS REGULATING SALE OF LIQUOR. 

The following table shows the legal attitude of the various 
states and territories as to the liquor traffic, whether prohibi- 
tion, county option, local option or license. Where license pre- 
vails, the iamount is given, and where this amount varies, the 
minimum and maximum are indicated. "County option" in- 
cludes also local option; the term "local option" indicates the 
right to prohibit in cities, towns and villages only: 

Alabama^— County option for prohibition, license, dispensary; 
fee, $175— $350. 

Alaska— Prohibition under acts of Congress. 

Arizona— Local option; quarterly fee, $48-4200. 

Arkansa»-<?ounty option; fee, $800. 

California— Local option; fee fixed by local authorities. 

Colorado— Local option; fee, $25— $900 in counties, $500-^600 in 
towns and cities. 

Connecticut— Local option; fee, $150—1450. 

Delaware— License by courts; fee, $100— $450. 

District of Columbia— License by commissioners on consent of 
property owners; fee, $500. 

Florida— County option; fee, $500. 

Georgia-A^ounty option for prohibition, license or dispen- 
sary: fee in Atlanta, $1000— 12000*; in counties. $200. 

Idaho— License by authorities; fee, $300— i$500; hotels out of 
towns, $100. 

Illinois— Local option; fee, $500, minimum. • 

Indiana— Local option; fee, $250—1350. 

Kentucky— County option; fee, $100— $150. 

Louisiana— State or local license; fee according to amount of 
business, $5— $3500. 

Maine— Prohibition. 

Maryland— Local option; fee, $18-4460. 

Massachusetts— Local option; fee not less than $1000; number 
limited, one to 1000 inhabitants; in Boston, one to 500. 

Minnesota— Local option; fee, $500— $1000. 

Mississippi— County option; fee, $600— $1200. 

Missouri— Local option; semi-annual fee, $30(V^-|600. 

Montana— Local option; semi-annual fee, ^50^-1300. 

Nebraska— Local option; fee, $500— $1000. 

Nevada— License by county commissioners; fee, $3(^-1800. 

New Hampshire— Local option; high license. 

New Jersey— Local option; fee, $100— $250. 

New Mexico— License by county commissioners; fee, $100— 
$400. 

New York— Local option in towns, but not in cities; fee, $100— 
$800, according to population. 

North Carolina— County option; semi-annual fee of $50. 

North Dakota— Prohibition. 

Ohio— Local option; fee, $350. 

Oklahoma— License by county officers; fee, $200. 

Oregon— License on petition of voters; fee, $200. 

Pennsylvania- Ltcense under control of courts; fee, $7&-4LOO0. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 279 

Rhode Island— Local option; fee, $200— $1000. 

South Carolina— State control. 

South Dakota— License by local authorities; fee, $400— $600. 

Tennessee— Prohibition except in cities of over 5000 inhabi- 
tants; fee, $150— $200. 

Texas — License issued by courts; fee, $300. 

Utah— License granted by local authorities; fee, $400. 

Vermont— Local option; high license. 

Virginia— County option; fee, $100— $200, 8 per cent on rental 
value. 

Washington— License issued by local authorities; fee, $300— 
$1000. 

West Virginia— License by courts and local authorities; feo, 
$350. 

Wisconsin— Local* option; fee, $100— $200, with power in voters 
to increase from $400— $500. 

Wyoming— License issued by local authorities; fee, $100— $300. 

INCREASE IN LIQUOR CONSUMPTION. 

Distilled spirits, wines and malt liquors, quantities consumed 
and average annual consumption per capita in the United States 
from 1899-1903: 



Total consumptioQ 
per capita 



"N 



>ljS_ O « a ^S S = S H m ^ •;= 3 o ^_o 3_oa Sogfe 

•03.. 117, 251 ,716 — 1,449,879,377 — 1.46 — 18.04 — 

'02.. 107 ,452,151 49,754,403 1,381.875,437 1,539,081,991 1.36 0.63 17.49 19.48 

'01.. 103 .086,839 28,791,149 1,258,249,391 1,390,127,379 1.33 0.37 16.20 17.90 

'00.. 97,248,382 30,427,491 1,221,500,160 1,349,176.033 1.27 0.40 16.01 17.86 

;99.. 87.310,228 26,36 0,696 1.136,520.629 1,249,191,553 1.17 0. 35 15.28 16.80 

REVENUES FROM INTOXICANTS. 

The following table shows the governmental revenues from 
alcoholic beverages, from statistics published in 1901: 



Net rev- Proportion 

enue from to total 



tax on drink national revenue 

United Kingdom $47,870^00 36^er cent 

France 22,034,000 19 per cent 

Germany 13,717,000 18 per cent 

United States 39,968,000 29percent 



280 AMBfttCAN AORtCtTLTUItlSl* 

CENSUS CLASSIFICATION OP LtQUOR OCCtJl^Af !dN. 

the fdllowlng table does not include the lat"g:6 nufilb^t' of 
those whom the census lists as hotel keepers, restaurant k66perB 
and under other classifications, and who are also S^16dn ke^|S6fft. 
The women who keep saloons are found in evefy state ailfl ter- 
ritory except Alaska. Florida, Hawaii, Indiah Territory, North 
Dakota and Oklahoma: 



Male 

Saloon keepers 81 ,789 

Banendei-B 88,497 

Brewers and maltsters 20,709 

Distillers and rectifiers 3,115 

Liquors and wines 12,928 

207.038 



Female 

~ 2.0"86~ 
445 
275 

se 

191 
3,022 




210.UtiO 



AMERICAN AND BRITISH DRINK FIGURES. 



In United 
Consumption in 1903 States 

Coffee, per capita, pounds 10.79 

Tfea, per capita, pounds 1.3 

Distilled liquors, per capita, gallons 1.46 

Wines, per capita, gallons 0.48 

Malt liquors, per capita, gallons 18.04 



In Great 
Britain 



0.68 
6.05 
1.05 
0.36 
30.24 



LITERATURE VS. LIQUOlt. 

... It has been estimated that the people of the Uhited Stftt^i 
Qpend $174,965,625 annually for literature, ihcluding: hew8))aper^, 
periodicals and books, while the nation's ahntlal dHhk Wit 
^mounts to $1,249,191,553. In other words $1,074,225,^ more i$ 
paid out every year for intoxicating liquors than for Hteratutft 
of all kinds. In Great Britain. $34,000,000 is annually expended 
for literature, against $800,000,000 for liquors, the drink bill In 
this case amounting to $766,000,000 more than What is paid for 
reading matter. 



Nothing is so great a friend to the mind of man as temper- 
ance, it strengthens the memory, clears the apprehension and 
sharpens the judgment, and, in a word, gives reason its full 
scope of action.— [Dr. South. 

Intemperance is a crime leading to all other crimes.—t«J^u8- 
tice Fitzgerald, England. 

The skeleton of an average whale weighs 25 tons. 



TI14R BOQK AND ALMANAC 

J\iarria00 qnd PiVqrce 

MARRIAGE LAWS. 

Marriage Licenses— Required In all the states and territories, 
exeet)t New Mexico, New Jersey, New York, North pakofa, 
Qklalioma and ^quth Carolina. 

Marriage, Prohibition of— Marriages between whites and 
persor.3 of nesro descent are prohibited and punishable in A,ia- 
bama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Color^.ao, Delaware, Dis- 
triiBt of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucjcy, 
Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, North C^r- 
dlina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, 
l^tlih, VIriginia and West Virginia. 

Marrialed between whites an^ Indians are void in Arizona. 
Nevada, North Carolina, Oregon and South Carolina. 

Marriages "between whites and C|iinese are void |n Arizona, 
Nevad$i, Oregon and Utah. 

Th<B marriage of first cousins is forbidden in Ariaonaj,, Ar- 
kansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nevacjia, 
New Haraipshire, Nortji Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, 3QUth 
Dakota, Washington and Wyoming, arid in some of th^m'is 
declared incestuous and void, and marriage with step-rela- 
tives is forbidden in all the states, except California, Colorado, 
Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Minnesota, Nebraska, New 
Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Utah and Wis- 
consin. 

Marriage, Age to Contract, Without Consent of Parents— 
In all the states which have laws on this subject, 21 years is 
the age for males, and for females 21 years in Connectici^t, 
Florida, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, South pakota, Virginia, West Virginia and Wyo- 
ming, arid 18 in all the btjier states having laws, except Mary- 
land', in which it is 16 years. 

Marriages, Voidable— Marriages are voidable In nearly all 
the states when contracted under the age of consent to cohab|t. 

DIVORCE LAWS. 

Alabama— Divorce may be obtained for the following causes: 
Impotency, adultery, desertion for two years, habitual drunk- 
enness, imprisonment for two years and continued cruelty. An 
allowance must be made by the court, out of the husband's 
estate, for the support of the wife pending suit; also an allow- 
ance when the decree is maTde. The custody of minor children 
may be given to either parent, in the discretion of the court. 

Arizona— Divorcp may be granted for the violation of tlie 
marriage vow, physical incapacity, willful desertion for Six 
months, habitual drunkenness, conviction for felony, cruelty, 
failurei by husband to provide for six months. 

Aritansas— Divorce may be granted for impotency, bigamy, 
adultery, conviction of felony, habitual drunkenness, willttil 
eleserilpn for one year, cruel and barbarous treatment. Plaia- 
i\U iBUst reside in the state ope year before - bringing suit. 
CQurt way £^11qw alimony to tjie wife. 



282 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

California~Divorces are granted for adultery, extreme cru- 
elty, conviction of felony, willful desertion, neglect or habitual 
intemperance continued for one year. No divorce can be 
granted by default. 

Colorado— Divorces may be granted for adultery, impotency, 
bigamy, willful desertion for one year, habitual drunkenness 
for two years, extreme cruelty or conviction for felony or infa- 
mous crime. One year's residence in the state is required be- 
fore bringing suit, except where the offense was committed in 
the state or while one or both parties resided there. 

Connecticut— Absolute divorce may be granted by the supe- 
rior court for adultery, fraud, duress or force in obtaining 
the marriage, willful desertion for three years, seven years' 
absence without being heard of, habitual intemperance, intol- 
erable cruelty, sentence to imprisonment for life, the commis- 
sion of any crime punishable by imprisonment in the state 
penitentiary, and any such misconduct as permanently destroys 
the happiness of the petitioner and defeats the purposes of the 
marriage relation. Three years' residence in the state is neces- 
sary before filing a petition. Either party may marry again 
after divorce, and the court may change the wife's name and 
make order for alimony and custody of the children. 

North and South Dakota— Divorce may be granted for vio- 
lation o-f tU,e marriage vow, willful desertion, conviction for 
felony, cruelty and physical incapacity. 

Delaware— Divorce may be granted by the superior court for 
adultery, impotency at the time of marriage, habitual drunk- 
enness, extreme cruelty, desertion for three years or conviction 
of crime sufficient to constitute a felony. In the case of mar- 
riage by fraud or for want of age, the wife being less than 16, 
the husband being less than 18 at the time of marriage, abso- 
lute divorce or divorce from bed and board may be granted, 
at the discretion of the court. The wife receives all her real 
estate and such other allowance and alimony as the court may 
decree where the husband is proved to be in fault. Willful 
neglect of the husband to provide' the necessities of life also 
forms sufficient grounds for divorce. 

District of Columbia— Divorce may be granted for violation 
of the marriage vow, physical incapacity, willful desertion for 
two years, habitual drunkenness, conviction for felony, cruelty, 
insanity or idiocy at time of marriage. 

Florida— Applicants for divorce must have resided two years 
within the state. Absolute divorces may be granted only by 
the circuit courts^ Adultery, impotency, bigamy, extrenie cru- 
elty, habitual intemperance or desertion for one year are suffi- 
cient causes. Alimony may be granted to the wife by the 
courts, and provision for a division of property when a decree 
is granted. 

Georgia— Grounds for' total divorce are as follows: Marriage 
within the prohibited degrees of affinity or consanguinity; men- 
tal or physical incapacity at the time of marriage, force, men- 
ace, duress or fraud in obtaining it: adultery, willful desertion 
by either party for three years; cruel treatment by, or habitual 
Intoxication of either party; or sentence to the penitentiary 
for two years or over for any offense involving moral turpi- 



TBAB BOOK ANQ ALMANAC 383 

tude. No total divoroe may be granted except by tbe concur- 
rent verdict of two Juries, rendered at different times of court; 
and when a divorce is granted, the jury rendering the final 
verdict determines the rights and disabilities of the parties. 

Jdaho—Divorce may be granted for violation of the mar- 
riage vow, willful desertion for one year, habitual drunkenness, 
conviction for felony, cruelty, failure of husband to provide 
for one year, insanity and confinement in an asylum six: years. 

JlUnois— Divorce may be granted, where complainant has 
been a resident of the state for one year, for impotency, big- 
aniy, adultery, desertion or drunkenness for two years, at- 
tempts upon the life of the other by poison or other means 
showing malice, extreme cruelty, conviction of felony or Other 
infamous crime. If no defense is interposed, decree niay be 
granted on testimony of complainant alone; but examination of 
witnesses must be had in open court, and the judge is required 
to he satisfied that all proper means have been taken tq notify 
defendant. When decree is granted, the court may restore the 
wife's maiden name. During pendency of suit, the court may 
reauire the husband to pay 'such sum as may enable the wife 
to maintain or defend the suit, and alimony When declared 
just and equitable. 

Indiana—Petitioners for divorce must be bona fide residents 
of the state for two years, and of the county at the time of. 
and for at least six months prior to, filing the petition; the 
oath of two resident freeholders being reauired to this fa<^t. 
Decrees may issue by the superior or circuit court for the fol- 
lowing causes: Impotency at marriage, adultery (where con- 
nivance or collusion is not proven), habitual cruelty or habitual 
drunkenness by either party, abandonment for two years, fail- 
ure by the husband to provide for the family for a period of 
two years, and conviction of either party of an infamous 
erime at any time subsequent to marriage. 

Iowa— Divorce may be granted by the district or circuit 
court of the county in which plaintiff resides. Plaintiff must 
declare under oath that he or she has resided in the state for 
one year next preceding the filing of the petition, unless defend- 
ant is resident, knd received personal service of the writ. A de- 
cree may issue against the husband for adultery, willful deser- 
tion for two years, conviction of felony subsequent to marriage, 
habitual drunkenness and continued ill treatment. The husband 
m&y obtain a decree for like causes, and also when the wife 
at the time of marriage was pregnant by another. Bigamy 
or impotency at the time of marriage is also a sufficient cause 
to annul. 

Kansas— To obtain a decree of divorce, plaintiff must bring 
suit in thP county or residence. Decrees are granted in the cir- 
cuit court on the following grrounds: Adultery, impotency, 
fraudulent contract, extreme cruelty, habitual drunkenness, 
gross neglect, abandonment for one year or conviction of felony. 

Kentucky— Before a petition can be presented for a decree 
of divorce, one year's continuous residence In the state is re- 
quired. Jury trials are not permitted,, and decrees are granted 
\(y courts having equitable jurisdiction. An absolute divorce 
may be granted to the party not in fault on the ground of adul- 



284 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

tery, impotency, etc, separation for five years, condemnation *> 
for felony subsequent to the marriage, force, duress or fraud )^ 
in obtaining the marriage, or uniting with any religious society ^ 
which requires a renunciation of the marriage contract. Ha- s 
bitual neglect or maltreatment on the part of the husband, or J 
where the husband is a confirmed drunkard, may give the vrife i 
a divorce; and where the wife is proven unchaste, or pregnant :; 
by another man at the time of marriage, the husband is entitled m 
to divorce. The parties are free to marry again, and their per- 
sonal property is restored. l 

Louisiana— Sentence of either party to imprisonment in the \ 
penitentiary is sufficient grounds for divorce. A decree may jr 
also be obtained by either party for adultery, habitual Intem- ?j 
perance or cruel treatment of such nature as to render living X 
together insupportable. •• 

Maine— The supreme judicial court grants divorce for impo- ' 
tency, adultery or for three years' willful desertion. Alimony ^ 
may be allowed and dower if the husband is to blame. j 

Maryland— Absolute, for adultery, three years' abandonment, ^ 
or ante-nuptial misconduct of wife. Partial, for cruelty, a,ban- ., 
donment, and desertion. Alimony and restoration of wife's ^ 
property. , 

Massachusetts— Unfaithfulness ^ incapacity, three years* de- : 
sertion, cruelty, drunkenness, neglect to provide, sentence to 
five years' imprisonment and joining a sect which disavows 
marriage, are grounds for absolute divorce. Alimony is allowed . 
and where the husband is at fault the wife's personal property 1 
is restored. ' 

Michigan— Absolute divorce may be granted for incapacity 
at the time of marriage, adultery, two years' continuous deser- 
tion, drunkenness or three years' sentence to imprisonment. A , 
life sentence dissolves the marriage without any proceedings in 
court. Divorce from bed and board for cruelty and neglect to 
provide. Separation of property, dower and alimony as per 
statute. 

Minnesota— Absolute divorce for unfaithfulness, incapacity, 
three years' abandonment, one year's drunkenness, cruel treat- ; 
ment or sentence to state's prison. Limited divorce for abuse, 
desertion or failure to support. Plaintiff, except where breach 
of faith occurred in the state, must have been one year a res- 
ident. The court may order alimony and custody of the chil- 
dren, and the wife regains possession of her real estate, unless 
decree has been obtained on account of her bad conduct. 

Mississippi— After one year's residence in the state, divorce 
may be obtained for impotency, adultery, bigamy, cruelty, two 
years' abandonment or imprisonment in the penitentiary. Ali- 
mony is allowed when the wife is the injured party, and the 
court awards the custody of minor children. 

Missouri — Grounds: Impotency at time of marriage, unfaith- 
fulness, bigamy, conviction of crime, drunkenness, cruelty, and 
one year's desertion. Petitioner must have been one year a res- 
ident of the state. Trial without jury. 

Montana— Divorce may be granted for violation of the mar- 
riage vow, physical incapacity, willful desertion one year, ha- 
bitual drunkenness, conviction for felony, cruelty. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 28S 

Nebraska— Unless the marriage took place in the state, and 
the plaintiff has since continuously resided therein, a residence 
in the county of six months next preceding the application is 
necessary. Divorce is granted on the grounds of impotency at 
the time of marriage, adultery, two years' desertion, drunken- 
ness, cruelty, three years' sentence to Imprisonment, or failure 
on the part of husband to support wife. The court may order 
alimony, and where a decree is granted on account of the hus- 
band's bad conduct the wife takes dower. 

Nevada-'PlaintifiC must have resided six months in the coun- 
ty. Grounds of divorce are physical incompetency at time of 
marriage, adultery, one year's desertion, drunkenness, cruelty, 
conviction of crime, and failure oh part of husband to support. 

New Hampshire — Divorces are granted by the superior court 
for physical incompetency, adultery, drunkenness, cruelty, three 
years* desertion, one year's sentence to prison or adherence to 
a religious sect that condemns marriage. 

New Jersey— Absolute for adultery, bigamy, two years' aban- 
donment and intolerable cruelty. Applicant must reside in the 
state, unless the marriage or the alleged misconduct occurred 
here. 

New Mexico— Divorce may be granted for violation of the 
marriage vow, habitual drunkenness, cruelty, failure of husband 
to provide. 

New York— Only for adultery will an absolute divorce be 
granted. Partial divorce Is ordered for cruelty, desertion and 
neglect. Marriages are annulled for fraud or force, idiocy, lu- 
nacy or impotency at the time of marriage, or for bigamy. 

North Carolina— Only for Imootency or adultery can absolute 
divorce be obtained. Partial divorce Is granted for cruelty, de- 
sertion or drunkenness. 

Ohio— Divorce is granted for unfaithfulness, bigamy, incapac- 
ity, cruelty, drunkenness, deception, three years' neglect and 
abandonment, or imprisonment in a penitentiary. Alimony may 
be granted: and If the decree is obtained on account of the hus- 
band's ill conduct, the wife has her separate property and her 
maiden name restored. 

Oklahoma— Divorce may be granted for violation of the mar- 
riage vow, physical incapacity, willful desertion one year, ha- 
bitual drunkenness, conviction of felony, cruelty. 

Oregon — Plaintiff must have been a resident for one year 
before bringing suit. Grounds are impotency, adultery, two 
years' drunkenness, three years' abandonment, cruelty, convic- 
tion of felony. Plaintiff gaining the suit has a right to one- 
third of the real estate belonging to defendant: and if a success- 
ful plaintiff be the wife, she may have a maintenance awarded 
her. 

Pennsylvania— Plaintiff must have been a resident of the 
state for one year next preceding the application. Grounds: 
Deception or force in procuring the marriage, impotency, adul- 
tery, bigamy, cruelty and two years' abandonment, and two 
years' sentence to imprisonment. Divorce will not be granted 
on the ground of adultery if proved to have been condoned. 
Even after a divorce, defendant is not allowed to marry a co- 



286 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

respondent. A wife may obtain partial divorce and alimony for 
ill treatment. 

Rhode Island— Divorce is granted for Impotency, adulteryf 
cruelty, drunkenness, neglect to support, five years' abandon- 
ment, conviction of murder or arson, presumption of death from 
long absence, or for defect in marriage rendering it void. Di- 
vorce may only be decreed by supreme court. Alimony may be 
ordered, and restoration of wife's separate property. 

South Carolina— Has no divorce laws. 

Tennessee— The applicant must have been a resident of the 
state for two years next preceding the petition. Grounds: Phys- 
ical incapacity at time of marriage, bigamy, adultery, two years' 
abandonment, conviction of crime, imprisonment in peniten- 
tiary, drunkenness, ante-nuptial immorality of wife, attempt of 
either party upon the life of the other. Limited divorce may be 
granted for cruelty, desertion or failure to provide. 

Texas— Applicant must be really an inhabitant of the state 
and a resident of the county for six months previous to filing 
petition; grounds: adultery, three years' desertion, unendurable 
cruelty. 

Utah— Divorce may be granted for violation of the marriage 
vow, willful desertion one year, habitual drunkenness, conviction 
for felony, cruelty, failure of husband to provide, parties can- 
not live in peace and union. 

Vermont— Divorce is grant^ for adultery, cruelty, three 
years' abandonment, three yearfe' imprisonment in penitentiary 
or seven years' absence without being heard of. The wife may 
obtain divorce where the husband, being able, fails to support. 

A^irginia— Grounds: Impotency, adultery, sentence to peni- 
tentiary, guilt of either of infamous crime before marriage, 
the other being ignorant, notorious immorality of wife before 
marriage, five years' abandonment. Partial divorce for cruelty 
or desertion. Alimony and maintenance of children are decreed, 
and the care of the children is given to either party at the dis- 
cretion of the court. 

West Virginia— Divorce is granted for mental or physical 
defect at time of marriage, unfaithfulness, three years' aban- 
donment, sentence to penitentiary, conviction of crime before 
marriage, or notorious immorality of either before marriage, 
the other party being ignorant. Partial divorce may be obtained 
for cruelty or desertion. Alimony and custody of children is 
decreed by the court. 

Washington— Divorce may be granted for violation of the 
marriage vow, physical incapacity, willful desertion one year, 
conviction for felony, cruelty, fraud and fraudulent contract, 
Indignities as render life burdensome, insanity lasting ten years. 

Wisconsin— Unless the parties had been married and since 
remained in the state, the applicant must have been for one year 
a resident before filing a petition. Absolute divorce is granted 
for impotency, adultery, one year's abandonment, five years' 
separation, three years' sentence to penitentiary, cruelty and 
drunkenness. Partial divorce for desertion, cruelty, drunken- 
ness or failure to provide. The court may decree alimony, and 
the wife regain her separate property. 



TBAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



287 



Wyomlnir— Divorce may be granted for violation of the mar- 
riage vow, physical incapacity, willful desertion one year, ha- 
bitual drunkenness, conviction for felony, cruelty, failure of 
husband to provide one year, indiRnities as render life burden- 
some, vagrancy of husband. 

TO RAISE THE AGE OF CONSENT 

In many of the states, the age at which a girl may consent 
to her own ruin is deplorably low; in fact, years before the age 
of discretion has been reached, as in Alabama, Mississippi and 
some of the other southern states, where it is only 10. It is 
rather a sad state of affairs when mere infants can be seduced 
and no redress is obtainable, and shows the crying need of a 
raise in the age of consent. If a uniform age, say 18 years, 
could be established throughout the country, and all cases under 
that counted as rape, the number of wronged girls might be 
decreased. Common law fixes at 14 years the age at which a 
male can commit rape and be held responsible. The following 
table shows the age of consent in all the states and territories: 



Alabama 10 

Arizona 18 

Arkansas 16 

California 14 

Colorado 18 

Connecticut 16 

Delaware 18 

Florida 10 

Georgia 14 

Idaho 18 

Illinois 14 

Indiana 14 

Indian Territory 12 

Iowa 15 

Kansas 18 

Kentucky 12 

Louisiana 12 

Maine 14 

Maryland 16 

Massachusetts 16 

Michigan 16 

Minnesota 16 

Mississippi 10 

Missouri 18 

Montana 16 



Nebraska 18 

Nevada 12 

New Hampshire 13 

New Jersey I6 

New Mexico 14 

New York 18 

North Carolina 10 

North Dakota 16 

Ohio 16 

Oklahoma 14 

Oregon 16 

Pennsylvania 16 

Rhode Island 16 

South Carolina 14 

South Dakota 16 

Tennessee 14 

Texas 15 

Utah 18 

Vermont 14 

Virginia 12 

Washington 16 

West Virginia 16 

Wisconsin 14 

Wyoming 18 



UNIFORM DIVORCE LAWS. 

Strong efforts are now being made by the Reform Bureau 
at Washington, Rev. Wilbur F. Crafts, superintendent, and 
also by the National League for the Protection of the .Family, 
to bring about the enactment of the proposed amendment to 
the United States constitution, whereby Congress shall have 
power to establish uniform marriage and divorce laws through- 



288 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

out the United States, and to provide penalties for violations 
thereof. Already Congress has enacted a uniform marriage lavt 
for all the territories, and made the term of residence in their 
one year before a divorce can be obtained, but it is desired tC' 
bring the divorce laws in all the states up to the highest grade; 
found in state laws, namely, to that of New York, where abso- 
lute divorce with permission to remarry is allowed only in oases 
of adultery. 

Thirty-five states have created commissions on uniform 
legislation to prepare a bill on uniform procedure in divorce 
cases, but so far as can be learned, nothing has yet been done 
by them. 

The National League for the Protection of the Family was 
organized in 1881 by ex-Pres. Wooisey of Yale and others of 
high standing, for the purpose of counteracting the evils 
that threaten the integrity and efficiency of the family. The 
president of the league is Hon. Nathaniel Shipman of Hartford, 
Ct., and the corresponding secretary Rev. Samuel W. Dike of 
Aubumdale, Mass. 



WEALTHIEST PERSONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Estimated wealth 

John D. Rockefeller $800,000,000 

Andrew Carnegie 400,000.000 

William Rockefeller ;]00,000.000 

Russell Sage 125,000,000 

John Jacob Astor 90,000.000 

Willis D. James 75,000,000 

William Weightman •. 75,000.000 

George F. Baker 50.000.000 

A. G. Vanderbilt 45.000.000 

Mrs. Hetty Green 35,000,000 

Mrs. Sarah Van Rensselaer 12,000,000 



FOURTH OP JULY CASUALTIES IN 1903. 

Died of lockjaw caused by injuries 406 

Died of other injuries 60 

Totally blinded 10 

Numljor who lost one eye 75 

Arms and legs lost 54 

Number who lost fingers 174 

Number of Injured who recovfrc d 3.083 

Total number of casualties in the I'nitcd States 4,349 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 289 

Popular Amusements 

INDOOR SPORTS FOR THE HOME. 

Indoor sports which combine fun, recreation and social inter- 
course with physical exercise are needed by every normal man 
to keep him in trim. Of these games, there are plenty which 
require a small amount of physical work and yet are suitable 




for the home. Billiards and pool are good games to alternate 
with more active sports, but there is a greater amount of exer- 
cise to be derived from shuffleboard. This game consists of slid- 
ing iron disks over a shuffleboard and trying to "land" them in a 




given line. The game Is more enjoyable if the board is covered 
with canvas, to do away with the dust and noise. Bowling is 
an excellent mode of exercise, but the outfit required is rather 
an expensive one for most homes. 

Indoor golf is a game in which any number may compete, 
and is quite amusing. A board 3 feet square with a hole cut 
in the center 6 inches in diameter, placed in the corner of a 
room at an angle of 45 degrees, forms the objective point. Rugs, 



290 



AlIBRICAN ▲GRICULTURIST 




o 



chairs, etd., are the hazards, li'he club to use is the mid iron 
or lofter, and of course only approach shots are possible. 

Although ping-pong has diminished greatly in popularity, 
there is every reason why it should be retained among indoor 
sports, as it affords a great chance for physical activity. In 
order that the most beneficial results may be obtained, the 
room in which it is played should be a large one, with plenty 
of fresh, cool air. Other good indoor games which also afford 
exercise, are handball, squash, slow running, and rope skipping. 
For men, such combative sports as fencing, broadsword, spar- 
ring and wrestling are available sports, though fencing is rather 
hard to learn, and wrestling most too strenuous for a medium- 
sized man. 




s 




YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 291 

GAMES FOR. YOUNG AND OLD. 

HORRORS. 

' For this exciting game, the players are told to stand in a row 
along the center line of the parlor tloor, and when this is done, 
all the lights are extinguisned. The hostess then produces a 
basket, which she says is filled with the most awful objects. 
She tells the players that the horrors will be passed along the 
line, from hand to hand, and that anyone opening his eyes or 
making an exclamation of any kind will be put out of the game. 
Eyes are then ordered closed, and the mysterious objects begin 
to wend their way down the line. As a usual thing most of 
the players have to be banished from the ranks in short order, 
and only about a couple are left to be rewarded by some trivial 
prize. As to the horrors, a kid glove filled with mush and left 
on ice for half an hour, will produce about the same sensation as 
having a severed hand thrust into one's own in the dark; or a 
strip of narrow hose, plunged in ice water the minute before, 
will suggest a slimy snake. The hostess can use her own inge- 
nuity in devising many other dreadful , things. 

TELEGRAMS. 

Ask each of your guests to suggest the first letter for each 
word that is to compose the telegram, after which let them 
take turns in making -up the messages to be sent. As an exam- 
ple, if the letters, M. A. T. P. D. P. R. are mentioned, the mes- 
sage may read: "Mary arrives to-morrow. Please don't plan 
reception." 

FOX. 

Ring games are always enjoyed by the children, as they can 
generally be played by the little ones with help. In this game 
one of the child foxes stays outside the ring and shyly slaps the 
shoulder of one of the children. *'Fox" runs to the left, the child 
to the right. They meet, and pass each other, going at full 
speed around the ring. The one who gets back to the "den" 
(the place in the ring where the child was standing) may hold 
that place, and the other must be the fox and try a race with 
some other child. 

THE GAME OF NUMBERS. 

Each guest draws from a basket on the table a slip of paper 
bearing a number, and a half minute is allowed to give some 
old proverb, adage, fact or rhyme containing the number. If 
the player fails to respond within the time, a forfeit is required 
and afterward redeemed in some manner to entertain the com- 
pany. To make the game more clear, suppose the number drawn 
is ten, then quickly follows, "Ton cents make one dime"; if 
number nine, "Of the muses of old, there were nine we are 
told"; if number two, "Two is company, three is none"; if num- 



L 



292 AMERICAN AGRICULTTTRIST 

ber one, "One, two, buckle my shoe." It seems easy, but one 
must think quickly to give the required proverb, fact or what- 
ever it may be in the time allowed. 



PH0ORES8IVE CONVERSATION. 

There should be no wall flowers in this game, where every- 
one is furnished with something to talk about. Eaoh lady is 
provided with a card on which is a topic for conversation. At 
the ringing of a bell each man finds his partner and talks -witli 
her until the time is up, when he passes on to the next lady. 
After every man has conversed with every lady in the room, 
ballots are taken, the ladies voting for the men they found most 
entertaining, the men for the lady. The first prise is awarded 
to the person of each sex receiving the largest number of votes. 



BOOK REVIEWING. 

Each guest writes an author's name on a slip of paper, which 
is folded over and passed to the one who sits next to her, -who 
writes the title of a book; the paper is again folded and passed 
to another, who writes a criticism upon it. As many slips are 
made use of as there are participants in the game. When these 
papers are read, the jumble of authors, books and reviews is 
most amusing. 

MAGIC BRIDGE. 

The magic bridge is another game popular with the children. 
For this they join hands and form*" a ring. If the number is 
large, there should be four "bridges" at the quarter points of 
the ringf these being numbered one, two, three and four — one 
opposite three, and two opposite four. The bridges are formed 
by two children who raise their joined hands for the others to 
pass under. The pianist leads with a bright, familiar air, and 
the children all follow the time, singing tra-la-la, tra-la-la, as 
they dance and skip along, keeping step to the music. They go 
one or more times around in a circle, the leader indicates where 
a "bridge" is to be made. Two children raise their joined hands, 
and the two children standing opposite in the ring cross the 
center of the circle. All the others following after, pass under 
the "bridge." Then turning to right and left respectively, the 
two lines follow the path of the circle as formed first, meet, 
join hands again and a new circle is formed. Another "bridge" 
appears as If by magic, and the children opposite It lead again 
through it, the while keeping the merry measure with song and 
dance. This is a good game to play when things begin to get a 
little quiet at a party, as it makes the children get up and 
jump around; in fact, children always prefer games in which 
t})ere is need for activity to those which put a tax upon their 
mental capacity. 






io 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 293 

Etiquette 

WHEN AND HOW TO CALL. 

In the city, a woman pays her formal calls between 3 and 
half-past 5 o'clock in the afternoon. If a friend has a day "at 
home," it is better to call then if possible, though it is not 
improper to call at another time. In towns and country neigh- 
borhoods, calls are frequently made in the morning and evening 
and after church, or in the afternoon on Sunday. A man utilizes 
evenings and Sunday afternoons to pay his calls. 

It Is proper for brides and strangers to wait to receive the 
first call. AVhen two women return to town after a summer 
vacation, and no Indebtedness exists, the younger one would 
call first upon the older. An unmarried woman would call first 
upon a matron, however, unless the latter be decidedly her 
junior. 

Veils, gloves and lighter wraps should not be removed when 
calling, though if the weather is bad, umbrellas, overshoes and 
raincoats should be left in the hall. A man never wears his 
overcoat Into a lady's drawing room, and it is a rare thing for 
him to carry his cane or hat In either. At a regular "at home," 
women do not kiss in greetinfe^ and retain their gloves when 
taking tea. A man in calling with a lady always waits for her 
to give tho signal for departure. 

CARDS AND WEDDING INVITATIOxs a. 1905. 
By Harriet Gillespie. 

Fashion exacts from her votaries strict obedience to law, and 
In no one particular does she exercise her prerogative to a 
greater degree than in the correct usage of cards. Latitude 
such as she sometimes tolerates in the realm of feminine rai- 
ment has no place in this department of social observance, and 
the rules governing their usage are defined to a nicety. 

A continuance of the custom of using the Roman or Old 
English style of lettering on the modish visiting card still ob- 
tains, exclusive society favoring the latter. The graceful, quaint 
form expressive of so much dignity and refinement, doubtless, 
is largely responsible for its con,tinued popularity. The easy, 
flowing script is used to a moderate degree by conservative wo- 
men, who are loath to depart from old customs or to be the 
first to follow alter strange gods. One arbitrary rule, essential 
to good taste, is to the effect that but one style of lettering 
should be used on a card, and furthermore that a set of cards 
belonging to one family should be alike. Mongrel lettering 
should be as rigidly eschewed as an association of several styles 
of architecture. As the latter is considered the hight of bad 
form, the former should be discouraged on the same ground. 

Certain uniform sizes are prescribed for all cards except 
those intended for a specific purpose, and this by the best au- 



294 AMBRICAN AGRICULTURIST 

thority in the country. A visiting card for a man should be 1% 
by 3 Inches; 6t a young woman, 2 by 3 Inches; and of a married 
woman, 2% by 3^ inches. Dinner, luncheon, tea, ball and recep- 
tion cards vary in size according as taste and the amount of 
lettering dictate. Fashion now decrees that names, residence 
numbers, dates and time, also titles when used as preflxee, 
junior, etc., should be engraved In full. The Important excep- 
tion to this rule is in the case of the eldest married woman of 
the elder branch of the family, who may omit all Christian 
names on her card if the simpler form appeals more strongly 
to her. 

The prefix "Mr." should always appear on a visiting card, 
but may be omitted on a business card. Clergymen occasionally 
drop their formal title in favor of plain **Mr." among intimate 
friends, but the idea does not generally obtain. The lower left- 
hand corner invariably indicates the club or society, If the 
man belong to such; the hospital, if a physician; the church, 
if a mmister ot the gospel. If it be a society women, the same 
space contains the reception day, and where the ordinary visit- 
ing card is utilized as an invitation to an Informal function, as 
is often the case, the *'at home," hours and character of the 
entertainment are designated. Tbe lower right-hand corner in- 
variably contains the address. 

Under no consideration should a woman's card fail to carry 
the prefix. The card of a married woman should always carry 
her husband's name in full, together with her reception day and 
address. As the young woman is not supposed to have a dif- 
ferent reception day from her mother, her card is innocent of 
this inscription. 

The young debutante has little use for a special visiting 
card, for custom requires that her maiden calls be made exclu- 
sively with her mother, therefore her name, directly below that 
of her mother, will appear upon a special card bearing the 
reception day and address. The Christian name is omitted In 
case of the eldest daughter, while the names of the younger ap- 
pear in full. Frequently the daughters' names combined are 
placed beneath that of the mother. 

It is customary for a bride to have a special card engraved 
with her own and husband's name. No reception day Is given, 
for the young people are supposed to visit together. Special 
cards are provided for such occasions. The use by a widow of 
her husband's name, while not legally acknowledged. Is per- 
missible, but not altogether advisable. Sentiment, however, 
often supersedes cohventionallty, and the empty symbol is re- 
tained for the sake of old memories. 

When a married son is named for his father, complications 
are avoided if the Christian name of the mother be omitted 
entirely from her card. A funeral custom which has gained a 
conservative following is the sending of engraved cards express- 
ing suitable sentiment to friends and acquaintances in ac- 
knowledgment of condolatory messages, flowers and the like, 
sent in the hour of affliction. Their use is confined prlndiMLlly 



\ 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 295 

to cases where the decedent was a prominent personage, and 
even then personal replies are sent to intimate friends. 

Surpassing^' dainty and attractive are the diminutive bits of 
pasteboard that do duty as visiting cards for young girls and 
boys. The dignity ot paying formal calls nowadays is by no 
means confined to the older members of the family, and cun- 
ning little cards 1 by 2 Inches in size, engraved by black type 
with the prefix "Miss" or "Master," without the address or 
other lettering, represent the perfection of simplicity and good 
taste In this direction. 

If it happens that a prospective bride and groom have a large 
circle of friends, occasionally betrothal announcements are sent 
out, which are handsomely engraved in Old English or Roman 
lettering, the conventional sheet being used. 

The custom of sending out birth cards prevails to a great 
degree. A dainty slip of cardboard of minute proportions, en- 
grossed with the infant's name, is tied to that of its parents 
by a pure white ribbon. Altogether it forms an attractive and 
interesting souvenir for the friends and relatives of the little 
newcomer. 

The ordinary visiting card fills a multitude ot offices in the 
invitation line. It not only does duty as a tea card, but is 
utilized for entertainments of a special character, when the 
word "music," "cards," "readings," etc.. Is used. In the event 
of an evening affair, the husband'» name appears with that of 
his wife. An afternoon function of a more formal character 
will be announced by an engraved card sent out in the name of 
the hostess, with the word denoting the special character of the 
diversion offered In the lower left-hand corner. 

If the hostess be assisted, the names of the receiving wo- 
men or those for whom the affair is given will appear below. 
In another style of at home card, blank spaces are left for the 
name of the guest, hours and date to be inserted. These are es- 
pecially desirable for a woman who entertains largely. Ultra 
luncheon, dinner and tea invitations are similarly engrossed,, 
except that the hostess "requests your presence." 

Invitations for balls are engraved on a generous sheet of 
paper and Inclosed in two envelopes, the style of wording fol- 
lowing that for formal dinners and receptions, but for the word 
"cotillion," "dancing," or whatever it may be, which occupies 
its usual place. 

In the event of a formal ball given for charity or other 
object of a semi-public character, the invitation would sitate 
that "the pleasure of your company is requested," etc., with the 
name of the patronesses below. When given in honor of some 
distinguished guest, it is usual to precede the Invitation with 
the form, "To meet the Hon. Frank W. Higgins, Governor of 
New York." Ordinarily the legend Is placed either at the top 
or at the bottom of the regular reception form. Frequently a 
special card is engraved with a space for filling in the guest's 
name. 



296 AitBKiCAN AfiBtcmj*rutam* 

Very stately and dignified, both as regrard type and .wording 
—as properly befits such a solemn occasion-~are tlie hewest 
forms at, wedding invitations. The parents of the brld^'^eiect 
"request the honor" of your presence at the ceremony, and tile 
"pleasure" of the same at the reception, if the ceremony be 
private, all of which is en$rraved in the grraceful Old Bnsrlish, 
which fashion and good taste now pronounce the most elegant. 
Ultra-fashionable folk favor the form which omits the names 
of the contracting parties from the invitations proper, but in- 
cludes the individual cards of the prospective bride and groom, 
similarly engraved. But in any event, whether the names be 
included in the regular form or inclosed separately, a blank 
space is left in which is inscribed the name of the person to 
whom the invitation is sent, a method which carries with it a 
gracious suggestion of personal interest, pleasing to the recipi- 
ent, even though she be aware that tickle fashion alone nromnts 
the formality. 

DON'TS FOR THE TABLE. 

Don't— 

Put your elbows on the table. 
Trifle with knives and forks. 
Clink the glasses together. 
Tuck the napkin In your waistcoat or collar. 
Fold the napkin at conclusion of a meal. 
Convey food to the mouth with the knife. 
Mash food with the fork. 

Hold knife and fork in the air while the plate is A«li\g 
replenished. 

Place soiled knife or fork on table linen. 

Allow spoon to stand in cUp while drinking from it« 

Blow on soup to reduce its temperature. 

Drink from the end of a spoon. 

Masticate the food noisily. 

Converse with the mouth full. 

Hold food in the air while conversing. 

Blt6 mouthfuls of bread from a slice. 

Precede the ladies to the table. 

Use a toothpick at the table. 

PREPARATIONS FOR A BIG DINNER. 

First cover the table with heavy felting or double canton 
flannel, and over this lay the damask dinner cloth, so placed 
that the central crease will divide the table In half. Place a 
large dolly In the middle of the table, and on this set the artis- 
tically arranged floral centerpiece with the canHlesticks about 
It. Then dispose about the table a convenient number of decan- 
ters, pepper boxes and salt cellars and little dishes of bonbons 
and almonds. On each plate place a large white napkin, fold«d 
or ironed square, with a dinner roll between the folds. Three 



TB2AR BOOK AND ALJtfANAC 287 

silver forks are put, points of ]>ron^ up, to the left of the 
plate, and to the right two large knives and one small knife, 
sharp edires toward the plate; on this side also groes the large 
soup spoon, and next to it the oyster fork. Close to the tips 
of the knife blades set the glasses— a tumbler or goblet for 
water, and if wines are served glasses appropriate for the 
different kinds. On each napkin is placed a card bearing the 
name of the guest who is to have that particular seat. 

The lady Q,t the right of the host should be served first, and 
then each guest in regular order. Dishes should be served at 
the left of a person. Be sure that plates for hot courses are 
warmed or the dish will be spoiled. The host never carves at a 
very large dinner, as none of the dishes are set upon the table, 
the work of helping being left entirely to the servants. It is 
best not to have so many guests that the table will be crowded. 
The following is the menu for a rather elaborate dinner: 

Oysters on the half shell 

Oxtail soup 

Toung turkey Cranberry jelly 

Chestnut boulettes Baked tomatoes 

Mashed potatoes 

Olives Salted nuts Radishes 

Sweetbreads with Madeira in chafing-dish 

Lettuce salad with French dressing 

Cheese croquettes Pastry strips 

Pumpkin fanchonettes 

Orange ice Old-fashioned hickory nut cakQ8 

Black coffee 
Roasted chestnuts 



ORIGIN OP TOASTS. 



The proposal of a health in an after-dinner speech dates 
back to mediaeval times. At that time the loving cup was 
used at every banquet. It was filled to the brim with wine and 
in the center was placed a piece of toasted bread. The cup 
circulated the table, each one present taking a sip of the wine. 
When it came back to the host he drained the remaining wine 
and ate the piece of toast in honor of all the friends assembled 
at his table. 

The ancient Greeks, the Romans, the Assyrians and the 
Egyptians drank each other's health at dinner, but post-prandia^ 
oratory was not a4opted until modern times. The GreeK toast 
was, "I salute you, be happy"; that of the Romans, "I drink 
your health." 



298 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



Health 

DISEASES THROUGH MOSQUITOES. 

Yellow fever is only transmitted from one person to another 
by means of mosquitoes. To this great discovery is due the 
fact that yellow fever is no longer a plague. It is prevented by 
stamping out the mosquito pelst and by taking proper precau- 
tions against mosquitoes. 

Malaria is also transmitted by one person to another only 
through the bite of the mosquito. These are two of the greatest 
hygienic discoveries of modern times. 

There Is only one single genus of mosquitoes that transmits 
malaria to human beings, and its name is Anopheles. The spar- 
row malaria is transferred by the genus Culex. 




The mosquito on the left, standing parallel to the surface on 
which it rests, is harmless, whereas the noxious Anopheles, on 
the right, stands at right angles. 

These two genera are easily distinguished, as mosquitoes of 
the genus Anopheles hold their bodies nearly at right angles to 
the surface upon which they are resting, as shown in the illus- 
tration, while Culex keeps its body nearly parallel. 

It is only the female mosquito, however, that transmits the 
disease, the male being harmless. Steps should therefore be 
taken to check the propagation of these harm-doing insects. 
The stagnant pools and ponds where the eggs are deposited and 
which the larvae inhabit, should be drained wherever it is pos- 
sible, but if it is not practical to drain the breeding places, the 
Introduction of small flsh into the pond will materially lessen 
the number of larvae. A thin film of kerosene over the surface 
of water will effectually destroy mosquito larvae. A small quan- 
tity of kerosene poured in an open cistern, tub or rain barrel 
will retard their breeding. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 
YET^I..OW FEVER. 



299 




The way this disease is communicated by mosquitoes was 
discovered by Major Walter Reed of the United States army 
medical division, in Cuba, in 190O. He was born in Gloucester 
county, Va., September 13, 1851, died at Washington, D. C, No- 
vember 23, 1902, and for 
this discovery ranks as 
one of the great benefac- 
tors of humanity. Havana 
Is now one of the health- 
iest cities of the world, 
but prior to 1900 was rav- 
aged by yellow fever al- 
most yearly. Safeguard- 
ing against mosquitoes is 
eradicating yellow fever 
wherever the new method 
is thoroughly enforced. 
Lives without number, 
and wealth beyond meas- 
ure are thus being saved. 
Reed's conclusions are: 

1. The specific agent in 
the causation of yellow 
fever exists in the blood 
of a patient for the first 
three days of his attack, 
after which time he 
ceases to be a menace to 
the health of others. 

2. A mpsquito of a sin- 
gle species, Stegomyia 

fasciata, ingesting the blood of a patient durlne? this infective 
period, is powerless to convey the disease to another person by 
its bite until about 12 days have elapsed, but can do so there- 
after for an indefinite period, propagating the remainder of 
its life. 

3. Yellow fever cannot in nature be spread In any other 
way than by the bite of the previously infected Stegomyia. 

4. Articles used and soiled by patients do not carry Infec- 
tion and need not be destroyed. 

OUR ENEMY, THE HOUSE FLY. 

The little house fiy is a dangerous enemy to human life, as 
it has the ability to gather upon its tongue and carry from any 
moist substance a great many pathogenic germs, which it de- 
posits on food, in milk jug or wherever It happens to alight. 
It has been found that wherever excrement is not properly cared 
for, the house fly carries virulent typhoid germs and transmits 
them to food substances in the house. 

The typhoid germs may be found in excreta for some time 



On the left the harmless male 
Anopheles, on the right the dan- 
gerous female. 



AMERICAN AORICDLTUKIST 




the right. 

before the charaoti 

quite a while after 



n be recognized, and also 
■ecovered. A3 It Is known 
definitely that the 
house fly breeds in 
this substance, it la 
surprising that ty- 
phoid Is not more 
prevalent than It la, 
when we consider 
the great numbera in 
which the fly awarms 
In ao many Ititchens 
and dining n 



r bacterial ii 



all 



decrease the n 
bers of this Insec 
trying ta stop 
breeding. Mai 

piles, where the 



TSAR BOOK AND AUtfANAC 301 

PRECAUTION AGAINST TUBERCULAR INFECTION. ' 

[Prom *'The Great White Plague," by Dr. John B. Ruber, 
Popular Science Monthly for August, 1904.] 

To-day every third or fourth adult dies of consumption. In 
the periods between birth and senescence every seventh death 
is caused by It. 

The tubercle bacillus gets Into the body either with the air 
we breathe, or with tuberculous foodstuffs, or rarely through 
wounds. Wherever it implants Itself an inflammation may oc- 
cur about it, with the result that a tubercle is formed (tuoer Is 
Latin for root or bulb). This tubercle is in size from that of a 
millet seed to a hickory nut or larger. Its development is 
called tuberculosis. Under favorable circumstances it becomes 
surrounded by fibrous tissue, somewhat like the scar which 
would follow a wound of the skin; and then the tubercle will 
be comparatively harmless to the organism. 

Besides these predispositions to tuberculosis, there are many 
others. There are the family relations. If one member is con- 
sumptive, his sputum may in various ways be infected. It may 
be spat upon the floor, and if there Is an infant. It will. In 
playing about, pick up bacillus-laden objects, and, after the 
habit of Infants, put them into its mouth. Then, after weeks or 
months the child becomes tuberculous. So that on such ac- 
counts as these it was formerly considered that the disease itself 
was of hereditary origin. Then "neglected colds," fevers and 
exhausting diseases, such as typhoid or malaria, enervate the 
body and make it a fruitful soil for mlcroblc germination. 
Direct injury, or open wounds, or the shock occasioned by in- 
jury, or depressing emotions generally, may predispose. There 
are many trades which may stand in a causative relation to 
tuberculosis. In the excellent book entitled "Dangerous Trades," 
there are nearly 60 such occupations specifically considered. 

The sputum of the consumptive must be de.«?troy€d; and our 
government inspectors must see to it that no tuberculous meat 
and milk get Into our markets. These are practically the only 
sources of tubercular infection we need fear, and If these were 
thoroughly attended to, there would be no danger of infection. 

NECESSITY OP CHEWING THE POOD. 

If the food is correctly chewed, it has been found by actual 
tests that a man can live on about one-third as much as is usu- 
ally consumed In a day by one person. The diet must be made 
up of the simplest food, but much time must be consumed in 
chewing. 30 movements of the* jaw not being too many for such 
easily swallowed things as raw oysters. 

By thus thoroughly chewing, the food Is made so digestible 
from the chemical action of the julcej? of the mouth, that When 
it reaches the stomach it Is ready to perform its various func- 
tions in renewing the body. Not so with unchewed food, which 



\ 



302 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

reaches the stomach in lumps, and causes the stomach to over- 
work in order to pass it into the intestines. Sometimes, also, 
when too much unchewed food has been swallowed at a meal, 
the lumps pass into and clog up the intestines, and fermentation 
and decay soon set in. 

One finds after a few months of simple living that all su- 
perfluous flesh soon passes ofC without any loss of physical 
strength. On the contrary, exercises which cause fatigue to the 
heavy feeder can be taken without any after effects. 

The more the food is chewed, the less one eats and the more 
one craves simple things. Besides, more pleasure is to be had 
from eating, as the full flavor of the food is tasted, aiid a good 
digestion is the reward for the time it takes. 

TO DEVELOP THE BODY. 

Some sort of exercise should be taken by everyone, either 
upon rising in the morning or retiring at night, and what is 
more, it should be done methodically, and the proper forms gone 
through. 

The following are a few exercises for the principal parts 
of the body, suggested by a teacher of physical culture: 

Neck — Bend the head slowly forward and backward, and 
from side to side. If a harder exercise is desired, resist the 
movement of the head by pushing in the opposite direction with 
the hands. This will fill up the hollows in the neck. 

Tipper Arm (biceps)— Curl dumbbells. That is, drop the arms 
full length at the side and curl the bells up to the shoulder. 
"Chinning," if one has a convenient place, is a splendid exercise. 
A low branch of a tree in the garden wMll do nicely. Reach up 
and grasp the limb with both hands, the backs of the hands 
toward you, and try to pull yourself up until your chdn is on a 
level with your hands. 

Forearm— Open and shut the hand— squeeze a rubber ball; or 
a sheet of newspaper made into a ball will do. 

Chest— To broaden the chest, swing your dumbbells shoulder 
high in front of you, and, keeping them shoulder high, swing 
arms as if to try and touch the hands in back. To deepen the 
chest and develop the shoulder muscle (deltoid), take the dumb- 
bells in either hand at the side and raise the arms shoulder 
high. Above all, for the chest, take long, deep breaths. 

Bust— Bend the body forward, bend your arm and swing 
both dumbbells, in one hand, close in front of you — directly 
across the body. To make sure you are doing this correctly, 
place the unoccupied hand directly above the bust (over the 
pectoral muscles) and experiment until you can feel the muscle 
work properly. 

Waist— To keep the waist line down, place hands on hips 
and slowly bend the body far forward and then backward (keep 
the head up), and then bend from right to left. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 808 

Hips— To develop, swing leg to the side and forward and 
backward. 

Thigh— With back straight, heels together, bend knees, rising 
on your toes as you do so, and sink down until your hips touch 
your heels; rise quickly to correct position. Qreat care must be 
taken not to bend forward in the least, or the value of this exer- 
cise will be lost. Lifting knee to the chin is also a good exercise. 

Calf— Rising on toes and then heels. 

Abdomen— To decrease flesh; lie on the floor, placing hands 
under hips and with feet together, legs straight, raise legs over 
head. Repeat, raising them again just before the feet reach 
the floor. 

RULES FOR A HYGIENIC BED. 

The bed should be placed well away from the windows, where 
no draft can strike the sleeper, as it is quite as injurious to 
sleep in a draft as it is in a room with no ventilation whatever. 
If it is impossible to have the windows open without a draft 
screens should be provided as a protection against it. A metal 
bedstead is more readily cleansed and therefore preferable to 
wood. 

The sheets and blankets should be of generous size, and one 
should have a light comforter or extra blanket for cold nights. 
Do not sleep under the counterpane, as it is unhealthy to do 
so. Avoid too much bedclothlng, as that is the cause of much 
of that tired feeling which many people complain of after a 
night's repose. It is a good plan, for those suffering from rheu- 
matism particularly, to have an old blanket for the under sheet, 
and also a slip cover for the pillows under the ordinary case. 

Much attention should be paid to the proper airing of beds. 
The bedclothlng should be entirely removed every morning, 
and exposed to the air and sun. The best plan of all is to put 
bedclothlng, pillows and even the mattresses, right out on the 
line, so that all odors may be easily blown away. At least an 
hour should elapse after rising before the bed is remade. The 
bedroom windows should remain open as much of the day as 
possible and always at night. 

PREPARATIONS FOR HOSPITAL TREATMENT. 

Address all communications to the Resident Physician of 
the hospital to which admission is desired. Applications for ad- 
mission are best made through a local physician. Take no lug- 
gage larger than a suit case. Place hair brush and comb, tooth 
brush, soap, manicure articles, hand mirror, writing materials, 
stamps and telegram blanks in compact boxes which can be 
put in the small table drawer allowed each patient. 

Provide no underclothing unless arrangements are made for 
laundry work to be done outside the hospital and without the 
supervision of the numes. 



804 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Dressing gowns in full length and slippers are the only 
clothing needed in the wards and these e^xe provided when 
desired. 

Street clothes are stored with regard to economizing space. 
It is a good plan to have them sent when the patient is dis- 
charged. 

No line of work is more exacting than that of nurses in 
training. They seldom fail to attend to actual needs, but they 
have no time to listen to grievances. Their routine duties will 
not often permit them to write letters, and errands outside the 
hospital cannot be done by them. 

Make yourself ready to believe that the wisest treatment will 
be given your case. Your personal views are not to be matched 
against those of physicians and nurses. 

Telephoning concerning a patient in a large hospital is only 
allowable in dangerous cases, and all communications arei best 
carried on through the medium of the visiting hour. 

Don't believe your own case to be the worst in the hospital 
and that it demands the most attention. 

Resolve to be cheerful; there are social duties and crimes 
In hospitals as elsewhere. 

Go with the single thought of getting well and make any 
sacrifice to bring about this result in the shortest possible time. 



QUICK REMEDIES FOR THE NURSERY AND THE HOME. 

By a Physician Whose Specialty Is the Treatment of Chil- 
dren's Diseases. 



Nosebleed— Saturate absorbent cotton with witch hazel, 
strong tea, alum water or salt water, and plug the nose. Soak 
the feet in hot water. Sometimes a clothespin put tightly on 
the nose will stop the bleeding. 

Pink Eye— Lay a poultice, of grated raw potato in fine gauze 
on the sore eye and have the patient lie still in a dark room for 
several hours. Bathe with witch hazel. Burn everything that 
has touched the eyes, as the discharge from pink eye is in- 
fectious. 

Chilblains— Apply camphorated oil or equal parts of spirits 
of turpentine and ichthyol. 

Chafing— Wash the sore places with castlle soap, dry thor- 
oughly and dust with buckwheat flouj or a good baby powder. 

Infantile Convulsions— Hot baths and mustard water for the 
feet. Bathe the spine with cold water; warm water on the head. 

Whooping Cough— For a hard attack, fill the room with 
cresolene vapor; an emetic of powdered alum in honey is help- 
ful. Hold the child on its stomach on nurse's lap with its head 
lowered till the emetic works. Spray the throat several times 
a day with one teaspoon of listerine ia two ounces of water. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 8(H> 

Oroup— Make the room at temperature of 80, All with steam 
of boiling vinegar. Bathe child In hot water till he sweats. 
Pat compress on throat, wrung out of cold water and vinegar. 
Give ipecac if fever subsides but cough continues. 

Earache— Give hot foot baths and apply to the ear a hop bag 
wrung out of hot water, a bran or salt bag heated in the oven, 
or put the heart of a roasted onion in the outer ear. One part 
of menthol in 20 parts of oil of sweet almonds often gives in- 
stant relief when dropped in the ear. 

Foreign Substances In the Ear— Put the pipe of a tightly 
working syringe in the ear, then draw back the piston. The 
foreign substance will be sucked out. 

Fainting— Lay the patient on the back with head lower than 
the heart, loosen the clothes, dash cold water In the face, slap 
the chest over the heart and apply ammonia to the nose. 

Blistered Feet— Mix the tallow dropped from a candle with 
alcohol and rub the blistered spot gently, or moisten the blister 
and rub with baking soda. 

Ivy Poisoning— Bathe the affected parts with water as hot 
as can be borne, then with sugar of lead dissolved in water. 

Burns and Scalds— Exclude air at once from the burned sur- 
face. Sprinkle bicarbonate of soda over the burn, then wrap the 
part in moist gauze and a layer of absorbent cotton held se- 
curely in place by a bandage. If blisters form, soak Unt in a 
mixture of equal parts of lime water and olive oil and keep in 
place by a bandage. Change the soaked bandages frequently. 

Choking— Pick child up by its feet, hold it head down for a 
few seconds, and administer a few sharp blows between the 
shoulders. 

Swallowing Coins, Buttons, Etc.— Follow the act as soon as 
possible with a dose of castor oil. 

Foreign Bodies in the Nose~If the obstruction cannot be 
hooked out with a hairpin or glove buttoner, give the child a 
pinch of snuff to induce sneezing. 

Foreign Matter in the Eye— Lift the lid, find the foreign 
substance, and wipe It off with the corner of a soft handkerchief 
or with a toothpick if imbedded inside the lid. 

Sunstroke— Lay the patient down with head and shoulders 
up and put an ice bag on the head. Sponge the body with 
ice water. 

Colic— Give dry, hot fomentations and rub the abdomen. Hot 
peppermint tea wijl frequently give relief. 

Diarrhea— Apply warmth to the bowels and wrap the body 
in flannel. Give a dose of castor oil. 

Thrush— Each time the baby feeds, wash Its mouth with a 
solution of warm water and borax. Or, wash the baby's mouth 
once in two hours with one dram of borax dissolved in one 
ounce of strained honey. 

Growing Pains— Wring a towel from strong cold salt water 



306 AMBRICAN AaRICULTURIST 

and wrap about the aching limb. Make the child lie down, then 
swathe the bandaged leg in dry, warm flannels. 

Sprains— Make the patient lie level and take entire rest tintil 
a physician can be called. Bathe with hot water. A lotion of 
lead water and laudanum will reduce the pain and swelling. 

HOW TO SLEEP. 

Do not expose yourself to a draft when retiring, or inrliile 
sleeping. 

Do not go to bed in a room where lamp or gas has been 
burning for hours. Put out light, throw open the windows as 
wide as possible, and get the pure oxygen before retiring. Then 
leave the window so that there is a circulation of good air all 
night long. 

The less nightclothing worn to bed, the better. Also avoid 
overloading the body with bedclothing. 

No one should sleep in a room that has not at least one 
window open. 

Go to bed at a regular, early hour, not later than 10, and get 
up as soon as you awake in the morning, or at least avoid taking 
k second nap. 

A hot bath before going to bed will induce almost Instan- 
taneous sleep upon retiring. 

Sleep with the body as nearly horizontal as possible. Most 
persons sleep on the right side, though there are physicians who 
say that one should lie on the left side with the arm thrown 
behind. Sleeping on the back is not recommended. 

TO KEEP YOUNG. 
[From Success.] 

Expect a good, long, useful life. 

Hold young thoughts persistently. 

Simply refuse to grow old by counting your years or antici- 
pating old age. 

Keep in the sunlight; nothing beautiful or sweet grows or 
ripens in the darkness. 

Avoid excesses of all kinds; they are injurious. The long 
life must be a temperate, regular life. 

Never look on the dark side; take sunny views of every- 
thing; a sunny thought drives away the shadows. 

Be a child; live simply and naturally, and keep clear of en- 
tangling alliances and complications of all kinds. 

Don't live to eat, but eat to live. Many of our ills are due 
to overeating, to eating the wrong things, and to irregular 
eating. 

Don't let anything interfere with your regular hours of work 
and rest, but get plenty of sleep, especially what is called 
"beauty sleep," before midnight. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 307 

Keep busy; idleness Is a great friend of age. but an enemy 
of youth. Regular employipent and mental occupation are mar- 
velous youth preservers. 

Take regular exercise in -the open air every day In all weath- 
ers; walk, ride, row. swim or play; but whatever you do, keep 
out of doors as much as possible. 



NOISE AND HEALTH. 

A noted physician has recently made the statement that 
noise has a decidedly injurious cfTect upon the health of indi- 
vidiiaLs and demands attention from the sanitary officers .in 
cities and towns. Of .course a certain number of noises are 
necessary in connection with public utilities, but these, he 
thinks, could be reduced In number, as for instance, by doing 
away with flat-wheeled cars and some other noise nuisances. 

HIGHT AND WEIGHT OF MEN. 
[According to Life Ass(tciation Records.] 



Hight Pounds Hight Pounds 

5 ft ^....... ....... 120 to i;i4 5 ft 8 inT^ 146 to 163 

o ft 1 in 122 to 136 5 ft 9 in 150 to 168 

5 ft 2 in 124 to 138 5 ft 10 in 154 to 174 

5 ft 3 in... 127 to 141 5 ft 11 in 159 to 180 

5 ft 4 in l.il to 145 6 ft 165 to 185 

5 ft 5 in 1.34 to 149 6 ft 1 in. 170 to 189 

5 ft 6 in 138 to 153 6 ft 2 in 176 to 196 

5 ft 7 in 142 to 158 6 ft 3 in 181 to 204 



HIGHT AND WEIGHT OF WOMEN. 
[IJfe Association Records.] 



Hight Pounds Hight Pounds^ 

5 ft 98 to 132 5 ft 7 in ..123 to 167 

5 ft 1 in 102 to 138 5 ft 8 in 126 to 170 

5 ft 2 in 106 to 144 5 ft 9 in 1.31 to 179 

5 ft' 3 in Ill to 150 5 ft 10 in 136 to 184 

5 ft 4 in 115 to 155 

5 ft 5 in 119 to 161 

5 ft 6 in 121 to 165 



5 ft 4 in 115 to 155 5 ft 11 in 128 to 190 

5 ft 5 in 119 to 161 6 ft 141 to 196 



Long livers are small eaters. 

The strongest animals in the world are those that live on. 
a vegetable diet. 



Miscellaneous 

TO BUILD A HOUSE WAGON. 



one is to take such a. trip, the house must flrst of all be n 
proof. Buy a Light two-horse farm wagon with springs belw 
the bed and the running gear (It will coat about tSO), and o 



IL House on Wheels. 



WHKun build a tent of ca 
done the end i^urtsln can 
stove lighted and the prlVG 



n down The outside 



THAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 309 

legs of the cots are fastened to the ends of two light pieces of 
timber which run underneath the bed of the wagon — one before 
and the other behind the rear wheels. These are held in place 
by iron straps looped around them, and can easily be pulled out 
and packed with the cots in the wagon, when one is traveling 
over narrow mountain roads. The frame for the wagon cover 
should be of sufficient hight to allow of standing room under- 
neath, and should be covered with eight-ounce canvas. In the 
accompanying illustration the canvas lean-tos, which covered 
the cots, were constructed with walls about 2 feet in hight, and 
these were held in place by light rods braced on the inside of 
the canvas. Lightness and strength must be the keynote of 
your building, for there will be many long mountain grades to 
climb and sandy spots to pull through. 

COMMON ERRORS. 

It is a mistake to labor when one is not in a fit condition 
to do so. 

To think that the more a person eats the healthier he will 
become. 

To go to bed at midnight and rise at daybreak and Imagine 
that every hour taken from sleep is an hour gained. 

To imagine that if a little work or exercise is good, violent 
or prolonged exercise is better. 

To conclude that the smallest room in the house is large 
enough to sleep in. 

To eat as if you only had a minute to finish a meal in, or to 
eat without an appetite, or continue after it has been satisfied 
merely to satisfy the taste. 

To believe that children can do as much work as grown 
people and that the more hours they study the more they learn. 

To take off proper clothing out of season, simply because 
they have become heated. 

WORDS OFTEN MISUSER. 

Alapaca, a popular error for alpaca. 

Allow, often used in the sense of think, or believe. 

Any place, used erroneously for anywhere.. 

Avocation, used when vocation is meant. 

Balance, should be only used as an accountant's term. 

Banister, for balustrade. 

Calculate, for intend. 

Corporal punishment, not corporeal. 

Claim, for assert. 

Expect, for intend, believe and suppose. 

Fix, for arrange. 

Folks, for people. 

Jewelry, for Jewels. 



zxo 



AMERICAN AGRICUIL.TUBIBT 
WEDDING DAY SUPERSTITIONS. 



If a bride wear a yellow garter tied by a girl friend, the lat- 
ter will be married inside the year. 

Three times a bridesmaid, never a bride. 

It is a sign of lU luck to take off the wedding ring. 

If the bride just before leaving the house throws her bouquet 
over the banisters, the one who catches it is next to be wedded. 

The wedding day is the bride's day, and the weather fore- 
tells her married life. The following is the bridegroom's, and 
his married life is shown in the same manner. The third day 
shows how they will live together. 

Old slippers or rice must be thrown after a bride for good 
luck. 

Wednesday is the luckiest day on which to be married. Sat- 
urday is the unluckiest. Friday is also unlucky. 

A double wedding is unlucky; one of the marriages will prove 
unhappy. 

A bride must not look in the glass after her toilet is com- 
plete, i. e., she must add a glove or some article after leaving 
the mirror. 

The bride should wear 

Something old, 

Something new, 
Something borrowed, 
And something blue. 



THE WEDDING ANNIVERSARY. 



At end of first year comes 
the Cotton wedding. 

2d year— Paper wedding. 

3d year— Leather wedding. 

5th year— Wooden wedding. 

7th year — Woolen wedding. 

10th year— Tin wedding. 

12th year— Silk and Fine Lin- 
en wedding. 



15th year— Crystal wedding. 
20th year — China wedding. 
25th year — Silver wedding. 
30th year — Pearl wedding. 
40th year— Ruby wedding. 
50th year— Golden wedding. 
75th year— Diamond wedding. 



GEMS AND FLOWERS FOR THE MONTH. 



January — Garnet and snow- 
drop. 

February— Amethyst and prim- 
rose. 

March— Bloodstone and violet. 

April— Diamond and daisy. 

May— Emerald and hawthorn. 

June— Moss agate and rose. 

July— Ruby and water lily. 



August— Sardonyx and poppy. 

September— Sapphire and gol- 
denrod. 

October — Opal and hops. 

November — Topaz and chrys- 
anthemum. 

December — Turquoise and 
holly. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 
LANGUAGE OP GEMS. 



311 



Amethyst— Peace of mind. 
Diamond— Pride. 
Emerald— Success in love. 
Ruby— A cheerful mind. 
Sapphire— Chastity. 
Topaz— Fidelity. 
Pearl— Purity. 



Turquoise— SuQcess and hap- 
piness. 

Garnet— Fidelity in every en- 
gagement. 

Onyx— Reciprocal love. 

Opal— Pure thoughts 



STATE FLOWERS. 



Alabama 'Sunflower 

Arkansas jApple Blossom 

California tGrolden Poppy 

Colorado.. *Colorado Columbine 
Delaware .... *Peach Blossom 

Idaho Syringa 

Indiana *Corn 

Iowa ♦Wild Rose 

Kansas tSunflower 

Louisiana tMagnolia 

Maine ..*Pine Cone and Tassel 

Michigan ♦Apple Blossom 

Minnesota ♦Moccasin 

Mississippi 'Magnolia 

Missouri ♦Goldenrod 

Montana 'Bitter Root 



Nebraska 'Goldenrod 

New York 'Rose 

North Dakota 'Goldenrod 

Oklahoma Territory. 'Mistletoe 

Oregon 'Oregon Grape 

Rhode Island 'Violet 

Texas tBlue Bonnet 

Utah 'Sego Lily 

Vermont ♦Red Clover 

Washington JRhododendron 

West Virginia 

'Rhododendron Max. 
Wyoming 'Gentian 

'Chosen by school children. 

tChosen by state legislature. 

iChosen by women's clubs. 



POPULAR NAMES OF CITIES. 



Baltimore — Monumental City. 

Boston— City of Notions; Hub 
of the Universe. 

Brooklyn— City of Churches. 

Chicago — Garden City; also, 
Windy City. 

Cincinnati— Queen City. 

Cleveland— Forest City. 

Detroit— City of the Straits. 

Hannibal, Mo —Bluff City. 

Indianapolis— Railroad City. 

Keokuk, la.— Gate City. 

Louisville, Ky.— Falls City. 

Lowell, Mass.— City of Spin- 
dles. 

Nashville, Tenn.— City of Rocks. 



New Haven— City of Elms. 

New Orleans— Crescent City. 

New York— Empire City. 

Philadelphia— City of Brother- 
ly Love; also, Quaker City. 

Pittsburg, Pa.— Iron City; also, 
Smoky City. 

Portland, Me.— Forest City. 

Rochester, N. Y.— Flour City. 

St. Louis— Mound City. 

Springfield, Mass.— City of 
Homes. 

Springfield, O.— Flower City. 

Washington— City of Magnifi- 
cent Distances. 



The first fire engine used in America was sent from England 
in 1751. 

The fastest rate at which a swallow has ever been timed to 
fly is 128^ miles an hour. 



312 



AMERICAN AQRICUL.TURIST 
WOMEN'S EXCHANGES. 



Bureaus for the buying and sellingr of needlework, preserves, 
wines, pickles, cake, hand-painted articles and burned leather 
and wood, now exist in 18 states. Information concerning these 
may be obtained from the secretaries of the respective organi- 
zations. At Christmas and Easter special sales are held, ^nd 
at this time articles for gifts are most in demand. With many 
of the exchanges there are employment agencies, where an ef- 
fort is made to provide work for all classes of women workers. 
Those in charge report that there is the greatest demand for 
women in domestic service. There is also a steady call for 
dressmakers, nurses, copyists, saleswomen, shampooers and 
housekeepers. Below is given a state directory of women's 
exchanges : 



CALIFORNIA. 
Oakland, 5S4 14th St. 
San Francisco, 26 Post St. 
San Jose, 31 South 2d St. 
Santa Barbara, 729 State St. 

CONNECTICUT. 

Bridgeport, 187 .Fairfield Ave. 
Hartford, 73 Pearl St. 
New Haven, 151 Orange St. 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 
Waehington, 811 Vermont Ave. 
GEORGIA. 

Atlanta, 158 Whitehall St. 
Macon, Cotton Ave. 

ILLINOIS. 
Chicago, 34 Washington St. 

IOWA. 
Des Moines, 516 Walnut St. 

MAINE. 
Augusta. 
Lewiston, 184 Bates St. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston, Women's Educational 
and Industrial Union, 264 
Boylston St. 

MISSOURI. 

St. Louis, 510 No. Grand Ave. 

NEW JERSEY. 

East Orange, the Women's Ex- 
change of the Oranges, 531 
Main St. 

Englewood, Engle St. 

New Brunswick, 185 Neilson St. 



Passaic, 22 Bloomfield Ave. 
Plainfield, 502 Watchung Ave, 
Trenton, 17 South Warren St. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

Portsmouth, Women's Educa- 
tional and Industrial Union, 
62 State St. 

NEW YORK. 

Brooklyn. Schermerhorn St. 

and Flatbush Ave, 
Buffalo, 1094 Main St. 
Dunkirk, 413 Swan St. 
Hornellsville, 196 Main St. 
Newburg, 150 Liberty St. 
New York City, 334 Madison 

Ave. 
Poughkeepsie, 352 Main St. 
Utica, 241 Genesee St. 

OHIO. 
Cincinnati, 438 Race St. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Erie, 702 French St. 
Philadelphia, 13th and Walnut 

Sts. 
Pittsburg, 412 Penn Ave. 

RHODE ISLAND. 

Newport, 24 Washington Sq. 
Providence, 38 Dorrance St. 

TEXAS. 

Houston, 706 Main St. 

VIRGINIA. 

Richmond, 300 E. Franklin St 

WASHINGTON. 

Spokane, 507 Sprague Ave. 



TfiAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 813 

PATRIOTIC WOMEN'S SOCIETIES. 
[Some of the more prominent ones.] 

Colonial Dames ot America (national and separate state or- 
ganizations). 

Daughters of the American Revolution. 
Daughters of the Revolution. 
United States Daughters of 1812. 
Daughters of the Holland Dames. 
The American Historical Red Cross, 
United Daughters of the Confederacy. 
Woman's Relief Corps. 
Mt. Vernon Ladles' Association. 

WHERE WOMEN VOTE. 

The legislature of New York in 1901 passed a law providing 
that "a woman who poHsesses the qualifications to vote for vil- 
lage or town officer.s, except the qualification of sex, who is the 
owner of property in the village assessed upon the last pre- 
ceding assessment roll thereof, is entitled to vote upon a prop- 
osition to raise money by tax or assessment." 

In Colorado, Idaho, Utah and Wyoming, women have full 
suffrage and vote for all officers, Including presidential electors. 

In Indiana, women may hold any office under the school 
laws, but cannot vote for any such officer. In Kansas, women 
exercise the suffrage largely in municipal elections. 

In some form, mainly as to taxation or the selection of 
school officers, woman suffrage exists in a limited way In Ari- 
zona, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Iowa. Kentucky, Massa- 
chusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska. New Hamp- 
shire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, 
Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington and Wig- 
consin. 

WRITING FOR PUBLICATION. 

Have something to say. 

Consider how many it will interest. 

Be sure it is Worth saying. 

Say it in the fewest possible words. 

Then try saying it In less. 

L6t your theories go unstated; most people have more of 
their own than they can manage. 

Write with black Ink on one side of the paper. 

Number your pages. 

Put your name and address on each sheet. 

Do not fold more than once. 

Don't send your work the hour you finish writing. Read it 
over a week later. 



314 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



IN WRITING LETTERS. 

Write distinctly, with espe- 
cial attention to names. 

Unruled paper is considered 
better taste. 

When expecting reply, send 
stamp for return postage. 

Colored inks or lead pencils 
are not desirable. 

Business letters should be di- 
rect, and as brief as is con- 
sistent with clearness. 

Letters of friendship should 
be written in an easy, natural 
manner, without set phrases, 
but with care and tact. 

Letters which accompany 
gifts should be brief and sim- 
' pie. 

In letters expressing sympa- 
thy for misfortune, the writer 
should strive to realize the 
state of mind of the sufferer, 
and should strive at least not 
to chill or aggravate the re- 
cipient. Brevity is desirable in 
most cases. 

THE USE OF CAPITALS. 

1. Every entire sentence 
should begin with a capital. 

2. Proper names and adjec- 
tives derived from these should 
begin with a capital. 

3. All appellations of the De- 
ity should begin with a capital. 

4. Official and honorary titles 
should begin with a capital. 

5. Every line of poetry should 
begin with a capital. 

6. Titles of books and the 
heads of their chapters and di- 
visions are printed in capitals. 

7. The pronoun I and the ex- 
clamation O are always cap- 
itals. 

8. The days of the week and 
the months of the year begiti 
with capitals. 

9. Every quotation should be- 
gin with a capital letter. 



10. Names of religious denom- 
inations begin with capitals. 

11. In preparing 'accounts, 
each item should begin with a 
capital. 

12. Any word of very special 
Importance may begin with a 
capital. 

AMERICAN TITLES. 

Archbishop Most Rev. 

Bishop Rt. Rev. 

Doctor of Divinity D. D. 

A minister, rector, priest or 

rabbi Rev. 

Doctor of Laws LL. D. 

Physician or surgeon 

M. D. or Dr. 
Dentist. Dr., D.D.S., or D.M.D. 

General Gen. 

Lieutenant-General . Lieut-Gen. 

Colonel Col. 

Admiral ^ Adm. 

Commodore Com. 

Captain Capt. 

Professors In colleges or sem- 
inaries, eminent teachers of 
science or the classics, dis- 
tinguished scholars or scien- 
tists Prof. 

Officers of the Ignited States 
civil service, members of le- 
gal profession, aldermen, 

magistrates, etc Esq. 

Men of all conditions and 

classes Mr. 

The President of the Ignited 
States, governors of states and 
ministers to foreign countries 
are alluded to as "His Excel- 
lency." 

The Vice-president of the 
United States, members of the 
Cabinet and members of Con- 
gress, heads of departments, 
assistant secretaries, comptrol- 
lers and auditors of the treas- 
ury, clerks of the Senate and 
House of Representatives, 
state senators, law judges, 
mayors of cities, etc., are 
addressed, ''Honorable," or 
*'Hon." 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 315 

Laundry Work 

EQUIPMENT FOR THE LAUNDRY. 

The completely furnished laundry has set tubs, clothes boiler 
(tin or copper), clothesline, washboard, clothespins, clothes 
basket or pail, water pail, scrubbing: brushes, saucepan for 
starch, spoon for starch, strainer for starch, agate pan for 
starching, heavy cloth for tubs and boiler, clothes horse, duster 
for lines, bosom board, skirt board, sleeve board, small pointed 
irons, heavy irons, iron holders, flannel, iron rest, wax, polish- 
ing iron, heavy paper, small pieces of muslin and cheesecloth, 
ironing table covered with canton flannel, or coarse blanket and 
fine cotton cloth. 

THE ROUTINE OP WASHING. 

Wash the clothes first on the right side, then on the wrong 
side, after which rinse in clear water. Soap the clothes all over 
and place in a boiler with cold water, adding a few pieces of 
soap to make a suds, boil five minutes, or longer if necessary, 
then give two more rinsings in cold water before bluing. Open 
the clothes well before putting in the bluing, so that they will 
not be streaked. The water should be well stirred every time 
the flothes are added, as the indigo settles at the bottom. After 
bluing, wring the clothes and starch them, the thickness of the 
starch depending upon the articles. Next hang in the open air, 
being sure that the lines are perfectly clean and also the pins. 
The line shojild always be taken down and put away after the 
clothes are taken in. When the clothes are dry, they should 
be stretched and folded, and before ironing should be sprinkled, 
rolled and allowed to stand an hour or so. Have the irons of 
various sizes; heavy ones for table and bed linen, small ones 
with points for small clothing, and polishing irons for cufCs. If 
the irons are rusty, rub while warm with beeswax and then rub 
quickly with a cloth. Irons should always be kept in a dry 
place. 

STAINS. 

To remove blood stains from clothing, wash in cold water 
until the stain turns brown, tTien rub with naphtha soap and 
soak in warm water. 

For brass stains, rub either lard or olive oil on stain, then 
wash in warm water. 

Chocolate and tea stains are removed by sprinkling with 
borax and soaking in cold water first, and then rinsing in boiling 
water. 

For coffee stains, spread stained part over a bowl, pouring 
boiling water on it from a hight so as to strike the stain with 
force. 

For glue, apply vinegar with a cloth until stain is removed. 

For fruit stain, use Javelle solution and boiling water In 
equal quantities and immerse stained portion. 



316 AMERICAN AORICULTURI8T 

For grass, wash in naphtha soap and warm water. If color 
may be affected, use molasses or a paste of soap and cooking 
soda; spread on and allow to stand for several hours. 

For indigo stain, wash in boiling water. 

For ink, place stained portion In milk and allow to stand. 
If stain is dry and well set, cover with salt and lemon juice. 

For iodine stain, let stand in ether or chloroform until iodine 
Ib dissolved and disappears. 

,For iron, spread stained portion over bowl containing 1 quart 
water and 1 teaspoon borax. Apply hydt-ochloric acid, drop by 
drop, until stain brightens, then dip stain at once into water. 

For mildew stains, put on lemon juice and let stand in sun- 
light. 

For milk or cream, wash in cold water, then follow with 
soap. 

For paint, rub with benzine or turpentine. 

For wine stains, put thick layer of salt on stain as soon as 
made, then pour on boiling water. 

USEFUL HINTS. 

Colored clothes, instead of being soaked, should be rinsed in 
water containing salt or vinegar. This may set the color before 
washing. Use little soap and wash as quickly as possible in 
clear water. Do not boil colored clothes. Underwear and stock- 
ings are pressed off after drying. Blankets may be stretched in 
curtain stretchers to dry instead of being hung. For black 
waists, the starch may be darkened with % cup coffee solution, 
reducing the boiling water that much. Blue waists may have 
blue water added to starch. Lace handkerchiefs should be 
washed and partly dried, then put in the hot starch and wrung 
out t.hen clapped and ironed. For starching shirt bosoms, cuffs, 
collars and front plaits, use 5 tablespoons of starch instead of 
V^ as used for the body. 

Household Helps 

EXTERMINATING HOUSEHOLD PESTS. 

To prevent moths, garments to be laid away during the sum- 
mer should be thoroughly aired and brushed, so as to remove 
all eggs and larvae. If the clothes are hung in a closet, that 
should be thoroughly cleaned and if necessary tlie cracks in 
the floor and baseboards sprayed with benzine. J?-ich repellents 
as tobacco, camphor, napthaline cones or balls and cedar chips 
or shavings, will all aid in warding off the moths, but will not 
destroy eggs or larvae already in the garments. Fine dresses 
and furs should be wrapped in many layers of paper and in- 
closed in cotton, linen or even paper bags. The simplest and 
easiest method is to procure large pasteboard boxes, fill them 
with garments and seal the crack around the lid with gummed 
paper. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 817 

For cockroaches, mix equal parts of dry flour and plaster 
ot paris, stirring in a little pulverized sug^ar; spread it on a 
plate or shallow basin or pan and set on the floor where the 
pests are most numerous. Fill a second plate or pan with water 
and connect the two with a few small pieces of wood, thus 
forming a bridge from one to the other. The roaches will eat 
the mis^ture, drink the water and soon cease to give further 
trouble. 

Pyrethrum is the most effective in exterminating the many 
species of ants that frequent pantries and other places in the 
house. It should be kept in an air-tight box and frequently 
dusted along the runways where the insects abound. The only 
satisfactory method of getting rid of termites or white ants is 
by the removal and destruction of all infested wood. When 
their burrows are discovered, benzine or bisulphide of carbon 
should be poured into them. 

Sow bugs, or pill bugs, will succumb to freshly sliced raw 
potato, poisoned by dipping into a strong arsenical solution or 
dusted with dry arsenic, paris green or green arsenoid, and 
distributed around the Infested area. 

Bedbugs require constant vigilance on the part of the house- 
wife when once they infest a place. Benzine, turpentine, corro- 
sive sublimate solution or even pyrethrum are the best destroy- 
ers of this pest. 

UNTIL THE PLUMBER COMBS. 

If a leak occurs in the pipes, turn off the water. Generally 
the boiler connection is with a tank at the top of the house and 
the stop handle is there; sometimes, with galvanized boilers in 
use, it is in the cellar. Every housekeeper should know the spot 
in her house where the water turns off. Let the water out of 
faucets also. In the most of these handles there is a small hole 
at the side called the stop waste. This should be plugged, or 
every bit of water will be siphoned out of the boiler. 

A small leak in the boiler or pipe can be stopped absolutely 
by the use of electric tape. Every housekeeper should keep 
some fn the house. If there be a small hole, stick one end^of the 
tape in hole and then bind the tape tightly around the boiler. 
For a larger hole, just bind around tightly. It will hold perfectly 
for several days. If one has no electric tape, a mixtui:^ of 
common yellow soap and whiting, mixed with water, will often- 
times stop a leak as effectively as solder, temporarily, providing 
you turn the water on again rather slowly, as a sudden rush 
might force it out. 

When the boiler begins to snap and crack and the pipes be- 
gin to bang, turn on the hot water faucet and let the st^m 
escape. This almost always means a stoppage in the pipes. 
Probably they are choked with iron rust. As long as there is 
water in the boiler It will not burst. In case of a leak in the 
pipe between the stove and the main pipe connection, let out 
the fire. 



318 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

RUNNING A FURNACE. 

For the general, everyday working of a furnace, the follow- 
ing rules, offered by an experienced furnace man, can be relied 
on to keep up a good fire: 1. Close check in chimney pipe and 
the slide in door. 2. Open the air box a little, then shake the 
grate till live coals begin to fall. Leave the lower door open. 
As soon as there is a good draft put on a little fresh coal and 
open cold air box fully. 3. While waiting for the fire to get a 
good start, remove all the ashes. If there are any clinkers or 
bunches of ashes in the bottom of grate, they should be broken 
up and raked out. 4. In about five minutes close the drafts, 
which can be regulated during the day according to the house 
temperature. 5. At night shake the fire down more or less as its 
condition demands and put on fresh coal; not so much, how- 
ever, as in the morning. 6. Close the air box two-thirds or 
wholly- if little heat is required during the night. Open the check 
and the slide in the door. 

RULES FOR CLEANING. 



To clean white silk, spread upon a smooth white cloth and 
cleanse with a mixture composed of three-fourths of starch to 
one-fourth of fine salt. Rub this in on both sides with a clean, 
soft brush; shake gently and cover with pure, powdered starch 
also rubbed in. Cover to exclude dust and leave for 24 hours, 
when you can shake and brush out the powder and find a spot- 
less garment. 

To cleanse white chiffon, take two parts finely powdered 
starch to borax one part. 

To cleanse white grenadine, spread the goods smoothly upon 
a board covered with a clean white cloth. It Is better to pin 
the grenadine to keep it in place. Then rub with a mixture 
composed of equal parts of fine salt and dry flour. Use a soft 
brush, like a complexion brush, to rub the mixture in. Scrub 
as if you were scrubbing with soapsuds and water. Then cover 
thickly with flour and leave for several days. 

To' clean white cloth, shake the garment well to free from 
dust as much as possible; cover with clean bran, then rub with 
a ball made of equal parts of pipe clay and whiting tied up in 
a piece of old white muslin. After rubbing thoroughly, shake 
off the bran. 

For cleaning white belts or shoes, use pipe clay or gasoline; 
the pipe clay is much to be preferred on account of its free- 
dom from odor and its safety. 

White china silk and pongee can both be easily cleaned by 
washing in tepid water (using soap to form the suds), rinse well, 
wrap in a clean, dry cloth and iron while still wet. 

,For sleeping rooms, white is said to be the most sanitary 
color, as it is the most restful and least absorbent of germs and 
odors. Have white washable curtains and a bare floor or one 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 319 

covered with matting which can be washed up with salt and 
water. Have wool blankets; eschew silk comforters, for silk is 
a non-conductor. 

HOME MILLINERY. 

Buy frames, straw braids, ribbons and flowers from whole- 
sale houses. 

Use strong thread and short round-eyed needles. 

Make every stitch secure against stiff breezes. 

In sewing wire Into bows, cotton thread* Is better than silk. 

Velvet may be renovated by steaming. 

Never dye ribbon without first cleansing thoroughly. 

Study the prevailing styles and modify them to Individual 
needs. 

Choose colors that harmonize and consider the value of 
shades and tints of one color. 

Watch out for loose ends of threads and braids. 

Clean white straw hats with dry sulphur and salt in equal 
parts. Rub on with an old tooth brush. 

No article of clothing repays care more than hats. Brush 
free from dust as soon as removed and place in boxes. Never 
put a hat, unprotected, on a 'shelf. 

PROPER SWEEPING. 

One of the secrets of sweeping a carpet is to hold the broom 
almost perpendicular and take short strokes. Do not lift the 
broom more than 2 Inches from the floor. If the carpet is very 
dusty, tear paper into small bits and soak In water for a few 
minutes, then press out the water and sprinkle the paper over 
the carpet. The damp paper will absorb the dust. It .improves 
the carpet to wipe it aftet sweeping with a cloth which has 
been wrung out of ammonia water — one tablespoon of household 
ammonia to one quart of water. 

When sweeping bare floors, the broom or brush should be 
slanted slightly and kept close to the floor. The stroke should 
be long. 

USEFUL HOUSEHOLD SUGGESTIONS. 

One of the best and handiest things to clean bone, ivory or 
pearl knife handles is moist, fine salt. Polish afterward with a 
dry, soft cloth. 

Spirits of camphor will remove white spots made by wet 
or hot dishes on polished and varnished furniture. 

Never leave a lamp turned low. It creates gas and uses 
up as much oil as when It burns brightly. If it is necessary to 
have a light during the night in a sick room use a tiny night 
lamp and burn it at full force. 



320 , AMERICAN AQRICUL.TURIST 

Dark spots in the kitchen floor which hint of grease-spilling 
at a long past date will generally disappear with repeated ap- 
plications of benzine. Do not apply it when there is any light 
arou.id, and set doors and windows open to allow the fumes 
to evaporate. 

If windows have to be cleaned in zero weather, dampen the 
cloth with alcohol instead of water. It will prevent an ice film 
forming on the glass. 

A good thing for cleaning brass or copper is sweet oil and 
putty powder. Afterward, wash in hot water and soap, then 
polish. 

Sometimes a knife with which onions have been cut will 
keep the odor in spite of scouring. Jab it in the damp earth 
a few times and it will be cleansed perfectly. 

Equal parts of ammonia and spirits of turpentine will take 
paint out of clothing, no matter how hard or dry it may be. 
Saturate the spot two or three times, and then wash out in 
soapsuds. 

Discolored tea and coffee pots and pans that are not too 
" badly discolored should be filled with soft water and have 
thrown into them two or three spoonfuls of wood ashes, letting 
the water come just to the boiling point. 

Small mops, which can be obtained at any furnishing store, 
are most useful in cleaning bathroom vaults, etc. 

After buying table and bed linen, it is well to erase the pen- 
cil marks before laundering, as it is difficult to eradicate them 
afterward. 

Do not starch curtains while they are wet; they will soil 
much faster than if allowed to dry beforehand. 

When making bags to put away silverware, always use the 
unbleached material. Sulphur is used for bleaching, and its in- 
fluence will quickly tarnish the silver. 

When washing gilded china, never put soda in the water, 
as it injures the gilding. Use soap, which answers just as well 
and has -no ill effects. 

Knives and forks not in general use will keep bright and 
rust free if lightly rubbed with olive oil before they are put 
away. 

Rust on steel will generally yield to a paste made from fine 
emery powder and kerosene. Rub the spots with this, let it 
stand for several hours, then polish with oil. 

Tin covers screwed 'down tightly on jars are easily removed 
by taking hold of them with a piece of sandpaper. 

Two long linen runners, one each way of the table, are now 
used in some fashionable circles in preference to the whole cloth 
or doilies. 

After' cleaning the pantry, set a small jar of lime in some 
shelf corner. It will keep the room dry and make the air pure. 
Repeat the same process for the cellar, using lime in larger 
proportion. 

When a floor is washed it should be allowed to get perfectly 
dry before the carpet is put down again. Carelessness in this 
matter has much to do with the prevalence of moths in some 
houses. 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



321 



To remove rust stains from matting, cover the stain with 
paper and place a warm iron on this. When the spot is warm, 
dip a glass rod in a bottle of muriatic acid and go over the rust 
spot with it. wetting every part with }:he acid. The spot will 
turn a bright yellow. Instantly wash it with an old tooth- 
brush dipped In boiling water, then wash with a cloth or sponge, 
and clear cold water; rub dry with woolen cloth. Before begin- 
ning the work, have all appliances ready and then work rapidly 
from start to finish. Muriatic acid corrodes metals, therefore 
keep the bottle corked tight when not using It. Two or three 
rinses of the acid will be ample. 

To clean silver, dissolve one ounce of powdered borax in 
one-half pint of boiling water; when the liquid is cold, pour 
it on four ounces of precipitated chalk and beat until smooth. 
Add one gill of alcohol and bottle. Shake well before using. 

To make leather waterproof, saturate It with' castor oil. 

To remove tar from cloth, rub it well with turpentine. 

To set the color in lawn, dissolve a half pound saltpeter in a 
pailful water and dip the lawn in it several times before washing. 

To remove egg stains from spoons, rub with common salt. 

To remove the stains of fruit from the hands, wash your 
hands in clear water, dry slightly and while yet moist strike a 
sulphur match and hold your hands around the flame. The 
stains will Immediately disappear. 

To clean furniture, rub with cotton waste dipped in boiled 
linseed oil; then ruB clean and dry with a soft flannel cloth. 

To test whether an article is gilt or made of a gold -colored 
alloy, a solution of bichloride of copper makes a brown spot on 
alloy, but produces no effect on a surface of gold. 

To restore gilt frames, rub with a sponge moistened In tur- 
pentine. 

COOKING WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



To make one pound, use: 

2 cups lard. 

2 cups butter. 

4 cups pastry or bread flour. 

3% cups entire wheat flour. 

4'^ cups graham flour. 

4 1-3 cups rye flour. 

2 2-3 cups corn meal. 

4% cups rolled oats. 

2 2-3 cups oatmeal. 

4 1-3 cups coflfee. 

2 cups granulated sugar. 

2 2-3 cups powdered sugar. 

3^/2 cups confectioner's sugar. 

2 2-3 cups brown sugar. 

2 cups chopped meat. 



1% cups rice. 

2 cups raisins (packed). 

21/4 cups currants. 

2 cups stale, bread crumbs. 

9 large eggs. 

2 tablespoons butter make 1 
ounce. 

4 tablespoons flour make 1 
ounce. 

6 tablespoons baking powder 
make \^ ounce. 

3 teaspoons make 1 table- 
spoon. 

16 tablespoons dry ingredient 
make 1 cup. 



322 



AMERICAN AGRIOULTITRIPT 



KITCHEN "NEEDFULS" AND THEIR RETAIL PRICE. 
TIN AND STEEL WARE. AGATE WARE. 



Round tin pan $0.10 

Biscuit cutter 05 

Doughnut cutter 05 

Quart measure 10 

Flour sifter lO 

Colander 15 

Large grater lo 

Wire broiler ]0 

Nutmeg grater 05 

Set skewers ■ .25 

Steamer 25 

Baking sheet 25 

3 bread pans 30 

2 cake pans 20 

2 pie plates 10 

Quart pudding mold 25 

Salt shaker 05 

Pepper shaker 05 

Flour dredger 05 

Soap shaker 05 

Wire dishcloth 05 

Dustpan 25 

Dish drainer 10 

Hand basin 10 

Soap dish 05 

Large egg beater 20 

Omelet pan 10 

Spider 20 

Frying basket 10 

Vegetable knife 10 

Bread knife 25 

Wire fork 05 

Wire whisk 05 

Extension soup strainer... .18 

Cream whip 15 

Meat chopper 1.25 

Small strainer 10 

Skimmer 05 

Potato ricer 25 

Dipper 10 

Bread raiser 35 

Dish pan of heavy tin 50 

Teakettle 60 



Quart saucepan with cover.$0.25 
2-quart saucepan with 
cover j^5 

3-quart saucepan with 

cover 45 

Soup kettle .55 

Pint saucepan with rover. 15 
Coffeepot 50 



EARTHEN AND 
WARE. 



12.25 
GLASS- 



Glass measuring cup $0.10 

2-quart yellow bowl 15 

4 small earthen bowls 20 

2 oval pudding dishes 20 

Large cake mixing bowl... .30 

Bean pot 15 

Glass lemon squeezer 10 



WOODENWARE. 



$1.20 



Flour bucket $0.10 

Molding board 20 

Rolling pin 10 

Wooden mixing spoon 10 

Small scrubbing brush for 

vegetables 10 

Large scrubbing brush 12 

Towel rack 10 

Blacking brush 10 

Broom 25 

Mop 10 



LINEN. 



$1.27 



6 dish towels...' $0.60 

6 glass towels 60 

Dishcloth 05 



$6.73 



$L25 



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TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 323 



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324 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

FOODS IN SEASON. 
IN THE MARKETS, OR OBTAINABLE AT MOST PLACES. 

In January: Salmon, smelts, oysters, crimped cod, mullet, 
mackerel, turbot, eels, lobsters, crawfish, haddocks, crabs, tur- 
keys, ducks, capons, quails, geese, ducklings, pheasants, snipes, 
wild ducks, hares, fowls, guinea fowls, partridges, teal, rabbits, 
pigeons, woodcocks, ptarmigans, beef, veal, mutton, house la'mb, 
asparagus (forced), cucumbers, artichokes, mushrooms (forced), 
brussels sprouts, cauliflower, lettuces, French beans (forced), 
radishes, carrots, rhubarb, turnips, spinach, small salad, cel- 
ery, grapes, walnuts, pears, pines, apples and oranges. 

In February: Salmon, mackerel, lobsters, eels, trout, mullet, 
fresh herrings, cod, turbot, oysters, haddock, crabs, smelts, 
turkeys, ducks, capons, quails, fowls, ducklings, guinea fowls, 
goslings, woodcock, ptarmigan, pigeons, geese, wild ducks, snipe, 
beef, mutton, veal, house lamb, asparagus (forced), artichokes, 
brussels sprouts, spinach, cauliflower, radishes, cucumbers, 
French beans (forced), mushrooms, turnips, celery, lettuces, 
small salad, carrots, rhubarb, pines, grapes, pears, apples and 
oranges. 

In March: Salmon, eels, oysters, turbot, fresh herrings, lob- 
sters, cod, mullet, crabs, trout, mackerel, crawfish, turkeys, 
capons, ptaimigan, goslings, fowls, ducks, guinea fowls, duck- 
lings, pigeons, quails, beef, mutton, veal, house lamb, spinach, 
rhubarb, parsnip, lettuces, turnips, cucumbers, small salad, cel- 
ery, French beans, mushrooms, radishes, pines, strawberries 
(forced), pears and apples. 

In April: Salmon, eels, oysters, trout, fresh herrings, prawns, 
turlK)t, mullets, lobsters, cod, smelts, crabs, goslings, guinea 
fowls, black game, ducks, pigeons, ptarmigan, ducklings, quails, 
fowls, beef, mutton, veal, lamb, asparagus, spinach, peas, cauli- 
flower, new potatoes, French beans, sprouts, radishes, mush- 
rooms, small salad, strawberries (forced), cherries (forced), apri- 
cots (forced) and pears. 

In May: Salmon, smelts, eels, turbot, mullets, whitebait, 
trout, mackerel, lobsters, cod, crabs, goslings, fowls, ducks, 
guinea fowls, ducklings, pigeons, capons, quails, beef, mutton, 
veal, lamb, asparagus, spinach, mushrooms, peas^ cauliflower, 
cucumbers, French beans, turnips, lettuces, carrots, small salad, 
strawberries, cherries, pineapples, gooseberries, apricots, cur- 
rants, grapes and melons. \ 

In June: Salmon, turbot, lobsters, trout, mackerel, white- 
bait, red mullets, turkey poults, fowls, pigeons, goslings, guinea 
fowls, ducks, peafowls, buck venison, ducklings, quails, beet, 
mutton, veal, lamb, asparagus, spinach, cucumbers, peas, cauli- 
flower, mushrooms, French beans, turnips, lettuces, carrots, 
small salad, pineapples, melons, raspberries, grapes, currants, 
peaches, strawberries, gooseberries, apricots and cherries. 

In July: Salmon, turbot, lobsters, trout, mackerel, whitebait, 
red mullet, turkey poults, fowls, goslings, pigeons, ducks, buck 
venison, ducklings, leverets, beef, mutton, veal, lamb, peas, 
cucumbers, French beans, mushrooms, broad beans, lettuces. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 325 

cauliflower, small salad, pineapples, melons, raspberries, grapes, 
currants, peaches, strawberries, gooseberries, apricots, cherries 
and plums. 

In August: Salmon, oysters, trout, lobsters, cod, mackerel, 
turbot, mullet, turkey poults, fowls, buck venison, goslings, 
pigeons, ducks, grouse, ducklings, beef, mutton, veal, lamb, peas, 
cucumbers, French beans, mushrooms, lettuces, cauliflower, 
small salads, melons, apricots, currants, pears, gooseberries, 
peaches, grapes, plums, mulberries and cherries. 

In September: Salmon, mullet, oysters, turbot, lobsters, 
crabs, mackerel, eels, turkey poults, fowls, hares, geese, part- 
ridges, ducks, grouse, larks, ducklings, buck venison, beef, mut- 
ton, veal, lamb, French beans, spinach, peas, cucumbers, arti- 
chokes, mushrooms, cauliflower, salad, pineapples, plums, figs, 
currants, grapes, cherries, melons and quinces. 

In October: Salmon (Dutch), mackerel, oysters, turbot, lob- 
sters, cod, eels, turkeys, pheasants, wild duck, geese, partridges, 
ducks, grouse, venison, fowls, hares, beef, mutton, veal, lamb, 
French beans, cucumbers, artichokes, mushrooms, cauliflower, 
salad, pineapples, peaches, grapes, apples, flgs, quinces and 
pears. 

In November: Salmon, cod, lobsters, turbot, oysters, ejels, 
smelts, turkeys, pheasants, wild ducks, ptarmigan, geese, wood- 
cock, larks, ducks, Llack game, golden plovers, snipes, fowls, 
widgeon, teal, venison, beef, mutton, veal, lamb, French peas, 
mushrooms, spinach, cucumbers, artichokes, lettuces, cauli- 
flower, salad, pineapples, apples, grapes, figs and pears. 

In December: Salmon, oysters, turbot, cod, lobsters, red mul- 
let, dory jsmelts, turkeys, pheasants, geese, partridges, larks, 
ducks, grouse, ptarmigan, hares, fowls, wild ducks, doe venison, 
golden plovers, beef, mutton, veal, lamb, asparagus (forced), 
spinach, rhubarb, sea kale, French beans, lettuce, artichokes, 
cucunibers, salad, caulifiower, mushrooms, pineapples, walnuts, 
grapes, pears and oranges. 

TO COMBINE INGREDIENTS IN COOKERY. 

Next to correct measuring comes the care in combining In- 
gredients, a fact often overlooked by the inexperienced. There 
j.re three methods to be considered— stirring, beating, cutting 
and folding. 

To stir, means to mix by using a circular motion, widening 
the circles to thoroughly blend the materials. This is the 
motion ordinarily used. 

To beat, we continually turn the ingredients over and over 
so as to bMng the under part to the surface. By beating we 
inclose a large amount of air into the mixture. 

To cut and fold we combine two ingredients by the use of 
two motions— the one a repeated vertical downward motion of 
cutting, and second, by turning the ingredients over and over 
from the bottom, allowing the bowl of the spoon to touch the 
bottom of the dish each time. These two motions are repeated 
until the mixture is well blended. 



226 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



By stirring, Ingredients are blended; by beating, a large 
amount of air is Inclosed, and by cutting and folding, the air 
already beaten in is carefully retained. 



PISH FOR CHOWDER. 

Cod and halibut (mixed), 
halibut, haddock, eels, little 
neck clams, long clams, round 
clams, oysters. 

FISH BEST BOILED. 

Salmon, cod, red snapper, 
halibut, swordflsh, haddock, 
black bass, sturgeon. 

PISH FOR STEWING. 

Lobster, little neck clams, 
oysters, shrimps, round clams 
(chopped), scallops. 

FISH TO PRY. 

Butterflsh, shad, ood (steak), 
swordflsh, bluefish, porgies, 
taonito mackerel, pickerel, cis- 
coes, yellow perch, brook trout, 



smelts, haddock, halibut, sal- 
mon, eels, tinker mackerel, 
bullheads, white perch, white- 
fish, soft shell crabs, live lob- 
ster, long clams, scallops, larg^e 
oysters. 

PISH TO BROIL. 

Fresh mackerel, bonito mack- 
erel, cod scrod, chicken hali- 
but, shoal halibut, sea trout, 
weakfish, Spanish mackerel, 
fresh salmon, bluefish, largre 
eels (split), shad, whlteflsh, 
trout. 

PISH TO BAKE. 

Bluefish, shad, mackerel, 
haddock, halibut, striped bass, 
whiteflsh, lake trout, long 
shell clams, live lobster, large 
oysters. 



COOKING EGGS. 



Eggs should never be cooked in water which makes them 
hop merrily about. They only grow tough, horny and indiges- 
tible in boiling water. 

If cooked in water at a low temperature, they may be di- 
gested by a child or an invalid. It is not generally understood 
why eggs should be differently treated for different sorts of 
dishes. 

Eggs to be used for cakes, souflSes and omelets must be 
divided, the yolks and whites beaten separately. The success of 
such dishes depends wholly upon the amount of air beaten into 
the eggs. The expansion of that air by rather slow cooking 
means the success of such dishes. Beat the yolks until they are 
thick and lemon colored, the whites till so stiff and dry that 
they fiy from the beater like foam. While beating the white of 
eggs hold the Dover beater at an angle instead of straight up 
and down in a bowl. The work in this way can be done in 
much 16ss time. Use, too, the wrist movement, not the strength 
of the whole arm. By remembering these two rules you will 
not grow so tired or find your arm becoming lame before the 
eggs are beaten. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 327 

The eggn for custards require the yolk and white to be 
beaten together, not as hard as for an omelet. And one more 
rule for cooking: of eg^gs, never break them all into the same 
dish at once. Drop them one by one in a cup. In this way if 
a bad ogg should occur, it would not ruin the half-dozen that 
came before. 

CANNING AT HOME. 

TO SEAL JARS. 

Have erood. sound cans, covers and rubbers. Have cans, 
covers and fruit hot. .Fill the cans full, and if any air bubbles 
form, press down the fruit with a spoon and the bubbles will 
rise to the top. Put on good rubbers, press down firmly onto 
the can. Put on cover and screw down tightly, either 
with a good wrench or a good strong hand. Set up the cans 
and let them decidedly alone. Do not be tempted, when the 
strong man of the house comes in. to have him give an extra 
turn, for here Is a great mistake. The fruit and can being hot, 
the rubber expands and sets, and when turned again it never 
sets the same, and so there is a chance for air holes and poorly 
Kept fruit. If possible, put fruit away in a dark closet. 

STRAWBERRIES. 

Place 4 lbs. of granulated sugar and 1 cup cold water over 
the fire, boil until perfectly clear, then turn into it a gallon of 
fresh, not overripe, strawberries of the small variety, and gently 
boil the whole for 10 minutes, keeping the fruit well covered 
with the syrup, but do not stir It. By means of a wire strainer 
transfer the berries to hot glass cans, filling nearly full. Boil 
the syrup 10 minutes longer, fill up the cans, let stand till cool, 
add a tablespoon of brandy to each can and seal. When cold, 
wrap in paper and place in the dark. 

WHOLE GRAPES. 

Clean the grapes by pouring cold water over them, pick all 
the perfect ones from stems, fill glass can with the ripe grapes. 
Pour on boiling water till they are covered, and turn off when 
cold, doing this four or five times, each time using fresh boiling 
water. Have a syrup made of good white sugar, boiling hot, 
and pour over the grapes, then seal up. 

BLUEBERRIES. 

Pick over berries, wash and drain them, then measure and 
for every quart of berries allow 1 cup granulated sugar and l^ 
cup cold water. Put sugar and water in kettle and let come to 
a boil, add the berries and boil 10 minutes. Have ready your 
glass jars, dip them sideways in scalding water, allowing water 
to come in contact with inside and out at the same time, drain; 



328 AMERICAN AGRirULTURIST 

have ready a pan, pour in about an inch of hot water, stand 
your Jars in this and fill with the boiling fruit. Put on a new 
rubber and screw down the top tight while hot. Wipe dl-y. 
Turn upside down on a table and see If they leak. If they do. 
try an extra rubber. After you are sure they are airtight, set 
away on a shelf, in a dark, cool corner of the cellftir, Whefe th6y 
will be ready for use at any time. 

RHUBARB. 

Wash the stalks and put into self-sealing cans, packing the 
stalks as closely as possible. Fill the cans full with fresh cold 
WataJr at&d close the covers tight. Keep in a cool place. 

PEACHES. 

rPake 1 peck of ripe cling peaches, pare and place In an 
earthen vessel. Ream out the seed with a sharp pocket knife, 
and thus have the peaches in halves. This quantity will All 
two half-gallon jars. Put on the preserving kettle, which 
should be thoroughly clean. Then put In the kettle % pt. water 
and 2 lbs. sugar. Let the sugar dissolve and add the peaches. 
Place the jars to be used, each in a plate, with rubber on and 
cap alongside, on the apron of the stove. Turn frequently so 
as to prevent heating too much on one side. Let the peaches 
boil moderately for about 20 minutes. Then, when still Dolling. 
Without removing from the stove, proceed to fill the jars, using 
a common cooking spoon. Fill the jars well, leaving no cavity 
for air. Then, as quickly as possible, place on the caps, and 
screw down as tight as you can, using two dry cloths, one to 
hold the jar and the other to hold the cap, to prevent burning. 
When the caps are well tightened, remove the jars to a table 
and Wash with warm water, as cold water will break the Jars. 
Store in a cool, dry place, where they will not freeze in winter. 

VEGETABLES IN GENERAL. 

For sweet corn, cut the raw corn from the cob, pack it Into 
the jars firmly, place rubbers on jars, and fill with cold water. 
If Lightning jars are used, place the wire over cover but do not 
press side wire down. If Mason jars, screw on the cover suf- 
ficient to lift the jars by it. Place laths, hay or something of 
the sort in the bottom of the wash boiler. Place jars on it to 
keep them from the bottom of the boiler, also place some hay 
between the jars to prevent breaking. Fill boiler with cold 
water to cover body of jars, leaving tops out of water. Place on 
fire, and when boiling, keep boiling three hours, adding more 
hot water if necessary. When done, remove jars from boiler, 
fasten covers firmly, keep in paper bags or in dark places. For 
peas, shell, pack in jars, add 1 teaspoonful salt before filling jars 
with water; proceed as for corn. Green beans should be cut or 
broken into small pieces, then proceed as for peas. Squash, 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 329 

pump]i(ins or any other vegetable may be canned this way. Cut 
and Pf re squash and pack in firmly, also the pumpkin. When 
ready to use, pour away the water in the jars, place fresh water 
on and cook as fresh vegetables, but not so long. 

EAST INDIA PRESERVES. 

Take 8 lbs. whole pears, with skins off, and slice. Add 6 lbs. 
granulated sugar, 3 lemons (the rind shaved off in thin slices, 
the white skin discarded and the lemons sliced), and 2 oz. green 
ginger root, washed, scraped and chopped fine. Put all together 
and boil slowly three hours, then put in jelly glasses. Put paraf- 
fin over top, or parchment paper dipped in alcohol, to keep 
from molding. Fixed in this way they will keep as long as 
you wish. 

PICKLED GREEN PEPPERS. 

Take a few green peppers and cut them crosswise into halves. 
Take out the seeds. Put the peppers into a bowl of strong vine- 
gar, which has been very strongly salted. In 24 hours you will 
have an unsurpassed relish for the dinner table. 

CRISP SOUR CUCUMBERS. 

Select rather small cucumbers, wash and put in Jars. To 
each gallon of cucumbers sprinkle 1 teacup coarse salt, pour on 
boiling water to cover and let stand over night. In the morning 
wipe out of brine and pack in cans. Heat at the rate of 1 tea- 
cup coarse salt to a gallon of vinegar and pour over pickles. 
Seal. If pickles are wanted for immediate use, they may be 
put in crocks. Pickles put up in this manner are very crisp 
and sure to keep if put in good vinegar. 

CHILI SAUCE. 

Pour boiling water over 12 ripe tomatoes, remove skins, cut 
in slices. Chop fine 2 large green peppers and 1 large onion. 
Put 1 pt. cider vinegar, 1 tablespoon salt, 1 cup brown sugar, 
1 teaspoonful each of allspice, cloves, nutmeg and ginger in a 
porcelain-lined kettle, add the tomatoes, peppers and onion, and 
boil all together till all is soft. 

SWEET PICKLE PEPPER. 

Take ripe sweet peppers, remove the seeds, cut in quarters, 
and soak in salt water over night. Drain and scald in weak 
vinegar until tender. Drain and put them into hot water, rinse 
cans and cover them with a syrup made of 1% cups granulated 
sugar and 1 cup vinegar (not too sour), boiled sufficiently for the 
sugar to be melted. Have the syrup boiling hot when filling cans 
and seal at once. 



880 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

TIME-TABLE. 

BAKING AND ROASTING. 
FISH AND MEATS. 

Baked beans with pork^6 to 8 hours. 

Beef, fillet, rare— 20 to 30 minutes. 

Beef ribs or loin, well done, per pound—12 to 16 minutes. 

Beef ribs or loin, rare, per pound— 8 to 10 minutes. 

Chicken, per pound— 15 minutes or more. 

Duck, domestic— 1 hour or more. 

Duck, wild— 12 minutes per pound. 

Fish, whole, as blueflsh, salmon, etc.— 10 minutes per pound. 

Goose, 8 to 10 pounds— 2 hours or more. . 

Grouse— 25 to 30 minutes. 

Ham— 15 minutes per pound. 

Lamb, well done, per pound— 15 tcf 18 minutes. 

Liver, whole— 12 minutes per pound. 

Mutton, leg:, well done, per pound— 15 minutes or more. 

Mutton, leg, rare, per pound— 10 minutes. 

Mutton, saddle, rare, without flank, per pound— 9 minute^ 

Mutton, shoulder, stuffed, per pound— 15 to 25 minutes. 

Partridge— 35 to 40 minutes. 

Pork, well done, per pound— 20 minutes. 

Small fish and flllets— 20 to 30 minutes. 

Turkey, 8 to 10 pounds— 12 minutes per pound. 

Veal, well done, per pound— 18 to 20 minutes. 

Venison, rare, per pound— 10 minutes. 

BROILING. 

Bacon — 4 to 8 minutes. 

Lamb, or mutton chops— 8 to 10 minutes. 

Liver— 4 to 8 minutes. 

Quail— 10 to 15 minutes. 

Quail in paper cases—10 to 12 minutes. 

Steak, 1 inch thick— 8 to 12 minutes. 

Steak, 1% inches thick— 9 to 15 minutes. 

Shad, blueflsh. etc.— 15 to 30 minutes. 

Slices of flsh— 12 to 15 minutes. 

Spring chicken— 20 minutes. 

Small flsh, trout, etc.— « to 12 minutes. 

Squabs— 10 to 15 minutes. 

FRYING. 

Bac6n fried in its own fat— 2 to 3 minutes. 
Chops, breaded— 8 to 10 minutes. 
Doughnuts and fritters— 3 to 5 minutes. 
Fillets of flsh— 4 to 6 minutes. 
Potatoes— 2 to 5 minutes. 



TEAR feOOK AND ALMANAC 381 

BOILING. 

MEATS. 

Chicken— 1 to 1% hours. 

Corned beef (rib or flank)~4 to 6 hours, according to siae. 

Corned beef (fancy brisket)— 5 to 8 hours. 

Corned tongue— 3 to 4 hours. 

Fowl, 4 to 5 pounds~15 minutes per pound, if tender. 

Fresh beef— 4 to 6 hours. 

Ham — 4 to 6 hours. 

Mutton— 15 mhiutes per pound. 

Turkey, per pound— 15 to 18 minutes. 

FISH. 

Clams and oysters— 3 to 5 minutes. 

Codfish and haddock, per pound— 10 minutes. 

Bass and bluefish, per pound— 10 minutes. 

Halibut, whole or thick piece, per pound— IB minutes. 

Lobster— bO to 40 minutes. 

Salmon, Whgle or tnick piece, per pound— 10 to 20 minutes. 

Small fish— 6 to 8 minutes. 

BOILING VEGETABLES, 

Asparagus— 20 to 25 minutes. • 

Beans, string— 1 to 2 hours. 

Beans, lima— 30 to 40 minutes. 

Beets, new— 45 minutes to 1 hour. 

Beets, old— 4 to 6 hours. 

Brussels sprouts— 15 to 25 minutes. 

Cabbage— 30 to 80 minutes. 

Carrots (old)— 1 hour or more. 

Cauliflower— 20 to 30 minutes. 

Celery— 20 to 30 minutes. 

Corn— 10 to 20 minutes. 

Macaroni— 20. to 50 minutes. 

Onions — 45 minutes to 2 hours. 

Oyster plant— 45 to 60 minutes. 

Parsnips— 30 to 45 minutes. 

Peas— 20 to 50 minutes. 

Potatoep, white— 20 to 30 minutes. 

Potatoes, sweet— 15 to 25 minutes. 

Rice— 20 to 30 minutes. j 

Squash— 20 to 30 minutes. 

Spinach— 20 to 30 minutes. j 

Tomatoes, stewed— 15 to 20 minutes. ,' 

Turnips— 30 to 45 minutes. 



332 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST ' 

STEAMING. 

Brown bread— 3 hours. 

Puddings, one quart or more— 2 to 3 hours. 

Rice — 45 to 60 minutes. 

BAKING OF BREAD, CAKES, CUSTARDS AND PUDDING. 

Fruit cake— 2 to 3 hours. 

Layer cake— 15 to 20 minutes. 

Loaf bread— 40 to 60 minutes. 

Muffins, baking powder— 20 to 25 minutes. 

Muffins, yeast— About 30 minutes. 

Pie crust— ;30 to 45 minutes. 

Plain loaf cake— 30 to 90 minutes. 

Potatoes— 30 to 45 minutes. 

Rolls, biscuit— 10 to .30 minutes. 

Scalloped and au g-ratin dishes— 10 to 20 minutes, according to size. 

Spong:e cake, loaf— 45 to 60 minutes, according to size. 

Timbales— About 20 minutes. 

The instructions given above must be modified by circum- 
stances; the age and quality of meat, vegetables and flsh, tlie 
size of loaves and so forth. It is not possible to make out a 
table which shall be absolutely accurate. Experienpe is the one 
trustworthy teacher. 



THE FIRST OF THINGS. 



The Chinese Invented paper in 170 B. C. 
Envelopes were first used in ISoD. 
Iron horseshoes were made in 481. 
Telephones were invented in 1861. 
The first Atlantic cable was operated in 1858. 
The pianoforte was invented in Italy about 1710. 
The first lucifer match was made in 1829, 
The first steamer crossed the Atlantic in 1819. 
Telescopes were invented in 1590. 
The first steel pen was made in 1830i 
Watches were first constructed in 1476. 
Gold was discovered in California in 1848. 



Qu^tion 



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4,«w«-.-w^ -.t 11 A 





TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 338 

The Young Folks 

CHILDREN'S PARTIES. 

The Invitations for these give room for any amount of pret- 
tiness and ingenuity. They may be written by the mother, or 
the child may pen them in his or her own wabbly characters; 
they may be In rhyme, or may be decorated with tiny water 
colors of Mother Goose people, or any other suitable subject. 
The little guests all reply as soon as possible, having also a 
wide range in the matter of their notes. 

There are a few secrets about making a party for little 
folks successful. There should be as much music as possible; 
the games should be well planned beforehand, so that no drags 
occur; the refreshments must be simpte and wholesome, and 
easily handled by chubby fingers; and Instead of one or two 
handsome prizes for skill in certain games, the aim should be 
to see that every child carries home some pretty trifle in the 
way of a favor. If the occasion Is a birthday, and the guests 
bring gifts, good taste demands that these be simple and In- 
expensive; and a wise mother takes this occasion to teach my 
lady the why of removing cards from presents, explaining 
that their display Invites comparison which Is unpleasant. 

Indeed, the value of these little parties as an opportunity 
to Inculcate the principles of good breeding Is very great; for 
the man or woman who learns manners *and deportment before 
the age of ten never loses them in the 60 or more years of after 
life. 

WALKING LETTERS. 

By Mary Dawson. 

An excellent game for young people from six to 11 years Is 
called Walking Letters. The children present are formed Into 
two bands or sides, each band containing exactly the same 
number of players. The bands are separated when the game Is 
about to begin, each side taking up Its position In one end of 
the room. Lots are drawn to decide which band will be first 
to choose a letter. The side drawing the slip marked * "Begin" 
consult among themselves and choose a letter— any letter In the 
alphabet, from A to Z. The letter Is kept strictly secret from 
members of the opposing band and Is walked by one of the be* 
ginning side, who takes up his position In the center of the 
floor, and forms the letter by walking about In any direction 
necessary to describe an imaginary character upon the carpet. 
Each letter is walked three times, very slowly and carefully. 
If the opposing party can guess Its name, a point is won for 
their side and chalked upon the blackboard where score is kept. 
If they fall to guess It, nothing is won, and the turn passes to 
the opponents, who now endeavor to guess a second letter out- 
lined by one of those who were formerly guessers. And so the 
fun goes on until each side has had plenty of chances. When 



334 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

the guessing side wins a point, that is, when they guess the let- 
ter correctly, they may demand other letters, and go on gruess« 
ing and winning until they lose fi point, when the turn reverts 
to the opponents. 

Numbers can be walked as well as letters, and will be found 
to make a pleasant deviation in the long game. Walking Let- 
ters offers a suggestion for an afternoon party which can be 
arranged for in half an hour by using the idea and securing a 
few pretty things for prizes. Members of the side winning the 
most points draw among themselves for the first prize. It is 
just as well to have inexpensive consolation gifts on hand for 
all who fall to win a trophy, thus preventing a lot of dis- 
appointment. 

A PAPER PARTY. 

By Virginia Van De Water. 

The invitations for this party should be Issued long enough 
beforehand for the parents of the children to prepare for them 
costumes of tissue paper. This will not be found as difl^cult 
as it sounds. Any woman who is deft with her fingers can 
make such a costume for her small boy or girl. The mother of 
each guest may send word to the hostess what color her cos- 
tume will be and the hostess will then get a fancy paper cap 
to match each dress and suit. 

The parlors and hall and dining joom can be decorated with 
Chinese lanterns and tissue paper flowers and streamers. Over 
the dining table may be hung a huge paper umbrella of the 
Japanese variety, and from the tip of each rib of this is sus- 
pended a paper bag containing some trifle, such as a tiny 
Chinese doll. The table is spread with a white cloth, and lighted 
by candles with colored paper shades. Refreshments are served 
in papier mache plates. Japanese paper napkins are at each 
place. 

When the little ones are assembled all are told to hunt for 
the caps that match their costume. These caps are hidden about 
the rooms, and each child is instructed not to touch any cap 
except one that is of the same color as his clothes. This gives 
rise to a great deal of merriment, for the boy or girl who care- 
lessly or rashly puts the tip of a finger on a cap of any hue 
save the one belonging to him or her Is required to pay a for- 
feit, and after the head coverings are all found, a game of 
forfeit follows. 

Then provide each child with a pair of scissors, a pencil, 
and a sheet of paper. Each names some animal that she will 
first draw, then cut out. The one making the best picture wins 
a prize, the one making the funniest receives a booby prize. 
The first prize for the girls may be a pretty paper doll with 
her wardrobe, that can be put on and off. The first prize for 
the boys is a handsome paper covered book. The booby prize 
for the girl can be a tiny fan, for the boys a small grotesque 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 335 

Japanese doll. After the prizes are distributed, each child takes 
hia place in the middle of the group and tells what animal he 
has attempted to draw, while the circle of children make the 
noise natural to the animal named. 

Then come the refreshments, after which clear the dining 
table* and move away the chairs. Stand the children in a row 
around the board, and hand to each in order a long stiff switch 
or stick; or you may give the switches to all at once. With 
these the little ones are to hook the bags off the tips of the 
umbrella ribs. It will require a little care to slip the end of the 
stick through the loop of string by which the paper bag Is 
suspended and lift it down without dropping it. Fortunately, 
the contents of the parcels are of the unbreakable variety, so 
no damage is done if they fall. 

If there is any time left before the hour for departure, have 
some comparatively quiet games such as "ring around a rosy, ' 
or "hunt the slipper," always bearing in mind that paper cos- 
tumes, while pretty and effective, are not proof against the 
rough handling Inseparable from romping games. 

POLITEkESS FOR CHILDREN. 



Talk but little in the presence of your elders, unless spoken 
to. Learn to be a good listener. 

Never enter a room, church or hall first, with an elder per- 
son ; let them go first. 

On entering a house or room, always speak first to the lady 
of the house, and always take leave of her first. 

Nevef take the most comfortable seat or position in a room 
if there Is an older person present. 

CLEVER BOOKS FOR CHILDREN. 
[From Good Housekeeping.] 

Stories Told to a Child Jean Ingelow 

Fairy Tales Hans Christian Andersen 

In the Child's World *..... Emilie Poulsson 

Seven Little Sisters Series Jane Andrews 

Ten Boys Jane Andrews 

Story Mother Nature Told Jane Andrews 

The Story Hour Wiggin, Smith 

In Story Land Elizabeth Harrison 

The Book of Fables Edited by Horace Scudder 

The Book of Folk Stories Edited by Horace Scudder 

the Book of Legends Edited by Horace Scudder 

Kindergarten Stories and Morning Talks ^ara Wiltse 

StofieS for Kindergartens and Primary Schools Sara Wiltse 

A Brave Baby, and Other Stories Sara Wiltse 

dHmni's Fairy Tales Edited by Sara Wiltse 



336 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Child Life in Prose Edited by J. G. Whittier 

Story of a Happy Home Mary Hewitt 

A New Year's Bargain Susan Coolldge 

What Shall We Talk About?. Published by Thomas Nelson & Sons 

Granny's Wonderful Chair Frances Brown 

At the Back of the North Wind George Macdonald 

Tanglewood Tales Nathaniel Hawthorne 

Wonder Book Nathaniel Hawthorne 

Water Babies Charles Kingrsley 

Books of Saints and Friendly Beasts Abbie .F. Brown 

Red Book of Animal Stories Andrew Lang 

Grandfather Stories James Johonnat 

Little Brothers of the Air Olive T. Miller 

Little Folks in Feathers and Furs Olive T. Miller 

Five Minute Stories Laura E. Richards 

Mother Nature's Children. 
Mother Nature's Rules. 

Parables from Nature '. Mrs. Gatty 

Little Folks (magazine, bound volumes). 
St. Nicholas (magazine, bound volumes). 

POETRY. 

The Child World Gabriel Setoun 

Child Stories and Rhymes E. Pqulsson 

Through the Farmyard Gate E. Poulsson 

Child's Garden of Verses R. L. Stevenson 

Tne Listening Child Compiled by Lucy Thacher 

Lilliput Levee William B. Rands 

Little Folk Lyrics F. D. Sherman 

Child Life in Poetry Edited by J. G. Whittier 

Poems for Children Celia Thaxter 

Cockle Shells and Silver Bells M. F. Butts 

Poetry for Children. Charles and Mary Lamb 

Our Baby — Mrs. Warner 

Rhymes and Jingles M. M. Dodge 

With Trumpet and Drum Eugene Field 

Poetry for Children Mary Hewitt 

The Little One's Annual. 
Young ^Folks' Book of Poetry. 

Open Sesame. Volume 1 Edited by Bellamy and Goodwin 

Grandma's Rhymes and Chimes. 

Mother Play Friedrich Froebel (translated by S. E. Blow) 

Little Songs Eliza Lee Follen 

The Posy Ring Edited by Wiggin and Smith 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC • 337 

For the Youthful Genius 

PINHOLE PHOTOGRAPH y. 

What is known as pinhole photography Is photography in 
Its very simplest form, and the camera required for this Is so 
very easily made that most any boy or girl can possess one. It 
consists of a box with a pinhole In one end. and a plateholder 
for the sensitive plate at the other end. 

Herewith Is shown a drawing of the camera complete. The 
box should be 8 Inches wide. 6 Inches long and 6 inches deep. It 
should be put together accurately, so that not the faintest sug- 
gestion of light can get in anywhere. The inside should be 
painted black, or If black paint is not available, rub on shoe 
blacking until the 
whole Interior Is black- 
ened. Before the box 
ia nailed together, 
small cleats should be 
tacked to all sides 
about half an Inch 
from the end, and 
made to hold in place 
a 5x7 plateholder. as is 
shown at 6 e in the il- 
lustration, part of the 
top being removed to 
show how the plate- 
holder flts. This must 
be done carefully, so 
that when the plate- 
holder is In position no 
light can get into the 
box. In the middle of 
the front end. which 
is the one directly op- ' 

poslte the plateholder. bore a half-Inch hole. Now secure the 
thinnest piece of copper that you can. the thinner the better. 
You will not need a piece over an inch .square. With a lile 
and emery paper work the center of this down as thin as possi- 
ble wlthoiit going through. The copper can be worked down in 
this way almost as thin as tjsaue paper. If no copper is avail- 
able, a copper cent can be poiinderi flat on an anvil and made 
thin enough for the purpose. 

Then take a No. 11 needle, which will be next to the smallest, 
put the eye end into a cork for a handle and placing the bit of 
copper on soft wood, press the needle through the thin part In 
the center until It projects perhaps half an Inch, then pull It out 
gently. This will leave some rough edges on the other side 
which must be shaved off. This can be done with a razor with- 
out injuring the razor blade. It is absolutely necessary that all 
the edges should be perfectly smooth. 




A Pinhole Camera. 



338 ^ AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Now if it is possible, get a little nitrate of silver, with which 
to make a very Weak solution. Heating the copper, drop it into 
the solution; this will oxidize the shiny edges of the inside of 
the hole, which is quite necessary. When this is done, tacle-the 
bit of copper over the hole in the end of the camera at a in the 
illustration, being sure that the needle hole in the copper comes 
exactly in the center of the half-inch opening in the front. A 
thin, hard rubber plate can be used instead of copper, and Will 
not need to be oxidized. Now your camera is complete With 
the exception of the plateholder. This you will have to buy. and 
you can get it from a dealer in photographic goods. You will 
want a 5x7 plateholder, which will hold two plates. If you get 
a plateholder in which is what is called a kit for holding 4x5 
plates, you will have a camera capable of taking two sizes of 
pictures. There being no lens in this camera, it is necessarily 
what is called "slow"; that is, you cannot take a picture of a 
moving object. Landscapes, buildings and objects which are 
stationary you can photograph, ^hen you have learned how 
long an exposure is required. Objects close to require a longer 
exposure than objects at a distance. 



THE P^IRST STEPS IN ELECTRICITY. 

Electricity— The name given to the unknown cause of electric 
phenomena. 

Ampere— (1) The practical unit of electric current. (2) A rate 
of flow of electricity transmitting one coulomb per second. (3) 
The current of electricity which would pass through a circuit 
whose resistance is one ohm, under an electro-motive force of 
one volt. 

Volt— (1) The practical unit of electro-motive force. (2) Such 
an electro-motive force as is induced in a conductor which cuts 
lines of magnetic flux at the rate of 100,000,000 per second. (3) 
Such an electro-motive force as would cause a current of one 
ampere to flow agfiinst a resistance of one ohm. 

Ohm— (1) The practical unit of electric resistance. (2) Such 
a resistance as would limit the flow of electricity under an 
electro-motive force of one volt to a current of one ampere, or 
one coulomb per second. 

Ohm's Law— The strength of a continuous electric current in 
any circuit is directly proportional to the electro-motive force 
acting on that circuit, and inversely proportional to the resist- 
ance of the circuit. 

Watt— (1) A unit of electric power. (2) A volt ampere. (3) 
The power developed when 44.25 foot pounds of work are done in 
a minute, or 0.7375 foot pounds of work is done in a second. 

Dynamo— A dynamo-electric machine or generator. 

Motor Electric— A device for transforming electric power into 
mechanical power. 

Magneto— (1) A magneto generator. (2) A small magneto- 
electric dynamo machine. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



339 



Galvanometer— An apparatus for measuring the strength of 
an electric current by the deflection of a magnet needle. 

Transformer— An induction coll employed either for raising 
or for lowering electric pressure. 

Regulating Box— A rheostat Inserted in the fleld circuit of a 
generator or motor ior regulating the current passing through 
the field magnet coils. 

Safety Fuse— A wire, bar, plate, or strip of readily fusible 
metal, capable of conducting without fusing the current ordi- 
narily employed on the circuit, but which fuses and thus auto- 
matically breaks the circuit on the passage of an abnormally 
strong current. 

Short Circuit— (1) A shunt or by-path of neglible or compar- 
atively small resistance placed aro-utid any part of an electric 
circuit through which so much of the current passes as to vir- 
tually cut out the parts of the circuit to which it acts as a shunt. 
(2) An accidental direct connection between the mains or main 
terminals of a dynamo or system, producing a heavy load of 
current. 

Phase— The fractional part of a period which has elapsed 
since a vibrating body last passed through the extreme point of 
its path in the positive direction. 

Direct Current— A current whose direction Is constant, as 
distinguished from an alternating current. 

Alternating Currents— (1) Currents which flow alternately in 
opposite directions. (2) Currents whose directions are period- 
ically reversed. 

Multiple Circuit— A circuit in which a number of separate 
sources or separate devices, or both, have all their positive poles 
connected to a single positive lead or conductor, and all their 
negative poles connected to a single negative lead or co^nductor. 

Series Circuit- A circuit in which the separate sources or 
separate electro-receptive devices, or both, are so placed that 
the circuit produced in it or passed through it passes success- 
ively through the entire circuit from the first to the last. 



BOOKS FOR INGENIOUS BOYS. 



Amateur Mechanic's Work- 
shop. 

American Boy's Handy Book, 
*by Beard. 

Jack of All Trades, by Beard. 

How to Make Common 
Things, by Bower. 

Textbook of Elementary Me- 
chanics, by Dana. 

Bench Work in Wood, by 
Qoss. 



Amongst Machines, by Lukin. 

Young Mechanic, by Lukin. 

Boy Engineer, by Lukin. 

Mechanical Drawing Self- 
Taught, by Rose. 

Mechanic's Own Book, by 
Spon. 

A Boy's Workshop, by Waite. 

Wood-working for Beginners, 
by Wheeler. 



910 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Useful to Know 

A GUIDE FOR FARMERS. 

To find the number of tons of hay In a mow or stack, mul- 
tiply together the length, breadth and depth in feet, and divide 
the product by 400 or 500; in a deep mow about 400 cubic feet of 
hay will make a ton, while on a scaffold or shallow mow, It will 
require 500 cubic feet. 

To find the number of bushels of potatoes, apples, etc., in a 
bin, multiply the cubic contents by 8 and point oft one figure in 
the product. 

To find the number of bushels of shelled corn in a crib or 
bin of corn in the ear, divide the cubic contents by 2; to find 
the number of bushels of ear corn, divide the cubic contents in 
feet by 2%, as one bushel of ear corn is contained in 2%. cubie 
feet. A wagon box 10 feet long, 3 feet wide and 25 inches deep, 
will hold 27.8 bushels ear corn, or 50.2 bushels shelled corn. 

To ascertain the weight of cattle, measure the girth close 
behind the shoulder, and the length from the fore part of the 
shoulder blade along the back to the bone at the tail, which is 
in a vertical line with the buttock, both in feet. Multiply the 
square of the girth, expressed in feet, by five times the length, 
and divide the product by 21; the quotient is the weight, nearly, 
of the four quarters. In Imperial stones of 14 pounds avoirdupois. 
In very fat cattle, the quarters will be about l-20th more, while 
in very lean ones, they will be about l-20th less. 

SOME EVERYDAY ARITHMETIC— MISCELLANEOUS 

TABLE OF SOLIDS. 



128 solid feet (4x4x8) make 1 
cord. 

40 solid feet of round timber 
make 1 tun. 

50 solid feet of hewn timber 
make 1 tun. 

1 11-45 solid feet of shelled 
corn make 1 bushel. 

6 2-9 solid feet of shelled corn 
make 1 barrel. 

2 22-45 solid feet of ear corn 
make 1 bushel. 

12 4-9 solid feet of ear corn 
make 1 barrel. 

28% solid inches make 1 wine 
pint. 

231 solid inches make 1 wine 
gallon. 



282 solid inches make 1 beer 
gallon. 

268 4-5 solid inches make 1 
gallon, dry measure. 

1828 solid inches make 1 bush- 
el unslaked lime, coal or coke. 

A box 14x14x13% inches in the 
clear holds 1 bushel. 

A box 14x7x13% inches in the 
clear holds ^^ bushel. 

A box 7x7x13% inches in the 
clear holds 1 peck. 

A bucket or other cylindrical 
vessel 1 inches in diameter and 

6 inches deep holds 1 gallon, 
wine measure, and a similar 
vessel 7 inches in diameter and 

7 1-3 inches deep holds 1 gallon, 
beer measure. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



341 



METRIC SYSTEM. 
Apothecaries. 

10 milligrams=l centigram. 
10 centigrams^:! decigram. 
10 decigramszr:! gram. 
10 grams=l decagram. 
10 decagrams=l liectogram. 
10 hectograms=l kilogram. 
10 kilogramsr=l myriagram. 
10 myriagram s=:l quintal. 
10 quintals=l ton (metric). 

Linear Measure. 

10 millimeters^l centimeter. 
10 centimetersr=l decimeter. 
10 decimetersrrrl meter. 
10 meterszirl decameter. 
10 decameters=:l hectometer. 
10 hectometers=l kilo. 



A box 8 inches by 8 inches 
square, and 4.2 inches deep, 
will contain one-half peck, or 
268.8 cubic inches. 

A box 7 Inches by 4 inches 
square, and 4.8 Inches deep, 
will contain a half-gallon, or 
134.4 cubic Inches. 

A box 4 inches by 4 Inches 
square, and 4.2 inches deep, 
will contain 1 quart, or 67.2 
cubic inches. 

The measures all come with- 
in a small fraction of a cubic 
Inch of being perfectly accu- 
rate; as near, indeed, as any 
measures of capacity have 
ever yet been made for com- 
mon usse. The difficulty of 
making them with absolute 
exactness has never yet been 
overcome. 



Cubic and Capacity Measure. 

10 milliliters=:l centiliter. 
10 centilitersirrl deciliter. 
10 deciliters=rl liter. 
10 liters^rl decaliter. 
10 decaliterszzzl hectoliter. 
10 hectoliters=:l kiloliter. 

TABLE OF BOX MEASURE. 

A box 24 Inches by 16 inches 
square, and 28 inches deep, will 
contain a barrel, or 10,752 cubic 
inches. 

A box 24 inches by 16 inches 
square, and 14 inches deep, will 
contain a half -barrel, or 5376 
cubic inches. 

A box 16 inches by 16.8 inches 
square, and 8 inches deep, will 
contain a bushel, or 2150.4 cubic 
inches. 

A box 12 inches by 11.2 inches 
square, and 8 inches deep, will 
contain a half -bushel, or 1075.2 
cubic inches. 

A box 8 inches by 8.4 inches 
square, and 8 inches deep, will 
contain 1 peck, or 537.6 cubic 
inches. 



SURFACE MEASURE. 

The surface units in the 
metric system are the linear 
units squared, and for land 
measures 100 square meters are 
called the *'ar" (for area). 

100 arsz=l hectar. 



One acre contains 160 square 
rods. 4840 square yards, 45,560 
square feet. One rod contains 
30»4 square yards, 272*4 square 
feet. One square yard contains 
nine square feet. The side of 
a square must measure as fol- 
lows to contain: 



Feet Rods Paces 



lU acres 660.00 

1 acre 208.71 

Half acre... 147. 58 
Third acre.. 120.50 
Fourth acre.104.38 
Eighth acre. 73.79 



40.00 




12.65 


64 


8.95 


45 


7.30 


37 


6.32 


32 


4.47 


22% 



To double the length of the 
side makes four times the area 
of the field. 



842 



AMEJtllCAX AGRlCULTUniS* 



DOMESTIC WEIGHTS AND 
MEASURES. 

Apothecaries' weight — 20 

grains=l scruple, 3 scruplesiirl 
dram, 8 dramB=l ounce, 12 
©uncesizzl pound. 

Avoirdupois weight (short 
ton)— 27 11-32 grains^l dram, 16 
drams=:l ounce, 16 ounces=rl 
pound, 25 poundsml quarter, 4 
quarters:=l hundredweight. 20 
hundredweights=:l ton (2000 
pounds). 

Avoirdupois weight (long 
ton)— 27 11-32 grainsml dram, 
16 dramsr^l ounce, 16 ouncesn: 
1 pound, 112 poundsnrl hun- 
dredweight, 20 hundredweights 
=£1 ton* (2240 pounds). 

Troy weight— 24 grainsr^l 
pennyweight, 20 pennyweights 
ounce, 12 ouncesml pound. 

Circular measure— 60 seconds 
minute, 60 minutes=rl de- 
gree. 30 degrees=zl sign, 12 
slgnsizil circle. 

Cubic measure— 1728 cubic 
Inchesrzrl cubic foot, 27 cubic 
feetr=l cubic yard. 

Dry measure — 2 pintsml 
quart, 8 quarts=:l peck, 4 pecks 
=1 bushel. 

Liquid measure— 4 gillsr=:l 
pint, 2 pints=dL quart. 4 quarts 
=1 gallon, 31% gallonsml bar- 
rel, 2 barrelsz=l hogshead. 

Fluid measure— The minimzr: 
0.95 grain, 60 minimsr^l fluid 
drachm, 8 fluid drachms=:l 
fluid ounce (455.69 grains) or 480 
minims. 

Long measure— 12 inches=r:l 
foot, 3 feetrrJL yard, 5V^ yardszn 
1 rod or pole, 40 rods=rl fur- 
long, 8 furlohg8i=l statute 
mile, 3 miles=l league. 

Nautical measure— 6 feetr^rl 
fathom, 608 fathomsnzzl cable 
length. 71/^ cable lengthsrrrl 
mile. 5280 feet=l statute mile, • 
6080.27 feet=l nautical mile. 

Square measure— 144 square 
inchesrrl square foot, 9 square 



feetr^l square yard,' 30*4 square 
yards=:rl square rod or perch, 
40 square rods=l rood, 4 roods 
r=l acre, 640 acreszzJ. square 
mile, 36 square miles (6 miles 
square)=J. township. 

Time measure — 60 seconds:zz:l 
minute, 60 minutesnzl hour. 24 
hoursrzrl day, 7 daysml week, 
4 weeksrrl lunar month, 365 
daysrrl year, 366 days=l leap 
year. 

Diamond weight — 4 grains=rl 
carat, 16 partsizrl grain;iiH0.8 
Troy grain, carat=r3.2 Troy 
grains. 

Measure of number — 12 units 
rrrl dozen, 12 dozen=l gross, 20 
unitsrrl score. 

Mariner's measure— 6 fi>«»t — i 
fathom, 120 fathoms=l cable. 
A nautical mile or knot, 6080.27, 
while a common mile is 5280 
feet. 

Iron, lead, etc.— 14 poundsnzl 
stone, 2m stone=l pig, 8 pigs 
r^l fother. 

Beef, pork, etc.— 200 pounds= 
1 barrel, 196 pounds (flour)==l 
barrel, 100 pounds rfiah) — 1 
quintal. 

The commercial weights and 
measures of the United States 
are the avoirdupois pound (7000 
grains)r=16 ounces of 437.5 
grains each. The wine gallon 
(231 cubic inches)=i4 quarts, ot 
8 pints of 16 fluid ounces to 
each pint. 

Various miles— The distance 
called a mile varies greatly ih 
different countries. Its length 
in yards is as follows: Nor* 
way 12,182, Sweden 11,660, Hun- 
gary 9139. Switzerland 8648, 
Austria 8297, Prussia 8288, Po- 
land 8100, Italy 2025, England 
and the United States 1760, 
Spain 1522, Netherlands 1094. 
The nautical mile is l^^OOth the 
length of a degree at the equa- 
tor, or 2025 yards. 

Cloth measure— 2^ inches — ^1 
nail. 4 nailB=l quarter. 4 quar- 
tersirrl yard. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



343 



Chain measure— 7.d2 inches=r 

1 link, 25 linksr^l rod, 100 links 
=1 chain, 80 chalns=l mile, 10 
square chains=l acre. 

Paper measure— 24 sheets=l 
quire. 20 quireszril ream, 2 
reams=l bundle, 5 bundle8=:l 
bale. 

Various units— A cubit Is 4 
hands and a half, or 1 foot and 
a half. A yard Is 36 inches or 

2 cubits. A square yard is 9 
square feet. A cubical yard is 
27 cubical feet. An ell is 1 
yard and a quarter, or 45 
inches. A geometrical space Is 
5 feet. A fathom i^ 6 feet, or 
2 yards. A square is 100 square 
feet. A pace is 3 feet. A palnn 
is 3 inches. A hand is 4 inches. 
A span is 6 inches. A Bible 
cubit is 21.8 inches. 

Liquids— 1 gallon oil weighs 
9.32 pounds avoirdupoisr, 1 gal- 
lon distilled water 10.32 pounds, 
1 gallon proof spirits 9.08 
pounds. 

EQUIVALENTS. 

1 acre equals .4047 hectare. 

1 bushel equals 35.24 liters. 

1 centimeter equals .3937 inch. 

1 cubic foot equals .023 cubic 
meter. 

1 cubic inch equals 16.39 cubic 
centimeters. 

1 cubic meter equals 35.31 cu- 
bic feet. 

1 cubic yard equals .7645 cubic 
meter. 

1 foot equals 30.48 centimeters. 



1 gallon equals 3.785 liters. 

1 grain equals .0648 gram. 

1 gram equals 15.43 grains. 

1 hectare equals 2.471 acres. 

1 inch equals 25.40 millimeters. 

1 kilogram equals 2.205pounds. 

1 kilometer equals .6214 mile. 

1 liter equals .9081 quart (dry). 

1 liter equals 1.057 quarts (liq- 
uid), 

1 yard equals .9144 meter. 

1 meter equals 3.381 feet. 

1 mile equals 1.609 kilometers. 

1 millimeter equals 0.394 Inch. 

1 ounce (avoirdupois) equals 
28.35 grams. 

1 ounce (Troy) equals 31.10 
grams. 

1 peck equals 8.809 liters. 

1 pint equals .4732 liter. 

1 pound equals .4536 kilogram. 

1 quart (dry) equals 1.101 li- 
ters. 

1 quart (liquid) equals .9464 
liter. 

1 square centimeter equals 
.1550 square Inch. 

1 square foot equals .0929 
square meter. 

1 square Inch equals 6.452 
square centimeters. 

1 square meter equals 1.196 
square yards. 

1 square meter equals 10.76 
square feet. 

1 square yard equals .8361 
square meter. 

1 ton (2000 pounds) equals .9072 
metric ton. 

1 ton (2240 pounds) equals 1.017, 
metric tons. 

1 ton (metric) equals .9842 ton 
(2240 pounds). 



GREAT DISASTERS AT SEA. 

Steamship Bourgogne was lost in 1898, with 545 lives. The 
steamer Elbe, in 1896. was lost with 334. In 1895, the Victoria 
was rammed by the Camperdown and went down with 430 men. 
In 1899, a British excursion steamer, the Stella, struck a reef 
and 104 people were drowned. In 1902, a German excursion boat 
sank In the Elbe river with 112 people. But all five exceed by 
less than 500 the death rate of the General Slocum, in June, 1904, 
when more than 1000 men, women and children were drowned, 
burned or crushed, besides many injured. 



344 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY— COMPARED WITH WATER. 



Liquids. 

Water 100 

Sea water 103 

Dead sea 124 

Alcohol 84 

Olive oil 92 

Turpentine 99 

Wine 100 

Urine 101 

Cider 102 

Beer 102 

Woman's milk 102 

Cow's milk 103 

Goat's milk 104 

Porter 1U4 

Timber. 

Cork 24 

Poplar 38 

Fir 55 

Cedar (jl 

Pear 66 

Walnut 07 

Cherry 72 

Maple 75 

Apple 79 

Ash 84 

Beech 85 

Mahogany 106 

Oak 117 

Ebony 133 



Sundries. 

Indigo 77 

Ice 92 

Gunpowder 93 

Butter 94 

Clay 120 

Coal 130 

Opium 134 

Honey 145 

Ivory 183 

Sulirfiur 203 

Porcelain 226 

Marble 270 

Chalk 279 

Glass 289 

Metals and Stones. 

Granite 278 

Diamond 353 

Zinc 691 

Cast iron 721 

Tin 729 

Bar iron 779 

Steel 783 

Brass 840 

Copper 895 

Silver 1,047 

Lead 1*135 

Mercury 1,357 

Gold 1.926 

Platina 2^150 



I To get weight of a cubic foot of above, multiply gravity by 
10— thus, a cubic foot of ice weighs 920 ounces avoirdupois. 



FREEZING, .FUSING AND BOILING POINTS. 



Fahr. 

Olive oil freezes at 50 

Quicksilver freezes at — 39 

Water freezes at 32 

Copper fuses at 2,200 

Gold fuses at 2,618 

Iron fuses at 2,800 

Lead fuses at 617 

Silver fuses at 1.832 



Fahr. 

Sulphur fuses at ."^39 

Tin fuses at 442 

Zinc fuses at 773 

Alcohol boils at 167 

Ether boils at 96 

Iodine boils at 347 

Water boils at 212 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 345 

TIME ON SHIPBOARD. 

One bell— 12.30, 4.30 and 8.30, either morning or evening. 
Two bells— 1, 5 and 9, either morning or evening. 
Three bells— 1.30, 5.30 and 9.30, either morning or evening. 
Four bells— 2, 6 and 10, either morning or evening. 
Five bells— 2.30, 6.30 and 10.30, either morning or evening. 
Six bells— 3, 7 and 11, either morning or evening. 
Seven bells— 3.30, 7.30 and 11.30, either morning or evening. 
Eight bells — 4, 8 and 12, either morning or evening. 
The day on shipboard begins at noon, and is divided into 
seven watches. 

Afternoon watch— 12 noon to 4 p. m. 
First dog watch— 4 p. m. to 6 p. m. 
Second dog watch— 6 p. m. to 8 p. m. 
First watch— 8 p. m. to 12 midnight. 
Middle watch— 12 midnight to 4 a. m. 
Morning watch— 4 a. m. to 8 a. m. 
Forenoon watch— 8 a. m to 12 noon. 

THE VALUE OF FOREIGN MONEY 
Varies from month to month, but averages as follows: 

Austria-Hungary— Crown, equals $0,203, say 20c 

Belgium— Franc, equals 193, " 20c 

France— Franc, equals 193, " 20c 

Germany— Mark, equals 238, " 24c 

Great Britain— Pound, equals 4.84 

India— Rupee, equals 32 

Italy— Lira, equals 193, " 20c 

Japan— Yen, equals 50 

Russia— Ruble, equals 515, *' 52c 

Spain— Peseta, equals 193, " 20c 

Switzerland- Franc, equals 193, " 20c 

WORTH KNOWING. 

There are 640 acres in a square mile. 
A barrel of pork weighs 200 pounds. 
A barrel of flour weighs 196 pounds. 
Sound moves at the rate of 743 miles an hour. 
Storm clouds move 36 miles an hour. 
Light moves 192,000 miles per second. 



Five hundred and eighty-seven languages are spoken in 
Europe. 

Australia has an artesian well 500 feet deep. 



346 



AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 



MISCELLANEOUS TABLE 
OF THINGS, DIS- 
TANCES, BOOKS, 
ETC. 

A book composed of sheets 
folded into 2 leaves is a folio. 

A book composed of sheets 
folded into 4 leaves is a quarto. 

A book composed of sheets 
folded into 8 leaves is an oc- 
tavo (8vo). 

A book composed of sheets 
folded into 12 leaves is a duo- 
decimo (12mo). 

A book composed of sheets 
folded into 16 leaves is a 16mo. 

12 units make 1 dozen. 

12 dozen make 1 gross. 

12 gross (144 dozen) make 1 
great gross. 

20 units make 1 score. 

56 pounds of butter make 1 
firkin. 

100 pounds of fish make 1 
quintal. 

196 pounds of flour malie 1 
barrel. 

200 pounds of beef, pork, shad 
or salmon make 1 barrel. 

24 sheets of paper make 1 
quire. 

20 quires make 1 ream. 
2 reams make 1 bundle. 
5 bundles make 1 bale. 
Z barleycorns make 1 Inch. 
18 inches make 1 cubit. 
22 inches make 1 sacred cubit. 
9 gallons make 1 English fir- 
kin. 
2 firkins make 1 kilderkin. 
2 kilderkins make 1 barrel. 

25 pounds make 1 keg (pow- 
der). 

100 pounds make 1 cental 
(grain measure). 

100 pounds make 1 cask (rais- 
in measure). 

256 pounds make 1 barrel of 
soap. 

280 pounds make 1 barrel of 

salt. ^ - 

31% gallons make 1 barrel 
(wine measure). 



42 gallons make 1 tierce (wine 

measure). 

63 gallons make 1 hogshead 
(wine measure). 

84 gallons make 1 puncheon 
(wine measure). 

126 gallons make 1 pipe (wine 
measure) 

252 gallons make 1 tun (wine 
measure). 

8 bushels of wheat (of 70 
pounds each) make 1 quarter 
(European measure). 

8 bushels of salt make 1 hogs- 
head. 

36 bushels of coal make 1 
chaldron (English). 

32 bushels make 1 chaldron 
(American). 

14 pounds make 1 stone. 

21% stones make 1 pig (iron). 

8 pigs make 1 fother. 

24% cubic feet (masonry) 
make 1 perch. 

100 square feet (carpentry) 
make 1 square. 

1760 yards (5280 feet) make 1 
statute mile. 

2028.63 yards (6085.9 feet) make 
1 nautical mile. 

3 miles make 1 league. 

69 1-6 statute miles make 1 
degree (of latitude). 

60 geographical miles make 1 
degree (of latitude). 

360 degrees make 1 circle. 

60 pairs of shoes make 1 case. 

9 inches make 1 quarter (of a 
yard). 

3 quarters make 1 ell (Flem- 
ish). 

5 quarters make 1 ell (Eng- 
lish). 

6 quarters make 1 ell (Prencn"). 

4 inches make 1 hand (meas- 
uring horses). 

6 feet make 1 fathom (depth 
of water). 

120 fathoms make 1 cable- 
length. 

7 1-3 cable lengths make 1 
mile. 

640 acres make 1 square mile. 
36 square miles make 1 town- 
ship. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 347 

Virectorp of Agricultural Colleges, Ex-' 

per intent Stations and 

Societies 

AaRTCULTTTRAL. AND MECHANICAL COT^LEGES. 

The first agricultural college in the United States was estab- 
lished through a land-grant from Congress for that purpose in 
1S62. There are now 50 agricultural colleges for whiles (many 
of which admit negroes) and 16 for negroes, scattered through 
the various states. The total number of teachers in 1901-2, men 
and women, was 3692; of students, men 35,404, women 11,643; 
number of graduates in 1902, 3466 men and 975 women. The total 
value of property Is $69,660,303; the total income for year ending 
June, 1902, was $9,167,059, of which the states and territories pro- 
vided 46.6 per cent, the federal government 21.8 per cent, and 
31.6 per cent from endowment funds, tuition and miscellaneous 
sources. 

AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS 

IN THE UNITED STATES HAVING COURSES 

IN AGRICULTURE. 

Alabama— Auburn, Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 

Normal, Agricultural and Mechanical College of Negroes. 
Arizona— Tucson, University of Arizona. 
Arkansas— Fayette ville. University of Arkansas. 

Pine Bluff, Branch Normal College. 
California— Berkeley, University of California. 
Colorado— jFort Collins, State Agricultural College of Colorado. 
Connecticut— Storrs, Connecticut Agricultural College. 
Delaware— Newark, Delaware College. 

Dover, State College for Colored Students. 
Florida- Lake City, Florida Agricultural (^ollege. 

Tallahassee, Florida State Normal and Industrial College. 
Georgia— Athens, Georgia State College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts. 

College, Georgia State Industrial College. 
Idaho— Moscow, University of Idaho. 
Illinois— Urbana, University of Illinois. 
Indiana— Lafayette, Purdue University. 
Iowa— Ames, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 

Arts. 
Kansas— Manhattan, Kansas State Agricultural College. 
Kentucky— Lexington, Agricultural and Mechanical College of 
Kentucky. 

Frankfort, State Normal School for Colored Students. 
Louisiana— Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University and Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College. 



348 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

New Orleans, Southern University and Agricultural and Me- 
chanical College. 

Maine— Orono, the University of Maine. 

Maryland— College Park, Maryland Agricultural College. 
Princess Anne, Princess Anne Academy, Eastern Branch, 
Maryland Agricultural College. 

Massachusetts— Amherst, Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

Michigan— Agricultural College, Michigan State Agricultural 
College. 

Minnesota— St. Anthony Park, the University of Minnesota. 

Mississippi— Agricultural College, Mississippi Agricultural and 
Mechanical College. 
Westside, Alcorn Agriculturs^l and Mechanical College. 

Missouri— Columbia, the University of Missouri. 
Jefferson City, Lincoln Institute. 

Montana— Bozeman, the Montana College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts. 

Nebraska— Lincoln, the University of Nebraska. 

Nevada— Reno, Nevada State University. 

New Hampshire— Durham, the New Hampshire College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts. 

New Jersey— New Brunswick, Rutgers Scientific School (the 
New Jersey State College for the Benefit of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts). 

New Mexico— Mesilla Park, New Mexico College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts. 

New York— Ithaca, Cornell University. 

North Carolina— West Raleigh, North Carolina College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts. 
Greensboro, Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Col- 
ored Race. 

North Dakota— Agricultural College, North Dakota Agricultural 
College. 

Ohio— Columbus, , Ohio State University. 

Oklahoma— Stillwater, Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical 
College. 
Langston, Agricultural and Normal University. 

Oregon— C6rvallis, Oregon State Agricultural College. 

Pennsylvania— State College, Pennsylvania State College. 

Rhode Island— Kingston, Rhode Island College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts. 

South Carolina— Clemson College, Clemson Agricultural College. 
Orangeburg, the Colored Normal, Industrial, Agricultural and 
Mechanical College of South Carolina. 

South Dakota— Brookings, South Dakota Agricultural College. 

Tennessee— Knoxville, University of Tennessee. 

Texas— College Station, State Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege of Texas. 
Prairie View, Prairie View State Normal School. 

Utah— Logan, Agricultural College of Utah. 

Vermont— Burlington, University of Vermont and State Agricul- 
tural College 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



349 



Virginia— Blacksburg, Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege and Polytechnic Institute. 
Hampton, Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute. 
Washington— Pullman, Washington Agricultural College nnd 

School of Science, 
West Virginia— Morgantown, West Virginia University. 

institute, West Virginia Colored Institute. 
Wisconsin— Madison, University of Wisconsin. 
W.voming— I^aramie, University of Wyoming. 



AGRTCTn.TURAT. EXPRRTMRNT STATIONS IN THE U. S. 



h' 



Alabama— Auburn, Uniontown 
(Canebrake), Tuskegee. 

Arizona— Tucson. 

Arkansas — FayettevIUe. 

California— Berkeley. 

Colorado — Fort Collins. 

Connecticut — New Haven 
(state). Storrs, 

Delaware— Newark. 

Florida— Lake City. 

rjeorgia — Experiment. 

Ida ho — Moscow. 

Illinois— Urbana. 

Indiana— Lafayette. 

Iowa — Ames. 

Kansas— Manhattan. 

Kentucky— Lexington. 

Louisiana — New Orleans 
(fruit), Baton Rouge (state), 
Calhoun. 

Maine— Orono. 

Maryland— College Park. 

Massachusetts — Amherst. 

Michigan— Agricultural (JoUege. 

Minnesota— St. Anthony Park. 

Mississippi— Agricultural Col- 
lege. 

Missouri — Columbia, Mountain 
Grove (fruit). 

Montana— Bozeman. 



Nebraska — Lincoln. 

Nevada— Reno. 

New Hampshire— Durham. 

New Jersey— New Brunswick 
(state), New Brunswick (col- 
lege). 

New Mexico— Mesilla Park. 

New York— Geneva (state), 
Ithaca (Cornell). 

North Carolina— Raleigh. 

North Dakota — Agricultural 
College. 

Ohio— Wooster. 

Oklahoma— Stillwater. 

Oregon— Corvallis. 

Pennsylvania— State College. 

Rhode Island— Kingston. 

South Carolina— Clemson Col- 
lege. 

South Dakota— Brookings. 

Tennessee — Knoxville. 

Texas— College Station. 

I^tah — Logan. 

Vermont— Burlington. 

A'irginia— Blacksburg. 

Washington— Pullman. 

AVest Virginia— Morgantown. 

Wisconsin— Madison. 

W^yoming- Laramie. 



NATIONAL ASSOCIATIONS OP FARMERS. 

American Cane Growers' Association— D. D. Colcock, secre- 
tary'- New Orleans, La. 

New England Tobacco Growers' Association— S. C. Hardin, 
secretary, Glastonbury, Ct. 

Interstate Cotton Growers' Association— J. P. Allison, secre- 
tary. Concord, Ga. 

National Nut Growers' Association— J. F. Wilson, secretary, 
^oulan, Ga. 



852 AMERICAN AORICtTLTURIST 

American Shropshire Registry. Association— Mortimer Lever- 
ing, secr^ary and treasurer, Lafayette, Ind. 

Hampshire Down Breeders' Association of America — C. A. 
Tyler, secretary, Nottawa, Mich. 

American Rambouillet Sheep Breeders' Association— Dwight 
Lincoln, secretary, Milford Center, O. 

American Suffolk Flock Registry Association— George AV. 
Franklin, secretary, Des Moines, Ta. 

Black Top Spanish Merino Sheep Breeders' Association — R. P. 
Berry, secretary, Washington, Pa. 

Dorset Horn Sheep" Breeders' Association of America — M. A. 
Cooper, secretary, Washington. Pa. 

National Delaine Merino Sheep Breeders' Association— J. B. 
Johnson, secretary, CannonsbUrg, Pa. 

Dickinson Merino Sheep Record Company— H. G. McDowell, 
secretary, Canton, O. 

Hampshire Down Breeders' Association— C. A. Tyler, Not- 
tawa. Mich. 

Improved Black Top Merino Sheep Breeders' Association— 
Ij. M. Crothers, secretary, Crothers, Pa. 

Improved Delaine Merino Sheep Breeders' Association — 
George A. Henry, secretary, Bellefontaine. O. 

Michigan Merino Sheep Breeders' Association— E. N. Ball, 
secretary, Hamburg, Mich. 

National Lincoln Sheep Breeders' Association— Bert Smith, 
secretary, Charlotte, Mich. 

National Improved Saxony Sheep Breeders' Association- 
John T. Clarke, secretary. Washington. Pa. 

National Merino Sheep Register Association— R. O. Logan, 
secretary, Montgomery. Mich. 

New York State American Merino Sheep Breeders' Associa- 
tion— J. Horatio Earle, secretary, Skaneateles. N. Y. 

Ohio Spanish Merino Sheep Breeders' Association. 

Standard Delaine Spanish Merino Association— S. M. Clea- 
ver, secretary. East Bethlehem. Pa. 

United States Merino Sheep Breeders' Registry Association 
.—J. A. B. Walker, secretary, Mountair. Pa. 

Vermont Atwood Merino Sheep Club Register— George Ham- 
mond, secretary, Middlebury, Vt. 

Vermont Merino Sheep Breeders' Association— C. A. Chap- 
man, secretary, Harrisburg, Vt. 

SWINE BREEDERS' ASSOCIATIONS. 

American Berkshire Association— Frank S. Springer, secre- 
tary, Springfield, 111. 

American Duroc-Jersey Swine Breeders' Association— T. B. 
Pearson, secretary, Thornton, Ind. 

American Essex Association- F. M. Strout, secretary, Mc- 
Lain, 111. 

American Small Yorkshire Club— George W. Harris, secre- 
tary, 3409 Third avenue. New York city. 

Cheshire Swine Breeders' Association— B. R. Badger, secre- 
tary, Ouaquaga, N. Y. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 358 

Standard Chester White Record Association— W. H. Morris, 
secretary, Indianapolis, Ind. 

American Poland-China Record Company— W. M. McFadden. 
secretary, Chicago, 111. 

Central Poland-China Record Association— W. H. Morris, 
secretary, Indianapolis, Ind. 

Ohio Poland-China Record Company— A. M. Brown, Day- 
ton, O. 

Standard Poland-China Record Association— G. F. Wood- 
worth, secretary, Maryville, Mo. 

Victoria Swine Breeders' Association— H. Davis, secretary, 
Dover, Ind. , , 

Suffolk Swine Association— W. F. Watson, secretary, Win- 
Chester Ind 

National Duroc-Jersey Record Association— Robert J. Evans, 

secretary. El Paso, 111. , ^ ^ ^.r t^ n « 

American Tam worth Swine Association— E. N. Ball, Ham- 
burg, Mich. _ _, „,., 

The American Yorkshire Club-E. W. Wilcox, secretary, 

Huero, Minn. 

DAIRY ASSOCIATIONS. 

National Association of State Dairy and Food Departments— 
R. M. Allen, secretary, Lexington, Ky. 

National Dairy Union- Charles Y. Knight, secretary, Voi 
Lake street, Chicago. ^^ « ^ 

National Creamery Butter Makers' Association— £1. Suden- 
dorf, secretary, Elgin, 111. „, . ,t . 

New England Milk Producers' Union— W. A. Hunter, secre- 
tary, 10 Florence street, Worcester, Mass. ^, _ ^ 

Five States Milk Producers* Association— H. T. Coon, secre- 

^^^Califoniia Creamery Operators' Association— W. H. Saytor, 

^sporetarv, San Francisco. „ „r ^ «. 

California Dairy Association-Samuel E. Watson, secretary, 

^^"conSecUcut Dairymen's Association-J. E. Noble, secretary, 

^^Connt'cticut Creamery Association-E. B. Little, secretary, 

^*'"Georgia Dairymen's Assoclation-M. L. Duggan, secretary, 

^^^Idaho Dairy and Pure Food Assoclation-A. E. Gipson. sec- 

'^^^mno^s^^mlrymen's Association-George Caven, secretary, 

154 Lake street, Chicago. 4. o>i 

Cblcago Milk Shippers' Union-H. B. Farmer, secretary, 84 
La Salle street, Chicago. 

Indiana State Dairy Assoclation-H. E. Van Norman, secre- 
tary, Lafayette. . _ ^ ■»* 

Iowa State Dairy Association— P. H. Kieffer, secretary, Man- 
chester. 



354 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Kansas State Dairy Association— T. A. Borman, secretary, 
505 Polk street, Topeka. 

Maine Dairymen's Association— L. W. Dyer, secretary, 
Woodfords. 

Massachusetts Creamery Association— A. M. Lyman, secre- 
tary, Montag^ue. 

Michigan Dairymen's Association— S. J. Wilson, secretary, 
Flint. 

Michigan Grand Traverse Dairymen's Association— D. H. 
McMullen, secretary. Traverse City. 

Minnesota State Dairymen's Association— J. R. Morley, sec- 
retary, Owatonna. 

Minnesota State Butter and Cheese Makers' Association — 
- C. I. Cole, secretary, Rockford. 

Missouri Dairy Association— W. AV. Marplc, president, St. 
Joseph. 

Nebraska Dairymen's Association— S. C. Bassett, secretary. 
Gibbon. 

(New Hampshire) Granite State Dairymen's Association — 
Ivan C. Weld, secretary, Durham. 

New Jersey State Dairy UniouT-G. L. Glllingham, secretary, 
Moorestown. 

New York State Dairymen's Association— Robert McAdam, 
secretary, Rome. 

North Dakota State Dairymen's Association— E. E. Kauf- 
man, secretary, Fargo. 

Ohio S^ate Dairymen's Association— D. A. Crouner, secretary, 
West Jefferson. 

Oregon Dairymen's Association— F. L. Kent, secretary, Cor- 
vallis. 

Pennsylvania Dairy Union— Dr. M. E. Conard, secretary. 
West Grove. 

Creamery Association of Eastern Pennsylvania and Vicinity 
— G. R. Meloney, secretary, 1937 Market street, Philadelphia. 

South Carolina— G. M. Davis, secretary, Clinton. 

South Dakota Dairy and Butter Makers' Association— C. P. 
Sherwood, secretary, Desmet. 

Texas Dairy and Live Stock Association— G. E. Adams, sec- 
retary, Florence. 

Utah Dairymen's Association— C. Z. Harris, secretary, Rich- 
mond. 

Vermont Dairymen's Association— F. L. Davis, secretary, 
North Pomfret. 

Washington State Dairymen's Association— Mrs. E. Car- 
michacl, secretary, Yakima. 

Wisconsin Dairymen's Association— George W. Burchard, 
secretary, Fort Atkinson. 

Wisconsin Cheesemakers' Association— W. S. Baer, secre- 
tary, Madison. 

Wisconsin Butter Makers' Association— F. B. Fulmer, secre- 
tary, Ettrick. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 355 

POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS. 

American Dorking Club— Watson Westfall, secretary, Sayre, 
I*a. 

American Bufif Plymouth Rock Club— W. C. Denny, secre- 
tary, Buffalo, N. Y. 

American Black Minorca Club— W. D. Davis, secretary and 
treasurer, North Dana. Mass. 

American Cochin Club— Arthur R. Sharp, secretary, Taun- 
ton, Mass. 

National Exhibition Game and Game Bantam Club— W. W. 
"Withee, secretary, Lacrosse, Wis. 

American Houdan Club— Thomas F. Rigrg, secretary, Iowa 
Falls, la. 

American Leghorn Club— W. W. Babcock, secretary, Bath, 
N. Y. 

American Plymouth Rock Club— H. P. Schwab, secretary, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

American Indian Game Club— C. S. Whitney, secretary, 
Corfu, N. Y. 

Eastern White Wyandot Club— W. E. Mack, secretary, Wood- 
stock, Vt. 

Minorca Club of Northwest-rDr. H. B. Fay, Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

National Bantam Association— Charles Jehl, secretary, El- 
beron, N. J. 

New England Light Brahma Club— G. W. Cromack, secre- 
tary. North Windham, Vt. 

National Fanciers' Association— Fred L. Kinney, secretary, 
Morgan Park, 111. 

Boston Poultry Association— C. Minot Weld, secretary, 131 
Devonshire street, Boston, Mass. 

Wolverine Poultry, Pigeon and Pet Stock Association— Gus 
Williams, secretary, Bay City, Mich. 

St. IjouIs Fanciers' Association— R. C. H. Hallock, secretary, 
6317 Clifton avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 

Mid-Continental Poultry Association — F. M. Slutz, secretary, 
Kansas City, Mo. 

IntM-state Poultry Association— R. Horrocks, secretary, Falls 
City, Nob. 

Buffalo Poultry Association— E. C. Pease, secretary, Buf- 
falo. N. Y. 

Madison Square Garden (New York) Poultry and Pigeon As- 
sociation— H. V. Crawford, secretary, Montclair, N. J. 

Northern Ohio Poultry and Pet Stock Associaltion- F. R. 
Hunt, secretary, Cleveland. O. 

Buckeye Poultry Association— George B. Wetzel, secretary, 
Dayton. O. 

Tri-State Poultry Association— J. A. Mcintosh, secretary. 
East Liverpool. O. 

Pittsburg Fanciers' Club— A. P. Robinson, secretary, 110 
Second avenue. Pittsburg, Pa. 

Piedmont Poultry Association— B. W. Getsinger, secretary, 

Spartansburg, s. c. 



356 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

Nashville Poultry Association— Nashville, Tenn. 
Tacoma Poultry Association— A. Hartley, Fern Hill, Wash. 
Western Bantam Breeders' Association— A. E. Brown, sec- 
retary, Morgan Park, 111.. 

STATE POULTRY ASSOCIATIONS. 

Colorado— F. E. Kimball, secretary, Denver. 
Illinois— Edward Craig, secretary, Albion. 
Kansas— J. W. F. Hughes, Topeka. 
Kentucky— Charles Hess, secretary, Louisville. 
Louisiana— J. D. Schmidt, secretary, 126 Carondelet street. 
New Orleans. 

Michigan— John A. Grover, secretary, Concord. 

Minnesota— C. L. Smith, secretary. Box 28, Minneapolis. 

Missouri— H. P. Mason, secretary, Fayette. 

Nebraska— Luther P. Ludden, secretary, Lincoln. 

New York— E. M. Santee, secretary, Cortland. 

North Carolina— J. S. Jeffrey, secretary, Raleigh. 

Ohio— D. C. Hale, secretary, Dayton. 

Oklahoma— Samuel M. Lyon, secretary, Guthrie. 

Pennsylvania— George C. Watson, secretary. State College. 

Rhode Island— William I. Brown, secretary. Providence. 

Texas — S. J. Hoppin, secretary, Dallas. ^ 

Virginia and Tennessee— M. D. Andes, secretary, Bristol, Tenn. 

Vermont— H. M. Barrett, secretary, St. Albans. 

West Virginia— J. B. Garvin, secretary, Charleston. 

Wisconsin— J. L. Herbert, secretary, Stevens Point. 

SPORTSMEN'S ORGANIZATIONS. 

Arizona Sporstmen's Association— K. L. Hart, secretary, 
Tucson. 

Arkansas State Sportsmen's Association— Paul R. Litzke, 
secretary. Little Rock. 

California Game and Fish Protective Association — E. A. 
Mocker, secretary, San Francisco. • 

(California) Cooper Ornithological Club— C. R. Keyes, secre- 
tary, Berkeley. 

Connecticut Association for the Protection of Fish and 
Game— George P. McLean, Simsbury, secretary. 

Delaware Game Protective Association— J. Danforth Bush, 
secretary, Wilmington. 

Game and .Fish Protective Association of the District of 
Columbia— Dr. W. P. Young, secretary, Washington. 

Illinois Fish and Game Protective Association— H. A. Sulli- 
van, secretary, Chicago. 

Illinois State Sportsmen's Association— Edward Bingham, 
secretary, Chicago. 

Iowa State Sportsmen's Association— L. D. Crissman, secre- 
tary, Ottumwa. , ^ 

Kentucky Field Trials Club— Dr. F. W. Samuel, secretary, 

Louisville, Ky. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 357 

Kentucky Fish and Game Club— Hamilton Griswold, secre- 
tary, Louisville. 

Maine Ornltholoerlcal Society— Arthur H. Norton, secretary, 
Westbrook, 

Maine Sportsmen's Fish and Game Association— Col. B. C. 
Farrington, secretary, Augusta. 

Maryland State Game and Fish Protective Association- 
Oregon M. Dennis, secretary, Baltimore. 

Massachusetts Central Committee for the Protection of Fish 
and Game — H. H. Kimball, secretary, Boston. 

Massachusetts Fish and Game Protective Association— H. H. 
Kimball, secretary, Boston. 

Rod and Gun Club of Massachusetts— W. C. Thairlwall, sec- 
retary, Boston. 

Massachusetts Sportsmen's Association— F. B. Crowninshield, 
secretary, Boston. 

Michigan State Game and Fish Protective Association— R. F. 
Woodliff, secretary, Jackson. 

Minnesota Game and Fish Protective Association— William 
L. Tucker, secretary, Duluth. 

Minnesota Hunters' and Anglers' Protective Association— C. 
S. Brown, secretary, Minneapolis. 

Missouri State Game and Fish Protective Association— Frank 
Cunningham, secretary, St. Joseph. 

Missouri Sportsmen's Game and Fish Protective League— 

A. J. Dienst, secretary, St. Louis. 

Montana Fish and Game Protective Association— A. L. Pal- 
mer, secretary, Helena. 

Nebraska Ornithologists' Union— E. H. Jones, secretary, 
Dunbar. 

New Jersey State Sportsmen's Association— Marshall Her- 
rington, secretary, Belgrove drive, Arlington, N. J. 

New York Association for the Protection of Game— Robert 

B. Lawrence, secretary; 76 Williams street. New York. 

New York Fish, Game and Forest League— Ernest G. Gould, 
secretary, Seneca Falls. 

North Dakota State Sportsmen's Association— G. E. Car- 
penter, secretary, .Fargo. 

(Ohio) Cuvier Club of Cincinnati— W. J. Lawler, secretary, 
1380 Myrtle avenue, Cincinnati. 

Ohio Fish and Game Protective Association— George C. 
Blankner, secretary, Columbus. 

Oklahoma Territorial Sportsmen's Association— J. B. Wall, 
secretary, Ardmore. 

Oregon Fish and Game Association— A. E. Gebhardt, secre- 
tary, Portland. 

(Oregon) John Burroughs Bird Society— Clarence H. Gilbert, 
secretary, 1346 Yamhill street, Portland. 

Sportsmen's Association of the Northwest— H. L. Mercians, 
secretary, Portland, Ore. 

Pennsylvania State Sportsmen's Association— J. M. Runk, 
secretary, Chambersburg. 

(Pennsylvania) Delaware Valley Ornithological Club— Wil- 
liam H. Evans, secretary, 56 North Front street, Philadelphia!. 



36S AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

(South CarQlina) Western Carolina Game Protective Associa- 
tion—Charles F. Schwing, secretary, Greenville. 

South Dakota Stale Sportsmen's Association— E. E. Aney, 
secretary, Springfield. 

Texas Game Protective Association— Turner E. Hubby, sec- 
retary, Waco. * 

Texas State Sportsmen's Association— George Tucker, sec- 
retary, Brenham. 

Utah State Fish and Game Protective Association— Georgre 
D. Alder, secretary, Salt Lake City. 

Vermont Bird Club— George H. Ross, secretary, Rutland. 

Vermont Fish and Game League— B. T. Bradley, secretary, 
Swanton. 

Eastern Shore Game Protective Association of Virginia- 
Thomas W. Blackstone, secretary, Accomac. 

West Virginia State Sportsmen's Association— Edward O. 
Bower, secretary, Sistersvllle. 

Wisconsin Game Protective Association— August Plambeck, 
secretary, Milwaukee. 

Dominion of Canada Trap Shooting and Game Protective 
Association— G. Easdale, secretary, Ottawa. 

Province of Quebec Association for the Protection of Fish 
and Game— William J. Cleghorn, secretary, 4460 Sherbrook street, 
Montreal. 

Sportsmen's Fish and Game Protective Association of the 
Province of Quebec— E. T. D. Chambers, secretary, Quebec. 

FORESTRY ASSOCIATIONS. 
NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

American Forestry Association— Edward A. Bowers, secre- 
tary, New Haven, Ct. 

International Society of Arboriculture— J. P. Brown, secre- 
tary, Chicago. 

Society of American Foresters— George B. Seedworth, secre- 
tary, Washington, D. C. 

STATE ORGANIZATIONS. 

(Arizona) Salt River Valley Water Supply Protective Asso- 
ciation— H. M. Chapman, secretary. Phoenix. 

California Water and Forest Association— T. C. Priedlander, 
secretary, San li'rancisco. 

(California) Sierra Club— Prof. W. R. Dudley, Stanford Uni- 
versity. 

Colorado Forestry Association— Jabez Norman, secretary, 
Denver. 

Connecticut Forestry Association— Miss Mary Winslow, sec- 
retary, Weatogue. 

Massachusetts Forestry Association— Edwin A. Start, secre- 
tary, Boston. 

Michigan Forest, Game and Fish Protective Association— R. 
P. Alden, secretary, Saginaw. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 359 

Minnesota State Forestry Association— William T. Cox, sec- 
retary, Lowry. 

Nebraska Park and Forest Association— L. D. Stilson, secre- 
tary, York. 

(New Hampshire) Society for the Protection of New Hamp- 
shire Forests— Joseph T. Walker, secretary. Concord. 

(New York) Forestry, Water Storage and Manufacturing As- 
sociation of the State of New York. 

New York State Fish, Game and Forest League. 

(New York) Association for the Protection of the Adiron- 
dacks— Henry S. Harper, secretary. New York. 

North Carolina Forestry Association— W. W. Ashe, secre- 
tary. Chapel Hill. 

North Dakota State Sylvan Society— Miss Mary G. Buck, 
secretary, Lakota. 

Oregon Forestry Association— Martin W. Gorman, secretary, 
Portland. 

(Oregon) The Mazamas— Martin W. Gorman, secretary, Port- 
land. 

Pennsylvania Forestry Association— Mrs. John P. Lundly, 
secretary, Philadelphia. 

(Pennsylvania) Franklin Forestry Society— W. E. Bowers, 
secretary, Chambersburg. 

Tennessee Forest Association— L. C. Glenn, secretary, Van- 
derbllt University, Nashville. 

Utah Forestry Association— A. C. Nelson, secretary. Salt 
Lake City. 

Wyoming State Forest Association— W. C. Deming, secretary, 
Cheyenne. 

Washington Forestry Association— Edmond S. Meany, sec- 
retary, Seattle. 

HORTICULTURAL AND KINDRED SOCIETIES. 
NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

American Association of Nurserymen— G. C. Seager, secre- 
tary, Rochester, N. Y. 

American Carnation Society — Albert M. Herr, secretary, Lan- 
caster, Pa. 

American Cranberry Growers' Association— A. J. Rider, sec- 
retary, Hammonton, N J. 

American Fruit Growers' Association— J. C. Mangan, secre- 
tary. Bridge, Minn. 

American Pomological Society— Prof. John Craig, secretary, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

American Rose Society— Leonard Barron, secretary, 136 Lib- 
erty street. New York. 

Chrysanthemum Society of America— F. H. Lemon, secretary, 
Richmond, Md. 

Cider and Cider Vinegar Association of the Northwest- 
George Miltenburger, secretary, St. Louis, Mo. 

Eastern Nurserymen's Association— William Pitkin, secre- 
tary-treasurer, Rochester, N. Y. 



360 AMERICAN AGRlCtJLTUKIST 

Farmers' Club of American Institute, Horticultural Section-^ 
Leonard Barron, secretary, 136 Liberty street. New York. 

Mississippi Valley Apple Growers' Association— James Hand- 
ly, secretary, Quincy,. 111. 

Missouri Valley Horticultural Society— Mrs. Harriet E. 
Chandler, secretary, Argentine, Kan. 

National Apple Shippers' Association— A. Warren Patch, sec- 
retary, Boston, Mass. 

Northwest Fruit Growers' Association— C. J. Sensel, secre- 
tary, Boise, Ida. 

Peninsula Horticultural Society— Wesley Webb, secretary, 
Dover, Del. 

Society of American Florists and Ornamental Horticulturists 
—William J. Stewart, secretary, Boston, Mass. 

Southern Nurserymen's Association— Charles T. Smith, secre- 
tary and treasurer. Concord, Ga. 

Western Association of Wholesale Nurserymen— B. J. Hol- 
man, secretary, Leavenworth, Kan. 

STATE ORGANIZATIONS. 

Arkansas State Horticultural Society— Ernest Walker, secre- 
tarv Favetteville 

California State Floral Society— Mrs. H. P. Tricon, secretary, 
814 Grove street, San Francisco. 

Colorado State Horticultural Society— George E. Richard- 
son, secretary, Alcott. 

Connecticut Pomological Society— H. C. C. Miles, secretary, 
Milford. 

Connecticut Horticultural Society— L. H. Mead, secretary, 
Hartford. 

Florida State Horticultural Society— Stephen Powers, secre- 
tarv Jacksonville. 

Georgia State Horticultural Society— Charles T. Smith, sec- 
retary, Concord. 

Idaho State Horticultural Society— J. R. Field, secretary, 
New Plymouth. 

Illinois State Horticultural Society— L. R. Bryant, secretary, 
Princeton. 

Indiana Horticultural Society— W. B. Flick, secretary, Law- 
rence. 

Iowa State Horticultural Society— Wesley Greene, secretary, 
Davenport. 

Kansas State Horticultural Society— William H. Barnes, sec- 
retary, Topeka. 

Kentucky State Horticultural Society— J. C. Hawes, secre- 
tary, Buechel. 

Maine Slate Pomological Society— D. ,H. Knowlton, secre- 
tary, Farmington. 

Maryland State Horticultural Society— J. B. S. Norton, sec- 
retary. College Park. 

Massachusetts Fruit Growers' Association— Prof. S. T. May- 
nard, secretary, Northboro. 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society— William P. Rich, sec- 
retary, Boston. 



TJJAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 361 

Michigan State Horticultural Society— E. Bassett, secretary, 
Pennville. 

Minnesota State Horticultural Society— A. W. Latham, sec- 
retary, Minneapolis. 

Missouri State Horticultural Society— L. A. Goodman, sec- 
retary, Kansas City. 

Montana State Horticultural Society—C. W. H. Heldeman, 
secretary, Missoula. 

Nebraska State Horticultural Society— L. M. Russell, secre- 
tary, Lincoln. 

New Hampshire Horticultural Society— W. P. Baker, sec- 
retary, Qulncy. 

New Jersey State Horticultural Society— Henry I. Budd, sec- 
retary^ Mount Holly. 

New Mexico Horticultural Society— Jose D, Sena, Santa Fe. 

New York State Fruit Growers* Association— F. E. Dawley, 
secretary, Fayetteville. 

Horticultural Society of New Tork— Leonard Barron, secre- 
tary, 136 Liberty street. New York. 

North Carolina State Horticultural Society— H. H, Hume, 
secretary, Raleigh. 

Ohio State Horticultural Society— E. M. Woodard, secre- 
tary, Willoughby. 

Oklahoma Horticultural Society^-J. B. Thoburn, secretary, 
Gruthrle. 

Oregon State Horticultural Society— E. R. Lake, secretary, 
Corvallis. 

Pennsylvania Horticultural Society— David Rust, secretary, 
Philadelphia. 

Pennsylvania State Horticultural Association— Enos B. Engle, 
secretary, Waynesboro. 

Rhode Island Horticultural Society— Charles W. Smith, sec- 
retary, Providence. 

South Carolina State Horticultural Society— Charles E. Sham- 
blin, secretary, Clemson College. 

South Dakota State Horticultural Society— N. E. Hansen, 
secretary, Brookings. 

Texas State Horticultural Society— Samuel H. Dixon, sec-, 
retary, Houston. 

Vermont Horticultural Society— William Stuart, secretary 
and treasurer, Burlington. 

Virgrlnia— State Horticultural Society— S. L. Lupton, secre- 
tary, Winchester. 

Washington State Horticultural Society— C. A. Tommson, 
secretary, Tacoma. 

West Virginia State Horticultural Society— Fred E. Brooks, 
secretary, Morgantown. 

Wisconsin State Horticultural Society— J. L. Herbst, secre- 
tary, Sparta. 

Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers' Association— W. H. 
Pitch, secretary, Cranmoor. 



In writing to the advertiser say: *'I saw your adv in one of 
the old reliable American Agriculturist weeklies." 



362 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

BEEKEEPERS' ASSOCIATIONS. 

National Beekeepers' Association— George W. York, secretary, 
Chicago, 111. 

California State Beekeepers* Association— F. E. Wells, sec- 
retary, Selma. 

Colorado Honey Producers' Association— Frank Ranchfus, 
secretary, Denver. 

Colorado State Beekeepers' Association— H. C. Moorehouse, 
secretary; Boulder. 

Connecticut Beekeepers' Association. 

Idaho State Beekeepers' Association— F. R. Fouch, secretary, 
Roswell. 

Illinois State Beekeepers' Association— James A. Stone, sec- 
retary, Springfield. 

Eastern Iowa Beekeepers' Association— W. A. Hay, secre- 
tary, Anamosa. 

Michigan State Beekeepers' Association— E. B. Tyrell, sec- 
retary, Davison. 

Minnesota State Beekeepers' Association— Mrs. W. S. Win- 
gate, secretary, Station F, Minneapolis. 

Missouri State Beekeepers' Association— W. T. Carey, secre- 
tary, Wakenda. 

Nebraska Beekeepers' Association. 

New Jersey Beekeepers' Association— George N. Wanser, sec- 
retary, Crawford. 

New York State Association of Beekeepers' Societies— C. B. 
Howard, secretary, Romulus. 

New York State Beekeepers' Association— J. H. Knicker- 
bocker, secretary. Pleasant Valley. 

Northeastern Ohio and Northwestern Pennsylvania Bee- 
keepers' Association— t3d ward Jolley, secretary, Franklin, Pa. 

South Dakota State Beekeepers' Association. 

Southern East Tennessee Beekeepers' Association— W. J. 
Copeland, secretary, Fetzertown. 

North Texas Beekeepers' Association— J. N. Hunter, secre- 
tary. Lake Creek. 

Utah Beekeepers' Association— T. N. Elliott, secretary, Salt 
Lake City. 

Vermont Beekeepers' Association— W. A. Larabee. secretary, 
Shoreham. 

Washington State Beekeepers' Association— L. K. Freeman, 
secretary. North Yakima. 

Wisconsin State Beekeepers' Association— Gus Dittmer, sec- 
retary, Augusta. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. 

National officers— Master, Aaron Jones, South Bend, Ind.; 
overseer, T. C. Atkeson, Morgantown, W. Va.; lecturer, N. J. 
Bachelder, Concord, N. H. ; treasurer, Mrs. Eva S. McDowell. 
Rome, N. Y.; secretary, C. M. Freeman, Tippecanoe City. Q.; 
executive committee. E. B. Norris, chairman, Sodus, N. Y.; C. 
J. Bell, secretary. East Hardwick, Vt.; F. A. Derthick, Mantua, 
O. ; Aaron Jones, ex officio, South Bend, Ind. 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC S<3 

The PresidentiaJ Election 

BLECTOBAL AND POPULAB VOTES, PLUBALITIES, NUMBEB OF 

00N6BES8MEN OF EACH PABTT ELECTED IN 

EACH STATE, AND NAMES OF NEW 

GOVEBNOB8 ELECTED. 



The national election, held November 8, 1904, resulted in the 
overwhelming victory of Theodore Roosevelt and Charles W. 
Fairbanks, the republican candidates for president and vice- 
president respectively, over the democratic candidates, Alton B. 
Parker and Henry G. Davis, by a plurality of more than 2,500,000 
out of a popular vote of over 13,000,000. This plurality was the 
largest ever obtained by a party in the United States, the near- 
est approach to it being in the election |Of 1872^* when Horace 
Greeley was defeated by 763,007 votes out of a total of about 
6,500,000 cast. Roosevelt's vote was more than 400,000 in excess of 
the vote cast for McKinley ifi 1900, while there were 1,200,000 
votes less cast for Parker than for Bryan. 

In only three states— Georgia, Mississippi and South Caro- 
lina — was Parker's vote larger than Bryan's, and Roosevelt's 
smaller than McKinley's. In eight states— Alabama, Kentucky, 
Maine, Maryland, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Vir- 
grinia— both Parker and Roosevelt received fewer votes than 
Bryan and McKinley respectively. In Delaware, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island and West Virginia, Parker's vote was larger than 
Bryan's and Roosevelt's larger than McKinley's. In the other 30, 
Roosevelt had more votes than McKinley, and Parker less votes 
than Bryan. In only 10 of these, however— Connecticut, Idaho, 
Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Utah, Vermont, 
Washington and Wyoming— did Roosevelt's gain over the Mc- 
Kinley vote exceed Parker's loss from the Bryan vote. 

In the electoral college, Roosevelt received 336 votes; Parker 
only 140. Missouri, which usually goes democratic, at this 
election cast its 18 electoral votes for Roosevelt, and while Mary- 
land partly made up for this loss by giving Parker seven of its 
eight electoral votes, Parker's vote was still 11 short of the total 
belonging to the solid south. In the latter state the one repub- 
lican elector received a higher vote than any of the democratic 
electors, which gave that state to Roosevelt by popular vote. 
The vote cast for the third parties— meaning the Debs socialists, 
prohibitionists, populists and the socialist-labor party— was un- 
usually large, amounting to almost 800,000, which is over 400,000 
in excess of that received by these parties in 1900. Debs led the 
minor parties with 400,640 votes, against 87,814 in 1900. The tables 
given herewith were compiled especially for the American Agri- 
culturist Year Book from the official report received from the 
secretary of state In each of the respective states. 



5^ AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

COMPARISON OF ELECTION RESULTS IN 1904 AND 1900. 

GongreBsmen Electoral votes 

'69th 68th 1904 1900 

State Dem. Rep. Dem. Rep. Dem. Rep. L?em. Rep. 

Alabama ""9 — 9 — Tl ^ 11 ^ 

Arkansas 7 — 7 — 9 — 8 — 

California — 8 3 5 — 10 — 9 

Colorado — 3 1 2 — 5 4 .— 

Connecticut — 5 — 5 — 7 — 6 

Delaware — 1 1 — — 3 — 3 

Florida 3 — 3 — 5 — 4 — 

Georgia 11 — 11 — 13 — 13 — 

Idaho _i_i_33 — 

Illinois 1 24 8 17 — 27 — 24 

Indiana 2 11 4 9 — 15 — 15 

Iowa — 11 1 10 — 13 — 13 

Kansas — 8 — 8 — 10 — 10 

Kentucky ....; 9 2 10 1 13 — 13 — 

Louisiana 7 — 7 — 9 — 8 — 

Maine — 4.— 4 — 6 — 6 

Maryland 3 3 2 4 7 1 — 8 

Massachusetts 3 11 4 10 — 16 — 15 

Michigan — 12 1 11 — 14 — 14 

Minnesota — 9 1 8 — 11 — 9 

Mississippi 8 — 8 — 10 — 9 — 

Missouri 7 9 15 1 — 18 17 — 

Montana — 1 — 1 — 3 3 — 

Nebraska — 6 1 5 — 8. — 8 

Nevada 1 — 1 — — 3 3 — 

New Hampshire — 2 — 2 — 4 — 4 

New Jersey 1 9 3 7 — 12 — 10 

New York 11 26 16 20 — 39 — 36 

North Carolina 9 1 10 — 12 — U — 

North Dakota — 2 — 2 — 4 — 3 

Ohio 1 20 4 16 — 23 — 23 

Oregon — 2 — 2 — 4 — 4 

Pennsylvania 1 31 4 27 — 34 — 32 

Rhode Island 1 1 1 1 — 4 — 4 

South Carolina 7 — 7 — 9 — 9 — 

South Dakota — 2 — 2 — 4 — 4 

Tennessee 8 2 8 2 12 — 12 — 

Texas 16 — 16 — 18 — 15 — 

Utah — 1—1—3—3 

Vermont — 2 — 2 — 4 — 4 

Virginia 9 1 9 1 12 — 12 — 

Washington — 3 — 3 — 5 — 4 

West Virginia — 5 — 5 — 7 — 6 

Wisconsin 1 10 1 10 — 13 — 12 

Wyoming — 1 — 1 — 3 — 3 

Total 136 250 177 206 140 336 155 292 



' 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 365 

POPULAR VOTE FOR PRESIDENT, 1904. 



Cor- 

Boosevtflt, Parker, Swallow, Debs, WatBon. regan, 

ytate Bep . Dem, Pro. Soc. Pop. 8oc« tab. 

Alabama 22,472 . 79,857 612 853 5,051 — 

Arkansas 46,860 64,434 993 1,816 2,318 — 

California 305.226 89,294 7,380 29,536 — — 

Colorado 134,687 100,105 3,438 4,304 824 336 

Connecticut 111.089 72.809 1,506 4,543 495 575 

Delaware 23,714 19,360 607 146 51 — 

Florida 8.314 27,046 5 2,336 1,605 — 

Georgia 24,003 83.472 685 197 22.635 — 

Idaho 47,7*] 18,480 1,013 4,949 353 — 

lllihois 632,645 327,606 37,770 69,225 6,725 4,698 

Indiana 368,289 274,345 23,496 12,013 2.444 1,598 

Iowa 307,907 149,141 11,601 14,847 2,207 — 

Kansas 212,955 86,174 7,306 15,869 6,253 — 

Kentucky 205.277 217.170 6,609 3,602 2,511 596 

Louisiana 5,205 47J08 — 995 — — 

Malhe 64,437 27,630 1,510 2.106 338 — 

Maryland 109.497 109.446 3,034 2.247 — — 

Massachusetts 257,822 165,746 4.279 13,591 1,296 2,359 

Michigan 364,957 135,.^2 13,441 8,952 1,159 1,036 

Minnesota 216,651 55,187 6,253 11,692 2,103 974 

Mississippi 3,168 53,280 — 392 1,424 — 

Missouri 321.447 295,847 7,181 13,008 4.226 1.875 

Montana 34.932 21.773 ^35 6,676 1,520 208 

Nebraska 138,558 52.921 6,323 7,412 20,518 — 

Nevada 6,867 3,982 — 925 344 — 

New Hampshire 54,179 33,995 749 1,090 83 — 

New Jersey 245,138 164,550 6,838 9,582 3,704 2,676 

New York 859,533 683,981 20,787 36,883 7,459 9.127 

North Carolina 82,442 124,121 361 124 819 — 

North Dakota 52,595 14,253 137 207 163 — 

Ohio 600.095 344,675 19.339 36,260 1,392 2,633 

Oregon 60,455 17,521 3,806 7,619 753 — 

Pennsylvania 840,949 335,430 33,717 21,863 — 2,211 

Rhode Island 41,605 24,839 768 956 — 488 

South Carolina 22,271 52,863 — 22 1 — 

South Dakota 72,083 21,969 2,965 3,138 1,248 — 

Tennessee 105,369 131,653 1,889 1,353 2.491 — 

Texas 51,242 167,200 4,292 2.791 8.062 421 

Utah 62,446 33,413 — 5,767 46 — 

Vermont 40,459 9,777 792 854 — — 

Virginia 46,450 80,638 1,382 56 359 218 

Washington 101,504 28,098 3,229 9,975 669 1,592 

West Virginia 132,608 100,850 4,413 1,572 99 — 

Wisconsin 280,164 124,107 9,770 28,220 530 223 

Wyoming 20,489 8.930 — 1,077 208 — 

Total 7,646,838 5,081,068 255,319 400,640 107,037 33,943 



366 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

PRESIDENTIAL PLURALITIES. 



1904 s , 1900 



^ ^^^ Roosevelt Tarker McKlnley Bryan 

Alabama _ 57,485 — 41,619 

Arkansas — 17,574 _ 36,342 

California 115,932 * — 39.770 — 

Colorado 34,582 — — 29,661 

Connecticut 38,180 — 28,570 — 

Delaware 4,354 — 3,671 — 

Florida _ 18,732 — 20.693 

Georgia — 59,469 — 46,665 

Idaho 29,303 — — 2.216 

Illinois 305,039 — 94,924 — 

Indiana 93.944 — 26,479 — 

Iowa 158,766 — 98,606 — 

Kansas 125,781 — -23.354 — 

Kentucky — 11,893 — 7,975 

Louisiana — 42,503 — 39,438 

Maine 36,807 — 28,613 — 

Maryland 51 — 13,941 — 

Massachusetts 92,076 — 81,S69 — 

Michigan 229,565 — 104,584 — 

Minnesota ..." 161,464 — 77,560 — 

Mississippi , — 50,112 — 45,953 

Missouri 25,600 — — 37,830 

Montana 13,159 — — 11,773 

Nebraska 85,637 — 7.822 — 

Nevada 2,885 — — 2,498 

New Hampshire 20,184 — 19,314 — 

New Jersey 80,588 — 56,899 — 

New York 175,552 — 143,606 — 

North Carolina — 41,679 — 24,671 

North Dakota 38,342 — 15,372 — 

Ohio 255,420 — 69,036 — 

Oregon 42,934 — 13,141 — 

Pennsylvania 505,519 — 288,433 — 

Rhode Island 16,766 — *13,972 — 

South Carolina — 30,592 — 43,657 

South Dakota 50,114 — 14,986 — 

Tennessee — 26,284 — 23,557 

Texas — 115,958 — 146,164 

Utah 29,033 — 2,133 — 

Vermont 30,582 — 29,719 — 

Virginia — 34,188 — 30,215 

Washington 73,406 — 12,623 — 

West Virginia 31,758 — 21,022 — 

Wisconsin 156,057 — 106,581 — 

Wyoming 11,559 — 4.318 — 

Total 3,050,939 506,469 1,440,918 590,927 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 367 

GOVERNORS ELECTED NOVEMBER 8, 1904. 



^taie Name Party Term begins 

Colorado Alva Adams Democrat Jan 10, '05 

Connecticut Henry Roberts Republican Jan i, '05 

Delaware Preston Lea Republican Jan 19, '05 

Florida Napoleon B. Broward Democrat Jan 2, '05 

Idaho Prank R. Gooding Republican Jan 2, '05 

Illinois Charles S. Deneen Republican Jan 11, '05 

Indiana J. Prank Hanley Republican Jan 2, '05 

Kansas Edward W. Hoch Republican Jan 11, '05 

Massachusetts William L. Douglas Democrat Jan 5, '05 

Michigan Fred M. Warner Republican Jan 2, '05 

Minnesota John A. Johnson Democrat Jan 2, '05 

Missouri J. W. Polk Democrat Jan 2, '05 

Montana J. K. Toole Democrat Jan 4, '05 

Nebraska John H. Mickey Republican Jan 6, '05 

Kew Hampshire ...John McLane Republican Jan 2, '05 

Kew Jersey Edward C. Stokes Republican Jan 2, '05 

Kew York Prank W. HIgglns Republican Jan 2, '05 

North Carolina ....Robert D. Glenn Democrat Jan 2, '05 

North Dakota ...... E. Y. Sarles Republican Jan 2, '05 

Rhode Island George P. Utter Republican Jan 2, '05 

South Carolina D. C. Heyward Democrat Jan 2, '05 

South pakota Samuel H. Elrod Republican Jan 3, '05 

Tennessee James B. Prazier Democrat Jan 15, '05 

Texas S. W. Lanham Democrat Jan 12, '05 

iTtah John C. Cutler Republican Jan 2, '05 

Washington A. B. Mead Republican Jan 14, '05 

West Virginia Wm. M. O. Dawson Republican Mar 4, '05 

Wisconsin Robert M. LaPoUette Republican Jan 2, '06 

Wyoming Bryan B. Brooks Republican Nov 9, '04 

RATIO OP REPRESENTATION IN THE HOUSE OF REP- 
RESENTATIVES. • 

From 171»3 to 1905, as provided by constitution 30,000 

Prom 1793 to 1803, based on census of 1790 33,000 

Prom 1803 to 1813, based on census of 1800 33,000 

Prom 1813 to 1823, based on census of 1810 36,000 

Prom 1823 to 1833, based on census of 1820 40,000 

Prom 1833 to 1843, based on census of 1830 47,700 

Prom 1843 to 1853, based on census of 1840 70,680 

Prom 1853 to 1863, based on census of 1850 93,420 

Prom 1868 to 1873, based on census of 1860 127.381 

Prom 1873 to 1883, based on census of 1870 131,425 

Prom 1888 to 1893, based on census of 1880 151,912 

Protn 1893 to 1903, based on census of 1890 ^ 173,901 

From 1903 to 1905. based on census of 1900 194,182 



368 AMERICAN AGMCULTtJRlST 

QUALIFICATIONS FOR VOTING. 

In all the states, except four, the right to vote at general 
elections Is restricted to males of 21 years of age and upward. 
Women are entitled to vote at school elections in several states. 
They are entitled by local law to full suffrage in the states of 
Colorado, Idaho, Utah and Wyoming. 

Previous residence requhed ~~ ' " 
State In lu • In lii Registration and requirements 
state county town precinct as to citizenship 

♦Ala ly 3in 30 d '30 d Yes; citizen of uVsr or alien 

who has declared intention. 

•Ark ly 6 m 30 d 30 d No; citizen of U. S. or alien 

who has declared intention. 

♦Cal ly 90 d 30 y 30 d Yes; citizen by nativity. 

naturalization or treaty, ef- 
fected 90 days before election. 

♦Col 6 m 90 d 30 d 10 d Yes; citizen or alien who 

has declared Intention 4 mos. 
prior to election, either sex. 

♦Ct ly 3m 6m 30d Yes; citizen of U. S. who 

reads constitution or statutes. 

•Df^l ly 3m Im 30d Yes; citizen and paying 

„, . . o ^ county tax after age 22. 

Fla ly 6 m — 8d Yes; citizen of U. S. or alien 

who has declared intention, 

_, ^ ^ paid capitation tax two yrs. 

Ga ly 6m — — Yes; citizen of U. S. who 

has^paid all his taxes since 
^^ ^ „ IS"*?, except soldier or sailor. 

I^^ 6 m 30 d 3 m — Yes; citizen of U. S., male 

or fem3,le 

•J»- 1 y JO d 30 d 30 d Yes ; same as Florida.e 

•In^ 6 m 60 d 60 d 30 d No; citizen of U. S. or alien 

who has declared Intention 
and resided one year in U. S. 
„ ^^ ^ and six months In state. 

•la 6 m 60 d — — Cities of 3500; same as Pla. 

*Kan 6 m 30 d 30 d 30 d Cities of 1st and 2d class; 

citizen of U. S. or alien who 
«^ , «^ , has declared intention.a 

•Ky ly 6m 60d 60d Cities of 3000; same as Fla 

La 2y ly — 6m Yes; citizens who can read 

and write, or who pay taxes 
on $300 worth of property, as- 
sessed in their own names, 
or whose father or grand- 
father was qualified to vote 
on Jan. 1, 1867. 

♦Me 3 m 3 m 3 m 3 m Towns of 500; same as Flor- 

ida, and citizens who had the 
right to vote on Jan. 4, 1893, 
who were 60 years of age on 
that date, and can read con- 
stitution. 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



869 



J'revlous reRldeuce required 
State In In In In 

_ state county town preclnct_ 

♦Mdr'.y....! y 6m 6 m — 

•Mass ly 6m 6m 6rh 



•Mich 6m20d 20d 20d 



Registration and requirements 
as to citizenship 



*Mlnn ly 10 d 10 d 10 d 



•Miss 2 y ly 1 y W y 



•Mo ly 60 d 60 d 60 d 



♦Mont ly 30d 30d 30d 

•N>b 6 m 40 d 10 d 10 d 



•Npv 6 m 30 d 30 d 30 d 

•N. :i fi m — 6 m 6 m. 

•N. J 1 y 5 m — — 

•N. Y 1 y 4 m 3«d 30 d 



N. C ly 6m 4m 4m 

♦N. D 1 y 6 m — 90 d 



♦Ohio 1 y 30 d 20 d 20 d 

Ore 6 m — — — 

Pa lyt — — 2m 

•R. I ly — 6m — 



Yes; same as Florida. 

\es; citizen who can read 
constitution Jn Engrlish and 
write his name.f 

Yes ; citizen or •inhabitant 
who has declared intention 
under U. S. laws six months 
before election and lived in 
state 2% years.e 

Yes; citizen of U. S. or alien 
who has declared intention, 
and civilized Indians. 

Yes; citizen of U. S. who 
can read or understand con- 
stitution, after Jan 1, 1892. 

Cities of 100,000; citizen of 
U. S. or alien who has de-. 
clared intention not less than 
one year or more than five 
before offeringr to vote. 

Yes; same as Florida. e 

Cities of 7000; citizen of U. 
S. or alien who has declared 
intention 30 days prior to 
election.e • 

Yes; same as Florida. 

No; same as Florida. e 

Yes; same as Florida. 

Cities of 5000; same as Cal- 
ifornia, except that women 
may. vote at villagre elections 
on questions relatingr to tax 
or assessment providingr they 
own property in the village. 

Yes; same as Florida. 

Towns of 800; citizen of U. 
S., alien who has declared 
intention one year, and civ- 
ilized Indian.! e 

Cities of 1st and 2d class; 
same as Montana, e 

Yes; citizen of U.S. or alien 
who has declared intention 
one year preceding election. 

Yes; citizen of U.S. at least 
one month, and if 22 years 
old or more must have paid 
tax within two years. 
Non-taxpayers; same asFla. 



r/7r" 



■'V 



/,■ /, /•.■•' 



370 



AMERICAN AORICULTURIST 



Previous residence required 
ftato In In In In 

state county town precinct 



Begistfation and requirements 
as to citizenship 



S. C .2 y 1 y 4 m 4 m 



•S. D 6m§ 30 d 10 d 10 d 



♦Tenn — — — — 



•Tex ly 6 m — c 

♦Utah ly 4m 60d — 

•Vt ..ly — 3mfl — 

*Va ly 3 m 3 m 30 d 

♦Wash. ...ly 90 d 30 d 30 d 

♦W. Va. ..ly 60d — c 

♦Wis ly — 10 d 10 d 



♦Wyo ly 60 d — — 

Ariz ly 30d 30d 30d 



N. M 6m 3m 90 d 30 d 

Okla 6m 60d 60d 30d 



Yes; citizen by nativity or 
naturalization who can read 
and write any section of the 
constitution, and who has 
paid all taxes. 

Yes; citizen of tJ. S. or alien 
who has declared intention; 
civilized Indians.r 

Yes; citizen of U. S. who 
has paid poll tax of preced- 
ing year. 

Cities of 10,000; citizen of U. 
S. or alien who has declared 
intention. 

Yes; citizen, either sex. 

Freeman's oath; same as 
Florida except as to poll 
taxes. 

Yes; citizen of U. S. 

Precincts of 250 voters; citi- 
zen of U. S.c 

No; citizen of the state. 

Cities of 3000; citizen of U. 
S. or alien who has declared 
intention.e 

Yes; citizen of U. S., male 
and female. 

Yes; citizen of U. S. by na- 
tivity or orje who has de- 
clared Intention or elected to 
become a citizen under 1848 
and 1854 treaties with Mexico. 

Yes; same as Florida ex- 
cept as to poll taxes. 

No; same as North Dakota. 



♦Australian ballot low or a modifications of it in force, f In- 
dian must have severed tribal relations two years next preced- 
ing election. X Or, if, havinfir previously been a qualified elector 
or native, he shall have removed and returned, then six months. 
§ One year's residence In United States prior to erection required. 
a And females in school and city elections, h Clergymen are 
qualified after six months* residence in precinct, c Actual resi- 
dence in the precinct or district required, d Three months* resi- 
dence in the town required to vote for town representative and 
justice, c Women can vote in school elections. 

NATURALIZATION LAWS. 

The alien must declare upon oath, before a circuit op district 
court of the United States, or a district or supreme court of the 
territories, or a court of record of any of the states having com- 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 



371 



mon law jurisdiction, and a seal and clerk, two years at least 
prior to his admission, that it Is his bona flde intention to be- 
come a citizen of the United States, and to renounce forever all 
allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince or state, and par- 
ticularly to the one of which he may be at the time a citizen 
or subject. 

He must, at the time of his application to be admitted, de- 
clare on oath, before some one of the courts above specified, 
"that he will support the Constitution of the United States, 
and that he absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all 
allegiance and fidelity to every foreign prince, potentate, state 
or sovereignty, and particularly, by name, to the prince, poten- 
tate, state or sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or 
subject," which proceedings must be recorded by the clerk 
of the court. 

If it shall appear to the satisfaction of the court to which 
the alien has applied that he has resided continuously within 
the United States for at least five years, and within the state 
or territory where such court Is at the time held, one year at 
least; and that during that time "he has behaved as a man of 
' good mora] character, attached to the principles of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, and well disposed to the good 
order and happiness of the same," he will be admitted to 
citizenship. 

Tf the applicant has borne, any hereditary title or order of 
nobility, he must make an express renunciation of the same at 
the time of his application. 

SENATORS WHOSE TERMS OF SERVICE EXPIRE 

MARCH 3. 1905. 



Name and state Politics 

Aldrich, Nelson W., R. I R 

Ball, Lewis H., Del R 

Bard, Thomas R., Cal D 

Bate, William B., Tenn D 

Beveridge, A. J., Ind R 

Burrows, Julius C, Mich R 

Clapp, Moses E., Minn R 

Clark, Clarence D., Wyo R 

Cockrell, P. M., Mo D 

Culberson, Charles A., Tex...D 

Daniel, John W., Va D 

Depew, Chauncey M., N. Y...R 
Dietrich, Charles H., Neb....R 
Poster, A. G., Wash R 



Name and state Poli tics 

Gibson, Paris, Mont D 

Hale, Eugene, Me R 

Hawley, Joseph R., Ct R 

Kean, John, N. J R 

Kearns, Thomas, Utah R 

Lodge, Henry C, Mass R 

McComas, L. E., Md R 

McCumber, P. J., N. D R 

♦Money, H. D., Miss D 

Proctor, Redfleld, Vt R 

Quarlee, J. V., Wis R 

Scott, Nathan B., W. Va R 

Stewart, William M., Nev-.-.K 
Taaiaferro, J. P., Fla D 



•Renominated to succeed himself, August 6, 1903, for term 
ending March 3, 1911. 



372 AMBRICAN AGRICULiTURIST 

Close of the World's 



The Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis was brought 
to a close December 1, 1904, after a run of seven months. The 
fair was fully as well patronized as had been expected, the total 
attendance for the seven months amounting to 18.741,073, against 
2^,529,212 for six months of the Columbian exposition at Chicago 
in 1893. Although the figures for the St. Louis fair are the 
smaller, it should be remembered that that city has now not 
half as large a population as Chicago had 11 years ago. As for 
the financial side of the fair, the managers are thoroughly sat- 
isfied with the outcome, inasmuch as they realized enough to 
pay back the government loan of $4,600,000 and to settle all other 
claims against the association, which is about all that is hoped 
for In an exposition. The total receipts for admissions and con- 
(Sessions aggregated nearly $10,000,000. while in the case of the 
Chicago fair they amounted to $14,325,900. 

As for the exposition itself, it was remarkable more, per- 
haps, for its sifee than its quality. There was a lack of harmony 
m the architecture of the buildings, a thing in which the Co- 
lumbian exposition particularly excelled, and the scenic effects 
were not as striking as at Chicago, where there was a beauti- 
ful blending of the architectural with the natural in the shape 
of landscape gardening. The lagoons in a way made up for 
this, but had not quite the same charm. 

At the Centennial at Philadelphia in 1876, machinery was 
given the foremost display as being the branch of industry of 
growing prominence at the time, and at Chicago a special show- 
ing was made of electricity, railroads and mining. No one 
branch of industry was featured at the St. Louis fair, but this 
was made up for by the fine position accorded to education and 
social economy; in this respect the fair just closed surpassed all 
that have so far been held. Much care was exercised in the 
preparation of the transportation department, and the exhibits 
made were most interesting, particularly so was the display of 
locomotives, showing the development of that machine from the 
time of its earliest Invention to the latest examples. The Pike 
offered Itsf innumerable international attractions and interesting 
sights and diversions were to be found there. After all is said, 
however, it must be admitted that the St. Louis fair was not 
received with the enthusiasm from the press and the people 
that had been looked for and that it really deserved. The fair 
came too soon after the Chicago fair to receive its full share of 
appreciation. 



.^**«kM^«^^. 



We guarantee the reliability of every advertlsetuent In the 
American Agriculturist weeklies, and will make good any lofls 
which any subscriber may sustain, while his subscription lasts, 
by trusting any advertiser who may prove to be a deliberate 
swindler. 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 378 

National and State Officers 

NATIONAL OFFICERS. 

Salary 

President, Theodore Roosevelt of New York $50,000 

Vice-President, vacant. 8,000 

THE CABINET. 

Secretary of State, John Hay of Ohio. 
Secretary of Treasury, Leslie M. Shaw of Iowa. 
Secretary of War, William H. Taft of Ohio. 
Attorney-General, William H. Moody of Massachusetts. 
Postmaster-General, Robert J. Wynne of Pennsylvania. 
Secretary of Navy, Paul Morton of Illinois. 
Secretary of Interior, Ethan A. Hitchcock of Missouri. 
Secretary of Agriculture, James Wilson of Iowa. 
Secretary of* Commerce and Labor, Victor H. Metcalf of 
California. 
Each member of the Cabinet receives a salary of $8000. 

OUR STATES AND TERRITORIES. 

ALABAMA, "COTTON PLANTATION STATE." 

Governor. William D. Jelks $5,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Dr. R. M. Cunningham (per day) 4 

Secretary of State, J. T. Heflin 1,800 

Treasurer, J. Craig Smith 2,100 

ALASKA, "UNCLE SAM'S ICE-BOX." 

Governor, John G. Brady $5,000 

Surveyor-General and Secretary, William L. Dlstln 4,000 

ARIZONA, "THE SUNSE.T LAND." 

Governor, Alexander O. Brodle $3,000 

Secretary of State, Isaac T. Stoddard (and fees) 1,800 

Treasurer, Isaac M. Christy 2,500 

ARKANSAS, "THE BEAR STATE." 

Governor, Jeff Davis $3,000 

Secretary of State. O. C. Ludwig 2,250 

Treasurer, H. C. Tipton 2,250 

CALIFORNIA, "THE GOLDEN STATE." 

Governor, George C. Pardee $6,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Alden Anderson (per day) 10 

Secretary of State, C. F. Curry 3,000 



374 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

COLORADO, "THE CENTENNIAL STATE." 

Governor, Alva Adams $5,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Jesse F. McDonald 1,000 

Secretary of State, James Cowie 3,000 

CONNECTICUT, "LAND OF STEADY HABITS." 

Governor, Henry Roberts $4,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Rollin S. Woodruff 500 

Secretary of State, Theodore Bodenweln 1,500 

Treasurer, James P. Walsh 1,500 

DELAWARE, "THE DIAMOND STATE." 

Governor, Preston Lea $2,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, I. Thomas Parker (fees) — 

Treasurer, Thomas N. Rawlins (and fees) 1,450 

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

NATIONAL CAPITAL— WASHINGTON. 

Commissioner, Henry B. F. Macf arland $5,000 

Commissioner, Henry L. West 5,000 

Commissioner, Major John Biddle 5,000 

FLORIDA, "THE EVERGLADE STATE." 

Governor, Napoleon B. Broward $3,500 

Secretary of State, H. Clay Crawford 2,500 

Treasurer, W. V. Knott 2,500 

GEORGIA, "THE EMPIRE STATE OF THE SOUTH." 

Governor, J. M. Terrell $5,000 

Secretary of State, Philip Cook 2,000 

Treasurer, Robert E. Park 2,000 

IDAHO, "THE GEM OF THE MOUNTAINS." 

Governor, Frank R. Gooding $5,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, B. L. Steeves — 

Secretary of State, Will H. Gibson 2,400 

ILLINOIS, "THE PRAIRIE STATE." 

Governor, Charles S. Deneen $6,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, L. Y. Sherman 1,000 

Secretary of State, James A. Rose 3,500 

Treasurer, Len Small — 3,500 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 375 

INDIANA, "THE HOOSIER STATE." 

Governor, J. Frank Hanley $5,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Hugh T. Miller 1,000 

Secretary- of State, Daniel E. Storms 6,500 

Treasurer, Nathaniel U. Hill 6.500 

INDIAN TERRITORY. 

Governor, T. M. Bufflngton $1,500 

Lieutenant-Governor, Washington Swimmer 600 

Secretary of State, J. T. Parks l.OCO 

IOWA, "THE HAWKEYE STATE." 

Governor, Albert B. Cummins -....$5,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, John HerHott (per session) 1,100 

Secretary of State, William B. Martin 2,200 

Treasurer, G. S. Gilbertson 2,200 

KANSAS, "THE SUNFLOWER STATE." 

Governor, Edward W. Hoch $3,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, D. J. Hanna 1,000 

Secretary of State, J. R. Burrow 2.500 

Treasurer, T. T. Kelly 2,500 

KENTUCKY, "THE BLUE GRASS STATE." 

Governor, J. C. W. Beckham $6,500 

Lieutenant-Governor, William P. Thorne (per day) 5 

Secretary of State, H. V. McChesney 3,000 

Treasurer, Henry M. Bosworth 3,600 

LOUISIANA, "THE PELICAN STATE." 

Governor, Newton C. Blanchard (and house). $6,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Jared T. Landers 1,600 

Secretary of State, John T. Michel (and fees) 1,800 

Treasurer, James M. Smith 2,500 

MAINE, "THE PINE TREE STATE." 

Governor, William T. Cobb $2,000 

Secretary of State, Byron Boyd 1,500 

Treasurer, Oramandel Smith 2,000 

MARYLAND, "THE OLD LINE STATE." 

Governor, John Walter Smith $4,600 

Secretary of State, Wilfred Bateman 2,000 

Treasurer, Murray Vandiver 2,500 



^76 AMBJRICAN AGRICUt.TURIST 

MASSACHUSETTS, "THE BAY STATE." 

Governor, William L. Douglas , $8 000 

Weu tenant-Governor, Curtis Ouild, Jr *'..'............... 2,000 

Secretary of State, William M. OUn 3,600 

Auditor, Henry E. Turner ,, , 3,800 

Treasurer, Arthur B. Chapin 5,000 

MICHIGAN, "THE WOLVERINE STATE." 

Governor, Fred M. Warner $4,000 

IJeutenant-Governor, Alexander Maitland ,,. — 

Secretary of State, George A. Prescott 800 

MINNESOTA, "THE NORTH STAR STATE." 

Governor, John A. Johnson .,.,,., , > i . t • t .,....,,»* t » t »$5,C00 

Lieutenant-Governor, Ray W. Jones ,,,,., .»..*# — 

Secretary of State, Peter E. Hanson »...» 8.B00 

MISSISSIPPI, "THE? BAYOU STATE." 

Governor, J. K. Vardaman ,, $3,500 

Secretary of State, J. W. Power . . , , — 

Treasurer, W. J. Miller — 

MISSOURI, *'THB BULLION STATE." 

Governor, J. W. Folk ,,,,,, $5,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, J. C. McKinley 1,000 

(and $7 per diem during sessions) 
Secretary of State, J. B. Swanger , 3,000 

MONTANA, "THE BONANZA STATE." 

Governor, J. K. Toole , $5,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, E. C. Norris (per day) 10 

§©cretary of State, A. N. Yoder , . . , 3,Q00 
reasurer, J. B. Rice , 3.000 

NEBRASKA, "THE ANTELOPE STATE." 

Governor, John H. Mickey $2,500 

Lieutenant-Governor, Edmund G. McGilton (per diem) — 

3i0oretary of State, A. Galusha 2,000 

Treasurer, Peter Mortensen 2,500 

NEVADA, "THE SAGE BRUSH STATE." 

Governor, John Sparkes $4,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Lemuel Allen 1,900 

Secretary of State, W. G. Douglass 2,400 

Treasurer, D. M. Ryan , , 2,400 



TBAK BOOK AND ALMANAC 877 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. "THE GRANITE STATE." 

Oovemof , John McLane $2,000 

Secretary of State, Edward N. Pearson 3,000 

Treasurer, Solon A. Carter 2,500 

NEW JERSEY, "THE GARDEN STATE." 

Gkjvernor, Edward C. Stokes $10,000 

Secretary of State, S. D. Dickinson 6,000 

Controller, J. Willard Morgran 6,000 

Treasurer, Frank O. Brig^^ 6,000 

NEW MEXICO, "THE LAND OP SUNSHINE." 

Governor, Migruel A. Otero $3,000 

Lieut. -Governor and Secretary of State, J. W. Raynolds... 1,800 
Treasurer. J. H. Vaughn 3,000 

NEW YORK, "THE EMPIRE STATE." 



/ 



Gtovernor, Frank W. Higglns $:'0,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Matthew Linn Bruce 5,000 

Secretary of State, Jolrti F. O'Brien 5,000 

Controller, Otto Kelsey 6,000 

Treasurer, John Wallenmeier, Jr 5,000 

Attorney-General, John Cunneen 5,000 

NORTH CAROLINA, "THE OLD NORTH STATE." 

Governor, Robert D. Glenn $4,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, F. D. Winston (per day) 6 

Secretary of State, J. Bryan Grimes (and fees) 2,000 

Treasurer, B. R. Lacy *.... 3,000 

NORTH DAKOTA, "THE SIOUX STATE." 

% Governor, E. Y. Sarles $3,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, David Bartlett 1,000 

Secretary of State, E. F. Porter 2,000 

Treasurer. A. Peterson 2,000 

OHIO. "THE BUCKEYE STATE." 

Governor, Myron T. Herrick $8,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, W. H. Harding 800 

Secretary of State, Lewis C. Laylin 4,000 

Treasurer, W. S. McKinnon 4,500 

OKLAHOMA, "THE BOOMERS' PARADISE." 

Governor, Thompson B. Ferguson $3,000 

Secretary of State, William Grimes — 

Treasurer, C. W. Rambo — 



378 AMERICAN AGRICULTURIST 

OREGON, "THE WEBFOOT STATE." 

Governor, George E. Chamberlain $1,500 

Secretary of State and Auditor, F. I. Dunbar 1.500 

Treasurer, Charles S. Moore gOO 

PENNSYLVANIA. "THE KEYSTONE STATE." 

Governor, Samuel W. Pennypacker $10,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, William M. Brown 5,000 

Secretary of State, Frank M. Fuller (an(f fees) 4.000 

Auditor-Gereral, E. B. Hardenbergh 4,000 

Treasurer, W. L. Mathues 8,000 

Attorney-General, Hampton L. Carson (and fees) 3,000 

Secretary Board of Agriculture, N. B. Critchfield 3,000 

RHODE ISLAND, "LITTLE RHODY." 

Governor, George P. Utter $3,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, F. H. Jackson 500 

Secretary of State, Charles P. Bennett 3,500 

Treasurer, Walter A. Read 2,500 

SOUTH CAROLINA, "THE PALMETTO STATE." 

Governor, D. C. Heyward $3,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, John T. Sloan (per day) 8 

Secretary of State, Jesse T. Gantt ' 1,900 

Controller, A. W. Jones 1.900 

Treasurer, R. H. Jennings 1 ,900 

SOUTH DAKOTA, "THE COYOTE STATE." 

Governor, Samuel H. Elrod $3,000 

liieutenant-Governor, J. E. McDougall (per day) 10 

Secretary of State, D. D. Wipf 1.800 _ 

Treasurer. C. B. Collins 1.800 ' 

TENNESSEE. "THE VOLUNTEER STATE." 

Governor, James B. Frazier $4,000 

Secretary of State, John W. Morton 3.<J00 

Treasurer, Reau E. Folk 3.500 

TEXAS, "T^IE LONE STAR STATE." 

Governor. S. W. T. Lanham $4,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, George D. Neal (per day) 5 

Secretary of State, J. R. Curl 2,000 

Controller, J. W. Stephens 2,500 

Treasurer, John W. Robbing 2,500 



.» f 



YEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 379 

UTAH, "THE INTER-MOUNTAIN STATE." 

Governor, John C. Cutler $4,000 

Secretary of State, C. S. Tingey 3.000 

Treasurer, James Christiansen 1,S00 

VEHMONT, "THE GREEN MOUNTAIN STATE." 

Governor, Charles J. Bell $1,500 

Lieutenant-Governor, Charles H. Stearns 

(per day, during session of legislature) 6 

Secretary of State, Frederick G. Fleetwood 1,700 

Treasurer, John L. Bacon 1,700 

VIRGINIA, "THE OLD DOMINION STATE." 

Governor, A. J. Montague $5,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Joseph E. Willard 400 

Secretary of Commonwealth, D. O. Eggleston 2,800 

Auditor, Morton Marye 3,000 

Treasurer, A. W. Harman, Jr 2,000 

-Commissioner of Agriculture, George W. Kolner 2,000 

WASHINGTON. •*THE EVERGREEN STATE." 

Governor, A. E. Mead $4,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, Charles E. Coon — 

Secretary of State, Samuel H. Nichols 2,500 

Treasurer, George E. Mills 2,000 

WEST VIRGINIA, "THE PAN HANDLE STATE." 

Governor, A. B. White (term expires March 4, 1905) $5,000 

Secretary of State, William M. O. Dawson 4,000 

Auditor, A. C. Scherr 4,500 

Treasurer, Peter Silman 2^500 

WISCONSIN, "THE BADGER STATE." 

Governor, Robert M. LaFollette $5,000 

Lieutenant-Governor, James O. Davidson 1,000 

Secretary of State. Walter L. Houser 5,000 

Treasurer, John J. Kemp 5,000 

Secretary Board of Agriculture, John M. True 1,200 

WYOMING, "THE EQUALITY STATE." 

Governor, Bryan B. Brooks $2,500 

Secretary of State, Fenmore Chatterton 3,000 

Auditor. Leroy Grant 2,000 

Treasurer, William C. Irvine • 2,000 



INDEX 



A 

Age of consent 287 

Agricultural colleges 347 

Experiment stations ....349 
Almanac calculations, 1905... 2 
Amusements— Games for old 

and young ..291 

Indoor sports 289 

Paper party 334 

Walking letters 333 

Apples— Commercial district. 100 

Crop and market 100 

Domestic prices 108 

Exports dried apples 105 

Exports 102 

Foreign movement 108 

Handling surplus crop.. 102 
Leading apple counties.. 106 

Points in barreling 105 

Prominent favorites 101 

Weights varieties 101 

Arbor day observances 183 

Army— Admission to West 

Point 202 

Forts, barracks, etc 201 

General staff of 197 

Militia act and force 200 

New army law 197 

Officers and salaries 198 

Recruiting standard of.. 199 

Soldiers in civil war 202 

Strength of 198 

Troops in various wars.. 201 
Astronomy— Explanation of 

tables 4 

For each month 6-50 

Morning and evening 

stars 2 

B 

Barley— Crop of 1904 89 

Distribution 90 

Increase in crop 89 

Prices at Chicago 90 

Beans 128 

Beekeepers* associations 362 

Boll weevil .• 172 

Broom corn ...125 

C 

Calendars— Church days 2 

For 1906 5-49 



Canada 216-218 

Canning at home •. . .327 

State canneries 190 

Cattle— Exports of beef 145 

Foreign trade 143 

Imports into U. K 142 

Movement and distribu- 
tion 14i 

Number, average price 

by states 144 

Numbers and values in 

United States 143 

Prices at Chicago 145 

Receipts at leading 

points 142 

Children— Books for 335 

Paper party 334 

Parties 333 

Politeness for 335 

Walking letters 333 

China 219 

Cleaning, rules for 3i8 

Coinage, gold and silver 192 

Congress— Appropriations ... 54 
Ratio representation in.. 367 
Cooking — Combining ingre- 
dients 325 

Eggs 326 

Fish 326 

Time-table for ..i 330 

Weights and measures... 321 

Cuba 209 

Corn— Acreage by states 82 

Crop in United States 80 

Distribution 80 

Home consumption 83 

Prices at Chicago 83 

Visible supply. United 

States and Canada 81 

World's crop 82 

Cotton— Acreage by states.. 91 

Crop in 1904-5 92 

Imports into U. S 92 

Cranberry crop 132 

Crops of six years 140 

D 

Dairy associations 353 

Dairy— Butter and cheese ...154 
Butter movement 156 



TEAR BOOK AND ALMANAC 

INDEX— Continued. 



381 



Dairy— Cheese movement ...157 

Foreign outlet 155 

State standards milk and 

cream 15/ 

Directories 347-362 

I>isasters at sea 343 

r>ivorce laws 281-287 

E 

Kcllpses 2 

Education— Agricultural high 

schools 252 

Consolidation of schools.252 
Statistics of schools, pu- 
pils and teachers... 253-255 
Electricity, first steps in.... 338 
Etiquette— Cards, wedding 

Invitations, etc 293 

Dont's for table 296 

To give a big dinner ....296 
When and how to call... 293 
Exports animal and meat 

products 171 

Farm crops 98 

Value of United States.. 178 
F 

Farm crops— Area by years. 158^ 

Yield by years 138 

Farm work for each month.8-52 

Fertilizers— For mulas 180 

Pounds required per acre. 179 

Use of 179 

Finance— Financial standing 

of world 192 

Savings bank deposus...l91 

Fires, historic 107 

Fisheries 185 

Flaxseed 125 

Foods— Classification of 323 

In season 324 

Foreign carrying trade 229 

Forestry 183 

Forestry associations 358 

Fruit— Handling small 137 

Packing fresh 135 

Furnace, Running a 318 

G 

Good roads— Legislation in 

various states 223 

Value of improved road- 
ways 225 

Government— Officers 373 



Grass seeds 123 

Guam 2i4 

Grain trade— Best foreign 

markets 71 

Handling 71 

Selling by sample 71 

Shaping influences . in 

prices 70 

World's best customer... 69 
World's market places... 68 

H 

Hawaii ?13 

Hay— Crop and market 96 

Crop in United States 99 

Health— Diseases through 

mosquitoes 298 

House fly, danger of 299 

How to sleep 306 

Hygienic bed 303 

Noise and health 307 

Preparations for hospxi.al 

treatment 303 

Quick remedies 304 

To develop the body 302 

To sleep well 306 

Tuberculosis, precaution 

against 301 

Yellow fever 299 

Help on farm 58 

Employment bureaus 58 

Hides 160 

Hogs— Average cost 149 

Distribution in U. S 148 

Exports hog products 150 

Pack at leading cities... 147 

Prices at Chicago 149 

Receipts at leading 

points 146 

Supply in corn states ...l49 
Total packing by years.. 147 

Winter pork packing 148 

Hops 116-119 

Crops and prices 119 

Exports and imports 117 

Prices at New York 118 

Production by countries. 118 
Horse breeders' assoclations.351 

Horses 168-170 

Horticultural societies 359 

Household suggestions 319 

House wagon, to build 308